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Full text of "The Pennsylvania-German : devoted to the history, biography, genealogy, poetry, folk-lore and general interests of the Pennsylvania Germans and their descendants"

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^ X.^^TA^fcVv 






Biography Page. 

The Blessed Memory of Henry Harbaugh .... 12 

Albert Gallatin, Statesman 34 

Washington's First Commission 49 

Sketch of Col. Matthias Hollenback 53, 97 

John Early (Johannes Oehrle) and his De- 
scendants 74 

Charles Shearer Keyser 77 

Johannes Roth (Rhodes) 119 

Rev. Lebrecht Frederick Herman 122 

Washington to the German Lutherans 152 

Incidents from the Life of Bishop John Seybert 167 

The Rev. Stephen Albion Repass, D. D 282 

David Tannenberg 339 

One of John Brown's Men 484 

An hour with John Brown 495 

Death of A. Milton Musser — A Mormon His- 
torian 565 

Karl Christopher Nadler 628 

<;-, History: 

The Pennsylvania-German in the Valley of 

- Virginia 1 

x^! Political Facts — German Citizens of Bucks 

•v,__J" County and their Descendants 6 

Cr^ How New Year is Observed by the Moravians 11 

Salem Church, Monroe County, Pa 15 

C^^The Early Moravians in Berks County 23, 67 

^ 'flie German Colonists 31 

\ The Palatines of the Hudson and Schoharie. . 103 
rO Pennsylvania Germans in Public Life During 

^ Nk, _ the Colonial Period 153 

^ Lancaster County History 198 

", Historic Lititz 210 

"Historic Places in Philadelphia, Pa 225 

Origin of the Names of the Counties of Penn- 
sylvania 233 

The Germans in North Carolina 266 

The Muncy Valley 287 

The Burning of Chambersburg 323 

Old Highways and Old Taverns. ., 383 

The Mennonites as Pioneers 387 

Hernhut as it is today 391 

The March of the Germans 396 

The Germans, Hessians and Pennsylvania- 
Germans 435 

Berlin and Brothersvalley 506, 552 

In Y'e Olden Time 557 


Hans Herr and his Descendants 116 

Descendants of John Early (Johannes Early). 126 
Notes on the Kuntz (Kuhns) and Brown 

Families of Lancaster County, Pa 278 

Hans Joest Heydt. The Story of a Perkiomen 

Pioneer 330 

The Elimaker Family 341 

A Musser Family Record 393 

Saylor Bible Record 505 

The Nicholas Hess Family 569 

The Dubbs Family 606 

Michael Keinadt and Some of His Descendants 618 


FolkijOKK and Fiction: 

Grossniutterchen am Winter Owets Feirherd. . 36 

A Rhine Legend (From the German) 132 

Grace Leinberger, or the White Rose. A 

Tale of Frontier Life 172, 230, 597 

Pennsylvania's Historical Societies: 

Meeting of Pennsylvania-German Society 45, 640 

Bucks County Historical Society 142, 93, 415, 472 

The Lehigh County Historical Society 142, 414, 639 

York County Historical Society .... 143, 414, 528 

The Lancaster County Historical Society. 190, 526 

The Lebanon County Historical Society ... 190, 359 

W^yoming Historical and Genealogical Society 190 
The Susquehanna County Historical 

Society 247, 303 

Montgomery County Historical Society . .248, 639 

The Presbyterian Historical Society 248 

The New England Historical Genealogical 

Society 248 

The Pennsylvania Society ■ 359 

Historical Society of Berks County 360 

Bradford County Historical Society 583, 360 

Historical Society of Dauphin County.. 415, 639 

Chester County Historical Society 526 

Annual Meeting of the Moravian Historical 

Society .... 527 

Der Deutcho Pioneer — Verein von Philadel- 
phia 583 

Union County Historical Society . . 583 

Western Pennsylvania Historical Society 584 


Old Churches and old Graveyards 58 

New Y'ork Public Library. Its German Amer- 
ican Collections 63 

Heads of Families at the first Census 79 

Philadelphia Founders' Anniversary 84 

How to search for Historical Material 110 

To the Memory of Henry A. Schuler 114 

Philadelphia's many Firsts 128 

To the Friends and Patrons of Schools and 

the Improvement of Y'outh 133 

The Introduction of Wire Cables 134 

Origin of Sunday Schools 145 

How Easter is observed by the Moravians. . . . 150 
An account of the Manners of the German 

Inhabitants of Pennsylvania in 1789.157,220 

Jacob's Church, Jacksonville, Lehigh Co., Pa. 162 

Rev'd Peter Frederick Niemyer 165 

Some Pennsylvania-German Settlers in the 

western part of the State 169 

Suggestive Sources of Church History 171 

Ancient Home of Old Organ Builders...... 174 

A Farmer shelters tramps for forty years.... 176 

A Replv to the Letter of Dr. Alfred P. Schultz 177 

The Stage Coach Driver 178 

Die Auswanderer 180 

Language Lesson E.xercise 180 

A few words about The Pennsylvania-German 193 

The Mournful Ballad of Susanna Cox 232 

The Spelling of our Dialect 235 





A War Song 246 

Johann Arndt and his "True Christianity'.'.. 249 
On Bruin's Swing (A Tulpehocken Bear 

Story 262 

Grandmother Home Remedies 272 

An Old Time Tragedy 290 

History of the Plaintield Church 305, 361 

The Covered Basket 317 

River Brethren in Kansas 347 

Seeing Lancaster County from a Trolley 

\Snndow 372, 417, 474, 529, 611 

Opening of the East Penn Railroad 401 

How I became a Schoolmaster in America. . . 443 
The German Language and Family Names 

Among the Creoles of Louisiana 448 

Race or Mongrel 454 

Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church of Lower 

Berniudian, Adams Co., Pa 456 

An Account of the Province of Pennsylvania 

by Francis Daniel Pastorius 460 

History of the Blauch Family 500 

On the German Dialect spoken in the Valley 

of Virginia 510 

The Early Church of the Goshenhoppen 

Region 541 

How I became a Schoolmaster in Brecknock 567 

"Die Neu Welt" by Michael Herr 571 

German Character — An Appreciation 585 

Lynn's Honor Roll 594 

Christmas in the Hessian Camp 602 

Christmas in the Olden Days 604 

The Value of Family and Social Reuions... 622 
In Memoriam — Ministers Buried at Allen- 
town, Pa 626 

Literary Gems: 

En Hier-Rawt Pardy 89 

Ein Psalm des Lebens . . '. 135 

Das Maedchen von Fort Henry 

Yost Yoder " 

Leera Bumpa 

Mei Mutterschprooch 

Die Kinneryohr 

The Old Chain Bridge 

The Anointing 

Grumbiere Keffer 

Lost Customs 

Uncle Casper's Beauty Rose 

Two Little Shoeses with their Neckties on. . 

De Olda Shule Dawga 

Mei Alta Schuldawga 

Das Baechlein 

'me Brooklet 

In Jesu Schlafend 

In \eu York 

De Lecha County Fair 


Pennsylvania German 


Der Mensch 

Die Aerschta Hussa 

Es Fet und Inschlich Licht 

.The Home 37, 88, 137, 181 

Editorial Department: 40, 90, 139,, 183, 241 

298, 354, 409, 466, 523, 579, 635. 
Business Announcement and Edtorial Staff 

for 1909 40 

Clippings from Current News, 41, 91, 140, 185, 

242, 354, 409. 
The Forum, 43, 93, 141, 188, 245, 300, 357, 411, 

469, 524, 579, 636. 
Reviews and Notes, 47, 95, 144, 191, 239, 296, 

352, 407, 464, 521, 577, 632. 
The Joker's Page 44, 187, 300 



Mrs. H. H. Funk Frontispiece, Jan. 09 

Prof. E. S. Gerhard Frontispiece, Jan. 09 

Rev. J. A. Scheifer Frontispiece, Jan. 09 

H. W. Kriebel Frontispiece, Jan. 09 

Matthias Hollenback 54 

Charles S. Keyser, Esq 78 

Rev. W. H. Brong 366 

Rev. Thomas Pomp 366 

Rev. Erasmus Helfrich 367 

Rev. E. W. Reinecke, D. D 367 

Rev. G. J. Lisberger 369 

Dr. S. S. Haldeman 381 

Henry NefT Kagey 485 

John Henry Kagi and Lady Friend 491 

John Brown's Associates 497 

D. D. Blauch 500 

First Officers of the Blauch-Blough-Plough Re- 
union Association 501 

Old Folks of Blauch-Blough-Plough Reunion 

Association 503 

Karl Christopher Nadler ,. . . . 628 

Scenes and Views: 

The Old Hollenback Mill, Wilkesl)arre, Pa., 

i)uilt 1809-10 98 

The Great Bend o fthe West Branch River 

around the Bald Eagle 286 

Outlet Locks at the River, below Fort Penn. . 287 
Muncy Valley as seen from McMichael's Look- 
out 288 

Ruins of the Aqueduct at Mouth of Muncy 

Creek 289 

The Old Chain Bridge 294 

Ijehigh Water Gap, Pa 295 

Location of second Building (Plainfield Church 314 

Plainlield Church 316 

Ellmaker Homestead, Earl Township, Lane. 

Co., Pa 342 

The Old Leonard Ellmaker Graveyard 344 

Leonard Kllmaker's Grave 346 

Plainfield Church Decorations 1863 368 

Plainfield Church Decorations 1903 369 

Old Log Srhoolhouse 370 

Map of Lancaster County August Supi^lement 

Center Square, Lancaster 373 

Northwestern Section of Lancaster 374 

Wheatland — 376 

Conestoga Wagon 378 

Columbia's Historic Bridges 379 

Historic Spots of Wrightsville 380 

Chickies and Marietta 382 

Herrnhut today 392 

Historic Buidings of Lancaster County 418 

Mount Joy Railroad Cut 419 

Donegal Springs 419 

Donegal Presbyterian Church 420 

Cameron Homestead 421 

Tunnel Cut 421 

The Square, Elizabethtown 422 

Catholic Church, Elizabethtown . 423 

Elizabethtown College 424 

Wabank Hotel, Burned 1873 424 

The Lake — Millersville, Pa. State Normal 

School 425 

A Tobawo Field 426 

Martie Forge Railroad Bridge 427 

Rawlinsville Trolley Terminus 428 

Hotel Quarryville 428 

Birthplace of Robert Pulton 429 

The Ramsay Home 430 

Birthplace of W. U. Hensel, Quarrvville, Pa. 430 

The Herr House .' 431 

Main Street, Strasburg 432 

The Shroy Home 433 

Mennonite Meeting House, Strasburg 433 

Appearance of Buchanan's Grave before re- 
cent Improvements were made 434 

Lower Bermudian Evangelical Lu;heran 

Church ; 458 

Blanche Nevin Fountain 473 

Pennsvlvania R. R. Station 474 

County House and .\sylum 474 

Witmer's Bridge 475 

Historic Houses by the Way 477 

Gap and Prquea Valley 478 

Entrance to Bellevue Presbyterian Church . . . 479 

View of Gap, Pa 480 


William Penn Spring 481 

(iiip Clock Towev 482 

The Old Sadsbur.v Meeting House 483 

riirisliana Riot House 483 

Handwriting of J. H. Kagi 487 

Former Residence of Mrs. Mary Bittner 492 

Kphrata Cloister Buildings 530 

Main Street Looking East, Adamstown, Pa. 531 

Street Scene, Intercimrse, Pa 531 

\ew Holland School House and Street Scene 532 

New Holland Churches 533 

Home of Miss Blanche Nevin 534 

Conestoga Valley looking South from Church- 
town, Pa 535 

Bridge Across the Conestoga near Blue Ball 536 

Bird' View of Adamstown 537 

Kphrata Scenery 538 

Bird's-Kye View and Main Street, Reamstown 539 

The Old Historic Muddy Creek Church 539 

P. M. Musser Memorial Chapel 540 

New Goshenhoppen Church 17691857 542 

New Goshenhoppen Reformed Church and 

Rev. C. M. deLong 543 

Old Six Cornered Church. Built 1803 545 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church.. . 546 

Old Goshenhoppen Church 548 

( liurch of the Most Blessed Sacrament, Bally 550 

The Dubbs Coiit of Arms 606 

The Dubbs Homestead 609 

(ieorge Ross Monument 611 

Union Stock Yards 611 

Cemetery at Oregon 612- 

Rotary Station Near Neffsville 613 

View of Manheim 613 

The Stiegel Mansion 614 

The Stiegel Oilice 614 

The Brickerville Lutheran Chui'ch 615 

A Ten Plate Stove 616 

The Historic Stiegel Homestead (now Cole- 
man) 616 

Tomb.stone of P'irst Wife of Baron Stieyel... 617 

A Lititz Springs View 617 


145, 383, 495, 565, 

Avellanus, Pi'of. Arcadius. 


A. S. B 

Betz, Dr. I. H 58 

Boonastiel, Gottlieb 

Brower, Dr. William 

Bachman, J. Fred 172, 230, 

Barba, Preston Albert 

Bittinger, Lucy Forney 

Brong, Rev. W. H. '. 305, 

Baltimore American 

Beck. Abraham R 

Buehrle, R. K 

Billheimer, Rev. Stanlev 

Blauch, D. D ". 

Brunner, Frank R.. M. D 

Chapman, Hon. Henry 

Clare, Israel Smith 

Campbell, William L 

Craig, Wm 

Coulston, Capt Frederick C 

Collier's Weeklv 

Dubbs, Jos. H., 1). ])., LL.D 12, 

Daily Register 

Dr. G., Mt. Zion, Pa 

Denny, H. A 

D. M. in Reformed Church Record 

Deiler, Prof. .7. Hanno 

deLong. Rev. C. M 

Karly, Rev. J. W 74, 

Klder, Cyrus 136, 

Ellmaker, J. Watson 

Khman, Henrv 

Fick, Dr. H. " H 

Fuld. Leonard Felix. M. A., LL. M 

Gruber, M. A 177, 

Gernerd, J. M. M 

Grumbine, Dr. E 

tfehman, U. H • 

Grosse, Dr. Friedrich 

(Jrumbine, Harvey Carson 

Gotthold, Aug. . 

(Matfelter, S. F 

Hadden, John 

Helbig, Richard E 

Herr, Theodore W 

Horne, Dr. A. R 

H. C. B. in Reformed Church Record 

Hagen, Rev. E. S 

Hulsbuck. Sollv 

Hays, H. M 

Hess, Asher S 

Keyser, Kaaman H 







Keller, Rev. Eli. . . 
Kuhns, Prof. Oscar. 
Kansas City Star . . 
Dr. W. P. 
Dr. J. G. 
Alma" . . . . 
H. W. . . . 
James B. . . 



J. C. 

Leonard, Rev. Dv 

Jjutz, Henrv F 

Miller, Daniel 2.3, 67, 

Michener, Henry C 

Mittler's Deutche Volkslieder 

Moore, Charles C 

Mever, Dr. T. P. . . . ^ 

Mohr, Ella J 

North American 

Neifert, W. W 

Philadelphia Ledger 

Philadelphia Inquirer 

Petit, Henry 

Roberts, Charles R 

Rupp, I. D 157, 

Reformed Church Record 

Rudelphi, Karoline 

Rashen, Prof. J. F. L 

Schaeffer, D. Nicholas 

Swank's Progressive Pennsylvania 

Salem, Rev. H. C 

Stapleton. Rev. Dr 

Scheffer, Rev. J. A., M. A 

Stump, Rev. Adam 262, 

Singmaster, Elsie 

Slingluff, Lieut. Fielder C 

Smvth, S. Gordon 

Seip, J. W 

Smith, Prof. C. Henry 

Shultz. Dr. Alfred P 

Schuler, H. A 

Seyfert, Hon. A. G 

Town and Country 

Wavland, John W., Ph. D 

Weitzel, Louisa A 11, 150, 210, 

Wuchter, Rev. A. (' 15, 162, 238, 

War.amaker. Hon. John 

Weller, H. A 

Welles. Edward 53 

Weidman. Sebastian 

Wavland, Prof. John W 

Weifley. W. tl 506, 

Ziegler. C. C 

Zimmerman, (^ol. T. (' 

, 9T 



The following list, showing the number of pages in each monthly- issue, will be convenient in con- 
nection with the foregoing Index, for finding the separate numbers containing any desired article. 

January .Pages 






1 to 48 



305 ' 
361 ' 

' 360 

49 " 9fi 


' 416 

97 '■ 144 

Se; tcmber 

417 ' 

' 472 

145 ■ 192 


473 ' 

' 528 

193 •' 248 


529 ■ 

' 584 

249 " 804 


585 ' 

' 640 


Tombstone IxstRiPTioss; 

Bern Church, Berks Co January-February 

DeLong's Church, Berks Co February 

Great Swamp Church, Lehigh Co February 

Chestnut Hill, Lehigh Co February 

Arendtsville, Adams Co February 

Jerusalem Church, Lehigh o March 

In Hereford Township, Berks Co April 

Death Notices in "Die Biene" 1846-48 April 

Mrs. H. H. Funk 

Prof. E. S. Gerhard 



Rev. J. A. Scheffer 

H. W. Kriebel 

A Happy and Prosperous New Year 


Supplement to the PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN, January, 1909. 

Vol. X 

JANUARY, 1909 


The Pennsylvania-German in the Valley of Virginia 

By John W. Wayland, Ph. D. 


E ]\IA^' sa}" the Penns}^!- 
vania - German, because 
most of the Germans of 
northern Virginia came 
down across the Potomac 
from Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. A few 
came from the German- 
na and Madison settlements east of 
the P)lne Ridge ; and a few parhaps 
came up from the Carolinas ; but 
nine out of ten, in all probability, had 
first been in Pennsylvania. 

In that part ui the Valley of Vir- 
ginia drained I)y the Shenandoah 
River, the German people form the 
majority. In the counties of Rock- 
ingham. Shenandoah and Page, they 
form the large majority; in Augusta, 
Warren and Frederick, they form 
about half of the population ; in Jeff- 
erson ami licrkley (West Virginia) 
they are much in evidence ; in Clarke 
the German element is inconsider- 

In the nine counties just named 
one may be safe in estimating the 
]:)resent number of persons of German 
descent at 90.000. !Many of the most 
]irominent families l^ear German 
names, for exani]i]e, the Bakers, Bed- 

ingers, Bowmans, COnrads. Funks, 
Henkles. Hites, Huffmans, Koontzes, 
Maucks, Millers, Neffs, Painters, 
Pennybackers, Pitmans, Rinkers, Rol- 
lers, Ruffners. Snyders, Spenglers. 
Stickleys, Stovers, Stricklers, Ziglers, 

In the southwestern part of the 
Virginia Valley the German element 
is also strong. Passing beyond Rock- 
bridge County and the adjacent sec- 
tions of Augusta and Botetourt.where 
the Scotch-Irish are in the majority, 
we find the German families numer- 
ous in southwest Botetourt, in Roa- 
noke, and in Floyd, as well as in the 
adjoining county of Franklin, just 
east of the Blue Ridge. In these dis- 
tricts the Crumpackers, Filers, Garsts, 
Graybills, Moomaws, Nafifs, Nin- 
ingers, and others are frequently met 

The Valley of Virginia Germans, 
like their kinsmen of Pennsylvania, 
have won distinction in all fields of 
achievement. In the national Plouse 
of Representatives Daniel Sheflfey 
and Jacob Swoope were men of recog- 
nized ability; in the Senate Isaac S. 
Pennybacker and Harrison Holt Rid- 
dleberger won special distinction. In 


war, John Peler Gabriel Muhlenberg" 
and Abraham Bowman are both 
famous as commanders of the Vir- 
g'inia German Regiment in the Revo- 
lution ; Major Joseph Bowman, 
brother to Colonel Abraham, was 
second in command with George 
Rogers Clarke, in the conquest of the 
Xorthwest, an achievement that g'ave 
V^irginia and the new^ nation a rich 
empire north of the Ohio River. At 
least half of the famous Stonewall 
Brig-ade, that "Old Guard" of the 
South in the late civil war, were men 
of German name and lineage. In 
literature we may point to Henry 
Ruffner, Aldine Kiefifer, Henry Bed- 
inger. and Danske Bedinger Dand- 
ridge ; in education, Dr. W. H. Ruff- 
ner, Virginia's first superintendent of 
])ublic instruction, and Henry Tut- 
willer, the educational organizer of 
Alabama, cannot be overlooked. At 
least four of the institutions for 
higher education now in operation in 
the Valley of Virginia are the founda- 
tions of German religious sects. The 
first German newspaper ever printed 
in Virginia was the New Market 
(Shenandoah County) Volksberichter 
of 1807 ; the second was. Der 
Deutsche Virginier Adler, established 
at Staunton (Augusta Countv) in 

The two most famous natural cur- 
iosities in the Shenandoah Valley are 
the Luray Caverns and Weyer's 
Cave. The former, first known as 
Ruffner's Cave, was discovered on the 
land of Joseph Ruffner, by one of his 
sons, in or about the year 1793 ; the 
latter, long known as Mohler's Cave, 
was found in the vear 1804 by Ber- 
nard Weyer. The 'Ruffners, Mohlers. 
and Bernard Weyer were all Ger- 
mans. The most famous turnpike in 
Virginia — the one over which Phil 
Sheridan made his celebrated ride, 
and along which he did his still more 
famous barn-burning — is the pike 
from Winchester to Staunton. This 
was constructed largely by the sub- 
scriptions of the German 'farmers of 
the Valley, and under the direction of 

commissioners largely composed of 
men of the same nationality. The 
first and most extensive iron furnaces 
and forges in the Valley were Ger- 
man enterprises. 

The towns of Strasburg, Stephens 
City, Woodstock, Shepherdstown, 
Bridgewater (Dinkletown), and Day- 
ton ( Rifeville) were founded by Ger- 
mans ; and in the entire history of 
Winchester, Staunton, Harrisonburg, 
Luray, Waynesboro, Front Royal, 
Mt. Jackson, Edinburg, Timberville. 
and Broadway the Germans have 
been prominent. The German, Jacob 
Swoope, was the first mayor of Staun- 
ton, the Scotch-Irish town. Over 
eighty towns and villages in the Val- 
ley of Virginia bear German names. 

A certain German of Frederick 
County, Virginia, bears a distinction 
that is unique. On December 5. 
1776, the now world-famous Society 
of Beta Kappa was founded at Wil- 
liam and Mary College. On March 
27. ^777' the charter members elected 
a single additional member : Isaac 
Hite (1758-1836), a grandson of Jost 
Mite, who was one of the first set- 
tlers of the lower Valley. Isaac Hite 
was later a major in the Revolution- 
ary army, and served as aide to Gen- 
eral Muhlenberg at the siege of York- 
tf)\\'n. He married Nelly Madison, 
sister to James Madison, fourth Presi- 
dent. Bushrod Washington. John 
Marshall, and other men who won na- 
tional distinction, were among the 
early members of Phi Beta Kappa ; 
but Hite was evidently the first man 
chosen by the charter members and 
the only one elected at the time. 

The histories of Virginia have uni- 
formly stated it as a fact that the first 
white man to look upon 01 visit the 
Valley of the Shenandoah was Alex- 
ander Spotswood, governor of Vir- 
ginia, who crossed the Blue Ridge in 
the year 1716, and who, upon his re- 
turn to tidewater, gave each of the 
gentlemen in his party a golden 
horseshoe to commemorate the expe- 
dition. Spotswood also established 


the iron-working- community east of 
the Bhie Ridge, on the Rapidan 
River, locating there a colony of Ger- 
mans, from whom the ])lace is called 
Germanna to this day. Cut for all the 
beauty and romance of the governor's 
expedition, and the charm that lin- 
gers about the story of the " Knights 
of the Golden Horseshoe," the facts 
nt)vv in hand seeiu to prove beyond a 
doubt that other white men were in 
the Valley before the gallant gover- 
nor. Without going into the question 
in detail, the writer is of the opinion 
that a German, John Lederer, was 
probably the first European to ex- 
plore the great Virginia Valley. Ac- 
ci:»rding to a journal kept by Lederer 
in Latin, translated into English by 
the governor of ^Maryland, and i)rint- 
ed at London in the year 1672, Led- 
erer made three exploring expeditions 
from eastern Virginia in 1669 and 
1670, upon two of which expeditions 
he traversed the Shenandoah Valley. 
This, it will be observed, was forty- 
six years before the expedition by 
Snotswood. Moreover, in order to 
appreciate the priority of the time 
more fully, we may recall that it was 
ten years before the great La Salle 
set out from Canada to find the mouth 
of the Mississi])])i : and twelve years 
before Penn's settlement at Philadel- 

Some i)ersons do not credit Leder- 
er's narrative ; but from a careful 
study of it the writer believes it 
trustworthy. Furthermore, the map 
which accompanies the narrative, and 
which is remarkably correct, consid- 
ering the hasty journeys through the 
wilderness from which it was prepar- 
ed, c(ndd not have been drawn with- 
out an actual \-isit to the regions ])or- 
trayed. or without an earlier ma]:) to 

Just as Governor Suotswood has 
long been regarded as the first Euro- 
uean to cross the P)lue Ridge into the 
Shenandoah Valley, so Jost Hite, a 
German from Strasburg. who settled 
near the site of Winchester in 1732, 

has long been spoken of as the first 
permanent settler of the Valley. Hite 
came to New York about 1710, and 
later removed to Pennsylvania ; 
whence in the year 1732 he led a col- 
ou}' of Germans and Scotch-Irish in- 
to Virginia. But it seems to be a well 
established fact that others, notably 
other Germans, ])receded Hite into 
the Valley of the Shenandoah, and 
estal)lished settlements older than his. 
About the year 1727 Adam Miller and 
other Germans from Pennsylvania 
staked out claims in what is now Page 
County; others soon following them 
into the same locality ; and it is said 
that German settlements were also 
made in the lower Valley, in the vic- 
inity of Shepherdstown, W.Va.. about 
1726 or 1727. These early settlements 
are noticed in detail in the writer's 
recent voliune on the German Ele- 
ment in the Shenandoah Valley of 

.As has been noted already, most ui 
the Germans who settled in the 
ley of Virginia came by way of Penn- 
syKania and Maryland. It may be ob- 
serxed, further, that most of them, 
both those that came to Virginia and 
those that remained in Pennsylvania, 
were originally from southern Ger- 
many and Switzerland. So many 
came from the Rhenish Palatinate 
thai the German immigrants landing 
at lMiiladel])hia were frequently spok- 
en of indiscriminately as "Palatines." 

In the Valley of Virginia the Ger- 
mans settled in force on the upper 
Shenandoah River, both branches, and 
upon the tributaries thereof. From 
Harrisonburg to Front Royal and 
\\ inchester they were soon in pos- 
session of most of the good lands. 
Woodstock was in the early days the 
a7)])roximate center of the German set- 
tlements; but the tide has ke])t moving 
southwestward through the years, so 
that now the centre would be found 
about half-way between Woodstock 
and Harrisonburg. In what is no\x' 
Clarke County was a stronghold of 
Engflish, as alreadv incHcated : in and 


around • Staunton, in Augusta County, 
was the great Scotch-Irish, tract ; and 
beyond, in the southwest, about the 
present city of Roanoke, were other 
German communities. 

It has been observed that over 
eighty towns and villages in the Val- 
ley of V^irginia bear German names. 
This is true of that part of the dis- 
trict known properly as the Shenan- 
doah Valley, excluding the part of the 
X'alley southwest of Staunton. If the 
whole Valley were taken into account 
the number would be considerably in- 
creased. These eighty odd names are 
distributed as follows : 

In Rockingham County, 27 ; 

In Shenandoah County, 22; 

In Augusta County, 11; 

In Frederick County, 8; 

In Page County, 7; 

In Jefferson County, 6; 

In Berkeley County, 3 ; 

'In Warren County, 2. 

It is only within recent years that 
much has been said or written about 
the German element of Virginia. For 
this expensive neglect there are sev- 
eral reasons. For one thing, there have 
been no strong forces moving to call 
the attention of the German people of 
\'irginia to their peculair history. xA.c- 
cordingly, many |:)ersons that are of 
German lineage either do not know it 
or do not appreciate the fact. A few 
— fewer now than in former times — 
are ashamed to acknowdedge their 
German blood. Such persons are gen- 
erally to be pitied, indeed. Because of 
the antii)athy for a long time existing 
against the Hessians, and because the 
{patriotism of certain of the religious 
sects was misunderstood, all the Ger- 
mans were looked u])on with more or 
less susi)icion and disfa\or, and in or- 
der to esca])e this sus])icion, some of 
the German peoi)le made efforts, more 
or less successful, to hide their 
nationality, and to ap])ear "English"; 
innocentl}- overlooking the fact that 
hardly an}- peo])le are so essentiallv 
Teutonic as the English. Being isolat- 
ed from the conserving German cen- 

ters in I'ennsyhania, and being sand- 
wiched in between English-speaking 
majorities, the Germans of the Valley 
of Virginia soon began to lose their 
language, voluntarily or involuntarily, 
and to adopt the speech and customs 
of their neighbors. Even their names 
became disguised and transformed 
beyond tlie possibility of recognition 
in many instances. A considerable 
number of family names now found 
in the Valley are api^arently English, 
l)ut are really (jerman. That is, they 
no\\- have a form that is English or 
Irish or Scotch-Irish ; l)ut if they are 
traced back several generations they 
will be found to be originally German 
IJaker (Becker). Brown (Braun). 
Moore (Mohr), Vox (F"ucbs), Price 
(Preyss), Stone (Stein), Crabill 
(Kriebel) are familiar examples of 
such names. Of course, not all per- 
sons in the Shenandoah Valley with 
these and similar names are of Ger- 
man descent ; the difificulties in the 
way of identification are increased by 
the fact that in the same community 
may be found persons t)f different 
nationality, who spell and uronounce 
their names exactly alike. It may be 
laid (iwn as a rule, hmvever, that wdiile 
many German names are disguised 
under English forms, hardly any Eng- 
lish or Scotch-Irish names are dis- 
guised under German forms. One is 
in constant danger, therefore, of over- 
estimating the number of English and 
Scotch- Irish, and of underestimating 
the number of Germans. The same 
thing would be reversed had the Eng- 
lish and Scotch-Irish settled in a 
country where the Germans were all 
about them, and where German was 
the natitmal language. 

In ])roductive literary activit}' the 
Virginia Germans have made an envi- 
able record. Of the five places in Vir- 
ginia, as catalogued by Professor Os- 
wald -Seidensticker. where German 
]>rinting A\as carried on ])rior to 1830. 
four — Winchester, New Market. 
Staunton, and 1 larrisonburg — are in 
the Shenandoah X'alley. As early as 


1805 a German almanac was issued 
fr()m Winchester by Jacob D. Diet- 
rich ; he it was who established the 
weekly Adler at Staunton in 1808. 
Ambrose Henkel founded the famous 
Henkel press — still in operation — at 
New Market in 1806; and in 1807 
started the weekly Volksberichter. 
Early in the century, perhaps about 
1810, Laurentz R. W'artman establish- 
ed a press at Harrisonburg", which is 
still in operation, and from which 
were issued in the early days not only 
periodicals, but also frequent bound 
volumes in German and in Eui^lish. 

One of the most notable j^rintint;- 
centers was founded in western Rock- 
ingham County, at the little village of 
Mountain X'alley (Singer's Glen), in 
1847, '^y Joseph Funk, the Mennonite. 
He and his sons are still famous in 
Virginia and \\'est \irginia. as teach- 
ers of vocal music; and in these and 
many (^ther States l)v reason of the 
music books which they wrote and 
published at the little village that 
nestles in the afternoon shadow of the 
Alleghanies. The "Harmonia Sacra" 
was their best kn(^\vn work ; and with- 
in the last year or two. at many places 
in the valley, "old-time" all-day sing- 
ings ha\e been held, and the "Har- 
monia Sacra" has been brought forth, 
with a thousand sweet memories, and 
used with throbbing pulses by the 
singers of former days. 

The first Germans to locate in the 
Shenandoah \'alley were Lutherans, 
Mennonites,. and German Reformed. 
These sects, esjiecially the first, are 
still strongly reuresented. Abbut the 
middle of the i8th century the Mora- 
\ians of Pennsyhania made a number 
of missionary journeys through the 
valley, and j^erhaps established a few 
settlements ; but at present the sect 
is not represented, so far as is known 
to the writer. About the same time 
that the ^loravians were in the Val- 
ley, some of the E])hrata Brethren, the 
mystical sect led oft from the Bun- 
kers bv Cf^nrad Beissel and others. 

locatetl at Strasburg, now in Shenan- 
doah County, and elsewhere. The 
Strasburg community maintained it- 
self for a number of years ; but the 
others were of short duration. 

About the time of the Revolution 
the Dunkers began to come in; and 
they now have their strongholds in 
Rockingham. Augusta. Shenandoah. 
Page, and adjacent sections, as well 
as in Southwest Virginia. The United 
I'rethren began to establish them- 
selves in the valley early m the 19th 
century ; and they have numerous 
strong churches throughout the dis- 
trict to-day. All of these German 
sects, for the most part. o])|)osed sla- 
very. As a consequence, the propor- 
tion of slaves in the (.Terman sections 
of the Valley was much lower than in 
the surrounding sections, east and 
west. The quick and complete re- 
covery of the Valle}' from the almost 
unparalleled devastation it sufiPered 
during the Civil War may be traced 
to the foregoing" condition. 

Put not all the X'alley Germans are 
Lutherans. Mennonites. Reformed. 
Dunkers. or L^nited Brethien. From 
very early times some have been Epis- 
copalians and Presbyterians. In 
later times many have become identi- 
fied with the Baptists and Methodists. 
Prol)ably a few^ of the early Quakers 
in the Valley w^ere Germans ; but that 
sect has never been largely represent- 
ed in the section. 

The Valley Germans have always 
been a growing people, and they have 
a growing history, though very little 
of it as 3^et has been \\-rittcn or pub- 
lished. They have had an im|:)ortant 
])art in all of the great mtnements of 
their section, but have not always re- 
ceived the credit they deserved. No 
fact in their progress is more interest- 
ing or significant than the steady ad- 
\ance they have made in \>.inning" for 
themscKes their due share in the pub- 
lic life and goxernmcnt of X^irginia 
and the Xation. 


Addressed, more especially), to the 

German Citizens of Bucks County, 


August 30. 1800). 

NOTE — The follcwing interesting cam- 
paign document bears testimony to the 
commanding position occupied by the Ger- 
mans in Pennsylvania a century and more 
ago, and ilustrates political life at an im- 
portant point in our country's history, the 
Presidential election of 1800. Concerning 
this campaign Sharpless in his "Two Cen- 
turies of Pennsylvania History says: 
Nothing could exceed the excitement 
of this closely contested election, and 
if one desi)airs of his country on ac- 
count of the dishonorable jiolitics of 
the present day it may reassure him' 
to read the accounts of the extrava- 
gant and indefensible means which 
were uised, not only in Pennsylvania 
l)ut elsewhere, and to remember that 
the country survived. 

The document was a broadside 17 14, by 
22^/^ inches, the headlines, spelling, caj)- 
italizing and italics of which are repro- 

RIENDS and Fellow 
Citizens : 

In the ])()litical strus;- 
qles of Pennsylvania each 
party has courted your 
favor and soup^ht your 
alliance. In fact, yoti 
have held the balance of 
power in this State, for many years ; 
a circumstance, in our opinion, as for- 
tunate for the Commonwealth, as it 
is honourable for you. For you are 
not more res])ectal>le l)y your numbers 
than by your incorruptible integrity. 
All of you contribtiting' to the public 
])urse. and few of you drawing on it 
as ofificers, vmir minds are luibiased. 

or if you have partialities, that are all 
in favor of liberty. Some of you have 
felt the iron rod Despotism, in the 
coimtry from which you take your 
name. Others have listened with hor- 
ror to the tale of their heather's suffer- 
ings, under the Despots of Germany, 
the Aristocracy of that Country. Thus 
have the principles of Liberty been 
interwoven with your iiattu"e, "grown 
with your growth and strengthened 
with your strength." Hence the 
I'riends of American Freedom, for 
thirty years past, have generally 
found you by their side ; and the 
change of men and measures, now 
happily progressing in this state, is 
chiefly to be ])laced to your account. 
If a few Germans, have not yet with- 
drawn their support from the expiring 
faction, it must be owing; ])artly to 
that misusiMciotis confidence, which is 
the characteristic of virtuous minds; 
and paVtly. to that want of informa- 
tion. Avhich habits of retirement, and 
industry, have forbidden them to ac- 
(|uire. This want, will be easily sup- 
l)lied at the present day: a da_v when 
certain meastires of government, have 
alarmed the most secure, and turned 
the attention of all to political enquir- 
ies. The restdt has been a conviction, 
that certain men. to whom America 
Iiad committed her destines, were un- 
worthy the confidence reposed in 
them : that instead of consultinsf the 


pulilic weal, they stnclied only their 
own emolument. So <^eneral has this 
conviction become, that we fondly 
anticipate the time, when party dis- 
tinctions will be done away, or the 
only ])arties l)e ; the men who pay, im 
the one hand, and the men who ex- 
pect or receive the public money on 
the other. 

At this auspicious i)eriod. we ad- 
dress ourselves with peculiar confi- 
dence, to the few remaining' Germans, 
who have not yet joined their breth- 
ren, in applying the constitutional 
remedy to American wrongs, a^_change 
of public servants by a Fair and Free 

When the subjects of the day were 
under discussion, some of you have 
said. "If I could belie\e that these 
things were really done by the ruling 
party, I would support them no 

Suffer us then, to submit to you a 
V^ few plain facts ; facts which you can 
\erif3- yourselves, if you will take the 
])ains ; facts which we dare not niis- 
rei)resent. because there is a Sedition 
I law : facts which we would not mis- 
represent, because there is an higher 
law, the Law of Truth; 'an adherence 
to which is the best policy, as well as 
the soundest morality. 

A\'e begin with a leading fact, which 
bears on all the subsequent facts. The 
jjarty opposed to us. have had a ma- 
jority in the different departments of 
the general government, for about 
four 3'ears. Tn this state also, they 
have had free course, till very lately. 
Republicans in each government, 
have only ser\ed as a Lock-chain, to 
check the rapidity of their motion. Tt 
follows therefore, that the legislative, 
executive and judicial acts of this 
])eriod, are fairly im])utable to the 
ruling party. 

This short reign of Federalism (for 
it is closing, we hope, forever) has 
been marked with acts, scarcely cred- 
ible, in the history of a Republican 
\y\]] ])osterity believe it. that in ad- 

dition lo the usual i)eace establish- 
ment, measures were now taken for 
raising an arm\' of One Hundred and 
tv/enty thousand men; as neariy as 
can be com.)uted from the numerous 
laws authorising the same.^ 

Mad the men been actually raised, 
the whole rexenue of the United 
.Slates, twice told, would not suffice 
for their su]>])ort. lUit the expense is 
not the greatest evil to be dreaded, 
from such a mighty mercenary host, 
in a free government. 

rians were now formed and partly 
executed, for building and manning a 
Heet. to in\()lve us in the wars of 
Europe. But you are told, that the 
end of this military Apparatus, was. 
to prevent war; for "the true way to 
avoid war. is to be always prepared 
for it." We doubt the truth of the 
maxim, however common. We ap- 
peal to the history of the world, 
whether the nations most prepare<l 
for war, have not been most engaged 
in it. Raise a fleet and army; you \vU\ 
hardly fail to employ them. Friends 
of universal peace. We are your breth- 
ren. We are for peace with all the 

t)f '98 fixes a mark on this period, '4o 
distinguish it from vulgar time." The 
Irish and Germans, harrassed with 
cruel wars, were flying for shelter, to 
this land of peace and freedom. Emi- 
grants from these countries have been 
the firmest friends of American lib- 
erty; the more hated and dreaded, 
therefore, by some men. To check 
their increase and influence, the fol- 
lowing provisions Avere made. of 
which you shall judge.* 

A foreigner, within forty-eight hours 
after his arrival, is obliged under pain 
of iine and imprisonment, to re- 
port his arrival at a certain office and 
receive a certificate thereof. At the 
expiration of nine years, he may ap- 

1 See Laws of the U. S. Vol. IV, pp. 98. 113, 219, 489. 
•'>48. rVolunteers included who were considered as reg-ii- 

2 Laws, U. S. Vol. IV.. p. 13.3. 


ply to one of the higher Courts and 
declare his intention to become a cit- 
zen in due time. Five succeeding 
years, he must continue to reside in 
one state, or he loses foot-hold and 
slides back. At the end of this term, 
he may apply to such court, to be ad- 
mitted to the rights of a citizen. Still 
the golden fruit may be snatched 
from his mouth, unless he can prove 
to the satisfaction of the court, not 
only that he has past through the 
foregoing preparatory process, but 
that he has been of good morals, and 
"well disposed to the good order and 
happiness of the United States, that 
is to say, a good Federalist, as the 
words now signify. The fees for the 
various certificates and stamp amount 
to ten dollars. Lawyers' fees, for con- 
ducting the business, must be at 
least as much more. Add the ex- 
penses of the party and his witnesses, 
in attending the several courts, and it 
must cost him, from thirty to sixty 
dollars, and fourteen years slavery to 
liecome a citizen. 

The poor will be forever exclud- 
ed. The unwary, missing a step in the 
critical process, must fail to rise no 
more. Thus the wretched foreigner, 
must bear his part in all our burdens, 
while he is excluded from all our pri- 
vileges, as freemen ; the very descrip- 
tion of a slave ! From his state of de- 
pression he cannot rise to the hum- 
blest ofBce. His voice will not even 
count in a township election. He is 
liable to be inijjressed by the tyrant of 
tlie ocean, without the sorry protec- 
tion afforded to the American citizen. 
He may l)e claimed by his former 
Master, and given up to justice or 
murder, as the case may be. Fellow- 
Citizens, some of you have friends in 
lMiroi)e, whom you may wish to see in 
this land of liberty. Alas ! it "is no 
longer a land of liberty for them. 
"Hewers of wood, and drawers of 
water" must they be for fourteen 
years. i)erhaps for life, if they come 
here. Warn them of their danger. 
Caution them not to apjiroach the in- 

hospitable shore. Or rather, join with 
us, in bringing forward men who will 
repeal the illiberal act. 

originating before the period we have 
mentionecl, was the act of the same 
party. It was intended to redress our 
wrongs in trade, and provide security 
for our commerce in future. How far 
it has answered these ends, the Mer- 
chants, and Insurance companies of 
the United States, can tell. 'Tis said, 
however, to have given rise to a con- 
troversy, more serious and awful, than 
that which it professed to settle. Of- 
ficial information on this head, is not 
to be expected. The execution of the 
treaty is with its friends, atid they are 
not fond of verifying the predictions 
of its enemies. Btit they have not. to 
our knowledge, denied, what has been 
commonly reported, as follows. The 
6th article provides, that five commis- 
sioners, shall ascertain the old debts, 
due by American citizens, to British 
subjects: and that these shall be fully 
paid. Under cok)ur of this article, 
traitors, who joined the enemy, dur- 
ing our revohttionary war, claim those 
estates which were the forfeit of their 
treason. A majority of the commis- 
sioners, are disposed to sanction their 
claim — to bind the United States to 
pay. from twenty, to fifty millions of 
dollars, to men who were accessary to 
the destruction of more property, than 
their estates will .compensate. The 
commissioners on the part of America, 
shuddering at the consequence, have 
withdrawn from the board. An Am- 
bassador extra, sent to the court of 
London, to deprecate the mighty mis- 
chief, has been denied an audience. 
Thus, having refused to execute the 
treaty on our i")art, we must expect 
that Britain will refuse to execute it 
on her part ; perhaps draw the sword, 
to force a compliance Avith stipulation, 
which we certainly did not mean to 
make, but which the referees we 
have chosen, declare we did make. 

cannot fail to attract the attention uf 


a people, whose contributions to the 
Treasury, are jjenerally extracted from 
the sweat of their brow. 

A repubHc of ten years old, we have 
plung-ed into the extravagance, and 
runious funding systems, of old and 
corrupt monarchies. What think you 
of nine thousand dollars, to furnish an 
American Ambassador, for appearin-.;; 
with splendor at a foreign court? and 
nine thousand more, for every year he 
is em])loyed, in ])re])aring, or settling 
(juarrels for us? A fifth part (wnthin 
a fraction) of the whole internal du- 
ties, raised in the L^nited States, is 
swallowed up by the collectors.^ The 
constitution requires, that a statement 
and account of the public money, shall 
be published from time to time. Such 
statements ha\'e been made ; you have 
seen them ; what do you learn from 
them? We can answer for you; 
nothing at all. Nay one thing you may 
learn from them; namely, that our fin- 
ancial system, so artfully perplexed, 
dis;)lays the ingenuity of its authors; 
but recjuires equal ingenuity, in others, 
to understand it. Flow should com- 
mon citizens, comprehend the details 
of it, when a dispute exists at this mo- 
ment, respecting the extent of the 
public debt; and men of the first 
talents differ to the amount of ten 
millions of dollars?^ This obscurity 
of Treasury accounts, is all in favor 
of those who are behind the scene; 
and some late discoveries show, that 
there are men who avail themselves of 
the privilege. Happily for America she 
possesses a few honest men, who have 
made the science of our public ac- 
counts, their study. Distinguished 
among these, is the author of View^s 
of the public debt, &c of the United 
States, lately published. The author 
by giving his name.^ makes himself 
responsible for the truth of his posi- 
tions. His facts profess to be deduced 
from reports, made to Congress, by 
treasury Oflficers ; and are therefore 
entitled to the fullest credit. Among 

3 See views of public debts, etc.. p. 41. 

4 Vievs of the public debt. p. .3. 

a variety of interesting facts, exhibit- 
ed by this author, we select the fol- 
lowing for your meditation, ])revious 
to the ensuing general electicMi. 

Vast sums of ])ublic money are in- 
trusted to agents, contractors, pay- 
masters, etc. The Treasury statements 
do not inform us, save in a few in- 
stances, what becomes of this money; ^ 
whether it is applied to its proper ob- 
jects; and what part of it remains un- 
accounted for. Some accounts, which 
lately escaped from the treasurer, 
without consent of the officers, sug- 
gest a reason why statements of the 
actual expeditures are not made. Some 
of these depositaries of the public 
treasury, are greatly in arrears. 

At a time when government was 
borrowing money at 8 per cent, otie 
million of dollars actually received, 
was lying in the hands of collectors ; 
and nearly half a million more, per 
estimate, in the hands of supervisors 
of the revenue. 

On January ist, '98, eigteen collec- 
tors, out for office owed to the Treas- 
ury 221, 538 dollars and 9 cents; and 
of these collectors, sixteen had been 
removed, more than one year. Com- 
pare these facts, fellow citizens, and 
then say, is it uncharitable to suppose, 
that from one to two millions, of the 
public money, is constantly employed 
by public men, for private purposes? 
If the principal, shall be finally paid 
into the treasury, the interest at 8 per 
cent, is a loss to the states, and a gain 
to the officers, of about one hundred 
thousand dollars per anum. 

From the same luminous work, it 
appears, that the hostile measures, 
taken by our government against the 
French RepubHc, will cost the United ' 
States, eleven millions and a half of 
dollars; a sum, sufficient to defray the 
whole internal expenses of the govern- 
ment, or civil list, even at the pres- 
ent rate, for twenty years. Whether 
this expense was conceived to be nec- 
essary, to the defence of the United 
States ; or whether it was designed by 
some men, for the gratification of the 

5 Gallatin. 



party; to increase its friends, and 
crush its opponents, we will not deter- 
mine. To answer these prodigious de- 
mands, on the Treasury, new ways 
and means were to be sought. Bor- 
rowing was a happy expedient, as it 
did not cause the people to feel the 
burdens preparing for them. This 
being insufficient and every legiti- 
mate object of taxation exhausted, 
stamps, and other taxes of the most 
odious kind, were imposed. 

When now the public suffering was 
at the height, and complaints begin- 
ning to break forth, the SEDITION 
LAW was enacted, to check their pro- 
gress. A free press, at once the means 
and indication of a free government, 
was materially affected by this law. 
Private character should be sacred and 
inviolable. But the Official conduct of 
public, responsible agents, is a fair 
subject of investigation, and the 
worthy officer has nothing to fear 
from the scrutiny. In an old book, of 
high authority, we read, that "every 
one that doth evil, hateth the light, 
neither cometh he to the light, lest his 
deeds be reproved." Fellow-citizens, 
you will form your own opinion of 
those officers, who intrench them- 
selves, in penal statutes, and dare not 
meet their opponents in the open field. 

The terrors of this law, have been 
sunk, in the alarms excited by an at- 
tempt to introduce, not by the Legis- 
lature of the vniion, but by certain 
Judges, an undefined common law, 
locked up in the breasts of the Judges, 
or scattered through immense folios 
Avhich no American citizen ever read. 
What man can walk securely, who is 
•obliged to pass blindfolded, over burn- 

ing plow-shares, or poisoned dagger 
points? What avail constitutions for 
the security of life, liberty and pro- 
perty, if all may be forfeited, by the 
violation of a Lew, which the citizen 
knows not, and cannot know? Fellow- 
citizens, if you know any country to 
which these observations apply, any 
Judges, who are party men, and meas- 
ure justice by the varying standard of 
political opinion, you will perhaps 
think what it would not be prudent for 
us to speak. 

Why should you hear any more of 
the Alien Law; the infractions of the 
Constitution ; the secret plans, for in- 
troducing a more despotic govern- 
ment ; or the attempt to deprive Penn- 
sylvania of a voice in the election of 
President? If the political facts we 
have stated are believed by you, and 
we firmly believe them all, and invite 
you to examine the authorities we 
have cited in support of them ; if you 
believe these things, you must join 
with us, in raising to places of Public 
Trust, the Men who have constanth' 
opposed these obnoxious measures. If 
these do not immediately, address 
themselves to discharge the Public 
debt, to lessen the expenses of govern- 
ment, to cultivate peace with all na- 
tions ; to open the door to worthy for- 
eigners, to come and settle our for- 
ests, and share our privileges; we pro- 
mise to join with you, in continuing 
the rotation till the SOVEREIGNTY 

THOMAS LONG, Chairman. 


How New Year is Observed by the Moravians 

By Louisa A. Weitzel, Lititz, Pa. 

X THEIR manner of ob- 
serving New Year as a 
church festival the Mora- 
vians do not differ as 
much from other denom- 
inations as in their man- 
ner of observing Christ- 
mas and Easter. However 
there are st)me points which are char- 
acteristic and always attract stran- 
gers. As in my first article on Christ- 
mas I still confine myself to Lititz and 
to my personal experiences and those 
of my oldest friends and acquaint- 

On New Year's Eve it was custo- 
mary to hold three services in the 
church with an intermission, namely 
preaching at 8 o'clock, reading of the 
memorabilia and statistics (an elabor- 
ate review of the year's work) at lo 
o'clock and the closing services at 
11.30 o'clock. 

Some of the members served sugar 
cake fa raised cake, often called Mora- 
vian cake, made according to a special 
recipe) and coffee at their homes dur- 
ing the first intermission. 

As far back as I can remember we 
bad only two services, German preach- 
ing at 8 o'clock and a'n English ad- 
dress at II o'clock, while the memora- 
bilia were read on the evening of New 
Year's Day. This change was made 
because on special occasions the 
church was crowded with country 
people of all denominations or none 
and as the memorabilia were of no in- 
terest to nonMoravians it was thought 
best to communicate them in a con- 
gregational meeting .The interval be- 
tween the two services was taken up 
by the young people especially in go- 
ing to see Christmas trees, this being 
usually the last night when they were 
illuminated for the benefit of sight- 
seers. At present the first service, 
which finally gave place to an English 
'^ermon. has also been discontinued 

and the ycxing people congregate at 
one another's homes, and play games 
until the bell rings for the watch night 

The last named was and is the most 
attractive service and always brought 
the crowd. The pastor usually de- 
livers a very stirring address which 
is invariably interrupted as the clock- 
in the steeple strikes the first stroke of 
12 with a blast of horns like the 
trump of the last judgment. The sea- 
son, the hour and the thrilling words 
of the preacher, broken off short, pro- 
duce a weird and solemn effect upon 
the audience. These horns are trom- 
bones, played usually by a band of 
six men, specially trained for this pur- 
pose. Among the Moravians trom- 
bones are used on various occasions, 
to announce the death of members, at 
funerals, lovefeasts. communion ser- 
vices, on New Year's Eve and on 
Great Sabbath before Easter. As the 
horns strike up the tune of "Nun dan- 
ket Alle Gott" ("Now thank we all 
our God") the whole congregation 
rises and sings the hymn to their ac- 
companiment. At the conclusion of 
the hvmn all kneel and the pastor 
leads in prayer. Since the erection of 
the Mary Dixon Memorial Chapel at 
Linden Hall Seminary, 1883-5 with its 
three bells the Chapel bells are also 
rung at midnight. 

After the congregation arises the 
minister reads the texts for New 
Year's Day from the Moravian text 
book and the congregation sings an- 
other hymn and is dismissed. 

The Moravians always went 
quietly to their homes after the last 
service, but in time past there Avas a 
good deal of carousing by the country 
people which it seems the former 
could not altogether prevent. The 
young men also had a habit of stand- 
ing around the church doors and on 
the stairs within on Christmas and 



Xew Year's Eve. cracking their 
whips and making themselves other- 
wise offensive. This, it is needless to 
say, has ceased. They still come but 
behave like gentlemen. 

On New Year's Day a sermon is 
jjreached at lo a. m. and the day is 
ol)served as a holiday. In the even- 
ing, as mentioned before, the pastor 
reads the memorabilia and statistics. 

interspersed with the singing of 
hymns. Going to see Christmas trees, 
was also formerly part of the T;»ro- 
gram on New Year's Day and family 
dinners and reunions were and are 
still customary, especiall}^ if for some 
reason they do not take place on 
Christmas Day. The old Moravians 
have not yet abandoned the habit of 
making: New Year's calls. 

The Blessed Memory of Henry Harbaugh' 
By Jos. H. Dubbs, D. D., LL. D. 


li li li 

T IS well at times to re- 
call the memory of the 
great and good men who 
have gone before us and 

have hardened the path 

\flfe7 for our feet. To Henry 

^^ Harbaugh, more than 

any other single man, 
the Pennsylvania - German Society 
owes reverence, for he was in many 
respects its pioneer. I, therefore es- 
teem it a privilege to bring my humble 
tribute to the memory of a man whom 
I knew and loved, and who deserves 
to be called the typical Pennsylvania- 

Some time ago I stood on the 
porch of the Blue Mountain House at 
Pen-Mar, almost on the line between 
I'ennsylvania and Maryland, looking 
(Unvn u])on one of the finest land- 
scapes in the world. A friend at my 
side reminded me that, almost at my 
feet, I could see an old-fashioned farm- 
house which was the birthplace of 
Henry Harbaugh. Near at hand 
flashed the streamlet on whose banks 
once stood the celebrated Schulhaus 
an der Krick. The schoolhouse is no 
longer there — all that is left is said to 
be the stump of the old whiteoak tree 
that stood at the door. You remember 
I iarbaugh says : 

■'Der Weisseech steht noch an der Dhier, 

Macht Schatte iwer's Dach ; 
Die Trauwerank is a" noch griie, 
Und's Amschelnescht— guck just mol hie — 

Was is es doch en SachI" 

This was the scene which Har- 
baugh. bore with him wherever he 
went; it was the source of constant 
pain and pleasure. He says in his own 
version of one of his Pennsylvania- 
German poems : 

"Both joy and sorrow fill my heart, 
E'en when I smile the tears will start, 
Alas, how strange I feel." 

He describes it in his lecture on 
"The Home Feeling" ; it was the 
theme of "Haemweh," liis ■Sweetest 
poem. Once a year, he tells us, he 
visited the old home, though in later 
years there were but few to bid him 
welcome. How sadly he sings : 

" 'Sis nimmie haem wie's eemol wor, 
Und Kann's a' nimmie Sei'; 
Was naus mit unsere Eltere geht 
Kummt ewig nimme nei'." 

Did I hear a whis])er that T ought 
to render these quotatit)ns in an intel- 
ligible language? I should be sorry if 
any one failed to a])preciate these 
gems of song; but after all this matter 
of talking English on such occasions 
as the present is, as Harbaugh might 
have said, "All humbuck." \Vhv did 
we even begin it, anyway? 

*A response to a sentiment offered at 
the banquet of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society, Lancaster, November 6, 1908, in 
honor of Henry Harbaugh, "who gave to 
Pennsylvania-German literature a local 
habitation and a name." 



llarbaui^h's early surroundings were 
' devout but not intellectual. He was 
the tenth child of a Pennsylvania - 
German farmer; his people were all 
plain and unpretentious. His early 
instruction was such as the neighbor- 
ing schoolhouse afforded, and from its 
deficiencies he suffered all his life. In 
his biography he is represented as 
rather slow in the acquisition of knowl- 
edg'e ; but there must have l:)een 
something- that distinguished him 
from his fellows. One day the Rev- 
erend Frederick A. Scholl, of Green- 
castle, came to his father's house ; and 
as the boys were standing- around him. 
he laid his hands on Henry's head and 
said: "This boy must become a min- 
ister." To his mystical nature the 
words came as a message from heaven. 
P'rom that moment he never doubted 
with regard to the main purpose of 
his life ; but as he grew older he 
found ol^stacles that seemed insur- 
mountable. At nineteen he went 
west to seek his fortune ; learned the 
trade of a carpenter and mill-wright ; 
worked hard all day, but at night 
while his associates were playing 
cards he sat in a bolt-chest and stud- 
ied Latin grammar. When he was 
ready he went to Mercersburg, with 
a few dollars in his pocket, and enter- 
ed Marshall college. 

He did not at once create a favor- 
able impression — he was older than 
the other students, and his hands 
were hardened by toil — even his 
teachers did not suppose that he pos- 
sessed extraordinary talents. There 
is a tradition that when for the first 
time he attended a recitation, he 
stumbled as he entered the room 
and fell full length upon the floor. 
.A few days later he said in a letter: 
"This thing of studying Greek is 
harder than splitting logs." 

In those days there was intense 
ri\a]ry between the literary societies 
<>t the college, and each made stren- 
uous efforts to secure the new stu- 
dents. The Diagnothian Society, of 
which you and I, Mr. Toastmaster 
(Mr. Hensel) are members, was un- 

fortunately represented as inclined to 
fast living. Harbaugh was told that 
the Diagnothians had become .so 
worldly that they no longer had a 
member who was willing to open the 
meetings with prayer. "Ah !" he ex- 
claimed, " that is the society for me. 
If they are that kind of fellows, I 
want to pray with them and for them." 
So Harbaugh became a Diagnothian. 
One day when he was appointed to 
read an essay he surprised the society 
by presenting an original poem, which 
was at once recognized as possessing 
a high order of excellence. Encourag- 
ed by its reception the author began 
to contribute to various periodicals, 
and I am told that upwards of fifty of 
these early poems have been identi- 
fied. In Whittier's phrase, they were 
"dull, doubtless, but with here and 
there a flash." At any rate, it be- 
came evident that the "ugly duck " 
was developing into a swan. 

Without completing his college 
course, Harbaugh entered the Theo- 
logical Seminary and in due time was 
ordained a minister. He soon became 
distinguished as a preacher. His ser- 
mons were always thoughful but 
clear and simple. He was gifted with 
a deep, melodious voice, and some 
one said that his preaching sounded 
like the waves of the ocean beating 
upon the shore. Successively he hekl 
pastorates at Lewisburg, Lancaster 
and Lebanon, concluding his career in 
1867, aged fifty years, as professor in 
the Theological Seminary at Mercers- 

It w^as while he was pastor at 
Lewisburg that Harbaugh began the 
publication of The Guardian, an un- 
denominational magazine, devoted to 
the best interests of young men and 
women. He had few subscribers and 
very little money. Indeed, he remain- 
ed poor all his life, having come to the 
conclusi(^n as he said, that "it would 
not nay to make money." He found- 
ed The Guardian because he was con- 
vinced that the people of Penn.syl- 
vania needed more culture, and that it 
had better be conveyed to them from 



within than without. For sixteen 
years he g-ave his best thought to this 
magazine, and it is not too much to 
say that The Guardian made Dr. Har- 

It was here in Lancaster that I first 
made Dr. Harbaugh's acquaintance. 
I besides working Hke a giant in other 
lines he found time to devote a great 
(leal of attention to the students of the 
college. He visited them in their 
rooms, and cultivated in them a cer- 
tain confidence which led to higher 
things. One day he came to my room 
and took his seat at my table. He had 
heard somewhere that I had written 
some trifles for publication, so he 
said abruptly : "I want to see your 
])ort-folio; perhaps I can find some- 
thing that will be suitable for The 
Guardian. In a few minutes he found 
what he wanted, and put it in his 
])ocket without^ formal permission; 
then he turned to me and said : "T 
want you to keep on writing. Do not 
write for fame, for that is vain, if not 
wicked ; and do not write for money, 
tor you will probably be disappointed; 
but write for the advancement of your 
own people, for that is acceptable to 

Here I think ^ve have the key to 
Dr. Harbaugh's labors and success. 
It was the home-feeling — the love of 
his people — that led him to labor so 
mightily in their behalf. It was this 
sentiment that led him to write not 
only the "Annals of the Harbaugh 
Famil}-," but the "Fife of Schlatter" 
and the "Fathers of the Reformed 
("hurch." He was convinced that pas- 
tors and people needed to think more 
])rofoundly, so b}^ intense study he be- 
came a philosopher in order to guide 
them ; and we have the authority of 
Dr. Schaff for saying that he was one 
of the ablest thinkers in the land. He 
loved the faith of his fathers, but also 
recognized the fact that in many 
places it had become hard and even 
fossilized; so he wrote his popular 
volumes on the Heavenly Home, be- 

sides a number of devotional works. 
To enrich the worship of his people 
he became the author of the hymns 
which are found in all the hymn- 
books of which the best — as most 
fully expressive of his faith — is 
" Jesus, I live to Thee." Last of all 
he took up our home-life, and pro- 
duced the exquisite Pennsylvania- 
German lyrics, which still remain the 
most complete expression of the beau- 
ties of our vernacular. 

Dr. Harbaugh was a man of strong 
convictions, and never hesitated to 
express them. Fle took an active part 
in all the great controversies of the 
day. In his long fight against Slavery. 
Intemperance and other evils, he may 
sometimes have used words which 
might better have remained unspoken. 
I once heard him preach a sermon on 
the text, "So fight I^ not as one that 
beateth the air," during which it oc- 
curred to me that he must have beat- 
en his enemies black and blue. He 
was as brave as a lion, but could be as 
tender as a loving mother. He was 
always cheerful, and I have never met 
another man who could relate so 
many humorous stories. In brief, he 
hated cant and pretence in all their 
forms ; and though profoundly humble 
it might have been said of him. as was 
said of another, that he never feared 
the face of man. 

Dr. Harbaugh's faith was unwaver- 
ing and joyous to the end. On his 
death-bed some one inquired concern- 
ing his anticipations of the world to 
come, and he replied : "I attended to 
all that long ago, and am safe in my 
Father's hands." 

It is well, as we have said, to call 
to mind the labors and triumphs of 
those who have gone before us. Few 
of the present generation may be able 
to accomplish as much as Dr. Har- 
baugh ; but it is eminently proper that 
this assembly, which represents in a 
peculiar sense the people whom he 
was proud to call his own. should not 
fail to do honor to his memory. 


Salem Church, Monroe County, Pa. 

By Rev. A. C. Wuchter. Gilbert, Pa. 


MONG the hills and dales 
of Monroe County, Pa., 
no lovelier spot can be 
found than that section 
known as Pleasant Val- 
ley. In historic interest 
it occupies a ])rominent 
place. It lies within the 
hounds of the famous "Walking- Pur- 
chase" of 1737; an event which justly 
aroused the anger of the Indians and 
resulted eighteen years later, in the 
massacre of many of the early settlers. 
Within sight of this church stood an 
Indian village, called Wechquetank, 
the home of CaptaTn Harris, a noted 
Delaware Chief. The word Wechque- 
tank signifies in the Delaware tongue 
a species of willow which grows abun- 
dantly along the creek nearby. 

Cai)t. Harris had six sons : Teed}^- 
uscung, Capt. John, young Capt. Har- 
ris, Tom, Joe and Sam Evans. Teedy- 
nscung became the noted chieftain of 
the Delaware Indians of this section, 
who afterwards planned the aggres- 
sive campaign against the white set- 
tlers along the Blue Mountains. He 
was baptized at Gnadenhutten, (Le- 
highton), March 12, 1750, by the 
Moravian Bishop Cammerhofif, when 
he received the name of Gideon. 

Bishop CammerhofT wrote in his 
diary: "Today I baptized Teedyus- 
cung, a pre-eminently great sinner." 
In spite of his ba))tism, Teedyuscung 
remained a great sinner. Through his 
instigation his minions fell upon 
Gnadenhuetten. November 24, 1755, 
and destroyed the place, killing- and 
burning the defenseless dwellers 
along the Mahoning. His baptism 
had thrown a halo of sanctity over the 
place. His recorded speeches made at 
Easton. 1757-58, give proof that, like 
Logan and Tecumsch, he was endow- 

ed with remarkable powers of mind. 
He was burned to death at Wyoming, 
.\])ril 19, 1763. Some of his Indian 
enemies came to his place for a few 
days and freely distributing liquor set 
fire to his lodge while he lay in a 
drunken stupor. Of the other sons of 
Captain Harris little need be said. 
Capt. John was chief of a Delaware 
village where Nazareth now stands. 
Of Sam Evans it is reported that 
when he visited his relatives at Wech- 
quetank it was necessary to make an 
investigation lest rum had been smug- 
gled into the mission station. 


Rev. Eugene Leibert states in his 
sketch of Wechquetank that in 1750 
some members of the Moravian 
Church in Philadelphia purchased 
land here and that at least two fam- 
ilies soon after located upon their pro- 
perties, viz : Frederick floeth and 
Philip Serfass. Hoeth came from 
Zweibriicken, Germany, in 1748. He 
set out from Philadelphia, Nov. 13, 
1750. His tract contained over 1300 
acres. In 1753 Christian Boemper, 
of Bethlehem, married one of Hoeth's 
daughters and settled on his tract of 
500 acres, one-half mile from his 
father-in-law. In 1754 Philip Serfass 
came from Philadelphia and settled 
nearby. Hoeth must have been a man 
of means, for, besides his house and 
stables, he erected a grist and saw 
mill, as well as a blacksmith shop. 
The men who operated these lived in 
separate dwellings near his own. The 
intended settling of these men "be- 
yond the mountains" was at first dis- 
approved of by the Moravian Church 
authorities at Philadelphia. Hoeth, 
however, gave a lovefeast as a fare- 
well to the whole congregation on the 
Siuulay preceding his departure. 



Hoeth's daughter, Marianna, in her 
autobiography, describes her father as 
a pious and God fearing man, whose 
spiritual concern for his family first 
induced him to emigrate to America 
and that the same pious resolution 
moved him to seek a home in the wil- 
derness, finding even Philadelphia not 
a safe place to rear his family. 

Not long were they permitted to en- 
joy the seclusion of their new found 
home, for on the tenth of December, 
1755, sixteen days after the massacre 
at Gnadenhuetten, a band of Indians 
fell upon the family while at supper. 
Mr. fioeth, his wife, who was brutally 
mutilated, and a little daughter, as 
well as another girl and two unarmed 
men were killed and scalped. Three 
of Hoeth's daughters, as well as the 
wife and two daughters of Heiss, the 
blacksmith, were taken prisoners. One 
Indian was killed by Heiss who es- 
caped. All the buildings, together 
with those of Boemper, were burned 
to the ground. Boemper, with his 
family, fled to Bethlehem. Philip Ser- 
fass. and his family, escaped to Naz- 
areth. He returned afterwards and 
died in 1786. A family by the name 
of Keiser, was also murdered not far 
from the Monroe Shupp farm. John 
Michael Hute, a mill apprentice, es- 
caped by way of the tail race, and two 
days after made a deposition of the 
murder before \Mlliam Parsons, a 
Justice of the Peace, at Easton. 

December 14, 1755, Captains Doll 
and Jennings (of Walking Purchase 
fame) came to look after and bury the 
dead. January 15, 1756, William C. 
Reichel reports in "Friedenthal"' that 
a company of refugees set out to look 
after their farms and cattle, among 
them Chr. Boemper, the son-in-law of 
Hoeth. The party, escorted by some 
soldiers from Capt. Trump's Com- 
pany, then stationed at Fort Hamil- 
ton (Stroudsburg), fell into the hands 
of the Indians near the Mill. The 
killed were Chr. Boemper, Feltv 
Hold, Michael PTold. Lawrence Kun- 
kle and four soldiers. 

January 25, 1756, Benj. Franklin 

wrote to Gov. Morris that he would 
erect a fort at "Surfoss." This was 
Fort Norris, about two miles from 
here. It was named after Isaac Nor- 
ris. who ordered the inscription : Pro- 
claim lil:)erty, etc., to be put on the 
-Old Liberty Bell" in Philadelphia. 

January 29, 1756, about four hun- 
dred refugees were billeted at Naz- 
areth and other Moravian settlments 
from Contended (?) Valley, McMic- 
hael's Creek and Dansbury (East 
Stroudsburg). Among these were 
the Eisemans, Geisleys, Hecks, Hes- 
ses, Heisses, Heimans, Hofifmans. 
Huths, Kunkles, Schulses, Serfasses. 
Sylvases and Weisers. Among those 
who received aid in i755-'56 from con- 
tributions sent to the Moravian settle- 
ments for distribution w^e find the fol- 
lowing names from these sections : 
Serfass, Hoeth, Costenbader, Kunkle. 
Staley, Schrupper, Weiser. Andre. 
Keenz, Keller, Segle, etc. 

June 23, 1756, James Young, com- 
missary, passed through this place 
stopping' at Fort Norris, on his way 
from Fort Allen to Fort Hamilton, 
stopping at Bozzart's for the night. 
One name of the early settlers not yet 
mentioned is that of the Christman 
famil3^ Nov. 9, 1756, in a deposition 
made at Easton. Leonard Weeser 
states that he saw at Diahoga while 
a prisoner amongst the Indians, a boy 
of Henry Christman. from near Fort 
Xorris. Stephen Hawk, an aged mem- 
ber of this congregation, remembers 
seeing this same person as well as 
some incidents he related of his cap- 
tivity. A companion by the name of 
Correll. taken at the same time, never 
returned. They were captured while 
riding through the creek at Little 

These facts give evidence that there 
was a considerable sprinkling of set- 
tlers throughout this section at a very 
early date. Already in 1794 a petition 
was made by the inhabitants north of 
the Blue Mountains for a new county. 
In the petition submitted, it is stated 
that upwards of 300 persons lived in 
remote parts who ought to be tax- 



ables and whi) had so far never per- 
formed an}' military service. 

W lien Cien. Snllivan's army return- 
ed from W'yomini^" in 1779. his wagon 
train, instead of following the main 
army, returned from near Stoddarts- 
\-ille through this place by w^ay of the 
■'()ld Shupp Fxoad" on to Sciota 
where Sulli\'an awaited them. 


Count Zinzendorf, on his first jour- 
ney of inspection among the red men 
came to this place in 1742. lie left 
l>ethlehem with six brethren and two 
sisters, one his daughter, lleiiigna, 
then seventeen years old, and an In- 
dian interjireter. He reached this 
place July 2"]. The missionaries Sey- 
fert. Xitschman and Seidel were here 
in October. 1743, followed by Bishop 
M. de Watteville. in 1748. Others 
ministered to the wants of the set- 
tlers up to the time of the Hoeth mas- 
sacre. For four or five years after this 
the settlment remained a waste, weeds 
and brambles covering the once culti- 
\ated fields around the Hoeth and 
IJoemper homesteads. 

In 1760 the Moravian authorities re- 
solved to establish a settlement here 
for the Indian converts from the Ma- 
honing, at that time located near 
liethlehem and Xazareth. According- 
1\- the Hoeth and Boemper properties, 
nearh' 1400 acres in extent were pur- 
chased from the administrator. April 
2~^. 1760. Joachim Senseman and John 
Joseph Bull, otherwise Shebosh, ar- 
rived with their company of Indians. 
The latter spent the night along a 
fence left standing on Hoeth's place, 
whilst the missionaries went to 
Boemper's place, about half a mile 
further north, to put u]) their horses 
for the night. The Indians next 
morning killed two deer providing 
fresh meat for several days. Dwel- 
lings w^ere erected and the logs from 
lioemper's spring house were used in 
the erection of a meeting house which 
was dedicated June 26 by Martin 
Mack. who. with his wife, arrived the 

exening before. .Already, June 13. 
Uisho) S iaiigenberg and l>ro. John J. 
.Schmick. with their wives, \isited the 
l)lace. ins,)ecting the graxeyard and 
the difi'erent sites chosen for building 
purposes. The next day Bishop 
.*> >angenberg preached, when he re- 
ceixed into church fellowship the 
W idow l"jumy. a half sister of Teed- 
yuscung. This was followed by the 
Ldd's .Sui)per. the first ever held in 
this place. 

July ly. 1760. Tobias, an Indian 
1) )\-, thirteen years old, died and on 
the 2(jth the graveyard was staked off. 
The funeral and dedication took place 
in the evening. Four Indians carried 
the body to the grave. The custom of 
holding early morning services every 
Easterday in Chapel and graveyard 
were observed. This graveyard seems 
to have been used as late as 1842. Rev. 
Decker, in a communication, dated 
March 21. 1848. published in "Die 
Biene," a bi-weekly paper issued at 
Bethlehem, writes: "Not far from 
where Hoeth's house stood lies the 
old graveyard, which, alas, is in the 
same neglected condition as that at 
Gnadenhuetten. F'ences are tumbling- 
down, thorns and thistles overgrow 
the graves, and cattle wonder about 
therein at will. About six years ago 
I buried the aged widows of George 
Huth in the Old Hernnhuter grave- 
yard." This was the sister-in-law of 
Adam Huth, who lost an arm in the 
fight with the Indians when Christian 
Boemper was killed. 

The mission w^ork of the Brethren 
was not allowed to prosper lofig. The 
breaking out of hostilities in 1763 
obliged them to withdraw. Aroused 
by the atrocities committed here and 
there, the border settlers threatened 
to blot out the " Moravian Indians, " 
as they were called, presuming that 
they were in league with the enemy. 
Prominent among those who threaten- 
ed was the Scotch-Irish element be- 
yond the Blue Alountain. August 20. 
1763. Zacharias, his wife and little 
child, and Zippora, Christian Indians 
from "\^'echquetank. were cruelly 



murdered by drunken soldiers near 
Lehigh Gap while on their way to 
Long Island, an Indian village on the 
Susquehanna. Zacharias had four 
brothers who lived here and afraid 
they would wreak vengeance three 
different parties of militia came to 
destroy the village. With great dififi- 
culty the missionaries prevented a 

October 9, 1763, after the murder 
of John Stenton and Capt. Wetter- 
holt, another company of soldiers ap- 
peared, intending to massacre all the 
Indians living here, from thirty to 
forty in number. The massacre, how- 
ever, was prevented only by the ear- 
nest entreaties of Missionary Grube, 
Avho however, soon fled to Nazareth 
with his flock, leaving the village and 
stores of corn behind. Several wagon 
loads of Indian effects and some corn 
were however saved. Soon after the 
torch was applied and the village 
burned to the ground. Scarcely had 
the Indians left when the white set- 
tlers of the neighborhood petitioned 
the Governor at Philadelphia to re- 
turn them or send an adequate force 
for protection. The whites had more 
confidence in the Indians as a defence 
than a few soldiers of questionable 
character. Cattle from Christian- 
spring were pastured upon the aban- 
doned lands until about the beginning 
of the last century when they Avere 
cut up into farms and sold. 

The missionaries at Wechquetank 
were as follows: Joachim Senseman, 
John Joseph Shebosh. with his In- 
dian wife, Christiana ; Anton, a native 
helper, and Christian Fred. Post, who 
afterwards played such a prominent 
part in the capture of Fort Duquesne, 
under Gen. Forbes, in 1758. His In- 
dian wife was a sister-in-law to Tach- 
gokanhelle, the oldest son of Teedyus- 
cung. Bernhard Adam Grube, with 
his wife, arrived Oct. 18, 1760. The 
flavor of literary romance also clings 
to Wechquetank. While here Grube 
translated the "Harmony of the Four 
Gospels " into the Delaware Indian 
language. At Memiolagomeka. (Kun- 

kletown), he had already translated 
many hymns into the Indian tongue. 
It was at this time that his "Essay of 
a Delaware Indian Hymn Book" was 


It is impossible to state when the 
first religious services were held re- 
sulting in the present church organi- 
zation. Efforts in this direction, apart 
from the Moravian attempts, date 
back in Monroe County as far as Au- 
gust 23, 1737, in Smithfield, 1763, in 
Hamilton, and October 27, 1779, at 
Kunkletown. David Brainerd labor- 
ed in Smithfield after 1741. Rev. J. A. 
Friderici, (Luth.), also labored there 
in 1760, as well as in Hamilton, 1763. 
Rev. Van Buskirk (Luth.), appears on 
the Kunkletown Church Record, 1783. 
E. J. Eyerman, (Ref.)., 1789. 

It is self-evident that services 
were held in this neighborhood prior 
to 1800. Tradition tells us that ser- 
vices were held in a barn where the 
road leads to the mill from near the 
Tract residence. As already stated a 
considerable population must have 
existed before 1800, in these parts 
since most of the family names extant 
are found in the Hamilton and Kun- 
kletown Church Records since 1768 
and 1779. 

The ground upon which this church 
stands was donated by Philip Shupp 
and Richard Peters, of Philadelphia, 
each one granting two acres. 

Philip Shupp was a grandson of 
Henry Shupp. who together with his 
family, landed at Philadelphia, Sept. 
17' 1753- His name also appears 
among petitioners to the Governor of 
Pennsylvania for arms and ammuni- 
tion Oct. 5,1757. The names of Henry. 
Abraham and Philip Shupp are found 
as communicant members of the 
Lutheran Church on the Hamilton 
Church Record for the year 1774. The 
two latter names are, also found on the 
Kunkletown Record. This fact to- 
gether with the donation of two acres 
of ground on the part of Philip Shupp 
shows that the famih- was laudably 
interested in Zion and the necessity of 



cliurcli privilei^es in their midst. 

Richard Peters was born in Liver- 
pool , Enoiand. about 1705. At the 
age of fifteen he graduated fromWest- 
minster School, London. He attend- 
ed Leyden University for three years 
and afterwards studied law at the In- 
ner Temple, London. By permission 
of his father he studied for the minis- 
try and was ordained in 173 1 by the 
IJishop of Winchester. In 1735 he 
came to Philadelphia and was ap- 
pointed assistant to Dr. Cummings of 
Christ Church. In 1737 he resigned 
and began the practice of law. In 
1742 he became Provincial Secretary 
and Clerk of the Council. Later he 
Avas appointed President of the Acad- 
emy. After much urging on the 
part of his former parishoners, as well 
as Dr. Muhlenberg, Peters again re- 
entered the ministry in 1763, Muh- 
lenberg, the Lutheran patriarch, and 
Dr. Peters were intimate friends. 
They had the highest regards for 
each other. As the guest of Muhlen- 
berg, Peters preached for him at New 
Providence, Aug. 10, 1760. He also 
])reached at the dedication of Zion 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, June 
26. 1769. 

As the agent of the Penn family, 
Peters bought and sold extensive 
tracts of land, especially what was 
then Northampton County. In 1750 
he laid claim to the land where Kun- 
kletown now stands. In 1764 he sold 
land in Hamilton Township, which 
shows that he still had holdings after 
his return to the ministry. Richard 
Peters died July 10, 1776. His dona- 
tion must therefore have been made 
before that time, thus antedating the 
huilding of the first church for at least 
thirty years. 

If the deed to these four acres 
could be found it would certain!}' 
clear uv this part of the history of 
Salem Church. The fact of this dona- 
tion would certainly not have been in- 
scribed upon the pages of the Church 
Record, had the fathers not had good 
reasons for doing so. If we cannot 
give Dr. Peters any greater honors, 

let us at least inscribe his name to- 
gether with that of Philip Shupp. 
prominently upon the Record of 
Salem Church. 


This was a log-building and stood 
northeast from the present church on 
grounds now occupied b}'' the ceme- 
tery. The corner-stone was laid Nov, 
14,' 1806. Rev. F. W. Van der Slott 
preached on i Peter 2 :6. The dedica- 
tion took place September 6, 1808. The 
clergy and people moved in formal 
procession from the schoolhouse to 
the church. The hymn : "Sei Lob und 
Ehr dem hoechstem Gut," was sung. 
The order observed was : The clergy. 
The bulling committee, elders and dea- 
cons, followed b}^ the laity. The min- 
isters present wxre : F. W. Van der 
Sloot and Thos. Pomp (Ref.), John 
Casper Dill and Chr. Endress (Luth). 
All of these made appropriate addres- 
ses. The name solemnly given the 
new church was Salem — ''the church 
of peace." The names of the building 
committee were Geo. Kunkle and John 
Serfass (Luth.), Jacob Everitt and 
I'hili]j Kresge (Ref). That the origi- 
nal draft of the constitution, adopted 
Nov. 14, 1806, was deposited in the 
corner-stone the following names tes- 
tify to : Abraham Shupp, George Getz, 
Frederick Miller, Jacob Doffert and 
Henry Everitt. 

Nicholas Esch and Peter Shupp 
were appointed a finance committee 
July 17, 1808. They reported Aug. 8. 
of the same 3'ear as follows : 
Total expenses $1062.08 

Receipts in cash, 57678 

Receipts in labor, 242.71 

C^orner-stone laying. 21.85 i"- 
Glass & lumber sold. 3.54 

$844.88 1-2 

Balance due. $217.19 1-2 

Balance due. $217.19 1-2 

At an accounting held Feb. 11, 1815. 

at the house of George Kresge the 

congregation still owed the building 

committee loi pounds. los. Sept. 25. 

1815, at another so-called final set- 



llement at the house of Lawrence 
Serfass the debt amounted to loyp.- 
iis.-8d. At this settlement the cost of 
the parchment and writing of the 
Deed is jjiven as 17 shiUing-s and 6 

Dec. 10. 1820, members of the Luth- 
eran congregation consulted with re- 
presentatives from the Reformed side 
concerning the purchase of a Luth- 
eran parsonage. The Reformed signi- 
hed their willingness provided the 
same courtesy be extended to them in 
securing a home for the Reformed pas- 
tor. It was so agreed. The signers 
to this covenant were John Bonser. 
Geo. Shupp, and Henry Shupp. 
( Luth.) ; Philip Kresge, William 
Kresge, David Borger, Henry Everitt 
and another signer w'hose name is in- 
decipherable, (Ref.). No notice is 
found of further action. The Lutheran 
congregation however ccmtributed to- 
ward the Hamilton parsonage which 
\vas built in 1837, whilst the Reformed 
secured one near Effort. The two con- 
gregations however are without par- 
sonages at present. 

Sept. 5. 1827, anttther settlement 
was made by the building committee 
and trustees at the schoolhouse when 
the principal of the debt remaining 
\\as $71.75, and the accrued interest 
amcnmted to ^7,^-7^. The trustees at 
this time were Joseph Trach and 
i'elix A\'eiss (Ret.), and John Kueh- 
iier and Jacob Dorshimer (Luth). 
John Serfass, one of the building com- 
mittee died in 1825. Before this time 
collectors were apDointed to secure 
funds for the liquidation of the debt. 
They reported $479.27 1-2, of which 
S35.29 1-2 had been collected from 
"outsiders." Strangely enough, the 
collection ($100.00) lifted at the dedi- 
cation of the church, twenty years be- 
fore, is re])orte(l in this list. 

March 24. 1828. the building com- 
mittee held another meeting, but un- 
al)le to agree, the following committee 
i>f adjustment was selected: ]\Iichael 
Misner, Esq., Jacob Frantz, Esq., 
ilenry ^'oung, Esq.. Jacob Frantz. 
Es(|.. lienr\' '^'onngkin and Tohn Kel- 

ler, Esq. These with the exception of 
-Michael Alisner, met at the house of 
(;ieo. Kresge. April 18, 1828, and ad- 
justed the various claims as follows: 
John Serfass estate. $37.26, Geo. Kun- 
kle $10.11, Philip Kresge, $17.68, and 
Jacob Everitt $2.13. 

After a few preliminary meetings it 
was resolved at a congregational meet- 
ing, Aug. 3, 1871, " to'^ build a new 
church the following year. Material 
for this purpose was to be secured at 
<:)nce. The following building com- 
mittee was appointed : John Snyder 
and Reuben Gregory, (Ref.), Chas. J. 
Shafer and Chas. Shupp (Luth.). The 
committee on church plans consisted 
of Joseph Gruber, Peter S. Altenmose. 
David Shupp and Levi C. Shupp to- 
gether with the respective pastors : 
Revs. Struntz and Becker. 

The committee met Aug. 15, 1871, 
in open meeting when twelve resolu- 
tions were presented and adonted. 
Amongst other things it was ordered 
that the new church retain the name 
of Salem ; that every member on both 
sides do his or her duty ; that none, 
with the exception of the widows and 
orphans in distress, were considered 
too poor to contribute toward the ex- 
penses; that all who refuse to contri- 
bute anything up to the time the 
church is finished shall no longer be 
considered as members but as volun- 
tarily excluded ; that all who neglect- 
ed to contribute, though able to do so, 
shall have from henceforth no claim 
uDon the church, the cemetery, etc. ; 
that this church shall be for the ex- 
clusive use of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed congregations and that no 
minister of any other denc^mination 
shall have the right to Dreach, officiate 
or ]K'rf<irm any services whatever, 
either in the church or on the ceme- 
tery : and finally that these resolu- 
tions be read from the i)ulpit by the 
resnective pastors. 

That the aI:)o\c resolutions were 
adonted after a th(irough discussion 
is affirmed and su1)scribed to bv the 



following- coniniittee : L. C. Shupp, 
President ; Joseph Griil^er, Secretary ; 
P. S. Altemose, David Shupp, Rev. G. 
A. Struntz and Rev. Ch. Becker. 

The corner-stone was laid June i6, 
1872. The only record of this occa- 
sion is found in The Monroe Demo- 
crat — a very lame report indeed. Ac- 
cordini^ to this report Re\'. Struntz 
led the singing and laid the corner- 
stone. Rev. D. F. Brcndle spoke in 
the forenot)n on Heb. 6, 19. In the 
afternoon Rev. D. E. Schoedler 
])reached on John 15. 1-8, followed by 
Rev. G. B. Dechant in English. The 
services were held in the grove near- 
by. The collection anniunted to $148.- 


The dedication took place Ang. 16 
and 17. 1873. Nothing beyond sev- 
eral announcements in the count}^ 
papers is found recorded concerning 
this festive occasion. The pastors 
loci. Revs.. Weber and Becker were 
assisted on the Lutheran side by Rev. 
G. A. Struntz and A. R. Home, D. D. 
On the Reformed side Rev. G. B. De- 
chant and another brother minister, 
whose name is forgotten, were pre- 

At a congregational meeting held 
Xcn-. 19. 1878, a committee consisting 
i)f Ste])hen Ziegenfuss, Geo. Angle- 
myer and Rev. A. M. Strauss reported 
the cost of the new church, together 
with furnishings and bell, at a total 
of $9659.17. During this time the 
cemetery was enlarged at a cost of 
one hundred dollars. The committee 
on expenses. John Snyder and Wil- 
liam Gilbert, reported $130.50 collect- 
ed for land and fencing i)urposes. At 
a congregaticmal meeting June 29, 
T878, it was resolved that hereafter 
no corpse be allowed in the church on 
tuntTal occasions. 


During the earl}- history of the 
church the services were exclusively 
in German. About the year 1850 Eng- 
I'.sli services were occasionally held, 
which, at the present time, prepon- 
derate with prospects of entireh^ 

superseding the German language 
within a few years. Already in the 
year 1829, as the Record shows, some 
catechumens used the English cate- 


With the increase of the population 
in this part of the country the need of 
increased facilities for worship were 
felt. Accordingly, the people centered 
around Broadheadsville, built Zion's 
Church with which many others from 
Salem and Christ Union Church, 
Hamilton, affiliated themselves. In 
1872 St. John's Church, Efifort, was 
built by niembers drawn almost ex- 
clusively from the two congregations 
of this church. In 1888 St. Paul's 
Evangelical Lutheran Church at 
Kresgeville was built by members 
who formerly had been connected 
with the Lutheran congregation here. 

Salem Lutheran congregation has 
given five sons to the ministry : Rew 
John Aberly, D. D., Missionary in 
India ; Rev. G. G. Kunkle, of Tuscar- 
awas, Ohio ; Rev. J. F. Bruch, of 
Weissport, Pa.; Rev. J. H. Miller, 
Ph. D., an adopted son, at New 
Castle, Pa., and Rev. H. A. Kunkle, of 
Bethlehem, Pa. (now in Canada). 

Unhap])ily in the matter of statis- 
tics the early Records are very incom- 
plete, and so preclude any correct 
statement \vith perhaps the exception 
of bai)tisms. Vp to the present time 
the baptisms recorded number 359f>. 
Only two deaths are recorded in the 
oldest record book and none Avhatever 
in the next following. Xo marriages 
A\erc recorded. As a rule the names 
of ciMiimunicants are gi\cn. 

.A I'nion Sundav School was organ- 
ized Aug. 26, 1855, which however 
was conducted onh^ during the sum- 
mer luonths until the completion of 
the new church in 1873. The instruc- 
tion was in English. In the latter 
part of the year, 1878. a divisitin of 
the Sundav School was asked f(~ir re- 


suiting in the ort^anization of two seji- 
arate schools. 

In 1881 nnder the pastorate of Rev. 
Huber, the Reformed congregation 
erected a Sunday School chapel which 
was dedicated in July of the same 
_\'ear. Oct. 2, 1886, members of the 
Lutheran congregation efifected an 
organization under the title of the 
"Evangelical Lutheran Sunday School 
Association of Salem Church," which 
erected a chapel during the winter of 
1886-7 at a cost of $3,298.07. The cor- 
ner-stone was laid in 1886 and the 
dedication took place Sept. 14, 1890, 
the pastor, Rev. S. B. Stupp, being as- 
sisted bv Dr. W. Wackernagle and 
Rev. R.'H. Clare. 


I.JOHN CASPER DILL. 1806-1810. 
NSEN. 1810-1815 and 1839-44. 

V PETER RUPPERT. 1816-1819 
and 182^-1828. 

4. REV. HENRY KURTZ, 1819-23. 





7. REV. E. A. BAUER. 1846-1850. 


185 1- 1858. 

9. Rev. T. SCHMALTZ'L. 1859-60. 
10. REV. NATHAN JAEGER. 1860- 


1863- 1865. 
12. REV. G. A. STRUNTZ. 1866-72. 

1 872- 1 874. 
14. REV. A. M. STRAUSS. 1874-88. 
iv REV. S. B. STUPP. 1889-1892. 
16. REV. A. C. WUCHTER. 

Rev. ^^^lchter was born at Jackson- 
ville. Lehigh County, Pa., Feb. 4, 
1856. He attended the public schools 
u!) to the age of 18 years when he re- 
gistered as a student at the Millers- 
\-ille State Normal School from 1875 
to 1877. He taught in the public 
schools of his natiA'e county for four 

In 1878 he left for Europe, entering 
the "Association Internationale de Pro- 

fesseurs" in the city of Paris — an in- 
stitution founded by Dr. Ch. Rudy, a 
native of Lehigh County, — -where he 
jmrsued the study of languages, music 
and belles-lettres for three years. He 
became successively director of two 
branch schools of this institution. For 
one summer he served as assistant 
principal and teacher of a French 
boarding school near Paris. 

He returned to America in 18S1 and 
the year following entered the Luth- 
eran Theological Seminary at Phila- 
delphia, from which he ^graduated in 
1885. He was ordained June 2. of the 
same year by the Ministerium of 
Pennsyh'ania, in session at Allen- 
town. His first call came from St. 
Paul's Lutheran Church at Summit 
Hill, Pa., where he labored for five 
years. In 1890 he assumed the pas- 
torate of the Weissport charge, serv- 
ing it for three years. In 1893 he ac- 
cepted a call from the Pleasant Valley 
charge which he has continued to 
serve up to the present time, (1906). 


DER SLOOT. 1806-1809. 
REV. THOMAS POMP. 1809-1814. 

HOFFEDITZ. 1814-1834. 

1 83 5- 1 854. 



REV."^ FRANK W. SMITH. 1885.— 
RcA". Frank W. Smith was born 
Feb. 4, 1853, in Heidelberg Township 
Lehigh County, I'a. Baptized and 
confirmed by Rev. Dr. William Hel- 
frich. He attended the Normal Schools 
at Millersville and Kutztown, Pa., 
and followed the teaching profession 
for seven consecuti\e years. He made 
final preparation for the holy ministry 
in the institutions at Lancaster. Pa. 
On May 17, 1883, he was licensed by 
Lehigh Classis at Allentown and or- 
dained and installed as pastor of the 
Tannersville Charge, Aug. 5, 1883, ^^ 



Tannersville, by a committee appoint- 
ed by East Pennsylvania Classis, con- 
sisting of Revs. G. W. Kerchner, T. 
O. Stein and Dr. 1). Y. Heisler. This 
pastorate lasted till October, 1885. On 
July 13, 1885, East Pennsylvania 
Classis erected the Pleasant Valley 
Charge. Soon after the erection of 
this charsjc tlun- extended him a call 

which he accepted. Classis dissolved 
the pastoral relation between him and 
the Tannersville Charge Oct. 12, 
1885. One Tuesday, Nov. to, 1885, he 
was installed as pastor of the Pleas- 
ant Valley Charge, by a committee 
consisting of Revs. J. E. I'^reeman, T. 
O. Stem and Joseph Schlap])ig. 

The Early Moravians in Berks County 

By Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. 

L'CH has been said and 
published on this subject 
which is more traditional 
than historical. It is 
proper that an effort be 
made to present this his- 
tory in as accurate and 
reliable a form as pos- 

It may surprise some when I raise 
the tpiestion, were there ever any 
earh' Moravian settlements in Berks 
county? That is, were any of the 
early settlements made by the people 
Avho were Moravians when they 
came here? I think not. It is true 
that some Moravians settled in this 
CDunty, but they came after the earl}' 
settlements had been made and the 
congregations founded. The first fol- 
lowers of the Moravians Avere secured 
from the Reformed. Lutheran and 
Mennonite settlers. I cite the follow- 
ing facts to sustain this view. 

There were only two places where 
congregations existed which were 
known as Moravian — Oley and North 
Heidelberg. The first settlers of Oley 
were principally French and German 
Reformed people who came to Amer- 
ica to escape persecution. They came 
about 1 712 and afterward. The set- 
tlers in North Heidelberg were Re- 
formed and Lutheran Palatines who 
were sent to New York state by 
Queen Anne in 1710, and came to Tul- 
pehocken under the two ^^''eisers in 
1723 and 1729. At that time the 

Moravians had hardl}' an existence. 
They usually date their beginning 
back to 1722, when a few refugees set- 
tled upon the estate of Count Zinzen- 
dorf in Saxony, but they became an 
organized body only in 1727. I have 
been unable to find traces of any 
Moravians being among the first set- 
tlers in Berks county. 


^^'ho were the IVIoravians? The 
founders of this body were the descen- 
dants of Bohemians and Moravians 
who suflfered persecution in their na- 
tive countries for the sake of the gos- 
pel. They formed an organization or 
colony on the estate of Count Zinzen- 
dorf, as already stated, in 1722. This 
place was Hernhut, and for this rea- 
son the Moravians are even to this 
day known among the Germans as 
"Hernhutters." Their ofificial title is 
"Church of the United Brethren."" 
Count Zinzendorf became their lead- 
er, and may be called their principal 
founder. He devoted nearly his whole 
life, property and energy to the pro- 
motion of the new society. He was a 
remarkable and peculiar man. His 
real name was Ludwig von Thurn- 
stein, and he usually signed his name 
in this way. He was also one of their 
first Bishops. The first Bishop was 
consecrated in 1735, whilst Zinzen- 
dorf was consecrated two years later, 
in 1737. 

It was e\identlv not Count Zinzen- 



(lorf's purpose to found a new and dis- 
tinct denomination. His purpose ap- 
pears to have been to organize so-call- 
ed " tropes " or circles in each exist- 
ing" denomination, and all of them 
were to be united spiritually as the 
"Church of the United Brethren." In 
the discipline which Zinzendorf for- 
mulated, he avoided all points of doc- 
trine which divided Christians and 
em])hasized the cardinal points upon 
which all agreed. His purpose was 
well-meant, but time and experience 
have shown that it was impracticable. 
This is fully illustrated by the results 
of the efforts to carry oitt this pecu- 
liar scheme in Pennsylvania. 

Count Zinzendorf was a truly good 
man. He was full of enthusiasm and 
religious zeal. His leading passion 
was to preach the crucified Christ. 
Everything else was subordinate. In 
many respects he was a peculiar man 
and on this account he was often mis- 
understood. It is indeed difficult to 
understand him fully even now. It is 
hard to reconcile his positions at dif- 
ferent times. He was brought up a 
Lutheran, heartily accepted the Augs- 
burg confession, and ever held firmly 
to it. He was ordained by the Re- 
formed Court Preacher Jablonsky in 
lierlin. and later became the principal 
founder of the Moravian Church. He 
appears to have been, like Paul, " all 
things to all men," and likely from 
the same motive, "that he might save 
some." AA'hilst he made great sacri- 
fices for the cause of the Moravians, 
he at times appeared to have turned 
his back upon them. In an address 
at Herrendyk. on August 6. 1741, a 
short time before leaving for America, 
he said : "I am destined by the Lord 
to proclaim the message of the death 
and blood of Jesus, not with human 
ingenuity, but with divine power. 
This was my vocation long before I 
knew of the Moravian Brethren. Al- 
though I am and shall ever remain 
connected with the Moravian Breth- 
ren, still I do not on that account by 
any means separate myself from the 
Lutheran Church." 

Zinzendorf landed at New York, 
Xov. 30, 1741, spent six days there, 
went to Philadelphia Dec. 10, spent 
Christmas at Bethlehem, then preach- 
ed in the Reformed church at Ger- 
mantown on Dec. 31, 1741. Then 
soon after he became pastor of the 
Lutheran church in Philadelphia, and 
served it for some time. He laid aside 
his title of Count Zinzendorf and 
wished to be known as Ludwig von 
Thurnstein. Later he again espoused 
the cause of the ^Moravians, and la- 
bored zealously in their name during 
the balance of his short career of 
about two years in this country. But 
even dviring this latter period his na- 
tive Lutheranism again asserted itself. 
At the meeting of the fourth Synod 
in Germantown, March 21-23. 1742- 
in replying to a theological discussion 
b}' a Baptist, Zinzendorf declared 
"that the Lutheran Church of which 
he still regarded himself to be a mem- 
ber, was properly the most blessed 
one, and preferable even to the old 
Moravian." He stated that it was a 
great question whether a servant of 
Christ who had separated himself 
from the Lutheran Church, had gain- 
ed anything by joining another sect. 
He considered it very dtuibtful. • 

Zinzendorf has been charged with 
the purpose of capturing the various 
denominations for the Moravians. 
\\'hilst this seems to be the general 
impression, it is hardly correct. "The 
CongTegation of God in the Spirit" 
apijears to have been intended by him 
rather as a spiritual than an organic 
union. According to his plan the 
several denominations were to con- 
tinue their automony, but they were 
tc^ be united spiritually. This is 
shown by the fact that when at the 
memorable meeting in Oley on Feb. 
11-13, 1742. it was ]:)roposed to organ- 
ize the adherents which Mr. Eschen- 
bach had gathered there from several 
denominations, into a congregation. 
Zinzendorf opposed it. He declared 
that he did not wish to gain prose- 
lytes for the Moravian Church, and 
that if all \vould only agree upon the 


most essential points, every one might 
remain in his denomination. The 
Synod ado])ted this view, and agreed 
to recognize the Oley people as an un- 
denominational congregation, a very 
unusual thing, with Air. Andrew 
Eschenbach as pastor. 
Then again, the Pennsylvania Synod 
composed of delegates from the sev- 
eral denominations connected with 
the union movement, has been regard- 
ed as a part of Zinzendorf's plans. 
This is also an error, lie apparently 
never contemplated such a body. On 
December 26, 1741, about the time 
when Zinzendoi'f arrived in Philadel- 
phia, Henry Antes issued a call to all 
denominations to attend a general 
meeting at Germantown for the pur- 
pose of "promoting love and forbear- 
ance." This was the beginning of the 
Pennsylvania Synod. Of its meetings 
Zinzendorf later declared: "I was 
neither the author nor the adviser of 
these meetings which were called by 
Pennsylvanians who had become tir- 
ed of their own ways." 

Zinzendorf's sijirit was naturally 
imbibed by his followers. Rev. Henry 
.Antes, one of those ordained by the 
Moravians to labor among the Re- 
formed, like Rev. Mr. Lischey, claim- 
ed to l)e still Reformed. When asked 
how this could he, since he afifiliated 
with the Moravians, he replied : " I 
am Reformed, and also a Lutheran, 
and a Mennonite. .\ Christian is 

We have a somewhat similar in- 
stance in the peculiar case of Rev. 
William Otterbein. who was brought 
to America in 1752 as a Reformed 
minister l)v Rev. Michael Schlatter. 
Toward the close of the eighteenth 
century Otterbein partici])ated in the 
movement which j'jroduced the United 
l^)rethren Church. He helped to or- 
ganize that Church in t8oo and be- 
came one of its first two I'ishops. .\t 
the same time he continued his mem- 
bership in the Reformed Church. In 
1800 and 1806 he attended the Re- 
formed Svnod. and in 1812, the year 
before his death, he said to Re\-. 

Isaac Gerhart : "I am a mend^er of 
the Synod of the German Reformed 
Church, but cannot attend on acoum 
of old age." 

The Moravians have always been 
distinguished by two excellent char- 
acteristics — their unblemished Chris- 
tian character and their great mission- 
ary zeal. In the latter they have ex- 
celled all other denominations. Their 
missionaries have often gone to dark 
and ob.scure places where no one else 
seemed willing to go. Their member- 
ship in the foreign field is larger than_ 
that in the home lands. This cannot 
be said of any other body. Some one 
has explained the intense missionarx 
activity of the Moravians by the state- 
ment that from early childhood the 
youth is taught that the two great oIj- 
jects of their being are to live for God 
and to send the gospel to the heathen. 
Where else can a more noble doctrine 
be found? 


The first Moravian representative 
to visit Oley w^as liishop A. G. Span- 
genberg. who went there in 1737, ac- 
companied by Mr. Christouher Wieg- 
ner, of Skippack. His object was to 
visit the Reformed and Lutherar 
people, among whom Henry Antes, o' 
Frederick township. Mc^ntgomery 
Count^^ a pious member of the Re- 
formed Church, had been ]>reaching. 
The Bishop preached in the houses o:' 
Jonathan Herodes and Abraham Bert- 
olet. At the latter olace he attacke' 
the sect of the " Xew Born." 

The first kK'ated Moravian ministe-' 
in Oley ^vas Rev. Andrew Eschen- 
bach. who Avas sent there in 1740 to 
labor among the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans at the request of Rev. GeorLrr 
\Miitefield, the noted Methodist pi(»- 
neer. who had visited Pennsylvania 
in 1739 and seen the destitution of the 
peo])le here. The people flocked to 
him to hear the gospel but he could 
not preach German. He therefore 
wrote to Count Zinzend(^rf and urged 
him to send German missionarie.-. 
Thus Whitefield. who afterward be- 
came a \iolent opponent of Zinzcr- 



dorf, was instrumental in introducing- 
the Moravian brethren in Pennsyl- 

Andrew Eschenbach was a shoe- 
maker by occupation, and had united 
with the Moravians only a few years 
before. But he was possessed of 
much zeal and was a godly man. He 
was introduced to the people of Oley 
by Henry Antes, mentioned above, 
and made his home for some time 
with John Leinbach and Jean Bert- 
i)let. Mr. Leinbach was a member of 
the Reformed Church and one of the 
ancestors of the numerous Leinbach 
family in Berks county, which includ- 
es five now deceased and nine living- 
Reformed ministers. John Leinbach 
lies buried in the little Moravian 

Jean Bertolet was a French Hugue- 
not. He came to America in 1726 and 
located in the western part of Oley 
township, near the home of George 
i^)Oone, the ancestor of Daniel Boone, 
the noted pioneer of Kentucky, and 
not far from the home of Mordecai 
Linct)ln, tlie ancestor of Abraham 
Lincoln, the great president. Jean 
Bertolet became a prominent Mora- 
vian and was noted for his active 
])iety. At that time there were many 
India'-'s in Oley, there being three vil- 
lages of the Delaware tribe in the 
township. j\fr. Bertolet frequently 
visited the Indians, ministered to their 
wants, instructed them and prayed 
with them in their humble cabins. 
Zinzendorf preached a number of 
times in his house. l\'Ir. Bertolet is 
also remembered as the man who in- 
duced Dr. George De Benneville, the 
first jireacher of LIniversalism in this 
country, to locate in Oley. De Benne- 
ville subsequently married a daugh- 
ter of Mr. Bertolet's. 7'his Jean Bert- 
olet brought a French family Bible 
with him to America which it was my 
l)leasure to examine a few years ago. 
It was printed in 1567, and contains 
the family history in French. During 
mau}^ years it was in the possession of 
ATr. Cyrus Bertolet, who a few years 
ago fell from a hay wagon and broke 

his neck. The Bible was subsequently 
sold at a large price to another mem- 
ber of the family. 

The preaching of Andrew Eschen- 
bach made a deep impression upon 
the people and soon many persons be- 
came interested. We are told that 
the following year, 1741, Mr. Eschen- 
bach already had 51 followers includ- 
ing several Leinbachs, who were Re- 
formed ; a number of Lutherans nam- 
ed Buerstler, John DeTurk, a French 
Huguenots and others. John DeTurk's 
father, Isaac DeTurk, had fled from 
France, reached America in 1709 and 
came to Oley in 1712. He took up 300 
acres of land immediately west of the 
present village of Friedensburg. At 
the time of his arrival there were only 
two other settlers in the region — -John 
LeDee and John Frederichful. It is 
not known from whence they came. 
The DeTurk farm ever remained in 
the family and is now owned by Mr. 
Nathan DeTurk, a man of 85 years. 
The family name was really LeTurk. 
but it has always been known as De- 
Turk. John DeTurk, Isaac's son, be- 
came an ardent Moravian follower. 
In 1767 he erected a stone dwelling on 
the DeTurk farm. 

On November 30, 1741. Count Zin- 
zendorf came to America. He was 
undoubtedly led hither by his mis- 
sion ar-v^ zeal. He appears to have re- 
garded himself as a general overseer 
of the several Moravian settlements 
in Pennsylvania. A Moravian histor- 
ian says : Hardly had Zinzendorf ar- 
rived in Pennsylvania, when he felt 
as if he ought to call out in the words 
of Moses : " Who is one the Lord's 
side? Let him come unto me." After 
spending some time in other places, 
he came to Oley. Rev. Mr. Eschen- 
bach had paved the way and Zinzen- 
dorf met with a hearty reception. He 
preached in the houses of Jean Bert- 
olet and John DeTurk. 

The Moravian leaders ordained min- 
isters to labor in the dififerent denomi- 
nations. Among those thus ordained 
from and for the Reformed Church 


were John Bechtel, Christian Henry 
Rauch, Jacob Lischy, Henry Antes 
and John Braundmiiller. Lischy after- 
ward returned to the Reformed 
Church, but the other four entered the 
Moravian Church. Among those or- 
dained for the Lutheran Church were 
Gottleib Ruttner, J. P. Meurer, T. L'. 
Neyberg, George Niecke, J. C. Pyr- 
laus, P. A. BryzeHus, and others. On 
Dec. 26, 1741. Henry Antes by circu- 
lar invited members of all denomi- 
nations to meet in Germantown. The 
meeting took place on Jan. 12, 1742, 
in Germantown. and was attended by 
36 persons representing eight denomi- 
nations. Conrad Weiser represented 
the Lutheran Church. The meeting- 
took the form of a Synod. Twenty- 
seven Synods were held from 1742 to 
1748. 1'here was vigorous opposition 
to this union movement from the be- 
ginning. On the part of the Reformed 
Church the opposition was led by 
Rev. John P. Boehm. who published 
two "Letters of Warning." Rev. Sam- 
uel Guldin. the first ordained Reform- 
ed minister in this country, who came 
here in 1710, and who attended the 
first meeting of the Synod, also op- 
])osed the movement and issued five 
tracts against it. In 1748 the union 
movement collapsed and those who 
continued following it to that time, 
went into the Moravian Church. 
Thtxse who succeeded Count Zinzen- 
dorf in the management of the Mora- 
\iati Church, notably Bishop Cam- 
merhof, plainly led the afifairs of the 
union movement in the direction of 
their Church. This led some of the 
denominations to withdraw from the 
union, .\nother cause for the failure 
of the Pennsylvania Synod was the 
organizati(~>n of the Reformed Coetus 
by Rev. Michael Schlatter in 1747. 
and the organization of the Lutheran 
.\finisterium by Rev. TTenry M. Muh- 
lenberg in 1748. 


On Januar}' 11-13. 1742, the most 
important Moravian meeting ever held 
in Berks county took place on John 

DeTurk's farm, near Friedensburg. 
This meeting was the third Synod. It 
was attended by the leaders of the 
Moravians, including Count Zinzen- 
dorf and Bishop Nitschman, and 
many persons from various denomi- 
nations, besides a number of Indians. 

The Synodical meeting was held in 
DeTurk's house. One of the most im- 
portant acts was the ordination of 
four persons to the ministry. Mr. 
Andrew Eschenbach. who had labor- 
ed in Oley more than a year, was or- 
dained by Bisho])s Zinzendorf and 
Nitschman. Three others were also 
ordained, as follows: Christian Henry 
Rauch, a member of the Reformed 
Church, to labor among the Indians 
in New York ; Gottlieb Biittner, as a 
missionary among the Six Nation In- 
dians ; and J. C. Pyrlaus to be pastor 
of the Lutheran Church in Philadel- 
phia. Biittner died at Shekomeko, N. 
Y., while laboring among the Indians, 
on Feb. 23, 1745. Zinzendorf organ- 
ized an Indian congregation at Sheko- 
meko, in September, 1743. 

At this Synod it was proposed to 
organize the followers of the Mora- 
vians in Oley, gathered by Rev. Mr. 
Eschenbach. into a Moravian congre- 
gation, but Zinzendorf opposed this. 
He declared he did not wish to gain 
proselytes for the Moravian Church, 
and if the people were only agreed in 
the most essential points, every one 
might remain in his denomination. 
This Synod accei)ted his view and re- 
cognized the Oley flock as an unde- 
nominational church, with Re\-. An- 
drew Eschenbach as pastor. 

For the afternoon the meeting was 
held in Mr. DeTurk's barn on account 
of the large number of people present. 
.\t this meeting a most interesting 
ceremony took place. It was the bap- 
tis!U oi three converted Indians who 
had been brought to Oley from She- 
komeko. New York, on the border of 
Connecticut, as the first fruits of 
Moravian missionary effort among the 
red men. The Indians were ba])tized 
by Rev. Mr. Rauch. who had been or- 
dained at the morning meeting, and 


through whose labors the Indians had 
been converted. The Indians bore the 
names of Shabash, Slein and Kiop. 
Xew names were given them. Shabash 
was baptized Abraham, Slein, Isaac 
Okely and Kiop, Jacob. The baptism 
was performed by sprinkling. It is an 
interesting fact that the Baptists pre- 
sent who usually insisted upon im- 
mersion, offered no objections. On 
account of precautions in New York 
these and other converted Indians 
were later brought to Philadelphia 
where Jacob died on Feb. 8, 1764, and 
was buried the following day by Rev. 
[ohn J. Schmick on the Moravian 
cemetery in that city, at the corner of 
\lne and Franklin streets. 

A remarkable spirit prevailed at 
this meeting. The Indians testified of 
their conversion. The baptism was 
followed by preaching by various 
ministers, and the statement is made 
that the meeting was continued not 
only during the evening, but also dur- 
ing the whc^le night. This meeting- 
made a deep impression in favor of 
the Moravians, and led to the erection 
of the large church and school build- 
:"ng, described below, not long after. 
The congregation at this time, ac- 
cording to Rev. Mr. Reichel, consist- 
eded of Lutherans, Reformed and 
Mennonites. The John Leinbach men- 
tioned aliove Avas an elder. 


A movement was now started for 
the erection of a church. The exact 
time of the erection is not known. It 
has usually been fixed at 1743. the 
year after the great meeting, or soon 
after. It is certain that it occurred 
l)etween 1743 and 1745. because the 
school was opened in the new build- 
ing in the latter year. The land, about 
fifteen acres, was donated, but by 
whom is not quite certain. One au- 
thority says George Jimgman donated 
it. and this seems plausible, because a 
l*>rief of Title on record in the Re- 
corder's office, Reading, states that 
about this time Mr. Jungman convey- 
ed sonic land to Rev. Henrv Antes. 

and Antes later conveyed it to John 
Okely. This man came from Bedford, 
England, and served a number of 
years as scrivener and conveyancer 
for the Moravians (residing in Bethle- 
hem. In 1774 he became a justice of 
the peace. Later he left the Mora- 
vians. The record shows that subse- 
cjuently this land was conveyed to 
Bishop Nitschman. Rev. Mr. Reichel, 
a Moravian historian, states that John 
DeTurk donated the land. 

At this time the first difficulty, of 
which we have knowledge, arose 
among these people. It was at first 
proposed to erect a small log build- 
ing, but Pastor Eschenbach opposed 
this. Mr. Reichel states that Eschen- 
bach, desired a large two-story build- 
ing, like the clergy house at Bethle- 
hem. Because he could not have his 
way Mr. Eschenbach manifested his 
disappointment in his sermons in an 
offensive way, and thereby lost the 
confidence of the congregation. The 
peace of the congregation was so 
much disturbed that Count Zinzen- 
dorf felt it his duty to remo\c Mr. 
Eschenbach as pastor and a )point 
Rev. Henry Antes in his place. Esch- 
enbach returned to Bethlehem and 
served some time as a traveling 
preacher, but the record states that 
his usefulness was gone. In 1747 he 
left Bethlehem and became a farmer. 
Fie died on the farm in Oley in 1763. 

It is evident that whilst Eschen- 
l>ach could not have his own way 
about the kind of a church to be erect- 
ed, his plan was subse(|uently adopt- 
ed, because the btiilding which was 
erected answers the description given 
above. It was a two-story frame build 
ing, 31 by 41 feet in size, with an at- 
tic. Instead of weather boarding the 
spaces between the frame work were 
filled out with mortar consisting of 
clay, straw and a small proportion of 
lime. The first floor contained the 
living rooms for the teachers, the sec- 
ond the school room and the church, 
and the attic the sleeping rooms. 

In this building church services 
were held and a school conducted. The 



school was opened in 1745. The first 
teachers were John W. Michler and 
Robert Hussey. In 1749 the number of 
l)oarding' pupils was 38. How could 
so many sleep in the attic? The 
place was then an isolated region, as 
it is even now. The school was wide- 
ly and favorably known. In 1748 the 
eleven bo3'S of the school at German- 
town were transferred to the Oley 
school. The school conducted in the 
house of Henry Antes in Frederick 
township, Montgomery county, was 
also united with the Oley school in 
1750. In 1747 the Frederick school 
consisted of about forty boys, includ- 
ing' seven Indians and several ne- 
groes. The farm and mill of Henry 
Antes, and for a time also the farm of 
William Frey, a Baptist, were con- 
ducted for the benefit of the Freder- 
ick school. In Oley there was no such 
income. The school de]iended for 
support upon the brethren at Bethle- 
hem. It was not long until they 
found the burden too heavy, and al- 
ready the next year, in 1751, the Oley 
school Avas abandoned. The pupils 
were transferred to the school at 
Macungie and another one near Beth- 

Xeither did the congregation flour- 
ish long. It had a small beginning 
and never grew much. A published 
list of the membership in 1753 in- 
cludes eight males and seven females, 
total 15. Henry Antes ' could never 
fully heal the dissensions which oc- 
curred under his predecessor, and the 
flock declined. Antes died in 1755. 
we have no evidence that he served 
the people until his death. The ser- 
vices were held at irregular intervals, 
until finally in 1765 the Moravians 
withdrew entirely from Oley. Thus 
ended the Moravian settlement in 

Dr. George De Benneville, the orig- 
inal Universalist mentioned above, 
was by some blamed for this disinte- 
gration of the Moravian flock. He 
was a learned man and had a chapel 
in his hftuse in which he preached, 
and he influenced many persons. The 

chapel in his house was demolished 
oidy a few years ago. 


A short distance north of the old 
church is the old Moravian God's 
Acre. The plot of ground is about 50 
by 60 feet in size. Until recent years 
it was enclosed by a fence, but not so 
now. Here lie buried the remains of 
some of the early settlers and adher- 
ents of the Moravians. There are a 
few unhewn stones to mark graves, 
but not one of them contains an in- 
scrijjtion of any kind. The place is 
often overgTown with weeds and 
never receives any attention beyond 
that bestowed upon it by Mr. Moyer, 
the present owner of the place. One 
is filled with sadness as he beholds 
the place. Alas, these pioneers have 
been forgotten by their descendants. 

This graveyard furnishes additional 
evidence to what is stated in the be- 
ginning of this article, that these 
people were not Moravians "von 
Haus aus." The distinguished Mora- 
vian burial custom of laying toml)- 
stones flat upon the graves is absent. 
I surmised that possibly such stones 
might have been covered b}^ decaying 
leaves and moss during the 150 years 
which have passed over them, as was 
the case with many tombstones in the 
^loravian North Heidelberg and 
Bethel graveyards, but herein I was 
mistaken. I spent some time in the 
graveyard with the aid of Mr. Moyer 
in digging for buried gravestones, but 
found not a single one. Numerous 
lots were dug to the depth of about 
eighteen inches, but no stones were 


The venerable building which was 
erected before 174* is still standing, 
and is substantially now as when first 
erected, except that it has been weath- 
er-boarded on three sides, whilst the 
northern side is still in its original 
condition. The first and second floors 
are now divided into four rooms each, 
whilst the attic is all in one. In the 
centre of the building" stand two im- 



inense chimneys, each seven feet, six 
inches wide and three feet thick, with 
a hall between them. Each has a fire 
place on the first and second floors 
facing each other. On the floor of the 
attic the two chimneys are united, with 
a base of ten feet by eight feet. Near 
the roof there are openings for stove 

On these fire places the cooking was 
done for the school lamily of over 50 
persons, more than 150 years ago. As 
the united chimney passes through 
the roof it is oi great size. At the 
eastern end of the building is another 
large chimney with a fire place on the 
first fl(.)or large enough to hang a ket- 
tle such as is used in boiling apple- 
butter. There is only a small cellar 
under the house, about one-fourth the 
size of the building. It was never 
larger than at present. 

This interesting landmark, which 
has withstood the storms of more than 
160 years and which antedates the be- 
ginning of the city of Reading, is now- 
owned and occujned as a dwelling by 
Mr. Daniel W. Mover and his family. 
He has been here since his seventh 
year, that is 45 years, his parents also 
having resided here. Here fourteen 
children have been born to the ]\Ioyer 
parents, of whom eleven are living. 
No race suicide here ! Instead of the 
original fifteen acres of land the farm 
now consists of 32 acres, which Mr. 
Moyer purchased from his father's 
estate for $1120. The father had paid 
$2850 for it. 


After the discontinuance of the Mo 
ravian School in 1751 the people of 
the neighborhood manifested a desire 
for a new school, but for some years 
nothing was done. Some time later 
John DeTurk willed two acres of land 
for school purposes, and Samuel Hoch 
willed one acre adjoining for the same 
purpose. This land was located im 
mediateh' east of the church land giv- 
en l)y ( leorge jungman. These two 
bequests were made to John Okely. 
of Rethlehem. the real esate. agent of 
the .\l oraxians. whose name ap])ear> 

frecjuently in the transfer of property 
in which these people were interested. 
On October 6, 1776, John Okely con- 
veyed both tracts, three acres in all. 
to Daniel Hoch, great-grandfather of 
Daniel D. Hoch, now rasiding one- 
half mile north of the place, "for 
schools for the education of the youth 
of both sexes." In each transfer 
there was the nominal consideration 
o\ five shillings. 

Upon this ground said Daniel Hoch 
and others erected a school house in 
the same year, 1776. It was a small 
log building, to which a stone addi- 
tion was made later. In this building 
a school was established, and main- 
tained during man}- years imder \ar- 
ions auspices, even down to 1873. I'^)r 
a long time it was under the fostering 
care of the "^Moravian School Asscv 
ciation in Berks County," which had 
been organized for this purpose. From 
1850 to 1872 the ]jroperty was leased 
to Olcv township for school purposes 
at the yearly rental of $40.00. In the 
course of time the .Vssociation named 
became extinct. The last teacher of 
the school was Mr. U. E. Merkel. now 
a merchant at 951 P'enn street. Read- 
ing, who instructed 19 i)upils during 
three months in 1873. 

In 1870 the Legislature passed an 
act appointing Daniel Wiest. Jacob 
Hoch and Nathan DeTurk trustees of 
the "AIora\-ian School Association in 
Uerks County," and authorizing them 
to sell the school ])roi)erty and pay the 
money realized therefrom to the Oley 
Acadeni}^ which had been started in 
1857 with 40 students. In case Oley 
Academy should be discontinued the 
monev was to be i)ai(l to the Oley 
school district. Ikit at a meeting of 
30 citizens 28 x'oted against selling the 
property, and thus the provisions 
Avere not carried out. 

In 1878 the old school house was 
ijeniolished and a frame dwelling 
erected in its ])lace, wdi'ch is at pres- 
ent occupied by Mr. Newton Correll 
at the annual rental of $40. The old 
.Moravian School Association having 
l(inu since becoine extinct, there a')- 



l)ears to be no real owner of this house 
and the three acres of land. The pro,)- 
erty is now in chare^e of three trus- 
tees who are elected by the citizens of 
the community, one each year. Any 
one attending the meeting on the 
first Saturday of May may vote for a 
trustee. The present trustees are 
Daniel H. Mover, I'cnncville Herbein 
and Deniah Leinbach. Franklin Y. 
Kaufman is the treasurer. The trus- 
tees do not report to anybody. 

The Moravians established a num- 

ber of schools at various places at 
early dates, for which they deserve 
much credit. These schools antedated 
by it at least ten years the charity 
schools established by Michael Schlat- 
ter and his associates. The first 
school established by the Moravians 
was that in Germantown, which was 
started by Count Zinzendorf on May 
14, 1742, with 25 girls and teachers. 
Mis daughter Benigna, 17 years .of 
age. was one of the teachers. 
(to be continued) 

The German Colonists 

By Hon. John Wanamaker, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NOTE — The following address was 
spoken into a ptionograpli by the Hon. John 
Wanamaker, and delivered from the 
phonograph as the President's Annual Ad- 
dress before the meeting of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society, at Lancaster, Pa., 
October 6, 1908. 

Lancaster, above all other towns 
within the borders of Pennsylvania, 
has a claim upon the Society, as with- 
in its ])orders it was born. Eighteen 
years ago, on February 26, 1891, six- 
teen representative men met in the 
Moravian parsonage and concluded to 
issue a call for a general convention 
to be held at Lancaster on the 15th of 
the following April. This meeting was 
held in the Court House, and was call- 
ed to order by W. H. Egle. M.D., of 
Harrisburg. After the organization, 
Hon. Geo. F. Baer, of Reading, was 
chosen President. It is from this 
small beginning that the Society has 
grown to be an important factor, with 
a membership of almost 600, and 
whose influence is felt in most of the 
.Stales of our L'nion. 

It has not jjcen so many years ago 
since I'ancroft. the historian, said, 
s])eaking of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans, that "neither they nor their de- 
scendants have laid claim to all that is 
their ilue?" W^ere Bancroft alive now 
and could see the large volumes of 
critical history ])ublishcd hv our 
Societ\- he W'Uilfl certaiidv irive us 

credit for what the organization has 
done and say that we have opened 
the eyes of tte world to what is due 
to the early German settlers of Penn- 
sylvania and their descendants, and 
what they have accomplished, and 
what great factors the Germans were 
in saving the provinces for the Bri- 
tish during the French and Indian 
wars, and later in achieving the inde- 
jiendence of the Colonies, and since 
that time have always been prominent 
in the cotmcils of State, as well as in 
the civil, military and religious affairs 
of our great empire. 

This and much more is shown in 
the publications of our Society. Eight- 
een large octavo volumes, rcDlete 
with documentary text and rare illus- 
trations, tell the story of the German 
settlers of Pennsylvania and their de- 
scendants. Besides this, they obtain- 
ed more tnatter of real historical re- 
search and interest than those pub- 
lished by any other hereditary - 
patriotic societies. 

Lancaster county, the birth])lace of 
our Sf)ciety, is known as the garden 
spot of Pennsylvania, and as a strict- 
ly (lerman county — and it was within 
its borders, on the banks of the roman- 
tic Cocalico. where the first Sabbath- 
school was organized by that pious 
recluse. Father Obed (Ludwig Hoch- 
er), of the Ephrata community, many 


years before Robert Raikes thought of 
iJI'athering- the children together on the 
Lord's Day for religious instruction 
at Gloucester, England. 

As a previous president said, "What 
a glorious heritage for us, the des- 
cendants of German ancestry, to lay 
claim to one of our race who raised 
so great a harvest from the little seed 
sown here in such a noble work." 

Among the achievements of the 
early German settlers let us note the 
first Bible in a European tongue, orig- 
inal hymiibooks and devotional liter- 
ature, too numerous to enumerate. 
Prior to the Revolution there were 
more printing presses operated by 
Pennsylvania Germans, and more 
books published, than in the whole' of 
New England. 

At least one-half of the Governors 
of the Comonwealth, ,froni the good 
and honest Simon Snyder to the brave 
and cultured Gen. Adams Beaver, a 
honored member and ex-President of 
this Society have come from pure 
Pennsylvania German stock. 

As to the great religious factors 
among the early German settlers in 
Pennsylvania who have left their in- 
delible impress upon our history and 
development it is but meet to mention 
names such as H. H. Bernard. Koster- 
Henkel, the Aluhlenbergs, father and 
sons. Count Zinzendorf, Conrad Beis- 
sel, ^Michael Schlatter, without detri- 
ment or perjudice to the many other 
l)ious pioneers who ministered and 
taught here during the colonial period. 
"Hail, future men of Germanopolis." 
wrote Francis Daniel Pastorius, the 
founder of Germantown, 225 years 
ago, as ^'\'hittier has so beautifully 
translated this earlier pioneer's Latin 
poem : 
■'Hail to posterity I 

Hail future meu of Germanopolis! 
Let the young generations yet to be 

Look kindly upon this. 
Think how your fathers left their native 
land — 

Dear German land! O. sacred heaits 
and homes — 
And where the wild beast roams 

In patience planned 
New forest homes beyond the mighty seas. 
There undisturbed and free 
To live as brothers of one familv." 

Pastorius and his brave band came 
to America in response to William 
Penn's appeal to the people of the 
Rhineland to settle on his great crown 
tract in Pennsylvania. 

Penn's mother was a Hollander. 
Penn's faith was the faith of the Men- 
nonites of the Palatinate. Penn and 
Pastorius were great friends. They 
came to America with the same pur- 
pose in view — to found a new home of 
religious and civil liberty. Were they 
alive today they would both rejoice in 
the fulfillment of their high ideas. 

A little later, in 1709, came to 
America those other apostles of faith 
and right living — the Mennonites and 
Dunkers — who settled in Lancaster 
county. Here they found the richest 
soil in America, and, be it said to the 
honor of their children, and their chil- 
dren's children, that, although living 
off this soil for 200 years, they can 
hand it over to posterit}^ any day a 
soil far richer than they found it. 
These religious brethren, by their sys- 
tem of fixed farming, the rotation of 
crops, have taught a lesson to the 
world in production and economy of 

Franklin's criticism of the early 
German colonists only serves to show 
that even a great mind may essen- 
tially err in reading other minds. 
Franklin complained that the early 
Germans wdVdd not learn English : 
that they sent home to their Father- 
land for so many books. Yet is was a 
German who cast a deciding vote in 
favor of English when the question 
arose whether German or English 
should be the ofificial language of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature. And Ger- 
man books and German literature have 
been welded, along with those of other 
tongues, into the great American 
literature and learning of to-day. Per- 
ha])s Friend Benjamin was a little 
afraid of what might become of his 
own printing business, and we can ex- 
cuse his warped judgment in this one 

Another criticism of the German 
Colonists — we might call it another 
fear — was in the Avar inr independ- 


ence. ^^'(mld the Germans be loyal? 
Would they? Why, notwithstanding 
their a\ersion to war, it was a Ger- 
man eompany that was the first to 
reach General Washington after his 
call to arms, and Baron Steuben, 
yon will remember, the drillmaster. 
was the right hand man of Washing- 
ton. He it was who took the rough 
country youth and hammered them 
into an army. Christopher Ludwig — 
you cannot mistake the origin of the 
name — it was he who was the super- 
intendent of bakeries of the continen- 
tal Army — Ludwig whom Washing- 
ton called "my honest friend." And 
it was the German farmers of Lan- 
caster county and other German agri- 
cultural districts who raised the grain 
that saved Washington's army from 
starvation at Valley Forge. 

But I need not tell you what you all 
know, how the Germans have grown 
their very lives into this wonderful 
.American nation, from the very day 
when the first German to come to 
to America. Peter Minnewitt, of W^es- 
sel, first set foot on American soil, in 
1626, to the twd davs before yester- 
day, when the great body of German- 
Americans largely heloed to save the 
country from the hands of the theor- 
ists, and voted to send to Washington 
a man large enough in mind, as well 
as in body, to fill the Presidential 
chair, which another man who attends 
a German Reformed Church at the 
Canital is soon to vacate after seven 
years of incessant, honest endeavor 
for the good of his people. 

Count Tolstoi stopped at the road- 
side once and asked a farmer who was 
ploughing: "Friend, what would you 
do today if you knew positively you 
would die tomorrow?" The farmer 
replied, "I would keep on ploughing." 

I would keep on ploughing! How 
inspiring and helpful those words! I 
have always half suspected that it was 
a German who utterd them, a German 
who had slipped into Russia, for I can 
almost hear the same words falling 
from the lips of a German Mennonite 
<ir Dunkcr, li\-ing along the Cones- 

toga or Cocalico. just as you hear 
these words from my lips a hundred 
and fifty miles away from where 1 
actually am at this very moment. 

Sincerely regretting that I cannot 
be with you in person at this eigh- 
teenth annual convention of the Penn- 
sylvania German Society, I rejoice 
that I can even speak to you with my 
own voice through this wonderful in- 
vention of Mr. Edison. And I am 
sure that you will be glad to know 
that Mr. Edison had a Dutch father to 
guide and inspire him. 

Greetings and hearty wishes to all 
our members and to our hospitable 
friends in Lancaster. 

And now let me add just this: The 
German in America, as in the Father- 
land stands pre-eminently for three 
things : 

First — F"aith in God. 

Second — Faith in the home. 

Third — Faith in education. 
This is the trinity that makes nations 
great. I need not go into details. 
The statement is self-evident. What- 
ever ]jroblems are before us in Amer- 
ica today, or will face us in the future, 
must be solved through the co-opera- 
tion of these three forces, the church, 
the home, the school. These factors 
enter into business, into the profes- 
sions into our ver}^ lives. 

I hope, before my business days are 
over, to join education with a man's 
day's work, thereby dignifying both, 
and to inculcate in the minds of our 
people the Christian principles of 
right living and just dealing; co-op- 
erating with the growing boys and 
girls, men and women, in my business 
life is building and improving true 
home life. I am incorporating a Uni- 
^■ersity of Trade and Applied Com- 
merce, which Avill teach culture for 
service, giving the students at the 
same time a chance to earn not only 
their own li\-elihood but to advance 
themsehes in the world by increasing 
their own earning power through 
academic and technical education. 
This is, I believe, what Pastorius 
would do were .he here todav, what 



Penn would do, what Benjamin 
Franklin did, and what every true 
American, whether German or Eng-- 
Hsh will do. when he rio^htly under- 
stands humanity. 

My earnest wish is for a most suc- 
cessful meeting of the Pennsylvania 
German Society. If I might venture 
any advice, it is this : Elect a Presi- 

dent for next year who will not have 
to box up his voice and send you the 
|)oor substitute of a canned speech, 
which, however wonderful scientifi- 
cally in the transmission, lacks the 
heart and soul of the personal pres- 
ence of the man looking into your 
friendly faces. 

Albert Gallatin, Statesman 

was born in Geneva, 
Switzerland, on January 
29, 1761, and died at As- 
toria, Long Island, on 
August 12, 1849, ranks 
foremost among all the 
statesmen of Western 
Pennsylvania in the length and var- 
iety of his public services and in the 
honors that were conferred upon him. 
Coming to our country in 1780 he set- 
tled in 1784 on George's Creek, Fay- 
ette county, where he met Washing- 
ton in September of the year. In 1766 
he bought a farm of 400 acres at 
Friendship Hill, near New Geneva, 
on the Monongahela, in the same 
county, on which he resided, when 
not absent on official duties, for about 
forty-two years, until 1826. 

Soon after coming to Pennsylvania 
Gallatin became an active participant 
in the political movements of the 
time, identifying himself with the 
narty of Thomas Jeflferson, of which 
lie soon became a leader. He was a 
delegate from Fayette county, to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1790. 
This convention was composed of 
very able men and Gallatin took a 
l>romient part in its deliberations. He 
successfully opposed the insertion of 
the word "white" as a prefix to "free- 
man" in defining the elective fran- 
chise. In 1790, 1791. and 1792 he was 
elected a member of the General As- 
sembly. In 1793, when not thirty- 
three years old, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the LTnited States Senate, in 
which he served from December 2. 
1793. to February 28, 1794, when he 

was declared ineligible because he had 
not been a citizen of the United 
States for a period of nine years as 
was required by the Constitution. He 
was succeeded in the Senatorship by 
James Ross, of Pittsburg, a Feder- 
alist. Gallatin actively opposed the 
Whisky Insttrrection of 1794. al- 
though at first sympathizing with the 
peaceable opposition to the excise tax 
on whisky. In that year he was 
again chosen a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly from Fayette cotmty. 
Iti December, 1795, he took his seat 
as a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Fourth Congress, 
having been elected by a most com- 
plimentary vote in 1794 from the dis- 
trict of Allegheny and Washington, 
in which he did not reside. This was 
a great honor. In the House he at 
once took hig'h rank. Fie was three 
times re-elected a Representative in 
Congress, in 1796, 1798 and 1800 
from the same district as the above 
mentioned, Greene county having 
been added to Allegheny and Wash- 
ington in 1796. He became the lead- 
er of his party in the Hotise. 

From 1 801 to 1814 Mr. Gallatin was 
Secretary of the Treasury under Jef- 
ferson and Madison, holding the posi- 
tion with honor to himself and credit 
to the country, for a longer perir)d 
than any other person has held it 
from the foundation of the Govern- 
ment. While Secretary of the Treas- 
ury he was the ardent and influential 
friend of the National Road, from 
Cumberland to the West. He was. 
indeed, the author of the scheme for 
building the road. In a speech in the 



House on January ly, 1829, Andrew 
Stewart said : "Mr. Gallatin was the 
very first man that ever suggested the 
plan for making the Cumberland 
Road." In a letter which Gallatin 
himself wrote to David Acheson, of 
Washington, Pennsylvania, on Sept- 
ember I, 1808, he said that he had 
" with much difficulty obtained the 
creation of a fund for opening a great 
western road and the act pointing out 
its general direction." In 1809 Presi- 
dent Madison offered Gallatin the 
l)ortfolio of the State Department, 
which he declined, preferring to re- 
main at the head of the Treasury De- 

In 1813, while still Secretary of the 
Treasury Department, Gallatin was 
appointed by Madison one of three 
commissioners to Russia, the Emperor 
Alexander having offered his services 
in promoting the restoration of peace 
between Great Britain and the United 
States. Negotiations to this end fail- 
ing. Gallatin was api^ointed in the fol- 
lowing year one of five commissioners 
to treat directly with Great Britain, 
and these commissioners signed the 
Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814. 
It is claimed by his biographers that 
his was the master hand in the pre- 
paration of the treaty. In February. 
1814, Gallatin ceased to be Secretary 
of the Treasury. In 1815 he was ap- 
pointed United States Minister to 
France, and this position he held un- 
til 1823, when he retvirned to the 
United States and to Friendship Hill. 
In 1824 William H. Crawford, Secre- 
tary of the Treasury under Monroe, 
was nominated for the Presidency b}^ 
many members of the Republican 
party of that day and Gallatin was 
their choice for the Vice Presidency. 
After some hesitation, in a letter writ- 
ten from his home in Fayette county, 
he finally declined to be a candidate. 
In May, 1825, Governor Shultze of- 
fered Gallatin the position of Canal 
Commissioner, which he declined. In 
the same month he received La Fay- 
ette in an address of welcome at 
I'niontnwu. and a dav or two after- 

wards escorted him to Friendship 
Hill, where LaFayette remained over 

In May, 1826, President Adams ap- 
pointed Mr. Gallatin United States 
Minister to Great Britain, and this 
position he accepted. His special 
mission to Great Britain having been 
accomplished he returned to this 
country in November, 1827, although 
the President earnestly desired him to 
remain. In 1828 he removed his resi- 
dence to New York City, where he 
continued to reside until his death. 
With this removal his active connec- 
tion with public affairs virtually end- 
ed, although in 1828 and 1829, at the 
instance of President Adams, he de- 
\oted much time and his great ability 
to an exhaustive study of our troubles 
with Great Britain concerning the 
Northeastern boundary, and this sub- 
ject he again carefully investigated. 
In 1840, when he published "an elab- 
orate dissertation upon it, in which he 
treated it historically, geographically, 
argumentatively, and diplomatically," 
his work contributing materially to 
the final adjustment of the contro- 
versy in the celebrated Webster and 
Ashburton treaty of 1842. Subse- 
quently he published a pamphlet on 
the "Oregon Qeustion" which com- 
manded public attention. 

In 183 1 Gallatin was chosen presi- 
dent of the National Bank, of NeAV 
York, and this position he retained 
until 1839, passing with great credit 
through the most trying financial 
crisis in our history. He was succeed- 
ed in the presidency by his son, James 
Gallatin. During the remainder of 
his life Gallatin was active in many 
fields of usefulness. In 1842 he 
founded the American Ethnological 
Society. In 1843 he was chosen presi- 
dent of the New York Historical 
Society. In 1844 he presided at a 
mass meeting in New York to protest 
againt the annexation of Texas as 
slave territory, and in 1847 he discus- 
sed the whole subject of the annexa- 
tion of Texas in a pamphlet " Peace 
with Mexico." He had alwavs held 



"the pen of a ready writer." In the 
early years of his Hfe, as also in the 
closing- part of his career, he made 
\aluable contributions to the discus- 
sion of financial and scientific ques- 
tions. When he died in 1849 he was 
far adA-anced in his 89th year. 

Gallatin early showed commendable 
enterprise in encouraging the estab- 
lishment of manufacturing industries 
at liis new home in Western Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1796 or 1797 he established 
at New (Teneva one of the first works 
west of the Alleghenies, if not the 
first, for the manufacture of window 
glass. The (jeneva works continued 
in operation ior many years. In 1799 
or 1800 Gallatin established at New 
Geneva, in company with Melcher 
I'aker, a practical gunsmith, a factory 
for making muskets. broadswords, 
etc.. \^•hicll also continued in operation 
lor several years, which at one time 
employed between fifty and one hun- 
dred workmen. After these works 
liad been in operation for abc^ut two 

years Gallatin withdrew from the 
partnership, his duties as Secretary of 
the Treasury not permitting him to 
give the enterprise further attention. 

Nearly all the public services of Gal- 
latin were rendered to his adopted 
country while, he was a citizen of 
Western Pennsylvania, and these ser- 
\-ices were of an exalted character. 
\\'estern Pennsylvania soon recog- 
nized his great ability, and the distinc- 
tion it cc^nferred upon him brought 
him the nation's recognition. The 
whole State of Pennsylvania may, well 
l)e proud of his achievements and of 
his unswerving devotion to the best 
interests of his country. He was not 
always right, as his opposition to our 
protective tariff policy, but even in 
this opposition we are told by Judge 
Veech that, although "his free trade 
])roclivities were fixed, yet he did not 
obtrude them in his States papers." 
He believed in a rcAenue tariff. 

prom Swank's Progressive Penns}'!- 

Grandmother's Tales 

H. W. Kriebel, Esq., • 

Dear friend: — 

I venture the enclosed effusion, not for any literary merit, for I am aware it 
possesses none; but to make clearer what I mean when I have the temerity to sug- 
gest to you, that, in conversation with a number of friends, there is voiced a 
sentiment lamenting the lack of some corner in our literature where might be pre- 
served and once more enjoyed the delectable legends and tales which mother or 
grandmother entranced our young imaginations with around the kitchen hearth 
fire during the long winter evenings, to the accompaniment of the hum of her busy 
si)inning wheel. Suppose we call it a corner for Grossmiitterchen am Feierheerd. 

How does the suggestion strike you, and could a number of your readers be 
induced to contribute to that corner, if established, either in verse or prose, some 
of those dear old fables and stories that I believe would make many a reader's 
heart glow again with the keen relish of youth, and soothe many a woe of the day's 
1 tattle of life, as once they healed the wounds and discouragements of childhoond? 

Pardon the intrusion, and utilize the suggestion for what it may suggest to you. 

Very cordially yours, 



Erzaehlungun — Der Schiitz im Bush or Die Jagd Noch'm Gluck 

I^n Schiitz leid mued' im liusli 

L'n wart fer's \A'il])ert kumrne, 

.'^ei muede Auge blinke druff". 

I'n' er is wahrhaftiy' eiijeschhiinniert. 


Der gansse Daag rumher geloffe, 

Uewwer Fels un Berg, darch heck un Dahl. 

Kenn wnnner is er so eig'chlofe 

Dort uf em Moos, im sunne Strahl. 

Zwee Foegel hupse in dem Keschte 

Grad' iwwer em sclilacferige " ding," Acrschpeit ; 

Un' iinnig em Schatte l)rumme die Weschpe, — 

Sin an kenn blessierliche Nochbersleit. — 

En Draehmlin spncht dort drowwe im Gippel, 

Als weiter rnnner darch's keschte Laab ; 

Now jnmp])t's vom unnerschte Nascht, zum Zi])pe] 

Uf'm schlof-kop seinere wolHche Capp. 

Sehn ! 's grawelt ihm nf die IJackke nnnner, 
Un schluppt schneli nnnig sei Ange-deckel : 
Verhehlt, verstecht, macht's Unruh kummer, 
Un' mohlt en picten mitt'me Weddel 
Von sunshei un' shatte darcl^ ennaner, 
Uf'm Schuetz sei Auge-appel gar schoe. 
Er rnehrt sich rumm als haet en Jammer 
Ihn fescht gepettzt in mark un beh. 

Now is 's verbei, — die Unruh g'stillt, — 

'S DraehmHn is ihm in's kenntniss g'schHche : — 

Was macht's now aus wann ah'n Bender brillt; — 

Von aller welt is ihm's wisse g'wiche. 

En Schmunzelche grawelt ihm iwwer die wange, — 

'S wert breeter un gluecklicher alle minnut — 

Er streckt die haend nous, als waer eppes vergange, 

Un's G'sicht werd ihm dunkel wie'n verlorhrener Muth. 

Wass f ehlt ihm ? — Wass sehnt er ? — • 

Wass spuckt ihm des Draehmlin ins herz dief ei? — 

Witt's wisse? — Dann kumm in der Bush her 

Un sehn wass en hexeli so'n Drahmch kann sei. 

'S draehmt ihm en Roselin, so bloo wie der Himmel, 

Waeckst iwwer'me Dahl im a berg-fels nei, 

Un wer so en Roesechen pflickt dem is's gewimmel 

Unglueck des lewens ver ewig verbei. 

Nord draehmt's ihm 's wer kenn glueck wie sell glueck 
Was ehm b'scheert waer wann er sell Roschen nur haett; 
So macht er sich uff un' losst alles im stich, 
Un' wochel'ang, monathlang laafd er, bei steck un' bei heck, 
Dem Berg en'gege woo's bloo Roschen waeckst, 
Biss sei doth-muede glieder en gar nimme drawge ; 
Nord sehnt er dass zwichig ihm un em Roschen vehext 
En diefy Gluft sperrt, un' er fangt aw zu glaage : 

So weit bin ich kumme mei glueck mir zu finne. 

So mued bin ich worre, ich kann ninimy geh ; 

Un' now, wann ich's shier haett gebrocht zum gewinne. 

Muss mer im weg so en diefy Gluft steh. 

Wie mach ich's doch? — Nivver kann ich net springe, 


Un's Roselin dess nickt sich, wie's gruesse wot mich ; 
Dort steht's steil am Berg, — Wer kann mich hie bringe? 
Mei glueck muss ich hawe. sonst bin ich im stich. 

Oh, wie dief is die Ghift ! Kenn abgrund dort driinne. 

Uii' dunkel un' schwartz, 's vverd'mr greislich dabei ! 

Hab ich'mr ball herz un beh do abg'sprunge 

Um's Roselin zu griege ; — now is alles verbei ! 

Haett' ich mei kraefte mir g's]:)aart, un maessig gelauscht, 

Dann kennt ich die Gluft iwwer-springe. Awer seh. 

Die kraefte sin' fort, — ich bin wie berauscht, — 

Un' alt bin ich worre : Ach. weh ! Ach, O weh ! 

So glaagt er, now alt> un' sei haar wie der Schnee, 

Un' sehnt sich zurueck an der dag woo er naus, — 

En ganss junger mensch, wunner lustig un' schoe, — 

Fer schuesze en Wilpert im Bush owwer'm Haus. 

Die zeit is verkumme, sei daage sin' hie, 

Der weg wo er kumme is glaen^zt beeder seits 

Mitt glueckliche daage dass er so versaeumt 

In der jagd noch'me Roselin ; un weit drowwe leit's 

Un lacht ihm ins g'sicht, — so butt's ihm gedraeuhmt. 

Awer sehn ! Uf'me fellse, dc^rt iwwer der Gluft. 

Steht en holdschoene g'stallt. Un' winkt ihm der mann : — 

Vertrau mir. Ich helf dir. So laut's in der luft. 

Uewwer die sperrende Gluft streckt sich en maechtiger arm. 

Er greift fest die hand die sich zu ihm hie streckt, 

Un' ruft, Ich vertfau dier, Oh Jesu, mei Herr! 

In mir so viel suend un versaeumniss doch stekt, 

Ich muss mich job schemme. — dier leid's schwer. 

A'erzei mir. Dem Roschen. — dort owwich dir steckt's, — - 

Bin ich lewelang noch un hab alles versaeumt. 

Now sehn ich was in der jugend, mit rot blut verhetzt. 

Ich so oft verschmaet, un mir annerst gedraeuhmt. 

Halt fest, Lieber Jesu, in die Gluft will's now geh ; 

Ich gerricht mich aw nimm}- wann dei hand mich behalt: 

Druhm loss mei versaeumte zeit mich drohen mit weh. 

Ich trotz ihr, — ich bin fest. Ich kumm niwwer bald. 

Now seht, liewe Kimier, der Schuetz is beglueckt ; 
Am end hott er's Roselin, — sei glueck, — doch gepflickt ; 
Awwer. er keent wie sei duhens sei haerz haett verruckt 
AVann er net noch am end haett der Hiland erbilckt. 
'S Roselin Ijleibt ihm now ewig zu hand : 
Er is gluecklich, un' herrlich im seege verwandt ; 
Die Welt mit ihr'm laerm haett ihn greislich verbannt, 
Awwer Jesu, der Ilerr, fuert ins recht \'aterland. 

Orwigsburg, Pa., November Qth, 1908. 

Note: We hcpe our readers will take the cue and recount for the pages of 
THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN some of the tales they have heard. Fireside 
Storeis ought to become a valuable feature of the magazine this year.. Let us hear 
from vou. — Editor. 



Receipts from a Grandmother's Collection 

As announced in our November issue we 
take pleasure in presenting to our readers 
tlie receipts so kindly contributed by a 
Nebraska subscriber. For obvious reaisons 
she prefei-s not to have her name appear in 
connection therewith. This, however, does 
not make her contribution any the less in- 
teresting or valuable. Among other things 
in a letter to the Editor of this Department 
she says: 

"My mother who was Scotch, could never 
learn to read, understand or speak Ger- 
man and as she appreciated "Dutch vit- 
tles," my German grandmother made for 
her an English translation of the receipts 
that had been handed down. 

"My great-grandmother kept house from 
1767 to 1811, and went to Philadelphia 
twice a year for the supplies she could not 
find in Lancaster. She distilled her own 
extract, candied orange and lemon peel, 
ground her own spices, and pounded 
things in a mortar. Her cooking of course 
was done in a brick oven, and her roast- 
ing before the fire. In the latter part of 
her reign she doubtless did some baking 
in a "ten plate stove," for there are some 
rules for drop cakes and cookies. Some 
directions are minute — others rather vague. 
F^'or instance, "Sponge Cake" "10 Eggs — 
then weight in fine sifted sugar, half their 
weight in fine sifted flour, grated rind and 
juice of half a lemon, beat half an hour, 
and put in the oven when cool enough." 
Now— how is one to tell when the oven is 
I'ight for sponge cake? 

"I think the recipe for 'mince pie' is the 
gem of the collection. Cook tender in 
slightly salted water a fresh beef tongue 
and let it cool in the liquor it was boiled 
in. When cold, skin it, take about 2-3 its 
bulk in fresh kidney tallow (suet) and cut 
all fine with the rocking knife. Now weigh 
this, and take the weight of it in seeded 
raisins, and in cleaned currants. Take the 
weight of all these in good sour pippins 
cut fine, 1 whole nutmeg grated, %-oz. 
each of ground cinnamon and cloves, the 
grated rind and juice of 2 lemons, 1 hand- 
ful each of candied orange and lemon peel 
cut fine, a glass of current jelly. Wet with 
the best of cider and sweeten to taste with 
soft sugar. Put in a big crock, cover with 
a cloth, and when it begins to "crack" it is 
ready to use. Serve pies hot. and just be- 
fore serving, put a tablespoon full of 
brandy in the vent of each one. Of course, 
the cider is to crack, not the crock. You 

see she knew that cooking brandy takes 
away the reason for using it." 


Pick — singe and dress — Fill with cooked 
chestnuts and potatoes in equal measure — 
and allow %-oz. butter to each bird; 
roast before a good fire. 

To serve with this, take a cup full of 
boiled chestnuts, a cup full of stoned rai- 
sins cooked in just enough water to plump 
them. Mix and pour over all a pint of wine 
(I use sherry). Let stand over night. 
Make a sauce of table spoon butter, table- 
spoon flour, and the wine, drained from 
the nuts and raisins, 2-oz. fine sugar and 
a pinch of mace. Boil up and put in nuts 
and raisins and boil again when it is ready 
to serve. This must be* commenced a day 
before wanted. 

This is almost too good to be true. 


Dress a young duck and rub over night 
with salt and pepper. 

For the filling, take of sour stoned rai- 
sins, currants, chopped sour apple and 
bread crumbs, a small handful each, and 
one large cooked mealy potato mixed with 
an ounce of butter while hot. Mix all to- 
gether, fill duck lightly, sew .up vents, 
truss into good shape and bake before a 
hot steady, fire. Do not overdo. Make a 
gravy by browning a tablespoon of flour in 
the drippings, adding the giblets (which 
should be cooked, and pounded fine in a 
mortar) with the water they were cooked 
in. Boil up and "it is done." 

Garnish duck with thin slices of lemon. 
Serve with this a compote of cherries or 


Boil, hull and peel a quart of chestnuts. 
Melt 3-oz. of butter in a pan, and toss the 
nuts about in it for a few minutes but do 
not brown them. Then add 2 quarts good 
rich veal stock and let the nuts boil in it 
until very tender, when they must be put 
through a fine sieve. Boil up again — add a 
))int of rich sweet cream, a teaspoonful 
of fine sugar, a pinch of cayenne pepper 
and salt to taste. 



The Pennsylvania-German 

An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to 
the Biography, History, Genealogy, Folklore, 
Literature and General Interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
States and of their descendants. 

Editorial Staff 

H. W. Kriebel, Publisher and Editor, East 
Greenville, Pa. 

Rev. J. A. Scheffer, Associate Editor, 
245 North Sixth street, Allentown, Pa. 

Mrs. H. H. Funk, Editor of "The Home," 
Springtown, Pa. 

Prof. E. S. GERHARD,_Editor of "Reviews 
and Notes," Trenton, N. J. 

Price, 11.50 a year, in advance ; 15 cents 
per single copy. 

Additional particulars are found on 
page 2 of the cover. 

We wish all our readers a Happy 
and Prosperous New Year. While 
uttering this wish we are also making 
for ourselves a firm resolve to do all 
we can to please and entertain you 
through the monthly visit of THE 

The publisher and editor takes 
]jleasure in expressing herewith his 
appreciation of and thankfulness for 
the valuable services rendered by Mrs. 
H. H. Funk, of Springtown, Pa., and 
FVc^f. E. S. Gerhard, ofTrenton, N. J., 
tlie past year in the editing of the 
magazine. He is also happy to be 
able to sa}^ that the readers of the 
magazine will have the benefit of 
their aid the coming year.. 

The addition of the Rev. J. A. 
SchefTer, of Allentown, Pa., to the 
I'^ditorial Staff Avill be appreciated by 
all. His becoming a co-worker with 
us will mean per se a better magazine, 
a freer hand for the editor and pub- 
lisher, a more careftil attention to the 
I)usiness details of the magazine. His 
education, experience and love for our 
special field of work fit him in a 
l^eculiar manner to render valuable 

To the credit and honor of these 
workers it needs to be stated that a 
sacrificial love for the cause THE 
for, prompts them to render their 
royal and loyal service. They with 
the publisher are looking for the day 
when the increased circulation of the 
magazine w\\\ bring them some fair 

return for their labor. Reader, will 
you help to speed the day? 

Our readers are requested to note 
carefully the revised business regula- 
tions as given on page 2 of the 
cover. We wish mutual trust and 
co-operation to reign in otir widely 
scattered and diversified family of 
readers. We believe these rules if 
carefully observed will make the con- 
duct of the business more easy, more 
satisfactory, more economical. 

In Aarious previous issues reference 
was made to the proposed ])ublication 
of " Death Records." While the sub- 
scription list does not warrant our 
contract the increased expense in- 
curred thereby we undertake the pub- 
lication of such records in this issue 
cc^nfidently expecting a sufficient in- 
crease of business to counterbalance 
the additional outlay. What the out- 
come will be must depend in great 
measure on the reception accorded 
this attempt. We invite frank and 
free criticism of the plan adopted and 
considerate forbearance if in details 
our judgment does not always com- 
mend itself to the individual reader. 
We strive to serve and stand ready to 
accept the good advice of our readers. 

As we are writing these lines an 
inquiry reaches us from Connecticut: 
" What has become of Dr. Berge3''s 
Penna's. in Science, etc?" This re- 
minds us that quite a number of 
promised articles have not been pub- 
lished. These promises were made 
in good faith by publisher and contri- 
butor and will be met as soon as cir- 



cunistances permit. The contributions tell your friends that the}' can get 

arc deferred but not forgotten. this and three additional numbers for 

All orders for this issue can be 2c^ cents as a trial subscription. NOW 

filled during January. Do not fail to is the time to subscribe. 

Clippings from Current News 

— A bronze tablet, 3 by 4 feet, in a granite 
boulder of eight tons and 6 feet high, com- 
menoratiug the services of John Jacob 
Mickley and Frederick Leaser, who hauled 
the Liberty Bell from Pihladelphia in 1777 
to Allentown to be held in Zion Reformed 
Church during Howe's occupancy of 
Philadelphia, was unveiled November 19, 
in front of the present church. Governor 
Stuart was unable to attend. State Treas- 
urer, John O. Sheatz, was the orator. An 
address was made by Mrs. Donald McLain, 
president general of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, tinder whose ausp- 
ices the unveiiing took place, the State 
having appropriated $1000 to pay for the 
tablet. Mrs. Allen P. Perley, State regent 
presented the tablet, which was accepted 
by Major H. H. Herbst and Pastor H. M. 
Klein. The tablet was unveiled by 9- 
year-old Edwin John Jacob Mickley, a 
descendant of one of those honored today. 

The inscription is as follows : 
"In commemoration of the saving of the 
Liberty Bell from the British September. 
1777. Erected to the memory of John 
Jacob Mickley, Commissary of Issues and 
member of the General Committee from 
Whitehall township, Northampton County, 
. Pa,, who under cover of darkness and with 
his farm team hauled the Liberty Bell 
from Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 
through the British lines to Bethlehem, 
where the wagon broke down, September 
23, 1777. The bell was transferred to 
Frederick Leiser's wagon and brought to 
Allentown, September 24, 1777. It was 
placed beneath the floor of Zion Reformed 
Church, where it remained secreted for 
nearly a year. This tablet is placed by the 
order of the Assembly of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, June 2, 1907, under the 
Auspices of the Pennsylvania Daughters of 
the American Revolution. Mrs. Alfred P. 
Saeger, chairman; Miss Minnie F. Mickly, 
secretary; of the Jacob Mickley memorial 
committee, appointed by Alice P. Perley. 
State Regent of Pennsylvania, U. S. D. A. 

— Commemorable of General Andrew At- 
kinson Humphreys and the Pennsylvania 
troops who fought on the battlefield here 
in the 60s. a monument was unveiled in 
the Fredericksburg National Cemetery, 
November 11. 

President Baer, of the Reading Reail- 
way, who heads the Fredericksburg Mem- 
orial Commission of Pennsylvania; Gover- 
nor Stuart and Staff and Rear Admiral 
Winfield Scott Schley were among those 
who participated. 

About 1500 Pennsylvanians, principally 
Federal veterans, marched in parade. 

Mr. Baer presided at the ceremonies. 
Major Robert W. Hunter, represented Gov- 
ernor Swanson, of Virginia, and Judge J. 
T. Goolrick spoke for the Confederate 
Veterans, Governor Stuart responding. 

The monument was unveiled by Miss 
Letitia Humphreys, daughter of the Gen- 
eral, Assistant Secretary of War Oliver, 
on behalf of the United States Government, 
received the monument from Governor 
Stuart. Colonel A. K. McClure, of Phila- 
delphia, delivered the oration. 

— The following from an exchange is an 
interesting comment on American elec- 

The quadrennial election in the United 
States is by far the most impressive ex- 
hibition of popular government given the 
world to witness. Compared with it all 
elections in other countries are mere kin- 
dergarten lessons in popular suffrage. In 
Great Britain, where a property qualifica- 
tion prevails, the total number of votes 
cast at the last election for members of 
Parliament was 5,601,406. In Germany, 
where members of the Reichstag are elect 
ed by universal suffrage, there were 9,- 
495,000 votes cast at the last election. In 
France where the Chamber of Deputies is 
elected by universal suffrage, there were 
at the last enumeration 10,231,532 voters, 
of whom only 7,657,429 voted. Australia 
and New Zealand have liberal election laws, 
but the population is comparatively small. 
Elections in these countries do not include 
the heads of government and are in all re- 
spects tame affairs. The United States has 
a population in round numbers of 90,000.- 
000, with nearly 15,000.000 voters. The 
total vote for President in 1904 was 13,528.- 
979, and this year it doubtless approximatde 
15,000,000. The impressiveness of our elec- 
tion is enhanced by the fact that every 
voter votes for officers from the President 
of the United States down to township 
trustees and that all the voting is done in 
one day. That so gigantic an exercise of 



Ijopular suffrage can be made with so 
little friction the results acquiesced in so 
readily by all parties is splendid evidence 
of the wisdom of the framers of our poli- 
tical system and of the orderly and law- 
abiding spirit of our people. 

— Oscar Hammerstein, born in Berlin, 
Germany, landed at Castle Garden at the 
age of 15 witli 17 cents in his poclvet and 
a determination to succeed in his breast. 

His first post was as a cigarmaker, at 
$2 a weeli. This was raised in time, but 
meanwhile the adroit youngster had plan- 
ned a machine which could do his work 
quicker, and more acceptably. This he per- 
fected, patented, and sold. With its pro- 
ceeds he made liis fortune. With his for- 
tune he has made himself a power in the 
musical world, has assembled a splendid 
coterie of singers in his theatres and opera 
houses, and has built more houses for his 
pi-oductions than any other man in this 

His new opera house in Philadelphia, 
Pa., erected in five months' time under the 
direction of his son Arthur, and opened 
November 17 is said to be the finest build- 
ing of its kind in the world. The Public 
I.,edger said of it editorially November IS: 

The triumphant opening of the new 
Philadelphia Opera House is an event of 
even more importance in the history of 
Philadelphia than was the famous dedica- 
tion of the Academy of Music half a cen- 
tury ago. It marks more than a half cen- 
tury's advance in civic development. In 
an astonishingly short time Mr. Hammer- 
stein has created here a great theatre, 
whose proportions and equipment would 
make it a centre of attraction in any Jocal- 
ity, and in it he has established a perma- 
nent operatic organization, with a truly 
wonderful list of great artists at his com- 
mand, whose presentation of grand opera 
will be of a standard unexcelled in any 
capital in the world. He is doing this 
without any subvention of any kind, rely- 
ing wholly upon the merit of his work to 
command the support of the community. 

— Rev. Samuel G. Wagner, D.D., was 
born October 4th, 1831. His father was 
the Rev. Henry Wagner. His paternal 
grandfather and maternal great-grand- 
father came to this country from Germany. 
Dr. Wagner spent his boyhood in Lebanon, 
Pa., where he attended the local academy. 
He graduated from Marshall College in 
1850, being the salutatorian of his class. 
In the same class were the late Thos. G. 
Appel and the late Dr. C. Z. Weiser. After 
completing the theological course in the 
seminary at Mercersburg he was for two 
years associated witli the Rev. C. Z. Weiser 

in conducting the academy which remained 
at Mercersburg after Marshall College was 
removed to Lancaster and there united 
with Franklin College. In the summer of 
1855 he became pastor of Boehm's Church 
and Whitemarsh Church in Montgomery 
County, where he remained until May 1868, 
when he was called to St. .Tohn's Church, 
Allenton. He was pastor of this church 
for a period of thirty-six years, until his 
retirement from the active ministry, July 
1st, 1904. Thus his long service of forty- 
nine years in the Christian ministry com- 
prised only two pastorates, which is one 
evidence of the affection that always ex- 
isted between him and his people. About 
fifteen years ago he was instrumental in 
organizing Trinity Reformed Church 
in the western part of Allentown, and he 
also encouraged other mission churches 
and aided the remarkable extension of the 
Reformed faith in that city. 

Dr. Wagner served the Reformed Church 
long and well in many important i^ositions. 
He was frequently a delegate to the East- 
ern Synod, and served as president of the 
former. He was for thirty years a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of Franklin 
and Marshall College, and for nearly the 
same length of time a member of the 
Board of Visitors of the Theological Semi- 
nary at Lancaster, and for a number of 
years the president of the latter Board. He 
was at various times a member of the 
Board of Education of Eastern Synod, of 
the Board of Home Missions and of the 
Board of Foreign Missions. From 1S68 to 
1875 he was an instructor in the Allen- 
town College for Women, and for years a 
member and president of its Board of 

In 1880 the honorary degree of D.D. was 
conferred upon Dr. Wagner by Franklin 
and Marshall College. 

In 1859 he was married to Miss Rebecca 
Earnest, of Norristown, who died Decem- 
ber 1st, 1900. Four children were born to 
them, three of whom died in early child- 
hood. The fourth is the Rev. C. E. Wag- 
ner, who since 1893 has been professor of 
English at Franklin and Marshall College. 

For several years after his retirement in 
1904 Dr. Wagner continued to live in Al- 
lentown amongst the people to whom he 
had ministered for a generation. Then 
came failing health, and for the remaining 
days of his life he made his home with 
Professor and Mrs. Wagner in Lancaster, 
where he died October 30, 1908. Funeral 
services and interment were held in Allen- 
town, Pa. — Reformed Church Messenger. 


The Forum 


NOTE. — The following lines condensed 
from a letter in the "Reformite Kirchen 
Zeitung" of Jan. 15, 1850 give us a glimpse 
of a custom among the Germans through 
the eyes of an observer 60 years ago. The 
habit of getting "full" on such occasions 
was more prevalent probably at that time 
in Pennsylvania than the writer intimates. 

I'Lsteemed Air. Schnieck: 

To you and yours, your co-workers 
in the printinji: office to the readers of 
the Kirchenzeitung, the "Messenger" 
and all — A Happy New Year. The 
wish is well meant even if belated : if 
it is fulfilled it is still in time. 

It so happened that I spent my 
New Year in a German congregation 
and here I had the first time the 
honor (for an honor it was intended 
to be) to have a New Year opened 
1)}^ shooting. To the honor of the 
])articipants stated it must be that the 
])roceedings were proper and orderly. 
l-'irst a very short prayer in the form 
of New Year's Greetings was uttered 
for the family: then followed a "Rev. 
^^^ we wish you a happy New Year, 
health and long life, and, not to startle 
us unexpectedly or impolitely with 
shooting they asked whether they 
might shoot. This was becoming and 
])roper. After a short pause there fol- 
lowed a "bump ! bump ! ! bump ! ! !" 
The shooting must be sanc- 
tioned. One can not expect 3^oung 
people to walk about 2, 3 or 4 hours 
at night to pray for people and wish 
them well without allowing them the 
l)leasure of burning some powder. 

But what I want to say is I have 
lieard that on such occasions it often 
happens that cider, whiskey, etc. are 
given so that after an hour or two 
their heads swim, resulting naturally 
in disorderly conduct. Against this 
1 want to protest (In A'-our old Penn- 
sylvania such things do not happen ; 
}-our peo])le are better educated). So 
far as I am aware, this does not hap- 

])en in ni}' own church, for people be- 
gin to realize that one can live better. 
work better, erect houses and barns 
more cjuickly, more safely and better 
without than with whiskey. 

The New Year's Greeting made a 
favorable impression upon me. The 
earnest tone of the speaker may m 
part have caused this. It took a long- 
while until I fell asleep again. * * 
I desire to add that as long as I was 
among Germans no one asked a New 
Year's Gift of me; among English 
young people hardly any New Year's 
Greetings are heard, but instead a 
continuous calling for Christmas 
gifts and New Years Gifts. Such an 
impolite begging is distasteful to me. 
The German custom pleases me bet- 
ter. Yours, 


* 4« «!• 

^Voinelsdorflf and Nuuneniaoher Families 

P. E. Womelsdorff, Mining Engineer, 
Philipsburg, Pa., is endeavoring to trace 
up his ancestors the Womelsdorffs and the 
Nunnemachers who settled near Berne 
or Womelsdorf, Pa., prior to 1764 and who 
were connected by marriage with Conrad 
Weiser's family. Any information placed 
at his disposal will be greatly appreciated. 

* 4* * 

Reprints of Song: and Music Requested 

A subscriber in Hooverville. Pa., suggests 
the desirability of reprinting the music 
and words of the cradle song: Weist du 
wie yiel Sterne stelien? which appeaed in 
the issue for. November, 1908. We shall be 
pleased to learn whether there are other 
subscribers who take a like interest in the 
same and would support an ei¥ort to re- 
publish it.. 

* •!• 4" 

Steiner-Fryberger Family 

Miss Elizabeth Fryberger, Philipsburg, 

Pa., desires the dates of birth, marriage 

and death of the forbears of the following: 

(1) .Tacob Fulmer Steiner, of Montgomery 

County. Pa., born Aug. 25, 1808 (?), son 

of John, born Feb. 17. 1799 (son of John 

and Elizabeth) and Christena. 



Fulmer born Sept. 1, 1801 (daughter of 
Daniel and Catherine Fulmer). 

(2) Jonathan Freiberger, of Berks County. 
Pa., born Dec. 14, 1808, died July 25, 1871, 
son of Philip and Elizabeth (nee Shaffer) 


(3)Sarah Moyer, of Berks County, Pa., mar- 
ried to Johann Freiberger March 12, 1834. 
born June 13, 1817, died Dec, 1907. 
daughter of George and Barbara (nee 

Fisher ) Moyer. 

4. .J 4. 

The Geriiian Fanner 

A York County subscriber has expressed 
himself as follows respecting the German 
farmer of Revolutionary days: 

De Pennsylvanisch Deitscha bauera siu 
youst sc gute lent os die welt hut. Sie sorge 
for die Sache wu leib un seei zusamma holt. 
Zu sellera zeit warre die Yankeys do: die 
hen dar kop voll larning un en patearecht 
for Ihre Gesheitheit und wie der Washing- 
ton kumme is sin die deitsche bauera mit 
nn hen die Yankeys verdult rum gaglubt 
un sie wara au net verzagt: sie hen sie 
zum Schinner geyagt and hen ihre freiholt 
be holte wu mer jets gans dankbar sei 
sutta. Wann sella mol en mon geld geva 
bet wella for stimme waer gsagt werra: — 
Du bust meh geld wie Verstand. 

* * <• 

A Word of CoiiiiueMdation 

We thank our Germantown brother for 
the following lines. We should be pleased 
to have him relate some of his school ex- 

Although not a German nor in any way 
directly connected with the German race 
except by a remote descent through the 
line of Adam. I am nevertheless connected 
with it in a sympathetic sense by having 
lived on a farm among the "Pennsylvania 
Dutch" and having attended an old-fash- 
ioned country "Dutch" school for several 
years, I came to greatly admire and love 
them for their many sterling ({ualities. So 
I yet love to mingle freely with them, and 
although removed from the scenes of my 
childhood, I yet live- in thought among 
them. * * * You are doing a most 
commendable work. * * * 

4» * * 

The <Md Fashioned "Singiiip- School" 

A subscriber in the District of Coluni- 
l)ia suggests a theme for an article in the 
following lines. Who will take up the sub- 

German Cradle Song by Croll suggests 
music. Much has been said of the old time 
schools but there is another i!)stitu(i(ui 
deserves an article in your magazine — that 
irt. the old fashioned "singing school." Tf 
still !i\iHg. Prof. Samuel Riegel, of Leba- 

non, Pa., could do this subject justice. 
There are several pieces of music of local 
character you hear occasionally, to the 
tune of "Simon Schneider." What is this 
tune? Also "Kutztown" jig or hornpipe, 

4" 4» * 

Information Wanted : 

of the father and descendants or family of 
the late Sebastian Weidman, of Codorus 
Township, Pennsylvania, who i n 1761 
bought of James Web and his wife Hannah. 
100 acres of land in Hempfield Township. 
Lancaster County, Pa., and in 1767, sold 
84 acres of said land to Henry Bare. 

In 1789 he made a will, and when he 
died it is supposed that he left three sons, 
Henry. Jacob and John and a widow nam- 
ed Elizabeth. His executors were Freder- 
ick Munima and Deiter Brubaker. 

Any information sent to Rev. A. J. Fretz. 
Milton P. O., New Jersey, will be thank- 
fully received. 

J. L. W. 
St. Jacobs, Ontario, 1908. 

4» 4» * 


— During a financial panic, according to 
a contemporary, a German farmer went to 
a bank for some money. He was told that 
the bank was not paying out money, but 
was using cashier's checks. He corM not 
understand this, and insisted on money. 

The officers took him in hand, ou'^ after 
another, with little effect. At last the presi- 
dent tried his hand, and after long and 
minute explanation, some inkling of the 
situation seemed to be dawning on the far- 
mer's mind. Much encouraged, the presi- 
dent said: 

"You understand now how it is, don't 
you, Mr. Schmidt?" 

"I t'ink I do," adimitted Mi', Schmidt. 
"It's like dis, ain't it? Ven my babv vakes 
u]) at night and vants some milk, I gif 
him a milk ticket." 

— A professor in the University of Ber- 
lin, who came to this country a year ago. 
was much surprised, according to a story 
which President Hadley contributes to the 
Yale Alumni Weekly, when he traveled in 
a sleeping-car, to be askel by the porter 
for his berth ticket. 

"My birth ticket?" he sa-id. "I have my 
l)assport, I have my letter of credit, and T 
have even in my trunk my certificate of 
vaccination, but why the railroad should 
want my birtli ticket I do not see." 

"But." said the porter, " I must know 
whether you have u])i)er or lower berth." 

"Upper, of course!" said the German. 
"Look at my passport. Does it not say. 
"Well and highly born?" 


— This is how, eighty years ago, a cer- 
tain minister, in a certain place, closed his 
farewell sermon: 

"Noch emol, noch emol, ich sage euch 
(Jelt regiert die Welt: Diimmheit, ener 

Besunders die K ly, die valley draiis, 

Ehne laht die Dummheit die Ohre raus. 
Als Kelver hab ich euch a'gretroffe. 
Ais Oxe diihn ich euch jetzt verlosse. 

Amen. Lost uns bete!" 

— A minister in entering the home of a 
church member heard the wife say: "Here 
comes the minister: this visit does not suit 
me at all." She welcomed him however 
and urgently requested him to stay saying 
she would prepare a chicken dinner. He 
stayed, dinner came; so did the chicken. 
On leaving he passed a boy of the family 
sitting by a hen coop sobbing and petting 
a young chicken. To his inquiries the boy 
in tears replied: '"Eys bieble hut ka Mam 

meh: du hust sie g'fressa fer Mittag." (The 
chicken has no mother: you devoured her 
for dinner). 

— A minister brother of large mental and 
|)hysical capacity transmits the following: 
Saddle your Pegasus again, brother, our 
readers will enjoy your poetic effusions. 

In token dot I'm glad we met 
I send to you this Cardlet 
And hope we may already yet 
Some time again togedder get. 
In the counties settled by the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans stone arch biidges for 
roadways across streams were built at an 
early date. In the remote timbered sec- 
tions wooden bridges were constructed be- 
cause they were cheaper. The stone arch 
is so durable, however, that it is coming 
into favor everywhere, with this differ- 
ence — that the modern bridge arch is 
being bulit of concerete. 

Meeting of Pennsylvania-German Society 

The Pennsylvania-German Society, one 
of the largest and most active historical 
organizations in the country, assembled in 
Lancaster, Pa., Oct. 6, 1908, from all sec- 
tions of the Commonwealth to attend the 
eighteenth annual convention. The session 
was held in the Franklin and Marshall 
college chapel, which was filled with the 
visitors who included many men of promi- 
nence in the State. 

The one feature of disappointment ex- 
])erienced ■ was the absence of the Presi- 
dent, Hon. John Wanamaker, of Philadel- 
phia, whose physician forbids his presence 
at i)ublic functions at this time. The 
chair, however, was excellently filled by 
the Vice President, James M. Lamberton, 
Esq., of Harrisburg, who called the meet- 
ing to order, and introduced the Rev. 
Dr. Theodore E. Schmauk, of Lebanon. The 
latter delivered an eloquent invocation. 

The visitors were then extended a 
warm-hearted welcome by Rev. Dr. J. S. 
Stahr. "You are welcome," he said, "to 
the hearts and homes of Lancaster." He 
si)cke of the befitting compliment paid to 
this city in giving it an opportunity to 
again welcome the society, as it was born 
in this citj'. Dr. Stahr also welcomed the 
Germans to the college and kindred insti- 
tutions and he recalled a number of names 
of distinguished men of German stock who 
shed lustre on Lancaster and Franklin 
and Marshall College. 

Mr. Lamberton responded to the wel- 
come with brief appropriate remarks. 

A letter from Mr. Wanamaker was then 
read, in which he expressed regret at the 

necessity that forbade his presence, but he 
had delivered his address into phonograph 
and sent it on. 

The instrument was then turned on and 
the members, paying rapt attention, heard 
distinctly every word, and followed the 
speech with long applause. 

The Secretary of the society, Capt. H. 
M. . Richards reported that during the 
past year twenty-eight new members were 
elected and twelve died. The present 
membership is 474. 

Mr. Julius F. Sachse, of Philadelphia, 
the Treasurer, reported that the society 
has funds amounting to $2,422.70, with a 
cash balance of $1,944. 

The election of officers was next in or- 
der, and the following were unanimously 
elected upon nomination by the Nominating 

President, Thomas C. Zimmerman, Read- 
ing; Vice President, Hon. W. U. Hensel, 
Lancaster, and Rev. P. C. Croll, Lebanon: 
Treasurer, Julius F. Sachse, Litt, D., 
Philadelphia; Executive Committee, Rev. 
T. E. Schmauck, Lebanon; Rev. Dr. N. C. 
Schaeffer, Lancaster, and Prof. Geo. T. 
Ettinger, of Allentown. 

Mr. Zimmerman responded to the honor 
conferred upon him with apjireciative re- 
marks of thanks. He paid a high tribute 
to the Society and reviewed to some ex- 
tent its distinguished history and achieve- 

The presiding officer then called upon 
ex-Governor Pennypacker for remarks. 
When the familiar figure of the former 
Executive arose he was greeted with pro- 



longed applause. He said it was a sudden 
and unexpected call, like a loyal Pennsyl- 
vania-German, he said he would have to 
obey. He then discoursed upon the vir- 
tuous characteristics of the German race, 
who, he said, are virtually the rulers of 
the modern world. In them the thought of 
religious liberty was first and best ex- 
pressed, and the date of 1683, when the 
pioneers came to this country and settled 
In Germautown, marked the epoch in 
American history. 

An illuminating and entertaining paper 
on "The Educational Activity of the Penn- 
sylvania Germans in Colonial Times," was 
read by Dr. N. C. Schaeffer. It was a 
very comprehensive sibject, but all of its 
phases were emphasized. Stress was laid 
upon the fact that there is a difference be- 
tween "schooling" and education." The 
early Germans devoted attention not only 
to academic learning, but along lines now 
termed manual training they were ahead 
of modern times. ' In things that made for 
efficiency they sought skill. They likewise 
combined religious instruction with the 
training of their schools. Tributes were 
paid to the distinguished masters of the 
pioneer days, who struggled through heavy 
vicissitudes, and many interesting facts 
"ere relatpd, notable among which were 
these: That the completion of the Mason 
and Dixon line was the work of a Pennsyl- 
vania German, Rittenhouse, and that two 
of the world's greatest telescopes were 
established and paid for by Pennsylvania 
Germans, viz., those of the Lick and Yer- 
kes observatories. 

Dr. Schaeffer compiled a list of the Ger- 
man Governors of this and other Com- 
monwealths, and he suggested that further 
research l)e made in order to get a list of 
the distinguished Americans who sprung 
from the Pennsylvania Germans. Sum- 

ming up, he held that the education of the 
Colonial times produced effects in religious 
training that the modern public school 
cannot equal, and that in respect to its 
literacy the Pennsylvania German school 
was the equal of that of the New England 
States and the superior of old England. 

Theo. Pershing, Esq., was on the pro- 
gramme for a paper on "Recent publica- 
tions Bearing on the Social Life of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans," but he was not 
present. The question however, was dis- 
cussed by Dr. J. H. Dubbs, who dwelt up- 
on both the favorable and unfavorable 
side of the German social life. 

Dr. S. P. Heilman, of Heilmandale, Pa., 
offered a resolution providing for the ap- 
pointment of a committee to comnile a 
complete Pennsylvania German Bibliog- 
graphy. The society went on record as 
favoring the suggestion and the resolution 
was then referred to the Executive Com- 

After extending thanks by a rising vote 
to the citizens of Lancaster and the col- 
lege authorities for courtesies and hos- 
pitality extended, the Society adjourned. 

At noon the visiting guests were served 
a complimentary luncheon by the authori- 
ties of Franklin and Marshall College and 
A.cademy and the Theological Seminary. 

During the afternoon the visiters were 
shown through the college , grounds and 
buildings and were given a trolley ride 
through the city. 

The closing feature of the session was 
the annual banquet, held at Hotel Wheat- 
land, Hon. W. U. Hensel acting as toast- 
master, and toasts were responded to by 
Rev. Dr. Joseph H. Dubbs, Hon. Henry 
Houck, Secretary of Internal Affairs. Hon 
Frank B. McClain and former Governor 
Samuel W. Pennypacker. 

At a banquet given by German Amer- 
ican physicians in New York to Professor 
Robert Koch, the great bacteriologist,who 
passed through this country on his way to 
.Ta|)an, Andrew Carnegie, the great phil- 
anthropist, was present. He had been in- 
vited because he had contributed $200,000 
to the Robert Koch Fund for the advcnce- 
ment of scientific research. Prof. Koch, 
who as a true scholar, is a very modest 
man, turned off the flood of praise pour- 
ed on him and directed it to Carnegie, who 
did not "grasp the situation" readily be- 
cause he does not understand German. He 
had to be told in English what was going 
on. Knowing, however, that all the Ger- 
mans around him knew English just as 

well as their own tongue, he "rose to the 
occasion" and said that he would gladlv 
part with one of his millions if by such a 
"cash down" he could get at once full pos- 
session and use of the German language, 
as he was feeling keenly the disadvantage 
of not being acquainted with that tongue 
to which civilization owed so much. 

— Henry Baumgartner, of near Vera 
Cruz, Lehigh County, is the possessor of 
the first organ used by the Moravians 
shortly after settling in Emaus in 1742. 
The instrument is said to be in excellent 
condition considering its age. Its con- 
struction is very plain, being practically 
free of ornaments and is not at all heavy 
or bulky. The organ is unique. 


Reviews and Notes 

Flashlights on Evangelical History: A vol- 
ume of Entertaining Narratives and 
Incidents, Illustrative of the Evan- 
gelical Work, founded by Rev. Jacob 
Albright, in 1800 A. D. ' By Rev. A. 
Stapleton, A. M. D.D. Cloth; 193 pp. 
Illustrated; second edition. Price $1. 
Published by the author, York, Pa., 

This book is vi^hat its title purports it 
to be " flashlights on Evangelical history." 
The author states that he did not attempt 
to write a connected history — and so much 
the greater the pity. The indications seem 
to be that there is material here for a good 
historian to write a connected history. 

The founding of this religious organiza- 
tion dates back to the year 1800 when Rev. 
.Jacob Albright founded the first three 
"societies." Rev. Albright was born near 
Pottstown, Pa., 1757; and died at Millbach, 
Le])anon county, 1808. 

The book gives an interesting account of 
the old time campmeeting, a thing of the 
past. It contains some valuable history 
of the frontier life of Pennsylvania of one 
hundred years ago. Probably the most ex- 
citing and interesting part of the narra- 
tive is the account of the uprising of the 
Indians of the Great Northwest during the 
Civil War. 

Kace or Mongrel: A Brief History of the 
Rise and Fall of the Ancient Races of 
the Earth. By Alfred P. Schultz. 
Cloth; gilt top; 370 pp. L. C. Page & 
Co., Boston. 1908. 

The author of this book is a practicing 
, lihysician at Monticello, N. Y. He came 
from Germany when ten years old.. 

Here is a vigorous thinker and a still 
more vigorous writer with a unique theory, 
namely: "that the fall of nations is due to 
inter-marriage with alien stock; a demon- 
stration that a nation's strength is due to 
racial purity; a prophecy that America 
will sink to early decay unless immigra- 
tion Is vigorously restricted." 

There is a good deaL in this book that is 
true, and there is still more that is ex- 
aggeration, assumption, and enthusiasm. 
The author has seemingly been carried 
away by his enthusiasm in his favorite 
theme that the one cause of race degen- 
eration is the intermarriage with other 
races. To prove this he has heaped u|) a 
vast amount of supi)osedly ethnological 
lore. The entire family of nations is pas- 
sed in review; and all the members are 
either praised for keeping pure the blood 
of their progenitors, or for contaminating 

it by intermarriage. To say that the na- 
tions of old perished because of their in- 
termarriages with alien peoples is as- 
sumption; and this assum])tion reaches its 
height when it is said that there "is not 
a trace of evidence in favor of the view 
that Jesus was not a Jew," and that "^he 
New Testament is as little the continuation 
of the Old Testament as it is the continua- 
tion of the teachings of Buddha, or Con- 

South America seems to receive more 
than its share of the author's scorn. One 
has never read such a scathing account 
and description of the South American Re- 
publics of mongrel race. He blames the 
enforcing of the Monroe Doctrine for most 
of the deplorable social and political life 
of these countries. There are manj^ people 
in the United States who doubt the wis- 
dom of enforcing this unwritten, and non- 
constitutional law, but very few are ready 
to agree with the writer that it is "the 
most abominable atrocity that was ever 
committed by white men against the white 

From the point of ethnology and anth- 
ropology the writer's . arguments will not 
stand. The book, however, is written in a 
very simple and interesting style; the sen- 
tences are all very short and simple. It 
contains much that is worthy of reflection. 
It is another note of warning that this in- 
cessant influx of immigants is a menace 
to the characteristics, institutions and 
ideals of our country. 

The Sense of the Infinite, By Oscar Kuhns, 
Professor of Romance Languages 
Wesleyan University, and author of 
"Dante and the Engl'sh Poets," and 
"German and Swiss Settlements in 
Pennsylvania." Cloth; gilt top; 265 
pp. Price $1.50 net. Henry Holt & Co., 
New York. 1908. 
This is a discussion of the transcenden- 
tal elements as found in Literature, Life 
and Religion. In the introduction the 
author has clearly defined his position an.l 
has limited the sco])e of the discussion. 
The subject is bared and defined in the sec- 
ond chapter "as that instinct or sense or 
feeling of the human soul by means cf 
which it is drawn out of everyday con- 
sciousness, and brought into an elevated 
state of mind, by the contemplation or vis- 
ion of those things which arouse within 
us a sense of timeless Being, of the Abso- 
lute the Infinite, the One." It is striving 
of Fitness after the Infinite when trying 
to think the thoughts of God after him, the 
striving of Imperfection after Perfection, 



the feeling of Power, a "Rock higher than 
[," that the author endeavors to explain 

This book has nothing to do with that 
Oriental mysticism that borders on irra- 
tional pantheism and fanaticism. It 
treats of "those experiences that come from 
time to time to all men, which are in their 
essence fraught with blessing to the inai- 
vidual as well as to humanity at large." 
The subject is as old as human thought, 
but it has never been presented with more 
clearness or more illuminating power. Ex- 
amples from Plato to James have been 
summoned to bear witness to the truth 
that this Sense, this Feeling of the Infinite 
is omnipresent and eternal. 

We are told that there are three phases 
of nature which have at all times been 
peculiar outlets into the spiritual world — 
the mountains, the sea, and the starry hea- 
\ens. And in speaking of the sea with its 
multitudinous water as itself a symbol of 
the Infinite, one could expect that a " poet 
like Tennyson, who is surely the poet of 
the sea, would be quoted with his "Break. 
Break, Break," and "Crossiing the Bar," 
with the sea as the great deep of eternity. 
And in fact, Tennyson on the whole we 
think, could be cited effectively with his 
"Higher Pantheism" and " The Voice and 
the Peak" to show the power and pres- 
ence of the transcendental element in Vic- 
torian literature. And one almost feels 
like saying the same thing about Browning 
with his message of The Glory of the Im- 
perfect; although he was neither a meta- 
physician nor a transcendental ist but it is 
after all the striving of the Imperfect af- 
ter the Perfect that makes life worth while. 

Prof. Kuhns has given the term mysti- 
cism a new and hallowed meaning; he has 
cleared it of its ill-repute; for there are 
many prosaic minded people of the imme- 
diate present who smile with disgust at 
mystically inclined people as being unbal- 
anced, and who think those religious sects 
designated as mystics as being "queer" and 
out of date because they continue to hold 
to the simple faith of their fathers and to 
be guided by the Inner Light. Such fun 
))oking cease In the light of such 
sane criticism. 

The book is a scholarly and thought-pro- 
voking work on the subject that is at pres- 
ent foremost in matters philosophical and 
pyschological — subliminal consciousness. It 
ought to have a wholesome effect upon this 
lushing, work-a-day world that measures 
its contentment and happiness .too much 
by the rise and fall of the stock market, 
that trails many of its ideals in the dust, 
and that has its mind fixed too little on the 
abiding things of life. 

Thp Study of Nature. By Samuel Christian 
Schmucker, Ph. D. Professor of Biolog- 

ical Sciences, West Chester (Pa.) State 
Normal School. Cloth, 12mo., illustra- 
ted; 315 pp. In Lippincott's Educa- 
tional Series, Vol. VII edited by Prof. 
M. G. Brumbaugh, Ph. D. LL. D., Super- 
intendent of the Philadelphia Schools; 
J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia 
and London. 1908. 
Prof. Samuel Christian Schmucker was 
born in Allentown. Pa. He graduated from 
Muhlenburg College and later received his 
Ph. D. degree from the Universjty of Penn- 
sylvania. He has held a number of promi- 
nent positions; since 1895 he has been Pro- 
fessor of Biological Sciences in the State 
Normal School at West Chester, Pa. 

It is with pleasure in these days of 
pseudo-nature study and "nature fakirs" to 
come across this wholesome and admirable 
wcrk on the study of nature — the great 
world out-of-doors. It is manifestly the 
work of one who studies nature and does 
net study abcut nature; of one who com- 
bines a scientific method with a spirit of 

It is amply illustrated; the colored plates 
made from water-colors by the wife of the 
author are little works of art. .It is writ- 
ten in an admirably simple style; it is 
scholarly without being technical, and it 
is scientific without being "unpopular." It 
is a book that will be eagerly read both by 
lovers of nature and by lovers of books. 

Messrs. Moffat, Yard & Co., New York, 
have published -John Luther Long's novel, 
"FELICE," a story of Italian life.. 

"Modern Language Notes," published by 
.lohn Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 
contains in its November numlier some 
technical writings on Chaucer, Goethe. 
Browning, Longfellow, etc. These contri- 
butions are nearly all of the nature of 
textual criticisms. 

4i •{• 4* * 

— Berks county has many aged people. 
Isaac H Wenrich and his wife Rebecca, of 
Bernville, are said to be the oldest mar- 
ried couple in northern Berks. They cele- 
brated their 67th wedding anniversary in 
October. They were married October 24. 
1841, by Rev. Daniel Ulrich. Mr. Wenrich 
is 89 years of age, and his wife 86 years. 

— Earnest Schindler and nine adult sons, 
of Harrisburg, Pa., all voted at the recent 
Presidential election. 

— The names of ex-Governor Penny- 
packer, .ludge Sultzberger and George 
Wharton Pepper are mentioned among 
others as candidates for the Supreme 
Court to succeed Chief Justice Mitchell, 
whose term expires in .lanuary. 1910. His 
successor will be nominated next May and 
elected in November. 

Vol. X 


No. 2 

Washington's First Commission, Victory and Defeat 


By John Hadden, Uniontown, Pa. 

MOSE familiar with the 
early history of Western 
Feimsylvinia will recall 
that in the fall of 1753, 
George Washington was 
commissioned by His 
Honor, Robert Dinwid- 
dle, then Governor of the 
colony of Virginia, as a special envoy 
to proceed to the headwaters of the 
Allegheny and demand of the French 
commander his object in establishing 
forts and trading posts upon lands 
claimed by the English crown. This 
was the first important pnblic service 
intrusted to Washington and brought 
him at once into public view. 

Dinwidde now realized that inaction 
on his part would lose to the English 
the whole \''alley of the Ohio. He 
therefore commissioned Washington 
.as major with authority to enlist one 
hundred and fifty men and to proceed 
to the Forks of the Ohio to finish the 
fort already begun by Ensign Ed- 
ward ^^'^ard, and from which Ward 
had been dri\cn awav bv the French. 

This commission was soon raised to 
that of lieutenant-colonel, and the 
number of men increased to three hun- 
dred, and all to be under the command 
of Col. Joshua Fry. 

Washington started from Alexan- 
dria, Virginia, April 2, 1754, with two 
companies, amounting to one hundred 
and fifty men, and having been join- 
ed by a detachmen.t under Captain 
Adam Stephens ai rived at Will's 
Creek, where the city of Cumberland 
now stands, on April 20tb. and on the 
24th of May the little army was en- 
camped at the Great Meadows, fifty- 
one miles west of Will's Creek. 

Here \\'ashington received intelli- 
gence that the French were on their 
way to meet him. He at once erected 
a stockade, cleared away the under- 
growth and prepared what he termed 
"a charming place for an encounter." 

On the night of the 27th \\'ashing- 
ton was anj^rised by the Half-King, 
a friendly Indian, that a body of the 
French were encamjjed about six- 
miles oft". Washington, with a dc- 



tachment of forty men, set out about 
ten o'clock to join the Indian allies. 
They groped their way along the foot- 
path in a heavy rain and murky dark- 
ness to the encampment of the Half- 
King. Two Indians led the way and 
at daybreak the French were discov- 
ered encamped in a low bottom sur- 
rounded by rocks and trees. Wash- 
ington and his men formed on the 
right, the Half-King and his men on 
the left and with ghost-like silence 
they advanced to the brow of the 
ledge of rocks beneath which the 
French were encamped. Washington 
was in the advance, and as the French 
caught sight of him they flew to their 
arms. A sharp fire ensued which 
lasted for fifteen minutes when the 
French gave way and ran. They were 
soon overtaken and twenty-one pris- 
oners taken. Washington's men on 
the right received all the fire of the 
eneni}-. One man was killed and three 
wounded near Washington, the In- 
dians sustaining no loss. The French 
had ten killed and one wounded, and 
one escaped to carry the news of the 
defeat to the Forks. 

Monsieur Junionville, their com- 
mander, was shot through the head at 
the first fire. This was the first en- 
gagement in which Washington ever 
took a part, and was the initial battle 
which lost to France so much of her 
possessions on American soil, and as 
Francis Parkman tersely put it, "in it 
was fired the first shot that set the 
world ablaze." 

Thus on the crest of the Allegheny 
Mountains, in Fayette county the 
Star of Washington first arose to at- 
tract the wonder and the admiration 
(^f the civilized world. 

AA'ashington then started to ad- 
\ance to the mouth of Redstone 
creek on the Monongahela river, but 
soon learned that the French were 
advancing in great numbers and after 
a council of war he determined to re- 
treat to Will's creek. Upon reaching 
the Great Meadows, the stockade 
above mentioned was increased and 

strengthened and named Fort Neces- 
sity. Here a force of five hundred 
F^rench and four hundred of their 
Indian allies, all under the com- 
mand of M. Conlon de Villiers, a half 
brother to Jumonville, made an attack 
on the morning of July 3rd, and for 
nine hours, during a heavy rain, the 
assailants poured an incessant show- 
er of balls upon the little band crowd- 
ed within the lines of the fort. The 
conflict grew in animation until 8 
o'clock in the evenmg when de Vil- 
liars proposed a parley to which 
W^ashington acceded and the articles 
of capitulation were signed in the 
rain by the light of a candle. This was 
the first as well as the last time- 
Washington ever surrendered to a 
foe ; and on that ever-memorable 4th 
of July Washington's little army 
slowly wended its way toward Will's 
creek, while in its wake followed a 
retinue of settlers and adherents. 
Thus were the lilies of France left to 
float over every fort and trading post 
from the Allegheny Mountains to the 


England however, was by no means 
disposed to relinc]uish her claim to 
the Ohio \^alley without further con- 
test so in February of 1755. General 
Edward Braddock landed in Virginia 
with two regiments of British regu- 
lars to which were added such pro- 
vincials as were recruited from 
Maryland. Virginia and Peimsylvania. 
He was to march against Fort 
Ducpiesne at the F^orks of the Ohio 
and thence up into Canada. 

After a long, tedious and laborious 
march, cosiuning more than a month 
from the time he left Will's creek. 
Braddock arrived at the Monongahela 
river a short distance below the pres- 
ent town of ]\IcKeesport. The army 
crossed to the left bank of the river 
and marched in the mouth of Turtle 
creek, where the second fording was 
made. The army had scarcely recross- 
ed to the right bank of the river, and 



within ten miles of the fort which 
they exjiected to enter in triumph the 
tolk)\ving' day. when a brisk fire was 
received from an unseen foe. Brad- 
dock's troo])s responded, but to Httle 
effect, and the engagement which 
lasted for three hours, was most fur- 

More than half of the army was 
cither killed or wounded, two-thirds 
of them being shot down by their 
own men. Uraddock had four horses 
killed under him ; at last while on the 
hfth. he received a mortal wound 
which shattered his right arm and 
penetrated his lungs, and as he fell 
I'rom his horse he exj)ressed the de- 
sire that the scene of his defeat might 
also witness his death. 

Out of eighty-nine commissioned of- 
licers twenty-six were killed and 
lhirty-se^■en W(nnided. and of the sol- 
diers four hundred and thirty-seven 
were killed and about four hundred 
^vounded, the killed being in excess of 
the wounded. Every field officer and 
every one on horseback, except Wash- 
ington, who was aid-de-camp to the 
general, and had two horses killed 
under him and four bullets through 
his coat, was either killed or carried 
off' the field wounded. 

The officers endeavored in ya.'\n to 
rally the distracted troops, and to in- 
timidate others ran the fugitives 
Through with the sword, and were in 
uirn killed by others. One eye wit- 
ness declared that the slaughter 
among the officers was not made by 
the enemy but by those fugitives who 
ex|)ecte(l to meet the same fate. 

During the whole of the engage- 
ment Braddock raved and swore and 
cursed his troops as dastards and 
cowards. The provincials, being ac- 
quainted with the Indian mode of 
warfare, had taken to the trees and 
were doing good execution, but 
P>raddock ordered them to stand out. 
as he said, '"like English soldiers" and 
tight in the open. He struck many of 
them down with his sword, among 
whom was Joseph Fausett and for 

which act he paid the penalty with 
his life. 

Braddock was described as " des- 
perate in his fortune, brutal in his be- 
havior and obstinate in his senti- 
ments." His secretary wrote of him 
before the battle : "We have a general 
most judiciously chosen for being dis- 
(|ualified for the service he is employ- 
ed in in almost every respect." 

Thomas Fausett, the slayer c*f Gen- 
eral Barddock, was a provincial sol- 
dier. He was a native of Virginia 
and a hunter and trapper by occupa- 
tion. In those early days it was quite 
common for hunters to be gone for 
days and weeks in pursuit of game, 
and on one occasion when Fausett re- 
turned from an extended hunting ex- 
pedition be was horrified to find his 
cabin in ashes and the dead and 
scalped bodies of his family scattered 
on the ground; the work of maraud- 
ing Indians. This scene so affected 
Fausett that he resolved to take ui) 
his abode in Pennsylvania, and when 
General Braddock was preparing to 
advance against Fort Duquesne, 
Th(.)mas Fausett and his brother Jos- 
ei)h were enlisted as privates, at six 
pence a day, at Shippensburg, Pa., b}' 
Ca])tain \A'illiam Poison, who had 
served under Washington in the expe- 
dition of 1754, into Captain Cholmon- 
deley s company of the 48t'i regi- 
ment, and marched with the advance 
of Braddock's army to the fatal field. 

During the engagement Tom Fau- 
sett witnessed the fearful slaughter of 
the army by the unseen foe, the rav- 
ing madness of his commander and 
the striking down of his brother, by 
the enraged Braddock for no other of- 
fense than that of fighting in the only 
successful manner against the In- 
dians. This was too much for a man 
of his temperament to stand and he 
determiTied at once to have revenge 
and at the same time to put an end 
to the terrible carnage for which the 
(officers had pleaded in vain. He rais- 
ed his gun and sent the deadly mis- 
sile crashino- throuiih the right arm 



and into the lungs of Braddock. 

The wounded general was carried 
from the held and borne along" with 
the retreating army to the encamp- 
ment of Col. Dunbar, where he arriv- 
ed on the nth of Jul}'. Here he or- 
dered the provisions and ammunition 
destroyed lest they fall into the hands 
of the pursuing enemy. 

On Sunday, the 13th, the army re- 
traced its steps to the Old Orchard 
camp, wdiere it had halted on its way 
< ait. The general softly repeating to 
himself. " Who would have thought 
it ? " and. turning to Orm said. " We 
shall better know how to deal with 
them another time." He breathed his 
last about 8 o'clock on the same night 
and was wrapped in his cloak as a 
winding sheet and was buried at day- 
l)reak on Monday, at the camp in the 
middle of the road that the army in 
l)assing over the grave might obliter- 
ate every trace of its wdiereabouts. 
and thus avoid any desecration of the 
body by the Indians. The chaplain 
having been wounded Washington 
read the E'piscoual funeral service and 
the dead general was buried in the 
lionors of war. 

The retreat of the army was con- 
tinued (tn the T4th and arrived at Fort 
Cumberland on the i8th, and remain- 
ed there until the 2nd of August. 
\Miile here Col. Dunbar, who Avas 
then in command, was met Avith 
earnest requests from the governors 
of Pennsylvania. Maryland and Vir- 
ginia that he would post his troops on 
the frontier so as to afford some pro- 
tection to the inhabitants. To all 
their entreaties Dunbar turned a deaf 
ear, and continued his hasty march 
through the country, not considering 
'himself safe until he arrived at Phila- 
delnhia. Col. Dunbar soon returned to 
England, wliere in November follow- 
ing he was suspended because of his 
injudicious retreat, and was sent into 
honorable retirement as lieutenant 
governor of Gibraltar. He was never 
again acti\cly emi)1f\ved. and died in 

\^ hen Braddock's retreating army 
arrived at Fort Cumberland the pro- 
vincial troops disbanded for their 
homes and Joe and Tom Fausett be- 
came residents of what is now Fay- 
ette county, Pennsylvania, where each 
became owner of a mountain farm. 

In 1812, when the supervisor was 
repairing the public roads in his 
neighborhood Tom Fausett came 
along with his trusty rifle on his 
shoulder, and being well acquainted 
with the supervisor and the men em- 
ployed, said. "If you will dig right 
there, indicating, you will find the 
i)ones of General Braddock." The 
road supervisor dug wdiere Fausett 
had directed and sure enough he un- 
earthed the bones of the unfortunate 
general and his military trappings 
bearing the insignia of his high rank, 
liad it not been that Fausett settled 
in tliis neighborhood after Braddock's 
army was disbanded, the wheVeabouts 
of the grave of Braddock would have 
ever remained unknown, for it will be 
remembered that A\'ashington passed 
o\er the route three years after the 
defeat and could not locate the spot 
where the general was buried al- 
though he had read the funeral ser- 
vice himself. 

Tom Fausett as well as his brother 
Joseph settled in the neighborhood of 
r5raddock"s gra\-e. and he frequently 
related to his friends the incidents of 
the defeat, the raving madness of 
Braddock during the battle, the ter- 
rible slaughter of the poor Virginia 
Blues, as he termed the provincials 
from that state, and finally the 
striking dcnvn. with his sword, of his 

Fausett always related that he fir- 
ed the fatal shot at the commander, 
whom he termed "the madman" in or- 
der to save the remainder of the 
army, and to avenge the unwarrant- 
ed striking down of his brother for 
"treeing." and while many were 
aware of the fact that Braddock re- 
ceived his wound at the hand of one 
of his own men. his unpo])ularity 



among his officers, and the demoral- 
ized condition of the army, accounts 
tor the fact that Fausett was never 
called to account for his act. 

True it is that had not Fausett fir- 
ed the fatal shot and had Braddock 
remained in command, what remain- 
ed of his army never would have es- 
caped, and Washington never would 
have been spared to fight the battles 
I if liis country and give his services 
to the establishment of the best gov- 
ernment on the face of the globe. 

Fausett remained a resident of Fay- 
ette county and in his old age became 
• me of the indigent poor of Wharton 
tovvnshi]). He was frecpiently sold 
nut at auction to the lowest bidder by 
the (Overseers of the poor, the bids 

ranging from thirty to fifty dollars 
per annum exclusive of clothing. He 
lived to an extreme age and was bur- 
ied in an old burying ground on the 
I'atton Rush farm about one and a 
half miles west of Ohiopyle Falls. 
His grave stone bears the following 
inscri])tion : 

Thomas Faucet 


March 23 


Aged 109 years, 

9 mos. 

And on each recurring memorial 
(lay a flag and a few flowers are plac- 
ed on the little mound of earth to keej) 
his memory green. 

Sketch of Col. Matthias Hollenback 

By Edward Welles, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

A T T H I A S Hollenbach. 
Pioneer, Alerchant. Sol- 
dier, latterly called Judge 
Hollenbach, who w a s 
second in descent from 
(leorge Hollenbach, who 
was one of the great ar- 
my of German immigrants, 
who for the avoidance of persecution, 
iir to better their fortunes, came from 
the Rhine provinces about the year 
1 717, and helped to settle the fertile 
lands of southeastern Pennsylvania, 
under the trilerant sway of the Penns. 
l^'adition sa}s he was a native of 
W'urteniberg ; in \\hich kingdom in- 
deed are still to be found many fam- 
ilies of the name ; though all efforts to 
trace his direct connection with any 
i)f these modern families have hither- 
to failed. He was probably married 
in Germany, but his children were all 
liorn in America: the eldest, Mathias 
the elder, in 1718. 

George Hallenbach, the immigrant, 
nrolialdy settled soon after his arri\-al 
in Xew Hanover township, Mont- 

gomery (then Philadel[)hia'l county : 
as he is known to have owned land 
there as early as "May 1720. He is 
said to have been a member and 
officer of the old Lutheran church at 
Falkner Swamp ; though as the earli- 
est preserved records of that church 
are subsequent to his death, his name 
does not appear ; nor is the place of 
his sepulture ascertained. He was 
a well-to-do blacksmith and "Innhold- 
er." and evidently a man of some 
consequence and influence among his 
brethren ; as his name and that of his 
eldest son Alathias appear many times 
in the archives of the German speak- 
ing population of the district. 

George H^allenbach died at his farm 
in Xew Hanover, July 28, 1736, leav- 
ing a comf(^rtable estate to his widow, 
Maria Catharine, and their four 
children, Mathias, John, INTarie Cath- 
arina and George, all under age. His 
\vill is still on file and of record at 
the office <^f the Register of Wills in 
Philadelphia. witnessed and proven 
bv Killian I\ehle and ?^Iathias Ringer : 



the imcntor}- of personal estate, 
appraised by the same parties with the 
addition of Abraham Cassle, footing 
u]) to £584.4.5. By the terms of the 
will all the real estate was left to 
Mathias. charoed with certain be- 
(piests and conditions in favor of the 
widow and vnunger children. Among 

Young. In June of that year the 
writer in company with Governor 
Hartranft, and Messrs. Daniel V>. 
I 'oyer. Frederick Brendlinger and 
William K. Grimm, paid a visit to 
the premises, and succeeded in iden- 
tifying the location of the old spring, 
then nearly lost and dried nj). and 

C^,^4^eu0^t^ ^^^^^^^^^■^^^^^'-^^ 

these was the erection of a suitable 
liouse for the life-use of the widow, 
ui)on an acre of land set off by the 
testator for the purpose, adjacent to 
and including the use of a certain 
si)ring of water. 

The homestead farm in (]uestion 
was in the }ear 1878 the home of Mr. 

even. ])robal)ly. the remains of the 
foundations of the house spoken of. 

Whatever may have been the wid- 
ow's reasons for discontent with her 
son's administration of his trust, ^vhen 
her own will was proven twenty 
vears later, it was found to contain 
no mention ( )f his name other than 


in a \orl>al codicil, Icaviiii;' certain 
valuables l<> his eldest daughter, 

I'>\ the ])ro\isi(ins of Georg'e rK)l- 
lenbach's will, his two young-er sons, 
joim and ( ieorge, were bidden to 
larry with my son Mathias until 
the\- l)e at the age of seventeen years, 
and then be bound to trades, such as 
the\- shall think best." Matthias suc- 
ceeded to his father's vocation; while 
John, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, seems to have chosen to be a 
tanner and shoemaker. Of the young- 
est son nothing is certainly known; 
but there is little douin that he is the 
(leorge Ilolabaugh who applied Octo- 
ber <.), i/Cij for fifty acres of land in 
Windsor townshi]). Berks county, 
adjoining (ieorge May and Andrew 
Ma\'; the same land having been 
liatented January 1838 to John Hol- 
lenbach. i)robably a grandson. From 
this (ieorge are descended the families 
of the name in Berks county. Search 
has so far failed to connect them with 
the Montgomery county Hollenbachs. 

( )f the immigrant's daughter, called 
Maria by the father, liut Catharina by 
the mother, in their respective wills, 
all that is known is that she died be- 
fore her mother, leaving four (diildren 
named as legatees in the will of their 

The widow of George Hollenbach 
survived her husband twenty years. 
dying December 12, 1756. In her 
will, proven the following April, she 
bequeathed a personal estate amount- 
ing to £175.14.0, to be distributed 
among her grandchildren, .\lthough 
Mathias was not among her legatees, 
nor named for the administration, he 
seems to ha\e induced the executors, 
Matthias Richard and Bernhard Dod- 
erer, to renounce in his favor. The 
will and in\-entory are still on file and 
of record in Philadelphia. 

From the church records at Tra])pe 
(Providence) we extract the following 
entry : '' December 14, 1756, ist die 
Wittwe ITollebachim in dem Herzog- 
thum \\urttemberg geburtig, begra- 

ben. Sie war /2 Jahr und 1 Monat 1 
Tag- alt. Hatte 20 Jahr in \"','ittwen 
Stande gelbt, und war 31; Jahr im 
Lande gewesen. Leichtentext Ephes. 
5. 16." 

Mathias ilollenbach the elder was 
after the death of his father a man of 
some ])rominence among his German 
brethren ; his name ai)])earing fre- 
ipiently in the current archives, and 
in the records of conveyances, etc. in 
IMiiladelphia county, down to the year 
1774. In 1754- November 20, he joins 
with Michael Schlatter and others in 
a memorial addresed tn the new 
Deputy Governor, Robert Hunter 
Morris, entitled "The huml)le atldress 
of the German Protestants, inhabitants 
of the County of Philadelphia, with 
the object and pur')ose of asserting 
their faith and loyalty to the Province 
and the King", and of defending 
themselves against the injurious im- 
putation of sym')athy \\'ith the 
hVench in the contest then oi)ening 
on the frontier." 

1742, December; Henry Antes, 
John .\vce. P.ernhard Doderer. 
Thomas Maybury, Christian Snyder 
and Mathias Hollenbach were ai)- 
Dointcd to lay out a road " from Ml. 
Pleasant Furnace and Christian 
15\'dler's mill, to the great road lead- 
ing from Maxatawny, and only b}- 
}\'ter Sell's mill to P'hiladelnhia." 

1754. June 6; with Martin Sensen- 
derfer, Georg llurkar. .Abraham Bob. 
Martin Zehan, Peter Steltz. Christian 
Kurtz. Michael Krebs, Heinrich 
Stetler and Peter Egner. inhabitant'^ 
i^\ Xew liano\er township, he peti- 
tions for a road " from the great rtia<l 
that leads from the old mill to Phila- 
deli)hia : to begin near the t)ld mill, 
thence to .Martin .^ensenderfer's saw 
mill, thence to the old h\u-nace road." 
On August 13th following the road 
\\as laid out b\'. Tiiomas Maybury 
I lenr}- Dcraya. jr., Isaac Potts, Jere- 
miah lordan. Haniel Heister. 'r., and 
Michael Croll. 

.At Alatthias' death, intestate in the 
\ear T778. he left a comfortalile es- 



tate to his heirs ; the inventory foot- 
up to £2019.11.8., exchisive of a con- 
siderable landed estate. Upon his 
tombstone at the rear of the old 
Evangelical Lutheran church of Fal- 
kner Swamp, appears, cut in the 
beautiful old German text of the day, 
the quaint epitaph : 

In dieser Gruft 

ruhet der Leichnam 

V. Mathias Hollenbach 

war geb. d. 5 Nov. Jaht 


Er hinterlies 3 wohl- 

versorgte Tpchter 

u. starb d. 12 Jan. 


Im alter 60 Jahr 

u. 7 Tage. 

On the /th of February letters of 
administration were granted to 
George Dietter Bucher and Rev. 
Jacob Van Buskirck, the husbands of 
his second and third daughters res- 
pectively. Maria was the "love name" 
of the daughters of Matthias, derived 
from the name of their mother, his 
first wife Anna Maria: thus 

1. Maria Rosina, b. 1740; married 
Philip Kehl. When the estate of her 
fatlier was divided in 1779, she lived 
in Upper Milford township, North- 
ampton county. It is probable, how- 
ever, that her first husband was 
George Schneider. 

2. Maria Magdalena, b. 1742; m. 
Georg Dieter Bucher, July 25, 1758, 
at the age of sixteen : died June 25, 
r8o2; from her is descended a very 
numerous family, among whom was 
the late Gen. John F. Hartranft. 

3. John. 1747, died in infancy. 

4. Anna Maria, b. April 21, 1749: 
lu. Rev. Jacobus Van Buskirck, Mar. 
f5, 1764, not quite fifteen years old. 
I'Vom this marriage is also descended 
a family equally numerous and in- 

Of the western migration of John, 
second son of the founder, and father 
of Col. Matthias, we can onl}^ judge 
by the date of his application July 

6, 1750, for fifty acres of land in Leb- 
anon township, Lancaster (now Leba- 
non) county, adjoining John Reval 
and Samuel Reed. This was probably 
the land upon which he spent the 
middle portion of his life, and reared 
his family ; after the dispersion of 
which he removed to Martinsburgh, 
Va., where he died in 1792. John's 
wife. Eleanor Jones, was when he 
married her, the widow of a man 
named Stoudt (Staudt?). who had 
perished from exposure while hunt- 
ing. The return of his dog without 
the master led to the recovery of the 
frozen body. 

The children of John Hollenbach 
and Eleanor Jones were five : 

1. George, 1742-1824: m. Hannah 
Barton; removed about 1772 with his 
parents and his newly-married wife 
to Martinburgh, Va. ; thence in 1779 
to the Monongahela river in western 
Virginia, and thence to Ohio. He is 
the prog'enitor of a very numerous 
familv in the middle and farther 

2. Jane, 1750-1832: m. David Hun- 
ter in \''irginia : left few descendants, 
resident in Maryland and Virginia. 

3. Matthias, 1752-1829: the subject 
of this sketch. 

4. John, 1755-1797: m. Elizabeth 
Stansbur}^ ( Stanborough) July 23, 
1778: few descendants, resident in 

5. Mary Ann, 1761-1796: m. \A"il- 
liam Cherry, Va. ; numerous descen- 
dants ; scattered throughout the mid- 
dle and farther ^^^est. 

All the sons of John Hollenbach 
were endowed with their father's 
Christian name, as in the case of the 
(laughters in the family of their uncle 
Matthias : thus, George John, Mat- 
thias John, and John George; the 
middle name however being dropped 
in each case. 

Matthias Hollenback, ( as the name 
A\'as now spelled), the second son of 
John, second son of the founder, mig- 
rated to the Wyoming Valley in the 
autumn of 1769; one of a partv of 


forty yoiui!^" Pennsylvanians under 
tlie lead (U Cai)t. Lazarus Stewart, to 
\\ln>m was assiij^ned by the CtMinecti- 
out Susquelianna Cotn])any a town- 
ship of land in tlie \alley, which they 
named Ilano\er. next south of Wil- 
kes-l'arre; and now one of the richest 
tow )is]ii|)s in the state, if not in the 
L'nion. I'^-oni this time to his death 
in 1829, his history and life are close- 
ly associated with the history of the 
valley of the upi)er Susquehanna. 
Uein^ of mixed German and Welsh 
blood, nature seems to have endowed 
him with a liberal oift of the best and 
strong-est traits of both the paternal 
and maternal stocks. In the rude 
tuition of those days, '"book-learning"" 
was little attainable, and ])erhaps as 
little valued ; and yoimg- Hollenback's 
share of it is said to have been limit- 
ed to what he could acquire from a 
term of six weeks at a common coun- 
tr}' school. "lUit to him. as to other 
men who have risen from obscurity by 
the force of their own abilities, the 
world was a life-long" school, and ex- 
perience and observation his skillful 
tutors." When he removed to 
\Vyoming" at the age of seventeen, he 
was the possessor of a horse and sad- 
dle, and fifty dollars ; a quite suffi- 
cient start for one of Stewart's "Pax- 
tang Boys"; going as they did. with 
an abundant capital of brain and 
brawn, to take up land in the fertile 
Wyoming valley, under the Connec- 
ticut Susfpiehanna Companv, with 

the co\enant to "man their right" in 
o])])osition to the claims nf tlie Pro- 
])rietaries of Pennsylvania. 

I lollenbach's earliest mercantile 
books are unfortunately lost; but ii 
is known that he began as a trader 
in a small way, in a stockade built at 
or near Mill Creek, the ])resent north- 
ern boundary of the city of Wilkes- 
['arre. for protection against the In- 
dians ; this was probably as early as 
the year 1771 : but the earliest books 
that can now be found are dated 
1772-4. In one of these is found a 
charge against the account of "Queen 
Esther" ; still unsettled, unless vicar- 
iously by her later deeds at the 
"Bloody Rock." 

FJeing by ])reference a trader rather 
than an agriculturist. Holleni^ack 
never permanently manned his right 
in Hanover township ; and so came 
near losing it. But having once em- 
l)arked under the Yankee banner, and 
su])i)osing the right of Connecticut 
under her charter to be indefeasible, 
he was consistent in defence of that 
right, until the award of jurisidiction 
to Pennsylvania by a competent tri- 
bunal, in the Decree of Trenton : 
"from which moment," says the late 
judge Scott, "he yielded obedience to 
the constitution and laws of Pennsyl- 
vania, and contributed all in his pow- 
er to quiet the turbulent, and recon- 
cile the disaffected to the legitimate 

(to be continued) 


Old Churches and Old Graveyards 

By Dr. I. H. Betz. York. Pa. 

H E church and the grave- 
yard have existed from 
the first settlement of 
the country. The immi- 
grants who came into 
the western world as a 
rule were in limited cir- 
cumstances. Some of the 
early settlers brought their pastors 
with them and an organization was 
effected at once. The limited means 
of the people did not permit of the 
erection of buildings for worship 
since providing shelters and homes for 
the new settlers was a first pressing 
necessit}'. A place of interment was 
necessary at an early stage. Death 
was liable to invade the ranks of the 
newcomers at any time. When 
churches with their attached grave- 
yards did not exist interment would 
most naturally be made on the farms 
of the settlers. This may have been 
the reason for the first family grave- 
yards on the farm and others followed 
the custom. This was all very well 
for several generations but it was 
found that through time land was 
liable to change hands and luider 
these circumstances the family grave- 
yard \v(^uld fall into neglect and de- 
cadence. When churches were built 
invariabl}^ grave-yards were connect- 
ed with them. In the larger towns 
these places of interment in crowded 
centers became unsightly, perhaps 
^ unhealthy and retarded progress and 
impro\'ement. It was necessary to re- 
move them which was a very unsatis- 
factory proceeding. In the country 
this fact did not impress the public 
so strongly. There interment was at 
times attended with difficulty. Cer- 
tain grave-3^ards for which the ground 
was given by the Penns in jierpetuity 
hcnvever caused some trouble and in- 
convenience. These plots were some- 

times attached to private grounds and 
fell into a state of neglect since there 
were no descendants left to keep them 
in order and repair. The plots were 
therefore given over to take care of 
themselves, and became unsightly and 
moreover in towns led to irremediable 
inconveniences. Of course the farm 
graveyards were all right in principle 
so long as the paternal acres remained 
in the family ownership. 

If anything produced attachment in 
the descendents to the family name 
this would apply still more in the long 
lists of families who hold reunions 
in modern days. However it is to be 
feared that many of the paternal acres 
have passed into other hands. In east- 
ern and southern Pennsylvania many 
neighborhoods which were entirely 
settled by certain nationalities after 
a century or more have noAV an en- 
tirely different population. The grave- 
yards remain as a sdent witness and 
reminder of the past, with none to re- 
turn or visit them through the 
changes which time has produced. 
Even the red men had their burial 
places at certain places. While they 
leturned for a time to vis^it the old 
scenes and reminders of the past at 
last their visits ceased. Some neglect- 
ed places of interment have fallen in- 
to com]:)lete decadence and with no 
one to revisit them or by their pres- 
ence restrain those who possessed the 
surrounding land it was farmed over 
with no one to protest against the 
desecration. We have become familar- 
ized with the mummies of Egypt 
which are found in our Academies of 
Natural Sciences and perhaps in tra\- 
elling museums. We are also familiar 
with the fact that during the Civil 
\A'ar in 1861-5 the materials in which 
the mummies were encased were used 
for the pa])cr industry owing to the 



scarcity of cotton and other fabrics- 
To such base if not practical uses we 
may be appHed at last ! The countries 
of Eg"ypt, Asia Minor and Assyria 
have i^ranted permission to exhume 
certains portions of terri^tory and ex- 
cavations have been made on a large 
scale which have shed much light on 
the history and customs which have 
])revailed: thus it would seem that 
nothing is abiding and free from dis- 
turbance and change. The sepultures 
of the dead with which so much care 
and ceremonial observance was ob- 
served are ruthlessly disturbed and 

Funeral rites among the early set- 
tlers had certain customs and observ- 
ances no longer in vise. Considerations 
regarding those matters in all their 
minutiae would be very interesitng 
if they were fully collected and detail- 
ed. Religious worship among the early 
settlers was first conducted at the 
houses of the members. Large num- 
bers of the people would sometimes 
assemble during the meetings, es- 
l)ecialy those which continued over 
the Sabbath. Great earnestness and 
solemnity prevailed. Some denomina- 
tions even later on did not erect 
church buildings but conducted the 
meetings at the houses of the mem- 
l)crs on Saturday evenings. On Sun- 
day the services were held in the 
large cajiacious barns. The crowds 
that filled the buildings and yards 
were large. E^■ery thing was done de- 
cently and in order. The visitors 
were decorous and well behaved. On 
such occasions great preparations had 
been made to feed the multidude 
and all were invited to partake of 
the hosjiitality of these kind and open- 
hearted people. In our eastern count- 
ies especially among large family 
connections in the church exceed- 
ingl\- large funerals have been held. 
As many as 800 buggies and carriages 
have been in attendance. To take pro- 
])er care of those teams without jar or 
confusion required persons of ex- 
perience and tact. A\'e have all heard 

of the hat-boys at metropolitan hotels 
who take the hats in rapid succession 
of those who enter the dining room 
and on their irregular exit the proper 
hat is handed to the departing guest 
without a single mistake Of course 
there is system at these large funerals 
but without tact and something like 
intuitive knowledge confusion would 
seem to result. The tables on these 
large occasions at times extend down 
and through the long yards and are 
continuously filled. What is custom 
must needs be observed without let or 
hindrance. Horace Greely in his auto- 
biography on "Recollections of a Busy 
I^ife" records the fact that during his 
boyhood in Londonderry. New Hamp- 
shire that no funeral was conducted 
without passing ardent spirits a- 
mong those who attended. Of course 
this was considered all right and pro- 
per then among the best people. To 
do things of which we are not sure 
but what they may be wrong is where 
doing wrong is incurred already. 
When we think they are wrong then 
we must refrain doing them. But 
changes in these directions have tak- 
en place. To change the habits and 
customs of a people is an herculean 
work and undertaking. This is seldom 
accomplished by resolution but by 
education and evolution. This is a 
slow but sure process. Being educa- 
tional in character and based on ac- 
ce])tance and conviction the effects are 
slow but abiding. 

!Many of our first churches were 
built of logs. .\ second churcii in the 
course of a generation was generally' 
l)uilt of stone. In from one to two 
generations this Avas perhaps replaced 
by a brick building which was prob- 
ably renovated or changed in its in- 
terior after several generations. This 
was later replaced in some instances 
by an elegant new building. 

Those of our ancient churches 
which are yet standing are interest- 
ing examples of architecture. Some of 
them had large galleries extending 



over tlie audience chambers. The 
pulpit was high over which was erect- 
ed a sounding board. High steps led 
up to the elevated pulpit. The seats 
were plainly constructed and were un- 
cushioned. In early times no stoves 
were in use and the ccingregation sat 
in a cold room without fire, inwardly 
digesting what may have been con- 
sidered a dry long doctrmal sermon. 
To have complained or to have made 
complaint concerning this fact might 
have subjected the complainant to 
comment or it might have served to 
reflect doubt upon the soundness of his 
])rofessions ! It must be remembered 
that these early ])ioner settlers were 
unconsciously picked people as re- 
garded their physical endurance and 
capacity. They belieA'ed in their 
strength and had confidence in its use 
and application. They were sincere and 
friendly but firm and stood for right 
and truth. They believed in corporal 
measures when moral restraint failed 
to produce conviction. The\ were 
l)ractical people and lit subjects to be- 
come the foundation and corner- 
stones of a nation. They acted up to 
the best light they had and if we do 
not acce])t all their conclusions we 
have no reason to doubt their convic- 
tions and sincerity. Some of their 
churches which have remained until 
lecently when not remodeled, through 
which they have almost lost their 
identity, were ])uilt on the principle of 
a church as well as a fortress- Ai times 
the Indians waylaid and murdered 
members going home from the servic- 
es. At other times they sui rounded the 
church from vantage points seeking to 
destroy the congregation by one fell 
swoop. Rut trustworthy men were 
there with their rifles in hand sitting 
at the end of the pew pre])ared to 
turn the church into a fortress at a 
moment's notice, 'llie reason alleged 
for the male members occupymg the 
external end of the pew has been as- 
signed as owing to this custom. It 
may not have originated or descended 
down for this reason onlv, but that it 

was thus carried out cannot be denied. 
Portholes were made in the walls of 
the church for the marksmen to take 
their unerring aim for which they 
were so much noted. 

The old church at Derry in Dauphin 
county and that at Paxtang had a 
similar history. Some of the old sand- 
stone tombstones at Derry bear the 
dates of 1727 and 1730. But before or 
perha])s after thjs time manv of the 
early setlers were buried in unmarked 
graves. The placing of memorial 
stones was so long delayed that even- 
tually no one remained to render this 
tribute of respect to the long departed 
when not almost forgotten ? Alany of 
the inscriptions on these old sand- 
stones have been worn off or effaced 
by time and the elements so that the 
inscriptions can no longer be read. 
Many of these churches were located 
near a s])ring which ministered to the 
people after the long ser^dces. They 
came in the morning and after the 
sermon there was an intermission to 
refresh man and beast. After that was 
accomplished then the congregation 
sat through another long sermon. 
They then returned to their homes 
feeling that they had done a good 
day's work. 

Congregational singing was wholly 
in vogue in those good old days. 
T.ater the settled fine weather of May 
and June in the larger country church- 
es brought forth an immense turn out. 
Some persons lived so far away that 
they never attended church except 
t)n sacramental occasions. The long 
distance of many miles however made 
a very good excuse for their absence 
when the uncertainties of the weather 
and the condition of the roads were 
taken into consideration. Some of the 
irreverent termed them the "year- 
lings" when their presence was ob- 
served and commented upon. But 
with the increasing density of the 
Donulatic^n churches have now been 
built in almost any neighborhood, 
and the church and the school are 
brought to the |)eople instead of the 



lexerse as ()l)lained in former days. 

Many of our churches instead of 
usinja^ the German language have their 
services now conchicted wholly in En- 
glish. The English would seem to be 
the coming language. It may not be 
as grammatical or as melodious and 
exi)ressive as some others but it is a 
cosmopolitan language and seems to 
1>e laying all others under tribute. It 
has a vocabulary that is constantly 
growing and extending. While it has 
many shortcomings yet it has also 
manv things that can be said in its 
favor. It would seem to require about 
four generations to turn the language 
of a people or of a church from Ger- 
man to English. Necessity, business 
interests, social usages and other fact- 
ors would seem to be assimilative and 
thus changes are brought about silent- 
ly, slowly but surely- 

If our forefathers could arise and 
witness the changes in church archi- 
tecture and the usages and customs of 
congregations they would be filled 
with amazement. The crowds and out- 
ward forms, observances and usages 
lia\e changed very nitich. Of cotirse it 
is not maintained that these are any- 
thing but non-essential. In fact noth- 
ing wrong can be laid to the changes. 
They are only such as in the natural 
course of events are brought about, 
along with other influences that make 
for good and righteousness. There is 
no more reason why these changes 
should not be made than that the same 
buildings, customs and usages of for- 
mer times should be transmitted to the 
present. There is nothing' new under 
the sun Solomon tells us, but there is 
change of form. The old however is 
substantially preserved. What other 
changes the future may have in store 
for us cannot be foreseen, no more 
than those which have been brought 
about could be foreseen, at the settle- 
ment of the country. Churches of taste- 
ful architecture are springing up all 
over the country. Bishop ]\IcCabe said 
twenty years ago that the Methodist 

Church was building two churches a 
day while other denominations that 
exist and are working in the same 
direction must swell the aggregate 
to many more. The amount of church 
])roperty in the United States must 
reach one thousand millions or one 
billion dollars. We have been inform- 
ed but a short time ago that our Nat- 
ional a])propriations by Congress now 
reach more than one billion dollars. 
We can realize what this sum means 
when we contrast it with some other 
things of which we can form a mater- 
ial conception. 

But great changes have taken place 
in the disposal of the dead. While 
church yards are all very well in the 
intention with which they were estab- 
lished it later became evident that 
the}' were no longer available for gen- 
eral se])ulture. In fact frequent ne- 
cessity arises for churches to move t<t 
new neighborhoods. With this pos- 
sibility it was speedily determined 
that they were no longer available 
for general tise. Cemeteries especially 
in the cities and the larger towns haAc 
now taken the place of the church 
yards. These "Cities of the Dead" 
have become places of beauty and 
many tender associations which are 
connected with them for that reason. 
They have also encotiraged through 
their permanence the erection of fine 
tasteful mausoleums and memorial 
tablets to the dead. 

These places are to continue and 
they exert an infltience that is praise- 
worthy. They cultivate the finer 
feeling's of human nature and thus the 
dead continue to exert an influence on 
the living. 

r)ther methods of disposal of the 
dead ha\e been widely discussed 
but whatever can be said in their favor 
in large centres of poj^ulation and 
under certain circumstances such 
burial maintains its hold upon the 
affections of the peo]jle Here they 
see their sacred dead consigned to the 
ground, "earth t<» earth, ashes tu 



ashes in the hope of a blessed and 
giorious resurrection." 

This has been sanctioned by an- 
cient usages and a long line of pre- 
cedents that nothing" but dire necess- 
ity would seem to be able to change. 
What is long established by precedent 
and e.\j)erience is not suddenly chang- 
ed. Xor does there seem any pressing 
necessity tor doing so. The ]iublic is 
not ready to make changes that may 
be even distasteful but when necessity 
or self preservation demands them 
they are e\'er amenable to self evident 
facts and reason- However, such 
necessity seldom arises. 

America would seem to have been 
the land of promise in the futurity of 
time. Landing upon bleak and barren 
shores with scanty resources but with 
strong and willing hands and hearts 
the peti])le ])aved a pathway through 
the wilderness in the course of four 
centuries ha\e accomplished results 
that are sim])ly prodigious. They at 
once saw a necessity for the church 
and the school. They set to work and 
established "log colleges" in our state 
whose teachings turned otit men of 
ability and serxice. They became the 
teachers of the peo])le. and were instru- 
mental in forming a ptiblic opinion. 
These men became beacon lights in 
the .State and Church. The "little red 
school house" has become the univer- 
sit\' of the- nation in its diffusion of 

learning and intelligence. Pennsyl- 
vania spends millions of dollars for 
pcjpular education and no better outlay 
could be made. Civilization now pro- 
ceeds ahead of the settler But soon 
our available area for settlement will 
be taken up and then the usages and 
customs of the pioneer will depart 
and society will become organized in- 
to a compact whole of which evidenc- 
es are already appearing. Then there 
will be a tendency to uniformity in so- 
cial laws and usages. To this end it is 
in the power of the professions to con- 
tribute much. The ]:)rv.'ss, the puipit, the 
rostrum, the legal and medical pro- 
fessions one and all will have a word 
to say in this uniformity and creation 
of public opinion. AVe will advance 
not retrograde. The future is bright 
with promise notwithstanding the 
ill concealed oi^inion of the pessimist 
on the futtire of American institutions. 
( )ur hope is in all the infltiences which 
make for good. 

These thoughts are suggested by the 
l)rimitive condition and byways of 
our people which the subject of our 
article suggests thn^ugh contrast with 
])resent conditions. That we shall go 
onward and continue to accomplish 
still greater results luist be the hoi)e 
of ever_v lo\'er of his country who has 
her welfare at heart. 


New York Public Library. Its German American 


By Richard E. Helbig, Assistant Librarian 

1 1{ folUnving extracts are 
taken from a brochure of 
29 pages entitled "Ger- 
man American Research- 
es : The Growth of the 
German Collection of the 
New York Public Li- 
brary (luring 1 906- 1 907. 
I)\- Richard E. Helbig. Assistant Li- 
brarian, reprinted from German?Amer- 
ican Annals Se]jt. and Oct. 1908." 
That Mr. HelKg deserves great credit 
for the work accomplished may oe in- 
ferred from the concluding paragraph 
in which he says : 

It is customary with most or- 
ganizers of the German American 
undertakings, to appoint an 
honorary committee. This for- 
mality has been ignored in the 
unbuilding of the German Ameri- 
can collection. In the first place, 
thanks for the furtherance of the 
work are due to the Director of 
the "New York Public Library," 
Dr. John S. Billings, and to my 
immediate superior at the "Lenox 
Library Building." the 'Chief Li- 
brarian, ]\Ir. Wilberforce Eames, 
who have permitted me to agitate 
in the name of the library in favor 
of the collection. My canvass for 
material and solicitations in the 
press have given the impression 
to some German American edi- 
tors and other persons, that I 
must be the chiet of a "German 
Department" of the library. In or- 
der to correct this wrong view, I 
wish to state officially no such 
"Department" exists as yet. My 
position is "Assistant Librarian 
at the Lenox Library Building." 
The cause and cure for the want of 
due recognition of the services ren- 
dered by Germans in the history of 
(^ur country are indicated in the fol- 
lowing words : 

in Lenox Library Building, New York 

(ireat libraries ma}' be called 
literary fpiarries and workshops 
for scholars and authors. It is a 
matter of course, that such people 
will avail themselves of the op- 
portunities for work on their par- 
ticular subjects, if the materials 
for research are to be found fairly 
com])lete at some library of easy 
access. Librarians know from 
experience, that even historians of 
note and other specialitsts at 
times work only along the paths 
of least resistance. One may 
unhesitatingly blame the prevail- 
ing commercial spirit for this. The 
number of those, who do not sto]) 
at the question of expense and 
sacrifice of time without the 
prospect of tangible financial re- 
turn, is small. This factor ex- 
plains the insufficient recogni- 
tion, which the German Ameri- 
can element has thus far received 
in works of American history and 
literature. The reproach of wil- 
ful neglect is unjustifiable. 

If the German Americans and 
their decendants had seen to it at 
all times, that the complete ma- 
terials for the study of their his- 
tory, viz., records, documents. 
])rinte(l matter, German American 
new^spaper files, etc., were gath- 
ered and preserved for future use 
in the large libraries and histori- 
cal societies of this country, the 
field would have ere long been 
worked more thoroughly by 
Vmerican Historians. 

The growing German Ameri- 
can collection in the "New York 
Public Libary" therefore meets a 
long felt want. Some account of 
the origin and idea underlying 
this collection may be in place 
here. The " Lenox Library " 
(founded in 1870. and since 1895, 



by an act of consolidation part of 
the "New York Public Library, 
Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foun- 
dations"'), is famous for its val- 
uable collections of early printed 
and rare books, most of which re- 
late to North and South America 
and the adjoining Islands, also 
for its rich collections of manu- 
scripts relating to American his- 
tory. Mr. James Lenox, the noble 
founder, (born in 1800, died in 
1880), began gathering these 
treasures about 1840. Naturally 
rare books in the German 
language relating to America 
were purchased by him also. 
Among them may be named here 
the German edition of the letter 
of Christopher Columbus, giving 
the earliest information of his 
great discovery, printed at Strass- 
burg. by Bartholomew Kuestler. 
in 1497. A reprint of this Ger- 
man edition, with an introduction 
by Prof. Konrad Haebler, was 
published in 1900. Th? later 
German books of the sixteenth to 
the eighteenth centuries with 
reference to America are too 
numerous to be noted here. 
How the New York Public Library 
is reaching out for original sources of 
information is shown by these words: 
About ten years ago the man- 
agement of this library came to 
an understanding with the "Pub- 
lic Record Office" in I^ondon, to 
have copied at our expense un- 
published documents relating to 
the Loyaltists. This task was 
performed by experts. Their 
transcripts coA^er 75 folio volumes 
which are now kept in the manu- 
script department at the "Lenox 
r.ibrary P>uilding." This inval- 
ual)le mine still awaits the ex- 
ploitation of historians. At the 
outbreak of and during the Amer- 
ican Revolution many families 
of quality and wealth were on the 
side of the I^oyalists. W^henever 
the American patriots gained 

power, the Loyalists were relent- 
lessly persecuted, driven away 
and their property confiscated. 
Many of them made their flight to 
Canada and Nova Scotia, where 
the British government indemni- 
fied the refugees for their losses 
by granting them land and ad- 
vancing them money. Most of 
these transactions are accurateh^ 
recorded in the 76 volumes of 
transcripts mentioned before. 
There were also Germans among 
the Loyalists. This fact cannot 
and must not be hushed up, above 
all not by those who demand "fair 
play" on the part of Americans, 
the naked truth, and besides, the 
present generation of German 
Americans has no good reason to 
be ashamed of the Germans 
among the Loyalists. 

Among those who manifest an 
intelligent interest to further the 
study of the history of the Ger- 
man element in this country and 
the history of the various recipro- 
cal relations between Germany 
and the United States, the need 
has been felt long ago, to have a 
thorough examination of German 
archives, ])ubjic and other librar- 
ies in Germany made for the pur- 
pose of locating and calendaring 
unpublished material. In many 
cases it would be desirable to 
iiave the documents copied Avith- 
out delay. 

\\niether or in how far the 
"New York Pul^lic Library" will 
participate in this work, cannot 
be said at this time. In view of 
the manuscripts about the Ger- 
man auxiliary troops in the 
.\merican Revolution and the 
large German American collec- 
tion of printed books and pamph- 
lets in the possession of the lib- 
rary, it is to be wished, that it 
That good work is l)eing accom- 

])lished may be inferred from data like 

the following: 



An enterprise like this German 
American collection, to the 
s^rowth of which since October. 
1903, about 500 persons, institu- 
tions, orjj;-anizations and societies 
(all of great diversity) in more 
than 60 cities in the United States 
Canada and Europe have contrib- 
uted, must be a matter of gener- 
al interest. During- the years 1906- 
1907 there were sent out in con- 
nection with Lhe work 1357 
letters, post cards and other mail 
matter. Acknowledgements for 
gifts are not included in this. 

On October 6, 1907, at the 
time of the biennial convention 
of the "National German Alli- 
ance" in New York an article 
was published in the "New York- 
er Staats-Zeitung." wherein T 
gave an account of the origin and 
growth of the German American 
collection. 1 also made a plea 
for the official support of the 
" National German American Al- 
liance." In response the con- 
vention passed and adopted 
unanimously, at the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee on His- 
torical Research, the following 
resolutions : 

Resolved, That the public and 
the press be requested to support 
the German American collection 
in the New York Public Library 
to the best of their ability and to 
send material to the address be- 

Resolved, That the State, local 
and other organizations be re- 
el nested to gather printed and 
other documents in their respect- 
ive districts and to send the same, 
if possible, collectively, to the 
"New York Public Library, care 
of Richard E. Helbig. 5th Ave. 
and 70th St., New York." 

The scope of the collection em- 
braces manuscript material,books. 
pamphlets and smaller printed 
documents, periodicals newspap- 

ers, etc.. bearing on the history, 
biography and genealogy of the 
German element in America, lit- 
erary and scientific works pro- 
duced by German Americans (in 
English as well as in German), 
works about the United States in 
the German language and mater- 
ial about various reciprocal rela- 
tions between Germany and this 

The foregoing indicates a fixed 
]>rogram. Its carrying out in the 
past has been to me an arduous 
and often thankless task. The 
further pursuit of the program 
means an increase of the work, for 
which I will gladly continue to 
sacrifice my own time. Enthu- 
siasts and optimists have not died 
<iut yet. At times even such 
might become discouraged, when 
one gradually finds out, that 
many of the "Hurrah" shouters in 
the German American camp are 
unwilling- to do anything, unless 
their personal vanity is satisfied 
thereby or that financial gain 
accrues to them. 

The "New York Public 

Library" has on file m the period- 
ical room at the "Astor Librarv 
Building" over 6,000 current 
periodicals, of which over 1,000 
are in the German language. 

During the two years 3,864 
Aolumes and pamphlets have 
been received from 297 donors in 
87 cities, distributed over 24 
states of the Union. A small 
number of the pieces are not 
German-Americana, but were 
shipped to the library with such 
by some German donors, Since 
I began in October, 1903, to 
solicit gifts for the collection, 
about 5.200 volumes and pam- 
phlets were contributed until the 
end of 1907. 

1'he reader will pardon our quoting 
lhe following bearing on the use 



made of the German American Col- 
lection ; 

"Klappern gehort zum Hand- 
werk," some one may fling out 
jocosely to the librarian, who ven- 
tures to speak of the book treas- 
ures of his institution and the 
use made of them. But the 
numerous donors and patrons of 
our collection, who are scattered 
all over this great land, have 
a good claim to be informed about 
the extent of the services ren- 
dered by the collection to authors, 
iiistorians and the general public. 
It has been impossible to keep 
detailed statistics thereon. The 
work most called for is T. F. 
Chamber's "The early Germans 
of New Jersey, their history, 
churches and genealogies." 1895 ; 
secfMidly. the publications of the 
Pennsylvania - German Society. 
next, the monthly periodical. 
"The T'ennsylvania-German." 

Mr. Helbig has done well, but he 
does not propose to rest on his oars 
as may be inferred {r>m\ his language : 
In years to come, writers on 
the economic and social develo])- 
ment of the American peoj^le 
during the nineteenth centur}' 
will want to examine critically 
the share and influence which 
the millions of German, immi- 
grants ha\e had therein. In the 
chapter of this report on "news- 
l)apers and periodicals as source 
material."' I ha\e already -eferred 
to the importance of old German 
newspaper files. Here I wish to 
call attention t*^ the -value of pro- 
ceedings, re])orts. constitutions 
and by-laws and all other printed 
matter of the xarious religious de- 
nominations, schools, mutual aid 
oriza nidations, charitable institu- 

tions, societies for the cultivation 
of literature, music and singing, 
physical education and sport, etc. 
Although we have obtained a good 
quantity of such material, much 
more remains to be gathered. The 
indifiference to my efforts of some 
of the officers of these organiza- 
tions is indeed discouraging. It 
may be merely thoughtlessness on 
their i)art. Holding to this view 
1 shall approach these officers 
and societies again with requests 
and mention the result in a later 
re|)ort on the German American 
collection. But as fruitless labor 
represents also sacrifices of my 
time I^ shall not hesitate to pub- 
lish the names of such "Inaccess- 
ibles" in the preset. Perhaps 
some other peo]:)le will stir theni 
u]) then. 

\\'e regret that space does not per- 
mit our quoting at fuller lenglh from 
this document. If the reader is inter- 
ested he can get the reprint itself by 
addressing Mr. Richard E. Helbig. 
Lenox Library, New York. 

The officials of the Penna- German 
Society will not misconstrue motives 
if we make note of the fact that 
some members of the Society are of 
the opinion that work of this kind 
ought to be carried forward by the 
society. This b<^dy has done well. 
Would it not have still greater in- 
fluence if it had its own building and 
collection, surpassing, rf possible, 
the work accomplished by Mr. 
Helbig? It may be late to start on 
the work but this is not regarded 
h^ ^11 members of the society as a 
reasonable reason f(^r not making an 
attemi)t. What do our readers think 
of hax'ing a home and historic collec- 
ti(^n under the auspices of the Penna. - 
German Sc^cietv? 


Early Moravian Settlements in Berks County 

By Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. 



Another Moravian settlement was in 
what is now North Heidelberg town- 
ship, Rerks county. This is in the 
Tnlpehocken reg'ion, and the place of 
worship was where the present North 
Heidelberg Union church stands, about 
five miles north of Robesonia. It was 
the first place of public worship in the 
township, and is now the only church 
there. The first settlers in that region 
were the people who came from Scho- 
harie, N. Y., with the two Conrad 
Weisers in 1723 and 1729 They were 
nearly all Lutheran and Reformed 
people. One of these was Tobias 
Bickel, Reformed, who came here in 
1736 and located near the site of the 
present church. 

The Moravian records state that 
Count Zinzendorf preached frequently 
in Heidelberg in 1741 and 1742, the 
last time in December of the latter 
year. In the spring of 1743 Rev. Gott- 
lieb Blittner was sent to these people, 
and the}' accepted him. R^-. J. P- 
Meurer also preached at this place. 

Rev. Jacob Lischy, who was ordain- 
ed in January, 1743, by the Moravians 
at Bethlehem to preach among the Re- 
formed people, commenctd his work 
in Heidelberg in the same year soon 
after his ordination. Services were held 
at times in the house of Tiibias Bickel, 
immediately east of the present 
church, and in the house of Frederick 
Gerhart. immediatl}' west of the 
church. The Gerhart tract is now a 
fine, large farm. At first Mr. Lischy 
met with considerable success. But 
soon dissatisfaction arose over Mr. 
Lischy, the preacher. The people were 
Reformed, not Moravians, and they 
charged him with being a Moravian. 
He tried to carry water on both shoul- 
ders and to serve two masters. \Mien 

with the Reformed people, he was Re- 
formed ; but when with the Moravians, 
he was one of them. Already in the 
summer of his first year matters reach- 
ed a critical point, and Mr. Lischy call- 
ed a conference to meet at Mr. Bickel's 
house on August 29, 1743, to consider 
charges made against him. This was. 
as far as known, the first meeting of 
its kind ever held in Berks county. It 
was attended by fifty elders and dea- 
cons from twelve places where Lischy 
had been preaching. The principal 
charge against him was that he was a 
Zinzendorfer, ( Moravian. ) This 

shows that the people were not really 
.Moravians. It was also claimed that 
he was not an ordained minister. 
Lischy denied that he was a Moravian, 
but admitted that he respected these 
peo':)le as Christians. He also exhibit- 
ed his certificate of ordination. In 
this way he succeeded in pacifying the 

One of the remarkable things in 
connection with this meeting is that 
so many people could find the way to 
this is(^lated place. Many came from 
a distance. There were then no real 
roads, only Indian trails through the 
then wilderness- The place is hard to 
find cN'en at the present time. Some 
years ago Rev. T. C. Leinl^ach, the 
present pastor of the Reformed con- 
gregation, engaged a theological stu- 
dent to ])reach in the North Heidel- 
berg church. The student came on 
Sunday morning to RobestMu'a and 
started oflf to the church, five miles 
distant, but he ne\"er found it, and the 
])eople were disappomte<l. 

A meeting similar to the one de- 
scribed above was held in Muddy 
Creek church, Lancaster county, for 
the same purpose, on March 21, 1745. 
There Lischv A\as asked whether he 



was a ]^Iora^•ian, but he at first evaded 
the question. However, when con- 
fronted by the other Moravian-Re- 
formed ministers present, Revs. Bech- 
rel. Rauch and Antes, Lischy publicly 
acknowledged that he was in connec- 
tion with the Moravians at Bethlehem. 
Rut there also he persuaded the people 
to continue him as pastor. 

Mr. Lischy's activity in North 
Heidelbero^ was of short duration. It 
continued only about a year. He was 
succeeded by Rev- Anthony Wagner 
in January, 1744. Lischy's conduct 
was satisfactory neither to the people 
nor to the Moravians at Bethlehem, 
lie was called to the latter place and 
severely reprimanded, and urged to 
come out boldly for what he really 
stood. He wavered a long time. Fin- 
ally the Synod of 1747 insisted that he 
must declare himself clearly. This he 
refused to do for some tiuiC, buc finally 
in 1748. he turned his back on the 
Moravians, returned to the Reformed 
church, and was some time later ac- 
cented as a member of the Coetus or- 
ganized by Schlatter the year before. 
He made a written confession of his 
faith, dated October 29, 1748, in which 
he declared his adherence to the doc- 
trine of the Heidelberg Catechism. At 
the same time he expressed himself in 
severe terms against the Moravians. 
He also preached and published a 
strong sermon against them. 


.\fter the withdrawal of Lischy from 
Xorth Heidelberg in January, 1744. 
matters moved along more pleasantly 
under the ministrations of Rev. An- 
thony \A"agner. another Moravian. In 
that year a small log church and 
school house was erected upon a tract 
of 2% acres of land which the above- 
named Tobias Bickel donated for 
church and cemetery purposes. The 
building was dedicated on November 
4. 1744. during a meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Synod, over which Rev. 
TIenrv Antes presided. In this build- 
ing church services were held and a 
school conducted- Five months later. 

on April 9, 1745, Bishop A. G. Spang- 
enberg organized a Moravian con- 
gregation in the church, and adminis- 
tered the communion to eight persons. 
Frederick Bickel, a brother of Tobias 
Bickel, was the first elder. Soon after 
the membership was augmented by 
Moravian adherents at Rieth's church, 
who withdrew there on account of 
some difficulties. About this time the 
membership consisted of these per- 
sons :Tobias Bickel, Frederick Bickel. 
Stephen Brecht, John Fisher, sr., John 
Fisher, jr., Frederick Gerhart, Nicholas 
Glass, John Graeff, John Zerby, the 
wives of the above persons and John 
Keller, a widower. Most of them were 
Reformed. Rev. Daniel Neubert and 
his wife were the first occupants of the 
dwelling part of the building. 

Although the log church was erected 
in 1744, Tobias Bickel, the donor of the 
land, gave a deed only on May 15. 
1753, when he conveyed the land to 
John Okely. the agent of the Mora- 
\ians. On September 4, of the same 
year John Okely conveyed the same 
to Christian Henry Rauch, John Bech- 
tel, Henry Antes, Jacob Miller and 
John Moyer in trust for the congre- 

It appears that this congregation. 
like that in Oley. never had a particu- 
lar name. Rev. Reichel states that "the 
awakened of this neighborhood applied 
to the Synod to be permitted to enter 
their connection without a name." 

The building was two-storied. The 
first story was occupied by the teacher 
as a dwelling, and the second story 
was used for school and church pur- 
poses, the same as in the case of the 
Olev building. The school included 
other children than those of church 
members. Daniel Neubert was its first 
teacher. Subse(|uent teachers were 
Messrs. U'crner, Weile.;':er and 

This early log church was remark- 
able for its size and substantial charac- 
ter. There are people still living who 
frequentlv attended services in it. The 
old church stood until the year 1862 



ami was latterly occuiiied by the chor- 
ister. It was the only house of worshi]) 
in the lary-e township of North Heidel- 
berg- from 1/44 until 1846, 102 years, 
when the present brick church was 
erected at the same place. The new- 
church is still the only house of wor- 
shin in the towMiship. 

It has fre(|uently been stated that 
when the new church was erected in 
1846. the old loi>- church was demolish- 
ed. This is an error. The old church 
was allowed to stand until 1862, as 
above stated. In this year it was de- 
molished, and the lc\^s. which were 
still in g-ood condition, were used in 
erecting; a two-story log frame house 
on the old site. This house is at present 
occu'iied by the sexton of the church, 
Mr. \\^illiam Kalbach. 

.\fter Rev. Anthony Wagner the 
congregation was supplied by Revs. 
Lenhart, Ranch, Schweinitz and Lich- 
tenthaeler, Mr. Lenhart was particu- 
larly i:»opular among the Reformed and 
Lutheran people. 

As at Oley, the North Heidelberg- 
congregation was never strong, and its 
prosnerity did not continue long. The 
membership decreased, partly because 
of the removal of some to the west, and 
from other causes. However services 
were maintained for a long time, vast- 
ly longer than at Oley. About the year 
1830 the North Heidelberg congrega- 
tion became extinct, although a few 
members still remained. 

About 1 83 1 the Reformed and Lu- 
theran i)eople took possession and 
established nreaching in the old log 
church. The first Reformed pastor ap- 
nears to have been Rev. Benjamin 
I)oyer. who ])reached also at Bern and 
several other nlaces in Berks County, 
at .^tunr)stown (Fredericksburg). 
Lebanon countv. and also in Pine- 
grove. Schuylkill county. He was fol- 
lowed by Rev. Isaac Miesse, another 
Reformed minister, who served some 
years. .\ subsequent Reformed pastor 
was Rev. William .\. Good, the first 
sunerintendent of the pul)lic schools 
in Berks county, who served two terms 
in this |)psition, froni 1854 to t86o. 

Through his amiable disposition he 
(lid much to allay the early opposition 
against the new school system. He 
served as i)astor of Bcrnville and 
.Vorth I Iei(lell)erg from 1854 to i860. 
Many of the older residents remember 
his preaching in the old log Moravian 
church with pleasure. Mr. Good was 
the father of Dr. James I. Good, a 
])rominent minister of the Reformed 
church. In i85o Rev. T. C. Leinbach 
became the Reformed pastor and has 
continued in olYice until the present 
time, a period of 48 years. One of the 
lirst Lutheran pastors was Rev. Geo. 
\V. Alennig. At present the Latheran 
congregation is vacant and is being 
snp]died 1)y \arious ministers and 

In 1846 the Reformed and Lutheran 
l)eople, with the assistance of the few 
remaining Moravians, ■ erected the 
I)resent brick church, which is a one- 
story building of good si/e A stone 
o\er the door contains this inscrip- 
tion : "Die Neue Nord Heidelberg 
Kirche, erbauet im Jahr 1846. John 
Lamm und Jakob Lengel, Baumeister, 
John Conrad, Schatzmeister. Bew^ahre 
deinen Fuss, wann du zum Hause 
Gottes gehest, und komme class du 
horest, das ist besser denn der Narren 
0')fer. Einweihung den 15 und 16 Mai. 
1847." -^s stated above, the old log- 
church erected in 1744 \vas allowed to 
stand until 1862. 


'ilie old graveyard at this church is 
a \-erv interesting object. Here the 
evidence is found that although the 
peo])le at first refused to be known as 
Moravians, afterward the Moravian 
customs prevailed. For a long time 
the Moravian custom of laying the 
tombstones fiat upon the graA-es was 
followed — ai)i)arently in connection 
with all burials. In the older or west- 
ern ])art of the graveyard all the 
stones were i)laced in this manner. 
Man\- of the stones had sunk some- 
what beneath the surface of the 
ground. I s])ent the greater part of a 
(lav ujxtn this interesting and sacred 



spot, in company with my good friend. 
-Mr. William D. Klopp, in deciohering 
the inscriptions on the stones. For- 
tunately some one had visited the 
place a few weeks previously and 
raised all the stones which had been 
covered. This facilitated my work 

It is difficult to describe my leelings 
as I stood at the graves of these 
people who came here i8o years ago 
and founded homes in a wilderness 
among the Indians. I copied the in- 
scriptions on all the old gravestones, 
as far as they could be deci]:)hered. 
And fortunately and singularly nearly 
all of them could be deciphered. It is 
surprising- how well preserved most 
of the inscriptions are, notwithstand- 
ing their age. There is no doubt that 
the covering of moss and ground has 
greatly preserved them against the 
ravages of time. The suggestion of a 
friend greatly aided me in my work, 
strewing ground upon the stones and 
then rubbing them with grass. This 
made the inscriptions clear to a re- 
markable extent. Another surprising 
thing is the fact that many of the in- 
scriptions on the early tombstcnes are 
in English or Latin letters, and sev- 
eral in the English language. This is 
not easily explained, since the people 
were Germans. Possibly the residence 
of these Palatines in New York state 
during some years may be a partial 

Many of the tt)mbstonc^ aro num- 
bered. I made a special search for the 
tombstones of the founders of the con- 
greg'ation. T failed to find those of 
Tobias P>ickel, the first settler and 
donor of the church land, and of Fre- 
derick P)ickel, his brother the first 
elder. lUit I found that of Frederick 
(ierhart, in whose house the pioneer 
ministers preached, and that of Ste- 
])hen Rrecht, one of the first members. 

I must content niA'self Avith giving 
only a few of the inscriptions on the 
tombstones at North Keidelbeig: 

Stephen Brecht, geboren den 17 
Februar. 1692, starb den 24. Sept. An- 
no T747. This is the oldest stone found. 

Frederick Gerhardt. geboren in der 
Wetterau, 1714 den 26. Mertz. Ver- 
schied 1779, der 30. November. 

Maria Riedin, geboren den 2ten 
Febr., 1709. Verschied Oct. 6, 1760. 

Maria Catharina Conradin, geboren 
in Behl bei Laudau in der Pfaltz, den 
23ten Sept. 1725. Verschied den 8ten 
Merz 1797. 

Jacob Conrad, geboren in Mintes- 
heim, Hanauischen, den 3 Febr. 1717. 
Verschied den 5ten September 1798. 

Johann Tobias Beckel, wurde ge- 
boren den 6ten December 1754, in 
Heidelberg, und starb den 24ten De- 
cember, 1814. in Harrisburg, war alt 
60 Jahr, 17 Tag. 

Anna Sabilla Fischer, born Jan. 7. 
1700, in Zenach, departed Dec. 16. 

Christina Boecklin, born May 6. 
1714. in Palatin. Departed Tan. 31. 

1 775-. 

Elizabeth Wagnerin, born Oct. 4. 
1710, at Miilhausen. Departed May 8, 

Elizabeth Sturgis. born Dec. 13. 
1707. died April 8. 1768. 

Simon Aigler, born April I, 1717 at 
}ilanheim, Wiirttemberg, Starb April 
6, 1788. 

Frederick Unger. born November 
10, 1728, in Brandeburg Departed 
April 2. 1779. 

The names occurring most frequent- 
ly are Pdckel and Conrad. The for- 
mer is spelled in three ways — Boeckel. 
Beckel and Bickel. 

The graveyard is kept in good con- 
dition and presents a strong contrast 
to that in Oley. The place has been 
much enlarged. The buiials in more 
modern times have been made in the 
eastern part, where all the stones are 
standing, although many of them are 
in a leaning position (^n account of de- 
fectix'e foundations. The Moravians 
still have a legal right in the church 
]iroperty. but never make use ot it. 

Rev. Mr. Lischy also preached for 
some time in the Bern church, nine 
miles northward of Reading, but this 
was never a Moravian congregation. 
Tt was a Reformed congregation or- 



<,^anized in 1739 by Rev. John Plenry 
(joetscliey, who opened the baptismal 
record in the same year, four years be- 
fore the ordination of Libchy. The 
people accepted Mr. Lischy probably 
l)ecause of the scarcity of ministers 
and because Zinzendorf had recom- 
mended him and stated that he had 
l)reached in Switzerland. The latter 
fact created confidence in Lischy, who 
then preached in Bern from 1743 to 


Lischy from the first met with much 
opposition at Hern, but his friends 
took possession of the church and ad- 
mitted him. He reported that those 
who were awakened here held to the 
.Morth Heidelbero^ church. He also 
reported that if the people had not 
been so stifif Reformed, the congrega- 
tion could have been won for the 
Mora\ians, which had been the inten- 
tion. Jacob Risser testified at one 
time that he heard Count Zinzendorf 
tell Lischy in his own (Risser's) 
Itouse to take charge of the Reformed 
at Bern and bring them over to him. 
Tn February. 1745, Mr. Lischy report- 
ed eleven "awakened" souls at Bern. 
Seven of these were Reformed. 

Lischy also preached several times 
at the Blue IMountain in Berks county, 
as well as at various places in adjoin- 
ing counties. He was the first Mora- 
\ian representative to visit Lebanon, 
which occured in May of 1743, and a 
congregation was organized at Heb- 
ron, then a suburb of Lebanon in 1745. 
lie also preached at Warwick now 
[jtitz, Lancaster county until 1747, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. Daniel 
Xeubert, who laid the foundations for 
the present large Moravian congrega- 
tion in Lititz. 

Rev. Mr. Lischy was an unfortu- 
nate man. There was con --tant trouble 
with him. He was disobedient, and 
was later charged with falling into 
grievous sins. .'Xfter leaving Berks 
county he ])reached in York county 
at se\eral places. In the western part 
of that county he founded a congrega- 
tion which still bears his name. He 
was deposed from the ministry, and 

finally retired to a farm, where he re- 
sided until his death in 1781. 


The Moravians sought to obtain a 
foothold in the Lutheran RiethV 
church in the Tulpehocken region, 
near Stouchsburg, in the western ])art 
of Berks county. The original mem- 
bers had come there in 1723 with Con- 
rad Weiser, sr. In 1727 a small log 
church was erected. The building was 
also intended to serve as a place of se- 
curity and defense against the Indians. 
For this pur])ose a vault was con- 
structed under the earthen floor of the 
church, where arms and ammunition 
might be stored. In 1729 Conrad 
Weiser, jr., arrived with the second 
colony of Palatines from New York, 
and he at once united with' the flock. 
Whilst the building was Lutheran 
property, the Reformed people also 
worshiped in it for a number of years. 
Rev. John P. Boehm administered the 
first communion to the Reformed 
])eople in October of 1727 to 32 pers- 
ons. From 1 73 1 to 1755 the erratic 
Rev. John Peter Miller was the Re- 
formed pastor, until he together with 
Conrad Weiser. the schoolmaster and 
four elders, united with the Seventh 
Day Baptists at Ephrata. Miller be- 
came the head of their cloister, but 
Weiser returned to the Lutheran 

For some 3'ears the people at Rieth's 
could not secure a regular pastor. In 
1733 Casper Leutbecker, a pious tailor 
and schoolmaster, commenced to 
serve the Lutheran people as " Yor- 
leser," conducting services and read- 
in* sermons. He was afterward made 
their regular pastor. Not long after 
a conflict arose which became very 
bitter and continued a long time. This 
period is known as the "Tulpehocken 
Confusion," It is stated that the dif- 
ficulty arose through the refusal of 
Rev. y\r. Leutbecker to baptize a 
child, which an intoxicated man had 
brought. Upon a second refusal by 
Mr. Leutbecker the fathci- went to the 
Conestoga in Lancaster county and 



engaged Rev. Casper Stoever to bap- 
tize the child. The latter consented, 
came to Tulpehocken and baptized the 
child. This act gave great offense to 
the people, and soon there were two 
parties — a Leutbecker and a Stoever 
])arty. Mr. Stoever commenced to 
])reach in barns, and soon after secured 
entrance into the church. For some 
time there were two sets of Lutheran 
church officers, and two parties con- 
tended for the control of the church. 
The authorities decided in favor of the 
Leutbecker party. It is claimed that 
several efforts were uiade to kill Rev, 
Air. Leutbecker. This sad experience 
<leStroyed his health and he died in 
1738. Bishop Spangenberg preached 
his funeral sermon. Rev. Mr. Stover 
now had full sway for several years. 
About this time the Reformed people 
withdrew and erected a Reformed 
church at Host, five miles north of 

Conrad Weiser held to the Leut- 
becker party. In 1742 Weiser brought 
Count Zinzendorf, the Moravian lead- 
er, to Tul])ehocken, and later Zinzen- 
dorf sent Rev. Gottlieb Biittner, one 
■)f those ordained at the great meeting 
in Oley, in February of the same A^ear. 
to preach in the Rieth church. It 
is claimed that Zinze'idorf here renre- 
sented himself as a Lutheran. The 
comuig of Rev. Biittner wa- by no 
means calculated to end the struggle, 
but rather to intensify it. The Stoev- 
er ])arty regarded him as an u)i-Luth- 
eran interloper. Lie soon became dis- 
gusted and left. Zinzendorf again 
N'isited the ulace in the beginning of 
August of the same year, 1742. but he 
was threatened with jiersonal injury. 
The confusion was now great. The 
Moravians were largely blamed for 
ihe continuance of this trouble. The 
church officers at this time, under date 
of :\ngust TT, T742. ])ublished a state- 
ment which was attested by Conrad 
Weiser. and this had a pacifying ef- 

Soon after another Moraxian minis- 
ter. Rev. 1. Philip Meurer. arrived 
ffi nu Furore and assumed the ])astor- 

ate at Rieth's church. The Stoever 
party was greatly in the minority, 
and in the fall of the same year, 1742, 
withdrew and organized Christ Luth- 
eran church and located a mile west 
of Stouchburg. The Moravians now 
had full control for some years. 

In 1745 the people resolved to erect 
a new church at Rieth's, durmg the 
pastorate of Rev. J. P. Meurer. By 
invitation of the trustees Bishop 
St)angenberg, Zinzendorf's successor, 
laid the corner-stone on April i. A 
hymn was sung which had been com- 
posed for the occasion, and which 
was afterward included in the Mora- 
vian hymn book. The new church 
was dedicated on December i, 1745, by 
Bishop Spangenberg. Rev. Abraham 
Reincke and Pastor Meurer. The com- 
munion was administered to 22 pers- 
ons. The congregation at that time, 
according to the list placed into the 
corner-stone, consisted of thirteen 
families and yj children. 

Soon after this the Moravian influ- 
ence at Rieth's declined. In 1745 
some of the Moravians withdrew and 
united with the flock in North lleidel- 
])erg. After some time the Moravians 
claimed a property right in Rieth's 
cliurch on account of having contrib- 
uted to its erection. Subsequently 
tiiey brought suit, and the matter 
came to trial in April 26, 1755. and the 
decision was in favor of th.e Lutherans 
and against the Moravians. 

This ended the effort of the Mora- 
\ians to establish themselves in the 
Rieth's church. The Moravian min- 
isters who preached at various times 
at Rieth's seem to have been Bishops 
Zinzendorf. Snangenberg and Cam- 
merhof, and Revs. Gottlieb Biittner. 
I. P. Meurer, ]. H. Rahner, Andrew 
Eschenbach, C. fl. Ranch, George 
Xiecke. lohn Brucher and I. C. Pyr- 

The stone church of 1745 was used 
until 1837. when a new and much 
larger stone church was erected at the 
old site. Tliis third church stood un- 
til 1002, Avhen it a\ as demolished, af- 


U'l" the coiii^Tegation had erected a new 
churcli ill the villai^e of Stouchshurg. 


The A'Jora\ians also made an eft'ort 
to gain entrance at INlolatton, now 
Douglassville. in the southern part of 
I'.erks count}". This place was a part 
of tlie large .Manatawny tract which 
was taken tip in 1701 by Rev. .\ndre\\ 
Rudman, who came to America in 
1697. and a number of other Lutheran 
Swedes who had ]M-eceded him to the 
Xew \\'orld. Ilere they erected a 
small log church about the year 1700. 
which was the first house of worship 
ever erected in Berks county. Rev. 
Mr. Rudman was ])astor of the Wi- 
caco church in Philadelphia and also 
supplied Afolatton. Rev. Mr. Hesse- 
lius was the first resident pastor at 
Molatton. lie was succeeded by Rev. 
Gabriel balk who commenced the 
church record in 1735. He was pastor 
until 1745. in 1736 a new and larger 
log church was commenced, but com- 
l)leted only in 1737. In this second 
church a number of conferences were 
held between the Indians and govern- 
ment officials. This church stood un- 
til i<^3i. when it was destroyed by fire. 

In 1742 the Moravians sough.t to se- 
cure possession of this church, under 
the leadershi]) of Count Zinzendorf. 
who visited the place. A young Swede 
uamed Rrycelius was sent to IMolat- 
tnn. .\s stated, the first settlers there 
were Lutheran Swedes. By this time 
the settlement also included some 
luigiish. Irish and German people. 
The young man met with some suc- 
cess in winning the favor of the 
people, and he announced services in 
the church to be conducted by himself 
on a certain day. On this occasion 
Pastor Falk went early to chuich and 
in the pulpit awaited the arrival of the 
young missionar}-. .\fter the people 
had assembled in the church, the 

young Swede made his a|)])earance. 
Pastor b'alk. who was then already an 
aged man. came down from the pul- 
l)it, met him and said: "Vou enter the 
sheepfold as a thief and murderer." 
and at the same time gave him a se- 
vere blow upon the mouth. Before a 
confiict could arise the peojjle se])a- 
rated the two. 

It is stated that the .Min-a\ians se- 
cured some foothold at Molatton, be- 
cause Re\'. Mr. Vr\\< was frequently 
away from home. Then he was an 
aged man. and could no longer win 
the i)eo])le to himself as the young 
Swede could do. Besides the Mora- 
\ians offered to preach without re- 
muneration, and this pleased some of 
the people. Cut their success was 
only temporar}', and the effort to es- 
tablish a Moravian flock at Molatton 
was soon abandoned. 

These statements are not made in 
the spirit of criticism. The Moravians 
no doubt acted from good motives. 
The facts are cited merely as matters 
of history. As far as I know there are 
at present no Moravians in Berks 
county. There are a few persons of 
Moravian descent here, but they are 
members of other denominations. 
Xearly all. if not all. those who com- 
posed the two small flocks in Oley 
and North Heidelberg, had been won 
from other denominations, and when 
the congregations collapsed the re- 
maining members, with few excep- 
tions, returned to the original church 
affiliations of their fathers. 

*January issue near foot of page 23, 
second column, should read: The first 
Bishop was David Nitchman, who was con- 
secrated in 1735. 

Page 28 top of 1st column, the b iptismal 
or Christian names of the Indians should 
have been: Shabash was baptized Abraham: 
Stein, Isaac: and Kiop. .Jacob; and the 
name Okely omitted. 

A few lines below these "precautions" 
should read persecutions, and on page 29, 
2nd col. numerous "lots" should be holes. 

John Early (Johannes Oehrle) and His Descendants 

By Rev. J. W. Early, Reading, Pa. 

HE spelling' of the original 
family name is not the 
same everywhere. In 
Switzerland it is gener- 
ally spelled Oehrle. 
Throughout Wuertem- 
burg, vvhence John E. 
came, it is most gener- 
ally Oehrle. In some instances it is 
Oehrlin. In some older records Ehrle 
is frequently met with. 

It will not be necessary to give an 
extended history of his ancestry, so 
far traceable only to his grandfather, 
Thomas Oehrle, who is said to have 
come from L'Lauffen Oberamt 
(county seat) Balingen, near the 
Swiss boundary. In his new home. 
Jesingen, Ober-amt Kirchheim an 
der Feck, his family attained some 
l^rominence. his son having become 
town clerk and having married into 
the family of the judge and treasurer 
of the town. 


In 1670 he married Agatha Eud- 
riss at Jessingen. He died prior to 
1710. She died in 171 1. They had 
nine children. John George, b. 1672 ; 
Anna Mary b. 1673 ; John b. 1675 ; 
Agnes b. 1676; Agatha b. 1677; Jacob 
b. Sept. 1679 ; Barbara. 1681 ; Rosina. 
1684; Thomas. May 1687. Nothing is 
known about any of them except 
Jacob and Thomas. 


It is a pecular fact that Jacob Oehr- 
lin the older of these two boys who be- 
came a weaver, generally spelied his 
name Oehrlin. He married Anna 
Regina Kihlkopf of Ohinden near 
Kirchheim, Feby. 4, 1704. These child- 
ren were born to them ; Rosina, 1706, 
were born to them : Rosina, 1706. 
died the same year; Anna Catharine, 
1707 and died 1708; Joseph Ludwig, 

(^f him we have no further informa- 
tion. Being left a widower Jacob 
married again — Margaret — whose 
family name is not given. He died 
Sept. 26, 1744, aged 65 years 


The youngest son, as well as 
youngest child, was a school teacher 
at Jesingen. He afterward became 
Court Clerk. February 25, 1710, he 
married Margaret, daughter of Jacob 
Fensterle, judge and treasurer of the 
town. Nine children were born to 
them. Thomas b. 1710 and died 1713 : 
Christine, 1712; John Jacob, I7i4and 
died 1717; John Martin, 1716 and 
died 1717; Anna Catharine, 1718: 
Anna Margaret 1721, died in infancy; 
George and John Jacob, twins, 1722. 
both dying under five years of age, 
and John, Jan. 9, 1724. The wife died 
February 8, 1735. 

He married again — Christine All- 
geier, daughter of Conrad, a judge at 
this time. They had Thomas, 1736. 
(lied 1745; John George. 1738 and 
died 1746; Agnes, 1739, died 1741 ; 
Anna Barbara, 1741, became the wife 
of George Haiteman ; a farmer of 
Jesingen. She died 1798; Christine, 
1743; Conrad 1746, died 17^7. Thomas 
E., died Nov. 25, 1746. aged 59^ 
years. It will be seen from this that 
John, the youngest son of the first 
wife, was the only male descendant 
who reached the age of manhood, and 
that unless his cousin Joseph Ludwig 
reached maturity and married, when 
John came to America, this family 
had died out in Germany, and there- 
fore Jacob Early of Amity township, 
Berks county. afterAvards of Donegal. 
Lancaster county, must have belong- 
ed to another family. We think the 
supposition that he came from Lauf- 
fen, retaining the old spelling Ehrle. 
would hardlv be considered far- 



ielchcd. although it could hardly be 
considered as proven. 


At the ai^e of 26 he left Jesingen 
and set sail for America. He arrived 
at Philadelphia in the ship Brothers, 
from Rotterdam, Capt. Muir, Aug. 24, 
1750. He seems to have found his way 
at once to Londonderry township, 
[^ancaster county, then Dauphin, now 
Lebanon county, Pa. It was this 
l)eculiar shifting of township rela- 
tion that gave rise to the strange, al- 
though true statement, that two of his 
grandsons, although remaining in the 
same township during their entire 
lives, were born in Lancaster, mar- 
ried in Dauphin, died and were buried 
in Lebanon county, without removing 
from their original district. 

Apparently he did not remain here 
\ery long. In 175 1 we find him in the 
newly laid out town of Reading, where 
he had bought lot 135, where the 
bookstore of John George Hintz and 
the store immediately west of it are 
now located. Although he gives his 
residence as Londonderry township, 
Lancaster county, he evidently pur- 
])osed to remain at Reading, for some 
time. h'nr in January 1752 we find 
him among the members of Trinity 
l\\angelical Lutheran church. Peter 
Schneider and he were made the 
lUiildino- Committee. Building Mas- 
ters they .are called. The}^ evidently 
had the o\ersight of the operations 
and did the car]K^nter work. John E. 
was a carpenter. 

April 10. 1753. he married Susanna 
lirumbach. Christian, a son, was 
)>()rn to them January 13, 1754. In 
the latter part of October or the first 
half of Xi)\-ember the wife died. She 
was a member of the Reformed 

h'arly in spring the following year 
we find he has taken u]) his residence 
in Londonderry again. March ii, 
( .Stoe\er says loth) he married ]\Iary 
Regina Lichele. a family name which 
is s]:)elled al)out half a dozen different 

ways by Stoever. Ilis children by 
this marriage were John, b. July 2, 
1757; John William, Aug. 10, 1763; 
Thomas, November 4, 1767; Anna 
Catharine. July 7, 1772; Anna, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1779; four others whose 
names are not recorded. He died Oc- 
tober 19. 1796, aged "^2 years, 9 months 
and 10 days. He was buried at the 
Bindnagel's church, of which he was 
one of the principal members, and ap- 
parently one of the founders. 

He showed his deep interest in this 
church by formulating a plan for its 
endowment. He took seven pounds 
of the money in its treasury, paying 
one shilling per pound interest, and 
adding seven shillings annually until 
the whole sum should bring two 
pounds interest per annum. After 
that stage was reached there was to 
be a settlement, and from that time on 
(^ne half of the interest was to be 
paid to the pastor and the other half 
was to be added to the principal. 
There was another fund — the bequest 
of Geo. Bergner, another member of 
the congregation. The principal, one 
hundred pounds, was to be put at in- 
terest, one third of the income was 
for the pastor, another third for the 
schc~)ol teacher, and the othc third 
was to he added to the principal. 

At first he resided about half a mile 
south of the Bindnagel's church, on a 
part of the Hindnagel tract. In 1773 
he bought the "Betines" farm from 
Leonard Deimnever. Its northeast 
corner touched the i:)resent Palmyra 
cemetery. Avhich at that time was the 
southwest corner of the John Adam 
Deinmyer farm, which extended east- 
ward and included the entire site o^ 
Palmyra, eastward from thac point. 
What the relationship of the two 
Deinmyers was we are unable to say. 
The "Betimes" farm was first deeded 
to Leonard Deinmyer in 1751. About 
20 years later John Karly sold a striji 
of 50 acres to his son Christian, who 
again sold it to .\ndrew Henrv. This 
is now a part of the Oliver Henry 
farm. The balance of nearly 200 


acres became the property of the sec- 
ond son, John Early, Esq., Justice of 
the Peace, of the third district, Ann- 
ville and Londonderry. His widow 
survived him from 15 to 20 years, 
being- present, as sponsor, at the bap- 
tism of a g-reatgrandson in 181 1. No 
trace of the time of her death or the 
|)lace of burial has been found 


The first of this family born in this 
country married Elizabeth Killinger, 
May 24. 1779. Their children as re- 
corded in the family Bible, were : 
Christian, b. Aug. 25, 1780. died Sept. 
4, 1781 ; John, February 18, 1783; 
Anna Catharine, May 3, 1784; Wil- 
liam. Aug. 20, 1785: John George. 
March 29, 1787, died March 7, 1848; 
Susanna, December 7, 1788; Eliza- 
beth. March 15, 1790; Christian, Jan. 
12, 1795; the name of the one .between 
these last two is entirely illegible ; 
Regina. February 25, 1799; Thomas, 
March 29, 1801 ; Margaret, June 12, 
1803. Apparently Christian Earl re- 
sided on his father's original tract, a 
short distance south of the Bindnagel 
church for a time. Then he bought 
30 acres of the northern part of the 
"Retimes" farm. This he subse- 
quently sold to Andrew Henrv (snr.) 
lie then purposed going into the 
iron business and bought a tract close 
to the Manada Creek. But finding his 
means inadecjuate, he disposed of this 
tract, and uurchased a piece of land, 
several miles farther southeast, and 
erected a grist and saw mill on the 
Poe or Bow creek. Up to within a 
few years ag^o it was still owned by 
his descendants. Tt is- still known as 
F^arly's Mill. It was carried on by 
his son John George, and after him by 
Iiis grandson. 

It is said that while engaged in 
helping to rebuild the Bindnagel 
church, there being neither bridge nor 
ferry at the time, he fell into the icy 
waters of the Swatara while floating 
lumber across. Through this he con- 

tracted a cold from which he never re- 
covered. He died Auguest 23, 1803. 
at the age of 49 years, 7 months and 
10 days. Nearly all the Earlys of 
Hanover, and they are quite numer- 
ous, are his descendants. One of them. 
Dr. Early, formerly of Belle Grove, 
Lebanon county, had settled in Read- 
ing, a few years ago, but he died 
young. They are related to the Kil- 
lingers, the Heilmans, the Beavers, 
the Poormans. and m fact to nearly 
all the families of that section. This 
branch of the family is noted for 
great physical strength. There are 
numerous traditions concerning ex- 
hibitions of strength on the part of 
the older settlers. It is said of one of 
the K's that upon a banter he would 
take a barrel of cider by the ends and 
lift it on a wagon. It is also related 
concerning a member of this family, 
E. of Hanover that having gone to the 
mountain at the time, returning- he 
met a bear. Bruin evidently desir- 
ous of making his acquaintance, came 
towards him. The man ran to a large 
chestnut tree. But before he could 
climb it, the bear was there too. So 
they had a sprinting match around 
the tree for a time. Finding that he 
was becoming winded, the man 
concluded that he might as well meet 
the bear first as last. So he stopped 
and Bruin advanced to the fray on 
his hind feet. The man seized him 
by the jaw and began to kick him in 
the groin. The result was a dead 
bear. The man becoming the victor, 
lived on bear meat for a while. No 
affidavits were ever made in this case. 
But stories of this character are ofif- 
set by others, tending to show that 
people everywhere will boast some- 
times. It is said that one of the H. 
family at one time was boasting of 
the great physical strength of an 
uncle, and said: "Der vetter is awer 
stark. Er hot a Sack voll Spreu 
g'shouldert vor'm Morge Esse." 
Everyone can draw his own conclu- 
sions as to a feat of that kind. 


Charles Shearer Keyser 


By Naaman H. Keyser, D. D. S., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1 1 E late Charles Shearer 
Keyser. the subject of 
our sketch. \vas born in 
Germantown, June i8, 
1825. He was the son of 
Joseph and Susan Shear- 
er Keyser and grandson 
of Jacob Souplis Keyser, 
who built the house m which he was 
born. No. 6207 Main street. It 
stands next above the original Key- 
ser house the ancestor of the family in 
America, who came from Amsterdam 
Holland, and settled in Germantown. 
in 1688. 

Charles S. Keyser received his 
early education in Germantown. In 
1842 he entered the University of 
Penns3dvania. and was admitted to 
the bar in 1848. During the Civil 
War he served as a private in the 
First City Trooo, attached to the 
Second United States Cavalr}'. under 
Colonel George H. Thomas He served 
one term in City Councils Fie was 
a fluent talker in English and Ger- 
man and was often called u])on to 
make addresses. He took an active 
interest in labor iiroblems. and was at 
one time the labor party's candidate 
for District Attorney. 

Afr. Keyser was one of the original 
l)romoters of Fairmount Park, and his 
tracts did much to induce the city to 
I^urchase the private estates along the 
Schuylkill. In uS^A he oublished a 
paper on "Lenntu Hill." Of this 
jiamphlet Ferdinand j. Dreer. the 
owner (^f Lemon Hill, afterwards 
said: "Mr. Keyser called i)ublic at- 
tention to the importance of securing 
them ( the pieces of ground now con- 
stituting Fairmount Park.) and which 
doubtless had a large influence in 
the result." .Mr. Kevser wrote ex- 

ten si \ely on social and political sub- 
jects. Among his works are "Fair- 
mount Park." "Penn's Treaty," 
"Memoirs of William H. Engflish," 
"Memoirs of Judge Sharswood," "Thr 
Crime of 1873," ^" omitted chapter in 
the " Recollection of John Sherman," 
"Independence Hall." an account o'' 
the building of the hall and of its 
builder," " The Supreme Court 
Room." "History of the Liberty Bell" 
(this article was used by City Coun- 
cils in ])ublishing pamphlets that were 
distributed throughout the country, 
when the Liberty Bell was taken on 
its different journeys) ; " Minden 
.\rmais," "The Man of the Nev 
Race." a ])lea for the colored people. 

He comjjiled the genealogy of the 
Keyser family, in 1889. a liook of his- 
torical value. 

In i86r) he married Sophronia Mac- 
Kay Xorris. They had one daughte" 
Suzanne Keyser Roth. who nov 
li\es in New York. 

Mr. KcA'^ser was master of cere 
monies of the celebration in the Cen- 
tennial grounds July 5. 1875. and was 
author of the plan through which the 
statuarv commemorative of the Revo- 
lution was erected in the Ccntetinia' 
(Grounds in 1876. He also was a 
member of the T^-esident's Advisory 
IJoard of the ignited States Centen- 
nial Commission for the ceremonies 
in Indeoendence Square, on July 4. 
1876. Mr. Keyser was much inter 
ested in the establishment of smal" 
;)arks and play grounds throughou- 
the city. He made the i^rincii^al ad- 
dress at the dedication of Vernon 
Park. Germantown. in i8c)C). 

Mr. Keyser was on the board tha' 
had charge of the restoration of Iri 
denendcnce Hall and was the one wh > 


opposed the removal of the old court 
l)nildings. His opposition did not 
cuail and after new building's had 
1)een erected on the site, it was found 
that he was correct, and that the orig- 
inal buildings, although somewhat 
altercfl in appearance, had been re- 

school children in the history of the 
city. To this end he offered prizes 
for essays, and also conducted par- 
ties of boys through Indenpence HalL 
explaining to them the various events 
connected with the historic building, 
a task for which no one was better 

Charles S. Keyser, Esq. 

moxed tf) make a ]:)lace for the two 
liiideT l)oxes that have been placed 
there. The}' are ()ccui)ie(l now as 
museums. A sh^rt time ])ef()rc his 
death lie l)ecame actively interested 
in a plan to jiromote interest among 


Air. Keyser died September 25. 
KKH. lie was a member of the His- 
torical Societ}^ o f Pennsylvania. 
Xetherland and German Societies and 
ni other or^'anizations. 

Heads of Families at the First Census 

NOTE. — Reprint of text which will ap- 
l)ear in pam))hlets containing names of 
heads of families at the First Census, in the 
states of Coiiiiecticut, Maine, Maryland. 
Massaclmsotts, Xe^ Haiitpsliire, New York, 
Nortli Carolina, Pennsylvania- Rhode Is- 
land, South Carolina, Vermont and Vir- 
U'inia. Each state will form a separate part, 
or volume, consisting of from 100 to 300 
pages. Copies may be obtained of the Direc- 
tor of the Census. Price $1.00 Washington, 
D. C. 


IE First Census of the 
United States (1790) 
comprised an enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants 
(^f the present states of 
■ Connecticut, Delaware, 
Georgia. Kentucky, Maine. 
Maryland, Massachusetts 
Xew 1 lami:)shire, Xew Jersey, New 
York. Xorth Carolina. Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tenn- 
essee, Vermont and Virginia. 

A complete set of the schedule for 
each state, with a summary for the 
counties, and in many cases for 
towns, was filed in the State De- 
])artment, but unfortunately they are 
not now complete, the returns for the 
states of Delaware, Georgia, Ken- 
tucky, Xew Jersey. Tennessee, and 
Virginia having been destroyed when 
the British burned the Cooital at 
W'ashingtiMi during the war of 1812. 
l^'iir se\eral (tf the states for which 
scliedules arc lacking it is prol:)able 
that the Director of the Census could 
obtain lists which would present the 
names of most of the heads of famil- 
ies at the date of the First Census. 
Tn A^irginia, state enumerations were 
made in 1782. 1/8.^. 1784, and 1785. 
but the lists on file in the State Li- 
l)rarv include the names of only ;^o 
i>f the 78 counties into which the 
state was divided. 

Hie schedules of 1790 form a unicpie 
itdieritance fur the Xation. since 
they represent for each of the states 

concerned a com;)lete list of the heads 
of families in the United States at the 
time of the ado])tion of the Constitu- 
tion. The framers were the states- 
men and leaders of thought, but those 
whose names appear upon the sched- 
ules of the First Census were in 
general the nlain citizens who 1)\ 
their conduct in war and peace made 
the Constitution possible and b}- their 
intelligence and self-restraint ])ut it 
into successful operation. 

The total ]io])ulation of the United 
States in 1790, exclusive of slaves, as 
<leri\ed from the schedules was 3.- 
-3i-5v^3- ''"'c onl}' names appearing 
unon the schedules, however, were 
those of heads of families, and as at- 
chat i)eriod the families averaged 6 
nersons, the total number ^'.'as anprox- 
imately 540.000, or slightly more 
than half a million. The number of 
names which is now lacking because 
of the destruction of the schedules is 
ai)i)r(^ximately 140,000. thus leaving 
schedules containing about 400,000 

The information contained in the 
|Md:)lished rei3i»rt of the First Census 
of the United States, a small ^•olume 
of 56 nages. was not uniform for the 
several states and territories. For X'^e-w 
England and one or two of the other 
states the poi)ulation was iiresented bv 
counties and towns; that of X'ew Jer- 
sey aiiDcared i^artl}' by counties and 
towns and j^artly bv comities only; 
in other cases the returns were given 
by C(mnties only. Thus the comolete 
transcript of the names of heads of 
families, with acconi])anying informa- 
tion, presents for ihe first time detail- 
ed inf(M-niation as to the nundicr of 
inhabitants — males, females, etc. — for 
each minor civil division in all those 
states for \\liicii such information Avas 
not originally i)td)lished. 

*Xorth Carolina and Virgini'i to br 



In response to repeated requests 
from patriotic societies and persons 
interested in g-enealogy, or desirous of 
studying- the early history of the 
United States, Congress added to the 
sundry ci\-il appropriation bill for the 
.^scal year 1907 the following para- 
graph : 

The director of the Census is hereby 
Huthorized to publish, in a permanent form, 
oy counties and minor civil divisions, the 
names of the heads of families returned 
at the first census of the United States in 
■seventeen hundred and ninety; and the 
Director of the Census is authorized, in 
lis discretion, to sell said publications, the 
proceeds thereof to be covered into the 
Treasury of the United States to be deposit- 
ed to the credit cf miscellaneous receipts 
on account of "Proceeds of sales of Govern- 
aient property:" 

Provided, That no expense shall be in- 
curred hereunder additional to appropria- 
■ions for the Census Offic ■ for printing 
'herefor made for the fiscal year nineteen 
lundred and seven ; and the Director of the 
Census is hereby directed to report to 
Congress at its next session the cost in- 
curred hereunder and the price fixed for 
said publications and the total received 

The amount of mone}- appropriated 
i)}' Congress for the Census printing 
:or the fiscal year mentioned was un- 
fortunately not sufficient to meet the 
i-urrent recjuirement of the Office to 
)u])lish the transcription of the First 
"ensus. and no pro\ision was made in 
he sundry civil api-jrojiriation bill for 
!()o8 f(^r the continuance of authoritv 
";o pul)lish these inijiortant records. 
Resources, however, were available 
for printing a small section of the 
A'ork. and the schedules of New 
Mamoshire, \'ermont, and ^Maryland 
Hccordingly a\ ere published. 

The urgent deficiency bill, approved 
i'^ebruary 15, 1908, contained the fol- 
iowing pro\ision : 

That the Director of the Census 13 hereby 
authorized and directed to expend so much 
)f the a])iH'opriation for piinting for the 
Department of Commerce and Labor 
1 Hotted by law to the Census Office for 
;he fiscal year ending .June thirtieth, nine- 
:een hundred and eight, as may be neces- 
sary to continue and complete the publica- 
tion of the names of the heads of families 

returned at the First Census of the United- 
States, as authorized by the sundry civil 
appropriation act approved .Tune thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and six. 

In accordance with the authority- 
given in the paragraph quoted above, 
the names returned at the First Cen- 
sus in the states of Connecticut, 
Maine, Massachusetts, New York, 
Xorth Carolina, Pennsylvania. Rhode 
Island, and South Carolina have been 
published, thus completing the roster 
of the heads of families in 1790 so far 
as they can be shown from the records 
of the Census Office. As the Federal 
census schedules of the state of Vir- 
ginia for 1790 are missing, the lists of 
the state enumerations made In 1782, 
1783, 1784, and 1785 have been sub- 
stituted and, while not comjilete, they 
will, undoubtedh^ i^rove of great 


The First Census Act was passed at 
the second session of the First Con- 
gress, and was signed by Piesident 
\\'ashington on Alarch i, i7()0. The 
task of making the first enumeration 
of inhabitants was ])laced uix)n the 
President. Under this law the mar- 
shals of the several judicial districts 
were required to ascertain the number 
of inhabitants Avithin their respective 
districts, omitting Indians not taxed, 
and distinguishing free persons (in- 
cluding those bound to service for a 
term of years) from all others; the sex 
and color of free persons; and the 
free males 16 years of age and over. 

The object of the inquiry last men- 
tioned was. undou1)tedly, to obtain de- 
finite knowledge as to the military 
and industrial strength of the coun- 
try. This fact possesses >pecial inter- 
est, because the Constitution directs 
merely an enumeration of inhabitants. 
Thus the demand for increasingly ex- 
tensixe int(M"mation. which has been 
so marked a characteristic of census 
legislation, began with the First Con- 
gress that dealt with the subject. 

The method followed by the Presi- 
dent in ])utting into operation the 



I'irst Census law, although the object 
of extended investigation, is not def- 
initely known. It is sui)poscd that 
the ] 'resident or the Secretary of State 
dis])atched copies of the 'aw, and per- 
liaps of instructions also, to the mar- 
shals. There is, however, some ground 
for disputing this conculsion. At least 
'>ne of the reports in the census vol- 
ume of I7c)0 was furnished by a gov- 
i-rnor. This, together with the fact 
that there is no record of correspon- 
<lence with the marshals on the sub- 
ject of the census, but that there is a 
record of such correspondence with 
ihe governors, makes very strong the 
inference that the marshals received 
their instructions through the gover- 
nors of the states. This inference is 
strengthened by the fact that in 1790 
the state of Massachusetts furnished 
the printed blanks, and also by the 
fact that the law relating to the Sec- 
ond Census si^ecifically charged the 
Secretary of State to superintend the 
enumeration and to commimicate dir- 
ectly with the marshals. 

I'y the terms of the f'irst Census 
law nine months were allowed in 
which to comnlete the enumeration. 
The census taking was supervised by 
the marshals ni the several judicial 
districts, who employed assistant mar- 
shals to act as enumerators. There 
were 17 marshals. The records show- 
ing the number of assistant marshals 
enrdoyed in 1790, 1800, and 1810 were 
destroyed by fire, but the nimiber em- 
'>ln\-ed in \jqo has been estimated at 

The schedules which these ot^cials 
prepared consist of lists of names of 
heads of families ; each name apuears 
in a stub, or first column, which is fol- 
lowed by fi\e columns, giving details 
i«f the familw These columns are 
lieaded as iollows : 

['"•ree white males of 16 years and up- 
ward, including heads 01 families. 

Free white males under 16 years. 

Free white females, including heads of 

AH othei' free i)eisons. 


The assistant marshals made two 
copies of the returns ; in accordance 
with the law one copy was posted in 
the immediate neighborhood for the 
information of the i^ublic. and the 
other was transmitted to the marshal 
in charge, to be forwarded to the 
President. The schedules were turn- 
ed over by the 1 'resident to the Sec 
retary of State. Little or no tabula- 
tion was required, and the report of 
the First Census, as also the reports 
of the Second. Third, and Fourth, was 
produced without the employment of 
any clerical force, the summaries 
being transmitted directly to the 
printer. The total ])()])ulation as re- 
turned in 1790 was 3,929.214 and the 
entire cost of the census was $44,377. 

A summary of the results of the 
I'^irst Census not including the returns 
for South Carolina, was transmitted 
to Congress by President Washing- 
ton on October 27, 1791. The legal 
lieriod for enumeration, nine months, 
had been extended, the longest time 
consumed being eighteen months in 
South Carolina. The report of Octo- 
ber 2/ was printed in full, and pub- 
lished in what is now a very rare lit- 
tle volume; afterwards the re])ort for 
.South Carolina was "tipped in." To 
contain the results of the Twelfth 
Census, ten large quarto volumes, 
comprising in all 10,400 pages, were 
required. No illustration of the ex- 
pansion of census inquiry can l^e more 

The original schedules of the hirst 
Census are now contained in 26 bound 
volumes, preserved in the Census Of- 
fice. For the most part the headings 
of the schedules were written in by 
hand. Indeed, up to and including 
1820. the assistant marshals generally 
used for the schedules such paper as 
the\- ha])pened to have, ruling it. writ- 
ing in the headings, and binding the 
sheets together themselves. In some 
cases merchants' account ]:)aper was 
used, and now and then the schedules 
were bound in wall paper. 



As a consequence of requiring mar- 
shals to supply their own blanks, the 
volumes containing" the schedules vary 
in size from about 7 inches long, 3 
inches wide, and 1-2 inch thick to 21 
inches long, 14 inches wide, and 6 
inches thick. Some of the sheets in 
these volumes are only 4 inches long, 
hut a few are 3 feet in length, neces- 
sitating several folds. In some cases 
leaves burned at the edges have been 
covered with transparent silk to pre- 
serve them. 


In March, 1790, the Union consisted 
of twelve states — Rhode Island, the 
last of the original thirteen to enter 
the Union, being admitted May 29 of 
the same year. Vermont, the first ad- 
dition, was admitted in the following 
year, before the results of the First 
Census were announced. Maine was 
a part of Massachusetts. Kentucky 
was a part of Virginia, and the pres- 
ent states of Alabama and Mississippi 
were parts of Georgia. The present 
states of Ohio. Indiana, Illinois, Mich- 
igan, and Wisconsin, with part of 
Minnesota, were known as the North- 
west Territory, and the present state 
of Tennessee, then a part of North 
Carolina, was soon to be organized as 
the Southwest Territory. 

The United States was bounded on 
the west by the Mississippi river, be- 
yond which stretched that vast and 
unexplored wilderness belonging to 
the Spanish King, which was after- 
wards ceded to the United States by 
France, as the Louisana Purchase 
and now comprises the great and pop- 
ulous states of South Dakota, Iowa. 
Nebraska. Missouri. Kansas, Arkan- 
sas, and Oklahoma, and portions of 
Minnesota. North Dakota. Montana, 
VVyoming, Colorado. New Mexico. 
Texas, and Louisiana. The Louisiana 
Purchase was not consummated 
for more than a decade after the First 
Census was taken. On the south was 
another S])anish colony known as the 
Floridas. The greater part of Texas, 
then a ])art i>f the colony of Mexico, 

belonged to Spain ; and California, Ne- 
vada, Utah. Arizona, and a portion of 
New Mexico also the property of 
Spain, although penetrated here and 
there by venturesome explorers and 
missionaries, were for the most part, 
an undiscovered wilderness 

The gross area of the United States 
was 827,844 square miles, but the set- 
tled area was only 239,935 square 
miles, or about 29 per cent, of the 
total. Though the area covered by the 
enumeration in 1790 seems very small 
Avhen compared with the present area 
of the United States, the difficulties 
which confronted the census taker 
were vastly greater than in 1900. In 
many localities there were no roads, 
and where these did exist they were 
poor and frequently impassable ; 
bridges were almost unknown. Trans- 
portation was entirely by horseback, 
stage, or private coach. A journey as 
long as that from New York to W^ash- 
ington was a serious undertakmg, re- 
quiring eight days under the most 
favorable conditions. Western New 
York was a wilderness, Elmira and 
Binghamton being but detached ham- 
lets. The territory west of the Alle- 
gheny mountains, with the exception 
of a portion of Kentuck3^ was unset- 
tled and scarcely penetrated. Detroit 
and Vincennes were too small and iso- 
lated to merit consideration. Phila- 
delphia was the capital of the United 
States. Washington was a mere Gov- 
ernment project, not even named, but 
known as the Federal City. Indeed, 
by the S')ring of 1793, only one wall of 
the White House had been construct- 
ed, and the site for the Capitol had 
!)een merely surveyed. Nevv York city 
in 1790 possessed a population of only 
33.131, although it was the largest city 
in the Ignited States ; Philadelphia was 
second, with 28.522; and Boston third, 
with 18.320. Mails were transported 
in very irregular fashion, and corre- 
s])ondence was expensive and uncer- 
There were, moreover, other difficul- 
ties which were of serious moment in 



1790, but which long ago ceased to be 
problems in census taking. The inhab- 
itants, having no experience with 
census taking, imagined that some 
scheme for increasing taxation was in- 
volved and were inclined to be cau- 
tious lest they should reveal too much 
cd their own affairs. There was also 
opposition to enumeration on religious 
grounds, a count of inhabitants being 
regarded by many as a cause for di- 
vine displeasure. The boundaries of 

towns and other minor divisions, and 
even those of counties, were in many 
cases unknown or not defined at all. 
The hitherto semi-independent states 
had been under the control of the Fed- 
eral Government for so short a time 
that the different sections had not yet 
been welded into an harmonious na- 
tionality in which the Federal author- 
ity should be unquestioned and in- 
struction promptly and fully obeyed. 

Population 0/ the United States as returned at the First Census, hy states : 1 790 


New Hampshire 



Rhode Island 


New York 

New Jersey 






North Carolina 

South Carolina 


Total number of inhabitants of the United 
States exclusive of S. Western and N. W. territory 

S, W. territory. 
N. W. 




361 3,417 

1 The census of 1790, published in 1791, report 16 slaves in Vermont. Subsequently, and up to 1860, the number is 
given as 17. An examination of the original manuscript returns shows that there never were any slaves in Vermont. 
The original error occurred in preparing the results for publication, when 16 persons, returned as "Free colored." were 
classified as "Slave." 

2 Correcred figures are So.42b, or less than figures published in 1790 due to an error of addition in the returns foi 
each of the towns of Fairfield, Milton, Shelburne and Williston, in the county of Chittenden: Brookfield, Newbury. 
Randolph and Strafford, in the county of Orange; Castleton, Clarendon, Hubbardton, Poultney , Rutland, Shrewsbury 
and Wallingford, in the county of Rutland: Dummerston Guilford, Hallifax and Westminster, in the county of Win<l- 
ham and Woodstock, in the county of Windsor. 

3 Corrected figures are 59,095, or 2 more than published in 179ii, due to an error in addition. 


Philadelphia Founders' Anniversary 

In its mission as a historical maga- 
MAN deems a recording of some of 
the notable events and addresses call- 
ed forth by P'hiladelphia Founders' 
Week appropriate and desirable. A 
selection of material has therefore 
l:)een made which is presented in the 
following pages. In the abundance of 
rich material at our disposal choice 
was often difficult. If our readers not- 
ed any important statements, presen- 
tation of facts, editorials, that they 
think should find a place in the pages 
of the magazine they will confer a 
great favor by calling our attention 
to them. We believe that by thus 
collecting what is here presented we 
put in convenient form valuable data 
that will often be referred to and made 
use of. 

C. J. Hexamer, president of the 
National German-/\merican Alliance, 
read the following telegram from 
President Roosevelt : 

"White House, Washington D. C, 
Oct. 6. — Through you I present my 
heartiest good wishes for the success 
of the National German-American 
Alliance on the occasion of their gath- 
ering to celebrate the two hundred 
and twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
first German emigration to this coun- 
try. From that day to this Americans 
of German birth and descent have 
borne high and honorable part in the 
history of this great Nation. 


(lOvernor Stuart, introdiiced by Dr. 
Hexamer, was given a most cordial 

"I am not here to make an address," 
said the Governor, "but to show the 
great debt of gratitude I feel as a 
Pennsylvanian to the Germans of this 
.\'ation. Pennsylvania has always had 
the sui:>port of her German citizens. I 
particularly want to call attention to 
the Germans of this State as agricul- 
turists. The interest in farming was 

started by the early German settlers, 
and now Pennsylvania contains the 
banner agricultural county of the 
United States. I refer to Lancaster 
county: it is German from one end to 
the other, and a more devoted set of 
Germans than those in Lancaster 
county cannot be found. I want to say 
that I keenly appreciate the value of 
the Germans in my native State. In 
the building up of the educational in- 
stitutions, in the medical protession. 
and in fact of every line, the Gci'mans 
of Pennsylvania have done their share. 
I am glad to be the Governor of a 
State which has so many thrift}', 
peace-loving, industrious Grcrman 

Rev. George \^on Bosse delivered 
an address in German, in which he 
emphasized the importai:t part that 
Germantown has played in the histor}' 
of this country. He said in part : 

It is a site, hallowed in history, 
where we now stand. Here the first 
German settlers toiled in the sweat of 
their brow ; here rose the first German 
town in America : here the first Ger- 
man anthem ascended heavenward : 
here the first ])rotest against abomin- 
able slavery was fulminated ; here 
stood the first German printing press ; 
here the first bible \\as printed in 
.\merica, and. indeed, in the German 
language ; here too the first religious 
periodicals and the first newspaper 
were edited, and each, indeed, in the 
German language. Here if was where 
(lerman characters first promulgated 
to the mar^■eling nations of earth the 
birth (-tf this great Republic. Here it 
was where German hearts jubilantly 
throb1:»ed when the glorious Declara- 
tion (^f Independence was jjromulgat- 
ed ; and. as in man_y other localities, 
the ground here. too. hath been be- 
sprent with tlie precious life-blood of 
Germans A\ho. in the P>attle of Ger- 
mantown. f<night f(^r liberty's sacred 



"It is a solemn day we celebrate, the 
German Day. A quarter of a century 
in October, 1883, on the 200th anniver- 
sary of the landing of P'rancis Daniel 
Pastorius and the thirteen families 
from Krefeld, the first German Day 
was inauj^urated pnncipally '. hrough 
the efforts of those men whose mem- 
ory we cherish. Dr. Gottlieb Theo- 
dore Kellner and Professor Oswald 
.Seidensticker. The idea of the celebra- 
tion of a German Day ha^ its oppon- 
ents, and not a few, but owino; to the 
energ-y of the National German-Amer- 
ican Alliance, under the leadership of 
Dr. C. J. Plexamer, the iiistitntion of 
the German Day bids fair to become 
permanent. And today, after twenty- 
fl\-e years have rolled by like some 
wild melody, 'tis not a hand.ful of Ger- 
mans that celebrate this day in some 
remote corner; nay. by tens of thou- 
sands they have flocked together to 
the birthplace of the German Day : 
they have come as re^jresentatives 
from all the estates of our vast coun- 
try ; the eyes of millions are this day 
fixed uDon us; the absent are \\ith us 
in soirit there in the ancient city of 
Krefeld. whence came the first Ger- 
man settlers, and in distant Sommer- 
hausen, birthplace of Pastorius, yea, 
even throughout the German Empire, 
at whose head the German Emperor, 
who hath sent a representative to this 
celebration of ours, in his caoacity as 
promotor of amicable relations be- 
tween the two countries. Xor stand 
we alone in this celebration. Verily, 
Americans not of German kith and 
kin ; Americans not biased by blind 
prejudices, not hampered by nativism. 
rather, true and genuine Xm-^ricans. 
worth V sons of this land of liberty, and 
those who could not come, they are 
with us in spirit, and foremost among 
these The President of the United 
States, Theodore Roosevelt, w'ho is in- 
timately conversant with German 
thought and culture. 

"F>ut what is the pur])ort of the Ger- 
man Day? It has l^een instituted to 
bear witness concerning 'liat which 

(iermans have wrought in behalf oi' 
our country. 

"We hear so much of what <he Pil- 
grim i^'athers and their descendants 
ha\'e done for our country, but that 
which (iermans have done is i)assed 
over oftentimes in sdence or belittled. 
Xames of German men, worthy of 
fame, have been buried in t)blivioii. .\ 
Senator from one of the New England 
States informs us that among 14,000 
names, 10,376 English, 1439 Scotch 
and only 659 German name? (mirabile 
dictu) are found worthv of admittance 
in a biographical dictionary! In the 
face of such statistics it is high time 
that we German-Americans awake 
and snatch from oblivion ihe names of 
our ancestors wdio have left footprints 
in the sands of time. The National 
German-American Alliance has I am 
hao]j}' to say, auspiciouly inaugurated 
this work. Time there was when I 
fondlv cherished the specious delusion 
that ?M the culture we have is the 
x'- irk of the descendants of th(^ Pil- 
grim Fathers, but inspired by the la- 
bors of Dr. Hexamer, an \me-ican of 
German descent, and of Professor 
Learned, an American of Eng-ish de- 
scent. 1 have taken up the study of 
German culture in America, and a new 
light burst u])on my vision. I blushed 
because of the consciousness of m} 
ignorance. I was filled with indigna- 
tion on hearing the work of our ances- 
tors s))oken of lightly, yet was ni}- 
heart filled with joy on noticing how. 
now. justice is gradually being done 
to the merits of German- Americans. 

"This glorious day is to strengthen 
us all in the endeavors we hold neces- 
sary for the welfare of our country. 
We would give to our Nation the best 
traits of German character. The 
.National ( ierman-.Kmerican Alliance 
strixes tt) poj)ularize the study of the 
(ierman language, the language of a 
great ])eople and of so many great 
men. the language of all the learned of 
modern times, the language of our 
heart and soul. 




"We would moreover, preserve the 
purity of our g'overnment. We would 
educate our children in such a manner 
that they have within themselves the 
necessary moral fortitude to disdain a 
coercive yoke. We would introduce 
innocent recreation into our hurried 
and worried business life. And, again, 
we would advocate amicable relations 
between our Nation and other nations 
and especially with Germany. It is 
my fervent wish that this German day 
may. in the near future become a day 
of fraternization of all the various 
nationalities represented in this glor- 
ious republic. 

As Dr. Hexamer unveiled the cor- 
ner-stone, a block of granite 8 feet in 
height and bearing appropriate tablets 
of bronze, he said in part: 

■"With profound love we this day 
think of our German ancestors. Ger- 
man perseverance and German family 
life, the fountain of true, self-sacrific- 
ing love, which, to protect those that 
are near and dear, engenders heroic 
deeds of patriotism ; all these things 
have contributed infinitely towards 
exaltng our country to her high estate. 
For liberty, that highest ideal of the 
Germans from time immemorial, our 
fathers fought not alone with protests 
against slavery, at a time when Anglo- 
Americans in New England executed 
witches, but also on the battle-field. 
The names of Steuben, De Kalb. 
Herchheimer and Muehlenberg will 
Hve for all time. Nor will a grateful 
people ever forget, that almost 200,000 
Germans were ready to shed their 
blood for the Union, that not one star 
might be torn from our glorius banner, 
and that we might be, as we now are, a 
mi i ted and powerful Nation. 


"And yet our ancestors did not seek 
to triumph in sanguinary wars, but 
rather in the arts of peace. Wherever 
Germans settled, the wilderness was 
transformed into garden spots and 
blossomed as the rose. Their lands 

flowing with milk and honey. lu ever}' 
trade, art and industry they excelled. 
German teachers, painters, scilptors. 
poets, musicians and men of science 
have filled the world with admiration. 

"To investigate and record the deeds 
of our ancestors, to educate our youth, 
that a sound mind may dwell in a 
sound body, and that they may be 
proud of their kin ; to assist German 
immigrants and to educate them, so 
that they may become useful citizens 
of our Republic, and to imbue all of 
Uncle Sam's children with the fact, 
that: 'Full many a ,gem of purest ray 
serene' is found in German lore, and 
that its flowers may not be born to 
blush unseen and waste their sweet- 
ness on the desert air — such are the 
principal aims of the great National 
German-American Alliance. 

"We now erect this coiner-stone, a 
work of German art, not as part of a 
local, but of a national monument of 
the Germans of America. It is hence a 
sacred obligation unto all in whose 
veins German blood courses, to strive 
to complete this work in a worthy 


"In the annals of this first German 
settlement we find recorded the bless- 
ing of our venerable father Pastorius 
(whose name being interpreted, mean? 
a shepherd), and if we wiP cleave unto 
one another, as we now. in this solemn 
hour, do vow, to pursue our high cul- 
tural mission indefatigably. this self- 
same blessing shall be fulfilled. 

"All hail German progeny! 
All hail, ye German brethren ! 
All hail for evermore ! 

"And now. Mr. Mayor, I have the 
honor to transmit to you for the city 
of Philadelphia in beahlf of the Nation- 
al German-American Alliance this cor- 
ner-stone, as an ornament unto the 
City of Pirotherly Love, as an emblem 
of German loyalty to the land of our 
adoption or birth, and as a token of 
everlasting amity between the new and 
the old Fatherland." 




In any aspect of "Founders' Week" 
— as an historical commemoration of 
the first planting- of the city or as a 
celebration of two centuries and a 
quarter of growth and achievement — 
the prominent part taken by the Ger- 
man-Americans must be regarded as 
equally apj)ropriate. The history of 
Pliiladelphia, as the capital of Penn's 
Commonwealth, cannot be told with- 
out including that of the "German 
Town" established at nearly the same 
time close by, which became itself the 
metropolis of that early German immi- 
gration whose impress is strongly 
i'elt in the whole development of Penn- 
sylvania and in that of many neigh- 
boring Colonies and States. The two 
towns grew up side by side, harmon- 
ious but distinct, and even after the 
greater had absorbed the less, and the 
German township had become only a 
"ward" of Phildelphia, it still retained, 
as it retains today, its own distinctive 
individuality as one of the soundest 
and truest, most independent and pro- 
gressive of American communities. 

How much of this it owes to its Ger- 
man origin, how^ much to the conflict 
and commingling of German and Eng- 
lish influences, it is needless now^ to 
discuss. In any case, it was inevitable 
that in the festivities of the anniver- 
sary week Germantown should furnish 
its own particular pageant", its special 
commemoration of its own .founder. 
For the name of Pastoriu?:; is worthily 
associated with that of Pewn, whom he 
reseml)led in his gentle culture, his 
high ideals, his love of intellectual free- 
dom, and it was largely through the 
.influence of Patorius and his associ- 
ates that Penn's promise of religious 
tolerance drew hither so many of the 
• listurbed ])eople of another race and 
language, whose descendants ave now 
co-heirs with those of English stock 
in the historic glory of Pennsylvania. 

This is the historic fact that Ameri- 
cans of German descent are proud to 
recall at this time ; but it is only in a 
very small degree that the vast Ger- 
)nan-.\merican population of thj coun- 

try today traces its origin to the settle- 
ment of Germantown or to the misrra- 
tion of two centunes ago which gave 
us the "Pennsylvania Germans." That 
immigration ceased with the condi- 
tions that incited it, and while the 
Pennsylvania Geiman communities 
prospered and spread, they had few 
accessions from Germany. It was not. 
indeed, until well on in the nineteenth 
century that Germans again began in 
large numbers to seek opportunities in 
the New World, and then they passed 
by the older German settlements and 
either established themselves in the 
cities or pressed on to the wnder field 
that was opening in the West. 

These are the modern Germans to 
whom we owe so much of energy and 
enterprise, of intellectual energy, of 
esthetic culture, of social and political 
advancement. These and their sons 
and grandsons are the Gcman- Ameri- 
cans. They also retain a love of the 
land of their origin, of i^s language, 
customs and traditions, but all this is 
absorbed w'ith them in the larger life of 
the land of their adoption, to which 
they are contributing so much of inesti- 
mable value. It was the fault of the 
"Pennsylvania Germans," at least in 
the rural districts, to keep too much to 
themselves and to cling- too fondly to 
their forefathers' way of life. The Ger- 
man-American of today, while he hon- 
ors the memory of the early pioneers, 
is separated from them by a wide inter- 
val that has left him free to adapt him- 
self to new conditions and to take a 
leading place in the national life. 

At the date of the last census there 
were more than two and a half millions 
of German birth settled in the United 
States, and more than tw^o millions of 
these had come to the coimtry since 
1850. Yet all, whatever their origin, 
are today Americans and loyal, each 
national strain contributing something 
of its owm to the common strength 
and to the comprehensi\e activities 
of the great metropolis that has grow n 
from the small beginnings 

— Fhila. Ledger. 



Frequent requests have been received 
fcr receipes for home-made soap, an article 
which to the Pennsylvania-German house- 
wife is as common as her daily routine in 
the kitchen. Yet to the rising generation 
the making of good homemade soap is be- 
coming a lost art. Soap is an indespensa- 
ble article in the home and has become 
so common that the present generation 
can ■ scarcely realize that it is only com- 
paratively recently that soap is being so 
largely manufactured. 

Until the discovery of soap as we know 
it, the best cleansing agent was fuller's 
earth, the absorbent properties of which 
enabled it to remove greasy and oily mat- 
ter from most fabrics. It is still used ex- 
tensively for cleansing or fulling woolens 
and ether clothes. 

Another means of cleansing was the 
soap berry, the fruit of a plant which lath- 
ered freely on rubbing with water. An- 
other was the root of the plant known as 
soapwort, the lathering properites of which 
were due to the presence of a substance 
called saponin, which is also foun 1 in the 
horse chestnut. 

Our great-grandmcthers used to make 
their own soap by the following process: 
A barrel or specially constructed hopper 
was raised off the ground sufficiently high 
to allow a tub to be placed under it, and 
the bottom perforated with small holes. It 
was then filled with wood ashes, and now 
and then a bucket of water was thrown 
on them, which found its way into the tub 
beneath. As the water percolated through 
rhe ashes, it dissolved the potash and soda 
which are ilways found in the ashes of 
|)lants, and thus a solution was obtained 
which was jnit into an iron boiler with a 
(juantity of grease fat, and the mixture 
boiled for an hour or longer. Salt was 
then added, and as the mixture cooled a 
solid layer of curd soap solidified on the 
top of the water. 

As the Editor of this department is not 
an experienced soap maker this article may 
be open to criticism, additional information 
or suggestios will be welcomed to these 
columns for the benefit and edification of 
interested readers. 

Homemade soap is the result of a trifling 
expenditure of time and labor with ma- 
terials that would otherwise be thrown 

Fat, water and an alkali are the prime 
ingredients essential in its making. Every 

part cf the fat not used in the cooking, the 
drippings, fat skimmed off gravies, soups, 
etc., can be utilized, if raw fat or suet is 
taken it should be tried by putting in a 
prn and heated slowly over the fire, stir- 
ring occasionally so as to prevent its burn- 
ing, then poured into a receptable. When 
old the fat can be taken cff the top, the 
impurities having settled on the bottom. 
the cleaner and nicer the fat the finer the 
finished soap. 

In warm weather fat is liable to become 
mouldy and rancid, to prevent this it should 
frequently be heated until the quantity 
accumulated is sufficient to proceed with 
the boiling. 

The modern process is practically identi- 
cal with that of grandmother's day, only 
instead of ashes a solution of caustic soda, , 
or lye, is used. Fats and oils are boiled 
along with this lye, and the mixture is 
kept constantly agitated. As the tempera- 
ture increases, stronger lye is used, until 
the operation is completed. Salt is then 
added, and as soap is insoluble in salt 
water it rises to the top of the soda liquor. 

Some housewives preferred to re-boil the 
curd soap to further clarify it. After solidi- 
fication the soap was cut into squares 
of a size convenient for use and stored on 
the attic to season. Green soap was not 
considered advantageous to use within a 
year and the frugal housewife always had 
an abundant supply of well seasoned soap 
at hand. 

A large iron kettle is very desirable, as 
the soap froths up at one stage and is apt 
to boil over in too small a vessel. 


Five pounds of grease, three gallons of 
soft, hot water, one pound of concentrated 
potash. Let these boil together for five 
or six hours, adding water as it boils away 
to keep up the original quantity. When 
done it is a dark yellowish-brown, clear 
like jelly, almost transparent If the tongue 
is touched to it the taste is smooth and 
not unpleasant; it is sharp and acrid if 
not sufficiently boiled. It should be fre- 
quently stirred while boiling. Pour it in- 
to the zinc-lined box, and leave it to har- 
den. In twenty-four hours it will be a solid 
mass of nearly white soap. Turn it out on 
a table and cut it in thin bars lengthwise. 
If it is desired it can then be divided into 
squares. If this cannot be had a knife, 
heated in boiling water, will answer the 


Literary and Dialect Gems 

En Hier-Ilawt Pardy 

By Gottlieb Boonastiel 

Em Moondawg en wuch is de Betz 
Grill un der Billy Schnellkeffer iioach em 
shtettle far license greega far hira. Der 
Hilly is so en awremer barrick-knobber 
wee's feel hut, un are hut nix lavendich? 
uff em hofe oss we en darrer. long-oricher 
shtuvvericher asel os nemond kawfa hut 
wella we der shreef ene ous-farkawfed 
liut. Well, der Billy hut shtyle aw do wella 
un hut der Betz g'savvd se daida noach 
em shtetle rida wile de waega so weesht 
wara. Now de Betz is en oldt Maidel, un 
hut's shunt fartzich yohr hara dunnera 
Ks hut nemond ga-glawbed os se mae 
hira daid, awver der Billy hut a pawr 
nochta um se room g'schmunseled un by 
.sell tzeit wore se so weedich os en bendei 
won are bloot reeched. Se hut era hore ga- 
grulld un looniba in de bocka far se ous- 
filla, era g'sicht ga-powdered mit male, ur 
era bocka g'farrebed mit rhode-reeva bree. 
Well, der Billy hut si asel rows g.feered 
un hut amohl ae bae ivver ene g'henked 
derno hut are der Betz g'woonka far cooma 
un aw druff groddla. 

Es hut der Betz im awfong net recht aw- 
g'shtonna, awver se wore willins far anich 
ebbes do far en mon grega while se ga- 
(lenked os des wara era ledshte chance. 
De Betz is endlich druff cooma, awver der 
asel hut's cllem noach gor net ga-gliclia. hut anyhow refused ae shrit tsu 
uiaucha so long os se olla tswae uff erne 
hucke. Endlich sawgt der Billy, "Betz. 
(Irae eme amohl der schwontz! "Now, der 
asel is en schtuvvericher bugger un are 
hut aw-fonga shrowva os won are warrem 
het. awver onshtots fun I'arschiech gae is 
aie hinnerschich ga-backed bis uff ae mohl 
sin si fees hinna nows g'flooga as we en 

De Betz is about fooftzae foos in de hae 
g'flooga un is im dreck ga-land uff eram 
bussel oona wae ga-doo, awver gor woon- 
erbar farshrucka. Se is en shpunkich 
weipsmensch un in wenicher tzeit os es 
mich nembt far dere's fartzaela wore se 
widder uff em asel. "Now." secht der 
Billy, "habe fesht un ich drae eme es ore." 
Are hut nuch haerly fesht g'hot biswoopshi 
wore der asel fonna in der hae. Der Billy 
hut ene um der hols room greeked un fesht 
g'hova. De Betz is eme hinna ivver der 
rick nunner g'fora os de foonga g'flooga 
sin un hut en luch in der dreck g'shloga 
OS mer en yarlich kolb drin fargrawva het 
kenna. "Now," secht der Billy, "won du 
nuch groodla consht don broveer's nuch ae 
mohl. Mere wella niah tackticks usa. Ich 
drae eme's ore un du draesht eme der 
schwontz. Sell holdt de tswae enner aeva." 
Der asel hut g'shpeered as ebbes gae muss 
un are hut en shproong ga-maucht os se 
olla tswae ivver ene nunner g'flooga sin. 

Der Billy is uff de Betz s'^olla un hut 
sich net wae gadoo, awver de Betz hut era 
tzocng tswisha era folshe tzae greeked un 
hut about en tzollun-a-holb derfun ob ga- 

Der Billy hut grawd gae wella un hira. 
awver de Betz hut's net ga-doo, un dart 
wore era glick. We de leddicha menner 
om Barrick ous g'funna hen os se en 
shtick fun era tzoong ob ga-bissa hut hen 
se oil hira wella wile yader garn en fraw 
het mit wenicher os de ordinary amount 
fun tzoong. 

De g'hireda menner om Barricli woo 
wiver hen os tsu feel schwetza wella en 
law ga-passed hovva os all de weipsleitder 
asel rida missa, un now won en weips- 
luensch tsu feel retches doot don gaits 
schprich-wordt om Barrick nows' "Selly 
set em Billy Schnellkeffer si asel ridal" 



The Pennsylvania-German 

An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to 
the Biography, History, Genealogy, Folklore, 
Literature and General Interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
States and of their descendants. 

Editorial Staff 

H. W. Kriebel, Publisher and Editor, East 
Greenville, Pa. 

Rev. J. A. Scheffer, Associate Editor, 
245 North Sixth street, AUentown, Pa. 

Mrs. H. H. Funk, Editor of "The Home," 
Springtown, Pa. 

Prop. E. S. Gerhard, Editor of "Reviews 
and Notes," Trenton, N. J. 

Price, $1.50 a year, in advance; 15 cents 
per single copy. 

Additional particulars are found on 
page 2 of the cover. 

.VIAN is stated above. A brief history of 
this magazine is given in January number 
1906, by the lamented Henry A. Schuler, 
who was then the editor. Since his un- 
expected death early last year the publish- 
er, Mr. H. W. Kriebel, has had the addi- 
tional burden of editor. Those having an 
experimental knowledge of editing and 
publishing a ])eriodical were not surprised 
when they read his hopeful expression of 
the promised assistance, in last month's 

The associate editor trusts that his work 
may not disappoint the hopes of the pub- 
lisher, contributors, subscribers and the 
readers of tliis magazine. He also hopes 
lie will have the health necessary to devote 
the time required to edit the "copy," read 
and correct the proof sheets, write editor- 
ials and comments for each issue. He 
desires that our acquaintanceship may be 
congenial and mutually profitable. 

We have been asked whether THE 
that dialect. The reason given for the 
question was that many Germans and their 
descendants in Pennsylvania and other 
states could not read or understand the 
dialect. The reply was that it is printed 
in English, with the exception of several 
pages in each number of poetry and prose 
to give practical illustrations of the force- 
fulness of the Pennsylvania German dialect 
and its aptness for exact expression of 
every day affairs, and es])ecially of humor, 
riddles and wit, equal if it does not in 
these respects excel the Irish and Scotch 

Tt is not likely that some of the facts 
concerning Washington, on his early cam- 
paigns to Western Pennsylvania in 1754-.5 
;)re generally known, or that General Brad- 
dock was shot from his horse by one of 
his own soldiers during the battle with the 
French and Indians, a few miles on this 
side of where Pittsburg now is. 

In the biographical sketch of Colonel 
Hollenbach, interesting pioneer, colonial 
and revolutionary history is given by his 
grandson. It will be continued in the next 
number. The remaining contributions in 
this number are all worth reading by those 
interested in the respective subjects. 

Rev. Dr. F. C. Croll, the founder of this 
magazine nine years ago, and who wrote 
a book on " Ancient and Historic Land- 
marks in the Lebanon Valley," published 
hi 1895 and is the author of other works, 
has resigned his pastorate in Lebanon, Pa. 
He added 1000 members to the church 
during his sixteen years pastorate. Ad- 
ditional ground was also purchased during 
this time, the church building enla'^ged, re- 
modeled and refurnished, pipe organ pur- 
chased and all debts paid. Dr. Croll has 
accepted a call to the First Lutheran 
Church in Beardstown, 111., and removed to 
that city February 1. 

A circular letter has been sent by Mr. 
H. W. Kriebel to all the subscribers giving 
and requesting information on a number of 
matters regarding the advancement and 
bettering of this magazine. May we not 
expect as many of the readers as possible 
and as soon as possible to write him their 
views and opinions as to making THE 
more interesting and useful in securing and 
iniblishing an accurate history of their 
ancestors of Germanic descent of either 
father or mother: of grand antl great 
grandiiarents, etc., a true account of how 
and where their children lived and what 
they did, said and wrote. The publisher 
also makes a favorable offer to renew your 
subscription at once and ask your neigh- 
bors and relatives to subscribe for this 


Clippings from Current News 

— The Moravians were the first mission- 
aries among the Indians in Pennsylvania 
and Ohio. Among them were Revs. David 
Zeisberger and John Heckewelder. These 
two labored at Lichtenau, Ohio. This place 
was founded by Zeisberger and Heckewel- 
der on April 12, 1776. and is located on the 
eastern bank of the river Muskingum, neai- 
Coshockton. The settlement was made by 
the missionaries named and eight families. 
Their first service was held on Sunday. 
April 13, 1776. Nearly the whole popula- 
tion of Coshocton attended this service. 
Mr. Zeisberger preached on Luke 24:46. 

In this mission there was used the first 
spelling book ever introduced in the state 
of Ohio. It was compiled by Rev. Mr. 
Zeisberger and published in Philadelphia 
in 1776. This was seven years before Noah 
Webster issued his spelling book in Hart- 
ford, Conn. Thus Pennsylvania and Ohio 
were ahead of New England in this matter. 

The first baptism at the mission at Lich- 
tenau took place in April, 1776, three 
months after the first settlement. It was 
that of a grandson of the Delaware Indian 
Chief Netawateves. And a grandson he 
was. He was named .John. A friend sug- 
gested to him the risk he assumed in being 
a Christian, but .John promptly replied: 

"If my life is in danger. I will the more 
cheorfully witness for the truth. Do you 
think that a ba])tized Indian fears your 
sorceries as he did when he was a heathen, 
and that he will hesitate to make known 
what the Savior has done for him and for 
all men? No! While I live I will not 
hold my peace, but proclaim salvation. 
This is the command of God." 

Among those who cut the timber for the 
erection of buildings at Lichtenau was the 
converted Indian Chief and brave warrior, 
Isaac Glickkeltau, who was a church elder, 
and as eminent for his piety as for his 
l)rowess. He i)ei'ished in the massacre at 
Onadenhiitten, Ohio, in 1782. 

Lichtenau is a German word which 
means meadow of light. 

Rev. Wm. H. Rice, D.D., pastor of the 
Moravian church, at Gnadenhiitten, Tusc- 
arawas county. Ohio, is a direct descen- 
dant of the above-named Rev. .lohn Hecke- 
welder. — The Reformed Church Record. 

—We clip the following from the Public 
Ledger : 

The 'University of Pennsylvania is a part 
of the life, the bone and sinev^' of i^rogress 
of this community and of the whole Com- 
monwealth. The time has arrived when 
the ordinarily intelligent man will rea(lil.^■ 

admit that a great seat of learning, witli 
its collection of schools of the sciences, 
arts and professions, is just as worthy of 
support and encouragement as the con- 
struction of a waterway or the develop- 
ment of an industry. Men cannot live by 
bread alone; coal mines and factories 
make an inadequate foundation for th ■ 
magnificent superstructure of an advanc- 
ed, alert and noble civilization which must 
uphold and magnify spiritual and intel- 
lectual influences. And, in fact, the Uni- 
versity, with its thousands of student- 
professors and attendants and manifold 
activity and the millions of dollars which 
it causes to be expended in this city and 
State, is a gigantic industry. 

— Peter Miller Musser, of Muscatine, la., 
a philanthropist, millionaire and successful 
business man, has erected a handsome 
chapel in the Cedar Grove Cemetery at 
Adamstown, as a memorial to his i)arents. 
•Ichn and Cassiah Musser, who are buried 
there. The memorial occupies a position 
commanding a view of the pretty borough 
of Adamstown. where Mr. Musser, the 
donor, was born and lived until he went 

<• 4" 4» 

Recent Deaths 

Rev. Matthias Knoll, Evangelical minis- 
ter, departed this life at Des Moines, la.. 
November 11, 1908. The deceased was 
born at Allentcwn, Pa., June 1, 1847. He 
had been brought up in the Catholic 
Church and became a Protestant after 
coming to America. 

August W. Ullberg, who molded the 
statue of William Penn, which now sur- 
mounts city hall tower, Philadelphia, died 
Dec. 3d. 

Mr. Ullberg was one of the great mold- 
ers of statues in the Rasmussen copper 
foundry in Copenhagen when he was ask- 
ed to come here to cast the statue whicli 
is now the "first landmark of Philadel- 

After its completion Ullberg decided to 
make Philadelphia his home. His work, 
which included great statues in almost 
every city in Europe, was practically done 
and he settled down in retirement, sur- 
rounded l)y his family. 

He was 63 years old. and was born in 

Lancaster County, Pa., — Mrs. Mary Anri 
Souders, who celebrated her one hun- 
dredth birthday anniversary at Conestoga 



Centre, October 30, died Nov. 26th. Up to 
the day of her centenary celebration she 
enjoyed remarkably good health, but im- 
mediately after that event it began fail- 
ing. Deceased had fifty-eight living de- 

Greenville, Pa.. Dec. 15. — The Rev. Dr. 
.John A. Kunkleman, one of the Mid- 
j)rominent Lutheran ministers in the Mid- 
dle States, died after 52 years active ser- 
vice in the ministry. He successively held 
pastorates in Indianapolis, Philadelphia, 
Chambersburg, Pa.; Greenville, Pa.; At- 
lantic City and Greater New York. While 
pastor of St. Mark's Church. Philadelphia, 
he was chairman of the committee, and 
drifted the plea that brought about the 
closing of the Centennial Exibition on 
Sundays. He also served as president of 
Carthage College, Carthage, 111. 

Dr. E. G. Rehfuss, a well-known spec- 
ialist in treatment of diseases of the eye, 
died at his home, at the age of 47 years. 

He was born in Philadelphia and was 
educated at the public schools, in which 
he prepared for the medical school of the 
University of Pennsylvania. He graduat- 
ed from there in 1884 and became resident 
physician at the German Hospital. 

Major Charles F. Kieffer, U S. A., at the 
Cheyenne, Wyo., army post died Dec. 31. 
His home was in Philadelphia. 

Major Kieffer was a son of Lorenzo M. 
Kieffer. who was a captain in the Union 
Army during the Civil War. Dr. George C. 
Kieffer. was a brother of the deceased, as 
are Lieutenant Victor Kieffer, T^. S A., and 
Phili]) Kieffer, a cadet at West Point. 

* * 4" 


Alon ^VIio Work on Skyscrapers a Littif 

These airy crews are a generous crowd, 
says Everbody's. They earn high pay. 
When working full time they make $27 a 
week and, like their rough brothers out 
on the plains, they are quick to. give of 
their earnings. On Saturday afternoons, 
when they line up at the pay window, the 
Sisters of Charity are always there, and 
quarters and dimes jingle merrilj^ into 
Iheir little tin boxes. 

Behind this generous givinp, is a super- 
stitious belief that amid risks like these 
it is well to propitiate Fate all you can. 

For Fate is a relentless old machine and 
when once its wheels begin grinding, no 
power on earth can stop them. The "P'.:;le 
r>f Three" is centuries old. You may hear 
of it out on the ocean, in the steel mills, 
in the railroad camps and down in tne 
mines. And you find it up here on the 
jobs in the skies. 

"Believe it?" said an old foremtm. "You 
bet they believe it." 

"Do you?" I asked. 

"Well," he said, "all I can say is this; 
It may be a spell or it may be because of 
the way the whole crew is expecting it. 
But, anyhow, when two accidents come 
close together you can be sure that the 
third ain't very far off." 

4" * 4» 

His Job Had a Lon^ TVamo 

Any one who runs out of a job in the 
United States might try Germany. A 
census recently taken by the imperial 
statistical bureau in Berlin shows that 
there are over 15,000 distinct trades, 
professions and occupations pursued 
throughout the empire. 

While some of the callings have several 
thousand followers, others are not at all 
overcrowded, in some cases only one per- 
son being represented in a classification. 
For instance, one man is set down as 
forstschutzdienstanwaerter. which means 
"candidate for the forest protection ser- 
vice." Other men earn their living as 
kreiskommunalkassenkalkulator, or "dis- 
trict public treasury appraiser." There is 
a wide call for staatsschuldenzahlungskas- 
senkontroleure, otherwise "bookkeeper for 
the fund for the payment of the public 
debt," and quite a number of streaks can 
frequently be detected which men follow 
this work. 

The little group of men who work 
at eisenbahnbetriebstelegr.aiiheninspektiion 
sasistenten have an awful load on their 
minds. Translated, they are only the 
"assistant inspectors in the railway tele- 
graph service," perhaps not so bad a job 
after all. 

An odd occupation is that of "court hay- 
maker." Blumistinner, or girls who make 
artificial flowers, are common enough, but 
the specialists, such as vergissmeinnich- 
masher, or forget-me-not makers," are 
quite scace. there being only three engaged 
in the business. There seemfe to be 
plenty of good openings in the towel supply 
Ijusiness, as only one man is engaged in 
this occupation, which is quite largely fol- 
lowed in this country. — Chicago Tribune. 


The Forum 


By Leonhard Felix Fald, M. A., LL. M. 

EDITORIAL NOTE— Mr. Fuld, has kind- 
ly consented lo prepare a statement of the 
meaning of the name of any subscriber 
who sends twenty-five cents for this pur- 
pose to the Editor of the PENNSYLVANIA- 


'i'he surname ROTH is one derived from 
a personal characteristic and may have 
either a complimentary or an uncompli- 
mentary connotaticn. It seen.s likc'.y how- 
ever that this surname was more frequent- 
ly given as a compliment than as a nick- 
name. ROTH means "red" and the name 
was generally applied to a mr.n as i compli- 
ment just as we use the word "ruddy" to 
denote an individual possessins^ good color 
and inferentially excellenc health. When 
ai)plied to a woman it meant "a blushing 
girl," which was also generally a compli- 
mentary designation. 

The second class of individuals to whom 
the name ROTH was given consisted of 
those who possessed red hair. The emperor 
Barbarossa, who was called in Germany 
Kaiser Rothbart is the most prominent 
man belonging to this class. This designa- 

tion was neither comi)limentay nor uncom- 
plimentary although it must be raid that 
red hair was always looked upon with con- 
siderable favor among the G.M-mans. There 
seems to have been an unconscious feeling 
that those who received red hair from their 
Greater received more than those whose 
hair was black or blonde and the undoubted 
charm of red hair was felt by the old Ger- 
mans as well as it is felt by us. 

A third class of ROTH were those to 
whcm this name was given as a nickname. 
ROTHNASIG indicates the particular 
weakness which induced others to give a 
man this nickname. The greater frequency 
with yhicli we meet such names as ROTH- 
[IG] seem to show however that more nien 
v/ere called ROTH as a compliment to 
their gpod physical condition than as a 
nickname because cf tlieir weakness for 
strcg- drink. 

A fourth cass of ROTH wore so called 
because they lived in a red house but there 
is no record that any of these came to 

4» * * 

Mrs. S. A. Saeger, 1320 Hamilton St.. 
Allentown, Pa , desires to secure a few 
for February 1908 If you are willing to sell 
your copy notify her. 

Historical Societies 

The Bucks County Historical Society 
founded Jan. 20, 1880, incorporated Feb- 
23, 1885 had 649 members August 1 1908. 

The object of the society is defined in 
the preamble of the Constitution and By- 
I/aws as amended October 13, 1908 as 

The object of the Bucks County 
Historical Society shall be to promote 
and encourage historical research and 
study. particularly the discovery, 
collection, preservation and publica- 
tion of the history, historical records 
and data pertaining to Bucks county: 
the collection and preservation of 
books, newspapers, maps, genealogies, 
portraits, paintings, engravings, manu- 
scripts, letters, journals, relics, and 
any and all materials which may 
establish or illustrate such history; 
the collection of data relative to the 
growth and progress of population, 
wealth, education, agriculture, arts, 
manufactures, and commerce in this 

country, also, the compilation of the 
traditions and folklore of the country, 
and the acquisition by donation pur- 
chase cr loan, of tools, appliances and 
objects of antiquarian interest. 

It has a library of 2200 volumes with a 
number of maps and Mss., a military col- 
lection illustrative of the Civil and Mexi- 
can Wars, a Herbarium of 20,000 specimens, 
a collection of birds' eggs, heirlooms and 
ancient objects, photograi)hs of houses, 
sites and objects of historic interest and 
a collection cf the tools, implements, and 
utensils of the Pennsylvania pioneer giv- 
ing the society a unique place among sim- 
ilar bodies. These are stored in the build- 
ing owned by the society a picture and ac- 
count of which appeared in THE PENN- 
SYLVANIA-GERMAN, August, 1907. The 
first historical i)aper i)repared for the 
society was read by its author, .Tosiah B. 
Smith, .July 20, 1880 at a meeting held by 
the Society in* Doylestown. Since that 
))apers have been i)rei)ared and read su!'- 



ficient to make 4 stately volumes of 625 
pages each. Through the liberality of B. 
P. Frackenthal, Jr., of Riegelsville, Pa., 
President of the Thomas Iron Company, 
these are to be printed and made availiable 
to historians as may be seen by the follow- 
ing communication laid by him before the 
Society Oct. 13, 1908. 

Riegelsville, Pa., October 13, 1908. 

I am informed that some inquiry has 
been made concerning the conditions 
under which the papers read before 
the Bucks County Historical Society, 
are to be published and distributed. 

As I did not state the conditions 
clearly at the Doylestown meeting, I 
have thought best to place the matter 
in writing, with the request that this 
communication be placed upon the 
, minutes of the society. 

My offer is to publish at ray own 
expense such papers, presented and 
read before the society over the past 
28 years, of which copies are now ob- 
tainable, and upon which an editorial 
committee shall have passed. 

It is estimated that the papers now 
in hand will make 4 volumes of 625 
pages each. The bound volumes, when 
completed, will be presented to the 

My suggestion is that the societj' 
sell the volumes to the members, and 
others who may desire to purchase 
them, at about the cost of publication, 
estimated not to exceed $2.00 per vol- 
ume; with the further provision that 
the proceeds from the sale of the 
books shall be used to establish a 
fund, to be called the "Fanckenthal 
Publication Fund," which is to be in- 
vested by the board of directors, pref- 
erably in first-mortgage bonds, and 
the interest or income arising thereon 
to be used for the publication of 
papers that may hereafter be present- 
ed and read before the society. 

If papers are presented in the future 
at the same rate as they have been in 
the past, it is estimated that one vol- 
lume can be published every 6 or 8 

The first volume to be issued under this 
offer an octavo of 38 chaps, and 585 pages. 
( Price $2.00, pastoge 22c., applications for 
l)ooks to be made to Bucks County Histor- 
ical Society. Doylestown, Pa.) It is a val- 
uable and attractive book replete with 
historic lore respecting Bucks County. It 
contains papers on the following subjects: 

Early Settlements of Newton Town- 
ship, The Solebury Copper Mine, Early 
History of Bucks County, Bucks County 
Bi-centennial, About Attleborough, William 
Penn's Home Life at the Manor House, 

Mennonites or German Friends, Our Stone 
Age. The Minerals of Bucks County, The 
German Population in Bucks County, The 
Marquis de LaFayette, The Neshaminy 
Church, Indian Town of Playwickey, The 
Doylestown Presbyterian Church, Remin- 
iscenses of Wrightstown, Early History of 
Wrightstown, Some Account of Warminster 
Meeting. The Newspapers of Bucks County. 
The Poets and Poetry of Bucks County. 
The Schcols of Buckingham. Rerainisen- 
cses of Buckingham, Bucks County in the 
Revolution. Indigenous and Naturalized 
Flowering Plants, Ferns anJ Fern Allies 
of Bucks County, The Doanes Before the 
Revolution, Sketch of the Life of Gen. 
.lohn Davis, Southampton Baptist Church, 
The Ferns of Durham and Vicinity, The 
Paper Mills of Bucks County, Edward 
Hicks, The Fells and Slocums of Wyo- 
ming, The Durham Iron Works, Three 
Dramatic Scenes in the Closing Hours of 
the Revolutionary Struggle, Four Lawyers 
of Doylestown Bar, The Doans and Their 
Times, Thomas Ross, a Minister of the 
Society, The Durham Cave, The Object of 
a Local Historical Society, Plumstead 
Township, Durham Cave — Reminiscences. 
Education in Durham Township, George 
Taylor— The Singer, The Worth and Char- 
acter of Pennsylvania Germans, General 
Ulysses S. Grant: Colonial Estates. The 
Early Clock Makers, Penn and His Plans 
in Pennsylvania, The American Policy. 
Edward Hicks, Local News, Our Farm. 
Early Welsh Settlers, What Geoffrey 
Chaucer Saw, The Schwenkfelders, For- 
estry in Pennsylvania, Aboriginal Remains 
in Durham and Vicinity, American Archae- 
ology, The New Britain Baptist Church. 
Hon. Samuel D. Ingham. The Mode of Life 
in Our Early Settlement, The Foundations 
on Which Our Fathers Built, The Pension 
System. The Red Lion Inn, Bensalem 
Township, Early Catholics of Bucks Coun. 
ty. Then and Now. or Old Times and New 
in Pennsylvania, The Bucks County Medical 
Society, The Town We Live in, Bits of His- 
tory, Scraps of Bucks Before 1750, Early 
History of Bristol, The Progress of the 
United States, Loganian Lands in Bucks 
County. Popular Errors Respecting North 
American Indians. 

Mr. Fackenthal deserves special mention 
and recognition for the valuable services 
he is rendering the cause of history in 
Pennsylvania and will undoubtedly inspire 
many other members of historical societies 
to similar acts in their respective com- 

Translation of a German paper, which 
Frank E. Schnerer, Esq. of Brickerville Pa. 
recently donated to the Lancaster County 
Historical Society, for its museum where 
it can now be seen. 



The paper is well preserved consider- 
ing its age. 

The following is the translation, viz: 

We Charles, by the grace of God, Mark- 
grave of Baden and Hackberg, Landgrave 
at Sausenberg, Count of Spanheim and 
Aberstein. Lord at Roeteln, Badenweyler, 
Lahr and Mahlberg, etc. 

Acknowledge herewith and make known 
that we after most humble supplication 
have graciously released in consideration 
of an equitable amount of money George 
.Jacob Schnuerer, together with his wife 
of Eckstein, born in the (high) bailiwick 
of Carlsruhe, who desires to locate in the 
Island of Pennsylvania and there to 
establish himself, dismiss them of their 
servitude, in which relationship they have 
hitherto been bound to us, in such a man- 
ner that neither we, nor our princely heirs 
shall have any further claim on either of 
them or their heirs, on account of their 
|)revious servitude, nor shall we b-; able to 
regain it. unless they should locate and 
settle in one or the other place of our duke- 
dom and dominion where we have serfs- 
in which case they shall again enter into 
The relationship over against us- 

In testimony of the above we have caused 
Vo be executed to George Jacob Schnuerer 
over our signatures and seals and to be 
delivered the above document." 

Executed in our princely resident city of 
Carlsruhe, September 16, 1737 

By special Mandate of his serene high- 
ness. V. Breslin 

1 Frei Herr Von Ma— ill, 

2 C. D. Stademan, 
o R. A. Henning. 

^ i^t •x» 

Historical Society Brings Amicable Action 
for (ileriuaiitowii Kocord 

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 
began the necessary legal formalities to 
obtain possession of an ancient volume 
now in possession of the Recorder of Deed 
office, known as the "Grund und Lager 
Buch." It is a record of early Ian '' grant.-; 
in Germantown and i.s about 200 years old. 
The Recorder's office intimated some time 
ago that the book should be given to the 
Historical society since it has long since 
ceased to be of any actual value at City 
Hall, Philadelphia 

It was found necessasry to go through 
certain formalities. William Drayton, as 
counsel for the society, issued a summons 
in Coumion Pleas Court for the custody 
of the volume. Members of the society 
consider it a most valuable acquisition. 

Reviews and Notes 

Daniel Booiie: Kacliwoodsiuaii. By C. H. 

Forbes-Lindsay. Cloth: 12mo. Illus- 
trated; ;>20 pp. J. B. Lippincott Com- 
pany. Philadelphia and London. 1908. 

It may be a fact but little known, even 
to people of Pennsylvania that Daniel 
Boone, the foremost frontiersman of his 
time, was born in Oley Township, Berks 
County, Pa., close by the present city of 
Reading. His father was an Englishman 
who finally settled in the vicinity mention- 
ed above, and here Daniel was born in 
Xoveniber, 17;]4. In 1750 the family mov- 
ed to South Carolina. Here Boone grew 
up and finally with his own family he 
migrated to Kentucky in 1773. 

It is dill'icult to believe that any pioneer 
left his impress ui)on the new territory of 
the country more forcibly than Boone: or 
that he was so widely known that his 
name found its way into Lord Byron's 
|)oetry; or that he lived a more fearless, 
upright life. Two of Boone's children were 
among the first settlers beyond the ;Missis- 
sipi)i River: a grandson was the first set- 
tler in Kansas, another was among the 
earliest in Colorado; and still a third was 
tbe faiucus Kit Carson, the noted guide. 

born in 1809, the year renowned for its 
l)rofligacy of greatness. 

Inasmuch as the book partakes of the 
nature of historical fiction, it is difficult at 
times to tell when one is reading of Boone 
iu fact and when in Action. The narrative 
begins with a chapter on the American 
Backwoodsman before the Revolution: this 
account is inteiesting and instructive, giv- 
ing, as it does, the origin of these peculiar 
denizens of the American forest, found no- 
where else in the world — indigenous to 
their country. 

The book is written for young readers, 
for children, but it will be eagerly read by 
"children of larger growth." It is in- 
teresting, exciting reading, with its dra- 
matic incidents and hairbreadth escapes. It 
is also as safe and wholesome a book of 
adventure as can be placed in the hands 
of the young. 

The Revolt of Auiie Rojie: By Helen R. 

Martin, author of "Tillie: A Menno- 

nite Maid." Cloth, 12 mo. 387 pp. 

Price $1.50. The Century Company. 

New York., 1908. 



This book seems to have the strongesc 
plot of any of Mrs. Martin's books. The 
incidents of the story are fairly complica- 
ted. Anne Royle is an orphan girl, and 
with her fosterfather, his wife being dead, 
lives with her uncle. She does not know 
that her foster-father is not her real father 
until he tells her so.. This may be a sur- 
prise to the reader; but the outcome of the 
disclosure is easily anticipated, because 
of the attitude he assumes in breaking the 
news to her. 

In the same town are also a rector and 
liis curate; it is by these three men that 
Anne's spirit is put on the rack, but, her 
womanhood asserting itself, she I'evolts 
against the oppression that has encom- 
passed her all her life and marries the man 
of her choice. 

The book is advertised as being a 
"story whose characters are not Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutch". This may be true but it is 
not the whole truth. The scene is laid in 
the Pennsylvania-German countrv — Read- 
ing!?) Hamburg, and the Blue Mountains. 
Seemingly the author cannot write a book 
without giving the Pennsylvania-Germans 
a slap. The thirty-ninth chapter, contain- 
ing the offensive remarks, has no vital 
conection with the main plot, it could be 
easily emitted; in fact, it is a defect in 
the artistic arrangement of the whole story. 
Seemingly it was inserted for the express 
])urpose of giving these people a fling. 

The whole substance of this entire chap- 
ter is so ridiculous and preposterous that 
one hesitates to pass further judgment on 
it for fear it might be uncritical, except to 
say what was said before: the difficulty of 
idealizing these "sordid"(!) people lies 
with the arti.=5t and not with the material. 
Miss Singraaster also writes short stories 
about these same people, but she writes 
in a far more acceptable and artistic 
manner than the author of The Revolt of 
Anne Royle." She exposes their weaknesses 
and plays upon their foibles without giving 
offence, and idealizes them without de- 
jiarting from the actual facts. 

The book may be fairly interesting 
reading, but we do not believe that it is 
altogether a wholesome one, especially 
for younger people. All of Mrs. Martin's 
heroines are precocious, there is an abnor- 
mality and gloominess about them that is 
not healthy. There is some fascinating, 
exciting, love-making, but it, like some of 
the moral ideas expressed, does not edify 
and make for noble manhood and woman- 
hood. It is only just to say, on the other 
hand, that the author has accomplished 

something if she has lessend the grip that 
superstition still seems to have on these 

Peggy Ovveu: by Lucy Foster Madison, 
author of "A Maid of Salem Towne." 
Cloth, 12 mo. Illustrated. 385 pp. 
The Penn Publishing Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
The scene of this bustling story is laid 
in Philadelphia: it is based on the histori- 
cal incidents of the stormy days of 1776. 
The heroine is Peggy Owen, a noble, win- 
some young Quaker girl of colonial days, 
a young patriot of the kind that did things 
in times of old. 

Although the family were members of 
the Society of Friends, the father could 
not resist the call to arms and enlisted. It 
is while engaged in the siege of Boston that 
Peggy shows her patriotism. At the risk 
of her life she makes her way to the camp 
of General Putman to inform him of a spy 
whose plot to betray his countrj' she over- 
head in her father's stable. Her father is 
taken prisoner and left to die in a British 
prison ; to intercede for him she makes her 
way to the camp of General Howe, and to 
the famished camp of General Wasliington 
at Valley Forge. Her father is released, 
and restored to health, the spy is executed 
and the old country home at Strawbery Hill 
is saved. 

The story is written in an exceedingly 
simple style, in true Quaker-like simplici- 
ty. The plot is not at all complicated. There 
is something poetic in the style and diction, 
and in fact in the very outside appearance 
of the book. The writer has revived an 
effective custom of old, followed by Scott, 
Irving and others, of prefixing to each 
chapter an appropriate poetic quotation. 
And no better quotation to precede the 
whole story could be found than the stanza 
from "Evangeline." 

No more wholesome book for young 
])eoi)le was published during the last year. 
There is a healthy, bracing air about it 
that makes life seem more worth-while 
than the usual sickening, simpering, 
"society" novel. 

4» * 4» 

— The last week in November another 
Penny i)acker book sale was held in Phila- 
delphia. The remainder of 15000 volumes 
of the ex-Governor's books will be sold in 
April. It has been estimated that the whole 
collection will realize about $50,000. The 
highest price realized at the recent sale 
was $135 for a Bradford imprint of 1682. 

Vol. X 

MARCH, 1909 

No. 3 

Sketch of Colonel, Later Judge Matthias Hollenback 

By Edward Welles, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

(continued from FEBRUARY ISSUE) 

The details of liollenback'r. early 
life at Wyoming (as Wilkes - Barre 
was called before 1772), are naturally 
somewhat meagre. At the outbreak 
of the Revolutionary War he was in 
lousiness on the west side of the Pub- 
lic Square : and when, in the year 
1776. the company of Wyoming men 
in which he had enlisted, one of two 
raised by authority of Congress for 
home defence, was ordered into the 
general service, he took his younger 
brother John into partnership, and 
entrusted the business to him during 
his own absence. As he had pre- 
viously. Oct. 17, 1775, been commis- 
sioned by ( "loxernor Trumbull as en- 
sign in the 24th regiment of the Con- 
necticut militia, he was now by Con- 
gress commissioned to the same 
grade in one of the two independent 
com])anies; this action of Congress 
was (lalcd Aug. 26. 1776. As these 
two com])anies were so soon ordered 
into the main army. Hollenback had 
the fortune to see sei \'ice under Wash- 
ington in the campaigns of 1776 and 
1777; being engaged in the actions at 
Millstone. Hound Brook, jNlud Fort. 
Brandywinc and Germantown.. His 
<larin<j- conduct at Millstone. ln"s first 

engagement, was specially noted. 

When danger threatened their 
homes, and Congress refused or neg- 
lected to afford relief, the officers of 
the Wyoming companies resigned 
their commissions and returned to 
Wyoming, says Miner, (not to avoid 
danger, but to meet it) As the fatal 
day of Wyoming approached, scouts 
were sent up the river to observe and 
report the movements of the invad- 
ing force. Hollenback with one com- 
panion was on one of these scouting 
parties, about the last of June. A few 
miles al>o\e the head of the valley 
they found the bodies of the two 
young Hardings. who had been fresh- 
ly killed and scalped by the Indians, 
whose trail led back over the mount- 
ains to the northwest. These they 
brought down the river in a canoe; 
though I lollenback's companion was 
so o\ercome with fear and trembling 
that he begged to be set ashore, and 
lloIkiil)ack alone brought the bodies 
of the slain I^rethren down to their 
friends at Jenkins' Fort. 

Insomuch as the invading force 
was now So near at hand, no more 
scouts were sent out: but the whole 
\-allev was roused, and all effective 











< r? 

CD ^' 

z ? 

UJ ■? 

-J c- 

7^ ^ 

X ^ 


UJ 5 



men assembled at Forty Fort as fast 
as organized. Col. Zebulon Butler, then 
ai home from Washington's army u])- 
<in a furlough, was asked to take 
rctnimand i>i the little army of de- 
fence. The records of that service 
ha\e always been more or less con- 
fused, as the little force was organ- 
i/.ecl iu haste, for a desperate emer- 
i^ency. llollenliack had enlisted as 
lieutenant under Capt. Dethick 
Hewitt, who headed one .)f the com- 
panies upon the right wing. It has 
been often said that he served under 
his friend Capt. Durkee. who was his 
commander in the Xew Jersey cam- 
l)aign, and whose life he attempted 
to save on the day of the battle; but 
Durkee's service was upon the stafif of 
Col. Piutler, and not in the line. 

We will let Lieut. Hollenback tell 
tis so much as he will of this day of 
liattle, from a paper in his own hand, 
dated Dec. 26. 1820; a paper - unfor- 
tunately not written for the purpose of 
relating his own story, but solely to 
\indicate the memory of his friend 
L"ol. lUitler against certain ]50st- 
mortem aspersions of his courage and 

The alarm Avas great on the 2nd of 
July. The regiment was collected 
and marched on the third. All on the 
east side of the river crossed to Forty 
l-'ort. where they counselled what to 
do. While there a flag was sent in, 
demanding the surrender of ,the fort 
'■\hich was refused. The word was 
"figlit tlie enemy and beat them 
back". On the height, about halfway 
from Forty Fort to Wintermoot's 
they halted; and soon after the smoke 
of Wintermoot's I'ort. about three 
miles off, was discovered ; which 
seemed to put new 1 ife into the mili- 
tia. They cra\ed orders to march; 
which they did. almost to the fort; 
1 was on the right wing of the regi- 
ment and close tti the fort, where we 
engaged the British j^art of the en- 
emy's army, and as 1 supposed were 
beating them. 'Ilie first T knew the 
militia on the left ga\e wav and broke. 

landing the firing to cease on the left, 
1 ran back of the smoke which settled 
down on us on the right, and discover- 
ed our ])eople all in confusion on the 
left. L informed Cai)t. llewitt of this, 
and that he must order a retreat, 
which he did and we fled every wav 
all in confusion, to make the best we 
could to save our lives." Miner, in, his 
History of W^yoming, p.. .224, has a 
\'ery pretty story of the brave Hew- 
itt's refusal to order a retreat : but 
the above account, from the hand of 
the very ofificer in (piestion, must be 
held authentic, tradition to the contra- 
ry notwithstanding. That the outnum- 
bered and overmastered patriots were 
compelled to yield to the inevitable. 
casts no slur upon their memory. 
Captain Hewitt gave his life to his 
country that day: and of Lieut. Hol- 
lenljack's own conduct in the battle. 
Miner says, in the ap])endix to his 
"History", page 4. "Fear was a 
stranger to his bosom. I have heard 
several say who saw him there, and 
afterwards recognized him in the bat- 
tle, that a braver soldier never march- 
ed out to meet an enemy. Hollen- 
back was but twenty-six years old : 
and fleet of foot and expert in all 
manly exercises, he had better fortune 
than many in the retreat and massacre 
that followed. His esca^ie was by 
swimming the river in the edge of the 
evening near Monockonock island. 
In his flight to the bank of the river, 
he had managed to throw off his 
clothing; putting a piece of gold into 
his mouth, and securing a roll of 
Continental money 'c>.n(\ a bill of ex- 
change in his cue. Diving and swim- 
ming under water as long as he could 
hold breath, when coni]:)elled to come 
to the surface for air, the bullets 
flew so close that one caused him to 
gasp, by which he lost the gold 
piece: but the other \aluables kept 
him com])any until he gained safety 
upon the eastern bank of the Susque- 
hanna. Here he met a neighbor who 
gave him a hunting-shirt; and in this 
• niise he reached the fort at W'ilke^- 



Barrc toward midnight ; giving the 
^anxious wom^n th>ere collected the 
first niews of the issue of the conflict 
that bad made so many of them wid- 
ows and their children fatherless. 

As soon as he could clothe and re- 
fresh himself, Holknback mounted 
Hiis horse and hastened over the 
mountains eastward to Rear Creek, 
to meet Capt. Spalding who had been 
dispatched, too late, with the rem- 
nant of tlie two Wyoming companies 
to the relief of the settlement. To 
liim he proposed an immediate march 
into tlie \alley, with the view of 
checking the further advance of the 
invading forces : but Spalding was 
imwilling to attempt what he felt 
could lead only to additional disaster. 
This view was in fact justified on 
the return of Hollenback. with a 
few volunteers from Spalding's 
ranks, to the brow of the mountain ; 
which gave him a sight of his own 
buildings in flames, and the enemy's 
flag flying over the fort at Wilkes- 
Barre : this was on the fourth of July, 
a sorrowful second anniversary of the 
day of Independence. 

Abandoning the hope of doing any- 
thing further to avert the ruin of the 
settlement, the active young man now 
devoted himself to the succor of the 
flying fugitives, old and young who 
were making their way, defenceless 
and destitute, across the mountains, 
and through trackless swamps where 
many died, to safety upon the banks 
of the Delaware. Making requisitions 
upon Spalding's commisariat, as 
says Miner, "he rapidly returned, la- 
den with bread, for the relief of the 
flying widows and their suffering 
children. Tmjiarting a saving morsel 
to one, and then hastening on to an- 
other starving group, he came, said 
the ancient fold) people, like an angel 
of mercy''. 

Hollenback's earnings in the way 
of business up to tiie time of the in- 
vasion were such only as might be ex- 
pected in a newly jjopulated wilder- 
ness, where a mere living was accom- 

plished only at the cost of hard labor 
and struggle. His inventory of losses 
by the Indian raid is in existence, en- 
dorsed "A list of effects which the 
subscriber lost when the Indians 
made an incursion on Westmoreland 
in the state of Connecticut, Avhich was 
in the month of July, 1778"; the total 
amount being £671.30. It will be ob- 
served that the "Battle and Massacre 
of Wyoming" was yet an unknown 
phrase; and that Wyoming was West- 
moreland, and in Connecticut instead 
of Pennsylvania. And it took years of 
struggle and contention and not a 
little bloodshed, to settle the ques- 
tion :- "Is Westmoreland in Pennsyl- 
vania, or is Wyoming in Connecticut? 

As soon as the condition of affairs 
\\ould permit, Hollenback was back 
at his work ; and building a new house 
and store (still standing on South 
Main street, Wilkes-Barre) he en- 
gaged in business with' that energy 
and assiduity for which his name was 
a synonym. One of his first ventures 
on the conclusion of peace in 1782 
was the collection of a dro\e of cattle 
in the state of Connecticut, and driv- 
ing them to Niagara, where he ex- 
pected a good demand from the mili- 
tary forces on both sides of the 
boundary line. But so slow was the 
prc\gress of intelligence in those times 
that when he crossed into Canada he 
was taken prisoner by the British 
authorities, and held so for several 
weeks, until the arrival of the official 
news of peace ; when he was able to 
sell his beef to good advantage. This 
was the beginning of a trade of that 
kind which formed one of his indust- 
ries f(^r many years ; in the prosecu- 
tion of Avhich he incurred many dan- 
gers and hardships, and laid the found- 
ation for many future l)usiness con- 

He now entered int(T trade on a 
large and increasing scale ; establish- 
ing trading-posts at various points 
along the valley of the Susquehanna as 
far north as Elmira, then called New- 
town. These "stores" he kept stocked 



with goods purchased mainly at 
Philadelphia, carted across the coun- 
try to Aliddletown, and then "pushed" 
up the river in canoes and J3urham 
boats, to W'ilkes-Barre, Wyalusing. 
Towanda, Tioga Point, Newtown and 
Owego; the trip l^eing always labor- 
ious, and consuming weeks of time. 
These goods were of course such as 
were needed in a new country and the 
inventories and price' lists of the 
ei^l-jteenth century dates are ver}'- in 
teresting. The customers were the 
pioneers and their families, with such 
of the aborigines as still lingered on 
the frontier. Pay was largely in bar- 
ter, the produce of the country; such 
as furs, hides, grain, salt and whiskey. 
About 1792-3, Hollenback began to 
invest largely in wild lands ; asso- 
ciating with himself such men as 
Timoth}^ Pickering, James Wilsoti., 
etc., so that at the time of his death he 
was one of the largest landholder-s in 
northeastern Pennsylvania. Concur- 
rently he cleared farms, built farm- 
houses, mills and distilleries, and en- 
gaged in the rrmnufacture of paper, 
powder and linseed oil. His trading- 
posts at. Athens and Elmira were es- 
tablished in 1783. P)Oth were consider- 
ed important points; particularly the 
former, at the confluence of the Che- 
mung and Susquehanna rivers; Tioga 
Point being regarded by the Six 
X^ations as the key of the whole valley 
of the Suscpiehanna, in or near which 
lay the hunting-gn^unds of their sub- 
ject and tributary tribes. At this point 
and Elmira were negotiated several 
important Indian treaties within ten 
or fifteen years of the close of the war 
the objects aimed at being generally 
to cpiiet the natives and prevent u]i- 
risings. Two were under the manage- 
ment of Col. Timothy Pickering; and 
at these and others Ilollenback's 
])resence and ser\ices were rec|uired 
as master of transportation and pur- 
veyor of supplies. At these and the 
treaties of Fort Stanwix (1784) and 
P>uffalo Creek (1788), he made the ac- 
(piaintance of the principal chiefs of 

the Irocpiois, as Brant, Cornplanter, 
Red Jacket, I'armer's Brother, and 
others. About 1792, Red Jacket 
being on the way to Philadelphia to 
see President Washington, paid Col. 
Hollenliack a friendly visit at his 
home in W'ilkes-Barre ; and the 
writer's mother, then four years old, 
long remembered the proud bearing 
of the noble savage. 

While Hollenback was so largely 
engaged in trade and business, his fa- 
miliar titles of Colonel and Judge bear 
witness to his close ass(jciation >yith 
he ]niblic interests. In May 1787 he 
was commissioned as justice of the 
Peace, and of the County Court of 
Common Pleas, by Benjamin Frank- 
lin, President of the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council ; in October, as Lieut. 
Colonel; these three commissions 
bearing the signature of Franklin. By 
virtue of several subsequent renewals, 
he exercised the military office until 
about 1800. In 1791 he was a])pointed 
by Gov. Mifflin Associate Judge of the 
courts of Luzerne County; an office 
laid down \\'ith his life, thirty-seven 
x^ears later. ^Fhat his views of justice 
though doubtless correct, were some- 
what unconventionai, may be githered 
from an anecdote related by the late 
Judge Collins. The case at issue was 
a charge of assault and battery against 
the veteran Col. Ransom, who had 
floored a man who had spoken dispar- 
agingly of the character and services 
of Washington. \Vhen the case was 
called. President Judge Scott arose 
and left the bench, saying that inas- 
much as the action was one which 
concerned an old sohiier. he thought 
it pro])er to leave its judgment to an- 
other old sold'er. his associate. Judge 
Hollenback. The defendant was ready 
to nlead guilty to the indictment, hav- 
ing" no defence to offer. "Col. Ransom" 
said the judge, "where were you on 
such a date?" ^^'ith A\'ashington in 
.\ew Jersey, your honor." "'And where 
on such another date?" "A prisoner in 
Canada, sif". "Right : T believe you 
were: and where on the third of Ji^ly, 



1 778?". "With Capt. Spalding, on the 
march to the relief of Wyoming".. 
"Right again; and so you knocked the 
rascal down, did you?". "I did, Judge; 
and I would do it again', "Right a- 
gain, Colonel ; but you have plead 
guilty, and I am sorry to say the law 
IS against you. The sentence of the 
court is that you pa}^ a fine of six and 
a quarter cents and costs : Mr. Clerk, 
you will charge that bill to me". Col. 
Hendrick B Wright, in his Pl3'-mouth 
Sketches, has a somewhat different 
version of this incident ; but as Judge 
Collins was an auditor and eye-wit- 
ness, his version has some cla:im to 

During his strenuous business ca- 
reer of sixty years, Hollenback en- 
countered dangers and hardships, and 
went through adventures innumer- 
able ; of which he was . sometimes 
tempted to descant in the social cir- 
cle. That he never spared the time, or 
thought it worth while to commit his 
recollections to paper, is a matter of 
much regret. On one occasion only 
was he interviewed by a competent 
pen in this direction, for an hour or 
two of leisure ; but on re-persual of his 
own notes, the interviewer was so 
dissatisfied with the measure of his 
success in reproducing the style and 
])ersonality of the narrator, that he 
destroyed his manuscript, intending to 
resume the subject at a later oppor- 
tunity ; the opportunity never came. 

It was as a man of affairs that 
Hollenback left his mark upon the 
newly settled and growing region in 
which he had cast his lot. Of slender 
and vigorous person, inured to hard- 
ship and exposure, business was his 
employment : leisure he hardly under- 
stood. "Tf business called", savs 
[Miner, "neither heat nor cold, hail, 
rain nor snow, high water, bad roads 
nor darkness arrested his progress, 
while the way was practicable. In al- 
tnost ever}' instance where a store was 
erected, a farm was bought, ^nd the 
cultivation of the soil went hand in 
hand with the disposal of merchan- 

dise." His holdings of woodlands ex- 
tended in a nearl}^ unbroken line from 
Harvey's Lake to Towanda, a dis- 
tance of thirty-five miles as the crow 
flies ; in addition to many thousands 
of acres in other sections of the state. 
It was inevitable that the cares of 
so large a business should eventually 
tell upon his iron constitution. Among 
other duties were those of the presi- 
dency of the local bridge company; a 
corporation which, although in later 
years phenomenally successful, then 
evidently needed occasional attention, 
in order to find out why the returns 
were so unsatisfactory. And when, in 
1822 the poet Halleck visited the stor- 
ied valley, he seems to have found the 
old soldier seated rather a,t the receipt 
of customs. In his poem entitled 
"Wyoming." in which he compares 
the existing conditions with those 
poetically described by Campbell in 
his "Gertrude." he says : 

■' Judge Hollenbach, who keeps the toll- 
bridge gate 
And the town records, is the Albert now 
Of Wyoming; like him, in church and state. 
Her Doric column; and upon his la-ow 
The thin locks, white with seventy winter's 

Look patriarchal." 

During the latter years of his stren- 
uous life, most of his cares were taken 
off his hands by his very competent 
son, the late George Matson Hollen- 
back. Esq., whose fortunate business 
career" is within the memory of men 
now li\'ing. Late in his own life the 
father called upon John Jacob Astor, 
with whom he had been acquainted at 
the outset of his career. "Have you 
any sons. Hollenback?" said Astor. 
"T ha^■e one," was the reply. "Send 
him to me ; I will take care of him." 
"I thank you. sir", replied the proud 
father ; "he can take care of himself." 

But as long as physical ability serv- 
ed, it was inevitable that a man who 
had been so exacting a master to him- 
self, holding his employes to an al- 
most equally strict accountability, 
should prove unwilling to lay down 
his burdens; and even to the last year 



— almost the last mouth — of his life 
he was busy, as health served, in at- 
tention to duty. Late in the year 1828 
he made his usual tour of inspection 
of his interests in the upper Susque- 
hanna valley; in the prosecution of 
which he contracted a cold, 'which 
|)robably shortened his life. At the 
j^eneral election in November, he in- 
sisted on being- driven to the polls, in 
order to cast his vote for Andrew 
Jackson. In deference to the condi- 
tion of his health, the election board 
came out to the carriai^e to receive the 

\'ote ; an incident which called forth 
ajji)lause from the bystanders. He 
died on the i8tli of February, 1829. 
aged seventy-seven years and one 
day; survived by a widow and four 

* One of the widows, whose husband. 
Cyprian Hibbard, was slain in the battle, 
became afterwards Mr. Hollenback's wife: 
and as such managed his household and 
reared their children with energy and 
judgment, and was the almoner of his 
many hospitalities, for well on to half a 

The Palatines of the Hudson and Schoharie 


By James B. Laux, now of New York 

E R H A P S 

the greatest 
blunder ever committed 
by a Colonial Governor, 
was that by G >vernor 
Htniter in his tyrannical 
treatment of the Pala- 
tines who arrived at New 
York in 1710; the only 
German emigration of 
of any consequence that came to Xew 
\'ork in Colonial days. Kocherthal's 
colony in 1709 numbc-mg fewer than 
fifty souls, while the third and last ar- 
rival in 1722 was but a ship load, com- 
l)aratively few in number, many of 
whom wont to }'enns}'lvania nnmedi- 
Htely after landing. 

These emigrants were the saddest 
company that e\er landed in a strange 
land to found new homes. They came 
from the Palatinate of the Rhine 
which for generations had been a hell 
on earth, swept as it was by the fiery 
bosom of war and destruction. They 
were a l^roken, sorrowful remnant of 
the thirty three thousand who with 
high hopes left their wretched homes 
in 1708 and 17CK;, on the invitation of 
good Queen Anne for London, from 
whence they were to be sent to the 
Carolinas. or to some other of her 

Majesty's Colonies, te) be settled 

The story of this great army ot exiles 
from their native land, impatient to 
reach the Xew World which had been 
])ainted in Queen Anne's books and 
pam])hlets, and scattered throughout 
the \'alley of the Rhine, as a 'and of 
plenty and happiness, is one of the 
most pathetic in the history of man- 
kind and should have won the sym- 
]jathy. encouragement and substan- 
tial help of the i)eo])le with whom they 
cast their lot. 

Seven thousantl after suft'er-ng the 
greatest privations in the streets of 
London, were returned almost naked 
and in the utmost despondency to 
their old homes on the Rhine. Ten 
thousand died for want of food and 
from sickness. Many died on shi[)- 
I)oard and thousands were wrecked at 
sea. Xearly four thousand were sent 
to Ireland where lands had been set 
aside for them in the County of Lim- 
erick, where their descendants still 
reside and are known as German 
I'alatines, respected and honored for 
their many n.ianly virtues anil high 
character, a few still speaking the 
patois of the Rhine, not unlike the 



patois of the Pennsylvania Getmans. 

Four thousand left England in ten 
\ essels on Christmas day 1709 and af- 
ter a perilous voyage of nearly six 
months arrived at New York on June 
14, 1710. Seventeen hundred died at 
sea and while landing. The remainder 
were encamped in tents they had 
brought with them from England, on 
Xutting. now Governor's Island. In 
the late autumn about fourteen hun- 
dred were taken to Livingston Manor 
about a hundred miles up the Hud- 
son River. The widowed women, 
sickly men and orphan chikb'en re- 
mained in New York. The irphans 
and many who were not, were arbi- 
iraril}' apprenticed by Gov'ernor Hun- 
ter to citizens of New York and New 
jersey, distant from friends and rela- 

The Palatines settled on tiie Liv- 
ingston Manor were under indenture 
to serve Queen Anne as "her loyal 
and grateful subjects" to manufacture 
tar and to raise hemp so that the ex- 
pense of their transportation and cost 
of sustenance amounting to ten thou- 
sand pounds sterling advanced b}- 
grant of Parliament might be repaid. 
They were in much the same position 
as that of the Redem]>tioners who 
came to Pennsylvania and Maryland 
])revious to the Revolution. They 
were expected to manufacture lar and 
pitch in the pine forests and a great 
supply of naval stitres was expected to 
be gathered by their lal)ors. but ow- 
ing to natural causes of which Munter 
and his associates were grossly ignor- 
ant the project was doomed to failure 
from the beginning, as the land Avas 
unfitted on which to raise any kind of 
naval stores in any C(Misiderable Quan- 
tity or for raising corn, cattle and 
other provisions for their subsistence, 
so poor and baren was the soil. 

When they petitir ned Governor 
Hunter, while on a visit he m.ade to 
their villages, that they might be ]mt 
in ])ossession of lands in the Scho- 
harie \'alley which the Indians had 
given to Queen Anne for their use, 
thev were insolently refused, the Gov- 

ernor in a great passion stamping on 
the ground saying "here is yt)ur land 
where you must live and die." 

In spite of this language and treat- 
ment, that of an inhuman master o£ 
his slaves, over a hundred oi their 
able bodied men, fully one third of 
their number capable of military duty, 
volunteered to serve in the expedition 
against Canada in 171 1, which they 
willingly and cheerfully did. Philip 
and Nicholas Laux were am.)ng the 
number. Their families during their 
absence were to have been cared for 
by the Province, money for that pur- 
pose having been placed in the hands 
of the Governor. On their return not 
only were they deprived of their arms 
though all that went on the expedi- 
tion were to have kept them by Queen 
Anne's ]:)articular order, but wages 
for their services were refuser! them 
also. To fill their cup of misery when 
th^v arrived at their homes they 
found their families in a famished 
condition, no provisions having been 
given them during their absence. 

Every promise made them in Eng- 
land and America was broken ; they 
were cheated and plundered on every 
side, and in desperation to escape 
certain starvation one hundred and 
fifty families broke away from this in- 
hospitable spot late in the year 1712 
starting for Schoharie abouv sixt}' 
miles north west of Livmgston Manor 
wdiich they reached after incredible 
hardships. They had to make their 
way through a roadless wilderness < 
without horses to draw or carry their 
belongings, their little children and 
weak and delicate w^omen. They har- 
nessed themselves to rudely construct- 
ed sledges on which they loaded their 
baggage, children and sick and then 
dragged them as best they could 
through the snow which covered the 
region they journeyed through, fre- 
(juently encountering long stretches 
three feet in depth. It took them over 
three weeks to make this journey, 
arriving at Schoharie half starved and 
sutTering from exposure and intense 



Their misery was in nowise dimish- 
ecl on their arrival : famine stared them 
in the face and had it not been for the 
charity of friendly Indians who show- 
ed them where to gather edible roots 
and herbs, every soul of them must 
inevitably have perished. Their in- 
domitable courage and energy enabled 
them however to sur\'ive their dread- 
ful plight and a year later found them 
housed, with improvement of their 
land under way. But like the Israel- 
ites of old they were pursued by their 
Pharaoh. Governor Hunter, who re- 
sented their unceremonious departure 
from Livingston Manor and who was 
determined to punissh them in spite of 
the fact that but a short time before 
their departure he had notifieJ them 
that he could not undertake any long- 
er to supply them with subsistence 
and^that they would have to shift for 
themselves, permitting them to accept 
"any employment they may get from 
farmers and others in the Province 
and New Jerse\' for their own and 
their families' support, until they be • 
recalled by Proclamation or other 
public notice." 

He might as well have said, for his 
words were to the same effect "I re- 
fuse to sujipl}^ you any longer with 
subsistence or to gi\ t- you employ- 
ment. You can go and starve so far 
as I am concerned, or woik elsewhere 
if you are lucky enough to find it. If 
any of you are alive wiien I need you, 
you must come back at once wherever 
you may be, or I'll punish you." He 
threatened to hang John Conrad 
Weiser their leader at Schoharie for 
being "disobedient" and mutinous. 

Some idea of the tyrannical nature 
of Governor Hunter may be gathered 
from the instructions he gave to one 
<if his (,^)mmissioners concerning the 
Palatines with reference to their seek- 
ing employment elsewhere. He says: ' 
■'You must remind them of their con- 
tract with her Majesty and assure 
them there is not the least intention 
to abandon the tar works or to recede 
from any ])art of their agreement. 
Therefore 1 hope thev will leaxe with 

the full determination to return at the 
first notice, without imagining that 
any government or power in any Pro- 
vince can protect them in case they go 

"That should any of them lemove 
into any other Province (except New 
Jersey which is likewise under my 
government) I have adopted measures 
for their rendition and will punish 
them for so doing as deserters from 
her Majesty's service.' 
* "That each Master or Heac! of a 
Family desirous to go to work as 
aforesaid, shall acquaint you of the 
])lace he is moving to, and receive 
from you a Ticket of leave to go there, 
copy of which you will enter in a 
l)ook, so that should he abandon that 
place he ma}' be sent back and pun- 

"Should any dare depart without 
such Ticket of leave, you will apply 
to the next Justice of the Peace for a 
Hue and Cry in order to pursue and 
bring him back, and place him in con- 
finement until further orders from 

The instructions of Governor Hun- 
ter suggest the Fugitive Slave law of 
ante helium days and the regulations 
governing the coiu'icts of Australia 
and Tasmania during the Penal Col- 
ony regime. Remembering that the 
Palatines had been deceived ; the 
terms of their contract with Queen 
Anne broken by Governor Hunter 
her representative, and subjected to 
all kinds of ignominy and inhuman 
treatment, it is not .'-urprising that 
they revolted and quit forever the 
place where nothing i,<ut miser}^ and 
slavery was before them. TViey as- 
serted their manhood and defied the 
Governor, as their forefathers in an- 
cient days defied the power of imper- 
ial Rome in the German forests. 

Their sojourn in the Schoharie Val- 
ley covering a ])eriod of about ten 
years was marked by the \-indicative 
animosity of Ilunter and his creatures 
at Albany, resulting finally in the 
loss of their lands and improvement 
owing to defective tides cunninelv 



contrived by unscrupulous agents. 
Then once more, the victims of injus- 
tice and misfortune, the greater num- 
ber left the scenes of their unrequited 
labors to found new and this time, 
permanent homes in more ho>^pitable 
regions, the majority going to the 
Mohawk Valley where they soon be- 
came prosperous and where their de- 
scendants are found today, a sturdy, 
influential and intelligent people. 
Their patriotic service during the 
Revolution form one of the brightest 
chapters in the history of the State. 
The memory of the grim old hero of 
Oriskany General Herkmier, has been 
very recently honored with an impos- 
ing monument in the village of Herk- 

A few families rei.^ained in the 
Schoharie Valley, where in spite of 
spoliation they eventually acquired 
new homes and where their descen- 
dants became potent factors in the 
iiiaterial development of the State as 
well as in its ])olitical affairs. Governor 
William C. Uouck. 1842-44 was a de- 
sscendant of one of the Schoharie 
Palatines. Bishop Kemper the first 
Missionary Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United 
States was also of this Palatine stock, 
having been born in Dutchess County 
in 1789. His sister married the Hon. 
Samuel Sitgrea\es of Easton, Penna., 
who was a Commissioner to England 
under President John Quincy Adams. 
She died in 1879 ^t the great age of 
one hundred and two years. 

An offshoot consisting of thirty- 
three families came to Pennsylvania 
in the spring of 1723 settling in Tul- 
liehncken Township, then Lancaster 
Co., about eighteen miles \vest of 
Reading and whose descendants still 
own the lands acquired by their refu- 
gee forefathers from Schoharie. The 
famous Conrad W'eiser, the confiden- 
tial agent of the Penns and Indian in- 
terpreter belonged to this coiiiingent 
though not arri\ing before 1729. Pie 
settled at Womelsdorf where lie died 
in 1760. One of his daughters i^ecame 
the wife of the Rev. Henrv Melchoir 

Muhlenberg, the "Patriarch of the Lu- 
theran Church in America." Their eld- 
est son. Peter, like his father, a clergy- 
man, became celebrated as a fighting 
parson during the Revolution. At the 
request of Washington whose friend- 
ship he enjoyed, he accepted a Col- 
onel's commission in the Continental 
Army and immediately preached his 
farewell sermon to his congregation at 
Woodstock, Virginia, in which he told 
them that there was "a time to preach 
and a time to pray, but that there was 
also a tme to fight and that that time 
had now come." Then throwing oft' 
his gown he stood full dressed in his 
Colonel's uniform. Leaving the pul- 
pit and church he bade the drums beat 
for recruits. More than three hundred 
of his congregation enlisted at once 
becoming part of the "German Regi- 
ment" the 8th Virginia which marched 
to the relief of Charleston S. C. where 
it gained an enviable reputat on for 
bravery and efficiency. Muhlenberg's 
statue adorns the rotunda in the Capi- 
tol at Washington, a heroic figure in 
the immortal company that founded 
the great Republic. 

The Palatine settlement on the 
Livingston Manor was the beginning 
(^f an emigration that would eventu- 
ally have rivalled that to Pennsylvania 
but for the shortsighted and tyranni- 
cal conduct of Governor Hunter and 
the selfishness and cupidity of land- 
owners and speculators. The ill treat- 
ment of the Schoharie settlers after 
ten years occupancy and improvement 
of their lands is set down as a hind- 
rance and hurt to the Province in a 
letter to Auditor General W'^alpole by 
Secretary George Clark in 1722. He 
says "the greatest part of them have 
purchased in Pennsylvania and are 
determined t(j go thither, thus the 
P.rigadier (meaning Governor tlunt- 
er)is baulked and this province de- 
])rived of a good frontier of hardy and 
laborious ]:)eople." Governor Burnet 
called them "a lal)orious and honest 



l)iit a headstron^^- pec)]ile" yet all three 
are necessar}- (|ualities in the work of 
buildins^" uj) a State for a shiftless, 
weak-niiiuled race \i^ always a failure 
as a colonizer. 

New York never rec?vered fiom the 
efTects of this ill treatment of the Pala- 
tines. Peter Kalm the Swedish travel- 
ler and naturalist s])eaking" of the ex- 
odus from Schoharie to Pennsylvania 
says "Not satisfied with being them- 
selves removed from New York, they 
wrote to their friends and relatives, if 
c\cr they intended to come to Ameri- 
ca not to g"o to New York." This ad- 
vice had such influence that the Ger- 
mans who afterwards went in such 
great numbers to America constantly 
avoided New York and went to Penn- 
s^dvania. It sometimes haonened that 
they were forced to take ships bound 
for New York, but they were scarce 
got on shore when they hastened to 
Pennsylvania in sight of all the inhabi- 
tants of New York." The famous John 
Jacob Astor was a Palatine, and came 
to New York in 1783 from Waldorf 
near the Rhine. 

Because of this emigration from 
Germany now wholly diverted from 
New York, Pennsylvania became the 
richest, most prosperoiis and the sec- 
ond in |)oint of oopulation of all the 
colonies. Franklin testifying in 1766 
before a Committee of the House of 
Commons said that of the one hundred 
and sixty thousand whites in the Prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania about one third 
were (iermans and characterized them 
as "a people who brought with them 
the greatest of all wealth, industry 
and integrity, and character that had 
been superpoised and developed by 
years of suffering and persecuti<m." 

The ill treatment of the Palatines in 
New York in ])oint of crass folly in its 
c(inse(picnces has but few parallels in 
history, one instance being that of the 
refusal of Louis XI\" of France to per- 
mit the Iluguenots of his kingdom to 
settle in Canada or New France as 
they earnestly prayed tliat they might 
do, and which in all probability, had 
their prayer been granted, would have 

made North America, I^'rench, instead 
»jf English ; our civilization and politi- 
cal institutions Latin instead of Anglo 
Saxon. Another instance that may be 
cited, is that of the expulsion of the 
Moors from S])ain by the Spaniards. 
In both instances was this follv 
grievously answered for in material 
and moral decadence. 

Many strange thing.; happen in the 
mad whirligig of Time : old wrongs are 
forgotten, fierce animosities fade away, 
new problems present themselves, a 
common danger unites all discordani 
elements and sections, changing old 
foes into friends with but one ambi- 
tion : that of the general good. The 
Revolutionary War put an end to Pro- 
prietary go\'ernment and rule by Roy- 
al Governors, wiping out the misrule, 
petty tyrannies and iniquities that 
l)re\'ailed in nearly a'd the Colonies 
welding into one body politic the dis- 
cordant communities owing allegiance 
to England. The wrongs of the Pala- 
tines were avenged in the struggle for 
Independence in whicli they bore a 
noble part. 

The settlement and development of 
the new born nation no longer defend- 
ed on the caprice oi" a complacent, 
])leasure-loving monarch, or on the 
private schemes for aggrandisement 
of Court favorites. That problem was 
thereafter to be undertaken and solved 
l)y the people in whom sole sovereign- 
ity was now vested. 


( )ne of the first things done by the 
National Congress after the close of 
the Revolutionary W ar and also by 
some of the States, v>as the setting 
aside of certain portions of the public 
lands for the use of tlie of^cers and 
soldiers who had ser\ed in the Conti- 
nental Army. It was about the only 
thing of any value that either the 
Nation or the States could give them, 
for the paper money with wlv'ch the}- 
were paid, soon became worthless and 
remains unredeemetl to iliis dav. 



The State of New York acquired by 
treaty from the Onondago and Cayuga 
tribes of Indians a vast tract of land 
containing 1,680,000 acres which was 
laid out in 1790 and subsequenMy, into 
military townships containing each 
one hundred lots of six hundred acres. 
These were alloted to soldiers who 
had served in New York regiments 
and were residents of the State during 
their service. Many of the soldiers 
however, in need of money and dis- 
gustetl with the delay attending the 
allotments, had already disposed of 
their claims Avith the result that but 
very few soldiers ever became actual 
settlers and the furthtr consequence 
that this great body of land in one of 
the most fertile and beautiful sections 
of the State became the property of 

The fame of this rich domain soon 
spread and by 1810 great numbers of 
settlers had come to it from Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, Eastern New York, 
New England and the Southern States 
and a few from foreign countries. 

By far the greater number of the 
settlers from Penns3'lvania were de- 
scendants of the old Palatine or Ger- 
man stock, coming from the Counties 
of Northumberland, Lancaster, Cum- 
berland, Dauphin, Bucks, Nt^rthamp- 
ton, Berks and Lehigh. Very interest- 
ing to relate ; among the numbi;r were 
inany descendants of the Palatines 
u'ho came from the Hudson and 
the Schoharie Yalley to Pennsylvana 
in 1722. And so after the lapse of 
nearly a century the old unfulfilled 
longing of their forefathers for homes 
in the beautiful Lake region of New 
York \\'as realized by their descen- 
dants and most abundantly were they 
blessed in their own homes while the 
State was enriched by their great in- 
dustry and by a most important, and 
desirable addition to its pop-dation, 
which in after days won for it lasting 
fame by loyal and distinguished ser- 
vice in war and peace. 

In Seneca County where the greater 
number of the Pennsylvania Germans 
settled you will find today many fam- 

ily names that recall iamiliar ones in 
the Eastern parts of the Keystone 
State : such names as Bachman, Bal- 
liet. Bear, ( Baer) Berger, Beary, 
( Biery)Burkhalter, Diehl, Derr, Desh- 
ler, Fatzinger, Gross, Hartranft, Heck- 
man, Hoffstetter, Holben, Hunsicker, 
Jacoby, Keim, Kammerer. Kern, Kief- 
fer, Landis, Lerch, Lutz, Mickley, 
Metzger, Moyer, Peters, Rhdad, Rie- 
gel, Ritter, Romich, Ruch, Saeger, 
Schneck. Schwab, Siegfried Shoemak- 
er, Stadler, Trexler, AN'itmer, Yost 
and Zimmer. 

One of the oldest villages in Seneca 
County and a distinctively Pennsyl- 
vania German settlement is Bearytown 
founded by Henry Beary (Bieiy) who 
went from what is now Catasauqua in 
Lehigh County, then known as Bierys- 
port, soon after the year 1800. He was 
followed some years later by his broth- 
er Jacob, a soldier of the war of 1812 a 
member of the company of Dragoons, 
said to be the oldest cavalry organiza- 
tion in Pennsylvania, comma^ided by 
Captain Peter Ruch, aiterwards Brig- 
adier General of the State Mililia. The 
wife of Henry Beary was a sister of 
Captain Ruch. StateTreasurer John O. 
Sheatz is a great-grand son of Salome 
Biery. a sister of Henry Beary and the 
wife of Peter Mickley of Wh'te Hall 
Township, Lehigh County. 

The Bierys were of soldierlv Swiss 
stock from the Canton of Berne who 
settled in Berks County in 1739. Col. 
Charles Beary Gambee, a grand son of 
Henry Beary, born in Seneca County, 
New York was one of many sons of the 
old Pennsylvania families in New 
York State who rallied to the defence 
of the Union on the outbreak of the 
Civil War. He was the Colonel of the 
55th Ohio Regiment of Volunteer 
Infantry, and second in command of 
his Brigade, in the Army of the Cum- 
berland in the Atlanta Campaign. He 
was killed while leading his regiment 
at the Battle (»f Resaca in which so 
many Pennsylvanians participated, 
among them the gallant Geary.. Gener- 
al Wood his commanding officer in 
his ofKicial Report of the Bati le paid 



the highest tribute to the character and 
military abihty of Colonel Cjaml)ee 
concluding' with this fervent j)rayer : 
"May his name be cherished and his 
memory preserved so long- as bravery, 
loyalty, and patriotism are regarded 
as \-irtues among men." 

A friendly intercourse was kept up 
for many years between the Seneca 
County settlers and their kinsfolk in 
Pennsylvania on whom they were 
dependent in xarious ways. Tliis was 
shown in one notable instance, when 
the need of religious services in their 
new homes began to be felt. The mem- 
bers of the German Reformed Congre- 
gation organized in the Town of Fay- 
ette delegated Henry Beary to visit his 
old home in Lehigh County, I'cnnsyl- 
vania for the purpose of securing the 
services of a pastor to minister to their 
spiritual wants. This visit resubed in a 
call being extended to the Rev. Died- 
rich Willers. a young minister who 
had just been ordained by the Rev. Dr. 
Christian Becker, a famous divine of 
the olden time in Lehigh and Nor- 
thampton Counties. 

On the return trip to Seneca County. 
Henry Bear}^ was accompanied by the 
young minister who was installed as 
pastor of the church at Bearystown 
and which with churches in the adjoin- 
ing settlements he served faithfully 
for over sixty years resigning on Janu- 
ary ist. 1882, by reason 01 the infirmi- 
ties of old age. His son, the Hon. Died- 
richW illers. jr., served as Private Sec- 
retary to Governor Horatio Seymour 
in 1864 and subsequently for eight 
years as Deputy Secretary of State and 
two years as Secretary of State to 
which office he was elected at the State 
Election in November 1873. He after- 
wards served in the Legislature as a 
member of Asseml)ly. ]^Ir. 'x\'illers 
died during the past summer- 

The friendship formed between 
Henry Beary and young Willers on 
their journey to Seneca County was 
cemented by a closer tie in the next 
generation by the marriage of Henry 
Deary's grandson to the daughter of 
the then Rev. Dr. \^'illers. 

Anothvr faithful pastor in the Seneca 
Lake Country was the Rev. Joseph B. 
Gross, a Lutheran clergyman born in 
.Vorthampton County and brother of 
the famous Professor Samuel D. 
(iross known throughout the world as 
the "1^'ather of American Surgery." 

Many more instances of like charac- 
ter could be given to show how 
worthily these transplanted Pennsyl- 
vania Germans preserved the best tra- 
ditions of their race and emulated all 
the acti\ities of their lives the high- 
est achieveiuents of their forefathers 
and kinsmen in Pennsylvania. Enough 
have been given to demonstrate the 
incalcuable loss to New York in pop- 
ulation, material wealth, and in moral 
fibre, the most valuable asset of a 
state, entailed by the tyranny atid stu- 
])idity of Governor Hunter and his 
successors when he subjected the. 

Palatines of Livingston-Manor and 
Schoharie to nameless indignities and 
intolerable oppression and injustice, 
for the tens of thousands who there- 
after went to Pennsylvania from Ger- 
many and Switzerland would as glad- 
ly have settled in the fertile valleys of 
Xew York had they been shovvn the 
same consideration the}' received at 
the hands of the Penns and would 
ha\e labored as mightily to develop 
its resources as they did to build up 
the great industries and institutions of 
Pennsyhania. Governor Hunter "like 
ihe liase Indian, threw away a pearl, 
richer than all his tribe" when he 
attempted to enslaxe the Palatines of 
his l^roxince. 

" Let us in our unventiiroiiS ease, supine. 
Spare those a thought who met the time's 

Ploughed these unwilling plains, these 

woodlands cleared. 
The sons of God because the sons of Toil: 
Who in this wilderness their temples 

But knew no shrine more sacred than their 


When tyranny this freeman breed defied. 
Through the hot lips of merciless canuoQ 
they replied." 


How to Search for Historical Material 

The Object of a Local Historical Society 

^ (The following paper, read before the 
Bucks County Historical Society \pril 21, 
1885, by Henry C. Michener, of Philadel- 
phia, Pa. (see Collection of Papers, Vol I, 
p. 297, Bucks Co. H. S.) is suggescive and 
should induce our readers to keep an eye 
open for odds and ends lying around on 
garrets, in old chests and in out-of-the- 
way places. Save the " crumbs " that 
nothing be lost and see to it that in some 
way such material is preserved from de- 
struction for the use of historians. Don't 
destroy German MSS because you cannot 
read them. Some other people can read 
rhem and may find them very valuable. 

A famotis English writer says : "The 
true historian must see ordinary men 
as they appear in their ordinary busi- 
ness and in their ordinary pleasures. 
He must obtain admittance to the con- 
vivial table and the domestic hearth. 
He must bear with vulgar expressions. 
He must not shrink from exploring 
even the retreats of misery. He con- 
siders no anecdote, no peculiarity of 
manner, no familiar saying, as too in- 
significant to ilkistrate the operation 
of laws, of religion and of education, 
and to mark the prog'ress of the hu- 
man mind. Men will not merely be 
described, but will be made intimate- 
ly known to us" 

This extract suggests to us some of 
the aims, purposes and objects of a 
local historical society, and points out 
the appropriate field of its operations. 

To those who regard history as a 
mere recital of fierce encounters be- 
tween men at arms, an idea which ran 
through all the old histories before 
the modern school represented by Mac- 
auley, Froude, Green, Motley, Ban- 
croft and Prescott, a local field like the 
county of Bucks is exceedingly bar- 
ren and unpromising. But to those 
wdiose vision extends to a farther hor- 
izon who can discov^er a contribution 
to the g-rand total of our knowledge of 
the past in anything, and everything, 
that throws a backward ray upon the 
habits, customs, pursuits, appearance. 

conduct and amusements of the people 
who gathered here from the ends of 
the earth in former years, there is 
abundant material near at hand to 
construct a narrative which a century 
hence may be priceless. 

Much has been said and written 
from time to time concerning the 
heroic period of our history, our age 
of iron and of oak — the Revolution- 
ary era. The houses where the gen- 
erals stopped from time to time are 
almost as well known as the habita- 
tion of our neighbors, and the track 
of the Revolutionary army has been 
repeatedly traced across our territory. 
Little remains to be done to locate the 
places associated with the events of 
that day. The Revolutionary age has 
occupied so large a place in our an- 
nals that the chief interest in our past 
begins and ends with it. It over- 
shadows and dwarfs the eiitire cen- 
tury which preceded it. Thousands 
of men and women were born, lived 
the allotted span, died and were bur- 
ied in these hillsides long before the 
struggle with England began. These 
people had their peonliar pursuits, 
callings, modes of life, dress and lan- 
guage, and extracted as much out of 
life from the opportunities afforded as 
any of us. In 'many respects, from 
sotirces of information which it is the 
business of a local historical society to 
collect and preserve, it is possible to 
photograph these people to show what 
garb they wt^re. Avhat their clothing 
cost, what they ate, how they traveled, 
what their wealth consisted of, the 
utensils of field, shop and kitchen, the 
furniture in use, the cost of living and 
to exhibit all the leading", and most of 
the minute, features of the colonial life 
in Bucks county for ninety years be- 
fore the Revolution. The elements out 
of which this vivid picture of old life is 
to be constructed are in existence, but 
perhaps not immeidately accessible. 



They are scattered about in old 
attics, lumber rooms, and dust-cover- 
ed receptacles. It is one of the func- 
tions of a local society to gather to- 
t^ether these mute witnesses, to digest 
the information they contain, and 
hand it down to our successors. Old 
account books show th(J rate of wages, 
the prices of articles bought and sold. 
Inventories exhibit the names of arti- 
cles of personal property and their val- 
ue as fixed by sworn appraisers. An- 
«:ient store books set forth the mer- 
chandise in common use, and ail have 
a direct and positive value in aiding us 
to form just and accurate conceptions 
of the old modes of living. 

Robert Archibald, a merchant who 
died in I'ristol in 1734, had in stock at 
the time of his death, shalloon, silk 
liandkerchiefs. leather ink-horns, brass 
buttons. brass finger rings, horn 
combs, sealing wax. shoe buckles, mo- 
hair, fans, flints, tobacco pipes, tank- 
ards and punch bowls, porringers, 
gunpowder. Another store stock, that 
of Charles Brown, a resident of Make- 
field in 1748. shows that there was a 
demand then for snufif boxes, ink cas- 
es, silver studs, red ink powder, quills, 
irons for making" rope, and tooth 
pullers. If all other sources of informa- 
tion were cut oiT, and all traditions 
destroyed, these old papers would 
suggest enough to frame a truthful, 
minute and graphic narrative of the 
social condition of colonial Bucks. The 
furniture in the old houses is re- 
corded, and the room in which the 
articles were located, giving us an 
inkling of domestic habits. Thus in 
prodding about in these begrimed and 
(lust-laden remains 1 find that bee cul- 
ture was a common pursuit. Swarms 
of bees are often named among the 
humble possessions of these primitive 
folk. Oxen were very much more fre- 
quently used in the past era than now. 
In our day a yoke for farm purposes 
is a novelty. Many young oersons 
have ne\ er seen a yoke of oxen pursu- 
ing their melancholy and deliberate 
journey. In the census of 1880 only 
t\v<» working oxen owned on farms are 

credited to Bucks county. Sleighs 
were an infrequent luxury. Iron-bound 
wagons were in use in 1744, but it is a 
rather rare item. Among the curious 
revelations which the inspection of 
these records brings to light is negro 
slavery. The fanciful names g'.ven t(» 
the old household slaves are nt)vel fea- 
tures of the old life. Thomas Biles, 
who died in 1733. in Falls, left among 
his earthly effects a negro called 
"London" worth $500.00 and a negro 
girl whom he called "Parthenia." 
worth $625.00. John Burch, cmother 
Bristol merchant of 1740, was the 
happy possessor of five volumes, of the 
"Spectator." a set of leather chairs, a 
negro man named "Boy," one named 
"Bridge," and another named 
'"Squash." Elizabeth Badgley, also a 
resident of Bristol, who departed in 
1729. left as a portion of her estate a 
negro woman and a book called the 
"New England Fire Brand." Silver 
watches were quite common, but no 
gold ones ; prayer books occasionally 
appear as a reminder that there were 
among the first comers some members 
of the old Church of England. From 
the earliest times nearly everybody 
seems to have owned a "looking 
glass." or seeing glass as it is some- 
times called ; nothing is noted oftener 
than this minister to human vanity. 
To see ourselves as others see us has 
been the innocent desire of men and 
women of every age. A thin streak of 
worldly pride runs through the con- 
stitution of the wisest and the best- 
No better index to the qua'ut cos- 
tumes of the departed century can be 
found than almost any of the ancient 
in\entories. From material contained 
there the a])pearance of the colonial 
citizen could be sharply as 
far as it is possible to reproduce him 
merely by the garments he wore- It is 
sufificienl for illustration to give a sin- 
gle instance. Conrad Leiser died in 
Warwick, in 1778. His ])ersonal appar- 
el consisted of a fine hat. a scarlet 
colored velvet jacket, blue velvet 
breeches, and a blue cloth great coat. 
That he was a soldier of the Revolu- 



tion is shown by the item of "a one- 
lialf interest of a wagon, horses and 
gears, now with the Continental 
armies, also pay from the twenty-first 
of May, last." Although the dress of 
the Colonists was in the main exceed- 
ingly plain and home-spun, there were 
occasional exceptions. Parson Lind- 
sey, as he was called, a clergyman, 
who died in Hensalem, in 1778. worth 
over $20,000 in i)ersonal property, a 
very large estate in that day, owned 
among other things a good beaver hat, 
inventoried at $fiO. 

In further illustration of the value 
of out of the way and seemingly triv- 
ial sources of historical information, 
the old browned and mildewed news- 
])aper is not to be despised, particular- 
ly that much neglected department,' 
the advertising column. These adver- 
tisements have much significance be- 
cause they come fresh from the people 
themselves. Thus in some of the stray 
numbers of the old Pennsylvania 
( iazette. of 1752, 1 find the quaint ad- 
\ ertisements of the ancient Philadel- 
phia inns where the farmer of a cen- 
tury and a half ago received hospitali- 
ty on the market days : "The Square 
and Compass," "The Trumpet,'' "The 
Wanderer," The Queen of Hungary," 
"The Cross Cut Saw," on Second 
street. "The Hand Saw" also on Sec- 
ond street near lUack Horse alley, 
"The I>ird and Snow," "The ]\[ortar 
and Dove." In the same sheet, under 
date of 1750, there is an advertisement 
^vhich exhibits the various articles of 
costume worn in Bticks county: "Ran 
away from the subscriber of Falls 
township a lust}' yoimg negro fellow 
named Frank. Took with him some 
clothes, such as a striped jacket and 
l^reeches, white shirts and white stock- 
ings, a light-colored frock coat lined 
with green, white metal buttons, blue 
camlet breeches and a large pair of 
carved buckles-" In the same paper is 
a curious account of tlie robbery of the 
house of Benjamin Franklin. The list 
of goods stolen shows the articles of 
ai^parel among the well-to-do orders 
of the po])ulation of the period. The 

articles were "a double neck-'ace of 
gold beads, a woman's long scarlet 
cloak with a double cape, a woman's 
gown of printed cotton of the sort 
called brocade point, the ground dark 
with large red roses and large red and 
yellow flowers, a pair of woman's 
stays covered with white tabby." 

These minute details are commonly 
recorded as beneath the dignity of his- 
tory, yet they frequently throw a 
broad beam on the simple facts of 
former lives and show what our fore- 
fathers and foremothers were about in 
the humdrum of every-day business. 
The old newspapers reflect, too, the 
laxity of public morals in certain dir- 
ections. Then, as now, inventive 
genius was busy working out the an- 
cient seductive problem— that old, old 
idea of getting something for nothing. 
One hundred and fifty years ago, in 
])lain. plodding Pennsylvania, it took 
the form of the lottery scheme. The 
])ritici|)le which is now indirectly fos- 
tered in the Church-fair grab-bag, the 
prize cofifee package, and the "obacco 
plug that conceals a gold dollar, then 
found expression in the downright 
out-and-out lottery, managed by the 
best men of the vicinage. Tiie old 
sheets are full of ])ersuasive promises 
of sudden wealth. Many of these 
schemes were enterprises to assist in 
the erection of churches and other re- 
ligious objects. In the Pennsylvania 
Gazette of Jime 22, 1751. there is an 
announcement of a lottery for raising 
four thousand pounds, $20,000. if ex- 
pressed in present money, for the 
building of a church in Trenton as it 
was then called. This drawing was 
ad\ertised to take place at the house 
of ?\athaniel Parker, in Bucks cciunty- 
Another field of operations for such 
a society is the ])reservation of genea- 
logical data. A record of marriages, 
deaths and births should be kept. 
^^'ithout the mandate of the law such 
matters would be reported to the 
society. It, therefore, should be made 
the duty of some member to preserve 
this material from the resources at his 
command. ?\larriages and deaths 



could 1)c recorded with a near ap- 
j^roach to fidelity from slips regular- 
ly taken from the county papers, al- 
phabetically arranged. The Montgom- 
ery society has already taken steps 
to this end. The immediate value of 
such a record would not be apparent, 
I)Ut the society is working for poster- 
ity, and such a record, if faithfully 
carried forward, would in due time 
become a valuable aid in genealogical 
investigations. A coj^y of all the 
jjrinted genealogies of Bucks county 
families should be deposited in the 
society's archives, as well as copies of 
records of Monthly ^leetings. or other 
records which assist in tracing ances- 

No community with any pretensions 
to intelligence will neglect the mater- 
ials of its history. Every scrap of in- 
formation which adds in the slighest 
<legree to the sum of our knowledge 
nf former times is worth preserving. 
A man with a keen scent of h'^orical 
data, if turned loose to-day in many 
an attic in Plumstead, would exhume 
enough to keep him busy for a long 
lime. It is this attention to what the 
old school of historians regarded as 
trifles light as air, which constitutes 
the charm of F"roude. Macauley, and 
Green. They ha\e much to say about 
the great crisis in the fate of England, 
but they do not omit to tell us all they 
know about the people of England in 
every relation. \\> talk with them, 
sup with them, work with them in the 
fields and with them dash over the 
moors with the hounds. We go down 
to London and see it as the Londoner 
of old-time himself saw it — -a ith its 
streets unlighted. the water dashing 
on the i)assenger from the house-tops. 
We hear the night watch calling the 
hour. We wade to the knees in the 
mud ui the streets and hear the carter 
swearing at the tugging horses. The 
popular historian of our day is the 
chronicler of the little things which 
make i\\) the complex things ne call 

society at any given period. These 
trivial matters were mere dust in the 
balance before history became a 
science. Under the Wizard tcnich of 
the true historian wdio knows to mold 
his clay, these insignificant things, 
formerly i)assed by as too gross and 
\ulgar to record, are made chief 
stones in the fair edifice they have 
built to the memory of the departed 

It is a matter of congratulation that 
attentive audiences are willmg to 
come together frequently in different 
parts of the country to listen to histor- 
ical sketches, to hear all that may be 
said upon the subjects which appeal 
only to the veneration felt for the fad- 
ing past, out of which we all sprang 
and into which we shall sink. Every 
man who is loyal to his race has some 
interest in ancestry and the circum- 
stances which surrounded their lives. 
We all in some degree feel the historic 
sense and own the spell which links 
us to other days. The noblest spirits 
have acknowledged this feeling. Thou- 
sands of our ancestors lived their al- 
lotment of years, did nothing that 
made their lives memorable beyond 
the daily duty and then dropped out 
of sight. Of this average life of ordi- 
nary men and women in former times 
little is said in the books. It is pos- 
sible to read many pages of history, as 
it was once written, and still know 
little of what we most desire to know 
of thc^se who have gone before- Much 
is said about certain great names 
thrown on the surface of affairs in 
political convulsions, but of the people 
themselves, of the vast masses of the 
common peojile. of their joys and sor- 
rows, their ])leasure and pain, their 
work and play, how meagre, crude 
and inade(|uate is the story? 

"How small of all that human hearts en- 

That part which kings or laws can tause or 



It is the province of these local 
societies to go down to these details 
of ancestral life which have formed 
the back-ground to the great events 
which all men know, to levy contribu- 
tions upon every source of iriforma- 
mation, so that it may be possible to 

reproduce the old ways, habits, man- 
ners and tone of life, contrast it with 
the average levels of our own day, 
and determine how far we have jour- 
neyed on the road to the regained 

To the Memory of Henry A. Schuler 

By Prof. Arcadius Avellanus, Middletown, Conn. 




UST about within a day 
before the anniversary of 
the death of Mr. H. A. 
Schuler, the 14th of Jan- 
uary, have I recei\ ed the 
first intimation of that 
very sad event, and it 
has touched me ver}" 
deeply. For. although, I was not an 
intimate friend of his, still, we were 
acquainted for several years; and Mr. 
Schuler, whenever he chanced to come 
to Philadelphia, where I was then liv- 
ing, would always call and spend half 
an hour with me, talking over matters 
in which we both were so much inter- 
ested, the affairs and the destinies of 
the Latin language. 

Our relations were purely literary, 
but of the character, in Avhich. I ven- 
ture to say, he was more profoundly 
interested than in anything, excepting, 
l)erha;)s. his immediate family affairs, 
and his living. 

1 had started in said city, 189^, a lit- 
tle Latin magazine, the TVSCVLVAL 
for the propagation of a practical and 
useful knowledge of the Latin lan- 
guage, for I had made the experience 
that professional people "in this coun- 
try knew very little, and a shabby 
kind of Latin, and the numerous 
schools were not al)le to furnish a ser- 
viceable kind. cri]jpling thereby the 
efficiency of all people in the learned 
l)rofessions. The next year following, 
T started another small periodical, the 
PRAF.CO LATIN VS, to fight for 
those principles. Looking back into 
in\' records, I find Mr. Schider's name 

first entered as a subscriber on Oct. 
5th, 1895, for one periodical, and, on 
Xov. 16 1896, for the other. He furn- 
ished printed and gummed labels 
bearing his name and address, making 
his name very conspicuous on the list. 
In matter of payment he was more 
than punctual. Neither was his name 
ever dro]iped up to the last, Sept.. 
1902, when PRAECO LATINUS was 

As the Editor of the Welt Bote, he 
often referred to my work, staunchly 
supporting the principles proclaimed 
by me, that Latin must be restored to 
its rightful ]K)sition as a universal 
language of scholarly people the 
world o\-er, as it used to be for 2,000 
years, instead of attempting to devise 
clumsy makeshifts, called artificial 
languages ; that, smce it was taught in 
all secondare' schools in all the civil- 
ized countries, there is nothing mc^re 
needed than to adopt colloquial meth- 
ods, and the teachers should qualify 
themsehes b}- summer courses in 
s')oken Latin. He used to point out 
that tlie present methods disgust the 
students, parents and the better teach- 
ers alike ; that the ethical, literary and 
didactical treasures (^f the immortal 
autliors are being sacrificed to philo- 
logical drudgery, and in the end the 
students have accpiired neither Latin, 
nor mental, ethical, and literary cul- 
ture, nor anything practical that 
would imj^rove the professional man. 
and human s(KMety at large. He would 
can\ass i)ersonally ; and in one in- 
stance he succeeded in interesting the 



Latin facility of Miilenberg College, 
and secured 12 subscribers for tlie 
Latin periodical. 

Moreover, he Avas not only a good 
subscriber and periodical-propagan- 
dist he was also a steady and very de- 
sirable contributor to the columns of 
Praeco Latinus. He used to trans- 
late h}'nins, sliort poems, or other 
matter for the periodical, and later on 
he started a serial of moral and ethi- 
cal tales, calling them Fabellae Ethi- 
cae, which he continued to the very 
last. In our last issue we published 
one luidcr the ca])tion, Historia Sanc- 
tae Euphrosinae: scripsit Anatole 
France; Latine vertit H. A. S. (for 
he ne\-er signed his full name under 
any article or contribution.) It is a 
pity that we did not com])lete the 
stor}". the periodical l^eing discon- 
tinued with that number. 

Many of our readers both at home 
and in foreign countries would fre- 
c|uently inquire by letters concerning 
the identity of H."' A. S., all well lik- 
ing his gentle style and contributions, 
which were in ver}' clear, simple 
Latin, easily read by even a beginner, 
and seldom recjuiring the blue pencil, 
and externally too. all were written in 
neat and careful hand on fine note 
paper; therefore I thought best to 
publish this portrait with a brief sketch 
of tlu' faxorite writer. This I did. I 
ex])lained to our readers the nearly 
unbelievable career he has made in 
studying Latin almost without books 
and teachers. It certainly was a fact, 
that he did not have clear conceptions 
on man\- an elementary matter, even 
such as ])ronunciation. until he got 
hold of my collocpiial manuals. These 
opened his eyes. lUit particularly 
was he delighted with my easy and 
lively manner that I would hit back at 
I'rench. S])anish. Catalan. Italian and 
other ]>erodicals. their editors, our 
critics. (.K:c.. who. either in the meshes 
of foolish "world-languages." or 

blinded by School - Ciceronianism. 
knew nothing of fluent Latin, would 
assail us. Then 1 would pour out a 
volley of information mixed with rid- 
icule, for the great delight of my 
readers and disci])les. Such occasions 
were veritable treats for our noble- 
minded friend, Mr. .Sdiuler. 

( )n one occasion 1 printed a ioke at 
Mr. Schuler's expense, saying that he 
learned Latin to pronounce like the 
following: Tojs nopis hec otzia fett- 
zit. l-'or quite a time he covdd not 
make out what I meant. In another 
issue I ridiculed the "English Meth- 
od" writing Tityri tyu patchuli 
recjubans sab tigmini fedshaj ; he 
at once understood the reference, 
and wrote to me good naturedly that 
he did not learn that i)ronunication I 
had attributed to him. but the Eng- 
lish pronunciation, b}' which h.e used 
to say: oshiae feesit. At that time he 
was already solid on (Uir Imperial 
Roman j)ronunciation, which I have 
been propagating, and which I still 
maintain in m\' i)resent publication of 

Whilst Mr. Schuler was at a disad- 
\antage owing to his early lack of 
opixirtunities when most needed, and 
under thtise disadvantages he could 
not develop into a courageous, dash- 
ing young man. a would-be Napoleon; 
still. I am of the o])inion that, had he 
not been bi)rn a genius, he could never 
ha\e emerged to the level of mental 
and moral culture, that opened the 
way for him to literary fame aad rep- 
utation, far beyond the limits and 
boundaries of this geographically 
great country; he would have remain- 
ed on the level of ordinary farmers 
and laborers or mechanics. He was, 
in my o])inion. a dwarfed X'apoleon, if 
not with the sword, with his literarv 
and humane talents. 

May his memory be cherish.ed and 
ma\- it ]i\e while letters last. 


Hans Herr and His Descendants 

]\I O N G the noteworthy 
books issued during 1908 
is Theodore W. Herr's 
Genealogical Record of 
Rev. Hans Herr and His 
Lineal Descendants. 
This is an illustrated 
book of 785 pages, 7x9 
inches, substantially bound in dark 
green buckram. The book (price 
$10,00) may be ordered of the compil- 
er and publisher, Theodoie W. Herr, 
Lancaster, Pa. The Daily New Era 
said about the book, 'Tt is difficult to 
reaHze the amount of wide and pains- 
taking research in a hundred localities, 
coverng many States, required to 
collect the names, facts and figures 
here gathered, arranged and indexed. 
What is more, it has been, as all such 
work generall}' is, a labor of love, as 
no adequate recompense ever rewards 
the laborious research of the author." 

A prominent historian in an article 
on The Pennsylvania-Dutch says: — 
"Some of the children of Pennsylva- 
iiia-Dutch families find their way into 
the great world at last. (See THE 
VII 1, p. 540.) This book is evidence 
that the sons of the sturdy German 
l^ioneers have g(^ne forth into all the 
world, that they are not localized nor 
tied to the maternal proverbial apron 

We would greatly appreciate a 
pa])er by the author on "Illbstrious 
Sons of Hans Herr" giving biograph- 
ical notes of those who rose to posi- 
tions of public trust and honor. 

Mr. Herr by his sweat, toil and self- 
sacrifice has reared an imperishable 
monument to himself and his pious 

We quote the following from the 
introduction to the book. 

"Obtaining the data and information 
required to enable the undersigned 
com])iler to haxc tlie genealogical rec- 

ord of Rev. Hans Herr and his de- 
scendants published, was commenced 
in 1850, with the assistance of Milton 
B. Eshleman, an honored cousin, long 
since deceased. Both spent several 
years very industriously in visiting' 
the oldest residents of Lancaster, Dau- 
phin and Cumberland counties in 
Pennsylvania, where most of the 
descendants then lived. Information 
was obtained from them, their rela- 
tives, and neighbors, of all they could 
furnish or remember, relating to resi- 
dences, births, marriages and deaths 
of Rev. Hans Herr and his descend- 
ants, and of all the persons any of 
them married, and the names of the 
ijarents of the latter. 

All old papers, Bible records deeds, 
mortgages, wills, and much memoran- 
da were carefully examined as well as 
tombstones in many of the old burying 
grounds. All was verified by family 
records, traditions, memories, etc., as 
fully as possible. Many old records in 
Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Lancaster, 
and West Chester, were investigated 
to ascertain what lands they owned 
and last places of residences. Much 
time was occupied and expense incur- 
red in persistent efforts to obtain the 
fullest reliable data of these early set- 
tlers, as they and their companions 
were the first white settlers in what is 
now Lancaster county, Penna. Great 
care was taken to insure absolutely 
correct information as complete as 
possible of these early pioneers, but it 
has been impossible to obtain much 
desirable matter. It is to be hoped this 
publication will be the means of call- 
ing out much that is now wanting of 
names, dates and addresses. 

It should be understood, that this 
Rec(^rd is not a history, but a genea- 
l(igical record of names, last resi- 
dences, dates of births, marriages and 
deaths and names oi parents of the 



Mans Merr was l)orn in 1639, i" 
Switzerland, at, or near Zurich, Can- 
ton of Zurich, became a member of the 
Mennonite religious society and a 
prominent minister of that denomina- 

W'lien reli<;"ious ])ersecution became 
unendurable, many of his congrega- 
tion emigrated with him to the Pala- 
tinate in (jerman}-, vvdiich was then 
governed by a ruler who promised 
them ])rotection and religious free- 
dom. This was satisfactory u itil the 
Palatinate fell into the hands of other 
rulers, when the Mennonites were 
again subject to severe religious perse- 

When this occurred, a number of 
them visited Penn in London, in 1707, 
and arranged terms with him to colo- 
nize a portion of what is now Lancas- 
ter county, and in 1709 Hans Herr, 
John R. Piundley, Hans Mylin. Martin 
Kendig, Jacob Miller. Hans I'^mk. 
Martin Oberholtzer, Wendel Bowman 
and others bought 10,000 acres of land 
on Pequea creek. A warrant was is- 
sued for the land Oct. 10, 1710, and it 
was surveyed Oct. 23, 1710. The tra- 
dition, which is no doubt true is, that 
these people held a conference . ■ to 
what steps should be taken to inform 
their relatives and friends left behind 
in Europe of their opinions and ex- 
pectations, and it was determined by 
lot that Hans Herr, their revered min- 
ister, should return, explain the situa- 
tion and the great advantages of emi- 
gration, and luring with him those he 
could induce to come. There is a tra- 
dition that the "lot" fell upon Christ- 
ian Herr. son of Mans Herr. instead of 
on his father, but it does not seem to 
be sup]>orted by historical evidence. 
Hans consented to go. but many ar- 
gued that their beloved pastor, head 
and leader, then over seventy years of 
age, should not leave them at this 
juncture, and at last it was agreed that 
iiis brother-in-law, Martin Kendig. 
should go. -Kccordingly, without delay, 
he embarked for Europe and returned 
in 1710 with six sons and one daughter 
of the venerable Hans Merr. and mem- 

bers of the families of those who had 
come over in 1709. John Houser, John 
Rachman. Hans Tshantz, Jacob 
Weaver, Henry Funk and othe:"s. also 
came with them. The six sons oi Hans 
Herr, John, Emanuel, Abraham, 
Christian, Henry and Samuel ; and the 
daughter Maria, were married and had 
families. Tradition asserts that several 
of his sons and daughters remained in 
Europe. One son, at least, went with 
a colcMiy to London, England, in 1709, 
or about that date, and shortly after 
settled in Ireland. Some of his descen- 
dants came to the L'nited States about 
fifty years ago. 

The people who came to what is 
now Lancaster coimty. Pa., in 1709, 
settled in Lampeter. Manor, Pequea 
and Strasburg townships. From this 
beginning of The Pioneer Settlers, 
they and their descendants now num- 
ber many thousands of the best native 
])opulation of this county and other 
sections oi the Cnited Statv.->. also 
many in other counties. They com- 
prise the families of Allen. Baer, Bair, 
Bare, Bear, Bachman, Baldwin, Barr, 
Bau man. Bom gard ner, Bow man, 
Brackbill, Breneman, P>rown, Brinton. 
Brubaker. Piryan, Buckwalter, Burk- 
holder, Carjjenter. Charles, Clark. 
Davis, DuBois. Eaby. Edwards. Ellis. 
Erisman, Eshleman, Evans, Ferree. 
Forrer. Foulk, Frick, Fry, Fulton. 
Funk. Galbraith. Gall. Gardner, Good, 
Graeff. Grant, Gray, G"aybill, Greider, 
Groff, Grove. Haines, Harnish, Harris. 
Hartman, Hay, Hendrickson, Herr, 
Mershey. Hess. HooA-er. Hostetter. 
Houser, Howard, Plowell. Muber. Im- 
mel. Johns. Jones, Kaufifman, Keagy, 
Kendig, Kendrick, King. , Kreider. 
Landis. Leaman. Lefever. Lemon. 
Levis, Lewis. Lightner. Lines. Lin- 
ville. Lloyd. Long. Martin. Mason. 
McClure, ' :\liddleton. Miller. Moore. 
Moser, Mover, Musselman, Musser. 
Myers, M}lin, Xeff, Xewcomer. Niss- 
ley. Patterson. Pickel. Price. Rife, 
Robinson. Row e. Kulter. Sample. 
Seldomridge. Shank. Slienk. Smith, 
.snaxely. Stehman, Steinman, Stewart. 
.Stonoman. Swarr, Swope. Taylor. 



Thompson, Walker, Weaver, White, 
Whiteside, Wilkins, Williams, Wit- 
mer, Zorty, and many others, and are 
scattered all over the Uiiited States 
and elsewhere. 

The illustrations of the Portrait and 
Coat of Arms used in this record w^ere 
made originally for the Hans Herr 
Memorial Association in 1895. 

Hans Herr settled near Lampeter, 
and later lived with his son, Rev. 
Christian Herr, near Willov^^ Street, 
where the latter built a large stone 
dwelling in 1719, which is still stand- 
ing. This house is a most interesting 
specimen of architecture, when it is 
remembered that it was erected in a 
location that only a few years before 
was in the midst of a vast forest, far 
from sawmills or other facilities for 
obtaining materials. Here the ven- 
erable Hans Herr died in 1725. His 
children settled in Strasburg, Lam- 
]>eter, Lancaster and Manor Town- 
ships, in Lancaster county, Pa. Their 
descendants are now scattered in all 
parts of the United States and in 
other countries. Many became prom- 
iient as ministers, physcians. lawyers, 
statesmen, civil and mechanical engi- 
geers and other professions. A number 
settled early in Virginia. John Herr 
(897) went to York county. Pa., and 
afterwards, about 1830, settled in Ken- 
tucky. His descendants, who are nu- 
merous, became famous for their fine 

Benjamin Herr (80), in 1789. went 
to Pittsburg, Pa., became the owner 
of Herr's Island, in the Allegheny riv- 
er. The descendants are numerous ; 
many settled in Kansas and other 
western States. 

Rev. John Herr (494) became bishop 
of the Reformed Mennonite denomina- 
tion, which he, with others, organized. 
It is now composed of many members. 

John Herr (160) went to Red Haw, 
O., where he and his wife were both 
killed by a tree blown down in a 
storm, falling on their cairiage. Their 
descendants settled in Indiana, Kan- 
sas, Alissouri and Wyoming. 

John Strohm (523), and A. Herr 
Smith (1005), were members of Con- 
gress, U. S, Dr. John H. Musser 
(4899), of Philadelphia, was lately 
president of the American Medical 
Association of U. S. John Neff (431) 
became a prominent Mormon, his 
numerous descendants are mostly in 
Utah. Descendants of Henry Forrer 
( 1317) settled mostly in Ohio and 
Nebraska. John W. Forney (2164). 
of Philadelphia, Pa., was a celebrated 
journalist; the descendants of his 
father, Peter Forney (649) are mostly 
in Washington, D. C, and in Phila- 
delphia. Harrisburg and Lebanon. 
Pa. The descendants of Abraham 
Frantz (2433) are scattered in Penn- 
sylvania. Maryland and elsewhere. 
Abraham Groff (665) has many de- 
scendants in Pennsylvania. Maryland 
and in Washington, D. C. John 
Eshleman (667) has descendants in 
Pennsylvania and Iowa. 

This list might be continued indefi- 
nitely, suffice it to say, many have ac- 
quired eminence in all parts of the 
world as judges, legislators railroad- 
ers, inventors, college presidents, in- 
structors, missionaries ; etc., in this 
cduntry, in Australia, Mexico, South 
America, the Philippines, Egypt, Si- 
beria, and in other places By refer- 
ence to the Genealogical Record, the 
last known residence or address of 
each person can easily be found." 


Johannes Roth (Rhodes) 




By Dr. Wm. Brower, Spring City, Pa. 

■■ Let not anihition mock their useful toil 
Their homely joys and destiny oDscure 

Xor grandeui' hear with a disdainful smile 
The short and simple annals of the poor." 

— Gray. 

The stream of ini migration from 
the Palatinate, pouring" into the new- 
Colonies from 1700 to 1730 numbered 
very few among all these Ci^lonists 
of men rA affluence or of liberal attain- 
ments. -\-ery few indeed of men who 
like Daniel Francis Pastorius, son of a 
judge, a student of law and possessed 
of ample means of whom so much has 
been written as an early pioneer, and 
truthfully written too, as a type of 
the early German settler. He was a 
type, a most excellent type of the very 
best that German culture could con- 
tribute to\\ard the founding of a new 
world. Put he was not a type of my 
early German ancestry as they landed 
upon these fertile shores, nor was he a 
representati\'e type of the vast hordes 
of men and women who left the Pala- 
tinate for the purpose of establishing 
for themsehes homes in the favored 
land beyond the sea, of men who were 
pinched with penury-intired to hard- 
ships and accustomed to rugged toil — 
of men who had been taught in the 
liard school of stern necessity, but 
who still had a strong and an abiding 
faith in the watchful care of a Divine 

Of such was Johamies Roth of Hep- 
])enhcim a true type. Nearly two cen- 
turies ha\e ])assed since Johannes 
Roth of llei)penheim and P)arbara 
Midler of Wachtenheim on the 
Ifaardt, though living on opposite 
sides of the Rhine and at a consider- 
al)le distance from each other, plighted 
their \o\vs and in keeping with the 

customs of the Fatherland ol that 
day — an official announcement was 
made of their purpose to enter into 
matrimony. The documents — for there 
were two — are still well preserved — 
they were executed by a magistrate 
residing in their respective home dis- 
tricts. Johannes Roth's document 
bears date, Dirmstein, June 10, 1712. 
and attested by P. Trauer, High 
Wormsian Alagistrate. (Seal) 

While that of Barabra Miiller. is 
dated at Pfaltz, June 11, 1712, and 
attested by J. W. Schmitiehle. (Seal) 

That of Johannes Roth reads as 
follows : 

In all sincerity the esteemed bachelor 
.Johannes Roth, a worthy son of Peter and 
Susanna Roth of Heppenheim has entered 
into an honorable engagement with Miss 
Barbara IMiiller, daughter of the late John 
(Hans) and Catherine Miiller of Wachen- 
heim on the Haardt. The same in conform- 
ity to custom is announced in this fitting 
manner. Therefore if they are in their 
usual good health, they will be proclaimed, 
and no objections being made, subsequent- 
ly married. 

Dirmstein, .June 10, 1712. 
High Wormsian Magistrate. 
P. Trauer. Seal 

That of l>arl)ara Muller — reads as 
follows — 

Whereas Miss Barbara Muller the sur- 
viving and legitimate daughter of Hans 
Miiller has been betrothed to the honorable 
.Johannes Itoth, a legitimate son by descent 
of Peter Roth, a resident of Hep:)enheim. 
— The same is hereby announced according 
to the custom of Holland and also of the 
Menonists. Nothing interfering they will be 
proclaimed and no objections being made, 
will be subsequently married. 

Pfaltz — June 11. 1712. 
J. W. Schmitiehle. Y. G. R. 

Se\en }"ears later Johannes Roth, 
now an assessor, with his wife !>arba- 
ra and their children, secure their pass 



for a journey to the New World. This 
passport dated June 4, 1719, hearing 
the seal of the City of Worms, stamp- 
ed in red sealing- wax, is still as legible 
as though executed but yesterday. 
The passport reads as follows : 

Whereas the bearer of this Johannes 
floth hitherto an assessor and Menonist, 
has resolved to go from tliis to another 
place and applied to this office for a pass 
and certified attest as to his behavior in 
this community. Therefore it is attested to 
him herewith upon his due request, that he 
did conduct himself during his stay at this 
place as becomes a good subject, and we 
request each and every one to give not only 
full credit to this certificate, but also to let 
him pass with wife and children every- 
where free and unmolested and to treat 
him in other respects with a kind i-itention 
under an offer of reciprocal service. 

A. D. 1719. 

,1. W. Astorff 
High i)rincely Episcopal 

Wormsian Bailiif 
Attested by our handwriting and official 
Dirmstein, near Worms. 

Johannes Roth in addition to his 
passport had still further fortific'd him- 
self for his proposed journey and his 
sojourn in a foreign land, by the re- 
ception of an official letter fr')m the 
home church in the Palatinate. The 
official Brethren of the Menonist 
Church graciously commended them 
in a living epistle to the care ami help- 
ftilness of the Menonists in Holland 
and also in Pennsylvania. In this 
brotherly letter they graciously in- 
\ t)ke the divine favor and the bless- 
ing of heaven to rest upon the:r dear 
tirother and his little family. 

This epistle is as follows: 

We servants and elders of the church in 
the Palatinate, with all Patriarch-Ser- 
vants and Elders in Holland and Pennsyl- 
vania, wish you much grace and miuiy mer- 
cies from God our Heavenly Father, and 
the love of Jesus Christ our Lord and the 
co-wcrking of the Holy Ghosl — Amen. John 
Roth from Dirmstein with his wife Barbara 
and with their little children whose desire 
and pleasure it is to journey to Pennsyl- 
vania — therefore we wish to send them 
greetings,— As to their conduct as breth- 
ren and sisters we can say nothing else 
Than that we are satisfied with their 
honesty and sincerity, and therefore re- 
quest of all to whom they may come to 
recognize and receive them and to give 

them all good advice. To hear of such kind- 
ness will give us much pleasure. We all 
wish you often many hearty greetings and 
remain your faithful friends and Brethren 
in Jesus Christ. 

Written in Pfaltz, May 30, 1719. 

. Jonas Loheer 

Offstein (Obersten.» 
Peter Colb 
Velten Hut Dohl 
Hans Buckholder 

Johannes Roth besides his family, 
had a traveling companion in the per- 
son of Michael Schmidt, a young- 
single man. Both passes were execut- 
ed the same day. and by the same of- 
ficial, and both passes are well pre- 
served- These two passes have been 
handed down together in the same 
family line, evidencing the fact that 
Johannes Roth was made the custo- 
dian of Michael Schmidt's pass. 

In 1720, one year after their arrival 
on the Schuylkill a letter is received 
by them, from Christian Roth of Ilep- 
penheim on the meadows, a brother of 
Johannes Roth. This letter l^-etrays 
the deep concern felt in the old home 
circle for the welfare of the brother 
who had journeyed across the sea. 
They anxiously await his description 
of the voyage to the new world. And 
are eager to learn whether he is pleas- 
ed with the new country and whether 
he would advise them to come over 
also. A deej) piety seems to pervade 
every utterance. 

The letter is as follows: 

Heppenheim, on the Meadows, 

May 6, 1720. 

A friendly greeting with leadings of love 
and tenderness to you my loving brother 
Johannes Roth and family, and all known 
friends and all those who love our Lord 
.Jesus Christ immovable. Amen. I Christ- 
ian Roth of Heppenheim. on the Meadows, 
cannot well rest, but must write jou my 
beloved John Roth, with this good oppor- 
tunity, how it is with me. .^nd therefore I 
let you know that my wife died and the two 
youngest children. The little one a week 
before mother and the other one a week 
after which made me many sorrows. Yet 
through all this I praised God that he took 
them out of this wicked world. 

In all this mother fell asleep peaceablv 
Else otherwise, I and the rest of the fam- 
ily are all well. Praise the Lord! To see 
you again would be much pleasing to me. 
Further, I let you know that a child of 



Peter Roth, died also, and his other circum- 
stances are about the same as before. All 
well, praise the Lord! His wife is still as 
weak as she al\^ays has been. They also 
send friendly greetings to you, and to tell 
known friends. And herel)y tell us how 
you got along on your journey and what it 
cost you, and tell us how you like it in 
that country and also whether you could 
advise me to come, or would you rather 
be with us again? Write us and tell us 
the condition of the land and place. And 
when you write we hope you will tell us 
the truth. Further I do not see any neces- 
sity for writing any more. Furthermore I 
and children send you happy greetings 
and commend you to the protection of 
Almighty G'od, — and He will keep you and 
us to a happy end. So keep us in memory 
in your prayers as you know it ought to 
l)e. I hope not to forget you, God helping 

This letter was folded and sealed, with- 
out an envelope and addressed: 

This letter to be delivered to 

•Johannes Roth, on 
The Schulykill, in Pennsylvania. 

Again in 1721 another letter is re- 
ceived by Johatmes Roth from the 
liomehmd. I'his, too from his brother 
Christian Roth of Heppenheim, on the 
Meadows, breathing the same spiri- 
tual and brotherly love that character- 
ized his former epistle. In this letter 
we perceive a deep yearning, that is 
truly pathetic to hear from his dear 
brother in far off America. 

The letter is as follows: 

Beloved brother .Johannes Roth it is im- 
possible for me to leave the time go by 
without writing to you. If this letter will 
reach you and your dear friends all alive 
and well the Almighty alone knows. I 
have wondered, why J did not hear any- 
rhing from you as yet. If you wiote me 
a letter and I did not get, I do not know 
but it may have been so. But write as 
soon as possible so I may know how you 
mid your beloved in a foreign land are 
getting along. I am well, but it was the 
will of the Almighty to take away my be- 
loved wife from me and I am now. a 
widower over a year and a quarter — and 
have not made up my mind yet to yet mar- 
ried again at the same time I do not konw 
of any yet, either. J will now put you and 
your relatives under God's care and I will 
be your dear brother Christian Roth. With 
best regards to you and ail relations. I 
hope and pray that we may meet again, but 
if it is not in this world it will be in 
.June. 1721. CHRISTLVN ROTH. 

Miller and a citizen of Happen heim. 

This letter was addressed as fol- 
lows : 

This letter to be delivered to my hearts 
beloved brother, Johannes Roth, in Penn- 

The years roll by and once more in 
1726 another letter is received from 
the old home on the Rhine. 

This time it is not from Christian 
Roth of Heppenheim, but from his 
brother Peter Roth of Hessen. This 
letter speaks of the home life — the 
changes that time has wrought in the 
family circle — first of all, that his 
brother Christian, the miller upon the 
meadows, he, who had been writing 
letters to him, heretofore, has since 
passed over the great divide- He al- 
ludes to the distribution of his de- 
t:eased Brother's estate, and speaks 
specifically of the disposition made of 
the old mill upon the meadow. This 
letter is characterized by the same de- 
vout spirit that accentuated the form- 
er letters of his brother. We are here 
given a true insight into the pitiable 
condition of the poor Palatinates and 
especially of those who were adher- 
ents of the Mennonite persuasion. We 
can readily comprehend their ardent 
desire to emigrate to a more favored 

The letter is as follows — 

Hessen, May 12, 1726. 

Peter Roth, of Hessen will report 
briefly how we are getting along. I am 
still well as are also my children. My 
son Johannes is married to the daughter of 
Caspar Kramer, Anna Kramer by name at 
Heppenheim. Our brother Christian Roth 
at Heppenheim on the meadow, is dead. 
His children are all well. He left a wife 
and child, to her is bequeathed the widow- 
hood. The 'Mill' besides all appurtenances 
is transferred to Peter Roth for the sum 
of twenty-three hundred florins to be paid 
out Ijy him to his brothers and sisters. 
Peter Roth is married to a daughter of 
Christian Bike, Catherine Bike by name. 

Johannes Roth of Hessen. How I wish 
to be with you besides my wife and chil- 
dren. We would have come to you if we 
only had the traveling money. We are 
burdened very heavy. We must pay mili- 
tia tax, palace tax, building tax and month- 
ly tax and an order has also been issued by 
the civil authorities to sequester the prop- 
erty of all Menonists for their earnest 



I have not any further news to write. 
Be greeted by us all with the peace of the 
All Highest. We beseech likewise the 
Lord, that He may lend us His aid, as we 
are your confederates in Baptism. 


Address: Deliver this letter to Johannes 
Roth on the Schuylkill. A D. 1726. 

We have reason to believe that this 
letter wa.s intrusted to the care of Hu- 
bert Brewer to be dehvered by him to 
Johannes Roth. 

Hubert C rower received his pass 
May 4th, 1726 in the Fakensteinen 
district, near Neuvvied, at a date cor- 
responding" very closely to the date of 
Peter Roth's letter. Reference is made 
to this Hubert Brower, whose pass is 
in our possession, by Dr. J. G. De- 
Hoop Schefifer of Amsterdam Ar- 
ticle, Page 190, Historical and Bio- 
graphical Sketches, by Hon. Saml. W. 
Pennypacker. That Hubert Brower 
delivered this letter, seems to be cor- 
roborated by stibscquent events. In 
the years intervening- between 1726 
and 1740 the mutations of time had 
wrought great changes in the families 
of Johannes Roth and Hubert Brower 

on the Schuylkill, Susanna Roth, wife 
of Johannes Roth had died. Hubert 
Brower had also passed ^.way, leaving 
his widow Annie Brower, to marry 
Johannes Roth. In an abstract from 
the will of Johannes Roth, embodying 
also a marriage agreement with Annie, 
his second wife, provision is made for 
his own children as well as for the 
children of Annie Brower, who be- 
came his second wife. From the be- 
quests we can readily see that Johan- 
nes Roth had been prospered during 
his 20 years of toil upon tlie Schuyl- 

But enough has been written to ex- 
emplify, to some extent, the course of 
events as they transpired in the life of 
this humble, yet typical Pennsylvania- 
German ancestor, and through him as 
a type, we have portrayed to our 
minds a faint picture of the lives of 
our own ancestors, giving us, in a 
meager way, glimpses into the 
thoughts and emotions which actuated 
their very being, while toiling to es- 
tablish homes for themselves and 
their children ujjon these favored 

Rev. Lebrecht Frederick Herman, D. D. 

By D. Nicholas Shaeffer, Esq., Reading, Pa. 

The Reformed Church in the United 
States owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. 
Lebrecht Frederick Herman for hav- 
ing educated prior to the establish- 
ment of a Theological Seminary by 
the Church, young men for the min- 
istry. He prepared at least thirteen 
young men, among whom were five 
of his own sons, for the holy office. 
Nearly all of these men became earn- 
est and faithful laborers in the Lord's 
\-ineyard. Some of them l)ecame 
prominent in the Councils of the 
L'hiirch. and nearlv all of them made 

a deep and lasting impression that 
has been felt far and wide. 

Dr. Herman was born in Gustein. 
in the principality of Anhalt, Gothen, 
Germany, on October 9, 1761. He was 
a son of ]jious parents, who brought 
him u]) in the faith of the German 
Reformed Church. In early yotith he 
was sent to school where he learned 
the elements of useftd knowledge. 
He then attended the school connect- 
ed with the Orphans' House at Halle 
for a period of six years, after which 
he took a course of three years in 



theology in the University of the 
same place. When he had finished 
his course of stud}', he received a 
call as assistant pastor to the City of 
Bremen, where he labored for three 

The Reformed Church in the United 
States was still a missionary chvirch 
under the care and control of the Re- 
formed Synod of Holland. In 1786, 
the Synod of Holland called Dr. Her- 
man to go to Pennsylvania to assist 
in supplying" the demand for mmisters 
that existed there. He gladly accepted 
the call, and proceeded to the Hague, 
where he was ordained far the for- 
eign work. He was one of the two 
last missionaries that were sent to 
Pennsyh-ania by the Synod of Hol- 
land. He arrived safely in America 
in August, 1786. 

He soon found employment after 
liis arri^■al. The congregation at Eas- 
ton, Pa., elected him as their pastor. 
He ser^'ed this congregation in connec- 
tion with several country congrega- 
tions, for about four years. During 
the second year after his arri\-al, he 
married Mary Fiedt. who proved a 
true helpmate to him during his long 
and useful life. In 1790. he received 
a call from the congregations at Ger- 
mantown and Frankfort, where he 
preached in the German and English 
languages for a period of about ten 

During his pastorate at German - 
town the yellow fever prevailed in 
Philadel])hia, wdiich caused many of 
the peo)le to fiee from the city. Gen- 
eral \\'ashington was then President 
of the I'nited States, during which 
lime the National Capitol was at 
Philadel])hia. The General went to 
(iermantown during the yellow fe\-er 
epidemic and resided for several 
months in Dr. Merman's fanrly. He 
fre(|uently attended services in the 
Reformed Church at Germantown. 
esiKX'ially when there was English 
])reaching. lie at one time receixed 
communion from the hands of Dr. 
Herman. After the death of ^^'ash- 

ington a memorial service was held in 
the Reformed Church at Philadelphia 
in which Dr. Herman took an active 

Preaching in two languages was 
burdensome to him. He was German 
by l)irth and speech and therefore ac- 
cepted a call to the churches of the 
Swamp, Pottstown and St. \^incent 
in Montgomery count}^ where more 
German than English preaching was 
required. Yet it must be stated that 
in conversation he was anxious to use 
the English Language, which shows 
his liberality and far-sightedness. He 
loved his mother tongue ; but he saw 
that the English Language Avas bound 
to become the universal language of 
our nation, and the sooner our people 
would become reconciled to it, the bet- 
ter it would be for them. After he had 
founded his parsonage at Falkner 
Swani]), he invited young men to en- 
ter it and receive at his hands special 
instructions to prepare themselves for 
the ministry. The' Synod of Holland 
stopped sending missionaries to 
America, and the Church had no 
school in which to educate men for 
the ministry. The importance of Dr. 
Merman's work therefore became 
verv api)arent. If it had not been for 
his work and that of one or two 
others, the Reformed Church might 
have seen a sorr}^ ending in Pennsyl- 
vania for want of ministers. He had 
six sons, five of whom he ]ire)ared 
for the ministry. Even the sixth had 
taken a course of theology under him. 
but subse(|uently turned his atten- 
tion to medicine which he i^racticed 
successfullv. flis sons were men of 
more than ordinar}- ability. They 
were Charles, Augustus, Frederick. 
Reuben. Lewis and Alfred. The last 
one mentioned was the physician. 

The theological school which lu- 
organized at his parsonage w a s 
known as "The Swamp College." He 
established a course of study extend- 
ing t>\er a i)eriod of three years, dur- 
ing which time he instructed his stu- 
dents not only in theology, but also 
in tlu- rudiments of the ancient Ian- 



i^uages and kindred subjects. In ad- 
(lition to the five sons already men- 
tioned he prepared Rev. Samuel Gul- 
din (a great grandson of Rev. Sam- 
uel Guldin, the first ordained Re- 
formed minister in Pennsylvana, who 
came here in 1710) Rev. B. S. 
Schneck, D. D., Rev. Thomas H. 
Leinbach, Rev. Joseph S.. Dubbs, 
Rev. Peter S. Fisher, Rev. Abraham 
Berge, Rev. Richard A. Fisher and 
Rev. David Young. The mentioning 
of these names shows the great in- 
fluence that was exerted by him. 

Rev. Dr. Herman not only insisted 
on his students studying the neces- 
sary languages from the text books, 
but also that they converse in Latin. 
The result was that some of these 
men became better Latin scholars 
than their sons who afterwards had 
the advantages of college training. 

When the Church determined to 
establish a Theological Seminary Dr. 
Herman was beyond doubt the best 
fitted man in the Church to be the 
first Professor in Theology. His 
name, however, was not publicly 
mentioned and whether he would 
liave accepted such a call , cannot be 
stated. But there was no doubt some 
opposition to him from certain quar- 
ters as appears by a resolution adopt- 
ed in 1820, when Synod adopted the 
Plan for the Establishment of a Theo- 
logical Seminary," viz : 

"Resolved, That no minister shall 
hereafter have the privilege of receiv- 
ing a young man in order to instruct 
him in theology, but may only direct 
liim in his preliminary studie^^^." 

Since Dr. Herman was the only 
mnister at the time who had any con- 
siderable number of students under 
his care, he must have regarded the 
resolution as being especially aimed 
at him. That the resolution was pre- 
mature there can be no doubt, because 
the proposed Theological Seminary actual existence. A period of 
five years elapsed before the Church 
succeeded in establishing a Theologi- 
cal Seminary, under the Professorship 
and organize what was known as 

first proposed to locate the Seminary 
at Frederick, Aid., which Dr. Herman 
opposed, contending that it was too 
far from the center of the Church. 
During the time that the establish- 
ment of a Theological Seminary was 
under consideration, one of his sons 
was suspended by the Synod from the 
ministerial office, which proved of- 
fensive on account of the manner in 
which the sentence was communicat- 
ed to him- This caused him and his 
friends to withdraw from the Synod, 
and organized what was known as 
"The Free Synod ;" but was called 
later "The German Reformed Synod 
of Pennsylvania and A d j a c en t 
States." All of Dr. Herman's stu- 
dents were after this licensed rnd or- 
dained by this Synod, which had a 
membership of more than fifty minis- 
ters, and had under its care and juris- 
diction over one hundred coiigrega- 
tions. It existed as a separate body for 
a period of sixteen years, when an ef- 
fort was made to adjust all differences 
between its members and that of the 
old Synod, and a reconcilitation and a 
reunion was happily effected in 1837. 

In 1812, Dr. Herman prepared a 
catechism to meet a demand for an 
easier and simjder catechism than the 
Heidelberg Catechism. His cate- 
chism was received with a good deal 
of favor, as four editions at least were 
printed at various times — two in 
Reading and two in Philadelphia. The 
questions and answers are shorter and 
simjder than those in the Heidelberg 
Catechism, but are more numerous. 
The former has 485 questions and an- 
swers, and no proof texts or proof 
answers, while the latter has 127 ques- 
tions and answers with many proof 
texts. It has been suggested that the 
present demand for a simpler cate- 
chism could be met. to some extent at 
least, by some one translating and re- 
\ising the I lerman Catechism. 

Several <^f his students were not 
only strong men in the pvdpit, but ren- 
dered useful service by publishing 
books on religious subjects. Mis son. 
Rev. Chas. G. ITerman. who was the 



])ast()r at Kutztovvn, Berks County, 
and \ icinilv, from i8io to 1863, pub- 
lished "Der Sanger am Grabe," which 
is a collection of hymns suital^lc for 
funeral occasions. It is said that this 
is the best selection of German funer- 
al hymns that was ever made, rmd the 
book is still used in many of the Ger- 
man CongTet^ations of the Reformed 
and l.utheran churches. Rev. Augus- 
tus L. Herman, who was pastor at Eo- 
lers' and other churches in Berks Co. 
from 1823 to T872, published "Zolli- 
kofers' Prayer Book," Rev. Benjamin 
S. Schneck, 1). D. was the author of 
"The Burning of Chambersburg,'" 
■'Mercersburg Theology," and was 
the first editor of "The Messenger." 
and "The Kirchenzeitung." He was 
one of the two commissioncs who 
were sent to Germany by the Synod 
of the Reformed Church in 1843 to 
present to Rev. Dr. F. W. Krum- 
macher a call to a German Professor- 
ship in the Theological Seminary at 
Mercersberg, Pa. Dr. Krummacher 
was at the time one of the most cele- 
brated pul;)it orators of Germany, and 
from previous assurances tt was 
believed that he would accept the call. 
The commissioners were received 
very cordially, yet Dr. Krummacher 
telt constrained to decline, especially 
since the Prussian Government exr 
])ressed a decided disinclination to his 
removal to Pennsylvania. The com- 
missioners were unwilling, however, to 
come htMiie without acconi'^lishng 
their mission. They consequently con- 
sulted some of the leading divines 
I if Germany, when they were directed 
to the Rev. Philip ScliafF. D. D., who 
was at the time a professor extraor- 
dinary in the Cniversity at Berlin. On 
their return to .\merica they proposed 
the name of Dr. Schaff, to the .Synced. 
and he was unanimously elected. He 
came to America and ser\ed as onj of 
the Professors in the Theological 
Seminary at Mercersberg, Pa., for a 
period of twenty years, after which he 
was elected to a professorshiji in the 
Union Seminary of New York where 
lie labored to the time i)f his death. He 

became pre-eminent as a theologian, 
and did a great service to the Christ- 
ian Church as teacher of theology and 
editor and ])ublisher of theological 

Dr. Herman Avas instrumental in 
organizing a number of. ])rosperous 
C(»ngregations in Eastern Pennsyl- 
\'ania. in connection with his s^^ns and 
students, he served in addition to the 
congregations of the Swamp, Potts- 
town and St. Vincent, the congrega- 
tions at Coventry, Pikeland and Rice. 
in Chester Co., Pa., the congregation 
at the Trapi^e (now Collegeville) in 
Montgomery Co. and the Congrega- 
tions at Berger, (Hill Church) Spiess, 
Amity. Royers and Oley, in Berks 
County. He outlived all the mission- 
aries sent from Holland and saw to 
his loneliness and sorrow, all his early 
friends and fellow-laborers laid in the 
gra\e. He labored in his holy oftice for 
sixty years, during which time he 
baptized 8535 persons, confirmed 
4600 persons, married 2600 ("ouples. 
buried 2280 deceased, and preached 
(ner 8000 times. His Bible is in the 
possession of his grandson. Hex. 
.Mfred J. Herman, of Maxatawny, Pa. 
From the interlineations, underscor- 
ings and other marks he made in it, it 
would a')i)ear that he was most deeply 
interested in the New Testament, 
from which he selected most of his 
texts, as the basis of his sermons. 

In his old age he became blind, 
which limited his usefulness; yet. 
t Hough he was unable to continue in 
the active duties of the ministry, he 
was deei)ly interested in the further 
ance of the cause of Christ. His 
religion cheered him during the night 
(if his affliction. A few days | rior to 
his death, he suffered a stroke of apo- 
])lexy. On Jan. 30. 1848. he was i^eace- 
fully translated to the other world. 
His death cast a deei) ghxMii o/er thi' 
community in which he lived and over 
the congregations that he served. On 
Feb. 3 following", his remains were 
I)in-ied in the gra\eyard of the Re- 
formed Church, at PottstoAvn. Pa. 
I\e\ . riiomas H. Feinbach. one of hi- 



students, preached the funeral ser- 
mon. A large multitude of people 
assembled to pay their last tribute of 
love and honor to the departed. 

No other man did so much as Dr. 
Herman by his untiring industry as 
a minister, teacher and loyal citizen 

to advance the interest of The Re- 
formed Church in Pennsylvania, and 
the comforts and blessings that were 
received and are continued to be re- 
ceived by his people and their de- 
scendants by reason thereof are in- 

Descendants of John Early (Johannes Early) 

By the Rev. J. W. Early, Reading, Pa. 

(continued from FEBRUARY ISSUE) 

Perhaps it might be better to say 
the Early families of German descent, 
for there are not less than four or 
five and possibly six or seven of these 
in Pennsylvania, besides a number of 
others in various parts of the United 
States. But, as already stated, we 
are more particularly concerned about 
the family of John Early, as his de- 
scendants are found all over eastern 
Pennsylvania at the present day. We 
now refer to those still bearing the 
name Early. Those of. other names, 
the offspring of his daughteis, the 
Eisenhauers and the Breitenbachs, 
have all gone west, beyond the Ohio, 
and some beyond the Mississippi. 

Daniel Early who appparently also 
was a German, although that is not 
absolutely certain, had come to this 
country some ten or more years be- 
fore John Early arrived. In Sept. 
1740 Rev. John Casper Stoever bap- 
tized one of his (D. E.'s) daughters. 
His residence as given at that time, 
was Codorus, i. c. the \'icinity of Han- 
over, York County, Pa. No further 
direct trace of this man or his family 
has thus far been found. There are 
families of the name at Mt. Holly. 
Carlisle and Chambersburg, but 
whether any of them are descended 
from him we are not able to say. 

Jacob Early, who at-first spelled his 
name Ehrle, Vvhich we are told was 
in many places used in preference to 
Oehrle several hundred years ago. and 
who came to TMiiladelphia in the Ship 

Osgood, William W^ilkes, Captain. 
Sept- 29, 1750, arrived only cibout a 
month before John E. who had reach- 
ed that place Aug. 24 of the same 
year. But in 1752 when his oldest 
son John was baptized at New Han- 
over, his name is already entered up- 
on the "Record" as Early. 

For some time we thought these 
men might be brothers, as the family 
record -showed that John had a broth- 
er Jacob. But when informed that the 
church records of Germany showed 
that this brother Jacob had died in in- 
fancy, the supposition had to bo aban- 
doned. The additional fact that 
Jacob Early's oldest son John and 
John Early second, the son of Johan- 
nes Oehrle, had li^-ed within ten or 
twelve miles of each other for almost 
thirty years, without being aware of 
each other's existence, we saw that 
such a sup])osition must he almost in- 

A very interesting incident is the 
fact that the wife of John E. the old- 
est son of Jacob, was A. Margaret 
and that the wife of John, the second 
son of John E. of Londonderry, was 
also Margaret. They lived in adjoin- 
ing townshi])S, Lcindonderry and 
I Donegal. It is also somewhat re- 
markable that there was a son Jacob 
in each family. 

About twenty or twenty-five years 
ago, Frederic Early (Oehrli) from In- 
terlaken, Bern, Switzerland, resided 
at Williamsnort. Lvcoming Co., Pa. 



lie had arrived in this country about 
fifteen or twenty years before. This 
family ])rou.c:ht with them a tradition 
frequently heard before, but without 
corroborative testimony or proof that 
the Early family originally came from 
Ireland, having; lied thence during the 
wars of Cromwell. 

Henry E. Early (Oehrle) the young- 
est son of the family, with his third 
brother, came to this coimtry about 
1848. l>oth were unmarried. The 
older of the two commenced the busi- 
ness of printing' on Arch St., Phila. 
Vew years ago they still retained the 
original spelling, Oehrle. Henry 
who had been a licentiate of the 
Evangelical Association, but had vol- 
untarily surrendered his license, at 
that time resided in Camden, N. J. 
The second oldest of the brothers, to- 
gether with a cousin John Early, had 
settled at Pittsburg, 1847. Another 
brother, Jacob, had come to America 
in the fifties and settled at Leetonia, 
Ohio. Between 1880 and 1890 Charles 
Early, one of this man's sons if we 
mistake not, was a resident of Lan- 
caster, l^enna. He died there some 
iifteen years ago. Members of this 
famil}- are to be found in five different 
states. The father of these five sons, 
who had been a soldier under Napol- 
eon, and had accompanied him on his 
ill-starred expedition to Russia, fin- 
ally also came to this country and 
died at the residence of his S(.)n in 
< )hi(). 

There was .1 David Early, a Penn- 
>ylvania Cerman, residing with his 
son-in-law, Mr. Still, about three 
miles east of Danville. He died about 
1880. Two of his sons were Dunker 
preachers in Iowa. His two daugh- 
ters, Mrs. Still and \[vs. Dyer are 
still residents of Montour Co., Pa., 
the former near Strawberry Ridge, 
about two miles northeast of Wash- 
ington ville and the latter a few miles 

west of Mooresburg. He may be a 
descendant of Thomas, the youngest 
son of Johannes Oehrle, although 
that is not at all certain. 

Some forty or fifty years ago Sam- 
uel Early was a resident of Strasburg. 
Eranklin Co. (?) — not quite sure 
which Strasburg. His descendants 
are found throughout Fulton County, 
as well as throughout the western 
part of Maryland. They may possibly 
be the descendants of George, the old- 
est son of J. Wm. Early Esq., who had 
his home in Centre County, about 
twenty years, from 1786 or 87 to 1807. 
He subsequently took up his residence 
in Bedford County and removed 
to Ohio four or five years later. In 
181 1 the son George Earl}^ is found at 
Akestown (Achestadtel) now Wil- 
liamsburg, Blair County. A notice 
was given that a hearing in a law 
suit, was to tcke place at his house. 
This would indicate that he was a 
married man at that time. That is 
the last trace of him we have ever 
found. We should certainly be thank- 
ful to anyone who would be able to 
give any further information about 
the man and should be very glad to 
hear from him. This completes the 
list of those wdio are certainly of Ger- 
man origin. 

The family of Jacob Early (Ehrle) 
is probably the most numerous of 
them all. The writer has in his pos- 
session a list of seventy or eighty c^f 
those bearing the name of E^rly in 
his possession. The larger portion of 
them reside in Virginia, but many of 
them are scattered all over the United 
States, w^estw'ard to W'ashington and 
Oregon. There are two others 
named John Early, and w'e can not 
possibh^ think that they could be 
one and the same person, about wdiose 
extraction, we are altogether uncer- 
tain. In fact there may be three or 
four of them. In Pentia. Archives. 
John Early, Derry Twq^., Cumberland 
Co., Pa. and Daniel Early, Shoemak- 
er, are among the taxables between 

1780 and 1790. The name of John 
Early, Strabaum Twp., York Co.. 

1 78 1 and 1782. is also recorded there. 
There we also find John Early, fourth 
class militia, Joseph Culberts<.)n's 
Company, July i. 1781. But he is not 



located. We are therefore unable to 
say whether this last John E. is iden- 
tical with one of the other two, or 
whether there are three of the same 

In the same Archives, in ^^'arran- 
tees of land in Armstrong County, 
Pa., 1801-1884, we find Wm. Early, 
July II, 1850, 90 acres, and John Early 
sr., Apr. 28, 1853, 400 acres. This is 
not so long ago that it should be easy 
to gain information, but so far we 
have not been able to get it. We can 
therefore not say whether these are 
English, German or Irish. As there 
was also an Andrew Early there, we 
are inclined to think that this family 
is not German. 

We also find in Chester Co. "Rates" 
John Early, freeman, 1767-1768: Jere- 
miah Early, freeman, 1779-1780. As 
well as under "Inmates" Henry Early, 
1781. Some years ago a dealer in sec- 
ond hand and antiquated books and 
pamphlets, ofifered a publication, 
'Teremiah Early and his Descend- 
;ints" for sale. When the writer sent 
(or it it was gone. He cannot, there- 
!nie say whether this Jeremiah Early 
was the one in Chester County or not. 
I'ut if it was the same man. it is alto- 
i.ether probable, that like the Lin- 

colns, he came, from New England to 
Penna. because of climate and greater 
religious freedom. 

Pifteen or twenty years ago, Thomas 
Early resided at Williamsport, Pa. 
His father, whose name was also 
Thomas, had been a resident of N. Y. 
City. His two sons were James and 
Thomas. When the latter enlisted in 
the Union army, the brothers became 
separated. The whereabouts of James 
at that time was entirely unknown, if 
still living. Henry W. Early, Chip- 
pewa Falls, Mich., formerly of Wil- 
l.amsport, his brother Dr. Charles E. 
Ridgway, Pa., and a third brother in 
the state of New York, are not of Ger- 
man extraction. There are also Early 
families (e. g. Thomas) in Philadel- 
phia and Allentown of English de- 

There is another family of Scotch- 
Irish extraction and one whose na- 
tionality we do not know in Balti- 
more, Md- 

In addition to these there is a family 
\-'lio spell their name Earley in In- 
diana. These are of Irish descent. 
Furtlicr statements in regard to the 
family of John Early must be reserved 
for a future occasion. 

Philadelphia's Many Firsts 

NOTE. — This chronological list of some 
of the instances in which Philaclel,)hia has 
figured as the first pioneer or now stands 
first in point of importance (subsequently 
reprinted by outsiders in somewhat free 
and easy fashion) was first compiled by 
the Philadelphia Inquirer several years 

1681. — The first pleasure grounds ever 
reserved in America for the use of 
of the people were laid out in Wil- 
liam Penn's plan in Philadelphia. 

1085. — The first printing press in this 
section, and the second in the coun- 
try, was set up in Philadelphia, an 
earlier one having been started in 
Caml)ridge, Mass. 

1687. — The oldest business house now 
in existence in America (the Fran- 
cis Perot's Sons Malting Company) 
was begun on what is now Front 
street, below Walnut. 

j^)()0. — The first American paper mill 
was erected b}^ Samuel Rittenhouse 
on a tributary of the Wissahickon. 

1710. — Philadelphia laid her first 
claim to that supremacy in Amer- 
ican shijibuilding which (emphasiz- 
ed since 1830 by the founding of 
Cramps ' colossal shipyard and 
others) has earned for her a reputa- 
tion unequalled on this hemisphere 
and unsurpassed throughout the 



1/12. — The Common Ct^uncil's reso- 
lution passed this year, to the ef- 
fect that "A Workhouse Be Imme- 
diately Hired to Imploy poor 
P'sons & sufficient P'sons appoint- 
ed to kep them at Work," led, in 
time, to the erection of the present 
Blockley Hospital, than which no 
larger is known to exist ^on this 

1718. — The Philadelphia Common 
Council made the first purchase on 
record, in these States, of a fire en- 
gine for public purposes. 

1719. — The American Weekly Mer- 
cury (second only to the Boston 
News-Leader in point of time) ap- 
peared in Pliiladelj)hia. 

1728. — John 
the bank 

Bartram commenced on 
)f the Schuvlkill the first 

of America's botanical gfardens. 

1730. — Thomas Godfrey, of Philadel- 
phia, invented the Alariner's Quad- 
rant, subsequently misnamed Had- 
ley's Quadrant. 

1731. — The mother of all the North 
American subscription libraries" (to 
use the words of the founder him- 
self) was originated by Benjamin 

1735. — American type founding' made 
its debut as an art in the shop of 
Christopher Sauer, in Germantown. 
and it was carried on as a regular 
business in this city immediately af- 
ter the War of the Revolution by 
John r>aine. 

1737. — "The Union Fire Company, of 
Philadelphia,"' the first volunteer 
fire company in America, was or- 
ganized on December 6. 

1740-43. — Sauer brought out an edi- 
tion of the Bible in German, the 
first book in a European language 
])rinted in America. 

1743. — The first institution devoted to 
science in America. "The American 
Philosophical Institution," was orig- 
inated in Franklin's "Pro]-)Osal for 

promoting useful knowledge among 
the British Plantations in America." 
under the date of May 14, 1743. 

1749. — The first company of American 
stage players was organized here- 
early in 1749. 

1752. — The Pennsylvania Hospital 
was opened in Febraury, 1752. Not 
until July 27, 1773, was the corner- 
stone laid for the New York Hos- 
pital. » 

1752. — Fratdvlin demonstrated that 
lightning and electricity were the 
same ; and set up on his own house 
the first lightning rod used in the 

1753. — Pass and Stowe made for the 
State House the first bell ever cast 
in this country. 

1755. — A charter was obtained in 1755 
for the College or Academy of 
Philadelphia, which had already 
been in existence for fifteen years. 
On Ma}^ 7th of this same year the 
governors of the College of the Pro- 
vince of New York received their 
charter for their "King's College." 
which had been open for twelve 
months with a faculty of one 

1765- — Dr. John Morgans Discourse 
"Upon the Institution of Aledical 
Schools in America," delivered in 
the College of Philadelphia. May 30. 
1765, consituted the formal opening 
of the first medical school, and the 
speaker filled the first medical pro- 
fessorship created in this country. 
In consec|uence whereof a "Com- 
mencement" was held three years 
later (in 1768), at which medical 
honors were conferred, the first in 
point of time in America. 

1766. — The first permanent theatre 
house in America was built here in 

1772. — On May i. 1772, the fir^t Tam- 
many Society, the parent and exem- 
plar of all subsequent ones, was or- 
ganized in this city. 



1773. — The American Medical Society 
was founded in the city by students 
who came from different parts of 
the Union to attend the medical 
lectures here. 

1775. — The first American pianoforte 
was manufactured in 1775 by John 
Behrent, of Philadelphia. 

1775. — In the war against British im- 
portations, started in 1775, William 
Calverly, of this city, set about mak- 
ing American carpets, a local indus- 
tury destined in time to fulfill the 
aim of its founder to such an ex- 
tent that at the present day Phila- 
delphia manufactures more car- 
pets than the whole of Great Bri- 

1777. — The first United States flag- 
was made here on Arch street, by 
Elizabeth Ross. 

1780. — The Pennsylvania Bank, the 
first public bank in the United 
States, was organized here by Rob- 
ert Morris. 

1784. — The first daily newspaper ever 
issued in America was the Philadel- 
phia Daily Advertiser, first brought 
out in 1784. 

1785. — The first agricultural society 
on this continent was "The Phila- 
delphia Society for Promoting Agri- 
culture," formed by Dr. Rush. Rob- 
ert Morris. Richard Peters anti 
others in 1785. 

1786. — On July 26, 1786, the first ves- 
sel successfully propelled by steam 
was operated on the Delaware, at 
Philadelphia, by John Fitch. The 
much-vaunted experiment on the 
Collect, in New York, did not take 
place until ten years later. 

1790. — The Law School of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, the oldest 
law school in America, was found- 
ed in T790. with Justice James Wil- 
son, of the United States Supreme 
Court, as ])rofessor of law. 

i~f^)2. — The first United States Mint 
was cstablshcMJ here bv act of Con- 

gress, approved by President Wash- 
ington, April 2, 1792, and the first 
United States coins were struck 
here the same year. 

1799. — The first water works in this 
country were commenced in this 
city, May 2, 1799. 

1802. — "The Law Library of the City 
of Philadelphia" was organized for 
the purpose of maintaining a law 
library for the use of its members ; 
none of the kind existed at the time. 

1805. — The Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, the pioneer of all art 
institutions in this country was 
founded in 1805, and chartered 
March 28 of the following year. 

1809. — For the first time in the Uni- 
ted States, a railroad track was laid 
down for experimental purposes in 
a yard near the Bull's Uead Tavern, 
in Philadelphia, in 1809. 

1812. — In this year steam works for 
supplying the cit}' with water were 
begun in Fairmount Park; and in 
1819 Councils erected water power 
works and for a long time remain- 
ed the only works of their kind in 
the States. 

1818. -The present leading firm among 
the chemical manufacturers of 
America, Powers & Weightman, of 
Philadelphia, sprang from a small 
beginning made this year. 

1821. — The Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy dates its birth from 1821. 
Its present six-storied building is 
the largest of its kind knowti. 

1827. — The Penns3dvania Horticul- 
tural Society was the first of all 
such societies in America, having 
been founded in November. 1827. 
by a number of Philadelphians un- 
der the leadership of Dr. lames 

1829.— Mr. G. A. Shyrock, of this city, 
earned the distinction of being the 
first to make the paper and boards 
bv machincrv from straw and 



1S31.— In this year Matthias \V. Bald- 
win founded here what has become 
the largest locomotive works in the 

1843. — This vcar saw the first start of 
Henry Disston & Son's saw, tool, 
steel and file works, than which no 
more im;)ortant will be found in 
this or probably any other country. 

1844. — The city purchased for the use 
of the public the " Lemon Hill '" 
property, the nucleus of our modern 
Fairmount T^ark, by far the largest 
park within the limits of any mu- 

1847. — Abraham Cox founded the co- 
lossal and unrivaled works of the 
stove company that bore his name. 

1852. — For the first time in our his- 
tory the degree of medicine was 
conferred upon women at the I'\'- 
male Medical College (now ^^ o- 
man's Medical College) of Phila- 

1853. — "The Northern Home," found- 
ed in this city in 1853, was the first 
institution in this broad land when 
the Civil War broke out to open its 
doors to the children of those who 
desired to enlist and to build a spe- 
cial home for the orphans of our 
dead soldiers and sailors. 

1857. — The Numismatic and Anticjua- 
rian Society, whose ranks have 
since been joined by the most illus- 
trious men of the two hemispheres, 
and whose scale of measurement for 
coins and medals is now in general 
use throughout Europe, was organ- 
ized l:)y a few Philadel])hians on De- 
cember 2"]. 

'^59- — Foundation of the George ^". 
Cresson Company, a plant for the 
manufacture of power transmitting 
machinery without a peer in the 

1862. — The Union J.eague Club of 
Philadeli)hia ratified its articles anfl 
came into being on December 27, 

1 862. T h e formation of the New 
York League Club, organized two 
months later, was effected almost 
wholly at the suggestion, and cer- 
tainly with the immediate advice 
and guiding aid of the Philadelphia 

1870. — Preparations were made in this 
year for the erection of the monu- 
mental Ridgway Branch of the 
Philadelphia Library, whose rare 
collection of reference Ijooks is un- 
surpassed, if it e\en be equaled, in 

1871. — On August 10. 1871, was com- 
menced the new City Hall of Phila- 
delphia, at ]iresent the largest mu- 
nicipal edifice, if not the largest edi- 
fice of any kind, in America. 

1873. — Philadelphia's Masonic Tem- 
ple, founded this year and finished 
in 1883 is the most complete (and 
the most costly) building for the 
puri)oses of any secret order on this 

1874. — This year ushered the Phila- 
delphia Zoological Garden, a collec- 
tion of living animals acknowledged 
to be by far the best in this coun- 

1878. — The third dental school in con- 
nection with an American univers- 
ity (next to Harvard, 1867, and to 
Michigan. 1875) was organized here 
early in 1878, and now owns the 
largest building in the world solely 
devoted to technical dental instruc- 

1880. — Ground was cleared this year 
for the construction of the Pennsyl- 
\ania Railroad depot at I>road St., 
this city — a structure unapproache<l 
1)\- any in this country for architec- 
lural magnificence and ampleness of 
accommodations, unless it be by an- 
other Philadelphia terminal, that of 
the Philadelphia and Reading Rail- 
r* )ad. 

i8()o. — .\t an informal meeting held on 
November 7. i8qo. the idea of creat- 
ing a general exchange in this city 
was discussed; and on May 14 fol- 



lowing- the company was organized 
which built the present Philadel- 
phia Bourse, the largest in any 
country and the only one in this. 

[892. — Founding of the Wistar Insti- 
tute of Anatomy, the first of its 
kind in America. 

1899. — On January i work was start- 
ed on the tower of Philadelphia's 

City Hall, the larg-est clock in 
America and the tallest tower in the 

1899. — In this year also the city orig- 
inated and carried out a National 
Export Exposition, the first of its 
nature in the commercial history of 
the United States. 

A Rhine Legend 

{From the German) 

EN long years had passed sprang on the steed which the hea- 
since the Emperor had venly messenger had brought, and 
ridden out of his favorite sped over mountain and valley with 
city, at the head of his marvelous rapidity, arriving at Aix- 
army, to go and fight the la-Chapelle just as the third and last 
heathen, and now, i n- night of Hildegarde's respite was 
stead of his return, dark drawing- to a close. Instead of enter- 
rumors of defeat and ing his palace, however, the Emperor 
death spread throughout the whole dismounted and passed into the silent 
country. Convinced of the truth of cathedral, where he seated hini- 
ihese reports, the lords of the empire self in his great golden chair, with his 
assembled to discuss what had better sword across his knees, _ as was his 
be done; and, after much deliberation, wont when dispensing justice. There 
sent an embassy to the Empress Hil- he waited until the sacristan came to 
degarde. They bade her, for her sub- preoare the church for the wedding, 
jects' sake, choose another husband to which was to take place soon after 
rule the nation instead of Charle- sunrise. This man, startled by the 
magne, who would never be seen sight of the imposing figure seated 
again. Hildegarde at first indignantly upon the imperial throne, and think^ 
refused to consider the proposal, but ing it an a':»r)arition. staggered, and 
finally, seeing the justice of their would have fallen, had he not steadied 
wishes, she considered for the good of himself by the rope of the great bell, 
the country to marry any man they which, thus suddenly set in motion, 
recommendfed; stipulating however sent peal after oeal through the awak- 
that she should be allowe'd to spend ening city. The people of Alix-la- 
three more days in strict solitude. Chanelle. startled by the untimely 
mourning for her beloved husband, and frantic ringing, rushed out of 
whom she would never behold again, their houses to see what had occurred. 
Well pleased with this answer, the and as they entered the church they 
lords withdrew, and began making utterd loud cries of joy, for there sat 
preparations for the coming marriage, Charlemagne in all his wonted state. 
Avhile Hildegarde wept for Charle- These cries soon reached the ears of 
magne, who, by the way, was not at the unhappy Hildegarde, , who, still, 
all dead, but very busy fighting the dissolved in tears, and deeming they 
heathen, whom he had almost entirely were intended to Avelcome her un- 
subdued. During the night, while known bridegroom, shrank ])ack in 
poor Hildegarde wept, an angel of the fear; but her sorrow was changed to 
Eord suddenly appeared to Charle- boundless joy when she saw her bc- 
magne and bade him return in hot loved husband once more, and heard, 
haste to Aix la Chapelle, if he would how Providence had miraculously in- 
not lose both wife and his sceptre at terfered to sa\e her from a hated see- 
once. Thus warned, the Emperor ond marriage. 


To the Friends and Patrons of Schools and of the 
Improvement of Youth 





HE Subscribers being- Trus- 
tees for a School and 
and Schoolhouse in Up- 
per Hanover Township 
in the County of Mont- 
gomery, Pa., respectfully 
shew — That in the Year 
1734 a number of German 
Families, emigrants from Silesia, set- 
tled in the upper parts of the county 
nf fhilarlclphia now Montgomery 
where they are distinguished and 
known among their Neighbors by the 
name of Schwenkf elders from one of 
their celebrated Teachers i^f that 
name— That these first Settlers and 
their Progeny successively kept up 
among them as good Schools and 
Masters of Schools as could be ol) 
tained— That in the Year 1764 they 
raised the Subcription among them- 
selves a Fund of near Eight hundred 
Pounds — by the interest whereof and 
some free Contributions they support- 
ed for several years a good School for 
reading and writing the English and 
Gorman Languages and Arithmetic 
until the Debtors to their Fund began 
to ])ay their Interest and at last paid 
the principal Debt in depreciated Pa- 
per which they have lodged in the 
General Loan Ofifice and i^ now reduc- 
ed to a very low Value- -That never- 
theless imnressed with the necessity 
and usefulness of good Schools in the 
Country when Ignorance and Immo- 
rality began to i)revail and stani]) the 
Caricatura of our Yonth they have 
g-one on, as much as possible, with 
keeping Schools duiing the War and 
other Convulsions of the times and 
have lately at their own exuense erect- 
ed a new Schoolhouse and Dwelling- 
house for its Master and engaged a 
Man of good learning and fair Charac- 
ter to be the Master of that School in 
whicli Cliildrt-n of Parents of an\- reli- 

gious dencMuination, English and 
(German, rich or poor, may be taught 
reading, writing and cyphering and 
some or other young Men of genius 
instructed in Mathematics and the 
learned languages and trained up to 
become LTshers or Assistants to this or 
any other School in this Country- 
Catechisms and other doctrinal Books 
t)f any particular religious Society 
shall not be introduced in this School. 
Parents may form the Minds of their 
Children in their own way or commit 
them to the Clergy of the Church or 
Meeting to which they belong — The 
Master of the School shall neverthe- 
less use his utmost endeavors to im- 
press on their tender Minds the Fear 
of C}nd. the love of their Country and 
of all Mankind. 

This well meant Plan of a School is 
undertaken by a few Persons of but 
moderate Estates on whom the Ex- 
l)enditures of Supporting and improv- 
ing it will fall too heavy — The Trus- 
tees flatter themselves with the hopes 
it wdll meet with some encouragement 
from the benevolent who have the 
good of the growing Youth of the 
Country at heart by contributing their 
mite towards this pur[)ose. ^Ve have 
to this end impowered our Friends. 
A. c^- P.. in the City of Philadelphia 
and its Environs and our I'^riends O. 
I), iv E. in the Country or any one of 
them to wait in their ])laces nn the 
Persons to wliom this address is dir- 
ected to solicit their .Assistance and 
receive what shall be oflFered to them 
on that behalf. 

Philada. Comity. March 170T. 

*This circular letter, the i)ro|)eit.v of the 
Schwenkfeld Historical Library, were pre- 
pared by the trustees of the l.,atlii school 
conducted in the so-called Hosensack 


The Introduction of Wire Cables 

HE late John A. Roebling, 
one of the most distin- 
guished civil engineers 
and scientists of his day, 
conceived the idea of 
spanning the largest riv- 
ers with bridges support- 
ed by wire cables. To 
that end he directed the labor of his 
life. He established a wire rope 
works on a small scale at Saxonburg, 
in Butler county, and by special grace 
he got permission from the Canal 
Board in 1842 or 1843 to put a wire 
cable on Plane No. 3. It was put on 
in the fall of the year. The manufac- 
turer of the hempen ropes in Pitts- 
I)urg, backed by a powerful political 
and interested influence, endeavored 
to prevent the introduction of the 
wire cable. The superintendent and 
employes on the road partook of that 
opposition. If the wire cable was a 
success it would supersede the profi- 
table hempen-rope industry. The 
cable, however, was put on the plane, 
and in a few days one of the attaches 
cut the cable in two. Mr. Roebling 
found his cable stretched on the 
])lane — condemned. He came to the 
collector's office and asked an inter- 
view with me in the parlor. He stat- 
ed with tears of grief, if not agony, 
that he was a ruined man. The labor 
of his life, the hope of his fame and 
fortune were lost forever. His cable 
was condemned by the great Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. It was 
condemned, not because it was worth- 
less but because it would supersede 
the hempen-rope. "Can you not do 
something for me?" he asked." Why, 
-Mr. Roebling, I would do anything in 
the world for you, but what can I 
do?" "You have influence with the 
Canal Board, and, perhaps, you can 
get me another opportunity to test 
my cable?" 

Just at that moment there was a 
ran at the door, and, in answer to the 
call, who stepped in but John B. But- 
ler, the President of the Board of 

Canal Commissioners, and after the 
usual .salutation, I said to Mr. Roeb- 
ling, "Just state your case to Mr. But- 
ler." Mr. Roebling stated his case 
in very few words, for he was a man 
of few words.. Mr. Butler listened 
attentively until he got through, when 
he said: "Roebling, have you confi- 
dence in your cable?" The answer 
was, " I have sir." "Then," said Mr. 
P)Utler," I now appoint you superin- 
tendent of Plane No. 3, with the cred- 
it of the Commonwealth for all fhe 
material you may need; superinten- 
dent of the depots at Johnstown and 
Hollidaysburg for all the machinery 
you may want ; the appointment of all 
such mechanics and laborers as you 
may require in the reconstruction of 
the plane — all this at the expense of 
the Commonwealth. You will com- 
mence immediately after the close of 
navigation and have everything ready 
necessary for the spring business. You 
will superintend the plane yourself 
for the first month, and if your cable 
is a success we will put it on all the 
planes on the road, and this is all I 
can do for you." Mr. Roebling did 
not burst forth in the usual laudation 
(^f thanks, of God bless 3^ou and pros- 
per you, etc., but this time, with tears 
of joy rolling down his cheeks, his 
only reply was, "God is good !" I shall 
never forget the reply. He gave 
thanks to that Source from whom all 
blessings flow. He left with a joyful 
heart and greatly encouraged. The 
plane was reconstructed, ready for the 
sirring' business. The cable worke<l 
like a charm. 

During the summer wire cables 
were put on all the planes. By these 
planes Mr. Roebling had an opportun- 
ity of testing the flexibility and 
strength of his cables. The heavy 
weight of cars and section boats on 
those cables gave them a fair test of 
strength and durability. I mention 
this fact that the planes on the Port- 
age Railroad were the means of the 
wonderful enterprise of wire-cable 



liridgcs. for Mr. Rocbling^ frequently 
told me since that, had it not been 
for the interview in my parlor and the 
authority he got there to reconstruct 
a plane to establish and test the virtue 
of his wire cable, he never would ha\'e 
attem])ted it again, being condemned 
by the Commonwealth. So the old 

Portage is entitled to the credit of all 
these great wire bridges, notably the 
l)rooklyn Bridge. — Quotation from 
address delivered by Hon. James 

From Swank's Progressive 


Dialect and Literary Gems 

Eiii Psaliu des Lebens 

Klaget nicht in diistren Zeilen 
Dass das Leben sei ein Traum 
Dass die Seelen die hier weilen 
Selbst vergehen mit Zeit uud Raum. 

Denn das Leben, selbst auf Erden, 
Ueber's Grab den sieg verspricht. 
Du bist Staub und Staub sollst werdeu, 
1st der Sele Urtheil nicht. 

Xoch Vergniigen oder Sorgen 
1st des Daseins Losung nicht: 
Sonderu Streben dass wir morgen 
Treuer stehen unserer Pflicht. 

In dem heftigen Kampf des Lebens 
Kamphe muthig alle Zeit; 
Alles Anderes ist vergebens 
Wenn's da fehlt an Muth im Streit. 

Zwar die Kunst ist schwer, und fliichtig 
Tmmer ist die Lebenszeit; 
Und die Herzensuhr mahnt tiichtig, 
Fiir den Tod zu sein bereit. 

Baue auf die Zukunft nimmer; 
Setze dran die eigene Haut; 
.rage nach dem Gute immer, 
Immerhin auf Gott vertraut. 

Manche Helden die im Leben 
Schon erzielten Gliick und Ehr; 
Haben uns den Trost gegeben. 
ITnd die wunderschone Lehr: 

Dass wenn Jemand hier auf .Erden 
.Mocht' dem Gliick sein Leben weihn, 
Kann er trotz sehr viel Beschwerden, 
Edel, hold und gliicklich sein. 

Desshalf lasst ans stets im Leben 
F^leissig, muthig, eifrich sein; 
Kampfeu immerfort und streben, 
Harrend auf das Sammien-ein. 

From the English of Longfellow. — A. S. B 

4* 4" 4" 

Djis .Miidflu'ii >on F«n't Heur>" 

Von Dr. H. H. Pick. Cincinnat:. O. 

"Die roten Teiifel nah'n dem Fort, 

Vom weisseii Schuft gefiihret! 
Schnell, raumt die off'ne. Siedlung dort, 
TJringt Weil) und Kind an sichern OrtI" 
Oer Oberst Kommandieret. 

"Was faselt doch von brit'schem Schutz 

Uns Gii'ty, der Verrater? 
Wir bieten der Belag'rung Trutz 
So lang dieWaffen etwas nutz! 

Pluch sei dem Attentater!" 

Die Horde stiirmt, doch Schuss auf Schus.s 
Kracht ihr gar scharf ent gegen; 

Und mauche tiick'sche Rot haut muss 

Sich bin der Kuge herben Kuss 
Im Tode niederlegen. 

Doch weh!" Am Zundkraut es gebricht, 

Bald wird der Vorrat enden'" 
Voll, Angst der Kommandant es spricht, 
"Wird flugs uns frische Zufuhr nioht, 

Sind wir in Feindeshanden, 

"Zwar liegt, wodort die Mauern stehn, 

Ein Fasschen noch verstecket, 
Doch miisst' dem Tod ins Auge sehn, 
Wer ans dem Thore wollte gehn, 
Wenn ihn der Feind ent decket!" 

Ein Madchen hort's, sie ruft geschwind; 

Lasst mich nur dafiir sorgen!" 
Sie stiirtz hinaus, flink wie der Wind, 
Und, eh'der Gegner sich besinnt, 

Hat's Pulver sie geborgen. 

Sie tragt zuriiek im flucht' gen Lauf 
Den Schatz so hoch willkommen. 
Da blitzt das Feuern wieder auf, 
Und wie auch tobt der Wilden Hauf, 
Das Fort wird nicht genommen. 

Die Maid, sie war von deutschem B!ut, 

Das wollen wir ermessen. 
Weill opfern Manner Leib und Gut, 
Doch auch des Weibes Heldenmut 

Werd' nimmermehr vergesseu. 

*Die geschilderte Begebenheit trug sich 
im .Jahre 1777 zu, als eine Indianerbande 
unter Anfiihrung des weissen Renegaten 
Simon Girty das Fort Henry, unser heuti- 
ges Wheeling, W. Va., belagerte. Der Name 
des wackeren Madchens war Elizabeth 

From Pedagogische Mouatshefte Nov. 1901. 




By Cyrus Elder. Johnstown, Pa. 

Yost Yoder was a sadly worried man; 

The witches rode his dappled mare o'nights, 

.•\nd left her flecked and stained with mire 

and foam, 
Distressed, and all unfitted for the plow; 
The witches dried untimely his best cows, 
And his fat shoats died with a strange dis- 
His two year heifer, ready for the knife. 
The witches shot to death with balls of 

hair — 
Der Bixey Moyer found them in her paunch. 

The take-off troubled long his eldest child, 
And, cured of this, the lad went nearly 

While naught would help until old Granny 

Touched with tlie pot-lid his weak eyes. 

and said 
The words, and healed him: but at last he 

On every side of him Yost Yoder saw 
Witch-signs, and evil omens haunted him 
At table, in the house, and in the fields, 
.\nd made his life a burden; yet he spoke 
Of this, his trouble, to no living soul. 

Hedged in by witchcraft and by sorcery 
The season's wonders were as naught to 

Spring, with its infinite tints of tender 

Decked the far forests and the inter-vales; 
Blown from the blooming crab-trees, sweet- 
er scents 
Than Summer flowers yield, filled all the 

And upward folding wooded height on 

Revealing here and there a field or farm 
The Alleghenies rose more far and faint, 
['"'ading until they mingled with the sky. 
Which seemed an ocean lying vast and still, 
Where cloud-ships slowly sailed into the 

The joy of earth tliat Heaven is so near 
The bee felt, and the bird, and the young 

leaped in earth-gladness; beauty and mirth 
Of nature overflowed; yet flowed thry not 
For the grave race of men who tilled the 

Tasting its fruits with gross corporeal 

To whose accustomed cares YotI Yoder 

Addition of the burden that he bore — 
A secret told unto no living soul. 

The brethren held him as a Christian man, 
And every Sunday he went forth to hear 
Old Father Miller, who made it a boast 
His back had never rubbed a colleae wall. 
Preaching the Gospel in most homely 

He ate, at liebes-mohl, the paschal lamb. 
And washed the brethren's feet, and they 

his own. 
And kissed them, joining flowing beard 

with beard; 
And followed not the fashions of the world. 
But were his home-spun clothes of ancient 

And wide-rimmed hat; and in his roomy 

Were found no carpets, and no modern 

But polished boards and benches round the 

Here often met the brethren for prayers, 
The elders leading, each one in some set 
And formal phrase, said o'er and o'er again. 
Till each did know by heart the other's 

And Yost, when called on, spoke with trem- 
bling voice. 
Inaudible, save here and there a word. 
As avighkeit. and rechtigkeit. and amen. 

He knew, for he had heard so. and believed 
That God was great — was far more power- 
Than Satan; that as Father Snyder said, 
His people stood upon a rock secure. 
While waves of sin did break beneath their 

feet ; 
And yet it seemed that God was far awav. 
And that the devil had power in the world. 
And gave his witches power upon the 

And why this should be so he could not 

guess ; 
It worried him and darkened all his mind, 
And made his life a burden tliat he bore 
[n silence, year by year, and labored on. 
For he had still some pressing work to do; 
But when the sprouty meadow lot was 

The clearing fenced, his last gate fully paid. 
And the crop harvested, he took a rope 
And hung himself behind the smoke-house 

door : 
So made an end of trouble. i 

NOTE — We trust the readers of this 
lioetic tale will not think to end trouble 
by "Jumping out of the frying pan into the 




NOTE — In ccmpliance with a request for 
uu article on the above subject the follow- 
ing taken in substance from a recent issue 
of the Country Gentleman and covering 
the subject very admirably is submitted. — 
Mrs. H. H. Funk. 

One of the most important winter duties 
of the old-fashioned farmer in his repair 
shop — which was frequently a warm cor- 
ner by the kitchen fireplace — was that of 
getting ready for sugar making. In those 
days, the luxury cf "boughten sugar" 
could rarely be indulged in and the maple 
of home manufacture, served alike for 
sweetening coffee and cake. Since the 
first How of sap came with the sunny days 
of early spring a season as brief as boun- 
teous, the man vv'ho awaited mild weather 
before commencing his preparations al- 
most invariable lost the best "run ' of the 

First the spiles were made ready. These 
were spouts generally of pine, whittled to 
fit into the holes bored in the tree trunk, 
and designed to conduct the sap outward 
so that it might drip freely into the trough 
below, instead of trickling down the bark 
of the tree and wasting. Sometimes elder 
was substituted for pine, when stems of 
suitable size were cut into ten or twelve- 
inch lengths, one end being whittled down, 
if necessary, to fit into the boring. Com- 
mencing three or four inches below the 
point of insertion, a longitudinal shave re- 
moved the uppei- half of the remainder ; 
and by forcing out the central pith, a 
diminutive trough was secured. If the 
iree was a very large one two spiles were 
sometimes used; but the double tapping 
j)roved too exhaustive save with the most 
vigorous trees. 

Troughs were made by cutting logs of 
medium size into two or three-foot lengths, 
splitting each in two, and hollowing the 
central i)art with an axe, after the fashion 
of the old Indian dugout. These weie at 
best heavy to handle, and considerable 
skill was necessary in directing their con- 
tents into the collecting bucket. Much 
sap was wasted on account of their limit- 
ed capacity, even the most vigilant attend- 
ant finding it not always possible to pre- 
vent the stage of overflow being reached at 
some period of the day or night. 

With the first warm days the sap com- 
menced to ascend earlier in the clearing 
than in the woodland; and the farmer, arm- 
ed with his ^4 -inch auger, proceeded to 
open his cami). The tapping was prefer- 
ably made on the sunny side, to secure the 
greatest and longest flow, and the boring 

was done at a point where neither scar, 
red bark nor decayed wood indicated a 
l)revicus puncture. 

If the weather is favorable, sap at once 
starts from the wound, and drops fast oi- 
slow, according to the season, and the pro- 
ductive power cf the individual trf,e. Pro- 
longed and severe freezings are deemed 
more conducive to a heavy run than an 
open winter; while freezing nights are as 
essential as thawing days for ideal sugar 
weather. The amount of saccharine ma- 
terial in the sap also varies with the sea- 
son. .All these facts the old-time farmer 
noted and used to advantage. It is estimat- 
ed that the average yield of sugar is three 
pounds to the tree, though individual trees 
- vary greatly in the production, somo large- 
ly exceeding this figure. One hundred bar- 
rels of sap yield about eighty gallons of 
syrup, boiled to the present legal standard 
of eleven pounds to the gallon. 

In olden times a scale of weight was un- 
known. Those not so fortunate as to re- 
move it from the kettle at just the right 
time found their syrup graining sooner 
or later, or were humilated by the criti- 
cism that it was "warmed-up sap." 

A convenient central location was chosen- 
for the camp-fire, preferably near a 
stream of running water, that facilities for 
cleaning all utensils properly might be 
constantly at hand. A stout, orotched 
stake was driven firmly into the ground, 
and a long pole laid across the crotch. On 
the short end of the pole was hung the 
great iron kettle, the long end resting on 
the ground and serving as a lever to 
swing the kettle to and from the fire at 
pleasure. Later, two stakes were used in- 
stead of one, and the .kettle hung between 
them. To expedite matters, two kettles 
were often used, fresh sap being heated in 
the smaller to replenish the shrinkage in 
the larger through evaporation, without 
interrupting its boiling. 

The sap was gathered in large wooden 
buckets suspended from the shoulders by 
a neck-ycke. Or later, as the woods were 
sufficiently cleared of underbrush to allow 
its passage the ox team and stone-boat 
were pressed into service. A heavy run. 
especially on Saturday, made a busy time; 
for. aside from the lack of storagv.^ tanks, 
there was danger of fermentation, even a 
trace of which causes the sap to run over 
at the slightest increase of heat. 

To mitigate this tendency, the tOi) of the 
kettle was often greased or a piece of pork 
fastened to the end of a stick was kept in 
readiness for thrusting into the risinn 
foam. But perhaps the most curious meth- 
od of literally pouring oil on 'roubled 



waters was to suspend the pork ever the 
kettle with a string, at such height that 
the syrup would touch it as soon as it com- 
menced to rise above legitimate bounds. 
At best, however, constant vigilaice was 
accessary, especially during the later 
stages of progress. 

Only the most fastidious strained the 
sap as it was gathered from the open 
troughs, a gourd dipper freeing it from the 
bugs and leaves or bits of moss which by 
chance accumulated. Since ashes, smoke 
and cinders were being constantly wafted 
in during the boiling process, precautions 
in advance of the final purification were 
deemed superfluous. When the "syrup" 
stage — a very thin molasses — was reached. 
it was strained through home-spun linen 
:ind allowed to settle. 

It was thus usually transferred to the 
house for the finishing touches; and after 
standing over night, the cleared contents 
of the buckets were carefully poured into 
a kettle, the dregs remaining undisturbed. 
A partly beaten egg or a little milk .was 
then stirred into the liquid, which was 
l)rought slowly to the boiling point. Mean- 
while, a dark scum gradually formori over 
the surface; and when this was sufficiently 
tough to cohere, it was removed with a 
skimmer, leaving the syrup presumably 
free from foreign material and certainly 
much clearer than before. Aside from the 
advantage of cleanliness, "sugaring off" in 
the kitchen reduced the dangsi- from 
scorching to a minimum ; for every time 
the foaming mass rose and fell in the 
great camp kettle, a portion adhered to its 
sides, there to scorch and impart to the 
remainder a more or less unpleasant flavor. 

The bulk of the prod^ict was converted 
into sugar, this being more convenient for 
general culinary purposes than the pyun 

which predominates at the present time. 
Stirred sugar, resembling dark brown 
cane sugar, save in flavor, was made b»" 
cooking considerably thicker than molas- 
ses. When it waxed on snow or grained 
with stirring as it cooled, the kettle was 
removed from the fire and the contents 
stirred until the entire mass was convert- 
ed into small grains having the rich con- 
centration of maple sweetness. 

Caked sugar the solid form in which it 
is now almost universally sold, was cook- 
ed less, stirred until partly cool to render 
it whiter and of finer grain, and then pour- 
ed into buttered molds to harden. 

Tub sugar required the least cooking, 
and was poured into a tub plugged at the 
bottom. After it had stood for some weeks 
and become crystallized, the plug was re- 
moved and the drainings, dark and with 
a rank taste, were added to the contents of 
the vinegar barrel. This primitive refining 
process resulted in a sugar of comparative- 
ly light color, mild flavor, and a consis- 
tency midway between that of stirred and 
caked sugar; the crystals, though clearly 
defined, were moist and inclined to become 

While aching backs, and eyes congested 
by smoke were among the attendant fea- 
tures of sugar-making, it was, on the 
whole, a season of much merriment. For 
the young folks there were the diversions 
of sugaring off, taffy-pulling, and pouring 
wax on snow. Every boy in the family 
knew the exact location of the tree yielding 
the sweetest sap. 

Later, strong winds dried the sap, or 
with swelling buds it acquired a rank 
flavor. Spiles were removed and packed 
awpy with the troughs and other utensils 
for future use. A week later the camp 
was no longer wreathed in smoke. 

Eaxesdropper and a Giiiltj Coiiseieuce 

Two boys were out picking nuts, and 
they wanted to divide them equally between 
them, so they went over the fence into the 
cemetery and sat down among the tomb- 
stones to count out the nuts. While going 
over the fence they dropped two nuts, but 
didn't stop to pick them up. A man came 
along and heard them and stopped to listen 
and heard them saying: "One for j'ou and 
one for me." "One for you and one for 
me," and he became badly frightened and 
ran away down the road, and met another 

man ,who said: "Whats the matter?" The 
first man said: "The devil and the Lord 
are up in the cemetery dividing up the 
people," and the second man said: "Oh no, 
that couldn't be!" The first man says: 
"Yes, they are; I heard them." The two 
men went back to the fence to listen and 
heard them saying: "One for you and one 
for me." "One for you and one for me: 
now that's all;" and the other boy says: 
"Except the two at the fence, and that will 
be one for you and one for me " The two 
men ran away as fast as they could. — The 



The Pennsylvania-German 

An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to 
the Biography, History, Genealogy, Folklore, 
Literature and General Interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
States and of their descendants. 

Editorial Staff 

H. W. Kriebel, Publisher and Editor, East 
Greenville, Pa. 

Rev. J. A. Scheffer, Associate Editor, 
245 North Sixth street, Allentown, Pa. 

Mrs. H. H. Funk, Editor of "The Home," 
Soringtown, Pa. 

Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Editor of "Reviews 
and Notes," Trenton, N. J. 

Price, $1.50 a year, in advance; 15 cents 
per single copy. 

Additional particulars are found on 
page 2 of the cover. 

In the January 1906 issue of this maga- 
zine the then editor published a \aluable 
article on "The Si)elling of Our," that is, 
the Pennsylvania-German "Dialect." He 
stated that "the difference between a dia- 
lect and language is mainly one of limi- 
tation." A dialect is confined to a parti- 
cular section of the country; is limited in 
the number of words in use and also "in 
its literature." However, "dialects uniting 
in their word-stores have formed lan- 
guages while still remaining separate and 
distinct forms of speech." 

"In consequence of their literary use 
Ipnguages have in the course of time and 
through the molding influence of the print- 
ers' art acquired a certain fixedness of 

form and spelling." "Dialects being 

much less used for literary purposes have 
not as a rule attained to a like degree in 

uniformity in spelling." — — "Especially 

is this true of our Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man vernacular." For the numerous causes 
and reasons why this is so we refer our 
readers to the above named article by the 
Ifte Henry A. Schuler, in his able discus- 
sion on the subject. 

The Pennsylvania-German dialect is 
now largely a mixtnre of the Palatinate- 
German and English words and phrases, 
though a century ago it also had a con- 
siderable number of French words. The 
older writers used German letters and 
sounds; the present day writers in our 
dialect try to make it readable and under- 
standable to those not knowing ths Bibli- 
cal German by writing it according Lo Eng- 
lish sounds. Those writing in the Penn- 
sylvania-CJerman dialect for this magazine 
ought to have some fixed standard for 
spelling, as then more could read their 
contributions. And we commend to such 
writers the consideration of the "Rules" 
given in the article by Mr. Schuler who was 
a remarkable linguist. We invite attention 
of those who search for and write up his- 
torical facts whether in English, German or 
Pennsylvania-German to the article of 
Richard E. Helbig, Assistant Librarian of 

the New York Public Library, in the Feb- 
ruary number. Read on page 65, 2nd col- 
umn what he wrote of enthusiasts and opti- 
mists and his indirect hints as to the 
proper motives for such work. 

A Tribute 

The following letter and tribute were 
called forth by a note dated .lanuary 11, 
1909, directing the attention of Professor 
Avellanus to the death of the late Henry A. 
Schuler Jan. 1908, at the time editor oi 
of his services to this magazine we deem 
it in place to record the testimonial in its 
pages. The memorial by his scholarly 
friend is on another page. 

January, ITth, 190ii. 
Mr. H. W. Kriebel, Publisher, 
East Greenville, Pa. 

Dear Sir: I beg leave to acknowledge the 
receipt of your favor of the llth. inst., as 
well as the copy of the PENNSYLVANIA- 
GERMAN, with the portrait and sketch ot 
our common friend, Mr. Henry A. Schuler, 
of whose untimely death I had no informa- 
tion, and which sad news I all the more 

I have availed myself on your kind offer 
to i)en a few lines about his relation to me. 
and I herewith inclose my recollections ot 
him. It does not disclose any great aiul sur- 
prising revelations, but simple statements 
cf facts, which are creditable to his mem- 
ory. You, no doubt, know more details 
of his life story, of which you have already 
siven a very jieat and terse sjjecimen in 
that number of the magazine, and likely 
more in others: but this ))art of his nctivit.v 
I knew best. Considering the circuuistances 
under which he had suulied Latin, his at- 
tainments in that resi)ect were simi)ly mar- 
velous. He did not know many small details 
and fineries of Latin when we first got 
acquainted, but he mastered them unaidetl 
in no time, and he wrote with considerable 
elegance and ease. I have no recollection 



of another man who has accomplished what 
he has in the field of Latin; and yet I was 
in touch with most Latinists from all the 
world. Mr. Schuler was a greate.- genius 
than his best friends know, ,and you are at 
liberty to make this statement in addition 
to my article. 

Very respectfully yours, 
Middletown Conn. 

The author of the first article in the 
February issue was James not John Mad- 
den and in the same article ."oinville 
should read Jornville and en the editorial 
page F. C. ought to be P. C. Croli. 

NOTE.— It is a matter f regret that 
there were quite a number typograph- 
ical errors in the February issue of this 

In the sketch of Col. Matthias Hollen- 
back, the name is printed Hollenback 
twice where the copy has it Hollenbach 
and four times Hollenbach where it ought 
to read Hollenback, and on page 55 Hol- 
lenbachim ought to be the German femi- 
ine form Hollebachin. The names Cath- 
erine and Marie ought to read Catherina 
and Maria and Dietter, Dieter and Stoudt. 

Clippings from Current News 

—The Studebaker Brothers Mfg. Co. of 
South Bend, Indiana, erected a Y. M. C. A. 
building at the formal opening of which 
on October 25, 10,000 took part. 

At the annual banquet of the Poor Rich- 
ard Club, Phila., Martin G. Brumbaugh, 
LL. D., spoke on "Benjamin Franklin and 
the Pennsylvania German." 

Ex-Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker, 
addressed the Frankford Historical Society 
at the Free Library Building on "Charac- 
ters Unknown in History," referring prin- 
cipally to Pennsylvania Germans. 

The Saxon government resolved to adopt 
the Bcdelschwingh plan for the abolition 
of vagabondage. It will establish wayfar- 
ers' inns in such a way that they are apart 
from each other only a day's journey. The 
men will be given work either on the farm 
or in workshops connected with the inns 
and steps will be taken to procure steady 
employment for them. "Bums" (German: 
Strolche) will be taken to institutions 
where they are compelled to work hard 
and cannot go on the road again. 

* 4" * 

Reeent Deaths of Pennsyhania-Gierraans 

Isaac H. Keefer of Chambersburg, Pa. 
aged 75 years. He was the last survivor 
of his immediate family. He had been a 
farmer and of late years was engaged in 
the coal and grain business. He was a 
prominent member and an Elder in Zion's 
Reformed congregation. 

James Brownback, aged 75, identified for 
many years with stove manufactuiing in- 
dustries at Linfield and Pottstown, and for 
a long time president of the March-Brown- 
back Stove Company, of Pottstown, died 
suddenly of heart affection at his home at 

Charles G. Bokins died unexpectedly, at 
the age of 90 years in Germantowu, Phila. 
His ancestor William Bokins emigrated 

from Westphalia, Germany, and was one of 
the early settlers in Germantown, now one 
of the wards in Philadelphia. Mr. Bokins 
started in the notion business with his 
brother at 3d and Market Sts.. but in 
1869 removed to. Germantown and estab- 
lished a large retail dry goods store. After 
more than fifty years of a successful busi- 
ness career in 1894 he retired in favor of 
one of his two surviving sons. Mr. Bokins 
was in 1843 married to Margaret Unruh. 
whose father was born in a house at Mt. 
\iry, used for a hospital after the BattU' 
of Germantown. 

After a brief illness the Rev. G. C. Hen- 
ry, D.D., died at his home in Shippensburg. 
Pa., Jan. 18th. He was a member of the 
General Synod and a frequent contributor 
to "The Lutheran Observer." 

Edward R. Snader, M. D., was killed by 
his automcbile steering gear getting out of 
order and plunging over an embankment in 
Fairmount Park, Phila. He was a native 
of Lancaster County, Pa. Dr. Snader was 
professor in a Phila. Medical College, and 
was an expert in heart, lung and stomach 
diseases. He was an authority in these 
branches and ccnsulted frequently by other 

News has been received of the death in 
Alameda, Cal.,of Joseph Anshutz, for many 
years supervising architect of the Board 
of Education of Philadelphia. He de- 
signed the Central High School, at Broad 
and Green streets. The interment was 
made in Alameda. 

Mr. Anshutz was about 60 years old. He 
was a cousin of Thomas Anshutz, a por- 
trait painter and member of the \cademy 
of the Fine Arts. 

Ten years ago Mr. Anshutz went to Sau 
Francisco for his health. He was there at 
the time of the earthquake. His wife, who 
was Miss Anne Taylor, of this city, sur- 
vives him. 


The Forum 


By Leonliard Kolix Fuld, M. A., LL. 31. 

EDITORIAL NOTE.— Mr. Fuld his kind- 
ly consented to give a brief account of the 
meaning of the surname of an.y subscriber 
who requests such a reading and sends 
twenty-five cents to the Editor of THE 


The name KRAM ori'^inally meant a stall 
from which goods were sold. Then it came 
to mean a shop LADEN. BUDE. From the 
name of the place in which goods were sold 
it gradually became the name of the occu- 
pation itself and thus we see it becoming 
the equivalent of trade KRAMFANDEL 
and retail trade SCHNITTWARENHANDEL. 
And finally it came to mean what was sold 
in these shops; in the singular it meant 
haberdashery KURZWAREN and in the 
plural trinkets METALLSACHEN. Figur- 
atively it means pots and pans KUCHENGE 
RAT and stuff ALLERLEI ZEUG. The 
word api>ears also in the proverb DIE 
means. It is impossible to make the ends 
meet. The name KRAM occurs in a lar-^e 
number of colloquial sayings of which the 
following are the most common: ALLER- 
LEI KLEINER KRAM: cdds and ends: 
KRAM. the whole lot; D\ LIEGT DER 
KRAM, there is an end of the mattf-r; DAS 
suits his purpose; DAS VERDIRLT MIR 

DEN GANZEN KRAM, that spjils the 
whole affair; IN DEM KRAM KOMMEN. to 
be brought to bed. 

These colloquial phrases indicuLe how 
clrsely the name KRAM was related to the 
everyday life of the Germans. It meant a 
small shoi)keeper during the iieriod when 
Germans became fixed and this is the 
meaning which attaches to the name at the 
jiresent dav. 


4" * 4* 

ronnniu'iit .Markers »'<»r (i!rai«'s of Patriots 
and Pioin'rrs 

Cai)t. A. P. Stultz. of Zanesville. Ohio. 
Curator of the Muskingum Co.. Historical 
Society, a veteran cf the Civil War, grand- 
son of Adam Stultz, soldier of the War cf 
1812. of Penna. -German ancestry, and a 
great-grandson of Richard Marshall, (uncle 
of Chief .lustice Mar.^hall) who served over 
seven years to help establish American In- 
dependence, has been devoting much atten- 
tion to the question of securing a perm- 
anent and indestructible memorial for use 

as markers for the graves of the patriots 
and pioneei's of our country. 

The i)rohibitive cost of the best granites 
and stones and the rapid disintegration of 
the cheaper stones and metals prevent such 
general use of such markers as is neces- 
sary to insure the preservation of the 
knowledge of the location of the events, and 
the graves of those who played an im- 
portant part in the history of the United 

.\L\X will re.ioice therefore to learn that 
Captain Stultz has himself perfected a pot- 
tery mai'ker that seems to fill all the re- 
(juirements. It is of purest vitrified clay, 
white, and has tie name of the soldier, the 
comiiany and regiment, or other cummind. 
in which he served, burned under the glaz- 
ing: it is practically imperishable, and can 
l)e manrfactured and put on ihe market at 
a price less than one-half of the cost of 
those now used. This is not only a dis- 
tinguishing marker for a soldier's grave, 
but also a lasting rtcord of his service to 
his country. It will be seme time however 
befci'e these markeis are on the market as 
business arrangements for their manufac- 
ture must be com])leted. 

4» * * 

Schuvlkill Haven. .Ian. 12. 1909. 
Mr. H W. Kreibel. 

D 'ai- Sir: Enclosed please find check for 
subscripticu to the PENNSYLV ANA-GER- 
MAN. I am very grateful for yorir descrip- 
tion of the Bern Church Cemetery and 
Chrrch which api)eared in your January 
issue where my grandparents lie burie.l 
and other relatives of mine which interest- 
ed me very much. The interest caused this 
renewal of subscription. Hoi)ing to con- 
tinue and learn more in the future. With 
best wishes to the Staff I rem.un. 
Yours trulv. 


4" + 4" 

A subscriber writes; 

"I was much interested in the article on 
the Germans in Louden county, Virginia as 
I wrs hern there and have many relatives 
with the family names of German origin. 
German is nevei' spoken among them and 
most r.f them have forgotten that their an- 
cestois came down from Penna." 

Indiana. F*a. 

4" 4* 4* 

Information Waiit<Ml 

Mr. S. S. Fiery. Bangor, P'a., being en- 
gaged in collecting material for a history 
of the Flory or Fleury family invites cor- 
respondence from any persons in position 
to give information about the family. ?,-4-'< 



In the January number of "THE PENN- 
SYLVANIA-GERM.^^" in the interesting 
article "How New Year is observed by the 
Moravians" mention is made of the influx 
of country people to attend the midnight 
service, Dec. 31. That this difficulty, with 
its disturbing influences was experienced 
as late as fifty years ago in Bethleh»m also 
is a well known fact. The writer has in 
his possession an original manuscript no- 
tice issued by the Warden of the Nazareth 
Congregation dated Dec. 18. 1794. It speaks 
for itself. It is given in English and Ger- 

"The Directors of the Congregation in 
Nazareth, hereby request our neighbors, 
not to come to the meetings in this place 
on Christmas Eve and the evening before 
New Year. The want of Room and other 
Difficulties attending it in the Night time 
make it Necessaiy that those iiieetingp 
will be kept only for the members of the 
Congregation. Public Preaching with 

Church music will be on Christmas Day 
and New Year's Day as usual, in the Fore- 
noon. Nazareth, Dec. 18th, 1794. 

Die Direction der Gemeine in Nazareth 
ersucht hiedurch unsere Nachbaren freund- 
lichst sich nicht zu den Versamlungen 
dieses Orts zur Christnacht und zu dem 
abend vor dem Neuen Yahre herzu bega- 
ben, im dem dieselben wegen des engen 

Platzes und andere zur Nachtzeit gewoehn 
lichen Berschwerlichkeiten nur fiir die 
Glieder der G'emeine veranstaltet werden 
Kounen. Die offentloichen Predigten aber 
am Erten weihnacht's feuertage, und 
neujahrs tage werden wie gewohnlich mit 
Kirchen Music Vormittags" gehalten wer- 
den. Nazareth den 18th December, 1794. 

The above official was born in Holztein 
en 1745. He served as teacher in Niesky, 
Germany, and as superintendent in Grace- 
hill, Ireland, coming to America 1791. 
where he was ordained a Deacon by Bishop 
.lohn Ettwein. He labored in the Gospel 
at Schoeneck. Gnadenhiitten, on the 
Mahony, Pa., and at Hope. N. J. He died 
in retirement at Lititz in 1806. having the 
love and good will of every one. 

Tradition says that when the enthusiasm 
of the strangers collected at the "INN" be- 
came too strenuous about midnight, so that 
the guardians of the peace failed to pre- 
serve order — a call was made for the pres- 
ence of the Hon. William Henry, a mem- 
ber of the congregation — manufacturer of 
rifles for the U. S. Government, as well as 
for the State, a man of stature and digni- 
fied bearing — whose arrival with his "big' 
stick" invariably put an end to the dis- 
turbance. Yours veiT truly, 


Historical Societies 

The Lelii^Ii Connfj' Historical Society 

held its last quarterly meeting in Allen- 
town, Pa. The former president, secretary 
treasurer and executive committee were 
re-elected. Nine new members were elect- 
ed, making a total of 14.5. The reading of 
biographical sketches of members who 
died lately was postponed till next meet- 
ing, thus giving time to read three other 
* excellent papers, which will be published 
in this magazine. 

The past year 42 bound volumes and 40 
pamphlets were given to the society, mak- 
ing a total of 140 bound volumes and 180 
pamphlets. The society has quite a num- 
ber of manuscript papers, facsimiles, maps, 
photographs and other articles. The treas- 
urer's annual report shows expenditures 
of .$299.14. chiefly for printing the society's 
proceedings and papers. The New York 
Public Library having requested these, a 
copy of all its publications was author- 
ized to be donated to that Library's Ger- 
man American Department. 

The Park Commission of Allentown. has 
granted this Historical Society the use of 

the historic Allen Fishing and Hunting 
Lodge, which to the present formed part of 
the East wing of the old buildings of Muh- 
lenberg College, the grounds, which are 
now to become one of this city's iiarks. 

4* 4» 4» 

The Historians' Animal Meeting, 

The Bucks County Historical Society 
held its twenty-ninth annual meeting in the 
Society's building. Doylestown. on Tues- 
day. January 19. Two sessions were held, 
one at 10.30 a. m. and the other at 2.30 p. 
m. The business meeting was held in the 
morning. Three papers were presented at 
the afternoon session. 

Warren S. Ely. Librarian of the Society, 
presented a paper on "The Lime Quarries 
and Kilns of Bucks." Ely J. Smith. Esq.. 
Doylestown. read a paper on "Old Time 
Children's Games." Oliver Randolph Parry, 
of Philadelphia, i-ead a paper on "Betsy 
Ross, the Flag Maker." and i>resented to the 
Society the only authenticated piece of 
flooring of Ihe original flag house extant. 



York County Ilistoricul Society 

At the annual meeting of the Historical 
Society of York County, held on Thursday 
evening, January 14th, Robert C. Bair was 
elected president; Captain W. H. Lanius, 
vice president; A. Wanner, treasurer; 
Chas. A. Hawkins, recording se<;retary; 
and Miss Lena T. Root, corresponding sec- 
letary. The board of trustees is composed 
of Rev. T. T. Everett, D. D., Captain W. 
H. Lanius, George P. Smyser, Rev. E. T. 
.Jeffers, D. D., J. A. Dempwolf, J. W. 
Steacy, Captain John Fahs, all prominent 
in the affairs of the city of York. 

This Society was organized in 1S92, but 
did not become vigorously active until 
1902. During that year the County Com- 
missioners gave permission for the Society 
to use a large room on the third floor of 
the new County Courthouse. This room 
which is reached by an elevator is now en- 
tirely filled with a museum and library. The 
walls are covered with tramed portl-aits, 
historic views and places relating to south- 
ern Pennsylvania. The museum contains 
many thousand souvenirs and mementoes 
i)f local history, A collection of natural 
history embraces all the birds and small 
animals which are found in the Keystone 
State. The collection of birds' eggs and in- 
sects is large and valuable. About ten 
thousand persons visit this room annually. 
The museum and library were arranged 
under the direction of Geo. R. Prowell.who 
has served as curator and librarian during 
the past six years. 

At the January meeting Rev. William J. 
Oliver pastor of Calvary Presbyterian 
Church of York, read an exceedingly inter- 
esting sketch of Hon. Hugh Henry Brack- 
enridge, one of the most distinguished men 
who resided in york County. Bracken- 
ridge was born in Ireland, and came to 
this country with his parents wh3n quite 
young. He graduated at Princeton College 
in the same class with James Madison, and 
(luring the Revolution was chaplain in the 
American army. After the war he edited 
a newspaper in Philadelphia, then studied 
law and in 17S1 he settled in P'ttsburg. 
ihen a small village on the Western front- 
ier. He soon took rank among the leaders 
of the bar, and was appointed by Gover- 
nor McKeen. a membei- of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania. Justice Bracken- 
ridge died at his home in Carlisle, in 1816. 

Mr. Oliver devoted most of his paper to 
the literary career of Brackenridge whose 
work entitled •Modern Chivalry," now a 
rare book, is one of the finest specimens 
of satiie in American literature. 

Prof. C. H. Ehrenfeld, a membe.- of the 
faculty of York Collegiate Institute, read a 
])aper on "Buffaloes in Pennsylvania." This 
interesting paper was prepared by Mr. 

James M. Swank, of Philadelphia, general 
manager of the American Iron & Steel As- 
sociation, and appears in his recent pub- 
lished work. 

The Historical Society of York Count}" 
has two hundred active members and 
twenty life members. The meetings are 
held at regular intervals, when papers art- 
read and discussed. 

•{• 4> 4. 

The Bucks County Historical Society 

At the meeting of the Society held, Janu- 
ary 27, the following officers were elected: 

President, William H. New-ell, Vice-presi- 
dents, Isaac Paxson, Mrs. A. A. Seibert, 
Theodore Dewees; Recording Secretary. 
Daniel G. Lubold; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Miss Elena M. Roads; Treasurer, J. 
W. Fox; Librarian, H. J. Herbein; Ass't. 
Librarian, Claude Unger; Directors. H.' J. 
Herbein, G. A. Berner, Esq. 
The Society was represented at the meet- 
ing of the State Federation of Historical 
Societies at Harrisburg, by Mr. Claude Un- 
ger. What will be one of the most import- 
ant of its Publications is in press. This 
number will contain — A "Documentary 
History of Zion (the Red) Church," com- 
piled by the Rev. H A. Weller; "Schuylkill 
County in the French and Indian War," by 
Mr. Wm. H. Newell; "The Flora of Schuyl- 
kill County," by Prof. S. A. Thurlow; "His- 
tory of the Schools of Pottsville." by Wm. 
G. Wells; Esq. 

The Society hafe secured quarters in 
Pottsville's new Y. M. C. A. Building. Its 
meetings are held the last Wednesday even- 
ing of each month and are fairly well 
attended. Its financial condition is quite 
satisfactoiy. only a small number of mem- 
bers being delin(|uent in the paying of dues. 

+ * * 

In the new Schaif-Herzog Encyclopedia 
of Religious Knowledge, now issuing in 
America, Prof. Benjamin B. Warfield, of 
Princeton Theological Seminary, who con- 
tiibutes the article on "The Atonement," 
lilaces at the head of the list of American 
books that the student should consult "The 
Atonement and Modern Thought," by Rev. 
D)-. J. B. Remensnyder. 

4» + •!• 

"Electro-.Analysis" by Edgar F. Smith. 
Sc. D.. LL. D., which appeared a vear ago 
in its fourth English edition, has inst been 
translated into its second German edition 
by Professor Stabler of the University ol 
Berlin. The most recent advances in elec- 
tro-chemical analysis are treated in this 


Reviews and Notes 

The Life of Francis Daniel Pastorius: — 

The Founder cf Germantown — By- 
Marion Dexter Learned, Ph. D., L. H. 
D., Professor of German at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. Illustrated with 
90 photographic reproductions. Large 
octavo; cloth; 324pp. Price $5.00 
Edition, limited to 1000 copies. William 
J. Campbell, Philadelphia, 1908. 
No more fitting and lasting memorial 
could have been established at the late 
commemorative exercises of the founding 
of Germantown than the publisliing of 
Professor Learned's exhaustive work on 
■Tie Life of Francis Daniel Pastorius." 

Pastorius, the subject of this work, was 
l)orn in Sommerhausen, Germany, Sept. 26, 
1651. Little is known .of his ancesLors ex- 
cept that they were of a distlnguisiied Ger- 
man family, whose original name may 
have been Hirt or Schiifer of the 
name Pastor is the Latinized form; dur- 
ing this period names were often Latinized 
under the influence of Humanism. 

In 1863 he migrated to Americi with a 
small body of friends, and settled on the 
Frankfort Compamy's tract between the 
Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers. He con- 
trolled the affairs of the several land com- 
panies until 1688, when he engaged in 
teaching in the schools of Philadelphia. 
When Penn granted Germantown a charter 
in 1698, Pastorius became the first Bailif. 
He held many important offices in the little. 

It Js to be lamented that neither the 
Hxact date of his death is known nor the 
place where he is buried. He is supposed 
lo have died between 1719^1720, and it is 
supposed, furthermore, that ho was buried 
in the Friends' Burying Ground, German- 
town; but there is no tombstone nor record 
(-f burial to indicate this. 

Pastorius was a many sided man. especi- 
ally in a literary way. He was a scliolar. 
and was said to have been conversant with 
no less than seven languages Some of his 
writings are still extant; it is also to liim 
that Prof. Learned credits the first protest 
against slavery which the Friends of Ger- 
mantown presented in 1688, which act was 
the insi)iration of Whittier's "The Pennsyl- 
vania Pilgrim." 

The Appreciation of Pastorius by Ex- 
Governor S. W. Pennypacker of Pennsyl- 
vania is perfecly sincere and appropriate: 
he rejoices that so eminent a scholar 
undertook the writing of this biogi-aphy. 

The work is a documentary life of Pas- 
torius and his times. It is the work of a 
scholar, of a trained investigator whose 
devotion to his work demands respect. It 
is replete witli reliable sources and he who 
would verify them all would have a hard 
task on liand. It is a contribution to his- 
tory; it is exhaustive and authentic; and 

one may well presume that Professor 
Learned has said the last word that is to be 
said about this pioneer of German migra- 
tion to America. 

German Literature ia American Magazines 
Prior To 1846— By Scott Holland Good- 
night, Ph. D. Assistant Professor of 
German, University of Wisconsin. No. 
188 in the Philology and Literature 
Series of the Bulletin of the University 
of Wisconsin. Paper; 264pp. Price 50 
cents. Madison, Wisconsm. 1907. 
German Literature in American Magazines 
1846—1880 — By Martin Henry .Haertel 
Instructor in German, University of 
Wisconsin. No. 263 in the Philology and 
Literature Series cf the Bulletin of the 
University cf Wisconsin. Paijer; lo3 
pp. Price 50 cents. Madison, Wis- 
consin, 1908. 
During the last decade probably no 
aspect of History or Literature has com- 
manded more attention among scholars 
over this whole country than the German 
element and influence in just these two 
phases of our life and culture development. 
It is also only of late years that this coun- 
try is beginning to realize the greatness of 
the debt it owes to German civilization. 

Professor Goodnight discuss-es the 
awakening interest in German life and cul- 
ture, in fact cf all things German, in Ameri- 
ca, and the introduction of German litera- 
tuer to the readers of American periodicals. 
Professor Haertel, on the otlier hand, takes 
up the developement of the criticism of 
German literature in American magazines 
from 1846 — 18S0; he confines himseif to the 
attidude of the journals towards literature 

Both of these publications are theses 
that were submitted by these two writers 
respectively to the University of Wisconsin 
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 
They are both scholarly pieces of work. 
They show the expenditure of an immense 
amount of labor consumed in examining an 
endless number of old magazines. Tlieir 
reference lists alone should make them 
invaluable to the further study of German 
and American literature. 
Supplement 1906 to 190S to the Index to 
Genealogies i'ublished in 1900. Albany, 
N. Y., .Toel Munsell's Sons, Publishers, 
.loel Munsell's Sons have rendered a dis- 
tinct and very valuable service to all 
librarians, historians and genealogists by 
sui)plementing their "Munsell's Genealogi- 
cal Index of 1900" and thus bringing it up 
to date. Hundreds of volumes have been 
searched at considerable expenditure of 
time, labor and money. As a result you 
can in a moment find out by the use of 
the two volumes whether anything has 
lieen i)ublished on jiarticular families and 
where to look for the information. 

Vol. X 

APRIL, 1909 

No. 4 

The Origin of Sunday Schools 

By Dr. I. H. Betz. York, Pa. 

HE statistical repct of the 
E 1 ev e n t h International 
Sunday School Conven- 
tion held at Toronto, Can- 
ada. June 23-27, 1905. 
gave the number of Sun- 
day Schools in the world 
as 262.131 ; the number 
of teachers 2,426,888 and 
of scholars as 22.739.323 or a grand 
total of teachers, and scholars sum- 
ming up over 25^/2 millions, in num- 

Of this number the United States 
had nearly one half. Great Britain 
and Ireland had nearly one third, Ger- 
many might be supposed to rank very 
high but it fell short oi one million. 

The number above given does not 
include the schools of the Roman 
I'atholic or Xon-Evangelical Protes- 
tant Churches. The number of schol- 
ars in the Roman Catholic Sunday 
Schools in the United States is esti- 
mated by clerics at one million. This 
\ast organized host is the product of 
modern times. Xothing akin to it was 
known a little more than a century 
ago. To search for its beginning is 
confessedly interesting. 

Some have maintained that some- 
thing akin to Sunday Schools has ex- 
isted from the early ages of the Jew- 
ish and Christian churches. 

While parental instruction was un- 
doubtedly given at all times to chil- 
dren it must be confessed that noth- 
ing in the way of Sunday schools ex- 
isted before the foundation of the 
Christian church at least. Nor did it 
exist even then until recent times. 

\\ hat are known as public, secular 
or common schools were not in exist- 
ence until lately. The illiterate condi- 
tion of the populace in England as re- 
lated by INIacauly was extreme. Their 
daily condition and lack of comforts 
was deplorable. 

Germany, the home of the Reforma- 
tion and its outcome, the right of "pri- 
vate judgment" at once accepted the 
necessity for every individual to be 
able to read an open Bible. 

Luther at once began the transla- 
tion of the Scriptures which also gave 
form and substance to the language. 

It was doubtless these facts that dif- 
fused education over the Fatherland 
and gave to every child the rudiments 
of an education. It was Chillinsfworth 



in England who uttered the striking- 
war cry — "The Bible ! the Bible ! Is 
the Relig-ion of Protestants !" 

Supplementary to Luther's "Justi- 
fication by faith" it gave an enormous 
impetus among Protestant peoples for 
the establishment of parochial schools 
which were brought to America in the 
settlement of the colonies. It was 
Christopher Dock the pious school- 
master of the Skippack who wrote and 
published the first book on teaching 
in America in 1770. This book has re- 
cently been edited by Dr. M. G. Brum- 
l)augh and published by Lippincotts. 
Dock came to America in 1714. As 
early as 1718 he began teaching which 
he followed almost continuously till 
the time of his death in 1771. The ex- 
act date of his birth is unknoAvn. He 
was a man of marked conscientious- 
ness and modesty and his name 
though long obscured bids fair to be 
])erpetuated and better known. 

The "Log Colleges " in Pennsylva- 
nia, among which were that at 
-Veshaming in Bucks County, con- 
ducted by the celebrated William 
Tennent and another at Washington, 
Pa., with the " Log Academy " near 
Nevvburg, Cumberland County, turn- 
ed out many noted pupils who after- 
wards became noted in the annals of 
the country. These schools did a very 
important work during the primitive 
and formative period, in preparing 
young men as teachers and for the 

They were succeeded by other and 
better improved means in the course 
of- time. 

S'liritual instruction was mostlv 
carried out under parental oversight. 
The Lord's Day was mostly devoted 
to church services, scripture reading 
and meditation. Probably much of the 
subject matter was beyond the mental 
develonment of the young and thus 
nroved irksome. The emphasis was 
mostl}' placed ui)on the \A^)rd rather 
than the Works of God. The Sab])ath 
in New England retained manv of its 
Mosaic features, as it did and still 
does in Scotland. The dav in Ne\\' 

England began at sundown on Satur- 
day evening and terminated at sun- 
down on Sunday evening. Henry 
Ward Beecher relates that when he 
was a boy with others they all stood 
in line watching the disaj)pearance of 
the sun and as he disappeared they 
nudged each other and whispered : 
" Do you see him losing himself?" 

Doubtless the method in use proved 
acceptable to those who carrierl it out, 
but still it was held to be inefficient 
as large numbers of paients, it was 
held, neglected their obligations and 
large numbers of children grew up 
without provision for their enlighten- 

It is generally claimed that the Sun- 
day School originated through the 
efforts of Robert Raikes of Glouces- 
ter, England. He was born in 1735 and 
was the son of Robert Raikes. The 
father was a printer and published a 
paper in Gloucester. The lather dying 
'" 1757 the son succeeded him in the 
business. Along with some others he 
started a Sunday School in the town 
in 1780, some say in 1781-2-^-4, the 
exact date not being certain. 

This work continued for about 30 
years up to the period of his death in 
181 1 at the age of 76 years. He pub- 
lished the accounts of the movement 
in his journal which was copied by the 
London press, and caused wide-spread 
comment. He lived to see the move- 
ment widely extended during his life. 

It has been said that Raikes conceiv- 
ed the necessity for the Sunday School 
among the neglected children of the 
communit}" who were without secular 
or s)iritual instruction. Probably un- 
der the circumstances the early Sun- 
da v School embraced both kinds of in- 
struction from the necessity of the 
case in that early day. To have done 
otherwise would have seemed almost 

The dejjarture was novel, moreover 
it was practical. That it met with o])- 
position whch has come down almost 
to our own time must be frankly ad- 
mitted. But in the main the idea was 
fruitful, grew and developed. 



Probably it proved to be the great- 
est adjuvant the church has ever had. 

l-'or some years past the priority ol' 
Rt)bert Raikes in this field would 
seem are called in question. Simul- 
taneous claims however would seem 
to be numerous in the field of origina- 
tion i)r discovery. It merely shows 
that the necessity for new develop- 
ments was seen in xarious directions 
and places and that efforts were being 
made, unknown to others though, to 
fill these wants. The discovery of the 
Calculus simultaneously by Newton 
and Leibnitz ; of oxygen by Priestly 
in England and Scheele in Sweden ; 
the discovery of two gases in com^:)Osi- 
tion of w^ater by Cavendish and Watt ; 
the discovery of Neptune by Lcverrier 
and Adams and the enunciation of 
the theory of Natural Selection by 
Darwin and Wallace all illustiate the 
truth of the proposition in question. 

Even though opposing claims of 
priority may be held, they but show 
that the time was ripe for this new 
departure and development. 

I'hey arose independently without 
knowledge of each other and must 
therefore all be cordially welcomed. 
Whether one preceded the other by a 
brief space of time is immaterial since 
they all tended to the same general 
end independently. Improvements and 
additions are made through necessary 
experiences. The educational exhibits 
at our expositions show this matter in 
its true light. 

Development is universal and con- 
tinuous throughout s])ace and 
throughout time. 

The claim f(^r the founder of the 
first Sunday School has also been 
made for the Lutheran pastor Stuber 
which was continued by his successor 
the world renowned pastor Jean Fried- 
erich Oberlin (1740-1826) of S<-cinthal. 
Alsace. To few men has it fallen to 
produce a greater effect uj)on a popu- 
lation than ti^ 01)erlin. The noted 
town and university in Ohio was 
named after him. His work upon the 
P(^')idation of Steinthal was magical. 
1 tc cc^nduccd to its material and spirit- 

ual progress through his own example 
and labors. His work and life have 
l)een largely written about by others 
and will richly repay reading. He 
is also claimed to be the originator 
of infant schools although this honor 
has also been claimed for Robert 
Owen of Scotland who was aJso well 
known in America, as the father of 
English Socialism and Secularism. 

It is claimed that pastors Stuljcr and 
Oberlin founded Simday schools as 
early as 1/(^7. That is both possible 
and probable. 

Steinthal from being a poverty 
stricken region containing no more 
than 500 inhabitants. had thirty 
years later increased to 3,000. Its 
growth has been continuous up to the 
present time. Such is the eft'ect pro- 
duced by a born leader, a man of sin- 
cere faith and with the love of his 
fellow men at heart. 

The change produced by Robert 
Owen among his operatives at New 
Lanark in Scotland was another case 
in point. The leadership of George 
Rap]) at Economy, in western Penn- 
sylvania, in promoting the welfare of 
his followers during his litetime. 
shows wdiat good leadership is cap- 
able of when in the hands of one who 
replaces self-interest with altruism ; 
one who sinks the ego for the benefit 
of the whole. 

But there are claims for still earlier 
))riority for the formation of the first 
Sunday school close by our own 
doors. The ^lystics of the Wissa- 
hickon and the hermits and anchorites 
of the Cocalico wdio settled near Eph- 
rata and later founded this monas- 
tery during the first (juarter of the 
18th century accomplished many no- 
ted things during that early jjeriod. In 
fact among these recluses were men 
of education and talent. Theirs is one 
of the most interesting local histories 
which Pennsyhania has produced. 

Their singing, their printing and 
their Axriting schools were marvels of 
art in that day. Specimens ot their 
writing may be seen in the Saal-l)uild- 
iuL;- which was also nsed for the Sun- 



day school and which still remains. 
The writing has very much faded but 
photographic copies have been made. 
Many educated men and accomplished 
women were found in their ranks. 
They established a secular school 
which was much patronized by people 
from the cities. The monks of the 
Wissahickon and those of Ephrata as 
a rule were scholarly men but so un- 
obtrusive were they that their merits 
escaped the outside world in that day. 
But it is now conceded that the 
cradle of German literature in Ameri- 
ca originated in the vale of the Muh- 
bach in Lancaster county, Pa., in that 
early day. The organization of the 
e d u c ational department of the 
Ephrata Community may be said to 
date from the arrival of Ludwig Mock- 
er in the early spring of 1739. He had 
appeared among the Mystics of the 
Wissahickon at the since famous mon- 
astery, but soon cast his lot with the 
Ephrata Community, when he became 
known under the conventual name of 
Brother Obed. His wife took the 
name of Sister Albina and their 
daughter that of Sister Petronella. He 
was soon after his arrival installed as 
the Schoolmaster of the Congregation, 
instructing the youth in the rudiments 
of learning. 

He at an early day compiled and 
published a German school book for 
the use of his pupils. No copy of the 
original issue of the book has come 
down to us but reprints are in exist- 
ence. The following year in 1740 he 
established a Sabbath School for the 
children of the Community. It must 
be remembered there were two classes 
in the Community, the Solitary and 
the Household of the Congregation. 
These people from their name, the 
.Seventh Day German Baptists ob- 
served Saturday or the Seventh Dav 
as the Sabbath. Several modern sects 
like the Seventh Da}'' Baptists and the 
Seventh Day Adventists still observe 
the seventh day. 

Tn fact during the early period of 
the Christian Church there was con- 
siderable difference in the observance 

of the day. Some obfecrving the 
seventh and others the first day of the 
week. In fact in Scotland both days 
at one period were observed. The 
people surrounding the Ephrata Com- 
munity observed the first of the week 
therefore in teaching the children of 
the neighborhood there was a Sunday 
School for them as well as a Sabbath 
School for the children of the Congre- 
gation. All this was apart from the 
usual week day school as it was 

It has been claimed by those who 
dissent from these claims that there 
was absoluetly no proof that either 
Sabbath day or Sunday Schools were 
ever regularly held at Ephrata. A 
letter dated February 3rd 1835 where- 
in Thomas Davis of Chester County 
who was then in his 72nd year says 
that he went to the Sabbath School at 
Eohrata until he was 13 years of age 
when it was discontinued evidently on 
account of the buildings being requir- 
ed for hospital purposes. 

This would make the period 1777 
when 500 wounded were brought after 
the battle of Brandywine of whom 200 
died of a malignant camp fever and 
were buried in the upper graveyard 
where a monument has lately been 
erected to their memory. This Sunday 
school would therefore seem to have 
been founded about 40 years before 
Robert Raikes began his school at 
Gloucester. Spiritual reward cards 
were also given to children of the 
Sabbath school, some of which have 
been reproduced. 

Brother Obed was assisted in this 
work by his daughter, Sister Petro- 
nella, who has been described "as a 
lovely, beautiful girl not only comely 
in form, but lovely and beautiful in 
her character as an ardent, active 
worker in the Sabbath school, as she 
was in every Christian virtue *' Maria 
Hocker (Sister Petronella) was per- 
haps the first female Sunday school 
teacher of whom we have any record 
if we admit the foregoing facts as 
being historical. Prof. M. G. Brum- 
baugh in his "History of the Breth- 



reir ' says : "There is evidence to justify 
the claim that the Germantown con- 
gregation had a Sabbath school before 
1738. The meeting for the unmarried 
held every Sunday afternoon was 
doubtless a Sunday school. Ludwig 
ilocker may have been the leader of 
this meeting. In 1744 Christoi)her 
Saur ])rinted a collection of 381 tick- 
ets upon each one of which is a scrip- 
tural quotation and a stanza of relig- 
ious poetry by Gerhard Tersteegen. 
These were evidently used in the 
I'rethren's Sunday School. A set of 
these tickets in excellent condition is 
now in my possession. It is '.veil to 
note that Sunday Schools, Council 
Meeting and an Odd Folks Home 
were instituted by these early Breth- 

lUit the question still arises, from 
which of these points did the Sunday 
school spread over the world? It 
must be admitted that it spread from 
the movement of Robert Raikes. "The 
Philadelphia Society for the Support 
of Sunday schools," was the earliest 
society formed in the United States in 
1786, shows that Raikes' idea had 
taken root and has been developing 
ever since. 

The first man who began Sunday 
schools among his mill operatives at 
Webster, Massachusetts and the 
neighboring town of Slatersville, 
Rhode Island was Thomas Slater, 
(1768-1835.) These schools were 
formd in 1791 and were probably the 
earliest in this country. He also estab- 
lished secular schools for his employ- 
ees' children and also advanced cotton 
spinning and the iron indus'.ry. In 
fact to him and to his brother New 
England was largely indebted for the 
development of her cotton industries. 
The interest he manifested in the wel- 

fare of his operatives is a landmark in 
the relation of capital and lalx^r. The 
.Sunday school work now rapidly ex- 
tended. It was introduced into York 
county. Pa., in 1817 through the 
organization of the '"York county 
Bible Charity and Sunday School 
Society." And under a charter granted 
by the legislature was permanently 
organized by electing Rev. Samuel 
Bacon as its president in the same 
year. This meeting as well as the first 
Sunday school under its auspices was 
held in a building still standing 
immediately west of the Friend's 
Meeting house on Philade!])hia St. In 
this building also was held the Lan- 
castrian school by Amos Gilbert and 
Abner Thc:)mas, two I'Viends who also 
assisted in the Sunday school. The 
following year 1818 the school was re- 
moved to the building of the York 
Comity Academy which was erected 
in 1787. Rev. Bacon in those early 
years formed schools all over the 
county. In September 1819 the mem- 
bership of the schools was over 2.000. 
He started a school at Lewisberry as 
earl}^ as 1817. The work extended to 
every point in the coimty very rapidly. 
At first they were union schools but 
were speedily organized as denomina- 
tional schools. Christ Lutheran Sun- 
day school in York was formed in 

1819. The IMethodist Episcopal fol- 
lowed in 1824. St. John's Episcopal 
was organized in 1826. The English 
Reformed in 1828 and others a little 
later. The African. Methodist Episco- 
pal of York was organized as early as 

1 820. 

Such is a brief resume of a work 
that was humble in its beginnings 
but which has reached immense pro- 


How Easter is Observed by the Moravians 

By Louise A. Weitzel, Lititz, Pa. 



N THEIR manner of ob- 
serving Easter the Mora- 
vians differ most wide- 
ly from other denomina- 
tions. They have a unique 
and peculiar, a beau- 
tiful and significant way 
of celebrating the suffer- 
ings, death, and, above all, the resur- 
rection of our Lord Jesus Christ. Yet 
it is all very simple. There is noth- 
ing that savors in the least of Ro- 
manism. The beauty and impressive- 
ness lie in its very simplicity and a de- 
scription like mine can give the reader 
only a very inadequate conception of 
the real charm of these services. 

Every day throughout the Holy 
\\ eek, or PassionWeek, as it is called 
by the Moravians, services are held 
and these consist for the most part of 
readings by the pastor from a manual 
containing the Harmony of the Gos- 
pels on the sufferings of Christ, inter- 
spersed with singing by the congre- 
gation of hymns composed for this 
season. The Moravian hymnology is 
ver)^ rich. The selections rendered by 
choir and orchestra are often those of 
'Moravian composers, which exist only 
in manuscript and are unknown to 
the non-Moravian world. The church 
always laid much stress upon musical 
culture from the earliest times, and 
some of these productions are consid- 
ered by conioetent critics to be of a 
very high order of excellence, and, 
while not quite equal to the works of 
the great masters, are often better 
a(la])ted for the purpose designed 
than the latter could be. 

The ()]iening service of the Passion 
Week, in the Moravian church at 
Lititz, Pa., is held on the Saturday 
evening preceding Palm Sunday. It 
has for many years been cu.'^tomarv 
for the choir and orchestra to render 

"O Bethanien, du Friedenshiitte," by 
Soerensen, a Moravian composer. In 
this connection it might be interest- 
ing to state that the oldest member of 
the orchestra is Mr. Abraham R, 
Beck, 75 years old, who has for the 
last forty-seven years played a violin 
during the rendering of this composi- 
tion, which he purchased in 1862 at a 
sale of the personal property of John 
William Ranch, a skillful violinist in 
his time, who used it, as nearly as 
can be ascertained, since 1820. The 
instrument was made in 1817 at Neu- 
kirchen bei Adorf, Germany, by 
George Friedrich Lippold, a noted 
maker of violins, and is beautiful!}' 
finished in ivory. It is consequently 
ninety-two years old and Mr. Beck 
would not part with it at any price. 

Another interesting fact that might 
be mentioned is that there are two 
more Becks in the orchestra, sons of 
Mr. Abraham I'.cck, Mr. Paul E. Beck, 
•organist and choir leader, who is also 
leader of the Lititz band, known as 
Beck's Concert Band, a member of 
the trombone choir, and art instructor 
in the public schools of Lititz and 
Ephrata, and Mr. Herl)crt H. Beck, 
professor of chemistry at Franklin & 
Marshall C(^llege, Lancaster, who is 
a very fine \'ioIinist. 

John Beck, the pioneer educator of 
Lancaster County, was the grandfath- 
er of these young men and James 
r>eck, the distinguished jurist and 
orator, is their cousin. 

On Palm Sunday there is reception 
of members in the morning, by bap- 
tism, confirmation and the right hand 
of fellowship for those received from 
other churches. On this occasion a 
quartette of male voices usually ren~ 
(lers the familiar hymn, "Just as I 
am. wihout one plea." to a tune com- 
]~»oscd by Mr. Abraham R. Beck. In 



the evening- the children and choir 
sing" the "llosanna" chorus, by Gre- 
gor, which is also sung the world over 
at this time in Moravian churches. 

On JMaundy Thursday the Holy 
Communion is administered, two ser- 
vices being held, one in the German 
language in the afternoon, and in the 
English language in the evening. The 
trombone choir plays a choral at the 
opening of these services, as at all 
communions and lovefeasts.Thc Mora- 
vian communion also differs from 
those of other churches in this respect 
that, with the exception of prayer by 
the pastor and silent prayer, it is en- 
tirely a service of song.The communi- 
cants do not kneel before the altar to 
receive the sacraments but remain in 
their pews, rising as the pastor ajj- 
])roaches with the bread antl wine. 
Every alternate pew is left vacant for 
the convenience of serving and the 
])astor is generally assisted by some 
other clerical brother, as for instance. 
the principal of Linden Hall Semi- 

On Good hViday three services are 
held, one in the morning, one in the 
afternoon and one in the evening. The 
afternoon service is the most impres- 
sive. As the pastor ends the reading 
nf the death of Christ with the words: 
""And when Jesus had cried again with 
a loud voice, he said. Father, into Thy 
hands I commend my spirit, and, hav- 
ing said thus, he bowed his head, and 
gave up the ghost," the congregation 
then kneels in silent prayer. Prayer 
by the i^astor then follows while a 
bell in the Mary Dixon Chai)el tower 
at Linden llali .Seminary tolls thirty 
three times. 

The evening serxice is mostly musi- 
cal, the hymns and clioir selections all 
l)earing upon the theme of the burial 
of Christ. 

On Great Sal)l)atli a funeral Ihnc- 
fcast is held in the afternoon, the rest 
in the grave being the theme of the 

During the whole week the tenor of 
all the hvmns and musical com]>osi- 
tions rendered are of a solemn, fun- 

ereal type adapted to the passion and 
death of our Lord, and the Moravian 
])salmody is especially rich in hymns 
of this kind as they have always laid 
much stress upon the crucified Lamb. 
Hut when Easter Sunday comes the 
lune is changed, and there is a jubi- 
lant, joyous, triumphant ring in all 
the music that harmonizes with the 
opening words of the Easter morning 
service. "The Lord is risen," and the 
response, "The Lord is risen indeed!" 
The character of the fioral decorations 
is also changed. On Palm Sunday 
calla lilies and palms predominate, 
through the following days a few 
green foliage plants suffice ; oa Good 
Friday scarlet flowers appear and on 
Great Sabbath a few purple blossoms. 
l)Ut on Easter morning there is a 
whole bank of blossoms and plants of 
every color and kind occupying the 
pulpit recess, the Easter lilies filling 
the whole church with fragrance, and 
possibh' a rustic cross in the back- 

A service is held in the chutch just 
l)efore sunrise, and, in order to arouse 
the population for this early service, 
the trombone choir, often augmented 
from the usual five or si.x to nine or 
ten, visiting brethren volunteering to 
help and even the old, sliding trom- 
bones' being called into use, marches 
about the town, playing chorales at 
the street corners for several hours 
preceding the meeting. For iiistance, 
if the service is held at 5 t^clock the 
tram]) begins at 3. The sweet, solemn 
strains fall ui)ou the ears of the 
drowsy listeners like distant angel 
music, and. as these same listeners 
pee]) between half closed blinds they 
can see a band of dusky figures wend- 
ing their way through the silent 
streets, fitfully illuminated bv a hall 
dozen torches, while the calm stars 
are shining overhead. Here and there 
a light appears at a window, here and 
there a figure, or two or three issue 
from a door. and. bv the time the 
church bell rings, the church is 
crowded with a reverent throng of 
worshippers. After the final selection 



has been played in the church square 
the trombonists, the torch-bearers and 
the choir of singers are regaled with 
sugar cake and coffee and other good 
things in the old chapel adjoining the 

The Easter morning service is en- 
tirely a liturgical service, and. as the 
Moravian church has no formal creed, 
this is sometimes called the Moravian 
creed, and, a good Bible creed it is, 
than which no denomination can pro- 
duce anything better. Weather per- 
mitting the service is concluded in 
the older part of the cemetery where 
none but Moravians are buried and 
the tombstones are laid flat, on the 
hill some little distance in the rear of 
the church, a procession being formed 
in the following order: namely, the 
pastor, the tromlxtnists, the choir, the 
w^omen, and, then the men of the con- 
gregation, after which follows the 
ntixed multitude. Arriving at the 
proper place a semi-circle is formed 
facing the eastern horizon where the 
sun rises on clear mornings about the 
time the service is concluded. The 

pure, bracing air of the early morning, 
the glory of the rising sun, the song of 
birds, the flower-bedecked graves all 
around and the solemn voice of the 
preacher as he reads, "Glory be to 
Him who is the Resurrection and the 
Life," produce an impression never to 
be effaced. 

Old Moravians find it as im])ressive 
as the stranger who takes part in this 
service for the first time. 

The Easter sermon follows at lo 
o'clock, as also another special liturgy 
and further music by choir and or- 
chestra. The Sunday School has its 
exercises in the afternoon. In the 
evening the history of the resurrection 
is read by the pastor and the climax 
is reached as far as the music is con- 
cerned. On Easter Sunda}^ the offer- 
ings are always gathered for the 
church's world-wide missions, and. as 
the services are all well attended, it is 
usuall}^ a very liberal offering. 

Lovers of music might find it inter- 
esting to attend a Moravan Easter ser- 

Washington to the German-Lutherans 

By H. C. Salem, Ev. Lutheran Pastor, New Bethlehem, Pa. 

EBRUARY 22nd of each 
year we celebrate the 
birth of George Wash- 
ington, the Father of his 
Country. Anything writ- 
ten by him is of special 
interest to the readers of 
at this season. The letter is as fol- 
lows : 

"To the Ministers, Church Council 
and members of the German Luth- 
eran Congregations in and near 
Philadelphia : 

Gentlemen : 

While I request }-ou to accept my 
thanks for your kind address, I must 

profess myself highly gratified by the 
sentiments of esteem and considera- 
tion contained in it. 

The approbation of my past conduct 
has received from so worthy a body of 
citizens as that whose joy for my ap- 
pointment yoti announce, is a proof of 
the indulgence with which my future 
transactions will be judged by them. 

I could not. however, avoid appre- 
hending that the partiality of my 
countrymen in favor of the measures 
now pursued has led them to expect 
too much from the present govern- 
ment ; did not the same Providence 
which has been visible in every stage 
of our progress to this interesting 



crisis from a combinaton of circum- 
stances, give us cause to hope for the 
accomplishment of all our reasonable 

Thus partaking with you in the 
])leasing anticipation of the blessings 
of a wise and efficient government ; I 
flatter myself that opi)ortunities will 
not be wanting for me to show my dis- 
position to encourage the domestic 
and public virtues of Industry, Econo- 
my, Patriotism, Philanthropy, and 
that Righteousness which exalteth a 

I rejoice in having so suitable an oc- 
casion to testify the reciprocity of my 
esteem for the numerous people you 
renresent. For the excellent charac- 
ter for diligence, sobriety and virtue, 
which the Germans in general, who 
are settled in America, have ever main- 
tained, I cannot forbear felicitating 
myself on receiving from so respect- 
able a number of them so strong as- 
surances of their afifection for m}- 
person, confidence in my integrity, 
and zeal to support me in my en- 
deavors for promoting the welfare of 
our common Country. 

So long as my conduct shall merit the 
api)robation of the WISE and the 
GOOD, I hope to hold the same place 
in your affection which your friendly 
declarations induce me to believe I 
possess at present; and amidst all 
the vicissitudes that may await me in 
this mutable existence, I shall earnest- 
ly desire the continuation of an inter- 
est in your intercessions at the 


NOTE — Your readers will be impressed 
with the pure diction of the above admir- 
able letter; with his high appreciation of 
Christian church members; with his splen- 
did tribute to the Germans; with the 
statesmanlike tone of the documeiit; with 
the great principles that would '.ifluence 
him in the performance of his civil duties: 
with his utter dependence on the THRONFI 
of GRACE for his success in administering 
the affairs of state. How thankful we all 
should be that we had such a man to guide 
our Ship of State in her early infancy. 
Washington was pre-eminently qualified 
for that trying position in which he placed 
our Government on a solid foundation, and 
placed his name indelibly upon the pages 
of history. 

Pennsylvania Germans in Public Life During the 

Colonial Period 

By Charles R. Roberts, AUentown, Pa. 

SENTENCE in a recent 
magazine article that 
may be said to have in- 
spired this paper ran as 
follows : " The English 
were leaders and the 
Germans were followers 
in the early days." 
While we must admit that in the 
main this statement is true, yet there 
are many examples of nien of Ger- 
man blood who were leaders and men 
of prominence in Colonial times. The 
English certainly were in control of 
affairs, through the Proprietary Party. 

liut the advent of thousands of Ger- 
mans, who. influenced by Sauer's 
pa])cr. published in Germantown, af- 
filiated politically with the Quakers, 
in opposition to the Proprietary j^arty 
l)rought into prominence a number of 
German citizens. 

This alliance enabled the Friends in 
hold a controlling voice in the aftairs 
not only of this county, as a part of 
old Northampton, but in the province, 
being for years the ruling power in 
the Assembly. 

Samuel Wharton, a promirent writer 
of that time, wliose prejudices were 



evidently on the side of the Proprie- 
tary party, proposed that the children 
of the Germans should be obliged to 
learn in the Eng-lish tongue, and that, 
while this was being accomplished, 
the government should suspend their 
right of voting for members of the 
Assembly; and that, the soone'^ to in- 
cline them to become English, they 
should be compelled to make all bonds 
and other legal writings, in the Eng- 
lish, and that no newspaper or alma- 
nac, in German, be allowed circulated 
among them, unless accomj)anied by 
its English translation. 
However, the conditions under which 
a German, or any other person, for 
that matter, was permitted to vote, 
appear to me to have been so strin- 
gent, as to exclude a large number 
from the right of voting. An act reg- 
ulating the election of members of 
the assembly passed in 1705. provided 
"that no Inhabitant of this Province 
shall have the Right of electing, or 
l)eing elected, unless he or thev be 
natural born Subjects of England, or 
be naturalized in England, or in this 
Government, and unless such Persou 
or Persons be of the age of iwenty- 
one Years, or upwards, and be a Free-. 
holder or Freeholders in this Province 
and have Fift}^ Acres of Land or more 
well seated, and Twelve Acres thereof 
or more cleared and imoroved, or be 
otherwise worth Fifty Pounds, lawful 
Money of this Province, clear Estate, 
and have been resident therein for the 
Space of Two Years before such Elec- 

The formatiou of Northamntou 
county out of Rucks in 1752 was a 
political plan, originated by the Pro- 
iirietary party, who hoped, by setting 
ofif the Germans in the new county. 
^u(\ thus depriving the Quakers of 
their support, to restore the' control of 
old Rucks to the government partv. 
This Avhich mav be said to have been 
the first political scheme in which our 
ancestors in this locality were i..terest- 
cd aroarentlv did not at once succeed, 
as at the first election in Northampton 
cotiiitv. held at Easton on October t. 

1752, William Craig was chosen Sher- 
iff, Robert Gregg, Benjamin Shoe- 
maker and Peter Trexler, county 
commissioners, and James Bnrnside 
for Member of Assembly. PJurnside 
was a Moravian, who resided near 
Bethlehem, and a native of Ireland. 
He was the Quaker candidate, and de- 
feated his opponent, William Parsons, 
the founder of Easton, by upwards of 
300 majority. The election was car- 
ried on with great heat and acrimony, 
each i)arty accusing the other oi fraud 
and foul play, and the candidates 
themselves particularly Parsons show- 
ing great excitement and anger. Par- 
sons defeated Burnside in 1753, but 
in 1754 Burnside was again elected. 
He died in 1755. and was buried at 

In 1755, William Edmonds, also a 
Moravian, was elected by 621 votes 
to represent Northanii)ton in the As- 
sembly. He was again a candidate in 
1756, but the Projjrietary party elect- 
ed \\'illiam Allen, the founder of Al- 
lentown. who resided in Philadek^hia. 
and had then a himtins" lodge near the 
i)anks of the Jordan creek, the site of 
which is now within the limits of this 
city. Residence in a county was not 
then a requisite for election to office, 
and Allen was chosen member for 
Cumberland countv on the same day. 

The following extract from a letter 
written bv Rc^'. ^^'illiam Smith, later 
Provost of the Uni\-ersity of Pennsyl- 
\ania. addressed to Mr. Vernon, at 
Easton. dated October 15. 1756. shows 
the situation at that time. He says : 
"Mr. Vernon, it gave us all great 
Pleasure to find 3^ou return Mr. Allen 
as your Re'oresentative. but as he was 
engaged before for Cumberland he 
was obliged in Honour to stand for 
that county. T sunoose Edmonds will 
endeavor with all his might to get in. 
but I hope the County will never dis- 
grace itself bv putting in any Mora- 
\-ian whose principle for ought we 
know may be Popish. They are 
against Defence and you knoAV even 
refused to sell Powder to Protestants 
tho" it is said thev furnished the In- 



(Hans with il. How true these Things 
are you know best, but it would be a 
Shame to send down a Moravian at 
such a danjj^erous Time. You should 
chuse some Man of Weight who can 
serve you with the Government when 
you want anything- in Philadelphia. 
We have therefore thot that no Per- 
son would be so fit as Mr. I'lumstead. 
lie is known in your county, has 
lands in it. and is a very honest Man 
ant! can be of great use to the County. 
1 hope you will sui)port him with all 
your Interest, and get all your friends 
to join vou. It ha])pens luckily that 
Mr. Plumstead sets out to-morrow on 
1 business for Cedar-Creek and will be 
at Easton. For Gods-Sake stir your- 
selves for wdthout we get Men in the 
Assemblv who will defend the Coun- 
try we shall soon be ruined.'' 

Plumstead was elected over Ed- 
monds in a hot contest, but his elec- 
tion was contested by Daniel Brown 
John Jones and Samuel Mechlin, on 
the ground "that one of the inspectors, 
notwithstanding his oath, destroyed 
several of the tickets w^hich were in 
favor of \\'illiam Edmonds, and were 
delivered to said inspector, and that 
one person was seen to deliver tickets 
repeatedly to the inspector, and third- 
ly, that a great number of tickets were 
folded up together, some, one in an- 
other, and some two in one, which 
were received by the inspector as one 
ticket, ^c." and Plumstead never Avas 
seated, for nearly a year after, the As- 
sembly decided against him. 

William Allen, in writing to a friend 
in England, in a letter dated at Phila- 
delnhia. November 5, 1756. wdiich, T 
believe, has never appeared in print, 
throws light on the subject. He savs 
in part: "Reverend Sir: I have been 
solicited for some years past to serve 
in the Back Country for an As- 
semblyman, but have declined it, 
imagining that I could not, among 
such a perverse people, be able to ren- 
der my country service. Piowe\ er, this 
year, as I conceived our all was at 
stake, and that, as the Quakers had 
promised to give up their seats, there 

might be a probability of doing good, 
1 gave the people of Cumberland 
county (the inhabitants of which are 
composed chiefly of P'resbytenans) a 
con(litional ])romise. to serve them, 
that is, that in case good men were re- 
turned or even a small number of 
them in the other counties, I would 
no longer decline acting, if I was 
chosen. Upon this, I was, by the 
unanimous vote' of the county, not 
one freeholder dissenting, chosen one 
of their Representatives. All our elec- 
tions being on the same day, I was 
without my knowdedge, privily or pro- 
curement, chosen also for the County 
of Xortham])ton. I was, when I per- 
cei\ed how the election had gone in 
other countys. at first of the mind not 
to serve for either, being assured that, 
with men of such bad disposition I 
coidd not be able to bring about any- 
thing that would be truly useful to the 
colony. However, at the earnest solic- 
itation of many good men, I was, at 
length, prevailed on to go into the 
house and made my election for the 
county of Cumberland : upon which 
the people of Northampton chose Mr. 
Plumstead, late Mayor of this city, a 
gentleman zealous for the defense of 
his country, (who thereby had rend- 
ered himself obnoxious to the Quak- 
ers:) the vote for Plumstead being 
46;^. and his antagonist, one Edmonds, 
a Mora\-ian, having only 255, and two 
thirds of these unnaturalized Mora- 
\ians and other Germans, who have 
no right to vote by our laws: yet, I 
say. our honest .\ssembh^ refused to 
admit Mr. Plumstead, though duly re- 
turned bv the Sherifif, under pretense 
that there was a petition to them on 
account of an undue election, though 
this petitic^n was signed only by three 
Moravians, and have hitherto kept 
him out of his seat, and. T presume, 
will continue to do so." 

The next member of the Assembly 
from Northampton County was Lud- 
wig Bitting, who was elected in 1758 
anfl re-elected in 1759 and 1760. He 
was a resident of l^]iper Milford town- 
ship and probably owed a great deal 



of his prominence to the fact that he 
was a son-in-law of Rev. John PhiHp 
Boehm, the pioneer Reformed preach- 
er. In 1744 he settled on Hosensack 
Hill, in the present Lower Milford 
township, Lehigh county, Pa. 

Following him came John Moore, 
in 1761 and 1762. Then came John 
Tool, of Upper Saucon, in 1763. As 
early as 1737 he settled on a tract of 
370 acres at the foot of the Lehigh 
Mountains, at the place now^ called 
Wittmans. His successor was George 
Taylor, who served from 1764 to 1769. 
He was followed by William Ed- 
monds for the second time, serving 
from 1770 to 1774. Then a German 
came to the front in the person of 
Peter Kachlein in 1775, which year 
closes the colonial period. 

In looking over the names of the 
Justices of Northampton county under 
the Proprietary and Colonial Govern- 
ment from 1752 to 1775, we find that 
one third were of German blood. That 
these men were of such character and 
ability as to be appointed to the office 
of Justice, marks them as leaders in 
their several communities. There ap- 
pears to have been no law regulating 
the number of Justices in a county, 
but every section had its Justice, who, 
at the time when court was held, 
journeyed to Easton, where no less a 
number than three were empowered 
to hold the. several courts. The courts 
of Northampton county were held in 
the different taverns at Easton until 
the completion of the court house in 
1766. In speaking of them a certain 
writer says : "Their sessions were ex- 
tremely ceremonious and imposing'. 
At the present day, no official, how- 
ever exalted, would think of assuming 
such awful dignity as was then habit- 
ual with the justices of the courts of 
Northampton count^^ On their pas- 
sage to the place of holding court, 
preceded and followed by constables 
with badges and staves of office — 
these provincial justices, in their sev- 
ere gravity, and cocked hats, were 
fearful and wonderful personages to 
behold. ?)Ut when they mounted the 

bench, and the court officers com- 
manded silence, then was the hour of 
their triumph ; for the loyal courtiers 
of King George, as he sat upon his 
own throne at Windsor Castle, scarce- 
ly regarded their sovereign with more 
awe and adoration, than the towns- 
people, and the litigants gave to those 
worshipful wearers of the county er- 
mine, as they sat in solemn session, 
in the tavern court-room at Easton.'' 

Be that as it may, let us turn our at- 
tention to those Justices who were of 
German blood, more particularly 
those who resided in the townships 
which now constitute our present Le- 
high county. In 1752 appear the 
names of Lewis Klotz and Conrad 
Hess. Klotz was a resident of Mac- 
ungie township, whom we have men- 
tioned in a previous paper. He was^ 
also a county commissioner in 1754. In 
1753 appears the name of Peter Trex- 
ler. He was one of the first countj" 
commissioners in 1752, as we have 
mentioned. In 1753, he was appoint- 
ed by the Council one of the commis- 
sioners to lay out a road from Easton 
to Reading. He was also one of the 
six trustees of the school erected in 
Easton in 1755 by subscriptions from 
the locality and from a society formed 
in England whose purpose was to pro- 
mote the instruction of poor Germans 
in Pennsylvania, to which even the 
King. George the Second, had given 
£ 1000. Trexler was a man of great in- 
fluence among the Germans of the 
county, and later, in the French and 
Indian ^^'ar, commanded a company 
that was called into service by Benja- 
min Franklin. 

George Rex. of Heidelberg town- 
ship, was appointed one of the Jus- 
tices of Northampton county in 1757. 
He was the largest individual land 
owner in Heidelberg township, owing' 
415 acres in 1764. He died in 1773. 
He was one of the most prominent 
men of the northern end of the county 
in C<iIoniaI times, and that he had 
considerable influence is proven by 
the fact that with Peter . Trexler, he 
recommended that a fort be built on 



the other side of Drucker's mill, on 
the Blue Mountains, stating that there 
was a good spring there, and an emi- 
nence which commanded on all its 
sides a large extent of land. 

In 1761 a jpear the names of Jacob 
Arndt and Henry Geiger. Arndt liv- 
ed near Easton, but Geiger was a resi- 
dent of Heidelberg township, fie was 
commissioned an Ensign in the Sec- 
ond Penna. Regiment, First Battalion, 
commanded b}' Lieut. Colonel Con- 
rad Weiser, on December 20, 1755, 
and is recorded as a good officer. On 
the 20th of November, 1756, he was 
stationed at Teets, with eight men, as 
the records show. Teed's blockhouse 
was near Wind Gap and was an im- 
liortant point. Some superior officer 
wrote the query concerning this post. 
"If the detachment at Teet's de- 
fend itself." No doubt it coidd, un- 
der this gallant officer. Geiger was 
commissioned Lieutenant on Decem- 
ber 21, 1757, in Capt. Edward Ward's 
company, stationed west of the Sus- 
quehanna river. On February 5, 
1758. he was in command of twelve 
men at a block house situated be- 
tween Forts Allen and Everett, 
twenty miles from Fort Allen and ten 

miles from Fort Everett, and was fur- 
nished by his commissary, Jacob 
Levan, Esq., with four months' pro- 
visions. Geiger was probably for 
many years one of the most important 
figures in the u])per end of the county, 
and subsec|uently became a colonel in 
the. Revolutionary War. 

In 1764, Christopher Waggoner, of 
Lower Saucon, became a Justice. In 
1766, appears the name of Henry 
Kooken, or Koch en. He was a resi- 
dent of Upper Saucon, where he was 
taxed in 1768 for fifty acres of land. 
He built a grist and saw mill on the 
site of Dillinger's mill. The name 
would indicate that he was of Holland 
Dutch origin. 

Other German names which appear 
in 1774 in the list of Justices are Peter 
Kachlein, Jacob and Isaac Lerch, John 
Wetzel and Felix Lynn. Stil! other 
names of Germans wdio attained to of- 
fice might increase the number oi 
those whom we are trymg to save 
from oblivion, among them Christiai 
Rinker, county commissioner in 1753. 
John Rinker, sheriff in 1756 and 1758. 
and Jacob Rex. county commissioner 
in 1758. 

An Account of the Manners of the German Inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania in 1 789 


HE STATE of I'ennsyl- 
vania is so much indebt- 
ed for her prGS])erity 
and reputation, to the 
German part of her citi- 
zens, that a short ac- 
count of their manners 
may. perhaps, be useful 
and agreeable to their fellow citizens 
in every part of the United States. 

The aged Germans, and the ances- 
tr)rs of those who are young, migrat- 

ed chiefly from the Palatinate: from 
Alsace. Swabia, Saxony and Switzer 
land ; but natives of every principali- 
ty and dukedom in Germany, are to 
be found in different parts of the 
State. They brought but little proi- 
erty with them. A few pieces of gold 
or silver coins, a chest filled witli 
clothes, a bible, and a prayer-book, 
constituted the whole stock of most 
of them. Many of them bourn! them 
selves, or one or more of their child- 



len, to masters, after their arrival, for 
lour, five or seven years, in order to 
pay their passages across the ocean. 
A clergyman always accompanied 
them when they came in large bodies. 
The principal part of them were 
farmers; but there were many me- 
chanics, who brought with them a 
knowledge of those arts, which are 
necessary and useful in all countries. 
These mechanics were chiefly weav- 
ers, tailors, shoe-makers, comb-mak- 
ers, smiths of all kinds, butchers, 
bakers, paper makers, watch makers 
and sugar-bakers. 

I shall begin this account of the 
(Germans of Pennsylvania, by describ- 
ing the manners of the Germau farm- 
ers. This body of citizens are not 
only industrious, but skillful cultiva- 
tors of the earth. I shall enumerate a 
i^ew particulars, in which they dififer 
from most of the other farmers of 

F'irst — In settling a tract r.f land, 
they always provide large ar.d suit- 
able accommodations for their horses 
and cattle, before they lay out mone}^ 
in building a house for themselves. 
The barn • and stables are generally 
under one roof, and contrived in such 
a manner as to enable them to feed 
their horses and cattle, and to lemove 
their dung, with as little trouble as 
|)ossi])le. The first dAvelling house 
upon his farm is small and built of 
logs. It generally lasts the life time of 
the first settler of a tract of land; and 
hence they have a saying, that: "a 
son shall always begin his improve- 
ments, where his father has left 
off" — that is, by building a larger 
and convenient stone house. 

Second — They prefer good land, or 
that land on which there is a large 
quantity of meadow ground. From 
an attention to the cultivation of 
grass, they often double the \ alue of 
an old farm in a few years, and grow 
rich on farms, on which their prede- 
cessors of whom they purchased have 
nearly starved. They prefer purchas- 
ing farms with some improvements. 
to settling on a new tract of land. 

Third — In clearing new land, they 
do not girdle the trees simp'y, and 
leave them to perish in the ground, 
as is the custom of their and 
Irish neighbors ; but they generally 
cut them down and burn them. In 
destroying the underwood and bush- 
es, they generally grub them out of 
the ground ; by which means a field is 
as fit for cultivation the second year 
after it is cleared, as it is twenty years 
afterwards. The advantages of this 
mode of clearing, consist in the imme- 
diate product of the field, and in the 
greater facility with which it is 
ploughed, harrowed and reaped. The 
expense of repairing a plough which 
is often broken two or three times in 
a year by small stumps concealed in 
the ground, is often greater than the 
extraordinary expense of grubbing the 
same field completely, in clearing it. 

Fourth — They feed their horses and 
cows, of which they keep only a small 
number, in such a manner, hat the 
former perform twice the labor ol 
those horses, and the latter yield 
twice the quantity of milk ot those 
cows, that are less plentifidly fed. 
There is economy in this [)ractise, 
especially in a country where so much 
labor of a farmer is necessary to sup- 
port his domestic animals. A German 
horse is known in every part of the 
State ; indeed he seems "to feel with 
his lord, the ])leasure and the pride"* 
of his extarordinary size and fat. 

Fifth — The fences of a German 
farmer are generally high, and well 
biiilt, so that his fields seldom suffer 
from the inroads of his own or his 
neighbor's horses, cattle, hogs and 

Sixth — The German farmers are 
great economists of their wood. Hence 
' they burn it only in stoves, in which 
they consume but a fourth or fifth 
part of what is commonly burnt in 
ordinary open fire places : besides, 
their horses are saved by means r>f 
this, economy, from that immense la- 
bor, in hauling wood in the middle of 
winter, which frequently unfits the 
horses of their neighbors for the toil 



nf the ensuing' spring. Their houses 
arc moreover, rendered so comfort- 
able, at all times, by large close stoves 
that twice the business is done by 
every branch of the family, in knit 
ting, spinning, and mendmg farming 
utensils, than is done in houses where 
every member of the famil}^ crowds 
near to a common fire place, i-r shi\ 
ers at a distance from it, with hands 
and fingers that move, hy reason of 
the cold, with only half iheii usual 

They discox er economy in the pre 
servation and increase of their wood 
in several ways. They sometimes de- 
fend it. by high fences, from their 
cattle; by which means the ycnmg 
forest trees are suffered to grow, to 
replace those that are cut down for 
the necessary use of the farm. But 
where this cannot be conveniently 
(lone, they surround the stump of that 
which is most useful for fences, viz: 
.the chestnut, with a small triangular 
fence. From this stump a number of 
suckers shoot out in a few years, two 
or three of which, in the course of five 
and twenty years, grow into trees of 
the same size as the tree from whose 
stump they derived their origin. 

Seventh — 'lliey keep their horses 
and cattle as warm as possible in win- 
ter, by which means they sa\e a great 
deal of their hay and grain ; for those 
animals require much more than when 
they are in a more comfortabk situa- 

Eighth — The German farmers li\e 
frugal in their families, with respect 
to diet, furniture and ap])arel. They 
sell their most profitable grain, which 
is wheat, and eat that which is less 
profitable, but more nourishing, that 
is rve. or Indian corn. The profit to a 
farmer, from this single ari'cle of 
economy, is equal, in the course of 
a life time, to the price of a farm for 
one of his children. They eat sparingly 
of boiled animal food, with large quan- 
tities of vegetables, particularly with 
salad, turnips, onions, and cabbage, 
the last of which they make into 
sonr-crout (leaner Kraut). Th<y like- 

wise use a large quantity of milk and 
cheese in their diet. Perh^ the 
(jcrmans do not pro[)ortion the quan- 
tity of their animal food to the de- 
grees of their labor; hence it has 
been thought, by some people, that 
they decline in strength sooner than 
their English or Irish Neghbors. 
\'ery few of them ever use distilled 
spirits in their families; their com- 
mon drinks are cider, beer, wine and 
simple water. The furniture of their 
houses is plain and useful. They cover 
themselves in winter with light 
featherbeds, instead of blankets, and 
they are made by themselves. The 
ap])arel of the German farmer is us 
ually home-spun. When they use 
European articles of dress they ])re- 
fer those which are of the bes. qual- 
ity and of the highest price. They arc 
afraid of debt, and seldom purchase 
anything" without paying the cash for 

Xintli — The (icrinan farmers ha\c 
large and profitable gardens near 
their houses. These contain little 
else but \egetables. Pennsylvania i> 
indebted to the Germans for the prin- 
cij)al part of her knowledge in horti- 
culture. There was a time when tur- 
nips and cabbage were the principal 
vegetables that were used in diet bv 
the citizens in Philadelphia Thi^ 
will not surprise those persons, who 
know that the English settlers in 
Pennsylvania left England whde hor- 
ticulture was in its infancy in that 
country. It was not till the '■eign of 
(leorge III. that this useful and agrecv 
able art was cultivated by the Eng- 
lish nation. .Since the settlement of 
a number of German Gardeners in 
the neighborhood of I'hiladelj'hia. the 
tables of all classes of citizen>^ ha\c 
been covered with a \ariety of vege- 
tables, in every season of the year ; and 
to the use of these vegetables in diet 
may be ascribed the general exem))- 
ti«Mi of the citizens of Philadeljihia 
from diseases of the skin. 

Tenth — The Germans scldoin hire 
men to work upon their farms. The 
feebleness of that authoritv. which 



masters possess over hired servants, 
is such that their wages are very sel- 
dom procured from their labor except 
in harvest, when they work in the 
presence of their masters. The wives 
and daughters of the German farmers 
frequent!}^ forsake, for a while their 
dairy and spinning wheels, and join 
their husbands and brothers in the 
labor of cutting down, collecting and 
bringing home the fruits of their 
fields and orchards. The work of the 
gardens is generally done l)y the 
women of the family. 

Eleventh — A large and strong- 
wagon covered with linen cloth, is an 
essential part of the furniture of a 
German farm. In this wagon, drawn 
by four or five horses of a peculiar 
breed, they convey to market over the 
roughest roads, between two oj three 
thousand pounds weight of the prod- 
ucts of their farms. In the months 
of September and October, it is no 
uncommon thing on the Lancaster 
and Reading roads, to meet m one 
day from fifty to a hundred of these 
wagons, on the way to Philadelphia, 
most of which belong to German 

Twelfth — The favorable influence 
i)f agriculture as conducted by the 
(jcrmans in extending human happi- 
n.ess is manifested by the joy they 
express upon the birth of a child. No 
dread of poverty, nor distrust of Prov- 
iilence from an increasing family, 
depresses the spirits of these indus- 
trious and frugal peo],>ie. Upon the 
l)irth of a son, they exult in the gift of 
a ploughman or a wagoner; ar.d upon 
the birth of a daughter, they rejoice 
in the addition of another spinster, or 
milkmaid to their famh^ Happy state 
of human society! What blessings 
can civilization confer, that can atone 
for the extinction of the ancient pa- 
triarchal pleasure of raising up a num- 
erous and healthy family of children, 
to labor for their parents, for them- 
selves and for their country; and fin- 
ally to partake oi the knowledge and 
happiness which are annexed t ^ exist- 
ence ! The joy of parents upon the 

birth of a child, is the grateful echo 
of creating goodness. May the moun- 
tains of Pennsylvania be forever 
vocal, with songs of joy upon those 
occasions ! They will be infalliable 
signs of innocence, industry, wealth 
and happiness in the State. 

Thirteenth — The Germans take 
great pains to practice in their chil- 
dren, not only habits of labor, but a 
love of it. In this they submit to the 
irreversible sentence inflicted upon 
man, in such a manner, as to convert 
the wrath of heaven into a private 
and public happiness; to fear God and 
love work," are the first lessons they 
teach their children. They prefer in- 
dustrious habits to money itself: 
hence, when a young man a.sks the 
consent of his father to marry the girl 
of his choice, he does not inquire so 
much whetlier she is rich, or poor or 
whether she possesses any personal 
or mental accomplishments — as wheth- 
er she would be industrious, and ac- 
quainted with the duties of a good 

Fourteenth — The Germans set a 
great value upon patrimonial prop- 
erty. This useful principle in hu- 
man nature prevents much folly and 
vice in young people. It. m<>reover. 
leads to lasting and extensive advan- 
tages, in the improvement of a farm, 
for what inducement can be stronger 
in a parent to plant an orchard, to 
preserve forest trees, or build com- 
modious and durable houses, than the 
idea, that they will all be possessed 
by a succession of generations, who 
shall inherit his blood and name? 

Fifteenth — The German farmers 
are very much influenced in planting 
and pruning trees, also in sowing and 
reaping, by the age and the appear- 
ance of the moon. This attention to 
the state of the moon has been ascrib- 
ed to superstition, but if the facts 
related by Mr. Wilson in his observa- 
tion upon climates are true, part of 
their success in agriculture must be 
ascribed to their being so much in- 
fluenced by it. 



Sixteenth — From the histoiy that 
has been given of German agriculture, 
it will be hardly necessary to add, 
that a German farm may be distin- 
guished from the farms of other citi- 
zens of the State, by the superior size 
of their barns; the plain, but com- 
])act form of^their hcuises ; the height 
»)f their inclosures, the extent of their 
orchards; the fertility of their, fields; 
the luxuriance of their meadon-s, and 
general appearance of plenty and 
neatness in e\erything that belongs to 

The German mechanic possesses 
some of the traits that hav<: been 
drawn of the German farmer. His 
first object is to become a freeholder; 
and hence we find few of them live in 
rented houses. The highest conipli 
nient that can be paid to them on en- 
tering their houses, is to ask: 'Ts this 
your own house?" They are indus- 
trious., frugal, punctual and just. 
Since their settlement in Pennsyl- 
vania many of them have acquired a 
knowledge of those mechanical arts, 
which are more immediately neces- 
sary and useful in a new c; untry ; 
while they continue at the same time 
to carry (~in the arts imported from 
(icrmany. with vigor and success. 

But the genius of the Germans of 
Pennsvlvania is not confined to agri- 

culture and the mechanical arts. 
Many of them have acquired great 
wealth by foreign and domestic com- 
merce. As merchants they are can- 
did and punctual. The bank of North 
.\merica has witnessed, from its first 
institution, their fidelity to ail their 
pecuniary engagements. 

Thus far I have described the indi- 
\ idual character of several orders of 
the German citizens of Pennsylvania. 
I shall now take notice of their man- 
ners in a collective capacity. 

Dr. Beii.iamin Rush, the author of this 
sltetch was born Dec, 1745, in Bristol, 
Bucks County, Pa. He was educated in 
Princeton College and pursued his medical 
studies in Philadelphia, London, Edinburg 
and Paris. He became a professor ol 
chemistr.v, a member of the Continental 
Congress, an advocate and signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, 1776, a ph.v- 
sician in the Continental army, a member 
of the Penna. Commission which framed 
the National Constitution, a very success- 
ful physician, a professor of the Theory 
and Practice of Medicine, an author of 
numerous learned essays, Treasure; of the 
U. S. Mint, filling the last named position 
to the time of his death April. 18K-]. The 
sketch appeared originally 1789 in Vol. Ill 
of The Columbian Magazine. 

An edition with copious notes wa-- issued 
by Prof. I. D. Rupp in 1875. a trimslation 
of which appeared in the Dentscbe Pioneer 
the same year. We omit all notes giving 
only the essay as it appeared originally. 

(to be continued) 

Cliurch 150 Tears Old 

The Reformed Church of East 68th 
street. New York, one of the oldest 
churches in the country, which made part 
of the pre-revolutionary history of New 
York city, the church of which the first 
.John .Jacob Astor was a prominent mem- 
ber, celebrated its 150th anniversary and 
formally received and consecrated the big 
bell presented to it by Emperor William of 
Germany. Rev. Dr. John S. Allen, presi- 
dent of the New York Classis of the Re- 
formed Church of America consecrated it. 

4" * 4" 

When the project of building a railroad 
from Harrisburg to Reading through the 
Lebanon valley was proposed many of the 

farmers of the valley opposed it for the 
reason that it would check the demand for 
their horses and the grain to feed them 
and also interfere with their business as 
wagoners. They also objected to the build- 
ing of the road because the counties 
through which it passed would be called 
ui)on to furnish financial aid, and for this 
reason they feared that their taxes would 
be increased. So it happened that the Leb- 
anon Valley Railroad, the building of 
which was authorized by an act of the 
Legislature on April 1, 1836, was actually 
not undertaken until 1853, a lapse of seven- 
teen years. It was finished in 1858. on 
.January 18 of which year the whole road 
was opened. 

From Swank's Progressive Pennsyl- 


Jacob's Church, Jacksonville, Lehigh Co., Pa. 

By the Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Gilbert, Pa. 


HE permanent setrleme,nl 
of the present township 
of Lynn dates from the 
year 1735, possibly some- 
what earlier. Among the 
early settlers the Luth- 
erans seem to have lo- 
cated in Kistler's Valley 
they organized Jerusalem 

the Reformed people or^^anized 
Jacob's Church. Daniel Hamin gave 
two acres of ground and a log church 
as well as a schoolhouse«were erected 
during the year. Meanwhile Luth- 
eran families located in the neighbor- 
hood and were permitted to hold ser- 
vices in the church. 

Church. 1748; while the Rtformed In 1807 it was found neces-arv to 

moved farther north to the foot of erect a new church l)uildiiig. An 

ilic lilue Mountains. This section agreement was effected betAveen tlie 

was known in those early days as two denc^minations Nov. 7, 1807. and 

■■Allemaengcl." During the year 1761 the new church was consecrated the 



following" year. In order that both 
ct)ngreg'ations might have ecjual 
rights Mr. Hamm sold the congrega- 
tion two additional acres of ground 
at a nominal price. The dimensions 
of the building were 42x36 feet and 28 
feet high. The money contributed 
amounted to $1407.923/^. 

'JMk- respective pastors at this time 
were: llenry Gaissenhainer, Luther- 
an ; and Henry Diffenbach, Reformed. 
The building committee consisted 
as follows : 

Lutheran, Jacob Koemig, Henry 
Fusselman ; Reformed, Bernhard 
I'^ollweiler, Jacob Oswald. 

Elders: Cas]:)er Wannemacher and 
John Meyer. Reformed; Jacob Feth- 
erolf and Michael Stein, Lutb.eran. 

Deacons: Conrad Stunii), John Ev- 
eritt and Martin Bar. 
Treasurer: John Smeid. 
In 1822 the second schoolhouse, a 
two-room log building was erected 
in which instruction was gi v'en in 
English and German. When the pub- 
lic school system was adopted the 
township paid a stij^ulated rental for 
the use of the building. It stood 
about 20 i)aces south of the present 
two-story brick schoolhouse erected 
in 1858. This building was also used 
for ])ublic school purposes until re- 
cent date. (The writer of this taught 
here in 1877 and 1878.) 

The present church was erected in 
1862- 1863. The corner-stone \vas laid 
April 27. 1862. The pastor's loci J. 
Zulich. Ref., and O. Leopold Luth., 
were assisted by Rev. Derr and 
Dubbs. The dedication took ])lace 
May 24, 1863. ^'i^; pastors loci, J. 
Zulich and J. J. Kline, were assisted 
by Revs. Leo])ol(l and Dubbs. The 
contributions in money amounted to 
S5522.92. I'he building is of brick 
with galleries and a large pipe organ. 
Building committee: Levi Ki.stler, 
Joshua Smith, Luth.: Jt)hn iMillweil- 
er and Charles Everitt, Ref. 

Elders: David Fetherolf and llenry 
Braucher, Luth; Jacob Klii.gaman 
and David b^)llvveiler. Ref. 

Deacons: Uenjamin Glase, Jas. K. 
Mosser and Thomas Long Luth.; 
Samuel Sechler, John Sechler, John 
h'ollweiler and Charles Everitr, Ref. 
Treasurer: Wm. Mosser. 
The pastors serving the two con- 
gregations since their organizations 
are as follows : 
Reformed : 

Philip Jacob Michael, 1761 1770, 
Jacob Weymer, 1770-1771, 
Conrad Steiner, 1771-1776, 

Herzel, - . 

Roth, (was buried under 

altar of first church.) 

Miller, 1795-1807, 

llenry Dietifeidjach, 1807-1816, 

John Zulich, 1816- 1875, 

James N. Bachman, 1877- 1905. 

Jesse M. Mengel, 1905 — . 
Lutheran : 

Henry Gaissenhainer. 1807-1811, 

John Knoske, 181 1-1819, 

('}. F. E. Yeager, 1819-1850, 

John Roeller, '1850-1858. 

Owen Leopold. 1858-1861. 

S. S. Kline, 1861-1864, 

E. Kramlich, 1864- 1869, 

H. S. Fegley. 1869-1906, 

A. O. Ebert, 1906 — . 

The congregations ha\e gi\eu these 
sons to the ministry: 
Reformed : 

Willoughby Donat. Schulykill Hav- 
en, Pa. 

\\'ilson Donat. Aaronsburg, Pa. 

C. A. Creitz. Reading. Pa. 

I. M. P.achman, Xewville, Fa. 

( ieo. ( ■ireenawald. Boyertown, Pa. 

( ieo. Lutz. Pennsburg. Pa. 
I .iitlierau : 

A. C. W uelner, Gilbert. Pa. 

I. A. Waidelich, Sellersville. Pa. 

1'. A. P.ehler. Perkaise. Pa. 

The Rev. A. C. Wuchter composed and 
read the following Poem, and Hymu which 
was sung at the centennial anniversary of 
the dedication of the aforenamed Jacob's 
2nd Church building. 

Thou Arbiter of nations! here we 8tand 
With heads bowed down where frst the 

fathers stood 
And worshiped Thee amid the solitude 
Of forests reaching far. Fioni distant 




They came, self-exiled here to find the door 
Wide open flung to freedom, justice, right; 
Where hearth and home might prosper in 
thy light — 

America, the new-found wonderland. 

Where flows the stately Rhine, the Teu- 
ton's pride, 

Their homes lay waste thro war's inces- 
sant strife. 

Where tyrant lordlings fain would sap their 

For selfish ends, to rot in luxury, 

Unmindful of their vassals' poverty. 

But God is just. He heard their suppliant 

A radiant star shone in the western sky 
To point the way to fortune's waiting 

A rugged race, inured to want and toil 
They braved the dangers of the forest wild 
For God and faith, for wife and tender 

Unconscious as they hewed the giant oak. 
They built a nation with each sounding 

These laughing hills, these radiant mead- 
ows tell. — 
Where harvests rich the children's garner 

How well they chose — fair mark for Kingly 

Thro days of darkness, for they needs must 

They wavered not tho every bush might 

A lurking foe thro Gallic bribe made bold; 
Or when thro days of penury and want 
The thought of "Allemaengel" sore would 

Their trust in God, they did not falter, 

But struggled on with brawny arms and 

To hew and till, to build for God and home. 

Or when those days of stern assertion came 
To stand for right and manhood be it 

They faltered not but drew a deeper breath 
To swear allegiance to the new-born cause 
Of human liberty. Nor did they pause 
Or shrink in midnight's darkest hour of 

When all seemed lost, with adverse fate 

to cope 
Till hist'ry's page enfolds no fairer name. 

Fair name! maligned by those of meaner 

Within whose veins no martyr blood may 

Who know not or perchance disdain to 

Of Mecklenburg, Long Island, Valley 

Forge — 

Where loyal "Dutchmen"' felt war's Cruel 

Of Saratoga, Cowpens, Brandywine 
Of Trenton's feat where our despised line 
The brunt of battle felt, the foe wichstood. 

Or did not he whose name emblazoned 

On Freedom's banner, Washington confess 
If all were lost he'd seek the wilderness 
With his beloved riflemen and fighL 
Till freedom's sun had sunk in deepest 

Or General Morgan this encomium raise: 
"He .starves so well" — the soldier's highest 

Avaunt! ye 'Dutchman '-haters, wash your 


Or when as yet in doubtful balance hung 
That Magna Charta,worth a nation's blood. 
That changed the world like Shinar's 

mighty flood 
And gave man back his birthright, shackle- 
And nations call us blest — here too we see 
These stalwart fathers play their noble 

Tho little known upon the common mart, 
Or else perchance in scurril story sung. 

Tho time and distance mellow thiigs long 

They had their faults, for those were 
strenuous days. 

Their manners brusque and oft uncouth 
their ways. 

But honor dwelt within those rugged 

And word of mouth and grasp of hand im- 

A holy seal to pledge and promise made 

That far outweighed our modern 1 ricks of 

Where he pays first who signs the parch- 
ment last. 

Thank God! those doughty pioneers of old 
Whose ashes lie within yon mosstouched 

Unmarkt, unknown with living voices call 
Their children's children on this festal day 
To render thanks with hearts that sing and 

To Him whose guardian hand had safely 

Their footsteps hither, and, tho long since 

Their work of faith in sacred mem'ry hold. 

They came not to these hills and dales of 

Like social outcasts without God or Creed. 
Unconscious of the soul's deep vital need;. 
Their "Stark's Gebetbuch" and their Bible 

Their monitors in time of doubt and fear: 
Not theirs the privilege now oft despised. 



Of frequent sermon or what Love devised 
For thirsting souls who mourn the blight 
of sin. 

We stand on holy ground for here they 

To build Thy Temple, Lord, for pray'r and 

Where faithful pastors might their hands 

In solemn warning lest their hearts forget 
The living God and heart and mind be set 
On earthly things alone. They know full 


That Esau-like man cannot barter, sell. 
His soul's chief good and still in God re- 

They sowed and planted, we but scand and 

The blessings of " hundred years passed 

The landscape smiles and hills to hills 

And call each other blessed, rich with 

Thai marks the lab'rer's task, the farmer's 

Rut fairer far God's house of worship 

In tow'ring majesty and so commands 
That we this festal day together keep. 

Ye sons and daughters of a worthy line 
Hold fast your birthright bought with 

blood and tears ; 
Hide not your glory as so oft appears 
In those who blush to own their lineage 

true — 
A bastard line, the devil's parvenu! 
Stand by your guns, defend them to the 


True manhood lived but lives not in the 

Lead noble lives and let your virtues shine. 

So let us then, in holy service met, 
To-day anew reconsecrate this hoiise 
Unto the living God, and so arouse 
Our deadened sense of worship and of life 
To nobler pitch with deeds of m^rcy rife; 
And so, yea only so, this house shall be 
A stepping-stone, O Lord, Thy face to see 
When day is done and life's brief sun is set. 

The anniversary hymn was sung with 
great earnestness at the celebration. Jt 

O Thou from out whose gracious hand 
The cent'ries fall like grains of sand,' 
.Accept the grateful songs of praise, 
Our hearts indite, our voices raise. 

Thou who hast planted hill and dale. 
The murm'ring rill that haunts the vale, 
This goodly land to us hast giv'n 
A pledge of love, a gift from heaven. 

Here where the primal forest stood. 
Midst vine-clad hills and tangled wood 
The fathers guided by Thy hand 
Their altars reared in Beulahland. 

By tyrant masters sore opprest. 

By foes on every hand distrest, 

A peaceful refuge here they found — 

Their dust has made it hallowed ground. 

O hear us, heavenly Father, hear. 
The sons and daughters now draw near. 
Our hearts and lives we pledge anew^ 
To serve Thee as the years ensue. 

We thank Thee for this festal day 
That marks a cent'ry passed away. 
And pray Thee for the years in stjre: 
Thy grace sustain us ever more. 

Thy holy Spirit grant we pray 
That we may walk in wisdom's way. 
And let our hearts Thy temple be 
lentil. O Lord, Thy face we see. 

Rev'd Peter Frederick Niemeyer 

By Rev. Eli Keller, Alleqtown, Pa. I 

IT IS man was an early 
minister of the Lutheran 
church in this country. 
The writer of these 
data, being a distant de- 
scendant, found access 
to certain most reliable 
documents, concerning- 
his life and labors desired to give the 
following: He was a native of Swe- 
den, born Aug. the 24th. A. D. 1733. 

in the city of Wismar. He was the son 
of Lieut. Charles Conrad Niemeyer 
and wife. He was l)aptized, February 
the Tith. 1734. in St. ]\Iary*s church, 
by the most Honorable Revs. Staal- 
kop, Sr. The Sponsors were: Fred- 
erick Gepe, Peter Pottmeyer, Fred- 
erick Krotcl. widow of Mr. Game- 
liner, and daughter of decease<l 
."^chultze. "This Rec»)rd was made, 
(V't. 7th. 1752. in said church, by its 



Sec. Andrew L. Winkler, and proper- 
ly attested, by his Seal. 

In 1753, he emigrated to America, 
and landed at Philadelphia. Sept. the 
nth, from the ship "Queen of Den- 

In the year 1759, April 3rd he mar- 
ried, after three public proclamations. 
Miss Maria Horn, daughter of George 
Horn and Maria Kunignuda, his 
wife. His bride was born at Brund- 
Hilda, Dec, 24th, 1743. The cere- 
mony was performed bv the Swedish 
Embassador, Erick Nordanlind, in 

In Rev'd Niemeyer's Family Bible, 
published in Germany (Nornbtrg) in 
1755, in the care of one of his descen- 
dants, at Martin's Creek, above Eas- 
ton, on the Delaware ; and well pre- 
served, are the following Records 
concerning his children : 

i< Maria. Born 1761, May the 
tith in Lower Marion Tovvnship, 
Philadelphia County. The sponsors 
were the grandparents : Geo Horn 
and wife. The same died, Dec. 6th. 
1773, aged 12 yrs. and 6 months. 

2. Hannah. Born 1763, May 25th, 
at the same place. The sponsors also, 
at her baptism, were the same. 

3. Elizabeth Margaret. Born 1765, 
Dec. the i6th, at New Goshenboppen. 
Upper Hanover, Montgomery Co. 
Her sponsors were: John Adain Lan- 
denschliiger and wife Alargaiet. 

4. Susannah, Born 1770, Nov, the 
22nd, at the same place. Her spon- 
sors were: Geo. Horn, Jr., and wife. 

5. Anna Maria, Born 1775, May 
the 13th, in Northampton Co., Pa. 
She was ba]:)tized June 4th following. 

From these Records we may infer, 
where and under what circumstances, 
father N. was born and raised, also, 
that he studied for the ministrv, in the 
old countrv : and finallv also, in what 

fields he labored, as a minister. 

His 2nd daughter (Hannah) mar- 
ried Ludwig Spanamer — his 5th 
daughter (Anna Maria) married Mi- 
chael Schall, of More Township. His 
4th daughter (Susannah) married 
Casper Engler, born Dec. 28th, 1772. 
Engler died May 24th, 1801. Aged 28 
yrs„ 4 mos., and 26 days, lie lived 
and died in More Township, North- 
ampton County, Pa. Englers had four 
children. Himself and his oldest 
child (Frederick) are buried at the 
Big More township Union church. 
His widow married Grandfather Phil- 
ip Keller, of Plainfield Township. 
Northampton Co., Pa. Her three 
children and also her parents, accom- 
])anied her. in this removal. Her par- 
ents died there, and are buried at the 
Plainfield church. Herself, her hus- 
band, and the remaining children re- 
moved in 1827 to Martin's Creek 
'where all of them also, in their own 
time died, and are buried at "The 
Three Churches," on the Delaware. 

(See "The Keller History," page 69, &c.1 

Great-grandfather, Rev'd Peter Fred- 
erick Niemeyer, died Aug. the i6th. 
181 5. Aged 82 yrs. His wife died 
Aug. the 4th, 1816. Aged 73 yrs. 

My Grandfather Keller, gave ni}- 
Great Grandfather Niemeyer and 
Great Grandmother, a house and 
home at Plainfield as long as they liv- 
ed. For some years Rev. Niemeyer 
also taught school in that house, for 
the benefit of the community along 
the foot of the Blue Mountt.ins in 
Pennsylvania, and thus spent his last 
years profitably. 

N. B. — Niemeyer is a Germaa name, 
though the subject of this brief biog- 
ra]ihy was born in Sweden. His father 
was of German ancestry and his 
mother, of Swedish. 


Incidents from the Life of Bishop John Seybert 

From Rev. Dr. Stapleton's "Flashlights on Evangelical History" 

1 SI I OP John Seybert was 
born in Lancaster Co.. 
Pennsylvania, i n 1791, 
and died at P)elleview, 
Oliio. i860. li e was 
virtually the first bishop 
of the Evangelical Asso- 
ciation, He was never 
married, but labored in season and 
ont of season for the promotion of 
(Thrist's kingdom. Me was severely 
])lain, in his ways and dress, almost 
to the point of eccentricity. 
Although he was exceedingl) relig- 
ious, there were times when he could 
"crack a joke" in the drollest manner 
i:)Ossible, and his performances in this 
line generally afforded food for ser- 
ious afterthought. He was never 
known to say an unkind word about 
any one, and his quaint, droll sayings 
never had a sting. The following in- 
cidents are given to illustrate the 
many-sided features of his character. 


In 1854 P>ishop Seybert dedicated a 
church at Mt. Zion (Seitz Church) 
in York County. Pennsylvania. Rev. 
Samuel Seibert was preacher in 
charge. That night the Bishop and 
Rew Seibert quartered together. In 
ihe morning the Bishop arose early 
and after Bible study and family de- 
votions, took from his saddle bags a 
])air of torn stockings which he pro- 
ceeded to darn. When his task was 
finished. Rev. .Seibert said to him : 
"N^ow. Bishop, if you had married 
when you were young, as you should 
have done, by this time you might 
/ have daughters who would wash and 
mend your clothes and dam your 
s(Kks." AMiereupon the Bishop re- 
])hed : "That's so. Brother Seibert, as 
you say, had I married when young I 
might have daughters to wash and 
mend mv clothes and darn my socks, 
])Ut then, too. I might ha\e missed iL 

\"()U hit it; you have a good wife, and 
ha\e children who are all right, but 
I might have married a wife wh(< 
might have stood in my way and 
might have dragged me down to hell." 
Then he added Avith a droll smile, 
■'You men with wives have trouble 
which 1 haven't got, and while you 
are bothering with that, I go on with 
my work, tend to my own clothes, 
and darn my own socks." Saying 
this, he called for his horse and in a 
short time was on his wa}^ to the far 


In 1858, the Central Pennsylvania 
Conference held its session at New 
Kingston, near Carlisle, under the 
presidenc}'^ of Bishop Seybert. The 
Bishop's quarters were fixed at the 
home of John Musselman, a well-to- 
do farmer, whose place adjoined the 
\ illage. The family felt highly honor- 
ed in having the Bishop as their guest, 
and made great preparations to enter- 
tain him in a manner befitting his 

Seybert came from the west, and 
left his ln>rse at the home of Da,vid 
Kutz, an old friend, near Carlisle, and 
from thence walked down the railroad 
track to New Kingston, a distance of 
two miles. Arriving at the Mussel- 
man home with saddle-bags slung 
across his shoulder, clothes dusty, and 
shoes mudd}', his apj^earance was any- 
thing but that of a Bishop. Coming 
to the house he found the parents out 
at their barn doing the evening work, 
and a grown daughter preparing sup- 
per. Addressing himself to the young 
woman he told her he was a "travel- 
er" and would like to have entertain 
ment for a while. Said the young 
woman, who did not recognize him : 
"We are not fixed to keep strangers 
just now. There is going to be a Con 
ference here, and Bishop Seybert i.< 



g-oing to be our guest." Well then," 
said the Bishop, in his droll way. 
"Will you let me stay for supper?" 
To this Miss Musselman acceded, 
whereupon the Bishop entered the 
house, went to a table, opened his 
saddle bags, and got out his writing- 
materials, and was soon engaged in 
writing letters. This procedure of the 
stranger greatly excited the curiosity 
of the young woman, and she made it 
her business to pass to and fro behind 
the writer until she beheld him sign- 
ing his name to a letter, "Johannis 
Seybert." Upon this discovery she 
quickly ran out to the barn and in- 
formed her father of her great blunder 
and asked what to do to make it right. 
It was agreed to say nothing, but 
await what the Bishop had to say. 

Bishop Seybert was shown his 
room, and all was right. He said 
nothing about the matter, but the 
twinkle in his eyes whenever it met 

that of Miss M plainly said, 

'T have a good one on you!" 


Bishop Seybert never blackened his 
shoes, but kept them soft with oil, 
which caused the dust to adhere 
to them. While he was the guest 
of the Musselmans, during the Con- 
ference mentioned, the daughters 
of Mr. Musselman concluded to make 
the Bishop look more dignified by 
l)lackening his shoes. The Bisho]) 
had a habit of taking ofif his shoes in 
the kitchen and going into his bed- 
room in his stocking feet. One night 
the young women took his shoes and 
polished them. In the morning the 
Bishop came into the kitchen for his 
shoes. Taking them up he looked 
them all over with a cynical smile, 
saying, "These are not mv shoes." He 
then put them on and went out into 
the yard, brushed his feet through the 
grass and took off the "shine." Noth- 
ing further was said about the matter, 
1)ut his droll look at the girls was 
something to be remembered. 


Bishop Seybert was very much op-' 
posed to the use of tobacco, chiefly be- 
cause he held the money so used 
ought to be spent in the Lord's cause. 
When the Bishop rebuked the use of 
tobacco it was generally in a way to 
be long remembered as the following- 
example evidences. The incident we 
are about to relate also took place at 
the session of the Central Pennsyl- 
vania Conference at New Kingston, 
which was the last visit of the Bishop 
to that Conference. We will ict one 
who was present tell the story of what 

"A number of us- preachers at our 
boarding place were regaling our- 
selves by smoking cigars. when 
Bishop Seybert came in upon us. with 
some document in his hands f()r com- 
mittee work. Asked to be seated he 
handed the papers to one of the breth- 
ren sayng : "I can't stand this, it 
smells as if hell were not far off!" ami 
cjuickl}^ departed, leaving the brethren 
to their own thoughts." 


Bisho}) Seybert was perhaps the 
most unconventional preacher in the 
matter of dress and personal appear- 
ances of any one of his period. He 
wore a broad-brimmed hat, and in his 
general appearance looked like a Duu- 
kard or Amish, as we see them to- 
day. His shoes were heavy, and 
built for wear. He kept them well 
oiled, and as said, would never al- 
low them to be blackened. He was 
very tidy and clean, darned his own 
stockings, and mended his own gar- 
ments. He had no "Sunday-clothes," 
and hence often ap])eared in the pul- 
])it with ])atched g'arments. 

The onlv instance we ever heard of 
in which he sought to put on a good 
appearance was during his visits to 
the publshing hc^use in New Berlin, 
when that i:)lace was still the head- 
quarters of the Church. He some- 
times traveled with a knit coat or 
"round-about" as thev were then call- 



Whenever he came to New BerHn, 
wearing" this garment, he was wont to 
lake it off on the outskirts of the town 
and put on his "good" coat. 

A good story is told how his plain 
clothes once deceived a woman who 
had a little "gilt-edge" in her nature. 

In 1846 the l>ish()p \isited Albany, 
New York, and preached in the Evan- 
gelical Mission there. A certain man, 
whose wife had never met Seyhert. 
it)ld her as he started for church with- 
out her that he would bring the 
Bishop home with him for dinner. The 
])roposition appealed to the native 
])ride of the woman, who was a Ger- 
man, and had a high estimate of the 
dignity of the episcopal office. 

She accordingly bmught all her 
culinary skill and resources tp bear on 
this great occasion of her life. The re- 
sult was a dinner that might have put 
a Delmonico to the blush, we 
imagine. The great spread ready. 

she awaited the coming of her spouse 
with the Bishop. After a while 
she spied her husband coming in the 
distance minus the Bishop! Her heart 
sank in disappointment. There was 
with him a little old man, oddly clad 
with a broad brimmed hat, short coat 
of a peculiar cut, with a row of big 
brass buttons. His shoes were heavy 
and ungainly. Ujjon seeing this man 
with her husband she said she had ex- 
pected him to bring the Bishop, and 
now he was bringing with him this 
"common old man." With her woman- 
ly pride humbled, and her spirit sore- 
ly vexed, she said she had gone to all 
this trouble for nothing. When her 
husband arrived she tartly asked him 
why he had not brought the Bisho]) 
instead of this fellow. It took some 
time until the husband reconciled her 
to the fact that this was the Bisho]) 
and she doubtless soon realized that 
he was worthy of her previous high 
estimate of such a personage. 

Some Pennsylvania-German Settlers in the Western 

Part of the State 

By J. A. Scheffer, M. A., Allentown, Pa. 



ACOB KAHLE (probably 
originally spelled Kehl) 
and his wife Saraii, with 
their little family came 
from Huntingdon county, 
to what is now Clarion 
county. Pennsylvania, in 
1826. They set'tled in Elk 
iDwnshi]) and began clearing a farm to 
plant vegetables and sow grain so as 
to have something to live on. That 
section of country was then more of a 
wilderness than a farming and oil 
well community as it is now. Bears 
and other wild animals were then 
(|uite numerous and would sometimes 
come into the farm yard during the 
day as well as at night. One day 
while the family was eating dinner, 
the parents and children wer«.^ inter 

rupted by the squealing of one of 
their j^igs near the house struggling 
in the paws of a l)ear. who also waul- 
ed some dinner. .\t another time 
when Mr. Kahle was on his way lo 
the village of Shippenville, then hav- 
ing only a few houses, accompanied 
by his two small sons George and 
John ^^ . he was again called by the 
scpiealing of a hog for dear life to res- 
cue it from two bears. Being chased 
from their intended prey, the bears 
ran out (»n the road near where the 
boys were standing, and so frightened 
the boys that they let out such un- 
expected and fierce 3'ells as in turn to 
scare the bears so that they made all 
haste to get into the adjoining woods. 
That section of Pennsylvania 
which now includes Armstrong. But- 



ler, Clarion, Jefferson, Forest, Law- 
rence, Mercer, Venango and adjoin- 
ing- counties was just beginning to be 
occupied by settlers seeking to make 
liomes for themselves, where the In- 
dians still lived until about 1780 or 
1790. The white men only began to 
migrate to those parts from the older 
eastern counties in this and other 
states and from Europe after the lat- 
ter date. And then settlers did not 
come in any considerable numbers 
till after 1810, and still later. As late 
as from the years 1820 to 1840 there 
were plenty of deer and elk, bears, 
wolves, panthers and other wild ani- 
mals, wild turkeys and birds in those 
forests. And some of these would 
frequently be seen crossing the farm- 
er's fields from one woods to another 
or be chased by dogs and hunters. 

The first German or Pennsyhania- 
German settlers that came tvi afore- 
named township was in 1808. These 
were two families by the name of 
(jroh (now Growe) and^ ITartman, 
and in 181 5 Charles Fischer. Feter 
and John Keiser (now Kiser) moved 
into this locality from Westmoeland 
County, Pa., in 181 7. These were all 
farmers by occu])ation. John Koenig 
'later King) a blacksmith, came from 
[funtingdon county to Shippenville. 
and Frederick Kehl with his father- 
in-law, George Heuyskel (Ilyshell) 
about 1822. 

John \A'. Kahl (note the autograph 
spelling of the name) was the son of 
Jacob and Sarah Kahle. He was born 
Dec. 28, 1821, came with his parents 
to the place above stated and remain- 
ed on the farm till 1844. Then he 
became bookkeeper for Wm. B. Fet- 
xer at Elk Furnace and later became 
manager of this industrial plant. In 
1859 he designed and built the first 
coke oven erected in Clarion county, 
near Bradys bend on the Allegheny 
river. He served as sujjeriniendcnt 
')f iron furnaces fifteen years. 

Mr. Kahl married Anna Cheers in 
1845. They had four sons and four 
daughters and all grew to a useful 
man- and womanhood. He removed to 
Lineville in the northwestern part 
of the county in i860, to engage in 
mercantile business and farming. 

A company of capitalists from New 
York bought a large tract of land be- 
tween Franklin and Oil City along the 
Allegheny river and in 1864 employed 
Mr. Kahl to superintend the develop- 
ment of the property for oil. As in all 
his previous engagements, he was 
loyal to the interest of his emi)loyers. 
During this work there was an at- 
tempt to bribe him. For he was of- 
fered one hundred thousand dollars if 
he would give certain results of the 
wells tested to other parties oriC week 
Ijefore informing the company. Some 
acquaintances urged him to accept the 
offer and become rich at once. '* His 
answer was that the company was 
paying him a just salary for attending 
to their business. And if there was 
anything to be gained by the first in- 
formation given, the company shall 
have the benefit of it." An honest 
re()ly from an honest man, and worthy 
of following by all at all times. After 
thoroughly testing the territory for 
oil and satisfying himself that the in- 
come would not pay expenses, he re- 
signed and advised the company to 
quit oeprations in that locality. 

Mr. Kahl served eighteen years as 
school director, a number of years as 
post master and in 1878 was elected a 
member of the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture. In all these positions as always 
he was faithful and true to his constit- 
uents. He was later a delegate to a 
State and two National i:)olitical con- 

After the foregoing statement it is 
hardly necessary to add that Mr. J. 
W. Kahl was an active genuine and 
faithful member of the Christian 
Church. His wife and childien are 
also consistent Christians. 


Suggestive Sources of Church History 

T IS a matter of regret 
that the early history of 
many of the oldest Luth- 
eran and Reformed 
churches i n eastern 
Pennsylvania is so in- 
complete. Jn some in- 
stances it is not known 
when or by whom the congregations 
were organized. The reason i-^ to be 
found in the unorganized condition of 
the people in early days. In some 
places there was preaching occasion- 
ally by traveling missioniaries long be- 
fore CQugregations were organized. 
Then in numerous instances no rec- 
ords were kept in the beginning, or 
the records have been lost. These 
facts make the stud}'^ and compiling 
of the early history of the congre- 
gations difficult and in many respects 
uncertain. IMuch has to be taken for 
granted. and frequently tradition 
must be accepted for actual history. 

Various church bodies have years 
ago directed the pastors to compile 
and pul)lish the history of the congre- 
gations served by them. This has 
l)een done only to a limited extent. 
As far as done the work is of great 
value. We have before reported that 
the Lutheran Conference of Berks 
county a few \^ears ago arranged for 
the compiling of the history of all 
the Lutheran and union churches in 
said county. The work has been done 
largely by Rev. J. W. Early, a gentle- 
man w^ell qualified for the work. It 
would be very acceptable if a similar 
Avork could be done for the Reformed 
Church in this large county. We have 
a well authenticated and c ^nplete 
history of the Reformed Church in 
Reading, covering all the ''ourteen 
congregations, which was compiled 
by the former editor of the Record, 
who expended much ])atient labor up- 
on it. In the course of time the vol- 
ume will become very valuable. It is 
not now as much a])preciated as it 

should be. As usual such a work will 
be appreciated only when the edition 
will have been exhausted and copies 
are difficult to secure. The book is 
l)ublished in the Record office. 

The longer the work of compiling 
the histories of the congregations is 
delayed the more difficult it becomes. 
Much material now available will be- 
come lost with lapse of time fmd the 
departure of our oldest people. With 
the death of some persons valuable 
church records will be lost or forgot- 

A er}^ few congregations have 
suitable places for preserving t-ecords. 
These are in the custody of indivi- 
ihial meml)ers. The older records are 
in small books, and these have been 
laid away, and are being forgotten. 
All such records should be collected 
and carefully ]jreserved. A year or 
more ago the Berks County Histori- 
cal Society appointed a committee for 
the purpose of transcribing old church 
records. So far as the writer knows 
nothing has been done beyond tran- 
scribing the early record of the Berne 
church, and it is not likely that much 
will be done on account of the labor 

Much historical material is alsn 
found in the inscriptions on the tomb- 
stones in the old graveyards. These 
inscriptions are. year by year, becom- 
ing more illegible through the ravag- 
es of the weather. Already many can 
no longer be deciphered. Louis Rich- 
ards, es(|.. the painstaking jiresident 
of the above historical society, has 
frequently urged country pastors to 
appoint capable young men to copv 
the inscriptions on the oldest tomb- 
stones and record them in the church 
books, where thev would be acces- 
sible. Unfortunately very little has 
been done in this line. Mr. M. A. Gru- 
l)er. a native of \orth Heidelberg 
township, Berks county, now a clerk 
in the War Department at Washing- 



ton, some time ago copied the in- 
scriptions on all the old tombstones 
at the historic Corner church, near 
Robesonia, with the exception of a 
few which are entirely illegible. There 
are 475 such inscriptions. Mr. G. has 
entered these inscriptions, together 
with much other history, in the con- 
gregational record. He has also two 
copies of this work consisting of 562 
i:)ages, one of which he presented to 
the congregation, and retained the 
other in his possession. He deserves 
much praise for this work, which in- 
volved very much time and labor. 
We mention this fact partly in recog- 
nition of the painstaking labor of Mr. 
Gruber, and also to encourage others 
to perform similar work at other 
l)laces. There is a vast field for such 
U'ork in Berks county alone. 

Mr. Louis Richards mentioned 
above, some years ago visited many 

of the old graveyards in Berks county 
and copied numerotis inscriptions on 
the older tombstones, which he has 
carefully preserved. The writer last 
fall spent the greater part of a day at 
the North Heidelberg church and 
copied the inscriptions of all the old 
tombstones. Fortunately with only 
several exceptions all of them were 
still decipherable. This list was pub- 
lished, together with the history of 
the congregation, in the "Pennsyl- 
vania-German" magazine for Febr- 

We would earnestly urge country 
pastors to carry out the suggestion 
made above, whereby they can ren- 
der a most acceptable service to pres- 
ent and future generations. It will 
not be difBcult to secure the 'services 
of competent persons in most places. 

— Reformed Church Record. 

Grace Leinberger, or the White Rose 


By J. Fred Bachman, Daniels ville, Pa. 


T A\'AS a cold frosty 
morning in November. 
Fort Allen, at the pres- 
ent town of Weissport, 
was enveloped by one of 
the mists so frequent 
along the Lehigh river. 
The commanding officer of the fort 
stood conversing with one of the 
guards as was his usual custom. 

"Colonel, I think I heerd some fir- 
ing out that way," said the trusty 
guard as he pointed in a westerly 
direction across the river. 

"I think I heerd it again," he said 
as he inclined his ear in the direction 
from which he had heard the sound. 

The Colonel listened some time ."I 
guess you are mistaken,Wordie," he 

said. "I am unable to hear anything." 

The Colonel had hardly finished 
talking when the report was heard 
more distinctly. 

"Sound the alarm !" cried the com- 
manding officer to a boy who was 
standing near by. "Sound the alarm !" 
he said again. 

The boy seized his drum and began 
to beat it vigorously. The soldiers 
immediately assembled at their re- 
spective places ready for duty. 

All was now confusion in the fort. 
\A"omen and children were terror 
stricken while every soldier was ready 
to sacrifice his life to save the lives of 

Colonel Clapham selected a number 
of men from his faithful little band. 
They sallied forth from the little fort 



waving: good bye to loved ones, waded 
across the Lehigh river and were soon 
following the Indian trail leading 
along the Mahoning Creek. 

They kept well under shelter as 
they walked briskly along in Indian 
file for they knew that they were seek- 
ing a wily foe ever ready to take them 
at a disadvantage whenever an oppor- 
tunity should offer. 

They heard continued firing as they 
marched along, and they knew that 
some one was bravely defending him- 
self against the cruel savages. 

On and on went that determined 
band, for determined they were, cross- 
ing ravines, swamps and mires. They 
followed their brave leader wherever 
he went. 

The report of the rifle became more 
and more distinct but at last ceased to 
be heard. 

The Colonel shook his head. "I 
think we are too late," he said, as he 
stopped and scrutinized the counte- 
nances of his men. "What will we 
do?" he asked. 

"We must go on," said his men in 
an undertone. 

"I leave it to you," said the brave 
commander, who always had the wel- 
fare of his men at heart. 

"V\'e will follow you wherever you 
lead," they answered. 

"Attention men ! March," said the 
commander as he looked at his trusty 
rifle. He feared that the wily savages 
might waylay them. 

Thcv continued their wearisome 
march keeping under shelter as mucli 
as possible. No one showed any signs 
of fatigue. At last they saw a small log- 
house in the distance. 

"That is the ])lace, I think," ^aid the 
commander in a whis])er. "Each man 
will take care of himself," he contin- 

'Vhu soldiers understood their faith- 
ful leader. Each one of them now 
selected the largest trees for shelter 
as they moved cautiously forward. 

The Indians saw the soldiers as 
they approached. A running fight en- 
sued. The savages fled leaving four of 

their number lying dead in the clear- 
ing before the house. 

After the Indians had left, the sol- 
diers turned their attention to the oc- 
cu])ants of the house. 

The house showed signs of having 
withstood a siege. The door was shat- 
tered and the shutters to the windows 
were broken open. On the floor in the 
house lay a young man and woman 
beside their faithful watch dog. 

The young man was dead. His wife 
still showed signs of life. She opened 
her eyes as the soldiers approached 
and whispered something, but could 
not be understood. 

'i'he Colonel placed a small bottle 
containing some spirits to her mouth. 
She drank a little of it. It revived her. 
Her mouth moved again. The Colonel 
and men knelt by her side and listened 

" Please save my child," she said. 
"You will find it wrap])ed in a bundle 
(^f clothing and stuck behmd the chim- 
ney in the attic. Have some Christian 
mother and father to raise it." 

"By God's help we will do so!" said 
the Colonel as he dashed away the 
tears that streamed down his -cheeks. 

The mother's head sank and she 
spoke no more. Her last thoughts 
were about her child. 

The Colonel and his men ascended 
the ladder to the attic and found a 
young infant wrapped in a bundle oi 
clothing behind jthe chimney as the 
mother had stated. A small piece of 
l)aper was pinned to its clothing gi\- 
ing the name of Grace Leinberger. 

The soldiers gave the mother and 
father of the little infant decent burial 
and then turned on their way home 
ward each one carrying the child by 

As they were traveling along they 
were alarmed !)}■ the report of a rifle 
in the direction of the fort. They im- 
mediately sprang behind trees ready 
for any foe that should approach 

Moving along cautiously they were 
surprised to meet their friend Pat Ma- 



g^rab who had come out in search of 

"Well, well, Pat!" said the Colonel, 
to the jolly Irishman who was waving 
two scalps towards them as a trophy, 
,,What have you there?" 

"Two — two scalps," cried Pat. 

"An' how did you get them Pat?" 

cried one of the men. 

"I surrounded two Indians an' took 

The truth of the matter was that 
Pat came unawares upon these two 
Indians and despatched them. He al- 
ways claimed however that he had 
surrounded them. 

Ancient Home of Old Organ Builders 

OLLOWING in the foot- 
steps of three genera- 
tions of his family, who 
were builders of church 
organs, an unassuming 
Pennsylvania German, ar- 
tisan, 70 years old, still 
carries on the craft ac- 
cording to the ways of his forefathers. 
In his quaint old shop, far from the 
cities and the great highways of traf- 
fic this solitary survivor of a by-gone 
line of organ-makers is even yet 
ready to undertake single-handed the 
construction of an entire pipe organ. 
That was how organs were made a 
century ago, for then the builder was 
content to devote a year or two to the 
making of one instrument. Now, 
when a church gives a contract for a 
new organ, it must be delivered with- 
in a few weeks. So the organ builder 
of the old school who mastereil every 
detail of the Avork has been supplant- 
ed almost evervwh'ere by big factor- 
ies employing scores or possibV hun- 
dreds of men, each making but a 
small part of the organ, and none, 
probably, able to construct an entire 

To visit the shop of this ancient 
organ builder of the Pennsylvania 
German country is like turning the 
flight of time backward many decades 
to the days when men did things leis- 
urely. The building itself was erect- 
ed in the i8th century; the tools were 
made by rural blacksmiths for 'the 
grandfather and the great-grandfath- 
er of the present aged master of the 
shop, and this kindly, white-bearded 

musical genius himself now finds his 
chief delight in narrating incidents of 
the times before factory organs had 
been introduced, when clergymen and 
church committees made long <^rips on 
horseback to arrange for the building 
of organs. 

The old shop stands on the edge of 
the little village of Palm, in the north- 
western corner of Montgomery Co., 
50 miles from Philadelphia. All 
through that region the Pennsylvania 
German dialect is spoken in the 
homes, the stores and the churches. 
German immigrants settled there 
early in the eighteenth century, and 
they and their descendants clung to 
the tongue of their fatherland In the 
course of time some English words 
were adooted, and thus a new dialect 
— the Pennsylvania German was 

In the vicinit}^ of the present vil- 
lage of Palm, some Schwenkfelder 
families settled between 1730 and 
1740. The Schwenkfelders, a small 
German sect, were followers of Cas- 
per Schwenkfeld a Silesian theologian 
of the time of Luther. In some re- 
spects they resembled the English 
Quakers, and it is said that George 
Fox and William Penn obtaine 1 many 
of their religious ideas from the writ- 
ings of Schwenkfeld. The members 
of this sect avoided ostentatious dress 
insisted upon strict simplicir}^ and 
did not sanction a paid clergy. 

Among the Schwenkfelders were 
Balthaser Krauss and his honsehold. 
A tuning-fork was the only musical 
instrument in the possession of this 



family, from which was to spring a 
succession of makers of musical in- 

This Balthaser Krauss had a son of 
the same name, and the latter had 
three sons named John, Andrew and 
George. The boys developed marked 
mechanical skill, and in 1790 they, 
with the aid of their father, planned 
and built a pipe organ. 

The Krausses belonged to a literary 
society of which Rev. F. W. (jeisen- 
heimer, pastor of a near-by Lutheran 
church, was also a member. Learn- 
ing of the organ which the Krauss 
l)oys had built, this clergyman urged 
them to continue work of that nature 
and to supply the growing demand 
for organs in the churches of Penn- 
sylvania, David Tannenberger, a 
}kIoravian had built some organs in 
i Pennsylvania prior to that time, and 
a few had been made in the New Eng- 
land States but most church organs 
had to be imported from England or 

But now a serious religious obsta- 
cle was encountered. The Schwenk- 
felders excluded organs from their 
places of worship, their opposition 
being based upon arguments similar 
to those of the Scotch Presbyterians, 
who called an organ "a kist o' whus- 
tles," or the Puritans who looked up- 
on the organ as "the devil's bagpipes." 
However, the musical and mechanical 
genius of the Krauss boys overcame 
the prejudices of their religion, and, 
tleclaring that an organ was no more 
sinful than their grandfather's tuning 
t'lirk. they proceeded with the con- 
struction of a large pipe organ. 

W h(Mi completed this organ was 
placed in Longswamp Church, in 
llerks count \-, a dozen miles west of 
the Krauss home. It is still in use 
having been rel)uiU several times by 
succeeding niem])ers of the Krauss 
family. It now contains 575 pipes, 
and is made of solid walnut, being 16 
feet high and ii feet wide. 

Much dissension occurred in tlie 
Schwenkfeld Church because some of 
the members thus defied its traditions 
bv l)ui]dinir ■'music boxes" for other 

sects. As a result of the bitter feeling 
several of the Krausses left the 
church. Even at the present time the 
Schwenkfelder churches of that vicin- 
ity do not have musical accompani- 
ment for the singing at their church 
services, although the use of an or- 
gan is permitted in the Sundax 

The three brothers now devole<l 
much attention to the building of 
pipe organs. An account book and 
diary which John Krauss kept shows 
that in 1807 they received 262 pounds 
and 10 shillings for an organ placed 
in St. Paul's Lutheran Church, near 
their home. According to this record 
they also made pianofortes. one 
having been sold in 1806 for $55. 

|ohn Krauss retired from the or- 
gan building firm in 1812, and after- 
ward his genius manifested itself in 
the manufacture of wool cardi'ig ma- • 
chines. He alst) was an astronomer of 
some renown. The transmisrion of 
talent was demonstrated in this 
l)ranch of the family by the fact that 
lohn Krauss's son Anthony was the 
inventor of the four-horse lever-pow- 
er and threshing machine. 

Andrew Krauss continued the or- 
gan building business until Ins death 
in 1841. He and his brothers built 48 
organs an average of about one a 
year. Several of these remain in use 
to-day. One of the largest is in the 
Catholic Church of the Most Blessed 
Sacrament, at Bally. Berks county. 
This was constructed more than 100 
years ago. and some of the original 
parts are still in the instrument. A 
large organ made for Zion Lutheran 
Church, ' Philadeli)hia. in 1814. now 
serves another Lutheran congregation 
in the same city. 

George and ]oe\. sons of Andrew 
Krauss, continued their father's voca- 
tion after his death. .\t the present 
time the old workshop is as well pre- 
l)ared as ever for the building of or- 
gans ; but the owner. Ed\>'in C. 
Krauss has not often been called up 
on to undertake such work in recent 
vears. — Dailv Register. 


A Farmer Shelters Tramps for Forty Years 

NOWN as the "friend of 
the tramp" because he 
has fed and sheltered 
them for years — as 
many as 300 in twelve 
months — Rev. Jacob B. 
Alensch, a plain Menno- 
nite preacher-farmer has 
won for himself a warm place in the 
hearts and ailections of the friendless 
and homeless wanderers, who came 
his way. 

Down in Skippack Township, 
Montgomery County, Rev. Mr. 
Mensch has lived for over 40 years. 
and in all that time he has dispensed 
liospitality in his own quiet and 
i.»riginal way. It is original because he 
fitted up a tenement directly opposite 
his own large farm-house, into which 
he put beds for the tramps. After giv- 
ing them suppers he would shelter 
them and then give them their break- 
fasts ; but in no instance would he ac- 
cent their laljor for his hosoitality. 

But one night several of the un- 
grateful hoboes stole the beds and de- 
parted with them, and then Rev. Mr. 
Mensch hit on the plan of putting 
iron bars at the windows and locking 
the door securely so that his guests 
could not skiddoo at night, even if 
they had a mind to. 


Mr. Mensch is known in Eastern 
Pennsylvania, among the Mennonite 
sect, as the owner of a library exceed- 
ingly rare because it contains Bibles 
and commentaries on sacred litera- 
ture from 100 to 400 years old. He has 
almanacs of each year from 1750 to 
the present time, the nucleus of his 
collection having been laid by his 
grandfather and then added to from 
year to year by his father and himself. 
Recently former Governor Penny- 
l)acker visited \lv. ]\Tensch and was 
so impressed with the value of his old 
Biblical and literary works tliat he 
made an effort to buy some of them. 
I hit .the old ])reacher who is well-to- 

do. spurned the offers, and said so 
long as he lived no money in the 
world could break up the collection, 
which he holds sacred and above 

Mr. Mensch is now 74 years old. 
and although his form is bent and he 
sees the shadows of life growing- 
longer as evening falls, he still journ- 
eys every Sabbath to the little meet- 
ing-house on the crest of the ridge 
just beyond his home to preach the 
Word in German. 

Advancing years compelled him to 
give up acti\-e farm life, and wiien he 
sold his farm, two months ago it sev- 
ered a link in family possessions, for 
tlie ])lace had belonged to his father- 


And the story of how it was given 
to Mr. Mensch was interestingly told 
by him. He had been living on a 180 
acre tract in Berks Comity, when his 
father-in-law, getting in ill-health, 
told him if he would move on his 
farm it would be his when he died. 
lM»ur \\eeks after he had moved there 
the father-in-law passed away, and 
the farm became Mr. Mensch's. On 
all sides around him he can see the 
well-tilled acres of his sons, for they 
have followed in the footsteps of their 
sire and become farmers, too 

Like others of his faith, Mr. 
Mensch observes a religious worship 
that is severely plain and shorn of all 
the "frills" of most churches. He looks 
askance at music as an essential of 
church ser\ice, and at his own home, 
when a company of guests were about 
to indulge in vocal and instrumental 
selections, he courteously explained 
his views and excused himself adding 
that he had no objection to them en- 
joying it if they saw proper, but that 
for his own conscience sake he would 
go to another apartment. As for peo- 
ple having photographs taken of 
themselves. he regarded that as 
vanitv. — Town and Countrv. 


A Reply to the Letter of Dr. Alfred P. Schultz 

By M. A. Gruber 


I read with amazement the letter of 
Dr. Alfred F. Schultz as published in 
the December number (1908) of THE 

It is difficult to understand what 
motive prompted him to gfive vent to 
certain expressions denunciatory of 
the (ierman- Americans, wdiich term 
includes the Pennsylvania-Germans, 
unless it be that he wishes to advertise 
his book, "Race and Mongrel," in ad- 
\ocacy of his views on the hereditary 
influence of the mother tongue. 

"^Mother tongue" seems to be his 
hobby, in fact a monstrous hobby that 
in order to ride it to his sati^faction 
he appears not to recognize any good 
features that do not come up to his 
standard of distinguished or eminent 
leadership. He seems unwilling to ste > 
down for a moment from that hobby 
in order to take cognizance among the 
I'ennsvlvania-Germans of the many 
excellent qualities and characteristics 
which, although their possessors may 
not have reached the very pinnacle of 
fame, have nevertheless been great in- 
strumentalities in the progress, devel- 
opment and betterment of the coun- 
try. Then. too. in keeping continually 
astride that hobby, he is inable to dis- 
cern the real causes for certain con- 
ditions, and unforttmately and im- 
l)roperly in a number of instances at- 
tributes to want of cultivation of the 
mother tongue the lack of eminently 
famous men among the German- 
Americans in the various fields of 
human achievement. 

In this connection it may be worthy 
of remark that in the case of Dr. 
Schultz's "greatest of all thinkers." 
Tmmanuel Kant, the grandfather 
(Cant) of that distinguished philos- 
opher emigrated fr(im Scotland, hav- 
ing settled first at Mcmcl and after- 
wards at Tilsit. Prussia. Kant 'oecaiuc 

the great thinker in si)ite of the fact 
that he was an alien to "'auld Scot- 
land" and substituted for the ances- 
tral language of Shakespeare the 
a(k)pted tongue of Luther in which he 
ga\e to the world the weightv 
thoughts of his "critical philosophy." 
Dr. Schultz evidently could not 
have acquainted himself with the his- 
tory of the University of Pennsylvania 
and other institutions of learning in 
the Keystone State, nor could he have 
been anxious to make research into a 
hundred and one other matters per- 
taining to Pennsylvania-Germandom ; 
for by so doing he could not have 
helped coming across a number of dis- 
tinguished personages that should 
have changed his views materially. 
Probably by reading up some of the 
back numbers of THE PEX\SYL- 
VANIA-GERMAN, he may find suf- 
ficient material to hold his attention 
for a while and cause him to wonder 
at his abrupt statements. 

If no stars of the first maynitnde. ac- 
cording tt) his wa}'- of thinking, illum- 
ine the sky of the German-Americans 
he could not fail to find a number of 
stars of the second magnitmle and 
numerous luminaries of tlie third and 
fourth magnitudes, if he will but re- 
mo\e the darkening t)bstac]e of his 
hubby from the field of \ision. 

Then why hurl the denunciations at 
a class of people because there may 
not have been found as of thst class 
of men the ecpial of P>urke. l>eethoven. 
Xelson. Agassiz, or Hawthorne? \\'hv 
n(»t give credit where credit is due'- 
The records of achievement show 
many distinguished men belonging to 
the Pennsvlvania-Germans : and if it 
so be that their names are not 
found among the most illustrious on 
the scroll of fame, their good deeds 
and great achievements arc neverthe- 
less kee|)ing their memories green. 



Dr. Schultz, in his laliorious efforts 
to establish his unique and pet theory 
in "Race and Mongrel." endeavors to 
base his conclusions upon the truth 
contained in Schiller's noted line. 
"Die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht;" 
but his impetuous pen. coupled with 

much that is mere assumption, calls to 
mind the couplet of Geothe : 

"Durch Heftigkeit eresetzt der Irrande 
Was ihm an Wahrheit und an Kraften 

\\ ashing'tou, D. C. 

The Stage Coach Driver 

By Hon. Henry Chapman 

NOTE — The following lines written by 
Hon. Henry Chapman are taken from Vol. 
I of "A Collection of Papers Read Before 
the Bucks County Historical Society." 

T IS not my purpose to 
draw any disparaging 
contrast between them 
and the drivers of the 
present time. The lat- 
ter are usually a worthy 
and accomodating set of 
persons, and their turn- 
outs are adapted to the requiicments 
of the occasion. I propose to speak 
of stage coaching in former days. A 
sketch of one driver and his equi- 
page, as they appearedon the Old York 
road, will serve for all others.' He 
was a man of importance and sat on 
the box, behind his obedient and then 
fashionable bob-tailed steeds, with an 
air of self-consequence, that rivaled 
the high bearing of a marshall at the 
head of a military division. He then 
had no competitor, such as the light- 
ning express, to subdue his pride or 
make him ashamed. He carried, and 
was the custodian of, the great United 
States mail, between New York and 
Philadelphia, and as he swept along 
through this Buckingham Valley, fol- 
lowed by a cloud of dust, it was be- 
neath his dignity to give an inch to 
the luckless traveler who cha;iced to 
meet him. He scorned such injimc- 
tions as. "Turn to the right, as the 
law directs.'' 

"Like to the Pontic sea. 
Whose icy current and compulsive force 
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on. 
To the Propontic and the Hellespont." 

Besides the United States mail, he 
had a little private pouch, in which 
many a wayside letter found its clan- 
destine depository. This was long- 
before the days of stamps and one- 
cent postal cards. He was ever ready 
to execute errands, and carry mes- 
sages ; and was wont to take compas- 
sion on a poor weary wanderer, and 
pick him up. He had a language pe- 
culiar to himself. It consisted main- 
ly of slang phrases, or preposterous 
comparisons, or misplaced words, 
which, superadded to a natural vein 
of humor, never failed to amuse, and 
often provoked the laughter of the 
passenger who sat by hi> side. 
Though always quick at repartee, he 
seldom, if ever, made a disparaging- 
remark about anyone, or "set down 
aught in malice." He was rather ad- 
dicted to boasting for he wished to 
impress his passengers with the most 
favorable opinion of the region 
through which they jotirneyed, and 
likewise of its inhabitants. If a slang- 
word came bounding through the 
country, passing" from month to 
mouth, as it often did, he would catch 
it up and play upon it, till another 
took its place. His four-in-hand, of 
which he was always proud, were us- 
ually well selected, and not such as 
the poet describes. 

"Poor sorry jades, 
That lob down their heads, and hang their 

hips and sides, 
The gum down roping from their pale dead 
And in their pale, cold mouths, the gim- 

mal bit. 



Hangs loose with chewed grass, s.til! and 

And their executors, the knavish crows. 
Flying o'er their heads, impatient I'or their 


Mc had a name for each horse. Af- 
ter a l)risk trot over the level, he 
would rein in at the foot of a long" 
hill; this, for instance, close at hand, 
and sleepily crawl to its top. And 
now while the wheels Avould grind the 
jiehhles beneath their slow revohitions 
with harsh grating' accent, he would 
have a dialogue with his ])ets. lie 
would sometimes s])eak to them in a 
patronizing strain, all in his peculiar 
jargon, sometimes argue with them ; 
and sometimes a refractory steed 
would receive ])aternal scolding; and 
he half believed all knew exactly what 
he said. If Snowball had chanced to 
trip or shy at a heap of stones on the 
level, he would receive a caution in 
the severest language to be fotind in 
his master's vocabulary. So the dis- 
course would run on, until the sum- 
mit of the hill was reached; and then, 
with an inclination of his body, he 
would let fly from his whip-stock, the 
long lash, that reached high over the 
leaders' heads, causing a report like 
that of a rifle, and making every 
horse leap widly into the air. But 
presently, they w-ould settle down to 
a uniform stride. He would pour 
forth a volley of slang epithets, hard- 
ly in suflficient good taste to have a 
]dace in a literary composition ; but 
highly amusing, when accompanied 
by the manner, expression and utter- 
ances of the spokesman. 

Thus he measured mile after mile, 
sometimes on the plain, and some- 
times toiling up an ascent, till ap- 
proaching an inn, he would then 

slacken pace, and allow a little time 
for his team to take breath and be re- 
freshed. When within a few hundred 
yards of the said inn, he wotild draw 
forth his horn, and with sundry 
blasts, announce his coming; at the 
same time each horse would prick up 
his ears wn'th delight. Then there was 
running to and fro; the hostler, with 
his buckets of water ; the innkeeper, 
hopefully rushing behind the bar; the 
loungers in greedy exj^ectation of see- 
ing a crowd of strange faces, and the 
famous tally-ho; and the boys on the 
lookout for the great Jehu on the box, 
who came thundering up with renewed 
speed, and with a freshness that 
appeared marvelous, for none knew 
the preparation that had been em- 
])loyed to attain it; the imposing- 
spectacle, was brought to a close by 
a sudden stop which made the house 
(|uake. There was a bustle and stir 
for a time, as if a new era had dawm- 
ed upon the place; but at length the 
journey was resumed, and all about 
the inn subsided into its usual monot- 
onous quiet. Though the stage-dri- 
ver of former days may not be consid- 
ered of sul^cent importance to claim 
a niche in history, still it is not ])roper 
he shotild be entirely forgotten, for he 
possessed certain peculiarities and 
characteristics, which are not com- 
mon at this time, and perhaps, ere 
long may not be exhibited again; the 
remembrance of these is retained by 
fewer and fewer all the while. He 
was a jolly fellow, and if he had his 
faults, let the maxim, "De mortibus 
nil nisi bonum," be applied 10 him. 
.\s f(^r the four-horse coach, it has 
nearly everywhere dwindled into a 
mere a])pendage of the railroad. 


Dialect Pleasantries 

The following pathetic poetic descrip- 
tion of leaving the old home along the 
river Rhine for an unknown one in Ameri- 
ca was copied and sent to this magazine 
by C. W. Unger, Pottsville, Pa. 

Die Auswanderer 

1. Jetzt ist die Zeit und Stunde da, 
Jetzt ziehn wir nach America; 

Die Wagen stehn schon vor der Thiir, 
Mit Weib und Kindern Ziehen wir. 

2. Alle die mit uns anverwandt 
Geben uns zum letzten Mai die Hand. 
Ihr Briider, weinet nicht so sehr, 
Wir sehn uns nun und nimmermel.r. 

?,. Und wen das Schiff im Mere schwimmt, 
So werden Lieder angestimmt. 
Wir fiirchten keinen Waszerfall 
Und denken: Gott ist iiberall. 

4. Drum wendet euren triiben Blick 
Wir hoffen auf ein beszeres Gliick. 
Denn tausend Seelen geht es gut: 
Dies trostet uns und macht uns Muth. 

5. Und als wir kamen vor Baltimor, 
Da streckten wir die Hande empor 
Und riefen: auf Victoria, 

Jetzt sind wir in America! 

From Mittler's "Deutsche Volkslieder," 
Marburg and Leipzig — 1855. Origin in 
Hessen and Odenwald, date unknown. 

* * * 


Every one acquainted with diiferent lang- 
uages knows that idioms constitute the 
peculiarities of a language, and that, if it 
were not for them, a language "-ould be 
much more easily acquired or tr-uislated. 
In some instances it is almost impossible 
to give a faithful translation on account 
of the idiomatic expressions. 

We subjoin a few of such expressions 
frequently heard in German and ^a.-Ger- 
man with literal translations and also the 
correct translations. These literal, very 
awkward expressions are sometimes heard 
among the English, and create much mer- 

German : Ich bin vom Land und kaun mich 

nicht lange aufhalten. 
Idiomatic: I am from the land, and can 

not hold myself long up. 
English: I am from the country and can 

not detain myself long. 

Ger: Zvinde das Licht au. 

Pa. Ger.: Steck's licht aw. 

Id.: Stick the lamp on. 

Eng. : Light the lamp. 

Ger.: Sie hat sich angethan. 

Pa. Ger.: Sie hut sich awgedooa. 

Id. : She put herself on. 

Eng.: She dressed herself. 

Ger.: Es fallt mir ein. 

Id.: It falls me in. 

Eng.: I remember it. 

Ger.: Es macht etwas herunter. 

Id.: It makes something down. 

Eng.: It rains or snows. 

Ger.: Mach die Thiire zu. 

Id. : Make the door shut. 

Eng.: Close the door. 

Ger. : Es macht nichts aus. 

Id.: It makes nothing out. 

Eng.: It does not matter. 

Ger.: Geh weg, Oder ich schlag dir eins hin. 

P. G.:, Ga week odder ich shlag dir ehns he. 

Id.: Go way. or I hit you one on. 

Eng.: Go away, or you will get a hit. 

While some of our readers will not feel 
so much interested in this excerise, we 
feel sure that those who are familiar with 
German will be pleased with it, and will 
be able to furnish a large number of simi- 
lar expressions. 

4> •{• 4> 

Mr.H. W. Kriebel, 

Received your papers by yesterday's 
mail. If I can find subscribers for THE 
do so. Lately I found a printed copy 
among a pile of old papers which recalls 
my young days (65 years ago) with the 
Pennsylvania-German farmers in York Co., 
Pa. It contains an account of a day that 
we enjoyed very much as neighbors, boj^s 
and girls. It reads as follows: 

Boll coomed de butcher tzeit un derno 
gebs metsel-soup un brode- warsht 
Mindsht du nuch as sell anes fun da grossa 
dauga wore uf der boweri by uns boova. 
Consht du dich nuch ariuera we seller 
dawg ols cooma is we mere uns ols g'fraid 
hen far de si fonga un saena es beef 
sheesa. Long far dawg morgets is ols der 
daudy uff g'shtonna und es fire unich em 
kessel g'shtart far de si breea. Anes noch 
em onra sin de nuchbera by cooma mit 
oldte blechne loddarna. We's amohl hell 
ganunk worra is far saena is es ons si 
sheesa gonga. Generally ols nine tsu tzae 
grosse fette si huts ganome. About tza 
uhr sin meer nows g'shicked worra far's 



beef ous em shtoll driva far dot maucha. 
Wos is ols unser hartz gajumpt bis es ga- 
groched hut iin's rinsfee umgabatzeled is. 
Eb middawg hut de chopper-machine aufon- 
ga glebbra un es warsht filsel is aufonga in 
der tzuvver ruUa. Es flaish far de lever- 
warsht hut im kessel ga-kuched un was 
hen meer duch ols si neera g'essa un 
gronk worra da von. Im numy-dawg, 
about tier uhr is es warsht stuffa awgonga 
un sell hen meer ols about es mensth en- 
joyed ,fun ebbes, awver about selly tzeit 
huts ghaesa boova gaed und doot eir 
fe'ederes. Meer hen net g'wart far es 
tswet mahl ghaesa wara un hen aw net 
long tzurich ga-mow!ed we de boova heitzu 
dawgs. Em dawdy si shtiffel wora ous 
harnish-ledder , g'maucht un hen em 
usht shae g'fit unich dar ruck-fligel. Uff 
em wake nows nuch der shire saena meer 
de schwortz kotz uff em beef wompe hucka 
un dra fressa. Die hinkle shtaera room 
uff ame bae un worda far era welshkarn. 
Der si-shtoll is lahr un dar hoond hucked 
hinna draw un frest om beef kup. Bis mer 
unser hoy shtrow un welshkarn fooder 
rnunnar g'shimissa hen g'hot, de gile ga- 
drenked un's fee g'feedered. un oUa ga-but 
anes obgefuchta, don wor der g'shposs so 
tzimlich-ivver un es nocht-essa wore, 
reddy. Brode-warsht, lever-warsht, roon- 
da kichline un ebbel-boi uf em dish un 
afange esse. Un derno is es g'schwetz aw- 
gonga. "Du, bust de warsht tzimlich goot 
ga-druffa." Yaw, awver se hen blendy 
sols "Ich mane se hetta awenich mae kai- 
yonner hovva kenna." Un so gaeds um dar 
dish room. Yaders hut sei-sixpeuce tsu- 
gevve un gli is der dawg farivver; der 
dawg woo meer uns shunt long g'fraid 
hen druff. Woo wore nun der g'shposs? 
Mer con en yetz net saena. Un duch wore 
der butcher-dawg anes fun dar grossa 
dawga im yohr uff der boweri. 
Yours truly 

York, Pa. 

NOTE. — The- following lines were sub 
luitted by a subscriber in response to a 
note on page 28 of the .January PENNSYL- 
VANIA-GERMAN. We are curious ',o know 
whether the words are familiar to other 
subscribers. If yen have heard the lines at 
any time let us know. 

Befell I am Feuerheerd 

Sally nemm des Kind do week, 

Setz es net grad in der Dreck. 

Sam du bist stark und gross, 

Trag sell Stofft dort in die Stross; 

Betz geb acht vershiit ken Briih. 

Dann geh grad und hoi die kiih. 

Der Hund der blafft, es kommt Besuch. 

Sis en Man mit einem Buch. 

Betz nan schleich mir net so faul, 

Wasch dom Kind seiu drekig Maul. 

Nemm die Hafen aus dem Weg, 

Stell sie auf die Keller Steg. 

Nch wiisch du die Kaffekann, 

Schlag die Ayer in die Pann, 

Mach des Supper schnell und gut. 

Sell ist was die Buben suht. 

Du musst erst lernen Bief zu braden 

Dan magst due den Pit heirathen. 

4" 4* * 

Conversation after a "Dutchman" had 
had a severe fall. 

Bisht nunner g'falla? 

Gewisz net nuff, 

Husht d'r weh geduh? 

Gewisz net gut. 

Soil ich der Dockter hola? 

Gewisz net der Butcher. 

4" 4* * 

At a meeting of the Hereford Literary 
Society, a hog "ring" was dropped into the 
collection basket. Rev. S. a member on 
seeing this said — Die Sau wu den Ring 
ferlora hut kann vor kumma; no kenna 
mer sie ringa. 

The Home Miscellany 


Washington, Jan. 10. — As shown by the 
annual report of the Commissioner Gen- 
eral of immigration for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1908, the work of the bu- 
reau increased 20 per cent., despice a de- 
crease of 39 per cent, in immigration. 

The total immigration was 782,870, or 
502,479 less than for 1907. During the fis- 
cal year of 1907 13,064 aliens were re- 
jected; during the last year 10,902 were re- 

The report gives for the first time the 
net increase in population by Immigration. 
The figures indicate that the net increase 
was 209,867. Of the aliens admitted 630.- 
671 were between the ages of 14 and 44 
years; 172, 293 could neither read nor 
write, and 2310 could read, but not write. 
Therefore, about 26 per cent, were illiter- 
ate, a decrease of 4 per cent, in comparison 
with 1907. 

The total amount of money brought by 
inimigrants was $17,794,226. an average of 




The majority came from southern or 
eastern Europe — Italy, Austria-Hungary, 
Greece, Turkey and the small principali- 
ties surrounding them. Russia furnished 
64 per cent, of the total. 

During the year 2906 aliens were reject- 
ed on account of physical, 370 on account 
of mental and 311 on account of moral de- 
lects; to which should be added 870 re- 
jected for minor physical or mental defects 
sufficiently grave to affect ability to earn 
a living. 

The number of criminals apprehended 
and deported increased from 11 in 1907 to 
41 in 1908. Two anarchists were refused 

There was great activity in the suppres- 
sion of the importation of women for im- 
moral purposes; 124 were rejected, 43 pro- 
curers were denied admission, 44 women 
and two procurers were deported, 14 pro- 
curers were convicted and sentenced to 
terms of imprisonment and fined. While 
investigations into the "white slave" traffic 
are difficult, the success attendant upon 
them has been satisfactory. 

The report shows that 1932 contract la- 
borers were rejected and 240 were arrest- 
ed and expelled from the country. 


The report expresses gratification with 
what has been accomplished in enforcing 
the President's proclamation directing the 
exclusion of Japanese and Korean labor- 
ers who used passports to Hawaii, Can- 
ada or Mexico, to enter the United States 
contrary to the wishes of their ov,/n gov- 
ernments, while 31,798 Japanese applied 
for admission in 1907, there were in 1908 
only 18,941, of whom 18,238 were admitted. 
The total increase in population by Jap- 
anese immigration was 3826. 

The report indicates inadequacy of the 
law to accomplish the exclusion of Chi- 
nese who are barred by statute. The 
smuggling of Chinese goes on. Of the 
Chinese arrested 89 per cent, were taken 
into custody at boundaries. 

The report urges the Government to take 
effective means to prevent congestion in 
cities. More than 32 per cent, of arriving 
aliens were destined to New York, 14 per 
cent, to Pennsylvania, 7 per cent, each to 
Illinois and Massachusetts and 4 per cent, 
to New Jersey. It is pointed out that some 
of the States, particularly in the South and 
West are vitally interested in obtaining 


It is recommended that Congress author- 
ize the extension of the work of the Divis- 
ion of information, so that immigrants may 
have definite information concerning var- 
ious desirable localities, to the end that 

they may locate in such places as will af- 
ford them prompt and remunerative em- 

Every effort has been made by the Di- 
vision of Naturalization not only to elimi- 
nate fraud from the naturalization of aliens 
but to obtain absolute compliance '.vith the 
law. Co-operation has been effected with 
the United States courts. It is recommend- 
ed that a sufficient appropriation be made 
to organize a corps of examiners, and that 
the fees allowed clerks of courts be in- 
creased to afford them adequate compensa- 
tion for their labor. 

Through the work of this division the 
Government has complete records of all 
applications for naturalization papers, and 
a complete record of the reasons for the 
acceptance or rejection of applications. 
— Philadelphia Ledger. 

* 4* * 

Switzerland's Divorce Remedy 

— Here is an effective cure for divorce: 
Centuries ago the civil court of Zurich in 
Switzerland applied a means to prevent 
divorce suits which might be imitated in 
our divorceful country. When a couple 
asked to be separated by legal action on 
account of incompatibility, the court or- 
dered them to be shut up in a lonely tower 
on the lake. Here they had to live to- 
gether for two weeks in a small room, the 
furniture of which consisted of a narrow 
bed, a small table and a chair. The two 
were given only one table knife and fork 
and their plain food was brought in on one 
dish. If they at the end of their confine- 
ment in the tower, persisted in their deter- 
mination to be put asunder, divorce was 
granted. As a rule the cure for divorcitis 
was effective within a week and the pa- 
tients begged the court for release. Put 
the ban on divorce; cease to make it re- 
spectable. From 1887 to 1906 there were 
945,625 divorces in the United States. At 
present divorces are increasing three times 
as fast as the population. Why not try the 
old Swiss "water" cure? 

* 4* + 

Scotland's Patrou Saint 

Why was St. Andrew chosen as the 
patron saint of Scotland? This question 
has been asked many times, but the ai'ch- 
deacon of whom Dean Hole tells may be 
considered to have discoverd the most 
satisfactory solution of the problem. 
"Gentlemen," said he (he was speaking at 
a St. Andrew's day banquet at the time), 
"I have given this difficult subject my 
thoughtful consideration, and I have come 
to the conclusion that St. Andrew was 
chosen to be the patron saint of Scotland 
because he discovered the lad who had the 
loaves and fishes." 



The Pennsylvania-German 

An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to 
the Biography, History, Genealogy, Folklore, 
Literature and General Interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
States and of their descendants. 

Editorial Staff 
H. W. Kriebel, Editor, Lititz, Pa. 
Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Editor of "Reviews 
and Notes," Trenton, N. J. 

H. R. GiBBEL, President ; E. E. Habeck- 
er, Vice President ; J. H. ZooK, Secretary ; 
Dr. J. L. Hertz, Treasurer. 

Address all communications. The Pennsyl- 
vania-German, Lititz. Pa. 

Price, $1.50 a year, in advance ; 15 cents 
per single copy. 

Additional particulars are found on 
page 2 of the cover. 


One Pagre, one year $50 00 

Half Page, one year 27 50 

Quarter Pagre, one year 14 00 

Eighth Pag-e, one year 7 50 

One Inch, one year 4 00 

One Inch, one month 40 

Reading notices, 1 cent a word, each issue. 


An Announcement 

Articles of Agreement between the under- 
signed have been entered into by tlie terms 
of which the Express Printing Company 
(Incorporated under the laws of Pennsyl- 
vania) become the publishers of THE 
torshij) of H. W. Kriebel. 

The editor feels happy in thus being en- 
abled to carry out a project he has had un- 
der contemplation for some time believing 
that the change will afford an economy 
efficiency and expedition of administration 
not otherwise attainable. 

This business arrangement will not affect 
the editorial policy of the magazine, each 
party of the agreement being desirous of 
following the precedent set and of making 
teresting, serviceable and valuable in its 
chosen field. 

To this end the May issue will contain a 
number of special contributions including; 

1. The Mournful Ballad of Susanna Cox. 
executed at Reading. Pa., in 1800 for in- 
fanticide. This is an original English ver- 
sion in which the peculiarities of the Ger- 
man ballad are carefully preserved. 

2. Short Historic Sketches of Lititz and 
Lancaster County. 

3. A paper on the spelling of th" dialect 
with a list of the letters and letter combi- 
nations of the alphabet, with their sound 
values expressed in the iihonetic notation of 
Paul Passy adopted by the Association 

Phonetique Internationale, and employed 
by Di-. Victor in his German Pronuncia- 

4. An offer to reprint the back numbers 

Providing sufficient advance orders are 
received the nine complete volumes of the 
magazine will be republished in bound 

5. A paper on the organization of clubs 
among readers of the magazine. So much 
interest has been expressed in the club 
idea by subscribers that we feel morally 
certain that many will be organized after 
the matter is taken up by our readers. 

The naming of these features is sufficient 
to prove the value of the May issue. We 
believe the number will mark thi begin- 
ning of a new epoch in the histor.v of the 
Magazine and in the study of the German 
element iu our country. 

The editor takes advantage of this oppor- 
tunity to express the hope that the many 
courtesies and favors hitherto shown by 
subscribers, i)ublishers, editors, contribu- 
tors and friends may be continued and 
invites all to call at the Editorial Sanctum 
of The Express Printing Company where 
he hopes to toil and serve. 


Lititz. Pa. 



The Associate Editor regrets Ihat the 
"hopes" expressed in editorial of the Feb- 
ruary issue is not realized and that his 
health will not permit him to continue to 
do the amount of work required for this 
magazine. He is pleased that the editor 
and publisher have been able to make 
other arrangements, so as to be relieved 
from too much in-door work. 

How to search for material for the his- 
torian was indicated in the March issue of 
of the many topics of interest and facts 
necessary in this line of investigation were 
also suggested in the same and other arti- 
cles of this magazine. Whatever any one 
can find that will throw light on the his- 
tory of the Pennsylvania-Germans, and 
their descendants on either the father's or 
mqther's side will be of interest to some of 
the readers and to the diligent historian. 

Everything that has any bearing on their 
past history, character, condition and 
achievements will be welcome for publica- 
tion. All that can be interested to co- 
operate with those at work for this month- 
ly are asked to help gather and arrange 
stories, facts or traditions and thi:s bring 
out the language and literature of our Ger- 
man and Pennsylvania-German ancestors, 
as well as that of their descendants of the 
present generation. 

To carry out the task which this maga- 
zine has set for itself, it will sometimes 
be necessary to go across the Atlantic to 
the land of our forefathers for material, to 
search for the causes and reasons for their 
leaving old homes and coming to a wilder- 
ness country with wives and children to 
found new homes. It will require us to 
follow them on the slow-sailing, storm 
tossed ships to Penns Province, to the 
Hudson and Schoharie valleys and even to 
the Province of Georgia, to their forest- 
surrounded homes. Thus we will see their 
Christian home-life, their labors and suf- 
ferings, their joys and sorrows. Later we 

will be with them at their marriages, in 
the sick room, at the funeral and go to the 
school houses, churches, places of worship 
and burial. 

In outliniiag the purposes of this maga- 
zine we will not fail to record the think- 
ings and doings of their grateful descen- 
dants down to the present, so as to give as 
full and accurate history as possible. Nor 
will the columns of this periodical only 
contain the history of the Pennsylvania- 
G'ermans residing in this state, but of their 
descendants in every state and country on 
the globe. This will not be done to ignore, 
disparage or entirely exclude those of 
other nationalities, but in order to set 
forth and record the claims and pai't Ger- 
mans and their descendants have in making 
everyday American history. 

When this magazine appears it is pi'o- 
voking to the editors and the authors of 
articles, and no doubt also to the type-set- 
ters and printers when they see any errors 
on its pages. Some one is responsible for 
the mistakes, but each one is inclined to 
l)ut the blame on another as Adam and 
Eve did. 

However, it is no wonder that there are 
sometimes mistakes when the copy can 
hardly be read by anyone but the writer. 
But there is no excuse when there is good 
type written copy or legible penmanship, 
nor for getting the type and headings mix- 
ed in making up the Forms, dropping let- 
ters in names of authors, misspelling titles 
of articles when the copy has them correct. 

In March number page 122 D. Nicholas 
Shaeffer is Schaeffer in copy and page 126 
.Johannes Early is Oehrle; page 140 Join- 
ville should read Jumonville not Jornville. 
as the corrections had it, "the name is 
printed Hallenbach twice" instead as given 
there. And page 142 "The Historians' .An- 
nual meeting" should have been placed on 
next page, and "The Bucks County Histori- 
cal Society" transferred to the former's 
place, that is, those two headings ought to 
be transposed. 

Inforniatioii Wanted 

Mr. S. S. Flory, Bangor, Pa., being en- 
gaged in collecting material for a history 
of the Flory or Fleury family invites cor- 
respondence from any persons in position 
to give information about the family. 3-4-5- 

Years ago a teamster in driving along 
the road from Clayton to Huff's Church. 
Berks Co., Pa., through "Deivel's Loch" 
got stuck in the mud. With sleeves rolled 
up he toiled hard, but in vain, to free his 
mired wheels. Pennsylvania-German far- 
mers who came along to assist were asked 

to get a jack screw but failed to under- 
stand what was meant. A happy idea 
struck the farmers; the well known country 
'squiye. living in the vicinity, was called. 
In his dignity and superior wisdom he 
came and thus addressed his neighbors in 
the dialect: "How often have I invited the 
neighborhood to assemble in the school 
house and I would teach you some English 
but ye would not." On being informed 
that a jack screw was wanted he con- 
tinued: "You dunces! he wants soap and 
water to wash his hands so that he can 
take hold of the lines again." 


Clippings from Current News 

— Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, Ph. D., has 
undertaken for the J. S. Clarke Publishing 
Company the preparation of the material 
and the writing of "Philadelphia — A His- 
tory of the City and Its People — A Record 
of 225 Years." And it will be divided into 
thirteen main divisions: 1, Dutch and 
Swedes, 1616-1674; 2, The English Before 
Penn, 1674-1681; 3, The Penn Government, 
1681-1718; 4, Under the Penn family; 5, the 
Revolution, 1776-1784; 6, Under the Con- 
federation; 7, the First Years of the Con- 
federation; 7, The War of 1812; 9, Years of 
Peace; 10, Consolidation; 11, Civil War; 
12. The Centennial, and 13, Close of the 
Nineteenth Century. The author's aim will 
be to do for Philadelphia what Green did 
for the English people in his London work, 
and what McMaster is doing on a more ex- 
tended scale for the United States. 

Early Pittsburgh was not especially not- 
ed for its piety, being at first an army 
camp, and having among its scanty popu- 
lation many retired, or otherwise tired 
warriors, the reputation seemed to lie 
strongly in the direction of excesses. Up 
to 1784, it is said, the town did not have a 
church or priest. Pittsburgh was originally 
settled by the Scotch-Irish and as a re- 
sult the Presbyterian system of faith has 
always had a strong following. Other 
parts of Allegheny county had church ser- 
vices earlier, but in 1784 the Pittsburg 
Presbytery requested help from the Red- 
stone Presbytery (Brownsville neighbor- 
hood) and in 1787 built a church. The 
Reformed Presbyterian organized in 1799, 
with the Rev. John Black, of Ireland, the 
first pastor. The Episcopal Church had a 
regular organization in 1805. The first 
Baptist church in the city was organized 
1812, but other organization^ were in exist- 
ence outside the city, in Greene county, as 
early as 1770. and the Methodists had their 
first sermon in 1785, while the Disciples 
established their first church in Allegheny 
in 1835. The earliest religious services 
were conducted by one Father Bonnicamp, 
a French .lesuit priest, about the year 1749, 
and not until 1784 was there a concerted 
action taken by the Roman Catholic resi- 
dents to secure occasional services for 
their church. — The Lutheran. 

— The year 1909 is a year of Centennials. 
It calls our attention to two great states- 
men, Lincoln and Gladstone; the scientist 
Darwin; three great authors. Tennyson, 
Holmes and Poe; and two great musicians. 
Chcpin, whose field was the piano and 
who was here a master among masteis, 
and .Mendelssohn. Both have suffered 

many things at the hands of young i)ian- 
ists. but have survived these crude inter- 
pretations. Paderewski has brought out 
the subtlety and power of Chopin's mys- 
terious expression, and many of our read- 
ers had the pleasure of hearing Mendels- 
sohn's Elijah finely interpreted by Prof. 
C. A. Marks and the Allentown Choral 
Society, because thoughtfully rendered. 

Our musical debt to the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury is not complete until we have added 
the names of the great masters, Beethoven, 
Brahms, Schuman, Schubert and Wagner. 
And just as the more familiar names at- 
tached to our hymn-tunes ewe much of 
their inspiration to these, so these masters 
sat al the feet of a greater. — J. W. R. in 
The Lutheran. 

— While centennials of the births of 
great men are being celebrated in 1909, it 
should not be forgotten by Lutherans that 
two centuries ago the stream of immigra- 
tion which means so much to our Church 
in America first began to flow, at least in 
appreciable volume. The first band con- 
sisted of 57 souls, mostly from the Pala- 
tinate, with Pastor Joshua Kocheithal as 
their spiritual leader, and the place where 
they settled was where Newburgh N. Y. now 
is. They came from a section devastated by 
war, and it was to Queen Anne of Eng- 
land that they owed a lasting debt cf grat- 
itude. Through her kindly interest, ;i 
free voyage across the sea was granted 
them and a grant of 2190 acres of land. 
Nor did her generosity stoj) here. She sup- 
plied them not only with seed and farming 
implements, but with sustenance for a 
year. And as if to teach succeeding gen- 
erations how tc care for spiritual shep- 
herds. Pastor Kocherthal was granted $100 
and 500 acres of land for his support. 
From this hi.mblf beginning the stream of 
German immigration has widened and 
deepened until toda:' there are probably 
not less than 20,000,000 Americans in 
whose veins flow German blood — more by 
a large margin than of any other single 
nationality. That is why America is to- 
day more German than Anglo-Saxon. — The 

— -Everyi ne interested in the pieserva- 
tion of historic s|)ots associated with the 
Revolutionary struggle hopes for the 
I)assage of the bjU which Representative 
Ambler, of Montgomery county, has intro- 
duced in the State Legislature for the pur- 
chase of the site of the Revolutionary 
Army's camp-ground in While marsh 
township. The principal relics of 'hat en- 
campnient ;ire the old fort and the build- 



iag in which Washington had his head- 
quarters, both situated near the village of 
Fort Washington, a short distance above 
Chestnut Hill. The plan is to convert this 
tract into a State Park. 

The Valley Forge campground, neglected 
for many years, is now owned by the 
State and forms a beautiful park of sev- 
eral hundred acres. But most of the other 
sites connected with Washington's cam- 
paign in Pennsylvania in 1777 depend for 
preservation upon the generous patriotism 
of private owners. 

Various attempts to have the State or 
the Nation acquire the Brandy wine battle- 
field, and the scene of the Paoli conflict, 
have proved fruitless; but at both places, 
as well as at the site of the encampment 
on the Perkiomen, at Pennypacker's Mills, 
monuments have been reared through the 
efforts of societies and individuals. * 

The Germantown battlefield, being now 
part of the built-up town, cannot become 
a State Park, but steps could be taken to 
mark the various places where important 
features of the battle occurred. The other 
Revolutionary sites to which allusion has 
])een made consist of farm land and are 
thus available for purchase and preserva- 
tion as public property. — Independent 

To sum up important particulars: Penn- 
sylvania is today first of all the States in 
the production of iron and steel, coal and 
coke and carpets and rugs, and probably 
first of all in the manufacture of silk. In 
1900 it was second in the manufacture of 
wollen products and in the total value of 
all textile products, fourth in the produc- 
tion of lumber and all kinds of paper, and 
second in the production of chemicals.. It 
has long been first in the production of 
leather and in the manufacture of glass. 
It has lost its early leadership in the pro- 
duction of petroleum, but it is first in the 
production of natural gas. It is first in the 
production of Portland cement and in the 
manufacture of fire brick and tiles, and 
it is fourth in the manufacture of pottery. 
It leads all states in the production of roof- 
ing slate and limestone and in the manufac- 
ture of locomotives, railroad cars, and 
saws, and it is the only state that makes 
armor plate. It is now third in iron and 
steel shipbuilding, not including Govern- 
ment vessels, Michigan being first and Ohio 
second. In the annual value of many farm 
products it is either first or closely follows 
other States. 

From Swank's. Progressive Peniisjl- 
\ aiiia. 

Ciermaiiy's Industrial Insurance 

The radical difference between the Ger- 
man insurance and pension laws and the 
British old age pension scheme is that the 
former are based upon the principle of co- 
operation, the beneficiaries contributing 
toward the funds while in the case of 
Great Britain the entire burden falls upon 
the general revenues, and there is not the 
same inducement to thrift and economy 
upon the part of the working people. In 
Germany the entire cost of the accident 
insurance falls upon the employers of 
labor, who also pay one-third of the cost 
of sickness insurance — the remaining two- 
thirds being provided by the employes. 
The expenses of the invalid and old age 
pensions are equally divided between the 
employers and the employes,' the State 
making a substantial annual contribution 
to each pension granted. While participa- 
tion in these insurance systems is compul- 
sory on the part of the classes to whom 
they apply, there is nothing to prevent or 
discourage voluntary insurance, and the 
provident and careful among the German 
working people quite generally supplement 
the compulsory insurance with that of their 
own societies and mutual aid organiza- 

Statistics will show the magnitude of the 
system and its popularity. In 1905 there 
were 11,900,000 working people of all 
classes insured against sickness and up- 
ward of $69,300,000 was paid in benefits. 

— Public Ledger. 

— The late Hon. Diedrich WiUers. of 
Varick, Seneca county, N. Y., bequeathed 
to Central Theological Seminary. Dayton. 
Ohio, a number of valuable books, manu- 
scripts and skeletons of sermons, former- 
ly owned by his father, the late Rev. Died- 
rich Willers, D.D., who officiated as a 
minister of the Reformed Church in Seneca 
county, N. Y., .for a period of sixty years 
and nine months. Many of the books are 
printed in the German, Latin and Greek 
languages, and are of ancient date. — Re- 
formed Church Record. 

Marion Dexter Learned. Professor of 
German at the University of Penn'a sailed 
for Europe on Feb. 27th. He is commis- 
sioned by the Carnegie Institute. Wash- 
ington, D. C. to investigate the sources of 
American history in German libraries and 
archives. The scope of the work is a vast 
one. Prof. Learned secured a leave of ab- 
sence for six months: he expects to return 
some time in October. 

The Joker's Page 


What Hliinders Iiiexperieiioc Causes 

Some inexperienced farmer boys went to 
a neighboring town and took dinner at one 
of the leading hotels. The one at the end 
of the dining table was approached by the 
waiter with the question: "Do you want a 
napkin?" After hesitating he replied "'Yes 
Sir, Wann die annere es essa kenne kann 
ich aul (If the others can eat it I can.) 

* * * 

'Manda S , a country girl wishing 

to inform a visitor that her father was at 
the dinner table, and her mother had near- 
ly finished her meal said: " Pop's on the 
table, and Mom's half et." 

* 4* * 

The following incident occurred at a 
vendue near Lebanon. Pa. The boisterous 
and voluble auctioneer was disposing of 
the household utensils. It was his custom 
in order to hold the attention of the crowd, 
to crack a harmless joke at some one's 
expense, or otherwise interpose a little 
nonsense. In the course of his harangue, 
he picked up a sugar-scoop. "Now," he 
rattled on glibly, "here we have such a 
scoop. What can I hear for it. Start 'em 
up some body. Do kenna mir by chinks! 
soup fressa," and suiting his actioa to his 
words, raised the scoop to his lips where- 
upon the village wag on the edge of the 
crowd yelled out, 'Ya! es fit aw zu deim 

•ft 4. •{• 

In the fifties, just before the war, it was 
the custom for the night watchman or 
l)oliceman to call out the hour and the 
state of the weather. It is related of a 

certain • John N , on duty one night 

in Reading Pa., bawled out: '"Twelf-o-glock. 
All's well — Makes something down like a 

4« •!• 4» 

The Luck of Left-Handediiess 

Of all "anti-lean" systems prescribed by 
))sysician or quack, perhaps none is so cur- 
ious as that cited by Martin Welker in an 
article Avritten for the Western Reserve 
Historical Society on "Life in Central Ohio 
Sixty Years Ago." The story also goes to 
prove that in left-handedness there may be 
an advantage unexplained by i)sychological 
research. The expounder and example of 
the diet theory was an old settler, one of 
a large family of children, who grew up to 
be a very stout man, while the others were 
small and thin. 

The big iron pot which hung on the 
crane cooked the mush for the family. It 
was a usual thing to see the children, with 
their cups and si)oons. seated all round the 
mush pot on the hearth, helping themselves 
to their supper. 

The old settler used to explain his plump 
condition in this w-ay: when he was a boy 

tiie princii)al living was bean porridge. 
When it was cooked it was set out in the 
pot, and all the family dipped. 

He, alone, was left-handed. Th-j right- 
handed ones, dipi)ing in their spoons, soon 
set the contents of the pot going round in 
a whirl, and the beans and small frag- 
nients of meat i)artook of this circular 
motion. But he, being left-handed, thrust 
in his spoon, met the floating solid parti- 
cles, and was able to approi)riate to him- 
self the more nourishing food. The others 
got the thin porridge. 

* + •!• 

The Passiiiff oi the Last Boot 

(Cleveland Plain-Dealer) 
The disconcerting news comes from 
Washington that the last pair of boots has 
passed cut of congress — i)assed out on the 
manly pedal extremities of Charles Napo- 
leon Brumm, who has resigned from the 
House to accept a judgeship in Schuylkill 
county, Pennsylvania. Is it a fact that the 
exit of the last boot from the house of 
representatives is coincident with its pass- 
ing from the life of the once typical Ameri- 
can? Time was, and recently, when the 
thick soled, firmly pegged and square toeil 
boot was a necessary adjunct of vigorous 
native life in its most virile manfestations. 
The small boy looked forward to the day 
when he could exchange his childish foot 
gear for the dignified boot of his father. 
The graduation from the shoe to the boot 
cf maturity was identified with the equally 
important event of his doffiing knicker- 
bockers for trousers; for boots lost half 
their glory without trouser legs to tuck in- 
to their sagging toi)P. A proud day it was in 
the life of a hopeful American lad when 
he assumed both trousers and boots. It 
was then he first came to appreciate fully 
the meaning of what his teachers had told 
him, that every native son of America 
could become president, if only. etc. He 
felt of presidential size and importance al- 
ready and the rest of the road to tlie 
White House lay clear and simple before 

So it is to be hoped that the passing 
from congress of its last pair of boots, 
guided on their outward course by the 
aforesaid Mr. Brumm. does not mean the 
final and complete extinction of that tyiie 
of footwear from contemporary Ameri- 
can life. The boot occupied a place that 
will be but inadetjuately filled by patent 
leather of Oxford tie. ;\Iany a statesman 
who might have gone thundering down the 
corridors of time will find his tread 
strangely muffled and the fact of his pas- 
sage curiously unnoticed if he exchan.ges 
the traditional boot of his ancestors for the 
more modern article of commerce. Long 
live the boot! 


The Forum 


By Leonhard Felix Fuld, M.A^ LL.M. 

[EDITORIAL NOTE.] Mr. Fuld has 
kindly consented to give a brief account of 
the history and meaning of the surname of 
any subscriber sending twenty-five cents to 
the editor for that purpose. 


The ulterior origin of the surname 
BARON is unknown. Some writers refer 
it to the Celtic BAR meaning a hero, others 
to the Old High German BERO moaning a 
carrier, others to the Old English BEORN, 
a warrior, and still others to the Teutonic 
BARN a child. The late Latin word BARO 
meant merely a man. It later came to 
mean a freeman as opposed to a slave, a 
husband as opposed to a wife and nnally it 
became a generic term, — a male as opposed 
to a female. In the Early English law the 
baron was one who held land from the 
king or other feudal superior by military 
tenure and subsequently it was applied 
only to those who held land from the king, 
and finally only to the greater of these 
landholders who personally attended the 
Great Council or from the time of Henry 
III were summoned by writ to Parliament. 
Hence a baron was a lord of Parliament. 

After the days of feudal tenure the baron 
became a specific order or rank, being the 
lowest grade of nobility, — a baron as dis- 
tinguished from an earl. It became a title 
separate and distinct from the military ten- 
ure or any particular privilege. Richard 
II created barons by patent. The title of 
baron was also applied to citizens of Lon- 
don and some other places, who were 
bound to suit and service to the king. It 
was also used as the title of the Judges of 
the Court of Exchequer. In law tJie term 
baron signifies husband, as in the phrase 
baron et femme, meaning husband and 

The title BARON finally came to be ap- 
|)lied to any man as a mark of respect or 

•{• 4. •{. 


J. Wheeler iu Memories of N. Carolina 

(Gives Page 397) 
Mrs. Elizabeth Steele died 1790 (Salis- 
t)ury). She was twice married. By her 
first husband she had a daughter who mar- 
ried Rev. Samuel Eusebius McCorkle (b. 
1746) son of Samuel McCorkle. Who was 
her first husband? Who was the mother 

of Rev. S. E. McCorkle? Was she daugh- 
ter of John and Martha Montgomery? 

E. Q. N. 

(Roll of Honor D. A. Revolution Gives.) 

"Christian Quiggle enlisted from Man- 
heim township, York Co., Pa., 177f>, in the 
"Flying Camp." Served at Long Island in 
Col. Michael Swope's regiment." Who were 
his parents? To whom was he married? 
Where did he die or where buried? 

4» 4» * 

More Queries, Who Can Answer Any of 

1. Abraham Kieffer (mentioned in PENN- 
SYLVANA-GERMAN, Genealogical Records, 
p. 12, Feb. 1909) came with his brother and 
three sons, a fourth having died at sea, in 
"The Two Brothers, from Rotterdam, Sept. 
15, 1748." He located in Berks county. 
Wajited place of burial, and gravestone 
record. Also place of burial, gr.^vestone 
record, and parents of his wife. 

2. Dewald Kieffer, son of above, came 
with his father, lived in Berks county, and 
after the' Revolutionary War removed to 
Franklin county. He married Hannah Fox. 
Wanted her parents. 

3. Jacob Kieffer, son of Abraham above, 
lived in Berks county. Died 1809. Want- 
ed his burial place, and gravestone record. 

4. Magdalena Barnett, wife of Jacob 
Kieffer, also died in Berks county. Want- 
ed her place of burial, gravestone record, 
and name of parents. K. E. B. 

1. Barnett, Stephen. He was of Berks 
county. Pa., and married Marie or Maria 
Bertolet; born July 12, 1715; d. 1802; dau. 
of Jean Bertolet. Wanted parents of 
Stephen Barnett. Children of Stephen 

2. Beaver, George. Came to Berks Co., 
Pa., with his father and brothers in "The 
Lydia," Sept. 29, 1741. Age 21. Wife, 

Anna Catherine . Wanted the 

name of her parents. 

3. Johannes Eberle came to I^ancaster 
Co., Pa., on the ship Dragon, Daniel 
Nicolus, master, Oct. 24, 1749. He was 
supposed to be about 18 years of vge. His 
mother and brothers, Benjamin, Henry. 
Samuel, Abraham and Peter came with him. 
Wanted the name of his wife and her par- 
ents. He had son Johannes and a daugh- 
ter who married a Mr. Albert. 

4. Johannes Eberle s. of above, was b. iu 
July, 1755; and m. Elizabeth Bricker Nov. 
24, 1776. She was b. June 1, 1759, and d. 
Dec. 4, 1813. There were eightee-i in the 
Bricker family. Wanted iiarents of Eliza- 
beth Bricker of Lancaster Co., Pa. 



5. Benjamin Ebeiiy, son of above, moved 
with hiis father to Cumberland Co. in 1791. 
He was born Sept. 18, 1783, and died Nov. 
10, 1S65. Married Barbai-a Kauffman. She 
died July 1857, aged 64 years, 8 months. 
Wanted ancestry of Barbara Kauffman, of 
Cumberland Co., Pa. 

6. Benjamin Eberly, son of above, was 
born 1816 and died July 22, 1849. Married 
Catharine Bosler. Wanted ancestry of 
Catharine Bosler of Cumberland Co., Pa. 

7. Swoope, John Jacob, came on ship 
Neptune, from Rotterdam. Sept. 24, 1754. 
(John Jacob Schwab.) Was of Hellam 
township, York Co., Pa. Had son Peter in- 
terested in the iron furnaces of York Co. 
Wanted wife and family, and any other 
information relating to John Jacob Swoope. 

8. Huyett, Lodowick, a Hughenot, was 
born Jan. 7, 1739. Established a home in 
Washington Co., Md., and died there April 
17, 1828. Wanted his parents and any in- 
formation prior to settling in Washington 

9. Schneider, Maria Margaretta, was the 
wife of Lodowick Huyett. Born Feb. 1, 
1752: d. Feb. 21, 1833. Wanted her parents. 
It is possible they were of Berks Co., Pa. 

Chicago, 111. K. E. B. 

4" 4» * 

Towanda, Pa.. January 6, 1909. 
H. W. Kriebel, Publisher, 

Penna. -German, East Greenville, Pa. 

My dear sir: I inclose to you herewith 
a copy of resolutions adopted at a meeting 
of the Historical Society of Bradford Co.. 
which explains itself. 

The Indian town, or rather the principal 
town of the Carantouan Indians, it is con- 
ceded, was on what is known as "Spanish 
Hill" which is located in this county, just 
South of the State line. This is the place 
where Brule, with his Huron companions, 
in October, 1615, first met these Carantou- 
annias Indians, (Andastes.) and got 500 of 
their warriors to go to the Iroquois strong- 
hold, (three days travel,) to aid the Hu- 
rons, who were with Champlain coming 
from the northwest to invest the said 
strong hold. For this information see But- 
terfield's " Brule and his Discoveries " 
(1898). Also in same work discussion, as 
to Capt. John Smith whether he ever 
reached the borders of Pennsylvania. There 
are some people who contend, that in 1714 
three Dutchman were captured by these 
same Carouantannias Indians, and brought 
to this section of what is now Pennsyl- 
vania.but the facts and the i)Iace in that 
narrative are shrouded in considerable 
doubt, and to sustain that i)osition, re- 
quires considerable assimiption. Even if it 
were true it would be of no historical val- 
ue as they (the Dutchmen) were prisoners 
of war. and were not here to learn or ex- 

l)lore, but were here if at all, by compul- 
sion. But that Brule, was here for a pur- 
pose, and went to the mouth of the Sus- 
(luehanna river there can be but very lit- 
tle doubt. 

We thought and believe, that this im- 
portant historical event, is worthy of the 
attention of the people of this State, and 
those interested in historical matters 
should make an effort to observe the Three 
Hundredth Anniversary, of the advent of 
the white man within the limits of this 
great Commonwealth. 

This Hill, or mound, known as "Spanish 
Hill" is so peculiar a formation, and there 
is so much history and legends connected- 
with it, that it deserves some attention. 
The "hill" is about 230 feet above a plain 
which surrounds it, and is about 280 feet 
above the river level. 

Much has been written about it, and some 
have assumed to argue that it was made 
by man; this idea has however never been 
seriously considered, as it no doubt is of 
natural formation. 

The fact that here Brule, the first white 
man, (so far as definitely known) came in 
1615, and the following winter, (1615-1616) 
explored the Susquehanna river to the Bay. 
is of sufficient importance, that we of this 
Commonwealth, should make note of it by 
some kind of gathering, and observance on 
its three hundred anniversary, in 1915. 

Whereas, In 1615 Stephen Brule, one of 
Champlain's interpreters, is known to have 
visited the Carantouannias Indians, who at 
that time occupied the place in northern 
Bradford county, known as "Spanish Hill." 
and vicinity, and explored the Susquehanna 
river "to the sea" and. 

Whereas, This is the earliest visit or ad- 
vent of white men in Bradford county, and 
in all probability the first white man, with- 
in the present limits of Pennsylvania, 

Resolved, That this Society, in connection 
with the Athens Historical Society, and 
other Historical Societies of Pennsylvania, 
and New York, take steps to projierly and 
appropriately celebrate the Three Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of this historical event, 
HesoIved,That a committee be appointed to 
confer with the Athens Historical Society, 
the borough authorities of Athens, Sayre. 
South Waverly. Pennsylvania, and the bor- 
ough authorities of Waverly. New York, to 
discuss and formulate i)lans. to ai)i)ropria- 
ately observe this historical evenr. at or 
near "Spanish Hill" Bradford county. 
Pennsylvania, in the year 1915. 

I certify that the above is a correct and 
true copy of the preamble and resolutions 
adopted by the Historical Society of Brad- 
ford county, at a regular meeting held on 
December 26. 1908. 




Local Historical Societies 

The Lancaster County Historical Society 

meets monthly except during the vacation 
months of July and August. It also pub- 
lishes its proceedings monthly, in pamph- 
let form. The December issue contains an 
index or list of the titles and a brief des- 
cription of a number of the papers read 
before that society since its organization 
twelve years ago. This list shows the 
many subjects that have been discussed 
and will prove valuable for reference. The 
Secretary at the January meetings stated 
that requests came from other historical 
societies and libraries in other states for 
its publications. The librarian reported an 
addition of 285 volumes during 1908 and a 
large number of articles for the museum. 
He had prepared a list of all the books 
written or published by Lancaster county 
people, numbering over 1500 titles and 
donated his bibliography to the society. The 
Treasurer had received $491 during the 
year. The February proceedings contain 
an interesting paper prepared by Dr. J. H. 
Dubbs on "Ephrata Hymns and Hymn- 
boolcs." Another paper in the same pamph- 
let is entitled "Facts from an Old Receipt 

•I" + * 

The Let>anon County Historical Society 

This live society which held its eleventh 
Annual Meeting and dinner January 8, 
1909, during 1908 met 6 times, paid out 
$183.73, added about 140 books, journals, 
l)amphlets, curios, etc., to its collection, 
and closed the year with 164 members. 

At the Annual Meeting the following 
business was transacted: 

Reports were made by the Executive 
Committee, the Treasurer, the Committee 
on History, the Committee on Relics, cur- 
ios, and antiques, and the Committee on 

The list of officers is made up of Presi- 
dent. 2 Vice Presidents, Secretary, Treas- 
urer, Librarian, an Executive Committee of 
nine including the President, Secretary 
and Treasurer, Ex officio. 

After the annual dinner addresses as 
toasts were made as follows: 

"The Presbyterian Church in Lebanon 
County by Rev. J. L. Hynson. "Work of the 
Lebanon County Historical Society by Rev. 
P C. Croll, D.D., and Pennsylvania Soldiers 
at Valley Forge by John A. Herman. Esq. 

One of the unique and valuable features 
of the work of this society is the annual 
review of the past year's doings, covering 
the Weather, Municipal and Industi-ial Life, 
Elections and Inductions into Office, Reli- 
gious Events, Educational, Reunions, Events 

of General Interest, Fatalities and Wrecks. 
Deaths. Sister County Historical Societies 
would do well to take up the same method 
of chronicling the history of their respec- 
tive counties, 

* 4« 4» 

Wyoming- Historical and Genealogical 

This society', after a delay of three years, 
has issued a new volume (Vol. X) of its 
"Proceedings and Collections" made possi- 
ble by the establishment of "The Coxe Pub- 
lication Fund", contributed by the Coxe 
family of Drifton, Luzerne County, Pa. 
(256 pages, Price $3.50 paper cover). 

We give herewith the subdivisions listed 
in the table of contents — Preface, Contents, 
Proceedings, Reports. Wyoming Aathracile 
Coal Celebration, Glacial Rock on Shawnee 
Mountain, Muster Roll of Ca^t. Hem y Shoe- 
maker's Company; Northampton County 
Rangers, 1781 ; Olden Times in Bradford 
County, Pa.; Original Letter from William 
Penn; Capture and Rescue of Kosewell 
Franklin's Family, by Indians; Marriages 
and Deaths, Wyoming Valley, lSlO-1818; 
Continental Commission of Col. Zebulou 
Butler; Turtle Shell Rattles from Indian 
Graves, Bradford County; Memorial Tablet 
to Frances Slocum; Memorial Tablet to Lt, 
Col. George Dorrance; U. S. Revolutionary 
Pensioners in Bradford and Luzerne 
Counties; Biographical Sketches of De- 
ceased members; Officers and Members of 
the Society. 

We gather the following information 
from the reports of the Secretary and 
Treasurer at the annual meeting February 
11, 1908. Number of Life Members 195. 
(Membership for Life is based on the con- 
tribution of $100.00 to be invested in "the 
Life Membership Fund") Annual Members 
211. The secretary wrote fully 550 letters 
during the year. During the year 732 
books and 1474 pamphlets were added to 
the library which is open dail.v from 10 A. 
M. to 5 and 6 P. M. About 18000 volumes 
are thus accessible for daily use, a privi- 
lege that is appreciated if 7000 visitors a 
year are a criterion. The Secretary and 
Librarian Rev. Horace E. Hayden for many 
years carried the responsibility of incur- 
ring all bills, raising all funds and paying 
all accounts. In 1906 he made an appeal 
to the State Legislature for any sum from 
$5,000 to $20,000 to help the Society. A 
joint committee of the House and Senate 
agreed to allow $2,500 which was passed 
and finally vetoed by the Governor " pro 
bono publico." This failure led the lib- 
rarian to change plans and try to increase 
the endowment fund from $25,000 to $50,- 



000, with the result that the fund in cash 
and subscriptions showed a total value of 
$45,400, at the annual meeting. 

We get a glimpse at the collections in 
the following words quoted from the Semi- 
centennial Address delivered by John W. 
Jordan, Librarian of the Historical Societi' 
of Pennsylvania: 

"Your rooms impress the visitor 
from the first with the air of studious 
— and because studious — quiet ele- 
gance, which meets the eye. The well- 
selected Library of general and local 
history and biography needs no criti- 
cism fiom uie. but high commendation, 
and the collection of portraits of your 
worthies, who by pen and sword, and 
in professional and commercial life, 
have upheld the honor and maintained 
the glory of your county, is a remark- 
able one, and attests the success which 
has attended your efforts. And the 
relics and curiosities — many of them 
are of special interest and value to 
those who love what Dean Swift calls 
"small mice nibbling at the holes of 
history." The Ethnological collection 
is a remarkal)ly fine one. I must not 
overlook your collection of the news- 
papers published in the county and 
elsewhere, valuable aids to any one 
who delves into the history of the 
The concluding words of Dr. .Jordan's 
address may well be repeated: 

"Allow me to urge you to collect every 
memorial of your forefathers that time may 
have spared. Give the future historians of 

your county no cause to reproach you for 
having left them naught but arid chron- 
icles of events, but let them find among the 
fruits of your labors the materials, not only 
for faithful narrative, but for a philosoph- 
ical exposition of the conduct and princi- 
ples and institutions of your ancestry." 

The Wyoming Society has been doing 
most excellent work along the lines refer- 
red to by the speaker and well merits the 
words quoted on page 45, written by F. B. 
Hodge of the National Museum, "The work 
of the Wyoming Historical and Gealo- 
gical Society deserves the highest praise." 

From the report of the Annual Meeting 
of the society held Feb. 10, 1909, the fol- 
lowing information is gleaned: the en- 
dowment fund amounts to $47,000; total 
membership is 385, 203 being the life mem- 
bers. During the past year 525 books and 
1100 pamphlets were added to the library. 
The society is now in a far more prosperous 
condition than ever before in its history." 
It must have pained the patient, toiling 
secretary. Rev. H. E. Hayden to write 
these words. 

' ' It is really disheartening to your 
librarian in spite o£ the prosperity 
that has marked the past year to note 
how very few members of the society 
enter its doors. It is certain that of 
the 308 living members of the society 
(that not counting the sixty-eight de- 
ceased life members) not ten per cent., 
including the officers of the society 
have visited the rooms during the past 
year except to attend the four regular 

Reviews and Notes 

Calvin Thomas, Professor of German 
Literature at Columbia University, is the 
author of A Short History of German Lit- 
erature, which the D. Appleton & Co. are 
l)ublishing. The volume belongs to the 
Literature of the World Series, edited by 
Edmund Gosse of Cambridge, England. 

Miss Elsie Singmaster had two stories 
in the magazines for February — The GTiost 
of Matthias Baiini, in the Century: and El- 
iiiina's Liviu^-Out, in Lippincotts. The 
scene of the first story is laid in Millers- 
town, Pa. A well-to-do widow ha.s several 
suitors, and she is undecided about the 
choice. She moves to the outskirts of the 
village into a house where Matthias Baum 
formerly lived — and hanged himself. As it 
frequently happens, Matthias Baum's ghost 
— schpook — was said to be around the 
place. But Savilla Marstellar was not an- 
noyed by these rumors. The uncanniness 
of the place enabled her to choose her 
suitor— Christian Oswald, who was the 

only young man who had the courage to 
venture out in the dark and call on her at 
her new home. 

The scene of the other story is also laid 
in the same vicinity. There is about as 
much difference in the structure of these 
two short stories as it is possible for short 
stories to possess. The former has some 
plotting, while the latter is hardlv more 
than an episode: it is a transcript out of 
the life of a young girl who becomes dis- 
satisfied with farm life at home and goes 
to Philadelphia — and comes back again. 
Both stories are for the most part por- 
trayals of Pennsylvania-German life and 
are interesting reading. 

ProKTOSshe Pennsylvania: A Record of the 
Remarkable Industrial Development of 
the Keystone State. By .Tames M. 
Swank. Author of "The Manufacture of 
Iron in all Ages." Cloth, octavo, gilt 
top, 360 pp. Price $5. ,J. B Lippin- 
cott Company, Philadelphia, 1908. 



This is a book filled with rare informa- 
tion presented in an interesting style. 
Chapters like the following, The Lack of 
Civic Pride in Pennsylvania; The People 
who Settled Pennsylvania; Early Trans- 
portation in Pennsylvania, giving an ac- 
count of the Conestoga wagons renowned 
as the ships of inland commerce and 
among the most famous wagons in history; 
Early Railroads in Pennsylvania, — are only 
a few of the interesting parts of the book. 

It is carefully written; it is free from the 
errors that are apt to creep into a publi- 
cation that has thousands of names and 
dates. It is written in a style that is not 
always found in bocks of such a nature. 
It is not a chronology of events. It is a 
valuable contribution to Pennsylvania his- 
tory, and it should go far to arouse the 
civic pride of Pennsylvanians, which de- 
sirable attribute, as related in the first 
chapter, is manifestly lacking among the 
inhabitants of the Keystone State. 

Uoderii Methods for Teachers: By Charles 
C: Boyer, Ph.D, Department ot Peda- 
gogy. Keystone Normal Schoo., Kutz- 
town, Pa. Cloth, 345 pp. J. B. Lippin- 
cott Company, Philadelphia, 1008. 
Here is a book that is modern in every 
aspect; it is a twentieth century handbook 
as its further title indicates. It embodies 
a practical view of the latest developments 
in the methods of teaching. It is compre- 
hensive and stimulating; it is well founded 
upon experience and on an understanding 
of the science and art of teaching. 

Probably the modernity of it is carried 
far enough in the treatment of Agriculture; 
seemingly this chapter is just a little aside 
of the mark, and that it is more fanciful 
than practical. 

In the first place, teachers the least com- 
petent to teach Agriculture in the common 
schools without making it a farce are not 
to be found, and it is exceedingly difficult 
to tell when they can be found. Second- 
ly, the course as suggested even for a 
grammar school is entirely too extensive; 
l)upils could not do anything but run over 
the country visiting this and that. In our 
mind there is enough of this interrujjted 
manner of study by just such performances. 
What undisciplined and unrestrained young 
America needs is to do some hard work 
and some hard consistent thinking, to learn 
to sit down to some hard consistent study- 
ing and acquire a scholarship worth the 
name. Thirdly, that such an extensive 
study of Agriculture should be adopted in 
a city high school self-evident! y borders 
•almost on the al)surd; and by no nrinner of 

means would it relieve the ovet crowded 
tiictcry and tenement, even if it could be 
carried out. 

We believe in getting children nore in- 
terested in, and acquainted with, God's 
great out-of-doors; but in order to do this 
it is net necessary to turn our public 
schools into agricultural colleges; they 
ape too much after the college as it is. A 
wholesome and sympathetic studv of na- 
ture as suggested by Professor Schniucker's 
"The Study of Nature" will do a great deal 
toward arousing an interest in the outside 

The book is splendidly outlined; it is 
divided into three parts: Principles of 
Teaching; Methods of Culture; Methods of 
Instruction. There is also an A.ppendix 
with a most valuable list of books for sup- 
plementary reading. It is a valuable addi- 
tion to pedagogical literature. 

Luther's Epistle Sermons for Advent and 
Christmas, translated into English by 
Professor J. N. Lenker, D.D.. author 
of "Lutherans in all Lands," transla- 
tor of Luther's Works, etc., Bound in 
cloth, 338 pp., price $1.50 or with ex- 
pressage prepaid $1.65. It is also pub- 
lished in a cheaper form at 50 cents. 
Address The Luther Press, Box 253. 
Minneapolis. Minn. 
This well-bound volume contains twelve 
excellent sermons for the part of the 
church year from the first Sunday in Ad- 
vent to Epiphany, including three ser- 
mons for Christmas and one each for New- 
Year's, St. Stephen's and St. John 's days. 
The reading of the volume is both inter- 
esting and edifying, more like a modern 
book than sermons preached nearly four 
hundred years ago. 

It is better to study the books Luther 
wrote, than those others have written of 
his life and work. "It is remarkable how he 
treats the problems which perplex thought- 
ful men of our day, covering almost every 
phase of religious, moral and social con- 
ditions." Read this and others of his most 
popular books and "judge for yourself." 

Luther on "Christian Education" was 
translated by Dr. Lenker and lately pub- 
lished. To be had at above address at 
same price. 

Rev. Di-. Lenker is a Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man by birth and education. With the as- 
sistance of others he has already trans- 
lated and published a considerable portion 
of the 110 volumes written by the Re- 
former, Martin Luther. It is expected that 
all will be translated and i)ublished in 
English. .1. A. S. 

Vol. X 

MAY, 1909 

No. 5 




HE locating of the publi- 
cation office of this 
magazine at Lititz afifords 
a convenient excuse and 
opportunity for saying a 
few thinp^s respecting 
the history and present 
purposes of the maga- 
The first number of THE PENN- 
uary, 1900. by Rev. Dr. P. C. Croll, of 
Lebanon, Pa., contained among 
others the following introductory 

No more than a new-born babe does 
this journal apologize for its birth. It is 
here and claims its right to be. It was 
born within the wedlock of race-love and 
the desire of its perpetuation. It has 
come with a mind to stay. It believes 
that it has an open field in which to grow, 
explore and disport itself. 

Like all infants it cries for help and 
support. It seeks all who would lovingly 
press it to their heart and promises to 
prove a benefit and a blessing to such. It 
hopes to grow into general favor and 
make itself widely known and useful. 

It not only is, but it exists for a special 
purpose. It feels that it has a distinct life 
of its own to live. It therefore comes to 

join the large journalistic family labeled 
with a special tag. It wears this upon its 
very face (cover) and does not feel like dy- 
ing before its recognized mission has been 
set forth. It has a story to tell that has 
never yet been fully or correctly told. It 
has a treasure to unearth that has been 
hidden even to many of its own heirs. It 
has a mine of poetic gems to explore that 
must not be allowed to lie in oblivion with 
the passing of the dialect in which they 
are couched. It ras a wealth of biography 
to write which must place comparatively 
unknown men today into the galaxy of 
the great and renowned. It has broken bits 
of anecdote and sentiment and reminis- 
cence to gather as beads upon a string 
which its proud descendants of a plain but 
sturdy race may wear as a golden neck- 
lace in the presence of the lords and 
princes of other race classes. Its very 
name must declare its mission to which it 
professes to hold itself loyal. 


Dr. Croll as editor and publisher 
conducted the magazine very credit- 
ably and successfully until October, 
1905, when the sale of the magazine 
was announced in an editorial con- 
taning the following words : 

With this issue THE PENNSYLVANIA- 
GERMAN closes its sixth volume. The 
unique journalist infant, born nearly 



six years ago, has grown well apace and 
is now quite a plump and active little 
stripling. Wlien it first came to light it 
was a dubious little foundling — a care 
chieflj- to its literary pater, a surprise and 
curiosity to its blood relatives. But its 
piteous cry, like that of many another 
hepless babe, sympathetically drew to it- 
self a circle of true friends and loyal sup- 
porters. It was soon recognized that it 
came of good blood and that it had noble 
aspirations. Hence it was carefally fed 
and well clad; so it soon shed its swad- 
dling clothes and began to stir about. 

It has now outgrown its nursery. It 
has grown into an active and heaithy boy. 
It has developed an identity of its own. Its 
life is distinct and separate from that of 
its founder. Its voice has grown stronger 
and more familiar, and it has for years 
periodically wakened the slumbering 
echoes in many a valley of the dear old 
Keystone State. Even beyond the State of 
its birth the migrating clans have heard 
its bugle notes, and they have corce to its 
rescue and support as the clans of bonny 
Scotland would answer the clarion notes 
of one of its pipers in the old feudal days. 

Inasmuch as the magazine has thus de- 
veloped its own distinct life, it can be 
treated as a thing separate from its 
founder and literary guardian. Whilst it 
may still have need of direction and sup- 
ervision, the character of its life has be- 
come fixed and definitely outlined. It must 
live out its own peculiar self, no matter in 
whose house it may find chance to dwell. 
It may, therefore, be permitted to wander 
from the home and paternal tutelage of its 
birth, and in other hands and new environ- 
ments work out its peculiar mission and 
live its distinctive life. 

It has accordingly been decided that in 
the future the little stripling shall have 
a new home. It will go on its errand of 
light-giving, trimmed by other shears. For 
its periodic voyages over the literary seas, 
its sails will be unfurled by other hands. 
In short, after this issue it passes into 
other editorial care and possession. It 
cannot be said that it was sold, for the 
little fellow is no slave — but was free-born, 
it must forever remain as unshackled in its 
mission of bearing historic light as is the 
goddess of liberty, perched on a pedestal 
in New York harbor. Yet for a considera- 
tion its privilege of editorial guidance and 
its property rights and ownership have 
been transferred and are henceforth ex- 
clusively vested in other hands. On ac- 
count of ever more crowding professional 
duties and occasional reminders of a de- 
cline of nervous vitality, its founder and 
editor has searched out capable and loving 
hands to whom it has been confidently en- 

We are happy to say that such guard- 
ians have been found in the persons of 
Messrs. H. A. Schuler, of Allentown and 
H. W. Kriebel, of East Greenville, Fa., both 
educated, intelligent and experienced men. 
The former was for many years associated 
with a progressive newspaper of his city, 
while the latter has been a founder, trus- 
tee and teacher of Perkiomen Seminary, a 
school of no mean reputation. Both are 
writers upon Pennsylvania-German sub- 
jects. Being country bred they know the 
genuine flavor of its folklore, life and 
spirit, and being educated and clever ob- 
servers, they have grasped the scope of its 
life as it is yet to be largely unfolded in 


The new proprietors announced 
their plans and hopes as follows: 

Our aim will be to move forward along 
the lines laid down by the founder of this 
magazine, gradually developing new feat- 
ures in essential harmony with its main 
ideals and doing this by giving all our 
time and thought to the work. Our chief 
purpose will not be to offer cheap, ridicul- 
ous poetry in the vernacular, nor to dole 
out perfunctory praise of individuals, nor 
to attempt a mere description of Pennsyl- 
vania-German life, either past or present, 
nor to disparage any class of our citizens, 
but to undertake and continue the thorough 
study of the lives, the work and the char- 
acteristics of that large, sturdy and long 
continued stream of German immigrants 
which began at the very founding of the 
State. In the next place we wish to en- 
courage a closer study of the environ- 
ments of these people, as a background to 
the picture we would paint or the mosaic 
we would piece together. We shall look 
for the hearty co-operation of our readers 
to this end and will welcome whatever 
suggestions they may make for improving 
our magazine. 

Right here let us say that we have no 
hobby to ride, no fads to parade, no creeds 
to air, no ax to grind, no place to boom, 
no vengeance to wreak, no idols to smash. 
Only this: We honor, admire and thor- 
oughly believe in the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans; we are poud to be of their kith and 
kin; we wish to do them a useful service 
and thereby make an honest living for our- 
selves. We want all Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans and their friends to read our maga- 
zine and shall strive to respond to the 
tastes, wishes and wants of our readers. 

^\^ith the issue for September 22, 
1906, the magazine was made a 
monthly. The next issue contained 
the following- "Important Notice." 



Due notice is hereby given that the part- 
nership heretofore existing between H. W. 
Kriebel and H. A. Schuler in the publica- 
was dissolved by mutual consent Septem- 
ber 20, 1906. Mr. Kriebel thereby acquired 
the sole ownership of the magazine and 
will continue the publication thereof, while 
Mr. Schuler will continue the editorial 
management. All matters of business per- 
taining to the magazine must be settled 
■with Mr. Kriebel. 

Durint]^ 1907 plans were laid for a 
vigorous campaif^n the following 
year, to be ruthlessly disarranged by 
the untimely and lamentable death of 
the editor Mr. H. A. Schuler, Jan- 
uary, 1908. All editorial and financial 
responsibility were thus suddenly 
thrust upon the publisher, contem- 
plated improvements prevented and 
personal canvassing by the editor and 
publisher made practically impossible 
for want of time. 


A circular letter was sent to sub- 
scribers January 1909 asking among 
others the following questions: i, 
MAN a field? 2, Has it won for itself 
a right to live and expect support? 

Our readers will bear with us if we 
quote a few words from the replies : 

— Most assuredly, it should find a wel- 
come in all intelligent families and serve 
as a history for the rising generation and 
lind many of the young desiring to read 

wide field. It has won for itself a right to 
live and is intensely interesting, instruc- 
tive and entertaining. 

GERMAN magazine has a field and has 
Tvon for itself a place in it. It merits a 
large circulation. 

best and most for the money of any maga- 
zine in its class and certainly deserves the 
substantial support of every thinking son 
and daughter of our race. 

— feel that the magazine has a distinct 
field which it is filling with a large meas- 
ure of success. It should receive the sup- 
port of all interested directly in Pennsyi- 
vania history and through libraries, could 
profitably be made available to advanced 
students in American history in all sec- 
tions of the country. 

— It both has a field and has won a 
right to live and expect support. It has 
far exceeded my expectations in every 
respect. It deserves the heartiest support 
and encouragement. 

—I am sure there is a field for THE 
PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN and that it has 
a right to ask for support. It seems to 
me that the city of Philadelphia with its 
large population of German descent, alone 
should support such a paper. Or, that the 
cities of Lancaster, Reading and Allen- 
town should do it without a subscriber 
from anywhere else. 
should be taken in every Pennsylvania- 
German family and tre language be kept up 
by the children — unless it is done, in a few 
years there will be no one left who knows 
the language. 

(1) Certainly. 

(2) Undoubtedly. 

— Wish you continued success, and hope 
it may be a means of correcting the 
erroneous views concerning our people. 
If only those who are most in need of it 
were readers of it. 

(1) Yes indispensable necessity. 

(2) Decidedly. 

MAN has a field and has nobly won itself 
a right to exist and I trust it will receive 
proper support. 

a definite field and mission and what is 
more, it is fulfilling its mission. I has a 
right to exist and should receive the sup- 
port of every Pennsylvania-German in this 
and other states. 

— Of all the papers and magazines I am 
getting it would be the last one I would 

— This paper should have the encourage- 
ment and support of every Pennsylvanian 
of German or Dutch descent. 

— In a sense pioneer work is still to be 
done in this field, that is as compared with 
the work accomplished in New England 
and New York. I feel that THE PENN- 
SYLVANIA-GERMAN will occupy a posi- 
tion similar to the N. E. Gen. and Bio. 
Register and the N. Y. Record. To bring 
this about it will be necessary for all in- 
terested in Pennsylvania history and gen- 
ealogy to co-operate in the work. 

I read the magazine regularly, and am 
much interested in the historical and other 
general information it contains, concern- 
ing our old Commonwealth, with special 
reference to our kind of people, and we 
cannot help but feel that if there had 
been strenuous efforts made in this direc- 
tion by former generations, such as you 
and others engaged in this good work are 



now making, and if our people had been 
more self-reliant and determined to push 
to the fore, that they would, no doubt, 
have secured a much greater influence in 
the public affairs of this Commonwealth, 
and more honors to their individual mem- 
bers, even than they have heretofore en- 
joyed and are now enjoying. 

a prolific field among the descendants 
when its mission is properly understood 
and its straightforwardness in all its con- 
tents has won for itself a right to live and 
I bespeak for it a successful future. 

— Would not be without it. 

has a field of its own, goes without say- 
ing. I have been a subscriber from the 
beginning and would be sorry to give it 

— Has my hearty Amen. I would not be 
without it at double its price. 

meritorious publication championing the 
cause of a worthy race. We do honor to 
ourselves by honoring our forbears though 
humble, whose life this magazine aims to 
perpetuate. It should be in every intelli- 
gent home. It is clean and absolutely re- 

— I am pleased with your magazine both 
internally and externally. I do not think 
that any fair-minded person has any good 
reasons to adversely criticise your publica- 
tion. On the other hand I feel that it is 
ably edited and its appearance is suffic- 
iently attractive to merit the support of 
all Pennsylvania-Germans who take any 
interest in their own history. 

— I find your magazine always interest- 
ing and of value, and I trust that you are 
meeting with abundant succes ; The 

Pennsylvania "Dutchman" will some day 
come into his own history, song and story 
and your work will then be aprreciated 
even more than it is now. 

(magazine) is an indispensable production 
— a long felt want and should be sup- 
ported by every one of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man extraction. 

— The magazine occupies a field rich in 
history and folklore, and I can bespeak for 
it my best wishes for its continued success. 

—There is no doubt that THE PENN- 
SYLVANIA-GERMAN has a large field and 
thrt there is a long life of great useful- 
ness before it. No other periodical occu- 
pies this field. The history and the vir- 
tues of the Pennsylvania-Germans have 
been too long neglected. The magazine is 
doing much to secure our people recogni- 
tion for what they are and what they have 

done and the large number of their de- 
scendants should furnish it ample support. 

MAN has a legitimate field although 
limited to a certain class of people by its 
necessary distinctiveness. Its scope of ter- 
ritory, however, is quite extensive and in- 
cludes all places in which reside Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans and their descendants, and 
as the number of that class of people is 
millions, thousands of whom are appre- 
ciating their ancestry, there seems to be no 
reason why the magazine should not re- 
ceive a good support as it has surely won 
for itself a right to live. 

— Several years ago while in the Con- 
gressional Library, Washington, D. C. I 
and was so delighted I subscribed at once. 
Since that time it has steadily improved 
and I would not wish to miss a copy. I 
have given as presents yearly subscrip- 
tions to quite a number of my friends be- 
lieving your magazine has a fild and is fill- 
ing it. 


Our ambition is to make THE 
virtue of its inherent value an indis- 
]-)ensable periodical in its chosen field. 

xAs means to this end we may call 
attention to a few items : 

I. ^^'e have adopted a standard 
phonetic notation. The reader is re- 
fered to our article on the subject. 
The dialect is dying has been dying 
the last hundred years, in fact should 
have been dead for decades according 
to predictions made. 

\\'hile it is dying and is destined to 
become eventually a dead "dialect" it 
is highly desirable from a historical 
linquistic and social standpc>int to 
observe and record its finer distinc- 
tions. What are the differences be- 
tween the Lehigh and Lancaster dia- 
lects, between those of Centre and 
Somerset counties? 

We w^elcome the submission of 
notes and articles for publication 
bearing on the history, peculiarities, 
of the dialect and will be pleased to 
have contributors make tise of this 
notation in indicating the sound 
values of letters and words. 



2. Providing sufficient orders are re- 
ceived making- such a step feasible we 
will reprint the earlier volumes of the 
magazine, thus making the acquisi- 
tion of complete sets of the magazine 
a possibility. 

]\IAN has already become a reposi- 
tory of valuable data respecting local 
Pennsylvania history not otherwise 
accessible. \\'ith a widening circle of 
^ friends and interested supporters it 
must continue to grow in value as a 
source book for public and private 
historic libraries. 

Some of the volumes are out of 
print ; of others only a few copies are 
left. Orders for back numbers have 
remained unfilled because the copies 
could not be supplied. It is not at 
all likely that another republication 
will be attempted. All those who 
desire any or all of the first nine vol- 
umes of the magazine should for- 
ward their orders at once. For con- 
ditions see advertising pages. Sub- 
scribers will confer a great favor by 
sending us names and addresses of in- 
dividuals and libraries who in their 
estimation might be interested in this 

3. As time and means permit more 
space will be devoted to Literary 
Notes, the work of Historical Socie- 
ties, and the printing of genealogical 

We are led to refer to the first of 
these by the following communica- 
tion from a reader : 

Would it be feasible for you to print a 
summary or review or at least a biblio- 
graphy of all current articles or books in 
which the Pennsylvania-Germans figure? 
Every month there are one or more stor- 
ies, essays or articles in the various maga- 
zines more or less descriptive of "Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutch" life. And then there are of 
course the occasional novels and historical 
efforts. It would be worth while it seems 
to me to keep your readers in touch with 
ail this literature. 

It will be impossible for the editor 
to do this work satisfactorily alone. 
He will be glad to avail himself of 

the kind aid and advice of subscribers 
and invites communication on the 
subject. Let me know on what par- 
ticular field you can supply notes. 

Unfortunately we have experienced 
difficulty in making arrangements for 
the prompt report of meeting of local 
Historical Societies. The following 
communication will illustrate one 
reason why we do not report more 
society proceedings : 

I must admit that as Secretary of the 
Historical Society I have been discourteous 
in not replying to the request for reports 
of our proceedings. As a fact I am not 
able to attend to my own business and 
have not time even to be secretary, but 
seem unable to escape the office. I do not 
know of any other member who would be 
likely to undertake to send reports. It is 
difficult to get them to attend the meetings 
and they are not active workers in any 
line of history. 

4. We shall give our hearty en- 
couragement to the organization of 
local Pennsylvania German societies 
and give them through their represen- 
tatives official recognition in the edi- 
torial management of the magazine. 
We believe that such movement to be 
inaugurated by the organization of a 
local society at Reading will mean a 
great deal in the study of the life of 
the German element in America. We 
shall be pleased to hear from sub- 
scribers who are willing to help 
organize societies in their respective 

5. The minimum number of pages 
of the magazine proper per month 
hereafter will be 56 instead of 48, 
eight pages of general reading matter 
being substituted for the supplemen- 
tal pages of "Genealogical Records." 
Supplementary pages containing gen- 
ealogical, family and church or other 
records will be printed only by special 
arrangement with parties interested, 
the conditions of which will be cheer- 
fully given on application. We be- 
lieve that by this change we can serve 
our readers and contributors more 
fully and more satisfactorily than by 
the plan followed thus far this year. 



We have been influenced to take 
this step by a genealogical student 
who wrote us as follows : 

I take the liberty of making a recom- 
mendation and a suggestion. 

Many persons have enough family data to 
make a page or so when printed, but it is 
not enough to be ready for pamplet or 
book form. Advertise a price per page for 

such printing as a part of your advertise- 

ments in your magazine for one issue. 
These will make a pamphlet when several 
pages have been printed at different times 
and will be much prized. If this can be 
done I am quite certain that it will prove 
to be the best feature of your magazine in 
point of attracting additional subscribers. 
We shall make other changes from 
time to time which need and condi- 
tions may seem to make desirable. 

Lancaster County History 

By Israel Smith Clare, Lancaster, Pa. 

H E territory comprised 
within the limits of Lan- 
caster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, before its settle- 
ment by the whites, was 
occupied by v a r i o us 
tribes of Indians, such as 
the Susquehannocks, the 
Shawanese, the Conoys, the Delawares 
and the Nanticokes. The Susquehan- 
nocks were a powerful tribe at one 
time, and the last remnant of the 
tribe was called Mingoes, or Cones- 
togas, whose home was at Indian- 
town, in the present Manor tov/nship, 
which was destroyed by the Paxton 
Boys in 1763, when the Conestogas 
were massacred at Indiantown and in 
the jail at Lancaster. The Shawanese 
were a warlike, treacherous and rov- 
ing tribe, who migrated from the 
South and settled at Pequahan, or 
Pequea, at the mouth of Pequea 
creek, early in the eighteenth century, 
and remained there for half a century, 
after which they migrated to the 

The territory of the present Lan- 
caster county was visited by whites 
who traded with the Indians, such as 
the French Canadians, Martin Char- 
tiere and his son Pierre Chartiere, 
Pierre Bizallon, Jacques LeTort and 
Isaac Miranda ; the English Quakers, 
Edmund Cartlidge and his brother 
John Cartlidge, John Harris, James 
Harris, Robert Wilkins, William Wil- 
kins, Thomas Wilkins, sr., Thomas 
Wilkins, jr., John Wilkins, Peter Wil- 

kins, Colonel John Gibson, Colonel 
George Gibson, Barnabas Hughes, 
Gordon Howard, Samuel Smith, 
Jonas Davenport, Peter Allen, Henry 
Bealy, John Burt, John Boggs, Moses 
Combs and Simon Girty; and the 
Scotch-Irishman, James Patterson, 
Lazarus Lowry, John Lowry, James 
Lowry, Daniel Lowry, Alexander 
Lowry, James Galbraith and his son 
John Galbraith, James Hamilton, John 
Kennedy, Dennis Sullivan and Joseph 


Lancaster county was originally a 
part of Chester county, and the ear- 
liest white settlers were Swiss Men- 
nonites, French Huguenots, Scotch- 
Irish, Presbyterians, Welsh Episco- 
palians and English Quakers. The 
two original townships were Cones- 
toga, formed in 1712, and Donegal, 
formed in 1722. 

The Swiss and German Mennonites 
came as early as 1709, and settled in 
the Pequea valley and on the site and 
in the vicinity of the present city of 
Lancaster, having been driven to mi- 
gration in America by horrible relig- 
ious persecution in Switzerland and 
in that part of western Germany 
known as the Palatinate of the 
Rhine, for which reason they were 
called Palatinates. This first Swiss 
and German Mennonite setclement 
was made in 1709, near Willow Street 
where the Herrs and Mylins now re- 
side. These early settlers were Hans 



Herr and his five sons, Hans Mylin 
and his sons Martin and Hans, Hans 
Rudolph Bundley, Martin Kendig, 
Jacob Miller, Martin Oberholtzer, 
Michael Oberholtzer, Hans Funk, 
Wendel Bowman, Henrich Shank, Ul- 
rich Brackbill, George Suavely, Chris- 
tian Musser, Hans Jacob Hoover, 
Samuel Hess, Samuel Boyer. Chris- 
tian Stover, Henrich Zimmerman or 
Carpenter, Christopher Franciscus, 
Amos Strettle, Jacob Miller, Peter 
Yordea, Hans Tschantz, Heinrich 
Funk, Hans Houser, Hans Bachman, 
Jacob Weber Benedictus Venrich, 
Christopher Schlegel, Guldin and 
others. Hans Herr had five sons, 
three of whom settled in what is now 
A\'est Lampeter township and two in 
what is now ]\Ianor tonship. The 
Herrs of West Lampeter, Strasburg 
Manor and other townships are their 

In 1715, 1716, 1717 and 171^ Bene- 
dictus V^enerick, Hans Mayer, Hans 
Kaigy, Christian Hershey, Hans 
Graaf, Hans Brubacker, Alichael 
Shank, Heinrich Bare, Peter Leaman 
Melchior Brenneman, Henrich Funk, 
Hans Faber, Isaac Kauffman, Mel- 
chior Erisman, Michael Miller, Jacob 
Landis, Jacob Boehm,Theodorus Eby, 
Bendictus Witmer, the brothers 
Francis Xefif and Hans Heinrich Neff, 
Sigismund Laudart, Christian Steh- 
man, Joseph Stehman and others set- 
tled along the Conestoga and its vi- 
cinity in what became Lancaster, 
Conestoga, Manor and H'empfield 

Among the French families of the 
Lefevres and the Ferrees in the Pe- 
quea valley east of the other Swiss 
and German settlements were some 
German and Swiss settlers, such as 
the Schleiermachers or Slaymakers, 
the Zimmermans or Carpenters, the 
Witmers, the Lightners, the Eshle- 
mans, the Herrs, the Hersheys, the 
Esben shades, the Baers. the Grafs or 
GrofTs, the Koenigs, the Keneagys, 
the Denlingers, the Becks, the Beck- 
ers, th Sanders or Souders, the Reams 

and others. Matthias Schleierrnacher 
(afterwards Anglicized as Slaymaker) 
and Heinrich Zimmerman (after- 
wards Anglicized as Carpenter) were 
prominent men. 

In 1718 the Conestoga Manor — af- 
terward Manor township — was sur- 
veyed for the use of the Penn family 
and was afterward granted to Swiss 
and German Mennonite settleis, such 
as the Herrs, the Bachmans, the 
Kauffmans, the Witmers, the Wiss- 
lers, the Eshlemans, the Kendigs, the 
Stoners, the Mayers, the Stehmans, 
the Newcomers, the Killaves, the 
Millers, the Charleses, the Shanks, the 
Hostetters, the Staufifers, the Landises 
the Hersheys, the Oberholtzers, the 
Lintners, the Zieglers, the Funks and 
others. The principal English land- 
owners in the Conestoga Man^r were 
the Wrights, who had fifteen hundred 
acres, and John Cartlidge, who had a 
large tract about a mile northeast of 
the present Safe Harbor. James 
Logan, a Scotch-Irishman, and at one 
time Governor of Pennsylvania, 
owned a large tract a little north of 
the present Safe Harbor. James Pat- 
terson, another Scotch - Irishman, 
owned a tract east of the site of Wash- 
ington Borough. The Conestoga In- 
diantown was granted four hundred 
acres of land, and Blue Rock com- 
prised eight hundred acres. The Ger- 
man families of Shuman and Manor 
settled east of the site of Washing- 
ton Borough about 1772. 

In the vicinity of the site of Colum- 
bia were such German and Swiss set- 
tlers as the Tarrys, the Garbcrs, the 
Stricklers, the Stehmans. the Kauff- 
mans. the Herrs, the Rupleys and 

In 1718 Hans Graaf, in search of his 
runaway horse found a beautiful 
spring some miles north of his Pequea 
settlement, to which he removed with 
his family, where he founded a new 
settlement called Graaf's Thai, or 
Grofif's Dale. His descendants have 
become numerous throughout Lan- 
caster county, and the name lias un- 



dergone various chancres, such as 
Groff, Grove, Graeff, etc. One of his 
six sons was called Graaf der Jaeger 
(the hunter). When the first town- 
ships of Lancaster county were 
formed the township in which Hans 
Graaf lived was called Earl, as Earl 
is the English word for Graaf. In 
1719 Mr. Wenger, a Swiss, became 
one of Hans Graaf's neighbors, and 
his descendants are very numerous in 
Lancaster county. 

In 1719 or 1720 some Germans who 
belonged to the new religious sect of 
the Dunkers, or Tunkers, First Day 
German Baptists, founded in Germany 
in 1708 by Alexander Mack, of 
Shreisheim, in the Palatinate, who, 
like the Mennonites, were very simple 
in their dress and habits, and adverse 
to others, to military service and the 
use of law. and who were consequently 
severely persecuted, settled at Ger- 
mantown. at Oley and Shippack, near 
the Schuylkill, and along the Pequea 
and Cocalico creek, in the present 
Lancaster county. Among the early 
German settlers along the Cocalico 
creek were Conrad Beissel, Joseph 
Schaeffer, Hans Mayer, Heinrich 
Hoehn and several Landises. In 1729 
Alexander Mack, the founder of the 
sect, himself settled at Muelbach, or 
Mill Creek, on the Cocalico. 

In 1723 a number of German set- 
tlers belonging to the Lutheran and 
German Reformed Churches, who had 
been living in Schoharie county. New 
York, emigrated to Pennsylvania and 
located on the Swatara and Tulpe- 
hocken creeks, in what is now Dau- 
phin, Lebanon and Berks counties 
and among these were the Weisers, 
ancestors of the Muhlenbergs. 

In 1723 or 1724 Everhard Ream, a 
German, founded Reamstown. Other 
German settlers there were Bucher, 
Huber, Keller, Leader, Schwarz- 
walder, Schneider, Killian, Dock, 
Forney, Rupp, Balmer, May, Mayer, 
Hahn, Ressler, Beyer, Leed, Schlott, 
Graaf, Wolf, Feirerstein, Weidman 
and others. 

In 1723 or 1724 some German and 
Swiss Mennonites settled in the re- 
gion of the present East Earl town- 
ship, the settlement being called 
Weber Thai, or Weaver Land, from 
the Webers, or Weavers. The chief 
settlers were Jacob Weber, Heinrich 
Weber, George Weber, Hans Good, 
the Martins, the Millers, the Ruths, the 
Zimmermans, the Schnaders. 


Among the Dunkers, or German 
Baptists who settled at Muelbach, or 
Mill Creek, on the Cocalico creek, in 
1720 or 1721 was Conrad Beissel, who 
soon separated from the sect because 
he believed the seventh day of the 
week (Saturday) to be the true Sab- 
bath instead of the first day (Sunday), 
and who in 1725 retired from the 
Muelbach settlement, and for some 
time lived like a hermit in a cell on 
the banks of the Cocalico. When his 
abode became known others settled 
around him and adopted his views, 
thus giving rise to the religious 
society of the Sieben Taeger, or 
Seventh Day Baptists ; and the set- 
tlement thus established in 1725 or 
1726 was known as Ephrata, or Klos- 
ter, or Dunkertown, the last name 
being a nickname of the German word 
Dunker, or Tunker, a corruption of 
the German word Taeufer meaning 
Baptists. The society adopted a 
monastic life in 1732, the members 
living like the monks and nuns of the 
Roman Catholic Church, the monks 
in a Brothers' House and the nuns in 
a Sisters' House. The Kedar meeting- 
house and the convent Zion were 
erected on a hill called Mount Zion. 
The society had a paper-mill, a print- 
ing house, a school-house, a bake- 
house- and other buildings, one of 
which had a town-clock. The sisters* 
rooms were decorated with ink-paint- 
ings with Scriptural texts in orna- 
mented Gothic letters called in Ger- 
man, Fractur Schriften. Bissel's 
successor as Father was Peter Miller. 
In 1739 Ludwig Hoecker came to 



Ephrata from Germany and was ap- 
pointed teacher of the common school. 
He afterward opened there the first 
Sabbath-School in the world ; though 
not the first Sunday-school. Religious 
books, such as Fox's Book of Martyrs 
and other works were printed there. 
This community flourished for half a 
century, but nothing now remains of 
its past existence except crumbling 
walls and curious pieces of workman- 
ship. Ephrata afterward became noted 
as a summer resort and its mountain 
springs became celebrated. 

In 1727 about a thousand Swiss and 
Palatine Mennonites came to what is 
now Lancaster county, among them 
being the Dififenderfers, the Eckmans, 
the Eckerts, the Bowmans, the Eb- 
erlys, the Zugs, the Schultzes, the 
Funks, the Frantzes, the Mayers and 
others. Alexander Dififenderfer set- 
tled in Oley, now in Berks county. 
His brother, John DifTenderfer, settled 
at what is now New Holland. John's 
grandsons, David Diifenderfer and 
Jacob Diffenderfer, were Revolution- 
ary soldiers. Other German settlers 
there were the Rancks, the Bacherts, 
the Becks, the Mayers, the Brim- 
mers, the Kochs, the Hinkels, the 
Schneiders, the Segers, the Siehleys, 
the Brubachers, the Meixels, the Dil- 
lers, etc. 


Among the Swiss and German set- 
tlers who came here before 1735 and 
whose descendants are now numerous 
in Lancaster county are such names 
as Herr, Hess, Harnish, Hershey, 
Hiestand, Landis, Mylin, Brubacher 
or Brubaker, Brenneman, Witmer, 
Kindig or Kendig, Stoner, Hochstet- 
ter or Hostetter, Zimmerman or Car- 
penter, Kreider or Greider, Eckman, 
Eckert, Ellmaker, Schleiermacher or 
Slaymaker, Becker or Baker, Beck, 
Bachman or Baughman, Killhaven or 
Killhcffer, SchaefTer or Sheaflfer, Wen- 
-ger, DifTenderfer, Graaf or GraefT or 
Grove, Musser, Musselman, Weaver 
or Weber, Good or Guth, Eshleman or 
Eshelman, KaufTman, Hoover or 

Iluber, Royer, Boyer, Bare or Bair or 
Bear or Baer, Bauman or Bowman, 
Oberholzer or Oberholtzer, Garber or 
Gerber, Nissley, Bassler, Burkholder, 
Shank or Shenk, Weidler, Weidman, 
Suavely, Hofifman, Forney, Ritter, 
Risser, Eberly, Gochenaur, Stambach, 
Bomberger, Umberger, Burkhardt, 
Shififer, Reist, Sensenig, Seldomridge, 
Sherrick or Shirk, Keyser or Kaiser, 
Swope, DitTcnbach or Dififeubaugh, 
Westhaver or WesthaefTer, Sauder or 
Souder, Shissler, Rohrer, StaufTer, 
Erb, Eby or Eaby, Erisman or Ehris- 
man. Brandt, Ream, Leaman or Leh- 
man, Shultz or Schulz, Hauser or 
Houser, Muller or Miller, Buckwalter, 
Mayer or Meyer or Moyer or Myers, 
Funk. Newcomer, Rathvon or Rath- 
fon, Longenecker, Niefif or NefT; Bren- 
ner, Minnich, Reinhardt, Ehrhardt, 
Esbenshade, Bushong, Stehman, Den- 
linger, Dellinger, Mellinger, Schneider 
or Snyder, Schnader or Snader, Her- 
man, Lichty or Light, Frantz, Brack- 
bill and many others. 


The territory between the Big 
Chickies creek and the Susquehanna 
river was settled by the Scotch-Irish 
about 1715, with such family names as 
Semple, Mitchell, Patterson, Speer, 
Henderson, Hendricks, Galbraith, 
Anderson, Scott, Lowry, Pedam, Por- 
ter, Sterritt, Kerr,Work, Lytle,White- 
hill, Campbell, McClure, etc. In 1722 
diis territory was erected into a new 
township called Donegal as most of 
these settlers come from county Done- 
gal,- Ireland. Some of the descen- 
dants of these Scotch-Irish settlers 
still own the first possessions of their 

In 1717 English Quakers and 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians settled 
along Octoraro creek, among whom 
were William Grimson, the Cooksons, 
the Jervises, the Irwins and the 
Mays. Some years later came the 
Pattersons, the Darbys, the Leonards, 
the Joneses, the Steeles, the Matthews 



the Cowens, the Murrays, the Millers, 
the Allisons, the Mitchells and others. 

Septimius Robinson and John ]\Ius- 
grove, English settlers were among 
the Swiss Mennonite settlers in the 
Pequea valley. The Quaker English 
brothers John and Edmund Cartlidge 
and David Jones, a Weshman, located 
on the Conestoga, near the mouth of 
the creek. In 1715 English and 
Welsh settlers, such as Peter Bellas, 
Daniel Harman, William Evans and 
James Smith located around Smoke- 
town, in what is now East Lampeter 
township. In 1716 Richard Carter, an 
Englishman, settled between the Con- 
estoga and Pequea creeks, near the 
Susquehanna. He afterward settled in 
what is now Warwick township. In 
1716 other English settlers. Alex- 
ander Bews, Anthony Bretter and 
John Gardiner, settled on the south 
side of the Conestoga, near its mouth. 
In 171 7 Joseph Cloud, another Eng- 
lishman, located near the Pequea. In 
1719 Jenkin Davis, a Welshman, set- 
tled on a branch of the Conestoga 
and George Stewart, a Scotch-Irish^ 
man, located near the Susquehanna. 

In 1714, Alexander Ross, an Eng- 
lishman, located on the Little Cono- 
wingo creek ; and in 1717 Edward 
Sleadwell, another Englishman, set- 
tled on the Octoraro creek, in the pres- 
ent Little britain township. A Mary- 
land grant was made to Mary Graham 
a Scotch-Irish woman, in the territory 
of the same township in 171 5. Large 
tracts were granted by Maryland to 
Emanuel Grubb, a Welshman^ in 1716 
and 1720, and one to Thomas Jacobs, 
another Welshman, in the same town- 
ship in 1720. 

In 1682 a number of Welsh Episco- 
palians settled west of the Schuylkill, 
among whom was Thomas Owen. In 
1686 Rowland Ellis and one hundred 
other Welsh settlers came. In 1698 
other Welsh emigrants arrived, among 
whom were William Jones, Robert 
Jones, Robert Evans, Thomas Evans, 
Owen Evans, Cadwallader Evans, 
Hugh Griffith, John Humphrey and 

Edward Foulke. In 1723 another 
Welsh settlement was made in the 
Welsh Mountain region by the 
Davises, the Evanses, the Douglases, 
the Hendersons, the Morgans, the Jen- 
kinses, the Edwards, the Robinets, 
the Fords, the Fobets, the Lardners, 
the Billingses and the Sprengers. The 
Welsh also settled along Allegheny 
creek, a branch of the Tulpehocken. 

Hazard's Register states the follow- 
ing: "Kurtz, it is supposed, estab- 
lished the first Iron Works in 1726, 
within the present bounds of T^ancas- 
ter county. The Grubbs were distin- 
guished for their industry and enter- 
prise. They commenced operations in 

John Hains, the Quaker English- 
man, a native of Yorkshire, England, 
located at Paxton, or Paxtang, the site 
of HarrisbuFg, about 1705. He was an 
Indian trader, and was once captured 
by some drunken Indians, who tied 
him to a mulberry tree and threatened 
to burn him alive because he refused 
to sell them more rum, but he was re- 
leased by some friendly Indians who 
came to his rescue. He died in 1748, 
and, at his request, was buried under 
the shade of that mulberry tree, in 
the family graveyard. His son, John 
Harris, the first white child born 
west of the Conewago hills and a col- 
onel in the American Revolutionary 
army, founded Harrisburg in 1785. 

The site of Lancaster was first set- 
tled by Colonel George Gibson, an 
Englishman and an Indian trader, 
who established a tavern on the site o 
the First National Bank, on East 
King street, as early as 1721 or 1722. 
According to tradition the Indian vil- 
lage of Hickory Town stood on the 
site, there being a hickory tree in the 
center of the village, near a spring. 

In 1727 three Quaker Englishmen — 
John Wright, Robert Barktr and 
Samuel Blunston — settled on the east 
side of the Susquehanna, south of 
Chickies Hill, which was the begin- 
ning of the present town of Colum- 
bia. John Wright was the founder of 
Columbia and of Lancaster county. 



His descendants have since resided in 
Columbia ; and Wrightsville on the 
opposite side of the river, is named 
after this family. Wright, Barber and 
Blunston were active, enterprising and 
useful citizens, and their names are in- 
timately associated with the early his- 
tory of Lancaster county. Tlie Pat- 
tons and other Scotch-Irish soon set- 
tled in that locality, as did such Ger- 
man and Swiss families as the Forrys, 
the Garbers, the Stricklers, the Steli- 
mans, the Kauffmans, the Herrs, the 
Rupleys and others. 

When Lancaster county was erected 
in 1729, there were one thousand 
Quaker families settled within its 
limits, their settlements extending 
from the Octoraro to the Susque- 

The French Huguenot families of 
the Ferrees and the Lefevres settled 
in what is now Leacock and Paradise 
townships, and their descendai-ts have 
since spread to various parts of Lan- 
caster county, of Pennsylvania and 
the United States. From the marriage 
of Isaac Lefevre with Catharine Fer- 
ree have sprung all the Lefevres in 
America. The French Canadians, 
jMartin Chartiere, and his son and 
heir Pierre Chartiere, Pierre F)izaillon 
and Jacques Le Tort had resided 
among the Indians as traders some 
years before the settlement of Lancas- 
ter county and the Chartiers and Le 
Tort held lands in what is now Manor 
township, and Bizaellon at Paxtang, 
the site of Harrisburg. 

In the meantime squatters had 
located west of the Susquehanna, in 
what is now York county ; and John 
Grist, one of these, was involved in 
trouble with the Indians, and was fi- 
nally forced to remove by the prov- 
incial authorities at Philadelphia, on 
complaint of the Indians. 


In February, 1729, Governor Pat- 
rick Gordon and his Council granted 
a petition of the Chester county set- 
tlers of Octoraro creek for a new 

county, and appointed a commission 
of twelve prominent men, consisting 
of Henry Hayes, Samuel Nutt, Sam- 
uel Ilollings worth, Philip Taylor, 
Elisha Gatchell and James James, 
from what is now Chester county, 
and John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, 
Samuel Blunston, Andrew Cornish, 
Thomas Edwards and John Mus- 
grove, from what is now Lancaster 
county, to meet John Taylor, the 
public surveyor of Chester county, to 
survey and mark the boundary line 
between Chester county and the pro- 
posed new county. In May, 1729, this 
commission reported to the Governor 
and his Council. The Governor sub- 
mitted the report to the Assembly of 
the province; and on May 10, 1729, 
the Assembly passed an act erecting 
all that part of Chester coimty west 
of the Octoraro creek and north and 
west of a line of marked trees, from 
the north branch of the said Octoraro 
creek, northwesterly to the Schuyl- 
kill river, into a new county to be 
named Lancaster county, so named 
by the Quaker John Wright, after his 
native county, Lancaster, or Lan- 
cashire, in England, who had re- 
moved from Chester in 1726 and set- 
tled along the Susquehanna on the 
site of Columbia. 

Lancaster county was the first 
county of Pennsylvania formed after 
Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester 
counties, the first three original coun- 
ties within the present limits of the 
State. For twenty years (1729- 

1749) Lancaster county embraced all 
of Pennsylvania north and west of 
Chester county. It was gradually re- 
duced to its present size by the erec- 
tion of York county in 1749, Cumber- 
land county in 1750, Berks county in 
1752, Northampton county in 1772, 
Dauphin county in 1785 and Lebanon 
county in 1813. 

A public meeting of the leading 
citizens of the new county, at John 
Postlethwait's tavern, the site of the 
old homestead of the Fehls, in Cones- 
toga township, near Conestoga 




creek, June 9, 1729, agreed on the 
names and boundaries of the town- 
ships of the county ; and a magistrates' 
court at the same place confirmed the 
report of the citizens' public meeting, 
August 5, 1729. 

Of the seventeen original town- 
ships Derry and Peshtank (now Pax- 
ton) are in the present Lebanon 
county. The fourteen original town- 
ships within the present limits of 
Lancaster county were Caernarvon, 
Salisbury, Sadsbury, Drumore, Mar- 
tic, Conestoga, Hempfield, Donegal, 
Warwick, Earl, Leacock, Lampeter, 
Manheim and Lancaster. Co.iestoga 
and Donegal had been townships of 
Chester county before the formation 
of Lancaster county. Most of these 
townships have since been divided so 
as to make forty-one townships for 
Lancaster county. 


Most of the townships were named 
after places which the settlers came 
from in England, Wales, Ireland, or 
Germany. Thus Salisbury, Lancas- 
ter and Warwick were named after 
places in England, the last named 
being Richard Carter, who came from 
Warwickshire, England. Caernarvon 
and Lampeter were named after 
places in Wales. Drumore, Martic, 
Leacock, Donegal and Derry were 
named after places in Ireland, Man- 
heim was named after the city of that 
name in Germany. Earl was named 
after Hans Graaf, being the German 
name of Earl. Hempfield was so 
named because of the large quantities 
of hemp raised there. Lebanon was a 
Scriptural name. Conestoga and 
Peshtank were Indian names, as was 
Cocalico, formed also in 1729, several 
months after the first seventeen 
townships, and being the Indian 
name of the creek flowing through it. 


By the act establishing Lancaster 
county, John Wright, Caleb Pierce, 
James Mitchell and Thomas Edwards 

were empowered to purchase a site 
for the county court-house and prison. 
Three sites were proposed — Wright's 
Ferry, now Columbia; James Postle- 
thwait's place, now Fehl's in Cones- 
toga township; and Gibson's place, 
the site of Lancaster. The first county 
courts were held at Postlethwait's 
tavern, from June, 1729, to August, 
1730; and a temporary wooden court- 
house and jail were erected there. 
Wright, Pierce and Mitchell selected 
Gibson's place as the site for the 
county-seat, and their report was 
confirmed by the Governor and his 
Council, May i, 1729. A town was 
laid out there in 1730 by James Ham- 
ilton, of Philadelphia, and named 
Lancaster, after Lancaster, England. 
The road from Philadelphia to Harris' 
Ferry (now Harrisburg) passed 
through the new town. 

On petition of the grand jury, 
magistrates and inhabitants of Lan- 
caster county, the Provincial Council 
at Philadelphia appointed a commis- 
sioner of seven promient men from 
Lancaster county and seven from 
Chester county to lay out a public 
highway, by way of Postlethwait's in 
Conestoga township, from the Cones- 
toga Indian Town, in the present 
Manor township, to the King's high- 
road in Chester county, leading to 
Philadelphia. The viewers made their 
report October 4, 1733, and the Coun- 
cil confirmed it, and the road was 
declared the King's Highway This 
is the road passing east from Fehl's, 
through Strasburg and the Gap, to 

As Maryland claimed the territory 
of southern Pennsylvania as far north 
as the sites of Columbia and Wrights- 
ville, there were many border con- 
tests between Pennsylvania and 
Maryland settlers in what isnow York 
county, Pennsylvania, for more than 
thirty years after 1732. The Mary- 
land raiders were led by Colonel 
Thomas Cresap, and the contest is 
known as Cresap's War. Marylanders 



were captured and jailed at L-ancaster 
and Philadelphia, while Pennsylvan- 
ians were imprisoned at Baltimore 
and Annapolis, Maryland. In 1767 
the border contests were ended and 
the disputed boundary between Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania finally settled 
by Mason and Dixon's Line, estab- 
lished by Charles Mason and Jere- 
miah Dixon, surveyors appointed for 
the purpose by the British govern- 


The Quakers, John and James 
Hendricks, of Hempfield township, 
made the first settlement in the pres- 
ent York county in 1729. Other set- 
tlements were made west of the Sus- 
(luehanna. in what are now York, 
Adams, Franklin, Cumberland and 
Perry counties ; and the townships of 
Pennsborough and Hopewell, within 
the limits of the present Cumberland 
count)^ were erected by order of the 
Lancaster county court in November, 
1735. In October, 1740, the town of 
York was laid out by Thomas Cook- 
son, Deputy Surveyor of Lancaster 
county, by order of the Penns. On 
petition of the settlers west of the 
Susquehanna river, the Governor and 
Legislature of Pennsylvania erected 
that part of Lancaster county west of 
the river into a new county called 
York, August 19, 1749, Cumberland 
county was erected west of the river, 
north of York, January 27, 1750. 
Berks county was erected out of parts 
of Lancaster, Philadelphia and Bucks 
counties, March 11, 1752. 

The Lancaster county court erected 
the following townships east of the 
Susquehanna: Hano\er township, 
out of Paxton township, in what is 
now Dauphin, February, 1737; Lit- 
tle Britain, out of the southern part 
of Drumore, and Colerain, out of the 
southern part of Sadsbury, in Feb- 
ruary, 1738; Berne township, from 
part of Tulpehocken township, in 
what is now Berks county, in 1738; 

Bethel township, from part of Leba- 
non township, in what is now Leba- 
non county, in 1739; Rapho, out of 
that part of Donegal between the Big 
Chickies and Little Chickies creeks, 
in May, 1741 ; and Bart, out of the 
western part of Sadsbury, in Novem- 
ber, 1743. Little Britain was so 
named because its early settlers were 
all from Great Britain. Colerain and 
Rapho were named after the places 
where the early settlers came from in 
Ireland. Bart is a contraction of 
baronet, and was so named from Gov- 
ernor Sir William Keith, wTio w^as a 
baronet. Brecknock township, named 
by its early Welsh settlers after 
Brecknock county, Wales, was in 
existence in 1740. 

Between 1735 and 1740 the neigh- 
borhood of Reinholdsville was set- 
tled by Germans, such as Han.'-'. Zim- 
merman, Peter' Schumacher and 
others. On May i, 1743, Lancaster 
was incorporated by charter as a 

As there were frequent disputes 
between the Scotch-Irish and the 
Germans in Lancaster county, the 
Penns ordered their agents to sell no 
more land in York and Lancaster 
counties to the Scotch-Irish. Many of 
the Scotch-Irish settlers of Paxton 
and Donegal townships accepted the 
liberal offer of the Penns and settled 
in Cumberland county. The Works,, 
the Moores, the Bells, the Galbraiths, 
the W'hitehills, the Silvers, the 
Semples. the Sterritts, the Woods 
and others — early Scotch-Irish set- 
tlers in the eastern end of Cumber- 
land county — went there from Done- 
gal township. 

On petition of the inhabitants, the 
Lancaster county court erected the 
northeastern part of \\'arwick town- 
ship into a new township called Eliza- 
beth, from the furnace of that name, 
in 1757. and the northeastern part of 
Donegal township into a new town- 
ship called Mount Joy. in 1759. 
Manor township was formed of the 
Conestoga Manor, which had hith- 



■erto been the southern part of Hemp- 
field township ; and Strasbiirg town- 
ship was formed out of that part of 
Leacock township south of Pequea 
-creek, which then included what is 
now Strasburg and Paradise town- 

In 1761 William Adams laid out 
Adamstown ; and in 1762 Mr. Doner 
laid out Maytown, so called because 
it was laid out on May day. In 1761 
John Miller, a blacksmith of Lancas- 
ter borough, laid out a town in the 
northeastern part of Manor township 
•called at first Millersburg, afterwards 
Millerstown, and lastly Millersville. 
This place has within the last half 
century become famous as the seat of 
the First Pennsylvania State Normal 
School, the largest normal school in 
•the world. 

In T761 the eccentric German baron 
Heinrich Wilhelm Stiegel, laid out a 
town which he called Manheim, after 
his native city in Germany. Among 
the first settlers were the Naumans, 
Minnichs, Wherlys, Kaisers, Longs 
and Heintzelmans. In the vicinity 
were the Lightners, Reists, Hersheys, 
Hostetters, Lehmans, Longeneckers, 
Brandts, Hellers and others. Baron 
Stiegel erected a glass house, where 
he carried on the manufacture of all 
kinds of glass for many years. He 
was a baron in Germany, and in 
America he was an iron master, a 
glass manufacturer, a preacher and a 
teacher, rich and poor, at liberty and 
imprisoned, and died a schoolmaster. 
The Assembly of Pennsylvania 
passed a special act for his relief, 
December 24, 1774. 

In 1763 many of the Scotch-Irish 
settlers of Lancaster county sold out 
to the Germans and removed to the 
Chestnut Glade, along the northern 
line of what was then Lancaster and 
Chester counties, where there was 
heavy timber. 


The people of Lancaster county es- 
pecially the Scotch-Irish settlers of 

Paxton and Donegal townships, suf- 
fered terribly during the whole ten 
years of the French and Indian War. 
Men, women and children were mur- 
dered while at work in the fields, at 
their meals or in their beds at night. 
Sights of horror, scenes of slaughter, 
bloody scalps, mangled bodies, hacked 
limbs — these were the evidences of 
Indian cruelty and barbarity Such 
horrible sights and fiendish atrocities 
excited the fiercest rage and indigna- 
tion 'among the people of Paxton, 
Hanover, and Donegal townships; 
and' they became desperate in their 
determination for revenge on the sav- 
age butchers of their kinsmen and 
relatives. The Paxton and Donegal 
rangers watched the Indians very 
closely, and determined to strike 
terror into all Indians by extermi- 
nating the Conestoga tribe. 

About the middle of December, 
1763, the Paxton Boys, consisting of 
sixty men from Paxton, Hanover and 
Donegal townships, and commanded 
by Captain Lazarus Stewart, attacked 
the Conestoga Indian Town, in 
Manor township and barbarously mas- 
sacred the six Indians at home, 
among whom was the chief, Shaheas, 
who had always been noted for his 
friendship for the whites. The mag- 
istrates of Lancaster borough brought 
the other Conestogas to Lancaster 
and placed them in the newly-erected 
workhouse for safety, while Governor 
John Penn issued a proclamation de- 
nouncing the massacre and offering 
a reward for the punishment of the 
brutal murderers. On the last Sun- 
day morning in December, 1763, the 
Paxton Boys stormed the jail and 
workhouse in Lancaster and mass- 
acred the remaining fourteen Cones- 
toga Indians found there, men, 
women and childrefi. The infuriated 
murderers were deaf to all pleas for 
mercy and to all protestations of in- 
nocence and friendship for the Eng- 
lish on the part of the helpless vie- 



tims, who were horribly butchered 
with rifles, tomahawks and hatchets. 
Governor John Penn issued a procla- 
mation denouncing the outrage and 
ofifering a reward for the punishment 
of the fiendish murderers. 


Lancaster county bore her share in 
the great struggle for American inde- 
pendence, and many of her sons were 
found among the patriots who 
swelled the Continental armies, tak- 
ing part in the expedition into Can- 
ada in 1775 and in the battle of Long 
Island, White Plains,Trenton, Prince- 
ton, Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth. Many British prisoners 
taken at Trenton, Princeton and Sara- 
toga were confined at Lancaster, 
.and the unfortunate Major Andre 
was also held for a time. Over five 
"hundred wounded American soldiers 
from the battlefield of Brandywine 
were brought to Ephrata, where one 
Tiundred and fifty of them died, which 
fact has been commemorated by a 
fine monument unveiled in 1902. 
When the British occupied Philadel- 
phia, in September, 1777, the Conti- 
nental Congress fled to Lancaster, 
where they held an informal session 
and then fled to York, where they re- 
mained until June, 1778. While the 
British occupied Philadelphia the 
Continental money was printed at 
Ephrata. American soldiers were 
quartered at the barracks at Lancas- 
ter during the winter of 1777-78, and 
also in the Lutheran and Reformed 
churches at Manheim. The non-resis- 
tant sects of the Quakers, the Menno- 
nites, the Dunkers and the Amish, 
whose religion opposed war and mili- 
tarism, were denounced by the pa- 
triots as " Tories " and "enemies of 
America." George Ross was Lancas- 
ter's signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence. Other prominent men of 
Lancaster in Revolutionary times 
were Adam Reigart, Jasper Yeates, 
a prominent Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania and a Tory, 

and Edward Shippen, a prominent 
merchant and a Tory, and father-in- 
law of Benedict Arnold. 
In 1785 Harrisburg was founded on 
the site of Harris's Ferry by Colonel 
John Harris, son of John Harris, the 
pioneer Quaker Indian trader ; and 
the same year the Pennsylvania 
Legislature, on petition of the inhabi- 
tants, erected all that part of Lancas- 
ter county north of Conewago creek, 
with part of Northumberland county, 
into a new county called Dauphin, In 
1813 the State Legislature, on peti- 
tion of the inhabitants, erected a new 
county called Lebanon, out of Leba- 
non, Bethel and Heidelberg town- 
ships, Lancaster county, with part of 
Dauphin county, thus reducing Lan- 
caster county to its present limits. 

Lancaster was the capital ot Penn- 
sylvania from 1799 to 1812, when the 
State capital was removed to Harris- 
burg. On petition of the inhabitants 
Lancaster was incorporated as a city 
by a charter granted by act of the 
State Legislature in 1818. Two of 
Pennsylvania's Governors are buried 
at Lancaster — Thomas Wharton, who 
died there in 1778, and General 
Thomas Mifflin, who had been Gov- 
ernor twelve years, and who had also 
been president of the Continental Con- 
gress. He died there while a membr 
of th Legislature. Both these men's 
remains are buried at Trinity Luth- 
eran church. 

Since the Revolution the following 
new townships were formed in Lan- 
caster county : East Hempfield and 
West Hempfield, from the division of 
Hempfield in 1818; West Earl, out of 
the western part of Earl in 1827; 
East Cocalico, West Cocalico and 
Ephrata, by the division of Cocalico 
township in 1838; East Donegal and 
West Donegal, by the division of 
Donegal township in 1838; East 
Lampeter, by the division of Lam- 
peter township in 1841 ; Conoy, out of 
the western part of \\'^est Donegal in 
1842; Upper Leacock, out of all that 



part of Leacock north of Mill Creek 
in 1843; Paradise, out of the eastern 
half of Strasburg township in 1843 j 
Fulton, out of the western half of 
Little Britain in 1844 and named in 
honor of Robert Fulton, who was 
born within its limits ; Penn, out of 
the western part of Warwick in 1846, 
and named in honor of William 
Penn ; East Earl, out of the eastern 
part of Earl in 1851; Providence, out 
of the eastern part of Martic in 1853; 
Pequea, out of the eastern part of 
Conestoga township also in 1853; 
Clay, out of the eastern half of Eliza- 
beth, also in 1853, and named in 
honor of Henry Clay; Eden, out of 
the western part of Bart in 1855 ; 
East Drumore, out of the eastern 
half of Drumore in 1886. 

The turnpike leading from Lancas- 
ter to Philadelphia was erected in 
1792 and is the oldest turnpike in the 
United States. The other turnpikes 
in the county were constructed about 
1835. The Philadelphia and Columbia 
Railroad was completed about 1835. 
This railroad was afterward extended 
from Columbia to Harrisburg. The 
Harrisburg and Lancaster Railroad, 
by way of Mount Joy and Elizabeth- 
town, was united with the other rail- 
road at Dillerville and near Middle- 
town, making two railway routes 
from Lancaster to Harrisburg. These 
lines became part of the great Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, completed in 1854, 
thus establishing one continuous 
railway line between Philadelphia 
and Pittsburg. 

Lancaster county furnished a large 
number of soldiers for the War of 
1812 and the War with Mexico who 
took part in the leading battles of the 
last-named war. 

Before the abolition of slavery in 
Pennsylvania in 1780 slaves were held 
h\ many parts of Lancaster county. 
The old inn-masters were the princi- 
pal slaveholders in this county, Cur- 
tis Grubb being the largest owner of 
slaves. There were many cases of 
hair-breadth escapes and captures of 

fugitives at Columbia, where runa- 
way slaves often crossed the river at 
the bridge. William Wright, of Col- 
umbia, son of James Wright and 
grandson of the pioneer John Wright 
was a great Abolitionist, and was 
once assaulted with a rawhide by 
Charles S. Sewell, a Maryland slave- 
holder, who had settled in Manor 
township and was forced to free his 
slaves. William Wright was the 
first person to suggest the so-called 
"underground railroad," a system 
and concert of action among the 
friends of the slaves to help such 
negroes as escaped from sla\ ery in 
the South to freedom in the North or 
to Canada. One of the stations of the 
"underground railroad" was Daniel 
Gibbon's place, one mile west of 

Samuel Wright, son of James 
Wright and grandson of John 
Wright, the pioneer Quaker settler of 
Wright's Ferry, laid out the town of 
Columbia in 1787. This place was 
one of three sites proposed in Con- 
gress in 1790 as the place for the 
permanent capital of the United 
States — the other two being Philadel- 
phia and the site of the present Na- 
tional Capital. Columbia was made 
a borough in 1814. The town of 
Waterford, laid out by James Ander- 
son at Anderson's Ferry in 1804, and 
the town of New Haven, laid out by 
David Cook in 1804, were incorpor- 
ated as the borough of Marietta in 
1812. At the village of Woodstock, 
built in 1807, on the river a few miles 
south of Columbia, in Manor town- 
ship, Jacob Dritt laid out the town of 
Washington in 181 1, and in 1814 
Joseph Charles laid out Charleston, 
just north of Washington; and in 
1827 both these towns were incorpor- 
ated as the borough of Washington. 
The village of Strasburg, founded be- 
fore 1740, became a borough in 1816. 
Manheim and Elizabethtown, both of 
which existed before the Revolution, 
were incorporated as boroughs in 
1838. In 181 1 Jacob Rohrer laid out 



the \illagc of ]\Iount Joy, aiul in 1814 
the village of Richland, just west, was 
laid out; and in 1851 both villages 
were incorporated as the borough of 
Mount Joy. Adamstown, laid out by 
William Adams in 1761, was incor- 
porated as a borough in 1850. Lititz 
was incorporated as a borough in 
1887 and Ephrata in 1891. Since that 
date Akron, Denver, New Holland, 
Christiana. Ouarryville, Mountville 
and Terre Hill have become boroughs. 
The first return of the fugitive 
slave to his master under the Fugi- 
tive Slave Law occurred at Columbia 
in the fall of 1850, when \Villiam 
IJaker, a runaway slave was arrested 
and returned to his master, but his 
freedom was afterward purchased by 
the people of Columbia. The first 
martyrdom under the Fugitive Slave 
Law also occurred at Columbia, April 
30. 1852, when a colored man named 
"\\'illiam Smith, who tried to escape 
from his would-be captors, was shot 
and killed. The first conflict and 
bloodshed caused by the Fugitive 
Slave Law also occurred in Lancas- 
ter county, when the famous "Chris- 
tiana Riot" occurred, September, 
1 85 1 ; in which Edward Gorsuch, the 
^Maryland slaveholder who tried to 
recover his runaway slave. W'illiam 
Parker, was shot and killed, and in 
which Castner Hanway, Elijah Lewis 
and Joseph Scarlet aided the colored 
people of the neighborhood in their 
resistance to the slaveholders and 
Deputy United States Marshal Kline. 
The attack on Fort Sumter, April 
12, 1861, aroused the patriotism of 
the people of Lancaster county, and 
noble responses were made to Presi- 
dent Lincoln's calls for troops. Lan- 
caster county was the home of Presi- 
• dent James Buchanan, during whose 
administration the plans of the 
Slaveholders' Rebellion w^ere pre- 
pared, and was also the home of 
Thaddeus Stevens. who was the 
recognized leader of the Republican 
majority in the National House of 
Representatives which assisted in de- 

vising measures for the suppression 
of the great Rebellion. Two wholly 
Lancaster county regiments were the 
7(;th Pennsylvania under Colonel 
Henry A. Hambright, and the I22d 
Pennsylvania under Colonel Emlen 
[■Vanklin. The 79th took part in the 
battles of Perry ville, Stone Ridge, 
Chickamauga, Chattanooga and in 
Sherman's Atlanta campaign and 
march to the sea. Soldiers of Lancas- 
ter county were also in the Pennsyl- 
\ania Reserves and about sixty other 
Pennsylvania regiments. At the time 
of Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania in 
1863 Colonel James Pyle VVickersham, 
principal of the Millersville State 
Normal School, commanded the 47tli 
regiment of Pennsylvania militia. 
Lee's invasion of ^Maryland in 1862 
and his invasion of Pennsylvania in 
1863 caused intense alarm in Lancas- 
ter county, and the Columbia bridge 
was burned to prevent the Confeder- 
ate detachment which had reached 
W'rightsville from crossing the river, 
Sunday night, June 28, 1863. The 
Patriot Daughters of Lancaster' were 
the first women's society to minister 
to the wants of the Union soldiers, 
and were the first to raise funds for a 
monument to the Lancaster county 
soldiers and sailors in Center Square, 
Lancaster, which monument was un- 
veiled July 4, 1S74. 

The Reading and Columbia Rail- 
road was completed in 1863 ; and the 
branch of that railroad from the 
I unction tt) Lancaster was finished in 
1886, and was extended to Ouarry- 
ville in 1875. The Columbia and 
i'ort Deposit Railroad was completed 
in 1876. The Lancaster branch of 
the Reading and Columl^ia Railroad 
was extended to Lebanon in 1886; 
and the branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad from Conewago to Lebanon 
was finished about the same time. 
The New Holland and Honcybrook 
branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
was completed in 1890. Electric rail- 
wavs connect Lancaster with all the 
leading towns of the county. 


Historic Lititz 

A full centur}' has departed and a half has nearly flown 

Since the old Moravian fathers called this settlement their own; 

Well they builded (did they know it?) when they planned the little town, 
For their work was crowned with blessing and a well-deserved renown. 

Strong and massive were the dwellings which they raised— their monument- 
Still they're standing, time defying, show no blemish, break nor rent; 
For they builded for their children, and the latest heir today 
Points with pride to work outlasting Time's worst engines of decay. 

Thus sings Louise A. Weitzel, one 
of the gifted writers of Lititz. Our 
readers will pardon us if we devote a 
few pages to a short account of this 
historical town, the new home of the 

The following lines are made up 
almost entirely of extracts from "His- 
torical and Pictorial Lititz" edited by- 
John G. Zook and published by The 
Express Printing Company. 

The history of Lititz — religious, 
educational, musical, social and indus- 
trial, is inseparable from the history 

The distinctive idea of the Moravian 
Brethren was to establish a truly 
spiritual Church of Jesus Christ. They 
held that no one could rightfully be 
considered a member of the church, 
who was not a true Christian. These 
early Moravian settlements were, 
therefore, the result of the desire to 
secure locations, in which the Breth- 
ren might freely and unmolestedly 
seek after the development of a deep 
spiritual life. At the same time they 
were to become the centers of aggres- 

Al^^S^ ^^ 



of the Moravian Church in Lititz. 
Over 150 years ago, on June 12, 1756, 
the settlement of Moravian Brethren 
here received the name. of Lititz from 
Count Zinzendorf in memory of the 
town in Bohemia, where the newly- 
organized church of the Ancient 
Brethren's Unity found its first refuge 
in 1456, and henceforth the natne of 
the Moravian congregation became the 
name of the town. 

sive evangelistic efforts among the un- 
evangelized white colonists and In- 
dians ; as well as the seats of educa- 
tional institutions for the religious 
and secular training of their children 
and yoath. 

For the purpose of fostering and su- 
pervising the spiritual life of the mem- 
bership, Moravian congregations were 
divided into "Choirs," or classes ac- 
cording to age, sex and station, as 




i Ak 


1 ^-^r 



'•^ ' "-•* ,,i. ■•'.■^"^.■> ' '.•■ '■"■v. 1 ii ■«■ " ■"•'''»*«i-'!^'-^"'tf^S||^H^^B 


early as 1727, each "Choir" being un- 
der its own special Director, aiid hav- 
ing each year a season of covenanting 
and prayer. In addition to this, 
marked emphasis was laid upon a 
deeply-solemn observance of the festi- 
vals of the Church Year, of the Pas- 
sion Week and of the important 
events in the history of the Brethren's 
Church, called "Memorial" or "Cove- 
nant Days." All these and other 

time-honored customs and services, 
sometimes called "Moravian Peculiari- 
ties," having in view the spiritual 
profit of the membership, have been 
observed by the Moravian Church at 
Lititz ever since its organization with 
such modifications or accomodations 
as the changing conditions made nec- 
essary. Even the "Lease System," or 
the arrangement according to which 
it Avas impossible f(ir any but Mora- 

-^®U^_ _ 







vians to own land in Lititz, narrow 
and exclusive as it may appear to 
many today, was not without its pecu- 
liar advantages in the way of spiritual 
culture and oversight. This system 
being found to be impracticable any 
longer, was abolished in 1856, 

Until the twentieth of August, 1754, 
wdien the legal transfer of the property 
of, George Klein to the Unity of the 
Brethren was made the history of 
Warwick and Lititz is largely com- 
mon. After the above date, members 
of other denominations, the Moravians 
not. allowing anyone to settle on their 
property not a ^Moravian, formed, a set- 

came to the house of Jacob Huber, in 
\\'arwick township, Lancaster county, 
where he delivered an address in the 
evening. George Klein (a native of 
Kirchardt. Baden, who settled in 
\\'arwick township about 1740, and 
died in 1783), Huber's nearest neigh- 
bor, knew of the meeting, but having 
a prejudice against Zinzendorf, did 
not attend. It was a time of religious' 
awakening amongst the Pennsylvania 
Germans, brought about largely 
through the evangelistic testimony of 
the Brethren, and during the night 
Klein's mind became much disturbed 
(Ml account of his conduct and he re- 


tlcment adjoining the Moravian tract 
on the north. This settlement was 
called Warwick after the township in 
which it is located. Records concern- 
ing the early history of Warwick are 


In the month of December, 1742, in 
the course of a farewell visitation of 
some of the various groups of German 
settlers in the eastern section of Penn- 
sylvania, amongst whom itinerant 
ministers from the Moravian settle- 
ment at r.ethlehcm had for several 
years l)een laboring. Count Zinzendorf 

sol\-ed to follow the Ce^unt to Lancas- 
ter on the following day. This he did, 
heard Zinzendorf preach in the court- 
ii n-^e. and \\as deeoly moved. At the 
meeting in Huber's house — which tra- 
dition tells us occu]Med the site of the 
•^rerert Snyder homestead, north of 
Lititz — Zinzendorf had been recjuested 
to send the peo'de a minister. This he 
soon did in the person of Jacob 
Lisch}^ a S\\'i'ss, who was a very gifted 
preacher. Lischy gradually became 
first estranged and then (1749) an 
open enemy of the Brethren. Other 
evangelists were sent from Bethlehem 
to take up the Avork he had relincj- 



iiislicd. anion^' ihcni Christian llcnry 
Ranch (afterwards a noted missionary 
anion;;- the Indiaiis and in the West 
]n(Hes), Ua\id liruce (formerly a 
Swedish I.utlicran). and others. 

In the year 1744 a log church was 
built on Klein's land at the instance of 
a number of Lutheran, Reformed and 
Mennonite attendants on the i)reach- 
ing- of Rqv. Lawrence Nyberg, a 
Swedish Lutheran minister who was 
stationed at Lancaster and occasionlly 
preached in this vicinity. He entered 
iieartily into Zinzendorf's plans for a 
imion of all the churches, though he 
bad been sent to this countr}'- to op- 
pose them. This church stood near 
the road to Lancaster, on the ground 
occupied by "the old grave yard." It 
was known as St. James Church hav- 
ing been dedicated by Nyberg on the 
festival of St. James, July 25, 1744. 
Here he preached statedly once a 
month for two years. In 1746 he was 
suspended from his ministry, owing 
to his independent views and the char- 
acter of his preaching, so that during 
this year he preached every Sunday at 
St. James Church and opened his pul- 
pit to the various itinerant IMoravian 
ministers on their visits to this sec- 
tion. Finally he united Avith the 
Moravians. At a Synod of the Mora- 
vians, held in the court house at Lan- 
caster, after every effort had been 
made to prevent them from so doing, 
a request was made by a number of 
''awakened" persons in Warwick 
township that they might have a pas- 
tor to reside among them. In Sept- 
ember, 1745, the Rev. Daniel Neubert 
and his wife, of Philadelphia, were 
sent to them. Neubert's work was 
entirely pastoral, consisting in visits 
from house to house, and in keeping 
private meetings on weekday even- 


In Sptember, a meeting w^as held at 
George Klein's house to consider the 
question of building a school and 
meeting-house (as distinguished from 
the "church" — St. James). The fol- 

lowing were present: Nicholas and 
iMcderick Kiesel, llartman \ ertries, 
Micael Erb, Jacob Scherzer, Jacob 
Ileil, John Bender, Sr., Christian 
lalmer, Jacol) SchefHer, Geo. Klein, 
lesides the Rev. Messrs. Nyberg, 
Ranch and Neubert. The unanimous 
conclusion was that they would each 
contribute toward building a Gemein- 
haus, to serve the purposes, as v\as the 
Moravian arrangement elsewhere, of 
a dwelling place for the minister and 
as a school and meeting-house. Klein 
donated 3^ acres of his land for this 
purpose. (A draft of land belonging 
to the Gemeinhaus, made in 1754, 
gi\es the area as eight acres and 
twenty-three perches, so that Klein 
must have made an additional grant, 
or more land was added to it when the 
Brethren came into possession). In 
November the cellar was dug; March 
29, 1747, the corner-stone was laid by 
Nyberg and Neubert; May 24, 1748, 
the Rev. Leonard Schnell, the succes- 
sor of Neubert, who was called to 
Heidelburg, occupied the house and 
commenced the school wath four boys, 
and three girls, his wife teaching the 
latter. June 28 the Rev. Reinhard 
Ronner and wife arrived from Bethle- 
hem as assistants in the school and 
pastoral work. August 11 the first 
lovefeast was held in the Gemeinhaus, 
by Bishop Nathaniel Seidel, of Bethle- 
hem. November 13 George Klein and 
Leonard Bender were received into 
the communion of the Brethren's 
Church at Bethlehem, the first to be 
so received, not only in \\^arwick, but 
in the Colony, all the members at 
Bethlehem and Nazareth being recent 
emigrants from Europe. 

February 9, 1749, the Brethren 
S'-angenburg, de \\^atteville; Seidel 
and others from Bethlehem were pres- 
ent to dedicate the Gemeinhaus and to 
organize the "Warwick Country Con- 
gregation" with the following first 
members: Brethren, George Klein, 
Hans George Kiesel, Henr}- Rudy, 
Jacob Sherzer; Sisters, Anna Klein, 
Christiana Kiesel. Verona Rudy. Apol- 
lonia Scherzer. The first communion 




ill this house was held on this day, 
which was thereafter observed as the 
Gemeinfest of the Warwick Congre- 
gation. From November 20 to 23 a 
Provincial Synod was held in War- 
wick, on which occasion, a number of 
new members (twenty-two) w^ere re- 
ceived. The Warwick Gemeinhaus, or, 
as it is usually designated in the later 
diaries,"Warwick School House, "stood 
on the eastern part of Klein's farm, on 
the declivity of a slight hill, north of 
what is now Alain Street, and north- 
east of the residence, 1905, of Mr. 
Clement Badorf. Subsequent to 1763 
it was used as a school and as a stop- 
ping place for distant members when 
they came to church on Sunday. In 
February, 1766, it was taken down — 
being built of logs, and re-erected op- 
posite the square, on the north-east 
corner, its uses being the same as be- 
fore. The building was destroyed in 
the fire of July 16, 1838, when three 
other houses were consumed. 

August, 1752, Bishop Matthew Hehl 
arrived on a visitation. On December 
9, 1753, Bishop Peter Boehler organ- 
ized a "Society," that is, a class of per- 
sons who, whilst they were not mem- 
bers of the Warwick church, desired 
to be under the spiritual supervision 
of its pastors and to share in the ordi- 
nary and special church services. 

Names of persons in Warwick 
township attached to the Brethren 

(Society Members) : Hans Bender, 
Dav'd Biehler, Martin Boehler, An- 
drew Bort, Henry Bossert, Michael 
Fib, Andrew Frey, Christopher Frey, 
V^alentine Grosh, Jacob Heil, David 
Hilton, Christian Huetter, Jacob 
Jones, Michael Klein, Christian Kling, 
Henry Lehn, Paul Lehn, John Nohel, 
Michael Palmer, Christian Palmer, 
John Plattenberger, Henry Tschudy, 
also the wives of the above. Single 
men: Francis Seip, Michael Zahm; 
widows: Herculrode and Barbara 

The AA'arwick congregation was a 
Land Gemeine, that is, a coimtry con- 
gregation, the members of which lived 
scattered on their farms, and not in a 
close settlement as was the case in 
Bethlehem and Nazareth. Bethlehem 
was the "Pilgrim Congregation ;" that 
is, the members were missionaries or 
in training for such service, or were 
laboring for such support of those who 
were continually coming and going at 
the call of the church in its activity 
among the Indians and the negro 
slaves in the West Indies and Suri- 
nam, (Dutch Guiana) or in what we 
should noAv call home mission labors 
in Pennsylvania and the adjoining col- 
onies. Nazareth was the "Patriarch's 
Plan," being composed mostly of 
farmers, who tilled their lands and 
gathered in the harvests for the same 
common purpose. These congrega- 



tions were, of necessity, peculiarly 
constituted. The members lived in 
close quarters and with the greatest 
economy, surrendering many individ- 
ual rights, and putting the proceeds of 
their labor into a common treasury. 
Not every one was fitted for the la- 
bors, restrictions and self-denials of 
such a social and religious community, 
and as emigrants continued to arrive 
from Europe who might not be suit- 
able and willing members of either of 
Zinzendorf and Spangenberg to pro- 
these settlements, it was resolved by 
vide a third Church - settlement 

land — 491 acres, to the church, he to 
receive an annuity of £70 during his 
lifetime. Upon Spangenberg's return 
from Europe in 1754, Klein repeated 
this offer in positive terms, announc- 
ing his purpose to retire to Bethlehem 
with his wife and daughter. August 
20, 1754, the legal transfer of the 
property to the Unity of the Brethren 
was made. 


In the spring of this year, 1754, 
Klein had built a two-story stone 
house near his log house, without 


(Gemeinort) in Pennsylvania. It was 
not only to answer the purposes just 
mentioned, but also to afiford a home 
for such church members in the Col- 
onies who desired closer spiritual su- 
pervision and fellowship than could be 
obtained in the Country Congrega- 
tions, in which the members lived 
widely scattered from each other. 
Warwick, by its situation and rapid 
increase seemed best fitted for this set- 
tlement. In 1753 George Klein had 
made an offer to Spangenberg, Vicar- 
ius Generalis, to donate his entire 

having ^ny definite purpose in regard 
to it. This house afterwards gave the 
direction to the main street of the vil- 
lage, and accounts for the fact that it 
does not run due East and West. It 
was used as a dwelling for the minis- 
ters, but also as a meeting place for 
the congregation, along with theWar- 
wick Gemeinhaus, until 1761. The 
la\ern and store were afterwards tem- 
porarily in this building. It stood on 
the north side of Main street, opposite 
the store of Robt. N. Wolle, and was 
torn down in 1866. 




The general superintendence of the 
Country Congregations had been 
committed to Bishop Hehl, and as the 
new settlement was to be a centre for 
them, it might have been taken for 
granted that Hehl should take up his 
residence here. The question, how- 
ever, was brought up and discussed at 
a Conference of the Elders held Au- 
gust i8, after the meeting of the Syn- 
od, which had met in the stone house 
and continued in session from August 
13 to 17. Spangenberg stated the 
reasons pro and con for hib own, 
Boehler's or Hehl's appointment. The 
decision was left to the lot. .Four 
folded slips of paper were provided, on 
one of which the Latin word est (he 
is the one) was written, so that it was 
possible that neither of them might be 
designated. After fervent prayer each 
one took up a slip. Bishop Hehl re- 
ceiving the one with the est. Re was 
accordingly charged with the organi- 
zation and guidance of the new set- 
tlement, in external as well as spiritual 
affairs, as also the supervision of the 
various country churches. November 
9 he arrived from Bethlehem, and 
took u]) his residence in Klein's 

hr)use, which it was the custom there- 
after to call the Pilgerhaus. 

On June 12. 1756, letters were re- 
ceived from Zinzendorf, in which, 
amongst the rest, he gave the name of 
Lititz to the new settlement, after the 
barony Lititz. in Bohemia, where the 
infant church of the Ancient Brethren, 
by permission of George Podiebrad, 
King of Bohemia, had found a refuge 
in 1456. just three hundred years be- 
fore. May 14, 1759, at a common 
meeting of the Lititz and Warwick 
brethren and sisters, Spangenberg an- 
nounced that henceforth the two con- 
gregations, Lititz and Warwick, would 
be united into one, which should bear 
the name of Lititz. 

On July 7. 1758. the corner-stone of 
the Single Sisters' House was laid by 
Bishop Spangenberg; and that of the 
Single Brethren's House by the breth- 
ren Peter Boehler and Gottlieb Bezold 
on July 4. 1759. 

The new Gemcinhaus (now the par- 
sonage) was dedicated September 18, 

The present church was consecrated 
August 13, 1787. 




Froni the very earliest times Lititz 
has been noted as a center of in(his- 
try as well as of frus^ality and piety, 
until at the ])resent time it is one of 
the busiest and most prosperous 
towns in the state of Pennsylvania, 
and pro]:)ably in the United States. 

Excepting- the industries connected 
with the IMoravian Congregation, 
Lititz first became important (indus- 
trially speaking), in 1765 when David 
Tannenberg began the manufacture 
of organs and pianos, the organs par- 
ticularly, being noted for their sweet- 
ness of tone and excellent workman- 
ship, specimens of which may yet be 
found in Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Lancaster, Bethlehem, IMadison, Va., 
and Salem, N. C. One of his pianos 
(according to an old record) was sold 
for £22, I OS. 

Another imjiortant industry that 
did much tt) make the town famous 
was the manufacture of chip hats and 
bonnets. This business was con- 
ducted by Matthias Tshudy early in 
the nineteenth century, and flourished 
until the ];alm leaf and straw hats be- 
came famous favorites. Mr. Tshudy 
was the only person in the country 
who understood the art of manufac- 
turing such hats, and supplied the en- 
tire country with them, some going 
as far south as New Orleans,, a dis- 
tance in those days that was a much 
greater obstacle to successful trade 
than in the present age of steam and 

That the early settlement had in- 
ventive genius is shown by the inven- 
tion of the screw point on augers by 
John Llcnry Ranch, auger-maker, 
blacksmith and spurrier. Ji-iclge 





Henry sent the pattern to England 
after which the screw point came into 
general use. 

Another inventor of those days was 
Godfrey Albright who made the first 
plan of a ten-plate stove. Mr. Al- 
bright gave his pattern to Robert 
Coleman who introduced them. 

Of all industries that have made 
the name of Lititz familiar in almost 
all corners of the earth, the manufac- 
ture of bretzels was (and is) the most 
important. William Ranch began the 
manufacture of these toothsome 
dainties about 1810, was succeeded by 
his son who continued their manufac- 
ture until 1865, when Julius Sturgis 
began the manufacture of his famous 
"Only Genuine Lititz Bretzels," 
greatly improving the bretzel as well 
as the method of making them. 
The malting of grain becaiue a lead- 
ing industry about 1824 when a malt 
house was built on the present site 
of Dr. P. J. Roebuck's residence, by 
Michael Greider. This building hav- 
ing been destroyed by fire in 1856 a 
brick building was erected on West 
Main street for malting purposes and 
continued to be used as such until 

1878. John Kreiter also carried on 
this business starting about 1833, 
when permission was granted him by 
the church authorities to build a 
brewery and malt house, in the hope 
that the use of malt liquors would 
replace spirituous liquors which were 
then the chief beverage. He erected a 
building south of the Spring Grounds 
which was also destroyed by fire 
(1865). It was immediately rebuilt 
and even today is known as the "old 
brewery." Among the different 

people engaged in this business be- 
sides those men mentioned were 
Jacob Tshudy, R. R. Tshudy, Chris- 
tian Kreiter, T. M. Ranch, John 
Hamm and Michael Muecke. 

A tannery was conducted by Jacob 
Geitner for many years in the build- 
ing in which Mr. Milton Bender now 
conducts a butcher shop. Bark be- 
coming very scarce in this neighbor- 
hood Clement Geitner, his son and 
successor,- in November 1882 moved 
to Hickory, N. C. 

Jacob Tshudy was the pioneer 
store-keeper who started in business 
with his own stock of goods in 1828. 
The church conducted the only other 



Store until 1843, when it was sold to 
Nathaniel S. Wolle and is continued 
at the present by his son, Robert N. 

All the other industries common to 
an inland town in an agricultural 
community Averc carried on, competi- 
tion in some lines being very strong. 

With the abolishment of the "lease 
system" in 1855 the town broadened 
until in 1867 its business men felt the 
need of a banking institution which 
was sujjplied by the organization of 
the Lititz Deposit Bank. 

pany (Limited) which started in 
business about 1880. 

In recent years the following indus- 
tries have been begun, most of which 
arc in successful operation today: 
Keystone Underwear Mills, Cream- 
ery, Ideal Cocoa and Chocolate Co., 
Electric Light, Heat and Power Co., 
Wellington Starch Co., two National 
Banks, Eby Shoe Co., Lititz Planing 
Mill, Lititz Steam Laundry, ' Lititz 
Lithographing Co., Lititz Dairy Co., 
Consumers Box Board and Paper Co., 
Animal Trap Co., Thomas Wagon 
Co., Lititz Hosiery Co. 


Of the important unincorporated 
business activities of the town the to- 
bacco business was, and has continued 
to be, by far the most important, there 
being as early as 1883 thirteen firms 
extensively engaged in manufacuring 
cigars and packing tobacco. This in- 
dustry, while its importance has been 
overshadow'ed somewhat by the 
larger industrial concerns of today, 
supports as many, if not more people 
than these larger concerns. 

The first incorporated industrial 
concern was the Lititz Plow Com- 


Among the noteworthy characteris- 
tics of Lititz past and present may 
be mentioned . the following: its 
spring of purest water of sufficient 
volume to furnish power for seven 
mills in the course of five miles, it& 
being one of the distinctive American 
Moravian communities : its strong 
missionary spirit that has led many 
of its sons and daughters as messen- 
gers to the neglected spots of heathen 
countries; Linden Hall, founded 1794 
a school for young ladies that lias had 



over 4000 students in its care and has 
a national reputation ; Beck's Boys' 
Select School, also of national reputa- 
tion ; the building- of church organs 
early in the i8th century; musical 
culture; as a place of publication of 
the first Pharmacopeia in America 
(the work of DrA\'illiam Brown), its 
chip hat and bonnet factory carried 
on by Mr. Tshudy, the only person 

in the United States that understood 
the art of manufacturing them ; its 
bretzels, the manufacture of which 
dates back to the year 1810, the in- 
vention of the screw point to augers 
by John Ft. Ranch; as the biithplace 
of Edward H. Ranch, known as '"Pete 
Schwefflbrenner," as the final resting 
place of General John A. Sutter, 
famous in connection with the dis- 
covery of gold in California. 

An Account of the Manners of the German Inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania in 1 789 


(concluded from APRIL NUMBER) 

L L the different sects 
among them are particu- 
larly attentive to the re- 
ligious education of their 
children, and to the es- 
tablishment and support 
of the Christian religion. 
For this purpose they 
settle as much as possible together 
and make the erection of a school 
house and a place of worship the first 
objects of their care. They commit 
the education and instruction of their 
children in a peculiar manner to the 
ministers and officers of their 
■churches ; hence they grow w.) with 
prejudices (biases) in favor of pub- 
lic worship, and of the obligations of 
Christianity. Such has been the in- 
fluence of a pious education among 
the German Lutherans in Pennsyl- 
vania, that in the course of nineteen 
years, only one of them has been 
brought to a place of public shame or 

As members of a civil government, 
the Germans are peaceable, and exact 
in the payment of their taxes. Since 
they have participated in the power of 
the state, many of them become sen- 
sible and enlightened in the science of 
Legislation. Pennsylvania has had the 

speaker's chair of her Assembly, and 
the Vice-President's office of her 
council, filled with dignity by gentle- 
men of German families. The same 
gentlemen have since been advancd to 
seats in the House of Representatives 
under the new Constitution of the 
the LTnited States. In the great con- 
troversy about the national govern- 
ment, a large majority of the Germans 
in Pennsylvania decided in favor of its 
adoption, notwithstanding the most 
popular arts were used to prejudice 
them against it. 

The Germans are but little addicted 
to convivial pleasures. The}' seldom 
meet for the simple purpose of eating 
and drinking in what are justly called 
"feeding parties ;" but they are not 
strangers to the virtue of hosiiitality. 
The hungry or benighted traveller is 
always sure to find a hearty welcome 
under their roofs. A gentleman of 
Irish extraction, who lost his way in 
travelling through Lancaster county, 
called late at night, at the door of a 
German farmer; he Avas kindly re- 
ceived and entertained with the very 
best of everything the house could af- 
ford. The next morning he offered to 
pay his host for his lodging and other 
accomodations : "No," said the friend- 



\y German, in l^roken English, "I will 
take nothing from you, I was once lost 
and entertained as you have been, at 
the house of a stranger, who would 
take no pay from me for his trouble 
I am, therefore, now only discharging 
that debt ; do you pay your debts to 
me, in the same way to somebody 

They are extremely kind and friendly 
neighbors. They often assist each 
other by loans of money, for a short 
time, without interest — when the pur- 
chase of a plantation makes a larger 
sum necessary than is commonly pos- 
sessed by a single farmer. To secure 
their confidence, it is necessary to be 
punctual. The}^ never lend money a 
second time to a man who has once 
disa ;)pointed them in paying what he 
had borrowed, agreeably to his pro- 
mise or obligation. It was remarked 
during the late war, that there were 
^-^^j-y fg^y instances of any of them dis- 
charging a bond or debt, with depre- 
ciated paper currency. 

It has been said, that the Germans 
are deficient in learning, and that in 
consequence of their want of a more 
general and extensive education, they 
are much addicted to superstition, and 
are frequently imposed upon in the 
management of their affairs. ]\Iany of 
them have lost valuable estates by 
being unacquainted with the common 
forms of law, in the most simple 
transaction ; and many more of them 
have lost their lives, by applying to 
quacks in sickness. But this objec- 
tion to the Germans will soon cease to 
have any foundation in Pennsylvania. 
Several young men, born of German 
parents, have been educated in law, 
physic and divinity, who have demon- 
strated by their abilities and know- 
ledge, that the German genius for lit- 
erature has not depreciated in 
America. A college has lately been 
founded by the State in L.ancaster, 
and committed to the care of Germans 
of all sects, for the purpose of diffus- 
ing learning among their childien. In 
this college they are to be tau,;ht the 

German and English languages, and 
all the branches of literature which 
are usually taught in the Colleges of 
Europe and America. The Principal 
of this College is a native of Pennsyl- 
vania German parentage. His ex- 
tensix'e knowledge and taste in the 
arts and sciences, joined with his in- 
dustry in the discharge of the duties 
of his station, have afforded to the 
friends of learning in Pennsylvania, 
the most flattering prospect of the fu- 
ture importance oi this institution. 

Both sexes of the Germans discover 
a strong propensity to vocal and in- 
strumental music. They excel in 
psalmody all the other religious so- 
cieties in the State. 

The freedom of toleration of the 
Government has produced a great 
variety of sects, among Germans in 
Pennsylvania. The Lutherans com- 
pose a great proportion of the German 
citizens of the State. Alany of their 
churches are large and splendid. The 
German Presbyterians (Reformed) 
are next to them in numbers. Their 
churches are likewise large, and fur- 
nishel, in many places, with organs, 
The clergy belonging to these 
churches, have moderate salaries ; but 
they are punctually and justly paid. 
In the country they have glebes, 
which are stocked and occasionally 
worked by the congregation ; by this 
means the discipline and general inter- 
ests of their churches are preserved 
and promoted. The German Luth- 
erans and Presbyterians (Reformed) 
live in great harmony Avith each 
other : insomuch that they often 
l>reach in each other's churches, and, 
in some instances, unite in building a 
church in which they both worship at 
difrerent times. This harmony be- 
tween two sects, one so much opposed 
lo the other, is owing to the relaxation 
of the Presbyterians (Reformed) in 
some of the peculiar doctrines of Cal- 
\inism. I have called them (German 
Reformed) Presbyterians because 
most (^f them object to be designated 
bv the name of Calvinists. The Men- 



nonites, the Moravians, the Schwenk- 
felders and the Catholics compose the 
other sects of the German inhabitants 
of Pennsylvania. The Mennonites 
hold vi-ar and oaths to be unlawful. 
They administer the sacraments of 
baptism by sprinkling (pouring) and 
the supper. From them a sect has 
arisen who hold with the above prin- 
ciples and ceremonies, the necessity of 
immersion in baptism ; hence they are 
calld Dunkards, or Baptists (German 
Brethren). Previously to their par- 
taking of the sacrament of the supper, 
they wash each other's feet, and sit 
down to a love-feast. They practice 
these ceremonies of their religion with 
great humility and solemnity. They 
moreover, hold the doctrine of univer- 
sal salvation. From this sect there 
have been several seceders, some of 
whom devoted themselves to perpet- 
ual celibacy. They have exhibited, for 
many years, a curious spectacle of 
pious mortification, at a village called 
Ephrata, in Lancaster county. They 
are at present reduced to fourteen or 
fifteen members. The Separatists, who 
likewise dissented from the Dunkards, 
reject the ordinance of baptism and 
the sacrament; and hold to the doc- 
trine of the Friends concerning inter- 
nal revelation of the gospel. They 
hold, with the Dunkards, the doctrine 
of universal salvation. The singular 
piety and exemplary morality of 
.these sects, have been urged, by the 
advocates for the salvation of all man- 
kind, as a proof that the belief of that 
doctrine, is not unfriendly to morals, 
and the order of society, as has been 
supposed. The Dunkards and the 
Separatists agree in taking no inter- 
est upon money and not applying to 
law to recover their debts. 

The German Moravians are a nu- 
merous and respectable body of Chris- 
tians in Pennsylvania. In their village 
of Bethlehem, there are two large 
stone buildings, in which the different 
sexes are educated in habits of indus- 
try and in useful manufactures. The 
sisters — for by this epithet the women 

are called, all sleep in two laige and 
neat apartments. Two of them watch 
over the rest, in turns, every night, to 
afford relief from those sudden indis- 
positions which sometimes occur in 
the most healthy persons, in the hours 
of sleep. It is impossible to record 
this fact, without pausing a.rnoment 
to do homage to that religion, which 
produces so much union and kindness 
in human souls. The number of 
women who belong to this sequestered 
society, amounts sometimes to one 
hundred and twenty, and seldom less 
than one hundred. It is remarkable 
that notwithstanding they lead a sed- 
entary life, and sit in close stove 
rooms in winter, that not more than 
one of them upon an average, dies in 
a year. The disease which generally 
produces the annual death, is con- 
sumption. The conditions and ages of 
the villagers, as well as the society 
that has been mentioned, are distin- 
guished by ribbands of a peculiar kind 
which they wear on their caps; the 
widows by white ; the married by 
blue ; the single women above eigh- 
teen, by pink, and those under that 
age, by a ribband of cinnamon colour. 
Formerly this body of Moravians 
held all their property in common, in 
imitation of the primitive Chiistians, 
in the year 1760, a division of the 
Avhole of it took place, except a tan- 
yard, 2000 acres near Bethlehem, and 
5000 acres near Nazareth, a village in 
the neighborhood of Bethlehem. The 
profits of these estates are approp- 
riated to the support and progagation 
of the gospel. There are many valu- 
able manufactures carried on at Beth- 
lehem. The inhabitants possess a 
gentleness in their manners, which is 
peculiarly agreeable to strangers. 
They inure their children, of and 
six years old, to habits of early indus- 
try. By this means they are not only 
taught those kinds of labour which are 
suited to their strength and capacities, 
but are preserved from many hurtful 
vices and accidents to which children 
are exposed. 



The Schwenkfelders are a small 
society. They hold the same prin- 
ciples as the Friends, but they differ 
from them in using psalmody in wor- 

The German Catholics are numer- 
ous in -Philadelphia, and have several 
small chapels in other parts of the 

There is an incorporated charitable 
society of Germans in Philadelphia, 
whose objects are the relief of their 
poor or distressed countrymen. There 
is likewise a German society of labor- 
ers and journeymen mechanics, who 
contribute two shillings and six pence 
eight times a year, towards a fund, 
out of which they allow thirt\ shill- 
ings a week to each other's families 
when the head is unable to work ; and 
seven pounds and ten shillings to his 
widow as soon as he is taken from his 
family by death. 

The Germans of Pennsylvania, in- 
cluding all the sects that have been 
mentioned, compose nearly one-third 
of the whole inhabitants of the State. 

The intercourse of the Germans 
with each other, is kept up chiefly in 
their own language ; but most of their 
men who visit the capital, or towns of 
the State speak the English language. 
A certain number of the laws are now 
printed in German, for the benefit of 
those who cannot read English. A 
large number of German newspapers 
are likewise circulated through the 
State, by which knowledge and intelli- 
gence have been diffused, much to the 
advantage of the Government. There 
is scarcely an instance of a German, of 
either sex, in Pennsylvania, that can- 
not read, but many of the wives and 
daughters of the German farmers can- 
not write. The present state of society 
among them renders this a9complish- 
ment of little consequence to their im- 
provement or happiness. 

If it were possible to determine the 
amount of all the property brought in- 
to Pennsylvania by the German in- 
habitants of the State and their ances- 
tors, and then compare it with the 

present amount of their property, the 
contrast would form such a monument 
of human industry and economy as 
has seldom been cohtemplated in any 
age or country. 

I have been informed that there was 
an ancient prophecy which foretold 
that: "God would bless the Germans 
in foreign Countries." This prediction 
has been faithfully verified in Penn- 
sylvania. They enjoy here every bless- 
ing that liberty, toleration, indepen- 
dence, affluence, virtue and reputation 
can confer upon them. 

How different is their situation here 
from what it was in Germany? Could 
the subjects of the princes of Ger- 
many, who now groan away their lives 
in slavery and unprofitable labour, 
view from an eminence, in the month 
of June, the German settlements of 
Strasburg or Manheim, in Lancaster 
county, or of Lebanon, or Bethlehem 
in the counties of Dauphin and North- 
ampton ; could they be accompanied 
on this eminence by a venerable Ger- 
man farmer, and be told by him that 
many of those extensive fields of 
grain, full-fed herds, luxuriant mead- 
ows, or orchards promising loads of 
fruit, together with the spacious barns 
and commodious stone dwelling- 
houses, which compose the prospects 
that have been mentioned, were all the 
product of the labor of a single family, 
and of one generation, and that they 
were all secured to the owners of them 
by certain laws ; I am persuaded that 
no chains would be able to detain 
them from sharing in the freedom of 
their Pennsylvania friends and former 
fellow subjects. "We will assert our 
dignity," (would be their language) 
"we will be men — we will be free — we 
will enjoy the fruits of our own labors 
we will no longer be bought and sold 
to fight the battles in which we 
have neither interest nor resentment 
— we will inherit a portion of that 
blessing which God has promised to 
the Germans in foreign countries — we 
will be Pennsylvanians." 



I shall conclude this account of the 
manners of the German inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania by remarking, that if I 
have failed in doing them justice, it 
has not been the fault of my subject. 
The German character once employed 
the pen of one of the first histoiians of 
antiquity. I mean the elegant and en- 
lightened Tactius. It is very remark- 
able that the Germans in Pennsyl- 
vania retain in a great degree the vir- 
tues which this author (Tacitus) as- 
scribes to their ancestor in his treatise, 
"De moribus Germanorum." They 
inherit their integrity, fidelity, and 
chastity — but Christianity has ban- 
ished from them, their drunkenness, 
idleness and lo\e of military glory. 
There is a singular trait in the feat- 
ures of the German character in 
Pennsylvania, which shows how long 
the most trifling custom may exist 
among a people who have not been 
mixed with other nations. Tacitus de- 
scribes the manner in which the an- 
cient Germans build their villages, in 
the following words: "Suam quisque 
domum spatio circumdat sive adver- 
sus casus ignis remedium, sive inscitit 
aedificandi." ^lany of the German vil- 
lages in Penns3dvania are constructed 
in the same manner; the small houses 
are composed of a mixture of wood, 
brick, and clay, neatly united to- 
gether ; the large houses are built of 
stone, and many of them after the 
English fashion. A'ery few of the 
houses in Germantown are connected 
together. Where the Germans connect 
their houses in their villages, they ap- 
pear to have deviated from one of the 
customs imported from Germanv. 

Citizens of the United States learn 
from the wealth and independence of 
the German inhabitants of Pennsyl- 
vania, to encourage by 3^our example 
and laws, the republican virtues of in- 
dustry and economy. They are the 
only pillars Avhich can support the 
present Constitution of the United 

Legislators of Pennsylvania! learn 
from the history of your German fel- 

low citizens, that you possess an inex- 
haustible treasure in the bosom of the 
State, in their manners and arts. Con- 
tinue to patronize their new estab- 
lished Seminary of learning, and spare 
no expense in supporting their public 
free schools. The vices which follow 
the want of religious instruction 
among the children of the poor people 
lay the foundation of most of the jails^ 
and places of public punishment in the 
State. Do not contend with their pre- 
judices in favor of their language: It 
will be the channel through which the 
knowledge and discoveries of one of 
the wisest nations of Europe, may be 
conveyed into the country. In propor- 
tion as they are instructed and en- 
lightened in their own language, they 
will become acquainted wath the lan- 
guage of the United States. Invite 
them to share in the powder and offices 
of government ; it will be the means of 
producing an union in principle and 
conduct between them, and those of 
their enlightened fellow citizens wha 
are descended from other nations. 
Above all, cherish with peculiar ten- 
derness, those sects among them wha 
hold war to be unlawful. Relieve 
them from oppression of absurd and 
unnecessary militia laws. Protect 
them as the repositories of a truth of 
the gospel, wdiich has existed in every 
age of the church, and which must 
soread hereafter over every part of 
the world. 

The opinions respecting commerce 
and slavery of the Africans, which 
have heartily produced a revolution in 
their favor, in some of the European 
governments, were transplanted from 
a sect of Christians in Pennsylvania. 
Perhaps those German sects of Chris- 
tians among us, who refuse to bear 
arms for the purpose of shedding 
human blood, may be preserved by 
Divine Providence, as the centre of a 
circle, which shall gradually embrace 
all the nations of the earth in a per- 
petual treaty of friendship and peace. 


Historic Places in Philadelphia, Pa. 

NOTE — The following is the list of land- 
marks which were marked with appropriate 
signs during Philadelphia's historical cele- 
bration last Fall giving historical facts con- 
nected with them. The work of locating 
these old places and m arking them was 
completed after many weeks' work by 
William L. Campbell, of 1008 Walnut street: 

University of Pennsylvania, west 
side of Ninth street, between Market 
and Chestnut. 

Home of Elias Boudinet, 200 Pine 

British ^Military Hospital, and home 
of the Rev. Jacob Duche, northwest 
corner Third and Pine. 

St. Peter's Church, southwest cor- 
ner Third and Pine. 

Grave of Commodore Decatur, St. 
Peter's Curchyard. 

Old Pine Street Presbyterian 
Church, 1768, southwest corner 
Fourth and Pine. 

Site of residence of Benjamin Frank- 
lin, about 1749, 267 Race. 

Birthplace of Henry George, 1839, 
413 South Tenth. 

George Washington's residence, 
1790-95' 526-530 Alarket. 

Joseph Galloway's residence, south- 
east corner Sixth and Market sts. 

House where Jefferson wrote De- 
claration of Independence, Penn Na- 
tional Bank, 700 Market. 

Residence Thomas Jefferson, 1791, 
about 808 Market. 

Office Thomas Jefferson, Secretary 
of State, 801 Market. 

Grave of David Rittenhouse, astron- 
omer, grave3^ard of Old Pine Street 
Presbyterian Church, southwest cor- 
ner Fourth and Pine. 

Musical Fund Hall, 1824 . Locust 
street, south side, above Eighth St. 

United States Sanitary Fair, 1864, 
Eighteenth street entrance to Logan 

London Coffee House, 1754, south- 
west corner Front and Market streets. 

Robert Grace's house and meetings 
of Junto Club, 131 ^larket. 

Alarket Street Prison, 1695-1753, 
middle of Market street, ' between 
Front and Second. 

Letitia House (removed to Park in 
1883), west side of Letitia street, be- 
tween Market and Chestnut. 

Friends' First Meeting House, 1695- 
1808, southwest corner Second and 

Old Courthouse, 1710-1837, Second 
and Market, facing east in center of 

Prison, 1732, southwest corner 
Third and Market. 

Home of Benjamin Franklin, 1764- 
1790, in court in rear of Orianna 
street, at 316 jNIarket. 

Mercantile Library Building, 1844- 

Oldest dispensary in the United 
States, 1786, 127 South Fifth. 

Site of Free Quaker Cemetery, 1786, 
244-254 South Fifth. 

The Academy, 1749 Fourth street, 
west side, a little below Arch. 

Zion Lutheran Church, 1769, 127 
South Fourth. 

St. George's Methodist Church 
(oldest in America), 229 N. Fourth. 

St. Augustine's Catholic Church, 
built in 1796, destroyed in riot 1844, 
rebuilt 1846, Fourth street, opposite 
New street. 

Friends' Meeting House. 1701, 
southeast corner Fourth and Chestnut. 
Oldest Insurance company in Amer- 
ica, 1752, Philadelphia Contribution- 
ship, 212 South Fourth. 

Shippen Mansion : Benedict Arnold 
married Peggy Shippen, 1779, 218-220 
South Fourth street. 

St. Joseph's Church, built about 
1734 (oldest Catholic church in the 
city), \\'illing's alley, below fourth. 

St. Mary's Catholic Church, erect- 
ed 1763, 244-250 South Fourth. 

Grave of John Barry, in St. Mary's 

Former residence of Dr. Joseph 
Leidy, America's greatest naturalist, 
1302 Filbert street. 



Hibernia engine house, 223 Locust. 

First site Central High School, 
Juniper street, side of Wanamaker 

State Arsenal, 1785, Chestnut and 
Juniper streets. 

United States Mint, Mint Arcade 

Rush Mansion, Aldine Hotel. 

Blue Anchor Tavern, 1690, north- 
west corner Front and Dock. 

Merchants' Exchange, 1834, now 
Stock Exchange, Walnut, Third and 

Morris Mansion, built 1787, 225 S. 

American Philosophical Society, 
erected 1787, west side of Fifth, be- 
low Chestnut. 

Philadelphia Library, 1790-1880, 
rear portion of Fifth street, front of 
Drexel Building. 

Robert Atkin's printing office, 1782, 
108 Market. 

Mickve Israel Synagogue, 1747, 117 
North Seventh. 

Franklin Institute, founded 1824, 15 
South Seventh. 

Old Almshouse, 173 1, and Philadel- 
phia Hospital, Spruce to Pine, Third 
to Fourth. 

Holy Trinity Church, built 1789, 
northwest corner Sixth and Spruce. 

Jewish Cemetery, 1738, northwest 
corner Spruce and Darien. 

Bettering House, south side of 
Spruce, Tenth to Eleventh. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
(oldest in the world), 1831, 139 South 

United States Postoffice, 1799, S. 

Girard Bank, 1812 (formerly Bank 
of the United States, 1795), Third, be- 
low Chestnut. 

Betsy Ross House, 239 Arch street. 
Grave of Benjamin Franklin, south- 
east corner Fifth and Arch. 

Free Quaker Meeting House, erect- 
ed 1783, southwest corner Fifth and 

Arch street prison, 1809-36, south 
side of Arch street, from Broad to 

St. George and the Dragon Inn, 200 
Arch street. 

Barbadoes store, 1695, 201 Chestnut. 
Residence of Governor Thomas 
Lloyd, 1684, 243 Chestnut. 

Treasury Department, 1798, 250 

First Bank founded by Congress, 
1781, Bank of North America, 305 
Chestnut street. 

Independence Hall, Chestnut, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixth. 

Congress Hall, Washington inaugu- 
rated 1793. Adams inauguarated I797> 
southeast corner Sixth and Chestnut 

Carpenter mansion, built about 1738 
517 Chestnut street. 

Wain mansion, 632 Chestnut street. 
Masonic Temple, 1809, 717 Chest- 
nut street. 

Robert Morris mansion about 720 

Chinese Museum, Ninth, below 

Cook's circus, Chestnut street, front 
of Continental Hotel. 

Markoe mansion, 917 Chestnut St. 
Academy of Fine Arts, 1025 Chest- 

First Moravian Church in Philadel- 
phia, 1742-1856, 226 Race street. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, north- 
west corner Broad and Sansom Sts. 

Christ Church, built 1727. Second 
above Market. 

Residence of William Logan, 1750- 
60, northwest corner Sansom and Sec- 
ond streets. 

Slate roof house, 1698-1867, south- 
east corner Sansom and Second Sts. 

Traditional Indian reservation, 
back of 145-7 South Second street. 

City Tavern, 1773, below southwest 
corner of Moravian and Second Sts. 

Birthplace of General George B. 
McClellan, 254 South Second street. 

Second street market, built I74S> 
Second and Pine streets. 

First United States Mint, erected 
1792, 37-39 North Seventh street. 



First Bank chartered by Congress, 
First National Bank, 315 Chestnut 

Carpenter's Ilall, meeting place of 
First Continental Congress. 

Norris mansion, 1750, 400 Chestnut 

United States Bank, 1824-45, the 
Custom House since 1845, south side 
of Chestnut, between Fourth and 
Fifth streets. 

United States Hotel, 419-21 Chest- 
nut street. 

Laurence mansion, Howe's head- 
quarters, 1777-78, 427 Chestnut street. 

United States postoffice, 1863-84, 
Drexel Building, lower portion, Chest- 
nut streets, below Fifth street. 

Mayor's office, 1791-1891, south- 
west corner Fifth and Chestnut Sts. 

Residence of Alexander Hamilton, 
1791, southeast corner Walnut and 
Third streets. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church, built 
1761, 231 South Third street. 

Willing mansion, built 1746- 228 S. 
Third street. 

"Fort Wilson," home of James Wil- 
son, southeast corner Third and Wal- 
nut streets. 

Home of Benjamin Rush, 1791, 301 
Walnut street. 

Mansion of Judge Richard Peters, 
307 W^alnut strset. 

Friends' Almshouse, 1713-1841, 
back of Walnut court, between 314 
and 318 Walnut street. 

Walnut street prison, 1775-1836, 
southeast corner Sixth and Walnut 

Potter's Field, 1704-95, Washington 

Ebenezer Church, 1819, north side 
of Christian, west of Third street. 

Penrose mansion, 1777-1866,, south- 
east corner Bainbridge and Water 

Gloria Dei Church, 1700, and Swe- 
dish blockhouse, 1669, east side of 
Swanson street, below Christian. 

Grave of Alexander Wilson, orni- 
tholigist, in graveyard of Gloria Dei 

Hill's shipyard Queen street wharf. 

Commissioners' Hall, Southwark, 
1810-82, east side of Second, above 

Residence of Henry George, 814 S. 

Original Swedish house, on both 
sides of Queen street, below Front. 

Sparks' shot tower, erected 1808, 
Carpenter, between Front and Second 

British redoubt, 1777-78, Reed and 
Swanson streets. 

Wharton mansion and the Mesch- 
ianza, west side of Fifth, below 

Association Battery, Humphrey's 
shipyard and United States Navy 
yard, between Front and the river, 
and between Prime and Wharton. 

Cooper shop, refreshment saloon, 
1861-65, Water street fifty yards south 
of Washington avenue. 

Union volunteer refreshment saloon 
1861-65, Delaware and Washington 

First china factory in the United 
States, China street, at Front and 

112 Federal street. Thomas D. Gro- 
ver, phlanthropist, died here 1849. 

Fifth street andWashington avenue, 
Southwark Foundry, 1856. 

Christian street, below Tenth, site 
of Moyamensing Commissioners' 

732 South Third street, birthplace of 
James Campbell, attoreny general of 
the United States. 

730 South Swanson street, birth- 
place of William Clifton, poet. 

Old Scots' Presbyterian Church, 
Bainbridge street, east of Fourth. 

328 Bainbridge street, Margaret 
Duncan burying ground. 

West sire Leithgow street, below 
South, side of Apollo Street Theater, 

Second street, below South, South- 
wark Bank. 

611 South Front. street, site of resi- 
dence of Stephen Decatur. 

American street, below South, in 
this street resided Edwin Forrest (his 



birthplace). Commodore Joseph Cas- 
sin, Alexander Wilson, Joel Suther- 
land and Bishop William O'Hara. 

30 South street, site of the Plum- 
stead house. Mason and Dixon obser- 
vatory was near this spot. 

Southwest corner Leithgow and S. 
street, site of the South Street Thea- 
ter 1 766- 1 82 1. 

Southwest corner South and Han- 
cock streets, site of the old South St. 

Southwest corner Tenth and South 
streets, site of Lebanon Gardens. 

Northwest corner Third and Lom- 
bard streets, former residence of Chas. 
AV'ilson Peale. 

410 South Fifth stret, Lewis Hal- 
lam, father of the American stage, 
died here in 1808. 

224 Pine street, residence of Mayor 
John Stamper, 1750. 

Northwest corner Third and Pine 
streets, site of residence of Colonel 
John Nixon. 

Southwest corner Second and Lit- 
tle Dock streets, Loxley house, built 
about 1720. Lydia Darrach is sup- 
posed to have lived here. 

237 Union street, Horace Binney's 

260 South Third street, site of the 
Bino^ham ^Mansion, 1790 to 1806, after- 
ward Mansion House Hotel. 

Southeast corner Third and Chan- 
cellor streets. Robert Bell's book 
store and printing office. 

217 South Fifth street, St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church, built 1761. 

338 Spruce street, residence of 
Joseph Hopinkson, author of "Hail! 
Columbia," and the "The Battle of 
the Keg-s," born 1770. died 1842. 

Northwest corner Fifth and Locust 
streets, Lailson's circus, 1797-1798: 
McPherson Blues, Lancaster's Model 
School, Malzell's chess automaton. 

South side Locust, below Sixth, 
Prune street Theater, "Home, Sweet 
Home" was sung here for the first 
time in America. 

Northwest corner Sixth and Spruce 
streets, site of Holy Trinity Catholic 
Church, built 1789. 

Southeast corner Sixth and Adelphi 
streets, former residence of Nicholas 
Biddle, erected about 1820, now occu- 
pied by the American Catholic His- 
torical Society. 

Southwest corner Locust street and 
Washington square, residence of 
Howaid Horace Furness, Shakespear- 
ean scholar. 

260 South Ninth street, residence of 
Joseph Bonaparte, built 1812. 

Southeast corner Sixth and Walnut 
streets, site of the old Walnut Street 

Northeast corner Broad and Wal- 
nut streets, site of the Vauxhall Thea- 
ter and garden, lately the Dundas 

130 South Sixth street, residence of 
Thomas J. Wharton ; birthplace of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 

124 Soutli Front street. This house 
was built early in the eighteenth cen- 

Southeast corner Twelfth and San- 
son! streets, site of the Church of the 
New Jerusalem, 1816-1826; Academy 
of Natural Sciences, 1826- 1840 

Sansom street, above Second, for- 
merly Lodge alley, where Bjaldwin 
built his first locomotive. 

Southwest corner Ionic and Amer- 
ican streets, sujiposed to be the oldest 
house in Philadelphia. 

119 South Fourth street, site of the 
First Free School founded by the 
Society of Friends. Robert Proud 
taught here. 

422 Walnut street, John Marshall, 
chief justice of the United States, died 
here July 6, 1835. 

West side Third, below Chestnut, 
site of Jay Cooke's banking house. 

314-318 Walnut street, site of the 
old Friends' Almshouse, where ac- 
cording to legend, "Evangeline" was 

309 Walnut street, former residence 
of Bishop White. 

Ninth and Walnut streets, oldest 
theater in America, the Walnut Street 



121 South Second street, site of the 
house in which Robert Fulton lived. 

123 South Second street, site of Cap- 
tain Anton's house. The Assembly 
met here in 1728 to 1729. 

Northeast corner Fourth and W^al- 
nut streets, former residence of Gen- 
eral Stephen Moylan, military secre- 
tary to Washington. 

Northeast corner Second and Wal- 
nut streets, site of the house in -vvhich 
was born 1680 John Drinker, the first 
European child born in Philadeli)hia. 

Southeast corner Dock and Alora- 
vian streets, formerly the publication 
office of Burton's Gentlemen's ]\Iaga- 
zine, of which Poe was editor. 

120 South Third stret, Girard's of- 
fice at the time of his death. Now the 
site of the Girard National Bank. 

Southeast corner Fourth and Chest- 
nut streets, site of Mathew Carey's 

517 Chestnut street, site of the 
Coach and Horse Inn, built 1745. 

North side Chestnut street, below 
Eighth, east part of Green Hotel, site 
of the residence of Thomas Fitzsim- 
mons, signer of the constitution. 

1025 Chestnut street. Academy of 
Fine Arts, designed by Benjamin 
H. Latrobe, 1806-72. 

Southeast corner Second street and 
Blackhorse alley, site of the Bradford 
House, used as a postoffice, 1728. 

Southeast corner Seventh and Chest- 
nut streets, site of the residence of 
George Clymer, signer of the Declar- 
ation of Independence. 

708 Chestnut street, site of the resi- 
dence of Jared Ingersoll, signer of the 
constitution; afterward occupied by 
George M. Dallas. 

135 Market street, site of Franklin's 
printing office. 

W^est side of Fourth, below Arch, 
site of the Academy, the beginning of 
the University of Pennsylvania, 1749. 

35 North Second street, site of the 
office of Peter Porcupine's Gazette 
edited by Williarn Cobett. 

Eighth and Seventeenth and Filbert 
to Arch streets. This block was the 
site of McAran's garden. 

325 Market street, Franklin's resi- 
dence where the first lightning rod 
was erected about 1749-50. 

Christ Church yard, graves of James 
Wilson, Robert Morris and Michael 

Northeast corner Fourth and Arch 
streets, house built for Provost Wil- 
liam Smith before 1762. James Rus- 
sell Lowell lived here in 1845. 

Southwest corner Sixth and Haines 
streets, site of Pennsylvania Hall, the 
meeting place of the Abolition Society 
destroyed by a mob in 1838; rebuilt 
as an Odd Fellow's temple. 

515 Cherry street, home of Bass 
Otis artist. 1819, who made the first 
American lithograph. 

Arch street, between Twelfth and 
Twenty-first, site of the Labyrinth 

Northwest corner Seventh and Arch 
streets, site of the house of David Rit- 

221 North W^ater street, residence 
of Stephen Girard at the time of his 

W'est side of Vine, near Ninth St., 
site of the Mars Iron Works, founded 
by Oliver Ivins, 1804. 

West side of the Seventeenth street, 
south of Spring Garden, site of the 
Bush Hill mansion, erected by Alex- 
ander Hamilton, in 1740; burned 1806. 

Twenty-second and Hamilton Sts., 
site of the Springettsbury manor, the 
home of the Penns. Part of the site is 
now occupied by the Preston Re- 

Callowhill street and the Schuylkill 
river, site of the Upper Ferry bridge, 
1812-1838; wire bridge, 1842-1874. 

462 North Second street, residence 
of John Fitch, the inventor. 

530 North Seventh street, residence 
of Edgar Allen Poe from 1843 to 1844. 

— North American. 


Grace Leinberger, or the White Rose 


By J. Fred Bachman, Danielsville, Pa. 


HE signal gun on ihe fort 
was heard before the 
conversation with Pat 
[Nlagrah had ended. 

" Attention men ! 

March," said the Colonel 

in a commanding tone. 

The men seized their 

guns and fell in line- They marched 

a short distance when the signal gun 

was heard again. 

"]\Ien, be very careful !" said the 
Colonel, we might run into an ambus- 

Little Gracie was a hindrance to 
the soldiers in their hurried march, 
but not one of them made a com- 

Soon it came to Pat's turn to carry 
the child. 

"Now, sir!" said the Colonel as he 
handed her to him, it is your turn to 
carry Grace. You will take good care 
of her. The other men will carry your 
rifle by turns. Be very ' 

"Shall I give up me gun when I am 
carrying the baby. How can I protect 
the child and meself if I have no gun. 
A foine thing, what will I do when 
the heathen Indian comes? No be- 
gobs I will not give up me gun nor 
the baby, not as long as me name is 
Pat Magrah." 

The Colonel could not suppress a 

"Will I defend her? Sure I will," 
said Pat in answer to the Colonel's 

These words were spoken hurriedly 
as the men were marching rapidly 

The signal gun was heard again 
and the men broke into a run. They 
waded the river and reached the fort 
in time to assist the noble defenders 

against the last onset of the Indians, 
who fled leaving several of their num- 
ber lying dead on the ground. 

The soldiers followed them some 
distance but could not overtake them. 
On their return to the fort they were 
not a little surprised to see Pat stand- 
ing inside the fort offering the child 
for sale. 

The occupants of the fort were poor. 
They had their own children to care 
for and did not wish to adopt the 

"Dear me !" said the Colonel as he 
saw Pat and the people standing 
around him, "are you offering the 
poor child for sale?" 

"An' what else should I do?" said 
Pat. "The child has no parents an' we 
must do the best we can with it." 

"You must not sell human beings, 
Pat," said the Colonel, who was very 
much annoyed by the actions of Pat. 
"^^'hat would you say if some one 
would offer your child for sale?" 

"An' what would I say?" said the 
jolly Irishman, "I don't think I would 
say anything if I was dead like this 
little girl's parents." 

The Colonel took the little girl in 
his brawny arms and lifting her up 
offered her to any one of the occu- 
pants of the fort who would raise her 
as becomes Christian parents. 

But they all shook their heads. 
They were poor and their supply of 
food and clothing was scanty. 

"Is there no one here that will take 
this dear little baby?" said the Colonel 
as he wiped the tears from his cheeks. 

Fredericka Miska, the pious old 
missionary, stood near the gate of the 
fort and hearing all the conversation 
was overcome with grief. She too was 
frequently in want of food but she 



never failed to share her scanty store 
with those in need — even with the 

"I will take the child. It is a God- 
send. My store is scanty but God 
will provide for us. The dear Lord 
will not for£2:et us in all our trouble. 
He has a purpose in saving this child," 
So saying she took the child in her 
arms and lovingly embracing it, 
walked to her cabin. 

The hearty pioneers gazed at the 
pious Fredericka Aliska in astonish- 
ment while tears of joy rolled down 
their cheeks. Then and there they 
made a solemn vow that Little Grace 
and Fredericka Miska should never 
want for food and clothing. 

Grace, as she was called, was well 
cared for by the pioneers and her fos- 
ter mother. She grew up to be a 
beautiful young maiden loved and 
respected by all who knew her. She 
frequently accompanied Fredericka 
Miska during her wanderings to the 
Aloravian settlements in the beautiful 
Lehigh valley. They finally made 
their home in Bethlehem where they 
rendered assistance to the sick and 

In due time Grace entered school. 
She succeeded well in all her studies. 
Her mind was very active. She had a 
fondness for the study of nature. 
When others were amusing them- 
selves in playing games and romping 
around, she wandered through the 
groves and fields, admiring the flow- 
ers, trees, shrubs and other plants. 

Frequently during her rambles she 
met John Hibscli, a young theological 
student, who had arrived from Ger- 
many several years before, and made 
America his home, and was preparing 
himself for missionary work among 
the natives. 

He was a friend of nature. He liked 
to ramble along the streams, fields, 
hills, and mountains. He watched 
the birds as they fiitted among the 
branches of the trees, the squirrels as 
they leaped from tree to tree, and the 

fish as they darted swiftly from place 
to place in the silvery streams. 

The natives considered him their 
friend. He slept with them in their 
rude huts, and they would have sacri- 
ficed their lives for him. 

One day while he was rambling at 
the foot of a beautiful hill along the 
Lehigh River, he espied Grace sitting 
at the foot of an oak tree with several 
natives. She was reading the Bible 
and praying with them. 

The young missionary looked on in 
astonishment. He had frequently 
heard the story of Grace and her par- 
ents, and it seemed almost impossible 
that she would befriend these natives. 
He drew nearer and nearer without 
interrupting them in their devotions. 
At last he spoke to her 'T can not re- 
frain from speaking to you. I know 
your history well, and it seems almost 
impossible to me that you would 
teach these natives," he said. 

Grace looked at him in astonish- 

"Wh}^ should I not teach them the 
word of God. They did me no harm. 
They are not responsible for the 
death of my parents." 

"That is true, but " 

She interrupted him. "Why should 
I not be a friend to them all? The 
murderers of my parents were no 
more responsible for their cruel deeds 
than these would be in their present 

"Grace, you are moved by the spirit 
of God," said the young missionary. 

The day was now drawing to a 
close, the bright sun sinking in the 
west. Grace and the missionary 
spent a short time viewing the beauti- 
ful Lehigh river as its silvery waters 
reflected the light of the golden rays 
of the sun. They then ascended the 
low hill and passed the old graveyard 
on their way home. They frequently 
turned and looked at the scenery as it 
lay before them. 

"Grace, I will leave in a few days for 
the far west — the abode of the In- 
dians," said the missionary in slow, 



measured tones as he turned his eyes 
softly on her. 

She looked on him sorrowfully. 

"Are you really going to leave?" 
she said as she gazed on the ground. 

"Yes! It will be only a short time 
and I will be forgotten here." 


"No one will mourn for me when 
I am gone." 

She could not suppress a sigh. They 
walked along slowly. 

"Grace ! It will be very lonely for 
me out there without a comrade." 

"Then why do you go alone?" she 
said without thinking. 

"Will you accompany me !" was his 
modest reply. 

The question came so suddenl}' that 
Grace could not think but merely 
stared at him. 

"I mean what I say," he added. 

"I have no objections if you think 
me a suitable companion and that it 
is God's will, but you know the rules 
of our church," she said. 

They walked home together and she 
imparted the news to her foster 

"I have no objections, I believe you 
will be a suitable companion for him. 
I am old and will miss you very 
much, but it is God's will. Do as you 
think best." 

John Hibsch was a true lover. He 
would not run the risk of losing the 
fair Grace for whom so many hearts 
were longing. He immediately called 
on one of the ofiBcers of the church 
to whom he made known his errand. 

The God-fearing Grace took her 
Bible and prayer-book and went to 
her silent room. 

The Mournful Ballad of Susanna Cox 

NOTE. — One hundred years ago, in 1809, 
Susanna Cox was executed in Reading for 
infanticide. Her melanclioly fate awakened 
great sympathy, and some unknown poet 
wrote a German ballad which is not yet 
entirely forgotten. It was, we believe, 
never translated; but a correspondent 
sends us the following original English 
version of which the peculiarities of the 
German ballad are carefully preserved. 

Come listen now, ye people all, 

And to my words give heed! 
A maiden's fate I will relate — 

A mournful tale, indeed. 

At Jacob Gehr's in Oley, she 

Had been a servant good; 
Her name it was Susanna Cox, 

As I have understood. 

Instructions she had ne'er receive-! 

In her neglected youth; 
She had not learned the will of God, 

And did not love his truth. 

It is a fact we all should know. 

For this the Scriptures say, 
That those who fail God's word to read 

Will surely go astray. 

It was a neighbor we are told — 
And Mertz that was his name — 

Who wickedly misled this maid 
Away to sin and shame. 

From dark temptation sin was born. 

As well the Scriptures show; 
So through this man Susanna Cox 

Was brought to pain and woe. 

The word of God he did not heed, 

Its laws he did not fear; 
And what the seventh commandment says 

He met with scoff and jeer. 

His marriage vow he boldly scorned, 

As all his actions show; 
Too late he will repent, I fear, 

When death has laid him low. 

Though sore oppressed by sin and shame 
The maid ne'er told her grief; 

That no one knew her sorrow then 
Is quite beyond belief. 

The second month and fourteenth Oay 
Of eighteen hundred and nine, 

A child was born at half past four, 
Ere yet the sun did shine. 

Then blinded sorely by her sin, 

And in her sorrow wild, 
This wicked mother raised her hand 

And slew her new born child. 

Soon as the dreadful crime was known 

They placed her in arrest; 
And that she did this awful deed 

She speedily confessed. 



A jury was convened full soon 
B.v whom she should l)e tried; 

And on this sinner's punishment 
They wisely did decide. 

For tender mercy at their hands 

She made an earnest plea; 
But murder was the verdict found, 

And in the first degree. 

Then to the courthouse she was led — 
The judge's name was Spayd — 

"With tears she heard her sentence read, 
For she was sore afraid. 

Her agony, ah! who can tell? 

She knew the end was nigh. 
And that upon the scaffold she 

A shameful death must die. 

A warrant for her death they wrote. 

And all her shame set down; 
Then bore it to the Governor 

Unto Lancaster town. 

A man who was most merciful 

Then thither took his way; 
And for her to the Governor 

Most earnestly did pray. 

Alas! no pardon could be given; 

The end it came full soon; 
'Twas ordered that she should be hanged 

Upon the tenth of June. 

The warrant for her death was brought, 

And in the prison read: 
"'Have mercy on my soul," she prayed 

"O Lord, when I am dead." 

The clergy came to visit her, 
And brought her words of cheer; 

Her penitence, as all could see, 
Was thoroughly sincere. 

Forth from the prison she was brought 
At eleven o'clock one day; 

And to the scaffold she was led, 
A pitiable way. 

A solemn warning she addressed 

Unto the people all: 
"Take an example now," she said, 

"By this my dreadful fall." 

Then while upon the earth she knelt. 
Her prayer rose up to heaven. 

That for the sins that she had done 
Her soul might be forgiven. 

The people knew her depth of woe, 
The sharpness of her pain, 

And while she knelt upon the earth 
Their tears fell down like rain. 

She said: "In one brief instant now 
I from this life must part: 

Take me, O Father, if Thou wilt, 
To Thy own loving heart." 

And now, alas! the dreadful hour 
Of death had come at last; 

In seventeen minutes, we are told. 
The agony was past. 

The learned doctors tried to bring 

Her back to life again; 
But soon they found it was too late. 

And all their toil was vain. 

Thd man who wrote this little song 

And set it all in rhyme. 
And who described the awful scene. 

Was present at the time. 

Ye people that on earth do dwell 
Unto my words give heed, 

And think how far the ways of sin 
And ignorance may lead. 

The fleeting pleasures of her life 
Were blotted out with tears. 

And all the time she spent on earth 
Was four and twenty years. 

Origin of the Names of the Counties of Pennsylvania 

Adams, in honor of John Adams. 

Allegheny, from the Allegheny 

Armstrong, in honor of General 
John Armstrong who marched 
against the Indians of Kittanning in 


Beaver, from the Beaver river, in 
which beavers formerly abounded. 

Bedford, in honor of the Duke of 

Berks, from Berkshire in England 
where the Penns had property. 

Blair, in honor of John Blair, who 
was a man of public spirit. 

Bradford, in honor of W'm. Brad- 
ford, Attorney General of the U. S. 

Bucks, so named by Penn from 
Bucks or Buckingham in England. 

Butler, in honor of Gen. Richard 
Butler, who fell in the defeat at St. 

Cambria, from Cambria in Wales, 
whence the early settlers came. 

Cameron, in honor of PTon. S. 



Carbon, from its carbonifercus de- 

Centre, from its location. 

Chester, from Chester in England. 

Clarion, from Clarion river, a beau- 
tiful clear stream. 

Clearfield, from a large clear space 
or field in the forest. 

Clinton, from Dewitt Clinton of 
Erie Canal fame. 

Columbia, probably in honor of 

Crawford, after Gen. Wm. Craw- 

Cumberland, from the English 
county which comes from the Eng- 
lish Kimbriland. 

Dauphin, in honor of the oldest son 
of the king of France, who bore the 
title Dauphin. 

Delaware, from the Delaware river, 
in honor of De La Ware, 

Elk, from the deer and elk which 
formerly roamed in this region. 

Erie from the Erie Indians, 

Fayette, in honor of Lafayette, 

Forest, from the "old Forest." 

Franklin, from Benjamin Franklin, 

Fulton, in honor of Robt, Fulton, 
inventor of the steamboat, 

Greene, in honor of Gen. Nathaniel 
Greene, the trusted counselor of 

Fluntingdon, after Selina, the godly 
countess of Huntingdon, Avho did so 
much for the advancement of Christ- 

Indiana, from the Indians. 

Jefferson, in honor of Thos. Jeffer- 

Juniata, from the Juniata river. 
_ Lackawanna, from Lackawanna 

Lancaster, from Lancashire. Eng- 

Lawrence, from Perry's flag-ship, 
at the battle of Lake Erie, 

Lebanon, a Scripture name, 

Lehigh, from the Lehigh river, 

Luzerne, in honor of Chevalier de 
la Luzerne, minister of France to the 
U, S. 

Lycoming, from Lycoming creek. 

McKean, in honor of Gov, McKean. 

]\Iercer, in honor of Gen. Hugh 
Alercer, a surgeon, in the army of 
\\ ashington. 

Mifflin, in honor of Gov. Mifflin. 
]\Ionroe, in honor of President Mon- 

Montgomery, in honor of Gen. 

Montour, from an Indian chief. 

Northampton, from Northampton 
in England. 

Northumberland, from the English 

Perry, from Com. Oliver Hazard 
Perry, of Lake Erie fame, 

Philadelphia, brotherly love. 

Pike, from Gen. Zebulon Pike. 

Potter, in honor of Gen. James 
Potter, a Revolutionary officer. 

Schuylkill, from the Schuylkill riv- 

Snyder, in honor of Gov. Simon 

Somerset, perhaps from Somerset in 
England. ( ?) 

Sullivan, in honor of Gen, Sullivan. 

Susquehanna, from the Susque- 
hanna river, 

Tioga, from the river of thai name. 

LTnion, from U, S, 

Venango, from the Indian name In- 
nan-gu-eh, a figure found cut on a 

AVarren, in honor of Gen. Joseph 
Warren, of Bunker Hill fame. 

Washington, in honor of George 

Wayne, in honor of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne of Chester County. 

Westmoreland, from Westmoreland 
in England. 

Wyoming, an Indian nam-^^. made 
famous by Campbell, 

York, from York in England. 

AAHiat Pennsylvania reader can 
locate all these counties and name 
their county towns? This is a good 
exercise in common sense home geo- 

By the late Dr. A. R. Home, in his 
National Educator. 




n li li 

N the issue of THE 
P E N N S Y L VA N lA 
GERMAN for January, 
1906 there was pubHshed 
an article on "The Spell- 
ing- of our Dialect," pre- 
pared by the editor H. 
A. Schuler. After briefly 
discussing the origin of dialects and 
the different methods of spelling the 
Pennsylvania German dialect, the 
author went on to say : 

"We think it (the Pennsylvania-German 
dialect) should be spelled according to 
German sounds, primarily because, as 
shown above, it is still a German dialect. 
As Dr. Croll has said: 'We should remem- 
ber the rock from which we were hewn.' 
We surely have no reason to be ashamed 
of our German ancestors or the language 
they bequeathed to us, and why should we 
disguise it by dressing it in an English 
coat that fits it so ill? German sounds 
answer best for all its German words, 
such as still form the basis thereof and 
should be used in preference to English 
terms whenever they render the thought 
and spirit equally well. * * * 

"The writer is convinced that his mode 
of spelling is preferable for all dialect 
words of German origin. It is only fair, 
however, to admit that English words are 
not so easily adjusted to this rule; yet 
English words must be used in quite re- 
spectable numbers if we want to write 
Pennsylvania-German, "as she is spoke." 
For example, our people do not nowadays 
say Juli but Julj". Shall we write Dschulei, 
or Tsclnilei as uneducated people would 
be apt to say, or July? Shall we write 
Bscliodscli, dsehodscha, gedscbodsclit or 
judge, judgea, gejudged? We must confess 
that we do not fancy dressing up English 
words in German clothes any more than 
the reverse process, and that our sense 
of fitness in matters orthographical, or 
etymological rather inclines us to favor 
the latter forms. English words used un- 
changed in sound had better, we think as 
a general rule, be left unchanged in form; 
when modified by the addition of prefixes 
or suffixes, the spelling also may be modi- 
fied, if the change required be not too 
great. In this matter, as in the choice of 
words, some latitude must be left to indi- 
vidual taste." 

It has seemed to us desirable to call 
renewed attention to and reaffirm the 
position there taken ; hence these 
lines. We propose hereafter to adhere 
closely to the general rule enunciated 
in editing dialect matter for the pages 

This method doubtless has its un- 
avoidable practical difficulties, which 
are however not much more formid- 
able than those met in the use of the 
German and English languages them- 
selves and certainly less serious than 
would be involved in applying a 
phonetic notation to the dialect. Dr. 
^Mlhelm Victor in his German Pro- 
nunciation says : 

"When Luther began to write there was 
no generally acknowledged national Ger- 
man language Every province and so 

far as the spoken language was concerned, 
every town or village presented its own 

variety of idiom and language In 

middle and south Germany the language 
of Luther was universally recognized as 
standard only after the year 1750; and a 
great number of spoken High German dia- 
lects are still flourishing by the side of 
the more or less closely allied language of 

"It is only natural that whenever mod- 
ern High German the common language of 
the cdimtry, is employed orally, all the 
local peculiarities of dialectal utterance 
should be faithfully reflected in its pronun- 
ciation, in so far as they are not clearly in- 
terdicted by the spelling. As a matter of 
fact it requires but little practice to dis- 
tinguish not only a North German from a 
South German, but a Hanoverian from a 
Westphalian, or a Bavarian from a 
Suabian by hearing them read a single 
sentence from a book or newspaper." 

The determination of what is the 
best usage is highly desirable but 
hardly possible as yet. Here Dr. 
A'ietor's words are also applicable. "I 
would call him the best speaker who 
most effectually bafiles all efforts to 
discover from what town or district 
he comes." We look with fond antic- 



ipations to. the work being carried on 
by Professors M. D. Learned and E. 
M. Fogel of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in the field of Pennsylvania 
German literature for a solution of 
the problem. We heartily welcome 
the publication of their dialect dic- 

What Dr. Victor affirms respecting 
local peculiarities of dialect utter- 
ance in Germany is applicable to the 
use of the Pennsylvania German dia- 

We can not forbear quoting in this 
connection Dr. Stahr's words in Mil- 
ler's "Pennsylvania German": 

It is a pity that the dialect has not re- 
ceived more scientific attention; and it is 
especially unfortunate that its orthography 
has not been determined from the stand- 
point of the grammatical German, so as 
to secure uniformity in the modes of writ- 
ing, where hitherto the greatest confusion 
has prevailed. The Pennsylvania-German 
Society has put itself on record as op- 
posed to the writing of Pennsylvania Ger- 
man by means of English letters and 
sounds. As a form of G'erman speech the 
letters ought to represent German sounds; 
but even when this principle is accepted 
we find that there is great diversity of 
practice. The dialect itself varies in dif- 
ferent parts of the State, because settlers 
of these parts came from different portions, 
of Germany. In any collection of Penn- 
sylvania-German poems, etc. it is easy to 
pick out in a general way the writers that 
come from particular sections. But even 
within these limits there is great divers- 
ity of practice; because, as there is no 
standard the writers represent words and 
sounds as their own ears have appre- 
hended them; and in all such cases the ear 
is apt to be misled. 

In the meantime we shall contend 
tDurselves with the following simple 

and comprehensive rule of spelling, 
easily understood and easily appli- 
cable : 

Write German and English words ac- 
cording to the sounds of the respective 
languages from which the words have 
been derived and do not depart from the 
established mode of spelling more than the 
difference of pronunciation requires. 

As an aid to a clearer discrimina- 
tion between the various sounds of 
letters and words we have cidopted 
for our standard German Pronuncia- 
tion : Practice and Theory by Wilhelm 
Victor Ph. D., U. A., Marburg Uni- 
versity, Germany, the first edition of 
which appeared in 1884, the third in 
1903. The phonetic notation used is 
that of the Association Phonetique 
Internationale as employed in Le 
Maitre Phonetique and in Chresto- 
mathie Francaise by Passy and Ram- 
beau. Contributors are requested to 
use this notation in case they wish to 
indicate the exact sounds of words. 

By adopting this system we provide 
a standard medium for the exact in- 
dication of sounds and avoid the of- 
fensive forms created by spelling 
words phonetically as for example 
dschodsch for judge, tsvetdar for 
zwetter (zweiter). The fact not 
be overlooked that High German 
and English word-forms are pretty 
well fixed and that we read by the 
word method and not by the illogical 
manner of past district shools where 
for instance the child reads by spell- 
ing c-a-t cat where logically the pro- 
nunciation should have been sate. 


Seil, Meyer (high 

a: — da, paar, nah, shawl. That (far, not 

care English). 
a — war ten, Isaak. 
ai — Kaiser, Bayern, 

&: — Chance, Treiite, 
au — An (how English), 
b — bahn, Ebbe. 
C — solch, regsam (or k), (not an English 

sound, resembles hue). 
a — du, Kladde. 

d5 — Gentleman, Arpeggio, Jury (or J), 
e: — Palais, Essay, saem, miihen, Dessert. 

(fare English). 
e : — Train, Pleinpouvoir-Bassin) . 
e — Hande, fest (met English), 
e: — schwer. Beet, Carre, stehlen (dead 

9 — Vogel (about, English). 
61 — Conseil (daJ', English), 
f — Fall, Schiff, Sappho, >iel, philosphie (if 




g — ffut, Berge, (or J), Flagge, guinea, Dro- 
i : a — Marie, 
ia — Linie or (jd). 
i: — Beefsteak, Igel, Liebe, vieli, ilim, 

Schwyz, (machine, English), 
i— Kiste, Viertel, Hjrtl. (sit English), 
i — Spanien (or J), Detail. 
ie — Diego. 
Te: — Karriers. 
!€ — speziell. 

yes, English), 
j — Berge (or g), Spanien (or T) — ja. 
ja — Linie (or ia). 
k — Cognac, Accord, Achse, dick, fiugs. 

regsam (or ?), Tag (or X), Brigg-kahl, 

ks — A.\t. 
kts — .\ccent. 
kv — Acquisiticn, Quelle. 
1 — lahm, voll. 
Ij — medaillon. 
m— niir, La»i:n. 
n — nie, Mann. 

1J2 — siiigen (sing English). 
1)4 — Ingo. 
IK — Siiiken. 

ig — singen (sing English), 
ig — Masnat. 
0: — Adieu, Coeur, Holile (not an English 

sound; form lips to pronounce o: but 

prcnonce e: ). 
o: — Sauce, Pk'teau, Rose, Toasr, Soest, 

Ohr, Voigt, Boot, Biilow. 
0— Gott. 
Dy — gliiubig. Hen, Lieutenant, ahoi, (boy 


oa: — Boudoir. 

oe: — schiin (not an English sound). 

ce — Morder. 

6e: — Parfuni. 

p — paar, Trupp, ab. 

r — rauh, Uhabarber, Narr, Katarrb. 

s — Anncnce, Fagon, Fuss. hals. 

sk — Sclierzo. 

/ — Cello, Cliaise, stehen, mischen, Shawl. 
Quixote (sljoe English). 

t— Hand, Stadt, Tan, Thai, fett. 

ts — cis, Nation, sitzen. zu Skizze. (wits, 

t/ — Cicerone, Capriceio, Guttapercha. 

u: — Route, du, Kuh. 

ui — pfui. 

u — Douche, Mutter. 

V — Aeguisition, Vase, wohl. 

X — Bacchus, rauchen. 

y: — Apergu, kiihn, Mythe. fiir. (not an 
English sound). 

Y:— Miide. 

Y — Budget, Hiitte, Mystle (not an English 

z — Rose, Gaze, (Zeal, English). 

5 — Adagio, sergeant, Don Juan (leisure 

<, — Glottal stop, produced by closing and 
reopening the glottis with an explos- 
ion of breath not used in English, in 
German regularly precedes every ini- 
tial vowel. 

a — (parson, part English). 

^—(thought, English). 

w — (we, English). 


NOTE. — The following poems anpear as 
contributed by the authors. To prepare 
the way for a discussion we wish to raise 
the question why the spelling of the words 
we give below is not preferable to that 
adojited by the writers? The contributors 
themselves will probably not agree with 
us. We shall be pleased to hear from 
them. Why not conform the spe'ling of 
the dialect as closely as possible to the 
orthography of the language froui which 
the dialect words are derived? 

In "Leera Bunii»a" 

Schone (2), Stadtel (3), qualt (7), steht 
(10), dere (13), viele Mensche (14) freund- 
lich nice (15), nacshter (17), Feuer (20), 
leere (26), druckt, Ungliick (27). 

In ".Hei Mutterschprooch" 

Schwatze (1), deutlich (.'>), gute, deut- 
sche (6), Liige, Heuchlerel, Streit (13), 
konnt (14), steigt (15), sproch (17), deut- 

sche (IS), Siinde (20), schwer, bedriickt 
(23), ernstlich (24), Vater (26), Sproch 
(27), hore (28), gelernt (30), brav, grad 

In "Die Kinner Yohr" 

Johr, schone (1) erst (2), Zeite, liever 
(3), ewig, vorbei (4), Jugend (6), heult, 
sagt (7) scho (9), schonste, gant^e (11), 
Gaul (12) Zuflucht (15), lieve (16), 
g'glagt (20), grosser (25), zum (27), 
versaumt (31), Hand (32) verzahlt (33). 
Dhiir (39), vun (41), g'iihlt (43), susz 
(53), zwanzig (67), wiinscht (75). 

i" 4« 4- 

Leera Bunipa 

By Charles C. Moore, Philadelphia, Pa. 

In Nudletown do schteht en Bump 
Mit ma scheena Schtock un Schwengel 
Un jeder as in's Schtettel kommt 



Guckt mit Blesier un Darscht sie a. 
En Mancher nehmt am Schwengel halt 5 

Un bumpt as es im Schtettel schallt 
Doch gweelt da Darscht ihn noch so 
Die Bump die gebt kee wasser her, 
Sie gebt kee wasser wie sie set; 
Sie schteht juscht do 
Un duht juscht so 
Awer bumpt net, awer bumpt net, 

So is doch uf dera welt 

Bei viela Menscha ah beschtellt; 
Sei gucka freindlich, neis un fei 

Un gut genung for Grischta sei, 
Doch sehnt mer sie mol negschter a 

Do findt mer nix von all dem dra, 
Sie sin en Licht, as eem juscht blennt. 

En Feier, as ohna Werning brennt; 20 
Sie lossa ihra Guck in Schtich 

Un denka inner juscht an sich. 
Bei ihna geht die Hoffumg fehl, 

Sie sin en Grab forn dodti Seel, 
En Drum mit juscht 'ma hola Schall, 

En leeri Schaal un sei is all. 
Dann drickt en Unglick noch so schwer, 

So'n Mensch der gebt kee Mitleid her; 

Er gebt kee Mitleid wie er set, 
Er scbteht juscht do 
Un guckt juscht so. 
Awer helft net, awer helft net. 

4" 4" * 

Mei Mutterscliproocli 

By C. C. Ziegler, St. Louis, Mo. 

Will ich recht ve'schtannig schwetze — 
Eppes ausennanner setze — 
A, B, C un eens, zwee, drei, — 
So dass jeder commoner Mann 
Klar un deitlich sehne kann 5 

Wei 'as Gold is un wel Blei, — 
Nem ich guti deitschi Warte, 
Weis un schwarzi, weech un harte, 
Noh vollbringt die Sach sich glei. 10 

Bin ich an de Wohret suche 
Un fin Ungerechtigeit, 
Liige, Heichlerei un Schtreit 
Bis ich alles kennt vefluche; 
Schteigt mei Zarn wie rothe Flamme 15 
Un will alles noh ve'damme, — 
Use ich net 'n Schprooch polite: 
Nee! ich nem mei deitsche Warte 
Beissig scharf wie hickory Garte 
Hack dewedder dass es batt; 
Schlack druf los un fluch mich satt! 

Wann ich war die Sinde ladig, 
Schwaer bedrickt vun meinre Schuld, 
Arnschtlich noh un ehrlich bet ich 
Um Vergebung, Gnad un Huld: 25 

Kann dar Vatter unser, meen ich, 
In de Mutterschprooch allee 
Mich recht haere un ve'schteh. 
Far in deitsche Warte leenig 

Hot die Mammi mich gelarnt 30 

Wie ze bete, mich bereit 

Ze mache far die Ewigkeit; 

Hot dar Daadi mich gewarnt 

Un gerothe braav un graad 

Ze wandle uf 'em Lewespaad. 

Grosser Gott, O schteh mar bei! 

Helf mar doch en Grischt ze sei! 

* 4- 4* 

Die Kiuueryolir 

By Rev. A. C. Wuchter, Gilbert, Pa. 

Die Kinneryohr, die schehna yohr, 

M'r sehnt's now aerscht recht ei; 
Sei wara tzeita, liehwer droscht, 

Uff ewich now ferbei. 
S'is wohr un bleibt aw immer so, 5 

Die yugend die is blind; 
Sie glawbt's net wom'r heilt un secht: — 

Dei Paradies, O Kind! 

Ken platz so scheh wie's war d'reem, 

M'r het net g'schwappt, O mei! 10 

Fer's schenschta haus im gonsa dahl 

Mit geil un bauerei, 
Bei'm Dawdy un der Mommy war's. 

Was hut m'r meh g'wut! 
So'n tzuflucht is now kennie meh 15 

Except bei'm liehwa Gott. 

Won's ehnich ebbes gevva hut 

Wie oft g'nunk so war, 
Noh is m'r yuscht der Mommy noh, 

G'klawgt un g'heilt sogar. 
Die hut em noh g'droescht un oft 

Die draehna week g'busst; 
S'war'n bess'rie medizin g'west 

Os ehnicher dokter lusst. 



Die welt die war net grehser fiel 

Os wie um haus un schtall : 
Fum Donatskop bis tzum Bloberg 

War's weitscht — un noh war's all. 
Was drivver drous war meh wie'n drahm — 

Ken awfang un ken end; 
M'r hut g'wunnert, sich ferseimt, 

Es schpielsach in d' hend. 

War b'such im haus un hut fertzaehlt 

Fun lang-har un fun weit. 
Was hut m'r net die ohra g'schpitzt 35 

Un g'hor'cht die lieb lang tzeit. 
Hut ebber fun d' Inscha g'schwetzt, 

Fum g'schpook an's Longa fens! 
M'r waer net ovets fer die diehr 

Fer'n hunnert dausend bens. 40 

War als der Dawdy nachts fun heom, 

Die Mommy gons a'leh. 
Was hut m'r so artlich g'fiehlt. 

So bang — um's hertz rum weh. 
Hut ebbes aryets sich g'regt 45 

Hut's hertz em schun g'klopt; 
S'war alles foil fun — wehs net was, 

S'hut on d'hohr g'ruppt. 



Ach! het m'r net die Mommy g'hot 

Was het m'r don g'duh? 50 

Sie hut am bett noh mit g'beht, 

Glei war m'r in der ruh. 
Wie siess war seller schlofe g'west, 

So schlofte m'r nimmie ei; 
Wer winscht net alsamohl er kenut 55 

So'n kind mohl widder sei? 

Un wom'r kennt waer's besser noh? 

M'r wisst wie gute m'r's het? 
Ach neh! M'r wisst net meh d'fun 

Wie's kind dert uff'm bett. 60 

Dehl dinga gebt der Herr uns oft, 

Dehl gebt'r yuscht amohl; 
Die schenschta dawg gehn fornaweck 

Os wie bei'm miller dohl. 

Is ehns os sich's er'inn'ra kan 65 

Wie'n kind die tzeit fertreibt? 
Was! Fuftzich yohr! sawg: tzwonsich, don, 

Ken buch os sel em b'schreibt? 
Neh! Neh! die welt wuh's kind drin lebt: 

Sei awschlaeg, denka, sinn — 70 

Ach! wer dert drivver drous mohl is 

Wehs net wie's hargert drin. 

Die Kinneryohr, die schehna yohr 

Sin ewich now ferbei, 
Un doch wer winscht net alsamohl 75 

Er mocht 'n kind noch sei? 
S'is net die aelt, s'is net ferdruss 

Os winscht, gaern hovva wut, — 
Es fehlt em ebbes — ach! m'r wehs 

Os yuscht die kindheit's hut. 80 


The Third Generation by Elsie Singmaster 

in Scribner's for March has its scene laid 
"way down East." Seemingly it is an ap- 
plication of the Biblical expression con- 
cerning the third generation. A woman is 
anxious to get back the money which her 
husband's ancestors gave to Braddock Col- 
lege — wherever that may be — because the 
said institution does not offer a course of 
instruction in accordance with the stipula- 
tions laid down in the charter. The presi- 
dent of the college was to be a minister, 
and all the students were to study Hebrew. 
And because this was not done she thought 
the family could get back the five hundred 
thousand dollars. The ending of the story 
may be just a little hazy and indefinite. 

JOE'S SIGJfAL CODE: By W. Reiff Hesser. 

Illustrated; cloth; 380 pp. Lothrop, 
Lee & Shepherd Co., Boston. 

This is an interesting story of a more 
or less dangerous voyage from New York 
to Hong Kong by way of the Cape of Good 
Hope. The voyage was made in the ship 
Katherine which was overtaken by a ter- 
rible thunder storm in the Indian Ocean. 
The captain was struck senseless by light- 
ning, and the ship caught fire. After they 
have outened the fire the crew sails into a 
bay and lands on an island where they lead 
a Robinson Crusoe life for a year. They 
were finally rescued by means of Joe's 
Signal Code. Joe had constructed this code 
half playfully and half in earnest with a 
party they met at the Cape of Good Hope. 

The story is an interesting one and 
abounds with incidents of thrilling and 
wholesome adventure. The crew is a merry 
and lively one; the incidents whether 
grave or grotesque are frequently thrown 
into relief by the blunt remarks of "Andy 
Speigelmier who during the storm thought 

it blew "gar avech;" he comes from the 
Blue Mountain region of Pennsylvania; 
hence his broken English. 

The story has more plotting to it than 
many books of adventure frequently have. 
The interest is sustained throughout the 
book; it never lags. It is a book of ad- 
venture that can with safety be placed in 
the hands of all young people. 


story of the Winter of 1777-1778— By 
Everett T. Tomlinson, Author of "The 
Campfire of Mad Anthony. Cloth; illus- 
trated; 385 pp. Price $1.50. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., Boston and New York. 
This is one of the many books that have 
been written of late with the narrative 
based on some incident of the American 
Revolution. The history of the American 
Revolution is the one story of American 
life that will never grow old, and the tales 
whose incidents are interwoven with the 
struggles of the colonists will always be 
sought after by the eternal American boy. 
The scene of this story is laid 'u Valley 
Forge; the time is the memorable winter 
of 1777-1778, the darkest and gloomiest 
period of the Revolution. The book has to 
do mainly with the Quakers, some of whom 
were not loyal to the colonies and others 
not to the king, while non-resistance was 
a marked characteristic of them all. 

The book is not very strong in tech- 
nique; there is really no plot; there are a 
number of episodes, and Mad Anthony's 
young scout, Noah Dare, figures in nearly 
all of them. It seems the chapters are a 
little arbitrarily divided. One can hardly 
see any reason for making two chapters 
out of the incident contained in chapters 
six and seven. 



It is of course necessary to remember 
that the book was written with the boy 
reader in view; but one is inclined to be- 
lieve that even he relishes a little sterner 
stuff; some of these episodes border al- 
most on the absurd and ridiculous. Chap- 
ters like the twenty-eighth and twenty- 
ninth are not likely to add much to 
strength of character and manliness. 

We must admire, on the other hand, the 
author's endeavor to leave out of the story 
as much of the "blood and thunder" ele- 
ment as possible. But one believes that a 
little more strenuosity and a little more of 
the clang of war would have been :i whole- 
some element in its makeup. The book af- 
fords exciting and interesting reading 
with its moments of suspense and daring 
ventures; it is safe for any boy to read. 


Professor Karl Knortz, North Tarry- 
town, N. Y. Paper, 240 pp. Price 80 
cents. A Stuber's Verlag. W:irzburg, 
Germany, 1909. 
This book is a unique collection of say- 
ings, proverbs and customs into which the 
different parts of the bcdy enter — head; to 
go to loggerheads; hand: if your hand 
itches you will have riches; teeth: if a 
child in Canada suffers from toothache 
and it chews at a breadcrust at which a 
mouse nibbled, it will be freed from its suf- 
fering. These few extracts may possibly 
indicate the nature and the contents of the 
book. It contains a lot of interesting ad- 
ages, maxims and customs which Prof. 
Knortz has really collected from the folk- 
lore of the world in his usual scholarly 

FLAU: by John H. Fow. Handsomely 
illustrated with eight full page plates 
in color. Cloth, 75 cents; ])aper, 50 
cents;. 54 pp. William J. Campbell 
Philadelphia, 1908. 
The story of Betsy Rcss as the designer 
of the first American flag is one of the 
mock-pearls of history that has been se- 
verely shattered by Mr. Fow in his little 
bock of some 50 odd i)ages. The writer 
must have examined all the official records 
here and abroad that have to do with the 

making of the first national standard. He 
has given an accurate and concise account 
of the evolution of the first flag and has 
very likely put an end to the Betsy Ross 
controversy. The Betsy Ross tradition is 
held up by Mr. Canby, her champion and 
descendant. Mr. Fow shows that designs 
for different flags were in use lon^ before 
the time of Betsy Ross. The book is hand- 
somely gotten up and illustrated; the color 
plate with flags are little works of art. 

Bible Texts and Religious Terms Eplaiud 

By R. K. Buehrle, A. M., Ph. D., Supt. 

Public Schools, Lancaster, Pa. 
This is a 36 page paper cover booklet 
(price 10 cents) in simplified spelling, ex- 
plaining a number of words and phrases 
like Angels, Barbarian, from Dan to Beer- 
sheba, Carriages, Chancel, Charit>, The 
Kingdom of Heaven, etc. The explanations 
are interesting, instructive and to the point. 
The spelling confuses. A good many long 
steps forward will have to be taken to 
make the spelling of English words logical 
and consistent. The worthy doctor is a 
staunch advocate of a more reasonable 
orthography. Will not the spelling re- 
formers eventually make English orthog- 
raphy as uncertain as that of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German dialect? 

Honored Guests is the title of a short 
story by George Schock (pseudonym) irt 
Harper's for February. It is a narrative 
of a young lawyer who becomes entangled 
with the accounts in settling up an estate 
and lastly with Cassey Brecht, the daugh- 
ter of the deceased. One is inclined to be- 
lieve that the author has written better 
and plainer stories than this one. The- 
whole story seems just a little shrouded in 
mystery; the end is rather indefinite and 
incomplete. One might also wonder why 
Asher Gehris, the young lawyer, handles a. 
revolver, he at no time seems to threaten 
the life of anyone nor his own. 

Professor F. T. Pattee, Head of the Eng- 
lish Department in State College, and ' 
author of "A History of American Litera- 
ture," has been granted a year's leave of" 
absence to study in Europe. 



The Pennsylvania-German 

An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to 
the Biography, History, Genealogy, Folklore, 
Literature and General Interests of German 
and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania and other 
States and of their descendants. 

Editorial Staff 
H. W. Kriebel, Editor, Lititz, Pa. 
Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Editor of "Reviews 
and Notes," Trenton, N. J. 

H. R. GiBBEL, President ; E. E. Habeck- 
ER. Vice President ; J. H. ZooK, Secretary ; 
Dr. J. L. Hertz, Treasurer. 

Address all communications. The Pennsyl- 
vania-German, Lititz, Pa. 

Price, $L50 a year, in advance; 15 cents 
per single copy. 

Additional particulars are found on 
page 2 of the cover. 


One Page, one year $50 00 

Half Page, one year 27 50 

Quarter Page, one year 14 00 

Eighth Page, one year 7 50 

One Inch, one year 4 00 

One Inch, one month 40 

Reading notices, 1 cent a word, each issue. 


— It affords us i^reat pleasure to 
acknowledge the receipt of many help- 
ful answers to the circular letter 
sent out in January. The recommen- 
dations will be duly considered; we 
regret our inability to respond to each 
reply separately. 

— Do not overlook our offer to re- 
])rint the back volumes of THE 
ycui wish to see the magazine grow 
in value, help us to place complete 
sets in public and private libraries. 

— To such as miss The Home De- 
partment we wish to say that while 
we are not setting apart a definite 
space for The Home we will not over- 
look it. Suggestions, contributions, 
(juestions, are invited. 

— The editor is now located in the 
heart of Historic Lititz, his editorial 
home is in the building of The Ex- 
press Printing Company, a local 
company incorporated under the laws 
of the state, his chair and desk are so 
heated that he can see the operator 
thumping the keyboard of the Mer- 
genthalcr Linotype and hear the 
I Iuber-1 lodgman press delivering its 
neatly printed i6-page sheet of the 

magazine. He feels happy in being 
so favorably situated for expeditious 
editorial supervision. How are you 
pleased with the first fruits of the new 
arrangement? Suggestions aimed at 
the betterment of the magazine are 
always appreciated. 

— A. H. Rothermel, Esq., of Read- 
ing, Pa., recently related how on a 
trans-Atlantic steamer a linguist af- 
ter trying to determine the place of 
his birth by the peculiarities of the 
dialect he spoke concluded that he 
must be a Bavarian because he used 
the word, "gella." The inference was 
almost correct, the only fault being 
that the linguist failed to discover 
that the Rothermel family had been 
in America 200 years. The editor has 
heard of quite a number of cases 
where similarity or sameness of dia- 
lect misled and even experienced it 
himself. These call attention to a 
most interesting and instructive field 
for linguistic study. Who will take it 
u]) for the benefit of (^ur readers? 

— The article on Lancaster County 
history may seem unduly long and to 
some uninteresting, but length and 
(luality in this case go together and 
earn praise for the author for packing 



SO many good things in so limited a 
space. In the last sentence "Electric 
railways connect Lancaster (the city) 
with all the leading towns of the 
county" such an excellent opportunity 
is hinted at for seeing the county that 
we have decided to give all our 
readers and their friends a free ride 
over the various lines in July. We 
will take you from place to place, 
point out historic spots, show interest- 
ing sights and chat with you about the 
county. To give all an equal chance 
we will give you "absent" treatment 
(not however as is practiced by some 
today) through the pages of the maga- 
zine. We hope you will all enjoy the 
trip. In addition we wish to say that 
the latch string of the editorial sanc- 
tum is always open, for friends to call 
on us. As time allows we shall be 
pleased to go wnth you in body to 

points of historic and scenic interest 
in the county. 

— "Gottlieb Boonastiel" has caught 
us napping. The following communi- 
cation from him is self-exp.lanatory. 
We take pleasure in making acknowl- 
edgment of his inadvertence and 
shall endeavor to avoid giving Gott- 
lieb occasion for another such re- 

"I desire to call attention to the P. 
G. selection sent you from York, Pa., 
and which was printed in your last 
issue. The selection was stolen by 
some one from Boonastiel — " Der 
Butcher Dawg" and disfigured so as 
to render it unrecognizable, printed, 
and passed off as original by some lit- 
erary thief, when it fell into the hands 
of your contributor who was innocent 
of intended wrong doing." 

Clippings from Current News 

— A child richly endowed with great- 
grandparents is the child of R. M. Hartzel, 
proprietor of a bakery iu Chalfont who has 
four great grandmothers, three great 
grandfathers, two grandmothers and two 

— "Experiments on the Resolution of 
Dibenzlethylpropylisobutylsilicane Sulphonic 
Acid" is the title of one of the papers men- 
tioned in the agenda for the Chemical 
Society's meeting at Burlington House, 
London. The Germans evidently are not 
the only people to make large words. 

— German companies seeking franchises 
and concessions in South America are 
looked upon with favor, for their courte- 
ous treatment of the people wins for them 
the support of public opinion. German capi- 
tal, in consequence, is making serious in- 
roads into a field which was at one time 
exclusively British. — North American Re- 

— In the State of Washington are more 
than 6000 former residents of Pennsyl- 
vania who are going to pull together to 
make Pennsylvania Day at the Alaska- 
Yukon-Paciflc Exposition at Seattle this 
summer an event at the fair long to be re- 
membered. It Is true that Pennsylvania is 

some distance from Seattle, but the mem- 
bers of the Pennsylvania Society, an or- 
ganization with 1200 members, hope to 
make a fine showing August 16, and ar- 
rangements are now being made to bring 
some man, prominent in the home State, 
to Seattle to deliver an address on Penn- 
sylvania Day. 

— Beginning April 1, Muhlenberg Col- 
lege, at Allentown, will be registered by 
the Educational Department of the State 
of New York as meeting the standards of 
New York State. Such registration is 
only possible, according to the standards 
of New York State, where institutions 
have a value in buildings and endowment 
reaching a half million of dollars; where 
the corps of professors is adequate to the 
number of students, and where the stan- 
dard maintained is excellent. The fact 
that Muhlenberg college has been regis- 
tered, is a distinct endorsement of her 
place among colleges and her work. 

— The Philadelphia Press will print in 
serial form in the Sunday edition begin- 
ning May 16 a new story entitled " GentKj 
Knight of Old Brandenburg" dealing witl\ 
love and German history written bj 
Charles Major. 



— Members of the C. E. Societies rec- 
ently studied Heroes of African Missions 
Of one of these the following was stated 
by a writer on the topic: George Schmidt 
was the first Protestant missionary to 
South Africa. He was a Moravian and 
reached Cape Town in 1737. A few crosses 
were seen here and there, the remains of 
Catholic missions begun over 200 years 
before Schmidt's arrival. When Schmidt 
reached Africa he found that the inhabi- 
tants had been badly treated by white set- 
tlers and that their need of the gospel was 
very great. Meeting with some success at 
Cape Town, he was bitterly hated and 
transferred to a more inland tribe. But 
here also he appealed to the people and 
was making progress in the establishment 
of a church. This still further enraged 
his enemies, and they demanded that he 
be refused the use of the rite of baptism. 
Thus obstructed, he returned to Europe in 
1744 with the hope of receiving justice, but 
it was denied him by the government of 
Holland. He again became a common day 
laborer, but never ceased to believe that 
missions would prevail in .Africa nor to 
pray for his beloved Hottentots. While on 
his knees in prayer his Master called him 
to his heavenly home. 

— Gorge M. Wambaugh, one of the best 
known newspaper men in Pennsylvania, 
died April 22 in Harrisburg. Mr. Wambaugh 
was a native of Columbia, and went to 
Harrisburg about twenty years ago, his 
first connection being with the Harrisburg 
Patriot, of which he later became manag- 
ing editor. For years Mr. Wambaugh was 
the representative of The Associated Press 
at Pennsylvania's capital and correspon- 
dent for a number of the most prominent 
newspapers of the state. 

Few newspaper men in Pennsylvania had 
a larger acquantance with public men or 
wider scope of political affairs. He was 
one of the men who developed news gath- 
ering and his writings were read with 
much interest by many people. 

— Delta, Pa., April 10. — Mrs. Margaret 
Hess, an aged and prominent woman of 
Peachbottom township, has aroused amaze- 
ment among her lifelong friends since she 
has lost her English speech and uses the 
Pennsylvania-German of her youth. This 
is all due to a very long illness, it is de- 
clared, and since she has become much im- 
proved she speaks Pennsylvania German as 
she has not done for many years. Mrs. 
Hess was seized with illness a long time 
ago. Her friends were mystified when 
they noticed her symtoms, the feature, 
however, being that the comparatively 

good English which had accumulated In 
tlie course of years of earnest effort, was 
disappearing. Finally she could speak 
English no more. 

Their surprise was, however, mild as 
compared with that which they experienced 
when Mrs. Hess began to converse in Ger- 
man. When she was a young woman she 
could speak Pennsylvania-German fluencly. 
In fact it was her own language. Now 
she talks German to them and the rever- 
sion has caused not only amazement, but 
some difficulty in discoursing with her 
friends who are not familiar with the 
German language. The case is regarded 
as one of the most remarkable to come 
under observation in this country. 

York Gazette. 

— Peter Keck, of Berwick, celebrated his 
hundredth birthday February 16, 1909. Not 
only did he do that, but he cast his vote 
on his hundredth birthday, voting the 
straight Republican ticket. He also took 
his first ride in an automobile. He is in 
full possession of his faculties and has a 
remarkably retentive memory. 

His birthday was made the occasion of 
a big celebration, in which all Berwick 
joined and into which he entered heartily. 
His eldest daughter is 80 years of age, and 
there are living seven children, 24 grand- 
children, 30 great-grandchildren and 4 

— The Patriot, published at Kutztown, 
the native town of Dr. N. C. Shaeffer, in 
speaking of his recent reappointment as 
Su])erintendent of Public Instruction says 
editorially among other things: "But he is 
known far and wide throughout the nation. 
Even across the ocean he is recognized as 
one of the ablest educationists of America. 
Honors have been most w^orthily bestowed 
upon him and these honors have been so 
quietly accepted and so gracefully worn 
that, in some cases, except among close 
friends, the fact that he had received them 
was scarcely known. Honored wuth the 
degree of Doctor of Laws by various great 
institutions of learning. Catholic as well as 
Protestant and undenominational, presi- 
dent for three successive years of the 
National Educational Association, perhaps 
the greatest honor that has come to him 
is one which even educators in the town of 
his present residence were not for quite 
awhile aware. Reference is here made to 
the fact that the World's Fair at St. Louis, 
bestowing two gold medals upon the two 
most eminent educators of America, gave 
one to the Hon. Nathan C. Schaeffer, of 



— In connection with a notice of the pro- 
duction of "Kassa" by John Luther Long 
before a York, Pa., audience by Mrs. Les- 
lie Carter, the following sketch of the 
author appeared: 

••John Luther Long, lawyer, author and 
dramatist, was born in Hanover, York 
county, in 1856. After leaving school he 
studied law and was admitted to the bar 
at York. He then removed to Philadelphia 
and became a member of the bar of that 
city. Soon after he entered his profession 
he' turned his attention to literature and 
became a contributor to the Century maga- 
zine and other leading periodicals of this 
country. His stories on Japanese life and 
customs attracted wide attention. This 
caused an increased demand for his contri- 
butions. Mr. Long has written a series of 
stodies, portraying the characteristics of 
the Pennsylvania-Germans. His stories are 
attractive in style and are original in con- 
ception. He has written and published 
several volumes, including 'Madame But- 
terfly," 'Miss Cherry Blossom of Tokyo,' 
'The Fcx Woman,' 'The Prince of Illusion,' 
'Naughty Nan," 'Heimweh' and other stor- 
ies. Within recent years a number of his 
stories have been dramatized and put on 
the stage, both in America and in Europe. 
His play, "The Darling of the Gods," has 
been produced in all the leading cities of 
the United States as well as in Paris and 

— This advertisement appeared in Lon- 
don in 1777: 

"Haunted Houses. — Whereas there are 
mansions and castles in England and 
Wales which for many years have been in- 
habited and are now falling into decay by 
their being haunted and visited by evil 
siiirits or the spirits of those who for un- 
known reasons are rendered miserable 
even in the grave, a gentleman who has 
made the tour of Europe, of a particular 
turn of mind and deeply skilled in the ab- 
strue and sacred science of exorcism, 
hereby offers his assistance to any owner 
or proprietor of such premises and under- 
takes to render the same free from the 
visitation of such spirits, be their cause 
what it may, and render them tenantable 
and useful to the proprietors. Letters ad- 
dressed to the Rev. John Jones, 30 St. 
Martin's lane, duly answered and inter- 
view given if required. N. B. — Rooms 
rendered habitable in six days." 

H]vidently the Germans were not the only 
l)eople whom "ghosts' troubled a hundred 
and thirty years ago. 

—Next to "The Old Trappe Church," 
where Muhlenberg lies buried, the oldest 
church edifice in the country, still in pos- 

session of Lutherans, is the Salzburger 
Church at Ebenezer, Ga., Since 1769, this 
solemn reminder of by-gone days, built of 
brick the Salzburgers themselves made, 
has M'eathered storms and earthquakes, 
passed through the Revolutionary W'ar, 
playing the role of hospital, stable, and 
commissary for the British in successive 
stages, and is still standing solid and 
strong as the house of worship of a large 
congregation. As March 12th marked the 
day of the 175th anniversary of the con- 
gregation and the 140th of the church 
building, it was fittingly celebrated. The 
present paster. Rev. Y. Von. A. Riser, had 
secured as speakers. Rev. J. .A.ustin, of 
Leesville, S. C, who had served the con- 
gregation forty-three years as pastor, and 
Rev. Dr. Rahn, of Jacoksonville, Fla., a des- 
cendant of the Salzbergers. — The Lutheran. 
—Dr. William Edgar Geil, F. R. G. S., 
Lafayette, '90, who explored the Pigmy 
Forest in Africa and has circled the globe 
several times, arrived recently at his home 
in Doylestown, after an expedition tracing 
the Great Wall for 1800 miles to the north- 
ern border cf Tibet. By this exploration. 
Dr. Geil, who is a native of Doylestown, 
found that about 200 miles of the Wall 
had never been mapped, and that there 
were at least 10 great walls besides the 
famous one. He also discovered a race of 
Chinese pigmies in the montains of the 
north of China and reports that he was 
amazed tc find preparations for war in the 
interior provinces, where small groups of 
Chinamen are drilling daily. 

—The friends of Rev. Dr. J. R. Dimm, of 
Susnuehanna University held congratula- 
tory exercises in Leibert Hall, Selinsgrove, 
Pa.', Friday, April 16, 1909, at 7 P. M., to 
celebrate the fiftieth anniversary cf his en- 
trance into the Gospel ministry. Speeches 
were made by former pupils, members of 
confirmation classes and representatives 
of various religious and educational bodies. 
The fruits gave evidence of a long life well 

— Dr. J. H. Redsecker, who was promin- 
ently identified with the National and State 
Pharmaceutical associations, died at Leba- 
non, Pa., April 20, after a three years' ill- 
ness. He was the donor of the Maische 
prize of $20 in gold, awarded annually by 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
from which institution he had received the 
honorary degree of Ph. M. 

— A drover rapped at a farmer's door: 
the wife answered the summons. The 
drover said, "Have you any heifers to sell" 
to which the good housewife replied, "Na, 
mer ban ken heffe. Sie sin all voll Lat- 
werg." The husband was called to whom 



the question was put, by the drover, "Have 
you any heifers to sell." The head of the 
family shov^'ed his superior wisdom by 
saying, "Ihr dumme Esel. Hat ihr net 
gewisst was er will. Er will en Hoffe mit 
a wenig Schmutz sei Waga zu sochmiere." 

— It is related that once a German- 
American, growing more and more af- 
flicted with extreme nervousness, got the 
impression that he was forgetting English. 
The impression got so strong that he re- 
fused to talk anything but German. Then 
he became convinced that he was forget- 
ting that, closed up like an oyster and was 
led away to a sanitarium, where he spent 
his days in complete silence. 

A course of treatment was prescribed 
for him in which baths played an impor- 

tant part. Every morning the dumb Ger- 
man-American was thrown bodily into a 
tub filled with very hot water, allowed to 
remain there awhile and then hauled out 
and set to cool on the piazza. 

But once the sanitarium acquired a new 
attendant who got his signals mixed. He 
was told to bathe the German-American. 
Filling the tub with ice cold water, he 
threw the patient into it. 

"Yen ! You confounded !" roared 

the dumb man, beside himself with fury. 

"You !" Then he switched to German. 

"Du verfluchter Esel! Du !" 

The doctors pronounced him cured, and 
he left the sanitarium the next day. 

— Philadelphia Ledger. 

The Forum 



EDITORIAL NOTE— Mr. Fuld has kindly 
consented to give a brief account of the 
derivation and meaning of the surname of 
any subscriber who sends twenty five cents 
to the Editor of THE PENNSYLVANIA- 
GERMAN for that purpose. 


The surname BRUNER has three sepa- 
rate derivations. Some individuals were 
so called because they were of a dark or- 
swarthy complexion. Our English word 
"brunette" comes from the same root. 
Others were called BRUNER because they 
were brave men dressed in armor which 
was called in ' German BRUr^NE or 
BRUENNE. Still others were called 
BRUNER because they lived near a spring 


The surname GRUBER is derived from 
the middle English GRUBBEN, the low 
German GRUBBELN, the old High German 
GRUEBELEN, the Modern German GRUEB- 
ELN and the Swedish GRUBBLA. Origi- 
nally it meant one who grubs up trees or 
digs them up by the roots. Subsequently it 
came to mean one who was engaged in re- 
search work from the secondary sense of 
the word "to ponder or ruminate as a stu- 
dent or scholar. Thus the phrase SICH ZU 
TODE GRUEBELN, to kill oneself by 
racking one's brains. A second derivation 
of the surname GRUBER is found in 
GRUBEN a suffix denoting a mine, as it 

occurs in GRUBENARBEITER meaning 
an underground worker. Thus GRUBER 
came to mean "miner." 


* 4» •!• 

The First Uiiiversity 

Old Penn Weekly Review supplemented 
our article in the March issue on "Phila- 
delphia's Many Firsts " in these words — • 
"Among other 'firsts' might have been men- 
tioned the Wharton School of Finance and 
Commerce, the first school of its kind to 
be connected with any university. The most 
important omission, however. Is that the 
University of Pennsylvania was the first in- 
stitution in the United States to be known 
as a university, having been founded in 
1740 and organized according to its char- 
ter under 'The Trustees of the University 
of Pennsylvania.' " 

4" * * 

Hesse Krentz 

The editor in a recent conversation for 
the first time heard the expression "Hesse- 
Kreutz." We are anxious to know whether 
any of our subscribers have heard the ex- 
pression and what the words meant to 
them. What is a Hesse Kreutz? 

* * 4* 

Family Sketches in Preparation 

Mrs. Annie Pluramer Johnson, of Memphis, 
Tennessee, a descendant of Captain George 
Schall who moved from York, Pa., to 
Hagerstown, Md., between 1760 and 1770 



expects to publish this summer or fall a 
volume of genealogical sketches of her 
own and her husband's families and their 
allied branches, the Vance, Gamble, Glass, 
Bowen, Plummer and Kemp lines among 

* 4- 4' 


Mr. H. W. Kriebel, 

Editor, Penna. -German, 

Dear Sir: In a recent conversation with 
a friend who was relating reminiscences of 
his youth, the following very interesting 
incident was told of an old time minister 
of North Codorus township, York County, 
whom we shall call K. for convenience and 
out of respect for the old preacher. The 
Rev. K. was very much wrought up dur- 
ing the Civil War for the safety of his 
country, and so one day he met brother 
Shue, one of his staunchest members, and 
said: Bruder Shue, ich meen es war del 
Pflicht del Flint nemme un helfe den 
Grieg zum End bringe. 

Ja, ich daht grad, sagt, Shue, aver 
ich gleich des schiesse net. Ich will leve 
so lang das der Herr mich losst. 

"Freilich Bruder Shue, aver wann du 
gehst uns Ungluck widerfaht dir dann is 
die himmlische Herrlickeit nur so veil 
Jiinger zu dir — un uf die anner hand, 
wann du in die H611 gehst, macht es net 
viel aus obs en wenig friiher oder spater is. 
G , York, Pa. 

•{• ^ A 

A Few Epitaphs 

Years ago its was the custom to have 
an appropriate verse on the tombstone 
which v/as furnished by the tombstone cut- 
ter. Here is an original one thus fnrnished 
to a man by the name of Ochs whose son 
died and this artist did his proud work in 
the following: 

Hier liegt Johannes Oechselein, 
Dem grossen Ochs sein Sohnelein. 
Der Hebe Gott hat nicht gewollt 
Das er ein grosser Ochs werden sollt. 

On May 26, 1904, I visited Bingen on the 
Rhine, and in my wanderings abound I 
visited a cemetery and on a certain tomb- 
stone I found the following verse v/hich a 
loving husband had inscribed for his be- 
loved wife who was buried there: 

Wohl auch die stille Hauslichkeit 

1st eines Denkmahls werth; — 

Ihr sey es hier von mir geweiht. 

Und wer die Tugend ehrt, — 

Auch in dem einfechen Gewand, 

Mir, meinem Schmertz ist er verwand. 

My knowledge of the pure German is 
limited and I am not sure that I grasped 
the sentiment of this bereaved husband, 
unless 1 discovered it in reading down the 
first word of each line, thus 

"Wohl ist Ihr und auch Mir." 

(Rev.) D. B. SHUEY, 
Sugar Grove, Ohio. 

•!• * 4" 

A War Song 

NOTE — A subscriber has sent the follow- 
ing fragment of a war song which he 
learned from his father a good many years 
ago. Can any subscriber supply informa- 
tion about the hymn, evidently composed 
soon after the return from the great invas- 
ion of Russia by Napoleon in 1812? 

Bruder thut euch wohl besinnen, 

Denn das Friihjahr riickt heran 
Da wird man zusammen bringen 
Mehr als hundert tausend Mann, 

Da wird man ins Felde Ziehen 
Viele fremde Lander sehen, 
Riickt die Waffen zu der Hand 
Streitet fiir das Vaterland. 

Siehet kommen alle Morgen, 
Viel Rekruten ohne Zahl. 
Dabei ist es zu bemerken 
Das der Krieg noch mehr gethan. 
All die Handwerksleute schaffen, 
An des Kaisers Krieges Waffen 
Sieht der Feldzug ist bereit 
Auf die schone Sommerszeit, 

Was fiir Ungliick, was fuer Schrecken 
War bei Moscow uns bekannt, 
Da die Stadt in heller Flammen 
GJinzlich schon ist abgebrannt, 
Diese war ja ganz verheert, 
Von den Russen selbst verstort 
Da der Feind in dieser Stadt 
Nichts als Noth gefunden hat. 

Da wir nun den Winter erwarten 
Plotzlich war die Kalte gross 
Dieses freuet die Kosacken 
Reuten auf die Feinde los, 
Treiben sie ins weite Felde. 
Wo sie miissen Hungers sterben, 
Und verfrieren in dem Schnee. 
Oh! fiir Deutschland grosses Weh. 

Was hat Deutschland zu erwarte 
Frankreich war die Schuld daran. 
Baden, Wiirtenberg und Sachsen 
Stellen hundert tausend Mann 
Diese sind zu grund gegangen, 
Theils verfroren theils gefangen, 
Mehr als hundert tausend Mann, 
In dem Feldzug noch Russland. 

E. K. S., Ringtown, Pa. 



Information Wanted 

Mr. S. S. Flory, Bangor, Pa., being en- 
gaged in collecting material for a history 
of tlie Flory or Fleury family invites cor- 
respondence from any persons in position 
to give information about the family. 

Prof. Martin D. GVill, Mohnton, Pa., is in- 
terested in the Grill and Dewees families 
and desires to correspond vi-ith parties in 
position to give information. 

* * * 

Clendenen Family 

1. John Clendenen of Lancaster county, 
Pa., born 1748 (Easton), died 1814 Grays 
Run, Pa., buried, Newberry, Pa. (no head 
stone), enlisted in Revolutionary War Feb., 
11, 1776 (Pa. Archives), served two years 
(Roll of honor D. A. R.), was Corporal, 
Sergeant and was made Captain bj brevet 
in 1784. Many years after his d3ath, his 
wife Rebecca DeFrance, Clendenen (a 
Huguenot) procured a pension. 

WANTED, Names of parents of above 
and tombstone record. 

2. In "Notes and Queries (Egle) 1 Ser- 
ies," Page 165, under "Crawfords of Han- 
over" we read, "One Robert C. married 
Elizabeth, d. of Michael Quigley." 

QUERY, Did the latter belong to Quickel 
Family? Was he son of Christian Quickel 
or (Rev. War) Quiggle? 

WANTED, Name of wife, (likely Kath- 
arine Kline, d. of Jacob Kline;, also, 
names, birth and death record of parents 
of both. (By first census of Pa. Michael 
Quigle lived in Northumberland Co., Pa.) 

^lontgomcry Family 

John Montgomery (of Ireland or Scotland) 

Married Martha (born on ocean, 

tradition). Their children were 

1. Robert married 

2. Rev. Joseph, b. Sept. 23, 1733, d. Oct. 

14, 1794, in Revolutionary War, m. 
Elizabeth Reed and Rachel Rush 

3. William, in Revolutionary V/ar, m. 

Anna Reed of New Jersey. 

4. John M . 

5. Jane (?) m. Strain. 

6. m. Samuel McCork!e (Rev. 

S. Eusebius McCorkle a son). 

Robert Montgomery (sf. John) b. in 
Lancaster county. Pa., (a witness on 

Joseph Sherer's will) m. dauf. 

Martha (brothers and sisters 

lived in Salisbury and Mecklinburg, n. 
Carolina 1797). The children were: 

1. James b. 1774, d. 1844, m. Susan and 

Catharine Fedder. 

2. Sherer, b. 1779 (named for Joseph 

Sherer) m. Mary Karr. 

3. Martha Patty, m. Hugh Shaw. 

4. Elizabeth, b. 1776, d. 1843, m. Wm. 

Quiggle (Quickel) d. 1840. • 

5. John, m. . 

6. Samuel, m. 

7. Josepr, d. unmarried. 

These families lived in Dauphin and 
Clinton Counties, married and intermarried 
Pennsylvania - Germans from York and 
Lancaster counties. 

WANTED: Information about John and 
Martha Montogomery and the blanks filled. 

Historical Societies 

The Susquehanna County Historical 

The 19th annual meeting of the Susque- 
hanna County Historical Society and Free 
Library Association wes held at the 
Library, January 16th, 1909. 

The morning session was taken with the 
report of the Committees and election of 
officers, which are as follows: Francis R. 
Cope, Jr., President; F. A. Davies, First 
Vice President; Geo. A. Stearns, Second 
Vice President; W. W. Aitken, Recording 
Secretary; W. H. Warner, Treasurer, and 
H. A. Denney, Librarian and Correspond- 
ing Secretary. 

The afternoon session was called to 
order by Chairman, F R. Cope, Jr., who 
fittingly called attention to the pride all 
feel in having the Society so well housed 

and cared for, and for the achievements of 
the year. A number of relics of historical 
value have been given, and we hope to 
add much to our collection during the 
coming year. A cane made from a tree 
growing on the first homestead under the 
U. S. homestead law and presented to G. 
A. Grow at the close of his Congressional 
life, was presented to the Society by the 
executor of the Grow "estate. 

We also have a section devoted to books 
on Local History, already there are about 
thirty volumes in it and as considerable in- 
terest is shown in the matter, the prospect 
is the volumes will grow in number, and 
become a much visited section by those 
who care to learn more of the early resi- 
dents and conditions in this portion of 
Pennsylvania. There are several good 
books on the Wyoming Valley, parts of 



northeastern Pennsylvania and the County, 
which are very interesting and instructive. 

President Cope appointed a lecture Com- 
mittee to arrange for several lectures to 
take place during the coming winter. 

Three prize essays on local history were 
read by members of the Montrose High 
School, and prizes awarded by Pr^s. Cope, 
First prize five dollars, two second prizes 
of two dollars and fifty cents each. 

Miss Eliza Brewster, for several years 
our efficient historian, was unable to act 
farther in this capacity, and the same was 
prepared and read this year by Miss 
Amelia Pickett, who was reappointed for 
the ensuing year. 

The meeting was a success from every 
standpoint, and more enthusiasm was 
shown than ever before, and while time de- 
crees that the work should fall upon 
younger members we trust that they will 
perform it as worthily as those who made 
a beginning. 

Librarian and Cor. Secretary. 

4i 4* 4* 

Montgomery County Historical Society 

The Montgomery County Historical So- 
ciety held a regular meeting April 24, 1909 
in the rooms of the society. 

Mr. Henry C. Mercer, of Doylestown, Pa., 
delivered an address upon "Early Pottery 
of the Pennsylvania-Germans." 

Mr. William Keller, of Norristown, ex- 
plained the process employed by the early 
potters in the manufacture of the ware 
known as "Tulip," or "Slip" ware. 

From 10 A. M. there were on exhibition 
a number of pieces of this ware, cour- 
teously loaned by friends and members of 
the society. 

The Presbyterian Historical Society 

Vol. v.. No. 1 (March, 1909) of the Jour- 
nal of this society contains a frontispiece 
portrait of John Calvin, articles on "John 
Calvin and the Psalmody of the Reformed 
Churches." The Reformed Church of 
South Africa.", "The Corporate Seal of the 
Trustees of the Presbyterian Church of 
Monmouth County and reports of the An- 
nual Meeting, January, 1909. From the re- 
ports we glean that this society of about 
250 members is active and doijig good 
work through its various committees, com- 
pleting files of church periodicals, issuing 
the Journal enriching its museum and 
gallery and strengthening its finaticial re- 
sources. The Executive Committee says: 
" We trust that something will be done 
looking to an increase in the membership. 
Instead of about 250 members, we should 
have at least 500." We hope the society 
may soon have a thousand members. 

* 4- * 

The New England Historic Genealogical 

The April issue of the Register published 
by this society contains a supplement giv- 
ing the proceedings of the annual meet- 
ing of the society held January 27, 1909. 
We note the following items for the year 
ending December 31, 1908. Volumes and 
phamphlets in library 34,815 and 34,741 
respectively. The report of the Treasurer 
shows total receipts of cash for the year 
to have been $48,060.06, total disburse- 
ments $49,916.69. The balance sheet gives 
assets $357,403.50, liabilities $300,700.82 and 
a balance of $56,702.68. The financial needs 
of the society are indicated in an estimate 
asking for $239,000 to be expended for var- 
ious items given in the estimate. 

Worth Imitating 

"The Companion" has spoken its words of 
commendation of trade-schools for girls 
which have been springing up in the cities. 
There can hardly be too many of them, 
and the endowment of money and of inter- 
est which they call for will be well invested. 

Americans pride themselves on being 
leaders in all movements for the enlarge- 
ment of the life of women; but Berlin, in 
Germany, is far in advance of us in this one 
department — in teaching girls how to use 
their hands for profitable and desirable 
ends. The Lette Verein in Berlin is the 
largest industrial school for girls in the 
world, and is teaching hundreds of girls 
skill in occupations, ranging from stenog- 
raphy to cooking, and from bookbinding to 
marketing and darning. 

The school has two great boarding-houses, 
in one of which live a hundred girls who 
are studying in the household school. They 

do all the work in their own family, and 
learn in the three-year course every detail 
of housekeeping. The course is by no 
means confined to so-called "bread work," 
but has fine courses of lectures on the 
chemistry of food, on home sanitation, and 
on kindred subjects. 

The dressmaking department graduates 
two or three hundred expert dressmakers 
every year. The bookbinding department is 
very popular, and hair-dressing rivals book- 
keeping as a money-making occupation. 

Women are the teachers in the school, 
with a single exception; there is a man at 
the head of the photography department. 
Any one who wishes to see what teaching 
can achieve in trades which have been too 
often the victims of unskilled labor has 
only to visit the big, airy, well-situated, 
busy and popular Lette Verein, looking out 
upon the beautiful Viktoria Luise Platz, in 
Berlin. — Youths' Companion. 

Vol. X 

JUNE, 1909 

No. 6 

Johann Arndt and His "True Christianity" 

By Lucy Forney Bittinger, Sewickley, Pa. 

In Professor John Bach McMasters' 
''History of the People of the United 
States" (Vol. II, pp. 556-7) he says: 
speaking- of the German settlers of 
rural Pennsylvania: 

"His aucestor might perhaps have left a 
home in Alsace or Swabia, Saxony or the 
Palatinate, a well-to-do man. But he was 
sure, ere he reached Philadelphia, to be 
reduced to beggary and want. Ship-captains 
and ship-owners, sailors and passengers 
rifled his chests and robbed him of his 
money and his goods. Then with no more 
worldly possessions than the clothes he 
had on his back, and the few coins and 
the copy of the Heidelberg Catechism, or 
Luther's Catechism or Arndt's Wahres 
Christenthum, he had in his pockets, he was 
at liberty to earn the best living he could, 
save a few pounds, buy ten or twenty 
acres of forest land., and begin to farm." 

That this a true picture, the records, 
the traditions, and the book-shelves of 
many families of German descent can 
testify, even after the lapse of two 
centuries. r>ut what was this "True 
Christianity" to which these poor 
plundered folk clung? Who was 
Arndt, and when and where did he 
write his "\\'ahres Christenthum?" 
The following" pages aim to answer 
the questions and to tell the history of 
the author and the book. 


On the day of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, the 27th of December, 1555, 
there was born to the town-preacher of 
Ballenstadt in Anhalt, Jacobus Arndt, 
and Anna his wife, a little son to 
whom — perhaps in honor of the saint 
on whose day the child entered the 
world — his parents gave the name of 
John. It was a troubled and distracted 
world upon which the baby opened 
his eyes. The ardors and heroisms of 
that gTcat social, intellectual and re- 
ligious change which we call the Re- 
formation had passed ; Luther had 
been dead for eleven years, departing 
in thankfulness to be taken from the 
evils of war and conflict which he 
propheticall}' foresaw. Melancthon 
with his latest breath rejoiced in being 
delivered from "the hatred of theolo- 
gians." An infinite variety of quarrels 
raged throughout Protestantism ; it is 
difficult to give them a more dignified 
name than quarrels, for although they 
concerned the highest and holiest 
mysteries of the faith, they were de- 
l:)ated in a spirit no better than to de- 
serve this title. Church histories of 



the period are filled with accounts of 
theologians and heresiarchs whose 
names and doctrines, or heresies, are 
alike unknown and unregarded at the 
present time. Krummacher, the 
powerful and eloquent German 
preacher, says in his biographical in- 
troduction to i\rndt's works, published 
in 1842: 

"The conflicts which raged in the young 
church were not about unimportant things 
— not infrequently they concerned the most 
important fundamentals of Biblical Chris- 
tianity. But these controversies were not 
always conducted in the right spirit. Men 
fought for themselves and their own repu- 
tations instead of the cause of truth. In- 
stead of allowing, in humble submission, 
the disputed points to be decided by the 
Word, system was opposed to system in 
dogmatizing stubbornness, and men, be- 
fore surrendering a private opinion, did not 
hesitate, if victory was to be obtained in 
no other way, to put Holy Writ upon 
the rack of the most dishonest exegesis in 
order to extract from it the exact opposite 
of that which it really taught. And it was 
often forgotten that Scripture was given 
for the life and not to open the lists to a 
carnal dialectic for its ambiguous arts. In- 
stead of approaching the tree of life in the 
garden of Revelation, they ended by using 
it to cut therefrom arrows to use against 
their adversaries. They grew accustomed 
to regard God's Word only from the point 
of view of what foundations for syllogisms 
it might offer whose brilliant defense 
would redound to their honor as theolo- 
gians and at best, the truth which should 
make men free and raise their thoughts to 
God were transformed in the dusty work- 
shops of a self-seeking speculation to dry 
party-formulas and fanatically emphasized 
catch-words sermons lost almost en- 
tirely their edifying character and became 
theological disputations The poor con- 
gregations heard indeed the most learned 
explanations of the substance and acci- 
dents of sin; but that they were sinners to 
whom nothing was so needful as an earnest 
repentance and a living faith in Jesus 
Christ — this they no longer heard. The 
most subtile discourses were given them 
upon the limitations of free will, the possi- 
bilities of their co-operation toward their 
own salvation; but that in order to be 
saved, it was necessary to offer up their 
own will and to give themselves to the 
Lord .lesus in weal and woe — of this, not 
a syllable. The healthful bread of life was 
scarce in the land; instead of manna, every 
Sunday there rained down upon the poor 
hearers, musty theories and abstract formu- 
las, borrowed from the Aristotelian phil- 

osophy. Salvation became, at least in the 
notions of those bewildered folk, indepen- 
dent of regeneration "by water and the 
Word" and was made to consist in the ac- 
ceptance of some confessional shibboleth as 
the sole condition. A new papacy, changed 
in form only arose again in the Protestant 
church which instead of the Romish salva- 
tion by works substituted another dead 
thing, the acceptance of the letter as the 
ground of salvation. Adhesion to this or 
that conception of a church dogma sufficed 
as an evidence of true Christian character. 
Of religious experience and the inner life 
was no longer any question; it was con- 
cerning shibboleths of creed and the 
watchwords of the schools. 

"No wonder, then, that people awakened 
to deeper needs and more earnestly con- 
cerned about the salvation of their souls, 
sought better nourishment than these 
churchmen of formula and the letter could 
offer. If in the writings of Tauler, Kem- 
pis, or some other mystic of the Roman 
church, the full light of justification by 
faith had not broken through the clouds, 
yet these writings breathed a savor of life 
and their instructions for practical godli- 
ness appeared by contrast to the reigning 
orthodoxy like the green pastures of Para- 
dise beside a dry, famine-stricken steppe. 
Indeed the deep spiritual poverty of the 
age is betrayed anew by the fact that the 
queer theosophy of Paracelsus or the 
cloudy mysticism of Valentin Weigel could 
find such a numerous following as they 
really had. Leaving out of the question the 
former's alchemistic mystifications, — his 
philosopher's stone, his panacea, his foun- 
tain of youth — the reader is powerfully at- 
tracted by the freedom of thought as well 
as the zeal of this gifted man against dead 
scholasticism and his fiery insistence on 
living union with God, on prayer and 
faith. And although in Weigel's teaching 
the fanatical element cannot be denied, and 
neither the extravagant declamation 
against creeds, nor his one-sided insistence 
upon sanctification be excused, yet we 
thank God that once more a witness has 
gained insight and freedom enough to pro- 
claim to the world that what is needful is 
not churches of stone but human hearts 
and to insist anew upon the truth that 'the 
letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life'." 


This gloomy picture of German theo- 
logical and religious life, painted by a 
German theologian, may be framed 
by the mention of a few historical 
events in Arndt's times. In the year 
of his birth was held the Diet of 



Augsburg-, a treaty of peace ( or more 
accurately an armistice) between the 
warring creeds. Catholic and Luther- 
an — the Calvinists were not even men- 
tioned in it; but partial as it was, it 
gave some measure of liberty to Pro- 
testantism and temporary peace to 
Germany. In the next year died 
Loyola, the founder of the most 
powerful and efficient instrument of 
the Catholic Counter-Reformation. 
\\'hen the town-preacher's son was 
four years old, the Inquisition was in- 
troduced into Spain ; a few years later 
the Council of Trent, that body which 
gave to Roman Catholicism its pres- 
ent form, was holding its third and 
last session. And, to turn to the other 
side, Calvin died supreme in Geneva, 
about the same time. When Arndt 
was th.e village pastor in Badeborn, 
the INIassacre of St. Bartholomew oc- 
curred. Through most of his life, the 
gallant revolt of the Netherlands 
against Alva and Philip II was going 
on. The Counter-Reformation was 
showing its strength, divided Protest- 
antism its weakness, particularly in 
the Lutheran hatred of Calvinism and 
all its works. Austria, under Ferdi- 
nand and Rudolf, was relentlessly per- 
secuting Protestantism out of exist- 
ence in its dominions. In i6i8 took 
place, a few years before Arndt's 
death, the mad and reckless action 
which opened the horrible history of 
the Thirty Years' War — the "Fenster- 
Sturz" of Prague, when the Catholic 
commissioners were flung from the 
Stadt-Haus window by their oppo- 
nents. Arndt's lifework was done in 
the little squalid towns of 16th-cen- 
tury. Germany, amid grand old Gothic 
architecture, where pestilence raged 
again and again, slaying its thousands, 
where civil war — between prince and 
people, patrician and plebeian — raged 
also. The" literary activities of this 
era naturally spent themselves mainly 
in polemic treatises, in sermons, 
hymns, and a few chronicles scarcely 
more than annals; for belles-lettres — 
poems, romances , and the like — the 

times were too serious-minded; men's 
thoughts were pre-occupied with theo- 
logical and religious matters. 


When Johann Arndt was ten years 
old. his father died ; but kind friends 
relieved the widowed mother of all 
care about her son's education. The 
1)0}' already showed those characteris- 
tics which marked him as worthy of, 
and repaying the most careful train- 
ing. He was bright, lovable and full 
of childish piety. His inclination 
toward chemical and scientific pur- 
suits (as "science" was understood in 
that age of alcheni}') was so strong 
that he at first intended to be a 
physician ; but a severe illness led him 
to make a vow that in case of recovery 
he would devote himself to the minis- 
try and this vow he kept. Following 
the German custom, he attended suc- 
cessivel}' several universities — first 
Helmstadt, then Wittenbreg, where the 
Elctor had just given the university a 
"Lutheran cleansing,' removing those 
professors who were suspected of 
Cryto-Calvinism. The spirit of the 
time showed itself in Arndt's especial 
friend, the theologian Polycarp Ley- 
ser, who wrote a work bearing the 
pleasant title : "Why is it Better to 
keep Company with Papists than with 
Calvinists?" Another friend of Arndt 
and his spiritual son, Johann Gerhard, 
must have been endeared to him by 
the striking similarity of their lives 
and works — for Gerhard, too, had been 
diverted from the study of medicine 
to that of theology by a vow made in 
apparently mortal illness; he came to 
be (i) "among scholars of his age un- 
questionably the most learned and 
certainly the most amiable," and his 
Sacred Meditations, in their Latin, 
German and English form are still 
useful and beloved, although not to 
the same extent as his friend's devo- 
tional work. 

After Wittenberg. Arndt visited the 
universities of Strasburg and Basel, 
At what period of his life he first made 



the acquaintance of the mystical 
writers — Bernard of Clairvaux, Taul- 
er, Kenipis and the unknown author 
of the Theologia Germanica — we can- 
not tell, but it was a friendship which 
continued through his whole life and 
powerfully colored his writings. At 
Basel, Arndt left being a student and 
became a teacher, giving lectures upon 
ethics, rhetoric and physics — the last 
mentioned subject showing the strong 
bent which he always retained for 
scientific pursuits as then unilerstood. 
At twenty-seven years of age, he was 
(Ordained and returning to his little and 
dearly-beloved fatherland of Anhalt, 
he became pastor of the village church 
in Badeborn, not far from his birth- 
place. Here he married Anna A\ ag- 
ner and settled down to a happy and 
successful pastorate for seven years. 
Then e\il times came upon the Duchy 
(f Anhalt and its Lutheran pastors. 
The Duke, already inclining toward 
the Calvinistic belief which, a few 
year after, he embraced, ordered that 
])astors should omit Luther's formula 
of exorcism in baptizing children. To 
modern ears the exorcism sounds 
medieval and repulsive, and it has now 
been abrogated by most, if not all, 
Lutherans; l)ut to pastor Arndt and 
in his times, it was a matter of con- 
science which he could not surrender 
at the command of any worldly po- 
tentate. The other pastors bowed to 
the ducal will "aus Sorge um's Hebe 
P)rod" ; (2) one only was "faithful 
found among the faithless" — the pas- 
tor of Badeborn. In words which re- 
call Luther's at the Diet of Worms, 
Arndt meekly but firmly told his 
prince that he "would humbly submit 
to any sentence the Duke might pro- 
nounce, but must abide by the de- 
cision of his own conscience.'' The 
inevitable result of this conscientious 
resistance was that he was dismissed 
from his ])astorate at IJadeborn and 
banished troni his countr\\ 


But before /\rndt had actually 
quitted his fatherknd not knowing 
whither he should go, he received 
several calls to other fields and ac- 
cepted one to the little Saxon city of 
Ouedlinburg as assistant to the dying 
pastor, whom, in two years, he suc- 
ceeded. The town was under the 
combined rule of a princess-abbess — 
at that time Anna II of Stolberg — and 
the schirm-vogtei (protection) of the 
Saxon Elector. Here Arndt spent nine 
useful years and here he and his people 
w;ent through one of those frightful 
visitatior.s of pestilence which often 
harr'ed the crow<led, foul cities of the 
times ; the sickness lasted for a year, 
during which 3000 inhabitants of 
Ouedlinburg died, including ■ three 
clergymen. Arndt was unwearied in 
nreaching "daily from Trinity until 
after }iTchaelmas" in \isitin_g the sick, 
and, after exhausting labors, in 
r ravers far into the night for his dy- 
ing ]:arishioners. As he could not 
\'!sit all of the stricken, he prepared 
a little book which he sent them and 
this is probabl}^ the "tractatlein," the 
"S :iritual Medicine against the Pesti- 
lence,'' which is included in the "Par- 

In s lite of Arndt's devotion and al- 
though many of his Badeborn ])arish- 
ioners and fellow-countrymen, unde- 
terred by distance, came in crowds to 
attend his preaching, dissensions in 
his charge forced him to desire 
another field of labor and in 1599 he 
joyfully accepted a call to the pastor- 
ate of St. Martin's church in Bruns- 
wick. Idle Princess-Abbess x\nna put 
annoying hindrances in the way of 
.Vrndt's accepting of this post and it 
was at some pecuniary loss that he 
finally escaped the ' noble lady's 
clutches; he wrote her a farewell let- 
ter full of charity and forgiveness, 
wishing her and all his enemies "for 
every reproach, honor a thousand-fold, 
and for every kindness shown him, 
thousand-fold reward." 



Escaping from pestilence, slander 
and extortion at Ouedlinbnrg, the new- 
pastor of St. Martin's found himself 
precipitated into the midst of civil 
war, siet;e and tumults in Brunswick. 
The town had desired to be a free city 
subject immediately to the Emperor; 
they had fought fm- and conquered, 
this freedom from their Duke, Hein- 
rich Julius of Brunswick, when it 
pleased them to fall out among them- 
selves. This new war was a strife 
between the patricians, who had pre- 
viously ruled the city, and the 
plebians, hitherto almost unrepresented 
in the town-council but now led by 
the eloqunt and learned jurist Bra- 
bant. Th struggle and the fall of this 
tribune of the people throw^ a lurid 
light on the ways and thoughts of the 
dawning 17th century. In the hour 
of Brabant's triumph, when he had 
filled the council with his own demo- 
cratic partizans in the teeth of aris- 
tocratic opposition and the revilings 
and e\"en excommunications of the 
clergy, a raven which followed the 
people's leader from the church to 
his home and would not be driven 
away convinced the superstitious 
pooulace that Brabant was in league 
with the devil. Accused by a drunken 
blackguard under torture, of seditious 
speeches, Brabant tried to escape from 
the city and from his doom, but was 
dragged back — his leg broken in his 
flight — and racked until he cried that 
"he would confess anything if they 
but released him from the rack." On 
the confession thus wrung from him, 
Brabant was executed — under circum- 
stances whose barbarity cannot be 
dwelt upon — murmuring "with feeble 
but audible voice" the last verse of 
Luther's hymn : 

"Du hochster Troster in aller Noth, 

Hilf, dass wir nicht fiirchten Schand' noch 

Dass in uns die Sinnen niclit verzagen, 
Wenn der Feind wird das Leben verklagen. 

Arndt came to his new charge dur- 
ing this frightful episode and his 
preaching may have helped to calm 

the panic-stricken folk of Brunswick. 
In a few years a new triaJ'was to fall 
updu the turbulent, high-spirited 
ti)wn, when Duke ileinrich Julius be- 
sieged and bombarded it for twenty- 
one weeks and flooded the rebellious 
city by damming a stream, in vain 
endeavor to bring it to terms. It was 
in the midst of these tumults and 
troubles, fighting without and foes 
within, (for the other members of the 
Brunswick ministerium were far from 
brotherly in their conduct toward 
Arndt, their youngest colleague) that 
the pastor of St. Martin's published, 
at the instance of his. friend Gerhard, 
a little collection of sermons delivered 
on weekdays, prayer-meeting talks we 
might call them now — which was the 
first of his "Six Books concerning 
True Christianity."' It was no case 
of an ardent, inexperienced youth, 
disheartened at the corruptions of a 
world with which he had just made 
acquaintance and rushing into print 
to correct them ; Arndt was fifty years 
old when he published, at Jena in 1605 
his book which was to become so 
famous and — what would have re- 
joiced this modest, godly man infinite- 
ly more — so useful. "He had long- 
lamented," says Dr. Schaeffer, his 
latest American translator, "that ow- 
ing to the'endless doctrinal controver- 
sies of the times, the attention of 
many persons was diverted from the 
practical duties of the Christian life 
and directed exclusively to controver- 
sies on points of doctrine. "The book 
was instantly popular;" it found in 
court and cabin (an Hofen und in 
Hiitten) most grateful ' recognition," 
says Tholuck. 

But Arndt's colleagues — perhaps 
from a pedantic zeal for orthodoxy, 
perhaps from professional jealousy — 
soon made the German theological 
world vocal with their controversies 
and even with personal abuse. Very 
much of this, however occurred after 
the saintly writer had passed to 
"wdiere beyond these voices there is 
peace. ' 




Arndt's own hopes and intentions 
in the pubHcation of the True Chris- 
tianity*- are well expressed in a letter 
which he addresed, in the last year of 
his life, to the Duke of Brunswick : 

"In the first place, I wished to withdraw 
the minds of students and preachers from 
an incrdinately controversial and polemic 
theology, which has well nigh assumed the 
form of the earlier scholasticism. Second- 
ly, I proposed to conduct Christian believers 
from lifeless faith to that which brings 
forth fruit. Thirdly, I wished to guide 
them from mere science and theory, to the 
actual practice of faith and godliness; and 
fourthly, to show them wherein consists a 
truly Christian life which accords with the 
true faith, as well as to explain the apostle's 
meaning when he says: 'I live; yet not I, 
but Christ liveth in me'." 

The preface to the First Book has 
become classic : 

"Many of those that nowadays apply 
themselves to the Study of Divinity, sup- 
pose it to be a mere notional and specula- 
tive science, or some piece of polite Learn- 
ing so much in vogue among Scholars: 
whereas it is rather a living Experience 
and practical Exercise of the Soul. Almost 
every one, alas, that goeth about this Study 
doth it with no other Prospect than to get 
the Applause of Men and to become great 
and famous in the World: But how few are 
there that will answer the true Design of 
Divinity, which is that people should be 
made thereby thoroughly godd and holy 
and have their own Will rendered conform- 
able to the Will of God Hardly is 

there one to be met with that covets to 
learn of the True ONE and Only Teacher 
and Master, that great Lesson of Meekness 

and Humility of Heart: There are not 

wanting now everywhere such Men as 
would be thought Ministers of the Gospel 
and of Christ, but there are exceedingly few 
that are willing to be His Followers also, 
or Imitators of His Life: at this Rate, hath 
the Lord many Ministers, but few Followers 
notwithstanding it be utterly impossible 
for any one to be truly a Minister and 
Lover of Christ unless he be at the same 
Time a Follower of His Life also, accord- 
ing to that: If any Man serve me, let him 
FOLLOW me." (3) 

Life in Brunswick was becoming 
more and more bitter to Arndt ; the 
sie<,a* of the city added outward suf- 
fering- to the inward one from the op- 
])osition of his jealous colleagues, of 
which he says, in a pathetic leter to 

the burgermeister Kalem : "I must 
acknowledge that not even the perse- 
cution and exile from my beloved 
fatherland of x\nhalt has given me 
such pain as this. "Gladly, then, did 
Arndt heed a call "which freed him," 
says Tholuck, "from his fiery furnace" 
to Eisleben, the birth-place, (and death- 
place), of Luther. The blessing of 
Arndt's presence brightened as it took 
its flight ; Superintendent Wagner 
wrote in the minutes of the Brunswick 
ministerium : "On November 1st, 1608 
Master Johann Arndt left St. Martin's 
church on account of the calumnies of 
his colleagues; a peaceable, pious, 
upright and learned man — May God 
bless him and his labors !" 

Li the quiet little tow'n of Eisleben, 
under the protection of the Counts of 
Mansfield to whose house Luther had 
ever shown such a loving loyalty, 
things went better with this much-en- 
during man. Krummacher sa3^s : "He 
saw no reason why he should not yield 
to the entreaties of his friends and 
publish the Second, Third and Fourth 
Books of the 'True Christianity, " — as 
if indeed he proposed a dark and dan- 
gerous thing in giving to the world a 
devotional work. As with the "First 
Book," so it was through the instru- 
mentality of his life-long friend Ger- 
hard that the remainder of the work 
appeared ; subsequently there were 
added two other Books ; the Fifth, an 
explanation and recapitulation of the 
first Four, and the Sixth, a defense, 
containing also letters to leading 
theologians of the time, prefaces to 
editions of the Theologia Germanica 
and other matter ; but the Four Books 
are the kernel of the famous work, 
^rhe ccMiipleted book was received 
with manifestation of almost extrava- 
gant delight by multitudes 

Ati outbreak of pestilence occurred 
(luring Arndt's stay in Eisleben and 
again, as in Ouedlinburg, he confronted 
it with calm courage, made his will 
and then, though constant in his min- 
istrations to the dying, came un- 
harmed tlirough the danger. In the 



following year, i6ii, the heroic mini- 
ster was called to a high post — that 
of General Superintendent (answering 
in position and duties to th office of 
bishop i n episcopally-organized 
churches) — at the city of Zelle in 
Brunswick. His present and pros- 
pective princes disputed over the 
clergyman as though he was a serf, 
but finally the Count of Mansfield 
gave him up, reluctantly, to the Duke 
of Brunswick and Arndt entered 
upon his duties, which he discharged 
with an energy and practical efficiency 
at variance with the traditional char- 
acter of a mystic. The new Superin- 
tendent made frequent visitations 
through his bishopric ; he gave wise 
and kindly advice to the humblest of 
his clergy wdienever it was sought ; to 
the poor and needy he w-as so gener- 
ous that he was suspected of possessing 
the philosopher's stone ; he interested 
himself in the schools — for Arndt, 
though himself childless, was very 
fond of children — and especially in the 
German schools for the peoples' 
children. Me gave great care to 
church discipline, a point in which the 
Lutherans had been weak in compari- 
son to the sterner Calvinists and he 
administered this delicate function at 
once with w^isdom and kindness. He 
wrote much, though little has achieved 
the enduring popularity of his great 
work ; among these writings were his 
"Postils" or sermons on the gospels 
and his exposition of the Psalter, 
concerning which he said : "What the 
heart is to man, that is the Psalter in 
the Bible." 

A few^ years before Arndt 's death, 
an especially bitter attack was made 
upon his book by a Danp^ig theologian 
named Corvinus. whom Tholuck calls 
"Raven by name and by nature," one 
of those to whom the Holy Spirit 
appears in the form of a raven and not 
of a dove." In this attack Corvinus 
declared that he did not wish to go 
to the same place in the next world 
as would Arndt — probably a quite un- 
necessary apprehension. 


In spite of the fact that he was "one 
of the best-hated men of his orthodox 
and dis])utatious times" — of his other 
harassments, and the dangers of 
plague, pestilence, war, privy conspir- 
acy and rebellion ■ which Arndt had 
experienced, his bodily strength en- 
dured almost to the end of his calm 
and useful life. "A cheerful spirit, a 
sense of fervent joyful gratitude to 
God, a hea\'enly calm" (4) ever per- 
vadetl his heart. But in the last 
months of the year 1620 he felt a 
strange weakness. Although con- 
vinced that the end of his labors ap- 
proached, Arndt did not remit his 
diligence, made a visitation of his dio- 
cese and preached as frequently as 
ever. But on the 3rd of May, 1621, 
returning from the church where he 
had preached upon the words : "They 
that sow in tears shall reap in joy. He 
that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing 
seed for sowing shall doubtless come 
again rejoicing, bringing his sheaves 
with him," he said to his wife: "Today 
I have preached my own fvmeral ser- 
mon." His sickness increased; the 
fervent prayers of his people were un- 
availing, even those of his beloved 
school children who cried, "Ah, dear 
Lord, make our dear Superintendent 
well again !" A\' hen his end approached 
he confessed and received the sacra- 
ment from a friend and brother, who 
asked him — as Justin Jonas had asked 
the dying Luther — if he w^ould main- 
tain and confess to the end those doc- 
trines which he had taught throughout 
his life, to which Arndt, in a weak but 
clear voice, replied : "Yes, yes, that I 
will, even to the end." On the nth 
of May he began to sing rapidly, 
though he continued to niurmur favor- 
ite texts: "Enter not into judgment 
with thy servant, for in thy sight 
shall no man living be justified;" "He 
that heareth my word and belie veth 
him that sent me hath eternal life and 
cometh not into judgment, but hath 
passed out of death into life." Pres- 
ently, waking from a sleep, he said in 



a loud voice: "We l)elu)kl his glory, 
the glory of the only begotten of the 
Father, full of grace and truth." His 
wife asked him when he had seen that 
glory; he answered, "I saw it just 
now! Oh what a glory it is! The 
glory which eye hath not seen, ear 
hath not heard, neither hath it entered 
into the heart of man to conceive — this 
glory I have seen !" He repeatedly 
asked the hour; at nine in the evening 
he said, "Now I have overcome," and 
these were his last words. He died 
quietly just before the midnight of 
May nth; there had been that day an 
eclipse of the sun, "which appared to 
many a portent." (5) 

When Arndt was interred, four days 
later, in the church at Zelle, amid the 
tears of a mourning multitude, his 
people and his prince, the text of the 
memorial sermon was the beautifully 
approi:)riate one : "Now am I ready to 
be offered and the time of my depart- 
ure is at hand, I have fought a good 
fight, I have finished the course, I 
have kept the faith : henceforth there 
is laid up for me a crown of righteous- 
ness which the Lord, the righteous 
judge, shall give me at that day." 


Tholuck in his article on Arndt in 
Herzog's Rcal-Encyclopedie, says : 
'Next to a Kempis there is no devo- 
tional book so frequently re-printed 
and so often translated as these Six 
Books concerning True Christianity 
which Arndt gave to the bookseller 
without pay save in a number of 
author's co])ies." And iNlcClintock & 
Strong's Cyclopedia of Biblical Liter- 
ature asserts that "no book of practi- 
cal religion has been more widely cir- 
culated, not even Bunyan's Pilgrim or 
Baxter's Saints' Rest." 

The original Four Books consist of 
the first, called the Book of Scripture; 
it seeks to show the way of the inward 
and sjMritual life and that the old 
Adam should die daily more and more 
in the heart of a Christian and Christ 
should gain the ascendance there. The 
second is the Book of Life; the author 

proposes in it to direct the Christian 
to a higher degree of perfection, to 
give him a relish for the cross, to re- 
commend to him the example of his 
Saviour. The third is the Book of 
Conscience ; in this Arndt discovers to 
the Christian the kingdom of God in 
his heart. The fourth, the fjook of 
Nature, is in two parts of which the 
first, a series of meditations on the 
six days of creation, contains many 
striking and beautiful thoughts inter- 
mixed with others almost ludicrous 
on account of Arndt's antiquated views 
of natural science, (6) the second part 
of this book has for its thesis that all 
creatures lead men to knowledge of 
his Creator. The contents of the added 
Fifth and Sixth Books have already 
been given. The "Paradise of the 
Christian Soul," a collection of very 
beautiful prayers or meditations large- 
ly in the language of Scripture, has 
been bound with the True Christianity 
in most editions; it appeared in 1612; 
it has four parts : the first contains 
prayers for the virtues inculcated by 
the Decalogue ; the second, thanks- 
givings; the third, prayers of consola- 
tion in troubles — the 'spiritual medicine 
against pestilence" is in this portion — 
and the fourth division contains 
])rayers of praise and adoration ; here 
is found one of the earliest German 
translations of the "Jubilee Rhythm" 
of Bernard of Clairvaux, although it 
is not certain that the translation is 
by Arndt. 

This is "An Evening Prayer" from 
Boehm's translation : 

"Merciful and gracious God, Heavenly 
Father! I thank and praise thee for having 
created both Day and Night, and for hav- 
ing divided the Light from the Darkness: 
appointing the Day for Labour and the 
Night for Rest, that both Man and Beast 
may be refreshed. I praise and glorify 
thee for all the marvelous Works of thy 
Love. I thank thee for bringing me in 
Safety to the Conclusion of the Day past, 
through thy divine Grace and Protection: 
and for enabling me to bear the Burden, 
and to pass through the Evil thereof. For, 
O loving Father, we have Trouble and Sor- 
row enough to contend with every Day of 
our Life: But thou helpest us first to 



bear, and 'then to lay aside one Burden 
after another, till at last we come to that 
Rest, and to that eternal Day, wherein all 
Labour and Sorrow, Pain and Affliction, 
forever shall cease. Bless my Sleep as 
thou didst that of the Patriarch Jacob, 
when he, beholding in his Dream the Lad- 
der that reached up into Heaven, received 
the Blessing, and saw the Holy Angels ascend 
ing and descending thereon. Let me speak 
of thee when I lie down to Rest, and think 
of thee when I awake: that so thy name 
and Remembrance may continually abide 
in my Heart, whether I wake or sleep. Let 
me not be afraid of the Terrors of the 
Night: Let no sudden Horror seize upon 
me: Let neither evil Spirits nor wicked 
Men disturb me; but let me enjoy a sweet 
Sleep, and a healthful repose. Keep me 
from frightful Dreams, from Spirits of 
Darkness, and Confusion of Mind; from 
the Violence of Enemies, from the Rage of 
Fire and the overflowing of Water. Behold! 
he that keepeth us, sleepeth not; Behold, the 
Keeper of Israel doth neither slumber nor 
sleep. Be thou, O Lord, the Shade upon 
my right Hand, that the Sun may not smite 
me by Day nor the Moon by Night. Let 
thy holy AVatchmen protect me, and let thy 
Angels encamp around me, and deliver me. 
Let thy good Angel awaken me in due 
Time, as he did Elijah and Peter, and 
others of thy Servants of old. who enjoyed 
a near communion with thee and they 
heavenly Host. Let good Angels commune 
with me in my sleep, as they did with 
Joseph and the wise Men of the East, when 
they lay asleep; that hereby I may know I 
have also Fellowship with those Minister- 
ing Spirits. And when my last Hour 
approacheth. grant that I may happily sleep 
and rest in my Lord and Saviour JESUS 
CHRIST, the Hope of Glory, and the Author 
of our Salvation. Amen. 

Throtig-hout both works are passages 
taken from many mystical writers : 
besides Bernard, Tattler and Thomas 
a Kempis, a considerable number of 
chapters in the Second Book are from 
the "Theology of the Cross" (1309) 
by Blessed Angela of Foligno, one of 
the earlier followers of St . Francis, 
who from a busy and frivolous woman 
of the world became in old age after 
the loss of husband and sons, a saintly 
person sometimes called Theologorum 
Magistra. Another little-known source 
from which Arndt took some things, 
was the writings of Staupitz, Luther's 
friend and Superior in the Augustin- 
ian convent at Erfurt, whose preach- 

ing was to the great Reformer "as a 
voice from heaven ;" Staupitz wrote 
"Concerning the Imitation of Christ's 
X'oluntary Death," and "Of the Prec- 
ious Love of God." From the Theo- 
logia Germanica, that beautiful little 
book once ascribed to Tauler, Arndt 
took much ; one of his latest tasks was 
to republish, with a preface of his 
own, this tract which, in spite of 
Luther's republication and recom- 
mendation, had fallen into obscurity. 

A source of some of his work which 
brought the Brunswick Superintend- 
ent into undeserved condemnation 
was W'eigel's little tract on prayer 
which in ignorance of its authorship 
Arndt included as the 34th chapter of 
his Second Bonk. Valentin Weigel 
was a pastor in Saxony during the 
sixteenth century ; holding mystical 
tenets not unlike those afterwards 
taught by Jakob Boehme, he, "fright- 
ened by the terrorism of the reigning 
orthodoxy published nothing and pos- 
sibly very few' of his parishoners 
noticed his heterodoxies," (7) l)ut after 
his death, friends began to promul- 
gate his views and the tract on prayer 
was sent to Arndt who, all unsuspic- 
ious, included it in his own book. He 
was speedily made responsible for all 
AVeigel's heresies of which he had 
known nothing and much of the de- 
fense, in the Sixth Book is given to re- 
futing this accusation. 

A few' years after Arndt's death, 
Osiander, a Tubingen professor and 
meml)er of a distinguished family of 
Lutheran theologians, published a 
furious polemic against the "book of 
hell." as he called the True Cliristianity 
and against Arndt, "whom he was 
utterly incapable of understanding." 
(8) it is a melancholy fact that Ger- 
hard, Arndt's life-long friend at whose 
urency he had given his books to the 
public, was terrorized by this asper- 
sion of his dead friend's memory and 
showed himself very lukewarm in its 

Another contemporary, Johann Val- 
entin Anderae. valued Arndt highly 



writing the author an enthusiastically 
grateful letter on the first appearance 
of his book and dedicating to him one 
of his own works, "Christianopolis," in 
1619. Anderae is now best known 
as the author of that pious mystifica- 
tion which purported to give an ac- 
count of the weird and wonderful 
Rosicrucian Order and its founder,the 
crusader Christian Rosencreutz — it is 
said that Andreae acknowledged, in 
answer to a letter of inquiry from 
Arndt, that the whole tale was but a 
pious romance. 

Glassius. Superintendent of the 
principality of Gotha in 1640, said 
quaintly: "He who does not like 
(schmeckt nicht) Arndt, has lost his 
spiritual appetite." It was noticeable 
that about this period, during the 
agonies of the Thirty Years' War, the 
love of Arndt's writings greatly in- 
creased ; pious people quoted Luther's 
mistranslation of Isaiah ■ xxviii :i9 "Die 
Anfechtung lehret auf's Wort merken" 
as fulfilled in this. And Duke August 
of Brunswick, Arndt's master and 
Andreae's friend and correspondent, 
said that Germany's woes were a judg- 
ment upon her for" the errors and 
scholastic disputes of theologians who 
had dared to accuse of heresy even so 
saintly a man as Arndt. (9) 


When at the end of the seventeenth 
century the new reformation of the 
Protestant .Church arose, in the form 
of Pietism, it was natural that its 
sympathizers should make much of 
Arndt's writings. Spener, often 

called the founder of Pietism, had 
had them recommended to him by his 
morbidly pious godmother,the Count- 
ess of Rappoltstein ; and wdien half a 
century after Arndt's death, Spener 
inaugurated the movement by the 
publication of his "Pia Desideria," the 
epoch-making book first appeared as 
a preface to a new edition of Arndt's 
postils. In later years Spener said: 
"I Consider Luther greater because 
God permitted him to do a greater. 

more noticeable work, yet in other 
respects he had no pre-eminence; 
nevertheless Arndt conies very near 
to him and I know not but by his 
writings, God called him to equally 
honorable work." (10) The founder 
of the famous schools, orphan-houses 
and other benevolences of the Pietists 
at Halle — Francke — was an enthusi- 
astic admirer of Arndt, as was the de- 
vout, deep and learned commentator 
Bengel, author of that treasure-house 
of exposition, the "Gnomon." 

\Mien visiting in 1687 the Jesuit 
library at Madrid, Prof. Anton of 
Halle incidentally inquired of the li- 
brarian what ascetic writer they re- 
garded as the best and was shown a 
book Avithout title-page or cover 
which the monk said was esteemed as 
the best and most edifying work in 
their possession ; to the astonishment 
of the German Pietist, this proved to 
be a copy of the "True Christianity!" 
In 1734 an edition of, the work under 
a disguised form of the author's name 
was published by a Catholic physi- 
cian at Kempten. 

Of course the circumstance that 
Arndt's writings were beloved by the 
Pietists involved these writings in the 
controversies of which Pietism was 
the storm-center and early in the 
eighteenth century, Scharfif collected 
writings in defense of Arndt into the 
Supplementum Historiae litisque 
Arndtianae, an addition to the here- 
tic Breller's Apologetica Arndtiana 
(1625). Both are said to be valuable 
sources of information though they 
must be, like all theological contro- 
versy, depressing reading. 

One of the missionaries sent out by 
the Halle Institution, Schultz, who 
had more talent for translation than 
for anything else, put Arndt's work 
into the Tamil dialect of India. The 
Halle press published (under the edi- 
torship of Rambach the hymn-writer) 
an edition of Arndt's works in three 
volumes as early as 1734. Latin trans- 
lations were made soon after the orig- 
inal appearance of the "True Chris- 



tianity.' in 1625, 1628 and again in 
1704; the book was translated into 
Dutch in 1642 and 1647; into French 
at an unknown date by Samuel Bas- 
nage de Bcauval, a member of the 
learned Huguenot family of that name 
— pastors, writers and exiles for 
their faith. The writings of this "Fen- 
elon of Protestantism," "the Spener 
or Wesley of his time," as he has been 
variously called, have been translated 
also into I3anish, Swedish, Bohemian, 
Polish, Turkish^, Russian and the 
speech of Malabar. 

A Latin translation appeared in 
England in 1704, made by the Court 
Chaplain, Anton Wilhelm Boehm and 
dedicated to his patron Prince George 
of Denmark who, as a Lutheran was 
permitted to retain his religion and 
its services at the Anglican court of 
his consort Queen Anne, (ii) Chap- 
lain Boehm had been a pupil of 
Francke at Halle, was made chaplain 
at the English court in 1705 and was 
a prolifiic and quite able writer: Ram- 
bach edited his complete works also. 
Boehm had been taught the Halle 
spirit of benevolence and the love to 
one's neighbor so frequently insisted 
upon by Arndt and so, when in 1709 
the Great Exodus of poor Palatine 
Germans occurred, he interested him- 
self to have them settled in some part 
of Queen Anne's dominions and to 
provide them with food for the body 
and the soul. So he gave them copies 
of Arndt's work in German along 
with Bibles, hymn-books and so on. 
Boehm made the Latin translation of 
1704 and then proceeded to furnish 
the English people with a translation 
( Lonflon. 1712) into their own tongue 
of the work he so much valued. This 
translation — though inaccurate, re- 
dundant, and careless in its Scripture 
citations, with a style characterized 
as "antiquated, heavy, sometimes even 
(plaint" — has appealed to many other 
readers as the best rendering of the 
Brunswick Superintendent's sixteenth 
century diction. (12) 

The work by a process of accretion 
had gathered to itself many miscella- 
neous writings not only by Arndt but 
of others and the freedom with which 
the author took, without indication of 
its source, whatever appealed to him 
as edifying, has been used by later 
editors toward Arndt himself; thus to 
the Paradise-Gaertlein are often ap- 
pended morning and evening prayers 
credited to Arndt but which really 
originated with Johann Habermann 
"of Eger erstwhile preacher and Su- 
perintendent in Zeitz." (13) 

^^"hen, in 1749, John Wesley began 
the publication of his "Christian Li- 
brary, consisting of Extracts and 
Abridgments of the choicest Pieces 
of Practical Divinity which have been 
published in the English tongue," he 
included in the first volume "An 
Extract of John Arndt's True Chris- 

The London edition came to Ameri- 
ca and when Cotton ^Mather's "lovely 
-daughter Katherine" — her father's 
dear, good, wise and lovely Katy" — 
lay dying, the father read to her 
from their favorite book, John Arndt's 
"True Christianity" which she was 
ne\er tired of hearing. Her cousin 
Thomas AX'alter said that had they 
followed the Egyptian custom and 
buried her chief treasure Avith her, the 
two volumes of Arndt would have 
been laid on her breast. And this same 
cousin shows why the "True Christi- 
anity" was Katherine ^Mather's favor- 
ite reading, in describing" the type of 
her piety: "It lay in a will wholly 
dead as to self and anything here be- 
low and wholly resigned to God and 
swallowed up in his will. It lay in a 
sacrificing soul, that was ready to 
sacrifice all enjoyments, the dearest 
and sweetest, for God ; a soul willing 
t(i be all that God would have it be 
and ready to suffer all that God would 
have it undergo and do all God should 
rec|uire of it to be done." (14) Do we 
not read in this, across the ages, the 
words upon the century-yellowed 
pages of the Theologia Germanica, 



copied by Ariult in his study at Zelle, 
for his treatise on practical religion? 

Another appearance of Arndt's 
writings in German religious history- 
is less edifying though perhaps more 
essentially pathetic. In 1730 there 
came to this country in response to 
the call of the German settlers in 
Pennsylvania who were destitute of 
church privileges, a young clergyman 
of the Reformed (or Calvinistic) 
church, John Peter Miller by name. 
He was ordained by the Presbytery 
of Philadelphia after passing a bril- 
liant examination and the Rev. 
Jedidiah Andrews, -writing to a cor- 
respondent in Boston, pronounced 
]\Iiller "an extraordinary person for 
sense and learning" and spoke of "the 
very notable manner" in Avhich the 
y-oung graduate of Heidelberg has 
answered "a question about justifica- 
tion." Sent to what was then the 
frontier, in the Conestoga valley, the 
learned, modest and genial young 
clergyman came in contact with some 
strange sectaries, led by a certain 
Conrad Beissel, a baker's apprentice 
who kept the seventh day as Sunday, 
practised baptism by immersion and 
lived in a celibate semi-monastic com- 
munity. Beissel visited Miller, la- 
bored with him and to borrow the 
expression used in the chronicle of 
this monastic establishment, "Wisdom 
finally drew him into her net." Mil- 
ler himself says: "My inward conduc- 
tor brought me into that critical di- 
lemma, either to be a member of this 
new institution or consent to my own 
damnation When we were con- 
ducted to the water (for immersion) 
I did not much dififer from a poor 
criminal imder sentence of death." 
The da}' after Miller's reception 
among the hermits of Conestoga, 
Beissel is said to have required him 
to burn all his theological and devo- 
tional books, and in this Pennsylva- 
nian auto-de-fe, a copy of Arndt's 
Paradies-Gaertlein was included. The 
next day, a neighbor passing the pyre 
found amid the ashes the little prayer 

book preserved miraculously, as it 
was deemed and this instance of 
providential interposition was added 
to the fourteen others of which an ac- 
count is often appended to modern 
editions of Arndt's works. (15) Miller 
remained in the Ephrata cloister to 
the end of a long life, finally becom- 
ing the prior of the establishment, the 
"strong delusion' which beset him un- 
der Beissel's influence, continued 'to 
the end. 

The first American edition of the 
True Christianit}^ was in German and 
j^roceeded from the press of no less a 
n-ian than Benjamin Franklin. He 
was assisted by the German Reformed 
pastor Boehm and the title-page 
]:ears their names as partners, prob- 
ably only in this particular enterprise. 
Ijoehm was to secure 500 subscribers 
which he did among the German 
settlers of Pennsylvania and Hartwig, 
an eccentric but useful pioneer pastor 
ministering to the Palatines of the 
IMohawk Vallev, collected subscrip- 
tions there and supplied the work 
with a preface. The book was 
adorned by sixty-five imported copper 
plates of religious designs and "em- 
blems," contained 1388 pages, was 
the largest book printed in Philadel- 
phia during the eighteenth century 
and even with this, did not contain 
the Paradise of the Christian Soul. 
The latter was published fourteen 
years after by Christopher Saur, the 
Germantown ^ publisher so prominent 
among the Dunkers or German Bap- 
tist Brethren ; Saur's imprint was a 
i6mo of 563 pages. Both books are 
n.ow very rare. 

Nearly half a century later, in 1809, 
the Reverend Calvin Chaddock of 
Hanover, Massachusetts, became ac- 
quainted "accidentally" as he says, 
with Cha])lain Bohme's English trans- 
lation of the True Christianity and 
l)eing impressed, as are most of its 
readers, with its quaint charm and 
piety, republished it. 

Both Arndt's original and Bohme's 
translation have been revised — the 



German b}^ a successor of the author 
in one of his pastoral charges, the 
''somewhat ancient" EngHsh of 
Brihme l)y Jaccjues; and SchaefTer's 
translation of 1868 was made from this 
latest English revision. 

The enthusiasm for Arndt's writ- 
ings, of the modern German divines 
Krummaclier and Tholuck, has been 
mentioned ; but the Paradies-Gaert- 
Icin, translated by J. M. Horst under 
the title of "The Paradise of the 
Christian Soul" excited attention and 
a;)|)robation from a remote and un- 
likely English source — the Reverend 
r.()u\erie Pusey. In the preface of 
his "S!)iritual Letters" we are told by 
the editors (p. XII) "as regards his 
l)ooks of private devotion, his favor- 
ite book for many years was "The 
I'aradise of the Christian Soul," 
A\hich he had with great care adapted 
for the use of members of the English 

In I\Irs. Pryor's "Reminiscences of 
Peace and A\'ar," describing Wash- 
ington society on the eve of the Civil 
W'SiY the author speaks of Lady Na- 
])ier, the wife of the British Ambassa- 
dor at the capital in those troubled 
times, as follows: (16) 

"People were wont to remark upon the 
atmosjihere the lovely Lady Napier seemed 
to bring with her everywhere. Those who 
were admitted to her sanctum sanctorum, 
her little boudoir, fancied they could ex- 
plain it. Upon her tpble was a rosewood 
bookca'^e containing half-a-dozen volumes 
— a Bible, Paradise of the Christian Soul.. 
....etc. These were the pure waters from 
which Lady Napier drank daily." 

So down the centuries we see very 
various people, and of many and 
^\•ide]y separated countries and lan- 
guages drawing from the writings of 
Arndt their s])iritual sustenance and 
refreshing: theologian and commen- 
tator, JUisnienot and Tamil Christian 
of India, the chaplain at Queen Anne's 
court, the poor Palatine refugee on 
Plackhcath and the hermit in the 
wilds of Conestoga ; "dear, wise, good 
and lovely" Katy Mather on her 
death-bed and John A\^esley in the 
midst of his labors, the ascetic ritual- 

ist and the brilliant loveable Am- 
bassadress. The book is compassed 
a])out by a great cloud of witnesses 
to its worth and beauty. Selections 
from its lovely and devout, if too- 
numerous, pages would not be un- 
profitable for readers of the present 

(1) Sc-liaff-Hevzog Cyclopedia, art. Gerhard. 

(2) Kruininacher's preface to his edition of 
Arndt's worl<s, p. IX 

{;;) Boehm's translation, Lcjndon, 1712. 

(4) Schaeffer, Introduction to translation of 
True Christianity, p. 26. . 

(5) Krummaeher, biographical sketch preceding, 
his edition of True Christianity and Paradise of 
Christian Soul, Leipzig, 1842. 

(6) Boehm, the 18th century translation of the 
True Christianity, says in his "advertisement" to 
his second volume: "It is possible that some never- 
theless vsfill be offended at several Passages in the- 
4tli Book which are by no means reconcilable to 
certain principles now generally received among our 
virtuosi. But whatsoever shall calmly and without 
I)rejudice consider the preesnt State of Philosophy 
and conii^are it with what it was about an hundred 
years ago, when this Treatise was first published 
in Germany, will not be overhasty in condemning 
those Refle.Nions and Observations upon Principles 
then and there commonly allowed, which he will 
hevpin meet with. It is possible that in less than 
one hundred years hence, there will be as great 
Alterations in the state of Natural Philosophy as- 

there have been in the last Century And as- 

for the common Readers, there is enough said for 
their Capacities : and perhaps with more it may not 
be convenient to trouble their Heads." 

(7 J MeClintock & Strong's Cyclopedia, art. 

(8) Schaff: Religious Encyclopedia, art. Osiander. 

(9) He himself, in a "spirit of prophecy, had 
said: "How many dreadful Mischiefs, and tragical 
Events, how many Wars, Butcheries, Plagues, and 
Famines, shall wast the unhappy World in the last 
Days I Such, and so great, as no good Christian- 
wjuld to see or endure." Bk. II, c, 57. 

(10) Quoted by Tholuck in his article on Arndt, 
before cited. 

(11) Most people remember the anecdote of 
Prince George going tearfully into the lobby to vote 
against a bill permitting the exercise of Dissenting 
religions in England and murmuring in his broken 
English to the promoters of the bill: "My heart is 
vit you!" 

(12) An account of the help given by Boehm. 
and the Halle institutions generally to the poor 
Palatjnes durjng many years will be found in Part 
XI of the proceedings of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society, Dr. Schm auk's Lutheran Church in Penna., 
p. 183, and opposite p. 184