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THE 

PHARMACOPOEIA 

OP THE 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

NINTH DECENNIAL REVISION 



BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

UNITED STATES PHARMACOPCEIAL CONVENTION 

BSLD AT WASHINGTON, D.C., MAT 10, 1010 



PREPARED BY THE COMMITTEE OP REVISION AND 
PUBLISHED BY THE BOARD OP TRUSTEES 



OFFICIAL FROM SEPTEMBER 1, 191.6 



PHILADELPHIA 
AGENTS 

P. BLAKISTON'S SON & COMPANY 

8UB-AGENTS 
If mw Yon. PAUL B. HOEBER, 07 East 69tb Street 
CncAN, CHICAGO MEDICAL BOOK CO.. Congrats and Honor* 8tnata 
Br. Loun. LEWI8 & MATTHEWS 4 CO.. 3603 Otire 8tnat 
a** Fiaiomo, H. & CROCKER CO.. 006 Mark* 8tro»t 




PRINTERS AND BINDERS 

J, B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA 



CONTENTS 

PART I 

PACK 

Historical Introduction v 

Articles of Incorporation xix 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the Ninth Decennial Convention, 1910 . . . xxiii 

General Principles To Be Followed for the Ninth Revision xxxi 

Preface >. xzxv 

Introductory Notices xlv 

International Protocol liii 

Admissions, Deletions and Changes lix 

Articles Added to Part I, U.S.P. IX lix 

Articles Dismissed from U.S.P. VIII Ix 

Articles Added to Part II, U.8.P. IX Ldii 

Articles Dismissed from Appendix, U.S.P. VIII lxv 

Changes in Official Latin Titles lxvi 

Changes in Official English Titles lxvii 

Comparative Table Showing the Strength of the More Important Pharmaco- 
poeia! Substances and Preparations in the Preceding and in the Present 

Pharmacopoeia Ixviii 

The Phannacopctia of the United States of America 1 



PART II 

Atomic Weights 503 

Elements and Pharmacopoeia! Chemicals 504 

Multiples of Some Atomic and Molecular Weights 520 

Reagents 521 

Test Solutions . . . . 521 

Volumetric Solutions 555 

Indicators for Acidimetry and Alkalimetry 579 

General Tests 584 

1. Arsenic Test 584 

2. Arsenic Test, Bettendorf 's 586 

3. Heavy Metals Test 586 

4. Electrolytic Determinations 587 

5. Assay for Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides 588 

6. Assay for Alkali Salts of Organic Acids , 589 

7. Determination of Ash or Non-volatile Matter 589 

8. Iodine Absorption Value 590 

9. Saponification Value 590 

10. Acid Number for Resins 591 

11. Determination of Crude Fiber 591 

12. Determination of Volatile Extractive, Soluble in Ether 591 

iii 



IV CONTENTS 



13. Determination of Non-volatile Extractive, Soluble in Ether 592 

14. Determination of Alcohol in Official Preparations with list of Alco- 

holic Percentages 592 

15. Proximate Assays (General Directions) 593 

16. Melting Points 596 

17. Boiling Points 598 

18. Congealing Points 599 

19. Solubilities 599 

20. Gasometric Estimations 600 

21. Optical Rotation 602 

22. Refractive Index 603 

23. Biological Assays 604 

Standard Thermometers 610 

Powders 612 

Percolation 613 

Sterilization 616 

Diagnostics! Reagents and Clinical Tests 618 

Tables 628 

Thermometric Equivalents 628 

Alcoholometric Table 633 

Temperature Corrections for Alcoholometric Table 636 

Acid and Alkali Tables 638 

Acetic Acid 639 

Hydrochloric Acid 642 

Nitric Acid 643 

Sulphuric Acid 646 

Ammonia 649 

Reduction of Apparent to True Specific Gravity 650 

Reduction of Apparent Weight in Air to Weight in Vacuum 651 

Calibration of Pycnometers , 652 

Calibration of Glass Measuring Apparatus 653 

Metric Equivalents 654 

Weight and Volume Relations 658 

Converting Metric Quantities in Pharmaceutical Processes to Quantities 

in the Avoirdupois System 660 

Converting Metric Quantities in Pharmaceutical Processes to Quantities 

in Apothecaries Measures 661 

Converting Metric Quantities in Pharmaceutical Processes to Quantities 

in Apothecaries Weights 662 

Index 663 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

IN January, 1817, Dr. Lyman Spalding,* of New York City, sub- 
mitted to the Medical Society of the County of New York a project 
for the formation of a National Pharmacopoeia, t 
Dr. Spalding's plan was as follows: The United States were to be 
divided into four districts — Northern, Middle, Southern, and Western; 
the New England States to form the Northern District; New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of 
Columbia, the Middle District ; and the States south and west of these 
borders to constitute the other two districts. 
The plan provided that a Convention should be called in each of theae 
ricts, to be composed of delegates from all the medical societies and 
schools situated within each of them. Each District Convention was to 
form a Pharmacopoeia! and appoint delegates to a General Convention, 
to he held in Washington. To this General Convention the four District 
Pharmacopoeias should be taken, and from the material thus brought 

•Born at Cornish, N.H., June 5, 1775; died at Portsmouth, N.H., OctoberSC, 1821. 

hile European pharmacopoeias were chiefly relied upon as authorities previous 

to the appearance of the first official Pharmacopeia of the United States of America, 

yet & few works had appeared, previous to this tune, which deserve to be recorded 

here. 

In 1778 there was published at Philadelphia a small Pharmacopoeia for the use 
of the Military Hospital of the U.S. Army located at Li tits, Lancaster Co., Penn- 
sylvania, under the title: "Pharmacopoeia simpliciorum et eflicaciorurn, in usum 
Dowcomii militaris, ad exercitum fanieratarum Anuria* civitatum pertinentis; 
Wlienue nostra; inopia? rerumque angustiis, f eroci hostium su*vitio% belloque crude li 
ttiuopinato patria? nostra* illato debit is, maxiine accommodnta." A second edition 
of this appeared in 1781, on the title-page of which Dr. William Brown is men- 
tioned as author. 

On October 3, 1805, the Counsellors of the Massachusetts Medical Society ap- 
pointed a Committee to draft a Pharmacopoeia adapted to the special wants of their 
*ctionof this country. The Ooqunittee, consisting of Dr, James Jackson arid Dr. 
John C Warren, endeavored to secure the co-operation of medical institutions in 
other States, with the object of making the work national, but without success. 
Thry presented the result of their labors to the Counsellors on June 5, 1807, and 
the work was issued some time in the early part of 1808, It was based upon the 
list preceding edition of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, but contained much original 
flatter, among which was a posological and prosodial table. 

In 1815 the Physicians and Surgeons of the New York Hospital appointed Dr. 
8uSKiel L. MitchiU and Dr; Valentine Seaman a Committee to prepare a Pharrna- 
ttpffiit for the use of that institution. This was issued in 1810, and enjoyed for 
•one years an authority of more than local character. 



VI HISTORICAL INTBODUCTION 

/ 

together a National Pharmacopoeia should be compiled. Dr. Spalding's 
plan was approved by the committee to which it was referred, and sub- 
sequently, through the agency of the Medical Society of the State of 
New York, it was carried into effect. This society issued circulars re- 
questing the co-operation of the several incorporated State Medical 
Societies, the several incorporated Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, 
or Medical Schools, or such medical bodies as constituted a faculty in 
any incorporated university or college in the United States; and in any 
State or Territory in which there was no incorporated medical society, 
college, or school, voluntary associations of physicians and surgeons 
were invited to assist in the undertaking. 

The following organizations approved the plan of forming a National 
Pharmacopoeia, and appointed delegates to district conventions: Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, June 2, 1818; College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in the City of New York, June 25, 1818; Medical and Chirurgical 
Faculty of Maryland, June, 1818; Rhode Island Medical Society, Sep- 
tember 1, 1818; Medical Society of South Carolina, September, 1818; 
Medical Society of the District of Columbia, October 5, 1818; Connec- 
ticut Medical Society, October 15, 1818; Medical Institution of Yale 
College, October 28, 1818; Vermont Medical Society, October, 1818; 
Board of Physicians and Surgeons of the First Medical District of the 
State of Indiana, November 3, 1818; College of Physicians and Surgeons 
of the Western District of the State of New York, January, 1819; Col- 
lege of Physicians of Philadelphia, February 2, 1819; Medical Faculty 
of Brown University, March 15, 1819; Medical School at Lexington, 
Kentucky, April, 1819; New Hampshire Medical Society, May 5, 
1819; Medical Society of New Jersey, May 11, 1819; Medical Society 
of the State of Delaware, May, 1819; Medical Society of Georgia, May, 
1819. 

The Medical College of Ohio and the Medical Society of New Orleans 
approved the formation of a National Pharmacopoeia, but they did not 
appoint delegates. 

The District Convention for the New England States was held in 
Boston, June 1, 1819, and a District Pharmacopoeia was adopted. 

The District Convention of the Middle States was held in Philadel- 
phia, June 1, 1819, and two outlines of Pharmacopoeias, submitted by 
the delegates from New York and Philadelphia, were formed into one, 
which was adopted as the Pharmacopoeia of the Middle District. 

There were no conventions held in the Southern and Western Districts, 
but measures were taken, by those concerned, to secure a representation 



HISTORICAI, INTRODUCTION 



VU 



Thi 

- 



of the Southern District in the General Convention at Washington, 
The General Convention for the formation of a National Pharmacopoeia 
assembled in the Capitol , at Washington, January 1, 1820, and elected 
Samuel L. MitcfaiU, M,D,, President, and Thomas T. Hewscm, M.D., 
Secretary. 
The two Pharmacopoeias prepared in the Northern and Middle Dis- 
were submitted to examination, compared in detail, and their 
contents, with such additions as werr thought necessary, consolidated 
one work, which, after full revision, was adopted by the General 
Convention, and ordered to l>e published by a committee appointed for 
purpose, of which Dr. Lyman Spalding was chairman. It waa 
published in Boston, December 15, 1820, in both the Latin and English 
languages, a second edition appearing in 1828. 

FIRST REVISION 

Before adjourning, the General Convention of 1820 made arrange- 
ments for the future revision of the work. It instructed its President to 
issue, on January 1, 1828, writs of election to the several incorporated 
Medical Societies and in corpora ted Medical Colleges and Schools 
in the Northern District, requiring them to ballot for three delegates to 
:. < icnenil Convention to be held at Washington on Jitumrj 1, 1880, 
urpose of revising the American Pharmacopoeia; and that these 
r:d institutions be requested to forward to the President, on or 
Won April 1, 1829, the names of three persons thus designated by 
UUot; and the President of the Convention \v:us requested, on the said 
day, to assort and count the said votes, and to notify the three persons, 
who should have the greatest number of votes, of their election ; and, 
in eaae there should not be three persons who had a greater number of 
than others, then the said President was desired to put a ballot 
into the box for each of those persons who had an equal number of 
1 draw therefrom such number of ballots as should make the 
number of delegates three, and notify as before directed. 

This resolution was to apply in like manner to the Middle, Southern, 
and Western Distn 

Accordingly, there were to be three delegates from each of the four 
district*, the Convention thus to consist of twelve delegates. 

.Notwithstanding the rare thus exercised by the Convention of 1820 to 
arrange for a Convention in 1830, a serious misunderstanding occurred, 
the result of which was that two Pharmacopoeias were published in 
ISO New Y«>rk and one in Philadelphia. 



H1ST0B1CAX DTTBODUCTION 



The President issued, on January 1, 1828, writs of election, as in- 
structed by the Convention of 1820; but, on account of a certain am- 
biguity of expression in the resolution of the Convention of 1820, and 
perhaps, also, in the communication of President Mitchill addressed 
to the various societies and colleges, some of the organizations did not 
correctly understand what was expected of them! and instead of sending 
to President Mitchill the state of the ballot, sent to him merely its result. 
It appears to have been the impression in many places that the societies 
addressed were to choose delegates, and that the delegates thus chosen 
were to proceed to Washington. 

President Mitchill received returns from the Northern and Middle 
Districts, but none from the Southern and Western Districts. He 
counted the ballots returned to him, as he understood that they should 
be counted, and notified the three chosen by each of the two districts 
of their election, but the appointment of the delegates for the Middle 
District was not satisfactory to many of the medical societies of that 
region. 

The delegates from the Northern and Middle Districts who had been 
notified by President Mitchill of their election resolved, by general 
concurrence, and for the sake of convenience, to hold the meeting of 
the Convention at New York instead of Washington, as directed by 
the authority under which they were chosen. Eli Ives, M.D., of Yale 
College, Connecticut, was elected President. As they were so few in 
number, they adjourned for six months in order to obtain assistance 
from the medical fraternity of the country. They issued a circular to 
each of the Medical Societies and Medical Institutions in the United 
States not represented in the Convention, requesting each to appoint 
a delegate to co-operate with this Convention in revising the American 
Pharmacopoeia; and, provided no delegate should be appointed, or, if 
appointed, be unable to attend, said society or medical institution or 
delegates were requested to communicate their ideas, in relation to the 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia, to the Convention at their next session 
to be held on the first Wednesday of June, 1830, at the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons of New York. 

The Convention met, according to agreement, in New York, June 2, 
1830, ten delegates being present, representing: Connecticut, South 
Carolina, New York, Ohio, and Western Massachusetts. They revised 
the Pharmacopoeia of 1820, authorized the publication of their revision, 
and, before adjourning, provided for a subsequent revision in 1835. The 
book was published in New York, November, 1830. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



IX 




In consequence of the dissatisfaction existing in the Middle District, 
n/rangements were made to hold a Convention at Washington, January, 
J830, which should be more fairly representative of the medical societies, 
colleges, and schools of the Middle District. 

The Convention was held in the Capitol, at Washington, January 4, 
1830. It consisted of eight delegates, two from New Jersey, two from 
Philadelphia, one from Delaware:, one from Maryland, and two from the 
District of Columbia, all members from the Middle District, Lewis 
Condiet, M.D., of New Jersey, was elected President. 

DM many sections of the United States were not represented at this 
aid it appeared desirable that the various medical interests 
of the country' should have their due representation, it was resolved, 
aocm after the organization of the Convention, that the Surgeon-General 
of the Army, the senior surgeon of the Navy, stationed at Washington, 
those Members of Congress who were practitioners of medicine, 
be invited to participate in the proceedings. 
In compliance with this invitation, the Surgeon-General of the Army, 
the senior surgeon of the Navy, and three Members of Congress took 
tbeir seats in the Convention, thus increasing t lie number of the dele- 
|*tes to thirteen. The Convention appointed a Committee of Revision 
consisting of a Chairman and two members from each of the following 
viz.: Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, 
>ton, Lexington, and Cincinnati. 
The Chairman of the Committee was requested to open a correspond- 
ence with the several members for the purpose of submitting to their 
examination a revised draft of the Pharmacopoeia presented to the Con- 
vention by the delegates from Pennsylvania. He was also instructed to 
call a meeting of the Committee in Philadelphia, Any three members 
constituted a quorum for the transaction of business, and, after 
* careful examination of the several communications that might be 
submitted to them, they were to prepare a revised edition of the Phar- 
macopoeia, and make the necessary arrangements for its publication. 

The Committee performed the duty imposed upon them, and their 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia was published in Philadelphia in 1831. 



SECOND REVISION 

Ptevious to adjournment, the Convention arranged for a Convention 
b 1840, by the following resolution: "Resolved, That the President of 
\ Convention shall, on the first day of January, 1839, issue a notice, 
sting the different incorporated State Medical Societies, the incor- 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



porated Medical Colleges, and the incorporated Colleges of Physicians 
and Surgeons, throughout the United States, each to elect a number of 
delegates, not exceeding three, to attend a General Convention to be 
held at Washington, D.C., on the first Monday in January, 1840." 

The plan of the New York Convention for a revision of the Pharma- 
copoeia in 1835 was abandoned. The plan of the Washington Conven- 
tion for a revision in 1840 was generally recognized as the more feasible 
and was fully carried out. 

The notices for the choice of delegates to the Convention of 1840 
were issued by Lewis Condict, M.D., President of the Washington Con- 
vention of 1830, in accordance with the resolution quoted above. The 
Convention assembled at Washington on the first day of January, 1840, 
twenty delegates being present, representing the Rhode Island Medical 
Society, the New Jersey Medical Society, the College of Physicians of 
Philadelphia, the University of Pennsylvania, the Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia, the Delaware Medical Society, the Washing- 
ton University of Baltimore, the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of 
Maryland, the Medical Society of the District of Columbia, the Colum- 
bian Medical College, the Vincennes Medical Society of Indiana, and 
the Medical Society of Georgia. 

The credentials of delegates from the Medical Society of Vermont, the 
Medical Society of New Hampshire, the Albany Medical College, and 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lexington, Kentucky, were 
presented, but the delegates did not make their appearance during the 
session. Lewis Condict, M.D., of New Jersey, was elected President. 

With the view of giving the various medical interests of the country 
proper representation in the Convention, the Surgeon-General of the 
Army and the senior surgeon of the Navy stationed at Washington 
were invited to participate in the proceedings. The Convention ap- 
pointed a Committee of Revision and Publication, consisting of seven 
members (three to form a quorum), and the meetings of the Committee 
to be held at Philadelphia. To this Committee were referred all 
communications received by the Convention from the various organiza- 
tions represented. The Committee was authorized to request the co- 
operation of the colleges of pharmacy in the United States, and to 
publish the work after the completion of the revision. Valuable assis- 
tance was rendered the Committee by the Colleges of Pharmacy of 
Boston and New York; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy pre- 
sented a complete revised copy of the Pharmacopoeia, elaborated with 
ability and great industry; the Committee accepted, after deliberate 



examination, nearly all of the suggestions, and this caused delay in 
the issue of the work. The book was not published until early in the 
year 1842. In this revision the Latin version was omitted. The proc- 
of displacement or percolation was introduced for the first time. 

THIRD REVISION 

Before adjourning, provision was made, by the following resolution, 
for a Convention in 1850: 

"The President of this Convention shall, on the first day of May, 
1S49, issue a notice, requesting the several incorporated State Medical 
Societies, the incorporated Medical Colleges, the incorporated Colleges 
of Physicians and Surgeons, and the incorporated Colleges of Pharmacy, 
throughout the United States, each to elect a number of delegates, not 
exceeding three, to attend a General Convention to be held at Wash- 
ington, on the first Monday in May, 1850." 

In accordance with this resolution, the Convention met at Washing- 
ton, May 6, 1850, thirty delegates being present, representing: the 
Rhode Island Medical Society, the Geneva Medical College, the College 
of Pharmacy of the City of New York, the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, the University of 
Pennsylvania, the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, the Medical 
faculty of the Pennsylvania College, the Medieo-Chirurgical College 
of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the Medical 
ty of Delaware, the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, 
Medical Society of the District of Columbia, the National Medical 
u r e of the District of Columbia, the Medical Department of the 
National Institute, the Georgetown Medical College, and the Rush 
Medical College of Chicago. 

The credentials of delegates from the New Hampshire Medical Insti- 
tution, the University of Buffalo, the Medical Department of Hampden- 
acy College, the Medical Society of South Carolina, the Medical 
College of Ohio, the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, the Missouri 
Medical Society, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, and the Medical 
Faculty of the University of Iowa were presented, but the delegates did 
&ot make their appearance during the session. 

orge B. Wood, M.D., of Philadelphia, was chosen President. The 

Surgeon-General of the Army and the Chief of the Bureau of Medicine 

*nd Surgery of the Navy Department were invited to participate in the 

proceeding^. 

The Convention appointed a Committee of Revision and Publication, 






Xll HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

consisting of the President of the Convention and three other members, 
three to form a quorum; the meetings of the Committee were held in 
Philadelphia, and the Committee published the revised work in 1851. A 
second edition was issued in 1855. 



FOURTH REVISION 

Before adjourning, the Convention of 1850 made arrangements for 
a Convention to be held on the first Wednesday in May, 1860, by a 
resolution similar to the one adopted by the Convention of 1840. 

The Convention met in 1860, thirty delegates being present, repre- 
senting: the Maine Medical Association, the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, the Connecticut State 
Medical Society, the Medical Society of the State of New York, the 
New York Academy of Medicine, the College of Pharmacy of the City 
of New York, the University of Pennsylvania, the Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia, the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the Delaware State Medical Society, 
the University of Maryland, the Maryland College of Pharmacy, the 
National Medical College of Washington, the Medical Society of the 
District of Columbia, the United States Army, and the United States 
Navy. George B. Wood, M.D., of Philadelphia, was chosen President. 

A Committee of Revision and Publication was appointed, consisting 
of nine members, including the President of the Convention. To this 
Committee were referred all communications relating to the revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia. Three members were to form a quorum. The 
Committee was to meet in Philadelphia, and was authorized to publish 
the work after its revision. The book was published in June, 1863. 
Before adjourning, the Convention made arrangements, by a resolution 
similar to that adopted by the Convention of 1850, for a Convention in 
1870. 

FIFTH REVISION 

In accordance with this resolution, a Convention met in Washington, 
Wednesday, May 4, 1870, sixty delegates being present, representing: 
the St. Louis Medical College, the Maryland College of Pharmacy, the 
Missouri Medical College, the St. Louis College of Pharmacy, the Chi- 
cago College of Pharmacy, the Medical Society of the District of Colum- 
bia, the Medical College of Virginia, the Massachusetts College of Phar- 
macy, the Medical Society of the State of New York, the College of 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



Xlll 



Physicians of Philadelphia, the College of Pharmacy of the City of New 
York, the National Medical College of Washington, the University of 
Pennsylvania, the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, the College of Pharmacy of Baldwin 
University, the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Louisville, the Baltimore 
Medical Association, the Medical Department of Georgetown College, 
the Washington University of Baltimore, the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, the Maine Medical Association, the University of Buffalo, the 
Medical and Chirurgical Society of Maryland, the Baltimore Medieal 
Association, the University of Nashville, the University of Maryland, 
the Pharmaceutical College of Howard University, the University of 
rinia, and the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia. 
Such Members of Congress as were graduates of regular medical 
fchoob, the Surgeon-General of the Army, and the Chief of the 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of the Navy Department were invited 
to take seats in the Convention iind participate in its deliberations. 
Joseph Carson, M.D., of Philadelphia, w T as elected President of the 
rion. 
A Committee of Revision and Publication, consisting of fifteen mem- 
ber*, was appointed and given definite instructions as to the general 
I>lan to be followed in revising the Pharmacopoeia. 

A resolution was adopted directing "that measures of capacity be 
abandoned in the Pharmacopoeia, and that the quantities in all formulas 
be expressed in weights and in parts by weight.'* The Committee of 
Revision by a unanimous vote decided that the adoption of the principle 
of parts by weight was impracticable, and definite weights and measures 
wey* \ffied in the Pharmacopceia. 

Before adjourning, it was resolved that the rides adopted by the Con- 
tention of I860, for the meeting of 1870, be adopted for the Convention 
of 1880, simply changing the dates. 
The fifth revision of the Pharmacopceia was published in 1873, 

SIXTH REVISION 

The next Convention assembled on May 5, 1880, at Washington. 
There were one hundred and nine delegates accredited from ten Medical 
Societies, twenty-three Medical Colleges, eleven Pharmaceutical Col* 
l^ges, and the medical departments of the Army, the Navy, and the 
Marine Hospital Service. Seventy-five delegates attended the meeting. 
Dr. Robert Amory, of Boston, was elected President of the Convention. 

Important changes were directed at this meeting to be made in the 



XIV HISTORICAL IHTRODUCTIOlff 

Pharmacopoeia, the more prominent ones being the following : all articles 
were to be arranged in alphabetical order; a new chemical nomencla- 
ture was to be introduced; quantities were to be stated in "parts by 
weight/' and descriptions of crude drugs and of chemicals were to be 
made more comprehensive and exact. Numerous tables were also 
directed to be added to the work. A Committee of Revision was elected, 
consisting of twenty-five members, and its powers and duties were 
expressly defined* 

Regarding the call to be issued for the Convention of 1890, it was 
resolved that the President of the Convention of 1880 should, on or 
about the first day of May, 1889, issue a notice requesting the several 
incorporated Medical Societies, the incorporated Medical Colleges, the 
incorporated Colleges of Pharmacy, the incorporated Pharmaceutical 
Societies throughout the United States, the American Medical Associa- 
tion, and the American Pharmaceutical Association, each to elect a 
number of delegates, not exceeding three,** the Surgeon-General of the 
Army, the Surgeon-General of the Navy, and the Surgeon-General of the 
Marine Hospital Service, each to appoint not exceeding three medical 
officers, to attend a General Convention for the Revision of the Pharma- 
copoeia of the United States, to be held in Washington, D.C., on the 
first Wednesday of May, 1890. 

It was also resolved that the several bodies, as well as the Medical 
Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Marine Hospital Service, 
thus addressed, should also be requested by the President to submit the 
Pharmacopoeia to a careful revision and to transmit the result of their 
labors, through their delegates, to the Committee of Revision, at least 
three months before the meeting of the Convention. 

The several medical and pharmaceutical bodies were further to be 
requested to transmit to the President of the Convention of 1880 the 
names and residences of their respective delegates, as soon as they had 
been appointed; a list of whom was to be published, under his authority, 
for the information of the medical public, in the newspapers and medical 
journals, in the month of March, 1890. 

Finally, it was resolved that in the event of the death, resignation, or 
inability of the President of the Convention to act, these duties should 
devolve successively, in the following order of precedence: upon the 
Vice-Presidents, the Secretary, the Assistant Secretary, and the Chair- 
man of the Committee of Revision and Publication of the Pharmacopoeia. 

The sixth revision of the Pharmacopoeia was published at the close 
of October, 1882. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



XV 



SEVENTH REVISION 

Jn accordance with the instructions of the Convention of 1880, the 
Convention for the Seventh Decennial Revision of the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States of America met on May 7, 1890, in the City of 
Washington, one hundred and seventy-five delegates being present, 
representing the Medical Departments of the United States Army, the 
ed States Navy, the United States Marine Hospital Service, and 
fifteen Medical Societies or Associations, twenty-three Medical Colleges 
and Universities, twenty-five Pharmaceutical Associations, and twenty- 
three Colleges of Pharmacy and Universities. 
Dr. Horatio C. Wood, of Philadelphia, was elected President, 
It was recommended by the Convention that assay processes should 
I to the United States Pharraacopcrial description of the 
mergetic or otherwise important drugs, and to such galenical prepara- 
tions as the Committee of Revision of the Pharmacopoeia should deem 
tisc, especial rare being taken that the assay processes for opium and 
cinchona should be attended with as little manipulative difficulty 
jw possible; that the standard of purity for drugs should not be above 
the point of practicability; that the strength of official tinctures and 
wines should be ten per cent, as far as advisable in the judgment of the 
Committee; that no substances protected by proprietary rights, or 
produced solely under a patented process, should be introduced into the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

In regard to weights and measures, the principle of parts by weight 

was abandoned, and the Committee of Revision was instructed to direct 

solids to be weighed and liquids to be measured, except in those cases 

ifaieh the Committee should find it advisable to use weights only; 

also, that the metric system should be employed. 

ommittee of Revision, consisting of twenty-six members, which 
ted by the Convention, proceeded to revise the Pharmacopoeia 
with their instructions. 
Before its adjournment, the Convention for the Revision of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia directed that the President of this Convention 
*haD, on or about the first day of May, 1899, issue a notice requesting 
the several bodies represented in the Conventions of 1880 and 1890, and 
Ao such other incorporated State Medical and Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tions, and incorporated Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, as shall 
have been in continuous operation for at least five years immediately 
preceding, to elect a number of delegates, not exceeding three, and th< 
Surgeon-General of the Army, the Surgeon-General of the Navy, and 






XVI HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

the Surgeon-General of the Marine Hospital Service, each, to appoint, 
not exceeding three, medical officers, to attend a General Convention for 
the Revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, to be held in 
Washington, D.C., on the first Wednesday of May, 1900. 

The seventh revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia was pub- 
lished in September, 1893, and became official January 1, 1894. 

EIQHTH REVISION 

The Eighth Revision differed from previous revisions in the fact that 
the business management was entrusted to a Board of Trustees and the 
Committee of Revision was thus afforded more time to devote to the im- 
mediate duties of revision. On July 7, 1900, a Charter with articles of 
incorporation was issued by the District of Columbia to the United 
States Pharmacopoeial Convention, with a view of giving greater stability 
to the organization (see page xix). 

By far the most important thing in connection with the Pharmacopoeia 
was the passage of an Act by the Congress of the United States, entitled 
the Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906. The standards adopted under 
this Act were those of the United States Pharmacopoeia and the National 
Formulary. Up to the time of the passage of this Act the standards of 
the United States Pharmacopoeia were not compulsory, except in a very 
few instances; in certain States and for Governmental use various States 
in the Union followed the action of the Federal Government and passed 
laws of similar import. The passage of this legislation at once compelled 
official preparations to be made in accordance with the requirements of 
the standards of the United States Pharmacopoeia, and a far greater 
interest was taken in these standards in all parts of the country. 

In September, 1902, there was held in the City of Brussels an impor- 
tant conference, entitled "Conference Internationale pour FUnification 
de la Formule des Medicaments Hfrolques," which was composed of 
delegates from nearly every civilized country. The purpose of this body 
was to endeavor to formulate standards for potent remedies which would 
be adopted by the various pharmacopoeias of the world, and thus there 
would be secured the principal object of an international pharmacopoeia. 
The recommendations of this conference were adopted by the Com- 
mittee of Revision, except in one or two instances. This has made 
necessary a number of changes in the strength of important official prep- 
arations (see table, page liii). 

The Purity Rubric was first established in the eighth revision, the 
object being explained as follows: "The necessity for more accurately 



defining the limit of purity permissible in official chemical substances 
has been apparent for many years. In the Sixth Decennial Revision 
this question was met by inserting more definite descriptions with 
qualitative and quantitative tests. In the Seventh Revision will be 
found a still greater elaboration of this plan. In the present revision 
there has been added what has come to be known as the purity standard, 
or purity 'rubric/ which is placed in large type immediately before the 
description, and which defines the percentage of small quantities of per- 
missible, innocuous impurities which do not materially affect medicinal 
action or interfere with pharmaceutical uses. It is believed that this 
plan will enable the reader to ascertain at a glance the standard which 
has been adopted, and which represents what the Committee believes to 
be obtainable, and which, on the other hand, will not prove burdensome 
or impossible for the manufacturer to produce without adding unneces- 
sary and excessive cost to the consumer. The Purity Standard require- 
ments, which limit the quantity of innocuous impurities, are, unless other- 
wise specified, to be understood as applying to chemical substances 
which are free from adherent moisture, but an allowance not exceeding 
3 per cent, of moisture is permitted in non-hygroscopic crystallized chem- 
ad salts. Chemical substances in the form of powder or capillary erys- 
and all hygroscopic salts are to be dispensed in a condition of sen- 
dryness. As long as this condition is fulfilled, the moisture present 
is not to be regarded as an impurity. 

In the case of efflorescent salts, the Purity Standard must be under- 
stood as applying only to the uneffloresced crystals, and only such should 
be dispensed. 

In some eases it will doubtless be found that the manufacturer can 
slightly exceed the limit of purity, and if this be the case, no objection 
can be made, the language used being usually 'not less than — per cent. 
of pure salt*' 

Inasmuch as there has existed in the past on the part of the public a 
misconception of the purposes of a pharmacopoeia, and penalties have 
been imposed upon those who have sold substances bearing pharma- 
copcrial names which were to be used in the arts, for manufacturing, 
tod other purposes, and not as medicines, it became necessary to make 
the following declaration: 

The standards of purity and strength prescribed in the text of this Phar- 
macopoeia are intended to apply to substances which are used solely for 
medicinal purposes and when professedly bought, sold, or dispensed as 



S 




XVU1 HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

An advance was made in the eighth revision in the number of proxi- 
mate assays and the processes themselves were made more efficient. 
Serum products were introduced because of their growing importance. 

The long continued custom of designating United States Pharmaco- 
poeias by the decennial periods of their revision was dropped, and they 
were designated by the number of revisions; instead of U.S.P. 1900, 
which was not issued until 1905, it was called simply the "Eighth Decen- 
nial Revision." 

Average doses were appended under each article, which were not 
intended to be compulsory, but which were to act as a guide in the admin- 
istration of medicines. 

The eighth revision became official from September 1st, 1905, and 
some additions and corrections were necessary, to June 1st, 1907, on 
account of the passage of the Food and Drugs Act. 

General tests for heavy metals and arsenic which would apply to 
many chemical substances throughout the text were inserted under the 
head of " General Tests " in the Appendix. This saved much space and 
was greatly appreciated. 

A Digest of Comments was authorized in this revision and the work 
was done under the supervision of the Public Health and Marine Hos- 
pital Service. 

A Spanish translation of the Eighth Revision of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, in 1909, was received with much satisfaction in the Span- 
ish-speaking countries. 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 






IN accordance with the instructions of the United States Pharma- 
GOporia] Convention of May, 19QO, the Board of Trustees directed 
its Chairman, Mr. W. S. Thompson, of Washington, D, C, to cm- 
ploy an attorney who should take out articles of incorporation for the 
Convention under the laws of the District of Columbia. 

The first difficulty encountered was in the fact that the laws aforesaid 
require that a majority of the Incorporators be residents of the District 
of Columbia. This made it, at least, impracticable to include among 
these Incorporators the Officers and Committee of Revision elected by 
the Convention. It was then determined to ask the Committee on 
Credentials and Arrangements to officiate in this capacity, and the 
treasurer, Dr. W. M. Mew, took the place of Dr. J. E, Brackett, because 
of the latter's absence from the country. 

These preliminaries having been arranged, the following certificate of 
©corporation was drawn up, signed f and recorded, finally, on the 
eleventh day of July, 1900: 



TV 



CERTIFICATE OF IK CORPORATION 



Thii la to certify that we, whoso names are hereunto subscribed, citizens of the 
I ft'ted States, of full age, and a majority cilizens of the District of Columbia, do 
•■obato ourselves together pursuant to the provisions of sections 545-552 inclusive 
°f to Revised Statutes of the United States relating to the I fatrfal of Columbia and 
^ the let of Congress to amend the same, approved the twenty-third day of April, 
1884, under the corporate name of The United States Pharmacopoeia! Convention. 

This Association is organized for a period of nine hundred and ninety -nine years. 

The particular objects and business of this Association are the encouragement and 
PtanotioQ of the science and art of medicine and pharmacy by selecting by research 
*ndexrjerunent and other proper methods and by naming such materials as may be 
Properly used as medicines and drugs with formulas for their preparation; by estab- 
Unognne uniform standard and guide for the use of those engaged in the practice 
d medicine and pharmacy in the United States whereby the identity, strength, and 
Parity of all such medicines and drugs may be accurately determined, and for 
°tber like and similar purposes; and by printing and distributing at suitable 
intervals such formulas and the results of such and similar selection*, names, and 
^terminations among the members of this Association, pharmacists, and physicians 
pDtndly in the United States and others interested in pharmacy and medicine. 





XX ABTICLEB OF INCORPORATION 

The management and control of the affaire, funds, and property of this Associa- 
tion for the first year of its existence shall be vested in a Board of Trustees consisting 
of the serenfollowing persons:* 

Albert E. Ebert. 
Samuel A. D. Sheppabd. 
William S. Thompson. 
Charles E. Domes. 
Geobgb W. Sloan. 
Horatio C. Wood. 
Charles Rice. 

In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and affixed our seals this 
seventh day of July, 1900. 

t William S. Thompson. [seal] 

tG. Lloyd Magruder. [seal] 

t John T. Winter, (seal) 

t Thomas C. Smith. [seal) 

Murray G. Motto, (seal) 

t William M. Mew. [seal] 

Frank M. Criswell. [seal] 

Extracts from the Constitution and By-Laws of the United States 
Pharmacopoeial Convention. 

Constitution, Article II. — Membership 

"Section 1. — The members of the United States Pharmacopoeial 
Convention, in addition to the incorporators and their associates, shall 
be delegates elected by the following organizations in the manner they 
shall respectively provide: Incorporated Medical Colleges, and Medical 
Schools connected with Incorporated Colleges and Universities; Incor- 
porated Colleges of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Schools connected 
with Incorporated Universities; Incorporated State Medical Associa- 
tions; Incorporated State Pharmaceutical Associations; the American 
Medical Association, the American Pharmaceutical Association, and the 
American Chemical Society; provided that no such organization shall 
be entitled to representation unless it shall have been incorporated 
within, and shall have been in continuous operation in, the United 
States for at least five years before the time fixed for the decennial 
meeting of this corporation. 

♦The laws of the District of Columbia with regard to corporations require that 
the Board of Trustees, or Directors, for the first year shall be named in the Certifi- 
cate of Incorporation. 

t Deceased. 




"Section 2. — Delegates appointed by the Surgeon-General of the 
United States Army, the Surgeon-General of the United States Navy, 
and the Surgeon-General of the United States Marine Hospital Service, 
and by the organizations not hereinbefore named, which were admitted 
to representation in the Convention of 1900, shall also be members of 
the corporation. Each body and each branch of the United States 
Government above mentioned shall be entitled to send three delegates 
to the meetings of this corporation. But no such delegates as are pro- 
vided for in this article shall be members until their credentials shall 
have been examined and acted upon as provided for by the By-Laws, 
Delegates admitted as members at any decennial meeting shall con- 
tinue to be members of the United States Pharmacopceial Convention 
until their successors shall have been appointed and admitted as dele- 

[gate to the ensuing Convention, and no longer/' 
Constitution, Article V, — Meetings 
"The regular meetings of this corporation shall be held once in ten 
years. The time of holding the decennial meeting shall be upon the 
fccand Tuesday in May, iti the first year in each decade ending in zero, 
and the place of meeting shall be in the City of Washington, D.C, The 
fast decennial meeting shall be held in the year 1910." 
By-Laws, Chapteb L— Of the President 
1 4 Article VIII.— He shall issue, on or about the first of May of the 
year immediately preceding that of the decennial meeting, a notice 
inviting the several bodies, entitled under the Constitution to repre- 
sentation therein, to send delegates to the next meeting. He shall 
fcpeat the notification eight months later, and shall request the medical 
and pharmaceutical journals of the United States to publish the call 
(or the said meeting." 





meei 

A, 

rfC 

hi 



THE first decennial meeting of the United States Pharmacopceial 
Convention, Incorporated (the ninth decennial convention for 
the revision of the Pharmacopoeia), met at the New Willard 
Hotel, Washington, 1>X\, on Tuesday, May 10th, 1910, at 10 o'clock 
ul, and, owing to the illness of the President, Horatio C. Wood, Sr., 
sod the death of the First Vice-President, Albert B. Prescott, the 
ting was culled to order by the Second Vice-President, Otto A. Wall. 
Addresses were delivered by the Honorable Charles Nagel, Secretary 
Commerce and Labor, and by Senor Don Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Costa Rica. 
The presidential address of Dr. H. C. Wood, Sr., was read by Dr. Otto 
A. Wall and reports were presented by the Secretary, Henry M. Whelp* 
Treasurer, G. Wythe Cook; the Acting Chairman of the Board 
of Trustees, James H, Beal; and the chairman of the Committee of 
ph P. Remington. 
The order of business was similar to that followed by previous Phar- 
BMopceial Conventions. After the report of the Committee on Cre- 
dentials and Arrangements, the Committee on Nominations organized 
due course, presented nominations for officers and the members 
of the Committee of Revision for the ensuing decade, who were duly 
^ted (see page xli). 

The Convention then entered into a discussion on the General Princi- 
ple to be followed in revising the Pharmucopeeia (see page xxxi) ; reports 
tod recommendations, submitted by various institutions and organiza- 
tion*, were referred to the Committee of Revision for its guidance; and, 
the usual resolutions of thanks, the Convention adjourned, sine 
*► at noon on Thursday, May 112. 
The Abstract of Proceedings of the Convention has been published 
* pamphlet form by the Board of Trustees and may be obtained on 
application, enclosing four cents postage, to Murray Gait Motter, M.D., 
of the Convention, who may be addressed at the Hygienic 
oratory, 25 and E Streets, Northwest, Washington, D.C, 

xxiii 



■ 



XXIV ABSTRACT 09 TBI PROCEEDINGS 09 



THE MEMBERSHIP OF CONVENTION OF 1910 
The Members of the U. 8. Pharmacopoeial Convention of 1910 consisted of t 
four incorporators who were living, the Officers of the Convention of 1900, t 
Board of Trustees, the Committee of Revision of 1900-1910 and the followi 
registered delegates:* 

U. 8. GOVERNMENT SERVICES 

Surgeon-General'e Office, United State* War Department: Walter D. McCaw, C 

R. Darnall, Frederick F. Russell. 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Untied Stake Navy Department: H. G. Bey 

G. L. Angeny, P. J. Waldner. 
Bureau of Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, United States Treasury I 

partment: John F. Anderson, Reid Hunt, Martin I. Wilbert. 
United States Department of Agriculture: Rodney H. True, John R. Mohler, Lym 

F. Kebler. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

American Medical Association {Inc. 1897): W. A. Puckner, George H. Simmo 
American Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1888) : Albert B. Lyons, Charles He 

hauer, Thomas F. Main. 
American Chemical Society (Inc. 1877) : George D. Rosengarten, L. W. Andrei 

Edward Hart. 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists: W. D. Bigelow, L. P. Brown, C. 

Parker. 
Association of State and National Food and Dairy Departments: Charles D. Woo 

V. K. Chesnut. 
National Wholesale Druggists 9 Association: W. J. Schieffelin, C. M. Kline, J. 

Lilly. 
National Dental Association (Inc. 1906): M. F. Finley, Joseph Head. 

ARKANSAS 

Arkansas Medical Society (Inc. 187S): L. J. Kosminsky, William Crutcher. 
Arkansas Association of Pharmacists (Inc. 1889): W. L. Dewoody, Jesse D. Hod* 

CALIFORNIA 

Medical Society, State of California (Inc. 1870) : A. L. LengfekL 

COLORADO 

Colorado State Medical Society (Inc. 1888): E. C. Hill, George A. Moleen. 
Colorado Pharmacol Association (Inc. 1890): Charles M. Ford, S. L. Bresler. 

•This list is based upon the ruling of the Chair, from which no appeal i 
taken, as follows: 

" The Chair feels compelled to rule that anyone elected a delegate here who 
not come, is not a member of this Convention, and cannot be elected a membei 
any committee or as an officer." 



THE NINTH DECENNIAL CONVENTION, 1910 



XXV 






CONNECTICUT 

Ctowcticut State Medical Society (Inc. 1834): Samuel If. Garlick. 

l*oii Medical School, New Haven (Inc. 1810): Oliver T. Osborne, Clarence G. 

Spalding. 
Cmedictd Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 2889): Charles A. Rapelye, Charlee 

R Whittlesey. 

BELAWABB 

I Pharmaceutical Society (Inc. 1890): H. J. Watson, William Poole, J. T. 
Challenger. 

DISTBICT OF COLUMBIA 

Society of the District of Columbia (Inc. 1819): Murray Gait Hotter, John 

W. Chai>pell. 

University <, School of Medicine {Inc. IS 18): George M. Kober, Wilfred 

M Barton. 
Qmge Washington University r Department of Medicine (Inc. 1821): Sterling Ruffin, 

B. M. Randolph, Noble P. Barnes, 
Emrd University, Medical College (Inc. 1867): William H. Seaman, J. Herve 

Pur 
Award University, Pharmaceutical College (Inc. 1867): Paul Barfcsch. 
Gcpros Washington University r National College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1872): Henry 

E. Kalusowaki, Samuel L. Hilton, Lewis Kleiner. 



GEORGIA 
Ahnta College of Physicians and Surgeons (Inc. 1898): C. C. Aven, I. W. Cum- 



ILLINOIS 



Otorgia Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 189(1): Max Morris, W.-S. Elkin, Jr. 
idonla College of Pharmacy (Atlanta College of Physicians and Surgeons, Depart* 

msnt of Pharmacy) (Inc. 1874): George K. Payne, N. T, Hitter, W. K. Bedcn- 

baugh. 
thmsrwtiy of Georgia, School of Pharmacy, Athens (Inc. 1903): Robert C. Wilson, 

Atherton Seidell, Tbad. B. Rice, 

mois State Medical Society (Inc. 190$): N. S. Davis. 

Ckiatgo Medical Society (Cook County) (Inc. 1897): Walter S, Haines. 

Nvtkvmsicm University, Medical School, Chicago (Inc. 1864): Arthur R. Edwards, 
John H. Long. 

Unwrtity of Illinois, Medical Department, College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Chicago (Inc. 1881): Bernard Pant us. 

Ckknf/0 College of Medicine and Surgery (Inc. 1902): Clyde M. Snow. 

/«W* Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1880): Wilhelm Bodemann, W. C. Simp- 
son, Herman Fry. 

Unuersity of Illinois, School of Pharmacy (Chicago College of Pharmacy) (Inc. 
I9to \\ Hallberg, A. II. Clark, W. B. Day. 

Northwestern University, School of Pharmacy (Inc. 1886): Harry Mann Gordin, 




XXVI ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 09 



INDIANA 

Indiana State Medical Association (Inc. 187S): Samuel Kennedy. 

Indiana University, School of Medicine (Inc. 1880): C. Richard Schaefer, A. D. 

Thorburn. 
Indiana Pharmaceutical Association (Not Inc.): Fred W. Meissner, Leo Eliel, 

William H. Rudder. 
University of Notre Dame, School of Pharmacy, Notre Dame (Inc. 1898): J. W. 

Stunner, Louis Keiley. 
Purdue University, School of Pharmacy, Lafayette (Inc. 1869): Harvey W. Wiley, 

Ernest C. Eberhardt, Charles E. Vanderkleed. 
Valparaiso University, School of Pharmacy (Inc. 1898): J. Newton Roe. 

IOWA 

State University of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City (Inc. 1869): Charles S. 

Chase, Charles E. Riggs. 
Iowa Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1888): George Judisch. 
University of Iowa, College of Pharmacy, Iowa City (Inc. 1886): Wilber J. Teeters. 
Highland Park College of Pharmacy, Des Moines (Inc. 1899): George A. Menge. 

KANSAS 

University of Kansas, School of Medicine, Lawrence (Inc. 1906): S. J. Crumbine. 
Kansas Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1880): Frank E. Holliday, Matt. Noll, 

W. S. Amos. 
University of Kansas, School of Pharmacy, Lawrence (Inc. 1886): L. E. Sayre. 

KENTUCKY 

Kentucky State Medical Association (Inc. 1856): J. N. McCormack, Virgil E. 

Simpson. 
Kentucky Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1888): C. Lewis Diehl, L. A. Brown. 

LOUISIANA 

Tulane University, Medical Department, New Orleans (Inc. 1847): Abraham Louis 
Metz. 

New Orleans University, Flint Medical College (Inc. 1878): W. H. Harrison. 

Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1884): Philip Asher, F. C. God- 
bold, Adam Wirth. 

New Orleans College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1900): C. D. Sauvinet, John E. Scott. 

MAINE 

Maine Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1868): Charles H. Davis. 

MARYLAND 

Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland (Inc. 1799): John D. Blake, Elmer 

R. Freeman, C. Urban Smith. 
University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore (Inc. 1812): Joseph E. 

Gichner. 



Cdigt of Physician* and Surgeon*, Baltimore (Inc. 1872): John Rurafa, 8. J. Fort, 

fiVvey G. Beck. 
Baltimore Medical College {Inc. 188 1): William Caspari, Charles CTDonovan. 
Jehu Hopkins University, Medical Department (Inc, 1893): Leonard G. Rowntree. 
Maryland Medical College (Inc. 1898): G. C Dohme, \V. S. Love. 
Maryland Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1S89): A. R. L. Dohine, Charles Mor- 

pa, E. F. Kelly. 
Unitmity of Maryland, Department of Pharmacy, Baltimore (Inc. 1S41): David 

M* R. Culbreth, Henry P. Hynson, Charles Caepari, Jr. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

t Medical Society (Inc. 178 1): Frank G Wheatley. 
Hamrd Medical School: F. L. Fleadwell, J. L. Neifaon, C. N. Fiake. 
TifuCoUege Medical School, Boston (Inc. 1862): Alfred William Raich. 
Calkstof Physicians and Surgeons, Boston (Inc. 1380): I. E. Leonard, 
MtmaehuseUs Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1888): Charles F Nixon, Ernest 

0. Eogstrom, Fred A. Hubbard. 
Memethuetts College of Pharmacy, Boston (Inc. 1852): Elie H. LaPierre, Irving 

P. Gammon, John G. Godding. 



MICHIGAN 

Umtertity of Michigan, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Ann Arbor (Inc. 1350): 

Charles W. Edmunds, Worth Hale, J. W. Trask, 
fotof College of Medicine (Inc. 1885): Walter J. Wilson, Jr., E. M. Houghton. 
Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association: Leonard A. Seltzer, J. M. Francis. 
Vmmtily of Michigan, School of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor (Inc, 1SGS): J. O. Helilot- 

Icrbeck, A. B. Stevens. 

MINNESOTA 

t of Minnesota, College of Medicitie and Surgery, Minneapolis (Inc. 1S83): 
. D. Brown. 
Mmtsvta State Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1883): John Nielson, J. W. 

Harrah, A. D. Thomps- - 
Jfautiote State University, College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis (Inc. 1892): W. A. 
fa*, 



MISSOURI 

ity of Missouri, School of Medicine, Columbia (Inc. 1873): W. O. Etuery, 
H. L. Shanti, W. H. Schulu. 
8L UuU Medical Society (Inc. 1834): Otto A. Wall 

Woikington University, Medical School, St r I^ouis (Inc. 1S91): Henry M. Whelpley. 
Mimntri Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1889): Charles Gietner, H, M. Fettit, 
o\ Louie College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1866); Jaiues M. Good, Charles E. Caspari. 



NEBRASKA 

of Nebraska, College of Medicine, Lincoln (Inc. 1875): Rufus Ashley 




XXV111 ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

New Hampshire Medical Society (Inc. 1791): C. W. Bowker. 

NEW JERSEY 

Medical Society of New Jersey (Inc. 1864): Henry L. Coit, Alexander Marcy, Jr., 

Philip Marvel. 
New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1874): George M. Beringer, Herman 

J. Lohmann, George H. White. 
New Jersey College of Pharmacy, Newark (Inc. 1892): Rudolph Breves, Adolph 

Marquier, Philemon £. HommelL 

NSW YORK 

Medical Society of the State of New York (Inc. 1807): William A. Groat, W. A. 

Bastedo, Samuel W. 8. Toms. 
A Ibany Medical College (Inc. 1889): Spencer Lyman Dawes. 
Medical Society of the County of Kings (Inc. 1818): Murrett F. DeLorme. 
Brooklyn Medical Society (Inc. 1895): Albert H. Brundage. 
Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn (Inc. 1868): Elias H. Bartley. 
University of Buffalo, Medical Department (Inc. 1846): Eli H. Long, Edward J. 

Kiepe. 
New York Academy of Medicine (Inc. 1861): Frank Sherman Meara. 
Columbia College, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York (Inc. 1807): S. W. 

Lambert, W. R. Williams, C. C. Leib, Jr. 
University and BeUevue Hospital Medical College, New York (Inc. 1881): George 

B. Wallace, C. F. Claassen. 
Cornell University, Medical College, New York (Inc. 1886): Robert A. Hatcher. 
Syracuse University, College of Medicine (Inc. 1870): William Dewey Alsever, 

Frank P. Knowlton, H. L. Taylor. 
New York State Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1879): Joseph Kahn, John Hurley, 

Joseph Weinstein. 
Albany College of Pharmacy (Department of Pharmacy, Union University) (Int. 

1881): Alfred B. Huested, Harry B. Mason. 
Kings County Pharmaceutical Society, Brooklyn (Inc. 1877): Otto Raubenheimer, 

Fred P. Tuthill, K. C. Mahegin. 
Brooklyn College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1888): William C. Anderson, Henry W. Schimpf, 

A. P. Lohness. 
University of Buffalo, Department of Pharmacy (Inc. 1886): Willis G. Gregory, 

Frank E. Lock. 
Literary and Scientific Society of the German Apothecaries of the City of New York 

(Inc. 1867): William C. Alpers, G. C. Drobegg. 
New York College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1829): Albert Plaut, George C. Diekman, 

Henry H. Rusby. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Medical Society of the State of North Carolina (Inc. 1868): William DeB. MacNider. 
North Carolina Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1880): W. H. Wearn. 
University of North Carolina, Department of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill (Inc. 1897): 
E. V. Howell. 



TUB NINTH DECENNIAL CONVENTION, 1910 



XXIX 



NORTH DAKOTA 

Mvtk Dakota Pharmaceutical Association (Inc, 1886): Oscar Hallcnberg. 

OHIO 

Otis State Medical Association (Inc. 1904): Torald SoHmann, Julius Eichbcr K * 

Vmnitjf of Cincinnati, Medical Department {Inc. 1S52); H, Kennon Dunham. 

Wtskm Reserve University, Medical Department, Cleveland (Inc. 1884); John P. 
Sawyer, Richard Dexter, J. W. Kerr. 

Okis State Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1880): Lewis C, Hopp, Theodore D. 
Wetterstroem, George B. Topping, 

Cieeamati College oj Pharmacy (Inc. 1850): John C. Otis. 

Svihim Ohio Druggists* Association (Inc. 1899): Eugene R. Selzer, Virgil Coblcutt, 

Cladand School of Pharmacy, Western Reserve University, Depo rt m en t of Pharmacy 
{Int. 1S95): Harry V. Arny t Joseph Fell, William T. Hankey. 

(MsStaU University, College of Pharmacy, Columbus (Inc. 1896): George B. Kauf- 
man, C. A* Dye, William McPherson, 

OKLAHOMA 

Umswnty of Oklahoma, School of Pharmacy (Inc. 1890): Homer C, Washburn* 

OREGON 

Onim Agricultural College, Department of Pharmacy (Inc, 1898): E, R. Lake, 
C. ML McKellips. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Hiked Society of the State of Faimyimnia (Inc, 1890): Adolph Koenig, Henry 



Pktoidphia County Medical Society (Inc, 1877): Henry W. CattelU 

QtOessef Physicians of Philadelphia (Inc. 1789): H, C. Wood, Jr., Solomon Solia 

Cohen. 
Tiiiy of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia (Inc. 1791): John 

Marshall, 
/tfim Medical College, of Philadelphia (Inc. 1838): H, A. Hare, J. W. Holland, 

E.Q, Thornton. 
Ushco^Chmr^ral College of Philadelphia (Inc. 1867): Judson Daland, I. V, Stan- 
ley Stan isl a us, Herlicrt. J. Smith, 
TmpU University, Medical Department, Philadelphia (Inc. 1888): Horace Binney 

Morse, E. 13. Rogers, 
Afyhcny County Medical Society, Pittsburgh (Inc. 1892): Thomas TurnbuU, Jr., 

I. C. Burt. 
Vistrsity of Pittsburgh, Medical School (Inc. 1892): Albert Floyd Judd. 
trntsylrania Pharmaceutical Association (Inc* 1878): Lucius L. Walton, W, L. 

CUffe.CB.L-. 
Hsladetphia College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1822): Joseph P. Remington, Samuel P. 

Sadtler, Henry Kraemer. 
tomm Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (Inc. 1S94): Charles 

a LaWall, E. Fullerton Cook, Joseph W. England 
TmpU University, Pharmacy Department, Philadelphia (Inc. 1901): H. Evert 

Kendig, John R. Minehart. 





ABSTRACT OF THE FBOCEKDINGB 09 



University of Pittsburgh, DepartmmU of Pharmacy (fne. 1878): Jufius A. Kocl 
James H. Bad, Louis Saalbash. 



Rhode Island Medical Society (fne. 18lt)z WflbMn J. McCaw, George M. Btilej 

Charles W. Higgins. 
£tafe /sfoncf Pharmaceutical Association (fne 1876): Howard A. Pearce, A. W 

Fenner, Jr., Frank A. Jackson. 
Jttoft /aland Co&yt of Pharmacy and Allied Science* (Inc. 1908): James O'Hare. 

SOUTH CABOUNA 

South Carolina Medical Association (Inc. 1848): C. P. Aimar. 
Medical College of the State of South Carolina (Inc. 1882): A. R. Taft, E. 8, 
Burnham* 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

South Dakota Stale Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1898): David F. Jonas, L A, 
Keith, Edward C. Bent. 



Tennessee Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1904): J. O. Burge. 
University of Tennessee, School of Pharmacy (Inc. 1898): Charles O. Hill. 
Vandcrbilt University, Department of Pharmacy, Nashville (Inc. 1879): Willian 
R. White. 



University of Texas, Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy (Inc. 1887): Edwarc 

Randall. 
Texas Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1896): J. C. Buckner, E. Q. Eberle, Her 

man Neater. 
Baylor University, Pharmacy Department, Dallas (Inc. 1908): J. Connor Chiaholm 

VERMONT 

University of Vermont, School of Medicine (Inc.): J. N. Jenne. 

VIRGINIA 

Medical Society of Virginia (Inc. 1871): John Staige Davis. 

University of Virginia, Department of Medicine, Charlottesville (Inc. 1826): J. A 

E. Eyster, J. C. Flippin. 
Medical College of Virginia, Richmond (Inc. 1864): Frank M. ^leade. 
University College of Medicine, Richmond (Inc. 1898): Albert Bolenbaugh, Wort 

ley F. Rudd. 
Virginia Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1886): C. B. Fleet, Gordon Blair. 

WASHINGTON 

Washington State Pharmaceutical Association (Inc.): P. Jensen. 

University of Washington, School of Pharmacy (Inc. 1894): Charles W. Johnson. 

WISCONSIN 

State Medical Society of Wisconsin (Inc. 1841): A. S. Loevenhart. 

Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association (Inc. 1881): Otto J. 8. Boberg, Edward G 

Raeuber. 
University of Wisconsin, School of Pharmacy (Inc. 1888): Edward Kronen. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED FOR THE 
NINTH REVISION 

1* Scope of the Pkantmcopma. — We recommend that the Committee 
won be authorized to admit into the Pharmacopoeia any medic- 
-tancc of known origin, but no substance or combination of 
substances shall be introduced if the composition or mode of manufac- 
ture thereof be kept seen t, Of if it be controlled by unlimited pro- 
letary or patent rights and the list of substances should be carefully 
with standards for identity and purity, as far as possible. 
ub&Umces used only for technical puri>oses should not be admitted 
i the next Pharmacopoeia, and a statement should be placed in the 
preface to the effect that standards of purity and strength, prescribed 
1 text of the Pharmacopoeia, are intended solely to apply to sub- 
which are used for medicinal purposes or in determining the 
ty and purity of the same. 
2, Doses. — We recommend that after each pharmaeopteial article 
(drug* chemical, or preparation) which is used or likely to be used 
internally or hypodermically, the committee be instructed to state the 
average approximate (but neither a minimum nor a maximum) dose 
for adults, and, where deemed advisable, also for children. The metric 
fjrctem to be used, and the approximate equivalent in ordinary weights 
measures inserted in parentheses. It is to be distinctly understood 
that neither this Convention nor the Committee of Revision created by 
it intends to have these doses regarded as obligatory on the physician 
or a» forbidding him to exceed them whenever in his judgment this 
wans advisable; the Committee should be directed to make a dis- 
tinct declaration to this effect in some prominent place in the new 
Pharmacopoeia. 

imenclaiure, — We recommend that changes in the titles of arti- 
cles at present official be made only for the purpose of insuring greater 
accuracy, brevity, or safety in dispensing, and to eliminate therapeut i- 
iggestive titles, In the case of newly admitted articles, it is 
recommended that such titles be chosen as are in harmony with gen- 
eral usage and convenient for prescribing, but in the case of chemicals 
of a definite composition the scientific name should be given at least as 
* synonym. 

There should also be inserted, after each article used by physicians 
in prescriptions, a carefully considered abbreviated name, which may 
be known as an official abbreviation, in order that uniformity may be 







established throughout the country, with the object of preventing 
mistakes in reading and compounding prescriptions, and further, to 
serve as authorized abbreviations in labeling the store furniture of the 
pharmacist. 

4. Synonyms. — We recommend that the list of synonyms should be 
enlarged for the next revision, and the synonyms printed in the text of 
the Pharmacopoeia, immediately after the English name of the sub- 
Btance. A statement should be made in the preface of the Pharma- 
copoeia, that substances labeled with an official synonym must comply 
with the same standards, tests and requirements m are demanded for the 
official article under any name. 

5, Purity and Strength of Phartnacop&ial Articles. — We recommend 
that the Committee be instructed to revise as carefully as possible the 
limits of purity and strength of the pharmacopceial chemicals and 
preparations for which limiting tests are or may be given. While no 
concession should be made towards a diminution of medicinal value, 
allowance should be made for unavoidable, innocuous impurities or 
variations due to the particular source or mode of preparation, or to 
the keeping qualities of the several articles. 

The "Purity Rubric,'* which limits the percentage of innocuous im- 
purities, as introduced into the Eighth Revision, should be continued, 
and tests and requirements should be appended to each article carrying 
a "Purity Rubric. 1 ' 

In the case of crude drugs and natural products, the limits of admis- 
sible impurities should be placed at such a figure as to exclude any that 
would not be accepted by other countries. 

G. International Standards. — The International Conference for the 
Unification of Formulas for Potent Remedies performed a signal ser- 
vice for all countries by recommending the various pharmacopoeias of the 
world to adopt certain standards for potent medicines. It is recom- 
mended that the next Committee of Revision adopt these standards, 
but it is believed that it would be unwise to require the acceptance 
of the details of pharmaceutical or other processes recommended by 
the International Conference. 

If the finished product conforms to the International standards we 
believe that each country should be left free to adopt such detail and 
manipulation as may seem best. Nothing should prevent, however, 
the adoption of the recommendations of the conference, as to details, if 
in the opinion of the next Committee of Revision, by so doing, the Phar- 
macopoeia can be improved. 



7. General Formula?. — It is recommended that general formulae be 
introduced, as far as the particular nature of the several drugs will 
permit, for fluidextracts, tinctures and such other preparations as are 
made by identical processes, and that the general formula to be followed 
hi each case be merely indicated by reference, 

& Appending a List of Preparations in Which an Official Article 
U Used. — It is recommended that, especially for the convenience of 
practicing physicians, there should be appended after each article in 
the text a list of the official preparations in which it is used. 

A few exceptions may be made to this in such cases as water, alcohol, 
ig&Tj etc. 

9. Alcoholic Percentage in Official Preparations. — It is recommended 

Tjge of volume content, of absolute alcohol, be stated in the 
Phannacopcria, for each preparation containing alcohol, 

10. Assay Processes. — We recommend that the Committee be in- 
structed to introduce assay processes for as many of the potent drugs 
and preparations made therefrom as may be found practicable, pro- 
vide that the processes of assay are reasonably simple (both as to 
methods and apparatus required) and lead to fairly uniform results in 
different hands. As regards the products of such assays, tests of 
identity and purity should be added wherever feasible. 

It is recommended that biological tests or assays, when accurate and 
reliable, may be admitted. 

11. Serums and Other Biological Products. — It is recommended that 
scrums and other biological products, of approved usefulness, if 
rtandardized by the Government or one of the departments, may be 
admitted to the next Revision of the Pharmacopoeia, 

12. Weights and Measures, — It is recommended that the Committee 
ructed to retain the metric system of weights and measures as 

adopted in the Eighth Decennial Revision. 

13. Supplement. — It is recommended that the Committee of Re- 
TOoa be authorized to prepare a supplement to the Pharmacopoeia at 
any time they may deem such action desirable, 

14. Publicity. — It is recommended that the General Committee of 
Revision make public, for comment and criticism, an abstract of new 
descriptions and standards and of changes in descriptions and standards 
proposed, before final adoption. 

15. Atomic Weights. — It is recommended that the system of atomic 
Weights, authorized by the International Committee (0=16), be 
adopted for the next Revision. 





XJOQV ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONVENTION 

16. Physical Constants. — It is recommended that official methods for 
taking physical constants be inserted in the "Introductory Notices," 
and these shall apply to all articles in which physical constants are 
officially used, unless otherwise specifically excepted. 

17. Standard Temperature. — It is recommended that the standard 
temperature of 25° C. (77° F.) be retained, as used in the present Re- 
vision (except in the case of alcohol), and that a table be inserted in 
the appendix for corresponding figures at 15° C. (59° F.). 

18. Compound Preparations. — It is recommended that the intro- 
duction of new compound preparations be discouraged as far as 
possible. 

19. Pharmaeognostical Descriptions. — It is recommended that, with 
the description of a crude drug, there be included brief pharmaeog- 
nostical descriptions, both macroscopic and microscopic where prac- 
ticable, and there should be added a statement of the appearance of 
the structural elements in the powder, when examined microscopically, 
as a means of detecting adulteration. 

20. Powdered Drugs. — It is recommended that, in the next Pharma- 
copoeia, powdered drugs be required to represent the entire drug unless 
specifically stated otherwise. Where the drug can be powdered with- 
out residue this should be required; in other cases the amount of 
allowable tailings, gruffs, or residue should be determined and inserted 
in the text. 

21 . DiagnosHcal Reagents. — It is recommended that there be included 
in the next Pharmacopoeia such reagents, with standards for strength and 
purity, as are needed for the proper execution of tests that are valu- 
able and important in the making of a correct diagnosis. 

22. Date When the Next Pharmacopceia Becomes Official. — It is 
recommended that the Committee of Revision print upon the title 
page of the next Pharmacopoeia a definite date, reasonably distant from 
the actual date of publication, announcing when the new Pharmacopoeia 
is intended to go into effect and to supersede the preceding one. 

23. Precedents. — In all matters not especially provided for, in these 
"General Principles" the rules established for previous revisions, if there 
are any, should generally be followed. 

24. Solubilities. — It is recommended that the degree of solubility 
of drugs in various solvents be giVen as extensively as possible. 



PREFACE 

THE Ninth Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia contains 
a number of new features and it is the purpose to include in 
this Preface a statement of the changes which have been made 
necessary by the greatly enlarged functions of the bonk. Under the 
head of "Introductory Notices," special subjects will be found in detail 
The Committee of Revision is an integral part of a chartered organi- 
tation, the United States Pharmacopoeia! Convention. The division 
of the work which was made in 1900 has been continued in this 
revision. The Committee of Revision was relieved of attending to 
the business management of a general character by a Board of 
Trustees, and the Committee was thus given more time to devote 
ual work of revision with its voluminous detail. 
Pltn of Revision. — The plan of this revision has been largely that 
ofthr previous Pharmacopoeia, The larger part of the work waa ooa* 
ducted through communications by mail. A number of conferences were 
also held among the members of the Committee and Subcommittees, 
mating at different points in the Unite' Hearings were granted 

to groups of men having special information concerning the manu- 
facture of various official products. These conferences have been of 
pwit value in faring the standards. The plan of the previous revision 
*1« improved by a more systematic division of labor. The Committee 
was doubled in number and now consists of fifty members with the 
Pmrident of the Convention ex-officio. An Executive Committee 
confflsting of fifteen raemliers was elected to have immediate charge of 
work of revision. The subjects were classified and each member 
xecutive Committee was made the Chairman of a Sub-enm- 
mittee; the members of the General Committee being assigned to 
service on one or more Sub-committees. Upon general subjects and 
*fl aoroe cases where the Executive Committee or the Chairman desired 
4 full vote, the General Committee decided the question. 

Scope. — The inclusion of the National Formulary in the Food and 
Drugs Act as a standard has perm it Ted thfi deletion of a number of 
ttttnpound preparations from the Pharmacopoeia. The consensus of 

XXXV 



XXXVI PREFACE 

opinion of the Committee was in effect to provide standards for veg- 
etable drugs, chemical substances, and such pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions as were simple in their character, and most largely used. A few 
compound preparations, however, were retained because of their large 
use; an increase has been made in the number of standardized 
serums and animal products. A number of synthetic remedies have 
been added to the list which the Sub-committee on Scope had recom- 
mended for admission, permission having been granted by the manu- 
facturer, firm or corporation to include such substances; unfortunately 
the European War has interfered with the receipt of some answers 
from foreign countries. In most cases where answers were received, 
the replies were in the negative. 

The class of preparations known as "Wines" has not been included 
in this revision. Wine as a menstruum or solvent can with advantage 
be replaced by alcohol of various strengths, and the uncertainties, 
due to the variability in quality and alcoholic content of the wines 
of commerce, are avoided. 

Part II. — In the supplementary matter usually placed at the end of 
the text a number of changes will be noticed. This part of the book 
has been designated as Part II instead of Appendix as in former 
editions; a table of contents precedes it, and a more systematic 
arrangement of the subjects has been adopted. Much revision was 
found necessary in this part of the work, and the list of reagents has 
been enlarged. While a knowledge of chemical analysis is presupposed, 
the Committee has deemed it not out of place to add explanatory re- 
marks or instruction in the details of manipulations in Part II. 

Publicity. — For the Ninth Revision an entire change was recom- 
mended by the Convention, this was, to publish in advance of the 
issue of the book the proposed new descriptions and standards and 
changes in descriptions and standards with the object of informing 
those interested in the Pharmacopoeia of the proposed changes, so 
that comments and criticisms might be offered. This plan has the 
advantage of ascertaining the views of the parties directly concerned 
and, although involving much labor, has been carried out; it necessarily 
caused some delay in the issue of the book. The Journal of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association undertook the publication of 
these detailed changes and other journals were given permission to 
copy the list of changes. 

Food and Drugs Act. — The National Food and Drugs Act, which was 
passed by Congress on June 30th, 1906! was followed by similar legis- 



] the various States of the Union. These laws make the United 
Slates Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary the standards for 
The National Act states: 

term 'drug 1 as used in this Act, shall include all medicines and 
^rations recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National 
Formulary for internal or external use, and any substance or mixture 
of substances intended to be used for the cure, mitigation, or prevention 
of disease of either man or other animals." 

This legislation has been the means from which a great improvement 
in the quality of medicines has resulted* In former revisions the O m- 
mittee was embarrassed by their inability to obtain information from 
many sources, particularly that which manufacturers were not dis- 
posed to furnish; but with the passage of the Food and Drugs Act 
i great change occurred in the attitude of many manufacturers and 
information was tendered willingly, 

language of the Chemical Tests. — A change has been made in the 
method of expressing the chemical tests. The imperative mood was 
I in former revisions, but since the Pharmacopoeia is now a legal 
the conditional form of previous Pharmacopoeias, in which 
every test began, '* If — Gm. be dissolved, " has been changed to 
lie imperative M Dissolve — Gm., etc." 

International Protocol (P. L). — These standards were referred to in 

the preface to the Eighth Revision (see page xvi); for a comparative 

Age liv). 

Atomic Weights, — The atomic weights adopted in this revision 

are based upon oxygen taken as 16 (0=10) and are in accordance 

vith the report of the International Committee on Atomic Weights 

for 1915. The report of the International Committee for 1916 was 

too late for inclusion, as the Pharmacopoeia was already 



nivthou i 
not 

thndard 
mriyev 




Tests. — In the chemical tests an extension has been made of 
the plan employed in the previous Pharmacopoeia where general tests 
*ere adopted for Arsenic and Heavy Metals. The additions will be 
found in Part II. The adoption of this plan saves space by avoiding 
frequent repetition of detail in the text of Part I. 

General Formulas. — This term is used to define a plan to save space 
*&d avoid repetition by printing a typical fonnula for galenical prep- 
arations. It will be seen that there are four type processes for fluid- 
extracts designated by the letters, A, B, C, and D; two type processes 
**e provided for tinctures, P and M, and also a type process for medi- 





XXXVU1 PBEFACB 

cated waters. The Convention recommended the introduction of this 
plan. 

Mils vs. Cc. — The term cubic centimeter has been replaced by the 
word mil. The United States Bureau of Standards declared that the 
term cubic centimeter was a misnomer, there being a slight difference 
between the thousandth part of a liter and the cubic centimeter, as one 
liter was determined to be equivalent to 1.000027 cubic decimeters. 
The Committee of Revision decided that the time had come to adopt 
the word mil, the first three letters of the whole word milliliter. In 
addition, the change promotes international uniformity in the two 
Pharmacopoeias published in the English language. 

Nomenclature. — The chemical and botanical nomenclature is sub- 
stantially the same as that adopted for the Eighth Revision. In 
the case of new articles the terminology and latinization is in accord 
with this plan. Some botanical changes have been made in the 
light of further knowledge of the subject and in most cases Nattir- 
liche Pflanzenfamilien (Engler and Prantl) has been followed as the 
authority. A new feature, that of inserting abbreviations of official 
titles, has been introduced. It was believed that these will be of ser- 
vice to physicians in writing prescriptions and to pharmacists in label- 
ing bottles for their store furniture. In the interest of international 
uniformity, the Chairman visited Dr. Nestor Tirard, Editor of the 
British Pharmacopoeia, and the Commission approved the sugges- 
tion to provide abbreviations. While there are a few points of 
difference, the plan of having official abbreviations for English-speak- 
ing nations has been started. Uniformity in usage will minimize the 
danger of errors in dispensing and compounding prescriptions (see 
page xlvii). 

Synonyms will be found following the titles and printed in small type. 
The Convention passed the following resolution which was adopted by 
the Committee of Revision: "Substances labeled with an official 
synonym must comply with the standards, tests, and requirements 
demanded for the official article." In a few cases synonyms are en- 
closed in quotation marks; these names, while not scientifically cor- 
rect, are so largely used in commerce that it seemed wise to include 
them. It is understood that a synonym appearing under the title 
of a drug applies with equal force to any official preparation made from 
that drug. 

Standard Temperature. — The standard temperature of 25° C. has 
been retained in this revision as that most suitable to the climate 



of the United States. Exceptions were made in the temperature for 
alcohol in order to correspond with the Government regulations and in 
that for determining refractive indices. 

Structural Formulas. — For chemical substances several methods for 
rcpreatng symbolic formulas have been adopted. Throughout the text 
empirical formulas are employed as a rale, structural characteristics 
being also indicated where it deems desirable. In Put II the empirical 
formula is usually given; in acids, the replaceable hydrogen stands 
tbt in the formula. 

Lists of Official Preparations. — The Convention recommended, ' 
especially for the convenience of practicing physicians, there 
be appended after each article in the text a list of the official prepa- 
rations in which it is used." This plan has been followed, but in 
the case of compound preparations, flavoring ingredients, correct!* 
advents like alcohoi, glycerin, and syrup have been omitted, as 
would occupy a large amount of space and be of slight value 
the physician. 

Sterilization* — A chapter on sterilization has been introduced with 
the view of encouraging the production of preparations which are free 
from micro-organisms. 

Diagnostical Reagents.— In recent years diagnosis through the use of 
chemical reagents and clinical tests with or without the roe of the micro- 
icopc has become an important factor in determining the presence or 
nature of disease and in this Pharmacopoeia a chapter on Diagnostical 
Reagmts and Trsts has been appended. 

Biological Assays. — Certain valuable and largely used drugs have so 
i the efforts of analytical chemists to provide reliable chemical 
tats which could be used its standards. The Committee of Revision 
decided to introduce biological tests, which have been in use fur many 
jcara, aa providing the best available method f<<r the assay of certain 
*up. A chapter on biological assays will be found in Part II. The 
biological assay for Pituitary Solution and Cannabis and its prepara- 
tions ia a requirement. 

Powdered Drugs. — The Convention recommended the insertion of 
•scopical descriptions of powdered drugs mainly for the purpose of 
detecting adulteration. These will be found in the text under the drug 
titles. While powdered drugs, wherever possible, should represent 
the entire drug, it has not been found practicable to specify in each oaM 
a limit of residue or so-called gruffs or tailings, which remain when 
drugn are ground or powdered* 




Xl PREFACE 

Alcoholic Percentage. — The Convention recommended that a range 
of volume content of absolute alcohol be stated in the Pharmacopoeia 
for each preparation containing alcohol. It was found impracticable to 
follow this recommendation in its entirety; the figures for alcoholic 
content of tinctures, elixirs and other preparations will be found in 
Part II. 

Electrolytic Determinations. — Two metals, Mercury and Zinc, with 
their salts are assayed by electrolysis. This is a departure from methods 
used in previous Pharmacopoeias. A chemical assay is also provided 
and the electrolytic method is given as an alternative. A chapter on 
this subject will be found in Part II. 

Refractive Index. — Refractive indices have been added in this revision. 
This test is based on the deflection of a ray of light which passes from one 
transparent substance to another. This constant has proved a val- 
uable addition in testing the purity of certain substances. A chapter 
entitled " Refractive Index " will be found in Part II. 

Admissions and Deletions. — The number of articles, reagents, and 
assays in the present Pharmacopoeia is 1436; there were 1297 in the 
previous Pharmacopoeia. In the present book there are 782 articles in 
the text; 277 test solutions and volumetric solutions; 315 volumetric, 
gravimetric, and other assays and 62 diagnostical reagents. In the 
U. S. P. VIII there were 958 articles in the text, 155 test solutions and 
volumetric solutions, 149 volumetric assays, and 35 gravimetric assays. 

Of those articles official in the text of the U.S.P. VIII, 243 have 
been dismissed while 67 new ones have been introduced into the 
U.S.P. IX (see pages lix to lxiii). 

Coupon. — There will be found on the back of the title-page, as in the 
previous Pharmacopoeia, a coupon which bears a serial number and a 
letter and the following words: "Pharmacopoeia of the United States 
of America, Ninth Revision, Official Copy, Copyright." 

Official Date. — In accordance with the instructions of the Convention, 
a date has been fixed on which the present work is to supersede the 
Eighth Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, and to go into 
effect. This date is September 1, 1916. 

Assistance. — The Committee is greatly indebted to many gentlemen, 
who were not members, for most valuable assistance rendered either by 
undertaking experimental researches, sometimes very protracted and 
laborious, on certain subjects, or by placing material at its disposal, or 
by scrutinizing the proof sheets. Some have rendered aid from the be- 
ginning to the end of the revision. Especial assistance has been received 



from the United States Public Health Service, through the Hygienic 
Laboratory, and its Digest of Comments; the U, S. Bureau of Stand- 
ards, and the United States Department of Agriculture, through its 
Bureau of Chemistry; the American Medical Association Section 
Reports and New and Nonofficial Remedies; American Pharmaceutical 
Association and its branches; American Chemical Society; American 
Therapeutic Society; State Pharmaceutical Associations and other 
Associations. Reports from the following were also sent to the Conven- 
tion: New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
Washington, D. C, Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, Iowa Veterinary Association, Kings County Pharmaceutical 
Society, Medical Society of the State of New York, New Jersey College 
of Pharmacy, New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, New York State 
Pharmaceutical Association, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and the 
University of Michigan, School of Pharmacy; assistance has been ten- 
dered through reports, hearings, and communications and by pharma- 
cists, chemists, and manufacturers (see page xliv). The editor extends 
Ml peraonal thanks to E. Fullerton Cook, B. A. Heims, and Joseph 
Roiin for continuous service, especially in correcting proof sheets and 
preparing copy. 

OFFICERS OF THE CONVENTION 

Harvet W. Wiley, M.D., Washington, D. C, President. 
I Davis, M.D., Chicago, I1L, 1st Vice-President. 

SChas, Caspari, Jr., Phar.D,, Baltimore, Md., 2nd Yice-PrcsidenL 
O.T. Osborne, M.D., New Haven, Conn., 3rd Vice-President 
'LroEliel, South Bend t Ind., 4th Vice-President, 
W. A. Bastedo, M.D., New York, 5th Vice-President. 
tO. Motter, i\LD., Washington, D. C, Secretary. 
BmP, Barnes, M.D., Washington, D. C, Assistant Secretary. 
fc L Hilton, Phar.D., Washington, D. C, Treasurer. 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
'•R. Beal, Se.D., Urbana, 111., Chairman. 
fc?. Manama, Ph.G., LaPorte, Ind. 
Wit. Jay Schieffelw, Ph.D., New York. 
C.H. Simmons, M.D., Chicago, 111. 
Rilt Whelpley, MJX, St. Louis, Mo., Secretary. 
Habvet W. Wiley, M.D., Washington, D. C., Ex-officio. 
J oseph P. Remi ngton, Ph.M., Philadelphia, Pa., Ex^afi 

•DtceMed. 




xBi FBEFACB 



COMMITTEE OF REVISION 

Joseph P. Remington, Ph.M., Philadelphia, Pa., Chairman. 

C. Lewis Diehl, Ph.M., Louisville, Ky., First Vice-Chairman, 

H. C. Wood, Jr., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa., Second Fice-CAour 

Charles H. La Wall, Ph.M., Philadelphia, Pa., Secretary. 

W. C. Alpebs, Sc.D., Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. F. Anderson, M.D., New Brunswick, N. J. 

H. V. Arny, Ph.D., New York. 

E. H. Babtley, M.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

George M. Beringeb, Ph.M., Camden, N. J. 

WlLHELM BODEMANN, Chicago, 111. 

Charles Caspari, Jr., Phar.D., Baltimore, Md. 
C. E. Caspari, Ph.D., St. Louis, Mo. 
Albert H. Clark, B. S., Chicago, 111. 
Virgil Coblentz, Ph.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
8. Solis Cohen, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
N. S. Davis, M.D., Chicago, 111. 
Geo. C. Diekman, M.D., New York. 
A. R. L. Dohme, Ph.D., Baltimore, Md. 
E. G. Eberle, Ph.G., Philadelphia, Pa. 
C. W. Edmunds, M.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
J. W. England, Ph.M., Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. M. Francis, M.A., Detroit, Mich. 
James M. Good, Ph.M., St. Louis, Mo. 
H. M. Gordin, Ph.D., Chicago, 111. 
Willis G. Gregoby, M.D., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Walter S. Haines, M.D., Chicago, 111. 
♦Cabl S. N. Hallbebg, Phm. D., Chicago, 111. 
R. A. Hatches, M.D., New York. 
Lewis C. Hopp, Ph.G., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Reid Hunt, M.D., Boston, Mass. 
L. P. Kebleb, M.D., Washington, D. C. 
J. A. Koch, Ph.D., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Henbt Kraemer, Ph.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. H. Long, Sc.D., Chicago, 111. 
A. B. Lyons, M.D., Detroit, Mich. 
Philip Mabvel, M.D., Atlantic City, N. J. 
C. F. Nixon, Ph.G., Leominster, Mass. 

•Deceased. 



PREFACE • xllU 

0. T. Osborne, M.D., New Haven, Conn. 

f AiBi«r Plaut, New York. 

W, A. Puckner, Chicago, 111, 

Orro Raitbenheimbr, Phar.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

G. D, Rosenoarten, Ph.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

fl. H. Rusby, M.D., Newark, N. J. 

fUttflft P. Sadtler, Ph.D., Philadelphia., Pa. 
Lcciua R Sayre, Ph.M., Lawrence, Kan. 
J* 0. Schlottebbeck, Ph,D,, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Torald Sollmann, M J>., Cleveland, (X 
A. B, Stevens, Ph.D., Ann Arbor, Mich, 
Roditey H. True, Ph.D., Washington, D. C. 
C. E. Vanderkleed, Phar.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
If. I Wilbert, Ph.M., Washington, D. C. 

Habvty W. Wiley, Ph.D., M.D., Washington, D. C, Ex-afficio. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Joseph P. Remington, Chairman* 

Subject 

oLia Cohen, M.D., Chairman** .Scope 

IToeald Sollmann, M.D., Chairman., .Therapeutics, Pharmacody- 
namics and Posulogy 

3» J. P. Anderson, MJX, Chairman Biological Products, Diag- 

nostical Tests 
{> Henry Kraemer, Ph.D., Chairman. . . Botany and Pharmacognosy 

«*• C. H, La Wall, Ph.M., Chairman General and Inorganic 

Chemistry 
5* G. D. Rosengarten, Ph.D., Chairman . Organic Chemistry 

' t B. Stevens, Ph.D., Chairman. . Proximate Assays 

&Habvey W. Wiley, M.D., Chairman. .Volatile Oils 

*• G. M. Beringer, Ph.M., Chairman, . . .Fluid and Solid Extracts, 

Tinctures 
«• C Lewis Diehl, Ph.M., Chairman, . ■ .Aromatic Waters, Spirits, 

Liquors 

f|' W,C, Alpers, Sc.D., Chairman . .Syrups and Elixirs 

& Orro Raubenheimer, Phar.D,, Chair- 
man . , .,,.,., .Cerates and Ointments 

M« Wilhelm Bodemann, Chairman, .... .Miscellaneous Galenicals 

M. A.B. Lyons, M.D., Chairman. Tables, Weights, Measures 

15. Charles Caspari, Jr., Phar.D., Chair- 
man Nomenclature 

Note.— Each member of the Executive Committee was Chairman of 
'mmittee (see above list). 

'taeaaed. 




LIST OF THOSE WHO ARE NOT MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE BUT 

WHO HAVE BEEN OF ESPECIAL ASSISTANCE DURING 

THE WORK OF REVISION 



Carl L. Alsbebg, Washington, D. C. 
George F. Atkinson, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Daniel Babe, Baltimore, Md. 
M. Becker, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Charles E. Bessy, Lincoln, Neb. 
L. Henry Bernegau, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. S. Brinton, Philadelphia, Pa. 
N. L. Britton, New York. 

E. D. Brown, Minneapolis, Minn. 

E. M. Chace, Washington/.!). C. 
John M. Coulter, Chicago, 111. 

D. M. R. Culbreth, Baltimore, Md. 
William B. Day, Chicago, 111. 
Francis D. Dodge, New York. 

H. A. B. Dunning, Baltimore, Md. 

F. R. Eldred, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Hermann Engelhardt, Baltimore, Md. 
P. F. Fackenthall, Philadelphia, Pa. 
W. G. Farlow, Cambridge, Mass. 
Oliver A. Farwell, Detroit, Mich. 

E. C. Franklin, Washington, D. C. 
William Frear, State College, Pa. 
Harry B. French, Philadelphia, Pa. 
E. N. Gathercoal, Chicago, 111. 

L. D. Havenhill, Lawrence, Kan. 
S. L. Hilton, Washington, D. C. 
Anton Hogstad, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 
E. M. Holmes, London, Eng. 
W. W. Home, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
E. M. Houghton, Detroit, Mich. 
E. V. Howell, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Clemens Kleber, Clifton, N. J. 
C. Mahlon Kline, Philadelphia, Pa. 
James P. Leake, Washington, D. C. 
Henry Leffmann, Philadelphia, Pa. 
John Uri Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Armin K. Lobeck, Haworth, N. J. 
George W. McCoy, Washington, D. C. 
W. W. McNeary, Philadelphia, Pa. 
xliv 



E. Mallinckrodt, St. Louis, Mo. 
William Mansfield, New York. 
George H. Meeker, Philadelphia, Pa. 
George A. Menge, Washington, D. C. 
Fred A. Miller, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Frank X. Moerk, Philadelphia, Pa. 
John Moser, Baltimore, Md. 
Murray Galt Motter, 

Washington, D. C. 
Sister Bertha Mueller, Philadelphia. 
B. L. Murray, Rahway, N. J. 
Edwin L. Newcomb, Minneapolis, Minn. 
William A. Pearson, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Paul S. Pittinger, Philadelphia, Pa. 
John R. Rippetoe, New York. 
B. L. Robinson, Cambridge, Mass. 
George B. Roth, Washington, D. C. 
Albert Schneider, San Francisco, Cal. 
Wilbur L. Scoville, Detroit, Mich. 
Atherton Seidell, Washington, D. C. 
Harry E. Sindall, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Carl E. Smith, New York City. 
Clyde M. Snow, Chicago, HI. 
Maud Sollenberqer, Asbury Park,N. J. 

F. E. Stewart, Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. L. Stingel, Twinsburg, Ohio. 
Warner W. Stockberger, 

Washington, D. C. 
Witmer Stone, Philadelphia, Pa. 
John K. Thum, Philadelphia, Pa. 
A. M. Todd, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
William Trelease, Urbana, 111. 
Wallace S. Truesdell, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Joseph L. Turner, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Arno Viehover, Washington, D. C. 
Florence Yaple, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Heber W. Youngken, Philadelphia, Pa, 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICES 



UNDER this head it has been customary to include statements 
of a general character and intended to apply to classes of 
preparations, but in this revision tin- effort is made to confine 
the subjects in the Preface to a short explanation of changes of a general 
character which have been made, while in the Introductory Notices 
details of a specific character axe taken up. 

Title of Rook.— The use of Roman numerals to designate successive 
revisions of the Pharmacol KBiA, which was introduced in the Eighth 
n f has been continued, hence the present book will be known as 
Ik "Ninth Revision" and its abbreviated form is i4 U. S. P. IX." 

Official. — The word "official" used in this edition of the Pbarma- 
cijxria is considered to be synonymous with "pharmacopcrial" and is 
Applied to any Bubst&noe or preparation recognized by the Pharmaco- 
poeia. When substances conform to the tests, assays and requirements 
given in tin text of the Pharmacopeia, they are h> be considered as 
official Such tests and assays are considered sufficient for substances 
used as rnedicin 

Medicinal Substances Must Conform to U,S,P. — Owing to miscon- 
options on the part of those unfamiliar with pharmacopoeias, it iB 
accessary to make the following statement. 

Standards of purity and strength, prescribed in the text of this Pharma- 

Itop&a, art intended solely to apply to substances which are used for medici- 
wl purposes or in determining th& i& ntity of purity of such substances. 
Some misunderstanding has also prevailed in the past with regard 
to the strength or purity of articles directed to be used in formulas or 
to .testing. The words "alcohol," "syrup," "glycerin," or any other 
official title when used in this text and not otherwise specified is utnier- 
tood to mean the official article. In the case of alcohol, it is official 
Alcohol of 94.9 per cent., by volume, that is intended and not absolute or 
ftted alcohol. *" Syrup" when not otherwise specified is intended 
to mean syrup of the official strength and quality. Official prepara- 
tion we to be made from drugs that conform to the official definitions, 
tote, and descriptions. 

Products and Preparations Made on a Large Scale. — In the manu- 
hcture of products and preparations on the large scale, deviation from 

xlv 




Xhrl INTRODUCTORY NOTICES 

the official processes may be necessary, but the products must confon 
to the official requirements as determined by the tests of the U. f 
Pharmacopoeia, IX, and the finished preparations must be identia 
with those made by the official processes. 

Purity Rubric. — In the Eighth Revision of this Pharmacopoeia, ti 
"purity rubric" was introduced for the first time. It is well known tht 
absolute purity in many of the commercial chemical substances : 
unattainable, unnecessary, or practically undesirable on account < 
greatly increased expense. The analytical chemist must, of coura 
use chemicals for volumetric solutions and reagents of the highet 
possible purity, but such standards are not required in medicine c 
pharmacy, provided poisonous or dangerous substances are rigidly ex 
eluded. Minute quantities of innocuous products will not perceptibl 
affect the dosage or medicinal activity of a remedy. The figures give 
in the purity rubrics represent requirements that can be reasonabl; 
demanded in each instance. 

In some cases it will doubtless be found that the manufacturer ca 
slightly exceed the standard of purity, and if this be the case no objectio 
can be made, the language used being usually "not less than . . . 
Instead of using the words "absolute" or "pure" as in the Eight 
Revision, the chemical formula of the substance, in symbols, is noi 
given. 

In the case of certain efflorescent chemicals, a range has been adopte 
which will permit a limit of efflorescence. It is to be understood tha 
the strength of drugs or preparations for which assay processes ar 
provided is to be determined by the official assay process and not b; 
any other process. 

It has been deemed advisable in some parts of the Pharmacopoei 
for greater convenience to round off decimal figures which are onl; 
given for information, as these would otherwise require the extension 
of decimals to an inconvenient length. For this reason in the article 
on chemical substances there may be a slight difference between th 
requirement of the rubric and the statement at the end of the volu 
metric assay, but the figures given in the rubric in each case define th 
standards adopted for the article. 

Time Limitations and Tolerances. — In some cases the allowable pei 
centage of moisture in chemicals is specified in the text under the article 
When not specified, 5 per cent, of moisture is permitted provided th 
chemical is dispensed in a condition of sensible dryness. 

In the case of chemical tests for innocuous impurities in this Pharma 



eojxria (chlorides, sulphates, and others), it is understood that five 
minutes shall be the time allowed for the reaction to be observed except 
in the cases where the time is specified in the test. 

lathe test for earbonizahle impurities, where sulphuric acid is used, 
it is understood that the time for observation is limited to fifteen minutes 
unless otherwise specified in the text. 

Vegetable Drugs* — In the case of vegetable drugs, the standards pro- 
vided in the text apply also to the powdered or ground drug* For the 
preservation of vegetable or animal substances from the ravages of 
Sonets, it is directed in special cases that they be preserved in tightly- 
closed containers and a few drops of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride 
added. It is not intended that this precaution should be used for 
drugs imported in bales or large original containers. This precau- 
tion is intended to aid in the preservation of drugs in the stock of 
i pharmacist. 

Abbreviations. — To avoid the possibility of error in interpreting 
abbreviations, official abbreviations were introduced, using the ordinary 
abbreviations and specifying the exceptions, thus: The abbreviation 
"Sulph." is used for "Sulphate." Sulphur, sulphite and sulphide are 
not abbreviated. In the same way "Chlor.," unless otherwise specified, 
means "Chloride"; for "chlorate" the word "chloras" is used (see page 
terviii), 

Ttbles. — The feature in the last revision of inserting tables in the 
Appendix (now Part II) has been continued and several additions have 
been made. The specific gravity tables have been based on data from 
the latest and most authoritative sources. In the tables for alcohol and 
wlphuric acid the figures given by the United States Bureau of Stand- 
ards have been followed with only such changes as were necessary to 
reduce them to Pharmacopceial basis. 

Melting Points, Boiling Points, Congealing Points. — The figures given 
for melting points, boiling points, and congealing points as factors in 
determining identity or purity have been determined according to 
methods which are to be found in detail in Part IL It is understood 
that where any of these factors arq given with a range instead of a 
•agje figure that these are to be regarded as inclusive, thus: in the case 
of Acetaailid, "It melts between 112° and 114° C ," means that if it 
begins to melt at 112° or 114° C. or within these limits, it is official so 
far as the melting point is concerned. 

Solubilities. — Solubility figures are inserted in the text as information 
to serve as a convenient aid in determining identity and purity approxi- 



i 



mately and are not intended to be construed as legal requirements, except 
in the case of volatile oils where solubilities in alcohol of different 
strengths are used as tests for purity. The subject of solubilities will 
be found under a special chapter in Part II. 

In testing for solubility, slight mechanical impurities, such as frag- 
ments of filter paper, fiber, dust particles, permitted by other tests for 
the same substance but which slightly interfere with the transparency of 
the solution, are not to be construed as vitiating the test for solubility. 

Non-weighable.— The term " non-weighable" in the text in the state- 
ment of ash is intended to mean a quantity which is not more than 
0,0005 Cm. 

Chemical Tests. — A change has been made in the method of stating 
the quantities to be taken for some tests and assays to conform with 
the general custom among chemists and to save time. A convenient 
quantity is taken, the word "about' 1 bein^ us^l to show that this need 
not be a definite quantity; this approximate quantity is then accurately 
weighed, and the result of the test or assay based upon the accurate 
weight. In those cases where the substances are corrosive, volatile, 
efflorescent or hygroscopic , this plan will be found especially useful. 

Such phrases as "(1 in 10)" or "(1 in 20)" arc understood to mean 
that 1 part of a liquid is to be diluted with, or a solid dissolved in, suffi- 
cient, of the solvent to make 10 or 20 parts by volume. Under copper 
sulphate, the identity test to show the presence of sulphate reads: 
"Barium chloride T.8. produces a white precipitate, insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid, in an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10)"; here 1 Gm. 
of copper sulphate would be dissolved in sufficient distilled water to 
make the solution measure 10 mils. 

u Absence of " and " Limit of." — The terms "absence of " and "limit 
of" following the tests indicating impurities are no longer used in the 
Pharmacopoeia, Ninth Revision, as a rule; but a few exceptions may be 
found. Such words as (chloride), (sulphate), and (free alkali), in italics 
and parentheses, which follow tests, are merely intended to give inform 
mation as to the object of the test, the words of the test itself 
indicating that the substance is noUpresent in an amount which would be 
objectionable for medicinal use, or in other cases that it is to be absent. 

Posology. — The insertion of doses has been continued in the Ninth 
Revision in accordance with the recommendation of the Convention. 
As in previous revisions, it is necessary to remind the users of this Phar- 
macopcpia that "it is to be distinctly understood that neither the 
Convention nor the Committee of Revision created by it, intends to 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICES 



xlix 



we these doses regarded as obligatory on the physician or as forbidding 
him to exceed them whenever in his judgment this seems advisable," 

The doses are given in both the metric and apothecaries systems. 
The figures are not interchangeable nor are they to be considered as 
equivalents. Rounded figures are used in order to assist the memoriz- 
ing of the figures by physicians and pharmacists. The words "average 
dose "are used throughout the text, and the doses are intended for adults. 

Deterioration, — Deteriorations are inevitable in many official prepara- 
tions which when first made comply with the tests and requirements, 
limits are provided through the text in most instances for substances 
prone to deteriorate, through the establishment of maximum and mini- 
mum figures in the rubrics. 

Temperatures 

Statements of temperature are given in this Pharmacopoeia in degrees 
the centigrade hydrogen thermometer, the equivalent Fahrenheit 
temperature being given in the Tables (see Part II). 
The standard temperature for solubilities, specific gravities, polari- 
i determinations, and for the preparation of volumetric solutions 
(see Volumetric Solutions, Part II), For alcohol the former 
ndard temperature of 60° F. (15.67° C.) has been retained, since 
and regulations of the Internal Revenue Department of the 
States, relating to alcohol and alcoholic liquids, are still based 
this degree of temperature. For refractive indices and certain 
charimeters the temperature is 20° C. to conform to the temperature 
adopted by the Bureau of Standards of the United States. 
By the term "gentle heat" is meant any temperature between 30° C. 
ad40°C. 

la official formulas, "cold water" is intended to have a temperature 
rf 15° to 25° C.; "hike warm water," 35° to 40° C.j "warm water," 
W to 70° C.J "hot water," 85° to 95° C. When the Pharmacopoeia 
directs the use of a water bath it intends a temperature of about 100° C. 
In elevated localities, where the boiling point of liquid is lower than 
ttat at the level of the sea, the water bath temperature would be 
lea than 100° C. 

Weights and Measures 

tdric Weights and Measures. — The Metric system of Weights and 

is the only one recognized in the formulas of this Pharmaco- 

All standard weights and measures in this country are derived 





I 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICES 




from or baaed upon the United States National Prototype Standard^^ 
of the Meter and the Kilogramme, made of platinum-indium, in tto 
custody of the National Bureau of Standards at Washington. The lite 
is a unit of capacity equivalent to the volume occupied by the mass oF"" 
1 kilogramme of pure water at its maximum density (at a temperature 
of 4° C. t practically) and under the standard atmospheric pressure 
(760 mm.). It is equivalent in volume to 1.000027 cubic decimetere. 
The units of the metric system are designated by abbreviations as 
follows: 



M,= meter 
dm, = decimeter 
cm. = centimeter 
mm. = millimeter 

1.= liter 
dl. — deciliter 



Kg* = kilogramme 
Gm, = gramme 

dg, » decigramme 

eg. m centigramme 

mg. = milligramme 



ml. = milliliter or mil (formerly cubic centimeter or Cc) 

In measuring liquids cylindrical graduates are preferred where extreme 
accuracy n required but conical graduated measures are in universal 
use for less exacting purposes. These, if accurately graduated, are 
deemed suitable for the use of the pharmacist in compounding or dis- 
pensing medicines. The lower surface of the meniscus is the point from 
which the reading is to be taken. 

Apothecaries Weights and Measures. — Physicians in prescribing, and 
pharmacists in dispensing medicines commonly employ the time-honored 
apothecaries weights and measures which were in use in England prior 
to 1825, the weights being originally derived from the old English 
Ttoy weight, the fluid measures from the old wine gallon. The units 
of this system are designated in prescribing by signs or abbreviations 
as follows; 



S = apothecaries ounce = 8 drachms =480 grains 



5 ^drachm 


— 3 scruples — 60 grains 


3 = scruple 


—20 grains 


gr, = grain 




G-pmt 


= 16 fluidounces 


f5 =fluidounce 


= 8 fluidrachms = 480 minima 


f3 =fluidrachm 


= 60 minims 


fi^=minim 






INTRODUCTORY NOTICES 



li 



In writing prescriptions in the apothecaries system, Roman, not 
Arabic, numerals are employed, and these are always placed after the 
symbol or abbreviation, thus: f 5ii; gr.xv. 

In the case of metric abbreviations, the numerals precede the 
abbreviation, and are always written in Arabic characters, thus: 
5 Gru,; 2 mils. Care is taken to distinguish the abbreviation for 
gramme (Gm.) from that for grain (gr.) by writing the former with a 
capital, the latter with a small initial. 

Eqmlents of Metric and Apothecaries Weights and Measures. 

1 Metrr is equal to 39.3700 inches (statute of July 28, 1866). 
1 Pound (avoirdupois), 7000 grains, is equal to 453.5924277 grammes. 
1 Liquid Gallon is equal to the volume of 231 cubic inches or 
3785,3323 milliliters. 



Approximate Measures, 

Physicians have hitherto very commonly prescribed liquid medicines 

in teaspoonful, dessertspoonful or tablespoonful doses. Inasmuch as 

apoons vary greatly in capacity, and from their form are unfit for use in 

the dosage of medicine, it is desirable that the more scientific practice 

should be always adopted, of prescribing doses in mils, fluidrachms or 

j f to be measured with a suitable medicine measure. The follow- 

are the values conventionally attached to the several approximate 

above mentioned: 



Metric 
A teaspoonful = 4 mils 
A dessertspoonful — 8 mils 
A tablespoonful — 15 mils 



Apothecaries System 
A teaspoonful = 1 fluidrachm 
A dessertspoonful — 2 fluidrachms 
A tablespoonful ■ l /% fluidounce 



lii INTRODUCTORY NOTICES 



Relations Between the Various Units of Weights and Measures 

1 meter = 39.3700 inches 

1 yard =0.9144018 meter 

1 square yard =0.8361307 square meter 

1 cubic inch = 16.38672 mils 

1 liter=0.264178 liquid gallon 

1 fluidounce= 29.5729 mils 

1 kilogramme =2.204622 pounds, avoirdupois 

1 gramme =15.432356 grains 

1 avoirdupois ounce (437.5 grains) =28.349527 grammes 

1 apothecaries ounce =31.103481 grammes 

1 grain = 64.798918 milligrammes 

Weight and Volume Relations 

At maximum density in vacuo: 

1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogramme. 

1 gallon of water weighs 58416.6 grains.* 

1 fluidounce of water weighs 29.5729 grammes, or 1.043154 avoir- 
dupois ounces, or 456.3797 grains. 

1 minim of water weighs 61.61025 milligrammes, or 0.950791 
grains. 

1 grain of water measures 0.0647989 mil, or 1.0517555 minims. 

Specific Gravity 

Except where otherwise stated, the specific gravity basis of this 

25° C 

Pharmacopoeia is 2 ^~U. (apparent), i.e., the ratio of the apparent 
weight of a substance in air at 25° C. to that of an equal volume of 
pure water at the same temperature. 

* 1 Gallon of water weighs, in air, at 25° C, under normal conditions of humidity 
and atmospheric pressure, about 58185 grains; a pint 7273.1 grains; a fluidounce 
454.6 grains; and a minim 0.947 grain. 




Bella donna 
Atoj* Belladonna (L.): 

Title . »« . . . , . Belladonna folium seu 

Folium Belladonna 
faqturement Use only the dried leaf* ♦ 



Tisotim belladon nie : 
Titfc 




Belladonna? tinctura seu 
Tinctura Belladonna! 

10 per cent, 

Alcohol, 70 per cent. , , , 



Assayed: 0.3 per cent, total 
alkaloids. Dried leaves and 
tope, 

Tinctura Belladonnas Foti- 

onim, 
100 mils from 10 Gm.(approx.), 
Alcohol, 50 per cent. 
100 mils contains 0.027 to 0,033 

Gin. alkaloids. 



Belladonnae extractum 
seu Extractum Bella- 
don ncc 

Alcohol, 70 per cent Pilular 



Extractum Belladonna? Foli- 
orum. 



Solid extract (containing 
about 10 per cent, of 
water) 



lular: 75 per cent, alcohol. 
Powdered: 95 per cent, 
alcohol. 
Assayed: 1,18 to 1,32 per cent 
alkaloids. 



•Tbe figures for the comparative strength in this table and alcoholic percentages are 
> be understood as approximate, the exact figurea for each preparation will be found 
■ the head of each article, 

Uii 




lhr INTERNATIONAL PROTOCOL 

Intoraatioiial Protocol U.S.P. IX 

Bitter Almond Water 
Aqua amygdala? amara?: 

Title Amygdala? amara? aqua Aqua Amygdala? Amar». 

seu Aqua Amygdala? 

amara? _ 

Requirement Strength: 0.1 per cent, of Contains a mere trace of hydrC' 

HON cyanic acid. 

Cherry Laurel Water 
Aqua laurocerasi: 

Title Laurocerasi aqua seu Not official. 

Aqua Laurocerasi 
Requirement Strength: 0.1 per cent of 

Cocaine Hydrochloride 
Cocaina? hydrochloridum : 

Title Cocainum hydrochlori- Cocaine Hydrochloridum. 

cum 
Requirement The anhydrous salt Same as International Pro- 
tocol: melts between 183* 
and 191° C. 
Colchicum 
Colchicum autumnale (L.): 

Title Colchici semen seu Se- Colchici Cormus and Colchici 

men Colchici Semen are both official. 

Requirement Use only the seed. 

Tinctura colchici: 

Title Colchici tinctura seu Tinctura Colchici Seminia. 

Tinctura Colchici 

Strength 10 per cent 100 mils from 10 Gm. (apprac). 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent Alcohol, 60 per cent. 

Requirement Assayed: 100 mils contains 

0.036 to 0.044 Gm. colchi- 
cine. 
Digitalis 
Digitalis purpurea (L.): 

Title Digitalis folium seu Fo- Digitalis. 

hum Digitalis 

Requirement The leaf of the second Assayed biologically. Leaf of 

year second year not required. 

Tinctura digitalis: 

Title Digitalis tinctura seu Tinctura Digitalis. 

Tinctura Digitalis 

Strength 10 per cent 100 mils from 10Gm.(approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent Alcohol, 75 per cent. 

Requirement May be assayed biologically. 

Ergot 
Sclerotium clavicepitis pur- 
purea? (Tul.) seu ctavi- 
cepiti purpurea? (Tul.) 
sclerotium: 

Title Secale cornutum seu Ergota. 

Ergotum Secale 

Requirement Not to be more than one Must be dried before storing. 

year old and to be kept 
whole 



tvi INTERNATIONAL PROTOCOL 



Ipecac lotarnattoMl Protocol U.S.P.IX 

Tinctura ipecacuanha: 

Title Ipecacuanha tinctura Not official 

seu Tinctura Ipeca- 
cuanha) 

Strength 10 per cent. 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent. 

Requirement 

Byrupus ipecacuanha*: 

Title Ipecacuanhas sirupus seu Syrupus Ipecacuanha. 

Sirupus Ipecacuanhas 

Strength 10 per cent, of the tine- Seven times stronger thi 

ture International Protocol 

Mercurial Ointment 
Unguentum hydrargyri: 



lUe ~. Hydrargyri unguentum Unguentum Hydrargyri. 

seu Unguentum Hy- 
drargyri 

Strength 30 per cent 50 per cent. (Unguentui 

arargyri Dilutum. 1 
contains about 30 per 
of mercury.) 
If nx Vomica 
Strychnos mix vomica (L.): 

TrUe Strychni semen seu Se- Nux Vomica, 

men Strychni seu Nux 
vomica 

Requirement 2.5 per cent, total alka- Assayed: 2.5 per cent. < 

bids alkaloids. 

Tinctura nucis vomicae: 

Title Strychni tinctura seu Tinctura Nucis VomioB. 

Tinctura Strychni; 
Nucis vomicae tinc- 
tura seu Tinctura Nu- 
cis vomicae 

Strength 10 per cent 100 mils from 10 Gm.(apf 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent. . . Alcohol. 75 per cent. 

Requirement 0.25 per cent, total alka- Assayed: 100 mils coi 

loids 0.237 to 0.263 Gm. c 

alkaloids. 
Extractum nucis vomicae: 

Title Strychni extractum seu Extractum Nucis Vomici 

Extractum Strychni; 
Nucis vomicae extrac- 
tum seu Extractum 
Nucis vomicae 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent Powdered extract made 

75 per cent, alcohol. 

Requirement 16 per cent, total alka- Assayed: 15.2 to 16.8 pei 

loids of the alkaloids. 



Opium: 

Title Opii pulvis seu Pulvis Opii Pulvis. 

Opii 

Requirement Powder to be dried at Assayed: Powdered Opii 

60° C; morphine 10 to 10.5 per cent, anhj 

percent morphma 



INTERNATIONAL PROTOCOL 



Opium Interna tloaal Protocol 

Ertnrtum opii: 

fitl* Opii extractum seu Ex- 

tractum Opii 
Requirement • Morphine 20 per cent . . 

Ifetamopii: 
Title, Opii tinctura aeu Tine- 

tura Opii 
10 per cent,.. 

Alcohol, 70 per cent. . , . 

Morphine 1 i>er cent — 

Tmrtun opii crocata : 

Title . . . . Opii t inctura crocata seu 

Tinctura Opii crocata 
ecu Laudanum Syden- 
ham! 

Strength - . ♦ , 10 per cent, opium. 

Mawtruum 

Bequiremeo' Morphine 1 percent. 

hhng ipecacuanha! et opii : 

Title Opii et Ipecacuanhas pul- 

vis compositus Beu 
Pulvis Doveri 

Haquirement To contain 10 per cent. 

of powdered opium 
Tartan opii camphorata : 

Titk- . „ . , .... Opii tinctura benzoica 

seu Tinctura Opii ben- 
zoica 

Rcjiiirement Morphine, 0.05 per cent. 

Phenol Water 
*W phenols ta: 

Tllie Phenoli solutio aeu Aqua 

phenolata 
Bequitement . -. Strength: 2 per cent. 

Sodium Arsenate 

Sodri twtii* : 
Title Araenas aodii seu Sodii 

araenas; Areenicicuni 
natrium seu Natrium 
arsenicicum 
. . . . The 'Tystallized salt con- 

taining 36.85 per cent, 
of arsenic acid 
of Potassium Arsenite 
lienor potaasii araenit is : 
Ti£k . . Arsenicalis liquor Fowl- 

er i seu Liquor arseni- 
calis Fowled seu Kalii 
arsenicosi liquor 
Requirement Strength in arsenioua 

acid, i per cent. 



U.S.P. IX 



Extractum Opii. 

Assayed : 19 5 to 20,5 per cent. 
anhydrous morphine. 

Tinctura Opii. 

TOO mils from 10 Gm. (approx,). 
Alcohol, 50 per cent. 
100 mils contains 0.95 to 1.05 
Gm, anhydrous morphine. 

Not official. 



Pulvia Ipecacuanha et Opii. 



Ipecac 10, powdered opium 
10, sugar of milk S0 r 

Tinctura Opii Camphorata. 



100 mils containa 0.4 Gm. 
powdered opium. 



Not official. 



Sodii Arsenas. 



Containa 58.08 to 61.92 per 
cent, anhydrous sodium 
arsenate. 



liquor Potaasii Arsenitis. 



Containa potassium arsenate 
pnrfrminmtmi in amount to 
not Jeas than 0.975 nor more 
than 1.025 per cent, of 
arsenic trioxide. 









lviii INTERNATIONAL PROTOCOL 

International Protocol U.S. P. IX 

Syrup of Ferrous Iodide 
Syrupus ferri iodidi: 

Title Ferri iodidi sinipus seu Syrupus Ferri IodidL 

Sinipus iodati ferrosi 
seuSirupus ferri iodati 

Requirement Strength in anhydrous Contains 4.75 to 5.25 per cent 

ferrous iodide 5 per of ferrous iodide, 
cent. 

Tincture of Cantharides 

Tinctura cantharidis : 

Title Cantharidis tinctura seu Tinctura Cantharidis. 

Tinctura Cantharidis 

Strength 10 per cent 100 mils from 10 Gm. (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent. . . . Alcohol, 05 per cent. 

Requirement 

Tincture of Iodine 
Tinctura iodi: 

Title Iodi tinctura seu Tine- Tinctura Iodi. 

tura iodi 

Strength 10 per cent Iodine 7 Gm., potassium iodide 

5 Gm. in 100 mils. 

Menstruum Alcohol, 95 per cent.. . . Alcohol, 00 per cent. 

Requirement 

Tincture of Lobelia 
Tinctura lobelia?: 

Title Lobeliffi tinctura seu Tinctura Lobelia). 

Tinctura Lobelia 

Strength 10 per cent 100 mils from 10 Gm. (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent . . . Alcohol, 50 per cent. 

Requirement 

Tincture of Strophanthus 
Tinctura strophanthi: 

Title Strophanthi tinctura seu Tinctura Strophanthi. 

Tinctura Strophanthi 

Strength 10 per cent 100 mils from 10 Gm. (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol, 70 per cent. . . . Alcohol. 05 per cent. 

Requirement Seeds not to be freed Assayed biologically. Purified 

from fat bensin used to extract fixed 

oil. 

Wine of Antimony 
Vinum antimonii: 

Title Antimoniale vinum seu Not official. 

Vinum antimoniale; 
Stibiatum vinum seu 
Vinum stibiatum 

Strength In tartar emetic, 0.4 

per cent. 
Requirement 



Admissions, Deletions and Changes 



ARTICLES ADDED TO PART I, U.S.P. IX 



i Phenylcinchoninicum 
thylmorphin» Hydrochloridum 
■r 

BtDHtfllataSteriliaatA 
idcuperma 

leucaine Hydrochloridum 
nuthi Betanaphtholaa 
era Sodio-Benioaa 
ii Glycerophosphaa 

Lactaa 
trains Hydrochloridum 
soti Carbonaa 
etylmorphina 
etyhrorplnns Hydrochloridum 



tins Hydrochloridum 
laatnim Cantharidia 
11 Elasticum 

Retain 
ictum Aooniti 
" Fellia Bovia 
" Gebemii 
M Hydraatia 
M Viburni Prunif olii 
lextractum Aspidoapermatia 
u Sabai 



mrgyri Salicylaa 
aatin* Hydrochloridum 
iphyais Sicca 
m Hypophysia 
Sodii Chloridi Physiologicua 
" Glyoerophosphatia 
as Biamuthi 



Magma Magnesia) 
Nitrogenii Monoxidum 
Oleoreaina Petrofelini 
Oleum Pini Pumilionia 

" Seaami 
Oxygenium 
Paraformaldehydum 
Petroeelinum 
Phenolphthaleinum 
Potaasa Sulphurata 
Quinine Dihy drochloridum 

" et Ureee Hydrochloridum 
" Tannas 
Scammoniffi Radix 

Serum Antidiphthericum Purificatum 
Sicoum 

" Antitetanicum 

11 " Purificatum 

" " Siccum 

Sodii Benaoeulphinidum 

" Cacodylaa 

44 Cyanidum 

44 Glycerophoaphas 

" TnHigntJnHJH i|lp>>nnfUi 

" Perboraa 

" Sulphis Exsiccatua 
Terra Silicea Purificata 
Theobromine Sodio-Salicylaa 
Theophyllina 
Toxitabelto Hydrargyri Chloridi Cor- 

roaivi 
Trinitrophenol 
Uranii Nitraa 
Virus Vaccinicum 

liz 



ARTICLES DISMISSED FROM U.S.P. Vffl 



AoetumOpii 
Aoidum Camphoricum 

" Nitricum Dilutum (Part II) 

" Sulphuroeum (Part II) 
jEther Aoeticua (Ethyl Acetate, Part II) 
Aloe Purificata 
Alumini Sulphas 
Amygdala Amara 
Anthemis 
Apocynum 
Argenti Cyanidum 

" Nitras Mitigatus 
Beniinum 
Berberis 
Bismuthi Citras 
Bromum (Part II) 
Calamus 
Calcii Phosphas Praecipitatus 

" Sulphas Exsiccatua 
Calendula 
Carbo Animalis 

" " Purificatua 

Carbonei Disulphidum (Part II) 
Cassia Fiatula 
Cataplaama Kaolini 
Ceratum Camphors 

" Plumbi Subaoetatia 

" Resina Compoaitum 
Chimaphila 
Chirata 

Chloralformamidum 
Cinnaldehydum 
Coca 

Collodium Stypticum 
Confectio Rob® 
" Senna 
Conium 
Convallaria 
Cuaao 

Cypripedium 
Elaatica 

Elixir Ferri, Quinins et Strychnin© 
Phoaphatum 
lx 



Emplaatrum Adhaxivum 
" Hydrargyri 

u Opii 

* Saponia 

TCiwiilmiin Chlorof ormi 
" Olei Morrhua e 
phosphitibua 
Euonymus 
Eupatorium 
Eztractum Aloes 
" Digitalis 
" Euonymi 
" Hflematoxyli 
" Krameri® 
" Leptandr© 
" Quassia) 
" Scopofo 
Fel Bovia Purifioatum 
Ferri Citras 
" et Ammonii Sulphas ( 
" " " Tartras 
" " Potassii " 
" " Quininee Citras 
" " Strychnin© Citras 
" Hydroxidum 
" Hypophosphis 
" Pyrophosphas Solubili 
Ficus 

Fluidextractum Apooyni 
Berberidia 
Calami 
Calumb© 
Capaici 
Chimaphila 
Chirat© 
Coca) 
Conii 

Convallaria 
Cubeb© 
Cypripedii 
Euonymi 
Eupatorii 
Geranii 



ARTICLES DISMISSED FROM U.S. P. VIII 



bd 



Fkidextractum Hamamelidis Foliorum 
11 Krameria 

LAppe 
" Leptandra 

" Lupulini 

Matico 
" Meserei 

M Pareira 

" Phytolacca 

" Pruni Virginian® 

M Quassia 

Quercus 
M Quillaja 

M Rhois Glabra 

I Rubi 

Sabina 

Sanguinaria 

Soopola 

Scutellaria 

Serpentaria 

Stramonii 

Valerianae 

VibumiOpuli 

Gvfcritum Ferri, Quinina et Strychnin® 

Phosphatum 
f**m Cortex 



Cortex 
. " Folia 

[ *deoma 

^oecyaminae Sulphas 
tfuram Pruni Virginian® 
■dohim 
ftjoUnum 
tameria 

fcptwdra 
ononis Succus 
*quor Antisepticus 

44 Chlori Compositus (Part II) 

u Hydrargyri Nitratis 

u Sodii Phosphatis Compositus 
toniiBensoas 

" Citras Effervesoens 

u Salicylas 

Upolin iim 

^nesii Sulphas Effervesoens 



Mangani Hypophoephis 

" Sulphas (Part ID 
Marrubium 
Mastiche 
Matico 
Mistura Ferri Composita 

" RheietSoda 
Morphina Acetas 
Mucilago Sassafras Medulla 

Ulmi 
Naphthalenum 
Oleatum Atropine 
" Cocaina 
" Quinina 
" Veratrina 
Oleoresina Lupulini 
Oleum Adipis 
" JEthereum 
" Copaiba 
" Erigerontis 
" Hedeoma 
" Rosa 
" Sabina 
Pareira 

Physo8tigmina Sulphas 
Phytolacca 
Pilula Aloes et Ferri 

" " Mastiche* 
" " Myrrha 
" Cathartic© Vegetables 
" Laxativa Composita 
" Opii 

" Podophylli, Belladonna et Capsici 
Pimenta 
Piperina 
Plumbi Iodidum 

" Nitras (Part II) 
Potassii Cyanidum 

" Dichromas (Part II) 
" Ferrocyanidum (Part II) 
11 Sulphas (Part II) 
Prunum 
Pulvis Acetanilidi Compositus 

" Morphina " 

Quercus 
Quillaja 
Rhus Glabra 
Rubus 



brii 



ARTICLES DISMISSED FROM U.S. P. VIII 



Sabina 
Safrolum 
Salvia 
Santonica 
Sassafras Medulla 

Sooparius 
Soopola 
Scutellaria 

Sodii Bisulphis (Part II) 
" Chloras 
" Nitras 
" Pyrophoephas 
" Sulphis 
Spiritus JStheris Compoaitus 
" Ammonia 
" Frumenti 
" Gaultheria 
" Vini Gallici 
Sulphuris Iodidum 
Syrupus Amygdala) 
" Calcis 
" Ferri, Quininse et Strychnin® 

Phoephatum 
" Hypophoephitum Compositus 
" Kramerue 
" Rosa 
" Rubi 
Talcum 
Tamarindus 
Terebinthina 

" Canadensis 

Tinctura Aloes et Myrrha 



Tinctura Calendulas 

" fSmimfng g* 

" Galls 

" Herbarum Reoentium 
" Ipecacuanha et Opii 
11 Krameris 
" Quillaja 
" Serpentariffi 
" Vanilla 
Trochisci Gambir 

" Glycyrrhise et Opii 
" Krameriffi 
" Santonini 
Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi £ 
" Potassii Iodidi 

" Veratrina 

" Zinci Stearatis 

Vanilla 

Viburnum Opulus 
Vinum Album 
" Antimonii 
" Cocsb 

" Colchici Seminis 
" Ergot© 
" Ferri 
" u Amarum 
" Ipecacuanha 
" Opii 
" Rubrum 
Zea 

Zinci Bromidum 
" Iodidum 



ARTICLES ADDED TO PART II, U.S.P. IX 
Reagent*, Test Solutions, and Volumetric Solution* 
Ether, Dehydrated 



Acetic Acid Anhydride 

Acetone 

Ammonia, Spirit of 

Ammonium Nitrate 

Polysulphide T.S. 
Vanadate 
Aniline Sulphate 

T.S. 
Arsenic Acid 
" " TA, Concentrated 
" Trioxide 
Aabertos 
Ajolitmin 

" T&. 
Aiur II 

" II-Eoon 
torium Chloride 
" Hydroxide 
" Nitrate 
Beef Extract 
Beniidine 

feUiminajolylethylainine Hydrochlo- 
ride 
Blood Serum 
Bromine 

Cadmium and Potassium Iodide 
" Chloride 
" " T.S. 

" Iodide 
^Wda Turpentine 
Ctfbon Tetrachloride 
Carmine 
CoUltous Chloride 

CoocoRed 
" " TJ3. 
fopric Acetate 

" T.S. 



^methylaminoaioben«ene 

Diphenylamine 

EotnA 



Ethyl Acetate 

Ferric Ammonium Sulphate 

Ferrous Sulphate (Acid) T.S. 

Filter Paper, Quantitative 

Fluorescein 

Fuchsin 

" Acid 
Fuchsin-Sulphurous Acid TJ9. 
Glass Wool 
Glucose, Dry 
Gold Chloride 

" TJ3., Diluted 
Hematein 
Hematoxylin 
Hydrated Chloral TJ3. 
Indigo Carmine TJ3. 
Iodeosin 
Iodine, Purified 
Iodo-bromide T.S. 
LaBVomethylaminoethanolcatechol 
Lead Acetate Glass Wool 
" Test Paper 
11 T.S., Alcoholic 
" Nitrate 
" Peroxide 
Lime, Freshly Slaked 
Magnesium Chloride 
Manganese Sulphate 

" " T.S. 

Mercuric Bromide 

" Test Paper 
" TJ3., Alcoholio 
Methyl Orange 
" Red 
ti " T S 
" Violet 6B 
Methylene Green 
Molybdic Acid 

Naphthylamine (Alpha) Hydrochloride 
u « " T S 

(Beta) 

fadii 



lxiv 



ARTICLES ADDED TO PART II, U.S. P. IX 



Nitric Acid, Diluted 

Oil of Cedarwood 

Orange G 

Orcin 

Ouabain 

Palladous Chloride 

Paradimethylainmobensaldehyde 

Peptone 

Phenoldifiulphonic Add T.S. 

Phenylhydrasine 

" Dihydrochloride 

" Hydrochloride 

Phloroglucinol 

T.S. 
Phosphotungstic Acid 
Platinic Chloride 
Potassium Chromate 
" Ferricyanide 
" Hydroxide T.S., Special 
" Sulphate 
Pyrogallol T.S., Alkaline 
Resorcinol T.S. 
Rosaniline Acetate 
Rosolic Acid 

" " T.S. 
Sawdust, Purified 
Selenous Acid 
Silver, Metallic 
" Sulphate 
Sodium Acetate, Anhydrous 
" Bisulphite 

T.S. 



Sodium Bitartrate 

" Carbonate, Anhydrous 

" Chloride 

" Cyanide TJ3. 

" Hypobromite T.S. 

" Nitroprusside 

" Oxalate 

" Phospho-tungstate T.S. 

" Sulphide 

" " T.S. 

" Tartrate, Neutral 

" Tungstate 
Stannous Chloride 

" " T.S., Acid 

" " T.S., Saturated 

Starch (Potato) 
Succinic Acid 
Sulphanilic Acid 
Sulpho-salicylic Acid 
Sulphuric Acid, Fuming 

" Purified and Cc 
trated for Test 
Sulphurous Acid 
Toluol 
Xylol 
Yeast 
Zinc Dust 
11 Oxide 
Tenth-Normal Barium Hydroxide 
Half-Normal Potassium Hydroxid 
Hundredth-Normal Silver Nitrate 
Two-Hundredth-Normal Sodium 
sulphate V.S. 



Diagnostical Reagents and Clinical Testa 



Agar-Agar, Glycerin 
" " Glucose 
" " Lactose-litmus 
" " Plain 
Alcoholic Solution of Dimethylamino- 
azobenzene 
" « " Iodine (1 per cent.) 

« H tt it /JQ 11 it \ 

11 " " Methyl Violet 6B 

" " " Methylthionine 

Chloride (Saturated) 

Aloin (iaobarbaloin containing barbaloin) 

Alum-hematoxylon Solution 



Aniline Water and Methyl Viol 

Solution 
Aqueous Solution of Trinitrophen 

(Saturated) 
Bial's Reagent 

Borax Methylene Blue Solution 
Bouillon, Glucose 

" Plain 

" Stock 
Carminfibrin 
Congo Red Test Paper 
Diluted Carbolfuchsin Solution 
Ebner's Fluid 



ARTICLES ADDED TO PABT II, U.S.P. IX 



lxv 



Ehrikh's Solution for Diaso Reaction 
" Urobilinogen 
" Triacid Stain 
Eton's Reagent 

Ether (containing Hydrogen Dioxide) 
Gelatin, Glucose 

" plain 
GienaVs Stain 
Gnm's Iodine Solution 
Gumburg's Reagent 
Hiyem's Solution 

Iodine Potassium Iodide Solution 
Jeoners Stain 
Loffler's Methylene Blue Solution 

" Mixture (Blood Serum) 
Mayer's Hemalum 
Mixture of Zinc Acetate 
Nitric Acid (containing a trace of nitrous 
acid) 

" " Solution for Decolorising 
Nytader's Reagent 



Obermeyer's Solution 
Oxygenated Oil of Turpentine 
Pavy's Solution 
Solution for Hemoglobin Estimation 

" " White Corpuscles 

" of Calcium Chloride 
" Carbolfuchsin 
" Carbol Methyl Violet 

" " Chlorinated Lime (Saturated) 

" " Copper Sulphate 

11 " Guaiac 

" Lead Acetate 

" " Rosolic Acid 

" " Sodium Hydroxide (for Sugar 
Reaction) 

" " Sodium Hypobromite 

" " Zinc Chloride (10 per cent.) 
Spiegler-Jolles Reagent 
Toison's Solution 
Wright's Stain 
Yeast (for fermentation test) 



ARTICLES DISMISSED FROM APPENDIX, U.S.P. VIII 



Btriom Carbonate 
Bma-Wood T.S. 
CoUltous Nitrate T.S. 
ladigoTS. 

Iodine T.S., Alcoholic 
Uad AeeUte Test Cause 



Mercuric Chloride Test Paper 

" " T.S., Alcoholic 

Methyl Alcohol 
Naphthylamine Acetate T J3. 
Potassium Cyanide T.S. 
Sodium Nitrite 



CHANGES IN OFFICIAL LATIN TITLES 
U.S.P. VIII U.S.P. IX 

Alcohol Abflolutum Alcohol Dehydratum 

Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi Liquor Hydrogenii Dioxidi 

Calx Sulphurata Calcii Sulphidum Crudum 

Cannabis Indies Cannabis 

Cardamomum Cardamomi Semen 

Charta Sinapis Emplastrum Sinapis 

Elixir Adjuvans Elixir Glycyrrhiss 

Extractum Cannabis Indies Extractum Cannabis 

" Rhamni Purshianffi " Cascane Sagrada 

Ferri et Quinine Citras Solubilis Ferri et Quinins Citras 

" Phosphas Solubilis " Phosphas 

Fluidextractum Cannabis Indies Fluidextractum Cannabis 

" Rhamni Purshianffi " Cascars Sagrads 

" Rhamni Purshianffi Aro- " Cascars Sagrada Ai 

maticum maticum 

" Veratri " Veratri Viridis 

Glandulffi Suprarenales Sices Suprarenalum Siccum 

" Thyroides " Thyroideum " 

Hyoscins Hydrobromidum Scopolamins Hydrobromidum 

Methylthionins Hydrochloridum Methylthionins Chloridum 

Oleum Aurantii Corticis Oleum Aurantii 

" Betulffi Methylis Salicylas 

11 Cinnamomi Oleum Cassis 

" Gaultheris Methylis Salicylas 

" Lavandulffi Florum Oleum Lavandulae 

" Picis Liquids " Picis Liquids Rectificatum 

Resina Scammonii Resina Scammonis 

Rhamnus Purshiana Cascara Sagrada 

Tinctura Cannabis Indies Tinctura Cannabis 

" Veratri " Veratri Viridis 

Veratrum Veratrum Viride 

lxvi 



CHANGES IN OFFICIAL ENGLISH TITLES 

U.S.P. VIII U.S.P. IX 

Acetanilide Acetanilid 

Wool-Fat WoolFat 

Hydrous Wool-Fat Hydrous Wool Fat 

Absolute Alcohol Dehydrated Alcohol 

Sulphurated Lime Crude Calcium Sulphide 

Indian Cannabis Cannabis 

Cardamom Cardamom Seed 

Qovw Clove 

Mustard Paper Mustard Plaster 

Adjuvant Elixir Elixir of Glycyrrhisa 

Extract of Indian Cannabis Extract of Cannabis 

Soluble Iron and Quinine Citrate Iron and Quinine Citrate 

" Ferric Phosphate Ferric Phosphate 

flukfextnct of Cannabis Indies Fhiidextract of Cannabis 

"Veratrum " " Veratrum Viride 

Desiccated Suprarenal Glands Dried Suprarenals 

Thyroid " " Thyroids 

flyoscine Hydrobromide Scopolamine Hydrobromide 

Methylthionine Hydrochloride Methylthionine Chloride 

Oil of Orange Peel Oil of Orange 

u " Betula Methyl Salicylate (from Betula) 

" " Gaultheria " Salicylate (from Gaultheria) 

" " Lavender Flowers. Oil of Lavender 

" " Tar Rectified Oil of Tar 

Tincture of; Cannabis Indica Tincture of Cannabis 

" Veratrum " " Veratrum Viride 

Blue Ointment Diluted Mercurial Ointment 

Veratrum Veratrum Viride 

lxvii 



kviii COMPARATIVE TABLE SHOWING STRENGTH OF THB MORE 



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COMPARATIVE TABLE SHOWING STRENGTH OF THB MORE 



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IMPORTANT SUBSTANCES AND PHEPABATI0N8 




THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




Acac,— Gum Arabic 



The dried gummy exudation of Acacia Senegal Willdenow, and of 

other African species of Acacia (Fain, Leguminosm). 

h ovoid, more or lees spheroidal tears, or in broken, angular fragments from 
2 to 30 mm. in diameter, varying from white or yellowish-white to light amber- 
colored; translucent; very brittle; fractured surface glass-tike, sometimes iri- 



t; nearly inodorous; taste insipid, mucilaginous. 

Insoluble in alcohol; Blowly and almost completely soluble in twice its weight 
of water, forming a mucilaginous liquid, which has a slight, characteristic odor 
and is acid to litmus. When either 0.1 mil of basic lead acetate T.S. , or 0J mil 
of a concentrated solution of sodium borate, or 0J mil of ferric chloride T.S. is 
added to 10 mils of a 10 per cent, aqueous solution of Acacia, a gelatinous pre- 
cipitate is produced. The precipitate produced with ferric chloride T.S. is neither 
black nor brownish-black {(nnmu). 

The powder is whitish, with few or no starch grains or fragments of vegetable 



Not more than t per cent, of powdered Acacia is insoluble in water (plant 
tissue*, sand, or dirt), 

Acacia yields not more than 4 per cent, of ash, and the powder contains not 
more than 15 per cent, of moisture* 

Preparations — Mucilago Acacias Syrupus Acacia). 

ACETANILIDUM 

Acetanilid 

Acetanil. — Acetanilide Antifebrin 

The monoacetyl derivative [C«H»ON or C«H B NH.CH a CO - 135.08] 
of aniline. 

occurs in colorless, shining, micaceous, crystalline lamina*, or as a 
powder; odorless, having a slightly burning taste; permanent in 

3 





• • •• •• • 

t • • 

'••* THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



.\ \Q»e Gm. of Acetanilid dissolves in 190 mils of water, 3.4 mils of alcohol, 3. 

• •mils of chloroform, 17 mils of ether, 47 mils of benzene, and in about 5 mils <? 

glycerin at 25° C. ; also in 20 mils of boiling water and in 0.6 mil of boiling alcohol 

Its saturated aqueous solution is neutral to litmus. 

Acetanilid melts between 112° and 114° C. 

Boil about 0.1 Qm. of Acetanilid with 5 mils of potassium hydroxide T.S., the 
characteristic odor of aniline becomes noticeable. Now add 1 mil of chloroform, 
and again heat the mixture; the disagreeable odor of phenylisocyanide (a poison- 
ous substance) is evolved. 

Boil about 0.1 Gm. of Acetanilid for several minutes with 2 mils of hydro- 
chloric acid; a clear solution results, which, when mixed with 3 mils of an aqueoui 
solution of phenol (1 in 20) and afterwards with 5 mils of a filtered, saturated 
solution of chlorinated lime, acquires a brownish-red color, which becomes deej 
blue upon supersaturation with ammonia water. 

Bromine T.S. produces a white, crystalline precipitate in an aqueous solutioi 
of Acetanilid. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Acetanilid; not more than 0.05 per cent, of asl 
remains. 

The solution of about 0.5 Gm. of Acetanilid in 5 mils of colorless sulphurii 
acid is not more than faintly yellow (readily carbonizabU impurities). 

Add 5 drops of ferric chloride T.S to 5 mils of a cold, saturated aqueou 
solution of Acetanilid; the color does not differ from that produced by addini 
5 drops of ferric chloride T.S. to 5 mils of distilled water (aniline salts or othe 
allied substances). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 3 grains. 



ACETONUM 

Acetone 

Aceton.— Dimethyl-kctone 

A liquid containing not less than 99 per cent, by weight of CsHeO o 
CHa.CO.CHa (58.05). Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a coo 
place, remote from fire. 

A transparent, colorless, mobile and volatile liquid of a characteristic etherea 
odor and a pungent, sweetish taste. 

Specific gravity: about 0.790 at 25° C. 

Miscible without cloudiness with water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, and witi 
most volatile oils. 

It volatilizes even at low temperatures and boils between 56° and 58° C. I* 
is inflammable and burns with a luminous, non-sooty flame. 

Acetone does not affect the color of blue or red litmus paper previously mois- 
tened with water. 

Evaporate 25 mils of Acetone in a platinum or porcelain dish on a wate 
bath; not more than 0.002 Gm. of residue remains. 

Mix 20 mils of Acetone in a clean, glass-stoppered bottle, with 0.1 mil c 
tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S.; the pink tint so produced doe 
not wholly disappear in less than fifteen minutes (empyreumatic substances). 

Assay — Pour about 1 mil of Acetone into a tared weighing-bottle having 
stopper, partly fill it with distilled water, and weigh accurately. Transfer tfc 
contents of the bottle, washing the bottle well with distilled water, to a IOC 
mil graduated flask, fill to the mark with distilled water, and mix the conten. 
thoroughly. Place 25 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. in a 250 na 
^lass-stoppered flask, add exactly 25 mils of the Acetone solution (represent. 
\n$ one-fortieth of the weight of Acetone taken), then, with constant agitation 



UNITED 8TATES OP AMERICA 





ttofltsk, add 35 mild of tenth-normal iodine V.S., and allow the mixture to stand 
for tifteen minutes. Now add 9B mill of normal hydrochloric acid V.S. and at 
he residual iodine with tenth- normal sodium thiosulphate VS., 
villi tli*> addition of March TJ9L as indicator when the liquid is nearly decolor- 
M Couduct ■ blank teal with the same quantities of the reagents and 
the quantity of truth-normal iodine VM* ooasumed m thia blank teat 

mined in the assay. 
mil of this difference, which represents the iodine consumed by the 
pondi to 0*0009075 Qm, of C 3 II<A Eaeh 
xnuwm* of Acetone corresponds to net leas than 1023 mils of tenth-normal 
iodine V.S. 

ACETPIIEXETIDINUM 

Acetphenetidin 

Acetphen.— Phenacetin 

jnononcetyl derivative [CioHuOqN or CeH^OCsHJ.NH.CI^ 

> 1:4= 170/1 1 1 of para-amitlophenetoL 

Acetphenetidin occurs in white, glistening, crystalline scales or as a fine crystal- 
m Jorless, having a slight! v bitter taste and producing a faint numbing 
the tongue; p in the air. 

■netidin dissolve© in 1310 mils of water, 15 mils of alcohol, 
I chloroform, and in 90 mils of ether at 25° C; also in 82 mils of boil- 
Ml* |i mils of boiling alcohol. 

Its ait leoua solution is neutral to litmus. 

melt* between 13T and 135° C. 

M ahout 0.1 Gm. of Acetphenetidin for one minute with 1 mil of hydro- 

l, dilute the mixture with 10 m i Is of distil hnl water, cool, an< 1 fi 1 ter i t ; a 

dro^ ii dichromate T.S. added to the nitrate produces a ruby-red color. 

ite about 2 Gni. of Acetphenetidin ; m it more than 0.05 per cent, of ash 

TffUJHq 

A mixture of about 0.005 Gm. of Acetphenetidin and 1 mil of nitric acid is 
How, the oming darker on standing. The solution of about 

J Qnj.ol letidin in 5 mils of colorless sulphuric acid is not more than 

faint \\ yellow ( raa dUy i n rho n izable i m pit rii to ) . 

out 0.1 Gm. of Acetphenetidin with 10 mils of distilled water until 
jfo»lv*d, cool the solution, filter it, and add bromine T.S to the filtrate, drop 
wjrdiop, with agitation after each addition, until the solution remains pernm- 
°«ajy yellow ; neither turbidity nor precipitation is produced {acttamUd), 

ire of about 0.3 Gm. of Acetphenetidin with 1 mil of alcohol and 1 
-nth-normal iodine V.S. does not acquire a red tint when diluted with 
w^tiliitt its volume of distilled water and boiled {para*phenetidiu). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 Gm, — Apothecaries, 5 grains. 

ACETUM SCILLiE 
Vinegar of Squill 

Acet, Sell I. 

, in No. 20 powder, one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

Suited Acetic Acid, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mila 




Macerate the squill with nine hundred mils of diluted acetic aci«L 
during seven days with frequent agitation; then strain the mixture 
and wash the mass on the strainer with enough diluted acetic acid 
to make the strained liquid measure nearly one thousand mil& 
Heat this liquid to boiling, filter while hot, and when cold ad<: 
sufficient diluted acetic acid to make the product measure one thousand, 
mils. 

Pre pa fa ti on — Syrupus Scill». 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



ACIDUM ACETICUM 

Acetic Acid 

Acid, Acer.. 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 36 per cent, nor more 
than 37 per cent, of CaH^Oa or CHaCOOH {60.03). 

Acetic Acid is a clear, colorless liquid, having a strong, characteristic, vinegar- 
like odor, a sharply acid taste, and a strongly acid reaction. 

Acetic Acid is miscible with water or alcohol. 

Specific gravity : about 1.045 at 25° C* 

Add sufficient ammonia water to Acetic Acid to neutralize it or to leave the 
Acid in slight excess, and then add ferric chloride T.S.; a blood-red color de- 
velops which is discharged by strongly acidulating the liquid with sulphuric acid. 

Evaporate 20 mils of Acetic Acid to dryness on a water bath; not more than 
0,002 Gm, of residue remains. 

Acetic Acid diluted with 20 volumes of distilled water does not respond toi 
the Teat for heavy metals (see Part II, Tent No. 3). 

Separate portions of 1 mil each of Acetic Acid, diluted with 10 volumes ol 
distilled water, show no turbidity on the addition of a few drops of barium 
chloride T,S, (sulphuric acid) nor any opalescence with a few drops of silvea 
nitrate T.8. (hydrochloric acid). 

Supersaturate 5 mils of the Acid with 10 mils of ammonia water, add 5 mils o 
tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. and boil the solution for one or two minutes I 
no dark deposit is produced (formic or sulphurous acid). 

Dilute 4 mils of the Acid, in a glass-stoppered bottle, with 20 mils of disB 
tilled water and add 0.5 mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate JT.fll 
The pink tint is not changed to brown at once, and does not become entirel- 
brown or free from pinkish-brown in less than half a minute {empyreumatia 
substances). 

Assay— Pour about 6 mils of Acetic Acid into a tared flask, stopper an* 
weigh accurately, dilute with 50 mils of distilled water, and titrate witn norm* 
potassium hydroxide VS., using phenolphthalein T.8. as indicator. It shoie 
not less than 36 per cent, nor more than 37 per cent, of CgrXtOg. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.8. used corresponds to 0.060C 
Gm. of CjHiOfl. Each gramme of Acetic Acid corresponds to not le 
6.00 mils nor more than 6.16 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S, 

Preparation — Aeidum Aceticum Dtlutum. 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 






ACIDUM ACETICUM DILUTUM 

Diluted Acetic Acid 

Add, Acet. Dil. 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 5.7 nor more than 6,3 
percent, of 0*11*0* or CH*COOH (60.08). 

Acme Acid, one hundred and twenty grammes 120 Gm. 

Distilled Water, six hundred and ten grammes 610 Gm. 

To make seven hundred and thirty grammes. . . 730 Gm, 
Mix them. 

It is miscible with water or alcohol. 

Specific gravity: about 1.008 at 25° C. 

Diluted Acetic Acid responds to the teats for identity and purity under 
Aadum Aceticum, allowance being made for the difference in strength, 

Aisiy — Pour about 25 mils of Diluted Acetic Acid into a tared flask, weigh 
accurately, and titrate with normal potassium hydroxide V-8,j using phenol- 
pbttaleui T.S. as indicator. It shows not less than 5.8 nor more than 6.3 
percent, of GgHiOb. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.06003 
Gm-ofCaH^Oa. Each gramme of Diluted Acetic Acid correspond* to not less 
thwi 0,95 mil nor more than 1.05 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 



Average dose— Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 




ACIDUM ACETICUM GLACIALE 

Glacial Acetic Acid 

Acid. Acet, Glac, 

A liquid containing not less than 99 per cent, of C a H f O a or CHa.COQH 
WB). Preserve it in glass-stoppered bottles. 

Glacial Acetic Acid is a clear, colorless liquid with a strong, vinegar-like odor, 
*&d i very pungent, acid taste. 

It is misciule with water ot alcohol. 

Specific gravity 5 from 1.047 to 1,050 at 25° C. 

It boils between 117° and 118° C, 

Congealing point: not below 14.5° C. 

Glacial Acetic Acid responds to the tests for identity and purity under 
Acidum Aceticum when diluted to that strength, but the tint produced by the 
iddition of 0.1 mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. to 2 mils of 
Glacial Acetic Acid, diluted with 10 mils of distilled water and contained in a 
tW s toppered bottle, is not changed to brown within two hours. 
, Amy — Pour about 2.5 mils of Glacial Acetic Acid into a tared flask contain- 
Big 10 mils of distilled water, stopper and weigh accurately, dilute with 40 mils 
°f distilled water, and titrate this solution with normal potassium hydroxide 
v &, using phenolphthnleiu T.S. as indicator. It shows not less than 99 per 
TO, of Caf I 4 Qb. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.06003 
Gm. of CaH 4 O a . Each gramme of Glacial Acetic Acid corresponds to not less 
^ 16,5 mis of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



ACIDUM BENZOICUM 

Benzoic Acid 

Acid. Benz. 

An organio acid obtained from benzoin, or prepared synthetically. 
It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sul- 
phuric acid, not less than 99.5 per cent, of C 7 H 6 O a or C 6 H 5 .C00B 
(122.05). Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a cool place, protectee 
from light. 

Benzoic Acid occurs in lustrous scales or friable needles. The synthetu 
Acid is white, odorless, or with a slight odor of benzaldehyde; the natural Ack 
is white or yellowish, acquires a darker color on exposure to light, and has i 
slight odor of benzoin. Benzoic Acid has a pungent taste, is somewhat vola 
tile at moderately warm temperatures and freely volatile with steam. 

One Gm. of Benzoic Acid dissolves in 275 mils of water, 2.3 mils of alcohol 
4.5 mils of chloroform, 3 mils of ether, in 10 mils of benzene and in 23 mils o 
oil of turpentine at 25° C; also in 18 mils of boiling water, 1.5 mils of boilinj 
alcohol, and in fixed or volatile oils. 

A saturated aqueous solution of Benzoic Acid is acid to litmus. 

It melts between 120° and 122° C. 

Benzoic Acid is freely dissolved by solutions of the alkali hydroxides; neu 
tralize such a solution carefully and add ferric chloride T.S., previously dilutee 
with 2 volumes of distilled water and neutralized, if necessary, with ammonii 
water; a pink precipitate of ferric benzoate is produced. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Benzoic Acid; not more than 0.05 per cent, of ask 
remains. 

A solution of about 0.1 Gm. of the synthetic Acid in 2 mils of sulphuric acic 
does not become darker than light yellow, when warmed for five minutes a. 
50° C. The color produced by the Acid from benzoin tested in the same mannec 
does not become darker than light brown (readily carbonizable impurities). 

Mix 0.5 Gm. of the Acid and about 1 Gm. of calcium carbonate (free froc: 
chloride) with a little distilled water in a crucible, dry the mixture and incinerate - 
at a low red heat. Dissolve the residue in 25 mils of diluted nitric acid (free froM 
chloride) and filter. If the synthetic Acid is being tested, the addition of 0.5 ™ 
of silver nitrate T.S. to the filtrate does not produce a greater turbidity than 
produced by the same quantity of the reagent in a mixture of 25 mils of distife 
water and 0.1 mil of tenth-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. If the Acid from be« 
zoin is being tested, the turbidity is not greater than that produced by the ssob 
quantity of reagent in a mixture of 25 mils of distilled water and 0.05 mil * 
tenth-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. (chlorine). 

Warm 0.5 Gm. of the Acid with 5 mils of distilled water and 0.5 Gm.of poUv 
sium permanganate in a loosely-stoppered test tube, and place it in a waU 
bath, heated to about 45° C, for ten minutes. Stopper the test tube tight 
and allow it to cool. On removing the stopper, no odor of benzaldehyde is pes 
ceptible (cinnamic acid). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Benzoic Acid, previously dried to constat 
weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately weighed, in 25 vo3 
of diluted alcohol which has been previously neutralized with tenth-norm* 
potassium hydroxide V.S., phenolphthalein T.S. being used as indicate: 
Titrate this solution with tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S., using phend 
phthalein T.S. as indicator. It shows, in the dried acid, not less than &P 
per cent, of C7H6O2. 

Each mil of tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.0122^ 
Gm. of C7H6O2. Each gramme of Benzoic Acid, previously dried, co^^e8pon- , 
to not less than 81.5 mils of tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S.- 
Preparation — Tinctura Opii Camphorata. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



ACIDUM BORICUM 

Boric Acid 

Acid. Bor,— Boracic Acid 

It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator over 

jlpfaunc acid, not less than 99.5 per cent, of H*BO a (62,02). 

Boric Acid occurs in transparent, colorless scales, of a somewhat pearly lustre, 
u ox-sided, triclinie crystals, or as a white, bulky powder, slightly unctuous 
to the touch; odorless, Laving a faintly bitter taste; permanent in the air. 

One Gnu of Boric Acid dissolves in 18 mils of water, IS mils of alcohol, and 
in 4 mils of glycerin at 25° C.; also in 4 mils of boiling water and 6 mils of 
boiling alcohol. 

When heated to 100° Cm Boric Acid loses water, forming metaboric acid 
(hydrogen metaborate, HBOfc), which slowly volatilizes at. that temperature. 

Heated to about 160° C, Boric Arid fuses to a glassy 'mass of tetraboricor 
pjroboric acid (hydrogen tetraborate, H2B4G7); at a higher temperature the 
fined mass swells, loses all of its water, and becomes boron trioxide (B^Ob), 
which fuses into a transparent, non-volatile, hygroeco pie mass. 
Boric Acid volatilizes from a boiling aqueous or alcoholic solution. 
Its solution in alcohol or glycerin, when ignited, burns with a flame enveloped 
by a green mantle. 

An aqueous solution of Boric Acid (1 in 50) is slightly acid to litmus. Tur- 
ttenc paper moistened with such a solution, to which a little hydrochloric acid 
T.S, has been added, becomes reddish-brown on drying, this color being changed 
to greenish-black by ammonia water. 
One Gin. of Boric Arid dissolves completely in 10 mils of boiling alcohol. 
An aqueous solution of the Acid does not respond to the Teat for heavy 
metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

An aqueous solution of Boric Acid meets the requirements of the Test for 
men. I II. Tart No, I). 

As*A> — Dissolve about 2,5 Gin, of Boric Acid, previously dried to constant 

weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately weighed, in SO mils 

water and 50 mils of glycerin and titrate with norma] sodium hydrox- 

idsVJS,, phenolphrhalein T.8, being used At indicator. It shows, in Ihfl dried 

*an\ not less than 99.5 per cent, of ll a H< h 

h mil of normal sodium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.W202 Gm. 
°f HjHOj, Each gramme of Boric Acid, previously dried, eorresponda to not 
lt»tluiii 16XH mils of normal sodium hydroxide \ s 

frustrations — Glyceritum Boroglycerini Unguent um Acidi Borici. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm— Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



ACIDUM CITRICUM 

Citric Acid 

Acid. Cit. 

organic acid usually obtained from the juice of limes or 

It contains not less than 99.5 per cent, of CeH a 7 +H a O 

^(0H)(COOH) s +H a O (210.08). Preserve it in well-closed con- 

Citric Acid occurs in colorless, translucent; right-rhomhic prisms, or as a 
*hite powder; odorless and having an acid \ ante; efflorescent in warm air. 

ftae Gm, of Citric Acid dissolves in 0,5 mil of water, 1.8 mils of alcohol, 
•^ in about 30 mils of ether at 25° C.J also In 0.5 mil of boiling water. 



An aqueous solution of Citric Acid (1 in 20) is acid to litmus. 
Add 1 mil of an aqueous solution of th 



. 



the Acid (1 in 10) to 50 mils of calcium 
hydroxide T.S, (or sufficient of the latter to render the mixture alkaline); th* 
liquid remains clear. When boiled for about one minute, the solution become* 
opaque through the precipitation of calcium citrate. 

When slowly ignited, Citric Acid is gradually decomposed without emlttinf 
an odor resembling burning sugar (difference from tartaric acid). 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Citric Acid; not more than 0.05 per cent, of asl 
remains. 

An aqueous solution of Citric Add (1 in 10), which has been nearly neutralize* 
with ammonia water, remains clear on the addition of calcium sulphate T.S 
{oxalic acid). 

Heat about 5 Gm. of powdered Citric Acid for fifteen minutes on a watej 
bath with 5 mils of sulphuric acid in a porcelain dish, which has previously beei 
rinsed with sulphuric acid, keeping the mixture protected from dust; no darkei 
color than yellow develops (tartaric add). 

Ten mils of an aqueous solution of the Acid (1 in 50) mixed with 0,5 mi 
of hydrochloric acid does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II 
Test No. 8), 

The addition of 1 mil of barium chloride T.S. to 10 mils of an aqueous solu 
tion of the Acid (1 in 100), to which have previously been added a few drops o 
hydrochloric acid, produces no turbidity {sulphuric acid), 

Dissolve 10 Gm. of Citric Acid in 20 mils of distilled water, add 2 mils of eul 
phurous acid and boil the mixture until the odor of sulphur dioxide is bareli 
perceptible. Cool the solution, mix it with 1 mil of sodium cyanide T.S. and fol 
low this immediately with stronger ammonia water until the solution possesse 
a slight odor of ammonia. When cold, transfer the solution to a glasa-etopperet 
cylinder graduated at 50 mils, dilute it with sufficient distilled water to measur- 
60 mils, and add 3 drops of sodium sulphide T.S. After mixing well, the colo 
produced in I ]-,*■ jsohitinn, if ariy, WACO viewed rjmvnward against a white warfare 
is not greater than the color of a control solution prepared as follows; Dissolve ! 
Gm. of ammonium chloride (see Reagents, Part II) in 20 mils of distilled watei 
add 4 mils of a solution containing 0.08 Gm, of lead nitrate in 1000 mils of dii 
tilled water, and then 1 mil of diluted hydrochloric acid. Treat this solution wit! 
the same quantity of sulphurous acid, sodium cyanide T.S* and stronger ammoni 
water, as directed above, transfer to another 60 mil glass-stoppered cylindei 
then dilute it with sufficient distilled water to make 50 mils and add 3 drop 
of sodium sulphide T.S. (before adding the sodium sulphide T.S., the liquid 
must possess a distinct odor of ammonia, and the two cylinders used must b 
matched, be of practically colorless glass, and have the same internal diameter 
(lead). 

Assay — Dissolve about 3 Gm. of the Acid, accurately weighed, in 50 mils c 
distilled water and titrate the solution with normal potassium hydroxide V.S 
using phenol phthalein T.S. as indicator. It shows not less than 99.5 per cent 
of C»He0 7 + H a O. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.0700 
Gm, of GiH807 + HaO, Each gramme of Citric Acid corresponds to not lei 
than 14.2 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 

Preparation — Syrupus Acidi Citrici. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.5 Gm,— Apothecaries, 8 grains* 



ACIDUM GALLICUM 

Gallic Acid 

Acid, Gallic. 
An organic acid [C 7 HeO a +HaO or CeHi(GH)i,COOH J 
H a O= -188.06]. 







UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



11 



Gtllic Add occurs in white, or p&le fawn-colored, silky, interlaced needles, 
triclinic prisma; odorless and having an astringent and slightly acidulous 
tut«; permanent in the air. 

One Gm, of Gallic Acid dissolves in 87 mils of water, 4.6 mils of alcohol, 10 
mils of glycerin, and in about 100 mils of ether at 25° C.J also in about 3 mils 
of boiling water; almost insoluble in chloroform. 

A saturated aqueous solution of Gallic Acid is acid to litmus. 

Add 6 drops of sodium hydroxide T.S. to 5 mils of a cold, saturated aqueous 
nlution of the Acid; a deep green color gradually develops, which is changed 
to reddish or brownish-red by acids. 

Gallic Acid neither colors nor precipitates solutions of pure ferrous salts, 
but it forms a bluish-black precipitate with ferric salts. 

When dried to constant weight at 100° C, the Acid loses not more than 12 
per cent, of its weight. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm, of Gallic Acid; not more than 0.1 per cent, of ash 
remains. 

A cold, saturated aqueous solution of Gallic Acid yields no precipitate with 
' i T-S. or starch T.S. (tannic acid). 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm, — Apothecaries, 15 grains* 



ACIDUM HYBRIODICXJM DILUTUM 

Diluted Hydriodic Acid 

Acid. Hydriod. Oil. 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 9.5 per cent* nor more 
than 10*5 per cent, of HI (127.93). Preserve it in amber-colored, 
t)wa stoppered bottles, protected from light, and do not dispense it if 
it contains free iodine. 

Potassium Iodide, one hundred and thirty-five grammes. 135.0 Gm, 

Potassixtm Hypophosphite, ten grammes. •. 10.0 Gm. 

Tartaric Acid, one hundred and thirty -six and five-tenths 
grammes 136*5 Gm. 

Distilled Water, 

DiLtrrzD Alcohol, each, a sufficient quantity, . 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Dissolve the potassium salts in two hundred and fifty mils of distilled 
•iter with the aid of heat, and the tartaric acid in four hundred mils 
°f dilated alcohol. Having poured the solution of tartaric acid into a 
wtle of about one thousand mils capacity, add the solution of the 
Wwum salts and shake the mixture briskly. Cod the mixture to 
*Wt 5° C. for several hours and, having inserted a pledget of purl- 
ed cotton tightly in the throat of a funnel, transfer the contents of 
to bottle to the funnel. When all the liquid has passed through, 
*uh the bottle and crystalline precipitate with diluted alcohol in 









12 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THIS 

successive small portions until the filtrate weighs one thousand gramme 
Evaporate the liquid at a moderate temperature, on a water bati 
until all of the alcohol has evaporated, and add sufficient distilled wat 
to make the product weigh one thousand grammes. 

Diluted Hydriodic Acid is a colorless or not more than pale yellow, odork 
liquid; it has a strongly acid taste and is strongly acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 1.100 at 25° C. 

Add a few drops of ferric chloride T.S. or chlorine water to Diluted Hydrioc 
Acid, diluted with twice its volume of distilled water; iodine is liberated a 
imparts to the solution a reddish-brown color. On agitating this mixture wi 
a few drops of chloroform, the latter acquires a violet color. 

No blue color is produced on adding a few drops of starch T.S. to 5 mils 
the Acid (free iodine). 

Five mils of Diluted Hydriodic Acid, when evaporated to dryness on 
water bath and the residue ignited, leaves not more than 0.165 Gm. of residi 

The addition of 1 mil of barium chloride T.S. to 10 mils of Diluted Hydrkx 
Acid produces not more than a slight cloudiness (sulphuric acid); the additi 
of 1 mil of potassium sulphate T.S. to 10 mils of the Acid causes no turbidi 
(barium). 

Mix 0.5 mil of Diluted Hydriodic Acid with 10 mils of distilled water, a 
8 mils of silver nitrate T.S. and 6 mils of ammonium carbonate T.S., digest t 
mixture for ten minutes on a water bath, cool, and filter. The filtrate, up 
supersaturating with nitric acid, does not become more than slightly opalesci 
(chloride). 

Ten mils of Diluted Hydriodic Acid, without further acidulation, does i 
respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Mix 5 mils of Diluted Hydriodic Acid with 1 mil of nitric acid and evapon 
the liquid to dryness on a water bath; the residue meets the requirements of t 
Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1). 

Assay — Pour about 5 mils of Diluted Hydriodic Acid into a tared flask, wei 
accurately, dilute with 20 mils of distilled water, add 50 mils of tenth-norn 
silver nitrate V.S. and shake the mixture well. Now add 5 mils of nitric ac 
heat the mixture on a water bath until the precipitate has a bright yellow col 
cool and add 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate T.S. The residual titrati 
with tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. shows not less than 9.5 i 
cent, nor more than 10.5 per cent, of HI. 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. used corresponds to 0.0127 
Gm. of HI. Each gramme of Diluted Hydriodic Acid corresponds to not 1 
than 7.4 mils nor more than 8.2 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Preparation — Syrupus Acidi Hydriodici. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 minims. 



ACIDUM HYDROBROMICUM DILUTUM 

Diluted Hydrobromic Acid 

Acid. Hydrobrom. Dil. 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 9.5 per cent, nor mc 

than 10.5 per cent, of HBr (80.93). Preserve it in amber-colon 

glass-stoppered bottles, protected from light. 

Diluted Hydrobromic Acid is a colorless, odorless liquid having a stronj 
acid taste; it is strongly acid to litmus. 



tic gravity : about L076 at 25° C. 

lisulling it, weak acid passes over first; when the temperature of 126° C. 

ii reached, an acid of 48 per cent, remains, which may be distilled unchanged. 

Silver nitrate T.S. produces a yellowish- white precipitate, which is insoluble 

in diluted nitric add f slowly soluble in an excess of stronger ammonia water, 

but readily soluble in a 10 per cent* solution of sodium thlosulphate. 

Evaporate 25 mils of Diluted Hydrobromic Acid from a platinum or porcelain 
diah and afterwards dry it at 110* C; not more than 0.0025 Gnx of residue 



The addition of 1 mil of barium chloride T.S. to 10 mils of the Acid produces 
Dot more than a slight cloudiness {sulphuric acid); the addition of 1 mil of 
potassium sulphate T,S. to 10 mils of the Acid causes no turbidity {barium). 
Shake 10 mils of the Acid with 2 mils. of chloroform; no color is imparted to 
(firm bromine). Now add 5 drops of ferric chloride T.S. and shake the 
mixtui loroform does not acquire a violet tint fiodwi 

Ten mils of Diluted Hydrobromic Acid, without further acidulation, does not 
the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 
lis of Diluted Hydrobromic Add with I mil of nitric acid and evapo- 
fit* the liquid to dryness on a water bath; the residue meets the requirements 
of the Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No, 1). 

mil of Diluted Hydrobromic Acid with 10 mils of distilled water, 

iddS * r nitrate IS, and 6 mils of ammonium carl xmnle T.S. , digest 

the mixture for ten minutes on a water bath, cool and filler. The filtrate, on 

wpersalurating with nitric acid, does not at once become more than slightly 

forbid (dfan 

Aaaay — POUT about 20 mils of Diluted Hydrobroiiiii* Arid into a tared Bask 

rately, dilute with 30 mils of disfilt'-d water, and titrate the liquid 

in hydroxide V.S., using methyl Oim&ge T.S. as indicator, 

not less than 9.5 per cent, nor more than 10.5 par itiH. of HBr. 

I of normal potassium hydroxide V.S, used oomspoodi to 0.06003 

f HBr. Each gramme of Diluted Hydrobromic Arid corresponds to not 

W» than 1J7 mils nor more than 1.30 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V\S. 

Average dose— Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



ACIDUM IlYDllOCHLORICUM 

Hydrochloric Acid 

Acid. Hydrochl. 

1 aqueous solution containing not less than 31 prr cent, nor more 
1 33 per cent, of HO (36,47), Preserve it in glass-stoppered bottles, 

shloric Acid is a colorless, fuming liquid, having a pungent odor, and 

*J> totally acid taste; the fumes and odor disappear on diluting the Arid With 

ter; it is strongly acid to litmus, even when highly diluted, 

vity: about 1,155 at 25° 

*-)» dintiluiig it at normal barometrio pressure, a stronger acid passes pw 

^ until, at 110" C, an and of about 20 per cent, remains, which distils 



j^'tan heated with manganese dioxide, it evolves chlorine. 
r Jt conforms to the tests for identity and purity under Acidum tlydrochlaricum 
**Wwn a ; ed to that strength. 

\ssay— Pour about 3 mils ut Hydrochloric Acid into a tared bottle 0OO- 
*tofa% about 10 mils of distilled water, stopper, weigh accurately, dilute 
*i* &) mils of distilled water and titrate the liquid with normal potassium 





THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 



hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator* It shows not less than l 
per cent, nor more than 33 per cent, of HCL 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.03& 
Gm. of HCL Each gramme of Hydrochloric Acid corresponds to not less tin 
8,50 mils nor more than 9.05 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 

Pre par at ions — Acidum Hydroch lor icum Dilut urn A cidum N i trohy drochloricu 
Acidmn NitrohydrGchlorictim Dilufcum. 

ACIDUM HYDfiOCHLORICUM DILUTUM 

Diluted Hydrochloric Acid 

Acid. Hydrocfll. Dil. 
An aqueous solution containing not less than 9.5 per cent, nor mo 
ban 10.5 per cent, of HCL (36.47). Preserve it in glass^stoppen 
x>ttles. 

Hydeochloric Acid, one hundred grammes 100 Gi 

Distilled Wateb, two hundred and twenty grammes 220 Gi 

To make three hundred and twenty grammes . 
Mix them. 



320 Gi 

a strong 






Diluted Hydrochloric Acid is a colorless, odorless liquid; it has 
acid taste and is strongly acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 1.049 at 25° C. 

With silver nitrate T.S. it yields a white, curdy precipitate, insoluble in nit 
acid, but readily soluble in ammonia water, 

Evaporate 25 mil a of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid from a platinum or porceh 
dish and dry at 110° C; not more than 0.003 Gin. of residue remains. 

Add 1 mil of chloroform to 10 mils of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid and th 
cautiously introduce chlorine water, which has been diluted with an eqt 
volume of distilled water, a drop at a time, with constant agitation; the chloj 
form remains free from any yellow, orange or violet color {bromide or iotiide), 

Add 1 mil of potassium iodide T.S. and 1 mil of chloroform to 10 mils of 1 
luted Hydrochloric Acid and agitate the mixture; the chloroform remains U 
from any violet, coloration (free chlorine or bromine). 

Two mils of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid, diluted with seven volumes of d 
tiUed water, does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, X 
No. 3). 

Five mils of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid diluted with 12 mils of distilled wa 
(without the treatment with sulphuric and sulphurous acids) meets the requi 
ments of the Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1). 

Add 5 drops of barium chloride T.S. to a mixture of 3 mils of Diluted Hyd 
chloric Acid and 5 mils of distilled water; neither turbidity nor precipitation i 
pears within one hour (sulphuric acid or sulphates). At the end of this peril 
the further addition to the liquid of 2 drops of tenth-normal iodine V.S. p 
duces neither turbidity nor decoloration of the iodine (sulphurous acid). 

Assay — Pour about 10 mils of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid into a tared fla 
weigh accurately, dilute with 30 mils of distilled water and titrate the liq 
with normal potassium hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.S. as indica 
It shows not less than 0.5 per rent, nor more than 10.5 per rent, of HO. 

Emd mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.0X 
Gm. of HCL Each gramme of Diluted Hydrochloric Acid corresponds to 
leas than 2.6 mils nor more than 2.9 mils of normal potassium hydroxide frj 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



15 






ACIDUM HYDROCYANICUM DILUTUM 

Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid 

Acid. rtydrocyan. Dll. — Diluted Prussia Acid Aeidtim hydrocyanicum 

dilutum P. I, 



An aqueous solution containing not less than 1,9 per cent, nor more 
tfean 2,1 per cent, of HCN (27.02) and not more than 0,1 per cent, of 
BCL Preserve it in small, dark amber-colored, well-stoppered vials. 
Dilated Hydrocyanic Acid is a colorless liquid, of a characteristic odor resem- 
Wing that of bitter almond; it is acid to litmus. 
On account of its poisonous character U must be handled with great cantwn. 
Render 1 mil of the Arid alkaline with potassium hydroxide T.S., add a few 
drops of ferrous sulphate T.S., boil the mixture, and then acidulate with hydro- 
chloric acid; a blue precipitate is formed. 

Not more than 0.002 Gin. of residue remains on evaporating 10 mils of 
Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid to dryness on a water bath. 

Pour 5 mils of Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid into a tared 100 mil glass-stop- 
pmd flask containing 25 mils of distilled water, accurately determine the 

» weight of the Acid added and then add 60 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate 
r\d enough distilled water to make 1(H) mil*. Agitate it well and rilter 
tough a dry filter, rejecting the rirnt 10 mils of the filtrate. In 50 mils of the 
dear filtrate determine the excess of silver nit rate by titration with tenth- 
normal potassium sulphocvanate V.tS., previously adding 2 mils of nitric acid 
wul 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate 1\S. From the number of mils of tenth- 
normal silver nitrate V.8. consumed in this assay subtract twice the number 
vlnula of tenth-normal silver ml rate Y.S. consumed in the assay of the same 
quactjty of DJuted Hydr o cya nic Acid as ascertained below. The difference 
*ln* calculated to free hydrogen chloride, using the factor 0.003647, does riot 
amount to more than one-tenth of 1 tier cent, of the weight of Diluted Hydro- 
cyanic A ru\ originally taken for the ^termination {hydrogen chloride). 

^y — Pour about 5 mils of Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid into a 100 mil flask 
obtaining 25 mils of distilled water and 5 mils of potassium hydroxide T.H. t 
the whole having been previously tared, arid weigh the Acid accurately. Then 
add 3 drops of potassium iodide T.S. and titrate with tenth-normal silver 
*Htate VJ3, to the production of a slight, permaneni precipitate. It shows 
tootle* than 1,9 per cent, nor more than 2.1 per cent, of HCN. 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate \\N. used corresponds to 0.005404 
Ctn, of HCN, Each gramme of Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid corresponds to not 
kai than 3,5 mils nor more than 3,0 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 



AVEB 

Aft aqueous solution containing not less than 30 per cent, nor more 
** 32 per cent, of HPH a O a (66,06). Preserve it in glass-stoppered 

BQlfLtt 

Hypophosphorous Acid is a colorless or slightly yellow, odorless liquid; it has 
l° intensely acid taste, and is acid to litmus, even when highly diluted. 
Specific gravity: about 1.130 at 25° C. 



Average dose — Metric, 0,1 mil — Apothecaries, V/% minims. 



ACIDUM HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM 

Hypophosphorous Acid 

Acid, Mypophos. 




THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 



When the Acid is heated in a suitable dish, water evaporates and it beooin< 
more concentrated. . On further heating between 130° and 140° C, it decoU 
poses, forming hydrogen phosphide, which ignites, and phosphorous acid; tl 
latter between 160° and 170 C. decomposes into hydrogen phosphide ax 
phosphoric acid: the pasty residue finally reddens, ignites, and the last portioi 
of unoxidized phosphorus burn out at a higher temperature. 

Hypophosphorous Acid conforms to the tests for identity and purity und< 
Acidum Hypophosphorosum Dilutum when diluted to that strength. 

A ssay — Pour about 7 mils of Hypophosphorous Acid into a tared and stopper* 
flask, weigh accurately, dilute with 50 mils of distilled water and titrate wit 
normal potassium hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator, 
shows not less than 30 per cent, nor more than 32 per cent, of HPHgOa- 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to O.066C 
Gm. of HPHaOa- Each gramme of Hypophosphorous Acid corresponds to n< 
less than 4.54 mils nor more than 4.84 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V J 

Preparation — Acidum Hypophosphorosum Dilutum. 



ACIDUM HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM DILUTUM 

Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid 

Acid. Hypophos. Dil. 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 9.5 per cent, nor moi 
an 10.5 per cent, of HPH a O a (66.06). Preserve it in well-stoppere 
ttles. 

Hypophosphorous Acid, one hundred grammes 100 Gn 

Distilled Water, two hundred and ten grammes 210 Gn 

To make three hundred and ten grammes 310 Gd 

Mix them. 

Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid is a colorless, odorless liquid; it has a strong; 
acid taste ana is strongly acid to litmus. 
Specific gravity: about 1.042 at 25° C. 

When heated in a porcelain dish, water evaporates with the evolution ■ 
hydrogen phosphide, and further decomposition takes place as described und- 
Acidum Hypophosphorosum, 

With silver nitrate T.S. it yields a black precipitate of silver, and with me 
curie chloride T.S. ? a white precipitate of mercurous chloride. 

Neutralize 30 mils of Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid with ammonia wates 
not more than a slight precipitate results, and, after filtering, a portion of tfc 
filtrate, slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, does not become turbi 
upon the addition of potassium sulphate T.S. (barium); another portion of tfc 
filtrate shows no turbidity with calcium chloride T.S. (oxalic acid). 

One mil of Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid mixed with 9 mils of distule 

water does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3 

*4ix 6 mils of Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid with 3 mils of nitric acid as 

Is of distilled water, ana evaporate the liquid to dryness on a water batl 

sidue meets the requirements of the Test for arsenic (see Part II, To 

)• 

My— -Pour about 25 mils of Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid into a tare 
weigh accurately, add 25 mils of distilled water and titrate with norm. 
jhun hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator. It shows n« 
i 9.5 per cent, nor more than 10.5 per cent, of HPH9O2. 



Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V,s, used eorre s pott da to O.OtitiOG 
Gin. of HPtMV Each gramme of Diluted Efypophoflpooroufl Arid cop- 
fwpir lead than L44 mils nor more than l.tj mils of normal potassium 

hydro ode \ 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 minims. 



ACIDUM LACT1CUM 
Lactic Acid 

Acid* Lact. 

A liquid containing lactic acid [optically inactive alphahydroxy- 

^ ionic acid, C 3 H fl Ot or CH 3 .C110ILCOQH = 90.05] and lactic anhy- 
s, equivalent to a total of not less than 85 per cent, nor more than 
M per cent, of CaH e O„ 

Lactic Acid is a colorless, or slightly yellow, syrupy liquid, nearly odorless, 
nivtng an acid taste, and absorbing moisture on exposure to air* 

It h rniscible with water, alcohol, or ether; insoluble in chloroform, petroleum 
Dentin, or carbon disulphide. 

lactic Acid is strongly acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 1.206 at 25° G\ 

Lactic Acid is not vaporized at a temperature below 160° C; at a higher 
temperature it emits inflammable rapoCB. 

Add about 0.1 Gra. of potassium permanganate to 2 mils of a mixture of equal 
volumes of Lactic and sulphuric acids, and beat it gently; the odor of aldehyde 
becomes perceptible. 

Not more than 0.006 Gm. of ash remains on incinerating 5 mils of Lactic Acid. 

Ten mils of a solution of the Acid in distilled water (1 in 100J is not rendered 
Ojalttcent by 1 mil of silver nitrate T.8. (chloride). 

Separate portions of 10 mils each of an aqueous solution of the Acid (1 in 20) 
femun unaffected by the addition of 1 mil of barium chloride T.S. (sulphate), 
Or by 1 mil of copper sulphate T.S. (sarcolaciic acid). 

An aqueous solution of the Acid does not respond to the Test for heavy 
ttetals (see Part II. Test No. 3). 

Adda few drops of Lactic Acid to 10 mils of hot alkaline cupric tartrate V.S.; 
*> l*d precipitate is produced (sugars). 

Add 1 mil of Lactic Acid, in drops, to 5 mils of ether, shaking it after each 
the ether solution does not become even transiently turbid (glycerin). 

ftmr Lactic Acid carefully upon an equal volume of colorless, concentrated 
acid contained in a clean test tube, and keep the temperature at 
w C; no dark colored zone develops at the line of contact upon standing for 
fifteen minutes (organic impuritic*). 

I y is produced on heating the Acid with an excess of lime water 
[fatpfuwic, tartaric, citric, or oxalic acid). 
Um& — Pour about 2.5 mils of Lactic Acid into a tared and stoppered 250 mil 
ktely, add 50 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. and 
W the liquid for twenty minutes. The residual titration of the boiling solu- 
tion with normal sulphuric acid V.S., using phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator, 
Amu not less than 85 per cent, nor more than 90 per cent, of QiH 6 3 . 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide VS. usrd corresponds to 0.09005 
G*i of CyYU/Os or lactic anhydrides calculated as C 3 H«0 3 . Each gramme of 
wic Acid corresj>onds to not less than 9.44 mils nor more than 10.0 mils of 
tonmJ potassium hydroxide V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minima. 
7 







18 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OP THE 



AC1DUM NITRICUM 

Nitric Acid 

Acid. Nitric. 






An aqueous solution containing not less than 67 per cent, nor mo 
than 69 per cent, of HNO a {63.02}. Preserve it in dark amber-colore 
glass-stoppered bottles, and protect it from light. 

Nitric Acid is a fuming liquid, very caustic and corrosive; it has a peculU 
somewhat suffocating odor, and is strongly acid to litmus, even when high 
diluted. 

Specific gravity: about 1.403 at 25° C. 

It is volatilized at 110°C. 

Nitric Acid dissolves copper, mercury, silver, and many other metsJs wi ! 
the evolution of brownish-red fumes, and Btains woollen fabrics and anim 
tissues a bright yellow. 

Evaporate 20 mils of Nitric Acid from a platinum or porcelain dish and cL 
at 1 10 C; not more than 0.003 Gm, of residue remains (mm nofflfill impurities) . 

Shake 2.5 mils of Nitric Acid, diluted with 7.5 mils of distilled water, with 
mils of chloroform; the latter remains colorless (iodine or bromine) even after lJ 
introduction of a small piece of metallic tin {iodic or Itromic acid). 

Nitric Acid diluted with 25 volumes of distilled water and neutralised wi 
ammonia water does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, T€ 
No. 3). 

Evaporate 0.5 mU of Nitric Acid to dryness on a water bath; the resiol 
meets the requirements of the Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1). 

Separate portions of Nitric Acid, diluted with 10 volumes of distilled wtdA 
do not yiela a precipitate upon the addition of barium chloride T.S. (tfutpha* 
acid), or of silver nitrate T.S. (hydrochloric acid). 

Assay— Pour about 2 mils of Nitric Acid into a tared flask containing 
mils of distilled water, stopper, weigh accurately, dilute with 50 mils of distill 
water and titrate with normal potassium hydroxide V.S., using methyl oran 
T.S, as indicator. It shows not less than 67 per cent, nor more than 69 f 
cent, of HNO*. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0,063 
Gm. of HN0 3 . Each gramme of Nitric Acid corresponds to not less than 10 - 
mils nor more than 10.95 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 



Acidum Nitro hydrochloric* 



Prepar a t io n s — Acid urn Nitrobydroehloricum 
Dilutum. 



ACIDUM NITROHYDROCHLORICUM 

Nitrohydrocliloric Acid 

Acid. Nltrohydrochl.— Nitromuriatic Acid 

A strong aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid, nitric aci 
rl chloride, and chlorine. 

Acid, eighteen milliliters. 18 in* 

iochloric Acid, eighty-two milliliters 82 ^ 

To make about one hundred milliliters . . _ . . ll)G md 





Mix the acids in a capacious glass vessel, and, when effervescence has 
ceased, pour the product into dark amber-colored, glass-stoppered 
bottles, which must not be more than half filled, and must be kept in a 
cool place. 

Note — Do not dispense Nitrohydrochloric Acid which does not 
immediately liberate iodine when one drop of the Acid is added to 1 
mil of an aqueous solution of potassium iodide (1 in 5). 

t Nitjohydrochloric Acid Is a golden -yellow, fuming, and very corrosive liquid; 
tt has a strong odor of chlorine and is intensely acid to litmus, afterwards 
bleaching it. It readily dissolves gold leaf* 

Not more than 0,XM);;."j ( rm of residue remains on evaporating 10 mils of the 
Acid in a glass or porcelain dish and drying at 110° C. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.2 mil — -Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



ACIDUM NITROHYDROCHLORICUM DILUTUM 
Diluted Nitrohydrochloric Acid 

Acid. NitrohydrochL DU.— Diluted Nitromuriatic Acid 

iluted aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, 
y\ chloride, and chlorine. 

Nitric Acid, ten milliliters 10.0 mils 

Hydrochloric Acid, forty-five and five-tenths milliliters . 45.5 mils 
Distilled Water, one hundred and nirnhj-jour and five- 

tenths mittiliters . 194.5 mils 

To make about two hundred and fifty milli- 
liters. 250 mils 

he acids in a capacious glass vessel, and, when effervescence 
(ceased, add the distilled water; pour it into dark amber-colored, 
t^stoppefed bottles and keep it in a cool place. 

Note— Do not dispense Diluted Nitrohydrochloric Acid which does 
Qflt immediately liberate iodine when five drops of the Acid are added 
to 1 mil of an aqueous solution of potassium iodide (1 in 5), 

Diluted Nitrohydrochloric Acid is a colorless or pale yellow liquid; it has 
* funt odor "f chlorine, a very acid taste and ia strongly acid to litmus-, aftcr- 
•vda bleaching it. 

Not more than 0,0015 Gm. of residue remains on evaporating 20 mils of the 
Add in a glass or porcelain dish and drying at 110° C. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 




20 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

ACIDUM OLEICUM 
Oleic Acid 

Acid. Oleic 

An acid obtained from fats, consisting chiefly of CiaHuOs or < 
COOH (282.27). Preserve it in well-closed glass or stoneware con 
in a cool place. 

Oleic Acid is a yellowish or brownish-yellow, oily liquid, having a 
lard-like odor and taste free from rancidity. It becomes darker and 
oxygen on exposure to air. 

It is practically insoluble in water; slightly soluble in 60 per cent 
(by volume), the solubility very rapidly increasing in stronger alool 
completely miscible with about 85 per cent, alcohol (by volume); i 
soluble in chloroform, benzene, petroleum benzin, or in fixed or volatile 

Specific gravity : about 0.895 at 25° C. 

When gradually cooled, Oleic Acid does not become semi-solid aboi 
on further cooling, it congeals to a whitish, solid mass at about 4° C. 

When heated to a temperature of about 95° C, decomposition coi 
and acrid vapors are produced. 

Incinerate 5 mils of Oleic Acid; not more than 0.005 Gm. of ash re: 

Shake Oleic Acid with an enual volume of distilled water; the separat 
after filtration is not reddened by the addition of a drop of methyl ora 
(mineral acids). 

Boil about 1 Gm. of Oleic Acid and about 0.5 Gm. of monohydratec 
carbonate with 30 mils of distilled water in a capacious flask; the result: 
tion while hot is clear or at most opalescent (undecomposed fat or miner 



ACIDUM PHENYLCINCHONINICUM 

Phenylcinchoninic Acid 

Acid. Phenylcinch. — Phenyl-quinoline-carboxylic Acid 

An organic acid, 2-phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid [CieHu 
C e H 6 .C 9 H 6 N.C00H - 249. 10]. 

Phenylcinchoninic Acid occurs in small, colorless needles or as a whit 
lowish- white micro-crystalline powder; odorless or having a slight ode 
bling benzoic acid, and a bitter taste. It is permanent in the air. 

Insoluble in cold water; slightly soluble in cold alcohol, hot water < 
readily soluble in hot alcohol. 

It melts at about 210° C. with partial decomposition. 

A saturated solution of Phenylcinchoninic Acid in hot diluted hyd 
acid yields a precipitate of reddish-brown crystals with platinic chloric 1 

Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Phenylcinchoninic Acid in an excess of t 
water, evaporate the solution to dryness on a water bath, or until free I 
odor of ammonia, then dilute to 20 mils with distilled water, and filter, i 
portions of this filtrate yield a white, flocculent precipitate with silve 
T.S.; a yellowish, flocculent precipitate with lead acetate T.S.; and 
flocculent precipitate with copper sulphate T.S. 

a No weighable ash remains on incinerating about 0.5 Gm. of Phenj 
ninic Acid. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 gnu 



tTKlTED STATES OF AMERICA 



21 



ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM 

Phosphoric Acid 
Acid. Mhos. 

A liquid containing not less than 85 per cent, nor more than 88 per 

nt of H s P0 4 (9S.0G). Preserve it in glass-stoppered bottles. 

HiOflphorie Acid is a colorless, odorless liquid of a syrupy consist euro; it has 
• strongly acid taste and is strongly arid to litmus, even when highly diluted. 
Specific gravity: about 1.72 at 25'C. 

When heated, the liquid loses water; at 200° C. it gradually begins to change 
to pyrophospboric acid. At a still higher temperature, it is converted into 
netaphosphoric add, which volatilizes in dense fumes, or which forms, on cool- 
ing, a transparent mass of glacial metaphosphoric acid. 

Phosphoric Acid conforms to the tests for identity and purity given under 
Acidum Ptiosphanicum Dilutnm when diluted to that strength. 

Assay — Pour about 1 Gm. of Phosphoric Acid into a tared Bilk, stopper, and 

weigh accurately, transfer it to a 100 mil graduated flask and make it up to 

100 mils with distilled water. Transfer 10 mils nf this solution tn a 100 mil 

fraduated flask, add a drop of phenolphthalein T.S. and neutralize it with 

special potassium hydroxide T.S. (see page 545), Add 50 mils of tenth-nornml 

afar nitrate V.8. and agitate it, gradually adding zinc oxide (see page 554) in 

snail portions until the liquid u neutral to litmus paper. Now add distilled 

water to make the liquid measure 100 mils, agitate it thoroughly, filter through 

• dry hlti-! 4J mils cd the nitrate, add 2 mile of nitric arid and 2 mils of 

ferric, ammonium sulphate T.S. and determine the excess of stiver nitrate fay 

titrai Jial potassium sulphocyanate V.S.. to the production 

tf A permanent red color. When calculated tO the amount of Phosphoric A. -id 

orifdnallv taken, it shows not less than 86 per cent, nor more than S8 per cent. 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.8. used corresponds to 0.0032687 
Gm. of H*PO«. Each gramme of Phosphoric Acid corresponds to not less than 
360,0 mils nor more than 369.2 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Preparation — Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum. 

I ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM DILUTUM 
Diluted Phosphoric Acid 
Acid. Mhos. mi. 
An aqueous solution containing not less than 9.5 per cent, nor more 
•a 10.5 per cent, of HaP0 4 (98.00). Preserve it in well-stoppered 






Phosphoric Acid, one kutidred grammes 100 Gm, 

DbTTLLKD Water, seven hundred and sixty-ftve grammes .... 765 ( irn. 

To make eight hundred and sixty-five grammes . . 865 Gm, 
Mix them. 

Diluted Phosphoric Acid is a clear, colorless, odorless liquid; it has a strongly 
*o4 taste and is strong I v acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 1.057 at 25° C. 

^raat urate 3 mii of Diluted Phosphoric Acid with ammonia water; the 
•odition of magnesium sulphate TJ3. (or of magnesia mixture T.S.) produces a 





white, crystalline precipitate. Collect this precipitate, wash it, and thendissol? 
it in diluted acetic acid; the solution yields a yellow precipitate with biItc 
nitrate T.S. (distinction From meiapho tpho r ic of p^rophosphoric acid). 

W arm 5 mils of Diluted Phosphoric Acid gently and add a few drops of ike 
nitrate 1\S.; it does not become turbid or brown {ptto&phorous or hypoplw 
ptiorous acui). 

Ten mils of Diluted Phosphoric Acid does not respond to the Test for bewr 
metals (see Part II, Test No- 3). 

Two mils of Diluted Phosphoric Acid meets the requirements of the Test k 
arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1). 

Diluted Phosphoric Acid ia not immediately affected by silver nitrate TJ 
(hydrochloric aad); nor is it affected, even after one hour t by the addition of a 
-equal volume of tincture of ferric chloride (pyrophosphoric or metaphosphor 

Evaporate 20 mils of Diluted Phosphoric Acid to a volume of about 4 mik < 
a water bath. Cool, transfer - mi fa to a graduated cylinder and add tf mil*' 
ether and 2 mils* of alcohol; no turbidity appears (phosphates). 

Mix 1 mil of Diluted Phosphoric Acid with ti mils of distilled water, ai 
add 1 mil of barium chloride T.S.; no immediate precipitate is produced (it 
phuric acid). 

Mix equal parts of Diluted Phosphoric Acid and sulphuric acid and P aft 
cooling:, add a clear crystal of Ferrous sulphate ; no brownish color appears arou; 
the e ry g t ul ( n it ric acid ) , 

Assay— Pour about 1 rail of Diluted Phosphoric Acid into a tared flask, wei 
accurately, transfer it to a 100 mil graduated flask, add a drop of phenolphthat 
T,S. t neutralize it with sodium hydroxide TJ3. (free from chloride), then int 
duce 50 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S., agitate the liquid, and gradua 
add zinc oxide (free from chloride) in small portions until the mixture is neat 
t0 litmus. Now add distilled water to make the product measure 100 m 
agitate it thoroughly, filter through a dry filter, collect 50 mils of the filtrs 
add 2 mils of nitric acid and 2 mils of feme ammonium sulphate T.S. and det 
mine the excess of silver nitrate by titration with tenth-normal potassium * 
phocyanate V.S, to the production of a permanent red color. When calcula 
to the amount of Diluted Phosphoric Acid originally taken, it shows not I 
than BJ5 per cent, nor more than 10.5 per cent, of HaP0 4 . 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. used corresponds to 0,00321 
Gm» of H3PO4. Each gramme of Diluted Phosphoric Acid corresponds lo 1 
less than 29.0 mils nor more than 32.1 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



ACIDUM SALICYLICUM 

Salicylic Acid 

Acid. Sallcyl. 






Orthohydroxybenzoic acid, existing naturally in combination in \s 
ous plants, but generally prepared synthetically. It contains, wfc 
dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid, not less th 
99.3 per cent, of C 7 H e O a or C fl H 4 (OH)COOH (138.05). Preserve it 
led enutainers. 




UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



23 



Salicylic Acid occurs in fine prismatic needles, or as a bulky, crystalline 
powder, having a sweetish, afterwards acrid taste; permanent in the air Syn- 
thetic Salicylic Acid is white and odorless; when prepared from methyl salicylate 
the Acid may have a slightly yellow or pink tint and a slight, gaultheria-like odor. 
One Gm, of Salicylic Acid dissolves in 460 mils of water, 2,7 mils of alcohol, 
42 mils of chloroform, 3 mils of ether, 135 mils of benzene, or in 52 mila of 
oil of topwtJBfl at 25 C; also in about 15 mils of boiling water. 
A saturated, aqueous solution of Salicylic Acid is acid to litmus. 
It melts between 156° and 159° C. 

A saturated, aqueous solution of Salicylic Acid is colored intensely bluish- 
violet i in high dilution violet-red) bv feme chloride T.S. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Salicylic Acid; not more than 0.1 per cent, of ash 
remain*. 

Allow a saturated alcoholic solution of about 1 Gm. of Salicylic Acid to evapo- 
rate spontaneously, in a glass or porcelain dish in a place protected from dust; the 
iynthetic Acid yields a perfectly white, crystalline residue; the Acid, prepared 
from methyl salicylate, yields a white, or not more than a slightly yellow, 
or slightly pink residue (iron, phenol, or co faring matter). 

Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Salicylic Arid in an excess of cold sodium carbonate 
T S , agitate the liquid with an equal volume of ether, and allow the ethereal 
•riuiion to evaporate spontaneously; the residue, if any, is free from the odor 
of phenol. 

A solution of about 0.5 Gm. of the synthetic Salicylic Acid in 10 mils of sul- 
phuric acid at room temperature acquires not more than a light yellow color. 
The Acid, prepared from methyl salicylate, under similar conditions, may pro- 
duce a slightly brown color (organic impurities), 

A solution of about 0.5 Gm. of Salicylic Acid in 10 mils of alcohol mixed with 
i lew drops of nitric acid remains unaffected upon the addition of a few drops 
of silver nitrate T.S. (hydroehforic acid). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Salicylic Acid, previously dried to constant 
WHtht in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately weighed, in 25 mils 
of diluted alcohol which has previously been neutralized with tenth-normal 
potassium hydroxide V.S., phenolphthalcin TJ3. being used as indicator. 
Tume this solution with tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S., using phenol- 
phthalcin T.8. as indicator. It shows, in the dried acid, not less than 99.3 per 

Each tnil of tenth- normal barium hydroxide V.S. corresponds to 0,013805 Gm. 
ofCjHeCV Each gramme of Salicylic Acid, previously dried, corresponds to 
not low than 71 ,9 mils of tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S. 

Average dose— Metric, 0,75 Gm.— Apothecaries, 12 grains. 

ACIDUM STEARICUM 

Stearic Acid 

Acid. Stear. 

^n acid obtained from tallow and other solid fats, consisting chiefly of 
r "Hu0 a or CiffiUfrCOOH (284.29). 

8t«wic Acid is a hard, white, or yellowish -white, somewhat glossy solid, odor- 
*»iOrhaving a alight, tallow-like odor, tasteless, and permanent in the air* 

OneGm. of Stearic Acid dissolves in 21 mils of alcohol, 2 mils of chloroform, 
°*ia 3 mils of ether at 25° C. ; almost insoluble in water; freely soluble in carbon 
™J»lphide or carbon tetrachloride. 

Mating point: not below 56° C. 

Congealing point: not below 54° C. 

hcioerate about 1 Gm. of Stearic Acid; not more than 0.1 per cent, of ash 




24 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

Boil about 1 Gm. of Stearic Acid and about 0.5 Gm. of monohydrated sodiu 
carbonate with 30 mils of distilled water in a capacious flask; the resulting sal 
tion while hot is not more than opalescent (undecomposed fat or paraffin). 

Shake melted Stearic Acid with an equal volume of hot distilled water; t 
separated water, after filtration, is not reddened by the addition of a drop 
methyl orange T.S. (mineral acids). 



ACIDUM SULPHURICUM 

Sulphuric Acid 

Acid. Sulphuric. 

A liquid containing not less than 93 per cent, nor more than 95 p 
cent, of HaS0 4 (98.09). Preserve it in glass-stoppered bottles. 

Sulphuric Acid is a colorless, odorless liquid, of oily consistence, very causr 
and corrosive; it is strongly acid to litmus, even when highly diluted. 

Specific gravity: about 1.83 at 25° C. 

Sulphuric Acid is miscible with water or alcohol, with the evolution of mu 
heat; the Acid must be added with great caution to the diluent. 

When heated on platinum foil, it is vaporized with the evolution of dei 
fumes. 

Sulphuric Acid chars cane sugar, wood, and many other organic substanc 

Pour a layer of ferrous sulphate T.S. carefully upon 3 mils of Sulphuric Ac 
contained in a test tube, and cool the liquid; the zone of contact does not j 
sume a brown or reddish-brown color (nitric or nitrous acid). 

No precipitate is formed within an hour on mixing Sulphuric Acid with 4 o>: 
volumes of alcohol (lead). 

Sulphuric Acid conforms to the tests for identity and purity given unc 
Acidum Sidphuricum Dilutum when diluted to that strength. 

Assay — Pour about 1 mil of Sulphuric Acid into a tared flask, stopp 
weigh accurately, dilute with 50 mils of distilled water, cool the solution si 
titrate with normal potassium hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.S. 
indicator. It shows not less than 93 per cent, nor more than 95 per cent. 
HaS0 4 . 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.049* 
Gm. of H2SO4. Each gramme of Sulphuric Acid corresponds to not less tt 
18.96 mils nor more than 19.37 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 

Preparations — Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum Acidum Sulphuric? 
Dilutum. 



ACIDUM SULPHURICUM AROMATICUM 

Aromatic Sulphuric Acid 

Acid. Sulph. Arom. 

Aromatic Sulphuric Acid contains free sulphuric acid and eth. 
sulphuric acid together equivalent to not less than 19 per cent, nor m< 
than 21 per cent, of H a S0 4 (98.09). Preserve it in glass-stoppei 

bottles. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



25 



jtlphuric Acid, one hundred and nine milliliters 109 mils 

TufcrtiaE of Ginger, fifty milliliters 50 mils 

Oil op Cinnamon, one milliliter 1 mil 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

the sulphuric acid gradually, and with great caution, to seven 
mite of alcohol, and allow the mixture to cool. Then add to 
ttbe tincture of ginger and the oil of cinnamon, and afterwards enough 
alcohol to make the product measure one thousand mite. 

Aromatic Sulphuric Acid is a clear, reddish-brown liquid; it has a pleasant, 
votnatic odor and is strongly acid to litmus. 

When added to barium chloride T.S, it produces a white precipitate, insoluble 
in li\ drochloric acid. 

ifio gravity: about 0*933 at 25° C. 

Assay — Pour about 10 mils of Aromatic Sulphuric Acid into a tared flask, 
ttopper, weigh accurately, transfer to a small flask, using (iO mils of distilled 
water to rinse the weighing-flask, and, having connected the flask with a refills 
condenser, boil the liquid for six hours. When cold, dilute it with distilled water 
to about 100 mils and titrate with norma] potassium hydroxide V.S., methyl 
orange TA being used as indicator. It shows not less than 19 per cent, nor 
mow than 21 per cent, of H a S<V 

Each mil of norma] potassium hydroxide V.R. used corresponds to 0.019045 
Gm, of H2SO4. Each gramme of Aromatic Sulphuric Acid corresponds to not 
bfcthan 3.87 mils nor more than 4.28 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



ACIDl M SI LPHURICUM DILUTUM 
Diluted Sulphuric Acid 

Add. Sylph. Oil. 
An aqueous solution containing not less than 9,5 per cent, nor more 
^ 10.5 per cent, of H a S0 4 (98.09). Preserve it in glass-stoppered 
bottles. 

StrmnjRic Acm, fifty grammes 60 Gm. 

Distillrd Water, /owr hundred and twenty grammes . . . , 420 Gm. 

To make four hundred and seventy grammes 470 Gm. 

*W the acid gradually, with constant stirring, into the distilled 
**te and allow it to cool. 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid is a colorless, odorless liquid; it haa a strongly acid 
fctfe and Ls strongly acid to Litmus. 

fie gravity: about 1.067 at 25° C. 

With barium chloride T.S. it yields a white precipitate insoluble in hydro* 
ttlwcacid. 



1 



Evaporate 25 mils of Diluted Sulphuric Acid from a platinum or porcela-i** 
dish f and ignite the residue; not more than 0.0015 Gm. of residue remains aft-^r 
i gn it ion f t um- p y rit ies) . 

Ten mils of Diluted Sulphuric Acid does not at once discharge the color *^»f 
0.1 mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V,& (sulphurous or nilrow^M** 
acid). 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid is not immediately affected by silver nitrate T*£E3. 
(hiftfrnchlarix acid). 

Ten rails of Diluted Sulphuric Acid does not respond to the Test for hea^3 
metals (see Part II, Test No, 3). 

Two mils of Diluted Sulphuric Acid meets the requirements of the Test fez* r 
MWmo (see Fart II, Test No. I). 

Assay — Pour about 20 mils of Diluted Sulphuric Acid into a tared flask, weipc^Si 
accurately, dilute with 10 mils of distilled water and titrate with normal potm » 
sium hydroxide V B., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator. It shows not le^vB 
than ft.5 p'T cent. nor more than 10. fi per rent, of HgSO*. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 0.0490^ 2 
Gm. of H2SO4. Each gramme of Diluted Sulphuric Arid corresponds to ncr^t 
less than 1.94 mils nor more than 2.14 mils of normal potassium hydroxide VJSL 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



ACIDUM TANNICUM 

Tannic Acid 

Acid. Taitn.— Gallotannic Acid Tannio 

A tannin usually obtained from nutgalLs. Preserve it in well-clos 
containers, in a cool place, protected from light. 



iS^^ 



10 

-on 

in 
of 



Tannic Acid occurs as a yellowish- white to light brown, amorphous powdi 
gradually turning darker when exposed to air and light, usually roliering 
the form of glistening scales or spongy masses; odorless, or having a fail 
characteristic odor, and a strongly astringent, taste. 

One Gm, of Tannic Acid dissolves in 1 mil of glycerin with the applicati 
of a moderate heat; very soluble in water and alcohol at 25° C. and in boili 
water and boiling alcohol; freely soluble in diluted alcohol, slightly soluble 
dehydrated alcohol and almost insoluble in ether, chloroform, benzene, 
petroleum ben z in. 

An aqueous solution of Tannic Acid (I in 20) is acid to litmus. 

The addition of a email quantity of ferric chloride T.8. to an aqueous so^B- **~ 
tion of the Acid produces a bluish-black color or precipitate. -1 

An aqueous solution of Tannic Acid produces precipitates with nearly -* 11 
alkaloids and glucosides, and with solutions of gelatin, albumin, and starch^ 1 

Tannic Acid does not lose more than 12 per cent, of its weight when drL ^^^ 
to constant weight at 100° C. _^ — 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Tannic Acid in a platinum dish; not more th. ^^^ 
0.6 per cent, of ash remains. 

Dissolve about 2 Gm* of Tannic Acid in 10 mils of hot distilled water; the boV 
tion is not more than slightly turbid, and no turbidity is produced on diluti 
5 mils of the cooled and filtered solution with twioe its volume of alcohol (g\ 
or dextrin) or with twice its volume of distilled water (resinous subatances). 

Preparations — Glyceritum Acidi Tannici Trochisci Acidi Tannici Unguent**-^"^ 
Acidi Tannici. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm* — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



27 



ACIDUM TARTARICUltf 

Tartaric Acid 

Acid. Tart, 

A dibasic organic acid usually obtained from wine lees or argol. It 
contains not less than 99.5 per cent, of C*H<j0 or C a Ha(OH)a(COOH) a 
(150.05). 

Tartaric Acid occurs in colorless, translucent, monoclinic prisms, or as a 
white, granular or fine powder; odorless, having an acid taste; permanent in 
the air* 

One Gm, of Tartaric Acid dissolves in 0.75 mil of water and in 3.3 mils of 
alcohol at 26* Cj also in 0,5 mil of boding water; almost insoluble in chloro- 
form, slightly soluble in ether. 

IS solution of Tartaric Arid (1 in 20) is arid to lit.ru.UH. 
An aqueous solution of the Acid (1 in 2] mixed with an equal volume of 
an aqueous solution of potassium acetate (I in 3) yields a white, crystalline 
pnripitale, which is dissolved by solutions of alkalies and by mineral adds, 
I ilis insoluble in acetic acid* 

When slowly ignited it is gradually decomposed, evolving an odor resembling 
burning sugar* 

be about 2 Gra. of Tartaric Acid; not more than 0.05 per cent* of ash 
ma£ 

The addition of I mil of barium chloride T.S. to 10 mils of an aqueous solution 
oCthe Acid 1 1 in 100), to which has previously been added a few drops of hydro- 
chloric acid, produces no turbidity {sulphuric arid). 

Aa aqueous solution of the Arid (1 in 10), in which the free acid has been 

nearly neutralised with ammonia water, is not affected by calcium sulphate 

i oxalic add). 

Ten mils of an aqueous solution of the Acid (1 in 50), muted with 0.5 mil 

of hydrochloric acid, does not respond to the Test for heavy rnetals (see Fart 

U, Test No. 3). 

Dissolve 10 Gm. of Tartaric Acid in 2(1 mils of distilled w:itcr, add 2 mils of 

Kilphumus acid and boil the mixture until the odor of sulphur dioxide is barely 

poteptiblc. Cool the solution, mix it with 1 mil of sodium cyanide T.S. and 

fallim thin immediately with stronger ammonia water until the precipitate 

I and the solution has a slight odor of ammonia. When 

'.ransfer the solution to a glass-stoppered cylinder* graduated to 50 mils. 

1th sufficient distilled writer to measure 50 mils and add 3 drops of 

B9 Kilphide TJB. After mixing well, the color produced in the solution, 

^ any, when viewed downward against a white surface, is not greater than the 

ttlor of a control solution prepared as follows: Dissolve 2 Gm. of ammonium 

fWoryle (see Reagents, Part 11 j in 20 mils of distilled water, add 4 mils of a 

ing 0.08 Gm. of lead nitrate in 1000 mils of distilled water, and 

to I mil of diluted hydrochloric acid. Treat this solution with the same quan- 

I sulphurous acid, sodium cyanide T*8* and stronger ammonia water, as 

Transfer to another 50 mil glass-stoppered cylinder, then dilute 

ient distilled water to make 50 mils, and add 3 drops of sodium 

fore adding the sodium sulphide T.S., the liquid must possess a 

Mr of ammonia and the two cylinders used must he matched, be of 

>lorless glass, and have the same internal diameter; ifmd}. 
-Dissolve about 3 Gm, of Tartaric Acid, accurately weighed, in 50 mils 
r and titrate (his solution with normal potassium hydroxide 
Dg phenolphthalein T.S, as indicator. It shows not less than 99.5 
ifCtHtO* 

ill of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. consumed corresponds to 
>lIeO|j. Each gramme of Tartaric Acid corresponds to not 
Ktttt&n 13.20 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 




1 




ACIDUM TRICHLORACETICUM 

Trichloracetic Acid 

Acid, Trlchloracet. 

A monobasic organic acid. It contains, when dried to const*! 
weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid, not less than 99 per cent. 
C a HO a Cl 3 or CCla.COGH (163,39). Preserve it in well-stopper 
bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Trichloracetic Acid occurs in colorless, deliquescent, rhombohedra! crysta 
having a slight, characteristic odor, 

One Gm. of Trichloracetic Acid dissolves in about 0.1 mil of water at 25° C 
it is very soluble in alcohol and ether at 25° C. 

An aqueous solution of Trichloracetic Acid (1 in 20) is arid to litmus. 

When the Acid is heated with potassium hydroxide 1\S,, it is decompose! 
with the formation of chloroform and potassium carbonate. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Trichloracetic Acid; not more than 0.05 percent 
of ash remains. 

Ten mils of a freshly made, aqueous solution of the Acid (1 in 20) does not 
immediately become more than slightly opalescent upon the addition of a few 
drops of silver nitrate T.S. {chloride*). 

tve a small crystal of ferrous sulphate in 5 mils of an aqueous 
of Trichloracetic Acid (1 in 20), and pour this solution upon 5 toils of sulphuric 
acid (free from nitrogen compounds) so as to form a layer above; no brownish- 
red color is produced at the zone of contact of the two liquids {rtitrir ncid), 

Assay — Dissolve about 4 Gm, of Trichloracetic Acid, previously dried to 
constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately weighed in u 
tared and stoppered flask, in ii<0 mils of distilled water, add a few drops of phi' 
olphthalein T.9, and titrate this solution with normal potassium hvdroxi'l* 
VS. It shows, in the dried acid, not less than 99 per cent, of C^HOjClj. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide VS. corresponds to 0,16339 Gm>o! 
C9HO2CI3. Each gramme of Trichloracetic Acid, previously dried, correspond! 
to not less than 6,00 mila nor more than 6.12 mils of normal potassiun 
hydroxide V.S. 



ACONITINA 

Aconitine 

Aconltln, 

An alkaloid [CsfH 4 *OiiN = 645.39] obtained from aconite. PreserV 
it in well-closed containers protected from light, 

Aconitine occurs in colorless or white rhombic tables or prisms, poesesan 
no odor and permanent in the air. The alkaloid itxelf Mtitftf never to lojft 

okttion* only when largely diluted, and thru with tin utmost caution. A <ln> 
of an aqueous solution of the alkaloid or its salts (1 in 100,000), placed upon u* 
tongue, produces a tin^linjj are I numbing sensation. 

One Gm. of Aconitine dissolves in 28 mils of alcohol, about 65 mils of ether 
and in 7 mils of benzene, at 25° C. ; very slightly soluble in water and alma 
insoluble in petroleum benzin at 25° C. 

AoOPltllM solutions are alkaline to litmus. 

When heated rapidly, Aconitine melts at about 195° C. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 






IH about 0.001 Gm. of Aconitinc with 2 or 3 drops of nitric or sulphuric 
arid on & white porcelain surface; it dissolves without coloration. With 
2 drape of sulphuric acid containing 0.005 Gm. of ammonium vanadate in each 
mil an orange color is produced under the same conditions. 

lutions of Aeonitine salts yield pr e c ipit atea with mercuric potas- 
sium iodide T.8L, tannic acid T.S,, or gold chloride T«S., but only concentrated 
•ohitiotts vield precipitatea with platinus chloride T.S., mercuric chloride T.S., 
orpimcaeid T.S. 

Xo weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.05 Gm. of Aeonitine, 

iporate a solution of 0.01 Gin. of Aeonitine to dryness, add ."» drops of 
faming nitric acid; evajiorate again to dryness; the resulting yellow residue. 
when cooled, yields no violet color when treated with alcoholic potassium 
hydroxide T.S. (pAcudaconUine or atropine). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.00015 Gin. — Apothecaries, 1 4 oo grain. 



LACGNITUM 
Aconite 
Aconlt.— Monkshood Aconite Root Aconiti tuber P. I* 
The dried tuberous roots of Aconilum NapeUus Linn6 (Fam, Rtniuv- 
Nfaow), without the presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent, of 
sk-ms or other foreign matter, and yielding not less than 0.5 per cent. 
of the ether-soluble alkaloids of Aconite, If made into a fluidextract 
aixlaffiayed biologically the minimum lethal dose should not be greater 
4an 0,00004 mil for each gramme of body weight of guinea-pig. 

More or less conical or fusiform , from 4 to 10 cm. in length and from 1 to 2 cm, 
in diameter at the crown; externally dark brown or grayish-brown, smooth or 
leapt udinallv wrinkled, the upper end with a bud. remains of bud-scales or Htem 
•aw, the other portions' with numerous root-scars or nhort rootlets; fracture 
Aort, homy or somewhat mealy; internally, bark light or dark hrown 1 to 2 
nun, in thickness, cambium atone usually 5- to S-angled, with a small fibro- 
nicular bundle in each angle, pith whitish or light brown, from 2 to 7 mm, in 
dimeter; odor very slight; taste sweetish, soon becoming acrid and developing 
i tingling sensation, followed by numbness. 

Under the microscope transverse sections, m ade near the middle of t he tuberous 
toot of Aconite, show an outer layer consisting of one or more rows of cells with 
hWiah-brown walls; a primary cortex of 8 to 15 rows of parenchymatous cells 
■*d interspersed with characteristic stone cells, which occur either singly or in 
■nail groups; a more or less modified endodermis; a secondary cortex, consisting 
durtl ii-bearing parenchyma and interspersed with a few small hbro- 

**™ar bundles; a more or less star-shaped and characteristic cambium with 
htn 5 to 12 collateral fibro- vascular bundles; and a pith composed of large, 
•^h-bearing parenchyma ei lis, 

powder is grayish -brown; starch grains numerous, spherical, somewhat 
WKMjonvex, single or 2- to 5-com pound, the individual grains from 0,003 to 
"•015 mu. leter and frequently with a central cleft; trachea mostly with 

JM-Iikc, simple pores, sometimes with spiral or reticulate thictauinga or with 
Wffcud pores; stone cells single, tabular, irregular in shape or elongated to 
"TO, from 0.1 to i mm in length, walls from 0.008 to 0.025 mm. in thick- 
***, strongly lignified and having large, simple* pores; fragments of cork few. 
J'^towiah-brown ; fragments of parenchyma numerous, the cells being fillea 
lj th starch grains; bast-fibers from sterna few, very long, with lignified walls 
twin 005 mm. in thickness, and marked by transverse or oblique, slit-uku 








30 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

Aconite yields not more than 6 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Belladonna Radix (page 73), using 15 Gr 
of Aconite in No. 40 powder and ether only as the immiscible solvent throng 
out the assay. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 64.5 
milligrammes of the ether-soluble alkaloids of Aconite. 

For an alternative method of assaying Aconite see Biological Assays (Part X 

Preparations— Extractum Aconiti Fluidextractum Aconiti Tinctura Aconi 
Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, }?$ grain. 



ADEPS 

Lard 

The purified internal fat of the abdomen of the hog (Sus scrofa, var. 
domesticus Gray, Fam. Suidce). Preserve it in a cool place in well-closed 
containers which are impervious to fat. 

Lard is a soft, white, unctuous solid, having a faint odor and a bland tssf 
it is free from rancidity. 

It is insoluble in water; very slightly soluble in alcohol; readily soluble ' 
ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, or petroleum benzin. 

Lard melts between 36° and 42° C. to a clear liquid, from which no aqueo 
layer separates. 

Distilled water boiled with Lard does not acquire an alkaline reaction (aU 
lies). Boil about 1 Gm. of Lard with 20 mils of alcohol and filter the solution a/ 1 
cooling; the filtrate is not rendered more than slightly turbid by the additi 
of a few drops of a saturated alcoholic solution of silver nitrate (chlorides). 

Dissolve 10 Gm. of Lard in 30 mils of chloroform, mix the solution with 10 tt 
of neutral alcohol and add 1 drop of phenolphthalein T.S.; not more than 2 tt 
of tenth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. is required to produce a pink t 
after shaking it vigorously (free folly acids). 

Intimately mix 5 mils of melted and filtered Lard, while warm, by agitati 
it in a test tube with 5 mils of an alcoholic solution of silver nitrate (made 
dissolving 0.1 Gm. of silver nitrate in 10 mils of alcohol, and adding 2 dropfi 
nitric acid); heat this mixture for five minutes on a water bath. The liQ 1 
fat acquires no reddish or brown color, nor is any dark color produced at 1 
line of contact of the hot liquids (cottonseed fats). 

Dissolve 5 Gm. of Lard in 20 mils of ether in a test tube, stopper the tv 
loosely with purified cotton and allow it to stand for about twelve hours, 
over night at a temperature of about 20° C. Collect some of the crystals whi 
have separated at the bottom of the test tube, mount them in either alcohol 
a fixed oil and examine them under a microscope having a magnifying pow 
of about two hundred diameters. Lard stearin crystallizes in the form 
flat and rhomboidal plates, cut off obliquely at one end and grouped irregular!: 
Beef stearin crystallizes in the form of cylindrical rods or needles with sbtf 
ends, grouped in fan-shaped clusters. 

Saponification value: not less than 195 nor more than 203 (see Part U 
Test No. 9). 

Iodine value: not less than 46 nor more than 70 (see Part II, Test No. 8). 

Preparation — Adepe Benzoinatua. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



ADEPS BENZOINATUS 




31 






Benzoinated Lard 

Adeps Ben z. 

A8D t one thousand grammes. . , 1000 Gm, 

Sujj Benioin, in coarse powder, ten grammes 10 Gm. 

Tu make about one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Add the benzoin to the lard and mix thoroughly; then melt the mixt- 
ure by means of a water bath, and, stirring frequently, continue the heat 
for two hours, covering the vessel and not allowing the temperature 
to rise above 60° C. Lastly, strain the liquid through muslin, and stir 
it occasionally, while it cools. Preserve it in a cool place in well-closed 
containers which are impervious to fat. 

For use in southern latitudes and during the heated season in other 
localities, 50 Gra. of the lard (or more, if necessary) may be replaced 
by ao equal weight of white wax. 



ADEPS LAN.E 
Wool Fat 

AdepS Lan, — Anhydrous Lanolin 

The purified fat of the wool of the sheep {Oris aries Linn£ Fam, 
hnda), freed from water. Preserve it in a cool place in well-closed 
Witters which are impervious to fat. 

Wool Fat is a light-yellow, tenacious, unctuous mass, having not more than 
I i%ht odor. 

U 10 insoluble in, but miseible with, about twice its weight of water, sparingly 
ile in cold alcohol, more soluble in hot alcohol, freely soluble in ether and 
in chloroform. 

)1 Fat melts between 3S° and 42° C. At higher temperatures it vaporizes, 
lb* vapor igniting and burning with a luminous, sooty flame. 

A solution of Wool Fat in chloroform (1 in 50), when poured upon the surface 
tfeo ) sulphuric acid, gradually develops a deep brownish-red color 

ttthe line of contact of the la 

Dried to a constant weight on a water bath, with frequent stirring, Wool Fat 
*** not more than 0.5 per cent, of its weight {water). 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Wool Fat; not more than 0.1 per cent, of ash 
Attains. The ash, if any, is not alkaline to moistened litmus paper (alkalies 
tod want). 

Dissolve about 2 Gm. of Wool Fat in 10 mils of ether and add 2 drops of phenol- 
PhUu a colorless liquid is obtained (/rw alkalies) which, on the addi- 

0:2 mil of tenth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. f develops a deep red 
tokr {frte fatty acids). 

Boil about 1 Grn. of Wool Fat with '20 mils of alcohol, and filter the solution 
*faf cooling; the filtrate is not rendered more than slightly turbid by the 
•ddition of a few drops of saturated alcoholic solution of silver nitrate {chlorides). 
. Hdt about 10 Gm, of Wool Fat with 50 mils of distil led water on a water 
kth, with constant stirring; the fat separates completely oq cooling, leaving 






32 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

the aqueous layer nearly clear and neutral to litmus. Separate portions of 10 
each of the filtered aqueous layer leave no sweet residue on evaporation (glya 
emit no ammonia vapors when boiled with 1 mil of potassium hydroxide 
and do not completely decolorize 0.05 mil of tenth-normal potassium per 
ganate V.8. within ten minutes (soluble oxidizable impurities). 

About 0.5 Gm. of Wool Fat dissolves completely in 40 mils of boiling dehyd 
alcohol (petrolatum). 

Iodine value not less than 18 nor more than 28 (see Part II, Test No. 

ADEPS LANiE HYDROSUS 

Hydrous Wool Fat 

Adeps Lan. Hyd.— Lanolin 

The purified fat of the wool of the sheep (Ovis aries Linn6 ] 
Bovidce), combined with not less than 25 nor more than 30 per cer 
water. Preserve it in a cool place in well-closed containers which 
impervious to fat. 

Hydrous Wool Fat is a yellowish-white, or nearly white, ointment-like : 
having not more than a slight odor. 

It is insoluble in water; with ether or chloroform it yields turbid soli 
which are neutral to moistened litmus paper. 

Hydrous Wool Fat on heating separates into an upper oily and a lower aqi 
layer. When heated on a water bath with stirring until it ceases to lose w< 
there remains not less than 70 per cent, and not more than 75 per cent, of re* 
which is transparent when melted, and when cold remains as a yellowish, 
cious, unctuous mass, completely soluble in ether or chloroform, and only 
ingly soluble in alcohol. Hydrous Wool Fat thus deprived of water res] 
to the tests under Adeps Lance. 

jETHER 

Ether 

A liquid containing not less than 95.5 per cent, nor more than 
per cent, of ethyl oxide [(C2H 6 )aO = 74.08], the remainder consistii 
alcohol containing a little water. Preserve it in partially filled, 
closed containers, in a cool place, remote from fire, and protected : 
daylight. 

When Ether is to be used for anesthesia it is to be dispensed onl 
small, well-closed containers and is not to be used for. this purpo 
the container has been opened longer than twenty-four hours. 

Ether is a transparent, colorless, mobile liquid, having a characteristic 
and a burning and sweetish taste. 

It is soluble in about 12 times its volume of water at 25° C. with slight 
traction of volume. Miscible with alcohol, chloroform, petroleum be 
benzene, or fixed or volatile oils. 

The color of light blue litmus paper, moistened with water, is not chi 
to red when the paper is immersed in Ether for ten minutes. 

Specific gravity: 0.713 to 0.716 at 25° C. 

Boiling point: about 35° C. 



Ether is highly volatile find inflammable. Its vapor when mixed with air 
tod ignited may explode violently, It w slowly oxidized by the action of air, 
Boouare, and sun-light with the formation of peroxides. 

The moist residue left on the spontaneous evaporation of 30 mils of Ether from 
i shallow dish is odorless and neither reddens nor bleaches blue litmus paper. 
Dned at 100° C, this residue does not exceed 0.001 Cm. 

faff 10 mils of Ether in portions upon clean, odorless blotting paper and allow 
it to evaporate spontaneously. No foreign odor is perceptible when the last 
Utcea of Ether leave the paper. 

Shake 10 mils of Ether occasionally during one hour with 1 mil of potassium 
hydmxide T.S. in a glass-stoppered container, protected from light; no color is 
developed in either liquid (aldehyde). 

8hake 10 mils of Ether occasionally during one hour with 1 mil of a freshly 
nude solution of cadmium and potassium iodide (1 in 10), in a glass-stoppered 
cylinder previously rinsed with the Ether under examination and protected 
from light; no color develops in either liquid {peroxide*}. 

Preparation— Spiritus JStheria. 

Average dose — Metric, I mil— Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



^THYLIS CARBAMAS 
Ethyl Carbamate 

/Ethyl. Carbarn. 

The ethyl ester [CHAN or CO (0C s H 5 )NH a = 89.071 of carbamic 
wii Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Ethyl Carbamate occurs in colorless, columnar cry stats or scales, odorless, 
tod having a cooling, saline taste. 

One Gin. of Ethyl Carbamate dissolves in 0.45 mil of water, 0.8 mil of alcohol, 
15 mils of glycerin, 0.9 mil of chloroform, 1.5 mils of ether, and in 32 mils of olive 
C, 

lU aqueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral to litmus. 

Eihvl Car 1 Its between 4S° and 50° C. 

AdJ 1 Gm. of Ethyl Carbamate to 5 mils of sulphuric acid and heat it gently; 
weamposition follows with the evolution of carbon dioxide (alcohol and acid 
utunonimn sulphate remain in solution). 

B«at 1 Gm. of Ethyl Carbamate with 5 mils of concentrated potassium hy- 
dronde solution; ammonia gas is given off, recognizable by its odor. 

Dissolve about 0,5 Gm, of Ethyl Carbamate in 5 mils of distilled water with 
*Wt 1 Gm. of dry sodium carbonate and about 0.01 Gm. of iodine, and warm 
iw solution; yellow crystals of iodoform separate on cooling. 

incinerate about 2 Gm. of Ethyl Carbamate; not more than 0.05 per cent, of 
*& remains, 

Utnlye about 2 Gm. of Ethyl Carbamate in 2 mils of distilled water and 
•ddfi mils of nitric acid to the solution; no white precipitate is produced (urea). 

Ho| more than slight opalescence results from the addition of a few drops of 
■tar nitrate T.S. to 10 rods of an aqueous solution of Ethyl Carbamate (1 in 20) 
(cftfaridti. 

Mm 2 mils of the aqueous solution (1 in 20) with 1 mil of ferrous sulphate 
*■& *od pour the mixture upon 2 aula of sulphuric acid, so as to form a sepa- 
Bteliyer; no red or brown »one appears (niirate). 



Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm* — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 










i 






34 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

iETHYUS CHLORIDUM 

Ethyl Chloride 

/Ethyl. Chlor. 

Monochlorethane [CaH 6 Cl or CHaCHaC^ 64.50]. Preserve it 
hermetically sealed containers, in a cool place, remote from fire, ai 
protected from light. 

When liberated at ordinary room temperature from its sealed contair 
Ethyl Chloride vaporizes at once; the gas is very inflammable, and must not 
used in proximity to fire. 

At low temperatures or under pressure Ethyl Chloride is a colorless, mobi 
very volatile liquid, having a characteristic, ethereal odor, and a burning Us 

It is slightly soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and in ether. 

Specific gravity: about 0.921 at 0° C. 

Ethyl Chloride boils between 12° and 13° C. 

It burns with a smoky, greenish flame, with the production of hydrog 
chloride. 

Dissolve about 1 mil of Ethyl Chloride in 20 mils of alcohol, both previou 
cooled to the temperature of melting ice, and add a few drops of silver nitfl 
T.S. ; no turbidity is produced at once (hydrochloric acid). 

Shake 10 mils of Ethyl Chloride with 10 mils of distilled water, both previou 
cooled to the temperature of melting ice, and allow the supernatant stratum 
Ethyl Chloride to evaporate spontaneously. The residual liquid is neutral 
litmus, and on adding to it a few drops of potassium dichromate T.S., foBo* 
by some diluted sulphuric acid, and boiling the mixture, no odor of aldehyde 
developed, and no greenish or purplish color is produced in the liquid (alcotu 

On the spontaneous evaporation of 5 mils of Ethyl Chloride, no foreign ot 
is noticeable while the last portions evaporate and no weighable residue remai 

iETHYLMORPHINiE HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Ethylmorphine Hydrochloride 

/Ethylmorph. Hydrochl.— Ethylmorphine Chloride 

The hydrochloride [CiJIasOaNHCH^HaO or Ci 7 HitON(0 
(OC2H 5 ).HCl+2H a O = 385.69] of an alkaloid prepared from morph 
by ethylation. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected fr 
light. 

Ethylmorphine Hydrochloride is a white or yellowish, odorless, microcrystal 
powder. 

One Gm. of Ethylmorphine Hydrochloride dissolves in 8 mils of water an* 
22 mils of alcohol at 25° C; slightly soluble in ether or chloroform. 

An aaueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) is neutral to litmus. 

It melts at about 123° C. with decomposition. 

Add a drop of ferric chloride T.S. to a solution of about 0.01 Gm. of the 
in 10 mils of sulphuric acid and warm it on a water bath; the color of the mix 
will become at first green, then deep violet-blue, and, after the addition * 
drop of nitric acid, deep red. 

Add silver nitrate T.S. to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20); a w 
precipitate insoluble in nitric acid is produced. 

No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.2 Gm. of Ethylmorphine Hy 
chloride. 



Heat 5 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20} with 5 mils of potassium 
hyilroxide T.S. on a water bath; no vapors showing an alkaline reaction with 
litmus paper are e vol veil at once {ammonium compounds) 

Dissolve about 0.05 Gm. of potassium ferric vanide in 10 mil* of distilled water, 
add i drop of ferric chloride T.8« then 1 mifof an aqueous solution of the sail 
(1 in 100); no green or blue color is produced at once (morphine). 

Average dose— Metric, 0,015 Gm.— Apothecaries, \± grain. 




AGAR 
Agar 

Agar-agar 

The dried mucilaginous substance extracted from Grarilaria (Sphctro- 
wm) lichenoides Greville and other marine algae growing along the 
astern coast of Asia, particularly several species of Gelidium, or Glow- 
petti* (Class Rhodophycca). 

Mostly in bundles from 4 to 6 dm . in length, consisting of thin, translucent, 
>ranous, agglutinated pieces from 4 to 8 mm, in width; externally yellowish- 
or brownish-white; tough when damp, brittle when dry; odor slight j taste 
aginous. 

fragment mounted in water and examined under the microscope gradually 
becomes more transparent, showing a granular structure and a few diatoms, 
notably the frustules of ArachnoifiiHcus Ehrcnbergii Baillon, which are disk- 
■haped and from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. in diameter, and also fragments of the Bpiculs 
of sponges' upon the addition of iodine some of the granules or hyphal portions 
«t colored bluish-black. 

Insoluble in cold water, but slowly soluble in hot water A solution made by 
foiling 0.1 Gm, of Agar in 100 mils of water, upon cooling yields no precipitate 
upon the addition of tannic acid T.S. {gelatin), and does not produce a blue 
color upon the addition of iodine IS. [starch). 

U 1 part of Agar for about ten minutes with 100 parts of water, and re* 
plv* the water lost bv evaporation; it yields a stiff jelly upon cooling 
The powder is pale buff; when mounted in water and examined under the mi- 
■arent, more or less granular, striated angular fragment*, 
owasonaUy containing frustules of diatoms; with iodine T.S., fragments for 
ta* roost part are colored bright red, certain more or less definite areas being 
■Uined bluish-Mark. 
Agar yields not more than 5 per cent, of ash. 

Average dose — Metric, 10 Gm. — Apothecaries, 2}>£ drachms. 

ALCOHOL 

Alcohol 
A liquid containing not less than 92,3 per cent, by weight or 94.9 
■ftt by volume, at 15.56° C.,of C*H s .OH (46.05). Preserve it in 
I containers, in a cool place, remote from fire. 

Alcohol is a transparent, colorless, mobile and volatile liquid, having a slight, 
™acteristic odor, and a burning taste. 

It ii nmcible with water in all proportions, and without any trace of cloudi- 
bcb; ako mificible with ether or chloroform. 







A uq, 

■rikfa 
.a 




It does not affect the color of blue or red litmus paper previously moisten* 
with water. 

Specific gravity: not above 0.81C at 15.56° C«,the U. S. Government standaJ 
temperature for Alcohol, nor above 0.810 at 25° C. 

Alcohol is readily volatilised , even at low temperatures, and bods at abot 
78° C. It is inflammable, and burns with a pale blue, smokeless flame. 

Evaporate 50 mils of Alcohol in a platinum or porcelain dish on a water ball 
the residue does not exceed 0.002 Gm. 

Mix 10 mils of Alcohol with 5 mils of distilled water and 1 mil of glvoeri 
and allow the mixture to evaporate spontaneously from a piece of clean* odories 
blotting paper; no foreign odor is perceptible when the last traces of the AIcoln 
leave the paper (futel ml constituents)* 

Allow 25 mils of alcohol to evaporate spontaneously in a porcelain evaporatit 
dish, carefully protected from dust, until the surface of the dish is barely mois 
No red or brown color is produced upon the addition of a few drops of oolorle 
sulphuric acid {amy! alcohol or non-twlatilc, cnrbonizable organic impurities, etc 

Mix 10 mils of Alcohol in a test tube with 5 mils of potassium hydroxy 
T.S.; the liquid does not at once assume a yellow color (aldehyde or oak tannin 

Shake 20 mils of Alcohol in a clean, glass-stoppered bottle with 1 mil of silv 
nitrate T.S.j the mixture does not become more than faintly opali 
acquire more than a faint brownish tint when exposed for six hours to diffub* 
daylight (organic impurities, rnuf/l aicohol M aldehyde, etc). 

Dilute the Alcohol with disf illed water until it eOQtaini about 10 per cent.,! 
volume, of ethyl alcohol, Transfer 5 mils of the dilute alcohol to a test tube>ac 
to it 2 mils of a potassium permanganate sol utioo (made by dissolving 3 Urn. 
potassium permanganate in 100 mils of distilled water) and 0,3 mil of sulphui 
acid, and allow the mixture to stand for Jive minutes. Now dissolve the pi 
of manganese dioxide by the addition of sulphurous acid, drop by drop with apt 
tion, then add 1 mil of sulphuric acid and 5 mils of fuchsin-sulphurous ac 
TM, and mix them. After standing for ten minutes, a colorless liquid rcsul 
[methyl alcohol), 

A mixture of 5 mils of Alcohol, 2 mils of sodium hydroxide T.S., and 5 dro 
of a freshly made aqueous solution of sodium nitroprusside (1 in 50), render 
slightly acid with acetic acid, shows no violet tint within one minute (acetone). 

Preparation— Alcohol DUutum. 






ALCOHOL DEHYDRATUM 

Dehydrated Alcohol 
Alcohol Dehyd.— Alcohol Absolutum, U*S.P. VIIL 

A liquid containing not less than 99 per cent, by weight of CJ3>*£ 
(46,05). Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a cool place, reuw 
from fire. 

Dehydrated Alcohol is a transparent, colorless, mobile, and volatile Uq 1 
having a characteristic odor, and a burning taste. It is very hydroscopic. 

Specific gravity: fiot above 0.798 at 15.56° C, the U.S. Government stand 
t< rnjuTature for alcohol, nor above 0.790 at 25° C, 

Shake 10 mils of Dehydrated Alcohol in a stoppered tube with about 0.5 C 
of powdered anhydrous cooper sulphate; the latter does not become blue (wat 

In other respects Dehydrated Alcohol has the properties and responds to 
tests and reactions under Alcohol. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



37 






ALCOHOL DILUTUM 

Diluted Alcohol 

Alcohol Dil. 

A liquid containing from 41 to 42 per cent, by weight or from 48.4 
per cent, by volume, at 15.56° C, of C 2 H 5 X)H (46.05). Preserve 

it io well-closed containers, in a cool place, remote from fire. 

Alcohol, five hundred milliliters 500 mils 

Distilled Water, five hundred milliliters , 500 mils 

Measure the alcohol and water at the same temperature and mix them. 
If the two liquids are measured at the temperature of 25° C, the 
, when cooled to the same temperature, will measure about 
¥70 mils. 
Diluted Alcohol may also be prepared in the following manner: 

Alcohol, four hundred and eight grammes. . . 408 Gm. 

Distiixed Water, five hundred grammes 500 Gm. 

Mix them. 

Diluted Alcohol has a specific gravity of from 0.935 to 0.937 at 15.56* C, the 
mmeut standard temperature for alcohol, and from 0.930 to 0.932 

ll responds to the reactions and tests under Alcohol, allowance being made 
Tor the difference In strength and the presence of water and the boiling point 
bene omitted. 






ALOE 

Aloes 



The inspissated juice of the leaves of Aloe Perryi Baker, yielding 
Socotrine Aloes; or Aloe vera Linne, yielding Curasao Aloes; or of Aloe 
Aror Miller, yielding Cape Aloes (Fam. LUiacece). 

Socotrine Aloes — In yellowish-brows to blackish-brown opaque, or smooth 
^dclt'tening masses; fractured s urface some what conchoidal; sometimes soft or 
«oii-liquid; odor aromatic or saffron-like, never fetid or putrid; taste nauseous, 
bitter. 

, Not less than 50 per cent, of Socotrine Aloes is soluble in cold water, the solu- 
tion being of a yellowish color. 

The powder is dark brown; when mounted in expressed oil of almond and 
ttat&ioed under the microscope, it shows yellowish- to reddish-brown, irregular 
w uvular fragments. Upon the addition of nitric acid, it yields a yellowish- 
to reddish-brown solution. 

Coricao Aloes — In orange to blackish-brown, opaque masses; fractured surface 
ttofcvun, waxy, somewhat resinous; odor characteristic but not aromatic as in 
Socotrine Aloes, 

, Not less than 60 per cent, of Curacao Aloes is soluble in cold water, the solu- 
ton being of a purplish-red color. 

The powder Ls deep reddish-brown; when mounted in expressed oil of almond 
*od examined under the microscope, it shows numerous blackish-brown, irregular. 






more or less opaque and angular fragments. Upon the addition of nitric acK 
it yields immediately a deep red liquid. 

Cape Aloes— In reddish-brown or olive-black masses, usually covered wit- 
a yellowish powder, or in thin, transparent fragments of a reddish-brown cob* 
fracture smooth and glassy; odor characteristic. 

Not less than 60 per cent, of Cape Aloes is soluble in cold water, the solutk>i 
being of a pale yellow color. 

The powder is greenish-yellow, changing to light brown on aging; whe* 
mounted in expressed oil of almond and examined under the microscope, it shown 
numerous, distinctly angular, bright yellow fragments, Upon the addition o'. 
nitric arid.it yields a liquid that is colored reddish-brown, changing to purplish- 
brown and finally greenish. 

The tests which follow apply to Socofrine, Curacao, and Cape Aloes. 

Aloes contains not more than 10 per cent, of moisture. 

Add 50 mils of alcohol to 1 Gra. of Aloes, gently heat the mixture and thee 
cool it; a nearly clear solution is obtained {aunt and inorganic impurities). 

Intimately mix 1 Gm, of Aloes with 10 mils of hot water and dilute 1 milol 
this mixture with 100 mils of water; a green fluorescence is produced upon tbi 
addition of an aqueous solution of sodium borate (1 in 20). Dilute 1 mil of th* 
original aqueous mixture of Aloes with 100 mils of water, and shake it with 1C 
mils of benzene; upon separating the benzene solution and adding to it 5 rails o( 
ammonia water, a permanent deep rose color is produced in the lower layer. 

Aloes yields not more than 4 per cent, of ash. 

Preparations— Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum Pilulae Aloes PMula 
Rhei Composite Tinctura Aloes Tinctura Benzoini Composit4L 



Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



ALOINUM 

Aloin 
Aloha, 

A pentoside or mixture of pentosides obtained from aloes, varying u 
chemical composition, physical and chemical properties according U 
the source. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from ligbt 

Aloin occurs as a mtcro-crystatline powder or in minute acicular crystal* 
from lemon-yellow to dark-yellow in color, odorless, or possessing a slight odoi 
of aloes and an intensely bitter taste. It becomes darker on exposure to lighi 
and air, 

Aloin varies in solubility with its composition. It is soluble in water, alcoho 
or acetone; slightly soluble in ether* 

A saturated aqueous solution of Aloin is neutral or not more than faintl] 
acid to litmus. 

Aloin is soluble in ammonia water and alkali hydroxide solutions, formini 
red solutions (or yellow solutions that soon become red) which exhibit a greei 
fluorescence. 

When added to alkaline solutions, Aloin is rapidly decomposed; when mii« 
with acid solutions decomposition is slower, A drop of ferric chloride T.3 
added to an alcoholic solution of Aloin produces a brownish-green color 

The color of a saturated aqueous solution of Aloin is yellow, but changes fc 
btUWO on standing. 

Incinerate about 0.5 Gm. of Aloin; not more than 0.5 per cent, of ash remaini 

Shake about 1 Gm. of Aloin with 10 mils of benzene for one minute and filta 






the filtrate imparts not more than a faint, pink color to an equal volume of 
dilute ammonia water (5 per cent.), when shaken with it {emodin). 

Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Aloin in 120 mils of distilled water, collect the insol- 
uble residue, if any, on a filter tared after it has been dried at 100° C. and wash 
the residue with 25 mils of distilled water. This residue, when dried at 100° C, 
does not exceed 1.5 per cent. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.015 Cm. — Apothecaries, }4 grain. 

ALTILEA 

Althaea 

Marsh Mallow Hoot 

The root of Althcta officinalis Linne (Fam. Malvaceae) deprived of the 
brown, corky layer and small roots, and carefully dried. Preserve 
Althaea in tightly-closed containers, adding a few drops of chloroform 
or carbon tetrachloride from time to time, to prevent attack by insects. 

Taually cut into small pieces about 5 mm. in diameter 1 of a uniform grayish- 
white color and otherwise having the characters of entire root*; occasionally 
entire, slenderly tapering, attaining a length of 30 cm. and a thickness of 2 cm.; 
externally whitish, longitudinally furrowed, frequently spirally twisted and 
«wtred with the somewhat loosened bast-fibers; fracture of bark fibrous, of 
▼wd short and granular; internally yellowish-white; bark 1 to 2 mm. thick, 

Eorous, due to mucilage cells, and separated from the slightly radiating wooct 
7 1 distinct, grayish cambium zone; odor slight; taste sweetish, mucilaginous. 
u The powder is whitish; starch grains numerous, from 0.003 to 0,02 nun. in 
er, usually with a long cleft at the point of origin of growth; sclerenchy- 
fibers in poups, Um walla being quite thick and more or less lignined; 
J with scalariform thickenings or with bordered pores; calcium oxalate 
ffyrtals few. in rosette aggregates from 0,02 mm. to 0.03 mm. in diameter. 

Add I Gm. of Althaea to 10 mill of co!d water, allow it to stand with occasional 
•toting during thirty minutes, and filter through cotton; a pale yellow-colored 
mucilage is obtained, which is neutral to litmus and is colored a deep yellow 
y the addition of a few drops of potassium hydroxide T.S. The mucilage 
doei not have a sour or ammoniacal odor. 
Althje* yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 






ALUMEN 

Alum 

Alum. 



It contains not less than 99.5 per cent, of A1NH 4(804)8 +12IW) 
toff), or of A1K(S04) 3 +12H 2 (474.53), the label of the container 
^ust indicate whether the salt is Ammonium Alum or Potassium Alum. 

Ammonium Al urn and Potassium Alum both occur in large, colorless crystals, 
crystalline fragments, or as white powders; Alum is odorless and has a sweetish 
•ad itrotigly astringent taste. 

Ammonium Alum — It is somewhat less soluble in water than is Potassium 
una. 

Potassium hydroxide T.S. added to an aqueous solution of Ammonium Alum 





{1 in 20) at first causes a precipitate, which completely dissolves in an i 
of the reagent, ammonia being evolved. 

Completely precipitate the aluminum from a boiling solution of I G 
Ammonium Alum in 100 mils of distilled water by the addition of a slight ■ 
of ammonia water and filter; not more than 0,5 per cent, of residue remai 
evaporating the filtrate to dryness and igniting it. 

Potassium Alum — One Gm. of Potassium Alum dissolves in 7.2 mils of 
at 25° C, and in 0.3 mil of boiling water; insoluble in alcohol, freely solu 
glycerin. 

Potassium Alum imparts a violet color to a non-luminous flame. 

The addition of sodium bitartrate T.S, to a saturated solution of PoU 
Alum produces, sometimes slowly, a white crystalline precipitate. 

Potassium hydroxide T.S. added to an aqueous solution of Potassium 
(1 in 20) at first causes a precipitate, which completely dissolves In an 
of the reagent, but no ammonia is evolved. 

Both Ammonium Alum and Potassium Alum conform to the following let 

An aqueous solution of Alum (1 in 20) is acid to litmus. 

When heated it fuses, and at about 200° C, it loses all of its water of en 
Eat ion. When strongly heated it loses sulphuric anhydride, becoming i 
pletcly soluble in water. 

An aqueous, solution of Alum (1 in 20) yields with ammonia water a 
gelatinous precipitate almost insoluble in an excess of ammonia wat< 

With barium chloride T.S an aqueous solution of Alum (1 in 20) y 
white precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

An aqueous solution of Alum does not respond to the Test for heavy 
(see Part II, Tuft No. 3). An aqueous solution of Alum meets the requir* 
of the Test for arsenic (see Part, II, Test No. 1). 

Add 5 drops of potassium ferrocyamde T.S. to 20 mils of an aqueous s< 
of Alum (1 in 150); no blue color is produced at once (iron). 

Assay — Dissolve about I Gm. of the Alum, accurately weighed, and 
1 Gm, of ammonium chloride in 250 mils of distilled water and precipit* 
aluminum hydroxide bv the addition of a slight excess of ammonia wj 
the boiling solution. Collect the precipitate on a filter, wash it thor 
with hot distilled water, dry, ignite strongly and weigh it. The aluminun 
so obtained corresponds to not less than 99.5 per cent, of the Alum assa] 

Each Gm. of aluminum oxide rorrcsponds to S.874 Gm. uf AlNHiQ 
12Hj*G and to 0.286 Gm, of AlK(S0 4 ) a + 12f U h 

Preparation — Alumen Exsiccatum. 

Average dose — Metric, 0,5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grain 






ALUMEN EXSICCATUM 

Exsiccated Alum 

Alum. Exsic— Alumen Ustum Dried Alum Burnt Alum 

It contains, when recently dried to constant weight at 20 
not less than 96.5 per cent, of anhydrous AlNH*(SO«) a (237.28 
anhydrous AlKfSO^a (258.34), the label of the container indi 
whether it is made from Ammonium Alum or from Potassium 
Preserve it in well-closed containers and do not dispense it if it cc 
more than 10 per cent, of moisture. 

Alum, in small pieces, one hundred grammes 1C 

To make about fifty-five grammes £ 







Place the alum in a tared, shallow, porcelain dish so as to form a thin 

layer, and heat it cautiously on a sand bath until it liquefies. Then 

continue the application of heat, at a temperature not exceeding 200° C., 

with constant stirring, until aqueous vapors cease to be evolved and 

i dry, white, porous mass is obtained. When cold, reduce the product 

> & fine powder. 

Exsiccated Alum is a white, granular powder, without odor, possessing a 
iweetish, astringent taste, and attracting moisture on exposure to the air. 

One Gm. of Exsiccated Alum dissolves very slowly and usually incompletely 
in about 20 mils of water at 25° C; also in 1.5 mils of boiling water; insoluble in 
alwhol. 

Add 2 Gm, of Exsiccated Alum to 40 mils of distilled water and allow it to 
fUnd with occasional agitation for twenty-four hours. Collect the insoluble 
residue on previously dried and counterbalanced filters, wash with 50 mils of 
distilled water and finally dry at 100* C, until of constant weight; the residue 
wwghs not more than 0.05 Gm. 

Dry about 1 Gm. of Exsiccated Alum in an air bath, to constant weight at 
200* C; the loss does not exceed 10 per cent. 

An aqueous solution of Exsiccated Alum responds to the reactions and tests 

for Ammonium Alum or for Potassium Alum given under A lumen, allowance 

•nade for the difference in strength* 

A«»y — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Exsiccated Alum, previously dried to 

constant weight at 200° C. and accurately weighed, in 100 mils of distilled water, 

filter if necessary, thoroughly wash the insoluble residue with distilled water 

dilute the filtrate aod waahinra to about 250 mils, with distilled water, and add 

I Gm. of ammonium chloride. Proceed with the assay M directed under 

Muitxn, beginning with the words "and precipitate,' 1 second line of the Assay, 

The aluminum oxide so obtained corresponds to not less than 96,5 per cent, of 

the previously dried Exsiccated Alum. 

Each aluminum oxide corresponds to 4.643 Gm. of AlNIIifSOtJa, 

wwito ->f A!KiS<> 4 ) a 



ALUMINI HYDROXIDUM 

Aluminum Hydroxide 

Alum. Hydrox. 

Acompound consisting principally of aluminum hydroxide [AI(OH) a 

Alfjh, one hundred grammes . . . 100 Gm. 

Monohydrated Sodium Carbonate, forty-five grammes. . . 45 Gm, 
Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve each salt separately in (me thousand mils of water, filter 

? solutions and heat them to boiling. Then, having poured the hot 

of monohydrated sodium carbonate into a capacious vessel, 

Jly pour in the hot solution of alum with constant stirring, and 

erwards add two thousand mUs of boiling water. Allow the precipi- 

! to subside, decant the clear liquid, and mix the precipitate with 

Vumsand mils of hot water. Again decant, transfer the precipitate 




to a strainer, and wash it with hot water, until the washings prod* 
not more than a faint cloudiness with barium chloride T.S. All 
the precipitate to drain, dry it at a temperature not exceeding 40° 4 
and reduce it to a uniformly fine powder. 

Aluminum Hydroxide is a white, bulky, amorphous powder, odorless and ta* 
less; permanent in dry ;iii\ 

it is insoluble in water ant! alcohol ; it is dissolved by hydrochloric or sulphi 
acid and by the fixed alkali hydroxides. 

Solutions of Aluminum Hydroxide in hydrochloric or sulphuric acid yd 
with potassium hydroxide T.S. a white gelatinous precipitate, dissolved by 
excess of the reagent but again precipitated by the addition of an excess 
ammonium chloride. 

When heated to redness it loses about 34 per cent, of its weight. 

Hoi I 1 Gm, of Aluminum Hydroxide with 21) mils of distilled water, and fil 
the liquid; the filtrate does not show an alkaline reaction, and, on evaporati 
dors not leave a residue weighing more than 0.005 Gm, {alkali mitn). 

Heat 1 Gm. of Aluminum Hydroxide with 10 mils of hydrochloric ac 
evaporate the solution to dryness, and dissolve the residue in 50 mils of distil 
water. Ten mils of this solution does not respond to the Test for heavy met 
(see Part II, Test No. 3), 

Heat I Gm. of Aluminum Hydroxide with 5 mils of sulphuric acid and 5 rr 
of distilled water, on a water bath, for fifteen minutes. Then dilute it to 25 n 
with distilled water and filter. Five mils of this filtrate meets the requiremei 
of the Test for arsenic (see Part II f Test No. 1). 

AMMONII BENZOAS 

Ammonium Benzoate 

Amnion, Benz. 

It contains, when dried for twenty-four hours in a desiccator ov 
sulphuric acid, not less than 98 per cent, of NII 4 C 7 H A O a or C*H 
( OONH 4 (139.08). Preserve it in well-closed containers in a cool plac 

Ammonium Benzoate occurs in thin, white, laminar crystals or as a crystal^ 
powder; gradually losing ammonia on exposure to air: odorless, or having 
slight odor of benzoic acid, a saline, bitter, afterwards slightly acrid taste. 

One Gin, of Ammonium Benzoate dissolves in about 10 mils of water, 3^ 
mils of alcohol, and about 8 mils of glycerin at 25° C, 

\\ In n strongly heated it evolves ammonia and benzoic acid, and is finals 
volatilized leaving not more than 0.05 per cent, of ash. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (I in 20) is neutral or not more than sligbtl 
acid to litmus. 

An aqueous solution of Ammonium Benzoate (l in 10) yields with ferri 
chloride T.S. a pink precipitate, and when such a solution is gently heated wit 
potassium hydroxide T.S., ammonia is evolved. 

Acidulate 10 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 50) with hydrochlori 
acid and filter it; the filtrate does not rcs])ond to the Test for heavy meta! 
(see Part II, Test No, 3). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Ammonium Benzoate, previously drie 
for twenty-four hours in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately weigh* 
in 10 mils of distilled water in a separator. Add to the solution .5 tails of dilute 
sulphuric acid, and extract the liberated benzoic acid by shaking out with 
successive portions of 25 r 15 and 10 mils respectively of chloroform, passrir, 
the chloroform solution through a filter previously moistened with chlorofon 
and removing any benzoic acid adhering to the stem of the funnel with a fe 
mils of chloroform. Evaporate the chloroform solution at a low tenaperatur 







tJNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



43 






twferahly spontaneously, to about 5 mils, add 25 mils of diluted alcohol which 
hat been previously neutralised with tenth-normal potassium hydroxide ¥JB . 
phraolphtlialein KS. being used as indicator, and titrate this solution with 
tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S,, using phennlphthakiii is, u indicator. 
Iricd salt, not less than 98 per cent, of KH^CtHoO^, 
ail of tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.H. corresponds to 0.013908 
[I4C-7H5O3. Each gramme of Ammonium Renzoate, nreviously 
corresponds to not less than 70,5 mils of tenth- norma I barium nydroxide Y\S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



AMMONH BROMIDUM 
Ammonium Bromide 



A mm on. Brom. 
It contains, when dried to constant weight at 100° C, not less than 
98.5 per cent, of NH*Br (97.96). Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Ammonium Bromide occurs in colorless, transparent, prismatic crystals, or as 
» white, crystalline or granular powder; odorless, of a pungent, saline title; 
somewhat nygro.-s<'«»|ii<. 

ODetini. of Ammonium Bromide dissolves in L3 mils of water and in 12 mils 
of alcohol at 25° G; also in 0.9 mil of boiling water and 1.2 mils of boiling 
iloohol. 

When heated, Ammonium Bromide volatilizes without fusing. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) is neutral or not more than slightly 
*6d to litmus 

An aqueous solution of Ammonium Bromide when gently heated with potas* 
bum hydroxide T.S. evolves ammonia, 

Slyer nitrate T.S. added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) produces 
* ydlo wish-white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid or in a moderate excess of 
wnmonia water. 

Add 2 mils of nitric acid to about 2 Gm. of the salt and evaporate the mixture 
to dryne» in a porcelain dish on a water bath and ignite the residue; it yields 
&nt more than 0.05 per cent, of non-volatile matter, 

Add 1 mil of chloroform to 10 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (I in 
30) and cautiously introduce chlorine water, which has been diluted with an equal 
Jjfcamc of distilled water, drop by drop and with constant agitation, The 
operated bromine dissolves in the chloroform and imports to it a yellow or orange 
Nor, which is free from any violet tint (iodide), 

Drop I mil of diluted sulphuric acid upon about 1 Gm. of the powdered salt] 
no ydlow color appears at once {bromaU), 

I ae color is not produced at once on adding potassium ferrocyanide T.S. 
to 20 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (I in 250) (iron). 

Add 1 mil of potassium sulphate T.S. to 10 mils of an aqueous solution of 
Ammonium Bromide (1 in 20), acidulated with arctic acid; no turbidity is pro- 
duced immediately (barium); under similar conditions the addition of barium 
chloride T.S. produces no turbidity (sulphate). 

An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
t**Part II, Test No. 3). 

Assay— Proceed as directed under the Assay for bromides (see Part II, Test 
, using about 0.4 Gm. of Ammonium Bromide, previously dried to con- 
duit weight at 100° C. and accurately weighed. It shows, in the dried salt, 
^«>tle» than 98-5 per cent, of \H 4 Br. 
Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V 9 cofTtiepondfl to 0,000796 Om. 
°' N'H 4 Br. Each gramme of Ammonium Bromide, previously dried, corn's] Kind* 
to not less than 100.5 mils nor more than 103.4 mils of tenth-normal silver 
Wtrate V A 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 





AMMONII CARBONAS 

Ammonium Carbonate 

A mm on. Carb. 

It consists of varying proportions of a mixture of arid amnion 
carbonate [NH,HC0 3 = 79.05] and ammonium carbamate [XH 4 NH 2 
= 78.07] , and yields not less than 30 per rent, nor more than 32 
n ht, of NH a . Preserve it in well-closed containers in a cool pi 
For medicinal purposes, use only the translucent portions. 

Ammonium Carbonate occurs in white, hard, translucent, striated mf 
having a strong odor of ammonia, without euipyrcuma, and a sharp, ammon 
taste. On exposure to the air, the salt loses both ammonia and carbon dio 
becoming opaque, and is finally converted into friable, porous lumps, or a i 
powder 

When heated, Ammonium Carbonate is volatilized, without charring 
vapor showing a strongly alkaline reaction with litmus; not more than 
per cent- of rendu* remains. 

One Om, of Ammonium Carbonate dissolves very slowly in 4 mils of \ 
at 25° C; it is decomposed by hot water, with the elimination of carbon dii 
rind ammonia. By prolonged boiling with water the salt is completely vo 
ized. Alcohol dissolves the carbamate leaving the acid carbonate. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) effervesces with acids, and is alk 
to litmus. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 50), when slightly supersaturated 
hydrochloric acid, does not respond to the Test for heavy metals <> 
Test No. 3). Five rails of a similar solution is not immediately affect e< 
barium chloride T-8. (sulpha 

Ten nub* of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20), on the addition 
slight excess of silver nitrate T.8., and subsequent supernatural inn with i 
acid, neither assumes a brown color (thiasidphate), nor becomes more than slij 
opalescent within two minutes (chloride). 

On slightly supersaturating an aqueous solution, containing I Gra. ol 
Bait, with nitric acid, and then e vap orating it to dryness on a water ba 
colorless and odorless residue is obtained Umpyreumaiic matter). 

Assay — Introduce about 2 Gnu of unaltered, I ranslucent Ammonium Cat 
ate into a tared weighing-bottle containing 10 mils of distilled water, ito 
weigh accurately and add 40 mils of distilled water and 50 mils of normal 
phuric acid V<S. and when solution is effected titrate the excess of :in,i 
normal potassium hydroxide V.S,, using methyl orange T.S. u indicator 
shows not less than 30 per cent, nor more than 32 per cent, of NH 3 . 

Each mil of normal sulphuric acid \\S. used corresponds to 0.01703 
of MHg. Each gramme of Ammonium Carbonate corresponds to not less 
17.6 mils nor more than 18,8 mils of normal sulphuric acid V.S. 

Preparation— Spirit us Ammonii Aromatieus. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 Gm.— Apothecaries, 5 grains, 

AMMONII CHLORIDUM 
Ammonium Chloride 

Ammon. Chi or. 

It contains, when dried to constant weight at 100° C, not less 
99.5 per cent, of NH«C1 (53.50). 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



45 



Ammonium Chloride is a white, crystalline or granular powder, without odor, 
halving a cooling and saline taste; somewhat hygrnscopie. 

One Gm. of Ammonium Chloride dissolves in 2.ti mils of water, 100 mils of 
aJoohol and in 8 mils of glycerin at 25° C; also in L4 mils of boiling water. 
axmiuxn Chloride, do ignition, ia volatilised without fusing. 
An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) in ice-cold water does not show an 
immediate acid reaction with litmus. 

er nitrate T.S. added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) produces 
a* ^white, curdy precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid but readily soluble in ammonia 

An aqueous solution of the salt, when heated with potassium hydroxide T.S., 
evolves ammonia. 

An aquenu.s solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
C»re Part II, Test No. 3). 

When acidulated with hydrochloric acid, 10 mils of an aqueous solution of 
ult (I in 10) dews not assume a red color on the addition of a few drops of 
ferric chloride T.S. {ffidphocyoMQU). 

Id 2 mils of nitric arid to 2 Gm. of the salt and evaporate the mixture to dry- 
ne» in a porcelain dish nn ;i waier hath; a white residue is obtained, which, 
Vital ignited, yields not more than 0.05 per cent, of non-volatile substances. 
I titj f lYoe ead as directed under the Assay for chlorides (90a Part II, Test 
1 using about 0.2 Gm. of Ammonium Chloride, previously dried to constant 
weight at 100° C. and accurately weighed. It shows, in the dried salt, not less 
than 99.5 per cent, of NH 4 CL 
Each md of tenth-normal silver nitrate V*S, corresponds to 0.005350 Gm. of 
gramme of Ammonium Chloride, previously dried, corresponds 
to not leas than 1SO.0 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Preparation — Trochisci Ammonii Chloridi. 
Average dose — Metric, 0,3 Gm. — -Apothecaries, 5 grains. 



AMMONII IODIDUM 
Ammonium Iodide 

A mm on* lad. 
It contains, when dried to constant weight at 100° C, not less than 
* per cent of NH*I (144,96), Preserve it in small, well-closed con- 
**toa*> protected from light. 

Ammonium Iodide occurs in minute, colorless, cubical crystals, or as a white, 
Pftmilar powder, odorless and having a sharp, saline Inula Tim. salt is very 
Wowopic, and soon becomes yellow or yell o wish-brown on exposure to air 
*n*\ li^lit, owing to the loss of ammonia and the liberation of iodine. 

monium Iodide dissolves in 0.6 mil of water, 3,7 mils of 

ilroholand in 1.5 mils of glycerin al 2f>° C; also in 0,5 mil of boiling water, 

m strongly heated t Ammonium Iodide evolves vapor of iodine, and vola* 

Wijtt without fusing, leaving not more than U.l per cent, of residue. 

An aqueous solution of the salt tl in 20) ia neutral or not mora than slightly 

" to litmus. When heated with potassium hydroxide T.S.. ammonia is 

jA^i ft few drops of ferric eld oride T,S. to 5 mils of an aqueous solution of 
T^h d in 30); iodine is liberated which imparts a violet color to chloroform 

*«•» ahaken with the solution. 

, *eu mils of an aqueous solution of Ammonium Iodide {1 in 20), when acidu- 

"**d with hydrochloric acid, is not rendered turbid by the addition of 1 mil of 

P°Wftuum sulphate T.S. {barium). 



m 



46 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OP THE 

Ten mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 150) does not at once asm 
a blue color upon the addition of 3 drops of potassium ferrocyanide T.S. («n 

Shake 5 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 150) with 1 mil of chl« 
form; no violet color is imparted to the latter {free iodine). 

An aqueous solution of Ammonium Iodide does not respond to the Test 
heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Assay — Proceed as directed under the Assay for iodides (see Part II, 1 
No. 5), using about 0.5 Gm. of Ammonium Iodide, previously dried to const 
weight at 100° C. and accurately weighed in a stoppered weighing-bottle, 
shows, in the dried salt, not less than 99 per cent, of NH4I. 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. corresponds to 0.014496 Gin 
NH4I. Each gramme of Ammonium Iodide, previously dried, corresponds 
not less than 68.3 mils nor more than 70.1 mils of tenth-normal silver nitj 
V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 Gm. — Apothecaries, 5 grains. 



AMMONII SALICYLAS 

Ammonium Salicylate 

Amnion. Salicyi. 

It contains, when dried for twenty-four hours in a desiccator o 
sulphuric acid, not less than 98 per cent, of NH4C7H5O8 or CeH 4 (C 
COONH4 (155.08). Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected ix 
heat and light. 

Ammonium Salicylate occurs in colorless, lustrous, monoclinic prisms 
plates, or as a white, crystalline powder; odorless, and having at first a sli(£ 
saline, bitter taste, with a sweetish after-taste. Permanent in dry air. 

One Gm. of Ammonium Salicylate dissolves in 1 mil of water and in 3 : 
of alcohol at 25° C. 

When heated, the salt fuses with decomposition, giving off inflammable vsv] 
and an odor of phenol, and is finally volatilized, leaving not more than 0.1 
cent, of ash. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) is colorless and neutral or slig) 
acid to litmus. When heated with potassium hydroxide T.S. ammonia is evoT 

Add a few drops of ferric chloride T.S. to an excess of a concentrated axjue 
solution of Ammonium Salicylate (1 in 4); a dark red color and a precipii 
are produced. In dilute solution (1 in 100) a deep violet-blue color appears. 

Diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid produces, in a concentrated aqua 
solution of the salt, a voluminous, white precipitate. 

Acidulate 10 mils of an aqueous solution of Ammonium Salicylate (1 in • 
with hydrochloric acid and filter; the filtrate does not respond to the Test i 
heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Ammonium Salicylate, previously dri> 
for twenty-four hours in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately wei&he 
in 10 mils of distilled water in a separator. Add to the solution 5 mils of cbTuti 
sulphuric acid, and extract the liberated salicylic acid by shaking out with thr 
successive portions of 25, 15 and 10 mils respectively of chloroform, passu 
the chloroform solution through a filter previously moistened with chlorofoi 
and removing any salicylic acid adhering to the stem of the funnel with a f< 
mils of chloroform. Evaporate the chloroform to about 5 mils, add 25 m 
of diluted alcohol which has been previously neutralised with tenth-nonx 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



47 



potassium hydroxide V.S., phenolphthalein TX being used as indicator, and 
titoU? this solution with tenth-norrual barium hydroxide V.S., using phenol- 
phthalein T.S. as indicator* It shows, in the dried salt, not less than 9-S per cent, 
of Nh\C 7 H a Osi. 

tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S. corresponds to 0.015509 
Oiil Of NB «G] 1 1 s(>3- Ea< "h gram me o f Ami noniuni S a 1 i < > 1 1 i 1 e , p re v i •> us 1 y d r i ed , 
cucraponds to not less than 63.2 mils of tenth-normal barium hydroxide V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm, — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 






AMMONII VALERAS 

Ammonium Valerate 

A HI in Oil. Valer,— Ammonium Valerianate 

A compound of ammonia and valeric acid having a somewhat varying 
^position. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Ammonium Valerate DCCUn in colorless, or white, quadrangular plates, emit- 
troi the odor of valeric acid; it is deliquescent in moist air, and has a sharp and 
metufa ta 

One Gm. of Ammonium Valerate dissolves in 0,3 mil of water and in 0.6 
ail of alcohol at 25° C; soluble in ether. 

When heate It fuses, gives off vapors of ammonia and valeric acid, 

axi is finally volatilized, leaving not more than 0.05 per cent, of residue. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) is acid to litmus, and when heated 
wh potassium hydroxide TJB. evolves ammonia. 

lturate slightly a concentrated aqueous solution of Ammonium Valer- 
*te with sulphuric acid: an oily layer of valeric acid rises to the surface. 

F'rwinitate completely II) mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 m 20) 
*ith ferric chloride T.»S,; the filtrate does not possess a deep red color {acetate). 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 60), when slightly acidulated with hydro- 
chloric acid and filtered through a small, wetted filter, does not respond to the 
Test for heavy metals (see Part 11, Test No. 3). 

Average dose — Metric, 0,5 Gm. — Apo t h e ca ri es, S grains. 



AMYGDALA DULCIS 

Sweet Almond 

Amygd. Dulc 

The ripe seeds of Prunus Amygdalus dulcis De Candolle (Fam. 
fo»«&). Preserve Sweet Almond in tightly-closed containers, adding 
* H drops of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride from time to time tu 
Pfcveat attack by insect*. 

Orite or oblong lanceolate, 17 to 25 mm. in length, 10 to 13 mm. in breadth 
*nd4 to 7 ma. in thickness; Bet ht brown with numerous parallel veins, 

toin and easily removed on soaking the seed in water; embryo straight, white, 
■Ad frith two plano-convex cotyledons; taste bland, sweet. 





Triturate Sweet Almond with water; a miik-wliite emulsion is produced 
which is not acid to litmus, and has no odor of bemaldehyde or hydrocyanic 
acid (bit !< r ofad 

The powder is creamy-white, exhibiting numerous very small oil globule* 
0.001 mm. or less in diameter, and larger oil globules and CTywtnlloicb, the latt^ 
sometimes with adhering globoids; fragments of parenchyma of endogpen* 
containing oil globules and aleurone grains; also occasional" fragments of sees*3 
coat with characteristic, more or less scattered, large, elliptical, tfain-wtille^ 
strongly lignified epidermal cells and narrow, closely spiral trachea SUr*^ 
grains are absent. 

Sweet Almond yields not more than 4 per cent, of ash. 

Preparation — Emnlmim Amygdala. 




AMYLXS NITRIS 
Amyl Nitrite 

Amy 1. N itris 

A liquid containing not less than 80 per cent, of C 5 IInXO a (117 JO) 
(chiefly iso-amyl nitrite). Preserve it in hermetically sealed glass bulbs, 
or in glass-stoppered vials, in a cool place, protected from light, 

Amyl Nitrite is a clear, yellowish liquid, of a peculiar, ethereal, fruity odoi 
and a pungent, aromatic taste. 

It is almost insoluble in water, rniscible with alcohol or ether. 

Specific gravity: 0.805 to 0.875 at 25° C. 

Amyl Nitrite is very volatile, even at a low temperature, and is inflammable 
burning with a yellow, luminous and sooty flame. 

Add 2 mils of sulphuric acid to a mixture of 2 drops of Amyl Nitrite and 2 
drops of water; amyl valerate is produced, recognizable by its odor on dilutioc 
with water- 
Add a few drops of Amyl Nitrite to a mixture of 1 mil of ferrous sulphate T.S. 
and 5 mils of diluted hydrochloric acid; a greenish-brown color is produced. 

Mix 1 mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.8, and 10 mils of distilled ratal 
in a test tube with a arop of phenolphthalein T.S. and add 5 mils of 
Nitrite; after inverting the tube a few times, the red tint of the aquequs layer "is 
still perceptible {free acid). 

A mixture of 1.5 mils of silver nitrate T.S. and 1.6 mils of alcohol with a feo 
drops of ammonia water does not become brown or black on adding 1 mil c 
Amyl Nitrite and gently heating the mixture (ahlthijtte). 

Assay — Transfer about 3 mils of Amyl Nitrite, which has been previousl 
shaken with 0.5 Gin. of potassium bicarbonate and carefully decanted, to a tare 
100 mil measuring-flask, containing about 20 mils of alcohol, and weiph 
accurately. Add sufficient alcohol to bring the volume to exactly 100 mils am 
mix thoroughly. Introduce into a nitrometer (see Part II, Test No. 19) e^2 
actly 10 mils of the alcoholic solo t ion, followed by 10 mils of potassium iodic 
T.S., and afterwards by 5 mils of diluted sulphuric acid. \\ hen the volunc 
of gas has become constant (within thirty to sixty minutes), note the amouK 
collected, multiply this volume in roils by 4.8 aod divide the product by Ur 
original weight in grammes of the Amyl Nitrite, At standard temperatuJ 
and pressure; the quotient represents the percentage of Amyl Nitrite in t\ 
liquid. The temperature correction is one-third of one per cent, of the tota 
percentage just fount! for each degree, — additive if the temj>erature 





UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



49 



25*C. t mid subtract! ve if it is above 25° C* The barometric correction is four- 
thirtieths of one per cent of the total perfteritagn just fount] for each millimeter, 
r if it is above 760 mm., and subtract! ve if it is below 760 nun. 



Average dose — By inhalation, Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 
3 minims. 



AVEIU 

3 m 

AMYLUM 

Starch 

AmyL— Com Starch 
TV starch separated from the grain of Zea Mays Linn£ (Fam. 

In fine powder, or irregular, angular, white masses; consisting chiefly of 
^ul. rounded or spheroidal Man -li grains frmn 0.(103 to 0.035 mm. in dnini- 
tf*f, usLu*lly with a lenticular or 3- to 4-rayed central cleft, or in the rounded 
Plica, uith a circular marking; inodorous; teste slight, characteristic, 

Tl# individual starch grains are colored a deep blue by iodine T.S. Corn 
"^h ig insoluble in Opflfl WAte? and in alcohol; upon boiling 1 Qm. of Starch 
*i[b 15 mils of water and cooling it yields a translucent, whitish jeuV, 

l^inrrate about 0,"j Qm. of Starch; not more than 0J per oent, of ash remains. 
. Triturate about 0,5 Otn, of Starch with 5 mils of distilled water; the mixture 
BDftttal to litmus. 

BJon — Glyceritum AmylL 
ANISUM 
Anise 

An Is. — Aniseed 
The dried ripe fruit of PimpincUa Anisum Linn*? (Fam. Umbelliferm) 
without the presence or admixture of more than 3 per cent, of foreign 
««ls or other vegetable matter, 

Cremoearp broadly ovoid or p}Tiform p laterally compressed, from 3 to 6 mm. in 
length and from 2 to 3 mm. in breadth; meriearps usually cohering and attached 
to a slander pedicel from 2 to 12 mm, in length; summit, with a ring-like disk and 
^projecting, diverging styles; externally grayish or green ish-gray. seldom grayish- 
Wn, slightly pubescent; each with five light brown aliform ridges and in cross- 
■ttion with from 15 to 45 vitta?. Odor and taste agreeable and aromatic. 

fader I scope transverse sections of Anise show an epidermal layer 

*ith numerous papilla; and short, one-celled, non-glandular hairs having very 
toidc papillose walls; primary ribs each with a 6m all fibro-vascular bundle, 
■flmunded by a few sclerenchymatous fibers; vittee or oil-tubes from 15 to 45 
»o number, extending as a more or less interrupted circle in the tissues of the 
Qoocarp on the dorsal side of each mericarp; 2 large vittce on the eonunissural 
Jrtiee, ts&cb separated from the other tissues of the mericarp by a large cavity 
due to shrinkage of the seed-coat; inner epidermis of pericarp consisting of a 
Ityerof narrow, tangentially elongated eeUe i losely united with the 1 -layered 
■ed-«oat, the inner walls of which are yellowish-brown and considerably thick- 
*tod; endosperm of polygonal, thick-walled cells filled with spherical or ellip- 
»rone grains, each containing a .small rosette aggregate of calcium 
e; the aleurone grains surrounded with an oily protoplasm, the oil of which 





is liberated upon mounting sections in hydrated cbloral T.S,, in the form of sm&J 
globules; epidermal layer near the middle of the commissural surface compose* 
of 2 or 3 rows of cells with thick poroofl walls, and beneath which occur sm&J 
groups of thick- walled cells resembling stone cells. 

If ip powder is yellowish-brown; consisting of numerous irregular fragment* 
of |>eriearp showing portions of the yellowish vittffi, fragments with tracheae an* 
sr[r jrrichymatous fibers of carpophore; cells of endosperm Ulled with ah 
grains about 0.006 mm. in diameter, each usually enclosing a rosette aggregate 
crystal of flriflnini oxalate about 0.002 mm. in diameter; non-glandular hair 
1 -celled, from 0.025 to 0.2 nun. in length, either straight or curved and witl 
numerous, slight, centrifugal projections on the outer eurfa> 

Heat 1 Gm. of the whole drug or powdered drug with 10 mils of potassiun 
hydroxide T.S.; no mouse-like odor develops (fruits of Comurn mmulatum Iiuae*) 

Anise yields not nioiv than per rent, of ash, 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm.— Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



ANTIMOXII ET POTASSII TARTRAS 

Antimony and Potassium Tartrate 






An tint* et Pot. Tart.— Antimony L Potassium Tartrate Tartrated Antimony 

Tartar Emetic 

It contains not less than 98.5 per cent, of K(SbQ)C4H«O a +}£*!*€ 
(332.34). Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Antimony and Potassium Tartrate occurs as colorless," transparent crystals a 
the rhombic system, or as a wliite granular powder; without odor, and havinj 
a sweet, afterwards disagreeable, metallic taste. The crystals effloresce upol 
exposure to the air. 

Due Gm, of Antimony and Potassium Tartrate dissolves in 12 mils of wate? 
and in 15 mils of glycerin at 25° C; also in 3 mils of boiling water; insolubl 
in alcohol 

Its aqueous solution (1 in 20) is slightly acid to litmus. 

When heated to redness it chars T emits an odor resembling that of burnim 
sugar, and leaves a blackened residue having an alkaline reaction and impartial 
a violet color when a small fragment is held in a non-luminous flame. 

In an aqueous solution of Antimony and Potassium Tartrate (1 in 20). an<|i_ 
lated with hydrochloric acid, hy d rogen sulphide TX produces an orang* 
red precipitate, which is soluble in ammonium sulphide T..S. or potassiua 
hydroxide T.S. 

Ten mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 100), acidulated with acetJ 
acid, does not at once assume a blue color on the addition of 5 drops of pota^iuJ 
ferrocyanide T.»S. (iron). 

Dissolve (L2 Gm. of Antimony and Potassium Tartrate in 5 mils of hydr* 
chloric acid; the solution does not respond to Bettcndorfs Test for arsenic {& 
Part II, Test No. 2). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0,5 Gm, of Antimony and Potassium Tartrate 
accurately weighed, in 30 mils of distilled water, add 25 mils of a cold, sat 
solution of sodium bicarbonate and a few drops of starch T,S, and immediate] 
titrate this solution with tenth-normal iodine V.S., to the production of a permi 
nent blue color. It shows not. less than 98, o per cent , of K iSbO)GtlL|Ge-!- 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. used corresponds to 0.016617 Gri 
of KtSbOJC^HiOa-h^HaO. Each gramme of Antimony and Potassium Ta- 
trate corresponds to not less than 59.3 mils of tenth-normal iodine Y 
Preparations — Mistura Glycyrrbizse Composita Syrupus Seillae Compositus, 

Average dose— Expectorant, Metric, 0*005 Gm. — Apoth€ 
caries, J 1 2 grain. 




ANTXPYRINA 

Antipyrine 

An tipyt* — Phenazone 

nyldiroethylpyrazolon [C u H la ON B or C 3 HON 8 {CH 3 ) 3 ,CeH 5 = 

U2], Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Antipyrine occurs as a white, almost odorless, crystalline powder or in tabular 
k with a slightly bitter taste, 

Qm. of Antipyrine dissolves in less than 1 mil of water, in 1,3 mils of 
1 mil of chloroform, and in 43 mils of ether, at 25° C. 
ltsinuetius dilution (I in 80) is neutral to litmus. 
ItDi. 'i 111° and 113° C. 

TV addition of tannic acid TJ3, to an aqueous solution of Antipyrine produces 
in abundant white precipitate, 

i of sodium nitrite and 12 mils of an aqueous solution of Anti- 
pjrin^ >»; 1 in 100); a nearly colorless liquid i> obtained, which, upon the addition 
of I mi! of diluted sulphuric ictd, develops a deep green oolor due to the forma- 
D 1 1 roso-an t ipyrine. 
One drop (if ferric chloride T.S. added to 2 mils of a dilute aqueous solution 
of Antipyrine (1 in 1 000) produces a deep red color, which, upon the addition 
of 10 drops of sulphuric acid, is changed to light yellow. 
Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Antipyrine; not more than 0.1 per cent, of ash 



tatipyrine is completely soluble in 1 part of cold distilled water, the solution 
hen* colorless or at most slightly yellow when viewed crosswise in a test tube 
of mil 20 mm. in diameter. 

An aqueous solution of Antipyrine does not respond to the Test for heavy 
Heals laee Part II, Test No. 3). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 Gm.— Apothecaries, 5 grains. 

APOMORPHLN.E IIYDROCHLORIDUM 

Apomorphiiic Hydrochloride 

Apomorph. Hydrochl. — Apomorphine Chloride 

The hydrochloride [Cifli 7 ObNHCl+.^HaO = 312.62] of an alkaloid 

Ptytred from morphine by the abstraction of one molecule of water. 

ntterve it, protected from light, in small, well-stoppered vials, which 

ICQ previously rinsed with diluted hydrochloric acid and dried. 

Apomorphine Hydrochloride must be rejected if it imparts at once 
ttejncrald-green color to 100 parts of distilled water when shaken with 
frailest tube. 

, Apotnorphine Hydrochloride occurs in minute, white or grayish- white, glisten- 
ing monoelinie prisms; odorless, and acquiring a greenish tint upon exposure 
to light and air. 

One Qm. of Apomorphine Hvdrorhloridr dissolves in 50 mils of water and in 
•"mil* of alcohol l.<» in 17 mils of water at 80° C; very slightly 

*>hihle in chloroform or ether. 

ta saturated aqueous solution is neutral to litmus. 




52 



THE FHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



The salt loses its water of crystallisation slowly over sulphuric acid and 
anhydrous salt regains the water lost when exposed to the air. 

The addition of a solution of sodium bicarbonate to an aqueous solutior 
the salt (I in 100) produces a white or pale greenish-white precipitate, wl 
rapidly becomes green on exposure to air and then dissolves in ether wit 
violet color and in chloroform with a violet-blue color. The salt dissolve) 
nitric acid with a dark purple color, 

♦Silver nitrate T.S. P added to an aqueous solution of the salt, produces a w, 
precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid; the precipitate soon turns black by rec 
tion to metallic silver, and is instantly reduced by the addition of amm< 
water. 

No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.2 Gm. of Apomorphine Hy< 
chloride. 

Shake about 0.1 Gm. of the salt with 10 rails of ether; the latter acquires 
more than a pale reddish color (decom position products). 

Metric Apotfaecario 

Average dose — Expectorant, 0.003 Gm. — 1 20 g™u 

Emetic, by mouth, 0,01 Gm. — j| grab 

Emetic, hypodermic, Q.O05 Gm. — 3 12 g r ^ii 



AQUA 

Water 






Water is a colorless, limpid liquid, practically tasteless and odorless. ^ 
heated nearly to the boiling point and agitated, no disagreeable odor is evol 

Wftter is neutral to litmus 

Evaporate 100 mils of Water in a platinum dish; it leaves a residue weig 
not more than 0,03 Gm. {solids) and this residue, when carefully heate 
redness, evolves no visible fumes and shows no appreciable charring (org 
impurities). 

Add 1 mil of hydrochloric acid to 100 mils of Water and then add 50 
of hydrogen sulphide T.S. ; it shows no darkening after standing fifteen miii 
(had or copper). 

Add 1 mil of hydrochloric acid to 100 mils of Water and then add 1 m 
potassium ferrocyanide T.S.; no blue coloration is produced immediately (i 

Add 0.5 mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate VJB, to 200 mils of Water, he* 
boiling, filter and add to the filtrate 3 drops of potassium chromate T.i 
red precipitate is produced (chloride). 

Add 1 drop of hydrochloric acid, 1 mil pf sulphanilic acid T.S. and 1 m 
naphthyl limine hydrochloride T.S. to 100 mils 0] Water in a Nessler jar, stii 
with a glass rod after each addition. Closely COW the jar with a glass p 
place it upon a white surface and view it from above; no pink coloration apf 
within five minutes (nitrite}. 

Add 1 mil of sodium carbonate T.S* to 100 mils of Water and evaporat* 
liquid in a small porcelain dish just to dryness. Moisten the residue thorou 
with 2 mils of phenolsulphonic acid T.S,, gently warm the dish, add 20 mi 
ammonia water and sufficient distilled water to measure 100 mils. Any vc 
color produced is not greater than that obtained by evaporating 0.0021 U0 
potassium nitrate, dissolved in 3 mils of distilled water and 1 mil of soc 
carbonate T.S., to dryness and treating the residue in the same manner as 
residue from the Water. The comparison of colors must be made in Ne 
jars of the same diameter arid size [nitrate). 

Add 2 mils of alkaline mercuric potassium iodide T.S. to 100 mils of W 
in a Nessler jar and mix thoroughly. Place the jar on a white surface and 
the contents from above; the water does not at once assume a deep yeJUr 
orange color (ammonium compounds). 





UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



^ mile of Water with 10 mils of diluted sulphuric acid in a clean porcelain 
iit-ii inn] heat it ngndh to boiling then add CM mil of tenth-normal potAnum 
pernuuiganatr \ ".S. and boil the liquid for beo minutes; the color of the liquid 
hoot completely destroyed (oxygen consuming capacity :ls a measure of organic 
impuritiu)* 



AQUA AMMOXLK 

Ammonia Water 

Aq» Amnion. 

An aqueous solution of ammonia [NXI a - 17.03] containing not less 
than 9.5per cent, nor more than 10,5 per cent, by weight of NH 3 . This 
solution deteriorates on keeping, and must be tested frequently. Pre- 
serve it in a cool place in glass-stoppered bottles made of hard glass free 

(mini 

Ammonia Water is a colorless, transparent liquid, having a very pungent 
characteristic odor and a caustic, alkaline taste. Donee white fumes are produced 
; a glass rod, dipped into hydrochloric add, near the surface of Am- 
ratar. 
Ammonia odry alkaline to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 0.95S at 25° C. 

AM 0.1 mil of IflOfeb-normal potassium permanganate VA to 10 mils of 
Ammonia Water, which has been slightly supersaturated with diluted sulphuric 
■od; the pink color is not completely destroyed within ten minutes (oxidizaUt 

When neutralised and made slightly acid with hydrochloric acid, 10 mils of 
Ammonia Water does not resjjond to* the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, 
»o. 3). 
Twenty-rive mils of Ammonia Water, when evaporated to dryness in a plati- 
num or porcelain dish and heated to constant weight at 120° C, leaves not more 
than 0.005 Gm. of residue. 

k$s*y — Pour about B mils of Ammonia Writer into a tared, stoppered weighing- 

bottle containing about 10 mils of distilled water and weigh accurately. Dilute 

50 mils of distilled water and titrate with normal sulphuric 

and \ litmus or methyl orange T.S. as indicator, 1 1 shows not less 

than U it. nor more than 10,-5 per cent., by weight, of NHs> 

h mil of normal sulphuric acid V,S, ii.-ni cnrri-ipnuds to 0.01703 Gm, 
of XIIj, Bad) gramme of Ammonia Water corresponds to not less than 5.57 
mils nor more than 6,10 mils of normal sulphuric acid V.S. 

Preparations — Linimentum Ammonia? Spirit us Ammonia; Aromaticm 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



AQUA AMMONLE FORTIOR 

Stronger Ammonia Water 

Aq. Amnion. Fort* 

An aqueous solution of ammonia [NH a = 17,03] containing not less 
i 27 \ nor more than 29 per cent., by weight, uf NH 3 , This 

fata deteriorate on keeping, and must be tested frequently. Pre- 



i 



54 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

serve it in a cool place in partially filled, strong, glass-stoppere 
made of hard glass free from lead. Great caution should be used 
ling this liquid. 

Stronger Ammonia Water is a colorless, transparent liquid, having 
sively pungent, characteristic odor and a very caustic and alka 
Stranger Ammonia Water must never be tasted unless greatly diluted. 

Stronger Ammonia Water is strongly alkaline to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 0.897 at 25° C. 

Stronger Ammonia Water, when diluted with twice its volume c 
water, responds to the tests for identity and purity under Aqua Arntr, 

Assay — Pour about 2 mils of Stronger Ammonia Water into a tared 
taining about 50 mils of distilled water, weigh accurately, and titrate w 
sulphuric acid V.S., using litmus or methyl orange T.S. as indicator, 
not less than 27 per cent, nor more than 29 per cent., by weight, of ^ 

Each mil of normal sulphuric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.( 
of NH 3 . Each gramme of Stronger Ammonia Water corresponds 
than 15.8 mils nor more than 17 mils of normal sulphuric acid V.S. 



AQUA AMYGDALAE AMAILE 

Bitter Almond Water 

Aq. Amygd. Amar. 

Oil of Bitter Almond, one milliliter 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, nine hundred and 
ninety-nine milliliters 

To make one thousand milliliters 

Dissolve the oil of bitter almond in the recently boiled distill 
by agitation, and filter. 

Note — Bitter Almond Water contains a mere trace of hyc 
acid and differs from the preparation of the same name, recor 
by the International Protocol, 1906, which contains 0.1 per 
hydrocyanic acid. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fluid: 

AQUA ANISI 

Anise Water 

Aq. Anisi 

Pil op Anise, two milliliters 

Purified Talc, fifteen grammes 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1 



Prepare the Anise Water b} r the General Process described under 
Aqua Aromatic** (page 60). 

I Average dose— Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms, 



AQUA AURANTH FLORUM 
Orange Flower Water 

Aq. Aurant. I lor, 

Stronger Orange Flower Water, 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, each, one volume. 

hem immediately before u 

Orange Flower Water complies with the testa for identity and purity given 
under Aqua AttrarUii Fhrum Fortior. 



Preparation — Syrupus Aurantii Honim. 



tAQUA AURANTII FLORUM FORTIOR 
Stronger Orange Flower Water 
Aq, Aurant P Flor, Fort* 
The saturated aqueous distillate prepared by distilling the fresh 
*er* of Citrus Aurfitttiiuti amara Lirme (Fam. Rutacetr) with water. 
Pteservc it in bottles stoppered with a pledget of purified cotton and in 
* dark, cool place. 

nger Orange Flower Water is colorless and dear or only faintly opalescent, 
and po ua fM oop a strong and pleasant odor and fcartc of orange blossoms, and 
must he free from empyreuma, mistiness, or mucoid growths. 

ral <»r only slightly acid to litmus, and 100 mils, when evaporated 
to dryness on a water bath and the residue subsequently dried in an oven to 
tpMlant weight at lOCP i\, yields not more than 0,001 Gm. of residue. It 
0*tt no reaction with hydrogen sulphide T.S. or with sodiutti sulphide T.H. 
[maUtc impurities). 

Preparation — Aqua Aurantii Florum. 

AQUA CAM1MI01U3 
Camphor Water 

Aq. Camph, 

Camphor, eight grammes 8 Gm. 

Alcohol, eight milliliters. . . 8 mils 

ft*mED Talc, fifteen grammes 15 Gm, 

Distilled Water, recently boiled r a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 



m 



►6 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

Triturate the camphor with the alcohol in a mortar, add the pit- 
ied talc; continue the trituration until the alcohol has evaporated an 
tdd the recently boiled distilled water. Filter the mixture, and pe 
,he filtrate repeatedly through the filter until the Camphor Water- 
perfectly clear. 

Average dose — Metric, 10 mils — Apothecaries, 2)£ fluidrachnr: 



AQUA CHLOROFORMI 

Chloroform Water 

Aq. Chlorof • 

Chloroform, 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, each, a sufficient quantity. 

To a convenient quantity of recently boiled distilled water, containe 
n a dark amber-colored bottle, add enough chloroform to mainta: 
i slight excess of the chloroform after the contents have been repeated- 
uid thoroughly shaken. Preserve it in a cool, dark place. 

When Chloroform Water is required for use, pour off the needed quai 
:ity, refill the bottle with recently boiled distilled water and saturate 
>y thorough agitation, taking care that there be always an excess i 
chloroform present. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachm 



AQUA CINNAMOMI 

Cinnamon Water 

Aq. Cinnam. 

Oil op Cinnamon, two milliliters 2 mi 

Purified Talc, fifteen grammes 15 Gr 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 m: 

Prepare the Cinnamon Water by the General Process described und 
Aquce Aromaticce (page 60). 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachir 



AQUA CREOSOTI 

Creosote Water 
Aq. Creosot. 

Creosote, ten milliliters . 10 mils 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, nine hundred and 
ninety jnilliUters 990 mils 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Agitate the creosote vigorously with the recently boiled distilled water 
and filter, returning the filtrate to the filter until it is perfectly clear. 

iThis preparation must not be dispensed unless it has been recently 
prepared. 
Average dose — Metric, 10 mils — Apothecaries, 2]^ fluidrachms. 
AQUA DESTILLATA 
Distilled Water 
Aq. DesL 

Water [H a O- 18.010] purified by distillation. 

k Water, one thousand volumes 1000 voL 
To make seven hundred and fifty volumes 750 vol. 
ftstil the water from a suitable apparatus provided with a block-tin 
Utas condenser. Collect the first one hundred volumes and reject this 
portion. Then collect seven hundred and fifty volumes and keep the 
Distilled Water in glass-stoppered bottles, which have been rinsed with 
hot distilled water immediately before being filled* 

Distilled Water is a colorless, limpid liquid, without odor or taste, and neutral 
to the official indicators (see Part II). 

irate portions of 100 mils each of Distilled Water are not affected by 
tin addition of barium chloride T.S. {sulphaU); silver nitrate T.8. (chloride); 
jjjwnonium oxalate T.S.( calcium); hydrogen sulphide T.S., or sodium sulphide 
TA(wMtafa). 

^stilled Water shows no deep yellow, orange or brown coloration when 1 mil of 
"tier's reagent is added to 100 mils of the Water {ammonia). 

Add 50 mils of calcium hydroxide T.S. to 25 mils of Distdled Water; the 
mixture remains clear and transparent (carbon dioxide). 

Evaporate 100 mils of Distilled Water to dryness on a water bath and suh- 
Jpifcntly dry the residue in an oven to constant weight at 100° C; not more 
"J* 0.001 Gra. of residue remains. 

Heat 100 mils of Distilled Water to boiling, acidulate it with 10 mils of 
1 sulphuric acid, and subsequently add 0.1 mil of tenth-normal potassium 
r*flnanuaiiate V.S. The color of the liquid is not completely destroyed by boil- 
^ h for ten minutes (argentic or other oxidizohk imbalances). 





58 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

AQUA DESTILLATA STERILISATA 

Sterilized Distilled Water 
Aq. Desk Steril. 

Water, freshly distilled, a sufficient quantity. 

Transfer the necessary quantity of freshly distilled water to a flasl 
of hard glass of sufficient size which has previously. been cleansed anc 
sterilized as described under Sterilization (see Part II). Close the moutH 
of the flask with a pledget of sterilized purified cotton, boil the content! 
for thirty minutes and allow the water to cool without removing the 
cotton plug. Finally protect the mouth of the flask and the cotton 
pledget from infection through dust by wrapping the top of the flask 
tightly with paper. 

Sterilized Distilled Water should be used within forty-eight houn 
after its preparation. 

AQUA FCENICULI 

Fennel Water 

Aq. Fcenic. 

Oil of Fennel, two milliliters 2 mil 

Purified Talc, fifteen grammes 15 Gm 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mil 

Prepare the Fennel Water by the General Process described unde 
Agues AromaticcB (page 60). 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachmE 

AQUA HAMAMELIDIS 

Hamamelis Water 

Aq. Hamam.— Witch Hazel Water Distilled Extract of Witch Haael 

A saturated aqueous liquid obtained by distilling with steam a 
water the bark, twigs, smaller stems or the entire shrub of Hamameh 
virginiana Linn£ (Fam. Hamamelidacece) collected in the autumn, an. 
adding one hundred and fifty mils of alcohol to each eight hundred an 
fifty mils of distillate. Preserve it in tightly-closed containers in 
cool place. 



tTNlTED STATES OF AMERICA. 



59 



Hjunamelis Water is a clear and colorless, or not more than faintly opalescent 
or slightly yellowish liquid having a characteristic odor and taste. It is 

t neutral or only faintly acid to litmus. 
Specific gravity ; li M79 to 0.982 at 25° C. 
It must be free from mucoid or fungous growths and must not have an 
acetous odor. It gives no reaction with hydrogen sulphide T.S. or with sodium 
wlptade T.S. (metallic impurities). 

Evaporate 100 mils of ffimiunritt Water to dryness on a water bath; not 
more tW 0.025 Gm. of residue remains {dissolved impurities). 

■Mains not less than 14 per cent, of absolute alcohol, by volume, when 
•rtimaled as directed under Determination of alcohol in official preparations 
(**PartIl, Test No. 14). 

Adds drops of an aqueous solution of resorcinol (1 in 200) to 5 mils of Hama- 
D^J Water and then carefully pour this upon 5 mils of sulphuric acid, con- 
tiinadin a test tube, in such a manner that the two liquids do not mix. After 
•landing for three minutes a rose-red ring does not appear at the line of con- 
tact of the liquids nor does a distinct, white layer appear above this zone 
{J<*maiikhyde), 

Ten mils of Hamamelis Water gives no reaction for methyl alcohol when 
tested as directed under Alcohol for the detection of methyl alcohol. 

I AQUA MENTILE PIPERITA 
Peppermint Water 
Aq. Menth. Pip- 
op Peppermint, two milliliters 2 mils 

PnuriED Talc, fifteen grammes 15 Gm. 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

fteparethe Peppermint Water by the General Process described under 
Aqm AromaticcE (page 80] . 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidraehms, 

AQUA MENTILE VIRIDIS 

Spearmint Water 

Aq, Menth. Vir. 

Oft op Spearmint, two milliliters 2 mils 

*Wn;L, Talc, fifteen grammes 15 Gm. 

Billed Water, recently boiled, a sufficient quantity f ^^_^^ 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Prepare the Spearmint Water by the General Process described under 
^ArtmaHaz (page 60). 

Average DOS&— Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 





60 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OP THB 

AQUA ROSiE 
Rose Water 

Aq. Ros. 

Stronger Rose Water, 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, each, one volume. 

Mix them immediately before use. 

Rose Water complies with the tests for identity and purity described undo 
Aqua Rosa Foriior. 

AQUA ROS.E FORTIOR 

Stronger Rose Water 

Aq. Ros. Fort. 

The saturated aqueous distillate prepared by distilling the fresh flowers 
of Rosa centifolia Linn6 (Fam. Rosacece) with water. Preserve it in bot- 
tles stoppered with a pledget of purified cotton, in a cool, dark place. 



Stronger Rose Water is colorless and clear, and possesses a strong and pie 
odor and a taste of fresh rose blossoms, and must be free from empyreumai 
mustiness, or mucoid growths. 

It is neutral or only slightly acid to litmus and 100 mils, when evaporated t- 
dryness on a water bath and the residue subsequently dried in an oven to con 
stant weight at 100° C, yields not more than 0.001 Gm. of residue. It give- 
no reaction with hydrogen sulphide T.S. or with sodium sulphide T.S. (tnetalln 
impurUies). 

Preparations — Aqua Rosse Unguentum Aquae Rosse. 

AQILE AROMATTOE 

Aromatic Waters 

Aromatic Waters, when prepared from volatile oils, are intended to b- 
as nearly as practicable, saturated solutions, which must be clear sim. 
free from solid impurities, and, unless otherwise directed, should he 
made by the following general process: 

General Process 

Volatile Oil, two milliliters 2 m9 

Purified Talc, fifteen grammes 15 Get 

Distilled Water, recently boiled, one thousand milliliters 1000 mS 

Triturate the volatile oil with the purified talc, add the recent^ 
boiled distilled water gradually with continued trituration, filter, aa 
pass the filtrate through the filter repeatedly until the Aromatic Wat* 
is perfectly clear. 



If preferred, the solution of the volatile oil may be made by replacing 
the purified talc by purified siliceous earth, or by pulped filter paper; 
or a solution of the volatile oil may lie prepared with recently boiled 
distilled water, by direct addition and filtration, after shaking. Aro- 
matic Waters may also be made by the distillation of a mixture of the 
drug or volatile oil with water. In each case the method used mnst 
yield * finished product which meets the official requirements and cor- 
MpCttb with that obtained by the general process. Aromatic Waters 
should not be permitted to freeze, 

ARGENTI NITRAS 
Silver Nitrate 

Arg. Nit. 

It contains, when finely powdered and dried to constant weight in a 
C over sulphuric acid, in the dark, not less than 99.8 per cent. 
of AgNOs (169.89). Preserve it in dark amber-colored vials, protected 
bum light. 

&lver Nitrate occurs as colorless, transparent, tabular, rhombic crystals, 
becoming gray or grayish-black on exposure to li^ht in the present of organic 
Batter; without odor, I >ui having a bitter, caustic and strongly imrtallif I 

(fa Silver Nitrate dissolves in 0.4 mil of water and in 30 mils of 

*Miol at 25° C.| also in slightly mora than 0.1 mil of boiling water and in 8,6 
Buliof bo, ol; slightly soluble in ether, 

i a porcelain crucible to about 200° C, the salt melts, forming 
* faintly yellow* liquid, which, on moling, congeals to a pure white, crystalline 
In **. At a higher temperature it is gradually decomposed with the evolution 
"A nitrogen oxides. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10J is clear and colorless and is neutral 
tobtnuis. 

Uoric acid added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 50) psodUM 
le, curdy precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, but readily soluble in ammonia 

IGl in aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) in a test tube with a drop of 
"iplMtjyUmme T.S. and then carefully pour on sulphuric add so as to form a 
■PNite layer; ■ deep blue uulur appears at the line of contact. 

dilution of the salt (1 in I (J) is nol colored even faintly blue by the 

I r ess of a mmo n i a w a t er (co pper ) . 

Assay— 1 1 bout 0.8 Gm. of finely powdered Silver Nitrate, previously 

J^sd sulphuric acid, in the dark, and accurately weighed, in 

lied water, add nitric ;i<-id and '. nic ammonium 

J"lAateT.S. and titrate the mixture with tenth-normal potassium sulplrocyan&te 

the dried suit, not lees than 99.8 per cent, of AgNO a . 

H&ch tnil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate VJ3. used corresponds to 

^18889 Gm. of AgNOs. Kaeh gramme of Silver Nit rate, dried to constant 

**&ht t corresponds to not less than 58.7 mils of tenth-normal potassium sul- 

^ptntlon — Argent i Nitras Fusus. 

eraGE dose— Metric. 0.01 Gm, — Apothecaries, 1$ grain. 



^^^^^^^H 



m 



62 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 

ARGENTI NITRAS FUSUS 

Moulded Silver Nitrate 

Arg. Nit. Fus.— Fused Silver Nitrate Lunar Caustic 

It contains not less than 94.5 per cent, of AgNO t (169.89). 

Silver Nitrate, one hundred grammes 100 G 

Hydrochloric Acid, four grammes 4 G 

Add the hydrochloric acid to the silver nitrate, contained in a por 
lain dish, and melt the mixture at as low a temperature as possib 
Stir it well, and pour the melted mass into suitable moulds. Preser 
it in dark amber-colored vials, protected from light. 

Moulded Silver Nitrate is a white, hard solid, generally in the form of pent 
or cones, showing a fibrous fracture, becoming gray or grayish-black on exposi 
to light: odorless, and having a bitter, caustic, and strongly metallic taste. 

One 6m. of Moulded Silver Nitrate, with the exception of about 5 per ce 
which is silver chloride, dissolves in 0.4 mil of water and in 30 mils of alcol 
at 25° C.; also in slightly more than 0.1 mil of boiling water and in 6.5 mils 
boiling alcohol; slightly soluble in ether. 

A filtered, aqueous solution of Moulded Silver Nitrate (1 in 10) is neutral 
litmus, and responds to the tests for identity and purity under Argenti Nitr> 

Assay — Add about 0.8 Gm. of Moulded Silver Nitrate, accurately weighed, 
50 mils of distilled water and, when the silver nitrate has dissolved, filter t 
solution. Thoroughly wash the filter and sediment with distilled water, a 
2 mils of nitric acid and 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate T.S. to the mhi 
filtrate and washings and titrate this liquid with tenth-normal potassium sulpl 
cyanate V.S. It snows not less than 94.5 per cent, of AgNOt. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. used corresponds 
0.016989 Gm. of AgNO ? . Each gramme of Moulded Silver Nitrate correspoc 
to not less than 55.6 mils of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate VJ3. 



ARGENTI OXIDUM 

Silver Oxide 

Arg. Oxid. 

It contains, when dried to constant weight at 120° C, not less tb 
99.6 per cent, of AgaO (231.76). Preserve it in well-stoppered, dark a: 
ber-colored vials. It must not be triturated with readily oxidizable or co: 
bustible substances, and must not be brought in conjtact with ammon. 

Silver Oxide is a heavy, dark brownish-black powder, easily reduced by « 
posure to light; odorless, and having a metallic taste. 

Silver Oxide is very slightly soluble in water, to which, however, it imparts 
alkaline reaction; insoluble in alcohol; it is dissolved by nitric acid. 

When heated in a porcelain crucible to about 250° to 300° C. Silver Oxide 
ranidly decomposed, with the evolution of oxygen, leaving a residue of metal 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



63 



Dissolve about 0.2 Gm, of the Oxide in a mixture of 1 mil of nitric acid and 

2 mils o/ distilled water, add 10 mils of ammonia water and dilute the liquid 

in; 10 mils of this solution does not immediately become cloudy upon 

«* addition of 1 mil of nitric acid (chloride). 

A solution of the Oxide in nitric acid is colorless, and responds to the tests 

Ay and purity under Argenti NUtos when the testa are applied to a 

»totion ofproportionate strength. 

A ssay— Dissolve about (MS Gm, of Silver Oxide, previously dried to constant 
*B$htat 120° C. and accurately weighed, in 3 mils of nitric acid and 60 : 
dfculfaj water in a flask t add 2 mils nf ferric ammonium sulphate T.8. and titrate 
ire with tenth-normal ixjtassium sulphocyanate V.S. It shows, in the 
UmSlhnK Oxide, not less than 09. ti per cent, of Aggi K 

il of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. used corresponds to 
Gm. of AgaO. Each gramme of Silver Oxide, dried to oonstaat 
rirre*i**n<ls to not less than 8o\Q mils of tenth-normal potassium 
wiphocyanate VB, 

Average dose— Metric, 0.06 Gm— Apothecaries, I grain, 



ARNICA 

Arnica, 

A rule. — -Arnica Flowers 

The dried flower-heads of Arnica monUina Linn6 (Fam. Composite). 
Consisting chiefly of the tubular and ligulate flowers, occasionally with Um 
involucre and receptacle present; invotueral bracts narrowly lanceolate, about 
I an. in leneth, dark green and pubescent; receptacle slightly convex, deeply 
jhted and densely short-hairy; ray flowers bright yellow, the ligulate portion 
i cm in length, more or less added lengthwise, 3-toothcd, 7- to 12-veiried, 
pttitiu&te; tubular flowers perfect, reddish-yellow, stamens without a tail-like 
appendage (distinguished from anthers id (towers <*f Inula Htiruium Linne, 
which have two bristles or long tails at the base); the achenes spindle-shaped, 
from 5 to 7 mm, in length, dark brown, finely striate, glandular-pubescent and sur- 
ttounted by a pappus a little longer than the achene and composed of a single 
nrde of nearly white barbellate bristles; odor characteristic and * agreeable ; 
t*«te bitter and acrid. 

The powder is yellowish-brown; pollen grains numerous, from 0.025 to G\(KJ5 
■**. in diameter," spherical , triangular in section and spinose; non-glandular 
tab of three kinds, either Unicellular, 1- to 6-ceUed, or consisting of a pair of 
unicellular hairs with numerous pores' on the dividing wall; glandular hairs of 
{tae kinds, either with a large unicellular stalk and a unicellular, glandular 
«*lor with a 4-celled r^talk and a unicellular, glandular head, or a stalk of a 
double row of 5 cells and a 2-celled, glandular bead; pappus consisting of a 

I Multicellular axis with unicellular branches. 
Arnica yields not more than 9 per cent, of ash. 
Reparation — Tinctura Amine. 
ARSENI IGDIDUM 
Arsenous Iodide 
Ar&en. lod. — Arsenic Iodide 

It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sul- 
^cieid, not less than 99 per cent, of Asl 3 (455.72). Preserve it in 
r-< "lured, glass-stoppered vials, in a caul place, protected from light. 





64 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THB 

Arsenous Iodide is an orange-recL inodorous, crystalline powder, stable \ 
protected from direct sunlight and kept in a cool place. 

One Gm. of Arsenous Iodide dissolves in about 12 mils of water at 25' 
with partial decomposition; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, or ca 
disulpnide. 

No loss of iodine occurs when dry Arsenous Iodide is heated on a water t 
but at higher temperatures it volatilizes, leaving not more than 0.5 per 
of residue. When warmed with a few drops of nitric acid, brown vapors of i 
gen oxides are evolved, followed by violet vapors of iodine. 

A freshly prepared aqueous solution of the salt is colorless, but upon stan 
it gradually decomposes with the formation of arsenous and hydriodic acidi 
becomes yellow. 

Add hydrogen sulphide T.S. to an aqueous solution of Arsenous' Iodide, a 
lated with hydrochloric acid; a lemon-yellow precipitate of arsenous sulphi 
produced. 

Add 1 mil of chlorine water to 5 mils of an aqueous solution of the sa 
in 20); iodine is liberated and imparts to the solution a light reddish-b: 
color. Agitate this mixture with 1 mil of chloroform; the latter acqui 
violet color. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under the Assay for iodides (see Part II, 
No. 5), using about 0.5 Gm. of Arsenous Iodide, previously dried to con 
weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately weighed. It shot 
the dried salt, not less than 99 per cent, of Asia. 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. corresponds to 0.015191 Gi 
Asia. Each gramme of Arsenous Iodide, dried to constant weight, corresi 
to not less than 65.2 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Preparation — Liquor Arseni et Hydrargyri Iodidi. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.005 Gm. — Apothecaries, Jf 2 g 



ARSENI TRIOXIDUM 

Arsenic Trioxide 

Arsen. Triox. — Arsenous Acid ArsenousOxide White Arsenic 

It contains, when dried to constant weight at 100° C, not less 
99.8 per cent, of AsaO a (197.92). 

Arsenic Trioxide occurs either as an opaque, white powder, or in irre, 
masses of two varieties: one, amorphous, transparent, and colorless, like | 
the other, crystalline, opaque, and white, resembling porcelain. Frequ 
the same piece has an opaque, white outer crust enclosing the glassy vai 
Contact with moist air gradually changes the glassy into the white, op 
variety. Both are odorless. 

Arsenic Trioxide is soluble in water, the amorphous or glassy variety 1 
somewhat more soluble than the crystalline variety; it is slightly sofut 
alcohol and in ether and freely soluble in glycerin and is dissolved by h 
chloric acid and alkaline solutions. 

An aqueous solution of Arsenic Trioxide is faintly acid to litmus. 

When slowly heated in a dry test tube of hard glass, Arsenic Trioxide ; 
a sublimate of minute, brilliant, transparent, octahedral crystals and doc 
show a yellow color (arsenous sulphide). When heated rapidly to about 20 
the amorphous variety fuses, then sublimes, while the crystalline vaffety 
limes without fusing. Not more than 0.1 per cent, of residue remains 






nihlim&tion. When covered with charcoal in an ignition tube, and strongly 
bflrtwl, Arsenic Trioxide is reduced, and metallic arsenic ffl deposited on the 
cooler portion of the tube as a mirror, having a metallic luster, and this mirror 
i* readily dissolved by solutions ol SOaluni or calcium hypochlorite. 

Hydrogen sulphide T.S. colors an aqueous solution of AnODJO Trioxide (1 in 
100) yellow; on adding a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the colored solution, 
i lemon-yellow precipitate of arsenic trisulphido is produced, which is completely 
•ohible in ammonium carbonate T.S. (antimony, tin, ami cadmium). 

Diamlve 1 Gm, of Arsenic Trioxide in 10 mils of ammonia water with the 
lid of a gentle heat; a colorless solution is produced. 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.2 Gm. of Arsenic Trioxide, previously dried to 
constant weight at 100° C, and accurately weighed, in 20 mils of boiling dis- 
tilled water by the gradual addition of sodium hydroxide T.S. until complete 
wtotkm results. Neutralize this solution with diluted sulphuric acid VJj., 
tinag phenol phtludei n T.S. as indicator, cool, dissolve in it 2 Gm, of sodium, 
and titrate the mixture with tenth-normal iodine V.S., using standi 
T.S us indicator It shows, in the dried Arsenic Trioxide, not less t)ian iW.S 
Iter cent, of AssCV 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.8, used corresjiomis to 0,004948 Gm. 
of Ai|Og, Each gramme of A n w ni c Trioxide, dried i<j constant weight, corre- 
jpooda to not less titan 201,7 mils of tenth-normal iodine VS. 

Preparations — Liquor Acidi Arsenosi Liquor PotassLi Arsenitis, 



Average dose — Metric, 0.002 Gm. — Apothecaries, } JL , grain. 




ASAFCETIDA 

Asafetida 

Asafoet.— Gum Asafetida 

The gum-resin obtained by incising the rhizomes and roots of Feruhi 
4«f«taia Linnd and Ferula foetida Kegel and of some other species of 
"^(Fam. UmbetlifertE), indigenous to Persia und adjacent countries, 
^ yielding not less than 60 per cent, (or if powdered 50 per cent.) of 
■takol-eGiuble constituents. 

In a toft mass, sometimes almost semi-liquid, or in irregular, more or less 
PW)le masses composed of agglutinated tears of variable size imbedded in a 
Wwiah-brown or dark brown matrix, or in loose ovoid tears, from 1 to 4 cm. 
ter, the surface sometimes containing streaks of violet, yellowish-red 
* brownish-red and with a few vegetable fragments; when fresh the mass is 
Jjww poft or tough, becoming hard and occa&iotLAlly BVOT brittle on drying; 
w toface of the freshly fractured tears is milky-white and opaque, changing 
JJWuallv on exposure to a pinkish or reddish -purple or even reddish-brown; on 
dwelling with water, the tears become milky-white] odor persistent j allia- 
*<[»; taste bitter, alliaceous and acrid. 

JritUThte one part of Asafetida with three parts of water; It forms a milk- 
•tot* emulsion which becomes yellowish on the addition of alkalies. Heat a 
one of the tears of Asafetida with sulphuric add; a re< id ish-brtwn 
JJwtloa is formed: greatly dilute the latter with water, filter, and add an rxcess 
°f«flyof the alkalies; the solution acquires a blur- fluorescence, which beoooMi 
■*** pronounced u|X)n the addition of a slight excess of ammonia water. An 
10 




66 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

alcoholic solution of Asafetida, on the addition of a few drops of phloroglu 
T.S. and a few drops of hydrochloric acid, acquires a cherry-red color. 

Add a few drops of ferric chloride T.S. to a portion of the alcoholic soh 
of Asafetida, obtained in the assay process given below; an olive-green col 
produced (most foreign resins). 

Add hydrochloric acid to another portion of the same alcoholic sohitk 
Asafetida until a faint turbidity results; a bluish-green color is developed, * 
fades on standing (galbanum). 

Evaporate a quantity of the same alcoholic solution, representing 5 (k 
Asafetida, to 25 mils, mix it with 25 mils of petroleum benxin, in a separa 
funnel, and afterwards add to it twice its volume of water and agitate, 
petroleum benzin layer, after washing with water and subsequent separa 
exhibits no green color when shaken with 30 mils of a freshly made aqu 
solution of copper acetate (1 in 20) (rosin). 

Mix 2 mils of emulsion, prepared as directed under Emulsum Asajatidce, 
5 mils of water and add 5 mils of sodium hypobromite T.S., so as to foi 
separate layer: a red color is not produced (ammoniac). 

The yield of ash of the gum-resin does not exceed 15 per cent. 

The powder is prepared by drying the gum-resin over freshly-burnt lin 
by exposure to currents of warm air until it ceases to lose weight and then redt 
it to a powder at a low temperature. Diluents of starch or magnesium carbo 
may be added in order to maintain the powdered form. The color of powd 
Asafetida is light brown. 

The yield of ash of powdered Asafetida does not exceed 30 per cent. 

Assay — Introduce about 10 Gm. of Asafetida into a tared, 250 mil Erlenm 
flask, determine the exact weight of the drug, add 100 mils of alcohol, 
having connected the flask with an upright condenser, boil the mixture in 
flask during one hour or until the drug is completely disintegrated. 1 
transfer the contents of the flask to two counterpoised, plainly folded ^ 
one within the other, so that the triple fold of the inner filter is laid against 
single side of the outer, and wash the flask and filter with consecutive, small 
tions of boiling alcohol until the washings no longer produce a cloudiness i 
dropped into water. Collect and reserve the mixed alcoholic solutions, foi 
qualitative tests given above. Dry the filters and flask to a constant wf 
at a temperature of about 115° C. Now determine the weight of the res 
on the filter and in the flask and calculate its percentage from the amoui 
Asafetida originally taken. This percentage of alcohol-insoluble material, i 
subtracted from 100, gives the percentage of alcohol-soluble constituents 
tained in the Asafetida. 

Preparations — Emulsum Asafcetids Pilula? Asafcetidae Tinctura Asafceti 
Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains 



ASPIDIUM 

Aspidium 

Male Fern 

The rhizome and stipes of Dryopteris Filix-mas (Linn6) Schott 
of Dryopteris marginalis (Linn6) Asa Gray (Fam. Polypodiaeea), 
lected in the autumn, freed from the roots and dead portions of rhi* 
and stipes and dried at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. Prea 
Aspidium in tightly-closed containers and protect from light. 



t'niaJIy with the blackish-brown outer layers removed; rhizome 1 to 3 cm, 
in thickness, cylindraceous and nearly straight, or curved and tapering toward 
one end, usually split longitudinally ? roughly scarred with remains of the stipe- 
baaa, or bearing several coarse longitudinal ridges and grooves; stipes cylindri- 
cal, 3 to 5 cm, in length, about 6* nun, in thickness, nearl y straight or somewhat 
curved^ tapering toward one end. ud with occaflftoDl] elongated patches of Hm 
itill-adhenng, blackish-brown outer layers; fracture short, pale green in the 
inner half, the texture rather spongy, and exhibiting, in an interrupted circle, 
from 6 to 12 vascular bundles, each surrounded with an endodermis; odor slight; 
taste «weetiah t astringent, bitter, acrid. Use only such portions as have retained 
their green color. 
Aspidiura yields not more than 3 per cent, of ash. 

Preparation— -Qleoresina Aspidii. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 Gm. — Apothecaries, GO grains. 




ASPIDOSPERMA 

Aspidosperma 

AspldOSp. — Quebrac ho 

The dried bark of Aspidosperma Quebracho bianco Schlcehtendal (Fam. 
&Fx\fnma) f wilbout the presence or admixture of more than 2 per 
«Bt of wood or other foreign matter. 

fo irregular chips or in longitudinal pieces attaining a length of 14 cm. and 
a thickness of 35 mm. ; outer corky layer from 3 to 25 mm. in thickness, brownish- 
PM or reddish-brown and deeply furrowed, frequently somewhat reticulate 
*Hi longitudinal and shallow transverse fissures, the crevices .being occasionally 
»n*d with the mycelia of a grayish mould; outer surface of bark, from which 
jjfcwrk has been separated, light brown or reddish-brown and usually more or 
« roughened; inner surface occasionally with adhering wood, otherwise light 
ydlowish-brown to light reddish-brown, longitudinally finely striate and finely 
iwous; fracture short-fibrous with projecting bast-fibers; nearly inodorous, 
tate bitter and slightly aromatic. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Aspidosperma show a number 
j* ttcceasive layers of cork separated by large groups of stone cells, isolated 
{[••Wibers and parenchyma; inner bark with starch-bearing medullary rays 1 to 
jjteflsin width, separating narrow wedges composed of large prominent groups 
JJ^tooe cells in which are occasionally included one or mure thick-walled bast- 
■**>»; bast-fibers usually single, very thiok-walkd, strongly hgnined and but- 
Kfljjfled with crystal fibers an d st arch-bearin g parenchyma., 

The powder is reddish-brown ; bast-fibers single, very long and surrounded by 
°)*Ul fibers, the crystals being in prisms frequently terminated by pyramids 
•yd (rem 0.008 to 0.03 mm. in length; stone cells in large thick groups composed 
j* numerous more or km tabular cells; cork cells more or less polygonal in out- 
■J* *ilh thick, slightly lignificd walls; starch grains single or 2- to i-compound, 
** individual grains spherical, ovoid or more or less plano-convex, from 0.003 
*° 0-025 mm, in diameter. 

"tyaration — Fluidextractuin Aspidospermatis. 

Average dose— Metric, 4 Gm. — Apothecaries, 60 grains. 




68 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

ATROPINA 

Atropine 

Atrop. 

An alkaloid [C17H23O3N =289.19] obtained from belladonna ani 
from some other plants of the Solanacece. Preserve it in well-close* 
containers, protected from light. 

Atropine occurs in white rhombic prisms; odorless. Great caution must I 
used in tasting it and then only in very dilute solution. 

One Gm. of Atropine dissolves in 455 mils of water, 2 mils of alcohol, shorn 
27 mils of glycerin, 1 mil of chloroform, and in 25 mils of ether at 25° G; ab 
in 90 mils of water at 80° C. and in 1.2 mils of alcohol at 60° C. 

Its saturated aqueous solutions are alkaline to litmus, and to phenc 
phthalein T.S. 

It melts between 114° and 116° C. 

Gold chloride T.S. yields in a solution of Atropine in dilute hydrochloric ac 
(1 in 50) a lusterless precipitate (distinction from hyoscyamine, which yields 
lustrous precipitate). 

Evaporate about 0.01 Gm. of Atropine to dryness in a porcelain dish onu 
water bath with a few drops of nitric acid; a yellow colored residue is produce 
Cool this residue and add a few drops of alcoholic potassium hydroxide T- 
and a fragment of potassium hydroxide; an intensely violet color is produce 
Hyoscyamine and hvoscine produce the same color, but the presence of stryc 
nine or other alkaloids masks the reaction. 

No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Gm. of Atropine. 

About 0.1 Gm. of Atropine, dissolved in 2 mils of sulphuric acid, does n%~ 
produce more than a slightly yellow solution (readily carbonizabU impuriti* 
and only a light yellow color is produced upon the further addition of 0.1 o 
of nitric acid (foreign alkaloids). 

In a solution of Atropine in dilute hydrochloric acid (1 in 50) platiK 
chloride T.S. produces no precipitate (foreign alkaloids). 

An aqueous solution of Atropine (1 in 60), made with the aid of a slight excm 
of diluted sulphuric acid, is rendered turbid by the addition of a slight exc* 
of sodium hydroxide T.S., but no turbidity is produced immediately upon C 
addition of 2 mils of ammonia water to 5 mils of the solution (apoatropia 
belladonnine). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.0005 Gm. — Apothecaries, J^20 P"** 



ATROPINE SULPHAS 

Atropine Sulphate 

Atrop. Sulph. 

The sulphate [(Ci 7 H 23 OsN) fl H a S04+H a O = 694,49] of the alkalc 

atropine. 

Atropine Sulphate occurs as a white, crystalline powder or in microscope 
needles and prisms; efflorescent in dry air; odorless. Great caution must be i*> 
in tasting it and then only in very dilute solution. 

One Gm. of Atropine Sulphate dissolves in 0.4 mil of water, 5 mil* of aloof) 
2.5 mils of glycerin, 420 mils of chloroform and in 3000 mils of ether at 25° 4 
also in 2.5 mils of boiling alcohol. 




An aqueous solution of the salt (! in 20) is neutral to litmus. 
U usually melts between 1S8° and 191° C., but when anhydrous and free 
from hyoscyamine, it melts between 181° and 183° C. 

It responds to the other tests of identity and purity under Atropina. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.0005 Gm,— Apothecaries, ^20 grain. 

AURANTII AMARI CORTEX 

Bitter Orange Peel 

A u rant. A mar. Cort. 

•iried rind of the fruit of Citrus Aurantium amara Linng (Fain. 
Rutacea). 

In narrow, thin bands (ribbons), or more often elliptical, flattened, more or 
las curved, pieces (quarters), varying from 3 to 8 cm. in length; outer surface 
codwx, varying from reddish- or yellowish-brown, (ribbons) to greenish-brown 
(qoirters), coarsely reticulate and with the edges recurved; inner surface con- 
•W*, whitish, with numerous conical projections and yellowish-white, linear 
toon or lees anastomosing tibro- vascular bundles; fracture hard; U&WiaM 
m light brown, somewhat spongy, outer layer with 1 or 2 rows of oil reser- 
wta; odor fragrant; taste aromatic* and bitter. 

%e powder is yellowish-white or light brown; fragments of parenchyma oeQl 
the walls from 0,001 to 012 mm. in thickness; few fragments of 



tnuime with close spiral markings or simple pores; occasional membrane crystals 
of calcium oxalate in monoclone prisma, from 002 to 0.035 ram. in diameter, 
rowdwed Bitter Orange Feel is colored yellowish upon the addition of potassium 
hydroxide 1 

Bitter Orange Peel yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. 
Preparations— r'luidextrarlum Aurantii \m.iri Tine-turn Aurantii Amari 

i lira Cinchona? Composita Tiuetura Gentiana: Composite. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains* 



AURANTII DULCIS CORTEX 

Sweet Orange Peel 

Aurant. Dulc. Cort. 

1 outer rind of the fresh, ripe fruit of Citrus Aurantium sinensis 

► (Fam. Rutacea). 

Tb» outer, orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring and 
rial cells, parenchyma rolls of 
-s and globules of volati 
P"^i&itiy aromatic 

frtpuatfon — Tinctura Aurantii Dulcis. 

AURI ET SODII CHLORIDUM 

Gold and Sodium Chloride 
Aur. et Sod. Chlor. 

A mixture of equal parts of anhydrous gold chloride [AuCl a ^ 303,58) 
™ftHuydrous sodium chloride [NaCl = 58.46], representing! when dried 



. of epidermal cells, parenchyma cells of the sarcocarp with chromo- 
p™tida, oil rerservoirs and globules of volatile oil; odor highly fragrant; taste 







70 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid, not less t) 
30 per cent, of metallic gold [Au]. Preserve it in well-stoppered, ami 
colored vials. 

Gold and Sodium Chloride occurs as an orange-yellow powder, odor 
having a saline and metallic taste, and deliquescent when exposed to damp 

Gold and Sodium Chloride is very soluble in water; alcohol or ether diasc 
the gold chloride leaving the sodium chloride. 

A fragment imparts a persistent, intensely yellow color to a non-himii 
flame. 

An aqueous solution (1 in 100) shows a slightly acid reaction, and yields i 
silver nitrate T.S. a white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid but readily sol 
in ammonia water. 

Hold a glass rod, moistened with ammonia water, close to a portion of ( 
and Sodium Chloride; no white fumes appear (free hydrochloric acid). 

The filtrate from the precipitated gold in the following assay process, a 
acidulation with hydrochloric acid, is not affected by hydrogen sulphide ' 
(metallic imyurities). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Gold and Sodium Chloride, previo 
dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid ana aocura 
weighed in a stoppered flask, in 10 mils of distilled water in a porcelain c 
Render the solution alkaline by the addition of 10 mils of potassium hydro: 
T.S., heat it for five minutes on a water bath, add 25 mils or an excess of a 
tion of hydrogen dioxide and continue the heating for an hour on a water b 
or until the addition of a few drops of solution of hydrogen dioxide produce 
further precipitation in the clear liquid. (During the heating on the water I 
occasionally replace the liquid lost by evaporation by the addition of hot 
tilled water.) Wash the precipitate of metallic gold with distilled water slig 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, dry and ignite it. Its weight correspc 
to not less than 30 per cent, of the weight of the dried Gold and Sod 
Chloride taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.005 Gm. — Apothecaries, J^ 2 8** 



BALSAMUM PERUVIANUM 
Balsam of Peru 

Bals. Peruv.— Peru Balsam 

A balsam obtained from Toluifera Pereim (Royle) Baillon (F 
Leguminosce). 

Balsam of Peru is a viscid liquid of a dark brown color; free from string! 
or stickiness; transparent and reddish-brown in thin layers; of an agreei 
vanilla-like odor and a bitter, acrid taste, with a persistent after-taste. ^ 
swallowed it leaves a burning sensation in the throat. It does not hardej 
exposure to the air. 

It is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and glacial acetic acid with not more ' 
a slight opalescence; only partly soluble in ether or petroleum bensin. 

Water, when agitated with the Balsam, is acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: 1.130 to 1.160 at 25° C. 

One Gm. of the Balsam forms a clear solution when shaken with a sok 
of 3 Gm. of hydrated chloral in 2 mils of distilled water (fixed oils). 

Shake about 1 Gm. of the Balsam with 5 mils of purified petroleum bemin, 
warm the mixture on a water bath for 10 minutes, adding a sufficient quai 



of the solvent to replace the loss by evaporation. On evaporating 2 mils of the 
henna solution, no odor of turpentine is noticeable, and when the residue is 
treated with a few drops of nitric acid, no green or bluish color is produced 
ifintniine or rosin). 

W«gh accurately about 1 Gni. of the Balaam and dissolve it in 100 mils 
of ilcohol, add 1 nil of phenolphthalein T.S. and titrate the solution with half- 
normal potassium hydroxide V.S. The acid number thus obtained is not less 
than 56 nor more than 84. 

Mix about 3 Gm. of the Balsam, accurately weighed, with 30 mila of sodium 
hydroxide T.S. and shake the mixture for B lew minutes with tiO mils of ether. 
TW add about 3 Gm, of powdered tragac&nth, filler and transfer 50 mils of 
the ethereal filtrate (representing five-sixths of the weight of the Balsam taken) 
into a tared, conical flask. Evaporate the ether and dry the residue h> ooaatant 
freight at 100° C. The weight of the reaidue*of cinnamein so obtained is not less 
than 50 per cent, nor more than 56 per cent, of the weight of the RaliMiffi repre- 
•anted by the 50 mils of ethereal solution taken. Dissolve this residue in 25 
mils of alcohol, add 25 mils of half-normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide V.S. 
ind beat the mixture carefully in a flask provided with a reflux condenser, 
during half an hour on a water bath . Then and 1 mil of phenolphthalein T.S. and 
titrate the excess of alkali with half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. The amount 
of half-normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide V.S. ooQSUmed corresponds to 
a aaponification value for the cinnamein of from 235 to 233 (see Part Li, Test 
No. 10). 

BALSAMUM TOLUTANUM 

Balsam of Tolu 

Bats. Tolu.— Tolu Balsam 
A balsam obtained from Toluifera Balmmum Linne" (Fam. Legu- 

Balaam of Tolu is a yellowish-brown, of brown, plastic solid, becoming 
brittle when old, dried, or exposed to cold. It is transparent in thin layers, 
m> » pleasant, aromatic odor, resembling that of vanilla t and a mild, aromatic 

Balaam of Tolu is nearly insoluble in water and in petroleum benzin. It is 
J°hihle in alcohol, chloroform, and ether. It is dissolved by solutions of the 
■*d alkalies, usually leaving an insoluble residue. 

An alcoholic solution of the Balsam (1 in 20) is acid to litmus. 

Sbake about 1 Gm, of the Balsam with 25 mils of carbon disulphide, allow it 
toittnd for thirty minutes, filter the liquid aod evaporate 15 mils of the filtrate 
^dryness. The residue thus obtained, when dissolved in glacial acetic acid. 
«tt not show a green color on the addition of a few drops of sulphuric acid 
("■to). The remaining portion of the filtrate, when shaken with an equal 
*>tame of an aqueous solution of copper acetate (I in 1000), does not acquire 
4 ljpn color (rosin or copailxi). 

Oiwjlve about 1 Gm. of the Balsam, accurately weighed, in 50 mils of alcohol, 
Wd 1 mil of phenolphthalein T.S. and titrate the solulion with half-normal 
JroWic potassium hydroxide V.S, The acid number thus obtained is not 
•■than 112 nor more than 168. Now add roffieietlt half-normal alcoholic 
JWaasum hydroxide V.S. to the neutralised liquid to make* the total amount of 
[« volumetric alkali solution exactly 20 mils; heat the liquid on a water bath for 
f*f in hour, under a reflux condenser, and allow it to cool. Mix this liquid with 
«w mils of distilled water, or more if necessary , and titrate the excess of potas- 
■** hydroxide with half-normal sulphuric arid VJS.J the total amount of half- 
Wflnaf potassium hydroxide V.S. consumed corresponds to a saponification 
^of not less than 154 nor more than 22G (see Part 11, Test No. 10). 
fapirations — Syrupus Tolutanus (from Tincture) Tinctura Benzoini 

Coaposita Tinctura Tolu tana. 





BELLADONNA FOLIA 

Belladonna Leaves 

Bel lad. Fol.— Deadly Nightshade Leaves Belladonnas folium P. I, 

The dried leaves ^and tops of Atropa Belladonna Lkm6 (Fam. Si 
cece), without the presence or admixture of more than 10 per cei 
its stems or other foreign matter, and yielding not less than 0. 
cent, of the total alkaloids of Belladonna Leaves. 

Usually much twisted and matted together; leaves much crumpled; 
soaked in water and spread oufc, the entire leaves from 6 to 20 cm. in lengt 
12 enL in breadth, broadly ovate, summits acute, margins entire, narrow* 
the long petioles; upper surfaces brownish-green, lower surfaces grayish- 
epidermis more or lens papillose and slightly hairy; flowers with yell 
purple, ca ra pan ulate corollas; fruits globular subtended by the calyx, dari 
or pecmaWwown, and with numerous small seeds; odor distinct, especk 
moistening; taste somewhat bitter and acrid. 

Stems of variable length not exceeding 7 mm. in diameter, longituc 
wrinkled, older parts smooth and usually hollow, younger parts flatten* 
finehr hairy. 

The powder is dark green, consisting of irrefnil&r fragments of leaf i 
and woody elements; calcium oxalate in sphenoidal micro-crystals; hair 
the non-glandular being simple, 2- to o-celled, the glandular with stalks c 
3 cells; tracheae with annular, spiral, scalariform or reticulate thickening 
with bordered pores; starch grains and pollen grains few; occasional frag 
of the stems of Belladonna with long, thin-walled and slightly lignined 
fibers, 

Raphides must not be present (leaves and stems of Phytolacca decandra I 

Belladonna Leaves yield not more than 20 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Bclladottjur Radii (page 73), using 1 
of Belladonna Leaves, in No. 60 powder increasing the amount of water. 
after maceration to 25 mils and, before titration, treating the final residue 
with 5 mils of ether, evaporating to dryness each time. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V&, consumed corresponds to 
milligrammes of the total alkaloids of Belladonna Leaves. 

Preparations — Extractum Belladonna Foliorum Tinctura Bclla< 

Foliorum Unguentum Belladonnas (from Extract). 

Average dose — Metric, 0*06 Gm.— Apothecaries, 1 gran 






BELLADONNA RADIX 

Belladonna Root 

Bellftd. Rad.— Deadly Nightshade Root 

The dried root of Atropa Belladonna Linn£ (Fam. Solanacect), wit 
the presence or admixture of more than 10 per cent, of its stem- 
or other foreign matter, and yielding not less than 0.45 per cent, o 
total alkaloids of Belladonna Root. Preserve Belladonna Roi 
tightly-closed containers adding a few drops of chloroform or ca 
tetrachloride from time to time to prevent attack by insects. 



Cylindrical or somewhat tapering, usually split into longitudinal pieces, 
from 0.5 to 2.5 cm. in thickness j externally pale brownish-gray, Jongituainally 
wrinkled, outer layers of the periderm rathcr'soft, frequently abraded, and thus 
(tawing lighter patches; fracture nearly smooth, mealy, on breaking, emitting 
a puff of dust consisting chiefly of starch grains ; internally whitish, with a distinct 
cambium lone and yellowish wood wedges; nearly inodorous; taste sweetish, 
afterwards bitterish and strongly acrid. 

Transverse sections of Belladonna Hoot when moistened with iodine T.S. 
are colored bluish-black and by transmitted light show an imperfectly radiate 
itructure within and near a conspicuous cambium line. Under the microscope, 
lections exhibit a bark and wood composed mainly of parenchyma, the cellB 
being filled with starch grains, single and 2- to 6- or more compound, the indi- 
vidual grains being somewhat spherical and from 0.003 to 0.03 mm. in diameter, 
A section cleared with hydratcd chloral T.S, shorn Kb both hark i%nd wood 
oceiaonal cells of parenchyma rilled with sphenoidal micro-crystals of calcium 
ttalatc; bark free from bast-fibers; wood containing scattered groups of large 
Inehee with simple and bordered pores or reticulated thickenings, and associated 
o older roots with wood-fiben. 

Stem fragments of Atropa Belladonna occur either separate or attached to 
U* roots; fight brown or greenish-brown; finely, longitudinally wrinkled, with 
Iransyerse leaf-scare; pith frequently hollow, 

icrthe microscope, sections of Belladonna stem show beneath the endo- 
dfrtnis an interrupted circle of bast-fibers either singly or in small groups, the 
tilt of which are relatively thin and slightly lignified. In the internal phloem 
*lw occur isolated small groups of bast-fibers similar to those found in the inner 
bark. 

The powder is light brown; starch grains numerous, from 0.003 to 0.030 mm. 
» diameter, spherical, plano-convex, polygonal, and 2- to 6- or more compound; 
•pbf&oidal micro-crystals numerous, from 0*003 to 0.010 mm, in length; 
fragments of cork cells and tracheae with wood-fibers few; occasional frag- 
toenta of stems of Belladonna showing long, thin-walled and slightly lignified 
bttt-fibers, 
Madonna Root yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. 
Amy — Introduce 15 Cm. of Belladonna Hoot, in No. GO powder, into a 250 mil 
flaikandadd 150 mils of a mixture of chloroform, 1 volume, and ether, 2 volumes. 
Stopper the flask, shake it well and allow it to stand ten minutes, t hen add 5 mils of 
Mmnonia water and shake the flask vigorously every ten minutes during two hours. 
Kowidd 15 mils of distilled water, again shake the flask well, ami, when the 
faghss ft" int 100 mite of the solution, representing JO Gm. of Bella- 

donna Hoot, niter the solution through a pledget of purified cotton into a 
■parator, and r graduate and cotton with a little ether. Completely 

**toaet the alkaloids from the solution by shaking out repeatedly with weak 
Collect the acid washings in a separator, add ammonia water 
Mj| the solution is decidedly alkaline to litmus, and completely extract the 
*lkilioid» by shaking out repeatedly with chloroform* Evaporate the oombinod 
^Worofarm washings to dryness, dissolve the alkaloid* from the residue in 
tartly 5 mil* of tenth-norms] sulphuric acid V.S., and titrate the excess of 
**id with fiftieth-normal potassium hydroxide V,S., using cochineal T.S. as 

bdb mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid VJ3. consumed corresponds to 28.92 
pUipammes of the total alkaloids of Belladonna Root (see Proximate Assays, 
*mll}. 




lions — Fluidextractum Belladonnas Radios Unimentum Belladonna 
Fluidextr, 

Average dose — Metric, 0.045 Gm* — Apothecaries, % grain. 






74 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 




u 



BBNZALDEHYBUM 

Benzaldehyde 
Benzaldebyd. 

An aldehyde produced synthetically or obtained from oil of bi^i 
almond and containing not less than 85 per cent, of C 7 H e O 
CeH 5 .CHO (106.05), Preserve it in small, well-stoppered bottles, pro- 
tected from light. 

Benzaldehyde is a colorless, or yellowish, strongly refractive liquid, having- 
bitter-almond-like odor p and a burning, aromatic taste. 

It is slightly soluble in water, miscible with alcohol, ether, or fixed or imfa 
tile oils. 

Specific gravity: about 1.045 at 25° C. 

Shake 10 drops of Benzaldehyde with 5 mils of distilled water, add 0.5 mil 
of potassium hydroxide T.S. and 0.1 mil of ferrous sulphate T.S., and warm the 
mixture geutlv. Now add a slight excess of hydrochloric acid to the mixture; 
no greerash-blue color nor blue precipitate is "produced within fifteen miirota» 
(hydrocyanic acid). 

Hold the looped end of a piece of clean copper wire in a non-luminous flame 
until it glows, without coloring the flame green, cool the wire, dip the loop 
into Benzaldehyde, ignite the latter and hold it so that the liquid bums out- 
side of the non-luminous flame. On slowly bringing the flame from the burn- 
ing Benzaldehyde on the loop in contact with the lower outer edge of the two- 
luminous flame, no green tinge is discernible {chlorinated product*). 

Dissolve 1 mil of Benzaldehyde in 20 mils of alcohol, add distilled witer 
until a slight turbidity is produced, and maintain a brisk evolution of hydrops 
for one hour by the addition of zinc and diluted Bulphuric acid. Filter aJod 
evaporate the hquid to about 20 mils and boil 10 mils of the evaporated liquid 
with 1 drop of potassium dichromate T.S.; no violet color is produced [nitro- 
benzene). 

Assay — Dissolve about 3 mils of freshly redistilled phenylhydrazine in W 
mils of alcohol and titrate 25 mils of the solution, which must always be taWy 
prepared, with half- normal hydrochloric acid V.S., using methyl orange T& 
as indicator. To about 1 Gm. of the Benzaldehyde, accurately weighed, add 3$ 
mils of the phenylhydrazine solution just prepared and allow it to stand for 
thirty minutes. Add a drop of methyl orange T.8.. and acidify the miiUire 
by adding a measured excess of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. FUtertfae 
mixture and wash the precipitate with small portions of distilled water until the 
washings cease to redden blue litmus paper. Then titrate the excess of hydn>~ 
chloric acid in the filtrate with half-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. Subtn^ 
the number of mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. consumed, from uv^ 
number of mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. used id titrating the 3^_ 
mils of phenylhydrazine solution; the difference multiplied by 0,053, gives * 
weight of the Benzaldehyde present. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 mil — Apothecaries, y% minim. 

BENZINUM PURIFICATUM 

Purified Petroleum Benzin 

Benzin. Purif.— Petroleum Ether 
A purified distillate from American petroleum consisting of hydro- 
carbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas series. Preserve it carefully in well- 
closed containers, in a cool place, remote from fire. 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



75 






Purified Petroleum Benzin is a clear* colorless, nop- fluorescent, volatile liquid, 
of in ethereal or faint, petroleum-like odor, and having a neutral reaction. It is 
highly inflammable ana its vapor, when mixed with air and ignited, explodes 
fidently 

it u practically insoluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol, and misctble 
with ether, chloroform, beuzene, volatile oils r and fixed oils, with the exception 
of castor oil. 
Sfcacific gravity: 0.638 to 0.660 at 25° C, 

tils completely between 40° and 80° C. 
Evaporate 10 mils of Purified Petroleum Benzin from a piece of clean filter 
paw; no greasy stain remains, and the odor is not disagreeable nor notably 
wIphurettexL Not more than 0.0013 Gm. of residue remains on evaporating 
50 mib of Purified Petroleum Benzin at a temperature not exceeding 40° C. 

Boil 10 mils of Purified Petroleum Benzin for a few minutes with one-fourth 
its volume of an alcoholic .solution of ammonia. (I in 10) and a few drops uf .silver 
nitrate 1\S.; the liquid does not turn brown (pyrogenawi products and sulphur 
compounds). 

pfl of Purified Petroleum Benzin to a mixture of 40 drops of sul- 
phuric arid and 10 drops of nitric acid in a test tube, warm the liquid for about 
ten minutes, set it aside for half an hour, and dilute it id a shallow dish with 
•iter; no odor of nitrobenzene is evolved {benzene). 




BENZOINUM 

Benzoin 

Benzoin. — Gum Ben jam in 

A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax Benzoin Dryander and some 
other species of Styrax (Fam. Styracacew) growing in the East Indies 
ttd known in commerce as Sumatra Benzoin and Siam Benzoin. 

Sumatra Benzoin — In blocks or lumps of varying size, made up of tears, 
compact** 1 together with a reddish-brown, reddish-gray, or grayish-brown 
ifwiouii mass; tears externally yellowish or rusty-brown, milky-white on fresh 
fracture; hard and brittle at ordinary temperatures, but softened by heat and 
bumming gritty on chewing; odor aromatic and upon digesting with boiling 
»*W suggesting the odor of cinnamic acid or storax; taste aro ma tic and slightly 



Heat a few fragments of Sumatra Benzoin in a test tube; a sublimate is formed 
ttutting of plates and small, rod-like crystals that strongly polarize light. 

Add carefully an ethereal solution of Sumatra Benzoin to a small quantity of 
■itybtuv! acid contained in a porcelain dish; the solution is colored a browniati- 
wi Not loss than 75 per cent, of Sumatra Benzoin dissolves in alcohol; the 
itaholic solution, upon the addition of water, becomes milky and is acid to 

Sumatra Benzoin does not yield more than 2.5 per cent* of ash. 

$j*m Benzoin — In pebbltslike tears of variable size, compressed, yellowish* 
wo^U to rusty-brown externally, mi Iky- white on fracture, separate or very 
•hlhUy agglutinated; hard and brittle at ordinary temperatures but softened 
»7 -eat an3 becoming plastic on chewing; odor agreeable, balsamic, vaniUa-liice; 
Urtfiltghtly acrid. 

Heat a few fragments of Siam Benzoin in a test tube; a sublimate is formed 
otfBrtly above the melted mass consisting of numerous long, rod-ahaped crystals, 
wJiich do not strongly polarize light. 




Add carefully an ethereal solution of »Siam Benzoin to a small quanti 
sulphuric acid contained in a porcelain dish; the solution is colored purplisl 
Not less than 90 per cent, of Siam Benzoin dissolves in alcohol; the alec 
solution upon the addition of water becomes milky and is acid to Litmus. 

Siam Benzoin does not yield more than 2 per cent, of ash. 

The tents which foltmv apply to Sumatra and Siam Benzoin: 

Heat gently 1 to 2 Gm. of Benzoin with 15 mils of purified petroleum tw 
and, after cooling, transfer the supernatant liquid to a BCparaiOrw funnel, 
once with 10 mils of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and then wittl 
until free from bicarbonate; on the addition of 20 mils of a copper acetate 
tion (1 in 200) and vigorously shaking the mixture no green color is notii 
in the petroleum tienzin layer (rosin and foreign resins). 

Treat about 1 Gm, of powdered Benzoin with 15 mils of warm cartx 
sulphide, filter t lie solution, wash the filter with an additional 5 mils of c 
bisulphide and allow the mixed liquids to evaporate spontaneous 
than 12.5 per cent, of residue remains, which corresponds t<> the tests for id« 
under Acidum Benzoicum. 

Preparations — Adeps Benzoinatua Tinctura Benzoini Tinctura Bei 

Composi ta. 

Average dose— Metric, 1 Gm* — Apothecaries, 15 



BENZOSULPHINIDUM 

Bcnzosulpliinide 

Ben zosuiphinid.— Saccharin Glusidmn 
The anhydride [C 7 H s 8 NS or C fl H 4 S0 2 .CONH = 183.1 
sulphamide-benzoic acid. 

Benzosulphinide occurs as white crystals or as a white, crystalline 
odorless, or having a faint, aromatic odor; its solutions have an intc 
sweet taste. 

One Gm. of Benzosulphinide dissolves in 290 mils of water and in 31 
of alcohol at 25° C; also in about 25 mils of boiling water; slightly solut 
chloroform or ether. It is easily dissolved by ammonia water, by alkali bydfl 
solutions, also by a solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the evolution ol a 
dioxide. 

A saturated aqueous solution of Benzosulphinide is acid to litmus. 

It melts between 219° and 222° C. 

When Benzosulphinide is fused at a low temperature with about 5 tim 
weight of sodium hydroxide, ammonia vapors are evolved ; continue the he 
until the evolution of ammonia has ceased, treat the residue with 10 m 
distilled water, neutralize the solution with diluted hydrochloric acid, and 
the filtrate becomes violet on the addition of a drop of ferric chloride T.S. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Benzosulphinide ; not more than 0,5 pear 0G 
ash remain-. 

A solution of 0.2 Gm> of Benzosulphinide in 10 mils of sulphuric acid k< 
a temperature of from 48* to 50° C, on a water bath, develops not ] 
a brown color within ten minutes (carbom table MFipurUMt), 

A solution of about 0.2 Gm. of Benzosulphinide in 5 mils of potassium 1 
ide TA remains clear, and, when mixed with 5 mils of alkaline cuprie i 
\\S., does not deposit CUpfOUS oxide on heating fofooMe, milk-sugar). 

At Id ferric chloride T.8., drop by drop, to 10 mils of a hot, saturated aq 
solution of Benzosulphinide; no precipitate nor violet color appears {bau 
gaticylic acid). 



cid to 
more 

Liruh) 
»ric ta 



An aqueous solution of Benzosulphhude (1 m 10,000) has a distinctly sweet 
t*ate t comparable with that of an aqueous solution of sugar (t in 20), 

■r of ammonia is noticeable on warming about 0,5 Gm. of Benzosul- 
pfcini«i« with about 1 Gm, of magnesia and 10 iniL* of distilled water {ammonium 
compounds). 

kage dose — Metric, 0.2 Gm.— Apothecaries, 3 grains. 






BETAEUCAINE IIYDROCHLORIDUM 

Betaeucaine Hydrochloride 

Betaeucain. Hydroctll.— Eucabc Chloride Eucaine 

hetic derivative of piperidiiic, containing, when dried to con- 
t weight at 100° G., not less than 99 per cent, of the hydrochloride 
-tnmethyl-4 benzoyl-oxy-piperidine [Ci&HsiO-NHCl or C 5 H 7 N 
"I*)iO(CeH 6 CO)HCl =283.65]. 

Betaeucaine Hydrochloride occurs as a white, crystalline powder; odorless, 
lib permanent in the air, 

Oue Gm. of Betaeucaine Hydrochloride is soluble in 30 mils of water, 35 mils 
of kJcoIki) and mils of chloroform at 25° C. ; it is more soluble in boiling water 
ind foiling alcohol. 

it* (saturated aqueous solution is neutral to li trims 

Silver aitrate T.S. produces in au aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 100) a 
*i>it* precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 

About 0.1 Gm. of Betaeucaine Hydrochloride dissolved in 20 mils of distilled 
*it«r yields with one drop «.f ammonia water a white precipitate, which dissolve* 
on Natation. On now adding three more drops of ammonia water to this solu- 
ton, * white precipitate is again produced, wliich is dissolved on the addi- 
tion of an equal volume of distilled water. The further addition of ammonia 
viter again produces a precipitate, which dissolves on adding 10 mils of dis- 
tilled water, out this solution is not affected by the further addition of an> 
Mil water. 

Separate portions of 10 mils each of a saturated aqueous solution of the salt 
jM a white, curdy precipitate on the addition of a few drops of mercuric 
oMoride T.S., and a yellow, curdy precipitate on the addition of a few drops of a 
mixture of equal volumes of potassium chroma te T.S. and diluted sulphuric 
Ml 

No color is produced when 0.1 Gm. of Betaeucaine Hydrochloride is dis- 
•°lved in 1 mil of sulphuric acid (readily ccsHkmiMable impurities). 

I we mils of an aqueous solution of the sail (1 in 100) gives no permanent 
precipitate on the addition of o inils of mercuric chloride T.S. (cocaine and 
*ph*ucnv> 

Noweighablc ash remains on incinerating 0.5 Gm. of Betaeucaine Hydro- 

*&fia>— Dissolve aJ>out 0.5 Gm. of Betaeucaine Hydrochloride, previously 
<*jd to constant weight at 100° C. and accurately weighed, in 100 mils of 
jjjjol, which must be previously neutralized with tenth-normal potassium 
W*- isinp phenolphthalein T.S, as indicator, and titrate this alco- 

w solution with tenth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. until the pink 
jolflrw restored. It shows, in the dried salt, not less than 09 per cent, of CisH a i 

Eicti mil of tenth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. used corresponds to 
•*B8365 Gin. of CuHaiCfeNHCl. Each gramme of Betaeucaine Hydrochloride, 
PJjowiy dried, corresponds to not less than 34.9 mib of tenth-normal potassium 




■ 



78 THE PHARMACOPCRIA OF THS 

BETANAPHTHOL 

Betanaphthol 

Betanaph.— Naphthol 

A monohydroxyphenol [CioH 7 OH = 144.06] of the naphthalene series. 
Preserve it in well-closed containers protected from light. 

Betanaphthol occurs in colorless or pale buff-colored, shining crystafltf* 
laminae, or as a white or yellowish-white, crystalline powder, having a faint, 
phenol-like odor and a pungent taste. Permanent in the air. 

One Gm. of Betanaphthol dissolves in about 1000 mils of water, 0.8 mO of 
alcohol, 17 mils of chloroform and in 1.3 mils of ether at 25° C; also in 80 mil* 
of boiling water; soluble in glycerin and olive oil and easily dissolved by alkali 
hydroxide solutions. 

A hot, saturated aqueous solution of Betanaphthol is neutral to litmus. 

Betanaphthol melts between 120° and 122° C. 

Betanaphthol sublimes readily when heated and volatilises with the vipof» 
of alcohol or water. 

A cold, saturated aqueous solution of Betanaphthol, when mixed with ammool* 
water, exhibits a faint, bluish fluorescence. 

Add about 0.1 Gm. of Betanaphthol to 5 mils of an aqueous solution of potas- 
sium hydroxide (1 in 4), then add 1 mil of chloroform, and gently warm* tb*> 
mixture; the aqueous layer acquires a blue color, changing afterwards to greet* 
and brown. 

Ferric chloride T.S. colore a cold, saturated aqueous solution of Betanaphthol 
greenish, and after some time causes the separation of whitish flakes, whid* 
turn brown upon the application of heat. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Betanaphthol; not more than 0.05 per cent, of m**- 
remains. 

Dissolve 0.5 Gm. of Betanaphthol in 25 mils of ammonia water; no reado^ 
remains (naphthalene), and the solution does not have a deeper color than pal^ 
yellow (other organic impurities). ^ 

A cold, saturated aqueous solution of Betanaphthol, on the addition of ^^ 
few drops of iodine T.S., followed by sodium hydroxide T.S. in excess, ahoir^ 
no violet color (alphanaphthol). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



BISMUTHI BETANAPHTHOLAS 

Bismuth Betanaphthol 

Bism. Betanaph. 

A compound of bismuth and betanaphthol of somewhat varying com- 
position, yielding not less than 15 per cent, of betanaphthol [CioHfOH] 
and, upon ignition, not less than 73 per cent, nor more than 78 per 
cent, of bismuth oxide [Bi a 8 ]. 

Bismuth' Betanaphthol is a buff-colored to grayish-brown, amorphous powder; 
odorless or having a faint odor of betanaphthol; tasteless; permanent in the air. 

Bismuth Betanaphthol is nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, chloroform or 
ether: partially dissolved by mineral acids with the formation of the corre- 
sponding bismuth salts and the liberation of betanaphthol. 



When strongly heated Bismuth Betanaphthol chars and finally leaves a 
pjvish-yellow residue, which is blackened by hydrogen sulphide T.S. 

Shake about I Gm. of Bismuth Betanaphthol, accurately weighed, with 
20 mils of chloroform, filter the mixture, allow the filtrate to evaporate spon- 
Unaoualy and dry the residue in a desiccator over sulphuric acid; the weight 
of this residue does not exceed 1 per cent, {free befanaphtkol), 

Shake about 0.5 Gm. of Bismuth Betanaphthol with 10 mils of distilled 
nttraad filter; the filtrate is colorless and neutral to litmus. 

Heat gently a mixture of about. 0.2 Gm. of Bismuth Betanaphthol with 5 mils 
of potassium hydroxide T.S. and about 0.2 Gm, of aluminum wire; the vapors 
*wJved do not" turn red litmus blue (nitrates). 

Innnerate about 2 Gm. of Bismuth Betanaphthol in a porcelain crucible, cool 
the residue and add jusf sufficient nitric acid to form a solution with the aid of 
heat. This solution, when poured into 100 mils of distilled water, produces a 
nhite, crystalline precipitate. Now filter the mixture, evaporate the filtrate to 
30 mils and again filter if not clear; the clear filtrate does not respond to the 
teste for (nod, copper , sulphate, or silver given under Bismuthi Suhcarbomif. 

The bismuth oxide obtained in the following assay does not respond to Betten- 
doffs Test for arsenic {see Part Il f Test No, 2). 

A»siy for Betanaphthol — Dissolve about 2 Gm. of Bismuth Betanaphthol, 
accurately weighed, in 20 mils of hydrochloric acid with the aid of heat, coo! 
the liquid U shake it in a separator with successive portions of chloro- 

form until the extraction of the betanaphtlu'l is complete; Combine the chloro- 
form solutions, allow the liquid to evaporate spontaneously and dry the residue 
ia i desiccator J the weight of the residue corresponds to not less than 15 per 
reel, of the weight of Bismuth Betanaphthol taken. This residue, crystallized 
from * solution in boiling distilled water, responds to the tests for identity 
under BeUtnaphthol . 

A sity for Bismuth Oxide — Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Bismuth Betanaphthol, 
ifcumtely weighed, in a porcelain crucible, cool the residue and dissolve it in 
nitric adi Evaporate the solution to dryness and carefully ignite the residue 
until of constant weight; the bismuth oxide (BiaOa) bo obtained corresponds to 
ttutVss than 73 per cent, nor more than 78 per cent, of the original weight 
of Um Bismuth Betanaphthol taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



BISMUTHI ET AMMONII CITRAS 

Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate 

Btsm. et Amnion. Cit*— Bismuth Ammonio-Citrate 
with citrate rendered soluble by the presence of ammonium 
sitate; then dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric 
•rid* it yields, upon ignition, not less than 46 per cent, nor more 
*fcm 52 per cent* of bismuth oxide [Bi a O a ], Preserve it in well-closed 
*wtaber« protected from light. 

Biaauth and Ammonium Citrate occurs in shining, pdAlty or translucent 
■ c *fei» or white powder, becoming opaque with loss of ammonia on exposure 
totUftir* it is odorless and has a metallic taste. 

Biaautn anc j Ammonium Citrate is very soluble in water and sparingly 
•oWeb alcohol. 

When strongly heated, the Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate fuses and 
™Dy Iraves a blackened residue, having a yellow surface. A solution of this 




1 



slight excess of nitric or hydroehlorir add produces a 
D added to 'Jf> volumes of distilled water. 



residue in a 
turbidity when 

An aqueous solution of Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate (1 in 20) is u^Lt 
or faintly acid to btmoa 

Ammonia is evolved when Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate is boiled wilt* J 
slight excess of sodium hydroxide TJB. * 

An aqueous solution o"f the Bismuth ft&d Ammonium Citrate, when treaC^**^ 
with an excess of hydrogen sulphide, yields a black precipitate. The filtrs^* 7 ^ 
from the latter, when deprived by heat of the excess of hydrogen sulphide rf*** 
boiled with an excess of lime water, yields a white precipitate. 

Dissolve about 0.05 Gin. of Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate in 1 mil of di* 
tilted water, in a test tube, add 5 mils of sulphuric acid (free from nitrous aw 
pounds), cool the mixture and carefully pour over it 5 mils of ferrous sulpha 
1\S without mixing; no red or brown zone appears immediately (nitmtt ) 

Dissolve 1 Qhl 01 Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate in 50 roils of distilled w 
precipitate the bismuth completely with hydrogen sulphide, filter, evapora fl*^^ 
the filtrate to dryness and ignite. The weight of the residue does not 
0.005 Cm. {atkahet or aUfaM e mihi) , 

Igoite 3 Qm. of the Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate, dissolve the residue 
just a sufficient quantity of warm nitric acid, and pour the solution into 10U mM 
of distilled water; a white precipitate is produced. Filter this mixtur^^j 
evaporate the filtrate on a water bath to 30 mils, again filter the liquid a**-^? 
divide the new filtrate into portions of 5 mils each. These portions do notrespot* 4 *^- 
to the testa for teati, copper, mdpkatc, or mher given under Bismttthi Subcarbona -^* - 

The residue resulting from the ignition and subsequent treatment of 2 Gac»- 
of Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate, as described in the following test, doi — ■** 
not respond to Bettendorf s Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 2). 

Assay — Take about 1 Gm. of Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate, previous^- ~y 
dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid, and weigh accurate l^jg^ 
Ignite it in a porcelain crucible and, after cooling, add 5 mils of niti ^^*^ 
acid to the residue, drop by drop, warming until solution is effecte*^ 
Evaporate this solution to dryness, and carefully ignite it at red heat. It lea 
a residue of bismuth oxide (B12O3) corresponding to not less than 46 per cen 
nor more than 52 per cent, of the original weight of Bismuth and Ammooi 
Citrate taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.125 Gm. — Apothecaries, 2 grains. 




BISMUTHI SUBCARBONAS 

Bismuth Subcarbonate 

Rism. Subcarb. 

A basic bismuth carbonate of varying chemical composition, which 1 
when dried to constant weight at 100° C, yields, upon ignition, no* 4 
less than 90 per cent, of bismuth oxide [Bi a OJ. 



Bismuth Subcarbonate ia a white or pale yello wish- white powder; 
and tasteless, and permanent in the air. 

Bismuth Subcarbonate is insoluble in water or alcohol; completely dissolvedfc*'^ 
by nitric or hydrochloric acid with copious effervescence. 

Its solution in a slight excess of nitric acid, when added to 25 volumes 
distilled water, produces a white turbidity. 

When heated to redness, the salt loses water and carbon dioxide, and leave* 
a yellowish residue, which is soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid and blackened 
by hydrogen sulphide T 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



81 






Diaolvc I Gm. of the salt in 2 mils of nitric acid, add distilled water to make 
the istire 25 mils, then add 0.35 mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate 

oid remove the precipitate, if any, by filtration; the clear filtrate remains 
UMffei/tfd by the further addition of ft Few drops of silver nitrate T\S. (chloride). 
hn. of the Kilt in just a sufficient quiirttitv (about \ mils) of warm 
in.j, and pour the solution into 100 mils of distilled water; a white pre- 
cipitate is produced- Filter, and evaporate the filtrate on a water bath to 30 
nula,apin filter the liquid, divide the latter filtrate into portions of 5 mils each 
and subject these several portions to the following tests: 

Mix one portion with an equal volume of diluted sulphuric acid; it doea 
not become cloudy (Lad). 

Precipitate another portion with a slight excess of ammonia water; tha 
supernatant liquid does not exhibit a bluish tint (cepptr | 

Another portion is not immediately affected by barium nil rate T.S. (sulphate). 
Id another portion bydroohlono arid »l«w*s not produce a precipitate which is 
in a alight excess «»f hydrochloric acid, but soluble in ammonia water 

Boil 1 Gm, of the salt with 20 mils of a mixture of equal parts of acetic acid 

and i Untitled water, cool the solution and filter. Free the filtrate from bismuth 

Addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture and again filter. The 

titrate leaves not more than 0.003 Gm. <>T residue on evaporation and gentle 

ignition [Malic* or alkali earths). 

Agitate about 0,05 Gm. of Bismuth Subcarbonate with 5 mils of a solution 
of equal parts of distilled water ami ferrous sulphate T.*S. t and cautiously pour 
the mixture over 5 mils of sulphuric acid (free from nitrous compounds), so 
a* to form a layer above; no brownish-red zone forms at the line of contact 
of the two liquids {nitrate). 

The residue resulting from the ignition of 2 Gm. of Bismuth Subcarbonate 
doea not respond to B< ti< tidorf'sTest for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 2). 

A*say — Ijmite thoroughly Rt red heat in a porcelain crucible about 1 Gm. of 
Bantu th Subi arbonate, previously dried to constant weight, at 100° C. and 
•ocurately weighed. The residue of bismuth oxide (Bi a 3 ) corresponds to not 
W» than 90 per cent, of^tbe original weight of Bismuth Subcarbonate taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 




BISMUTHI SUBGALLAS 

Bismuth Subgallate 

Bism. Subgal.— Dermatol 
A basic bismuth gallate of varying chemical composition which, when 
dried to constant weight at 100° C, yields, upon ignition, not less than 
32 P« cent, nor more than 57 per cent* of bismuth oxide [Bi a O s ]* 

Bismuth Subgallate is an amorphous, bright yellow powder, odorless; tasteless, 
™ permanent in the air. 

Bismith Subgallate is insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether; readily soluble, 
^decomposition, in warm hydrochloric, nitric or sulphuric acid; insoluble in 
^y dilute mineral acids; readily soluble in alkali hydroxide solutions, forming 

I* u^' y^ ow ^ ui i° n which rapidly changes to a deep red. 
"hen heated to redness it at first chars, leaving finally a yellow residue, 
**"«» ia blackened by hydrogen sulphide T.S. A solution of this residue in 
*,Jyt excess of warm nitric or hydrochloricacjd produces a white turbidity 
*«*» idded to 25 volumes of distilled water. 

- Jiitate thoroughly about 0.1 Gm. of Bismuth Subgallate with an excess of 
■W^en sulphide T.S.; a brownish-black precipitate results. Filter this 





mixture, boil the filtrate to remove the dissolved gas, and then cool; the at 
tion of l fc drop of ferric chloride T.S.. produces & blue-black coloration in 
liquid. 

Shake L Gm. of the salt with 20 mils of alcohol for one minute, filter 
evaporate the filtrate to dryness on a water bath; not more than 0,005 ( 
of residue remains {free gallic acid). 

Boil 1 Gm. of Bismuth Subgallate with 20 mils of a mixture of equal p 
of acetic acid and distilled water, cool the solution and filter; Free the filt 
from bismuth by the addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture 
again filter, The latter filtrate leaves not more than 0,005 Gm, of resi 
on evaporation and gentle ignition [alkalies or alkali earths). 

Mix thoroughly about 0.05 Gm. of Bismuth Subgallate with 5 mils of dih 
sulphuric acid and 5 mils of ferrous sulphate T.S., filter the mixture and t 
cautiously pour the filtrate, without mixing, over 5 mils of sulphuric acid ( 
from nitrous compounds), contained in a test tube; no brownish-red i 
forms immediately (nitrate). 

Ignite 3 Gm. of Bismuth Subgallate in a porcelain crucible, cool and cautioi 
add just sufficient nitric acid, drop by drop, warming until the residue is dissoh 
Evaporate the solution to dryness, again ignite and cool. Cautiously diss* 
this residue in just sufficient nitric acid by the aid of gentle heat, concent] 
the solution to about 4 mils, pour it into 100 mils of distilled water, filter, e\ 
orate the filtrate on a water oath to 30 mils, again filter and divide this filt] 
into portions of 5 mils each. These portions do not respond to the tests 
lead, copper, sulphate, or mfoer given under BUmuthi Subcarbanwi. 

The residue resulting from the ignition and subsequent treatment of 2 I 
of Bismuth Subgallate as described in the following test does not responc 
Bettendorfa Test for arsenic (see Fart II, Test No. 2), 

Assay — Take about 1 Gm. of Bismuth Subgallate, previously dried 
constant weight at 100° C, and weigh accurately. Ignite in i porce 
crucible and, after cooling, add 5 mils of nitric acid to the residue, drop 
drop, warming until complete solution has been effected. Evaporate this 9 
tion to dryness and carefully ignite at red heat; it leaves a residue of bisnr 
oxide (BiaOs) corresponding to not less than 52 per cent, nor more thai 
per cent, of the original weight of Bismuth Subgallate taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm, — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 






BISMUTHI SUBNITRAS 

Bismuth Subnitrate 
Bism, SubQlt. 

A basic bismuth nitrate of varying chemical composition, wh 
when dried for twenty-four hours in a desiccator over sulphuric a' 
yields, upon ignition, not less than 79 per cent, of bismuth oxide [Bi*< 

Bismuth Subnitrate is a white powder; odorless, almost tasteless, and sligl 
hygroscopic. 

Bismuth Subnitrate is almost insoluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, 
readily dissolved by hydrochloric or nitric acid. 

Its solution in a slight excess of warm nitric or hydrochloric acid produc 
white turbidity when added to 25 vdlumes of distilled water. 

When heated to redness it evolves nitrous vapors, leaving a yellow resi' 
which is blackened by hydrogen sulphide T.S 

When brought in contact with moistened blue litmus paper, the salt at 
a slightly acid reaction. 






Boil 1 Gm. of Bismuth Subnitrate with 20 mils of a mixture of equal parte of 
ittlic acid and distilled water, cool t he solution and filter. Free the filtrate from 
hwauth by the addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture and again filter. 
The latter filtrate leaves not more than 0.003 Gm. of residue on evaporation 
and j^entte ignition (alkalies or alkali earth*). 

Boil about 0,1 Gm. of the salt with 5 mils of potassium hydroxide T.S.; no 
odbr of ammonia is perceptible nor does the vapor turn moistened red litmus 
Wjrblue, 

The residue resulting from the ignition of 2 Gm. of the salt does not respond 
to Bettendorf s Test for arsenic (see Part II t Test No. 2). 

I 3 Gm. of the salt to 3 mils of warm nitric acid; no effervescence occurs 
(avhomle), and no residue remains (in&rfuhle foreign mite). Pour this solution 
into 100 mils of distilled water, a white precipitate is produced. Filter, evapo- 
rate the filtrate on a water bath to 30 nuls t again filter the liquid and divide the 
mv filtrate into portions of 5 mils each. These portions do not respond to the 
tttte for lead, cupper, sulphate, or stiver given under Bi&muihi Subcarhonas* 

Assay— Ignite thoroughly at red heat in a porcelain crucible about I Gm. 
of Bismuth 8ubnifrute, previously dried for twenty-four hours in a desiccator 
TO sulphuric acid and accurately weighed. The residue of bismuth oxide 
iRijOs) corresponds to not less than 79 per cent, of the original weight of Bis- 
muth Subnitrate taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0,5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 




BISMUTHI SUBSALICYLAS 

Bismuth Subsalicylate 

Bfsm* Subsallc yl. 

A basic bismuth salicylate of varying chemical composition! which, 
when dried to constant weight at 100° C, yields, upon ignition, not 
** than 62 per cent, nor more than 66 per cent, of bismuth oxide 
RQJ, Protect it from light* 

Biamiith Subsalicylate is a white, or nearly white, amorphous or crystalline 
P*>*der; odorless, tasteless, and permanent in the air. 

Bumuth Subsalicylate is almost insoluble in cold water; upon prolonged 
boiling with water a portion of the salicylic acid passes into solution with the 
formation of a more basic bismuth subsalicylate. It is partly soluble, with 
decomposition, in hydrochloric or nitric acid, a white, flocculent precipitate of 
«i<yUc add separating. 

When heated to redness it at. first chars, finally leaving a yellow residue, 
*»& « blackened by hydrogen sulphide. A solution of this residue in a slight 
JJJ* of warm nitric or hydrochloric acid produces a white, turbidity when 
■*W to 26 volumes of distilled water. 
Agitate about 0.1 Gm, of Bismuth Subsalicylate with a solution of 5 drops 
blonde T.S. in 10 mils of distilled water a deep violet-blue coloration 
* Produced. 

Agitate 1 Gm. of the salt with 20 mils of cr_\>^form, filter the liquid and 
JJjponUe the filtrate to dryness; not more than 0.jQ. f Gm. of residue remains 
Wtolicylicacid). 

Ptm, of Bismuth Subsalicylate in a porcelain crucible, rool and cau- 

£*t sufficient nitric acid to the residue, drop by drop, warming 



84 



THE FHARMACQPCEIA OF THE 



filter, evaporate the filtrate on a water bath to 30 mils, again filter and di 
the filtrate into portions of 5 mils each. These portions do not respond to 
teste for lead, copper, sulphate, or silver given under Bismuthi Subcarbona*. 

Boil 1 Gm. of Bismuth Subsalicylate with 20 mils of a mixture of equal p 
of acetic acid and distilled water, "cool the solution and filter. Free the tilt 
from bismuth by the addition of hydrogen sulphide, boil the mixture and ai 
filter. The latter filtrate, on evaporation and ignition, leaves not more t 
0.005 Gm. of residue (alkalies or alkali earths). 

Triturate about 0.05 Gm. of Bismuth Subsalicylate with 0.1 Gm. of sod 
salicylate and 5 mils of distilled water, and carefully pour it without mi: 
over 5 mils of sulphuric acid (free from nitrous compounds) contained i 
test tube; no pink to brownish-red zone forms immediately Imh 

The residue resulting from the ignition and subsequent treatment of 2 i 
of Bismuth Subsalicylate, as described in the t<*st below, does not responc 
Bettendorf's Test for arsenic (see Fart 11, Test No. 2). 

Assay — Take about 1 Gm. of Bismuth Subsalicylate, previously drie« 
constant weight at 100° C, and weigh accurately. Ignite in a porcelain cruc 
and, after cooling, add 5 mils of nitric acid to the residue, drop by drop, wt 
ing until solution hits been effected. Evaporate this solution to dryness 
carefully ignite it at red heat. It leaves a residue of bismuth oxide (Bj 
corresponding to not leas than 62 per cent, nor more than fi6 per cent, of 
original weight of Bismuth Subsalicylate taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



BROMOFORMUM 

Bromoforni 
Bromof. 

A liquid consisting of about 96 per cent., by weight, of CHI 
(252.77) and about 4 per cent, of dehydrated alcohol. Preserve it 
glass-stoppered bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Bromoform is a heavy, transparent, colorless, mobile liquid, with an etbef 
odor, and a penetrating, sweet taste, resembling that of chloroform. 

Bromoforni is slightly soluble in water; niisciBle with alcohol, chlorofor 
ether, benzene, petroleum benzin or fixed or volatile oils. 

Specific gravity: 2,506 to 2.630 at 26° C. 

Bromoforni is slightly volatile at ordinary temperatures. 

Bromoform is not inflammable, but when vaporized by the application 
heat, its vapors may be ignited. 

Evaporate 10 mils of Bromoform from a porcelain dish on a water bath; 
more than 0.00(> Gm. of residue remains after drying it at 100 a C. 

Shake 10 mils of Bromoform with 10 mils of distilled water, and allow 
liquids to separate completely, The water removed from the layer of Bromofc 
is neutral to litmus (free acid)] 5 mil portions, tested separately, show not rr 
than a slight opalescence on the addition of a few drops of silver nitrate * 
(bromides or brominated compound*), and no blue color on the addition < 
few drops each of potassium iodide T.S. and of starch T.S. {jrte bromine). 

Agitate 10 mils of Bromoform with 10 mils of distilled water, and allow 
liquids to separate completely. Remove the aqueous layer from the Bromoft 
treat it with an excess of ammonia water, and then with a solution of iodine 
ammonium iodide, until the black precipitate of nim^t-n iodide, which sc 
times forms, slowly disappears; it does not become milky in appearance, 
to the separation of iodoform, recognizable by its odor (acetone). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil— Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



BUCHU 

Buchu 

The dried leaves of Barosma betulina (Thunberg) Bartling and Wend- 
land, known in commerce as Short Buchu; or of Barosma serratifolia 
(Girtis) Willdenow, known in commerce as Long Buchu (Fain. Ruiacea*), 
without the presence or admixture of more than 10 per cent, of stems 
or other foreign matter. 

Short Buchu — Rhomboidallv oval or obovate; from 9 to 25 mm, in length 
and from 4 to 13 mm. in breadth; summit obtuse, and recurved; margin some- 
whit serrate or finely dentate with an oil gland at the base of each tooth; the 
hye more or less wedge-shaped; color varying from vivid green to yellowish- 
green, occasionally a few olive-^ray leaves; glandular-punctate; both surfaces 
papillose; under surface longitudinally striate; texture coriaceous; |>ctiole 1 mm. 
m length; odor and taste characteristic, aromatic and mint-like. 

Long Buchu — Linear-lanceolate, from 2,5 to 4 cm, in length and from 4 to 6 
torn, in breadth; summit somewhat rounded or truncate with an oil gland at 
tbtapex; margin sharply serrate and glandular; otherwise resembling Short 
Buchu. 

Stems in both Short and Long Buchu about 1 mm. in diameter, yellowish- 
pen or brownish-red, cylindrical, longitudinally furrowed, with prominent 
W-scars nearly opposite to each other giving the stems a jointed character. 

The yield of ash does not exceed 4 |*cr cent, 

Preparation — Fluidextractum Buchu , 

Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm«— Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



CAFFEINA 

Caffeine 

Caff e in.— Theine 

A feebly basic substance [C 8 H x O a N 4 + H a O or C *H (CH a ) a O a N« + H t O 
s *212d4| obtained from the leaves of Then sinensis Linne* (Fam. Tern- 
dwrioca*), or from the seeds of Coffea arabica Linn£ (Fain. Rubiaceai); 
*I*Q occurring in some other plants; or prepared synthetically. 

Caffeine occutb in white, flexible, silky , glistening needles, usually matted 
together in fleecy masses; odorless, and having a bitter taste; efflorescent in 

OneOm, of Caffeine dissolves in 46 mils of water, 66 mils of alcohol, 5.5 mils 
« «Moroform and in 530 mils of ether at 25° C. ; also in 5.5 mile of water at 80° C. 
« in 22 mils of alcohol at 60° C, 

£ saturated aqueous solution of Caffeine is neutral to litmus. 

Caffeiae t rendered anhydrous, melts between 235° and 237° C. 

Dissolve about 0.01 Gra. of Caffeine in 1 mil of hydrochloric acid in a porcelain 
"•"itddO.l Gm. of potassium chlorate and evaporate the solution to dryness 
08 * water bath. Invert the dish over a vessel containing a few drops of ammonia 
*****■; the residue acquires a purple color, which is destroyed by fixed alkalies. 

Ad aqueous solution of Caffeine yields a precipitate with tannic acid T.S., 
■duble in an excess of the reagent. 





86 



THE PHARMAC0PCE1A OF THE 



Caffeine loses not more than 9 per cent, of its weight when dried to com 
weight at 80° C, 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Caffeine; not more than 0.05 per cent, of 
remains. 

About 0.5 Gm. of Caffeine dissolves in 5 mils of sulphuric or nitric acid wit 
producing more than a faint* yellowish color {organic impuritus). 

Its aqueous solution is not precipitated by mercuric potassium iodide 
{alkalmds). 

Preparations— Caffeina Citrata CafTeina Citrata EfferveBcens (from Citi 
Caffeine). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.15 Gm. — Apothecaries, 2Yi grai 



CAFFEINA CITRATA 

Citrated Caffeine 

Caffein. Cit. 

Citrated Caffeine contains, when dried to constant weight at 80* 
not less than 48 per cent, of anhydrous caffeine [C B HioO fl N« = 194. 

Caffeine! fifty grammes 50 ( 

Citric Acid, fifty grammes, ........... 50 C 

Distilled Water, hot, one hundred milliliters 100 i 

Dissolve the citric acid in the hot distilled water, add the caffei 
and evaporate the resulting solution to dryness on a water bath, c 
stantly stirring toward the end of the operation. Reduce the prod 
to a fine powder and transfer it to well-closed containers, 

Citrated Caffeine occurs as a white powder, odorless and having a dig 
bitter, acid taste. 

Citrated Caffeine gives a clear, syrupy solution with a small quantity of wi 
but caffeine precipitates on dilution. This precipitate redissolves on the " 
addition of water. 

Its aqueous solution (1 in 30) is acid to litmus. 

Dissolve about 0,02 Gm. of Citrated Caffeine in 1 mil of hydrochloric ac 
a porcelain dish, add 0.1 Gm. of potassium chlorate E evaporate the mixtui 
a water bath and invert the dish over a vessel containing a few drops of amm 
water j the residue acquires a purple color, which is destroyed by alkalia 

About 2 mils of a filtered aqueous solution of Citrated Caffeine (i in 10) n 
with 50 mils of lime water remains clear in the cold, but becomes turbid' 
faoatod to boiling. 

When dried to constant weight at 80° C. it loses not more than 5 per 
of its weight, 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Citrated Caffeine; not more than 0.1 per oei 
ash remains. 

Meat a mixture of 0.25 Gm, of Citrated Caffeine and 5 mils of sulphuric 
in a porcelain dish on a water bath for fifteen minutes, protecting it from 
it may become yellow in color but not brown or black (tartaric acid). 

An aqueous solution of Citrated Caffeine does not respond to the Te 
heavy metals (see Part 11, Test No, 3). 






Th« addition of a few drops of barium chloride T.3. to 10 mils of an aqueous 
•olutioaof Citrated Caffeine (1 in 100), previously treated with a few drops of 
hydrochloric acid, produces no turbidity {sulpkuric acid). 

Assay— Dissolve about 0.5 Cm. of Cttrated Caffeine, previously dried to con- 
iUftt weight at 80° C. and accurately weighed, in 10 mils of hot distilled water, 
*dd an excess of sodium hydroxide T.S., cool the solution, and ehake it in a sepa- 
rator with three successive portions of 20 mils, 10 mils, and 5 mils, respectively, 
of chloroform, or more if necessary to complete the extraction. Evaporate the 
combined chloroform solutions on a water oath and dry the residue to constant 
"eight at 80" C, The weight of anhydrous caffeine (CsHioOgN*) so obtained 
forreponds to not less than 48 per cent, of the weight of Cttrated Caffeine 
taken. This residue, when recrystallised from hot water, and dried to constant 
weight at 80 9 C, has the melting point given under Cajfcina. 

Preparation — Caffeina Citrata Effervesccns. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 Gm. — Apothecaries, 5 grains. 






CAFFEINA CITRATA EFFERVESCENS 

Effervescent Citrated Caffeine 

Caff. CU. Eft. 

It contains not less than 1.9 per cent, of anhydrous caffeine [CsII 10 
194.12], 

Citrated Caffeine, forty grammes. 40 Gm, 

Sodium Bicarbonate, dried and powdered,/^ hundred and 

mtnty grammes , . , . . 570 Gm, 

Tartaric Acm, dried and powdered, three hundred grammes 300 Gm. 
Citric Acid, uneffloresced crystals, one hundred and ninety- 

Jfoe grammes 195 Gm, 

To make about one thousand grammes 1000 Gm* 

Powder the citric acid and mix it intimately with the citrated caffeine 
•ad tartaric acid, then thoroughly incorporate the sodium bicarbonate. 
lice the mixed powders on a plate of glass or in a suitable dish, in an 
oven heated to between 93° and 104* C. Manipulate the mixture 
Awfully with a wooden spatula, and T when it has l>ccome moist, rub it 
though a No. 6 tinned-iron sieve, and dry the granules at a temperature 
°<rt exceeding 54° C. Immediately transfer the product to suitable 
containers, and seal them tightly. Care must be used to prevent the 
PwpMfction from coming in contact with air containing moisture. 

Amy— Dissolve about 5 Gm. of Effervescent Citrated Caffeine, accurately 
**£hed, in 10 mils of hot distilled water. When effervescence has ceased, add 
•access of sodium hydroxide T.S. t cool the mixture and shake it in a separator 
Jw three successive portions of 20 mils, 10 mils, and 5 mils, respectively, of 
™»oform ( or more if necessary to complete the extraction. Evaporate the 
•tabined chloroform solutions on a water bath and drv the residue to constant 
»^t at 80° C. The weight of anhydrous caffeine (C B HioOflN 4 ) so obtained 




88 



THE FHARMACOFCEIA OF THE 



corresponds to not less than 1,0 per cent, of the weight of Effervescent Citr* 
Caffeine taken. This residue, when recrystallized from hot water, reapoacL 
the tests for identity and, when dried to constant weight at 80° C, has the meJi 
point given under Caffeina. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 drachm. 



CAFFEINiE S0DI0-BENZOAS 

Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate 

Caff. Sod, Benz. 



hm. 



A mixture of caffeine and sodium benzoate. It contains, when diie 
to constant weight at 80° C, not less than 46 per mnt. imr more tha 
50 per cent, of anhydrous caffeine [C8H 1 oOaN^ = 194J2J f the remaind* 
being sodium benzoate [NaC 7 H Qa~ 144.04], Preserve it in well-elm 

containers. 

Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate occurs as a white powder; it is odorless and has 
slightly bitter taste. 

One Gm. of Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate dissolves in 1.1 mils of water, Borr 
caffeine separating on standing, and in 30 mils of alcohol, at 25° C; parti 
soluble in chloroform. 

An aqueous solution (1 in 20) may be neutral, slightly acid, or slightly alkilic 
to litmus, but is not reddened by phenol phthalein TA 

On heating the compound, it is decomposed with the evolution of whil 
vapors, leaving a carbonaceous residue which effervesces with acids and coloi 
a non-luminous flame intensely yellow. 

Ferric chloride T.S. produces a salmon-colored precipitate in an aqueou 
solution of the compound. The addition of diluted hydrochloric acid produce 
a white precipitate of benzoic acid. 

About 0.1 Gm. of Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate dissolves in 2 mils of sulphur 
acid without producing more than a slight, yellow color (readily carbonud* 
organic mailer). 

An aqueous solution (1 in 50), acidulated with hydrochloric acid and filtere* 
does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part 11, Test No. 3). 

When dried to constant weight at 80° CL, it loses not more than 5 per Off* 
of its weight. 

Assay for Caffeine— Dissolve about I Gm. of Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate, pr* 
viously dried to constant weight at 80° C. and accurately weighed, m j> mils « 
distilled water in a separator, add f> mils of sodium hydroxide T.S. and shake th 
mixture with four successive portions of 20 mils, 10 mils, 10 mils, and 5 mil* 
respectively, of chloroform. Evaporate the combined chloroform solutioos O 
a water bath and dry the residue to constant weight at 80° C. The weight < 
anhydrous caffeine (CeHioOgNi) so obtained corresponds to not less than 40 p* 
cent, nor more than 50 per cent, of the weight of dried Caffeine Sodio-Beawal 
taken. 

This residue, when rcerystallized from hot water, responds to the testa o 
identity and, when dried to constant weight at 80° C., has the melting polo 
given under Caffeina. 

Assay for Sodium Benzoate— When dried to constant weight at 80° C. an 
estimated as directed under the Assay for alkali salts of organic acids (a 
Part II, Test No. 6) it shows, in the dined mixture, not less than 50 per < 
nor more than 54 per cent, of sodium benzoate (NaGjHsOa). 

Metric Apothec&rint 

Average dose — By mouth, 0.3 Gm. — 5 grains, 
Hypodermic! 0.2 Gm. — 3 grains. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



CALCII BROMIDUM 
Calcium Bromide 

Calc. Brom. 

A hydrated form of Calcium Bromide containing not less than 84 
| per cent, of CaBr* (199.91). Preserve it in well-closed containers; 

■ 









Calcium Bromide is a white, granular salt; odorless, of a sharp, saline taste, 
and toy deliquescent. 

One Gm. of Calcium Bromide dissolves in 0.7 mil of water and in 1,3 mils 
of alcohol at 25* C; also in 0.4 mil of boiling water; insoluble in chloroform 
vr rtta 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) is neutral or slightly alkaline to 

Km 

Ac aqueous solution of the siUt (1 in 20) yields with ammonium oxalate 
*A 1 white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid but soluble in hydrochloric 
in 

Silver nitrate T.S, added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) produces 

» yellowish- white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid or in a moderate excess 
of ammonia water. 

Add 1 mil of chloroform to 10 mils of an aqueous solution of the Bait (1 in 20) 
*nd cautiously introduce chlorine water, which has been diluted with an equal 
jfomeof distilled water, drop by drop, with constant agitation, The liberated 
hnqrins dissolves in the oMo rofonii and imparts to it ■ yoUbw to ovsngi oolor, 
*toefe is free from any violet tint (iodidi ). 

Dtod 1 mil of diluted sulphuric acid upon about 1 Gm. of the powdered salt; 
M ydlow color appears at once (hromalr). 

Diaeolve about 0.1 Gm. of the salt in 5 mils of distilled water, add an excess 

*f alver nitrate T.S. and a few drops of nitric acid, filter, wash the precipitate 

*ith distilled water, digest it for ten minutes with 5 mib» of ammonium carbonate 

id filter. On supersaturating the filtrate with nitric acid not more than 

produced at once {chlorides). 

Twenty mils of an aqueous solution (1 in 250) does not at once assume a blue 

ter with potassium ferror yanidc T.S. (iron) . 

Five mils of an aqueous solution (1 in 20), when acidulated with 1 drop of 
1 lone acid, shows no immediate turbidity with 1 noil of barium chloride 
dphaie). 

Dissolve I Gm. of Calcium Bromide and 1 Gm, of sodium acetate in 5 mils 
of distilled water and render the solution slightly add by the addition of a suffi- 
d«rt qu From 3 to 5 drops) of diluted acetic acid. After boiling and 

tboroukhly cooling the solution, it does not become cloudy within live minutes 
*ncr lie addition, with agitation, of 5 drops of potassium clichromate T.S, 

Precipitate the calcium completely from 10 mils of an aqueous solution of 
ttesal 1 by adding ammonium oxalate T.S. and filtering. The filtrate 

on evaporation and ignition leaves not more than 0.004 Gm. of fixed residue 
'.fltyieiium and alkalies). 

. Ai aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
(** Part II, Test No. 3), 

Ai*a>— Proceed as directed under the Assay for bromides (see Part II, Test 
irig about 0,4 Gm. of Calcium Bromide, accurately weighed in a etop- 
Pwd weidung-bottle. It shows not less than 84 per cent, of CaBr a . 

Eochtn norm zd silver nitrate V.S. used corresponds to 0.009U95£ 

£*&• of GaBr*. Each gramme of Calcium Bromide corresponds to not less than 
HO oils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 





thr 



CALCH CARBONAS PR^CIPITATUS 

Precipitated Calcium Carbonate 

Cale. Carb* Pr«c.— Precipitated Chalk 
It contains, when dried to constant weight at 200° C-, not 
08 per cent, of CaCO* (100,07). 

Precipitated Calcium Carbonate is a fine, white, miero-erystalline powde 
without odor or taste, and permanent in the air. 

Precipitated Calcium Carbonate is nearly insoluble in water; the eotubilil 
is increased by the presence of ammonium salts and especially by carbon dio)rid« 
alkali hydroxides diminish its solubility; insoluble in alcohol; dissolved wit 
effervescence by diluted acetic, hydrochloric, or nitric acid. 

When heated to full redness, the salt gradually loses carbon dioxide, and 
residue of calcium oxide remains. 

For applying tests of identity and purity, mix 1 Gm. of Calcium Carbons! 
with 50 mils of distilled water, and add hydrochloric acid, drop by drop, wit 
agitation, until solution takes place. The resulting solution, after boiling an 
cooling, should be acid, and should not impart a green or crimson color to a noi 
luminous flame, nor leave more than 0.002 Gm. of insoluble matter. 

Neutralize a portion of this acid solution with ammonia water, and ml 
ammonium oxalate T.S.; a white precipitate is produced which is insoluble i 
acetic acid, but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Another portion of the solution, as prepared above, does not respond to ti 
Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Agitate 1 C*m. of the salt with 50 mils of distilled water, which has previous! 
been boiled and cooled, and then filter; the filtrate is not alkaline to litmus, an- 
on evaporation, leaves not more than 0.005 Gm. of residue (soluble impuritit* 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.3 to 0.4 Gm. of Calcium Carbonate, uwiioo J 
dried to constant weight at 200° C. and accurately weighed, in 10 mils * 
distilled water and 10 mils of diluted hydrochloric acid and boil the solution « 
expel all carbon dioxide. Transfer this solution to a 200 mil graduated flasj 
odd 100 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S., render it alkaline with amnion: 
water, shake the mixture well and allow to stand for three hours at from 60* 1 
70° C. or over night at room temperature. Cool the liquid if necessary, fill tt 
flask with distilled water to the mark, mix it well, filter through a dry filter in* 
a dry flask, reject the first 20 mils of the filtrate, and proceed as follows: Ar3 
diluted sulphuric acid to 100 mils of the filtrate (representing one-half of tt 
Calcium Carbonate taken) until of acid reaction, then add 25 mils more of it 
diluted sulphuric acid, warm the solution to from 60* to 70° C, and titrate wif 
tenth-normal potassium permanganate V,S. It shows, in the dried salt, nolle 
than m per cent, of CaC0 3 . 

Each mil of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.0050035 Gn 
of CaCOg. Each gramme of dried Calcium Carbonate corresponds to not le 
than 195.9 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm, — Apothecaries, 15 grains 

CALCH CHLORIDUM 

Calcium Chloride 

Gate. Chlor. 

A hydrated form of Calcium Chloride containing not less than 75 p 

cent, of CaCla (110.99). Preserve it in well-stoppered bottles* 

Calcium Chloride occurs in white, slightly translucent, hard fragments, granul 
or sticks; odorless, having a sharp, saline taste. It is very deliquescent. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



91 



Om Gm, of Calcium Chloride dissolves in 1 .2 mils of water and in about 

10 mils of alcohol at 25° C; also in 0.7 mil of boiling water and about 2 mils 

of boiling alcohol. 
Its aqueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral or slightly alkaline to litmus. 
An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) yields, with ammonium oxalate 

T.&, a white precipitate insoluble in acetic acid, but soluble in hydrochloric 
add. 

Silver nitrate T.S. added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) pro- 
duces a white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid but readily soluble in ammonia 
wster. 

Add ammonia water to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) until of 
tlktline reaction; no turbidity or precipitation occurs either before or after 
boiling {von, aluminum, phosphates, etc). 

Precipitate the calcium completely from 10 mils of an aqueous solution of 
theaalt <1 in 20) by adding ammonium oxalate T.S. and filtering. The iltrate 
QB evaporation and ignition leaves not more than 0.0O4 Gm. of fixed residue 
(■Mptettum and alkalies). 

An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
(see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Assay — Proceed as directed under the Assay for chlorides (see Part II, Test 
No. 5), using about 0,3 Gm. of Calcium Chloride, accurately weighed in a stop- 
pered weighing-bottle, it shows not less than 75 per cent, of CaCl a . 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. used corresponds to O.Q0555 Gm. 
ofCaC! 9 Each gramme of Calcium Chloride corresponds to not less than 
135.1 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm* — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 






CALCII GLYCEROPHOSPHAS 

Calcium Glycerophosphate 

Calc. QlycerophOS,— Calcium Glyrcrinuphosphate 

kenonnal calcium salt of glycerophosphoric acid [C*H 5 (On) a P04H 8 
l], containing, when dried to constant weight at 130° C M not less 
*a & per cent, of CaC 3 H 7 PG a or C 3 H a (OH) a P0 4 Ca (210.17). Fre- 
*nre it in well-closed containers. 

Calcium Glycerophosphate occurs as a fine white powder; odorless and almost 
*•*£*■» somewhat hygroscopic. 

"to Gm. of Calcium Glycerophosphate dissolves in about 50 mils of water 
** 25* C; soluble in less water at a lower temperature; citric add increases its 
■nubility; insoluble in alcohol. 

Saturated aqueous solution of the salt is alkaline to litmus and to phenol- 

MbjUL 

A cold, saturated aqueous solution of the salt yields white, iridescent scales 
°* •jtoydrous calcium glycerophosphate when heated to boiling. 

"heu heated above 170° C. the salt is decomposed, evolving inflammable 
fa PotB, and at a red heat it is converted into calcium pyrophosphate. 

A saturated aqueous solution of the salt yields with ammonium oxalate T.S. 
•white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 
*ith lead acetate T.S. the saturated solution yields a white curdy precipitate 
which it soluble in nitric acid. 




92 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 




Dissolve 1 Om. of Calcium Glycerophosphate in 10 mils of diluted nitric *&*** 
and add an equal volume of cold ammonium molybdate T.S.; no precipit^^ 
is Tormed within one hour (phosphates) but on heating the mixture a yelk7^ 
precipitate is formed. 

An aqueous solution of the salt docs not respond to the Test for heavy me t* I* 1 
(see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Dissolve 0.1 Gm. of the salt in 10 mils of diluted nitric acid and add 1 mil cmM 
silver nitrate T.8.; an opalescence but no precipitate may appear within o»« 
minute (chloride), 

Dissolve 0.1 Gm. of the salt in 10 mils of diluted hydrochloric acid and &d*^ 
1 mil of barium chloride T.S.; no distinct turbidity appears within one minuL-^ 
(sulphate). 

Shake 1 Gm. of finely powdered Calcium Glycerophosphate with 25 mils otf 
dehydrated alcohol, filter the mixture, evaporate the filtrate on a water batfci 
and dry the residue for an hour at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. Tt*^ 
resulting residue weighs not more than 0,01 Gm, (alcohol-soluble impurities, etc. > * 

Dry a portion of the finely powdered salt to constant weight at 130*0.; 
loss does not exceed 10 per eent. (water). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0,4 Gm. of the salt, previously dried to const*™ 
weight at 130° C. and accurately weighed, in 20 mils of a 5 per cent, solution c> * 
acetic acid and add 30 mils of rfistilled water. Heat the mixture to boiling aiav*J 
add an excess of ammonium oxalate T.S. Collect the resulting precipitate, wadfcm* 
dry, and then ignite it until of constant weight. This residue of calcium tmi "* 
corresponds to not less than 26,1 per cent, of the weight of Calcium Glyceropl 
phate taken. 

Dry a portion of Calcium Glycero phosphate to constant weight at 130 a C^ 
and ignite it to constant weight; the weight of calcium pyrophosphate corr^^ 
spends to not less than 69*2 ikt cent, of the weight of Calcium Glyceropbo^^ 
pn*ta taken. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



CALCII HYPOPHOSPHIS 

Calcium Hypophosphite 

Calc, Mypophos. 

It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator over eu 
phuric acid, not less than 98 per cent, of Ca(PH a O a ) t (170.18), 
serve it in well-closed containers. Caution should be observed L- 
dispensing Calcium Hypopbosphite as an explosion is liable to occi^ 
when it is triturated or heated with nitrates, chlorates, or other oxi 
dizing agents. 

Calcium Hypophosphite occurs as colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms,, 
as small lustrous scales, or as a white, crystalline powder; odorless, having & 
nauseous and bitter taste, permanent in the air. 

One Gm. of Calcium Hypophosphite is slowly soluble in 6,5 mile of water At 
25° C; insoluble in alcohol. 

When heated the salt decrepitates and begins to decompose, giving off water 



and evolving spontaneously inflammable hydrogen phosphide, and on complete 
ignition leaving a residue of calcium pyrophosphate. 

When an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20), acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid, in added, drop by drop with agitation, to an excess of mercuric chloride TJ&. t 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



93 






i whiir precipitate of mercurous chloride is formed. Upon the further addition 
of ti* solution of Calcium Hypophospbite the precipitate becomes gray from 
reduction to metallic mercury. 

An aqueous solution of Calcium Hypophosphke (1 in 20) yields with ammo- 
nium oxalate T.S. a white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid, but soluble in 
hydrochloric acid. 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of the salt in 20 mils of distilled wafer; it requires not more 
than 1 mil of tenth-normal potassium hydroxide Y*S. to produce a pink color, 
pknolphthalein T.iS. being used as indicator. 

When I Gm of the salt is diaBQlved in 20 mils of distilled water, not more than 
0.005 Gm* of residue remains (phospk 

5 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) in a test tube with 0,5 
mil of diluted hydrochloric acid and heat on a water bath; no offensive odor 
develops within thirty minutes. 

An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
Ik* Part II . Test No. 3), 

Pour 5 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 25) into a beaker containing 
3 roila of nitric acid r diluted with about 10 mils of distilled water, and evaporate 
it to dryness on a water hath. The residue meets the requirements of the Test 
for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1), 

Assay— Dissolve about 0,75 On. of Calcium llvpnphosphitc, previously 
dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and &0GUr&t6fy 
weighed, in 10 mils of distilled water, add 10 mils of nitric acid and evaporate to 
dryneson a water bath. Arid 5 mils of nitric acid to the residue, again evaporate 
VoiryneM on a water bath and dissolve the residue in sufficient distilled watflf 
to measure 100 mils. Transfer 10 mils of this solution to a 100 mil graduated 
Bilk, add sodium hydroxide T.S. (free from chloride) until a slight, perma- 
nent precipitate is produced; then add 50 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 
and proceed as directed in the assay under Sodii Phosphas. When calculated 
to the amount originally taken it shows not less than 9S per rent, of Car PI f .< ) 2 )a. 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate Y.S. used corresponds to 0.002836 
Gtn. of Gft(PHa< Vta. Bach gramme of Calcium Hypo phosphite, dried to 
•Want weight, corresponds to not less than 345.5 mils of tenth-normal silver 
nitrate VJ9L 

Preparation — Syrupus Hypophnsphitum. 

Average dosk— Metric, 0.5 Gm. —Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



KCALCII LACTAS 
Calcium Lactate 
Cate. Lact. 
form of Calcium Lactate [Ca(C 3 II & 3 ) a +5H fl O- 
tins, whm dried to constant weight at 120° C, nut 
. cent, of Ca(C 3 H»0 a ) a (218.15). Preserve it in well- 
hied containers. 

Calcium Lactate occurs in white, granular masses or powder; odorless and 
nearly tasteless. 

It is somewhat efflorescent; at 120° C. it becomes anhydrous. When dried 
to a constant weight at that temperature the loss iH not more 1 t.h:m -^2 per cent, 
(comsponding to 5 molecules of water of crystallisation) nor less than 25 per 





94 



THE PHAEMAC0P(E1A OF THE 



One Gm. of Calcium Lactate dissolves in 20 mils of water at 25* C; almO 
insoluble in alcohol. 

An aqueous solution of CaJciura Lactate (1 in 20) is neutral r slightly arid, £> T 
slightly alkaline to litmus, but is not reddened by phenolphthalein T - 

Acidulate an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) with sulphuric acid, self* 
potassium permanganate and heat the mixture; the odor of acetaldehyde a^ 
developed. With ammonium oxalate T.S. an aqueous solution (1 in 20) yield* 
a white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Teat for heavy metals 
(see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Add ammonium oxalate T.S, to 20 mils of a hot aqueous solution of the salt 
(1 in 20) until no further precipitate is produced, filter the mixture after three* 
hours, and wash the precipitate with 50 mils of distilled water. The combined 
filtrate and washings leave not more than 0,01 Gm. of residue on evaporation 
and subsequent ignition (magnesium and alkalies). 

Stir about 0.5 Gm. of the salt with 1 mil of sulphuric acid; the mixture does 
not emit an odor of volatile fat-acids, even on warming. 

Assay — Incinerate in a crucible about 2 Gm. of the salt, previously dried t^> 
constant weight at 120° C, and accurately weighed, dissolve the residue in 50 
mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. and titrate the excess of acid witt> 
half-normal potassium hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator- 
It shows, in the dried salt, not less than 98 per cent of Ca{CsH 8 O a )a. 

Each mil of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.0545- 
Om, of Ca(C 3 H B Q3)s. Each gramme of dried Calcium Lactate corresponds t- 
not less than 17.97 mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S, 



Average dose — Metric, 0,5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



CALCII SULPHIDUM CRUDUM 

Crude Calcium Sulphide 

Cak. Sulphid. Crud.— Calx Sulphurata, U.S.P. VIH Sulphurated lime 






Preserve it iz 



It contains not less than 55 per cent, of CaS (72.14). 

well-closed containers. 

Crude Calcium Sulphide is a pale gray or yellowish powder, having a fai 
odor of hydrogen sulphide and a nauseous and alkaline taste. It gradualBa. J 
decomposes on exposure to moist air. 

Crude Calcium Sulphide is very slightly soluble in cold water; more readlX. 
soluble in boiling water with partial decomposition; readily dissolved by soIuuok^i 
of ammonium salts; insoluble in alcohol. 

When Crude Calcium Sulphide is decomposed bv diluted acetic acid, hydrog^* 1 
sulphide is evolved and a residue of calcium sulphate and carbon frequently 
remains. The filtered solution yields with ammonium oxalate T.S. a whi tc 
precipitate insoluble in acetic acid, but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Assay — Introduce about 0,2 Gm of Crude Calcium Sulphide f accurately 
weighed, into a glass-stoppered bottle or flask; add 50 mils of distilled water, mby 
and quickly introduce 30 mils of a 10 per cent, ammonium chloride solution and 
immediately stopper the Hask. Agitate the contents for a few minutes, add 
quickly 20 mils of a 10 per cent, cadmium chloride solution, immediately insert 
the stopper and again agitate well for a few minutes. Then add 5 mils oY acetic 
acid, heat the mixture on a water bath for fifteen minutes, decant the superna- 
tant liquid through a filter, agitate the remaining precipitate with 10 mils of di- 
luted acetic acid, transfer the precipitate to the filter and wash with 10 mils ot 
diluted acetic acid. Return the filter and precipitate to the original flask, add 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



95 



W mils of tenth-normal iodine V.S. and 20 mils of a mixture of equal 
Tofamea of hydrochloric acid and water. Stopper the flask and agitate it 
figoroualy for a few minutes, and then titrate the excess of iodine with tenth- 
normal sodium thiosulphate V.S + It ahowa not less than 55 per cent, of CaS. 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. Used eorresponda to 0.003-607 Grn. of 
CiS, Each gramme of Crude Calcium Sulphide corresponds to not lesa than 
152,5 mild of tenth-normal iodine V.S. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.06 Gm— Apothecaries, 1 grain. 



CALUMBA 

Calumba 

CaJumb. — Cdumba Col umbo Colombo 

The dried root of Jateorhiza palmata (Lamarck) Miers (Fam. Meni- 

tptmactv). 

b circular or oval disks attaining a diameter of 9 cm. and seldom exceeding 
2 mm. in thickness, or in longitudinal or in oblique slices attaining a length of 30 
en., a breadth of 35 mm. and a tliickness of 16 mm. ; externally brown and 
roughly wrinkled; cut surface varying from yellowish-brown to grayish-yellow, 
the transverse slices distinctly radiate in the outer portion and with a dark cam* 
bium; central portion often depressed; fracture short, mealy; odor slight; 
ttrte slightly aromatic, verv bitter. 

The powder is greenish-Drown to grayish -yellow; starch grains numerous, 
wwtly single, occasionally 2- to 3-compound, the individual grains from 0.003 
to 0185 mm. in the long diameter, ovoid, ellipsoidal, frequently very irregular, 
4Atly lamellated, with an cxcentral linear x-sh&peu or branching cleft; stone 
«■ few with irregularly thickened, strongly ligmfied, coarsely porous walls 
ud containing one or more prisms of calcium oxalate from 0,01 to 0.03 mm, 
• length, or numerous sphenoidal micro-crystals; fragments with tracheal few, 
*he Utter with reticulate thickenings or bordered pores, and associated with 
*rod-6bers having long, oblioue, slit-like pores. 

Calumba yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

frtfimtlon — Tinctura Calumba. 

I Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains, 
CALX 
Calcium Oxide 
lime Quicklime 

It contains, when freshly ignited to constant weight with a blast 

'■tofcftot less than 95 per cent, of CaO (56.07). It loses not more than 

toper cent, of its weight on ignition. Preserve it in air-tight containers 

Udry place. 

Calcium Oxide occurs in hard, white or grayish-white masses or granules, or 
l & while powder; odorless and having a caustic taste. 

One Gm. of Calcium Oxide dissolves in 840 mils of water at 25° C; also in 1740 
lib of boiling water; soluble in glycerin and syrup; insoluble in alcohol. 
When moistened with water, Calcium Oxide becomes heated, and is gradually 
into a white powder (calcium hydroxide or slaked lime). When this 






THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



4 times its weight of water, it forms a smooth 



la mixed i 
(milk of lime). 

Water, when agjtafrfld with Calcium Oxide, becomes alkaline to litmus. 

Slake i Out of Calcium Oxide, thoroughly mix it with 50 mils of water, &^Q»f 
decant the greater portion of the milky liquid; the addition of an excess * _, „ 
diluted hydrochloric acid to the residue does not cause more than a slight tfii^^^ 
vescen ee {carbon 0. U } , 

Mix 5 Gm. of Calcium Oxide, after slaking, with 100 mils of distilled wste^ 
followed by hydrochloric acid, drop by drop, with agitation until solution Ukc 
place. The resulting solution, after boiling and cooling, should be acid 
should not deposit more than 0.05 Gm. of insoluble matter. 

Ammonium oxalate TA added to a portion of this solution, after neutraliiii _ 
it with ammonia water, yields a white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid, hu_ 
soluble in hydrochloric iod 

Ignite to constant weight with a blast lamp in a tared platinum crucible i 
portion of Calcium Oxide; it loses not more than 10 per cent, in weight oft* 
Calcium Oxide taken (volatile substance*)* 

Assay — Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Calcium Oxide, previously ignited to con- 
stant weight over a blast lamp and accurately weighed, in 20 mils of diluti 
hydrochloric acid, cool the solution, dilute with distilled water to 100 mils &i 
mix well. Transfer 20 mils of this solution to a 200 mil graduated flask u 
proceed with the assay as directed under Catcii Carbona* PracipUatus. 

Each mil of tenth-normal oxalic arid V.S. rnrrt^poiiils to <U)0280H5 Gm. 
CaO. Each gramme of freshly ignited Cbkilim Oxide corres|K>nda to not I 
than 333.9 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid VA 



Preparation — liquor Caleb. 



1 

CALX CHLORINATA 

Chlorinated Lime 

Calx ChloHn.— "Chloride of Lime * 

A product resulting from the action of chlorine upon calcium hydrox^c^: 
ide, and containing not less than 30 per cent, of available chlorir 
[CI — 35 .46]. Preserve it in air-tight containers, in a cool and dry place. 

Chlorinated Lime occurs as a white, or grayish- white, granular powder, hav 
the odor of chlorine. It becomes moist and gradually decomposes on exposu_ 
to the air and when in such condition must not be used or dispensed. 

It is partially soluble in water or alcohol. The insoluble portion settB 
readily when it is mixed with water. If lumps are present they readily bre 
down and leave no core. 

Shake 1 Gm. of Chlorinated Lime with 50 mils of distilled water and filt*«— ■"* 
the filtrate at first colors red litmus blue, and then bleaches it. 

Dissolve Chlorinated Lime in dilute*! acetic acid; an abundance of ehloriaJ*^ 
gas is evolved, and only a trifling residue remains undissolved. 

Ammonium oxalate T\S. added to this solution yields a white precipitate 
insoluble in acetic acid, but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Assay — Introduce into a tared, stoppered weighing-bottle, containing 10 wib 
of distilled water, between 3 ana 4 6m. of Chlorinated Lime and weigh accu- 
rately. Triturate this thoroughly with 50 mils of distilled water, transfer the mix- 
ture to a graduated titer flask, rinse the mortar with distilled water, add t!» 
rinsings to the mixture and then sufficient distilled water to make 1000 mik, 
stopper the flask and allow it to stand for ten minutes. Shake it thoroughly, 
add to 100 mils of the mixture 1 Gm. of potassium iodide and 5 mil 
acid, and titrate with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphati- VS., starch T s. bon| 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



97 



uied as indicator. When calculated to the weight of Chlorinated Lime taken, 

snot less than 30 per cent, of available chlorine. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosutph&tc V 8. responds to 

0.009546 Gm. of available chlorine (Oh Each gramme of Chlorinated Lime 

eonwpoads to not leas than 84.6 mils of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate Vifc 



CAMBOGIA 

Gamboge 

Cam bog* —Pipe Gamboge 
A gum-reain obtained from Garcinia Hanburii Hooker filius (Fam. 

In hard, brittle, cylindrical pieces, usually hollow in the center, from 2 to 5 cm. 
in diameter, from 10 to 20 em. in length, externally grayiah-orange-brown, 
longitudinally striate; fracture conchoidul, smooth, orange-red; odorless; taste 
verv acrid. 

"TieQ rubbed with water it yields a yellow emulsion which becomes darker 
and almost transparent upon the addition of ammonia water. The emulsion 
turns greeo upon the addition of iodine T.S. (starch). 

The powder is bright yellow, containing few or no starch grains. When 
nwuntvd in hydrated chloral T.S, and examined under the microscope the 
particles, for the moat part, slowly dissolve, Leaving scattered fragments of 
vegetable tissues. 

Not lea than 65 per cent, of Gamboge is soluble in alcohol. 

Gunboge yields not more than 2 per cent, of ash. 

frepwitfoii — Piluhe Cathartics Composite. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.125 Gm. —Apothecaries, 2 grains. 



CAMPHORA 

Camphor 

Cam ph. 

A ketone (C 10 Hi«0 or C 9 Hi 6 CO = 152.13] obtained from Cinnamomum 
Camphora (Linn6) Nees et Ebermaier (Fam. Lauracea:)] it is dextro- 
Preserve it in well-closed container*, in a cool place. 

Camphor occurs in white, translucent masses or granules of a tough con- 
aatence and having a penetrating, characteristic odor, and a pungent, aromatic 
Urte. U is readily pulverizable in the presence of a little alcohol, ether or 
chloroform. 

Camphor is slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, 
ether, carbon di&ulphide, petroleum ben z in, or in fixed or volatile oils. 
Specific gravity: about 0.990 at 25° C. 
Camphor melts between 174° and 177° C, 

The specific rotation [a\t> of Camphor in a solution in alcohol at 25** C, is 
between -Ml* and + 4 2° in a 200 nun. tube, containing 10 Gm. of Camphor in 
each 100 mils of solution. The alcohol must be of the strength of about 95 per 
cent, by volume. 

It volatilises at ordinary temperatures. On gradually heating about 2 Gm. of 
Camphor, it sublimes without carbonization and without leaving more than 
0.05 per cent, of ash. 
12 





98 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

A solution of Camphor in petroleum bemin (1 in 10) is clear (moisture). 

Hold the looped end of a piece of clean copper wire in a non-luminoiia flanc*^ 
until it glows, without coloring the flame green, then dip the loop into Campbo/* Z 
ignite the adhering Camphor, and hold it eo that the liquid turns outside cp* 
a non-luminous flame. On slowly bringing the flame from the burning Campkr^^ 
on the looj> in contact with the lower outer edge of the non*luminous flame, \xC^ 
green tinge is discernible (chlorinated products). 

Preparations — Aqua Camphor® Linimentum Belladonna* linimentum 
Camphone Linimentum Chloroformi Linimentum Saponia Spiritui ^ 
Camphor® Tinctura Opii Camphorata. 

Metric Apotheeariei 

Average dose — By mouth, 0.2 Gm.— 3 grains. 
Hypodermic, 0.1 Gm — lj^ grains. 



CAMPHORA MONOBROMATA 

Monobromated Camphor 

Cam ph. Monobrom. 

Ortho-monobromcamphor [C l0 Hi ©OBr or C»Hi B Br.CO * 231.04]. Pre- 
serve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Monobromated Camphor occurs in colorless, prismatic needles or scales, or 
&g a powder having a mild but character istic, camphoraceoua odor and taste; 
permanent in the air. It is decomposed by prolonged exposure to sun-light. 

One Gm. of Monobromated Camphor dissolves in 6.5 mils of alcohol, 0.5 
mil of chloroform, and in 1.6 mils of ether at 25° C; almost insoluble in water. 

It melts between 74° and 76° C. 

Heat a mixture of about 0.1 Gm* each of Monobromated Camphor and silver 
nitrate and 2 mils each of nitric acid and sulphuric acid until nitrous vapors 
are no longer evolved: a yellowish precipitate of silver bromide is obtaineo. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Monobromated Camphor ; not more than 0,05 per 
cent, of ash remains. 

Shake about 0.5 Gm. of powdered Monobromated Camphor with 10 mils of 
distilled water and filter. The filtrate is neutral to litmus and is not rendered 
more than slightly opalescent by the addition of a few drops of silver nitrate Ti. 
(soluble bromide). 

Average dose— Metric, 0/125 Gm. — Apothecaries, 2 grains. 



CANNABIS 

Cannabis 

Cannab.— Cannabis Indica. U.S.F. Mil Guaza Ganjah 

The dried flowering tops of the pistillate plants of Cannabis sativa 
Linn 6, or of the variety indica Lamarck (Fatn. Moracece), freed from 
the thicker sterns and large foliage leaves and without the presence or 
admixture of more than 10 per cent, of fruits or other foreign matter, 
Cannabis, made into a fluidextract in which one hundred mils represent 




I 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



99 






I hundred grammes of the drug, when assayed biologically, produces 
acoordiiiation when administered to dogs in a dose of not more than 
).Q3 mil of fluidextract per kilogramme of body weight. 

In dark green or greenish-brown and more or leaa agglutinated fragments, 
consisting of the short stems with their leaf-like brads and pint i Hate flowers, 
wae of the latter being replaced with more or km developed fruits; stems 
cylindrical, of varying length, not more than 3 mm. in diameter, longitudinally 
furrowed, light green to light brown, strigo&e- pubis* cut ; leaves digitately com- 
pound; leaflets, when soaked in water and spread out, linear-lanceolate, nearly 
soak, margin deeply serrate; bracts ovate, pubescent, each enclosing' one or 
two pistillate flowers, or more or less developed fruits; calyx dark green, pubes- 
cent am] somewhat folded around the ovary 1 or fruit] styles two, filiform and 
pubescent; ovary with a single canipylotropous ovule; fruit light green to light 
brown, broadly ellipsoidal, about 3., r i mm. in length, finely wrinkled and slightly 
reticulated ; odor agreeably aromatic; taste characteristic. 

The powder is dark green, giving a strong effervescence on the addition of 
dilute hydrochloric avid; numerous sharp pointed fragments of upper ooriion 
of non-glandular hairs and fragments of bracts and leaves showing yellowish- 
brown J at icife roue vessels, rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate from IK15 to 
0iG5 mm, in diameter; non-glandular hairs unicellular, with a very slender 
Pointed anex and a considerably enlarged base containing, usually in the lumen, 
aome calcium carbonate: glandular hairs of two kinds, one with 1 short, one- 
fcHed stalk and the other with a multicellular, long, tonguenshaped stalk, the 
glandular portion being globular and consisting of from 8 to 16 cells, fragments 
with palisade-like, non-lignified sclerenchymatoua cells, walls yellowish- 
l*own> finely porous, the lumina usually containing air; tissues of embryo and 
^odoflperm with numerous oil globules and aleurone grains, the latter from 
0005 to 0,01 mm. in diameter an I consisting of large crystalloids and globoids. 
►Id of alcohol extractive is not less than 8 per cent, and the alcoholic 
aduiion is of a bright green color. 

Cannabis yields not more tha^p 15 per cent, of ash. 

Asm— Prepare a fluidextract and proceed as directed under Biological 

IA»ys (Part II). 
fop rations 
Cannabis. 
CANTHARXS 
Cantharides 
Can thar.— Spanish Flies Russian Flies 
Tie dried beetles, Cantharis vesicatoria (Linne) De Geer (Fam* 
eloitk<B 9 Order Coleoptera), yielding not less than 0.6 per cent* of 
santharidin. Preserve Cantharides in tightly-closed containers, adding 
a few drops of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, from time to time, 
to prevent attack by insects. 

From 15 to 25 mm. in length, 5 to 8 mm. in breadth, oblong, somewhat com- 
pressed above; of a brilliant green or bluish-green, metallic luster, changing in 
different parts, especially beneath, to a golden-green; head triangular, separated 
into two lateral lobes by a faint median line; mandibles stout and partly con- 
cealed; antenna* filiform, of 11 conical joints, the upper ones being black; eyes 
comparatively small; prot borax angulate; legs with five tarsal joints; wings 
membranous and brownish; elytra or wing sheaths each with two parallel lines 
mod finely wrinkled; odor strong, disagreeable; taste alight, afterwards acrid. 

Cantharides with an ammoniacal odor must not be used. 



-Extractum Cannabis Fluidextracttun Cannabis Tinctura 




100 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

The powder is grayish-brown, with shining green particles and a numbe 
long, pointed, 1-celled hairs 0.5 mm. in length and 0.02 mm. in width. 

Cantharides does not contain more than 10 per cent, of moisture. 

Cantharides yields not more than 9 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Introduce 15 Gm. of Cantharides, in No. 40 powder, into a a 
bottle of not less than 250 mils capacity, add 150 mils of a mixture of beni 
two volumes, and purified petroleum benzin, one volume, and then add 2 
of hydrochloric acid. Stopper the bottle tightly, shake it well, and allow 
stand about ten hours. Now gradually warm the bottle and its contents to a 
40° C. and maintain it at that temperature with frequent shaking during t 
hours. Cool the mixture, decant or filter off 100 mils of the clear solution 
evaporate this rapidly in a tared beaker or wide-necked flask to a volun 
about 5 mils. Now add 5 mils of chloroform to the residue and set it aside 
moderately warm place. When the solvent has ail evaporated, add to the cry 
10 mils of a mixture of equal volumes of dehydrated alcohol and purified p 
leum benzin, which has previously been saturated with pure cantharidin, i 
the mixture to stand during fifteen minutes and then decant the liquid tbr 
a pellet of purified cotton. Wash the crystals with successive portions 
saturated solution of cantharidin, similar to that directed above, until it u 
from fat and coloring matter, and pass the washings through the same pell 
purified cotton. Then wash the cotton with a very small quantity of \ 
chloroform to dissolve any adhering crystals, collect the chloroform ii 
tared flask or beaker containing the washed crystals, evaporate the solvent 
the aid of a blast of air, dry the crystals at 60 C. for one-half hour and * 
The resulting weight will be the amount of cantharidin obtained fron 
grammes of Cantharides. 

Preparations — Ceratum Cantharidis Collodium Cantharidatum Tin 
Cantharidis. 

CAPSICUM 

Capsicum 

Capsic. — Cayenne Pepper African Chillies 
The dried ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens Linn6 (Fam. Solatia 
without the presence or admixture of more than 2 per cent, of st 
calyxes or other foreign matter. 

Oblong-conical, from 8 to 20 mm. in length and from 2 to 15 mm. in dian 
pericarp brownish-red or orange, shining, membranous and translucent: 
3-locular, united below, and containing 6 to 17 flat, reniform, yellowish 
attached to the placenta or frequently separated from it; odor characte 
sternutatory; taste intensely pungent. 

The calyx, when present, light greenish-brown, inferior, inconspic 
5-toothed, usually attached to a long straight peduncle. 

The powder is yellowish-brown; mounts made with hydrated chloral 
and examined under the microscope show yellowish-red oil globules; ston< 
of two kinds, those of the endocarp being more or less elongated, walls yelk 
uniformly and moderately thickened, wavy in outline, porous and al 
lignified, those of the seed-coat being yellowish, irregular and strongly Uriel 
wavy in outline and strongly lignified. 

Capsicum yields not less than 15 per cent, of non-volatile extractive, an 
in ether (see Part II, Test No. 13). 

Capsicum yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. The amount of ash, ins 
in hydrochloric acid, does not exceed 1 per cent, of the weight of Capsicum i 
Preparations — Oleoresina Capsici Tinctura Capsici. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain 



CARBO LIGNI 
Wood Charcoal 

Carbo Llg.— Charcoal 

Charcoal prepared from soft wood, and very finely powdered. Pre- 

in well-closed vessels. 

Wood charcoal is a black, odorless, and tasteless powder, free from gritty 
matter 
It burns without a luminous Same. Incinerate about 1 Gm, of Charcoal; not 

7 5 per cent, of ash remains. 
Boil about 1 'hareoal with a mixture of 3 mils of potassium hydroxide 

md 10 mils of distilled water for one-half minute; the filtrate shows only 
i slight brown color. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm.— Apothecaries, 15 grains. 

CARDAMOMI SEMEN 
Cardamom Seed 

Cardam. Seim— Cordamomum, U.S.P. VIII Cardamon 

dried seeds of Eleitaria Cordamomum White et Maton (Fam, 
r), recently removed from the capsules. 

Mostly agglutinated in groups of from 2 to 7, the individual seeds, oblong- 
3- or irregularly 4-sided, convex on the dorsal surface, strongly 
toogitudinally grooved on one side, from 3 to 4 mm. in length; externally red- 
rf»b^rsy-hrown, coarsely tuberculated. and with more or lass adhering por- 
tion* of the membranous aril; in section showing a thin reddish-brown seed- 
*Qftt, & lar^e white pensperm and a central, greenish endosperm enclosing 
iwilletnught embryo; odor aromatic; taste aromatic, pungent. 

The powder is greenish-brown; consisting chiefly of coarse angular frajpients 
of odla of the reserve layers and seed-coat; cells of endosperm and pensperm 
Med with compound starch grains, the individual grains from 0,001 to 0.004 mm. 
in diameter; fragments of seed with dark brown stone cells, which are polygonal 
Jjourface new and about 0.02 mm. in diameter. ] In mounts made with hydrated 
chloral T.S. single prisms or crystals in rosette aggregates may separate in the 
oella of the endosperm and pensperm; fragments of spiral trachea? with accom- 
panying slightly lignified bast 'fibers relatively few. 

Cardamom r?eed yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

ftejwatioiis — Tinctura Cardamomi Tinctura Cardamomi Com posits. 
Average dose— Metric, 1 Gm.. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 

CARUM 

Caraway 

Carawayseed Caraway Seed 

The dried fruit of Carum Cani Linn£ (Fam. Umbelliferw). Without 
he presence or admixture of more than 3 per cent, of other fruita, 
wds or foreign matter. Preserve Caraway in tightly-closed containers, 
Iding a few drops of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, from time to 
me, to prevent attack by insects. 





, $ler\c&rpa" usually separated, crescent-shaped, 3 to 7 mm. in length, 1J> a 
;ty dinjneter; externally dark brown with 5 yellowish filiform ribs; in transvi 
$ estlon nearly equilaterally pentagonal, the commissural surface with two vit 
the dorsal surface with a vitta between each of the primary ribs; oily endospc 
large, -enclosing a email embryo ; odor and taste agreeably aromatic. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Caraway show an epidermal la 
of slightly tangentially elongated cells with thick outer walls; a layer of sev< 
rows of tangentially elongated parenchyma cells, frequently more or less ( 
lapsed; a single, large, elliptical; brown vitta or oil- tube between each of 
ribs and surrounded oy small epithelial or secretion cells; in each of the rib 
single fibro-vascular bundle surrounded by a layer of thick-walled sclereocl 
mntous fibers; inner epidermis of broadly elongated cells with very thin i 
walls, being very frequently broken and closely coherent with the more or I 
brownish collapsed cells of the seed-coat; commissural surface with 2 la 
vittED and at the middle portion 2 large transverse hollow spaces formed by ' 
separation of the tissues of the seed-coat on one side and the pericarp on 
other, otherwise the cells resemble those on the dorsal surface; endospe 
large, cells polygonal with thick walls and containing a fixed oil and aleun 
grains, the latter not infrequently containing a small rosette aggregate or pn 
of calcium oxalate. 

The powder is yellowish-brown, mostly of irregular, angular fragments; o 
of endosperm with aleurone grains each usually containing a rosette aggreg 
of calcium oxalate about 0.001 mm. in diameter; fragments with Ught-yeB 
vitt;T, together with nearly isodiametric or polygonal, yellowish-brown, in 
epidermal cells of pericarp; fragments with tracheae and scterenchymak 
fibers, the latter 0.01 mm. in width, slightly lignined and with numert 
oblique pores. 

Caraway yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



CARYOPHYLLUS 

Clove 

Caryoph,— Cloves 

The dried flower-buds of Eugenia aromatica (Linn£) O. Kuntze, . 
bosa Caryophyllus (Sprengel) Niedenzu (Fam. Myrtacea), without 
presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent, of the peduncles, : 
or other foreign matter. 

From 10 to 17.5 mm, in length, of a dark brown or brownish-black col 
consisting of a stem-like, solid, inferior ovary, obscurely four-angled or somewl 
compressed, terminated by four calyx teeth, and surmounted by a nearly gfol 
lar head, consisting of four petals, which enclose numerous curved stamens B 
one style; odor strongly aromatic; taste pungent and aromatic, followed 
alight numbness. 

When Clove is pressed strongly between the thumbnail and finger the volal 
oil becomes visible. 

Stems either separate or attached to the flower-buds; sub-cylindrical or fo 
angled, attaining a length of 25 mm, and a diameter of 4 mm,, either siinj 
branching or distinctly jointed, and less aromatic than the flower-buds. 

The powder varies from dark brown to reddish-brown and consists 
of cellular fragments showing the large oil reservoirs, spiral tracheae and L 
somewhat thick-walled, sHghtty-lignined, spindle-shafted bast-fibers; c&lcii 
*ate in rosette aggregates, from 0.01 to 0.015 mm. in diameter; pollen \ 



01 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



103 



numerous, tetrahedral ; , somewhat ellipsoidal, from 0.015 to 0.02 mm. in diameter. 
Tie presence of stems in the powder is shown by stone cells of irregular, polygonal 
shape, 0.07 mm. in diameter, with thick porous walls and large lumuia, the 
latter frequently filled with a yellowish-brown amorphous substance. 

Clove \ields not less than 10 per cent, of volatile extractive soluble in ether 
(jw? Part II, Teat No. 12). 

Dove yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. The amount of ash, insoluble 
in hydrochloric acid, does not exceed 0.5 per cent, of the weight of Clove taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm.— Apothecaries, 4 grains. 






CASCARA SAGRADA 

Cascara Sagrada 

Case, Sa*i\— Rhumnus Purshinna, U.S.P. VIII 

The dried bark of the trunk and branches of Rhamnus Pitrshiana De 
olle (Fam. Rhamnacew). 

totally in flattened or transversely curved pieces, occasionally in quills; 
bark from 1 to 5 mm. in thickness; outer surface dark brown or brownish-red, 
looicitudinallv ridged, often nearly covered with grayish or whitish lichens, 
bearing small blackish apothecia, sometimes with numerous lenticels, and 
occtaonally with mosses; inner surface light yellow, light brown, or reddish- 
brown, longitudinally striate, turning red when moistened with solutions of 
the alkalies; fracture short, with projections of bast-fibers in the inner bark; 
ifl (Tow section inner bark shows diagonal or curved medullary rays, forming 
converging groups, the outer bark showing yellowish groups of stone' cells whiili 
•^especially apparent on moistening thr freshly cut surface with phloroglucinol 
T&and hydrochloric add; odor distinct; taste disagreeable, bitter, and slightly 
lend. 

Under the microscope, a transverse section of Cascara Sagrada shows an outer 
yHiowish-brown or reddish-brown corky layer consisting of 10 to 15 or more 
ftwi of cells; stone cells in outer bark in tangentially elongated groups of 20 
to 50 cells, the walls being very thick and finely hunellated; medullary rajs 1 
M cells wide, 15 to 25 cells deep, the contents being colored red upon the addi- 
tion of solutions of the alkalies to the sections; bast-fibers in tangentially elon- 
tM groups in the inner bark, the walls being thick and strongly lignified; 
"ThUI fibers around the bast-tvbers with individual crystals from 0.008 to 0.015 
nun. in length; parenchyma with spheroidal starch grains about 0,003 to 0.008 
*». m diameter, or with calcium oxalate either in rosette aggregates or prisms 
«otn 0,01 to 0.02 mm. in diameter, 

Add 0.1 Gm. of powdered Cascara Sagrada to 10 mils of hot water, shake 
tlfc mixture occasionally until cold, filter it and add sufficient water to make 
is on the addition of 10 mils of ammonia water to this liquid, it is colored 
in orange yellow. 

Macerate 0,1 Gm, of powdered Cascara Sagrada with 10 drops of alcohol, 
Wl the mixture with 10 mils of water, when cold filter it and shake the filtrate 
tith 10 mils of ether; a yellow ethereal solution separates. Shake 3 mils of this 
etlwreaJ solution with 3 mils of ammonia water; the separated ammoniacal 
toJuuon still possesses, on diluting with 20 mils of water, a distinct, yellowish-red 

The powder is light brown to olive brown, showing characteristic elongated 
fiptipt of bast-fibers associated with crystal fibers, the crystals in the tatter 
being in the form of monoclinic prisms from 0.008 to 0.015 mm. in length; stone 
cell* in large groups, the cells having thick and finely porous walls; fragments 
id parenchyma and medullary ray cells colored red upon the addition of solu- 
tions of the alkalies; starch grains either free or in parenchyma cells, the indi^ 




104 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

vidual grains being somewhat spheroidal, from 0.003 to 0.006 mm. in diameter- 
calcium oxalate in monoclinic prisms or rosette aggregates from 0.01 to 0.0T 
mm. in diameter; occasional fragments of reddish-brown cork. 

Preparations — Extractum Cascane Sagradse Fluidextractum Cascans Sagrads 
fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradg Aromaticum. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



CERA ALBA 
White Wax 

Cer. Alb. 

Yellow Wax, bleached. 

\yhite Wax is a yellowish-white solid, somewhat translucent in thin layers 
having a faint, characteristic odor; it is free from rancidity, and nearly tasteless 

Specific gravity: 0.950 to 0.960 at 25° C, as determined by the method gives 
under Cera Flam. 

It melts between 62° and 65° C. 

The acid value is not less than 17 nor more than 23, and the ester value no- 
less than 72 nor more than 79, as determined by the methods given under Cer* 
Flam. 

In other respects White Wax has the characteristics of Yellow Wax ana 
responds to the tests for identity and purity under Cera Flava. 



CERA FLAVA 
Yellow Wax 

Cer. Flav.— Beeswax 

A product obtained by melting and purifying the honey-comb ■ 
the bee, Apis mettifera, Linn6 (Fam. Apidce). 

Yellow Wax is a yellow to gray-brown solid, having an agreeable, honey-O 
odor, and a faint characteristic taste. 

It is somewhat brittle when cold, and when broken presents a dull, granule 
not crystalline fracture. By the heat of the hand, it becomes plastic. 

Yellow wax is insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in cold alcohol; boilk- 
alcohol dissolves the cerotic acid and a portion of the myrocin. It is complete 
soluble in chloroform, ether, or in fixed or volatile oils; partly soluble in cc=r 
benzene or carbon disulphide, and completely soluble in these liquids at a tesJ 
perature of from 25° to 30° C. 

Specific gravity: 0.950 to 0.960 at 25° C, determined as follows. 

Melt the Wax at a low temperature and allow it to fall in separated dro/ 
from just above the surface into alcohol that has been warmed to from 45° t 
50° C. Allow the globules to remain in the alcohol until it has cooled spontaD? 
ously to room temperature (20° to 25° C), then remove the Wax and keep ft 
at room temperature for 24 hours, ftcpare a mixture of 4 volumes of alcohol an/ 
enough distilled water to make 10 volumes and allow it to stand until free from 
air bubbles. Moisten the globules of Wax with distilled water, by means of a 
brush, and place them by means of forceps in the alcohol solution just prepared 
contained in a beaker. Then add alcohol or air-free distilled water as required 
to the mixture, kept at 25° G, until the globules of Wax float or rest indifiV 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



tiiilp ia the liquid, and finally determine the specific gravity of the alcoholic 
liquid. The figure thus obtained is the specific gravity of the Wax examined. 

It pells between 62° and 65° C, 

Boil I Gm. of Yellow Wax for half an hour with 35 rails of an aqueous solu- 
tion of sodium hydroxide (1 in 7), the volume being preserved by the occasional 
addition of distilled water; the Wax separates on cowling without rendering the 
liquid opaque, and no precipitate is produced in the liquid after filtration through 
|Eub wool or asbestos, on the addition of hydrochloric acid in excess {fats or 
fatty odd*, Japan iroj, or Twin), Hydrochloric acid produces no precipitate 
id witer which has been boiled with a portion of the Wax (soap). 

Waim about 3 Gm. of Yellow Wax, accurately weighed, in a 200 mi! flask with 
SSnik of neutral dehydrated alcohol until melted, then add 1 mil of phcno!- 
phthalein T.S. and titrate the mixture while warm with half-normal alcoholic 
ptowim hydroxide V.S. to a faint pink color. The acid value s*o obtained is not 
mi than 18 nor more than 24. Xow add 25 mils of half-normal alcoholic potas- 
■um hydroxide V.S. and 50 mils of alcohol, boil the mixture for two hours 
under a reflux condenser and titrate the excess of the alkali with half-normal 
AjdracliLoric acid V.8, The ester value so obtained is not less than 72 nor 
more than 77. 



CERATUM 

Cerate 

Ccrat.— Simple Cerate 

White Wax, three hundred grammes 300 Gm, 

Blvzoinated Lard, seven hundred grammes 700 Gm, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

Melt the white wax by the heat of a water bath, add the ben zo mated 
W t continue the heat until the mixture is liquefied, strain if necessary 
1 stir constantly until it congeals. 

For use in southern latitudes and during the heated season in other 
fities, 50 Gm. of the benzoinated lard (or more, if necessary) may be 
I by an equal quantity of white wax. 



CERATUM CANTIIARXDIS 

Cantharides Cerate 

Cerat. Canthar.— Blistering Cerate 

Cavtharides, in No. 60 powder, three hundred and fifty 

grammes . . . . 350 Gm. 

uUciiL Acetic Acid, twenty-five milliliters 25 mils 

On of Turpentine, one hundred and fifty milliliters 150 mils 

Yellow Wax, one hundred and seventy-five grammes 175 Gm, 

Rositf, one hundred and seventy-five grammes 175 Gm. 

Bexjoinated Lard, two hundred grammes 200 Gm. 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 




106 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

Moisten the cantharides with the oil of turpentine and the glacif 
acetic acid, previously mixed, and set the mixture aside in a well-cot 
ered container, in a warm place, for forty-eight hours. Melt togetb 
the rosin, yellow wax, and benzoinated lard; strain the mixture throug 
muslin, add the macerated cantharides and keep the mixture in a liqui 
condition by heating it on a water bath with occasional stirring, until 
is reduced in weight to one thousand grammes. Then withdraw tl 
heat and stir the Cerate until it becomes firm. 
Preparation— Emplastrum Cantharidis. 

CERATUM RESINS 

Rosin Cerate 

Cerat. Res.— Basilicon Ointment 

Rosin, three hundred and fifty grammes 350 Gi 

Yellow Wax, one hundred and fifty grammes 150 Gi 

Lard, five hundred grammes 500 Gn 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gn 

Melt the rosin, add the yellow wax and the lard, and continue tt 
heat until liquefied, then strain the liquid through muslin, and allow 
to congeal with occasional stirring. 

In cold weather five hundred and thirty grammes of lard and one hu 
dred and twenty grammes of yellow wax may be used. 
Preparation — Linimentum Terebinthina?. 

CERn OXALAS 

Cerium Oxalate 
Cerii Oxal. 

A mixture of the oxalates of cerium, didymium, lanthanum, and otha 
associated elements. 



Cerium Oxalate is a fine white or slightly pink powder, without odor or 1 
permanent in the air. 

It is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and in solutions of potassium or sodiu 
hydroxide; insoluble in cold, diluted sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, but dissolve 
by these acids when heated. 

When heated to redness it is decomposed, leaving not less than 47 per cent. < 
a reddish-brown residue. 

Boil Cerium Oxalate with potassium hydroxide T.S.; an insoluble preriptta' 
of white hydroxides is produced. Filter and supersaturate the filtrate wit 
acetic acid; the addition of calcium chloride T.S. produces a white precipitat 
insoluble in acetic acid but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

From a solution of Cerium Oxalate in diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric ad 
potassium hydroxide T.S., added in slight excess, precipitates white hydroxide 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



107 



which do not redisBolve in a Larger excess of the reagent , but gradually turn 
yellow in cod tact with air. Ammonium carbonate T.8. added in slight excess 
to&aimilar acid solution produces a white precipitate of the mixed carbonates 
of cerium and associated elements, which is somewhat soluble in a larger excess 
of u* reagent. 

Dissolve 0.1 Gm. of Cerium Oxalate in 1 mil of sulphuric acid and add 2 mils 
of potassium sulphate T.8.; small, colorless crystals of double sulphates of 
potaosum and the rare-earth elements in the mixture are deposited alter some 
time. 

No effervescence occurs when Cerium Oxalate is dissolved in diluted hydro- 
chloric arid {carbonates). 

A solution of Cerium Oxalate (1 in 50} in diluted hydrochloric acid does not 
Ksoond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

A solution of Cerium I testate (I in 26) in hot dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 3) 
meets the requirements of the Test for BWenic (see Part Il f Test No. 1 ). 

Boil 0.3 Gm, of Cerium Oxalate with 15 mils of potassium hydroxide T.S. 
and filter. No precipitate is produced in 5 mils of the filtrate by boiling with an 
«ce*» of ammonium chloride T.S. (aluminum) or in another 5 mil portion of the 
filtrate by the addition of sodium sulphide T.S. (zinc). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 3 grains. 







CETACEUM 

Spermaceti 
Cette. 

concrete, fatty Bubstance, obtained from the head of the sperm 
whale, Physeier macrocephalus Linn e" (Fam. Physeteridoe)* 

Spermaceti occurs in white, somewhat translucent, slightly unctuous masses, 
^(k a «caly, crystalline fracture, a pearly luster, a very faint odor and a bland, 
tow taate. It becomes yellowish in color am I rmncid on prolonged pxfxj.sure to air. 
, It ia insoluble in water and nearly so in cold alcohol; soluble in boiling alcohol, 
a , e ?**P chloroform, carbon disulphide, or fixed or volatile oils; only slightly 
•wubJein rold petroleum ben no. 
Jpedfic gravity: 0.938 to 0.944 at 25° C. as determined by the method given 

Jt melta between 42° and 50° C. 

"dissolves completely in 60 parts of boiling alcohol (paraffin), and the solution 
18 neutral or not more than slightly acid to moistened litmus paper. 

^*fth a mixture of about 1 Gm, of Spermaceti and 10 mils Of ammonia water 
^til the Spermaceti is melted, then shake it thoroughly in a stoppered vessel for 
1 [*w minutes, cool and filter The filtrate, upon supersat oration with hydro- 
""ricirid, may become turbid, but yields no precipitate {stearic acid), 



CHLORALUM HYDRATUM 

Hydrated Chloral 

Chloral. Hydrate "Chloral" Chloral Hydrate 
compound of trichloraldehyde or chloral, with the elements of one 
le of water. It contains not less than 99.5 per cent, of C a HCUO 





108 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THE 




+H/) or CCl 8 .COH+H,0 (165.4). Preserve it in tigfrtly-stopperefc* 
bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Hydrated Chloral occurs in rhomboidal, colorless, transparent crystals whicr^E" 
do not readily attract moisture. It has an aromatic, penetrating, and slight h^^ 
acrid odor, and a bitterish, caustic taste. It is slowly volatilised when < 
to the air. 

One Gm. of Hydrated Chloral dissolves in 0.25 mil of water, 1 .3 mils of alcohol 
2 mils of chloroform, and in 1.5 mils of ether at 25° C; very soluble in olive < ' 
freely soluble in oil of turpentine. 

Hydrated Chloral is decomposed by caustic alkalies, alkaline earths, 
ammonia, chloroform and a formate of the base being produced. When \ 
with a few drops of aniline and sodium hydroxide T.8., the intensely <" 
odor of pbenylisocyanide is produced. 

Gently ignite 2 Gm. of Hydrated Chloral; no inflammable vapors are < 
(distinction from chloral akoholate and ethyl carbamate). On complete k 
tion not more than 0.05 per cent, of ash remains. 

Ten mils of an alcohohc solution of Hydrated Chloral (1 in 20) does not i 
once redden moistened blue litmus paper, nor at once become opalescent on tl 
addition of a few drops of silver nitrate T.S. (hydrochloric acid and chlorides). 

Shake about 0.5 Gm. of Hydrated Chloral, at intervals of five minutes durir^mi 
one hour, with 5 mils of sulphuric acid in a glass-stoppered tube, which hi^^ai 
previously been rinsed with sulphuric acid. The acid remains colorless, or ve^arrp 
nearly so when viewed transversely in a tube of about 20 mm. diameter (orgai*. — =* 
impurities). __ 

Assay — Dissolve about 4 Gm. of Hydrated Chloral, accurately weighed, ~^y 
10 mils of distilled water, add 30 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V Jh 3 « 
and allow the mixture to stand two minutes; then add phcnolphthalein T £ & • 
and determine the residual alkali at once by titration with normal sulphuric i 
V.S. It shows not less than 99.5 per cent, of CaHClaO+Hrf). 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. consumed corresponds 
0.1654 Gm. of CaHClsO+HaO. Each gramme of Hydrated Chloral correspond 
to not less than 6.02 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



CHLOROFORMUM 

Chloroform 
Chlorof. 

A liquid consisting of not less than 99 per cent, nor more than 99^- ^ 
per cent., by weight, of CHCU (119.39), and not less than 0.6 per cenf>- 
nor more than 1 per cent, of alcohol. Preserve it in well-stoppered 
bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. Caution: Care should be 
used in vaporizing Chloroform in the presence of a naked flame, as 
noxious gases are produced. 

Chloroform is a clear, colorless, mobile liquid, of a characteristic, ethereal 
odor, and a burning, sweet taste. 

Chloroform dissolves in 210 times its volume of water j miscible with alcohol, 
ether, benzene, petroleum benzin, or with fixed or volatile oils. 

Specific gravity: 1.474 to 1.478 at 25° C. 






Chloroform is volatile at a low temperature and boils at about 61° C. It 
boot inflammable, but its heated vapor burns with a green flame. 

Pour 20 mils of Chloroform upon a piece of clean, odorless filter paper laid 
flat upon a warmed glass plate, and rock the plate from side to Hide until the 
Etpd is all evaporated. No foreign odor becomes perceptible as ttie last por- 
tals disappear from the paper, and the paper remains odorless. 

Agitate 10 mils of Chloroform with 26 mils of distilled water, and allow the 
liquids to separate completely; the aqueous layer is neutral to litmus and .^pa- 
rite portions of 10 mils each are not affected by a few drops of silver nitrate T.S. 
<lt*) nor colored blue by the addition of a few drops each of potassium 
Wide T.S. and starch T.8. (fim chlorine). 

Transfer 40 mils of Chloroform from the container, by means of a clean pipette, 
to* 50 mil glass-stoppered cylinder of colorless id ass having an internal diameter 

foul 20 mm. and previously rinsed with sulphuric acid, add 4 mils of color- 
left sulphuric acid and shake the mixture vigorously during five minutes. 
TVn allow the Liquids to separate comph'tely, so that both are transparent. 
The Chloroform remains colorless, and the acid is colorless or very nearly so 
when viewed horizontally in the cylinder held in a vertical position (impurities 
famposable by sulphuric acid). 

Dilute 2 mils of the sulphuric acid, separated from the Chloroform in the 
put** I prith 5 mils of distilled water; the liquid is colorless and clear, 

and, while hot from the mixing, emits but a faint, vinous or ethereal odor (odorous 
detmpo*ttum products). When further diluted with 10 mils of distilled water, 
il remains clear and is not affected within one minute by the addition of 3 drops 
of alter nitrate T.S. (chlorijiated decomposition compounds). 

Pttwrations — Aqua Chloroformi LioimenUira Chloroform! Spiritus 

Chloroform L 

Average dose— Metric, 0.3 mil — Apothecaries, 5 minims. 



CHONDRUS 

Chondrus 

Irish Moss Carrageen 

The dried plant of Chondrus crispus (Linn6) Stackhouse or of Gigartina 
"HwBmo (Goodenough et Woodward) J* Agardfa (Fam. Qigartinacm). 

Entire plants more or less matted together, consisting of a slender stalk from 
•fach arises a series of dichotomously branching, more or less flat tenet! segments, 
•WlOnute or deeply cleft at the tips; from 5 to 15 cm. in length, and 1 to 10 
Bun - in width; yellowish-white, translucent, frequently coated with a cal- 
careous deposit "which effervesces with hydrochloric acid; sometimes with 
fruit bodies or sporangia embedded near the apex of the segments (in t\ CfUpVi) 
or sith sporangia borne on short tubcrculated projections or stalks, more or Ken 
scattered over the upper portion of the segments (in O. mamiUosa); somewhat 
cartilaginous; odor slight, seaweed like; taste mucilaginous, saline. 

Boil one part of Chondrus for about ten mimit.es with 30 parts of WBftfifj 
replacing the water lost by evaporation; the strained liquid forms a thick jelly 
upon cooling. When softened in cold water Chondrus becomes gelatinous and 
transparent, the thallus remaining nearly smooth and uniform and not swollen 
eawept alightly at the tips; a solution made bv boiling 0.3 Gm. of the drug in 
100 mils of water and filtering gives no precipitate on the addition of tannic 
acid T.S, (fisiatin), and when enld does not give a blue color on the addition of 
iodine T.S, (starch). 







CHROMII TRIOXIDUM 
Chromium Trioxide 

Chrom. THox — " Chromic Acid IJ Chromic Anhydride 

It contains not less than 95 per cent, of CrO t (100.00). Preserve L 
in glass-Btoppered bottles. Caution: Chromium Trioxide should na 
be brought into contact with organic substances, as serious accident 
are liable to result. 

Chromium Trioxide occurs as small, needle-shaped crystals or rhombic prisma 
of a dark purplish-red color and metallic luster; odorless; destructive to aniras 
and vegetable tissues; deliquescent in moist air. 

One Gra. of Chromium Trioxide dissolves in 0.6 mil of water at 25° GLj ala 
in 0,5 mil of boiling water; when brought into contact with organic solvent 
{cM. t alcohol), decomposition takes place, sometimes with dangerous violence. 

When Chromium Trioxide is heated, it darkens, and finally becomes black, bt. 
the color is restored on cooling. At about 1#8° C. it fuses to a reddish-bitwfi 
liquid, which, on cooling, forms a dark red, brittle mass {often enclosing * 
filled with crystals), furnishing a scarlet powder. Above 250° C, it begins 1 
decompose into green chromic oxide and free oxygen, and, after protractc 
heating, leaves a residue of chromic oxide. 

When warmed with hydrochloric acid, chlorine is evolved, 

A solution of 1 Gm. of Chromium Trioxide in 100 mils of distilled wate 
previously acidulated with 3 mils of hydrochloric acid, is not rendered turbi 
within one minute on the addition of 1 mil of barium chloride T.S. (tutpkur 
acid). 

Assay — Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Chromium Trioxide, accurately weighed ix» 
stoppered weighing-bottle, in sufficient distilled water to make a volume of 1C 
mils. Mix 15 mils of this solution with 3 mils of hydrochloric acid and 
Gm, of potassium iodide in a glass-stoppered container, agitate the mixtur 
allow it to stand for five minutes, then dilute it with 100 mils of distilled water ajr 
titrate with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate VS., starch T.S, being used I 
indicator. It shows not less than 95 per cent, of C1O3. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used corresponds 
0.003333 Gm. of CrO^. Each gramme of Chromium Trioxide corresponds t 
less than 285.0 mils of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V,S. 



CHRYSAROBINUM 

Chrysarobin 
Chrysarob. 

A mixture of neutral principles extracted from Goa powder, 
stance found deposited in the wood of Vouacapona Araroba (Aguica 
Druce (Fam. Leffuminosce). Preserve it in well-closed containers, pr 
tectcd from light, 

Chrysarobin is a brownish to orange-yellow, fnicro-crystalline powder, tut 
less, odorless, and irritating to the mucous membrane. 

One Gm, of Chrysarobin dissolves in 385 mils of alcohol, 12.5 mils of chlorofom 
16 mils of ether, 30 mils of benzene and in ISO mils of carbon disulphide at 25° C 
very slightly soluble in water, and in boiling water; it dissolves in solutions' 
the fixed alkali hydroxides, producing a red liquid. 




It dissolves in sulphuric acid, producing a deep red solution. On pouring this 
liquid into water, Ctuysarobin is deposited unchanged. 

Incinerate about 0.5 Gm. of Chrysarobin; not more than 0.25 per cent, of ash 
emfaa 

Mix about 0.001 Gm. of Chrysarobin with 2 drops of fuming nitric acid; a 
wd mixture is produced, which turns violet-red on the addition of a few drops of 
ifflfflonia water (distinction from ehrysophanic arid, which produces a yellow 

BoiJ about 01 Gm, of Chrysarobin with 20 mils of distilled water and filter; 
the filtrate is neutral to litmus and is not changed in color by a few drops of ferric 
Chloride TA {chrywyphanic acid), 

Phrpiratioa — Unguentum Chrysarobini. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, ?i grain. 



CIMICIFUGA 

Cimicifuga 

Clmlctf. — Black Cohosh Black Snnkeroot Macrotya 

The dried rhizome and roots of Cimicifuga raeemom (Linne") Nuttall 
§m.RQnuneulacece), without the presence or admixture of more than 
2 per cent of stems or foreign matter. 

Rhuome horizontal, more or less branching, from 2 to 12 cm. in length, and 
from 1 to 2.5 cm. in thickness; externally dark brown, slightly annulate from 
circular scars of bud scale-leaves, the upper surface with numerous stout, erect 
<f iDmewhat curved branches terminated by deep, cup-shaped scars, each of 
which usually shows a distinct radiate structure; inferior and lateral portions 
with numerous root-scars and a few short roots; fracture horny; internally 
thiuab and mealy or dark brown and waxy, bark thin, wood distinctly radiate 
todof about the same thickness as the pith; odor slight; taste bitter and acrid. 

Roots somewhat cylindrical or obtusely quadrangular, from 1 to ;t mm. in 
thickness, externally dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled; fracture short; 
internally bark dark brown, wood yellowish, 4- to fi-rayed. 

Under the microscope, sections of the rhizome of Cimicifuga show a yellowish- 
hwwniuberUed epidermis, a cortex made up of about 30 layers of stare h-beari rip 
ptrmchyma cells; the fibTO-vascular bundles collateral, the xylem consisting 
of trachea with bordered pores, and resembling tracheitis in that the ends are 
"rtW acute; wood-fibers numerous, thin-walled, strongly lignified and with 
■njple, oblique pores, the bundle* separated by starch-bearing parenchyma 
taincb from 5 to 30 cells wide; pith cells numerous, resembling those of the 
toftet, 

I he microscope, sections of the root of Cimicifuga show a hairy epidermis, 
*hich becomes suberi/ed in older roots; the cortex shows about 12 rows of 
toih-bearing parenchyma cells; eudodermis distinct; fibro- vascular bundles 
*tot], Blowing in older roots as separate collateral bundles, 

The powder is light to dark brown; starch grains numerous, single or compound, 
ti« individual grains spherical or more or less polygonal, each with a somewhat 
ceniraJ cleft, from 0.003 to 0.015 mm, in diameter; fragments showing trachea? 
*ita bordered pores and tignifieH wood-fibers; irregular, yellowish-brown 
fragments of suberued epidermis made up of more or less tabular cells, aorae- 
timei elongated and considerably thickened. 

Gmicifuga yields not more than 10 per cent, of ash. 

Preparations — Extraetum Cimicifiig© FJuidextractum Cimicifuga?. 



Avxeage dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 




112 



THE PHAEMAC0PCE1A OF THE 



CINCHONA 

Cinchona 

Cinch.— Yellow Cinchona Calisaya Bark 



Yellow Peruvian Bark 



The dried bark of Cinchona Ledgeriana Moens, Cinchona Calim 
Weddell, and of hybrids of these with other species of Cinchona (Fi 
Rubiaceai), yielding not less than 5 per cent, of the alkaloids of Cinchona 




In quilts or curved pieces of variable length, bark from 3 to 5 mm. in thic 
or in small broken fragments or in transversely curved pieces from 3 to 7 
in thickness ; externally gray, rarely brownish-gray, with numerous intersectMCB^ 
transverse and longitudinal fissures having nearly vertical sides, and usu&S. M m 
with patches of foliaeeous lichens with their small, brownish-black another i 
when the outer bark is absent, the color externally is cinnamon-brown; inr*i 
surface light cinnamon-brown, finely striate; fracture of the outer bark sho. 
ami granular, of the inner bark finely splintery; odor faintly aromatic; 
very bitter and somewhat astringent. 

The powder is reddish-brown: bast-fibers spindle-shaped, yellowish, from 
0.3 to 1.35 ram. in length, with thick, strongly Signified, lamellated wtaJla 
having slit-like, oblique pores; starch grains single or 2- to 5-compound, tlie 
individual grains spherical or plano-convex and from 0.003 to 0.015 mm. in 
diameter; sphenoidal micro-crystals of calcium oxalate numerous. 

Heat 1 Gm. of powdered Cinchona in a dry test tube; a tarry distillate forms, 
having a purplish color and a somewhat granular appearance* 

Assay — Introduce 5 Gm. of Cinchona, in No. 40 powder, into a 500 mil flask 
and add 200 mils of a mixture of chloroform, 1 volume, and ether, 2 volumes. 
Stopper the flask, shake it well, and let it stand ten minutes. Then add 5 mils 
of ammonia water, shake the flask frequently for one hour, and let it stand from 
eight to ten hours. Now add 10 mils of distilled water, shake the mixture 
vigorously and when the drug has settled, decant 160 mils of the solution, 
representing 4 Gm. of Cinchona. Kilter it through a pledget of purified cottofl 
into a separator, and rinse both cylinder and cotton with ether. Com] 
extract the alkaloids from the chloroform-ether solution by shaking out 
edly with weak sulphuric acid. Collect the acid solutions in a separator, 
ammonia water until the solution is distinctly alkaline to litmus, and compl 
extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly with chloroform. 1 
portion of chloroform as it comes from the separator through a pledget of purified 
cotton into a tared flask, and wash the funnel and cotton with chloroform. 
Evaporate the chloroform on a water bath, add 5 mils of alcohol to the residue, 
and again evaporate. Repeat the evaporation with alcohol and dry the residue 
at 100° C. to constant weight. The weight will be the amount of total alkaluida 
from 4 Gm* of Cinchona (see Proximate Assays, Part II). 
Preparations— Fluidextrac turn Cinchonas Tinctura Cinchona 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



CINCHONA RUBRA 

Red Cinchona 

Cinch. Rub,— Red Peruvian Bark 

The dried bark of Cinchona mccimbra Pavon (Fam. Rubiaawt), or of 

its hybrids, yielding not leas than 5 per cent, of the alkaloids of Red 

Cinchona. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



113 



Fin quills or curved pieces of variable length, bark from 2 to 4 mm. in thickness, 
or in small broken fragments or in transversely curved pieces from 3 to 7 mm. 
in thickness; externally gray, grayish-brown , or reddish-brown, more or less 
rough from corky protuberances, occasionally with transverse fissures which are 
rarely numerous or much intersected, and having their sides eloping, and with 
owaaonal patches of foliaceous lichens; inner surf are reddish of orange-brown. 
distinctly striate; fracture short and granular in the outer bark, shortly and. 
rather coarsely splintery in the inner bark; odor slight; taste very bitter and 
utringent. 

The powder is light brown; bast-fibers and sphenoidal micro-crystals of 
calcium oxalate, resembling those in cinchona; starch grains resembling those 
of cinchona relatively few, from 0,003 to <MM mm. in diameter. 

Heat 1 Gm. of powdered Red Cinchona in a dry test tube; a tarry distillate 
forma having a bright red color. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Cinchona, using 5 Gm. of Red Cinchona. 
Preparation — Tinctura Cinchonas Cotnposita. 

1 Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 
CINCHON1DINJ3 SULPHAS 
Cinchonidine Sulphate 
Cinchonid. Sylph. 
TV sulphate [(CiaH«ONg)t.H B S0 4 + 3II a O = 740.53] of an alkaloid 
tained from the bark of several species of cinchona. Preserve it in 
well-closed containers protected from light. 

Cinchonidine Sulphate occurs in white, glistening, silky needles or prisms; 
odorless and having a very bitter taMe; permanent in the air, 

One Gm. of Cinchonidine Sulphate dissolves in 65 mita of water, 90 mils of 
alcohol, and in 620 mils of chloroform at 25 C. ; also in 22 mils of water at 80° C, 
and in 41 mils of alcohol at 60° Cj nearly insoluble in ether. 

A saturated aqueous solution of the salt is neutral or faintly alkaline to litmus 

• and is Isevorotatory. 
When anhydrous it melts at about 200° C. with partial decomposition. 
An aqueous solution of Cinchonidine Sulphate yields with barium chloride T.S., 
a white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

1 ammonia water to 25 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt, 1 in 80; a 
white precipitate {cinch&nidine) is produced, which is but slightly soluble in 
ammonia water, but which, when freshly precipitated, dissolves in 5 mils of 
ether, the greater part afterwards separating in crystals. 

When dried to constant weight at 100° C,, Cinchonidine Sulphate loses not 
more than 12 pet cent, of it* weight. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Cinchonidine Sulphate; not more than 0.1 per cent. 
ofaehrenmr 

Add 2 mils of sulphuric acid to about 0.1 Gm. of the salt; not more than a 
faint, yellow color is developed {rrodtty carbon&ahle impurities). 

Ten mils of a solution of the gait (1 in 1000) in diluted sulphuric acid exhibits 
only a faint, blue fluorescence. 

Macerate 0.5 Gm, of Cim honidine Sulphate, with frequent agitation, at the 

temperature, with 20 mils of distilled water, then add 0.5 Gm. of 

and sodium tartrate and continue the maceration with repeated 




agitation for one hour at 15° C, and filter the mixture. The addition of 1 drop 
of ammonia water to the filtrate produces not more than a slight turbidity 
{ctnttonint or quinidine sulphate) . 

Average dose— Metric, 0,15 Gm. — Apothecaries, 2J^ grains. 





CINCHONIN.E SULPHAS 

Cinchonine Sulphate 

Cinch on in. Sulph. 

The sulphate f(CiftH220N a ) a .H a S04+2H a O = 722.51] of an alkalo!. 

obtained frora the bark of several species of cinchona. Preserve it us 
well-closed containers protected from light. 

Cinchonine Sulphate occurs in white, lustrous prismatic crystals; odorlessa 
and having a very hitter taste; tjcrmanent in the uir. 

One Gin. of Cinchonine Sulphate dissolves in 60 mils of water. 12.5 mils on 
alcohol, 47 mils of chloroform, and in 3230 mils of ether at 25° C.; also in S 
mils of water at 80° C. and in 7 mi la of alcohol at 60° C. 

A saturated aqueous solution of the salt is neutral or slightly alkaline •* 
litmus and is dextrorotatory. 

An aqueous solution of Cinchonine Sulphate (1 in 100) yields with bariu _ 
chloride T.S. a white precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric acid- 
Dried to constant weight at 100° C. Cinchoiunc Sulphate loses not more the* 
5 per cent, of its weight. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Cinchonine Sulphate; not more than 0.1 per cent. 
ash remains. 

Ten mils of a solution of the salt (1 in 1000) in diluted sulphuric acid exlnhm 
only a slight, blue fluorescence. 

One-tenth Gm. of the powdered salt dissolves completely or nearly so wla« 
shaken with 10 mils of chloroform at ordinary temperatures (quutim or cinchow^ 
dine sulphtitt), 

Add 0.1 Gm, of the salt to 2 mils of sulphuric acid J it impart* not more tht-a 
a faint, yellow tinge to the acid [readily carlwiizable t organic impurities). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.15 Gin.— Apothecaries, 2 



CINNAMOMUM SAIGONICUM 

Saigon Cinnamon 

Gin nam. Saigon, 

The dried bark of an undetermined species of Cinnammnum (Fj 
Lauracew). 

In quills attaining a length of 30 cm., and from 3 to 30 mm. in diameter; 
bark from 0.5 to 3 mm. in thickness; outer surface light brown to dsrk purol»~j' 
brown with grayish patches of foliaoeous lichens and numerous bud-scare: fin* 1 ' 1 
wrinkled, especially t he bark of younger twigs, otherwise more or less rougn fTt?*J 
corky patches surrounding the Iciiticels; inner surface reddish-brown to df* 
Imowb, granular, and slightly striate; fracture short; inner bark porous, owin£ 
k) 1 lie presence of large oil cells and mucilage cells, and separated by a con- 
tinuous layer of stone cells from the outer bark; odor aromatic; taste sweetish, 
aromatic and pungent. 

Under the microscope, sections of the older bark of Saigon Cinnamon shown 
thin laver of more or less iignified cork cells; a narrow layer of starch-bearing 
parendiyma with scattered stone cells; a nearly continuous stone, several layen 
wide, of stone cells, among which are small groups of bast-fibers with thickem-ii 
and slightly Iignified walls; a wide inner bark with medullary rays 1 to 3 nfli 
in width, isolated bast-fibers, mucilage cells, oil cells *uid parenchyma, the 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



115 



ceBj of the latter either filled with starch grains or containing very small raphidee 
of dldum oxalate; the lumina of parenchyma cells, stone cells and bast-fibers 
frequently filled with an amorphous reddish-brown substance, which is for the 
port part insoluble in the ordinary reagents. In the bark of young twigs there 
km epidermal layer with a thick yellowish cuticle, fewer stone cells in the zone 
■matted with bast-fibers, and the inner bark is narrower and with fewer 
McrctttQ cells than in the older bark. 

The powder is yellowish- or reddish-brown; starch grains numerous, single 
or mmpound, the individual grains being somewhat ellipsoidal or polygonal 
km! from 0,003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter; fragments, with colorless atone cells, 
rtthff prominent, the cells being very irregular in shape and the lumina contain- 
ing fitter air or a reddish-brown amorphous substance; bast-fibers from 0.3 
to 1-5 mm, in length and usually in groups of from 2 to 20 with very thick 
*nd wareely lignmed walls; numerous cellular, reddish-brown fragments in 
*hi«'h the oil cells are not readily distinguishable. 

s ai«ron Cinnamon yields not less than 2 per cent, of volatile extractive, 
•olubfein ether (see Part II, Test No. 12), 

Saigon Cinnamon yields not more than 6 per cent, of ash. The amount of 
*h insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid does not exceed 2 per cent, of the 
*»isht of Saigon Cinnamon taken. 

Prrptntion — Tinctura Onnamoinu 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm.— Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM 

Ceylon Cinnamon 

C in nam. Zeylan. 

Tie dried bark of cultivated trees of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyrae 
(Faan. Lauracea;), without the presence or admixture of more than 
• P* cent, of the outer bark or other foreign matter. 

Is closely rolled double quills, composed of from 7 to 12 thin layers of separ- 
ate pieces of bark, from 30 to 60 cm, in length and from 8 to 13 mm, in diameter; 
ttoWk attaining a thickness of 1 mm.; outer surface pale yellowish-brown. 
J*oth, longitudinally striate with narrow yellowish groupn oi bast-fibers, and 
wwing circular or irregular brow rush patches, occasionally with perforations 
Marking the nodes; inner surface light brown, with faint, longitudinal striations; 
fature short with projecting bast-fibers; odor agreeably aromatic; taste sweet- 
« tad warmly axon uM 

Under the mteoao o pe, sections of Ceylon Cinnamon usually show no cork 
tot an aim muous outer layer of stone cells, among which are small 

poupsof bast-fibers resembling those found in Saigon Cinnamon; in the inner 
tork occur numerous bast-fibers singly or in small groups, medullary rays 1 to 
Cecils in width, usually with raphides of calcium oxalate; parenchyma with 
other reddish- brown contents or more or less tilled with starch grains: scattered 
throughout the parenchyma occur oil secretion cells and mucilage cells* 

The powder is light brown or yellowish -brown; starch grains numerous, 
varying from spherical to polygonal, from 0.003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter, 
frequently in small aggregates; bast-fibers from 0,3 to 0.8 mm. in length, 
ttsuilly single, spindle-shaped, with attenuated ends, the walls being very thick 
and but slightly lignilied; colorless stone cells resembling those of Saigon Cinno- 
■■«•; numerous cellular fragments with yellowish-brown walls or contents; cork 
j few or none; calcium oxalate in raphides, from 0,005 to 0,008 mm. in length. 




Ceylon Cinnamon yields not less than 0.5 per cent, of volatile extract 
soluble in ether (see Part IX, Test No. 12). 

Ceylon Cinnamon yields not more than 6 per cent, of ash. The amoun 
ash insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid does not exceed 2 
weight of Ceylon Cinnamon taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0,250 Gm, — Apothecaries 

COCALNA 

Cocaine 

Coca in. 
An alkaloid [d,H M 0«N or C 8 H ]a (C,H s eO)ON.COOCH 3 =303 

obtained from Erythroxylon Coca Lamarck and its varieties (Fi 
Erythroxylacew), Preserve it ill well-closed containers protected fr 




light. 



Cocaine occurs in large, co1orless t four-sided, or six-sided monoclinic prii 
or as a white crystalline p o wd e r; odorless. 

One Gm. of Cocaine dissolves in about tiOO mils of water, 6.5 mils of alco 
0.7 mil of chloroform, 3.5 mils of ether and in 12 mils of olive oil at 25° C.; i 
in 270 mils of water at 80° CLj very soluble in warm alcohol; slightly soli 
in liquid petrolatum. 

It melts between 911° and 98° C. 

On neutralising carefully aa alcoholic solution of Cocaine with diluted hy< 
chloric acid and evaporating the solution to dryness, the residue responds to 
tests for identity and purity under Cocuinm Hydrochioridum. 

Average dose — Metric, 0*015 Gm, — Apothecaries, J4 grain 






COCAINiE HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Cocaine Hydrochloride 

Cocain. Hy drochl.— Cocaine Chloride Cocainum hydrochloricum P. L 

The hydrochloride [C 17 H a iO*N,HCi^ 339.65] of the alkaloid cocah 

Cocaine Hydrochloride occurs in colorless, transparent, monoclinic prism* 
flakv, lustrous leaflets or as a white, crystalline powder; odorless; pennai 
in the air. 

One Gm. of Cocaine Hydrochloride dissolves in 0.4 mil of water, 3.2 mil 
alcohol, and in 12.. 5 mils of chloroform at 25° C; also in 2 mils of alcohc 
60° Q| soluble in glycerin, insoluble in ether. 

An aqueous solution of the salt { 1 in 20} is neutral to litmus and is lsevorotat< 

It melts between 183° and 191° C, the higher melting point indicating greJ 
purity. 

Silver nitrate T\8. produces in an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 100' 
white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid, 

Add 5 drops of a solution of chromium trioxide (1 in 20) to 5 mils of a solut 
of Cocaine Hydrochloride (1 in 50); a yellow precipitate is produced wt 
redissolves on shaking the mixture; on now adding 1 mil of hydrochloric a 
a permanent, orange-colored, crystalline precipitate is formed. 

Dissolve about 0.1 Gm. of the salt in I mil of sulphuric acid; not more t 
a slight yellow tint is produced {readily carhanizable impurities). Keep 
■ftHthjOn at a temperature of 100° C, for five minutes, then cautiously mix P ' 



2 mils of distilled water; the aromatic odor of methyl benxoate is noticeable 
*nd, on cooling, crystals of benzoic acid form, which dissolve on the careful 
Addition of alcohol. 

A solution of about 0.01 Gra. of Cocaine Hydrochloride in 1 mi! of distilled 

water yields, on the addition of 2 mils of tenth-normal potassium permanganate 

I violet, crystalline precipitate which appears brownish -violet when collected 

on & filter, and shows characteristic, crystalline aggregates under a low power 

microscope, 

incinerate 0,5 Gm. of Cocaine Hydrochloride; no weighable ash remains, 

Mix 5 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 50) with 0.3 mil of normal 
Hilpburic acid V.S. and 0.1 mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.8.; 
» violet tint is produced which does not disappear entirely within half an hour 
(eiwimiiLeocaiTie). 

Dilutes mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 50), in a beaker, witi 
distilled water to make So mils, add 0.2 mil of ammonia water and stir the 
tolution vigorously during five minutes, with occasional rubbing of the sides of 
the beaker with a stirring rod. A crystalline precipitate of cocaine is formed 
wxl the supernatant liquid is clear {i&jtropijl-cocaitte'}. The presence of 
0.5 percent, of isatropyl-eocaiue will prevent the formation of nearly all of the 
precipitate, and will cause the supemattmt liquid to be milky. 

Average pose— Metric, 0.015 Gm.— Apothecaries, J^ grain. 




COCCUS 

CocMneal 

The dried female of the insect Coccus cadi Linne* (Fam. Cocddw), 
srclofling the young larvae. 

Somewhat ovate in outline, convex above, 01 mcuve I x'neath, from 3.5 to 5 mm. 
|n length, consisting of from 9 to 12 segments ; externally grayish-purple or grayish * 
©the shell-like, somewhat homy abdomen tie numerous larvte less than 1 mm. in 
diameter: the mature larvae with antennxe consisting of eight joints, '6 pairs of 
^& the lower having from to 8 segments, and a characteristic beak or rostrum 
tttopoaed of 4 thread-like parts which pair off into two coils. 

Cochineal is easily pulvcrizable and yields a dark red powder, with a charao- 
Jlticodor and slightly bitter taste. When masticated it colors the saliva red, 
we to the coloring principle, rarminic add, which is soluble in water, alcohol, 
w alkalies and slightly soluble in ether, but insoluble in fixed or volatile oils. 
Whfiea change the color of solutions of Cochineal to purple, while acids change 
H to reddish-yellow. When Cochineal is macerated in water no insoluble 
po*der separates. 

Cochineal yields not more than 6 per cent* of ash. 

( CODEINA 

Codeine 

Code In. — MethyLmoiykine 

Ad alkaloid [CiaH^OtN+HaO or Ct,H l8 (CH a )O a N+H a O=317J9I 

obtained from opium, or prepared from morphine by methylation. 

ire it in well-closed containers protected from light. 

Codeine occurs in colorless, translucent, rhombic prisms, or as a crystalline 
odorless and slightly efflorescent in warm air. 




118 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



One Gm. of Codeine dissolves in 120 mils of water, 2 mils of alcohol* Oi 
of chloroform, and in 13 mils of ether at 25° C; also in 12 mils of alcohi 

A saturated aqueous solution of Codeine is alkaline to litmus and is hevoi 
tory. 

Codeine, rendered anhydrous, melts between 154° and 156° C. 

When heated in an insufficient amount of water for complete solutio 
melts to oily drops, which crystallize on cooling. 

Sulphuric acid containing 0.O05 Gm. of selenous acid in each mil prod 
with Codeine a green color, changing rapidly to blue, then slowly back to g 
green. 

About 0:01 Gm. of Codeine dissolves in 5 mils of sulphuric acid (free : 
nitrous compounds) without showing other than a transient, pinkish tint 
the addition of a drop of ferric chloride T,S. t the solution becomes blue * 
warmed and changes to red on the further addition of a drop of nitric acid. 

When dried to constant weight at 80° C, Codeine loses not more than ( 
cent, of its weight. No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.5 Gm. of Cod 

Dissolve about 0.05 Gm. of potassium ferricyanide in 10 mils of disl 
water, add 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S., and then 1 mil of a neutral or i * 
acid aqueous solution of Codeine (1 in 100), made with the aid 
acid; no blue color is produced at once [morphine). 



s oi disi 

*al or slif 

of sulpl 



Average dose— Metric, 0.03 Gm, — Apothecaries, J£ grain 



CODEINE PHOSPHAS 

Codeine Phosphate 
Codcin. Phos* 






The phosphate [Ci B H. 1 OBN.HsFO*+2H g O or C lf H lf (CH,)<V 
PO*+2HaO=^ 433.27] of the alkaloid codeine. It yields not less tha 
per cent, of anhydrous codeine (CiaHaiOfN). Preserve it in well-cl 
containers, protected from light 

Codeine Phosphate occurs in fine, white, needle-shaped crystals, or as a cry 
line powder; odorless and very efflorescent. 

One Gm, of Codeine Phosphate dissolves in 2.3 mils of water, 325 mi 
alcohol, 4500 mils of chloroform, and in 1875 mils of ether at 25° CLj al 
0.5 mil of water at 80° C. and in 125 mils of boiling alcohol* 

Its aqueous solution (1 in 20) is acid to litmus, 

Silver nitrate T\S. produces in an aqueous solution of the salt, prer* 
neutral i zed with ammonia water, a yellow precipitate which is soluble in dil 
nitric acid and in ammonia water. 

Separate portions of 10 mils each of an aqueous solution of Codeine Phosp 
(1 in 100), acidulated with nitric acid, are not rendered turbid at once on 
addition of a few drops of barium chloride T.S. (sulphates) t or opalescent I 
few drops of silver nitrate T\S. (chlorides)^ 

Assay— Dissolve about 0,5 Gm. of Codeine Phosphate, accurately weigha 
10 mils of distilled water, add 10 mils of potassium hydroxide T\S, and si 
the mixture with three successive portions of 15 mils each of chloroform, i 
sufficient quantity to complete the extraction. The combined obktfd 
solutions, carefully evaporated to dryness on a water bath, yield, after dr 
to a constant weight at 110° C, not less than 67 per cent, of anhydrous cod 

In other respects Codeine Phosphate responds to the tests of identity 
purity under CodeinQ t omitting the melting point and ash test. 

Average dgse— Metric, 0.03 Gin —Apothecaries, J^ grain 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



119 



CODEINE SULPHAS 

Codeine Sulphate 

Codeio. Sulpb. 
The sulphate [(C l «H ai O a N) a H s SO4+5H 8 or (Ci 7 Hi B (CHg)OsN),. 

H^0*+5H 8 O = 786»52J of the alkaloid codeine. Preserve it in well- 
closed containers, protected from light. 

Codeine Sulphate occurs in long, glistening white r needle-shaped crystals or 
riombn" prisms, or as a crystalline powder; odorless and efflorescent in the air. 

One Gm. of Codeine Sulphate dissolves in 30 mils of water and in 1280 mils 
of ilcohol at 25° C.j also in 6.5 mils of water at 80° C. and in 440 mils of alcohol 
•HXP C; insoluble in chloroform or ether, 

Ita aqueous solution (1 in 40) is neutral or not more than faintly acid to litmus. 

Barium chloride T,S, produces, in an aqueous solution of the salt, a white 
prcipitatc which is insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

When dried to constant weight at 100° C, Codeine Sulphate loses not more 
thin 12 per cent, of its weight. 

h other respects the salt responds to the tests for identity and purity under 
Codttna, omitting the melting point. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm* — Apothecaries, }£ grain. 

COLCHXei CORMUS 

Colchicum Corm 

Cokh. Corm*— Colchicum Hoot 

Thedried corm of Cokhicumautumnale Linn6 (Fsm* Liliace®), yielding 
wt leas than 0*35 per cent, of colchicine. 

tsoally in reniform, transverse or in ovate, longitudinal slices; from 2 to 5 mm. 
in thickness; flat surfaces whitish, slightly roughened, and of a crystalline appear- 
«oee under a hand lens; epidermis thin t light brown and finely wrinkled; fracture 
tout and mealy, odor slight; taste bitter and somewhat acrid. 

The powder is light brown or gravish-brown ; starch grains numerous, single 
°* 2> to 6-compound, the individual grains varying from spherical or ovoid to 
polygonal, and marked with a triangular or p tar-shaped, central cleft from 0.003 
to (1.03 mm. in diameter; tracheal few* and wit b spiral or seal ari form thickenings; 
oeeaaoual fragments of epidermal cells with thin, reddish-brown walls, 

Colchicum Conn yields not more than fi per cent, of ash. 

Auay— Proceed as directed under Colrhici Semen t using 15 Gm. of Colchicum 
Corm/ 

Preparation — Extractum Colchici Cormi. 



Average dose — Metric. 0.25 Gm.—Apothecaries. 4 grams. 



COLCHICI SEMEN 
Colchicum Seed 

Cokh. Sem, — Colchici semen F, I. 
71* dried seeds of Colchicum autumnale Linne (Fain. Liliaec&) t yield- 
ing not leas than 0*45 per cent, of colchicine. 

Otoid or irregularly globular, more or less pointed at the hilum; from 2 to 3 
ffnL in diameter; when fresh, several seeds cohering; externally dark brown, 





finely pitted; tough and of almost bony hardness; internally whitish or 
brown; nearly inodorous; taste bitter and somewhat acrid. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Colchieum Seed show a seed 
of a few more or less collapsed cells with thin reddish-brown wails; an endos] 
making up most of the seed, consisting of cells with rather thick, porous i 
the lumina containing oil globules and aleurone grains, the latter being 
0*003 to 0.015 mm, in diameter; a small embryo, the beaked portion, or can 
containing numerous, somewhat ovoid, ellipsoidal or polygonal starch g] 
from 0.005 to 0.016 mm. in diameter. 

Colchieum Seed yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Introduce 15 Gm. of Colchieum Seed, in No* 60 powder, into a 50 
flask, and add 10 mils of solution of lead subacetate and 290 mils of dk 
water. Weigh the flask and contents, and digest the mixture at from 6 
70 a C. for three hours, with occasional agitation. Cool, add distilled wat 
restore the original weight and filter off 200 mils. Add 0,75 Gm* of so* 
phosphate to the clear filtrate, shake the mixture frequently during half on 1 
and filter off 100 mils representing 5 Gm. of Colchieum Seed, bhake oul 
alkaloid from the filtrate with chloroform until completely extracted, as at 
by testing with iodine T.8, (in place of the usual mercuric potassium iodide 1 
and evaporate the chloroform solution; add about 1 mil of alcohol and & 
evaporate. Repeat this operation once more and dry the residue to cons 
weight at 100° C. To thin weighed residue contained in a flask add 5 mi 
tenth-normal sulphuric arid V.S. and 5 mils of distilled water and heat 
mixture for ten minutes at 70° C. Now filter the liquid through a p!ed> 
purified cotton. wash the flask and cotton with distilled water, reject the fill 
and washings and remove as much of the water from the cotton as poa 
Dissolve any insoluble residue that may remain on the cotton by washii 
first with a little alcohol and then with ether; collect the alcohol-ether wasl 
in the flask, evaporate, and dry the residue to constant weight at 100° C. Tk 
this weight from the weight of residue previously obtained. The difference 
be the weight of colchicine obtained from 5 Gm. of Colchieum Seed (see P 
mate Assays, Part II), 
Preparations— Fluidoxtractum Colchici Seminis Tinctura Colchici Semi 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 Cm, — Apothecaries, 

COLCHICINA 

Colchicine 
An alkaloid [C M H fla OeN^ 399.21) obtained from colchieum. 
it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Colchicine occurs in pale yellow, amorphous scales, or as a pale yellow, a 
phous powder, turning darker on exposure to light; odorless or nearly so. 
caution must be used in tatting it and then fmkf in very dilute solutions. 

One Gm, of Colchicine dissolves in 22 mils of water, 220 mils of ether 
in 100 mils of benzene at 25° C; also in 21 mils of water at S0° C; freely so 
in alcohol or chloroform; insoluble in petroleum benzin. 

Its aqueous Rotation (1 in 30) is neutral to litmus, kevorotatory, and 
yellow color, which is intensified by the addition of mineral acids. 

It melts between 142° and 146° C. 

Stir about 0.001 Gm. of Colchicine with a few drops of sulphuric ac 
lemon-yellow color is produced, which, on the addition of a drop of nitric 
changes to greenish-blue, then to red and finally to yellow. On adding an € 
of potassium hydroxide T.S., rite color is changed to red. 

The addition of li drops of ferric chloride T\S. to 5 mib of an aqueous eol 
of Colchicine (1 in 100) produces no color (colchiceine), but, on heating, a b: 
iflh-red color is developed, which changes to brownish-black; 1 drop of 







UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



121 



cfclaride T.S. added to 1 mil of an alcoholic solution of Colchicine (1 in 20) 
produces a garnet-red color at once, 

>«hable ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Cm. of Colchicine. 
Hett a mixture of about 0.01 Ctm. of Ccjlrhicine, 2 mils of potassium hydroxide 
T&, and I drop of aniline; no odor of phenynso ey anidc develops (chloroform). 

Average dose— Metric, 0.0005 Gm. — Apothecaries, y{ 2 o grain. 



COLLODIUM 

Collodion 

Collod. 

Ftroxylin, forty grammes .•••.. , . . . . 40 Gm* 

Ethee, seven hundred and fifty milliliters 750 mils 

Alcohol, two hundred and fifty milliliters 250 mils 

To make about one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Add the alcohol to the pyroxylin contained in a suitable bottle, shake 
the mixture thoroughly , then introduce the ether, and again shake the 
mixture until the pyroxylin is dissolved. Cork the bottle well and set it 
Hide until the liquid becomes clear; Finally decant the clear portion 
from any sediment which may have deposited, and transfer it to con- 
i which must be well closed. 
» the Collodion in a cool place remote from fire. 

Collodion is a clear, or slightly opalescent, syrupy liquid; colorless, or slightly 
3'tllowish and having the odor of ether. It is highly inflammable. When ex- 
pcned to the air in a thin layer it loaves a transparent, tenacious 61m. 

Specific gravity: 0.765 to 0.775 at 25° C. 

When mixed with an equal volume of distilled water, a viscid, stringy mass 
fcparates; the aqueous liquid is not arid to litmus. 

Aiiay — Introduce about HI mils of Collodion into a flask; stopper and 
*eig}» accurately, then warm it on a water bath and add 10 mils of distilled 
»»ter, drop by drop, with constant stirring. Evaporate the mixture on a water 
Wh and dry the residue to constant weight ut 110° C. The pyroxylin so 
obtained corresponds to not less than 5.1 percent, of the Collodion taken, equal 
toibout 4 Gm. of pyroxylin in 100 mils of Collodion at 25° G. The pyroxylin 
obtained burns rapidly, with a yellow flame. 
Preparation— CbOodium Flexile. 



COLLODIUM CANTHARIDATUM 

Cantharidal Collodion 

Collod. Canth. — Blistering Collodion Vesicating Collodion 

Clytoarides, in fine powder, sixty grammes 60 Gm, 

Glacial Acetic Acid, five milliliters , 5 mile 

Flexible Collodion, eighty-five grammes 85 Gm. 

Acetone, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 




122 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THB 

Mix the cantharides with fifty-five mils of acetone, to which th 
acetic acid has been added, and set the mixture aside in a closely- 
container for twenty-four hours. Then transfer it to a percols 
continue the percolation with acetone until the drug is practic 
hausted. Reduce the percolate by distillation on a water ba 
tared flask, to fifteen grammes and, when cold, dissolve this concc 
extract in eighty-five grammes of flexible collodion. Finally al 
solution to stand for several hours, and decant the clear liqu 
any sediment which may have deposited, and transfer the pre 
containers, which must be well-closed. 

Keep Cantharidal Collodion in a cool place, remote from fire, 

COLLODIUM FLEXILE 

Flexible Collodion 

Collod. Flex. 

Collodion, nine hundred and fifty grammes. 8 

Camphor, twenty grammes 

Castor Oil, thirty grammes 

To make one thousand grammes 10 

Weigh the ingredients, successively, into a tared bottle and sh 
mixture until the camphor is dissolved. Keep the product i 
closed containers, in a cool place, remote from fire. 
Preparation — Collodium Cantharidatum. 

COLOCYNTHIS 

Colocynth 

Colocyn.— Colocynth Pulp Bitter Apple Colocynth Apple 
The dried pulp of the fruit of CUrvllus Colocynihis (Linn6) S 
(Fam. CucurbUacece), without the presence or admixture of mo 
5 per cent, of seeds or more than 2 per cent, of epicarp. 

Fruits, before the removal of the seeds, nearly globular, from 4 to 
diameter, usually more or less crushed and in broken pieces, with o 
patches of the nearly smooth epicarp; yellowish-white or brownish; light 
separable longitudinally when entire into three carpels, each contain 
the outer surface, the ovoid, compressed, yellowish seeds; odor slig 
intensely bitter. 

The powder is yellowish-white or buff, consisting chiefly of fragi 
parenchyma cells and an occasional fragment with trachea: very few 
tissues of the seed-coat, showing the characteristic stone cells which a 
isodiametric, irregular, with either straight or undulate walls that are 
lignified and possess simple pores; globules of fixed oil and aleura 
very few. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



128 






Powdered Colocynth must be made from colocynth pulp containing not more 
than 5 per cent, of seeds and, upon extraction with purified petroleum benzin, 
jvlds not more than 2 per cent, of fixed oil* 

Colocynth yields not more than 15 per cent, of ash. 
Preparations — Extractum Colocynthidia Extractum Colocynthidia Com- 

posilum (from Extract) Pilulas Cathartica* Composites (from Compound 

Extract). 

Average dose — -Metric, G.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 



J COPAIBA 

Copaiba 
Copaib. — Balsam of Copaiba Copaiva 
An oleoresin derived from South American species of Copaiba (Fain. 

Copuiba is a pale yellow to brownish-yellow, more or less viscid liquid, either 
without fluorescence or with only a slightly fjornifth fluorescence; having a 

IpKoIji^ aromatic odor, and a persistent, bitter, and acrid taste, 
his insoluble in water and partly soluble in alcohol. Soluble, showing not 
JMW than a slight opalescence, in dehydrated alcohol, carbon distil phide, or 
ui fixed or volatile oils; completely soluble in chloroform or ether and also 
iwluble in an equal volume of petroleum benzin, a further addition of the solvent 
producing a flocculent precipitate. 
Specific gravity: 0.940 to 0.905 at 25° C. 

When heated on a water bath, no odor of oil of turpentine is evolved; and 
*hn ill of the volatile oil has been driven off, a hard and brittle resin remains, 
weif&iog not less than 36 per cent, of the original weight of the Copaiba token 
(parojfe or fatty oils). 

To about 1 Gm. of Copaiba, accurately weighed, add 50 nails of alcohol, 
*od 1 mil of phenol phthoJein TJSL, then titrate the solution with half-normal 
Prtaffliutn hydroxide V.S* It shows an acid value of not less than 28 nor more 

,Diawlve 3 or 4 drops of the volatile oil separated from Copaiba by distilla- 
tion with steam, in 3 mils of glacial acetic add, mix the solution with 1 drop of 



I freshly prepared aqueous solution of sodium nitrite (1 in 10), and carefully 
**teriiy this with 2 mils of sulphuric acid. The acetic layer is not ■ -ulorcd pint 
fop* balsam). 



jAike o mils of Copaiba with 15 mils of alcohol and then heat the mixture to 
wiling for one minute; no oil separates of ter cooling and allowing it to stand for 
°* toir (paraffin oUs), 

7^ e volatile oil separated from Copaiba by distillation with steam does not 
Wl bdow 250° C. and shows an angle of rotation in a 100 mm. tube of not less 
ton -7° at 25* C. (African Copaiba). 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil— Apothecaries, 15 minims. 

CORIANDRUM 

Coriander 

Coriand — Coriander Seed 
The dried ripe fruit of Coriandntm sativum Linne* (Fam, l7mbcCi- 
itbout the presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent* of 
fruits, seeds, or foreign matter. 





124 THB PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

Mericarps usually coherent; cremocarp nearly globular, from 3 to 5 mo 
diameter; externally light brown or rose colored; summit with 5 calyx teeth 
a short stylopodium, each mericarp with 5 prominent, straight, longLtudi 
primary ribs and 4 indistinct, undulate secondary ribs; mericarps easily «j 
ated, deeply concave on the inner or commissural surface and showing in tn 
verse section 2 vittse (oil tubes) on the inner surface of each. 

Under the microscope, sections of Coriander show an epidermis of small < 
with thick walls; a layer of several rows of thin-walled more or less oollap 

garenchyma separated from a broad zone of strongly lignified, sclerenchymat 
bers which extend as a continuous ring in the mesocarp of each of the meric* 
2 or 3 layers of large, tangentially elongated, thin-walled parenchyma o 
frequently with numerous large lysigenous intercellular spaces; inner epidei 
of Large tabular cells, the inner yellowish walls being considerably thicke 
and closely coherent to the brownish cells of the seed-coat; commissural sur 
with 2 large, elliptical vittse; the cells of the pericarp separated from the a 
coat and forming a large elliptical cavity; endosperm distinctly reniforn 
outline and consisting of tabular or polygonal thick-walled cells contaii 
numerous large aleurone grains each with a rosette aggregate or prism of calc 
oxalate. 

The powder is light brown, consisting chiefly of fragments of endosperm 
lignified tissues of the pericarp; calcium oxalate crystals numerous, from 
to 0.01 mm. in diameter, mostly in rosette aggregates, either isolated o 
aleurone grains; sclerenchymatous fibers irregularly curved, having tl 
yellowish, lignified walls and numerous simple pores: numerous globules of i 
oil; fragments of light yellow vitta? few, associated with elongated polyg 
epidermal cells. 

Coriander yields not less than 0.5 per cent, of volatile extractive, solubl 
ether (see Part II, Test No. 12). 

Coriander yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



COTARNINiE HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Cotamine Hydrochloride 

Cotarn. tiydrochl.— Cotamine Chloride 

Quarternary oxymethyl^xymethylene<Lihydro4soquinoline chlo 
[daH^OsNCl or (CH 3 0) (CH^.CgHeN (CH 8 )C1= 255.58] obta 
by hydrolyzing narcotine, and treating the resulting cotamine [(CB 
(CH a Oa)C8H 5 (CHO).NH(CH 3 )] with hydrochloric acid. 

Cotamine Hydrochloride occurs as a yellow, crystalline powder; odorks 
deliquescent in moist air. 

It is very soluble in water and alcohol, yielding yellow solutions. 

Its aqueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral to litmus. 

Silver nitrate T.S. when added to an aqueous solution of Cotamine H 
chloride produces a white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid. About 0.2 
of Cotamine Hydrochloride, dissolved in 10 mils of distilled water, vw 
brown precipitate of cotamine periodide on the addition of 10 mils of 1 
normal iodine V.S. When this precipitate is collected on a filter and dr 
constant weight over sulphuric acid, it melts between 142° C. and 144° ( 

Heat gradually 0.1 Gm. of Cotamine Hydrochloride over a Bunsen b 
it is decomposed, evolving characteristic, disagreeable vapors and yiek 



wn liquid, which (gradually changes to a hard charred mass. No 
weigliable ash remains on the incineration off this mass. 

Dusolve about 0,5 Gm, of Cotamine Hydro chloride in 10 mils of distilled 
water and add 2 mils of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (15 per cent,), 
A milk-white precipitate is produced which dissolves on agitation, but in Nppa* 
dpitatedfrom the solution after standing for mxm innc, Leaving the .supernatant 
liquid clear and but faintly yellow. 

rage dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm.— Apothecaries, 1 grain. 



tCREOSOTI CARBONAS 
Creosote Carbonate 
Crcosot. Carb. 
of the carbonates of various constituents of creosote, chiefly 
tfiaiacol and creosol. 

o«ote Carbonate is a clear, colorless or yellowish, viscid liquid, odorless, 
tod tasteless, or having a slight odor and taste of creosote. On prolonged ex* 
poaue to a low temperature, crystals of guaiacol carbonate separate, which 
rediaolve on warming. 

Creosote Carbonate is insoluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol, soluble 
ia Ntroleum benzin or fixed nils; it is miscible with chloroform or benzene. 

Sperific gravity: 1.145 to 1.170 at 25° C. 

neat about 0.5 mil of Creosote Carbonate for a few minutes with 10 mils of 
aloobolic potassium hydroxide TJB., and cool the mixture; a crystalline precipi- 
tate forms, which effervesces with a rids. 

hciacrate about 1 Gin. of Creosote Carbonate; not more than 0.1 per cent, 
of iah remains, 

Afcturated alcoholic solution of Creosote Carbonate is neutral to moistened 
w£H» paper, and acquires only a yellow color on the addition of ferric chloride 

Heat 25 mils of Creosote Carbonate on a water bath for half an hour with 
»«1uuoq of 15 Gm. of potassium hydroxide in 100 mils of alcohol, then evapo- 
l * t * the alcohol and mix the residue with an excess of hydrochloric acid; a liquid 
composed of two layers is obtained. On now separating the dark Iaver of creo- 
■rtttnd shaking it with successive portions of 10 mils each of distilled water 
until the washings are only slightly acid to litmus, it has the boiling point given 
(uxler Cnpmdum ; the distillate, after separation of adhering water, responds to 
U* remaining tests of identity and purity under Creosotum. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



CREOSOTUM 

Creosote 

Creosot— Crcasote 

tincture of phenols and phenol derivatives, chiefly guaiacol and 
obtained during the distillation of wood-tar. Preserve it in 
i. dark amber-colored bottles. 






126 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

» 

Creosote is an almost colorless or yellowish, highly refractive, oily KqoiA 
having a penetrating, smoky odor, and a burning, caustic taste; it does r*0" 
readily become brown on exposure to light. 

Creosote is slightly soluble in water; it is miscibie with alcohol, ether, <** 
fixed or volatile oils. 

It is neutral or faintly acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: not below 1.073 at 25° C. 

It begins to distil between 195° and 200° C. and not less than 80 per cent \ff 
volume distils between 200° and 220° C. 

Creosote is inflammable, burning with a luminous, smoky flame. 

Add 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. to 10 mils of a saturated aqueous solution 
of Creosote; the liquid develops a violet-blue color, which is very transient; 
it then clouds almost instantly, the color passing rapidly from a grayish-green 
to a muddy brown, with finally the formation of a brown precipitate. 

Mix equal volumes of Creosote and collodion in a dry test tube; no permanent 
coagulum is produced (phenol and so-called "coal-tar creosote 9 '). 

Mix 4 mils of Creosote with 4 mils of glycerin: a clear mixture results, from 
which a creosotic layer, equal to or greater in volume than the Creosote taken, 
separates on the addition of 1 mil or water ("coal-tar creosote"). 

Two mils of Creosote requires not less than 10 mils nor more than 18n3i 
of normal sodium hydroxide V.S. to produce a clear liquid. This liquid remains 
unclouded on diluting with 50 mils of distilled water (hydrocarbons and born)* 

Shake gently 1 mil of Creosote with 2 mils of petroleum benjdn and 2 m0« 
of freshly prepared barium hydroxide T.S., until a uniform mixture is produced- 
Upon complete separation three distinct layers are visible; a middle layer con- 
taining the Creosote, a benzin layer which is neither blue nor muddy, and aa 
aqueous layer which does not acquire a red tint (comdianol and 9ome other kigk~ 
boiling constituents of wood-tar). 

Preparation— Aqua Creosoti. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 mil — Apothecaries, 4 minims. 



CRESOL 

Cresol 

A mixture of isomeric cresols [C 7 H 8 or C«H 4 .CH,.0H = 108.06J 
obtained from coal tar. Preserve it in well-closed containers protected- 
from light. 

Cresol occurs as a colorless or yellowish to brown-yellow, highly r ef racUf* 
liquid, becoming darker or assuming a reddish tint with age and on exposure to 
light, and having a phenol-like, sometimes empyreumatic odor. 

One mil of Cresol dissolves in about 50 mils of water, usually forming a cloudy 
solution; it is miscibie with alcohol, ether, benzene, petroleum benzin, Of 
glycerin: it is dissolved by solutions or the fixed alkali hydroxides. 

Specific gravity: 1.030 to 1.038 at 25° C. 

Not less than 90 per cent, by volume of Cresol distils between 195° and 205° (X 

A saturated aqueous solution of Cresol is neutral or slightly acid to litmus, 
and becomes blue-violet on the addition of ferric chloride T.S. 

A solution of 1 mil of Cresol in 60 mils of water is not more than slightly 
turbid (hydrocarbons). 

Preparation — Liquor Cresolis Compositua. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.05 mil — Apothecaries, 1 minim. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



127 



CRETA PRiEPARATA 

Prepared Chalk 

Cret. Praep.— Drop Chalk 

I native form of calcium carbonate freed from most of its impurities by 
atioo and containing, when dried to constant weight at 200° C, not 
i than 97 per cent, of CaCG s (100.07). 

Prepared Chalk occurs as a while to grayish- white, very fine, amorphous 
powder, often formed into **conical drops"; odorless and tasteless; permanent in 
(be air 

Prepared Chalk is almost insoluble in water; insoluble in alcohol; decomposed 
sad dissolved by diluted acetic, hydrochloric, or nitric arid, with copious effer- 
ttteence. When a weighed amount of Prepared Chalk is dissolved in diluted 
hydrochloric acid QOt more than 2 per cent, of residue remains. 

Diwolve about Q.l Gin. of Prepared Chalk in 5 mils of diluted acetic acid and 
filler the solution; the addition of ammonium oxalate TJ3. to the filtrate yields 
» white precipitate, insoluble in arctic and but soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

When healed to full redness, Prepared Chalk gradually loses carbon dioxide 
kkI is converted into calcium oxide. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Calcii Carhonna PrtecipUatuB, It shows, 
in the dried salt, not leas than 97 per cent, of CftOOfe. 

Each gramme of dried Prepared Chalk corresponds to not less than 193,9 
oib of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. 



Preparations — Miatura Cret® 

Compositus. 



(from Compound Powder) Pulvis Cretse 



Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



CUBEBA 

Cubeb 

Cubeb.— Cubeba 

* dried, full-grown, unripe fruits of Piper Cuheba Linne" filius {Fam. 

r), without the presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent. 

i or other foreign matter. 

I'ppr portion globular, from 3 to 6 mm. in diameter, with a straight, slender 
teniae portion, from 5 to 7 mm. in length; pericarp externally grayish, brownish, 
or bluiih-black ; coarsely reticulate; about 0.3 mm. in thickness, easily cut, 
I-kjcuUr, l**eeded; the immature seed attached at the base of the pericarp; 
"dor aromatic, characteristic; taste strongly aromatic and pungent. 

the microscope, sections of Cubeb show an epidermal layer of tabular 
db with thickened, undulate outer walls, the contents being olive peon; 1 or 2 
Kti of parenchyma cells, the contents resembling those of the epidermal celts; 
aooQtinuous layer of radiately elongated, thick-walled stone cells having numer- 
ate pores; a few layers of collapsed cells near which may occur an occasional 
amau group of bast-fibers; a middle layer of 10 rows of cells composed chiefly 
of parenchyma, scattered among which are numerous secretion cells runtaining 
a volatile oil and occasionally crystals in the form of short rods, the contents of 
the secretion cells being colored a deep crimson upon the addition of sulphuric 
aod; to endocarp of small, somewhat isodiametric or polygonal stone cells with 




128 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 

very thick porous walls; seed-coat of several rows of reddish-brown, tangentii 
elongated, more or less collapsed cells; perisperm of numerous thin-walled ptre 
chyma, the cells being'more or less polygonal in shape and containing either ami 
compound starch grains, or globules of a fixed oil or occasionally a crystal 
calcium oxalate. 

The powder is light brown to blackish-brown, consisting of a more or lea e? 
distribution of starch-bearing cells of the perisperm and fragments of the pe 
carp with stone cells; starch grains numerous, single or compound, from 0.0 
to 0.012 mm. in diameter; stone cells numerous in palisade-like groups, in surfi 
view rounded or polygonal with rather prominent dark lumina ana yellow; 
porous walls; secretion cells with a yellowish, oily content, becoming reddi 
on the addition of sulphuric acid; fragments of stalk few { with spiral track 
and groups of sclerenchymatous fibers from 0.05 to 1 mm. in length with biui 
founded, or very much attenuated ends, the walls strongly lignified and wi 
numerous oblique pores. 

Cubeb yields not less than 10 per cent, of volatile extractive, soluble in eU 
(see Part II, Test No. 12). 

Cubeb yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

Preparations — Oleoresina Cubeb© Trochisci Cubebs (from Oleoresin). 
Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



CUPBI SULPHAS 

Copper Sulphate 

Cupr. Sulph.— Cupric Sulphate 

It contains not less than 62.97 per cent, nor more than 66.79 per ee 
of anhydrous copper sulphate, corresponding to not less than 98.5 ] 
cent, of the crystallized salt [CuS0 4 +5HaO= 249.72]. Preserve it 
well-closed containers. 

Copper Sulphate occurs as deep blue, triclinic crystals or as a blue, gram 
powder: odorless, of a nauseous, metallic taste; slowly efflorescent in dry ai 

One Gm. of Copper Sulphate dissolves in 2.5 mils of water, 500 mils of alcoj 
and in 2.8 mils of glycerin at 25° C; also in 0.5 mil of boiling water. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) has a blue color, and is acid to litn 

When heated to 30° C. the salt loses part of its water of crystallisation an 
converted into a pale blue, amorphous powder. More water is lost at 100' 
and finally at 200 C. a white, anhydrous powder remains. At a still hii 
temperature, sulphur dioxide and oxygen are given off, and a residue of hi 
cupric oxide remains. 

Place a drop of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) on a bright pieo 
iron; a red film of metallic copper is deposited. 

Barium chloride T.S. produces a white precipitate, insoluble in hydrocM 
acid, in an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10). 

Add ammonia water to an aqueous solution of Copper Sulphate (1 in • 
drop by drop; a pale blue precipitate,^, cupric hydroxide forms, which re 
solves m an excess of ammonia water, /educing a deep azure-blue solutioi 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of the salt in 50 mL mt .k distilled water, add 1 mil of dihi 
hydrochloric acid and pass hydrogen sulphide gas through the solution u 
all of the copper is precipitated. Upon evaporating the filtrate and ignit 
the weight of the residue does not exceed 0.003 Gm. (other metaU). 

Assay — Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Copper Sulphate, accurately weighed 
50 mils of distilled water and add 4 mils of acetic acid and 3 Gm. of po 
sium iodide and titrate the liberated iodine with tenth-normal sodium t 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



129 



•ulpifctc V.S., starch T.S. being used as indicator It shows not lees than 62.97 
percent, nor more than 66.79 per cent, of CuSQf. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium ihiosulphate V.S. used corresponds to 
0.015964 Gm. of C11SG4. Each gramme of Copper .Sulphate correspond* to 
not lew than 39.44 mils nor more than 41. S3 mils of tenth-normal sodium 
thxwulphatc V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains, 
as an emetic. 

DECOCTA 

Decoctions 

roctions must be freshly made from the drugs t and, when the strength 
f decoctions is not otherwise directed, they are to be prepared by the 
owing general formula; 

The Drug, coarsely comminuted, fifty grammes 50 Gm. 

Pater, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mile 

Introduce the drug into a suitable vessel provided with a cover, 

upon it one thousand mils of cold water, cover it well, and boil 

fifteen minutes. Then allow it to cool to about 40° C. t express, 

am the expressed liquid, and pass enough cold water through the 

1 to make the product measure one thousand mils, 

-The strength of decoctions of energetic or powerful sub- 
t should be specially directed by the physician. 



DIACETYLMORPHINA 

Diacetylmorphiiie 
Dlacetylmorph, 

1 alkaloid [CiHbAN or Ci 7 H n (0,C a H a O) a ON = 369,19] prepared 
morphine by acetyli2ation. Preserve it in well-closed containers, 
cted from light. 

Diacetylmorphine occurs as a white . crystalline powder without odor. 

One Gm. of Diacetylmorphine dissolves In about 1700 mils of water, 31 mils 
<J alcohol, 1.4 mils of chloroform, and in 10O mils of ether at 25° C, 

Its saturated alcoholic solution is alkaline to moistened litmus paper. 

It melta between 171.5° and 17 5° C. 

Dissolve about 0.0 1 Gm, of I etylmorohine in a few drops of nitric acid; 
a jellow color is produced, whit, gradually changes to greenish-blue. Heat 
about 0.1 Gm. of Diacetylmorphine with 1 mil of alcohol and 1 mil of sulphuric 
acid; ethyl acetate is produced, recognizable by its odor. 

liable ash remains on incinerating 0.5 Gm. of Diacetylmorphine, 

Dissolve 0.2 Gm. of Diacetylmorphine in 5 mils of distilled water with 
Ibe aid of a few drops of hydrochloric aeid, and pour thi* solution slowly 
into 6 mils of potassium hydroxide T.S. f shaking the test tube occasionally; 
14 




m 



130 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 



a white precipitate forms, which quickly redissolvea, yielding a clear eolutio** 
{other alkaloids). On heating this solution no odor of ammonia is noticeable 
(ammonium salts). 

A solution of about 0,02 Gm. of Diacetylmorpbine in 2 mils of sulphuric id» 
is colorless (readily carbonimble organic impurities). 

Dissolve about 0.05 Gm. of potassium ferricyanide in 10 mils of distilled water, 
add one drop of ferric chloride T.S. and then 1 mil of an alcoholic solution of 
Diacetylmorphkie (1 in 100J ; no greenish or blue color is produced at one* 
(morphine), 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of Diacetylmorphine in 10 mils of distilled water and Smite 
of diluted hydrochloric acid in a porcelain dish and evaporate the solution on * 
water bath to a syrupy consistence (about 2 mils). Transfer this residue to * 
separatory funnel with the aid of 25 mils of distilled water, render it alkaline 
with sodium hydroxide solution (10 per cent.) and then shake it out with 3 suc- 
cessive portions of 15, 10 and 5 mils of chloroform, passing the chloroform dila- 
tions through a small filter previously moistened with chloroform. Carefully 
evaporate the combined chloroform solutions to dryness on a water bath t dis- 
solve the residue in 10 mils of fiftieth-normal sulphuric acid \\S. f add a fe* 
drops of methyl red T.S. and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-normal 
potassium hydroxide V.S. Not less than 7,5 mils of the latter is required {foreign 
alkaloid*). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.003 Gm. — Apothecaries, }fo F^- 

DIACETYLMORPHIN^; HYDROCHLORIDUSI 

Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride 

DJacety Imorpfa. Hydrochl,— Diacetylmorphine Chloride 

The hydrochloride [CaiH^OsN.HCI+HflO or C 17 H l7 (OX; a H3Q)jOK. 
HCI+HaO^ 423.68] of the alkaloid diacetylmorphine. Preserve it in 
well-closed containers, protected from light, 

Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride is a white, crystalline powder without cdar- 

One Gm. of Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride dissolves in 2 mils of water a* 
25° C.J soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform or ether at 25° C. 

An aqueous solution of Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride (1 in 20) ia neutral 
or only faintly acid to litmus. 

It melts at about 230° C. with decomposition. 

An aqueous solution of the salt with silver nitrate TJ3. yields a white preeiD* -- "' 
tate insoluble in nitric Mid. 

In other respecta the salt responds to the tests for identity and purity 
Diaeetylmorpkina, omitting the melting point. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.003 Gm— Apothecaries, }£q grain. 



DIASTASUM 

Diastase 

A mixture containing amylolytic enzymes obtained from an infusion 
of malt. It converts not less than 50 times its weight of potato starch 
into sugars. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light, 
heat and moisture. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



131 



Diarttae occurs as a yellowish-white, amorphous powder or in translucent 
•cafes; odorless and tasteless. It converts starch into dextrin and maltose. 

Diastase gradually loses its amylolytic power on keeping; this power is de- 
stroyed by heating its solutions above 85° C. or by the addition of much acid 
and is diminished dv the presence of acids or alkalies. 

Diastase is soluble in water, the solutions being more or less turbid; almost 
insoluble in alcohol 

Assa> — Mix a quantity of potato starch, purified as directed under Pan- 
trwtinum, equivalent to 5 Gm. of drv starch, in a beaker with 10 mils of cold 
distilled water. Add 140 mils of boiling distilled water, and heat the mixture 

00 a water bath with constant stirring for two minutes, or until a translucent, 
urn/on obtained. Cool the paste to 40° C. in a water bath previously 
idjusted to this temperature. Prepare a fresh solution of 0.1 Gm. of Diastase in 
10 mils of distilled water at 40° C. and add it to the paste. Mix them well and 
maintain the same tempentuie for exactly thirty minutes, stirring frequently; 

1 thin, nearly clear liquid is produced. Add at once 0.1 mil of this liquid to a 
previously made mixture of 0:2 mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. and 60 mils 
of distilled water J no blue or reddish color is produced. 



Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm— Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



of distilled ' 
AVEB. 

DIGITALIS 

Digitalis 

Digit, — Foxglove Digitalis folium P. I. 

fte carefully dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea Linn£ (Fam. Scrophu* 
Itwche), without the presence or admixture of more than 2 per cent, of 
Urns, flowers or other foreign matter. If made into the official tincture 
md assayed biologically the minimum lethal dose should not be greater 
than 0.006 mil of tincture, or the equivalent in tincture of 0.00QGO05 
Gm. of ouabain, for each gramme of body weight of frog. Digitalis 
*wld be preserved in tightly-closed containers protected from light. 

Leaves, when entire, attaining a length of 30 cm. and a breadth of 15 cm,, 
owe to oval, abruptly contracted into winged petioles, the latter from 5 to 
10 an. in length or, in the smaller leaves, nearly absent; margin crenate, irreg- 
ular (the commercial article usually more or less crumpled and broken), thin, 
dull, pale green or gray and densely pubescent on the lower surfaces; upper 
wrfacca wrinkled, eparsely hairy; the venation conspicuously reticulated; the 
midribs and principal veins broad and flat, often purplish, the lower veins 
continued into the wings of the petioles; odor slight, characteristic; taste strongly 
bitter. 

The powder is dark green; with numerous fragments of non-glandular hairs 
consisting of from 2- to 8- Haifa J- bo 6-oeHs), varying in length from 

0.145 to 0.435 nun., some of the cells being frequently collapsed; glandular 
nam few, small, with a 1- or 2-celled stalk and a 1- or ^-celled glandular head; 
numerous irregular fragments of lamina showing stomatn and occasional water- 
JJOro and elongated fragments of veins and petioles showing fibro-vascular 

Digitalis yields not more than 15 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — For a method of assaying Digitalis see Biological Assays (Part II). 

rations — Fluidextrac turn Digitalis Infusum Digitalis Tinctura Digitalis. 
Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 




132 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 




ELATERINUM 

Elaterin 

Elaterin, 

A principle obtained from elaterium, a substance deposited by ib B 
juice of the fruit of Ecballium Elaterium (Linn£) A. Richard (Fart 1 * 
Cucurbitacew). 

Elaterin occurs in minute, white, hexagonal scales or prismatic crystals; odotf*~ 
•less, and having a slightly aerid> bitter taste; permanent in the air. 

One Gm. of Elaterin dissolves in 325 mils of alcohol, 15,5 mils of chloroform, 
450 mils of ether, and in 310 mils of benzene at 25° C. ; also In 100 mils of boiling 
alcohol; it is insoluble in either cold or hot watrr 

Its alcoholic solution is neutral to moistened litmus paper. 

Mix about 0.01 Gm. of Elaterin with I mil of sulphuric acid; onlv a ydkrar 
color is produced (readily carbonizahk impurities). On the addition of a drop of 
solution of formaldehyde the mixture becomes brown. 

A solution of about 0*01 Gm. of Elaterin in 5 mils of melted phenol becomes 
crimson on the addition of a few drops of sulphuric acid and rapidly changes to 
scarlet. 

No weigh able ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Gm. of Elaterin. 

Shake about 0.1 Gm. of Elaterin with a mixture of 9 mils of distilled water and 
1 mil of diluted hydrochloric arid and filter; separate portions of the filtrate 
yield no turbidity with 0.5 mil of mercuric potassium iodide T.S. or with iodine 
T.S. {alkaloids). 

Preparation — Trit uratio Elaterini . 

Average dose — Metric, 0.003 Gm,— Apothecaries, >^ grain- 



ELIXIR AROMATICUM 

Aromatic Elixir 

Elbe, Arom,— Simple Elixir 

Compound Spirit of Orange, twelve milliliters. ..... 12 mi! 

Syrup, three hundred and seventy-Jive milliliters 375 mil. 

Purified Talc, thirty grammes . . 30G 

Alcohol, 

Distilled Water, each, a sufficient quantity, ___^ 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mi^^ 



To the compound spirit of orange, add enough alcohol to make t 
hundred and fifty mils. To this solution, add the syrup in several poi 
tions, agitating after each addition, and afterwards add, in the sam- 
manner, three hundred and seventy-five mils of distilled water. Mi^ 
the purified talc intimately with the liquid, and then filter through *» 
wetted filter, returning the first portions of the filtrate until a trans- 
parent liquid is obtained. Lastly, wash the filter with a mixture of 
one volume of alcohol and three volumes of distilled water, until the prod- 
uct measures one thousand mils. 



ELIXIR GLYCYRRHIZ.E 

Elixir of Glycyrrhiza 

Ellx. Olycyrrh*— Elixir Adjuvans, U.S.P. VIII Elixir of Licorice 

ficiDEXTRACT of Glycyrrhiza, one hundred and twenty- 
foe milliliters . . , . ♦ 125 mils 

Aromatic Elixir, eight hundred and seventy-five milliliters. 875 mils 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Mix and filter. 

I EMETINE HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Emetine Hydrochloride 
Emet. Hydrochl. 
e hydrochloride [Ca n4 4 G*N 2 .2He 1 = 569.31] of the alkaloid eme- 
tine, obtained from ipecac* It contains variable amounts of water of 
crystallization. Preserve it in dark amber-colored vials protected from 



Hydrochloride occurs as a white or very slightly yellowish crystal- 
line powder, without odor. On exiiosure to light it gradually darkens. 

Emetine Hydrochloride is freely soluble in water or alcohol* 

Iu aqueous solution (I in 20) is slightly acid to litmus. 

Separate portions of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 100) yield pre- 
cipitates with iodine T.S., mercuric potassium iodide T\S,, and with platinic 

Sulphuric add. containing in each mil about 0.005 Gm. of molybdic acid, 
wben added to Emetine Hydrochloride produces a bright green color* 

er nitrate T.S. produces in an aoueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) a 
white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid. 

Dried to constant weight at 100° CI, it loses not more than 19 per cent, of 
HiwoKht 
No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.2 Gm. of Emetine Hydrochloride. 
One-tenth of 1 Gm. of the salt dissolves in 2 mils of sulphuric acid without 
producing more than a faintly yellow color (readily carbonizable impurities). 

Dissolve 0.1 Gra. of Emetine Hydrochloride in 5 mils of distilled water in a 
leparatory funnel, add to the solution 3 mils of sodium hydroxide T,S. and shake 
it out with 10 mil portions of ether until the residue obtained hy evaporating 
1 mil of the ethereal liquid, when dissolved in 1 drop of diluted hydrochloric 
acid and 1 mil of distilled water, no longer yields a turbidity with iodine T.9. 
Now acidulate the aqueous liquid with diluted sulphuric acid, then add 
ammonia water until alkaline and sliake it with 10 mils of ether. Evaporate 
this ethereal liquid and add to the residue 1 mil of sulphuric acid containing 
about 0.005 Gm, of molybdic acid; no purple color is produced {cephaeline). 

Average dobe — Hypodermic, Metric, 0.02 Gm. — Apothecaries, 
H grain 







134 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 

EMPLASTRUM BELLADONNA 

Belladonna Plaster 

Emp. Bellad. 

An adhesive plaster containing 30 per cent, of extract of bella< 
leaves and yielding not less than 0.35 per cent, nor more than 0.4 
cent, of the alkaloids from belladonna leaves. 

Assay — Introduce 10 Gm. of Belladonna Plaster into a 100 mil flask, 
plaster is spread on fabric, cut the portion to be assayed into strips, weigh i 
rately, ana introduce it into the flask.) Now add 50 mils of chloroform, anc 
the mixture until the plaster is dissolved. Pour the chloroform solution int 
mil beaker and wash tne cloth upon which the plaster was spread with two pi 
of 25 mils each of chloroform, adding the washings to the chloroform soni 
the beaker. Then wash this cloth with 80 mils of alcohol containing 1 mil of i 
nia water and pour the washings into the chloroform solution in tnebeaka 
the mixture gently and allow it to stand until the rubber has separated into 
pact mass. Dry the cloth upon which the plaster was spread, weigh it and su 
its weight from the original weight of the plaster. Pour tne chloroform-i 
solution into a 350 mil separator, rinse the beaker and rubber with 1 
of alcohol and add the rinsing to the separator. Then add to the eej 
100 mils of distilled water, rotate until thoroughly mixed and allow it tc 
until the liquids separate. Then draw off the chloroform into a second sej 
containing 50 mils of distilled water, shake it thoroughly and after seni 
draw off the chloroform into a beaker and pour the aqueous solution u 
first separator. Return the chloroform solution to the second separat 
shake out the contents of the first separator with two portions of 10 and 
respectively, of chloroform, adding them to the chloroform in the second sep 
Completely extract the alkaloids from the chloroform solution by aha! 
out repeatedly with weak sulphuric acid. Collect the acid washings in J 
rator and add ammonia water until the solution is decidedly alkaline to ! 
and completely extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly with chkn 
Filter the chloroform solution through a pledget of cotton, evaporati 
dryness and dissolve the alkaloids from the residue in exactly 5 mils of 
normal sulphuric acid V.S., and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-] 
potassium hydroxide V.S., using cochineal T.S. as indicator (see Proximate j 
Part II). 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds t 
milligrammes of the alkaloids from belladonna leaves. 



EMPLASTRUM CANTHARIDIS 

Cantharides Plaster 
Emp. Canthar. 

Cantharides Cerate/ 

Rosin Plaster, spread on fabric, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Spread cantharides cerate upon rosin plaster, leaving a margin a 

the edges. It may also be spread on muslin, paper, or other si 

material. This Plaster should not be dispensed unless it has been re 

prepared. 

Each square centimeter of spread plaster contains 0.1 Gm. of cant 
cerate. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



135 



EMPLASTRUM CAPSICI 

Capsicum Plaster 

Emp. Capsic 

ioresin of Capsicum, 

ibeb Piaster, spread on fabric, each, a sufficient quantity. 
W oleoresin of capsicum to the surface of rubber plaster so as to 
thin, even coating, leaving a margin around the edges. 

arh fifteen square centimeters of spread plaster contains 0.25 Gm. of oleoresin 



EMPLASTRUM ELASTICUM 

Rubber Plaster 

Emp. Blast— Rubber Adhesive Plaster 

ture of rubber, resins and waxes, with a filler of an absorbent 
orris root or starch, mechanically mixed and spread 
tton cloth or other fabric. 



EMPLASTRUM PLUMBI 

Lead Plaster 

Emp, Plumb.— Diachylon Plaster 

Oxide, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

Oil, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

one thousand grammes , 1000 Gm, 

a Water, a sufficient quantity. 

the olive oil and lard by a gentle heat until liquefied in a bright 

or other suitable vessel of a capacity of not less than four times 

Ik of the ingredients, sift the lead oxide, through a No, 80 sieve, 

lie surface of the hot liquid and mix thoroughly. Then gradually 

hundred and fifty mils of boiling water, and boil the mixture, 

ly stirring, with a wooden spatula, and adding sufficient boiling 

time to time, to replace that lost by evaporation, until the 

omogeneous and a small portion removed and dipped into cold 

found to be pliable and tenacious. Then remove it from the 

wash several times with warm water to remove the glycerin. 

knead the mass until it is free from water, roll it into cylinders 

le size, and wTap them in paper. 

ions — Emplastrum Resins Unguentum Diachylon. 



136 THE PHABMACOP(EIA OF THE 

EMPLASTRUM RESINS 
Rosin Plaster 

Emp. Res. — Bonn Adhesive Plaster Adhesive Plaster 

Rosin, in fine powder, one hundred and forty grammes 

Lead Plasteb, eight hundred grammes I 

Yellow Wax, sixty grammes 

To make one thousand grammes 1< 

Melt the lead plaster and yellow wax together with a genl 
then add the rosin and, when melted, mix thoroughly, strain, ai 
the product to cool, stirring until it stiffens. 

EMPLASTRUM SINAPIS 

Mustard Plaster 

Emp. Sinap.— Charta Sinapis, U.S.P. VIII Mustard Paper 

A uniform mixture of powdered black mustard (deprived of its I 
and a solution of rubber, spread on paper, cotton cloth or othe 
Preserve it in tightly-closed containers. 

A square of 100 square centimeters contains not less than 2.5 Gm. 
mustard deprived of its fixed oil. 

When moistened thoroughly with tepid water and applied to the 
Plaster produces a decided warmth and reddening of the skin within five 

Before Mustard Plaster is applied, moisten it thoroughly with tep 

EMULSUM AMYGDALE 
Emulsion of Almond 

Emuls. Amygd.— Milk of Almond 

Sweet Almond, sixty grammes 

Acacia, in fine powder, ten grammes 

Sugar, thirty grammes 

Water, a sufficient quantity , __ 

To make one thousand milliliters 1( 

Having blanched the almonds, add the acacia and sugar, a 
them in a mortar,; until" they are thoroughly mixed. Then 
mass with nine hundred mils of water, at first very gradually 
until a uniform mixture results. Strain this into a graduated 
and wash the mortar and strainer with enough water to m 
product measure one thousand mils. Mix the whole thoroughly 
preparation must not be dispensed unless it has been recently p 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



137 



EMULSUM ASAFCETIDiE 

Emulsion of Asafetida 

Emu Is* Asafa*t*— Milk of Asafetida 

AMrtTTOA, in tears or selected masses, forty grammes, 
Wateb, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one tfiousand milliliters 



40 Gm. 



1000 mils 



Rub the asafetida in a mortar, with nine hundred mils of water, 
first very gradually added, until a uniform emulsion results. Then 

the mixture into a graduated vessel, and rinse the mortar and 
ainer with enough water to make the product measure one thousand 

Mix the whole thoroughly. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils— Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 



EMULSUM OLEI MORRHU^E 

Emulsion of Cod Liver Oil 

Emuls, 01. Morrh, 

Cod Liver Oil, five hundred milliliters 500 mile 

acacia, in fine powder, one hundred and twenty-five grammes 125 Gm. 

Sraup, one hundred milliliters 100 mils 

Methyl Salicylate, four milliliters 4 mils 

Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Thoroughly mix the acacia with the cod liver oil in a dry mortar or 
suitable vessel, then add at once two hundred and fifty mils of 
r, and complete the emulsificatioii by 1 rituration or by the aid of 
aauitable mechanical device. When a thick, white, homogeneous mixture 
i obtained, add the methyl salicylate and the syrup with sufficient 
to make the product measure one thousand mils and mix 
]y. 

Note — The methyl salicylate may be replaced by a suitable quantity 
M any other flavoring. 

Average dose— Metric, 15 mils— Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 



138 



THE FHARMAC0FCE1A OF THE 



EMULSUM OLEI TERBBINTHINiE 

Emulsion of Oil of Turpentine 

Emuls. 01. Terete 

Rectified Oil of Turpentine, fifteen milliliters 15 ml 3 

Expressed Oil of Almond, five milliliters 5 mt& 

Strop, twenty-five milliliters . 25 mil^ 

Acacia, in fine powder, fifteen grammes. 15 Gnm- 

Wateb, a sufficient quantity , _ 

To make one hundred milliliters 100 mil^ 

Introduce the acacia into a perfectly dry bottle of sufficient capacity. 
add the rectified oil of turpentine and the expressed oil of almond and 
shake the bottle thoroughly* Then add thirty mils of water and 
incorporate it by vigorous shaking. When the oil has been com- 
pletely emulsified, add first the syrup, in several portions, shaking afte** 
each addition, and then enough water, in divided portions, sh; 
after each addition, to make the product measure one hundred mils. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, }% fluidrachm 



ERGOTA 

Ergot 

Erjtot.— Secale Cornutum, P- L Ergot of Eye Spurred Rye 

The carefully dried sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea (Pries) Tulam- 
(Fam. Hypocreaceee) t replacing the grain of rye, Secah cereate Linnv 
(Fam* Graminea?), without the presence or admixture of more than 5 p&r 
cent, of seeds, fruits or other foreign matter. Before storing, dry Ergot 
at a temperature not exceeding 70° C, and preserve it, protected froxo 
light, in tightly-closed containers to which a few drops of chloroform or 
carbon tetrachloride are added from time to time to prevent attacks 
by insects, 

Cylindraceous, obscurely three-angled, tapering towards both ends, obtu*. 
somewhat curved, from 1 to 4.5 cm. in length and from 3 to 5 nun. in thickness; 
externally purplish~bbclt, or brownish-black, longitudinally furrowed; fracturt 
short, pinkish or reddi eh -white, sometimes grayish-white; odor peculiar, di* 
agreeable, free from mustiness; taste oily and disagreeable. 

Pour hot water on bruised Ergot; no ammoniaeal or rancid odor develops. 

The powder is grayish-brown, consisting chiefly of whitish fragments composed 
of false purenchyma of compacted hypha? and a few purplish colored fragpenti 
of the outer layer of the sclerotium; mounts made in hydrated chloral T,S, « 
in sulphuric acid show the separation of numerous globules of a fixed oU, and 
many of the fragments are colored yellowish, reddish or rose-purple. 



Shake 1 Gm. of the powdered drug with a mixture of 20 mils of water and one 
drop of hydrochloric acid, filter the mixture, make 4 mils of the filtrate alkaline 
with ammonia water and shake out with 10 mils of ether. Underlay 5 mils of 
toa ethereal solution with 2 mils of sulphuric acid; a blue ring is formed at the 
MM of contact of the two liquids. 

Erfot yields not more than 5 per cent, of ash. 

Preparation*— Extractum Ergota fluidextractum Ergot®, 

fomu 



Average DOSE — Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 

ERIODICTYON 

Eriodictyon 



Ertodtct,— Yerba Santa 

The dried leaves of Eriodictyon californicum (Hooker and Aroott) 
Greene (Fam. Hydrophyllacea), without the presence or admixture of 
oore than 5 per cent* of stems or other foreign matter. 

Usually in fragments; when entire, laminae lanceolate, from 5 to 15 cm. in 
length, and from 1 to 3 cm. in breadth; summits acute; bases slightly tapering 
into short petioles; margins irregularly serrate or crenate-dentate; upper sur- 
Caees yellowish-brown f covered wilh a more or less glistening resin; under sur* 
law grayish or yellowish-white, conspicuously reticulate with greenish-yellow 
▼was; minutely tomentose between the reticulations; thick, brittle; odor aro- 
ttitic: taste balsamic, bitter, becoming sweetish. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of the lamina? of Eriodictyon show 
tipon the upper surface large epidermal cells, the outer walls heing very uneven, 
owing to indentations which appear as et nations in surface view; glandular 
hairs numerous, with short 1 -celled stalks and 6- to S-eelled glandular heads; 
ptlisade cells very narrow, from 2 to f> rows deep, containing numerous chloro- 
pUauds; cells of dorsal-pneumatic tissue (loose mesophyll) very few; fibro- 
iKular tissues not strongly developed except in the midrib and more prominent 
twos; numerous 1 -celled, much twisted, thick-walled, non-glandular hairs 
occurring on the lower surface between the veins. 

Under the microscope, sections of the stems of Eriodictyon show the epidermis 
totally replaced bv strongly lignified cork; cortex of from 10 to 20 rows of more 
or lea* rounded cells; bast-fibers deep-seated with thick, more or Jess strongly 
hpified walls and occurring in small groups forming a more or less interrupted 
orrJe; sieve tissues in a narrow zone; wood-wedges consisting of tracheae with 
■piral thickenings, simple or bordered pores and numerous strongly lignified 
•ood-fibers, separated Vjy medullary rays 1-cell in width ; pith very large, the 
nib of the cells being strongly lignified and with numerous simple pores. 

Preparation — Fluidextraetum Eriodictyi 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



EUCALYPTOL 

Eucalyptol 



Cineol 

An organic compound [C l0 H 1B G= 154.14] obtained from the volatile 
J of Eucalyptus Globulus Labillardiere (Fam. Myriacem) and from 





140 



THE PHARMACQPCEIA OF THE 



other sources, Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a cool placet 
protected from light. 

Eucalyptol is a colorless liquid, having a characteristic, aromatic and di** 
tinctly camphor aceous odor, and a pungent, spicy taste; it produces a coolio>£ 
sensation in the mouth. 

Eucalyptol is very slightly soluble in water t miscible with alcohol, chloroforr*** 
ether, glacial acetic acid, or fixed or volatile oils. 

Specific gravity: 0.921 to 0.923 at 25° C. 

It boils between 174° and 177° C. 

Congealing point: not below 0° C. 

Eucalyptol is optically inactive (distinction from oil of eucalyptus arui mora W 
other volatile oils). 

Place 1 mil of Eucalyptol in a freezing mixture and gradually add to it a^J 3 
equal volume of phosphoric acid; a solid, white, crystalline mass of cineo»*' 
phosphoric acid results, and if warm water is then added the Eucalyptol separate^^ 

Shake 5 mils of Eucalyptol with 5 mils of sodium hydroxide T.S.; the voluic^ - 
of the Eucalyptol is not diminished (saptmiftahte oils). 

Its alcoholic solution (I in 10) is neutral to moistened litmus paper, and.o^ 
adding a drop of ferric chloride T.S, to 5 mils of this solution, no brown or viol^ 
color is produced (phenols). 



Average dose — Metric, 0.3 mil— Apothecaries, 5 minims, 



EUCALYPTUS 

Eucalyptus 

Eucaly pt.— Blue Gum Leaves 

The dried leaves of Eucalyptus Globulus Labillardi&re (Fam, Myrta.- 
cea) t collected from the older parts of the tree, without the presence 
or admixture of more than 3 per cent, of the stems, fruits or other 
foreign matter. 

Lamina? lanceolately scythe-shaped, from 8 to 30 cm. in length and 
2 to 7.5 cm* in breadth; summits when present acute or acuminate; bases urn 
obtuse or more or less rounded and connected with a twisted petiole from 
35 mm. in length; margins slightly uneven, revolute; coriaceous; both 
varying from pale yellowish-green to grayish-green and more or less ^ 
glabrous, glandular-punctate and with numerous small, circular, brown doti 
cork: veins of the first order anastomosing with each other and forming a 
nearly parallel with the margin; odor slightly aromatic; taste aromatic, bi 
and cooling. 

Under the microscope, sections of Eucalyptus show the upper and L< 
surfaces with nearly similar cells, the outer walls being strongly cutieular 
stomata occur on both surfaces, a region of palisade cells made up of from 3 1 
4 rows of cells occurring beneath each surface; among the palisade cells 
large oil-eecretion reservoirs, with a yellowish or orange colored oily coo 1 
calcium oxalate crystals in cells of the loose mesophyll in the form of r 
aggregates or monocunic prisms varying from 0.015 to 0.025 mm. in diai 
At the periphery of the fioro-v&seular bundles of the midrib and petiole 
a more or less interrupted circle of small groups of slightly lignified b 

Preparation— Fluidextractum Eucalypti. 

Aveeagb dose — Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 





EUGENOL 

Eugenol 



An unsaturated, aromatic phenol [CioHuOa or CaHa.CaH^OCHa.OH 

13:4 = 164,10] obtained from oil of clove and from other sources. 
Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Eugenol is a colorless or pale yellow, thin liquid, having a strongly aromatic 
odor of clove, and a pungent and spicy taste. Exposure to air causes it to be- 
coB>e darker and thicker. 

Eugenol is miseible with alcohol, chloroform, ether or fixed oils; it is soluble 
In twice its volume of 70 per rent alcohol. 

A mixture of I part of Eugenol and 20 parts of hot distilled water is only 
very slightly acid to litmus. 

Specific gravitv: 1.064 to 1.070 at 25° C, 

It boils between 260° and 255° C. 

It is optically inactive and strongly refractive. 

Disolve 1 mil of Eugenol in 12 mils of sodium hydroxide T.*S. and add 18 mils 
of distilled water; a clear solution results, which becomes turbid when rxj>osed 
to air. Shake 1 mil of Eugenol with 20 mils of distilled water and filter; 5 mils 
of the clear filtrate, upon the addition of 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S., shows 
t transient, grayish-green color, but not a blue or violet color {phenol). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims, 



EXTRACTA 

Extracts 
Pilular Extracts are solid or semi-solid products prepared by exhaust- 
in? drugs with appropriate solvents and carefully evaporating the 
actions to the proper consistence. These extracts preserve the useful 
constituents of the drug in a concentrated, relatively uniform and 
permanent condition, and hi a form suitable for medication. 

The solvents or menstrua employed in the preparation of pilular 
extracts are water, alcohol, or mixtures of these in the proportions stated 
to the formulas. A few drugs require fur their extraction the addition 
an acid or an alkali to the solvent. Where alcohol is used in the ex- 
ion it may be recovered by distillation. 
In the preparation of pilular extracts the concentration of the solu- 
tiaoft should be completed without delay, and undue exposure to heat 
must be avoided. The limit of temperature for the evaporation, as 
dated in the formulas, should not be exceeded. In the manufacture 
of these extracts on a large scale an apparatus for distilling and evapor- 
ating under reduced pressure should be used. It is also important 
that the residue be frequently stirred so as to hasten the evaporation 
And to obtain a uniform product. 




(I 



142 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 

Pilular extracts are extensively used in pill masses and in ointments 
and, to facilitate their use in these preparations, the degree of concentra- 
tion is commonly directed to be that of a " pilular consistence." 

Pilular extracts should be protected from exposure to sunlight and 
air by being kept in tightly-covered glass or earthen-ware containers. 

Powdered Extracts differ from pilular extracts in that they are dry, 
fine powders. Powdered extracts are often preferred to pilular extracts 
for general use, because they can be more accurately weighed, more 
easily dispensed, and more conveniently preserved in tightly-stoppered 
bottles. 

In the preparation of powdered extracts, it is necessary to use solvents 
that will extract the active principles of the drugs, and only a minimum 
amount of the inert substances. Where the drug contains an oily con- 
stituent that would be extracted by the menstruum directed, it becomes 
necessary to adopt in the process of manufacture a method for the 
separation of this oil so that the product will retain a satisfactory, 
pulverulent form. 

The concentration of the liquids containing the extractive should 
be completed without delay and undue exposure to heat must be avoided. 

The limit of temperature as stated in the formulas should not be ex- 
ceeded, and the use of apparatus for concentrating under reduced pres- 
sure is recommended. The final drying of the soft extract can be greatly 
facilitated by spreading it upon plates of glass or tinned metal and 
exposing it to currents of warm, dry air. Powdered extracts must be 
thoroughly dried, powdered and mixed with the diluent and preserved 
in tightly-stoppered, small, wide-mouthed, amber-colored bottles, and 
stored in a cool and dry place. 

Alkaloidal standards have been adopted for Extracts that can be re- 
liably assayed. Assay methods are directed for the determination d 
their strength, and to provide for standardization. When necessary, an 
inert diluent is directed to reduce the product to the standard. In the 
official formulas glucose is directed for the diluent in pilular extracti 
and dried starch and magnesium oxide are directed for powdered extracts, 
but it is permissible for the manufacturer to use as inert diluents for 
the latter, sugar, sugar of milk, powdered glycyrrhiza, magnesium car- 
bonate or the finely powdered drug or marc from which the respective 
extract was made. For the convenience of the prescriber, the standards 
of strength for the Extracts have been adjusted, wherever possible, ao 
that each bears a definite relation to that of the respective drug of 
average strength, and a statement of the standard precedes the formula. 



IEXTRACTUM ACONITI 
Extract of Aconite 
Ext, Acofllt. — Powdered Extract of Aconite 

Extract of Aconite yields not less than 1.8 per cent, nor more than 
U per cent, of the ether-soluble alkaloids of aconite and, if assayed 
biologically, the minimum lethal dose should not be greater than 0.00001 
Gm. for each gramme of body weight of guinea-pig. One gramme of 
the Extract represents about four grammes of aconite. 

Aconite, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Ta&taric Acid, five grammes 5 Gm, 

Purified Petroleum Benzin, 

I h, dried at 100° C, 
Alcohol, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the tartaric acid in Jive hundred mils of alcohol, moisten 
the drug with this solution and pack it in a cylindrical glass percolator; 
then add sufficient alcohol to saturate the powder and leave a stratum 
*hove it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close 
the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate 
lor forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed very 
doidy, adding alcohol as required. Reserve the first one thousand mils 
of percolate and continue the percolation, until the second percolate 
measures one thousand mils or until the drug is exhausted. Transfer this 
wood percolate to a suitable apparatus and distil off the alcohol at as 
lot a temperature as practicable, until a residue measuring about one 
hndrtd mils remains, then add the reserved percolate and continue 
distillation until the residue in the still is of syrupy consistence. 

Transfer this syrupy residue to a flask, using a little warm alcohol 
to rinse the still, and adding the rinsing to the flask. When it has 
cooled, add two hundred and fifty mils of purified petroleum benzin and 
iake the mixture thoroughly for several minutes. Allow the liquids 
to separate and decant the benzin layer as closely as possible; add 
Igim to the residue two hundred and fifty mils of purified petroleum 
tank, agitate and decant the benzin layer as before. 
Transfer the syrupy residue to a shallow evaporating dish, rinse the 
tak with twenty mils of warm alcohol, adding the rinsings to the residue 
i the dish, and then incorporate fifty grammes of the thoroughly dried 
•rcL Evaporate the mixture by a very gentle heat on a water bath, 
stirring, and, when the mass has become thick, spread it 







144 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

on glass plates and continue the drying in an air bath at a temperature 
not exceeding 70° C. until thoroughly dry. Reduce the product to I 
fine powder and weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the 
alkaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
of alkaloids in the remainder of the powder and add to this enough of 
the dried starch to make the finished Extract contain 2 per cent, of the 
ether-soluble alkaloids of aconite. Mix the powders thoroughly, pas 
the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthed 
bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Assay — Introduce 3 Gm. of Extract of Aconite into a 250 mfl flask, add HI 
Gm. of washed sand and mix thoroughly. Then add 150 mils of ether and 2 
mils of ammonia water, shake the mixture vigorously every few minutes dura* 
a half hour, and when the dregs have settled decant 100 mils of the clear liquid, 
representing two grammes of the Extract. Proceed as directed under BeUadomm 
Itodix, page 73, beginning with the word "Filter" in the seventh line of the 
Assay, modifying the process there given by using ether instead of chloroform 
for the final shaking out of the alkaloids. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 64.539 
milligrammes of the ether-soluble alkaloids of aconite. 

For an alternative method of assaying Extract of Aconite see Biologies 
Assays (Part II). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.01 Gm. — Apothecaries, % grain. 



EXTRACTUM BELLADONNA FOLIORUM 

Extract of Belladonna Leaves 

Ext. Bellad. Fol. 

Extract of Belladonna Leaves yields not less than 1.18 per cent, nor mart 
than 1.32 per cent, of the alkaloids of belladonna leaves. One gram** 
of the Extract represents about four grammes of belladonna leaves. 

Pilular Extract of Belladonna Leaves 

Belladonna Leaves, in No. 40 powder, one thousand 

grammes 1000 Gtt 

Glucose, 
Alcohol, 
Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the powder with sufficient of a mixture of three volume* d 

alcohol and one volume of water and pack it firmly in a cylindrical perco- 

lator, then add enough menstruum, using the same proportion of alcohol 

and water as before, to saturate the powder and leave a stratum aboro 

^en the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lowe 



nd, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for forty- 

IT5. Then allow the percolation to proceed, gradually adding 

un of the same strength, until the percolate measures three 

mils, or until the belladonna leaves are exhausted. Recover 

ol from the percolate by distillation and evaporate the residue 

uent stirring, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C, to a pilular 

oe. Mix the mass thoroughly and weigh it. 

a portion of this extract, as directed below, and, from the alka- 

fitent thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 

ds in the remainder of the mass, and to this add enough glucose 

the finished Extract contain 1.25 per cent, of the alkaloids 

Dnna leaves. Mix thoroughly. 

ay — Dissolve 2 Gm. of Pilular Extract of Belladonna Leaven in 10 mils 
ited alcohol, transfer the solution to a separator and wash the vessel in 
t he e xt rac t w ai I m i t h 2 mils of ammonia w at e r n revj « n j d y di ! u t ed 

10 mils of distilled water, in divided portion*, adding the rinaiagp to the 
ilor, then proceed as directed under Fluid* xtracturn BtUadonnm Rati 
ITS, second line of the .Way, beginning with the word "Completely," 
ying the process there given by treating the residue twice with 5 mils 
ler and evaporating to dryness each time before titration, 
h mil of tenth- normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 28,92 
rammes of the alkaloids of belladonna leaves. 

Powdered Extract of Belladonna Leaves 

donna Leaves in No* 40 powder, one thousand 

imes , 1000 Gm. 

esium Oxide, twenty grammes - 20 Gm, 

ft, dried at 100° C. f 

ol, each, a sufficient quantity. 

>n the drug with sufficient alcohol and pack it in a cylindrical 
ir; then add enough alcohol to saturate the powder and leave 
i above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, 
j lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, 

for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed 
. iy, adding alcohol as required. Reserve the first one thousand 
ercolate and continue the percolation until the second percolate 

one thousand mils or until the drug is exhausted* Transfer 
id percolate to a suitable apparatus and distil off the alcohol 

a temperature as practicable, until a residue measuring about 
red mils remains, then add the reserved percolate and continue 
ixi until the residue in the still is of syrupy consistence. 
er this syrupy residue to a shallow evaporating dish, rinse the 



m 



to the residue in the dish* Evaporate this extract to a pilular consirf 
ence, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. f then add fifty gramme 
of the dried starch and continue the heating, with frequent stirring 
until the mass is nearly dry. Now add the magnesium oxide, thoroughly 
incorporate it and set the product aside in a current of warm air, uati 
thoroughly dry. Reduce the product to a fine powder and weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the alka 
loidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount o 
alkaloids in the remainder of the powder and add to this enough of th< 
dried starch to make the finished Extract contain 1.25 per cent, o 
the alkaloids of belladonna leaves. Mix the powders thoroughly, paa 
the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthe< 
bottles and stppper them tightly. 

Assay — Introduce 3 Gm. of Powdered Extract of Belladonna Leaves into i 
250 mil flask, add 10 Gm. of washed Band and mix thoroughly. Then add I& 
mils of a mixture of chloroform, 1 volume, and ether, 2 volumes, followed b: 
5 mils of ammonia water. Shake the mixture vigorously every ten minute 
during a half hour and when the dregs have settled decant 100 mils of the deft 
liquid, representing two grammes of the Extract; now proceed as directed unde 
Belladonna Radix, pafce 73 1 seventh line of the Assay, modifying theproces 
there given by treating the residue twice with ether, and evaporating V 
dryness each time before titration. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 28*4* 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of belladonna leaves. 

Preparation— Unguen turn Belladonna (from PUular Extract). 

Avebage dose — Metric, 0,015 fern. — Apothecaries, l i grain. 






EXTRACTUM CANNABIS 

Extract of Cannabis 

Ext Cannab, Extractum Cannabis Indies U.5.F. Mil 

Extract of Cannabis, when assayed biologically, produces incoordirU 
tion when administered to dogs in a dose of not more than O.QOi Gtx 
of Extract per kilogramme of body weight. 

Cannabis, in No, 20 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gi* 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the powder with sufficient alcohol, pack it firmly in a cylifl' 
drical percolator and add enough alcohol to saturate the powder and 
leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the 
percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the 
percolator, macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percola- 
tion to proceed, gradually adding alcohol, until the drug is exhausted. 
Recover the alcohol from the percolate by distillation and evaporate th 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



147 



sidue with frequent stirring, at a temperature not exceeding 70* C, to 
ipilular consistence Mix the mass thoroughly and weigh it. 
iway a portion of this extract, and from the result thus obtained 
djust the weight of the finished Extract, by the addition of glucose, to 
iform to the required biological standard* 

Assay— Proceed as directed under Biological Assays (Part II). 
Average dose — Metric, 0.01 Gm.— Apothecaries, % grain. 

EXTRACTUM CASCAR.E SAGRADA; 

Extract of Cascara Sagrada 

Ext, Case Safcr.— Eztractum Rhamni Purshiaaic, U,S,P. VIII. 

Powdered Extract of Cascara Sagrada 

One gramme of the Extract represents three grammes of cascara sagrada. 
Cascara Sagrada, in No. 20 powder, nine hundred grammes 900 Gm. 

rsi Oxide, twenty-five grammes . 25 Grn. 

i, dried at 100° C, 
lino Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make three hundred grammes 300 Gm. 

Mix the cascara sagrada with four thousand mils of tailing water 
ad macerate the mixture during three hours. Then transfer it to a 
Jlic percolator, allow it to drain and pour on toiling water until 
percolate measures five thousand mils or the drug is exhausted. 
Evaporate the percolate to dryness on a water bath or steam bath, reduce 
^extract to a fine powder, weigh it, add the magnesium oxide and enough 
tf the dried starch to make the product weigh three hundred grammes. 
Mix the powders thoroughly, pass the Extract through a fine sieve, trans- 
fer it to small, wide-mouthed bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm,— Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



EXTRACTUM CXMICIFUG.E 

Extract of Cimicifuga 

Ext. Cliniclf. — Powdered Extract of Cimicifuga 

One gramme of the Extract represents four grarnmes of cimicifuga. 
CwiciFUGA, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes. . . .„ 1000 Gm. 
Alcohol, 

Stabch, dried at 100° C, each r a sufficient quantity, 

To make two hundred and fifty grammes 250 Gm. 



148 THE PHABMACOPdlA OF THE 

Moisten the drug with sufficient alcohol, pack it in a cylindric 
percolator, and add enough alcohol to saturate the powder and leave 
stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolate 
close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolate 
macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to procee 
slowly, adding alcohol as required until the drug is exhausted. Recove 
the alcohol from the percolate by distillation and evaporate th 
residue to dryness, with frequent stirring, at a temperature not exceed 
ing 70° C. Weigh the residue and add sufficient of the dried starch t 
make the product weigh two hundred and fifty grammes. Reduce th 
mixture to a fine powder, mix thoroughly, pass the Extract through i 
fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthed bottles and stopper thee 
tightly. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



EXTRACTUM COLCHICI CORMI 

Extract of Colchicum Conn 

Ext. Colch. Conn.— Powdered Extract of Colchicum Corn? 

Extract of Colchicum Conn yields not less than 1.25 per cent, v 
more than 1.55 per cent, of colchicine. One gramme of the Extre 
represents about four grammes of colchicum conn. 

Colchicum Corm, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 G 

Alcohol, 

Purified Petroleum Benzin, 

Starch, dried at 100° C, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the drug with sufficient alcohol, pack it in a cylindri 
percolator and add enough alcohol to saturate the powder and leav* 
stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolat 
close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolat 
macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proc* 
slowly, adding alcohol as required, until the percolate measures, f 
thousand mils or until the drug is exhausted. Recover the alcol 
from the percolate by distillation at as low a temperature as pro 
ticable until a residue measuring about one hundred and fifty m 
remains in the still. Transfer this residue to a flask, using a lift 
warm alcohol to rinse the still, and add the rinsings to the flask. Wb 
it has cooled, add two hundred and fifty mils of purified petrofeu 



and shake the mixture thoroughly for several minutes. Allow 
the liquids to separate and decant the benzin layer as closely as possi- 
He; again add to the residue one hundred and fifty mils of purified 
letroleum benzin, agitate and decant the benzin layer as before, repeat 
te washing with one hundred mils of purified petroleum benzin and 
>ject the benzin washings. 

Transfer the residue to a shallow evaporating dish, rinse the flask 
ith a little warm alcohol, adding the rinsings to the residue in the 
ish t and evaporate it on a water bath to a thick extract. To this 
H fifty grammes of the dried starch, mix well, spread the mixture on 
Iak plates and continue the drying in an air bath at a temperature not 
weeding 70° C. until thoroughly dry. Reduce the product to a fine 
wttler and weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the 
llk&loidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
of alkaloid in the remainder of the powder and add to this enough of 
the dried starch to make the finished Extract contain 1.4 per cent, of 
kUA :inc. Mix the powders thoroughly, pass the Extract through a 
Sae sieve, transfer it to small wide-mouthed bottles and stopper them 
fetly. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Colchiri Senten, page 120, modifying 
Ike process there given by using 6 Gm. of the Extract of Colfimonni Am 
instead of 15 Gm. of colehicum seed. The final weight will be the amount of 
colchicine from two grammts of Extract of Colchicum Corm. 



Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm.— Apothecaries, 1 grain. 



Atob 

EXTRACTUM COLOCYNTHIDIS 

Extract of Colocynth 

Ext. Colocynth,— Powdered Extract uf Colocynth 

ft* gramme of the Extract represents four grammes of colocynth. 

Colocynth, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 
luted Alcohol, 

Rch, dried at 100° C. f each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make two hundred and fifty grammes 250 Gm* 

the drug with two thousand mils of diluted alcohol and 
ate it in a closed vessel for twenty-four hours, then transfer the 






150 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

moist drug to a cylindrical percolator, shake it down evenly withot 
packing, and gradually pour diluted alcohol upon it, allowing the pa 
eolation to proceed slowly, until the percolate measures five Ihoutm 
mils. Recover the alcohol from the percolate by distillation and evajx 
rate the residue to dryness on a water bath or steam bath. Redne 
the extract to a fine powder, weigh it, and add sufficient of the drie 
starch to make the product weigh two hundred and fifty grammes. IS 
the powders thoroughly, pass the Extract through a fine sieve, tranrt 
it to small, wide-mouthed bottles and stopper them tightly. 
Preparation— Extractum Colocynthidis Comporitum. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.03 Gm.— Apothecaries, >£ grain. 



EXTRACTUM COLOCYNTHIDIS COMPOSITUM 

Compound Extract of Colocynth 

Ext. Colocynth. Co.— Powdered Compound Extract of Colocynth 

Extract of Colocynth, one hundred and sixty grammes. 160 Gi 

Aloes, five hundred grammes 600 Gi 

Cardamom Seed, in No. 60 powder, fifty grammes 60 Gi 

Resin of Scammony, in No. 60 powder, one hundred and 

forty grammes 140 Gi 

Soap, dried and in powder, one hundred and fifty grammes. . 150 Gi 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gi 

Triturate the ingredients until the product is reduced to a No. ■ 
powder. Pass the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to sma 
wide-mouthed bottles and stopper them tightly. 
Preparation — Pilulae Cathartics Composite. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 

EXTRACTUM ERGOTS 

Extract of Ergot 
Ext Ergot. 

Ergot, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Go 

Hydrochloric Acid, ten milliliters 10 oi 

Purified Petroleum Benzin, 

Alcohol, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 



Fade the ergot in a percolator and slowly percolate it with purified 
petroleum benziii until a few drops of the percolate, evaporated on 
filter paper, leave no greasy stain. Reject the benzia percolate, remove 
the ergot from the percolator and dry it by exposure to the air* Mix 
light hundred and Jifty mils of alcohol with one hundred and fifty mils 
of water, add the hydrochloric acid to four hundred mils of this mixture, 
and moisten the ergot with the acid mixture- Pack it in a cylindrical 
percolator and macerate for six hours, then add enough of the men- 
struum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it When 
the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, 
tod, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for forty^eight 
tours. Then allow the percolation to proceed, gradually adding men- 
rtraum, using the same proportion of alcohol and water as before^until 
the drug is exhausted* Recover the alcohol from the percolate by distil- 
Won and evaporate the residue with frequent stirring, at a temperature 
HA exceeding 70° C, to a pilular consistence. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm*— Apothecaries, 4 grains* 



EXTRACTUM FELLIS BOVXS 

Extract of Oxgall 

Ext Fel. Bov.— Powdered Extract of Oigall 

Ow gramme of the Extract represents eight grammes of oxgall. 

Oxgall, eight hundred grammes. 800 Gm f 

Alcohol, fifteen hundred milliliters - . . . 1500 mils 

Staich, dried at 100° C, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm, 

Add one thousand mils of alcohol slowly and with agitation to the 

°*$dl contained in a bottle of sufficient size. Allow the mixture to 

rtaad for two days and then decant the liquid portion. Wash the 

ftsidue in the bottle with an additional five hundred mih of alcohol, 

decant the liquid portion, mix it with the liquid first separated and filter 

the mixture. Recover the alcohol from the filtrate by distillation, 

transfer the residue to a shallow dish and evaporate it to a thick extract 

at a temperature between 75* and 80° C. Spread this extract on glass 

plates and continue the drying by exposure to warm air, at a tempera- 

not exceeding 70° C, until thoroughly dry. Reduce the extract 







152 THE PHARMACOPCEA OF TBDB 

to a fine powder, weigh it and add sufficient of the dried starch to mal 
the product weigh one hundred grammes. Mix the powders thorough!; 
pass the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthc 
bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.1 Gm. — Apothecaries 1J£ grains. 



EXTRACTUM GELSEMH 

Extract of Gelsemium 

Ext. Gelsem.— Powdered Extract of Gelsemium 
One gramme of the Extract represents four grammes of gelsemium. 

Gelsemium, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gi 

Alcohol, 
Magnesium Oxide, 

Starch, dried at 100° C., each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make two hundred and fifty grammes 250 G: 

Moisten the drug with sufficient alcohol, pack it in a cylindri* 
percolator and add enough alcohol to saturate the powder and leave 
stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolate 
close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolate 
macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proce 
slowly, adding alcohol as required, until the drug is exhauste 
Recover the alcohol from the percolate, by distillation at as low 
temperature as practicable, until a residue measuring about fa 
hundred mils remains in the still. Transfer this residue to a shalloi 
dish, and evaporate it to a soft extract with frequent stirring, at i 
temperature not exceeding 70° C. Then add fifty grammes of a mix 
ture of one part of magnesium oxide and three parts of the dried starch 
mix well, spread the mass in a thin layer on glass or tinned-meta 
plates or in a porcelain dish and continue the drying in an air bath, a 
a temperature not exceeding 70° C, until thoroughly dry. Reduce th 
extract to a fine powder, weigh it, and add sufficient of the mixture < 
magnesium oxide and dried starch, made in the same proportion J 
before, to make the finished product weigh two hundred and fifty gramm 
Mix the powders thoroughly, pass the Extract through a fine &es 
transfer it to small, wide-mouthed bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.01 Gm.— Apothecaries, % grain. 



EXTRACTUM GENTIANS 

Extract of Gentian 

Ext Gentian. 

Gotian, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Wateb, a sufficient quantity* 

Moisten the powder with sufficient water, and allow it to macerate 
f twenty-four hours; then pack it in a conical percolator, and gradually 

water upon it untU the drug is exhausted. Reduce the liquid 
i two thousand mils by boiling, strain it, and then evaporate it to a 

■ consistence on a water bath. 
Average dose — Metric, 0,25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 

EXTRACTUM GLYCYRRHIZ^J 

Extract of Glycyrrhlza 

Eat aiycyrrh — Ei tract of Licorice 
The commercial Extract of Glycyrrhiza- 

In flattened, cylindrical rolls or in masses, of & glossy black color externally; 
Picture brittle, sharp, smooth, conchoidal; taste characteristic and sweet. 
When pulverized it yields a brown powder. Not less than 60 per cent, of 
Extract of Gly^yrrhiza is soluble in cold water. The yield of ash does not 
exceed 6 per cent. 

Preparations — Trochiaci Ammonil Chloridi Trochlaei Cubebas, 



EXTRACTUM GLYCYRRHIZ.E PURUM 

Pure Extract of Glycyrrliiza 
Ext. Olycyrrh. Pur, 

Cltctrrhuea, in No* 20 powder, one thousand grammes, , , 1000 Gm. 

Axmonia Water, one hundred and fifty milliliters 150 mils 

Water, 

Chloboform Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Ifix the ammonia water with three thousand mils of water, and, 

hiving moistened the powder with one thousand mils of the mixture, 

•Bow it to macerate in a closed vessel for twenty-four hours. Then 

pack it lightly in a cylindrical percolator, and gradually pour upon it, 

first the remainder of the menstruum, and then rhloroform water, 

until the glycyrrhiza is exhausted. Evaporate the liquid in a porcelain 

dish cm n water bath, to a pilular consistence, 

Preparation — Mistura Glyeyrrhizaj Compusitu. 




EXTRACTUM HYDRASTIS 

Extract of Hydrastis 

Ext* Hydrast,— Extract of Golden Seal Powdered Extract of Hydrastis 

Extract of Hydrastis yields not less than 9 per cent, nor more than 
II per cent, of the ether-soluble alkaloids of hydrastis. One gratnm* 
of the Extract represents about four grammes of hydrastis. 

Hydeastis, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Tartaric Acid, five grammes 5 Gnu 

Alcohol, 

Magneshim Oxide, 

Starch, dried at 100° C, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the tartaric acid in one thousand mils of alcohol, moisten 
the drug with sufficient of this solution and pack in a cylindrical perco- 
lator; then add enough of the acidified alcohol, followed by alcohol 
if necessary, to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. When 
the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and. 
having closely covered the percolator, macerate for forty-eight hours, 
Then allow the percolation to proceed slowly, adding alcohol as required, 
until the drug is exhausted. Recover the alcohol from the percolate 
by distillation* and evaporate the residue to a soft extract, with frequent 
stirring, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. Add fifty grammes of ft 
mixture of one pari of magnesium oxide and three parts of the dried 
starch, mix thoroughly and spread the mass in a thin layer on glass or 
tinned-metal plates or in a porcelain dish and continue the drying m 
an air bath at a temperature not exceeding 70° C., until thoroughly 
dry. Then reduce the extract to a fine powder and weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the 
alkaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
of alkaloids in the remainder of the powder and add to this enough of 
the mixture of magnesium oxide and dried starch, made in the same 
proportion as before, to make the finished Extract contain 10 per cent. 
of the ether-soluble alkaloids of hydrastis. Mix the powders thoroughly, 
pass the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthed 
bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Assay — Introduce 3 Gm. of Extract of Hydrastis into a 250 mil flask, add 10 
Gm. of washed sand and mix thoroughly. Then add 150 mils of ether and 5 mite 
of ammonia water. Shake the mixture vigorously every ten minutes during ft 
half hour, and when the dregs have settled decant 100 mils of the clear liquid, 
representing two gramme* of the Extract. Proceed as directed under Belladonna 
Radix, page 73, seventh line of the Assay, modifying the process there given 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



155 



by usmg ether instead of chloroform for the final shaking out of the alkaloids, 
ud drying the residue to constant weight at 100° C. f instead of titrating it, 
Tbf weight will be the amount of ether-soluble alkaloids from Itco grammes of 
Extract of Hydrastis. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm*— Apothecaries, 8 grains, 



EXTRACTUM hyoscyami 

Extract of Hyoscyamus 

Ext, My osc. 

i of Hyoscyamus yields not less than 0.22 per cent, nor more 
1 0.28 per cent, of the alkaloids of hyoscyamus. One gramme of 
J Extract represents about four grammes of hyoscyamus, 

Jtoscyamus, in No, 40 powder, one thousand grammes. . . 1000 Gm, 

OSE, 

Alcohol, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 

loisten the powder with sufficient of a mixture of three volumes 
1 alcohol and one volume of water, pack it firmly in a cylindrical 
ator and add enough menstruum, using the same proportion of 
ol and water as before, to saturate the powder and leave a stratum 
I it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the 
orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for 
forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed slowly, 
Gradually adding menstruum of the same strength until the drug is 
exhausted. Recover the alcohol by distillation and evaporate the 
;e f with frequent stirring, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C., 
until it is reduced to a pilular consistence. Mix the mass thoroughly 
tod weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this extract as directed below, and, from the 
Jkaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
rf alkaloids in the remainder of the mass and to this add enough glucose 
to make the finished Extract contain 0.25 per cent, of the alkaloids of 
Ayoseyamus, Mix thoroughly. 

Assay — ^Proceed as directed under Extractum Belladonna Foliorum (Pilular); 
page 145, modifying the process there given by using 5 Gm. of Extract of 
Hyoscyamus instead of 2 Gin. of extract of belladonna leaves. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid Vi3. consumed corresponds to 28.92 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of hyoscyamus. 



Average D08E — Metric, 0.06 Gm, — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 




156 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

— - - ^ 

EXTRACTUM MALT! 

Extract of Malt 
Ext Malt 

Malt, in coarse powder (not finer than No. 12), one thou- 
sand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Pour one thousand mils of water upon the powder contained in ft 
suitable vessel and macerate for six hours, then add four thousand 
mils of water, heated to 60° C, and digest the mixture for one hoar 
on a water bath at a temperature not exceeding 60° C. Strain the 
mixture, express, filter the strained liquid, and, by means of a water bath 
or vacuum apparatus, evaporate the liquid, at a temperature not 
exceeding 60° C, until it has a specific gravity of not less than 1.350 
nor more than 1.400 at 25° C. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 drachms. 



EXTRACTUM NUCIS VOMICAE 

Extract of Nux Vomica 

Ext Nuc Vom.— Powdered Extract of Nux Vomica Nuds vomica extractum P. I 

Extract of Nux Vomica yields not less than 15.2 per cent, nor more 
than 16.8 per cent, of the alkaloids of nux vomica. 

Nux Vomica, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes. . . 1000 Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Water, 

Purified Petroleum Benzin, 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid, 

Ammonia Water, 

Chloroform, 

Magnesium Oxide, 

Starch, dried at 100° C, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the drug with sufficient of a mixture of three volumes of alcohol 
and one volume of water, pack it firmly in a cylindrical percolator, and 
add enough of the menstruum, using the same proportion of alcohol 
and water as before, to saturate the powder and leave & stratum above 
it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lower 
orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for forty- 



- 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



157 



*%ht tours, Then allow the percolation to proceed slowly, gradually 
^ding the menstruum as required, until the percolate passes but 
kitjy imbued with bitterness, and the drug is exhausted. Recover 
4e alcohol from the percolate by distillation at as low a tempera- 
te ad practicable and concentrate the liquid until the residue 
easures about two hundred mils. Transfer this residue to a flask or 
parator r using a little warm menstruum made of the same proportion 
id and water originally used, to rinse the still, and add the rinsing 
the separator. Then add one hundred and fifty mils of water and two 
ndred mil* of purified petroleum benzin and shake the mixture thor- 
ghly for several minutes. Allow the liquids to separate and decant 
* benzin layer as closely as possible; again add to the residue one 
ndred mils of purified petroleum benzin, agitate, and decant the 
ozin as before. 

Wash the mixed benzin solutions, in a separator, with a mixture of 
€ hundred mite of water and ten mils of diluted sulphuric acid, separate 
e aqueous layer and repeat the washing twice with fresh portions, 
it tmndrcd mils each, of water and acid made in the same proportion 
\ before. Collect the aqueous solutions in a separator, render the 
luid alkaline by the addition of ammonia water and shake it out 
tth three portions of chloroform, twenty mils f ten mils, and ten mils, 
spectively. Add the combined chloroform solutions to the extract 
ad evaporate the mixture to dryness on a water bath with frequent 
fcirriiig. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the 
dkaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
i alkaloids in the remainder of the product and add to this enough 
oC a mixture of magnesium oxide, one part, and of the dried starch, three 
prt*t to make the finished Extract contain 16 per cent, of the alka- 
Wds of nux vomica. Reduce the mixture to a fine powder, mix 
thoroughly, pass the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, 

*tiHnouthed bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Assay — Introduce 3 Gm. of Extr&d of Nux Vomica into a 250 mit flask, add 
10 Gm* of washed sand and mix thoroughly. Theu add 150 mils of a mixture 
of ether, 2 volumes, and chloroform, 1 volume, followed by 5 mils of ammonia 
water. Shake the mixture vigorously every ten minutes during half an hour, 
md when the dregs have settled decant 100 mils of the clear liquid, repre- 
ss) ting two grammes of the Extract. Proceed as directed under Betladonnte 
Radix, page 73, seventh line of the Assay, modifying the process there given by 
dissolving the alkaloid al residue in 10 mile of tenth -normal sulphuric acid V.S. 
1 of 5 mils. 



Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 36,4 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of nux vomica. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.015 Gm. — Apothecaries, >£ gram. 



158 THE PHAKMACOPCEIA OF THB 

EXTRACTUM OPn 

Extract of Opium 

Ext. Opil— Powdered Extract of Opium Opii extractum P. I. 

Extract of Opium yields not less than 19.5 per cent, nor more than 
20.5 per cent, of anhydrous morphine. One gramme of the Extract 
represents about two grammes of opium. 

OnuM, cut in small pieces, one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

Starch, dried at 100° C, 
Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Macerate the opium with three hundred mils of hot water until softened, 
then rub to a smooth paste. Add to this one hundred grammes of clean, 
white sand and mix thoroughly. Transfer the mixture to a percolator 
and allow the percolation to proceed, gradually adding water until the 
opium is exhausted. Evaporate the percolate to dryness in a shallow 
evaporating dish, on a water bath, reduce the product to a fine powder 
mul weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the 
alkuloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
of anhydrous morphine in the remainder of the powder and add to 
(his enough of the dried starch to make the finished Extract contain 
20 i>or cent, of anhydrous morphine. Mix the powders thoroughly, pas 
(lie Mx tract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthed 
hottles and stopper them tightly. 

Assav— Dissolve 4 Gm. of Extract of Opium in 5 mils of distilled water.add 
gradually, with constant stirring, 25 mils of distilled water, filter, and wain 
the filter and residue with sufficient distilled water to make the solution measure 
exactly 50 mils. Then proceed as directed under Option, page 306, sixteenth 
line of the Assay. 

The morphine obtained represents two grammes of Extract of Opium. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.03 Gm.— Apothecaries, H grain. 



EXTRACTUM PHYSOSTIGMATIS 

Extract of Physostigma 

Ext. Physostig.— Powdered Extract of Physostigma 
Extract of Physostigma yields not less than 1.7 per cent, nor more 
than 2.3 per cent, of the alkaloids of physostigma. One gramme of the 
t represents about thirteen grammes of physostigma. 



PffYSOsrraiii, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes. , 1000 Gm, 

Tartaric Acid, five grammes, 6 Gm. 

JWied Petroleum Benzin, 
Stabcr, dried at 100° G f 

C0HOL, 

Jater, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the tartaric acid in one thousand mils of a mixture of tftree 
*kms of alcohol and on€ volume of water, moisten the drug with 
Efficient of this solution, and pack it in a cylindrical percolator; then 
add enough of the acidified alcohol to saturate the powder and leave 
i stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, 
close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, 
macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed 
ilowly, gradually adding the remainder of the prepared menstruum 
ud then a mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of 
water until the drug is exhausted. Recover the alcohol from the 
percolate by distillation at as low a temperature as practicable and 
concentrate the remaining liquid at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. 
until the residue measures about two hundred mils. Transfer the residue 
to a flask, using a little warm menstruum, made of the same propor- 
tion of alcohol and water as before, to rinse the still, and add the 
rinsing to the residue in the flask. Then add one hundred mils of water 
ud two hundred and fifty mils of purified petroleum benzin and shake 
the mixture thoroughly for several minutes. Allow the liquids to sepa- 
nte and decant the benzin layer as closely as possible; again add to 
lie residue two hundred mils of purified petroleum benzin, agitate, and, 
after allowing the liquids to separate, decant the benzin layer as before 
lod reject the benzin solutions. 

Transfer the residue to a shallow evaporating dish, rinse the separator 
with a little of the warm menstruum, add the rinsings to the residue in 
be dish and evaporate it to pilular consistence at a temperature not 
needing 70° C. Now add twenty grammes of the dried starch, thoroughly 
^corporate it, set the extract aside in a current of warm air until dry, 
hoi reduce the product to a fine powder and weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from the 
Ikalotdal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
f alkaloids in the remainder of the powder and add to this enough of 
be dried starch to make the finished Extract contain 2 per cent. 
ids of physostigma. Mix the powders thoroughly, pass the 




160 THX PHARMACOPCHA OF TBM 

Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthed bot 
and stopper them tightly. 

Assay— Introduce 3 Gm. of Extract of Physostigma into a 250 mil flask, 
10 Gm. of washed sand and mix thoroughly. Then add 150 mils of ether 
proceed as directed under Physostigma, page 320, second line of the Assay. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to % 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of physostigma. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.008 Gm. — Apothecaries, % grain 



EXTRACTUM RHEI 

Extract of Rhubarb 

Ext. Rhel— Powdered Extract of Rhubarb 
One gramme of the Extract represents two grammes of rhubarb. 

Rhubarb, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gi 

Magnesium Oxide, fifty grammes 50 Gi 

Starch, dried at 100° C., 

Alcohol, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To moke, five hundred grammes 500 Q 

Moisten the drug with sufficient of a mixture of four volumes of alcol 
and one volume of water, pack it in a cylindrical percolator and a 
enough of this menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a strata] 
above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator ck 
the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macen 
for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed slow! 
gradually adding menstruum of the same proportion of alcohol v 
water as before until the drug is exhausted. Recover the alcohol fro 
the percolate by distillation at as low a temperature as practical 
and continue distillation until a residue of syrupy consistence remai 
in the still. Transfer this to a shallow dish, rinse the still with a liti 
warm menstruum, add the rinsings to the residue in the dish, and eva 
orate the mixture to dryness, with frequent stirring, at a temperate 
not exceeding 70° C. Weigh the dry extract and add the TnagtwaB 
oxide and sufficient of the dried starch to make the product weigh J 
hundred grammes. Reduce the mixture to a fine powder, mix thorough 
pass the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-moutl 
bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



161 



IEXTRACTUM STRAMONII 
Extract of Stramonium 
Ext Stramon. 
Extract of Stramonium yields not less than 0.9 per cent, nor more 
ban 1.1 per cent, of the alkaloids of stramonium. One gramme of 
he Extract represents about four grammes of stramonium, 
Pilular Extract of Stramonium 
Stramonium, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes. , . . 1000 Gm. 
Glucose, 
Alcohol, 
Rater, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the powder with sufficient of a mixture of three volumes of 
tlcohol and one volume of water and pack it in a cylindrical percolator; 
tkfin add enough of this menstruum to saturate the powder and leave 
* stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, 
dae the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, 
Hcerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed 
padually adding menstruum of the same strength, until the drug is 
txhausted. Recover the alcohol from the percolate by distillation, 
and evaporate the residue with frequent stirring, at a temperature 
Hot exceeding 70° C, to a pilular consistence. Mix the mass thoroughly 
ad weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this extract as directed below, and, from the 
illcaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amount 
of alkaloids in the remainder of the mass and to this add enough glucose 
to make the finished Extract contain 1 per cent, of the alkaloids of 
tamonjum. Mix thoroughly. 

Assay — Proceed aa directed under Eztractum Bdladmnm FoUorum (Pilular), 



{age 145, using 2 Gm. of Pilular Extract of t?trainoriium. 
Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid VJ" 
i of the alkaloids of stramonium. 



I mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 2892 
nulligrainiue 



Powdered Extract of Stramonium 
Stramonium, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes , . . 1000 Gm, 

Magnesium Oxide, twenty grammes 20 Gm. 

Starch, dried at 100° C., 
Alcohol, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the drug with sufficient alcohol and pack it in a cylindrical 
percolator; then add enough alcohol to saturate the powder and leave 

10 





162 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 

a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolate 
close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, maca 
ate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed to 
slowly, adding alcohol as required. Reserve the first one thoum 
mils of percolate and continue the percolation until the second pe 
colate measures one thousand mils or until the drug is exhauste 
Transfer the second percolate to a suitable apparatus and distil c 
the alcohol, at as low a temperature as practicable, until a reach 
measuring about one hundred mils remains, then add the reserw 
percolate and continue distillation until the residue in the still is < 
syrupy consistence. 

Transfer this residue to a shallow evaporating dish, rinse the Iks 
or still with a small quantity of warm alcohol, and add the rinsing < 
the contents of the dish. Evaporate this to a soft extract, with frequa 
stirring, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. Then add fifty gramnu 
of the dried starch and continue the heating at the same temperatun 
with frequent stirring, until the mass is nearly dry. Now add the mat 
nesium oxide, thoroughly incorporate it, and set the product aside in 
current of warm air, until thoroughly dry. Reduce the product to 
fine powder and weigh it. 

Assay a portion of this product as directed below, and, from th 
alkaloidal content thus determined, ascertain by calculation the amoui 
of alkaloids in the remainder of the powder and add to this enou| 
dried starch to make the finished Extract contain 1 per cent, of tl 
alkaloids of stramonium. Mix the powders thoroughly, pass tl 
Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small, wide-mouthed botil 
and stopper them tightly. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Extractum Belladonna Foliorum (Powden 
page 146, using 3 Gm. of Powdered Extract of Stramonium. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 2t 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of stramonium. 

Preparation — Unguentum Stramonii (from Pilular Extract). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.01 Gm. — Apothecaries, \£ grain, 

EXTRACTUM SUMBUL 

Extract of Sumbul 

Ext. Sumbul 

Sumbul, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 i 

Alcohol, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



163 



Moisten the powder with sufficient of a mixture of four volumes of 
i/coiol and one volume of water and pack it in a cylindrical percolator; 
then add enough of this menstruum to saturate the powder and leave 
i stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, 
dose the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, 
macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed 
slowly, gradually adding menstruum of the same strength until the 
drug is exhausted. Recover the alcohol from the percolate by distillation 
and evaporate the residue with frequent stirring, at a temperature not 
Breeding 70° C, to a pilular consistence. 

Average dose — Metric, 0,25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



EXTRACTUM TARAXACI 

Extract of Taraxacum 

Ext. Tarax. 

Tahaxacum, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes . . . * 1000 Gm. 

Alcohol, 

WiTER, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix one hundred and twenty-five mils of alcohol with eight hundred 

9d mtnty-five mils of water, and, having moistened the powder 

titb a portion of the mixture, pack it in a cylindrical percolator, then 

•dd enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratum 

itwve it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the 

iowfr orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for 

twenty-four hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed, gradually 

adding menstruum of the same strength until the drug is exhausted. 

Recover the alcohol from the percolate by distillation and evaporate the 

residue with frequent stirring, on a water bath, to a pilular consistence. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



EXTRACTUM VIBURNI PRUNIFOLII 

Extract of Viburnum Prunifolium 

Ext. Viburo. Prun.— Powdered Extract of Viburnum Prunifolium 
One gramme of the Extract represents five grammes of viburnum pruni- 
folium. 



164 THE PHAHMACOPCBIA OF THB 

Viburnum Prunifolium, in No. 30 powder, one thousand 

grammes 1000 Crm* 

Magnesium Oxide, five grammes 5 Gin- 

Starch, dried at 100° C, 

Diluted Alcohol, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make two hundred grammes 200 Gnu 

Moisten the powder with sufficient diluted alcohol and pack it in a 
cylindrical percolator; then add enough diluted alcohol to saturate the 
powder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop 
from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered 
the percolator, macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percola- 
tion to proceed slowly, adding diluted alcohol as required until the 
viburnum prunifolium is exhausted. Recover the alcohol from the 
percolate by distillation at as low a temperature as practicable and 
evaporate the residue to a soft extract in a shallow dish on a water 
bath, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. Add the magnesium 
oxide, incorporate it thoroughly, spread the extract on glass plates and 
dry it by exposure to currents of warm air. Reduce the extract to a 
fine powder, weigh it, and add sufficient of the dried starch to make the 
finished product weigh two hundred grammes. Mix the powder thor- 
oughly, pass the Extract through a fine sieve, transfer it to small! wide- 
mouthed bottles and stopper them tightly. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



FEL BOVIS 

Oxgall 

The fresh bile of the ox, Bos taurus Linn6 (Fam. Bovidct). 

A brownish-green or dark green, somewhat viscid liquid, having a character- 
istic odor, and a disagreeable, bitter taste. 

When Oxgall is shaken with water a frothy mixture is produced. 

Specific gravity: 1.015 to 1.025 at 25° C. 

It is neutral or faintly alkaline to litmus. 

A mixture of 2 drops of Oxgall and 10 mils of water, when treated, first with 
a drop of a freshly prepared solution of 1 part of sugar in 4 parts of water, and 
afterwards with sulphuric acid, cautiously added, until the precipitate first 
formed is redissolved, gradually acquires a brownish-red color, ^"*gj^ sue* 
cessively to carmine, purple, and violet. 

Preparation — Extractum Fellis Bovis. 



TOUTED STATES OF AMERICA 



165 



FERRI CARBONAS SACCHARATUS 

Saccharated Ferrous Carbonate 

Fcrr. Carb. Sacch. 

fharated Ferrons Carbonate* contains not less than 15 per cent, of 
(115.S4). Preserve it in small, well-stoppered bottles, exposed 

1 

ious Sulphate, fifty grammes, 50 Gm. 

Bicarbonate, thirty-five grammes 35 Gm t 

of Milk, ten grammes 10 Gm. 

in fine powder, 
SuLPmnue Acid, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity , 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

ve the ferrous sulphate in two hundred mils of hot distilled 
a few drops of diluted sulphuric acid and filter. Dissolve 

mm bicarbonate in five hundred mils of distilled water at a 

>ture not exceeding 50° C, and filter. To the solution of sodium 
te> contained in a flask having a capacity of about one thousand 
ually add the solution of ferrous sulphate, and mix thoroughly 

ing the flask. Fill the flask with boiling distilled water, cork 
fly, and set the mixture aside. When the precipitate has sub- 
Iraw off the clear supernatant liquid by means of a siphon; fill 
ik again with hot distilled water and shake it. Again draw off 
w liquid, and repeat the washing with hot distilled water, in the 
mnner, until the decanted liquid gives merely a slight cloudiness 
arium chloride T.S. Drain the precipitate, and transfer it to 
jlain dish containing seventy grammes of sugar and ten grammes 
i of milk and mix intimately. Evaporate the mixture to dryness 
ater bath, reduce it to powder, wxigh, and mix intimately with 
ecessary, enough well-dried sugar to make the product weigh 
idred grammes. To minimize oxidation make this preparation in 
rtest possible time, 

aecharated Ferrous Carbonate ia a greenish-brown powder, gradually be- 
ung oxidized by contact with air; odorless, and haying at first a sweetish, 
•nrards slightly ferruginous, taste. 

accharated Ferrous Carbonate ia only partially soluble in water, but is 
pletely dissolved on the addition of hydrochloric acid, with copious evolu- 
of carbon dioxide, forming a clear, greenish-yellow liquid. 
fasolve 1 Gm, of Saccharated Ferrous Carbonate in 5 mils of hydrochloric 
t and dilute the. solution with distilled water until it measures 100 mik. 




• 



166 THE PHABlfACOPCEIA OF THS 



Portions of this solution yield a blue precipitate with either potae 
cyanide T.S. or potassium ferricyanide T.S.{ another 10 mfl poi 
solution shows not more than a slight turbidity with barium cl 
{sulphate). 

Assay — Dissolve about 2 Gm. of Saccharated Ferrous Carbonate 
weighed, in 15 mils of diluted sulphuric acid, and dilute the solution ? 
water to about 100 mils. Titrate immediately with tenth-nonna 
dichromate V.S., potassium ferricyanide T.S. being used as indicato 
not less than 15 per cent, of FeCOs. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium dichromate VJ3. used coi 
0.011584 Gm. of FeCOs. Each gramme of Saccharated Ferroui 
corresponds to not less than 13 mils of tenth-normal potassium dich 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 \ 



FERRI CHLORIDUM 
Ferric Chloride 

Ferr. Chlor. — Iron Perchloride Sesquichloride of Iron 

It contains FeCl 3 (162.22) in a hydrated form correspond: 
less than 20 per cent, of Fe. Preserve it in well-closed glass < 

Ferric Chloride occurs in orange-yellow, crystalline pieces, odor 
a faint odor of hydrochloric acid, and having a strongly styptic 1 
very deliquescent in air. 

One Gm. of Ferric Chloride dissolves in 0.2 mil of water at 21 
soluble in alcohol and soluble in glycerin or ether. 

At about 35.5° C. the salt fuses to a reddish-brown liquid. Wh 
heated, it decomposes, losing some ferric chloride, water and hydro 
and leaving a residue of ferric oxide. 

An aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride, made by dissolving 10 Go 
in 15 mils of distilled water, responds to the tests for identity and f 
Liquor Ferri Chloridi, omitting the test for hydrochloric acid. 

Assay — Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Ferric Chloride, accurately * 
stoppered weighing-bottle, in 25 mils of distilled water, add 3 mi 
chloric acid and 4 Gm. of potassium iodide, and allow the mixti 
in a glass-stoppered flask or bottle for thirty minutes at a temperati 
Cool this solution, then dilute it with 100 mils of distilled water 
with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S., using starch T.S. i 
It shows not less than 20 per cent, of Fe. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used cor 
0.005584 Gm. of Fe. Each gramme of Ferric Chloride correspond 
than 35.8 mils of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 j 



FERRI ET AMMONn CITRAS 

Iron and Ammonium Citrate 

Ferr. et Amnion. CIt.— Soluble Ferric Citrate Ammonio-ferric C 

Ferric citrate rendered more readily soluble by the presence 
nium citrate and containing not less than 16 per cent, nor i 



B per cent, of Fe, Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected 



Iron and Ammonium Citrate occurs as thin, transparent, garnet-red scales, 
odorless and having a saline, mildly ferruginous taste. It is deliquescent in 
swift air. 

Iron and Ammonium Citrate is readily and completely soluble in water; 
insoluble in alcohol 

An aqueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral or but slightly acid or alkaline to 
litmus. 

When strongly heated, it chars, and finally leaves a residue of ferric oxide. 

Heat Iron and Ammonium Citrate with potassium hydroxide T.S.; it yields 
I brownish-red precipitate, and ammonia is evolved. 

Ammonia water, added to an aqueous solution, produces no precipitate, but 
darkens the solution. 

Remove the iron from 10 mils of an aqueous solution of Iron and Ammonium 
Gtrate (1 in 10) by boiling it with an excess of potassium hydroxide T.S., filter. 
*nd then slightly acidulate the filtrate with acetic acid. A portion of the coolea 
filtrate, when mixed with 2 mils of calcium chloride T.S., and again heated to 
boiling, gradually deposits a white flrystallxM precipitate. Another portion of 
tbe filtrate, when acidulated more strongly with acetic acid and allowed to stand 
for twenty-four hours, does not yield a white crystalline precipitate (tartrate). 

An aqueous solution of Iron and Ammonium titrate (1 in 100) does not yield 
• blue precipitate with potassium ferroeyanide T.8. unless it is acidulated with 
hyilrochJoric acid (difference from ferric dfrcU 

Assay— Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Iron and Ammonium Citrate, accurately 
weighed, in 25 mils of distilled water and 7 mils of hydrochloric acid, in a glase- 
rtoppered flask or bottle, add 4 Gni. of potassium iodide, stopper the bottle 
ncurely and keep it at a temperature of 40° C. for thirty minutes. Then cool, 
ind titrate with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.8., using starch T.S, as 
indicator . It shows not less than 16 per cent . nor more than 18 per cent of Fe. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used corresponds to 
0iK)5584 Gm. of Fe. Each gramme of Iron and Ammonium Citrate corre- 
to not less than 28.6 mils nor more than 32.2 mils of tenth-normal 



•odium thiosulphate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm, — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



FERRI ET QUININE CITRAS 

Iron and Quinine Citrate 

Ferr.et QuJn. Ctt,— Fern et Quinine Citras Solubilis, U.S.P. VIII 

Soluble Iron and Quinine Citrate 



Iron citrate and quinine citrate rendered more soluble by the pres- 

ec of ammonium citrate and containing not less than 11.5 per cent. 

anhydrous quinine (CaoHaiOaNa) and not less than 13 per cent, of 

. Preserve it in amber-colored, well-stoppered bottles, protected from 

ht. 

Iron and Quinine Citrate occurs as thin t transparent scales, of a greenish or 
golden- veilow color, odorless, and having a bitter, mildly ferruginous taste. 
It ll deliquescent. 







Iron and Quinine Citrate is rapidly and completely soluble in cold fit* 
partly soluble in alcohol. 

An aqueous dotation (1 in 10) is acid to litmus. 

When strongly heated, Iron and Quinine Citrate chars, and finally leara 
residue of ferric oxide. 

When heated with potassium hydroxide T.S., a brown precipitate is produce 
and ammonia is evolved. 

On the addition of a slight excess of ammonia water to an aqueous sohjtio 
of Iron and Quinine Citrate (1 in 10), the color of the liquid is deepened, an 
a white, curdy precipitate is produced. 

A portion of the filtrate from this precipitate does not yield a blue color < 
precipitate with potassium ferrocyanide T.S, unless it is acidulated with bydri 
chloric acid. 

Boil an aqueous solution of Iron and Quinine Citrate (1 in 10) with an exce 
of potassium hydroxide T.S. until completely precipitated, and slightly actdulsi 
the filtrate with acetic acid. A portion of the cooled filtrate, mixed with 2 m 
of calcium chloride T.S. and again heated to boiling, gradually deposits a whit 
crystalline precipitate. Another portion of the nitrate, more strongly ai 
with acetic acid and allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, does not yield 
white, crystalline precipitate (tartrate). 

Assay for Quinine* — Dissolve aljout 1 Gm, of Iron and Quinine Citrate, aect 
irately weighed, in 20 mils of distilled water in a separator, add 5 mils of an 
mourn water and 10 mils of chloroform, and shake the separator for one minut 
Allow the liquids to separate, draw off the chloroform layer through a am 
filter moistened with chloroform, into a tared dish, and shake the reaidtiw 
liquid a second and a third time with portions of 10 mils each of ehloroforn 
passing the chloroform through the filter each time and finally washing the filt< 
with 5 mils of chloroform. Evaporate the combined chloroform hMm 
redissolve the residue in 3 mils of alcohol, again evaporate and then dry U: 
residue to constant weight at 100° C. ThLn resit I ue corresponds to not la 
than 11.5 per cent, of the amount of Iron and Quinine Citrate taken for ti 
assay and conforms to the identity tests under Quinina. 

Assay for Iron — Heat the aqueous liquid, from which the quinine has bee 
removed in the manner just described, on a water bath, until the odors of chlon 
form and of ammonia have disappeared, allow to cool and dilute with dirtilk 
water to a volume of 25 mils. Transfer the liquid to a glass- stoppered botti 
add 15 mils of hydrochloric acid and 3 Gm. of potassium iodide, and, after* 
run-ly dosing the bottle, allow the mixture to stand far thirty minutes t 
40° C. Then cool and titrate with sodium thiosulphate V.S., using starch TJ 
as indicator. It shows not less than 13 per cent, of Fc\ 

K:i<h mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S, used corresponds 1 
O.OQ55S4 Gm, of IV. Each gramme of Iron and Quinine Citrate correspoiw 
to not less than 23.3 mils of tenth-normal sodium tbiosulphatc 1 



Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 









FERRI HYDROXIDUM CUM MAGNESII OX 
Ferric Hydroxide with Magnesium Oxide 

Ferr. Hydrox, cum Mag. Oxld s — Arsenic Antidote Ferric Hydrate with ] 

Solution of Ferric Sulphate, forty milliliters 40 no 

Magnesium Oxide, {era grammes 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 



I IfeftN 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



169 



Mix the solution of ferric sulphate with one hundred and twenly-jii>e 
r of water, and keep the liquid in a large, well-stoppered bottle. Rub 
i magnesium oxide with cold water to a smooth and thin mixture, 
sfer this to a bottle capable of holding about one thousand mils, 
it with water to about three-fourths of its capacity , and keep it 
htly stoppered. When the preparation is wanted for use, shake the 
sium oxide mixture until of a thin, creamy consistence, slowly 
add to it the diluted solution of ferric sulphate, and shake them together 
until a uniformly smooth mixture results. 

Note — In this process the 10 Gm. of magnesium oxide may be 

by 300 mils of magnesia magma, diluting it with sufficient 

to make the required volume. 

Always keep the diluted solution of ferric sulphate and the magnesia 

on hand in separate bottles, ready for immediate use, so that 

the antidote may be quickly prepared, 

Average dose — Metric, 120 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidounces. 




FERKI FHOSPHAS 
Ferric Phosphate 

Ferr. Pfaos,— Fcrri Pbosphas Solubilis, U.S.P. VIII 
Soluble Ferric Phosphide 

Ferric Phosphate rendered soluble by the presence of sodium citrate, 
ins not less than 12 per cent, of Fe. Preserve it in aniber- 
d, well-stoppered bottles, protected from light. 

r'yrric Phosphate occurs as thin, bright green, transparent scales, without 

oDil having an acidulous, slightly saline teste, The salt is permanent in 

it when excluded from light, but when unprotected, soon become* discolored. 

thate js freely and completely soluble in w T ater; insoluble in alcohol. 

An aqueous solution of Ferric Phosphate (1 in 10) is slightly acid to litmus. 

The addition of ammonia water to un aqueous solution of ferric Phosphate 

0v«8 a reddish- brown color, but dot miae a precipitate. 

ISO Phosphate, when boiled with potassium hydroxide T.S.,. produces a 
wotniah-red precipitate without evolving ammonia. 

k'il an aqueous solution of Ferric Phosphate (I in 10) with an excess of 
pUwum hydroxide T.S. until deprived of its iron, strongly acidulate the 
%lte with hydrochloric arid and oool a portion of the liijuid. When mixed 
nn equal volume of magnesia mixture T.S., followed by a slight excess 
wtmmnnia water, this liquid affords an abundant) white, Crystalline precipi- 
tate turns -Hew when washed and treated with a few drops 
of jilver nitrate T.S. (distinction from pyropfu 

Assay— 1 ibout 1 Gm. of Ferric Phosphate, accurately weighed, in 

25 mil-, of distilled water and 15 mils of hydrochloric acid in a £ lass-stoppered 
bottle, then add 3 Gm. of potassium iodide, securely stopper the bottle, keep 



170 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THB 

* 

it at a temperature of 40° C. for thirty minutes, then cool and titrafa. 
tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S., using starch T.S. as indicate 
shows not less than 12 per cent, of Fe. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used correspois 
0.005684 Gm. of Fe. Each gramme of Ferric Phosphate corresponds to rm 
than 21.5 mils of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grain 



FERRI SULPHAS 
Ferrous Sulphate 

Ferr. Sulph.— Iron Protosulphate 

It contains not less than 54.36 nor more than 57.07 per cent. 
anhydrous ferrous sulphate, corresponding to about 99.5 per cent, of 
crystallized salt [FeS0 4 +7H«0= 278.02]. Preserve it in well-do 
containers. 

Ferrous Sulphate occurs as pale bluish-green, moaodmic prisms, wit! 
odor, and having a saline, styptic taste: efflorescent in dry air. On expo 
to moist air, the crystals rapMJUhr oxidise, and become coated with browi 
yellow, basic ferric sulphate. When h has thus deteriorated the salt must 
be used for any official purpose. 

One Gm. of Ferrous Sulphate dissolves sa L.4 mils of water at 25° C; in 
mil of boiling water; insoluble in alcohol 
An aqueous solution of the sak v l sa 30 is acid to litmus. 
When slowly heated t* 115* C- the crystals £nmtcgraie, and the salt 1 
the greater part of its waier « cryseaJnaaoon. 

An aqueous sohirvvr. a: ihr sah. even when hisjhir dinted, apves with potass 
ferricyanHle T.S. a blue <v»Jnr or jwiisu se. and wkh banum chloride T. 
white" preoijvtat* irmtahk- in fcydroriiJmc acsd. 

l>is?olvr I <>* . a: tfir sah nf ahom 50 xrik of dwriBed water containing 1 
oi dib^^i «"lr**iirk* and, beat the sofcuoc w boSfing, ««»«■» it with nitric 
arvi fht* *«\" r wHh a Agbt earns* of animoiiia water and filter. The fill 
r nraiuMing with fcvdroeLj.r.ric acid, H does not req 
*-*k v«e Pan 11, Test No. Zy. 

t Sulphate in small fra gment s daring four or 

oboL and filter the mixtnre; the filtrate does 

ad bhie litmus paper fjne acts!). 

it I Gm. of Ferrous Sulphate, accurately w«| 

Wed *ulphunc acid and titrate with tenth-normal p 

■ until a permanent pink color is produced. It fll 

_ *em nor more than 57.07 per cent, of FeSQ*. 

rL *i rjotaHsmm permanganate VA used correspon 

;h Kramme of Ferrous Sulphate corresponds t 

£ than 37.57 mils of tenth-normal po tassiu m per 

•■ Ferri h 

m+g^ u, l>lia* PJxsiccatus Ferri Sulphas Qranulatua. 

*•**■ r>ORa« 

01 ^-Metric, 0.1 Gm.— Apothecaries, 1J^ grain 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



17! 




FERRI SULPHAS EXSICCATUS 

Exsiccated Ferrous Sulphate 

FefT. Sulph. Exiie.— Dried Ferrous Sulphate 

feiccated Ferrous Sulphate contains the equivalent of not less than 
80 per cent, of the anhydrous salt IFeS0 4 = 151.91]. 
Femous Sulphate, in coarse powder, one hundred 
grammes . . . . . 100 Gm, 

Aiiowr the salt to effloresce at a temperature of about 40° C. in dry 

and then heat it in a porcelain dish on a water bath, constantly 

, until the product weighs from sixty-four to sixttj-five grammes. 

If, reduce the residue to a fine powder, and transfer it at once to 

Ay, ffell-stoppered bottles. 

Exsiccated Ferrous Sulphate is a grayish-white powder, slowly soluble in 
*ater. A solution of the salt (1 in 20) in dist il I which has been rvrently 

boiled and cooled is not more than slightly turbid, and conforms to the reactions 
tod tests under Ferri Sulphas, except the test for free acid, when taken in 
proportionate amount. 

Assay — Dissolve about 0,8 Gm. of Exsiccated Ferrous Sulphate, accurately 
weighed in a stoppered weighing-bottle, in about 25 mils of diluted sulphuric 
icid and titrate with tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. unlil a per- 
lament pink color is produced. It shows not less than 80 per cent, of 1>S0 4 . 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S, used corresponds to 
0.015191 Gm. of FeS0 4 . Each gramme of Exsiccated Ferrous Sulphate corre- 
■ponds to not less than 52.7 mils of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain, 



FERRI SULPHAS GRANULATUS 
Granulated Ferrous Sulphate 

FciT* Sulph, Gran. — Precipitated Ferrous Sulphate 

Sulphate, one hundred grammes. 100 Gm. 

Water, one hundred milliliters 100 mils 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid, five milliliters 5 mils 

Alcohol, twenty-Jive milliliters . 25 mils 

Dissolve the ferrous sulphate in the distilled water previously heated 

sling, add the diluted sulphuric acid, and filter the solution while 

tot. Evaporate the solution immediately in a tared porcelain dish on a 

and bath until it weighs one hundred and fifty grammes y and then cool 

»t quickly with constant stirring. Transfer the product to a glass funnel 

topped with a plug of purified cotton, and, when it has thoroughly 

pour the alcohol upon it. When this has also drained spread 








172 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THB 

the crystalline powder on bibulous paper, dry it quickly at room 

perature, and transfer it at once to dry, well-stoppered bottles. 

Granulated Ferrous Sulphate is a very pale bluish-green, crystalline poir 
which conforms in every respect to the reactions and tests for purity 
Fori Sulphas. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.1 Gm. — Apothecaries, lJ/£ grain* _ 



FERRUM 

Iron 
Ferr. 

Metallic iron [Fe = 55.84] in the form of fine, bright wire. 

FERRUM REDUCTUM 
Reduced Iron 

Ferr. Reduct. — Ferrum Redactum Iron by Hydrogen Quevenne'f Iron 

Iron reduced to the metallic state by the action of hydrogen upon 
ferric oxide. It contains not less than 90 per cent, of metallic iron 
[Fe = 55.84], Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Reduced Iron occurs as a very fine, grayish-black, lusterleas powder, without 
odor or tmte; permanent in dry air. 

Reduced Iron is insoluble in water or alcohol. 

When ignited in contact with air, it glows and is converted into black fenoeo- 
ferric oxide. 

Shake I Gm. of Reduced Iron with 5 mils of distilled water and filter; the „ 
liquid docs not change the color of litmus. 

One Gm. of Reduced Iron, when treated with 20 mils of diluted sulphur* 
acid in a flask, causes the evolution of nearly odorless hydrogen gas, which 
does not affect paper moistened with lead acetate T.S. within two minutei 
(sulphide), and, on applying a gentle heat, the Iron dissolves in the acid without 
leaving more than 1 per cent, of residue. 

Add 20 mils of diluted sulphuric acid to 0.5 Gm. of Reduced Iron contained 
in a small, covered beaker, and, after the reaction has somewhat subsided, wua 
the liquid on a water bath until the reaction ceases. Collect any minute, ** 
dissolved residue upon a very small filter, rinse the beaker with <fcrtJft>H water, 
add the rinsings to the filter, and then wash the residue with distilled water 
until free from acid reaction. Transfer the residue to the beaker by rmrioffit 
back, and, after adding about 0.25 Gm. of potassium chlorate and 5 mik of 
hydrochloric acid, slowly evaporate the solution to dryness on a water balk 
. Dissolve the residue in sufficient distilled water to measure 50 mils, and afla 
5 mils of this solution to 5 mils of a saturated solution of sulphurous acid and 
heat the liquid on a water bath for fifteen minutes, or until all traces of sulphur- 
ous acid have been removed. The resulting solution meets the requiROMBP * 
of the Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1). <■'. 

Assay — Introduce into a 100 mil flask about 1 Gm. of Reduced Iron, pee- J 
viously well triturated and accurately weighed, and add 10 Gm. of finely pom " 
ered mercuric chloride and 50 mils of boiling distilled water. Boil the mixture 
for five minutes, shaking it frequently, then fill the flask to the 100 mil 



TTNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



173 



with distUled water, recently boiled and cooled, and cool it to room temperature. 
Agwu fill the flask to the mark with distilled water, stopper, agitate the con- 
tf&ta well, and allow it to stand for a few minutes. Now filter the contents of 

' b flask and immediately titrate 20 mils of the filtrate to which has been added 
diluted sulphuric wad, with tenth-normal potassium permanganate 
until a permanent pink color is produced. It shows not less than 60 per 
cent, of Fe when calculated from the original weight of Reduced Iron taken. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. used corresponds 
to 0.005584 Gm. of Fe. Each gramme of Reduced Iron corresponds to not 
lea than 161 2 mils of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0*06 Gm, — Apothecaries, 1 gram. 



FLUTDEXTRACTA 

Fluidextracts 

fluidextracts are concentrated liquid preparations of vegetable drugs, 
staining alcohol cither as a solvent or as a preservative, and bearing 
I uniform relation to the drug used so that one mil of the fluidextract 
fy represents the activity of one gramme of the air-dried and 

drug of standard quality. 

to fluidextracts of this Pharmacopoeia, with few exceptions, may be 

ified according to the menstrua used in the extraction of the drugs 

ud the processes of manufacture employed. Several drugs require 

ferial manipulation to obtain satisfactory fluidextracts, and for these 

ppropriate formulas have been devised and are printed in full in the 

ni. The following type processes are described, and in each formula 

process to be used is designated by reference to the type process: 

typ6 Process A — In this class are included those fluidextracts that 

made with a menstruum of alcohol or a mixture of alcohol and water 

the usual process of percolation, 

Vpe Process B — In this class are included those fluidextracts in which 
oerin or an acid is used in the extraction and two menstrua are sue- 
veiy employed. Menstruum I contains the glycerin or acid in 
ite proportion to the amount of the drug, and Menstruum II p a 
of alcohol and water intended for completing the exhaustion 
;rug. 
'ype Process C — The process of fractional or divided percolation. This 
especially recommended for drugs containing volatile ingredients 
constituents injured by exposure to heat. This process may like- 
be used as an alternative process in the formulas in which Type 
A is directed. 

Process D — In this class are included those fluidextracts in 
raction is effected by infusion and percolation with boiling 





174 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THE 

water, alcohol being added to the concentrated liquid as a preservative. 

In the preparation of fluidextracts by either Process A, B, or C, the 
rate of percolation must be carefully controlled and, for the quantities 
directed in the formulas of the Pharmacopoeia, the flow should not 
exceed ten drops per minute until the reserved percolate is collected, 
and twenty drops per minute thereafter. As a rule one thousand gramma 
of powdered drug may be exhausted by percolation with sufficient men- 
struum to yield three thousand mils of percolate. 

Fluidextracts should be kept in tightly-stoppered containers for one 
month and then, if perfectly clear, they should be stored in amber- 
colored bottles protected from sunlight and extremes of temperature. 
If sedimentation has occurred, the clear portion should be decanted, 
the remainder filtered and the liquids thoroughly mixed before storing. 

The percentage of alcohol in fluidextracts made by type processes 
A, B, or C is variable and always less than that in the menstruum 
employed, due, among other causes, to loss of alcohol by evaporation 
during manufacture, to the presence of a variable proportion of water 
in the air-dried drug, and to the extraction from the drug of ijs soluble 
constituents, which also often vary greatly in different lots of the same 
drug. The percentage of alcohol in the finished product can therefore 
only be ascertained by an actual determination (see Determination of 
Alcohol in Official Preparations, Part II, No. 14). 

Type Processes 

Type Process A — Moisten one thousand grammes of the powdered 
drug directed with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed menstruum 
to render it evenly and distinctly damp and to maintain it so, after 
macerating for six hours in a tightly-covered container. Then pack it 
in a cylindrical percolator and add enough of the menstruum to saturate 
the powder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to 
drop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closed 
covered the percolator, macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the 
percolation to proceed slowly, gradually adding more menstruum until 
the drug is exhausted. Reserve the first eight hundred and fifty mils d 
the percolate (unless otherwise specified in the formula); recover the 
alcohol from the remainder and concentrate the residue to a soft extract 
at a temperature not exceeding 60° C; dissolve this in the reserved 
portion, mix thoroughly, and finally add a sufficient quantity of the 
menstruum to obtain one thousand mils or the volume determined by 
calculation from the assay. 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



175 



Frocess B — Moisten one thousand grammes of the powdered 
3ted with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed Menstruum I, 
it evenly and distinctly damp and to maintain it so after 
g for six hours in a tightly-covered container. Then pack it 
idrical percolator, add the remainder of Menstruum I, and, 
has just disappeared from the surface, gradually add Men* 
[ 9 constantly maintaining a stratum of liquid above the drug. 
\ liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lower 
d, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for forty- 
•s, and then allow the percolation to proceed slowly, gradually 
'enstruum II until the drug is exhausted. Reserve the first 
ktd and fifty mils of the percolate (unless otherwise specified 
mula) ; recover the alcohol from the remainder and concentrate 
le to a soft extract at a temperature not exceeding 60° C; 
lis in the reserved portion, mix thoroughly, and finally add a 
quantity of Menstruum II to obtain one thousand mils, or the 
»termined by calculation from the assay. 
rocess C — Divide one thousand grammes of the powdered drug 
nto three portions of five hundred grammes, three hundred 
and two hundred grammes, respectively. Moisten the first por- 
drug (500 Gm,) with a sufficient quantity of the prescribed men- 
render it evenly and distinctly damp and to maintain it so after 
g for six hours in a tightly-covered container. Then pack it in 
:al percolator and add enough of the menstruum to saturate the 
id leave a stratum al>ove it. When the liquid begins to drop 
percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered 
ator, macerate for forty-eight hours and thee allow the perco- 
proceed slowly, gradually adding more of the menstruum. 
he first two hundred mite of percolate and continue the process 
additional percolate measures fifteen hundred mils, the latter 
ected in successive portions of tkree hundred mils each. 
i the second portion of the powdered drug (300 Gm.) with a 
quantity of the percolate collected in the preceding operation 
ely after the reserved portion, to render it evenly and distinctly 
[ to maintain it so after macerating for six hours in a tightly- 
mtainer. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator and macerate 
late as directed for the first part of the drug, using as menstruum 
&] portions of percolate from the preceding operation in the 
wrhieh they have been collected, and, if this be insufficient, 
th some of the original menstruum. Reserve the first thru 




176 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OP THE 



hundred mils of percolate and continue the process until the additional 
percolate measures eight hundred wife, collecting the weaker percolate 
in successive portions of two hundred mils each. 

Moisten the third portion of the powdered drug (200 Gra.) with i 
sufficient quantity of the percolate collected in the preceding opera- 
tion immediately after the reserved portion, to render it evenly and 
distinctly damp and to maintain it so after macerating for six hours in 
a tightly-covered container. Then pack it in a cylindrical percolator 
and macerate and percolate as before, using as menstruum the several 
portions of percolate from the preceding operation in the order in which 
they have been collected, and, if this be insufficient, follow with more 
of the original menstruum. Collect jive hundred mils of percolate and 
mix this with the two portions previously reserved so as to make o« 
thtmsand mils of finished fluidextract. 

When Type Process C is directed for fluidextracts which are adjusted 
by assay to a definite alkaloidal standard, collect only jour hundred and 
twenty mils of percolate from the third portion of drug instead of the 
five hundred mils directed above. Mix this percolate with the two 
portions previously reserved, assay a portion of the mixture and tl 
adjust its volume, by the addition of the menstruum directed, so tlis* 
each one hundred mils of finished fluidextract will contain the prescriberfi 
amount of alkaloid. 

Type Process D — To one thousand grammes of the ground drug ad*i 
five thousand mils of boiling water, mix thoroughly and allow it t£> 
macerate in a covered container for two hours in a warm place. TheJ 
transfer the moist drug to a tinned or enameled metallic percolato^ 
and allow percolation to proceed, gradually adding boiling water unt i * 
the drug is exhausted. Evaporate the percolate on a water bath or stead** 
bath to the volume specified and when cold add the alcohol directed aiw^ 
mix thoroughly. 



FLUTOEXTRACTUM ACONITI 

Fluidextract of Aconite 

Fldext. Aconite Fluid Extract of Aconite 

One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Aconite yields not less than 0A5 
Gm, nor more than 0.55 Gm. of the ether-soluble alkaloids of aconite 
If assayed biologically the minimum lethal dose should not be greater 
than 0.00004 mil for each gramme of body weight of guinea-pig* 

Aconite, in No, 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gul 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



177 



ftepare a Fluidextract by Type Process C f as modified for alkaloidal 

(see page 175), using a mixture of three volumes of alcohol and 

volume of water as the menstruum and adjusting the volume of 

'finished Fluidcxtract so that each one hundred mils contains 0.5 Gm. 

f the ether-soluble alkaloids of aconite. 

Assay — From a pipette drop 15 rails of Fluidextract of Aconite evenly oyer 
the surface of 15 Gm. of purified sawdust (see page 54 ti) and evaporate to dryness 
at A temperature not exceeding 75° C. Transfer the mixture to a 250 mil flask, 
add 130 mils of ether, and proceed as directed under Bdiodmmm RwlU, page 73, 
thiid line of the Assay, modifying the process there given by using the ammonia 
voter with a small quantity of distilled water to rinse the dish in which the 
mixture was evaporated, ana ether only in the final shaking out of the alk&lnids* 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid VS. consumed corresponds to 64.539 
milligrammes of the ether-soluble alkaloids of aconite. 

For an alternative method of assaying Fluidextract of Aconite see Biological 
Aaaays (Fart II) 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 mil— Apothecaries, J^ minim. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM AROMATICUM 
Aromatic Fluidextract 

Fldext. Aromat.— Aromatic Fluid Extract 

AiouATic Powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process C (see page 175), using 
alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dose— Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 

r FLUIDEXTRACTUM ASPIDOSPERMATIS 
Fluidextract of Aspidosperaia 

fldtxt. Aspidosp. — Fluid Extract of Aspidosperaia Fluidextract of Quebracho 

AspinosPERMA, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes, , 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using a 

airfare of on* hundred and ten mils of glycerin, six hundred and seventy 

mils of alcohol and two hundred and twenty mils of water as Menstruum I, 

and a mixture of two volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as 

Menstruum II. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 mils— Apothecaries, 1 fluidraehnu 
17 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM AURANTII AMA1U 
Fluidextract of Bitter Orange Peel 

Fldext. Aurant. Amar.— Fluid Extract of Bitter Orange Peel 

Bitter Orange Peel, in No. 20 powder, one thousand 
grammes . . lOWd***' 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process C (see puge 175)j usin£ * 
mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as theme* 1 * 
stnium. 

Average dose— Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM BELLADONNA RADIOS 

Fluidextract of Belladonna Root 

Fldext. Bellad, Rad.— Fluid Extract of Belladonna Root 

One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Belladonna Root yields not less 
than 0.405 Gm. nor more than 0.495 Gm. of the alkaloids of belladonna 
root. 

Belladonna Root, in No, 40 powder, one thousand 
gru7n?nes 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
mixture of five volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the mea~ 
struum, and reserving the first eight hundred mils of the percolate. 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 
as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by 
calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid and 
dilute this with enough menstruum to make each one hundred mils of 
the finished Fluidextract contain 0.45 Gm. of the alkaloids of bella- 
donna root. 

Assay — Introduce 10 mils- of Fluidextract of Belladonna Root into a separator 
and add 10 mils of distilled water and 2 mils of ammonia water. Couij 
extract the alkaloids by Blinking out repeatedly with chloroform and then extras* 
the alkalosis from the chloroform solution by shaking out repeatedly with wtmk 
sulphuric acid until the alkaloids are completely removed. Collect the acid 
washings in a separator, add ammonia water until the solution is decided// 
alkaline to litmus, and completely extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly 
with chloroform. E valerate the combined chloroform washings to dryne* 
dissolve the alkaloids from the residue in exactly 5 mils of tenth-normal iul» 
pfouric acid V.8. and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-normal potassium 
hydroxide V.S,, using cochineal T.S. as indicator. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 2831 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of belladonna root (see Proximate Assays, Part 11). 
Preparation — Linknentuui Belladonna?. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.05 mil — Apothecaries, 1 minim. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



179 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM BUCHU 

Fluidextract of Buchu 

Fldext. Buchu— Fluid Extract of Bucliu 

Bccifr, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes > . 1000 Gm. 

Ptep&re a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174} , using 
iol as the menstruum. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM CANNABIS 

Fluidextract of Cannabis 

Fldext. Cannab.— Flu idextrae turn Cannabis Indica?, U.S.P. VIII 
Fluid Extract of Cannabis 

When assayed biologically Fluidextract of Cannabis produces ineo- 
atton when administered to dogs in a dose of not more than 0.03 
I per kilogramme of body weight. 

Cannabis, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 

alcohol as the menstruum. 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 

cted below and from the result thus obtained adjust the volume 

1 Fluidextract to cmiform to the above biological standard. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Biological Assays (Part II). 

Average dose— Metric, 0.1 mil — Apothecaries, V/i minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM CASCAR/E SAGRADA 
Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada 

Fldext. Case. Sagr.— Fluidextractum Hhamni Purahiana?, U.S.P. VIII 

Fluid Extract of Cascara Sagrada 

ascara Sagrada, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 
DHOL, two hundred ami fifty milliliters 250 mils 

I a Fluidextract by Type Process D (see page 176). Evaporate 
jueous pereolate to seven hundred and fifty mik and when cold 
Jly add the alcohol and, if necessary, sufficient water to make 
product measure one thousand mils. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



180 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM CASCAIUE SAGRAD 
AROMATICUM 
Aromatic Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada 

Fldext. Case Sagr. Arom.— Fluidextractum Rhamni Purshianje Aron 
U.S.P. Vin Aromatic Fluid Extract of Cascara Sagrada 

Cascara Sagrada, in No. 40 powder, one thousand 

grammes 10( 

Magnesium Oxide, one hundred and twenty-five grammes 11 

Pure Extract op Glycyrrhiza, forty grammes 4 

Glycerin, two hundred milliliters 2( 

Alcohol, two hundred and fifty milliliters 2! 

Benzosulphinide, one gramme 

Oil of Anise, two and five-tenths milliliters 

Oil of Cinnamon, two-tenths of a milliliter . . . 4 

Oil of Coriander, one-tenth of a milliliter 

Methyl Salicylate, two-tenths of a milliliter 

Boiling Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 101 

Thoroughly mix the cascara sagrada with the magnesiui 
moisten the mixture with two thousand mils of boiling wate 
aside for two hours, stirring occasionally, and then pack it i 
colator. Now pour on boiling water and allow the percolatioi 
ceed until the drug is exhausted. Evaporate the percolate to fit* 
mils and while yet warm dissolve in it the extract of glycyrrhiza 
cold, add the glycerin, then the alcohol in which the benzoei 
and the oils have been dissolved, and finally sufficient water 
the Fluidextract measure one thousand mils. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 min 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM CIMICIFUGiE 

Fluidextract of Cimicifuga 

Fldext. Cimicif .— Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga Fluidextract of Black 
Fluidextract of Black Snakeroot 

Cimicifuga, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes : 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 17' 
alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 mini] 



TJNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



181 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM CINCHONJ5 

Fluidextract of Cinchona 

fldttt Cinchon.— Fluid Extract of Cinchona Fluidextract of Calisaya Bark 

One hundred mite of Fluidextract of Cinchona yields not less than 
* Cm nor more than 5 Gm. of the alkaloids of cinchona. 
Cikchona, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes, . . . . . 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using a 
oixture of one hundred mils of glycerin, one hundred mils of diluted 
lydrochloric acid and eight hundred mils of alcohol as Menstruum 1 
nd a mixture of four volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as 
lenstruum IL 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 

s directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by 

alculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid, and 

iihite this with enough of Menstruum II to make each one hundred 

mil of the finished Fluidextract contain 4,5 Gm. of the total alkaloids of 

cinchona. 

Assay — From a pipette drop 5 mils of Fluidextract of Cinchona evenly over 
the surf ace of 10 Gm. of purified sawdust (see page 546) and evaporate it to 
dryn&B at a temperature not rinomlirift 80° O. Transfer the mixture to a 
KW mil flask, and proceed as directed under Cinchona, page 1 12, second line 
he Assay, modifying the process there ^iven by increasing the amount 
of ammonia water to 10 mils, using this in divided portions to rinse the dish in 
*hi?b the mixture was evaporated, and adding the rinsings to the flask. 

TTie weight of the residue is the amount of total alkaloids from 4 mils of 
Rtudextraet of Cinchona. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims* 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM COLCHICI SEMINIS 

Fluidextract of Colchicum Seed 

Fldext, Colch, Sem.— Fluid Extract of Colchicum Seed 

One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Colchicum Seed yields not less 
tian 0.36 Gm. nor more than 0.44 Gm. of colchicine. 

CoicmcxiM Seed, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 
Purified Petroleum Benzin, a sufficient quantity. 

Pack the colchicum seed in a cylindrical percolator and slowly per- 
i with purified petroleum benzin until a few drops of the percolate 




m 



182 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

leave no greasy stain when evaporated on a piece of filter paper* 
Reject the benzin solution, remove the powder from the percolator 
and dry it by exposure to the air. Then proceed to make the Fluid- 
extract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a mixture of two volumes 
of alcohol and one volume of water as the menstruum. 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 
as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by 
calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid, and 
dilute this with enough menstruum to make each one hundred mUs of 
the finished Fluidextract contain 0.4 Gm. of colchicine. 

Assay — Introduce 15 mils of Fluidextract of Colchicum Seed into a 500 mil 
flask, add 10 mils of solution of lead subacetate, previously diluted with 35 mil* 
of distilled water, shake the mixture thoroughly, then add 240 mils of distilled 
water, again agitate the mixture and proceed as directed under Cokkici Semm, 
page 120, fifth line of the Assay. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM DIGITALIS 

Fluidextract of Digitalis 

Fldext. DigiUI.— Fluid Extract of Digitalis 

If assayed biologically the minimum lethal dose should not b^ 
greater than 0.0006 mil of the Fluidextract, or the equivalent i*^ 
Fluidextract of 0.0000005 Gm. of ouabain, for each gramme of bods^ 
weight of frog. 

Digitalis, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Qr^- • 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), uan ^K 
a mixture of five volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as tk ^ 
menstruum. 

Assay — For a method of assaying Fluidextract of Digitalis see BiologSau-^ 

Assays (Part II). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.05 mil — Apothecaries, 1 minim. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM ERGOTiE 

Fluidextract of Ergot 

Fldext. Ergot.— Fluid Extract of Ergot Secalis comuti extractum fluidum PJ. 

Ergot, recently ground and in No. 40 powder, one thou- 
sand grammes IOOOGul 



i 



Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175) , using a 
mixture of twenty mils of hydrochloric acid and nine hundred and eighty 
Bvtls 0/ diluted alcohol as MeD«truum I, and diluted alcohol as Men- 
etrmjjn II. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM ERIODICTYI 

Fluidextract of Eriodictyon 

Fldcxt, Eriodlct. — Fluid Extract of Erio dk t y oa Fluidextract of Verba Santa 

Eriodictyon, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grainmes. , , . 1000 Cm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174) , using a 
mixture of four volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 
Uruum, and reserving the first eight himdred mils of percolate. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM EUCALYPTI 

Fluidextract of Eucalyptus 

Fldext. Eucalypt.— Fluid Extract of Eucalyptus 

Eucalyptus, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes, * , , 1000 Gm. 

Ptepore a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
I of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the inen- 
q, and reserving the first eight hundred inih of percolate. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM FRANGUL2B 

Fluidextract of Frangula 

HdexL FranguK — Fluid Extract of Frangula FluidexLracl of Buckthorn Bark 

F&angula, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

Alcohol, two hundred and fifty milliliters 250 mils 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process 1) (wv page 176). Evaporate 
the aqueous percolate to seven hundred and fifty mils and, when cold, 
add the alcohol and, if necessary, sufficient water to make the product 
1 one thousand mils* 

Average dose— Metric, 1 mil— Apothecaries, 15 minima. 



184 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM GELSEMH 

Fluidextract of Gelsemium 

FIdext. Oelsem.— Fluid Extract of Gebemium 

Gelsemium, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Go. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using ft 
mixture of four volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 
struum. 

Average dose*— Metric, 0.03 mil — Apothecaries, J^ minim. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM GENTIANS 
Fluidextract of Gentian 

Fldext. Gentian.— Fluid Extract of Gentian 
Gentian, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Goo 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), usini 
diluted alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM GLYCYRRHIZiE 

Fluidextract of Glycyrrhiza 

Fldext, Glycyrrh.— Fluid Extract of Glycyrrhiza Fluidextract of Licorice 

Glycyrrhiza, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes. . . 1000 Gn 

Alcohol, two hundred and fifty milliliters 250 mil 

Ammonia Water, 
Chloroform Water, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mi 

Mix three hundred mils of ammonia water with twenty-seven hundr* 
mils of chloroform water and moisten the glycyrrhiza with a sufficiex 
quantity of the mixture; pack it in a cylindrical percolator and ad 
enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave a stratus 
above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, cloa 
the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate 
for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed slowly, 
gradually adding more of the same menstruum until the glycyrrhiza * 
exhausted. Reserve the first five hundred mils of the percolate and 
evaporate the remainder on a water bath to a soft extract; dissofo 
this in the reserve portion and add enough water to make the prodtic 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



185 



m hundred and fifty mils. A few drops of ammonia water 
By be added if necessary to facilitate solution. Now gradually add the 
ohol, allow the product to stand for seven days in a stoppered con- 
ier, then decant the clear liquid, filter the remainder and wash the 
due on the filter with enough of a mixture of one volume of alcohol and 
twlumes of water to make the Fluidextract measure one thousand mils. 
Preparation — Elixir Glycyrrhizas. 

Average dose— Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM GRANATI 

Fluidextract of Pomegranate 

Fldext Graiiat.— Fluid Extract of Pomegranate 
Pomegranate, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes. . 1000 Gm. 
a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using a 
of one hundred mils of glycerin, five hundred mils of alcohol 
four hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and diluted alcohol as 
mini II, 
Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM GRINDELLE 

Fluidextract of Grindelia 

Fldext, Qrindel— Fluid Extant of Grindelia 

tj in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

& Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
ure of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM GUARAN/E 

Fluidextract of Guarana 

Fldext. Gtiarail— Fluid Extract of Guarana 

! hundred mils of Fluidextract of Guarana yields not less than 3,6 
in* nor more than 4.4 Gm, of caffeine. 
Guarana, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 







186 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using* 
mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as themei 
struum, and reserving the first eight hundred mite of percolate. 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a por" 

as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain 

calculation the amount of alkaloid in the remainder of the liquid i 

dilute this with enough menstruum to make each one hundred mils of 

the finished Fluidextract contain 4 Gm. of caffeine. 

Assay — In (reduce 5 mils of Fluidextract of Guarana into a separator, add 
1 mil of ammonia water, and shake out the alkaloid with chloroform until com- 
pletely extracted, as shown by testing with iodine T.S. Evaporate the com- 
bined chloroform solutions to dryness and dissolve the residue in 20 mils of 
distilled water with the aid of heat. Allow this to cool r filter it into a separator 
and wash the container and filter with several smaH portions of distilled water, 
adding the rinsings to the liquid in the separator. Then shake out the alkaloid 
with chloroform until completely extracted, as shown bj g with iodine 

TJELj evaporate the combined chloroform solutions and dry the residue to con- 
stant weight at 80° C. The weight represents the alkaloid in 5 mils of Fluid- 
extract of Guarana (see Proximate Assays, Part II), 

Average dose— Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM HYDRASTIS 

Fluidextract of Hydrastis 

Fldext. tlydrast — Fluid Extract of Hydrastis Fluidextract of Golden Seal 

One hundred mite of Fluidextract of Hydrastis yields not less than 
1,8 Gm, nor more than 2,2 Gm. of the ether-soluble alkaloids of hydrast& 

Hydrastis, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Cm- 
Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using* 
mixture of one hundred mils of glycerin, six hundred mils of alcohol 
and two hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and a mixture of &0 
volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as Menstruum II. Reserve 
the first seven hundred and fifty mite of percolate, 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 
as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by 
calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid ani 
dilute this with enough of Menstruum II to make each one hundwi 
mils of the finished Fluidextract contain 2 Gm. of the ether-solubk 
alkaloids of hydrastis. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Fluidextractum Belladonna Radici*, page ITS, 
modifying the process there given by using 5 mils of Fluidextract of HvdrasUi 
instead of 10 mils of the fluidextract of belladonna root and using only ether 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



187 



it the immiscible solvent throughout the assay. Dry' the residue to constant 
weight at 100° C. instead of titrating it. Tke weight ri prceen ta the amount of 
etifcf^oiubie alkaloids in 5 mils of the Fluidextract of Hydrastis. 



Average dose— Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



IFLUIDEXTRACTUM HYOSCYAMI 
Fluidextract of Hyoscyamus 
tfiKt* HyoflC. — Fluid Ex tract of Hyoscyamus Fluidextract of Henbane 

One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Hyoscyamus yields not less than 
055 Cm. nor more than 0.075 Gm. of the alkaloids of hyoscyamus* 

Htoscyamus, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes — 1000 Gm, 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
uxture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the 
imfnimm 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 
£ directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by 
alculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid and 
lilute this with enough menstruum to make each one hundred mils 
rf the finished Fluidextract contain 0.065 Gm. of the alkaloids of 
bjoscyamug, 

my — Proceed as directed under Fluid* it met um Hfllndonntr Rarlici.i, page 

*i there given by using 25 mils of iJie Flnidextrat I 

ill place of 10 mils of fluidextract of belladonna root, and before 

U rating the residue twice with 5 mils of ether and evaporating to 

■Iryiw each time. 

Eich mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S, consumed corresponds to 28.92 
ttulligrammcs of the total alkaloids of hyoscyamus. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3"minims. 



FLITIDEXTRACTUM XPECACUANILE 

Fluidextract of Ipecac 

Fldext. Ipecac— Fluid Extract of Ipecac 

One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Ipecac yields not less than 1 j$ 
*, nor more than 2.2 Gm. of the ether-soluble alkaloids of ipecac, 

fscac, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 




188 THE PHABHACOKEIA OF TBM 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using 
mixture of one hundred mils of diluted hydrochloric acid, two huntka 
mils of alcohol and two hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and I 
mixture of two volumes of alcohol and three volumes of water as Men- 
struum II. Reserve the first eight hundred mile of percolate. 

After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portkt 
as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain ty 
calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid am 
dilute this with enough of Menstruum II to make each one hundrt 
mih of the finished Fluidextract contain 2 Gm. of the ether-eolubl 
alkaloids of ipecac. 

Assay— From a pipette drop 10 mils of Fluidextract of Ipecac evenly on 
the surface of 10 Gm. of purified sawdust (see page 546), and evaporate it 1 
dryness at a temperature not exceeding 80° C. Transfer the impregnsti 
sawdust to a 250 mil flask and add 100 mils of ether. Rinse the dish in wbk 
the mixture was evaporated with 6 mils of ammonia water, previously dihrt 
with an equal volume of water, used in several portions, ana add the rinflq 
to the flask. Stopper the flask and shake it vigorously every few minutt 
during two hours. Now add 15 mils of distilled water, again shake the flat 
well, and when the sawdust has subsided decant 50 mils of the ether sohitio 
representing 5 mils of the Fluidextract. Completely extract the alkaloids fro 
this solution by shaking out with weak sulphuric acid. Collect the acid washii 
in a separator; add ammonia water until the solution is decidedly alkaline 
litmus, and completely extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly w. 
ether. Evaporate the combined ether washings to dryness, dissolve the all 
loid from the residue in exactly 10 mils of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V 
and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-normal potassium hydroxide V 
cochineal T.S. being used as indicator (see Proximate Assays, Part II). 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 
milligrammes of the ether-soluble alkaloids of ipecac. 

Preparation — Syrupus Ipecacuanha. 

Average dose — Expectorant, Metric, 0.05 mil — Apothecari 
1 minim. 



FLUTOEXTRACTUM LOBELLE 

Fluidextract of Lobelia 

Fldext. Lobe!.— Fluid Extract of Lobelia 

Lobelia, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 & 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using 
mixture of fifty mils of acetic acid, five hundred mils of alcohol and jiff 
hundred and fifty mils of water as Menstruum I, and diluted alcohol 
Menstruum II. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.15 mil — Apothecaries, 2J^ minimi 



XJNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



189 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM NUCIS VOMICA 

Fluidextract of Nux Vomica 

Fldext NllC, Vom,— Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica 

hundred mils of Fluidextract of Nux Vomica yields not less than 
Gm. nor more than 2,63 Gm, of the alkaloids of nux vomica. 

Vomica, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes , . . 1000 Gm. 

a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
i of Uirce volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 
uum, and reserving the first eight hundred mils of percolate. 
kWlcr dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 
below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by 
the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid and 
with enough menstruum to make each one hundred mils of 
-hod Fluidextract contain 2*5 Gm. of the alkaloids of nux 




Assay — Proceed as directed under Fluidcxtraclum fleUadonmn Radi/ris, page 
10 mils of Fluidextract of Nux Vomica, modifying the prooen cam 

solving the aikaloidal residue in 10 mita of tenth-normal sulphuric 
instead of 5 mils, 
mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S, consumed corresponds to 36.42 
~1 of the alkaloids of nux vomica. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.05 mil— Apothecaries, 1 minim. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM PILOCARPI 

Fluidextract of Pilocarpus 

, Ptlocarp — fluid Extract of Pilocarpus Fluidextract of Jaborandi 

I hundred mils of Fluidextract of Pilocarpus yields not less than 
» Gm. nor more than 0.65 Gm. of the alkaloids of pilocarpus. 

Pilocarpus, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

Ptepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 

Bttture of two volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 

, and reserving the first eight hundred mils of percolate. 

OF dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion 

below, and from the result thus obtained , ascertain by calcu- 

amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid and dilute 

nough menstruum to make each one hundred jnils of the 

Fluidextract contain 0,6 Gm. of the alkaloids of pilocarpus. 



190 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THE 

>2 



Assay — From a pipette drop 15 mils of Fluidextract of Pilocarpus cv^^t^ 
r er the surface of 15 Gm. of purified sawdust (see ""' "" 

it to dryness on a water bath. Transfer the mixture 1 



over the surface of" 15 Gm. of "purified sawdust (see page 546), andevapor^20 
it to dryness on a water bath. Transfer the mixture to a 250 mil flask, add fp£\ 
mils of chloroform, and proceed as directed under Belladonna Radix ? page iT^L 



third line of the Assay, beginning with the word " Stopper, " modifying tf*^ 
process there given by increasing the amount of ammonia water to 6 wB0* 
mixed with 5 mils of distilled water, which is to be used, in divided portiooJfl| 
to rinse the dish in which the mixture was evaporated, the rinsingp being addetf£ 
to the mixture in the flask; the 100 mils of chloroform solution must be drawfft 
off from the bottom of the flask. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. corresponds to 20.815 m3fc- 
grammes of the alkaloids of pilocarpus. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 

FLUTOEXTRACTUM fODOPHYLLI 

Fluidextract of Podophyllum 

Fldext. Podophyll— Fluid Extract of Podophyllum 

Podophyllum, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes.. . 1000 Gm — 
Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), usms 
alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 minima- 

FLUTOEXTRACTUM RHEI 

Fluidextract of Rhubarb 

Fldext, Rhei— Fluid Extract of Rhubarb 

Rhubarb, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gi 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 
mixture of four volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the mi 
struum. 

Preparation — Syrupus Rhei. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, IS minims. 

FLUTOEXTRACTUM ROS^ 

Fluidextract of Rose 

Fldext Rosa*— Fluid Extract of Rose 

Red Rose, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. \ 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using a mil- \ 
ture of one hundred mils of glycerin, five hundred mils of alcohol and >J 
four hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and diluted alcohol m 
Menstruum II. 

Preparation — Mel Ross. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minim* 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



191 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM SARAL 
Fluidextract of Sabal 

FMext Sabftl— Fluid Extract of Sabal Fluidextract of Saw Palmetto 

L, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm« 

pare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
ixture of four volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 

Average dose— Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 

t FLUIDEXTRACTUM SARSAPARILLiB 
Fluidextract of Sarsaparilla 
FIdext. S&TMp.— Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla 
iparhxa, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes. . . 1000 Gm. 
ire a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 
I alcohol as the menstruum, 
tptratioo — Syrupua Sarsaparilla Corapositua. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



FLUTOEXTRACTUM SARSAPARILLA 
CQMPOSITUM 

Compound Fluidextract of Sarsaparilla 

FIdext. Sarsap. Co.— Compound Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla 

farilla, in No. 20 powder, seven hundred and fifty 

grammes 750 Gm. 

Gucyrrhiza, in No. 20 powder, one hundred and twenty 

. 120Gm. 

i re as, in No. 30 powder, one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

«, in No. 30 powder, thirty grammes 30 Gm. 

the powders and prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see 

I, using a mixture of one hundred mils of glycerin, Jfca hundred 
' alcohol and four hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and 
alcohol as Menstruum II. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 1 




192 THE PHAEMACOPCBIA OF THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM SCILI^B 

Fluidextract of Squill 

Fldext Scill.— Fluid Extract of Squill 

If assayed biologically the minimum lethal dose should not be greater J 
than 0.0006 mil of Fluidextract, or the equivalent in Fluidextract d J 
0.0000005 Gm. of ouabain, for each gramme of body weight of frog. / 

Squill, in No. 20 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gid- ] 

Diluted Alcohol, 

Alcohol, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mill 

Mix two thousand mils of alcohol with one thousand mils of water, 
moisten the squill thoroughly with sufficient of the mixture and allow 
it to macerate for two hours in a tightly-covered container. Tha 
transfer it to a percolator, shake it down evenly, without packing, and 
pour on enough of the menstruum to saturate the powder and leave 
a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, 
close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, J 
macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed J 
slowly, gradually adding more menstruum composed of two volume* of :q 
alcohol and one volume of water. When the percolate measures otf ^ 
thousand mils, close the lower orifice and macerate the drug twdfe J 
hours before continuing the percolation. Then collect a second otf 
thousand mils of percolate, again interrupt the percolation, macerate 
for twelve hours and then continue the percolation until the total per* 
colate measures five thousand mils. Recover the alcohol from the 
percolate at as low a temperature as possible and then concentrate the 
residue to a volume measuring eight hundred mils. When the residue 
is cold, add slowly, with continuous agitation, two thousand mil* of 
alcohol and set the mixture aside in a tightly-stoppered container for 
twelve hours. Decant the supernatant liquid from the syrupy layer, 
filter the decanted liquid and wash the syrupy residue with two por- 
tions of three hundred mils each of a mixture of four volumes of alcohol 
and one volume of water, passing the washings through the filter into 
the previously collected alcoholic liquid. Reduce the combined alcoholk 
liquids to eight hundred mils by distillation and jfinally add enough 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



193 



aled alcohol to make the finished Fluidextract measure one thousand 
Assay— For a method of assaying Fluidextract of Squill see Biological Assays 

^epamtiao— Syrupus SciMaB Compositus. 
Average dose — Metric, 0.1 mil— Apothecaries, l}4 minims, 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM SENEG.E 
Fluidextract of Senega 

FIdext. Seneg— Fluid Extract of Senega 

f:ga, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Iuionia Water, 
Alcohol, 

ater, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one tk&uscuid milliliters 1000 mils 

two thousand mils of alcohol with one thousand mils of water, 

iving moistened the powder with sufficient of this mixture, pack 

cylindrical percolator and add enough menstruum to saturate 

wder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins 

rop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closely 

the percolator, macerate for forty-eight hours. Then allow 

lation to proceed slowly, gradually adding menstruum, com- 

of a mixture of two volumes of alcohol and one volume of water, 

the drug is exhausted. Reserve the first eight hundred mih of 

>ercolate and evaporate the remainder to a soft extract; dissolve 

the reserved liquid and then gradually add ammonia water until 

yoduct is faintly alkaline and possesses a slight odor of ammonia. 

add enough of the menstruum to make the Fluidextract 

one thousand mils* 

parations — Syrupus Scill© Compositus Syrupus Senegtt. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims, 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM SENNM 
Fluidextract of Senna 

FIdext. Sentl,— Fluid Extract of Senna 

7DRTA Senna, in No. 40 powder, one thousand 
tmes. 1000 Gm, 




194 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF TUB 



Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 
mixture of one volume of alcohol and two volumes of water as the 
struum, and reserving the first eight hundred mite of percolate. 
Preparations — Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compoeitus Syrupus Sennas 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims, 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM SPIGELLE 

Fluidextract of Spigelia 

Fldext, Spige!,— Fluid Extract of Spigelia Fluidextract of Pink Root 

Spigelia, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Girx. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), ushxg 
diluted alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dose— Metric, 5 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fiuidrachm. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM STAPIHSAGRLE 

Fluidextract of Staphisagria 

Fldext. Staphlsag— Fluid Extract of Staphisagria Fluidextract of Slavesacre 
Staphisagria, in No* 20 powder, one thousand grammes. . , 10GO Gio. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), umitf 
alcohol as the menstruum. 

The oil which separates in the freshly prepared Fluidextract may be 
removed by chilling and filtering the cold Fluidextract through a filter 
moistened with alcohol. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM STILLINGLE 

Fluidextract of Stillingia 

Fldext. Stilling.— Fluid Extract of Stillingia 

Stillingia, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes, . . . . 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 

diluted alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dobe — Metric, 2 mik — Apothecaries, 30 minima 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



195 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM SUMRUL 

Fluidextract of Sumbul 

FldCKt. Sumbul— Fluid Extract of Sumbul Fluidextract of Mask Root 

Sumbol, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes , 1000 Gm, 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using a 
ture o(four volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the men- 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims* 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM TARAXACI 

Fluidextract of Taraxacum 

FlJext. Tarax,— Fluid Extract of Taraxacum Fluidextract of Dandelion 
Tabaxacum, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes , « . . 1000 Gm, 
Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using a 
rture of one hundred mils of glycerin, Jive hundred mils of alcohol 
I four hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and diluted alcohol as 
uura II, 
Average dose — Metric, 10 mils — Apothecaries, 2J^ fluidrachms, 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM TRITICI 

Fluidextract of Triticum 

Rdext, Trttlc— Fluid Extract of Triticum Fluidextract of Couch Grass 

Triticum, finely cut, one thousand grammes , 1000 Gm* 

Alcohol, two hundred milliliters 200 mils 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process D (see page 176), evaporate 
the aqueous percolate to eight hundred mils and when cold add the 
alcohol and, if necessary, sufficient water to make the product measure 

• thousand mils. 

Average dose — Metric, 10 mils — Apothecaries, 2}4 fluidrachms. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM VVM URSI 

Fluidextract of Uva Ursi 

Fldext. Uva? Ursi— Fluid Extract of Uva Ursi 

I, in No, 30 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B (see page 175), using a 
lixture of one hundred mite of glycerin, three hundred mite of alcohol 




196 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THS 

and five hundred mils of water as Menstruum I, and a mixture of or 
volume of alcohol and two volumes of water as Menstruum II. Rosen 
the first eight hundred mile of percolate. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM VERATRI VIRIDIS 

Fluidextract of Veratrum Viride 

FIdext. Verat. Vir— Fluid Extract of Veratrum Viride fluidextract of Green HeUebc 

Veratrum Viride, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gi 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), usii 
alcohol as the menstruum. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.1 mil — Apothecaries, 1J^ minims. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM VIBURNI PRUNIFOLH 

Fluidextract of Viburnum Prunifolium 

FIdext. Viburn. Prun.— Fluid Extract of Viburnum Prunifolium Fluidextract « 

Black Haw 

Viburnum Prunifolium, in No. 30 powder, one thousand 
grammes 1000(2 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 
mixture of two volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as ~ 
menstruum. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 mmim*. 



FLUIDEXTRACTUM XANTHOXYU 

Fluidextract of Xanthoxylum 

FIdext. Xanthox— Fluid Extract of Xanthoxylum Fluidextract of Prickly Asfc 

Xanthoxylum, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes. . 1000 Go 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 
mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water as the ma 
struum. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 197 

FLmDEXTRACTUM ZINGIBERIS 

Fluidextract of Ginger 

Ffdext. Zlngib.— Fluid Extract of Ginger 

Jamaica Ginger, in No. 40 powder, one thousand grammes . 1000 Gm. 

Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process A (see page 174), using 
alcohol as the menstruum. 

Preparation— Syrupus Zingiheris. 

I Average dose— Metric, 1 mil— Apothecaries, 15 minims. 
FtENIGULUM 
Fennel 
torn Iti Vmmt Seed 
The dried, ripe fruit of cultivated varieties of Famiculum vulgare 
Miller (Fam. Vmbellijerm), without the presence or admixture of more 
tlan 4 per cent* of foreign matter. 

Mericarpe usually separate, each being broadly elliptical, more or less curved, 
Irom 4 to 10 mm, in length and from 1 to 3,5 mm. in breadth, some having a 
■fender stalk from 2 to 10 mm. in length; dorsal surface convex, yellowish-green to 
B*yish-brown, with three prominent, longitudinal primary ribs and at the 
wnaiit a short, Domical stylopodium; commissural surface with three narrow, 
tight brown, longitudinal areas separated by two dark brown or brownish- 
Nack areas containing the vitta or oil-tubes; odor and taste aromatic and 
ctoncteriM 

Under the microscope, transveise sections of Fennel show a pentagonal meri- 
cup, four of the edges being nearly equal and slightly concave, the other or com- 

IHttaiind surface being much longer and more or less undulate ; cells of the seed- 
*°»t closely united with those of the pericarp, giving the section two very distinct 
■reaa, the inner and larger portion (endosperm) more or less rounded-pentagonal 
«*i somewhat reniform, composed of polygonal cells, filled with aleurone graina 
containing rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate and a thin protoplasmic layer 
ttdoaing a fixed oil; the outer or pericarp layer distinguished by large elliptical 
yj-tat with thick, brown walls, occurring singly and alternating with the primary 
TO^and two vittie on the dorsal surface, making usually six vittac in all, there 
•onetimes being, however, one or two vitUe additional; in the centra] portion of 
**d>of the ribs occurs a nearly circular, fibro- vascular bundle with a few trachea 
•d numerous thin-walled, strongly lignified selcrenchynmtous fibers. 

The powder is yellowish-brown consisting of irregular angular fragments; 
tasjes of endosperm, colorless, the cells filled with aleurone grains, each containing 
■tosette aggregate of calcium oxidate, about 0.002 mm, in diameter; fragments 
coaUming yellowish-brown vitta?, from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. in width; sclerenchy- 
inatoug fibers few, strongly lignified and with numerous, oblique, simple pores; 
parenchyma cells with more or less thick walls and simple pores and occasionally 
reticulateiy thickened; trachea; few and either spiral or annular; in mounts made 
with hydrated chloral T.S., numerous globules of a fixed oil separate. 
Fennel yields not more than 9 per cent, of ash. 

Preparation — Infusum Senna Compositum. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm* — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 





FRANGULA 

Franguia 

Ffftn^— Buckthorn Bark 

The dried bark of Rhamnus Franguia Linne* (Fam. Rhamnacea). 

In ouills varying in length, Frequently flattened or crushed; from 0.5 to 1 1 
in thickness ; outer surface grayish-brown or purplish-black, with numerous, prom 
nent, lighter-colored, transverse lenticels ana occasional patches of foli&ccou 
lichens bearing small, blackish apothecia: inner surface smooth, dark brown will 
occasional purplish blotches, longitudinally striate, becoming red when moistenw 
with solutions of the alkalies; fracture short, slightly fibrous in the inner layer 
odor distinctive; taste slightly bitter. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Franguia show a distinctly uadu 
late corky layer, composed of about 12 rows of reddish-brown cells; parent) m 
cells of the primary cortex with numerous rosette aggregates of calcium ox&l&u 
from 0.01 to 0.025 mm. in diameter; inner bark with bast-fibers in namw 
interrupted rows, the groups of fibers being separated radially by the medullar 
rays; bast-fibers with thick, strongly lignified, yellowish walls and narrow lumiii 
and each poup surrounded by a layer of crystal fibers, the prismatic crystal 
of calcium oxalate varying from 0,007 to 0,015 mm, in diameter, medullar 
rays one to two cells in width, occasionally three; cells of the parenchyma an 
medullary rays with numerous starch grains, 0.O03 mm. in diameter. 

The powder is yellowish-brown; stone cells absent {distinguishing it from th 
powder of Cascara Sagrada)* 

Add 0,1 Gm. of powdered Franguia to 10 mils of hot distilled water, shak 
the mixture occasionally until cold and filter; on the addition of a few dropefl 
ammonia water, the filtrate is colored a deep red, 

Macerate 0.1 Gm. of powdered Franguia with 10 drops of alcohol, boi 
with 10 mils of distilled water and filter when cold. Shake this filtrate wit! 
10 mils of ether; a yellow, ethereal solution separates, and 3 mils of this ether* 
solution, when shaken with 3 mils of ammonia water, yields an alkaline ■ora- 
tion, which, on being diluted with 20 mils of distilled water, still 
distinct cherry-red color. 

Franguia yields not more than 6 per cent, of ash* 

Preparation— Fluidextrac turn Frangulffl. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm— Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



GALLA 

Nutgall 

Gall.— Aleppo Galls Smyrna Galls 

Excrescences on the young twigs of Quercm infettoria Olivier afl ( 

other allied species of Quercus {Fam. Fagacew) t induced by the puncture 

on the leaf-buds and by the deposited ova of Cynips tinctoria Harti 

(Order Hymenopierm). Not more than 5 per cent, of Galls float in wate 

Nearly globular, from 0.8 to 2.2 cm, in diameter externally blackislwUi 
green or blackish-gray, more or less tuber cula ted on the upper portion, the hi 
portion being nearly smooth and contracted into a short stalk; heavy, sink 
in water, excepting the smaller galis; fracture short-horny; internally gray 
or dark brown, consisting of a central portion slightly radia 



occasionally hollow and traversed by a 



iating and resinc 
narrow radial canal extending 



tie exterior as shown by the perforation in the whole gall; odor slight; taste 
ItogJy astringent. 

IT» powder consists of numerous fragments of thick- walled starch-bearing 
parenchyma; starch grains numerous; more or less free in the powder and vary* 
ing in shape from spherical or ellipsoidal to polygonal, and from 0.005 to 0,03 
bub. in diameter; stone-cells few, resembling those found in fruits and seeds, 
virying considerably in shape and size, and from 0.025 to 0.3 mm, in length; 
occasions] fragments with spiral or reticulate tracheae; fragments mounted in 
dilute ferric chloride T.S. assume a deep blue or greenish-blue color. 
Macerate 0.5 Gm. of the powdered Nutga.ll with 2 mils of alcohol for a few 

t minutes, add .500 mils of water, stir the mixture well for five minutes and filter. 
Take 1 mil of the light yellowish-brown solution, and dilute it with 10 mils of 
rater; it shows a distinct blue or violet-blue color upon the addition of a drop 
of ferric chloride T.S. 
Preparation — Unguenturo Gall®. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm« — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



GAMBXR 

Gambir 

Pale Catechu 

i dried extract prepared from decoctions of the leaves and twigs of 
(kmrparia Gambir (Hunter) Baillon (Fam* Rubiacece). 

Usually in cubical or rectangular pieces from 20 to 30 mm. in diameter; 
externally pale grayish-brown to reddish-brown, more or less dull and porouBj 
triable; internally of a light brown or dull earthy color; inodorous; taste bitterish 
tad very astringent. 

Upon scraping a piece of Gambir and mounting the separated fragments in 
hydrated chloral Tii, and examining them under the microscope, numerous 
iocular crystals, from 0.01 to 0.03 mm, in length, separate at the edges of the 
fragments and gradually dissolve, leaving a few, thick-walled, con-glandular bairn 
when, when entire, may be 0.35 mm. in length; a few fragment** of leaves may 
aho be present showing either epidermal cells or small narrow tracheae with 
^nnl or annular markings; a few starch grains either single or compound, of 
♦triable shapes and from 0,005 to 0.015 mm. in diameter; a number of bacteria 
*»y also be present. 

Macerate 1 Gm. of Gambir with 50 mils of water, and filter; the pale yellowish- 
toown solution obtained gives an intense, green color with dilute ferric chloride 
T&; but yields no precipitate with copper sulphate T.S. 

Nat less than 65 per cent, of Gambir is soluble in water and not less than 60 
P* cent, is soluble in alcohol. 

Gambir yields not more than 9 per cent, of ash. 
-Tinctura Gambir Composita. 



Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 

GELATINUM 

Gelatin 
Octet. 

The purified product obtained from animal tissues, as skin, ligaments, 
id bones, by treatment with boiling water. 




An amorphous solid, in sheets or flakes or in ground, powdered or shredded fonr 
colorless or slightly yellowish, and having a very slight, characteristic odor an 
taste: unalterable in the air when dry, but decomposing when moist or in eolutioi 

Gelatin is insoluble in cold water but swells and softens when immersed ia it, 
gradually absorbing from 5 to 10 times its own weight of water; soluble in Lot 
water, acetic acid or glycerin* insoluble in alcohol, chloroform* ether, oeaiex, 
carbon diaulphide or fixed or volatile oils. 

An aqueous solution of Gelatin (1 in 5000) is at once rendered turbid by tie 
addition of tannic acid T.S. 

A hot solution of Gelatin in distilled water (1 in 40) is free from putrid odor, 
and is not more than slightly acid to litmus; it appears not more tnaa slightly 
opalescent in a stratum 2 cm. in thickness, and, on cooling to 6° C» and standing 
for several hours, it forms a firm, transparent or translucent jelly. 

Incinerate about 0.5 Gm. of Gelatin; not more than 2 per cent, of ash remain* 
A solution of the ash in 25 mils of distilled water, made with the aid of beat 
and a few drops of hydrochloric acid, does not respond to the Test for heavy 
metals (see Fart II, Test No. 3). 

Heat 1.5 Gm, of Gelatin with 30 mils of hydrochloric acid (1 in 4) in a 150 mil 
Erlenmeyer flask on a water bath, and, when the Gelatin has dissolved, add 3 
mils of saturated bromine water and heat it on a water bath for fifteen minutes, 
shaking the flask occasionally. Then add 0.5 Gm. of potassium iodide and follow 
it immediately with 0.5 mil of a 25 per cent, solution of stannous chloride. Heat 
the solution for five minutes on a water bath, cool and subject it to the Teat for 
arsenic (»ee Part II, Test No. 1 ). The stain produced, if any, is not greater than 
that produced in a test made with the same quantities of the reagents to which 
2 mils of the standard arsenic test solution (see Part II, Test No. 1) has be* 
added. 

Dissolve 20 Gm. of Gelatin In 150 mils of hot distilled water in a flask having 
a round bottom and a long neck, add 5 mils of phosphoric acid and 1 Gm, d 
sodium bicarbonate, and at once connect the flask with a condenser. Dat2 
50 mils, receiving the distillate under the surface of 50 mils of tenth-normal 
iodine V.S. Acidulate the distillate with a few drops of hydrochloric Arid, add 
2 mils of barium chloride T.S.. and heat on a water bath until the liquid is nearly 
colorless. The precipitate of barium sulphate, if any, when filtered, wa*h# 
and ignited, weighs not more than 0.0015 Gm., corresponding to not DCff 
0.002 per cent, of sulphur dioxide in the Gelatin, correction being made for a* 
sulphate which may be present in 50 mils of the tenth-normal iodine \ 

Note — Gelatin used for making capsules for medicines contains not o 4 
than 0.15 per cent, of sulphur dioxide. 

Preparation— Gelatinum Glycerinatum. 

GELATINUM GLYCERINATUM 
Glycerinated Gelatin 

Gelat, Glycerin. 

Gelatin, one hundred grammes . . ]00 Ci 

Glycerin, one himdred grammes 100 Gw 

Watek, a sufficient quantity, 

To make two hundred grammes 200 Gm, 

Pour upon the gelatin sufficient water; which has been prwiousl] 
boiled and cooled, to cover it; allow it to stand one hour; pour off th 
water and allow the gelatin to drain for a few minutes; then transfi 







UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



201 



it to a dish, add the glycerin, and heat it on a water bath until the 
gelatin is dissolved. Strain the solution while hot, transfer to a tared 
dish and continue the heat on the water bath until the product weighs 
hto hundred grammes. When cold, cut the mass into pieces, and preserve 
them in well-closed containers. 






GEL8EMIUM 

Gekemium 

Gelsem. — Yellow Jasmbe Root Yellow Jessambe 



The dried rhizome and roots of Gelscmium semperdrem (Linng) Alton 
filius (Fam. Loganiacew). 

Rhisome cylindrical, usually in pieces from 3 to 20 em, in length and from 3 
to 30 mm. in diameter; externally light yellowish-brown, longitudinally wrinkled, 
with purplish-brown longitudinal tinea and transverse fissures ; the upper surface 
rHsears, the under and side portions with numerous roots and root- 
tears; fracture tough, splintery; internally light brown or pale yellow, bark thin, 
wood distinctly radiate, excentral, pith disintegrated; odor slight; taste bitter. 
Roots light brown; fracture one-half transverse, the other oblique or splintery* 
ier the microscope, sections of the rhizome of Gelsemium show a strong 
development of cork, the walls being grayish or yellowish-brown and more or 
less lignified; a cortex made, up chiefly of parenchyma containing starch and 
having in the outer portion email scattered groups of stone cells or sclerenchy- 
matous fibers, and in the inner portion in the region of the medullary ray prisms 
of calcium oxalate; woody portion made tip of broad wedges consisting of large 
trachea and fibcr-tracheids separated by starch -bearing medullary rays, the 
maermost cells, or those nearer the pith, being strongly lignihed, while theouter- 
nxwt layers, or those nearer the cortex, are non-lignlfied and may contain prisms 
of calcium oxalate; an internal phloem or sieve, the cells forming distinct, more 
otlw rounded groups, the latter being partly surrounded by a thin-walled stareh- 
bearing pith. 

The powder is dark yellow, trachea? with bordered pores numerous and con- 
spicuous* spiral trachea few; bast^fibers and fiber-traeheids long and narrow, 
tangly lignified; starch grains spherical, from 0,001 to 0,006 mm. in diameter: 
cilfium oxalate in monoclmic prisms from 0.015 to 0.03 mm, in length; occasional 
poupe of stone cells or sclercnchymatous fibers, the walls being very thick, 
Pwoua, and strongly ligniried. 

Pnyrarions— Extraetura Gelscmii Fluidextractum Gelsemli Tbctura 
Geleemii* 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, }£ grain. 



GENTLVNA 

Gentian 

Gentian.— Yellow Gentian Root 
The dried rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea Linne* (Fam, Genii- 





202 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



In nearly cylindrical, sometimes branching pieces, of variable length, from s 
to 35 mm. in thickness! externally yellowish-brown, the rhiaome portion annulate 
the roots longitudinally wrinkled; fracture short and uneven when dry, hut 
tough and flexible when damp; internally yellowish-brown, the bark from 04 
to 2 mm. in thickness, separated from the somewhat spongy woody portion by 
a dark brown cambium zone; odor strong, characteristic; taste slightly sweetish 
then strongly and persistently bitter. 

The powder is light brown or yellowish-brown, consisting chiefly of paren- 
chymatous cells with fragments of scaJariform or reticulate trachea; sXaitk 
grains few or none. Stone cells and sclerenchymatous fibers are absent 

Gentian yields not more than 6 per cent, of ash. 

Preparations— Extraction Gentians Fluidextractum Gentians TuicturaGefr 
liana* Composita. 

Average dose— Metric, 1 Gm,— Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



GLUCOSUM 

Glucose 



fllucos-^Syrupy Glucose Liquid Glucose 

A syrupy product obtained by the incomplete hydrolysis of starch, 
consisting chiefly of dextrose (d-glucQ8e)[CeHi20e = 180.10) and dextrin 

Glucose occurs as a colorless or slightly colored, thick, syrupy liquid. It i 5 
odorless or nearly so and has a sweet taste. 

It is very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol. 

An aqueous solution of Glucose is neutral or slightly add to litmus. 

Add a few drops of an aqueous solution of Glucose (1 in 20) to 5 milj of hot 
alkaline cupric tartrate T\S.; a copious red precipitate of cuprous oxide is prv 
duced {distinction from cane sugar). 

Introduce about 0,5 Gm. of Glucose into a wide-mouthed, tared I 
bottle, weigh accurately, add 2 mils of distilled water, evaporate the i 
about 70° Q and dry the residue to constant weight at 90° C. The loss ini 
of the Glucose does not exceed 21 per cent, (looter). 

Incinerate Glucose at a temperature not exceeding a low red heat; not do^ 
than 1 per cent, of ash remains. 

A solution of 5 Gm, of Glucose in 15 mils of distilled water, mixed with 5 < 
of phenolphthalein T.S., requires not more than 0.6 mil of tenth-normal 
sium hydroxide V.S. to produce a pink color (free acid), 

Dissolve about 2 Gm, of Glucose in 50 mils of distilled water, boil the soluli 
for one minute and cool; the addition of one drop of tenth-norma! iodine VJ3 
to this solution produces no blue color (starch). On now adding a few drops a 
starch T.S. to the solution a blue color is produced (limit of sulphur dioxide). 

An aqueous solution of Glucose does not respond to the Test for heavy I 
(see Part II, Test No. 3). If the solution of Glucose is not colorless, com" 
must be made with 10 mils of the same solution, to which a volume of % 
water, equal to that of the hydrogen sulphide T.S., has been added. 

Dissolve l.b Gm. of Glucose in 5 mils of distilled water; add 5 mils of diluted 
sulphuric acid and 1 mil of bromine water and heat for five minutes on a w»Ur 
batn, Then add 0*5 Gm. of potassium iodide, follow it with 5 drops of stannous 
chloride T.S., cool and subject the solution to the Test for arsenic (see Part IL 
Test No. 1). The stain produced, if any, is not greater than that produced 
in a test made with the same quantities of the reagents to which 2 mils of th* 
standard arsenic test solution (see Part II, Test No. 1) has been added. 



I 



GLYCERINUM 

Glycerin 

Glycerin,— Glycerol 

i liquid obtained by the hydrolysis of vegetable or animal fats, or 
! oils, purified by distillation, and containing not less than 95 per 
of the trihydrie alcohol CsH c (OH) a or CH a QH.CHGH.CH a OH 
6). Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Glycerin is a clear, colorless liquid, of a thick, syrupy consistence, having not 
ante than a stight,* characteristic odor which is neither harsh nor chsagreeable, 
iwet to the taste and producing a sensation of warmth in the mouth; when 
exposed to the air, it absorbs moisture. 

Glycerin is miscible with water or alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, ether, 
beniene, petroleum benzin, carbon disulphidc or fixed or volatile oils. 

An aqueous solution of Glycerin (1 in 20) is neutral to litmus 

Specific gravity: not below 1.249 at 25° C\ 

Glycerin does not appreciably volatilize from weak aqueous solutions. When 
of i strength between 70 and 100 per cent., it rapidly volatilizes at 100° C. 

Heat a few drops of Glycerin with about 0,5 Gm. of potassium bisulphate; 
pungent vapors of acrolein are evolved. 

Glycerin is colorless when viewed transversely in a tube of colorless glass 
ibuut 30 mm. in diameter, held in a vertical position. 

Beat 50 Gm. of Glycerin in an open, shallow, 100 mil porcelain or platinum 
<fc*h until it ignites, then allow it to burn without further application of heat in 
i place free from draught; not more than 0.015 per cent, of carbonaceous and 
mineral residue remains. Subject this residue to a low red heat, until com- 
bustion is complete' not more than 0,007 per cent- of mineral ash remains. This 
lib, when dissolved in 10 mils of distilled water and titrated with hundredth- 
Darmal silver nitrate \.S., using potassium chromat* TJB. as indicator, ehoWB, 
» the original 50 Gm. of Glycerin, not more than 0.001 per cent, of chlorides 
calcuJatea as sodium chlorine. Each mil of hundredth-normal silver nitrate 
nsumed corresponds to 0.0005846 Gm. of Nad 

Mix 5 mils of Glycerin by vigorous shaking with an equal volume of sulphuric 
i a glass-stoppered cylinder; the liquid does not become darker than yellow 
on standing for one hour {readily carbonuable impurities). 

Mix 50 Gm. of Glycerin with 50 mils of freshly boiled distilled water and 5 mils 
of half-normal potassium hydroxide VJS. and boil the mixture for five minutes. 
When coldj it requires not less than 4 mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid Y\S. 
for neutralisation, using phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator {fatty acids ami e&ter$) m 

An aqueous solution of Glycerin (1 in 10) remains clear on the addition of 
calcium chloride T.S. (oioJir aad)' tm another portion of the solution is not 
iftected by barium chloride T.S, after acidulation with a few drops of diluted 
hydrochloric acid (sulpha 

An aqueous solution of Glycerin does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
(m Part II, Test No. 3). 

An aqueous solution of Glycerin meets the requirements of the Test for 
Wkic U*e Part II, Test No, 1). 

A mixture of 5 mils of Glycerin and 5 mils of an aqueous solution of potassium 
ide (1 in 10) does not become yellow when kept for live minutes at 60° C. 
n, $ucos€) t nor emit an odor of ammonia {ammonium campoutvh), 

rations — Gelatinum Glyeerinatum Suppositoria Glycerini Glyceritec. 



Average dose — Metric, 4 mils — Apothecaries, 1 floidrachm. 





204 THE PHABMACOPtEIA OF THE 

GLYCERITUM ACIDI TANNICI 

Glycerite of Tannic Acid 

Olycer. Add. Tun.— -Glycerite of Tannin 

Tannic Acid, twenty grammes 20 Gm 

Glycerin, eighty grammes 80 Gm. 

To make one hundred grammes. 100 Gm. 

Weigh the glycerin into a tared, wide-mouthed bottle with a capacity 
of about one hundred and tweniy-ftue mils. Place the bottle and contents 
in a water bath, heat the water until it boils, and continue the heat for 
a few minutes; add the tannic acid to the hot glycerin in small, suc- 
cessive portions, agitate the mixture until the tannic acid is dissolved 
and strain the solution while warm through purified cotton. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 

GLYCERITUM AMYU 

Glycerite of Starch 
Olycer. Amyl. 

Starch, ten grammes 10 Gm. 

Water, ten milliliters 10 mils 

Glycerin, eighty grammes 80 Gm. 

Triturate the starch with the water, until a homogeneous mixture k 
produced. Then gradually add this to the glycerin, contained in 1 
porcelain dish, and heated to about 140° C. Continue the heat, with 
constant stirring, keeping it below 144° C, until a translucent jelly » 
formed. Transfer the product to suitable vessels, provided with well- 
fitting covers. 

GLYCERITUM BOROGLYCERINI 

Glycerite of Boroglycerin 
Olycer. Boroglyc. 

Boric Acid, in fine powder, three hundred and ten grammes 310 On 
Glycerin, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gb 

Heat four hundred and sixty grammes of glycerin, in a tared porcdai 
dish on a sand bath, to a temperature between 140° C. and 160° C, ai 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



205 



add the boric acid in portions, constantly stirring. When all is added and 
dissolved, continue the heat at the same temperature, frequently stir- 
ring, and breaking up the film which forms on the surface until the mix- 
ture has been reduced to the weight of five hundred grammes, then add 
to it jive hundred grammes of glycerin, mix thoroughly, and imme- 
diately transfer it to bottles and stopper them tightly. 



GLYCERITUM HYDRASTIS 

Glycerite of Hydrastis 

Qlyccr. Hydrast.— Glycerite of Gulden Seal 

One hundred mils of Glycerite of Hydrastis yields not less than 
112 Gm. nor more than 1.37 Gm. of the ether-soluble alkaloids of 
jpbstiB. 

Hydrastis, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

GnrcERrN, 

Alcohol, 

Watch, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make about one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Moisten the hydrastis with three hundred and fifty mils of alcohol, 
pack it firmly in a cylindrical percolator, and add enough alcohol to 
•turate the powder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid 
bapns to drop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having 
doaf] <1 the percolator, macerate for forty -eight hours. Then 

iflow the percolation to proceed slowly, gradually adding alcohol, until 
tlte drug is exhausted. Remove nearly all of the alcohol by dis- 
tillation or evaporation, pour the thick concentrated liquid into four 
hmdred and fifty mils of ice-cold water, and set it aside, in a cold 
place, for twenty-four hours. Then filter and assay a portion of this 
filtrat the process given below, and, from the result thus obtained, 

ascertain by calculation t h*> amount of ether-soluble alkaloids in the re- 
r «»f the liquid. Add to this enough cold water to make each one 
mils of the product contain 2,5 Gm, of the ether-soluble alkaloids 

hydrastis. Finally add an equal volume of glycerin, and mix. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Fluid? xtractum Bdlatlonnm Radicis, page 

3 the Assay, modifying the process there given by using 5 mils of 

Glycerite of Hydrastis instead of 10 mils of fluidextract of belladonna root and 

~~| only ether as the immiscible solvent throughout the assay. W 'ash the final 

r extractions with 10 mils of distilled water, draw off the water and discard it . 






Then filter the ether solution through a pledget of purified cotton, waah the eot1 
with ether, evaporate the filtrate and washings, and dry the residue at 100° C 
constant weight instead of titrating it. The weight represents the amount 
ether-soluble alkaloids in 5 mils of the Glycerite of Hydrastis. 



Average dose — Metric, 2 mils— Apothecaries, 30 minims. 





GLYCERITUM PHENOLIS 

Glycerite of Phenol 

Olycer, Phenol.— Glycerite of Carbolic Acid 

Liquefied Phenol, twenty milliliters 20 a 

< Jlycerln, eighty milliliters , 80 a 

To make one hundred milliliters 100 n 

Add the liquefied phenol to the glycerin and thoroughly mix. 
Average dose— Metric, 0.3 mil — Apothecaries, 5 minims. 



GLYCYRRHIZA 

Glycyrrhiza 

Glycy rrh. — Licorice Liquorice Root 

The dried rhizome and roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra iypica Hegel 
Herder, known in commerce as Spanish Licorice, or of Glycyrrhiza glab 
glandulifera Kegel et Herder, known in commerce as Russian Licori 
(Fam* Leguminosce;). 

Preserve powdered and whole Glycyrrhiza in tightly-closed contains 
to which a few drops of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride are adde 
from time to time to prevent attack by insects. 

Spanish 'Licorice (also known as Italian, Levant, Persian, Turkish, or Arabia 
Licorice)^~Nearly cylindrical, upper portion more or less knotty^ usually i 
pieces from 14 to 20 cm* or more in length and from 5 to 20 mm. in thicknes 
externally yellowish-brown or dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled, the thinn 
rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds, the thicker rhizomes havi] 
distinct corky patches; fracture coarsely fibrous; internally lemon-yellow, radid 
bark from 1 to 3 mm. in thickness; wood porous, in narrow wedges, rhisomeiri 
small pith; odor distinctive; taste sweetish and slightly acrid. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of pieces of the older rhiiome 
Spanish Licorice show a periderm of numerous layers of yellowish-brown o 
cells, a phellogen and one or more rows of cells of the phelloderm, the cells sh< 
ing a tendency to collenchymatous thickenings and with occasional monoel 
prisms of calcium oxalate; a middle bark of starch-bearing parenchyma and \\h: 
groups of bast-fibers surrounded with crystal-fibers; inner bark with a very el 
act eristic radial Arrangement of phloem and medullary rays, the phloem ( 




\sting of wedges of small groups of bast-fibers and parenchyma, separated by an 
Jmoft continuous, obliterated sieve tissue, the cells of the latter being very irreg- 
ular m outline and with thick, highly refracting walla ; medullary rays from 1 to 8 
edb wide; wood characterized by broad wedges consisting of large trachea 
witii yellowish walls, small compact jisroupe of wood-fibers and starch-bearing 
parenchyma alternating with the broad medullary rays; pith composed of paren- 
chyma, the cells being large, more or less polygonal in outline and containing 
tarch grains, or prisms of calcium oxalate. In sections of roots the 
pith is absent, 

Russian Licorice — Nearly cylindrical somewhat tapering, sometimes split 
longitudinally, from 15 to 30 cm. in length and from 1 to 5 cm. in diameter; wfien 
dfjitived of the outer corky layer, it is externally pa!e*yellow; fracture coarsely 
fibrous; internally lemon-yellow; wood radially cleft; odor distinct; taste sweetish, 

lodcr the microscope, transverse sections of the rhizome and roots of Russian 
licorice somewhat resemble those of Spanish Licorice, but the cork cells are 
lb* 

rWdered Glycyrrhiza is pale brownish-yellow (Spanish Licorice) or pale 
jdbw (Russian Licorice); starch grains numerous* mostly single and elliptical 
or oral, and from 0.002 to 0,02 mm. in diameter; traeheie mostly with bordered 
porta; wood- and bast^fibem numerous, strongly lignificd, very long, much 
Attenuated at the ends and about 0.01 mm. in width; crystal-fibers with mono* 
prima of calcium oxalate, the latter from 0.01 to 0.02 mm. in diameter; 
warional fragments of reddish-brown cork cells occur in Spanish licorice, but 
« practically absent in the Russian licorice. 

Add 10 Gm. of powdered Glycyrrhiza to 10O mils of distilled water, allow the 
tottttire to macerate for fifteen minutes with occasional stirring ; and then heat 
it for one-half hour on a water bath. Filter the mixture and add through the 
filter enough water to make the filtrate measure 100 mils; not less than 0.2 Gm. of 
fcidue remains on evaporating 10 mils of this filtrate and drying it at 100° C- 

Glycyrrbixa yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. 

Preparations— Extractum Glyeyrrhisre Purum Fluidextractum Glycyrrhiza; 
umt Glycyrrhiz® (from FluJdex tract) Mistura Glycyrrhiza; Composita 
(from Extract) Pulvis Glycyrrhiza? Compositus. 

Average dose— Metric, 2 Gin, — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



GLYCYRRHIZINUM AMMONIATUM 

Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin 
GlycytTh, Amnion, 

Isweet principle combined with ammonia obtained from glycyrrhiza. 

Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin occurs in dark brown or brownish-red scales! with- 
out odor, and having a very sweet taste. 
It is freely soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. 

acroeous solution when heated with potassium hydroxide T\S. evolves 

Supersaturate an aqueous solution of Ammoniated Glycyrrlmm with an acid; 
i precipitate is produced (consist ing essentially of glyq/rrhizin), which, when 
diiolved in hot water, forms a jelly on cooling. Ihis substance, after being 
washed with diluted alcohol and dried, appears as an amorphous, yellow powder, 
having a strong, bitter-sweet taste, and an acid reaction. 

Incinerate 0,5 Gm. of Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin; not more than 0.5'per cent, 
of ash remains. 



Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 pains. 





208 



THE FHARMACGPCE1A OF THE 



GOSSYPIUM PURIFICATUM 

Purified Cotton 

Oossyp. Purlf.— Absorbent Cotton 
The hairs of the seed from one or more of the cultivated varietie\s?0/ 
Gossypium herhaceum Linn£ (Fam» Malvaceae), freed from adhering 
impurities and linters and deprived of fatty matter. 

Purified Cotton occurs in white, soft, fine filaments, appearing under the mien?- 
Hcope as hollow, flattened and twisted bands, spirally striate, and slightly f 
ened at the edges; inodorous and almost tasteless; inflatable in ordinary soli 
but soluble in an ammonia solution of ciipric oxide, 

When Purified Cotton, previously compressed in the hand, ia thrown on 
eurface of cold water, it readily absorbs the latter and sinks. 

Incinerate 5 Gm. of Purified Cotton ; not more than 0,2 per cent, of ash remain*. 

Thoroughly saturate about 10 Gra, of Purified Cotton with 100 imlsof diatiDrf 
water, then with the aid of a glass rod press out two portions of the water, 25 
mils each, into white porcelain dishes. Add to oik* portion 3 drops of phenoW 
phthatein T.S. and to the other portion 1 drop of methyl orange T,S,; no pink 
color develops in either portion (alkali or acid). 

Extract 5 Gm. of Purified Cotton, tightly packed in a narrow percolator, 
with ether, until the percolate measures 20 mils, and evaporate this todryneajito 
residue does not exceed 0.6 per cent, (fatty matter). 

Extract 10 Gm. of Purified Cotton, in a narrow percolator, with alcohol, until 
the percolate measure* 100 mils. When observed downward through a column 
20 cm. in depth, the percolate may show a yellowish color, but no blue or ereea 
tint {dyes); and, on evaporating this percolate to dryness, the weight of tike 
residue does not exceed 0,5 per cent, (resin* and soap), 

GRANATUM 

Pomegranate 

Granat. — Pomegranate Bark 

The dried bark of the sterna and roots of Punka Granatum linr*^ 
(Fam. Punieaeew), without the presence or admixture of more than 2p^ J 
cent, of wood or other foreign matter. Preserve It in tightly-close^ 
containers. 

The stem bark is mostly in somewhat flattened or transversely curved piece*, f* 
some extent in quills, from 2 to 8 cm, in length ; bark from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. **J 
thickness; outer surface yellowish to grayish-brown, with grayish patches ej* 
foliaceous lichens with their brownish-black apothecia, longitudinally wriukleJr 
also marked with small, broadly elliptical lenticels ana with more or lees abrade** 
patches of cork; inner eurface light yellow or yellowish-brown, finely rtriste* 
fracture short, smooth, inner bark yellowish-green; odor slight; taste astringent, 
somewhat bitter and nauseous. 

The root bark is in transversely curved pieces; externally brownish-yellow to 
dark brown with irregular patches of cork; internally dark yellow, the medullary 
rays extending nearly to the outer surface. 

The powder is yellowish-brown to dark brown j calcium oxalate crystals in 
rosette aggregates, monoclmic prisms or crystal hbers, the individual crystals 
from 0.01 to 0,018 mm. in diameter; starch grains numerous, sphci 
soidal biconvex, polygonal or irregular, and single or compound, from 0.002 to 
0.01 mm. in diameter; fragments of whitish cork with strongly lignified waib; 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



209 



EUdOtfy single, occasionally in small groups, the individual cells from 

i in length, the walls being very thick Bad strongly Jamellated; 

occawonal fragments of wood With long wood-fibcri from 0.015 to 0.02 BUD. in 

width, H»r wall* being slightly lignified and from OiKW to 0.008 mm. in thickness 

ifld associated with trachea' possessing simple and bordered pores. 
Mrx 1 Gm. of powdered Pomegranate with luo mils of distilled water, macerate 

it *fth occasional agitation for about an hour and filter; a light yellow filtrate 
^obtained. Upon the addition of a drop of ferric chloride T.S. to 10 mils of this 
fiitrate a bluish-black precipitate is produced. Upon the addition of from 40 to 
30 niiLj of lime water to another portion of 10 mils of the filtrate, an orange- 
brown, flocculent precipitate is produced. 

Pomegranate yields not more than 10 per cent, of BBS, 
Preparation — Fluidestract urn Granat i . 

Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



GRINDELIA 

Grindelia 

Orlndel. 



Irhe dried leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia camporum Greene, 
Grinddia cuneifolia Nuttall, or Giinddia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal 
mpostke), without the presence or admixture of more than 10 
cent of stems or other foreign matter. 

Stems with attached branches and terminated with resinous flower-buds; 
sterna cylindrical, not exceeding 2 miu. in diameter; light yellow or rose-colored, 
*ith alternate leaf-scars, occasionally with basal portions of leaves, sometimes 
more or less irregularly flexuous and coated with resin, especially at the nodes; 
taves usually separate and more or less broken and varying in shape when entire 
torni oblong and lanceolate to ohlaneeolate-wpatulate and cuncate-spatulate, 
from 1 to 7 cm. in length, mostly sessile or amplexicaul ami mure or less sharply 
or evenly spinosely-toothed, pale yellow to yellowish-green, very resin- 
somewhat coriaceous and brittle; bracts of flowering branches almost entire 
Usually more or less spreading; heads more or less resinous, viscid, many- 
ered, either conical-urceolate or depre«sed-urceolate, involucres from 5 to 
30 Dun, in breadth, composed of numerous Imbricated bracts with more or less re- 
cinred tips; ray flowers yellow, ligulate and pistillate* disk florets yellow, tubular 
•ad perfect; pappus of two or three mostly unequal linear awns about the length 
of the disk floret*; disk achenes more or less ovoid or oblong; more or less coin- 
pressed or triquetrous, and either biaunrnlate or broadly unidentate or with a 
woad truncate, corky, thickened summit; odor balsamic; taste aromatic and 
bitter, resinous. 

The powder is yellowish-brown: consisting of numerous fibrous fragments 
ttade up of tissues of the stem, the most prominent being the trachea- with 
macular and spiral thickenings or marked with simple or bordered pores, asao- 
J with numerous, narrow, strongly lignified wood-fibers; pith cells more 
or leas tabular and containing a layer of protoplasm in which are embedded 
numerous spheroidal granules; fragments of epidermis of leaves very ohara 

owing more or less polygonal areas containing large criloroplastida, 
and tl colorless, basal cells of the multicellular glandular hairs; pollen 

grains spherical, about 0,035 mm. in diameter, sptnose, and in section showing 
three pores. 

Eluidextractum Grindelia?. 
E dose — Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



i 



210 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OT THE 



GUAIACOL 

Guaiacol 



~ 



The monomethyl ether [C 7 H 8 2 or C a H 4 (OH)(OCH 3 ) 1 : 2- 124, 06 
of ortho-difaydroxybenzene, obtained from wood-taF creosote or pre- 
pared synthetically. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected 
from light* 

Guaiacol is a colorless or yellowish, strongly refractive liquid, or a eolodw 
or yellowish, crystalline solid, having an agreeable, aromatic odor. It becomes 
darker on exposure to light and air. The solid form when liquefied may remain 
so for some time, even at a low temperature* 

One Gm. of Guaiacol dissolves in 53 mils of water and in 0.8 mil of glycerin 
at 25° C.,, but separates from the glycerin on the addition of water; miscible «rith 
alcohol, chloroform, ether or acetic acid. 

The specific gravity of liquid Guaiacol is between 1,110 and 1.114 at 25*C. 

Solid Guaiacol melts at about 28° C. 

Not less than B6 per mfc. of Guaiacol distils between 200° and 210* C. 

The addition of a drop of ferric chloride T.H. to 10 mils of an a I eolio lie solu- 
tion of Guaiacol (1 in 100) produces an immediate blue color, changing to emerald- 
green, and finally becoming yellowish. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Guaiacol ; not more than 0.1 per cent, of ash remains. 

Shake 2 mils of liquefied Guaiacol with 4 mils of purified petroleum beana; 
the mixture separates on standing into two distinct, clear layers. Permanent 
turbidity or failure to separate into layers indicates the presence of impwiW*- 

One mil of liquefied Guaiacol dissolves in 2 aula of potassium hydroxide solu- 
tion (15 per cent.), when heated for one minute in tailing water; on cooling, it 
congeals to a nearly white mass, Much coloration or failure to congeal indices 
the presence of iinnurities. Thr mass thus obtained forms a clear solution*™ 
20 volumes of distilled water (turbidity indicates oily hydrocarbons). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 minims- 




GUAIACOLIS CARBONAS 

Guaiacol Carbonate 

Guaiacol. Carb. 

A guaiacol derivative [(C7H*0) a CO a or {C 6 H 4 (0CH 3 )0)a.C0 =274/ J J- 

Guaiacol Carbonate is a crystalline powder, odorless and tasteless or having 
a slight, aromatic odor and taste. 

Guaiacol Carbonate is insoluble in water; 1 Gm. dissolves in 60 mils of alcohol* 
1 mil of chloroform, and in 18 mils of ether at 25° C. ; freely soluble in benaeoeand 
slightly soluble in glycerin or fixed oils; freely soluble in boiling alcohol. 

It melts between 83° and 87* C. 

Incinerate 1 Gm. of Guaiacol Carbonate; not more than 0.1 per cent, of aah 
remains. 

A saturated alcoholic solution of Guaiacol Carbonate yields no bluish-green 
color on the addition of ferric chloride T.S. (free guaiacol), and is not acid to 
litmus paper which has been previously moistened with distilled water, 

One-tenth Gm. of Guaiacol Carbonate dissolves in 2 mils of sulphuric acid 
without producing more than a faint yellow color {readily carbonizabU impuriftei). 





UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



211 



Heat about 0.5 Gm. of Guaiacol Carbonate for a few minutes with 10 mila of 
iMrolic potassium hydroxide T.S, and cool the mixture j a crystalline precipitate 
ia formed, which effervesces with acids. If the alcohol is evaporated from the 
filtered liquid, the residue supersaturated with diluted sulphuric acid and shaken 
Ml wirh ether, the separated ether layer, upon spontaneous evaporation of the 
etfter, leaves a residuo which responds to the tests for identity under Guaiacol, 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm, — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



GUAIACUM 

Guaiac 

Quftiac— Guajac Resin 

he resin of the wood of Guaiacum officinale Linne^ or of Guaiacum 
return Linn6 (Farn. Zygophyllacew). 

In irregular fragments or ill large, nearly homogeneous masses, occasionally 
in more or leas rounded or ovoid tears, enclosing fragments of vegetable tissues; 
externally brown, becoming greenish-gray-brown on exposure, the fractured sur- 
face having a glassy luster, the thin pieces being translucent and varying in color 
Irani reddish to yellowish-brown; oaor balsamic; taste slightly acrid. 

Guaiac melts between 85° and 90° C, It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, 
chloroform, creosote, and in solutions of the alkalies or in hydra ted chloral 
It is sparingly soluble in carbon disulphide or benzene and not more than 
ttper cent, is insoluble in alcohol; the alcoholic solution, on the addition of an 
nceas of chlorine water or tincture of ferrie chloride, becomes blue, changing 
quickly to green, the color being best seen when the solutions are diluted with 
an equal volume of water. 

Macerate the crushed or powdered Guaiac with 4 or 5 times its weight of puri- 
W petroleum benzin for three hours and then filter; the filtrate is colorless, 
rod Joes not give a green color on the addition of an equal volume of cupric 
wetate TS. {rosin). 
The powder is grayish, becoming green on exposure to the air. 
Guaiac yields not more than 4 per cent, of ash. 

reparations — Tinctura Guaiaci Ttnctura Guaiaci Ammoniata, 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



GUARANA 

Guarana 

A dried paste consisting chiefly of the crushed seeds of Paullinia 
\jnm Kunth (Fara. Sapindacett), yielding not less than 4 per cent, of 
ftine. 

Usually in cylindrical sticks, about 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, externally dark 
reddish-brown; hard and heavy; fracture uneven, often fissured in the center; 
internally pale reddish-brown, showing more or less coarse fragments of seeds 
and occasionally their blackish-brown integuments; odor slight; taste slightly 
astringent and bitter. 

The powder is light pinkish-brown; consisting mostly of irregular masses of 
parenchyma containing more or less altered starch grains; unaltered starch 
grains occasional, varying from spherical and polygonal to ellipsoidal and broadly 
ovoid, 0,01 to 0.025 mm, in diameter; occasional fragments with narrow, elon- 
gated sclerenchymatous cells; the walla being thick, yellowish and non-1 ignified. 




Place on a slide a drop of hydrochloric acid, add about CKOGl Gm, of powdi 
Guarana, then add a drop of gold chloride T.S. and allow the mixture to st 
for a few minute; beginning at the edge of the mount, of caffeine 

gold chloride separate in the form of orthorhombic plates and needles the la 
usually occurring in spheroidal aggregates and finally forming branching gnn 

Assay — Introduce 6 Gm. of Guarana, in No. 60 powder, into a flask and i 
120 mils of chloroform and 6 mils of ammonia water. .Stopper the rlask t ski 
it frequently for half an hour, then let it stand four hours. Again shake I 
flask vigorously and when the drug has Bottled, filter the liquid rapidly throu 
a pledget of purified cotton and collect 100 mils of the filtrate, l e yi es cn fagggQ 
of Guarana. Evaporate the clear filtrate to dryness and dissolve the residue 
weak sulphuric acid with the aid of a gentle heat. When the liquid has oooto 
filter it into a separator and wash the container and filter with several m 
portions of distilled water. Now add ammonia water until the liquid is di 
tinctlv alkaline to litmus and shake out the caffeine with chloroform uni 
completely extracted, M shown by testing with iodine T.S. in place of the iisa 
mercuric potassium iodide T.S. Evaporate the united chloroform solutions u 
dry the residue to constant weight at 80* C. The weight is the amo"' 
caffeine from 5 Gm. of Guarana (see Proximate Assays, Part II). 

Pr c pa rati on — Flui de x tract um Guaranie. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



- 



HEXA1METHYLENAMINA 

Hexamethylenamine 

Hexam, — Hexamethylene-telramine 

A condensation product of ammonia and formaldehyde, hexame 
enc-tetramine [(CHa) oN* = 140. 14]. Preserve it in well-closed cont 

Hexamethylenamine occura in colorless, lustrous, odorless crystals, 
white, crystalline powder. 

One Gm. of Hexamethylenamine dissolves in 1.5 mils of water, 12,5 i 
alcohol and in 320 mils of ether at 25° CL; soluble in chloroform. 

Its aqueous solution is alkaline to litmus. 

At about 263° C. it sublimes without melting and with partial decompositi 
emitting a disagreeable odor. 

Heat an aqueous solution (1 in 10J with diluted sulphuric acid; it deeo 
poses with the liberation of formaldehyde (recognized by its odor or by 
darkening paper moistened with silver ammonium nitrate T.S.) . 

When an aqueous solution (I in 10) is heated with diluted sulphuric ac 
and then supersaturated with solution of sodium hydroxide, ammonia 
liberated. 

Incinerate 2 Gm. of Hexamethylenamine; not more than 0.05 per cent i 
a>h remains. 

An aqueous solution of Hexamethylenamine (1 in 60} docs not becoi 
colored or turbid when mixed with an equal volume of hydrogen sulphide T 
(hemty imitih). Separate portions of 10 mils each of an aqueous solution 
Hexamethylenamine (1 in 50), acidulated with 5 drops of mtric acid, are i 
rendered turbid by a few drops of barium chloride T.S. {mdvhate) nor i 
slightly opalescent by a few drops of silver nitrate T.S, (d 

Add 1 mil of alkaline mercuric potassium iodide T.S. to 10 mils of an i 
solution of Hexamethylenamine (1 in 20); do other color is produced tf 
which results from the addition of the same amount of the reagent to 10 mil 
distilled water (ammonium salts). 

Average dobe — Metric, 0*25 Gm.— Apothecaries, 4 



;id, are i 
moreti 

anaque 
1 thmt 



HOMATROPINE HYBRQBROMIDUM 

Homatropine Hydrobromide 

Homatrop. Mydrobr. — Homatropine Bromide 

The hydrobromide IC l eH2i0 8 N.HBr = 356.nj of homatropine, an 

ilialoid obtained by the condensation of tropine and mandelic acid. 

Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Honuit ropine Hydrobromide occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder, 
or in rhombic prisms, QteoA caution must be observed in ta&tina it, umng only 
Its solution when locally applied dilates the pupil of the eye. 
One Gm. of Homatropine Hydrobromide dissolves in 6,mils of water, 40 mils 
of alcohol, and in 420 mils of chloroform at 25° C.J also in 12 mils of alcohol 
at 60* C* ; insoluble in ether. 
Its aoueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral to litmus. 
It melts at about 212° C, with partial decomposition. 

Shake 2 mils of chloroform with 1 mil of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 
10) to which a few drops of chlorine water have been added; the chloroform 
amines a brownish color. 

When added to solutions of Homatropine Hydrobromide, iodine T.S. produces 
i brown pi silver nitrate TJ8. is similar solutions produces a yellowish* 

uhite precipitate insoluble in nitric acid. 

No weigh able ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Gm. of Homatropine Hydro- 
bromide. 

Separate {KtrtionB of 1 mil each of an aqueous solution of the salt (I in 20) 
ire not precipitated by tannic acid T.S.; or, after acidulation with hydrochloric 
wad, by platinic chloride T.S. {foreign alkaloids). 

Add a alight excess of ammonia water to 1 mil of an aqueous solution of the 
all (1 in 100), ahake it out with chloroform and evaporate the chloroformic 
solution to dryness on a water bath. The residue becomes yellow and finally 
brick-red in color when warmed with about 1,5 mils of a solution made by 
4ia»lving 1 Gm. of mercuric chloride m 50 rails of a mixture of 5 volumes of 
•Icobol and 3 volumes of distilled water (distinction from most other alkaloids 
actpt atropine and hyoscyamine) . 

porate about 6,01 Gm. of Homatropine Hydrobromide, with 5 drops of 
ilricacid, to dryness in a porcelain dish on a water bath; the residue acquires 
) rioiet color on the addition of a few drops of alcoholic potassium hydroxide 
jGacyomtoe, **r hyoscine). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.0005 Gm* — Apothecaries, K20 grain. 



HUMULU3 

Hops 

HumuL 

be carefully dried strobiles of Humulus Lupulus Linne" {Fam, 
Yoro ring their glandular triehomes and without the presence 

or admixture of more than 2 per cent, of stems, leaves or other foreign 
Preserve it in tightly-closed containers, protected from light. 

Strobile ovoid-cylindrical, about 3 cm. in length, consisting of a narrow, hairy, 
flexitous rachis and numerous, imbricated, yellowish-green to pale brown, 
obliquely-ovate, membranous scales, the base of each with numerous, yellowish- 



brown glandular hairs, and frequently infolded on one side, enclosing a «i 
globular, light brown, very glandular achene; odor strong and charaeterist, 
becoming disagreeable and valerian-like on aging; taste aromatic and bitter. 
Hope yield not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

Average dose— Metric, 2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM CORROSIVUM 

Corrosive Mercuric Chloride 

rf y drarg, Chlor, CorrV- Bichloride of Mercury Corrosive Sublimate 

Mercuric Chloride Perckloride of Mercury 

It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sul- 
phuric acid, not less than 99.5 per cent, of HgCl* (271.52). Preserve 
it in well-closed containers. 

Corrosive Mercuric Chloride occurs as heavy, colorless, rhombic crystals, w 
crystalline masses, or as a white powder, odorless, permanent in the air, iod 
having a characteristic and persistent metallic taste. Great caution should U uttd 
in imting it. 

One Cm. of Corrosive Mercuric Chloride dissolves in 13,5 mils of water, 3.S 
mils of alcohol, about 12 mils of glycerin, and in 22 mils of ether, at 25* C; 
also in 2.1 mite of boiling water and 1,6 nub of boiling alcohol. 

The salt fuses to a colorless liquid at 265° C. and at about 300" C. it 
volatilizes in dense, white vapors, leaving not more than 0.1 per cent, of 
residue. 

An aqueous solution of Corrosive Mercuric Chloride ( 1 in 20) is acid to litmus 
but becomes neutral upon the addition of sodium chloride. 

Separate portions of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) yield a whi*^ 
precipitate with ammonia water; a black precipitate with an excess of hydrufe* 1 
sulphide; a red precipitate, soluble in an excess of the with pot**" 

sium iodide T.S.; and a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, withailv^ 1 
nitrate T.S. 

Not more than 0.5 per cent, of residue remains on dissolving finely powdere* 
Corrosive Mercuric Chloride in ether or alcohol. 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gin. of Corrosive Mercuric Chloride, previously 
dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and accurately 
weighed, in 300 mils of cold distilled water to which 1 mil of hydroehlon 
has been added. Pass hydrogen sulphide through the cold solution until s&U* - 
rated and the precipitate of mercuric sulphide readily subsides, leaving a ctaa* 
supernatant liquid. Collect the precipitate on counterpoised filters, wash i* 
well with cold distilled water and finally with three porui >out 10 niiW 

each of alcohol. Then close the tip of the funnel with a cork stopper, adt* 
sufficient carbon tetrachloride to cover the precipitate, cover the funnel with 
a watch-glass, and allow it to stand for about half an hour. Then drain off ti* 
solvent and wash the precipitate with further portions of carbon tetrachloride 
until after evaporating about 1 mil of the Hit rate no visible residue remains 
Remove the aahering carbon tetrachloride bv washing with several portions o 
10 mils ejich of alcohol and, after drying in the air, transfer to an oven and dr 
to constant weight at about 1 10° C. The weight of mercuric sulphide obtained 
when multiplied by 1J67, indicates its equivalent in HgCIa, which corresponc 
in the dried salt to not less than 99.5 per cent, of HgCl a . 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



215 



E*di fcrtmme of Corrosive Mercuric Chloride, previously dried to constant 
•wffct. corresponds to 0.8526 ( irn ( of mereuxic sulphide, 

CSwrowvp Mercuric Chloride, previously dried to constant weight, may also be 
MB/ed by the Electrolytic method (see Part II, Test No. 4). 

Pftpintfan— Toxitabells Hydrargyri Chloridi Corroaivu 

Average dose — Metric, 0.003 Gm. — Apothecaries, }4o grain. 



HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE 

Mild Mercurous Chloride 

ff/4ftff. Chlor. M It*— Mercurous Chloride Calomel ProtochJoride of Mercury 
Subchloride of Mercury 

It contains , when dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sul- 
phuric acid, not less than 99.6 per cent, of HgCl (236.06). Preserve it 
in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

1 1 Mercurous Chloride is a white, impalpable powder, becoming yellowish- 
tiiite on being triturated with strong pressure, and showing only snraQ, isolated 
crystals when viewed under a lens having a magnifying power "of one hundred 
diameters. It is odorless and tasteless, and permanent in the air. 

Id Mercurous Chloride is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether or cold dilute 
Mids. 

When strongly heated, Mild Mercurous Chloride is volatilised without fusion 
or the evolution of brown vapors, leaving not more than 0.1 per rent, of residue, 

The salt is Madceocd by contact with calcium hydroxide T.8., with solutions 
of alkali hydroxides or with ammonia water. 

When heated with an equal weight of dried .sodium carbonate (free from 
ehlonde) in a dry glass fett&e, Mild Mcreiiraus Chloride yields a sublimate of 
BttaUic mercury Dissolve the residue in nitric acid and filter; silver nitrate 
T.S. produces in the nitrate a white, curdy precipitate insoluble in nitric acid. 

Shake 2 Gm. of the salt with 20 mils of ether, filter, evaporate the filtrate, and 
add 10 mils of distilled water: not more than a slight opaloaoaftoe results upon 
the additi*. - nitrate T.S. to 5 mils of the solution {mercuric chloride), 

.in. of the salt with potassium hydroxide TJ3.J no ammonia is evolved 
[ammoiiuiicj mercury). 

Assay — Mix, in a tared flask, about 1 Gm, of Mild Mercurous Chloride, 
prerJouftl> dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and 
■miratvly weighed, with 10 mils of distilled water, add 50 mils of tenth-normal 
iodine i 5 Gm. of potassium iodide, dissolved in 10 mils of distilled 

titer, stopper the flask, allow the mixture to stand, with occasional agita- 
tion, until complete solution has taken place and estimate the excess of iodine 
>n with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.8., starch T.S. being 
twii r. It shows, in the dried salt, not less than 99.6 per cent, of Haf I 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. used corresponds to 0.0231)06 Qua. 
oflk b gramme of Mild Mercurous Chloride, previously dried to con- 

stant weight, corresponds to not less than 42,2 mils of tenth-normal iodine \ > 

Mild Mercurous Chloride, previously dried to constant weight, may also be 
assayed by the Electrolytic method (see Part II, Teat No. 4), 

Preparation — Pilulae Cathartics Composite, 

Metric Apolliernriei 

Average dose — Laxative, 0,15 Gm.— 2J£ grains. 
Alterative, 0,015 Gm. — J£ grain. 




216 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OP THE 



: 



HYDRARGYRI IODIDUM FLAVUM 

Yellow Mercurous Iodide 

rlydrarg. lod. Fla v. —Mercurous Iodide Protoiodide of Mercury 
Yellow Iodide of Mercury 

It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator ovc 
phuric acid, not less than 99 per cent, of Hgl (327.52) Preservt 
well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Yellow Mercurous Iodide is a bright yellow, amorphous powdi 
and tasteless. By exposure to light it becomes greenish in propon 
undergoes decomposition into metallic mercury and mercuric iodide. 

Yellow Mercurous Iodide is almost insoluble ia water and wholly 
in alcohol or ether. 

When slowly and moderately heated, it assumes at first an orange an< 
a red color, becoming yellow again on cooling. When quickly and st 
heated, it is at first partially decomposed into mercury and mercuric i 
and finally ia volatilized, leaving not more than 0.2 per cent, of residue, 
heated with an equal weight of dried sodium carbonate, in a dry glass 
Yellow Mercurous Iodide yields a sublimate of metallic inercu 

When Yellow Mercurous Iodide is heated with sulphuric acid and I 
manganese dioxide, the vapor of iodine is evolved. 

When 0.5 Gm. of the salt is thoroughly shaken with 10 mils of alcohi 
the mixture filtered, 5 mils of the perfectly clear filtrate is not affected 
equal volume of hydrogen sulphide TJL (mercuric iodide). 

Assay — Transfer to a flask about 1 Gm. of Yellow Mercurous IodidS 
vioupfly dried to constant weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and 
rately weighed, add 50 mils of tenth-normal iodine VJB. and 5 Gm. i 
iodide, dissolved m 10 mils of distilled water, stopper the flask, ami all* 
mixture to stand in the tightly-stoppered flask, with occasional agitatioi 
complete solution has taken place. Then titrate with tenth-normal c 
thioHilphate V.S. t using starch T,S. as indicator. It shows, in the dri« 
not less than t*M per cent, of Hgl. 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S, used corresponds to 0.032752 l 
Hgl. Each gramme of Yellow Mercurous Iodide, previously dried to cc 
weight, corresponds! to not less than 30.2 mils of tenth-normal iodine V. 

Yellow Merouroue Iodide, previously dried to constant weight, may 
assayed by the Electrolytic method (see Part U t Test No. 4 L 

Average dose— Metric, 0.01 Gra. — Apothecaries, >£ - 



HYDRARGYRI IODIDUM RUBRUM 

Red Mercuric Iodide 

Hydrarg. tod. Rufo.—Biniodide of Mercury Mercuric Iodide Red Iod 

Mercury 

It contains, when dried to constant weight in a desiccator ov 
phuric acid, not less than 99 per cent, of Hgla (454.44). Pres< 

in well-closed containers, protected from light* 

Red Mercuric Iodide is a scarlet-red, amorphous powder, odorless. 



tasteless, and permanent in the air. 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



217 



R*d Mercuric Iodide is almost insoluble in water; 1 Gm. dissolves in 115 mils 
of ucobol, 910 mils of chloroform, and is 120 mils of ether at 26° C; also in 20 
™» *>f boiling alcohol; soluble in solutions of the soluble iodides, mercuric 
chl*iride, sodium thioaulphate, and hot solutions of the alkali chlorides, 

WTien heated to about 150° C, the salt becomes yellow, but again assumes 
« red color on cooling; upon further heating* it fuses to a dark yellow liquid 
which, on cooling, forms a yellow, rrvsinllirif mta; at higher temperatures it 
\t fiijiilJv volatilized, leaving not more than 0.2 per cent, of residue. 

Heat the salt with potassium hydroxide T.S., and add a little sugar of milk; 
the compound is reduced and metallic mercury is precipitated. 

Boil about 0.1 Gm. of the salt with 2 mils of potassium hydroxide T.S., filter 
and supersaturate the filtrate with nitric acid. The liquid becomes, yellow from 
the liberation of iodine which produce* a blue color upon the addition of a few 
drops of starch T 

<4jBtate thoroughly about 0.5 Gra. of Red Mercuric Iodide with 10 mila of 
distilled water and filter; the filtrate does not become more than slightly colored 
by hydrogen sulphide TJB . i [jofo&fe ffurctcr? sottt). 

iiin, of Red Mercuric Iodide dissolves quickly in 100 mils "of distilled 
water, containing 2 Gm. of potassium iodide, without leaving more than 0.004 
Cm. of insoluble matter. 

Assay — Red Mercuric Iodide, when previously dried to constant weight in a 
desiccator over sulphuric acid and assayed by the Electrolytic method (see 
Pkrt II, Test No, 4) shows not less than 99 per cent, of Hgl a . 

I Preparation — Liquor Arseni et Hydrargyri Iodidi. 
Average dose — Metric, 0.003 Gm.— Apothecaries, }$q grain. 
HYDRARGYRI OXIDUM FLAVUM 
Yellow Mercuric Oxide 
Hydrarg. Oxid. Flav. 

It contains, when dried to constant weight at 1-50° C, nut less than 

13 per cent, of HgO (216*60). Preserve it in well-closed containers, 
1 from light. 
YHlow Mercuric Oxide is a light orange-yellow, amorphous, lip:ny, impalpa- 
orless, and having a somewhat metallic taste; permanent in the 
irning darker on exposure to light. 
Mercuric Oxide is almost insoluble in water; insoluble in alcohol; 
d I »y diluted hydrochloric or nil ricacid, forming colorless solutions* 
When moistened with hot distilled water, Yellow Mercuric Oxide is not 
alkaline to litmus. 

When moderately heated, Yellow Mercuric Oxide assumes a red color. At 
a red heat it is completely decomposed into oxygen and metallic mercury, and 
10 finally volatilized, leaving not mora than 0/2 per cent, of residue. 

A solution of 0.5 Gm. of Yellow Mercuric Oxide in 25 mils of either diluted 
hydrochloric or diluted nitric acid is not more than slightly turbid. 

Hc&t O.o Gm. of Yellow Mercuric Oxide for two hours in a test tube, on a 
water bath, with a solution of 1 Gm. of oxalic acid in 10 mill of distilled water 
and 1 mil of ammonia water, replacing from time to time the water lost by evapo- 
ration; it is converted into white or yellowish-white mercuric oxalate (distinction 
from red mercuric oxide). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Yellow Mercuric Oxide, previously dried 
to constant weight at 150° C. and accurately weighed, in 10 mils of distilled 




water, and 5 mils of nitric acid, and further dilute the solution with 150 mils 
distilled water. Then add 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate T.S,, and titra 
with tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. to the production of a pc 
manent yellowish-red color. It shows, in the dried Oxide, not leas than 99,. 
per cent, of HgO. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V,S. used correspond 
to 0.01083 Cm, of HgO. Each gramme of Yellow Mercuric Oxide, previoasty 
dried to constant weight, corresponds to not less than 91.9 mils of tenth-normil 
potassium snlphocyanate V.S. 

Yellow Mercuric Oxide, previously dried to constant weight, may also be 
assayed by the Electrolytic method (see Part II, Test No. 4), 

Preparation— Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Flavi. 



HYDRARGYRI OXIDUM RUBRUM 

Red Mercuric Oxide 

Hydrargr. Oxfd. Rlib.— Red Precipitate 

It contains, when dried to constant weight at 150° C, not less tbft° 
99.5 per cent, of HgO (216.60). Preserve it in well-closed container^ 
protected from light. 



rib 



Red Mercuric Oxide occurs as heavy, orange-red, crystalline scales, or i 
crystalline powder, a r< miring n yellow color when finely divided; odorless i 
having a somewhat metallic taste, permanent in the air. 

Red Mercuric Oxide is almost insoluble in water; insoluble in alcohol; rcadil } 
dissolved by diluted nitric acid, or by hydrochloric acid. 

When heated to about 400° C, Red Mercuric Oxide becomes dark 1M0 
or almost blink, but assumes its original color on cooling. At a red heat it * 
completely decomposed into oxygen and metallic mercury, and is finally red* 
tilized without leaving more than 0.2 per cent, of residue. 

A solution of 0.5 Gtn. of Red Mercuric Oxide in 25 mils of either hydrocblor* 
or nitric acid is not more than slightly turbid* 

Heat 0.5 Urn. of Red Mercuric Oxide for two hours, in a test tube on i wat^j 
bath, with a solution of 1 Gm, of oxalic acid in 10 mils of distilled water and ' 
mil of ammonia water, replacing?, from time to time, the water lost by evapor*' 
lion; it will not change color within two hours (distinction from yellow merair* 
oxide) . 

Mix 1 Gm, of Heil Mercuric Oxide with 5 mils of distilled water, add 2 mil* 
of sulphuric acid, cool the mixture and carefully pour upon it 2 mils of form* 
sulphate TX; no brown zone develops at the Ime of contact {uitraie). 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Red Mercuric Oxide, previously dried I* 
constant weight at 160° C. and accurately weighed, in 10 mils of distilled watel 
and 5 mils of nitric arid, and further dilute the solution with 150 mils of dfetilW 
water. Then add 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate TJ9.j and titrate wit] 
tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanatc VS. to the production of a perm&nen 
vcllnwisli-red color. It shows, in the dried Oxide, not less than 99.5 per ceo 1 
of HgO, 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. used o oiresuo m 
to 0,01083 Gra. of HgO, Each gramme of Red Mercuric Oxide, previous 
dried to constant weight, corresponds to not less than 91.9 mils of tenth-norm 
rwiuMnrnm snlphocyanate Y.s. 

Red Mercuric Oxide, previouslv dried to constant weight, may also be assay 
by the Electrolytic method (see Fart II, Teat No. 4). 




UNITED BTATES OF AMERICA 



219 



HYDRARGYRI SALICYLAS 

Mercuric Salicylate 

Hydrarg. S&IIcyl.— Mercuric Subsalicylate 

i compound of mercury and salicylic acid containing not less than 54 
rcent. nor more than 59.5 per cent, of Hg. Preserve it in well-closed 
ners protected from light. 

Mercuric Salicylate is a white! slightly yellowish or slightly pinkish powder; 
odorless and tasteless. 

Mercuric Salicylate is nearly insoluble in water or alcohol; dissolved by 
solutions of the fixed alkalies or their carbamates; dissolved by warm solutions 
of the alkali halides with the format ion of double salts. 

Heat about 1 Om, of the salt with 10 mils of hydrochloric acid; a solution 
is obtained from which salicylic acid separates on cooling. A piece of copper 
Madded to a portion of the filtered solution* nearly Deutraliiea with ammonia 
*ater, immediately becomes coated with metallic mercury. To another portion 
of this solution add I few drops of ferric chloride T.S.; a violet color is produced. 

Incinerate about 0,5 Gm. of the salt in a porcelain crucible; not more than 
Q.2perceot. of residue remains. 

The salt does not redden moistened blue litmus paper (free salicylic acid). 
ui oolof results at once on shaking about 0,1 Gm. of the salt with o mils 
of hydrogen sulphide T,S. {foreign mercury compounds). About 0.2 Gm, of the 
kit dissolves completely in 4 mils of normal sodium hydroxide V\S. 

Assay — Digest about 0.5 Gm. of Mercuric Salicylate, accurately weighed. 
in 15 mils of sulphuric acid and 10 mils of nitric acid on a water bath until 
diffiolved. Cool the solution, dilute it with 150 mils of distilled water, add 30 
Bkila of solution of hydrogen dioxide and mix well. Now add gradually, with 
•nostant stirring, 5 mils of diluted hypophosftdiorous acid, then 5 Gm, of sodium 
caJoride, dissolved in 20 mils of distilled water, stir thoroughly and allow the 
nuxture to stand until the precipitate has subsided. Filter and wash the pre- 
cipitate with distilled water. Transfer the precipitate and filter to a flask, add 
5u rails of tenth-normal iodine V.S. and 2 Gm. of potassium iodide, agitate the 
Culture until all of the precipitate has dissolved and titrate the excess of tenth- 
normal iodine V.S. with tenth-normal sodium t hi osu Innate V.S. It shows not 
le* than 54 per cent, nor more than 69.5 per cent, of Hg. 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. corresponds to 0,0200) Gm. of Hg. 
Each Gm. of Mercuric Sal icy la I e corresponds to not less than 20.9 mils nor more 
than 29,7 mils of tenth-normal iodine V.S. 

Mercuric Salicylate may also be assayed by the Electrolytic method (see 
hn ll. Test No! 4). 



Average dose— Metric, 0.004 Gm. — Apothecaries, Hs grain. 



rin ii, le 

Avxr 

HYDRARGYRUM 

Mercury 

Hydrarg*— Quicksilver 
ft contains not leas than 99.5 per cent, of Hg (200.6). Preserve it in 
tmg, well-closed containers. 

Mercury is a shining, silver-white metal? liquid at ordinary temperatures 
and easily divisible into spherical globules. When cooled to about —40° C, it 
\ a ductile, malleable mass. It is without odor or taste. 




sag 



Specific gravity: about 13.5 at 25° C. 

Mercury is insoluble in the ordinary solvents, also in concentrated 
chloric Mad and, at ordinary temperatures, in sulphuric acid, but it 
in the latter when boiled with it, and is readily and completely dissol 
nitric acid. 

At ordinary temperatures Mercury volatilizes very slowly, but more rapidly if 
the temperature increases, and at about 358° C. it boils and is volatilised, jieltlinf 
not more than 0.02 per cent, of residue. 

When globules of Mercury are dropped upon white paper, they roll about 
fn*rl\ , retaining their globular form, and leaving no streaks or traces. 

Mercury must be perfectly dry and present a bright surface even after 
igjtattfm In contact with air. 

Assay — Dissolve about 0.4 Gin. of Mercury, accurately weighed, in a miitiir* 
of 10 mils of distilled water and 10 mils of nitric acid, warm the solution gently 
until red fumes cease to be evolved and the solution is colorless, and add 150 
mils of distilled water. Then add 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate TJ&. tad 
titrate with tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V,S. to the production of s 
permanent, yellowish-red color. It shows not less than 99.5 per cent, of Eg. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S, used correspond! 
to 0,01003 Gm.. of Hg. Km h gramme of Mercury corresponds to not i 
09.2 mils of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S, 

Mercury may also be assayed by the Electrolytic method (see Part II, Tert 
No. 4). 

Preparations — Hydrargyrum cum Creta Massa Hydrargyri Unpientuffl 
llydrargyri Uuguentuiu llydrargyri Dilutum (from Mercurial Ointmeot). 




HYDRARGYRUM AMMONIATUM 

Ammoniated Mercury 

Hydrarg. Amman.— White Precipitate 

It contains mercurammonlum chloride [HgNH a Cl = 252,09] 
sponding to not less than 78 per cent, nor more than SO per cent, of 1 
Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Ammoniated Mercury occurs as white, pulverulent pieces, or as a 
amorphous powder, without odor, and having an earthy, afterwards i 
and metallic taste; permanent in the air. 

Ammoniated Mercury is insoluble in water or alcohol. By prolonged \ 
ing with water it is gradually decomposed, assuming a yellow c<»lor f and becnO" 
ing converted into a basic salt. Rfiauilv dissolved by warm hydrochloric, nitric, 
or acetic acid, and by a cold solution oi" ammonium carbonate. Also cotnplewij 
dissolved by a cola solution of sodium thiosulphate, with the evolution d 
ammonia; when this solution is heated for a short time, red mercuric sulphide a 
separated, which, on protracted boiling, turns black. 

At a temperature below a red heat, Ammoniated Mercury is decompose 
without fusion, and at a red heat it is volatilized without leaving more Xhx 
0.2 per cent, or residue. 

When heated with potassium hydroxide T.S., the salt turns yellow, an 
evolves ammonia. 

A solution of the salt in diluted nitric acid yields with potassium iodide TJ 
a red precipitate soluble in an excess of the reagent. With silver nitrate "T, 
its nitric acid solution yields a white precipitate. 

The salt is completely soluble in hydrochloric acid {mercurou* tolls) wit 
out effervescence {carbonate*)* 



tTNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



221 



Assay — Dissolve about 0.5 Gm, of Ammoniated Mercury, accurately weighed, 
in 2 iDila of hydrochloric acid and 10 mils of distilled water, warming gently 
until solution is effected] then dilute with 300 mils of distilled water and \n 
i directed under Hydrargyri Ckforvlmn "ir/i, page 2l4 t beginning with 

ue word H Pmm u on hue 4 of the Assay. The weight uf mercuric sulphide nt>- 
ined when multiplied by 0.862 indicates its equivalent in mercury (Hr) which 
HTeBponds to not lews than 78 per cent, nor more than SO per cent, of Hp. 
Each gramme of ammonifcted Mercury corresponds to not, less than 0.9047 
Gm. nor more than 0.027(1 Gm, of mercuric sulphide. 

jnoniated Mercury may also be assayed by the Electrolytic method (see 
Part II, Tot No. 4). 

Preparation — Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati. 



IIYDRARGYKUM CUM CRETA 

Mercury with Chalk 

Hydrarg. c Cret. — Gray Powder 

t contains not less than 37 per cent, nor more than 39 per cent, of Hg. 

thficuRY, thirty-eight grammes SS ( \m. 

Honey, Cm grammes 10 4 Jm. 

pared Chalk, fifty-seven grammes. 57 Gm. 

I'ater, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

reigh the mercury and clarified honey successively into a strong 

lie of the capacity of one hundred mils, and add two mils of water. 

ric the bottle, and shake it for about half an hour at a time, until the 

time of shaking reaches ten hours, or until the globules of 

are no longer visible under a lens magnifying four diameters. 

king may be more conveniently performed by mechanical means. 

ub the prepared chalk with water in a mortar to a thick, creamy 

, and, having added the contents of the bottle, wash out the last 

t with a little water, and triturate the whole to a uniform mixture. 

Jly dry the mixture, first between ample layers of bibulous paper, 

rards, in a dish at the ordinary temperature, until it weighs 

grammes. Then reduce it to a uniform powder, without 

n, and keep it in well-closed containers, protected from light* 

Mercury with Chalk Ls a light gray, rather damp powder, free from grittincss, 
without odor, and having a slightly sweet taste. 
Digest 0.1 Gm, of the powder with 20 mils of warm acetic acid; the chalk 
with effervescence, and a residue of finely divided mercury is left, 
K this mixture, the filtrate becomes not more than slightly opalescent 
i addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid [mercurm 
t 0,1 Qtn< of the powder with 20 mils of warm diluted hydrochloric 
I filter; the filtrate is not rendered more than slightly brown by hydrogen 
i TJ3. (mercuric oxide)* 





222 



THE PHAEMAC0PCE1A OF THE 



Assay — Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Mercury with Chalk, accurately 
in a mixture of 10 mils of distilled water and 10 mils of nitric acid and i 
on a water bath until red fumes cease to be evolved and the liquid becoffi 
colorless. Then add 1 50 mils of distilled water and 2 mils of ferric ammonium 
sulphate T\S. and titrate the solution with tenth-normal potassium sulpbo- 
cyanate V.S. It shows not less than 37 per cent, nor more than 39 per ant. 
ofHg. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. used correspond* 
to 0.01003 Gm. of Hg. Each gramme of Mercury with Chalk correspondi t 
not less than 36.9 mils nor more than 38,9 mils of tenth-normal potj 
sulphocyanate V.S. 

Mercury with Chalk mav also be assayed by the Electrolytic method (see 
Part II, test No. 4). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm.— Apothecaries, 4 grains, 



HYDRASTINA 

Hydrastine 

Art alkaloid [CaiH 21 O e N = 383.18] obtained from Hydrastis or pre- 
pared synthetically. Preserve it in well-dosed containers, protect 
from light. 

Hydrastine occurs in white to creamy white, glistening prisms or as a whi 
micro-crystalline powder; permanent in the air. 

Hydrastine is almost insoluble in water ; I Gm. is soluble in 170 mils of alcob*^ 
1 A mils of chloroform, and in 1 75 mils of ether at 25° C. ; also in 22 mils of akot**^ 
at 60° C; freely soluble in benaene. 

Its satu rated alcoholic solution is alkaline to litmus. 

It melts at about 131° C. ^ 

Sulphuric acid produces a yellow tolor when added to Hydrastine; on heatiX^* 
the mixture, a purple color develops. 

Sulphuric acid containing 0.005 Gm. of molybdic acid in each mil gives *i^ 
Hydrastine a green color, changing to olive-green and then to brown: 
acid yields a reddish-yellow color; sulphuric acid containing O.OOo Gra 
eelenous acid in each mil gives a light green color, changing to brown. 

No wei^hable ash remains on incinerating 0,1 Gm. of Hydrastine. 

A solution of about 0J Gm. of Hydrastine in 10 mils of diluted sulphuri^S 
acid shows no blue fluorescence (hydrxuiinine), butt on the gradual addition kM 
potassium permanganate T.S., avoiding excess, a bloc fluorescence 

An aqueous solution of Hydrastine (1 in 20), made with the aid of a slight 
excess of diluted hydrochloric acid, is not reddened by chlorine water 
{berberine). 

Average dose— Metric, 0.01 Gm.— Apothecaries, >£ grain. 



HYDRASTIN/E HYDROCHLORIDE M 

Hydrastine Hydrochloride 

Hydrastin. Hydroctll*— Hydrastine Chloride 

The hydrochloride [dHaiOeN-HCl- 419.65J of the alkaloid hy< 
tine. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



223 



Hydrazine Hydrochloride occurs as a white to creamy-white powder, odor- 
less, and hygroscopic. 

irastine Hydrochloride is very soluble in water and in alcohol; slightly 
■oivible in chloroform; very slightly soluble in ether. 

aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) is neutral or only slightly acid to 
litmus, 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) yields with silver nitrate T.S. a 
white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 

Ifj other respects the salt responds to the tests for identity and purity under 
Hydmstvia, omitting the melting point. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.01 Gm. — Apothecaries, }& grain. 

HYDRASTININE HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Hydrastinine Hydrochloride 

My drastinin. HydrochL— Hydrastinine Chloride 

he hydrochloride [C u H u O a N.HCI = 225.57] of hydrastinine, an alka- 

1 obtained by the oxidation of hydrastine. Preserve it in well-closed 

s, protected from light. 

Hydrastinine H ydr ochloride occurs in light yellowish needles, or as a yellowish- 
itule, crystalline powder without odor, 

OmOto. of Hydrastinine Hydrochloride dissolves in 195 mils of chloroform, 
tnd ro 1820 mils of ether at 26 C; very soluble in water and alcohuL 

Its atmeoua solution ( 1 in 20) is neutral to litmus and shows a blue fluorescence, 
(qjeomlly when highly diluted. 
It melta at about 210° C. with partial decomposition. 

1b m aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20), potassium dichromnte TJ9L pro- 
duce* a precipitate which redissolves if gently heated, but on cooling the solu- 
tion i it separates again in p listening needles. 

S3w nitrate T5. produces in an aqueous solution of the salt a white precipi- 
tate, insoluble in nitric acid, 

pliable ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Gm. of Hydrastinine Hydro- 
chloride. 

In in aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20), bromine T.S. produces a yellow 
precipitate, which is completely soluble in ammonia water, producing an almost 
cotorle* solution (hydrastine). 

I a few drops of amxoonia u:der to 1 mil of an aqueous solution of Hydros* 
tiniae Hydrochloride (I in 20); no turbidity is produced {foreign alkaloids). 

Add slowly 4 or 5 drops of a solution of sodium hydroxide (I in 7) to a solu- 
tion of 0.2 Gm. of the salt in 3 mils of distilled water; each drop causes a 
milky turbidity, vrhioh disappears again on shaking {foreign alkaloids). From 
this solution, after standing for some time, pure white hydrastinine separates, 
and the supernatant fluid u almost colorless. 

Average dose— Metric, 0,03 Gm.— Apothecaries, }>$ grain* 



HYDRASTIS 

Hydrastis 

Golden Seal 

rhizome and roots of Hydrastis canadensis Linn£ (Fam. 
r), without the presence or admixture of more than 2 per 






221 



THE PHABMAC0PCE1A OF THE 



cent, of the stems, leaves or other foreign matter and yielding not lea 
than 2.5 per cent of the ether-soluble alkaloids of Hydrastis. 

Rhizome horizontal or oblique, sub-cylindrical and usually more or 
flexuous, from 1 too eni, in length and from 3 to I BUB. in diameter, oi 
ally with stem-bases; externally yellowish or grayish-brown, marked by 
ous stem-scars and more or less annulate from scars of bud-scales, o 1 
deeply longitudinally wrinkled; on the under and lateral portions arise numeral* 
long, filiform roots which are easily detached; fracture short, waxy; internally 
of a deep yellow color and consisting mostly of parenchyma enclosing an inter- 
rupted circle of small fibro-vascular oundles; odor distinctive; taste bitter. 

Macerate the drug for a short time in water until it is softened, then tmks 
sections and mount them directly in sulphuric acid and examine under the micro* 
scope; in a short time numerous acicular or rod-shaped crystals separate 
some attaining a length of 0.2 mm. 

The powder is brownish-yellow; starch grains numerous, from 0.002 to 0015 
mm. in diameter, mostly single, nearly spherical, and either free or in thepaiw- 
chyma cells; fragments with the tissues of the fibro-vascular bundles roortlf 
associated with starch-bearing parenchyma; trachea? with simple and U inured 
pores and occasionally spiral thickenings, and associated with short sderenrhy- 
matous fibers possessing thin walls with simple pores; occasional fragments of 
tabular cork cells with reddish-brown walls. 

Assay — Introduce 10 Gm. of Hydrastis, in No. 60 powder, into a 250 mH 
flask and add 100 mils of ether and proceed as directed under lielladonna Radix* 
page 73, third line of the Assay, beginning with the word "Stopper." Modify 
the process there given by using 50 mils of the ether solution, representing 5 Gm- 
of Hydrastis, t o complete the assay. Use ether instead of chloroform for toe Gam] 
shaking out of the alkaloids, and dry the residue to constant weight at 100" C- 
instcad of titrating. The weight is the amount of ether-soluble alkaloids from 
5 Gm, of Hydrastis. 



Preparations— Extrac turn Hydrastis 
Hydrastis Tinctura Hydrastis, 



Fluidcx tract urn Hydrastis Glyoerittuj 



Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm, — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



HYOSCYAMINE HYDROBROMTOUM 

Hyoscyamine Hydrobromide 

Hyoscyamin. Hydrofcr,— Hyoscyamine Bromide 

The hydrobromide [Ci 7 H a3 3 N.HBr = 370,12] of hyoscyamine 

alkaloid obtained from hyoscyamus and other plants of the Solan 
Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Hyoscyamine Hydrobromide occurs in white, prismatic crystals without odc^ 
It is deliquescent on exposure to the air. Great cautvm mutt be observed m Uuti^ 
it t using only a very dilute solution. It dilates the pupil of the eye. 

One Gm. of Hyoscyamine Hydrobromide dissolves in 2.5 mils" of aJcoh^ 
mils of chloroform, and in 22f>0 mils of ether at 25 C ; very soluble in wata? 

1 1 1 aqueous solution ( 1 in 20) is neutral to litmus, and is strongly tavorotatory 

It melts at about 152° C. 

Silver nitrate T.S., when added to an aqueous solution of the salt, yields a 
yellowish-white precipitate which is insoluble in nitric acid. 

Shake 2 mils of chloroform with I mil of an aqueous solution of the stl< 
(I in 10) to which a few drops of chlorine water have been added; the chlorofow 
assumes a brownish color. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



225 






Add about 0.01 Gm. of the salt to 5 drops of nitric acid, and evaporate to 

yneas in a porcelain dish; the residue yields a violet color upon the addition 
of alcoholic potassium hydroxide T.S. 

Gold chloride T.S., whin added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) # 
yields a precipitate which, when recryst allied from a small quantity of boiling 
distilled water, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, is deposited on cooling in 
niinut i LB t m 4dcn-yellow scales (difference from atrophic ami scopolamine). 

Platinic chloride T.S. does not form a precipitate in aqueous solutions of 
the salt (1 in 20) (difference from tnost alkaloids) . 

No weigbable ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Gm. of Hyoscyamine Hydro- 
bromide. 

About 0.05 Gm. of the salt dissolved in 1 mil of sulphuric acid gives not more 
than a faint yellow color (carbmiizatde impurities). 

Average dose— Metric, 0.0003 Gm,— Apothecaries, ^£qo groin. 



HYOSCYAMUS 

Hyoscyamits 

Hyosc.— Henbane Hyoscyami folium P.I. 

The dried leaves and flowering or fruiting tops of Hyoscyamits niger 
lime (Fam. Solanacece) t yielding not less than 0.065 per cent, of the 
•Haloids of Hyoscyamus. 

-illy much wrinkled, with numerous sterna and with the flowering or fruit- 
ing tope intermixed; leaves when entire attaining a length of 25 era., a breadth 
of 10cm ,, ovate or ovate-oblong, very inequilateral, the lower with short petioles, 
the upper sessile, summits acute, margins coarsely and angularly I- to 4-toothrd 
<* tooed; grayish-green, glandular-hairy, particularly on the lower surfaces; 
flowers nearly sessile with an ura-shaped, unequally 6-toothed calyx and a 
nunpanuiate corolla which in the fresh state is of a yellowish color; fruit a 
24ocukr pyxis, and enclosed in a large urn-shaped calyx with 5 acute teeth; 
odor heavy, distinctive; taste somewhat bitter and acrid. 

Stems from 3 to 10 cm. in length and from 2 to 5 mm. in thickness, nearly 
cylindrical or somewhat compressed, longitudinally wrinkled and hairy. 

The powder is grayish-green; under the microscope, it exhibits f-alcium 
oxalate crystals usually in the form of 4- to 0-sided, isolated prisms, Bonn (irm^ 
iotTOu, from 0,015 to 0.025 mm. in length, also occurring in spherical aggre- 
Itaieither isolated or attached to the prismatic crystals, sometimes in rot 
jjGpegates, 0,02 mm, in diameter, and occasionally in sphenoidal micro-crystals; 
^numerous, of two kinds; the non-glandular from 2 to 10 cells in length, the 
fcliftdiuar with a 1- to many-celled head and a 1- to 4-celU-d stalk; fragments 
^ ejadenms with broadly elliptical stomata from 0.03 to Q.Q&5 mm. in length 
•nd frith 3 to 4 neighboring cells: fragments of tracheae with simple or bordered 
potts and spiral or reticulate thickenings, also associated with BGwntM hvinatoua 
nbtra having thin porous walls and snowing little or no lignification; pollen 
gnun*> nearly smooth and from 0,035 to 0.05 mm, in diameter. 

The presence of the leaves of Hyaaqfamu* rniUicut Linne in either the crude or 
powdered Hyoscyamus may be determined by the characteristic, branching, 
OGQ-glandular hairs occurring on both the stems and leaves of that species, 
Hyoscyamus yields not mure than 30 per cent, of ash. 
Assay — Introduce 30 Gm. of Hyoscyamus, in No, t>0 powder, into a 500 mil 
flask and add 300 mils of a mixture <«f 1 volume of chloroform and 2 voluifi 
ether. Stopper the flask, shake it well, and iillmv H to stand for ten minutes; 
then add 5 mils of ammonia water and shake the flask vigorously even till 
minutes during two hours. Now add 40 mils of distilled water, again shake khfl 
20 







226 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

flask and when the drug has settled decant 200 mils of the solution, representoff 
20 Gm. of Hyoscyamus, and proceed as directed under Belladonnas Radix, page 
73, beginning with the word "Filter" on line 7 of the Assay. Before titration 
treat the residue twice with 5 mils of ether and evaporate to dryness each time. 
Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 28.92 
milligrammes of the total alkaloids of Hyoscyamus. 

Preparations— Extractum Hyoscyami Fluidextractum Hyoscyami Tioetoti 
Hyoscyami. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



HYPOPHYSIS SICCA 

Desiccated Hypophysis 

Hypophysis Sic— Desiccated Pituitary Body 

The posterior lobe obtained from the pituitary body of cattle, cleaned, 

dried, and powdered. 

A yellowish or grayish, amorphous powder, having a characteristic odor- 
It is only partially soluble in water. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, J£ grain. 



INFUSA 

Infusions 

Infusions must be freshly made from the drugs, and, when the strength 
of Infusions is not otherwise directed, they are to be prepared by the 
following general formula: 

The Drug, coarsely comminuted, fifty grammes 50 Gift 

Water, a sufficient quantity, . 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mik 

Introduce the substance into a suitable vessel provided with a coyer, 
pour upon it one thousand mils of boiling water, cover the vessel tightly, 
and allow it to stand for half an hour. Then strain with expression, and 
pass enough water through the strainer to make the Infusion measurt 
one thousand mils. If the activity of the Infusion is affected by heat, J 
cold water only should be used. 

Caution — The strength of Infusions of potent or very active drop 
should be specially directed by the physician. 



INFUSUM DIGITALIS 

Infusion of Digitalis 

Inf. Dixit. 

Digitalis, bruised, fifteen grammes 15 Gin. 

Cinnamon Water, one hundred and fifty milliliters 150 mils 

Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mile 

Pour five hundred mih of boiling water upon the digitalis, contained 
ini suitable vessel, and allow it to macerate for one hour. Then strain, 
■dd the cinnamon water to the strained liquid, and pass enough water 
ftrough the residue on the strainer to make the product measure one 
tomnd mils. Mix well 

Infusion of Digitalis must be freshly prepared from the leaves. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 mils— Apothecaries, 1 fluidraehm. 



INFUSUM SENN.E COMPOSITUM 

Compound Infusion of Senna 

Inf. Seno. Co. 

ka, sixty grammes , 60 Gm # 

thxNA, one hundred and twenty grammes 120 Gm, 

tionmni Sulphate, one hundred and twenty grammes . 120 Gm. 

el, bruised, twenty grammes 20 Gm. 

Fater, a sufficient quantity t 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

\ir eight hundred mils of boiling water upon the senna, manna, and 

d contained in a suitable vessel, and allow the mixture to macerate 

half an hour. Then strain, express and dissolve the magnesium 

Wphate in the Infusion, and again strain. Lastly, add enough water 

fa>ugh the strainer to make the Infusion measure one thousand mils. 

This preparation must not be dispensed unless it has been recently 

repared. 

Average dose — Metric, 120 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidounces. 




228 THE PHAHMACOPtEIA OF THB 

IODOFORMUM 

Iodoform 

lodof. 

Triiodomethane [CHI, =393.77] usually obtained by the actio* ** 
iodine upon alcohol or acetone, in the presence of an alkali or alfc*^ 
carbonate. Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a cool place, p*^ 
tected from light. 

Iodoform occurs as a fine, lemon-yellow powder, or in lustrous crystals £ 
the hexagonal system, having a peculiar, very penetrating and persistent od0** 
and an unpleasant, slightly sweetish taste suggestive of iodine. 

It is nearly insoluble in water to which it, however, imparts its odor i 
One Gm. of Iodoform dissolves in 60 mils of alcohol, 80 mils of glycerin, 10 1 
of chloroform, 7.5 mils of ether, 2.8 mils of carbon disulphide, and in 34 1 ~ 
olive oil at 25° C; also in about 16 mils of boiling alcohol. 

Its solutions are neutral to litmus. 

Iodoform is slightly volatile, even at ordinary temperatures, and in boffin 
water distils slowly with the vapor of water. At about 115° C. it melts to i 
brown liquid, and at a higher temperature it decomposes, emitting vapori < 
iodine. 

Incinerate about 1 Gm. of Iodoform; not more than 0.2 per cent, of sj 
remains. 

Dry about 1 Gm. of Iodoform, accurately weighed, for twenty-four hours c 
sulphuric acid; the loss in weight does not exceed 1 per cent. 

Shake about 2 Gm. of Iodoform for one minute with 5 mils of distilled i 
and filter; the filtrate is colorless and free from bitter taste (soluble yellow eolav^0 
matter, picric acid), and does not affect the color of litmus (acids or alkalies). 

Preparation — Unguentum Iodoformi. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



IODUM 

Iodine 

It contains not less than 99.5 per cent, of I (126.92). Preserve ft 

in glass-stoppered bottles, in a cool place. 

Iodine occurs as heavy, bluish-black, brittle, rhombic plates, having a metaffe 
luster, a distinctive odor, and a sharp and acrid taste. 

Specific gravity: about 4.66 at 17 C. ^ 

Iodine imparts a deep brown, evanescent stain to the akin, and slowly destrop ? 
vegetable colors. 

One Gm. of Iodine dissolves in 2950 mils of water, 12.5 mils of alcohol A 
mils of glycerin, and in 4 mils of carbon disulphide at 25° C; freely soluble a ■ 
chloroform, ether, or aqueous solutions of iodides: its solution in alcohol or a j 
an aqueous solution of potassium iodide has a radish-brown color; its diluted ■ 
solution in chloroform or carbon disulphide has a violet color. 

Iodine volatilizes slowly at ordinary temperatures. When heated to abort >£ 
114° C, it fuses and is gradually dissipated in the form of a purple vapot, tj 
lea vine not more than 0.05 dot cent, of residue. t^ 



leaving not more than 0.05 per cent, of residue. 



UNITED STATES OP AMEKTCA 



229 



Arid starch T.S. to a saturated aqueous solution of Iodine; a blue color is 
proceed. On boiling the mixture the color ia discharged but reappears as it 
flWB, unless it has been subjected to long continued boiling- 
AaoJution of Iodine in chloroform is transparent (mdiature). 
Jo determine the presence of cvanogen, chlorine or bromine, proceed as 
mm'. 

Triturate 0.5 Gm. of finely powdered Iodine with 20 mils of distilled water 
tnd filter the solution. To one-half of the filtrate I tenth-normal 

sodium thiosulphate VM. until the solution is just decolorized. Then add a 
few drops of ferrous sulphate T.S., and subsequently a little sodium hydroxide 
TS, and heat the mixture gently. On now adding a slight excess of hydro- 
chloric acid, the liaiiid does not become blue (cyanogen iodide). 

To the other half of the aqueous filtrate, in a tot tube, add a slight excess of 
silver nitrate TA, shake the liquid actively, allow the precipitate to subndc, 
and, having poured off the clear, supernatant liquid completely, shake the 
precipitate with a mixture of 1 mil of ammonia water and 9 mils of distilled 
water, and filter. On adding a slight excess of nitric arid to the filtrate, not 
more than a slight opalescence makes Its appearance (chlorine or brmiu 

Assay — Introduce about 0*5 Gm. of powdered Iodine into a tared weigh- 
inf-bottle, stopper, weigh accurately, and add 1 Gin. of potassium iodide 
dwolved in 5 mils of distilled water. Dilute this solution with distilled water 
to about 50 mils and titrate with tenth- normal sodium thiosulphate V.S., starch 
TjS. being used as indicator. It shows Dot less than 09.5 per cent, of I. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used corresponds to 
0.012692 Gm. of I. Each gramme of Iodine corresponds to not less than 78.4 
mila of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. 

Preparations — Liquor Iodi Compositus Tinctura lodi Unguentum IodL 
Average dose — Metric, 0.005 Gm. — Apothecaries, }i 2 grain. 




IPECACUANHA 

Ipecac 

Ipecac. — Ipecacuanha radk P.L 

^The dried root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha (Brotero) A. Richard, known 
Dene as Rio Ipecac, or of CephaeUs acuminata Karsten, known 
in commerce as Cartagena Ipecac (Fam. Rubiacm), without the pres- 
«ce or admixture of more than 5 per cent, of stems or other foreign 
Gutter and yielding not less than 1.75 per cent, of the ether-soluble 
dkaloids of Ipecac. 

Rio Ipecac — In cylindrical pieces, curved and sharply flexuous, occasionally 
branched, from 3 to 15 cm. in length and from 2 A to 4 mm. in thickness; ex- 
ternally dark brown, closely unnulahd, with thickened, incomplete rings, and 
usually exhibiting transverse fissures with vertical aides; fracture of bark short, 
of wood tough, bark very thick, light brown, easily separable from the yellowish- 
wfaite wood; odor very slight, distinctive, the dust sternutatory; taste bitter and 
nauseous, somewhat acrid. 

Stems cylindrical, attaining a length of 10 cm. and a thickness of 2 mm., dark 
brown, finely longitudinally wrinkled and with a few elliptical scars. 

-tagena Ipecac — Cylindrical or slenderly fusiform, more or less tortuous, 
from 3 to 12 cm. in length and from 4 to b\5 mm. in thicknea: externally gr 
brown, the annulations usually not so numerous as in Rio Ipecac, occasionally 




230 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



transversely fissured and with circular scars of roots; bark 2 mm, in thicknes, 
dark brown, smooth , somewhat homy, and easily separable from the light brown 
wood. 

Stems attaining a length of 10 cm. and a thickness of from 2 to 3 mm., cylin- 
drical, somewhat zigzag, due to the prominent nodes with their elliptical stem* 
scars r grayish or dark brown and longitudinally wrinkled; bark thin. 

The powder from both varieties of Ipecac is light brown ; starch grains numer- 
ous, single or from 2* to 4- or more compound, the Individual grains spherical or 
polygonal, from 0.003 to 0.017 mm, in diameter; calcium oxalate in rap hides, from 
0.015 to 0.04 mm, in length, few; tracheids with bordered pores and oblique slit- 
Like pores. The stem bark shows a few, slightly elongated stone cells, from 03 to 
0.045 mm. in length with thick liguified walls and simple branching porea 

Ipecac yields not less than 1,8 per cent, nor more than 4.5 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Introduce 10 Gm. of Ipecac, in No. 80 powder, into a 250 mil flwk, 
add 100 mils of ether and proceed as directed under Bdladonntr Radix, pa£e73, 
third line of the Assay, beginning with the word "Stopper." Modify the proc- 
ess there given by Using 50 mils of the ether solution, representing 5 Gm. d 
Ipecac, to complete the assay. Use ether instead of chloroform for the final 
shaking out of the alkaloid, and dissolve the alkaloid from the residue in 10 mil* 
of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.8, 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to '2A 
milligrammes of the ether-soluble alkaloids of Ipecac* 



Prepara tion s — Flui dextractum Ipecacuanhje 
Syrupus Ipecacuanha (from Fluidextract), 



Pulvis Ipecacuanha? et Op^ 



Average dose — Emetic, Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15grain^ 



JALAPA 

Jalap 

Jalap. 






The dried tuberous root of Exogonium Purga (Wenderoth) Bentha* 
(Fam. Conwlvnlacece), yielding not less than 7 per cent, of the totrf 
resins of Jalap. 

Fusiform, irregularly ovoid or pyriform, upper end more or less rounded 
lower end slightly tapering, the large roots often incised or cut into pieced 
from 4 to 15 cm, in length and from 12 to 60 mm. in diameter; externally da*" 
brown, longitudinally wrinkled or furrowed and with numerous lenticels; bar^ 
compact, not fibrous; when broken, internally dark brown, mealy or waxy, baar" 
from 1 to 2 ram. in thickness, outer bundles separated from the outer cortk^ 
layer by a distinct, brown cambium zone; odor slight but distinctive, smok>" 
taste somewhat sweet and acrid. 

The powder is light brown ; starch grains numerous, single or 2- to 3-compou»i 
and more or less swollen, ellipsoidal or ovoid with concentric or ex central lamella 
and radiating clefts or fissures, from 0.003 to 0,035 mm. in diameter; calehu* 
• oxalate in rosette aggregates from 0,01 to 0,035 mm. in diameter; trmcbc* 
short, wide, with simple or bordered pores; lactiferous vessels with yellowisb- 
brown, resinous masses. 

Jalap yields not more than 6.5 per cent, of ash* 

Assay — Pack 10 Gm, of Jalap, in No. 60 powder, in a cylindrical percolator 
and extract it with alcohol until the percolate measures 100 mils. Trmnsfa 
20 mils of the percolate to a separator, add 20 mils of chloroform, mix the liquid*, 
then add 20 mils of distilled water and shake the mixture thoroughly. When 




KINO 

Kino 

spontaneously dried juice of Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxburgh 
.Ltguminosce). 



the liquids have completely separated, draw off the chloroform into a tared 
beaker, wash the contents of the separator by rotating with 5 mils of chloroform 
«nd draw it off into the beaker, Evaporate the chloroform solution on a water 
bath, add about 2 mils of alcohol, again evaporate, and then dry the residue to 
constant weight at 100° C The weight will be the amount of total res inn from 
2 Gin. of Jalap. 

Preparations — Pilulae Cathartic® Composite (from Resin) Pulvis Jalaps 
Compositua Resina Jalaps. 

I Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm.— Apothecaries, 15 grains. 
ie i 
LJ 
In small, brittle angular fragments, usually considerably less than 15 mm. in 
diameter, varying in color from dark reddisb-brown to reddish-black; when 
mi&hed upon a slide and examined under the microscope the angular fragments 
are more or less translucent with a glass-like, conchoidal surface, the thinner 
pieces having a yellowish-red or deep Drownish-red color, the pieces often being 
marked by nearly parallel, curved and straight lines; inodorous; taste very 
aftringent ; when masticated it colors the saliva somewhat pink. 

The powder is of a dark brick-red color; upon the addition of water, the sharp 
*n#ilar fragments assume a deep rich-red color and become more or less rounded 
ad separate int4j innumerable, small, granular particles among which are 
• tap number of rod-shaped bacteria. On mounting powdered Kino in alcohol 
the fragments at first asdume a deep red color, then mostly dissolve, leaving a 
number of small, colorless granules and indistinguishable, cellular fragments. 

Kino is only partly soluble in cold water, and not less than 40 per cent, is 
»luble in boiling water. The latter solution, when cooled and filtered, shows 
a faintly acid reaction » gives a dark green precipitate with ferric chloride T.S, 
•ad a reddish- violet color with alkalies. 
The yield of alcoholic extractive is not less than 45 per cent. 
Kino contains not more than 12 per cent, of moisture! and yields not more 
than 3 per cent, of ash. 

Preparation — Tinctura Kino. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains* 



LACTUCAEIUM 

Lactucarium 

Lactucar. 

The dried milk-juice of Loctuca virosa Linn6 (Fam. Composite). 

Usually in quarter sections of hemispherical masses, or in irregular , angular 
pieces: externally dull reddish- or grayish-brown; fracture tough, waxy; inter- 
nally light brown or yellowish, somewhat porous; odor distinctive, opium-like; 
s bitter. 




232 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THS 



Lactucarium is partly soluble in alcohol and ether and, when triturated Sjfl 
water, it yields a turbid mixture. Treat Lactucarium with boiling water **^ 
filter; the filtrate is clear while hot; on cooling it becomes turbid but clean uro^ 
the addition of ammonia water or alcohol; it is not colored blue by iodine T^jJ 
(starch). An alcoholic solution of Lactucarium gives not more than a fab# 
green color upon the addition of a drop of ferric chloride T.S. (tannin). s 

The powder is grayish-brown to dark brown, consisting almost entirely of 
irregular fragments without any cellular structure; when mounted in hydratod 
chloral T.S., the fragments become clear, showing granular fragments, and 
from this deposit, numerous rod-shaped crystals and broad monoclinic prisms 
as well as aggregates of these, all of which polarize light. 

In the preparation of powdered Lactucarium, dry the crude drug at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 70° C. „ 

Lactucarium contains not more than 15 per cent, of moisture, and yields mot \ 
more than 10 per cent, of ash. , i 

Preparations— Syrupus Lactucarii (from Tincture) Tinctura Lactucarii. 
Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 



LIMONIS CORTEX 

Lemon Peel 
Union. Cort. 

The outer rind of the fresh ripe fruit of Citrus medica Limonum 
(Risso) Hooker filius (Fam. Rutacece). 

The outer, lemon-yellow or dark yellow layer, recently separated by grating or 
paring and consisting of an epidermal layer, numerous parenchyma cells containing 
yellow chromoplastids, and large oil reservoirs with globules of the volatile oil; 
odor highly fragrant, distinctive; taste pungent, aromatic. 

Under the microscope, sections of the rind, mounted in a fixed oil, show an epi- 
derm al layer composed of small tabular cells, a hypodermal layer containing numer- 
ous plastids, a mesocarp with colorless, thin-wailed parenchyma and large, ellipti- 
cal oil reservoirs; parenchyma cells containing a layer of granular protoplasm 
adhering to the walls and occasionally membrane crystals of calcium oxalate, 
which are irregularly polygonal in shape, and from 0.015 to 0.025 mm. is 
diameter. 



LINIMENTUM AMMONLE 

Ammonia Liniment 

Lin. Amnion. — Volatile Liniment Hartshorn Liniment 

Ammonia Water, two hundred and fifty milliliters 250 mill J 

Sesame Oil, seven hundred and fifty milliliters 750 null 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mik 

Agitate the ammonia water with the sesame oil until a uniform mix- 
ture is obtained. 



LINIMBNTUM BELLADONNA 

Belladonna Liniment 

Lin. Bellad. 

Camphor, fifty grammes 50 Gm. 

fLni>EXTRAcr of Belladonna Root, a sufficient quantity, t _ 

To make one thousand milliliters . . . 1000 mils 

ve the camphor in about eight hundred mils of the fluidextract, 
then add enough of the latter to make the product measure one 
mils. Mix thoroughly. 



LINIMENTUM CALCIS 

Lime Liniment 
Lin. Crtc. Cam Oil 

lution of Calcium Hydr< jxidk, fwa hundred milliliters. 500 mite 
seed Oil, five hundred milliliters. 500 mils 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mih 

. them by agitation. 



LINIMENTUM CAMPHORS 

Camphor Liniment 

Lin. Cam ph. — Camphorated Oil 
One hundred grammes of Liniment of Camphor yields not less than 
&5 Gm. nor more than 20.5 Gm. of camphor. This preparation is 
; intended for hypodermic use. 

Camphor, in coarse powder, two hundred gramtnes 200 Gm. 

Cottonseed Oil, eight hundred grammes 800 ( mi. 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Introduce the cottonseed oil into a suitable flask or bottle, heat it 

a water bath, introduce the camphor and stopper the container 

ely. Dissolve the camphor by agitation without the further appli- 

on of heat* 

Assay — Weigh 25 Gm. of Camphor Liniment into a tared 150 mil flask aim* 
connect this flask with a 500 mil distillation flask containing 275 mils of aioefaoL 
Adjust the lube from the distillation flask so that it reaches to within 0.5 em. of the 
be flask containing the Liniment mid connect the hitler flask with a 
Now heat both flasks on sand baths and regulate the temperature 




234 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



to that the alcohol vapors will pass rapidly through the Liniment 
condensing. Receive the distillate in a flask graduated to 250 mils and 
the distillation until, at 25 & C.., the distillate measures 250 mils. Fill a 
polariflcope tube with the distillate and take the mean of four or more 
of the rotation, begin ning at ssero each time. The temperature eorre 
each degree is half a minute, additive if above, subtractive if beloi 
Place about 20 Gm. of the Camphor Liniment in an evaporating dish, 
diameter, and cover it with an inverted funnel 8 cm. in diameter, I 
dish on wire gauze, 10 cm. above a Bunsen burner having a flame 4 c 
When the camphor has all sublimed, dissolve 0,5 Gm. of the sublimate 
cient alcohol to make exactly 25 mils at 25° C. and take the mean of foui 
polartseope readings as before. The minutes of rotation of the distillati 
by the minutes of rotation of the control test just made, and this m 
by 20, will give the number of grammes of camphor in 100 Gm. of ( 
liniment. 



AfT 



LINIMENTUM CHL0R0FORMI 

Chloroform Liniment 

Lin. Chlorof. 

Chloroform, three hundred milliliters 

Soap Liniment, seven hundred milliliters 

To make one thousand milliliters 10 

Mix them by agitation. 



::j 



LINIMENTUM SAPONIS 

Soap Liniment 

Lis. Sapon.— Liquid Opodeldoc 

Soap, dried and granulated or powdered, sixty grammes. , , 

Camphor, in small pieces, forty-five grammes 

Oil of Rosemary, ten milliliters 

Alcohol, seven hundred milliliters 7 

Water, a sufficient quantity, ^M 
To make one thousand miUiliters 1C 

Dissolve the camphor and the oil of rosemary in the alcohol, 

soap and sufficient water to make the product measure one t 

mils. Agitate the mixture until the soap is dissolved, set it a* 

cooi place for twenty-four hours, and then filter. 

Preparation — linimenturo Cliloroformi* 



^ 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 235 

LINIMENTUM SAPONIS MOLLIS 

Liniment of Soft Soap 

Lin. Sapoa. Mo I J. —Tincture of Green Soap 

Soft Soap, six hundred and fifty grammes 650 Gm, 

On* of Lavender, twenty milliliters . 20 mils 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity, ^ 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mils 

Mix the oil of lavender with three hundred mils of alcohol, dissolve 
i this the soft soap by stirring or agitation, and set the solution aside 
twenty-four hours. Then filter it through paper, adding sufficient 
ilcobol to make the product measure one thousand mils. 



LINIMENTUM TEREBINTHINjE 

Turpentine Liniment 

Lill. Terebinth.— Kentish's Ointment 

Roam Cerate, six hundred and fifty grammes. . . . , ( 050 Gm. 

Oil of Turpentine, three hundred and fifty grammes 350 Gm, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Dissolve the rosin cerate, previously melted in a dish on a water bath, 
J the oil of turpentine, and mix them thoroughly 



LINUM 

Linseed 
Flaxseed 

The ripe seeds of Linum u&itaiissimum Linne* (Fain. Linacm), with- 

: the presence or admixture of more than 3 ]>er cent, of other seeds 

foreign matter. Preserve it in tightly-closed containers and add a 

drops of carbon tetrachloride or chloroform from time to time to 

it attack by insects. 

Orate or oblong-lanceolate, flattened, obliquely pointed at one end, from 3 to 
5 mm. in length; externally chestnut-brown, very smooth and shiny, the raphe 
' — i aa a distinct, light-yellow ridge along one edge; easily cut with the 
J; internally olive-green; oily; odor alight; taste mucilaginous and oily. 




236 THE PHABMACOPtEIA OF THS 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Linseed when mounted in hydrated 
chloral T.S. show an epidermis with a mucilaginous layer from 0.01 to 04B 
mm. in thickness, covered by a very thin layer of cutin which is often mow or 
less broken; two layers of parenchyma which overlie a continuous ring of stone 
cells having yellowish, porous walls and rather large lumina; a pigment layer, 
the cells having a reddish-brown content; an endosperm consisting of from 6 to 
10 rows of cells surrounding the two large plano-convex cotyledons; the cefli j 
of both the endosperm and the cotyledons contain a fixed oil ana aleurone grabs, j 
the latter being from 0.003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter. 

The powder is lemon-yellow or light brown, consisting chiefly of large, oily 
globules and irregular fragments of endosperm and seed-coat; the seed-coat ■ 
characterized by the tabular pigment cells filled with a reddish-brown, insoluble 
content and the somewhat elongated stone cells with yellowish walls; mounti 
made from material from which the fixed oil has been removed show aleurone 
grains from 0.003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter, both free and in the cells of the 
endosperm and embryo. 

Linseed Meal or Flaxseed Meal is light olive-brown with reddish-brown frag- 
ments; the latter very coarse and the cellular tissues are the same as those of 
the powder. 

Powdered Linseed or Flaxseed and linseed Meal or Flaxseed Meal must be 
free from any unpleasant or rancid odor. 

The powder, upon extraction with purified petroleum benzin, yields not less* 
than 30 per cent, of a fixed oil, at least 98 per cent, of which is saponifiabk. 

Boil 1 Gm. of the fat-free Linseed or Flaxseed Powder or Meal, with 50 mDfl 
of water, cool and filter; the filtrate gives not more than a faint blue color, osa 
the addition of iodine T.S. 

Linseed yields not more than 6 per cent, of ash. 



LIQUOR ACIDI ARSENOSI 

Solution of Arsenous Acid 

Liq. Acid. Arsen.— Hydrochloric Solution of Arsenic Solution of Arsenic Chloride 

An aqueous solution, containing arsenous acid equivalent to not 1*30* 
than 0.975 per cent, nor more than 1.025 per cent, of Aq*Os (197.92). 

Arsenic Trioxidb, in fine powder, ten gramme* 10 Gib. 

Diluted Hydrochloric Acid, fifty grammes 50 Gib- 
Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, ^ 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Mix the diluted hydrochloric acid with two hundred and fifty granmn 
of distilled water in a tared flask, add the arsenic trioxide, and boil until ■ 
the arsenic trioxide is completely dissolved. Then allow it to cool, add ■ 
enough distilled water to make the product weigh one thousand gramma 

and filter. 

Solution of Arsenous Acid is a clear, colorless liquid, odorless, haying a 
acidulous taste and an acid reaction. 

Hydrogen sulphide T.S., added to Solution of Arsenous Acid, produces ft 
lemon-yellow precipitate of arsenic trisulphide which is completely soluble is 
ammonium carbonate T.S. 






UNITED STATE9 OF AMERICA 



237 



Assay — Dilute about 20 mils of Solution of Arsenoua Acid, accurately weighed, 
with about 50 miln of distilled water, dissolve 2 Gm. of sodium bicarbonate in 
this solution and titrate with tenth-normal iodine YJ9,, using starch T.S. as 
indicator. It shows not less than 0.975 per rent, nor more than 1.025 per cent, 
of Asf0 3 . 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.S. used corresponds to 0.004948 Gm. of 
Ab^Os. Each gamm a of Solution of Arsenous Acid corresponds to not less than 
1.97 nor more than 2.07 mils of tenth-normal iodine V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0*2 rail — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



LIQUOR AMMONII ACETATIS 

Solution of Ammonium Acetate 

Liq. Amnion. Acet. — Spirit of Mindcrerus 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 7 percent, of NHXaHaOa 
7.07), with small amounts of acetic and carbonic acids. 

Ammonium Carbonate, five grammes 5 Cm. 

Diluted Acetic Acid, one hundred milliliters 100 mils 

Add the ammonium carbonate (which most be in hard, translu- 
cent pieces) gradually to the cold diluted acetic acid, and stir until it is 
dissolved. 

This preparation must not be dispensed unless it has been recently 
Prepared. 

Solution of Ammonium Acetate is a clear, colorless liquid, free from empy- 
reumatic odor and having a mildly saline, acidulous taste, and an acid reaction. 
It ■ volatile when heated. Not more than 0.003 Gm, of ash remains on evap- 
orating 20 mils of the Solution and ijmiting the residue. 

When Solution of Ammonium Acetate ia heated with potassium hydroxide 
TS,, ammonia is evolved. 

Add I mil each of sulphuric acid and alcohol to 5 mils of the Solution and 
boil the mixture; ethyl acetate is formed, recognisable by its odor- 
Assay — Dilute about 25 mil* of Solution of Ammonium Acetate, accurately 
weighed, with 100 mils of distilled water, transfer it to a distilling flask, render 
it alkaline with potassium hydroxide T.S. and distil the liquid until all of the 
ammonia has been driven over (about 100 mils of distillate), receiving the 
llnte under the surface of 50 mils of norma! sulphuric acid V.S* contained 
in a flask. Then titrate with normal potassium hydroxide V.*S,, usinff methyl 
orange T.S, m indicator. It shows not less than 7 per cent, of NrUCaHaOg* 

Each mil of normal sulphuric acid V.S. Used corresponds to 0.07707 Gm. of 
NB^CtHi 4 K 2 Each exam me of Solution of Ammonium Acetate corresponds to 
not less than 0,91 mil of normal sulphuric acid V.S. 

E- Liquor Ferri et Ammonii Ace tat is. 



Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 







LIQUOR ARSENI ET HYDRARGYRI lODIDf 

Solution of Arse nous and Mercuric Iodide 

Liq* Arsen. et H > drarg, lod. — Donovan's Solution 
An aqueous solution containing not less than 0,95 per cent, nor more 
than L05 per cent, of Asia (455.72) and not less than 0.95 per cent 
nor more than 1.05 per cent, of Hgl a (454.44). 

Arsenous Iodide, ten grammes 10 Gia 

Red Mercuric Iodide, ten grammes 10 ^ 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm, 

Rub the arsenous iodide and red mercuric iodide together in a morUr, 
add one hundred and fifty mils of distilled water, and continue the trit- 
uration until solution is effected. Filter the solution, and pass suffi- 
cient distilled water through the filter to make the product weigh one 
thousand grammes. Mix thoroughly. Preserve it in well-filled, amber* 
colored bottles. It must not be dispensed if darker than pale yellow. 

Solution of Arsenous and Mercuric Iodide is a clear, colorless or pale yellowish 
liquid, without odor, and having a disagreeable, metallic taste. 

One mil of Solution of Arsenous and Mercuric Iodide, mixed with 10 mils 
of distilled water, to which a few drops of lead acetate T.S, have been added, 
produces a bright yellow precipitate. 

Add a few drops of Solution of Arsenous and Mercuric Iodide to a mixture 
of about 0.5 Gm. of zinc and 5 mils of diluted hydrochloric acid in a test tube, and 
cover the mouth of the test tube with a filter paper which has been moistened 
with mercuric chloride T.S. and dried; a yellow stain appears upon the inner 
surface of the filter paper within one minute. 

Assay for Arsenous Iodide — Introduce about 25 mils of Solution of Arsenous 
and Mercuric Iodide into a flask, weigh accurately, dilute with 25 mils of dis- 
tilled water, then dissolve 2 Gm, of sodium bicarbonate in this solution and 
titrate it with tenth-normal iodine V.S., using starch T.S, as indicator. It abows 
not less than 0.95 per cent, nor more than 1,05 per cent, of Asia. 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V.8. used corresponds to O.Q22786 Gm of 
Aslg. Each gramme of Solution of Arsenous and Mercuric Iodide corre- 
sponds to not less than 0.42 mil nor more than 0.46 mil of tenth-normal iodine V & 

Assay for Mercuric Iodide — Introduce about 25 mils of Solution of Arsenous 
and Mercuric Iodide into a flask, weigh accurately t add 5 roils of potassium hy 
droxide T.S. and 5 mils of solution of formaldehyde, and warm the mixture on 
a water bath until the mercuric salt has been completely reduced to metallic 
mercury. Carefully decant the clear, supernatant liquid from the residua of 
metallic mercury and wash the mercury carefully by decantation, with two 
successive portions of 25 mils each of distilled water. Dissolve the residue of 
metallic mercury in 5 mils of nitric acid, dilute the solution with 50 mils of dis- 
tilled water, ado! 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate T.S. and titrate with tenth- 
normal potassium sulphocyanate V.8. to the formation of a permanent pink 
color. It shows not less than 0.95 per cent, nor more than 1 .05 per cent, of nfll* 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. corresponds i 
0,022722 Gm. of Hgla* Each gramme of Solution of Arsenous and Mercune 
Iodide corresponds to not less than 0.42 mil nor more than 0.46 mil of tenth- 
normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.1 mil — Apothecaries, 1% minims* 






(LIQUOR CALCIS 
Solution of Calcium Hydroxide 
, LJq. CaJc — Lime Water 

leous eolation containing not less than 0.14 per cent, of Ca(OH)t 
t 25° C, Preserve it in well-filled, tightly-stoppered bottles, 
rcentage of calcium hydroxide varies with the temperature at 
solution is prepared, being about 0.17 per cent, at 15° C. and 
lg as the temperature rises. 

Ifly grammes , , 50 Gm. 

-ed Watek, a sufficient quantity. 

he lime by the very gradual addition of one thousand mil* 
i water, and agitate it occasionally during half an hour. Allow 
nded particles to subside, decant the supernatant liquid and 

Transfer the magma of calcium hydroxide to a filter and 
"epeatedly with boiling distilled water, until the washings, 
illation with nitric acid, show not more than a faint cloudiness 
?r nitrate T.S, (chloride). Return the magma to a suitable 
, &dd five thousand mils of distilled water, agitate it thoroughly, 

mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, agitate again , and, 
coarser particles of solid matter have subsided , pour the liquid, 
le undissolved calcium hydroxide in suspension, into a bottle 
tight stopper. From time to time shake the bottle to insure a 
solution. Pour off the clear liquid when required for use. 
dissolved calcium hydroxide must not be used for making 
I quantities of Solution of Calcium Hydroxide unless the product 
o be of full strength when assayed. 

tioo of Calcium Hydroxide is a clear, colorless liquid without odor, and 
; an alkaline taste. 
strongly alkaline to litmus. 

asorbs carbon dioxide from the air, a pellicle of calcium carbonate forming 
surface of the liquid. 

Ming heated it becomes turbid, due to the separation of calcium hydroxide 
redissolves when the liquid is coded. 

alkaline reaction of the Solution entirely disappears after it has been 
ted with carbon dioxide and subsequently boiled (alkalies and their 

lid). 

ly — Titrate 50 mils of Solution of Calcium Hydroxide with tenth-normal 

ric acid V.S., using phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator; it shows not less 

1.14 per cent, of Ca(OH) 2 . 

b mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.0037045 

T Ca(OH)n. Each mil of Solution of Calcium Hydroxide corresponds to 

b than 0.38 mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. 

atlon — linimentum Calcis. 

verage dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 




240 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

LIQUOR CRESOLIS COMPOSITUS 

Compound Solution of Cresol 

Liq. Cresol. Co. 

Cresol, five hundred grammes 

Linseed Oil, three hundred grammes 

Potassium Hydroxide, eighty grammes 

Alcohol, thirty milliliters 

Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes ] 

Heat the linseed oil in a tared vessel of a capacity equal to al 
times the bulk of the ingredients, on a water bath to a tempe 
70° C. Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in 50 mils of water a 
the solution to 70° C, add it to the linseed oil and mix thorough 
incorporate the alcohol and continue to heat the mixture witl 
ring until a small portion is found to be soluble in boiling wa 
out the separation of oily drops. While yet warm add the ci 
mix thoroughly, maintaining the temperature at about 70° 
a clear solution is produced. Finally add sufficient water to i 
finished product weigh one thousand grammes. 

Note— In this process the 80 Gm. of potassium hydroxide 
replaced by 54 Gm. of sodium hydroxide. 



LIQUOR FERRI CHLORIDI 

Solution of Ferric Chloride 

Liq. Fcrr. Chlor.— Solution of Iron Perchloride 

An aqueous solution containing ferric chloride [FeCl* — 162 
responding to not less than 10 per cent, nor more than 11 per ce 
Preserve it in glass-stoppered bottles protected from light. 

Iron, in the form of fine, bright wire, and cut into small 

pieces, one hundred and twenty-five grammes 

Hydrochloric Acid, six hundred and eighty grammes. . . . 

Nitric Acid, 

Distilled Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



241 



nfroduce the iron wire into a flask having a capacity of about two 
vndmite, pour upon it a mixture of four hundred and twenty grammes 
f hydrochloric SCtd and too hundnd and fifty mils of distilled water 
ttdbeat the mixture on a water bath for not leoa than one hour and fif- 
teen minutes, or until effervescence ceases; then boil the liquid, filter it 
kwugh paper, iradj having onied the Bade and iron wire with a little 
illed water, pass the rinsings through the filter. To the filtered 
^uid add two hundred and twenty grammes of hydrochloric acid, then 
Id the mixture slowly and gradually in a stream to sixttj-fwe grammes 
nitric acid contained in a tared, capacious porcelain mffinl. Bud warm 
ntlv- If the solution has acquired a black color, continue the addi- 
»n of nitric acid, drop by drop, until red fumes are no longer evuh-rl 
d the solution assumes a clear, reddish-brown color. After efferveft- 
ceases, heat on a sand bath, stirring occasionally until the liquid 
from nitric acid, as indicated by the test given below. During 
rating add distilled water from time to time to maintain about the 
volume. Finally add the remaining forty grammes of hydro- 
ic acid and enough distilled water to make the Solution weigh one 
and grammes. 

Solution of Ferric Chloride is a reddish-brown liquid, having a faint odor of 

iiloric acid, an acid, strongly styptic taste, and an acid reaction. 
Specific gravity; from 1,29 to 1.32 at 25° C. 

Separate Portions of an aqueous dilution of the Solution (1 in 10) yield a 
biwrnish-rea precipitate with ammonia water, ■ blue precipitate with potassium 
ferrccyitfude T.S., and a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, with eilver 
nitrate 

Precipitate the iron completely from a weighed portion of about 2 mils of 
tbe Solution, previously diluted with 50 mils of distilled water, by adding an 
MWaof ammonia water and niter. The filtrate is colorless, and does not yield 
* precipitate with hydrogen sulphide T.S. (zinc, tend or copper); nor does it 
we on evaporation and ignition a fixed residue corresponding to more than 
01 per cent, of the amount t iked (salts of the fixed alkalies). 

Add a clear crystal of ferrous sulphate to a cooled mixture of equal volumes 
wBulpburic acid and an aqueous dilution of the Solution (1 in 10); the crystal 
wft not become brown nor does a brownish-black color develop around it 
NNe «■■ 

Add a few drops of freshly prepared potassium ferri cyanide T.S, to an aqueous 

dilution of the Solution (afeout 1 in 20); a brown color is produced which does 

ice turn green or greenish-blue (ferrous *alU), 

To about 0.5 Gro. of Solution of Feme Chloride, accurately weighed, add 10 

fflib of distilled water and 50 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate VS., shake it 

vigorously, then add 2 mils of nitric acid and sufficient distilled water to measure 

100 mils, and mix well. Filter the mixture through a dry filter (rejecting 

first filtrate) and determine the excess of silver nitrate in 50 mils of the 

k by titration with tenth-normal DOtaesum BUlphocyfioJkte V\S. The 

lage of chlorine found is not less than 3 per cent, nor more than 5 pet 

excess of that required to combine with the iron present as ferric chloride. 

ntageof iron found, multiplied by L9, given toe percentage of ohlorine 

us ferric chloride {free hydrochloric acid), Eacn mil of tenth-nonn.il 

nitrate VJB. eorrefponda to O.on&VHS Gm. of CI. 






242 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THS 

Assay— Transfer about 2 Gm. of Solution of Ferric Chloride to a flask, stopper 
and weigh accurately, then add 5 mils of hydrochloric acid, 25 mils of distilled water 
and about 3 Gm. of potassium iodide, securely stopper the flask and allow tbt 
mixture to stand for thirty minutes at a temperature of 40° C. Cool the liquid 
dilute it with 100 mils of distilled water and then titrate with tenth-Donnal 
sodium thiosulphate V.S., starch T.S. being used as indicator. It shows not km 
than 10 per cent, nor more than 11 per cent, of Fe. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used corresponds to 
0.005584 Gm. of Fe. Each gramme of Solution of Ferric Chloride correspoodi 
to not less than 17.9 mils nor more than 19.7 mils of tenth-normal sodium 
thiosulphate V.S. 

Preparations — Ferri Chloridum Tlnctura Ferri Chloridi. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.1 mil— Apothecaries, 1>£ minims. 



LIQUOR FERRI ET AMMONH ACETATE 

Solution of Iron and Ammonium Acetate 

Llq. Ferr. et Amnion. Acet.— Basham's Mixture 

Tincture op Ferric Chloride, forty milliliters 40 mill 

Diluted Acetic Acid, sixty milliliters 60 mik 

Solution of Ammonium Acetate, five hundred milliliters 500 mils 

Aromatic Elixir, one hundred and twenty milliliters 120 mils 

Glycerin, one hundred and twenty milliliters 120 mik 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 mib 

To the solution of ammonium acetate (which must be slightly acid) 
add, successively, the diluted acetic acid, the tincture of ferric chloride, 
the aromatic elixir, and the glycerin, and lastly, enough distilled water 
to make the product measure one thousand mils. 

This preparation must not be dispensed unless it has been recentVj 
prepared. 

Solution of Iron and Ammonium Acetate is a clear, reddish-brown liquid, ^ 
a sweetish, saline and afterward slightly astringent taste; it possesses an aromafc* 
odor. 

The Solution is acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: about 1.039 at 25° C. 

The Solution yields a blue precipitate with potassium ferrocyanide TJS., bv* 1 
the addition of ammonia water produces no precipitate. 

When Solution of Iron and Ammonium Acetate is heated with potassium 
hydroxide T.S., ammonia is evolved. 

Add 1 mil each of sulphuric acid and alcohol to 5 mils of the Solution and 
boil the mixture; ethyl acetate is formed, recognizable by its odor. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachma 



LIQUOR FERRI SUBSULPHATIS 

Solution of Ferric Subsulphate 

. Ferr. Subsulph. — Monad's Solution Solution of Basic Ferric Sulphate 

aqueous solution containing basic ferric sulphate corresponding 
than 13 per cent, nor more than 14 per cent, of Fe. 

ous Sulphate, six hundred and seventy-five grammes 675 Gm, 

HtiRic Acid, sixty-Jive grammes ,....,..,,. 65 Gnu 

Nitric Acid, 

r tilled Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

KM the sulphuric arid to five hundred mils of distilled water in a 
M, capacious porcelain dish, heat the mixture to nearly 100° C; then 
Id seventy grammes of nitric acid and mix well. Divide the ferrous 

fate, coarsely powdered, into four approximately equal portions, 
idd these portions one at a time to the hot liquid, stirring after 
addition until effervescence ceases. If, after the ferrous sulphate 
Eolved, the solution is of a black color, add nitric acid, a few drops 
qk\ with heating and stirring, until red fumes cease to be 
, Boil the Solution until it assumes a red color and is free 
m nitric acid, as indicated by the test given below. During the 
-jting add distilled water from time to time to maintain about the 
iginal volume. Lastly, add enough distilled water to make the product 
ti|h om thousand grammes. Filter if necessary. Keep it in wcll- 
loppered containers, in a moderately warm place (not under 22° C), 
from light. 
Solution sometimes crystallizes, forming a semi-solid, whitish 
When this occurs, the application of a gentle heat will restore 
liquid condition. 

Solution of Ferric Subsulphate is a dark reddish-brown liquid, odorless or 
nearfy *>, of an acid, strongly styptic taste, an aeid reaction and iniscible with 
**ter and alcohol without decomposition, 
ific gravity: about 1.548 at 25° C. 

portions of tin aqueous dilution of the Solution (1 in 20) yield a 
„ jab-red precipitate with ammonia water, a blue precipitate with potaenum 
[«nocyanide T.S., and a white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, with 
Umuu chloride i 

Add a clear crystal of ferrous sulphate to a cooled mixture of equal volu 
of sulphuric acid and an aqueous dilution of the Solution (I in 10); the crystal 
does not become brown nor does a brownish-black color develop around it 
(nitric acid). 

Add a few drops of freshly prepared potassium ferricyanide T\S. to 2 mils of 
Hi aqueous dilution of the Solution (1 in 20); a brown color is produced without 
t of green or greenish-blue {ferrous satt)* 




244 THE PHAKMACOPOEIA OF THB 

Assay — Transfer about 1.5 Gm. of Solution of Ferric Subeulphate to a flu 
stopper and weigh accurately, then add 5 mils of hydrochloric acid, 25 mils < 
distilled water, and 2 Gm. of potassium iodide, securely stopper the flask id 
allow the mixture to stand for thirty minutes at a temperature of 40° C. Coo 
the liquid, dilute it with 50 mils of distilled water, ana then titrate with tenth- 
normal sodium thiosulphate V.S., starch T.S. being used as indicator. It shorn 
not less than 13 per cent, nor more than 14 per cent, of Fe. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used corresponds t 
0.005584 Gm. of Fe. Each gramme of Solution of Ferric Subsulphate core 
sponds to not less than 23.3 mils nor more than 25.1 mils of tenth-nons 
sodium thiosulphate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



LIQUOR FERRI TERSULPHATIS 
Solution of Ferric Sulphate 

Liq. Fcrr. Tersulph.— Solution of Iron Tersulphate 

An aqueous solution containing normal ferric sulphate [Fe a (S(V> 
399.89], corresponding to not less than 9.5 per cent, nor more t,h 
10.5 per cent, of Fe. 

Ferrous Sulphate, five hundred grammes 500 Gm 

Sulphuric Acid, ninety-six grammes 96 Gm 

Nitric Acid, 

Distilled Water, each, a sufficient quantity, __ 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gnu 

Add the sulphuric acid to about two hundred and fifty mils of distilled 
water in a tared, capacious porcelain dish, heat the mixture to nearly 
100° C, then add fifty-six grammes of nitric acid, and mix well. Divide 
the ferrous sulphate, coarsely powdered, into four approximately equal 
portions, and add these portions one at a time to the hot liquid, stirring 
after each addition until effervescence ceases. When all of the ferrous 
sulphate is dissolved, if the Solution has acquired a black color, add 
nitric acid, a few drops at a time, heating and stirring until red fumes 
cease to be evolved, and the Solution assumes a clear reddish-brown 
color; then boil the liquid until it is free from nitric acid, as indicated 
by the test given below. During the heating add distilled water froo 
time to time to maintain about the original volume. Lastly, add enoug) 
distilled water to make the product weigh one thousand grammes. M 
ter if necessary. 

Solution of Ferric Sulphate is a yellowish-brown liquid, almost odorkc 
having an acid, strongly styptic taste, and an acid reaction; it is mi yiHte wil 
water and alcohol. 

Specific gravity: about 1.432 at 25° C. 



UNITED STATOS OF AMERICA 



245 



Separate portions of an aqueous dilution of the Solution (1 in 20) yield a 
brownish-red precipitate with ammonia wafer, ■ blue precipitate with potassium 
terrocyanide T.S., and a white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, with 
Urium chloride 

Add a clear crystal of ferrous sulphate to a cooled mixture of equal volumes 
of sulphuric acid and an aqueous dilution of the Solution (I in 10) ; the eryetfJ 
docs not become brown, nor does a brownish-black color develop around it 
(Mtneacid). 

Add a few drops of freshly prepared potassium ferri cyanide T,S. to 2 mils 
of aa aqueous dilution of the Solution ( 1 in 20) ; a brown color is produced with- 
out a tinge of green or greenish- blue (ferrous mU). 
Assay— Transfer about 1.5 Gm. of Solution of Ferric Sulphate to a flask, 
:y;h accurately, then add 5 mils of hydrochloric arid, 25 rails of 
fed water, and 2 Gm, of potassium iodide, securely stopper the flask and 
*lk»r the mixture to stand for thirty minutes at a temperature of 40° C Cool 
the liquid, dilute it with 50 mils of distilled water and then titrate with tenth- 
normal sodium thiosulphate V.S,, starch T.S, being used jis indicator. It shows 
&Qt less than 9.5 per cent, nor more than 10.5 per cent, of Fe. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thtotulphate V.S. used corresponds to 
0.005584 Gm. of Fe, Each gramme of Solution of Ferric Sulphate corresponds 
to not less than 17 mils nor more than 1S.8 mils of tenth-normal sodium tliio- 



LIQUOR FORMALBEHYDI 

Solution of Formaldehyde 
Llq. Formaldeh y J . 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 37 per cent, by weight 
fCH«Q or H.CHO (30.02), with varying amounts of methyl alcohol 
> prevent polymerization. Preserve it in a moderately warm place, 
ted from light. 

Solution of Formaldehyde is a clear, colorless or nearly colorless liquid, having 
pungent odor and a caustic taste; its vapor acts as an irritant upon mucous 
membrane. 
It u miscible with water or alcohol. On long standing, especially in the cold, 
I Formaldehyde sometimes loses its transparency, the cloudiness being 
the sepuniti'm of paraformaldehyde. 

5 mils of Solution of Formaldehyde with 25 mils of distilled water 
add 3 mils of silver ammonium nitrate T.S. ; metallic silver is produced either 
form of a finely divided gray precipitate or as a bright met allic mirror 
lg to the aides <>f the tent nnV. 
Add 2 drops of Solution of Formaldehyde to 5 mils of sulphuric acid in which 
a little salicylic acid has been dissolved, and warm the liquid very gently; a 
permanent Jeep red color appears, 

more than 1 mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.8. is required to neu> 
20 mils of Solution of Formaldehyde, to which 2 drops of phenol pfothalein 
have been added {free acids). 
Assay— Transfer 3 mils of Solution of Formaldehyde to a tared flask con- 
taining 10 mils of distilled water, tightly stopper and weigh accurately. Add 
to the contents of the fl:i>k 50 mils of normal potassium hydroxide VS., and 
follow this immediately but slowly through a small funnel with 50 mile of 
solution of hydrogen dioxide which has previously been rendered neutral to 
h with potassium hydroxide. Now heat the mixture cautiously on a water 
both for five minutes, shaking occasionally during this time; allow the mixture 



the 



paw 
Eft 




THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 



^ 



to cool, rinse the funnel and sides of the 6ask with distilled water and, 
allowing it to stand thirty minutes, titrate with normal sulphuric acid ^^^ 
using litmus T.S. as indicator, It showy not leas than 37 per cent, of Cl^^ 



jjer 
correction being made for free acid if present. 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.8. corresponds to 0.03002 
of CH2O. Each gramme of Solution of Formaldehyde corresponds to not 
than 12.3 mils of normal potassium hydroxide Y\S. 



LIQUOR HYDROGENH DIOXIDI 

Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide 



& 



Solution of Hydrogc! 



,b - 



Llq. Hydrog, Dlox.— Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, tLS.P, Vni 

Peroxide 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 3 per cent, by weight ot"« 
H a 3 (34.02), corresponding to not less than 10 volumes of available 
oxygen. Preserve it in a cool place protected from light. Upon removing 
the stopper from the bottle, nut more than a slight pressure should 1 
observed. 

Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide is a colorless liquid, odorless or having an ocfc^ 
suggesting ozone, slightly acid to the taste and producing a peculiar senaatic^ 
and froth in the mouth; prone to deteriorate upon keeping or upon protract*^* 
agitation, and rapidly decomposed by contact with many oxidizing as well «i 
reducing substances. If the stopper of the bottle is coated with paraffin <w 
replaced by a pledget of purified cotton, deterioration is retarded. 

When exposed to the air at the ordinary temperature or when heated oa a 
water bath at a temperature not exceeding 60° C, the solution loses chiefly 
water. When rapidly heated, it frequently decomposes suddenly. 

Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide is acid to litmus. 

Shake 1 mil of Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide with 10 mils of distilled water 
containing 1 drop of diluted sulphuric acid, and add 2 mils of ether. The sub- 
sequent addition of a drop of potassium di eliminate T.S. produces a blue color 
in the aqueous layer. Upon agitation, this blue color passes into the ethereal 
layer. 

Not more than 0*03 Gm. of solid residue remains on evaporating 20 miUof 
the Solution to dryness on a water bath (ftdfe-wJatifa maUvr). 

It requires not more than 2 mils of tenth-normal potassium hydroxide VS., 
phenolphthalein T.S. being used as indicator, to neutralize 25 mils of Solution 
of Hydrogen Dioxide {free add). 

And 1 mil of ammonia water to 1 mil of the Solution and evaporate the liquid 
to dryness on a water bath ; the residue meets the requirements of the Test for 
arsenic (see Part 11, Test No. 1). 

Evaporate 1 mil of the Solution to dryness on a water bath and dissolve the 
residue in 10 mils of distilled water containing 1 mil of diluted hydrochloric 
acid ; the liquid does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Fart 1 1 
No. 3). 

Evaporate 50 mils of the Solution, previously rendered alkaline by the addition 
of sodium hydroxide T.S. , to dryness on b water bath and transfer the dry residue 
to a platiuum crucible. Moisten the residue with sulphuric acid, and cover tta* 
crucible with a watch glass, the convex side of which is coated with a thin 
layer of wax which is afterwards scratched so as to expose the glass. Cool 
the watch glass by placing water in the concave Bide and standing in this 
a small beaker which must be kept filled with cold water. Now heat the 






groc&k and contents on a water bath for one hour; the surface of the watch 
gUae iftcr being cleaned shows no sign of corrosion (hydrofluoric acid}. 

The addition of 2 drops of diluted sulphuric acid to 10 rnila of the Solution 
produces no turbidity or precipitate within ten minutes (barium), 

Add 4 drops of sodium acetate T.S. to 10 mils of the Solution and follow 
with 4 drops of calcium chloride T.S.; no turbidity or precipitate m produced 
•n minutes toxtdir arid). 

Shake out 100 mils of Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide in a separator with a 
mixture of tliree volumes of chloroform and two volumes of ether* usin£. 60 
mils, 25 mils t and 25 mils respectively, and evaporate the combined solutions 
to dryness at room temperature in a tared glass dish, A residue may be 
obtained which weighs not more than 0.04 Gm. [Until of prexcrvatiw). 

Assay— Dilute about 2 Gm. of Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide, accurately 
with 20 mils of distilled water, then acidulate it with 20 mils of diluted 
mesne acid and titrate with tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. 
ll«hows not less than 3 per cent, of HgOg. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. used corresponds to 
MOI70Q6 Gm. of HgQ* or to 0.0008 Gm. of oxygen. Each gramme of Solution 
of Hydrogen Dioxide corresponds to not less than 17.6 mils of tenth-normal 
potassium permanganate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fluidrachm. 



LIQUOR HYPOPHYSIS 

Solution of Hypophysis 

Liq. Hypophysis— Solution of the Pituitary Body 

I solution containing the water-soluble principle or principles from 
&fresh posterior lobe of the pituitary body of cattle. 

ct the finely minced material with slightly acidulated water, 
solution for ten minutes and filter it Sterilize this filtrate 
I preserve it in a sterile condition in glass containers. 

A transparent liquid, colorless or nearly so, having a faint, characteristic odor. 

One mil of Solution of Hypophysis, diluted 3J.QO0 times, has the Fame 
activity on the isolated uterus of the virgin guinea-pig as a 1 to 20,000,000 solu- 
tion of beta-iminazolyl-etlivlitMiine hydrochloride mum tested as directed by 
the United States Hygienic Laboratory. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



LIQUOR IODI COMPOSITUS 

Compound Solution of Iodine 

Liq. lodt Co.— Lugd's Solution 

aqueous solution containing not less than 4.8 per cent, nor more 
5.2 per cent, of I and not less than 9.8 per cent, nor more than 



248 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 



10.2 per cent, of EI. Preserve the solution in glass-stoppered botft 

protected from light. 

Iodine, five grammes 5 Gi 

Potassium Iodide, ten grammes 10 Gi 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Go 

Dissolve the iodine and potassium iodide in a sufficient quantity! 
distilled water to make the product weigh one hundred grammes. 

Compound Solution of Iodine is a transparent liquid of a deep brown colo 
having an odor of iodine. 

A drop of Compound Solution of Iodine when added to 1 mil of starch TJB 
diluted with 10 mils of water, produces a deep blue color. 

Assay for Potassium Iodide — Evaporate in a tared, porcelain dish on a itti 
bath about 5 mils of Compound Solution of Iodine, accurately weighed in 
stoppered weighing-bottle, repeatedly moisten the residue with distilled life 
ana re-evaporate until it becomes white. It leaves a residue of not lea tin 
9.8 per cent, nor more than 10.2 per cent, of a salt which responds to the to* 
for identity and purity under Pota&sii Iodidum. 

Assay for Iodine— Dilute about 10 mils of Compound Solution of Iodfo 
accurately weighed in a stoppered weighing-bottle, with 25 mils of distilled wife 
and titrate with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate VJ3., starch TJS. being oft 
as indicator. It shows not less than 4.8 per cent, nor more than 5.2 per cm 
of I. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate VJ3. used correspond! 1 
0.012692 Gm. of I. Each gramme of Compound Solution of Iodine c ou espont 
to not less than 3.8 mils nor more than 4.1 mils of tenth-normal sodium thorn 
phate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 

LIQUOR MAGNESII CITRATTS 

Solution of Magnesium Citrate 

Llq. Mag. Crt 

One hundred mils of the Solution contains magnesium citrate corr 
sponding to not less than 1.5 Gm. of magnesium oxide (MgO= 40.32) 

Magnesium Carbonate, fifteen grammes 15.0 Gn 

Citric Acid, thirty-three grammes 33.0 Gi 

Syrup, sixty milliliters 60.0 mi 

Purified Talc, five grammes 5.0 Gi 

Oil op Lemon, one-tenth of a milliliter 0.1 in 

Potassium Bicarbonate, two and five4enths grammes 2.5 G 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the citric acid in one hundred and fifty mils of hot water i 
suitable dish, and, having added the magnesium carbonate, previoi 
mixed with one hundred mils of water, stir until it is dissolved. T 
add the syrup, heat the mixed liquids to the boiling point, immedia 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



249 



duce the oil of lemon, previously triturated with the purified talc, 
I filter the mixture, while hot, into a strong bottle (previously rinsed 
) boiling water) of suitable capacity. Introduce enough boiled water 
! the product measure three hundred and fifty mih. Stopper it 
i purified cotton until cold, then drop in the potassium bicarbonate, 
uidimnii-diauly stopper the bottle securely. Lastly, shake the solution 
fe»6ioaalJy until the potassium bicarbonate is dissolved. Keep the 
itftle on its side in a cool place, preferably in a refrigerator. 

-In this process the 2.5 Gm. of potassium bicarbonate may be 
Bplaced by 2.1 Gm, of sodium bicarbonate, preferably in tablet form. 

Add 1 mil of glacial acetic acid and 3 mils of an aqueous solution of potassium 

iceute (1 in 2) to 10 mils of Solution of Magnesium Citrate, shake the mixture 

vigorously, then gently rub the sides of the test tube with a glass rod for a few 

tee and allow to stand for one hour; no white crystalline precipitate, soluble 

muamonia water, is produced {tartaric neid). 

Dilute 2 mils of the Solution with 8 mils of distilled water and add 5 drops of 

brie acid and \ mil of barium chloride TJ3.J no turbidity is produced 

r minute {sulphur). 

2 mils of the solution with 8 mils of distilled water and add 5 mils of 
i oxalate T,S.; not more than a slight turbidity is produced (cfilcium). 
Assay — Transfer 10 mils of Solution of Magnesium Citrate, accurately 
measured, to a platinum or porcelain dish, evaporate to dryness, and ignite untd 
owl of the carbonaceous matter has burned off, Add to the residue 20 mils of 
diluted hydrochloric acid, heat, on a water bath for fifteen minutes, filter if 
tottsary, and wash the residue thoroughly with hot water. To the combined 
"" i and wiaJhinn, which should measure about 1(H) mils, add an excess of 
phosphate T.S. (about 20 mils), then add ammonia water gradually, 
ftstant stirring, until slightly alkaline, allow to stand for ten minutes, add 
toils of ammonia water, and allow to stand for twelve hours. Collect the precip- 
n a filter, wash it with dilute ammonia water (1 volume of ammonia water 
i i until 10 niila of the washings, when acidulated with nitric 
not more than an opalescence on the addition of a few drops of silver 
IS. Dry. and ignite to constant weight. The weight of the magnesium 
phatc so obtained is not less than 0.414 Gm,, indicating an equivalent 
foot less than 1.5 Gm. of magnesium oxide in 100 mils of the Solution. 

(Average dose— Metric, 350 mils — Apothecaries, 12 fiuidounces. 
LIQUOR PLUMBI SUBACETATIS 
Solution of Lead Subacetate 
Llq. Plumb. Subacet.— Goulard's Extract 
aqueous solution containing lead subacetate, approximately 
(0(CH 1 ,COO) a = 548.25 t corresponding to not less than 18 per cent. 
Preserve the Solution in well-stoppered bottles. 
Acetate, one hundred and eighty grammes. ........ 180 Gm 

Oxide, finely powdered, one hundred and ten grammes 110 Gm. 

ED Water, a sufficient quantity t 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 



250 THE PHABMACOPCEIA Or THB 

Dissolve the lead acetate in seven hundred mils of boiling distil, 
water and add the solution slowly and in portions to the lead qzh 
which has previously been rubbed to a smooth paste with one hunk 
mils of distilled water, and place in a porcelain dish of about one Hi 
capacity. m Boil this mixture during half an hour with occasional sti 
ring, adding distilled water as required to maintain about the origan 
volume. Finally, when cool, filter the solution, protecting it as muc 
as possible from the air, and add sufficient distilled water, which ha 
previously been boiled and cooled, to make the finished prodoc 
weigh one thousand grammes. 

A clear, colorless liquid, odorless and having a very sweet, astringent tartf 
It is alkaline to litmus but not to phenolphthalein. On exposure to the sir i 
absorbs carbon dioxide, which causes the formation of a white precipitate. 

Specific gravity: about 1.245 at 25° C. 

When Solution of Lead Subacetate is added to a solution of acacia, it produce 
a dense, white precipitate (distinction from normal lead acetate). 

Separate portions of Solution of Lead Subacetate, diluted with 10 volunwo 
recently boiled distilled water, yield a black precipitate with hydrogen solnbidi 
T.S., a yellow precipitate with potassium iodide TJ3., and a white preciptal 
with diluted sulphuric acid. 

Solution of Lead Subacetate yields with potassium ferrocyanide TJS. a pn 
cipitate which is not perceptibly blue or red (iron or copper). 

Assay — Transfer about 1.5 Gm. of Solution of Lead Subacetate, accurate! 
weighed, to a 200 mil measuring flask, dilute with 50 mils of recently bofle 
distilled water, then add 50 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.8., agitate tt 
mixture thoroughly for five minutes, fill to the mark with distilled water, ai 
filter, rejecting the first 20 mils of the filtrate. Add 5 mils of sulphuric sod 
100 mils of the filtrate (representing one-half of the amount of Solution of Let 
Subacetate originally taken) . warm to about 70° C. and titrate with tenth-noni 
potassium permanganate V.S. It shows not less than 18 per cent, of F1>. 

Each mil of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.0108 
Gm. of Pb. Each gramme of Solution of Lead Subacetate corresponds to i 
less than 17.4 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. 

Preparation— Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis Dilutus. 



LIQUOR PLUMBI SUBACETATIS DILUTUS 

Diluted Solution of Lead Subacetate 

Liq. Plumb. Subacet. Dil.— Lead Water 

Solution of Lead Subacetate, forty grammes 40 G 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 G 

Mix the solution of lead subacetate with enough distilled wat 
previously lx>iled and cooled, to make the product weigh one thousc 
grammes. This preparation must be preserved in small, well-filled a 
tightly-stoppered bottles. 



LIQUOR POTASSII ARSENITIS 
Solution of Potassium Arsenite 

i Pot* Arsea. — Fowler's Solution Liquor arsenlcalis Fowleri P.L 

aqueous solution containing potassium arsenite, corresponding in 
it to not less than 0.975 per cent, nor more than 1,025 per cent, 
>s (197.92), Preserve the Solution in amber-colored bottles. 

ic Trioxide, in fine powder, ten grammes 10 Gm, 

tassium Bicarbonate, twenty gramme* . . . . ......... 20 Gm. 

ompound Tincture of Lavknder, thirty grammes . . 30 Gm, 
stilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes. . . . . . 1000 Gm, 

the arsenic trioxide and potassium bicarbonate in a tared 
frith one hundred grammes of distilled water, until solution has 
i effected, and then add enough distilled water to make the solution 
nine hundred and seventy grammes; then add the compound 
of lavender and filter through paper. 

Solution of Potassium A reunite is a dear or faintly opalescent liquid with a 
ink color and a slight odor of lavender. It is alkaline to litmus. 

lulate strongly JO mils of the Solution with hydrochloric acid and arid an 
1 volume of hydrogen sulphide TJ3.J a yellow precipitate is produced which 
lives in ammonium carbonate T.S. 
Acidulate 4 mils of Solution of Polassmrn Arsrnitp with diluted nitric arid, 
1 mil of silver nitrate TVS. and superimpose a layer of ammonia water 
i this liquid; no red or reddish-brown color is observed at the line of contact 
(ancntUe), 

Assay — Dilute about 20 mils of Solution of Potassium Arsenite, accurately 
weighed, with 7o mils of distilled water, acidify the mixture very slightly with 
diluted hydrochloric acid, then dissolve in the solution 2 Gm. of sodium 
bicarbonate and titrate the n Hilling liquid with tenth-normal iodine V.S., 
Starch TA being used as indicator. It shows not less than 0.976 peg cent. 
nor more than 1.025 per cent, of AS3O3. 

Each mil of tenth-normal iodine V&. used corresponds to 0.004948 Gm. of 
A*jO» Eaeh gramme of Solution of Potassium ArseniU corresponds to not less 
1.97 nor more than 2.07 mils of tenth-normal iodine VS. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



LIQUOR POTASSII CITRATIS 

Solution of Potassium Citrate 
Llq* Pot. Cit* 

nqueous solution containing not less than 8 per cent, of K a C fl H 6 T 
I), with small amounts of citric and carbonic acids. 






1 



2S2 TEZ Fff%1Wf%fOmiA OF THS 

POfTASeTClC BiCUZaCBrXIX. Atfft ^TDTOHO &C 

Citric Aco ? «x $raruiia 6* 

Dbttilud Watzs. <x jajfEoeni quantity, 

To make o« kindred wrilffiiter* 100 

Dinoive the potasHinn bicarbonate and the citric acid, each, ii 
ntiU of distilled water. Filter the solutions separately, and 
the filters with enough distilled water to obtain in each case fifl 
Mix the two solutions, and. when effervescence has ceased, t 
to a bottle and stopper tightly. This preparation must not be dig 
unless it has been recently prepared. 

Solution of Bxaasnnn Citrate as a dear, colorless liquid, odorless, an 
a mfldiy •fine taste. It is sfighth- acid to litmus. 

It conform* to the reaetnos and tests for an aqueous solution of 
as siren under Pataaii Citna. when concentrated to the proper stren 

Assay — Evaporate to dryness about 15 mils of Solution of F 
Citrate, accurately weighed, and ptot e cd as directed under the Assay 
sahs of organic acids see Part IL Test No. 6). It shows not less th 
cent, of KjCcH^Or. 

Each mil of half-normal sulphuric acid WS. used corresponds to 0.05 
of K^C*Hs0 7 . Each gramme of Solution of Potassium Citrate, after 
tion and ignition, corresponds to not less than 1.57 mils of ha 
sulphuric acid Vj3. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluids 



LIQUOR POTASSn HYDROXIDI 

Solution of Potassium Hydroxide 

Uq. Pot. Hydro*-— Liquor Potaase Solution of Potassa 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 4.5 per cent. < 
(56.11). Preserve Solution of Potassium Hydroxide in bottle 
of hard glass, and provided with rubber stoppers or with glass s 
coated with petrolatum. 

Potassium Hydroxide, sixty grammes 

Distilled Water, nine hundred and forty grammes 8 

To make one thousand grammes 1C 

Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in the distilled water. 

Solution of Potassium Hydroxide is a clear, colorless, odorless liquic 
even when diluted, a very acrid and caustic taste. It should not be tea 
largely diluted. It is strongly alkaline and readily absorbs carbon dio: 
the air. 

Specific gravity: about 1.046 at 25° C. 

It conforms to the reactions and tests for an aqueous solution of i 
hydroxide as given under Potassix Hydroxidum, when concentrate 
proper strength. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



253 



Introduce about 20 mils of Solution of Potassium Hydroxide into a flask. 
5*3>per, weigh accurately and titrate it directly with normal hydrochloric acid 
■■&. uarag methyl orange T.S. as indicator "It shows not more than 5.5 per 
***t. of alkalinity, calculated as KOH (carhof. 

Atsav — Transfer about 50 mils of Sola I ion of Potassium Hydroxide, accurately 
*eiRheo\ to a 250 mil measuring flask, add 20 mils of barium chloride T.S. and 
fill the flask to the mark with distilled water, width has previously been boiled 
•od cooled. Then thoroughly agitate the liquid, filter it through a dry filter, 
the first 20 mils and titrate 100 mils of the filtrate, representing 20 mils 
solution, with normal hydrochloric acid V.S., using phenolphthalein T,S. 
i* indicator. It shows not less than 4.5 per cent, of KOH, when calculated to 
the amount of Solution originally taken. 

Each mil of normal hydrochloric acid VA used corresponds to 0,05611 
Gm, of KOH. Each gramme of Solution of Potassium Hydroxide (after 
rfment with barium rlilnride T.S.) corresponds to not less than 0.80 mil of 
al hydrochloric acid V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil— Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



LIQUOR SOD.E CHLORINATE 
Solution of Chlorinated Soda 

Llq. Sod. Chlorinat — Labarraquc'a Solution 
pons solution of chlorine compounds of sodium, containing 
than 2,5 per cent, of available CI. Preserve the Solution in 
ppered bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

iydrated Sodium Carbonate, seventy grammes . . . 70 Gm. 

LORinated Lime, one hundred grammes , 100 Gm. 

tTKB, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

rate the chlorinated lime with Jive hundred mils of water grad- 

Ided until a uniform mixture results. Dissolve the monohy- 

sodium carbonate in five hundred mils of hot water, and add 

>lution to the chlorinated lime mixture contained in a suitable 

or shake the mixture thoroughly and if it becomes gelati- 

, the vessel very gently until its contents again liquefy. Then 

1 the mixture to a wetted muslin strainer, returning the first por- 

irij the liquid passes through clear, and when no more liquid 

from it, wash the precipitate with enough water to make the 

weigh one thousand grammes. 

of Chlorinated Soda is a clear, pale (greenish liquid, having a faint 
lor of chlorine and a disagreeable, alkaline taste. 

lit first colors red litmus paper blue, and then bleaches it. 
The addition of hydrochloric acid to the Solution causes an evolution of chlo- 
carbon dioxide. 




254 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 



Assay — Mix in a flask about 7 mils of Solution of Chlorinated Soda, 
weighed, with 50 mils of distilled water, add 1 Gm. of potassium iodide and 
mils of acetic acid and titrate with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate VJS., stanfc 
T.S. being used as i ndicator . It shows not less than 2.5 per cent, of available CI: 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used co r re s p on ds to 
0.003546 Gm. of available CI. Each gramme of Solution of Chlorinated Sodr 
corresponds to not less than 7 mils of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate VJBL 



LIQUOR SODn ABSENATIS 

Solution of Sodium Arsenate 
LIq. Sod. Arsen. 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 0.975 per cent, nor mm 
than 1.025 per cent, of Na*HAs0 4 (185.97). 
Exsiccated Sodium Arsenate, previously dried to con- 
stant weight at 150° C, one gramme 1 Gm. 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 



To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

Dissolve the exsiccated sodium arsenate in sufficient distilled water 
to make the product weigh one hundred grammes. 

The Solution conforms to the reactions and tests for an aqueous solution of 
the salt as given under Sodii Arsenas Exsiccatiu, when concentrated to propsr 
strength. 

Assay — Pour into a tared flask about 30 mils of Solution of Sodium Arsenate, 
weigh accurately, heat to 80° C. and add 10 mils of hydrochloric acid and 3 Gm. 
of potassium iodide. Allow the mixture to stand for fifteen minutes at 80° C m 
a glass-stoppered flask, cool and then titrate with tenth-normal sodium thio- 
sulphate V.S., starch T.S. being used as indicator. It shows not less thsm 
0.975 per cent, nor more than 1.025 per cent, of NaaHAsO* 

Each mil of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S. used corresponds to 
0.0092985 Gm. of NaaHAs0 4 . Each gramme of Solution of Sodium Am— ^ 
corresponds to not less than 1.05 mils nor more than 1.10 mils of tenth-no 
sodium thiosulphate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



LIQUOR SODII CHLORIDI PHYSIOLOGICUS 

Physiological Solution of Sodium Chloride 

Liq. Sod. Chlor. Physio.— Physiological Salt Solution Normal Salt Solution 

Sodium Chloride, eight and five-tenths grammes 8.5 Gm. 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 



To make one thousand milliliters iqoo nub 



Kssolve the sodium chloride in sufficient freshly distilled water to 

nsure one thousand mils and filter. Then sterilize the solution, prefera- 

in an autoclave, under steam pressure, at a temperature of from 115° 

20° C. for fifteen minutes, or by boiling it during at least one hour, 

erve it in a sterile eondition. This solution should not be used 

>r it has been made forty-eight hours. 

LIQUOR SODII GLYCEROPHOSPHATE 

Solution of Sodium Glycerophosphate 

t-lq. Sod. Gtycerophos. — Solution of Sodium Glycerinophosphate 

ji aqueous solution of sodium glycerophosphate containing not less 

n 50 per cent, of the anhydrous salt (Na^CaH 7 P0 6 or Na a C 3 H 6 

[)«P0 4 = 216.10). 

A dear, colorless or yellowish, PyrujW liquid. In other rca p ecto it conforms 
> the reactions and tests for purity under BodU Gtyoeropkotpi 

As&at — -Proceed as directed under SodH Giycertfpfw&phas. It shows not 
mui 50 per cent, of Na^CaH^P* )» 
Each mil of half-normal hydrochloric acid VA used corresponds to 0.10805 
Gm. of NadC»H t P< 

Each gramme of Solution of Sodium Glycerophosphate corresponds to not 
leas than 4.63 mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid VS. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.35 mil — Apothecaries, 6 minims. 



LIQUOR SODII HYDROXIDI 
Solution of Sodium Hydroxide 

Llq. Sod. Hydrox. — Liquor Sodxe Solution of Soda 

aqueous solution containing not less than 4.5 per cent, of NaOH 
Preserve Solution of Sodium Hydroxide in bottles made of 
jLass and provided with rubber stoppers or with glass stoppers 
with petrolatum. 

I cm Hydroxide, fifty-six grammes 56 Gm, 

Distilled Water, nine hundred and forty-four grammes. . 944 Gm. 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Ive the sodium hydroxide in the distilled water. 

Solution of Sodium Hydroxide is a clear, colorless, odorless liquid, hiv 
when diluted, a very acrid and caustic taste. If should noA be tasted unlets 
Largely diluted. It is strongly alkaline and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from 
tbe air. 

Specific gravity: about 1.056 at 25° C. 

It conforms to the reaction* and tests for an aqueous solution of sodium 
hydroxide as given under Sodii Hydroxidum, when concentrated to the proper 



256 THE PHAKMACOPCEIA OF THE 



Introduce about 20 mils of Solution of Sodium Hydroxide into a flaak, 
stopper, weigh accurately and titrate it directly with normal hydrochloric 
acid V.S., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator. It shows not more thM 
5.5 per cent, of alkalinity, calculated as NaOH (carbonate). 

Assay — Transfer about 50 mils of Solution of Sodium Hydroxide, accuratdr 
weighed, to a 250 mil measuring-flask, add 20 mils of barium chloride TA 
and fill the flask to the mark with distilled water, which has been previowjj 
boiled and cooled. Then thoroughly agitate the liquid, filter it through a drr 
filter, reject the first 20 mils, and titrate 100 mils of the clear filtrate with norm* = 
hydrochloric acid V.S., using phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator. It shows not; 
less than 4.5 per cent, of NaOH when calculated to the amount of solutka.: 
originally taken. 

Each mil of normal hydrochloric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.040M 
Gm. of NaOH. Each gramme of Solution of Sodium Hydroxide correspoodi 
to not less than 1.12 mils of normal hydrochloric acid V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 mil — Apothecaries, 15 minims. 



LIQUOR ZINCI CHLORIDI i 

Solution of Zinc Chloride Y, 

Ltq. Zinc Chlor. ' 

An aqueous solution containing not less than 48.5 per cent, nor mora j^ 

than 52 per cent, of ZnCl a (136.29). \ 

Zinc, granulated, two hundred and forty grammes 240 GnJ" 

Hydrochloric Acid, eight hundred and forty grammes. . 840 GmJ:. 

Nitric Acid, twelve grammes 12 Gm.* 

Precipitated Zinc Carbonate, twelve grammes 12 Gm. j: 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 



To make about one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. •- 

V 

Add the hydrochloric acid gradually to the zinc and two hundred ant '.' 
fifty mils of distilled water contained in a glass or porcelain vessel, and ■-, 
allow the mixture to stand until the reaction ceases and the acid is sattt- ; - 
rated. Then pour off the liquid, add the nitric acid and heat the mixturt t ; 
at a temperature not exceeding 115° C, until a portion, when removed < 
and cooled, solidifies. Allow it to cool, and dissolve the solidified mass ft >\ 
sufficient distilled water to make the product weigh one thousand gramma* * 
Then add the precipitated zinc carbonate, agitate the mixture occasion* ^ 
ally during twenty-four hours, and set it aside until it has become c\e* * 
by subsidence. Separate the clear Solution by decantation or by meant ( 
of a siphon, and preserve it in tightly stoppered bottles. \ 

Solution of Zinc Chloride is a clear, colorless, odorless liquid, having a raw 
astringent, metallic taste, and an acid reaction. T 

Specific gravity: about 1.548 at 25° C. 

It conforms to the identity and purity tests for an aqueous solution of thfc 
salt as given under Zinci Cfuoridum, when taken in proportionate amount. ' 



1 



Assay — Transfer to a tared flask about 0.0 Gm. of Solution of Zinc Chloride, 
weigh accurately, and proc e e d as directed under the Assay for chlorides (see 
Part II, Test No. 5). It shows not less than 48.5 per cent, nor more than 52 
per cent, of ZnCl a . 

Each mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.8. used corresponds to 0.0OGS145 
Gm. of ZnClg, Each gramme of Solution of Zinc Chloride corresponds to not less 
71.2 mils nor mure than 76.3 mils of tenth-normal Silver nitrate \ 



LITHII BROMIDUM 

Lithium Bromide 

Lith. Brom. 

ontains not less than 85 per cent, of LiBr (86.86), Preserve it in 
tight containers. 

Lithium Bromide is a white, granular salt, odorless and having a sharp, 
slightly bitter taste; very deliquescent. 

One Gm. of Lithium Bromide dissolves in 0.6 mil of water at 25° C; also in 
0.4 mil of boiling water;*freely soluble in alcohol and soluble in ether. 

Ad aoueous solution of the salt (1 in 20) is neutral or slightly alkaline to litmus. 

At a low red heat the salt fuses, and at a higher heat it is slowly volatilized. 
It imparts a crimson color to a non-luminous flame. 

, er nitrate T.S., added to an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 10) t produces 
a yellowish-white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid or in a moderate excess 
of ammonia water. 

Add a few drops of ferric chloride T.S, and 1 mil of chloroform to 10 mils 
of an aqueous solution of the salt ( 1 in 20) and shake the mixture, The chloro- 
form does not aecmire a violet tint (iodide), 

Drop 1 mil of diluted sulphuric acid on about 1 Gm. of the powdered salt ; 
DO yellow color appears at once (bromate). 

Dissolve about 0.1 Gm. of Lithium Bromide in 5 mils of distilled water, add 
an excess of silver nitrate T.8. and a few drops of nitric acid; filter and wash 
the precipitate with distilled water, then digest it for ten minutes with 5 mils 
of ammonium carbonate T,S. and filter. On supersaturating the filtrate with 
nitric acid, not more than a slight turbidity is produced at once (dMorid 

e mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 100) acidulated with 8 
drops of hydrochloric acid shows no immediate turbidity with 1 mil of barium 
ehloride T.S {sulphate). 

Add 6 mils of hydrochloric acid and 5 mils of chlorine T.S. to 0,4 Gm. of 
Lithium Bromide contained in aflat-bottomed ila.sk of Jift mils capacity, evapor- 
ate the mixture almost to dryness on a water bath, add 10 mils of amy] alcohol 
and cautiously heat the mixture unti! the lower aqueous layer has evaporated. 
Then add 3 drops of hydrochloric acid and boil the solution for three minutes; 
the resulting insoluble residue, if any,, when collected on a filter, washed with 
aim I alcohol and dried at 1 10° C., weighs not more than 0.002 Gm. {other alkalies). 
The removal of water from the amy! alcohol mixture is facilitated by passing 
a current of air through the hot solution. 

An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy 
metal* (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Assay — Introduce into a tared weighing-bottle about 0.35 Gm. of Lithium 
Bromide, stopper, weigh accurately, and proceed as directed under the Assay for 
bromides (see Part IL Test No. 5). It shows not iess than 85 per cent, of LiBr. 
h mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. used corresponds to 0.008686 Gm. 
of LLBr. Each gramme of Lithium Bromide corresponds to not less than 97.9 
mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 1 Gm. — Apothecaries, 15 grains. 
22 



258 THE PHABMACOPCEIA OF THE 

LITHII CARBONAS 

Lithium Carbonate 

Llth.Carb. 

It contains, when dried to constant weight at 100° C, not less ti 
98.5 per cent, of Li a C0 3 (73.88). Preserve it in well-closed containc 

Lithium Carbonate is a light, white powder, odorless, and having an alka! 
taste; permanent in the air. 

One Gm. of Lithium Carbonate dissolves in 78 mils of water at 25° C; ; 
in 140 mils of boiling water; almost insoluble in alcohol; dissolved by diluted* 
with effervescence. 

At a low red heat the salt fuses; at a higher temperature it loses some of. 
carbon dioxide, and is partially converted into lithium oxide. It impart* 
crimson color to a non-luminous flame. 

A saturated aqueous solution of the salt is alkaline to litmus. 

Lithium Carbonate, when dissolved in 40 parts of diluted acetic acid, km 
not more than 0.15 per cent, of insoluble residue. 

Mix 1 part of Lithium Carbonate with 20 parts of distilled water and ak 
hydrochloric acid, drop by drop, with agitation until solution takes place, lb 
resulting solution, after boiling and cooling, responds to the following tat 
when applied to separate portions: 

The addition of ammonia water to 5 mils of this solution until it has in lib 
line reaction produces neither turbidity nor precipitation either before or afta 
boiling (iron, aluminum). 

Dilute another portion of 4 mils of this solution with 6 mils of distilled water 
it does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Add a slight excess of diluted hydrochloric acid to 0.2 Gm. of Lithium On 
bonate contained in a flat-bottomed flask of 50 mils capacity, evaporate tfa 
mixture almost to dryness on a water bath, add 10 mils of amy! alcohol in 
cautiously heat the mixture until the lower aqueous layer has evaporate: 
Then add 3 drops of hydrochloric acid and boil the solution for three minutes. Hi 
resulting insoluble residue, if any, when collected on a filter, washed with amj 
alcohol and dried at 110° C, weighs not more than 0.002 Gm. (other alkalia 
The removal of the water from the amyl alcohol mixture is facilitated by pari 
a current of air through the hot solution. 

Assay — Dissolve about 1.5 Gm. of Lithium Carbonate, previously dried ' 
constant weight at 100° C. and accurately weighed, in 50 mils of norm 
sulphuric acid V.S. and titrate the solution with normal potassium hydros 
V.S.. methyl orange T.S. being used as indicator. It shows, in the dried « 
not less than 08.5 per cent, of Li2COs. 

Each mil of normal sulphuric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.08094 Q 
of LiflC0 3 . Each gramme of Lithium Carbonate, previously dried, correapoi 
to not less than 26.7 mils of normal sulphuric acid V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 

LITHII CITRAS 

Lithium Citrate 

Lith. Cifc 

It contains not less than 98.5 per cent, of LisCeHsC^+iHaO (28U 
Preserve it in air-tight containers. 

Lithium Citrate occurs as a white powder, or in the granular form, odor! 
and having a cooling, faintly alkaline taste. It is deliquescent on exposur 
moist air and loses its water of crystallisation when heated to 150° C. 



One Gm. of Lithium Citrate dissolves in 1.4 mils of water at 25 Q C; very 
■iipily soluble in alcohol. 

Ad aeiueous solution of the salt (I in 20) is faintly alkaline to litmus but is 
not reddened by one drop of phenol phthalein T.S. 

At a red heat the salt chars, emits inflammable vapors having a pungent odor, 
and finally leaves a black residue of lithium carbonate mixed with carbon. It 
imparts a crimson color to a non-luminous flame. 

Boil an aqueous solution of Lithium Citrate (1 in 20) with an equal volume of 
calcium chloride T.S. ; a white precipitate forms. 

Treat the residue obtained by igniting 0.4 Gra. of the salt at a red heat with 
i alight excess of diluted hydrochloric acid, filter, wash the residue with distilled 
Wter, evaporate the filtrate and washings almost to drjTiesa on a water bath, 
to a flat-bottomed flask of 50 mils capacity, add 10 mils of amy I alcohol and 
cautiously heat the mixture until the lower aqueous layer has evajx>rate4. Then 
add 3 drops of hydrochloric acid and boil the solution for three minutes. The 
faulting msolutle residue, if any, when collected on a filter, wifihed with amy I 
alcohol and dried at 110° C, weighs not more than (J. 004 Gm. {other alkalies). 
The removal of the water from the amy] alcohol mixture is facilitated by pass- 
ing a current of air through the hot solution. 
An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy 
netals 09<se Part II, Test No. 3). 

Assay — Proceed as directed under the Assay for alkali salts of organic acids 
(aee Part II, Test No. 6). It shows not less than 98. 5 per cent, of LiaCeH a 07+ 
4Hr9. 

Each mil of half-normal sulphuric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.04699 Gm. 
of U^C^B.tPi^'iihO. Each gramme of Lithium Citrate corresponds to not 
las than 21 mils of half-normal sulphuric acid V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0,5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



LOBELIA 

Lobelia 

Lo be!*— Indian Tobacco 
The dried leaves and flowering tops of Lobelia injlata Linn£ (Fam. 
jfoAefiacecr), without the presence or admixture of more than 10 per cent. 
I stems or other foreign matter. 



_ cylindrical, coareely and irregularly furrowed, yellowish-green, occa- 
Uy purplish and with numerous spreading hairs; leaves alternate, sessile 
or narrowing into a short petiole, usually more or less broken; when entire, 
lamina? ovate or oblong, from 2 to 9 cm. in length, obtusely toothed or irregularly 
eerrate-denticulate, each tooth with a yellowish-brown, gland-like apex; pale 
green and with scattered, bristly hairs; flowers blue in long, loose racemes 
with £ nort pedicels, calyx tube ovoid, with 5 subulate teeth, corolla tubular, from 
3 to 4 mm. in length, 5-parted, the upper 2-lobed portion cleft nearly to the 
ooae; stamens with anthers united above into a curved tube enclosing the bifid 
stigmas; capsules ovoid or ellipsoidal, from 5 to 8 mm, in length, light brown, 
wholly inferior and enclosing numerous brownish, oblong and coarsely reticulate 
seeds; odor alight, taste strongly acrid. 

The powder is dark green, odor irritating; fragments of seed-coat composed of 
nor* or less polygonal cells with thick, yellowish walls; occasionally, non-gland- 
ular hairs elongated-conical, from 0.3 to 0.6 mm. in length; fragments of stem 
with tracheae showing annular or spiral thickenings or simple pores asso- 
ciated with narrow wood-fibers, the walls of the latter being rather thin, more or 




260 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

less lignified and porous; fragments of epidermis of leaf with elliptical sfom 
0.025 mm. in length, and usually with 3 or 4 neighboring cells; pollen gn 
nearly spherical, from 0.015 to 0.03 mm. in diameter. 

Lobelia yields not more than .8 per cent, of ash. 
Preparations — Fluidextractum Lobelias Tinctura Lobelias. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.15 Gm. — Apothecaries, 2}g grains* 

LYCOPODIUM 

Lycopodium 

Lycopod. 

The spores of Lycopodium davatum Linne* (Fain. Lycopodiacea), with- 
out the presence or admixture of more than 2 per cent, of impurities. 

A light yellow, very mobile powder, nearly inodorous and tasteless. It tsnot 
wetted by water but floats upon it; when boiled with water it sinks; when throw 
into a flame it burns with a quick flash. 

Under the microscope, the spores of Lycopodium are spherical tetrahedron! 
from 0.025 to 0.04 mm. m diameter; in section they vary from plano-convex t 
triangular, the outer wall or exosporium being extended in the form of di$ 
irregular projections, giving the surface of the spore a reticulate appearance, tl 
reticulations being polygonal and formed of straight sides; when viewed so thf 
the rounded surface of the spores is on the under side, the upper surface is charade 
ized by a distinct, triangular marking, being the edges of the three straight surface 
extending from the center of the spores to near the outer edge. 

Lycopodium shows very few, if any, pollen grains of species of Pine, the la 
ter being from 0.04 to 0.07 mm. in diameter, and consisting of three parts, 
which a central, convex, generative cell separates the two spherical cells or wini 
which are blackish, due to the inclusion of air. 

Lycopodium yields not more than 3 per cent, of ash. 

MAGMA BISMUTHI 

Bismuth Magma 

Magma Bism.— Milk of Bismuth 
Bismuth Magma yields not less than 5.6 per cent, nor more tha 
6.2 per cent, of Bi a 3 . 

Bismuth Subnitrate, eighty grammes 80 (k 

Nitric Acid, one hundred and twenty milliliters 120 mi 

Ammonium Carbonate, ten grammes 10 Gi 

Ammonia Water, 

Distilled Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand milliliters 1000 m 

Mix the bismuth subnitrate with sixty mils of distilled water a 
sixty mils of nitric acid in a flask and agitate, warming gently m 
solution is effected. Pour this solution, with constant stirring, i 
five thousand mils of distilled water containing sixty mils of ni 
acid. Dilute four hundred and eighty mils of ammonia water with, 



Sousand mils of distilled water in a glazed or glass vessel of at least 
toetoe thousand mils capacity. Dissolve the Eimmonium carbonate % in 
this solution and then quickly pour the bismuth solution into it with 

int stirring. If the mixture is not distinctly alkaline, add suiii- 
'•ipnt ammonia water to make it so and allow it to stand until 
the precipitate has subsided, then pour or siphon off the supernatant 
liquid and wash the precipitate twice with distilled water, by decanta- 
Afterwards transfer the magma to a strainer of close texture, 
imaged in a percolator so as to provide continuous washing with 
listilled water, the outlet tube being elevated to prevent the surface of 
Lhe magma from becoming dry, and allow T the operation to proceed 
until the washings cease to react with phenol phthalein T.S, Then 

the moist magma, transfer it to a graduated vessel and add sufficient 
r to make the product measure one thousand mils. Mix 
thoroughly, transfer to bottles and stopper tightly. 

A thick, white, opaque liquid containing bismuth hydroxide and bismuth sub- 
cvbosate in suspension in water. It is neutral to litmus and phenolphthalein. 

One mil of hydrochloric acid added to 1 rail of Bismuth Magma produces a 
clear solution. Pour the clear solution into 10 volumes of distilled water ; a 
precipitate is produced. 

Assav — Evaporate to dryness about 10 Gm. of Bismuth Magma, accurately 
wti&heu, and ignite the rendu* to constant weight* the residue corresponds to 
Mtksft than 5,6 per cent, nor more than 6.2 per cent, of the weight of Bismuth 
Magma token. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fluidrachm. 



MAGMA MAGNESLE 
Magnesia Magma 

Magma Mag.— Milk of Magnesia 

Magnesia Magma yields not less than 6.5 per cent, nor more than 
> per cent, of Mg(0H)a (58.34). 

I Magnesium Carbonate, in fine powder, one hundred and 
twenty-five grammes. . 125 Gm. 
Sodium Hy-droxide, eighty grammes 80 Gm* 
Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, _ 

To make otic thousand mils , . 1000 mils 

\l\x the magnesium carbonate with enough distilled water (about 
J&e hundred mils) and make a smooth mixture. Dissolve the sodium 
kydroxide in four hundred mils of distilled water, add the solution to the 
nagnesia mixture with constant stirring, and agitate it frequently during 
fteen minute- Waah the resulting magma by decantation, using two 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



263 



t Wkn strongly heated, it loses water and carbon dioxide, and is converted 
into m&ghesium oxide. 

A solution of Magnesium Carbonate in diluted hydrochloric acid, when mixed 
with ammonium chloride T,S. and an excess of ammonia water, yields with 
odium phosphate T.S. a white crystalline precipitate. 

Heat to boiling, 1 Gm. of Magnesium Carbonate with 50 mils of distilled water, 
and, after cooling, filter and evaporate the nitrate to dryness qn a water 
hath; not more than 0,01 Gm. of residue remains (soluble sails). 

Dissolve 2.5 Gm. of Magnesium Carbonate in 50 mils of diluted hydrochloric 
tod and 200 mils of distilled water. The solution is colorless, and a 20 mil por- 
tion does not give an immediate blue coloration upon the addition of 5 drops of 
potaaium ferrocyanide T.S. (iron). 

Dissolve 0.5 Gm. of Magnesium Carbonate in a slight excess of diluted hydro- 
chloric acid (about 5 mils) and dilute with distilled water to 25 mils. Ten mils 
of this solution does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part 11, Teat 
No, ». 

Dissolve 4 Gm, of Magnesium Carlionate in 50 mils of diluted hydrochloric 
acid, in a beaker of about SIX) mils capacity. Dilute this solution to about 
400 mils with distilled water, add 5 Gm. of ammonium chloride, heat to boiling, 
then add 50 mils of ammonium oxalate TU». followed by 5 drops of methyl 
orange TJL, and afterward by ammonia water (previously diluted with two 
volumes of distilled water), added slowly in small portions, stirring constantly, 
until the liquid baa assumed a yellow color. This operation should require 
about twenty minutes. Allow the liquid to stand for four hours or over (tight, 
collect the precipitate on a filter, wash it with hot distilled water, containing 
1 per cent, of ammonium oxalate T.S., until the washings, after strongly acidi- 
fying with nitric acid, cease to react with silver nitrate T.S. Dissolve the pre- 
cipitate by pouring 50 mils of warm diluted hydrochloric acid in small portions 
ovw the filter, wash the filter with a 1 tout 100 mils of distilled water, collect 
tile solution of the precipitate and washings in the same U-uker, then dilute 
to 400 mils with distilled water, precipitate, allow to stand, and wash as before, 
omitting, however, the addition of 5 Gm. of ammonium chloride. Dry the 
precipitate and filter obtained in the second precipitation and cautiously ignite 
jd a platinum crucible, heating gently at first, gradually increasing the tempera- 
ture, and finally heating it over a blast tamp for liftcen minutes or longer, if 
necessary, until of constant weight. Cool the crucible and contents in a desic- 
cator before weighing. The weight of CaO so obtained does not exceed (1032 
Gm*, corresponding to not more than 0.8 per cent, (calcium oxi*h). 

Assay — Dissolve 1 Qm. of Magnesium Carbonate in ^0 mils of normal sul- 
phuric acid V.8. and determine the residual acid by titrating with normal 
potassium hydroxide V.S., using methyl orange T.*S. as indicator. The amount 
of normal sulphuric acid Y\S. consumed, exclusive of the normal sulphuric 
acid V.S. corresponding to the calcium oxide found, is not Ion than MJ.44 mils, 
indicating the presence of not less than 39.2 per cent, of MgO, 

Each mil cf normal sulphuric acid V.S. corresponds to 0.02016 Gm. of MgO 
to 0.028035 Gm. of CaO. 



MAGNESXI OXIDUM 

Magnesium Oxide 

Mag* Ox id. — Magnesia Calcined Magnesia Light Magnesia 

It contains, after ignition, not less than 96 per cent, of MgO (40.32) 
ad not more than 2 per cent* of CaO. It contains not more than 10 per 
ait. of water. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 



Average dose — Metric, 3 Gra>— Apothecaries, 45 grains. 




264 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OP THE 



Magnesium Oxide is a white, very bulky, and very fine powder, without <**S&n 
and having an earthy, hut not a saline taste. On exposure to the air, it slott-T^' 
aittorbe moisture and carbon dioxide. 

Magnesium Oxide is almost insoluble in water; insoluble in alcohol ; dissolve*/ 
by dilute acids. 

A solution of Magnesium Oxide in diluted hydrochloric acid, mixed witbao- 
monium chloride T.S. and an excess of ammonia water, yields with sodium phos- 
phate T.S. a white crystalline precipitate. 

Heat to boiling I 6m, of Magnesium Oxide with 50 mils of distilled water, 
and, after cooling, filter; the filtrate is not more than faintly alkaline to litmu*, 
and when evaporated to dryness leaves not more than 0.02 Gm. of resdae 
{soluble salts). 

Heat to boiling, a mixture of 0.1 Gm. of Magnesium Oxide with 5 mils of 
distilled water, BXftd, after cooling, pour it into 5 mils of acetic acid. Solution 
takes place without the evolution of more than a few isolated gas bubbles 
{carbonate). 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of Magnesium Oxide in 50 mils of diluted hydrochloric add 
and 200 mils of distilled water. The solution is colorless^ and a 20 mil portion 
does not give an immediate blue coloration upon the addition of several drops of 
potassium ferroryanide T.S. {iron). 

Dissolve 0.J5 Gin. of Magnesium Oxide in a slight excess of diluted 
chloric acid and dilute with distilled water to 25 mils* Ten mils of this solution 
does not respond to the Test for heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3). 

Transfer to a porcelain crucible about I Gm, of Magnesium Oxide, weigl* 
accurately, and expose it to a low red heat; it loses not more than 10 per ceoS- 
o f i ts weigh t ( water) . 

To test for calcium proceed as directed under Magnexii Carbonai, using 
about Lfi Gm. of recently ignited Magnesium Oxide, accurately weighed. I* 
shows not more than 2 per cent, of CaO. 

Assay—Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Magnesium Oxide, which has been recentl V 
ignited to constant weight Mid BGCUratehr weighed, in 30 mils of normal «J* 
pnuric acid V.S. and determine the residual acid by titrating with normal 
potassium hydroxide V.8., using methyl orange T.S. as indicator. The ai 
of normal sulphuric acid V\S. consumed, exclusive of the normal sulphur 
\\S. corresponding to the calcium oxide found* when calculated to I Gnxof the 
ignited Magnesium Oxide, is not less than 47.62 mils, indicating the presence of 
not less than 96 per cent, of MgO. 

Etch mil of normal sulphuric acid V.S. used corresponds to 0.02016 Gm. 
of MgO or to 0.028035 Gm. of CaO. 

Preparation— Pul vis Rhei Cbmpositus. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm, — Apothecaries, 30 grains 



MAGNESII OXIDUM PONDEROSUM 

Heavy Magnesium Oxide 

Mag. Oxid- Pond— Heavy Magnesia 

It contains, after ignition, not less than 96 per cent, of MgO (40,1 
and not more than 2 per cent, of CaO. It contains not more than 10 

per cent, of water. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Heavy Magnesium Oxide is a white, dense, and very fine powder, i 
forms to the reactions and tests under Magnesii Oxidum, 

Average dose— Metric, 2 Gm.— Apothecaries, 30 grains. 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



265 



MAGNESII SULPHAS 

Magnesium Sulphate 

Mag. Sulph.— Epsom Salt 

It contains not less than 48.59 per cent, nor more than 53.45 per cent, 
anhydrous magnesium sulphate, corresponding to n t lum D1K5 

per cent, of the crystallized salt [MgSO 4 +7H a O = 246.50j. Preserve it 
well-closed containers. 

Magnesium Sulphate occurs as small, colorless, prismatic needles or rhombic 
prions, without odor, and having a cooling, saline, and bitter taste; slowly ef- 
florescent in the air. 

One Gm. of Magnesium Sulphate dissolves in 1 mil of water at 25° C; also 
ia ibout 0.2 mil of boiling water; almost insoluble in alcohol at 25° C. 
An aqueous solution of the salt i 1 in 20) is neutral to litmus. 
When exposed to warm air, the salt loses some of its water of crystallization 
vwl is converted into a white powder. Further heating removes more water, 
udit a temperature somewhat above 200* C. it is rendered anhydrous. 

An aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 20), when mixed with ammonium chloride 
TJ5, and ammonia water, yields with sodium phosphate T.S. a white, crystal- 
fae precipitate. An aqueous solution f 1 in 20) yields with barium chloride 
T& a white precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric "acid. 

Add a few drops of silver nitrate T.S. to 10 mils of an aqueous solution of the 
alt (I in 20), previously mixed with a few drops of nitric acid; not more than an 
opalescence is produced {chlf^ri 

An aqueous solution of the salt does not respond to the Test for heavy metals 
(m Part II, Test No. 3). 

An aqueous solution of the salt meets the requirements of the Test for arsenic 
(««Part II, Test No. 1). 

Assay — Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Magnesium Sulphate, accurately weighed, in 
100 mils of distilled water, gradually add to the solution, wit h constant stirring, an 
excess of sodium phosphate T.S. (about 20 mils), allow to stand for ten minute, 
then add 30 mils of ammonia water and allow to stand for four hours, Collect 
the precipitate on a filter, wash it with dilute ammonia water (1 volume of 
ammonia water to 3 volumes of distilled water) until 10 mils of tne waohmfls, 
whrn acidulated with hydrochloric acid, yields no turbidity on the addition of a 
feu drop* of barium chloride T,S. Dry and igu ►mtunt weight. The 

weight of the magnesium pyrophosphate so obtained corresponds to not less 
tlian 4859 per cent, nor more than 53.45 per cent, of MgSO*. 

Each grain me of Magnesium Sulphate corresponds to not less than 0,4495 Gm. 
nor more than 0.4944 Gm, of magnesium pyrophosphate (MgaPaO?). 

Preparation — Infusum Sennm COmpositum. 

i Average dose — Metric, 15 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 drachms. 
MALTUM 
Malt 
grain of one or more varieties of Hordcum sativum Jessen (Fam. 
xxminca-), partially germinated artificially, and then dried at a tern- 
raturo not exceeding 55° C. It is capable of converting not leeti 
an 5 times its weight of starch into sugars. Protect it from heat 
d moisture. 




Malt occurs in yellowish or amber-colored grains; crisp when fractured, tbe 
interior surface nearly white. 

It has an agreeable, characteristic odor, and a sweet taste due to the convex 
sion of the starch in the seed into maltose, through the action of diastase. Malt 
floats in cold water. 

For the subsequent tests, prepare an infusion as follows: Mix 10 Gm. of MaIC 
in No, 12 powder, with 100 mils of distilled water and maintain the mixture *i 
a temperature of from 50° to 55° C. for one hour with occasional stirring, Plane 
it upon a filter and when the liquid has passed through, wash the content* o! tto 
filter with distilled water, in small portions, until the combined infusion and 
washings measure 200 mils. 

The weight of the solid soluble constituents of Malt, obtained by evi 
to dryness on a water bath ao aliquot portion of the freshly prepared, 
infusion, and subsequently drying it for one hour at 100° C. in an air batb, c 
sponds to not less than 70 per cent, of the Malt taken. 

The acidity of Malt (calculated as lactic acid) does not exceed 0,3 pere 
as deterrnituVl ;ng an aliquot portion of the freshly prepared info 

with tenth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S., phenolphthaufai T.8. being i 
as indicator. Each mil of tenth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S, used < 
sponds to 0.009 Gm. of lactic add. 

Assay — To determine the starch converting power of Malt, proceed 
directed under Diastasum, page 131, using 20 mils of a freshly pn 
infusion of malt in place of the quantity of solution of diastase there i 

Pr cpa rat i on — Ex trac turn M al ti . 



MANGANI DIOXIDUM PR/ECIFITATUM 

Precipitated Manganese Dioxide 

Mangan. Diox. Pr«c. 
It consists chiefly of manganese dioxide [MnO a = 86.93] with 
amounts of other oxides of manganese, corresponding to not less than 
80 per cent, of MnO*. 

Precipitated Manganese Dioxide is a heavy, very fine, black powder, will 
odor or taste* permanent in the air. 

It i.s insoluble in water or alcohol. 

When heated with hydrochloric acid, it is converted into rnanRanous i 
and chlorine is evolved. At a red heat Precipitated Manganese Dioxide p 
oxygen and is converted into reddish-brown m an ganous -manganic oxide (Mn 

Add 2 drops of hydrochloric acid to about 0.1 Gm. of Precipitated Mai 
Dioxide contained in a test tube, boil the mixture for one minute with 0.5 
lead peroxide and 5 mils of nitric acid and then add 5 mils of distilled wa 
liquid assumes a reddish-violet OoJor* 

Add 20 mils of distilled water to 1 Gm. of Manganese Dioxide and 2 < 
oxalic adit, follow this by 3 mils of sulphuric uad, and digest the 
se vera! hours on a water bath; not more than 0.2 per cent, of residue i 
( imal uhlc s uhstances) . 

Assay— Dissolve abouttK2 Gm. of Precipitated Manganese Dioxide, i 
weighed, in a mixture of 50 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. and 3 l 
sulphuric acid, heat to 80° C. on a water bath, and titrate the residual i 
acid with tenth-normal potassium permanganate V.S. It shows not less 
80 per cent, of Mn0 2 . 

Each mil of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S, used corresponds to 0.< 
Gm. of MnOg. Each gramme of Precipitated Manganese Dioxide cor 
to not less than 184 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



267 



MANNA 
Manna 

s dried saccharine exudation of Fraxinus0rnusIAim4 (Fam. Qleaeeai). 

In irregular, more or less elongated, flattened, 3-sided pieces; externally yel- 
^~iih-whHe; friable, somewhat waxy ; internally nearly white, porous and crvstal- 

l in appearance; odor slight, but character nl ic; taste sweety slightly Ditter 
and faintly acrid. Manna also occurs in irregular masses! consisting in part of 
brittle or soft, resin-like fragments; from yellowish- white to yellowish-gray in 
color. The quantity of the yello wish-white fragments must not be less than 40 
per cent, of the whole. 

Add 5 Gm. of Manna to 100 mils of alcohol, heat to boiling and filter; on 
cooling, the filtrate rapidly deposits crystals of mannite. 

Preparation — Infusum Sennae Compositum. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 Gm, — Apothecaries, & drachms, 

MASSA FEREI CARBONATIS 
Mass of Ferrous Carbonate 

Mass* f err, Carb.— Vallet's Mass 
t contains not less than 35 per cent, of FeC0 3 (115.84). 

jus Sulphate, one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

Jonohydrated Sodium Carbonate , forty-six grarnmes , . 46 Gm. 

ified Honey, thirty-eight grammes 38 Gm. 

pgab, in coarse powder, twenty-Jive grammes 25 Gm. 

led Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

rive the ferrous sulphate and the monohydrated sodium carbonate, 
i separately, in two hundred milsot boiling distilled water, and, having 
twenty miU of syrup to the solution of the iron salt, filter both 
8, and allow them to become cold. Place the solution of mono- 
sodium carbonate in a bottle having a capacity of shout five 
I mils, and gradually add the solution of the iron salt, rotating the 
^frequently, until carbonic acid gas no longer escapes. Addsufficient 
itilled water to fill the bottle; then cork it and set it aside, so that 
tie ferrous carbonate may subside. Pour off the supernatant liquid, 
•ftd, having mixed syrup and distilled water in the proportion of one 
of syrup to nineteen volumes of distilled water, wash the pre- 
with the mixture by decantation until the washings no longer 
a saline taste. Drain the precipitate on a muslin strainer, and 
as much of the water as possible. Lastly, mix the precipitate 
with the clarified honey and sugar, and, by means of a water 
evaporate the mixture in a tared dish, with constant stirring, 
ntii it is reduced to one hundred grammes. 




268 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OP THE 

Assay— Dissolve about 1 Gm. of Mass of Ferrous Carbonate, accurst 
weighed, in 15 mils of diluted sulphuric acid, dilute the solution with distil 
water to about 100 mils and immediately titrate with tenth-normal potaani 
dichromate V.S., potassium ferricvanide T.S. being used as indicator. It she* 
not less than 35 per cent, of FeCOg. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium dichromate V.S. used correspondi i 
0.01 1584 Gm. of FeCO a . Each gramme of Mass of Ferrous Carbonate correspooc 
to not less than 30.2 mils of tenth-normal potassium dichromate VJ3. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 

MASSA HYDRARGYRI 
Mass of Mercury 

Mass. Hydrarg,— Blue Mass Blue Pill 

It contains not less than 32 per cent, nor more than 34 per cent, of Hg 
Preserve the product in well-closed containers. 

Mercuby, thirty-three grammes 33 Gm 

Oleate op Mercury, one gramme 1 Gm 

Glycyrrhiza, in No. 60 powder, ten grammes 10 Gm 

Alth^a, in No. 60 powder, fifteen grammes 15 Gm 

Glycerin, nine grammes 9 Gm 

Honey of Rose, thirty-two grammes " 32 Gm 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gno 

Triturate the oleate of mercury in a warm mortar, gradually add th 
mercury, then introduce a small amount of honey of rose and triturat 
the mixture until globules of mercury are no longer visible under a ko 
magnifying ten diameters. Now incorporate the remainder of th 
honey of rose and the glycerin, then gradually add the glycyrrhiza an 
althaea and continue the trituration until the mass is homogeneous. 

Assay — Place about 0.5 Gm. of Mass of Mercury, accurately weighed, ia 
porcelain dish, add 10 mils of sulphuric acid, heat on a water batn for to 
minutes, then add 10 mils of nitric acid and heat the mixture on a sand bad 
adding small portions of nitric acid, if necessary, until a colorless or neul 
colorless solution results. Now add potassium permanganate T.S. to the hi 
solution until the red color persists, then discharge the color by the addition < 
just sufficient oxalic acid T.S. Wash the solution into a flask with distilk 
water, dissolve any insoluble residue by the addition of nitric acid, dilute tl 
solution to about 150 mils, add 2 mils of ferric ammonium sulphate TJ3. ai 
titrate the solution with tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate VJ3. to t 
production of a pink tint. It shows not less than 32 per cent, nor more th 
34 per cent, of Hg. 

Each mil of tenth-normal potassium sulphocyanate V.S. used oorreepoi 
to 0.01003 Gm. of Hg. Each gramme of Mass of Mercury corresponds to 1 
less than 31.9 nor more than 33.9 mils of tenth-normal potassium sulphoc 
nate V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 






MATRICARIA 
Matricaria 

Matricar. — German Chamomile Wild Chamomile 



The dried flower-heads of Matricaria Ckamomilla Linne (Fam. Com- 

P), without the presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent, of 
or foreign matter. Preserve it in tightly-closed containers and 
I against attack by insects. 

Flower-heads composed of a few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk- 
fWetaon conical, more or less hollow receptacles, t he kit t it being from 3 to 10 iiitii. 
to breadth ; disk-flowers tubular, perfect, and without a pappus; ray-flowers from 
10 to 20, pistillate, corolla white, 3-toothed and 4-veined, usually reflexed; in- 
i ; j heri cal , com posed of from 20 1 o 30 1 m bri c n t ad j i >l >1 aneeol ate , and 
pubescent scales; peduncles light green to brownish-green, longitudinally fur- 
rowdj more or less twisted ana attaining a length of 2.5 em. ; aehenea somewhat 
ohovoid and faintly 3- to 5-ribbed; pappus none, or only a slight membranous 
own; odor pleasant, aromatic* taste aromatic and bitter. 

Matricaria yields not more than 13 per cent, of ash. 

Average dose— Metric, 15 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 drachms. 



MEL 

Honey 

l saccharine secretion deposited in the honey-comb by the bee, Apis 
i/era Linne! (Fam* Apidoe). 

Honey is & thick, eyruny liquid of a light yellowish or yellowish -brown color, 
translucent when fresh, out gradually becoming opaque and crystalline; hav- 
a characteristic odor, and a sweet, faintly acrid taste, 
t is slightly acid to litmus and is hevorotatory. 

Dilute Honey with twice its weight of water; the resulting liquid is only mnd- 

itely turbid, not el ringy, and has a specific gravity of not less than 1 .099 at 25° C, 

[oomiponding to a specific gravity of not less than 1.370 for the original Honey). 

Incinerate about 1 Gm, of Honey, accurately weighed, in a platinum crucible, 

" portions at a time; not more, than 0.3 per cent, of ash remains. 

portions of 5 mils each of a filtered aqueous solution of Honey (1 in 

with nitric arid, are not rendered more than slightly opalescent by 

addition of a few drops of silver nitrate T.S. (chlorides), nor more than 

a few drops of barium chloride T.S. (sulphates). 
if about 2 Gm, of Honey with 10 mils of distilled water; the resulting solu- 
t rendered blue, green or reddish on the addition of iodine 
\8. (liar 

r of an aqueous solution of Honey (1 in 2) is not changed at once 
i mixed with an equal volume of ammonia water ( foreign coloring matter); 5 
of an aqueous solution of Honey ( 1 in 2) does not at once acquire a red or 
lor on the addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid (azo dyes). 







270 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 

A solution of 10 Gm. of Honey in 50 mils of distilled water requires not 
than 0.5 mil of normal potassium hydroxide VJ3. for neutralisation, p 
phthalein T.S. being used as indicator. 

Triturate about 1 Gm. of Honey with 20 mils of ether in a mortar, filter i 
a porcelain dish or crucible, allow the filtrate to evaporate and add to Uk 
due one drop of resorcinol T.S. At most only a pink color may be prod 
which disappears in half a minute, but not an orange, cherry, or brow 
color {artificial or added invert sugar). 

Preparation — Mel Depuratum. 



MEL DEPURATUM 

Clarified Honey 
Mel Depurat. 

Honey, a convenient quantity, 

Distilled Water, 

Glycerin, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Weigh the honey in a tared dish, mix it intimately with two per c 

of paper pulp, which has been previously reduced to shreds, thorouj 

washed and soaked in water, and then strongly expressed and a 

shredded. Then heat on a water bath at a temperature not excec 

70° C, and carefully remove the scum which rises to the sur 

Add enough distilled water to make up the loss incurred by < 

oration, strain, and mix the strained liquid with five per cent, of its w 

of glycerin. 

Clarified Honey, diluted with twice its weight of water, has a specific g 
of not lees than 1.095 at 25° C; in other respects it conforms to the te 
purity under Mel. 

Preparation— Mel Ross. 



MEL ROSjE 
Honey of Rose 

Fluidextract of Rose, one hundred and twenty milliliters 12( 

Clarified Honey, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 10(K 

Mix the fluidextract of rose in a tared vessel with enough cb 
honey to make the product weigh one thousand grammes. 

Average dose — Metric, 4 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fluidrachr 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



271 



MENTHA PIPERITA 

Peppermint 

Menth. Pip. 

The dried leaves and flowering tops of Mentha piperita Linn£ (Fam* 

Leaves more or less crumpled and frequently detached from the stems; 
lions quadrangular, from 1 to 2 mm. in diameter, glabrous except for a few 
tottered deflexed hairs; leaves when entire ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
petioles from 4 to 15 mm. in length, slightly pubescent, lamina? from 1 to 9 am. 
m length, acute and sharply serrate, light green to purplish-brown, upper .mir- 
Ueea nearly glabrous, lower surfaces glandular hairy, especially on tke veins; 
flower-whorls in oblong or oval spikes which are usually compact, or somewhat 
bterrapted at the base, from 1 to 1,5 cm. in breadth, rounded at the summit, 
audio Iruit attaining a length of from 3 to 7 cm.; bracts oblong-lanceolate, very 
Aruminate, 7 mm. in length; calyx tubular, equally 5-toothed, pubescent and 
fdwiJubir-punetate, often dark purple in color; corolla tubular-mmpamilate, 
*-cWt, about 3 mm. in length and often light purple; stamens 4, short ana 
•quaJ; nutlets ellipsoidal, about 0.5 mm. in diamelcr, blackish-brown; odor 
ttD&atic, characteristic; taste aromatic, pungent, followed by a cooling sen- 
sation in the rn<> 

/Reparation — Spirit us Mentha* Piperita*. 

Average dose— Metric, 4 Ghl — Apothecaries, 60 grains. 



MENTHA VIRIDIS 

Spearmint 
Menth, Vir. 

The dried leaves and flowering tops of Mentha spicata Liim£ (Mentha 
TidU Linn£) (Fani. Labiate), 

Leaves more or less crumpled and mixed with a large proportion of the light 
i or purplish-colored stems, occasionally with their characteristic opposite 
*»; stems distinctly quadrangular, from 1 to 3 mm. in width, nearly gin- 
leaves when entire ovate-laneeuhile, unequally serrate, nearly sessile 
with a petiole less than 5 mm, in length, of a bright green color and mum 
what iclanaular-hairy on the under surface; flowers arranged in opposite clus- 
ters and in more or less interrupted or crowded lanceolate, nearly acute spike*; 
brarta linear-lanceolate, subulate, from 7 to 10 mm. in length, subtending the 
■ten; Cftiyx tubular, 5-toothed. glandular punctate and somewhat 
sent near the teeth; corolla nearly white or light brown ; stamens extend- 
bevond the corolla tube; odor slightly pungent, characteristic; taste 
aromatic, characteristic but not followed by a cooling sensation hi the mouth, 

Preparation — Spirit us Mentha; Viridis. 

Average dose — Metric , 4 Gm. — Apothecaries, 60 grains. 







272 THE PHARMACOPCKIA OF THB 

MENTHOL 

Menthol 

A secondary alcohol [CioH lft OH = 156.16] obtained from oil 
permint or other mint oils. Preserve it in well-closed contai 
a cool place. 

Menthol occurs in colorless, acicular or prismatic crystals, haying 
odor and taste of peppermint; when tasted it produces a sensation of 
followed by cold when air is drawn into the mouth. 

Menthol is slightly soluble in water; very soluble in alcohol, chlorofor 
or in petroleum benzm ; freely soluble in liquid petrolatum or fixed or voli 

Its alcoholic solution is neutral to litmus, and is kevorotatory. 

It melts between 42° and 44° C. 

When Menthol is triturated with about an equal weight of camphor, 
or hydrated chloral, the mixture becomes liquid. 

Heat about 2 Gm. of Menthol in an open dish, on a water bath; it p 
volatilizes without leaving more than 0.05 per cent, of residue (wax, pv 
inorganic substances). 

Dissolve a few crystals of Menthol in 1 mil of glacial acetic acid and t 
3 drops of sulphuric acid and 1 drop of nitric acid; no green color i* j) 
(thymol). 

Average dose— Metric, 0.06 Gm.— Apothecaries, 1 grai 



METHYLIS SALICYLAS 

Methyl Salicylate 

Methyl. Sallcyl.— Oleum Gaultherice, U.S.P. VIII Oil of Wintergreen . 
Betule, U.S.P. VIII Oil of Sweet Birch Oil of Teaberry 

It contains not less than 98 per cent, of CH3C7H5O3 (152.06 
produced synthetically or is obtained by distillation from G< 
procumbens LinnS (Fam. Ericacece) or from Betula lento Linn 
Betulacece). The label must indicate whether the methyl salicj 
been made synthetically or distilled from either of the above m< 
plants. Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, i 
place, protected from light. 

It is a colorless, yellowish or reddish liquid, having the charactei 
and taste of gaultheria. 

It is sparingly soluble in water; miscible with alcohol and glacial a 
It is soluble in 6 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol at 25° C. with not n* 
slight cloudiness. 

The alcoholic solution is neutral or slightly acid to moistened litn 

Specific gravity at 25° C. : synthetic, 1.180 to 1.185; when from 1 
gaultheria, 1.172 to 1.182. 

It boils between 218° and 221° C. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



273 



Synthetic Methyl Salicylate, or that from sweet birch, is optically inactive; 
when obtained from gaultheria, it is slightly Uevorotatory, not exceeding — 1.5 6 
MulOOnjjm tube at 25° C. 

A deep violet color is produced by shaking a drop of Methyl Salicylate with 
ftbout 5 mil* of distilled water and adding a drop of ferric chloride T.S\ 

Add 10 mils of potassium hydroxide? TJS, to 1 mil of Methyl Salicylate, con- 
tained in a capacious test tube, and agitate the mixture. A clear, or slightly 
olorlesa or faintly yellowish solution results without the separation of 
my ody drops either on the surface or at the bottom of the liquid (other volatile 
ot/i or petroleum products). 

It does not respond to the Test for heavy metals in volatile oils (see Part II, 

Assay — Introduce about 2 mils of Methyl Salicylate into a tared flask, note 
the exact weight, add 50 mils of half-normal alcoholic potaarium hydroxide V.S., 
Wffltot the flask with a reflux condenser and heat the mixture on a water bath 
during two hours. Thfifi Add A few drone of phciiolphthnlciu TA and titrate 
the excess of alkali with half-normal hydrochloric acid V.8. It shows not less 
thin 98 per cent, of CfI a C 7 H6Qs* 

Earn nul of half-normal alcoholic potasaiura hydroxide VS. consumed cor- 
t^Cidt to 0.07603 Gm. of CH 3 C 7 H & Oa. Each gramme of Methyl Salieyl- 
Me corresponds to not less than 12.9 mils of half-normal alcoholic potassium 
hydroxide V.S. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.75 mil— Apothecaries, 12 minima. 



METHYLTHIONIN^: CHLORIDUM 

Methyl thionine Chloride 

Mcthylthioain. Chlor.— Methyl thion imp Ilydrocliloridum. U.S.P. Vffl 
Methylene Blue 

Tetramethylthionine chloride [Ci 6 Hi 8 N s C!S+3H a O = 373.75]. 

Methyl thionine Chloride occurs as a dark green, crystalline powder, or in pris- 
matic crystals having a lustre resembling bronze. 

.Methyl thionine Chloride is freely soluble in water and alcohol; soluble in 
chloroform; the solutions have a deep blue color. 

The addition of hydrochloric acid to its aqueous solution changes the color to 
• lighter shade of blue. 
The addition of sodium hydroxide T.S. to its aqueous solution changes the 
rto a purplish shade, and, if added in excess, produces on standing a precip- 
s having a dull violet color. 
A solution of Methylthionine Chloride in diluted sulphuric acid is gradually 
eoolorized upon the addition of zinc dust. 

Incinerate about 0.5 Gm. of Methylthionine Chloride; not more than 1 per 
cent, of ash remains. 

intimately mix 0,2 Gm. of Methylthionine Chloride with about 0.5 Gm. each 
of potassium nitrate and anhydrous sodium carbonate and heat the powder©! 
mixture in a crucible until the organic matter is completely oxidized. Then dis- 
cooled residue in 15 mils of diluted sulphuric acid and evaporate the 
notation over a flame until vapors of sulphuric an id begin to evolve. The residue so 
obtained meets the requirements of the Test for arsenic (see Part II, Test No. 1). 
Heat about 0.5 Grn. of Methylthionine Chloride at a temperature below a red 
LfiritU it is completely carbonized, boil flir powdered residue with 10 mils of 
[ hydrochloric acid for five minutes, filter the liquid and wash the residue 




[ 



274 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THB 

with 10 mils of distilled water. The combined liquids, when boiled with 
nitric acid, and supersaturated with ammonia water and filtered, if ne 
remain clear upon the addition of an equal volume of hy d rogen sulph 
(zinc). 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of Methylthionine Chloride in 50 mils of boiling alcol 
through counter-balanced niters, wash the residue on the filter with 
alcohol until the washings cease to be colored blue, and dry it at 100° 
weight corresponds to not more than 1 per cent, (dextrin). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.15 Gm.— Apothecaries, 2}$ $ 



MEZEREUM 
Mezereum 

Mezereon 

The dried bark of Daphne Mezereum Linn6, Daphne Gnidium 
or of Daphne Laureola Linn6 (Fam. Thymeleacece). 

In flexible, tough quilled pieces or somewhat flattened stripe, attaining 
of 90 cm.; from 0.3 to 1 mm. in thickness; outer surface yellowish- or olfr 
(D. Mezereum) or purplish-brown (D. Gnidium) or purplish-gray (D. L 
smooth, numerous lenticels giving a transversely striated appearance a 
sionally with numerous, circular, brownish-black apothecia; outer cor 
easily separable from tne middle bark which varies from light green t 
brown and with more or less detached bast-fibers; inner surface yeUowia 
satiny lustrous, finely striate • fracture tough, fibrous, the inner bark Ian 
odor very slight; taste at first slight, becoming gradually and ina 
pungent and acrid. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Mesereum show a rather tl 
composed of from 20 to 30 rows of cells, the outer being compressed and ' 
lowish-brown walls, and the inner more or less tabular with nearly colork 
a hypodermis of 3 to 5 rows of collenchymatous cells containing chlon 
or a y ellowish-green resinous substance ; an inner bark consisting mostly 
colorless non-hgnified bast-fibers occurring in loosely united groups, a 
starch-bearing medullary rays one cell in width. 

The powder is light grayish-brown: bast-fibers numerous, from 0.4 t 
in length and about 0.015 mm. in width, frequently more or lessunevex 
ularlv bent and considerably attenuated at the ends, the walls being fr 
to 0.005 mm. in thickness, colorless, non-lignified and free from pores; f 
of yellowish-brown cork cells and starch-bearing medullary rays; star 
relatively few, mostly spherical or elliptical, occasionally 2- to 4-comp 
individual grains from 0.003 to 0.015 mm. in diameter. 

Preparation — Fluidextractum Sarsaparilto Compositum. 

MISTURA CRET^l 
Chalk Mixture 

Mist Cret. 

Compound Chalk Powder, twenty grammes 

Cinnamon Water, forty milliliters 

Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred milliliters 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



275 



Gradually add the cinnamon water and about twenty mils of water 
) the compound chalk powder in a mortar, triturating until the mix- 
i is uniform; transfer this to a graduated vessel, rinse the mortar 
i enough water to make the product measure one hundred mils, and 
the whole thoroughly. This preparation must not be dispensed 
I it has been recently prepared. 

Avekage dose— Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fiuidrachms, 



MISTURA GLYCYRRHIZ/E COMPOSITA 

Compound Mixture of Glycyrrhiza 

Mist* Qlycyrrh. Co,— Brown Mixture 
Extract of Glycyrrhiza, thirty grammes. . ..♦ . 30.000 Gm. 

rup, fifty milliliter*. , 50.000 mils 

acia, granulated, thirty grammes 30.000 Gm, 

iony and Potassium Tartrate, two hundred and 

forty milligrammes . , , 0,240 Gm. 

phorated Tincture of Opium, one hundred and 

twenty milliliters . ♦ , 120.000 mils 

irit of Nitrous Ether, thirty milliliters . , 30.000 mils 

Vater, a sufficient quantity, 

To make anc thousand milliliters , , 1000 mils 

lib the pure extract of glycyrrhiza and acacia in a mortar with five 

mils of warm water until they are dissolved. Allow the boIu- 

to cool, transfer it to a graduated vessel, add the antimony and 

sium tartrate, dissolved in twelve mils of hot water, then the other 

Uents and rinse the mortar with enough water to make the prod- 

1 measure one thousand mils. Mix the whole thoroughly. 

Average dose— Metric, 10 mils— Apothecaries, 2J£ fluidrachms, 

MORPIIINA 

Morphine 

\n alkaloid [Ci 7 H lo O s N + H a O = 303.18] obtained from opium. Pre- 

ve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Morphine occurs in colorless or white, shining, rhombic prisms, in fine needles, 
or a* & crystalline powder; odorless; permanent in the air. 

One Gin. of Morphine dissolves in 3340 mils of water, 210 mils of alcohol, 1220 
i of chloroform, 6250 mils of ether, and in 100 mils of lime water, at 25° C*j 




276 



THE PHARMACGFCEIA OF THE 



(0 in 

also in 1075 mils of boiling water and 98 mils of boiling alcohol; inwltJ** 
benzene, 

A saturated aqueous solution of Morphine is alkaline to litmus. 

One mil of sulphuric acid added to about 0.05 Gm. of Morphine pr*/*^!** 
either no color or at most only a red or yellow tint; on heating, a brown C*' 
is developed. 

Sulphuric acid containing 0.005 Gm. of selenous acid in each mil gives ^C^ * 
Morphine a blue color, changing to green and then to brown eh yielc^ t ^ 

green color, changing to blue, and afterwards to grass-green; narcotine gjvi ^ 
green color, changing to brown and then to cherry-red.) 

Nitric acid produces with Morphine an orange-red color fading to ytlkr 
Sulphuric acid containing 0.005 Gm. of molybdic acid in each mil gives a pur 
color, changing to blue. Sulphuric acid containing in each mil one drop of »I *-* 
tion of formaldehyde yields an intense, purple color. 

Add a few drops of ferric chloride T.S. to a neutral solution of Morphine 1 1 * 
100) , made by the careful addition of diluted sulphuric acid; a blue color is pi 
dueed, which is destroyed by acids, alcohol, or by heating. 

Morphine solutions, when mixed with an aqueous solution of potassium ft 
rioyanide containing a drop of ferric chloride TJS., yield deep blue solutions ir 
which, after standing, a blue precipitate separates (difference from codeine) 

Morphine loses not more than b\5 per cent, of its weight when dried to < 
stant weight at 100° C. (moisture). 

No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.5 Gm. of Morphine, 

Dissolve about 0.1 Cm. of Morphine in 10 mils of diluted hydrochloric tv 
no red coloration isiprodueed by the addition of a few drops of ferric chl 
TA (mecmic acid or mvcon-nies). 

Warm about 0.2 Gm. of Morphine with 4 mils of potassium hydroxide 
the odor of ammonia lb not noticeable (ammonium satte). 

Dissolve I Gm. of Morphine in 10 mils of sodium hydroxide T.S„ shake ou* 
the solution with three successive portions of 15 T 10 f and 10 mils of chloroform* 
passing the chloroform solutions through a small filter previously moistened with 
chloroform. Evaporate carefully the combined chloroform solutions to dryness 
on a water bath, dissolve the residue in 10 mils of fiftieth-normal sulphuric 
V.S., add a few drops of methyl red T.S, and titrate the excess of acid with 
tieth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. Not less than 7,5 mils of the 



required (foreign alkaloids). 



latter i 



Average dose — Metric, 0.008 Gm. — Apothecaries, >g grain. 



MORPHINiE HYDROCIILORIDUM 

Morphine Hydrochloride 

Mornh. HydrochL— Morphine Chloride 

The hydrochloride ICi,HirfWI.HCl+3HdO- 375.68] of the 
morphine. Preserve it in well-closed containers protected from 



light. 



Morphine Hydrochloride occurs in white, silky, glistening needles or cub 
masses, or as a white, crystalline powder; odorless; permanent in the air. 

One Gm. of Morphine Hydrochloride dissolves in 17,5 mils of water ; 
mils of alcohol tit 25° C. ; also in 0,5 mil of boiling water and 46 mils of i 
60° C; soluble in glycerin; insoluble in chloroform or ether. 

Its aqueous solution (1 in 20} is neutral or slightly acid to litmus, 

Silver nitrate T.S., when added to an aqueous solution of the salt, produc 
white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid. 



Add potassium carbonate T\S. to 5 mils of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 
in 30), a white precipitate is produced, which does not become green on expo- 
sure to air nor yield a color to chloroform when shaken with it (apomorphine). 

Morphine Hydrochloride loses not more than 15 per cent* of its weight when 
dried to constant weight at 100° C. (moistun). 

• ther respects the salt responds to the tests for identity and purity under 
Morphina. 

Average dose— Metric, 0,008 Gm.— Apothecaries, % grain. 



MORPHINiE SULPHAS 

Morphine Sulphate 

Morph. Sulph, 

The sulphate [(Ci 7 H 19 !l N)t.H«S04+5H a D = 758,49] of the alkaloid 

Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Morphine Sulphate occurs in white, feathery, acieular, silky crystals, or in 
cubical masses; odorless, permanent in the air. 

One Gin. of Morphine Sulphate dissolves in 15,5 mils of water and 665 mils 
of alcohol at 25* C; also in 0.7 mil of water at 80° C. and 240 mils of alcohol at 
tiO* C; insoluble in chloroform or ether. 
Its aqueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral or slightly acid to litmus. 
Barium chloride T.S, produces a white precipitate insoluble hi hydrochloric 
acid when added to an aqueous solution ol the salt. 
Morphine Sulphate loses uot more than 7,5 per cent, of its weight when dried 

ir hours at 100° C. immature). 
Id all other respects the salt responds to the tests for identity and purity under 
Mmpkina, 

Average dose— Metric, 0.008 Gm. — Apothecaries, % grain. 



MOSCHUS 

Musk 



Mosch,— Tonquin Musk Deer Musk 

The dried secretion from the preputial follicles of Moschus mosckifenis 
\xtn6 (Fam, Moschidw) * Preserve it carefully in glass-stoppered bottles. 

Usually in small irregular granules, not more than 2 mm. in thickness, bhu-k- 
iah with a few brown fragments and becoming somewhat grayish on aging; glisten- 
ing &nd somewhat oily; odor peculiar, penetrating, powerful and persistent; 
taste somewhat bitter. 

Add a few granules of Musk to 2 mill of water in a watch crystal and stir with 
a glaas rod; a light brown solution is obtained. The undissolved portion consists 

irregular fragments containing a finely granular substanee, numerous rod- 

e bacteria and occasionally the hyphie of a fungus* 

Add a drop of iodine T.S, to a few granules of Musk on a elide and examine 
it under the microscope; the particles are not colored blue or bluish-black (starch). 

Add a few granules of Musk to 2 mils of alcohol contained in a watch crystal; 
the grains sink to the bottom, and upon stirring with a glass rod, a pale brown, 
slightly cloudy solution is obtained, leaving a somewhat oily stain upon the up- 
per portion of the watch crystal as the alcohol evaporates; the undissolved por* 



a hij 

Si 

** (11 





278 THE PHARMACOPEIA OP THB 

tion or residue resembles that obtained with the aqueous mixture, except thai 
the particles are less disintegrated. 

Acid a few granules of Musk to 2 mils of chloroform in a watch crystal; tat 
grains float on the surface and upon stirring with a glass rod, the solution remaiaa 
nearly colorless, and as it evaporates there separates around the particles a 
small auantity of a whitish, oily or fatty substance. 

Not less than 50 per cent, of Musk is soluble in water, the solution having a 
strong, distinctly characteristic odor, and a slightly acid reaction. 

Not less than 10 per cent, of Musk is soluble in alcohol, the solution being of a 
light, yellowish-brown color and becoming slightly turbid upon the addition of 
water. 

Musk loses not more than 15 per cent, of moisture when dried to constant 
weight in a desiccator over sulphuric acid. I 

Musk yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash. 

Preparation — Tinctura Moschi. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.25 Gm. — Apothecaries, 4 grains. 



MUCILAGO ACACLE 
Mucilage of Acacia 

Mucil. Acac. 

Acacia, in small fragments, three hundred and fifty grammes 350 Gm. 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand grammes 1000 Gm. 

Place the acacia in a tared bottle or flask having a capacity not 
exceeding one thousand mils, wash the drug with cold water, allow 
it to drain, and then add enough warm distilled water to make the 
mixture weigh one thousand grammes. Securely stopper the container, 
and agitate it from time to time until the acacia is dissolved. Strain 
the Mucilage and preserve it in small, well-filled bottles in a refrig- 
erator or in a cool place. 

Mucilage of Acacia should be frequently made and must not be dis- 
pensed if it has become sour or moldy. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 

MUCILAGO TRAGACANTILE 

Mucilage of Tragacanth 

Mucil. Trag. 

Tragacanth, six grammes 6 Gm. 

'CBRIN, eighteen grammes 18 Gm. 

BR, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 



j 



UNITED STATES OP AMEKICA 



279 



ix llxe glycerin with seventy-jive mils of water in a tared vessel, 

the mixture to boiling, remove the heat, add the tragacanth, and 

ate during twenty-four hours, stirring occasionally. Then add 

tier to make the mixture weigh one hundred grammts, beat it 

til of a uniform consistence, and strain it forcibly through muslin. 



MYRISTICA 

Myristica 

My rist,— Nutmeg 
The ripe seeds of Myristica jragrans Houttuyn (Fam. Myrislicacece), 
deprived of the aril I i and seed-coats. Preserve the kernels in tightly- 
dosed containers, adding a few drops of carbon tetrachloride or chloro- 
form from time to time to prevent attack by insects. Reject broken 
or wormy kernels. 

Ovoid or ellipsoidal, from 20 to 30 rum. in length and about 20 mm. in thick- 
ness; externally light brown to dark brown, rctinilatcly furrowed, the broad 
end with a large, circular, upraised gear from which arises a furrow extending to 
the chalaza ; easily cut, the surface having a waxy lustre and mottled by rofloofi 
of the light brown perispcrm penetrating into the yellowish-brown endosperm; 
ci longitudinal section through the endosperm above the large scar shows a small 
irregular cavity with the more or less shrunken remains of the embryo, and 
aottaUy containing a growth of mold; odor and taste agreeably aromatic. 

The powder is dark reddish-brown; consisting of irregular, yellowish-brown or 
brownish-black fragments; fragments of perisjierm yellowish-brown with large, 
circular or elliptical oil reservoirs containing a volatile oil, small, thin-walled 
parenchyma cells, and occasional spiral trachea? ; parenchyma cells of endosperm 
more or less polygonal and filled with starch grains and aleurone grains; starch 
grains single or compound, the individual grains being spherical, plano-convex 
or polygonal, from 0.003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter and colored blue with 
iodii iistinction from starch grains in mace, which are colored yellow- 

ish-red ) ; mounts in hydrated chloral T.S. show numerous globules of a fixed oil 
which later may separate in the form of rod-tike crystals; mounts in fixed oil 
show the separation of spheroidal aggregates of crystals which polarize light 
strongly. The powder made from "limed" nutmegs shows under the mioro- 
ecope, upon the addition of water containing 25 per cent, of .sulphuric acid, the 
immediate separation of crystals of calcium sulphate in the form of small 
needles or short rods which do not polarize light. 

Myristica yields not more than 5 per cent, of ash. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



MYRRHA 

Myrrh 

Myrrh, — Gum Myrrh 
obtained from one or more species of Commiphora (Fam. 



In rounded or irregular tears or masses, brownish-yellow or reddish-brown, 
and covered with a brownish-yellow dust; fracture waxy, somewhat splintery, 




280 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 

translucent on the edges, sometimes marked with nearly white fines; 
samic; taste aromatic; bitter and acrid. 

The powder is yellowish-brown; 0.001 Gm. of the powder, wheni 
drop of fixed oil on a slide and examined under the microsoc 
numerous angular fragments varying in color from pale yellow to 
brown; when mounted in hydrated chloral T.S. the color of the yeU< 
ments is intensified: the addition* of « iodine T.S. to the powder, 
mounted in hydratea chloral T.S., may show the presence of a few st 
varying in shape from spherical, polygonal, and narrowly ellipsoid 
what pear-shaped, from 0.01 to 0.035 mm. in diameter; when n 
phloroglucinol T.S. and hydrochloric acid the powder may show a fen 
of ligmfied tissues consisting of either sclerenchymatous fibers, or of si 
of stone cells, the individual cells of the latter with very thick, porou 
from 0.015 to 0.05 mm. in length. 

Not less than 35 per cent, of Myrrh is soluble in alcohol. 

Myrrh yields not more than 8.5 per cent, of ash. 

Preparations— Piluhfi Rhei Composite Tinctura Myrrhs. 
Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 g 



NITROGENU MONOXTOUM 
Nitrogen Monoxide 

Nitrogen. Monox*— Nitrous Oxide 

Nitrogen Monoxide gas [N«0= 44.02]. 

It is a colorless gas possessing a slight characteristic odor and < 
sweet taste. It supports the combustion of many substances. 

For convenience m handling and use, it is compressed in metal c) 
is quite soluble in water at low temperatures; 1 volume of wat 
about 1.3 volumes of nitrous oxide at 25° C. 

Pass 2000 mils of the gas, measured under normal atmospheric 
about 25° C, through 100 mils of barium hydroxide T.S. at a rate 
ing 4000 mils per hour; not more than a slight turbidity is prodi 
dioxide). 

No opalescence is produced in a mixture of 100 mils of distillet 
1 mil of silver nitrate T.S. by 2000 mils of the gas under the conditio) 
above (halogens). 

No change in color is produced in 100 mils of distilled water to w] 
of litmus T.S. have been added, by the passage of 1000 mils of the 
the liquid under the conditions described above (acids or bases). 

No alteration in color is produced in a solution of 0.2 mil of tenth 
tassium permanganate V.S. in 100 mils of distilled water, by the pae 
mils of the gas through the liquid under the conditions described a 
ing substances). 

NUX VOMICA 
Nux Vomica 

Nux Vom.— Strychni semen P.L 

The dried, ripe seeds of Strychnos Nux-vomiea Linn6 (Pa 
iacea), yielding not less than 2.5 per cent, of the alkaloi< 
Vomica. 



Orbicular, nearly flat, occasionally irregularly bent, from 10 to 30 mm. in 
diameter and from 4 to 5 mm. in thickness, very hard when dry; externally 
payiat or greenish-gray, covered with appressed hairs giving it a silky luster, 
«Uum indicated by a circular scar at the center of one of the flattened sides 
•ad connected with the micro pyle at the edge by a ridge; internally ehow- 
mf a thin, hairy seed-coat and a large grayish- white endosperm at one end 
of which is embedded a small embryo with two broadly ovate, 5- to 7 -nerved 
Cotyledons; inodorous; taste intensely and persistently bitter. 

The powder is light gray; mnmnting chiefly of thick-walled endosperm cells 
containing globules of a fixed oil and a few small alcurone grains, and fragments 
of strongly ligirified, non-glandular hairs, the walls of the latter possessing 
lmi&, circular, or long, slit-like pores. In the tissues of the adhering pulp occur 
J* few small, nearly spherical starch grains. 

Vomica yields not more than 3,5 per cent, of ash. 

Assay— Introduce 15 Gm. of Xux Vomica, in No. 40 powder, into a 250 mil 

': and add 150 mils of a mixture of chloroform, I volume, and ether, 2 

mes. Stopper the flask, shake it well and allow it to stand ten minuhs, 

"fcAieo add 10 mils of ammonia water , and, after shaking the flask vigorously 

^ , very ten minutes during two hours, allow it to stand ten hours. Now add 

^S mils of distilled water, again shake the flask well, and, when the drug has 

settled, decant 100 mils of the solution, representing 10 Gm, of Nux Vomica, 

*^id proceed as directed under Belladonna? Radix, page 73, beginning with the 

^rwA "Filter/' line 7 of the Assay. For the titration, dissolve the alkaloids from 

JJfcie residue with 10 mils of tenth-normal sulphurie arid V\S. instead of 5 mils. 

«Wbmil of tenth-normal sulphuric aeid V.S, consumed corresponds to 36.4 mil- 

"grammes of the total alkaloids of Nux Vomica, 

Preparations — Extractum Nucis Vomica Fluidextractura Nucis Vomica* 
Tin ct ura Nucis Vomica*. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm- Apothecaries, 1 grain. 

OLEATUM HYDRARGYRI 
Oleate of Mercury 

Oleat. Hydrarg. 
ITellow Mercuric Oxide, in very fine powder, twenty- 
five grammes 25 Gm. 

Alcohol, twenty ?nilliliters 20 mils 

3C Acid, a sufficient quantity, ^__^_ 

To make one hundred grammes 100 Gm. 

the yellow mercuric oxide with the alcohol in a tared dish, add 
f-jive grammes of oleic acid, warm the mixture to a temperature 
exceeding 50° C, stir constantly for five minutes and then continue 
beat, stirring frequently, until the alcohol is expelled and the 
?rcuric oxide is dissolved. Now add sufficient oleic acid to make the 
luct weigh one hundred grammes and mix thoroughly. Preserve 
ite of Mercury in tightly-closed containers protected from strong 
and do not dispense it if globules of mercury are visible at the 
Dttom of the container. In the preparation of this Oleate avoid all 
ict with metallic utensils. 







282 THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THB 

OLEORESINA ASPIDII 
Oleoresin of Aspidium 

Oleores. Aspid.— Oleoresin of Male Fern 
Aspidium, recently reduced to No. 40 powder, five hundred 
grammes 500 Gm. 

Ether, a sufficient quantity. i 

Place the aspidium in a cylindrical glass percolator, provided with a I 
stop-cock, and arranged with a cover and a receptacle suitable for volatile 1 
liquids. Pack the powder firmly, and percolate slowly with ether, added 
in successive portions, until the drug is exhausted. Recover the greater 
part of the ether from the percolate by distillation on a water bath, and, 
having transferred the residue to a dish, allow the remaining ether to 
evaporate spontaneously in a warm place. Keep the Oleoresin in a 
well-stoppered bottle. 

Note — Oleoresin of Aspidium, on standing, usually deposits a gran- 
ular, crystalline substance. This should be thoroughly mixed with the 
liquid portion before use. 

Average dose — Caution! Single dose, once a day, Metric, 
2 Gm. — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 

OLEORESINA CAPSICI 

Oleoresin of Capsicum 
Oleores. Capsic 

Capsicum, in No. 40 powder, five hundred grammes 500 Gm. 

Ether, a sufficient quantity. 

Place the capsicum in a cylindrical glass percolator, provided with a 
stop-cock, and arranged with a cover and a receptacle suitable for 
volatile liquids. Pack the powder firmly, and percolate slowly with ■ 
ether, added in successive portions, until the percolate measures eigU -. 
hundred mils. Recover the greater part of the ether from tta 1 
percolate by distillation on a water bath, and, having transferred tin ^ 
residue to a dish, allow the remaining ether to evaporate spontane- J 
ously in a warm place. Then pour off the liquid portion, transfer the 9 
remainder to a glass funnel provided with a pledget of cotton, and, when I 
the separated fatty matter (which is to be rejected) has been completely 1 
drained, mix the liquid portions together. Keep the Oleoresin in a wdl- 1 
stoppered bottle. a 

Preparation— Emplastrum Capsici. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, )£ grain. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



283 



OLEORESINA CURBED 

Oleoresin of Cubeb 
QJeores. Cubeb. 

Cubbb, in No. 30 powder, five hundred grammes. 500 Cm. 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

Place the cubeb in a cylindrical glass percolator, pack the powder 
firmly, and percolate slowly with alcohol, added in successive portions, 
until the drug is exhausted. Recover the greater part of the alcohol 
from the percolate by distillation on a water bath, and, having trans- 
d the residue to a dish, allow the remaining alcohol to evaporate, 
in a warm place, stirring frequently. Keep the Oleoresin in a well- 
stoppered bottle* 

Nora — Oleoresin of Cubeb, after standing for some time, deposits a 
waxy and crystalline precipitate, which should be rejected, the liquid 
portion only being used. 

Preparation — TrocMflci Ctibebse. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



OLEORESINA PETRGSELINI 

Oleoresin of Parsley Fruit 
Oleores, Petrose I, —Liquid Apiol 

arsley Fruit, in No. 60 powder, five hundred grammes. , . , 500 Gm. 
a sufficient quantity. 

Place the parsley fruit in a cylindrical glass percolator provided with 
a stop-cock and arranged with a cover and a receptacle suitable for 
Volatile liquids. Pack the powder firmly , and percolate slowly with ether, 
added in successive portions until the drug is exhausted. Recover the 
greater portion of the ether by distillation on a water bath, and, having 
transferred the residue to a dish, remove the remaining ether by spon- 
taneous evaporation in a warm place, stirring frequently. Allow the 
Oleoresin to stand without agitation for four or five days* decant the 
dear liquid portion from any solid residue, and preserve it in well- 
sioppercd bottles. 

Average dose — Metric, 0,5 mil— Apothecaries, 8 minims. 




284 THE PHABMAGOFCEIA OF THE 

OLEORESINA PIPERIS 

Oleoresin of Pepper 
Oleorcs* Pipor* 

Pepper, in No. 40 powder, five hundred grammes I 

Ether, a sufficient quantity. 

Place the pepper in a cylindrical glass percolator, provided wit 
cock, and arranged with a cover and a receptacle for volatile 
Pack the powder firmly, and percolate slowly with ether, addec 
cessive portions, until the drug is exhausted. Recover the grei 
of the ether from the percolate by distillation on a water bath, anc 
transferred the residue to a dish, set this aside in a warm ph 
the remaining ether has evaporated, and the deposition of pipi 
ceased. Lastly, separate the Oleoresin from the piperine by i 
through purified cotton. Keep the Oleoresin in a well-stoppere 
Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, J£ 

OLEORESINA ZINGBBERIS 

Oleoresin of Ginger 
Oleores. Zinglb. 

Ginger, in No. 60 powder, five hundred grammes 

Ether, a sufficient quantity. 

Place the ginger in a cylindrical glass percolator, provic 
a stop-cock, and arranged with a cover and a receptacle suii 
volatile liquids. Pack the powder firmly, and percolate sloi 
ether, added in successive portions, until the drug is exhausted, 
the greater part of the ether from the percolate by distillation oi 
bath, and, having transferred the residue to a dish, allow the n 
ether to evaporate spontaneously in a warm place. Keep the < 
in a well-stoppered bottle. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.03 Gm. — Apothecaries, J£ | 

OLEUM AMYGDAUE AMARUS 

Oil of Bitter Almond 

01. Amygd. Amar.— Bitter Almond Oil 
A volatile oil obtained by maceration and distillation from 
kernels of PrunuA Amygdalus amara DeCandolle (Fam. Rosa 
from other kernels containing amygdalin. It yields not lea 
per cent, of benzaldehyde [C 7 H e O] and not less than 2 per 
more than 4 per cent, of hydrocyanic acid [HCN1. The 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



285 






I from which it is derived must be stated on the label. Preserve 
i mull, well-stoppered, completely filled, amber -eolored bottles pro- 
urn light and air. Oil showing crystals of benzoic acid must 
Dot be dispensed. 

IIote — This Oil is intended for medicinal use; it must not be used 
Savoring foods. 
Oil of Bitter Almond is a clear, colorless or yellow, strongly refractive liquid, 
having the characteristic odor and taste of benznldehyde. 

slightly soluble in water and soluble in all proportions in alcohol or ether. 
It (iissolves, forming a clear solution, in 2 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 
Specific gravity: 1.038 to 1.060 at 25° C. 

Refractive index: 1,5428 to 1.5439 at 20° C. (see Part II, Test No. 22). 
It is optically inactive or dextrorotatory, not exceeding +0* 10' in a 100 mm. 
tube at 25° C. (see Part II, Test No. 21). 

When first prepared, the Oil is neutral to litmus paper, but afterwards 
develops an acid motion due to the formation of bemoi'- arid. 

It does not respond to the Test for heavy metals in volatile oils (see Part II, 
Test No. 3). 

Hold the looped end of a piece of clean copper wiw in a non-luminous flame 

amil it plows without coloring the flame g roan , cool the wire, dip the loop into 

Oil uf Bitter Almond, ignite ihe latter and hold it so that the liquid hums 

le of the non-luminous flame. On slowly bringing the flame from the 

burning Oil of Bitter Almond on the loop in contact with tha lower outer edge 

c{ the non-luminous flame, no green tinge is discernible (chlorinated product*). 

Add 10 drops of the Oil to a little alcohol, then add a small amount of zinc 

fat iod 2 mils of acetic acid and boil the mixture for a short time; no odor of 

pbrayliso cyanide develops after rendering it strongly alkaline with potassium 

hydroxide T.S., adding a few drops of eUocofSorm and heating nitrobenzene). 

Aitty for be nza Id chyde— Dissolve about 3 mils of freshly redistilled phenyl- 

"ae in 60 mils of alcohol and titrate 25 mils of this solution, which must 

be freshly prepared, with half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S.. using 

orange T.S. as indicator. To about 1 Gm. of the Oil of Bitter Almond, 

ighed, add 25 mils of the phenylhydrazine solution just prepared 

v it to stand for thirty minutes. Adcl a drop of methyl orange T.S., and 

tdify the mixture by adding a measured excess of half-normal hydrochloric 

Filter the mixture and wash the precipitate with small portions of 

(bulled water until the washings cease to redden blue litmus paper. Then 

tHnte the excess of hydrochloric acid in the filtrate with half-normal potas- 

Kum hydroxid* V-S. and subtract the number of mils of the half-normal hydro- 

chloric acid V,S. consumed from the number of mils of the half-normal 

Mrochloric acid \\8. used in titrating the 25 mils of phenylhvdrazine solution; 

w* difference multiplied by 0,053 gives the weight of benmlclehyde. 

Assay for hydrocyanic acid — Dissolve 15 Gm. of crystallized magnesium sul- 
l«ate in enough distilled water to measure 100 mils, add 5 mils of this solution 
to 40 mils of distilled water, then add 5 mils of half-normal sodium hydroxide 
md two drops of potassium ehromate T.S., and titrate the solution with 
kjJtb-aormal silver nitrate V.S, to the production of a permanent reddish tint. 
tot this mixture into a 100 mil flask containing about 1 Gm. of Oil of Bitter 
aanond, accurately weighed, mix well and titrate again with tenth-normal silver 
nitrate V.S. until a red tint, which does not disappear on shaking, is reproduced. 
Conduct this titration as rapidly as possible, 

Ooe mil of tenth-normal silver nitrate V.S. corresponds to Q.O027 Gm. of 
hydrocyanic acid. One gramme of the Oil corresponds to not less than 7.4 mils 
nor more than 14,8 mils of tenth-normal silver nitrate V,S, 
Preparations — Aqua Amygdala? Amano Spiritua Amygdala Amane. 

Avebage dose— Metric, 0,03 mil — Apothecaries, }£ minim. 




OLEUM AMYGDALA EXPRESSUM 

Expressed Oil of Almond 

01. Ainygd. Exp.— Oil of Sweet Almond 

A fixed oil obtained from the kernels of varieties of Pruntis A 
Stokes (Fam. Rosacea). Preserve it hi well -closed containers, 
cool place. 



u 



Expressed OU of Almond is a clear* pale straw-colored or colorless, 01! 
almost odorless, and having a bland taste. 

It is slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform, beaien^ 
petroleum ben z in. 

Specific gravity: 0.910 to 0.915 at 25° C. 

The oil remains clear at — 10° C. r and does not congeal until cooled to nea 
-20° C. (otweorlardoO). 

Shake vigorously 2 mils of the Oil with a mixture of 1 mil of fuming nitric mci 
and 1 mil of water: a whitish mixture is fonned, which, after standing for seven 
hours at about 10 Q, separates into a solid white or nearly white mass and 
slightly colored liquid {oil of peach or apricot kernels, yielding a red color, *» 
sesame or cottonseed oil, yielding a brown color). 

Heat 10 mils of the Oil with 15 mils of an aciuenus solution of sodium hydro* 
ide (1 in 6) and 30 mils of alcohol on a water oath in a flask having a small fun- 
nel inserted in the neck, occasionally agitating the mixture until it beoomo 
clear, then transfer the solution to a shallow* dish and evaporate the alcohol oi 
a water bath. The residue, when mixed with 100 mils of distilled wiitef 
produces a clear solution (paraffin oil). Add an excess of hydrochloric arid & 
this solution; a layer of oleic acid rises to the surface, which, when separated 
washed with warm water and clarified by heating on a water bath, remain 
clear if cooled to 15° C, {various foreign oils). 

One volume of the oleic acid obtained in the last test, when mixed *w 
1 volume of alcohol, yields a clear solution, w T hich at 15° C, does not depos 
any fatty acids, nor become turbid upon the further addition of 1 volume o 
alcohol (distinction from olive, arachix, cottojisted, sesame, or other fixed oilt). 

Saponification value: not less than 191 nor more than 200 (see Part II, T» 
No. 0), 

Iodine value: not less than 93 nor more than 100 (sec Part II, Test No, 8). 

Preparation — Uuguentum Aqu© Ross. 



OLEUM ANISI 
Oil of Anise Oil of Star Anise 

01* Anisl— Anise Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the ripe fruit of Pimpinella Ani&um 

(Fam. UmbelUfera?) or from the ripe fruit of Illiciumverum Hooker f 

(Fam. Maqnoliacece). The botanical source from which it is derive 

must be stated on the label If solid material has separated, careful 

warm the Oil until liquefied, and thoroughly mix it before dispense 

rve it in well-stoppered, amber-eolored bottles, protected fromligl 

Oil of Anise is a colorless or pale yellow, strongly refractive liquid, having ' 
characteristic odor and taste of anise. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



287 



U is soluble with not more than a slight cloudiness in 3 volumes of 90 per 
cent, alcohol 

Specific gravity: 0J78 to 0.988 at 25° C. 

Hdnctive index: L544 to 1.560 at 20° C. (see Part II, Test No. 22), 

The optical rotation varies from +l°to - — 2° in a 100 mm, tube at 25° C. 
{oil of fame!) (see Part II, Test No. 21). 

An .alcoholic solution prepared as ahovc is neutral to litmus and develops 
no blue or brownish color upon the addition of a drop of ferric chloride T.S. 

It does not respond to the Test for heavy metal in volatile oils (see Part II r 
to, 3), 

H'heo tested by the following method, the congealing point of the Oil 
cfoes not fall below 15° C. Transfer about 10 mils of the Od to a test tube, 
place it in a water bath cooled with ice, insert a thermometer at once into the 
(XI and allow it to remain undisturbed until tin- tv\u\tt ratlin has fallen to about 
12° C. Then induce crystallization either by rubbing the inner wall of the test 
tube with the thermometer or by the addition of a particle of solid anethol, re- 
move the test tube from the bath and stir during the solidification of the Oil, 
The highest temperature reached during the trystallizatiun is regarded as the 
congealing point. 

Preparations — Aqua A nisi Spiritus Anisi Tinctura Opii Camphorata. 
Average dose — Metric, 0,2 mi] — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



OLEUM AURANTTI 

Oil of Orange 

I. Attract.— Oleum Auran til Cortieis, U.S.P. VIII Orange Oil Oil of Sweet Orange 

A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel of sweet 

orange, Citrus Aurantium sinensis Gallesio (Fam. Rutacem) y and its 

& Preserve it in small, well-stoppered , amber-colored bottles, in a 

ol place, protected from light. Oil of Orange having a terebinth inate 

or is not to be dispensed. 

OS! of Orange is a yellow liquid having the characteristic odor and taste of 
orange peel. 

Specific gravity: 0.842 to 0.846 at 25° C. 

Refractive index: 1.4723 to 1.4737 at 20° C. (see Part II, Test No, 22). 

Its optical rot at ion is not less than + 94° in a 100 mm. tube at 25 u C. (see 
ftrtU.TestNo.21). 

Introduce 50 mils of Oil of Orange into a 200 mil, three-bulb Ladenburg 
flask of approximately the following dimensions: The lower or main bulb 6 cm, 
in diameter with the smaller condensing bulbs 3.5 cm., 3.0 cm. and 2.5 cm. in 
diameter, respectively ; with the distance from the bottom of the flask to the side 
ana 20 cm. Then distil the Oil at the rate of one drop per second until 5 mils 
toa been obtained. The angle of rotation of the distillate thus obtained is 
equal to or only slightly greater than that of the original Oil, and the refractive 
index of this portion, at 20° C, is not less than 0.0008 nor more than 0.0015 
lower than that of the original Oil at 20° C. 

Pre/jaration— Spirit us Aurantii Compositus. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.2 mil— Apothecaries, 3 minims. 





288 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 



OLEUM CADINUM 
Oil of Cade 

OK Cad in. — Cade Oil Oil of Juniper Tar Oleum Juniperi Empyreum 

An empyreumatic oil obtained by the dry distillation of the 
Juniperus Oxycedrus Linn6 (Fam. Pinacece). 

Oil of Cade is a dark brown, clear , thick liquid, having a tarry, empy 
odor and a warm, faintly aromatic, and bitter taste. 

It is almost insoluble in water, but imparts to it an acid reaction, 
partially soluble in alcohol or petroleum benzin, completely soluble 
nines of ether, soluble in amyl alcohol, chloroform, glacial acetic acid, 
turpentine. 

Specific gravity: 0,980 to 1,055 at 25° C. 

Snake 1 part of Oil of Cade with 20 parts of warm distilled water ai 
separate portions of this filtrate give a red coloration with a few drops 
chloride solution (1 in 1000) and reduce silver ammonium nitrate T.J 
cold and alkaline eupric tartrate T.8. on heating. 

Agitate 1 mil of Oil of Cade with 15 mils of purified petroleum beni 
the benzin solution, add an equal volume of copper acetate solution (1 
shake the mixture and then allow it to separate. On adding an equal 
of ether to the separated benzin solution, it produces no intensely green a 
and does not become colored more than light yellow to brown {rosin andr 



OLEUM CAJOTUTI 
Oil of Gajuput 

01. Cajup — Cajuput Oil Oil of Cajeput 
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs of severs 
ties of Melaleuca Leucadendron Linad, especially the var, Cajept 
burgh and the var. minor Smith (Fam. Myrtacece). Preserve it 
stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a cool place. 

Oil of Cajuput is a colorless or yellowish liquid having a peculii 
able, distinctly camphoraceous odor, and an aromatic, slightly bittei 

it is soluble in 1 volume of 80 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity: 0.912 to 0.925 at 25° C. 

Its optical rotation does not exceed— 4° in a 100 mm. tube at 21 
Part II, Test No, 21). 

It does not respond to the Test for heavy metals in volatile oils 
II, Test No. 3). 



Average dose— Metric, 0.5 mil— Apothecaries, 8 



mini 



OLEUM CARI 

Oil of Caraway 

01, Carl-Caraway Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the fruit of Carum Cann L 
Umbelliferce) f andyielding not less than 50 por rent., by volume,of 



Ji*H M 0=150Jl). Presence it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, 

a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Caraway is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, having the characteristic 
odor and taste of caraway. 
It id soluble in 8 volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol. 
Specific gravity: 0.900 to 0,910 at 25° C. 

■ical rotation varies between + 70° and + 80° in a 100 mm. tube at 
25* C i see Part II, Test No. 21 1. 

A ss*y— Introduce 10 mils of the Oil into a 200 mil flask with a long graduated 
&ck (cassia flask) by means of a pipette, add 50 mil* of a saturated solution of 
sodium sulphite, which has been carefully rendered neutral to phenol- 
phlhalein T.S. by means of acetic add, heat the mixture in a bath con- 
taining boiling water and shake the rlask repeatedly, neutralizing the mixture 
from time to time by the addition of a few drops of diluted acetic Mad. 
When no coloration appears, upon the addition of a few more drops of pheriol- 
piilbalein T.S. and heating for fifteen minutes, cool, and, when the liquids 
We separated completely, add sufficient of the sodium sulphite solution to 
raise the low T er limit of the oily layer within the graduated portion of the nerk 
HOte the volume of the residual liquid. This measure! not more than 5 mils, 
ng the presence of not less than 50 per cent., by volume, of carvone. 

Preparation— Spiritus Juniperi Compositus* • 

Average dose— Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 

OLEUM CARYOPHYLLI 

Oil of Clove 

Oh Caryoph.— Clove OH Gil of Cloves 
1 A volatile oil distilled from the flower-buds of Eugenia Aromutica 
n&) 0, Kuntze, Jambosa Caryophyllus (Sprengel) Niedenzu (Fain, 
tyrtacea), and yielding not less than 82 per cent,, by volume, of eugenol 
WW)i- 164 JO]* Preserve it in weE-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, 
i a cool place, protected from light* 

Oil of Clove is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, becoming darker and 
thicker by age and exposure to the air, having the characteristic odor and 
twte of clove. 

It is soluble in 2 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity: 1.038 to 1.000 at 25° C. 

, In optical rotation does not exceed — 1° 10' in a 100 mm. tube at 25* C. (see 
I Test No. 21). 

Shake 1 mil of the Oil with 20 mils of hot distilled water; the water shows not 
tBGfr than a scarcely perceptible acid reaction with litmus. After cooling, pass 
J*J aqueous layer through a wetted filter; the clear filtrate, with a drop of ferric 
™tori<Je T.S., yields only a transient, grayish-green color, but not a blue or 
Wt color (phenol). 

Amy— introduce 10 mils of the Oil into a flask with a long graduated neck 
Wi flask), add 50 mil* of potassium hydroxide T.S., shake the mixture for 
"J^ninutes and then heat it on a water bath during ten minutes, cool mid 
*h*B the liquids have separated completely, add sufficient potassium hydrox- 
*kT,S, to raise the lower limit of the oiJy layer within the graduated portion 
°' the neck and note the Volume of the residual liquid. This measures not 
°"w than 1.8 mils, indicating the presence of not less than 82 per cent., by 
volume, of eugenol. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 

24 







OLEUM CASSLE 

Oil of Cinnamon 

OL Cass.— Oleum Cinnamomi, ILS.P. VIII Cassia Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from Cinnamomum Cassia (Nees) Blurae (Pj 
Lnuracea;), rectified by steam distillation and yielding not less than 80 
rent., by volume, of ckinamie aldehyde [CbH b O = 132.06]. Preserve it 
well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected fromligl 

Oil of Cinnamon is a yellowish or brownish liquid, becoming darker a 
thicker by age and exposure to the air and having the characteristic odor a 
taste of cinnamon. 

.Specific gravity; 1.045 to 1.063 at 25° C. 

The optical rotation varies from +1° to — 1° in a 100 mm* tube at 25* 
(Bee Part II, Test No. 21). 

It does not respond to the Test for heavy metals in volatile oik (see Part 
Test No. 3). 

Shake 2 mils of the Oil in a test tube with from 5 to 10 mils of purified petr 
leum benzin, and decant the latter; this liquid is colorless and does not ae 
green color upon shaking it with an equal volume of (1 in 1000J copper acet^tte 
solution (rosin). 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Qlmim Cari, using 10 mils of Oil of Cin 
mon. It shows not less than 80 per cent., by volume, of cinnamic aldehyde 

Preparations — Aqua Cinnamomi Spirit us Cinnamomi. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil— Apothecaries, 3 minims. 

OLEUM CHENOPODI1 

Oil of Chenopodium 

Ol. Chenopod. — Oil of American Wormaeed 

A volatile oil distilled from Chenopodium ambrosioides anthelmintiam 
LininS (Fam. Chenopodinceas), Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-col- 
ored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Chenopodium is a colorless or pale yellowish liquid, having a charac- 
ters tu\ disagreeable odor and taste. 

It is soluble in 8 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol 

Sptrifie gravity: 0.965 to 0.980 at 25° C. 

lt^ optical rotation varies between— 4° and — 10* in a 100 mm. tube at 25* C. 
(Bee Part II, Test No. 21). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 

OLEUM CORIANDRI 

Oil of Coriander 

Ol. Cartaiid.— Coriander Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum Linne" 
(Fam. Umbelliferw)* Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bat- 
tles, in a cool place, protected from light. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 291 



00 of Coriander is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, having the characteristic 
odor and taste of coriander. 

It is soluble in 3 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity: 0.863 to 0.875 at 25° C. 

The optical rotation varies from +8° to + 13° in a 100 mm. tube at 25° C. 
(we Part n, Test No. 21). 

PrepamtJoB— Syrupus Senna). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



OLEUM CUBEBiE 
OU of Cubeb 

OI. Cubeb.— Cubeb Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the unripe fruit of Piper Cubeba Linn6 filius 
(Fam. Piperacew). Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, 
■* cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Cubeb is a colorless or a pale green to yellowish-green liquid, having the 
characteristic odor and taste of cubeb. 

Specific gravity: 0.905 to 0.925 at 25° C. 

Its optical rotation varies from —20° to -40° in a 100 mm. tube at 25° C. 
(see Part II, Test No. 21). 

Its alcoholic solution is neutral to litmus. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 minims. 



OLEUM EUCALYPTI 

Oil of Eucalyptus 

OI. Eucalypti— Eucalyptus Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus Globulus 
abillardi&re (Fam. Myrtacece) or from some other species of Eucalyptus, 
ad yielding not less than 70 per cent., by volume, of eucalyptol 
ineol) [C lo HiaO = 154.14]. Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber- 
>lored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Eucalyptus is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, having a characteristic, 
aromatic, somewhat camphoraceous odor, and a pungent, spicy, and cooling 
taste. 

It is soluble in 4 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravitv: 0.905 to 0.925 at 25° C. 

Mix 2 mils of the Oil with 4 mils of glacial acetic acid and gradually add 3 mils 
of a saturated solution of sodium nitrite. When gently stirred, the mixture 
does not form crystals of phellandrene nitrite (other eucalyptus oils containing 
large amounts of phellandrene). 

Assay — Measure 10 mils of the Oil, from a pipette, into a round-bottom 
adass dish of 50 mils capacity, which is imbedded in finely broken ice. Add 
10 mils of arsenic acid T.S. and stir until precipitation is complete. When 
the mixture ceases to congeal further, allow it to stand for ten minutes in the 



292 THE PHARMACOHEIA OF THE 



ice bath. (If at this point a hard mass is formed, add 5 mils of purif 
leum benzin, and mix the mass well before proceeding with the asea 
transfer it immediately to a hardened filter paper, about 18.6 cm. in 
by means of a pliable horn epatula; spread it evenly over the surfa 
paper and lay a second hardened filter paper over the top. Wra; 
nesses of absorbent or filter paper around the hardened filters, and 
whole between the plates of a press and bring to bear all the preasur 
for about one minute. Change the outside absorbent papers and pr 
repeating the operation, if necessary, until the eucalyptol arsenate is a 
dry t and separates readily when touched with a spatula. The presa 
complete when a hard mass remains which is broken up with diffic 
usually two changes of filter paper are required, pressing each time 
two minutes; if left too long in the press the compound may decornpo 
transfer the compound completely by means of the horn spatula to agl 
inserted into a 100 mil cassia flask with a neck graduated to 10 mils in 
Wash the last portions?: of the precipitate into the flask with a strea 
distilled water from a wash bottle, assisting the disintegration with a 

Elace the flask in boiling water and rotate it until the comjiound is tl 
rokea up. Then add enough distilled water to cause the 
into the neck of the flask, cool it to room temperature and read it 
This volume, multiplied by 10, shows the percentage of eucalyptol ( 
the Oil. 

Average dose — Metric , 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 min 



OLEUM FCEN1CULI 

Oil of Fennel 

01. Fcenlc— Fennel Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the ripe fruit collected from 



. 



varieties of Fmniculum vulgare Miller (Fam. UmbeUiferr. 
or partly solidified, carefully warm the Oil until liquefied and th 
mix it before dispensing. Preserve it in well-stoppered, ambei 
bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Fennel is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, having the cha 
odor iod fc&fte of funnel. 

It in ho In hie in 8 volume* of 80 per cent, alcohol and in 1 volume 
Mrit.afoohol, forming i. solution neutral bo litmus. 

8pecifir gravity :0.fe3 to 0.973 etdErC. 

The optical rotation varies from +12° to +34* in a 100 mm. tube 
(see Part 11, Test No. 21). 

When tested by the method under Oleum Anisi, wi< I town 

cation*, the congealing point of the Oil Qjotf rmi fall b 

containing the 10 mils of Oil of Fennel in a freezing mb 
temperature has fallen to 0° C, and induce crystallisation a* din 

Preparations— Aqua Fceniculi Pulvis GlycyrrhiMo Compoaitua 8pi 
peri Compositus, 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 mit 



I UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 293 

OLEUM GOSSYPn SEMINIS 
Cottonseed Oil 

01. Oossyp. Sem^— Cotton Seed Oil 

A fixed oil obtained from seeds of cultivated varieties of Gossypium 
kiocettm Linn6, or of other species of Gossypium (Fam. Mahacece). 
Unserve it in well-closed containers. 

Cottonseed Oil is a pale yellow, oily liquid, odorless or nearly odorless, and 
having a bland taste. 

It is slightly soluble in alcohol; miscible with ether, chloroform, petroleum 
bourn, or carbon disulphide. 

Specific gravity: 0.915 to 0.921 at 25° C. 

On cooting the Oil to a temperature below 12° C. particles of solid fat sep- 
arate. At about 0° to —5° C. the Oil becomes nearly or quite solid. 

Add sulphuric acid (specific gravity 1.6 to 1.7) to the Oil, preferably diluted 
with carbon disulphide; a reddish-brown color is rapidly produced. 

Mix 2 mils of the Oil in a test tube with 2 mils of a mixture of equal volumes 
of amyl alcohol and a 1 per cent, solution of sulphur in carbon disulphide, and 
immerse the test tube to one-third of its depth m a boiling, saturated aqueous 
solution of sodium chloride; a red color develops in from ten to fifteen minutes. 

Saponification value: not less than 190 nor more than 198 (see Part II, Test 
No. 9). 

Iodine value: not less than 105 nor more than 114 (see Part II, Test No. 8). 

OLEUM JUNIPERI 
Oil of Juniper 

01. Junlp* — Juniper Oil Oil of Juniper Berries 

A volatile oil distilled from the ripe fruit of Juniperus communis, Linn 6 
(Earn. Pinacece). Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles 
in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Juniper is a colorless or faintly green or yellow liquid, having the char- 
acteristic odor and taste of juniper fruit. 

It is soluble in 4 volumes of alcohol with not more than a slight cloudiness. 

Specific gravity: 0.854 to 0.879 at 25° C. 
^ The optical rotation varies from 0° to — 15°, in a 100 mm. tube at 25° C. (see 
Part II, Test No. 21). 

Preparations — Spiritus Juniperi Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. 
Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 

OLEUM LAVANDULA 
Oil of Lavender 

OI. Lavand.— Oleum Lavandula; Florum, U.S.P. VlII 

A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering tops of Lavandula vera 
teGandolle {Lavandula officinalis Chaix, Lavandula spica Linn6) (Fam. 
Mate). Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a 
dI place, protected from light. 



294 



THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 




Oil of Lavender is a colorless or yellow liquid, having the characteristic c 
and teste of lavender flowers. 

It is soluble in 3 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity: 0.875 to 0.SS8 at 25° C. 

The optical rotation varies from — 1° to —10° in a 100 mm. tube at 25* 
(see Part II, Test No. 21). 

When shaken in a narrow glass cylinder with an equal volume of distill 
water, its volume does not diminish (alcohol). 

Shake 20 mils of the Od with 40 mils of f> per cent, alcohol and, when the mi 
ture has cleared, withdraw 30 mils of the alcoholic solution. Neutralise this nil 
half-normal potassium hydroxide V.S ? using phenol pht hale-in T.S. as in< 
then add 5 mils of half-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. and heat the mixta! 
on a water bath, under a reflux condenser, during one hour. Not less than 4.7 nuJ 
of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.8. is required for neutralization (formgnaUrt, 
Preparations— Spiritus Lavandulae Tinctura Lavandula Composita, 
Average dose— Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims, 

OLEUM LIMONIS 

Oil of Lemon 

01, Llmon-— Lemon Oil 
A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel of 'the rip 

fruit of Citrus medica Limonum (Risso) Hooker films (Fain. Rvtowz) 
and yielding not les< than 4 per cent, of the aldehydes from Oil of Lemon 
calculated as citral [CioHiaO- 152.13], Preserve it in well-stopper** 
amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. Oil t 
Lemon having a terebinthinate odor is not to be dispen 

Oil of Lemon is a pale yellow or greenish-yellow liquid, having the charade* 
is tic odor and taste of lemon. 

Specific gravity: 0.851 to 0.855 at 25° C. 

Refractive index: 1,4744 to 1.4755 at 20° C. (see Part II f Test No 221. 

The optical rotation varies from +57° to +64* in a 100 mm. tube at 25'C 
(see Part II, Teat No. 21). 

The angle of rotation of the first 10 per cent, of the distillate, obtained ■ 
directed under Oleum Auranhi, is not more than 5 degrees less than that c 
the original Oil. The refractive Lodes of this first 10 per rent, of disti 
not less than 0.002 nor more than 0.0027 lower than that of the original Oil. 

Assay — Introduce about 15 mils of Oil of Lemon into a tared 300 rail fltfl 
and note the exact weight; add 10 mils of an alcoholic solution of phenyl 
hydrazine (1 in 10) (not darker in color than pale yellow), and allow it tosunrf 
for one-half hour at room temi>erature. Then add a few drops of methyl uriflf] 
T.S. and neutralize the liquid exactly by the cautious addition of half-Dunn* 
hydrochloric acid V.S. If difficulty is experienced in detecting the end pofljl 
of the reaction, continue the titration until the solution is distinctly •» 
I ran.-=fer it to a separatory funnel and draw off the alcoholic portion. Now Will 
the Oil with distilled water, adding the washings to the alcoholic solution, w 
titrate the latter with half-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. Carry out & hUok 
lest identical with the foregoing, except that the Oil of Lemon is omitted, am 
note the amount of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. consumed. Subtract tf* 
nutntar of mils of half-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. from the number o 
mils of half-normal hydrochloric acid V.S. consumed in the original te*t iW 
this result from the corresponding number of mils required in the blank tail 
each mil of this difference corresijonds to 0,076 Gin. of aldehydes, cakuliti 
as citral. It shows, when calculated from the weight of Oil taken, not ie 
than 4 per cent, of aldehydes from Od of Lemon, calculated as citral. 

Average dose — Metric, &2 mi] — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



295 



OLEUM LINI 
Linseed Oil 

01. Uni— Oil of Flaxseed Raw Linseed Oil 
A fixed oil obtained from Linseed. Preserve it in well-stoppered con- 
ners. Linseed Oil which has been "toiled" must not be used nor 

linseed Oil is a yellowish, oily liquid, having a peculiar odor and a bland 
taste. When exposed to the air, it gradually thickens, darkens in color, and 
acquires a strong odor and taste. 

It is slightly soluble in alcohol, miseible with ether, chloroform, petroleum 
benxin, carbon disulphide, or oil of turpentine 

Specific gravity: &ft2fl to 0M5 at J5 a C. 

It is not more than slightly acid to litmus paper which has previously been 
moistened with alcohol (free actd). 

Unseed Oil when spread in a thin layer on a glass plate and allowed to stand 
in & warm place is gradually converted into a hard, transparent resin (non-dry- 
tog ail*). 

To 10 mils of the Oil add 3 Gm. of potassium hydroxide, 10 mils of alcohol 
and 10 mils of distilled water, and heat the mixture on a water bath with fre- 
<juent agitation, until a clear solution results. The addition of 100 mils of dis- 
tilled water to this solution yields a clear liquid free from oily drops {mineral 
* rutin oils). 

Warm 2 mils of the Oil with frequent agitation in a test tube with an equal 
tohime of glacial acetic acid, and, after cooling, add to the mixture 1 drop of 
wjlphuric acid. A greenish color is produced (a violet color under these circum- 
stances indicates the presence of rosin or rosin oik), 

Saponification value: not less than 187 nor more than 195 (see Part II, Test 

Iodine value: not less than 170 (see Part II, Test No. 8). 
Average dose — Metric, 30 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fluidounce. 



OLEUM MENTILE PIPEKIT.E 

Oil of Peppermint 

01. Menth. Pip.— Peppermint Oil 

volatile oil distilled from the flowering plant of Mentha piperita 
(Fam. Labiata) t rectified by steam distillation, and yielding 
leas than 5 per cent, of esters, calculated as menthyl acetate 
lisCaHjOa- 198.18], and not less than 50 per cent, of total 
Menthol [CioHi tt OH = 156.16], free and as esters. Preserve it in well- 
Stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light 

Ofl of Peppermint is a colorless liquid, having a strong odor of peppermint, 
tod a pungent taste, followed by a sensation of cold when air is drawn into 
the mouth. 

It is soluble in 4 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, showing not more than slight 
opalescence and no separation of oil globules. 

Specific gravity: 0.896 to 0.008 at 25° C. 

Tne optical rotation varies between -23° and —33° in a 100 mm. tube at 25° G 
(aee Part II, Test No. 21). 





Distil about 1 mil from 25 mils of the Oil and pour the distillate OB 
nn-ivuric chloride T.S.; a white film does not form at the zone of contact frit 
one minute (dimethyl sulphide found in non- rectified oils). 

Assay for esters — introduce 10 mils of OH of Peppermint into a tared Hi 
and note the exact weight, Add 25 mils of half-normal alcoholic potassium \ 
droxide V.S., connect the flask with a reflux condenser, and boil the mixturcdi 
ing one hour. After cooling, titrate the residual alkali with half -normal sulphu 
acid VM, t using phenolphrtnLlrin T.B. as indicator. Subtract the number of ra 
of half-normal sulphuric acid V.S, required from the 25 mils of half-oara 
alcoholic potassium hydroxide V.S. taken, multiply the difference by&.9l 
and divide the product by the weight of the Oil of Peppermint taken to findi 
percentage of menthyl acetate. 

Assay for total menthol — Introduce 10 mils of the Oil into a flask piork 
with a ground-glass tube-condenser (acetvlization flask), add 10 mils of ace 
anhydride and about 1 Gm. of |»owdere<f anhydrous sodium acetate, and I 
the mixture gently during one hour. Allow it to cool, wash the acetyliied 
whh distilled water, and afterwards with sodium carbonate T.S.. dii 
an equal volume of distilled water, until the mixture if slightly alkaline 
phenol phtha 1c in T.S., and then dry it with the aid of fused calcium chlor 
and filter. Transfer 5 mils of the dry* acetyliaed oil to a tared 100 mil fli 
note the exact, weight, add 50 mils of half- normal alcoholic potassium hydmi 
V.S., connect the flask with a reflux condenser, and boil the mixture during 
hour. After cooling, titrate the residual alkali with half -normal milpln 
arid \\S., using phenolphthalein T.S. as indicator, and calculate the perrcnt 
of menthol present by the following formula: 

Percentage of menthol ^^AxOttH) 

In which .4 is the result obtained by subtracting the number of mils of 1 
normal sulphuric acid V.S. required in the above titration from the numb* 
mils of half-normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide \\S. originally taken, 
is the weight of acetylized oil taken. 

Preparations — Aqua Mentha? Piperitse Spiritus Mentha Piperita? 
Average dose — Metric, 0,2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



■" 






OLE0M MENTILE VIRIDIS 

Oil of Spearmint 

01* Menth. Vlr, — Spearmint Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the flowering plant of Mentha *p£ 

Linn<$ (Mentha viridis Linnd) (Fam, Labiate), and yielding not lees t 

43 per cent., by volume, of carvone {CigH^O = 150.1 1]. Preserve it in * 

stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light 

Oil of Spearmint is a colorless, yellow or greenish-yellow liquid, having 
characteristic odor and taste of spearmint. 

It is soluble in 1 volume of 80 per cent, alcohol, forming a clear soluti 
further dilution, it usually becomes cloudy. 

Specific gravity: 0.917 to 0.934 at 25° C. 

The optica] rotal km varies between — 3£° and —55° 
(see Part 11, Test No. 21). 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Oleum Can, 
Spearmint, 

Preparations— Aquie Mentha! Viridis Spiritus Mentha? Viridis. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil— Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



iiia 100 mm. tube 
using 10 mils of 



r. 






UNITED 8TATE8 OF AMERICA. 297 

OLEUM MORRHILE 
Cod Liver OU 

01. Morrh. — Oleum Jecoris Aselli 

A fixed oil obtained from the fresh livers of Gadus morrhua Linn6 
nd of other species of Gadus (Fam. Gadidce). Preserve it in a cool 
place, in well-closed containers, which have been thoroughly dried 
before filling. 

God Liver (Ml is a pale yellow, thin, oily liquid, having a peculiar, slightly 
fishy, but not rancid odor, and a fishy taste. 

It is slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, 
or ethyl acetate. 

Specific gravity: 0.918 to 0.922 at 25° C. 

A solution of 1 drop of the Oil in 1 mil of chloroform when shaken with 1 drop 
of sulphuric acid acquires a violet-red tint, gradually changing to reddish- 
brown. 

Allow 2 or 3 drops of fuming nitric acid (specific gravity about 1.44) to flow 
alongside of 10 or 15 drops of the Oil contained in a watch glass; a reddish or 
purplish color is produced at the zone of contact. On stirring the mixture with 
a glass rod, this color becomes bright rose-red (distinction from seal oil, which 
shows no change in color, and from other fish oils, which become blue). 

Cod liver Oil is only slightly acid to litmus paper which has been previously 
moistened with alcohol {free fatty acids). 

Saponification value: not less than 180 nor more than 190 (see Part II, Test 
No. 9). 

Iodine value: not less than 140 nor more than 180 (see Part II, Test No. 8). 

Preparation— Emulsum Olei Morrhu®. 

Average dose— Metric, 10 mils— Apothecaries, 2J/£ fluidrachms. 



OLEUM MYRISTIC^S 
Oil of Myristica 

01. Myrist*— Myristica Oil Oil of Nutmeg 

A volatile oil distilled from the kernel of the ripe seed of Myristica 
fragrant Houttuyn (Fam. Myristicaeece). Preserve it in well-stoppered, 
M&ber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Myristica is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, having the characteristic 
odor and taste of nutmeg. 

It is soluble in an equal volume of alcohol; also soluble in 3 volumes of 90 per 
cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity: 0.859 to 0.924 at 25° C. 

The optical rotation varies from +12° to +30° in a 100 mm. tube at 
25° C. (see Part II, Test No. 21). 

Evaporate 3 Gm. of the Oil on a water bath; not more than 0.06 Gm. of resi- 
due remains. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



OLEUM OLIV.E 

Olive Oil 

OI.OIlv. 

A fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruit of Olea europma Linn6 
Oleacem). Preserve it in well-closed containers, in a cool place. 

Olive Oil is a pale yellow or light greenish -yellow, oily liquid, haying a 
peculiar odor and taste, with u faintly acrid after- taste. 

It \* slightly soluble in alcohol, but'miscible with ether, chloroform, or cwb 
di sulphide. 

Specific gravity: 0.910 to 0.915 at 25° C. 

When cooled to from 10° to 8° C, the Oil becomes somewhat cloudy from t 
Beparation of crystalline particles, and at 0° C. it usually forma a whitish, grm 
ular mass. 

Mix 5 mils of the Oil in a test tube with 5 mils of a mixture of equal vote 
of amy I alcohol and carbon disulphide, which contains 1 per cent, of sulphur 
solution, and immerse the test tube to one-third its depth in boiling, saturate 
aqueous salt solution; no reddish color develops in fifteen minutei [coUomndoi 

Mix 2 mils of the Oil with I mil of hydrochloric acid containing 1 per cent. 
sugar, shake the mixture for half a minute and allow it to stand for five nunut* 
on now adding 3 mils of distilled water to the mixture and again shaking it, t 
Mid layer shows no pink color {sesame oil). 

Saponification value: not less than 190 nor more than 195 (see Part 11, T< 
No. 9), 

Iodine value: not less than 79 nor more than 90 (see Part II, Test No. i 



Average dose — Metric, 30 mils — Apothecaries, 1 fluido 



• 



OLEUM PICIS LIQUIDS RECTIFICATUM 

Rectified Oil of Tar 

Ol. Pic, Llq. Rect.— Oleum Pica Liquidte, UjS.P. VIII Rectified Tar Oil 

A rectified volatile oil distilled from Tar. 

Rectified Oil of Tar is a thick liquid having a dark reddish-brown 
ft strong, i'liipyreunmtic odor and Ui>; 

It is soluble in alcohol, the solution being acid to litmus. 
Specific gravity: 0.000 to 0,990 at 25° C. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minjrn ft 






- 



OLEUM PIMENTE 

Oil of Pimenta 

Ol. Piment.— Pimento Oil Oil ol Allspice 

A volatile oil distilled from the fruit of Pimenta offieirudi* Lho 
(Fam. Myrtacea), yielding not less than 65 per cent., by vol* 




Si 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 299 

of eogenol [doH^O*- 164.10]. Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber- 
colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Pimento is a colorless, yellow or reddish liquid, becoming darker with 
age and having the characteristic odor and taste of allspice. 

It is soluble m an equal volume of 90 per cent, alcohol; also soluble in 2 vol- 
umes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity: 1.018 to 1.048 at 25° C. 

fte optical rotation varies from 0° to -4° in a 100 mm. tube at 25° C. 
(«ePartILTestNo.21). 

Assay— Proceed as directed under Oleum Caryophylli, using 10 mils of Oil of 
Rmenta. The residual liquid measures not more than 3.5 mils, indicating the 
presence of not less than 65 per cent., by volume, of eugenol. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



OLEUM PINI PUMILIONIS 
Oil of Dwarf Pine Needles 

OI. Pin. Pumil.— Dwarf Pine Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Pinus moniana Miller 

InmttPumiKo Haenke) (Fam. Pinaceae). Preserve it in well-stoppered, 

•tokr-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. • 

po of Dwarf Pine Needles is a colorless or faintly yellowish oil having a pleas- 
^t, aromatic odor, and a bitter and pungent taste. 
g*cific gravity: 0.853 to 0.869 at 25* C. 
No portion of the Oil distils below 170° C. 



OLEUM RICINI 

Castor Oil 

OI. Rlcin. 

«*ed oil obtained from the seeds of Ricinus communis Linn6 (Fam. 
^bvuea). Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

k~^«tor Oil is a pale yellowish or almost colorless, transparent, viscid liquid, 

vijig a f amt> jjjjjd (X f or> and a bland, afterwards slightly acrid and generally 

Ideating taste. 

£* is miscible with dehydrated alcohol or glacial acetic acid. 

specific gravity: 0.945 to 0.965 at 25° C. 
ou^**tor Oil is only partly soluble in petroleum benzin (distinction from most 
^^ fixed oils). 
oc >f*8tor Oil produces a clear liquid with an equal volume of alcohol (foreign 

*» Saponification value: not less than 179 nor more than 185 (see Part II. Test 
*• 9). 
*°dine value : not less than 83 nor more than 88 (see Part II, Test No. 8) . 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fluidrachms. 



I 
OLEUM R03MARINI 

Oil of Rosemary 

01* Rosmar.— Rosemary Oil 
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering tops of Rom 
officinalis Linn£ (Fam, Labialm), yielding not less than 2.5 per < 
ester, calculated as bornyl acetate [CioHnC a H a Oa— 196.16], a 
less than 10 per cent, of total borneol [C X dHi 7 OH = 154.14]. P 
it in well-stoppered^ amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, pn 
from light. 

Oil of Rosemary is a colorless or pale yellow liquid, having the chars 
odor of rosemary, and a camptioraceous taste. 

It is soluble in 10 volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity; 0.894 to 0.912 at 25° C. 

Assay for esters and total borneol — Proceed as directed for menthvl 

and for menthol under Oleum Mentha* Piperita-, using 10 mils of Oil ofR 

for each assay. In place of the factor arid formula for menthvl ace« 

menthol, respectively, under Oirttm Mentha? Piperita* use the Eaefex 

calculating the percentage of horny! acetate ana the following formulj 

culating the percentage of borneol. 

4X7 707 
Percentage of borneol =s^ Ax0mi) 

In which A is the result obtained by subtracting the number of mils 
normal sulphuric acid V.S. required in the titration from the nunibei 
of half -normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide V\S. originally taken, i 
the weight of acetylized oil taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minim 



mnim 



OLEUM SANTALI 
Oil of Santal 

Ol. SmUI.— Santalwood Oil Oil of Sandalwood 
A volatile oil distilled from the wood of Sanlnlum album Lixmt 
Santalaceoe), yielding not less than 90 per cent, of alcohols, cal 
as santalol [Ci 6 H a eQ = 222.21]. Preserve it in well-stoppered, 
colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Santal is a pale yellow, somewhat thick liquid, having the i 
istic odor and taste of sandalwood. 

It is soluble in 5 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, forming a eolut 
slightly acid to litmus. 

Specific gravity: 0.965 to 0,980 at 25° C. 

The optical rotation varies from —15° to —20° in a 100 mm. tube i 
(see Part II, Test No. 21). 

Assay — Proceed as directed for menthol under Oleum Mentha Pip 
10 mils of Oil of Santal Use the following formula in calculating th 
of santalol in place of that given for menthol under Oleum Mentha , 

Percentage of santalol -j^"^) 

In which A is the result obtained by subtracting the number 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 301 

half-normal sulphuric acid V.S. required in the titration from^ the number of 
mm of half-normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide V.S. originally taken, and 
fl is the weight of aeetyliaed oil taken. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 mil — Apothecaries, 8 minims. 



OLEUM SASSAFRAS 
Oil of Sassafras 

OL Sassaf.— Sassafras Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the root of Sassafras variifolium (Salisbury) 
0. Kuntze (Fam. Lauracece). Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber- 
colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Sassafras is a yellow or reddish-yellow liquid, having the characteristic 
odor and taste of sassafras. 

It is soluble in 2 volumes of 90 per cent, alcohol, forming a solution neutral 
to litmus. 

Specific gravity: 1.066 to 1.077 at 25° C. 

The optical rotation varies from +3° to +4° in a 100 mm. tube at 25° C. 
(see Part II, Teet No. 21). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil — Apothecaries, 3 minims. 



OLEUM SESAMI 
Sesame Oil 

01. Sesam.— Teel Oil BenneOil 
A fixed oil obtained from the seeds of one or more cultivated varie- 
ties of Smmvm indicum Linn 6 (Fam. Pedaliacece). Preserve it in well- 
closed containers. 

8eaame Oil is a pale yellow, oily liquid, almost odorless, and having a bland 
taste. 

It is slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform, petroleum 
bojan. or carbon disulphide. 

8pcific gravity: 0.916 to 0.921 at 25° C. 

Snake 1 mil of the Oil for half a minute with a solution of 0.1 Gm. of sugar in 
10 mils of hydrochloric acid; the acid layer becomes bright red and changes to 
da « red on standing. 

Blue litmus paper previously moistened with alcohol is not more than slightly 
"Wened by 2 mils of the Oil {free acid). 

Ma 5 mjjg Q f the Oil in a test tube with 5 mils of a mixture of eaual volumes 
°* amyl alcohol and a 1 per cent, solution of sulphur in carbon disulphide and im- 
n * r * the test tube to one-third of its depth in a boiling saturated aqueous 
solution of sodium chloride; no reddish color develops in fifteen minutes (cotton- 
wotf). 

..Saponification value: not less than 188 nor more than 193 (see Part II, Test 

No. 9). 

Iodine value: not leas than 103 nor more than 112 (see Part II, Test No. 8). 



OLEUM SINAPIS VOLATILE 

Volatile Oil of Mustard 

01. Sinap.Vol — Mustard Oil 

A volatile oil produced synthetically or obtained from the seed < 

sica nigra (Linn£) Koch {Fam. Cruciferw) {freed from fatty oil) by mac 

ation with water and subsequent distillation. It yields not less than 

per cent, of allyl isothiocyanate [C a H 5 SCN=99T2]. The label mu 

indicate whether the Oil has beSD made synthetically or obtained frm 

black mustard. Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottiei 

in a cool place, protected from light. 

Volatile Oil of Mustard is a colorless or pale yellow, strongly refractive liquic 
having a very pungent and irritating odor and an acrid taste] 

Great caution should he exercised in smelling this Oil. It should not be tasted d 



cept when highly dil 
Specific gravity: 1.013 



to 1.020 at 25* C. 

It is optically inactive. 

The Oil distils completely between 148° and 154° C. and both the first »»' 
last portions of the distillate have nearly the same specific gravity iftti* 
original Oil {alcohol^ chloroform, petroleum, or fatty oils). 

The addition of a drop of ferric chloride TJB. to the Oil, diluted with sevca 
volumes of alcohol, does not produce a blue coloration (phenols). 

Assay — Dilute about 4 mils of Volatile Oil of Mustard, accurately wetghe*' 
with sufficient alcohol to make exactly 100 mils. Transfer 5 mils of this solutio 
to a 100 mil measuring flask, and add 50 mils of tenth-normal silver nitm* 
V.S. and 5 mils of ammonia water. Stopper the flask, connect it with a refill 
condenser and heat it on a water bath during one hour. Allow it to cool, dilu* 
the contents of the flask with distilled water to the 100 mil mark, mix well tfi 
filter. Add 4 mils of nitric acid and 2 rails of ferric ammonium sulphate TJ 
to 50 mils of the filtrate and fcitfate the excess of the silver nitrate with tentl 
normal potassium sulphoevanate V.S. 

When calculated from the weight of Oil taken for the assay it shows not V* 
than 92 per cent, of allyl igothiocyanate. Each mil of Tenth-normal «hfl 
nitrate V.S. consumed corresponds to 0,004956 Gm. of allyl isothiocyanate. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.008 mil — Apothecaries, }£ minim. 



OLEUM TERBBINTHINiE 

Oil of Turpentine 

Ol. Tereb*— Turpentine Oil "Spirits of Turpentine" 






The volatile oil distilled with water from the concrete oleorw 

obtained from Finns palustris Miller or from other species of Pin 

(Fam* Pinacew). Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Oil of Turpentine is a colorless liquid having a characteristic odor and ism 
both of which become stronger and less pleasant on aging or exposure to the i 
Soluble in 5 volumes of alcohol. 
Specific gravity : O.SftQ to 0.870 at 25' C. 
Optical rotation variable. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



303 



DfctU 200 mils of the Oil, at the rate of two drops per second* from a 300 mil 
globe flask, having the side tube 8 cm. above the Wit, Ninety per cent, of the 
Gildkils between 154° and 170° Q, the temperature- being read with the mer- 
ttiry column of the thermometer immersed in the vapor. 

Five mils of the Oil, shaken with an equal volume of potassium hydroxide 
Til., does not become darker than a light straw yellow after standing twenty* 
fourhoure. 

fm mils of the Oil, evaporated in a smalt dish on a water bath, leaves not . 
toore than 0.1 Gra. of residue. 

Three drops of the Oil, placed on unsized, white paper, and exposed to the 
w, evaporates entirely without leaving a permanent stain (find oik). 

Five mils of the Oil shaken vigorously with an equal volume of hydrochloric 
arid in a test tube, and allowed to stand for a few minutes, does not produce 
a liroffnish or greenish color. 

foto a flask of from 35 to 50 mils capacity, having a long graduated neck 
fewti flask), and containing 25 mils of fuming sulphuric acid, introduce very 
■lowly, drop by drop, with constant slinking 5 mils of Oil of Turpentine, keeping 
toe temperature just below 65° C. by immersion in cold water during the addi- 
tion of the oil, and for live minutes thereafter, in the meantime frequently 
agitating the mixture cautiously but vigorously. Then cool, and add sulphuric 
ackl until the flask is filled to the upper graduation on the neck. The clear, 
reddish, viscous layer* which forms after the dark mass has settled for two hours, 
dfti not exceed 1 per cent, of the volume o! Oil taken. A larger layer of 
roluriess liquid with a refractive index of less than 1.5 at Off C, shows the 
jnwence of mineral oil. 

Cautivn — The addition of the Oil of Turpentine to the fuming sulphuric acid, 
wp by drop, is necessary because of the violence of the reaction. 

Preparations — Ceratum Cantharidis Liniment urn Terebinthina? Oleum 

Terebinthina? Rectificatum. 




OLEUM TEREBINTHINiE RECTIFICATUM 

Rectified Oil of Turpentine 

Ol. Terek. Rect.— Rectified Turpentine Oil 

On of Turpentine, a convenient quantity. 

human of Sodium Hydroxide, a sufficient quantity. 

^ the oil of turpentine thoroughly with an equal volume of solu- 

not sodium hydroxide and introduce the mixture into a still connected 
u veil-cooled condenser. Recover about three-fourths of the oil 

r distillation, separate the clear oil from the water, dry it by shaking 
with anhydrous calcium chloride, filter and preserve the product in 
^ell-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a cool place. 

Rectified Oil of Turpentine is to be dispensed when oil of turpentine 
* inquired for internal use, 

JkctiBed Oil of Turpentine is a colorless liquid which conforms to the prop- 
***** &mi teats under Oleum Terehijtihiwp, specific gravity excepted. 

3»«6c gravity: 0,850 to 0.865 at 25° C. 

. ™porate 5 mils of the Oil rapidly in a tared dish on a water hath; not more 
«■* 0.015 Gin. of residue remains. 

Potation— Emulsum Olei Terebinthbffl. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 mil — Apothecaries, 5 minims. 





OLEUM THEOBROMATIS 

Oil of Theobroma 

01. Theobrom*— Butter of Cacao Cacao Butter 

A concrete fixed oil obtained from the roasted seeds of TheAjbr^-^^ 
Cacao Linn£ (Fam. Sterculiacew). 

Oil of Theobroma is a yellowish- white solid, having a faint, agreeable ck^ 
and a bland, chocolate-like taste, 

Jt is usually brittle at temperatures below 25° C, 

It is slightly soluble in alcohol, soluble in boiling dehydrated alcohol, m~*i 
freely soluble in ether, chloroform, or benzene. 

Specific gravity: about 0.975 at 25° C. 

It melts between 30° and 35° C. 

Dissolve 1 Gm. of Oil of Theobroma in 3 mils of ether in a test tube n 
temperature of 17° C, and immerse the tube into waiter having the tec* 1 *' 
perature of melting ice. The liquid does not become turbid nor deposit whi "* 
flakes in less than three minutes; and if the mixture after congealing is ag*~* * 
brought to 15° C. t it gradually forms a perfectly clear liquid {wax, stearin, ^* 
tallmv). 

Saponification valuer not less than 188 nor more than 195 (see Part II, Tas^^ 
No, 9). 

Iodine value: not less than 33 nor more than 38 (see Part II, Teat No. 8)^— 



OLEUM THYMI 

Oil of Thyme 

01. Tbyml— Thyme Oil 

A volatile oil distilled from the flowering plant of Thymus 
Linnd (Fam. Labiatce), and containing not less than 20 per cent., by vc 
uine, of phenols. Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored 
in a cool place, protected from light. 

Oil of Thyme is a colorless or red liquid, having a characteristic odor and 1 

It is soluble in 2 volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol. 

Specific gravity; 0.894 to 0J30 at 25 Q C. 

It is slightly lie vo rotatory* 

Shake 1 mil of the Oil with 10 mils of hot distilled water, and, after < 
pass the aqueous layer through a wetted filter; the filtrate does not 
a blue or violet color upon the addition of a drop of ferric chloride TjS. 

Assay — Introduce 75 mils of sodium hydroxide T,S. into a flask with a 1 
graduated neck (cassia flask), add 10 mils of the Oil to be assayed, sto 
the flask tightly, shake the mixture thoroughly, and set it aside for from t« 
to twenty-four hours. Then add sufficient sodium hydroxide T.S. to rai 
lower limit of the oily layer within the graduated portion of the neck 
flask, and, after the alkaline solution has become clear, adjust it to the tei 
ture at which it was measured, and note the volume of the residual 
This measures not more than 8 mils, indicating the presence of not 1 
per cent., by volume, of phenols. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.2 mil— Apothecaries, 3 minima. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



305 



OLEUM TIGLII 

Croton Oil 

01. Tlglil 

A fixed oil expressed from the seeds of Croton Tiglium Linn£ (Fain. 
Euphorbmcw). Preserve it in small, well-stoppered bottles, protected 
om light. 

Qoton Oil is a pale yellow or brownish-yellow, somewhat viscid and slightly 
fitowesoefit liquid, having u. .slight, characteristic odor. Great cauti&n is necessary 
in tatting it, and it must be handled carefully as it causes a pustular eruplion, 
tfhen Applied to the skin, 

it is slightly soluble in alcohol, the solubility increasing with age; freely 
auluble in ether, chloroform, or in fixed or volatile oils. 

It b acid to litmus paper previous! v moistened with alcohol. 

fyecific gravity: 0.935 to 0.950 at 36° C. 

Ulna gently heated with twice its volume of dehydrated alcohol, it forms a 
dear solution from which the Croton Oil separates, either partially or completely 
QO cooling. 

Add 1 mil each of fuming nitric acid and of distilled water to 2 mils of the Oil, 
*nd shake the mixture vigorously for a few minutes; it does Dot solidify either 
completely or partially after standing for twenty-four hours. 

Saponification value: not less than 200 nor more than 215 (nee Fart II, Teat 

Iodine value: not less than 104 nor more than 110 (see Part II, Test No. 8). 
Average dose — Metric, 0.05 mil — Apothecaries, 1 minim. 



opn pulvis 

Powdered Opium 

Opll Pulv^-Opii pulvis, P. L 

i dried at a temperature not exceeding 70° C, reduced to a very 
p powder, and yielding not less than 10 per cent, nor more than 10.5 
f cent, of anhydrous morphine. Powdered Opium of a higher mor- 
e percentage may be brought within the required limits by admix- 
powdered opium of a lower percentage, or with some inert 
Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Powdered Opium is light brown; consisting chiefly of yellowish-brown to 
brownish-red, more or less irregular and granular fragments, varying from 0.015 
to 0,15 mm. in diameter; a few fragments of strongly hgmfiVd, thirk-walled, 
4- to 5-sided or narrowly elongated, epjderrnaJ cells of the poppy capsule; ami 
veiy few fragments of tissues of poppy leaves, poppy capsules, and ruinex fruits. 
Assay — Proceed as directed under Opium, 

Preparations — Opium Deodoratum Pulvis Ipecacuanhas et Opii Tinctura 
Opii Camphorata. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm.— Apothecaries, 1 grain. 
25 





le mae. 



OPIUM 
Opium 

The air-dried, milky exudation obtained by incising the unripe cap- 
sules of Papaver somniferum Linne" and its variety album De Candolle 
(Fam. Papaveracece), and yielding, in its normal, moist condition, not 
less than 9.5 per cent, of anhydrous morphine. 

Id more or less rounded, mostly somewhat flattened mosses of variable 
but usually about 8 to 15 cm. in diameter; externally grayish-brown, 001 
with fragments of poppy leaves and at times with some fruits of a specif! 
of rumex adhering from the packing; more or less plastic when frwk 
becoming hard and brittle on moping; internally dark brown, interspersed 
with lighter areas, somewhat lustrous; odor characteristic, narcotic; taste bitter, 
characteristic, 

For a description of the pm\ <n I'ulrt*. 

Assay — Introduce 8 Gm, of Opium, which if fresh should be in very mmII 
pieces, and if dry in fine powder, into an Krlenmeyer flask having a capacity of 
about 250 mils, add 80 mils of distil ted water, stopper the flask, and agi> 
even' ten minutes (or continuously in a mechanical shaker) during three boon 
Then pour the contents as evenly as possible upon a wetted filter having a diim* 
eter of not over 12 cm., and, when the liquid has drained off, wash the reaidOB 
with distilled water, carefully dropped upon the edges of the filter and ltd con- 
tents, until 120 mils of filtrate have been obtained. Carefully transfer the mM 
Opium to a mortar by means of a spatula, and rub to a smooth paste, then raw 
into the original flask with 50 mils of distilled water, agitate it thoroughly tod 
return the whole to the filter. When the liquid has drained off, wash the residue 
with 75 mils of distilled water. Evaporate the mixed filtrates and washing 
on a water bath to about 40 Gin. Transfer the extract to a 50 mil gradusli 
flask and wash the evaporating dish with sufficient distilled water to nude the 
entire volume measure exactly 50 mils when cooled to room temper * 
Place in a small mortar 4 Gm. of freshly slaked lime (see Re i 
add about 10 mils of the opium extract and rub to a smooth paste 
the remainder of the extract and rinse the flask with exactly in 
water, adding the rinsings to the mortar, and stir frequently during fiftoe* 
minutes, avoiding unuecessarv loss by evaporation. Filter through a di> 
ut>out 10 cm. in diameter, and transfer exactly 30 mils of the filtrate, repre** 
/our arammta of Opium, to an Krlenmeyer flask of suitable ca 
add 2 mils of alcohol and 15 mils of ether, and, after shaking the uiixtur 
1 Gm, of ammonium chloride, stoppef the flask and shake it frequently 
half an hour, then set it aside in a cool place for tv. ura or over 

Remove the stopper and brush any adhering crystals back into tl I *caot 

the ethereal layer into a smaU funnel, the neck of which has been prevwttfr? 
dosed with a pledget of purified cotton. Rinse the flask an 
15 mils of ether, and, when the ether has passed through, wash the funnel and 
cotton with a small quantity of ether, and then j>our the aqueous liqtud row 
the funnel without trying to remove the crystals. Wash the crystals 
flask and the contents of the funnel with distilled water, previously saturated 
with morphine, until the washings are colorless. Then ado a few drops of dw 
tilled water to replace the morphinated water. Incline the edge of tne (odb^ 
over the mouth of the flask and by means of a glass rod carefully transfer lb* 
rot ton with adhering crystals to the flask. Insert the funm I 

flask and wash the funnel with 20 mils of tenth-normal sulphur 
followed by 10 mils of distilled water, applied drop I i the i 

of the funnel Remove the funnel, replace the cork, warm gently, and 
until the crystals are dissolved. Rinse the cork with distill tnd ti< 

i of acid with fiftieth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S., 







OOTTED STATES OF AMERICA 



307 



•jug used as indicator. Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed 
Responds io 0.028616 Gin. of anhydrous morphine. 

-eparations — Extractum Opti Mishira Glycyrrhizie Composite (from Cam- 
phorated Tin cture oli 'pium ) Opi i Pulvis Opium Deodoratum Opium 
Granulatum Pulvis Ipocur-iianhfD et Opii Tine turn Opii Tinctura 
i CamphoraUi Tinctura Opii Deodoimtt. 



Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 



OpiiO 

Ave 

OPIUM DEODORATUM 

Deodorized Opium 

Opium Deod. 

odorized Opium yields not less than 10 per cent, nor more than 
per cent, of anhydrous morphine. Deodorized Opium of a higher 
►hine percentage may be brought within the required limits by 
xture with deodorized opium of a lower percentage or with some 
diluent. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

wdered Opium, five hundred grammes 500 Gm. 

•rified Petroleum Benzin, a sufficient quantity. 
acerate the powdered opium for twenty-four hours in a wide* 
toed, well-closed bottle with sufficient purified petroleum benzin to 
r it completely, shaking the mixture occasionally. Then decant the 
benzin layer as closely as possible and repeat the maceration for 
ty-four hours with another portion of purified petroleum benzin. 
d decant the clear benzin layer and transfer the remaining contents 
le bottle to a plain filter. Closely cover the funnel, allow the 
ure to drain and then slowly percolate the residue with purified 
m benzin until the latter passes through without color. Remove 
filter containing the Opium from the funnel, expose the powder to 
open air, so that it may dry thoroughly, and add sufficient sugar of 
i to restore the original weight. Care should be used to gu ard against 
danger due to the inflammability of the benzin. Granulated opium 

also be deodorized in the manner directed above. 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Opium. 
Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 




OPIUM GRANULATUM 

Granulated Opium 

Opium Gran. 

Hum dried at a temperature not exceeding 70° C, reduced to a coarse 
No. & to No. 20) powder and yielding not less than 10 per cent, nor more 



■ 



308 



THE PHABMACOKE1A OF THE 



than 10.5 per cent, of anhydrous morphine. Granulated Opium & J 
higher morphine percentage may be brought within the required liir " 
q| strength by admixture with granulated opium of a lower per 
or with some inert diluent. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 
Assay — Proceed ae directed under Opium. 
Preparations— Tinctura Opii Tinctura Opii Deodorati. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm, — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 

OXYGENIUM 



Oxygen 

Oxygen. 



For 



It contains not less than 95 per cent, by volume of O (16). 
venience it is usually compressed in metal cylinders. 

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It supports combust 
more readily than air; a glowing splinter of wood held in the gas bunts i 
flame. 

One volume of Oxygen dissolves in about 34 volumes of water and in 
3.r> volumes of alcohol at 25° C. 

Pilss 2000 mils of Oxygen, measured under normal atmospheric pre* 
about 25° C, at a rate not exceeding 4000 mils per hour, through 100 mils 
barium hydroxide T.S.; not more than an opalescent turbidity is ~ 
(carbon dwridt). 

Pan 3000 mils of Oxygen, under the conditions described above, through 
mixture of distilled water and 1 mil of silver nitrate T.S.; no opalescence 
produced {halogens}. 

Pass 2000 mils of Oxygen through 100 mils of distilled water, colored with 
few drops of litmus T.H., under the conditions described above; the color of 
liquid is not changed (arid* or banes). 

Assay — Mix about 50 mils of Oxygen, accurately measured in a 
tube, with 10 mils of alkaline pyrogallol T.S.j not less than 95 per cent. 
volume is absorbed, corresponding to not less than 95 per cent, by volume of " 

PANCREATINUM 

Pancreatin 
Pancreat. 

It contains enzymes, consisting principally of amylopsin, trypsins 
steapsin, found in the pancreas of warm-blooded animals, and obta 
from the fresh pancreas of the hog (Sue scrofa var. domcMicus Gt 
(Fam. Suid&) f or of the ox (Bos taunts Limi£) (Fain. Boriife), It 
verts not less than 25 times its own weight of starch into sol 
bohydrates when assayed as directed on page 309. Pancreatin of a 
higher digestive power may be brought to this standard by admixture 
with sugar of milk. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

Pancreatin is a cream-colored, amorphous powder, having a faiot, character 
is tic, but not offensive odor. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



309 



It is slowly and incompletely soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. 
Panereatin changes proteins into proteoses and derived substances, and con- 
verts starch into dextrin s and sugars. Its peculiar activities are best exhibited 
ia neulral or faintly alkaline media; more than traces of mineral acids or large 
amounts of alkali hydroxides render it inert. An excess of alkali carbonates 
also inhibits its action. 

luce 2 Geo. of Pancreatin into I tlask of about 50 mils capacity, add 
20 mag of ether, stopper aud set it aside faff several hours, shaking by rotating 
at frequent intervals. Decant the supernatant ether, by means of a guiding 
rod, into a plain filter of about 7 cm. diameter, previously moistened with 
ether, and collect the nitrate in ■ tared beaker. To the residue remaining in 
tifcfliflk add a further portion of 10 mils of ether, proceeding as directed before, 
then a third portion of 10 mils of ether and transfer the ether and the remainder 
of the pancreatin to the filter. Allow the fitter and contents to drain, then 
allow tae ether to evaporate epOtttaaeotialy and dry the beaker and residue 
to constant weight at 100° C. The residue weighs not more than 0.06 Gm. (Jai). 
Id 0.28 Gm. of Pancreatin and 1.5 Gm. of sodium bicarbonate to 100 mils 
of tepid distilled water contained in a flask, then add 400 mils of fresh milk which 
bw previously been heated to 40° C., and maintain the temperature of the mix- 
ture at this point for thirty minutes. At the end of this time the milk is so com- 
pletely peptonized that on diluting 3 mils with 9 mils of distilled water and tin m 
mixing with 3 mils of ace tic acid no coagulation occurs. 

Assay— Shake 10 Gm. or more of powdered potato starch (see Part II) with 
about 10 times its weight of cold distilled water, and, after draining the mix- 
ture on a filter, wash it with the Bame quantity of distilled water. Place 
the washed starch at once in an air bath and maintain a temperature of about 
MFC., until the starch is sensibly dry. Reduce it to a fine powder and place 
it in a well-stoppered bottle. Determine the percentage of water still remain- 
' ] in the starch by drying about 0,5 Gm. of it in an air bath, gradually rais- 
ing the temperature to 120° C. and maintaining it at that temperature for 
four hours. Of the washed and partially dried starch, mix a quantity equivalent 
to 7.5 Gm. of dry starch in a 100 mil beaker with 10 mils of cold distilled water, 
»dd 190 mils of boiling distilled water and boil the mixture gently (for approxi- 
mately five minutes) with constant stirring until a translucent uniform paste is 
obtained. Replace the water lost by evaporation and cool the paste to 40 C. 
in a water bath previously adjusted to this temperature and acid a solution of 
0.3 Gm. of Pancreatin in 10 mils of distilled water, just previously made at 
Wf C. Mix well and maintain the same temperature for exactly five minutes, 
•hen a thin, nearly rleur liquid is produced. At once add 0.1 mil of this liquid 
to & previously made mixture of 0.2 mil of tenth-normal iodine V.8. and 60 
nuTaof distilled water; no blue, red, or violet color is produced. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm.— Apothecaries, 8 grains. 

PARAFFINUM 

Paraffin 

Paraff. 

purified mixture of solid hydrocarbons, usually obtained from 
urtroleum. 

Paraffin is a colorless, or white, more or less translucent mass, crystalline when 
separating from solution, without odor or taste, and slightly greasy to the 
Ml 

- insoluble in water or alcohol; slightly soluble in dehydrated alcohol, freely 
soluble in ether, petroleum benzin, benzene, carbon disufphide, volatile oils, or 
st warm fixed oils. 





Specific gravity: about 0.900 at 25° C 

It melts between 50° and 57° C. 

When atroogly heated, it ignites, burns with a luminous flame, and deposit 
carbon. 

Heat about 0.5 Gm. of Paraffin in a dry test tube with an equal weight of sol 
phur ; the mixture becomes black from separated carbon, and hydrogen sulphid 
gas is evolved. 

Paraffin is not acted upon or colored by concentrated sulphuric acid or nitrii 
arid in the cold. 

Shake melted Paraffin with an equal volume of hot ftfadholj the 
alcohol does not redden moistened blue litmus paper {acids). 






FARAFORMALDEHYDUM 

Paraformaldehyde 

Paralorm. — Paraf orm Trioxyine thy lene 

It contains not less than 95 per cent, of (HCHO)« (90.05), a polymeri 
form of formaldehyde. Preserve it in well-closed containers in a coc 
place, protected from light 

Paraformaldehyde occurs in white, friable masses, or as a powder, having 
slight odor of formaldehyde. On heating it is partly converted into fonnalda 
hyde and partly sublimed unchanged. 

It is slowly soluble in cold water, more readily soluble in hot water with tfe 
formation of formaldehyde; insoluble in alcohol or ether; soluble in fixe 
alkali solutions. 

A mixture of about 0.01 Gm, each of Paraformaldehyde and morphine mm 
phate and 10 drops of sulphuric acid assumes a violet-red color, changing 1 
blue, 

incinerate about 2 Gm. of Paraformaldehyde; not more than 0.I per com 
of ash remains. 

Shake about 0*5 Gm. of Paraformaldehyde, finely powdered, with 10 null « 
distilled water; the latter remains neutral to litmus. 

Assay — Mix about l Gm. of Paraformaldehyde, finely powdered and ace* 
rately weighed with 50 mils of normal potassium hydroxide VJBk in a 250 m 
flask, and add immediately, but slowly, through a small funnel, 50 mils * 
solution of hydrogen dioxide which has been previously rendered neutral i 
litmus with sodium hydroxide. When the reaction has ceased and the foaJ 
Idedj rinse the funnel and the sides of the Baak with distilled water, alio* 
the liquid to stand for half an hour and then determine the excess of alkff 
with normal sulphuric acid V.S., using litmus T.S. as indicator. It shows mc 
less than H'> per cent, of (HCHO) a . 

Each mil of normal potassium hydroxide V.S. corresponds to 0.03002 Go 
of (HCHO)a* Each gramme of Paraformaldehyde corresponds tu not less tha 
31. 6 mils of normal potassium hydroxide V 

Average dose — Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 



PARALDEHYDUM 

Paraldehyde 
Paraldehyde 

A polymer [(CII 3 CHO) 3 = 132.10] of acetaidehyde. Prcst • 
closed containers, in a oool place, protected from light. 






TTNITED STATES OF AMERICA 311 

Paraldehyde is a colorless, transparent liquid, having a strong, characteristic, 
but not unpleasant or pungent odor, producing first a burning and then a cooling 
aeration in the mouth. 

One mil of Paraldehyde dissolves m 8 mils of water at 25° C.J also in 17 mils 
of boiling water; misciblc with alcohol,.' chloroform, ether, or volatile oils. 

It is neutral or only slightly acid to moistened litmus paper* 

Specific gravity; about 0.990 at 25* C. 

It bods between 120° and 125* C. 

Congealing point: not below 6° C. 

When heated with a small portion of sulphuric acid, Paraldehyde is con- 
ferted into acetaldehyde, recognizable by its odor. 

Heat 5 mils of Paraldehyde on a water bath; no disagreeable odor is not ice- 
able as the last portions evaporate (impurities derived from fusel oil) and not 
more than 0.0025 Gm. .of residue remains. 

One mil of Paraldehyde forms a clear solution free from oily drops with 
10 miJa of distilled water {amul alcohol), and 5 mil portions of this solution, 
tested separately, when acidulated with nitric acid, yield no turbidity on the 
addition of a few drops of barium chloride T.S. (sulphuric acid) nor an opales- 
cence with a few drops of silver nitrate T.S. (hydrochloric arid). 

A mixture of 8 mils of Paraldehyde and 8 mils of alcohol with 1 drop of phenol- 
pnlhajein T\S* acquires a pink color upon the addition of 0.5 mil of normal 
potassium hydroxide V.S. {free acid). 

Shake 5 mils of Paraldehyde with 5 mils of potassium hydroxide T.S.; the 
aqueous layer is not colored yellow or brown within one hour {acetaldehyde}. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 mils — Apothecaries, 30 minims. 



PELLETIERIN.E TANNAS 

Felletierine Tannate 

Pellet. Tann, 

A mixture in varying proportions of the tannates of four alkaloids 
^punicine, iso-punicine, mcthyl-punicine, and pseudo-punicine), obtained 
fem pomegranate. Preserve it in small, well-closed containers, pro- 
tected from light. 

Pelletierme Tannate is a light yellow, odorless, amorphous powder, having 
an astringent taste, and a weak acid reaction. 

One Gm. of PelJetierine Tannate dissolves in 240 mils of water, 16 mils of 
wcohol, and in 420 mils of ether at 25° C.' t dissolved by warm dilute acids; 
Uttolulk- in chloroform. 
Feme chloride T.S. colors aqueous solutions of the salt blue-black. 
Wowrighifcbfa ^ s h remains on incinerating 0.2 Gm. of PcILeUerine Tannate. 
PlaUnic chloride T.S. produces no precipitate in a cold solution of about 
0-lGrn. of PelJetierine Tannate in a mixture of 4 mils of distilled water and 1 mil 
n d : luted hydrochloric acid (foreign alkatovte). 

Dissolve about 0.5 Gm. of Pellet icrine Tannate, accurately weighed, in 5 

roils of potassium hydroxide T.S. and shake the solution in a separator with 

10 mils of chloroform and then with two or more successive portions of 5 mils 

«aeb of chloroform. Acidulate the combined chloroform solutions with 0.1 mil 

of hydrochloric acid, evaporate it to apparent dryness dissolve the residue in 

h mils of alcohol, again evaporate, and dry for one hour at 60° C. The weight of 

residue so obtained corresponds to not less than 20 per cent, of the weight taken. 

The residue obtained in the preceding test responds to the following tests for 

identity and purity: 

Stir about 0.001 Gm. of the residue on a white porcelain surface with 2 drops 
of sulphuric acid containing 0.005 Gm. of selenous acid in each mil, and warm 






the mixture; a light bluish-green color is produced which gradually changes tc 
dark green. 

tbout 0.001 Gm. of the residue on a white porcelain surface with 2 drnai 
of sulphuric acid or nitric acid; no color other than a light yellow is produced. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.25 Gm, — Apothecaries! 4 grains* 

PEPO 

Pepo 

Pumpkin Seed 

The dried ripe seeds of cultivated varieties of Cucurbita Pepo Linn 
(Fam. Cucurbitacecc), without the presence or admixture of more tha 
5 per cent, of other substances. 

Broadly elliptical or ovate, from 15 to 23 mm, in length and from 2 to 3 m: 
in thickness; externally yellowish- white, very smooth, occasionally with th:L 
transparent fragments Ctt adhering pulp and with a shallow groove parallel I 
and within 1 mm. of the margin; fracture short, seed-coat consisting of ft wail 
coriaceous outer layer and a membranous inner layer occasionally of & daJ 
green color; embryo whitish, straight, with a small conical hypocotyl and tw 
plano-convex cotyledons; slightly odorous when contused; taste bland and oill 

Under the microscope, sections of Pepo show an outer epidermal layer coo 
mating of palisade-like cells, the radial walls attaining a length of 1 mm., tb 
outer walls being usually torn off bo that it appears as though the seeds we* 
covered with very long hairs; a subepidermal layer consisting of from 5 to 1 
rows of cells with slight Iv thickened, lignified and porous walls; a layer J 
strongly lignified stone cells, elliptical in outline and about 0.075 mm. in lengl* 
a single layer of small cells resembling those of the sub-epidermal layer; sever* 
rows of parenchyma cells with characteristic reticulate markings and separate 
from each other by large intercellular spaces; several layers of parenchyma cell 
the inner layer being more or less collapsed and bounded on the inside by 
single epidermal layer, the cells having rather thick walls; the perisperm ce" 
are usually more or less collapsed and the endosperm consists ot a single lav^ 
of cells filled with small aleurone grains; the cotyledons consist of Uiin-waUei 
isodiametric, elongated or palisade-like cells containing a fixed oil and numeral 
small aleurone grains. 

Average dose — Metric, 30 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 ounce. 



PEPSINUM 

Pepsin 

Pepsin. 






A mixture containing a proteolytic ferment or enzyme, obtained froi 
the glandular layer of the fresh stomach of the hog (Sus scrofa, va 
domesticus Gray) (Earn, 8nidm), It digests not less than 3000 ton 
its own weight of freshly coagulated and disintegrated egg alburor 
Pepsin of a higher digestive power may be brought to this standai 
by admixture with pepsin of a lower digestive strength or with sugar - 
milk. Preserve it in well-closed containers. 







Pepsin occurs in lustrous, white f pale yellow or yellowish, transparent or trans- 
lucent scales, grains or spongy masses, or as a fine, white or cream-colored, 
imorphous powder, free from any offensive odor, and having a slightly acid or 
«Iiae taste. It is not more than slightly hygroscopic 

One Gm. of Pepsin dissolves in about 50 p&rtl of water; the solution being 
nioreorless opalescent; nearly insoluble in alcohol, chloroform or ether. 
An aqueous sohn i, of Pepco (1 in 60) ii Mid to litmus. 
When in solution, Pepsin ia incompatible with alkalies, alkali earths, or 
•Ikali carbonates. The presence of hytlrochJoric acid of greater strength than 
0.5 per cent, in Pepsin solutions inhibits its proteolytic activity. A precipitate 
is produced in its solution by the salts of many heavy metals, and by tannic 
wd or gallic arid. 

A saturated solution of Pepsin in acidulated water when heated to 100° C. 
becomes milky, or yields a light, flocculent precipitate, and loses all proteolytic 
pywer In a dry state it is not injured if subjected to the above temperature, 
inactivity of Pepsin in solution is destroyed by taznperaturoi exceeding 70° C, 
Assay — Mix 25 raHa of normal hydrochloric acid VJB, with 275 mils of distilled 
"rater and dissolve 0. 1 Gm. of Pepsin in 150 milsof this liquid . Immerse a hen's egR t 
which is not less than five not more than twelve days old and has been kept in 
a cool place, in boiling water during fifteen minutes. As soon as the egg has 
sufficiently cooled to handle it, remove the pellicle and all of the yolk; at once 
nib the albumen through a dean, dry, hair or brass. No, 40 sieve, reject the 
first portion that passes through the sieve, and place 10 Gin. of the sureecding 
portion in a wide-mouthed bottle of 100 mils capacity. Immediately add 2 mils 
of the acid liquid and, with the aid of a rubber- tipped gloss rod, moisten the 
albumen uniformly. Again add 2 niils of the ncid liquid, repeat the manipulation 
with the glass rod, and with gradually increasing portions of the acia liquid, 
until the total amount added measures 20 mils. Thoroughly separate the 
particles of albumen from each other, rinse the rod with lo mils more of the 
add liquid, and, after warming the mixture to 52° C, add exactly 5 mils of 
the solution of Pepsin. At once cork the bottle securely, invert it three times, 
and place it in a water bath that has previously Ijeen regulated to maintain 
a temperature of 52° C. Keep it at tnis temperature for two and one-half 
tan _ the contents every ten minutes by inverting the bottle once. 

Then remove it from the water bath, pour the contents into a conical measure 
having a diameter not exceeding I cm. at the Ijottom, and transfer the undigested 

anen which adheres to the sides of the bottle to the measure* with the 
of small portions (aUjut 15,mils at a time) of distdled water, until the total 
amount used measures 50 mils. Stir the mixture well and let it stand for half an 
tow*; the deposit of undissolved albumen does not then measure more than I mil. 
The relative proteolytic power of Pepsin, stronger or weaker than that just 
described, may be determined by ascertaining through repeated trials the 
quantity of the Pepsin solution, made as directed in the assay, required to digest, 
under the pre^cri!>ed conditions, II) Gm, of boiled and disintegrated egg albumen- 
Divide 15,000 by this quantity expressed in mils to ascertain how many parts 
°f *|g albumen one part of Pepsin will digest, 

A pui 



Average dose— Metric, 0,5 Gm.— Apothecaries, 8 grains- 

PETROLATUM 

Petrolatum 

Petrolat. — Petrolatum Ointment Petroleum Jelly 

A purified mixture of semi-solid hydrocarbons, obtained from 
oleum. 



Petrolatum is an unctuous mass, varying in color from yellowish to light 
*aiber, having not more than a alight fluorescence, even after being melted; 



■ 



314 



THE PHABMACOPCEU OF THE 



it is transparent in thin layers; completely amorphous; free or nearly free froo 
odor or taste. 

Petrolatum is insoluble in water: almost insoluble in cold or hot alcohol c 
in cold dehydrated alcohol; freely soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon duulphidi 
oil of turpentine, petroleum henzin, benzene, or in most fixed or volatile oils. 

Specific gravity: 0.820 to 0.S65 at 60° C. 

It melts between 38° and 54° C. 

Heat about 2 Gm. of Petrolatum in an open porcelain or platinum dub, oil 
a Bunsen flame; it volatilizes without emitting an acrid odor, and on inciaenuio 
not more than 0.05 per cent* of ash remains. 

Shake melted Petrolatum with an equal volume of hot distilled water; \t 
latter remains neutral to litmus (acids or alkalies)* 

Digest 10 Gm. of Petrolatum at 100* C. for half an hour with 10 Gm. ol ■ 
diurn hydroxide and 50 mils of distilled water, then separate the aqueous Uyi 
and supersaturate it with sulphuric acid; no oily or solid substance sepiraU 
(fixed oils t fate, or rosin). 



PETROLATUM ALBUM 

White Petrolatum 

Pttrolat. Alb^-Whitc Petroleum Jelly 

Petrolatum wholly or nearly decolorized. 

White Petrolatum is a white or faintly yellowish unctuous mass, t ran span 
in thin layers even after Quoting to 0° C; completely amorphous. 

In other respects White Petrolatum has the characteristics of and respot 
to the teats for identity and purity under Petrolatum* 



PETROLATUM LIQUIDUM 

Liquid Petrolatum 

Petrolat. Llq.— Liquid Paraffin Mineral Oil 

A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. P 
serve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Hetfvy Liquid Petrolatum — 

Heavy Liquid Petrolatum has a viscosity of not less than 3.1 when determii 
by the test Riven below* 

Light Liquid Petrolatum — ■ 

Light Liquid Petrolatum has a viscosity of not more than 3 when i 

by the test given below and vaporizes freely. 

Each variety conforms to the foUomng description and teste: 

Specific gravity for Liquid Petrolatum 0.828 to 0.905 at 25° C* 

A colorless, transparent, oily liquid* free, or nearly free, from fluoresce* 

odorless and tasteless when cold, and possessing not more than a faint pe* 

leum odor when heated 

When cooled to 10° C, Liquid Petrolatum does not become more tl 

opalescent (&olid paraffins). 



i (faftni 







Insoluble in water or alcohol; soluble in ether, chloroform, petroleum benzin, 
or in fixed or volatile oils, Camphor, menthol, thymol, and many similar sub- 
lUnces ore dissolved by Liquid Petrolatum, 

Boil 10 mils of Liquid Petrolatum with an equal volume of alcohol; the 
alcoholic liquid is not acid to litmus {acid*). 

Introduce into a glass-stoppered cylinder, which has been previously rinsed 
with sulphuric acid, 5 mils of Liauid Petrolatum and 5 mils of colorless sul- 
phuric acid, beat in a water bath during ten minutes, shaking well tit intervals 
of thirty seconds; the oil remains unchanged in color and the acid does not 
become darker than pale amber {carbon imhle impurities). 

Prepare a clear, colorless saturated solution of lead oxide in an aqueous solu- 
tion of sodium hydroxide (1 in 5), and mix 2 drops of this solution with 4 mils 
of Liquid Petrolatum and 2 mils of dehydrated alcohol; the mixture does not 
dirkeo after heating for ten minutes at 70° C. and cooling {sulphur compounds). 

Viscosity — Make a permanent mark about 2 cm. lielow the bulb of a 50 mil 
pipette of the usual type and note the time, in seconds, required at 25* C. for 
the level of distilled water to fall from the upper to the lower mark as the liquid 
flows from the pipette. The time should not be less than twenty-five seconds 
nor more than thirty seconds for the pipette selected. 

Draw the Liquid Petrolatum to be tested into this pipette, which should be 
ckan and dry, and note the time, in seconds, required at 25* C. for its level to 
fall from the same upper to the lower mark as used for the water. Divide 
the number of seconds thus noted by the number of seconds required for water 
I from the upper to the lower* mark, as nhuw <!<<( rmiruul. The quotient 
indicates the viscosity. Distilled water at 25° C. is taken as 1. 

Average dose — Metric, 15 mils — Apothecaries, 4 fiuidrachms. 



PETROSELINUM 

Parsley Fruit 

Petrosals— Parsley Seed 

Tie dried ripe fruit of Petroselinum sativum Hoffman (Fam* UmbelH- 
i without the presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent, of 
foreign seeds or other matter. Preserve Parsley Fruit carefully in 
tightly-closed containers, protected from light. 

Mericarps usually separated, ovoid-crescent shaped, from 2 to % mm. in 
fenzth and about 1 mm- in diameter; externally grayish-brown, becoming grayish 
or brornish on aging, having 5 yellowish, filiform, prominent ribs, alternating 
^th tbe coarsely roughened furrows; in transverse section nearly hemispher- 
ic uie commissural surface with 2 vitUe or oil-tubes, the dorsal surface usu- 
■% with a single vitta, occasionally 2 vitte in the grooves between the primary 
riw; endosperm large, oi!y, enclosing a small embryo; odor and taste charac- 
teristic ana aromatic, especially when bruised. 

Under the microscope, sections of Parsley Fruit show an epidermal layer 
*ith thick cuticularized walls having numerous small centrifugal projec- 
&toa; several layers of small, thin-walled parenchyma cells, being usually con- 
*denvbly collapsed and occasionally containing a rosette aggregate of calcium 
°ttlate; a angle, large, brown, elliptical vitta or oil-tube between each of the 
Primary ribs and surrounded bv a layer of comparatively large, yellowish- 
roown, tangentially elongated cells; a single fibro- vascular bundle more or less 



■nrrounded by a few or occasionally numerous sclerenchymatous fibers; inner 







316 



THE FHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



epidermis of narrow, thin-walled elongated Oefla closely cohering with tl 
brownish tabular cells of the seed-coat ; commissural surface usually with 2 Ian 
vittic, a very few stone cells and Browing a alighl on oi pericarp m 

seed-coat; endosperm of polygonal, thick-walled parenchyma cells containui 
fixed oil and numerous, small alcurone grains usually containing a small ro«c 
aggregate of calcimn oxidate. The vittac usually contain vellowL^hoilglobui 
or a resin-like mass adhering to the walls, and occasionally are divided by 
radial wall. 

The powder is grayish-brown; mostly of large, irregular fragments; cell* • 
endosperm with aleurone grains, each usually containing a rosette aggregate 
calcium oxalate, from 0.003 to 0.007 mm. in diameter; fragments with li|| 
yellow vittae and the yellowish-brown cells of the pencarpj fragments ml 
narrow trachea; and more or less lignihed sclerenchymatous fibers. 



Pre pa ration — 01 core a i ua Pe tr osclin L 



PHENOL 

Phenol 

Carbolic Acid 

Hydroxybenzene obtained from coal-tar or made synthetical] 
It contains not less than 97 per cent, of CbH 6 OH (94.05). Pn 
in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Phenol occurs in colorless, interlaced, or separate needle-shaped crypta 
or us a white, crystalline mass, sometimes acquiring a red tint, having a da 
aeteristic, somewhat aromatic odor. When undiluted it cauterizes and wlute 
the skin ami mucous membrane. 

One Gm. of Phenol dissolves in about 15 mils of water at 2o° C; very solul 
in alcohol, glycerin, chloroform, ether, carbon disulphide,or in fixed or volat 
oils. 

An aqueous solution of Phenol (I in 15) is clear and neutral or at most on 
faintly acid to litmus. 

When gently heated Phenol melts, forming a highly refractive liquid, 
is also liquefied by the addition of about 8 per cent, of water. 

Congealing point: not below 38° C. 

Its aqueous solution yields with bromine water a white precipitate of t 
bromphcnob which at first redissolves, but becomes permanent as more of t 
reagent La added, and appears crystalline when viewed under the microscope. 

Add I drop of ferric chloride Ti M. to 10 mils of an aqueous solution of Fnet 
(1 in 100) ; the liquid acquires a violet-blue color. 

lh-at about 10 Gm. of Phenol on a water bath; it It volatilized without lea 
ing more than 0.05 per cent, of residue. The vapor is inflammable. 

Assay — Dissolve about l.f> Gm. of the Phenol to be assayed, accural •• 
weighed, in sufficient distilled water to make 1000 mils. Transfer an aliqa 
portion of thissoiutiim, containing not less than 0.038 Gm. nor more than 0.O 
Dm. of Phenol, to a 500 roil g lao a i s toppered flask havine a long, narrow new 
add 30 mils of tenth-normal bromine V.S., then 5 mils of hydi iridtf 

immediately insert the stopper. Shake the flask repeatedly during half J 
hour, allow it to stand for fifteen minutes, remove the stopper hist sufficient 
to introduce quickly 5 mils of an aqueous solution of potassium iodide (1 in 3 
being careful that no bromine vapor escapes, and at once stopper the nasi 
Shake the latter thoroughly, remove the stopper and rinae it and the n 
the flask with a little distilled water, so that the washings m alo tl 

flask, then add 1 mil of chloroform, shake the mixture well 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 317 

with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate V.S., using starch T.S. as indicator. 
It shows not less than 97 per cent, of CeHsOH. 

Each mil of tenth-normal bromine V.S. corresponds to 0.001568 Gm. of 
GAOH. Each gramme of Phenol corresponds to not less than 618.6 mils 
of tenth-normal bromine VS. 

Preparations— Glyceritum Phenolis Phenol Iiquefaotum Unguentum Phe- 
doIm (from liquefied Phenol). 

Ayebage dose — Metric, 0.06 Gm. — Apothecaries, 1 grain. 

PHENOL LIQUEFACTUM 

Liquefied Phenol 

Phenol Liq^— Liquefied Carbolic Acid 

A liquid containing not less than 87 per cent, of CeH»OH (94.05). 

Phenol, a convenient quantity. 

Distilled Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Liquefy the phenol by placing the unstoppered container in a water 
bath, and applying heat gradually until the crystals have melted ; transfer 
the liquid to a tared vessel and weigh it; then add for each nine grammes 
d phenol one gramme of distilled water and mix thoroughly. Preserve it 
ia well-closed containers, protected from light. 

liquefied Phenol is a colorless liquid, which may develop a red tint upon 
keeping. It has a characteristic, somewhat aromatic odor. When undiluted 
it cauterises and whitens the skin and mucous membrane. 

liquefied Phenol is miscible with alcohol, ether, or glycerin. When it is di- 
luted with an equal volume of glycerin, the mixture is miscible with water, 

Specific gravity: about 1.065 at 25° C. 

When subjected to distillation, the boiling point does not rise above 182° C. 

In other respects Liquefied Phenol responds to the tests for identity and 
purity under Phenol (omitting the congealing point). 

Assay — Proceed as directed under Phenol. 

Each gramme of Liquefied Phenol corresponds to not less than 554.8 mils of 
tenth-normal bromine V.S. 

Preparation — Unguentum Phenolis. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.05 mil— Apothecaries, 1 minim. 

PHENOLPHTHALEINUM 

Phenolphthalein 
Phenolphthal. 

A dibasic phenol derivative (dihydroxyphthalophenone) [C a oHi 4 4 or 
(CA0H) a CO.C 6 H 4 CO=318.11]. 

Phenolphthalein occurs as a white or faintly yellowish-white, crystalline 
powder; odorless and tasteless; permanent in the air. 

One Gm. of Phenolphthalein dissolves in 13 mils of alcohol, and in about 70 
mils of ether at 25° C; almost insoluble in water. 

Melting point: not below 253° C. 



318 



THE PHABMACOFCEU OF THE 



It is dissolved by solutions of the alkali hydroxides and carbonates wit] 
red color. The solutions are decolorized by the addition of acids in excess 
by heating with zinc dust. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm, off Phenolphthalein; not more than 0,05 per oe 
of ash remains. 

A solution of 0,5 Gm« of Phenolphthalein in 30 mils of alcohol is eolorfe 

One-half Gm. of Phenolphthalein dissolves completely in a mixture of 4 a 
of sodium hydroxide TJ8. and 50 mils of distilled water {fiuorant), 

A mixture of 250 mils of cold, recently .boiled, distilled water and 0.5 mil a 
solution of Phenolphthalein (1 in 100) in diluted alcohol requires notmoreth 
0.5 mil of hundredth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S. to produce a piakc 
oration. 

Heat about 0.5 Gm. of Phenolphthalein on a water bath for 6ve i 
with 10 mils of dilutedjiydrochlorir acid, filter the liquid and evar 
filtrate to dryness; the residue, when dissolved in 2h mils of distill 
slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, does not respond to 
heavy metals (see Part II, Test No. 3), 

Heat a crucible to redness and introduce, in small portions, an intin 
mixture of 0.2 Gm. of Phenolphthalein, about 0.5 Gm. of potassium uitr 
and about 0.3 Gin. of anhydrous sodium carbonate. Maintain a rvdheatui 
the reaction ceases, then foil the cooled residue for five minutes with 10 mils 
diluted sulphuric acid, filter, and wash the undissolved residue with 10 n 
of distilled water. Evaporate the filtrate and washings until sulphuric I 
vapors begin to evolve. The residue, dissolved in 5 mils of distilled ~ 
meets the requirements of the Test for arsenic (see Part Il r Test No. 

Average dose — Metric, 0.15 Gni.-^Apothecaries, 2J^ ; 




PHENYLIS SALICYLAS 

Phenyl Salicylate 
Phenyl, Sal Icy 1.— Sal ol 

The phenyl ester [C ia II 10 3 or C*H«(OH)COOC.Ha 1 : 2 = 214.08 
salicylic acid. Preserve it in well-closed containers in a cool place. 

Phenyl Salicylate is a white, crystalline powder, having an aromatic 
and a characteristic taste. 

One Gm, of Phenyl Salicylate dissolves in 6670 mils of water and in 6 
of alcohol at 25° CI; very soluble in chloroform, ether, benzene, or in fix© 
volatile oil*. 

It melts between 41° and 43° C. 

The addition of diluted ferric chloride T.S. to an alcoholic solution of the 
(I in 20) produces a violet color. 

Dissolve from 0.2 to 0.3 Grn, of Phenyl Salicylate in 2 mils of hot sod 
hydroxide T.S., and acidify the solution with hydrochloric acid; salicylic 
separates and the odor of phenol is recognizable. 

Incinerate about 2 Gm. of Phenyl Salicylate; not more than 0,05 per 
of ash remains. 

Phenyl Salicylate does not redden moistened blue litmus paper (/rw _ 

Shake about l Gm, of Phenyl Salicylate with 50 mile of distilled wal 
filter the liouid; the addition of 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. to 10 mils 
nitrate produces no violet cole phenol or salicylic and). 

Ten mil portions of the same filtrate tested separately with barium 
T.S, and silver nitrate T.S. show no turbidity {sulphate or chloride). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.3 Gm\ — Apothecaries, 5 grains. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



319 



PHOSPHORUS 

Phosphorus 
Phosphor. 

Phosphorus fP^ 31.04] must be carefully preserved under water, in 
flag, well-closed containers, in a secure and moderately cool place, 
otected from light. 

Phosphorus is a translucent, nearly colorless solid, of a waxv luster, having 
it ordinary temperatures about the consistence of beeswax, by long keeping 
the surface becomes white or red, and occasionally black. It has a distinctive 
ud disagreeable odor and taste, but should not he touted \ except fin very dilute 
tolulum, 

When exposed to the air, it emits white funics which are luminous in the dark, 
*fld have an odor somewhat resembling that of garlic; on longer exposure to 
the iff. it often takes fire spontaneously. 

Specific gravity: about 1.830 at 10° C. 

It melts at about 44° C, 

One Gm. of Phosphorus dissolves in about 400 mils of dehydrated alcohol, 
about 17 mils of chloroform, 102 mils of absolute ether, 31.5 mils of benzene, 
Kid in 0,9 mil of carbon disulphide at 25° C.j sparingly soluble in fixed oils. 
It ia almost insoluble in water, to which it imparts its clinrnct eristic disagree- 
"We odor and taste. 

Add 1 Gm. of Phosphorus to 10 mils of nitric acid, diluted with 10 mils of dis- 
tort water, in a flask having a capacity of 50 mils, and digest the mixture at 
•gentle heat on a water bath until the Phosphorus is dissolved, passing a cur- 
rant of carbon dioxide into the flask over the surface of the liquid during the 
tating. Transfer this solution to a dish, evaporate it until nitrous vapors are 
do longer given off, and then dilute the solution to 250 mils with distilled 
**t*r One mil of this solution meets the requirement of the Test for arsenic 
taPartll, TeetNo. l). 

Add barium chloride TJB. to another portion of the tatter solution ; not more 
"ton a slight opalescence is produced (sulphur). 

Preparation— Pilules Phosphoric 
Average dose — Metric, 0.0005 Gm. — Apothecaries, J (20 grain. 



PHYSOSTIGMA 

Physostigma 

PhysostJg,— Calabar Bean Ordeal Bean 

The dried ripe seeds of Physostigma venenomm Balfour (Fam. Legumi- 
&), yielding not less than 0.15 per cent, of the alkaloids of Phy- 



Oblong or ellipsoidal, somewhat compressed reniform, from 15 to 30 mm. in 
length and from 10 to 15 nun. in thickness ; externally reddish or chocolate brown, 
0100th, somewhat wrinkled near the brownish-black groove, the latter being 
about 2 mm. in width and extending almost the entire length of the convex edge 
and in which are found frequently the remains of the white membranous funicu- 
the margins of the seed-noat on both aides of the groove somewhat ele- 







vated, of a yellowish-red or brownish-red color and somewhat thickened; I 
bryos lar^e, white, with short hypoeotyl and two concavo-convex ootyledo; 
taste at first starchy, afterwards acrid. 

The powder is grayish-white, starch grains numerous, from O.CX ' 
in diameter, ellipsoidal or somewhat reniform, and usually with a distinct d< 
and frequent] v with radiating or irregular fig ur e s ; fragments of sced-oc 
with very thick, reddish-brown cells, being either paliaade-hke or very imepi 
and resembling stone cells, but the walls are not lignhied; an occasional fra^nt 
with tracheae showing reticulate thickenings. 

Physostigmu yields not more than 3 per cent* of ash. 

Assay — Introduce 15 Gm. of Physostigma in No. 60 powder, into a Bask 
about 250 mils capacity, and add 150 mils of ether. Stopper the flask, aha 
it well and allow it to stand ten minutes, then add 10 mils of an aquc< 
tion of sodium bicarbonate (1 in 20) and shake the mixture vigorously at ait 
vals during four hours. Now add 15 mils of distilled water, again shake i 
flask well, and, when the drug has settled, decant LOO mils of the ether aoJuli* 
representing 10 Gm. of Physostigma. Filter the solution through a pledget 
purified cotton into a beaker and rinse the graduate and cotton wi r ! 
20 mils of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S, and evaporate off the ether, *l 
ring during the evaporation with a rubber-tipped itjass rod. After the reanc 
and fatty matter has agglutinated, pour off the acid solution through a wetl 
filter into a separator. Bsdissolve the residue in the beaker in about tf o 
of ether, add 2 mils of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S., evaporate off the etl 
with continued stirring as before and pour the acid solution on the filter. I 
peat this operation until all of the alkaloid is extracted and then wash the fil 
with distilled water until it is free from alkaloids. Collect the solution a 
washings in a separator, acid sufficient sodium bicarbonate to make the so 
tion decidedly alkaline to litmus and completely extract the alkaloids by shi 
ing it out repeatedly with ether. Wash the combined ether solutions with 
mils of distilled water, separate the water completely, and filter the ether sc 
tion, washing the container and filter with ether. Evaporate the ether sobt 
to dryness, dissolve the alkaloids from the residue in exactly 5 mils of ten 
normal sulphuric add V.8. and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-son 
potassium nydroxide VS., using cochineal 1\S. as indi< 

i mil of tenth-noniuil .sulphuric mid V.S. consumed corresponds to 27 
milligrammes of the alkaloids of Physostigma (see Part II, Proximate Am 
No. 15). 

Preparations — Extractum Physostigmatis Tinctura Physostigma lis. 
Average dose— Metric, 0.1 Gm* — Apothecaries, Ingrains, 




PIIYSOSTIGMIN.E SALICYLAS 

Fhysostigmine Salicylate 

Physostlg, Sallcyl,— Eaerine Salicylate 

The salicylate iC ls H B i0 2 N a .C 7 H fl 3 = 413,25] of an alkaloid obUii 
from physostigma. Preserve it in small, well-closed contain^ 

tected from light. 

Phvsostigmine Salicylate occurs in colorless or faintly yellowish, shini 
acicular, or short columnar crystals; 



odorless. It acquires a rwi tint wi 
fin at caution must be used in tasting it. 
y'sostigmiue Salicylate dissolves in 75 mils of water, 16 mil 
chloroform, and in 350 mils of ether at 25° C.; also is 
mils of water at SIT C. Slid in 5 mils of boiling alcuhoL 



long exposed to light and air. 
One Gm, of Phvsostigmine £ 
alcohol, 6 mils of chloroform, and in 250 mils of ether at 25* C. 




UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



321 






Its cold, saturated aqueous solution is neutral or at most only faintly acid 
tnut, Upon standing twenty-four hours, this solution usually acquires a 
pink color. This color is produced rapidly by the addition of a lew drops of 
sodium hydroxide T.S. 

Ferric chloride T.S* produces a deep violet color in an aqueous solution of 
Pbysostigmine Salicylate; a solution of chlorinated lime added to an aqueous 
i of the salt produces a red color. 

Evaporate about 0.003 Gm. of the salt to dryness with a few drops of ammo- 
nia prater; a blue residue is produced, which la soluble in alcohol, and, when 
so dissolved, yields a red, fluorescent solution upon the addition of acetic acid 
in excess. 

No weighable ash remains on incinerating J Gm, of Pfoysostigmine Salicylate, 

Precipitate the salicylic acid from 10 mils o fa cold, saturated aqueous solution 
of the salt with a slight excess of hydrochloric acid and filter the mixture; the 
filtrate is not rendered turbid at once by the addition of a few drops of barium 
chloride T.S. (sulpttott). 

A solution of about 0.1 Gm. of Physostigmine Salicylate in 2 mils of sul- 
phuric acid does not become darker tlian yellow within five minutes {readily 
carbonuaiAe impurities). 

Average dose — Metric, 0.001 Gm, — Apothecaries, %$ grain. 






PILOCARPINE HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Pilocarpine Hydrochloride 

Pilocarpin. Hydroetal,— Pilocarpine Chloride 

Thehydrochloride (CuHLeOjNa.HCl** 244.62) of an alkaloid obtained 
umpilocarpus. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from light. 

Pilocarpine Hydrochloride occurs in colorless, translucent crystals, odorless 
and having a faintly bitter taate; hygroscopic on exposure to the air. 

One Gm. of Pilocarpine Hydrochloride dissolves in 0.3 mil of water, 3 mils 
°f alcohol, and in 3*56 mils of chloroform at 25° C.j also in 1.5 mils of alcohol 
*t 60* C; insoluble in ether. 

It* aqueous solution (1 in 20) is neutral or at most only slightly acid to litmus. 

Whe D dried to constant weight at 100° C. it melts between 195° and 108° C. 

. Silver nitrate T.S. produces in an aqueous solution of the salt a white pre- 
cipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 

Dissolve 0.GI to 0.02 Gm. of Pilocarpine Hydrochloride in 2 mils of distilled 
pterin a test tube, add 2 mil* of a -slightly acid solution of hydrogen diox- 
ide, and then cover the mixture with a Hiimll layer of benaene. Now add 3 or 4 
""Jpe of a solution of potassium di chroma te (1 in 3GQ) and shake the mix- 
toft gently; the benzene layer acquires a violet color, while the aqueous layer 
r-riuitis yellow (distinction from other otto&ftdf), \U more than U.uj Gm* o! 
we salt is used, the bencene turns blue, and the reaction is no longer char- 
fie.) 

No weighable ash remains on incinerating 0.1 Gm. of Pilocarpine Hydro- 
chloride. 

A solution of about 0J Gm. of the salt in 2 mils of sulphuric acid is colorless or 
at most only faintly yellow {readily carbonizabk impurities). 

The addition of ammonia water or potassium di chroma te T.S. to 10 mils of an 
aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 100) produces no turbidity (mriom foreign 

Metric Apothecaries 

Average dose — By mouth, 0.01 jGra. — % grain. 
Hypodermic, 0.005 Gm,— ) f 2 grain. 






PILOCARPINE NITRAS 

Pilocarpine Nitrate 

Pilocarpi!!. Nit. 

The nitrate [CnH 1 rf) a N a .HNOj = 271.17] of an alkaloid ot 
from pilocarpus. Preserve it in well-closed containers, protected from 

tight. 

Pilocarpine Nitrate occurs in shining crystals; odorless; permanent in the ain 

One Gin. of Pilocarpine Nitrate dissolves in 4 mils of water and in 75 mill cm 
alcohol at 25° C,; also in 21 mils of alcohol at 60° C; insoluble in chloroform cm 
ether. 

It melts between 170° and 173° C. 

Carefully pour an aqueous solution of the salt, mixed with an equal volum« 
of ferrous sulphate T.S., over sulphuric acid without shaking; a brown nam 
appears at the juncture of the two layers 

The addition of a few drops of silver nitrate T.S. to 5 mils of an aqueoi — 
solution of the salt (1 in 20), acidulated with nitric acid, produces not more Xham 
an opalescence (crartiiff). 

Id other respects the salt responds to the testa for identity and purity uncW 
PilocarpiiuE Hydroctdoridum. 

Metric A pot he c trie* 

Average dose — By mouth, 0.01 dm.— J<j grain. 
Hypodermic, 0.005 Gm. — H^ grain* 



PILOCARPUS 

Pilocarpus 

Pilotarp.— Jaborandj 

The dried leaflets of Pilocarpus Jaborandi Holmes, known 
meree as Pemainbuco Jaborandi, or of Pilocarpus microphyllus 
known in commerce as Maranham Jaborandi (Fam. RutacecB), wither 
the presence or admixture of more than 5 per cent, of the stalks bears. J 
the leaflets and stems of the same plant, or other matter, and yield 
not less than 0.6 per cent, of the alkaloids of Pilocarpus. 

Pcrnambuco Ja bora nd i— Leaflets when entire, oval, oblong, or 
from 4 to 10.5 em, in length and from 2 to 4 cm. in breadth and with abort, 
stout petsolules; summits more or less rounded or acute and emarginate; btffi 
rounded or acute and mostly unequal; margins entire and narrowly revolutr; 
very smooth, shiny, coriaceous and glandular-punctate; upper surfaces gnra6 
to brownish-green, midribs mostly depressed, under surfaces yellowish- of 
greenish-brown and slightly pubescent on the prominent midvein; peculuriy 
aromatic when crushed; taste bitterish, becoming somewhat pungent aod 
having a sialogugue effect. 

Maranham Jaborandi— Leaflets rhomhoidally oval to oborate or elliptic, 
from 1.5 to 5 cm. in length and from 1 to 3 cm. in breadth, the lateral Qua 




UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 



323 



nearly sessile, the terminal ones on margined petiolules, from 0.5 to 1.5 em. in 
length; of a nearly uniform grayish or yellowish-green color, rather thin but 
otlicrwise resembling Pcrnambuco Jaborandi. 

Under the microscope, transverse sections of Pilocarpus show the upper 
epidermal cells with a yellowish layer of cutin from 0.005 to 0,01 mm. in thick- 
oesj; palisade cells, 1 to 3 rows deep, being filled with chloroplastids; among the 
palisade cells occur large, nearly circular, oil-secretion reservoirs from 0.08 to 
6.15 mm. in diameter; the dorsal pneumatic layer, from 10 to 20 rows in depth, 
the cells occasionally containing rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate from 0.01 
to 0,025 mm. in diameter; distributed in the center of the leaf, are the collateral 
fibro-vascular bundles each surrounded by a more or less interrupted circle of 
several rows of thick- walled, slightly lignified bast-fibers; tracheae associated 
with strongly lignified wood-fibers^ among the cells of the lower epidermis occur 
nuiwrous etomata. On surface view the stomata are broadly elliptical, from 
0.025 to 0.04 mm. in length, being uniformly Binaller in Maranham Jaborandi. 
Upon both surfaces of Pemambuco Jaborandi occur a number of non-glandular, 
ooe-celled hairs, more or less bent or curved, from 0.08 to 0.5 ram. in length, 
Ihirk-walied and with numerous, slight centrifugal projections. 

The powder is dark green or greenish-brown; epidermal cells on surface view 
5-nr 6-sided; s to ruata broadly elliptical, from 0.02 to 0.04 mm. in length, usually 
with four neighboring cells; fragments of fibro- vascular bundles snowing tra- 
cheae with simple or bordered pores or spiral thickenings, associated with thick- 
walled and strongly lignified wood-fibers; bast-fibers few, walls thick and only 
(lightly lignified; calcium oxalate in rosette aggregates, from 0.01 to 0.025 mm. 
in diameter; fragments of lamina showing large, oil-secretion reservoirs and 
usually containing one or more globules of oil; non-glandular hairs having thick 
wills,, usually more or less broken, are occasionally found. 

Pilocarpus yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Introduce 15 Gin, of Pilocarpus in No. 60 powder into a 250 mil 
Ihsk, add 150 mils of chloroform and proceed as directed under Bdladormw 
fe/ir, page 73, third line of the assay, beginning with the word "Stopper/' and 
decreasing the amount of water to be added after maceration to 5 mils. The 
lOOmila of chloroform solution must be drawn off from the bottom of the flask, 
undissolve the alkaloids from the residue in 8 mils of tenth-normal sulphuric 
*idV.8. 

Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. corresponds to 20.8 milli- 
Pamjnes of the alkaloids of Pilocarpus. 

Preparation — Fluidextraetum Pilocarpi. 

Average dose — Metric, 2 Gm, — Apothecaries, 30 grains. 

PILUUE ALOES 

Pills of Aloes 

PIK Aloes 

Aloes, in fine powdery thirteen grammes 13 Gm* 

Soap, in fine powder, thirteen grammes 13 Gm, 

Hater, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred pills 100 

Mix the powders intimately, then incorporate sufficient water to 
rm a mass, and di%dde it into one hundred pills. 

Average dose — 2 pills. 





324 THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THB 

PILULiE ASAFCETIDjE 

Pills of Asafetida 

Pil. Asafoet. 

Asafetida, twenty grammes 20 

Soap, in fine powder, six grammes 6 

Wateb, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred pills 100 

Beat the solids together with water, so as to form a mass, and di 
it into one hundred pills. 

Average dose — 2 pills. 

PILUUE CATHARTICS COMPOSITE 

Compound Cathartic Pills 
Pil. Cathart. Co. 

Compound Extract of Colocynth, eighty grammes 80 

Mild Mercurous Chloride, sixty grammes 60 

Resin of Jalap, in fine powder, twenty grammes 20 

Gamboge, in fine powder, fifteen grammes 15 

Diluted Alcohol, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand pills 1000 

Mix the powders intimately, then incorporate a sufficient quai 
of diluted alcohol to form a mass, and divide it into one thousand ; 
Average dose— 2 pills. 

PILULiE FERRI CARBONATTS 

Pills of Ferrous Carbonate 

Pil. Ferr. Carb.— Chalybeate Pills BUud's Pills Ferruginous Pills 
Each Pill contains not less than 0.06 Gm. of FeCOs. 

Granulated Ferrous Sulphate, sixteen grammes 16 

Potassium Carbonate, eight grammes 8 

Sugar, Jour grammes 4 

Tragacanth, in fine powder, one gramme 1 

AurBLfflA, in fine powder, one gramme 1 

Glycerin, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred pills 100 



Rub the potassium carbonate, in a mortar, with a sufficient quantity 
(about Jim drops each) of glycerin and water, then add the ferrous sul- 
phate and sugar, previously triturated together to a uniform, fine pow- 
der, and nib the mass thoroughly, until it assumes a greenish color. 
When the reaction is complete, incorporate the tragacanth and altheea, 
and, if necessary, add a little more water, so as to obtain a mass of ptlular 
consistence. Divide this into one hundred piUs. 

Note— In this process the 8 Gm. of potassium carbonate may be 
replaced by 7.2 Gm. of monohydrated sodium carbonate* 

AisajH-EKssolve tbree Pills in 15 mils of diluted sulphuric acid and dilute 
the solution with distilled water to about 100 mils. The immediate titration 
with tenth-normal potassium dichromate V.S., potassium ferrieyamdo T.S. 
bang used as indicator, shows not less than 0.06 Gm, of FeCO* in each pill. 

Eufc mil of tenth-normal potassium diehromate V,S. used corresponds to 
llffllffii Gm, of FeCO* Each Pill of Ferrous Carbonate corresponds to 5.2 
mils of tenth-normal potassium dichroinate V.S. 

Average dose — 2 pills. 



PILULE FERRI IODIDI 

Pills of Ferrous Iodide 
PH. Ferr. iod. 

Reduced Iron, four grammes 4 Gm, 

Iodine, five grammes 5 Gm. 

Gltctrrhiza, in fine powder, four grammes 4 Gm. 

LB, in fine powder, four grammes 4 Gm. 

Extract of Glycyrrhiza, in fine powder, one gramme, , . 1 Gm. 

Acacia, in fine powder, one gramme 1 Gm. 

YiXttp 

Hawaii of Tolu, 

Etheb, each, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred pills 100 

Add six mils of water to the reduced iron, contained in a small 
r, and then, gradually add the iodine, stirring constantly until 
liquid ceases to have a reddish tint. Then add the remaining 
pwdeis, previously well triturated together, and mix the whole thor- 
oughly. Transfer the mass to a porcelain dish, evaporate the excess of 
moisture on a water bath, with constant stirring, and when the mass 
has acquired a pilular consistence divide it into one hundred pills. 
Dissolve ten grammes of balsam of tolu in fifteen mils of ether, shake 
with a sufficient quantity of this solution until they are uni- 





fonnly coated, and put them on a plate to dry, occasionally rolling 

them about until the drying is completed. 
Keep the pills in a well-stoppered bottle. 

Pills of Ferrous Iodide are free from the odor of iodine. 

Triturate a few of the pills with water, and filter the liouid; the filtrate doet 
not assume more than a light blue tint upon the addition ot starch TJ3, (absence 
of more than traces of free iodine). 

Average dose— 2 pills. 

PILULE PHOSPHORI 

Pills of Phosphorus 

Pit* Phosphor, 

Phosphorus, six-hundredths of a gramme 0.06 Gi 

ALTHiEA, in No, 60 powder, six grammes. 6.00 Gnu 

Acacia, in fine powder, three grammes ...... 3.00 Gm 

Chloroform, 

Glycerin, 

Water, 

Balsam of Tolu, 

Ether, each, a sufficient quantity f 



To make one hundred pills 100 

Dissolve the phosphorus, in a test tube, in Jive mils of ehlorofoi 
with the aid of a very gentle heat, replacing from time to time 
of the chloroform which may be lost by evaporation. Mix the althi-m^ 
and acacia in a mortar, next add the solution of phosphorus, th< 
immediately afterwards a sufficient quantity (about four mils) of 
mixture of two volumes of glycerin and one volume of water, and quid 
form a mass; divide it into one hundred pills. 

Dissolve ten grammes of balsam of tolu in fifteen mils of ether, s 
the pills with a sufficient quantity of this solution until they are 
fonnly coated, and put them on a plate to dry, occasionally rolli:** 
them about until the drying is completed. 

Keep the pills in a well-stoppered bottle. 

Average dose — 1 pill. 

PILUL.E RHEI COMPOSITJE 

Compound Pills of Rhubarb 

l>il. Rhei Co. 

Rhubarb, in No. 80 powder, thirteen grammes 13.0 G: 

Aloes, in fine powder, ten grammes 10,0 ' 



Myrrh, in fine powder, six grammes 6.0 Gm. 

Oil op Peppermint, five-tenths of a milliliter , 0.5 mil 

Water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one hundred pills , . 100 

Mix the ail of peppermint intimately with the powders, then incor- 
porate sufficient water to form a mass; divide it into one hundred pills. 

Average dose— 2 pills. 



PIPER 

Pepper 

Black Pepper 

The dried, unripe fruit of Piper nigrum Linng (Fam. Piperacem), 
rithout the presence or admixture of more than 2 per cent, of stems 
r other foreign matter. 

Nearly globular, from 3.5 to 6 mm, in diameter, epicarp very thin, easily 
Kpanvble from the aarcocarp; externally blackish-brown or grayish-black, 
coarsely reticulate; unilocular, 1 -seeded; seed nearly white, hollow, adhering 
to i the 'pericarp; odor aromatic, slightly empyreumatic; taste aromatic and 
▼fry pungent. 

The powder is a mixture of blackish-brown fragments of the pericarp aod 
nearly white fragments of the endosperm and embryo; starch grains spherical or 
■offiewhat angular, from 0.001 to 0.003 mm. in diameter, mostly in the polyg- 
onal cells of the endosperm; stone cells of the epicarp varying from nearly 
Modiametrie or palisade-like to long tapering or somewhat irregular in shape, 
*ith thick porous walls and large lumina frequently containing a reddish-brown 
pigment; stone cells of the endocarp unevenly thickened, the outer walla being 
ttoually rather thin, and the lumina usually filled with a reddish-brown sub- 
stance; oil cells with subeiiaed walls and containing a yellowish oil, from which 
nwooelinic prisms of pipeline occasionally separate. 

Pepper yields not less than ft per cent, of non-volatile extract, soluble in ether 
(see Part ft. Test No. 13), It contains not less than 25 per cent, of starch. 

Pepper yields not more than 7 per cent, of ash. The amount of ash in 
Pepper, insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid, does not exceed 2 per cent, of 
to weight of Pepper taken. 

Preparation — Oleoresina Pi peris. 

Average dose— Metric, 0.5 Gm. — Apothecaries, 8 grains. 

PIX LIQUIDA 

Tar 

PIx Lio>— Pine Tar 

A product obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of 

lustris Miller, or of other species of Pinus (Fain. Pinacecc). 

Tar fe semi-liquid, viscid, blackish-brown, non-crystalline, translucent in 
[ton layers, becoming granular and opaque with age; odor empyreumatic, tere- 
binthin&te, taste sharp and empyreumatic. 




328 



THE PHARMACOPCEIA OF THE 



Tar is niiscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, riacial acetic acid, or fixed 
or volatile oils' it is heavier than water and is slightly soluble in it, the sol 
being of a pale yellowish to yellowiah-brown color and acid to litmus, 

The addition of a drop of ferric chloride T.S. to 10 mils of an 
solution of tar produces a greenish -brown color. 

Preparations— Syrupus Picis Liquid© Unguentum Picis Liquid®, 
Avekagb dose — Metric, 0.5 Guv — Apothecaries, 8 grams* 



FLUMBI ACETAS 
Lead Acetate 

Plumb. Acet.— Sugar of Lead 

It contains not less than 85,31 per cent, nor more than 89.57 per < 
of anhydrous lead acetate, corresponding to not less than 99.5 per cent 
of the crystallized salt [Pb(C a H a O a )g+3H t O = 379.20]. Preserve 

well-closed containers. 



per centi 
rve it i a 

prisms 



Lead Acetate occurs as colorless, shining, transparent, monoclinic 
plates, or as heavy, white, crystalline masses, or granular crystals, having 
faintly acetous odor, and a sweetish, astringent, afterwards metallic 
efflorescent, and absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure to the sir. 

One Gm. of Lead Acetate dissolves in 1,4 mils of water, and in 38 mils « 
alcohol at 25° C; also in about 0.5 mil of boiling water; freely soluble in glycer-ii 

When betted to 40* C. the salt loses its water of crystallisation, 
heated rapidly to 75° C., it fuses in its water of crystallization, and at a 
ture al>ove 280° C. it finally decomposes, leaving a residue of finely di 
metallic lead mixed with lead oxide. 

An aqueous solution of Jjead Acetate (1 in 10) is slightly alkaline to li 



and separate portions yield a black precipitate with hydrogen sulphi.i 



yellow precipitate with potassium iodide T.ti., and a white precipitate 
diluted sulphuric acid. 

Add 0.1 Gm. of the salt to a mixture of 1 mil of sulphuric acid and 1 mil d 
alcohol and warm the mixture; ethyl acetate is formed, recognise! nfcr. 

A solution of the salt (1 in 10), prepared with distilled water which has been 
recently boiled, is clear, or only slightly opalescent {carbonate) and yields erilJh 
potassium ferrocyanide T.S. a precipitate which is not perceptibly blue or ted 
{iron or copper). 

Assay — Dissolve about 5 Gm. of Lead Acetate, accurately weighed, in stffr 
cient recently boiled distilled water to make exact! v 100 mils of solution. 
10 mils of this solution with 50 toils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. in a 200 mil 
measuring flask, agitate the mixture thoroughly for five minutes, then Ell the 
flask to the mark with distilled water; filter, and titrate 100 mils of the nltnfe 



less than 85.31 per cent, our more than 89.57 per cent, of PlHt'iHaOfe)* 

Each mil of tenth-normal oxalic acid VB, used corresponds to 0.010257 Gm. 
of Pb(C a H 3 < > a )g. Each gramme of Lead Acetate corresponds to not lev thsa 
52.5 mils nor more than 56.1 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid N 

Preparation — Liquor Plumbi Subacetatie* 

Average dose— Metric, 0.06 Gm— Apothecaries, 1 







PLUMBI OXIDUM 

Lead Oxide 

Plumb. Oxl d. — Litharge 

It contains, when freshly ignited, not less than 96 per cent* of PbO 

(223,10), Preserve it in well-closed containers. 

lead Oxide occurs as a heavy r yellowish or reddish-yellow powder, or in 
minute scales, without odor or taste. On exposure to the air it slowly absorbs 
moisture and carbon dioxide. 

Lead Oxide is almost insoluble in water, to which, however, it imparts a 
faintly alkaline reaction; insoluble in alcohol; dissolved by acetic or diluted 
nitric acid t and by warm solutions of the fixed alkali hydroxides. 

HTieo heated, the Oxide becomes darker in color, out assumes its original 
foloron cooling; it fuses at a red heat. When heated in contact with charcoal, 
it is reduced to metallic lead. 

Ablution of the Oxide in diluted nitric acid (1 in 10) is colorless, and, when 
nearly neutralized by ammonia water, separate portions yield with hydrogen 
wlpiude T.S. a blacfc precipitate, with potassium iodide 1 .S. a yellow precipi- 
tate, and with diluted sulphuric acid a white precipitate. 

Soake 5 Gm. of the Oxide in a small flask with 5 mils of distilled water, and 
add 20 mils of acetic acid. Boil the mixture for a few minutes, fitter it, wash 
the insoluble residue well with diluted acetic acid, and dry it at 110° C; it 
*njhg not more than 0.15 Gm. 

When strongly heated in a porcelain crucible, the Oxide loses not more than 
4 per cent- of its weight (carbonate and moisture). 

Assay — Dissolve at>out 0,4 Gm, of freshly ignited Lead Oxide, accurately 
weighed, in 4 mils of acetic acid and 25 mils of recently boiled distilled water, 
in a 200 mil graduated flask, and mix the solution with 50 mils of tenth-normal 
oxalic acid V.S. Fill the flask to the mark with distilled water, mix well, filter 
through a dry filter into a dry flask, rejecting the first 20 mils of filtrate, and 
titrate 100 mils of the filtrate (representing one-half of the amount of Lead 
Oxide originally taken) with tenth-normal potasaum permanganate V,S*, the 
filtrate being previously acidulated with 20 mils of diluted sulphuric acid and 
wanned to §0 C. It shows not less than 00 per cent, of PbO. 

Each mil of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.S. corresponds to 0.011155 Gm. of 
PbO. Each gramme of Lead Oxide, after ignition, corresponds to not less than 
86.1 mils of tenth-normal oxalic acid V.8. 

Preparation— Emplastrum Plumbi. 



PODOPHYLLUM 



Podopb. 



Podophyllum 

-Mandrake May Apple Rhizome 



The dried rhizome and roots of Podophyllum peltatum Linnd (Fam. 

&rberidac€<B), yielding not less than 3 per cent, of resin. 

Rhizome horizontal, nearly cylindrical, jointed, compressed on the upper and 
lower surfaces, sometimes branched; in pieces from 3 to 20 crm in length, the 
internodes from 2 to 9 mm. in diameter; externally dark brown, longitudinally 
wrinkled or nearly smooth with irregular, somewhat Y-shaped scars of scale 
leaves, nodes annulate, upper portion marked with large, circular, depressed 
stem-scars and sometimes with buds or stem-bases; at or near the nodes on the 
lower portion occur numerous root-scars or roots from 2 to 7 cm. in length and 
about 2 mm. in thickness; fracture short; internally, bark light brown, wood 






with small yellowish, vascular bundles, pith large and white; odor slight; U 
sweetish, disagreeably bitter and acrid. 

Under the microscope, a transverse section of the rhizome of PodophvlJ 
shows an outer layer of one or two rows of reddish-brown cells; pareneoy 
of cortex and pith with numerous single, spherical, polygonal, or 2- to 6« 
pound starch grains, or rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate; vascular bunt 
from 24 to 34, arranged in a circle between cortex and pith. 

The powder is light brown, with a pronounced and characteristic odor; sU 
grains numerous, spherical, polygonal or 2- to 6-compound, the individual gr« 
from 0.003 to 0,015 mm, in diameter: calcium oxalate crystals few, in ro* 
aggregates from 0.05 to 0.08 mm. in diameter and occasionally in raphides fi 
0.03 to 0.0*) mm. in length; trachea? with simple pores or reticulate thickenii 
fragments of si arch-bearing parenchyma and reddish-brown cork cells. 

Podophyllum yields not more than 3 per cent, of ash. 

Assay — Proceed as directed for the preparation of Retina Podophylli 
page 358), using 10 Gm. of