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Full text of "The place-names of Argyll"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 



Other Works by H. Cameron Gillies^ M.D. 



Published by David Nutt, 57-59 Long Acre, London 

The Elements of Gaelic Grammar 

Second Edition considerably Enlarged 
Cloth, 3s. 6d. 

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The Interpretation of Disease 

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Gaelic Names of Disease and Diseased States 

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A Gaelic Medical MS. of 1563. Prize Essay of the Cale- 
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THE PLACE-NAMES 
OF ARGYLL 



BY 

H. CAMERON GILLIES, M.D. 



WITH A SHORT PREFACE FROM 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF ARGYLL 



LONDON 

DAVID NUTT, 57-59 LONG ACRE 

1906 



Printed by Bali.an rVNK, HANSON &* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 






PREFACE 

This seems to me a valuable book, and I am glad the 
London Argyllshire Association has encouraged the 
author in what must have been a really hard work. It 
must be of interest to all branches of the Celtic-speaking 
people, not only to all the Highlands and all Scotland as 
well as to Argyll, but to Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, and 
Brittany, where the old language is retained, if not 
always as a spoken tongue, yet always in their own old 
names from the same or a kindred origin. It may be of 
interest to even those outside the Celtic circle to learn 
how much of true and important history lies dormant in 
the place-names of a country. Argyll is exceptionally 
complex in its history and therefore very rich in its 
names, and I am not surprised that the author found 
many of them to be difficult to explain, and some even 
impossible. 

The several layers of names left by succeeding 
races come out very clearly. There are the " bottom " 
names of the pre-Celtic race, variously named " Iberian," 
"Pictish," and otherwise. These must be difficult to 
explain, perhaps they never can be explained. 

The Gaelic names are by far the most numerous, but 
they seem to be coming well into the control of Gaelic 



128855;-^ 



o 



vi PREFACE 

scholars. They are always poetically appropriate to the 
land-features of the country. 

Norse names are surprisingly numerous in some 
parts, in the islands especially. This shows what a 
strong hold the conquering Norseman had upon the 
West, through something like five hundred years. 

The chapter upon the names derived from the 
Columban Church, seated in venerable lona, is especially 
interesting to all who have watched the influence of the 
" pure Culdees " in the spreading of Christianity. 

I am very glad to accept this work on behalf of the 
Association, and I hope it will be appreciated by our 
people as I believe it deserves to be. 




CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE V 

INTRODUCTION xi 

THE COUNTY NAME i 

GENERAL TERMS 7 

THE DISTRICT NAMES— 

KINTYRE 22 

GiGHA . . . . . . . • 33 

KNAPDALE 34 

ARGYLL 39 

COWAL 45 

LORNE 55 

Shuna, Luing, Torsay, Seil, Easdale, Kerrara . 62 

APPIN 65 

LiSMORE ........ 73 

KILMAILLIE 75 

ARDGOWER 80 

SUNART 83 

ARDNAMURCHAN 89 

Rum, Eigg, Muck, Canna .... 96-100 

MORVEN 102 

MULL 109 

Coll, Tiree, Ulva, Iona . . . . 122-130 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

THE DISTRICT NAMES {Continued)— 

PAGE 

JURA 132 

COLONSAY AND ORONSAY . . . .140 

ISLAY 144 

THE CHURCH-NAMES 160 

THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES . . 186 

THE NORSE ELEMENTS 220 

SOME NOTES 243 

INDEX 252 



LIST OF REFERENCES 

F. . . . ' . Ftonn, Mr. Henry Whyte. 

C. Gr. . . . Carinina Gadelica, Mr. Carmichael. 

S. Gr, . . . Sylva Gadelica, Mr. Standish O'Grady. 

Mb. . . . Dr. Macbain's Dictionary. 

Kal. ... The Calefidar of Allans the Culdee, Stokes. 

C Cormac's Glossary. 

C. P. S. . . 7"-^!? Chrotiicles of the Picts and Scots. 
L. B. . . . Leabhar Breac. 

0. C. . . . The Materials of Ancient Irish History, O'Cnrry. 

Sk Celtic Scotland, Skene. 

H. S. D. . . The Gaelic Dictionary of the Highland Society. 

Adamn. . . Life of Adamnan,^GGwes. 

0. P. . . . Origines Parochiales, Cosmo Innes. 

D. L. . . . The Book of the Dean of Lismore. 
J Dr. Joyce, Place-names of Ireland. 

Cleasby's Dictionary of the Old Norse {Icelandic) Tongue, 
Whitley Stokes' Glosses and other works of his wonderful 
scholarship, Windisch's Irische Texte, and many more, I have 
had to draw upon. 



DISTRICT REFERENCES 



K Knapdale. 

K Kintyre. 

R Argyll. 

Cowal. 

L Lome. 

P Appin. 

E Kilmaillie. 



G Ardgower. 

S Sunart. 

A Ardnamurchan. 

V Morven. 

M Mull. 

J Jura. 

I Islay. 



" ARGYLLSHIRE " 

By His Grace The Duke of Argyll 
Written for the " London Argyllshire Association," April 1902 

IVho knows Argyllshire's story 

Can tell all Britain's fate, 
Since there the Romans' glory 

Broke, at her Highland gate, 
To leave to sons of Erin, 

To bring the Scottish name, 
Where blessed by holy Kiaran, 

A town has kingly fame. 

For there the stone of wonder. 

To Eastern Magic known. 
Was brought, the Oak thwarts under. 

Great Britain's Crowning Stone ! 
Kinloch, Dunadd, Dunstaffnage, 

Three forts of old renown. 
Safe kept that stone, the presage. 

Where Scot shall wear the Crown. 



"ARGYLLSHIRE" 

Once more lona ! waken, 

Wiih Choral song the deeps; 
Lift fear from hearts sin shaken, 

Where great Columba sleeps : — 
Green isle of white sands — bearer 

Of happiness and doom — 
Dyed with a hue yet fairer, 

The Red — of Martyrdom ! 

Argyll's sweet dewy splendour, 

Looks over Loch and Sound, 
Whose purple lights attend her, 

Imperially crowned ; 
And kissed by loving Nature, 

In Ocean's arms she lies. 
Fair fenced with hills whose verdure, 

From Isle and Mainland rise. 



She knows she gave the cradle, 
From whence has Empire grown, 

And proudly minds the fable, 

^^ Scots rule where stands yon Stone.' 



INTRODUCTION 

I HAVE undertaken this rather difficult piece of work, 
first, from a feeling that it ought to be done, and did not 
know of any one else anxious or ready to do it, and 
second, on behalf of the London Argyllshire Association, 
who have shown a keen interest in the matter, and 
readily undertook the considerable expense which the 
publication entails. I am quite aware that the work is 
far from perfect. No person could make it perfect ; 
and certainly no one in my position, with my poor 
scraps of available time, could do it better. I believe 
it is as nearly correct as any one could make it. I say 
this not for myself altogether, but because I have had 
the constant utmost assistance of competent friends, 
whose only regret has been that they could not assist me 
more. Their feeling of weakness, as mine also, has 
been because in a work of this kind, even fairly com- 
petent knowledge must fail when the outmost limits of 
reliable history and language are reached. The scope 
of such a work as this is practically without definite 
limits. In the case of Argyll this is peculiarly true. 
Far beyond the time of the Dalriadic kingdom, there 
was an intimate contact of the land, now and for so 
long called Argyll, with the hoary history of Ireland — 
a contact more easily felt than found out or definitely 
stated by any one searching in that way ; and far beyond 
the accepted Norse invasion of the early ninth century 



\ 



xii INTRODUCTION 

there is abundant evidence to show that the Norseman 
was a considerable factor in the historic dawn of the 
Western Isles and the West Highlands of Scotland. 
Then there is the great chapter of the Columban Church 
— one of the cleanest and finest chapters that has ever 
come into the life of any people — to which we owe more 
than can be easily measured or ascertained. There is 
beyond all this the fragmentary record of a past race 
and people which must have come appreciably into our 
making, and have left us a few "bed-rock" names, which 
are the despair of the historian and of the linguistic 
historian particularly. We know that they long ago 
passed away ; we know that they have left us a few of 
their bones in caves and " barrows " ; we beheve that 
they have left us fragments of their speech in our place- 
names, and perhaps in our language; we must believe 
that they have left us a few drops of their blood — and 
that is all we know or can believe regarding them. 

The Gaelic language is the big factor in the place- 
names of Argyll — and it carries far. It has been there 
from the " beginning " as we appreciate time and tide. 
The Church did not detract from it, but rather added to 
its fulness. The Norseman tried to blot it out, as others 
have tried in later days, but it has survived and prevailed. 
It conquered the Norseman and his tongue, and it will 
do the same to all powers whatsoever. It is written in 
the rock. The first purpose of my effort is to make the 
writing intelligible, lovable, indelible — to provide a hand- 
book to the great original, that all sons and daughters, 
and even fosterlings, may know and understand the 
voice of the days that are gone, as spoken for ever by 
our native hills and streams and lovely valleys. I am 
sorry that I have had to present it ^m so barrenfform. I 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

could have clothed it here and there with a fine piece of 
tradition or romance, but had to refrain for reasons that 
may be easily understood. Any appreciable attempt in 
that way would have made the book too large, and would 
go altogether beyond its intent and purpose. I have 
no doubt that some day, by some one, my very dry 
skeleton will be re-covered in every limb with the flesh 
and blood of its great romance, and so restore its fine, 
full form. 

The plan that I have followed (p. 22) I have found to 
be very helpful. It has the merit of historical sequence, 
and it has enabled me to go over this very large ground, 
as I believe, somewhat effectively. There may be 
omissions, and there may be errors, but I venture to 
say that from the one side or from the other, these are 
not very considerable. A very competent knowledge of 
old and modern Gaelic, as well as of the old Norse 
language, is necessary for the full interpretation of 
Argyll names, and while I may with some justice lay 
claim to the former, I cannot with anything like so 
adequate reason lay claim to the latter. Again, a full 
knowledge of local environment and history and tradition 
is necessary, which, in respect to some districts, I do not 
possess intimately. The local pronunciation of names, 
again, is often a great help, even a necessity — for in- 
stance, Killarow in Islay is there pronounced as the 
word shows, with the accent on the second syllable, but 
in Kintyre the name has the accent correctly on the last 
syllable, and this at once gives the keynote to the mean- 
ing of the name (p. 175). The tendency of the accent 
to come forward is strong to mislead. For all these 
reasons, error is always possible. Minute knowledge, so 
far, SQ wide, and so deep, can hardly be expected of any 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

one person. I have, however, had the help of competent 
men, natives of such districts as I do not myself know 
well, so it may be taken that possible error has been 
guarded against as carefully as it could well be. 

Because the body of the book is so very hard and 
dry, I have thought that it might be well to indicate 
briefly the method that shows itself in our place-names. 
English neglected, and that prehistoric element already 
mentioned, the Gaelic language and the old Norse speech 
are the sources of nearly all the place-names of Argyll. 
The mental method, so to put it, of both languages is 
closely the same. The great number of names, from 
both sources, consist of two parts — (i) a general or 
generic part, and (2) an attributive or specific part. 
Gaelic, as a rule, puts the attributive second, the Norse 
puts it first, in the name. The Norse has ha-r-bost, 
the high-steading, or " town " on the high ground, the 
adjective being first ; but Gaelic has baile-ard for the 
same name, the adjective coming second. Both lan- 
guages use the adjective and the attributive noun- 
genitive, in perhaps the same proportion — the only 
difference being that just mentioned. 

There are exceptions. In old Gaelic the attributive 
was nearly always first, and remnants of that usage 
remain in our speech, and especially in our place-names, 
to the present day — for instance, glais-bheinn, grey- 
mount ; Mor-vern, the sea-cleft {p. 102). 

A few groups of place-name elements stand so dis- 
tinctly out from the main body of names that I refer to 
them specially. 



INTRODUCTION xv 



RIVER-NAMES 

The River-names are the oldest, most interesting, and 
most difficult of all. Names like Fin-e, 6sd-e, Oiid-e, 
Sheil-e, seem to carry us back to the very limits of our 
knowledge and understanding. Ath-a, Foll-a, lol-a, 
belong without doubt to the same class, notwithstanding 
p. 69. The terminals are identical in sound — which is 
an indefinite-vowel short sound as near as can be to 
that of the English u in but. It is quite different from 
the unquestionably Norse terminal of Aor-&, Shlr-d, 
Lang-a, which is the full open a, as in English car ; and 
yet it would be as unsafe to say that these endings have 
not had a kindred origin in language, as it would be to 
assert the contrary. All that can be said with certainty 
is that the ending must mean water, or river, and that 
the first part is the specific, attributive part, and in these 
instances extremely difficult. The forms in -aidh, as 
Lbch-aidh, Mail-idh, Orch-aidh, are also old, perhaps as 
old as the others, and perhaps akin to them — the sound 
is that of English y, as it is expressed in Lochy, Maily, 
Orchy. 

The names in -aig, -ail, -ain seem to come nearer to 

ourselves, and to be easier understood in both their 

parts. Dubhaig, Eachaig, Faochaig, Suileiff, are quite 

easy ; so is Gaodhail, Cainneil, Teitheil ; and so also 

Fionain and Caolain. These all, and such, are easily 

within the reach of the Gaelic language of comparatively 

modern time. Glas, as the river-terminal, in Dubh-ghlas, 

Fion-ghlas, is certainly old. It seems to be essentially 

the colour-adjective glas; and seeing that the old 

nominative form is glais-e, there is a strong suggestion 

b 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

that it might be classed withFin-e as a descriptive River- 
name of the very old time, the meaning of which in 
later days was forgotten or lost, so that the original 
compound name was looked upon as a simple word 
needing a new descriptive, which was supplied by Dubh 
and Fion. The ending in -lighe, as in Dubh-lighe, Fion- 
lighe (p. 77), is evidently the same as comes into the stem 
of Leven and Liver (p. 72). The River-ending in -ir is 
rare. 

HILL-NAMES 

The names of Hills are altogether fanciful. Figures 
and concepts of familiarly near forms and things are 
thrown against the sky according as resemblances in 
greater and remoter objects suggest themselves to the 
imagination. Cruachan (Ben) is the hip of the human 
body projected, and that greatly. Mam — a frequent 
name for round, smooth hills — is the human female 
mam7na, the "breast," or "pap," thrown into big per- 
spective, as is also Cioch, so finely figured in "The 
Paps" of Jura. Ceann, the head; Mala, the brow; 
Aodann, the face; Guala, the shoulder; Uileann, the 
^^ elbow" ; and Ton, the podex, are all in the same way. 
Such names as Buachaill Etive, the Shepherd of Etive ; 
am Bord Latharnach, the Table of Lorn ; Greideal Fhinn, 
Fionn's griddle, are all of them, and many others of a 
similar kind, really fine imagining. 

The general and most common names for large 
mountains are Beinn, Sgurr, Monadh, and Sliabh. Beinn 
— the English Ben — is always a distinct mountain, rising 
sharp and definite to a top or point, like Ben Dorain, 
Ben More, &c. The Sgurr (a variant of Sgorr) is a 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

scarred Ben, high and distinct as a Ben^ but rough and 
torn and scarred. Many a Beinn is sufficiently rough 
and torn to be named a Sgiirr, but when named Sgiirr 
the mountain name is always pertinent to its character 
and to the explanation given. The general name Monadh 
is that of a comparatively high mountain, not rising to a 
top, but long-extending and of uniform height in all its 
length. Sliabh is not a very common name in Scottish 
Hills. It seems to mean as nearly as possible not a 
definite Hill, but as much of a Monadh as can be seen 
from one side — with kindred in language to English 
slope, perhaps. 

Maol, a very frequent mountain name, is simply the 
Gaelic word for bald, used in the same sense, only 
remotely, as it was used for the ^^ bald," or tonsured, 
Saints of the old Church (p. 75). The name as applied 
to Hills is distinctly fanciful. Meall — a Gaelic word 
also — is simply "a mass," or an indefinite ^^ heap," of a 
mountain, and has nothing to do with Maol. The N. 
Mul-r, again, which takes the same form in Gaelic as 
Maol, seems to have no kinship with the Gaelic word. 
The Norse word is always applied to a sea-promontory, 
like t/ze Mull of Kintyre. Many terminals in -mal, -val, 
are Norse Hill-names from Mul-r possibly sometimes, 
but certainly often from N. fjall and hvall. 

Biod and Stob are not uncommon Hill-names. They 
are in a sense the opposites of the Gaelic Maol. They are 
pointed always, and, usually, comparatively high hills. 

Torr, which seems to have remained in Cornwall 
more than in any other of the Keltic districts, is a hill, 
not very high, but always round and ** flat." The word 
Torran, the dim., is used of a mound, or even of a small 
heap or round elevation of even a few feet high. 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

TuUach is very close to the meaning of Torr, but it is 
always upon a high ground. It also carries the feeling 
of having some extension, as in Monadh, but on a 
smaller scale. 

COLOURS 

Names with Colour attributives are so very frequent 
that I have thought a note upon them would be well. 

Ban is white, fair, and Geal is white, but there is a 
very interesting difference in their usage. Each ban, a 
white horse, is correct, but each geal is impossible in 
ordinary speech ; and yet the " white horse " of Rev. vi. 2 
is each geal, a vivid and powerful picture which would 
be exceedingly weakened as each ban. Gille ban, a fair 
youth, is in good taste, but gille geal would be ridiculous 
and even offensive. On the other hand, nighean bhan is 
correct for a fair girl, but a certain condition of mind 
not only excuses but demands the use of geal. A 
beautiful love song has it — 

Ged theireadh each gu'n robh thu dubh 
Bu gheal 's an gruth learn fh^in thu; 

and in a song to "Prince Charlie" he is spoken of as 
" Mo run geal 6g." It is remarkable that he was almost 
always referred to, poetically, as a beautiful young 
woman. The snow is always geal by best right ; ban is 
geal — in the shade. The old word fionn, white, which 
is met with in old names, has lost its touch with the 
modern language. 

Glas is of very wide and various usage. Each glas is 
the only correct expression for a grey horse, but ceann 
glas for a man's ^r^ ^^«^ would be quite unintelligible. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

It is always ceann liath. The pale horse of Rev. vi. 8 is 
rendered as each glas, which one feels to be wrong. 
The pale horse ridden by anaemic Death is not the grey 
horse of Gaelic, which is somehow peculiarly and ex- 
ceptionally in mental association with force and power 
and strength — and yet we speak of neula glas a' bhais, 
the pale shadow j or cloud, of death. The Psalmist is made 
to lie down in the green pastures, air chluainibh glas, 
and this seems to be an old and reliable value of the 
word. Islay-men speak ever affectionately of ile ghlas 
an fheoir, green, grassy I slay. Some may be disposed 
to think that this seemingly loose use of language shows 
an indiscriminating and obtuse mind in our language 
and people. It is not so. The touch and tinge of these 
words is outside the English language. The glorious 
gamut of the day-dawn as it comes down from the hill- 
tops into the valley, and the infinite shades of the even- 
ing, cannot be cast in even mental moulds nor limited 
by straight lines, Gaelic is the language of these, which 
grew from them and is of them — and that is the explana- 
tion of its fine and indefinite variety of shade. 

Gorm and Uaine and Liath merge into each other 
and even into other shades. Gorm is roughly translated 
as blue, Uaine as green, and Liath has its most common 
and most correct usage in the instance already given. 
All three are used of the waves of the sea, and any one 
who knows the sea will not ask a reason for this. The 
blends of colour indicated by dubh-ghorm, liath-ghlas, 
blue-black and grey-green, while showing an effort to be 
precise in expression, show also the kinship of the 
colours so blended. Colours that are dictinctly different 
are never blended. Dubh-liath, however, is the Gaelic 
name for the Spleen, but this is not a difficult combina- 



XX INTRODUCTION 

tion ; it is a fairly correct statement of the colour of 
the organ. 

Buidhe, yellow, has the same wide range of applica- 
tion as in English. It runs all the way from clay to 
gold up to the buidheag, "The opening gowan wet 
wi' dew," and it has most interesting "sidings," which 
cannot be here entered upon. I have a feeling that 
Loch-buy, M., is named upon the river, of the -e terminal 
(p. xiii.), and that this is the base of the name. Carnbuie, 
Dalbuy, Breidbuidhe, all K., are built upon it. 

Dubh is black pure and simple. It needs no explana- 
tion. In the old language dubh was used as a noun, for 
ink. In all names it is now used as an adjective. Dorch, 
dark, seems to be related to dubh as ban is to geal. 
Geal was the highest white, as dubh was the deepest 
black. Ban is a degrading from white, as dorch is an 
aggrading towards black. It is impossible to say where 
the one ends or where the other begins. 

Breac means spotted. A trout is called a breac, 
because it is "spotted," and so is small-pox, the 
spotted disease, and so are " freckles " the breaca sianain, 
the pretty ^^;;z-spots upon the human skin. 

Odhar is one of the most difficult words in Gaelic to 
translate into English. It is usually given to mean 
" dun," but this dun is itself a Gaelic word, donn, and of 
quite different meaning. Odhar is a colour frequent 
in cattle, but rare in horses, in which donn is the pre- 
vailing colour. Odhar is a deep or dark cream colour ; 
donn is about half and half red (as red hair is spoken of) 
and black. The word is not far from the value of 
English ochre. 

Dearg and Ruadh (for which English only gives red) 
have a wide range, from the colour of the " roe," 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

which is the Gaelic ruadh-ag", right up to intensest scarlet. 
In such names as Bealach-ruadh the adjective refers to 
the red earth, or to the red appearance of the surface — 
in this weak sense. The gradation is practically infinite 
between dearg and ruadh. 

Riabhach is usually translated as brmdled. The most 
exact meaning, however, is that it is the colour of the 
lark— ihQ riabhag. One of the "titles" of the Devil is 
an Riabhach mdr, the mighty singed-oney an expression 
that may help towards a correct understanding of the 
colour — and of other things. 

Grisionn is literally grey-white, from gris, grey, and 
fionn, white. This also is translated brindled, but they 
are altogether different colours. The only element 
common to them is that they are more or less striped — 
riabhach, red a?id black ; grisionn, grey and white. 



THE "DUNS" 

The name Dun is always a general term, but some- 
times it loses its attributive and becomes specific, as an 
Dim, an Dunan. The primary meaning of the word is 
simply a heap — in fact, the " midden " or a dung-heap is 
an dim especially. In place-names the word means a 
low heap of a hill, or an old stronghold of wdiich the 
remains are usually to be seen. When the word has the 
latter meaning, it often has with it the personal name 
with which its story is associated ; as Dun-Aoidh, Dun- 
Askain, Dun-Abhertich, Dun-Bhruchlain, Dun-Cholgain, 
Dun - Domhnaill, Dun-olla(f), Dun - Mhurchaidh, Dun- 
Rostain, Dun-Sgobuill, &c. When it simply means a 
hilly the attributive is commonly an adjective — Dun-ban, 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

Dun-dubh, Dun-glas, or some fanciful association, as in 
Dun - losgain, Dun nam muc, Dun na muir - gheidh. 
Whether of the one meaning or the other, the Dun 
may be named upon its surroundings or neighbourhood, 
hke Dun- Add, named upon the river Add (which is really 
Fada, long, with f aspirated away), the fort upon the 
(river) Add. Dunstaffnage is the Dun fort upon the 
N. Staff a + nes, Dun-leacainn, the leacann-/^/// (p. i6), 
Dun-troon = Dun an t-sroin, the hill by the knowe, Dun- 
Charnain, the fort by the cairn (Fincharn, the white cairn). 



THE FORMATION OF NAMES 

I have thought that a short statement of the way in 
which names have been formed might be a help. 

1. The simplest form of name would, of course, be a 
single noun, unqualified — but I have not found any. 
lie and Muile, and such, would appear at first sight to 
be of this kind, but they are certainly compound. Rum, 
which is the only quite naked name I can recall, must 
have lost its terminal part. 

2. Single- Noun Names with the Article are quite 
numerous — an Calbh, an Cnap, a' Mhaol, na Torran, and 
so is this combination + the diminutive — an Clachan 
an t-6ban, an Crianan, na Feannagan. The ending in 
-an is masculine, that in -ag feminine. 

3. Certain regular terminations come into names 
such as — 

-ach {a) as one of the ; {p) the place of the ; {c) as the 
terminal of quality in adjectives — Breatunn-ach, one of the 
Britons ; Eirionnach, an Irishman. Names under {b) are 
referred to (p. 8), and diminutives of the same class. As 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

adjectives, such words as biorach point-ed, Gobhlach 
fork-ed, creagach rock-ed, are everywhere. 

-a for N. ey, island^ is constantly met in the island 
names — Diiir-a, Orons-a, Colons-a. 

-a for N. a, river, is also quite familiar — Aor-d,, Shir-^, 
Lang-a. 

-aidh, which has been already referred to in the 
River-names, has a locative value in such names as 
Largie, Lorgie, Machrie. 

-aig, also a River-ending, is referred to (p. 8). 

-ail is an adjective terminal, as well as that of Rivers. 
It is frequent in description — gaothail, wind-y ; grian-ail, 
sun-y. 

-ar -air -aire, as in machair, Conair, Uanaire, is best 
translated as the place of. Machair has been derived from 
magh, a field, + tir, land, in the aspirated form of which t 
disappears. It is not impossible that all these terminal 
forms have come by this way. It is quite certain that 
all the fragmentary endings of names are simply withered 
fuller forms of the old time. 

-ain is the gen. form of the dim. -an, as well as a River- 
ending for abhainn, river, or old ain, Water. 

-ad as in leth-ad (p. 21) also means place, or land, as 
does also -as in Beam-as, the notch place. 

-lach and -rach, in Seasg-lach, Muc-lach, and Muc- 
rach, also mean the place of. 

All these terminations are found with the dims, -an 
and -ag, Luachair-ach-an, Cadal-ad-an, Giubhas-ach-an, 
Tir Aed-ag-ain. 

TPIE NORSE INVASION 

The Church chapter (p. 160) carries its own slight 
thread of continuity. A few more or less reliable facts 

c 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

will be helpful to run a thread through the Norse names. 
Our first acceptedly correct knowledge of the Norseman 
in the West comes from the closing years of the eighth 
century, when he is known to have robbed and ravaged 
his way down through the Western Isles as far as Man. 
It is, however, quite certain that he was in the Isles and 
the West for a long time before this — perhaps for cen- 
turies. At first he came for plunder pure and simple, 
but later on he thought he would come to stay. He 
took possession of the richer islands and of the fertile 
valleys especially. Argyll was indeed "the Dales" to 
the Norse records of the time. In a.d. 852 the Danish 
kingdom of Dublin was founded by an Olave, son-in-law 
of Ketil the fiat-nosed (Flatnef), who was at the time 
supreme in the Isles. A grandson of this Ketil was the 
man who pushed the Norse power into the mainland. 
There are two outstanding men in the Norse history of 
this time, namely, Harold the fair-haired, and Magnus, 
called Barelegs, because he took to the kilt, the dress of 
the conquered people. It was A.D. 1098 that Magnus 
set out for the conquest of the Western Isles, not for 
his kingdom or people, but for himself. "The terror of 
the Scots was his glory ; he made the maidens to weep 
in the Southern Isles ; he made the Manxman to fall." 
He was killed in Ulster A.D. 1103. From his time on- 
ward it was incessant feud and faction, until another 
Magnus, the man who sailed round Kintyre, attempted, 
in A.D. 1252, to consolidate the kingdom, and he suc- 
ceeded so far as the Isles were concerned. The Scottish 
king (Alexander III.), however, determined to have the 
Isles. Haco of Norway, hearing of this, came south 
with a great fleet that met with defeat and disaster at 
the Battle of Largs. This ended the Norse power. 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

Magnus of the Isles submitted to the Scottish King, 
A.D. 1264. He died the next year. In 1266 the King- 
dom of Man and the Isles came into that of Scotland, 
after at least 500 years of Norse rule. 

I have to acknowledge most valuable assistance from 
my friend Mr. Henry Whyte, of Glasgow (" Fionn "), who 
has followed every word of the work with almost as much 
care and anxiety for correctness as myself. I am in- 
debted also to the Rev, J. G. Macneill, of Cawdor, the 
Rev. D. J. Macdonald, of Killean (Kintyre), Mr. Angus 
Sutherland, of the Scottish Fishery Board, and Dr. 
W. A. Macnaughton, Stonehaven, for their willing and 
very considerable help. 

I offer the work to His Grace the Duke of Argyll, our 
Chief, who gave me every help that he could ; to Mr. 
Samuel Greenlees, our good, kind President ; and to the 
members of the London Argyllshire Association, as my 
contribution to the patriotic purposes of the Association, 
with only one regret — that it is not better done than it 
is. If I can, I may make it better some day. 

I have put the groups of smaller islands, Canna, 
Rum, Eigg, and Muck, under the Ardnamurchan head- 
ing ; and Coll, Tiree, lona, &c., under Mull — simply 
for convenience. Working from the Ordnance Survey 
Map, I strangely enough took in the first group, which 
since 1891 have belonged to Inverness-shire. I should 
have been glad not to commit the mistake, for they 
are not at all easy — but " it is no loss what a friend 
gets." 

My many cross references, although they do not 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

improve the look or the readableness of the book, are 
all for the saving of space. If I did not use them, much 
explanation would be necessary vv'here they are used. 

A few reference marks are wanting in the Gaelic Voc. 
It would entail a big labour to find them. I shall be 
thankful to any one who may locate them. I shall also 
be glad to have my attention directed to omissions or 
clear errors. 



THE COUNTY NAME 

ARGYLL, ARGYLE— EARAGHAIDHEAL 

This is a very old name. It is much older than 
Scotia and Scotland, as these are now used. It was 
not till about the tenth century that the name Scotia 
got transferred from the north of Ireland to the present 
Scotland. It is well to keep this in mind ; it will be an 
interesting side-light upon the explanation to be here 
offered of the county name. No such name as Scot- 
land or Scotia is or was known to the Gaelic language 
or to the Gaelic people. The present Scotland was and 
is "Alba" always. Ilia regio quae nunc vacatur Scotia 
antiquitus appellabatur Albania (C. P. S.). Malcolm II. 
was the first of Scottish kings called " rex ScoticB " 
[circ. 1030). A writer of 1080 A.D. has " Hibernia 
Scottorum patria quae nunc Irland dicitur " — H.f the 
home of the Scots, which is now called Ireland. 

Even the leading and great names " Alba " and 
" Scotia " have not yet been satisfactorily explained, 
but it is hoped here to be able to explain " Argyll." 
The Latin form of 'the name in old documents was 
" Ergadia " most commonly, but "Argathelia" some- 
times. Upon the first form a most distinguished scholar 
has based an outrageous interpretation, that the name 
means nothing more nor less than " cattle-stealers." 
Whatever of reason, much or little, may have been 
in the dictum of a Glasgow Judge, not so very long 



2 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

ago, that " a man must be a fool to let a cow out of 
his sight beyond Dumbarton," it must be said that this 
derivation of the name is weak philologically, and cannot 
be accepted — even when it comes from Oxford. 

The native pronunciation of the name is Eara- 
ghaidheal, as given, or Araghaidheal in the northern 
part, which prefers the open voice ; but the name is the 
same always. It is shown in (D. L., 104) a erle orreir 
zeil (the vocative, O thou, Earl of Argyll), where z=y, in 
its correct form ; so there can be no doubt that the 
true original form is Airir and Oirir-ghaidheal. Now, 
this first part is shortened from Airthir, or Oirthir, for 
the two forms are the same word and of the same 
meaning, and this again breaks up into two parts, air + 
thir. The last syllable is easy ; it is the word tir with 
which Gaelic people are very familiar. It means the 
land, or the earth, and is akin to the Latin word terra, of 
the same meaning. 

The first part, air, or oir, remains in our language 
to this day in various usages, but all pointing in one 
certain direction. We speak of oir na sgine, the edge of 
the knife ; of oir na mara, the border or coast of the sea ; 
of oir na h-aibhne, the bank of the river — or the edge, 
border, forepart, always — and when we say an aird an- 
ear, the east, or eastern " airt," it is the same word that 
we use. It is the place of the rising sun, the Or-ient, as 
English people say — using a kindred Latin word. In 
the very beautiful old Gaelic " Lay of Deirdre," which 
is at least a thousand years old, the first lines are 

Inmain tir an tir ut th-oir 
Alba cona h-iongantaib. 

— a lovely land that land east-ward, Alba with its wonders. 



THE COUNTY NAME 3 

The forefathers of our Gaelic people were sun-wor- 
shippers, and in their worship they turned the face, the 
edge, the front, towards the sun rising from the east. 
The back was iar, or west-ward, the right hand was deas, 
or south-ward, and the left hand tuath, or north-ward. 
Our preposition air, which till lately used to be written 
iar, means after, or behind, just as it means west. We 
say air sin, after that, and iarthir, the West-land. To go 
deiseil, or to the right hand, was a right and luckful 
action, but to go tuathal, or to the left-hand way, was 
esteemed a wrong and unfortunate course always. All 
this is very simple and quite familiar to the Gaelic 
people, even if they may not all or always know what it 
signifies. 

The oir-thir, therefore, was the " East-land," and 
oirthir-Ghaidheal was the " East-land of the Gael." 

If there may be any doubt still remaining as to the 
origin and meaning of the name, reference to old Gaelic 
books and records will make it clear. A few examples 
will suffice. 

Adamnan, or little Adam, who was ninth Abbot of 
lona after Colum-Cille, the founder, and died in 703 A.D., 
has left us two notable works : his Vision, called Fis 
Adhamhnain, and a Life of Colum-Cille. In a GaeHc 
version of the Life (L. B., p. 31) occurs is amlaid bias 
ferand inmeic seo .i. aleth fria muir anair (.i. inalbain) 
7 aleth fria muir aniar .i. aneirinn — it is thus (or so) is 
the land (or province) of this son, a half against the sea in 
the east — in A Iba ; and a half against the sea in the west 
— in Eirin. This shows also how very close the contact 
was in this early time between the people of the north 
of Ireland and the west of Scotland. In a most 
valuable glossary, written by Cormac MapCullinan, King 



4 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

of Munster, about 875 A.D., he says (under word airber), 
air then is everything eastern, but ir is everything that 
is western, i.e. Irmuma, West Munster; et ut dicitur 
Ara airthir, Eastern Arran. Again (under word Mug- 
eime, " the name of the first lapdog that was in Ireland ") 
he says, " Cairbre Muse, son of Conaire, brought it from 
the East, from Britain ; for, when great was the power 
of the Gael on Britain, they divided Alba between them 
into two districts, and each knew the residence of his 
friend, and not less did the Gael dwell on the east side 
of the sea quam in Scotica. . . . Cairbre Muse was visit- 
ing his friends and his family in the east, in Alba " — 
when he procured the dog. The word airther means 
a dweller in the east; nom. pi., airthir, " anterioruni qui 
Scotice indairthir nuncupatur" (Kal. Gloss.). Nairn 
airthir in domain, the saints of the East (land) of the 
world (F. A. 4) ; and 

Sanct martain sser samail 
Sliab oir iarthair domain, 

St. Martin — noble simile 

The mount of gold of the West of the world. 

— Kal. Nov. II. 

It is not necessary to follow the matter any further, 
however interesting it might be ; there can be no doubt 
as to the meaning of the name. Argyll is " the East-land 
of the Gael." Let us take it now that this is clear ; we 
have still to ask, Who gave this name ? It is a Gaelic 
name in every part. It was given by a Gaelic people. A 
people, or rather say the dwellers in any country, are 
always named by those outside themselves. No people 
can rightly speak of an eastern land but a people living 
to west of that land ; and if a western people name an 



THE COUNTY NAME 5 

eastern land as the East-land of the Gael, it is an ac- 
knowledgment by them, and a proof to us, that even so 
early as the time in which the name was not even a 
name, but a description and a statement of simple fact, 
the people of the north and east of Ireland knew and 
recognised that the people of the west of Scotland were 
of themselves and one in race with them. The name 
Argyll was given by the Gaels of the north of Ireland 
for these very good reasons, and for a further and even 
better reason, if that is possible, namely, that there was 
no other people or person who could rightly give it. 

Argyll was much larger in the old time than it is now. 
It covered the whole area from the Mull of Kintyre to 
the Clyde, west of Drum-Alban, as far north as the lower 
borders of the present Sutherland. The Book of Clan- 
Ranald speaks of the Isles and all the Oirir from Dun 
Breatan to Cata — -from Dumbarton to Caithness ; and the 
northern and the southern oirir is constantly referred to. 

The eastern limit was Druim-Albain. The Tractus 
de situ AlbanicB (which, it must be said, seems to be not 
genuine) refers to Druim-Albain as " Montes qui divi- 
dunt Scotiam ab Arregaithel," the mountains which 
divide Scotland from Argyll. This name was in fact a 
general term covering the whole west of Scotland, 
which was, or was supposed to be, inhabited by 
Gaels — much the same as the word " Highlands " is 
used, and " the Highlanders " — a general term for all 
the people inhabiting the //z^//-lands — are spoken of in 
the present day. There is no " Highlander " in Gaelic ; 
it is a southern and English name. 

In an Act of the Scottish Parliament in the time of 
William the Lion, Argyll was referred to as consisting of 
two parts, " Ergadia quae pertinet ad Moravian! " — the 



6 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

northern part which pertained to the province of Moray, 
as against " Ergadia que pertinet ad Scotiam " — the 
southern part ; and in a statute of Robert the Bruce 
the same expression, " Ergadia que pertinet ad Scotiam," 
occurs, and it further refers to " terra comitis de Ros in 
Nort Argyl," showing that the west at least of Ross 
came under the name. 

By process of a poHtical Hmitation which belongs to 
general history, Argyll got smaller and smaller until 
ultimately the present county is of very nearly the same 
extent as the old kingdom of Dalriada, which never at 
any time was co-extensive with Argyll in its full mean- 
ing. Not only this, but the name has come to be 
now actually limited to that district of the county which 
lies between Loch Fyne and Loch Awe — north of Crinan. 
This part is the Argyll, as spoken of by natives of the 
other districts north and south of it ; they always say 
"the County of Argyll" when they mean the whole 
administrative Argyll of the present time. 

It may be said that there is nothing in the philological 
history of the name, either for or against either of the 
English forms. Argyle is the older form by far; it goes 
back with slight variations for hundreds of years. The 
form Argyll has no history, and is very modern. 

By Edward H. (1310) : " Potestas datur Johanni de 
Ergayl recipiendi Galvidienses ad pacem regis Angliae " ; 
and in the same year : " Donatio terrae de Knapdale 
facta Johanni de Ergadia et fratribus suis si poterint 
eam eripere e manibus Scottorum " ; and what is very 
interesting, this John is " filius Sweinei de Argadia," 
showing a Norse strain. In a.d. 1255 Henry III. took 
" Eugenius (Eoghan) de Argoythel " under his protection, 
and " Duncan de Argatile " signs a document in 1244. 



GENERAL TERMS 

The words treated in this chapter are old forms which 
in their first use and application were simply descriptive 
terms, but which, in later days, have hardened into 
proper names almost always. It will be easily seen 
that they could not be adequately explained by the 
naked translation of the vocabularies, in which, how- 
ever, they all appear for convenience of reference. 

The way in which the names of the different parts 
of the body come into place-names is very interesting 
and very instructive. A wise man, Heine I think, said 
that "the ego equals the non-ego," which means that 
man in his consciousness is equal to the whole world 
outside of himself — one of the most completely perfect 
statements ever put into words ; meaning that man, in 
fact, takes and makes the outside world to be like him- 
self, a sort of second self. This is, perhaps, the explana- 
tion for that the Gael gave the same names to the 
prominent features of nature as he gave to those of 
his own body — according as he saw resemblance. He 
calls one part or place Ceann, a head (which meets us in 
English forms as Ken-more, Kin-loch, &c.) ; another 
he calls Claigionn, a skull; Aodann, a face ; Suil, an eye ; 
Beul, a mouth ; Teanga, a tongtie ; Cluas, aji ear ; Sron, 
a nose, " knowe " ; Mala, a brow; Amhach, the neck ; Guala, 
the shoulder ; Achlas, the arm-pit ; Slinnein, the shoulder- 
blade ; Uileann, the elbow ; Ruighe, the forearm ; Glac, 



8 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

the hollow of the hand ; so also Druim, the back, back-bone ; 
Cliabh, the thorax ; Uchd, the breast; Mam, Brii, Ton, 
Cruachan, Sliasaid, Gliin, Calpa, Cas, and others— all 
which are to be found in the vocabulary. 

There is an important class of names ending in 
-ach, all of which are grammatically feminine nouns, 
and may be closely translated as the place ^-}-the stem. 
Thus giiibhsach is giubhas, yf r, + ach, the fir-wood, or the 
place where the fir grows. Fearnach is fearna + ach, 
the alder-wood ; so Beitheach, the birch-wood ; Droigh- 
neach, the thorn-wood, and others, named on trees and 
plants. Animals show in Gamhnach, the place of stirks ; 
Caipleach, the place of horses ; Mucrach, the place of pigs 
— from gamhainn, capuU, muc. Carnach, Cluanach, 
Criadhach, Easach, Lianach, Pollanach, Sgornach, Soc- 
ach, express the nature of the land or soil. Carnach 
is the place of the cairns or stone-heaps ; Cluanach, the 
place of meadows; Criadhach, the place of clay, and 
so on. 

Akin to these, and following the same lines, are 
forms in -achan — the diminutives of names in -ach. 
We find Beitheachan G., Giubhsachan, Raineachan S., 
Luachrachan G.P., Caorachan, Narachan K. All these 
are grammatically masculine nouns because of the ter- 
mination — an. 

Of the same nature are many names in -aig, -eig, 
which are diminutive feminine nouns. Clachaig, 
Creagaig, Driseig, are from clach, creag, dris ; Eachaig, 
lolaireig, are from each, iolair ; Grianaig, Claonaig, 
Crossaig, are from grian, claon, cross. Names of this 
termination are not always easy to distinguish from 



GENERAL TERMS 9 

names of similar form that come by quite another way. 
The Norse v/k, a creek or small bay^ appears in Argyll 
as terminal -aig; for instance, Ormaig, Alsaig, Askaig, 
are clearly Norse, meaning serpent-bay, eel-bay, ash-bay. 
Plocaig and Driseig and Dubhaig, on the other hand, 
are simple Gaelic — from ploc, dris, and dubh. Carsaig, 
Diseig, and Innseig, are not so definite, but any diffi- 
culty that may arise in this way can be easily settled by 
local knowledge. If the place is on an inlet of the sea it 
is almost certain to be Norse — at least in the terminal 
part. It is found that as a rule, if one part of a name 
is Norse, the other part is ; and it is so with Gaelic 
names also. There are exceptions, however, like Coire- 
dail, Uamh-dail, Acha-fors, which are distinctly Gaelic 
in the first part and Norse in the last. There is another 
very interesting check — a grammatical one. The 
Gaelic names of this termination are always feminine, 
but the Norse v/Ar-names are grammatically masculine, 
even though vik itself is originally feminine. It seems 
that the grammatical agreement in such cases is with 
the first element rather than with the second, and that 
the name should be looked upon as a compound noun. 
We have Ormsaig mdr and beag A., a form which would 
be impossible if the terminal was Gaelic. We meet 
with instances of the same agreement in purely Gaelic 
names, Cnoc-a'-stapuill m6r and beag K., and Creag- 
an-tairbh mdr and beag I. show it well. The former 
is simple — the adjective rightly agrees with Cnoc, or 
rather with Cnoc-a'-stapuill; the latter is very peculiar. 
The whole name is masculine, though the first element 
is feminine, and this for the very good reason that if 
the agreement of the adjective was with Creag, the 
right meaning of the name would be altogether changed. 



10 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

The grammar of place-names is very instructive, but 
sometimes very troublesome. For full lists of these 
names, see p. i86. 

Aber, which is so common in Pict-land, on the other 
side of Druim-Albain, is not met with in Argyll, unless 
we claim Lochaber. There is an Apper in Mull, but it 
stands for Eabar, mud. The word is, however, so 
interesting in itself and in its kinship that I have thought 
it well to include it. It is taken to mean a confluence^ 
formed from the old preposition ad with ber, to bring, 
like Latin af-fer-re = ad-ferre, to bring to or towards. It 
is important, however, to observe that the Argyll pro- 
nunciation is obair, not aber, if the word is initial in 
a name ; for instance, obair-thairbh, Abertarff. This 
would seem to offer a suggestion that the word may 
really be made up of od-f-ber, meaning outflow, and 
good confirmation comes from Comar = com -h ber, which 
is without doubt the true confluence. It is not likely 
that two words of different forms would start out from 
the same origin at the same time to express or describe 
the same thing. The correct explanation would, there- 
fore, seem to be that this aber, or preferably obair, is 
really the out-bear and the opposite of inbher, the in-bear, 
and that Comar from the same source was and is the 
com -|- ber, the bringing-together of rivers or streams — that 
is, the point or place at which the waters meet. It 
will be found that this explanation always fits the actual 
natural conditions. The word amar, the channel of a 
river, does not seem to belong to this family of names. 

The adjective Ard, high, which occurs very often, 
may come at the beginning or at the end of names. 
Modern usage puts it at the end, the older language had 
it at the beginning, e.g. Dun-^rd, Ard-airidh. 



GENERAL TERMS ii 

The noun, Ard, Aird, which also is very common, 
usually comes first in a name — Ard-namuruchan, Aird- 
ghobhar, Ard-nahua, Ardincaple, Ardmaddy. It is 
almost certain that in all these and in all such, it would 
be more correct to write and to say ^ird always. There 
are, of course, reasons for the difference in form, but 
more is lost than is gained by the deference to physio- 
logical convenience which entails the change. 

There is an -art, -airt, coming at the end of names 
which some have thought to be the same word as Mrd 
always, but this is open to doubt. There is nothing in 
Gaelic or in the Gaelic method that can explain the 
name Call-art, for example, but it can be readily and 
consistently explained from the Norse kaldr-jart, cold 
land, the -/art being of the same origin as the English 
word earth. Some others have thought that all these 
-arts or -iorts stand for the Norse word fjordr, a frith — 
the f being aspirated out by the Gaelic influence. There 
can be no doubt that this is true to a good extent, but 
that it is true all the way is by no means certain. 
Suain-eart, as Sweyris fiord, seems to be quite clearly 
Norse, but Du(bh)-airt, for instance, is as clearly 
Gaelic. 

There are, then, four words which should be kept in 
mind, namely, Ard, the adjective; Ard and Aird, the 
noun ; fjordr, the Norse fiord ; and -/ort, -jart, lattd, or 
a district. There is, too, the word aird, point of the com- 
pass, as in aird-an-iar, the West, to which the Scots word 
"airt" is so closely related in form and usage as to 
prove it almost certainly to be one and the same word. 
The kinship of these again is with the Teutonic 
forms {^ov.jord, Ger. erde), rather than with the Gaelic 
forms starting from ard. 



12 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Aoineadh. — This is one of the many words in Gaehc 
names which the English language cannot convey. The 
only right and sufficient explanation of the name is to 
see the place. It is, as nearly as it can be put, a rocky 
front rising sheer from the sea ; but every such front 
is not always named Aoineadh. The name usually takes 
the form Innie in English, and it seems to be akin to the 
Norse Enni, the forehead. 

Aonach, a moor, heath, or high-ground^ is also a very 
difficult word to translate. The main idea is that of a 
good stretch of high, or rather say hill-ground ; and 
whether it is level or a slope does not seem to make a 
difference. It must, however, be a good stretch of such 
ground, and not cultivated, to be an Aonach. 

B^rr is met with often standing alone, as well as in 
combinations. The word has a wide range of meaning, 
from ihQ point of a needle, the tip of the finger, staff, &c., 
to the top of the head or of trees, and of the head of 
growing crops. It was used of the " head of hair " in 
old personal names, e.g. St. Findbarr= White-head. The 
idea is the same always, and it is not difficult to follow 
it into the uplands, to which it is now most commonly 
applied as a place-name. It seems to convey the sense 
of an arable upland nearly always. 

Caigean means a couple (of animals) — a pair of animals 
coupled by means of a wooden instrument which fixed 
their heads together. It was specially used for the 
taming of wild goats. Dr. Macbain's derivation is con 
+ ceann, heads-together. The use of the word as a place- 
name must be from the resemblance of some natural 
features to such coupling. The name occurs in Morven, 
and Caichean occurs in Mull. It is difficult to say 
whether or not they are one and the same word. 



GENERAL TERMS 13 

Caipleach (see names in -ach, p. 8) means the place 
of the capuill, or horses. Capull was a masculine noun 
in its beginning like the Latin Caballus, but in later days 
it has come to mean a mare always, although strangely 
enough even now the grammar of the word is masculine 
and not feminine. We say Capull m6r, a big mare^ 
as we say Each m6r, a big horse, the adjective being 
masculine in both. This is a very interesting survival. 
Long after the word became, and has remained feminine, 
its masculine origin is asserted by its grammatical bonds. 

Caiseal has more than one possible meaning in 
names : [i) a bulwark or castle (from Lat. castellum) ; 

(2) a hurdle-wall, or a mound in a river for fishing ; and 

(3) as Caisleach or Caslach (Cassley), a ford. We have 
in Islay a double form Atha-caisil. 

Camus, a small round bay, from cam, bent or roundly 
crooked. This is one of the few Gaelic sea-names ; such 
names are largely Norse — 6b, geodha, bodha, sgeir, &c. 

Carnach, a frequent name, is from earn, a heap of stones, 
a cairn. (See names in -ach, p, 8). 

Ceapach, frequent in the English form Keppoch, has 
been said to refer back to an old Keltic keppo, a garden, 
akin to the Greek /c^tto? of similar meaning, but this is 
doubtful. It is clearly a Gaelic name in -ach, with ceap 
as the stem. Ceap has various meanings, but always in 
one direction, such as a clod, block, stump ; or Ceapach, 
the adjective, is given as ^^ abounding in stumps or trunks 
of trees" (H. S. D.). I am inclined to refer the name 
to the cloddy character of such lands as are so named. 

Cleit, a rocky eminence^ usually by the sea, comes from 
Norse Jdettr, a cliff. 

Comarach, a sanctuary, or place of safety, looks as if 
it might be related to Comar, a confluence, and this is not 



14 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

impossible. The old "Sanctuaries" may have been 
situated at Comars by choice or accident ; but the old 
forms of the language do not encourage this origin of 
the name. Comairche is the old word for protection 
generally, but in later times it got specialised to the 
" Sanctuary " of a place of worship to which accused 
persons might flee for refuge, as to the old Hebrew 
city (Num. xxxv. 12). The root idea in the word is 
arc, defend^ which we have in adh-arc, a horn, and in 
treasairg = to + ess + arc, save. 

Corpach is from corp (Lat. corpus), a body. There is 
a Corpach in Lochaber and in Jura ; and I have it from 
intelligent natives of both places that the name came 
from the fact that corpses on the way to burial — in the one 
case to Eilean Fhianain in Loch Shiel, and in the other 
to Colonsay — were rested temporarily at these places, 
because of weather or of time and distance. There is 
a Corparsk (!) in C. which looks like the same name. 

Corran is a diminutive formed from cbrr, excess, out- 
growth. The name is applied to small, blunt promon- 
tories at which the tidal current runs swift. Some have 
thought that the name has had origin from Corran, a 
sickle, and the shape of the various Corrans helped to 
support this view ; so far as the word is, however, con- 
cerned, this must be given up, but as regards the fact, 
being descriptive, the error, if it is an error, is still a 
help. There is, indeed, no reason apparent why the two 
words may not have had a common origin. It is the 
same root we find in Corr-ag, the thumb. 

Doire, a grove. The old form was daire (Derry), 
coming by the same way as dar-ach, oak, which itself 
is the genitive of old dair. The tree-names of early 
language are very mixed. The Latin larix and the 



GENERAL TERMS 15 

English larch are, in fact, the same words as the Gaelic 
darach, and the word tree itself is perhaps from the 
same source. 

Doirlinn, an isthmus y or rather a neck of shore which 
the tide leaves dry at ebb. These are numerous. The 
elements in the word are do + air + ling, from an old 
verb lingim, I jumpy or spring, from which leum, a jump, 
perhaps because the tide came in so quickly as to juvip 
over the place. 

Druim (Lat. Dorsum), a back, ridge. The word 
has many meanings, or rather say values. Druim- 
Albain, Druim - uachdair, and such, are very large 
dorsums, but between them and the many and small 
Drum-begs there is a long gradation. There is a Tigh 
an droma in Islay ; but it is, in a sense, a small affair 
compared with the Tigh an droma which stands on 
the back-bone of Scotland — upon Druim Albain. The 
essential meaning is, however, always the same. 

Faodhail, a hollow in the sandy shore, retaining a 
considerable quantity of water after the tide has gone 
back. There are some good examples in North Ardna- 
murchan and in Islay. The word has taken a peculiar 
shape in the name Benbecula, which stands for Beinn 
na faodh'la. It seems to mean a ford also, and perhaps 
that is its value in this last name. This is a very good 
example of a word, the clear significance of which 
cannot be determined through philology, but only by 
the facts and circumstances of its position as a name. 

Gart, Gort, and the diminutive Goirtean are of the 
same origin as the English gard-en cindgarth, an enclosure. 
It has nearly the same meaning at the beginning of 
names as -garry has at the end. The Norse is gardr, 
an enclosure. The Gaelic order has it first in compound 



i6 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

names as Gart an doill, the blind man's enclosure, or patch 
of land ; Goirtean Mhuirrein S., Murrins enclosure ; the 
Norse has it second, as Olosary M., Kynagarry L, Olaf's 
farm and Queen's town. 

The nearest value of the present usage is a fallow 
upland field, or a field or once-enclosed ground now 
gone out of cultivation, even if there is no enclosure now. 
In the old language f^r-gort, a grass-garden, and luib- 
gort, herb-garden, are met with, which suggests that 
the two ideas of enclosure and cultivation are contained 
in the word. 

Leacann is applied to a hillside, from a portion of 
which the earth has been washed away, exposing a 
smooth surface of flat rock. The stem of the name 
is without doubt leac, a flag-stone, although it has been 
referred to leac, a cheek — a word with which I am not 
familiar. It seems to occur in the older language. The 
old form was lec. There was another word lecht, which 
meant a grave, according to Stokes, Windisch, and 
others — trusting, as would seem, to Cormac's Glos- 
sary. Leac is, however, the most common name for 
the headstone of a grave (usually a slab of slate or of 
freestone), and it is the name especially for the slab 
that covers a grave. So when Stokes translates relicc 
lechtaig, Mod. reilig leacaich, of a grave - abounding 
cemetery, one wonders whether he might not have 
come nearer the verbal meaning if he had put grave- 
slab instead of grave. It is, at any rate, quite certain 
that in the later language there is only one word, namely, 
leac, a slab of, or a flat stone, and that the other leac 
and lecht, if they ever had independent existence, are 
now lost, or merged in the remaining word. 

Learg, the slope of a hill-side, gives Leargach K., which 



GENERAL TERMS 17 

has been softened to Largie, in Kintyre especially. It 
occurs also as Largy and Larki ; and in the Isle of Man 
as Largee, Lhargee, Largy. A good deal of this seeming 
softening of the terminal is due to the Locative form of 
the names. 

There is another word Lairig", of closely the same 
meaning, the form in -ach of which would give these 
softened forms more readily, but I have not met with it. 

There is a Lorgie K., but I prefer to take this from 
the form in -ach of lorg", the footprint of an animal, or a 
fath. 

Machair, afield, carse, either by analogy with Largie, 
or from its own genitive in -ach, has also taken the 
softened form — Machri-hanish, Machri-m6r and-beag, K. 

Maol is primarily the Gaelic adjective bald, though 
it is almost always used as a noun in place-names. The 
Norse tnul-r, ajtitting crag, takes the same form maol in 
Gaelic, and is frequent on the sea-coast. It may not 
always be easy to distinguish the one from the other, 
but local knowledge will give the necessary light. The 
Gaelic word carries the idea of bluntness and roundness 
of shape, especially in the names of inland mountains. 
The two words have merged in their grammar, both 
being feminine nouns in the later Gaelic, although the 
Norse word was originally masculine. 

Morbhach, land over which the high tide comes ; literally 
muir + magh, or sea-field — a level stretch of land from 
which the sea has receded, but over which exceptionally 
high tides may come. Such land is covered with the 
short green grass and herbage characteristic of sea- 
land. Another sea-word, Muireach, has been confused 
with morbhach; but they are certainly different words. 
Mr. Moore, in his " Manx Names," says that for the 

B 



i8 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Mooragh at Ramsey the best rendering is the shingle 
bank, and with this I am disposed to agree, from what 
I know of places so named myself. 

Peighinn, literally a penny, in names always means a 
penny-land, and Lephin (leth-pheighinn), a half-penny-land, 
as in Pennygown (Peighinn a' ghobhainn), the smith's 
penny-land ; and Lephincorrach, the steep, rugged, half- 
pen7iy-land. The old land-names are very interesting. 
The names in the West of Scotland were the Davoch, 
which contained twenty penny-lands, and the Tirung, 
the Ounce-land, which came by the Norseman, whose stan- 
dard measure of land value was an ounce of silver [eyrir). 
We meet with terra unciata constantly in old charters. 
The Tirung was nearly of the same size as the Davoch, 
for it contained eighteen or twenty penny-lands, which 
were so called because under the Norwegian rule each 
homestead paid a penny as scat or tax. 

Ceathranih and ochdamh are also land - measures 
which come frequently into names, the one meaning a 
quarter of a Davoch, the other an eighth, coming into 
English form as Kera, Kirrie, Oct, Ocht, &c. 

The whole subject of old land values and measures 
stands in need of correct investigation — and deserves it. 

Rath is an old Gaelic name for a stronghold, or for a 
" residence," which in these early times evidently had to 
be well protected. It is common in Gaelic place-names, 
but more so in Ireland than in Scotland. It is found 
far away in the Gaulish names, Argento-ra/wj, silver-town. 
Cormac says it was " a circular earthen fort." There 
is an extremely interesting note in " S. T." — quoted from 
Curry : " A Dun is an elevated circular enclosing wall 
or bank, within which a dwelling-house was erected. 
A Dun required to be surrounded by a wet fosse or 



GENERAL TERMS 19 

trench to distinguish it from the Rath, which had no 
trench." 

Ruighe, a shelling (H. S. D.), the outstretched base of a 
mountain (Mb), is almost certainly from the same origin 
as ruighe, the fore-arm, and the infinitive ruighe-achd, 
to reach ; hence, a stretch of high or of low ground to 
which cattle were sent in the summer-time to graze. 
There is not much difference in meaning between this 
word and airidh, for we meet with Airidh-shamhraidh 
and Ruighe-samhraidh in almost equal numbers. The 
airidh points to a high ground always, the ruighe to the 
low ground. 

Ros, a promontory y " a point extending into the sea 
or into a lake" (C. 141). It means a wood also. In one 
place it means the one, in other places the other, and it 
has been suggested that the word may have originally 
and essentially meant a zuood-covered promontory. There 
is many a Ros that is not wooded, but most of them are. 
There is a Coille-ros, in Kilmaillie, which must mean 
the wooded Ros — a very correct description, although the 
form of the name is not familiar Gaelic ; so there is a 
possibility that the modern Coille, a wood, has been pre- 
fixed to an old ros, meaning the same thing — a process 
that is very common in the names of England, and 
which is not unknown in Gaelic ; for instance, Atha-Caisil 
(Islay). The Ross of Mull is a woodless promontory ; 
Coille-ros, in Kilmaillie, is a wood without much promon- 
tory — but "promontorium nemorosum " remains the 
nearest meaning of the true Ros. The two ideas are 
contained in the word — to the native understanding. 

S^ilean is sail-linne, according to H. S. D., but this 
is not tenable. The grammar is against it. Linne being 
feminine would with the article be an t-sail-linne, which 



20 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

is never heard. It is an s^ilean always — in masculine 
form. The stem is of course saile, tlie sea or sea-water^ 
and the name comes on exactly the same lines as 
clach-an, s6ileach-an, &c. Strangely enough, there is a 
Sailean on Loch Shiel where there is no saile. I must 
not risk any speculation upon the name, but it is 
extremely interesting. 

Stalla, ^^ an overhanging^ shelfing, beetling precipice" — 
another of the words which cannot be fittingly trans- 
lated. It seems to be the Norse word stall-r, a block, or 
shelf, upon which another thing rests, and this idea 
closely accords with the nature of the places so named, 
In Ardnamurchan we meet with a very interesting old 
plural form, na Stallacha dubha, the black stallas, one 
sight of which would explain the word far better than 
any statement in words that can possibly be given. 
Tier upon tier of shelving rocks is the picture and the 
fact in the name. 

Tairbeart, usually translated an isthmus, means more 
than that. The word is made up of tar+bert, the 
preposition tar, across, and ber, to carry, bear — quite 
close to the meaning of the Latin trans-fer. It is the 
isthmus over which, in early times, the people used to 
drag their boats from sea to sea. An isthmus need not 
be a Tarbert, but it is not likely that it would become a 
Tarbert were it not an isthmus. A look of the various 
Tarberts even on the map will explain them all at once. 
Although the name is Gaelic — old Gaelic — there may be 
a suspicion that it had origin in fact, though not in 
language, from the Norseman. When the " Western 
Isles" were conceded to Magnus of Norway in the end of 
the eleventh century, Kintyre was included in the " Isles " 
because he sailed round it by carrying his boats across 



GENERAL TERMS 21 

the Tarbert. I have not been able to make sure if 
Tarbert was so named before this event, but it certainly 
was afterwards. It may be so with other Tarberts also. 
As to the meaning and signification there can be no 
doubt. 

Leth, a half, comes into place-names in interesting 
ways. Leith-ead is a brae, usually not facing another 
brae, and leideag is the diminutive of this = leathad-ag. 
Then Leitir, a very common name (Eng. Letter), is for 
leth-tir, half-land — always perfectly descriptive, meaning 
a hill-side without another opposite. Leth-allt is a single 
Burn, where, for natural reasons, two might be looked 
for ; so also Leth-bheinn, half -mountain, where there is a 
felt want of another. There are many other such words 
and names. In body-part names, which are also extended 
to the land, the word comes in very interestingly, and 
as a very good side-light upon the general names just 
mentioned. Leth-cheann is half-head, or a cheek ; Leth- 
shuil is one-eye (lit. half-eye) ; Leth-lamh (ach) is a man 
with only one arm ; Leth-chas is (having only) one foot. 
It is the same idea throughout. 



THE DISTRICT NAMES 

In this chapter I examine the several districts of the 
county from Kintyre northwards, and I shall keep as 
closely as I can to the following order : — 

I. An examination of the meaning of the district 
name. 

II. A reference to the English names in the district. 
III. Observations upon peculiarities of the grammar 
of Gaelic names, and upon difficult names. 
IV. Norse Names. 
V. Church-Names. 
VI. Personal Names. 
The names which I have classed as "difficult" are 
not all of them difficult ; but even the easier of them are 
such as I have thought to be worthy of a special note. 
Some are, of course, difficult in the fullest sense, and 
a few, I fear, are quite hopeless — at any rate, they are 
beyond me, for the present. 

The simple Gaelic names, and those plainly Norse, 
can be easily determined from the vocabularies. 

KINTYRE— CINN-TIRE 

I. This is a purely Gaelic name. It means Land's- 
end, like French Finisterre = Lat. Finis-terrcs. The Cinn 
is a case form of ceann, a head, Point, or end, and -tire 
is the genitive of tir, land. The form Cinn has been 
called the locative case, because it is only met with in 



KINTYRE 23 

place - names, such as Kintra = Cinn-tr^gha A., Kin- 
gairloch = Cinn a' ghearr loch V., Kingussie = Cinn a' 
ghiubhsaich, Kintail = Cinn t-saile. 

The treatment given by the Survey to the names 
of Kintyre is as bad as it is conceivably possible for 
bad work to be. It is altogether most contorted and 
ignorant and careless. There is hardly a name right. 
The Gaelic names are hopelessly bad in spelling and 
in grammar. Cockalane and Pollywillin are comically 
stupid renderings of Cnoc-alainn and Poll a' mhuilinn. 
Rhu-point and Pluck-point and Eden = aodan show 
pure ignorance ; Achabrad and Achavraid, Gartavaich 
and Achavae, Achaluskin and Gartloskin, for Achadh- 
braghad and Achadh-bhraghaid, Gart a' bhathaich and 
Achadh a' bhathaich, Achadh - losgainn and Gart-los- 
gainn, within short distances of each other, show extreme 
carelessness. 

II. English Names come in two ways — as original 
names like Campbeltown, Carolina, &c., or as transla- 
tions, like Pointhouse, Oatfield, Whinhill, Todhill, and the 
like. This class of names will not have much attention. 
It is to be distinctly regretted that translations have 
ever been attempted or permitted. The old Gaelic 
names were poetical ; the translations are not. It is, 
however, fortunate that the Survey could only translate 
the very simplest names, which might even now, and 
with advantage, be restored. The old names they 
could not understand nor translate, and these therefore 
remain. 

Difficult Names 

III. For purposes of reference and of local interest 
and because the local circumstances are more clearly in 



24 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

my own view, I have thought well to deal with " difficult " 
names in smaller areas than full districts, when I have 
thought it necessar)', and I put the names in alphabetical 
order. I mention the Norse and Church-names. 

Crossie, Hervie, Largie, Lorgie, Machrie, and such, 
are forms that are almost peculiar to Kintyre. They all 
look like diminutives, but they really are not, at any rate 
not always, as may be seen under Learg (p. 1.6). 

Norse Names are also numerous. All the -t/a/, or 
-dale names, are clearly Norse : Borgadale = Fort-dale, 
Cattadale = Cat-dale, Saddell = Sand-dale, Torris dale 
= Thor s-dale. These, with such as Ormsaryy Skipness, 
Cleit, &c., are all plain ; but still, Norse names present 
many difficulties. 

Church-Names are very frequent, more so indeed 
than in any other district, and more so than in any other 
part of Scotland. The reason for this will be apparent 
from the special chapter on these names. 

The Land-Names, especially in South Kintyre, are 
very interesting. There is the Pennyland and Penny- 
gown and Pennysearach, and Peninver, with Lephin- 
corrach, Lephingaver, and Lephinstrath. There is also 
Kerran, Kerafuar, Keramenach, and Deucheran, all 
which are explained in their place. 

(i) From the South to Campbeltown 

Amod is not a common name, but it occurs twice 
in K. It is applied to a green plain almost encircled by 
the bend of a river, or perhaps better to the meeting of 
two waters = N. d-mot, river meet-ing. 

Achincorvey = achadh na-cairbhe (note). 

Achinhoan = achadh nan uan, lamd-Jield. 



KINTYRE 25 

Arinarach = airidh nathrach (nathair). 
Arinascavach = airidh na sgabhach = Mridh+sgabh, 

sawdust. 

Ballygreggan and Ballygroggan are Survey render- 
ings of Bail' a' chreagain and Bail' a' chrogain (creag 
and crog). 

Breackerie is for breac + Mridh and Breacklate for 
breac + leathad (pp. 19, 21). 

Brunerican is part Norse part Gaelic — Brun (N), the 
brow^ or brae, of Brie, with the Gaelic dim. -an added. 

Carrine, with caibeal Carrine, seems to refer to 
St. Ciaran. 

Carskie = craskie (crasg), with the loc. ending (see 
Crasg and Learg). 

Chiscan = sescenn, boggy land. 

Christlach, Cristalloch (1695). Eng. crystal + ach. 

Coiydrain seems to be coille-droighinn, thornwood ; 
but in Manx names a similar form is derived from 
Kuldi-rani, Cold-hill, where rani means a hog-backed hill. 

Corylach is coire-chlach, stoney-corrie, or, even better, 
coire + lach. See p. 27. 

Culanlongairt is clearly all of it Gaelic ; still it is 
difficult. Ciil is certainly the back, an is of, the gen, sing. 
masc. of the article, and long would seem to be a ship 
+ art, one of the "arts" (p. 11). But, strangely enough, 
in old Gaelic, there is a word longphort, that through 
*' attrition " might come to this form of Longairt, which 
has been explained (glossed) as " castrum," a camp, ov fort, 
and there is, in fact, a *' fort " in close proximity to the 
name in K. The supreme scholar in our time, not only 
of Gaelic but of all languages, has failed with the word, 
and I do not venture to be conclusive. It may be 
mentioned, however, m this connection, that there are 



26 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

several inland names in K. which look like Norse 
sea-words — for instance, lang-a, sker-oblln^ skernishy 

and most likely this was a coast name in its beginning. 

Ourrach is a level plain, a marsh, bog, or fen. It 
has come latterly to be applied to a race-course, but this 
is because it is a level plain, and not for any connec- 
tion with racing. 

Davaar (island), which has been thought difficult to 
explain, is in my opinion certainly Gaelic = da bharr = 
da, two, and barr, which is explained at p. 12. The real 
difficulty is in finding the reason for the name. I suggest 
one of the following two reasons as probable : (i) that 
the island shows, as I am told, two points, or rather 
say prominences, on its summit, especially as viewed 
from the sea side ; and (2) that the island may have been 
named with reference to two Barrs, features or names, 
on the mainland opposite to it. This is a very common 
way of naming islands — compare Eilean Ghrianain, 
named on Grianan on land opposite — and if I could find 
two such Barrs I would favour this explanation ; but, 
though Barr-askomill is there quite fittingly, I cannot 
find the other ; whether it is there, or was there in the 
past but is not now, I am not able to say. 

Feorlan is one of the land-names (p. 18). Feoirling 
is a farthing, therefore a farthing-land. The H. S. D. 
has feorlinn, the fourth part of a farm, but this rendering 
is doubtful. 

Feochaig is based upon the stem of feoch-adan, the 
corn-thistle (see names in -aig", p. 8). 

Gartnagerach (see gart and gearr). 

Beinn Ghiiilean is most likely from gualann, shoulders. 

Glecknahavil = glac na sabhal, or perhaps better glac 
an t-sabhail, with irregular Agreement. 



KINTYRE 27 

Glemanuil is not easy. Glem is not Gaelic, although 
the other parts seem to be. It may be a metathesis of 
Gleann-amail {note). 

Glenhervie = gleann + thairbhidh (tarbh). 

Glenahanty = gleann + shean-tighe, the glen (of) the 
Old-house. 

Gleann na muclach is the Glen of the pig-kind. Muc 
\s a pig {ox 2^ boar), and -lach is a termination, meaning 
an aggregate or collection of the entities represented 
in the stem, for example, teaghlach, a family = teg, a 
house + lach, therefore a household, so with oglach = q%, 
young (men) + lach, &c. It is interesting to observe 
the frequency of the muc-names in Argyll — possibly 
suggesting the time when the " wild boar " was there, 

Keprigan has same stem as in Keppoch (p. 13) + 
air-ag-an. Ceapair is "a piece" of oatcake on which 
the butter is spread thick and generous, in fact the best 
of the kind was spread with the thumb, " in heaps ; " and 
with an equally generous super-stratification of brown 
sugar, it has been known not to hurt the feelings o^^ 
hungry boys. 

Remuil = ruighe + maol. 

Sanish, in Loch Sanish, Machrihanish, is from sean- 
innse, Old-inch or haugh. Sanas, a whisper, or warning, 
is possible, but the former is correct. 

Rudha-stathish contains the same Norse stem as in 
Staffa and Dunstaffnish. The -ish is for nes, with a 
Gaelic inflection of the genitive, 

Trodigal is difficult. It is not Gaelic. It was Tradi- 
gill in 1695, and may therefore mean trddi + giil, the 
pen (fold) ravine. 

IV. The Norse Names in this part are somewhat 
mixed. Borgadale (the "Fort" is there) is pure Norse = 



28 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Fort-dale. So is Cattadale, Carradale, Ormsary; but Gleil' 
A'dale, Loch- oro- dale, Skerry Fell fada, Drum." lemble, 
Glen- ramskill, are mixtures. Glen-d-dale shows a very 
common form of hybrid word and name. The Glen 
may have been called gleann, long before the Norseman 
came. It may have been even called Gleann-abhann, 
Glenavon. When the Norseman came he called the 
glen d'dale, or Riverdale ; when he left, the native re- 
verted to his Glen, but kept the whole Norse form 
along with it, not understanding, nor perhaps at all 
thinking, of the meaning of these things. 

V. Church-Names are Keil (high and low), Kilblaan 
= Cill-Bhlathain (p. 175), Kilchrist = Cill-Chriosd, Kil- 
chattan = Cill-Chatain (p. 175), Kilkivan and St. Coivin's 
Chapel = Cill-Chaomhain (p. 183), Kildavie is the Kil 
of David, Kilellan is Cill-Ellain, Kileonain is Cill- 
Adhamhnain (p. 179), Kilkerran is Cill-Chiarain (p. 170) 
Kilmashanachan (p. 184), Kilwhipnach seems to be 
named upon one of the old "Flagellants," Killypole 
is not a cill but coille, a wood. 

VI. The only Personal Names are Johnstone's Point 
and Tir-Fergus = Fergus' land, and Rudha MacShannuich. 
I cannot, of course, give the origin of these, no more 
than I am likely to be able to give the origin of a good 
many such names that will meet us. Campbeltown was 
so named in 1680 as a compliment to the Argyll family. 

(2) Campbeltown to Carradale 

II. Translations are frequent : Hillside, Sealrock, 
Thornisle, Westport, Whitehill, Whitestone. Backs 
and Craigs are bac and creag, with the English plural 
form in s; Moy is quasi-English for magh, afield. 



KINTYRE 29 

III. The Gaelic Names are very badly done. I 
prefer to recast them than to explain them at length. 

Achalochy = achadh-locha, loch-field, not Lochy. 

Ardnacross = ard na croise, the aird of the Cross. 

Aross (see N.), likely an imported name. There is 
no river here ; but aros is Gaelic for a dwelling. 

Ballivain = bail' a' mheadhoin, middle-town. 

Bealochgair = bealach-gearr, the short pass. 

Breckachy = breac-achadh, the spotted field. 

Bunlarie = bun larach— in loc. form. 

Callyburn, or Killipole, clearly for coille, not for 
cill. Although both forms are corrupt, the one explains 
the other in a very interesting way. 

Carrick (Point) = carraig, a rock. 

Clackfin (Glen) = clach-fionn, white-stone. 

Clochkel = clach gheal, white-stone also. 

Crossiebeg = an crossadh beag, the small crossing, 

Darlochan seems to refer to Durry = doire, a grove 
which is close by, therefore doire-lochan. Of course 
d^ir is possible, and even eadar ; and if there were two 
lochans I should prefer this last. 

Drumgarve = druim garbh, the rough Druim. 

Easach (Hill) = eas, a waterfall ■\- ach (p. 8). 

Gartgunnal = gart + dhuineil {note). 

Gobagrenan = gob a' ghrianain (grian). 

Lagalgorve = N. lag-r- voll-r + garbh. 

Langa would do for Norse langa + 4, long river, or 
langa + ey, if an island. It is most likely a late and 
imported name, like say Carolina, and has no local 
significance ; but it may refer to Barr Water which cer- 
tainly is a long river. 

Leckyvroun = leac a' bhroin (fiat) stone of lamentation ! 

Maol a' chiiir (Hill-names). 



30 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Peninver = Peighinn an inbhir, the Inver penny-land. 

Puball {V>\\x\\)^te7it-biirn. 

Putachan, Putachantuy, Corr-putachan, are all from 
put, a young moor-fozul, akin to pullei, and Fr. poiilet 
+ achan (p. 8). The an in the first and third names is 
the diminutive, but an in the second name is the gen. 
article, with suidhe, a sitting, or sitting-place y so that -antuy 
= an t-suidhe. Cnoc-suidhe is quite near. 

Sgreadan (hill) = sgriodan = N. skriCta. 

Skeroblin, Skeroblingarry, Skeroblinraid — I am not 
able to explain satisfactorily {note). 

Strathdugh (Water), rightly srath dubh. 

Tangy = Norse tangi, a tongue of land, but the Gaelic 
teanga would do as well. 

IV. Bauvr-askomill, Carradale, Gleann-/ussa, Guesdale, 
Ifferdale, Rhonadale, Torrisdale, Smerby, Ugadale (High 
and Low) are, as indicated, Norse. 

V. Church-names are Killarrow (p. 174), Cill-Ch§,maig 
(p. 171), Kildonald, Kilkenzie = Cill Choinnich (p. 171), 
Kilmaho = Cill mo Choe (p. 181), Kilmaluag (p. 179), and 
Kilmichael. Killocraw and Killagruar are Coille Chno 
and Coiir a' ghriithair, the Nut-wood and the Brewer s- 
wood. 

VL Personal Names. — Port Corbet, Cnoc Eoghain 
(p. 32), and Mac-Cringan's Point. The last is Rudha 
Mhic Naomhain, MacNiven's Point. It is the sequence 
of c and n that brings out the r in the Survey form given. 
Cn6 is in Gaelic always /r. Cro. See Killocraw above. 

(3) Carradale to Tarbert 

In this part the names are distinctly clearer and less 
troublesome. 

II. Names like Queenhill, Rockfield, Scotmill, Stewart- 



KINTYRE 31 

field, are either English names or translations. Braids 
is Gaelic braghad with the English plural. 

III. Achinadrian = achadh nan droigheann. 

Achinafaud = achadh nam fod (see f^d). 

Achavae = achadh a' bhathaich, byre-field. 

Achnancarranan = achadh + nan, gen. pi. of Article 
+ carran, spurrey + an unnecessary plural ending -an. 

Achenrioch = achaidhean (pi.) riabhach. 

Altgalvalsh = allt gailbheach {p.), furious-stream. 

Ballachroy = Baile a' chruidh (see crodh), or, perhaps 
better Bealach ruadh (P.). 

Beachmore = Beitheach mhor (beithe). 

Cour (and Bay and Island), see Hill-names. 

Deucheran=diubh chea(th)r(amhn)an (ceathramh). 

Eascairt and Eascaird = eas -f ag + aird. 

Freasdal, compare Glen Risdell = gleann-fhreasdail. 

Garrachroit = garbh, rough + croit, a croft. 

Garveoline = garadh {garth) Bheblain itiote). 

Grogport is English. I do not know the history. 

Kirnashie — is this the beautiful Coire na sith of Gaelic 
tales ; it looks like it — the fairy corrie^ or the corrie of 
peace ! 

Laoghscan (Cnoc) = laoighcionn {note). 

Leamnamuic is for leum na muice, the pi^s jump. 

Leanagboyach = lianag bhoidheach. 

Refliuch = ruighe flinch, the wet ruighe (p. 19). 

Reileiridhe = ruighe -j- leiridh {note). 

Ronachan = ron, a seal + achan (p. 8). 

Skible (Glen) is N. Skip-bol, ship-town — in the 
vicinity of Skip-ness =N.sA:/pa-/ies. 

Taychromain = tigh a' chromain (crom). 

Taynchoisin = tigh an choisin, little cave. 

Taynloan = tigh an loin (16n). 



32 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Tayntruan = tigh an t-sruthain. 

Toitdubh = N. toft, a clearing -\- Gael., dubh, or per- 
haps better, doid, a croft, + dubh (F.). 

IV. The purely Norse names are Crubasdal, perhaps 
Crossaig, DIrigadalj Muasdale, Rhonadale, Skipness, 
Sunadale, Ulgadal; but a' Chlelt, Rhu-na-/iao/r-ine, Povit, 
and l-alla-toll are mixed with Gaelic. Rhunahaoirine 
Point, for instance = Gaelic rudha, a point -{-Jidi. + 'N. eyrr, 
a gravelly beach, with a double Gaelic genitive ending 
-in + e. This is a most instructive name. Its growth 
must have been somewhat as follows : — (i) Whatever 
the old name was, when the Norseman came he called 
the Point eyr-r, the gravelly or sandy beach. (2) When 
he left, the Gaelic inhabitants, recognising that the place 
was a Point, and being familiar with the Norse name, 
they prefixed their own Rudha, from which would come 
Rudha na h-eyrr + their own necessary genitive termina- 
tion -in, and later still they added the final e which the 
gen. fem. of the language seeks after, although in long 
names it is commonly dropped. As a matter of fact, 
the name is always spoken as Rudha na h-aoirinn, with- 
out the terminal e. Later still the name of the sea-Point 
was transferred to a land farm, and when the English 
Survey-man came, he named the promontory upon the 
farm, and called it Rhunahaoirine Point. 

V. Balnakill = baile na cille (with clachan), Kil- 
berry = Cill-Bhairre (p. 172), Kilchamaig, Killean = Cill- 
Sheathain, and Kilmichael = Cill-Mhicheil, are all the 
Church-names. 

VI. The only new name apart from Church-names is 
in Eilean Eoghain, which has been explained to mean 
"well-born," like Gr. evyevrj'i. 



KINTYRE 33 

(4) GiGHA (Island) 

I. The name of the island is Norse, gja + ey, rift-island. 

II. There are a few English names, like Highfield and 
Newhouse, which are probably translations. There is 
a good example of a doirlinn between the Island and 
Eilean garbh ; of gamhna, sticks, as applied to island 
rocks, north of the Island ; and of a Tarbert between the 
northern portion and the southern and larger part of 
the island. 

III. Airdaily = aird + aillidh, beautiful. 

Allaidhe (Port), the stranger's port, or harbour. The 
root in the word is th-all, over, or across sea, or foreign. 
It occurs in Madadh-allaidh, fierce, or foreign, dog — the 
wolf ; and in All-mhurach, across-sea man, foreigner. Every 
foreigner was fierce and wild to the native " conceit." 
We made Brahma, the god of the Indian, our Bramain, 
the devil, and that the same faculty is exercised nearer 
home " is muckle pity." 

Drumyeon = druim eoin (eun, a bird), or personal 
name, Eoin, fohn. 

Ghlamaidh (Meall a') and Ardlamey = Aird a' ghla- 
maidh, from glam, devour, gobble. 

Kinerarach = cinn + ear, east, + ar-ach. 

Sgiathain (Port an), figurative from sgiath, a wing. 

IV. Acha>-mbinlsh, CaXh-sgeIr, Grob -bagh are mixed 
Norse. Cara and Craro also are almost certainly Norse. 
Gigalum (island) is peculiar = gja + holm-r. 

V. Cairvickuie = cathair, the chair, or seat, of MacKay. 

VI. There is Port na cille, on Cara Island, but there 
is no indication of an old church. 



34 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 



KNAPDALE— ONAPADAL 

I. This name is pure Norse — knapp-r+dal-r. The 
word cnap is, however, so very old in Gaelic and so 
general in European language, that it need not be looked 
upon as necessarily or essentially Norse, but there can- 
not be a doubt that this name came by that way. It is 
the same word as English knolf, or its older form knop. 
The Anglo-Saxon had it as cncBp, extremely close to the 
Gaelic sound. The Dutch and the German have it as 
knop, and there is in Cowal an gnob. 

The cnap which gives the name to the district is the 
south point of the land between Loch Caolasport and 
Loch Sween, which rises very sharply to a rounded 
height of three hundred feet. 

The dal-r, or dak, which gives the second part of the 
name, is without doubt the valley of the Abhainn-mh6r, or 
Great-river, which runs inland from the cnap for some 
six or seven miles. It is most interesting to notice that 
the middle a of the native pronunciation of the district 
name represents the old Norse r of knapp-r, which is 
now but rarely heard. There are other cnaps in Argyll 
district and in Lome. 

II. The Enghsh names are few and of no importance. 
Ashens and Erins are hybrid English plural forms. 
Cruach na Bren-field is a very bad mixture ; Bren-field 
is for breun-achadh, vile-field. 

III. The difficult Gaelic names from Loch Tarbert 
to Crinan are not many. 

Achadh da mhillein = achadh + da -f- dim. of meaU. 



KNAPDALE 35 

Achachoish = achadh a' chois, a cave, or hollow. 

Ardnackaig, perhaps fern, of Neachtan (p. 62). I 
cannot offer any other explanation. 

Artilligain is the Ard of Uilleagan, whoever he was. 
The name contains two dims., -ag + an. Compare Tir- 
fet-ag-ain, Leac-oUagain, &c., perhaps Uilleam(h)-agan, 
a certain William. 

Bailevaurgain = baile a' bhorgain, the farm of the 
little fort (N.). 

Baranlongairt (see p. 25) ; but the position of the 
name here makes the simple rendering of long-airt quite 
possible. 

Barnaguy = Barr na gaoithe, the windy Barr. 

Barnashalig = Barr na seilg, the Barr of the hunt. 

Baun is for bann, a band, or bond, which the position 
of the name also makes appropriate. 

Cainikain = caineachain, dim. of canach. 

Caoirain (Burn) is almost certainly caorunn, the rowan. 

Caolas-port (Loch) = caolas (caol) + port. 

Car-mor and Cour a' mhaim. See Hill-names. 

Craiglin = creag linne, the rock by the pool. 

Crear is criathar, a sieve, not an uncommon name for 
streams which " filter " through their course — one time 
below the surface, next in the open. 

Cretshengan = croit sheangan, ant-croft. 

Cuil-ghaltro = cuil -f gen. pi. of N. golt-r, a boar. 

Daltot = dail + tobhta, turf-field. 

Duarman (Cnoc nan) — same as torman, murmur. 

Eilthireach (Cnoc nan) = eile, other, + tir-each, other- 
landers — therefore a pilgrim, or an emigrant. 

Errol (Loch) is possibly Norse, but see p. 43. 

Ghallagain (Eilean da) is for E. d^ Ghall-ag-ain, the 
island of the two {little) Lowlafiders, or strangers. 



36 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Gleannralloch is most interesting. It is gleann (eada)r 
(dh)a loch, the gleji between the tzvo lochs (Tarbert). The r 
is all that is left of eadar, and the a is all of dha. Rowany 
(Manx) = eadar dha mhoine, between two turbaries {note). 

lolaireig is iolair, the eagle, + aig. See p. 8. 

Leirg (Gleann da) = the glen of the two leargs. See 
p. i6. 

Naomhachd (Eilean), the island of holiness. 

Odhain (Tigh), or omhan, the froth of milk, or whey 
(H. S. D.). 

Orran = oirean, edges, borders, or limits ; pi. of oir. 

Sgreagach (Lochan), scraggy, dry, parched. 

Stighseir (Cnoc), based on Eng. stance. 

Tayvallich = tigh a' bhealaich, the house on the pass. 

Tiobairt (Blar an) the field of the well — the gen. of 
tipra, Old Gaelic ; mod. tobar. 

Tiretagain = tir + Aed, now Aodh + ag-an, Aed or 
Hughie^s land, 

IV. Norse names are few and they are mixed. Car- 
saig, Danna, Fascadal, Ormsary, Scotnish (Loch), Stor- 
naway, Ulva, seem pure Norse, but Ardminish, Ardnoe, 
Airidh-staic, Bailivaurgain, are mixtures. A.Td.-my-Des = 
Ard-niidge-ness, Ard-a,n- haug-r, the aird of the howe, 
^iridh + stakk-r, Baile a' bhorg-a,m. Loch Sween 
(Suain), Loch Racadail, and Lussa are quite open to 
doubt. If the Norseman had never come to Knapdale, 
Loch Sween would be the beautiful Gaelic Loch Suain 
(as it is locally named) the loch of peace, or of sleep — so very 
appropriate. Racadal is Gaelic for horse-radish, coming 
by a metathesis of rotacal from Sc. rot-coll, which Jamie- 
son says means the burning root — but I prefer to look 
upon the name as Norse, in both its parts, rakki, a dog, 



KNAPDALE 37 

+ dal-r, dog-dale. Lussa also is no doubt Norse, but it is a 
little troublesome to find Cruach-lusach (the herb-abound- 
ing Mountain) standing some 1600 feet high immediately 
over the stream named Lussa. Cruach-lusach is quite 
good and pertinent Gaelic. Did this name pass down 
to the stream, or did a Norse stream-name get trans- 
ferred to the mountain ? The one and the other is 
possible. It is, however, perhaps safer to believe that 
Cruach-lusach comes by the local philologer, who did 
not know Norse or the Norseman, but took the mountain- 
name from the river. 

V. Church-names are Killanaish = Cill Aonghais = 
Kil- Angus, Kilcalmonel = Cill Cholmain Ella (p. 169), 
Kilberry = Cill Bhaire, Kilmahumag = Cill mo chumag, 
Kimaluag = Cill mo Lu-ag (p. 179), Kilmory = Cill Mhoire 
= Kil-Mary. Kilmichael is evident, and there are such 
kindred names as lochan a' Chille Bhlathain, Cruach 
Cille Bheagain, and achadh Cill Bhrannain, although 
there is not now, if ever there was, any indication of 
their churches in the neighbourhood of these names. 

VI. Personal names are : — 

Domhnaill (Dun), Dun-Donald. This is one of the 
very old Gaelic personal names. Its elements and its 
existence as a name can be traced far away into the 
earliest forms of Keltic speech. The name means world- 
ruler — domno -f- val. 

Dhonnchadh (Sgeir) is another of the old names — 
Duncan — from donn, brown or dun -j- cath, warrior, now 
battle. 

Dughaill (Lochan). This name comes from the 
north. It means black- stranger, dubh + Gall, as against 
Finn-Gall, the fair stranger; the one was the Dane, the 
other the Norwegian of the Northern invasion. 



38 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Imheir (Cnoc) = Ivor, Ivaar (N.) — as in Mac-Iver. 

MacKay (Loch), a translation of Mac-Aoidh. See 
Tiretigan. 

Bheathain (Port Mhic), Macbean, from beatha, life ; 
"son of life." 

Eunlaig (Loch Mhic). It is almost certainly Loch 
Mhic-Eanlaig, which I am told means MacNeilage, 
locally. 

E6in (Cladh) = E5in John's + cladh, burial-place. This 
is the same name as occurs in Cill (Sh)eathain, John's 
church (I.), and in the surname Maclean = Mac-(gh)ille- 
(Sh)eathaiii. The form Iain is modern Gaelic iov John. 

Mh^rtain (Eilean) = Martins isle. This is common 
now, as name and as surname. The great Martin was 
Martin of Tours (p. i6i), and perhaps we may refer the 
name to him, all the way. The idea in the name is that 
in mart-ial and in Mars. It is from him we have Martin- 
mas, an f h^ill-Mhartain. 

Thormaid (Barr) = Normans Barr, or high-land. A 
Norse name, Thdrr + mod:r, Thorr's wrath. By an 
extremely peculiar deviation it has become Norman, 
really a North-man in English form. Whether there is 
any bond of fact or imagination between the two words 
I am not able to say. 



ARGYLL 39 

ARGYLL— EARAGHAIDHEAL 

I. This is the name given by natives of other parts 
of the county to the district extending from Crinan 
northwards, having Loch Craignish and Loch Awe on 
the one side, and Loch Fyne on the other. Why the 
old and far-reaching name came to be Umited to this 
district, I am not able to say, but it is the same name 
as that of the whole county. 

(i) From Crinan to Furnace 

n. English names are comparatively numerous, 
especially on Loch Fyne, in the south — Scotstown, New- 
house, Pointhouse, Birdfield, Rowanfield, &c. Most 
English names here are translations. Craigens and 
Tunns are Gaelic, creagan and tunna, with the English 
plural added. 

III. Gaelic names are fairly well stated, but the 
grammar is sometimes different from that of the names 
of the northern part of the county, and from that ordi- 
narily accepted. Tigh an traigh, for instance, and Cruach 
a' bhearraich are in masculine form, though ordinarily, 
and perhaps more correctly, they should take the femi- 
nine forms, tigh na traighe and cruach na bearraiche 
(the latter, from beithir, a monster^ and not from bearach, 
a dog-fishy would be better spelled beathrach). On the 
other hand, Dalnahasaig is feminine, though it is usually 
masculine : dail an aisig, the field by the ferry. 

Achagoyle = achadh gaothail, windy field. 
Achnaleppin = achadh na leth-pheighinn, half-penny 
{\a,nd) field. 



40 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Barnakill is Barr na coille. Though the name shows 
the form of -killy there is no church there. If one is not 
famihar with a locaHty and even with its history, this 
-kill form may mislead. I spent months in looking for 
St, O'Craw, as I thought he was commemorated in Kilo- 
craw K., but he was not " among the Saints," for the 
name is simply Coille-chnb, the nut-wood! 

Baroile = Barr aoil — the Barr where there is lime. 

Barsailleach = mod. Barr seileach, the willow Barr. 
The old form was sail — compare Salachan. 

Carnassary = Cam -f- asaraidh, pasturage. 

Carron is on one of the sharp twists of the River Add, 
so it may have origin from Car, a twist, and an, which is 
a frequent formation of names. It is difficult to give the 
ordinary explanation of a rough river to the name here, 
even if we supposed that the name may have applied to 
even a part of the river here, where in fact it flows faster 
than in any other portion of its course. See Carlonan. 

Crarae. Although the name looks crooked, it may 
be very simple. There is Craleckan = cra-leacann close 
to it, and Leacann River and Loch, which suggests that 
the Cra-leacann is the starting point ; from which it 
might be inferred that Cra was adjectival in both names, 
and that -rai = reidh, or smooth., or level (land), in the 
name Crarae. 

Crinan = crion, small, withered + an, on same lines as 
Corr-an. Crion-ach is dry brushwood. 

Deora (Port an), the Port of the exile. This is the 
source of the name Dewar — Bail' an deora (p. 58). 

Drynlea cannot be anything but droigheann liath. 

Ducharnan = dubh-charn, with dim., an. 

Edderline = eadar linne, between the pools, 

Eurach = iubhrach, the yew-wood. 



ARGYLL 41 

Gallanach = gallan, a branch; poetically a youth 
{note) — also a rock, standing stone + ach. 

Garvanchy = garbh, rough, + an + ach + aidh. 

Gilp (Loch), See Nant, p. 60. 

Glassary = glas + ^iridh, grey or green^ ^iridh. 

Karnes = Camus, a bay ; a very frequent name. 

Kiarnan = Cea(th)r(amh)nan. See Kerran and Kirn. 

Largie. See p. 16. 

Lecknary = leac nathrach, the (flat) stone of the serpent. 
See p. 16, 

Lochgair = loch gearr, surely an appropriate name, 
short loch. 

Minard is for min-Mrd, the smooth dird. See p. 11, 

Otter is oitir = od + tir. See p. 44. 

Poltalloch = poll + taobh + loch {note). 

Stronesker = sron iasgair, the fisher's knowe. 

Tayness is tigh an eas, the house by the waterfall. 

Tibbertich, a name in -ach, from tipra. See Voc. 
and p. 36. 

Tomdow = torn dubh, the black hillock. 

TuUochgorm, the green hillock = tullach -f gorm. 

Uillian for uileann, the elbow. See p. 7. 

IV. The Norse names are few. There is Scodalg 
from skoda, to scout + vik, Ortnaig=orm-r + vik, Rudale, 
and Inver-ae, in part. 

V. The Church-names are Kilmartin = Cill Mh^rtain 
(p, 161), Kilbride == Cill Brigide (p. 160), Kilmichael = 
Cill Mhicheil, Killineuar = Cill an iubhair, yew church ; 
Cill Eoin, fohn's church. 

VI. Eilean Aoghain is the same as Aodh + ain. 



42 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

(2) From Furnace to the River Orchy 

In this large area the names are almost altogether 
Gaelic, and, upon the whole, fairly good Gaelic. Such 
a name as torn an sgalaig transgresses the ordinary 
grammar, and yet strangely enough it cannot be con- 
sidered altogether wrong. The form of the word is 
grammatically feminine, but the meaning of the word 
is masculine, a farm-servant. 

II. English names are very few. Ladyfield is English, 
but it may be a translation for dail na bain-tigheama, 
and Kenmore is only quasi-English for Ceann m6r. 

III. The more or less difficult Gaelic names are : — 
Achanafanndach. See Fanans, p. 59. 
Achindrain = achadh an droighinn, thorn-field. 
Achintiobairt = achadh an tiobairt, well-field. 
Achnangonl = achadh nan gobhal, fork-field {note). 
Ardchonnel is Mrd -h coingheal. See p. 59. 
Ardteatle = Mrd -I- teitheil. See p. 70. 

Bail' a' ghobhainn, the smith's farm. 
Balantyre = Bail' an t-saoir, the carpenter s farm. 
Barran is the dim. of barr, the small Barr. 
Beochlich (Allt) = beo -I- chloich, living stone {note). 
Bocaird = boc + Mrd, the aird or high-land of bucks. 
Bochyle is b6 -f choille, the cow-wood, 
Brackley = breac -{- leathad. 
Braevallich = braigh a' bhealaich. 
Brenachoil, almost certainly braigh na coille. 
Caolaran = caol, narrow^ -f- ar-an. 
Carlonan = car, a twist, or bend, + lonan. 
Chonnain (Innis), Connan's isle. He had a bad 
reputation among his fellows of the F6inn {note). 



ARGYLL 43 

Chroisg (Allt a'), a genitive form of crasg, which see. 

Claonairt = claon + aird, the sloping height. 

Corrbhile (Bun) = corr + bile, an edge. 

Craim (Loch na) = loch na creamha. 

Craleckan = cr^, red, bloody + leacann, or cr^dh. 

Currach (a'). This ought to be an currach. See p. 26. 

Dalmally = dail mMlidh, with Uachdar m^ilidh, sug- 
gests that the name has origin from the stream, which is 
the usual way. The name would therefore point to a 
very old origin, which has not yet been clearly determined 
{note). KilmaiUie is almost certainly from a different 
source, see p. 75. 

Dailchenna = dail Choinnich, Kenneth's field. 

Dougflas (river), an exceptionally old Gaelic name 
Dubh, blackj is yet in common speech, but glas for a 
stream is not, and has not been for a very long time. 
The name, however, like Finglas, fionn-ghlas, white, 
or bright, stream, is thoroughly Keltic, e.g. Douglas (here), 
Douglas (Man), Dowlais (Wales), Dub-glaissi, gen. (L. na 
h-Uidhre), which are all the same, and from the same 
source. 

Drumlee = druim liath (Colours). 

Drumork and Archan (river) seem to contain the 
same root, and the same as Aircaig (river), namely, old 
arc, black. 

Drynich (Innis) = innis droighnich, the isle of, or by 
the thorn-wood, or Druidhnich, Druids. 

Dychlie can hardly be other than dubh-choille, dark 
wood. 

Earalach (Lochan), the gen. of earail, a warning, 
caution. Is this a dangerous lochan? 

Eredinn. There is nothing in Gaelic that will explain 
the name but eiridinn, which means attendance upon. 



44 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

or nursing of, the sick. There is hardly room to doubt 
that this is the same word, but why the place was so 
named is difficult to say. 

Lobhair (abhainn) is leper-river, but in old usage 
lobhar was any diseased person. It is almost certain that 
this should be labhar, loud-sounding. 

Oitir is the name given as "Otter," a sloping land 
by the sea — a /c»-land ; for old od, ad + tir, land, there- 
fore od-tir. It is Uitir in Luing. 

Pennymore = a' pheighinn mh6r, the large penny-land. 

Sallachry is saileach-^iridh, mod. seileach, willow. 

Saunach from samh, sorrel = samhnach is the same 
name as 

Sonachan (with dim. an). 

Sgornach (ruadh) = sgor, Sc. scaur, Eng. scar, a 
cliff or a sharp rock -f- ruadh, red. 

IV. The Norse names are few. Inverary named upon 
the River Aray is hybrid, the Inbher being Gaelic (p. lo), 
— aray Norse. More than one word is possible for the 
first part of — dor-d, e.g. ar, an oar, as-r, a ewe., and eyr-r, 
a gravelly beach, or bank. I prefer the last, therefore the 
Inbher of the sandy-banked river — for there can be no 
doubt regarding the final A = river. Shira (River and 
Loch) is also Norse. 

V. Kilblaan (p. 175), Caibeal Ohiarain (p. 170), Kil- 
maillie (p. 75), Kilmun (p. 163), and Clachan, the stone 
church, are all the Church-names. 

VI. Lochan Mhic Dhiarmaid = dia -|- ermit (are- 
ment, on-minding). Eng. Dermot means " God-reverenc- 
ing," and p. 95. 

Cmach Mhic Ghaolie is not familiar Gaelic, if it is 
not for Mac fhaolaidh = MacLellan, " Wolf-son.'* 



COWAL 45 

COWAL— CbMHGHAL 

I. The whole of the district between Loch Fyne and 
Loch Long is included under this name, for convenience, 
even if it may not be strictly correct. The district has 
been thought to have been named upon Comhghal, son 
of Domangairt and grandson of Fergus M6r MacErc, the 
founder of the Dalriadic kingdom — as Lome was sup- 
posed to have been named upon Loarn, brother of Fergus 
M6r. All this tradition, however, is open to doubt [note). 

IL In the Loch-Fyne third of Cowal, English names 
are very few and of no interest. 

in. The Gaelic names are very corrupt, especially 
on the south and east, where the English of the Low- 
lands comes into close contact. There are some names 
that are positive gems. Meall-an-T, for instance, is for 
meall an t-suidhe, with Coirantee for coire an t-suidhe 
in the near neighbourhood, as gloss and explanation. 

I have, for convenience of reference, divided the dis- 
trict into three parts. 

(i) From Loch Fyne to the Kyles, Loch Riddon, 

AND GlENDARUEL 

Achadalvory = achadh dail Mhoire. Dail-Mhoire is 

the earlier name, with achadh added later. 

Achagoyl = achadh gaothail, windy-field. 

Achanelid = achadh an eilid, hindfield—W\ih Agree- 
ment exceptional. 

Acharossan = achadh -I- the dim. plural of ros. 

Achnaskioch = achadh na sg^theach, haw-thorn field. 

Ardgaddan = aird ghad-an, the plural of gad. 

Ardlamont is the Aird of the Lamonts = N. logmenn^ 
law-men — locally Aird Mhic-Laomuinn. 



46 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Ardmarnock = Mrd mo Ern-oc. See Church-names, 
p. 184. 

Ballochandrain = bealach an droighinn. 

Broighleig (Cruach na), the C. (Hill-names) of the 
whortle-berry. 

Callow = cala, bay^ cove — a very appropriate name, by 
circumstances. 

Camuilt (Cruach) is cruach a' cham-uillt, winding 
stream (cam + allt). 

Chamchuairt (a') = cam -f cuairt, a circling. Cuairt is 
used as a noun, a circuity with cam as adj., here meaning 
crooked, although essentially, and as a rule, it means 
simply bent. 

Chuilceachan (Cruach and Lochan) is a peculiar 
plural form, from cuilc, a reed. 

Corachria seems to be corr -f criadh, with wrong 
Agreement. Rudha m6r de chorachria, quite close, 
seems to prove this rendering. 

Corr-mheall. See corr and meall. 

Craignafeich = creag nam fitheach, ravens' -rock. 

Dailinglongairt, which occurs twice at the head of 
Holy Loch, may quite well have its easy meaning from 
long + airt — in this position. 

Evanachan = Eoghan + ach-an. This is doubtful, 
and exceptional even if right. 

Ganuisg (Barr) = gann, scarce, + uisge, water. It is 
a very dry Barr. 

Inens, on the Kyles of Bute, is the English plural of 
aoineadh = na h-aoinidh, p. 12. 

Largiemore = an leargach mh6r (p. 16). 

Lephinchapel = leth-pheighinn chapuU {q.v.), not Eng. 
chapel. Cf. Lephinsearrach, K. 

Lindsai^ = N. //n, Gen. ///i-s-J-aig= v/A ; but see note. 



COWAL 47 

Meldalloch (Loch na) = the Gen. of mil, i.e. meala + 
the old Gen. of dail, therefore the Loch of the honey- 
Jield. 

Peilige (Rudha na), Porpoise-point — "A species of 
sea-animals most destructive of the salmon . . . are 
found playing in the Clyde off the Castle. These 
are called buckers, pellocks, or porpoises " (St. Ac. — 
Dunbarton). 

Portavaidue is for Port a' mhadaidh, dog-port. 

Riddon (Loch) seems named upon a river {note). 

Sgat (bheag and mhor), the small and the little skate 
(shaped) islands. 

Stillaig is the -aig form with Gen. of steall, a spout, 
squirt, or drop. Eng. dis -stil. Better Stiallaig, from 
Stiall, a strip (of land), 

Tilgidh (Carn an) from tilg, throw — the cairn of the 
throwing, perhaps of the shooting, 

(2) Between (i) and Loch Striven, Glen Kin, and 
Loch Eck to Strachur 

n. English names and translations are frequent. 
Southall and Springfield may be original English names ; 
but Milton, Salthouse, Loch-head (L. Striven), Midhill, 
and Little (River) must be translations. 

in. The Gaelic names are, upon the whole, good, 
although there are a few that need correction. 

Achnagarran = achadh nan gearran (see ge&rr), 
gelding-field. 

Altgaltraig is allt + N. goltr, a boar, + aig. The re- 
currence of these ^6/^r-names, taken with the prevalence 
of the muc-names in Argyll, is very interesting. We may 
wonder whether the Norseman translated an old native 



48 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Gaelic muc-name, or whether the wild-boar existed in 
the Norseman's time. According to Boyd-Dawkins, the 
wild boar was not extinct in Britain until well into the 
eighteenth century. 

Ardantraive and Colintraive are for Aird an t-snaimh 
and Caol an t-snaimh, referring to the fact that cattle 
used to be made to swim, across this the narrowest part 
of the Eastern Kyle (Caol) into Bute. 

Ballochyle = BaU' a' Ohaoil (p. 67). 

Bemice is for Gael. Be^mach, or Beamas (F.). 

Braingortan = braigh nan goirtean. 

Branter (Gleann) is gleann a' bhranndair, gridiron^ 
but why ? 

Conchra = con 4- chea(th)ra(mh), dogs' quarter (land), 
p. 18, or con, together^ + pi. of cro, a fold {note). 

Coraddie = coire fada, the long corrie — the adjectival 
part being aspirated out, that is, fh is silent. 

Corparsk — is it Corpach ? (p. 14). 

Corrachaive = coire a' chaitheamh. 

Craigandaive = creag an daimh, ox-craig. 

Cruach (and Allt) Neuran is for cruach an fhiurain, 
the Cruach (Hill-names) of the sapling. Fh is silent, and 
n of the article fixes on the beginning. 

Duilater = an dubh-leitir. See p. 21. 

Feorlean is iht farthing land. See p. 18. 

Finnart = fionn, zuhite (Old Gael, find), -f ^ird. Cf 
Finglas. This adjective is not now in use ; its place is 
taken by geal. See clachfin and clochkel. 

Garrachra = garbh+chea(th)ra(mh), the rough quarter 
(land), p. 18. 

Garvie refers primarily to the rough stream on which 
the farm is situated. It is from garbh, rough, so common 
as garbh alt, rough stream. 



COWAL ' 49 

Glendaruel, said to be gleann d^ ruadh-thuil, the 
glen of the two red floods or rivers [note). 

Glenlean = gleann leathan, the broad glen, and Glen 
Kin, gleann cumhang, the narrow glen. 

Inbherchaolain = Inbher + caol, narrow, + ain = 
a(bha)inn, river — the Inver of the river called narrow — 
an extremely descriptive name. Cf. Inverinan, p. 57. 

Lephinkill = leth-pheighinn na cille, with the Clachan 
of Glendaruel, and the modern church, close by. 

Robuic (Allt) = allt an ruadh-bhuic, roebuck Water. 

Striven (Loch) is Loch Straven (1695). There is a 
strong disposition towards the narrow vowel in this 
district. I therefore prefer the old form {note). 

Srondavain = sron damh, an ox, stag + dim., ain. 

Sronafian = sr6n nam flan ; fian(t)ag is the berry 
of Empetrum nigrum, the black crow-berry, or Crake- 
berry (Hooker), or the Fingalians Knowe (F.). 

Sgarach m6r (mountain), a variant of Sg6r and Sgiir, 
a scarred, notched, or jagged hill (Hill-names). 

Tamhaisg (Creag an), the rock of the ^^ brownie!' This 
is from amhasg with the t of the article fixed on, like 
Tamhnach, from samhnach. 

Tamhnach (Burn). This form comes of the Article, 
which has fallen out, an t-samhnach, from samh, sorrel. 
The same thing occurs in Morven. This t of the Article 
is the remnant of a longer word, which led to the aspira- 
tion and silencing of s. 

Vegain (Abhainn and Inbher). This is again a name 
in which the terminal -ain = abhainn. Cf. Inbher chao- 
lain — the first part is beag, little, aspirated, therefore the 
small river. 



50 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 



(3) East of (2) to Loch Long 

IL English names are numerous, as might be ex- 
pected. Southhall, Springfield, Salt-house, Midhill, need 
no explanation. Milton, Burnt Islands, River Little, are 
clear translations. Couston and Troustan are distinctly 
irregular. 

in. The Gaelic names in the south are strongly 
perverted, and in some cases it is difficult to get them 
straight. In the northern part of the district the Gaelic 
names are good. 

Ardchyline is aird a' chuilinn, the Air d of the holly. 

Ardhallow is ard, the adj. high + talamh, land, there- 
fore the high-land. 

Ardentinny = aird an teine, the Aird of the fire. I 
am not able to say whether the basis of the name is in 
the old Bealltuin or May-day need fires ^ or in the very 
common faire or watch fires. There can be no doubt as 
to the verbal meaning. 

Ardnadam. Although the English influence is driving 
this name into something like Ard-in-adam, it is almost 
certainly aird nan damh, ox or stag height, but plural. 

Ardnahien = aird na h-aibhne, the Aird of the river. 

Ardyne (Point and Burn) with Glenfyne. The 
element here is Fyne the river = Fin-e, the bright river 
— the same as in Loch Fine. Compare Sheil-e. 

Badd (The), a Hill-name from Gael, bad, a thicket. 

Beach = beitheach, the birch-wood. 

Blairmore is the blar mor, the great field, or moss. 

ButhkoUidar. The first part of the name is biith, 
now meaning shop, but in older usage a hut, or booth, as 
in Eng. booth, Gael, bothan -^ coille( d)air, a woodman 



COWAL 51 

— therefore, the place of the woodman's hut. The first 
part meets us in other parts of Scotland as Boath, Both, 
and Bo(h). 

Cluniter is for claon-leitir, the inclining or oblique 
leitir, p. 21. The 1 has dropped out because nl is not an 
acceptable sequence. It is the n that usually disappears, 
but the 1 in the first syllable has caused the retention of 
n rather than of 1 in the second. 

Corlarach = corr + larach. 

Corrow = an coire, the corrie (perhaps pi.) 

Coylet is the caol-leathad, p. 21. 

Cuilmuich is cuil (na) muice, the pig's recess or nook. 

Donich (River, Beinn, and Inbher). Inveronich has 
the d aspirated out, as in Toberonchy for tobar-Dhonn- 
chaidh. 

Dunoon is Gael. Dun-omhan, with nasal short 6. 
This is why I have given this spelling of the name. 
Some have said that the second part may be the same 
element as in Loch Awe, Gael. Loch Obha, with open 
short 0, but this is quite impossible. The form strongly 
suggests that the terminal is a noun feminine, and most 
probably a river name, which would be good enough 
if we knew that the name of the stream flowing at the 
foot of the hill was anything like this — and, even if we 
do not know the stream-name, the suggestion remains. 
Compare Dun-add, the fort on the (river) Add = fhada, 
or the long river. The form not being a Masc. gen, 
does away with the possibility of a personal name like 
Dun-Domhnaill, or Diin-Rostain, K., and also with the 
possibility of a descriptive second term like Dun-Mrneig, 
or Dun chreagaig, R. It must be a gen. Sing, fem. or a 
gen. Plur. masc, — the latter most unlikely. The whole 
feeling is towards a river-name in -an, and there is 



52 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

nothing in the form against odhan, foam, as the base 
of the name. Omna is old Gael, for oak-tree. 

Dornoch (Point) is a name in -ach, from dorn, a fist, 
therefore the place of pebbles, or round stones of the 
size of the fist. 

Drumsynie = druim sine, from sian, a storm, therefore 
the stormy Druim. Cf. Loch Fyne, &c. 

Eachaig" (River) and district also, seems to point to 
the district Eachaig, or the place of horses, as the origin 
of the name for all its connections, with the River and 
with Loch Eck = L. Echaig {note). 

Finbracken = fionn + bhreac + an. Fionn is old Adj. 
white, clear, or bright, and breacan is a descriptive name 
in -an (p. 8), from breac, spotted or striped — the same 
as breacan, a tartan plaid. Compare Dubh-aig, and 
Liath-aig, L. 

Gairletter = ge^rr-leitir (p. 21). 

Gantocks. Gamhn(t)aich is a favourite name for stirk- 
shaped small island rocks. There is no clear reason 
against this rendering here. 

Garrowchorran = garbh, rough, + corr-an. 

Gailich (Ard na) is (aird na) gaillich, which means 
a place where cattle were wont to contract a disease 
of this name — an inflammatory swelling of the gums. 
Cf. Achinarnich, flux-field (in cattle also). 

Glenfyne. See Ardyne. This is the same word, with 
f aspirated out, as it always is in the Masc. Genitive. 

Glenkinglas is gleann + cinn-glas, the^/^« named on 
the head of the river — glas. See Finglas. It is not possible 
to derive the name from Fin-glas, although the suggestion 
is apparent. Ard-Kinglas is at the mouth of the river on 
Loch Fine. 

Inellan. There can be no doubt that this name is 



COWAL " 53 

1-an-eilean, although it is not at all easy to be sure of 
the value of the first element ; and there is the further 
difficulty that there is no island within nameable distance, 
except The Perch, which is a very small thing now, even 
if it may have been considerably larger in the past. If 
the Norseman was not so remarkably absent from the 
names on the Clyde, and of this district, a duplication 
of the island n^iVCiQ might be offered as explanation — N. 
ey and G. eilean with the Gaelic article. 

Inverchapel = inbher chapuU. 

Laglingartan must be a Genitive form, from longairt 
(p. 25) = lag luingairt + an. 

Letter may is either Leitir mhaith or L. mhaighe, the 
good (land) L. or the Moy-leitir. 

Mhuinne (Goirtean a')— rightly Goirtean a' bhuinne, 
a stream, rapid current. 

Miseag (Cruach nam) = minnseag, a yearling she- 
goat, from meann, a kid. 

Poll Chorkan = pi. of core, a knife, or Eng. cork. 

Restil (Loch). See Freasdal (p. 31). 

Riachain (Eas) is from riach, tear., + ain, as in Inver- 
inain. 

Sron bhochlan = sron bhuachaillean, shepherds' knowe. 

IV. Norse names are not numerous. Ascog and 
Ormidale are pure Norse ; Ardlamont and AUtghaltraig 
are hybrids ; Abhainn Osde and Bagh Osde are also mix- 
tures. It is distinctly remarkable how few Norse names 
are in this district and upon the Firth of Clyde. It would 
seem that there was some check upon the Norseman in 
this direction, which he endeavoured to remove at the 
battle of Largs (October 2, 1263), and failed. 

V. The Church is not very frequent in Cowal. There 
is Kilfinan and Kilmun, both famous churches, and 



54 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

perhaps named upon one and the same Saint. In Kal. 
(Oct. 21 n) occurs Fintan .i. nomen artus .i. Mundu = 
mofhindu .i. Fintan, i.e. his name at first, i.e. Mundu 
my Findu, i.e. Fintan. So it is not unlikely that the 
whole district of Cowal came under this one religious 
name and influence from Kilmun as centre (p. 165). 
There is Kilbride also, and Kildavaig and Kilail, but I 
am not sure that the last two are at all Gills. There are 
several names about Dunoon which probably have a 
Ghurch origin, such as Gleann Moraig, Ard Fillayn, 
Kilbride Hill, and the Bishop's Seat. There is Kil- 
marnock Hill on Loch Striven = Gill mo Ern-oc, but 
there is no indication of his church. 

VL Personal names, with exception of those in Eng- 
lish, are quite wanting. This shows the commendable 
good taste of the inhabitants of Gowal. It may indeed 
be said that Argyll altogether compares to great advantage 
in this way with other counties, some of which have been 
vulgarised exceedingly by "this craving after immor- 
tality" of small people. 



LORNE 55 

LORNE— LATHARNA 

I. In this district is included all that part between 
Loch Awe and the sea on the west, from the foot of Loch 
Awe to Loch Etive. The usual and traditional explana- 
tion of the name is that it is that of Loarn, son of Ere 
and brother of Fergus Mor of the early Dalriads. A 
similar explanation is given of Cowal — that it was named 
after Comgal, a grandson of Fergus Mor. I am far from 
satisfied with this explanation, but I have none other to 
offer, better or worse. The old forms are no help. 
They are Ladharna, Lagharna, Laverna, without any 
plan or suggestion {note). 

II. There are not many English names. Hayfield, 
Kirkton, Midmuir, may be translations ; Australia and 
New York are clearly imports. 

(i) From the Foot of Loch Awe to Abhainn- 

FHIONAIN 

III. This district is nearly all Gaelic, and it is fairly well 
done, so that the exceptional names are not numerous. 
It is a little troublesome because of its broken west coast 
with its many small islands. On this west side there is 
a good deal of Norse. 

Achinarnich = achadh an eamaich, murrain-field. 

Avich (Loch, river, Dail-) = amhaich {of) the neck, 
most appropriate to the neck of land between the northern 
end of Loch Avich and Loch Awe. 

Bailivicair is the vicar s farm — of Kilbrandon, no 
doubt. 

Barnacarry = barr na cairidh. Cairidh is a mound, 



56 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

or a semi-circle of stone, thrown round the mouth of a 
river, or at the end of a sea-loch, so that fish getting in 
there on full tide are left stranded on the ebb. 

Barnaline = barr an ailean, the meadow Barr. 

Barmaddy = barr a' mhadaidh, the dog's Barr. 

Bhulais (Lochan a'), biilas is a pot-hook. 

Biirrich-bean seems to be a double corruption of 
Beinn a' bhiiiridh. Buireadh means generally roaring or 
bellowing, but it is specially applied to the rutting season 
of deer. 

Caddletown is perhaps a hybrid cadal, sleep, + town, 
for an old Bail' a' chadail, sleepy town, or farm. It is an 
Cadal-ad-an locally — of same meaning. 

Cheallair (Loch a'), (of) the cellarer, or steward, of 
the (Monastery ?) Church of Kilmelfort. 

Craignamoraig = creag na M6raig, Sarah's rock. The 
article is not as a rule used in personal place-names. 

Craignish is Gael, creag + N. nes, rock-ness. 

Dailermaig = dail + Dhiarmaid, which is locally pro- 
nounced Dhiarmaig (F.). 

Dalachulish = dail a' chaolais (caol), the field by the 
Narrow. 

Doirlin (on Loch Avich) is peculiar, where there is 
no tide— but compare Sailean on Loch Shell, p. 87. Of 
course fresh water lakes have their rise and fall, and 
analogy may account for the name. 

Earna (Eilean na h-), one of the many forms of 
N. Eyr-r. 

Eleraig and Elerig, and Eleric P., have their best 
explanation from lolaireig, p. 8. 

Garraron = garbh-shron, rough-knowe, or nose. 

Gemmil = geum, lowing, + ail (?) 

Innie (on Loch Tralaig) is interesting as an Aoineadh 



LORNE 57 

on an inland lake, but there is a fine example on Loch 
Awe. 

Inverinan = inbher-fhion-abhainn, the Inver of the 
bright river. There is abhainn fhionain, but it is almost 
certain that there is a repetition of abhainn here, and 
that fionain itself is fion-abhainn. Compare Glenfinnan 
= gleann fhion-abhainn. 

Kilmhealaird is as nearly as possible the correct native 
pronunciation of Kilmelfort — perhaps Cill a' Mhill aird. 
See Meall (Hills). 

Lagalochan = lag an lochain. It is quite a common 
thing that n of the Gaelic article drops out before 1. 

LeacoUagain is leac + a personal name + the double 
diminutive ag-an, leac 01a(fh)-again. 

Lergychoniemore = learg a' chonnaidh-mor. For the 
grammar of this see p. 9. 

Lome (Corrie) must be referred to the same source as 
the district name. 

Maolachy = maol-achadh, bald or bare field. 

Mhadail (Sron) = mhadaidh + ail. 

Oude (river). Compare Fin-e, Seil-e, &c. {note). 

Pollanduich = poll an dubhaidh (dubh) — in I slay also. 

Seil (Sound of, and Oban, and Loch). A now name- 
less river, Saoil (locally), may have been the starting- 
point of the names, but Saoil is applied to the whole 
island cut off by the Sounds of Seil and Clachan {note). 

Tralaig (Loch), also based upon a river-name, tradh, 
a fish spear .^ ail + aig. 

Turnalt = turn, a turn, + allt, a burn. 



58 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

(2) From FioN-ABHAiNN to Loch Etive 

Achcasdle = achadh a' chaisteil, castle-field. 

Achleven = achadh leamhain, elmfield. 

Achnamaddy = na madadh, dog (k'mdyfield. 

Annat is the parent church of a monastery. Bishop 
Forbes thought the name was that of a heathen goddess ! 
This was the Annat of Kilchrenain. 

Ardnaskie = aird an fhasgaidh, tke Aird of shelter. 

Ariogan = airidh Eogain, Hughie's airidh. 

Awe (Loch, river, Inver), are locally Loch-obha, but 
the river is Atha and Bun-atha — a very peculiar differ- 
ence (note). 

Balindore = baile an deora, pilgrim-town {note). 

Balinoe is a hybrid, baile an haug-r, or perhaps better, 
am Baile nodha, new town (F.). 

Barachander = barr a' channtair. Was this the Barr 
of the cantor of Kilchrenan ? 

Braglenmore and -beg — braigh-ghleann, "brae "-glen. 
The adjectival part being first makes the name a com- 
pound noun, and therefore takes the masc. adjectives 

m6r and beag. 

Cathlun is a lumpy an excrescence — a figurative name. 

Ghaineachain (Lochan a') is the dim. of canach, eirio- 
phorum (Bot.) 

Clachadow = clacha dubha, the black, or dark, stones. 

Cleugh is a lowland Scots import. It is quite common 
in Lowland names, meaning a rocky precipice, or a cliff, 
and sometimes a glen. See Jamieson. 

Cnoclomain = cnoc + lorn, naked, + dim. an. Loman 
is a naked, or needy, one, therefore the cnoc of the needy 
one, unless lom applies to the cnoc itself as being naked 
or bare. 



LORNE 59 

Coillenaish is coille + Nais, an old Gaelic personal 
name — Naish's wood. 

Conflicts, at junction of Loch Awe, with river Awe 
and other streams, is simply a translation of coingheal, 
whirlpools, or meetings of waters. 

Corachadh and Corlarach are corr + achadh and + 
l^rach. 

Ghoromaig (Allt a') is either gen. of the personal 
name Cormac, or from cothrom, level. This last word 
is most interesting. It in fact means equal weight, ihdii 
which holds the beam level; therefore, the watershed, 
where streams flow, in a sense, equally towards both 
sides of the cothrom, or watershed. 

Crutten (Glen), natively Gleann cruitein, is evidently 
named on the stream {note). 

Dorlin, on Loch Avich, a fresh-water lake, is peculiar, 
see p. 15 ; but it is not more so than Ceann mara on 
Loch Awe, or Sailean, Loch Shell. 

Fanans = na Fans., gentle slopes, pi. of fan. It comes 
into a bhan = a (bh) fan, downwards. 

Feochain (Loch, and Rivers — mor and beag). The 
name has (xigin from the river, locally Faoch-ain. 
Faoch is a winkle, but the essential idea is in the shape — 
a whorl, and whirl-pool, the latter being a characteristic 
of these rivers. 

Glenamachrie = gleann na machrach, the field- or 
carse-glen. 

Killhounich, for Cill Choinnich (p. 171). 

Kilvarie is coille a bharra (gen. of barr), the Barr- 
wood. 

Livir (Abhainn and Inver) has in it the root lighe, a 
flood (p. 77). This terminal is not common in river- 
names. Cf. Leven. 



6o THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Nant (Loch and Gleann). This is a very exceptional 
name. It is without doubt the same word that is met 
with so very often in Welsh names ; for instance, Nant 
(Denbigh), and Nant-Clywd, Nant-ddu (Brecon), Nant- 
garw (Glamorgan), Nant-mor (Merioneth), and many 
more. It is the same in meaning as Gael, gleann, and 
when we say Gleann-Nant we simply say Glen-glen. The 
word can be followed into Continental names. The 
point of great interest is how the name got there, a 
purely Cymric or Cymro-British word, from the lan- 
guage of a people that have never been thought to have 
entered the Highlands. There, however, the name is, 
and its origin cannot be doubted, and perhaps it is not 
the only one. More may underlie this than can rightly 
be inquired into here. Loch-gilp, for instance, may have 
its best interpretation through Welsh, as Loch-gwlyb, or 
as it was in Old Welsh, gulip, the wet^ damp, or swampy 
loch, which is not at all unfitting. There are, and there 
have been, other Argyll names which distinctly suggest 
that the Britons of Strathclyde went "beyond Dum- 
barton." The only Gaelic word which comes near the 
name, gilb, a chisel, does not seem pertinent. 

Nell (Loch). This is simply Loch nan eala, swan- 
lake. 

Pennyfuar is the Peighinn fhuar, the cold penny- land. 

Siar (Loch) is the Western loch (p. 78). 

Taymore = tigh mor, the big house. 

Taynuilt = tigh an uillt, tlie house by the burn. 

Tervin is most likely tairbhein, from tarbh, a bull — 
a masculine form on the same lines as feminine -aig 
names. 

Thanahine = tigh na h-aibhne, the house by the river. 

Tromlee (Loch) is peculiar. Trom-lighe is night-mare. 



LORNE 6i 

which this name almost certainly is ; but why so is 
beyond me. There is, however, lighe, a flood {t^. 77). 

IV. On the west coast of Lome there is quite a 
number of Norse names, but there are not many inland. 
Almost all the numerous small islands here are Norse in 
name : Ars-a, Fladd-a, Luing, On-a, Orms-a, Shun-a, 
Tors-a ; and Asknish, Degnlsh, Eardale, are coast names. 
Rarey and Scamadale are inland. 

V. The Church-names are Annat, Bailevicair with 
others, and Kilbrandon = Cill Bhrannain (p. 175), Kil- 
bride =Cill Brigide (p. 160), Kilchattan = Cill Ohatain 
(p. 175), Kilchoan = Cill Chomhghain (p. 178), Kilchrenan 
= Cill Chrethamhnain (p. 177), Kilmahu = Cill mo Choe, 
Kilmaronog = Oill mo R6nag (p. 182), Kilmelfort (p. 57), 
Kilmore = Cill Mhoire, Kilmary, Kilmun = Cill Mhunna 

(p. 53)- 

VI. Personal names are : — 

Chaiscin (Loch Mhic), perhaps better Mhic-Ascain ; 
most probably a Norse name, akin to, if not the same as 
Mac-Askil, formed from as-kettil = ans-kettil, the sacri- 
ficial vessel {kettle) of the Norse Anses, or gods. 

Ciaran (Eilean Mhic) is the dusky one (see Colours). 
This is the name and meaning of the two St. Kiarans. 
See p. 170. 

Ghoinnich (Lochan diol). Cain-neach is the fair one, 
akin to the Can-nach and Cainneachain {Eiriophorum), 
or bogwool-plant. Diol here means revetige or satisfaction, 
and the name doubtless contains a history. 

Guaraig (Lochan Mhic), the name Kennedy — of old 
Mac-Ualraig, from older Walrick. Mac-Quarrie, Mac- 
Wharrie, is a GaeHc name from guaire, proud, noble. 

Isaac (Port Mhic) is a Biblical name. 

Lachlainn (Bagh) is a Norse name in origin, very 



62 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

likely Loch-lann, or fiord-la?id, itself ; therefore, Mac- 
Lachlan = a son of Scandinavia. 

Mhartain (Loch Mhic). Martin was the famous 
Saint " of Tours " (p. i6i). The fox is strangely enough 
called an gille Martain, perhaps because March (Martius 
mensis) is his favourite time of activity. 

Nechtain (Airidh). This is a Pictish name. It comes 
to us now as Macnaughton. 

Roich (Lochan Mhic a'). Munro, which is of terri- 
torial origin, from Bun-roe, the foot of Roe (Ruaidh), a 
river in co. Derry, from which the family is said to have 
had origin (Mb). 

(3) The Islands. — i Shuna, 2 Luing, 3 Torsay, 4 Seil, 
5 Easdale, 6 Kerrara. 

I. These are all Norse names. 

II. There are no English names, excepting the per- 
sistent translations. Island, Sound, Point. 

III. The Island in which a name occurs is indicated 
by its figure, as above given. 

AchafoUa (2) = achadh + pholla, the gen. pi. of poll, 
puddle ^ pool. There is no kinship with Inver-folla. 

Airdintrive (6) is Aird an t-snaimh, the point at 
which, as in C, cattle swam across to the mainland. 

Aireig (Sgeir na h-) (2), most likely fanciful — the 
gland-shaped skerry. 

Airdanamair (2), Aird -I- an + amair, the bed of a 
river, or stream channel. 

Airdchoric (6) = aird a' choirce, oats- or corn-aird. 

Bach (island) (6) = bac, a bank, hip, ledge of rock. 
N. bak, of same meaning. It is used with the Art. 
am bac. 

Ballahuan (2) = baile a' chuain, lit. ocean steading or 



LORNE 63 

farm, which is quite pertinent, but the shade of differ- 
ence in sound between Cuan and Cumhang, narrow, 
which also is appropriate, is very small. 

B^rr-driseig (2) = Barr + dris, bramble, + aig. 

Bhearnaig (Port a') (6), particularly fitting to the Port 
or bay, which is exactly a notch or a bite. 

Bhreaslaig (Rudha) (6)= Breasail (pers. name) + aig. 

Cr6 (Port nan) {1), pen {io\d)port. 

Ciiise (Sgeir na) (2). It seems impossible to give this 
any meaning, but through cos, a hollow, or a cave, even if 
this gen. form is not familiar. 

Diar (Sgeir) (2). With Sgeir hhmdhQ, yellow skerry, 
Dubh sgeir, black skerry, and Glas-eilean all around it, one 
might readily think that this was Ciar sgeir, hoary skerry, 
especially because Eilean mhic Ciarain is next to it, 
within a quarter of a mile. I venture, however, to 
suggest that it is an(d)iar sgeir, the west skerry, with the 
old d of the art. reasserting itself, as we have it in deigh 
= an(d)eigh, the ice, dearc = an(d)earc, ///^j/><?^i^/^^(one), 
and in many other words. 

Ellery (Hill) (6). See Eleraig (p. 56). 

Feundain (Rudha na) (6), almost certainly funntain, 
the benunibment from cold. It is to be noticed that many 
Points are named in this way — from the exposure entailed 
in " negotiating " them. Compare Rudha nan Amhlais- 
tean, V. 

Figheadair (Sgeir nam) (2), the weavers' skerry. 

Furachail (Binnein) (2), the hill of watchfulness, or the 
watch-hill. 

Griaraidh (Sgeir) (2), from griadhradh, roasting. 

Gylen (na) (6) for gillean, lads — figurative. 

Lkir-bhan (i), the white mare — on the same lines as 
the gamhna, rocks, which are so frequently thus named. 



64 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Redegich (Rudha) (6) — almost certainly for r^itichidh, 
from r^idh, smooth^ r^itich, put things smooth, straight^ 
correct, ready. 

Scanach (Rudha) (6). The word is Gaelic, but not 
now familiar. The root idea is in Sgan, disperse, scatter. 

Seoul (Eilean) (2) — most likely N. skval, a squall. It 
is not Gaelic. 

Slatrach (6) is from slat, a rod, or twig, + ar-ach, the 
place of twigs, doubtless from the woody growth there. 

Toberonochy (2) = tobar Dhonnchaidh, Duncan's 
well. 

IV. Orosaig (Eilean) (6) is Norse, and possibly Culli- 
pol (2). 

V. The Church appears, perhaps, in Eilean mhic 
Ciarain (2), and in Port Phatruic (6). 

VI. Rudha mhic Mharcuis — Mac-Marquis, from old 
Gael, marc, a horse, still remaining in the spoken language 
as marc-aich, a rider. 

Lachlainn (Bagh). See p. 61. 



APPIN 65 



APPIN— AN APUINN 

I have for convenience of reference included in this 
name the whole district from the River Awe to Loch 
Leven. I know that in doing so I am doing wrong, 
because the real Appin was never so extensive as this ; 
but as my purpose is only to examine names, I hope 
this transgression may be overlooked. 

I. The meaning of the district name is clearly the 
Abbey lands pertaining to the Abbacy of Lismore — of 
Cill-mo-Luag — to which full reference is made under 
the Church-names. The older form of the name is 
Abdaine. It is frequent all over the range of the 
Columban Church. It takes the Lat. form Abbatia 
and Abthania in old documents. The Gaelic p comes 
of the double b — Coromarbhsat in Apaidh et xv viros 
do Sruithibh na Cille (I on a). An. Ulst., a.d. 986. 

II. There are not many English names in this large 
area. Such names as Black-crofts are translations. Sea- 
bank is a new name. Dallens is an English plural form, 
added to an already plural Gaelic name — dail-ean, 
fields. 

For purposes of reference, I divide the district into 
two parts. 

(i) West of Loch Etive to the Sea 

The names here are easily understood by one who 
knows them, but many of them have been spoiled 
exceedingly by an English affectation, which, strangely 
enough, has come from within and not from that outside 

E 



66 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

pressure which is so excusable on the Clyde border, for 
instance. Hardly a name has escaped this perversion 
on the low ground. This is now, however, done with. 
The names are as beautiful as ever when stripped of 
their outlandish garments. 

Achacha is achadh a' chadha, the field of the path. 

Achnacone is Achadh-nan-con, the dogfield. 

Achnacree is Achadh-na-craoibhe, treefield. 

Ardentinny is aird an teine, the fire height {note). 

Ardtur = ard an tiiir, the height of the tower. 

Acharra = achadh a' charraigh, the field of the standing 
stones, from carragh. The standing stones are there now. 

Ardochay is ardach, with the loc. ending -aidh, from 
ard, high, + ach + aidh. 

Ardseile = ard + seile. This last part is very old. 
Adamnan, in his Life of St. Columba, calls the Ardna- 
murchan river Sale, and it is Selli in D. L. The source 
of the name is akin to, or the same as, that of seile, 
saliva, still remaining in the Gaelic-spoken language — 
e.g. a' ghlas sheile, the water-brash. Although there is no 
river named Seile near this name now, it may almost be 
taken for certain that the stream flowing into Kintalen 
= Cinn an t-sailean, was so named in the past. The 
word must have been a general term, much the same 
as " Water " is used now in Kintyre — but very long ago. 

Baileveolain = baile a' bheol-ain, from baile + a dim. 
of beul, a mouth, or Beolan, a person name. 

Balloch, with accent on the first syllable, is bealach, 
a pass. 

Barcaldine = am Barr calltuinn, the hazel- Barr. 

Benderloch is beinn (ea)dar(dha)loch, the ben between 
the two lochs — Loch Etive and Loch Creran. This is 
now the district name, but it must have had origin from 



APPIN 67 

some mountain, almost certainly the very fine beinn 
bhreac (2324). Compare Beinn-ralloch and Beinn- 
mhor-luich — the Ben of the great loch (Lomond) — which 
shows a peculiar genitive, the same as in Beochlich. 

Bhocain (Torr a') ^^ bogie" hill {sqq Hill-names). 

Blarcreen = blar + crithinn, aspen-field. 

Camus anfhais is, growth Bay, a reference, no doubt, to 
the good growth which one sees in a specially sheltered 
Camus. This is a very fine example of a Camus. 

Chrinlet (Eas a'). Eas a' chrin-leathaid, from crion, 
very small, and leathad; p. 21. 

Creran (Loch), named upon the river {note\ 

Cuirte (Camus na), court-bay. I cannot say why it is 
so named. 

Culcharan = Ctil, the back of, + c^rn in pi. 

Churalain (Beinn) = Cur (Hill-names) + al + ain. 

Dalachulish = dail a' Chaolais, the field by the Narrow 
(Caolas) on Loch Creran. 

Dalnatrat = dail na traghad, the field by the shore. 
This is an old genitive form. We find traighe, and even 
traigh, frequently in recent names, but tragha and this 
traghad are the old genitives. 

Duirinnis is Norse, = dfr, a deer, or wild animal, + ties, 
and I have wondered if the best explanation of Duror 
may not be found in the same direction ; as d^r+k-r, 
with some word lost at the beginning — some word 
governing the genitive form. 

Etive (Loch, River, and Glen). This is not an easy 
name. Many explanations have been offered, but none 
has been satisfactory. If we examine the name, one or 
two things are clear. First, the name is Gaelic essentially 
in sound and form. The terminal part, which we should 
expect to take the genitive form, is doubtless the locative 



68 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

case-form, with which the GaeHc ear is quite familiar, 
The stem, then, is the only difficulty. There are several 
possibilities. There is 6ite and 6it-eadh, a stretching or 
extending, referred to the same root as is found in Lat. 
i-re, to go. This is quite pertinent and appropriate to this 
fine far-extending river and glen. There is again eit-ich, 
fierce, or gloomy, although this, being an adjective, seems 
to be out of the question. And there is dit-eag, a white 
pebble, which could easily give name to the river. I 
prefer to offer another rendering. The old Gaelic for 
cattle was ^t and even ^t-ibh, the exact form as it stands. 
This is the root element in feudail, cattle, in even the 
present-day speech = (f)-^t-ail. My defence of this in- 
terpretation, or rather my great witness, is that the 
grand Buachaill-Etive, the herdsman of Etive, is there 
looking after his cattle in the fine valley below. The 
name comes, as is almost always the case, from the river, 
and comparative instances are abundant — eg. Echaig and 
Gour, from horse and goat, in the rivers of that name. 

Faodhail (Loch). See General Terms, p. 15. 

Fasnacloich = fasadh na cloiche. The first part is a 
fairly common element in names. It carries the mean- 
ing of a point of land, level always and green, with a 
dwelling-house, or steading, upon it. The Fasadh- 
fe^ma on Loch-Eil is a good instance, 

Fiannaidh (Sgorr nam) = sgorr nam JBann(t)-aidh, the 
heath-berry, Sgorr. 

Fraochaidh is the heather-y place ; a good example of 
the locative form, which usually appears with terminal 
-ie and -y, as in Largie, Lorgie, Tangy, &c. 

Gaoirean (Allt nan). It is strange not to find this 
word in the dictionaries, but it is a well-known Gaelic 
word. It means the dry dung of animals. 



APPIN 69 

Invernahyle = inbher na h-iola. lola here takes a 
Gaelic genitive form, but whether the word itself is 
Gaelic is open to doubt. lola is Gaelic for a fishing-rock, 
and it is quite possible here, but it is not probable. It 
is very interesting to notice that while this name takes 
the Gaelic article, Inverfolla does not. The river Folia 
is not now so named, although Inverfolla is there, show- 
ing without doubt that Foll-a was the name of the stream 
which joins the lola, about a mile up. There are one 
or two points of interest. lola, Illie, and Isla are 
frequent river-names. They are very old, and they 
almost certainly convey the same meaning. The root 
idea has been referred to the same as that in Lat. 
i-re, to go, or in this, to flow. The name may, therefore, 
be old Keltic. On the other hand, we must observe that 
the Norseman shows himself distinctly in this neighbour- 
hood. There is Erlska and Shuna, and especially Glen- 
stocka-dale in the next valley, so that with the terminal 
-d, the Norse for river, in both lola and Folia, we may 
be excused a suspicion that both names are really 
Norse. 

Kintalen is Cinn an t-sailean, the head of the Sailean, 
and a very good example of a Sailean. 

Lair (Lochan an), level ground, a plain, a floor, in the 
sense that "the floor of the glen" is spoken of — in fact 
lar is the same word 2iS floor in origin. 

Leich is for leth-ach, and leideag is of the same kind 
= leth-ad-ag, where leth is a half, or a side, of a valley or 
district. 

Lora is "Ossianic" and modern. 

Lurgan (Beinn mo), a shank, shin-bone, tibia. One of 
the body-names (p. 7), although it is awkward to find 
the accent on mo in the Survey rendering. 



70 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Muidhe (Leac nam) is a churn — the flag-stone of the 
churns. 

PoUanach = poll, a vmd-hole or pool 4- an-ach. 

Salachail = saile, willow^ -\- choill, wood. 

Selma is from the same source as Lora. 

Sgluich (Beinn) and Sguiliaird (Beinn) I am not able 
to explain satisfactorily. 

Shenvalie = sean-bhaile, old farm. This is Shambelly, 
in Bute 1 

Sian = sithean, a fairy-know e. 

Stairchaol = staidhir, a stair, -f- caol. 

Teitheil (Rudha and River) is from teth, hot, ■\- ail = 
(s)amhail, similis. This is most likely the explanation of 
the curious name Teatle (p. 72). 

Trilleachan (Ard and Beinn), the pied oyster-catcher. 

Triochadain (Loch and Achadh), trioch, a stripe, 
+ ad -1- an. 

Tynribbie = tigh an ribidh. Ribe is a snare, from 
verb rib, snare, therefore the house of the snaring, 
without doubt ; but what is the history of this house ? 



(2) East of Loch Etive 

Ceitlein (Allt and Beinn) — cannot now explain. 

CochuU is the same essentially as Lat. cucullus, a 
hood, but in Gaelic usage it is applied to the outer skin, 
or husk, of fruit, as cochuU end, a nut husk. 

Coileter = coill, wood + leitir (p. 21). 

Copagach (Meall). Cop -H ag-ach, the docken-d^ah., the 
place of the cop-ag, which is dim. of cop, a top, or 
head, akin to German kopf, a head, referring doubtless 
to the floral head of the plant. 



APPIN 71 

Crulaist. The H. S. D. says a rocky hilly and Mb. 
suggests a derivation from cruaidh, hard. 

Dalmally is certainly from a different source from 
that of KilmaiUie, which is explained (p. 75). The native 
pronunciation encourages the interpretation of a wet 
land, which is, in all instances, apparently correct. 

Dalness is dail an eas, the field by the (rough) stream. 

Dochaird = doch + aird, from dabhach, an old land- 
measure at first, and meaning a vat, but in some peculiar 
way has got transferred to be a measure of land, as, say, 
so much as a vat of corn would sow. 

Dychlie = dubh + choille, the dark wood. 

Eilde (Lairig). Lairig (p. 17) + eilde, gen. sing, of 
eilid, a hind. 

Eileandonich is eilean + d6mhnaich, Lat. dominica. 

Eunaich (Beinn) is from eun, a bird ; so, eunach is 
a birding, therefore a shooting. 

Fiodhan (River) = fiodh, wood, + an, which last part is 
frequent in river-names. This is the wooded river. This 
same word is the name for the strong wooden frame in 
which the native cheese is, or at any rate used to be, shaped. 

Gearr (Eas na) is the rough mountain stream (eas) of the 
hare. The word gearr, for hare, is not commonly used in 
Argyll, but in this name I think it is unquestionable. 
The word is really the Adj. gearr, short ; and in old 
Gaelic the hare was gearr-fhiadh, short deer. The 
adjective only now remains for the whole name. 

Ghartain (Lairig and Allt a'), a variant of goirtean. 

Glenorchy is in Gaelic gleann iirchaidh [note). 

Glenure is gleann iubhair, the glen of the yew-tree. 

Inion is na h-inghnean, the nails of the hand, another 
of the body-names. This is more likely the correct 
rendering of Inens, C. 



72 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Innishail, said to be Pauls island {note). 

Inveresragan = inbher + eas-ar-ag-ain. Eas is a rough 
mountain stream, and a water-fall. 

Inverfolla. See Invernahyle. 

Glenstrae = gleann + s(t)rath ? {note). 

Hallater (AUt) = allt thaobh, side, + leitir. 

Inver-ghiubhsachain = inbher + guibhsach + ain. See 
Fiodhain for meaning of terminal -ain. 

Inverkinglas is another inver, and points to a Fin- 
glas, although it is then difficult to account for the k 
in the name, unless it be for Cinn-glas, the end, or the old 
inver of the glas = river. 

Inverlochy, another inver, of loch-aidh, the terminal 
being a common river-ending, like -aig and -ain. Loch 
is an old Gaelic word for dark ; therefore, the inver of the 
dark river. 

Leven and Liver, from lighe, a flood, stream, overflow 

(PP- 59; 77)- 

Mhoirlich (Meall a') the gen. of m6r + loch. 

Oe (Abhainn and Gleann). " Fionn," who knows, if 
any one does, assures me that this is Abhainn and Gleann 
nodha, nodha meaning, of course, new, or recent. If there 
was any distinct change in the river course the name 
would be sufficiently explained. If there may be funda- 
mental objection to this, which I certainly cannot see, 
we must fall back upon the Norse haug-r^ a ^^ howe," 
mound, or cairn, as the essential part. 

Riaghain (Meall). Riagh is a snare (round the neck), 
and riaghan is, therefore, the gallows. I do not know 
the local history. 

Starav (Beinn). This can only be the same stem as 
in Starabhanach, a strongs stout person, or even animal. 

Teatle (River and Aird). See Teitheil, p. 70. 



APPIN 73 

IV. The Norse names in this district are few. They 
are all on the west : Erlska, Shuna, Glen-stocka-dal, 

Dlurlnnis. The last two are hybrids — the last taking 
the Gaelic innis instead of the Norse -& = ey. 

V. Church-names also are not numerous. There is 
a nameless Kiel, and Ard-Chattain (p. 175), and Eilean 
Choinnich, and Eilean Mhuinde, and Beinn Mhaol- 
Chaluim, and that is all. 

VI. The Personal names are in Baile mhic Cailein, 
the farm of Mac-Cailein. The names here need not have 
reference to the family of Argyll, although Mac-Cailein 
is the familiar Gaelic name for the Duke of Argyll. 
The name is simply Colin s son. 

Dhomhnaill (Sgorr) — already explained. 

Fhionnlaigh (Beinn), Mount-Finlay. The name seems 
to be Gaelic in both parts = fionn,y^z>, + laoch, a hero. 

Ghoiridh (Coire). This name is common, especially 
among the Macleods and Macdonalds of the Western 
Isles, which would suggest that its origin was Norse, as 
it almost certainly was, even if it travelled all the way 
round from the Teutonic Gott-fried, ^'God's peace," or its 
forebears. 

(3) LiSMORE = Lios-Mor 

I. The name of the island is Gaelic in both parts — 
lAo^, a garden, and the adj. mor. This is the ordinary 
and local acceptance, but in older Gaelic lios was a 
stronghold, or fort ; and, for so small an island, it is 
remarkable how many Duns, ov forts, are there : an Dun, 
the fort ; Sean Dun, the old fort ; Dun m6r, the great fort, 
from which perhaps the name ; Dun-chruban, Diin- 
cuilein, and Acha-Dun, fort-field, from a nameless fort 



74 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

on the west coast — so that a suspicion arises whether 
the name may not be from the great fort. 

IL There are no English names. 

in. Bachuill seems to be ba + choill, cattle-wood, but 
in a district so full of the Church it is not impossible 
that this is from gen. of bachuU, a crozier, with some 
governing word fallen out. 

Balnasack = baile nan sac, sack-farm, 

Choirce (Tlr a'), the corn-land. 

Dobhrain (Bagh clach an), otter-stone Bay. 

Eithir (Sloe an), from eathar, a ship, boat. 

Faire (Tom na), watching, guarding — the watch-hill. 

Sgeir sgoraig, the notch (sgor), skerry, both parts 
possibly Norse sker and skor + aig. 

IV. Bemera (island), Frackersaig, and Pladda (island) 
are Norse ; Rudha kicd-Sirianish, Eilean Musdile, Eilean 
Loch Oscairj and Lochan TreshtU are mixtures. 

V. The Church names are numerous, for the size of 
the island. Oill-ma-luag was the name of the principal 
church, and there is Port-ma-luag on the north-east 
coast (see p. 172). There is also Port Cill-chiarain, 
Killean = Cill-sheathain = John, Killandrist = Oill-And- 
rais, and Sloe a' Bhrigide and Ach-na-croise, the field of 
the cross, and the remains of a chapel on Bernera. 

VI. Personal names are wanting. 



KILMAILLIE 75 

KILMAILLIE— CILL A' MHAILUIBH 

I. This name has hitherto been made into Kilmary, 
but it is quite impossible to accept this rendering. The 
natives always call the district Cill a' mh^iluibh, as given 
above, a name which is well worth examining. There can 
be no doubt that the first syllable is an old AT/Z-name ; and 
because of that the second part must be in genitive 
form. It is so. The Article is in the genitive, and so 
also must be the Noun following, with which it agrees, 
and both forms are masculine, and not feminine. The 
part now written m^il is old mael, the tonsured one (Lat. 
calvus), which we have remaining with us in the name 
Macmillan (Macmhaoilean, or Mac(a'gh)-ille mhaoil) to 
this day. The terminal syllable is the only difficulty. 
Its form would suggest a dative plural case, but that is 
quite impossible when all the rest is a gen. sing, mas- 
culine. This compels us to see that this part cannot 
then be a Noun, but an Adjective, and without doubt 
dubh, black. The name, therefore, means the Kil of 
the black monk^ or of Maeldubh, for though the term is 
clearly a general term in its origin, it seems to have 
hardened into the personal name of certain men of the 
brotherhood, and that long ago. 

It is surely interesting to find that Fintan, whose 
name is so well known in this neighbourhood, was a 
mael-dubh. In Kal. under Oct. 20, we find pais eutaic 
lafintan maeldubh, the passion of Eutychius with Fintan 
Maeldubh. This seems to be as suggestive as anything 
can well be, from that long time, that Fin(t)an of Eilean 
Fhianain was the founder of the Black-friars' Church of 
Kilmaillie, of which, even to this day, part of the walls 
remains in the old churchyard. He may have been 



76 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

called Maeldubh from personal appearance, but far more 
likely, as I have suggested, from the habit of the brother- 
hood. Those black-friars were the historical forebears 
of the present Benedictines. It was Maeldubh, or a 
mael-dubh, who founded the famous Benedictine Abbey 
at Glastonbury, in Somerset, which, according to Cormac, 
was "a town of Alban," and which, strangely enough, 
has a very large place in very old Gaelic tradition. A 
Mailduff also was founder of Malmesbury, in Wilts, the 
very fine abbey of which still includes part of the walls 
of the old monastery. The old name of Malmesbury 
was Mailduff's-burg. 

The old names, or forms, of the Lochaber Kilmaillie 
are : Kilmalduff (1304), Kilmald (1372), Kilmalzhe (1492), 
Kilmalye (1493), Kilmalyhe (1495), Kilmailzie (1695) — all 
which goes to show that the origin of the name here 
offered is almost certainly correct. 

In a confirmation by Robert III. of certain lands in 
this district to " Reginal de Insulis," there occurs "terra 
de Kylmald," with a stroke across the stem of the d, 
indicating a final vocalic syllable which was not written. 
This again suggests that the gen. of dubh is the last part 
of the name, and this finally gives the native pronuncia- 
tion to complete exactness. 

It must, however, be mentioned that the stream flow- 
ing by the church and churchyard of Kilmaillie is Allt 
Ciiil a' Chiarain, the burn flowing by Si. Ciaran's Retreat. 
If I knew that Ciaran was a mael dubh, which he 
most likely was, I should have put him for Fintan in all 
that goes before. The Annaid, quite near, with other 
things, gives the suggestion that there must have been a 
considerable monastery near to where now stands the 
parish church. 



KILMAILLIE 77 

II. There are no English names, but there has been 
a steady tendency to give English form to the native 
names." 

III. There are some very interesting and old names. 
Achdaliew is locally pronounced achadh d^ leth-6, 

with this last sound short, the only doubtful part of the 
name. With leth-bheinn, implying clearly another leth- 
bheinn, or half-hill^ or hill on one side with another 
opposite, standing over the achadh, I offer Achadh da 
leth-(th)aobh, the field with the two (half) hill-sides. 

Banavie = banbh-aidh, ///^ //«^^ ^/z'^j. One reliable 
authority gives banbh as name for land left unploughed 
for a year — but there is little room to doubt the meaning 
here given. The end part is that so often met as -ie, 
and -y. 

Chamaghail is for cam + dail, therefore rightly a' 
cham(a)dhail the curved field; it is in a bend of the river 
Lochy. 

Chl^ireig (Aodann), is clearly aodann, a face (p. 7) + 
a stream name now lost. Compare Beag-aig, Suil-eig, 
quite near. 

Corpach, see p. 14. 

Dogha (Allt) and macan-dogha is burdock. 

Drumnasaille is druim + saill, fat^ rather than saile, 
willow — evidently a good farm, 

Dubh-lighe and Fionn-lighe, the black and the white 
rivers. This lighe is not now used in the spoken lan- 
guage, but the root li- is frequent in river-names. In 
Welsh, a stream or flood is Hi, which indicates the Gaelic 
pronunciation even better than the native form. 

Gulvain = gaothail + bheinn, windy mount. 

Loy (river and Glen) = laoigh, from \zsi^,calf. Com- 
pare Gour, Eachaig, Tairbh, &c., into which animal 



78 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

names come. The river is really outside Argyll, but I 
have taken it in as an illustration. 

Laragain (Gleann) must be from lar, floor (p. 69), 
or from lairig", which is doubtful. 

Muirshirlich is very interesting. The correct native 
name is mor-, or, perhaps better, mur-siar-luich, and I 
venture a peculiar rendering. I take the last syllable to 
be the gen. of loch, as in Ben Vorlich = beinn a' mhor- 
luich ; siar is west — the motion-to form ; and the mur is, 
I suggest, for old mul, an eminence, and I think I have 
met the name so spelled in records. This is the first 
point from which a traveller coming down the Great 
Glen sees the western sea — Loch-Linnhe ; therefore, the 
eminence of the Western Loch (Linnhe) — Se non ^ vero k 
ton trovato ! 

Onfhaidh (Meall) is stormy hill. 

Putachan. See in K. (p. 30). 

Srachdach (an), better Sracach, from srac, tear; there- 
fore, the torn hill. 

Siiileig (river), is from siiil, the eye, perhaps having re- 
ference to the " eye " of its source. This is the gen. form 
of siiil-eag, governed by, say abhainn and gleann. 

Uamhachan (na h-) = na h-uamh + ach-an, a peculiar 
form of the plural not now used much. The Survey has 
the name as Wauchan ! It is Nahoacho in a grant of 
James IV. (1493), which perhaps deserves quoting. The 
grant is to Johannus Makgilleoun de Lochboye of lands 
(i) "in dominio de Morwarn " he gives the lands of 
Achenbeg, Yecomys, Kowelkelis, Achafors, Achena- 
gawyn, Henyng beg, Areangus, Corosmedyll, Cleynland, 
Carmawin. 

(2) "In Locheale infra dominium de Lochabria" — 
terras de Banvy, Mikeannich, Fyelin, Creglong, Corpich, 



KILMAILLIE 79 

Inverate, Achido, Killmalye, Achmoleag, Drumfair- 
molach, Faneworwille, Fasefarna,StonsonIeak,Correbeag, 
Achitolleoun, Drumnasalze, Culenape, Nahoacho, Clere- 
chaik, Mischerolach, Crew, Salachan, et dimidiam Lyn- 
dally. 

(3) And Achlenan, Drummyn, Achywale, Auchtycht, 
in Arnfflane, Aldachonnych, Dowderre, Yaore, Derna- 
mart, Barr — " in dominio de Moravia (sic.) Vic, In- 
verness." 

This is a very good example of the very mixed forms 
of these old documents. They are wretchedly done, by 
persons who knew nothing at all of the names nor of 
their meanings, and evidently were not keen to know. 
One can see at a glance that there is not much to be 
learned from documents such as this, and certainly 
nothing adequate to the time wasted in examining them. 
One breath of the native speech, guided by the true 
native ear and understanding, is worth more than 
"departments" of this stuff — for the present purpose, 
and perhaps for any or every purpose. 

IV. There are no Norse names in Kilmaillie. 

V. No Church-names — except the district name, and 
one or two side-names already mentioned. 

VI. There is not one Personal name, and that surely 
is not because there was not a man in Kilmaillie or 
Lochaber worth naming in this way. There were many. 



8o THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

ARD-GOWER— AlRD-GHOBHAR 

I. The first part of the name is aird certainly, and the 
second part has been always taken to be the gen. plural 
of gobhar, a goat. The meaning of the name would thus, 
and therefore, be the height of the goats, or the high goat- 
land, and there is nothing in the name to contradict this 
rendering. Some have, however, raised doubts, because 
the natives say Gleann na gobhar, so making the word 
gobhar, or the word so pronounced, apply primarily to 
the river, from which it was, as is almost always the case, 
carried on to the land-names of the Glen and the district. 
I have heard Corran dirde goibhre spoken of locally, 
which would seem to be confirmation that gobhar, 
a goat, is the essential in the name, unless indeed it may 
be taken to point another way. This expression uses 
the singular genitive ; the district name uses a plural. 
The singular form, without doubt, refers to the river- 
name as singular, and whether it is a piece of folk 
etymology is not easy to determine. The river-names of 
Gaelic are feminine, but that may be because they follow 
the grammatical gender of abhainn, a river, which is 
feminine always. The river-name of the district is the 
Gour, assumed to be gobhar, and this is neither im- 
possible nor improbable. It is remarkable how many 
rivers are named upon animals. A difficulty has been 
raised in that the natives say Gleann na gobhar, which 
would throw the whole burden of the name upon the river, 
and would leave the meaning of the river-name in doubt ; 
but, on the other hand, it has been denied altogether that 
the article na appears in the name, but only a bridge- 
tone, as Gleann (a) gobhar which helps, or is necessary 



ARD-GOWER 81 

to, the pronunciation. Lochan nan gobhar is on the river 
course, and regarding this or its clear meaning there can 
be no doubt. So it is almost quite safe to say that 
the Gaelic gobhar, a goaty is here the principal element 
in the name. 

II. There are no English names, and no attempt 
to translate. 

III. The grammar and form of names are good. In 
fact, one wonders whether the touch of a vanished hand, 
that of the lovely man and scholar of Kilmaillie, is not 
yet visible in these names on both sides of Loch Eil. 
There are not many troublesome names. 

Achafubil = achadh a' phubaill, tent-field (Lat. papilio ; 
Eng. pavilion). 

Arihoulan = ^iridh Ualain = Valentines ^iridh, a 
name which was not uncommon in the old time. 

Beathaig (Mam), a stream-name + mam (Hills). 

Bheitheachain (Creag) is beithe, birch, + ach-ain. 

Blathaich = blath, warm, sheltered^ + aidh. 

Callop = calpa, the calf of the leg — a body-name. 

Chreagain (Sron a'), would point to the rock — i.e. 
knowe — but the local pronunciation is Sron a' chrith-eag- 
ain, which would, if that was possible, and I am not able 
to say, make the name aspen-tree knowe or nose. 

Clovulin = cladh, burial-place by the mill. 

Conaghleann = the river-name + gleann {note). 

Conaire, from con, dogs, or con, together {note). 

Duisky = dubh-uisge, black water stream. 

Garbhan = garbh, rough, + dim. -an (p. 41). 

lall (Loch), from iall (pi.), a thong {note). 

Salachan = seileach-an, the place of the willows, -f- 
dim. -an. 

Sleaghach (Doire), from sleagh, a spear, + ach. 

F 



82 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Tarbert, here, as in other places, is from Loch (Eil) 
to Loch (Shiel). See p. 20. 

IV. There are a few Norse names along the coast. 
Camus nan Gall and Eilean nan Gall are a memorial 
of the Viking-r. Trlsleig is a Norse-named bay. Inver- 
scaddle, which is inbher-sca^-cfa//, is Norse in its last 
two parts. The river may have been named Scat by 
the Norseman, whence Scat-dale, which the native 
thought was the river-name, and he prefixed his own 
inbher. The only Norse word which seems to fit the 
name is scat, a tax, or rent, and therefore it might be 
rent-dale, for some reason of Viking=r economics that 
perhaps can never be known. Inversanda = inbher 
sand -\- a, river. Feith, a bog — Feith-raoiceadail suggests 
Norse, but it is a simple and common Gaelic form from 
raoic, roar, or bellow. 

V. There is only one Church-name, Kiel, in the district. 

VI. Bheathain (Stob mhic) is in English form 
Macbean, Macbain, Macvean, &c., from beatha, life — 
therefore, " son of life." 

Eacharn (Sgorr mhic). The name comes from each, 
horse, -f tighearna, lord., or knight. There is in the Book 
of Leinster^ referring to a raid into Kintyre, tain teora 
nerc ecdach, with which it is surely interesting to 
compare Ptolemy's Epidium Proinontorium, and Prof. 
MacKinnon's observation that this was the primal home 
of the MacEacherns. 

Mhic a' Phee (his Camus). This is one of the oldest 
personal Gaelic names in existence. It is dubh + sith, 
the black (one) of peace. It is in Irish names common as 
Duffy. Its plan and concept go far away beyond those 
of even our old names. 



SUNART 83 



S U N ART— SU AINE ART 

I. This is a purely Norse nd.me = Sweyn's fjord or 
/rt/A. The name is found as Swynwort (1392), Swyn- 
fiurd (1499), Soynfort (1505), Swnorthe (1517), Swynfurd 
(1543), called "Isle of Shunard" (1667), and Swenard 
(1723) — all of which leaves no doubt as to the origin 
of the name. The "Isle of Shunard" has its ex- 
planation in "TheTarbert" from Loch Linne to Loch 
Sunart, although it does not make an isle of Sunart 
but of Morven — in the same sense as Kintyre was made 
an island (p. 20). It often happens that a sea-name 
is transferred to the land and is again, as here, also 
carried back to the sea. Suaineart was a sea-name 
at first ; then, the district was named Suaineart, and 
then the district name was again carried back to 
the sea — as Loch Sunart. There is a Suaine-port a 
few miles down the loch, and Loch Sween in K. is 
almost certainly of the same origin. The Sweyn who 
made his mark was a Dane, father of the Canute of 
British history. He overcame Norway about A.D. 1000, 
and England some years later, and in the meantime 
the whole west of Scotland. 

II. The English names are few, and they are mostly 
all translations, hke Longrigg,for lomaire fada and Wood- 
end for old Ceann na coille. Scotstown is a memory 
of the time when Lowlanders went there to work the 
lead-mines. It is remarkable that they were looked 
upon as " Scots " and strangers. Bellgrove is modern, 
and strongly out of place. 

III. The Gaelic names are good. They are not 
well rendered by the Survey, but to me, knowing them 



84 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

well, they present no difBculty. Some are, however, 
of sufficient interest for note. 

Achnanlia on Loch Sunart, even if familiar, offers 
suggestions. There is old lia, a stone, which fits it 
perfectly, and there is liagh, a ladle, which also is 
quite possible, if we remember the constant factor of 
imagination and of accident in these names — therefore, 
achadh nan lia, stone-field, or achadh nan liagh, ladle- 
field. 

Albannaich (Beinn an) and Sron a' Bhreatunnaich 
are peculiar, in that the "Scot" and the "Briton" 
are marked and commemorated as outsiders. The 
whole history of Argyll is consistent with this feeling. 
The "Scot" is historically supposed to have come from 
Ireland — from the Irish Scotia — but one thing is ab- 
solutely certain, that he has not left a single fragment 
of his name in Argyll, and it is certain also that he 
was looked upon as coming from east of Drum-Alban, 
whatever the explanation may be, rather than from 
the west. It is almost certain that the Briton of Strath- 
Clyde found his way more or less effectively into the 
county, as many of the names show. 

Aisridh (Meall an) is for ais-ruighe. The ais here 
is only heard in a few phrases of the language now, 
usually with Verbs of Motion, e.g. thainig e air ais, 
chaidh h air ais, he came (or wejit) back. The best 
rendering would be something like counter-rm^'^, with 
which may be compared oi(d)-tir, and frith-allt, and 
many other names. 

Anaheilt is for ath, the ford of the eilid (6ilde) a hind. 

Camusine is for Camus eidhinn. Ivy-bay. 

Ceanna garbh, on Loch Shiel, shows a peculiar 
development in the final a of the first part. There is 



SUNART 85 

no reason to look upon the form as plural, and this 
a is very rarely met with in singular forms, unless it 
be in river (glen) names, such as Gleann(a) Comhann, 
Gleann(a) M^ilidh, Gleanii(a) Cingidh, in which I have 
myself ventured to suggest that the Article appeared 
— Gleann na Comhann, Gleann na Mailidh, Gleann na 
Cingidh, and 1 must say that I am even now more 
strongly of this mind. The meaning of Ceanna garbh 
is the rough hmd-\a,nd, which is quite descriptive. 

C6mh-dhail — pr. co-ail (Carn m6r na) is 1800 feet up, 
on the western shoulder of big Ben Resipol, the big cairn 
of the meeting, the great cairn which marked the meeting- 
place where the kind people of Moidart and Loch Shiel 
"met the body" on its way to Eilean Fhianain, borne 
so far upon the strong shoulders of the men of the 
Sunart side. The poor clay, whatever its merit or de- 
merit in life, became in death the sacred common 
property and responsibility of all, when he who was 
the strongest and best forgave most, and forgot every- 
thing but his duty to the highest. This name remains, 
and let us hope the Cam m6r, for ever, as the memory 
and memorial of an exquisite humanity, and of a man- 
liness which "the miserable sons of arithmetic and of 
prudence" have not understood, and have not now 
any hope of ever being able to understand. " Mar ghath 
soluis do m' anam f^in tha sgeula na h-aimsir a dh- 
fhalbh." 

an Crasg, on Loch Shiel, is an across-\?Lnd. It is 
from the same source as cross and cross-ag, which latter 
would be possible only for the grammatical gender-form, 
which for crasg here is Masculine, and makes crass-ag 
not possible. 

Dig is here always a ditch There are three of them 



86 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

flowing into the lower end of Loch Shiel — Dig na criche, 
the march ditch, Dig a' bhogha, the bow ditch, and Dig an 
sgulain, the ditcJi of the wicker-basket. 

Crudh an eich, also on Loch Shiel, is the horse-shoe, 
simply descriptive of the shape of the Point. There is 
another at Kerrara. 

Loch an Duileat is for Loch an duibh-leathaid, named 
upon the leitir dhubh rising from it. 

Creag an Eighich is the rock of the echo — although, in 
speech, the first syllable of eighich has become short, 
where it is naturally long. 

Frith-allt (Leac nam), the leac of the parallel streams, 
or the streams against each other. This frith is the old 
Gaelic Preposition, which now remains in the language 
as ri, e.g. riumsa = frith-um-sa, Lat. vers-us me. There are 
about twenty of these streams within a mile and a half, 
beyond Goirtean-Mhoirein, flowing practically parallel 
into Loch Shiel. 

Lochan bac an lochain is a peculiar Gaelic repetition. 
The bac is named on the lochan, and then again the 
Lochan is named on Bac an lochain. 

Torran nam mial shows a peculiar change in the value 
of a word. Mial now is a louse always, but in old com- 
binations it simply means an animal, or, rather, a wild 
animal, whence mial-chii, a deer-hound, or wild animal 
hound. The name was applied to a deer, hare, whale, &c. 

Meille (Coire na) is the "corrie" of the cheek-^vdiO.. 
Meill is old Gaelic for the cheeky and with the name may be 
compared the Norse name Kina-bus, Chin-town, I. This 
meille is the genitive of meill. 

Polloch = poll (an) locha, Loch-pool. 

Resaurie = (an) ruighe samhraidh, the summer shelling 
(see p. 19). 



SUNART 87 

Sailean (see p. 19), There are three Saileans in the 
west-southern corner of Sunart — the Sailean proper, 
Sailean nan cuileag (J//^^-Sailean), and Sailean an 
e6ma, the dar/ej'Sa,ilea,n. They are all good examples. 
The Sailean Dubh, on Loch Shiel, is interesting as a 
Sailean where there is no s^ile — that is, no sea-water, 
It is either a comparison with, or an imitation of, the 
sea-name, or is it a memory of the time, long ago, when 
Loch Shiel itself was sea. This last is altogether unlikely. 

Slinndrich (Torr na). This word is not given in our 
dictionaries, but it means, as nearly as possible, the 
''jingling" of a chain, or a sound of that kind. The 
"clanking" of a heavy chain is not near the meaning, 
nor the " tinkling " of a small chain. It is the medium 
sound — which I have heard applied to the noise pro- 
duced by shells on the sea-shore falling and rubbing 
over each other. 

IV. Norse names are not many. Sunart itself, and 
Resipol, and Scamtnadal are clearly Norse. The Cnap 
need not be looked upon as Norse, and Ariundail is 
doubtful. 

V. The Church names are all on Loch Shiel. Eilean 
Fhianain (St. Finan's Isle) is there, about six miles up the 
loch, and his Chapel is on the island, and his Well is on 
the mainland (Tobar Fhianain). In the near neighbour- 
hood are Camus-Bhlathain (p. 175), Goirtean Mhoirean 
(p. 185), and Allt MhicCiarain. The name of Glenfinnan 
is not related to the name of St. Finnan. It is Gleann 
Fhion-abhainn, the glen of the clear, or bright, river, pro- 
nounced natively, as nearly as possible, the same as the 
name MacKinnon = Mac find-gen =/rtz>-(^c?r«. See Fion- 
abhainn and Inverinan. 

VI. There is quite a number of Personal names. No 



88 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

man in the history of time has had a more magnificent 
monument to his memory than the man immortalised in 
the name of Sgurr(a) Dhomhnaill, and yet this man is as 
utterly unknown as death can make him. A Donald, 
surely of some sort of importance in his day — perhaps a 
Lochiel, perhaps a zany — but now indistinguishably lost. 
There is Eilean mhic Dhomh'aill duibh, on Loch Shiel, 
down below, and Lochan Mhic'ille dhuibh half way 
between, 

Ruighe-Raonaill gives a Norse name from rdgn-valdr, 
a ruler from the gods, with the Gaelic ruighe. 

AUt-Eachain might suggest the name Eachann, now 
rendered Hector, but I am confident that the name is 
Each + -ain, horse-Water, with which compare Each-aig 
and others. The distinguishing point here is most diffi- 
cult to convey. The Gaelic ear will recognise at once 
the small but essential tinge of difference between AUt- 
Eachain and AUt-Eachuinn. The two names are the 
same in the first part, Each = //^rj^. It is in the second 
they differ, the one being a stream, the other a warrior, 

Ciarain (Lochan mhic) should perhaps be referred to 
the Church-names. See Ciaran, p. 170. The name is 
from ciar, dusky — therefore, the dusky one — a personal 
characteristic. 



ARDNAMURCHAN 89 



ARDNAMURCHAN— ARDNAMURUCHAN 

This name is Gaelic in all its parts, and still it is 
not understood by even the Gaelic people. The first 
part Ard, a height, has been explained (p. 10) ; the nam, 
of which the m disappears by overlapping with the other 
following, is the gen. pi. of the article ; the end part 
— muruchan — itself of necessity a gen. pi. — is the difficult 
part. Some have said that the name is Ard na mor 
chuan, the height of the great seas, and others that it may 
be Ard nam murchon, the height of the sea-hounds, the 
Gaelic form being an old name for whales. The name 
is, however, locally and correctly pronounced as a word 
of five syllables, corresponding as nearly as possible to 
the Gaelic form given above. I have therefore thought 
that there is not any word in Gaelic, neither now nor in 
the older language, which more fitly fills the place and 
fits the circumstances, than the word mnrdhuchan, which 
has been rendered as mermaids, sea-nymphs, or sirens, 
or, as might be said, the sighing sad-ones (dubhach-an) 
of the sea, for that was the Gaelic concept of the 
mermaid-kind. In a land full of poetic imagination and 
expression, this rendering is not only possibly true but is 
very likely to be so. There certainly cannot be any 
fault to find with it from the side of language. Ard 
na mur(dh)uchan, the height of the sea-nymphs, is there- 
fore offered as the best interpretation of the name that I 
can give. In an old Gaelic text, Cath Fitttragha, the 
word is finely used : Is ann sin imoro ro eirgeadar na 
gaetha ocus roardaigheadar na tonna conach cualadar- 
san enni acht imall mear maithreac na murdhucann, 
and then indeed arose the winds, and the waves o^rew hisrh. 



90 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

so that they heard nothing but the furious mad sporting of 
the mermaids. 

A new meaning of the name has been suggested 
lately by the distinguished scholar who is Bodley's 
librarian at Oxford. Adamnan, in his Life of St. Columba, 
has occasion to mention Ardnamurchan a few times. 
In one place he writes the name Ardtamuirchol, and 
in another place he gives the dative form Ardtaibmuirchol. 
The interest is in the last syllable of this form of the 
name. Dr. Reeves, in his magnificent rendering of 
Adamnan's work, explained -col as hazel, the present 
call-tunn. This would be quite acceptable if we were 
compelled to believe that Adamnan's form was correct. 
Mr. Nicholson, however, gives another meaning. He 
says that this is the height of the sea (or Passage) of ^oll, 
the island, which lies some ten miles west and south 
of the Point. This, however, is exposed to the further 
and fatal objection that if, as is almost certain, the 
Norseman gave its name to Coll, then it was not so 
named in Adamnan's time. It is perfectly safe to trust 
the native spoken transmission of the name, for any 
length of time, especially in a place so far removed from 
outside influences as this is, and there never has been any 
suggestion of Adamnan's form in the native speech. 
Old written forms of the name are Ardenmurich (1293), 
Ardnamurchin (1307), Ardnamurchan (1336), Ardna- 
murcho (1478), Ardmurquhane (1494), Ardnamurchane 
(1515), Ardnamurquhan (1519), Ardnamorquhy (1550). 
"The Clan Ean Murguenich were the old inhabitants," 
we are told by one of the best writers upon Scottish 
history — Cosmo Innes. He did not know Gaelic, nor 
the Gaelic method. There never was any such clan. 
The Muruchanaich were, and are, the native people, 



ARDNAMURCHAN 91 

named upon the place in shortened form, the same way 
as Lochaber men and Kintyre men are spoken of as 
Abaraich and Tirich. Ian Murchanach was one of the 
Ardnamurchan people, the chief among them almost 
certainly, and they were named his clan because he was 
their Chief, as we have the Clan Ronalds and others. 

II. English names are few. Shielfoot is simply the foot 
of Shiel river. It is Bun na h-abhann locally ; but 
there is the other genitive in Meall bun na h-aibhne. 
Newton, Braehouse, Camphouse, Horsgate, Raelands, 
are of no interest, unless the last is a hybrid of Gaelic 
with English =reidh, levels + lands, which is appropriate. 

III. The grammar of names is here, upon the whole, 
good. Lochan na caisil and Loch a' chaisil, the one Fern, 
the other Masc, within a short distance of each other, is, 
however, peculiar. The difference can only be explained 
by full local knowledge. There is a Gaelic Fem. noun 
which fits the first name and conditions well, and there 
IS a Masc. noun of the same form, caiseal, but meaning 
a castle, which fits the second name, if the local history 
fits. It is very difficult to believe that two different 
forms or grammatical genders of the same word can 
have grown within five miles of each other. Port na 
croisg' is almost certainly the same name as Crask on 
Loch Shiel, but this is Fem., the other Masc. Rudha a' 
choit is here Masc., but in the north the word is usually 
Fem. — "an aite na coit drochaid-Bhana." Lochan a' 
churra again is out of the common usage, the noun 
being usually Feminine. 

There are not many difficult Gaelic names. 
Ariveagaig is on a nameless stream, which must have 
been called Beagaig, the small river, for this -aig is quite 
a common river-ending, cf Aircaig, Eachaig, &c. 



92 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Borrodale (Glen) is Norse = feorg- + cfaZ-r, fort-dale. 
The Survey, or some wise person, thought that Borrodale 
was some great man, after whom the place was named, 
and they here mark his grave ! Borrodale was not, 
however, a man, but the fine Borg-ar-dale, tlie castle-dale, 
the "larach" of which may be seen there to the present 
day as the caisteal breac, or grey castle. Tom a' chadail, 
the sleeping hillock, in the near neighbourhood, is almost 
certainly Tom a' chaisteil, castle-hill. 

Bourblaig has a very foreign feeling, and most likely 
has its explanation in Camus nan Geall, which see. 

Briaghlann = breagh, fine., + lann, enclosure. 

Camusinas is camus + Aonghas, a certain Angus. 

Camus-nan-geall should clearly be Camus nan Gall, 
the bay of the strangers — the Norsemen, without doubt. 
It is easily possible that this was the Bourblaig = 6or^ + 
bol-^vik, of the strangers themselves — the fort-steading 
Bay — and that the natives, after the departure of the 
strangers, made this appropriate if not literal translation 
of the name, which now remains as that of the farm 
close by. 

Eididh (Sgeir an). Eideadh is Gaelic for clothes, but 
it is almost certain that this should be Sgeir an t-s6ididh, 
from s^id, blow (of the wind), therefore Sgeir an 
t-s4ididh, the windy skerry, with an " eclipsis " which is 
not common so far south {note). 

Ghallain (Dun). The Norseman is strongly evident 
in this part, so that Dun a' Ghall-ain is probably the 
best rendering. Gallan means a branch, and poetically 
a youth, but with Port nan Gall, the Port of the strangers 
immediately next the Dim, I think this rendering is safe. 

Ard-druimnich (Rudha — twice) is ard + druim + an 
-aich. — See Druim. 



ARDNAMURCHAN 93 

Ghanntair (Tom a') — gainntir, a prison (Voc). 

Branault = braigh nan allt, the brae of the streams. 

Faodhail (bhan and dhubh) are very good examples 
and illustrations of this name and its signification 
(see p. 15). 

Fiann (Lochan nam) and Greideal Fhinn, Fionn's 
griddle^ ox grille, speak of Fingalian times and traditions. 
Those who are disposed to discredit Macpherson, and 
to look upon his Poems of Ossian as a baseless and 
fraudulent imposture, have much to learn from the 
place-names of the Highlands — which were before 
Macpherson. We can no more believe that Macpherson 
knew of these names than that he made them, 

Glendrian = gleann nan droigheann, thorn-woods' glen. 

Gruagaich (Loch na). The name is here feminine, 
although in the elf-tradition of the Highlands it is usually 
masculine. Gruag means the hair of the heady and 
Gruagach means one with an abundance of hair. It is 
now finely applied to a young woman on this account, 
and not with any reference to the gruagach of Elf-dom 
and Fingalian tradition. For a full and most interesting 
description of the life and functions of the Gruagach, 
consult Mr. Carmichael's Carniina Gadelica, vol. ii. 
p. 289. Compare maldag (p. 121). 

Imeilte (Beinn na h-), is Gaelic, but it is uncommon. 
It seems to be akin to iomall, a border, or boundary, like 
early Irish imbel and Welsh ymyl of the same meaning. 

Kintra is for Cinn-tragha, a good example of the 
locative form (see p. 92), with an interesting old genitive 
form in tragha, the head of the land, so far as the tide 
reached, and which was left dry at ebb. 

Luingeanach (Rudha), is from long, a ship — there- 
fore, the place so oiiQn frequented by ships. 



94 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Mhadaidh riabhaich (Lochan a'). Madadh is the 
generic term for the dog-kind. The madadh-ruadh is 
the red dog — the fox. The madadh-allaidh is the wild 
dog — the wolf. The otter has been called, among other 
things, the madadh donn, the dun-dog — without regard to 
zoology. The madadh riabhach, the brindled dog may 
be, simply a local dog. 

Sligneach (Mhor and Bheag), are two small islands, 
named from slige, a shell, in which they presumably 
abounded. It is very interesting to observe that Ard- 
slignish, on the mainland, has taken and kept the Norse 
nes for the Point. The Norsemen must have kept the 
Gaelic name and added their aes, or the natives must 
have become so familiar with the Norse tongue as to 
have affixed the nes themselves. 

Shianta (Beinn), is the charmed or blessed mountain. 
The word is akin to Lat. signum, " the sign of the Cross," 
and it is impossible to say how the name may be related 
to the church of Cill-Chomhghain, which it almost 
certainly is. 

Spainteach (Port nan), the Spaniards Port, is a 
memory, without doubt, of the Spanish Armada, of 
which so very interesting relics have been lately dis- 
covered in the bay of Tobermory. 

na Stallacha dubha, the black ledges (p. 20), is a very 
good instance of the way in which the native Gaelic has 
assimilated the pertinent Norse names. The name is 
from N. stalUr a block (of rock), or a shelf, and in this 
case it is perfectly descriptive. 

Tairbeart here, near Salen, is peculiar, for there 
is no isthmus, unless the name is a little displaced, and 
properly refers to the narrow part from Salen to Loch 
Shiel, which it almost certainly does. 



ARDNAMURCHAN 95 

IV. Norse names are numerous. Some are pure, like 
EUagadal, Fascadal, Groudle, Qirigadal, Laga, Ockle, 
Ormsaig, Risga, Suairdail; some are mixed like Ardt-oe, 
Bogha-CQ,o\ kr6., Camus-^orsa, Gleann-feorroda//, Sualne- 
port; and some like Acairseid, Cnap, and Stallacha 
dubha, are so much at home in the native language that 
they need not be looked upon as outsiders. 

V. There are only a few Church-names : — Kilchoain = 
Cill-Chomhghain (p. 178), Kilmory and Cill Mhairi (the 
same), St. Columba's Well and Cladh Chaluim (the 
same), and Cladh Chattain (p. 175). 

VI. The Personal names are : — 

Cathair Mhic Dhiarmaid, tAe son of Diarrnad's 
ckair. The chair is figurative, like Greideal Fhinn, am 
Bord Latharnach, &c. The name Diarmad gives its 
fundamental strain to the family of the Dukes of Argyll. 
The Diarmad of history was son of Fergus Cerr-beoil, 
whose stronghold, as monarch of Erin, was Kells, in the 
early time of St, Columba. It is surely interesting to 
remark that not only has the Diarmad element remained 
for so long in the Argyll tradition, but the Cerr-beoil 
also, although it is now Cam-beul — the same thing — the 
wry mouth. It was in the time of Fergus Cerr-beoil that 
"Tara's Halls" were cursed and ruined. Diarmad 
is said to have died A.D. 550. 

Farquhar's Point — Rudha Fhearchair in Gaelic — is 
named after a certain Farquhar. Who he was I cannot 
say. The name is an old Keltic name = Ver-car-os (Mb.), 
** super-di^2LX one." The elements remain in the language 
still — the Prep, air, old for + car, as in car-aid, a 
friend. 

Maclean's Nose is a very fine nose — a perfect instance 
of the imaginative transport of the body-part to the 



96 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

land. It is natively called Sron mhor, the big nose, and 
rightly so, for it rises upon the lines of a good nose 
from the sea to the height of over a thousand feet. 

Diin-Mhurchaidh is the stronghold of Murdoch, the 
first of whose name was Muri-cat-os, " sea- warrior " — 
the muri part being the familiar muir, the sea, and the 
second part is cat, which remains in cath, battle, ox fight. 
See Donnchadh, p. 37, 

Neill (Sgeir), Neilfs rock, is on the south coast near 
Glenborrodale, and Eilean mhic Neill is on the north 
coast. This name too is old. It carries the essential 
idea of " warrior," or " brave," still remaining in the 
Adj. ni-ata, courageous. 

Rum 

I. The name is not clear. It does not seem to be 
Gaelic. The N. rym-r, aroaring, seems possible and not 
quite improbable, because of its many roaring waterfalls. 
I have not met the name with terminal -i, but as -e. 

II. There are no English names. Schooner Point, 
and Wreck Bay, on the east coast, are the memory of a 
comparatively recent event. Waterfall occurs often, but 
it is a translation of eas. 

III. Rum is remarkable in that the later Gaelic 
restoration of names has almost altogether cleared the 
Norse names away and replaced them, all but on the 
highest hills — Allival, Ashval, Tralllval, &c. 

Airidh na maith innse, the airidh (p. 20) 0/ the 
fruitful " haughy 

Atha (Camus na h-), the bay of the ford. 

Barr-saibh, the grassy Barr. Feur-saibh is scytJie-grasS) 
or grass that is or may be cut with a scythe, but there 



ARDNAMURCHAN 97 

would not seem to be any connection between the words 
saibh and scythe, although they are close to each other in 
sound. 

Dornabac = dorna, gen. of dorn, the fist, + bac, a bank 
— a figurative name, following the Norse order of having 
the attributive part of the name first. 

Fiadh-innis, deer-haugh ; innis as above, and again in 
the Norse order, or as well say that of earlier Gaelic. 

Fionn-chr6, the white-pen, ox fold. 

Gillean (Sgurr nan), pi. of gille, a lad. Compare 
Gylen. 

Harris (Gleann). This has nothing to do with the 
Island of Harris. It is simply the across glen, thairis, 
which goes nearly across the island. Harris, at the 
mouth of the glen, may, of course, be a hybrid — ba-r, 
high, + Gael, innis, a haugh, or inch. 

Laimhrig and Fearann Laimhrige, a landing place, 
harbour (p. 117). 

Mharagach (a'). N. mbrk, a march, forest, + ach. 

Mhiltich (Monadh a'), strong viountain-grass, 

Roinne (Rudha na). Ruinn is a sharp Point. In A. 
it has gen. sing, ranna, and it has the English plural in 
Islay, the Rhinns. This form in Rum suggests that the 
word is of the same origin as roinn, division, which is 
most likely correct. 

Samhnan innsir is very interesting. The first part is 
the same as in Samhnach V., Sonachan L., and innsir is 
almost certainly a gen. of innis, already referred to. 

Shleitir (Lag) is lag leitir (p. 21). 

Snidhe (Sgorr an t-), a dropping — water falling in 
drops. 

Stac (Beinn n-a.n), precipice (pi.) N. stakk-r. 

IV. AWval, Ashvalf Asklval, Barkeval, Dibidil, 

G 



98 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Qiurdil, Mlnishall, Orval, Papadil, Pliasgaig, Raonapol, 
Rhangail, Ruinsival, Scresort, (Loch) Sgaoirishall, 
Trail val, are all Norse. 

V. Kilmory = Gill mhoire, in the north, is the only 
Church-name. There is at the south point Inbher cille 
and the Norse Papadil, which are very interesting as 
showing (i) that this nameless Kil- survived the severe 
Norse occupation, and (2) that the Norseman turned an 
old Achadh an t-sagairt, perhaps, or priest's fields into 
his own form of Papa-\-daI-r. 

VL There are no Personal names. 



EiGG — Eige 

L The name of the island is Norse egg (fem.), an 
edge, + ey, island. The last syllable remains in the 
Gaelic name, though it does not show in the English 
form. The name is extremely appropriate to the 
north-east coast, which would be the part to give the 
Norseman his first impression. 

IL There are no English names. 

III. Beinn-tighe, the mountain with the house upon it. 

Clith (Bealach), the left-hand pass. It is always so to 
a person going north from Kildonan. There are two 
such on the way, and Cleadale is almost certainly from 
the same source. 

Chuagach (a'), the place of the cuckoo, or it may be from 
cuag, a " kink!' The heel of a shoe is said to be cuag- 
ach when it is down at one side, so this name may bear 
a resemblance to a lop-sided place. 

Curach (Bogha na), a coracle, or boat of the old time. 
See Port na curach (lona). See Tancaird, p. 99. 



ARDNAMURCHAN 99 

Dorchadais (Glac an), the dell of darkness, from 
dorcha. 

Dubhachais (Poll an), the poll of blackness, or sorrow, 
from dubh, black. 

Fharaidh (Sgurr an). Faradh is a ladder — referring 
to the ladder-'^ steepness of the hill. 

Grulin (iochdarach, lower, and uachdarach, upper). 

Sandavoure = Sa/7c/a-mh6r, a mixed name, sand-r+a 
4- mh6r. 

Sgaileach (Sgurr), the sAadj/ sgurr (Hills) — sgMle, a 
shade, 

Tancaird (Rudha an) is very suspicious. It is very 
like English tankard, but Bogha Thangairidh, on the 
same west coast, a few miles farther north, seems to 
redeem it. The bogha here, as in other places, should be 
bodha for N. bodl, a sunken rock, + tangi + garCt-r. 

IV. Charadail (Gleann), Eskernish (Sgeir), Flodsgeir, 
Qalmisdale, Laig, Thalasgalr (Dun), and Taltn, with 
Eilean Thailm, are Norse. 

V. The Church, Cill Donnain, is the greatest factor by 
far in the history of Eigg (see p. 177). There is Tobar 
Chaluim-Chille in the north of the island, and Crois 
Moraig = Moire + aig in the south. Rudha na crannaige 
at Kildonan is surely reminiscent of an old preaching 
station, for it cannot well be for an archaeological lake- 
" Crannag," in this position. 

VI. Alasdair (Clach), Alexander's rock. This name 
comes to us from Greek Akk^avhpo^, " defending-man," 
through the Latin form Alexander. 

{Bodha) Mhic Ghilliosa, Gillies's sunken rock. The 
name means " Servant of Jesus," as Gilchrist is servant 
of Christ, and Gillespie, servant of the Bishop — Gille- 
Chriosd, and Gill' Easbuig. 



100 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Muck (Island) = Eilean nam Muc 

L The island name is Gaelic, It means the isle of 
pigs ; an old reputation which it is understood to deserve 
even now, for superior pigs are reared there. 

II. The names are all Gaelic. There is nothing of 
Norse, and no Church-names. 

Creadha (Port na), day-port. 

Earrair (Beinn) is the eastern or east-ward mounts 
from ear, east. 

Eag na maoile, the notch on the Mull — the northern 
point of the island. 

Gallanach (an), p. 41. 

Ghodag a' (island-rock), about a mile north from the 
island. The word means a flirt, coquette, therefore a 
fancy. 

Teis (Sron an) is the gen. of teas, heat — perhaps where 
the cattle took to in hot weather. 



Canna— Canaidh 

L This is a Norse name. The terminal -ey shows in 
both English and Gaelic, and the stem seems to be from 
the verb kunna, to know, " ken.^^ On the north coast 
Cam a' Ghoill suggests a watching hill. Compare Eilean 
sjon-d the sight{ing), or watch, island, and the frequent 
Cnoc-faire of Gaelic. 

II. There is one English name, Compass Hill, of 
which I cannot give the history ; and there is one name- 
less Kil-, with a stone cross and other indications of its 
old existence. 



ARDNAMURCHAN loi 

III. Bre-sgorr and lola-sgorr = braigh, upper part^ 
and lola (p. 69) + sgorr (Hills). 

Carr-innis, the rough islajid. The carr here is the 
root in carraig, a rocky and perhaps in Carron (river). 

Conagearaidh = con, dogs, + aig + airidh [note). 

Ghoill (Carn a), the stranger s cairn. 

Haslam is N. hasl, hazel, + holw-r, islet. 

Oban (an t-), the Oban, or small bay. N. h6p. 

Ruail (Sron), from ruadh, red, + ail. See Glendaruel, 
p. 49, and note. 

St^idh (an), a foundation, figurative of the island-rock 
on the south coast of the island. 

Stdl (an), the ^^ stool" or seat, and Bod an st6il, a 
figurative body-name. 

Tarbert, as in other places, but there is a peculiar 
form in Camus Thairbarnish, Tarbert-ness Bay, on the 
north side of the Tarbert. 

Tighe (Beinn), the same as in Eigg. 

IV. Carrisdale, Langanish, Sanday, are Norse. 
Ealaish is doubtful. 

V. The Kil- and Cross mentioned, and Sgor nam ban 
naomha, the rock of the holy women, are all that pertain to 
the Church. 

VI. There are no Personal names. 



102 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 



MORVEN— a' MHORAIRNE 
or MORVERN— or a' MHARAIRNE 

The name is not settled. It has been thought to 
mean a' Mhor-bheinn, the great mounts a rendering which 
has found ready acceptance outside, but never within 
the district itself, nor with its near neighbours. The 
local feeling has always been towards a' Mhor-earran, 
the great division (of land), and the etymological bias 
has been so strong in this direction as to cause a wrong 
lengthening of the vowel in the first syllable, which is 
without doubt naturally short. The mor, or mar, is 
certainly short, and is almost certainly the same as muir, 
the sea. The strong " infection " by the initial a of the 
second part easily explains the native sound of the first 
part, which is represented as nearly as possible by the 
second Gaelic form given above. A very competent 
scholar, and a Highlander — which in such work as this 
is must always count for much — has thought that the 
name stands for a' Mhuir-bhearna, the sea cleft. The 
rendering is good in several ways. It is good Gaelic, 
which the name certainly is, whatever may be the inter- 
pretation. It can bear the recognised changes of 
language, or rather of form, which would carry it into 
the present a' Mharairne. It goes a good way to meet 
old forms of the name ; and it is consistent with its 
explanation in the actual form of the land. There is a 
bearna, or cleft, running right through the district, divid- 
ing it nearly into two distinct parts. The cleft is made 
up of Loch Teacuis, Loch Doire na mart, Loch-airidh 
Aonghais, the river of Gleann dubh with Loch-uisge, 
and abhainn na C6inniche into Loch a' Choire — and 



MORVEN 103 

there is only half a mile, or less, of break in the cleft 
from sea to sea, a distance of nearly thirty miles. I am 
therefore disposed to commend this interpretation of 
the name (given by the Rev. Dr. George Henderson) 
as the best, in my judgment, that has been proposed up 
till now. It is of interest to notice that the better 
English form, Morvern, gives a distinct support to this 
rendering ; and the old records point the same way — 
Morwarne (1510, 1545), Morwerne (15 17), Morverne 
(1671). 

II. There are no English names worth mentioning. 

III. Achafors is a hybrid = Gaelic achadh + N. fors, 
a rushing current. 

Achadh-lianain = achadh + lian-ain, a small meadow. 

Airbhe (Camus na h-) is an old word meaning a 
fence, wall, or enclosure. It is pronounced eirbhe, with 
the e short. There is another word meaning movement, 
or disturbance, which is quite consistent with the position 
of this Camus, into which the flood-tide comes with great 
force causing something like a whirlpool. The Norse 
eyrr, gen. eyr-ar, a gravelly bank, \sd.\so 3. ch2iV3iCiQv\s{\Q, of 
the bay. I, however, prefer the first of these renderings. 

Aire (Torr na h-) = tdrr na(fh)aire, the watch hill, 
at the mouth of Loch Aline. 

Arcain (Bol) seems to be Norse, as I have supposed, 
for Haco-stead, but a native suggests that it is Bodha- 
Lorcainn. The N. boSi part is certainly preferable, 
but in that case I can offer no explanation of the second 
part. The name is natively pronounced as I give it, and 
it is so on the Survey map. 

Ardtornish is a mixed name = ard, a height, + N. 
Thbfs nes. 

Arienas = ^iridh Aonghais, Angus's ^iridh. 



104 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Auliston (Point, and farm) is locally rudha nan 
amhlaistean. The sea-name has been carried to the 
farm on the mainland. The word is quite familiar to 
me as meaning tricks, or circuni-ventions, and it certainly 
contains the old preposition ambi, around. It may, 
therefore, express some acts or difficulties of sailing 
round this very difficult Point. 

Beitheach (Coire). This is the Adj. birchy, and not 
the Noun beitheach, a birch-wood. 

Beathrach (Beinn na). See p. 39. 

Chairn (Achadh a') is a peculiar genitive. It disobeys 
the ordinary rule, as does also Tigh a' Chnoic — but they 
are none the worse for that. Achadh a' chiiim and Tigh 
a' cnuich are the regular forms of later Gaelic. 

Chaise (Meall a') is cheese-mount. 

Chaisil (Beinn a') is evidently named from Lochan 
a' Chaisil, and the word here means a ford. See 

P- 13- 

Cheallaich (Allt a'), the Burn of the Cell-man, or 

Monk, of Kilmalieu — without doubt. It is a name of 

very long ago, bearing for all time the anonymous 

immortality of some worthy man. 

Kingairloch = Cinn a' ghearr-loch, the head of the short 
loch — perfectly descriptive. The only point remarkable 
about the name (apart from the locative form of Cinn) is 
that loch is not in the genitive. 

Claigionn (An) is a skull, and is figurative. It is said 
that the name is used for a good field, or for the best 
field — in Islay — but that does not seem to apply 
here. 

Claon leathad = claon + leathad. It is written 
Clounlad in the Survey mao. Claon means awry, or 
sloping. 



MORVEN 105 

Croise (Camus na) is the Bay of the Cross, doubtless 
an old Cross of the Church of Kilmalieu = Cill mo 
Libha (p. 184). 

Doirenamast is doire na mart, cow-grove — a Mull- 
man's rendering of the name. 

Rudha na droma buidhe shows exceptional grammar, 
for druim is usually masculine ; it is here feminine. 

Druimeannan (na) is a peculiar plural, from druim, 
a back. 

Earnaich (Rudha Aird) is locally aird l^irionnaich, 
which I believe is right, but N. eyrr-ar, + Gael, -naich, 
is quite appropriate. 

Eiligair, from eilig", the willow-herb {Epilobium, 
Onagr.), or possibly N. elgr, the elk, though this is unlikely. 

Eug (an t-allt) ; ^ug means death. 

Fionary = fionn, white, or fair, + airidh. 

Gearr-chreag is short rock = gearr + creag. 

Guda (Gleann na), named upon the river, itself being 
named from guda, gudgeon-fish. 

ladain (Beinn) and Itharlain (Beinn). The two are 
like Personal names. I cannot explain them otherwise. 

Inntreadh (an t-), the entrance — which is very des- 
criptive, 

Lurga, or Lurgann (an), the shank, shin bone. 

Luachran (Poll) = luachair, rushes, + ar-an. 

Lundie = lundaidh, akin to Ion, a marsh, and this is 
nearly the meaning always. 

Meinn (Allt na) is English a mine, therefore Mineburn. 

Mhonmhuir (Bealach a'), an imitative word, the same 
as English murmur, referring, almost certainly, to the 
murmuring sound of a stream. 

Mucrach (and Coire nam) = muc, pigs, + ar-ach. 

PoU-airinis has a Norse feeling, and Ard-ness, close 



io6 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

by, suggests its meaning — the pool of Ard-nes, a mixed 
name in genitive form — Poll-airde-/i/s. 

Rapaiche (Sithean na) is the noisy, rabbley place — 
fem. gen. from rapach, noisy. 

Saighde (Leac na), from saighead, an arrow. 

Samhairidh (Savary) = samh, sorrel, + airidh. Samh 
is also the Gaelic for juniper ; and there is samhnan, or 
samhnachan, a large trout, and this would do well for 
AUt na Samhnach, if it did not seem to be more 
correctly referable to the Samhnach near it, as the 
next stream, AUt na Socaich is, without doubt, to its 
Socach. 

Seasglaich (Coire an t-) = seasg, dry, used of a cow 
not giving milk, + lach. See p. 27. 

Sleaghach (and Dunan na) is clearly from sleagh, a 
spear — a figurative name applied to the hill. 

Sleibhtecoire = coire + the gen. of sliabh, a hill. 
It is a word thoroughly familiar in the language, though 
not nearly so much used in Scottish names as it is in 
Ireland. 

Slabhaig (Coire). Slabhag is the pith of a horn. 
When the horn of an animal — of a cow, for instance — is 
struck off, the core part which remains is the slabhag. 

Sorn is a furnace, flue, or veyit, so this is possibly all 
Gaelic as, -ag -an, certainly is. See p. 139. 

Sruthan na creige bain airde is a good bit of 
grammar, showing a correct agreement of two 
Adjectives in the genitive case. 

Streang (an) is imitative, and is the same as English 
string. It is on the same lines as Loch-Iall. 

Stuadh (an), a gable, pinnacle — figurative. 

Teacuis (Loch) is more correctly, according to local 
rendering, Loch-tiacais [note). 



MORVEN 107 

Tearnail (Loch) is the sheltered or protected loch — a 
most appropriate description. 

Tiobairt (Ard an). See p. 36. 

Uileann (an), the elbow, is another of the body-names, 
which are exceptionally numerous in Morven. 

IV. Eignaig, Laudal, Liddesdal, Mungasdal, Suar- 
dail, with the islands of Carna, Oronsa, Risga, are pure 
Norse; Airidh-anncfa//, Co'ire-bhorodaiJ, AWt-easgadall, 
Acha-/ors, Gle&nn-galmaaail, Abha,imi-ghardaII, Gleann- 
sanda, Ard-tbrnlsh, are mixed ; Bol-arcain, Poll- 
airinnis, Miadar, Loch Teacuis, Sornagan, and Uamh- 
dail are not quite certain. All the mixed names take the 
Gaelic gen. even into the Norse part — governed, of 
course, by the later prefixed Gaelic part. 

V. The Church-names are few. There is Cill-Mhairi 
on Loch Sunart, Kilmalieu = Cill mo Libha, and Kil- 
lundine = Cill - Fhionntain, shown as Gill - Fhionntaig 
also. 

VL The Personal names are not many. 

Artair (Feith mhic-) shows two very interesting parts. 
F^ith is the same word as the Gaelic for a vein (blood- 
vessel), but in place-names it means the stream which 
flows through a local bog. It might well come in with 
the body-names. The Artair part is very old. It has 
been referred to an old Gaelic root, art, a bear (Mb), and 
to arto, from ar, to plough, and therefore a cultivator — by 
Principal Rhys. 

Aonghais Ruaidh (Tom), the hillock favoured by a 
certain red-haired A^tgus. The name Angus is made up 
of two parts — aon + gus = one (or unique) choice. This 
is the name in Airienas, which see. It is the same end- 
part as in Fer-gus. 

Cugain (Cnoc mhic) = mhic dhubh(a)gain, on the 



io8 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

same lines as Mackinnon = find + gen, therefore the 
dark-born. 

Dhonnchaidh (Lochan). See p. 37. 

Chormaig (Lochan) = corb-mac, from corb, a chariot 
— therefore, the charioteer. 

Sioruith (Tigh mhic), perhaps Siorruidh,some famous, 
or eternal, son of Kilmalieu, but F. says that in Mull a 
branch of Mackinnons went by the name Mac-Siridh, 
which suggest a Norse ancestry from Sigrid. 



MULL 109 

MULL— MUILE 

I. The name of Mull is in Gaelic Muile, as given. 
The readiest derivation would be from N. Mull, a Mull, 
jutting cragy or ^^ snout," + -ey, and perhaps it would be 
correct. The Norsemen called it Myl, but I have not 
found the terminal -a or -ey with this form. There is, 
however, a difficulty in that Ptolemy, about A.D. 125, 
called the island Mal-eus, long before the Norse invasion 
of the west — if we must believe that the association of 
the name is right. The old names in the records do not 
help — Mowyl, Mulle, Mowyl, Mwll, &c. 

II. The English names are few, and of little interest. 
Such names as the Wilderness and Portfield are trans- 
lations. Livingstone's Rocks, Rankin's Rocks, Frank 
Lockwood's Island, Lord Lovat's Cave, have some sort 
of history in them which I cannot give. 

III. The Gaelic names are good — extremely good. 
There is no district or part of the county in which the 
native language has so full and so fine a vocabulary as 
in Mull. It is in fact a splendid "text" of the Gaelic 
tongue ; and while Mull and its names exist it is only a 
foolish person who will venture to say that the Gaelic 
language is either dead or dying — the one hope, or fear, 
is as baseless as the other ; the event is impossible. 

Achaloist = achadh-loisgte, burnt-field. 

Airich (Allt an) is the cowherds burn, from aireach. 

Artunna = aird + tunna, a tun, vat. 

Athairidh = ath + airidh. Ath is now a prefixed pre- 
position meaning again, or re-, so it is very nearly of the 
same value as frith, p. 80. The meaning then is the airidh 
against the other airidh. Obair is ath-obair is work, 



no THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

and the same work over again. An excellent instance of 
the usage is on Loch-uisge, where there is dubh-leitir on 
one side of the loch and ath-leitir, or the again-si leitir 
on the other, opposite. 

Arragain (Tir). Compare Tir-dtagain, K. 

Ardchiavaig = Ard + kyrr, quiet, + vik, or ky-r, cow. 

Braclaich (Cnoc na), grey, or badger-coloured place, a 
brake. 

Bhutan (Beinn) — several meanings {note). 

Caigeann (an), p. 12. Perhaps the Caigean here are the 
fine hills, Beinn Bhuidhe (2354) and Creach-bheinn (2289). 

Chaise (Torr a') is the torr of the steep — a noun made 
from Adj.cas, steep, which though here masc.is fem.in form. 

Chaoidh (Torr a'), the t6rr of weeping or la^nentation. 

Carraigean (an), carraig, a rock, + dim. an. 

Carlvalg = Cam (?) + bhalg, bags. 

Cameron is cam-shr6n, the same as the personal 
surname, the curved " knowe," or nose. 

Cloidheig (Lochan and Port na), a prawn, shrimp. 

Comhla (Creag na), a deal door, or half-door, door-leaf. 

Choimhich (Lag a'), a foreigner. 

Conarst = comhnard, level, equally high, the most 
perfect definition of level that can be given. Compare 
cothrom, p. 59. 

Crabhaiche (Eilean a'), a devout, religious person, 
almost certainly the retreat of one of the men of St. 
Kilda, on Loch-buy. 

Crogan (an) is from crog, a claw, and is a name given 
as fancifully indicative of the shape of the place. 

Chronain (Cnoc a'), a ^^ crooning," or purring^ perhaps 
from the sound of the stream. 

Crossan (an), the same as Eng. across + an — the small 
across-land. 



MULL III 

Crullach (Port nan), almost certainly an error for 
curach, coracle^ boat {note). 

Droma (Ceann an), the end of the druim ox^^ back ^" ridge. 

Dromain (Barrach an), the barrach (b^rr) of the elder- 
tree^ or the dim. of the previous word. 

Eaglais (Aird), ecclesia, a church — the Aird by the church. 

Falbhan (Clachan), an aimless travellings or a wanderer. 

Feoirlin, see p. i8. It is here, with Pennycross, 
peighinn na croise. 

Fealasgaig (Uisge) is N. //a//, hill, + skiki, a strip of 
land. 

Fellon-m6r has its explanation in Cnoc na faoilinn 
next it. Faoileann, primarily a gull, is applied to a 
pebbly-white sea-shore, and is even carried inland, as 
near Bunessan. 

Ghamhnach mhor (a'), from gamhainn, a stirk, + ach. 
This is a frequent name for island-rocks. 

Garradh (an) = an garadh, the enclosing wall, secondary 
to a garden. 

Geodha ceann dk aoinidh, the creek at the head of the 
two aoineadhs (p. 12). The first and the last words are 
Norse. 

Gortendoil = gort an doill, the blind man's field, or 
enclosure. 

Lethonn = leth + fonn, land, therefore a half-land 

(p. 117). 

Liathanaich (na), from liath (Colours) -f- an-aich (pi.). 

Lighe (Beinn). See p. 77. 

Lungadain (Rudh' aird) = gen. of long, a ship (gen. 
luing) 4- ad-ain, on Loch-buy. 

Natain (Druim) = druim Neachtain. This name has 
come from the Eastern or Pictish side of Scotland. 

Omhain {kWi), froth, ov foam. See p. 51. 



112 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Ohirnie, from odhar, otter-coloured = odhar(ii) + aidh. 

Pennyghael = peighinn a' Ghaidhil, t/te Gael' s penny- 
land. 

Reinge (Rudha na) is from N. rbng, a boat-rib, taking 
the Gaelic gen. form. 

Rossal is almost certainly Norse = hross + holl, horse- 
hill. 

Samhna (Maol na). This is so straight a gen. of 
Samhuinn, Hallow-mas, that it must come by this way — 
from some old rite on that day or eve. 

Samhan (Eilean nan), a juniper bush (pi.) This is the 
most direct meaning (p. io6). 

Sastail (Cnoc) seems to be a N. -<fa/ name, from 
sait, crop, " seed." The name is lost in its first use 
now. 

Saor pheighinn, the free penny-land {^p. i8). 

Sealltair (Tom an t-), the watchman's hillock, right 
opposite the entrance to Loch Spelvie — a most suitable 
position, from seall, look. 

Seilisdeir (Camus an t-), the "flag," ov yellow iris. 

Sgalain (Loch an), a shade, shelter, tent, hut. N. sk&U. 

Se^rsainn (Airidh na). This is pi. of Eng. serjeant, 
which really means a servant, although it has had many 
meanings. 

Sgrithinn (Torr an) has in it the same root element 
as Sgriodan, N. skrlda, a land-slip, and would be better 
written sgridhinn. 

Slaochain (Port an t-), a raft, sled ; therefore, the 
raft-port. 

Sleibhtechoire = sl^ibhte (sliabh) + coire. See V., 
p. io6. 

Slugaid (a' Chruachan), a noun from slug, swallow ; 
therefore, the swallow, gorge, Fr. la gorge, applied to a 



MULL 113 

place where a stream bores its way through a rock, 
forming a gorge. There is a Slugan dubh, the masc. 
form, on the Sound of lona. 

Taoislin = taois, dough, + lin {note). 

Teanga, a tongue (p. 30). There is a fine example 
between the two burns which flow into the north corner 
of the southern end of Loch Spelvie. 

T6n-tire is in a sense the opposite of Cinn-tire. 

Uisken = uisge + ain, the small watery-place. 

IV. Assapol, Carsaig, Eorabus, Ormsaig, Shiaba, 
are unmixed Norse ; QiiQdjm-alasgaig, Axd-alanlsh, Ard- 
chrisnish, a' chleit, Erraid, Gle3,mi-libidll, Gleann/e/cTy/, 
and Inagart, are mixed with Gaelic, and with the Gaelic 
" infection." Eilean Amalaig is uncertain {note). 

V. The Church-names are Killinaig = Cill(Fh)inn(t)aig 
(p. 113); Kilviceuen = Cill mhic Eoghain (p. 184); 
Kilpatric = Cill Phatric (p. 160), St. Kilda's Church, and 
there is an old burial-ground with the ruins of a name- 
less chapel on Carsaig Bay, with a Pennycross or the 
penny-land, on which stood the Cross. There is another 
Pennycross right opposite on the north coast — on 
Loch Sgridain — with Crois an oUaimh, all doubtless 
referable to Cill-in(t)aig. 

VI. Ailean (Rudh' Iain Mhic-), Allan — a name said to 
come the same way as Lat. alo, I rear. 

Cribhein (Airidh Mhic), for MacNiven = mac naom- 
hain, Saint' s-son (p. 30). 

Fhearchair (Allt), Farquhat^s Burn. See p. 95. 

Ghillandrais (Carraig) = gille, servant of, Andrew. 

Ghuaire (Uamh), Godfrey's Cave. 

Mhenuis (Aoineadh), Magnus , and p. 12. The name 

has come from Lat. magnus, great, through Norse, in 

which the name as Magnuss is common. 

H 



114 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Oighrige (Eilean). This is the Gaelic for the Eng. 
female name Effie, from oigh, maiden, + rig-da ; there- 
fore, royal maiden. 

Slamhaich (Allt Mhic-) — a familiar name for the 
Devil, or the greedy one. It is not a Highland personal 
name. 



(2) From (i) to the Head of Loch nan Keall 

AND SALEN 

Airdvergnish. There is old Gael, meirge, a standard^ 
but I prefer N. bjork, birch, + nes here. 

Airinasliseig = airidh na sliseig, a shaving, or slice. 
It occurs in K. also. The dim. of slios, a side, or flank, is 
also possible, although the grammar is against this. 

Be^rnach (Coire), the notched, or cleft, " corrie." See 
Bernice, C. 

Bith-bheinn. Bith is most commonly used of the 
resin which oozes from the bark of fir. It seems to mean 
generally an oozing of any kind ; but Armstrong's 
Dictionary has bith, quiet, or peaceful. The first mean- 
ing is almost certainly the meaning in this name — the 
oozing mountain. Or it may be Buidhe-bheinn ; the 
Goirtean buidhe is at its foot. Other forms, like Glas- 
bheinn, would be in favour of this. 

Brideig (Allt) is Brigit's Burn, and next it Allt Gille- 
Chaluim, that of Coluviba s servant. There is also Meall 
a' chl^rsair and Leac an t-sagairt, the harper's hill and 
the priest's stone — all which points to the Church record, 
spreading from Kilfinichen and Killinaig. 

Brimishgan = bramasag, Burr - weed (Xanthium), 
+ an. 



MULL 115 

Cannel (Gleann) — named upon the river {note). 

Chapuill (Aoineadh a'), in the Survey map Aoineadh 
thapuill. See p. 12. 

C^rnacha fionna (na), the white Carnochs, shows a good 
example of good grammar, which is indeed pecuHarly 
rich, in the Mull names. In the same district is fiona 
mh^m, the white, or fair, Mam. 

Carrachan m6r, the great carrach + an, perhaps better 
as carragh, same as carraigf. The carrachan creige is 
the " cobbler"-fish, and there is "The Cobbler" moun- 
tain at the head of Loch-Long — fanciful. 

Chonnaidh (Allt a') is dry wood, ready for the fire, 
that '\s,fireivood. 

a' Chonnail is the same as Coingheal (p. 59). It is 
the meeting of waters — in this case of Allt a' mhtichaidh 
smothering, and abhainn Bail' a' mhuilinn. 

Choiredail (Cruach Mam, &c.), and Goladair River, 
are almost certainly the same, the latter form being an 
ignorant metathesis. Coire-dail is quite easily under- 
stood as Coire -\- dal, like Uamh-dal (V.), but Goladair 
conveys no sense that I can find; like Glemanuil (K.) and 
others, all errors of the Survey. 

Chrdtha (Aird a'). This is a good and nearly lost 
genitive of cr6, a pen, or a fold. 

Craignure = creag an iubhair, yew-rock. 

Dererach (an) = an(d)ear, the east, -f- -ar-ach (pp. 32, 
100). 

Derryguag = doire dhubh-aig, the grove on the black 
Water — the aig here standing for river. 

Deuchainn (Cnoc) is trial, difficulty, trouble. 

Diseig is most likely Norse, named upon the Bay, 
vik, although the next stream, Dubhaig, is certainly 
Gaelic. 



ii6 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Domhnaich (Maol an). Domhain, deep, is here quite 
possible, the name being that of practically a sea-rock, 
but the fact that it is a "calf" of Inch-Kenneth makes it 
almost certainly Domhnach = Lat. dominica, the Lord's 
place, or the place of the Lord's inaji. 

Duairt = dubh + aird, with accent thrown forward 
on to the first syllable, as always happens in such 
combinations. 

Duatharach (Beinn na). This is the Argyll rendering 
of what might be better w'ritten dubh-ar-ach, a shade, or 
a protection from the heat of the sun. The root is dubh, 
black, or, in this case, dark. 

Eararadh is the parching of corn before grinding, and 
it is here quite possible, with -ach as the place of. 

Eilireig (an) = iolaireig (p. 56). 

Coirenahenchy and Coire nan eunchair are clearly 
from the same source, the one being singular, the other 
plural — eun, a bird; eun&ch, fowling ; the first + aidh, 
the other + air. 

Faoileann, in its secondary meaning, p. iii, is very 
common in Mull. 

Gall-mor (Rudha nan) shows agreement with rudha 
in the singular, and not with Gall, which is the gen. pi. ; so 
the name is a compound, Rudha-nan-gall. The grammar 
/ of the names of Mull is very good and very interesting. 

Gaodhail (River) — gaodh, old Gaelic, a leech; there- 
fore, the leech-river. 

Ge^rna (an) is from gearr, cut, and means the cutting, 
as bearna means a cleft, from old bher, cut. 

Ghraig (Beinn a'), from grag, crowing, croaking — 
imitative. 

Grilline, a common name, probably from groth, 
. gravel, pebbles, + lin {note). 



MULL 117 

lolaich (Bagli an), Bay oijoy, or merriment. It is on 
Inch-Kenneth, and surely conveys a story of the olden 
time and custom. 

Java must be an import. 

Laimhrige (Sgeir na). Laimhrig is a landing-place, 
or harbour. It seems to be based on laimh-rig, a 
handling. 

L^pan (an), mire, mud, clay. It is from the same 
origin as lathach ; therefore, a wet, miry ground. 

Lethonn = leth + fhonn, a half -land. Fonn is an old 
and poetical word, not now in use, though kindred bonn 
is. It means /(?««^-ation, or foot-Jiold — the earth. The 
name occurs on Loch Don and on Loch Sgridain. 

Lochdon — almost certainly Loch-domhainn {note). 

Lurgann (Achadh), the shin bone — one of the body- 
names. 

Mainnir nam fiadh, the deer fold, ov pen. It has been 
referred to early Fr. maneir, a dzvellingj coming on the 
same lines as Eng. Manor. 

M^m a' choir' idhir, the Mam (Hill) of the ''dun" 
corrie, shows a very interesting " infection " of the Adj. 
odhar. There is also a good plural form, na Saighdean 
odharra, the " dun " swords — figurative. The origin 
of the word odhar has been suggested to have been 
the same as that of ''otter," colour, but the otter is 
the b^ist-dubh, and never, that I know, the b^ist-odhar, 
in Gaelic. I have, however, heard it called the cu-donn, 
the dun-dog. See Colours (Intro.). For Saighdean com- 
pare Sleaghach (p. 106) and Claidheamh. 

Partan (Cnoc nam), a crab-fish — " Parian "-hillock, 
strangely enough an inland name. 

Pennygown = Peighinn a' ghobhainn, the smitii s penny- 
land. 



Ii8 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Sl^ibhtecoire = gen. of sliabh + coire (p. io6). 

Sr^ine (Beinn na), gen. of srian, a bridle. 

Talaidh (Beinn). The word means to entice^ or tame, 
an animal, and in this way, for some reason, the name 
doubtless came. 

Thunacairidh (Beinn) = N. Sunna + gard-r{p. ii8). 

Tiompain (Mam an), a musical instrument ; Lat. 
tympanum, a drum, tymbrel, used fancifully of a round 
hill, in this case of a Mam. 

Tiobairtean (Coire nan) — the gen. pi. of tipra (p. 36). 

Tomsl^ibhe = torn + a gen. of sliabh. 

Ton dubh-sgairt. This, if not poetical, is distinctly 
suggestive ; and if we could be in doubt as to the mean- 
ing of sg^irt, the ton part supplies any necessary proof 
of the meaning. It is ton + dubh, black, + sgairt, " squirt," 
or severe diarrhoea — figurative clearly. 

Torness = tbrr an eas, the Torr by the waterfall. 

Uruisge (Coire an), " a being supposed to haunt lonely 
and sequestered places, as mountains, rivers, and water- 
falls" (H. S. D.), a goblin, " brownie." 

IV. The following names are Norse pure : Caskadal, 
Eorsa, Fishnish, Scallasdal, Scarrisdal, Rossdal, Toro' 
say. Brvim-sorn-alg, Gleann-/ors-a, Rudha Leth-T/ior- 
cuil, UIuv-dAlt are mixed. Mam Bhreapadail and Mam 
Bhraghadail are mixed. . 

V. The old Church-names are Kilfinichen = Findchan 
(p. 182), Inch-Kenneth = Innis-Choinnich, the Cain-each, 
or "fair one" (p. 171), Kilphatrick, near Duairt, and Tir- 
orain perhaps ; Kilbeg = a' Chill bheag, Rudha na cille 
(on L. Spelvie), Druim na cille (between Fishnish and 
Scallastle) show forgotten and now nameless Kils ; Aird- 
eaglais and Meall an t-sagairt clearly refer to a church 
that has disappeared. Killiemore, on Loch Sgridain, has 



MULL 119 

its good gloss in Maol na Coille moire standing over it. 
It is not a Kil, but a coille (p. 40). 

VI. Barr Shomhairle is the Barr of Somerled, a word 
which means " Summer-sailor " (Mb.), Sumar-li^i. The 
name is common in the Western Isles, and it is of Norse 
origin, without doubt — a viking-r of the olden time, who 
wisely chose the summer for his raids on the West. 

Port Donain may refer to St. Donnan of Eigg (p. 117), 
but this is not likely. It is a personal name from donn, 
" dunr 

Rhaoil seems to be a naked gen. of the name Ronald, 
where the governing word has fallen out. This name is 
Norse Rogn-vaJdr, reign-ruler ^ or ruler from the gods (Mb.). 
There is another explanation possible, however. The 
name is on Allt Coire fraoich, the stream of the heather- 
corrie, so the name may be fraoch-ail softened down. 
Compare Ruadh-ail in Gleann da ruadh-ail, Glen- 
daruel, C. 

Thomais (Carraig Mhic-), Thomas-son's rock. 



(3) From (2) to the North Coast 

Airidh-phoU = airidh + gen. pi. of poll, a pool, or 
puddle. 

Amais (Carn an), the gen. of Amas, aim, and meeting, 
which is after all the same idea. 

Ba (River and Loch) can only be from ba, a cow — 
another of the Animal-rivers. 

Bail' iochdair, the farm or steading upon the low 
ground, iochdar, as opposed to uachdar, the upper, or 
higher, ground^ which appears in such various forms as 
Achter-, Auchter-, Ochter-, though not in Argyll. 



I20 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Ballygown = baile a' ghobhainn, the smiths steading. 

Bellart (River), not a River-name {note\ 

Biolaireach (L6n), Adj. the water-cress, from biolair, 
which in old Gaelic was biror, from old bir, water, or 
well. 

Burg and Dun-Askain show the effort of Gaelic to 
come to its own again. This was the borg, without 
doubt, of Askan, a Norseman. When he and his left, 
the native people saw the borg, which they recognised 
as a dun, or stronghold, and they kept the name of Askan 
for their dim, that was previously attached to the borg, 
and the borg was sent adrift, without a specific name. 

Coille and Cill a' mhorair shows again that there is 
a risk of mistaking the one for the other. The Cill here 
is clearly the coille, the wood, and not the Kil- of the 
Church-names, 

Criadhach mhor, the large clayey place, from criadh. 

Crionlarach is the small larach, the same as is per- 
verted into a supposed nominative, Crianlarich, on the 
West Highland railway. 

Cuilce (Lochan na), the reedy Lochan, see p. 46, 

Cuin (Loch) seems to be, and appropriately is, an 
Loch Cumhang, the narrow loch. 

Dubh-leiter is the black leitir, p. 21. 

Eas-/ors (Allt an) is very interesting, as again showing 
how the Gaelic people preserved, when they certainly 
did not understand the meaning of, the Norse names. 
The Burn was named fors, or the waterfall, by the 
Norseman, and when he left, the natives called the Burn 
by its appropriate and perhaps its older name, eas, a 
waterfall also ; but being familiar with the Norse name 
iors they kept it, although they did not know that it 
meant the same thing as their own eas. This is quite 



MULL 121 

a common occurrence. The name, then, means the 
Burn of the waterfall twice over, once Norse and again 
GaeHc. 

Fan-more is the great gentle slope. See Fanans, p. 59, 
and am fan. 

Fiann (Torr nam) is another instance of FingaHan 
evidence in topography. 

Fudar (Coire an) \s powder , almost certainly a modern 
name, having reference to this Corrie as a hunting or 
" shooting " Corrie. 

Ghigha (Druim) is the same as the island name 
Gigha, off the coast of K., meaning the N. gia, chasm, 
or rift, + ey, island ; but why the name is here given, 
which is not within sight of Gigha, is very difficult to 
suggest. Druim ghiadha, the Druim of the (wild) geese, 
is easily acceptable, especially because of the full forms 
of the plural so peculiarly preserved in the names of 
Mull. Compare Saighdean odharra, &c. 

Kellon = Ceall -f fhonn. The first part is the same 
as in Loch nan Ceall, and fonn, p. 117, occurs in Leth- 
(fh)onn (p. 117). 

Kingarbh = Cinn, loc. of ceann, a head, + garbh, 
rough. 

Maldaig (Sgeir) is a feminine form in -aig, from 
malda, gentle, therefore a gentle maiden, a mermaid, 
perhaps. 

Ladhair (Loch an), a hoof, therefore the Loch of the 
hoof -mark. 

Ledmore = an leathad mor. See p. 21. 

Leth-ghleann is the half glen, in the sense of p. 21. 

Lin (Glac ^.n),Jlax (growing) dell. 

Penalbannach = peighinn, penny-land, + Albannach, 

Phollachie (Coire) = poll, a puddle (pi.), -f achadh. 



122 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Sean-pheig-hinn is the old penny -land. 

Sgiilan (Breac) is the spotted sgulan, wicker-basket — 
figurative, no doubt. 

Tonan (Na), plural of ton, podex. 

Trath (Loch), the early loch — perhaps because of its 
early fishing time, which its position suggests. 

IV. Norse names are frequent. Aros, Ensay, Haum, 
Mishnish, Momish, Oskamal, Quinish, Reudle, Sga- 
lanish. Some, Sunipol, Treshnish, Tostary, Udmail, 
are nearly all pure Norse. 

V. The Church-names are Kilbrennain = Cill Bhran- 
nain (p. 175), Killichronain =Cr6nan (p. 184), Kilmore = 
Cill Moire, Kilninian = Cill-ninidh-ain (p. 162), with 
Loch nan Ceall, and Kellon. 

VL Personal names are few. Gleann Mhic Cairidh, 
the gen. of Mac-ara (?). 

Dhomhnaill (Meall Mhic-), p. 37. 



Coll— Colla 

L This is a Norse name, said to come from koll-r, a 
top, crown, + ey, an island, although there are no high 
hills — nothing over 250 feet. This fact gives a prejudice 
against this rendering. There is another. The word 
koll-r is grammatically masculine, and would take a gen. 
in s (I would say the chief element in Colonsay), but 
here the name has clearly a fern, genitive, and therefore 
I offer kolla, a hind, or humble-deer, -f ey, as the origin of 
the name. " It is very fertile alsweill of corns as of all 
kinds of catell. There is some birkin woodis within the 
said ile and will raise seven score men in tyme of troublis 
or weiris." 



MULL 123 

IL There are one or two En<4lish names which are 
likely translations, such as Roundhouses, Broadhilis. 

II L The difficult names are exceptionally so. They 
are more than a third of them pure Norse, and 
almost all the Gaelic names seem to have the Norse 
infection. 

Acha and Diin-achaidh is achadh, 7zr/<a^. 

Airileoid = airidh + perhaps the personal name in 
(Mac)leod with correct genitive, as Gael. Mac-leoid. 

Airinabost = Gael, airidh an + N. ha-r + host. 

Airivirig = airidh + Gael. gen. of N. borg-r. Com- 
pare Burg and Dun-bhuirg, M. 

Anlaimh (Loch), or better, Anlaifs loch. This is the 
N. name Aniaf, whence Macaulay. 

Arinagour = airidh na gobhar, t/ie goafs Mridh. 

Ascaoineach (Eilean), the unkindly island. It is very 
exposed. 

Beart an fhir, the man's deed — some famous act 
which I cannot state. 

Breacacha = breac + achadh, spotted field. 

Chairidh (a'), the weir (p. 55). 

Chogaidh (Leac), the leac (p. 16) of the fight. 

Cinneachan (Loch nan), almost certainly for Cain- 
eichean (p. 35). 

Clabhach = clamh, a kite, buzzard, + ach. 

Cliad, (and Loch, and Bay) = cli, left (ward), 
+ ad, as in leth-ad (?) ; cliadan is bur-bush. 

Cuiseag (Sgeir nan), reedy grass. 

Eatha (Port na h-), and Loch Eatharna, from Eatha, 
a boat. 

Fasachd comes easier from fks,grotv and growth, than 
from fas, waste, from which f^sach, a desert. 

Faygarvick = feith a' gharaidh bhig, the bog-stream 



124 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

with the small stone wall. Garadh is in common use in 
Argyll, with this meaning of a stone dyke. 

Feshim (Bagh) = N. //os, a byre, + holm-r. 

Fishaig (Druim) seems named upon the foregoing 
word, -f vik. The hill rises from the bay. 

Foill {Ben and Bay) is treachery — a name with a 
history, without doubt. 

Frisland = N. frlo (neut.), seed, crops, + land. 

Gallanach. See p. 41. 

Gorton = an goirtean (p. 15). 

lomallach (Eilean), remote, at the outskirt, which is 
here very appropriate. 

Mine (Port), meal-port, not an uncommon name. It 
must have a local history. 

Mhurain (Port a'), sea bent-grass. 

Pharspig (Sgeir), I can make nothing of. 

Ronard (Loch) = ron + ^rd, pi. of Mrd, a height. 

Sheannlep, from sean, old, 4- gen. leapa, of leaba, a 
bed, in the same sense as feannag, faoileann, &c. 

Torastain = torr + Astain, perhaps Askain, a Norse 
personal name. The t often takes the place of k in 
Manx names, e.g. Recast for Gael, riasg, dirk-grass, Sast 
for seasg, dry (of a cow not giving milk). 

Totamore = tobhta, a tofty knoll, -\- m6r, great. 

Totronald = Ronalds toft. 

Trailleach (Bagh an), "a general name for sea-weeds," 
H. S. D. Traille (short), is the tusk (fish). 

Urbhaig (Loch). N. tirr, the urox, -\- v/k {note). 

IV. Bernera, Bodha (dearg), Bhoramuil (Eilean), 
Cornalg (mor and beag), Crossapol, Eleralg, Fishaig 
(Druim), Flskarg, Grimsary, Grlshapol, Gunna, Hogh 
(Rudha, Beinn and Bay — with Bally haugh), Mlbost, 
Oronsay (island), So-a (dis-syllable), Sgollnais, Sodls- 



MULL 125 

dale, are all Norse, with Gaelic mixture some of 
them. 

V. There is only one Church-name, Kilbride = Cill- 
Brigite (p. 160). Loch Ghille-Caluim and Loch an t- 
sagairt are side-names, but there is no sign of a church 
in their neighbourhood, on the east coast. 

VI. MacNeill's Bay is the only Personal name. 
See p. 96. 



TiREE— Tiridhe 

L The name of Tiree has always been looked upon 
as Gaelic Tir, land, + gen. of the word ioth, corn, which 
still remains in ioth-lann, a corn-yard. The old form of 
the word was ith, with gen. h-etho. Ceres was called 
Ban-dea h-etho, the goddess of com. Adamnan called the 
island Ethica Terra. That it was rich in corn is proved 
in many ways. The island used to be "callit in all 
tymes McConnell's girnell ; for it is all teillit land, and 
nae girs but leyland quhilk is maist nurischand girs of 
ony other, quhairthrow the ky of this He abundis sa of 
milk that thai are milkit four times in the day." Such 
names as Cornaig, Baile' mhuilinn, Corn Mill, show still 
good evidence of the old reputation embodied in the 
island name. 

IL There are a few English translations — the Moss, 
Middletown, Greenhill. The Reef is not a reef, but a 
large plain. 

in. Considerably more than half the names of Tiree 
are Norse — in fact, the Norse feeling is very strong. In 
other parts we find Norse names upon sheltered bays, 
and running from the sea into the green fruitful valleys ; 



126 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

but in Tiree the Norseman was " thorough." He held 
it all and named it all. It is distinctly remarkable that 
the modern Gaelic names are found filtering inwards 
from the sea-border, and not outwards from the interior 
as is usually the case. The meaning of this is evident. 
The Norsemen kept to the sea, or within reach of it 
always, so that inland names and places escaped him, 
but in Tiree the old Gaelic names were blotted out, not 
only on the coast, but over the whole island, and Ncrse 
names took their place. The restoration of Gaelic has 
been from without, so that the inland names remain 
Norse. 

It is peculiar to find so many Duns, or "forts," in the 
island. In some parts they are within half a mile of 
each other. 

Acarsaid folaich, the hiding anchorage — referring to 
its depth, of nearly a mile. 

Bailephetrish seems to be the steading of Petrus, 
Peter^ in Latin form. 

Bailephuill = baile a' phuill (poll), pool-farm. 

Barradhu (am), the black Barr, with wrong Agreement 
— should be am Barr-dubh. 

Bh^idhe (Traigh a'), the Bay-shore — of Baile phuill. 
This is simply the English bay assimilated. The com- 
moner form is B^gh, from the same source. 

Bhiosta (Cnoc), the pi. of blast, beast. 

Bhodaich (Stac a'), the old man's stac ; N. stakk-r, 

Carachan = carragh, a stone-pillar + an. 

Chircnis (Ruinn) is N. kirkja + nes, church-ness in 
Gaelic form. The ruins are still there — marked 
"Temple" on the Survey map. 

Chrossain (Poll a'), the pool of the small across-land. 

Cnap (an) (p. 34). 



MULL 127 

Cuigeas (an), the fifth (part) land. Compare ceath- 
ramh, a fourth part {^p. 18). 

Fhaodhail (an), a very good example, long and 
narrow (p. 15). 

Fhoirningir (Cnoc) seems to be N. torn, old, + ing-ir 
(pi.), as in vik-lnglr, the Bay-men. 

Gott (Bay) is God, or God-fnan'sh-Siy, referring perhaps 
to the old church at Kirkapol — a priest, from N. godi. 

Hanais (Rudha). See Machri-hanish, &c., K., but 
here it is most likely ha-r, high, + nes. 

Iseannan (na h-), the chickens — young of any bird. 

Kenovay = ceann a' bhaigh, the head of the Bay (of 
Bailephetrish), with Dun ceann a' bhaigh. See Bheidhe. 

Kenvar = ceann a' bharra, the head of the Barr. 

Mannel = N. mann + voll-r, man-field ij.). 

Mealbhach is sandy ground, or dunes, covered with 
bent-grass, from N. mel-r. 

Miodar (am), the meadow, usually Miadar. 

M6inteach, the peat-moss. 

Riaghain (Loch). Riadhan is a snare, and also a 
swing, and there was an old usage of the word for 
gallows — here, a fishing line most likely. 

Rosgaill = ros (p. 19) + Goill (Gall) with MuUach 
nan Gall — the Ross and Height of the foreigner. 

Ruaig = ruadh, red (Colours) + aig. 

Salum = N. salt + holm-r, salt island. 

Sg^thain (Cul), from sgath, shelter + ain. 

Srkid ruadh, red-street ! 

Stanail (Loch) = stagn[twt) + ail {note). 

Thorbhais (Ruinn) = Shoirbheis, a fair wind (with th 
used wrongly for sh, as in Thunagairidh, p. 118). 

Vaul, (and Bay) = N. hvall, a hill ; therefore, hill 
Bay, referring to the Cnap there. 



128 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

IV. The Norse names are so numerous that I do not 
state them here. They may be found in the Norse 
chapter. Many are pure, but some are mixed, as Barra- 
pol, Bailin-oe, Creacha-sc/a/, &c. The last of these con- 
tains -stalhr (p. 20), and not -dal-r, for the two of them 
are small island-rocks off the north-east coast. Rudha 
Boraige moire shows a peculiar feminine gen. of borg-r, 
a fort. Compare Dun-bhuirg, I\L The fort is here still, 
but under the Gaelic name Dim. 

V. Church-names are Kil- Kenneth = Cill Choinnich 
(p. 171), Kilmoluag = Cill mo Lu-ag (p. 172), with the 
ruins of the Chapel. There is a Clachan mor, the great 
stone-church on the north coast, and the "Temple" 
already mentioned on the south coast. Kirkapol, 
Kirkton, is the Norse record of a church which was 
there before the time of the invasion, the ruins of which 
are still visible. 

VI. There is only one Personal name, Port Chunn 
Neill (p 96), on the north-east corner of the island. 



Ulva— Ulubha 

I. The name is from N. iJ//-r, a wolf, -f ey, pre- 
sumably because the wolf was a familiar animal there 
when the Norse arrived. " It is a plane land but ony 
hillis or woodis — ane He twa mile lang ane mile braid." 

II. There are no English names. MacQuarrie's Rock 
is a Survey translation. 

III. Ardali = aird aillidh (p. 33). 
Breideanach (am), from breid, a clout — fanciful. 
Brionn-phoU = breun-pholl (?), (p. 134). 
Chrannag (a'), the pulpit — fact or figurative. 



MULL 129 

DioUaid (Rudha na), the saddle — fanciful. 
Dun Bhiordmuill = N. bjart-r + mul-r. 
Dun O'Chardachais, a Personal name — Irish. 
Gallon (Glac) = gallan (p. 41). 
Laghura (Port nan), rightly ladharra (p. 121). 
Reilean (Eilean nan), from r^idh, smooth, level. 
Skeinidh (Sgeir na) — scaineadh, a split, division. 
Trealbhan, from trealamh + an {note). ^ 

IV. Cuilinish, O/osary (Beinn), Or/na/g-, are all Norse. 

V. Cill Mhic Eoghain is the only Church-name. 

VI. There are no names under this head. 

Oeasgil (mor and beag) and Eorsa (island) are in 
Loch na Ceall. 

Gometra, from N., is godr + madr + ey, the good- or 
God-man s island. 

Acarsaid mhor is a very fine anchorage. See N. Voc. 

Bristeadh-ramh (Rudha) is the oar-breaking point, 
which surely tells a tale of troublesome navigation. 

Bru (am), the shallow passage between Ulva and 
Gometra = N. brA, a bridge, or crossing {note). 

Dun - lasgan (Rudha) = Dun(fh)iasgan, gen. pi. of 
fiasgan, a mussel. 

Mine (Maol na) is the meal + mul-r, point. 

Moisgeir = N. mdr, seamew, + sker — but N. Voc. 

Little Colonsay — See Colonsay. 

Chicheamaig (Port) = N. kviga, heifer, + holm-r, 
island, + vik, heifer-isle Bay. 

Sgaigean (an island rock), from sgag, crack, split, + an. 

Eirisgeir = N. eyrr-ar + skeri. 

Staffa, from N. staf-r, a staff, and other kindred 
meanings applied to the island here because of its staffs 
of columnar rock. 

The few names are mostly English now — Fingal's 

I 



130 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Cave, the Goat Cave, Mackinnon's Cave, the Great Face, 
the Causeway, which are all translations. They have 
been so rendered to make them understood to the 
tourist. Port an fhasgaidh, shelter Bay ; Meall na 
faoileann, the gull-hill ; and am buachaille, the herdsman, 
are yet Gaelic. 

Treshnish (Islands) have a few interesting names. 
Lunga, which is Norse, has a Catbh, or calf, and the two 
most northern rocks have each a Borg of the old time, 
now Castle and Fort. The other names are Gaelic. 



I ON A — t, and i Chaluim-Chille 

I. lona has its own great history, to which I can only 
refer in the very slightest way. This form of the name 
is an error — a misreading of the gen. form loua, or lova. 
I, or Hi, is the correct nom., and other forms of the gen. 
are Hia, Hiae, le, la, lae, &c., for full knowledge of which 
Reeves' " Adamnan " must be consulted. Scores of ex- 
planations have been offered of the name, many of them 
simply nonsense, none so far as I know conclusive. The 
island was consecrated [offeravit, p. i68) to St. Columba 
by Conall, King of Dalriada, A.D. 565. Its suffering at 
the hands of the Norseman and its great influence in the 
history of the early Church belong to general history. 

II. Any English names are translations. 

III. The Church, and the history of the Church, with 
a little of Norse, and about a third of simple Gaelic 
names, are the names in lona. 

Bhr^ige (Port an fhir). This surely commemorates 
an apostate — the port of the lying; or apostate, one {note). 
Boineach, from bo, a cow, = boin, gen. + -ach. 



MULL 131 

Bradhan (Cnoc nam), better brathan, querns hill. 

Chaorach (Eilean na h-aon), the island of the one sheep. 

Carraig geire (Rudha na), the Point of the sharp rock, 
from geur, sharp, edged. 

Curach (Port na) is the port, or harbour, of the coracle 
— the port most probably at which landed Colum Cille 
and his apostles. There is a strong suggestion in this 
way coming from "the ruins" at the head of the bay, 
called in Gaelic, most appropriately, laraichean, or the 
foundation-marks of the old homes, and further from 
Carn cul ri Eirinn, the cairn (to mark) where we turned 
our back upon Erin. 

Druidean (Cnoc) = cnoc druidhean, Druids hillock. 

Dun-I, the fort, or rather hill (332), of /, lona. Another 
peculiar form occurs in Dun Cul Bhuirg, where Dim 
follows upon a Cul named upon the old borg-r. 

Eunaich (Stac ^n),fowlitig{^. 16). 

Rabach (Eilean), stormy, rough, " dirty." 

Saimh (Camus an t-), from N. haf, the sea {note). 

Sligneach, from slige, a shell (p. 94). 

IV. Cailbhe (Eilean) is the Gael. gen. of the Norse, 
and Calva on the mainland (that is, of lona) is the same. 
Cul-6u/r^ (Dun) is a mixture. Dim is Gaelic, a fort ; 
Cul is Gaelic, the back of; and buirg is the Gaelic gen. of 
the Norse, borg-r; Didil (Eilean); yWus/mu/ (Eilean) ; 
Staoineig (Loch). 

V. The Church is the atmosphere of lona. 

VI. Findlay's rocks (p. 73) and Stac Mhic Mhur- 
chaidh (p. 96) are the only Personal names. 



132 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

JURA— DitTRA 

I. The island name is Norse, meaning deer-island — 
d^r, a deer, or indeed any wild beast, + ey, island. 

Scarba also is Norse skarf^r + ey, the cormorant isle. 

IL There are a few English names — Barnhill, Low- 
landman's Bay, Milltown, &c., and mixtures like Caigen- 
houses and Z««^-aoineadh. 

(i) Scarba and the Small Islands belonging 
to Jura, on the North 

in. Belnahua = beul na h-uamha, cave-mouth. 

Fladda \% flat island^ N. UaUr + ey. It is interesting 
to notice the differences of form in this island name — 
Bladda, Fladda, Flatey, Pladda — quite a small lesson in 
consonantal change, which helps to explain Scarba from 
skarf-r + ey. 

Ormsa is from orm-r + ey, " worm," or snake, island. 

All the other names here are Gaelic. 

Fiolan, which occurs three times in Lunga, might be 
taken for faoileann, in the sense of a white beach, only 
the word occurs in Scarba correctly spoken and written. 
It may not be impossible that the quasi-English " Fellon," 
a swelling (diseased), may be the meaning here — Fiolan, 
Fiolan meadhonaoh, and Fiolan an droma. The shape 
of the small islands would quite fit this rendering. 
Fiolan is Gaelic for an ear-wig and maggoty or worm. 
It may be used fancifully here. Fiolan-fionn was a 
morbific factor in old Gaelic pathology — a prophecy 
of the bacterium of the present day. 

Ftidan (am), a rock-island. The name is used of a 
small " stack," N. stakk-r. 



'JURA 133 

Garbh-eileach and Eileach an Naoimh are not familiar 
forms. Eileach is a mill-race and a mound (H. S. D.). It 
may possibly, and not unlikely, come from old Gaelic, 
ail, a rocky + ach, and therefore the name would be a 
general term for island-rock. It is peculiar to find a 
Tarbert across Garbh-eileach, which is only a little over 
one mile long — the Tarbert being half a mile. 

Maol-buidhe, the yellow Mull, is here masculine, 
following the Norse gender ; it is usually feminine, 
following the Gaelic — from maol, bald. 

Urrachan (na h-) can only be the gen. pi. of urra, an 
infant, or a youth, used fancifully of the hills here. 

V. These small islands have quite an interesting place 
in the history of the old Church. A Retreat of St. 
Brendan is here, Cuil-Bhrannain. He is said to have 
founded a monastery here and in Tiree — duo monasteria 
ununi in insula Aileach, alterum in terra Ethica, in loco 
nomine 3\edua., fun davit. "The parsonage and vicarage 
of the islands of Ilichnive and Kilbrandon belonged to 
the priory of Oronsay, and were in 1630 granted, with 
the lands of Andrew, Bishop of Raphoe and prior of 
Oronsay, to John Campbell, Rector of Craignish " (Skene 
ii. 78, and O.P.). Aileach an Naoimh refers, of course, to 
Saint Brendan, later of Clonfert (p. 175). There are 
church ruins on the two Aileachs, a Tobar Chaluim 
Chille in Lunga, and a Kilmory in Scarba. We naturally 
wonder if Camus a Mhbrfhir is the Bay of the very ^-reat 
man — Columba. 

VI. Dun-Chonnaill is the only Personal name. This 
seems to be one of the " dog "-names, of which scores 
remain, especially in Ireland — the Cynetae of Herodotus, 
" the most remote of all nations," from Greece. 



134 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

(2) North of Tarbert 

III. The difficult names are : — 

Achlaise (Doire na h-), the armpit — a body-name. 

Aoineadh dubh (p. 12). 

Aoirinn (Eilean na h-), from N. eyr-r, with a Gaelic 
genitive. 

Aros (an). This is the Gaelic aros, a dwelling ("in 
ruins'"'), and not the N. dr-os, river-mouth, as in M. 

Atha (Glac na h-), a ford here, not ath, a kiln. 

Bhalaich (Lochan a'), a lad, therefore the lochlet of the 
lad, whoever he was. There is Lochan Barr a' bhealaich 
not far from it, but this word bealach is a pass. 

Bhaidseachan (Gleann). The only word to fit this is 
baidse, which H. S. D. gives as a musician's fee. I do not 
know the word in that sense. I have heard it used of a 
baker's batch of bread, and of the Eng. badge. 

Bhuailte (Camus ■^\ flail-bay (p. 141). 

Bhurra (Loch a'), clearly an uncommon gen. of 
buireadh, the rutting-s&2iSon. 

Breun-phort is foul-port. The Adj. is of broad appli- 
cation. It essentially means evil-smelling, or putrid, but 
it has come to be used of weather, circumstances (as 
here), and even of conduct and character. This Port is 
very exposed, right open to the whole Atlantic. 

Cad (Garbh uisge nan). This is Gaelic, but there is 
no cad in the language, so it must be cat, the wild cat. 

Cathar nan Eun. Cathar is a mossy high ground. 

Chbta (Cnoc a'). Coat-hill! 

Chuileag (Camus nam meanbh-), Midge-bay. Meanbh- 
chuileag is literally small-fly. Compare Meanbh-chrodh, 
small-cattle — sheep ; N. small, sheep. 

Conaire (Loch na) with Con-tom on the east coast 



JURA 135 

suggests that the stem is con, gen. pi. of cii. See 
Uanaire. 

Corpach (p. 14). 

Corryvreckan = coire-Bhreacain, B.'s cauldron. " Now 
Breccan, son of Main, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages 
had fifty curraghs trading between Ireland and Scotland, 
until they fell at one time into the Caldron there, 
and there came from it not one, or not even tidings of 
destruction," &c. (C. 41). 

Crianan mor (p. 40). 

Cruib and Loch a' Chruib — figurative of the moun- 
tain, from crub, crouch. N. krjupa, to crouch. 

Duirch (Abhamn a' Ghlinn), the river of the dark glen 
— a good form of the adjective. 

Dunaiche (Lochan na), the L. of disaster and woe. 

Gortinachro = goirtean a' chro (p. 15, and Voc). 

Imriche (Beakich na h-), removal, fitting-Pass. 

Kinniachdrach = Cinn + iochdar + ach. lochdar is 
from ios, low, as Uachdar is from uas, high; therefore, 
the lower part or place, and the higher. 

Lealt = leth + allt, literally half-btcm, the burn of the 
one side of a valley. See p. 21. 

Lubanach (Loch), is the loch with many tendings 
(lub). 

Mhile (Loch a'), the Mile loch— hut why ? 

Mi-mheall (breac and dubh), a very peculiar name. 
Mi is the ordinary Gaelic negative of character or quality, 
e.g. mi-bheus, ill-manners, mi-chliu, unfavie = of bad 
repute. It is, however, difftcult to know how this element 
comes into this name. The one hill is 700 feet and the 
other 900 feet high, with Dubh-bheinn beside them, 1500 
feet high. Perhaps they are, therefore, in the Irish sense, 
" no hill at all." 



136 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Nualaidh (Airidh), the cry of deer, or even of cattle ; 
an imitative, beautiful word. 

Cluinneam nualann nan aighean 
Air na sraithean trom g\6-gheal 
Mo Nighean donn. 

Peacaich (Loch na), the loch of the woman that 
sinned. The form is feminine. Was it a tragedy ? {note). 

Pioghaide (Tom na), Mag-pie hilly the same as the 
Scots /)>'^/. 

Rachdaig (Aird) = N. raku + vik. 

Ruantallan = rudha an t-sallainn, salt-Point. 

Sealga (Tigh), the hunting-house. Other gens, are 
seilg and seilge. 

Seilcheig (Cruach na), Snail-mount. 

Sgurra (Loch na). This is gen. of Sgiirr (Hill-names). 
Sgiirr Mhbr is near. 

Shian = sithean, a good example of a name in -an, 
from sith, a fairy. 

Shiffin (Loch). There is nothing in Gaelic that will 
explain this name, but one wonders whether it may not 
be a perversion of sithean. Almost the next loch to it 
is Loch an t-sithean tarsuinn. This last name, with 
the distinct qualification, tarsuinn, across^ implies another 
Loch Sithean, with or without a qualification. We con- 
stantly meet an gleann, the glen, and if there is another 
it is usually gleann beag, or if the first is an gleann mor, 
the second must be gleann beag. It is important, how- 
ever, to remember that Syfin, or Syffyn, was the same 
name as appears in the form Sweyn (p. 83). In A.D. 
1 261, according to Reg. Pass. (pp. 120, 136), Dufgal, son 
of Syfin, granted to the monks of Paisley the patronage 
of the church of St. Calmonel, K. (p 169) ; and in 1296 



JURA 137 

the Bishop of Argyll " inspected " Cartas Domini filii 
Dovenaldi et Dufgalli filii Syffyyi. The family of this 
name held all Kintyre and Knapdale when the Norse 
power was disappearing (p. 148). 

Speirige (Gleann), hawk-glen. 

Staoin-bheinn (p. 158), and, further, staoin means 
awry, or bent — probably the meaning here. 

Tairbh (AUt an), bull-Burn. 

Tiobairt (Port an) (p. 36). 

Truisealaich (Rudha an), from trus, gather, tuck up, 
or reef ox shorten sail {note). 

Ursannan (na h-) the lintels or doorposts — figurative. 

IV. The Norse names are Aosdail (Glen), Bhiorgaig 
(Beinn), Debadail (Glen), Garrisdail (Glen), Qrundail 
(Glen), Lussa (Ard, river), and Lussa-given, Rainberg 
(beag and mor), Sgamadail (Cruach), and Trosdall 
(Glen). 

V. There are no Church-names in this part of the 
island. 

VI. Personal names are Loch Nigheann Aillein, the 
Loch of Allans daughter. Allan is akin to Lat. alumnus , 
a fosterling, and ala, rear. Cam Mhic-Eoghain (p. 32). 
Rudha Mhic'ille Mhaoil (p. 75). 



(3) South of Tarbert 

Aircill (Loch an), an ambush, or watching-place. 
Ardfin = ard + fionn, white, or bright. 
Bile (Loch na), a bank, edge, lip. 

Brat-Bheinn, a mantle, or covering. It has quite a 
wide usage. It is the counterpane of a bed. It is applied 



138 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

to a covering of grass or moss, as here, no doubt. 
For the same reason a hairy-covered caterpillar is 
brat-ag, and a flag is brat-ach, always conveying the 
same idea. 

Brodach (Sloe), from brod, a goad, prickle. 

Cabrach. cabar is (i) a ^Uaber," pole, rafter] (2) a 
stag-horn. Both come into place-names. It is the 
second of the meanings here. 

Cairidh mhor, the great cairidh, or weir. 

Cheo (Poll a'), 7nist ; therefore, the mist-pool. 

Corra-bheinn = corr, excess, outgrowth, -\- bheinn. See 
Corr and Corran (p. 14). 

Corrynahera, a mixed name = Coire na h-erradh, the 
" corrie " of the high ground. 

Crackaig = creag-aig. This is the Gaelic dim., -aig, 
ending, and not the river -aig. 

Fearnal (Ard), from fearna, the alder-tree, with an 
Adj. ending -ail; therefore, the alder-wooded height. 

Fineag (Meall nam) — fionag is an insect, cheese-mite, 
used generally of small insects. 

Ftidarlach (Loch na), from fyx^o^r, poivder, -\- lach. It 
is upon the loch that the name is fixed. 

Glenbatrick can only be Glen Patrick. 

Gobag (Barr nan) — gob is the bill, or beak, of a bird, 
here used fancifully of the hillocky Barr. Gobag, dog- 
fish, because of its beak-o.^ nose, is out of the question 
here. 

Knockrome, most likely cnoc-crom. 

Leanachais (Rudh' an), the flood-tide Point, from an 
lionadh, the flood-tide. 

Mhalairt (a'), the Exchange, the market. This name 
and the next following has a local history, which I am 
not able to give. 



JURA 139 

Mhargaidh (Loch a' bhaile), a market also, from 
Eng. market. 

Mhucraidh (a'), the pig-ry, the place of pigs. 

Phlotha (Caolas a'), from Gael, caolas, + fl6i, a bay, 
or floti (m.), a fleet. 

Siantaidh (Beinn), charmed, or blessed, hill. It is here 
in the neighbourhood of Kilearnadale, as the same name 
is close to Kilchoan, A. There are other Church side- 
names here : Rudha and Eilean Bhride, Kiels, Rudha na 
Cailliche, Rudha a' Chl^irich, and AUt an t-sagairt 
flowing down the mountain. The word sian or seun 
is akin to Lat. signum. See p. 94. 

Sil (Geodha an t-), seed, corn, with N. gla, chasm. 

Siob (Loch and Gleann an t-), drift, snow-drift. 

Sornaich (Maol an t-), Some, Druim-Sornaig, M. 
Sornagan, Sorn, Surnaig, L Primarily a vent, then a 
furnace, then a vent-like windy Pass or opening (p. 106). 

Traille (Rudha na). Although this name is accented 
long on the Survey maj-), I strongly suspect that the 
name should be short, as in Trailleach (p. 124). As it 
stands the meaning is slave, or tJirall Point. 

Uanaire (Coiile na h-), from uan, a lamb, + aire, is a 
good comment on Conaire, which is a frequent name. 
Conair is a path, or a way in some uses, and Conaire 
is the herb loose-strife [Lysimachia thrysiflora Prim.), 
both which come into names ; but there can be no 
doubt that it comes in also as con, dogs, + aire. The 
part -aire is a fem. form of -ar, place of 

IV. Asdale, Bladda, Brosdale, Leasgamail, Linndail, 
Mearsamail, Menish (Ard), Sannaig, Scrinadale^ are 
Norse. lubharna-da/e does not suggest northern lati- 
tudes. 

V. There are the ruins of an old chapel at the east 



I40 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

of the Tarbert, and Eilean an easbuig, or Bishop's Isle, at 
the other. This, with the few names mentioned under 
Siantaidh, is the whole record of the Church on the 
island. It should be noticed that Kil-earnadale is a 
secular Cill, named upon the Norse valley Earnadale. 
Columba and Brigit show in the names, and that is all. 

VL The Personal names not already noticed are 
Chaluim Bhain (Carragh), the standing stone of Caluni 
the Fair, with reference almost certainly to St. Columba, 
for the name is one of a Church group here. 

Mhic(gh)ille-Mhoire (Airidh) is one of the gille 
names, like Gilchrist, Gillespie, and Gillies (p. 99). It 
means the Servant of St. Mary. It does not seem now 
to remain in any of our Scottish names. 

Mhic-Fhionnlaidh (Tigh) is Mackinlay's house — from 
fionn-laoch, fair hero. 

Macdougall's Bay, Lochan Mhic-a-phi, and Rudha- 
chan Eoghainn have been already explained. 



CoLONSAY — Colo(n)sa 
and Oronsay — Oro(n)sa 

I. As stated under Coll (p. 122), the most probable 
and very pertinent base of the name is kolUr, a hill-top, 
summit. There is no n in the Gaelic vocalisation of the 
name, although it occurs in at least one of the Sagas as 
koln. But that this n is not a reliable element is shown 
by that it occurs in Oronsay, which without doubt is 
orfiris=ey, meaning an island which is only an island at 
high-water. 

II. There are no English names. The Strand is a 



COLONSAY 141 

simple translation of tr^igh, a shore. Machrins is the 
English plural of Machairean, which itself is plural — 
the carses. 

III. The names here are exceptionally interesting, for 
a place so small. The Gaelic names are a distinct addi- 
tion to the rest of the county. Norse names are in good 
proportion, as are also the Church and Dun names. 

Balarumin-dubh and -m6r. See ruime (p. 147). 

Balnahard = baile na h-airde, the steading on the Aird. 

Bhuailtein (Port a'). flail-Port (p. 134). 

Bonaveh = bun a' bheithe = bun + beithe, birch. The 
best rendering of Bun is the opposite of Barr (p. 12). It 
is always followed by its specific genitive, as in Bun na 
h-abhann, A. I., the mouthy or end, of the river ; Bun- 
dobhrain, the mouth of the river Doran ; bun na beinne, 
the/^<?/ of the mountain ; bun a' ghlinne, the m«f (lower) 
of the glen ; bun na craoibhe, the stump of the tree, and 
so on, always meaning the thicker, or bottom, part on 
which the whole stream, river, glen, or hill is conceived 
to rest. Bun-aid is a foundation — the same idea. 

In this name, Bun a' bheithe, the word bun is without 
its proper specific term, and is a noun absolute, taking a 
"remote" genitive, like, say, bun (beinne) a' bheithe. 

Carraigean (an), the dim. of carraig, a rock. 

Chaointe (Cam), from caoinich, dry, ^^ season," a 
participle, with wrong Agreement = Carn caointe. 

Coinnle (Carn), the candle-cairn — possibly referring to 
a New Year, or Kalend, function. 

Croise brie — an unusual form, but certainly referring 
to the Stone Cross, quite near. The best suggestion is 
that the governing word is either omitted or lost, and that 
the full name should be, say (Rudha na) Croise brice, the 
Point of the grey^ or speckled, Cross. 



142 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Cupaig (an) must be related to Eng. cup, + aig. It 
may mean Cup-Bay, referring to the shape of the bay, 
and following the Norse grammar. 

Duilisg (Eilean an), dulse-island. The word has 
been referred to as duill(eag)uisge, water-leaf, which 
is quite pertinent, and, from the language side, quite 
possible. 

Frith-sgeir is the against sgeir — the " skerry " against 
the other. Compare Frith-allt (p. 86). 

Grudairean (Beinn nan), Brewers' hill. 

Lotha (Port), a female colt ; therefore, Colt-island. 

Mhucaig (Eilean), the plural of muc + aig. 

Milbuie = am Maol buidhe, yellow romid hill. 

Plaide mhor, the great blanket — fanciful. It is not an 
island, so that it is not a wrong rendering of Pladda 
(p. 132). 

Reasagbuie is for riasg, a moor covered with dirk- 
grass, + ag + buidhe, yellow. 

Ruiteachan eorna, from ruiteach, ruddy, + an, with 
e6rna, barley. 

Sail (an t-), the heel — a very good application at this 
place, the heel of the island of Oronsay. 

Scruitten, from scruit, any lean creature, + an, perhaps 
applied here to the place itself. 

Sheallaidh (Traigh), with Druim mor, the watching 
shore, or the outlook — almost certainly from the hill. 

Suiridhe (Meall na), the courting hill ! 

Treidhreach (Eilean), from old treadh, the ebb — an 
island only at ebb, as Oronsay itself is. 

Turnicil = ttir na cille (of Cill Choinnich), which I 
however doubt. 

IV. The Norse names, in whole or in part, are the 
island names : Colonsay, Oronsay, Olmsa, Ghardmail 



COLONSAY 143 

(Eilean), Sgalasaig, Sgiobinish (Port), Alanais (Riiclh' 
aird), Staosunaig (Loch), Ard-skenish, Urugaig. 

V. Church-names are Cill-Chattain (p. 175), Cill- 
Choinnich (p. 171), Kilmory (Mary), Gill, and Tobar- 
Odhrain (p. 176), and the remains of TeampuU a' 
ghlinne, f/ie temple in the glen. 

VI. Carnan Eoin {John's small cairn) might be with 
the Church-names, perhaps. lomhair (Rudha Mhic), 
Mhartainn (Eilean), Fhionnlaigh (Eilean), and Shom- 
hairle (Airidh), are already referred to. Loch Cholla, Coll' s 
loch, and his Dun is here too. The name has been referred 
to an old col and eel, high^ or lofty ; therefore, the lofty one. 
This is the Dun of Colkitto = CoUa ciotach, or the left- 
handed Coll, a native of Colonsay, who played a part in 
the " feuds" between the Macdonalds and the Campbells 
in the early part of the seventeenth century. 



144 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

ISLAY— iLE 

I. The meaning of the name is not known. It seems to 
be " a fragment of an earlier world." I think it is almost 
certain that the end syllable is N. ey; but for the first 
part I can offer no suggestion. My feeling is entirely with 
Skene — that the name is pre-Keltic, with probable kin- 
dred to Basque names of the same form. Any attempt 
to explain the name from the forms of the modern Gaelic 
must fail, as such always have failed ; and even our best 
scholars who have tried the old, or even oldest language, 
to the utmost have failed, if I may at all judge. 

n. There are many English names in Islay, nearly 
all of which are translations, like Blackrock, Bridgend, 
Castlehill, Heatherhouses ; but a few, like Balaclava, Port 
Charlotte, Rosalind, are clearly modern creations or 
imports. Craigens is a plural English form of Gaelic 
na Creagain, and Sunderland, locally Sionarlann, points 
to a hybrid N. sj6n-ar -f Gael, -lann, an enclosure. 

in. The names of Islay are by no means easy. I 
have had distinct assistance from " The New Guide to 
Islay," by the Rev. J. G. MacNeill; and even if I am 
compelled to reject some of his renderings, and though 
the work as regards Names makes no claim to complete- 
ness, it is yet so full of the local life and colour that I 
desire to commend it strongly. He states the various 
guesses upon the meaning of the name fully. 

(i) From Rudh' a' Mhail to Lochindaal — East of 

Loch Gruineart 

Ardnahoe = Aird na haug-r, *' howe," cairn. 
Askaig (Port-) = Port -f ask-r ■\- vfk, the port of the 
ash (wooded) Bay. 



I SLAY 145 

Bachlaig (and Rudha), the name seems to have started 
from Lat. baailum, a staff, which in GaeHc became bach- 
uU, a shepherd's crook, and then, by another remove, a 
bishop's crozier, and from this again, bachlag, for bachull- 
ag, the shoot, of a potato for instance, with its curved 
head. The use of the word in this name is clearly 
fanciful. 

Ballachroy = bealach-ruadh, the red-coloured pass. 

Ballychluvin = bail' a' chlamhain, kite-town. 

Ballygrant = bail' a' ghrana, grain-town. 

Balole = bail' Olaif, Olaf'sfarm. 

Balulve = bail' Uilf, a personal name from u//r, a wolf. 

Bhirgeadain (Sliabh). This looks like a Gaelic gen. 
of horg + Gael, -ad-ain. Compare Diin-bhuirg, M. 

Bhoraraic (Dun) = Diin + borg-ar + vik. The struc- 
ture of the name is thus — the Norseman found a fort there, 
and he named the bay upon it, Borg-ar + vik; when he 
left, the native restored or added his own Dtin. This 
name, Dun-Bhoraraic, occurs in the Rhinns (2) division 
also, and strangely enough with a Lossit near it, as is 
the case also on the Sound on the east coast. 

Bhruichlinn (Dun), should be Dun - Bhrolchain. 
"Donald O'Brolchan was Abbot of lona, and Sir John 
O'Brolchan was Rector of Kildalton in 1548." The Dim 
was called after one of this name. 

Bhuilg (Raon a') = raon, a plain, +balg, a bag. 

Boglach nan tarbh, the marsh, or wet place (bog), of 
the bulls. 

Bonahaven (and Bay) = bun na h-abhann (p. 141). 

Broach (Lochan). There are several meanings of 
the word in the old language, the appropriateness of 
which in this application may be discussed to better 
advantage in the notes. 

K 



146 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Cachla (Tigh na), the house by the hurdle-gate. 

Cadhan (Loch nan), wild-goose Loch. 

Carnaine = earn + aine, liglit. The position suggests 
a light put on the height as a guide to mariners. 

Chaim (Cnoc a' ghamhna), the hillock of the one-eyed 
stirk. 

Chardaidh (Gleann a'), carding glen. There is " Card- 
ing Mill " on the next river, Sorn. 

Cheapasaidh (Dun) = ceap (as in Ceapach), + as (as 
in Caol-as, Bearnas, &c.), + aidh ; but it is almost 
certain this is the native rendering of /ik'eppo/s=aidh. 

Chlaigionn (Seann), a skull, but applied to a field of 
the best land. 

Corra-ghoirtean = corr + goirtean (p. 14). 

Croiseachan (Sliabh nan), the hill of the Crosses, near 
Corsapol and Cill-Eileagain. 

Dluich, from dlubh, close, near^ -\- fh&ich, field. 

Duisker = dubh 4- uisge, 4- ir, the black- Water — not 
a common river-ending. Liver (p. 72). 

Eacharnach = each, horse (here in pi. sense) 4- ar(n)- 
ach. 

Earaibh (Beinn na h-) from N. har, high, the height. 
It would be better na h-earaidh. In Lewis it is pL, na 
herradh. 

Eararach (Staoinsha), the eastern Staoinsha (p. 158). 

Emaraconart = iomaire, a '^ rigg'' of cultivated land, 
-I- comhnard, level. 

Feamaindean(na)from fea.'msi.iina., sea-weed ; therefore, 
sea-weed places. The d is easily developed after n, in fact 
it here takes the place of the second n of the stem. Com- 
pare Airidh nam fanndach (p. 42), Ballygrant (p. 145), 
Lanndaidh (p. 157). 

Finnlagan (and Loch) = fmyan^fair, white, 4- lag-an. 



ISLAY 147 

Ghibeach (Beinn), hairy, ragged-M.oVir\S.. 

Ghillean (Baile), from gille, a lad, not an infrequent 
element in names — Lads -town. 

Giur-bheinn (and Loch). Giur is the gill of fish {note). 

Keppolmore = gen. of N. kappal, a horse, + feo/+ 
Gaehc mor. 

Knockdon = Cnoc-donn, the dun hillock. 

Lamh-bheinn = leamh-bheinn, elm-hill. 

Leanachoig = lean a' choirce, oats-plain. 

Logan (Glen) = Gleann-lagan, the glen of the little 
hollows. 

Lossit (Dun and Loch), figurative, from losaid, a 
kneading- trough . 

Luidhneis (Rudha) — I'ag-r + ties, low Ness. 

Mala (am), the bag of the bag-pipes, figurative here. 
The next name has been referred to this word, but it is 
impossible. 

Mhail (Rhudha a'). The meanings offered for this 
name are unsatisfactory. The correct explanation must, 
I think, be that this is the N. hvall^ hill, with likely the 
generic governing part dropped — as we say a' Mhaol for 
the Mull (of Kintyre). 

Mulreesh, said to be a Gaelic ** mael," or monk, but I 
have not been able to discover him. 

Niar (Bealach gaoth-), the Pass of the west-wind. 

OctavuUin, the (9, or eighth, pertaining to the mill = 
ochdamh a' mhuilinn. 

Ruime and Rumach (an). Ruimineach is old Gaelic 
for a marsh, and Mb, gives Rumach, a marsh, without 
etymology. It may easily be akin to romach, hairy, or 
rough, of surface. 

Runastach (Stuadh) — reynlr + stakki, the rowan 
" stack." 



148 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Samhlaidh (Cnoc an t-), semblance^ likeness ; therefore, 
a spectre^ ghost. 

Scanlistle is almost certainly for Scallasdal = N. 
skalli + dal'T, sheilmg-dale. 

ScouUer. See Scoull (p. 64) + ar. 

Sgarail. See Sgarbh, following. 

Sgarbh dubh and breac, gualann an Sgairbh, and 
Biod nan sgarbh, and Sgarail, which is almost certainly 
based upon the same word, Sgarbh, the cormorant. The 
mountain is the starting-point of the name, and the 
figurative application of the bird-name may be compared 
to the use of faoileann and feannag. 

Shun-bheinn seems to be a reversion from Norse — a 
translation of N. fjall-r to beinn, while retaining the N. 
shun = s/d/7, sight. 

Sibhinn (Loch) is discussed (p. 136), but further 
sibhin, older simhin, is the bulrush (C. 150). 

Skerrols (and Loch), looks like a sea-term taken 
inland, N. sker + bols^ skerry-farm. 

Sliabh aom, the inclining hill, or hill-side. 

Sopachan (an) = sop, a wisp., -f ach-an. 

Sorn (Loch) — in Ireland, always a kiln (p. 139). 

Staoinsha and Staoinsha Eararach (p. 137). 

Storackaig = storr, big, -f- akr, a field, 4- Gael. -aig. 

Tais-bheinn, a peculiar use of tais, soft. 

Tamhanachd (an) = an t-samh(n)ach {note). 

Taoid (Goirtean an). Taod is a halter., and is almost 
certainly the word here ; but saod, the leading of cattle 
to the hill-pasture — the "ridding " as used in Yorkshire 
— is equally appropriate, as Goirtean an t-saoid. 

Tayanock = tigh a' chnoic, the house on the hillock. 

Thrasda (Beinn), a form of tar, across = Lat. trans., 
not now in common use, the across-Ben. 



ISLAY 149 

Tiompain (Clach an), primarily a musical instrument, 
but applied to a one-sided knoll, 

Tirevagain = tir a' mhathagain seems a Personal 
name [cf. Tiretagain, K. Tirarragain, M.). 

Uamhannan donna, the dun caves. See the pi. in E. 
(p. 78) — na h-uamhachan. 

IV. Norse names are so numerous in Islay that they 
have of necessity to be put into the vocabulary (p. 220). 

V. The Church -names are Killanallan = Cill an 
^ilein, the church on the green meadow ; Cill Bhreannain 
(p. 175), Cill Chaluim Chille (p. 166), with Kiels, and 
the N. Persabus, or Priest's steaditig ; Killarow = Cill 
Mhaelrubha (p. 174), Cill-Eilleagain, Kilmeny, and 
Kilslevan. 

VI. Personal names occur in Baile Aonghais (p. 107), 
Cnoc Dhiarmaid, Airidh Mhic-Dh6mhnaill (p. 37), Port 
Dhomhnaill Chruim, Baile Mhartuinn, and Loch Mhur- 
chaidh, with those mentioned above. 



(2) West of Lochgruineart and Lochindaal 

Amaind (Gleann), said to be a mountain-river, I am 
disposed, from its situation, to refer it to dmot (p. 24). 
The meeting of the streams here fits the name exactly, 
and besides I do not know any other word like amaind. 
See Cnoc-amanta. 

Aoradh, N. eyrr, + Gael, -adh, fits the language 
and position well — perhaps even better of old time. 

Arish (Loch), from old airghis, a bond, which is very 
interesting and correct in this name. 

Aruadh = ath-ruadh, the red-ford. 



150 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Ballinaby = bail' an aba, the Abbofs farm. 

Ballymony = bail' a' mhonaidh, the farm on the hill. 

BM-buirn (Cnoc), the quiet, silent Burn. See Miodha- 
puirn. 

Bhrothain (Sliabh). See Brbach (p. 145). 

Boghacha m6ra, this is the Gaelic pi of the N. boS^i, 
a breaker. 

Braibruich, the top of the " brae^' a very simple, but 
very interesting name. It is made up of braighe + 
bruthach, both elements of which are usually rendered 
as "brae." The braighe part, however, is the "brae" 
proper, or upper part or top — a definite point ; but the 
bruthach is an acclivity or uphill, of some continuous 
extent. It is in this last sense that the saying, "a stout 
heart for a stey brae," applies. 

Braid (am) = am braghad, the gen. form of the word 
braighe, here used for the nominative. 

Braigo is two miles inland, so breidr + gja must be 
rejected. Perhaps Gael, braigh + gja. 

Bruichladdich = bruthach + cladach, shore-brae. 

Charra (Gart a"'), the field with the standing stone or 
stone pillar. 

Chrosprig (Dun), usually taken to have origin from 
N. kross, a cross, and borg-r, fort, taking the Gaelic 
inflections. This may be correct, but it presents diffi- 
culties. The -prig part may have come from borg=r by 
the Gaelic gen. inflection, as in Dun-bhuirg, but not 
easily ; and if this part is a genitive the first must be of 
necessity Gaelic and not Norse ; and, again, if the first 
part is Gaelic, violence is done to the language by 
the form Dun- Chrosprig. Further, the name implies 
that Crosprig was earlier than the Dun- named on it, 
although this form is quite possible and even common, 



ISLAY 151 

e.g. Glen- eigadai I — glen-oak-glen, &c. Furthermore, 
there is the very disturbing name, An Gro-is-sgeir, as 
one of the group, and Cnoc Choisprig on the other 
side of Kil-Chiarain Bay. The name is certainly not 
settled. 

Cladville (and Beinn). I do not think there can be 
any doubt that these names are related to claddich, Ike 
shore-farm, quite near. Cladville might come from Norse, 
though not easily, and then only through the mountain 
name Beinn-Chladville, of which the last part may be 
Gaelic gen. of meall as easily as of flail. 

Coite (Allt na), a small boat^ a ferry-boat (p. 91). 

Conailbhe (Loch), most likely Congheile (p. 59), from 
the meeting of the streams at Kilchiarain. 

Coulters ay = Cul + Thors-ey. 

Cultoon, " Ctil-tuinidhe, a cave- dwelling." If the last 
part is right, the first would be better as Ciiil. Tuineadh 
is an abode, or dwelling, and in Argyll the verb a' tuineadh, 
living, or dwelling, there, is in free use. 

Dhubhain (Cladh) — a Personal name, from dubh, 
black, or dark, cf Finan. Cladh Haco is near. 

Damaoidh (Survey map) is Dun-Aoidh, Hugh's fort. 
Rudh' an duin is quite near, 

Earasaid. There seems no need to go outside Gaelic 
for the meaning of this name, which is quite a familiar 
word as applied to a zvoman^s shoulder-plaid. The appli- 
cation is of course fanciful. 

Eilister (East, West, and Port), locally Aolastradh, 
likely Hellis (Pers. name), or hellir, a cave, + set^r, 
seat, or home. 

Fl^isgein (Traigh), for pleasgan, to plash, the sound 
of disturbed water. 

Gamaghoath and Port gleann na gaoithe is from 



152 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

gaoth, wind, and the first name may be cama-ghaoth, 
or a place where wind comes in tortuous gusts. 

Gearach (and Loch) is from N. gerdi, a fenced fields 
rather than from GaeHc gearrach. 

Ghlamraidh (Rudha a'), from glam, devour. 

Gortan longerst = gort (p. 15) + longairt (p. 25). 

Graineil = N. graenn + voU-r, green-field. 

Grulin (mor and beag) I have based upon Gael, 
groth (p. 117), but in Islay, and in the Rhinns especially, 
N. gr^la is possible. 

Leek, gen. of leac (p. 16), with first part lost. 

Lochindaal = Loch an dala, from old Gaelic dal, dail, 
a portion^ district, division, as in Dal-riada. Dal .i. rand, 
a division, inde dicitur, Dal-Riata, and Ddl nAraide 

(C. 52). 

Lorgbow = lorg, a footprint, + bd, a cow. There is a 
hollow in a flat rock at the place resembling the impress 
of a cow's foot, whence the name. 

Lossit = losaid, a kneading-trough. The reason why 
this place was so called belongs entirely to the province 
of imagination. 

Luig (Traigh an), the gen. of lag, a hollow. This 
seems to be straining after a genitive, but it is not at all 
uncommon — allt, uillt ; cam, ciiirn, &c. 

Miadar (am, twice), seems to be the same stem as 
Eng. meadow. N. miCtr, middle, would often fit the 
positions of the name. 

Miodhapuirn (Cnoc), same as Bhith-buirn. 

Miiirne-meall, a Gaelic name following the Norse 
order perhaps, though not necessarily so. That mtiirne 
is Gaelic is made certain by the gen. termination, which 
cannot be Norse. Miiirn is joy, gladness, therefore the 
hill of joy. For Meall, see Hills. 



ISLAY 153 

Nave (Ard) = kird an naoimh (with Island, Cill, and 
Loch), all named upon the Sat'nl of Cill-naoimh. 

Octafad and Octomore = ochdamh fada and ochdamh 
m6r, the lon^ and the ^reat eighth (p. 18). 

Peileirean (na), the bullets — fanciful. 

Port Charlotte, named after " Lady Charlotte, mother 
of the late Mr. W. F. Campbell of Islay, and one of the 
beauties of the Court of George IV." The hamlet was 
previously called Sgiba = N. Shipton. 

Portwick, a mixture ; port + vik. Port-bay. 

Portnahaven = Port na h-abhann, the river-Port. 

Port Wemyss " is very appropriately in Gaelic Bun- 
othan, Bunaven for Bun na h-aibhne." I respectfully 
submit that there is a valuable fact in this statement 
and probably an error. The fact, as I take it to be, is 
that -othan is a characteristic of the stream, and that 
-an is the usual ending = Water, and that it may be 
the same element as in Dunoon, Gaelic Dun-othan, 
although I have rendered it Dun-omhan for a reason 
(p. 51). The error is that Bun-othan cannot be for Bun 
na h-aibhne. 

Ruime (Loch) See p. 147. 

Sgallaidh (Airidh) = N. skalli, a naked hill, or head- 
land, + Gael. -aidh. See AUalaidh, N. Voc. 

Shugain (Cnoc an fhraoich). Sugain is a twisted 
rope (of heather), and the heather of this hill was specially 
suitable for the purpose. 

Sionnarlann = N. s/o/i-ar-f- Gael, lann (p. 144). 

SmauU = N. sm& + hhol, small town. Smili does 
not fit appropriately. 

Tayvullin = tigh a' mhuilinn, the Mill-house. 

Teamhair (Druim) = Irish Tara, "every place from 
which there is a good prospect " (C. 157). 



154 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Ton (airidh and mhor). This is a favourite imagining 
in Islay. The t6n-mh6r is a fine example. 

Torony = torr rainich, fern-hill (Hills). Note the 
Islay preference of o to a. See Glen-logan, Gart-chossan, 
Bun-othan, &c. 

Turnachaidh = turn, stronghold, " tower," + achadh, 
afield. 

Uisgentuie = uisge an t-suidhe, the water by which 
travellers sat to refresh themselves. 

Valoor = bail' iir, new-town, evidently with a govern- 
ing word lost, for this is in gen. form. 

V. The Church-names are Kilchiaran = Cill Chiarain 
(p. 170), Kilchomain = Cill Chommain (p. 177), Kilnave 
= Cill naoimh, Kilronan = Cill Ronain (p. 182), and 
Cladh Ghille Moire, the burial-place of Gille Mhoire, the 
servant of Mary. 

VI. There is Eilean Mhic Coinnich, MacKemteth's isle, 
or Mackenzie's isle, Carn Donachy (p. 37), and cladh 
tiaco, Haco's burial-place. Tobar Neill neonaich — this 
eccentric Neill, whose Well is here, was a Macphee, and 
" a man of great influence during the stirring times of 
Angus Macdonald of Islay." 



(3) South of (i) East of Lochindaal 

Airidh Mhaol Chalnim, Colunis, or Columba's, airidh, 
or that of one of his followers. 

Amanta (Cnoc), certainly based on amot. 

Ardenistie = aird an uisge, the water-height. This 
change of g, or c, for t is exceptional in Scottish names, 
although it is frequent in the names of Man — reast for 
G. riasg, sast for G. seasg, dry, &c. 



ISLAY 155 

Ardillestry. See EHIIstlr {p. 151). 

Ardimersay, the Aird named upon the island Imer- 
say, which stands out from it. Immers-ay means ymirs- 
ey, island, but see ymir in Voc. 

Avenvogie = abhainn + bhogaidh, soft, or boggy-land 
river. 

Avinlussa is a hybrid of abhainn + lys-&. 

Baileneachtain, Nectans farm-steading. 

Bhogachain (Sgorr), from bog, wet, soft, + ach-ain. 

Bheigeir (Beinn) seems from a River-name. 

Borrachill, the fort-hill. N. borg-r. 

Bowmore is am Bodha mor, from bocti, a sea-rock. 

Braighunasary, braigh, " brae^' + N. sunna 4- erg, 
the high ground of the sunny- shelling. 

Bulairidhe = bun (p. 141), lairidhe — the same as lairig 

(P- 17)- 

Chadaldaidh (Cnoc a'). This must be from cadal, 

sleep, thus cadal-(a)d-aidh. Compare Cadal-(a)d-an 

(p. 56) and Cnoc a' chadail, A. (p. 92). 

Chatraigain (Baile), Catrigan'sfarm. 

Chladain (Rudha a'), from cladan, a burr-bush. 

Choiredail (Gleann) = Gael, coire, a corrie, + N, 
daUr. 

Chonasairidh (Carn), the whin, furze, + airidh, or 
con, gen. pi. of cii, a dog, + as + airidh. 

Churalaich (Beinn), the marshy-mountain. 

Coirelach — coire, corrie, + lach, the place of corries 
(p. 27). 

Corrary = corr + airidh. See both parts (pp. 14, 19). 

Craobhach (Allt). It depends upon actual conditions 
whether this is craobhach, tree-y, which Burns frequently 
are, or whether it is from craobh, /c?a;«, with prejudice 
for the latter. 



156 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Dealachan (Lochan nan), the lakelet of the leeches. 

Dronnach (Cnoc), from dronn, the back, of the same 
origin as druim (p. 15). 

Duich (and River) is from dubh, black, or dark, with 
perhaps faich, a field ; or better, the terminal -aich. In 
this neighbourhood dubh is very common — Torra-dubh, 
Torran-dubh, Airidh-dhubh, Eilean muice-duibhe, all 
together. 

ifiidhne (Leac), gen. of Eidheann, ivy. 

Emeravale = iomair, a " rigg " of cultivated land, 
+ mal, re7it ; therefore, the rent-rigg, the produce of which 
went to pay the landlord. 

Frdgach (Allt), from frog, a hole, a den. 

Gallan (Poll nan), a rock, or standing-stone, but 
p. 41. 

Gartchossan, Gartloist, Gartmain, Gartnatra = gart 
(p. 15) + cossan, a footpath ; loisgte, burnt; meadhoin, 
middle ; na tragha, of the shore. 

Ghuail (Coill a'), the (char-) coal wood, where charcoal 
was made of wood. 

Giol is N. geil, a narrow glen — the Ghyll of the North 
of England. 

Glenastle. This cannot be Glen-river-dale, because 
the N. gen of A is ^-r. It is almost certainly Gleann- 
astail, from astail, or (fh)astail, a holding, or dwelling. 

Glengolach = gleann gbbhlach, the forked, or fork- 
shaped, glen. The gobhal of Gaelic is always a two- 
pronged idea. As a body-name, it is the fork — between 
the two legs — and this is the figure and meaning of the 
name in all its applications. 

Greastle is N. gras, grass, -\- daUr, a dale. 

larnan (Loch). larna is a hank of yarn, and this 
is the plural ; therefore, the Loch of the hanks {note). 



ISLAY 157 

Iriseig (Druim). Iris is the twisted withe by which a 
creel or basket is carried or suspended. 

Knockangle = cnoc + aingil, the fire-hillock, referring 
no doubt to a hillock upon which watch-fires, or need- 
fires, were lit. 

Lagavulin = lag a' mhuilinn, the hollow in which the 
mill is, or was. 

Lanndaidh, from lann, an enclosure, with developed d, 
which easily comes after -ann. 

Leanamore, the great meadow. 

Leodamais (Loch) = //d^-r + holm-r, + Gael, gen., 
perhaps because the island-rocks at the mouth are so ugly. 

Leora (Glen), the glen of the loamy-river, from N. 
leir -f £. 

Lipachlairy = leob a' chleirich, the cleric's (of Cill- 
Neachtain) /ij/^:// (of land). 

Machry (Glen) = Gleann na machrach (p. 17). 

M^ise baine (Rudha na), the Point of the white 
" dish^' or platter (fanciful certainly), from mias + ban, 
white. 

Muchairt (Loch), old much, smoke, -f aird. 

Nigheadaireachd (Lochan na), the loch in which the 
washing was done, from nigh, wash. 

Pliadan dubha. Pliad is a plot of ground ; therefore, 
the black plots. 

Port Ellen, " named after EUenor, first wife of the 
late W. F. Campbell of Islay." 

Proaig and Lephroaig have been explained as 
breid'-r 4- vik, broad-bay, but this does not come 
easily. 

Rosquern (River) = ros a' chiiirn (earn). 

Sholum (Loch, and Beinn). See sula, N. Voc. 

Slievevin = sliabh-eibhinn, the happy, pleasant hill. 



158 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Slugaide glas, from slug, swallow ; therefore, a gulley, 
ov gullet, usually worn out of the rock by the current. 

Staoin (Abhainn), the river of Staoiriy which last is 
Gaelic iox juniper ; therefore, the place where juniper 
abounded, unless it be from N. steinn, a stone. The 
forms Staoinisha distinctly suggest the latter Norse 
rendering, with the -s gen. of the masc. strong 
declension. 

Stremnish is Norse = straum-r + nes, streani-ness. 

Siirdag (Moine na). Surdag is a well-known Gaelic 
word for a specially hearty '^ spurt" of efifort in work, 
and this may quite well be the meaning here. Moine is 
a peat-moss. 

Tachree (Clach an). This looks very simple as 
clach an tachraidh, the stone of the meetings with its own 
local history, no doubt; but it has been explained as 
clachan an tachraidh, the hamlet of the causeway. I do 
not know this word. Tachar is a fight, or battle, in the 
older language, and tacharan is a ghost, from which 
latter the name could come easily {note). 

Tackmal has been rendered an X-hauk-ar -f h61m-r, 
but this is clearly impossible. The hrst elements are 
right, but the -mal cannot come from holm-r, either by 
language or circumstance. It is the very common Gaelic 
rendering of N. fjall, a fell, or hill. 

Tornabakin = Torr nam bacan, the Torr (hill) of the 
banks. 

Torra is a variant of Torr, as Torradu, the black Torr, 
and dim., Torrandu, show. The word torra does not 
contain &, a river. It is simply the river which flows by 
Torra, as lower down it is called Duich-River, where it 
flows by Duich. 

Uraraidh (Beinn) = ur, new, + airidh, the new shieling. 



ISLAY 159 

V. There are a number of Church-names in this 
large district. Killarow belongs to it = Gill Mhaol- 
Rubha, Cill Brighde ; Kilcahim-Kill = Gill Ghaluim- 
chille (p. 166) and Airidh Mhaol Ghaluim = the airidh 
of Columba, the tonsured one ; Gill Ghattain (p. 175), 
Cill Ghbmhghain (p. 178), Cill Ghubain (p. 160), Gill 
Daltain = the Church of the fosterlings from dalta, a 
fosterling, + dim., -ain ; Sloe Mhaol Doraidh (p. 185), 

Kileanain = Adhamhnan (p. 179), Gill Lasrach (p. 173), 
and Cill (Sh)eatliain-iochdracli and uachdrach, lower dind 
upper. 

VI. MacArthur's Head, Tobar Stevenson, Tobar 
Gharastina {Christina) Ghaimbeul, Carmichael's Rocks, 
Druim Glaiginn MMcheil, and Maol (N. mul-r) Airidh 
O'Dhuinn, with Carn Chonnachain, are the Personal 
names. 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 

Church-Names are more numerous in Argyll than in 
any other part of Scotland. The reason will be seen in 
this chapter. 

There are several secularly named Kits, like Kil- 
ninver = Cill an inbhir, Kilchurn = Cill a' chuirn, Kil- 
many = Cill mheadhonach, Kilmelfort (p. 57), Kilearna- 
dail, J., Kilcreggan = Cill a' chreagain, Cill-mhor, Cill- 
bheag, Cill an ailean, and others. 

Kits called upon Scripture names and familiar names 
I only just mention — Kilchriost, Kilmichael, Kildavy, 
Kilsheathain (John), Kilmory (Mary), Kilpheadar = Cill 
Pheadair (Peter) Kilpatrick (d. 490), Kilbride (d. 525), 
Kil-Donald, are comparatively numerous all over the 
country. They need no explanation. 

I cannot fix Cill-Eallagain, I., upon any of the 
recognised saints. There is no saint in the Kal. that 
explains the name. It may be that of Colman-Ella 
(p. 169), which quite correctly might come into the 
name as him of Ella, the EUa-ag-an — the little one (the 
affectionate form) from Laind-Ella. I am disposed to 
think that this is correct. The same may be said of 
Kilslevan, I. Both may be secular Kils ; their Saints are 
certainly wanting, and the names are easily explained 
from other ways. 

Cill-Chiibain, I., also, I cannot explain from the 

160 



THE CHURCH-NAMES i6i 

Kalendars. It seems to come from cilb, bend^ confess, 
which is not inappropriate to a church. 1 cannot find 
a St. Cuban. 

The basis of the Cokimban Church, which gave us 
all our Church-names of Argyll, was the monastic system, 
which came to Rome from Egypt by Athanasius, Bishop 
of Alexandria, when he sought refuge there, about the 
middle of the fourth century, from persecution by the 
Arians, who denied the essential divinity of Christ. 
From Italy the system came into Gaul, and it was 
established at Ligug6, "the most ancient monastery in 
Europe," by Martin in a.d. 361. Martin was a native 
of Pannonia in Lower Hungary. He was for several 
years a soldier before his conversion. The bishopric of 
Tours was conferred upon him, as is said, against his will, 
about A.D. 370, after which, in order to withdraw him- 
self from the world, he founded Majus Monasterium, the 
later Marmoutier, which became the great centre of 
monastic life in Gaul. He died A.D. 397. Legend has 
it that Conchessa, the mother of St. Patrick, was 
Martin's niece, but there is reason to beheve that this 
is not correct. Martin is in the Kalendar, under nth 
November :— 

Sanct Martain saer samail 
sliab oir iarthair domain. 

— Saint Martin — tioble simile — the mount of gold of the West 
of the world. His great ordination as Bishop of Tours 
is under 4th July, dagordan mor Martain marosellaib 
seimle — Martin s good great ordination ; you have not 
seen its like. His "translation" is under 4th June, and 
a feast in his honour at Rome under 20th April : feil 
iruaim ; noem neorpa uile — the feast at Rome ; of the 

L 



i62 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Saint of all Europe. He was the first Saint to whom 
the Roman Church offered worship. 

We have his name remaining in the Parish of Kil- 
Martin, and in the Scottish "Term" Martin-mas, an 
fh^ill-Martain — nth November — to this day. 

NiNiAN may almost be said to have been a disciple 
of Martin. In early life he went to Rome, where "he 
was trained in the faith and in the mysteries of truth," 
as Bede has it. On his way back, he visited Martin at 
Tours, and stayed with him some time. When he left 
for home he brought with him, from Martin, masons 
for the purpose of building a church. This was the 
monastery of "Leucopibia," "Candida Casa," "Futerna," 
"Whithern," or modern Whithorn, in Wigton. It was 
also called " Magnum Monasterium/' and the monastery 
of Rosnat, and the "house of Martin," because it was 
dedicated to the Bishop of Tours. There can be no 
doubt that this "White-house" of Martin was a great 
centre of piety and culture. It was here that Finan of 
Moville (magh-bile) was taught — a fact that should be kept 
in mind, for he was one of the teachers of Columcille. 

Here at Whithorn, " Ninian and many other Saints 
rest in the body" (Bede). He was of the Britons of 
Strathclyde. His father was Sarran, King of Britons, 
and his mother was Bobona, daughter of Loarn (son of 
Ere), one of the founders of the Dalriadic race and 
kingdom in Argyll. His death is placed a.d. 432. 
There was another Nennidius, "de partibus Mula," 
and from him the parish of Kilninian, in North Mull, 
takes its name, and a Nin(d)idh was one of the twelve 
apostles of Ireland, It is almost certain that these two 
names are for one and the same person, namely, Ninnidh 
of Innis-macsaint in Lough Erne. 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 163 

FiNAN, or FiNNiAN, of Moville was sent as a boy to 
St. Coelan of Noendrum {Nine Backs), who placed him 
under the care of " the most holy Bishop Nennio " 
(Ninnian, of Candida Casa), who took him to his own 
" Magnum Monasterium," and by him (Nennio) he was 
trained for several years in the monastic life. After 
completing the time of his instruction he went back to 
Ireland and established the monastery of Moville, near 
Newtonards, in County Down, with which his name is 
so famously associated. It was to him, at Moville, that 
Colum-Cille was first sent for instruction. Columba 
remained there until he was ordained Deacon, after 
which he left to go under another Finan at the monastery 
of Clonard. 

He seems to have been known as Findbarr also. 
In the Kalendar, under 10th December, he is com- 
memorated : — 

Cli dergoir conglaine 
corriacht tarsal side 
sui dianerin inmall 
Findbarr muigebile. 

— A body of red gold with purity , over a sea came he, a sage 
for which Ireland was sad, Findbarr of Movile. Accord- 
ing to a marginal note in L. B. the explanation is given — 
Findbarr .i. folt find bui fair .i. finden, that is, Findbarr 
for white (or fair) hair was on him, that is, Finden = 
fair-one. 

FiNiAN of Clonard was of the Irish Picts. Up to 
his thirtieth year he was taught in Ireland, but then he 
crossed into Wales to Kilmuine — the old name for St. 
David's, and without doubt the same in origin as Kilmun 
in Argyll — where he placed himself under "the three 



164 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

holy men, David and Gillas and Docus the Britons" — 
that is, Bishop David, Gildas the historian, and St. 
Madoc, who founded the monastery of Llancarvan, in 
South Wales. On his return to Ireland after many years 
at St. David's, he founded the great monastery of Cluain- 
Erard — Clonard, in County Meath — from which so many 
thousands went forth to teach and to preach, and from 
which went forth especially "the twelve apostles of 
Ireland," whose names are so frequent and familiar in 
the West of Scotland. The apostles were, according to 
Skene : — 

1. ClARAN of Saighir. 

2. ClARAN Mac-an t-saoir. 

3. COLUMBA mac Crimthain. 

4. COLUM-ClLLE. 

5. MOBHI Clarenach. 

6. Brendan of Birr. 

7. Brendan of Clonfert. 

8. Laisren or Molaise of Devenish. 

9. RuADHAN of Lothra. 

10. Senell of Cluain-innis. 

11. Ninnidh of Innis-mac-saint. 

12. Caineach of Achabo. 

The Leabhar Breac, however, gives them as follows : — 

XII. Apostoli Hiberniae 

dafinen dacholum chaid 
ciaran caindeach comgall cain 
dabrenaind ruadan colli 
nindid mobi mac natfraich 

— Two Finans, two chaste Columbs, Ciaran, Kenneth, fair 
Co>ngall, two Brennans, RuadJian with splendour, Nindidh 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 165 

(and) Mobij son of Natfraich. It will be observed that we 
have in this statement two Finans and a Comgall not 
included in Skene's, and further that we have only one 
Ciaran and no Molaise and no Senell. We have no 
memorial of Mobhi or of Ruadhan or of Senell in the 
place-names, but we have Finan and Comgall and 
Molaise — and Colum, Ciaran, Brennan, Caineach are 
numerous in the whole West of Scotland. 

This Finan is in the Kalendar^ under 12th December : 

Tor oir uas cech lermuir 
gebaid coir frimanmain 
findia find frem inmain 
cluana iraird adbail 

— A tower of gold over every ocean sea, he will give a hand 
to my soul, Findia the Fair, lovable root of vast Clonard. 
We have his name in Killundine = Cill-Fhionntain, V,, 
and in Kilmunn, C, and in other places (see p. 53). 
The Kal., 21st October, derives Mundu thus, mundu 
= mufhindu .i. fintan, the essential being that the initial f 
is aspirated out, which is not only probable but even 
necessary — and still one doubts the rendering. If 
Fintan, who was Munnu prius, or artus, went to David 
in Wales as a pupil at Kil munnu, there must have been 
" an intelligent anticipation " of his coming to have the 
Cill named upon him. What is far more likely is that 
Kilmunnu was the name of the Welsh monastery before 
he went there, and that he on founding his church in 
Cowal did — as all men do — remember and recall his old 
intellectual home. I am afraid, therefore, and for other 
reasons, that the philology of the Kal. must on this 
point be rejected. 

There was another famous FiNAN, sent from lona to 



i66 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

succeed Bishop Aidan at Lindisfarne to take charge of 
the Church in Northumbria, A.D. 651. He died A.D. 660. 
Obitus Finain mac Riineda (660 — Tigh.). There are several 
other Finans, Finnians, and Fintans, of the old Church, 
so that it is not possible to be sure upon which of them 
a Kil- may be named. 

MOBHI, Clarenach as he was called, although he 
does not come into Argyll names, is an interesting link, 
because after leaving Clonard, where he was taught 
under Finnian, he founded the monastery of Glas- 
naoidhen (Glasnevin, County Dublin), where he was joined 
later by Colum-Cille, who also came from Clonard, and 
had been Mobhi's fellow-student there. It was here, at 
Glasnevin, that Colum-Cille met Comgall of Bangor, 
who was one of "the twelve." Mobhi's death is put as 
having occurred A.D. 546. He is in the Kalendar under 
12th October : — 

Mobii balcc inbuaidsin 
inclarenach cainsin 

— Mobhi strong in that victory, that flat-faced fair one. 
There is a long note in the Leabhar Breac explaining 
his descent and birth. It says: Berchan ainm Mobi 
ocus Beoan ainm a athar ocus Uainind ainm amathar 
— Berchan was Mobrs [other] name, B. the name of his 
father, and U. the name of his mother. He is said to have 
died from the Great Plague, called Buidhe Chonaill, 
which swept over Erinn in this time. To the Plague 
is also attributed the break up of the Glasnevin 
Monastery. 

Colum-Cille, or St. Columba, son of Feidhlimidh, 
son of Fergus, son of Conal Gulban, son of Niall 
Naoigiallach, "Neil of the Nine Hostages" — monarch 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 167 

of Erinn, A.D. 346-379 — was born at Gartan, in Donegal, 
on 7th December A.D. 521, according to data supplied by 
Adamnan in his Life, but according to O'Curry he was 
born, "as we know from other sources," A.D. 515. His 
mother was Eithne, daughter of Dima, son of Noe, son of 
Etinne, son of Cairpre the poet, son of Ailill the great, 
son of Breccan, son of Fiach, son of Daire Barrach, 
son of Cathair the great. And Cumine, Minchloth, and 
Sinech were Colum-Cille's three sisters — KaL, 7th June, n. 
When he attained a proper age he became a pupil of 
Finnian, or Findbarr, of Moville, where he remained till 
he was ordained Deacon. Then for some time he was 
under one Gemman, a poet, after which he went to 
Clonard under the other Finnian, where he finished his 
training. 

He was with Mobhi at Clonard, and joined him 
afterwards at Glasnevin, and it was here that he met 
Ciaran, and Caineach, and Comgall who was afterwards 
founder of the great monastery of Ben-chor — the present 
Bangor — in County Down. Columba remained at Glas- 
nevin till he was twenty-five years of age. 

While Columba was at Clonard the Abbot Finnian 
wanted to have him as domestic bishop, and he sent 
him to Eitchen, bishop of the monastery of Clonfad — in 
Cluain Fota Boetain — in Meath, to have the orders of a 
bishop conferred upon him ; but Eitchen by mistake or 
for some reason bestowed the orders of a priest only, 
which Columba said he would not change so long as he 
should be alive, but that he was not too well pleased is 
shown by what he said : "No one shall ever again come 
to this church to have orders conferred upon him" 
— ocus is ed on chomailter beos, says the Note, and it is 
this that is still fulfilled. 



i68 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

After the death of Mobhi, we are told that Columba 
founded many churches — three hundred, it is said — of 
which Kells, Derry, Raphoe, Swords, and Durrow have 
been the most famous. 

In A.D. 563 " the Saint with twelve fellow-soldiers 
sailed across to Britain," He came to King Conall of 
Dalriada, or Argyll, son of Comhgall, brother and suc- 
cessor of Gabhran, who was killed in battle with the 
Picts A.D. 560. He was given the Island of lona by 
Conall. We have bass Conaill mic Comgaill ri Dalriata 
xm. armo regni sui qui offeravit insulam la Colaiincille 
(A.D. 574 — Tigh), the death of C, son ofC, King of Dalriada 
{in the thirteenth year of his reign), who made an offering 
of lona to Coluvi-Cille. Montalembert, in his great history 
of The Monks of the West, says that Columba ordained 
and gave his benediction to Conall, and that the event 
happened in lona "on a great stone called the Stone of 
Destiny." This stone was removed to Dunstaffnage, 
then to Scone, and finally to Westminster, where it now 
is, supporting the Coronation Chair. Some have cast 
doubt upon the history of the stone. Even Shakespeare 
was jealous of it : — 

" A base foul stone made precious by the foil 
Of England's chair, where he is falsely set." 

Rich. III., V. 3. 

" He " is there, however, with his big tradition, which 
some thoughtful people consider to be far more reliable 
than that of " Shakespeare." The history of Columba's 
life and work from this point belongs to general history. 
Columba mac Crithmain was a native of Leinster, 
and he founded the monastery of Tir-da-ghlais in A.D. 
548. He is in the Kalendar, under 13th December : 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 169 

colam trednach tire — C, the abstinent of Tir- {da-ghlais) ; 
and tlie note in Laud MS. is .i. Colum mac Crimthan 
otirdaglas isinmumain, that is, C.^ son of C, from Tir-da- 
ghlas in {the) Munster. It seems quite impossible to 
know if this Columba came into Argyll names, but it 
may be observed that we have Macrimmons in the west 
to the present day. There are over thirty Colmans, 
Colmocs, and Colums (all the same name), in the 
KaletidaVy and several of them are without doubt 
associated with the west of Scotland, but it is quite 
impossible to say which name, from among so many 
remains. Dr. George Stokes, in his Celtic Church, says 
of Colum-Cille that " he was baptized at Temple-Douglas, 
(Telach-dubhglaisse in Tir Lugdach in Cinell Conaill — 
Kal., 9th June, «.), where he received the twofold and 
opposed names of Crimthann, a wolf, and Colum, a dove!' 
The KaL, under same Note of 9th June, has Crimthan 
ainm Colum-Cille prius — Cr. was name of C.C. previously. 
All this suggests an overlapping of the two names. 

COLMAN - Ella. — This is another Colum, in the 
diminutive form. His Kil- is in South Knapdale, and 
his name is in the Kalendar on 26th September : — 

colman olaind ela 
lahuaigi ailt legend 
conid he an hualann 
ioin mar mace nerend 

— C. of Laind-Ela, with perfections of high readings, so that 
he is splendid, praiseworthy^ the great fohn of Ireland! s 
sons. The parish is locally called Sgire nan Calaman 
gheala, the parish of the white doves, and this has been 
taken to be the origin of the name. The native render- 
ing is always of value, but this is a good example of the 



lyo THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

need of keeping an intelligent eye upon it. There is 
more imagination than philology grown locally — and 
perhaps that is well. This is "the birthplace of Malcolm 
O'Neill," according to the Statistical Account , another gem. 
To use a name without some feeling of its meaning is 
abidingly unsatisfactory. There is always a seeking 
after a meaning, and rather than have no meaning, a 
wrong one is preferred — and is preferable, of course. 
The Note in L. B. is not quite certain as to the origin 
of the word Ela. It has — ela nomen mulieris quae ibi 
ante colman habltabat, and ela proprium nomen amnis 
proxlmantis eclesiae. Laind is the same as the Welsh 
Llan- ; it meant in origin an inclosed area, later a house, 
and then, as in Wales, a church. Pope Innocent IV., 
in 1247, confirmed certain lands to the Rector of St. 
Calmonel, situated near the Castle of Schepehinche, in 
Kintyre. 

Ci ARAN {the dusky one). There were two famous Ciarans 
of the old Church, Ciaran of Clonmacnois, and Ciaran 
of Saighir — the two mentioned in Skene's statement, 
without doubt. Ciaran of Clonmacnois was the son of 
a carpenter, hence he was known also as " Ciaran mac 
an t-saoir." His father was from Ulster, but he removed 
to Magh Ai, a plain forming part of the present County 
Roscommon, where Ciaran was born A.D. 516. He was 
educated under Finan at Clonard. He founded, A.D. 548, 
Cluain-mic-nois in the reign of Diarmad, son of Fergus 
Cerrbeoil, and with his assistance. He founded many 
other churches also. His death, which is fabled to have 
been brought about by the prayers of the other saints 
of Ireland, who were envious of his fame, is said to have 
taken place at the age of thirty-three on 9th September 
A.D. 549 (C. 48), but O'Curry says he was alive " about 580." 



THE CHURCH-NAMES lyi 

There is no suggestion in the facts of his life, given 
in Irish records, to show whether he, or his namesake 
of Saighir, gave us our western names. 

ClAKAN of Saighir, so called because he was founder 
of the monastery of that name — now Seirkieran = 
Saighir-Chiarain, in King's County, about four miles 
from Birr. In the Kal., under 5th March, there is along 
statement regarding him. He is mac Lugna, and his 
mother's name was Liadaine. There is in the same 
place another statement of his parentage which the 
curious may refer to. A somewhat similar genesis is 
given to Finan Cam, F. the sqidnting, under 7th April. 

We have Oil - Chiarain (Kilkerran) in Campbel- 
town as in Carrick on the other side of the Sound 
of Kilbrannan (Cil-Bhrandain, his friend), and else- 
where. 

RUADHAN and Senell do not come into the Argyll 
names. 

Cainneach's {tJie fair one) name is frequent. He, 
like Ciaran, was of the Irish Picts. Columba met him 
at Glasnevin. He founded Kil-ri-monaidh (now St. 
Andrews), in Fife. He is commemorated in KaL, nth 
October : Caindeach mac huidaland .i. mac daed alaind 
he ocus achadbo a primchell ocus ata recles do hicill 
rigmonaig in albain — C, descendant of Dalann . . . and 
Achabo was his chief church, and he has a cell in Kil- 
rinionaidh in Scotland. He is said, with Comgall of 
Benchor, to have accompanied Columba on his mission 
to King Brude at Inverness ; and as we know^ the 
mission worked round the coast of Moray and Aber- 
deen, it can be readily understood how his name 
remains in Fife. It is in Mull also, and in lona, Tiree, 
Kintyre, &c. 



172 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Cainneach was a close friend of Brannan and of 
Bairre, whose name remains in Kilberry : — 

Aentu choinnig' is barrai 
ocus brenaind diblinaib 
cipe saraiges nech dib 
fertai intrir ocadigail 

— The unity of Cainneach and Bairre and Brannan, both 
one and other y whoever outrages any one of them the powers 
of the three [zvill be) avenging him. Bairre was of the seed of 
Brian, son of Echad Muidmedon, do sil briain mic echach 
muidmedon do barri — Kal., 25th September, n., on 
which day is the festival of " the loving man," Bairre 
chorcaig, for he was a native of Cork. 

MOLUOC — molua (meaning a kick, .i. preab, O'Cl.) — 
Luoc — LUGIDUS — LUANUS, was from the great monastery 
of Bangor, and he is said to have founded many churches 
in Ireland and in Scotland. The various forms of the 
name have a simple explanation. The last two are an 
attempt to put the name in some sort of Latin form, 
because people must have Latin names, for Saints 
especially. The root, however, of the name is Lua, and 
Luoc is little Lua, and Moluoc is my little Lua — all terms 
of affection, and a form that was very common in the 
old church ; for example, mo-cholm-oc, mo-chell-oc, mo- 
chorm-ac, mo-ern-ac, ma-ron-ag, &c. The church of 
Lismore was founded by him, and his name still remains 
there in Kilmaluag and in Portmaluag on the east side 
of the island. He is in the Kalendar, under 25th June : — 

lam luoc glan geldai 
grian liss moir dealbai 

— With my Luoepure and fair sun of Lismore of Alba. He 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 173 

is said to have been one of the finest men who ever went 
forth from Benchor. His record, at anyrate in one detail, 
is extremely beautiful. "A little bird was seen awailing 
and lamenting (en mbec occai ocus ocdogra) because 
Molua mac-Ocha was dead. A nd therefore it is that the living 
creatures bewail him for he never killed a living creature 
whether small or great — Kal, 31st January. Luac was the 
son of Carthach rigda, royal Carthach, descendant of the 
King of Munster, who was a pupil of Ciaran of Saighir. 
Obitus Lugdach Lissmoir .i. Moluoc, a.d. <^c)2.— Tigh. 

Laisren, or Molaise, named " of Damh-innis " (Deven- 
ish), in Lough Erne, one of "the twelve," was third 
abbot of lona — or at anyrate one of the name was (for 
there seems to have been several of them in the early 
Church), A.D. 600-605. Laisren was first cousin to 
Colum-Cille. The root in the name is lasair, a flame., 
and with keen evangelists it might almost be a general 
name. In the time of Diarmad, monarch of Erinn, 
Colum-Cille, who was great-grandson of Conal Gulban, 
son of " Niall of the Nine Hostages," and therefore of the 
race of the great Clann Domhnaill, fell out with King 
Diarmad (see O'Curry, 327 et seq.), and with the assist- 
ance of these his powerful relatives, and with the assist- 
ance of the men of Tir-Eoghain (Tyrone), his cousins, 
he gave battle to and defeated Diarmad with great loss 
at Cuil Dreimne, near Sligo. The monarch returned to 
Tara discomfited ; but soon afterwards he made his 
peace with Columba. The Saint, however, was troubled 
in conscience because of the bloodshed he had caused, 
so he went for penitential confession to Molaise, whose 
penance was that Colum should leave Erinn forthwith 
and never again return. Upon this Columba left for 
Scotland, and the great history of lona follows. 



174 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

There is a very interesting Note in Kal,^ 9th Decem- 
ber, regarding Ciaran of Clonfert, " Ciaran Chluana," as 
follows : — Teora comairli din ismessa daronad inerinn 
triachomairlib noem .i. timdibe saegail Ciarain, ocus 
Colum Cille do indarbud ocus mochudai dochur araithin 
— Now these are the three worst advices that have been acted 
on in Ireland through the counsels of the Saints, namely, 
the cutting short of Ciaran s life, and the banishment of 
Columba, and the expulsion of Mochuda from Raithin. 
We have seen the reason for the first of these state- 
ments ; the second is now clear. I do not know the 
circumstances attending the third. Mochuda died a.d. 
636. However rightly and justly the commentator may 
have expressed his mind, regarding Columba especially, 
we are thankful to believe that the world is greatly 
richer and better by his " banishment." 

Maelrubha (mael + rubha, cuttings but for what 
reason I cannot say), whose name is met in Islay and 
Kintyre and in other parts of Scotland, was son of 
Subthan, daughter of Setna, and sister of Comghall of 
Benchor, who was of the Cinel Eoghain. It was about 
A.D. 671, during the abbacy of Failbhe in lona, that 
Maelruba came from Bangor (Down) into the west of 
Scotland, and two years later he founded the church of 
Appercrossan — now Applecross — in Wester Ross. The 
Annals of Tighernac has — 673, M. fundavit ecclesiam 
apercrossan ; and he evangelised through the whole 
neighbourhood all his lifetime. He is in the Kalendar, 
under 21st April : inalpain conglaine iarlecud cechsuba 
luid uainn conamathair armbrathair maelruba — in Scot- 
land with purity after leaving every happiness, went from 
us with his mother, Maelruba. 

His Kils are numerous, and they have gone through 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 175 

very peculiar but very interesting changes of form. Cil- 
mhael-rubha appears in old documents variously as 
Kilmolrow, Kilmorrow, Kilmarrow, Kilmharrow, Kil- 
arrow, &c., all of which a Gaelic student will readily 
understand. Though in Islay the name has lost every 
trace of its spoken origin, in Kintyre the essential is still 
preserved in the local pronunciation — it is Kil-a-roo, with 
the accent on the last syllable. According to the Origines 
Par. Scot., Kilmarrow was the church of St. Mary ! 

Cathan, or Cattan {little cat), was of the Irish Picts, 
and the friend of Comgall and Cainneach. He was the 
founder of the monastery of Kingarth, Cinn-garad, or 
Ceann a' gharaidh, in South Bute. His name does not 
appear in the Kalendar, though that of his nephew, 
Blaan, son of King Aidan, does : blaan cain chinn 
garad .i. dun blaan aprimchathair ocus ochinn garad 
do .i. hingall gaidelaib — Blaan of Kingarth in Dunblane 
is his chief city, and from Kingarth is he, i.e. in Galloway. 
This is Stokes' translation, but it is in part wrong — in 
the rendering Galloway. The Gall-ghaidheil were all 
those Gaels of the south-west of Scotland and of the 
western isles who were under the rule or control of the 
Gall, or stranger — of Angles in the south, and of Scan- 
dinavians in the north and the Isles. The Statistical 
Account states that the remains of Blaan were visible 
at Kilblane (Southend, Kintyre) in 1843 ! 

The two names occur frequently — Kil-chattan, Ard- 
chattain — Kilblane, Dunblane, &c. 

Brannan — Brandan — Breannan — Brennand (from 
bran, a raven, bran .i. fiach — C), was one of the twelve 
apostles of Ireland. In his early days he was educated 
at Clonard. He afterwards spent seven years in search 
of the Land of Promise. Upon his return he went to 



176 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Gildas " in Britain." On leaving Gildas he is thought 
to have gone to the Western Isles of Scotland (about 
A.D. 545), in one of which he founded a monastery 
named Aileach, and in Tiree, "/« regione Hethy" a 
church. This Aileach is Aileach an naoimh of the 
Garveloch group of islands (p. 62), and in another 
of the same group is Ciiil-Bhrannain, Cul- Brandon, or 
B!s Retreat, to this day. His name remains in that the 
people of Bute are "the Brandanes," and further, in the 
Sound of Kilbrannan, which separates Arran and Ayr 
from Kintyre. This Brandan was he " of Clonfert," 
which he founded about A.D. 556. He is said to have 
visited Colum-Cille at Hinba, where Ernan, Colum-Cille's 
uncle presided : Alio in tempore quatuor ad sanctam 
visitanduin Columbavi nionasteriiivi fiindatores de Scotia 
transmeantes in Hinba emu invenerunt insula ; quorum 
illustrium vocabula Comgellus Banger, Cainnechus Achabo, 
Brendcnus Cluaind, Cormacus nepos Leathain (Adamn.) — 
all of which may be good history, but is certainly not 
beautiful Latin. In the island of Seil, L., the church is 
dedicated to him. His death is put A.D. 577. 

There were two distinguished Brannans — B. of Clon- 
fert and B. of Birr ; but it seems certain that the name 
of B. of Cluain is that which we have in our names. 
Quies Brendain abbatis Cluain-ferta, die xvi, Mali aetatis 
suiy 94. — Tigh. 

Brannan of Birr was older by a few years than his 
namesake of Clonard. His death is put about a.d. 565 
by the Annals. 

Oran — Odran — Odhran (from odhar, dun,-\-(^\m.. 
-an, the dun one. Compare Ciaran, Finnan). " The dedi- 
cation to Oran, or Odhran, in the islands connected 
with Dalriada probably belong to the earlier Dalriadic 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 177 

Church. Besides the cemetery in lona called Reilig 
Odhrain, he appears in Tiree, where there is a burial- 
ground called Cladh Odhrain, in Colonsay at Kiloran, 
and in Kiloran on the north bank of Loch-Sgridan. He 
was of the stock of the people of Dalriada, and his death 
is recorded on 2nd October a.d. 548." — S/c, ii. 35. There 
is a tradition regarding him that " Columba said to his 
people it would be well for us that our roots should 
pass into the earth here. And he said to them, it is 
permitted to you that some one of you go under the 
earth of this island to consecrate it, Odhran arose 
quickly, and said, ' If you accept me I am ready for that.' 
Odhran then went to heaven. He founded the church 
of Hy (lona) there." 

DONNAN (from donn, dun, Lat. fuscus — as in Duncan, 
p. 37), is in Kal., under 17th April, as Dondan ega .i. ega 
ainm oilein fil inalpain ocus isannside ata donnan no 
icattaib et ibi donnan sanctus cum sua familia obiit .i. 
liv. — Domian of Eigg, that is, Eigg is the name of an island 
which is in Albain, and there Donnan is, or in Siitherland 
(not Caithness), and there Saint D. died with his ^^ family," 
namely, fifty-four (in number). Kildonan, on the east 
side of Egg, was founded by him about 560. The 
Annals of Tighearnach give 617 : Combustio Donnain Ega 
hi XV. Kalendas mai cum clericis martiribus. The history 
of this cruel "combustion" by the Norseman is easily 
available. The Norseman's work on the Western Isles 
was "thorough." 

The Kils of Donnan are comparatively numerous — 
in Egg, Arran, Sutherland, Kintyre, &c. 

Creathamhnan, which gives Kilchrenain, was son of 

Cathair the Great of the Ui Cormaic — KaL, 13th Dec, n. 

COMMAN (mac Ernain, son of E.), was brother of 

M 



lyS THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Cuimein, seventh abbot of lona, A.D. 657-669. Comman 
is referred to in the KaL, under 21st Nov., as Coman 
ahairind airthir no aru ocus eri indathelaig toeb fritoeb 
— C.,from eastern Arran ; or the Arran and Erin are the two 
hills side by side. His name remains in Kilchomain, L 
Comman, upon which Roscommon (Ros Chonimain) is 
named, seems to have been a different person. He is 
said to have lived for two hundred years, "agus sgribtar 
air go raib se dd ch^d bliadan d'aois (S. G. 478). 
I have wondered if the usual rendering of Kildalton, L, 
is correct. It is quite possible for t to have developed 
in the name of Dallan, "son of Eogan, son of Niall 
the Nine-hostaged," and father of Laisren (p. 173) — the 
man who wrote the Amhra {Elegy) Choluim - Chille. 
The nearer meaning, however, is from dalta, a churchy 
w^hich was affiliated to the Annait, or parent church, of 
a monastery, 

COMGAN, later Comhghan, on whom Kilchoan, A., and 
other churches are named. He is commemorated in 
Kal., 13th July. About A.D. 673 he, with his sister 
Kentigerna, and her son FiLLAN (Faolan, little wolf), 
came into the district of Loch-Alsh and began planting 
churches all along the west coast. The name of his 
nephew Fillan remains in Perthshire, St. Fillans in Glen- 
dochart, and Strathfillan (S. G., 310). The lands of the 
Glendochart monastery passed into lay hands, but the 
spiritual succession and the pastoral staff of St. Fillan 
remained with a certain Deoradh, or pilgrim, and his 
successors. There is a letter by King James in 1487, 
given in the Black Book of Taymouth, in which the king 
orders that "his servitour Malice Doire " having in his 
keeping "ane relik of Sanct Fulane called the quegrith," 
and ordering that all should "mak him nane impedi- 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 179 

ment, letting, or distroublance, in the passing with the 
said rehk throch the contre as he and his forbearis wes 
wont to do." The "Coygerach," or Cuigreach, of St. 
Fillan — evidently the pilgrim's name transferred to the 
staff or crozier — was discovered and bought by the late 
Dr. Daniel Wilson, in Canada, and he gave it into the 
custody of the Scottish Antiquarian Society. 

Moluag's crozier was in the custody of a family of 
the name of Livingstone for generations, in the island of 
Lismore, the " larach " of Tigh nan deora being there 
still ; and that of Mael-rubha (p. 174) was kept at Bail' 
an deora in Muckairn. I am not able to say what came 
of the latter, but I have an interesting letter from the 
Duke of Argyll regarding the former {note). 

Adamnan — Adhamhnan {little Adam) was ninth abbot 
of lona. He was born in 624 in County Donegal, a 
descendant of Conall Gulban, and therefore of the same 
family as Colum-Cille, whose biography he wrote. He 
restored the monastery of lona, and for the purpose he 
sent twelve ships to bring the necessary oak timber from 
Ardnamurchan and Morven. The record of this ex- 
pedition, as given in the Life, becomes very interesting 
therefore. At the Synod of Tara, A.D. 690, he secured 
the freedom of women for ever from war service. 
Adamnan chanced on a certain day to be journeying 
through Mag Breg with his mother on his back. They 
saw two battalions smiting each other. It happened 
moreover that Ronait, Adamnan's mother, saw a woman 
with an iron sickle in her hand dragging another woman 
from the opposing battalion, and the sickle fastened to 
her breast — for at that time men and women alike used 
to be giving battle " — KaL, Sept. 25, n. Ronait made her 
son promise that he should free women for ever " from 



i8o THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

things of that kind " — which he did at the Council of 
Tara. 

He visited England more than once, with the usual 
result. He got perverted. He turned away from his 
Columban Church and faith, taking on the Romish 
doctrine, which at the time was working strongly north- 
ward. His " family " of lona was shattered by dissen- 
sion and difference, and "the house" divided could not 
and did not stand, but fell very soon. Adamnanus Ixxvii. 
anno aetatis suae in nonas Kalendis Octobris, abbas le, pausat. 
— Tigh. ; S. G. says it was "the ninth of Kal. Decem- 
ber." His Kits are numerous — usually written as Kil- 
eunain, the d of the name getting aspirated away, as the 
rule is when a consonant stands between two vowels. 

It is interesting to observe how the kingdom of 
Dalriada and the Columban Church rose and fell 
together. 

Const ANTINE, in Kilchousland, K., and as Cowstin 
Cousland, &c., in other parts. It is difficult to follow 
the changes of the name — in fact, if the evidence did not 
appear so conclusive that this Constantuie has somehow 
taken the form Cousland and somewhat similar other 
forms, I should be strongly disposed to doubt it. I 
perhaps doubt it now. The local Cill-Chuisilein, or, as 
the old charters have it, Kil-Quhitlawisland, seems to me 
impossible from a form Constantine. My feeling is that 
there must have been another name, which has got 
involved with that of Constantine, although I have not 
found any suggestive name in the Kale^idars. The story 
of Constantine is that he was a Cornish prince, who 
upon his conversion abandoned his throne and became 
a monk under Mochuda at Rahen (near TuUamore, 
King's Co.), whence he passed into Scotland and 



THE CHURCH-NAMES i8i 

founded the church of Govan on the Clyde, from 
which he extended his labours into Kintyre, where 
his name remains. The Annals give, 588 : Conversio 
Constantini ad Doviinuvi. The Kal. has a note under 
nth March : C .i. rig bretan rofacaib arige ocus tainic 
diaoilthire coraithin inamsir mochuda . . . ocus rig 
alban he — C, a kmg of Britons, who left his kingdom and 
came for his pilgrimage to Rahen in the time of Mochuda 
. . . and a king of Scotland zv as he. There is here again 
an overlapping of names and of circumstances. A Con- 
stantine and a king of Scotland did give up his kingdom, 
and retired to the monastery of St. Andrews, where he 
lived for ten years. His death is placed, 952 : Constantin 
MacAeda ri Albain moritur. — An. Ulst ; and the Pictish 
Chronicle gives his death x. ejus anno sub corona penitenti. 
It is almost certain, however, that the other Constantine 
was the effective man of Argyll and the West. 

MOCHOE (and perhaps Mochua is the same name) was 
head of the great monastery of Noendruim, whence 
Finan came. It is not necessary to believe that he came 
personally into the Argyll tradition. It is more likely that 
one or some of his " disciples " gave the name — Kil- 
machoe, K. ; Cilmachu, L. — to his master's memory and 
honour — in fact this is not unlikely the case with many 
of the Saint-names. He was trained at Lismore (on the 
Black Water, Co. Waterford), and he is in the Kal., 
23rd June : mochoe .i. mochua luachra masue olissmor 
mochua — M., that is, Mochua of Luachair Massu from 
Lismore {was) Mochua. He was also called Cronan. 
" Mochua mac lugdach qui prius Cronan dictus est." — 
Kal., 6th Aug. There are several of the same name. 

MOCHUMMAG is Cummine the seventh Abbot of lona 
(a.d. 657-669). He wrote a Life of Columba, which 



i82 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

seems to have been freely drawn upon by Adamnan. It 
was in his time that the trouble arose in the church of 
Northumbria, which culminated in the Synod of Whitby 
and the disappearance of the missionaries of lona from 
the north of England. A Colman was bishop at the 
time — in Northumbria. He is in KaL, 24th Feb. : abb 
hia an ergna cumine find fedba — an Abbot of 1 a fine 
intellect, C. the fair, aged. 

Mo-R5n-ag (from ron, a seal, + ag) is in Kilma- 
ronag, which occurs in Lome and in the Lennox, and in 
other places. He was of the late stage of the Columban 
Church. His name appears in lona in TeampuU Ronain, 
Port Ronain, and Cladh Ronain. He was Abbot of Cinn 
a' gharaidh (Kingarth — Bute) at his death given, 737 : 
Bass Ronain abbatis Cindgaradh. — Tigh. In Kal, 
9th Feb. : Espoc ronain rigda .i. illiss mor mochuda 
ata — Bishop R., the royal, namely, in Lismore of Mochuda 
he is. There was a Bishop Ronan of Scotland in the 
time of Adamnan and King Maelduin, the last fifty 
years of the seventh century, and even an earlier one — 
the grandson of Loarn — and others. It is therefore 
difficult to afBx the name with certainty. The name 
occurs in Islay also, in Cill-Ronain. 

FiNDCHAN (from the same name-origin as Fintan), the 
fair one, leaves his name in Kilfinichain, M. He was one 
of Columba's monks, and he founded a monastery in 
Tiree, which Adamnan calls Artchain. He got into 
trouble with Columba because he improperly ordained 
one Aid, or Aed, "a son of perdition." This was Aedh 
Dubh, who got into disgrace at the Convention of 
Taillte, and was in consequence banished to Scotland 
by King Diarmid MacCearrbheoil. He went back to 
Ireland, and killed Diarmad (S. G. 76), who was a special 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 183 

friend of St. Columba, which explains the "son of per- 
dition." Occisio DiarDiato filii Cearbhuil regis Hiberniae, 
A.D. 565. His history is not extensive, and he is not in 
the Kalendar. 

Celloc — Mo Chelloc, in Kilmochelloc, I. The name 
means simply the Cell-man (see Allt a' Cheallaich, V.). 
A Cellach was bishop of CiH-ri-monaidh (now St. 
Andrews) in the time of Constantine, son of Aedh. 
In 908 an Assembly was held at Scone, the king and 
Cellach being present, at which the Pictish and Scottish 
churches were united under Cellach as bishop. He was 
therefore "/« vulgari et coviniuni locutione Escop Alban id 
est Episcopi Albaniae appella7ttur" (C. P. S., 191) — the first 
bishop of the united Alban Church. 

There was an earlier Cellach, abbot of Kildare, and 
also of lona. " Cellach mac Aillelo abbas Cilledaro et abbas 
la dormivit in regione Pictorum " — Ann. Ulst., A.D. 865. 
This most likely is the man whose name remains in the 
west. It was he who built the church of Kells, 
A.D. 807-814. Cellach Abba lae finita constructione templi 
Cenindsa reliquit principatum. 

COEMAN — Caomhan, in Kilkivan and St. Coivin, K. 
(from coem, mod. caomh 4- an, tJie lovable one). There 
are several in the Kale^tdar, but I am not able to make 
sure which of them may be here remembered. The 
name is not very specific. Caomhan may be applied to 
any kindly, lovable person, or even beast. It has evidently 
made an effort to harden here into a definite Personal 
name, but the effort has failed. A favourite cow is quite 
commonly called caomh-ag. I have heard a most 
lovable minister of my earliest memory constantly 
called Caomhan — and with good reason. 

The same may be said of Cill an naoimh (Kilnave, I.). 



184 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

It is only an indefinite term for the Saint — whoever 
he was. 

Senchan — Sean-ach-an (based upon sean, old), is 
remembered in Kilmahanachan, K. He was contem- 
porary with Columba and Ciaran (O'C.)- He was 
successor of Finnan at Clonard. In Kal., 21st August, n. : 
Escap senach .i. aite ailbe ocus comorbo finden ocus 
icluain fota fine iferaib tulach ata escop senach — Bishop 
S., tutor of Ailbe and successor of Finnan in Cluain . . . is 
Bishop S. 

MOLIBHA, which we have in Kilmalieu, V., is in Kal.y 
i8th February : bebais incaid colman moliba noradi — 
the holy Colman died, Molibha mention him. 

EOGHAN, in Kilvickeun, M. = Cill mhic Eoghain 
(p. 113). Bleau in his map has Eugenius for this Kil. 
There are several Eoghans possible, but the most 
probable here is a son of Cainneach (p. 171). The 
feast of E. is in Kal., 23rd August : Fell eogain aird 
sraha — the feast of E. of A rdstrath. 

Ernoc (erna cotis .i. lie .i. arneam frisimelatar 
erna, i.e. a stone, a whetstone, on which ijvn weapons are 
ground. — C. 42) comes once into Argyll names, in Ard- 
marnoch = Aird mo Ern-oc. It is the same as in 
Kilmarnock. He is in KaL, Nov. 12th : Ernin mac find- 
chain abb lethglinde — E,, the son of Findchan, abbot of 
Leighlin. " Hie erat Erneneus filius Craseni postea per 
omnes Scotiae famosus et valde notissimus." — Reeves' 
Col. 25. 

Lassair, literally a flame, seems to come into Cill- 
lasrach, I. The name has the same base as Laisren 
= Lasair-ein, but it is here clearly feminine. The only 
appropriate name is that of Lassair : " Nomen septimae 
filiae Branin " — the scvejith daughter of Brannan. One 



THE CHURCH-NAMES 185 

thing is very clear — the Columban Church was not 
celibate. 

KiLiKVAN I am not able to make sure of. It possibly 
may be named upon Escuip Ibair, Kal., April 23rd : 
" Son of Cucorb, son of Cairbre, son of Echach . . . and 
353 yecivs was the age of Bishop Ibar." I, however, 
doubt this. 

Maol - DORAIDH, whose name appears in Islay, 
"perhaps Mael - deoradh," was ancestor of Maol- 
RUAINIDH, who made a pilgrimage to lona a.d. 1026, 
and remains familiarly in Gaelic tradition. If he is the 
same, his acquaintance can be made in S. G., p. 50, 
et seq. There is indeed a very big atmosphere of our 
early history in the "Gradhach's" excellent work. 

There are several Cronans in the Kal. We have 
seen (p. 181) that " Mochua . . . prius Cronan dictus 
est." Cronan caid cendigna .i. hiross glaise no cumad 
he Mochua {Kal., Feb. loth) — the chaste C. without 
reproach^ i.e. in Ross-Glaise, or he may be Mochua. Again, 
April 28th: "Cronan quibus mochua dictus me." So 
we may fairly take that the two names cannot be safely 
separated. 

In Goirtein Mhoirein, S., the name is St. Murren, a 
woman saint, with name derived from muirgen, sea- 
begotten, a mermaid. " She was thirty years in Lough 
Neagh, and Comghall' s fshervian, Broan, caught her in 
his net, and Comghall baptised her^^ {Kal. ccxcvi.). "Half 
of her was a salmon, and the other half a woman." She 
was one of the mur-dhuchan to which Ardnamurchan 
owes its name ! (p. 90) 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 

In order to save space, I here give in Vocabulary form, 
all the Gaelic elements that enter into the names of 
the County. This means that one word in the Voca- 
bulary may, as in some cases, explain hundreds of 
names. I only give a few examples under each word — 
just sufficient to show the application and usage — and 
I have chosen, under each head, such names as I 
thought would best show the general meaning. The 
names are mostly made up of two parts — the simple 
nominative, with an attributive in the form of an 
adjective or a genitive — so I have given the genitives. 
Singular and Plural, for all words where I have thought 
it would be useful to do so. Therefore, in any name 
made up of two parts, the meaning may be easily found 
by reference to the elements in the Vocabulary, e.g. 
Barr-daraich, see barr and darach ; Gartlosgainn, see 
gart and losgann, and so with others. 



abhainn, a river, abhann and aibhne ; aibhnichean — Bun na 

h-abhann, A.I. Inbher na h-aibhne, M.P. 
acarsaid {JV.), an anchorage — an Acarsaid, A. Rudha na 

h-acarsaid, /. an Acarsaid mhdr, M. 
achadh, a field, -aidh; -adh — Achadh na h-^th, C. Dubh- 

achadh, /., and freq. 
achlas, the arm-pit, -aise ; -as — Doire na h-achlaise, J. 
adag, a shock of corn, -aige ; -an — na h-Adagan, /. 

i86 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 187 

adharc, a horn, -airce ; -ean, whence adharcan, the lapwitig, the 

'•^ horned one" — Cnoc adhaircean, A.R. 
adhlac, burial, -aidh — Creag an adhlaic, C. 
agh, a hind, heifer, aighe ; aighean — Tor nan aighean, C.L. 

Cnoc nan agh. Agh-choire, V. 
MIean, a green stvard, -ein — Barr an ^ilein, F. 
Mlidh, beautiful — Lagan iiihdh, L. 

aingeal, an angel (2), light, fire, -il', -ean — Cnoc aingil, /. 
Mrd, a height, Mrde ; Mrdean (ard, high) — Aird a' mhadaidh, Z. 

Ard-airidh, S. Sailean na-h-airde. 
airgiod, silver, -id— Lagan an airgid, Z. 
^iridh, a shieling, hill-pasture — Airidh Ualainn, G. Airidh 

Eogain, Z. Clach airidh, /. a' Bhog airidh, M. 
Mrneag", a sloe, -eige — Dun airneige, Z. 
aiseag, a ferry, -ig — Camus aisig, G. Rudha an aisig, V. 
aitionn, Juniper. 
Albannach, a " Scot " — Stob an Albannaich, P. Sron 

Albannach, IT. 
allsiidli, ferce — Port allaidh (Gigha). 
allt, a stream, uillt — Tigh an uillt, F. Braigh nan allt, y/. Leth 

allt, P. 
^luinn, lovely — Loch-aluinn, F. Tbrr Muinn, C. 
amar, a channel, -air [see p. 10) — Eas an amair, Z. 
amas, aim, -ais— Carn an amais, M. 
amhach, a neck, -aich — Loch Avich = Amhaich, Z. 
anam, the soul — Loch an anama, K.R. 
annaid {see p. 58) — an Annaid, E. Cladh na h-annaide, Z. 

Achadh na h-annaide, F. 
aodann, a face, -ainn — Aodann h,luinn, S. Torr aodainn, M. 

Meall an aodainn, F. 
aoibhinn, Joyful, pleasant. 
aoigh, a guest. 
aoineadh {see p. 12) — an t-Aoineadh, V. Aoineadh 

Mhartainn, M. Aoineadh dubh, J. Creag an 

aoinidh, Z. 
aoirean, the pi. GaeUc form of Norse, eyr-r freq. 
aol, lifue, -aoil — Creag aoil. Barran an aoil, Z. 
aom, incline — Port an aomaidh, K. 



i88 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

aonach, a high ground {see "^ . 12) — an t-Aonach, K. Aonach 

mor and beag, V. 
apper, M., is eabar, mud. 

arbhar, corn, -air — Lub an arbhair, V. Meall an arbhair. Col. 
^rd, high, and kird, a height {see p. i o). 
hxos {N.) river-mouth, but there is Gaelic ^ros, a dwelling. 
astail, or fasdail, is a dtvelling. Tiie f has come into the 

Gaelic word, as in other words, such as eagal, feagal, ^ar/ 

eudail, feudail, cattle, &c. — but it is aspirated out after the 

Article, and disappears. 
^th, a Iciln — Achadh na h-ath, Af. Lag na h-atha, P. Glac na 

h-iltha, /. 
^th, a ford. Local knowledge alone can distinguish between 

this and the previous word. 
athach, a giant — aich — Poll-athach, M. 
athais, is rest= Lat. re- sto. 
athlach, is a hero, a young 77ian fit for battle ; ath-laoch, H.S.D. 

— Port nan athlach, L. 

b^, a cow — Leac nam h\, Loch-bk, M. Ach' na bk, L. 

bac, a bank, baic — Cul a' bhaic, L. Bacan daraich, S. 
bacach, a lame man, -aich — Suidh' a' bhacaich, K. 
bachlag', the curling shoot of a potato, I. (p. 145). 

bad, a thicket, cluster ; dim., badag and badan — Bad, C. na 
Badan, Z. Rudh' a' bhad bhuidhe, P. 

b^grh, a bay — Bagh ban, Bagh na cille, L. Bagh buidhe, C. 

Bagh seann-ghairt, K. 
baile, a to7vn,fartn, bailtean — Bail' ur, K. Baile fraoich, Baile 

meadhonach, M. 
b^illidh, a bailie — Cruach a' bhaillidh, K. 
bainne, 7nilk — Lag a' bhainne, L. Lochan a' bhainne, S. 
bain-tighearna, a lady, lord-7vife — Camus na bain-tighe- 

arna, K. 
bMte, drowned — Bail bhkite, M. 

balach, a lad, clown, -aich; -ach — Loch a' bhalaich,y. 
balbhan, a dumb one, -ain ; -an — C^rn a' bhalbhain, A. 
balg, a bag, belly, builg ; balg — Cam a' bhuilg, C. Raon a' 

bhuilg, I. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 189 

balgrair, a/ox ; -ean — Beinn bhalgairean, R. 

balla, a wall — Barr a' bhalla, K. 

\ihn, white — Tigh-ban, Eileanan bana, M. Srath ban, K. Bagh- 

ban, L. Cam b^n, C. Beinn bhh,n, V. 
banais, a zveddini^, bainnse — Doire na bainnse, V. 
baraill, a barrel, -e ; -ean — Cnoc a' bharaille, K. 
b^rd, a poet, Mird. — Diin a' bhaird, M. 
\ih,rr {G.), top, high ground, barra — am Barr, V. B^rr daraich, 

K. am Barran, Z. 
barrach, the top branches of trees, -aich. 
bata, a walkifig-stick — Bataichean bana, /. 
b^ta, a boat — -Port a' bhata, V. 
b^thaich, = bk + tigh., cow-house, byre — Bathaich bkn, C. Gart 

a' bhathaich, K. 
beag, small — ^Loch beag, Z. 
bealach, a mountain pass, -aich ; -ach — Bealach, F. Tigh a' 

bhealaich, Bealach na mbna, K. 
bealaidh, broom — Bealanach, K. 
bean, a wife, va.nk; mnathan and ban — Loch nam ban, Z.A'. 

Stoc and Port nam ban, Af. Dun na bean bige, F. 
be^rna, a notch, cleft, -an ; Adj. bekrnach — Coire bearnach, 

Lbn bearnach, M. Bernice ! C 
beathach, afi aftimal, -aich. — Eilean nam beathach, Z. 
beinn, hill, ben, beinne ; beann — a' Bheinn mhdr, M.L. 
beithe, birch, whence beitheach, a birchwood — Beitheach, M.C. 

Bar beithe, K. Aird bheithe, A. Srbn beithe,/. 
beithir, a serpent, monster, beathrach — Glean n na beathrach, F. 

Beinn nam beathrach, V. Cruach a' bhearrache, R. 
beul, a mouth, beoil — Beul na h-uamha, L. Port a' bheoil, M. 
bian, a skin, hide, beine ; bian — Bidein nam bian, F. 
blast, a beast, b^iste ; biast — Loch na beiste, AUt na beiste, 

K.S. Airidh nam biast, I. 
biathainn, a worm, -e — Rudha nam biathainn, M. 
bile, a border, cluster of trees — Cladh a' bhile, K. Loch na bile,y. 
binnein, a pitinacle, from same source as beinn — Binnein liath, 

J. am Binneag, K. am Binnein, Binneinean, M. 
biod, a poirited top — Biod nan sgarbh, I. am Biod, V. 
biolair, water-cress, -e ; Adj. biolaireach — Lon biolaireach, M. 



iQO THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

bior, a stick, spit, whence biorach, sharp-pointed, and dim., 

bioran, a little sharp stick — Cnoc nam bioran, K. Tom a' 

bhiorain, C. Beinn bhiorach, /. 
birlinn, a galley, yacJit, -inne — Port na birlinne, M. 
bl^r, a field, moss, bl^ir — Blar mor, Blar nan uan, AI. Blar 

mona, V. Torr a' bhlarain, Z. 
b6, a cow, bk and b6in ; bk and b6 — E. nam bo, M. Oitir nam 

bo, /. See bk. 
boc, a buck, buic ; boc — Srbn nam boc, M. Sgbr a' bhuic, S. 

Sgur a' bhuic, V. Rudha a' bhuic, /. AUt a' bhuic, K. 
b6can, a " bogle," -ain ; -an — Torr a' bhbcain, P. 
bodach, ati old tnan, a carle, -aich ; -ach. — Carraig nam bodach, 

K. Druim mor nam bodach, K. Bodach bochd, C. 
bodha (A^.), a " breaker^' sunketi rock — Bodha a' bhuilg, V. 
bog-, soft, wet, whence boglach, a bog, and dim., boglacban and 

bogadh, to 7vet, or soften. From Gen. Fern, comes a' Bhuig- 

neach, J/. Further, Boglach nan tarbh,/. Abhainn a' bhogaidh 

and Loch a' bhogaidh, /. Bog .airidh and Boglach mor, M. 
b6idheacli, pretty, beautiful — Blaran bbidheach, C. Baile 

bbidheach, Lianag bhbidheach, K. Beinn bhbidheach, L. 
boiteag", a maggot, -eige — Clach na boiteige, A. 
bdilich, boasting — Braigh bbilich, G. 
bolg. See balg. 

bonn-a-sia, a halfpenny — Lochan a' bhonn-a-sia, V. 
bonnach, a bannock, cake, -aich, ; -ach — Cruach nam bonnach, K. 
b6rd, a table, biiird; bord — am Bbrd Latharnach, V. Bbrd 

mor and Bbrd dubh, K. 
bothan, a ^^ bothie," hut, -ain; -an — Sloe a' bhothain, L. 
brach, to rot, whence braich, ?nalt ; bracha — Lochan na 

bracha, S. 
bradan, a salmon, -ain — Dail a' bhradain, K. 
braid, theft, whence braidein (w.) and bradag (/), a thief— 

Bail' na braid, Cnoc a' bhraidein, K. 
br^ghe, the upper part, the ^^ brae," br^ghad ; -ean — Achadh 

br^ghad, K. Brkigh' nan allt, A. Doire braghad, M. 
brat, a covering, mantle, brait ; brat — Brat-bheinn, J. 
briith and brS., a quern, brathan — Srbn nam brathan, A. 
breabag", a kiln (Manx names), -aige ; -ag. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 191 

breac, speckled, whence breac, a trout, the speckled one, and breac, 

the small-pox, and breac-an, a (tartan) plaid — Breac achadh, 

/. Achadh nam breac, F. Loch nam breac buidhe, and 

Cruach nam breacan, K. Coire Bhreacain,/. (note). 
breamain, the tail of a sheep; Adj. breamanach— Cnoc 

breamanach, C. 
Breatannach, a Briton, -aich ; -ach — Rudh' a' Bhreatannaich, 

K. Srbn a' Bhreatannaich, S. 
br^id, a rag, '' cloot," -ean ; ^^^^ breideineacli — Bre'id buidhe, 

K. am Breideineach, M. 
breug, a lie — Tom an fhir bhreige, Z. 
breun, putrid, zy//^— Breun-phort, J. 
broc, a badger, bruic ; broc — Lochan a' bhruic, L. Sron nam 

broc, S. Torr nam broc, V. 
brodach — Sloe brodach,y. (note). 
broighlich — AUt broighlichein, Z. (note). 
broilein, king's-hood, the monyplies — am Broilean, M. 
bron, sorroiv, brbin — Leac a' bhrbin, K. Meall a' bhroin, V. 
bru, a belly, bronn— am Bru, M. a' Bhru-mhdr, S. 
bruach, a bank, brink, bruaiche ; bruach ; dim., bruach, -ag — 

Bruach mhor, M. Tigh na bruaiche, C. Eilean nam 

bruachan, Sgeir bruachaig, Z. 
bruthach, a ^' brae," -aich. — Coire ruadh-bhruthaich, M. 

bruthach mdr, Bruthach a' chladaich, I. 
buachaill, a cowherd ; -ean — Buachaill Etive, am Buachaill, Z. 

Creag a' bhuachaille, K. Tom nam buachaille(an), Z. Srbn 

bhuachaillean, C. 
buaile, a fold (of cattle) — Eas na buaile, Z. Cnoc na buaile 

salaich, K. 
buailtean, a flail, -ein ; -ean — Rudha nam buailtean, K. 
buidhe, yellow — AUt buidhe, K. Loch buidhe, M. Coire 

buidhe, V. Lag buidhe, I. Breid buidhe, K. 
buidseach, a witch, -iche ; -ean — Port nam buidsichean, M. 
buigneach — a' Bhuigneach, M. From bog, soft, wet. 
buinne, a stream — am Buinne, /. 
buinneag, a twig, -eige — Cnoc nam buinneag,y. 
biiireadh, a roaring, the rutting season, -idh — Meall a' 

bhuiridh, P. 



192 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

bun (p. 141) — Bun atha, P. 

btith, a '■'booth,'' shop — Rudha nam buth, M. Both-kolli- 
dar, C. 

c^bag", a cheese, -aige ; -ag — Dail na cabaige, L. 

cabar, a '^ caber," rafter, stag- horn, -air; -ar — Cabrach, y. Barr 
nan cabar. C. Bealach nan cabar, Z. 

cachliath, a hurdle-gate (cadha, a pass, + cliath, a hurdle), 
-chleith— Cachliath mhdr, /. Tobar na cachleith, S. 

cadal, sleep, -ail — Tom a' chadail, A. Caddletown (?), Z. 

cadan (note). 

cadha, a pass — a' Chadha ruadh, A. Cadh' an easa, M. 

caibeal, a chapel, -eil — Caibeal Chiarain, Z. 

caigean — an Caigean, V. an Caichean, M. 

cailleach, an old wife, hag, -iche — -Rudha na cailliche, J.K. 
Allt nan cailleach, S. Beinn na caillich, I. Cam na 
cailliche, V. Barr chailleach, M. 

cairealach, noisy, '^ choral,'' -ach! — an Cairealach, M. 

cairidh, a weir — a Chairidh, S.M. Barr na cairidh, C.L. 

calpa, the calf of the leg — Calpa, S. 

c^ise, cheese — Meall a' chaise, Z. V. Eas a' chaise, K. Uamh 
a' chaise, _/. 

caiseal (p. 91) — Lochan na caisil. Loch a' chaisil, A. 

caisteal, a castle, -eil — Caisteal beag and mor, M. 

calaman, a pigeon, -ain ; -an — Eilean a' chalamain, M. 

calbh {N.), a calf- — a small island which is calfio a greater. 

calg", a bristle, awn, beard of corn, cuilg — Calgaraidh, M. 

calltunn, hazel, -uinn — Barr(a) calltuinn, F. Cnoc a'chall- 
tuinn, M. 

cam, bent, crooked — a' Cham-chuairt, C. Loch Cam, Z Cam- 
loch, K.L. Abhainn cam-linne, L.; whence cam as name 
for a winding river — Loch na caime,y^. ; and Camus, -uis, a 
bay — Camus mor, AI. Camus a' choirce, S. 

caiupa, a camp, A.C.I. 

canach, eriophorutn—'Loch. nan canach, K. Gleann Canach- 
adan, C. 

canndair, a chanter — Barr a' channdair, Z. (p. 58). 

caochan, a streamlet, -ain ; -an, freq. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 193 

caol, tiarro7V, whence Caolas, -ais, a Strait, Sound ; caol is 

also used as a Noun — Port caol, Z. Caol-ghleann, C. Dail 

a' chaolais, L. Bail' a' chaolais, P. Caolas-port, K. Aird 

a' chaoil, M. Caol ^rd, P. Caol lie, I. na Caoil Bhotach 

(Kyles of Bute). 
caora, a sheep, -ach ; -ach — Lochan nan caorach, A. Eilean nan 

caorach, M. Maol nan caorach, /. 
caorunn, the rowati tree, -uinn ; -an — Beinn a' chaoruinn, S. 

Loch a' chaoruinn, /. Maol a' chaoruinn, M. 
capull, a horse (Lat. caballus), latterly a mare, -aill ; -uU — Capull 

corrach, M. Beinn a' chapuill, L.M. Lag nan capull, I. 

Aird nan capull, L. As Adj. Cnoc capuUach, M. V. See 

Caipleach, P. 
c^rdadh, carding (wool), -aidh — Gleann a' chardaidh, /. 
C^m, a heap of stones, cuirn ; ckrn — Cam dubh, C. Druim a' 

chuirn, /. Achadh nan cam, P. Stac a' chuirn, L. Also 

dim., Carnan, P., and Carnach (p. 13) is very frequent — 

Dubh-charnan, Z. 
carrach, x/wy — Cnoc carrach, y.iZ Eilean carrach, A^. Sgeir 

charrach, A. Akin to which is carragh, a stone pillar — an 

Carragh, /. Carragh Chaluim bhain,y^. 
carraigr, a rock, -e — Carraig mhbr, I. ; dim., carraigean — Loch 

a' charraigein, and Sgeir a' charraigein (note). 
carran, spurrey (Spergularia), -ain ; -an — Gart a' charrain, Z. 

Achadh nan carran, Z. V. Coir' a' charrain, M. Carran 

buidhe, K. 
cas, steep — Beinn chas, R. 
cat, a cat, cait ; cat — Creag a' chait, I. Allt a' chait, V. Cat- 

innis, P. 
cath, battle — Sliabh a' chath, I. 
cathan is Masc. and cathag Fern, for a wild goose — Beinn 

nan cathan, A. Tom na cathaig, R. 
c^thar, a mossy, wet, high ground, -air — Cathar a' mhuinichill, 

K. Cathar nan eun, y. 
cathlun, a corn, excrescetice — an Cathlun, Z. 
ceall and cill, a church, cille — a' Chill, G.P. Port na cille, /. 
ceann, a head, upper end, cinn ; ceann {G.) — Ceann locha freq. 

Locative form, Cinn tire, K. Cinn a' ghearr-loch, V. 

N 



194 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

ceapach, a tillage plot, -aiche — Ceapach, K. 

cearc, a hen, circe; cearc — Coire na circe, AI. Coire circe, 

P. Dail nan cearc, S. Rudha nan cearc, M. 
cearcall, a hoop, circle, -aill ; -all— Coire a' chearcaill, G. 
ce^rd, a craftsman, latterly a tinker, ce^ird — Cnoc a' cheaird, /. 

Loch nan ceard mor, A., whence 
ce^rdach, a smithy, -ach — Gleann na ceardach, K. Lochan na 

ceardach, S. (note). 
ceathach and ceb, mist — Coir' a' cheathaich, P. Poll a' che6,_/. 
ceathramh, a quarter ; -an — Ceathramh fuar, K. Garrachra, 

C. = Garbh cheathramhe (?) Garrowcherran = Garbh che- 

ath-r-amh-a.n (the italicised letters are not pronounced in 

ordinary speech). 
ceum, a step, ceuma — Achadh a' cheuma, L. 
cill, see ceall — Eilean na cille, Z. 
ciob, fnoufitain-grass {Scirpus cczspitosiis\ cibe ; ciob — Loch nan 

ciob, K. Cruach na cibe, C. 
cioch, mamma, ciche — a' Chioch, M. Sgorr na ciche, P. 
ciste, a chest, cist — Cnoc na ciste, M. Eilean na ciste, M. 
clach, a stofie, cloiche; clach — Clach-gheal, K.S. Whence 

Clachan, K.L., and clachacli, stoney — Coire clachach, M. 
cladach, a shore, -aich — Dubh-chladach, K. Cladach fionn, /. 

Goirtean a' chladaich, G. Tigh a' chladaich, /. 
cladh, a burial-place — Cladh a' mhuilinn, G. Port a' chlaidh, 

M. Cladh a' bhile, K. 
claidheamh, a sword, -eimh — Cnoc a' chlaidheimh, /. Sgeir a' 

chlaidheimh, M. Rudh' a' chlaidheimh, V. 
claig'ionn, a skull, -inn ; -eann — Claigionn, /. V. Lochan a' 

chlaiginn, L.M. (p. 104). 
clais, a ditch, furrow, -e ; -ean — a' Chlais, S. Druitn na claise, A. 
clamhan, a buzzard, -ain ; -an — Bail' a' chlamhain, /. 
claon, inclining, sloping — Claonaird, C.L. Claonleathad, V. 

Claonaig, Cleongart, K. 
cl^ireach, a cleric, clerk, -ich — Airidh a' chleirich, V. Sgeir a' 

chle'irich, Z. Leob a' chleirich, I. Rudh' a' chleirich, J. 

P.aile nan cleireach, K. 
cleit, a rocky eminence — a' Chleit, a' Mhinchleit, Barr a' 

chleit, M, 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 195 

cliabh, a ^'' creel " basket, the thorax, cleibh — Druim nan 

cliabh,_/. 
cliath, a hurdle, cleithe. 
clogra'idf a helmet, -e — AUt a' chlogaid, M. 
cloidheag^, a prawn, shrimp, -eig — Loch and Port na cloid- 

heig, M. 
cluain, a pasture, -e ; -tean — Cluaineag, K. 
cluas, a/i ear, cluaise ; cluas — Cluas mhin, Lag nan cluas, Af. 
cn^mh, a bone, cnaimh ; cnkmh and cnaimliean — Sgorr nan 

cnamh, G. Meall nan cnaimhean, V. 
cnap, a knob, bimp, cnaip ; cnap — an Cnap, K. Teang' a' 

chnaip, G. Compare Gnob, C. Cnap reamhar, C. 
end, a nut — a' Choille-chnb, K. 
cnoc, a hillock, cnuic ; cnoc — Cnoc dubh, /. Tigh a' chnuic, V. 

Tigh nan cnoc, /. 
codha, a skiff — AUt na codha, M. Seems same as Coit. 
coileach, a cock, -ich ; -each — Tom a' choilich, M. C^rn nan 

coileach, /. AUt nan coileach, V. Loch Coilich, Srath nan 

coileach, K. 
coille, a ivood — Ceann na coille, S. V. Ard-choille, M. Gall- 

choille. 
coimheach, strange, foreign \ as Noun, a foreigner— hz.g a' 

choimhich, M. 
coimhead, watching, look-out — Deagh choimhead, Z. 
coinean, a rabbit, -Qvn. ', -ean — Eilean nan coinean, y.Z. Airidh 

chonain, K. — or perhaps better, airidh + Conan, a personal 

name— Innis Chonain (Loch Awe). 
coingheal, a whirlpool ( G.) — a' Choingheal, F. 
c6inneach, moss, -iche — Blar na coinnich, Loch a' chdinnich, A. 
coirbte, " corrupt," accursed — Achadh coirbte, V. 
coirce, oats — Camus a' choirce, S. Aird a' choirce, AT. 
coire, a cauldron, '' corrie" — an Coire, L.M.V. Coire dubh, S. 
coit, a small boat, coite — Loch a' choit, /. Rudh' a' choit, A. 

Abhainn na coite, y^ AUt na coite, /. 
colann, a body, carcass, colna — Druim nan colann, K. 
comar, a conflue7ice, -air (p. 10). 
cdiuhdhail, a meeting — Cam na cbmhdhail, 6". AUt na ml- 

chomhdhail, A. 



196 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

cdmhla, a door-leaf — Creag na cbmhla, M. 

cdmhnard, level, as Noun also — lomaire cbmhnard, /. Cbmh- 

nard, M. 
cdmhrag, a conflict, a battle, -aige ; -ag — Eilean a' chomhraig, K. 
con, Gen. PI. of cu, which see- — Conaire (con + faire), Con- 

tom,y. Tom nan con, C. Blar nan con, K. (note conaire). 
connadh, firewood, -aidh — AUt a' chonnaidh, M. Learg a' 

chonnaidh, L. 
corp, a dead body, cuirp ; whence Corpach, E.J. Corparsk (?), C. 
c6rr, a crane, corra — Loch na corra. L. na corra-ghriodhach, /. 
c6rr, excess, outgrowth — Cbrrachadh, L. Cornan, K. Corran 

(p. 14). Cbrr-larach, G. 
corrach, rugged, broken — Cruach chorrach, Lephin corrach, K. 
c6s, a hollow, cave, cbis ; -an — Druim a' chbis, P. Achadh nan 

cbsan, V. Ach' a' chbis, C.K. Tigh an chbisein, K. 
c6ta, a coat — Cnoc a' chbta, /. 
cotan, cotton, -ain — -Port a' chotain, /. 
cothrom (p. 59) — AUt a' chothruim, »S. Lochan a' cloth- 

ruim, M. 
cr^, blood, death; Adj. red- — Cra-leacann, C.R. 
cr^bhach, devout, and as Noun, cr^bhaiche, a devout one — Eilean 

a' chrabhaiche, M. 
cr^c, croc, a deer's horn — an Cracaiche, M. 
cr^dh, suffermg, torment — Cradh-leathad, M. (?) Crci, which see. 
crann, a tree- — a mast, croinn ; crann — Goirtean nan crann, 

Ard nan crann, M. Rudha nan crann, /. Whence cran- 

nag, a wooden structure, as the old " lake dwellings " — 

latterly a pulpit — Loch na crannaige, A.I. a' Chrannag, 

K.M.L. 
craobh, a tree, craoibhe ; craobli — Rudha na craoibhe, V. 

Leac na craoibhe, K. 
crasg, an across-land, craisg — an Crasg, 5. AUt a' chraisg, 

L. Crossan, M. ; also of same meaning. Crossiebeg and 

Crossaig, K. 
creach, spoil, plunder, hosting — Creach-bheinn, S.M. Creach- 

leac, P. Cnoc creach, R. 
creachann, a rugged, broken hillside — an Creachann, K.L. 

Kinachreachain, R. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 197 

creag, a rock, creige, whence dims., creagan and creagaig and 

Adj. creagach — Creag nam faoileann, C. Ceann a' chreagain, 

S. Beinn chreagach, M., and Creaglan, Z. 
creamh, garlic — Creag a' chreamh, J. Lochan creamha, 

AUt nan creamh, K. 
criadh, clay., creadha — Uamh na creadha, A. a' Chriadhach 

mh6r, M. 
criathar, a sieve — an Criathar, K. Lochan a' chriathraich, L. 
crioch, a march, end (as Lat. finis), -criche— AUt criche, M. 

Tigh na criche, C. Barr na criche, K. 
crioman and criomag, a little bit — Allt a' chriomain, M. 
crion, little — Crion-larach, M. Loch a' chrion-doire, L. 
critheann, the aspen tree — Critheagan, C. Srbn a' chritheag- 

ain, G. 
crd, a pen, stye — Crb na bo glaise, M. Goirtean a' chrb, /. Aird 

a' chrbtha, M. Creag a' chrbtha, L. Port nan crb (Shuna). 
croch, hang, whence crocliadair, a hangman, and crochaire, one 

deserving to be, or having been, hanged — Tom a' chrochadair, 

A. Tom a' chrochaire, M. Stac a' chrochaire, K. 
crodh, cattle, cruidh — Meall a' chruidh, 5. 
cr6gr, a claw, paw, whence dim., crbgan, M., and Maol na 

crbige, Af. 
crois, a cross and across, croise — Achadh na croise, M. Port na 

croise, P. Druim na croise, /. Crois-bheinn, V. 
croit, a croft, croite— Croit an tuim, C. Rudha na croite, M. 
crom, bent; whence cromag, a hook; croman, the bent otie — a 

snipe ; and Adj. cromagach — Port crom, K. Allt a' chrom- 

ain, I.K. Rudha cromagach, K. 
cr6nan, a '^ croon," purring, -ain — Cnoc a' chrbnain, M. Eas 

nan Crbnan, L. 
cruach, a pile, stack, cruaiche ; whence Cruachan, I.M.P. — 

Cruach nan tarbh, C. Cruach nam fe^rna, Lochan na 

cruaiche, G. a' Chruach, P.C.K. 
cruaidh, hard — Cruaidh-ghleann,y. 
crtib and cr5b, a claw, cruibe — Cruib, J. 
crudha, a horse-shoe — Port na crudha, Af. 
cruinn, roimd — Tigh cruinn, /. Port nan clach cruinne. 
cruUach, see p. 11 1 — Port nan Crullach, M. 



198 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

crtin, a crown, top — Crun-loch, V. 

cii, a dog, coin ; con — Achadh nan con, P. Cruach nan con, M. 

Blar nan con, K. 
cuairt, a round, ciraiit — Cam-chuairt, C. 
cuan, the oceaft, cuain — Bail' a' chuain, Z. 
ctibair, a cooper ; -ean — Cnoc nan cubairean, M. 
cubhag, the cuckoo, -aige — Loch na cubhaige, C.S.L. 
ctiil, a Jtook, recess, -e — a' Chuil, G.T. Ard-cuile, L. Port na 

cuile, Cuil na seamrag, K. 
cuilc, a reed, -e — Port na cuilce, Col. Lochan chuilceachan, C. 
cuileag-, afiy, -eige; -eag — Lochan na cuileige, M. 
cuilean, a tuhelp, cub, -ein — Cruach nan cuilean, K.C. Doire 

nan cuilean, M. 
cuilionu, holly, -inn — Camus a' chuilinn, G. Rudh' a' chuilinn, 

Z. Sron a' chuilinn, K. Meall a' chuilinn, S. 
cuimhne, memory — Cnoc na di-chuimhne, M. 
cuinneag, a ivooden pail, water-carrier, -eige ; -eag — Loch nan 

cuinneag, R. 
ciiirt, a court, -e — Camus na cuirte, P. 

ciil, back, as opposed io front — Culard, Z. Clxl a' mhuilinn, M. 
cullach, a boar, -aich — Mam a' chullaich, V. 
cumhang', narrow ; as Noun — Cumhang mor, y. 
curach, a coracle — Port currach, K. 
curra, see corr = corra, a heron — Lochan a' churra, A. Meall 

na curra, V. 
currachd, a hood, mutch, -aichd — Currachd mor, P. 
currach, a racecourse — a' Currach, R. Currach mor, K. 
cuthach, madness, -aicli — Crbb a' chuthaich, M. 

d^, two — Beinn (ea)dar (dha) loch, P. Gleann eadar da chnoc, 
K. Gleann (eada)r (dh)a loch = Glenralloch, K. Cnoc an 
da chinn, M. Bardaravine= Barr eadar dha bheinn, K. 

dail, a field, dale, dalach — Dail, I. Meall dalach, C. Ciil na 
dalach, Z. 

d^ir — Lochan na dairidh, M. 

dail, blind, and as Nouti, dail ; doill, a blind one — Gart an 
doill, M. 

dam, a water-dam — an Dam (Loch Avich), Z. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 199 

damh, mi ox, daimh ; damli — Maol an daimh, M. Doire 
dhamh, S. Torr dhamh, P. Meall nan damh, G., and 
dim., Eas damhain, C. Meall an damhain, V. 
darach, oak, -aich ; -ach — Bacan daraich, 5. Doire daraich, 
M. Achadh nan darach, P. As Adj. Barr darach, A'. 
Druim darach, C Gleann darach, A'. 
deagh, good — Deagh-choimhead, Z. 
deala, a leecJi, -chan — Loch nan dealachan, /. 
deanntagr, a nettle, -aige, with Adj., deanntagach. 
deararach— an Derarach, M. (note). 
dearc, a berry, -an, dim. -ag — Coire nan dearcag, Beinn nan 

dearcag, M. Loch nan dearcag, G. 
dearg, red — Dearg-allt freq. Rudha dearg, G. Srbn dearg, C. 
deoradh, an exile, -aidh — Port an deoraidh, Z. 
deuchainn, difficnliy — Cnoc na deuchainn, M. 
dig, a ditch, -e — an Dig, A. Means "a dyke " also. 
diol, recompense — Lochan diol Choinnich, Z. 
diolaid, a saddle, -e — an Diolaid, M. Diolaid mhor, K. Port na 
diolaide, I. Rudha na diolaide, M. Diolaid nam fiadh, I. 
diiibh, bad, the tvorst — Deucheran, K. 

dobhar, ivater, -air ; whence ddbhran, an otter, -ain — Lochan 
dobhrain, K. Lochan an dobhrain, A. Gleann an dobh- 
rain, /. (Rum). Beinn dobhrain, P. 
doid, the hand, grasp, -e ; hence a holding, farm — Bagh na doide, 

Y)o\d^t farms, K. 
doire, a thicket, grove — Doire donn, G. Doire na mart, V. 

Srbn-doire, K. Bail' an doire, P. Garbh-dhoire, K. 
ddirlinn, an isthmus (p. 15). 

domhain, deep — Gleann domhain, Z. Allt (d)omhain, M. 
domhnach, Stcndayi^-'^X. dominica), -aich — Maol an domhnaich, 

Af. Beinn domhnaich, C. 
donn, bro7vn — Sloe an eich dhuinn, Z. 
dorcha, dark — Doire dorcha, M. Srath dorch, /. Cruach 

dorch, Z. 
dorus, a door, opening, -uis — an Dorus mor, Z. 
dreaghan, a dragon — Loch an dreaghain, M. — droighinn (?) 
dris, the bramble-bush, -e ; -ean, whence dim., driseag, -eige, and 
Adj. driseach — Beinn na drise, M. Druim driseig, A'. 



200 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Lag na driseige, M. Ard-driseig, R. Port driseach, C. 

Doire driseach, G. Goirtean driseach, M. 
drochaid, a bridge, -aide— Ceann na drochaid, /. Ard na 

drochaide, M. Cos an drochaid, K. 
droigheann, thorn, -inn ; whence droighneach, a thornwood — 

Port an droighinn, /. Tigh an droighinn, K. Ard an 

droighinn, P. Gleann nan droigheann, A. 
droman, the alder-tree, -ain — Barrach an dromain, M. 
druim, a back, droma (Lat. dorsum) — Srbn an droma, P. Ceann 

an droma, M. Tigh an droma, P. na Druiminean, V. 

Drumlemble {N.), K. Druim nan torran, 6'. ; whence 
druimneach — Ard-druimnich (twice), A. 
duathar, a shade, -air and -ach — ^Beinn na duatharach, M. 
dubh, black, whence dubhan, a fish-hook, and dim., dubhaig — 

Dubh-chladach, Dubh-loch, Lochan-dubh, K. Dubh-leitir, 

CM. Loch nan dubhan, S. Abhainn dubhan, R. (River) 

Dubhaig, M., and Poll an dubhaidh (gerund), A.I.L. 
duileag, a leaf, -eige ; -ean — Allt nan duileag, Z. 
duileasg, dtdse, -isg — Eilean an duilisg. Col. 
duine, a tnan {homo) ; daoine — Rudh' an duine, /. Port an 

duine, P. 
dim, a heap, (2) a fort — dim., Dunan, P.C Dun an bir, C, 

and see Duns, p. xix. 
dunach, ivoe, -aiche — Glac na dunaiche, y^ Tom dunaiche, R. 

Creag na dunaich, C 

eabar, 7mid, a fnarsh — Eabar (Apper), mor and beag, M. 
each, a horse, eich ; each — Pairc an eich, J. na h-eich dhonna 

(rocks), L. Sloe an eich, V. 
eadar, betzveen (Lat. viter). See dk. 
eagral, fear, -ail ; whence Adj. eagallach, used also as noun — 

Cruach an Eag'laich, L. Eilean an eagail, R. 
eagrlais, a church (Lat. ecclesia), -e ; -ean — Eaglais Bhogain, 

Baile na h-eaglaise, /. Aird eaglais, AI. 
eala, a szvan — Loch nan eala, P. Rudha na h-eala, .S. Loch 

nan ealachan, A. 
eanchainn, the brain, -e — Sgur na h-eanchainne, G. 
earasaid, /. See p. 151. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 20T 

earba, a roe, dim., earbag-aige ; -ag — Sailean na h-earba, A. 

Doire na h-earbaige, K. 
e^mach, bloody flux (in cattle) — Ach' an' e^rnaich, /. 
earrach, spring, -aich — Cro-earraich, /. 
eas, a waterfall ; Adj. easach — Eas dubh, S. Tigh an eas, L. 

Torr an eas, M. Allt easach, F. Dims., liun easain, M. 

Inbher easragain, P. 
easach, see eas. Compare names in -ach, p. 8. 
easbuigr, a bishop {episcopus) — Clach an easbuig, K. Eilean an 

easbuig, /. 
eascaraid, an ^^ ex-friend," enemy — Tigh an eascaraid, V. 
eascairt, K., from eas (above) + ag + Mrd. 
eidheann, ivy, -inn — Camus eidhinn, S. Torr an eidhinn, V. 

Leac eidhne, Carn eidhinn, /. 
eilean, an island — Achadh nan eilean, S., and freq. 
eilid, a hind, 6ilde ; -ean — Ath na h-^ilde, S. Cnoc na h-^ilde, /. 

Achadh an eilid, C. Tom nan eildean, M. Lh.irig ^ilde, P. 
eilthireach, a pilgrim, -ich (from eile, other, + tir, land — a 

pilgrim) — Loch nan eilthireach, K. 
eireag", a pullet, -eige — Cnoc na h-eireige, K. 
Eirionnach, an Irishman, -aich — Dail an Eirionnaich, Z. 
eiteach, burnt roots of heath, -ich — Sgur an eitich, Z. 
eorna, barley — Goirtean eorna, A.K. 
eun, a bird, eoin; eun — Eun-loch, Z. Dail an coin, Z. Sgeir 

an eoin, A. Lochan eun, K. 

f^d, a peat — ^Airidh- and Achadh-nam f^d, K. Cruach nam fad, K. 

fada, long — Druim fada, I. Beinn fhada, M. 

faiche, a "green," field — Dubh-fhaiche, /. 

fMre, a ridge, sky-line — Fkire bhuidhe, M. 

faire, a tvatch, guard — Cnoc faire, K. Cnoc na faire, I.L. 

Beinn na faire, K. 
famhair, a giant, ogre — Torr an f hamhair, A. V. 
fang, a sheep-pen, faing (N.) — Fang dubh, /. na Faing 

hrda, M. Allt an fhaing, V. 
faobh, spoil, booty — Cnoc nam faobh, V. 
faochagr, a winkle, -aige ; -ag — Lub faochaige, C. Sgeir nam 

faochag, M. 



202 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

faodhail, a ford, faodMa (p. 15) — an Fhaodhail dubh, A. 

Tigh na faodhla, /. 
faoileann, a sea-gull, -inne ; -ean — Faoilean ghlas, M. Loch 
na faoilinn, K. Rudha and Port na faoilinn, M. Rudha 
na faoileige (dim.), I.L. 
f^radh, a ladder — am F^radh, L. V. Meall an fhiraidh, C. 
farsuinn, broad — Gleann farsuinn, M. 
f^sach, a wilderness, waste place — am Fksach, /. 
fasgadh, shelter, -aidh ; with Adj. fasgach — Ard an fhasgaidh, 

Z. Creag an fhasgaidh, C Cnoc fasg'ach, C. 
fead, a whistle ; whence feadag, a plover, " whistler" -aige ; -ag 
and feadan, a flute {G.) — Cnoc na feadaige, L. Fidden, M. 
feaman, a sheep's tail, -ain ; -ean — na Feamainean, /. 
feauna^, a hoody crow; (2) a ^'lazy-bed" — Beinn and Cnoc 
na feannaige, M. Leanag na feannaige, /. Srath na 
feannaig, K. Rudha nam feannag, V. 
fear, a 7?ian (Lat. Vir), fir ; fear — Uamh nam fear, /. Rudha 

and Lag nam fear, M. 
fe^rna, the alder-tree; whence fekrnach, an alder wood — Doire 
fekrna, /. Fasadh fekrna, E. Sloe nam fearna, K. Fekr- 
nach, K.L. Cruach nam fearna, P. 
feith, a vein, sinew ; (2) f^ithe, a bog {G.) — Feith a' chaoruinn,y. 
febil, flesh, febla — Coire na febla, M. Sloe na febla, M. 
feoirlin (p. 26), K.R. 

fedrag, a squirrel, -aige ; -ag — Innis nam febrag, A. 
feur, grass, febir — Feur-loch, K.L. Eilean an fhebir, M. 
fiadh, a deer, f^idh ; fiadh — Eas an f heidh, A. Sgeir an 

fheidh, M. 
fias, old form f^s, hair, is the stem in fiasgan, a tnussel ( = fiasag- 
an, the bearded one), -ain ; -an — Leathad nam fias, G. Meall 
nam fiasgan, A. 
fidhleir, a fiddler, -ean — Beinn an fhidhleir, C. 
fidheal, a fiddle, fidhle — Leac na fidhle, V. 
fincham ( = fionn, white, + ckrn) — Fincharn Castle, Z. 
fiodh, rvood, fiodha — Fiodhan, F. Bealach an fhiodhain, Z. 
fion, wine — Tobar an fhion, C. 

fionn, white — Fionn-ard, /-". Finnart, C. Fin-charn, Z. 
fireach, a tnoor — Braigh an fhirich, M. Fireach na mbine, Z. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 203 

f ireun, the eagle ( = fior + eun, the trtie-bird or over-bird) — 

Meall an fhireoin, A. AUt an fhireoin, M. 
iitheach, a raven, -ich — Creag an fhithich, S.L. Creag nam 

fitheach, L. Binnein fithich, K. 
fiiliran, a sapling, -ain — Port an fhiurain, /. 
fliuch, wet, damp — Ruighe fliuch, K. 
fola, see full — Loch na fola, K. 
fonn, land, district — Leth-fhonn, M. 
fdthannan, a thistle {pr. fo'nan), -ain ; Adj. -ach — Goirtean 

fothannanach, K. 
fradharc, sight, look-out, -aire — Creag an fhradhairc, A. 
Frangach, a Frenchman, -aich ; -ach — Rudha na Frangach, L. 
fraoch, heather, fraoich — Fraoch-eilean, R. Baile fraoich, M. 
fras, a shower, froise — Glac na froise mine, M. 
freasdal, Providence (note) — Loch-fhreasdail, C.K. 
freiceadan, a guard {military^ -ain^ — am Freiceadan dubh, the 

" Black Watch." Cnoc freiceadain, Cnoc an fhreiceadain, K. 
fireumh, a root, -a — Meall nam freumha, G. Port nam freumha, V. 
frith, against (p. 80) — Cnoc nam frith-allt, S. 
fuar, cold ; whence fuaran, a small cold spring of water — Fuar- 

achadh, P. fuar-bheinn, V. Binnein airde fuaire, L. 

Achadh fuar, C. Coire nam fuaran, .V. Eilean an fhuarain, M. 
fail, blood, fola — Loch na fola, K. am Blar fola, .5. 

gabhail (note) — Achadh ghabhal, V. 

gad, a withe, gold; gad — Aird ghadan, C. liar nan gad, K. 

Eilean nan gad, A. Loch nan gad, M. 
G^idheal, a Gael, -il ; -eal — Eas a Ghaidheil, A. 
grailbheach, stormy, furious — Allt gailbheach, K. 
g^Mlleach, a disease of the gums i7i cattle, -iche — Ard na gkillich, C. 
gaillionn, a violent storm, and cold, -inne — Port na gaillinne, K. 
gainmheach, sajid, -iche — Tom na gainmhiche, A. Eilean na 

gainmhiche, M. The primary form gaineamh is seen in 

Ganavan and Ardganavain, R. (gaineamhein, a sandy beach). 

Loch gainmhiche, R. 
Gall, a stranger, Lowlander, Goill ; Gall — Tir a' Ghoill, M. 

Camus nan Gall, G.A. Cam nan Gall, /. Bealach nan 

Gall, K. Gall-choille, K.R. 



204 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

gallan, a bratich, a standing stone — Port nan gallan, /. 

Gallanach, R. Glac ghallan, M. 
gramhainn, a stirk, gamhna — Achadh nan gamhna, V. Tom 

nan gamhna, C Eilean nan gamhna, iT.T'. a' Ghamhnach 

mhor, M. 
ganntar, scarcity, poverty, -air — ^Tom a ghanntair, A. gainntir, 

a prison, is also possible, or even better in this case (p. 93). 
g'^nradh, a gander, -aidh — an Ganradh (island), /. 
gaoth, wind, gaoithe ; and Adjs. gaothach, gaothail — Bealach 

gaoithe, L. Bealach gaoth-niar, I. Bealach gaothach, C. 

Gaothail (river), M. Dun dh. ghaoithe, M. 
g'araidh, a den, thicket — Gairidh uisge, M. 
garbh, rough ; whence garbhlach, roiigh ground — Garbh-allt 

freq. Glac gharbh, G. Garbhlach m6r, A. Garbh- 

shrbn, Z. 
gart — Seann-ghart, Gart breac, Gart na ce^rdach, I. Gart na 

gearrach, K. Allt ghartain, F. 
gas, a twig, stalk, gaise ; gas — Cruach na gaise caoile, L. 
gath, a sting, dart, gatha — Loch a' ghatha, K. 
geadh, a goose, gebidli ; gdadh — Loch a' ghebidh, J. Clach a' 

ghebidh, K. 
geal, 7ahite — Uisgeacha geala, M. 
gealach, the moon, -aiche — Lochan na gealaiche, L. 
geamhradh, winter, -aidh — Baile geamhraidh, M. V. 
ge^rr, short — ^Gearr-abhainn, G. Loch gekrr, L. Bealach 

gearr, K. Cinn a' ghekrrloch, V. Whence gearrach, 

diarrhoea, " taken short." 
ge^rr, cut ; whence gearran, a gelding, -ain ; -an, and gearradh, 

a cutti7ig — Achadh nan gearran, G. Bealach ghearran, Z. 

Rudh' a' ghearrain, M. Srbn a' ghearrain, P. 
geata, a gate — Tigh a' gheata, K. 
geodha, a creek — Geodha ceann dk aoinidh, M. 
giall, a hostage, pledge — Uamh nan giall, J. 
gibeach, ragged — Beinn ghibeach,y. 
gille, a lad, -an — Abhainn ghillean, Carn nan gillean, y. 
giubhas, fir, -ais ; whence giiibhsach, a fir-wood, and dim. 

Giiibhsachan, S. Glac a' ghiubhais, G. Allt a' ghiubhais, Z. 

Leac a' ghiubhais, M. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 205 

grlac, a dell, small valley, glaice ; glac — ^Glac bheag, Z. Bail' na 

glaice, K. 
grlamradh, a smith's vice — Rudh a' ghlamraidh, Z. (note). 
glaodh, a cry, call, glaoidh — AUt a' ghlaoidh, K. 
glas, grey and green (note) ; whence glasach, ley land — Glas- 

bheinn, V. Glas-druim, F. Sgeir ghlas, Beinn ghlas, Af. 

Achadh glas, K. 
glas, ^/^y/ whence glaiseach, ley-land — Rudh' a' ghlaisich, M. 
gleann, a glen, glinn — Gleann rainiche, M. Gleann mor, A. 
gnob, a hillock, k?ioll. See cnap, p. 34. 
gob, a beak, guib — Gob seileach, A. Gob a' ghrianain, K. an 

Guibein, M. Gob dubh, y". 
grobha, a smith, gobhainn, goibbne — Peighinn a' ghobhainn, M. 

Bail' a' ghobhainn, M.L. (ioirtean a' ghobhainn, K. 
gobhal, a fork, -ail ; -al ; Adj. gdbhlach — an Gobhlach (hill), K. 

Gleann gobhlach, I. Sgeir ghobhlach, A. 
grobhar, a goat, gobhar and goibhre ; -ar — Gleann na gobhar, G. 

Baile na gobhar, F. Carn goibhre, Z. Stob goibhre, F. 

Maol nan gobhar, I. Eilean nan gobhar, V. 
groirtean, see gart (G.) — an Goirtean. Coire 'ghoirtein, I. 
gon, wound ; whence gonaidh (gerund) — Coill a' ghonaidh, M. 
gorm, green, blue (note) — Gleann and Rudh gorm, M. 
gr^nda, ugly — Creag ghrknda, K.R. 
greideal, a grill, gridiron — Greideal Fhinn, A. 
greusaiche, a shoemaker, -ean — Coire nan greusaichean, .5. 
grian, the sun, grdine ; whence dim. Grianan {F.), a sunny 

patch of land, and Adj. grianail — Sgur na gre'ine, .S'. Ob 

greine, Grianan, Gob a' ghrianain, K. Cnoc grianail, /. 

Grianaig, Z. 
grisionn, brindled (gris + fhionn, gray-white). 
gruagach, a maiden, brownie (note), -aicbe — Lochan na gruag- 

aiche, A. 
gual, coal, charcoal, guail — Coill' a' ghuail, I. Cnoc and Port a' 

ghuail, K. 
guala, the shoulder, -ann ((?.)— Guala na leitreach, M. Gualann 

dubh, M. Guala nan cam, A'. 
guirmein, a blue dye or colour, from gorm — Rudh' a' ghuirmein 

and Eilean a' ghuirmein, M. 



2o6 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

ialtag^, a bat^ -aige; -ag — Cnoc nan ialtag, Creag nan ialtag, K. 

ian, a bird — lan-eilean (Indian), C. 

iarunn, iron, -uinn — Cnoc iaruinn, K. 

\'EL'&^,fish, ^isg ; iasg; whence iasgach, yJ^i^/^/V?^, iasgair, a fisher — 

Dun Iasgair, M. Rudh' an iasgaich, AT. lasg-loch, Z. 

Aird an iasgaich, A. 
im, butter, ime — Lochan an ime, A. Tobar an ime, M. Cnoc 

an ime, J. Eas an ime, M. 
inbhear, a confluence, -ir — Inbhear a' bhaile, /. Inbhear-aora, 

R. Cill an inbhir, L. Torr an inbhir, AI. Rudha na 

h-inbhire. 
innis, a7i island ; (2) a sheltered valley — Innis na febrag, A. 
inntreadh, ati entering upon or beginning — Inntreadh, V. 
iochdar, the lower part, -air ; Adj. iochdarach — an t-iochdar 

freq. lochrachan, L. 
iolach, rejoicing, -aich — Barr iolaich, C. Bagh an iolaich, M. 
iolair, an eagle, -e — Creag na h-iolaire, L. Cnoc na h-iolaire, 

K.J. Tom na h-iolaire, C. 
iomaire, a ridge of latid — lomaire comhnard and lomair' a' 

mhkil, /. lomaire fada, S. na h-Iomairean, V. (note). 
iomall, a border, limit, or remote part — lomallach, /. 
iosal, low — Eilean iosal,yi 
iubhar, the yew-tree, -air; whence lubhrach, a yew-wood — Creag 

an iubhair, M. Sgur an iubhair, G. an lubhrach, S.M.L. 

Gleann iubhair, P. 

lach, a wild duck, -a — Achadh lacha, K. Loch nan lach, /. 
ladhar, a hoof, -air ; ladh'ran — Loch an ladhair, M. Port an 

ladhair, /. 
lag, a hollow — Lag, L. Lagan, Lag a' mhuilinn, I. Lag an 

daimh, C. 
Ikir, a mare, Ikire — Sgor na Ikire, G. Loch an Ikir (p. 69). 
iMrig, a moor (p. 16) — Largie, K.L.R. 
l^mh, a hand, laimlie — Loch na laimhe, K. 
laogh, a calf laoigh ; laogh — Gleann laoigh, C. 
l^rach, the site, or mark, of a decayed or destroyed house, -aiche — 

an Larach bheag, V. an Larach, P. Ard-larach, I.M.P. 

Crion-larach, M.P. Fuar-larach, K. Lochan Ikraiche, K. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 207 

l^thach, mire, -aiche — Camus and Port lathaich, L. 

leac, a flat stone, flagstone, lice ; leac — Leac, /. Rudha nan 

leacag, Rudha na lice, an leacann, K. 
leamhan, eh/i, -ain — Achadh leamhain, Z. Beinn leamhain, y. 
leanabh, an infant, child, leinibh ; leanaban — Loch an leinibh, /. 
leanach, a wet tneadow (G.) — Leanach, C. 
learg, a hill - side — LeargoUagain, Lerags, L. Gleann dk 

leirg, K. 
leathad, a hill-side, ox side of a valley, leithid— Cromleathad, A. 

Leathad grianach, F. Garbh-leathad, Leathad mor, M. 

Loch an duibh-leathaid, S. Leac an leithid, M. Leth-allt, 

L. Leideag, Leathad nan coileach, C. 
leathan, broad — Loch leathan, G. Gleann leathan, Af. 
leitir, a slope (G.) (leth, half, + tir, land), -ire and -each — 

Leitir mhor, /*. l)ubh-\t'\Ur, A.M. Garbh-leitir,/. Gekrr- 

leitir, C. Rudha and Guala na leitreach, M. 
lephin = leth-pheighinn, halfpenny (land) (G.) — Lephin cille, C. 

Lephin corrach and L. strath, A". Lephin-chapel, C. See 

peighinn. 
leth, a half— Leth Thorcuil, M. Leth-allt, /. Lailt, K 
leum, a jionp — Leum-sgeir, M. Rudha nan leum, V. 
lian, a fleld ; whence lianag and Lianach, C. 
liath, grey — Cam liath, Guala an liath ghuis {see gas), V. Coire 

liath, na Liathanaich, M. Cruach doire leithe. 
linne {G.), a pool — Linne a' mhuirich, K. an Linne-sheileach 

(L. Linnhe). 
lion, fill ; lionadh, filling, the flood-tide — Rudha and Port an 

lionaidh, P. 
lion, a net, lin ; lion — Achadh lion, R. 

lion, flax, lint, lin — Glac an lin, M. (or, perhaps, the word pre- 
ceding, a net). 
Hop, a lip, -e — Rudha na leip, M. 
lios, a garden, enclosure, stronghold — Lios-mor (p. 73). 
lobhar, a leper, -air — Abhainn lobhair, L. (p. 44). 
loch, a lake, a sea-loch, locha — Gleann locha, K. Ceann locha, K. 
lod, a puddle ; dim., lodan, -ain ; -an — an Lodan, P. 
loisgte, burned — Goirtean loisgte, Gart-loisg, I. Torr-loisg, M. 
lorn, naked ; whence loman, -ain, a naked (needy) one. 



2o8 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Ion, a marsh, loin ; dims., Lbnan and Lbnag — Lbn mor, L.J. 

Tigh an loin, K. Eilean an Ibnain, K. Srbn lonaig, C. 
long, a ship, luinge ; long — Dail an long-airt, C. (p. 25). Lag 

na luinge, R. 
longart (p. 25). Barr, Cul, and Dail an longairt, K. 
lorg-, a staff, luirge ; lorg — Tom luirge, K. (note). 
losaid, a trough, I.K.L. 
losgann, a toad, -ainne ; -ann — Dun losgainn, C. Loch los- 

gann,y".^. Beinn nan losgann, A. 
luachair, rushes, and -ach for Gen. and Adj. — Srath luach- 

rach, /. Achadh and Barran luachrach, Z, Luacharan, V. 

Luachragan, L. 
\\x.ei6.Yi., fulling of cloth, luaidh— Lag a' mhuilinn-luaidh, M. 
Itib, a bend, curve, luibe ; lub — Lub (Loop), K. Srath nan 

lub, C. Lub eilde, V. Loch lubanach,y! 
lurach, lovely — Loch lurach, K. 
lurga, the shank, tibia, lurgann — an Lurgann, V. Achadh 

lurgainn, M. an Luirgneach, F. 
lus, ati herb, lus — Beinn nan lus, M. Lochan lus dubha, Z. 

Cruach lusach, K. 
lusragan, a herbalist (from lus), -ain — Allt lusragain, P.L. 

mac, a son, mic ; mac — Dail na mac, Z. 

machair, a plain, carse (6^.) — Machair riabhach, Machri beg 

and more, K. 
madadh, a dog (p. 94), -aidh; -adh — Eilean a' mhadaidh, M. 

Aird a' mhadaidh, Z. Lochan a' mhadaidh-riabhaich, A. 

Cnoc a' mhadadh, K. Achadh na madadh, Barr a' 

mhadaidh, Z. 
m^g^an and m^gachan, a toad (from mkg, a paw), m^gach, -an 

= one walking on its paws — Tir a' mhagain, Z. Srbn mhk- 

gachain, R. 
magh, afield, maighe— Cnoc maighe. Magh mbr, C. 
mainnir, a fold, enclosure — Mainnir nam fiadh, M. 
m^la, a bag (of a bag-pipes especially), wallet — am Mkla, M.I. 
m^l, rent, tax, rahil — Tigh a' mhkil, F. 
malairt, an exchafige, market — a' Mhalairt, y. 
maldag (note) — Sgeir m^ldaig, M. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 209 

m^m, a round hill (Hills), maim — Coir' a' mhaim, K. 

maodlach (note) — a' Mhaodlach, V. 

maol, bald — Maol-achadh, L. Sgeir mhaol, K. am Maolan, 

Cnoc maolanach, M. Maol-leitir, C. 
maol (noun). See Hills — Maol tarsuinn, M. 
maorach, shellfish^ -aich ; -ach — Rudha na traighe maoraich, M. 

Bruach nam maorach, V. 
mara, see muir. 

marag-, a pudding, -aige ; -ag — Caraig na maraige, C. 
maraiche, a sea-man, from muir — Rudh' a' mharaiche. 
marbh, dead, as Noun mairbh ; marbh — Port na marbh, K.M. 

Guala a' mhairbh, M. 
marcachd, riding, and marcaiche, a rider (from old marc, a 

horse) — Diinan na marcachd and Diinan a' mharcaiche, M. 
margadh, a market, -aidh — Loch a' bhaile mhargaidh,y. 
mart, a coiv, mairt ; mart — Doire na mart, V. 
meadhon, the middle; Adj. meadhonach — Baile meadhonach, 

M. Cruach mheadhonach, M. 
m.ealladh, deception — Sliabh a' mheallaidh, /. 
meall, a lump, heap, hill, mill — -Meall mor, K. 
meann, a kid, minn ; meann, with dim. minnein — Loch a' 

mhinn, L. na Minn (rocks), M. Sgeir na meann, A. 

Beinn na meann, M. 
measan, a lapdog, -ain — Coir' a' mheasain, C. 
meirleach, a thief, -icli — Port nam meirleach, J.M. Gleann 

nam meirleach, /. Eas nam meirleach, L. 
mial, animal, louse (note) — Torran nam mial, S. Lochan nam 

miall, M. Loch a' mhial-choin, P. 
mias, a dish, mMse ; mias — Port na meise, /. 
mtin, soft, smooth — Minard, P. V. Port min, A. 
min, meal, -e — Meall na mine, Af. 
ministeir, a clergyman — Port a' mhinisteir, M. 
m.innseag, a year-old goat — Cruach nam minnseag, C. 
molach, rough, hairy — Torra molach, A. Tom molach, C. 

Srath mollach, K. Creag mholach, C. Barr molach, K.R. 
monadh, a long mountain, -aidh — Monadh meadhoin, V. 
m6ine, peat, mbna — Torr na mbna, I. Coire na mbna, A.M. 
mdr, great — Beinn mhor, M. 





2IO THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

moraire, a lord (mor + fhear, great tnan) — Coill a' mhoraire, Af. 
morbhach, sea-land over which high tides come (p. 17). 
muc, a pig, muice ; muc, whence muclach, mucrach (p. 27). 

AUt na muice, /. Leum na muice, K. Gleann na muice, 

M. Coire nam muc, M. Barr nam muc, F. Eilean nam 

muc, a' Mhuclach, M. Coire na muclach, K. 
mtich, smother — Allt a' mhiichaidh, M. 
muidhe, a churn — Allt a' mhuidhe, F. 
Muileach, a Mull-mafi — Port nam Muileach, C. 
muileann, a mill, -inn — Cladh a' mhuilinn, G. Poll a' 

mhuilinn, M. Lag a' mhuilinn, /. 
muilichinn, a sleeve — Muilichinn leathann, C^thar a' mhuil- 

ichinn, K. 
muir, the sea, mara — Achadh na mara, K.L. 
muireach (p. 17), -ich — Eilean a' mhuirich, S. Linn' a' 

mhuirich, K.F. Port a' mhuirich, K. 
muUach, the top, -aich — MuUach bkn, I.M. Mullach dubh, A. 

Achadh a mhuUaich, M. 
mult, a wedder, muilt ; mult — Sloe a' mhuilt, M. Cruach nam 

mult, C. 
mtisg^an, the horse fish, -ain ; -an — Traigh nam musgan, L. 

Nant, a valley (Welsh) — Gleann-nant, F. 

naomh, holy, a saint ; whence naomhachd, holiness — Cill an 

naoimh, /. Eilean naomhachd, K. 
nathair, a serpent, nath'racli — Xiridh nathrach, K. 
nead, a nest, nid — Cruach an nid, L. 
niar, west, = an + iar — Bealach gaoth niar, /. See siar. 
nigh, wash; whence nigheadaireachd — Lochan na nigheadair- 

eachd, /. 
nighean, daughter, inghne (note) ; whence dim., nineag — Eilean 

na nighinn, L. Allt nighinn, Z. Loch na h-inghinne, K. 

Loch nan nighean, A. 

6b, a creek (iV.), dim., 6ban-ain — Ob greine, K. Tigh an 6b, ^. 

Rudh' an bba, K. an t-Oban, F. 
ochd, eight; whence ochdamh, ari eighth (p. 18) — Ochd a' 

mhuilinn, Ochdamh fada, /. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAiMES 211 

odhar, dun— Cnoc odhar, K. Coire odhar, K.I. AUt odhar, L. 

M.h.m a' choir' idhir (a peculiar form), M. Saigh'dean 

odhara, M. 
og'ha, a grandson — Terr an oglia, M. 
6igh, a virgin — AUt bigh, L. 

oir, an edge, border. See Argyll (p. 2) — Oirean, K. 
oitir, a low promontory (p. 44) — Oitir, L.C. Oitir nam bb, /. 
olann, wool, olainn — Port na h-olainn, K. 
ollamh, a learned man, -aimh — Crois an ollaimh, M. 
dmhan, the froth of milk, -ain — an Tigh bmhain, M. 
6r, gold, 6ir — Breaman bir, M. Dun an bir, C. 
6s, the mouth of a river {N.) — Aros, M. 

p^irc, a park, -e — Pairc mhor, /. AUt nam paircean, K. 
partan, a crabfish, -ain; -an — Port a' phartain, Cnoc nam 

partan, M. Poll nam partan (Eigg). 
peacadh, sin, peacach, a sinner — Loch nam peacach, M. 
peallach, shaggy — Loch peallach, M. 
pearsa, a person, pearsan, a parson — Loch pearsain, Z. 
peighinn {G.\ a penny (land) — Peighinn a' ghobhainn, K.M. 

Peighinn na croise, Peighinn a' Ghkidhil, Saor-pheighinn, M. 

Peighinn nan searrach, Peighinn an inbhir, K. Peighinn- 

fuar, Peighinn m6r, Ach' na leth-pheighinn, L. 
peileir, a bullet, -ean — na Peileirean, /. 
piob, a pipe, bag-pipe, pioba ; piob ; whence piobaire, a piper, 

piobaireachd, piping — Cnoc nam piob, M. Cnoc na piob- 

aireachd, /. 
ploc, a clod; Adj. plocach and dim. plocaig — Sgeir phlo- 

cach, /. 
poll, a pool, pond, muddy hole, puill ; poll — Poll m6r, /. Poll a' 

mhuilinn, M. Gart an rath phuill, /. Airidh phoU, M. 
port, a harbour, puirt — Tigh a' phuirt, F. Eilean puirt 

reidh, K. 
pdsadh, tnarriage, -aidh ; -adh (from p6s, marry) — AUt nam 

pbsadh, K. 
preas, a bush, pris ; Adj. preasach — Leac a' phris, V Rudha 

preasach, C. 
priosan (am), the prison, L. 



212 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

prop, a prop (Eng.) — Cnoc nam prop, K. 

pubull, a tent, -uill — Cruach a phubuill, K. Cnoc a' phubuill, 

Pubull Burn, K. 
put, the young of moor-fowl ; whence putach and dim. putachan 

— Putach an t-suidhe, Corr putachan, K. 

rh., red — Rk-chreag, R. 

ra.inesicb.f i>racken, fern, -iche ; whence Ranachan (p. 8) — Achadh 

rainich, Z. V. 
r^mh, an oar — Rudha bristeadh ramh, M. 
rang, rong, a boat-rib, spar — Rudha na reinge, M. 
raon, a plain — Port raoin mh6ir, K. 
r^pach, noisy, xa.'pd.c'h., foul-mouthed, foul (of weather), as Fem. 

Noun in Sithean na rapaiche, M. Eilean rapach (N. of 

lona). 
rathad, a road, -aid — Druim an rathaid, K. Tigh an rathaid, C. 
rath, a fort {nolo) — Rathuaidh, V. (p. i8). 
reamhar, fat, thick — Cnoc reamhar, I.K.M. Lochan nam 

breac reamhra, L. 
reatha, a ram, tup, -chan — Sron reatha, Z. Beinn reatha, C. 
r^idh, level, smooth — Loch reidh, I. Druim reidh, K. Meall 

reidh, Z. Eilean nan reilean, M. Gleann reidh, K. 
r^is, a race (note) — Garbh-reis and Corr-reis, Z. 
reothairt, spring-tide — Sruthan reothairt, I. 
riabhach, brifidled, the colour of the wren, which is called 

riabhag. The devil is the riabhacli m6r, the mighty 

singed-one — Coire riabhach, G. Leac riabhach, S. Rudha 

riabhach, P. Mbine riabhach, Dail riabhach, I.K. 
ribeadh, snaring, -idh. (from rib, ensTiare, entangle) — Tigh an 

ribidh, M.F. 
ribheid, a reed, -e — Linne na ribheid, M. 
ridire, a knight — Rudh' an rid ire, V. 

righ, a king — Bail' an righ, P. Rudha and Eilean an righ, M. 
rdmach, hairy, " drumly." 
rdn, a seal, rbin ; rbn — Port nan rbn, M. Loch nan rbn, /. 

Rudha nan rbn, Z. Rbnachan, K. 
r6pa, rope — Uamh rbpa, K. 
ros, a promontory (note) — an Ros Muileach, M. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 213 

ruadh, red, brick-colour ; whence ruadhag, a hind — Allt ruadh, /. 

Sgeir ruadh, M. Ruadh-ghoirtean, Allt ruadh-bhuic, C. 

Cnoc na b6 ruaidhe, M. Meall nan ruadhag, G. 
rudha, a promontory — Tigh an rudha, K. Rudha m6r, M. 
ruigrhe* a. sheiling-ground — Ruighe m6r, V. Ruighe fluich, K. 

Ruighe samhraidh, S. Ruigh' a' phollain, A. 
ruinn, a promontory, ranna — Rhinns, /. Ruinn, A. 
riiisgrte, naked — Creag riiisgte, Z. 

sabhal, a bam, -ail ; -al — Rudh' an t-sabhail, M. Achadh nan 

sabhal, K.L. 
sac, a sack — Allt nac sac, R. 
sagart, a priest, -airt — Allt an t-sagairt,/. Creag an t-sagairt, 

Z. Tigh an t-sagairt, /. Uamh an t-sagairt, M. 
saighead, an arrow, saighde — Leac na saighde, V. Saighdean 

odhara, M. 
S^il, a heel, -tean — Rudha nan s^iltean, M. 
sMle, salt water, sea ; whence SMlean (p. 19). 
saileach, see seileacli — Barr saileach, R. Salachry = salach 

+ kiridh, M.R 
saill,/a/, -e— Port na saille, M. Bkrr na saille, R. 
salach, dirty — Rudha salach (Shuna). Camus salach, V. 

Airidh-shalach, I. Feith shalach, 6'. 
salann, salt, -ainn — Ard an t-salainn, Z. Port an t-salainn, 

K.M. 
aaJtm, a psalm — Loch nan salm, Z. 
samh, i-<?r/-^/— Samhnach, C.L.V. Samharaidh, V. 
samhail, samhladh, likeness — Cnoc an t-samhlaidh, I.K. (note). 
samhainn, Hallowmas — Maol na samhna, M. 
samhradh, summer, -aidh — Ruighe samhraidh, ^S". Airidh 

shamhraidh, Z. V. 
sannt, greed ; whence sanntachadh — Eilean an t-sanntach- 

aidh, M. 
saobhaidh, a fox^s den, -ean — an t-Saobhaidh, K. Sron na 

saobhaidh, P.S. Cnoc nan saobhaidhean, V. 
saod, to drive cattle to pasture — Creag-shaodain, ^. 
saor, a carpenter, saoir — Bail' an t-saoir, Z. Tom an t-saoir, P. 

Lochan nigh'n an t-saoir, A. 



214 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

saor, cheap, free — Saor-pheighinn, M. (p. i8). 

s^raich, oppress, weary, skrachadh — Mbine an t-s^rachaidh, 

K. 
Sasunnach, an Englishman, -aich — Port an t-Sasunnaich, M. 
seabhag, a haivk, -aige - -ag — AUt an t-seabhaig, S. Barr na 

seabhag, M. 
sealg, a hunt, seilge and sealga — Barr na seilge, K. Cnoc tigh 

sealga, J. Cnoc na seilge, /. Torr na sealga, M. Druim 

na sealg, Z. 
seall, look, watch, sealladh, sight — Cruach an t-seallaidh, K. 
seamrag, shamrock, -aige; ag — Cnoc and Cuil nan seamrag, K. 

(note). 
sean, old — Seana-bhaile, M. Seana-ghart, I. 
seang^an, an ant, -ain; -an — Croit seangain, K. Sgeir an 

t-seangain, V. 
searrach, a foal, -aich ; -ach — Maol an t-searraich, M. Cnoc 

an t-searraich, C. 
seilcheag:, a sfiail, -eige ; -eag — Cruach na seilcheige, K. 
seileach, willotv, -ich — Ard-seileach, P. Bacan seilach, M. 

Gleann seileach, Coire seileach, L. Cnoc an t-seilich, K. 
seilisdeir, the water-flag, Iris — Gleann seilisdeir {Rut>i), Camus 

an t-seilisdeir, Af. 
seisreach, a plough-team, -iche ; -ach — Eilean nan seachd 

seisreach, A. 
sgabh, sawdust — Arinascabhach, K. (note). 
sgadan, a herring, -ain ; -an — Port an sgadain, K. AUt an 

sgadain, Z. 
s^arbh, a cormorant, sgairbh — Rudha and Creag nan sgarbh, K. 

Biod nan sgarbh, Z Creag nan sgarbh, A. 
sgait, a skate-fish — Baile-sgait, M. Sgait mh6r, C. 
sgalag, a farm- servant, -aige; -ag — Tom an sgalaig, Z. Druim 

nan sgalag, V. (p. 42). 
sgd^lan, a hut, tent {N.), -ain — Loch an sgalain, M. 
sgeir, a rock in the sea {N.) — Dubh-sgeir, K. 
s^an, a knife, sgine — Sgian dubh, Lochan na sgine, C. 
s^ath, a witig, sgeithe ; -an — Sgiath ruadh, M. Leac a' 

sgiathain, S. Beinn sgiathaig, M. 
sgriolag, a sprat, small fish — Loch nan sgiolag, R. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 215 

sgritheach, thorn, -ich — Achadh craobh sgithich, V. Achadh 

na sgitheach, C. Loch sgitheig,y. 
Sgrliat, slate, sgliatach, slatey — Port na sgliata, J. Cnoc 

sgliatach, L. 
sgroilte, split — Creag sgoilte, M. 

sg'oladh, sculling — Cnoc an sgolaidh, K. (?) sgoltaidh. 
sgdr, a sharp rock ; whence Sgornach ruadh, Z., and Adj. 

sgorach — Sgeir sgorach, M. (note). 
sgrath, a turf cut for roofing or covering, -a ; Adj. sgrathach 

— Sgrath mh6r, M. Lochan sgrathach, Loch na sgratha, 

K. 
sgreag, dry, sgreagach, parched, dried — Lochan sgreagach, K. 
sgreuch, a scream — Maol nan sgreuch, M. 
sgriob, a scratch, a furroiv, -a — Loch na sgrioba, J. 
Sg^odan, the sto?iy track of a mountain torrent, or a latid-slip, 

-ain ; -an — an Sgriodan, M.K., and Loch-sgriodain, M. 

Druim an sgriodain, A. 
sguab, a sheaf of corn — Cnoc nan sguab, A. 
sgiir, see sgbr (note) — Sgur Dhomhnaill, S. 
sgtilan, a wicker-basket, -ain ; -an — Croit an sgulain and Croit 

nan sgulan, Af. Sgulan beag and m6r, M. Dig an Sgulain, S. 
sian (p. 94) — Beinn shiant, A.J. 
siar, tvest, a Motion-to form ; niar is Motion-from — Siar-loch, L. 

Mul (?) Siar-luich, E. 
sioman, a rope of twisted hay or straw, -ain ; -an — Lochan nan 

s\oman, A. Sloe an t-s\omain, L. 
sionnach, a fox, -aich — Eilean an t-sionnaich, ^S. Tom an 

t-sionnaich, M. Loch sionnaich, R. 
sios, below — Cnoc a' bhaile shios, K. = Nether-town. 
sith and sithche, a fairy, -ean ; Sithean is the fairy-home — an 

Sithean, I.L.M.P. Achadh an t-sithein, M. Srbn an 

t-sithein, S. 
slaochan, a float, sled — Port an t-slaochain, M. 
slat, a rod, slaite — Ard na slaite, C Slatrach (p. 64). 
sleagh, a spear ; Adj. sleaghacli ; as Noun, an t-Sleaghach, M. V. 

Meall and Doire sleaghach, G. 
sliabh, a mountain-side, 7?ioufitain, sl^ibhe — Sliabh mor, /. 

Loch sleibhe, K. Tom sleibhe, M. Sleibhte coire, V. 



2i6 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

slig-e, a shell ; Adj. sligneach, and as Noun, Sligneach, Lochan 

sligneach, Ardslignish, A. Sligreachan, C 
slinndrich (note)— Torr na slindrich, S. 
slinneau, a shoulder-blade — Achadh an t-slinnein, S. 
slios, ajlank, a tnountain-side — Slios beag, Z. 
sliseag-, a shaving, -eige ; -eag — Achadh na sliseig, K. Airidh 

na sliseige, M. 
sloe, a pit, sluic ; sloe Adj. slocach — Sloe, M. Sloe an eich 

dhuinn, L. Srbn and Allt an t-sluic, G. Port an t-sluie. M. 

Creag shlocach^, K. 
sloisneach, from sloisir, to swill — Barr sloisneach, R. 
sluagrh, a people, sluaigh — Rudha clais an t-sluaigh, M. 
slug, swallow ; whence slugan and slugaid, the swallow, the 

throat, gullet (G^.)— Slugan dubh, M. Meall an t-slugain, S. 

Slugaid a' chruachain, M, Slugaide glas, /. Slugan, Z. 
smeur, smiar, a bramble-berry, -an — Dail smeuran, K. 
snknLh, swim, and as Noun, snkmh, snaimh — Ard an t-snaimh 

and Caol an t-snaimh, C. 
sneachd, snow, -a — Beinn an t-sneachda, E. Glac an t- 

sneachda, M. 
sobhrach, a primrose, -aiche ; -ach — Allt nan sobhrach, A. 
soc, a plough-share, snout, suic ; whence Socach (6^.) — Socach a' 

mhaim, M. Allt na socaich, K. 
soilleir, clear — Tom soilleir, C. Leac shoilleir, A. 
sorchan, a foot-stool, -ain — Cnoc an t-sorchain, S. Cruach an 

t-sorehain, S. 
speireag", the sparrow-hawk, -eige — Cnoc na speireige, K. 

Gleann speireige, y. 
speur, the sky,firmame7it — Tigh nan speur, I. 
spilt, a spout — an Sput dubh, M. 
srath, a strath — Srath mor, freq. 
srian, a bridle, sreine — Bealach na sreine, C. Beinn na 

sreine, M. 
sr6n, a nose, knowe, srbine — Garbh-shron, Z. Rudha na srbine, 

M. V. Sron-doire, K. an t-Sron = Strone, freq. 
sruth, a stream, dim., sruthan, -ain — Port an t-sruthain, I. 

Tigh an t-sruthain, K. Bodha nan srulag, M. 
st^bull, a stable, -uill — Cnoc stabuill mdr and beag, K. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 217 

Stac, a precipice, staic — Stac nan uan, L. Airidh staic, K. 

Camus an staca, y. AUt an stacain, R. 
staidhir, a stair — Staidhir chaol, P. 
stairsneach a' phuill, M. (note). 
stalla, a craggy steep (iV.), -cha — Stallacha dubha, A. 
stang", a ditch, pool — Aird na staing, .S". Staing mh6r, L. 
steall, a water-shoot, waterfall, still ; -ean — Steallan dubha, A. 

Rudha stilleig, C. Steall iir, R. See p. 47. 
stiiiir, steer, a rudder, stitiire — Innis stiuire, P. 
stob, a stake, ^^stob" — Stob liath, C Stob a' chuir, G. 
St6r, a cliff, and Eng. store, stbir — an Tigh-stoir, L. 
stiic (Hill-names) — an Stuc, C.K. Stiic bhreac, K. an 

Stiicrach, C. 
sttir, dust, or stiirr (note) — Ard na stur, Z. 
suas, up or uptvards, sliuas, jfpper — freq. 
suibheagr, a raspberry -eige ; -eag — Rudha an t-suibhein, M. 
suidhe, a seat, restitig-place — an Suidhe, M.L. Cnoc an 

t-suidhe, M.S. Coire an t-suidhe, C.S. Bealach an 

t-suidhe, K. Uisg' an t-suidhe, /. 
stiil, the eye, siila — an t-Siiil, C. Lochan na sula, CM. 

tacar, abundatice, plettty, -air — Rudh' an tacair, K. 

t^ghan, the pole-cat, -ain — Leum an taghain, V. Creag an 

taghain, R. 
taillear, a tailor, -eir — Bagh an tkilleir, M. Cruach an tkilleir, 

K. Eas an tailleir, A. AUt an tailleir, R. 
tairbeart (p. 20), S.K.J. 

talamh, earth, land, talmhainn — Ard-thalamh, C 
tamhasg, a " brownie,'' -aisg — Creag an tamhaisg, C 
tana, shallow, thin — Loch tana, K. Lochan tana, M. Lochan an 

tana, J. 
taobh, a side, taoibh — Taobh na h-aibhne, P. Taobh 

dubh, V. 
taod, a halter, taoid — Gort an taoid, I. 
tarbh, a bull, tairbh ; tarbh— AUt an tairbh, M.J. Creag an 

tairbh, L. Maol an tairbh, /. Gleann thairbh, K. Tervin, 

P. = an Tairbhein = Tairbh + an. 
tsirhh.a.ch, proff table, fertile — Baile tarbhach, /. 



2i8 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

t^rmachan, a ptarmigan, -ain ; -an — Meall an th.rmachain, A. 

Dun-tarmachan, L. 
tarsuinn, transverse, across — Baile tarsuinn, /. Druim tar- 

suinn, S. Beinn thrasda, /. Tarr-sgeir, /. Creag thar- 

suinn, C. (note). 
teanga, a tongue — an Teanga, M. Tangy, K. Teanga mhead- 

honach, G. Teanga nan allt, V. 
teine, fire — Achadh teine, A. Beinn theine, C. Cnoc an 

teine, M. Aird an teine, C.P. 
teith, hot, and teitheil — Rudha and River Teitheil, F. 
tigrh, a house, tighe — Tigh bkn, M. Cnoc an tighe, /. 
tig'heama, a lord, master — Meall nan tighearna, R. 
tilg, throw, shoot, tilgidh — Carn an tilgidh, C. 
tiobart, a well, tiobairt — Achadh an tiobairt, Z. Blkr an 

tiobairt, K. Ard an tiobairt, V. Port an tiobairt, J. 
tiompan, a tabor, timbrel, -ain ; -an — Mkm an tiompain, M. 
tir, land, -e — Tir-Fergus, Cinn-tire, K. 
tobar, a well, -air — Tobar-Mhoire, M. 
tobha, a tow, rope, -achan — Cnoc nan tobhachan, M. Rudh'an 

tobhaidh, K. 
tobhta, turf, a roofless wall — Dail tobhta, K. 
togail, a liftifig (note) — Togail bhreaca, M. 
toit, smoke, -e — Toit dubh, K — but doid, tobhta, which see. 
tolm, a round, low hillock^ tuilm ; Adj. tolmach — Rudha 

tolmach, L. 
toll, a hole, tuill — Uamh an tuill, J. 

torn, a hillock, tuim ; torn — Tom-ard, Z. Croit an tuim, C. 
t6n, the fundament — Ton mhbr, /. Ton riabhach, K. 
tonn, a wave, tuinn ; tonn — Loch-thonn, M. 
tore, a boar, tuirc ; tore — Torr an tuirc, K.F. Beinn an tuirc, K. 

Allt nan tore, Af. 
tdrr, a round hill, ttiir {G.) — an Torr, K. na Torran, G. 

Druim nan torran, S. na Torrannan, T6rr-loisg(te), Ceann 

an tuir, M. 
trM^h, the shore, tragha, traghad — Ceann trkgha, A.LM. an 

Trkigh bhkn, M. Traigh gheal, M. Gart na tragha, I. 

Ceann na trkghadh, Z Dail na traghad, P. Cinn- 

tragha, A. 



THE GAELIC ELEMENTS IN NAMES 219 

trMll, a thrall, slave, trMlle — Rudha na trkille, y. See p. 139. 

traog-h, ebb — Eilean traoghaidh, K. 

trasda, transverse — Beinn thrasda, /. 

tr\\.%, gather, truisealach, a gatherer — Rudh' an truisealaich.y. 

tuagh, an axe, tuaighe — Lochan na tuaighe, A. 

tulach, a hillock — Tullich, L. 

tunna, a vat — Ard-tunna, M. 

uachdar, the upper part, -air ; Adj. uachdarach — Ceann uach- 

darach, J. Gleann uachdarach, /. Bail' uachdarach, Barr 

uachdarach, K. 
uaine, gree7i (note) — Cuil uaine, Lochan uaine, Z. 
uamh, a cave, uamha ; uamli — Aird na h-uamha, P. Uamh- 

annan donna, /. na h-uamhachan, I.E. Sron uamha, K. 
uamhar, dread, -air ; ar — Glac uamhar, M. 
uan, a lamb, uain ; uan — Eilean nan uan, Airidh nan uan, K. 

Stac nan uan, L. 
uchd, the breast, and uchdach freq — Uchd nan clach, /. 
uileann, the elbotv, uilne — an Uileann, V. Eilean uilne, V. 
uinnseann, ash, -inn — -Lag an uinnsinn, A. Aird uinnsinn, V. 
uisgce, water — Dubh uisge, G.L. 
ulaidh, a treasure — Bealach na h-ulaidh, K. Cnoc na h-ulaidh 

7. Lag na h-ulaidh, R. Sgor na h-ulaidh, P. 
iir, neiv — Bail' ur, freq. Aoineadh ur, J. 
urchair, a shot, urch'rach — Beinn na h-urchrach, A. 
urra, an infant, youngster, columnar rock — Tigh an urra, /. 
uruisgTi a goblin, " brownie " — Coire an uiruisge, M. 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 

The Norse names in Argyll are hardly ever quite pure. 
They have come under the Gaelic influence so strongly 
and for so long that their grammar is now nearly always 
that of Gaelic, even when they retain their face value 
almost as clearly as in their beginning. The basis of 
naming is nearly the same in both languages, namely 
(i) a descriptive Adjective + the Nominative noun, and 
(2) a descriptive Genitive + the same, for example, N., 
Lang-dy = the long river ; Debadal = djup-r +dal-r, deep- 
dale. The only distinct difference is that whereas Norse 
puts the descriptive first, Gaelic has it second, except in 
the older Gaelic forms, such as Garbh-allt, rotigh-siream ; 
Glas-eilean, grey-island ; Muirne-meall, the hill of Joy or 
affection. 

I have thought well to give here a very short 
statement of the Norse noun-declension, because it 
will enable the novice to get an appreciable under- 
standing of forms which otherwise might be a little 
perplexing. 

Norse nouns are classed as Strong or Weak, 
according as the gen. sing, ends in a consonant or 
in a vowel, and there are Three Declensions — with 
some irregular nouns. There are four Cases : Nom., 
Gen., Dat.f Ace. 

I. The Strong Declension — First {a) Masc. 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 221 

heim-r, home, tid^ tide ; {b) Fein. ei(t, isthmus ; {c) Netit. 
skip, ship. 

[a] helm-r, -s, -I, heim ; -ar, -a, -um, -a. 

tiff; -ar, tiff, tict; -ir, -a, -um, -ir. 

(d) eid; -ar, eid, eid; -ir, -a, -um, -ir. 

{c) sliip, -s, -/, sicip; sicip, -a, -um, skip. 

Second — (a) Masc. fund-r, discovery; {h) Fern, n&l, 
needle ; (c) Neut. klaedi, cloth. 



{a) fund-r, -ar, -/, 


fund ; 


-ir. 


-a, 


-um, -i. 


(d) nil, -ar, ndl, 


nal ; 


-ar, 


-a, 


-um, -ar. 



{c) klaedi, -s, klasdi, ktaedi ; klaedi, -a, -um, kisedi. 

Third — (a) Masc. vet-r, winter ; {b) eik, oak ; {c) none. 

{a) vet-r, -ar, -i, vetr ; vetr, -a, -um, vetr. 
{b) eik, -ar, eik, eik; -r, -a, -um, -r. 

II. The Weak Declension has genitive sing, and 
pkir. in -a or -/a for the masculine ; in -u or -/ for the 
feminine; sing., or plur., na; and in -a -na for the 
neuter. 



a (f.) a river, a-r; a, frequently terminal in River- 
names — Luss-a, I. J., Aor-a, R., Inbher-ae, R. It is first 
in Ar-oss, M. The words aer (f.), a sheep, ewe, -ar ; a, 
ar (f.), an oar, ar; a, come readily into the first Norse 
element of Inbher-aor-a. Eyr-r is almost always, if not 
altogether, a sea-coast term — abhainn Ar-aig, I. 

akkeri (n.), an anchor -s ; -a, with sseti, forms the 
very common name Acarsaid, an anchorage. 

ak-r, afield, ^^ acre'' — Stor-achd-aig, I. 



222 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

all (m.), mt eel, -s ; -a, means secondarily (an eel- 
like) channel, and it has other figurative uses. The sing, 
occurs in Alsaig, I., and the plur. in Alasgaig and Ala- 
nish, M. Alalaidh, L, is doubtful. Alllval (p. 97). 

arm-r (m.), a wing, arm, -s ; -a, used fancifully of an 
arm of the sea — a bay, frith, &c. — Armadale. 

arn = orn, an eagle — Earnadale, J. 

arr (n.), a scar, -s ; -a — Ars-a, scar-island, L., or from 
Ari (m.), an eagle — used as Personal name also. Eara^ 
said, I. 

ask-r (m.)> ^^^> ~^ » "^> secondarily, a spear (of ash), 
a wooden (ash) ship — whence aska-spiller, a pirate, ^^ship- 
spoiler'-, Asknish, L. ; Askaig (Port), I.; Dun-Askain, M.; 
Ascog, from ask-r, + skog-r, the ash-wood, C. Askival 
(p. 97). aska (f.), ashes, comes easier into Asgemal, J. 

ass (m,), a pole, beam, iss ; dssa, used figuratively for 
a rocky ridge. This is the second element in the Eng. 
windlass = windle -1- ass, winding pole. A similar word, 
ass (m.) = Ans, gen. pi. assir, may easily be mistaken for 
the first word — in fact, some have said that the words 
are identical in remote origin. Asa-hus, I., Asa-pol, M., 
As-dail, ]., come by this way. Perhaps Ashval (p. 97). 

aust-r, east — Tostary, M,, with Gaelic t of the Art. 

baeli (n.), a dwelling, farm, or even a den, or nest, is 
akin to Gael baile, arnar-basU, eagle's nest ; orms-basli, 
a serpent's hole. 

bse-r and by-r, homestead, far^n, village, town, estate, 
-Jar; -ja. This is the Danish -dy of English names. 
Smerby, K., = butter-town, from N. smjorr + bse-r, is the 
only instance I have met with on the mainland of the 
county. Knorrs-baer, I., is nearer the original form, and 
Conisby = kon-r + by. 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 223 

bak (n.), a back, -s ; -a, as Gaelic bac — and 

bakki (m.), t/ie bank (as, of a river), -a ; -a^Dornabac 
(Rum). Am Bac, freq. 

ball (m.), a soft grassy bank, especially if sloping to 
the shore, -a; -a—Bals-ay, I. 

b^ra (f.), a wave, -u ; -na, secondarily, a waving 
surface — Baradal, I. Barapol (Tiree). 

bjork (f), birc/i, bjark-ar; -a — Biorgaig, birch-ivick. 

bjarg (n.), is a precipice, or seaside rock — Barkeval 

(P- 97)- 

bjart-r, brigkt—Dun-bhiordamall (p. 121). 

bjbrn (m.), a bear, bjarn=ar; =a — Bearnasaig, I. 
Bernera, P. Coll. Bearnasgeir, Tiree. 

blad (n.), a leaf, a ''blade" of grass, =s ; -^ja—Bladda, 
J. There is, however, a difficulty, as will be observed, 
with the sing. gen. in =s, and even with the plural. I 
prefer therefore to take the Adj. flat=r, flat, as the base 
of the name — the same as is found in Fladda, L., and in 
Pladda, P., all meaning the same ihxng, fat island, with 
-ey as -a (p. 132). 

bodi (m.), a breaker, " a boding" hidden rock. There 
is a Norse proverb, vera sem bodi a skeri, said of a rest- 
less man, as a breaker on a skerry, which shows that the 
Norse, like the English idea (perhaps secondarily), applies 
to the zvave upon it rather than to the rock itself. This 
word is very common, usually written bogha (p. 99). 

bol (n.), a homestead, abode, =s ; =a, combined with 
stad=r, a steading, it forms bolstadr, which has a big 
place in the Norse names of Argyll and of Scotland, as 
terminal "bols, ■'Ols, "Ol, =bost, =bus, "Sta. 

boli (m.), a bull, as in Bolsa, I. 

borg (f.), stronghold, castle, =ar ; =a. Gaelic has 
assimilated the word in several ways. There is Burg 



224 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

and Dhn-bhuirg, M. ; Borrodale, A.V. ; Borrachail, 
Borochil, Boreraig, \., with Dim, </a/=r, //a//, vik. Borga= 
dale, K.M. ; Bourblaig, A. ; Rudha Boraige moire (Tiree). 
Bail' a' bhorgain, K. ; Cul-bhuirg (lona). Beinn-fe/iu/r^, 
I. Arivirig - kiridh a' bhuirff, E. Bhoramail (Coll). 

branna, a crozv, has been given for Brannabus, L, 
but I have not been able to find the word, so I prefer 
brenna. 

braud (n.), food, living, '^ bread," secondarily, a 
parsonage, in the Eng. sense of a " living." In Brosdale, 
for example, bro, a bridge, is impossible, because the 
word is fern, and would give a gen. in =ar; and for a 
similar reason brokk^r (m.), a badger, cannot enter into 
the name, but brok (n.), bad, black grass is perhaps the 
most direct word. It was used by the Norse in their 
home-names, for instance, Brokey {Land). 

brenna (f.), a fire, burning — Brannabus, Brianabus, I. 

briin (f.), eye-brow, land-brow, "brae," =ar\ =a — Brun^ 
erican, K. (p. 25). This is the only instance in the 
county of this name-word. 

kal (n.), cabbage, "kale'—Caulabus, I., or, better, 
kald-'t, cold, as in Caltart (p. 11) and in Callanish and 
manv other names. 

kalf-r (m.), a calf, =s; =a, used fancifully of a small 
island, or island-rock, which is close to or "calf" to 
another and larger island. It comes into Gaelic as 
Calbh, gen. Cailbh, and it occurs frequently — the Calf of 
Man, an Calbh Muileach, &c. 

kappal (m.), a /wrse, nag — Keppols, I. Ceapasaidh 
(p. 146), or from kepp=r, a stick. 

ketill (m.), a kettle, cauldron. The word comes 
largely into the early rites and religion of the Norse 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 225 

people for reasons that cannot be here gone into (but 
see Cleasby in voc). We find the word now softened 
down to kel and kil at the end of Personal names — Leth- 
Thorkil, M. ; Aharcle, A. — both which names are based 
on the name Torquil = Thor's Ketill, and the name 
MacAskil = Ans + Ketill. Aharacle is Ath - Thorcuil, 
Ts ford. 

kid' (n.), a kid, gen. kidla — Ard-chiavaig, I. 

kinn (f.), a chin, cheek, -ar; -a, in Kinnahus, Kinna- 
bols, I,, with which may be compared the Gaelic body- 
names, aodann, face; braigh, chesi ; meill, chin, &c. 
Kyna, a queen (see kona), may, better perhaps, come 
into Kynagarry, Kinnabus, I. 

kirkja (f.), a church, ~ju ; -na — Kirkapol, Circnis, 
(Tiree). Girgadal, A.I. 

Kjallar (m.) is a poetical name of Odin — Coilabus, I. 

kjarr (n.), a copse-wood, brush-wood — Carradale, K.A. 
Carrabus, I. In Norse home-names kjarr-skogr is for a 
brush-wood. Ca rsaig, LK.M. Cara,K. Carnsdale{p. 101). 

kjol-r (m.), a keel, -ar; a keel simply, secondarily 
used of a keel-shaped hill, or island. Ki6ll (m.) is a 
" keel " in the sense of ship, or barge, &c. — Kelsay and 
Celsa, I. 

klett-r (m.), a cliff, crag, comes into Gaelic as 
a' Chleit, which is a very common name. 

knap-r (m.), a knob (p. 34), frequent in Gaelic as 
an Cnap. 

koUa (f.), a hind, horn-less deer, and koll-r (m.), a 
hill, summit. To the former I refer Coll-a (p. 122), to 
the latter Coll{o)S'a (Colonsay), although this last is not 
quite clear. Coilabus, I. 

kon-r (m.), a " king," nobleman, and kona (f.), a 
queen. The former is in Conisby. 



226 THE PLACE-NAMES OP ARGYLL 

korn (n.), grain, corn — Cornaig, M., Tiree, &c. 
Cornabus, I . 

korp-r (m.), a raven. I have wondered whether this 
may not be after all the base in the name Corpach. I 
have noticed a strong disposition towards r«t/^«-names 
in the Lochaber Corpach, and I have some difficulty in 
accepting the explanation given at p. 14. 

kott-r (m.), a cat, katUar — Cattadal, LK. 

kra (f.), ^ neuk, ^'corner" — Crarae, R. ; Craro, p. 33. 

kr^ka (f.), a crow — Cragabus, I. There is also krikr 
(m.), a crow, 

kria (f.), the tern — Crionaish. 

kr^si (f.), a cross — Crishnish, M. N. krfsi-vik, 
cross-Bay. 

kross (m.), a cross, and as Adj. across — Crossaig, K. 
Crossapol in Coll, Tiree, L, &c. CarsamuU, Tiree. 

kuldi (m.), cold — Cullipol, p. 64 ; CutUnish (Tiree) ; 
Coulabus, I. 

kvi (f.), a pen, fold — Kvidale, Ard-Chiavaig, I. 
Quinish, M. Quiabol was inilkmg place, and Qui-a, pen- 
isle in old N. kviga, a heifer = Cicheamaig (p. 129), 

dal-r (m.), a dale, valley, =ar; -a, a very common 
terminal in Valley-names. 

Dan (m.), a Dane — Danna, Danes isle. 

deigja (f.), a dairymaid, or the same form and gender 
means a damp, or wetness — Degnish, L. 

djup-r, deep — Dibidilt (p. 97), deep-dale. Debadal, J. 

drit (n.), dirt, or, better, drifa (f.), sleet — Driodale, \. 

dy (n.), mud, a bog—Doodil, \. Diseig, M. 

dyr (n.), a deer, wild beast, =s ; -a, e.g. dfrs=horn, the 
horn of a deer ; dyra-gardr, an enclosure for wild beasts — 
Dihra (p. 132). Diitrinnis, P. 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 227 

dys (f.) is a cairn smaller than a haugr—Diseig, M. 

egg (^O* <^^ ^(^g^i ridge, -ar; -a — Eige (p. 98). 

eid (n.), an isthmus, does not seem to appear often in 
Argyll names now, but Kintyre was Satiris-eid in the 
Orkney Saga. It is terminal -ay, freq. 

eik (f.), an oak, -ar; -a — ^igneig, V. G\en-eikadale^ I. 

eld-r{m.),^re—Ellabus,l. Ellary, K. Elleraig [Coll). 

elg-r (m.), an elk, -ar ; -a—Eilgadal^ A. Eiligeir, V., 
and freq. is is many cases Gaelic [note). 

endi (m.), the end — Ensay, M. 

enni (n.), the forehead. It is used in old Norse in 
exactly the same sense as aoineadh (p. 12), a brow, steep 
crag, precipice, ivec^. Jnagart, M. 

epja (f.), co/d, chilliness — Ebadail. 

erg (n.) seems to be Gaelic airigh, a shieling, borrowed 
into Norse. It appears terminal as -ary freq. Erraid 
and Erray, M. Earrabus, I. 

ey (f.), an island, -ar ; -a, common terminal as -a in 
Island-names — Bols=a, Jur=a, Lung-a, Ulv=a, Kerrar^a, 
&c. 

eyrr (f.), gravel-bank, ^^ ore^' — Eorabus, Eornaig, I. 
Eorsa, M. Eirisgeir {p. 129). Eriska {p. 69). 

fausk-r (m.), is a dry log dug out of the earth, and 
knowing how slight and fanciful a cause may be the 
origin and base of a name, this is quite likely in Fascadal, 
K.A. ; or perhaps faxi (m.), a horse, is even better ; there- 
fore horse-dale. It seems to me quite impossible to be 
sure of the essential in Norse names where more than 
one base is equally possible. 

fjall, a hill, mountain, "fell," -s; -a, and its kindred 
hvall (m.), of the same meaning, occur terminally as 



228 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

-bhal, -mal, -val, and -al, very frequently. It is difficult, 
without full local knowledge, to distinguish between this 
terminal and that from voJI-r, a field. Fealasgaig 
(p. Ill); Vaul {p. 127). 

fjara (f.), ^/^f ebb-tide, beach — Peoirlin, frequently. 

fj6rd-r (m,), a frith, '' fjord,^^ occurs terminally as -art, 
-ort — Suain-eart, S. Griiin-eart, L, and frequently. See 
p. 10. 

fj6s (n.), a cow-byre {f6, cattle -\- h 6s) — Fishnish, M. 
Fishaig, Feshim (Coll.). 

fisk-r (m.), a fish, -s ; -a—Fiskarg (Coll.) — Fiska-poll-r, 
a fish-pool, Fiska-skip, a fish-ship, occur in N. names. 

flat-r, fiat—Bladda, J. Fladda, J.M. Pladda (Lis.). 
Flatey. 

flod", a ^'fiood," deluge, avalanche^ the sea, tide — Flod- 
sgeir (Eigg), and there is FIdd (f.), low skerries, or reefs 
flooded 2ii full tide (p. 151). 

forn, old — Fornasaig, \., the forn + hds+vik, the old 
house-bay. FornJngir (p. 12^). 

fors (m.), a rushing current, waterfall. Compare fors 
(m.), force — Glen-/ors-^, M., the glen of the rushing river. 
Acha - fors, the field of the water -fall, V. Eas - iors 
(p. 120). 

frakki (m.), a Personal name, and frakka (n.), a spear^ 
come into Frachdale, \. Frachadil, M. Fracadal, \. 
Frackersaig (Lis.). It is likely that Frakki was the spear- 
man, but sleaghach, claidheamh, &c., show that the name 
may have come by the same imagining, or as a trans- 
lation. 

fyrsa, to gush or rush, akin to Fors, would well explain 
Loch-frissa, M., but there is no river sufficiently of that 
character flowing into the loch. The next best word is 
frjosa, to freeze, and this is perhaps the correct attri- 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 229 

butive. Fress (m.) is a tom-cat, and streams are often 
named upon the cat. 

galm-r (m.), the roar of the sea — Qalwlsdale (Eii^g). 
Qleann galmadale, V. There is a fem. noun, galma, of 
the same meaning, from which galma-dale would come 
more directly. This last is only used in place-names, 
and Gamll (m.), an eagle, is quite possible. 

gard-r (m.), a ^' yard," court, enclosure, stronghold — ■ 
Gardamail, J. (Col.). Oarrisdale (Canna), J.l. Abhainn- 
ghirdail, V. 

gds (f.), a goose — Quesdale, K. Qeasgil, M. 

gata (n.), a path, so in liorsgate, A., it is better to 
look upon the name as this word with hross, a horse, 
although the meaning remains the same, in the sense of 
horse-gate; as the proverb has it, *' gang yer gate" = go 
your 7vay. 

geil (f.), a small, narrow glen, with a stream running 
in the bottom, is the Norse rendering, and the perfect 
picture of the north of England ghyll. A " cut " of a 
hundred yards or so, dowm the face of a " moor," with 
its necessary trickle of a stream at the bottom, is the 
geil or gil (p. 156) idea, as left in the Yorkshire district by 
the Norseman. Allt na Gile, J., is the purest example 
of the acceptance of the word into Gaelic names that I 
have met with. Giol, I. 

gerdi (n.), an enclosure, fenced field, akin to gard-r — 
Gart na gearrach, K. 

gja (f.), a rift, chas7)i — Gigha (p. 32). Gigalum (p. 33). 

gjogr (f)» ^ ''?/A cleft^ Gihlr-bhelnn, I. Gibirdll 
(Rum). 

gnipa (f.), apeak — a' Ghrip. 

got (n.), spawning, and gota (f.), of same meaning, 



230 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

may be a better and more pertinent meaning for Gott 
Bay than that which I have given (p. 127), but there are 
other possible renderings. Gaut-ar (pi.) was a Scandi- 
navian people from Western Sw^eden, and there is no 
reason at all why this Bay might not have been named 
upon them. Their owai Gaut-land, or Gothland, is cor- 
roboration of this. They would do it exactly on the 
same lines as our people w^ould say Camus nan Gall, 
the Bay of the strangers. Gaut-r is a poet-name for 
Odin. 

golt-r (m,), a boar, a hogs back, a ridge, -s ; -a — Cuil- 
ghaltro, K. Allt-ghaltraig, C. 

grsenn and grand, green — Qraineil, green field, I. 

grar, grey — in two Greasamail (island-rocks — Tiree). 

gras (n.), grass, herbage — Grastle, I. 

grim-r (m.), a name of Odin (from gritna (f.), a hood, 
or cowl), because the god went about in disguise. Grimr- 
was the serpent of old Norse poetry — Grimsa, I. Grim- 
sary (Coll). 

gris (m.), a pig — Grishnish, M. Grisipol (Coll). 

grof (f.), a pit, hollow, ^* gravel "-pit, -ar ; -a — Qro- 
bols, \. 

grunn-r, shallow ; grunn-r (n.), a shallow ; grun-r, a 
shoal; grunn-r (m.), the ground, the bottom of the sea; 
griin, grain — from one or other of these come Grun- 
dal, J. ; Gruineart, and (perhaps) Grianaig = grsenn 
-|- vik, [. ; Greensay, Greineal, M. 

gr^la (f.), ogre, hag, -f llnd, I prefer this now, 
especially for a stream-name (see p. 152) — Groulin, A.I. 

gryta (f.), a st07ie, ^^ grit" ; gri^tt-r, stoney — Groudle 

(P- 95)- 

gunn-r (f.), battle, war, fight — Gunna (Coll.) — evidently 

a reminiscence of some severe day. 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 231 

H^co (m.) — Cladh Haco, I. Bol A{r)cain, V.— 

doubtful. 

haeli (n.), shelter — tleylipol (Tiree), where -pol = bol, 
/arm, steading;: 

hdf (n.), t/ie sea, the main — Camus an t-haif, given in 
Gaelic as C. an t-saimh (p. 131). 

hall-r, slophig, with t of the Gaelic Art., seems to be 
in Tallatol, K. ; Tallasgeir (p. 99). 

halm-r (m.), weeds, straw, sea-weed — tlaum, M. In 
Eigg it is Talm, with the t of Gael. Art — an t-fialm, and 
E. Thailm. 

M-r, //z>/^— Airidh an ha-bost (Coll.). Tallant, I., 
= an t-har-land ; Hanais (p. 127). 

haug-r (m.), a ^^ howe," cairn — Rudha- and Baile- 
Hogh (Coll.). Ard na hugha, Oa, I. Ard(t)oe, A. 

hauk-r (m.), a hawk — {T)ocamal and Tackamal, I. 

hasl (m.), hazel — tiaslam (Canna) = hasl + h6lm-r. 

hju (n.), a house, household, and hid, a den, lair — 
Hianish and Hynish (Tiree). 

hoU (m.), a hill—Rossal, M. {hross + hdlt). 

holm-r (m.), an island, " holm " occurs terminally as 
-am, -om, -um — Haslam (p. 10 1). Solum, I. Salum 
(p. 127). 

hop (n.), a bay — an t-Oban (Oban). Tigh an bb, K. 

hris (n.), brusJnvood) — Risabus, I. Risdal, L. Reisa- 
pol, S. ; but in the latter hreysi (n.), den, lair, is perhaps 
better, although the circumstances fit the other rendering 
well. I am not confident in placing Risga, A., under 
this base. 

hross (n.), a horse — Horsgate, A., &c. See holl. 
Rossdal, M. 

hiis (n,), a house — Ulsead, K,, = {h6s + set-r). 
Olsneis, I., = {hds + nes). 



232 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

ima (f.), a she-wolf^ a giantess, and imd (f.), an ogress, 
perhaps from the first idea of the grey or ember-colour 
of the she-wolf, and the character of the she-wolf again 
referred to the ogress. See y/n/r, p. 242. 

i6r (m.), a horse, is better for Eorsa, M., and perhaps 
for Eorabus, L, than that given {Eyrr, p. 227). 

Ivaar (m.), from which the Mac-Ivers of the West, is 
a pure N. name, perhaps derived from yfa, to struggle. 

l^g-r, low — Lhga, A,, = low island. Laig (Eigg) 
= low-wick. Rudha Luidhneis, I. Leoig, I., is doubtful. 

lamb (n.), a lamb, -s ; -a — Dvum-lembte, K., = lamba- 
fjall, lamb-hill. Lamanals, Lamgedail, I. 

land (n.), land—Tallant^ L, = an t-hd-r-land, the high 
land. 

lang-r, long — Langa, K.l. = long- Water ; Langanish 
(Canna), long-ness. Langadale^ I. Langamul, M. Lan- 
gat, A., = longtown, ox farm. Longbaw, I., is probably a 
folk-rendering of Long-town {'bol). 

laut (f.), a pasture, hollow ground — in Laudal, V. 
Laug, a spring of zvater, or lauf (n.), leaf are possible. I 
know the place well, and I am not able to select from 
these — it fits them all. This once again shows the 
danger of being too sure. 

leid (f.), way, road, or leid-r, loathed — in Leidil, L. 

leir (m.), loam, clay — Lyrabus and Lurabus I.M. 
This is the meaning usually given, but I prefer Ija (f.), 
mown grass, which gives the names perfectly, especially 
the first, and so well befits tie ghlas an fheoir. Leora 
and Leorin, I., come under these, but for Leoig I am 
afraid to suggest le6 (m.), a lion, -\- vik, the best render- 
ing, although the animal comes into the home names 
of Norse — otherwise Iji, mown grass, almost certainly. 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 233 

lid (n.) is (i) a ship {cf. A.S. lid, a fleet) ; (2) folk, a 
people, would do for Liddesdale, V., but hlid, a gate, 
comes even better into the pronunciation. Hlid, a side, 
or a mountain side, would be more pertinent to the 
circumstances, but being fern., it seems to me impossible 
— it would not give the s. Librig (Tiree) seems to con- 
tain this with the gen. of -berg. 

lin [n.),flax — in Lindsaig, C. 

lind (f.), a well, spring— Linndail, J. O rutin and 
Feoirlin, freq. 

Ijoss, bright, light, clear, shining, seems to be the base 
in the river-names — Abhainn- Lussa, Lussa-given, in J. 
and in Lussa, K.I. The name is always short, so that 
L:^r, gen. lys (f.), Lat. gadus (fish), is not acceptable. For 
the peculiar name Lussa-given the only explanation that 
appears to me at all possible is that it is, by some strong 
outside influence, Lussa(dh)avin, that is, Luss-d + Gaelic 
abhainn, a simple repetition and translation of the river- 
terminal — in the first part Norse, in the second Gaelic, 
LJosa-vatn, bright-water, occurs in N. names. 

Ij6sg-a (f.), a chesttmt-mare — Leasgamal, J, 

log" (n. pi.), laws; therefore, Log-madr, lawman, 
= Lamont, Gael. Laomain. Cnoc-Laomain, L. 

lyng (m.), heather, ''ling" — Ling, M. There is a 
poetical N. word lung, a ship, which is looked upon as 
an assimilation from Gaelic long — Lung=a, M.J. 

maena, to project, jut out, whence msena (f.), the spine ; 
msenir (m.), the ridge of a house — Ard-menisti, J. Minis- 
hall (Rum). 

mdr (m.), the sea-mew — Marasdal, I. Marsamal, J. 
Morinish, M. 

mel-r, sand-bank, especially if covered or bound by 



234 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

" bent-grass," or more correctly the " sea-reed" [Psaimna, 
Grajn.)y called also " mat-weed " — all because it mats 
and binds the sand — Melbhach, M. 

merg-r, narrow; mork (f.), a inarch, border -land, 
forest — Margadale^ I. a' Mhargach (Rum). Marg- 
monagach, K. 

miki (older myk-r) (f.), indeclinable, dung, " muck" — 
Migerness, I. 

mdr (m.), a moor, heath, barren land, gen. /nd/s — 
!W6s{s)geir, M. Mod-r is used of a heap of snow and ice 
jutting into the sea. 

muli (m.), a jutting crag, a snout, Mull, -a; -a—Maol 
Chinntire, the Mull of Kintyre. This is always a sea-' 
coast name, and has little or nothing to do with Gael. 
maol, bald, often used as a name for round inland 
mountains. 

munk-r (m.), a monk — Mungasdal, V., and perhaps 
Muasdale, K., but I think mus (f.), a mouse, is more likely 
in Musdal, R., and Eilean Mhusdil (Lis.). 

m^ (n.), a midge, gnat, -s ; -a, or mjo-r, small, narrow 
— Ard-mynlsh, K. Achadh Mhiaish (Gigha). Mibost 
(Coll.). Mudle, V. Mishnish, M. Musdale, P. M^- 
vatn (I eel.). 

naust (n.), a sheep-shed, boat-house, shed — Nostaig, L 
nes (n.), a "ness," nose, naze. Point — Ard-nish, I. 
Crinish, Mishnish, Quinish, Trishnish, M., and freq. 
nidri, " nether," lower — Nerrabols, Nereby, Nerabus, L 

odr, a wood, woody ; orr (n.), a scar, notch ; 6rn (m.), 
an eagle, gen. arnar; -a, and oron (m,), a mackerel, occur 
in Loch- Oroc/a/e, K. Orsay, L Oronsay (perhaps), V. 
(Coll.) and (Col.). For this last name Orfiris-ey has been 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 235 

given by Prof. MacKinnon as said of islands which are 
only islands at full tide, and the fact usually fits. 

6gn (f.), dread, terror, or on (f.), hope — 0/Ja, L. 

ok (n.), a yoke, may be in Ockle, A. The first syllable 
is very strongly aspirated — I think too strongly for 
hauk-r, a hawk. 

Olaf (m.), the Proper name Olave— Bail' Ola, Olis- 
tadh, I. Olosary (Ulva). Dun-d//a, L. (Dunolly), pre- 
sents one or two difficulties. It is usually accepted to 
mean Olaf's stronghold, but there is (i) a difficulty in 
that the vowel sound of Gaelic is 6 short, not 6, as in the 
name and in the places named upon it ; (2) the "Annals 
of Ulster " has it that Ecfrid of Northumbria covibussit 
Dun-Ollaigh, A.D. 686, long before the accepted Norse 
Invasion, and "Tighearnach " has, A.D. 714 — Dim-Onlaig 
construitur apud Selbacum. This Sealbhach was son of 
Fearchar Fada, and a brave man, chief of the Cineil 
Loarn, who died a.d. 697 — Ferchar Fota moritur. — TigJi. 
It follows, therefore, either that the Annals are not 
reliable, or that the name is not from Olaf — a purely 
Norse name — or that the Norseman was here long before 
the historical invasion, which is not at all improbable. 

org (n.), a howling, screaming ; or better, orri (m.), a 
moorfowl ; (2) a Personal name, Orri; (3) afight—Orval 
(Rum). On'sgeir (Tiree). Oragaig, K. 

orm-r (m.), a snake, ^^ worm,'' -s ; -a — Ormsary, K., 
= Orms-gar&r. Ormsaig, A.L.M. Olmsa (Col.) seems 
to be the same as Ormsa, J, Ormaig, M.R. Ormadal, C. 
DvLn-Ormidale, L. Tormisalg and -dale, I., with the 
effect of the Gael. Art. an t-Orrnsaig. 

dsp (f.), the aspen-tree — Ospidal. 

6sk-r (n.), roaring, belloiuing, as a bull — AUt-^Eas^a- 
</a//, v., which is very appropriate. Esknish, R. 



236 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

OSS (m.), the outlet of a river or lake—Aros^ M. Osa- 
mail, I. Osnish, L, but see hds. 

oxi (m.), an ox. It is used for a proper name, as ulf-r 
is, but it seems to have got forced into the Gaelic form 
in Oskamaly M., ox-hill. 

papi (m.), ''papa," priest, '' pope" —Papadll (Rum). 
Prest-r is -aXso priest, but the persa in Persabus, I., I have 
not met, and this is most likely a Gaelic rendering. 
Pearsa, a parson, of an older N. form in the first part, 
but retaining the N. -bus. 

poU-r (m.), pond, pool, is the same as Gael, poll in 
meaning and origin. It is a very frequent terminal, but 
it must be distinguished carefully from -bol, which some- 
times becomes -po/— Loch-/lsapo/, M. Pollachie, M. 
(perhaps better as Gael. poU-ach-aidh). Vasapol (Tiree). 
Cnoc-Bhircepol (gen. of Borg-r + poll-r). 

priid-r, Jine, magnificent^ I venture to offer as base of 
Proaig, I. Mr, Macneill says it is N. breidr, broad, + vik, 
but this does not come easily, and I am quite sure he 
will not object to my rendering, whether correct or not. 

rd (f.), a roe ; rd (f.), a ?iook ; reyr-r (m.), a cairn; 
reyr-r, the common river-reed, -ar; -a; ror, calm, quiet ; 
reyd-r (f.), a trout — one or other come into many names, 
but local knowledge and observation is necessary to 
determine which, in Rarey, Raireig, M. 

rakki(m.), a dog; -a; -a — Racadal, K. (p. 36). There 
is rakki, straight, rak-r, damp, and hrak, poor, wretched, 
any one of which is possible from the language side. 
The pertinent fact only in the place can make sure. 

rang-r, ''wrong," awry — Rangal (Rum), meaning the 
awry field, with reference to the lie of the land. 

rani (m.), a hog' s snout, hog-backed hill. This seems to 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 237 

be the base element in Glenramskil, which appears to be 
an error for Glen- ran is-gi I. If not this, it must be from 
ram, strong, swift, referring to its stream. 

raud-r, red— Robots, I. Rudale, K.R. Reudle, M., 
are all, I think, from this word. 

regn (n.), rain — Rainberg, J., rain-hill. This is the 
only true instance 1 have met of terminal -berg, the 
general name in Teutonic speech for a mountain, but in 
N. it seems to have been limited to a rock or even a steep 
rock like a stalla (p. 239). 

reynir (m.), the rowan tree — Rhonadale, K. Raonapol 
(Rum). Raonasta, I. Ruinsival (Rum) — though this is 
doubtful. Runi {m..\ friend, counsellor, is quite possible 
for this latter name. 

salli (m.), refuse of hay, &c., left by cattle + haug-r, in 
Saligo, I. 

salt (n.), salt — Saltaig (Tiree) = salt-wick. 

sand-r (m.), sand—Sanday (Canna), Sanna, A., are 
for sand or sandy island. Sandalg (Tiree), Sannaig, I. J., 
are sandy-wick or bay. Inhhev-Sanda, G. GXen-Sanda, 
v., are the sandy river. Saddel, K., is for sandy dale. The 
second elements being -ey, island, -vik, bay, -d, river, 
-dai-r, dale. 

saud'-r (m.), a sheep — Soa (Tiree, Coll). Soy (Coll) is 
sheep-isle. Sosdaig, L. Soroba, L., can only be referred 
to Sorg (f.), sorrow, for some remote reason. 

skalli (m.), a bald head, extended to a headland, and 
skill (m.), a shelling, j-//^<^— Sgallanish, J.M.V. (Coll). 
Sgallasaig (Col.). Sca{n)listle, I. ScalJastle, M. And 
knowing the Norse tendency to name places upon 
animals, skolli {m.),afox, is to be kept in mind, and even 
skel (f.), a shell, freq. in names. 



238 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

skamm-r, short— Scammadal, S.R.J. 

B'^ixi[va.),ajoungseainew. Scarrabus, I. Scarrlnish 
(Tiree), Scarn'sdale, M. 

skatt-r (m.), a tax, ^'scat," tribute — Inbher-sca^-da/e, G. 

skeid" (f.), a ship, war galley — Ard-skeinlsh (Coll), or 
skeif-r, askew, aslant. Skeidar-a, galley-river, is in 
old N. 

sker (n.), a skerry, is a very common name for sea- 
rocks which are covered at high tide. I have no ex- 
planation to offer for the inland names into which this 
word enters, like Skeroblin, K. Skerrols, I. 

skiki (m,), a narrow belt or strip of land, usually 
terminal, as -sgaig. skagi (m.), a ness, Point — Alasgaig, ^L 

skip (n.), a ship, -s ; -a — Skipness, K. = skipa + ties. 
Sgiobanish (Col.). Sgiba = Shipton, the old name for 
Port Charlotte, L Skible, K., is of the same meaning. 

skjol (n.), shelter — Eilean Scoull, C. 

skoda, to view, look-out, ^^ scout." — Scodaig, R. Airidh- 
sgodnish, K. 

skog-r (m.), a wood — Ascog, C. = ask-ar + skogr, the 
Ash-wood. 

skrida (f.), a landslip, whence Gael, sgridan, of the 
same meaning, frequent — Loch Sgridain and Sgridhinn, 
M. A kindred word, skridi (m.), is that in Scresort (Rum). 

skrinn-r (f.), the brown gull — Scrinadal, J. 

skurd-r (m.), a monster, portent, phenomenon — Sgaoir^ 
shall (Rum). 

sell (f.), a string. I am afraid to refer the river Seile 
to this base, although I can see nothing against it but a 
kind of history which is daily becoming more doubtful 
to me. The same with respect to Loch-iall. I cannot 
see any explanation at all of the name but the simple 
Gael, iall, a thong, which seems to be appropriately 



THE NORSE ELEMENTS 239 

fanciful. There is old iall, a flock of birds, which, so far 
as language is concerned., might fit, but it is not readily 
acceptable. In old documents it is given as Loch-etle, 
from which the name comes easily, but I cannot suggest 
a clear meaning from this form. 

set-r (n.), a residence, ''seat',' holding— Acarsaid, freq. 
is made up of akkeri + set-r. Saet-1 (f.), also of same 
meaning. Earasaid, I., may be Ari + setr, the residence 
of Ari (p. 222). 

Sgora (f.), ''score" notch — Sgorlnnis (Coll), but there 
is here the possibility of the name being Gaelic. This is 
the same word as Sgorr (p. xiv.). 

sjdL-r (m.), the sea — Shira, R. = Sjar-d, sea-river. 
Shiaba, M. = sea town. 

sjon (f.), sight ; a sighting or watching-place — Shbna, 
C.P.R. = the watching isle. Shun-bheinn, I. = the watch- 
ing hill. 

sma, small, little — StnauUy I. = Smd + {bh)ol, Littleton — 
preferable here to small, small-cattle, sheep. 

smjorr (n.), butter, fat — Smerbyy K. = Butter-ton. 
There is Beinn-ime and Drochaid-ime at the upper end 
of Loch Lomond conveying the same idea in Gaelic 
— butter-Ben and Butter-bridge. The terminal -by 
(bae-r) is not at all common. It is Danish rather than 
Norse. Frequent in the North and East of England. 
There are only a few instances in Argyll. 

snj6-r (m.), snow — Snolg (Tiree), snow-Bay. 

stakk-r (m.), a " stack," precipice — Airidh-s^a/c, K. 

stada (f.) and stad-r (m.), a steading, farm, homestead. 
See Sol. 

Staf-r (m.), a " staff',' a columnar, steep, rock — in Staff-& 
for evident reason, and in Staffnlsh, K. Dunstaffnlsh. 

Stalli (m.), a heathen altar, is secondary to stall-r (m.), 



240 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

a block, or rather a ledge of rock — S^a//acAa-dubha, A., 
with strong Gaelic infection (p. 94). Creacha-sfa/(Tiree). 

steinn (m.), a stone — possible always in such names 
as Staoinisha, Staoiniseig, &c. 

stjarna (f.), a star, and Stjorn, " steer-2.ge'^ order, rule, 
might be in Loch Stornoway, K., but with much pre- 
judice towards Stj6rn-ar + Vog-r^ bay, creek, " voe." 

Stokk-r (m.), a stock, block — Glen Stockadale, P. 

St6r-, great — Stor-achdaig, I. 

straum-r (m.), a stream, current — Stremnish, L 

Siila (f.), the gatmet, '' solan" -goose — Solum, I. If, 
however, the base has the long sound sdl (f.), the sun. 

sunna (f.), Ih^ sun, and sunne, Adv., sout/i, are from the 
same source, and in the first sense they are of the 
same meaning. The sout/i to the Norseman was, and is, 
tke sun — at its best — Sunadal, K. Sunapol, Beinn 
Thunagaraidh (Th for Sh), M. 

svart-r, black — Suardail, A. 

sveinn (m.), a boy, lad, secondarily a proper name, 
Sveinn, as in Suaineart = Sweyn's fiord. Suaineport, A. 
Loch-Sweyn, K., but see p. 136. 

tangi (m.), a tongue of land — Tangy, K. Rudha 
Thangairidh, p. 99. Rudha na Tangaidh, L The Gael, 
teanga of kindred origin and of the same meaning might 
be as pertinently offered in these names. 

Thorkil is a personal name = T/io/s kettle. The name 
comes from a rite of the old Norse religion — ihe. kettle, or 
a vessel so named, being a vessel put to sacred use. We 
have the name personally in Aharcle, A. = Ath-Thorcull, 
Torquil' s ford, and in M. as "Leth-Thorcuil, T.'s half (of 
land). 

Thorr (m.), the god Thor — Torrisdale, K. = Thorr's 



THE NORSP: elements 241 

dale. Torsa, R. = Thor's island. Camus-^t>rsa, A. Ard- 
Tbr-nish, I.V. Toradal, Torrabols, I. Torosay, M. 

topt (f.), " ^o/t," a ''green" garth, croft — perhaps the 
same as Gael, doid, a croft, holding — Toit-dubh, K., the 
black-toft. 

torfa (n.), turfm Torrabols, I., or torg" (n.), a market- 
place, is possible — if the history fits. The latter would 
come in easier under the Gaelic influence. 

tr6 (n.), a tree—Treshnish, M. Trhleig, G. Lochan- 
tresdil, (Lis.), in which last name -dil may be -gil (n.), a 
ghyll — the s always seeks </ or ^ to follow. 

trod (f.), pasture-land — Trodigal, K. Trudernish, I., 
with which compare Troternish in Skye, which is clearly 
the same name ; and trdd (n.), faggot-wood, seems to be 
the base in Glen-^rosda/e, J. 

XtoW [n.), a giant, the ^^ devil" of the Norse creed — 
Drolsay, I. 

ugla (f.), an owl — UIgadale, K. = owl-dale. 

ulf-r (m.), a wolf— Viva, wolf-island, and M. Uluvalt, 
M., wolf-burn. Gleann-w////6/;, J. B&iV-Uilbh, I. 

ull (f.), wool—Uillinish, M., Wool-ness. 

urr (m.), the ur-ox, or Urd=r—Uruvaig (Coll and Tiree). 
Urugaig (Col). 

lit = out, in the full sense of outside, outstanding, &c. 
—Udtnail, M. 

vag-r (m.), a bay, " voe " — see Stiorn. 

vatz, of water — Vasapo/ (Tiree). 

voll-r (m.), a field ; comes as a frequent terminal, as 
=mhal and -mal — Lag-al-gorve = lag-r + voll-r -\- Gael. 
garbh. 

vik (f.), a bay, " wick "^in Gaelic as Uig. C, and freq. 
as terminal -aig — Loch-iiigedail, L 

yfir, "over," upper, N. yflr-madr, an over-man, master. 

Q 



242 THE PLACE-NAMES OF ARGYLL 

Yfir-land, tJie over-land, the against-land ; compare Oitir 
(p. 44)_///erda/e, K. 

;^mir (m.) and yma (f.) were giants of the old Norse 
imagination. The word comes easily into Imersay^ I. 
Compare the similar use of Thor, &c. The word 
Ima (f.), dust, ashes, embers (the colour of), may be the 
idea in the giants' name first, and again in the island 
name. Compare the Gaelic Riabhach mdr (p. xix.). 



/ 



NOTES 

These notes are meant to pick up omissions, to make correc- 
tions, and to throw fuller light upon some difficult names. 

Page 19. " Dooros and Doorus, that is, dubh-roa, signifies 
black wood in the South (of Ireland), and black promontory in the 
North" (J., ii. 262). 

Page 24. cairbh, a carcass, but corb, a waggon or sled, is 
possible, with exceptional agreement. The root idea is wicker, 
referring to the "basket" character of early chariots (Mb) — Lat. 
corbis, a basket. 

Page 25. Sceamh, the Irish Gaelic for the common rt/^/Z-^rw 
{Polypodium vulgare), which fits Arinascavach well. 

Page 27. It is impossible for names to keep their correct 
forms where their meaning is not understood. Glemanuil might 
be quite righdy for Gleann na Maoile, the glen of the Mull 

Page 28. Campbeltown was of old Ceann-locha, or more 
fully, Ceann-locha Mhic-Ciarain. Kilkerran is on the south 
shore of the loch. 

Page 29. In Gartgunnal the first part is clear. It is g'art 
(p. 15). I have ventured -dhuineil for the second part. In its 
secondary meaning it is used of kindly land, as coarse and even 
fierce are used of the other kind of land. There is confirmation 
in that in Margmonagach = N. mdrjg" 4- monadhach the g" with- 
out doubt takes the place of dh. Monadhan, however, the bog- 
berry, fits the name exactly. 

Page 30. Skeroblin, and the names akin, I have found most 

trying. It would be easy to offer theories regarding such names, 

but what I cannot confidently accept myself, I prefer not to offer 

others. There is, however, the peculiar fact that sea-names are 

frequently found inland. 

243 



244 NOTES 

Page 31. There was an eascairt in old Gaelic meaning coarse 
lint, and there is in Irish names deascairt and tua(th)scairt, 
the South- and North-airt. 

Page 31. Releiridhe I am not sure of, but I have given the 
only meaning that appears to me possible, ruighe (p. 19) and 
l^ireadh, torffient, or suffering, or hardship. There may be a 
history in the name. 

Page 41. I prefer this rendering {the pool or pond beside the 
loch) to others that are possible — it is appropriate as regards 
position, but the native pronunciation is a shade against it. 
Poll tal(amh)ach, the earthy pond, might appear to some to 
be even better. 

Page 44. There is a SOnnach in Irish names which would 
give Sonnachan readily. It means " a wall, mound, rampart, 
or circular enclosure." 

Page 45. I gave the genealogy of the kings and rulers of 
Dalriada rather fully in the London Scotsman in 1903, but it 
cannot be repeated here for want of space. Erc was of the 
seventh generation in direct descent from Conn Ceudchathach, 
Conn of the Hundred Battles, high monarch of Erin, who was slain 
A.D. 157. The three sons of Erc came into Kintyre and the 
present Argyll a.d. 498 — namely, Fergus mor, Loarn, and 
Angus. Fergus mor mac Erca cum gente partem Britanniae 
tenuit, et ibi mortuus est a.d. 501. — Tigh. Comghall was the 
son of Domangairt and grandson of Fergus mor. It was Comg- 
hall's son, Conall, who gave lona to Colum Cille — bass Conaill 
mac Comgaill Pi Dalriada xiii anno regni sui, qui offeravit 
insulam lae Colum Cille, a.d. 574. — Tigh. 

Comhal, a joining, and even COinhdhail, a meeting, are both 
within easy reach of the circumstances of the district— the first 
particularly so. I prefer it to the traditionary explanation in 
view of the joining of the waters there — the Firth of Clyde, Loch 
Striven, Loch Riddon, and the Kyles of Bute. 

Page 46. This is lint-bay from neut. N, Iin,-s, There is a 
terminal -lin in names, which I have found very difficult to be 
clear upon, e.g. Braglin, L. (p. 58), Craiglin, K., Creaglan, L.R., 
Dbirlin, Ederlin (p. 40), Feoirlin, C.K., Grulin, A.I. I think 
my rendering of Braglin is right. Craiglin, Ederlin, Feoirlin 



NOTES 245 

(notwithstanding p. 48), and Grulin almost certainly contain — 
linne, a pool, linn, N. Undy a ivell, spring, &c., and even the 
origin of Doirlin (p. 15) I am in doubt about — it may be the 
same. 

Page 49. Although I give the usually accepted rendering of 
Glendaruel, 1 am not satisfied with it, because (i) there are not 
two characteristic streams to explain the name; (2) because 
ruaidh + eil, in a single sense, is quite appropriate; (3) because 
I can easily see how the Art. na may have hardened into da, 
which may have been taken in time for da — and for other 
reasons. My whole feeling is towards Gleann na ruaidh-eil — 
from the river Ruaidh, cf. the same name in the Braes of 
Lochaber, and the older records of the name do not show da. 

Page 49. Striven is not Gaelic, nor is Straven, but the latter 
is nearer to Gaelic, and perhaps the best rendering of the name 
would be Strath-aven, both parts being an English rendering of 
the Gaelic Srath + abhainn, the river Strath, upon which Glen 
Striven also is named. 

Page 52. The local rendering is Loch Aire. I do not attach 
much importance to this, because the very strong guttural c (k) 
which must come by the contraction of the end syllable of Each- 
aig, is quite sufficient to explain this form. On second thought, 
I prefer to make the river Each-aig, rather than the district, the 
starting-point of the several names. 

Page 52. Mr, Whyte has suggested lan-eilean, bird-island, 
for Inellan. I was against this, because of the strong accent 
upon the second syllable ; this rendering would entail it on the 
first syllable. But two things have brought me to believe that he 
is right— (i) the English influence, as seen in Ardinadam (p. 50), 
and (2) the fact that the small island here is in translation given 
as the Perch — of the bird, presumably. 

Page 57. Dr. Joyce has an interesting note regarding this 
form (ii. 263): "At the bottom of some steep bogs there is 
found a half-liquid stuff as black as jet, which was formerly used 
by the peasantry all over Ireland for dyeing black, and is still 
used in remote districts. It served its purpose admirably well, 
giving frieze and other woollens an excellent dye. Many of the 
places where this dye-stuff was found are still indicated by their 



246 NOTES 

names." Pollandoo, Pollandooey, and Pollandoohy are frequent 
in Ireland. Local knowledge is necessary in order to be sure 
that this is the meaning of the names in Argyll. (See p. 99.) 

Page 58. Bail' an deora has involved in it an extremely 
important history, well told by Mr. Carmichael in his great work, 
Carmifia Gade/ica, at p. 259, vol. ii. This deora, pilgrim, 
almoner, is the source of the personal name Dewar, and Bail* 
an deora was the home of the Campbells who were almoners of 
the priory of Ardchattain, founded a.d. 1230, one of whom was 
called the " deora mor," the Great Dewar, from whose son, 
Walter Campbell of Kincardine, " it is almost if not wholly cer- 
tain " that Robert Burns was descended. Near Bail' an deoir, 
in Glen-lonain, was the home of the " Rusgain," or Ruskins, of 
whom was the late prose-poet — John Ruskin. From this same 
nest of genius came the late Rev. Archibald Clerk, LL.D., the 
accomplished scholar, who translated and edited " Ossian," at the 
desire and expense of the late Marquis of Bute. Of these 
Dewars also — but from the island of Lismore — came David 
Livingstone. His people were almoners of the Church of St. 
Moluag (p. 172), the cathedral church of the See of Argyll, 
founded a.d. 1200. The name Livingstone is in Gaelic Mac 
an Leigh, of a clan of hereditary physicians said to be descended 
from the Beatons who are so famous in the medical history of 
Scotland. See my Gaelic Medical MS. 0/1^6^, in Trans. Caled. 
Med. Society, April 1902. This is not a bad contribution of 
manliness from this small corner of the earth — and there were 
others. 

Fage 59. Oruit is a harp, from the same root as Croit, a 
hump or a bent, rojoid thing, therefore a round hillock, of which 
this name may be the simple plural form. The king-fisher is 
cruitein, the crouched or bent-ofte, and cruitear is a harper. 
The stream may be emit, bent, + an, water. 

Page 66. Two meanings are possible for Ardentinny. It may 
be, and most likely is, the height on which warning fires were 
lit — for the aid of mariners or in times of invasion ; or it may be 
that needfires were lit here on ist May — Bealtainn Day — as a 
propitiatory rite to the god Bel or Baal. See a full description, 
C. G., p. 340, vol. ii. 



NOTES 247 

Page 67. Cr^ran is a difficult name. The -an is, I think, 
certainly the river-ending (p. 49), and this suggests that the first 
part is Gaelic, although it is difficult to make out. Several words 
are possible, but I doubt them all so much that I do not give 
them. 

Page 70. Teitheil might be better referred to the river-name 
in -eil + teth, hot ; and Ceitlein (p. 70) may perhaps be rather 
named on the stream -an, -ein with C^is, a pig—zxv old word. 

Page 71. Urchaidh (the u should be short— not long, as 
given) shows in its termination -aidh, a common river-ending, 
e.g. Loch-aidh, M^il-idh; and it is only a fair guess if I 
suggest that the first part is related to that in ur-ch-air, a shot, 
referring to the remarkable straightness of the river in its long 
course. There is, however, old Gaelic ore, a salvwn, which is 
better, orcc din ainm do bratan {Cor. 129), orcc therefore a 
name for a salmon. The gen. in ui would come easily, e.g. 
bolg, builg", &c. The fame of the river for salmon has travelled 
far. 

Page T I. With respect to Fiodhan, it may be noted that 
fiodhag is the bird-cherry tree. 

Page 12. "A tradition still exists among the old people of 
the place that the Ruskins were 'luchd ceaird,' artisans, 
draoinich, sailptors. There were schools of sculpture in the 
Highlands. One was Innis-draoinich, Loch Awe— a few miles 
from the home of the Ruskins — Glenlbnain. Innis-draoinich 
means the isle of the sculptors'' Surely when we know of the 
author of The Stones of Venice we must, even more than ever, 
respect the wonderful wisdom of our Gaelic proverbs, of which 
one says sgoiltidh an dualachas a' chreag, heredity will 
cleave (or split) the rock. Ruskin remained in all his life the 
sculptor — from Glenlbnain. Livingstone, as Mr. Carmichael so 
well says, cleaved his way through harder rocks than any of his 
kindred ever faced at BachuU in Lismore. It is peculiar that 
the farm should now be called The Crozier, that is, however, 
because the older governing words have fallen out. 

Page 72. Within a few hundred yards of Innis-draoinich is 
Innis-ail, which Mr. Carmichael says is Innis 4- ail, beautiful 
isle — true certainly in fact, even if, on the side of language, there 



248 NOTES 

may be room to doubt. " There was a house of Cistercian nuns 
here, and an ancient burying-ground, and there are ancient 
sculptured stones, probably unexcelled for beauty of design and 
of execution." 

Page 72. Gleann-sratha is appropriate, and it is good Gaelic 
and good form, but there is a srae or sraeth in Irish names, 
which means a mill-race. It is vocally a better rendering here 
— if the mill-race was or is there. 

Page 73. Lios is always a stronghold in Irish names. 

Page 81. In Scottish Gaelic this is the meaning of cladh 
always, but in Irish names it means a mound, dyke, or rampart. 
The two usages need not be very different — the words are certainly 
the same. 

Page Si. Conaghleann is the glen of the Cona river, and 
this again is an animal-named river like Ba = ba + a, Each- 
aig., 

Page 91. Horsegate may come from N. hross + gatay horse- 
path^ and though of the same meaning better so than from 
English. 

Page 97. Innsir shows the peculiar terminal -ir, which I 
have now come to believe is always a river or stream terminal 
perhaps the same in origin as that of riv-er itself. Liver (59), 
Duisker (146), Beigir (155), Lobhair (44), all show it. 

Page 1 01. Conaigearaidh is on the same lines as Conasairidh 
with Con as base and aig", as + airidh. 

Page 105. There is an old word eiligeir, which seems to 
have meant trap for large animals — perhaps for elks — in very 
much the same way as Cairidh was a trap for fish (p. 138). 

Page 106. Loch-tiacais is most difficult. The name is 
Gaelic in grammar clearly, but I know nothing approaching 
tiac in the language except the gerund form tigheachd, or 
teachd, of the irregular verb to come. Tigheachd-ais is not at 
all far fetched. The only other suggestion that I can offer is 
that the base may be N. tjock, thick, dense, but I cannot see any 
fitness, and the Norseman is not much in evidence here. 

Page no. Beinn-bhugain seems to be B. bhudhagain, 

from budh-ag, a bundle of straw ; but the old buaf, a frog, 
toad, snake (which remains in bua(f)-ghallail, groundsel, or 



NOTES 249 

rather the ye//o7v ragweed — Senecio viscosus) may easily form the 
name B. bhua(fh)ag-ain. 

Page 112. Loch Spelvie, locally Loch-speilbh or L. Speil- 
bhidh, seems to be named upon a river or stream of which 
I can find no trace. The name is Gaelic. Speil means a herd 
of cattle, and this with terminal -aibh, or aidh, would give the 
name without much difficulty, and would be quite consistent 
with Loch-ba and the other animal river-names. Sp^il, slide 
or skate, is not very acceptable as the base, although Loch-frisa 
(p. 22S) would seem to give it some countenance. 

Page 1 1 4. Bith in the sense of quiet, peaceful, hmnble is 
quite familiar. There is a proverb, Cho bith ri luch for 
ladhar a chait, as quiet as a mouse under the '■'■hoof" of the cat. 

Page 115. Cannel, upon which the glen is named, though 
not familiar modern Gaelic, is certainly cain-eil, the fair or 
white river — the same stem as in Cain-nech (p. 171), the fair one. 
The only other word which approaches the name is Caineal, 
cinnamon, Lat. canella, which is out of the question here. The 
word has secondary meanings even into the province of conduct 
and morals, just as English says a " fair " man. 

Page 1 1 7. Lochdon, if my interpretation is right, refers to 
the depth of the loch into the land, rather than to its actual 
depth of water. 

Page 1 20. Bellart River is like Tarbert River, S., and many 
others, named upon their place and position — in this case from 
beul-ard, high mouth — another fanciful body-name, referring to 
a high opening, which gives the place its name. 

Page 123. Beart occurs in Irish names as beartrach, 
meaning a sand-bank (J. ii. 387). 

Page 127. Stan seems to come by this way of stagnum, 
because the accent is long ; otherwise, stanna, a tub, vat, would 
do — as in Aird-tunna. 

Page 127. Ruaig is the adj. ruadh, r^^ (Colours) + aig", the 
red-land or district. I thought at first that the terminal might 
be -vik, which would make the name Norse, but I am satisfied 
that it is not so. 

Page 128. The word br^id, like many others, has degraded 
from its first meaning. It was, in its best usage, a square of fine 



250 NOTES 

white linen donned by a young woman on the first day of her 
married Ufe — as the sign of wifehood. It was fastened to the hair 
as a three-cornered kertch, and was very becoming. The sail 
of a boat is also called br^id poetically, and that perhaps is 
the meaning here. 

Page 129. Bru in Gaelic means a belly, bulging, or opening 
out of a lake or sea-loch, e.g. a' bhru mhor on Loch Sunart. 
Here, however, the position is entirely against the Gaehc word — 
as is also the grammar. Although N. br6 is fem., it here has 
the Gael. masc. article. This, however, is not uncommon. See 
vik, p. 241. 

Page 129. Trealamh is a gathering of substances — in this 
case most likely of sea-wrack and perhaps wreckage. 

Page 131. Although Samh is here given in Gaelic form, it is 
certain that the word is N. haf, the sea or the main ocean. 
Several of our Gaelic poets have used the word clearly in this 
sense. The word and name is therefore (Camus) an t-haif, 
with the Gaelic article and genitive form — "fuaim an t- 
saimh " (haf) is the roar of the sea. 

Page 135. This loch is not a mile long, nor a mile from any- 
where in particular. The name should most likely be Loch a' 
bhile, which is fitting to the sharp rise of nearly 600 feet imme- 
diately behind it. 

Page 135. Reeves maintains that the true and original Coire- 
Bhreacain is in the Sound between the island of Rathlin and 
County Antrim, and that the Coire-Bhreacain between Scarba 
and Jura is only a name borrowed by the monks of lona — to fit 
a similar case. See Reeves' Adauitian, p. 29, and his Ecc. Ant., 
p. 289. There is room to doubt this, but it cannot be discussed 
here. 

Page 1 36. The early custom of treating criminals, or "sinners," 
in the Highlands seems to have been to hang the men and drown 
the women. There is no fem. word in Gaelic equivalent to the 
masc. crochaire. Perhaps there is a shade of delicacy in the 
fact. 

Page 147. The word giilir seems to mean essentially a deft, 
whence the giilir, gill-cleft of fish. It comes easily into a 
mountain name. 



NOTES 251 

Page 148. Samh is the Rumex aceiosa,ox perhaps preferably, 
R. aceiosella, or sheep-sorrel. 

Page 149. Tiompan in Irish names means a hillock and a 
siandi?ig stone. 

Page 150. Coultorsay is misleading, with the accent forward; 
but the right form, CVil-thrs-ay, keeping the middle accent, 
makes the name quite plain, and there is confirmation of this 
rendering in the Gaelic name associated with and close to it — 
Cnoc a' chuil. 

Page 150. Mr. Macneill says the name came from the fact 
that raw lint was here soaked before preparation. 

Page 152. Glamar is a smith's vice, and glamaire is a 
greedy man — the ideas may be akin. The snapping, or rather 
gulping, of a big dog is glamadh ; and perhaps the best under- 
standing of the word is in its full Gaelic pronunciation. Why 
this Point is given this peculiar name I cannot say. 

Page 157. Proaig is difficult. It is almost certainly Norse in 
both parts. The first part is the difficulty. I do not think it 
can be breid-r, and the only N. word I can at all suggest is 
prud-r,fine or grand. 

Page 158. " In early ages, before the extension of cultivation 
and drainage, the roads through the country must have been 
interrupted by bogs and morasses which, when practicable, were 
made passable by causeways — made of branches of trees, 
bushes, earth, and stones. They were called by the name of 
tochar" (J. i. 374)- 

Page 179. His Grace the Duke of Argyll writes me: — "I 
think you must refer to the Bachul of St. Moluac, the upper 
portion of which, minus part of the crook and minus the silver 
and the bronze covering, is in my possession — safe under lock 
and key. The tiny bronze nails are still in it, and small inner 
bronze covering are still adhering to them in one or two places. 
I suppose it to be the oldest church relic in Scotland. But, ' it 
is nothing to see.' The only good one (that of St. Fillan) was, 
as you know, found by Professor Wilson in Canada." 



INDEX 



I put the "difficult" names only (p. 22) in the index. I try to put the 
essential, descriptive part of a name as well forward as possible, and 
I sometimes use the admittedly wrong current form if I think it may 
facilitate the reference. Where the gen. is given first the governing 
word follows. The index shows no distinction of the several languages 
that occur in the book. I use a few contractions — B. for beinn, a hillj 
R. for rudha, a point; E. for eilean, an island; P. for port. 



Aber 


PAGE 
10 


Aclia(dh) -an ekmaich 


PAGE 

55 


Abhainn {river) 


• 34 


-an elid 


• 45 


-lussa . 


• 155 


-nam fanndacb 


. 42 


mhor . 


• 34 


-nafaud 


. 31 


-vogie 


• 155 


-folia 


. 62 


Acarsaid {a harbour) 


. 221 


-fors . 


9, 103 


folaich 


. 126 


-nan garran 


47 


mh&r . 


129 


-goul 


39 


-ach, -achan (names in) 


8 


-nangoul . 


42 


Aclia(dli) braghad . 


■ 23 


-goyl . 


39,45 


breac- 


123 


-leppin 


• 39 


-a' clia 


66 


-leven 


58 


-a' charra . 


66 


-nan lia 


84 


-nan carranan 


31 


-lianain 


103 


-casdle 


58 


-lochy 


29 


-a' chois 


35 


-loist . 


109 


-nan con . 


66 


-nam madadh 


58 


-incorvy . 


24 


-mhinish . 


33 


-na cree 


66 


-inhoan 


24 


-dalieu 


n 


-a' phubaill 


81 


-dail Mboire 


45 


-nrioch 


31 


-dk mbillein 


34 


-rossan 


45 


-andrian . 


31,42 


-na sgioch . 


45 


-duin 


73 


-an tiobairt 


42 



252 





INDEX 


253 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Acha(dh) -vae . 


• 31 


Alainn (Cnoc) . 


23 


Achlas 


7 


Alalaidh . . . . 


222 


Achlaise (Doire) 


. 134 


Alanisb . . . . 


143 


Adamnan , 


• 93 


Alasgaig . . . . 


222 


Aharcle 


. 225 


Alastair . . . . 


99 


-aig (names in) . 


8 


Albannacb 


84 


Aileach 


133, 176 


Allaidhe(Port). 


33 


Ailean 


. 113 


AUival . . . . 


222 


Airbhe (Camus) 


• 103 


Allt-an t-sagairt 


139 


Aircaig 


. 91 


-cuil Chiarain . 


76 


Aircill 


. 137 


Eachainn . 


88 


Aird-an amair . 


. 62 


-galvalsh . 


31 


-a' choirce . 


. 62 


-galtraig . 


47 


-chonnel . 


. 42 


Alsaig . . . . 


9 


-a' Chrotha 


. 115 


Amaind . . . . 


149 


-ghobhar . 


. 80 


Amais (Cam) . 


119 


-intinney . 


50, 66 


Amanta (Cnoc) . 


154 


-vergnish . 


. 114 


Amhaicb . 


7 


Aire . 


. 103 


Amot 


24 


Aireag 


. 62 


Anah^ilt . . . . 


84 


Airich 


. 109 


Anlaimh (L.) . 


123 


Airidh-Aonghais 


. 103 


Annat 


58 


-Mhaoil-Glial 


uim . 154 


Aodann 


7 


-Mhic-Dhoml 


inaill 149 


Aoghain (Aodhain) . 


41 


-dhubh . 


. . 156 


Aoineadh . 


12 


-Eogain . 


. . 58 


-dubb 


. 134 


-nam fanndac 


;li . 146 


Aoirean . 


. 134 


-nan gobhar 


. 123 


Aolastradh 


. 151 


-na math, inn 


se . 96 


Aonach 


12 


-ledid . 


. 123 


Aonghas . 


. 107 


-nabost . 


. 123 


Aoradb 


. 149 


-nathrach 


. 25 


Aosdail 


. 137 


-nascavach 


• 25 


Appin 


. 65 


-pholl . 


. 119 


Araig 


00 


-shamhraidh 


12 


Arcain 


• 103 


-na sliseig 


. 114 


Arcban 


. 43 


-staic . 


. . 36 


Ardocby 


. 66 


-Ualain . 


. 81 


Ard . 


II 


-vegaig . 


• 91 


-kilidb . . ; 


53, 128 


-virig . 


. 123 


-antrive 


48,62 


Aisrigh 


. . 84 


Chattain . 


. 11 



254 



INDEX 



Ard -chiavaig . .11 


PAGE 
0, 225 


Artarig 


PAGE 
. 48 


-chyline 


• 50 


Aruadh 


. 149 


-na Croise , 


29 


Asabus 


. 222 


-dmimnich 


. 92 


Asapol 


. 222 


-an fhasgaidh . 


. 58 


Ascaig(P.) 


9, 144 


-fin . 


• 137 


Ascaoineach (E.) 


. 123 


-gaddan 


• 45 


Ascog 


. 222 


-na hien 


• 50 


Asdail 


. 222 


-na ]iua(mh) 


11 


Asgemal 


. 222 


-illestry 


. 155 


Askain (Dun) 


. 222 


-illigain 


■ 35 


Askil(Mac) 


. 225 


-imersay . 


155 


Askival 


. 97 


-incaple 


II 


Asknish 


. 222 


-inistie 


154 


Ath,a (Camus) . 


96, 134 


-lamey 


■ 33 


Atha (Awe) 


• 58 


-Lament . 


45 


Atha-caisil 


19 


-maddy 


II 


Athairidh 


. 109 


-Marnock . 


. 45 


Auliston (Point) 


. 104 


-mynisli 


• 36 


Avich (Loch) . 


• 55 


-nachdaig . 


35 


Awe .... 


. 58 


-nadam 


50 






-nahoe 


144 


Bk . . . . 


. 119 


-namurchan 


II 


Bac .... 


. 223 


-noe . 


36 


Bach .... 


. 62 


-seile . 


66 


Bachlag . 


. 145 


-skenish 


143 


Badd .... 


50 


-teatle 


42 


Baile, a "town," farm, . 


IS 


-Tornish . 


. 103 


Bail',Bal,Balli,Bal 


ly- 


-tunna 


109 


-inaby 


. 150 


-tur . 


66 


Aonghais 


. 149 


-yne . 


50 


-na h'kirde 


. 141 


The Adj. high (p. 11) ir 




-chluvain 


. 145 


Ardhallow . 


50 


-a' chuain 


. 62 


Ardochy 


66 


-chyle 


. 48 


Argyll 


I 


-an debra 


. 58 


Arish (Loch) 


149 


-gown . . 42, 


58, 120 


Armadale . 


222 


-grant 


. 145 


Aross ... 2 


9, 134 


-greggan . 


• 25 


Arr again (Tir) , 


no 


-grogan . 


• 25 


Arsa . . . . 


222 


-iochdair . 


. 119 


Artair . . . . 


107 


-nakil 


• 32 



INDEX 



255 



Baile Mlikrtuinn 
-mony 
Neachtain 
-noe . 
Ole . 

-phetrish . 
-phuill 
-rumin-dubh 
-nan sac . 
-antyre . 
Ulve 
-vain 
-vaurgain 
Veolain . 
-vicair 
BachuU 
Balloch (for Bealach) 
Ballochindrain . 
Ballochroy 
Balochgair 
Balsay 
Banavie . 
Baradal 
Barapol 
Barkeval 
Bkrr . 

-an kilean . 
-askomil . 
-na cairidli 
-calltuin . 
-a' channdair 
-driseig 
-dubh . 
-naguy 
-nakill 
-an longairt 
-maddy 
-oile . 
-saibh 
-sailleach . 
-na seilg . 



PAGE 

'49 
150 

155 

58 

145 
126 

120 

141 

74 
42 

145 
29 

35 
60 

55 
74 
66 
46 

30, 145 
29 

223 

76 

223 

223 

223 

12 

56 



55 
66 

58 

63 

125 

35 
40 

35 
56 
40 
96 
40 
35 



Bkrr Shomhairle 

Barran 

Baun 

Beach 

Beachmore 

Beamach (Coire 

Bearnasaig 

Beamasgeir 

Beart an' fMr 

Beathaig (Mam 

B(h)eatliain (mMc) 

Beathrach 

Beinn, a mountain — 
-cMadville 
-derloch 
-tighe . 
-v6irlicli 

Beitheach . 

Beitheachan 

Bellart 

Belnahua . 

Benderloch 

Beochlich . 

Berchan 

Bernera . 

Bemice 

Beul . 



PAGE 

119 

42 

35 
50 

30 
114 
223 
223 
123 

81 
38,82 
104 

150 
66 
98 

78 
104 

10 
120 
132 
198 

42 
166 
74, 124 

48 

7 



9, 



Bh.- are all genitives, oc 
curring sometimes as 
initial V., the English 
sound. 

Bhaidseachan (Gl.) . 

Bhalaich (L.) 

Bhearnaig (P. a') 

Bh^idhe (Trkigh a') . 

Bheigeir (Beinn) 

Bheitheacliain (Creag) 

Bhibuirn (Cnoc) 

BMordmail (Dun) 

Bhiorgaig (Beinn) 



134 

134 

63 
126 

155 
81 

150 

121 

137 



256 



INDEX 



Bhiosta (Cnoc) . 
Bliirgeadain (Sliabh) 
Bhocain (Torr a') 
Bhodaicli (Stac a') 
Bhogacliain (Sgorr) 
Bhoramail (E.) . 
Bhoraraic (Dun) 
Blirekslaig (R.) . 
Bhreige (P. an fhir) 
Bhrothain (Sliabh) 
Bhniclilain (Dun) 
Bhuailtein (P. a') 
Bhuailte (Camus a') 
Bhtigain (Beinn) 
Bhuilg (Raon) . 
Bhulais (Lochan a') 
Bhiirra (Loch a') 
Bile (Loch) . 
Biolaireach (Lon) 
Bith-bheinn 
Blaan . 
Bladda 
Blar-creen 

-mor 
Blathaich 
Bocaird 
Bochyle 
Bodha 
Boglach 
Boineacli 
Bolsa . 
Bolstadr, -bol, -bols, 
-ol, -bost, -bus, -sta 
Bonahaven 
Bonaveh 
Boraraic 
Borg, -buirg, &c, 
Borgadal 
Borrachil . 
Borrodale . 
Bourblaig . 



124, 15 



■ols 



92, 



PAGE 
126 

67 
126 

63 

145 
141 

134 

no 

145 

56 

134 
137 

120 

114 

175 
223 

67 

50 
81 

42 

42 

o, 223 

145 
130 
223 

223 

145 
141 

145 
223 

24 

155 
224 

92 



Bowmore . 


IS5 


Brackley . 


42 


Braclach . 


no 


Bradhan (Sron) . 


131 


Braevallich 


42 


Brkghad (Achadb) . 


23 


Braglinmore 


58 


Braibruich . 


. 150 


Braid am . 


. 150 


Braighh unary . 


. 150 


Braigo 


. 150 


Braingortan 


48 


Branault . 


93 


Brannabus . 


224 


Brannan 


• 175 


Branter 


48 


Brat-bheinn 


138 


BreacacMe . . 2 


9, 123 


Breackerie . 


• 25 


Breacklate 


25 


Brdideanacb 


128 


Brdige 


130 


Brenachoil 


. 42 


Brenfield . 


34 


Br^-sg6r . 


lOI 


Breun phort 


134 


Briaghlann 


92 


Brianabus . 


224 


Brideig (Allt) . 


114 


Brimishgan 


115 


Brionn-phoU 


128 


Bristeadh rkmh (R.) 


129 


Broach (L.) 


145 


Brodach (Sloe) . 


138 


BroigMeig (Cruach) . 


46 


Brosdale . . . . 


224 


Bril . . . . 


129 


BruicMaddicli . 


150 


Brunerican . 2 


5, 224 


Bulairidhe . 


156 


Bun 


141 





INDEX 


257 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Bunlarie . . . . 


29 


Cannel 


. 115 


Burg 


120 


Caolaran . 


. 42 


Biirraichbean . 


56 


Caolas 


• 35 


Buthkollidar 


50 


Caoracban . 


9 






Caorann 


• 35 


Cabrach . . . . 


138 


Ckra .... 


33,225 


Cachla (Tigh) . 


146 


Carlbhalg . 


. no 


Cad (perhaps Gad) 


134 


Carl6nan . 


• 42 


Cadaldaidh 


155 


Ckr-mdr . 


• 35 


Caddletown 


56 






Cadhan (L.) 


146 


Ckrn, a heap 0/ si ones — 




Caibeal Cbiarain 


44 


-aine 


. 146 


Caichean . 


12 


-assary 


40 


Caigean . . 12, ii 


0, 132 


-caointe . 


. 141 


Cainikin 


35 


Cbonnacbain . 


• 159 


Cainneachain (L.) . 


58 


-cul ri Eirinn . 


• 131 


Caipleach . . . . 


8,13 


Donacby 


37, 108 


Cairidh mhor . 


158 


-mhic-Eoghain 


• 137 


Cairvickuie 


• 33 


Ckrnach 


8,13 


Caiseal . . . i 


3, 104 


Ckrnacha fionna 


. 115 


Caiskin 


61 


Ckman Eoin 


. 143 


Caisleach . 


13 


Carrabus . 


. 225 


Calbh. 


131 


Carrachan . 


115, 126 


Callanish . 


224 


Carradale . 


28, 22 s 


Callart 


II 


Carraigean 


no, 141 


Gallop 


. 81 


Carraig-g^ire (R.) 


• 131 


Callow 


. 46 


Carrick 


. 29 


Callyburn . 


• 29 


Carrine 


• 25 


Calum-bkn 


. 141 


Carrinish . 


. lOI 


Cam .... 


. 146 


Carrisdale . 


. lOI 


Camadhail . 


• 77 


Carron 


. 40 


Cam-chuairt 


. 46 


Ckrsaig 


36, 225 


Cameron . 


. no 


Carsamul . 


. 226 


Campbeltown . 


. 28 


Carskie 


• 25 


Camuilt (Cruach) 


. 46 


Caslach 


• 13 


Camus, a bay 


• 13 


Catbair mbic-Dbiarmaid . 95 


-eidMnn 


. 84 


Cktbar nan eun 


. 134 


an fbkis 


. 67 


Catblun . 


• 58 


nan Gall 


• 92 


Catb-sgeir . 


• 33 


-inas 


. 92 


Catrigan . 


• 155 


a' mhor-fhir . 


• 133 


Cattadale . 


24, 226 



R 



258 



INDEX 



Ceann 

Ceanna-garbh . 
Ceann a' ghkraidh 
Ceapach 
Ceapasaidh 
Ceathramh 
Ceitlein 
Celsa . 

Chadail (Tom) 
Chadaldaidh 
Chairidh a' 
Chkirn (Achadh) 
Chkise (Meall) 
Chaise (Torr) 
Chaisein . 
Chaoidh (Torr) 
Chaorach (E.) 
Chapuill (Aoineadh) 
Chkrdaidli (Gl.) 
Charra (Gart) 
Cheallaich (Allt) 
Cheallair (Loch) 
Cheo (Poll) . 
Chichemaig (P.) 
Chiscan 

Chladain (R.) . 
ChoimMch (Lag) 
Choirce (Tir) 
Choiredail (Cruach) 
Chonnaidli (Allt) 
Chonnail a' 
Chonnain (Innis) 
Choromaig (Allt) 
Chrinlet (Eas) . 
Chronain (Cnoc) 
Chrosprig (Dun) 
Chuagach a' 
Chuilceachan (L.) 
Chuileag (Camus) 
Chularan (B.) . 
Churalaich (B.) . 



55, 



7 
84 

175 
13 
46, 224 

18 

70 

225 

92 

155 
123 

104 

104 

no 

no 

no 

131 

115 

146 

150 
104 
56 
138 
129 

25 

155 
no 

74 
115 
115 
IIS 

42 

59, 108 

67 
no 

151 
98 
46 

134 
67 

155 



o, I 



Cill (Lat. cella\ church 
-Adhamhnain 
an kilean . 
-Aonghais . 
-arrow 

-berry, Bhairre 
bheag . 
-Bhlaan 
-Bhrannain . 
-Brighde . 
-Chamaig . 
-Chaoimliain, Kivan 
-Cbattain . 
-Chiarain 
-Cboinnich . 
-Cholmain-Ella 
-Choluim-cliille 
-Chomgain . 
-Cbommain 
-Chousland 
a' chreagain 
-Chreathamlinain 
-Chriost 
-Chronain 
-Chubain 
-a' ch^im 
-Davy . 
-Donald 
-Donnain 
-Ellain, Eallagain 
-mhic Eoghain 
-Eoin . 
-Fhinain 
-Fhindchain 
a ghrudhair 
-Irvain 
an iubhir 
an iubhair 
-Laisrein 
-Lasrach 
-maillie 



PAGE 

28, 179 

149 



74: 



37 
179 

37 
160 

28, 44 

175 
160 

30 

183 

175 

61, 88, 170 

61 

^1 
166 
178 
177 
180 
160 

177 
160 

185 
160 
160 
160 

30 
177 

28 
184 

41 
163 
182 

37 
185 

41 

41 
173 
184 

75 



I2C 





INDEX 


259 




I'AGE 


/ 


TAGK 


Cill -many . 


. i6o 


Cl^ireig 


n 


-Martin 


. i6i 


Cleit . . .13,24,3 


2, 225 


-melfort 


• 57 


Cleugh 


58 


-Mhiclieil 


. 41 


Cliad .... 


123 


mhdr . 


. 160 


Clith (Bealach) . 


98 


-Moire 


. 37, 160 


Clocbkel . 


29 


-mo Chelloc 


. . 183 


Cloidheig . . . . 


no 


-mo Choe 


. 181 


Clovulin 


81 


-mo Chumm 


ag . . 181 


Cluain 


176 


-mo Ernoc 


• 184 


Cluiniter . 


51 


-mo Libha 


. 184 


Cnap . . . .12 


6, 225 


-mo L\loc 


• Zl, 179 


Cnoc kluinn 


23 


-mo Ronoc 


. 182 


Cnoc-Dhiarmaid 


149 


-mo Shench 


an . . 184 


Cnoc-lomain 


58 


-mun, Mum 


m . 44, 163 


CochuU 


70 


-Ninian 


. 162 


Coileter 


70 


-Ninidhain 


. 162 


Coille. 


120 


-Oran . 


. . 176 


Coille Naisb 


59 


-Phkdruig 


. 160 


Coille-ros . 


19 


-Pheadair 


. 160 


Coinneach . 


61,73 


-Sheathain 


(-ean) . 41 


Coinnle (Cam) . 


141 


-Slevan 


. 160 


Coirechaive 


48 


-Whipnich 


. 28 


Coiredail . . .11 


5. 155 


Cinn a' ghekrrlo 


ch . 23, 104 


Coireghoirtean . 


146 


-a' ghiiibhs 


aicli . .22 


Coirenabenchy . 


116 


-tire . 


22 


Coirelacb . 


155 


-trkgha 


. 23 


Coit .... 


150 


-t-skile 


. 23 


Colintraive 


48 


Circnis 


. 126 


Coll .... 


122 


Clabhach . 


. 123 


CoUabus . 


225 


Clachadow 


. . . 58 


Colonsay . 


140 


Clachaig 


8 


Colydrain . 


25 


Clacban . 


• 44 


Comar 


10 


Clackfin . 


. 29 


Comarach . 


13 


Cladb Haco 


. 151 


Combdhail (Cam) 


• 8s 


Cladville . 


. 150 


Comhla 


no 


Claigionn . 


7, 104, 146 


Conagairidb 


lOI 


Clais . 


. 194 


Conaglen . 


81 


Claonaig . 


8 


Conailbhe . 


150 


Claonairt . 


• 43 


Conaire . . 81, 13 


4, 136 


Claon-leathad 


. 104 


Conarst 


no 



26o 


INDEX 






PAGE 




PAGE 


Conasairidh 


• 155 


Crannag . . . . 


128 


Conclira 


. 48 


Craobbach (AUt) 


155 


Conflicts . 


• 59 


Crarae ... 4 


0, 226 


Conisby 


. 225 


Craro .... 3 


3,226 


Con-tom . 


• 134 


Crasg .... 


43.85 


Copagach (Meall) 


• 70 


Creadba (Port) . 


100 


Cornabus . 


. 226 


Creagan . . . . 


39 


Cornaig 


. 226 


Creagain (Sron) . 


81 


Corpach . . 7 


'6, 135, 226 


Creaglan . . . . 


35 


Corparsk . 


• 48 


Creag an eigbicb 


. 86 


Corylacli . 


. 25 


Crear 


45 


Corrachaive 


. . 48 


Creran (L.) 


67 


Corrabheinn 


. 138 


Cret-shengan . 


35 


Corracliadh 


• 59 


Criadbacb mbor 


120 


Corrachria . 


. . 46 


Crianlarach 


120 


Corraddie . 


. 48 


Cribbein (Mhic) 


113 


Corragboirtean . 


. 146 


Crinan ... 4 


0, 135 


Corran 


14 


Crionaisb . 


226 


Corrary 


• 155 


Crisbnisb . 


226 


Corr-bbile . 


• 43 


Cristlacb . 


25 


Corr-larach 


■ 51 


Cr6 . . . .6 


3. 115 


Corr-mheall 


. 46 


Crogan 


no 


Corrow 


• 51 


Croise (Camus) . 


105 


Corrynahera 


. 138 


Croiseacban 


. 146 


Corryvreckan . 


• 135 


Crois-brice 


. 141 


C6ta . 


• 134 


Crosprig . 


• 151 


Coulabus . 


. 226 


Crossaig . . . 8, 3 


2, 226 


Coultersay . 


. ISO 


Crossan . . .11 


0, 126 


Cour . 


31,35 


Crossapol . 


. 226 


Cour a' mbaim . 


• 35 


Crossie 


24,29 


Coylet 


• 51 


Cruacb 


. 48 


Crkbbaicbe 


. no 


a' bbearraicb 


• 39 


Crackaig 


. 138 


-lusacb . 


• 37 


Cragabus . 


. 226 


mbic-Gbaolie 


. 44 


Craigandaive . 


. 48 


Crubasdal . 


■ 32 


Craignafeich 


. . 46 


Crudb an eicb . 


. 86 


Craignamorag . 


• 56 


Cruib .... 


• 135 


Craignisb . 


. 56 


Crulaist . 


• 70 


Craignure . 


. 115 


CruUacb . 


III 


Craim(Loch) . 


• 43 


Cnitten (Gl.) . 


• 59 


Craleckan . 


• 43 


Cuaraig (L.) 


. 61 









INDEX 


261 


PAGE 1 




PAGE 


Cugain (Mhic) . 


107 


Diar Sgeir . 


• 63 


Cuigeas 






127 


Dibidil 


. 226 


Cuilce (L.) . 






120 


Dldil . . . . 


• 131 


Cuilglialtro 






35 


Diolaid 


. 129 


Cuilmuicli . 






51 


Dirigadal . 


• 32 


Cuin (L.) . 






120 


Diseig 


9, 115, 226 


Cuirte (Camus) . 






67 


Diiira . . . . 


. 226 


Cuise (Sgeir) 






63 


Ditrinnis . 


67, 226 


Cuiseig (Sgeir) . 






123 


Dluich 


. 146 


Culanlongairt 






25 


Dobhrain (Beinn) 


• 74 


Culcharan . 






67 


Dochairt . 


• 71 


CuUinisli . 






226 


Dogba (AUt) . 


• 77 


Cullipol . 






226 


Doire . . . . 


■ 14 


Cultoon 






151 


Doire na mart . 


. 105 


Cupaig (an) 






142 


Doirlin 


15, 5^^, 59 


Curacli (P.) 




98, 131 


Dombnach 


71, 116 


Currach 




. 26 


Domhnall . 


• 37 




Donich 


• 51 




Donncbadh 


37, 108 


Dail a' chaolais . . 5 6, 67 


Doodil 


. 226 


-Chenna . 


• 43 


Dorchadais (Glac) 


• 99 


-ermaic 




56 


Dornabac . 


97, 223 


an longairt 




46 


Dornoch 


• 52 


na baintigheam 


a 


42 


Douglas 


• 43 


Dalmaillie . 




43, 71 


Driotdale . 


. 226 


Dalnasliseig 






• 39 


Driseig 


■ 8,9 


Dalnatrat . 






. 67 


Droighneach (Innis) 


• 43 


Dalness 






• 71 


Dromain 


III 


Dalr(N.) . 






. 226 


Dronnacb (Cnoc) 


. . 156 


Daltot 






• 35 


Druidhean . 


• 131 


Dan, Danna 






. 226 


Druim droma . 


• 7, i5> III 


Darlochan . 






. 29 


Druim na saille 


• 77 


Davaar 






. 26 


Dmmalban 


■ 5, 15 


Dealachan (L.) 






. 156 


Drumeoin . 


• 33 


Debadal . 






. 226 


Drumgarve 


. 29 


Degnish . 






. 40 


Drumlee 


• 43 


Dedra . 






. 246 


DniTTilemble 


. 28 


Derarach . 






• 115 


Drumork . 


• 43 


Derryguaig 






• '15 


Drumsynie 


. 52 


Deuchain . 






• 115 


Drynich (Innis) . 


■ 43 


Deucharan 






• 3' 


Drynlea 


. 40 



262 


INDEX 






PAGE 




PAGE 


Duairt 


. 116 


Edderline . 


. 40 


Duarman . 


• 35 


Eidhne (Leac) . 


. 156 


Duatharach 


. 116 


Eididb (Sgeir) . 


• 92 


Dubhachais (Poll) 


• 99 


Eige (Egg) . 


• 98 


Dubhaig 


9 


Eigneig 


. 227 


Dubhain 


. 151 


Eikadale (Glen) 


. 227 


Dubh-leitir 


. 120 


Eilde (Lairig) . 


• 71 


Dubh-lighe 


• n 


Eileach an Naoimh . 


■ 133 


Ducbaman 


. 40 


Eilean Bhride . 


• 139 


Dugball 


• 37 


Eilean an Easbuig . 


. 140 


Duich . 


. . 156 


Eileandonaich . 


• 71 


Duilater 


. . 48 


Eilean Eoghain . 


• 32 


Duilisg (E.) 


• 143 


MMc Coinnich 


• 154 


Duisker 


. 146 


muice-duibbe 


. 156 


Dnisky 


. 81 


Eiligair 


. 105 


DllTI . 


xix., 18 


Eilireig 


. 116 


Dunaiche (P.) . 


• 135 


Eilisteir 


151 


Dnnoon 


• 51 


Eiridinn 


• 43 


Dychlie 


43) 71 


Eiltbereach (Cnoc) . 


• 35 






Eirisgeir . 


129 


Eachaig 


• 52 


Eithir 


74 


Eacharn (Mac) . 


. 82 


Eleraig ... 5 


6,227 


Eachamach 


. 146 


Ellabus 


227 


Eag na Maoile . 


. 100 


Ellagain (Cill) . 


160 


Eaglais 


. Ill 


EUary ... 6 


3,227 


Earaibh (Beinn) . 


. 146 


Emaraconart 


146 


Earalach (Lochan) 


• 43 


Emeravale 


156 


Eararach . 


. 146 


Ensay . . . . 


227 


Eararadh . 


. 116 


Eoin (John) 


38 


Earasaid . 


• 151 


Eorabus 


227 


Eama (E.) . 


• 56 


Eornaig . . . . 


227 


Eamadale . 


. 140 


Eorsa 


129 


Eamaich (R.) . 


. 105 


Eredinn . . . . 


43 


Earrabus . 


. 227 


Eriska . . . . 


73 


Earrair (Beinn) . 


. 100 


Erraid . . . . 


227 


Easach 


. 29 


Erray . . . . 


227 


Eascairt 


• 31 


Errol 


35 


Eas-fors 


. 120 


Eskernish (Eigg) 


99 


Eatba (P.) • 


. 123 


Esknish . 


235 


Eatbama (Loch) 


. 123 


Etive (Loch) 


67 


Ebadail 


. 227 


:6ug(Allt) . . . . 


105 





INDEX 


263 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Eunaich 


71, 131 


Fiodhain 


• 71 


Eunchair (Coire) 


. 119 


Fiolan 


. 132 


Eunlaig (Mhic-). 


. . 38 


Fion-airidh 


. 105 


Eurach 


. 40 


Fionn-chro . 


. 97 


Evanachan 


. . 46 


Fionnlagh . 


• 73 






Fishaig 


124, 228 


Faire . 


• 74 


Fishnish 


. 282 


Falbhain . 


III 


Fiskapol 


. 228 


Fanans 


• 59 


Fiskarg 


. 228 


Fkn mor . 


. 121 


Fjord-r 


. 228 


Faodhail 15. 


68, 93, 127 


Fladda 


132, 223 


Faoileann . 


. 116 


Flatey 


. 228 


Fksach 


• 123 


Fleisgein . 


. 151 


Fascadal . 


• 36, 227 


Flodsgeir . 


. 228 


Fasnacloich 


. 68 


Foill . 


. 124 


Faygarvick 


• 123 


Foirningir . 


. 127 


Fealasgaig . 


. 111,228 


Fomasaig . 


. 228 


Feamaindean . 


. 146 


Fors (Acha, Eas) 


. 228 


Fekrnach. . 


8 


Forsa (Gl.) 


. 228 


Feamal 


• . 138 


Fracadal . 


. 228 


Fellon 


III, 132 


Frachadil . 


. 228 


Feochaig . 


. 26 


Frachdale . 


. 228 


Feochain (Loch, &c.) 


• 59 


Frackersaig 


74, 228 


Fedirlin 


III, 228 


Fraochaidh 


. 68 


Fedrlan 


. 48 


Freasdail (G.) . 


• 31 


Fergus (Tir) 


. 28 


Frisland . 


. 124 


Feshim 


124, 228 


Frissa (Loch) 


. 228 


Feundain . 


• 63 


Frith-allt . 


. 86 


Fhkraidh (Sgur) 


• 99 


-sgeir 


. 142 


Fhearchair (R.) . 


• 95 


Frdgach (Allt) . 


. 156 


Fhianain (Eilean) 


14, 75 


Fudan 


• 132 


Fiadh-innis 


• 97 


Fiidar 


. 121 


Fiann . . . . 


93, 121 


Fudarlach (L.) . 


• 138 


Fiannaidh . 


. 68 


Furachail (B.) . 


• 63 


Figheadair . 


■ 63 






Finbracken 


• 52 


Gailich (Ard) . 


• 52 


Findbarr 


. 163 


Gairletter . 


• 52 


Fineag 


• 138 


Gall (Camus) . 


82, 116 


Fineglen . 


• 59 


Gallanach . . 4 


I, 100, 124 


Finlaggan . 


. 146 


Gallon (Glac) . 


129, 156 


Finnart 


. 48 


Galmadale . 


. 229 



264 



INDEX 



Galmisdale 

Gamaghaoth 

Gamhnacli . 

Gantocks . 

Ganuisg 

Gaodhail . 

Gaoirean (Allt) 

Garaveoline 

Garbhan 

Garbh-ealach 

Garrachra . 

Garrachroit 

Garradh 

Garraron 

Garrisdale . 

Garrowchorran 

Gart, gort, goirtean 

Gart an doill 

Gartchossain 

Gartgunnal 

Gartloist . 

Gartmain . 

Gart na gekrrach 

Gartnatrk . 

Garvanchy 

Garvie 

Gearna 

Gekrr (Eas) 

Gearr-chreag 

Gekrr, Gekrrach 

Geasgil 

Gemmil 

Geodha 

Ghallagain (E.) 

Ghallain (Dun) 

Ghanntair (Tom) 

Ghkrdail (Abhainn) 

Ghardmail (E.) . 

Ghartain (Allt) . 

Ghibeach (Beinn) 

Ghillandrais (Carraig) 



PAGE 

III 

52 

46 

116 

68 

31 
81 

133 

48 

31 
II I 

56 
137, 229 

52 

15 
16 

156 

29 

156 

156 

26, 229 

156 

41 

48 

116 

71 
105 
71, 152 
129, 229 

• 56 
. Ill 

• 35 

• 92 

• 93 
. 229 

142, 229 

• 71 

• 147 

• 113 



Ghlamraidh (R.) 
Ghodag a' . 
Ghoill (Cc\rn) 
Ghrkig (B.) 
Ghrip a' 
Ghuail (Coill) 
Ghuilean (B.) 
Gigalum 
Gigha . 
Gile(Allt) . 
Gillean, Gylen 
Gilp (Loch) 
Giol . 
Girigadal . 
Giubhsach . 
Giur-bheinn 
Giurdil 
Glac . 
Glassary . 
Glastonbury 
Gleann na Muclach 

-ure. 
Glecknahavil 
Glemanuil . 
Glen-adale . 

-ahanty 

-astle . 

-batrick 

-darnel 

-drian . 

-eigadale 

-fyne . 

-g6blilach 

-gour . 

-hervie 

-kinglas 

-lean . 

-lussa . 

-na machrie 

-orchy . 

-ralloch 



PAGE 
152 
100 

lOI 

116 

229 

156 

26 

33> 229 
32, 121 
. 229 
63, 97, 147 
41 
156 
225 
8 
147, 229 
229 
7 
41 
76 
27 

71 
26 
27 
27 

27 
156 

138 
49 
93 

151 
52 

156 
80 
27 
52 
49 

233 
59 
71 
36 







INDEX 


265 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Glen-ramskil 


237 


ladain (Ben) 


105 


-stockadale 


73 


lall (Loch) . . . . 


81 


-strae . . . . 


72 


Iflferdale . . . . 


30 


Gobag 


138 


Imeilte (Ben) 


93 


Gobagrenan 


29 


Imersay . . • '5 


5,232 


Goiridh . . . . 


73 


Imheir (Mhic) . 


38 


Gometra . . . . 


129 


Imrich (Bealach) 


135 


Gort an longairt 


152 


Inbher-ae . . . . 


41 


Gorton . . . . 


124 


-aora 


44 


Gott 


127 


-chaolain 


49 


Graineil . -15 


2,230 


-chapel . 


53 


Grastle . . .15 


6,230 


-easragain 


72 


Greasamal . . . . 


230 


-folia 


72 


Grianaig . . . . 


230 


-ghiubhsacliain 


72 


Griaraidh (Sgeir) 


63 


-na h-yle 


69 


Grimsa 


230 


-inan 


57 


Grimsary . . . . 


230 


-kinglas . 


72 


Grishnisli . 


230 


-lochy 


72 


Grisipol 


230 


Inellan 


52 


Grob-bkgh . 


33 


Inens .... 


. 46 


Grobols 


230 


Inion .... 


71 


Grogport 


31 


Innie .... 


• 56 


Groudle . . . g 


5^230 


Innishail . 


• 71 


Groulin . . .15 


2, 230 


Innseig 


9 


Gruagaich (Loch) 


• 93 


Inntreadh . 


. 105 


Grudairean (B.) . 


. 142 


lolaich (Bhgh) . 


• 117 


Gruineart . 


■ 230 


lolaireig . 


■ 36 


Grundail 




• 137 


lomallach (E.) . 


. 124 


Guaire 




. Ill 


lona .... 


. 130 


Guala . 




7 


Iriseig (Druim) . 


• 157 


Gualann 




. 148 


Isaac . 


. 61 


Giida (Gl.) 




. 105 


Iseannan . 


. 127 


Guesdale 




. 229 






Gulvain 




• 11 


Java .... 


• 117 


Gylen na 




■ 63 


Jura .... 


• 132 






Karnes 


41 


Hallater (Allt) . 


• 72 


Kellon 


. 121 


Hanaish. (R.) 


. 127 


Kelsay 


. 225 


Harris (Gl.) 


. 97 


Kenmore . 


. 42 


Haslam 


. 


. lOI 


Kenovay 


. 127 



266 






INDEX 








PAGE 


PAGE 


Kenvar . . . .127 


Land-names . . 18, 24 


Keppoch . 






• '3 


Lanndaidb 


• 157 


Keprigan . 






• 27 


Langa 




. 29 


Kerrafuar . 






. 24 


Lang-aoineadb . 




• 132 


Kerramenach 






. 24 


Lapan . 




. 117 


Kerran (Kirn) 




I 


8, 194 


Laogbscean (Cnoc) 




• 31 


Ketill . 






22 C 


Laragain (Gl.) . 




■ 78 


Kiaman . 






• 41 


Largie and -mor 


• 17, 


41,46 


Kil, a ch7(rcJi. S 


Jee C 


lill. 




Latbamach (Bord) 




• 95 


Killiepole . 






. 28 


Leacann 




16 


Killocraw . 






■ yi 


Leacollagain 






• 57 


Kilvarie . 






■ 59 


Lealt . 






• 135 


Kinerarach 






32 


Leanachais (R.) 






. 138 


Kingairlocli 






. 104 


Leanacboig 






147 


Kingarbh . 






. 121 


Leanagboyacb 






• 31 


Kinnabols . 






225 


Leanamore 






• 157 


Kinnabus . 






225 


Learg, -ach 






16,36 


Kintalen . 






69 


Leasgamail 






• 139 


Kintra 






93 


Lecknary . 






• 41 


Kintyre 






22 


Leckyvroun 






. 29 


Kirkapol . 






225 


Ledmore 






. 121 


Kirkjadal (Girigadal) 




225 


Leek . 






. 152 


Kirknis (Circnis) 




225 


Leicb . 






. 69 


KirnasMe . 




31 


Leodamais (L.) 






157 


Knap dale . 




34 


Leora 






157 


Kynagarry 




22^ 


Lepbinchapel 
Lepbincorrach 






46 

24 


Lachlainn (Bagh) 




61 


Lepbingaver 






24 


Ladhair (Lochan) 




121 


Lepbinkill . 






49 


Laga .... 




95 


Lepbinsearracb 






46 


Lagalgorve 






29 


Lepbinstratb 






24 


Lagalo chain 






57 


Lephroaig . 






157 


Lagavulin . 






157 


Lergycboniemore 




57 


Lagbura (Port) . 






129 


Leth -ad -tir -allt, & 


c. 21, 121 


Laglingartain 






53 


Letbonn 


III, 117 


Laimbrig . 




9 


7, 117 


Lettermay . 




• 53 


Laind . 






170 


Leumnamuic 






31 


Lkir-bbkn . 






63 


Leven 






72 


Lkir (Lochan) . 






69 


Liatbanaich 






III 


Lkirig . 






17 


Ligbe (Beinn) . 






III 


Lamb-bbeinn 






147 


Lin(Glac) . 






121 





INDEX 


267 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Lindsaig 


. 46 


Macaoidh . 


• 37 


Linndail . 


• 139 


Mac-Cailean 


• 73 


Ling .... 


. 152 


Machair 


• 17 


Linne (L.) . 


. 78 


Machairean 


. 141 


Lipachlairy 


157 


Machrie 


. 24 


Lismore 


. 73 


Machrihanish 


17 


Livir .... 


59,72 


Machry (Gl.) 


. 157 


Lobhair (Allt) . 


44 


Maclean's Nose 


• 95 


Lochaber . 


76 


Macmillan . 


• 75 


Loch an t-sithean tarsuinr 


L 136 


Macneill's Bay 


. 125 


Lochan Barr a' bhealaich 


134 


Macringan's Poi 


nt . -30 


Lochanduileat . 


86 


Madadh riabhac 


h . . 94 


Loch Cholla 


143 


Maeldubh . 


• 75 


Lochdon 


117 


Mainnir nam fia 


dh . . 117 


Lochgair . 


41 


Mkla . 


. 147 


Lochindaal 


152 


Mkldaig (Sg.) . 


. 121 


Loch Mhurchaidh 


149 


Malmesbury 


. . 76 


Loch Nigheann Aillein 


^37 


Mkm a' choir' id 


biir . . 117 


Lochorodale 


28 


Mannel 


. 127 


Loch Sithean . 


136 


Maol . 


• 17 


Logan 


147 


Maol a' chuir 


• 29 


Longairt . 


25 


Maolachy . 


■ 57 


Lora .... 


69 


Maol kiridh O'D 


huinn 1 59 


Lorgbow 


152 


Maol buidhe 


• 133 


Lorgie 


24 


Maol Chaluim . 


• 73 


Lome .... 


55 


Marcus 


. . 64 


Lossit . . -14 


7, 152 


Margadal . 


. 234 


Lotha (P.) . 


142 


Margmonagach . 


• 234 


Loy(G.) . 


77 


Mkrtainn . 


■ 38, 161 


Luachrachan 


9 


Mealbhach 


. 127 


Luachran (Poll) 


105 


Meall nam faoih 


jann . 1 30 


Lubanach (Loch) 


135 


Meanbh-chrodh . 


• 134 


Luidhneis (R.) . 


147 


-chuileaf 


r • -134 


Luig 


152 


Mearsamail 


• 139 


Luingea.nach (R.) 


93 


Meille (Coire) . 


. 86 


Lundie . . . . 


105 


Meinn (Allt) 


• • 105 


Lunga . . . . 


130 


Meinnir 


. 117 


Lungadan . . . . 


III 


MMse bkine (R.) 


• 157 


Lurga . . . . 


105 


Meldalloch 


. 47 


Lurgann ... 6 


9, 117 


Menish 


• 139 


Lussa 


137 


Mhadail (Sron) . 


• 57 



268 



INDEX 



Mhkil (R.) . 


, 


, 


- 147 


Muille . . . . 


109 


Mhalairt a' 


• 138 


Muireach . . . . 


17 


Mharagach a' . 


97, 234 


Muimemeall 


152 


Mhargaidh (Baile) 


• 139 


Mul-letter . . . . 


49 


Mh^nuis (Aoineadh) . 


• 114 ; 


Mul-r 


234 


Mhicaphi (Camus) 


. 82 1 


Mulreesh . . . . 


147 


Mliic-Fhionnlaidli (Tigh 


1) . 140 


Mungasdal 


234 


Mhic'ille-Mhoire (AiridJ 


1) . 140 


Murshirlich 


78 


Mhile (Loch) . 


• 135 


Musdale ... 7 


A, 234 


Mhilticli (Monadh) . 


• 97 


Musimail . . . . 


131 


Mhoirlich (Meall) . 


• 72 


My-vatn . . . . 


234 


Mhonmliuir (Bealach) 


. 105 






Mhucaig (E.) 


. 142 


Nant(Gl.) . . . . 


59 


Mhucraidh a' . 


• 139 


Naombacbd (E.) 


36 


Mhuinne (Goirtean) . 


• 53 


Naracban . 


9 


Mhuiricli (E.) . 


• 17 


Natain, Nechtan . 6 


2, III 


Mhurain (Port) . 


. 124 


Nave (Naoimh) . 


153 


Mhurrain (P.) . 


. 124 


Neill (Cunn) 


96 


Mhusdil (E.) . 


• 234 


Nell(L.) . 


60 


Mi-bheus 




• 135 


Nerabols . 


234 


Mibost 




. 234 


Nerabus 


234 


Michliu 




• 135 


Nereby 


234 


Migemes 




• 234 


Nes, Nis, &c. 


234 


Milbuie 




. 142 


Niar (Bealach) . 


147 


Mi-mheall 




• 135 


Nigbeadaireach (L.) . 


• 157 


Minard 




• 41 


Nostaig 


234 


Mine (Port) 


124, 129 


Nualaidb . 


136 


Minishi 


• 234 






Miodar, Miadar 


127, 152 


Oban . . . . ic 


I, 231 


Miodhapuirn (Cnoc) . 


. 152 


Ocbdamh . 


. 18 


Miseag 


• 53 


Ochtafad . 


• 153 


Mointeach . 




. 127 


Ocbtamore 


• 153 


Moisgeir . 




129,234 


Ocbtavulin 


• 147 


Morbbach . 




• 17 


Odhain (Tigh) . 


• 36 


Morven 




. 102 


Oe . . . . 


. 72 


Muasdal . 




• 234 


Ohimie 


. 112 


Muasdale . 




• 31 


Oigbrige (E.) 


. 114 


Muchairt (L.) 




• 157 


Oisnes 


. 231 


Muclach . 




• 27 


Oitir .... 


• 44 


Mucracb 




8, 105 


Olmsa. 


. 142 


Muidbe (Le 


ac) 




• 70 


Olosary 


. 129 



INDEX 



J69 



Omhain (Allt) , 

Onfhaidh (Mcall) 

Orcliy 

Ormaig 

Ormsa 

Ormsaig 

Onnsary 

Orodale (L.) 

Oronsay 

Orosaig 

Orran . 

Orsay . 

Oscar . 

Ospidal 

Oude . 

Papadil 
Partan 
Peacaiche (Loch) 
Peighinn 
Peileige (R.) 
Peileirean . 
Penalbanach 
Peninver 
Pennyfuar . 
Pennyghael 
Pennygown 
Penny land 
Pennymore 
Pennysearacli 
Persabus 
Pharspig (R.) 
Phlotha (Caolas) 
Phollachie (Coire) 
Pioghaide (Tom) 
Pladda 
Plaide Mh6r 
Pliadan dubha 
Pollairinis . 
PoUanach . 
PoU-cborkan 



PAGE 
, III 

. 78 

9, 41, 129 

• 132 

9 
24,36 

• 234 

• 234 

64 

• 36 

• 234 

• 74 

• 235 

• 57 

98, 236 
117 
136 
18 

47 

153 
121 

30 

60 

112 

118 

24 

44 

24 

236 

124 

139 
121 

136 

74, 223 

142 

157 

105 

70 

53 



Poll an duich . .57 

PoUoch .... 86 

PoUtalloch . .41 

Port Charlotte . . -153 

na Cille • • • 33 

Dbombnaill Cbruim . 1 49 

Donnain . . .119 

-Ellen . -157 

an fhasgaidh . • 1 30 

-gleann na gaoitbe . 151 

-nabaven . . -153 

a' mbadaidb . . 47 

-Wemyss . . -153 

-wick. . . -153 

Proaig . . -157, 236 

Puball .... 30 

Putacban ... 30, 78 



Rabacb 

Racadal 

Racbdaig . 

Kainberg . 

Eaireig 

Rangal 

Ranisgil (Glen) 

Raonapol . 

Raonasta . 

Rapaicbe (Sithean) 

Rarey 

Ratb . 

Reasagbuie 

Redegicb . 

Refliucb 

Reilean 

Reileiridbe 

Reinge (R.) 

Remuil 

Resaurie . 

Restil 

Reudle 

Rbaoil 



• 131 

36, 236 

• 136 
^2,7, ^2,7 

. 236 

• 236 

• 237 

• 237 

• 237 
. 106 
. 236 
. 18 
. 142 

• 63 

• 31 
. 129 

• 31 
. 112 

• 27 
. 86 

• 53 

• 237 
88, 119 



270 


INDEX 






PAGE 




PAGE 


Bhonadale . 


. 30, 237 


Salachail . . . . 


70 


Eiachain . 


• 53 


Salachan . . . . 


81 


Riaghain (IMeall^ 


. 72, 127 


Sallachry . . . . 


44 


Riddon (L.) 


• 47 


Sallain (R. an t-) 


136 


Robols 


• 237 


Salum 


127 


Robuic (Allt) 


• 49 


Sanih(N.hAf) . 


131 


Roich . 


. 62 


Samhairidh 


106 


Roinne (R.) 


• 97 


Samhan (E.) 


112 


Ronachan . 


• 31 


Samhlaidh (Cnoc) 


148 


Ronard (Loch) 


. 124 


Samhna (Maol) . 


112 


Eos . 


• 19 


Samhnan innsir 


97 


(Coille) 


• 19 


Sandavore . 


99 


Rosgaill 


. 127 


Sanish . . . . 


27 


Rosquern . 


. 157 


Sannaich (R. Mac) . 


28 


Rossal 


. 112 


Sannaig 


139 


Ruaig . 


. 127 


Saor-Pheighinn . 


112 


Ruail . 


. lOI 


Sastail (Cnoc) . 


112 


Ruantallan 


. . 136 


Saunach . . . . 


44 


Rudale 


41, 237 


Scammadal . . 8 


7, 137 


Rudh' a' chleiric 


h . .139 


Scanach 


64 


Rudh' an diiin 


. 151 


Scanlistle . 


148 


Rudha Fhearcha 


ir . . 95 


Scarba 


132 


Rudha Mhic'ille 


Mhaoil 75, 137 


Scatdale (Inbher) 


82 


Rudha mhic Mh 


arcuis . 64 


Scotnish 


36 


Rudha na droms 


L huidhe . 105 


Seoul! 


64 


Rudha na caillic 


,he . . 139 


ScouUer 


148 


Ruighe 


• 7, 19 


Scrinadale . 


139 


Ruighe-Raonaill 


. 88 


Scruitten . 


142 


Ruighe-samhrai( 


ih . .19 


Sealga (Tigh.) . 


136 


Ruime 


. 147, 153 


Sealltair . 


112 


Ruimineach 


• 147 


Seanlep 


124 


Ruinsival . 


. 237 


Sean Pheighinn . 


122 


Ruiteachan eorn 


a . .142 


Sekrsainn . 


112 


Rum . 


. . . 96 


Seasglach . 


106 


Rumach 


. 147 


Seidh .... 


lOI 


Runastach . 


. 147 


Seil .... 


57 






Seilcheig (Cruach) . 


136 


Saddell 


. 24 


Seile . . . .xii 


i., 238 


Saighde (Clach) 


. 106 


Seilisdeir . 


112 


Sail . 


. 142 


Selma. 


70 


Sailean 


19, 84 


Sgaigean . 


129 



INDEX 



271 



Sgkileacli . 

Sgklain 

Sgallaidh (Airidh) 

Sgallanish . 

Sgarach 

Sgarail 

Sgarbh-dubh 

-breac 
Sgat . 

Sgkthain (Cul) . 
Sgeir . 

Sgiathain (Fort) 
Sgiobinish . 
Sgluich 
Sgodaig 

Sgoraig (Sgeir) . 
Sgomach . 
Sgreadan . 
Sgreagach (L.) . 
Sgrithinn . 
Sguiliaird (B.) , 
Sgulan 
Sgurr . 

mhor 
Sgurra (L.) . 
Shamhlaidh (Cnoc). 
Sheallaidh . 
Sbenvalie . 
Sliian . 

Sbianta (IJeinn) . 
Sbleitir (Lag) . 
Sholum (L.) 
Shomliairle (Barr) 
Shugain (Cnoc) . 
Shuna (E.) . 
Shun-bheinn 
Siantaidb (B.) . 
Siar (Loch . 
Sibninn, Shiflan . 
Sil (Geodha) 
Siob . 



I'AC.E 

99 
112 

153 

143 

49 

148 

148 

148 

47 
127 

74 

33 

238 

70 

1,238 

74 

44 

30 

36 

112 

70 

122 

136 
136 
136 
148 
142 
70 
136 

94 

97 

231 

143 

153 

IZ 

148 

139 
60 

136, 148 

139 

139 



157 



Sionarlann 


I'AGE 
144,153 


Sioruidh, Siridh. 


. 108 


Sithean, Sliian 


70, 136 


Skeinidb (Sgeir) 


. 129 


Skeroblin, &c. 


• 30 


Skerrols . 


. 148 


Skerryfell fada 


. 28 


Skibble 


• 31 


Skipness . 


24, 32 


Slabhaig (Coire) 


106 


Slamhaich (Mac 


) • -114 


Slaochan . 


. 112 


Slatracb . 


. . 64 


Sleaghach . 


81, 106 


Sleibbtecoire 


106, 112, 118 


Sliabh aom 


. 148 


Slievevin . 


• 157 


Sligneach . 


• 94, 131 


Slinndricli (T6rr 


) . . 87 


Slinnein 


7 


Slugaid 


. 112 


Slugaide glas 


. . 158 


SmauU 


• 153 


Smerby 


. 30 


Snidbe 


. 97 


Snoig . 


• 239 


Sonachan . 


• 44 


Sopacban . 


. 148 


Sorn . 


106, 148 


Sornach 


• 139 


Spkinnteacb 


• 94 


Speireige (Gl.) 


. 137 


Srachdach . 


. . . 78 


Srkid ruadh 


. 127 


Sreine (B.) . 


. 118 


Sron-davain 


• 49 


-esker . 


41 


-nam fiann 


• 49 


-bhocblan 


• 53 


Sruthan 


. 106 


Stac, Staic 


• 97 



272 


INDEX 






PAGE 




PAGE 


Staffa 


129 


Tklaidli(B.) 


118 


Stafnish(R.) . 


27 


Tallant . . . . 


231 


Stairchaol . . . . 


70 


Tallasgeir ... 9 


9,231 


Stalla . . . . 


20 


Tallatol . . . . 


231 


Stallacha-dubha 


20,94 


Tambaisg . . . . 


49 


Stanail . . . . 


127 


Tambanaclid 


148 


Staoin . . . . 


158 


Tamhnach (Burn) 


49 


Staoin-bheinn . 


137 


Tancaird . . . . 


99 


Staoineig . . . . 


131 


Tangaidh (R.) . 


240 


Staoinisaig 


143 


Tangairidh . . 9 


9, 240 


Staoinisha . . . . 


148 


Tangy . . . . 


30 


,, -eararacli. 


148 


Taoid (Gort) 


148 


Stapuil (Cnoc a') 


9 


Taoislin 


113 


Starav 


72 


Tarbert ... 8 


2, lOI 


St^idh 


lOI 


Tayanock . 


148 


Stighseir 


36 


Taychromain 


31 


Stillaig, Stialaig 


47 


Taymore . 


60 


Stol .... 


lOI 


Taynchoisin 


37 


Storackaig . 


. 148 


Tayness 


41 


Stornoway 


• 36 


Taynloin . 


• 31 


Stradugh . 


• 30 


Tayntruan . 


31 


Streang 


. 106 


Taynuillt . 


. 60 


Stremnish . 


. 158 


Tayvallich 


36 


Striven (Loch) . 


• 49 


Tayvullin . 


. 153 


Stuadh 


. 106 


Teacuis (Loch) . 


. 106 


Suain (P.) . 


. 82 


Teamhair . 


• 153 


Suaineart . . . £ 


3,228 


Teampull a' gMinne . 


. 143 


Suirthe (Cnoc) . 


• 30 


Teanga 


• 113 


Siiil .... 


7 


Tekmail (Loch) . 


. 107 


Suileig 


. 78 


Teatle 


• 153 


Suiridhe . 


• 142 


Teis (Sron) . 


. 100 


Sunadale . 


. 240 


Teitheil 


. 70 


Snnart 


n 


Tervin 


. 60 


Surdag 


. 158 


Tbairbhirinish (R.) . 


. lOI 


Sweyn (Loch) . 


• 36 


Tbanahine . 


. 60 






Tbomais . 


• 119 


Tkchraidh (Clachan) . 


. 158 


Thorbhais (R.) . 


. 127 


Tackamal . . . i 


58, 231 


Thimacairidli (B.) 


. 118 


Tairbeart . 


20, 94 


Tibbertich . 


. 41 


Tairbh (Allt) . 


. 137 


Tighantrkigh 


• 39 


(Creag) . 


• n 


Tighe (Beinn) . . c 


)8, loi 


Taisbheinn 


. 148 


Tilgidb (Carn) . 


• 47 





INDEX 


273 




PAGE 




PAGE 


Tiobairt . 36, 107, 118, 137 


Triochadain 


• 70 


Tiompain . 


118, 194 


Trisleig 


. 82 


Tirdaghlais 


. 168 


Trodigal . 


• 27 


Tireoghain (Tyrone) 


• 173 


Tromlee 


. 60 


Tiretagain 


• 36 


Trosdale 


. 137 


Tirvaagain 


• 149 


Truisealaich (R.) 


• 137 


Tobar Chaluim Chillt 


i ■ ^33 


Tullochgorm 


. 41 


Tobar N^ill Ne6naicl 


1 . 154 


Tunna 


• 39 


Tobar Odhrain . 


. 143 


Tumacbaidh 


• 154 


Toberoiiochy 


. 64 


Tiirnalt 


• 57 


Tocamol 


. 231 


Tnmicil 


. 142 


Toitdubh . 


• 31 


Tjmribbie . 


• 70 


Tom (an) 


. 42 






Tomdonn . 


• 41 


Uachdar . 


. 43 


Tomdow 


41 


Uamhachan 


. 78 


Tom dubh sgkirt 


. 118 


Uambannan 


• 149 


Tomsl^ibhe 


. 118 


Uamhdail . 


. 107 


Tomtlre . 


• "3 


Uanaire 


■ 139 


Ton . 


• 154 


Udmail 


122, 241 


Tonan (na) 


. 122 


Ugadale 


. 30 


Torastain . 


. 124 


Uig . 


. 241 


Tormaid 


• 38 


Uigedail (Loch) 


. 241 


Tomabakin 


. . 158 


Uilibh (Baile and Gl. 


) • 241 


Torness 


. 118 


Uilleann 


7, 107 


Torony 


. 154 


Uillian 


. 41 


Torquil 


225, 240 


Uillinish 


. 241 


Torra dubh, Torra 


. 158 


Uisgentuie 


• 154 


Torran dubh 


. 158 


Uisken 


. 113 


Torran nam Mial 


. 86 


Ulavalt 


. 241 


Torrisdale . 


24,30 


Ulgadale 


. 241 


Tostary 


. 222 


Ulva . 


. . 36 


Totamore . 


. 124 


Urbbaig (L.) . 


. 124 


Totronald . 


. 124 


XJrrachan . 


. 241 


Trkth(L.) . 


. 122 


Ursannan . 


• 137 


Traille 


• 139 


Urugaig 


• 143, 241 


Trailleach . 


124, 139 


Uruisge (Coire) . 


. 118 


Tralaig 


• 57 


Ururaidh (B.) . 


. 158 


Trealbban . 


. 129 






Treidhreacb (E.) 


. 142 


Valoor 


• 154 


Treshnish . 


. . 130 


Vasapol 


. 241 


Treshtil . 


• 74 


Vaul . 


. 127 


Trilleachan 


• 70 


Vegain (Abhainn) 


• 49 



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