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compared by PLUTARKE of CHiERONEA 

't compared txoB 40 

[oMipansd „ 107 


see VOL. 


„ 76) 

« no 


compared „ 8S0 
» 488 


f compared 




AKCUS CATO aiid his Auiiccstcn, vfcrc (as 
tlw-y *Hv) of the city of ThuMjuItim : but 
before he went luito tlie warreH, and ddt in 
matters of the common wealth, lie dwelt 
and lived in the coutiy of the Saby-nes, 
upon ccrtcinc land his father left him. 
And though to nmny, his auncr^teTs were 
kiiowcn to hiive bcin; obsciirr; yot hi- hini 
self did highly coniiiifiidc his father Marciix, by iK-ariiig his 
name, and saying hv wa.i a>ouldicr, luid luul NCrvc-d valliantly 
in the flelde. And he telletli alto at an oUtcr Cato that was 
his great gnndfatlier, who for hin valliant neniee had Ijcnc 
oft: rewanicd of the generali, with iiuch honorable giftes, hk 
the Romainei did use to geve unto them, that had done some 
famous act in any Uittcll : and how that he havinge lost five 
horses of service in the warres, the value of the same were 
n-storcd to liim againe in money of the common tKeasure, 
btcausc he had shewed ltim»clfc trusty (uid valliant for the 
common wealth. jViid where tliey had a common kjhx-cIic at 
Rome t«> call tlKin u(»tftrU-», that were no gentleinvn btiniv, 
but did r'lfv bv verttie : it fortuned Cato to be called onu nf Cato catM 
them. And (or his parte, he did confease it, that he was **> ««p"t«'t. 
of the liRtt of the hoiiBe that ever had honor, and office of 
state : but by rearan of the noble actes and good service of 
his auncestors, be maintained he was very aimdcnt He was 
called at the beginning afler hi« third name, PriscuTi: but 
afterwardes by reason of his gn-at vrisedoni and expcrkticr. 
3: A I 

of thii words 


MARCUS he wfts sumamcd Cfttq, "bicitusc the RomunvK cull a wise mail, 
("ATO and him thnl Iwith* sCciic much, Cato. He wiw somewhat 
llie delinitioa eevni to bt rvtid* fi>ood, oiul had u paver of KtAiinf; ey<yi in 
his bcude, a^ thi* mati telleth uk, that for ill will wrote these 
ventes of liiitt iif^r hin death : 

Pluto (the f(oA) which ruled the furien iiifernttll, 
wU) tiot rM«iv« the dunued stiMt, of Porciua Id hk hall: 
',hi# uucy coppered ddm, ■Daflerv staring evm, 
. '., hU eommoit slftiinderouii XnXfi, whkh he dl<l In thi> world d^Mi 
.'^/.■■" Biad« Pluto utando lii dread thut he would brawle in h«ll, 
>. ' '. ' iilthntitrh hi* bon<« were drio and dead, nii cnrth he ww m fell. 

Cetoeeijuaan Purthernion.-, toucltinge the ili)>[>(»ition of hit body, he 

u)d Itfe. ' was mnrvelouis ntnmge «id lusty, aiid all bicauHc he did u»e 
to labor and toyle e\eti fnim his vnitli, and to li^e sparingly, 
A«one that wa.t ever bmught up in th^ wanvJifraRihi* youth: 
so that he was of a verj' good constitucion, l)oth for Htrenoth 
of body, OS for health also. As for utterance, he esteemed it 
as a seoonde body, and most neccssarie gift, not onelv to 
make men honest, but alM> as a thinge very requisite tor a 
man that should boorc sway and authoritJe in the common 
wealth. He practised to :tp«akc well in litlc villages nn-re 
home, whether he went many tiine-t to plead mcnnw eauses 
in courtk-s judiciall, Uiat wmiid retaine him of uiun-iell : so as 
in »lii>rtc time he became a perfect pleatler, and liad tongue 

Catoaoexeel- at will, and in proeewc of time became an excellent orator. 

tentemtor. After he was thus well knowen, tJiey that were familiar with 
him, began to perceive a grave manner and behaviour in his 
life, and a eertainc noble mindc in him, worthie to be 
employed in matters of state and great importance, and to 
be caUcd into the common wealth. For he did not onely 
refuse to take fees for his pleading, and following the causes 
he niainteined : but furthermore mode no reckening of the 
ertimacioii he wanne by that manner and practise, as though 
that was not Oie only marke he shot at But hi* desire 
reached further, rather to winne him st-lfe fnnie by service in 
tiie warres, and by valliant fightinge with hin enemie ; then 
with such a quiet and pleasing manner of life. Insomuch 
OS when he was but a younge stnplinge in maner, he had 
many cuttcs apon his bnst, which he had received in diverse 


battella and encounters asainst the enemieti. For he him 
selfe WTTteth, that be was out serenteene j-eare old, when he 
w«nt first unto the- w&ms, which was atmut t)i« time of 
HonnibalU chitfi- prospt-ritic, when he &poyled and destroywl 
aJI Italic. So when hcaune to iigliti he would strike hL^tvl v. 
and nv^'er sturrv UmU: nor gevc backe, tuid woulde \iHii,e 
cruelly ttppon hii enemie, and thrvatcn him with a feare- 
full and tOTible voycf, which l>e uM-d him wife, and wisely 
taught other alao to use tJie like : For Huch countcnaunces, 
aayed he, many times doe feare the enemies more, then the 
aworde ye ofler them. When he went any jortwy, he ever 
nuuvbea a foote, and caried bis annour apon bk iuu:kv, and 
h«l a man waytitige on him that caried hts vittellsi with him, 
with whom he was never anj^ (as they say) for any tbinf; be 
had prepared for his dinner or Kuupcr, t>ut did helpe to drottte 
it him wife for tlie most [Mrte. if he iind any leasure, wlten 
be bad done the duety nf a privntit iw>uldier in fortifying the 
campe, or Huch utJit-r nedefull buKine«»e. All the while he 
was abronde in »er%'ice in the warres, he never dranckc other 
then cleane water, unlcsse it were when he founde he was not 
well, and then he woulde take a litle vioeger : but if he saw 
be were wcake, he woulde then diinkc a litle wine. Now 
it fortuned, that Manius Curius the Romaine, who had 
triumphed thrisr, baddc a prety Iioum.* and landc hard by 
Cato, where be kept in timc^, which Cnto for a walk'e 
would vJMte oft. And he coiisuU-Hng how litle iwnde he bad 
to his houNC, and wluit a litle he luul wittuiU, and 
bow poorely it was built, wondered with him Kelfe what 
inaner of man Curius had bene, that having bene the greatest 
roan of Rome in bis time, and having subdued tlie mightiest 
nations and people of alt Italie, aiKl driven kinge PjTrus also 
out of the same: yet him selfe with his ownc handes did 
manure that litle patche of grounde, and dwel in so poore 
and nnall a farme. Whether notwithstanding, after his 
three tr4ump)K>s, the Samnytes sent their AmlMJtsadors to 
visite him, who fouiide him by the fyent side seething of 
peraeneapai, and pretented him a marvelous deole of golde 
Don their state and communaltv. But Curius returned 
them ogaine with their gold, and told tliem. tltat such as 


*l IT iresrca 
of age. 

A Kriaime 
lot^a, gtrretb 
tomir utha 

Tbia Mania* 
Curiui aver- 
ihrew klnsa 
rjmis b^w 
CaUi the elder, 
xiadered at 
ilie thrifUoes 
»f Msnlua 




,1 - - — 


MARCL'S were contented witb that supper, had no nede of gold nor 
CATO silver : and tliat for his parte, nc thought it greater honor to 
eoinniAtuide thera that had gold, then to have it him seUe. 
Cato reuiembring these thitig>n to him Mlfc, went homt 
agaioe. and begnnne to thinke upon his house, of his livinge, 
of his family and Kervauntes, mul of his exp<-ncc« : and 
to cut of all tiuperfliiouR diar^'N, and fell him Kclfv to labor 
with his owDc hiuid(«, more then ever he hadde done before. 
Furthermore, when FabiuH Maximus toolce the city of 
Tarentimi acaine, Cato served under him l>eing verj' votmge, 
where he fell into familiar acauaintanoe witli Nearcnus the 
Pythagofiaii philosopher, in whom he tooke marvelous de- 
limit to heare him talkc of Philosophy- Which Nearchua 
held the same opinion of pleasure, that I'lato did, by ealliiure 
it the sweetc poyson and chiefest hayte to allure men to ill : 
and saying that the body was the first plague unto the soule, 
and that hiT onely health, ncmnly, and purgation itoode 
Mix>n rules of reaiion, good exninplcs an<) oontvniplntions, 
tfiat drive xiuful thoughts and eanmll pleo-tunrx nf liie txKly, 
farre of from hei-. (^to moreover gave him «elfe mut-h to 
■obriety and teinperaunce, and ftamed him aelfe to be con* 
tented with litle. They say he fell in his very olde age to 
the study of the Grceke tongue, and to reade Greeke bookea, 
and that he pro6ted somwhat by Thucydides, but much 
more by Dcmootlienos, to frame his matter, and also to be 
eloquent. Whieh plainly appearcth, in all his bookcs and 
writinges, full of authoritit^, examples, and stories taken out 
of Gn'4-kv authore : aitd many of his sentenees and moralls, 
hiw adages and quickc answers, art- translittcd out of the same 
word for word. Now there win n noble man of Rome at 
tJiat time, one of great authoritie, and a decpe wise man 
Iteiides, who eoulde ea*ilv disceme huddes of vertue sprow- 
tinge out of any towardly youth, who wa» of a good and 
honorable disposition to helpe forwarde, and to advaunce 
such. His name was N'alenus Flaocus, a neere neighboure 
unto Cato, who was informed by his sorvaunts of Catoes 
I life- straunge life, how he would be doing in his ground with his 
owne hands : and how he would be gone evcrj- day betimes 
in tlie momiog to litle villages tiieriiubout, to pleade mens 

Nearchus th« 
CntOM Kbolfr- 

opinion of 

Cato learned 
the Gri-ekc 
unifui! in hii 

Cato prolitoil 
moct ny 

Valerius Flac- 




eatu«s that prayed his coiiniuiill, luiil th«t wlicn he had doiie, 
be would come' home againt' : anil if it were in wintrr, that 
be would but co^t a litk- ooate on Iiik Khouldt^n, And being 
sommer he would go out bare, luiked tu the wast, to 
worke in his ground among bin Hervnunts and other worke- 
mni : and would bend«, nit and eate with tbem together 
at one borde, and drinke as they did. Moreover, they told 
him nlxo a world of such manecs and facions which he used, 
thai shewed [him] to be a marvelous plaine man, without pHde 
uid of a good nature. Then they tolde him what notable 
wi»e sayinses and gmve sentences they heard him sueake. 
Valerius FUceiis hearing this reports of him, willed his men 
one day to pray him to come to Mipper to him. Who 
falling in acquaintance with Cato, and perceiving he wa« 
of a ven,' good nature, uul wul given, and Oiat he wa« a 
good gri'fTe to In.- wt in a better gnnmd : he pentwaded him 
to eonn- to Rome, and to practise there in the assembly of 
the i>e«)>le, in Uie connnon causes and alfayros of the common 
wtue. Cato followed hLs oounsait, who having bene no long 
practiaer among them, did erow straight into great estima- 
cion, and wanne him many nvnds, by reason of the cause» he 
tooke in band to defend: and was the better prefem^d an<I 
taken also, by meanes of tlie speviall favour and cumiten- 
aimcc Valerius Flwniii gave him. For first of nJI, by voyee 
of thept-oiiie he w«»ch<»en Tnlwne of the suuldiervi, (to nay, 
cotoncll of a tho4»and footenwn) and afterwards waa made 
trouorer : and ko went forwards, and grew to so great credit 
and authority, an he became Valerius Flaocus companion in 
the chiefent oHiees of state, being chc«en Consul witli him, 
and then Censor, Hut to begin withal, Cato made choise of 
Quintus Kabius Maximus, above all the Senators of Ron>e, 
and gave him selfe to follow him altogether: and not 
so much for the credit and estimacion Fabius Maximus 
was of, (who thcrnn exoedcd all the Ronuiin<« of tliat 
time) as for the modesty and discrete govenin)mt he sawe 
in him, whome he determini-d to followe, ftji a worthy myrror 
and example. At which time ("ato jmiweti not for the malice 
and evil will of Seipio ttte great, who did strive at that pre- 
sent being but a young man, with tJie authoritie and great- 


toHoiiH by 




C*to ch 

CatOM frfliM* 

in the S«iiate. 

Cato toUomU 



CstMi eaia 
iMion with 
Seipbi Uie 


Cmta beiajte 
tiiul«T Sci{iio 
Afriium, re- 
for liU wMt- 
Uti tijwtic**. 

Scipia «f riot 


f HMce, bb 
•ad tttiMiiM 


ntmt of Fabius Maximus, a> one that »eeme<l to envy hU 
rJAiiige and greatnesse. For Cato beine sent ireasoKr with 
Scipio, when he undertookc the jorney into Afrike, and per- 
ceiving Scipioes bountifull nature ai>d disposition to larce 
giflea without tneane to the souldicn: he toldc him plainly 
one day, that he did not so much hurt the common WMlth in 
wasting their treasure, an he did great liartne in c-haiin^ng the 
auQcient maner of th<^ir HuiK'vstrrs : who uoi-d thoir touldiers 
to be contented witli litlc, hut he taught them to xpendv 
their iiupcrfliiou* money (all neoeasariefl provided for) in vaiiie 
toye» and tritles, to nerve their pleasure. Scipio made him 
auDSwere, lie woulde have no treasurer shoulde controll him 
in that sorte, nor that should looke to narrowly to his ex- 
pences : for his intent was to go to the wars, witn full say lea 
as it were, and ttiat he woulde (and did aUo determine to) 
make the state privie to all hi£ doinji^ but not to the mon»' 
he spent. Cato hearing this auntwer, returned with spvde 
out of Sicile unto Rome, crying out with Fabius Maximus in 
open Senate, tlmt Scipio upeiit infinitely, and that he tended 
places, coniiuedieit, and wrestlingeK, aa if he had not bene 
•ent to make warrea, invasions, and atteraptea apoa their 
eitvmiea. Apon this complaint the Senate appointed oerteine 
IVibunea of the people, to goe and see if tneir informations 
were true : and bnding them so, that they should bring him 
backe againe to Rome. Rut Scipio shewed farre otherwise 
to the commissioaczs that came thither, and made them see 
^qMUSunt virtorte, thimigh the neceanur prcparucJon and 
prorision he had made for the warre* : and be confmcd liao, 
that when he had di.tpatched hi.i grettt buAiDewe, and was at 
any leaiture, he would be privately merv with hi* ftends : 
and tJiough he was tiberall to his aouldiers, yet that made 
him not negligent of his duety and cliarge in any matter of 
imoortance. So Scipio tooke shippinge, and sayled towardii 
Airike, whether he was sent to make v&itq. Now to re- 
tume to Cato. He daily increased still tn authority and 
credit by meanes of his cftxjucnce, so that diverse called him 
the Demosthenes of Rome: howbeit Uie maner of his life 
was in more estimadou, thra his eloquence. For all the 
youth of Rome did sceke to attaine to his vloquencv and 


commencUdon of wordeo, and one envied an other which of MARCOS 
tbem should come nearest: but few of tbem woulde fyle their CATO 
bondes with any labor as their forefathers did, and make a 
light supper and dinner, without fire or provision, or woulde 
be content with a mcanc go^mt^, and a poorc lodging, and 
finally woulde thinkc it more honorable to dvfj'c fansica and 
plesKures, then to have and enjoy tbem. Bicau.te the state 
wu waxen now of uich power and wealth, m it could no 
moK rctaine the aundent diwiplinc, and fonner au«t«TitJe 
and ttraitms of life it used : hut bv reason of tlie Inrgenes 
of their dominion and seigniory, and tlie numl>crs of people 
and nations that were become their subjects it was even 
forced to receive a medley of sundry contrv faeions, ex- 
amples, and manera. This was a cause, why ui reason men 
din so greatly wonder at Catoes vcrtue, when they sawe 
otber straight wearycd with paines and labor, tenderly 
brought up like pulers: and Cato on the other sid« nevvr 
oygrcommen, either with the one or with the other, no not 
in his yoiiUi, when he moft coveted honor, nor in his age 
also when he wiu gray headed and biddc, nfler his ConHiU- 
■Kip and triumphe, but like a conqueror that had gotten 
the nwistery, he would never geve over labor e^'en unto bin 
dying day. For be writeth him selfe, that therv never came 
gowne on his hacke that cost him above a hundred pence, Catoes woo- 
and that his hyiides and worke men alwayes dronke no worse derfall UurtfL 
wine, when he was Consul! and gcncrall of the amiie, then 
he did him n-lfc : and that his cater never bestowed in meate 
for his supper, above thirty Asses of Romainc money, and 
yet he sayed it was, bicauw he might be the stronger, and 
aptcr to do service in the wam« for his contry and the 
common wealth. He wiyd furthermore, that being heirc to 
one of liis frends timt d_v<il, lie had a pevn' of taiKStry 
by him with a deepe border, which they called then the 
babilonian border, and he caused it straight to lie solde : 
and that of all his houses he bad abroade in the contry, he 
bad not one wall plastered, nor rougfa caat. Moreover he 
would say, be never bought bondeman or slave dearer, then 
a thowsande five hundred pence, as one that sought not for 
fine made men, and goodly pcrsona^jea, but strong fellowcs 




' GentlciMtMie 
Koelfa further 
Utun jiutic«. 

unto brute 

A fvntle Uwa 
mid» hy tlic 
Atlmiaiia in 


ihaX could Away witli payiies, a* carters, horsclcepcrs neat- 
hearde&, and such like : and Rgaxne lie wmilde sell Ihtm 
wlien they were olde, bicause he uould not keepe them when 
they couldc do no service. To conclude, he was of opioion, 
that a mannc bought any thingc deere,that was for litJe pur- 
pose : yea, though he gave but a fiuihing for it, he thought 
tt to much to bestow so litlv, for that which needed not. 
He would have men purchu.'te hoiutw, that hadde tnnrc store of 
errable Imidc aikI pusture, then of line orteyanlw or ^u-dcin». 
Some Haye, he didde t,hu«, for very niiiterit- and eovetoiLsnesM : 
other tninke, and tooke it that he li\-ed ho spariiieely, Ui 
move others by his example to cutte of all supcriiuitie and 
w-ast Neverthelesse, to sell slaves in that Borte, or to tume 
them out of dores when you liave hadde the service of all 
their youth, and that they are growen olde, as you use brute 
beastes that have screed wiiih-st they may for age: me thinkcs 
that must necdes proceede of to scveare and greedie nature, 
that hath no Icnger regnrde or considcrHcinn of humonitic, 
then whilrat one i» able to doe an otlier eo<xl. For we see, 
geiitleiicste gucth further then junticc. Rir nature te«chcth 
uH to juntice onely unto menne, but gentleneuie Home- 
tiines is shewed unto brute beastes : and that commeth from 
the very fountaine and springe of all eurtenie and humanitie, 
wliich shoddc never drye up in any manne Iivinge._ I'or to 
aaye truely, to keepe cast horaes spoyled in our scr*-ioe, and 
dogges also not onely when they are whelpes, but when they 
be olde : be even tmicns of love and kuidencsee. Ah the 
Athenians made a lawe, when they builded their t«-mplc 
callwl Ilecatompedon: that thcv shouldc suffer Uie movie* 
an<l niulcttcs that di<l service in their cariages itbout the 
buildingr of the »an>e, to graze everie where, without lette 
or trouble of any manoe. And they say, there was one of 
Ihnint moyles tlius turned at libertie, that came of her selfe 
to the place to labour, goinge before all the other draught 
beastes. that drewe uppe cartes loden towardes the castell, 
and kept them coropanie, as though she si-cmed to encoragc 
the rest to drawc ; which the people liked so veil in the 
poore beast, that tliey appointed she shoulde be kept whilcst 
slie lived, at the chaive of the townc. And yet at this 


present are the gmrcs of Cimonx nuirni to be svcnc, that 
wanne him thrive togt-thLT th<^ ^tu' (>f the liorw nu'V at 
the games 0!i,Tnpwin. and thvy art- hardi- hy th« gmvv n{ 
Cimon him tvUv. WV hoan; of divcrae also Uiat haddc 
biiriod thrir dogf^-s they brought upne in their house, or 
that waytnl on thvm : as anionge otJier olde Xanthippus 
biiricd hiH dogge on the toppe of a diSe, which is called 
the dogges pit till this day. For when the people of Athens 
did fomke their citie at the oommingc dowiic of Xerxes 
the kinee, thi^ '^'^fl}^^ followed his master, sw-imminge in tlie 
Hea bv nis gallics nide, from the fimie landc, unto the lie 
< of Salamina, And there is no reason, to use livingc and 
f aencible thingcs, as wc wouldc use aD olde slioov or a rngge : 
I to cast it out apon tJic dongehill when wc have wonte it, 
' and ean ktvc us no longrr. Fnr if it w«Te for no respect els, 
but to use t» alwnycK to huniaiiitit; : we must ever tOiowe our 
selves kindc ami gentle, even in such small poyntes of pitia 
And as for mc, l i^ulde never finde in iny nart to sell my 
drswght iHe that hadde plowed my Umde a longe time, 
bicaii» he coulde plowe no longer for age : and mudi lesse 
mv slave to sell him for a litle money, out of the contric 
wKere he had dwelt a long time, to plueke him from his 
(dde trade of life vrherewith he was best (UHiuninted, and 
then specially, when he shnlbe as unprofitable for the buyer, 
sa also for the seller. Dut Cato on the otiier side gloncd, 
that he left his horse in S[>ayne he had Korved on in tlie 
vams duringv his Ouisiilrtltip, bicause he would not put the 
common wiidtli to the charge of bringing of him home by 
sen into Italie. Now a (juextion mieht l>e made of this, ana 
probable reason of either side, whether this was nchlenes, or 
m niggardliHW in him : hut otherwise to say trucly, he was a 
nuui of a wonderful abstinence. For when he was general of 
tl)e army, he never tookc allowance but after three bu^oUs 
wheat a moneth of the common wealth, for him selfc and 
his whole family : and but a bushel and halfe of barley a 
day, to keepc his hor^^ and othix bi-aste« fur bin cariiige. 
On a time when he was l*nrt"r, tliu govenimiiit of the 
He of Sardinia fell to his lot. And wht-n.^ tin- oUier I'netors 
before him haddc put the cuiitry t<i exceeding great charge, to 
8:B 9 


buriod nl* 
tvBmt by hu 
fCaUjTM ilde 
from AUlMIS 
anil dy«4 
wtiea ne 

itruKht lifi 

Cftto, PnrUit 
in ^irdiniM. 


C»ti>M neore- 
nuc in hia 


CatncB speech 
and writing. 

71) e praise 
nf Swrate*. 


fiiniish theni witJi tents, beddinj^, clothe^ and nucii like stuffe, 
njid l)iirdcned tliem alno with a marvelouH traine of ftervaiinta 
and their Trciida that waited on them, putting them to great 
ex{)ence of feasting and bancketing of them : Cato in con- 
trary maner brought dowiie all that esct-sse and BuperfluiUe, 
unto a marvelous nccrc and uncrcdibic savingc. For wheD 
he went to viaitc the citiw*. he camt- a footc to tht-m, and did 
not put them to a penny charge for hint sclfe : and liad onelj 
one officer or baihfc of the state, that wait«l on him, and 
caricd his gownc and a ciippc with him, to offer up wine to 
the goddcs in Win Nivrriftci.^ But t}u>ugh he come thug 
»)mp[y to the Rubjects, and wLted them of their former 
ciiarpTs, jet he shewed him st-lfe severe and hitter to thetn in 
matters concerning justice: and spannJ no man, in any eom- 
niaundement or service for the 6tate and common wealth. 
For he was therein so predse, that he woiilde not beare 
with any litle fault. So by this meanes, he brought the 
Sardinians under hi* government, both to love and fvtvrc the 
Empire of Rome, more then ever they did before. For his 
grace Iwtli iti siH'akinge «iid wrir'tnigi- did rightly shewe him 
selfe: bicniise it was pleiwiunt, and yet grave; sweet*- and 
fearful!: mery and sevcarc: smtt'rntiouK, and yet familiar; 
Huch as i.t meete to be !t|>oken. '^nd he wa.s to he comjiared* 
afl Flato Kayed, unto Socrates : who at the first sight seemed 
a plaine ainiple matme to them that knew him not outwardlvi 
or else a pleasant tawnter or mocker : but when they did 
lookc into nim, and found him throughly, they sawe he waa 
full of grave sentences, goodly examples, and wise per- 
swasions, that he coulde make men water their plaiitcs that 
hcarde him, and leade thpm as he would by the carc^ There* 
fore I can not see any reason that movu men to sayc, Cato 
hoddc Lysias grncc and iitt(Ttuin<v. Xotwitlistandingr, lette 
us referre it to tlieir juilgeuientes that make prufcNtjon to 
disceme oratont graci^ and »tylei>: for my parte I sludl 
content my »elfe to wiite at thiH present, onely cerlaine of 
his notable sayinges and sentences, 'pentwadinge my selfe 
that mennes manners are better discerned hy their wordes, 
then by their lookes, ond so doe many thinke. On a time 
he seeking to disawadc the people of Home, which wotdde 


nocdn make a thankt-fuU diHtribtiticHi of come unto cvfriv MARCUS 

citiu-ii, to no ptirpmr: bcgnnm* to niiikv nn oration with CATO 

tliis preriux.- : It is ii hnnU- tliin>^r (my LorilcH of KoiiK') to ('atoe* 

briiige tlie hvWk by pcntwasion to rt.-Hwii, thut hatli iio varva. wyiiige*. 

And sn other time, reprovinge the ill gqvanaaent of the 

dtie of Rome, he sayed : it was a hard thinge to kecpe uppe 

that Btat«, where a litie tiahe was solde dearer then an ()xe. 

He Gftyed aliw that the ItoniAines were like a flocke of oheepe. 

VoT aareih he, as every weather when he is alone, doth not 

obcj the shecpchL-ard, but when tlicy are all together t\u:y 

one followc an other for love of the fonmest : even to luv 

Qfor when you are together, you are all amtcntcd to bo 
o by tlie noses by sucli, whose couiisoll not a miui idotic 
of vuu wodlde use in luiy private cause of your owii«. And 
taJkinge an oUht time of the (uitlmritic the woiiu-ii of Komc 
htul over tlicir hushaiuKs. He »»yi-d : Otlwr men couiniaunde 
tlteir wives and we oommaunde men, and our wives com- 
m&und ufl. Uut this last of all, he borowed of Themiatoclcs 
pUssaunt Bayings, For bin mnne making him do many ThtrmiiitoclM 
things by meanes of his mother, be told his wife one day : "T"*- 
The Athenians comnmund al Greece, I commaundc tnc 
Athenians, you eommaunde me, and your sonne ruleth you. 
I pray you therefore bid him use the libertie he hath with 
some bettA^T discretion, foole and asse as he is, KJUiL-nce h« 
can doe more by tliat power and authority, Ukii all t)w 
Grctviam besides. He snyed aUo that the {Kvplc of Rome 
did not onely delight in divers' Hortes of purple, Ixit likcwiae 
in diverse jwrtes of exerdses. For !M»y<i he, as diverse com- 
tnonly dye that cuUour they see lie^t tsteerned, and is most 
plnnunt to the eye : even »o the lusty youthes of Rome doe 
ihune them selves to »uch exercise, as they sec your selves 
most like, and best esteme. He continually advised the Honor 
Roomines, that if thdr power and greattws cante by their nouriihrth 
vertuc and temperance, they should take hede tlwy became ""^ 
no chaungeling^, nor waxe worse : and if tliey came to tlmt 
grcatne« by vice and violence, that then they «hoidd cbaunge 
to better, for by tlmt mean<rs he knew very wel they had 
attained U> great honor and dignity. A^iin Itv told tJiem, 
tliat nueh M inicd ambitiously to beare t^oe in the common 




CaUi woulde 
punUh faiia 


wealth, and were common siiton for tticni : did st-mv to 
he afraid to lose thi-ir way> iind tht-rforv would Ix- miiv bu 
liavc iMhcra and scrf^caiits bofoi-e tJicni, to show thoiii the 
wAy, IcBJit they xhoultl Uwc thniwelvw in tlie city. He did 
reprove ibem alio, that ofliii i-hnsv one man, to continew 
one office still : for it SLtMnt-tii, aaith he, either that you psase 
not much for your officei'Si, or that you have not many 
choi&enien you thinke worthy for the office. There was 
an enemy of his that ledde a marvelous wicked and an 
abominaole life, of whomc he was wont to say, that when his 
mother nrnycd imto the goddes that nhe micht leave her 
Eoiine Ix-ninde her, she did not thJnkc to pmv, nut to cune: 
meaniiiKe to have him live for u iilafjue ti> tW world. And 
to an other also that hml untlinflely wide hit* lands whidi 
hix father had left him, lyin^ upon the tea side : he pointed 
unto them with his lin^r, and mnde as thouffh he wondered 
how he came to he so j^reat a man, that he was stn>nger 
then the sea. For tliat which the sea hardly conaumeth, and 
eateth into, by litlo and litlc a long time : he bad consumed 
it all at a clappe. An other time when kinge Eumenes 
was come to Itome, the Senate entertained him man-eloua 
honorably, and the noblest citizens did strive, envying one 
an utlier, who Khoulde welcome him Ik-st. But Cato in 
contrary maner shewed plaiiiejy, that he did «us[K"ct all this 
ftraxtinf^e and entertainetnent, and would not come at it. 
When one of his familiar frendes tolde him, I marvell why 
vou flie from king Kumenes companie, that is so good a 
iMnce, and loves the Itomaines so well. Yea, sayed be, let 
it be so, but for all that, a king is no better then a ravening 
beast tiiat lives of the pray : neither was there ever any 
kinge so Iia)>pie. that d«.«eTved to Ik- compared to Epami- 
notidas, to PericJtw, to Thcitiintocies, nor ti> Manius Curius, 
or to Haiiiylcar, .Minwimt'd linrca. They say his enemies did 
iiuilit.'e him, lie unvd (^onlmonly to riw.- before day, 
and did f<ir^^t hin ownv husines to folow niatten of state. 
And he affirmed, that he had rather loose the rewarde of hii 
well doing, ti\en not to be punished for doing of evil] : and 
that he would bearc with all other offending ignorauntly, but 
not with him selfc. The Romaincs having chosen on a time 


three Ambossadoni to aeaii into the rcjilinc of Bithynin, 
out- of them having tlie gowtc in his fix-te, tin; uthtr hiH 
betulc full of cuttes and great gaithvH, «i)d tiiti tliinl Iwiiig 
but a foolc : Cato laughiuge, a&yd the Hoinalnei sent an 
Amhawfle that had neither feete, heade, nor hart ijcipio 
nued once to Cato at Polybiiis request, about those that were 
baiUKh<il tram Achoiji. Tht- matter was argued aflerwardes 
in the Senate, nnd tltvTe fell out divci^ opinions about it. 
Some would liavc had them n-^tored to thtrir contric and 
goodea againe : other were whully against it So Cato 
roJnge up at the last, saycd unto Uiem : It sceme* we havi- 
litle else to do, when we ataiul lx-»ling of our braiiiea all duy, 
disputing about these olde Gri>ecia]iii, whether the Botnaines, 
or the Achatans, shall bury tliem. In the end, tlie Senate 
tooke order, they shoulde be reilored unto llieir contjio 
afEKinc. ^VherviipiHin Polybius thought to make petition 
agalnu unto the Senate, that the bamshed u>en whom tJi^ 
luidde restored b>' their order, might enjoy their former 
eatatea and honon in Achaio, they had at the time of their 
baniahmeut: but before he wuidd move the sute unto the 
Senate, he woulde feele ('atoes opinion fintt what he thought 
of it Who auuHwered him, xniyling : Me thinker Polybiits 
thou art like Ulystes, that when lie hwl iM.-«in.-ii out of 
Cyclops e&ve tlie g\'ant, he would nedn go thittter againe, to 
fetch his hatte and girdell he had left beliinde him there. 
He aayd also, that wise men did leame and profit more by 
foolev, then foolea did by wise men. l-'or wise men sayd he, 
do i*e the fmilts foolcs commit, and can wisely avoide them: 
but fooles never study to follow the example of wise mens 
doings. He «nvcd iiIko that ho ever liked young men better 
tlmt ))lu>.h«], tfien those that looked ever whitely : and that 
he woulde iiut have him for a souldicr. that wo^tgce his hande 
as he goeth, ren>ovi-» his feete when he (ighteth, and rowteth 
and snorteth lowder in hin »leet>e, then when he crielh out to 
his enemy. An other time wlwn he woulde tmnit ii mar- 
velous fatte man : See, saved he, what ^u<h1 can xuch a body 
do to the common wealth, that fVom hL'> cliinne to lii-t eodde- 
pcce is nothing but belly i' And to an otlier man tJiat waa 
genm to pleasun;, and desired to be great with him : My 




Infc. Fat titty 
Judged tltit 
rtiMon vas 

ElMwd in til* 
*Tt, follgw- 

Itluihin^ In 
then poleoaa 


A lover liveth 
in «ii other 

CMo, and 
Valfriuii Flac- 
Ciu f.'onxulR. 

CatocK daioRii 
in SjMyiuk 


frende, mtywl Cato, us rvfuKingc lii« iic()imintancc : I cad not 
liw witli liiin thnt Imth better jiid^niE'iit in ttie [MilUitc of 
his niouDi, then in his h».rt. This was aIho his xnyingv, tliat 
the Houle of a lover, livi-d in an others body : and that in all 
his life time he re]»entetl him of three tningts, 'Hie Brat 
was, if that he ever tolde secret to any woman : the scconde, 
that ever he went bv water, when he might have eone by 
lande : the tliirdc, t^at he had bene Idle a whole daVt ^id 
had doni- nothing. Also when he saw a vicious oldo man, 
he would say, to reprove him : O gmv Iwardc, ace bring«.*th 
many doforniittra wilh it, hvlpc it not V-sidcs with your vice. 
And to n M-ditiiiti.t Tribtiriv of the iicopk- thnt wns suspected 
to he a poysuniT, and would nixiim ^m.vti: sonic wicked law 
by voyce of the ix-ople, ho woulde say : O voinij; ninii, 1 know 
not which of tliese two l>e worse, to aiinke the dru^e* 
thou geveat, or to receive the lawes thou ofterest. An other 
time, Dcing reviled by one that ledde a lewde, and naughtr 
life: Go tliy way, sayd he, I am no man to soolde witn 
thee. For thou art so used to rc\-ilc, and to be reviled, 
that it is not daynty to thee: But for niv selfe, I never 
um: to hoare scalding, and much lc^»c dclitc to scoldv. 
These bv his wise sayingcs wc findc writttii of him, whereby 
we nmy tht? oasilitT conjecture his inanert and nature. Now, 
when lie was chosen OmMtdl with hLs fivnd Valenus Flaccus, 
tlie government of Spayne fell to his lott, that is on tliis 
side of the river of lla^tis. So, Cato havinge subdued many 
people by force of armes, and wonne others also by frendly 
meanes : sodainly there came a marvelous great army of the 
barbarous people against him, and bad environned him ao, 
as he was in man'clous daunger, cither shamefully to be 
tjikcn prisimiKT, or to be sitdiie in the ficldv. When-fore, 
he sent i)rt^scntly unto tlif Celtib*.'rians, to prriy aide of them, 
who weri- next nt-ighixHirs tnito the nuircrics where he was. 
llieM Ceitil>tTians did aske him two hundred tai«iiti-s to 
come and help him : but the Romain&s tliat were about him, 
coulde not abide to hver the barbarous people to defende 
them. Then Cato tolae them straight, there was no hurt in 
it, nor any dishonor unto them. For saved be, if the ficlde 
be oure, tnen we dial! pay their wages we promised, with the 


tace, from 
■povle and 


spovle and money of oiir enemies : and if we loo»*e it, then MARCtTS 
our selves and they lye by it, betnge left neither man to paVt CATO 
nor yet any to aske it In the ende he wanue the battel, 
after a sore coii6ict, and after that time he haddc man'clous 
eood fortiUK. For Polybiiis wryteth, that all th«- wallcs of 
the cities that wt-rc on this side the river of BH.-tic, were by 
his comraaundenient nued all in one chiy, which wcn> many, 
and full of good nouldii-r^. Him m'ITo wrytvlli, Umt lie tooke 
ntoe eitioi tii Spayne, then he reiiiiiiiied tlii-iv dnyes : and it 
i« iK> vain* hiwai, if it be true tliat ia written, that there 
were foure hundred cities of them. Now, tliough the 
twiuldiers under him had gotten well in this iomey, and were 
riche, yet he caused a pounde weight of silver to lie geven 
to evert souldier besides: sayinge, be lilted it better that 
many snould retume home nith silver in their purees, then a 
few of them M*ith golde only. But for him »elfc, he affirmed : 
that of all the spoylc gotten of the enemies, be never had 
uiy thingc, savinge that whicli he tooko in meatc utd drinke. 
And yet, myth he, I nn-ake it not to rejirovc tlicm that 
ROW riche by *uch unoiV-K : hut bieause 1 woulde conteiide 
in vertue ratiter witli tlie best, then in uwney with tike 
richest, or in oo*etousne« witli the most vertiious. For, not 
only he him selfe waa cleare from bribes and extorcion, but 
bis officers aUo under him kept the same course. In tbia 
Spanish jonrey, he bad five of his servauutes with him, 
whereof one of them called Pauus, bought three youngc 
boj'es that wen' taken in the wnrres, when the spoile was 
M>ldc to them that would geve m<*«t. So Cato knew it. 
But rauiiK being afmvvd to come nccrc hiK maister, hong 
him Kclfe: and then Cato Milde the buycs againc, and rnit 
the money made of them into the trmaory cbest«8 of navrng 
at Home. Now while (^to wa.<i in Spayne, ScJpio the great Dlaconte 
that was his enemy, and Aouglit to huider the course of hi.i '>et"fe*t Cato 
pmsperitie, and to have tlie honor of oonqueringe all the ""* Scipto. 
mt of Spavne : he made all the frcndes he could to the 
petite, to iie chosen in Catocs place. He was no sooner 
rntred into his charge, but he made all the possible spede he 
could to be gone, that he might make Cntoes autliority ceasse 
the sooner. Cato hearing of bis luuty eommitigc, tooKe only 



Cito o»er- 
came the 

after hi» CoD' 


five ensignes of footemen, and five hundred horsemen to 
attende upon him home : vrith the which, in hU jomey 
homeward, he overcame a people in Spayne called the 
Lacetanianx, and tookc sixe hundred traytora also that wero 
fled from the Komnini-s c«mpc to thdr encmit-s, aiid did put 
to death every mothers childe of them. Scipio slorminf; at 
that, sayd Catu did him wrong. But Cato to mockc him 
finely, saved : it va* the right nay tn hringe Rome to flori)th» 
when noDle borne dtiiceiis would not suffer mcaue home men, 
aiid upxtarU a» him selfe waf^ to go before them in honor : 
and on the other side when nieane bonie men woulde con- 
tende iji vertue, with those that were of noblest race, and 
farre above them in calling. For all that, when Cato <'amc 
to Rome, the Senate commaundcd that nothing shouldc be 
chatinged nor altered otherwise, then Cato had appointed it, 
whilest he wn» in hi* office. So that the government for 
wliich Scipio made sucli cttniwt nute in Spayne, wns a grmter 
diitgnu^c unto him, then it wa.s tmto Cato: bicause he pA.<9ed 
al liiM time and office in ]>eacc, having im oeca.iitin offered 
him to doe any notable service worthy memory. Further- 
more, Cato after he had bene Consul, and hadde graunted to 
him the honor to triumphe : did not as many others doe, 
that seekc not after vertue, but onely for worlaly honor and 
dignity. Who, when they have bene called to the highest 
ofnccs of state, as to be C^insulls, and have also graunted 
them the honor to triimiphe: do then Icnvc to deale any 
more in mnttem of ttjite, and dispose them wives to live 
merely and (|uietely at home, and not to trouble them selves 
any more. Now C^to, farre otherwise beha%'ed him selfe. 
For he would never leave to exercise vertue, but hcganne a 
freshe, aa if he had bene but a voung novease in the world, 
and aa one greedy of honor and reputarion, and to take as 
much paines and more then he did before. For, to pleasure 
his frends or any other citizen, he would come to the market 
place, and pleadc their causes for them that required his 
counsel], and go with his frcndes also into the warres. As 
he went with Tiberius Scmpninius the Consul, and was one 
of his Lieut^-nnnbi at \)w coiiijucst of the contry of lliraoe^ 
and imto the provinces adjoyning to tlic river of Daiiubve 



apon those iDsrcbes. After that, he was in Greece also, HARCDS 
Galloncll of a thow-sande footemen, under Manitis Aqiiilitis, CATO 
against king Antiochus siirnamed the grvat, viio tntulc the 
Bximjuiics ft.* much afrnycd of him, as cv«r they wen- of 
enemy btit lliimiihaJl. For, when he )nu\ wnqui-«-d nil the Thepowwof 
renoniiani! iin)vin(x-!j of jVsiii, which Si-lciicud Nicunor viijoyed Autiochu* 
before, and hiMi Nub<luvd many barbanjus and warlike nationti : "" P*"*- 
be was so prou<Ie l)nrt<^l, a« he would nitle» have want with 
the HomaineH, wltnni be knew to he the only worthy men, 
and best able to figlit with him. Su he made some honest 
show and pretence of narres, staying : it was to set the 
Greeciaiis at lil>crty, who had no cause thereof, considering 
they lived after their owne lawes, and were but lately delivered 
from the bondage of kinge Philip, and of the Macedonians, 
through the goodnessc of the Romaines. Notwitbstandinge, 
he cnmo out of Asia into Greece wjth a marvelous great 
Stmy, and nil Greece was stnught in nrmc» and in wonderful! 
dauii^T, bicaiiM.- of the great promiK^ hixI birge hop<!s tlie 
govcrnoiirx of diverw nti(ii (wlwme the kinge ha<l wonnc and 
corrupted with money) did make luito them. Whereupon 
Maniua dixpntcbed AnilMx<Hdor( unto tJie cities, and nent 
Titus Quintius I-laniiniua amuuge otJier^ who kept tlie 
greatest parte of the people fitiui rel>ellinge (that were easily 
drawen to geie eare t<> this innovation) as we have expressed 
more amply in his life : and Cato beinge sent AnibasHulcNr 
also, perswadcd the Corinthian*, those of Patras, and the 
jS)gians, and made them stJckc still to the Romaines, and 
continued a long time at Athena. Some ay the)- finde an 
oration of hi« written in the Grecke tong\ie, which he made 
l>cfon' the AtJieiiians in commendacinn of their niinecttcn : 
wherein be Miyd, he timkc great pleiwure to siv Athiiis, for 
the Ix'uuty and stntebnesH- of the city. But tliis is fiil.-sp. 
For lie -fpake unto the Atheuiaiw by an inteipreter, tliougb 
he ooulde have uttered bin oration in the Greeke tongue if lie 
had bene disponed : but he did like the lawes and customes 
of bis owDe contrie, and tlie Ronmine tongue »o well, that 
he laughed at them that woidd ]iraise and commend the 
Grceke tongue. As be did once mockc Posthumtus Alhinus, 
who wrote an history in tlic Grceke tongue, praying tlie 
S:C 17 


CaXo mocked 
AJbiuus a 
for writing 
m Btory jii 

cbus (urny. 

CttoM dolnga 




readers in his preface to bciirc with him, if they founde loiy 

imperfection in thi* tongue: Mary, iMiyd Cnt», he hnddi-wned 

pardon in deede, if he iiiuldv bene forned to liAii- wrylU-ii liis 

ittory in the Greeke t»np.s by order of tlw NtAti.-^ of Greece, 

CA]l<-d the coiiDHel of the Ainphictyoiix. They aay the 

Atlieiiiuu wondered to heare bin redy tongue^ For what 

he had utteruii ijuickely in few wordn unto the interoreter: 

the interpreter was driven to deliver them againe with great 

circum^taiKes '"'d many woi-dfi. So that he left tJiein of 

this opinion, that the Grcecians words lay ail in their lippcs, 

and ttie Romaines nordes in their heodcs. Now kincc 

Antioehua kept all the straightcs and narrow passages of tJio 

mountaines called Tfiermopyleis (bcinge the ordinary way 

and entry into Gn^-w) iukI had fortifii-d them a* wefl with 

his army that cHiii|K-tI at the fiwte of the mountaino, as alto 

with wallc* and In-uche* he had iniwle by hande, hesideH 

the nattinUl strengtli and fortification of tlie mount it nelfe 

in Kundry places: and »o he determined to remaine there, 

tnistinf^ to ItiK owne atreneth and fortifications aforcsaved, 

and to tiime the force of tfic warres Home other »iay. The 

Konmineii also, they dispayred utttrly they should lie able 

any wav to charge him before. But Cato renicnibringe with 

him selfe the compasse the Persians haddc fetched about 

before time likewise to enter into Greece : he departed one 

night from the campc with parte of the army : to prove if 

he could ftnde the very compas<(- about, the barbarous people 

had made before. But w^ they elimt^d up the mountaine, 

their gui(ie that was one of the priwmers taken i?i the contrie, 

loHt hix way, and made tliem wan<]er up and <lowue in mar< 

velouii nt^-eiie rocket and crooked wayta, that the |>oorc 

snuldiers were in marvelouK ill taking, ('ato Het^irig the 

daiinger they were brought into by thu lewde guide, com- 

maunded all liis tiouldiers not to itturre a foote from thence, 

and to tary him there : and in the ineane time he went him 

selfe alone, and Lucius Manlius witli him (a lustie man, and 

nimble to dimbe ajmn the rocket) and so went forwarde at 

adventure, takinge extreamc and uneredible naine, and in as 

much daungcr of his life, grubbing all iiignt in the darke 

without moone light, through wilde Olyve trees, and high 



rockcs (that lirt them tbcy coutdc not tsoc before them, MARCUS 
neither cmtlcL tvll whvtJier tl>ey went) untill they stumbled CATO 
at tlw length uppon a litle p»th« way, whit-h went as they 
thought oirvftly to the foot*; «f tlw itiuuiitniite, whii-e the 
OUDpe of thv enemies Jay. So they nvt uppc ccrlvUic nitirkvs 
and tokens, uppon tlie highet«t to|)])L-« of the rockvs tJicy 
eotilde ctHwttc, by vievt of eye to be di.4oemed furtlie^t of 
upon the mountaiiie called Callidniraua. And uhni they Mount CkIU- 
had done tiiat, they returned bcu-ke againe to fetdie tKe <IromiML 
souIdier&, whom they led towardea their markeit they had 
set up : untill at the length they founde their patlie waye 
uadac, where they putte tJieir souldiers in order to niarche. 
navr they went not fane in this pathc they founde, but the 
way failed them etratght, and brought them to a hogge: 
but then they were in woree case then before, and in greater 
feore, not knowinge they were so neerv their enemies, as in 
deede they wen.-. The day bcffRii to breake a Iitle, and one 
of them that nuirclu-d forn>i.-Kl, thought he heiirde u uoyse, 
and that he saw the Greeket aiiDp<- ut the foote of the 
rovk<-K, and eerteine Kuuldiers tliat kept watch thtre. Where- 
upon C-ato niiule thera Ktay, and willed only the Firnuinian» 
to eonie unto hint, and none Init them, bicauiie he had 
founde them faitltfull before, and very ivady to obey his 
oonim&undement. 'I'hey were with him at a triite to Know 
hU pleaflure : »o Catu said unto them : My fellowes, I Catoei on- 
have some of our enetnies taken prtBOoero, that I may know ti«m to hia 
of them who they be that kecpe that passage, what number «"»l^e«- 
they be, what order they kecpe, howe they are camped and 
armed, and afler what sorte tliey determine to fight with us. 
The waye to worke thiN feate, standeth npon swiftiics, and 
hardim« to nmne upon theui suduinely, as Lyons doe, which 
beinge naked fean- not to runne into tlte middent of any 
hearae of fearfiill bewtes. He ha<I no sooner s|)oken thene 
wordc«, but the Firmanian »ouldicn begnniie to runne downe Tlio boMenw 
the mountaine, as Uiey were, apon tliose that kept tlie "»'' vnllkiii 
watch : and so itetting anon them, they beinge out of order, ??^^* * 
mode tlieni Hie, and tooke an armed man pri^ioner. When ^^ai^gf^ 
they had him, they straight brought him unto (^to, who by 
otiie of the prboner wu advertised, hone that the strengtn 


tilted of the 
■trcii^rUi of 
klitft Anlio- 
cbui cunpe. 

Cato tooke 
tiie straight of 

Klnge Aiitio- 
diuH hurl In 
the face witli 
B stone. 

tory of Iciiif^e 

Cito woulde 
owiM doings. 


of their enemies annio was lod;i;(Hi about th« persooe of the 
kince, witliin tlic straight slid vftlk-y of t}ic Miid moiintoint! : 
and tliat tJit- soiildicre Ihcy saw, wen- wise liundrcd ^Etolians, 
all brave Kuuldti-rs, nbomc they hud c'hosvn niid Hopointcd to 
kccpe the topiM- of the rockcs over king ^Vntioeliiis «ini[H'. 
When Cjito bad heard him, making small accompt of the 
matter, ok well for U>e)r Kmall numljer, a* al«o for Uie ill 
onli-r th«y kept: he made tlie troinpett Houiide fttmight, and 
his Kouldieis to inarche in battell witli great cries, him )»elfe 
being the fonnest man of all hia troupe, with a swonk 
drawcn in his hand. Hut when the .^tolians saw them com- 
minz downc the rockea towardes them, they bcKannc to flie 
for fife unto their great campe, which they tilled full of fcare, 
trouble, and all disorder. Now Manliuii at the same present 
also, eavc on assault unto the vrnlles and fortili cations tlic 
king had made, overthwart the valliex and Ktraightcs of the 
mountnim-s: ut which nssnult, king Aiitiochus Kdfe had a 
blow on the face with n stone, that strake Komv of hix t<-eth 
uut of hiii mouth, no that for very piiine and anguij^h he felt, 
)ie turned his bone t>a<:ke, and got bim lieliinde tlie prease. 
And then there were none of his annie tliat made any more 
resistaunce, or tliat cotitde abide the fierceness of the 
Homaincs. But notwithstanding that the places were very ill 
for flying, bicausc it was unposriUe for them to scatter and 
straggle, Dei ngc holdcn in with high roekes on tl)c one side of 
tiicm, and with bogges and decpo manss(» on the other side, 
which they must ncrdcsfall into if their fcetc clipped, or were 
thniHt forwardo by any : yet tltey fell one n()on an other in the 
atnighte«, and ranneKuin hi-j»|K» together, that tlw-v east them 
selves away, for feare of tlie Romnines *woi-d<-s timt lighted 
uppon them in every comer. And there Mtirctix VnU>, that 
never made ceremony or nisenes to praise him selfe openly, riitr 
reckened it any shame to do it : did take a present occasion for 
it, as falteth out apon all victory and famous exploytes. And 
so did set it out with all the o*tentacion and brave wordes he 
could geve. For he wrote with his owne handes. tliat sudi as 
saw him ehiise and lay upon his flying «nenues tliat day, were 
driven to say, that Cato was tiot uomid to the Bomsinra, but 
the Ronuiiiics bound unto Cato. ^Vnd then Manius the Consull 


selfc, bcinff in a great htttU: with the furi« of the battcll, 
etnbnux-d Cato a great while, that was also hottc witli dms- 
ingr of tJif cm-niy : and spake alowde with great joy before 
thiin nil. Iliiit neither he, nor the people of Rome votild 
reooroixiiw C^ito for his vnllinnt wrvicc ttmt day. After 
thi« buttcU, th« CoiiKul Maiiius m-nt Cuto to Koiu«, to he tlie 
HMMcnger hiin adfe to rcixirte the neve» of the victory. So 
he imbarlted incontinently, and had Kuch a, fayer winde, that 
he pa.<»ed over the sea to DrindeM witliout aiiv daunger, and 
went from thence unto Tarentum in one day, and from 
Tarentum in foiire daye* more to Home. And^ so he came 
to Home in five dayes after hia landing in Italie, and made 
such spccdc, that him sclfc was in dceae the first messenger 
that brought ncwcs of the victcme. Whereupon be filled all 
Rome with joy and sacrifices, and made the Ronuiines so 
proiide, that ever after they thought thnn selves able men to 
comiuer Uie worlde both uy sea wid laiidv. And t)ie$c be 
all tJie martijiU deede* aiid noble «ctc« Catn did. Rut fur hi« 
doings in dvill policie aiid Ktate, he semcd to be of thiH 
opinion. .'That to accuse and pursue the wicked, be thought it 
waa tlte l>e»t thinge an honest man and gDO<l govomour of the 
common wealth coulde employ him selfe unto : for he accused 
iiiaajr,and subscribed many otlier accusations which they pre- 
ferred. And to be shorte. he did al wayes stirro up some accuser, 
as he did I'etiliits against Scipio. But Scipio, by reason of his 
nohiiity, the greatJics of his bouse, and the magnanimity of his 
mindc, passed not for any accusation they could lay against 
him: bemgout of all feare, they shouldc be able to eondenuie 
bi»i. And m h*' Ii-t ftdl the accusation he liod against him, 
Notwitlutanding, he joyned with other tJuit occuttcd Ludus 
hiui, that he caused him to he coniK^nmed tnagrcAtMimmcof 
money to the commonwealth: who being uiuible to pay the tine, 
bad gone to prison, and hardly scaped it, had not tne 'IVibunes 
of the people revt^ed hia condemnation. It is sayd that Cato 
comming through f he market place oik day, and meeting with 
a younge manne by the wav ttint had ovcrthi'owen his advtr- 
MTjr in sute, and put one of his late fathers greatest enemies 
I open shaine and foylc before the people : he imbracol him 




Ataiiiiu send 
elb Ckto to 
Rome to c»rj 
oewM of the 

Cato au M> 
cuter of men. 


Cato fifty 
time* Bccuied. 

Th« diariiitjr 
kud office or 
the Ceiiwr. 


with a good coimtenaunce, and sayd unto tiim : Oh my 
Sonne, Hacrilioes that good children flhould oSer to their 
fathtTB soule, be not Lommes nor kiddes, but the teares and 
condrm nations of their enemies. But as he vexed other, so 
be scaped nut frev him selfe from dnunger, in administration 
of thtt common wealth. For if they could kntch the least 
vantage iu the world of hlin, his enemies straight accused 
him : w ut titvy Kay hv was ai'cuscd almost a fifty times, and 
at thfi lait time of his accuwtion, he wax about tJic age of 
foure wore yeareji. And then he »]iakif a thing ojKiily tliat 
was noted : that it was a harder thinge to geve up an 
accompt of his life before men in any other world, then in 
this among whom he lived. And yet was not this the last 
sute he followed : for foure yeares after, when he was foure 
score and tenne yeares of age, he accused Servius Galba. And 
thus he lived as Nestor, in uianer three ages of man, alwayes 
in continuall sute and action. For when he wrestled with I 
the first Scipio the African about matters of state and 
cx}mmon wealth ; he went on unto the time of the seconde, 
that was adopted by the tint Scipioe* sunne, the natural! 
Konnc of Faulus .fmylitis, who overcame Perseus, king of 
Macedon. Furthermore, Marcus Cato, tenne yeans afUr his 
CoiMulship, sued to be Ccn»or, which was in Rome the greatest 
office of dignity that any citizen of Rome could attiiine imto ; 
and n.s a man may Miy, the roome of all glory anil huiKir 
of their common w<>altli. For among other authoritii-x 
the Censor had |>owcr to examine mens lives and manen, 
and to puniiJi every oflendor. For the Homaines were of 
that minde, that tney woulde not have men mary, gette 
children, live privately by them selves, and make feastea and 
banckettea at tJieir pleasure, but that they should standc in 
feare to be reproved and intjuiered of by the magistrate : 
and that it was not good to geve eveij- body liberty, to doe 
what they would, following Ins owne lust and fansie. And 
they jiiciging that mens naturall dispositions do nppearc more 
in such tilings, then in all other thinge.< that arc openly done 
at none duyvs, and in the sight of the worldc : UK-d to chooite 
two Cen-Hori, Hint were two Surveyom of nianeni, to see that 
every man lichaved him selfc vcrtuously, ami gave not them 


•elves to pleasure, nor to brcake the lawes and customes 
of the common wealth. These officers were called in tiieir 
tongue, Cenxora, and alwajcs of custome one of them was a 
Patridan, and the other a commoner. These two had power 
and authorit)' to dUr^mdc a knight by taking away his horse, 
and to put any of the Senate, whom tlicy saw live ditsolutely 
and disorderly. It was their office also, to cx-hsnc aud rate 
every citizen accordingc to the estimncioii of their goodev, 
to note the agi-, genealogiv, and (li^rvcs of every man, and 
to kcpe bookes of them, bc»)de» many other prt^rogutive* 
they had b<'loiiging to their office. Therefore when Cato 
came to «ie for this <»fBc« among other, the chieft^t Senator* 
were all bent aj^iuKt him. Soutc of Llii:iii for very <-nvy, 
thinkinjte it iihame and dishonor to the nobility, to sufTt^r 
mvnne that were ineanely home, and upntartes (the first of 
their boiue and name, that ever came to beare ofBce in tlie 
state) to be called and preferred unto the highest oflicBB of 
state in all their common wealth. Other also that were ill 
livers, and knowing that they had offended the lawcs of timr 
contry: they feared his cruelty to much, imagining he would 
spare no man, nor pardon any offence, having the law in his 
owne hands. So when they had consulted together about it, 
they did set up s^-cn competitors against him, who flattered 
the people with many fuyer wordvs and promises, as though 
they hao nccde of magistrates to iist^ them gently, and to doc 
thingc« for to plcaM- tlH-m, But Catu cmitrariwiM;, shewingc 
no countenaima- tJiat he would use tlii-m gt'iitly in the office, 
but opt-uly in the pulpit for orations, threatnmg tluwc that 
hod lived naughtily and wickedly, he cried out: that thi^ 
murt refomne Uieir citie, and nerswaded the people not to 
ehoone the genUest, but the mmrpest phisitions: and that 
him ftclfe was such a one as they needed, and among the 
PatricianB N'alerius J-'laccus an otncr, in whose company lie 
hoped (they two beingc chosen Censors) to do great good 
unto the common wealth, by buminge and cutting of (like 
Hydras hcades) all vanity and voluptuous pleasures, that 
were crept in amongest them: and that he sawe well enough, 
how all the other sulers sotight the office by dishonest meanea, 
fearing such ofBccrs as they knew would dcale justly and 



How the 
(^usora were 

Tbe ScnAton 
and »oMlh]r 
bent all 



In Ub ceD«or- 

Cato put 
Luviua Quin- 
nf the Sanste. 

The cHiise 
whf CHtoput 

Suiatiu* of 
• Swato. 

Lucius Qiiin- 
and cruoltf. 


upri^tly. Then did Utc people of Home shvw thvtn wives 
nobly minded, and worthy of noble govcrnoun. For tlicy 
refused not the wiuemesse or severity ofOito, but rejt-cted 
theite menJe motithed men, Uiat NeeiiH?d reoiiy to plenoe the 
people in all thinges: and thereupon cIiom; Marcus Cato 
Censor, and VateriuB l-laccus to be liis fellow, and tliey did 
ol>ey him, as if he hadde bene presejit officer, and no auter 
for the officf, being in themselves to give it to whom they 
thought good. The fint tiling lie did id^er he was stalled 
in his CenAorsliip, was: that he named Lticius Valerius 
Flaccus, his frond and fellow Censor witJi him, prince of 
the Sennt<- : and among many other hI.'^o u'hnm lie thrust 
out of the Senate, ho put I^ucius Quintiu.t Flnminiu» of the 
Senate, tluit had bene Coiisull seven yeares bt^fore, and was 
hrotlier al«o unto 'I'^tus <juintius Flnniiniua that overcame 
Philip king of Macedon in battell, which wa« greater glory- 
to him, then that be had 1)ene Conaull. Hut the cauAe why 
he put him of the Senate, was this: This Lucius QuintiuH 
caried ever witli him a youngc boy to the warres. whon> he 
gave as good countcmuinee and credit unto, as to any of 
hb best Mjuiliar frcndes he had about him. It fortuned on 
a time whilcst Lucius Quintiu« was Consul! and govemour 
of a province, that he niade a fcA^t, luid tliirt Iwy being set at 
his table lianl by him, as hi.i maner was he ht-jranne to flatter 
him, knowing how to hiuidle liim when he wjm prelily mery : 
and sootliing him, told him he loved him m dean-ly, that 
u|ion hii« de[>arling from Home, when the SwortU-plaiers 
wert ready to ligiil for life and death with unrebated ftwords 
to diew the |H<ople (lastime, he came his way, and left th« 
light of that he never saw, that was very desirous to have 
•eene a man killed. Then this Lucius (^uintius, to make 
him aee the like, sayed ; Care not for the sight thou hast 
lost, boy, for I will let thee see as much. And when he had 
Hpoken these wordes, be commauiided n prisoner condemned 
to dye, to be fetched and brought into nis hall liefore him, 
and the hangman with hiK axe. Which was forthwith done 
according to his commaundement. Then a.iked he the boy, 
if he would straight see the man kilh'd : Ycit, sir, iwy<l the 
boy : and with that he ))a(l the lumgmait strike of hi» head. 


Most wrytera reporte this matter thus. And Cicero to con- MARCUS" 
firmc it also, wrote in his hooke df SemftuU that tlie same CATO 
was wr}-ttcn in sn oration Cnto made before the people of 
Rome, Now lAieiuG ^uintius bcinge thus shfuncfidlj put 
of the S«^niitv by Cato, hts brother Titus bcioge ofiended 
withull, collide itot \A\ whnt to doe, but bcxoueht tlte people 
thev woiddt- coniinniiiule C-ato to deelare tin- chusc, whj 
he brought hxkU ^hiuiu- iintu hi.t huituc. Wbercuppon C^to 
openly T>cfiiri- tht- iK-ople, miule rei'itiill uf all thiit fnut. 
And when Luduit dV-ninl it, aftinniiiee it was not »o: Cato 
would have had him &worne before tJiem all, that it wa» not 
true they had burdened him withaU. But Lucius prayed 
them to )3ardon him, who saved he wouldc not sweare: 
^\'hcrCTipon the people judged straight that he deserved 
Well ihni sliamc. So not longc after, certaine games bcinge 
xhi^-wi-d in the Theater, Lucius nunv thither, and pas»inge 
tx-yniide the ordinary plnt^- that was uptioiuted for tliose 
tliat liad Ix-iic Consuls, he went tu Kit nloofv of ainongvst 
the multitude. The ]H-ople tooke pity on him, kikI mtule 
auch a do about him, n.i they foree<l hnn to riw, and to gi> 
ait among tin- otJier Senaton> that had bene ('onHulH: saKin^ 
the best they could, tlie ahame and dislionor hapiwned unto 
so noble a house, ('ato put out of the Senate also, one Af&uiJiuii put 
^fanilius, wImi was in great towaixlnes to have bene made jf •**' Seiut«! 
Consull the next yere following, only bicause he kissed hia 5^^X1-6 E 
wife to lovingly in the day time, and before his daughter: jBHghter. 
and reproving hini for it, he toldc him, his wife ne^er Itisscd 
him, but when it thundei-ed. So when he was dinpoK-d to 
In- niery, be would a»y it wiw luippy with him when Iupit«-r Mer^wSik 
tiiundeml. He tooke away I^R-iiis Scipioes horae from liini, """ned "nen 
that had trimnphed for the victories he had won against the nj'^"j'"'^*** 
great king AntiochuK: which wan him much ill wil, bicauM' 
it appeared to the world he did it of purpose, for the malice 
be did beare Scipio the African, that was dead. But the 
most thing that greeved the peojile of all other cxtrcaniities 
he used, was his putting downe of all fcastes and vaine ex- i)aIlkl^tinK 
pcncee. For a man to take it cleaae away, and to be openly •'"' f«™*<" 
Krnv in it, it was unpossiblv, bicause it was so common a ^" CatT'"^ 
thinge, and every man was given so to it. Hierefore Cato 
3:D 25 

CUoci own- 
Mi lbrr»- 

rxr<«o « 


MARCUS to tetche it About iudiiwtly, did nnuM.' wrry citizens g<Mxie8, 
CATO and rated tJicir nmmrt-tl, tlidr oocIk'*, tht-ir littrre, ttieir n-ives 
chainex aikI juolK lUid all ulhcr iii«vc»bl«i ntiil hoiiAehold 
Htufic, thitt liod cost above a thousand live buiitired I>rachmc3 
a pcece, at t£nne timea as mutli ax ttiey wt-re nurtli : to the 
end tltat such as had bestowed their tnoiiey in thiiw curioiis 
trifles, should pay so much more subsidie to the maintenance 
of the common wealth, as their goods were over valued at. 
Moreover Ite ordained for every thousand Asses that those 
triBing things were praised at, tlie owners of them should 
pay tniTc thousand Assva to thv common treasory : to the 
cndc that they who wen- gnt'%'ed witii this Uwv, and sawe 
other pay 1c^sk> )>ub«idy (tJiat wcrv as much worth lu tJiem 
selves, liy living witliout »uch toyes) misht coll home tliem 
aelves againe, and lay a side such I'oolixht- bravery luid line- 
Dene. Notwith.itatufinge, Cato was envied every way. First, 
of them that were contented to pay the taxe imposed, rather 
then they would leuve their vanity: and next, of them also, 
that wotdd rathiT reforroc them selves, then j»ay the taxe. 
And some thinke that this law was devised rather to take 
away their goodcs, then to let them to make sIh'w of them : 
and they have a fondc opinion bccidcs, that their ricliiii it 
bettcrseene inmiixTfliiousthinpsHien in necwwary. Whereat 
they say Aristotle lite Pliiliw*iplnT ilitl womier morv, then 
at any other thing: bow nn-n nnild thiultc them mort- rich 
and happy, that had many curious and sutieHluoii.s things, 
tl»en tiuise tliat had neceiuary and profitable things. And 
Scopos the Thesaaiian, when one of his familiar frends a^ed 
him, I know not what trifling thing, and to make him graunt 
it tiie sooner, told him it was a tiiinge he might well snare, 
and did him no good : mary saycth he, all the gooocs I 
cK have, are in stich toyes as do me no good. ^ this covetous 
desire wc have to be rich, comnietli of no neoessary de«irc in 
nature, btit is bred in us by a falic o)>inion from the common 
sortr. Now, Cuto caringe least of all for Ote exclamations 
they mode ngaiti^t him, grewe to be more straiglit and severe. 
For he cut of the pipes and quilles private men had made to 
convey water into their hotues and gardens, robbing the city 
of the water that came from their common conduite hcades, 

reckoned for 

I m 
tov«*, that 
did tiim no 


and (lid plucke downe also mens porches Uiat were made 
before their dores into tlie strete, and brought downe tike 
prises of common workes in the city, and moreover raised 
the common farmcs and customes of the cit}-, as high as 
he could : all which things togc-thor mHdo him jjTeatly bated 
and cnvivd of uiont men. ^VhiTcfore, Titus l-ikminiuB, and 
ocrtsine other bi-itigi- bent sgiumt him in open Senate, 
caused all Catoitt coviiintmtn jmd baigaintv mudc, with 
the nuwtcr workv man for rennyrinfc (UhI mending of the 
common Iniildings and huly inaceit, to Ix? made voide, aa 
tbin^ ercatly prejudidall to tlte comntun wealth. And 
tlu-y did al«> »tirr« up the l)oldeat and r»jtlH?nt of tlie 
Tribunes of tln^ people against him, bicaiise tliey shouldv 
Mcuse him unto the people, and make request he might 
Ite condemited in the summc of two talentcs. They did 
marvclousty binder also tlie buildingo of the pallace be 
built at the charge of tiic common wealth, looking into the 
market place under the Senate house : which palluce was 
finished notwithHtanding, nnd allied after hi» nauie. Bnsilica 
Forcia: a* who would say, tlie pallacr Porcius the Cenwr 
built. Huwelx'it it M-eiiied tbi- jieople of Itonie did greatly 
tike and comniemi hL« government in the t'ensonthipix!. For 
th«y »et up a statiK of him in the temple of the goddeoae of 
healtli, whereunder they wrote not his victories nor triumphe, 
but only ingisved this inscription word for worde, to this 
effect by translation: For the Iwnor of Marcus Cato tlje 
Censor : bicause he reformed the discipline of the common 
wcaltli of Rome (tlutt was farrv out of order, and given to 
licentious life) by bis wise j>rvoi-pt«w, good mfmer^ and holy 
instit^itioiui. In dec<lri before Uii« image wax set up fur him, 
he was wont to mocke at thtrni that dvlightcd, and were 
di^sirouN of such thingcs : Myiiiji, tbiry did not coiiiidcr how 
they bnif^^ hi founders, piunten, and image iiiakers, but 
nothing u? their vertues : and that for him selfe, tlie people 
did alwayed cary lively images of him in their liartes, niean- 
inge the memory of his life and doings. When some 
wondered why dircrw nieanc men and unknowen persones 
liad images f«t up of them, and there were none of him : he 
gave them this aunswer : I had ratlicr men should nskc why 


I'orcU built 

wt up in tii«i 
taoipla of tho 

dUNW of 






No roan 
•hould ^ide 
to be pniaed 
but fiir Uie 


was at bailie 
Id bb hioam, 

Us wife and 

Cato judfiietli 
tbe noble 
borne gciille- 
woRien the 
best ttiviai. 

Coto tmd no Iniogt- xct un for him, Uien why he had any. 
In tin- cndv, tit would have no honeat man abide to be 
pmiited, oiile:* lii» praise turned to the benefit of the common 
wealth : aiid yet was he one of tbem that would roost praise 
him selfe. So that if any had done a fault, or slept awry, 
and that men had pone about to reprove them : he woiimv 
say they were not to be blami-d, for they were no Catocs tluit 
did ofFeude. And such as couiitiTfoatcd to follow any of his 
doinecs, and ctime shortv of liis maiHT, hv called them lefl 
hanmd Catoct. He would x&y, tltat in most datrngcrouM 
times the Senate u»ed to caxt tlioir eyei ujHin him, u* pa»- 
•00261* on the iva do looke upon ttx- nianter of tlie shippe Jn 
a HOnne: and tlmt many times when he was nl»ent, the 
Senate would put over niattem of importance, untill he might 
come amon^ them. And thia is continued to be true, as 
well by other, as by him selfe. His authority was great in 
matters of state, for his n-iscdomc. his eloquence, and great 
experience. Besides this commcndtu-ion, tlioy praised him 
for a good father to his i-hildrcii, n fi^ood lui.'slMrKr to liis wife, 
and ft gootl silver for his jiroiit : for lit was never careics of 
thcoi, a» things to be lightly j>ftwi,xl on. Ami therforr me 
thinkcs I matt nedes toll ytHi l)y the way. some imrle of bin 
well doinge, to followe our declaration of htm. rlnct of oil, 
he inaried a gentlewoman more noble then rich, knowing 
that either of both should make her pnmde and -itoiile 
enough : but yet he ever thought the nobler borne, would 
be the more ashamed of di&hoiicsty, then the meaner bonie : 
and tliercforc jthat they would be more obedient to their 
hu^biuidnt, in at) honest nutner and reasonable things. 
Furth<'miore, he myd ; that he thut bet his wife or his child, 
<lid eonimit lu gntit a iMcriUtlge, as if he pollutvtl or spoiled 
the hotyeat thingev of the wnrUl : (uui he thought it n 
greater prni-ie for a man to he a goiHt huKhiitid, then a gcHHJ 
Senator. And then-foi'e he thought tiothinge mon- <x>m- 


pocieuce com- mendable in the life of olde Socrates, then his piuneiiee, in 

meiuled bear- -' 

Uig« wiih the 
diJrewdnea of 

using his wife well, that was such a slirewe, and his ehildrcn 
that were so harebrainde. After Catoes wife hod brought 
him a sonne, he could not liave so earnest buaines in hand^ 
if it had not touched the common wealth, but he would let 




all alone, to go home to bu houM,*, about the time hia wife 
did itnswBdell the younf^e bov U> wa.ibe and shift him : for she 
gave it Huclte with Iter owne bre^tes, and many times woulde 
let the slaves children sucke of her also, bicause thej' might 
have a naturall love towards^ her sonne, havinge suclted one 
uiilLe, and bene brought up together. When nis sonne was 
come to age of discretion, and that he was able tu Icanie any 
tfaingr, Cato him selfe did tcacbe him, notwitlisUmding he 
bad a slave in his bouse called Chilo (a rvry lion«st man, and 
a good gnunmarian) who did also teach nuiny other : but «« 
hv *ixyvd him sclfci he did not like, « slave Khould rebuke hi:* 
itonnt-, nor pull him by the eanw, when pnnuiveiiture he was 
not apt U> take very Midainely that wa.t taught him : neither 
would be have htti Monnc bouiidc to a iilave for so great a 
matter as that, an to have his learning of him. Wherefore 
he him selfe taught him his graminer, the law, and to exei^ 
cue hia body, not only to throw a dart, to play at the sword, 
to v»wt, to ride a horse, and to liandlc all sortes of weapons, 
but also to fight with Rates, to abide colde and bcntc, and to 
swiuimeoveraswifl runnlnge river. He sayed moreover, that 
he wrote goodly histories in great letters with his owne 
hande, bicause his sonne might leamc in Uix fatlicn* h»u»c 
the vertunt of good men in times mut, that he taking example 
by tbi-ir doinges, should frame hw HiV to cxcell tliein. He 
sayed also, tliat he tooke ax great heede of :<]ieaking any 
fowie or uncomely wtirdes iH'fun- his Mimi«. aa he would have 
done if he had lieno Iteforc the V'l'Htall Nunnes. He never 
was in the whotte house with his sonne : for it was a common 
use with the Romaines at that time, that the sonnes in law 
did not bathe them selves with their fathers in law, but were 
oxhaincd to ncc one an other naked. But aflenFardes they 
havinge Icarrxtl of the Greekes to wa&h them selves naked 
with nK-n, it tjiught them also to be naketl in the bathe e>'en 
with their wives. ITiere locked no towardlincs nor good 
diHposition in Cittoes sonne, to frame him sclfc vcrtuous : for 
he was of ao gixxl a nature, that he shewed him selfe willing 
to followe wliat'toever his father had taught him. Hovrebeit 
be «aa such a weake puling*-, that he ooulde not auny uith 
much hardneme, and Ihereioiv his lather was eontent^-d mit to 



Cal«es wifc 
WHS nonrM 

Cato taught 
his eoonea. 
Cliilo a 

Whst «xer- 
brought up 
his BODne in. 



Citoe* Mnae 

mviiHl Tortin 
Piiuluii JKmy- 

titU (Uuxbt^T. 

Sdpio tKo 
HCcond wus 

CrUim dl«- 
dplina to 
li» rUvm. 


alefpy men. 


bind)? him to tbnt straight and iiaiofull IJfv, which him sclfv 
had kifit. Yet he became volliaiit in the warres. For he 
foueht marvelous ittowtely in tliv battel], in which Penuius 
the Kinge of MaeixKin wua ovcrthroweii by Pnuhw .'Kniyliiu : 
where hU sword beiuff; striken out of liin luiiid with a great 
blow tlwit lightt'd OH it, and by fcason his liaiid was som- 
what sweaty hii^ideK, Jw fell into a threat fury, and prayed of 
his frendes about him to r«eover it. So ttiev all together 
ranne uppon the enemies in that place where nis sword fell 
out of his haiide, and came in ao fiercely on them, that they 
made a lane through them, and clearing the place, found it 
in tlie end, but with much a do, being under such a Iteapc 
of dead bodln; and other weapons, as well RomaJnes as 
AliMx-doni&tts, one I>'ing on an other. PauUis ^myhus the 
Gcncrnll hearing of this act of his, did highly comniende the 
younge man. An<l at this day there is a U-tt«r extunt from 
Cato to his sonn<', in the whicli he pmUetli this worthy 
fact and toile of his, for ihe reeovcringe of his swordo 
agniiie. Afterwarde*, this Cato the younger nituitKl Tertia, 
one of Panluit j-Kuiyliibi daughters, and sister unto Scipio tJie 
^conde, and so was matdicd in tliis noble house, not oiiely 
for his owne vertues sake, but for respect of his fathen 
dignity and authority : wberby the groat care, patnes, and 
study that C-ato the father tookc in bringing up his sonnc 
in vcrtiie and leftningu, was honorably rewarded in the 
happy bi^towing of his sonne, lie ever had a great immbcr 
of votmg title staves which he irattght, when any would sell 
their prisoners in the warres. He did choose them thus 
young, bicnusc they wen? apt yet to leome any tliinge he 
would traine tliem mito, ami that a man might breake them, 
like young colter, or title whcl)H-s. But none of them all, 
how many soever he had, ilid ever got to any man* house, 
but when him selfe or his wife diil >etuje tht-m. If any nitui 
a^ed them what Cato did : Uicy aunswered, Utey ooutde not 
tell. And when they were within, either they must neede* 
be occupied about somewhat, or else they must slee]»e : for 
he loved them well that were sleepy, holdinge opinion that 
slaves that loved sleepc were more tractable, ana willing to 
do any thing a man would set tbem to, then those that were 


traluDe. And bicause be thought tJiat nothing more did pro- 
voke slaves to miscbiefe And naiightioi-s, then lust and desire 
of women : he was contentw! that his slaves might com|«iny 
with his boiidcwomen in his fautisc, for u peecc of money he 

I appointed them to pay, but witli slrai^bt cunimiuindemcnt 
besides, that none of tlitrni kIioiiUI dealc with any other 
woman iibruade. At tliv fii>t when hv j^ve him sclfc to 
follow thv warrm, and uan not grentlv rich, he iicvur was 

! angry fur any fault Iuh Nt-rvautitiM did about Im jjcrsoue: 
aayiiie it wa» a, ffiwle tiling for a gentleman or noble man, 
to fell out with his ttcrvauntes for bU belly. AflentitrdeH, n» 
he rose to bt^tter state, and grew to be wealthier, if be had 
made a duiner or supper for anv of his frendes and f&ntiliani, 
tbev were no sooner gone, but lie woulde scourge lliem with 
whippes and leather thongcs, that had not waited as they 
should haw done at the borde, or b^ul forgotten any thing 
he would tiHve had done. He would i-ver eniftily make one 

'of thi-m fall out with an otlier: fur he coulJ nut abide 
tbcy )>tioul<l be frendcs, beingv ever jealous of that. If 
any of th«tn brui dune a fault tliat descrvi'd death, he 
would di-clare hitt offence before titein all : and then if 
they eondcmiifid him to dye, he wautd put him to death 
before Utein all. Howebeit in hia latter time he gi'cwe 

URcdr, and gave up his tillage, sajinge it was rather 

geosaunt, then proh table. 'ilierfore oicause lie woidd 
y out his money surely, and bring a eertainc revenue 
to his purse, he hestowvd it uppoii poiides, naturall botte 
bathes, places fit for fullers croJt, upon meodowcs and 
paHturv8, upon copiM's and young wodJc : and of nil these 
Itc made a gmtt and n more quiet revenue ymrcly, which he 
wc)ul<l -ay, lupiti-r him Kclfe could not diminiKhe. Further^ 
utori', he waa a great u^rer, botl) by land and by Kca : and 
the uacry he toolce by sea was moat extreame of all other, fcu' 
he used it in this sorte. He would have them to whouie iie 
lent his money unto, that tracked by sea, to have many 
pirteners, and to the number of fifty : and that they should 
nave so many shippes. Then he would venta" among them 
J for a parte oncly, whereof Quintius his slave whom nc had 
■JBaaunuaed, was made his tacLur, aud used to aayle, and 


Note how 
C'ato Hlt«re)l 
liift maner aud 
opinion by 

CatoM RDod 
hiuliauary (or 
iurrouiiiig lii* 

i'tita n grtU 

He tmike ex- 
by sea. 




BCDt Arabw- 
Hidara ti> 


traffiked witli the marchftunts, to whom he had lent his 
money out to uwrj-. And thus he tliil not venter all the 
money he tent, but a litle peece only for hia pai-te, and gotte 
nmoelous riches by his usery. Moreover he lent money to 
any of his slaves, tliat would therwith buy other young 
staves, whom they taught and hrousht up to do service, 
at Catoes charge and cost : and then tncy solde them agalne 
at the yearra cndv, and i<k>dr- uf tlH-nt Cato kept for his ownv 
wnict', and gave his sluvi's as much for thcni, as any othtT 
i)ffcifd. Tiicrforv to idiurL- his »onnc in like manner to 
make proGttv of hin nioricy : lie tnUIc him it wiu! no vine 
mans nart« to dtminiNht! hu Huhstance, but ratlier the parte 
of a widowe. Vet this was a token of a mont greedy covet- 
ous minde, that he durst affirme him to l>e divine, and worthy 
iinmorlall praise, that increased his wealth and patrimony 
more, theji his father left him. l-'urthermore, when Cato 
was growen very olde, Canieades the Academieke, ajid Dio- 

g'nes the StoicKc, were sent from Athens as AiiibossadoiB to 
oroe, to sue for a release of a fync of five hundred taleates 
which they had impow-d on the Athenians apon a condem- 
nation jjoasctl against tht.-m, for a contempt of appcarauncc, 
by the sentence of the Sieyoiiiaiis, lit the sutc ot the Oro- 
piaiiK. Immediatiy when tlie-tetwo I'liiliisophcrs were arrived 
in tile citie of Uonie, the younge gitiitlenieit that wcr- geven 
to tlieir bofikes, did sisite and welcome tliem, oud gave 
great nn-on-nce to them after they had heanl them N|)eake, 
and s{>ecially to Cameades : whose grace in speaking, and 
force of nerswading was no lesse, then tlie fame ramie ujiptui 
him, ana specially when he was to speake in so great an 
audience, and before such a state, as would not suppi-esse his 
praise. Rome straight was full, as if a winde hail blowen 
this rumor into every mans care : that there was a Greecian 
arrived, a famous learai-d man, who with his eloquence 
wouldc leade a man as he lust, lliere was no other tidkc a 
while tlirough the whole city, he had *o inf1ain«-d the vounge 
gentlemen:" niiiide* with love and desin- to be learned; that 
all other plea.-'nn^ and dt'lightts were m-1 a nide, and they 
disiMiM-d them K'hei to no otner exercise, but to tlie study of 
Plnlosophy, as if sotne secrete and divine inspiration from 


above Iiaii procured them to it. Whereof the l/)nli>s and MARCUS 
Senators of Kuuie were glad, and rejoyi-fd mudi to i«e their CATO 
youtli Ao weJl geven to knowti'dgv, and to the study of 
the Greeke tongue, and to deiite in the company of these 
two ffKftt and excellent learned men. But Marcus Cato, 
even mini the beginning that young men bcgannc to study 
the Grcvke tongue, and that it grpwc in esttniacion in Houh*, 
did tlistikc of it : fearing li-ii^t tiie youth of Home that were Cato mUlikcd 
desirous of IwiminKf and eUwiuvnw, woulde ultvrly give over '*"' t'««ke 
the honor ami glory of ttrint?<, Furthcniioiv, when lie siiwe ""ff"*- 
the ratimacion and tVuue of thtw two pi-rMinage.'s <Iid increase 
more and more, and in Hudi Mirtc that (^iiu Aquiliuis one of 
the diiefetit of the Senate, iiia«Ie Nute to be their ititerf>retcr : 
he determined then to convey Uiein out of the citie by some 
honest meane and colour. So he openly fouixl fault one 
day in tlie Senate, tliat the Anibaj«ador& were long tliere, 
and had no dispatcbe : coniiideniig also tliey were cunninge 
men, and ouulae easily persuade what they would. And if 
there were no other respect, this onely might perswadc them 
to determine some auniiwere for them, and so to send them 
home againe to their Hehoole^, to teach tln-ir children of 
Greece, and to let alone tbc eliililri'n of Rnme, tlmt tltey 
might livu-ne U> olx-y the lawes and the Semite, a.-* they Imd 
done before. Now he spake this to the Si*nate, not <if any 
private ill will or malice he Itare to (.'ameadeii, an M>me men 
thought: but bieau.w he generally hated I'bilosophy, and 
of an ambition despised the muses, and knowledge of the 
Greeke tongue. Which was the more suspected, bicause he 
had sayd, tlie auncient Socrates was but a busie man, 
and a sturrcr up of M-dition, and sought by all nicani'S 
possible to usurjK- tyraimv. iind ride in his coiitrie : by per- 
verting and chaiuigtng t)ie mani)er» and custonieii of ttie 
same, and allunnge tlie inibjectx-N thereof to a dlMllkinge 
of their lawe^ and auncient custoines. And he laughed at 
Socnta HchiMiIe, tliat taught the arte of elotjui-jicc : paying, 
his xcho]len< waxed old, and wert> still so long a Icaniing, tlint 
they iiieiit to use their eloquence and pleode causes in an 
other worlde, l>efore Minos, when they were dead. ITiere- 
fore, to plu(jie his Bonne from tbc study of the Greeke 
3:£ S3 


MARCUS tongue, he aayd to him with a strayned voycc, and in a 
CATO bi^KcT souiid thi^'n ho wna wont to dotr : (its if he hud spoken 
to him by way of prophecy or inspiration) that »o longv lU 
th« Romainos dis)KiHi-il them selves to study tJie Gn-cke 
tongue, so loiiu\- woiiI<Ie they mum.' an<l bring lUl to nought. 
Aim yet time iiath provud his vaioe wordes fnlne and tiiitrnc. 
For th« citie of Komo did newt florishe so much, nor the 
Konuiint- Km])ire was ever so great, n» at tliut time, when 
learninge and the <ir<^eke tongue nxist tiurished. Howelwtt 
Cato did not onely hate the l'hi!o(K>nher» of tireece, hut did 
dUlike tliem also, that profps8e<l phisicke in Itome. For he 
bad either hearde or red the aunswcre Hippocrates made, 
when the king of Persia sent for him, ana offered him a 
great summe of goldc and silver, if he woulde come and serve 
him : who sware he would never serve tlie barbarous people, 
that were natural! enemies to the Greecinns. So Cato 
aHirmed, it wa« an othv tluit »1 other ptiisition.t sware ever 
after : wherefore he cominaundctl his soTine to die fnmi thi-m 
C»toee m»l- all alike, and wiyed he hnddc wrj-tlen a litle hooke of nhisickc, 
«U buoke. vfith the which he did bcnle tlioitc of his houHe when they 
were sicke, and did keejie Uiem tn healtli when they wen^ 
whole. He never forbad them to eate, but did alwaji 
bringe them lippe witti crhes, and certaine light nieates, as 
mallard, ringeuoves, and hftre« : for liueh nieatc^, sayd he, are 
good for the sickc, and light of disgestton, saving that they 
make them dreame and siiorto that vate them. He IxMistcd 
also how with this maner of ohisicke, he did alwuye« keepc 
him selfe in hejilth, and his iimiily from sickenes. Yet (or 
all tluit, I take it-, he did nut all tlmt he braggetl of: for he 
biirii'tl both his wife, and his sonue also. Diil ho him «elfv 
wanofastnmge nature, and a histy Iwdy, full of stn^ngth, 
and heaJtli, and lived long without sioketiesse : so tlmt whert { 
he was a very olde man and past manage, he loved women 
well, and inaried a younge maiden for that cause onely. 
After his first wife was dead, he maried his sonne unto 
PauluB /Emylius daughter, tlie sister of Scipio, the scconde' 
African. Cato him selfe hcinge a widower, tookc paines 
with a pretv younge maide that waited in his house, and 
came by stcftb to his chamber : howcheit this haunt coulde 


not lotig coiitiuue secret in his Itouttc, wid MpcdtiJIy where 
there wu a jrounf^ gentlewoman inari«<I, but xteeacs must 
be spied. So, one day when this young maide went some- 
what boldly by the chamber of young Cato, to go into his 
father, the young nmn sayd never & word at it : yet his 
&ther perceived tliat he was somewhat ashamed, and gave 
the maide no ffood counteiiamice. Wherefore findinge that 
hie Minnc and daughter in lawc were angry with the matter, 
sayinge nothinge to them of it, nor slwwinge them any ill 
count enaiincv : he went one morninge to the market place 
(as lii« maiHT was) witii a tmim' that followed him,(unoiigeat 
whoniv vm» oik- Sadoniiix, Uint h<id bene his clearkc, and 
wayted u|Hin him ».■* the rott did. Cnlo L-alling liim out 
alowde by hi* luune, avked hmi if he hadde not yet bestowed 
his daugnter, Saloniiis aunNwert-d him, he liad not yet 
bestowed her, nor woulde not, before he made him pnvie 
to it l^en Cato tolde him againe: I have fomide out a 
husbande for her, and a sonne in lawe for thee, and it will be 
no ill matche for her. unlesie she mislikc the age of the man, 
for in doede he is very olde, but otherwise there in no faulte 
in him. Salonius tolde him agsinc, tliat for that matter, he 
R-ferrvd all to him, and his daughter also, praWnge him even 
to make what matche he thought good for her : tor she was 
his humblr st-rvnunt,mid reived wholly iimxiii him, Ktiuidinge 
in neeile of hiit fnvor and fiirthi^munci-. 1 hen Citto Ix-gimnc 
to diM'over, atid tulilr him plaini-ly he woulde williiigely 
tnarv Iter him iielfe. Salonius therewith was alumhed, hieause 
he thought Cato waa too olde to niary then, and him jtelfe 
was no fitte manne to matche in any honorable houne, 
Epeciallie with a Consull and one that hadde triumphed : 
honebeit In the ende, when he sawc Cato mait good camiTst, 
he was very glad of the matche, and so with this talkc 
they went on together to the markette place, and ngTeed 
then upon the manage. Now while they went about 
this mutter, CattJ tlte sonne taking some of his kiniie 
and frendi-M with him, wi-nt unto bin father, to aske him 
if he ha«I offended him in any ttiinge, tliat for Hpight 
he shoulde bringe him a .itcppe mother into bis house. 
Ilien hi& father cried out, and sayd : U my sonne, I pray 


C«to lalketk 
with Snlonius 
UK olaik*, 
about the 
miirifHK of bis 



nuniwnv to 

his 8MIII«, uf 

his 8«con^e 

Chto marled 
beln^ ■ vtry 
old raua, niid 
bwl a •nun I' 
by )ier. 

How C'ato 
luuned hi* 

ingtti and 




thee ny not so, I Hkv wll nil thou doest. and I lindc no 
cause to compluiiK- of thee : but I do it, bicau!^- I dc»irc to 
have mtmv cliiUln-ti, aiiii to Icnvc many »uch like citia-iw as 
thou art, in the commoit wTfJtIi. Some way thttt Pi^ixtrKtuii 
the tymii of Athens, made nucIi a like nuiiavrerc unto Uic diil- 
drcn of hisi tint nife, which wen men growen, when be mortcd 
hi» .tuconde wife 'ilmona-tao, of the towne of Arffus, of whom 
he Itad (as it is reported) lophon, and 'l'he.Wtuti. But to 
retunie againe to Cato, he had a somie by his second wife, 
wlioin he named after her nauie, Cato Salonian : and his 
eldest Sonne died in his office bciiige Prfctor, of whomc he 
often spcaketh in diverse of his bookcs, coinmcndinge him 
for a very honest man. And they My, be tooko the death 
of him very piicieiitly, and like a grave vrite man, not leaving 
therefore t*> do any service or bu»inesse fur the state, other- 
wise then hi- rlid before. And therein he did imt, hs LueiuK 
l.iindhi.«, and Metelhis aurnatiied l^us, did iifli-runnlN : who 
gave up medlinf; any more with matteni of government imd 
state, after tliey were waxen olde. For he thought it a 
charge and duct;, whercunto every honest man whilest he 
Hveo, was lioundc in all piety. Nor as Scipio African hadde 
done before him, who perceiving that the glorv and fame 
of his doin";?i did purchase him the ill will uf the citizens, 
he ehaunged the re«t of his life into quietnes, and forsookc 
Uie citie and all dealings in common wi-alth, aiid went and 
dwelt in the eontry. But as there watt one that told Diuiiy- 
siiw, the tvran of SyiacusA, ns it is wry Iten, that )h- could not 
die more Iifmnnibly, then to Iw huri<'d in tJie tyranny : even 
so did ('atii tliinke. Unit lie could not wnxe mure hone»tlie, 
olde, then in serving of tlie common wealth, unto his drinff 
day. So at vacant times, when Cato waH desirrats a litfe to 
recreate and refresh him si'lfe. lie (lassed his time away in 
makinge of hookes, and lookinge up|>on his husbandry in the 
eontry. Iliiii is the cause why he vrrote so many kindes of 
Ixmkes and stories. But his tillage and husbandry in the 
eontry, he <li<l tende and follone all in his youth, for his 
profit. For he sayed he hiwl hut two «>rtes of revenue, 
tillrige, and sparinge : but in age, whiitstK-ver Ih- did in the 
coi)tr>-, it was nil for pleasure, and to teamcsume tiiingo ever 


of nature. For he hiith wrvltcii a booke of Ute contry Life, 
And of tillage, iit the which ^le sheweth howe to make tartes 
and cakes, ancl how to kcene fnitei He woulde needeasliew 
mich sitigiilanty aiid skill in all thinees : when he viu in 
hit liouse in the conti'y, he fareil a liue better then he did 
in other placet, ajid would oftentimes bid his neighbours, and 
such aa had lande Ivinj; nboiit liini, to oome and suppc with 
him, and ho would dc incry with them : so that his company 
was oot oncly plnuuiint, aad lilungc to olde folkes as him 
selfc, but also to the yoimger Korte. For lie had stvnc much, 
and bad expcricnci; in matty thlngcs, and used iniKh pluuwunt 
taikc, jimfitiibU- for tite henmv. Hv thouijht the t>urd one 
of the ci)ii-fL->t mi'AiiCH to brecdc lore aniongt^t men, and at 
hU »wiie table woulde alwayes prnifte go<Ml men and vertuouH 
dtixens, but would xufier uo talke of evill men, neither 
in their praise nor dispraise. Now it is thought the last 
notable acte and service he did in the common wealth, was 
the overthrow of Carthage: for in dcede he tliat wannc 
it, and raM^l it utterly, was Scipio the secondc, but 'it was 
chicfeiy through C-atot-ij counM.'!! aiid advise, that the last 
warrc was taken in hand against the Carthaginians, and it 
cbouneed apon this oocusion. C-ato was sent into jVfiicke to 
undvntandc the cause and controvcnie that was betwene 
the Carthaginians and Massinima, kin^- of Numidta, whidi 
were at gtvat warn* togi-thcr. Ami he wa* m-nt tliitJii-r, 
bioauite king Alas^iniioa had ever bene a freiid unto the 
Romaincfi, and lor tiiat the Carthaginians were become their 
confederates sijice tlie last warres, in the which they were 
overthpowen by Scipio the 6rst, who tooke for a fyne of 
them, a great parte of their Empire, and imposed apon them 
besides, a great ycarely tribute. Now when he was come 
into that contric. be founde not the citic of Cartilage in 
miserie, bcggcric, and mit of harte, as tlic Romainiit sup- 
posed: but full of lusty youtbc!! very riche luid wcalthte, 
and great store of armour and munition in it for the warren, 
•o tlutt by reaMin of tlic wealth thereof, Carthage caried 
a high sayle, mid Htowped not for a litle. Wherefore im 
thought that it wiu more Uuti time foi* thi- Komaioes to 
leave to under»tande tJic coutrovcrKicii betwext the Cartfaa* 


C'atOM oom- 

to old 
and youiig. 

Tli« Ukl« a 
gooA meMie 
to prucurv 
love, and how 
Uhle talke 
should bo 


Cato atitliar 
of tli« last 
the C'arlhn. 



Solpki Nadu, 
■fCdnst CUo^ 
fur th<i 


giniuiK aiul Miu^iiiissu, im<t nithcr to provide bc-tirocs to dv- 
HtToyv C^rtlin^-, tlmt UnMv iM-vnc- ever lui Auncieiit itinvinic 
to the Roiimint-s, luui iviT icuu^it to !« revenged of tlwt 
they h«ddc kullcred at tlit^ir haiidcs before, atiu that they 
were now groweii to tliat ^reatnea aiid cx>ra^ in ho ahurte 
time, as in manner it was incredible : so as it was likely tliey 
would fall into as great enmity with the Itoraaines, as they 
ever did before. Therefore so soone as he returned to Rome, 
he plainly tolde the Senate, tliat the losses and harmes the 
Carthaginians had received by the last warres they had with 
thtm, had not so oiiich diminished their power and strength, 
us the same had shewed their owne folly and lacke i>f wisdom : 
for it was to be feared much, leiist their l«te troubles hod 
iiuidc thein mure skilfull, tht-n weakened theiu for the wurrea. 
And that they made wnrrct nowe with the Nuniidians, to 
exercixe them onelv, mmninge afterwRirles to wane with 
them .telvw : and that the \Kmx tlu-y had nuulc with tliein, 
was but on intennimion and ktay of warren, only t-xpecting 
time and opportunity to breake with them againe. 'I'hcy 
say moreover, that besides Uie perswasions he used, he 
brought with him of purpose, Africke 6gges in his long 
sleeves, which he shooke out amongest them in the Senate. 
When the Senators marvailed to see so goodly fayer greene 
figgcs, he saycd : The contry that beareth them, is not above 
three dsyes sniliitge from Home. But yet this is more 
stntunge which they rejwrte of him besides: that he never 
doclarcd his opinion in any matter in tJtc Senate after that, 
but this was ever the one ende of hiM tale: Me tliinketh 
rtill Carthage would be utterly ck^truyed. I'ubliusScii>io 
Najtiea, uiiefl wer in like nwinner the contrary Koet'ch : ttuit 
he thought it mcete ('jLrthagi- »hutdd Ktand. '11ii.t I'ubliux 
Scipio saw, in my opiniim, that the Koniaines through their 
piide and iiiaolency were full of ahsurdilifs, and cariiit them 
selves very high, by nation of their happy successe and 
m-torics, and were so lolty minded, that tlie Senate cx>u]d 
hardly rule them ; and that by reason of tlieir great author 
itie, thcv imagined they mignt bringe their dtie to what 
height they woidd. Therefore he spske it, that the feare of 
Carthage might alwayes continue as a bridle, to raignc in the 


insolencr of the people of Rome, who knew well enough, that MARCU8 
tlie CarthaginiaiLi were of no BufBrient power to makewarrcs CATO 
with the Roinaines, nor yet to overcome them ; imd even so 
were they not wholly to be de«pit>ecl, and not to be feared 
at ftIL Cato still replied to the contrary, tluit therein con- 
siiitrd the gn^atest daunger of all : tluit a c-itie which was 
ewr of great force and power, and had bene punished by 
former warres and misery, would al«ay<w hare an eye of 
revenge to their eiiemitrt, and be tnwli like a horee that 
bod broken his halter, that being unbridled, woulde ninne 
upon hi.s rider. And therfore lie thutight it nut good, nor 
acnandc, so to suffer the Cartliaginians to reeover their 
strength, but rather tliey ought altogether to take away all 
outward daunger, and tne feare they atoode in to loose their 
cont|uc(>t ; and specially, when they left nieanes within tlie city 
eclfc to fall §ti]l againe to their former rebellion. And this 
is the cause why tney suppose Cato was the occasion, of the 
thinle and last warre the Komaines had against tlie Cartha- 
ginians. But now wIrii the warre was begonnc, Cato died, tilow dmt 
and before his death he prophecied, as a man would say, who it 
should be that should ende those wurres. And it was Scipio 
the second, who being a young man at that time, hud cbaige 
only aa a Colondl over a thouMuuI footcmeii : but in tUl 
battelbi, and wheivsix-ver then- wa? warri-^, be .thewnl hini 
selfeever valliant and wi.'^. Insomuch a»newe.-< being brought 
thereof continually unto Rome, and Cnto heoiiiige them, 
spake as they say, these two verses of Homer : 

Thi« onlf mui right wiae, re|>uted U to W, 
all ctbtr (Mina but iihndnwc* «el, by kucIi wiko men as he. 

lATiich prophecy, Sdpio scwne after confirmed true by hiw 
doingcs. Moreover, tlie tKaue Cato left behinde him, was a C*t«e«^ 
sonne he had by his seconde wife ; who was colled (as wc sayd posUri^. 
before) Cato ^Ionian, by reason of hi-'< tnother, and a htle 
boy of his eldest sonne that died before hiin. This Cato 
Salonian died being J'rator, but he left u Minne behiudc 
kini that came to be Consul), and was graiidfatlier 
unto Cato the Philosopher, one of the most 
vertuous men of his time. 



ArUtiddi nnct 
Cstm.-* Hi'i'iicu! 
Ui the cuiii- 


OVV tliiit we Imvc wttc dovmc in wryt- 
inge, tliese notolile mmI w»rthtc thJncs of 
memory: if wo will eonfieTrr tht' life oi the 
one, with the lift- of the other, iHThtijipcs 
the difference lietweu*- ihe unv ftiid tlic 
other will not easily he diaccnuxi, sotnngc 
there he so many similitudes and rc«cin- 
hhuK-cs one of un other. But If we coini' 
to ronipnrc them in cvcrj- [Mirticularity, as we would doe 
Po«-tK workes or pictures drowcn in tubles : first, in this we 
sliall fimie them much n likv, Ihnt hiivin<; h»d nothing else 
to |»refcrre and cunimi-iidi- them, hut their onely vertue and 
wiiKiom, tliey have twne both governors in their common 
wealth, und have U>erel>y atchieved to nvat honor and csti- 
macion. But me thiakes when Aristides cum' tn denlc in 
mattern of state, tlie common wealth and sei|i7iii)ry of Athena 
was then of no frreat power, and therefore it was ensie for 
him to set him selfe in prease. Besides, the other goveroom 
and captaines that were of his time, and competitor with 
him, were not very rich, nor of great authority. For the 
taxe of the richest penumes then at Athens in revenue, was 
but at live hundred bushells of come, and upwards, and 
therefore were such called IViitaaisioiiieilinini. The second 
taxe was but at throe luiiidn-d biinhel.-', nnd they were called 
kuiehhi. The thir<l and liL«t was at two huntlrcd biisheUs, 
and tlicy called Utem Zeugittt. Where Murois Cato com- 
mtnfic out of a litle village, from a rude contry life, went 
at uie first daslie (as it were) to plunge him sclfe into u 
ho t torn les sea of government in the common wealth uf Konic: 
which was not ruled then by sutli governors and capt«ini,-!>, 
Oi Curius, Fabridus, and Ostilius were in old time. Fur 
the people of Rome did no more bcntow their offices upon 


such tn«aiic tnlwniig men, a.s came but lati'ly from the ARISTIDBS 
plough and tlit- inatUicke : Imt they wmildc lookv iiow apoit *■";» 
the DobiUty of their Iiousca, (Uid upon their rivhcs, that gave CATO 
them most raoneV) or itued earnestly to tlieni for tlie oltjces. 
And by reafion of their ereat power and authority, they 
woulde be waittd upon, and sued unto, by those that sought 
to bcnrc the honorable offices of the state and common 
wcultli. jVnd it was no like match nor comparison, to have 
TbcmistocJiv an iidvcraary and competitor, being neither of 
noble Itousi-, nor grcfttly rich (fur they say, that all the 
giN)d<« his father left hiin, were not worth above fuurc or 
live hun<lred taleiites, when he bcgiumc to dittle in state) 
in respect an to contciide for th«r chiefest uliHX- of hoitor 
and authority ugiiiit^t Scipio Afrimn, Svrviliua Gntbu, or 
(juiiitiuK riaminiiu, having no other maintenance, nor heipe 
to trust unto, but a tongue speakuig boldly with reason 
and all uprightnes. Moreover, Aristiaes at tJie battells of 
Marathon, and of I'lataees, was but one of tlie tenne cap- 
taines of the Athenians : where Cato was chosen one of the 
two Consuls among many other noble and great competitors, 
and one of the two Censors, before seven other thnt mode 
sute for it, which were all men of ajvat rcputaciun in the 
citip, and yet was Cato pn^frmxl before them all. Fiirtltcr^ 
tnar«, ATiMudes wa'* never the chicfest in any victory. For 
at the battt-ll of Marathon, Miltituloi wtLi the gt-iiemtl : and 
at tl»e bftttcll of Salaminn, Thcniistocii* : and at the joniev 
of Flat^ees, kiiijr I'auMiniji:^ a.t HerodutiiK sayeth, who wryteth 
that he had a mai'vi-loiM vic:tory tliere. And theiv were that 
strived with Aristides for the second place, as Sopliaiies, 
Amynias, Callimachus, and Cyne^rus, ever)* one of the 
which did notable valliant service at those battells. Now Oftto In nmr- 
Cato was generall him selfe, and chicfe of all his army in •^l,*?''*' 
worthines and counsell, during the warre he made in Spayne, ?rirtiSe«. 
while he was Consull, Afterwaixia also in the jomev wihiv 
king j\ntiochu5 was ovcrthrowen in the contry of Thormo- 
pyln, C-ato being but a C^loncll of A thou!«itde footemen, 
an<l servingv under an other thnt was Conxull, wamte the 
honor of the victory, wh«n he di<i Mxtainely set upon 
Anttochuu behtudc, wbcivajt ho looked only to dcfeud mm 
a:F 41 




Ariiitl<le« sud 

pletuurcis in 
th« common 

The power of 

Otmumia, ' 



sclfe bofort'. Ami tfiat viclory, tvitlimit nil doubt wfts one 
of tiie chivfcHt uctes that ewf Cato did, vUu druvc Aitia out 
of Greece, and opt-ned the way unto Lucius Sdpio to pane 
ftfltTwiinles into Alia. Su tliiti for tiw wure^ neither the 
one nor Htv other of th«n was »-ver overcome in Iwttell : but 
in peace aiid civill govenmient, Aristides was supplanted 
by Them iat odes, who by practise got him to be bamslicd 
Athens for a time, Wncrcas C-ato had in manner all the 
gnatest and noblest men of Rome that were in his tin>e, 
Hwome (.memica mito liim : and having alwaycs contended 
with them even to his last bower, he ever kept htm selfv 
on soutide grounde, like u stoutx: champion, and never tooke 
fall nor fovle. For he having accuseit inany bef<)rc the 
people, and mimy also nn'u.'sing him : liim wife was never 
once c^tndi-mncd, but alwaycH his tongue was tlie buckeler 
and defence of hiti life ana innocency. Which was to him 
so necessary a weauon, and with it he could help himselfe so 
in great mattery tliat (in my opinion) it was only cauric why 
he uevev received dishonor, nor was unjustly coiuieiiinc<l : 
rather then for any thing else he was befiolding to fortune, 
or to any other that did protect him. And trucly, eloquence 
u a singular gift, as Ajitiputer witnesseth, in that he wrote 
of Aristotle the Phtlonoplier after his denth : mying, that 
amongcst many otlier iiingiiliir graces mid piTfections ni liim, 
he had this rare gift, tlirkt 1h- coiilde pcrHwade what he hstvd. 
Now there is a rule (s>nfe!«H!<l of all the woild, that no mail 
can attaine any gri'nter vertiu' or knowledge, tlti-n to know 
how to guvernt- n multitude of men, or a city : a |>arU' wheraf 
is OeamomiOf commonly called hotLieruIe, considering that- a 
city u no other, then an as.scmlily of many householdes and 
houses together, and then is the city commonly strong and 
of power, when as the towncs men and citizens are wise 
and wealthv. Therefore Lyciirgus that banished golde and 
silver froDi I^txthemon, and eovne<t them money of iron, that 
woutde be marred with fyrv and vinegre when it was tiot, did 
not forbid his dti»Mw to bir good hiubniuls : but like a good 
lawniiikcr, exceeding all other that ever w«it Ijcforo hini, 
be did tmt onely cut of nil Kii]x-rfluous expciicc» Uwt cout- 
iiwnly wavte up|>un ricbcK, but did also provide that his 


people should ioclu.' uotJiin^ ncxH-ssitry to livi- witbtill, fcnr- ARISTIDBS 
iiig morv to sec n bogf^T tuid iicdy pcrsonc dwcllingc in his *>"* 
cititr, nnd enjoy thv pnviltHlgvs of tnv Munc, Hum a pruudc CAlt) 
mail by rvtuou of his richi.^. So inc thiiikes, Cato wm us | 
good a father to his )HnL-ii>hohle, ns he wftit a good governor 
to the wnimoii wuiltli : for he did ImuentJy iiicreaw hi* 
goods, and did t^-Ach other aliH> to do the same, bv saving, 
and knowledge of good husbandry, whereof, in bis booke lie 
wrote sundry good rules and precepts. Aristides contrari- 
wise, made jurtice odious and slaunderous by bis poverty, 
and as a thing Uiat made men poore, and was more profit- 
able to other, then to a malts sellV that lucd justice. And 
yet ilcsiodus the Poet, that eonimciideth justice so mucll, 
doth wishe lis withall to be good husbandcs, reproving sloth 
and iiUcues, as the roote and onginall of all injustice. And 
thtnfore me thinker Hotncr spake widely when he sayed : 

In llmeB past, neither diil 1 titbor, carcke nor cara 
for burfn**, fi>r fnmil J-, for foitde, nor yet for fi*» : 
but TAther did drliaht, with ahippfx tlio m-nfit to luiilo. 
Id dnkw n bow, tu King k dart in wurrcn, tmA to provnilc. 

As giving ua to understand, that justice and husbandry 
are two relatives, and necessarily lincbed one to the other : 
and that a man who bath no care of his ownc thingea, 
nor bouse, doth live unjustly, and taketb from other men. 
For Justin- is not hke oyle, which I'hiitilions s<iy is very The nature 
holsome for munni.'K body, if it Ih- applied oiilwnrdly : and of «ft«, 
in contrary tnaner very ill, if a ninn drinke it: tu-ither 
ought a jtii^t man to profittc straungi.-n, ntt<l in tl>e tilde 
not to care for liint selfe nor hiai. Thert'fune, tiie thinkes No mun wiie, 
this gijvrrninge vertue of Aristid^-!> liad a fault in tbi& re- thi»ti*not 
spect, if it lie true that most authors wryte of him : that '^^^^ *'"" 
he had no care nor fonxaat with him to leave so much, 
as to mary his daiiKbters witliall, nor therenith to bury 
him selfe. Where uiose of the house of Cato, continued 
PrstoTs and ConsuUs of IIouk', e^'e^ unto the fourte disoeut. 
For his sonnes sonnrs, and yet lower, his sounes sonnra 
sonm-s cfuiie to the grtvtett ofliet^ of dignity in all Rome. 
AimI jVristitii.Ts who wils in tiL' time Uie chiefi-nt nutii of 

~ 48 


ARISTIDE8 Greece, left his posterity in so great poverty, that some 

Anu were fompclliti to bc«omc Soothsayers (thut iiitorpretc 

CA^tO drcamcfl, and tell mens fortune) to get their living, nnd otiier 

to oskc ftlmvs : itnd left ii» invane to nny of them, to do luiy 

rut thing worthy of liiin. But to contrary this, it tnieht 
Kuyil, povi-rty of it Hi-lft- in neither ill nor diohonett: but 
PJ'^rty he uu whLTe it growt-th l>v idlenes, carelease life, vanity, and folly, 
111 ihiiig. jj jj (^ ^ reprox-ed. For when it lighteth apon any roan 
that is honest, and livetli welt, that taketh paines, is rerr 
diligent, just, ralUaut, wise, and govemeth a common wealth 
well; then it is a great signc of a noble minde. For it is 
unpossible that man should doc any great tbingcs, that had 
sueltabaseminde, astu thtnkenlwayesuppon trines: and that 
he shoulde relieve the ])oor(^ gnvttly, tliat lacketh him selfc 
rfiiefo in many thingiw. And sure, riches is not so nifreit.sary 
for an honest man that will deale tnwiy in the viminion 
wealth, aiid government, an is sulllcicaicy : which lH>ing<j a 
contentadon in it iielfe, and desirous of no flujK^rfliiuu.s thing, 
it never witlidrawetl) a man from following his biisinessi- in 
the common wealth, that onjoyeth the same. For God is be 
alone, who simptyand alt-wlutely hath no neede of any thinge 
at all : wherefore the chiefest vertue that can be in man, and 
that commeth nearest unto God, ought to be esteemed that, 
which makcth man to have nccde of least thinges. For like 
as a lusty body, nnd well complexioned, hath no neede (^ 
su]H-rlluo(is fare and curious npparell : even so a cicane life, 
and sounde house, is kept with n litle charge, and so stioiddc 
the gomies also be pn>])orlioned, aceorainge to use and 
neccfuity. For he that giithereth much, and »iH'ndetb litlc, 
hath ncx'cr enough. Hut lubnit he bath no dvnire to spend 
much, then he in a fimle to travell to get more then lie 
needeth : and if he do dbire it, and dare not for niggardlines 
spende parte of that he lahoretb for, then h he miiiemhle, 
Now woulde I aske Cato with a goodwill, if riebes lie made 
but to use them, why do you boa&t then you have gotten 
much together, when a litle doth suffice you ? and if it be a 
commcnoable thing (as in troth it is) to be contented with 
the breadc you linde, to drinkc of the same tappe workcmen 
and laborers do, not to care for purple dyed gownes, nor for 


houses witli plastered wallea : it followeth then that neither ARISTIDES 
Anstides, nor Epaininondiia, nor Manius Curius, nor C'Aius ako 
Pabrkius, have forgotten any parte of their duetiee, when CATO 
they aavd not for gettinge of that which they would not 
use nor occupy. For it was to no purpose for a man that 
etteemed rootcs and parscnippcs to be one of the bt-st dishes 
in the worlde, and that did sci-th tlicm hitn wife in his 
chimney, whitest his wife did bake his bn.>ad, to tolke so 
much of on Assv, and to take paincs to wi^te by what arte 
and industry a man mi^ht (juickely enrich him wife. For it 
» true, thnt »ufHdency, and to be contented witli a litle, i«a 

CI and comniendnlik- thinner hut it is" hicautte it taketlt 
I ic% »n di->ire of untiei-<«itury thingcn, tuid niaketh as not 
to paaac fur them. And thi'refore we (inde that Aristidcs 
sayo, when ricltc Callian ca.w wait pleaded, Lliat »ucli as were 
poore against their willeti, might wel be a.<ihamed of their 
poverty : hut siicl) as were wilTinaly poore, had good cause, 
and might justly rejoyec at it. For it were a mad parte to 
thinke that Aristides poverty itroceeded of a base niiiide and 
alothfulne^ liince he might <mickely have made him sclfe rich 
without any dishonc-sty at all, by taking only the spoyle of 
some one of the barbarous people whome he had overcome, or 
anyone of their tentcs. But enough for this matter. Further- 
more, touching tlie victories ancl hattelb Cato had woune, niieUier 
they did in maner htic helpe to increase tlie Empin- of Arirtide* 
Borne : for it wtw already so creat, a» it could nlijmst be no ,^}^ "I., 
greater. Hut Anstldes victoncs arc tin- grv-ntm eoiKjucstcs ^(.^ lienvfit 
and noblest actcs that tlie Gn-ecians ever did in any warres: their contry, 
OS tlie joriK-y of Marathon, the battell of SaJaniina, and the 
bftttell {of I'latecs. And yet there U no reason to compare 
king AntioduL-t with king Xerxi.^ nor the wallett of the citi« 
of Spayiie which Cnto <"erUirewe and nt-sed, unto so many 

thousanit nf Imrtwiniu^ [leniili-, nliirli «ert- then nverthrowen 

by till- Grei\-iaiis, a.* well by landc, as 

by sea. In all which .servieeit, Aristides was the chiefest 

and put to the Nwnrd 

before all other, as toiicliing his valUantnes in fightinj;: 
notwithstanding, he gave other tlie glory of it, that desired 
it more then him selfe, as he did easily also leave the gold 
and silver unto th<»e, that luid more neede of it then nim 





Ambltiun, n 
hstcAill thin^ 
in the com- ' 

BMD «e4kltll. 

Cmo reproved 
ftv U« wcoad 


selFe, Wherein lie shewed him selfc of a nobler tiiinde, tliMi 
all they did. Furthermore, for my {wirte, I will not reprove 
Catocs Riaimcr, to comincnde nnd vxtuU liim ttrlfe so highly 
ahovv all other, since he him selfc myth in an oration Iw 
nuulv, tlint to pntiiK- hiia-sc-lf is iw miH^i folly, tut alKo to db- 
prmisc liJmselfe: but this I thinke, hinvrrtue i.t more perfect, 
that diwircth other should not prai»e him, then he thnt 
oommonly doth ti>i- to him Helfe. I-'or, not to be 
ajiibitiouii, i.i a j^at Awv of humanity, and necessary for 
him that will live ainonf^t men of government: and c^'cn 
so, ambition is hateful!, and procuretli great envy unto him, 
that is infected withall. Of the whicli Aristides was cleare, 
and Cato farre gone in it. For Arietides did help Theinis- 
toeles his chiefi'st enemic, in utl IiIh noblest aetes, and did 
serve him (us u imm would say) like a private souldier that 
garded his pcrsone, when Themistocles wa;<i gcnenvll, bciiigc 
the oncJy instrument and ninmc of his glory : which was 
in dcvdc the oiiely caiiw tlint tlie city of AUiens won saved, 
and restored 'igiu'nv to her former good Htnte. Cato con- 
tnu^wiHc, eronnin^ S<-ipio in all his enti-rprUieK, tlmii^ht to 
hinder )i>.s voyitg<- and jomey unto (.'arUiage, in the which he 
overcame Hannibal I, who untill that time was ever invineihle: 
and M> in the ende, cimtinuiug him atill in jcalouzy with the 
state, and c%-er accustnge of him, he never left him, till he 
liad driven him out of the eity, and caused his brother 
Luciuii Scipio to Ik? xhamefully condemned for theft, and ill 
buhaviuiu' in his chtirge. Fuiihermore. for teiti|x-min)ce and 
lliudestv, which Cuto (li<I ever eoiimicnde so highly: Aristiiles 
truciy Kept IIkiii most «inwn'ly. But Catocs setvnde wife, 
who marled it maide, (that wa!« neither fit for his dignity and 
colling, nor ngrecHble fur his age) made him to be tJionght n 
lerlieruu-s miw, and not witliout nianifM cuilhc. For he cnn 
nut be excuM-d with honeiity, that lu-inge b man |>n-tt mnriagv, 
brought hiK minne that wa.*) mnried, and his fayer daughter 
in lawe, n atepjic motJier into litH houtie, and but a elearkeit 
daughter, whooe father did WTvte for money, for any man 
that woulde hyer him. Take tt Cato niarie^ her to sati&tic 
his lust, or else for spite to be revenged of hia sonne, bicause 
his Sonne couldc not abide his younge filth he had before: 



(rithcr of tht'Sv turncth still to his shiinie, u» wcl thv vffixX, a» ARISTIDES 
abw the cause. Aguinc, the exvusf he niAde to liiit soiine *"■> 
why he mimed, wam al»u a lye. For if \w Iiiul grokinded his 
desire in deetle, to have gotteti other children, as he »«yd, 
that mif>ht bo as honest nieti a.« hi.t eldest noniie : tlieti .surely 
he lind iluiie well after tlie <leath of hijt Rrst wife, if he liad 
jht him an other wife ^^oone after, tliat had lieiie of an 
'bonest how>e, aii<l not to have lien with a young Imrlatry Altli, 
tU bis sonne had spied him, and then when he saw it was 
knowen, to goe and mary her, and to make alliance with 
him, not bicausc it was honorable for him to do 
it, but was easiest to be obtained. 



N the city of Mantinea, there was a citixm 
in old time cjtlleil Ca.s«»nder, mti- that vi\» 
a» nobly borne and of a.s pint nuthoritie 
in government tltem, as any mnii of his 
time whatsoever. Notwithstanding, for- 
tune frowned on him in the eiide, inso- 
much as he was driven out of his contrv, 
and went to Ij'c 'i the city of Megalopolis, 
only for the love he l»ri' imto Cnmsis, Philopocmcnes father, 
A rare mitn, and nobly ■jcveii in all thinges, uu<t one that 
tove<l hiin aluo very well. Now »o loiige a» ('rausis lived, 
CamhukIlt wiLt SCI well used at hi^ hancli-M, tliat he ouuld 
tacke notliing : and when lie w».i departed this worlde, 
kCoasander, to requite the love Crau-sin Imrt- him in his life 
[time^ tooke his sonne into his charge, being an orpliajie, iiiui 
aught him, as Homer sayd Adiilles was brought up by the 
[oWc Pbamijc. So this cbildc PhilopiEmeii grewe to have 
I noble conditions and iiicrensed alwayes from good to better. 
Aflerwardes, when he aime to grow to nuins state, Ecdcnius 
and lJ<:mop)lUlle^, both MegalitwlittttLs, tooke hini into their 











Kd Philo- 
sophy to 

tilt lost 
tumoa* mm 

Uken for 


goTcrnmmt. Thcv witl- two Philosoplicrs thitt hod bene 
hearcni uf ATXM.-NiIaLi». in the kcIwoIv of Acailcmiu, nnd 
afU'rwunltv i.iii[>loj'i,ii aII tin- PhilosHpliy tht-y but) UKimcd, 
upon thi' govcniiiiff uf tlie a>iiinioti wcjilth, luiil (U^uliiij^ in 
ninttcTN tit sUlf, tut inLi<:h or u)un-, tht-n tuiy otht-r iiu-ti of 
tlicir time. For tlifj' delivered their city from the tyrftimy 
of Aristtjdemufl, who kept it in aubk'ction, by corruptinge 
thoiiie that killed him. And they did heipe Aratus also to 
drive tlie tyraji Niocles, out of Sicyonc. At the request of 
the Cyrenians, that wore troubled with dvil dissmitjon and 
factions among them, they went unto Cyrena, when? they 
did rcforme the state of tlie common wealth, and stablit>hed 
good lawe? for them. But for them selves they reckeni-d 
tJie education and bringing up of Fhtlopurmen, ttie chiefest 
actv that evvr they did: ludjriiig that they luid procuretl 
an univemdl good unto all Gnvce, to bring up a man of 
HO noble ii natun-, in the nilea and precepts of Philosophy. 
And ti> my truely, (ireee did love him jiassiiigly well, as the 
liv<it vallisnt man she bn>ught fourth in her age, after so 
many great and famous auncient Captaines : and did alwayes 
increase his power an<! authority, as his glory did also rise. 
Whereuppon there was a Kinniunc, who to praise him the 
more, called him tlie )a»t of tiK' Greevians : meaningc, that 
after him, Greece never bmught foorth any worthy persone, 
descrvinge the nanii.- of a Grv-eciaii. And now coneeruingc 
his penione, he had no ill face, as many HUpjiuM- he bad : 
for his whole image is yet to be seene in the city of Delpln-s, 
excellently well done, as if he were alive. And fur tJiat tliey 
reporte of his hostesse in the city of Megara, who tooke liim 
for a serving man : that was by reason of his curtesie, n*>t 
standing uppon his Fepiita«:ion, and bicausc he went plainely 
besides, tor she imdenttnruling that the General! of tlie 
Achaians came to Imie there /dl night, .'<ho bi^turred her, and 
was very busie preparing!- for his supper, her husband par- 
advcnturc being from home at that time : and in the mcanc 
a-ason came Philopucnivn into the Innc, with a poore clokc 
on his b(u;ke. Ilie simple woman seeinge him no better 
uppitrelled, tooke hiui for one of his men that canie before 
to provide hiH lodging, and so prayed him to Icnde her his 


baiide in the kitchin. He straight cast of his cloke, and 
b^anne to Call to lieve wodde So, as l^hiloptcmen was 
busie about it, in oomnieth her husbiuidc, and findinge him 
rivinge of wodde : llu ha ha, suvd he, niv Ix>r(Ic l'hilupu;mcn, 
Vfhy what nn-ancth this? Triivly iiolhitig cW, sajd he in 
hi« IXiriaui toii]L;iiu, but tlmt I nni piitiUhed, hiaiiise I am 
ueitlicr fay«r btiy, nor goodly man. It i» Irw that Titus 
Quintius rlainiiiiiu sayod ono dav utiU> him, liet-tningi- to 
modce him for hiH pernona^: O I^ilopueuiej), thou haat 
fayer liaitdes, aitd good t<^ge^ but thou bast no belly, for he 
was (ine in the waste, and &uialt bodied. Notwjthstkndinge, 
I take it this jeastiiige tended mther to the proporticH) of 
his army, then of his bodv : bicaiisc he had botn good horse- 
men, and footemen, but lie was often without money to pay 
Um'DI. These gvastes, scboUem have taken tipjK: in schoolcs, 
orPbilo]>ccmiii. But now to disccixl to biit nature and con- 
ditiotw: it »<x-incth thitt the ambition and dunrc be had to 
winne hoitor in hiK doiitgiii, vrns not witliout «onic heatc and 
wilfullnes. For, biakum; Im- woidd altoj^-ther fullow Kfinnii- 
nondaa stepjie*, lie shewed hiii lianiines to etiterpriM^ any 
thing, his wiftedonie to execute all gnat inatter*, and tiu 
inteKrity also, in that no money could corrupt him : but in 
dnu matters and controversies, he coulde hardly otherwhilea 
keepe him selfc uitliin the boiides of modesty, pacience, and 
curtesie, but woulde often burst out uito choller, and wilful- 
ncs, Whii-fore it secmetJi, that he was a better Ctiptaine 
for wRnx5«, then a wiw; governor for ik*ju:c. And in deedc, 
eren from hi-s youth he ever loved itouldiciH, and aniicK, and 
delttsd nian-elously in all niartiall exorcise.t: at in lumdling 
of his wea[)on well, riding of borM« gallnntly, anil in vnwting 
nimbly. And hicause be seemed to have a natumll gift 
in wreitUnge, certaine of his frendes, and such a.i were care- 
full of him, did wishe him to gevc him selfe most mito 
that exercise. 'ITicn he asked them, if their life that made 
such profession, would be no bindvrnunce to their martJall 
ex«rasc«. Aimswerc vros made him sgaine, that the dis- 
position of tile IK-Tvom-, (Uid manner of life that wrestlers 
lucd, and xuch as followed like exercises, was altogether 
contrary to tlie life and dihcipliiie of a nouldier, and tipcciAlly 
a:G 49 



hsstr uid 

deliKkUd in 



(lid rF|>rovH 

niciMi ffoiuM 
how they were 
em ploy III. 


touching life and limme. For wi-estlc^rs r>tucli«I nltoj^thcr 
to kecpc them selves in gooci plight, by much §lwpijig, iviting, 
nnd drinking, by Iftbonng, and taking their case at certaine 
hovrcrs, by not missinge a jotte of their exereisesi : and 
bcsjdos ''Kre in hAzard to loose the force iind Htnmgth of 
their body, if they tlid surlit never so litk% or passed their 
ordinary courM; tuid rule of tiiet- Whcrv jwiiildiers contrari- 
wiso ftfi- u»ed to all ehaimgi.', tmd <liver!<itie of life, and 
iijx-eially be taught fnim their youth, to away with all hard- 
nease, and Hcarsity, aiut to watelie in the night without 
slcepe. I'hilojHtmen ht-ariiig this, did not onely forsake 
those exercises, and scorned them, but afterwardct beinge 
Gencrall of an anny, he Miught by all infamous nieanes 
he collide to put downe all wrestling, and such kinde of 
exiTciw, whidi niade meiines bodies umiieete t<> take paines, 
and to bi-conR- souldieis for to fight in defence of thi-ir anitry, 
that otlicrwi»e would have bene very able and handsome for 
the same. When he first left his bouke imd M-hooleiiiasters, 
and bt^aiine U> weare annor in invtuiuns the Mantineians 
used to make up|>on Uie I.iu^'dK'nionianN, to get some g>oytc 
on a sodaine, or to destruv a parte of their contry: Philo- 
pcemcn then would ever In- the fonnost to go out, aiid 
the hindcrmost to come in. When he had ieosiuv, he 
Hsed much hunting in time of peace, all to aci|uainte his 
body with toyle and travel!, or else he would be dicing 
uf hii4 groimdcs. For he liad a fa>Te mannor, not pas»- 
inge twenty furlotiges out of the city, whether he would 
waJke commonly nnt^'r dinner or supper: and then when 
night came that it was bed time, he would lye u|>im some 
ill lavon-il iiuittresse, as tlie meanest laborer he had, and in 
the raomingt- by hrejike of the day, he went out cither 
with his vine men to labor in bis vineyard, or eke 
with his plough men to follow the plough, and somtimes 
returned agfune to tlie dty, and followed matters of the 
common wealth, with his frendes and other officers of the 
Kamc. Whatsoever he could spare and get in the warrcs, 
ho spent it in buyuig of goodly horse&, in nmkingc of 
fayer armors, or payinge his poore contry mens rausome, 
tnot weiv taken prisotiet? in the warres : but for his goodet 


and n-f-ratii', he sought onely to incrc«se thvm, bv thi' 
profit of tillagv, which he L-slecim-d t)ic jiisti.-st and b«t 
way of eettio^ of gooiJes. Fur )»c did nut tnfli; tlieruin, 
but rmployod hi* wlmlt> ran: tuid stitdy apon it, as one that 
thoudit it Ht for every noble man and gentleman tto to 
tntTmiU, governe, and increasi- his owme, that he should have 
no occa^on to covet or usurpe an other manncs. He tooke 
no pleasure to heare all kuide of matters, nor to read all 
torten of bookes of Pliilosophy : but those onely that would 
teodie him most to become vertuous. Neither did he much 
care to read Homers worses, savingc those phuxs onely 
that stirred up mens hortes moet unto valliantnes. But of 
all other stories, he speciallv delited to read Evangelus 
bookes, which treated of the cfiscipliiie of warres, how to set 
battells, and declared the ncrti'v nnd f^-oxU.s of Alexander the 
ffreat, sayingt- : that men »houldovvpr brin^ his wordt« untx> 
dcodM, onl*.«sc men would take tliein for vaine stories, and 
thingt* spoken, biit not to prolit by. Fnr in his boc^es of 
the K-At4.-s of warrv, and bow tmttelU shoulde be nnlered, he 
was not onely oontented to see them drawen and wt out, 
in cartes and mapper : but would also put tlietii in execu- 
tion, in the places them selves as they were set out. And 
therefore, when the army marched in order of battell m the 
iielde, be woutde oonsider and study with him wife, the 
eodaine erentes and approches of the enemies, that might 
light upon them, when they comming downe to the valley, 
or goiiiji out of a plaine, were to passe a river or a ditehc, or 
through some stmight : aif'O when he xliuuld spread out his 
army, or else gather it narrow : jind this he did not only 
forecast by him sclfe, but woulde also arcue the «amc with 
the Captaines Umt wen- aliout him. For Philo]Hvmm doubt- 
leate was one of the oddc men of the vrorlde, that moitt 
eiteemed the diKcinline of warre, (aiKl sometime [Kriut venture 
more then he neetled) a« the n>ost Urj^e field and must fnite- 
full ground that valliantnes could be exercised in : so that 
be despised and contemned all that were no souldiers, as 
men good for nothing. When he was come now to thirty 
yeares of age, C'leomenes kingo of Lncediemon, came one 
ni^t upon the i>o(lnine, and gave an assault to the city 



aicdiM study 1 
•nd care In 

to TVii Kvim- 
Kcliu buokM 
of th«di>d- 



king of 


rer; ton 

of Mi.'^ipolis, 80 lustely, that be drave backe the w&tdie 
iwid got into the nwrket pWe, and wanne it. Pliilopceraen 
Itcariiige of it, raiitit: iuiniediatlv to the rescue. Neverthe- 
Itsse, though he fought very valfiantly, and did like a noble 
iKmldier, yet he coulde not repulse the enemies, nor drive 
then) out of the citv. But hy tnis mcane he got his dtiiiens 
leaiiiu^e, aiid some time to get them out of tLc towne to save 
them selves, staying those that followed tbem : and made 
Clcomeura still wait*^' ujion him, no that in the end he had 
much a do to mve him setfe being the last man, juid very 
sore hurt, and hi« home also nlaine under him. Shortvly 
afUrr, Cleomeiie-i Ix-intr advertised tiiat tlie Ale^ujKilitaju 
werv gotten into the city of MesHina, sent unto thetn to let 
thcni understand, tliat he was ready to deliver them ilieir 
city, lands, end goods againe. But rhilopcemen seeing his 
contrymen very glad of Uiese ncwes, ana that every man 
pre|)ared to ri'turne agnine in hast: he st^iyd them with 
these perswftsions, shewing them that Cleomem^s devise was 
not to redeliver thiin their city, but rather to take them to- 
gether with their city: futvni'eiiig well enougti, tluit he cotdd 
not continue long there, to kcepe naked nalln and eninty 
hou»eK, and that Jiim »elfe in tlie ende should lie oompelled to 
goe liiH way. This perswasion slaved the Mcj^lopolitanii, 
but witliall it gave Cleomene^ occasion to bume and plucke 
downe a great parte of the city, and to cary away a great 
sumnie of mcmey, and a great spoyle. jUterwardes, when 
kingc Antigonus was come to aide the Achaians against 
C'leomenc«, and thjit Cleomenes kept on the toppo of the 
ABnauru mountaini-s of St'll(i>.i»i, «n«J kept all tJie pastuigc* and waves 
waJnA CI«o- tinto them out of all tJiose ({uarterx : king Antigonu't fiet his 
tnenM kln^ of army in luittel hard by him, determining to »et upon him, 
Lacedwnuin. jujd to drive him thence if lie could ponibly. Phiioiwi-inen 
was at that time amongest the horsemen witli hi8 cittiicns, 
who had the Illvrians on the side of tliem, being a great 
number of footemeii and excellent good souldiers, which did 
shut in the taile of all the army. So they were coramaunded 
1^^. to stand stil, and to kci>c tlieir place, luitiil such time as they 

kinit« Cmo- '^''^ shew tliem a rvdoe eoate of amies on tlw toppc of a 
oMnet. pyke^ from the other wing of the battell. where the king 


KlnR Anti- 
mniu came 
loi^dfl the 

OicaM unblti 
bet in the 


him seife stoode in perooiic. Notwithstanding this straight PHIIX 
commatuidement, the Captaineti of the lUyrians would abide P(EMB 

00 lenger, but went to see if they could force the L^oedie* 
monians that kept on the top of the mountaiaes. The 
Achaiooa {ontrariwisc, kept their place and order, as they 
were comiiuktiiidi-d. Euclidas, Clcotiienes brother, pcrceiv* 
inf; t)ui« their enemies fuotemeu nerc Kevovd from their 
horMMiK-n. sudainty victit thir lighti'«t iirtnMl Kouldien and 
ltutie>t fvUuwRt Ik- hntl in his l>and», to gcw « clmrKc upon 
tJic Iliyriiuw behindc, to prove if they couldc tnaxe th«tn 
t^ime their facxs on thctn, uicause they had no horsemen for 
tlieir earde. 'nn» was done, and thesi- light armed men did 
marvek>usly trotible and disorder the Itlyrians. Fhilofxmnen 
perceivinge, that, and considering howe these liglit armed 
men would be easily broken and driven backe, since oocasioti 
selfe inforccd them to it : he went to tell the kings Cap- 
taines of it, that led his men of armes. But when he saw 
he could not make them tmderstaud it. and that they made 
no r%*(.-ketiin>; of his rcAsontt, but touko him of no skill, 
biouiM- he hnd nut yet atlatnecl any cn-dit or ^-stiniuciou to 
be judged a man, tnat eouUl invk-nt or execute any stratA- 
geaine of warrc : he went thither him !«.'lfe, and tookv hi« 
vitixens with him, And at hix tint couiming, he so trmibled 
these light armed men, that he made them flie, and slue a 
number of tiiem. Moreover, to encorage the l>etter king 
Antigoiius men, and to make them gevc a lusty charge 
uppon the enemies, wliilest they were thus troubled and out 

01 order : he left his horse, an<i marc-hcd a foote up hill and 
downe hill, in rotigh and stony waycs, full of springs and 
quitvcmym, being heuvely armed at all pecccs as a man at 
arn>c«, and fightiuge in this sortc very pftiuefultv and unvaaily, 
h« had both hi» thigluv jvisl through with a dart, havingu a Philowm 
leather tlionge on the mnidi-,-.t of it. And though thi- blow •>"" f" ^t 
did not take mitch holdir of tliL- fleshe, yet wan it a stronge 
blow, for it pearced Imth thighi>s through and through, that 
the iron was secne on thother side, 'liicn was he so com- 
bered with this blow, as if he had bene shackled with irons on 
his feetc, and knew not what to doe : for the leather fastened 
tn the middcst of the dartc, did grevc him marvelouslv, 


cbasen O«iio- 
rail uf the 
hon>em«a of 
Out Achaisns. 


wh«n they Uiotiglit to hitvc pulliKl tlic dartc out of the 

Jlaoe vrlit-rc it cntrt-d in, m m iM>vcr r iiuui about him 
urat set \m lioixles to it. Philopcctnvn oil the otlicr Hide, 
seeine the Ught tvnriltlu uii cither .side, and would soone be 
ended : it spited him to the euttoa, he would no tedne have 
bene among them, So at tiit- length he made such atmggw. 
ling, putting backe one t))igh, and setting forward an other,' 
that he knapped the staffe of the dai'te a sunder, and made 
tiicm pull out the two troncheons, the one on this side, and 
tlie otJicr on the other side. Then when he saw ho was at 
lilwrty a^ne, he tookc his sword in his haitdv, and nuine 
tlin>ugh the middcst of them that fought, unto tlie foremont 
nuickes, to mci^te with the enemy: so tlint he gave hi* men 
a iiewe cor«ge, and did si-t them on fyre with envy, to followe 
his valliantn<^i«te. After tho hfittell was woiiiie, Antigonus' 
asked the Macedonian ('ajitaiiii'*, tx> prove them : who moved 
the Iwrsemen to devide thetn »elves,''and give the charge, 
before the stgne that was eorainaunded. They aunswered 
him, that they were fiirced to doc it against their willes, 
bicause a yoimg Mega lopol! tan geiillcman gave a charge 
with hi* company, before the signe was given. Then Anti- 
gonuis ioughmg, told them : tlie young gnitlnnan plityed 
the jKirto of a wise and valliant Caplaine. This rxployte, 
togethiT with Antignnux testimony, gave great reputacHon 
unto Philopccmen, mt we may nuily imagine, fno king Anti- 
gonuA morvelmisly intnnteil him nc would serve with him, 
and offered him a bande of men at annes, and groat enteivj 
tainemeiit, if he would go with him. But rhilopcemea' 
refused his offer, and chiefly, hicauae he knew his owne 
nature, that he could hardly abide to be commiumdii3 by 
any. Notwithstandinge, bicausc he could not be idle, he 
tookc »ca, and went into Creta, where hi- knewe there were 
warrtw, onoly to continue him selfe in exercise thereof. So 
when he hud wr\e6 « lonm- time with the Crt-tan-s which 
were valliant wmldiers, nntl vcrj' ex|X.Tt in all polidea and 
feates of wane, mid morwivpr were men of a moderate and 
sp&re dyet: he returned home againe t» Achaia, with so 
great credit and re])(itAei(>n of every one, that he was pre- 
sently clioHen (ienemll of all the horsemen. So when he 


entred into hU charge, hv foundi* many horse-men very ill 
honM-d, upon litli- InJi-s, stich il'; might Ix' gotten chL-apcst, 
and how they iis«! not t<> goi- thom wivw in pcrsonc to the 
wATTCs, btit ni<) wndc othvr in their sti.«de : and to be shorte, 
how they twitlKr had liartes, nor exiK-rii'iicc of the wattcs, 
and nil Dicaune Uie Geoer&lU and CajiUiun of the people 
of the Ach&iniii tliat served I>efore him, did take no hn-de 
to tiioae matters, aa fearinee to offende any, bicause Uiey 
had the greatest authority in their handes to punish or re- 
ward whom they thought good, l^hilopccmen feariiige none 
of all these thingcs, would leave no parte of his charge and 
ducty undone, hut wmt him selfe in pcrsonc to all the cities, 
to pcrswade and cnojragL- the youne giiitlcmcn, to be well 
horsed, and ucll armni, that they might winne honor in the 
Gvlde, be able to iU*f«iile tlli-ni Selves, and overthrow their 
cnemien. Ami wlu-rv pi-ntwivsion couki doe no good, there 
he would Het (ynus u[K>n their heades that w refused, and 
did use to muster tlit-m oft, and did acquointe t)>ein with 
tilting, turning, and harriers, and one to fight with an other, 
and at such times and jilaces specially, as he knew there 
would be multitudes of people to give them the lookir^ 
on : that in shortc space he made them very forwaroe, 

E roper, and ready horsemen, whose cbiefest property is, to 
cvpe their order and nuickes in the battclf. bo as when 
ncecssitie served for the whole cumptiny of horwmen to tumc 
together, halfc turue, or whole tunie, or else every man by 
him selfe : they were so throughly traiiu-d in it, that oil the 
whole troupe set in baltell n»y, di<l seeme (w it wen- to be 
but one body, tlioy removed so txigi-tlutr, wul withall so 
easily, und at all tim&i, and so oft, as tume tliey wouldc 
on the one .-tide, or on the other. Now in a gKut Iwttell 
tiie Achaians had with the ^tolians and the Elians, by the 
river of Lariasus : Demophantus, Gencrall of the horsemen 
of the Mtoiians, came from his company to light with Philo- 
pcemen, who also mode towardes Iiim, and gave hini first 
such a blow with his spt-are, ttiat he stroke him starke deade. 
When Dmnopliantiu fell to the grnuode, hi& souldicrs fled by 
and by upon it. This wauite t'liilopcemen great honor, who 
gave no place to the youngest men in lighting most valliantly 




■luc J)cmi>- 
Geiiernll o{ 
men of the 



The pniisK of 


ArAtiis rai««d 
Achnia to 

tind Arntuii 

Aratus b 
«oft mnn in 


n-ith his owne handes : nor to the oldest mtii in wiscdome, 
for the wise Icadine of liis army. In dwdc the tirst man 
that made the jieople of Achaia grow iu power mid gn^ttnes, 
was AratuB : for before liis tunc Achaia was of small rvckcn- 
ingp, bicausc the cities of the same stoodv dcvidcd betwcne 
them selves, and j\ratiix was the first mrmno that made thvm 
j«>yiio togt-ther, and sUiWishwl numnjp; thein an honent civill 
g<ivmimfiit. Wherebv it hap]H-iuHl, that «.t we mm.- in brookes 
and Tivvrx when- any litle tbingo .ttoppeth ami falleth to the 
bottome, which the crtume of the water bringeth downe the 
streame, there the rest that followeth doth use to stay, and 
goe no further : even so in the cities of Greece that were in 
harde state, and sore weakened, by faction one against an 
other, the Achaians were the first that stayed themselves, 
and grewe in aniity one with the other, and ufltT«ardes 
drewe on the nst of the cities iiitri Ifiigue witli tbem> M 
good neighbours ami con fell em Is. Some by helpinge and 
deliveringe thvm from the uppres-sion of tyrans, and win- 
ninge uUii'r aI*o by tlii^ir peaix-able goremnient and good 
concoi'de: they baa a ineaninge in this wise, to bringe all 
the contrie of I'eloponneBiis into one body and league. 
Neverthelesse, while Aralus lived, thev dejjended most apon 
the strength and power of the Macif lonians : first with sticlc- 
inge unto kinge I'tolomie, and then unto Antigonus, and last 
to Philip, who ruled in manner all the state of Greotx-. But 
when Philopccmen uime to goveme, and to be the chiefest man, 
the Achaians beinge stronge enough to niiist the strongest, 
wouJdr niaR'he then no more under any other IxKlienemugne, 
nor wouUle suffer any more strauiige govemoi> or ('a))taines 
over them. l''or Aratus (as it seemed) was somewhat to softe 
and colde for the warres, and therefore the most tbinges he 
did, were by gentle intreaties, by intelligences, and by the 
kinges fiendshippes with whomc he wan great, as wc have 
at Targe declared in his life. But rhiloiKemeu Mnge a 
manne of execution, hanly and vnlliant of persone, and of 
very gooti fortune, in the limt Iwllell that he ever mrule, did enei-ea,**- the corage and harlcv of the Aehuiniis : 
bicaune undei* hin charge they ever foiled t^ieir enemies, and 
alwayes hadde the upper hande over them. The fint thiugc 


Philopcemen b^;anne wiUinll iit iiis i-oinrniii^, hv chitiingai 
the manner of tiiettiiigc of tlw^ir tahliH, mid ttu.'ir riu,-ti>ii uf 
amiinge tht-«i solve*. F*ir lieforc tliey caric-i! litle tiglit tar- 
gcttes, uliich b>caui»c they were thiniie and iiarruwe, did not 
cover halfc Uieir bodies, aiid used spLiares farre sliorter then 
pykra, by reason whei-eof they were very light, and good to 
^irmi^- and fight a fan-c of: but when tlicy came to joyne 
bttttcll, thrir ciicmics then haddi- great vantagi? of them. 
A» for the onU-r of their batU'ih*", they knewe not what 
it ment. nor to avfi tlK-m selves into a utiuill or rinj^y, but 
ODely itxtl iiw Mjiian.' batt<.-ll, nor yet euvc it any nueh fronte 
wht-re the pyki-s of many ranckes mieht pmhc together, and 
where tiie itouldien might »tande so cloeie,that tlteir tm^ttes 
should touch one nn other, an they do in tht- sciuadroii of the 
battel! of the Maeedouiana : by reason whereof, tliey wi-rt- 
iiooiic broken, and overthrowen. Philopcemen reforuied all 
this, pervading them to use the pykc and shielde, in steade 
of their iitle target, spcarc, or bofntafTc, and to put good 
mon^'ans or lairgaiiettps on thrir hcodes, corsclcttes on uidr 
bodies, and good tiu»cs and greavcK to cover their thighcs 
and teggct, that they might tight it out manfully, not 
gevinge n fnott? of groundc, an light armed men that runne 
to an<) fro in a. NkirniiHhe. And tJius Imvinge pctswadcd and 
tau^it Uic younge nti-n to arme them selve-t througblie, tint 
he made tliein the bolder and more cora^ou.t to fight, as 
if they had l>ene menne that couldc not have bene over* 
come : then he turned all their vaine liuiwrftuous char^, into 
tteccssarie and honest eX{Kii«-!i. But he eould not posnblv 
bring th<'m altogt-thtT from their vaine and richc apparel), 
they had of long time taken up, (lie one to exceedc an other : 
Dor ftom their sumptutius furutttin- i>f houses, as in hcddea, 
hanginges, curioun K-rvice at tht^ table, and ilelicat^ kimle 
of wshcs. But to beginiie to withdrawe thi.i dwire in them 
which they hadde, to ne fine and delicati:-, iti all superfluous 
and urnivcesMxie things, and to like of thingea iieremarie, 
and profitable : he uiKht^l them to looke more iierely to their 
mdinarie charge about them selves, takinge order a.t welt for 
tJieir appajell, as also for their diet, and to spare in them, 
to come hoDorablie armed to the fioldc, for doenee of their 
3:H 57 



the Aenaiatu 
of mra. 


tam«3 all 
curimitv and 
dunty fnre, 
into brnve and 
rioho urmoni. 

Brnve armor 

meiii mindnH 
to iwrveuuljJy. 


cootrie. Thereupp<m, if yun IiaiI looked into tbv goldo- 
smithes shoppvs, yt- should have M-viio iiothiiigc cl**- in Uicir 
hnndes, but brwitinge aiid batteringe of poiUxs of ^Mv ruid 
silver, to be east aiKrinolton downe againe, and tbc-ii gikliiige 
of armors and targettes, aiid ailveriiig of bittes. In tnv sliowe 
oloct-'s for the ruiiiungc of hoi-ses, there was inaniiedging and 
oreiikinge of yoiiiigc horscn, and yoimge men exercisinge 
arnii-s. Wouicns haudes also were full of niorryans and 
heade peeeea, whereto they tyed goodly brave plumes of 
feathers of sundry colours, and wen.- also fiill of imbrodered 
anninge contes and cassuckL^s, with curious and very ricbc 
workes. Tlie sifjht of wlneli bravcric did heave uppc thdr 
hortea, and made tlu-iii f;iillant and lively: so as envy bred 
straight in them who Khoutde doe bent service, and no way 
spare for the warres. In deede, sunipltioiisiit'stH' luid bravene 
in other sighten, dotlt secretely cai'y iJien» minder away, and 
allure them to seeke after vanities, which maken them tender 
bodied, and womanishe persones: bicaiise this sweete ticklinge, 
and intisinge of the outwarde sencc that is delighted there- 
witli, doth straight melt and soften the strength and eoragc 
of the minde. But agaiiic, the sumptuous cost bestowed 
apon warhkc furniture, doth iiieorage and make great a 
noble harte. Even us Homer sayeth it did Aehilles, when 
his mother brought tiini newe aniior and weapons, she hndde 
caused Vulcan to make for him, and layetl tJiem at his feetv: 
who seeinge them, coulde not tarie, but wa.s straight sctte 
on fyre with desire to occiipie them. So when HliiliiiMrmca 
hadde brought the youth of Aehaia to this good piu<K-, to 
come tJius bravely armed and ^mished into the nelde, he 
begatme then to cxerdse them continuallic iu armes: whercia 
they did not onely shcwe them selves obedient to him, but 
did moreover strive one to cxcell an other, and to doe better 
then their fellowcs. For they liked marvelous well the 
orderinge of the l>attel! he hjidde tnught them, bicausc that 
standinge so close together «» they djtl, they thought surely 
they coulde hardly l>e overthrowen. Thusljy eontinuaunce 
of time, beinge muche utted to weare tlieir armor, they fotmdc 
them a great deale easier and lighter then before, tx^ides the 
pleasure they tooke to see their armor so brave, and so ricbc: 


[QMmuch ns they lon^ for »ume ocawion to tryc them 
straight tipiK>n tnc-ir oni-tnW. Now the Aclud«nM iit that 
time were at waitcs with MachaiiiiUn, Die tvnuinv of Lacv- 
dntnon, who »ought by all dense he coulae with a great 
nrmie, to become chieie Lorde of all the Peloponnesian^. 
V%'heii Dewet) waa broueht that Machanidas wan come into 
the contrie of the MantinioDs, l'hilop<Enien straiglit nmrched 
towardes him with his army ; so they mett bothe not 
(kiTc from the citie of MantiiKfi, where by and by they 
put them selves in order of battell. They both haddc 
vntertaynnl in paye a great niimbcr of stratmecrs to 
»iTve tnem, besitk-s tlie wiwle foirc of their coDtnc : and 
when they cnme to joyne bnttell, Atachiuiidn^ with hi« 
KtmiiiipiTs gn\c such II lustie eJiarj^e uppon certainc slingcs 
Olid ari-hi-r« Ix-ing the forlonie ho|>e whome I*hilo|)a-nioii )uu) 
cast of l>t.-fore the battell of the Achaians to lieginne tli« 
sidruiishe, tliat he overthrew them, and made them flic 
withal. But where he should have gone on directly againttt 
the Achaians that were ranged in battell ray, to have proved 
if he could have broken them : he was very busie, and 
earnest still, to follow the cha^ of thoni that first fled, and 
30 came hard by the Achaians timt stotxk- still in their battel, 
and kept tlicir rancki«. litis great overthrow fortuning at 
the beginning, many men thought the Aeluiians were but 
cast away. But Philopcvnien made as though it hod bene 
nothingv,and that he n-t light by it, and .tpying the great fault 
his enemies made, followitig the furlome nope on the spitrre. 
whom they had ovi-rtiirowfu, ami ^t^aying «o farre from 
thelwtti-Ilof tlieir f<ioteuien, whomo they had left naked, and 
the lield <>p<-n npon them : he did not make towardea Oteni 
to titay ttiein, nor did strive to stop them that they nhould 
not follow tho&e that fled, but suffered them to take tlteir 
course. And when he saw that they were gone a good way 
from their footemcn, I»c ma*ie his men marche apon the 
Lacedemonians, whose sides wore naked, having no horsemen 
to card them : and so did set upon them on the one side, 
and rannc so hastely on them to winne one of their flaneka, 
that he made tliein flie, and xlue withall a great number 
of them. For it i» naid, there wen- foure tliousand Lace- 



IDHtle vrnrrcw 
witli MncliB- 
□idrtH tyrnn of 



Mid MKlha- 



Ui* Laced »- 

tiae Maclia- 


diemonians slaioe in the field, bicause tbcy had do ninti to 
leade them : and moreover, they say they did not looke to 
fiffht, but 8U|}poscd rather they had woimi- Uie (icidc, when 
tiiey saw Miuhiuiidas cliasiti^ «tii those upon tht" »punv, 
whom he had overthrowen. After thi.t, PhiloiHtmcii rt-tyretl 
to mete Miichuriiiliw, who e^uiie buckc from the chase with 
his stnumKers. But by chaunce there was a rrcat broade 
ditch Ix'twcne them, so at botli of tlieiii rode upon the 
buiiektsi Hides of Die same, a great while together, one 

Xhist an other of them : thone side seking some convenient 
:c to get over and Hie, and the other side seking nicaues 
to kepe them from starting away. So, to see the one before 
the other in this sorte, it appeared as they had bene wild 
beaste« brought to an extreamity, to defend tJicm sclvfjt by 
force, fn>ni so fierce a hunter as Philopoemcn wok. But 
wbilest they were striving thus, tlic tyran* horse that was 
lusty and t'()n^rioiis, and fell the fiiree of lii» mn-ilers spurrea 
pricKing in his ^ideit, tliat tlu- blood followed afUr, did venter 
to lenne the ditche, coniminge to (he banckex side, stoode 
apon nis hindemost legges, and advaunced forward with his 
foremost feete, to reach to the other side. Then Simmias 
and Polyienus, who were about Fhilopcemcn when he fought, 
ran thither straight to kepe him in with their Iwre staves 
that he whoidd not leape the ditehe. Itiit Philoptrnicn who 
was there befon- them, pereciving that the tyraii* horse by 
lifting tip hiK hetul so high, did cover all his maisters body : 
fonwokv by and by his norsc, and tooke [us speure in both 
hit htinds, and thrust at the tyroii witli so good a will, that 
he stue him in the diteh. In memory whereof, the Achiuatut 
that did highly e.tteeine tliis valliiuil aele of his, and hia 
wisedome also in leadinge of the Imttell: did set up hU 
image in brassc, in the temple of Apollo iu Delphca, in the 
forme he slue the tyran. 'i'hey say, that at the assembly of 
tlic common games called Nemea, (which they solemnise in 
honor uf Hcreules, not farro from the citie of Argos)and not 
long lifter he had womic this battell of Manttnea, being 
inaile Generall the secondc time of the tribe of the Aehiiians, 
and heinpf at gimil hvisurc also by reason of the feast ; he 
first siiewed all the Grecdans thdt were come thither to sec 


the gamca rik) piutimes, his aroiy mungiitg in order of bnttvll, 
aud niiulc thcin see how eosilj they iviiiuvfd tht^r pliicvs 
cvury "iiv, iLs iii-t.'esxity and occasion of %lit ruquirvd, with- 
out 'truiif]]t:ige or untfoundinge tlieir ranckia, and th&t wiUi 
a marvelous force aiid rcdines. When he liad doii« thi». 
he went into the 1'beater to heare the muaitians play, and 
idag to their inHtrunientes, nho should irione the I>eat game, 
being accompanied with lusty young gentlemen apparrelled 
in purple clokcs, and in xkarlct coattr^ luid ntfsockcs tncv ware 
apon their armor, being iilt in i\iv flowi-r of their youth, 
and well given and di»|K>»cd : who did gR-ntly honor and 
revercDcc Uteir C-uptjiiiie, and bvxidi-^ titat, shewed them- 
sclvcH inwardly of noble harte't, being inoornced by many 
ootablr baltellM tliey had fought, in whirh they hiul cvcr 
fttteined tlie victory, and gotten the upjKT hand of their 
cncniiciii. And by chaunce, ai tliey were ciitred into tlie 
Tlwater, Pyladfj> the mu^itian, ainginge certaitie poenies of 
Timotheus, ealled the Perses, fell into these verses : 

O (Jr«ekei, it is oven be, which yuur proniwrity 
Uulb gireti to f uu : and therewithal] a nublc liberty. 

W^^cn lie had sweetely song out alowde these noble verws, 
pwstnsly well made : the whole assembly of the Greccians in 
the Tneater, that were gathered thither to sec the gainea, 
cast all their eyes straight utwn Philopccmen, and clapped 
their handcs one to an other for joy, bicausc of the great 
hope tbey had in him, tliat through him they shoulde 
soonc n-eovrr their auncicnt rc-putfictr>n, niid so imagined 
they |ins!w»ed alreafiy the noble and worthy niindi« of their 
aiuicvsters. And tu yoimgc hor»e that doc alwayes looke to 
be ridden by their onlinarie riders, if any stniungcr get up 
on thcnr bockca, do straight waxe stratmge to lie haiiddca, 
and make great a do: even so, when the Achaianit aunc 
to any daungerous battell, their hartes were even done, if 
tliey hail any other Gencrall or leader then Philopcenien, on 
whom still they det>etKiedaiidlix>ked. ^\jid when they sawe 
him ever, the whole army rejoyced, and desired straight to 
be at it, they hud such confidence in his valliuitnesse and 
g« ■»d fortune: and truciy not without cause. For of aU 





i'lEII/)- men, tbeir enemies did feare him most, luid Annt not 
I'tEMEN" staiide before him: bicautie they were afrayed to heare his 
name only, as it seemed by their doings. For Philip kingc 
of Maceaon, imagining tnat if he could Hade meanes to 
dispatche Philopcpmeo out of the way, howsoever it were, 
the Achaians would straieht take part*- againe with him : 
sent men secretly into trie city of Argos, to kill him by 
treason. Howbcit the practise was discovered, and the king 
wcr after was mortiilly luitcd of all the Greeciaiis generally, 
■nd taken fnr a cowardly iind wicked Prince. It fortimcd 
one (lay when the Hoeotians iayed siege to the city of 
Megam, and thought certainly ttt Imvo wonne it at tJie fir»t 
a<4ault : there rose a rumor sodaiiiely amongt^t tlieiii, that 
Philopcemen came to aide Uie city, and was not farre from it 
with nia army. But it was a false reporte. Not withstand* 
ingo, the Boeotians were so scared, that for feare they left 
their scaling ladders behindc them, which they had set 
against the walls to have scalctl the towne, and fled straight 
to save thcni selves. An other time, when Nabis the tyran 
of LEieixIfrmon, that sncecctk-d Machnnidnx, had taken the 
city of Mi'SNirin iJp|K>n the sodniiie : Fhilo(Heineu Wing then 
a private man, and hiiviiige no cluirgi- of Konldieni, wnit unto 
Lysippiis, GentTRl of the Achaians that yen-, to jKTSwadc 
him tfiJit he would send present aide «nto them of Messina. 
LyKip]>a>( told him, it was to late now to goe tliither, and 
that it was but a lost towne, not to be holpen: considering 
the enemies were in it already, Philopojmen perceiving he 
could not procure him to go, went thither him selfe wjth 
the force of Messina ooly, not staying for the nssembly of 
the Megalopolitans, that were in coiinscll about it, to give 
him commissioti by voyces of the people to take them with 
him : but they all willingly followi-d him, as if he had bene 
their continiiiill GeiK-nill, wul (lie nu«i that by nature was 
worthiest of nil other Ut coinmaumle them. Now when he 
aune neere unto Me.-'Siiia, Nabis henririge of his comminge, 
durst not lary him, though he had his army within the city, 
Nsbis fleeth hut sttile nut at an other gate, and marcheiii away in all t£c 
PUl«p<Bm«ti. liasl he could, thinking him selfe a happy man and he could 
so i-s»i|K- his handes, and retyre with .safe^, as in dede he 

He onely 
pu-iiii>u iiiiule 
tlie Bu^uUaiis 
flee for feare. 

Nftbis tyrsn ol 
wanoe the city 
of Measlns. 


did, Aiid thus waii Messina, by hia meanes, delivered froni 
csptiTity. All that we have written hitherto ooncemiiie 
PbilopcBinen, falleth out doutlessc to his rreat honor and 
glory : but afterwardes he was greatly Jisjiraised for a 
jorney he made into Cncta, at the retjucst of the Gor- 
tj'niatia, who «nt to pray him to be their Captainc, being 
sorr troublcx! with wurrvs at that timo. Biuiukc Philo- 

Snncn went thiii to sitvo tht Gurtynians, when the tymniic 
nbis had grciiU-jst warrvs with Uic Megnliipulitaiis, in their 
owm- contry : thvy laid it to Im cliarjj«, either that he did it 
to flic Uie warns, or else that he sought honor out of «en«on 
witli forviite nations, when his noore citlKiMis the Megalo- 
{iolitaiis were m such distresie, that their coiitry l>eiit)f lost 
and deatroyed, they werv driven to keope tliem within tlieir 
city, and to sow all their voide groundes and streetea in 
the same with conie, to susteine tliem withall, when tlteir 
enemies were encamped almost hard at their towne gates. 
And the rather, bicausc him selfe making warres witn the 
Cretans, and sen-ing straungeni bcyonde the sea in the 
meane time, gave his enemyc!* occasion to slitunder him 
that he fled, that he would not tajy to light for defenec 
of h>« cwntrj'. Agaiiie, tliert- wt-n* that Miyd, hicauso the 
Acliainns did choow otlwr for their Genemll, that he being 
a private man and without diarge, was Uie rather contiaitcd 
to be Genendl of tlie (iortyiiiano, who had inarvelousty 
intrvated him to take the charge : for he was a man that 
coulde not abide to live idlely, and that desired specially above 
all things to serve continually in the waiTes, and to put in 
mactisc his skil and discipUnc in the leading of an army. 
The wordcs he spake one day of king Ptolomie doth witnessc 
as much. For when tlH're were some that praised king 
Ptolomie highly, saying that he trained his army well, 
and that he tttJII continued his [>er»one in exercise of 
nnncv: It ui not eommemUble for a king («ayd he) of his 
veare*, to delite in training*^ his men to exercise armtv, 
but to doe stime ai-t« him M:\ie in pei^one. Well, in the 
ende, tlie Mi^^opolitaiu tooke his ahscence in such evill 
parte, that they thought it a pcece of treason, and would 
needes have banished nim, and put him from the frcedomc 



the dty ■>f 
tyma of Liic»- 









made divcne 
citieo to rebel) 
against the 

The Crirtan*, 

pulilicki) men 
of wsrre. 

Phil upir men 
nuide Gene- 
rail of the 
ngitinRt Nnbi*. 


of the citie : had not the Achaians sent their Gcnerall Arist»- 
netiis unto them, who would not suffer the sentence of 
btinishmcnt to pai>sc sgainst him, although otherwise there 
vras ever contention bt-twene them n1x>ut matters of the 
common wealth. Afterwjircis, I'hitouirmeii jicrccivinf; his 
contrymen made no mure aucompl of him, to spif^ht them 
withful, he mndi' divci-se niiiuII villugcs luid cities n-bt-li 
Against them, and tAuglit them to say, and to give it out, 
that Uiey were not th«-ir sutijoctK, neither payed them tribute 
fron] t)ie bi-giiiiiine : aiid he made them atande to it openlv, 
and maintaine tlieir soilitioii a^inst the city of Mcgabpolis, 
before the councell of the Achaians, ITiesc things iiappened 
shortly after. But whilest he made warres in Creta lor ihe 
Gortjnians he shewed not himself a Pelojwmiesian, nor "ilte 
A man borne in Arciulia, to make pimncnnd open warruc 'ut 
he hmi learned the miuier of the Oretans, to iiitc their o- ne 
policii-a, fine ilrvi.'ws, and lunbu.-du^ against them selves. 
And nimle them know also, that all their emft't, were but 
ehildish snortw as it were: in respect of those that were de- 
vised, ana put in execution, by a wise experienced Caiitaine, 
and skilful] to fight a battcIL So, Philopccinen having 
wonne great fame by his octcs done in Creta, returned 
nfainc to Peloponnesus, where he founde, that Philip kingc 
of Macedon hiid bene overcome in battel!, by Titui Qiiintius 
Flaminius: and that theAihaian»joynin;>;wiHi Uic Honioines, 
did make warre agninsl the tyran Nnliis, whiinu- he 
was niiuic Gent-rail iminediatly U|K)n his n-tunie, and gave 
him Imttell by sea. In the which it «eemed he fell into like 
misfortune, as Kpaniinondas did: the event of this battell 
fallinge out mucn worse with him, then was looked for, in 
respect of his former corage and vail ion tnesse. But as for 
Kpaniinondas, some say he returned willingly out of Asia, 
and the lies, without any cxulovle done, bicause he would 
not have his contrymen fleshed with suoyle by sea, as fearing 
leojit of valliant souldiern by Iftiide, Uiey would by litie and 
litle (as Plato sayd) bwume dissolute mariners by »ea. Rut 
Phi I o] Kern en contrariwise, presuming upon tlie skill he had 
to set the Imttell in goixi order by landc, woulde needes take 
uppon him to do the same by sea. But he was taught to 


Kb oo*t to knon'c what exercise and experience ment, and 
howe stroii^c it moketh tiictn that nrc prttctiM.-d in thinrcs. 
For he Icwt not oiivly the hitttell by itea, bt-inf;^ unskilfuU 
of that aenioe : but be oommittc'd bvsi(Ic« a Towler enx>ur. 
For that h« caused an old xhippe to be ri|;gcd, which luid 
bene very goo<i <if wr^iw ht^fore, but not occupied in forty 
jreares together, and iinbarki-d \m contr\'mt-ii into t)ie xunic, 
which were all likely to peri^Ji, bicau.-M^ the ithippe had diverae 
leakefi, by fault of p>od calkins;. 'I'his overtlirow made hix 
eneiniea despiac hira utterly, who penwaded them selves he 
was fled for altoKether,andnJad given them sea roome : where- 
upon thev laycasiege to the citie of Gythiitm. PhilopcEmen 
binngc aavcrtiscd thereof, imbarkcd his men sodniuely, and 
set upon his cnctnira ere they wi«t it, or had any thought of 
his comming : and founde them stru^ling up and downc, 
without watch or garde, by reason of the victory they had 
lately wonnc. So ne landed his men closely by night, and 
went and set fyrc uMmn his enemies cainpc, rihI burnt it 
every wbitte: and in uu* fmre ai>d burly burly, hIuc u great 
numner of tlii-ni. Shortily aflei- this stealing a|>on them, 
the tyntn Nabis also ntoie ajxin him agiune unwares, as he 
was to goe through a nianeloui ill and daungerou* way. 
Wliich made tlie A<;haianfl amazed at the ftret, thinkinge 
it unpoA.iible for them that they could ever scape that 
daunger, considering their enemies kept all th« waycs there- 
abouts. But Philopcemcn bethinking him selfe, and con- 
sidering the nature and scituacion of the plaee : after he 
bad viewed it welt, he shewed them ]}lainly then, that the 
chiefrat {mint of a good soiddier, and mtui nf wtirre, was to 
know how to put an anny in batti'll, nccordince to the time 
and scituacion of the phice. For he did but lUter the fomte 
of hiK liuttell a tit le, aitd sorted it according to the scituacion 
of tlie j>Ihcx-, wheivtn he wiw comiMi.ti<i-d : and by doingr this 
without troulili^ or huKines, he tooke away all feare nf datuiger, 
and gave a charge upon his etK-niieii in such fierce, that 
in a Miorte time ne put them all to Hight Ajid when he per- 
ceived tliat they did not Hie all in troupes together towardes 
the city, but scatteringwise, abroade in the beldcs in every 
place : he cau§cd the tronipet to sound the retrcatc. Then 
8:1 65 


ovurcunie lif 

of Gjrthluia, 

in battell. 



Titui Quin- 
tius I'tniuth 

Nabia daine 
by llie 


he commaundcd the ciiaac to be followetl no further, for that 
all the contry thereabout tras full of thicke woddes and 
grovics, rerv Ul for horsemen : and JiUo bieaiue there were 
iimny brookes, vallics. iiDd cguavemyres which tlicy should 
passu over, he iiic)un])vd him wife )ir<-wntJy, bvinj^ yet bnxulc 
aa.y. And ho, fe*mns\- leiut hix viieii)ieH w-oidd in the night 
time draw unto the city, one after an other, and by couple*: 
he sent a great number of Achaiana, and laid them in ambush 
amongest the brookes and hilles neere about it, which made 
great slaughter of Nabia souldiers, bicause they came not 
altogether in troupes, but scatteringly one after an other 
as they fled, one here, an other there, and so fell into their 
enemies hondes as birdoN into the fowlm net. Tliese acts 
made Fhilopwinen sirigLilarly Iteloved of tlie Greecians, and 
tliey did him greitt lionor in all their Theiitcrs and common 
UKwmbli&s. Wherc«t Tilu* Quintius FlaminiuM, of natuiv 
vety tunbitiouH, and oovetoun of honor: did much repine, 
and wait enviouH at the matter, thinking tliat a Comiil of 
Home lihould have place and honor ajnongest the Achaian-i, 
before a meane gentleman of Arcadia. And he imagined he 
had deserved better of all Greece, then Philupcemen had : 
considering, howe by the onely proclamation of an heraulde, 
be had restored Greece n^ne to her amicient liberty, which 
before his coramingi' v/ns subject imto kingt^' I^Iip, and unto 
the MttceduniiuiK. ^Vftenvardes, Titu.t Qiiintius made peace 
with the tynui Nabis. Nahix wa-t ^hl^rte!y after very traiter- 
ou.ily itiaine by tlie ^toliaii«. Whereiip})oii the citie of 
Sparta grew to a tumult, and PhilojKemeJi Ktraiglit taking 
the occasion, went thither with his army, and handeled the 
matter ao wisely : that partely for love, and partely by 
force, he wanne the city, and joyncd it unto the bibe of the 
Achaians. So was he maneluusly commended and esteemed 
of the Achaians for this notable victory, to have womie their 
tribe and communalty m> fiiimms n city, and of so great esti- 
macioii. For the city <if Siiiirln win no smide encreaae of 
their power, and heinj; joyiied «.i a nii^inlwr of Achaia. 
Moreover he wan by thin meaner, the love and good will of 
all the honest men of Lacediemon, of tJie liopc they liad to 
finde him a protector and defender of tlidr liberty. Wliere- 


fiwc, when the tvnui Nobw Imusv whI goodes were solde, as 
forfittcd to the state : thejp rcMrlved in their eutin.sell to make 
him a pre»ei]t of the m*mej theruf, whieh atiiouiited to the 
Mimrae of »ixe score taleiits, aitd sent AnilKkssadors punxMely 
unto him, to offer it him. 'I'hen PhiloptxioeD shewed him- 
«dfe pUinelv to be no counterfeate honest man, but a good 
nua 111 dcvJc. For Rrst of all, Lbcre was not onv of nil the 
Lacedmnoiiians that durst pn^ume to oHi-r him this monev, 
but every mrui was afraytd to tell him of it : mikI cvi-rv boJy 
that vraN uppointnl to do it. made M>mv excuse or utliiT for 
them selvM. Nutu-ithstundiii)*v, in tlie vndc t)>CY nwdc one 
llmolaus to bike the matti-r uixin him, who was hix familiar 
frend, and aUo ]m hint*'. And yet the ^wme TimolauA when 
be came unto .Mei^i|Kilt!i, and wa» lodged and entertained 
in I'hilopietnenen house, did so much n^verenoe him for bu 
wise talke and eoiiver»ation, for hiit moderate diet, and just 
dealing with all men : that he bawe there was no likely possi- 
bility to corrupt him with money, so as he durat not once 
(»pen his moutn to spcake to him of the preseiit he had 
brought him, but founde sorh* other ocnuioti to excuse the 
cauM of his conimiiigr unto bim. ^Vnd bciiigv sent unto 
bira againe the si-cond time, lie did even as much ax at 
tlie fir»t time. And making a third proofe, he ventured at 
the laat to o[ien tlw ntattcr unto him, and told liim tlie 
good will the city of Sparta did beare him. Fliilopcemen 
became a glad man to beare it : and when lie had beard 
all be had to aay to bim, he went him »elfe unto the citie 
of Sparta. There be declared unto the counsell, that it was 
not noncst men, and their good frends, they ijiould secke 
to winne and corrupt with money, conatdcring they might 
aMnmaund their vertue upon any occasion, witliout eo«t 
unto them : but that they should secke to bribe naughty 
men with money, and such as by seditious oratioDK in 
CDUtuell did mutine, aud put a whole citic in uprun*: to 
tbe ende tliat lutving their moutiu'^ »t(>p{N.-d with giftcsi 
tbey itbould trouble tliem the l<9»e in tiie uomiuon wealth. 
For, said he, it is more necesKarie to stoppe your enemies 
moutbra, and to itowe up their Uppea from liberde of 
speaking : then it i» to keepe your frendee from it So 


free from 

nt«nM VIM 
countell to 

home Uiey 
■hotild hi- 
■tor« tbetr 



will T. Qiiin- 
tiua Flnjniiiiu* 
(l<i iiivadi: 
mene* noblv 

mntiec cnidty 
to the 


noble II moil wiu Pliilopa'iueii agninst all covetousncsse 
ntuiivy. S)iurti.'ly ttfler, tlie LacetUemonians begiiming to 
stiiTC Bgiiint', UiopiiAiifs (wln» was tlicii General of tlic 
Acbaiaiis) iK^iiige lulvertiMt'd of it, bi-ganne to prepare to 
punish them. The l-acedienKinians on the other side pre- 
paringe for the warre», did set all the contry of PetopcMi- 
ne>u8 in armes. Hereupon Philoptemeii sought to pnciRc 
Diophanca a«ger, declaring unto him, that king Aiitiochux, 
ami thf Koinaincs, being at warres together at that pitstnl 
time, and thty both hftving puisant armira one iigainiit an 
other in the middest of Greece: it was uieete for a g^ood 
General! and wise governor, to have an eye to tlidr doingH, 
to be cjin-full of the saute, and to beware that he did not 
trouble or alter any thinfp' within his eontry at that instant, 
but then ratliiT to thwrtiiblc it, and not tu swine to heare 
any fault whatsoever ttii-y diiJ. Dioplianes would not be 
[)erswaded, but entred tlie territoriM of Lacedieiiion with a 
great army, and 'I^tus Quinl.iits Flaminitis with him: and 
they together marched directly towardes the city of Sparta. 
I'hilopfcmen waa so niaclde witJi their doing-t, that he tookf 
apon liim an enterprise not very lawfutl, nor altogether jiust: 
neverthejesse, hi); attempt proceeded of a noble minde, and 
great eiiriigi-. For he got into the dtie of Sparta, and beingv 
but B priviite perwnc, Kept out the General of the Aeluiana, 
and the Conoid) of the Itomaines for entring the citv: 
and when he hud ixicifiitl all troubles and seditions in tne 
(tame, he delivenxl it tip iigrune as it was bi-fort-, into the 
handea of the comniunaitie of the Aehaians. Nevi-rthel«»e, 
him selfe being afterwardm Genenill of the Aehaians, did 
compell the Lacedemonians to n.-CKive those home againe 
whom they had bani^ed for ecrtaine faultv*, and did put 
foure score natural) borne cititwiis of Sparta unto death, as 
Polybius wryteth. Or three tiundred and fifty, as Aristo- 
emtes an otlier historiographer reciteth. l"hen he pulled 
<lowiie the walles of the city,and rased them to the groundc, 
and totike ftw»iy the most parte of their territories, and gave 
them to the MegalojMlitans. All those whome the tvrrumes 
had made free dt-nizeiis of Sparta, he compelled them to 
departe the contry of Luccuannon, and forced diem to 


dwell in Achaia, three thousand only excepted, who would 
not obey hia commauitdenieiit : all those he solde for slaves, 
and with the money he made of them Ito spight them the 
mote) he built a goodly faycr walkc within tJie citie of 
Meg;alt]K>IiB. Yet furthermore, to do the l.acedfemonians 
all the nitschicfc he coulde, and as it wltc, to treade them 
under the feete in their nuiNt grievous miserv : he did a. most 
crucll anil luijust arte towardv them, (or he compelletl 
them tu leave the tii.'scipliDe luid miiner of education of their 
children, wlilvh Lyciirgiis luul of otdv time institnted : and 
mndv them to follow tJiv maner the Aehoiuu used, in liew 
of their olde grciunded eontry custoim-, bicAUseihv mne thi-y 
would never be humble minded, xo Ion;; as Uii-y ke))t 
Lycui^[Ui order and institudiiu. 'IliiLt wi-n- they driven to 
put t)te beades in the eholler, by the niiHembie mJNhapjie titat 
uefell them : and in all de!ipight> to suffer Fhiloptemen in thi.t 
maner to cut a tiunder (a.^ it were) tlie Ktnewea of their 
common wealth. But aiftcrwardes tliey made sute to the 
Romaines, that the>- might be suflercd to enjoy their 
auncicnt discipline againe, which being grauntcd tnem, they 
straight left the maner of the Achaians, and did set up 
againe as much as nils [Mssible (after so great niiserie and 
comipti<m of tticir manei«) their olde auncient customes and 
orden of their eontry. Now about the time the warres 
b^annc in Grcea-, l>elwene the RomuincK and king Antio- 
chus, I^tilo|Mfinen was then a private man, and without any 
authority. He seeinee that knigi- Aiiti<>chu« lay sllll in the 
citie of C'halcis, and (lid nothing but ft-i\Nt and love, and liad 
maried a younge maide farre unmeete for hi.i yere*: and [ler- 
ceiving that hia liiyrian souldiers wandered up and dowDc the 
townes in great disorder, playing many tewde ]iarte« without 
niide of Captaines : he was very aorr he waa not at that 
bme Generall of the AehaiBiu, and tolde the Koniaines, that 
he envied Uuir mtory, having warres with enemies tliat 
were i«> wuiily to be overcome. For (sayd he) if fortune 
favored mc tliat 1 were Generall of the Acnaiaos at this pre* 
aent, I woulde have killed them every man in the cellen and 
Uppling houMM. Now when the Komaincs had overconte 
Ajit)Oc£us, they begoiinc to have- surer foutiug in Greece : 




8psrUns for- 1 
uke Lycur- 
^1 taw. 

iMilace and 
mariaKe at 

iHEnLi coiin- 1 
itell a^ost 



and to coiDiMsNc in the Acliuiiuu of nil siili-s, aiid sjwviAlIy, 
bv reason tlio )ii;Ad» and guvi-rntin of th« ciUes about theiu 
dtd yeelde t» the Koinaiiiot, to winnc tJifir favor. And now 
thtir preatnesse grewe in ha.«t, hy tlic fa*'or of the guddes, 
80 as they were become tlie inonarche of the whole worlae, who 
brought them nowe to the cnde Uiat fortune had detcr- 
uiinul. Philoptemen in themeaiie time did like a good pylot, 
bare hard against the billoues and roughnesse of their 
naves : and iliough for the time he was forced to give place, 
and to k-t things ijossc, yet for all that he was against the 
RomaiiieK, and did witliKtaiide them in the most iMirte of 
their prowodingcs, by seeking ever to dcf<-iid Ihi: liiK-rty of 
thot*e, who by their cloiitii.'iK'i' :uiil iviOl dning cariiii great 
authority among Uie Aeliainiis. And when An!>t»;iietus 
Megalo] toll tan, (a man of great autltority among the 
Achaions, and one tliat ever bare great devotion to tlie 
ItomaineH) 8ayd in open Senate among the Achaians, that 
they should deny the Uomaines nothmgc, nor shew them 
selves unthankefuU to tliem: I'hilopa;men hearing what he 
savd, held his peace a while, and suiTered him to speake 
(though it Iwylcd in his hart, he was so angry with him) 
and in the enile, breaking all iMidencc, and &» one ovcroomc 
with eholler, he sayd ; O Ansbt-netuK, why have you such 
hut to see till- unfortunate ende of Grccee? Aii otncr time, 
when Maniun, ('onxull of Home (after he liad iiimiuereil king 
Antiochtis) did make rei|ueiit to the counsi-ll of the Achaians, 
that Kuch as were banished from Lacod»mon, might retume 
home into their conti-y againe, an<i thut Titus Quintiua 
Klaminius also did earnestly intreatc them : l*hilo]Hemen 
was against it, not from any hatred he bojv unto the 
linnished men, but bteause he would have done it by his 
owne meone, and the uiily gmce of the Achaioits, to the 
cnde they »liuld not Ix.' ueliuliling for w good n tunie, 
neither unto Titus, nor yt-t to the Itomaine.'t. Aflerwardwt 
he him selfe, l>eing Geneiall of the Achaiaiut, did restore 
them wholly to their owne againe. Thus was Philopnnnen 
wjmtinie, a litle to bolde and quarrellous, by reason of his 
great stomake : and specially when any man of authority 
mught for to have Uiinges. oistelv, bcuge three score and 


tcnne yearea of age, hv was the eight time c)io»en GeDernll 
of the Achaian-s aiitl hopt^ well, not only to paj»e tite yeare 
of his chaiw in peace aiid ([uietnes, hut also all the r^ of 
hia life witJiout any sturre of new warres, he saw the affaires 
of Greece take so good successe. For like as the force and 
strcnelli of stckcncs dwlineth, as the natural strcnf^ of 
the sickcly body cDipairrth : so through all the cities and 
people iif Grcew-, envy of uutim.41 and warrv* surdcascd, as 
their |>owi-r diinini»lK-d. Neverthclcssc, in the end of hJn 
vcarra frovcniiueiit, thv ^dik-M divine- (who jiutly punish all 
in«olv»t worde* and dc^Hlfa) tiircw hiin to the i{n>u»(lv, «« 
tbey HifTi^ a ryder unfortunatel v to take a Call of hix hone, 
bdoge oonie almost to the enoe of his cariere. For tb^ 
wryte, Uiat he Iteinge in a place on a time aniongeat gooa 
compaiiie, where one was niarvelously praised for a good 
Captaine, saved unto them : Why, masters, can ye conimende 
him that was contented to be tiken prisoner alive of his 
eoemies ? Shortely after came ncwcs that Dinocratcs Mes- 
Beniua (a private enemy of i*lulo]}ocmencs for ccrtaine contro- 
versies past betwvnv them, tuid a miui generally hated 
besidiw, of all hoiKinible iind vertuons men, for hU licentious 
wickul life) liiul uitli(imwen the city of Mc»isinn from tiic 
devotiuii of tln^ Achaians : and moreiiver that he conic with 
an anny to take a towne called ('olonidc. l*hilo)Meuien wa« 
nt tJiat time in the city of Arm», sicke of an agew, and yet 
hearing these newes, tookc his jomey toward Megalipoliii, 
iiiakine al the hast he could jiussihle, so that he came above 
fiiure nundred furlongs that day. Straight he departed 
thence tow.tril Messina, luid t&ricd not, but tooke witn him 
a company of men at ariiKi« of the lustiest and wealthiest 
MegalopoliUtus : witu wenr all young noble men of the city, 
antTwiltin^y oRV-red them kvIvvs to gov with him for the 
gotxlwill ttiey lian' luni,and for Uie di-Mix: tliey had to follow 
hiK viUliiuitiK-H. Thus went they on their way towanls the 
city of .Memina. and marched so longe, that tliey entnc^ nerv 
unt«> U)e hill of I'ivander, where they met with Dinocmtea 
and his coni^iany, and gave so fierce an onset on them, that 
Ukev made them all tume taile: howbeit in the meane 
whik, there came a reliefe of fire hundred men to Uinocratea, 



chmim thp 
Bilfht time 
Geiierall uf 
the AcbHiaut 
belu(( 70 yere 

moniw jomcy 
u^iist Uino* 








which he had left to kccpc tbo contry of Messina. TIic fly- 
ing men that witr scatti'ivd hero and tlicn-, utring this 
supply, giithi-ml thtni m-Ivc^ iigainc togi-thvr, niid «licw«l 
Upon thv hillif. I'liilupa-iuvn fuiringc tu be ciivironncd, tuid 
baing detiroiu to brin^ his men cafe hoD>e agalne, who ino«t 
of love had followed him : beeannc to mitrdie au-ay through^ 
iiArrow bushy placet, him ^elfe bi'ing in the rereword, and] 
tuniMl often times upon hit) enemies, and skinniiJied witht 
theni, oiielj' tu drive them au-ay from foltowinge of the rest of! 
liitt company, aiid nut a man that durst once ai?t apon him : for 
tJiey did but cry out aloofe, and wheele as it nere about him. 
Howebeit Philopoimen sundry times venturinge &rre ftxnn 
his company, to geve tiiese young noble men Icasure to save 
them selves one after an otlier : tooke no heeile to Mm sclfe 
that he was alone, cn%nronncd on i-wry «de wilh a f^jit 
number of cnnemie^ Notwith^ititndinge, of nil his iiienti*.** 
tliere was not a man that durvt come to handv Ktrokvs with 
him, but still sUnf^ng imd Mtooting at him a farrc uf, they 
drave him in the «rnd amonge«t stony plaves betwcne hewcn 
rockcM. wlirre he had much a doe to guide hix liorite, although 
he had .-ipurred liim that Ito waH all uf a gore hltMxI. And bm\ 
for his age, timt did not lette him hut he might have naved' 
him selfe, for he wai strong and lusty by the continuall 
exercise he tooke: but by cursed happe, his body being 
weake with sickenes, and weary with the long jome^' be had 
made Uiat day, he foimde him sclfc very heavy and ill dis- 
po:«^, that his horse stumbling with him, threwe htm to the 
grounde. His fall was very great, atid brused all his head, 
tJiat he lay for dead in the place a great while, and never 
HturrtKl nor spake : so that his enemies thinkingi^ he hod bene 
dead, came to tumv his body to stripijc him. But when 
they saw him lift up liin head and open hi* eyes, then mnny 
of them fell nil at once ajxiii him, and tooke him, and bomide 
Iwth his hiuids Iwhinde him, and did all the villanv and 
nuM-hii-fe they eoutd untu him, and nucIi, at one woultl litle 
have thought Dinocrates would have used hi that sorte, or 
that he could have had such an ill thought tnwardcs him. 
So, they that taried l>eh)nde in the city of Messina, were 
marvelous glad when they heard these newes, and ranne all 



to Uw gfttc« of t)ie city to »oe him brought in. When th«y 
HLw him thuR shamiffullv Ixiumli-, and ptnniom-d, against the 
dignity of sto muiy hoiion aa he had received, and uf «o 
many triuraptie» and victunej as he had passed: tlie most 
parte of them wept for pitie, to consider tlie miahappe and 
lU fortune of mona nature, where there ta ao litle certainety, 
as in maner it is nothing. Then bcgannc there aome 
curtt.'oas apeeche to ninne in the tnouthcs of tlic people by 
litle and litlc, that they ahoiild n-mcmbcr tlie great good he 
hod done unto them in times pa»U "nd tJie liberty he hod 
restorad them unto, when he expnliM-d the tyraii Nabia out 
of Mcssiaa. But there were oUier n^nv (howljeit very few) 
that to pU-ANc Dinocrateit, sKved Uiey iJiould hang hini on ft 
gibbet, and put hJni to deatJi us a daungeroui< enemy, and 
that would never forgive man that had once ofli^iidi-d him : 
and the rather, bicauae he would be more ten-ible to Uitio- 
cratcs, then ever he was before, if be escaped hia hands, 
receiving sucb open ahame by him. Ncvertheiee, in the end 
thev caricd him into a certen dungeon under the ground, 
colled the tresaury, {which had neither light nor ayer at alt 
into it, nor dore, nor half dore, but a great stone rolled on 
the nimith of the duri!|;eon) and fO they did let him downe 
the mne, and h-top]K-d ttH- hole ugiiine with the Mtono, and 
watched it with amiet) miii for to kee|>e him. Now when 
thcae youn^re noble Achaian horaemen had fled uppon the 
spurre a great way from the enemy, they rememhrcd them 
selvea, ana looked round about for I'hilopnemen : and finding 
him not in aight, they aup])oaed atraight he had bene alaiiie. 
Tbcreuppon they stayed a great while, and called for him by 
name, and perceiving be aunawered not, they bqcanne to say 
among them aclves, they were bcaatca and cowaracs to flic in 
that Gortc : and how they were dishonored for ever to have 
fonaken their Captainc, to save tbvm»clvea, who had not 
spared hiM owne life, to delivt^r tlieni from diuingcr. Here- 
upon ryding on their way, and enquiring ^lill for him : tl>cy 
were in Ihv end julviTliiuH] how he wa.> ta]<en. And then 
they went and ntrietl those newea through all tlie townea and 
cities of Achaia, which were very aory for him, and tooke it 
as a signe of great ill fortune toward them. Wherupon they 

s:e 78 




myioned by 




Tba A«h«iuiB 
did rovongt) 


mutiiii dcAtii. 

•luehtm aelfc 


agreed Xo send Ambassadors forthwith to the M«>%-ni»n.s, to 
demaunde him : and in the ntLtuic time ovcry mun should 
prepare to armv thvm wlvtv, to go thither, And get him 
either by force or love. When tlic AchaiauH hod tnaa aent, 
Dinocrfttes fmrcd nothing so mticli, an that delay of time 
might »avi' PhiU>[iita)ene< life: wherefore to prevent it, aa 
soone as night unne, and that the people were at rest, he 
straight caused the stone to tie rolled from tlic moutii of the 
dungeon, and willed the hauginan to be let dowiic to Philo- 
p<emen with a cuppe of poison to offer him, who waa com* 
raaunded also not to goc from him, until! he had dronkc it 
When the hangman was come downe, he found Philopa-mcn 
laved on the grounds apon a litle clttkc, havingc- no lirt to 
sUvpe, he was so gncvouxly troubled in his minde. Who 
when he *awe light, and the man standing by him, holding a 
cup[)e in hiK haiidc with this poUon, he aate upright upon 
hiK cowch, howbeit with great paine he was so weake : and 
taking the cuppe in hb tiande, aabed the hangman if he 
heard any newes of the horsemen that came witii him, and 
socially of Lycortas. The hangman made him answer, 
tliat the maul of them were saved. Then he cast his handes 
a litlc over his head, and looking merely on him he sayd : It 
is well, seeing wc are not all unfortunate. Therewitli spejik- 
ing no moe wordcs, nor makinge other a doe, he droucke up 
air the poison, and laycd him downe as before. So nature 
»lr»vc not nuieh witliall, his body being bnmght «o lowe, 
and thtToiipon tlio poiNon wrought his effect, and rid him 
straight out of hi^ {Miine. 'Hie newes of his death nui pre- 
sently tJiroiigh all Achaia, which generally from high to low 
was lamentetl. Whereupon all the Aehaian youth and coun- 
sellors of their cities and townes, assembled them selves in 
the city of Mt^alipolis, where they alt agreed without delay 
to revenge his death. They made I.ycortas their Generall, 
under whose conduct they invaded the Messenians, with force 
and violence, piittinn;e all to the tire and sword : so as the 
Mrwenians were so feared with this mercilcsse fiiry, thjit they 
yelded them selves, and wholly consented to r«eeive the 
Achaians into their city. But Uinocratcs would imt give 
them Icasure to execute him by justice, for he killed Tiim 


»elfc: ttnd to did all the rest make themselves away, who PHlW- 

gnve advix^' Hint Phili>(i«nun shuuld lie put to deatli. But P<EMBN 

those thiit would luivc had FhiloiKtiiieii tuiuged on a eibl>et, 

Lj^rtos caused tlK-m to be talten, which afterwaras were 

put to deatli with all kind of tortnenta. I'bat done, thej 

burnt Fhi]op<pntenctt body, and did put his ashes into a poL PhilttpoB- 

llien they Htraisht departed from Mfssina, not in disorder, ?*"•*„ 

one apon an otnera necke as every inan listed : but in such 

an order and ray, that in the middcst of tin's*: fiinemlles they 

did mtdce a tniimphc of victorie. Fur the souldicrs wvrc ail 

crowned with earlandcs of lawrcll in token of victory, not- 

witlMtnndiiig, uie tcarxw ranne downe tlieir chcekes in token 

of sorowe, mkI tliey led their enemies prisunent, Htmeklnl and 

chained. The fum-mll pot in the wliidi wi>r« I>hil«p<einenes 

nbes, was wo covered with garlanded of flowers, noseeaics, 

and laces, tliat it could scant be seene or di'^erued, ana waa 

caried by one Polybius a young man, the sonne of Lyeortas, 

that was General! at that time to the Achaians : about whom 

there marched all the noblest and chiefest of the Ach&iaos, 

and after them also followed all the souldiers armed, and 

their horses very well fumislied. ITie rest, they were not to 

soruwfull in their countenance, ns they are eoniuionly which 

bare great cause of sorow : nor yet ko joyful, as thoM' that 

CAme conijucrei^ from m grcttt a victory. TIioih; of tlie 

eittca, towne«, and villaf^ in their way as they past, came 

and presented them selves unto them, to touche tne funerall 

Eot of his ashes, even as thev were wont to take him by the 
Qjide, and to make much of him when he was relumed from 
the warrt-T* : and did aeoom[mny his convoy unto the city of 
Mcga)i|>olis. At the gates whereof, were oMe men, women, 
and children, which thrustinge Ihcm selves amongest the 
souldicTV, did renewe the teares, Korowcs, and lamentacions 
of all the mi»erublv and imfortunatc city : who tooke it that 
they hod Inst with their citix^n, the lir«t and chiefest place 
of honor ttinoii^ the AcluUjms. So he was burie<l very 
honorably as ap[H.Ttaiited unto him : and the other prisotiers 
of Messina, were all stoned to death, about hu se))iilcnre. All 
the other cities of Achaia, besides many other honora thev did 
unto him, did set up statues, and as bkc to him, as could be 




humanity uf 
the Kum^uei, 

their «u«ini«« 


countcrfcated, vVftcmards in the unfortunate time of 
Greece, when the city of Conntbc was burnt and destroled 
bv the Romaini-s, there wks a maliciouB Itomatnc that did 
what he could to have the same pulled downe againe, by 
btirdtfiiinir oiiil accusing Philopoi^meii (as if he had ben« 
iilive) that he whs alwaies enemy to the RomaincM, aiid 
envied much their pnwjierity and victoritit. But after 
Fulyhiu!( had aunswercd him : neither the CohkuI Mummius, 
nor hia coun.iellera, nor lieuteiiauiit*, would suffer tiiem to 
deface and take away the honori tloiie in memory of so 
famous and wort)iy a man, although he had many waies done 
much hurt unto 'iituaf^uintiua Flaminiusond unto Manius. 
So, these good men then made a difterence betwone duety 
and profit: and did thinke honesty and profit two dJstinrt 
things, and so separated one from the other, according to 
reason and justice. Moreover thev were perswaded, tliat 
like aa men receive curtcsie and goo^ncs of any, »o arc they 
bound to requite them acaine, with kindencs and duety. 
And Rii men use to iicknonledge the same: even ao 
ought men to honor and reverence vertuc. And thus 
much for the life of Dilloptemen. 




T is easie to see Tttus Quintius Flaminiux 
forme, and stature, hy PhJlopcemcncs statuo 
of hrassc, to uhiime we eompan him: the 
which is now si.t iip[>e at Rome, ncere 
to great Apollo that wax brought from 
Carlhage, and tx pliu-ed right against the 
ennnning in to the sh*>w place, under which 
thcn^ is an inscription m Grccke letters. 
But for his nature and conditions, they <av of him thus : he 


wouM quickcly be anKTYS and vet vcrj' rcadv to pleasure m«n FLAMINIUS 
agune. Fur, if be dicT piiniKd luiy mnn tnat hath iuigrr«d 
hiin, he would do it gi'iitly. but his nngiT did not long con- 
tincw with him. He did goitd nlm to mniiy, and t'vcr IovmI 
thviii whufn Ik liod once pkasuruil, aut if tiwy liiut <lo»c him 
•otne plcA/njre : and wa» ready to do for tbi^n ntill wlwni h« 
founde tliankefull, bicauite he would ever niak<? thorn behold* 
ing to him, and thuuffht that as honorable a thinge, as lie 
'lid purchase to him Bclt'e, llicause he greatly sought 
or above all thingcs, when any notable service was to 
be done, he would do it him oolfv, and no man should tidtc 
it out of his hftnd. He wuttld ever be ntthiT with thc-m that 
needed his helpc, then with tho^e that could hdpe him, or do 
hina good. For, the lirit he im a nieaiie to exereiM^ 
hi* vvrtue wttll : the other, lie ttKike thini un hi* fellowis and 
followers of honor with him. Hi- came to man.t state, when 
tlie citie of Kome had greatest wam9> and trouble. At 
that time all the youth of Rome, which were of age to cary 
weapon, were sent to the warns to Icamc to traile the pykc, 
and how to become good Captaines. Thus was he entrcd 
into marsliuU aflair^^'K, and the first charge he tooke, was in 
the warre (igttinvt Hminibcdl of Carthage, when- he was made 
Colonell of a tltutLvwdv footcim-n, under Marcellii.s the con- 
null : who being Klaine by nii ambush Hanniball luul laved 
fbr bim betwcnc tJie cities of Bwtdai, and Venuita, then tliey 
did choonc 'Pitas Quiiitiits Ftamiiiiua govcmur of the pro- 
nnce and city of Tarentum, which was now taken againe 
tlie scooiide time. In this govenimcnt of his, he waiine the 
reputacioi) as much of a good and just man, as he did of an 
pexpcrt and skilfull Cuptaine. By reason whereof, when the 
rBomaines were retjuested to sent! men to inhabite the cities 
of Namia aud Como, he wok ap|x>inted the cJiicfe leader of 
th4<ni, which chicfely guvc him liort and conige to osjiire at 
the first to the GmsuLihippe, )»a)«ing<- over afi other nieane 
"BeeR, a» U> Ite vKdile, Trilitme, or Fnvtur, by which (aK by 
jldeffrcca) other younge men were wont to attoino tlie (ron- 
[«uUhinpe. 'ITioreforc when the time came tliat the Con.iulU 
ahoula be elected, he did present him selfe amonge other, 
accompanied with a great number of those he hadde brought 


tiui firtt 
charge ill 

n;i« came to 
be CoDRuU. 

T. Q. Flnmi- 
dIiu, Seittuii 
£]!ui Cuii- 


T. Q. Flami- 
uln* mnknth 
wure with 
Pbilip kin^ of 


IMINIUS with him, to iiihabite the two newe townes, who did make 
earnest sute for him. But the two 'IViljuiics Fulviua, and 
MfuiHus, spake against him, and saved : it waa out of all 
reason, that suyounce u tntui should in such manner prcase 
to have tbv office of the hight'st dienitie, a^inst the use 
Mid ca-<tom(.' of Rome, iK-fore he hodcle pas!>ed through thi- 
inferior uUkvm of the eumnioii wmlth. Nevertlielesw, the 
Scnatt? |n«ft-rn,-ii it wh<illy ti> the voyct* of the (K-iiple : who 
prcaentlv i>ronounce<t him Con^tit!! o{M.-iily, witli Sexlius ;^niitt(, 
although lie was not yet thirtie y^are oltit*. Atl^rwardeii, 
J£lius and lie devidinge the olfioes of tiie utate by lott£ : it 
fell apoo T. Quintius to make warre with Philip kinge of 
Macodon. In the which me thinkcs fortune grtatly favored 
the Itoinaiiies affaires, that made such a man Gcnerall of 
these wum»: fur, to have jwtnted a Genenil! that by force 
and violence woulde have »ought nil thliiges at the Miut- 
donifuis handei*, timt were a [H-ople to be wonne rnthiT by 
geiitleiic-wte and perawaKionis then by force imd compulxion : 
It was all ngaintit tliem Helvci. Philip, to niaintAine tlie 
bront of a battell against tlie Koinaines, hod power enough 
of hifl owne in his realnie of Macetlon : hut to make waire 
any long time, to furnish hini selfe with money and vittailes, 
to have a place and eitii'S Ut retyn? unto, and lastly, to have 
all other neei^ssarit% for his men and army : it stoode him 
npon to get the force of Greece. And hud not the forcv 
of Greece bene politlckely cut from him, the wurre« againitt 
him had not lM>ne enditi with one l)attcll. Moreover, Greecu 
(whicll never befon? \»uv the KomnineH miy great gocid will) 
would not have delt theii so inwardly in frend.-Oiippe with 
them, had not their (ienerall bene {as he was.) a gentle 
perwine, lowly, and tractable, that waiine them more by 
bis wisedome, then by his force, and could both eloquently 
utter his minde to them, and curteously also hcare them 
sprake, that had to doe with him, tuid chiefely, ministred 
justice and cc]uity to every man a like. For it is not to 
DC thought Umt Gn-ecc woiiUt otherwise »o soonc have with* 
drawen them selviw from the nik- of those, with whnme they 
were acqiuunt«d, and gorenMd : and have put them wives 
under tiie rule of straungen, but tliat tiiey mw great justice 

Titiu ettrtnie 
•mime the 
more then 


and lenity in thein. Howbcit that may more plainly i^- 
peoK^ by d<'<'lariii}; of liiit actcs. Titux waa informed, that 
the Generally iK-fore liim itent to tli« warre in Maccdon (as 
Sulpitiuft, and Publius lulius) used to come thither about 
the later end of the yeaie, and made but cold warres, and 
oertaine light skinni^'es, as sometime in one place, and some- 
time in an other aEninst l^ilip, and all to takv some straite, 
or to cut of rittclls : which he thought was not his way to 
follow tht-ir cxanipU'. For tht-y taryiiig'at homi-, constiniixl 
the most of thrir Consul 4iipj)f at Rome, in mattcre of govern- 
ment, and so cnjuvi'd the honor of thi'ir office. Aflcrurardcs 
in the end of their ycare, they would net out to the worrvs, 
of intent to get an other yeare over their heade* in UieJr 
offke, that spending one yere in their Consulship at home, 
they might employ the other in the warrea abroade. But 
Titus not minduig to trifle out the halfe of hiit Con.<!ulshippe 
at Home, and the other abroade in ttio warres : did willit^rly 
leave all his honors and dignities he might have enjoyed oy 
his ofBce at Rome, and besought the Senate that they would 
appoint his brother Lucius Quintius Lieutenant of their army 
by sea. Furthcnnorr, he tookc with him selfe about three 
tnousiuide oldc xouldiers of thoHc that had liret o\-erthrowen 
Asdnibal in Spayuf, ai*ct Htuinihal nfli-rwardw in Africkc, 
under the »)n(iti(rt of Scipiu, which yet wen- able to serve, 
aim) were very willjnge to goe with him in this jomey, to be 
the strength of his army. Witli this companie he |ias«ed 
the aeaes without daunger, and landed in Kpinu, where he 
found Publius lulius encamped with his army Ix'fim- kinpe 
Philip, who of longc time had lien in campe aliout the 
mouth of the river of Apsus, to kepo the straight and 
pasMgc which i» the entry int«i Epinis. So that Publius 
Itdiuii had lien still there, and done nothing, by reason of 
the nuttirall force and hardm^ of the place. Then T^tus 
tookc the army of him, and si-nt him to Komc Afterwards, 
him sclfe went in persone to view and consider the nature 
of tiie contrv, which was in this »orte. It i» u longc valley 
walled on either side witlj great high moirntainrs, as those 
which sliut in the valley of Terope in Thessalie. Howbcit 
it had no such goodly woods, nor grene forrests, nor tiiyer 


T, O. Iwid. 

Apnui Ru. 

tion of the 
coutry of 


PLAMINIUS niedowes, nor other like places of ple&iure, as tlie other ode 
had : but it was a gr*^t deepc marrUhe or quavemyre, 
through the middest whereof the river called Apaus didi 
runne, being in greatncs and swiAncs of strearae, very like' 
to the river of Pcncus. The river did occupic all the ground 
at the fectc of the mountaineii, saving a litlc way tliut wm 
eut out uf the mftine rockc by nuuu hand, and A nnrrow 
straight [wthe by the wat^-m sidt*, vory unIiiuid<*onie for a» 
army to passe that way, tliougli tliuy found not « man to 
keepe the passage. Thert were some in the army Uiat coun- 
seUe<l Titus to tetche a great compasse about by the contry 
of Daisaretide, and by the dty of L^ncua, where the contry 
is i-ery ptainc, and the way marvelous casie. Howebeit he 
stoode in great feore he should Iscke vitt«Us, if he stayed 
farre from the sea, and haopcly if he felt into any barreil, 
or leaoe contry, (Philip refusing the battel, and pur_ " _ 
to ftie) he should Ik- cvriNtrninul in tlie end to retiimc agwinSI 
tovrnrdcs the sea, without doing any thing, tm hiK predccenoT 
had don« before. Wherefore he detennined to crmae the 
mountuiiws to xct uix>n liis ciienn-, oitd to prove if he could 
winne the poiaage oy force. Now Philip kept the top of 
tlie niountaines with hiK army, and when the Koniaines 
forced to get up the hilles, they were received with dartes, 
shngs, and shot, that lighted amongesl them here and there: 
insomuch as the skirmish nas very hot for the time it lasted, 
and manv were slavne and hurt on either aide. But this 
was not tlie ende of the wurre. For in the mcnnc time there 
came certuine ncatcheideK uf the contry unto Tittis (who did 
use to kee[K; U-ustOH on these tii»untnini.-K) mid tolde him 
tlicy could bring him a way which they kni-w tlic cnemiea 
kept not : by tne which they promitted to guide his army 
so, tliat in three daves at the furtliest, they would bringe 
them on the top of the mountaine. And hicause they miglit 
he assured that their wordes were true, they sayod they were 
sent to him by Charopus, the sonnc of Machatas. This 
Caropus was the chiefcst man of the Epirots, who loved the 
Homaines vcrj" well, vet he fnvorvd thcni but under hand, 
for fcore of Philip. Titat gave cntlit unto them, and so 
sent one of his Cuptuincs with them, with fourc thousand 

iMtiue) Uie 
chieJV null of 
the Ejiirots. 


footemcn, und three htmdn?d horsemen. The heard men thut PLAMINIin 

were their ^i(lt», wciit hrforc still, fast buundv: and the 

Roniiiineit followt-il atiur. All the day time the army ruitcd 

in thicke wwldvs, mid mArchitl rII niglit hy moone light, 

which was then by good hnppc nt the ful. 'I^tus having 

seat these in«n away, retted all tht; rest of his uunpc- : saving 

that some daiee he entertayned them witli .-tome light »kir- 

mishcs to occupy the enemy withall. But the same day, 

when his men that fetched a oompasse about, shoulde come 

unto th« top of the mountains above the campe of his 

eneniics, he Drought all his snny out of the campc by 

bnmke of day, and dinndod them into three troupes, wi^ 

the tim* of thi-m he hiraselfe went on that side of tlie river 

when- th« way it stndghtent, making his band:< to march 

directly against the wdc of the hil. The Miu'cd<miiuw 

asaine, tJiey shot luxtely at then) from tlic height of the 

hiU, and in oerten places amotigest thv rockea tltey came to 

the swonte. At the selfe same time, tlie two other troupes 

on either handc of hiro did their endevor likewise to get up 

the hill, and ra it were envying one an oUier, thev climed 

up with gri'dt corage against thu sharpc and stpepe naiigingr 

uf the moLintuine. Whni the sunne was up, they might fw 

a fiLTTC uf as it wen-, a certen smoke, not very bright at thv 

heginning, much like to ttie nmtes we hoc commonlv rim' 

from the tops of the mouiitaiiiett. llie enemies could see 

nothing, bicauwe it was behiiule thcui, nnti that tlie ton of 

the tnountaine was po«setsed tvith the !>aiiie. 'I'he Komaines, 

though they were not assured of it, did hope being in the 

midc^ of the light, that it van their fellowes they looked 

for. But when uev saw it increased stil more, and more, 

and in such sorte, that it darkened all the ayer : then they 

did assure them selves it was ccrtainelv the token their men 

did give them that they were come, llien they bt^puiiie to 

crie out, clyminge up the hillx with such a Itsty corago, that 

they dntve their enemiti* up the hill ittill, evwj untii the very 

rough and tutrdt^ft places of the niountiune. Their fellowes 

also that were behuid the enemies, did aunswer tlieui with 

like [uwde crie* fW>m the top of the motmtaine: wberwith 

the CDOUKs wife so astonied, that they fled presently apon it 

the ttniffhU^ 
i>f the laoua- 


doolsfls Am. 


AMINIL'S Nothwithstanding, there were not slame alwve two thousand 
of them, bicause the hardiies and straiffhtnea of the pUcc 
did so gard them, that they could not Be diased. But the 
Romaincs spoilcti their campc, tooke all that tliey found 
in their tents, tooke also their slaves, and nan the passiif^ 
into the mountiiiiies, by the which they entretl the coulry 
of Kpims : und did pus»e through it so quietly, and with k> 
grviti iibstineiice, thjit though they were farro from their «hip8 
and the xeft, and laeked their urdiri&ry portion of conje wliich 
they were wont to havf tiionthely.arid that vjtt*-lis were very 
Hcant with them at Uw»t time, yel they never tooke any thing 
of the contry, though they founde great stort- and plenty of 
all riches in it. For Titus was advertised, that Fhiliu passing 
hy Thewialie, and flying for feare, had cau.-ied the innanitants 
of the cities to got them to the mountauies, and then to set 
tin* on their houses, and to leave tho^e goodes they could not 
cary away, by renson of the weight and unhandsome airiage 
theruf, to the s|>oy]e of his souldier^ : and so (as it Kceniea) 
he left tiie whiile wintry to the con(|U(^t of ihe RinUMnc*. 

PhilJ|M flying 
king of Alaco- 

T. g. n»ini- 
tiiux mnde^ty, 
him muuy 

When^npjHin 'ntuK liM)king con.sidenitlv to hiw doings, gave 
his men gn^t cliarge to pa.tse through thv eontrv witliout 
doing any hurt or mischief, as the same wliidi tlieir encniicii 
had now left to them as tlieir owiie. So they taried n4>t 
long to enjoy tlie benefit of their orderly and wise forbear- 
ing <»f the contry. For, so aoone as they were entred 
Thessalie, the cities willingly yeelded them selves unto them: 
wid the Grcceians inhabiting beyond the contry of Ther- 
mopyies, did inarvduiuily desire to see Titus, asking no other 
thing, but to ntit them selw* into his hands. The Achoioiu 
aim) on the other Hide, did renounce the kttguc and alliance 
they had nin^le with Piiili]i: and furlhemiore did detiTmine 
in their counselt, to make warre with him on tlie Koniaiues 
side. And although the yl'ltoiians were at that time freiides 
and confederates with the Koniaines, and that they did shew 
them selves very loving to take their parte in these warreit : 
ncvcrthcles when they desired the Opuntians that they would 

Eut their city into their hands, and wen? oflred that it should 
c kept and defended from Philip: they would not barken 
thcrto, but aent for Titus, and put them selves and their 





sooda wholly into bis protection. They sfty, that when king FLAMINIUS 
Pymis Cntt saw the Ronifuiies iirinv ranee iu order of buttol 
mm the top of n hit), hi- said : Xfiis oraer of the bnrbaraus Pymi* uy- 
pcople, setting of thi-ir men in battcll ray, wmt not done in '"K of tlM 
a borbanHis miuter. And those dlso that never tuid secae ^r^^"^ 
l^tus before, an<l ctaiu: for to speake with him : were com- 
ptlled in A mfuiner to Kay >u much. For where they had 
hcanlc the Mnc^loniansi say, tlmt there came n CnutaiRe 
of the tMfharotM people that (li?:>trtiyed all before hnn by 
force of amies, and ^ubdueil whule contriea by violence: 
tlier jtayd to the cwntrarTi tliat tliey found him a man, in 
dede young of yeres, howbeit gentle, and curteous to looke 
on, and that spake the Greeke tongue excellently wel, and 
was a lover only of true glory. By reason wherof they re- 
turned home Dlar^-elous glad, and filled all the cities and 
townes of Greeee with goodwill towardcs him, and »ayd: 
th«?y bad !u?ene TitiiN t)ie CAplaino, tluit would irstore tbcm 
to their nimcient lilK'rtie ngaine. Then it much more ap- 
peared, when Philip iilR-wcd him .-wife willing to have yKiuev, 
and tluit Tittis alM> did ofler it him, and the frendshippe of 
tlie fMiiplK iif Kiime, witli theae conditions: that he would 
leave Uit- (in-t-ciann their whole lihcrtiea, and remore hia 
garriftons out of their cities siid strong hokies : which Philip 
refused U> do. And thereupon all (Iroece, and even those 
which favoretl Philip, saycd with one voyce: that the Romainee 
were not come to make warres with them, but n»ther with 
the Macedonians in favor of the Gtvecians. ^Vherupon all 
Greece came in, and oR'red them selves unto Titus without 
compulsion. And as he |ia.v«ed through the eontry of Bceotia, 
without aiiv Hhew nt al <if warren, the chicfnst men of the 
cityofThelx^ wi-nl to mete him: who thougli they tookc 
part with the kiug of Macedon, bicausc of a private man 
called HrachylelU, yet they would honor I'ituN, as those 
which were contented to keem^ league and frendsliip with 
either side, lltiis embraced tliem, and spake very curteoutily 
unto tliera, going on bis way stil fayer and softly, entertain- 
ing them somtimc with one matter, and somtinie with an 
other, and kept them talke of purpose, to the end bia 
souldicTG being wearied with iomving, might in the mcane 



n.AMIKIUS time takv good breath : and «> marching chi, by litle and 

Ittle, he entred into the dty with them. Wherewith the 

Lords of 'lliebeii were not greatly pleased, but yet they 

durst not refuse him, thogh ne had not at that time any 

number of souldiers about him. When be wa« within 

Tlwbes, he pmied audience, and becan to perswadc the 

people (a» carefully an if he hod not bod the city alrvody) 

that they wnulde rather take parte with the Romdiniit, then 

with the king of Miicedon. And to further TituM ptirpoae, 

king Attnlus Ming by chauiice at that time in the OMembly, 

did help to exhort Uic Thebans very earnestlv, that they 

would doe as Titus penwn^led them. But Attalus was more 

earnest then became a man of his yeares, for the desire 

he had (as wai imagined) to ahewe 'IHtus his eloouenoe: 

who did so straine and move him selfe withall, tliat he 

sounded sodayncly in the middest of his oration, whereby the 

rcwmc fell downe so fast uppon him, that it tookc away his 

scnoes, so as he fell In a traunsc bcfon? them all, and few 

dayes after was conveyed agalnc by sea into Asia, where he 

Kinc Attains lived not long after. In Uie mt-onc time, the Bcrotiaits come 

iMM. into the Rotnaines, and tooke thdr parte. And Diilip 

Ths BoKiUuna having sent Amlnw.'uwtort to Home, Titus alwi wnt thither 

ysMuutu the of his men to solidte for him, in two rvsjiucts. Hie one, if 

tlie warres continued against I'hilip, tlwt then they would 

Crolong his time there. The other, if the Senate did graunt 
in) peace : that they would do him the honor, as to make 
and conclude it with Philip. For lltus of his owne nature 
being very ambitious, did feorc least they would aend a sue- 
ocsror to continew those warres, who should take the glory 
from him, and make tui end of them. But his frends made 
such cameHt sutc for him, that neither king Philip attained 
that he prayed : neither was there sent any other genvraJl 
in Titus place, but he still continued his chargi- in thcne 
warres. Wherfore, so sootte as he hrw) rcc^-ive^ his com- 
mbsion and authority from the Senate, he wctit ittraiglit 
towards The!«aiie, with great ho|)c to overcome Philip. 
QoUrtlva For be bad in his army above six and twenty thousand 

■*™r- fighting men, whereof the ^tolians made sis thousand 

footcmen, aod three tbousande horsemen. King Philipa 


army or thother aide was no lews in number, and ihe\ PLAMINIVS 
b^an to Rujxrh one towards the other, untill at the letij^ 
they both drew ncere the city of Scotusa, where they deter- Kli»ir PWlIp 
mined to try the battcll. So, neither they nor their men •"'l 9"'"^"? 
were afraid, to stv them selves one so nccre an other : but ™i^ ncoi*' 
rather to the contrary, the Romaine» on the one side tooke scotuw 
neater hart imd corafre unto Uicnii desiring to fight, as 
Uiinking with thcmwlvw what grmt honor they tJiould win 
to oveioome th<? M)iccd«»iww, who witc so highly wtecmed 
fur their valliuntiicH, hy rcitMon of the famuus aetit that 
Alexander the great dj^ by them. And the MaoedouiBDa 
on tlir other nide aUo, taking the Rotnaines for other maner 
of ttouldiers then the Persians, began to have good hope if 
they might winne the field, to make king Philip more famous 
in the world, then ever was Alexander his father. Titus 
then calling his men together, spake, and exhorted tfaem to 
atand to it like meti, and to nhow themselves valUant Bouldiers 
in this battel, as thiKw which were to shew the proofc of 
their vaUiantoesw in the luut of Greece: the goodliest 
Theater of the world, and against their enemies of most 
Doble fame. Kiilip then by uiaunoe, or forced to it by the 
Kpede he made, bicawtc tltey were both ready to joync : did 
get up unwares u|x>ii a chaniell house, (where tltcy had 
tiurieu many liodies, being a litle hill raised up above the 
rest, and neere the treixrhes of his campe) and there began 
to encorage his aouldiers, as all generals do before they give 
batteL Who when he saw tlmu all diM»raged, for they 
tooke it for an il signe that he was gotten up on the top of 
a grave to s|>eake imto them : he of a conceite at the matter, 
did of himsclfe (U-ferre to give battel! that day. The next 
morning, bicatiKV! U>e night wa« viTy wet by reason the 
•owthe winde» ha4l blowvn, the clowds were turned to a 
miitc, and (illeii all the valley with a darkc grotsc thkke 
Vfttt comming from the mountaines thereabouts, which 
oovered the field betwene Imth campes with a miat all the 
morning : by reason wherof the skowtes on both xides that 
were sent to dijcover what the enemies did, in very shorte 
time met together, and one gave charge upon an other in a 
place they call the dogges heads, which are pointes of roekes 



BBtt«ll be- 

twCDO Quiii- 
tiuii UUlf 

fhilip kliige 
of M need on. 

The prouertie 
of the Mace' 
donlan battel I. 


placed upon litlc hills one before an other, and vei^r' nere one 
unto an other, which have bene called so, bicause they have 
had some likenes of it In this skirmish there were many 
chauiiges, ba commonly fslleth out when they fight in sucn 
ill favored utimy pluoes. For tTomctime the Romainn fled, 
and the Macedonians chased them : an other time the Maee- 
duninns that follnwed the chase, were ghid to fly themwlvw, 
and the Roumines who flvd Ix-fore, iiowe hiul them in duwe. 
This cliaunge and altumcion cjune, by .sending new .tupplieit 
xtil from both cani]>es, to relieve thfin tliat were distresfted 
and driven to flie. Now Ix-nui the miste to breake up, and 
the ayer to clere, so that liotli jtciierals inif;ht see about them 
what was done in either cam))e : by reason whej^jf both of 
them drew on their army to the field and battel. So Philip 
had t)ie vantage on the right wing of his army, which was 
placed on the height of an hanging; hill, from which they 
came so a nininc to sot u|H>n the Roinaines, ajid with such n 
fury, that the stn>iigeNt nnd valliant««t that could be, had 
never liene able to ubide the front of tlif-ir bnttid, so clo^ly 
were they joined together, and their wall of pykes wa» so 
strong. Itut on hi.t left wing it watt not »o, bicause the 
rancka of his luittel could not joine so nere, nor close target 
to target, the itlace being betwixt the hills and the rocks 
where the battel was eomming, so as they were compelled by 
reason of the straightnes and unevennes of the ground, to 
leave it open, and itnfiiniixhed in many places. Titus linding 
that disadvimtoge, went from the left wing of his hall^lj 
which he saw overlaid by the right wing of hi.< eneniiw, and ' 
going sodainly tawani me left wing of king Philips battell, 
tie .set upon the Macedonians on that side, where he saw 
they could not close their ninekes in the front, nor joyne 
them together in the middest of the battel {which is the 
whole strength and order of the Macedonian fight) bicause 
the field was up hill and downe hill : and to fight hand to 
hand they were so pestered behind, that one thronged and , 
overlaid an other. For the battel of the Macedonians hatil^ 
this property, that so long as the order is kept close and 
joyned together, it eemvth as it were but the body of a bea«t 
of a force invincible. But also after that it i.s once open, 



and that tliey an; sundered and not joyned togL-ther, it doth FLAMtSIUS 
not only loose the force and power of the vhole body, but 
also of every private souldicr that tighteth : partly by reason 
of the diversity of the weapons wherewith they fight, and 
partely for tlmt their whole strenj^h consistcth moat, in the 
distMi^ing and joyning togetlier of their rimckes and ordera 
which dutii stny up one nn other, more then doth tncry 
private »oulditT« strength. So when thix left wing of thv 
AlacetlouinnK wiu broken, and that they ran thdr way : one 
parte of the Koiitatiies followed the chiue, luid the other 
mime to give a. chargi'^ iip]ion th«- lliiiK'keH of the riglit winge 
which fought yet, and tliey mode gn-ut slaughter of thi-in. 
Whereupon they now whiih before titui the vantage, l>egaiine 
to staler and breake, and in the eiide ranne away as as 
the other did, throwing downe their weapons : insomuch as 
there were slaine of them L>ight thousande in the fielde, and five 
thous&ndc taken prisoners in tiie chase. And hud not the 
feult bcite in the ^toliaiis. I'hilip had not saved him wife by 
flyinge as he did. For whilest the Roniaiiiefi had their L'nfmies 
in chose, the .Etolifuis Uu'ied, tuid rifled all kiiige Philijis 
campe, so Its thi y hiLd left the Honinines nothiiigi- to .sjHiyle at 
their retiuTie. Whereiijwn there gn-w great qtiam-ll, and hot 
words bctweive t>icm, and one will) a.n other. But aftt-rwtudi-s 
tb^ wig^'ird 'ntiis worst', elialenginge the honor of this vic- 
tor)' to them jielves, bicHiisi' they gave it out throuch (Jreece, 
tliat they alone had nvertliroweii king I'hilip in tlie Imttell. 
So that m the songa and liallets the I'oets made in pi-aise of 
this victory, which every contry and townes man had in his 
mouth : they alwaies put the .^tolians before the Romaines, as 
in this that foUowcth, which was cunantly song in every plow: 

Oh frvnd, >rhich [imsent by ; here lyv fc Hretrhwi phnnroi, 
Wilhootni honor of the (trnve, withoiil Inmciititin tciirw. 
\Vc thirty thousande were, whkh enclcil have our Unyei ; 
lo cruell coasts of TheswilJe. which cauitiil our itecxyeK. 

We have heae ovcrrtltroweii by th.^U'liHiu lata of warre : AlcMIU vmu4 

A[i4 by the LdliiJd cri'ives likewiite, wboni Titus led front farre. ]> dtasMM 

Even out of Italie, to Miii'eiloiiie Iniide, nf Iritw if 

V* lo diitroy, ho (caotsiue like) did come with mighty hniiile. PhiSpt 

And Philip Btnute, therewhlleH for nil Ilia prnwde 5«tcp fnce : 
I>fl«d mors »«ift, then hartos doo ruoiic, which un nunued in chnce. 


Aluliiiio be- 
twixt tbH 
MtoiiutH and 
theRonaiaeL , 

Philip* vtnt» 



Privjj grudK* 
hotwixt Quin- 
tius knd th« 


PIAMIKIL'S The Poet w&s Alcieufl Uiat mitdc these ventes for to singe, 
who did tbeiD in dUgracc of kinee Fhilip, blsely iitcreuinge 
the number of hia men which died in the battell, only to 
shanu; and spite him tJie more : howbeit he spited Titu« 
th«rcbv, more then Philip, bicause it was song in every place. 
For Pnilip laughed at it, and to encounter him againc 
with the uke uockc, he mode a iiong to cuunterfeatc hu, ai 
followeth : 

'rhl( tribbpt on thia hill, »h!c1i pawan by vuf (narke : 
Won >rt to hnng Alcnui up, irithoatto TmvM or burke. 

But Titiis tooke it grevoualy, who chiefly desired to be 
honored amongest the Greecians, by reason wherof from 
that time forwards he delt in the rest of his matters alone, 
without making aivonipt of the vfitolians ; witervrith they 
W(Te m^trvelous angry, and Hixx-ially when he received an 
AmbnsNidcH- from Philip, am) gave earv unto a treaty of 
jHruec which he ofi'red. Fur then they wi-n- so netled 
Rgainitt him, that they gave it out thruiigh all Greece, 
tfiat 'I'itufl hati soldo pcaee unto Philip, when tie might 
altogether have ended the warre, and utterly hare destroyed 
Philips whole power and Empire, who had first brought 
Greece into bondage. These slaunderous reports and false 
tales which the v^tolians spred thus abroade, did much 
trouble the Itomaiues frendes and confederates : but Philip 
Kclfe pulled this suspinon out of their heodi's, when he OUDC 
ill [Krrson ti> reiiuin- peace, and did submit him st^'lfe wholly 
to the discretion of I'ituK aiid the Homaines. 'I'itus tliiii 
grauiited him peace, and delivered to htm hi« reaJme of 
Maoedon,n»d commaunded him he shouldr give overall that 
he heldc in Greece, and lie^deit, Unit he should itay one 
thousande talents for tribute, taking from him all his army 
by sea, saving only tenne shippes : and for as&uranoe of this 
peace, he tooke one of his sonnes for hosl^e, whonic he sent 
to Rome. Wherein Titiw ccrtainely did veiy well, and 
wisely did foresee the time to come. For then Hannibal! 
of Carthage, (the great enemy of the Romaines) vtm biLnished 
out of his contry, and conimen to kinge ^Vntiochus, whumv 
he put in the head, and i-anicntiv mov«l, to follow his good 


T. QuIntloH 
PUllp peace. 

Hannihal wi 
with kin^ce 


fortune, and the incmuc of hix Empire. Whmn Hanniball 
so followed vrith thcw pentwiutiuiis, tbnt kingo AntiochuH at 
length was comv to it. And tni8tir)<^ to niH fornicr good 
Biicci's»<-, mid notabli- net*, wht-rtby in tin- wnn\-s before he 
hiuJ »ltJiitK\l till.' ^unmmc of grviit : he b(-)nui now to umpire 
to the monarchy of the- wholu world, ana Hoiiglit how to 
finde occasion to make warres with tlic Kotnainea. So that 
if Titus (foresetring that a far of) liad not wisely inclined 
to peace, but that the wars of Antiochiu had fallen out 
together with the warm of king Philip, and that these 
two the mightiest Princes of the worldc had joyned together 
against the dty of Itomc : then it had bene in as great 
trouble and daimgcr, as ever it was before, in the tinu: 
of their warrra against Hannibal. Howbeit Titus havingv 
happely thrust in this |>c«ci' bctwene botlt wnrrcs, he cut of 
the warn; that wa« present, befoiv the other that was 
cominingc: by which meaner he tooke from one of Uie 
kinged nit limt, and fnotn the other his {irsl hope. In tlie 
nteane time, the tenne commisMioners that were sent hy tlte 
Senate from llome to Titui, to aide and assist him in the 
order of Uie afTaiera of Greece : did coun§ell him to set all 
the rest of Greece at liberty, and onely to kepe in their 
handes with good garrison, the cities of Chalctde, of Corinthe, 
and of Demetriadi', to niakc Hiire that by practise they should 
not enter into league and alliiLnce with Antiochiis. Then 
the ^tolians (that were the eonimou slauitderen of 'ViUa 
proccedingcs) beganne o|K-iily to nuke these c)t)<« to rebel!, 
and did summone Titus to (oo»e the chained of Grewe : for 
•o did kitige Philip call tltesv? three dtieit. 'llien Uiey aaked 
tlte Greeeiaiift in mockery, whether they were willing now to 
have heavit.T fettera on their le^en, then before, being 
•omwhat brighter and fayrer then those they had bene 
shackled with: and also whether they were not greatly 
beholding to Titus for taking of the fetters from the Greedaiu 
legs, and tyinge them about their occkes. T^tus beinge 
niur\-clously troubled and vexed with this, moved the tenne 
coun$ellers so earnestly, that he made them gmunt hi* 
rrauettt in the endc, that those tlu-ee cities also should be 
delivered from garrison : bicausc the Greeciaos thenceforth 
3:M 80 


exited by 
t-htlip of 
Mm^ou, the 
CboiuM of 


PLA.M1NIUS might no more complainc, Uiat his grace and liberality was 
oot thrauffhiy pciformcd. And accomplished in every rcspi-ct 

Ittliinia. oa tlitrm all. \Vhcrvforr, when thv fnut called IsthmJa was 

come, tlierc were gathered tftgetluT an infiiiiti; tnultitii<Ic of 
people OOHK- to stx- the sportt; of Hk (niinw pinynl there: 
for Grei^ce having iK^iie long timt- troubTed witti warres, U 
feeing thi-in selvm now in sure pcaci:, and in rerj 
hope of ful lilK-rty, looked after no other thing) but delited 
only to see games, and to make mery. Proclamation was 
then made by sounde of trompct in the assembly, that cveiy 
man shoulde keepc silence. That done, the herauldc went 
forward, and thrust into the middest of the multitude, and 
proclaimed out alowdc : That the Senate of Rome, and Titiis 
Quintius Flaniiiiius, Consul of the |K-ople of Rome (now that 
they had ovcrthrowen kinge Pliiliji mid the Macedonians iii 
battell) did thentvforth diHchurge from all garriHons, and «t 
at lilierty from all taxes, sulnidies, and iinjHMitionii for ever, 
to live after their olde auncient lawes, ajid in full liberty : 
the Corinthians, the Locrians, those of I'hocide, those of tne 
lie of Kubcra, the Achaian^ the Phthiotes, the Magnesians, 
the Tliessalinns, and the Pcrrhccbeians. At the first time of 
the proclamation, idl the people could not heare the voice of 
the neraiddc, and tJic most p#irte of tliose that hearde him, 
collide not tell di-stinelly what he sayed: for there raiirtc up 
and downe the shewe place when> the games were played, 
a confuted brute and tumult of the people that wondered, 
and asked what the matter ment, so a» the herauldc waa 
driven againe to make the proclamation. Whereupon aAer 
silence made, the berauld puttinge out his voice farre lowder 
then before, did uroclaime it in such audible wise, that the 
whole assembly neard bim : and then rose there such a 
lowde showte and crie of joy through the whole people, that 
the sound of it wa.i heard to the w-a. Then all the people 
that had taken their places, and were «et to sec the Sword- 
playent play, rose up all on their feete, lettingc the gam** 
alone, and went together with great joy to salute, to embrace, 
and to tlianke 'I'itus the recoverer, protector, and patroiie of 
all their liberties of Greece. Then was scene (which i* much 
spoken of) the power of mens voyces : for crowes fel downe at 



ifast present time among the people, which by chaunce flew FLAMINIUS 
over the show place at tiint time that they made the same Crowe« flyiugr, 
out showte. 'ITiis came t<i pa.'se, hy reason the ayer wm '^l' downe by 
broken and cut a sunder, with the veheracncy and strength m™'s'ToU«^ 
of the voyces, so as it had not his naturall power in it, to 
Iccqw up the flying of the birdes : vthicb were driven of 
Dcceiuty to fall to the crounde, as flyingc through a roide 
plaoe wncn; thi-y ladccdayer. Unlmse we will rather gay, 
that it wu thi- violence of the eric, which strookc the birtle* 
paMinge tbniiif;h ttic aycr, m they had bene hH with nnttwes, 
utd M made tlK-ni fall <lowiie dead to tho earth. It may be 
alM, that then: wa» »ome hurlingc winde in tlw ayer, a* we 
doe see sometime in the sea, when it riseth high, and many 
times tumeth about the waves, by riotenoe of the storme. 
So it is, that if 'Htus hadde not prevented the whole multi- 
tude of people which came to see him, and that he had not 
got him away betimes, before the games were ended : he had 
Eardly scaped from being stifltxl amongest them, the people 
came so thictcc about him from every place. But after that 
they weru weary of crying, and singing atwut his pavillion until! 
night, in the ende they went their way ; and &a they went, 
if they mut any of their kinnt^ frctidcs or citiix-ns, they did 
kiitse and <.-mbntcu one an other for joy, and Mt »up{H-d, and 
made niery togetlicT. In their more njoycinge yet, aa we 
may tfainke full well, tliey had no other talkv at the table, 
but of the warrcK of Greece, discoursing amongest tliem what 
sundry great warrvs they had made, what they had endured 
heretofore, and all to defend and recover their liberty. And 
yet for all that, they coulde never so joyfully nor more 
assunxljy obtaine it, then they did even at that present, 
receiving the honoralilest reward, and that which deserved 
greatest fiunc through tlie worlde : that bv the valliantncsso 
of straungers who fought for the same (without anv spilt 
blood of tbeir ownc in com|uinson, or that they lost Oie life 
of nay one man, whose death thvy had cause to liimt-nt) they 
wei« so rcstorwi to their aunrii-nt frcvdome and lil>erty. It 
is a very ran- things amoiigi-st nu-n, to finde a man very 
valliant, and wi.te withall: but yet of all sortes of valliant 
men, it i» harder to finde a just num. Pew Agesilaus, 



Qvintiiu uro 
to nUblUh Ui« 
libertjr of th« 

Tie teat 
Nmum kept 


LyMinder, Nidan, AlcibiaiU's, mid all uUier the famous Cap- 
ttuiies i)f former tiniett, had very good skill to lead an aimy, aiid 
to winiie tlte battel), as well Bv sea as by lande : but to tume 
their ^nctoriea to any honorable benefit, or true homH* among 
men, they could never skill of it. And if you doe except 
the battell against the barbftrous people, in the nlaiiiL' of 
Marathon, tho batt*:!! of Salamina, the jomvy of Platees, 
the battell of Thcrniopyliw, the bnttell Cimon fought about 
Ciprus, and upon the river of Eiirym»Ion: all the other 
warrcs and biitt<-lK of Greece that weiv made, fell out 
again»t thvm selves, and tlid ever briiige tliem into bondage : 
and all the tolcomt of triuniphe which ever were set up far 
the same, was to their shame and loiee. So that in the end, 
Greece was utterly deatroyed and overthrowen, and that 
chiefly through the wickednes and sclfe will of her governors 
and captaincs of the eities, one envjing an othein doing. 
Where a straunge nation, the which (as it should seeme) hid 
very small occasion to move them to do it (for that they 
have hod no great familiarity witli auucient Greece, and 
through the n>unt«L-l and good wisedoiiie of the which it 
^ould seemc very straunge thwt Greewr collide r\-ceive luiy 
benefit) have notwjthstjinding witii dauiigirotis iMtlt-ls and 
inRnitc troubles delivered it from oppretaion, and servitude, 
of violent IxtnlcH and tvnuti. Thi^t, and such like talke, did 
at that time occupy tne Greecians heades: and moreover, 
the deeded followitig did aunswer and {lerforme the words of 
the proclamation. For at one selfc time, Titu* sent Lentulus 
into A»a, to act the Harf^Iians at lil>crtv, and TitilHus into 
Tliracia, to remove tlie garrisons out of the lies and cities 
which Philip had kqit there: and I'ublius lulius was sent also 
into vVsto, unto king Antiochus, to speakc unto him to set 
the Greecians at liberty which he kept in sulnection. And as 
for Titus he went him selfe unto the city of Chateide^ where 
he tooke nea, and went into the jirovince of Magnesia, out 
of tlic which he t<xike all the garrisons of the cities, and 
n^deliviTisi Uu- gt>venm)ent of the common wealth imto the 
citizetu of tlie some. Afterwords when time came, thiit the 
feast of Nemca was oclebrated in the dtie of Argos in tlic 
honor of Hercules, lltus was chosen judgc^ and rector of the 


sanies that were plaJed there: where, after he had aei all 
thioffea iii very good order, pertaining unto the solemnity of 
the tesfit, he caused againe solemne proclamation to be made 
openly, for the geuerall liberty of all Greece. Further- 
more, nsiting the cities, h« did stablish very good lawes, 
rvformod justice, and did set the inbubitanti) and citizens of 
every one of them in good peace, amity, and concord one 
with an other: and did call home uIm all thcnc that were 
outlawed and banished men, and pndlied all oldc quarrellc 
and ditsentionit amonge them. The which did no Icssc 
pleoae and content hiai, Uiat by penwasionR he could bring 
tlie Greecianii to be reconciled one with the other ; then if 
he had by force of armea overcome the Macedonians. Inso* 
much, as the recovery of the libertie which Titus had restored 
unto the Greecians, seenved unto them the least parte of the 
Boodnesse they had received at his handcs. They say, that 
Lycurgua the orator seeinge the collectors of taxes, cary 
Zcnocrates the Philosopher one day to prison, for lacke of 
payment of a ccrtaine imposition, which the stiaungers in- 
nabiting within the citic of Athens were to pAy : be rfsctied 
him from them by force, un<l mon-ovcr pnwccuted law so 
hard against Ibcni, that he nuulc tht-ni pay a fyne for the 
injury Otey luwl done unto so wortliy « jwrxon. And tJiey 
tell, how the Mun« Philoaoplieraflerwardesi meeting Lycurgus 
children ui the city, saved unto them : I doe wet requite 
vour fathers good tume hi' did me : for I am the cause that 
he is praised and commended of every man, for the kinde- 
ncsse he shewed on my behalfe, So the good dcedes of 
the Romaincii, and of 'Htus Quintius Plammius unto the 
Groecians, did not only reape this benefit unto them, in 
recompcncc that they were praised and honored of all the 
worldc : but they were csuse also of incrcasingc thcEr 
(lominiiins and Empire over all nations, and that the worldc 
ftflt:rwiir<fc» had KTcnt affiance and trust in them, and that 
most justly. Sii that the |H-«|ile and cilii-* did not onely 
woeive Uio Captains* luwi governors tlie Homaines iient them : 
but they also went to Uamo unto them, and procured them 
to come, ftiwl did put them selvea into their handes. And 
not only the cities and commmudties, but kings and princes 


Ljcutgu* Uie 
orator, ro*- 
cued Zcno- 
ontM tii« 
and uvcd him 
from priMn 


FLAMINIUS »l»o (which were oppressed by other more mighty than tbem 
»i.'lve«) hiwl no other refuge, but to put them itelves under 
Uieir pn>t«etioD : by reason whereof in a very ehorte time 
(with tlie favor and bclpc of the goddcs aa I am pcmwaded) 
all tlie wurlil cantu to xuhmit them selves to their obedieiicC) 
and under th« protection of their Empire. Tittts ul»o did 
glory more, tliat he had rwttoretl Greece ngnine unto liberty, 
then in any other nerviw or t-xphiyte he had ever done. For 
when he ottered up unto th« tviiiitle of Apollo in the dtie of 
Delphes, the targets of ttitver witn hlH owne fthielde, he made 
these verses to be graven upcm them, in effect a& foUoweth : 

O Doblfl tw^DM TyndarUn, Dan love liis c)iil4r«D deue : 
IlrawoutlawdedieuteBorjoyjaDdBirtbfrqlmreeBod make good cbean. 
Bobl« Unn of Spartaa sorle, wUeh Wm MUght to ryd«, 
Yinir trampling ttoedes, wttli fomy byt, and trapploga hy their *id« : 
Rcjoyoo you now, for Tiluc ho, tlie viilliant RomHne knight, 
Tliciie ([iflei lu great to you hath ynt, vvon by bia force aiid nu|{bt. 
That mivtnfc tak«u eluno awny, fr<itn (if the (ir«Bkiiihu netitrt, 
Tb« ti«ary yeiie of leriiliulti, which huM thvm Hirall to cLeclua, 
Vuto their formur liberty, he hath nguturdtf tlitni (rte, 
Ulileli altogether perldht was, ai meti m)|>lit jilaiuely aea. 

He gave u crownc of mnssie gold unto Apollo, up]>on the 
which lie made this inscription to Ix; wryttt-n: 

A valliant Komnine kai^ht, cvod Titun by hii name, 

A cnptaino nurtliy by driwrt, of hi^h rvmiwDp luiil fane : 

To thc« (Apollo gixil thin crownc of pure fine guldo. 

Hath f;(TV«ii thy Mdlmd to odonie, with juvlli) miuiifuMe, 

TbeTcfurti let it tnM pleaM (Apullu god of emre) 

With fHVcr to re(|ulte this love, to him aDd to bit rnca: 

That hiHrenowmed funie, and vertiie may be spied, 

And blaaed through the vorlde to wide, tn ihair what ILfo he Ifid. 

So bath the city of Coririthe vtijoycd thi« good luippc, 
that the Grvcciatis have bene twisc prnrlHimcd to be tet at 
liberty : the dnt time by I'ittis Quintiut Flatninius, and tJie 
second tlmc^ by Nen) in our time, and at the itelfe some 
iiivtfuit when they solemnly kejit the feaat odled Isthmia. 
Howehfit the first proclamation of tlieir lil>erty (a* we have 
toldt ye before) wast done by the voyec of a herauld : and the 
neeonclL- time it was done by Nero him selfe, who proclaimed 
it in an oration he made unto the people in open ncscmbly, 
in the market place of the city of Corinthe. But it wax a 


Nero did set 




longe time after. Furtlieraiore, Titus bcgwine then a 
goodly And just warre o^iist Nabii, the cuntea and wicked 
tyran of I^acediemmt. HuwelK-it in the ende he deceaved the 
expectation of (ireece. For when he might have taken hitn, 
he would not doe it, hut made peace with hioi, fur&akinee 
poore Sparta unworthily oppressed under the yoke of bonu- 
age : eitner bicause he was afrayed that if the warre heldc on, 
there shoulde come a successor unto him from Romv, that 
ahouldcaiy the Rlory away to endc the same, or else he stoode 
lealouB ana envious of the honor they did unto Philopccrnvn. 
Who having tihewi-d him sclfc in every phicc as excellent a 
Cnptiuni.- a» ever ciimc in Greece, mid huvlnge doiie notAbl« 
acta and fnniouK service, both of great wiiwdonw, and aJm 
of ralliantnc!Me, aivd Nixrcially in the Aduiians wnrrv:, he was 
as much honored and nTvetvnced of the Acliaiftn.4, in tlte 
Theaten and common aMt-mbheH, even ax 'I'ituii watt. 
Whereat 'Htus was marvelously offended, for he thought it 
unreasonable, that an Arcadian who had never bene genemll 
of an army, but in small litle warres against his neighboure, 
should be as much esteemed and honored, as a Consult of 
Rome, that was come to make wamn for the recovery of the 
libcrtie of Greece. But Titus allco^red reasonable exctusc 
for hi* doingvn, sayine that he saw very well he eoulde not 
destroy thi-t tynui Niibio, without the great Io)kc- utid misciy 
of the othi-r SjiiirtanH. Furthemiorv, of all tiic honors the 
AchaiaiiH ever did him (which were very great) Die thinkss 
there was none that came neciv any rccoinpence of his 
honorable and well <I»erving, hut one onely present they 
offered him, and which he above all the rest nio^ esteenwd : 
and this it was, Duringo the neconde uarrcs of Africke, 
which the Romaiites had against Hanniball, many Roinaines 
were taken priMiners in the simdry battella they lost, and 
liringc solde here and there, remained slaves in many con- 
tries : and amongcst other, there were dispersed in Greece to 
the number of twelve hundred, which from time to time did 
move men with nitic and compassion towardcs them, that 
law them in «o miM-mblc climmffe and state of fortiuie. But 
then much more wm.i their nii»<,-rie to be pitied, when Uiese 
captives found In the Komaines army, some of them tlieir 



mndr pmce 
with Nabiii 
the tyniii of 
Th« honor of 

■oMo for 


The Achnioni! 
redccmt^ the 
werenolde for 
sUvm lu 

Th« ceremony 
nf ulaveii 

T. Quiiitiui 


■OODcs, other their brethren, and the rest their fellowes and 
frendm, fn.i-, and conquerours, and them selvca slaves and 
bondi.-mvii. It ^i'\'cd Titua much to see these poon; men 
ill such mi!«.-nihli." cwptivity, notwithstanding he would not 
take them hy force from iKose that had thcni. Wlien-upon 
the Achaiaiis Ksit-eiiKtl and bought them for five htinun.-Yl 
pence a man, and luivingi.- gathered them togetiitT into a 
troupe, they presented all the Komuine captives unto Titus, 
even as he was ready to take ^hip to rctume into Italie: 
which present made him return*- home with greater joy and 
contcntficion, having received for his noble deedes so honor- 
ttbic a rcconipcnce, and worthy of him selfe, that wbs so 
loving n man to his citizens and conby. And surely, that 
onely was the omiunent (in my opinion) that did most 
bcjiutifie hin triumplic. For these poore redeemctl cf^itivc* 
did that, which the »IavM are wont to doc un that day when 
thev l)e net at liK-rly : to witt*-, tlicy nhavc their m«d<-H, 
aiKl doe weare Htle huttCH n|Km them. The Kom^iiiies that 
were thua redeemed, did in Hke inuner : and so followed 
'ntus cJiarret, on tlie day of his triumplie and entrie made 
uito Home in the triumphing manner. It waa a goodly sight 
also, to see the spoyles of the enemien, which were caried in 
the show of this triumphe : as, store of helmets after the 
Greecians facion, heapes of targets, shicldes, and pykcs after 
the Macedonian manner, with a wondcrfiill suramc of 
and silver. For Itaiius the historiographer writeth, 
there was brought n marvelous gir^it mawc of tnrssurc in 
niggots of golde, of tlirve thfaiwind ttcvea hundred and 
thJrteene pounde weight, and of silver, of forty three 
thousande, two htuidretl, Uirce Mcore and tenne pound 
weight, and of golil ready coyncd in peeoes called Philips 
fouretei'ue thousand, (i\o hundrod, and foureteene, bendes 
the thousand taienti kins Philip should pay for a raun8oni& 
The which summe, the Komaines afterwardes forgave him, 
chiefly at lltus sute and intercession, who procured that 
grace for him, and caused him to be calleu a frvnd and 
confederate of the people of Rome, and his soniie Demetrius 
to be sent unto him againe, who remained before as an 
hosta^ at Rome. Shortcly after, king Antiochus went out 


of Asia into Grci-oe with ti giv&t flcctc- of shippes, and a very PLAMINIUS 
piiimit army, to stim; up t)ic cities to forsMce their league 
and alliance with the noniabics, and to make a disseotaon 
amongust them. To furthi-r this his dmirc and cnt«rpriac, 
the ^tolians did aidv and backc him, which of long time 
had bome eivat and »i.Tn;tc malice ogiunst the Romaincs, 
and dedrra awch to have liiul tvants with them. Su 
tbcT taueht king Antiuchiis t» nay, that the wiun.- whidi ho 
tooKe in nand«, vm» to set thv Gnvciaiiit at liberty, whereof 
they had no neede, bicauxe they did already enjoy their 
liberty : but for that they hod no just cause to raalce warre, 
they taught him to cloke it the honestest way he coulde. 
Wherefore the Romaines feariuge greatly the rising of the 
people, and the rumor of the power of this grvat king, they 
Bent thither Afanius AdUuB their gonerall, and Titus, one of 
his LieuteiULunts for the Greectans sakes. Which arrivall 
did the more assure them that already bare good will to 
the Romuines, after they had once seene Manius and Titus : 
and the rest that bcgunne to fliv out, and to shrinkc 
from tJK-ni, thiwe I'itus kept in obetlience from starting, 
remcmbTiiigv them of tlie fmnUhii) mid y^Mul will they had 
borne him, even like a good skiifull uhiMitinn tlmt couldc 
geve hi* padent phi*ieke to pwserve hun from a «>ntagw>ui» 
diseaae. In dl;(^ae there werv some (but fewe of than) that 
left him, which were won and corrupted before by the 
jfitolians : and though he had just cause of offence towardes 
them, yet he saved iTiem after the liattcll. For king Antio- 
chus being overcome in the coutrj' of Thcrmopyles, fled his 
way, and m great hast tooke the sea to rctume into Asia, 
And the Considl Manius following his victory, cntxod into 
the contry of the ^Etolians, where he tooke ccrtaine townes 
by force, and left the other for n pray unto kingc Philip. 
So Philip kinge of Maooion on the one iHdc, spoylod nod 
sacked the Doioiiiiui.*, the Miipiu^iAiiK, tlie AtluimnTnan:^ 
and the Ai>erajitnie!(: and the (!imfull ManiuH on the other 
Mde, destroyed the dty of Heraclea, and layi-d Moge to the 
dtle of Naupactum, which the jfCtoliana kept. Rut I'Stus 
takinge com|iaasion of tliem, to see the poore people of 
Greece thus spoiled and tnmcd out of all: went out of 
3:N 97 

MaaiuB Ad* 
liu« Cun«ul, 
wid T. Quia- 
tliiR lieu- 
Urnatint Aont 

in Thermo- 

Ibi, by 
AniuD the 



trmUith for 

King Antlo- 
chus iitHrled 
diiugnter in 
tho city of 


Peloponnesus (where he wa.t Ukii) unU» MAniiw AciHus 
campe, and tbiir n-praved him for sufTering king Philip 
to uKurjH* Ute benefit and reward of his honorable nctory, 
still con<juerii»ge many people, king<i, and contries, whilest 
be continued siege before a city, and only to wreake hia 
anger upon ttieni. Afterwaides, when they that ««ere besieged 
saw Titus from their walles, they called him by his name, 
and helde up their handcs unto him, prayinge turn he would 
take pitie upon them : but he gave them never a word at 
that time, and turning his bnvke luito them, tie fell a weeping. 
Afterwards he spake with Maaius, and nppCMtng his anger, 
got him to graunt the .'EtoHnnK truoc for ccrtaine dayes, in 
which time they might nende Amljassiidor* to Rome, to »ec 
if tlicy could obtaine gmce and pardon of tlie Senate. But 
the most trouble and difBculty ne had, was to Jntreate for 
the CniiUcidians, with whonie the Consul) Manius was more 
giievdu&ly ofTended, then with all the rest: bicause that 
kinge Antiochus after the warres was begonne, had maried 
his wife in their citie, when he was past yeares of manage, 
and out of all due time. For he was now vcrv olde, and 
beinge in his extrcamc age, and in the middest of his warres, 
he fell in dotage with a young gentlewoman, the daughter 
of Cleoptolemus, the fayre^t woman that was at that time 
in all Greece. Thereforv the dalcidiaiis were much affected 
unto king Antiochus, and did put their city into his hande^!, 
to serve him in this warrc, for a «t«)ng niiii safe retyring 
place. Wh(-ru|)on, when Antioclius had lost the battel, he 
came thither with all po*aible speede, and takinge from 
thence with him his jiassinge fayer younge Queene which 
he had maried, and his golde, his silver, and frenden, he 
tooke the seaes incontinently, and retimied into Asia. For 
this cause the Consull Manius having wonnc the battel!, 
did marche straight with his army towardcs the citie of 
Oialcidc in a great rage and fury. But Titus that followed 
him, did alwayes lye uppon him to pacilie his anger, and did 
»o much intreatc him, together with the other Romiuncs of 
state and ntithoritii- in counsel] : that in the cnde, he gotte 
him to {utnloiie them of Ch»l<ride also. Who, bicause they 
wtrx' prracn-cd from perill by his meanest, thoy, to reoompcncc 


Uiis r&ct of his, did consecrate unto him, all their most stately FLAMINIUS 

and sumptuoDii buildinees and cominoii workes tn their citie, 

as ap[>eareth yet by the superscriptions mnainiiige to be 

scene at this day. As in the show place of exercises : Th« 

people of Chalcide did dedicate tliis show place of exercises, Hoitor» don* 

unto Titus and Hercules. And in the tcmpk- called IXI- y"^"^^,^'"' 

phinium : The people of Chalddv did coiisecratc this tcniple, tho'chalei'-"*' 

unto Titus, and unto Apollo. And furthermore, unto tliiv dians and the 

prtBcnt time, there is a priest chosen by the voycc of the tireecUus. 

Moplv, purposely to do sacrilicK unto Titus : in wnicH »acri< 

fic^ after tnat the thing «icrilicii'd i.i ofTi-rvd up, luid win* 

pownid npon it, the piijpic ^ttmding by, do sing a »ong of 

triumphe made in prnixv of him. But bicattsc it were to 

long to wrk'tv it all out, we have only drawcii lu briefe the 

latter end of th« sani« : and tliis it is : 

Th* dcore utmpoUcd fitith, of RomiiinM wi> ailoru, 

And vow to be their fiiilhfuU freiidci, both uow and ever more. 

Sing out you Atutici uyne, to lovea trtcrtiall tumt. 

Sing out the honor due to Roni«, iiid Titu>t worthy uane 

Slag oat (I My) tlie [iTnlse, of Titus aad hi« fiith : 

B7 whom you tisve pnserted bene, from rulne, dote, and dmtl). 

Now the Chalcidiaos did not atone only honor and rever- 
ence Titus, but he was generally honored also by the 
Grcecians as he deserved, and was nuLrvclouslv beloved 
for his curtesie and good nature: which argucth plainelv 
that they did not fainedly honor him, or through compul- 
•ion, but wen from the hart. For though tbere was some 
Jarre betwixt him and Philopo-men at the Bixt about service, 
for emulation of honor, and after betwixt him au<l Diopliani^ 
also, both gt-nerall.^ of tbe AchaianK : yet he never ban^ them 
any malice in hi.-( lutrt, neither di<l his anger move him at 
any time to hurt tJHtn any way, but he ever ended tlie 
heate of his wordes, in counsell and assemblies, where he 
uttered his minde franckety to them both. Therefore none 
thought him ever a cruel! man, or eger of revenge: but 
many have thought him rashe, and hasty of nature. Other- 
wise, be was as good a companion in company as possibly 
could be, and would u»e as pleasaunt wise mirthe n any 
man. As when be saved to the Achaians, on a time, who 



GurteHC and 

tiet«lxt T. 

T. (juintiaii 

doe boaat of 
their kiuf[M 
gnU mnay. 

Titux (juiii' 
tiaa vittjr 
AiiHwen to 
the Ambw- 

T. Qulntitu 
Ceator <rltb 


would iie«dt--(i unjustlv iisurpc tlie lit? of tl>c Zacynthiiuui, to 
diffiwode them from it ; My Lordes of Acliuiit, if yc ouct goe 
out of PelopoiinvHUs, you put your selves in iluuiigvr, as the 
tortcyscs doc, wh^-'ti Uicy thnist their licndvn out uf tlieir 
shell And thv fint tinti' Uv jMrled witli Pliili|) to UtaXe 
of ]Ktuix : whm Philip mud unto hitu, you have drought 
uuuiy RiL-ii witli you, uihI I luii coun.^ aloiit.-. In dei:!de it is 
true you an; afoue, Miyd liv, bicaime you uiiule all your 
fraidi^ nnd Idime to be ulaitie. An other time, Dinocrates 
Mesaeuiaii being in Rome, after lie liad taken in his cuppes 
in a feaat where he was, he disguised hint aelfe in womaiu 
apparell, and daunced in that manner : and the next day 
foUowingc he went unto Titus, to pmy him to hclpc him 
through with his saW, which was, to iiiakf the citiu of 
Mfsniia to rvhcll, and luivf the tribe of the Achaians. 
Titus made liini aunswor, that he wouhi tliinke upon it: 
but I van but wonder ut you (»ayd tie) howc you can dauiwe 
ill woniana apparell, and xinge at a feast, hnvjnge such matters 
of weight ill your head. In the eounsel! uf the Achaiana, 
king Aiitiochus ambassadont heiiige come Uiitlier, to move 
them to breake tiieir league with the Uomaiiies, and to make 
alliance with the king Uieir master, they made a manelous 
large discourse of the great multitude of souldient that were 
in their niasten army, and did number them by many diverse 
nam<^s. Whcreuiito Titus aunswcred, and tolde how a &eud 
of hia having biddL-u him one night to su|>])er, and having 
served so many disJius of mcatv to hit liord, an he was angry 
with him for mwtowing so great cont a)Hiii him, a« womler- 
inge howe he could so Mxlaiiicly get ho nuieh store of mute, 
and of so diverse kiiideH. My frendc xnyed to me againe, 
that all was but porke drettsed so many waves, an<l with 
so sundry sawces. And even so (rjuod 'i'itus) my ].ords of 
Achaio, estteme not king Antiochus army the more, to heare 
of so many mcii of armcs, numhred with their lauiices, and of 
such a numbci' of footcmcii with their pykes: for they are 
all but Syrians, diversely armed, only with ill favored lit^ 
weapons. Furtheniiorc, after I'itus had done tho^c thingea, 
and that the warrc vritb Antiochus was ended, be was chosen 
Censor at Rome, with the xomte of that same Msrcellus, 


rho had hem five times CotuulX -' yjliis office is of f^rcnt 
dignitie, and as a muti may siky, tke ccownv of all the 
liorion thnt u citizen of Romi- cau Iiutk in-tlH-ir common 
weoJU). ITiey put of the StiMitv, foiin: mnrmily: Init they 
WKK not fmnou*. Ttivv (iid mx-ivc ull into l)tk- iiiiptIxT of 
citiaeM of Koinv, thnt wouUI prevent thiiii Kelws ^ 
enrolled in tlieir common n.-p»tcr : with a proviso, tlwi-ih«^. 
were bonie free by fatlier ami mother. They were eoinpef>e<l' 
to doe it, by Tereutius Culeo, Triliune of Uie people, who 
to despiglit the nobility, per»w(Lded the people of Home to 
commaunde it iw. Nowe at Uint time, two of the noblest 
^ and most famous men of Home were n^eat enemies one 
""wdost an other: l*ublius Seipio African, and Marcus 
mcius Cato. Of tliese two, Titus named I'ublius Seipio 
African, to be prince of the Senate, as the chicfcst and 
worthiest pcrsoiic in the citie : and gut the displeasure of the 
' other, which was Cato, by this niishappe, Titus had it 
brother ailletl Lucius Quintius Plamimus, ttothinK like unto 
him in condition at all: for he was so distrouitely and 
liccntiouiily given over to his pleasure, tluit he forgattv all 
conilinesse and honesty. This lAidw loved well a younee 
t>oy, and cartet) him nlwayi.-> with him when be went to tnv 
warre^ or to the charge aiul f^ovennn<fiit of any province. 
This bov flattering him, one day sayd unto Lucius Quiiitius, 
that he loved him so well, that lie did leave the sight of the 
Swordplayers at the sharpe, which were making ready to 
tbc iiebt, although Jie had never seene man killed before : 
to waitc upon him. Lucius being very glad of the boyes 
wordes, aua^Mcred him straight. Thou shalt loose nothiiu; for 
that my boy, for I will by and by please thi-e as well, bo be 
commiiuudcd a (vndemned nuui to Ik- ft.-t«:h<d out of pnson, 
aiul witlittll (idled for the hangman, whome he willed to 
strike of hU bead in the niiddcat of hU sup[>er, that the boy 
might see him killed. Valerius AiitioK tne histonitgrajiher 
wryteth, that it was not for the love of the iKiy, bitt of a 
woman which he loved. iJut 'i'itus l.ivius declaretli, ttiat in 
aa omticm which Cato him M^lfe made, it was wr^'tten, that it 
was one of the Goulcs : who hcinge a traitor to his contiy 
men, was come to I'lamiuius gate with bis wife and children, 



l>, Scipiu, Slid 
M. P, Cato 

Secret ^udge 
betwixt Tttui 
su<l Vaio, 

A rrufll lied* 
of Lucius 

Cato M9IW0 

mit Luda* 
Quill tiiu 


FLAMINIUS and that Flaminiiiii ntuJcing him ratnc into his hallo, killed 
him with hiii oww ha)i(h-s, to pic-asc a boy hv lovnl, that was 
cIi-sinMi§ to s(^ Ji man Icillcd. Howchcit it is very hkdy that 
Cato wrote irt this sortc, to aggravate the oifviice, and to 
make li, mon crucll. For, mnny Imvv wrytteit it that it H 
tnif.iiiid that he was no tmil«r, but an oneiidor coiidomned 
.t.Klyfc : ami aiiiouf;*" oliier, Ciix-ro the orator dotli recite it in 
,_ '»I)i>oke he made of aj^?, whwe he made it to lie tolde unto 
.*. -. !-Catoi5H>vviie j>ersime. Howesoever it was, Marcus Cato being 
chosen Censor, and clensing the Senate of all unworthy 
persones, be put of the same Lucius Quintius Flarainius, 
although he had bene CcMisuU: which disgrace did seemc 
to rcdownc to his brother Titus Quintius Flaminius also. 
Whereupon both the brethren came wepitig with all 
humility before the ]K-o{)le, and made a pt^'titiun that seemed 
very reasonable and eivill: which was that thev would 
eonunaunde Cato to come liefore them, to declare the cause 
ojmily why Iw hjid with such open slianic deface*! so noble a 
houw as their* was. Cato then without delay, or slmnking 
bacltc, came with hia companion into the market place, 
where he asked Titus out alowde, if he knew nothing of the 
supper where such a fact was committed. 'I'itus aunawered, 
he knewe not of it. Then Cato o)}ened all the whole matter 
as it was, and in the cnde of his tale, he bod Lucius Quintius 
sweare openly, if he would deny that be had sayed was true. 
Lucius aunswcrcd not a worde. Whereuppon the people 
judged the shame was justly layed upon him: and so to 
honor Cato, tbey did accompany him fnmi the pulpit for 
orations, homeimto his owneltoiiM'. BulTitu.t beinge much 
offended at tlie ilisgrace of his brother, became enemv to 
Cato, and fell in with thotie that of long time luu) him. 
T. Quintius And so by practise he procured of the Senate, tliat all 
uiiwurtii}' Hcts bargiuiten of leases, and all deedes of salcH made by Cato 
a^mt Csl* during bis office, were called in, and made voyde : and caused 
many sutn alao to he commenced aeainst him. Wherein, 
I can not say he did wisely or civilly, to become mortall 
enemy to an honest man, a good citizi^, and duetifull in his 
office, for hia yeare, [for an] unworthy kinseman, who had 
justly deserved the shatnc layed upon hun. Notwithstanding, 





shortely after wlten the people were assembled in Uie 
'llveater to see games played, and the Scnaton were net 
aocordinx to their custome, in the most honorable places: 
Lucius rlaminius came in also, who in lowly and nunible 
mailer went to sit downe in the furthest seetes of the 
Theater, without regard of his former honor: which when 
the people saw, thcv tooki- pity of him, aiid could not abide 
to sec mm thus dJslionorcd. So thvy cried out to have 
him oome and sit amonc the otlier Svnators and Consutls, 
who made him pliuw, ukT received him accordingly. But to 
returoe ugaiiie to Titus, The tinlurull ambition and covet- 
ous gnh.-<iy miiidv be hoti of honor, wo* vi;ry well taken and 
uteemed, so long as he had any oocasioa offered him to 
eiereiie it in the warres, which we have spoken of t>efore. 
For, after he had bene Consull, of his owne seeking be 
became a Colonell of a thousand footemen, not being called 
to it by any man. So wh^ he beganne to stoupe for age, 
and that he had given over as a man at the last cast, to 
bcare office any longer in the state : tbev saw plaincly he 
was ambitious beyond measure, to suffer himselfe in olde age 
to be overcome with such youthfull violence, beinge farre un- 
mectc for any of his yeares. For me thinkcs his ambition 
was the only cause that moved him to procure Ilaimibals 
death, whicli bred him much disliking and ill opinion with 
many. For, »fli-r Hiuinib'il] hiKl Red out of his owne contn*, 
he watt fimt unto kinj; AntJochus: who, after he lost the 
battel in Phri'gia, wat f;lud tlic HomiiiiiM ^nunted him 
peace with «icn conditions as them svlvi-s would. Wherefore 
Hanniball lied agoine from him, and after he had long 
wandered up and downe, at the length he came to the realme 
of Bithjnia, and remained there alioiit king Frusios, the 
Romaities knowingo it well enough : and bicause Haimiboll 
was then on otde broken man, of no force nor power, and one 
whoroc fortune had spumed at her fcete, they made no more 
Tcckening of him. But Titus being sent Ambassador by 
the Senate, unto Prusios kingc of Bithvnis, and finding 
Hanniball there, it giicved him to see him alive. So that 
notwithstanding Prusios innrvelotisly intieated him, to take 
pitic ap<m Hanniball, a pnore oldc man, and his frend who 



LuduD Qnia- 
tiu* restored 
to )i)« plnce hj 
the people. 

T. Qulatiua 

T. gtilnUuB 
cauM of 


Titiw »«it 
unto I'rukJAS 
kinft of 

deoeived by 
aa ondeeoD 


IcoPt at 
LtbYMn in 


FLAMIXIUS cAtuc to hiin for succor: vet lii' collide not piTswodt' 'ntua 
to be content he ehoulil iivi;. Haiiniball long before hod 
rcctivcd oiinswer of his death from lui omele, to this effect : 
Th< liulije of Lybitt, Bhall covtr uader mowld*, 
Th9 ndlirat corpn of IlatinitiHll, wbeu he U dead kod oolde. 

So Hannihall understootic that of I.ybia, as if he Mhoutd 
have dyed in Afiieke, and bene buried in Carthage, 1"here 
is a certains sandy contry in Btthynia neer« to the seaes 
side, where there is a htlc viltace called Libyssa, and 
where Hanniball rvmained continually. He mistrusting king 
1'riinia^ fayntA^' harte, and fearing the Romaincs ittalicr also, 
had nuviv seven ])rivy cttvew and vntilt<« under grounde longe 
bi'fori.> ttifkt he miglit secretly go out at vither of them which 
wuy l)e noulde, and every one of them came to the maine 
Tault wher<^ him selfe did lye, and eoulde not be dioeemw) 
outwardly. When it was tolde him that I'itus had willeil 
PrutiiaK to deliver him into his haiidcs, he sought tlien to 
save him selfe by those inynes: but he found that all tlie 
vcntes out, had watch and ward apon them by the kinees 
com maun dement. So then he tletemiined to )(ilt liim selfe. 
Now some say, that he wounde a Hiinen towell hanle about 
his neeke, and comniaundi<d one of his men he should set his 
knee upon his buttocke, an<] wayitig hard upon him, holding 
tJie towcll fiist he should pull hii* neckc backeward with nU 
the powiT atid stn-ngth he <'Oiild, and never linne iirc«<<ing on 
him, till he hiwl strangled him. Other wiy that tie dmttcke 
bulU-s IiIikkI, Us Mida^i and Thcmi.stncleit had done l>efnre 
him. But. 'ntUH Livitts wryteth, tliat he had poysoii which 
be kept fur »<uch a purpose, and tempered it in a cuppe he 
lielde ill bis han<los, and before he dranke, be spake these 
wordes : Come on, let us deli»-er tijc Homaiues of this great 
care, sith my life is so grievous to them, that they thinke it 
to long ta tai-y the nnturall death of a poore old man, whom 
they hate so much : and yet 'I'itus by this shall winue no 
honorable victorie, nor wortbic the memoric of the auneient 
Homaines, who advortised king IVrrus Uieir dR^my, even 
when he made warrea with them, and had wotint- battels 
of them, that he ithould bcwan^ of puyMniing which was 
intended towards him. And tlii« was Hatmiballs ende, as we 



tliom RulvM. 

laat wordM. 




finde it vrrytU-ii. 'I'he m-wtrs wlR'n^if iieing comt- to H»inc 
unta the innate, inany of them thought 'I'ituit to violent aiid 
cruell, to have made tlaniiiball kill him selfe in that iturte, 
when eitreamity of age had oveitonie liim already, and was 
as a birde left naked, tier feathers fallinge from her for age : 
and so much the more, bicaune there tvas tio instant occasion 
offered him to urge him to doe it, but a covetous minde of 
honor, for that be would be chronicled to be the cauae 
and author of Hniiniballs death. /Vnd then in eontmri* 
«ri»e they did niiirh honor nnd coninicnd the clemency and 
noble minde "f Seinio Afrienn. Who having ovcnronieii 
Hainiiluilt in l>atte]l, in Africko Kelft-, and lieinfr then in 
deede to b«: feantl, and tiad bene never oviTeouH- l>eft>rc: 
yet he did not eau-M- him to Ite ilriven out of bia afiitiyi 
neither did aske him of the Carthaginians, but boUi then, 
and before the battel, when he jwrleJ with him of peace, he 
tookc Hannibal curteoiisly by the hand, and after the bnttell, 
in thccondicionisof i>eace he gave tbem, he never !i]>ake word 
of hurt to Hiiniiibidls [xrson, neither did he shew niiy cniclty 
to him in his tniwiy. ' ^Vnd they teJl how u(Vi-w«nle» Ihey 
met agaiiK- tof^iilier in the cily i>r E[)hi«ii.<, and as they 
were walkiiige, t)uit HnimilMll toiike the upner band of 
Scinio : and that Seipio liare it jiaciently, ana left, not of 
wolkir^ for that, neither shewed ajiy countenaunce of inis- 
Kking. And in entring into discourse of many matters, 
ther chscendcd in the cnde to Inlke of auncient C^ptaines : 
and Hannibull gave judgement, that Alexander the great 
was the famouscst Cnpttdne, Pymi^ the «eeond, and him 
adfe the tiiinle. Ilien Scipio smilingi-, gently asked him: 
What wotddest thou say th^^l, if I had not overcome thtv 'f 
Truely, <|iio<l Hanniliall, I would not tlien put my nelfe the 
third man, but tlie tirnt, an<l above all the Captained that 
ever were. So divers gn^atly coniinending the goodly say- 
inga and deedes of Scipio, did niarveloiisly mislike Titus, 
for that he had (as a man may say) lajed nis biuides upon 
the death of an other man. Other to the contrary agoine 
sayd, it was well done of him, suyinge, that Hanniboll so 
loiu^ as he lived, was a lire to the Kinpirv of the Romoinc:), 
which locked but one to blow it : and that wbeo be w»» in 
3:0 105 


[.ixilie in 
PrrrnR life 
for xhenUrtj 
nt liagt. 

Scipio Afri- 



Talkt! betwixt 
Kcipio African 
aua Uaonilial. 




FLAMINItJS his bi-wt furco »xn\ lusty itgv, it was not his hundc nor l>o())F 
thnl tmubtcd the Komnim-K, so much, but his ^-ut wLK;iiumf 
«]iil skill he hiul ill tlic whitc-k, and the nmrtiul lintc lii- l»ire 
m his hart tdWJinU-s the lltnnitiiu-s, whidi iivitticr ji-ttH'S, 
neither age wtmld dimiiiinhe or take tiway. For inen.s luitumil 
oondicions <1» n-nmitie atill, but fortune doth not alwayes 
keepe hi a state, but ehaungidh xlil, aiid tliiii (juickeiieth up 
our desireit to set willingly upjion thone timt warre against 
us, bicause they hate us in tlieir hartes. Tlie thinges which 
fell out afterwards, did (rnfatly prove the reasons brought 
out for this purpose, in discliarge of Titus, For one ArJB- 

AriNtmiicuiL tonicus, sonnc of a daughter of a player upon the cithemc, 
undiT the fame and glory of Eiimenui, whose bastard he was, 
filled all Asia with warrc and rvbrllion, by reason the [leoplv 

Mllhrldstes. f•*='^^ in his fiivor. Afjaiue Mithri<Inle-i, afl*'r so niiuiy los»i» 
lie had received against Syllit mid Findiriit, wid after so Hiiuiy 
aruiiet overthroweti by liattell tui<i wamH, and aft<.i' tto iiiiiny 
famous Captaines lost lutd killed : did yet recover againe, 
and came to be of great power liotii by sea and land against 
Lucullus. Tmelv Ilannilial was uo loner brought then 

Miriui. Caius Marius had bene. For he had a king to his frend, 

that gave him entertainment for him and his family, iind 
made liim Adminvll of his shipi>es, and Generull of his horee- 
men and f<M>tetnen in the tield. Marius also went up and 
downv Africke a begging for h'w living, insomueh as his 
eD«nii<s< at Kome moekmi him to acornv : and niKine nStn 
notwitJistanding tht-y fell downe nt hi> feete befoni him, 
when they s.'iu' they were whipped, murtliered, und slaine 
within Itiiine by his cnmmaundement. Tlius we see no num 
can say eertainely he is nieane or great, by reason of the utieer* 
tainty of thiugea to come: consideringe tliere is but one dt-ath, 
and chaunge of better life. Some sav also, tliat Titus did not 
this act alone, and of his ownc autfiority ; but that he was 
sent Ambassador witli I.ueius Seipto to no other end, but to 

IHit Hfumitmll to death, by what mcancs soever they eould. 
■'urthernion: rdler this AmW'wsade, we do not finde any not- 
able thing written cif I'jtu* worthy of memory, neither in 
pence, nor in warrett. For he died <(uietely of natuiall 

death at home i» hi» coutri«>. 

To be ni«4iiie 
or Kr«*t In 
tills life Is 
Dothiiijic : 
but death 
brin^etii tbo 




i» tinif nowc wc pome to compare them T. Qulutiiu 
togi-ther. Therefore mt tuuchinge the beuefiu unto 
great Ix^efitt that cnitiv to the Grvecians, Oreec* 
iH-ithi-r Philoptenn-ii, nor all the other 
former Cnfititiiiet lav to be coni|Min.-(I with 
'I'itu*. For all the Aiinciciit C^tptiLin<» 
almost being Greeciann, made warns with 
other Greecians: but 'Htuft beinge a 
Romainc, and no Greeeian, made warres for the liberty of 
Grceee. When Philopcrmen was not able to helpe his poore 
citi/ens distrewed sore, and vexed with wanvs, he sayled 
away into C'reta- Titus having overcome I'bitip kinge of 
Macedon in biittell, did restore a^ine to liberty all the 

C[>le and cilii-ji of tJic xauio, which were kept Wforc io 
dnge. Atid if any wil narrowly examine the battella 
of eitfii.T partie : they shall finde, tiiat rhiloi>trmon being 
Gvnendl of tl»- AoIiaiai).4, made more Greccnans to Ih- >laine, 
then 'ntuH did of the JVlacedonians, lightinjre witli them for 
tlie liberty of the (irwviaHs, And for IJieir iiiijwrfectioiw, 
the one of them was ambitious, thi^ other was as obstinate : 
the one was quicke and sodainly angered, the otliei- was very 
hard to be poeified. Titus left kings Philip his reakne ana 
crowne after he had overcome him, and used grcat clemency 
towardes tlie -■Ktoliwis: where I'liilopcemen for spite, and PhiIolKf^- 
malicc. tooke townes and villiiges (rom his ownc native '"'"'*• "•aHw- 
contrv. and city, when-iii he was bunie, that had alwayes 
payed thein tribute. Furthermore, Titus continued a sounde 
ircnd to tli«n, to whonie he had once pnife!«txl frcndshipiw, 
and done pleasure unto: and I'liiloptcmen, in a geare and 
ai^;er, was ready to take away that he had given, and to 
overthrow the pleaaure and good tunie he had iihewed. For 
Philopcemen witen he had done the Laeedannonians great 




Titus Quin- 





«ouldlsra : 


mode good 



pli.'!n.-<un>, (lid afterwards rase the walls of their city, and 
MiKwled and destroyed all their contry : and lastly, overthrew 
UKiT whole govemnMnit. It seemcth also by reason of bit 
immoderate cnoller, he was him selfc cause of nis owno death, 
for that he made mori- hjist tlicn good sjjcedt, to RO out of 
time to set i>pon thuKcr of Mt^na : aiiu not us 'ntiis, who 
did all his affaires with uHsL-domi', and wcr conxidt-nxl wluit 
was best to he done. But if we looke into the number of 
battells, and victories : the waire which Titus made a^mt 
Pliiti|j was ended witli two battvllN. Whereas Philo[Mi:men 
in inlinitL- battelln in whidi he had tlie l>etter, never left it 
doutfull, but that his akill did ever helpe him tlie more to 
victory, then the good fortune he had. Moreover, Titus 
waiuie honor by meanes of the power of Home, when it 
Horished most, and was in best prosperitie: I'hilopccmcn 
made him aclfe famous by his dcedcs, when Greece begannc 
to stoupe and finll all together. So that the deedcs of the 
one, were common to all the Romaincs: and the dcdes of 
the other, were privat*' to hinwelfe nlone. For I'ltus wu* 
General over c^ood and vulliant nouldiers, that wen- alreiuly 
trained to hiM hand : Mid Fhilofxcineii bi.-inf; choM-n &-uenJl, 
did traine hit men him a^lfe, and made theoi aAerwarda 
very ex|H-rt and valliant, tliat were hut meanc and grevne 
soiildierN l>efore. And whereas Philopa'men had eontinunll 
warrt-s wiUi the Greeciaiis, it was not for ajiy good fortune 
he hnd, but that it mode a ccrtaine proofe of his vatliant- 
nesse. For where all other thingcs are aunswerahle to his, 
there we must judtc that such as overcome, have the roort 
coraee. Now Phiropccnien making waircs with the most 
warhke nations of nil Greece, (as the Crettms, and the Lace- 
da?monians) did overcome the Hubtillest of them, bv finencsse 
and policy: luid the imwt valliant, by prowex «ud hurdincese. 
But Titus <iviTc«iiu-, by puttine thnt only in practise, which 
WOK dlreiuly foimd and st&bliiJied : as the dLicipline of the 
warrcis, and order of Imttell, in the which his souldient hod 
longi^ before l>ene trained. Whereas Fhilopcemen broufj;ht 
into his contry, both the one and the other, and altered all 
the order which before they were accustomed unto. So tliat 
tlie chiefest point bow to winoe a battell, was found out a 



new, and brought in by the otu', intu n )iliux- wHitl- it was 
orrcr before : and oiw\y vmploynl bv th« utlivr, vrliich oould 
vcnr good skill to use it, and h&a fnundc it out abv«dy 
beiore. Againe, totichiiig the valliant actes done in th« 
p«noD of them selves, many notable actt^ may be told 
of Philoptemen, but none of I'ittis : but rather to the con- 
trary. For there was one Archcdcnius an .i£toHan, who 
flowtinge Titus one day, sayd in his reproche: that at a 
day of battell, when Philoparmcn rannc with his sword in 
his hande, to that side where he saw the Macedonians fight- 
ing, and making hed agninst the enemy, Titus held up his 
haods unto hcjivni, and vns biisiv nt bin prayent to the gods, 
not stirring wne fiwte, when it wiw morv limt- to handle tbe 
swunl, and to tight of all tiandi-n. All the goodly iltHiten 
Titu.t ever did, were done alwaieti as a Consul, or lieutenant, 
or A Mngi.Htrate : whereas Philoptemen shewed him selfe unto 
the At^baians, a man no lesw valliant, and of execution, 
being out of office, then when he was a GeiicralL For 
when he was a Generall, he did drive Nabis the tyran of the 
I.Aceda?niouiaas out of iMes^ina, and delivered tbe Ate^enians 
out of bondage : and being a privuto man, be shut the gates 
of the citv of Sparta, in tbe fiice of Ilioiibaiies (Generall of 
the Adiuuins) anil of Titu.t Qiiintiiis Fuimiiiius, mid kept 
them iK>th from commingt- in, and thereby saveil tiiK dty 
from sacking. IIiuk Inking boriu- to u)iiiniaunde, lie knew 
not only how to cominaiinde necimling lo the law, but could 
commaund tlie law it Kclfe apon necessity, and when the 
common wealth required it. i-'or at such a time he would 
not tary, while tlie Magistrates which sbould goveme him, 
did gevc him authority to commaimd, but be tookc it of 
him sclfe, and used them when the time served : esteeniing 
him in deede their Gi'neralt, that knew better then they 
what was to be tJoiie, tbcn him wlium they cbose of them 
selves. An<l tJjerefon^ they <loe wt-ll, ttwit doi- eomuieiide 
T1tu» actt-s, for his clemency, and ciirtwie, used lo tbe 
Gnrvrians: but much mon- the noble aiul valliant aetes of 
Philopnemen unto the Komaincs. For it is much easier 
to pleasure and gratilie the weake, then it Is to hurt and 
resiflt the strong. 'I'herfore, sithence we have throughly 





A G«n(ir>]l 

inuct nut bo «t 
liii jiraycm, 
when tie 
■huuld UL'cujiy 
liis ^iDonl. 

emency to 
mcne* Idv« to 
the RnmninM. 


PLAMTN'lUS exAtninctl, nni) com|>»r(xl the one with the other : it in rery 

tianJt- tu jii^Ki' rtlu>gi.'tlicr the difTcrcQCc that is betwene 

theni. Fi-nuKiiitun- thvrefoiT tht- judccmcnt wouldc not 

seenie very ill, if we di)t- gt-vi- tht- Grwtian, for di«a- 

pline of warn,-, the |>rehi'inincncc ftiid jiraisc of a good 

Captaiue: and to the RoiiiaiiH-, for justice and 

clemenc}', the name and dignity of u most 

Just and curteous gt-ntlt^innn. 





Pyrriiii kin- l|b^Mnuc^r7b£||1' i** written, that since Noes floiid, the first 
rM, nnd be- jvWfi ItK?1 kiiigof theThesprot!anfl,a!id of the Molos- 
pnnin^ofthe {fo-^*^ H^wC sians, was I'hai-ton, imc of those who came 

ofX'r'^ M^ 8^ "'"' l'*"'a*g"«' into thf rt-nlmc ofEpirus. 

i6)_Wr ^Zj) 2}„t some g^y otherwise, tlwit Deucalion, 

nnd liis wife Pyrni remained then.-, after 
they liiul built itnd foiin()<-d the temple of 
Dodone, in the contry nf the M(>Int(<tinn)i, 
But lioM»(ie\'er it was, ii great while alter that, Neojitoleniun 
the Sonne of Achilles, bringing thither a great number of 
people with him, conquered the oontry, and after him left 
a succession of kinges, which were called after his name, the 
Pyrrides: bicause that from his infancy he wa« sumamed 
Pyrrus. redd. I'yrrus, as much to say, as i-eddc : and one of his legittinuite 
sonncK whom he had by Ijinassji, the danfihter of Cleodcs, 
the Konne of Hilhis, was also numed by him Pymi*. And 
Ihi* is Uie rmisc why Achilles is honond ns n god in Fpini*, 
hriiige cJilled in their Inngiinge, A»|K'tos, that i* to stay, 
mighty, or very grmt. But from Ihe fintt kitiges of that 
race untiti tlie time of TliarrytaR, there is no meraor)- nor 
mencion made of them, nor of their power that raimied in 
the iDcane time, bicause they all I>ecame verj- barliarous, 
an<l utterly voydc of civility, "ninrrytas was m deede the 
fint that beautified the cities of his contry with the Grecian 



ton^e, brought in civil) lavrcs aiid customes, and luadc liis PVRRUS 
name farooie to the posterity Uuit followecL This Timrrytas 
left a Sonne called Alvcta», of jVlcttas came Arymbos, of 
An-iiibns and Troindo his wife, ciinic yEiicides, who ninried 
PhthJa, the dau^jhtcr of Meiuin TtM-vsdlijiii : A fiitnoiis iiuui 
in the time of tJie nitrres stininiiu'd l^iniiu'u.v, mid one that 
had fam-greiitiTiuitliorily llu-n unv ntlurof thecoiifaleratt*, 
nAvf LeoHtlients. This .-I'laciileH liad two danghten by his 
wife Fhthia, to say, Deidatiiin and Troinde, and one mnne 
called fyiTUH. In Iiih time the MoloasiaiiH rebelled, drave 
him out of his kirigdome. and put the erowne into the handH 
of the sonnes of Neoptolenuis, Whereupon all the frends of 
jKaades that could be taken, were generally murdered, and 
slaine outright jVndrodides, and Angelns in the racane time 
stale sway iSirus, being yet but a suckling bnhc (whome his Huw i'jnrua 
envmies ncvertiielcsse egerly sought for to have destroyed) being ■n bl- 
and fled awfty with him as fiwt wi [wssihly they might, with ^y^"* 
ft* »ervuunt«, his mtrx-s »n«l newssary wonieu only to h>oko 
lo the cliilde, and give it sucke: by n-a^on wlirn'i>f tiieir 
flight waa mudi hindered, mo aa they could go no great 
jorneys, hut Uia^ tliey might easily )>e overtaken by tlieni 
tJiat followed. For which cause they put the childe into 
the handes of Androclion, IIi|)])ifts, and Neajider, three lusty 
young men, whome tliey trustcil with liini, and connimiin<!c<i 
tbian to runne for life to a certaine citie of Itlaeedon, called 
MegSTCs: and they them selv^-s in the meaiie time, {Mtrtely Mc^tnrH^ 
bv mtrv«tv, «iid iwirtelv by force, miule stay of those that \^^^ 
followed them till riiglit. So a« with mnch a doc havinec *'»^*"'' 
driven them backe, Uiey rnnne after thetn tluit enrivd the 
childv Pyrrus, whom tney overttxike at suiuh- set. ^Vnd 
now, wening they had bene safe, and out of all dniiiiger ; 
tliey found it cleanc contrary. For when they came to the 
river under the towne valles of Megares, they saw it !>o 
Rn^h and snift, that it made them afrayed to beholde it : 
ana when they gngtd the forde, they found it unpoasible 
to wade through, it van so sore risen and troubled with the 
fall of the rfunc, besides that the darkcncssc of the night 
made cvciy tiling seemc fc«ircful unto tlu'm. So as they now 
that caricd the child, thought it not good to venter the 



PYRRUS pasaa^ over of themselves alone, with the women that 
tended the cMlde : but hearing certaine contrymen on the 
other side, they prayed and besought tliem in the name 
of the eocldes, that they would helpc them to passe over 
the child, showing Pyrrus unto them a farre of. But the 
coutrynicn by n-asoii of the ronringc of the river utiderstoode 
them not. Thus tht-y continued ii Umff! space, the one cry- 
ing", tile other lystning, yet could they not inulervt^ind one 
an other, til at the hut one of the (■oni()«.Hy li(-tlii>uf;ht him 
m:\te to )>ill of n ]H.-(.i;e of the barkc of an ukv, mid upon that 
he wrote with the tongue of a buckle, the hard fortune and 
necessity of the ehilde. Which he tyed to a stone to geve 
it weignt, and bo threw it over to the other aide of the 
river : other say that he did pricke the barkc through with 
the point of a dart which lie cast over. The conb'ynien on 
the other side of the river, havinge red what was wi^ten, 
and understanding thereby the present diiunger the chilue was 
in : felleil downe tm-M in all the hast they could poiwibty, 
boundv them togi^ther, and ho pa-wed over the river. And 
it fortuned that the (ir»t niait of them that juumxI over, and 
tooke the child, was called Aehitles: tlie rettiduv of the 
contrymen [MLssed over also, and tooke the other that came 
with the ehilde, and conveyed thi-ni over an they came first 
to hand. And thus liaving escaped their hands, by easie 
OUuolwking jomeys they eame at the length unto Glaucias kmg of 
oflllrHa. Illyria, whom they found in his house sitting by his wift: 
and laved downe the childc in the middest of the flower 
Ix'foR'liim, The king hereuj)[K)n utayed a long time with- 
out uttering any one word, waving with him telfe what was 
best to he (lime : bicausv of the feare he had of Omsander, a 
inortall enemy of yl<]addes. In the meane time, the ehilde 
l^rru.i creeping of all foure, tooke hold of tlie kingei* gowne, 
and scrawled up by that, and so got up on his feete againnt 
tlie kings knees. At the first, the king laughed to *ee the 
childc: but after it pitied him againe, hicause the child 
seemed like an humble suter that came to seeke sanctu&iy 
in his arnie». Other Miy that Pyrrus came not to Glaudas, 
but unto the alter of the familiar gods, alongcst the which 
he got up on his feete, and embraced it with ootli his hands. 


Which Ghtucios imagining to be done by gods proridencc, 
pnsciitly dclivcrt'ci Uii- chilJc to hU vnh, guvc her tin- charge 
of him. luul will»i h4.T to fx him brought uu with his ownc. 
FShorteiy after, his cnrmies sent to tleinauitde the childc of 
him : and muivorer, Ciis«nd«f caiued two hundred talenta 
to be oftt-red him, to delirer the childe Fymis into his 
handes. Uowet>eit tilaucias vould never graunt thereunto, 
but contrarily, w)ieii Pyrrus was comen to twelve yearea 
oldc, brouEht him into ]m contry of Kpims with an army, 
And stablished him king of the realme againe. Pymis had 
a great mftjesty in his countenaunce, but yet in deedc mor« 
fcarefull then frcndly. lie had also no teeth in hi§ upper 

Ce that stoodc distinctly one from an other, but one whole 
e through out his gomme, markttl n litlc at the top onlV) 
with pcrtaiiie riftt-s in the pbu-c where the teeth slioidil bt* 
de\-ided. ^fcn lieldv opinion al«o, that he did hvale them 
that were ^ckc of tlie upleiiv, by NAcrifidngi> n white cocke, 
and toitdtinge the place of the splenc on the left side of 
them that were sieke, softely with his right foote, they lying 
on their tMcken: and there wa* not so poore nor iiimple a 
man that craved Uiis remedy of him, hut he gave it him, 
and tooke the cocke he ascrificed, for reward of the remedy, 
which pleased him very well. They say also that the grwit 
toe of his right foote had some secrete vcrtiic in it. For 
when he waa dead, and that they had burnt all jmrtes of 
his body, and consumed it to ashes : his great tw wax 
wliolc, and had no hurt at all. But of that, we will wryt*.- 
more hereafttT. Now, when he was seventwue yenrcs of age, 
flunking him sdfc sure enough of lii» kiiigdomo, it chaunced 
liim to make a jomey into lUyria, where he niaried one of 
GInucias daught<-rs, with whom hi' hwl bene brought up. 
Hut his iMckv wan no Mxtncr turned, but the Moloi^ians 
rebelled agaiiH' (if^rt«t him, and drave out bis frends, and 
servaunis, and ih^troycd all his guods, and yehied tliem- 
setves unt" hi* advewary Ncoptolemus. King ("yrrus having 
thus lost his kingdom, and seeing himself forsaken on all sides, 
went to Demetrius (Antigonus winnc) that had maried his 
sister Deidamia, who in her young age was assured to Alex- 
ander, the sonne of Alexander the great, and of Roxnnc-, and 
3:P 113 


Pyrrua ooan- 
teuHUDce and 

Pymis benled . 
them tbAt 

pouhl not 
l>URi« Pyrnia 


liim in hi* 

Uemi'tnuit, put Utem all to flight 
aiid was worthely reputed for the va] 
them all, Furtliermore, when Dem 
had lost the battcll : Pymti never 
fully did kecpe for him the cities 
into his hands. ^Vnd afterwards wl 
betwixt Demetrius aiid I'tnloiiiie, Vy 
for Dcmotrius into tite rvfdmc of /f 
Ptttlomii- knovf (Ixjth in hunting)', n 
his [HTWint-) that In* was vory xtnii 
endure any labor. Purtliemiore pt 
tunongcHt all kins Ptoloroies wives, 
e&teemt-d of her tiufibande, both for 
dome : he liegannc to entcrtainc an 
the nst. For he was a man tliat coi 
Pymi* him sclfc towardos the great (by w 

behaviur. benefit) and knewe also Itou- to ere 

and in tike manner was he a gr^at t 
such n» wiTe his inferiors. Moreover 
marwioiis honorabk* and of fayvr com 
PTirasnarted In-forc all oUkt young prtiKcs to be 
lo^itlgouB giiim, tlie dnuglitiT of Qiiwne IWrcn 
SphniffiiK 1'1'ilip. iHfore «he mu niari«l unto Pt 
ofMnoodon, forth growing through tl« aliynnce 
nml of bin and more into estimacioii and favor 
wife Hcrunioe. Antigona, who shcwcKl her nelfe vet 
towardce him : he found meanes in 
men and money to retume againe int 
Pjrres ny and to eomjuer it : so was he then 
Lchired to bb Ulc ri-nnlr nnd fhr ]m\tm^a^dkt 


him. Whereupon it was agreed brtwcnt- them, tliut tJiey pyBRDS 
sbmild both together be kingcs of Epirus. But in procwse PjrniB ilevid-< 
of time, some of their men secretly made rtrifc ngainf be- !j^uJ^^^ 
twcne tlK'm, find set them at dtrfyance one with lui other: ^^eu^Iemui.! 
and the chJefest cause as it i» sny<»l, tluit Aiievrod I'yrrua 
moHt, gix'w (i]K>n this. Th« kinst'^ of Kpirus liiul nn nuiicieiit 
cUNtoinv of grvnt iintiquitv, after they luul nifttle .tolemiie 
•acrificv uuto lupittT MiirtiNll, (in a eertaine place in tJie 
province of Molo»side, called I'at.-iaron) to take tlit-Jr othe, 
and to l>e sworoe to the Epirotcti, that they would raigne 
well aiid juKtIy, acconiinge to Uie lawes and ordinauiices of 
the contry : and to reci-ive the subiectes othes interchaunge- 
ably also, that they would defeiM and maintaine them in 
their kingdorae, according to the ]A¥res in like nuuicr. Thia 
ceremony was done in the presence of both the kingcs, and 
they witn Uieir firendes did both gcvc and receive prescnttfs 
cchi' of other. At this nicetingv and soh^mnity. amongc 
other, one Gelon a most faitLfiill servuiiiit iiud assured frt-i>d 
unto N(wptoiemiifl, who Ix-sidcs jjreat showcs of frtiidshippe 
anil honor he did tint" i\rru«, gave him two imyer of 
draugtit oxen, which one MyrtihiK a ciip|»elH-arer of Pyrrus 
beinge un.-«ent, and »eeiii^^, did crave of hf.t niiiNtt-r. But 
Pym» diniyed to gevi* them unto him whereat MyrtihiH was 
very angry. Geloit perceivinge tliat Myrtilus wa-i angry, 
prayed nim to ^uppe with him that night. Now some say, 
he sought to abu£e Myrtdlus, bicause he was faycr and 
yotmge : and begannc to perswade him after supper to take 
parte with Neoptolemus. and to |xiyson I'yrrus, Myrtiius 
nude OS though he was wilUng to am corv to tliis 
penwiuion, and to be well pleoMtl wiUiall. But i» the 
nwcnc time, Ih- went and toldv hi.s master of it, by whose 
com maun dement he made Alexicrat<«, Pymi» ehiefv cuppe- 
bearer, to UUke with Gelon about tliiK pnu.-t)M.-, as though 
he had aW> geven hi.i oonsLOt to it, and wn.t willingc 
to be partaker of Uie 'I'hia did I*yrru» to 
have two witiicsot, to prove the pretended poyMiiiingc of 
him. ThuD Gelon beinge finely deceived, and Ne(>])toiemits 
also with him, both iniaginiugc they had cunningly Hi>onne 
the tbrede of tlieir trca&on : Neoptolemus vas so glad of 



PYRRUS it, that he could not kcpc it to him «clfc, but toW it 
to ciTtaini* cif his frmdes. And on a time ^>ing to he 
miTy with hia sister, ht- could not kccpc it in, hut must be 
pmtliiigiif it tu h(,T,sup]>OMiignul)0(ly rifulhmitl him but her 
«'ifc, bicausc then' wiw no Uvin;; crcwtntv iiei-re them, saving 
Ph<fnateta Saiiion.'* wife, the kin^ chjefe henrdnian of all 
his beastes, uiiit yet fiw was biycu apoii a litle bed by, and 
turned towards the wall : so that »])c seeiiied as tliough ^e 
had slept. But having heard all their talke, and no body 
mistrusting her: the next nioniing she went to Antigona 
king Pyrrus wife, and told her every worde what she had 
heard Ncoptolemus say to hia sister. ]*ymis hearing thJK, 
made no eounti'HHiince of any thing at that time. But 
havirige itinde sacrilicc unto the goddes, he had Neoptolemun 
muslue tu isupper to his hnuse, where he slue him, being well in< 
l/eoptaUmua. furnicd before of the good will the chicfcst men of Uie realme 
did bean- him, who wished him to dispatch Nei>ptiilemus, 
ai>d not to content him selfe with a petx-e of K])ini» only, 
but to follow his natumll incliimtion, Ix-ing bonie to gnaA 
thingea: and for tlii.i cause therefore, tiiin Mispition fallingc 
out in the meane while, he prcvent<.:il Ncoptolemus, and slue 
him first. And furthermore, rcmemlKinge the pleasures he 
hod received of Ptolomie and Berenice, lie named his firet 
Sonne by his wife Antigona, I'tnloinie, and having built a 
city in the Fresc(iiie, an lie of Kpiriis, did name it Bere- 
nieidn. When he had done that, imagining great mattere 
in his head, but more in his hope, he first determined with him 
Kclfe howe to winne that whicli lay neerest unto bim : and to 
tooke occasion by this meanes, nnt to set foote into the 
Empire of Mncedon. The eldest sunne of Cassfmder, called 
Antipater, put his ownc mother Thessstonica to death, and 
drave his brother Alexamier out of his owne eontry, who 
sent to Demetrius for het|>e, and called in Pyrrus also to bis 
aydc. Demetrius beine troubled with nther matters, could 
not 80 quickely go thither. And Pymw hoing arrived 
tliere, demaunded for his chargi- suKteined, the citic of 
Nymphtea, with all Uie sea cosstes of Macedon : and besides 
all that, certaiue inndcs also that were not belongince to the 
auncient cmwnc und revenues of the kinges of Maoedou, 

BnTcnicidn, a 
city i)f Kpirus 
in the He of 


Pyrrun firnt 
joniuy intu 

Kinff Lfii- 
tnaenua onlt < 
ti> deceive 



but wt-n.' addvd unto it by foroe of annet, a.^ Ambmciu, PTRRD3 
Acanuuiiii, niiil Ainphilocliia. Al) tliew, the youtifr king 
Alexutdof luLviiif^i- uiito iiim, he tooku pu^iestiiuii tlteivoj*. 
Mid put ;r>od garriaoiiH into tbc same in hia owne name : and 
ooniiueriii^ the rest of Macedon in the name of Alexander, 
put lii-o brother Aiiti)>atcr to great distrcase. In Uie nienno 
time kinge Lysiniachus lacked no ffood will to lielpe 
Antipftter with his force, but being busied in other matters, 
had not the meant.- to doe it Howbeit knowinge very well 
that I'rrrufi io acknuwli'd^nge th^- grvAt nlcasures he had 
received of l^olomic, woiildc dmy him iiothinge : he deter- 
mined to wryte coiintt-rfeate It'ttcrv to him in Ptolomios 
name, and tlHTeby instantly to pmy nnd n:({uire him to 
leave of the wnrn^ be^)nne agsinxt Anti|mtrr, und to take 
of him lownrdt^! tbi- ik-frayiugv! of liin charges the siitnine of 
three huiidnxl tjiiwitt's, Pymis npening the letlci-s, km-w 
ntnught tliat thi.i wa.t but a fett^h and deviite of LvHiiimchtiK. 
For kint; Ploliniiie* common maimer uf grtvting of tiini, which 
he UKt) at t)>e beginning of hin letters, watt not in tliem 
obaerved: To my sonnePyrrus, health. But in thoiie counter* 
feate was, king Ptolomie, unto king I'ymia, health. Where- 
upon Iw presently pronounced Lysimachus for a naughty 
man : neTerthclesse, aftcrwardes he made peace with Antj- 
pater, and they met together at a day appointed, to be 
swome upon the sacrifices unto the articles of peace. There 
were three bcastcs brought tu be sacrificed, a goate, a bu], 
and a ramme : of the wliich, the ranime fell downe dead of 
him sclfc before he was tondii'd, whereat all the Btouders 
by fell a biugldngc. But lher« was a Sixtthsayer, one 
Tlwodotitt, tluit itcrswaded Pyrriw not to swearv: saying, 
that this sigiic anil token of the gods did threaten one of the Tli«Mlot 
three kingt with sod&ine death. For which caiLw !*ymiBif"'**""sn*. ■ 
concluded no peace. Now Alexajiden warre.s Iteiiige endi-d, ^"^^"^T^ 
DeraetriiB notwithstanding came to him, knowing well 
enough at hit) comming that Alexander had no mure iieede 
of bis aide, and that he did it only but to fcare liim. Tliey 
had not bene many dayes together, but thone bcganiie 
to mistrust thother, ancf to spie all the waycs they could 
to mtmppe echc other: but Deuietrius embradng the first 





qunrrfill nnd 
wiirrp with 


LteuU-iiHut ill 

teht, with 


oocofiion offered, prevented Alexander, and slue hini, being 
a young man, and proclaimed Inni selfe king of Maccdon 
in his ruonie. Now Demetrius had certalnc qufureUs 
Ix-fon- against Pyrrus, hicausi- he had overrunne the contry 
iif Thcssalic : and fiirtlwrmorc, grttfly eovetousncs to have 
the njou- (wiiicli i.t a ('(muiion vice with princes and noble 
men) niiulv, that Ikriiig no iiccre ncigbbours, the one ittoode 
in fmn^ and niistriist of the other, an<I yet much Tn»>re after 
the dcjith of Deidaiiiia. Kut now that they Ix'th oecunied 
all Maci-don lietwenc them, and were to make (liviHJtiii of one 
selfe kiiiijdome. Now I nay bt'f{an the matter and occasion 
of (jiiarrell, to grow the greater Itetwene them. Whereupon 
DcmetriuH went with his amiy to set apon the j^tolians, 
and havinge conquered the eon try, left I'antailchus his 
Lieuteiiaunt there with a gnat army: and him selfe in 
person in the meniie time, inarched i^ainst I'yrrus, and 
Pyrrus on tholher side against him, I'hcy both uiii«wd 
of tnwtiiige, luid Demclrtiis soingc on fiirtlier on the one 
KJdc, eiitretl into the it-alme of Kptrus, tuid brought a gn-at 
nnoylt- away witli him : l*ymiii on the other nide marched on, 
till he tjime to the place where PantaucI\UK was. To whome 
lie gave hattell, and it was valliantly fought out bctwene 
the aooItUers of lither [wirty, but specially betwene the two 
Generallft. For doutlesse, Pantauclius was the valUantest 
Captaine, the stowlc*t man, and of the gri-atest experience 
in armes, of all the Captaines and sunldlera Demetrius had. 
Whereupon, Piuitniiehtis trusting in his strength and eorsgr, 
advaunced him iielfe furwurdes, an<l histcly chalengcd tlic 
combat of Pyrru». Pymw tm the other side bi-ing inferior 
to no king in valJiantnes, nor in de.sin^ to winne honor, a.t h« 
that would ascribe unto hinixclfe the glory of Achillea, more 
for the iraitjidon of his valliancy, then for that he was 
diacendtd of his blood : passed through the middest of the 
battel! unto the first rancke, to buckle with Pantauchus. 
Thus they beganne to charge one an other, first with their 
dartes, and then comming nearer, fought with their swordcs, 
not only artificially, but also with great force and fury ; 
untill such time as Pyrrus va» hurte in one place, and nc 
hurte Pantauchus in two. The one neerc unto nU thiote and 


the otiKr in hi* tegge : w* a» in the ende FymiH imulc him 
tume hi* linckc, ami threw him to the ground, but never- 
thdette ktllfd him not. For, so uwne a.4 h« vras downc, hi* 
men tooke liiin, ami carietl him away. Hut the K]>init(4 
cncoraged by the victory of their kinge, and tht- adinimtioii 
of his valliantnea§e, stucke to it so histely, that in the en<l 
their brake the b&ttcU of the Macedonian footeinen : and 
having put them to flight, followed them so lively, that they 
slewc a grv&t number of them, and tooke five thousoode 
prisoner);. This overthrowe did not so much fill the hartea 
of the MitCfdonifiiiK uitli angiT, for tJie losw they had 
received, nor with the hate comx'ived lurninKt Pyrrus : M it 
wanne PyrniK grvnt fanu- luid Itiintir, nuiKiiig hi« coragc and 
valliAntncA to be woiidntl at of nil ituch im wc-rt' prencnt at 
tlio battell that jaw him fight, and how he layed aimut him. 
For Uiey tliought that they saw in his faoe the very life and 
agility of Alexan<lcr the great, ami the right shadow aa it 
were, ahowinge the force and fury of Alexander him M-Ife in 
that fighL And where other kinges did but onlv counter- 
featc Alexander the great in his purple garments, and in 
numbers ofsouldiers and gardes about their personcs. and in a 
ccrtaine facion and bowing of tlteir ncckes a title, and in utter- 
ing his siK>i:h with an high voyce : I*ymi< only was like unto 
liiui, aiiJ followed him in hi-t ntanduill ditties and vHlliant 
acte*. Furthi-rimin-, for IiIn exix-rieiice and itkill in warlike 
discipline, tJie bookes be wrote iiiin selfe theft-of, do amnly 

trove and make manifest Furthermore, Uiey rejwrte, tiint 
inge AntigonuM being aitked, whome he thought to be the 
riteot (^ptaim^ : made aunswer, Pymis, so farre foorth aa 
might live to be olde, speaking only of the Captaines of 
hia time. Hut Hanniball generally sayd, Pymis was the 
greatest Captaine of expenenee and skil in warres of alt 
other, Scipio the second, and him selfe the third : aa we have 
wrytten in the life of Scipia So itseemcth that Pyrnisgave 
his whole life and sUtdy to the dixeipliiM* of wam-)>, as that 
which in d«le was princely and nicetc for a king, making no 
nckimiDg of nil otW knowKtlgw. And furthi-rmorc touch- 
ing this matter, tliey n-{M)rte that he t>cing at a feast one 
(^y* * question wa.<i aakal hitn, whom he tnought to be the 




vktury of 

likened Ui 
the great 


ill wariike 




Pyrrua wise 

P}Tru> gtxid- 
RM nad 


of I'VTTU*. 

PfTTUS wivw 
uid children. 


best pIdj'iT of till- fluUi, P^Umhi or Opiuviajt : wlwK'unto he 
auiwwi-rvd, Uial I'olj'iM'rclioii in his opinion was Uie beat 
Captaint-, «a if he would have sayd, that was the only thing 
n prince should seeke for, and which he ought chiefly to 
h-nriu- and know. He was very gentle and familiar with hU 
fn-ndes, easie to forgeve when any had offended him, and 
mari'i-lous desirous to requite and acknowledge any curte&ie 
or pleasure by him received. And that was the cause why 
he did very impadently take the drath of vKropus, not 
so much tor his death (which he kncwe was n common 
thing to every living crt-ature) n» for that he was angry 
with him«'!fe ne had d(.-fi.Tr<.-il Uir time no long, that time 
it wlfi- hml cut him of from ail oecnxion and nicflncs to 
ntjuite tliv vurte.tiea he had received of him. True it is 
that money lent, may be repayed againe unto the heirex of 
the lender: but yet it greveth an honest nature, when he 
can not recompence the good will of the lender, of whom he 
hath received the good tiume. An other time Pyrrua being 
in the city of Anibracia, there were certaine of his frends 
that gave him counsel to put a miughty man out of the 
city that did nothing but spcakv dl of him. But he 
(uuiswercci, it is Ix'tt^T (tpiiMl lie) to kcc^t- him here stJll, 
spcjikiiigi.- ill of UK but t<> a fewv: Uii*n driving him away, to 
make him jt|>eake ill of ua every wherf. Certain*; youthes 
were brought liofore him on a time, who making inrry 
togi-thiT, drinking freely, were iKilile witJi tlie king lo 
upeake their pleasure of him in very unduetifull sort«. So, 
Fyrnis askinge them whether it was true they sayed ao or 
no : It is true, and it please yoiu" grace, sayed one of them, 
wc sayed it in dcedp, and haa not our wine failed us, we had 
spoken a great doale more. The king laughed at it, and 
pardoned them. After the death of Antigona, he maried 
many wives to incrtywc his power witball, and to gettc moe 
fn-ndes. For he maritHi the datight^T of Autolvon kingc of 
Fieonia, and Birc-enmt the daughter of Bardillis, king of 
Illyria, and Lanaxsa, thv daughter of Agathocle», tyran of 
Syracusa, that brought him for her dower tlie lie of Coruhu^ 
which her father had taken. By Antigona his fintt wife, he 
had a soniie called Ptolomie : By f-ap*M»^ an other called 


Alexander : and by Birccnna, an other (the youngest of all) PYRRUS 
called Ilclcnus: all which though they wcrv marshall men 
by race and naturail inclination, yet were they brought up bv 
hiDi in H-arrc«, and therein trained as it were even from their 
crndell. They wryte, tliat one of hU M>nnes beingt- but a 
boy, iLtked him one day to which of them h<> would leave 
bis kingdome : Fymi« utinMoenrd the Iwy, To him tlint hath 
tlieiharpcHt mvonle. That was much like tlie tragicall curse 
wherewith (k-dipiw eurwd hU children : 

Let tbem (for ra«) dmide, bnUi icuoilo, yen reiiXet anil Uiide : 
WHh tranehauDt aword, niid bluody bluweo, by fvrce of mighty 

So cructt, hatcfull, and beastly is the nntiire of ambitioD 
aDd desire of rule. But after this Iwttell, P)-mi8 n.-tunK'd 
homeagBine to hiie contry, full nf hmior niul gloryi IiIh hitrt 
highly exaltvd, and hi." minde thnxighly contented. And tu 
at hix retume tltc Kpirotes hiit .tubjcctes called hini an Ki^d^^i PpvuB eallei 
he auiiswered them : If I be an Ei^le, it in through you that "» Ka^^e. 
I am so, for your weapons are the winges that have rajaed me 
ixa. Shortely after, beinge advertised that Demetrius was 
fallcn sicke, and in great daunger of death, he sodainelv went 
into Maccdon, only to invade it, and to make pray thereof: Pyrrua 
hovrbcit lie had in deede almost taken the whole realme, and in^'AdRtii 
made him sclfc Lord of aJI without stroke striken. For be i'"****""- 
came as farre as the city of Edessa, and fiKind no miiitanec : 
but rather to the contrarj-, many of the eoritrv willingly 
came Ut his canuw, and suliinitted them wlveti. Ine daunger 
Demetrius was ui to Iih)si- hU reainie, did niovt him more: 
then the diNea^te (Ln<i itickt-m^ uf his Itody. And on the other 
aide, hi» freiidctt, Kervauntes, and Captaines, hsvins gathered 
a great number of men of warrc together in mar^eloufl ^horte 
time, marched witli great spedc towardes Pyrrus, being 
eameiitly bent to do some cxploitc against him ; who being 
come into Maeedon but to make a ronde oidy a])(>n them, 
would not tary thcni, but fled, antt flying, lo^t parte of h'a 
nwn, biciuise the Macedonians followcil him hard, and set 
aiwn him by the way. But now, tlinttgli they Iwd drii-en 
Pymut thiM ensily out of Ma<.'e<lon, DemetriuH for all that 
did i>i)t iiuike ItgKt accompt of him : hut pretending greater 


iirnty buUi by 
laud aud »eu. 

Pyrni* wife. 


thingcs, (na to recover thv Ituidc-x aiul doniinions of hia 
fathtT, with an ftniiy <if lui biiiuin-il thouHaiid (ightinj* men, 
ami iif five hiiiulral saylv wlik'lt lii^ put to the lua) woutil not 
sturiclc to iimko warrea a^intit Pycrun, neither yet leave the 
M tux-don tans (whilest he was- absent) so daungerous a neigh- 
bottr, and ao ill to deale withal). But lacking leasurc to 
make warres with I'yrrus, concluded a peace with him, to the 
ende he might witJi the more liberty !^t apon the other kingcs. 
Thus now, the peace concluded betwist Uemetriun and Pyrrus, 
the other kinpes and prinws he^jaonc to finde oitt Dcmetriua 
intent, and wny lie had made no great prcuanition i»iul tn-ing 
afrayed thenif, wrote unto I'yrrus by tneir Ambnssiidiir*, 
that they wondred how he could let go such oportunity 
and m'cOMion, and to tary till DemelriuN might with better 
lca»ure make warrea upon him. And why lie chose ratlier 
to tary and fight witli him for the aultera, temples, and 
sepulchers of trie Molossians, when he ^houlde be of greater 
power, and have no warres elsewhere to trouble him : theo 
now that he might easily drive him out of Mocedon, having 
so many things in hand, and bdng troubled as he wok in 
other plaeo«. Aiitl considering also that very lately he hud 
taken one of hii wives fnnij him, with tlw «tv of Coqihue. 
For Luna-ssa mislikingi-, that I'yrrus loved hw other wivist 
belter then her, (tiiey l»eing of a harlmrous nation) got her 
unto Cor|>hue: and detiring to mary some other king, sent 
for Demetrius, knowingc that he nf alt other kinges would 
Koonest be wonne thereunto. Whereuppon Demetrius wait 
thither, and nioried her, and left a garrison in his dtie of 
Corphue, Nowe these other kinges that did advertise P)'rrus 
in this sorte, them wives did trouble Demetrius in the meone 
while : who tractt'd time, luid yet went on with his prefmra- 
cion notwithstanding, for on the one side, Ptolomie entivd 
Greetx; with a great anny by wmi, where he caused the cities 
to revolt agfljnst him. And Lyminiachus on the other side 
also, entring into high Macedon hy the contry of Tlimcia, 
hun)t anil spoyled all as he went ryrrua alitn arminge him 
selfe with tlicni, went unto the city of Bcrrcea, imagining 
(as afterwardes it fell out) that Demetriat goinge against 
LysimochuH, would leave all the lowe contir of Macedon 


juniey iiito 


naked, nrithout garrison or defence. And the sclfe same night PVRRUS 
that Pvmjs departed, he imagined that king Alexander ihe I'yrrua 
ercat md call him, and that also he went unto Mm, and found drewne. 
him sickc in his bed, of whoui he had vurv good wordes 
•ad entertain n tent : iitNomu<:h u» he prumi^t^'d to hvlpc him 
tfaroughly. And Pyrrus imagiiK-d nlsi> tintt he wns ho bolde 
to demAuixl nf liim againe : How (niv Lxml) etui ytni hirlpe 
me, that lye »ic-ke in your bed P and ttuit Alexander mode 
auiiiiwer: With my name only. And that moreover he 
sodainoly tberxrvritliall got up on hi.s horse Niseo, and rode 
befoie I'jmis to guide him tlie way. 'I1u« virion he had in 
(us dreame, whicli made him holde, and furthennore encour- 
aged him to goe on with Iiis enterprise. By which occasion, 
marching forward with all spcede, in few daye§ he ended his 
intended jomey to the. city of fiemra, which sodainely he 
tooke at his liret comming to it : the most parte of his army 
he layed in ^irrison thcR-, the reudue he w-iit awny under the 
coniluct of nis (4iptuin(^?^ here /uul Un-re, to eoiKjuer the 
eitiet thenailxnitx. IX-nietritis having intt^lligence hereof, and 
hearing aUo lut ill rumor Uuit rttnne in hi» vJimpe amongent 
the MoccdoniAiis, ilunit not It^ie tliem any further, for f'eurc 
least (when Ite xhould eume nere to Lyairaaehufl beinge a 
Macedonian king hy nation, and a prince cstemed far a famoua 
captaine) they would shrinke from him, and take Lysimaehua 
parte : for thiH cause therefore he turned agaiiic u[>Dn the 
sudaine against l^yrrus, as against a straunge prinee, and ill 
beloved of the Macedonians. l)ut when he came to incompc 
□erv him, many coouninge from Berrcua into hiti cumpv, 
blew abroade the praises of PymiH, saying, that he wo* a Pjatu 
noble prince, invincible in wamw, and one that curU-ouitly pwl"**- 
intreatrd all thoiw he tooke to ht« )>arty : and aniongt^t 
thuw, there were otlier that ni-re no natural Maoedoniam 
borne, hut M-t »n by Pyrru», and fained them selves to be 
Macedonian-s who gave out, that nowe occasion was offered 
to iiet them at lil>erty, front l>emctrius prowde and stately 
rule, and to take kinge Pyrrus parte, that was a curtcous 
prince, and one that loved souldicrs and men of warre. 
ibae wordes made the most parte of Demetrius army very 
doutfull, insomuch as the Macedonians looked about, to sec 



How Pyrrut 



Pyrrus pro- 
elaitned kiuge 
of Mficedon. 

Pyrrus Hnil 


hath no ende. 


if they could findc out Pyrrus to yelde them selves unto 
him. He hfid at that present left of his hetu) peew: 
by mcane whereof, iK-reeiviiig he was not kiiuwen, be 
put it on iijfiiinc, finil then they knew him n fane of, by 
the sight of his j^wxtly fnyi-r [iliiine, nnd the gimtea homes 
which he oirieil on the t(ipiH- of his enyist. Where- 
upon then; eniiic a great iiumber of Miivedunians to 
his pitrte, at unto their »overaine I^rd nnd king, and 
tx.'qumsl the watche word of him. Other put garlandes of 
oken bowes about their header, bieauae they saw his men 
crowned after that sorte. And some were so bolde also, «* 
to go to Demetrius him selfe, and tell him, that in their 
opinions he shoidd do very well and wisely to geve place to 
fortune, and refcrre all imto Pyrrus. Demetrius heR-upon, 
seeing his cautpe !n such uprore, was so uniased, that he 
knewc not what way to take, but stale away secnlly, dia- 

fuisetl in a tlin'dt^ bare eloke, wiil » h<K>de on his head to 
epe him from knowled^:. I'yrnis foort.hwith Hcatei) uppcm 
hU eam])c, tooke all that he founde, and was presently 
proclaimed in the fielde, king of Maeednn. Lysim^ 
diu» on thothcr side, came straight thither after him, and 
sayed that he had holpen to chase Demetrius out e^ 
his realme, and therefore claimed halfe the kitigdome with 
him. Wherefore, Pyrrus not (riistinge the Macvdonions to 
farre as yet, but ratlier standing in doubt of their faith : 
gruunted Lysiniaeluis his desire, and thereupon devidul all 
the eitita and jirovintx-s of the n-alme of Miu.'edon betwene 
theni. ThiN fxirticion was profitable for them both at tliat 
present, and stoode then to good ])urposc to pacilie the 
warre, that otberwi.ic might .lodiiinely have risi-n tietwene 
them. Hut shortly after, they foiiiid that thi.i parlieion waa 
no end of their enmity, but rather a beginning of quarre!) 
and dissention betwene tliem. For they wliose avance and 
insatiable greedy appetite, neither the sea, the mountaioes, 
nor the unhabitable desertes coulde containe, nor yet the 
confynes that sejxu'ate Asia from Europe determine : howc 
should they be content with tlieir owne, without usurping 
others, when their frontcrs joyne so necre together, that 
notJiiiig devides them P Sure it is not possible. For to say 


truely, they are willinglj? together by the eares, havuie these 
two cursed thinges rooted in them : that they continually 
seekc occasion how to surprbe ecbe other, and cither of them 
envies his neighbours well doing. Ilowbeit in apparaunce 
they use tlicsc two tearmcs, of [>eace and warrcs, as they doe 
money : usinge it as they thtnke KO*^> "*^^ aceordinge to 
right and justiti-, but for llH-ir private profit. Ami tnicly 
thcv <"% nH>n of furrc gn-nter honLvty, that make open wnrrL*, 
lUKi avow it : then tliosi- tluit di^guuic and colour tlic delay 
of titeir wicked Munwse, by thi* holy itume of jiuticv or 
IteDdahip. AVhicn Pymw did truely then Vfrifie. For 
desiring to Vepv DeiuetriuK dowtiv from ri.Mng an other time, 
and that lie Hhould not revive agairti- ax escajicd from a tutig 
(laungeruu.'i disease : he went to aide tlit (ireet-ians against 
him, and was at Athen^s where they suffered him to come into 
the castell, and doe sacrifice there unto the godde^tse Minerva. 
But comming out of the castle againe the same day, he tolde 
the Athenians he was greatly bclioldinge unto them for their 
curtmc, and the great trust they had reposed in him : where- 
fore to requite them agaiiie, he gave them cuunsell, never to 
lufliT prinee nor king from thencefortli to enter into their 
city, if they were wise, nor once open their gates unto them. 
So, after that he made [>cnce with Demetrius, who within 
sbortc timv beingc gone to make warrcs in Atiiit, I*yrru« yet 
oooe aeaine ((>eniwuded tliercunto by Lysimaclius) caii)«d all 
Thenutc to rise agaiiut him, luid went him selfe to set upon 
thoM garrisons which Deiiietriu.i had left in the eitieit of 
Greece, liking better to continue the Macedonians in warre, 
then to leax'e them in peace : besides tliat him selfe also 
was of such a nature, as could not long continue in peace. 
Demetrius thus in the ende being utterly overthrowen in 
Syria, Lyjimachiis seeing him selfe free from fearc on that 
side, and being at good lea^ure, as ha\-ing nothing to trouble 
him otherw'aycs: went straight to make warre apon l^jrrus, 
who then remained ueere unto the city of Edcssa, and meet- 
ing by the way with the convoy of vittvlli comming towards 
him, set upon the con<hH-t«^ni, and rifl<>(l them wholly. By 
this mcanoi, fint he distn-Ntui FyrriB for want of vittcis: 
then he corrupted tlie princes of Macedon witJi letb^m and 



I'toce, Mild 
warrr, OMid 
lyke ini>n>e]r> 

I'yn-u* a)'il«d, 
the OnecUiHJ 


msketh wiirrs 
«itb PyTriMk ' 


PYRRU8 messengeni, declaring unto them, what ^ame tiiey sust^ed 
to have made a atraunger their king (whose aiinccsters had 
ever bene their vassaU and subjectes) and to have turned all 
those out of Macedon, thnt had bene familiar frendes of king 
Alcxiinder the great. Many of the AfaerdoniunK were wonnc 
by these jJcrswasionK, winch fact so feared Pyrruw, thilt 
tie i)e])artetl out of Maccdon with hi« men »)f warn;, tJie 
KpirotvK, and other his conft'dCTnti's : and so li»*t Macedon 
by the Kelfe xamo mi-aiies hv wania- it. Kiiigi^ and princes 
therefore miint not hlami^ private men, though they cliaunge 
sod alter sometime for their pmfit : for thea-in tliey do but 
fi^ow the example of princes, who teache them all disloyalty, 
treajion, and infidelity, judging him moat worthy of eaine, 
that least observetli justice and equity. So I'yrrus oeing 
come home agaJne to his kingdome of Epirus, forstdiingc 
Macedon altogether, furtuue made him happy enough, and 
in deede he hod good mcanes to live peaoviblv ut honM>, 
without any trouble, if he could have contends] him .-tulfei 
only witli Uif M>vcnunty over hi.t owne imturail Hubjixtes, ' 
But thinking, that if \w did ii<-ilJ)(-r hurt other, ni>r that 
other did hurt him, he could not tell how to iipend his time, 
and by peace he should pyne away for Horow, an Homer sajd 
of Acnilles; 

Hu lDtiftuiBlii>d nail (lyudL' by tnkin^ vumr luiil rmt: 

Allit ill t)ie wnrrei wh^fC tnivuile wan, be Uktd ever bett. 

And tlius seeking matter of newe trouble, fortune pre* 
scnt4.ll liitn thin occiution. AlK>ut thii> time, the Komaincs 
by chaunev made warrv with the Tareiitinc^ who could 
netlier Ix'an: their force, nor yet dei,iKe htm to |Mi«ifie th« 
same, by retiKoii of Uie ranhnesoe, folly, aitd wickitlnvH of 
their gi>veniorB, who perswaiied them to make Pyrrun tlicir 
Generall, and to seiide for him for to conduct these warres: 
bicause he wa§ lesae troubled at that time, then any of tlie 
other kinges about them, and was esteemed of every man 
also to be a noble souldier, and famous Captoine. The 
elders, and wise men of tlie city, utterly mii!ilikcd that 
coun»ell : but some of tlium were ]iut U> ailemx^, thmugh the 
uoysc ttud fury of the puojile, who cried for warres. Some 

The Tnren- 
tinw hnvinice 
wnrro with til e 
Uirmiiic to 
inuke kin;; 
Pyrruu llieir 

Grecians and Romanes 

oUu-r seeing tlietn dufked, and taken up by the multitude 
in thu Diaoner, wouldc no more reftayre to thi^r cummoQ 
».-winhIie!t. Ainon^ the rest, there vmn one Meton, im 
lioiivxt wor^iipfuU citieen, who when tlie i\ay Y/as annn thnt 
the petjple ahoulcle (.■onclude in counsel, Uie decrei- for tlte 
calling in of Pj-mis: all the people of Tarentura l>eiiw 
aiuieniuled, and set in the Thentcr, this Meton put &n olae 
withered sarknde of flowen upon his head, and carving a 
torch in his haiidv ns though he had bene drooke, and navm^c 
a woman minstrell before nini playing on a pypc, went dauns- 
inge in thiii goMliy unty throtigh the midde»-t of the whole 
assembly. And tltL-re, (as it hitpfH-neth commonly in every 
burly burly of people thnt will l>e masti-rs them selves, and 
when.' nt> g<xMl onier i» kent) some of tliein clApjKxl their 
hfuidtv, otla^ burst out in alau^ter, and every inansuifcred 
him to doe what he luat : but they all cried out to the 
woman minstrell, to play on and spare not, and to Metun 
him selfe, that he slioulcf sing, and come forward. So Meton 
made shewe as though he prejjared him selfe unto it : and 
when thev had gevcii silence to hcare him sing, he spake 
unto them with a lowd voice in tbis manner : My Lordes of 
Tarentum, ye doe well sure, not to forbid them to play and 
to be mery that are m disposed, whilest they may lawfiiUy 
do it : and if yv Ik^ wiw, every of you also (aa many as you 
be) wili take y(>ur lilierty whilc^t you may enjoy it. For 
when king PymiH slinlhe in this dty, you shall live I 
unirraiit yc after an uUier sorti-, ainl not tut yi- now do. 
HMtic wonles of Meton moved many of the Tarentines, fuid 
Bodaiuly there ran a rumor through all the tLssemhly, that 
he haci sayed trttely. But they that had offended the 
Komaines, fearing if peace were made, that they shoiJde be 
delivered into their handes, they checked the people, asking 
tlieni if they were such foolcs, as would abide to be mocked 
and played Vithall to their teeth : and with those wordcfl 
all ranne uppon Meton. and dmvc him out of the Theater. 
The deem* tnus oonfirmi-d by voyces of the people, they sent 
Ambassadors into Kpinis, to cary pn.<scntM unto king Pymis, 
not only fn>m the Taitiotinw, but from i>ther Gnx-ciniis also 
tiiat dwelt in Ilalitf, MiyiDg that tliey irtoodc in neede of n 



Mebin eoaa- 
terfeatjng Dm 
foule, wiselr 
not to lend 
fur PpTua. 

Tnrentiim a 
city in It»)ia. 

Meton* eonn- 
■ell tothe 

The Twen- 
tiuM Wilde 
t« Pjrrrue. 

Cinu8 tlie 
orator, fi 

bomv, and 

iu I'yrrun 


PVRRUS wise Aiul skilful Captaine, tliat wan reputed famous in mar- 
kUhII discipline. And as to the rest, for nuuibera of good 
.sDiildiem, they had men enough in Italie, and were able to 
bring an anny into the field, of the Lucamans, the Messs* 
piana, the Saninitcs, and Tarentines, of twenty thowsaade 
iiorec, and three hundred ihowsand footemcn being all 
assembled together. Iliese wordes of the Ambassador; did 
not only lift up Pyrrua harte, but made the Epirotcs aUo mnr- 
vclous desirous tij go this jorney. There was in kiiige Pyrrui* 
courte one Clneas ThesHnlian, a man of great undifntimding, 
and that Imd bene DenicMtheneit the orators sclmUer, who 
soemcHl tu he the onely man of all oUier in his time in 
common reputacion, to l>e most eloquent, following the 
lively image and shadow of Demosthenes ^Mssing eloquence. 
This <*ineas, Pyrrus ever entertained about him, and sent 
him Ambassador to the people and citjes thereabouts : where 
he vereiied liiiripides wordes: 

As much M trcnchnnt bliuJea, in mif^hty hiuicI«H iiuiy doe, 
Ro much can skill of ol<M|uonc«, atcHievv siid conquer too. 

And thcrforc I'yrrus would often say, that Cineas had wonne 
him moe townes with his eloquence, then him sclfc had dune 
bv the sword : for which he did greatly honor and imploy 
him in all hix chicfc aH'aires. Cineas pt^reeivjrige that Pyrrus 
was marvelously Iniit to tluse warre* of Italie, finding him 
one liny at lawun-, di.Kcoursird with him in this sorte: It is 
reported, and it plea-te your maji-sty, that the Komainen are 
vtTV good men of warrv, and that they commaund many 
valliant and warlike nations: if it please the goddes we due 
overcome them, what benefit sliall we have of that victory ? 
Pyrrus aunswored him agaiue : Thou doest aske me a question 
that is manifest of it scflc. For when we have once overcome 
the Romaines, there can neither Greecian nor barbarous city 
in all the contiy withstande us, but we shall stj&ight conquer 
all the rest of Italic with case: whose grcatnes, wealth, and 
]K»wcr, no man knowcth better then thy sclfe, Cincas 
pHwstn^ 11 while, replivc]: And when we have taken Italic, 
what shftl we do then ? Pyrrus not finding his meaning yet, 
said unto liim : Sidliaas tnou knowtst, ixnoid adjoyning to 


Clnens fcrsve 
telke with 
Pymi", to 
mndemtc hix 


itf and doUi &* it w«re offer it selfe unto us, and is a marvd- 
ous populoiu and rioh« lande, and ea&ie to be taken : for all 
the cities within the llande are one against an other, having 
no head that governes them, since Agathoclcs died, more 
then orators only that arc their couoiicllers, who will soone 
be wonne. In dede it is likely which your grace speaketh, 
quod Cincas : but when wc have wonnc Sicilio, shall then our 
wanes take cndv ? If the goddes were pleased, luiycd Pyrrus, 
that victory were RtchieveJ : the way wc-rv then broiidc open 
for us to Attj(ine gix-iit C"n<(H«ite». tor who uould not aflcr- 
wardes g<x- into Africke, and w to Cartliagf, which also wiil 
be an easie cotiquf*l, sincv AgathticUit .w-crctly flying from 
Syracuaa, and having pa^ed tn« sew* with a fewe tthippe*, 
had almost taken it? And that ona- coixjuercd, it in mart 
ccrtaine there durst not one of all our enemieti that now doe 
daily vexe and trouble us, lift up their headcs or handes 
Munst ua. No surely, sayd CHneas: for it is a cleare case, 
tn/it with so great a power we may easily recover the realme 
of Miux-don againi-, and commaunde all Greece besides, with- 
out let of any. But when wc have all in our bandcs : what 
shall we doc in the endeP Then Pymis laughing, toldc 
him Againe: We will then (good Cin«i») be quii-t, and take 
our ease, and niake feiwtB every day, and bi^ «» iiu-ry one with 
an other as we <7ui pimibU-. Cim-nn having broiiglit him to 
that poynt, sayd againe to him : My lx>rd, what U^tteth us 
now to be quiet, and mery together, wth we enioy that 
presently without further travel and trouble, which we will 
now go seeke for abroade, with such sheading of blood, and 
so manifest daunger ? and yet we know not whether ever we 
shall attainc unto it, after we have both suffered, and caused 
other to suffer infinite sorowes and troubles. These last 
wonloft of Cineas, did rather ofTcnde Pyrrus, then make him 
Ut alter hiK minde : for he was not ignorant of the happy 
state he sbmilde thereby forgoe, yet could he not leave of ttic 
h<^ of that he did so mueh <lesiR-. So he sent Cincas 
before unto the Tarentincs, with three thousand footcmen : 
and afterwardes the Tareutinc:!! having sent him great store 
of Satlwttomes, gallies, an<l of all sortes of pasKcngers, 
he shipped into them twenty elephantes, three thousand 
S:U 1S9 


of oraton 

A dsuni^erous 
Uiinc to with- 
Htaooe the 
I'lince* nind. 


Pyrru* ioriii'y 
into lUly. 

Pymis diitin- 

gfr byte' II pes I 
on the nea. 

PyrruB curt 
OQ ahoare 
npon the 
coiitry of the 


horsemen, and two and twerty thowsancle footemen, with 
five hundred bowe men and slingra. All thinges thus ready, 
he waycd anckera, and hoysed sayles, and waa no sooner in 
the maine sea, but the north winde blew verf roueh]y, out 
of scttxon, and drave him to leeward. NotwitrntAndingc, the 
M\> which he was in him selff, by mv&l toile of the pilots 
ATiu iiiuriners turning to wimleward, and with much a do, 
ftiul manelon.s daiingvr nvovered tlie coa»t of Itjilie. How- 
Iwit the rest of hi.* flwte were violently dispersed here and 
there, wheivuf :<ome of them failinge thi-ir coiine into Italic, 
were cast into the seas of Libya, and Kicilia. The other not 
able to recover the pointe of Apulia, were benighted, and 
the sea being hie wrought, by violence cast them apon 
the shoare, and against the rockes, and made shipwrackcs 
of them, the Admirall onely reserved, which through her 
strength, and the greatnes of her burden, resisted the force 
of the sea that most violently bet against her. But aft4;r- 
wanls, the winde turning ana oomming from the lande, the 
Kca cruelly riikinp; over llic height of her foreca*t<-ll : in fync 
bnjught her in inmiifest pi-rill of iipi-iTinge, and itpUt ting, and 
in daunger to bi- driven from the const, piittinge her out 
ogainc to the ineny of the windes, which ehauiiged every 
hower. Wherefore Pyrrus coalinge the perill every way, 
thought best to leape into the aea. After bira foorthwtth 
lept ois gard, his servauntes, and other his familiar frendes, 
venturing their lives to save him. But the darkencs of the 
night, and rage of the waves (which the shore brcakinge, 
forced so to rebound baeke u|Kin them) with the great noyse 
also, did so hinder their swimming : that it was even day be- 
fore they oouhi recover nny lundc, and yet was it by mconcs 
that the windc fell. A» for Pymis, he was so «■« bcotcn, 
and wearied with the wavcit, that he was able to do no more: 
thnugli of hiniJ^elfi- he had tto grt^at a harte, and ittowte a 
enrage, as woji able to overcome any perill. Moreover, the 
Messapians (upon whose coast the stornie had him) ran 
out to helpe him, and diligently lal)ored in all they coulde 
possible to save him, and received also ccrtaine of his shippes 
that hod sctipcd, in which were a few horsemen, about two 
thowsandc footemen, and two clcphantes. With this small 


Pymu beitij 

the Tareu- 

their Tklii« 





forcv, I*yrriis tiinrc)i<.-(l on liis jomev to goe by laiide uiito ITRRtTS 
Taraitum : mid Citieas beins advtrtitied of nia oomniiiig, 
went with liis men to mcetc nim. Now whei) he waa coitu: 
to Tarentiini, at t)>e fint he would doe nothing by force, nor 
avoinst the goodwill of the inhabitaiites: imtiU such time a.i 
his shi»|)et that had escaiK-d tht- daunccrs of the sea, were 
all ai'nvei), and the greatest {uirtc uf his arrny comen to- 
gether againe. But nhen he hud all his tinny he looked for, 
seeing that the people of Tarcntuni coidd neither save them 
sdves,nor be saved by any utlurr, without straight order and 
compulsion, bicausc tlicy nuide their rcvlietiing that I*Yrrus 
should light fur tiiem, and in tlte mame lime tJiey would not 
stinv nut of (Iwir InittNcs fmm bathing iJn-m sdvi-x, from 
bnnketing, nml making good diere : lintt of ail Iti- i-humkI all 
tlic {iRrktv and places of shew to be shut up, where tliey w«re 
wunt to walke an<t di-inorte them selves, in any kind uf exer- 
cUe, and an they waited, to taike of warres aa it were in 
pastime, and to fi&ht with words, but not to come to the 
blowes. And further he forbad all ft^astingcs, mommories, 
and such other like nieasurvs. ss at that time were out of 
season. lie trained titeiii tmt also to exercise tiieir weapons, 
and shewed him sclfo very severe in must4;rs, not pardoning 
any whose names were billed t«> Hervv in the warres : inso- 
much as there were many (which uoiurqiininttil with such 
rough handling and goveniment) fursooke the cfty alto- 
gether, calling it n l>ondagi.s not to have libiTty to'livc at 
their pleasure. Fiirtht'rmore, I'ymis having intelfigencv that 
Lcviniw tlte Komnim: Consul t^ame asainst him with n great 
puixant army, and that he was already entred into the lunde 
of Lucania, where be destroyed and 8poyled}all tlic contry 
before him : albeit the Tarentines aide of their confederates 
was not as yet comen, he tliought it a great shame to Riiffer 
his enemies apnroche so nenc him, and therefore taking that 
small number ne had, brought tbcm into the lielde agajiut 
Lcvinus. Ilowbcit he sent a Iwrrvuld before to the KoniaineR, 
to understand of them, if (before they etitrvd into this warre) 
they couldc be content the controversies they had with 
oil the Grcocian?^ dwellinge in Italie, might be decided by 
sfene them selves to his arbitrement, 


(.'uniiul, tent' 







camped iu 
the plaiiie. 
betwene Pan- 
doaia and 



Pymi* fint 
conflict with 


who of him wife would undertake the paciBcation of them. 
Whereunto the Consul) I^vinus made aunswcre, that tho 
Roniaincs would never allow him tor n judge, neither did 
they feare him for an cneniy. Whcrfore Pymis goJn^ on 
atil, came to lodge in the puiine which is betwene the cities 
of Pandosia, outr of Hcniclwi : and havbig newest bn)ught 
him that the Komaini^ were enuim^iil very nvre uritit him 
on the othei' .side of the river of Kiri«, he tuoke his hone, and 
rode to the rivers side to view their caiii^ie. So having 
tliroughly eonsidi-red the forme, the hcituocion, and the 
order of the same, the maner of charging their watcbe, and 
all their facions of doing : he wondered much thereat. And 
speaking to Megactes, one of his familiars about him, he 
sayd : This order Megaclcs (quod he) though it be of bar- 
barous {Kxiple, yet is it not biirlMtrouBly done, but we shall 
shortely i>rove their force. Afler he had thus taken thb 
view, he iKgaiirie to be more carcfull then he was iK-fotv, and 
purpoik'd to tary till the whole aide of their confedenites 
were eomen together, li-aviiif; men at tiie rivers side of Siris, 
to kepc the passage, if the enemies ventured to pa^ac over as 
they did in dede. For they made hast to pre\'ent the aide 
that I'yrrua looked for, and passed their footeinen over apon 
a bridge, and their honwmen at diverse fordes of the river: 
insomuch as the Grcecians feariugr least they shoulde be 
compassed in iM'hitide, cirt-w hacke, Pyrriis advertised there- 
of, and beitig a Utle trtnibied therwithail, cumniaundetl the 
Captainis* of hix footetnen presently to put their bandit in 
liattell ray, and nut to itturre till they knew his pleasure: 
and he hini selfe in tlie ineane time marched on with three 
thowsande horse, in hope to finde the Komaines by the river 
side, aa yet out of order, and utterly unprovided. But when 
he saw a farre of a greater number of footemen with their 
targettes ranged in battell, on this side the river, and their 
horsemen marching towardes him in very good order: be 
canned hi-s men to joyne close together, and him selfc lint 
begaime the elmrge, being e*wie to be knowen from other, if 
it luul bene no mon- but his piLssinge riche gli»t«Tinpc armor 
and furniture, an<) withall, for tluit hi» vidliiuit ditlra gave 
manifest proofe of his well deserved fame and rciiowiK-. Vor, 



thouffh he valliiuitly bi-sturrwl his hunds and body both, 
repulsing them he cDcountcml vrithall iti fight, yet hi> 
torgsU: iiot him sdfo, tior ntvlt-'dx'd tbi; judgement &nd 
fionxt^t, which nhuidd iiL-v'er be wiuiting in a General] of 
•n »rmy : but a» thoueh he had not fought itt all, quietly 
oih] discretly gave order for cveric thiiijji-, rydinge to and 
fro, to dcfeiuie iiiu) cm-orage hi.« men in those pliieeti, wIktc 
be mire tJieni in rnont diAtmtne. But er<.ii in the hottest 
of the baittell, lA'oimtiLi Miu-edoiiiaii, Hpyed an Italiiui a man 
of armeit, Uiat fullowed i*yrru» ujtjie niid dovme where he 
went, and ever kept in manner of even hande with him, 
to set apon hiui. Wherefore lie sayd to Pyrrus : >Iy Ijjnd 
doe you not xe that Imrliaroai man there uppon a have 
horse with white feetc? Sure he looketii as though nc 
mciit to doe some notable feate and mischiefe with his ownc 
handcs : for his eye is neve^ of you, but waytcth only apon 
you, being sharpc set to dealc with your selfe and none otner, 
and therefore take hede of him. Pyrrus aunswcred him, It 
is imixNKible I^-unutuK, fur u man to avoyde his dcstinic: 
but neither he, nor tmy other Itnlian whattoever, »hall liuve 
any joy to de»do with me. And a.t they were talkinge thus 
of the matter, the ItiUiaii taking hin niKtart: in tin' middetct, 
and setting spurred to hit hone, cnitrgi^j apon PyrruK, 
and ranne hJH horse through and Uirouf;h witn tlte same. 
Leonatiis at the selfe same instant Kcrved the Italians horse 
in the like manner, so aa both their horses felt dead to the 
ground. Ilowljoit Pvmis men that were about him, saved 
nim presently, mid slew tile Italian in the lielde, although 
he fought it out right valliantly. 'llie Italians name was 
Oplacus, bontv in the city of terentum, and was C^aptaine 
of a bande of men of armtw. This niischauiiee made kinge 
I^rmu looke llje better to him selfe afterwnrde*, and seeinge 
bu borwmeii geve Iweke, wnt pn-wntly tu Iwwteii hi» foote- 
men forward, whom )ie HtraiL;ht *ct in order of Iwttell : and 
delivering Ul^ armor mitl ctoKe to one of hU familiar* called 
MegacleH, and being hidden ns it were in MegaclcM armor, 
returned againe to the Itattell against the Komaine», who 
valiantly resbted him, so that the victory depended longe in 
doubt For it is sayd, that botli the one ude and the other 



PjfTTui wise- 
dum and 
funmiicbt Id i 

his amMir 

■Ikine, taken 
for Pyrriis. 


PYRRCS <i><I chase, uiid wns vhasvd, ulwvc tcvvn times in Uiut conflict. 
Tlie cliftiingtnge of thf kiiigcs urmor wrvcd very vrdi for titt 
saft^ty of Ilia owiie perM>nf, liowcbvit it wiis like U> Imvc marred 
ail, hikI to have mude liiin loose Liu: fieldc. For iiiniiy of his 
Euieiniii-4 »et u[i)>un Mogacles, UuiL ware the kin^ armor: and 
th« partie that slue him ilea«I, and threw hiin ^tarke to the 
grounde, was one Uexius by name, who ijuickely snatched of 
nts head peece, tooke away his cloke, and ranne to Levinua 
the Consul, crying out aJowde, that he had slaine Pyrrus, and 
withall Hlicwed foorth the spoylcs he supposed to have taktn 
from him. Which being c-aricd about tliroughall the hands, 
and openly sliewed from hand to hand, niudc- the flomaincft 
manekius joyfull, and the Grit-dans to the contrarj-, both 
afenrd and ri^ht sorowfuU: untill stich time as Pyrrus ut-ani^ 
of it, went luid pamcd alongt-«t all his bandcs liorc fauadnl, 
and han> fai-i-d, holding up hiH haiidv to Ids souldicn, and 
gevinge them to uiiderhtanile with his owne voyce, that it 
wat him selfe. The elephanles in the ende were they in 
deede that wanne the battell, and did most distresse the 
Ilomaines : for, their horses seeing them a farre of, were 
sore afrayed, and durst not abide them, but caried their 
masters backc in despite of them. Pyrrus at the sight 
thereof, made his Thessalian horsemen to gt-vc a charge 
apun them whitest they were in this disorder, and that so 
lustely, as they made the Kuiuniues Hie, and sust^-ine great 
slaughter. I-'or Uionysiii.t wrytetl), llittl there dyed few 
lesse, then fifteene thowMUid Konminvs at that battell. But 
Uieronymus speaketli onely of seven thowsande. And of 
I'yrrus side, Dionysius wiyteth, there were slaine thirte«nc 
thowsaiide. But Hieronymus sayth lease then foui-e Uiow. 
sandc: howcbcit they were all of^the Iwst men of his armV) 
and those whome most he trusted. King IVrrus presently 
hereupon also tooke the Koniaines eampe, which they for- 
sooke, niul wan tnnny of their cities from their allyance, 
spoylvd, antl uvcrcaine niudi of their contry. Insomuch sa 
hie came within six and thirty mile of Rome, whither came 
to his aide, an confederates of the Taivritincn, the Lucanians, 
and the Samnitea, whom he relmked bicause they ounc to 
late to the battel. Howbeit a man might easily sec in his 

victory of 
Lerinu* thn 
Cod Hull. 


fitce^ tbftt he wtu not a litlp cltul find proudv to haw over- PYRRUS 
throwen to great an (uiny of the KumAimii with his uwiie 
men, And thv aide of the TnrtintinoK uiii-ly. On thothcr nde, 
tl»t K(>inHiiiv« htirtw vtvrv so ereftt, that tht-y wimUl not de- 

IHKte l^vintH from hU ('on.HiiUshippe, iiotwitlixtfiiidtnge the 
ij«ie lie had re<«ivt^1 : nml V&iun Fftiiriciuii sayt-d (>|)tnly, that 
tiiey were not the KpiroteH that had ovenroiiieii tlie Koniaines, 
but iVmia had overcome Lcxinua: meaniugtberebv, that this 
overthrow chaunced unto them, more through the subtilty 
and wise conduction of the Gcncrall, then through the valliant 
feates and worthincs of his itmiy. And hrrouppon thcv 
speedily supplii-d tlieir ]egyon» Hfjaine that wen- minishi-d, 
with other ncwesuuldicn in t)icdi-nd nienH plaoCiand It-nvic-d 
a frmh force brides, »|)CHktng bravely niM fivrocly of this 
wanVf like men whose hart«s were nothingv appawlcd. 
Whereat Pyrru« nwn-elinge much, ttiougtit goou first to 
tend to the Homaine*, to prove if tliey would gere any 
eare to an olTer of peare, knowing right well that th« 
winning of the city of Home was no easie matter to com- 
paane, or attaine, witli tltat strcn^h he presently had : and 
also that it would he greatly to his glory, if be could bring 
them to peace after this his valliaiit victory. And hereupon CineMnent 
he sent Cineas to Rome, who spake with the chicfrat of the Arntw«B«J<.r 
cjtv, and offrcd prtscntes to them nnd their wives, in the *"* 

befialfc of the km^ his master. Howbeit, neither mitn nor 'ni« noble 
woman would receive uny lit his hnndes, but uunsweri-d all miniiaofthe 
with one voyce: that if tlw pCHcv might \k gnicral to all, **"'"*"'«•■ 
thev all privately woulde bi- »t tJio kinges commaundemcnt, 
ana wouldc l>e glad of his frendsliipne. Moreover, when 
Cinea* had talked in open audience l>efore the Senate, of 
many curlt^ius oflers and hail di'Jivered them profitable 
eapitulacions of peace: they accepted none, nor shewed 
any affection to ge>-e eare unto them, although he otfei-ed to 
deliver tliem their prisoners home againe without raunaome, 
that had bene taken at the battel), and promised also to aide 
them in the conquest of Italic, requiring no other rccom- 
pence at tbeir handcs, saving their goodwills only to his 
master, and assurance for the Torcntino, that they should 
not be annoyed for any thinge iKist, without demaunde of 




the Romaiiie§ 
from ninkiiig 
peace wltli 

oratiuu to 
the Seuat^. 


other matter. Neverthele!»e in the ende, when ther had 
hearde the§e ofFers, many of the Senators yeclded, ano were 
willinge to make peace: allvaginge that they had ah-eady 
lost a crcat battell, and howe they looked for a greater, 
when the forci- of the confederates of Italic ttbould joynv 
together with king Pyrrus )>owit. But Appiiis Claudius, 
a faiiioiit nmn, who camv no more to the SenaU*, nor ddt 
in matters of state at all by reason of hb> age, and jiartcly 
bicauKc he waa hlindi-: whwi he undenstoode of kingFymw 
ofli-nt, and of the eoinmoii brute that ranne through Uie cityj 
howe the Senate were in ininde to agree to the capitula<:ioiiis^ 
of peace propounded by Cineaa, he oould not abide, but 
caused his servaiintes to car)- him in his ehayer apon their 
armes unto the Senate dore, his sonnes, and sonnes in law 
taking him in their amies, caried him so into the Senate 
house. The Senate made silence to honor the comming in 
of so notable and wortliy a personage : and he so soone as 
they had sctte him in Im seatv, beganne to spcakc in this 
sorte : ' Hitherunto with great imnacience (my Lordes of 
' Rome) have I borne the losse of niy night, but now, I 
' wnuld I wciv also as deafe ajt I am biindi-, that I might 
' not (a» I diK') hearu Ute rep<nte of your liUhonorabk- con- 
' Mdtiu'i<inH dettTniined upon m Senate, which tcnde to subvert 

* tlio glorious fame and reputacioii of Home. What is now 
' become of at) your great and mighty braKKC" you biased 
' abroade, through the whole worlde ? that ifAlexander the 
' great him selfo had come into Italie, in the time that our 
' fethcrs had bene in the flower of their age. and we in the 
' prime of our youth, they would not have saycd every where 
'that he was altogether invincible, a* now at thin present 
' they doe: but eitlier hv should have left his body slninc 

* here in Imttell, or at the hitst wiw; htire bene driven to 

* flie, and by liis death nr Hyingt^ xhoulde greatly have en* 

* lai^-d the rwinwne and glory of Home ? you plainly nhow 

* it now, that all these words spoken then, were but vaine 

* and nrrogftiit vainibt of foolisli pride. Considering that you 
' tremble for feare of the Molossians and Chaonians, who 

* were ever a pray to the Macedonians: and that ye are 
' afiaycd of Pyrrus also, who all his life time served and 


' followi-d one of the gard u]itx> Alex&iuUr Uiv great, aad PYRRU8 

* Doure is oonie to mi^e waires in th«»L- p&rtc«, not to aide 

* tlie tireecittiis initabitiiig in Italie, but to tlie from hi» 

* envinit^ tliere about \m owiie contry, oficnnj^ you to cuit- 

* quer all tlie rest of Italic with aii anny, wherewith he yax 

* notJiinA able to kepe a small parte of Macedon only for 

* him 6eif& And therefore you must not pcrswade your 

* Belves, that in making peace with him, you shall thereby 

* be rid of him : but ratner shall you draw others to come 
' and set apoo you besidvs. For thi-y will utterly despise 
' you, when they sh«l hwirc ye nrv so rasily overcome, and 
' that you hftvi- sxiflV-R-d I'ymis to i-scapt your hiitidi«, before 

* you nuule him fvKlu Uw ju«t rewttrd uf liix IwUlv pn.%ump- 
' tuous attempt upon you : varying with hjai fur a further 
' hier, ttiix adviuitag« over you, tliat he hatli geven a great 

* ooca^on both to the Samnites, and Tarentines, hereafttT 

* to niocke and deride you.'' After that Appius tiad tolde 
this tale unto tlw Senate, every one through the whole 
assembly, desired rather warre then peace. They dia- 
patched Ciiieas away thereupon with tJiis aunswere, that 
if Pyrtus sought tl»c Itomaines frend&hippc, he must first 
dvparte out of Italie, and then sende unto them to treate 
of pence : but so lunge as he reuiuincd therv with his army, 
the Ronuiines wofikl nuike wam'K upon him, with all the 
force and power they cuuld make, yt^a altiiougb he had 
overthrowen anil slaine tenne thovrsaiid ^ueh Ciiptaines a» 
Leviaus wiu. They .say tltat Cineas, during the time nf his 
alxtdv at Rome, inUeating for thin ^leace, did curiou&ly labor 
to couHider and underiitande, the manners, order, and life of 
the Uomaincti, an*) their common ireale, discoursing thereof 
with the cliiefest men of tJie city : and how afterwards he 
made ample reporte of the same unto i'ymis, tuid tolde him 
amongent other thinges, that the Senate appeared to him, a 

oounsell house of many kingiv. .\nd furthermore (for the The majettie 
Dumber of people) that he fcjired ereatly they should fight of theSeuata 
against such a seqK^t, as that wliich wa.t in olde time in the '^ RvikA' 
marises of Lcmv, of which, when tlicy had cut of one heode, 
•even other came up in tlte pUce : bicause the Constdl 
Levinus luul nowc leavied oo other army, twise aa grc«t ta 
»:S 137 


Caius Pabri- 
clufi, Ai[ibiut- 
sador to 

Calus Fubri- 
clus a Dolile 
Cmptaine, but 
vory poore. 

Pabriciun re- 
fund kiuu 
Pyrrua ipAe*. 

Thr opinion 
ol the Kpirii- 
riani touch- 
iagii lielicity. 


the first was, and had left at Home also, many times ss 
many good able men to cory armor. After this, there were 
sent Ambassadors from Rome unto Pymis, and amougest 
other, Caius Fabricius touching the state of the prisonefs, 
Ciueas toldc the kinge his master, that this Fabricius was 
one of the gl■c■att^Bt inenni" of u^cumpt in all Rome, a right 
honest man, a good Gtptaine, and a vcrv valliant man of his 
handcs, yi't [Mxirc in diwk- he was notwithstandiiiK- Pyrrus 
taking him iwcretly u side, madv very much of bim, and 
HDiungcst other thinges, olfered him botht- golde and silver, 
prayingi; him to takv it, not for any dishonort rajKCt he 
iTicnt tiiwardeK him, but only for a pledge of the goodwill 
and frecidHliippe that dhould be betwene them. Fabricim 
would none of his gift : so P)Trus left him for that time. 
Notwithstanding, the next mominge thinkinge to feare him, 
bicauae he had never scene elephant before, Pyrrus com- 
niaunded his men, that when they sawe Fabricius and bim 
talkinge together, they shoulde hringc one of his greatest 
elephaiites, and set him harde by them, behinde a hanging: 
whicli being done at a wrtaine signc by Pyrrus gwen, 
sudainly the bunging was pulleil btieke, and Uie elephant 
with hi* Ironcke was over Fal>ricius heade, and gave a terrible 
and fwrvfull crie. Fabricius soflely geviug bncke, nothing 
afrayed, laughed and sayd to I'yrrus smiling: Neither did 
your golde (oh king) yesterday move me, nor your elephant 
to day feare me. I'lirtliermore, whJIest they were at supper, 
fallinge in talke of diverse matters, specially touchinge the 
state of Greece, and the Philosophers there: Ciness by 
chaunce spake of Fptcitrus, and relieareed the opinions of 
the Epicurinns touching the goddcs and government of the 
common wealth, how tliey placed mans chiefe felicity in 

}>lca«un.% how they fled from all ofRcc and publike charge, ax 
Tom ft tiling that hindereth the fruition of Inie felicity : 
howe they maintained that the gi>dd<-x were immortjul, 
neither moved with pity nor anger, and led an idle life full 
of all pleasures and delightes, without takuig any n-earde of 
mens doinges. But as he still continued this discourse, 
Fabricius cried out alowdc, and sayd : The goddes graunt 
that Pyrrus and the Sanmitcs were of such cmmions, as long 




u tiK'y liud wAn«$ against xa. PymiR niArveliit); m 
at th« constancy and mn^ianimity of this mwi, wus mon: 
desirous a great deale to liave peace with the Komaineft, t)i«n 
bi-fore. And privat«Iy prayed Fabridits very cametitly, that 
he would treate for peace, whereby he niieht aflerwards 
oome and reitiaine witli him, saying: that ne would give 
him the chiefe place of honor about hint, amongest all hia 
frendea. Wbereunto Fabricius aunswered him softly : 1'hat 
were not good (oh king) for your selfe, quod he : for your 
men that presently doe nonor and esteemc you, by expenence 
if they once knew roe, would rather chooM me for their 
lunge, then your Bclfc. Such was Fabricius talkc, whose 
wordes Pymis tooke not in ill parto, neither was offended 
with them ut all, as a tynui woiildi- haw bene : but did him 
eelfc rvportc to his frcndes and familian thv noble mindc be 
fouiule in him, and delivered him upon his fnitli only, all the 
Romaine prisoners: to the cndc that if Ute Senate would 
not agrw unt«i peace, Uiey niif^ht yet see tlieir frendes, and 
kept tiw fcft.ft of Satunic with them, and then to send them 
biockv againe unto him. Which the Senate establiiihed by 
decretf, u)K)ii jiaine of death to all such as should not 
pcrforme the same accordingly. Afterwardea Fabricius was 
chosen Consull, and as he was tn his compc, there came a 
man to him that brought him a letter from kinge Pyrrua 
Phisiti&n, wrytten with his owne handcs: in which the 
Phisition offered to poyson his maister, so he would promise 
him a good reward, for ending the warres without further 
daunger. Fabricius dctestinge the wickcdnt^ssc of the 
Pbisitian, and having made Q. .Cmilius his colleague, and 
fellowc Consull also, to abhorrc the Name: wrote a letter 
unto Pyrrus, and had him take hecde, for there werr that 
ment to poyw>n him. The contentcs of his letter were 
these : C«ius Fabricius, <uid Quintus j^mylius CoiisiiLi of 
Itomc, imto king Pymw greeting. You have (oh king) 
made unfortunate eboinc, both of your frendes and of your 
enemks, a» (hall appcare unto you by reading of this letter, 
which cmc of yours hatli wrytten unto us : for you make 
wtuTca witli iuit an<l honest men, and do your selfe trust 
altogetfaer the wicked and unfaithfulL Hereof theifore 


King PjTrns 
aitd offeretb 
to poytou 
Ills mMt«r, 

lottcr to 
tiiinx hitn >if I 
hii Phixitions' 



■eiuleth the 
«n without 

iMttol with the 
Kunuunoa, by 
the city uf 

we have thought good to advertise you, not in respect to 
pleasure you, but hr f?are least the mi.tfortune of your death 
might make us unjustly to be accused: im^ning that by 
trechery of treason, we have sought to end thU warre, as 
though by v&Uiantiwsse we coulde not otherwise atchieve it 
PyiTus having n>d this letter, and proved the contentea 
thereof true, executfd the Phisitian as he had deserved : 
and to requite the advi-rtiscmcnt of the Consulls, he sent 
Fitbricius and the Romainos their prisoners, without payinge 
of rauiuonie, and sent Ciiien» againr unto them, to prove if 
be could obtaine peace. Howbdt, the Komniiics, Ueautc 
they would neither nx^eive pUtuure of their enenii^at, And 
leant of all reward, fur tliat tliey consented not unto ho 
wicked a deede : did not only ixffu.%e to take their prisonere 
of free gift, but they sent him againe so many SaiuniteR, and 
Tareiitines, And furthermore, for peace, and his frend- 
shippe, they would gcve no eare to it, before the warrea were 
ended, and that he had sent away his army againe by sea, 
into his kingdome of Epinis. \vhcrcfore rj-rrus seing no 
remedy, but that lie must ncedes fight an other battcll, after 
he hart somt-whiit refn-shed hi>> army, drcwc towardes the citie 
of Asciiluni, whtTt- hr fought the sccotide time with the 
Uomatnt^ : and wiu Imittght into a marvelous ill groundc for 
horsemen, by a very swift, ninniiig river, from wheiiw came 
many bn»oki-H and oef^po marixhcft, iiiKOiniich as his eU-phante* 
could have no »ipace nor ground to joine with the battel of the 
footemen, by reason wherof there was a great nunih»'r of 
men hurt and slaine on both sides. And in the ende, the 
t)attcU being fought out all day longe, the darke night did 
sever them : but the next momingc, IVrrus to winae the 
advantage to fight in the pl&ino tieto, where he might 
pn-vaile with the force of his elephuntes, sent first certainc 
of his bfMidw to wjiw upon the naughty ground tliey had 
fought on the day Iwfcire. And by this policy having 
brought the llomaines into the pUine field, he thrust in 
amongest his elephantt, store of shot, an*! slingmcn, and 
then made his army marche (being very well set in order) 
with great furie against his enemies. They raissinge thother 
dayes tuminges and places of retyre, were now compelled to 



6ght all an a fixmte in the plaine tielde : and striving to 
breake into the battell of Pyirus'^footeiucn before thf olc- 
phantes v*xae, they desperately prcaccd in apon their enemies 
pvkeit with their swordcs, not caring for their owne pi-reoni.'* 
what became of them, but only lookn) to kill iind destroy 
their enemies. In the endc notwithslanditi^e, after the 
battell hjul holdcn out very lonj^i the Koniuiiit-s lo»t it, mid 
t)H^ first bvgaimv lo brvokc and flii' on that side wher« 
PymiB wa*, by rcmom of the great force and furie of Im 
chargis and mud) more throufrh Ute violence of the ele< 
phantes : aeain-^t whidi, the Kotnaine« valliantiies nor cora^ 
eoulde ougnt prevaile, but tlvat they were driven to geve 
them place (much like the fb^ of aureing waves, or 
terrible tremblingc of the earth) rather then tary to be 
troden under feete, and ovcrthrowen by them, whomc they 
•rere not able to hurtc af^inc, but be by them mo«t 
grevously martyml, and their troubles thereby yet noUiingc 
cased, ^'he ehase waK not Ion;;, btcause they fled but into 
their cam{H^: and HienmymiiK the historiugraplier writeth, 
that there died >nx tltuMxiuide men of thv Itdinninn, and of 
Pymis parte about three thuwsaiKte live hundred and fivi>, 
aN the kinftua owne ChroiiidoH doe witneiac, Ncvertheleaae* 
Dionysiiis makes no meneioii of twn ImtlellH gcven ncere unto 
the eity uf Ai«uluni, nor Uiat the Uonminei were eertainely 
overthroweii : howbeit ho conlirmoth tliat tiiere was one 
battel) only that continued until sunne set, and that they 
scarcely severed also when nif;ht was eome on, Pymis beinf; 
hurte on the arme with a sncare, and his cariaj^ robbed and 
spoiled by the Siunnites besides. And further, that there died 
in this battell, above fifl«-ene tltowsaiide men, rus well of Pyrrus 
■ide, iiH of tlte Koinaiti<« irnrte : uiid th;it at the latst, both 
the one and the other did ivtyre. And oome K»y, that it 
woa at that tinte I*vrru.i nun.twen-<l oi)e, wh4> rcjoyced with 
him for tiie victory they had wontie : If we winnc an other 
of the price, quod he, we arc utterly midmw. For in d«dv 
then liad l>e lost the most i>arie of his anny he brought with 
him out of his rcalnte, and all hb frendt^ and (^ptainen in 
manner every one, or at the least there lacked Htle of it : and 
besides that, he had no meanes to supplie them with other 


PyTTii* vlo- 
tury uf tlie 

The wryter* 
Office not 
aliout Pyrriial 


nut of Sicilln, 
tu urny niiiv 
of Pyrrus. 

into SidllH. 


from thence, and perceived also that the confederates he had 
in Italie, beganne to waxe colde. Where the Romaines to 
the contrary, did easily reuue their army with freahe souldiers, 
which they caused to come from Rome as neede required, 
(much like unto a lively sprins, the head whereof they had 
at home in their contry) and tSey fainted not at all for any 
losses they received, but rather were thev so much the tame 
hotly bent, stowtely determining to abide out the wsrrca, 
what ever betyde. And thus whilest Pymis wa» troubled in 
this sorte, newe hopes, and newe enterprises were ofirnl unto 
him, that made him doubtful what to do. For even at a 
clap came Ambassodore to him out of Sicilio, offering to put 
into his hand»t, the cities of Syracusa, of Agri^-ntutu, and 
of the I^Mitim-s, and lH-»eeching him to aide them to drivei 
tlii^ (^rthaginians out of Uie lie, thereliy to deliver themf 
from all the tyrannea. And on the other side also, newes 
wat brought hnn from Greece, howe Itolomie sumamcd the 
lightning, was slaine, and all his army overthrowen in battell 
against the Gaules, and that now he shouldc come in good 
hower for the Mad-donLons, who lacked but a king. Thca 
he cursed his hnrd fortune that presented him all at oocc,! 
such sundry occasions to doc great thingcs : and as if both 
enterprises had Ix-ne already in his hande, he matie hit 
ftccompt that of necessitie he must loose one of them. So, 
long debating the matter with him sclfv, whidi of the two 
waycs he should conclude' upjHm : in the ende he resolved, 
that by the warrei< of Siciliit, iJinrc wa-« good nieane to attaine 
t<i the greater matters, considering tliat Africke was not 
farn^ from them. Wherefore, disposinge him selfe that way, 
he sent CineaK thither immediatly to make his way, and to 
speake to the townes and cities of the contry as he was wont 
to doe : and in the meane time left a strong garristm in the 
city of Tarentum, to kepe it at his devotion, wherewith the 
Tarcntincs were very angry. For they made request unto 
him, either to remaine in their contry to maintamc wa 
with them against the Romaines, (which was their mcai 
why they sent for him) or eUe if he would ncedes go, at the 
least wise to leave their dty in as good state us ne founde 
it. But he aimswcrcd them agsinc very roughly, that thwl 


Pjrmis wuii 
U>«< city of 

dioul<lc spcokc no more to him in it, and tltat th«y Htiould PVRRU.S 
not choose but twy his occasion. And with this auiwwere 
toukv ghi[>))<.-, Hiid xailcd towanlei) Sicilia: when; so sooiie 
RK he wiw urrived, lu* fouiiile all that he hopn) for, for the 
citict did wiUitiguly put them selven into his haiides. And 
where tivcessity of battell was oRered him to employ his 
nrniy, natliing at the banning could ataude before him. 
For, with thirty thoirsande footemen, two thowsande five 
hundred horsemen, and two hundred savie which he brought 
with him, he dniive the Carthaginians before him, EUid con* 
quered all the contry imdcr their obedience. Nowe at that 
time, the city of Erix was the strongest place they had : and 
there wcrv a great number of good touldier^ within it to 
dcfendc It. Pymiit determined to prove the luaault of it, 
and when hi* army wiu midy to geve th« charge, he amied 
him •elfe at all pwces frimi toi>|ie to Ux.; una approching 
the wallK, vowed unto Hi-reiile» to geve him a solennit- sacri- 
fice, with a feast uf conimon playei), m» that he would emunt 
bim grace to shew him wife unto the Greeciaiis inliabitiog 
in Sidlia, worthy of the noble aunceitera from whence he 
came, and of the great good fortune he had in his handcs. 
Iliis vowe ended, he straight made the trompettea sound to 
the assault, and cauHxI the barbarous people that wen' on 
the walles, to retyre wjlh force of his shot. Then whim 
the scaling luddvm were set up, him sclfe was the first that 
mounted on the walk-, when.* hv foimd divenM.- of tlie bar- 
barous people that reMxted him. But some he threw over 
tile waJleH on either tide of him, and with hiit Kwonl slew 
many dead about him, himselfe not once hurt : for the bar- 
barous people had not the harte to looke him in the face, 
hiB oountenaunce was so terrible. And U)is doth prove tluLt 
Homer spake wisely, and like a man of experience, whc« he 
•ayd: that valliantncsse onely amongest all other morati Homer of 
vatueB i» that, which hath somtimes, ocrtaine furious motions 
and divine provocations, which make a man besides him selfe. 
So the city being taken, he honorably performed his vowed 
sacrifice to Hercules, and kept a feaatof all kindes and sortcs 
of games and weapons. There dwelt a barbarous people 
at tnat time about Messina, called the MamiTtiocs, wno did 




71i« Maitier- 
tines why bu 


cruvlty ill 


much hurt to the Greectans thenbouts, inakiiij^ nun; of 
them pay taxe and tribute: for they were n srcat number 
of them, and all men of waire An<l good ftouluient, and liad 
their name also of Mare, hicause they were aiarshall men, 
and gcven to arnies, Pyrrus led hia army asainst them, and 
ovfrthrew them in battell : and put their collectors to death, 
that did leavy and exact the tase, and rased many of their 
fortrcMiVH. And when the Cartha^nians rcquireil pcsre and 
ht« frendship, oDi-ritig him shippcs and money, pretending 
greater mittti'rs: hv made them a Mhorte aunswere, that 
there van btit one way to wake pence uuid love bc-twene 
them, to fonuiki- Sieiliu altoj^'thi-r, tuul to be contented to 
mnke Mart- l.ibyeuin the lK>nler betwixt Greei,v nnd them. 
For hiH good fortune, and tlie force bt^ liatl in liin bander, ilid 
set him aloft, mid furtlier allured him to follow the hope 
that brought him into Sicilia, aspiring lint of all unto the 
conquest of Libya. Now, to paase hinj over thither, he had 
ships enough, but he lacked owcrs and mariners ; wherefore 
when he would presse thcni, then he began to deale roughly 
with the cities of Sidlin, and in anger compelled, and severely 
puni!ibed thetii, that woiilil nut obey his commaundement. 
This he did not nt his lint comniingi.*, but cuntrtirily bad 
woiuicall their good wilLs/ftpt-nking more curtc*m.sly to them 
then any other did, and hhewin^; that h<- truxtetl Uiem alto- 
gether, and troubled tlieiu in nothing. But Midainly bein^ 
altered from a jxipuler prince, unto a violent tyran, he we* 
not only thought cruel! and rigorou8, but that wont of all 
ia, unfaitbfull and ingratefull: neverthelesse, though they, 
receive<i great hurt by him, yet they sufi'cred it, and grauntea] 
him any necdefiill Uiing he did deniaund. But when they 
saw be began to mistrust Tba-non and Sostratus, the two 
cbiefc Captaincs of Syracusn, and they who first caused him 
to come into Sicilia, wlio also ut his lintt orrivull delivered 
the city of Syrnctisn into \m hundt, and had bi-ue liin chiefc 
aiders in helping him to ooni[uiw<e that )ie liad done in 
Sicilia: when I say they .taw he would no more cary them 
with him, nor leave them Itehiude him for the miiitrust he 
had of them, and that SoetratuH fled fix>m him, and abnented 
him aelfc, fearing least Pyrrus would doe him some Diisduefe : 


and that Pymis moreover, had put Thasion to disth, mis- 
trusting that he would alao haw done him aarae harmv. 
Then nil things fell out against Pymw, not unv aftiT an 
othrr, nor by lith- luul litle, htit »II tof^thi-r dt out- ittstniit, 
and oil the dUva ^-nenilly hatni liim to the dviith, nnd did 
Af^inu sciiiK- of them confedemti' witl) the Cnrthaginianx, and 
otht-n witi) tlie Maiiiertiiies, to ^^t ui)on hini. But when all 
Skilia was thutt bent against him, he received letters from 
the SamniteH and Tarentines, bv which they advertised htm, 
how thev had much a doe to dcfende them selves within 
their cihes and strong holdcs, and that they were wholly 
driven out of the (iiTd : whcrforv tJicy earnestly besought 
him speedily to come to tlK'ir lude. Tins ih-wcs came happcly 
to lum, to cloke his flying, that he might say it was not for 
diKpAin- of good suocvs»c m Stciha that he went his way : but 
tnii: it was in <k-dc, tliat when he itaw he could no longcr 
kcepc it, thi^i a .shipjie could stand still among the waves, lie 
»ought f^nie honest sluulow to colour his dqmrting. And 
that surely was ttie cau^e why he returned agame into Italic. 
Neverthelesse, at his departure out of Sicile, tliey say that 
looking bocke apon the lie, he said to those that were a)>out 
him : O what a goodly Geld for a hattcli, my &cndes, doe we 
leave to the Romnines and Carthaginians, to 6riit thooe 
with thother ? And verily f'O it fell out shortely ^er, as be 
bad ^i(4cen. But the bFirlwix>tt« )x-uple eonsplrmge together 
agaiiut I'yrnift, the C'artliagtni»ii.-« on the one Kioc watching 
hu pa«Mge, gave him battel on the tea, in the veiy straight 
it selfe of MeHsina, where lie loxt many of his siii|i», and 
fletl witli the rent, and tooke the coast of Italic. And 
tl>ere the Alamertines on the other side, being gx>r)e tliither 
l>efore, to tl»e number of eightecnc thousandi' fighting men : 
durst not present him battell in open tiolde, but tarirtl for 
him in certaine straites of the mountaines, and in very hard 
places, and so set upon his rcrcward, and disordered all 
bis army. They slew two of his elephfmts, and cut of a 
great number of his rcrcward, so as he was compelled him 
nclfe in [wrvoiie to come fn>in his vangard, to bctpe them 
against Uie barbarous people, whidi were lusty vallfant 
men, and olde trained souldier^. And there Prrrus caught a 
8 : T li6 


Th« SumiiitM 
nnd Taren- 
tiuci Rent fori 
I'yrru* to 
return* into 

tume into 
Italy out 

of Si 

y out 


PjriTiis hurt 
Ml hiB hnad 
wHh a It word e. 

Pyrrm with 
a blow of liu 
■word ulovu 
hb vtitimieii 
hetul in the 
iniddest, HHil 
Inyvd it oit 
hi* ihoiiiiler*, 


blow on his hood with u swortJc, luid was in great dnuogeri 
iiisoni\tch n« tiv was forcvd to rvtvrc out of the pre&te and 
light, which iltil »o much thv tnorv <i>conif;e ha enemies. 
Amon;^ whii-li there wiis one more ativcnlurous then the 
rewl, u ffuudly mail of iH-Twnage, (nyetr nnnvd in white 
aniior, who aavauncing him nelfe farre before bisonnpcuiy, 
cried out to the king with a bolde and fierce voyce, and 
clialenged him to tight with him if he were alive. Pymw 
beinge mad as it were with this bravery, turned againe with 
(us garde, in spight of his men, hurt as he was. And besides 
that he was all on a flrt' with choller, and his face- all bloody 
and terrible to behold, lie wtnt through his men, and came 
at the length to this barbuous vilk-n that had cltalhiiged 
him : ttiid gave him niich a blow on his head with all his 
forci' and power, that what by the stn.iigth of bin ann«, and 
thrciu^h tiie goiidnejt of the t(-iii{HT and mettle of the itword, 
the blow clave hi.t ht;a4l right in the middt-xt, ilowne to the 
shoulders : so that his beode beinge tliutt devided, the one 
parte fell on the one ahoulder, and the other parte on the 
other. This matter sodainly stayed the barbarous people, 
and kept them from going« any further, they were so a&ayed 
and anioscd both to see so great a blowe with ones handc, 
and it mmie them thinke in dede that l*yrrus was more then 
a nxui. After that, they let him go, and troubled him no 
more. Pyrnis holding on his joniey, arrived at the length 
in the city of Tarentum, with twenty tbow»and footianen, 
and three thowsand hone. And uitli thvsv (joyning Uiereto 
the choycest pyked men of the Tarentini.9) he went incon- 
tinently into the lield to neeka out the Hoinaini'«^ who had 
their campe within the territories of the SaniDit&s which 
were thc-n in very hard state, l-'or their hartea were killed, 
bicause that in many battella and encounters with the 
Itoniainv!!, they were ever overthrowen. ITiey were very 
angry hmides with Pymis, for that he had forwkeo them, 
to goe hi:4 voyagi- »mt<> Sicilia, by reason whereof there came 
no great mimlier of luiiildirrit into bis rampc. But notwith- 
standing, he devided all his strength into two |MLrte$, whereof 
he sent the one parte into Liicauia, to occupy one of the 
Homaine Consults that was there, to the end he should not 


oome to aide his companion: and with the otlier parte He 
went him selfe against Maniua Curiuft, who lay in a very 
itraunge place of advantage nere to the citie of HeneventiJ, 
attending the aide that should come to him out of Lucania, 
besides also that the Soothsayers (by the signes and tokens 
of the birdcs aitd sacriticcs) did cxtunsell him not to sturre 
firom thence. I'yrrus to thi- contrarj', desiring to fight with 
Manius before His aide came unto luin, which he looked for 
out of Lucania, tookv with him the best souldiers be had in 
all hu army, and the warlike»t elephnntes, nnd marched away 
in th« night, supjHtsing to .itwilo hjkhi Maniit* on the iwdaiiie, 
ftJKl gcvt- an aKsnult unto hi* auiiiK', Now Pymw having a 
long way to eo, and through n noddy contry, nix lighti-s nnd 
toroies failea him, by reason whervuf many of his souldien 
lost their way, and they lost a great deale of time also, before 
they oould againe be gathered together : so as in this space 
the night was spent, and the day once broken, the cnemieii 
perceived nUineiy how he came dowinf the hills. This at 
the first sight made them muse a while, and put them in 
a litle feare : neverthclessc Manius having had the signes 
of the sacrifices favorable, and seeing that occasion did 
prcsse him to it, went out into the field, and set apon the 
vowarde of hU enemies, nnd made them tiime their backcs. 
The which fc«red all the rest in such wise, that there were 
»Uine u gn-al numlKT of tiwm in the ficldc, luid c<^rtftine 
elqihaiiti-K also bLki-n. This victiiry made Manius Ciiriu8 
leave his rtrength, and come into the plainc field, where 
he set his men in batt^^ll ray, and overthrew his enemies Iiy 
ptaine force on the one dde : but on the other he was re- 
pulsed by violence of the elephantes, and compelled to drawe 
tmcke into his owne campe, wherein he had left a great 
number of men to garde it. So when he saw them upon 
the rampere of his campe all armed, ready to fight, be called 
them out, and they comming fresh out of places of advantage 
to charge upon uic elephantes, cornpi-llcd them in a very 
shortc time to tume tl>eir backes, and flie tbrongh their 
owne men, whom they put to great tronblc, nnd disorder : 
•0 as in the cnde, the whole victory fell apon the R(pmninr« 
side, and consequently by mennm of that victorv, followed 




Vyrrat thirtle 
bnttell with 
the Rvmaiites. 

I'jrrTtis i>veiw 
thruwen by 


PyrruB com- 

Ssred to n 
yce pinyet. 

turtie into 
Kpiru* out 

I'yrru* vic- 
tory of Anti- 
Kiniuft kinji; 
of Macedon. 


the grratncs and power of their Empire. For the Romninvs 

bvini; j(ruwi-n itkiiv corsgious by this battel!, and huTing 

invn^teil tln'ir force, and wonnc the nrputncion of men im- 

conquerabie: iminvdiativ afler oonqiu-rni nil Italiv besides, 

and soone after tliat, all Sicdlia. To this ende as you we, 

came kins Vymi» vaine hope he had to conquer Itiklie and 

SidJia, aner he had spent sixe yeares continually in warres, 

during which time his good fortune decayed, and his army 

coDBiuned. Notwithstaiiding, hU noble cora^ remained 

alwsyes invincible, what losses soever he had susteined : and 

moreover whilest he lived, be was ever esteemed the chiefcst 

of all the kings and princea in his time, as well for his ex- 

|)erivnve and sufltcicncy in warres, as also for the valliantncs 

and liardm<« of his pcraon. But what he wtuine by famous 

deeded, he lort by vnine hopes: desiring so v<inn-»tly tliat 

which he had not, as he fon^ate to ke|H- Uwit whicli he had. 

Wherefore Antif^otiuK >-iiin)Mr('<l him unto a din- player that 

caatetii well, but can not u!<e his lucke. Now ha^'ing Drought 

backe a^ine with him into Kpirus, eight thowsande foote- 

men, ana five hundred horsemen, an<l being without money 

to pay them, he devised with him selfe to seeke out soioe 

new warrc to cntertajne those souMiera, and kcpe them 

together. Wliercf«)re iippon a ncwe aide of certaine of the 

Gaides Ix'tn^' comen unto him, he entered into ttiv realme 

of Maccdoii (which Antigoniis, Demetrius soime held at that 

time) with intent only to make a furrey, and to get some 

snoyle in tlie contry. But when he «aw tluit he bad taken 

diverse holdcs, and moreover, that two thowxand nten of 

waiTe of the contry came and yelili'd them Mclves unto him : 

he beganne to hope of better succt«se, then at the 6Tst he 

looked for. For upon that hope he marched against king 

Antigonus selfe, whom he met m a very straight valley, and 

at his first eoinming, gave such a lusty charge upon hiB 

rcreward, that he put hII AntJgoniis army in great nisorder. 

For AjitiKontis had plact^ the Gaules in the rercward of his 

army to eloH; it in, »-Iiich were a convenient nuiiilKT, and did 

valliantly defend the first charge: and the skimiishv was so 

hotte, Uiat the ntust of them were slninv. After them, the 

leaders of tlie elephantes perceiving they wen environned 


Diath from 
kingo I'yrru* 


on «venr aide, yclded them selves bihI their bwutm. PyrrUK PYRBII3 

Mcinff (lis power to be now iiicrtttsvd with such a Kup]jly, 

trusting more to his good fortun<-, thi'n any good R-4uoti 

mi^ht movL' him : thrust further into Uie b«tt«l of the 

Mncccioniiuis, who wrrv nil Afniy«l, luid tnitiblvd for the 

ovcTtlm)Vfp of Uicir rereward, .■«> ns th«y would not ou<» 

base thvir pykes, nor light AgAliixt liim. He for his parte 

holding« up his haiide, and cidliiigv the Captaiues of the 

liandes by their names, straight wayes made all the foote- 

men of Antigonus tume wholly to hb side: who flyHng, AntJ^noa 

saved him selfe with a few horsemen, and kept certaine of 

the cities in hia realme apon the aea coost. IJut P>TTits in 

ail his prosperity, judging nothing more to rcdowncfe to his 

honor and glorj-, then the overthrow of the Gauli-s, laynl 

aridc their goodliest and richeat spoyles, and oflrad up the 

nnio in the temple of Minerva Itomda, with this irucriptiun : 

When Pyrrus knd «ut>dii<le, th« pulaHitO«UM la flaldi, 

Ho cnuKod of thoir fpolles to mail*, thM8 laigati, urmM, and 

The wbicl) ho hnnffod up, iti tnmpiR nil on hifth. 
Before Mttiervu (ftocldnHo hm) iii nfme tif victon-. 
W)i«i] hi! hud KVtMTumc. the whole oixl hii)(ii- huast : 
The which Auti^tiua dill briiit;. lutu hin cuutru<s cotuit. 
No iBsrvell shuuld it secme, thoui;h victory he vuiiiie, 
Since itUllnntn^ hrliiK^^ vii^torj*, nnd eveniinre hnth done: 
And vmlliantTie* altmyen, hath roiistiiiitly kept pliice. 
Prom ag« tn age, ana time to time, in iMcas liis net. 

Immediatly after tltis bnttell, idl the cities of the realme 
of M acedon yelded unto him : but when he had the eitic of 
^Egee in his power, he uKcd tlie inhaliitatites thereof very 
hardly, and specially bicauM* lie left a great garrison of the 
Gaules there which ne luui in pay- Th«i nation is extreame 
covetous, as then they sJtewed tiiem selves : for they spared 
not to brvalce up the tomlies whennn the kinges of iilacedon 
lay buried there, tooke away all the gold and silver they 
oould linctc, and afterwards with great insolency cast out 
thnr bones into the open winde. Pyrrus was tolde of it, 
but lie lightly passed it over, and made no rcckening of it : 
either bicaiuv h« deferred it till an other time, by reason of 


Th« covetowl 
neawof tli« 


I'YRRL'S the warns he liod then in hande : or el»e for that be du»t 
nut meddle with punistiin^ of theite barhnrous people at that 
time. But whatsoever tlie matter was, the Macedonians 
were x'ery angry with Pyrrus, and blamed him greatly for 
it. Furthennore, haring not yet made all thingcs sum In 
Macedon, nor beine fully poasest of the same : new toycs Mid 
hope came into his head, and mocking AntiG^niw, snyd, he 
was a mad man to goe ap|}arrcllcd in purple like u king, when 
a poorp clokc miglit In-come him like a private man. Now,. 
CleonymuskingofSpurtiilx-ing come to procure him tobrin^ > 
hin anny into the contry of Lad-diemon, Pymts was very 
willing to it. 'lliix CK-unymuic wax of the blood royall of 
Sparta, hut bicause he wait a cruell man, and would do all 
tninges by authority, they loved him not at Sparta, nor 
trust*^ him at all : and therefore did they put him out, and 
made Areus king, a very quiet man. And this was tb*f 
oldest (juarrell Cleonymus had against the common wealth 
of Sparta : but besides that, he had an other private quarrel, 
which grcwe uppon this cauxe. In his olde yearcs, Cleonymus 
had maried n iaver yotrnge Ladv called Chclidonida, which | 
vfox alw of the blood royall, and tnc ditugbtcr of Leotychidcs, 
Thi.t Ijidy being fallen extreaniely in love with Acmtatus, ' 
king Areufl wmne, a goodly young gi-nltcmaii, and in his 
lus^ youth, she greatly vexeil and dishonurt-d her hu^bande 
Cleonymus, who was over heade and eares in love and jealousie 
with her : for there was not one in all Sparta, but plainely 
kncwe that his wife made none accomut of him. And thus 
his home sorowes, being joyned with nis outwarde commoa 
greves, even for spight, desiring a revenge, in choller he went ' 
to procure Pyrrus to come unt« Sparta, to restore him agalne 
to nis kin^^dome. Hereupon he brought him into Laccda> 
monia forthwith, with live and twenty thowsand footcmcD, 
two thowxtind hor«;, and foure and twenty ricphantes: by 
which prepanu^ion, though by nothing else, the worldc might 
plairifly see, that I^yrrux came with a mindc not to restore 
CleonymuH againe unto Sjiarta, but of intent to comjuer for 
him selfe (if ne eould) all the contrie of Pelnponnestis. For 
in wordes he denied it tci the LacediemoniaiiN tJiem selves, 
who sent Ambassadors unto hira when he was in the dtv of 

AreuB made 
SpftrtA, and 

put downe. 

The uuse of 
PfiTuii iiivsd 
ii^t Pvlopon- 


Megalipolis, where be toldc th«ni that Ik was come into 
Pclopoiuwsia, to sctte the towiivH mud dUe« at libortie which 
AntigunuH kept in bomiage: an<l tlwt his true iiil<-iit aiid 
BteMUDE WHS to Ncrnii hiH yuuiig M>t)iic» intu Sparta (»<> tht-v 
would be conleiilLtt) to the eiid tliey iiiiglit be trained after 
the Laconiaii manner, and trom their y<>uth have this advan- 
tage above all other kinges, to have uene well brought up. 
But faining these thingcs, and abusing those that came to 
meete him on his way, they tookc no heede of him, till he 
came within the coast of Lncotiia, into the which he was no 
Eooncr cntmi, but he beganuc to spuyle and wact the whole 
conttv. And when the Atnbwusndoni of Sparta reproved 
and foundc fault with hitn, for that he matle wamv upon 
tbem in such »urte, before he had o[)enly proclaimed it : he 
made them autuwcr : No more have you your »e\vat utted to 
proclaiiiie tlint, whiiJi you purposed to do to others. Tlieii 
one of the Auiba.-o^lore called Mandriddas, rc]ilied againe 
unto him in the l..aconian tongue : If thou be a god, thou 
wilt doe US no hurt, bicause we have not ofiended thee : and 
if thou be a man, tliou shalt meeto with an other that ahalbe 
better then thy sclfe. Then he marched directly to Sparta, 
where CleonymiiH gave him coiuisl-11 evcti at the first, to 
assault it. But he would not so do, fearing (a^ they sayd) 
that if he did it by night, his soiildierH would sacke the city : 
and sayd it should l>e time enough to a.-«iudt it the next day 
at brvad day light, bicause then; were but few men witliiu the 
towne, and lieside they were very ill provided. And further- 
more, king Areus him xelfe waa not there, hut gone into 
Creta to aide the Gortynians, who had warres in their owne 
oontry. And doutlesse, that only was the saving of Sparta 
from talcing, that they made no reckening to amiault it 
hotly : bicause they thought it was not able to make resist- 
tuiDce. For l*yrrus cam|)ed before the towne, throughly 
pcrswaded with hini selfe, that he should finde none to nght 
with him : and CleonymuH frendK tuid ser\'auiites also did 
prepare his lodging there, as if Pjrnut should have come 
to supp<T to him, and iudgixl with him. When night was 
come, the LA«(t«;moiiian.i i:oun.ti:Lled together, luid secretly 
detennined to send away their wive», and litle children into 



Swoivto tk» 


tifweth laef 


The Conine i>f 
th« woRieii of 

wrouKht in 
the trenab. 

contKnd their 
men to fifth t 

Pyrni* bftttcL 


Creta. But the women them selves were against it, and 
there was onr amon^e them called ArcliidamiH, who went 
iato thi- Seiiatr house irith a sword in her hand, to spcakc 
iinto thvtn in Die name of all the rvst, and sayd : lliat they 
did thvir wiv-c« ^-at urongf, if they thought them so fainte 
hsrt«d, us to live after Smrtu w(.tc dntrored. Afbmraixls 
it was agreed iii oounKclI, that tlwy Khould vast a tn-nche 
before tlie enemies cain|x-, and that at both the endes uf the 
same they should bury earteH iii the ground unto the middest 
of the wheeled, to the irnd that being i'ast set in tite ground, 
they fihould stay the clephantes, and kepe them from pa^ns 
further. And when thev heganne to go in hand wtthall, 
there came wives and mmdcs unto tlieni. some of them tbeir 
clothes girtc up round about them, and others all in their 
smockes, to worke at this trenche with the old men, advising 
the young men that should light the next moniing, to rrst 
them selves in the tiivane while. So Uie women tooke the 
third parte of the treiiehe to tiuike, which y/ox six eubittes 
lirotule, fuure cubit-t deepc, and eight hundred foote long 
nit Fhilarchuii sayth: or title le&se aa UieronymuA wryteth. 
'n>en when the breake of day appeared, and tlie enemie« 
removed to come to the assault : the women them seU f» 
fetched the weapons which they put into the young mens 
hands, and dcHvervd them the t^uke of the ticnche ready 
made, which they before had undertaken, praying them 
valliantiy to keejie and defend it, telliiige them withall, 
huwe great a pleasure it is to overcome the enemies, lighting 
in view and sight of their native contry, and what gnat 
felicity and lionur it is tx> dye in the amiea of his mother 
and wife, after he hath fought valliantiy like an honi-.><t man, 
and worthy of the magnanimity of Sparta. But Clielidonida 
being gone a side, had tyed a halter with a riding knot about 
her necke, ready to strangle and hang her selfe, rather then 
to fall into the hands of Cleonymus, if by chaunce the city 
should come to be taken. Now Pyrrus marched in person 
with his batti^ll of fotitemen, against the fronte of the 
Spartans, who being w great number also, did tary his 
conunuig on the othet- t>ide oC tlie treiicbe: the which, 
beridea that it was very ill to pii«»c over, did let the Kouldicn 


alao to fisht stcadcly in order of batU-ll, bicauw the etaih PYRRUS 
liviiii; iicwlv cAsl up, did ycld under their fct'tc, Whervforv, 
Ptu]i>iiii<* kiiiji Pymu sonm-, ixvuiing nil ftlongvitt ttii- tn.-iM.-h 
sidf wfitli two thowiwjKi Gnulrs, (ind all the t-Iiovcc im.-ii of 
the Clinonian-t, owuiyi-d if hv c»tiU) get over to tliv otlivr side 
at one of the endes of the trenelie where the cartes wete: 
which beinff ftct very deepe into the ground, and one joyned 
unto an other, they did not only hinder tluusaylanta, but 
the defendants also. Howbeit in the end, the Gaides l>egan 
to plucke of the wheeles of these cartes, and to draw them 
into the river. But Acrotatus, king Arvu§ sonnc, a young 
man, seeing the daunger, ranoe through the city with a 
troupe of three hundrra lusty youthes besides, an« went to 
inclose Ptolomic behinde before be espied him, for that he 
p«iwted a Mcret hollow way till he came even to gcve tiie 
charge upon tlicm : whereby they wore enforcwl to tume 
their faces towards him, oiie ninningc in an others neckc. 
and 1*0 in great disonli-r wen^ thrust into tlie trenches, and 
under the earte» : in-sumuch as at tlie last, with mudi a due, 
and great blooddied, Acrotattia and hi.^ company drare them 
backe, and repuliied tliem. Now the women and old men, 
that were on Ihother side of the trcnche, saw plainly before 
their face, liowe vatliantly Acrotatus had repulsed the Gaules. Aerotatua 
\Mierefore, after Acrotatus had done this cxployte, he re- vaUlwitwa. 
turned againe through the city unto the place from whence 
he came, all on a goarc blood, coragious and lively, for the 
victory he came newly from. The women of SpartA thought 
Acrotatus &rrc more noble and fayrer to beholdc, then ever 
he was : eo that they all thought Chelidonida happy to have 
MKh a frcn<l «nd lover. And there wen^ iHTlaine oldc men 
tliat fullowiii him, crying «ft*-r him, G«ie thy way Acrotatuii, 
and eiyoy thy love Cliclidontdn : U^t noble children of her 
unto Sparta. The fight wtu cruell on tJiat »ide where l\rrus 
waa, and many of the S])artans fought verv valliantly. How- 
beit amoRgest other, Uiere was one named Phillius, who after 
be had fought long, and slaine many of his enemies with his 
owne hanoes, that forced to passe over the treiiche : per- 
eeiving that his hart fainted for the great number of wouodes 
be had apon him, called imc of them that wen- in the ranckc 
3:U 158 


PYRRUS next bclunde him, unci gcving him his place, fell downe 
dcnrie in the ftnnes of his fn-mit-s, htcau-^e his t^nemics shouUk- 
not have his hody. In the ende, the baltell havingi- c-oh- 
tinued all the day longe, the night did separate them : atid 

Pyrrui Pjttus lieiiig layed inliifl bed, had this vision in his itlcepe. 

^rtfBt. IIp thought he strake the citv of Laccdsemon witli lightning, 

tind that he utterly consumed it : whereat he wai m passing 
gliwl, that even with the very jov he awaked. And there- 
u[)ji<»i foorthwith cnniitiiumded ))]-'« CaplatneK to make their 
men ready to the a.'cuiull: and told his dreame uuto his 
familiers, tiu)i[K>sing Uiat out of dout it did betoken he 
Hhould in that approaehe take the citie. All that beard it, 
beleved it was no, sarinji^ one LyaJmachus : who to the am- 
trary, §ayed that this vision liked him not, bicauw the piaG«« 
smitten with lijihtning arc holy, and it i> not lawfiill to tnler 
into them : by reason whereof he was nltw afl'niiL-ii, that tiie 
poddcs did si^nifie nnfo him. that he should not enter into 
the eitif of Simrta. Pjrriw Awiutwvred him : That saied he, is 
a matter disputable to aixl fro in an open a-tsembly of people, 
for there is no nianer of certainty in it. But furtbermoro, 
every man must take his weapon in hiii hand, and set thia 
sentence before his eyes : 

A t'lgiit t;ood »igiie it ih, tliat ha would hssnrd Ufa 

In just aefence of msetere csiiae with Bpearr anil bloody knife. 

Alludingi! unto Homem verMw, which he wrote for the de- 
fence of hi.i contry. And saying thus, he rose, and at the 
breake of day led his army uuIjo the assault. On thotber 
side also, the lAcedfeinoniajis with a marvelous coroge and 
majjnanimity, farre greater then their fora? bestirred them 
welves wonderfully to make resistauncc, having thw'r wives by 
tbem that gavL< them their weapons wherewitli tliey fought, 
and weR- ready at hand to geve mcate and drinke to them 
that iHtaU-d, and did oJso withdrawc those that were hurt 
to cure them. The MmH-dciiiian.'t likewise for their parte, 
endevored them selves with ail their might to fill uppc the 
trenche with wodde and other tbingi-.t, which they cast upon 
the dead bodies and armors, lying in the bottome of the 
ditdic : and the Lacedsmoniaiis againe, labored all that they 



coutd posdbic to let tliem. But in this great brovlc, one- 
pomei^ed Pymis a horse backc to have lept the ti"enchc. WLst 
over tin; Ktrvngth of the cartes, and make force to enter intit 
the city. H'hcrforc thoM' that wtrtr n|j>uoi»t«-d to defeiiJc 
thst portif uf the trem-h, criitl out strugnt : nnd tlM- women 
fvJl ashreeking, aiid ninnins, ns if all luuJ bene lust. And ta 
Pnrus passed furtlirr, striking downe witli hi* owne haiules 
nil that stoode ttefurc him, a Cretan shot at him, and etrake 
hi» hofic thriMigl) lM>th ntdes : w)m> leUMiige out of the prease 
for pninc of his wounde, <Iying, caned Pmua avay, ajid threw 
hini ttppon the haueing of a stecpe hill, where he was in 
grf«t doungcr to fall from the toppe. 'I'his put all his 
servauntes and frcndcs about him in a marvelous fearc, aod 
therewithjdl the Ijtoediruranians seeing tltrm in this tetn 
and truubU- mn immediatly unto that place, wtid witli force 
of ahotte drave them nil wit of the trntcbe. Aflcr this 
retyre, I'yrrtia cnu»ed idl A.w»ult to cwwe, hoping tl>e Laoe* 
dctnonians in tin- end would yxvlde, i.x>iiNideringe there were 
many of theni siaine in the two dayes past, and all tlie rest 
in mancr hurt. Huwbeit, the good fortune of \1k citie 
(whether it were to prove the valliantnes of the inhabit' 
antes them selves, or at the least to ^lew what power they 
werr of even in their greatest nedc and distrvsw, when tlic 
LacedRinonians had sutall hoiK' left) bnni<;ht one Atiiiniiis 
Phocian IVmn Coriiithe, one of king AntigomiH Cuptnine* 
with a great band of men, and put tfaeni into Uie city to 
aide Uinn : and stniight alter him, at Konne as he had entred, 
ktt^ Areus arritn) al«<> on thothtT »ide from Creta, and two 
thowsand souldiers witli him. So tlie women went home to 
their houaee, makinge tlit-ir reckeniiig that they should not 
necde any more to trouble theni selves with warres. They 
gave the olde men liberty also to goe and rest them selves, 
who being past all age to fight, for necessities soke yet were 
driven to orme them selves, and take weapon in hande : and 
in order of battcU placed tlie m-we come M)uldien in tlieir 
rooineM. Pyrrus unden'tanding that tu-vic .«iippties were come, 
erewe to gnwter ntomake tlien liefore, and inforced all that 
ne could, to winiie the towtie by OHUiiilt. But in the end, 
when to his cost he founde that he wamie nothing but 



Pymi ii 
duuiMr of 
hi* life, at 

Amred : 
Sparta with 
new Bide. 


Sedition in 
the city of 

pulned from 
Sparta ([oeth 
tif Argot. 

kinRc I*yrru» 
■onuB. ualiie 
bj Ors«u» 


blowcs, hi- gnvi' uvcr the ^vgy, und went to spcijrle ftll the 
ountr)' nbout, dt-tcmiiiiing to lyc there in earrixon all the 
winter. He ouulJe not for all Uii» avoioc his tiestenie. 
For tliert- nise a sttlition in the city of Argos l>etwene two 
of tht! chief»>t titiy-eiiti, Ari.iti'aa an<l AriNtippus : and bicause 
Ari.iteas tliought that kiiige Aiitiffonus did favor his enemy 
Aristippus, lie made hast to senae first unto Pyrnis, whoec 
nature and disposition was such, that he did continually 
heape hope uppon hope, ever taking the present prosperity, 
for an occasion to hope after gn^tcr to come. And tf tt 
fell out he was a loser, then he sought to recover Iiim selfe, 
and to restore hU losse, liy some other newe utteniptx. So 
that neither for being cwiniucmr, nor overconien, he would 
ever be quiet, but alwaytw tmubleil w)me, urn! him selfe 
hJko : by reiuon wherof, he MHlainly demrtt-d towantes Argos. 
But king Areas having layed amhtuJici for him in diTerse 

Eeeti, and occupied also the atraightest and hardest passage?!, 
the which he was to irnsse: gave a charge uppon the 
ules and Molossians, it hich were ii] the tavle of nis army. 
Now, the sclfe same day I'ymis was warned by a Soothsayer, 
who sacrificjiig had foiindc the Hver of the sacrificed benst 
infected : that it betokened the lostte of some most nvcre 
unto him. Hut when he henrd the noyse of the chaige 
pevcn, he thought not of the forwaming of hi* Soothsayer, 
out com mail rid CI ( hiit Mtnne to take his hoii.teluild Nervauntea 
with him, and to go thither: a.-> he him selfein Uk- meane time 
irith aa great hast as he could, made the rent of his army 
marclie, to get them quickely out of this daungerous way. 
The fraye was very hotte about Ptolomie Pyrnis Sonne, for 
they were all the ehiefe men of the LaceaEcmoniana with 
whome he had to doe, led by a valliant Captuine railed 
Evalcus. But as he fought valllantly ngainst tho%' that 
stoode before him, there vms a souldier of Cn-ta called 
Ontsu!*, borne in the citie of Aptera, a man very rvady of 
his haiide, and light of foote, who running alnngent by him, 
.itrake him such a hlowe on his side, that lie fell downe dead 
in the place. This prince Ptolomie being slaine, his com- 
pany began straight to file : and the Lacedaemonians followed 
the chase so hottely, that they tooke no heede of them selves, 



until] tki-v sno'L' Dtcy were in Uic )jliunc Geld &ttc from tlu-ir PYRRDS 

fooU'cicu. Whi-ivfon;, P^mix unto whom thv duuth of Iiis 

Sonne km newly n-purtctl, being a, fire with «or»w and 

pnfttion, tunicil sojAinly upun them witli the men of nnues 

uf the .MoUKUtiatLH, and being the fir«t tltat CAnti- unto tlteni, 

niade a iiianelous slaughtt-i' among thein. For, notwitli- 

.ttAnding that every where before that time he waa terrible 

and invincible, having his sword in his haude : yet then be 

did 6bewe more proofe of his valliantnes, strength, and 

corage, tfacn be had ever done before. And wheo he had 

sette spurrvs to his horse against Evalcus to clotfC with him, 

Evali-us turned on the toe side, and gave Pj-mis such a 

blowe with hif sword, that he oUMed litle the cutting of his 

bridle hande : for he cut in deede all the ntiix-M of the bridle 

a Minder. But Pymut Mtmight ranne him through the Ixxly 

with biN «peare, and lighting of from hix Iwrw;, he put all 

the troupe of the I.Ace<lienionian!t to the awurd tliat were 

about the body of Evalctii, being all chof*«» men, 'llius 

the ambition of the Captaines was cause of that losse unto 

their contrj' for nothing, eonsidt-ring that the warres against 

them were ended. But I'vrrus having now as it were made 

sacrifice of these poore bodies of the Lacedirmoniaus, for the 

soule of his dead soniie, and fought thus wonderfully also to 

hooor his funrralls converting u grait parte of his sorow for 

his death, into aiigi.-r and wrath agmnist the enemies: he 

ofYerwardesi held on hi« way liin-etly towartU^i Arp^iw. And 

undentanding that Ling Antiguniu bail ulniuiy scaM-d the 

hilhi that were over the raltey, he lodged ni-ere unto the ciW 

of Nauplia : and the next morning following Ktit a tierauUJe 

unto Antigonus, and gave him dcfyance, cadUng him wicked 

man, and chalonged him to come downe into the valley to 

6ght with him, to trye which of them two should be king. 

Antigonus made him aunswcr, that be made warres as much 

with time, as with wojipon : ^uid furthermore, that if Pymis 

were wwuy of his life, he iwul waves open enough to put him 

welfe to <leath. The citixens of Argn« al>w tent Ambassadors 

unto tliem Iwth, to pniy them to dcp<u-te, sith they knew 

that there wa-s noUiiiig for them to w« in the city of Argoa, 

and that they would let it be a newter, and frena unto them 


10 Pyrritf 


Tukeiiit of 
Pyrru* cleatli. 

Pyrru» Sght 
iu Uie city 
or Argus. 

CaaUU in 



both. Kiiig Antigotius agr<^ unto it, and gave ttwin his 
pontic for hostagv. Pvmis also mude thtm t&yer promise to 
tla so too, but bioitise hv t^vv no caution nor sulTiokiit pledge 
to |KTfc>niic it, tbvy bjni tin- tiion-. Tlicn thcire 
fel out many groit and m undtrful lokeiiN, b» woI tinto I'^rrus, 
as unto tJie Argives. For Pyirus having Kacriliced oxen, 
their heades Wing striken of from tlieir bodies, tliey thrust 
O'ut their tongues, and licked up their owne blood. And 
within the city of Argos. a sister of the temple of Apollo 
Lycias, called Apollonide, raiine throush the strectes, crying 
out that she saw the dty full of murder, and blood rue 
all about, and an EngU- Hint cntnc unto the frayc, howl 
she vfttiiitlii-d away sodaiiily, and no IxKly kncwe what became 
of her. I'yiTiis then ouiiiminge hard to thr wallest of Argot., 
in the night, and linding one of the gat<« called Dininpem^l 
opened by Arist»^as, he put in hi.i Gaulos : who [XKCKetnetl the 
market place, before the citizens knew any tiling of it. But 
bicaii^c the gate wa>< too low to passe the elepbantes through 
with their towers upon their Ijackes, thcv were driven to take 
them of, and afterwards when they were within, to put them 
on in the dnrkc, and in ttimultc : by reason whereof they lost 
much timi^', no that the citiKCOH in the vnde perceived it, and 
ran incontinently unto the CJixti-ll of A>j«des and into other 
strong pliices of the city. Ami therewilhall, they sent with 
present xptitte unto Antigonus. to pray hint to come andi 
Iielpe them, ami so he did : and after he was come hard to' 
the walles, he remained without with the skowtes, and in the 
meane time sent his sonne witli his chiefest Captaines into the 
townc, who brought a great number of good aoutdiers and 
men of w-arre with them. At thf same time abo arrived 
Areus, king of Sparta, with a thowgand of the C'retans, and 
most histy Spartans: idl which joyning together, came to 
gwve a cliarge upon the Gaules that were in the market 
place, wlio put thent in a marvelous feare and haxard. 
Pyrrus entring on that side also of the city called Cylarabia, 
with terrible noyse and cries : when he underatoode that the 
Gaulcs aunswered him not lustelv and coragiouslr, he doubted 
straight that it was the vovce of men disti-essed, and that 
had their handes full. Wherefore, be came on with speede 


to relieve tbero, thnutine the horsemen fonrards that 
Bucbed before him, with grest daunger and paine, by 
won of boles, and sinckes, aod water conduttes, whereof 
the dty was fiiU. By this mmnc there wa& a wondcrfull 
coofusioD amongest them, as may be thought tightingt- by 
ni^t, whcTT DO miui saw w)iut he liad to doc, oor could 
heara what wax commaunded, by natoa of thv gmtt iioyve 
tbey made, strayii^ here ijid there up and downe the 
ttreetea, thooe Ksttmd fraro the oUter: nt^ither could the 
Captaines set their meit in order, aa wel for tlie darkenes of 
the night, a^ abo for th<; confused tumult that was all the 
dty over, and for that the streetes also were very narrow. 
And therefore they remained on both sides without doing 
any thing, looking for day light : at the dawning whcrol^ 
PjTTUs perceived the castel of AadmIcs, fiU of Ius armed 
conntca. And furthermoiv, sodainly ns be was cofue into 
the market i»laoe, amoneext many other g«XM]ly ooumon 
workni <«tt« out t'( Ix-auttBc (Ik Muiie, hi- .ipinl the iinageti 
of a hull and a woulfc in c<>p)K-r, tlie which fought om- with 
BO other. This night made him afrsved, bicaa-te at tliat 
present he renietnbred a prophixry that liad bene tolde him, 
that hb end and death should be, when he sawe a woulfe 
aod a bull 6ght together. The Argives reportc, that these 
JMgTii were set up in the market placr, for the remem- 
bimuDcc of a certainc citaunce that hiid happened in tlM.>ir 
cootrie. For when Diuwuk mnit- tliithiT hrst, by tix way 
callc-d rvramiafas one would wy, huid sowcn wilb cnnH-) in 
Ibc contxy of 'niyn:atidv', tte »j»w m be went, a woulfe fight 
with a ImiII : whvieupou hi! stayed to we what the end of 
their Geht would come to, nupposing the ca.<te in him »elfe, 
that tne woulfe was of hik side, bicauM that being a 
•tnunger as he was, he came to set uppon the natuiall 
ildl^itantes of the contry. The wotdfe in the ende obtained 
the victory : wherefore Danaus making his prayer unto 
Apollo Lycias, followed on hi» enterprise, and had so good 
nioccMc, that he dmvc Gelnnor out of Argos, who at that 
tine wax king of the Argivcs. And Uii» you hrArv ttie 
owtK why they say theae iukagco of the woulfe and bull were 
htf roairltet place of Argos. Pyrrua being halfe 


A trail ud 
woliig in 
oofiper, *et aa 
in iM dtr of 
At]^ 6gDU 

Danaus win 
kin^ GeUoor. 

ApoUo Ljrdaa. 
kiqi«f the 




Fyrrus *onn«. 

The itrvuiine 
love of au 
Ele»h«tit to 
Ilia keeper. 


discorngnl with the Kight of them, nnd also bicausc notluiige 
fell out well Recording tu liU cxpcctocioD, thought beat to 
rctyrc : but fearing the stroiteiivsw.- of the gates of the city, 
he Kent unto his Konne Helenu*, whomi> he hud left without 
the city with the gre«tt«t p&rte of his force and uniiv, com- 
iiwuiiding htm to overthrow h peece of the wall tJint tiU laen 
might the more readily g«t out, wid that, he miglit rveeive 
tJiem,ift,heirenemiesbychaunce did hinder their eiimmingout. 
But the messenger whom be sent, was so hasty aiid fearefull^i 
with the tumult that troubled him in going out, that he did 
not well understand what Pyrrus sayd unto him, hut reported 
his message quite contrarv- Whercuppon the young prince 
Ilelenus taking the beitt »ouldi<.-T» he nod with liim, and the 
rest of his elepbnntes, etitred into the eity to helpehis father, 
who was niiw geving backe : mid so biiig as he had rooiiie to 
fight at ease, retyririg still, he \alliftiitly rvpulwtl those that 
ift't upon hini, turning hia face oft unto them. Rut when he 
watt oriven unto the streete that went from the market place 
to the gate of the city, he was kept in with hw owne men 
that entered at the same gate to heipe him. But they i 
eoulde not hearc when Pyrrus cried out, and bod them go 
backc, the noyse wa.'^ so great : and tbough the first had 
heard him, and would have goni- bncke, yet they that were 
behinde, and did stil thrust forward int«) tbe prense, did 
not permit them. BesideH this moirover, the biggwt of all 
the elephantes by mi.tforttine fell downe overthwart the gate, 
where ne griudinge his teeth did hinder those, tluit 
woulil have coinen out and geven barke. Furthermore, an 
other of the elephantes that were entred befort; into the city, 
called Nieon (as much to say, as conquering) seeking his 
governor that was striken downe to the ground ftY>m hia backe 
with terrible btowes : ran upon them that catnc backe upon 
him, overthrowing freiides and foes one in an others nccke, 
ti) at the length having foiinde the body of his master slaine, 
he lift him up from Uie ground with hi» troncke, and cary- 
ing him niwn his two tushes, rt?tumed Iwcke with great 
fury, trejuliiig all under fet^te he found in his way. Thus 
cviPry man Iwing thronged and crowded up togetJier in this 
sortc, thtTe was not one that could helpe him selfe : for it 



•cenKd to be a maau and heape of a multitude, and one PYRROS 
wbob body shut tosetber, wbioi sometinu? thrust forward, 
and aoratuiM gave badce, as the sway went. They fought 
not to much asainst tbcir enrmics, who set apon them 
bchuute : but titey did them m.>1%'« morr hurt, then tbdr 
tp e mio did. For if any drew out hts sword, or based hit 

Ske, he cwuld fw-itlier M-»l>ari] U«nu- iigaino, nor lift up 
ither, but thmnt it full u)k>ii his owiie ft-IUiwe«i tliat eaine 
in to heipe them, and so killed them Helves one thrusting 
upon an other. Wherefore Pyirus aedng his people thus 
troubled and harried to and fro, tooke hia crowne from bia 
beade which he ware spon his helmet, that made him knowen 
of his men a farre of, and gave it unto one of hia familian 
that was next unto him : and tnt^ing then to the goodnea 
of hia hor»e, flewc upon his i-nemies that followed him. It 
fbrtimed that one hurt him with it pykv, but the wound was 
iMiitber daungvrouG uor gjvat : whcrfore Pymis art upon him 
that bad hurt him, who wax an Argian bonie, a man of 
meaite condition, and a poore oldc womanH Konnr, wbowe 
mother at that present time waa gotten m> to Uie top[>e of 
the tvlea of a house, as all other women of the city were, to 
we uw fight. And she perreiving that it was lier aonne 
whonie Pymis came apon, was so afrighted to see him in 
that daunger, that she tooke a tvle, and with both her Kln^ Pynui 
bandea cast it apon Pjrrrus. Thc'tyle falling of from his «l»ino *ith » 
head by reason of his head peece, lighted full in the nape of |^' w™^' 
hb nccVe, and brake his neckc bone a isunder r wherewith he 
WHS sodainly so benummed, that he Umt hi» night with the 
blow, the runn of hin bridle foil oul of hLs hiuidr, and htm 
selfc fell from his horse to tlie ground, by Lirymmiiut tombc, 
before any man knew what he was, at Uie lea:>t the amimon 

rple. Untill at Ute last there came one Zopyna, that waa 
pay with Antigonai, and two or three other aouldiera 
abo tnat ran straight to the place, and knowing him, 
dragged hia body into a gate, even as he was comming againe 
to him selfe out of this traunse. This Zopyrus drewe out a 
Slavon aword he wore by his side, to strike of his head. But 
Pyrrus cast such a grimme cotmtenanrc on him betwenc hia 
erce, that made him so ofraycd, and his hand so to shake 
S:X 161 


kini! Aiiti- 

curtmio to- 
wiinlh Pyrrus 
Ixxly luitl 


tlierewitli : that being thua aroarod, he did not strike him 
rifjlit in tlie place where he should have cut of his head, but 
killed him under his mouth about his chinne, so that he was 
a great while ere he could strike of his head. The matter 
was straight blowen abroade amotigcst diverse: whercupcHi 
Alcyoneiis nmtiing thither, aikcd for the head that be might 
know it n^aine. But whvn he had it, he nuinc prtsrntiv 
utiti^i hir< mther witball, mid found him talking with hiH 
familiar freiids, and (-a''t Pyrrti^ hciut iM-fuiv him. Aiitigonus 
looking upon it, when he kixcw it, layed apon hi» mkiuk with 
his staff'e, and called him cruell murderer, and unnsturall 
barbarous beajtt : and so hvding hb eves with his cloke, wept 
for pity, (remembring the fortune of his grandfather Anti- 
gonus, and of his fatner Demetrius) and then caused l'>-nai« 
Head and body to be honorably burnt and buried. After- 
wards Alcyoncus meeting Ilclcnus (king PyrruB sonne) in 
very poore state, mulled up with a |>oorc shorte cloke : used 
him very curtvoutily with gentle wonlett, and brought him to 
his father. AntignniiM seeiug his HOiine bringing of him, 
snyd unto him : This parte now (my sonnv) i» bt-tter then 
the first, fuid plwweth me a great dealt- more. But vet 
thou hiwt not done all thou .iliouldest : for thou »huulacst 
have taken from him hiw Ix'ggi'rly cloke he wcareth, which 
doth more Hhame un titat are the gaincre, then him that is 
the loser. After he had spoken these wordes, Antigonut 
embraced Helenus, and having apparelled him in good 
sorte, sent him home with honorable convov into nis 
realme of Epirus, Furthermore, seasing all Pjttub 
campe and army, he curtcously received all his 
frendcs and servauntcs. 






. gevi-n them, by reasun of tlie ciiiuiuestos they wan. 
reason I'osidoniuH thinketli to overcome them that 



T is not knowcn what w(w tho thin! nniiH" of 
Caius MariuK, no niort- thi-n of Qiiintitw 
SertoHus, who liiui till S|)iiyi>i; in hix luindes 
At one time: nor of Lucius MummiuK, Ite 
Uwt (ifstroyed the citic of Corintlve. For Of tlw iwmei 
Uii» niune of Athaicu«, that was geven ^'^* 
unto MummiuA, of AfVitanus unto Scipiu : 
and of Numidirus unto Metcllus: were all 
By tJiis reason 

say, Uiat the third name the Komaines have, is their proper 
tuuiK: as Cfunillus, MarccUus, Cato. For if it fell out so, 
sayd he, then it must ncedes follow that tJicy which havo 
two naiiieH, Khoiild have no proper name. But on the other 
ode aim, he doth not eonsider that by the like rettson l>e 
should say, tltat woineii have no names: for there is not a 
woman in Koine timt Is eullcd by her fir«t name, which 
I'osidonius judgeth to l>e tht- proper name of the Romaitie*. 
j\Dd that of tl)e other two, the one i» Uic nnnniun name of 
all the hou% or family, a.i of tlu- I'oitijieinns, of the Manlians, 
and of the Cornelians, like as the Hei>ieliiles and the IVlopides 
arc amongest the Greecjana : and the other is a surname 
taken of the decdes, or of the nature, forme, or sliape of the 
l>ody, or of some other like accident, as are these surnames, 
Macrinus, Torquatus, and Sylla. Even as amongest the 
Grecciaiis Iikewi$«, Mnemon, which significth having gotxl 
memory : Grypos, having a crooked nose : Callinicos, coii- 

3iienng. But o-t for that, the diver«itio of customc would 
elivcr objection sufficient to the contrary, to him tliat 
listed. And furthermore, as touching the favor of Marina Wwiosftvor, 
face, we have seene an image of his in marl>cll at Ravenna, 
a city of the Gaules, which doth lively represent tliat rouf;h 
severity of nature and maner which they say was in him. 
For being home a rough man by nature, ana seven to the 



Msriu* could 
no Bkill of the 
Qroeke touge. 

iag to Xenu- 

Mali tut 
Rumen, ttnd 

Msriu* firat 
joriiiy >int» 

til9 WUTOf. 


wam«, atui having folUwod the Mime altogether from his 
vouth, more then tn<- civill life: wlien he came to authority, 
lie could not bridle his anger and cliullericke nature. And 
they say furtheniiore, that he never learned the Grwrke 
tongue, nor used it iji any matters of weight : ss though it 
had bene a mockery to study to leame the tongue, the 
masters whereof lived in bondage under othets. After his 
second triumphc, io the dedication of a certainc temple, he 
made Greeke playcs to shewe the Itomaines pnsUnie: a»d 
came into the Theater, howbeit he did but sit dovriK' only, 
and went his way stntight. Wherfore me thinkts, tliat as 
Plato was wont to say oft o«t»> Xeiiocrtttes the Fhiii>»ophef, 
who was of u currish nature, had his head ever occupied, and 
to severe : Xenucrates, my frend : I pray thee doe sacrifice 
to the Graces. So if any man could liave peKwaded Manus 
to have .•acrificed to the Muses, and to the Gretxrian Graces: 
(tliat is to say, that he had knowen the Greeke tongue) to ao 
many famous and glorious deedes as he did, both in peace 
and waxres, he had not joyned so unfortunate and miserable 
an end as he made, thruugh his choUer and eitrcame ambi* 
tion, at such yeores, and Ui rough an unsatiable covctousnec, 
which like boysterous wiudts made him to make shipwmcke 
of all, in a most cruell, hloody, and uimatumll Jigc. The 
which is cosily knuwen in reading the disoouive of his 
doinges. First of all he was of a nieauv houw, borne of 
poore parents by father and mother, that got their livings by 
Hwvate of their browes. His fatlier as hnn selfe, was calUd 
Coius: Fuldnia was his mother. And this was the cauae 
why he beganne so late to haunt the city, and to leame 
the civility and nuinnvrv of Rome, having bene brought 
up alwayes before in a litlc poore village <^led Cimcaton, 
within the territory of the city of Arpoa: where he led a 
hard contry life, in respect of thone that lived pleosauntly 
and finely in the cities, but otherwise well reformed, and 
nearest unto the maimers of the aiincient Romaines. TTic 
first jomey he made unto the warres, wax against the Cclti- 
beriaiis in Spayne, imder Scipio African, wheii he went to 
besiege the eity of Numaotia : where his Captoines in ahortc 
time found that he was a better souldier, then any other of 

ScipUi AfrU 

uCdt of 


hia companions. For he did marvelous etuiily rucvive the CAIUS 
idbnnation of manners, and the dudpliiie of w&rru^ which KURIL'S 
Sdpio advaunccd amongest his souldiem that were ill trained 
before, and gevcn over to all pleasure^ And they say, that 
in till* sight of his Gfonall he fought hand to hand witl) one 
of his enemies, and <ilew him : upon which occasion, lik-ipio 
to make him love hini, did offer him many curtesies and 
ple*Mtrv«. But vpvdallT one day ahote tne rent, having 
niadv him mppv with rum at his table, some one after 
uipper falling in talkv of Cautaini» that were in Rome 
at that time : one that ittoodc uy Scipio, asked him (either 
Incauae in deede Ik sto«xIe in doubt, or el«v fur tliat he 
would curry favor witli Sdpio) wluit oUk-t Captaine tl>e 
Homunea anould have after his dt-uth, like unto him. Sduio 
having Marius by him, gently clapped him apun his shoulder, 
and sayd : I'eniaveiiture this shalbe he. Thus Iiappely were 
they both borne, the one to shew from his vouth that ooe 
day he should come to be a great man. ana the other also 
for wisely coujecturing the end, by seeing of the beginning. 
Welt, it fortuned so, that tlic:^^' words of Scipio (by rcportc) 
above all things else put Manns in u good nope, as if they 
had bene spoken by Uie omclc of Kome god, and made him 
bold to deale in matters of ntatv and common wnUth : 
where, by mean<-« of tlie favor and countenaunce ('axiliua 
MetelluA gave him (whose hU fattier and he hail 
alwayea followed and honored) he obtained the office of 
Tribuneshij^. In thi!> office he preferred a law touching 
the manner howe to geve the voycea in election of the 
Magistrates, which did seeme to take from the nobility tJic 
authority they had in judgement. And therefore the Con- 
sull Cotta stepped up against it, and perswaded the Senate* CottaConsuU. 
to nai:<t Unit Inwe, and not sufTer it to be authoriM-d, anil 
tlunwithiill pn?<-iitly to cidl Mariw before tticm to ydd 
srEMOD of his doing. So was it agreed u[^)on in the Senate. 
Now Mariu.t ooimning into the Senate, w«« not abashed at 
any thing, as some other young man would have bene, that 
bod but newly begonne to enter into the world as be did, 
and having no otner notable calling or <)uality in him, 
■aving hi» vertue only to commend him : but taking boldenes 


Tribune of 
the people. 


Two lortca of 



deiir«(l to 
be £dilis. 


of him sdfc (as the uoble actes be afterwards did, gave show 
of his valor) he opeiily tbrratntd the Consult Cotta to sende 
him to prison, il he did not prescntlv withdrawn the con- 
clusion he had cau^'d to be resolved apon. 'l^ie Consull 
then tumine him sclfe unto Cnrcilius MctcUus, asked liim 
how he tikeu it P Mvtellus stJindiiig up, spake in tbc liebalfe 
of the Consul! : and thvii Mariiiit ctilHng a scrgejiunt out, 
coinmaunded him to tAkc Mett-lluN Ki'ltV, and to caiy him 
to prison. MeteUus npjienlt-t] to Hit? iiUii^r Tribunw, but 
never n one would takt^ hi^ matter in hand : to that the 
Senatt- whfii all wan done, were com|)elled to call lucke 
the conehiition that l>efore was taken, 'riieii Marius re- 
turning with great honor into the market plaee among 
the assembly of the people, caused this law to pa-tse and 
be authorised : and every man lield opinion of him tliat 
he would prove a stowt man, and such a one, as would 
not stoupc for any fcai\', nor shrinke for bashfullncs, 
but would beard the Senate in favor of the people. Not- 
withstanding, he shortly uAvr chnunged opinion, and 
altered tliv first, by an other act Iw mode. 1-or when an 
other went «boi:t t<> have a kw made, to distribute come 
unto every citim-ii without [myment of any penny, he was 
vehemently against it, and ovt-rtlirew it : so tliat thereby he 
came to he a like hon<inHJ an<l estenied of either party, as 
he that would neither pleasure the one, nor the other, to 
the ])rejudice of the common wealth. After he bad bene 
'IVihune, he sued for the chicfcst office of vfidiUs, Of the 
..Edilea there arc two sortes: the first is called JEdUitaa 
Curulii, so named bicause of certaine chaycrs that bare 
crooked fecte, uuon which they sit when they pcve audience. 
The other is ul k-isse dignity, und tluit is called ^Edilitaa 
jHtpuUirin : and when they have cbo»eii the first and grcatrr 
/GdilJH at Rome, they presently proct^de the same day also 
in the market place unto election of the lesiter. MariuN see- 
ing plainely that he was put by the chiefest of the .i'Milcs, 
turncfl apiine straight yet to demaund the second : but this 
was misliked in him, and they tooke him for too hold, too 
shameles, and too presumptuous a man. So that in one 
sdfe day he bad two denyalles and repulses, which never 


man but him xvlft- Ijefure hat]. And ni'vcrthelcsse, nil this 
could not cut hi* combe, but iJiortcly after he sued also 
for the Pnt-tnrshippe, and he lacked but lith- of the denial! 
of tluit : yet in the ende, being Last of all choecn. he was 
acaised to have bribed the people, and bought their voyccs 
for mont-y. And surely amongest many other, thin jirc- 
sumption was verygrettt: that they saw a inan of Cawiiis 
Sabiioon within the barres where the election w nuult', rmi- 
niog to and fro amonge them that gave their voyccs, bicaiuc 
this Sabacon was I^rius very great frend. Ilic matter 
came before the judges, and Sabacon was examined upon it. 
Whereunto he aunswcrcd, that for the great extreame huate 
lie felt, he was very drv< and a«ked for cmlde water to drinke, 
and that this miui had brought hini some in a potte nhere 
he was, howbeit that he went hi« way as soone as ever he 
had dronkf. llil^ Sabacon was afti;rwardcs put out of the 
Senate by the- next Ceniwnt, and many Judge that he was 
worthy ot thin infamy, for tluit he wa* perjured in judgement, 
or bicausc he wa* »o subject ajid gevi-ij to hw pleasure. 
Cains Heniuiiuit was also called for a witnftwe against 
Manus : but he did alleage for his excuse, that tlie hiw and 
cuitome did dispense with the Patrone, to be a wituMsc 
againnt his follower and client, and he was quit by the 
judges. For the Romaines alwayes call those Patronx, who 
take the protection of meaner then them selves into their 
hattdes: saying, that Marius nredeccssore, and Marius him 
eetfe, had ever bene followers of the house of the Herenniana, 
Tlie judges received his nunswore, and allowed thereof. Hut 
Manus spake against it, allrnging, that since he had received 
this honor to licarc office in the common wealth, he was now 
growen from this base eondicion, to l>e any more a follower 
of any man : the which was not true in all. For every office 
of a Sfagislnite doth not exempt him Uwt hath the office, 
nor yet hi* posterity, to be inider the patn>nage of on other, 
iMrdoth diwhiirgo him from tlie duety of honoring them: 
but of necessity he must be a Magistrate, wbidi tlie law doth 
permit to sit in the crooked chayer called CuruSs, that is to 
say, caned up^ion a charet through the city. But notwitli- 
standing that at the first hearing of this cause, Marius had 




Sftbacon put 
of the Senati 

Ciuiu Heren-1 

111 us jileaded 
in Muiut to 
hstfe, touoli-, 
lag: the patrol 
and clieot. 


i» Spnyno. 

Thp opinion 
of Suiiiiyurdl 
to olda timu. 


rftUed BieD to 

Hov Marius 

lulia, Mariu« 

Marl us tem- 
ptminco anil 


but ill (uocesse, and that the judges were gainst him all 
the)- could : yet \n the ende for all that, at the last hearing 
of his matter, Marius, contrary to all mens opinions, was dia- 
chargcd. bicausc the judges opinions with and against him 
fell to be of like number. He used him selfe vory ordcriy in 
bis ofiicc of Pnctorshippc, and after his ycarc was out, when 
it came to devide the provinces by lot, Spoine fell unto him, 
wliich is Ix^yond the river of Ba-tis : where it i« reported that 
hi- skowRHi all the contrie tlu-nMibout» of thevv« An<l robbt-m, 
which notwitii.ttiiiuling wux yirt v^-ry cruell and savage, for 
the rude, liarlmrou!', and uncivill manner and facion of life 
of the inhabitanttat thtre. For the Spanyards were of 
opinion even at that time, that it was a goodly thinge to 
live apon tlieft* and robbery. At his rctume to Rome out 
of Spayne, desiring to dcale in mattera of the common 
wealtn, he saw that he had neither eloquence nor riches, 
which were the two meancs, by the which those that were 
at that time in credit And authoritVi did cary the people 
even as they wintld. NotwithstiLnding, they made great 
nccompt of nix eonxt^mcy and noble mindv they found in 
him, of hL» {»r«at [wyne* and travell he tooke continually, 
and of the simplicity of hin life : which were cauaeH to bring 
him to lionor and pn-fcrmeut, insomuch an he maricd very 
hiffhiy. For he marled lulia, that was of the noble hou!«e 
of tlie Ciesara, and auiite unto lulius Cwsar : who after- 
wardes came to be the chiefest man of all the Romaines, and 
who by reason of that allyance betwenc them, seemed in 
some tningcs to followe Marius, as we have wrytten in his 
life. Marius was a miui of great tempcraimce and pacience, 
as may be judged by lui iu;tc- he did, puttingc him selfe into 
the hnndos of siirgwms. For his shmickes unci Icppcs were 
fidl of great swollen veynes, and lieing angiie bicausc it waa 
no pleasaunt thinge to licliolde : he aeU-rminai to put htm 
selfe into the handw of Mirgeons to be cured. And first, 
laying out one of hi^i lef^ges to the surgeon to worke upon, 
he would not lie bound as others are in the like case : 
but paeientlv abode all the extreame paines a man must of 
necessity feele Ijeing cut, without slurring, groning, or sigh* 
ing, still keeping hts countenatmce, and sayed never a wora. 


But when the surgeon bad done with bis first legge, and 
would have gone to the other, he would not gevo it him : 
Nny Myd he, I see the cure ts not worth the paine I must 
■U}idv. Aflerwaides, Civciliiis MetvlliiB thu Consull, being 
•pgrnintLx] to go into A£ncke to niulte wurrv with king 
lujjurthe, tookcMariuH with him for one ufhiNLiimtfniuintes. 
Muiux being tiwn^ iweing notAblv good service to lie done, 

[and good ocuMon to shew hist inoiinoode, was not or mtnde 
in thk voyage to increote Meteilun hon<ir and reputacion, oa 
other Lieu tenaun tea did : and tliouKht that it watt not 

yHcteJluH that called him forth for ah Ueutenaunt, but 
ne her seife that presented hira a fit occasion to raise 
him to greatnes, and (as it were) did lead him by the hand 
into A goodly 6eld, to put him to the proofe of that he 
coulde doe. And for this cause therefore, he endcvored him 

^Ife to shew all the possible proofcs of vaUiantnesse and 
aor he could. For, the warrra being great continimJly 

Etbere, he never for fcarc refused any attempt or Ker^ice, how 
idaungerouj or i>uirifiill soever it were, neither disdaim-d to 
take any .tervice in hand, were it never m litle : I)ut execeding 
all other his fellowea and companionn in wiitednmc anil fore- 
sigfat, in tliat which was to be doiie, and striving with the 
nest Bouldiers in liWng hardly and painefully, wanne the 
iwill and favor of every man. For to say bTiely, it is a 
at comforte and refreshing to soiddiers that labor, to have 
npanions that labor willingly with them. For they thinke, 
that their company laboring with them, doth in manner take 
away the compuUion and necessity. Furthermore, it plcaseth 
the Kumainc iwuldicr mar%'elously to mm.- the Genernll eate 

popcnlv of the *jime hn-ad hv eateth, or that he lyeth on a 

'lurd bed an he doth, or that him selfe is the tSr»>t man tn set 
his hande to any worke when a trenche is to l>e cast, or their 
campe to be fortitied. For they doe not ao much esteeme 
the Captaines, that honor and reward them : as they doe 
those that in daungerous attempts labor, and venture their 
lives with them- ^Vnd further, they do farre better love 
them that take painra with them, then tliosc that suiTcr them 
to live idlcly by them. Mariiis iH.-rfoniiing all this, and 
winiiing therebv the love and goonwilh of his suuldien : he 
3 : Y ' 169 







In the warre 



The liilMwr 
and jiTCM^CO 

of the (ilTOC- 

ntll mnkrth 
thu Kouldieni 
worku «U. 



Msrius the 
author of 

fnloe uccuntt- 
tiun and 

Vuecs, a 
|p«at city. 
The cause of 
the supposct 

put to death. 

Mctdlun uid 


straight Blled all Libya and the aty of Bome writh his glory, 
so that he was in every oianns mouth. For they that were 
ill the campe in Afnckc, wrote unto tht-m that were at 
Uonie, that they should never kcc the cnde of these wamcs 
against this bartmroiis king, if they gave not the charge unto 
Mariiis, and cho«e him Conxull. 'lliesc thinges misUked 
Mctellu* very much, hut specially the ini.sforliiiic that caine 
apon Turpilius, did marvelously trouble him : which fell out 
in this sorte. Tur]>ilius waa Metellus frtnde, yea he and 
all his parentes luui followed Metellus in this warre, being 
master of the workes in his campe. Metellus made him 
governor over the city of \'aeea, a goodly great city : and be 
using the inhabitant*^ of the «unc very gently ajid curteously, 
mistrusted nothing, till he was fallen into the handcs of his 
enemies through their trviwuTi. Fnr they hod brought king 
lugurthe intt) their city unknowing to him, howlx-it thuy 
dill liim no hurt, but onely Iteggt-d him uf the king, atx! let 
liim goe lii.s way .lafe. And tliis wa.i the cause why they 
ac^cused Turpilius of treason. Marius being one of his 
judges in the counsell, was not contented to be bitter to hira 
him selfe, but moved many of the counsel! besides to be 
against him. So that Metellus by the voyccs of the people, 
was driven again«t his will to cundenine him, to suffer as a 
traitor: and shortly after it was foiutde, and proved, that 
Tur|)ilius wan wrongfully conilcnnied, and put to death. To 
say tnii'ly, there wat not one of tlu' counsel but weiv very 
Kory with Metellus, who marvelous impadently tooke tKc 
death of the poore innocent. Hut Marius contrarily re- 
joyced, and tooke it upon him that he pursued his death, 
and was not ashamed to make open vauntes, that he had 
hanged a fury about Metellus necke, to revenge his 
frendcs bloiKl, whom lit- giltleese h^td caused to be put to 
death. After that titut; they became mortall enemies. ^Vnd 
they say, tliat one day Mctvllus to niocke him withall, sayd 
unto him : good man, tliou wilt leave us then, and retumc 
to Rome to sue for the Consiilshippe, and cannt thou not be 
contented to tarv to be Consull with ly sonne .•' Now his 
-wnne at that time was but a boy. But whatsoever the 
matter ment, Marius left hira not so, but labored for leave 


a)] be could possible. And Metellua after he had used many 
deUyea and excuses, at the length zave him leave, tnelve 
daycs only before the day of election o? the Consulls. Where- 
fore Manus made hast, and in two dayes and a nisht came 
ffum the campc to Utiut apoo the sea side, which is a mar- 
rclous way from it ; and tncrc before- he tookc nhippv, did 
McHHcc- unto tlie godd(.«, and the SoothsHver toldv him, 
tJiat thtf j^ldtii by thi; nigni.'s of hU sncrificn, did uromi-tc 
hiin uncrixlible proHix-nty, and m great, as he- himMUe durst 
not hope after. Ineae worde* made Moriun hart gntter. 
Whereupon he hoysed sayte, and luiving a pacing good gale 
of winde in the poope of Hie shippe, ikOHwd the Neae* in foure 
dayes, and being landed, rode poste to Rome. When he 
was lurived, he went to thewe nim selfe unto the people : 
who were mairelous desirous to see him. And heinfi brought 
by one of the Tribunes of the people unto the pulpit for 
orations, after many accusations which he objcctra against 
Mctel)u«, in the end he besought the people to choose him 
Consul], promidng that within few dayes he would either 
kill, or take king lugurthe priwonor. Whereupon he was 
cho«en C«>ii!»ull without any contnuliction. And so itoone n» 
he was proclaimed, he Iwgiinne imniediatly to leavie men of 
warre, causing many jmore men thitt had nothing, and many 
■lavea alM>, U* be enrolled agiLin.'<t tho order of auncient 
cuatome: where other (*a]it>une» before him did receive no 
sueh maner of men, and did no more sutler unworthy men to 
be souldiers, then they did allow of unworthy officers in the 
common wealth : in doing the which every- one of them that 
were enrolled, left their goodea behinde tfiem, as a pledge of 
their good service abroade in the warres. Yet this was not 
the matter that made Marius to be ntost hated, but they 
were his stowtc prowde wordcs, fidl of contempt of othcm, 
that did chicfcly oft'endc the noble men in the city. For he 
prochiimcil it every when- iibnwuU' lus it were, lliitt his Con- 
itulUhippc wax n si>oyI(- he had gott<-n of the effeminate riehe 
noble men through hia valliantncs, and that the wounds 
which lie had ujion his body for service of the common 
wealth, and not the monument^ of the dead, nor the images 
and statues of others, were tho&e that recommended him to 



Mariui flrtt , 
tim* of baiqi 

offeiidad th«| 



Metellus of 
tlie honor of 

cotKi lie ring 
of kiDK 


kinge of 
unto Syllft. 


the people, nor weare hitt strength. And ofttimea naming 
Albinus, and otherwhile Beatia, both noWe men, and rf 
great bouses, who having bene Generalls of the Ituniainc 
army, had very ill fortune in the contry of Libya : be c&Ued 
tbem cowardes, and simple souldicrs, asking tbcm tiiat were 
about bim, if they did not thinkc that their aunixsten would 
rather have vrishrd to have left their children that came of 
them like unto him *elfe, then tiuch as thcv had bene : con- 
itiderin^ that they tbem !«clveK bad wonne ^lonor and gloi^* 
not for that they wen- diKeenrliMl of noble blood, but thioufffa 
their deserved vertue and valliant deedea. Now Manus 
spoke not these wordes in a fooliahe braverv, and for vaiae 
glory onely, to purchase the ill will of tne nobility for 
nothing : but the common people being very glad to see him 
shame and di^spito the Senate, and me&suring alwaycv the 
greatm's of his corn^c with bis havrty fierce wordes f*^y 
e-ggcd him forward still not to spare tlie nobility, and to 
reprove the ffrx'jvt men, so that he ever held ""ith the com- 
munalty. And furtbennore, when he wax pAMcd over againe 
into Airicke, it sniti-rl Metelhitt to the hart, bicause that he 
having ended alt the warre, that there remained almost no 
more to take or winne, Marius sboidd come in that sortc to 
take away the glory and triumphe out of his handcs, baring 
sought to rise and mcrease by imtbankcfullncs towards bim. 
He would not come to him therefore, but went an other 
way, and left the army with Rutilius one of his Ucutenaunte*, 
t« de!iv(T the same unto him. Howbeit the revenge of thia 
ingratitude, lighted in the eiido upon Mnriu* owne neeke. 
For Sylla tooke out of Marius hands the honor of ending 
this warnr : even na Man us had taken it from MetcUus. But 
how, and after what sorte, I will re)>eate it in few word^, 
bicause we have written tiie particularities more at large in 
the life of Sylta. Roochus king of high Numidis, was father 
in law unto king lugurthe, unto whom he gave no great 
ai<Ie, whilest he made warres with the Romaines, bicause he 
hated bis un faithful Ines. and feared least be would nuikc 
him selfe greater then he was ; but in tlie end, after lugurthe 
[tad fled, and wandered up and downc in e^-ery place, he w«» 
constrained of very necessity to east hi.'« Inst hope and ancker 


npon him, ns hU flnall refu^ luid m repayre unto him. 
King Boochus received him mther for tihaiiie, bicause he 
(hint not punish him, then for any love or (goodwill he bare 
him : and na^Hiig him in his handu, *eeined ojienly to intreate 
MaHus for him, and secretly to wrjle the contrary unto him. 
But in the Dicanc time, he practised treason under hande, 
and wnt privcly for Lucius l^ylla, who then was Quiestor (to 
my, hifffa trcn^orer) under ^Inrius, and of wbome he had 
rcot-irea cortaine uleasureti in those wnrrcti. SyUa tmsting 
to thia iMrlMTous King, went at his wuiding for to him. But 
when hf wft.1 cmnr, king BcKchus rvjH-uti-d him of his pro- 
mine, and altered hU mindo, .itaiuiin^ many dayc^ in doubt 
with him selfe howi^ to rennlve, whether lie should deliver 
king lugurthe, or keepe Sylla him selfe : yet at the last he 
went on with his purpose and intended treason, and delivered 
king lugurtbe alive into Syllaes hands. And this was the 
fint onginall cause of the pestilent and mortall enmitie that 
grew aftcrwardcs betwixt Marius and Sylla, and was like to 
hare utterly overthrowcn the dtie of Rome, and to have 
rmccd the fnttitdation of th<.- em])yn' imto the grounde. For 
nmny envyingc the glorie of Marius, gave it out every where, 
that this Acte of the taking of king lugurthe, appertained 
only unto Sylla: and Sylla him wife cauitcd a ring to be 
made, which he ware commonly, an<l liad graven upon the 
stone of the same, how Bocchus delivered lugurthe mto his 
handea. And afterwardes he made it allwayes his scale to 
dbpite Marius with all, who was an ambitious and proude 
man, and couldc abide no companion to be partaker of the 
glorie of his doings : and Sylla did it specially at the pro- 
curement of enemies and ill willcrs, who gave the glory of 
the beginning and chicfc cxpjoytji of thi? wnrrc, unto Mctellus, 
■nd tne U«t and finall cniMrluxion unto Sylla, to Uie ende 
that the people should not lutvi- MnHus in no grvat twtima- 
cion and good opinion, ait they Itad iKfore. But all thia 
eavy, detraction, and hatred against MariuH, was aoone after 
extmguished and troden under foote, by reason of the great 
daungcr that fell apon all Italic out of the West : and they 
never spake of it afterwardcs, knowing that the common 
wealth stoode in accde of a good Captaiuc, and that they 


Lueiuj Sjrlla 
und«f Uwiufa 


The orlKlaal] 
cause of the 
eirill warres 
Mkriui and 

Tlie ciymniln^ 
iutu ItftJie of 
U>« Tf'utnnH 
and Cimbfw. 

Th« nrinj- of 
Iba Teuton* 
Knd ('imhroii 
noooOO men. 


CAIUS begantw to lookc about, mikI consider who should be thAt 
MARIUS great wise Pylot, that niiglit save and prcstn-c it, from so 
cxceding dnungerou)! stonm> of wan«s. For then- was not a 
noble moil of nil the auncient houMS of Rome, tliat (lur«t 
undertake to ofTer him selfe to deinaunde the ('oit!tuII»hi{>|ie : 
btit Moriu* being nbnent, was choaen Ginmill the .secoixl time. 
For lugurthe was no sooner taken, but tiewes eame to Rome 
of the eoniniitiff dowiie of the Teutons, and of the Cimbres, 
the which would not be beleved at the first, by reason of 
the infinite number of the fighting men which was sayd to 
be in their company, and for the uncredibte force and power 
of arniics which was j ustified to cx>iiic tdso : but ofU-rwardes 
they knew plninely, thnt the rumor that ranne abroadc was 
Icsse, then the tn)th Ml out in decde. For they were three 
hundrvd Uiowxand fighting men all onned, who brought 
with tJHin alto an other multitude as grent (or more) of 
women and children : which wandered up and downe seeking 
eontrioM and towneo to dwell and live in, an they hi«nt say 
Uio (iaulcih had done in olde time, who leaxiiig their owne 
oontry, came, and hail possessed the best parte of Italic, 
which they had taken away from the Thuscans. Now to 
say trueiy, no man knewe of what nation they were, nor 
from whence they came : as well for that they had no frend- 
shippe with any other people, as also bicause they came out 
of a farre contrv. 'w a clow<ie of people that was sprcd all 
over Gaute and llrilic. It was doiitwi mticb Umt they came 
out of Gerniiinye, dwelling itlmut the north sea: and this 
th«v conjectured by viewc of the grcatiiw of their Ixxlic:*, 
aoci nUo for that tHvy hod darke blew eyes and reddc, licsidcs 
that the Germanes tn tlidr tongue doe call theeves and 
Omfcri. robben, Cimbri. Other say that Ccltica, for the great length 

and laigenes of the contry, stretching it selfe from the const 
of the great Occcan sea and from the north partes, drawing 
tovrards the m&risscs M(Foti<les, and the East runneth into 
Scythia, or Turtaria Pontica: and that for iteighbourhood 
these two nations joyned togcthtT, and went out of their 
contrie, not that tliey made tlii^i great voyage all at one 
time, btit at manv simdry timi'S, marching ycsrely in the 
spring furtiier ant) further into the contry. Aud thus by 


oontiiiuaiic-e of time, they passed by forw of annes through CAltW 
oil the finne laodc of Europe: iind that for this cause, MARIUS 
althousfa they bad ittany piirlicuW iiHtncs according to 
tbe divenitie of their iinliuns, yet id I this masse aikd ^^i 

taultitudc of people gHtliered togeUier, were called not- ^H 

withstaodiog, Uiu iirtny of the ('eituscythcs, lu who would ^H 

MV) Uk CcltotartareM. OtJier hold opinion thnt the nation ^| 

gf the CiinmeriHiis, whn were knoweii in old time fur auncicnt Cimnwrij. 
Graeciana, the «ne parte of them were not very grvAt in 
respect of the whole, the which being fled (or driven out 
of their contrie for some civil! di^eention) were compelled by 
the Tartares to passe bcvond the marisscs Mceotide^ into 
the contries of Asia, under the conduction of a Captaine 
called Ligdamis. But the residue of them which were a 
larre greater number, and more warlike men, they dwelt in 
the furdcst partes of the uirth, adjoyning unto the great 
Occcan si-a, in a durkv Nhudowvd cnntHe, covered with wonder- 
full furrcstes, of such Ivngth, and so great and thicke, and 
the trees so high, that the .luune cait htive no power upon 
the ground, aiKi they joyne ban! u]km» the great forr^-st of 
Uen^iia. And furthermore, Uiey are under »iich a climate, 
where the pule in of such a height by the incliniitiun of 
the circles equidistant, which they call i'arallelles, tliat it is 
not farrc from the poynte that aunswcreth directly to the 
plummet uppon the head of the inhabitantes : and where 
the dayes are cquinocttall, tliev doe devidc all their time 
in two part*-*, tlic which gevetfi Homer occasion to faync, 
that when Ulis^es would aul uuun the dead, he went into the 
contiT of the Cimmerians, m into the coutry of hell. And 
this » the cauxe why they .say the.iv barbarous people left 
their owne contries to come into Italic, which from the bc- 
glDDing were called Cimmerians, and afterwordcs they nj 
(and not without great likelyhoodc) that they were sumamed 
Cimbres : howebeit that is spoken rathci- by a likely conjec- 
ture, then by any assured troth of history. And a» for Ol« 
multitude of men, the most parte of histoHographers doc 
wryte, that they were rather moe, then lease then we iiaw 
spoken of: and that they were so hardy and valliant, that 
nothing coulde stoode before them, they did so great tl)inge« 




CoQKuU the 
■eoond time 
SKuiiat the 

place for oain> 
moa beoefit. 

iuto Rome, 
for kiDg 


by the strengUi of tlieir ltan(l» whvrc they fought with any» 
!M} viiilently, and so sodaiiiely, that thvy Kivnird to Iw like 
a lightititige fire all aliout where Uiey atme. By menites 
whereof, they met with no man tJiat uurst resittt them, Imt 
ocraped together and caried away, all that they found, hand« 
OTer head ; and there were many Uomaine Captaines ap- 
pointed governors to kccpe that wliich the Komaines held 
ni Gnidf bcyondf tin- inountnini-M, who with great armica 
were shaiiiefnlly im-rtlirowcii hy thi-m. The tx)wai-(llynes of 
thosi% wtioni thi'v hiid overconiv, wfu the chieti^t cAUKe that 
moved ttwta to direct their joniey to ItonH'. Pur whvn they 
had vftn<iu»hed thv fint they fought wittiall, and gotten 
great ridiuMe altto : they were so ficslied hy Uiif, tlial they 
aetenniiied to stay no where Iiefore they had first destroyed 
Koine, and sacked all Italie. The Koinaines hearing of this 
out of all partes, sent for Marius to geve him tlie conduc- 
tion and leading of these warres, and chose him Coiisull the 
sccondc time: notwitlistjinding that it was directly against 
the tawc. that did vxpn.>ssvly forbid any iiitui to be chosen 
being ab!«nti and until! aim) a cert'tinc time appointed hod 
past bctwene the vacation and elrction, l>eforv they could 
chooH; him oHiw-r twise in one office. Sutne altcitged thi» 
law, of intent to hinder the election. But the people 
rejiuUt them, objecting to the contrary' : that thia was not 
the fintt time the law had geven place to the benefit of the 
coinmoti wealth, and that the occasion offered to abrogate 
the law at that present was no lesse, then former occasions 
by the which they chose Scipio Consull, against the coiine 
and time appoint^'d by the law, iiot for any feare they stoode 
in to lose their owne contrie, but for the dcsin- they hjul to 
destroy the contry of the Carthu^titanH, hv n^ison whereof 
the people proceeded to election. And I^IuHim hringit^ 
home his armie ogftine out of Libya into Italie, tooke [xisms- 
sion of hi-'t C^>n»uUhip the first day of lanuary (on which t\ay 
the Homaine* l>eginne their yeare) and tlierwithall made 
hilt triumpho into the city of Itonie, showing that to the 
Komaineoi which they thought never to have secne: and 
that wa», kinge lugurthc prisoner, who was so subtill a man, 
and coulde so well frame lum hcUc unto his fortune, and with 



his craA and subtUHe was of so great coragc besides, that CAI08 
none of bis enemies ever hc^>ed to nare had bim alive. But UARJUS 
it is sayd, tbat after be was led in this triumphe, he fell mad 
straight apon it. And the pompe of triiimphe being ended, 
he was caried into prisone, where the serseatint£« for lw*t to 
have U>e spoyle of him, tare bis apparell by fnrw from of 
h\a bneke : and bicause they would take awav his rich golde 
eare ringes that lioiig at nix eares, they pulled away witli 
them tlie typpe of his eare, and tlwn cost nim naked to the 
bottome of a deepe dungeon, his witte« being altogether 
troubled. Yet wlien they ilid throw him downe, laughing 
he aayd : Hercules, liow colde are your stoves. He livea 
there yet six dayes, fighting with hunger, and desiring 
alwayes to prolong his miserable life unto the lajt howcr : 
the which was a just deserved punishment for his wicked life. 
Id this triumphc were caried (as thev say) three thowsaod 
and seven hundred pound weight in gold, and of nlver nygots, 
five thowsand seven hundred and Ixxv. poundc weight: and 
more in goldc and ready coync, eight and twenty ttiowsand 
WhI seven hundred crowncs. After this triumphc, Mtriiu 
caused the Senate to assemble within the Capitoll, where he 
cntnd into tJic comjiame with his triumpliiiige robe, eitlier 
bkause he forgot it, or else of too grotse ana undviU arro- 
gancy : but perceiving that all tlie ««semblie mtsliked of it, 
be ro*c mdainly, and tooke hi« lone Consulls gownc, and 
then returned cguickely againc into Im place. Furthermore 
Marius departing to goe to the warres, tl>ought to traine How Morius 
his army ny the way, and to harden his souldiere nnto *^*'?^ '"'* 
tabor, causing them to runne every way, making great longc •'^"Wtert. i 
jomeys, compelling ech souldier to cary his ovmc furniture, 
and to prepare him necessary nttells to finde him s«lfe 
withall : so that ever after they made a proverb* «f it, 
and called such as were paineful and willme to do that 
which thcr were commaunded without gruagine, Marius Marius 
morks. Other notwithstanding, do shew an outer cause »oylM. 
ano beginning of this nrovcrbe. For they say, that Sdpio 
lying at the sit^ of tnc dty of Numantia, would not only 
ike view of the armor and hor«S! of wnico that were in 
his armie, but aUo of the nioyles nn<) other bcastes of bunlni, 
8 : Z 177 


M&riua com- 
meudwl fur 
hla juKticc 


bkaiue he would see how they were kept and funiiabed. So 
MaHus brought his horse and moylc to the niustiM' which 
he kept him si-lfe, fatto, fnyiT, nnd very well drcst, and liis 
movk't! hcarc no Elikt- nnd smooth, and thtrvwithall so liuty 
anil trimme, as none uf the n«t were hke unto tlieni. Scipio 
tooke great pleasure to »ee tJie»« beaste* tto well kept, and 
in so f^ood plytc: inxomuch as he spake of it aftervardit many 
a time and oft. And upon his words, this manner of taike 
was taken up ever after, aiid became a common proverbe : 
iFhen they meane to mocke any man that is paiiiefull, and 
eeveu to sore labor, makingc as though they would praise 
him, they call him Marius moylc. Furthermore, it was 
A happy tumc for Marius (in mine opinion) that these 
barbaroui^ {x-ople (likv in force to the beating httekc of the 
riifring seacs) timied their (imt fury tow<inU« Sjuiyne: aud 
Umt he in the meane space had time and li-aMin; to traine 
and exerci.te his souldier*, to make tlieiii bolde-, atid withal), 
him selfe to be throughly knowen amangest them. For when 
by litle and litle they had learned not to olTend, nor disobey: 
then they found his rough commaunding, and sharpe scTeri^ 
in punishing such as slackv their duety, both prohtable and 
very noccssaric, besides that it was also just and reasonable. 
Againc, his great fury, his shaqie words, and bis Gcroc 
lookcs, after they had a while bene used to them, by litle 
and litle they seemcil iiotlunge so fearfull to them, as to 
their enemies. But th*; thing that plcu^ed tlie souldiers 
more then all tlie rest, wa» hiA justirv and upright deal- 
ingo : whereof they re|x>rt<- such an example : jfariun liat] 
a iiepbewe of his in his canipe called Caius Liisiiis, uho liad 
charge of men in the army. 'ITiis Lusius was taken for a 
marvelous honest man, saving that he had this fowlc vice 
in him, that he would be so&nlv in love with faycr young 
boyes: and as at that time he fell in love witli a trimme 
younge striplinge, colled Trebonius, that served under him, 
and having niiiny times lewdly entised him, and never could 
obUiine Ids nur])iwe,Mt Ihe last jtciit for him one night by his 
servttunt- The young man might not dicobay his Optainc 
Ix'ing iM-nt for, but presently went unto bun. When he was 
come into his tent, and that his Captaine did strive with all 


tun force to <Ioe him villanny : Ix dtvwe out his sworde, and 
killed hini in the p\tux. And this wus done whun Mnnus 
was out «f lii.i c«mi>c : who »o soonv rs ht- n.'tnmid, cHu^d 
the manhall to bring thi: young man Itc-fofx: him. Many 
stepped forth Htmight to accuw him, but no miui to defend 
him. Wherefore he boldly began to tvll hiK tale hiin.ielfe, 
and to name many witne«se», who had l>oth Heene and kiiowen 
how his dead t.'aptaiiie had often timet ofiere<I him dinhunor, 
and how that he had continually resisted his abhoniinabte 
motion, and would never yeld him selfe unto him, for any 
gift or present he could oner him. Wherefore Morius com- 
mending him greatly, and being v-cry glad of it, caused 
prc^ntly one of those crownes to be brought imto him, 
whidi are ttscd to be gevcn to them that in a day of 
battel have done «>me valliant deedr, hikI he him selfe 
did orownc Trebonius withall. m one that hiul ilouv a 
nohl*' ftcte, and at such a time, a-t good and iHinest ex- 
amples were rvcjuiHite. This judgement of Mariim heinfe 
coned to Knme, KtocHli; hini tu great gtKKl purixMe towaroea 
the obtaining of his third ConsuLihip]te: ueaides aliM) that 
they looked f<»r the cimnning tmcke of these liarharoua 
[K-ople about the springe witli whome tlie llomainc souldiers 
would not light under any other Caplainc, then Marius. 
Howbeit they came not so mmnc ngaine as they looked for 
them, but Marius passed over also th*.' yeare of his third 
Consullshippc, So time comming about ugaine for the 
election of ncwc Consulls, and hi» coin[MUiioii also lieing 
dead : ho was driven to goe him selfe imt« Rome, leaving 
the eluirgc of his camjH- in hi" idMcnee, unto Manius Acilius. 
At tlmt time thoir were many noble men that sued for tlie 
Con»ulship)>e: but LuciuH SatuniiniLs one of tJie Tribunes, 
who had the commutmlty under hi.i girdell as he would him 
aelfe, more then any of thother 'IVibunes, and being wonne 
under hand by Mariua, made many orations, in the which he 
pcrswadod the people to cliootie Marius Consull the fourth 
time. Mariua to the contrary, seemed to refuse it, saving 
that he would none of it, though the people chose iiini. 
Whereupon Satuminus called him traitor, crying out, tliat 
bis rcfusall in such a daunecr and time of neoeflntr, wan an 



MwtUm third 



ArlliuD I.lm- 
UnAiit nf Uia 
nrm^, uudw 





CAIUS apparant parte to betray the oommon wealth. It waa found 
MARIUS stmizht triat this was a erosse pockc betwixt Satuntiniis and 
Manus, by such as could sw day at a litle hole. Ncvcrthe- 
Icsso, thi- people consiik'riiig that their present trouble* 
required MariuH skil and good forluue in the warres, t)i«y 
Mariui fuurtli made him Consull the fourth timv, and Joyned Catulus 
Couiullahipiie Lijclatlus Consul witJi him, a mail that was greatly honored 
r rt«tf '" "^ ^'■' ""l^'''ty, and not miitlikwl also of the voinmun people. 
ManiiN haviiiu iiewe« of the u))proelii[ig of Uie barbarous 
people, jia^ieii over tlie Alpett witli great speede, and fortify- 
RhodaDUifl. ing nis canipe by Uie river of Khone, he brought great pro- 
vision of alt kindes of vittels thither with him, least being 
atraighted by lacke thcrof, he should be forced to come to 
battell at any other time, but even as he would him selfe, 
and as it should seeme good imto hiui. And where before 
that time the transporting of vittells unto his eampc by 
sea was very long, and [iitiiiigrrous, and a marvelous great 
cliarge beside.s i he mmle it very »ht>rte (md tUMn by thin 
Dteanes. The mouth uf the river of Rhone had gathered 
together ho much mudde, and such ittore of nande, wnich the 
waves of the sea had cast on heapes together, that the .tame 
was becomcn very high and depe : so as the tiaitckeii made 
the entry into it veiy narrow, hard, and ilaungerous for 
great shippes of buroen that came from the sea. Mariua 
considering this inatti^'r, set his men a worke while they had 
nothing to do, nnd iiiailc thein digge a large trench and deepe 
ehannell, into the which he tumou a great parte of the river, 
and caried it to a convenient place of the coast, where the 
water fell into the sea by an open gulfv, whcrby he made It 
able to cary the greatest -Hhiupe.i thjit wen- ; and besides 
that, it was in a very still quiet plane, not being troubled 
with windea nor waves, 'ITie channel! earicth yet hi* name, 
and is called Marius Channell or trenehe. These barbarous 

Q>le devided them selves into two armies to pasK into 
e, so that it fell out to the one parte which were Uic 
TheCimbrw ('imbrcB, to goe through high Germanye, and to force that 
wcotthrouKh |w»5age which Catulus kept: and unto the other parte, 
t.«rTnMi«ioto ^hjj.jj ^^^ y^^ Teutons and Ambrons, to passe through the 
contry of the GenouesJans by the sea side against Mariua. 




Now the Cimbres having the greater coinpaase to fetch CAIOS 
about, stayed lenger, and remained behinde : but the MARIUS 
Teuttms and the Ambrons going their way first, had in fcwi* '^' Teuu»i» 
dayefl dispatched their jomey they had to go, to bring them ^u npon * 
to the campe where the Itoniaincs lay, unto whom they Mariuii to 
presented themselves by infinite immbi'TH, with terrible focvM psme into 
to beholde, and their crj-es and voyoes farrc oontiary imto ltAlie,thiomIi 
Dther mens. Tliey tooke in a mnrvclouH d«de of grounde in ^» t«f"t<"r 
length til cami)e upon, and so can>e forth to d«fie Mariua, '"'"'■• 
and provoke iiim to baltell in o)>eii liel<l. >Cariu» made 
no reckoning of all tlteir bragging defianees, but kept his 
men togetlier witliin his cauipe, taking on terribly with them 
that would raahely take upon them to move ought to the 
OOQtrary, and which through impacienee of choiler would 
nedes go forth to light, calling them trajiors to their 
contry. For said he, we are not come to fight for our 
pri\'ate glory, ncitlier to winne two triuniphcs nor victories 
for our selves : but we must seekc by all meancs to divert 
and put by this great shower of warres from us, and this 
Ughtning and tempest, that it overcome not all Italie. 
TbeK words he NgMike unto the private CfiptAtni.-!4 which were 
under him, as unto men of havior and ({uality. But m* for 
tJie common Mitildien, he made them .itaitde upon the 
trcncbol of hi.-* eainpe, one after an other lo l>ehold the 
enemiea, and to aoquaint them selveH with sight of their 
fitoes, their eoiuitenaunce, and marching, and not to be 
afrayed of their voyces to heare tliem speake, which were 
wonderfuU, both straunge and beastly : and also that they 
might know the facion of their weapons, and how they 
handled them. And by this order and ordinary viewing of 
them, in time he made the things that itemed fearefull imto 
his men at the fint sight, to be afterwords verv familiar : to 
that they made no more wondring at them. For he judged, 
tile thing which in decde is true, that a rare and new matter 
iMVcr ».vnf before, for liurke of judgement and underttand- 
ilUF, mnkcth UiingM iinknowen to us, more horrible and fcarc- 
fuU then they ore : and to the contrary, that cuKtoimr takcth 
away a great dcale of feare, and terror of those things, which 
by nature arc in deede fearefulL The which was leeoe then 
> 181 


Murtha, a 
wine womAU 
or prophet- 


bjr experience. For they being dayly acquainted to lookc 
upon these barbarous people, it did not only diminish some 
parte of the former feare of the Romaine souldiers : but 
furthermore they whetting their choller with the fierce un- 
toUerable threates and brogges of these barbarous brutish 
pcopk-, did set their hartes a fire to fight with thvm, 
uicausc they did not only wast and destroy all the contry 
abottt them, but besides that, canic to geve asmult e-rea 
unto their cAinpc with such a lK>ldn(.>8, that, tht- Komaine 
souUlient could no leiigt.-r MutTcr tlicni, and they letted not to 
qwake wonies that came to Mariu.-t vares him sdfe. What 
cowardhnes hath Morius ever knowen in us, that he keepca 
us thus from lighting, and under locke and key as it were, in 
the gard of porters, as if we were women ? Let us tbcrc- 
fbre shew our selves like men, and go aske him if he lookc 
for any other soiddicrs beside our selves to defend Italic : 
and if he have dctennincd to employ us as pioners onvly, 
when he would cast a trenche to ridde away the muddc, or to 
tiinie a river contrary. For therein hatn be onely hiUwr- 
unto finployt-d us in gn.'«t btbor, and they arv the notable 
worktw he hath done m his two ConxuUshippes, whereof he 
niakvth htK boast unto tliem at Home. Is he afraved they 
should take him, as they did Carbo and (!^io, whom the 
enemies have overthrowen ? He must not he afrayed of 
that : for he is a Captaine of an other manner of valor and 
reputacion then they were, and his army much better then 
theirs was. But howesocvcr it be, yet were it much better I 
in provinc to loose something, then to be idle, and to Buffer 
our frcnds an<l confedcrats to be destroyed and sacked 
befortr our eyes. Marius wa* marvelous glad to heare hi« 
men complainc thus, imd did comfort ttiem, luid told them 
that he did nothing mititrust their ooroge and valiantnen:] 
howljeit that through the counsoll of cx'rtaine nropheci< 
and oracles of the gods, he did expect time and place fit to 
victory. For he ever caried a Svrian woman in a litter 
about with him called Martha, witJi great reverence, whom 
they said had tlje spirit of prophecie in her : and that be 
did ever sacrifice unto the gods by her order, and at such 
time as she willed him to do It. This Syrian woman went 


first to spcakv n-iUi the Senate about thvsv muttcts, and did 
foretell (UkI prognosticate what should follow. But tbo 
SctiAtc- woiilil nut heorc her, oxtd miulv Iht to be driTcn 
ftway. Whrrupon the went unto thtr wodk-d, luid made 
them see jiroofe of Bome thingH she vnuated of, imd xpcciully 
Mariu» wife, at whose feete slie was set tmc day in an 
axtt-mbly of the common playee, to see swordplayen fight 
for life and death : for she told her certenly which of them 
should overcome. Whereupon this Ladv sent lier unto her 
husband Morius, who made great reclcening of her, and 
caried her even in a Utter with him whersoever he went. 
She was aJwaics at Mfuiiis sacrifices, apparelled in a gown of 
purple in grauie, clasped to her witn claspes, and held a 
speart) in her hand wound all about with noeegayes, and 
giirlandu of fluwen tycd on with huxs. This maner of jeast 
made many dout whether Mariiis nhcwed thiH woman openly, 
belcviiig in dcde that she had tJic gift of pTOi>liix;y : or els 
that knowing the contrary, he made as though tie did beleve 
it, to hel])e ner ^^ning. But that which Alvxaixler the 
Myndian wrote touching Vultures, is a thing grcntly to be 
wondred at For he said there were two of tnem lollowed 
Marius in bis warres, and that they ever sliewed theni wlven 
and missed not, when he should win any great battel, 
and that they did know them by latin collers they ware 
about their necks, which the souldiers had tyed aliout them, 
and afterwards let them go where they would : by reason 
wberof, tlieyr did know thi; souldicrs ogaine, and it semed 
also that tncy did salute them, and were vny glad when 
they saw them, and perxwadixl them selves, that it was 
aaigne and token of good lui-ke to follow. Mfuiy Kigncs and 
tokens were seene before tlie luittt^l : liowhcit all tlic nwt 
were ordinary sightes, saving that which was reported to 
be scene at Tuaertuni, ana Ameria, two cities of Italic. 
For they say there were scene speares and targetit in the 
night, burning like fire in the dement, which first wtre caried 
up and downe here and there, and then met together even as 
men move and sturrv ttiat fight one with an other : untill at 
the length, the one gi-ving oocke, and the other foUowinge 
after, tlicy all vanished away, and consumed towordes the 



of Msrtba 
in time of 

A wood«r of 
tlie Vulturm 
fthewed to 
Mail us. 



BaUbacei the 
priMt uf Uie 
■notliM- of tlie 




The enemies 
csnipe were 
Rixe days* 


We«t About tlie ttclfe same time also, there came from the 
citie of Pe&siiiunta, Batabaces, the chiefe priest of the emt 
mother of the goddes, wlio brought newea, that the goaaate 
had spoken to him within her sanctuar)', ant) told him that 
the victory of this warre should fall out on the Romainss 
side. The Senate beleved it, and ordained that they should 
build a temple unto thiit goddcssc, to gvve h«r thfuil:f?3 for 
the victorie which s\>c did promise them. Batnbaccs also 
would havf pn.-si-nted him «elfc unto the people in open 
asseniblie, to tell thom as much. ISut there was one Aulus 
I'ompciuK a Tnbiine that would not Miffcr him to do it, 
calling him tomblcr, or jugler, and violently t)iru»t him 
behtnue the pulpit for orations: but the miitchaunce th«t 
fell apoii Poin)teiuH afterwardii, made them the more to 
bdeve Batnbat^es words. For Pompeius the 'iVibune no 
«ooner came home unto his house, out a great vehement 
^ew tooke hira, wherof he dyed the seventh day after, as all 
the worid could witnes. Now the Teutons perceiving that 
Mariua stirred not at all out of his campe, they proved 
to assault him : howbeit they were so well reccivea with 
shottc and slinges, that after they htul lost ccrtaine of their 
men, they gave it over, and deU-nniiicd to goc further, pcr- 
swading them solves that they might ca-tlly pa«se the Alpes 
without daunger. WlK-rfore trussing uu «1 their bagga^, 
they pRKSL-d by Marius camiw : at whirn time it appeared 
more certftinly then before, tnat they were a marvelous great 
multitude of people, by the length of time whicli they tookc 
to poAse their way. For it is sayd they were paMJng by his 
campe, sixe dayes continually together. Ana as they came 
raking by the Ilomaines campe, tJiey asked them in mockery, 
if they would wrytc or send home any thing to Uieir wives, 
for thev would b« with them ere it were long. When they 
were all passed and gone, and that they continued on their 
jomcy still, Mnrius also niised his campe, and went and 
followed them fiiyer and softly foote by foote, and ever 
kept hard at their taile Ks iieere as he could, alwayes fortify- 
ing hi.* campe very well, and ever choosing strong places "of 
acituacion and advantage to lodge in, Uiat they might be 
safe in the night time. Thus tliey marched on in this sorte, 


untill Uiejr ctinie unto the city of Aix, from whenct.' tlwy Imd CAItJS 
not farrc to gue, but tltcv «nt*.-red Ktmight into Uie moun- MABIUS 
taineti of tlic A1)wk. ^Viiervfure Mariux prrpnred nowe to 
fiirtit with tliem : aivd choae out a pt&cc tikat wait very fttrone 
of acituodon to lodge his cainpe in, howeheit there Uckecl 
wat^r. And they itay he did it of purpose, to tlie ende to 
quicken his mens comge the more thereby. Many repined 
at it, and tolde him that they should stande in gK&t 
(iauoger to abide marvelous thint if they lodged uiere. 
Whcreunto he made aunswere : shemng them the river that 
ronne hard by the enemies campe. saying withall, tliat they 
lUUNt go thither and buy drinke with their blood. The Muiui bold« 
•oiildim rcplyed ngaine: Ami whv then doe ye not lead us '""J^" *" *"'• 
thithdr, whiW our bIwHl is yet inoyste.^ Ik- gently iiuiwvrm-d JJI^J^u";^ 
them agaiiK- : Bicnu»e the first tiling fv d<H', we mudt fortilie 
our campe. The itouldiers, tltougn they were angry with 
him, yet they obeyed him : but tlie slaves ha\'iiig neither 
drinke for them selves, nor for their csttelt, gathered to- 
gether a great troiijie of them, and went towardes the river : 
some of them car^-ing axes, other hatchets, other swords and 
speares, with their pottes to carv water, determining to fight 
with the barbarous people, if otherwise they couUt not come 
by it A fewc of tiie barbarous people at the fintt fot^t 
with them, bicausc the moat parte of their company were at 
dinner, after they had bathed, and others were fltill in the 
batiie washingc them selves, finding in that ]>hwv many 
Hpringi-s of hotte iintunill bathew. Thus the Komaine* 
founde many of the IwrbarouB pi^ople makinge mery, and 
taking their plemun^ about them- )>atni-8, for the grt-at dclite 
they tooke to conntider the pk-a-iauntnes of tlie plaee: but 
when they heard the iioyse of them that fought, they 
beganne to runne tme after an other unto the place from 
whence the noyse came. Wherefore it was a hard thing for 
Marius anv lenger to keepe the Komaine souldien in from 
going to tlieir helpe, for that tbey feared their slaves should 
have bene slaine of the barbarous people : and moreover* 
bicausc the valliantcst Mouldiera of their cneniirs cntlvd thit 
Ambrons (who before had overcome Manliun and Cn.-j»io, two 
Rumnine Captaiiies with thctr unuii.-^, and that made of them 
8:AA 180 

Ratte)) be- 
twixt the 

Mariufl over- 
cftm« the 


setvCK thirty thowtande fifrhting men) rnnne to annes, beinr 
very heavy of their botiies, as having filled their bellies well, 
but otherwise valliant and coragious fellowes, and more lively 
th«n they were wont to be, hy reason of the wine they had 
drooke. They ran not furiouslv to fight out of order, 
neither did they crie out eonfiisedly, out marching all 
together in good array, making a noyse with their hama 
all after one sort«, they oft rfhearscd their ownc name 
Ambrons, Ambrons, Ambrons: which was, oitlier to call 
one an other of thvm, or rise to fearr the Rumaincs with 
their name only. The Italians aim on thothcr side, being 
the first that vnmv dnwne to fight with them, wcn,^ the 
Ligurianit, dwelling upon the coast of GiMiuoa, who hcAriiig 
thin noyKC luid crye of tJicint, plainely understiuiding them : 
niiiL-twc-red them againe with the like tioyse and orye, 
Ligtiriana, I.iguriajtn, I^igiirians, saving that it was the true 
surname of all tlieir nation. And so before tliey joyned 
towther, this cryo was redoubled many a time on either 
siae : and the Captaincs of both partes made their souldierB 
crye out all together, contendinjrc for envv one against 
an other, who should cryc it out lowdi-st. This contention 
of crying, inilomcd the souldiers eorages the more. Now the 
Ambrons having the river to [wlxkc, were by this meaiies put 
out of order, and before they coidd put them selves in battcll 
ray againe, after they had passed the river, the Liguriiuis 
ninne with great fury to set apon the fnnnest: and aficr 
tlivm, (to aitie the Liguriiuis tliat had hegon the ehiugc) the 
Ramaiues them selves fell also apon the Ambrons, eommiiig 
downc Axmi the places of advantage upon these l>arbaroua 

I>uotfle, and compelled them by this meanes to tume their 
lacices, and flie. So the greatest slaughter they made, 
fortuned uppon the banckc of the river, whereinto they 
thrust one an other in such sorte, that all the river ran 
blood, being filled with dead bodies. And they that could 
get over the river againe. and were on thother side, duret 
not gatiier together any more U> stand to defence : so as 
the Komaines slew them, and dmve them into their camp?, 
evil) unto thdrcariagc. Then their women came out against 
them with ttwordes and asc« in their bundu, grinding their 


teeth : aitd crving out for soiroir and anger, they diargetl an CAIU8 
well upon tlieir owne people that fled, as upon tliem that MARIIJS 
chased tliem : tiie one as traitors, and the other as enemies. The m«niii 
Furthermore, they thrust them selves amongest Uiera that '"*oft'»« 
fought, and strove by force to ulucke the Itomaines targets houwui, 
out of tbeiv handed, and tooke noidc of their naked swonles 
bare handed, abiding with an invincible corage to be hacked 
and mangled with their swordes. And thus was the tint 
Iwttell geven (as tliey say) by the rivers side, rntlier by 
chauiice unlooki-d fur, then by nny set piirposL-, or thruugn 
the generals euunscl. Now the Koni»iiit«, ufU-r they had 
overcome tiie iiiokI parte of the Anibrons, retyring \jacke by 
rea»on the night had ovi-rtakvn them, did not (aa tlicy were 
wont after they had geven such an ovi-rthniw) sing sunges of 
victory and triunipln?, nor ninke gi«Ki elw-re in tlieir tentes 
one mth an other, and least of all sleepe : (mhith is the best 
and sweetest refn-shing for men that have fought liappely) 
but contrarily, they watched all that night with great feare 
and trouble, liicausc their caniuc was not trenchcdand forti- 
tivd, and bicausc they kncwc also that there rvmoincxl almost 
imiumcmble thowsundcs of barbarous people, that had not 
y<rt fought : bcsitics nlxo, tliat the Anibrunis that had flotl 
and Kciiped from the overthrow, did howle out all nif^hl with 
lowd cries, which wen' nothing like mens Inmeutadons and 
ughes, but mthor like wildi- beostes Allowing and rooringe. 
So that tiie bellowing of such a great multitude of bejutly 
people, mingled together with threaten and waylinges, niad« 
the mountaines tiiereabi»uts and the running river to re- 
bounde sgaine of the sounde and ecco of their cries marvel- 
ously : by reason whereof, all the valliv that lay betwene 
botli, thundered to hcare the horrible antf fearefull trembling. 
This mode the Romainc souldiers afeard, and Marius him 
nelfe in some doubt : bicausc they looked to have bene 
fought withall the same night, being altogether troubled 
ancT out of order. Notwith.'standing, the barbarous people 
did not afmult them that night, nor the next day following, 
but only pn-pai-ed lliem selves unto battell. And in the 
meane time Manns knowing tiiat there was alwvc the place 
where they were camped, certaine caves and lille volleves 



buttcll •ritli 
tho TcutPiui. 


covered with woddc: he secretly sent Claudius Marodlus 
thither with three thowsand footcmen well armed, (uhI com- , 
maunded him tokeqx-closein amhushv, untill he saw that! 
barbiiroui people were ti^iting with him, and that ,thcn btl 
should cooDC and set npon tlieir rvrvwsrd. I'he rtsidtic of hic< 
annie, Uiey nupited when time came; bikI aftvr !mi»i)er rftiotted 
them KelveK. liie next morning at the braike of uajr, Alarius 
brought his men into the liehle out of hb forte: where he put 
theui in order of luttell, sending hia horsemen before to draw 
the enemies out to nkirmi^ihe. 'I'he Teutons s«dng them 
come, had not the pacieuce to tfiry till the Komalnes were i 
dowiie into the ulaine licldc to hght without advantace, bul 
arming them selvt* in hR«t> and lo a rage, rannc up the hill 
to the Bomaincs, where they stoode in battell niy. Maiius 
taking good regard to that they did, sent here and there 
unto the jirivnte C-a|)tAities, charging them they shouldj 
nut Ktirre, and imely to teinpuriw and forbvare,' untill th«l 
L-nemies came witliin a stones eiut of them : and that thry 
should then throw their dartes at Uiein, and afterwardvs dniwe 
their swordes, and repulete the barbarou* people with their 
shietdes. For he did foresee before, tliat when they Hhould 
clime up against the hill (uppon the hanging whereof the 
Romaines luul set their b&ttell) that their blowes would not 
be of great force, nor tbcir order and ranckcs could stand 
close together to any e^Wt or purpose : bicausc thev could 
not have sure footing, nor march a&^urcdly, but would easili 
be throwen biu;keward if they were never so litlc rcpidscc 
by ivason of the hanging of the hill. Marius gave tliis order 
unto hilt foike and ttierewithall uati him K-lfc the first man 
that put it in execution : for he wiu a» trymmc a warriour, 
and a.1 valliant a souldier, as any man in all his anny: 
iKsideH, not one amongeat tbeni all would veiitt-r furder, Ulcl 
be more bolde then him selfe. So when Uie K4imaine>i hail 
resisted them, and stayed them sodainely, going with fury 
to have wonne the hill, pcrociwng them selves to be repulaed, 
they gave backc by litlc and Htlc, untill they came into the 
field : and then Ix-ganne the forniest of them to gather to- 
gether, and to ])ut tliem selvc^s in battell ray uppon the plainc, 
when Kidainly they heard the uuyac ancf chaiging of them 



that iKxv in the,tay]e of their army. ForCUiidiuK Marwllus CAIUB 
failed not to take the occasion when it wan uflered him, .MARICS 
btcause that the noyse of the first diarge oomininf; up 
against th« hilU thereabouts, under the which he lay in 
ambuahe, gave him advertisement thereof: whereupon he 
caused his men presratly to shew, and running with great 
crycs, camv to gcve a charge upon those which were in the 
tajle of the bHrhuruiu people, putting the hindemost to the 
swordc. They made their fillowcs whose hackes were next 
onto thcin, to tunic their Ui-cv*, uitd ^o from man to man, 
till nt the length, in Khorte time all tlieir battdl bcgannc to 
waver in diwirdcr : and thev uinde no great n^HiRtnuncv, when 
tliey >HW they wert; no cruirged before anil behiiKle, liut 
be^tne straight to Hie for life. 'I'he KomaiitvH following MaiHui ric- 
theui liard at the heeles, killed and tooke prisoners above y>ry of ibe 
a hundred thonsande of them, and tooke moretiver tlieir ,t^JJ^, 
cartes, their tcntes and all their cariagc. Which tlie whole 
anny by consent agreed to present unto Marius, excepting 
nothing, saving that which was imbeaeeled and conveyed 
away under hande. Now, though this was a marvelous 
hoiiorRble and rigJ)t noble present yet they tliought it not a 
n-co 111 pence sufficient for that he had ihsenwl, for the valurc 
be luul Hhewed of a famouit CitptJiiiie in Iciuling of his army, 
and for the good order be kept in tliis wurrv: »o lutppy 
tliought tiiey them selven to have escajiud mo great a daiingcr. 
Notwithstanding, some wryters doe not agree, that the 
spoyle of the barbarous people was geven unto Mariiu : nor 
I that there were also so great a nuinoer of men slaine as we 
' have spoken of. But thev say, that after this battel! the 
Aiansitians did inclose tncir vines, with hedges made of 
dead mens bones : and that the bodies being rotten and 
consumed upon the tieldes throitgli the great raino tliat fell 
upon them the winter following, the ground waxed so fatte, 
and did »okc the grease .10 lieqK- in Uie «ame, that the 
nommcr following tlicy did beare an uncn-diblc <]iiantity of 
all Horti-H of frutes. And by tlii.s meniKn were Ardiilociu 
wordes proved true, that U>e crrahte land doth waxt- fat with 
sudi mttennessc or putrificatioti. And it is aayd alwt, that 
of ordinary aAer great ImttellK, there falleth great «tore of 



Murh rsine 
after srcnt 

Miuiux the 
lift time 


minr. Either it in by nivane of ftonic god that [Mwring dowfie 
piin.' mine water dotn purifie, wa3h,aiid dense the grounds, 
ilcfiled and polluted with mans blood : or elae it happeneth 
by natural! cause. For that the overthrow of so many 
dead l>odie8, and of the blood spilt, engeodreth a raoyst, 
grosse, and heavy vapoure, which doth thicken the ayer 
(tijat by nature is cnaungt-abk-, and c-asie to alter) from a 
rery small or litlc beginning, unto an cxct-cdinggmtt chaunge. 
After this battcll, IVfariiis causi-d thf Iinmcsse luid spoylre of 
the barbarous people to hv Iwyt-d iisitif, tlmt were left whole 
ftitd fayor to sight, to bi-itutitir anti etiricli the |KimjK' of his 
triuriiptie. Then lie ciiusrd tin; rv:*t to be gntht-red togi-tlier 
on a great hoape, and laved apon a staki; of wodde, to make 
a noble NUcritice unto the god*, all hit) army being armed 
a)>out him, erowned with garlandes of triuniphe, and him 
selfe apparelled in a long gowne of purple, aceording to the 
custome of the Uomaines in such a case, and holding a 
torch burning in both his hands, which he firat lifted up unto 
heaven. And as he was turning downe the torch to put fire 
to the stake of wood, they saw some of his fivnds a good way 
of ft horse backe, commiiig post unto him : then sodainly 
thiTc was a great silence made of idl tJie assembly, every' man 
desirous to lieare whatgixxl newes they had brought >Vhen 
they were come and lighUsi of thi-ir hor«», they nuine 
Ntraight to einbniee MiiriiiK.and brought him newcn that he 
was chosen Consul! the lift time: and presented him tlic 
letters sent him from Home confirming the !«ame^ AjkI thus, 
this new ioy falling out besides the victory, the private 
souldiera did shewe the great joy and pleasure they tooke in 
both, with great aliowtea and beating upon their hamease : 
and the Captaines also, they crowned Marius againe with 
new garlanaes of laurel! which they put about his head, and 
that done, he put tire under the stake of wodde, and ended 
his sacrifice. But that which never sufPereth men quietly to 
enjoy the good happe of any victory cicarcly, but in this 
mortall life doth ever mingle the ill with the good, be 
it either fortune or spight of fatal! dcsU-nie, or else the 
necea.sitie of the naturtul causes of itu-thly thingcs : did 
shortely after this great joy bring newes unto Marius, of 


hU compwiion Catulua Luctatiiu thv other Consul], who CAItlS 
wttit Wkc K cloitde in « f«yer bright dny, and brought the ^(ARlt/S 
city of Rom« Againe into a new feftre and trouble. For 
Ottulus tiiat went again-tt the CtnibreK, thought it was not 
for him to keepe the atrai^ites of the mountnincs, in hope 
tu let the barbarous people for jiaHsing : that in m 
doing, he had bene compelled to decide hiK anny into inany 
partes, and had weakened him selfe very much if he hati 
taken that courw. Wherefore comming a litle on tliiH side 
the Alpni towardcs Italic, he planted him selfe uppon the river AtbMi« flu. 
of Atheus, and built a bridge apon it, to passe and repawe 
over his men when hv would, and st-tte up at either endc 
of tlte bridgi* two strong fortt-n well fortified, that he might 
mure ci>mmodiuu!<,ly helpc th<- placent on the other side of the 
river, if the l)*rban)tK [joople by chauncx- would offer to foroe 
them, after they had gotten out of the xtmighU of the 
mountainesL Now, these liarbarou^ people had such a glory 
in them selves, and disdained their enemies so much, that 
more to shew their force and Iwldnes, then of any neocmity 
that compelled Uiem, or for any benefit tliey got by it : they 
sufPred it to snow apon them being starke naked, and did 
clime up to the toppc of the mountaincs, throw great heajK'S 
of ise and snow. And when they wereat the very topneofaJI, 
they iayed their long broad tareet« under their bodies, and 
lay all along apon them, sliding downe the steepe high rockes, 
that had ccitftine hanginges over of an infinite height. Li 
the ende, they came to aim|H- neen- unto the Romaines 
by the river !<ide, an<l wjiisidered howe they micht passe it 
over: and lieganne to fill it up, t<-aring downe (like g)-Rnts) 
great hilles of earth whicli they foundc therwibontjt, brought 
thither great trees which they pulled up whole by tlie rootcs, 
threw in great peeces of rockes which they brake, and whole 
towers of earth after them, to stoppe and brcake tlje eour^' 
of the river. But besides all this, they threw great tymber 
into the river, which being caried downe the streame, came 
with such a force, and hit against the postes of the bridge so 
violently, that they shaked the Itomaines bridge mar^'eloufl]j, 
Whcrcuppon many of the souldiers of the great campe were 
afrayed, and fonutking it, bcgnnnc to retyro. But tnen did 



LuL-tatiuB the 
front the 

Mariui re- 
futed to enter 
In Iriumphe. 


Catuluft, like a peHit good Capt^ne showe, Uist he made 
lesse accompt. of hU owiie private honor and eatiniacion, then 
he did of the generall honor of all his aouldiers. For, seeing 
that he coula not petswadc his men by any reason to tary, 
and that in this fearc they dislodsed in disorder against 
his will : he hini selfe eommaundcd the standerd bearer of 
the Eagle to mnrcht- on, and ranne to the foremest that 
went tlicir way, and marched him seife before tbeni all, to 
the intent that the Khitme of thi« rvtyrv should altceethv 
liglit upon him, and not npon his contry, and that it 
might appearc tlte Komaines did follow their Captaine, and 
not flie away- The l>arbarous people therefore aK>autting 
the forte at the end of the bridge of the riv^ of Athetita, 
tooke it, and all the men that were in it. And bicause 
the Romaines defended it like valliant men, and had 
lufitcly ventured their lives to the death for defence of 
their contry : the barbiirous people let them go upon com* 
position, which they hwutv to kcpc (iuthfully, by their bull 
of copper. Tills bull afterwards was taken when they 
lost ttie batt4Tll, and caricd (as thi-y Miy) into Gittdua 
Liictatiux hoittc, as the i-hii-fi-»t thing of the victory. Fur- 
thermore, the barharouA pi^pk- finding tho contry opet) 
without any defence, scattered here and thert>, and destroyed 
all where they came. Whereuppon tlie Komaina »ent for 
MariuH to Rome to froe agauist tbem : and after he was 
arrived, every man Uioiignt he ahoulde have entred in 
triumphe, bicause nl«o the Senate did graunt it him very 
willingly. But be would not doe it, cither bieause he would 
not deprive hix Kotildient and the Cnplaines that had fought 
under him, of any parlc of the lumor that was doe unto 
them, they being absent: or hicaune that he would warrant 
t>ic (H-iipIc from the present daunger they were in, bv layinge 
nuitU- t tie glory of hia fnnner victorim, into the banoo^ of tltc 
good fortune of Uome, in certaine hope to take it againe 
afttTwardes, by a more honorable and |>erfit confirmation of 
the second. Wherefoi-e, after he had made an oration to the 
people, and Senate according to the time, he went hia way 
immediatly towardes Catulua Luctatiiis, whose comniing did 
comforte nim much : and sent also for his army that was 



jret ill Gttuli' beyond the tnounUiiiie& And afU-r his army 
was ponw, h« |>ns!H.'<l the river of I'o, to kept- tlic barbnruii^ 
[woplv frum hurting Itfilie on this Kidi- tta' Fu. Now, the 
biimtres Ktill dt-ferrod to tjove btittell bitausv tlioy ItK'keci for 
the Teutons, axwi Jtnyd : thttt thov niiir\-el«I mucii what thoy 
ment to tary »o long : dther hi<aiiiNV tlu^y knewe not in 
deedc of tlieir ovt-rthrowc, or elsi' for tliat they would not 
seeroe to kiiowif it, hteitiisc they hnndelod them cruelly that 
brought the newes of their deathes. At the length, they 
sent unto Marius to aske him landes and townes sufficient, 
to kepe tliem and their brethren. Marius asked their Am- 
bossaaors what brethren they ment. They aunswercd, that 
they were the Teutons, Whereat the standers by beganne to 
laugh : and Marius finely mocked them, saying : Can* not 
for tha'w.' brethren sayd ne, for we have gcvcji them grDun<l 
vuiou^h, which tlit-y will kept,-' for ever. Thew^ AniUiKsiuIors 
found his mock Ktraight, and bcgannc to revile anil thrt-ati-n 
him, ttiat the CimbKs »ho(ildc pn-scntly make him repent 
it, and the Teutonic so Kounc a» they nrrive<l. Why, sayd 
Marius unto them agnine, they are eonie already : and there 
were no hone*ty in you, if you muld goe your way and not 
salute then), mucc tliey are your hretiiren. And as he spake 
these wordes, he conimaiinded his men to bring him the 
kingcs of the Teutons bounde and chained, that had bene 
taken within the mountaines of the Alpes by th« Scquani. 
The Cimbres understanding this by reporte of their Ambas- 
Midors, presently marched touardes Marius, who stirred not 
at all, but only fortified and kept his canipe. 'I1)ey say that 
it WB» for this battdl that Marius first invented the newe 
devige he brought in for the darte which tlie Hoiiiaincs were 
wont olwayut to throwe agikinst thv vnviuiex at the fint 
charge. I<or before, the xtaRe of the darte wat faatJied unto 
the iron, ajid tiw iron imto the *talfe, with two litle iron 
pinned that pa«.«ed tlirough tlie wodde: and then Marius left 
one of the iron pinnet ai it was before, and taking away the 
other, ])ut a litle thinne pinne of wodde, easie to be broken, 
in place of the same, making it craftcly, to tlic end that 
when the darte was throwen, and stuckc in the enemies 
target, it should not stand right forward, but bow downc- 
a:fifi 193 

I'o ilu. 


tnucke to tha] 

The CiiiibTM { 
tiiArch sgaiug 

Mnrlus devil 
for altering i 
the darte m 



BoBorix kliig 
of the 


Two nnd llflie 

thowHnnil and 
thrvt^ hull d red 
mim bolweiie 
Mu-iun nnd 


The bnttell of 
the CimbrM. 


wanlti towtuxlcs the- iron, that the wodden pinne bdng 
broken, the fl&fk of the diirtc should hang downewardea, 
holding yirt hy thfi inin pinne running (juite through at the 
ixtynW. So Ba-orix king uf tin- Cimbres, conimiug nccrr to 
MartuH compe with a small iiiunlter of horaciucn, sent him 
defymiiice, and willed him to appoint a day and place for 
battell, that they might trye it out, who should be owncra 
of the contry, Whereunto Marius made aunswer, that it 
was not the manner of the Romaincs to couiiscU with their 
enemies, cf the time; and place when they should geve 
battell : but nevcrthek-sst.-, he would not sticke to pleasure 
the Cimbres no mueh. And tints thev at^tved betwene them, 
that it should be the thirdc day following, in U>e plaine of 
Veraelles, which wiu very commodious for the horsemen of 
the Kiimaines : and also for the barbarous people to put 
out at will their great number nf fighting men. So both 
armieH failed not to meete according to appointment, but 
appeared ranged in battel!, the one before the other. Catiilus 
Luctatiua the other Consnll, had in his campe twenty thow- 
sand, and three hundred souldiers : and Marius haJ in bis fl 
canipe two and thirty thowsand lighting men, whieh be ^ 
pliurcd in the two winges of the batU-ll, shutting in Catulus 
with his men in the middest As Sylla writeth it, who wa* 
pn^'nt at the wmv : saying, that Mariuit did it of malice, 
for the hope he liiul to nverthrowc bis eneniie:* with tlie two 
winges of the biitteil, to tJie end that the whole victory 
should light anon his two wingeit, and that Catulus and hia 
men in the middeat ahould have no parte therot For he 
could not so much aa 5-oote the enemy, bicausc that com- 
monly when the fronte of a battell is of such a bredtbc, the 
two wingcs are ever stretched out before, and is made like 
the cressant of a moone, where the middrat is thickest and in. Ajid it ia wiyttcn also in other stories, that 
CatuluH him sc-lfe accusing the malice of Marius, Incause he 
did so: npake it to excuse hitt ovrtie di.>>honor. As for the 
Cimhi-es, the troupes «f their footemen camming out of (Jieir 
fortes leasurely, aid put tliem selves into a squadron, as 
broade as long, for in every wide they occupied almost tliirty 
furlong : but their horsemen which were hftecne thowsande, 



marched before in sumptuous furniture. For they had CAIGS 
helmets oh their heades, fadoDed Uke wilde bcastes neckes, MARIUS 
and straunge bcvcrs or buRcs to the sanie, aijd ware on their 
helmets great high plumes of feathers, as they bad bene 
wingies : which to sight made them appcare taller and bigger 
men then they were. FurthcrmorCt thvy had good cunues 
on their bnckes, and caried great white targets before thvm : 
And for wraponit uHt-niivt-, vvcry ninn had two dattes in bis 
rhuid to Ixittow a farrt- of, and when Uiey came to hand 
[•trok<»i, they had great heavy .tworcU which tijcy fought 
[witholl ntrere hand. Hut at tnat time they did nut nmrcbe 
directly in rancke against the army of the Koniainea, but 
tumeo a litJe on the right hand, meaning to inclose the 
Romatnet) hetwene them and their footemen that were on 
the left hand. The Romainc Captaincs founde their policy 
Btnightf but they couldc not kecpe their souldicra liackc: 
for there wns one that cried, the ODctnies fled, and immc- 
diatly all the mt bcganne to runtie after. In the mivuic 
time, the footcnicu of the barbarous people tlut wen; like 
to a iwR before them, came forwards «till : and then Maritu 
Itavinf; washed hiti )uui<le», and lifting them up to heaven, 
prfiniiwd, and vowed a solemne .-Avrilice unto the goddiii of 
a. hundred oxen. Catuluit also made a vow, liflin); up his 
handc!! to heaven in like maner, tliat he would build a 
temple unto fortune for that day : and it is reported, that 
Manus having sacriGced, when they shewed him the intralls 
of the beastcs sacrificed : he cried out a lowde. The victory 
is mine. Kut when they came to gevc the charge. Mnrius 
had a great misfortune hapiK-tied bini, ]K>wrcd umm him by 
Goddes justice, who tumi-d his craft (igiiiii»t hnn neife, as 
Sylla wrvteth : for there rose very credibly »> great a duitt, A dutt nuwd 
that hotli armies lost the sight one of an other. And here- "J^' neither 
upon Sfarius b<-ini|; the fimt that mune to lief^iiine the charge, ^JJ^" , 
and having ijIimx-iT hi« men about him, ntiftned to meete with other. 
his rnemies : and U-ing [>a.-ised Ixrvonde their Itattell, wandred 
a great while up and dowiie the field, whilest the barbarous 
pcO]>le fought f^piinst Catulus, So that the greatest fury of 
tlie liattei wa.« against Catulus and his army : in the which, 
Sylht wrrteth he was him selfe, and sayeth, that the heatc 




The lidde 
fouglit tlie 
CT of luly. 

cruelty of 


nnci the xunne which was full in the Cimhres faceti, did the 
RoniniiiL's marvelous pleasure at that time. For the harbaroua 
(X'Oi)le being very hard brought up to away with cold (bicause 
thev were Ijornc and bred ui a cold contry, shadowed alto- 
gether with woddra and trees as we have tAyd) were to the 
contrary very tender against the bcate, and did melt with 
sweating against the &intnc, and gaped straight for breathe, 
putting their tarjiels before thoir faces: for it was also in 
the liart of soiiiiner, about the seven tind twcntif day of Ibe 
monctti of liilii', that this bntti.01 wns ccven, and tni» diwt 
also made the Komaines the Imlder, an<l Kcpt them that they 
could not see the innumerable multitude of their enemie* 
farrc from them. And every man runninge to »et apon 
them that came against them, they were joynt-d together in 
fight, before that the sight of their enemies could mitke them 
afrayed. And ftirthermore, they were so good aouldiera, and 
so able to take paines, that how extreame soever the hcate 
was, no man was senc sweats nor blow, though they ranne at 
the firat to sot apon tlicm : and this hath Catulus Luctatius 
him selfc left in wrytiiig unto the praise of his souldiers. So 
were the most parte of the barbarous people, and specially 
of the ln-st souldiers, slaine in the field. And bicause 
they should not nix-n nor brtTike their rancks, the forv- 
mest raiiekft wen- all tyed am! Ixiund together with girdells, 
leather thongs, and long chayiies of iron: and they that 
flt^d, were chawd and followetl into their Mmpe by the 
Komainea, where they met with horrible and fearefull thingcs 
t« beholde. For, their wives l»eing apon the toppe of 
their cartes, apparelled all in blackc, shie all thaw that fled, 
withoTit regardc of persones : some their fatheni, other their 
husbandcs or their brethren, and strangling the litle young 
babes with their owne handes, they cast them under the 
carte wheeles, and bctwenc the horse legces, and afterwards 
shie them selves. And they say, that there wa6 a woman 
hanged at the ende of a carte ladder, having hanged up 
two of her children by the ui-ckes at her hcek«. jVnd that 
the men also, for Iftciic of a tree to hang (hem selves on, 
tyed slipping haltvrs about their neckcs, unto tlie homes and 
feete of the oxen, and tbat they did uricke them afterwardcs 



wilh goAdet to make them fliiig aii<l Iceipc so long, Uiat 
(Imggiiig th«ni all nhotit, and tnvwlmg them under feete, at 
the It-ii^h they killwf them. Now, tJiough niiinlx-jrii vrere 
slaine by tlii» meanes, yet were there three ncorc tliowsand of 
tliem taken prisoneni, and the number of them that were 
iilaine, came to twise aa many ntoe. In Uiis manner Mariua 
Bouldiers spoyted the canipt? of the Ciuibres : but tlie spoyles 
of dead men that were slaine in the (ielde, with their ensignes 
and trompets, were all brought (as it is sayd) unto Catulus 
campe, which was a plaine testimonie to shewe that Catulus 
and his souldicrs had wonne tbe fivld. Strife rising thus 
bctwenc the souldicrs of both campes about it, that the 
matti'r miglit be tryed frcndly betwenc them : thvy made 
the Ambu^ndont of Parma their arbitrator, who were by 
chaunce at that time in thv tinny. Cutuhiii Luctatiuit 
touldicn led the AinhaTLindors to the place uhi-rcr tho over- 
throwe was geven, shcwinR them the enemti'S bodies peorMd 
through with their pyki-s, which wen- owie to l>e knowcn, 
bicauRe C^attituH had made them grave his name apon tJwir 
pykes. For all Oiis, Mftriiw went away with the honor of 
this great victory, aa well for the fint liattell he waime alone^ 
when he overtJirewe the Teutons and tlie Anihroiia : as for 
his great calling, hax-ing bene Consul five times. And 
furthermore, the common people at Rome, called him the 
third founder of the city of Rome, thinking them solves now 
delivered from as great a datmger, as before time thev had 
bene from the auticicnt GruIcs. And every man feasting at 
home with his wife and children, offered the best dishes of 
mcatc they had to supper, tmto the goddes, ttnd unto Marius : 
ami woidd needc^s have him alotte to triumphe for both 
victories. But he would not in any case, but triumDhcil 
into the city with Catulus Luctatius, meaning to shew nim- 
»elfe curteoai and mtKlerate in w great pn)*(>frity : and 
peradvcnture also fenring Cnlulux souldiers, who were in 
readinoMC- and ]>repared (if Mariu.t would have deprived 
their Ca])taine of iJiat honor) to let him alio of his triumphe. 
And tliuH you see howe he passed his Cft Consulshippe. 
After that, ne made more eanie^t sute for the sixt Consul- 
shippe, then ever any other did for his first: seeking the 

I9 I 


Priaonen fiO 


Men ulniii* 



.Might over- 
corn metf) 


CAIDS peoples goodwilk-s by all thv fmycr mMUvs hv could to plcnte 
MARIOS tht^'Di, humbling him selfc tmto them, not only more tb«.-n 
bccnniv his cst^t^ iind citlling, but directly ilUo aj^nst his 
ownt' nuturv, counti-rfwiliiiK o curtuous jKijmler manner, 
being cleanc cuntmriu to nis disposition. His smbition 
made him tiinerotut to deale in matt£ra of the state con- 
cerning Uic city. Kor that corage and boldenease which he 
had in battell against the enemy, he lost it quite when he 
was in an assembly of people in the city : and was easily put 
out of his byase, with the first blame or praise he dcard 
geven him. And though they reporte, that on a time when 
he Diadc a thowsandc Camennes free of the city of Rome, 
bicause they had done valliant service in the wanr*, that 
there were some that did ncctuc him, saying, that it was a 
thing done against all law : he aunvwen-d them, tluit for 
the noyse of the armor, he could not hean^ the hiw. Not- 
withstanding, it swmetii that in dedt- he was gn-atly afmrd 
of the fury uf the people in an a-isembly of tite city. For 
in time of warres, he ever stoode apon his rniutacion and 
authority, knowing that they had neede of him : but in 
peace and civill goveniraent, oicauae he would rather be the 
chiefcst man then the honestest man, he would en:«pe into 
the people* bosomcs to get their favor and goodwil. And 
thus through his cvill behavior, he brought all the nobility 
generally to Ik- his enemies. But he feared nor mistrusted 
none so much, as he did Mvtellus, for the great unthankefuU 
parte he renienihred hu had phiyed him : and the rather 
also, bicuusL- he knew him to Ix^ n and true dealing maiif 
MeuIluM and one that was ever against the-t- pi-imlc pteiuen and 
(wsiust people fluitertrs. Mariurt therefore nracti'^wl all the wi»ve-H he 
pleasers. j^„j,]_ ^^ ^^.^ MeteUns to be banished Home. WlWrforr, 

to cotn|)assc his intent, he fell in ft'endship with Giaucta, 
and one Satuminus, two of the most boldest, moat d«si>cnite, 
and most hardbraind yoimg men, thai were in all Home: 
who had all the rablemcut of rogues and beggcr*, and such 
tiimultuoiLs jKople at their com maun dement, by whose 
meiiiies he msule new jiopider hiwes, and caused the souldiers 
to be ealleil home out of the warms, and mingled them with 
the peojile of the city in common assemblies, to trouble and 


rexe IVIetcllus. Moreover Riitilius, an liotiost and true 
writer, (howbcit an t.'ncmy unto M&nus) vrrj-tcth, thst hv 
obtAincd his sLxt Consulsliippe by corruption of monvy, 
which he caused to be distnbut«d lunongcst thv tnb(^s of the 
iicoplv: and tJiut he bought it fur muiy inuncy to put by 
Mctvllus, and to hjivc Vueriuo FIncciiH not for hi;# ft^llowr 
and oompRnioii iu tiie Consulsbippv, hut mtlier for u mintNtfr 
of hi.t wUl. Tlieru wns nev«r Konuiinv to whoin£ th« peuplr 
grauntt-d the ConMulshippe six titnt«, except it were unto 
Valerius Corviflus only. But for him, they say tliat there 
was live and forty yeares betwene his iirst Consulship and 
the last \Vhere Marias since the first yeare of his Consul- 
ahippe, continued five vearea together by good fortune one 
after an other. But in hia last ConsuUhip. he waiinc him 
sclfe great hate nnd malice, bicausc he did manv fowie faultes 
to please Satuminus v-itliall : as ainotigi^t otlici^ whcit he 
bare with Satuminus, who murdered Nonius his oomi>etitor 
in the 1>ibuneship. Afterwardi^ when SAtiiminus was 
dtosen IVibune of the people, he preferred n law for distri- 
bution of Uie liindis among the common people, (Ulil unto 
tliat law h« had sjx-tually luUliil one article : tluit all the 
Lords of the Senate »l)ould oonie ot>enIy to swL'are, that they 
should kepc and oljtervc from pointe to pointe that whicn 
the people by their voycea sliould decree, and should not 
deny it m any iotte. Hut MariiLs in open Senate, made aa 
though he would withstand this article, saying, tliat neither 
he nor any other wise man of judgement would take this 
othc: for said be, if the law be evill, then they should due 
the Senate open wrong to compell them by force to graunt 
it, and not o? their owne goodwills. But he spake not that, 
meaning to do as he said : for it was but a uayte be had 
Uyed for Metellus only, which ho could hardly escaias For, 
imagining that to t«ll a fine lye, was a pceee of verluc, and 
of a go«)d wit : he wax throughly resolved with him selfe, 
not to paste for any thing he had spoken iti the Senate, 
And to the contrary also, knowinge well enough that 
Metellus waa a grave wise nun, who esteemed that to be 
just and true (as I*indarus sayd) is the beginning and foun- 
dadon of great vertue : he thought be would outreach bim, 



Flntiniii Con- 
null with 
Mariun the 
sixt time. 

Valerius Cor-1 
visas slxe 

Tho law 

An «rtld« to 
th« oUiM «r 
th« !>ennUi to | 
tlie p<'oiile 
■huuM pa$Me 
by voyci). 

Mariuii ilubia , 

To Ive can- 
Ukntti it for 
a Tcrtue. 








Metrilui wiie 
tnyinR, touch- 



DUikin^ him nflinite before the Senate tlmt he would not 
swi-nn', knowiii^e al.w that the people would hat« him deadly, 
if hi- would irfust' aftei-wardes to nwcare. And so iii dede tt 
hnpi>eiic-d. For Metellufl having assured them then that he 
would not sweare, tlie Senate brake up uppon it. And 
shortly after, Satuminus the Tribune callins the Senators 
unto the pulpit for orations, to compell tnem to swcsrc 
before the people: Marius went thither to offer him wife 
to aweare. WhiTcupou the people making silence, listncd 
attentively to heare what he woidd say. But Marine not 
regarding his Iiirge promise and bragges made before the 
Senate, sayed tlieti, his nccke was not so long, that he would 
prejudice the (■ouinmn wealth in a matter of so great import- 
ajice: but that he would »wenre, and oIk-v tlie lawe, if it 
were a law. ThiH shifting Rubtilty he added to it, to cloke 
anil trover hh »hanie : and when lie had ^yd .to, he tooke 
his otlie. 'i"he people seeing him sweare, were marvelous 
glml, and praised him with clapping of their hands : but the 
nobility hanging downc their lieafk wei-e ashamed of him* 
and were marvefous augry in their hartcs with him, that he 
had so cowardly- and shamefully gone from his word. I'her- 
upon all the Senatt^' tooke their othes, one after an other 
i;gainst their wills, bicntise tliey were afrayed of the pi-oplo. 
Saving Metelliis, whonie, neither [mnMites nor faridw per- 
swosion and intreiity coidd unee move to sweare, for any 
ptmishment that Saturiiiriu.i fiatl im]Hised upon them, whicn 
refused to take the othe, hut eontinued one man still accord- 
ing to his nature, and would never yelde unto it, ofTering to 
abide any payne, ratlicr then to be brought to consent to a 
dishonest matter unbcseming his eiitate. And thereuppon 
went out of the assembly, and talking with them that dtd 
accompany him, told them, that to do cvill, it was too eesie 
a thing : and to doe good without daunger, it was also a 
common matter : but tu do well with daunger, tliat waa the 
parte of an honest and vertuou» man. Satuminus tbon 
commaundL'd the ConsuUs by eiliet of the people, that they 
should batiislie Mcbellus by itounde of trompet, with spccuul 
comnintindement, that no man should let him have tire nm' 
water, nor lodge him privately not openly. The common 


people, they were ready to have fallen upon him, and to 
have killed him : but the noble men being ufTendcd for tlu- 
injury they liad oBred him, gatherrd toj^thvr about him to 
■avc him, if any would oB'er him noUnce. Meteliu» him 
aelfe waji so good a man, ttiat he would not any civill dis- 
sention should rise for hJH .take: and therefore he abftentvd 
him seife from Rome, wherein he did like a wise man. Fur 
sayd he, either things will amend, and the people then 
repenting them selves of the wrong thoy have done me, will 
call me home againc: or else tbingvs standing as they do 
now, it shalbe beat for me to be furthest of. But for his 
travaill in his exile, howe much he ytw beloved and honored, 
and how swcetely he t>assed hi* time studying philomphie in 
thf citic of Rhodes, stiulbe dwlari'd more at large in his life. 
Now on the other side, Mariu* to iwompcnw the pk^osurc 
Satuminus hod done him, being driven to let him (lave his 
wilt in all tilings : did not fore«cf what an intollerable plague 
he brought unto the common wealth, geving the brydle to 
a de-iperati' man, who every way, by force, by sword and 
murder, plainly sinight to usurpe tyraimicall power, with the 
utter destrucdon and Rubvertion of the whole common weale. 
And so bearing reverence of the one side unto the nobility, 
and desirii^ on the other side to gmtific the common people: 
he played a shamefull parte, and shewed him selfc a double 
dealing man. For one night thi> nobilitic and chiefi^it 
citizens comming to his house, to per«wi»de him to brydle 
SatuniinuK inwlencic and boldnc:': at the sclfe Mine time 
also Sittumiuiis going Uiithvr to itpeoke with him, he cauMtd 
him to be let in at a backe dore, the noble men not being 
privy to his comming. And ho Morius telling the nobility, 
and then Satuminus, that he was troubled with a loaenea of 
hi* body, under this pretence whipped up and downe, now to 
the one, then to tJic other, and did nothing else but set them 
further out one against an other, then they were before, 
Nevertheles, the Senate being man-elous angry with his 
naught)' double dealing, and the order of knightcs taking 
parte with the Senate, Marius in the rnde was compelled to 
annc the people in the market plaec, to supprewc tfiem that 
were up. and drsvc them into tiic Capitoll : where for Wke 


Marius dobJa 

twane the 
nobilitie aod 

Mdition at 



No truiit to 
th* faith of 
the cummoa 

MctoUtu re- 

tiime from 
bullish erne at. 

into Cappa- 
doi^iu tiud 


of water, Uicy wen; compt-llcd to ycldi: thcui »e]ve« at Uk 
length, IjitTivist hf litwl cut of thv p^pes And conduiti by ■ 
thf whicli the wat«r ran unto the CApitttU. By reason f 
whcix-of, they lieing unithli- to continue any teiigi-r, called 
MnriuN onto theiu, and yeelded theiii selves to him, under 
the axAurance of the faith of the commoa people. But 
although Marius did what he could possible to his utt^moat ■ 
power to save thorn, he could not prevaile, nor doc them I 
pleasure: for they were no sooner come dowse into the 
market place, but they were all put to death. Whcrcu|K)n 
he having now purchiui-d him sclit- the ill will of the ix.-ople 
and nobility both, wbm time ounv about that new Cvnsors 
abouldc be clioMcn, ev&y mau looked that h« would ha«e 
bene one of the HutetK : nowbeit he .sued not for it, for feoie 
of repulse, but suffered otJiers to be diaseii of f&rre lesae 
di^iity and calling then him selfe. Wherein notwithstand- 
ing he gloried, saying that he would not sue to be Ceoaort 
bicause nc would not have the ill will of many, for examining 
too straghtly their lives and manners. Againe, a decree 
being preferred to rcpcalc McteUiis banJshmeut, Marius did 
what lie could poiisiule by word and dccdc to hinder it: 
howbeit, seeing Ui the- end he could not have his will, he let 
it alone. 'ITie iH-ojili; having thus willingly revokcil Metvlluji 
banishment, Marius hart would not serve him to sec Metcllus 
rcturnc againe, for the malice he liare him : wherforv, ht 
tooke the seas to goe into Cappadocia and Galatia, uiider _ 
colour to pay certaine sacrifices to the mother of the podd at-B 
which he bad vowed unto her. But this was not the very 
cause that made him to undertake this jomey, for he had an 
other secret meaning in it. For his nature not being framed 
to live in peace, luid to govcmc cjvill matters, and havinf 
attained to Ids givatrK^ oy tmnt^^, and supposing that his 
glorie and authority consumed and decreased altogether — 
nving idlely in peace: he sought to devise new occosiod <^m 
warres, hoping if he could -stirre uj> the kinges of A^sia, and 
s[»ecially Mitnridates (who witJioiit his procurement wax 
feared much, that one day he would make warTe> against the 
Romaincs) that he sJiould then undoutedly without let of 
anv man be chosen Geuerall to make warres witb him, and 


wtthall also, that bv that meanes he should have occasion to CAIOS 
fill the citie of Rome with newe triumphes, and hLs house SIARIUS 
with the spoylcs of the great kingdome of Ponte, and with 
the riches of the king. Now Mithridates disposing him selfe 
to entt-rtaiiH* Marius, with all the hoiior and curtesies he 
cuuld pitssihly shew him : MnriuH in thi- endc notwithstand- 
ing would not oncn- gt'%*c him a gotxl liNikr. nor a curttoiw 
word a^ne, but diurlishly myd imtn Mitliridulo* «t hi» 
departua- from him : ITiou must dt-termine one of thnc MmIm prowd 
two, king Mithridattv: either to make thy selfe rtrongrr TJ?*^*?,** 
then the Homainc*, or eUe to lookc to doc what they com- *■'""'*■*••■ 
maund thee, witliout nsistaunce. These wordes amaxed 
Mithridates, who had beard say before that the Romainei 
' Would spoako their mindt-s freely : howltcit he never saw nor 
provwl it before, uiilill tliat time. After Marius was returned 
unto Home, he bialt a house nevre unto the market place, 
bicnUKv he would not (as he said himself) that such as came 
unto him should trouble them itelves in coing farre to bring 
him home to his hoiuH-: or else for that he thought this 
would be an ocouiion that dirente would come to salute him, 
as they did olht-r S<-nntors, Howlx-it that was not theaui»e 
in dei-^e, but the imcly <aui>e was, for tJial he had no natundl 
gmce nor civility to entertaine men curteouily that came 
unto him, and that he lacked behavior iHtttdeii to rule in a 
common wealth : and therefore in time of peace they made 
no more reckoning of him, then they did of an old rusty 
hamessc or jmpk-ment that was good for nothing, but for 
the warres only. j\nd for all other tliat professed armes as 
him selfc did, no man grieved him so much to be called 
forward to ofSce and state before him sclfe, as Sylla did. 
For hi' was ready to burnt for spite, to )tcc that trie noble 
mm did all what they could to pivferrc Syllm for the ntalice 
and ill will they ]wro him : and that Syllaes fint riftingf and 
prefem-ment grvw, hy the tjuarrells and eontcntioivx he had 
with him. And specially when Docchus king of Numidia 
was proclaimed by the Senate, a frende and confederate 
of the Romaine people : he ofiVed up statues of victories, 
carving tokens of triumpbc, into the temple of the Capitoll : 
ana placed neerc unto tocm also, an image of gold of king 




The cause of 
the diMen- 
tton botwent 
Mariuii Mid 

TTie wMTtf 
of the oon> 

SiloM stawU 
ch&lenite and 



lugurtbe, whkh be delivered by his owne handcs unto Sylla. 
And this mode Marius starke madde for spite and jolouKie, 
and could not abide that an other should tMce iipun (lini the 
glor)' of his doingcs : insomuch as he dt-tcmiinra to plueke 
thoev images dowue, and to c&ry tlwni away by force. Sylla 
on tJie otlKT side stomakcd Marius, and would not KufTer him 
to take tliem out of tJie placv where they were : so that thia 
ctvill Koditioii had taken present elfeet, liad nut the worrea of 
their confederatt-N falteji out betwene. ond ri<stTfUi>ed them 
for a time. For the be^ souldters and a>i>st warlike people 
of all Italie, and of greatest power, they all together rose 

Xinat Uie Romainest, and liaa well neere overthrowen their 
>le Empire. For they were not onely of great force, 
and power, and well armed : but their Captaines also, for 
valliantnes and skill, did in maner e(]uall the worthiiH-s of 
the Uomaines. For this warre fell out wonderfully, by 
rvason of the calamity and misfortune that happciieil in it : 
but it wanne Syllu as much fame and rcputacion, as it did 
Marius shame and dishonor. For he shewn) him wife very 
cokle and »low in all his entcrpristx, still delayingv time, 
either hicatise a^ luu( mortified Im active hvate, and killed 
that tjuicki- ready di.iiionition of liudy tluit wa» wont to be 
in htm, l)eiii(r then alxtve Uirec- Mx>re and live yean olde: 
or eUe as he sayd him selfe, bicause he was waxen flowfy, 
and had ache in his raines and sinewes, that he could t>ot 
well stirre his body, and that for shame, bicause he would 
not tary bchindc in this warre, he did more then his ycares 
could away withall. Notwiths tan ding, as he was, yet he 
wannc a gn-at battel), wherein were slaine six thowsande of 
their enemies : and so long as the warrcs endured, he never 
gave them advantage of liini, but paciently suflred them 
Humetime to intreoche him, and to mockc him, and geve him 
vite word>, cha)cnging him out to fight, and yet a)) this 
wou)d not provoke him. It is sayd aifio, tliat Pompedius 
Silo, who was the chiefest (^ptaine of reputadon and 
authority the enemies bad, said unto Marius on a time t If 
thou be MariuR, so great a Captatne a.s tliey say thou art, 
leave thy campe, and come out to battel. Naj, said Marius 
to him againc ; If thou be a great CaptaJne, plueke me out 


by the cares, aiid compell me to come to battel]. An other 
tunc when tie enemies eavc them occasion to gcvc a great 
charge upon them with advantage: the Ilomaines were 
faintc hartcd, and tliirst nut «ct upon them. \Vher«for«, 
after both the one and the other were retired, Marius caused 
hii men to assemble, and .s)uike unto them in thiii surte: I 
con not tell which of the two I should rvcken mort cowardes: 
you your itelvcs, or your eneuiiet : for Utey dunt not oitoe . 
see your liackes, nor you tbeiii in the faces. In the end »ot- 
with.s landing;, he wa.H compelled to reaigne hix cJiai^*, biding 
able to serve no leii^r for the weakeiteiiiie and tlebihtie of hiit 
body. Now, all the rebeU of Italie being put dowue, many 
at Home (by the orators nicanes) did sue to Itave the cliarge 
of the warres againat Mithridates: and among them, a 
Tribune of the people called Sulpitius, (a veiy bold and 
rash man) beyond alt mens hope and opinion preferred 
Marius, and perswadcd them to geve him the charge of these 
warres, with title and authority of vice Consull. The people 
thereupon were devided into two partes : for the one side 
stoode for Marius, and tbother wuuld Iiave Sylla take the 
charge, saying, that Marius wa^i t«> thinke nuwc tipuon the 
hotte but)ie^t at Bates, to louke to cure his okle bodie, urought 
lowe witli rewnie and age, as him selfi' wiyd. For Marius 
had a goodly .ttately hou-ie in tho>e parte.-* necre unto the 
mount of Miwene, which was farre more fine and curiously Mon« 
furnished, then became a Captaine that had bene in ao many •'"i'en'un- 
foughten Imttelts and daungers. The)' say that Cornelia 
afterwardea bought that 6qc house for the sunune of seven 
tbowsande 6ve hundred crownea, and shortly after also, 
Lucullus bought it ag&ine for two hundred and fifty thow- 
sand crowncs : to so great excesse was vanitie and curiositie 
growen in very short*- time at Rome. Notwithstanding all 
this, Marian too ambitiou.ily striving like a passioned young Mariui 
man agnirwl the weakeiie* and debilitv of hi» age, never amWtiou. 
mined day but he would be in thv fiela of Man to e^cercisc 
him seife among the young men, shewing his body disposed 
and ready to handle all kinde of weaponi, and to rydv hnrM-s : 
albeit that in his latter time, he had no jrreat health of btxiy, 
bicause he was very heavy and sad. 'Inere were that liked 



Sulpltiti* p!vd 
of ux« hun- 
dred koightcn. 



th&t pA«ing well ill him, tutd went of purpose into the fielde 
to see the paines lie totiki^ striving tu excel! the rest. How- 
beit those of the better sorte were very sory to see his avarice 
and ambition, con-Mdering specinJly, that being of a poore 
man bwome very ricli, uni of a right mcftne persone a gnat 
estate, that he coiilcle not now coiitainc his prosperity witliin 
reasonable buundcs, nor content him sclFc to be cstciined 
and honored, quiettie enjoying all he had wonne, lutd which 
at that present be did jKissessc: but ns if he hnd bene very 
poore and newly, ofltr ho had rvceivwl such grvnt honor 
and tnumplif^ would yet enry out hi.<« age no Ktowlly, even 
into (^p|>a«l(H'ia, and utito the n-alnic of I'oiit, to got- (iglit 
there againjit Archelaus and Neoptoleinut), l.ieiitenaunta of 
king Mithridates. In deede he alleaged some reasons to 
excuse him wife, but they were altogether vaine : for he savd 
that he desired in persone to bring up his sonnc in exercise 
of annes, and to tench him the dtwipline of warrcs. Itiat 
discovered the sctTct hidden plague, which of long time hath 
lurked in Rome, Mnriut spceiolly having now met with n 
fit instnniKiit, and minister to dc!<troy the common wealth, 
which was, the iiinolent aitil ra-sh Sulpitiiii*: who altogether 
followed SntuminuH (loingen, saving tn«t he was found too 
cowanllv and fainte luurted in all hiit enterpriM^ and for 
that di(l Mariu.4 iu^tly reprove him. But SulpitiuN, bicaiuw 
he would not dally nor delav time, had evi-r sixe hundred 
younge g«itlemen of the onfer of knightefl, whome he used 
as his gard about him, and called them the gard against the 
Senate. And one day as the Consulls kept their common 
assembly in the market place, Sulpitius comming in armed 
apou them, made them both take their heclcs, and get them 
packing : and us they fled, oik- of the ConKult» sonncs being 
taken tardy, was slaine, Sylla being thothcr Consul!, and 

Ecrcciving that lie wiw foilow<'d hard at hand unto Marius 
0UM>, rume into the same against the opinion of all the 
world : wherof they that ranne after him not l>eing aware, 
(Muwed by the house. And it is reported that Afariii.i him 
selfe conveyed Sylla safelie out at a liacke dore, and that he 
being scaped thus, went unto his campe. Notwithstanding, 
Sylla him selfe in his commentaries doth not say, that he 


was saved in IVIarius house when be fled : but that he waa CAIUS 
brought thither to geve his consntt unto a matter which MAKl^S 
Sulpitius woulde have forced him uiito ngainrt bis will, pre- 
senting bim naked swordot on every side. And he wrytetb 
abo, uuit being thus forcibly brought unto Marius house, 
h« was kept there in this feare, uatilt sudi time aa rvtuni- 
inge into the market place, he wa^ comiietled to revuki; 
againe the adjuniement of justice) which ne and hi» cum- 
paiiion by eojct had comiuaund«l 'llua done, Suluitiu* 
then being the stronger, caused the oommiaaion and cnai^ 
of this warrc against Mithndatcs to be assigned unto Marius 
by the voyce of tbc people. Thcrforc Mariua geving order 
for bia departure, »cnt two of his ColooelLi bdore to take 
the army of Sylla: who having wonm- his souldicrs harts 
before, and stirred thciii up against Planus, brought tbcm 
00 with him din-ctly towitrden Home, Ix-ing no ^s»c then 
fire and thirty UiowMuid lighting men; who letting apon 
the Cnptaiiiea Marius liod sent unto them, hIkvic Uicm iu 
tlie fiettle. In revenge whereof, Marius againe in Rome put 
nwny of Syllaes fnmdcs and followers to death, an<l pro- 
claimed open liberty by sound of trompet, to all alaves iukI 
bondmen that would take armes for him: but there were Marius 
never but three onlv that offered them selves. \Vhi--rcuppon, "^^'tio"- 
having made a litle n«i»taunec unto Sylla when he came 
into Rome, he was suone after compelled to irmnc his way. 
Mariu;« was no sooniT out of the ritie, but they that were 5'"j'n *'**'' 
in liix coinjjMUiy fonwking him, dispersed them selves here '''*"' J*""**- 
and Uien- Ikui^ durke night: and jVInriuH bim nelfe got to 
a liouu- of his in the contrie, called Saloiiium, an<l i^-nt his 
Sonne to one of his father in law Mutius fanm^t nut farre 
from thence, to make some provision for vittellt. I)ut Marius 
in the mcane time, went before to Ostia, where one of hit 
frendes Nuuicrius had prepared him a shippe, in the which 
he imbarked immediatly, not tarying for bis sonne, and 
hoisod eaile, having only Gmnius his wiven sonne with him. 
la the mvane time llie yiMin^r Marius beinge at his father in 
law Mutiii.i fiirme, stJiyed so long in getting of provision, in 
trussing of it up. and ciuying it away, that brotule day bght 
had like to liave discovered hiim : for the enemies had adrcr* 




M»riu« the. 
•onne flieUi 
Into Africk«. 


tuement wbetber he was gone, nbereuptn) certaioe horsemen 
were sent thither supposing to have fotind him. But the 
keeper of the house liavine (ui inckling of their comminge, 
and preventing them altio before thev c&me, sodainely yoked 
his oxen to the irartv which he ludecf with beanes, and nidde 
tliis younger Marias under the same. And prickingc the 
oxen forward witli hin Koade, set out, atid met them as be 
wiait towiird-s tin- city, and delivetwi IVlarius in thi» sort« 
into hU wive« huu^: and there taking .tuch thiiiges ax lie 
needed, wheii the night folEowing came, went towards the 
sea, and tooke Rhippe, finding one crosae sayled, bound 
towards Africke. Marius the father saylinge on still, had 
a very good winde to poynte alongest the coast of Italie : 
notwithstanding, being afraycd of one Geminius, a chicfe 
nmn of 'IVrracine, who hated hjm to the de«th, be gave 
the maryncTs warning thereof betimes, and willed them to 
take hecdc of landing at Tcrrocinv. The maryners were very 
willine to obey him, but the winde stoode full against them 
oomming from the innyne, which nuscd a great storme, and 
tiiey feared mueh that their ve**eU whieh wa» but a bote, 
would not bntoke the nens, Ix^ides tliat he Iiim M-lfe wtw 
very iiicke in his stomake, and Min- nea, beaten: iK)twith- 
standing, at the length with the greatest difficulty that 
might be, tlicy recovered the coast over against the city 
of Circeca. In the meane time, the storme increased stm, 
and their vittells failed them : whoroupou they were com- 
pelled to laud, and went wandring up and downe not know- 
inge what to doc, nor what way to take. But as it falleth 
out commonly in such like cases of extremitie, they thought 
it alwayes the best sufotie for them, to flic from the place 
where they wen>, and to hope of that which they saw not : 
for if tile sea were their enemy, the lande was so likewise. 
To meet* witli men, thev were ufmyed : ami not to nieete 
with them on thother »i()e lacking vittt'lLi, wa.t in dcede the 
greater daunger, Ncveithelewt-, in the end Uiey met with 
heard men that could geve them nothing to cate, but know- 
ing Marius, warned hiui to get him out of the way as soane 
aslie could possible, bicauae it was not longc since that there 
passed by a great troupe of horsemen that sought him all 



about And thus hang brought unto su«h perplexitVi that CAIU3 
he knew not where toDestowe him selfe, and speciallv for &LARIUS 
that the poorc men he hod in his company were almoet 
fltarved for himger : he got out of tbo high way notwith- 
standing, and sought out a very thickc woddc where he 
pused all that niglit in great sorow, and the next mominge 
behigc compelled oy necessity, determined yet to employ his 
body befure all his irtretigtli fiuled. Thus he wuidi-red on 
alongest the sea coast, §ti]l comforting thvm that followed 
him the best he could, and praying ttivm not to dispayrv, 
but to referre them selves to him, even until the laat hope, 
trusting in certaine prophecies which the Soothsayers had 
told him of long time before. For when he was but very 
young, and dweSing in the contrr, he gathered up in the 
lappe of his gowne, the ayrie of an ^igle, in the which Mariua found 
were seven young Eagles : whereat his father and mother ¥• »J'*e •f 

much wondering, asked the Soothsayers what that mont. 
They answered, That their sonne one day should be one of 
the gn.-utest men in the wortd, luid that out of doubt he 
should ubtaine seven times in his life the chiefcst offk'e of 
dignity in his contry. And for that matter, it m myd tJiat 
HO in lU'de it came to pasw. Other hold opinion, tluit such 
ai) were about MariuA at tliat time, in tliat present place, and 
eUe where, during the time of !ii» flying: they hearing him 
tell this tale, bdeved it, and afterwardes put it downe in 
wr)'tingc, as a true thinge, although of trothe it ia bothe 
fate and fayned. For they say, that the Eagle never getteth 
hut two yoimge ones : by reason whereof it is mavnlavned 
also, that the Poet Musa;us bathe lyed, in that wliich be 
hathe wrytten in these verses : 


Tlie E»g\t liiyr* three ffgff, 'nd tiri> shn hatflietli forth : 
But yet shn liringrth uf but on«, tlint snf thiag u worth. 

IHowwoever it wak, it i» certaine tluit Marius many times 
during the time of hia flying myd, that he was assured he 
should come unto tl>e tteventli Oinsulship. When they were 
comen necre now to the city of Mintumes, about a two mylc 
and a halfe from it, they might perceive a troupe of horse- 
men comming by the sea side, and two shippcs on tlie aea 
S:DD «09 


Eagle UjtOt. 




land, and fbr- 
•akeu of ike 


that fell uppon the coast by good happc. Wherefore thcr 
all bccannc to runnc (so long w tncy hail breath luid 
strcngSi) towardes the sea, into tl>e wliicli tliey threw thetn 
selves, and got by swymining unto one of the ^ippes where 
Gnuiius wait: and they crosaed over unto the lie that is 
right agaimt it called Eiiaria. Now for Marius, who was 
heavy and sicke of body, two of his servauales hoipe to bolde 
him up alwayes above water, with the greatest pain« and 
difficunie in the worldc : and at the last they labored so 
tliRMigfaly, that they put him into tl)e otlicr «hippe at the selfe 
same present, when the horsemen came unto the sen ade^ 
who cried out alowde to the niarynvn, to lande againc, or 
cl«c throw Mariu» over horde, and then to goe where thev 
would. Marius on thother »i<le humbly besought them witli 
tcarvit, not »o to do : whereby the masters of the shippe 
in a shortc space were in many raindes whether to doe it, or 
not to doe it. In the endc notwith-itanding, they aunHwered 
the horsemen they would not throwe him over the borde : 
M> the horsemen went their way in a great rage. But as soone 
as they were gone, the masters of the shippc diaunging minde, 
drewe towardes lande, and cost auckcr about the mouth of 
the river of Liris, where it leaveth her banckes, and maketb 
great marysses: and there they lolde Marius he nhould doe 
well to goe a land to vnte .■«om<.-what, and rrfrevh his sea 
sicke booy, till the winde Kcrved them to make mile, which 
doubtleate xaycd they, will he at a certaine hower when the 
sea winde fallen and hecomeK calrae, and that tliere ri»eth a 
litle winde from the lande, ingendred by the vapours of the 
nmryasea, which will serve the tume very well to take twas 
agame. Marius following their counsell, and thinking they 
had ment eood faith, was set a lande uppon the rivers bancke: 
and there layed him downe apon the grosse, nothing suspect- 
ing that which happened after to him. For the manners 
preiK-ntly taking their shippc ogaine, and hovsing up their 
anekers. Hailed straight away, and fled : j"*!ging it no hones^ 
for them to have delivereHl Marius into the handes of his 
enemies, nor safetie for them selves to have saved him. 
Marius finding him selfe all alone, and fonaken of every 
man, lay on the ground a great, while, and sayd never a 


word : jrH at the length taking hartc a Utle to him» got up CAIT:.S 
ODce againe on hU fccte, and paincfully wandrcd up and MARIUS 
downe, where u-as ncitlicr way nor pathc at all, ovcrtnwnri 
dvepe marissfs and grvtit ditchi-s, mil uf wat*-r luid muddc, 
till hi' came at tlic length to u poorc oldc nuinx voUlgv, 
dwelling there in tlimu nuirissi-H, luid fallingi; ut hi.s feetc, 
btMought him tu help^.- to wuve txiid Hucvoiir a |hk>k Hiflicted 
man, vrith prumiM; tliat one da; he would gvve him a better 
raconi(K>nce then he Io«>kvd for, if he miglit escape this 
preKnt (launger wherein he was. The olde man whether for 
that he had kriowen Mariun aforetime, or that seeing him (hy 
c«>niecturt only) judged him to he some great personage: 
tola him that if he ment but to lye downc and rest him selfe 
a litle, his poore cabyne would aervc that tume n-asonably 
well : but if he mciit to wondor thus, to die his eiMiuicii that 
followed him, he would then bring him into a mure sec-ret 
place, nnd fanlcrof from iioy»e. Mariiu pmyvd him thjtt he 
would no mucl] doe for him : ami the good mmi brought him Mnriai 
into the niari^lie, unto a low plocv by tin- rivers «de, where ^'^^'o io Hi« 
he made him lye downe, and tlien covered him with « great ''^■''"•••• 
deale of n^ede and bent, and otlier such tight tliinges as 
could not hurte him. He had not long l>ene tliere, but he 
heard a great noyse comming towardeti the cabin of the 
poore old man : for Geminius of Terracine had sent men all 
about to secke for him, whereof some by chaunce came that 
way, and put the ]HK>n; man in a fcare, and threatned him 
that he hod received and hidden an cnomie of th« Romaincs. 
Marius hearing that, ro«e out of the place where the old 
man hod luyeu him, and Ktripping him nelfe etarke naked, 
went into a [Wirte of the mamht- wlu-n.'^ the WMtcr wan full of 
niyre and mudde, and there wa.i founde of tlione that ^-^irehcd 
for him : who takinge him out of the ulime htl naked on he MuiusUkeo. 
was, caried him into the citie of Mintumeti, and delivered him 
there into the govemoutB bandes. Open proclamation was 
made by the Soiate through all ItaJie, that they should 
apprehend Marius, and kifl him wheresoever they founde 
him. NotwitliBtanding, the governors and magistmtes of 
Alintumo thought good lir»t to consult thenipon omongest 
tbvm wives, and in tbc meanc time thc^ debvcrod him into 



CAIUS the safe custody of n H-om&n called Fannw, whom they 
MARIUS thought to have bene a bitter ciicmie of his, for an oia_ 
gnidec she had to hiin, whicli was this : Fannia somtitnv ' 
a husband called Tinitius, whom sht wa^i willine to li'uvf fur 
that they could not iijfrc, and rctiuircd ht-r (lower of him 
uiiinc, which niis very frn-ut. Her husbnndv aj^iuiic .taycdi 
inc had iilim-d Uic whurit. Tlie inutti-r wax brouflit before 
MaHun m im x\\t Conitubhippe, who hod gevcn judgviaent 
npon it. Huth {uirtieH bt-iiig lieanl, and the l«w prasecute ' 
on eithi-r aide, it v/tm found tJint thin Faiinia waa a naught 
wofiiaii of her body, atid that her huijlmtitl knowing it weC 
enoush before he maried her, yet tooke her witJi her faultcs, 
and long time lived with Iier. Wherefore Marius being 
angrie with them both, gave sentence that the husband 
should repay backc her dower, and that for her naughty Ufe, 
pAimioM she should pay fourc fartbings. This notwitbstanding, when 
ciirt(«i« onto Fanniu saw Marius, she gru^^^d him not for that, and Kwd 
'"*■ of ail had any revenpiiige miride in her towardirs him, but 

cuntrarily did cortiforte and heipe him what she eouUI with 
that she had. Marius thanked her niar>*elously for it, aiid 
iiiui her bojie well : bicautte he mvt with good hivke as he 
waa coinnting to her houae, and in this manner. A-i they 
were leading of him, when he came ncere to Fantiiaes house, 
her dore l>eing open, there came an sxte nuining out to go 
drinke at a conouit : not farre from thence: and meeting 
Marius by the way, looked apon him witli a lively joyfufl 
countcnatmce, first of all stopping sodainly before him, and 
thou bcgiiming to bray out alowde, and to leape and skippc 
by him. Whereuppon Marius straight conjcvttning with 
him »elfe, said, that the goddes did signifie unto him, that be 
sltuulil save him selfe sooner by water then by lande : bicause 
that tlie atse leaving him, nmm- to drinke, and cared not ti> 
eate. So when he had tolde Fiuuiia this t(do, he desiixxl to rest, 
and prayed them to let him alone, and to nJiut the chamber 
dore to him. But the mogistrateH of the citie having con- 
8ult4<d together about him, in the ende i«»olved they must 
deferre no lenger time, but dispatchc him out of tlie way 
presently. Now when they were agreed apon it, they could 
not findc a man in the citie that durat take apon him to kill 


him: but a nun of oimcs of the GkuIcs, or one of the 
Cimbres (for we fiotic botli the one rikI the other in wryting) 
that went thither with his sworti dmweii in his hitndc. Now, 
that place of the chamlx-r wlR-n;in Miiriits lay waa vtry 
darkc, and as it is reported, the citu) of anneti thoit^t lie 
aawe two huminge flames come out of Mariu* eyvn, nTuT heard 
a voyce out of that dar ke comer, sayinfr unto him : O fcHowe, 
thou, dnriMt thou come to kill Cttia% Mariun p 'llie Imrharoua 
Oaule henring lht--se wordes, nuine out of the e)iuinht-r pre- 
sently, cikitiiig hi^ sworde in the niiddc^t of the flower, and 
crying out theite wordes onely : I can not kill Caiuii Maiius. 
Tnis niade tlie Mintumlaiis afraied in the city at the first, 
but afterwards it moved them to compassion. So they were 
angry with them selves, and did repent them that they con- 
verted their counsell to so eruell and iinkinde a decde, 
against one that had preserved all Italie: and to deny him 
aide in so extreamc ucceKsity, it was too great a Kliine. 
Therefore let us let him goi-, »ayeil they to tht-m selves, 
wlterc he will, and suffer him take his fortune aj>puintM) him 
eUc where : and let us pny to tlie goddvs to p<irdone tiiis 
offence of ourn, to have thrust Manu« nakeii and Ix^gerly 
out of our city. For thoi<c conMderatioii.s tiie Mintumiaiis 
went all togt-tJicr to Marius wlure he woa, aiul stoode almut 
him, determining to see him nafeiy amducted unto the sea 
side. Now though every man wa« ready, and willing to 
pleasure him, some with one thing, some with an other, and 
that they did hasten him all they could posdhle, yet they 
were a good while a going thither : hicause there was a 
wodde c&lled Marica, that layc right in their way bctwene 
their city and the sea coast which they creatly rv-vcrence, 
and thinke it a socnledgc to cary any thing out of that 
woddc, tliat woH once brought into it. On thother nidc, 
to leave to goe through this wodde, and to compasse it 
rounde atwut, it would oAe a nuir^-elous long time So 
they standing all in douht w)iat they should doe, one of the 
auncientest men of the city, spake alowde unto them, and 
nid : that there was no way forbidden them, that went 
about to save Marius life. TIicii Marius him selfe being 
the fonneat man, taking up some of the fardells which 



One hiwrid W 
kill Mnriui. 

Tlie Mlnttti^ 
iiians mifFcred 
Mariu* to Ki> 
hlR w»y with 

Usrlca Sjln. 




Mvlui the 
eldw ftleUi 


they caried with him, to plesaurc him in the ahip, vent 
through the wodde. All other thin^ necessary- being thus 
rvndilv ])rc)Mirrd for him with like goodwil, and HpL-ciaUy 
the snipuL- which one- Bellams had ordained for him: M 
caused oJI this sloriv to bo painted in a tabic at large, 
which hr gave luitu th« tvniplv, out of the which he dqiarted 
when he tuoke ^lippc. Aflvr he was departed thence, the 
witide by good fortune caried hini into the He of Knaria, 
where he foiinde UraniuB and some other of his freii<It?s. with 
whom he tooke &ea ogaine, and pointed towardea Africke. 
But lacking water, they were compelled to landc in Sicilio, 
in the territory of the city of Erix : where by chaunce Uiere 
Uye a Romame Qua»tor, who kept that coast. Morius 
being landed there, sc^wd very narrowly that he was not 
taken of him : for he slue sixteene of his men that came out 
with liini to take water. So Mariux getting liiui tJienoc 
with oil spei-de, eniwixl the leaa, untill nv arrival in tlie lie 
of Atenyn;^, where he (irst undcmtoode tliat his Aunne w«« 
savml witli CetheguH, and that tliey wt;re Ixith tutf^tiier gone 
to Hienipsal king of the Numidians to bcseeche him of ayde. 
'I'hiH gate him a litle corage, and made him bold to passe 
out of that lie, into the coast of Carthage. Nowe at that 
time, Scxtilius a Homaine Prajtor wai governor of Africke, 
unto whom Manus had never done good nor hurt, and 
therfore be hoped, that for pity only he might perhappm 
have helpc at his hande. Ilowbcit he was no sooner lanued 
with a few of his men, but a scrgvattnt come straight and 
nayd unto him: SexUlius, Prietor and f;uv^-mor of Libya, 
dot!) forbid thee to laiule in all thiit province : otlierwise l»e 
t«Ueth tiRt-, tliat he will obay the Senateit t-ommauiidcinettt» 
and purtue tliee as an enemy of the Uoiiiainefl. Matiuf 
hearing thu coroinaundenient, waa so angry and Bory both, 
that he coulde not readily tell what aunswere to malce him, 
and pawsed a good while, and eayd never a word, still eying 
the sergeaunt with a mmmc looke : untill he asked nim, 
what aunswcr he would make, to the Pnvtors eomiiiaunifc- 
ment. Mariiw then fetching a dpcpc sigh from hi." hartc, gave 
him this aunswcr : Thou xlmlt Ull Scxtilius, that thou 
host aetot Coius Morius bouished out of his coiitrie, sittinge 


amongest the ruines of the city of Cartbue. By tfau 
aunswere, be wisely laved the example of me mine and 
destruction of that givat dt)' of Carthage, before SextiHua 
eves, and the chaungc of his fortune : to wame Sextilius that 
tne like might fell uppon him. In the meane time, Uiemo- 
sal king of the NiunidiAns, not knowit^ bow to resolve, did 
Iwnorauly intreatc voung Morius anu bis compani«. But 
when they wen- willing to goc their way, be alwaycs founde 
newe occasion to stay thL-tti, aii<I was very ^ad to toe that he 
vtarted nut for any oixirtunity or good occauon that was 
offered : ootwithatJaduige, there fortuni-<l a happy nivaae 
unto them, whereby they saved t}tei:i setves. And tim it 
was. Iliis Mariuc the younger being a fayer complexioned 
young man, it pitied one of the kinges concubines to see him 
80 hardly delt wi thall. This pity of hen was a shadow to doke 
the love she bare him : but Marius would not hearken at the 
first to her intiscmcntcs, and rcfu!>ed her. Yet in the ende, 

SLTceix-ing that there wiis no other way for him to escape 
icnce, and consideritig ttiat six did all thinges for their 
availc, more dilig^.'ntly and lovingly then iihc would have 
done, if she hod not ment further matter imto him, then 
only to enjoy the plcaflurc of him : be then accepted her 
love and kytnincsie, so oa at the length she taught him n way 
bowe to flyi^, and save biin M-ife and his freiuleri. Hereupon 
be went to hia father, and after they bad inibraccd and 
■aluted eche other, going alongest tlie aca aide, they founde 
two soorpiona figbtinge together. Maiiua tooke this for an 
ill ngne : wherupon thcr quickly tooke a fisher boate, and 
went into the ile of Cerciua, which is no great distaunce of 
&om finnc landc. They had no soner hoi%d up ancker, hut 
they sawe the honie men which kiiif:;c lliempsal had sent 
unto the place from whence they were departed : and that 
was one of the greatctit dauogcn that Manus ever csc&pcd. 
In the mcanc time tben^ was ncwes at Home, that Silla made 
wiure against kinge Mithridate* Li<titen«untrs : and further- 
more, that the Consulla being up in armca tbone against 
thother, Octnviua wanikc tlie battell, and being the stronger 
had driven nut Cinna, who sought to have usurped tyran- 
iiinll power, and had made Cornelius Menila Consull in bis 




atiKwers of 
flirt iinM in- 

Martiit tbs 



Cinna driven 
out of Rome 
by OcUviui. 


Mariui joyn- 
eth force 
with Ciiuia. 


place : and that CJnnn on thothrr sido leavicd men out gf 
other partes of Itftlii*, nod nindt; wanes upon them that were 
in Rome. Marius hvnnngof this diwciition, thought good 
to rctumv as MKim* it» hv cuiild ixnsibli- into Italic. And 
aGSt-mbling ccrtaiiie horsi:mi.-i) of Uit- nation of tlw Mauni- 
nans in Africke, and certaiiiv Itnliaiu ttuit had sRvni thrm 
aelvus there, unto tlie number of a thowtaiid men in all : he 
tooke sea, aitd landed inaliaven of Thuitoute called TelanMn, 
and being landed, proclaimed by aounde of trompet, liberty 
to all slaves and bonde men that would come to him. So 
the laborers, heard men, and neateheanies of all that marches 
for tlie onely name and rcputacion of Marius, raune to the 
aea side from all partes : of the which he having chosen out 
the stowtest and lustitist of them, waime them so by fayer 
wofdca, that having gathered a great companie together in 
few daycs, he made fortii; iMylc of them. Puruiermore, 
knowing that Octavius wax a man'elotis honest man, that 
would have no authiiritie otlierwiM^' then law and reason 
would : and tliat Cinna to llie contmrie was suspected of 
Syllo, and that he wught to bring in chiumgv ima innova- 
twn to the common wealth, he detennined to joync his force 
with Cinna. So Marius sent firat unto Cinna, to lettc him 
undorxtandc that he would obay him an Consull, and be 
rcmiy to do all that he should comroaunde him. Cinna 
rec('ii'ed him, and gave him the title and autlioritie of Vie^ 
coiiaull, and sent him scrgcaunts to carie axes and rtMldea 
before him, with all other s:lgnes of publicke autiioritie. But 
Marius refused them, and saved, that pompe became not hu 
miserable fortune : for he ever went in a poore threede bare 

Ewne, and had let his heare grow still after he was banished, 
ing above three score mvf tenne yeare olde, and had a 
sober gnt(^ wiUi him, to make men jjitie him the more that 
sawe him. But under all this counterfeatc pitic of his, he 
never chaunged his naturall looke, which was ever more 
fcartfull and terrible, then oUterwij«. And where he spake 
but litle, and went very demurely and sot>crly : that shewed 
rather a cankered cornge within him, then a minde humbled 
by his baniahment Inus when he had saluted Cinna, and 
spoken to the souldiers : be then be^^anne to set thiugcs 


kbrottchc, and made a wondcrfuU chaiingc in fewe dayes. CAIUS 
For first of all, with hi^ ship)>e3 lie cut of all the vittelU by MARIUS 
sum, and rubbed the DiRrrhniints tliat caiied come and oUier 
vittoUs to Rome : so that in a shorte space he was master 
purveyLT for all necvsairie provision and vittclls. After 
this he went R]on^>st the coast, and toukv all the cities apon 
the sen side, oiid at the length wainte Ottia also by treason, 
put the mort purtc of them in tin* towno to the mword, and 
spoylcd all their grHMl«'» : and HfUTwards making a bridge 
apon the river of 'nKT, t(x>ke from bin enemies all hope to 
have any manner of provision by sea. That done, he went 
diractJv towarde* Koine with hiti armie, where first he wantw 
the hiH called lanicutum through Octavius faulte : who over- OeUrina 
tlirewe him selfe in his doinffes, not so much for Iscke of I'*5%^""* 
reasonable *kill of warrea, oh tJirtrngh his unprofitable curio- J? t-tT**! 
sitie and strictnes in observing the law. For when diverse Rume.Mmnrt 
did perswade him to set the bond men at liberty to take Cinnt'aad 
ormea for defence of the common wealth : be aunswered, Mwiw, 
that he would never gevc bond men the law and privilcdge 
of a Itomaine citizen, having driven Cains Mariiis out of 
Rome, to matntaine the anthoritie of t)K- lawe. I)ut when 
Ciecilius MeteUiis was come to Rome, tJie soniie of that 
MctelUis Numidicus, that having Ix-gonne the warns in 
Libya against king lugiirtbe, was jitit out by Marius : the 
souldioTM foreooke Octavius immediAtly, and came unto him, 
bicausc they tookc him to be a better Captaine, and dealred 
also to have a K-juler that could tell how to commaund 
tliem, to .lavo the citio, and tlie oomnMin wealth. For they 
promi.4i-d to tiglit valliiuilly, and perswadcd them selves that 
they should overcome their enemies, so that they ha<! a skil- 
ful! and valliant (^ptaine that could order them. Mctcllus 
misliking their offer, commaunded them in anger to rctume 
a^^aine unto tJve Conaull : but they for spite went unto tlicir 
enemies. Mctellus on tbothcr side, seeing no goiKl order 
taken in the citic to resist the cncniies, got him out of 
Home. But Octavius being (icrswadni by certoine Sooth- 0<:Uviu« too 
saycr* and Ch&ldcan sacrificcrs, who promised him all should J""'^''^'V'' 
ffoe well with him, taried still in Home. For that man "" "" "*"** 
being otherwise, as wise as any Roniaine of his time, and 

3 : EE an 




virtue And ini' 

■laine by 

A great eott- 
tniri«ty la 

Oinnn adH 
MHriuR entry 
iatn Itonip. 


on« that delt as uprightly in his Conaiikhippe, not carinl 
away with liftttering tales, and one also that followed thf 
auncieut ordei's and customcs as iulalliblc rules and examples, 
neither hrcaking nor oniitting any parte therof : vac thinkes 
yet had this imperfection, that hv frequented the SooUi- 
sayers, wikc men, and astronomers, more then men fikilfull in 
armes and fjovemmi-nt. Wherefore, Ix'fore that Mariu* him 
selfe eame into the citic, Octavius wax by forct pluet out 
of the pulpit for orations, and slaiiie presently by Mariiui 
sonldiers, wliome he had sent before into the citi& And 
it in sayed also, that when h« was slaine, they founde a 
figure of a Oialdean pro])heeic in hi« bntome : and here is 
to 1« noted a great eoiitrarietie in tliese two notable men, 
Olavius and Marius. The first lost his life, by trusting 
to soothsaying : and the seconde prospered, and rose 
againe, bicause he did not despise the arte of di\'ination. 
'ine state of Rome standing then in this mitncr, the 
Senate consulting together, sent Ambassadors unto Cinna 
and Marius, to pray them to eome peacibly into Borne, 
and not to embnie their hands with the blood of their 
citizens. Cinna sitting in his chayer as Consid, gave them 
audience, and made them a very reasonable and eurteous 
aunswer. Marius standing by hiro, spake never a worde: 
hut kIh'wmI by his sower looke that he would stiaigbt fill 
Hnnie witJi murdi-r luid blood. So when tlie Ambasmdors 
were gone, Cinna aunc into Himie enxironned with a great 
number of souldien : but Maritis Ntay'd itodainly at the 
gate, speaking part«-!y in /uigiT, and partely in mockerie, 
that he was a Iianisht'd man, and driven out of his 
eontric by law. And therefore if th^ would have him 
come into Home againe, they should first by a contrarie 
deeree abolish and revoke that of his liajiishmcnt, as if 
he hod bene a religious observer of the lawcs, and as 
thoKgh Rome had at that present enjoyed their freedom 
and libertie. Thus ho made the i»oplc assemble in the 
market plat-e to proccede to the confirmation of his call- 
ing home againe. But before three or fbure tritx* had 
time to geve their voices, disguising the mattvr no Icnger, 
and showing plainly that he mcnt not to be lawfully called 


home asaine from exile : he came into Rome with a garde 
about aim, of the veriest rascalU, and most sbsnietesse 
slaves, called the Dardiieians, who came to him from all 
partes; and they for the least woi-d hi- spake, or at the 
twinckling of his eye, or at a noddc of his head mode to 
thc-ni, slew many mc-n through his cuiimuiuudemciit, luid ut 
the length slew Anchnrius a Senator (tlint hod bene Pnt;tor) 
at Manus feete with their swordcs, bicuusc only that Morius 
did not .salute him when he came unv ilny to npMke witli 
him. AftiT thi» murthcr, they continued killinge all them 
that Marius did not Kulutt-, oiul .tjienke irato : for tliat was 
the very nigne he had gtrvmi thvni, to kill Uiein openly in the 
streetei before every iimri, so tliat his very frendes were 
afvarde of lieing murtliered, when tJiey came to aalute him. 
Thus being a great numlier of men slaine, Cinna in the end 
begannc to be satisfied, and to appease his aiigcr. But 
Munus anger and unsatiable desire of revenge in(^rea!ted more 
and more, so that he s|)ared not one if he suspected him 
never so litle : and there was neither towne nor high way, 
that WH» not full of skowtcH and spies, to huiite them out 
that biddc them selves and fled. Then experience taught 
them, that no frcndc is fiiithftdl, aud to be trusted, if fortune 
especially frovnic never so litli- : for tiiere were very fewe 
that did not Iwtraj' tljeir frendes tliat fled to them for 
Kuecor. And tht^rcftire dtur Ciirnutu^ servaunLi mo mudi the 
more deserve pniiM.', wlio having secretly hidden their master 
in his house, did hang up the dead body of some common 
nersoiie by the necke, and having put a golde ring on his 
linOTr, thcv shewed him to the llardisians, Marius garde, 
niiti burieti him in steade of their owne master, without sus- 
liicion of any man that it won a faiiied thing : and so Comutus 
being hidden by his servauntcs, was safely conveyed into 
the cnntriv of Gaulc. Marke Anthony the fh^tor hod also 
founde uut n faithfull frende, yet was he unfortunate. This 
faithful! fmid of his, was a poore simple mjm, who having 
received one of the chiefest men of Home into bin house to 
kcpe him close Uutc : he being dwirons to make him the 
best chere he could with that Title he had, sent one of his 
men to the next tavcnic to fetcbe wine, and tastinge the 




BTMit murdur 
m KoDic. 


of fraadw In 

The fsilhful- 
UM of Curnii- 
to th^ 

M. Antoniua 
Ihc (>mlor, 
l>«trn]-eil hy a 


The force of 

Catulu* Luc- 
tntiua kilted 


wine more curiouitly then be wm wont to do, he called for 
better. The drawer ai^kcd liiiii, why th»t new ordinary wine 
would not serve him, hut he niuat iiceden have of the be&t Aiid 
deoieet : the foolish fellow simply aunswered him (tellioK him 
■a his &milLar frend) that his master did feast Marke An wony, 
who was bidden very secretly in his bouse. He was no soonrr 
gone with his wine, and nis bsclce turned, but the vile 
traitcTouH drawer rume unto Marius, who was set at supper 
when he came. The drawer bcinj^ brought to him, proniiMfl 
him to deliver Marke Anthony into his handcs. MariuK 
hearing that, waa to joconde, that he cried out, and clapt his 
haiulet together for joyc: and would have risen from the 
Iwrde, aiiiT gone tluther him Kclfc in penHHie, had Dot his 
frendes kept him Iwekv. Rut he sent jVnnitix one of his 
Captaines thither with a <urtaine ntimlx-r of souldiera., and 
commaunded them to hriti^- him his hiiuie tguickely. So tbcy 
went thither, and when tiiey were coau: to tlie bouse whim 
the drawer had brought them to, Aimiuit taried beneath at 
the dore, and the souldiers went up the sta^'era into the 
chamber, and finding Anthony there, they b^anne to en- 
tonige one an other to kill him, not one of them having the 
liiirii: to lay handc's uppon him. For Anthonyes tongue vra 
us Kwcetv (w a Sircne, and had such an excellent grace in 
s|K!iikiiig, that when be began to spcakc unto the souldier^ and 
to pray thviu to save tiis life : their was not one of tbein so 
hard hitrted, ok onc»; to touch him, no not oiidy to looke him 
in the facv, but looking downewitrde);, fell a weeping. Annius 
perceiving they t^irietl long, and cnuic not downe, went him 
selfe up into the ehainlier, and founil Anthony bilking to hn 
niouldicrs, and thi-ni wt-eping, hi.t nweele eloquent tongue 
had so melted their harte'i : but be rating them, iwine 
furiously apoii him, and strake of hi» head with his owne 
h«n(I(%. And Catulus Luctatius also, that had bene Consult 
with Marius, and hsd triumphed over the (.'imhres with him, 
seeing him selfe in this perill, set men to intreate Marius for 
him : but his Jiunswcre was e^er, he must needes dye. So 
Catulus locked him sclfc into a Utle chamber, and mode a 
great tire of charoolc to be kindled, and with the smoke 
thereof choked him sclfe. Now afler their hcsdes were cut 



of, tb<^y threw out the nak«d bodiitt into tiw ^In-ctvs, (u>d 
truddv them under their feetf : the vhicli vrtu not only ■> 
pititffull, bitt n fuirvfull Mght to nil tlmt mwc iheni. Hut 
iifU-r ikll this yet, tlnif wim nothing tiint {^riwit! tlio [xt>ple 
Ml much, w the horriMi^ lechcrv nnd nhlioiniiiaUle <;ruelty of 
tluK ganl of the Uurdiieiaiui, wlio couiniing into menu houftes 
by fume, after thev hiuJ ataiue the miutent, defiled their 
young children, and ravi&lied their wivoi and maides, and no 
man would once reprove tljcir crueltie, Jet-hcrie, and unsati- 
able avarice : until! Cinna and Sertorius in the end set apon 
them sn they slept in their campe, and slcwe thcni every one. 
But in this extreniitie, as if all thinges luul bene restored 
unto their first estate, newpH cnine a^nv from tdl partem 
to Home, that Sylla having ended l)i» warn.- agninHt kiiij 


The Biv<liiD- 

of UiMr Cap- 
bun* for their 
cruel ti& 

Mithridutes, and recovered the pniviitcei which he hii 
unirped : retunii.-*) into Italie with a gn-at {mwct. This 
euned these cvilN and unnpeakeahh- miM-ries to ci-n»e a litle, 
liicauM- t)ie wickf<l dtx-nt of Uie satne looked tliey should 
liaie warres on Un-ir liiu-keH ere it were long. Whereuppon 
MariuR was chosen (.'oiihuU the 9e%'enth time. He going out 
of hiH house openly the first day of lanuarie, being the 
beginning of the yeare, to take possession of hi» Consul- 
shippc : caused one Scxtus Lucmus to be throwen downe 
headlong from the rockc Turpeian, which seemed to be a 
gR-iit Mgne and cvrt&ine token of the e\ilU and miseries, 
that fell out afterwards the selfe same yem apon them of 
their faction, and unto all the citic l>csidc. But MariuM 
being wre broken with bin former troubles, and his minde 
oppitaM-d witli extreftjHV sorow and griefe, w>uld not now tU 
this la.'tt time of neede pluvke up hi» biirte to him iignirK-, 
when he came to thinke of t)>i.i nowe towtLixl wnrre tliat 
threatned him, and of the daungers, griefe:!, ami trnubk-s be 
should enter into, more great and )>mlloua then any he tuul 
passed before. For through the great experience he had in 
warrcs, he tremblwi for fearc when he beganne to thinke of 
it, considering that he had to fight, not with Octaviua, nor 
with Mvnila, C'uptjiincs of u cx>mpHnie of rel>en!< gatliered 
togetlicr : but with a imblc Sylla, that hod driven liim out 
of itome before, and that cume now from driving the puiaant 



M)<1 lure. 


CAIUS king MiUiridatcs, unto the furdcst parte of the rcalmc of 
HARIUS Pont, and of the !K-u Euxinum. Thus, dcviicly wnyitig Ax>d 
considering the s&me, nnd fpeciallj' whi-n ne looked meke 
u|)|>oii lii> lun^ tinK* of tmniKhnH-tit, how vticnbundlike tie 
WftndcTed up iind downc in uUier coiitriejt, wid nrnienibn-d 
the mat ini»fortiinw hv hml fiunsed, hikI tlie .■'un<lrit.' daun- 
gen he fell ko oflvii into, being purMied ntiil by ttea and by 
land : it grieved him to the hute, wid made him »o unquiet, 
that lie coulde not uleepe in the night, or if he slept, had 
feaj^full dreamer that troubled him, and still he thought he 
besTxl a voyee burning in his eares : 

A L^ons very dvnnc, is dreadfull to bobold ; 

ThouKh ho him cclfo he f^nc abroadc, and be not therein hold. 

But fearing ino*t of all that Ite sh4>uld no more Klcepc niid 
t«kc hia n»t, he gave him selfc to moke unn-naoimble 
bnnekets, and to drinke more then his yeres could bcare, 
DevMc to seeking to wiinte iileepe by this meanes, to avoyde care the 
vinaedeepc. better. But at the length there came one mini the sea, 
that gave him certaine intelligence of all : and that was an 
increase of a new feare unto him. And thus he being now 
extrcfunelv troubled, partely for feare of the thing to come, 
and partely also for the over heavic burden of his present ill, 
there ncded but litJe more ax^ntvation, to fall into the 
disease wherrof he dyixl, which was n plewrisie : as Posi- 
donius the PhilosopheT untcth, who «>ycth ptntuly that he 
went into hi» ehaniber whiii he wn« Mcke, utxi Muike unto 
him abotit matters of his Ambastude, for the whicli he came 
to Rome. Vet an otJier histuriogniphvr ('aiu« l*i»o wryteth, 
that Manus walking one <lay after xupwr with his fniKU'x, 
fdl in talke nf hi.i fortuni; fnmi tlte ficginnin^ of hiii life, 
telling Uiem at laree how ot^i-n fortune bad tume<l with and 
againxt him : concluding, that it is no wise maas^ ))srte to 
trust her any more. So when he had doite, he tooke his 
Marlus the leave of them, and layed him downe upon hia bed, where he 
Gtlhen death, lay siekc seven dayes togetlicr, and on the seventh day dyed. 
Some wrvte tliat liis auiBition appeared plainly, by a straunge 
raving tl^at tooke blm in his head during; his sickcnes. For 
he thought that he made warrvs with ^lithridatcs, and slicwed 
Id bis bed all his gestures and movings of his bodic, as if he 


had bene in a batt^ crying the selfe same cryea out alowde, CAIOS 

which he was wont to crie when he was in the cxtreftme«t SIARIL'S 

fight. The dedrt- he bad to have taken this charge in hande M"iu« mad 

i^tiii.«t Mithridfttes, was so dccpely setled in his miiidv •""'•'tioM. 

through cxtrcamc ambition and je&louz^- that possest him: 

thut iH-ing then three score and ten veare old, after he had 

bene th(! lint man that ever was chosen seven times ConsuU 

in Rome, and aUo after that he had gotten a world of goodes A note Bfainit 

and richeKie together that might have suffiscd many kinges : the »nil>itious. 

yet for all this he dyed for sonowe, lamenting fiis harde 

fortune, as if he had dyed before^ hi« time, and before that 

he had done and ended tliat which lie hod detirvd. But 

this was cleane eontrarie unto tliat the wife Plato did, when 

he drewe neere to his death. For Ite gave God thanke* for Platoes ironis 

his fatal! end and good fortune. First, for that i»e liad made ** •"'• <l«ifc- 

him a reasonable man, and no brute 1?ea.<it : secondly, a 

Greke and no barbarous man : and furthermore, for that 

he wiu bontc in Socrates time. It is reported also, that 

one Antijiater of Tharsis calling to mind a litle before hit 

death the good fortune he had in his life time, did not for- 

gctte nmongc other thinges, to tell of the happie navigation 

he mode, tT)mming fnjm his contrie unto Athens : which did 

witne«w that he put upon the fyle of his good accompts for 

A nngular git-at griico, all favor fortune luid shewed him, 

and uiat he kept it in pi-rpetuall memorie, being the oncly 

and most a-tsured treasure a man can have, to keiJc those 

giftes that nature or fortune doe Ix^towc ujion hira. But 

contrariwise, untb&nkefull fooles unto God and nature Twtfa, 

doe forget with time tlie memory of tlieir fonner benefitted, 

and laying up nothing, nor kening it in perpetuall memory, 

are alwaycs voyde of goods and full of hojie, gaping still for 

things to come and leaving in the meane time Uie things 

prcBcnt, though reason pcrswndes them the contrarv. tor 

fortune may easily let tnem of the thing to come, liut she 

cftO not take tliat from them which is already past : and yet 

they utterly forget the certaim- benefit of fortime, as a thing 

noUiing btrlonging unto them, and dreame ainaycs of that 

which i« uitc«rtame. And sure it ehauiiceth ti) them by 

great reason. For, having gathered outward goodes together, 



Note that In 

follow iuK It 
tliHt Atari UK 

in th* city of 
Dot iu PcnmiH 
hitn. Sou 
ihe dtv »eem- 
«tJi toW nil»- 
t^m in niifl 

ol UlMO liVM. 


and locking them up before they have built and Isyd a sure 
f^Miiidcd r<>ut)diu:ioii of reason through D^wd leaniinj^ : they 
can not aflt^rwardes till nor qiicnchc thcu' unaatJable grcedie 
co%-etoua niiiide. Thus ended Marius his life, the seventeenth 
day of his seventh Consijshippc, whereof all the citic of 
Rome was not 8 litle slad, and toc^c liarte ugainc tmto them, 
supposing thpy had tfien bene delivered from a bloodic cniell 
tyranny. But within few cijkyes after they knew it to their 
cost, that they had ehaun^-a an olde master taken out of 
the worlde, for a younger Unit came but newly to tlieni : 
sucli extn-nme unnnturoll crui-lti<«, and murders did Mnriu* 
the younger commit, after the death of bin father Marian, 
murdering in manner all the chiefeat noble men of Kome. 
At the first, they tooke him for a valliant and hardy young 
man, whereupmn they named hira the sonne of Mars: but 
sliortly after his deedes did shew the cwntrary, and then 
they ealled hira the sonne of Venus, In the end he was 
sl)ut in, and IiesiL'gcd by i^ylla in the city of I'erusia, 
where he did what he could posidble to save his Ufc, 
but all was in vaine : and lastly, seeing no way 
to escape, the eity being tak«-n, he slewe him 
si'lfc with bis owne bnndt-s. 




N tlH- treasoiie of the Acanthians, which is 
in the temple of Aiiollo at Delphes, there 
i:t tlii»iitMrripti»n: Bnu(idtLS,ana the Acan- 
tbianH, with tlie spotle of the Athenians. 
That imcripti<m maketJ) many men thinke, 
that the unage nf stone tiiat standeth 
witliin the chamber by the dore therof, is 
the image of Bi-asidas : howbeit in trutli 
it is the livelie image of Lysander him selfc, made with a 
great bush of hcare, im<l a tbicko long beard after the old 
aundent fiicion. And where some say &at the Argivca, after 


they were oi-erconie and had lost a great battel), did all 
of them shave them selves in token and sjgne of common 
sorrow : and tliat the Lacediemonians on thothcr side to 
shewe the joy of their victor)-, did all let their hcares growe, 
that is not true. No more then this is true which other do 
rqmrte of the Bocchiades: who being flvd from Corinthe 
unto Laccda'mon, the Lac-txla-mtmians foundc them so ill 
favoredly disguised aiid dcforait-d, bicaitsc- their hcnds were 
aU ahavcii, that thereu])oii Uiey had a desire to let thnr 
heare and bvardM grnw. For that wiu one <if the orditiaitnees 
of Lycurg\is, who sayd that the long bushe of heare, maketh 
tfaem that are natumlly fayer, the |)Iea.*aunter to looke iip|K>n: 
and those that are ill favored, more »ugly and fearefull to see 
to. And furthermore, it i^ sayd that Aristoditus, the father 
of Lysander, was not of tlie royall blood of the kingeti of 
Sparta, though he came of the race of the Heraelides: and 
that his Sonne Lysander was very meanely and poorely 
brought up, being as obedient to the lawcs and statute 
of his contrie, as any other man was, showing him selfe 
olwayes very strong and constant against all vonitic and 
picastm;, saving only in matters of honor and curtesie, which 
they oifcr unto thow that deserve well. For they thinke it 
DO sbume nor dishonesty in Sparta, that the young men doc 
suffier tfaciD selves to be overcome with that delite and plea- 
sure: but doc so bring up their children, that from their 
youth they woidd have them to have some ta-tt and feeling 
of honor, deliting to be praised, and sorie to Ix- di»cam- 
mended. For they make no accoinpt of him that is not 
moved with the one nor the other, nut take him to be of 
a base cowardly nature, that hath no manner of mtndc to 
doe good. Ana therefore it is to be thought, that the ambi- 
tion and stowtnesse that was bred in Lysander, proceeded 
of the Laconicall discipline and education he had, and not 
so much of his owne nature. But in dcde of his owne nature 
he wax a nght courtier, and could tell how to eiitertainc and 
flatter great states and nobility, farrc better then the common 
moncr of the natural Sfiartims : and moreover for his private 
bcndit, he could easily bcare with the stowtiie« of grc^iter 
men of authority then him sclfe, which »ome jiulge to Ih- h 
3:FF Sm 


Lycurnu* the 
author (if 
wMritig lougtt 

The eommo- 
ditie of WMT- 
inn I«njfo 


The eduen- 
tioii of tho 



WLm men be 
evM melui- 

L7«iinder ■ 
dfMpiMr of 

irorda of 



admlnll for 
tli« Ittotdm- 
munluu by 



great poynt of wisedome, to know bow to deal« in matters 
of state. Aristotle in a place where he sayeth. that the 
snratest wittes commonly are subject unto mciancholyc, (as 
bocratcs, Plato, and Horcitl*^ wcrp) wrytcth, that Lj-windtT 
in hilt Inter (Lgr fell into thv mt'lruicholy disivuc, but not in 
hiH youth. He hod also thin Ninguhir gift above idl ottwr, 
that in his poverty he alwaycn kept that honest tnodnty 
with him, as ne would never be overcome nor corrupted with 
gold nor silver: and yet be filled his contrie with riches and 
covetousnes, which lost him tlie reputa<:ion he had wonne, 
bicauae him BcUe nwidc none aecompt of riches nor getting. 
For bringing store of golde and silver into his contrie after 
he had overcomen the Athenians, lie reserved not unto him 
sclfe one Drachma only. And furthermore, when Dionysius 
the tynui of Synicu«a, had on a time sent goodlv richc 
gownes out of Sidiia to his daughters: he ivfu»r<i thi-m, 
saying, that he was nfrayed such guwi>c« wmtld mnkc them 
fowler. NcverUitrlesse, wtortly afti-r being sent AmlMiKsndor 
out of his contrie unl« tlie same tvnmne, Uionysiuwj'ending 
him two gownes, praying him to choose which of the two he 
would cary to his daughter: be answi^ed, that she ber selfe 
could best choose which was tlie titter, and so caned both 
with him. But now to come to his doings in warlike causes : 
the warres of Peloponnesus fell out marvelous long. For 
after the overthrow of the armie which the Athenians bad 
sent into Sicilia, when every man thought they had utterly 
lost all their force by sea, and that by all conjecture they 
■houlde Noonc after loose all by laudv also: Aldbiades re- 
turning from his exile to dmle againc in matters of the stale, 
made an exeeding great chaimge an<l alteration. For bo set 
tlie Athenians a ftote agoine, and made Uiein aa strong by 
sea as the Laoedaeinonian.i : who Uicrcitpon beganrie to tjuake 
for feare, and to looke eflsoones for a fr&he warre, porceir- 
inge that they stoode in ueede of a greater power, and of a 
better Captatnc then ever they had before. Wbercuppon 
they made Lywuider their Admirall, who arriring in the eitie 
of tpbesiiB, fottndc thera very well affected towardes him, 
and man-clous willing nn<I ready to take tlic Luceda>moniails 
p«rte: howbcit utbcrwiae in very poon.' state, and ready 



atmoat to tiUce up all the b«irlMTxnis nuu»mi and facions of LY9ANDE 

the Pcniaiix, biouuM.' they did contirtiuilly friiiu<-iit thcin, being 

aivironmd rouixl Alx>ut with thi- coiitry of I.jdiji, nfu-ix- the 

king of Peraiaes CaptnitK^K wen- i-vtr reHkleiit. Wtwmfopc, LfHoder 

having planted his cauipe then-, iw brouf;ht thith«r mar- enlarfi:«th 

chauntes shippes out of all partcfl, aud aeLto up an artenail v**!. 

or store house to builde gallies in : so tltat in shorte space, 

hy oft Kcoune of marchauntcs that bc^^ne to trade thitlter, 

he quickened their havenj, and set up their ataple againe for 

tranicke of niarchaundijM^, and fitled every private artilioen 

bouse mth an honest trade to make them richv by, so that 

BTcr after it grewc in Gonttnuall hope to come unto that 

florisbinge state and grcatnes, in the which wc scv it at this 

prvKi-nt. Furthermore, Lysander being odvvrtuied that Cyrus, 

one of the great king of Fersin«« sonnea, was come unto 

thv dty of Sanlis, he went thither to 'H)cnke with him, and SuJi* « cftt 

to eompUihc of TisaphenR-* : who hnvinj^ c<>tiiui'iumI<-uioitt '" M™*. 

geveti him from tliv king to aide tltv I^uccdit-moniruiN, and 

to helpc to cxpulsc the Athe»iuii», and to driw tlton from 

tbe sea, ttecmed to deale but coldly ami faintly agatiiMt th«Ri, 

for the favor he l>are to Aldbiadcs. For, fumiiihing the 

Lacjdannonians very scantly with nioncj', was an occaaioit 

that all their arinie by »ea went to wrackc. Cyrus for his 

owne parte was very glad that he heard complaintcs of 

"nsHphcmes, and that tliey spake against him ; bicause he 

was an ill roan, and the rather for that be had him svlfv 

a litle odde grudge to him. Wberforc he loved Lysandvr 

marvelous wcD, as well for the complainttv 1m' made of Tisa- 

E hemes, as also for the pleiinure be looke in hi» compnnic^ 
icause he was a man that could wi>n<liTfully pUtiM; an<i 
(l#lit« noble HHii : by whi<;h invaiien having wonne the favor 
of thi« young Prince, he tlid ]»r«wmle, and also ineorage him 
to follow Uiix waire. And when L^'^ander was upon his 
departure to take his leave of him, Cyrus feasted him, and 
afterwanles prayed him not to refuse the offer of his liber- 
alitie, and tnat was : that be would freely oske bini what 
he would, a<Huring him he should not be denied any thing, 
Wlieriinto Lysander answered hiui : Sithence I see (Cynis) 
you arc so willing to plcnsurc us, I bewevlu.' you, ajiJ doe 



Ly Minder 
ti>ol(i! money 
fur u&yeodiid 


victorio cif 
the AtheuUus 
by BetL 


also counsel] you then to increase the ortiinaric pay of our 
inarynera, one halfe iieuny a day; to the end tnat where 
now they have but tJirce halfe pence, they may thenceforth 
receave two pence a day. Cyrus was gtad to hcare Lrsandeni 
bounty, and the increase that he would make, ana caused 
tennc thowsandc Darickes to be delivered him; by meane 
whereof he (tddcd to the ordinary pay of the marynen, the 
increase of a hulfv penny a day. This libernJity, witliin few 
daycs after, emptied all their enemies galHes of t>>eir men. 
For, Uie most parte of their mjiryncrs and galley men went 
when' tlity might have the best l>ay : and n>Kh as remained 
bi-liiiide, became very dull, Insio, and !*editii>us, dayty troub- 
ling their (^ptaines and govemoni. Now tiiough Lysander 
had drawen his enemies men from them by this polide, and 
had done this great hurte, yet he durst not fight it out by 
sea, fearing the worthines of Alcibiades : who was a valliant 
man, and had greater store of nhippea then he had, and 
besides that, was never overcome by lande nor by sea, in 
any battell where he was Generall. So it chaunced, that 
Au'ibitulei; went out of the He of Samos, imto the dty of 
I'hocca, which staiidcth upon firmc landc directly over against 
Siunos, and lea%-ing the whole eharge of his flectc in his 
aliMnce, with Antiochus his pylot: he being more bardie 
then wise, in »comc and dension of Lysander, went with 
two gallies only into the haven of E}>Ik^»us, and went by the 
arsenall (where all Uu-ir >Jiippi« lay in docke) with great 
Qoyse and laughing. This jmt Lysander in sueh a heate and 
chafe, that first of all he put a fewe gallies to tlie sea, and 
had him in chase with tliem. But anerwardes, perceiving 
that the other Captaines of the Athenians came out one 
after an other to the rescue, he anned other gallies also : so 
that supplying stitl with a few on either side, at the length 
they eainv to a mainc battcll, which Lysander wanne, and 
having taken fifteenc of their gallies, he set up a token of 
triumphe and victory. When the people at Athens heard the 
newes of tliis overthrow, they were so augric with Ali-ibinde*. 
that they discharged him proiently of his charge : and Uje 
souldiers also Uiat lay in cam[>e in the He of SanioH, iM^^ne 
to mislike him, and to Mwakc ill of him. Whereup[>on he 


preaentljr left hJs campo, and went into the contrie of Ch«r- 
roncsus in Thnwia. 'ITiis battell was more ti|>okcn of then 
thi^re wa.1 cAuse, by reason of Alcibiodes rcpiitAcinn. Further- 
more, I.^Aander causingc the stowtest and lioldMt men of 
every city, above tlie common sorte, to oomc to E])bctiu3 
unto him : layed there secret foundadonit of ereat diauiige 
and alteracion, which he stablished aftcrwanks in the govern- 
tnentes of cities. For he penwaded his private frendes to 
make tribca amongest them selves to winne them frendes, 
and to pmctise to gettc the nilc of their cities into their 
h&ndcs: promising them, that so soonc rs the AthenianB 
were ovcrthrowen, they them selves also should bo delivered 
from subjection of tlieir people^ and every one of them 
should bearc chiefc ride in their oontry. And this he per- 
formed to them all, and nmdu every one of them prove his 
wonleji true. For be nn-ferrvd all them that hiul bene his 
oldo frcndes, unto the iK^t oftic«« and cliargt-s : not niiaring 
to doe acninst all right and n-anon, so that they were tul- 
vaunccd by it. And thus by this mean&s every man came 
to take his part, and they all sought and deKirea to gratifie 
and please nim : hoping, that what great matter M>ever fell 
out, they assured themselves in maner that they should ob- 
taine it of hin>, when he came to have the government in 
his ownc hands. And therefore they nothing rejoyocd at 
Callicratidas comming, who came to suoceede him in the 
office of the Admirall : neither afterwards also, when they 
saw by experience that he was as honest and just a man as 
ooulde be. Neither did they like his manner of governingc 
which was plaine, imil without any arte or cunning. But 
they commended the |)erfwtioH of his vertue, as they would 
have done the image of .toifte demy god m»<Ie ofh-r the oldc 
fucioii, which had bene of singular lieawty. But in the 
mcAite time, they wislied for Ly^ander, as well for the 
tender love and good will he hare to his freiids and 
them, as also for the profit and commodity they got by 
him. So when Lvs&nder tookc the seas to rctume home 
againc, all they that were in the campe, were as sory 
08 could be possible, insomuch as the tcarcs stoode in 
their eyes : and he on thothcr side, studied to make them 




> cuiitrye iu 

iiicccMor in 
hU office of 

for a vertue, 
hut liked lu 
&II olde ims^ 
of m kmI that 
lisd bene ex- 
cellent faier. 


The ipiKhte 
of Luimiler to 

with the 
but money. 



worse alTccted unto Caillicmtitliu. For amonge^t man/ othvr 
tiijiigCH, )m- seiit the r«st of the moitey backc a^ne to 
Snnlis, which Cvrux haJ gcvcn him to pay Ihtr iiiarjiwn: 
saving, that CallicratidAS should eo him selfe to a^Jte tt, 
if lie would have it, and finde the meanes to ttitirrlAitie 
his men. And lastly, when be was ready to imbarke, be 

Srotested before all them that were present, that be did 
diver, leave, and asaigne over the sarmie into hb bandcs, 
commaimding all the sea. But CoJIicratidas, lo overcome 
his finlae ambicion, and fowlc botutitiK lye ounswcrvd him 
agaiiie, and saicd : If thitt Ik- true thon* saicst. comL- then 
imd deliver mc thu ((nllics in the city of Milvtum, as thou 
govst by, before thv lie «f Suaioa : for sith thou commaund- 
vni all the »c&, we shall not iic«dv to feare our enemies that 
are in Somos. L>-miid«r thereto replied, that the armic 
was no more at his commaundement, and that he had tbc 
charge over them : and ao departed thence, taking hin coune 
direc-tly unto Pelonoimesus, and left Callicratidas in great 
j>erj)lexity. For ne had brousfat no money out of hia 
contrie with him, neither would he ooropell tbe dties to 
fumishe him with any, sccingc that thcv were at that time 
too much troubled already. Tlicn hod he no other way 
but to goc to the Lieutt-naitnteH of the king of Persia, to 
aske tliem money as Lymniler had <loi)i-. tiut he was tbe 
tmmeetcst tiinti for it tlitxt could Ik poiwiblv: for he was of 
a noble and libemll nature, and thought it K-wte dishcmor 
and reproache unto the Greeciajis, to be overconie bv other 
GrtHicians, then to goc Hatter the barbarous jx^ople, and 
Hfeke to tliem that had gold and silver enough, but other- 
wiiie, no goodnes nor honesty. In the end notwithstandiof*, 
making vertuc of necessity, he tooke his jomey towards 
Lydia, and went directly to Cyna courtc: where at his 
first comming he willed them to let him understand, that 
Callicratidas ttie Admirnll of the Laoedicmonians would 
speoko with him. One of the souldiets that warded at the 
gat«, told him : My freiide, syr strauntwr, Cyrus is not at 
leusure iiowe, for he iK net at dinner. CAJIienitidat aiinswered 
him ulaini^iy ogaine : -No force, I will tar)' here till ta- have 
dined. The Jmrbarous Persians hearing this, tooke him 


for Home plune lowte, and so bp went his waye the first LYSAN'DER 
ttme with a mocke at their handcs. But the second time 
when th«y would not let him come in at the gate, he fell 
in a rage, aod retomed bncke (as hv camt-) to the citie of 
£phcsus, cursing and banning thetn that at ttw tiivt had ko 
much imbnscd them si-lvtw, ils to goc »uc to the harhnrous 
people, teaching thein to be prowde and stately for their 
gooded and riclii^ : swearing before them all that were 
prt-nent, that s[> soone as he came to Sparta a^ine, he 
would due all that he could possible to pacihe the (ii-eecians, 
and wet tlieni at peace one with an other, to the end they 
might be fearefiilt to the barbarous people, and also that 
they shoidd mcdle with them no more, nor necde their 
aide to destroy one an otlwr. But Callienitidas baring 
the noble bartc of u Spartan, and being to be c»m|iarKl 
in justice, valliiincy, and gn-atiiw of corage, with the Dio«t 
exwllcntest Greeciaiw in hit* time, dyed iOiortiy after in a The Hwth of 
battel) by sea, which he lost iip]H)n tln^ lies Ai;gimi-''i.'«. C»llicr»tid««, 
Wherefore, the confederates of the [^aced^emoniann i>eeiiig 
that their wtatc was in declining, they all together sent an 
Ambaflsade unto Sparta, by whom they made request to the 
counsell, that they would send Lysander againe for their 
Adinirall, promising that they would do all things with 
better corage and goodwill under his conduction, then they 
would under any other Captainc they could sende Uiem. 
So much did Cyrus also wrytc unto them. But bicause 
there was an cxpri'sse law forbidding tJiat one man should bv 
twise Admirall, and hesidefi, tliev being willing Ui graunt the 
rc(iurat of their conftilcrats, made one Araciis their Admiroll, 
hut in effect gave Ly-saiuler the whole authoritic of all thingCK. 
Who was marvelous wt-lcome unto them, and specially unto 
the lieatk's and rulers of cities, which l<nig hefon^ bad wi.ilted 
fur hiH coiimiing : bicause tliat by his mc^nes they hoped to 
make their autliority greater, and altogether to take away 
the authority from the people. But they that loved plaine 
dealing, and open magnanimitie in the manners of a jp>vemor 
luid gi'nerall, wh*'n they came to compare I,ysajwer, with 
CalHcmtidaJs; they foundc that Lvsondcr had a fine subtill 
hi.«d, and did more in warrcs with his policy and subtiltie, 



tnAr uid 


A wIm Mvln^ 

Th* wicked 
and d«uUe 


Lytaiider re- 
(ptrded no 

Krjurie, fol- 
*iiig i^e 
example of 
th« tynn 


then by any other mouics. And moruovvr, thnt he tvtctned 
histicv, whc-n it fell out firofHtfthle : luiii toolce profit, for 
luKticv Ami hoi)i»tie, not thinking ttmt plaine dmliDj; was of 
better force then cnUle, but ntttfLiuring the value of the tone 
and ttiother, by Uie profit that came out of tlieni, and mock- 
inge of them that sayed that the race of Hercules should not 
make warres with craft and Hubtilty. For eayd he, when 
the lyons skin will not serve, we must help it with the ease 
of a foxv. And hereunto agreeth that, which they wrytc he 
did in the citic of Mitetum. For hia frcndcs and (amihars to 
whotDc he had promised aide for destruction of the_peoi>kii 
authority, and to drive their enemies out of the city : they 
having chitun^'d thdr mindes, "^^ being reconciled unto 
tlicir ndvofKanca, he openly mode grrut nhowe of gUdnis, 
luid iKi-tned h» though he would heipe to ngn^c them leather : 
but M.'eretly being alone, he tooke tlieni iiji Ahiu^ily, and told 
tliem that they were cowards to doe it, and did procure them 
to the contrane, to -let apon the people. And then when he 
understoode that tiiere was commocion among them in the 
citie, he ranne thither sodainly as it were to appease it. 
But when he waa also comen into the citie, the first he met 
with of them that would alter the state of government, and 
take the authority from the people: he fell out withnll, and 
gave tiicm rough worde«, commaunding with extrcainitic 
that they should follow him, as though he woidd have done 
some great punishment. An<l againe, meeting witli them on 
the contrary parte, he willed them also that tney should not 
be afrnyeti, nor dout that any roan should doe them hurtc 
where he was. Thi.i waw a wicked and miUiciouA jiracliM^ of 
him, to .ttay the chiefitit of them that were roost affected to 
tlie popular faction, to the ende that afterwardes he might 

[>ut them all to death, aa he did. For_they that trusting to 
i\n words remained quiet in the dty were all put to death. 
Moreover, Androclida^ touching this matter, bath left in 
wryting that which Lysander was wont to say : bv the which 
it appearc th, that he mode very litie reckeiiing to be perjured. 
For he sayd, that children shoidd l)e deceived with the play 
of kuylcs, and men with othcs of men, following therein 
I'olycrabcs, the tyran of Somos, but without n-ason ; for he 


was a lawfiill Capteinc, aod the other a violent usurper of LYSjINDBK 
tyrannical! power. Furthi-rmore, it was not done like a true 
]!,Eu:oninn, to WhavL- hiiu sclfc towardi^ the goddcH none 
otherwise, tlieii towardes mvii, but rather woree, and more 
injuriously. For hi- that deck'ivx-tli his enemy, and breaketh 
his othe to him: sheweth plainly ttiat he fcareth him, but 
tlut he caKth not for God. Cyrus therefore having sent for CVma 
Lysander U> come t*) Sardis to him, gave hiin money hirRely, libwditi* 
and )iroii)imHl him more : and bicaunt- he would more honor- *** i-r**'"^*'* 
ably >heH'e the good will he had to gratifie him, tolde him, 
that if tlie kinge his fatlier would geve him nothing, yet )»e 
would geve him of hia owiie. And furthermore, when all 
other meanes fayled to hclpc him with monev, that rather 
then he should lacke he would melt his owne cnayer to make 
money of (which he sate in when he gave audience in matter 
of justice) being altogether of gold and silver. And to be 
shorte, when he was going into IVIcdia to the king his father, 
he gave Lysander power to rt.-(vivu the taxc« lUid ordinary 
tributirs of the cities under his govennnent, and made him 
I^eiiti-naimt of all his contry. And lastly, bidding him fim> 
well, prnied him that he woulde not geve battell by sen unto 
tlie Atlienian.-i, untill he n^tumed from the courte: and tiiat 
lx;ft>re his eomming againe he iioiilde have authontie to 
leavie a gieate nomoer of shippes, aswell out of Ph^enida, as 
out of Cilicia. Wherefore wbilest CyniB was in his joniey, 
Lysander not being able to light witn his enemies with liKe Ljrunden 
nomber of sitippes, nor also to lye still and doc nothing with "«'*" '>y *«■- 
eo good a numt)er of gnllyes, went and scowred the seas, 
where he tooke certaine Handed, and robbeil also .£gina and 
Salamina. From thence he went and landed on the firme 
lande in the cmitrye of AtticA, and di<i his thitie there unto 
Agis king of Liurrdninonin, who came purjxM-ly from the 
forte of iX-ccieii to the sen side to see iiini, bicituse their 
armye by lande also shoulde see what power they had by 
•ea, and nowe it ruled more hy sea then they woulde. Never- 
theles, Ix-iii^j advertised that the fieete of the Athetiiaii* 
followed harde after him, he tooke an other course to flye 
backe agoine into Asia by tlie lies : and retiiminge againe, 
fnunde all the contrv of Hellespont without men of wane. 
3 : GG ' 883 





craft in 
inariiMt (ight. 


SohcIaJcHj siege before the citieofLampsacua, and did assault 
it with hia gailica by sea : and Thorax being come thither 
also at the selfe same time in great hast wit£ his armie hy 
land, gave tha&<ault on his side. Thus was the citii' token 
by force, which Lysandcr left to the spoilc of the soaldicm. 
Now in the mcone time the flcctc of the Athenians (whkfa 
was a hundred and foure sourv taile) came to an unckcr before 
the dtie of Eleunte, in the contrie of C)u.-rTonc»us : and 
ncwiTs being brought^ thf-m Uiat Uie city "f LaninsBt-w wan 
taken, Uic-y came witli all sjiede i>us$ib)e nnto tJie dtie of 
SoftiM, where getting frefthe acatea and vittelieii, ttiey coasted 
aJI alongcst the coaHt unto a certaine place called the goatea 
river, directly over against the fleete of their enemies, whkh 
lay yet at ancker bemre the citie of I^ampsacus. Now tliere 
was a cajitajnc of the Athenians amongcst other called 
Philoclcs, he that perswaded the Athenians to cut of the 
prisoners thumbcs of their right handcs that were taken in 
the wam-g, to thcnd they should no more handle the pyke, 
but only seri'e to pull the owcr. Both the tone and the tother 
rested that day, hoping to have battel without failc the next 
morning. But Lysanm-r having an other meaning with him, 
commniindeil the matKtrr; and mnrynvr* notnitlistHniiing, 
that they nhniild Itave tlu-ir giiliiw rvfuly to gevt.- Imttell the 
next inorningu by hn'vtko of dav> bicaiise every man should 
iret a iKird lietimes, and should l<eei>e them selves in order of 
ntittell, making no noise at all, attending what he would 
cnnmiattnde them : and further, made the armie by lande 
also to be ranged in battell ray, by the sea aide. 'Ijie next 
morning at sunnc rising, the Athenians b^aiine to row with 
all their gallics set in order of battcll in a fronte. But 
Lysandcr, though he had his shippes in order to light, the 
proiv lying towardes the enemies ticforc day, rowed not for 
all tiiat against them, but sending out pynnasies unto the 
first gallic*, commaundi-d them etraightly that they should 
not stirre at all, hut keepe them solves in onler, making 
no noyae, nor rowing again^^t the enemy. Though the 
AtJicnians also were retyred in the night, ho would not 
geve the souldiera leave to come to lande out of tlie gallics, 
before he had sent first two or three gallics to dtwnc tlic 


fleete of his eiii-mie.t : who brought him won! th«t they h«d 
■eene the AtheniaiiH take lAntlc. The next itioniine tiwy 
did the like, the third day, and tite fourth aino idl m one 
sorte: m tliat the Athenians I)eganiie to be- boUl of thi-in 
selves, and to despise their eiiemieH, imagining tliey lay Lhux 
close for feare of ttiein> and dunt not come forward. In tht 
meane time, Alcibiades (who lay at that time in the contrie 
of Cherroneaus, in certatne places which he had conquered) 
came ryding to the cauipc of the Athenians, to tell the 
Cuptaincs and getierolls of the armje, the grt-at faultcs they 
committed. First, for that they had caf>t anckcr, and kept 
their shippcs in an open place, wlnTe tht-re waa no maner of 
succor, nor liarWr U> retyre unto upon any stimiic : mid worst 
of all, bicnuse that they were to fctche tlieir vitlills furri' of, 
At the citiu of Sestoa, unto which haven they ithoiild rather 
draw then selves unto, considering that they had but a litle 
way to go, niul also that they should have Uie citie to l)acke 
them, which would furnish tliem with all Ihinges neccssarie : 
and beside tliat, they should be further of from tlieir enemies, 
which were governed by one generall onely that did com- 
maund them all, and were so well trained, that at a whistle 
they were ready straight to execute his commaundenient 
Alcibiades pcrswasions to these Captaines of the Athenians 
were not only mislikcd, but furthermore there was one called 
Tydeus, that answcrod him very lewdly : Hint he hod nothing 
to doe to commaundv the nrmie, but other that had the 
diarge of them. Aleibijidra mistrusting thereby some treason, 
quietly went his way. The fift day, the Athenian.-* having 
made the mme countenauncc to present battell unto their 
enemies, and retyring tJie same night as of custome very 
negligently, and ui ill onlcr, ux men that made no reckening 
of their enemie.'i: Lysander !*ent againe certaine galliots to 
discrie them, commaim<liiig the Captaines of the same, that 
when they perceived the Atlienians nad left their gallics and 
taken lande, they shoultl then rctume backe with all poissiblv 
tipeedc they could, and being nud way over the straiglitcs, 
tliat they Mioidd lift up a copper target into the ayre, apon 
the top of a pyke in the foredeckc, for a signe to make all 
the whole ficete to row in battcU. Now Lysnnder him selfe 



fcave gttoA 
lulviie lo the 
CuptJtiiiCB <if 
Ibn AUieu- 

A copper 
tiurgot lift nn, 
the ngat of 
battcU by soa. 


LTSANDER in U)u tneune Um<? went in iHrnune fn>in galley to galWw 
[>cntwiulitig nnd trxliorUiig every Captaiiie tliat tKey Hhould' 
put tlieii' i^allioU, niaryners, an3 aouldiers in good readineu 
to theiid tliat when the aigne sliouUl be tiKed up, they Hhouldl 
rowc witii all their might in battell against the enemies. 
Wherefore, so soone as the copper target vas set up in the 
ajer, and that Lysandcr had made his trompet sound out 
of the Admiral, ior a token to hale out into the wa : the 
gallics immcdtatly bcpannc to row for life in envy one of 
an other, and the foot^-niun tliat wen- apon the lunde, mnne 
with spevdc also to the top[K- of a hi^h clifTe necre luito the 
sea, to sctf wtiat would be the viKle of his ttf^it, biotuse the 
distuunee from one side to the otlwr in tliat plaee was not 
fully two niyl»<, which tliey had »onc cut over, and in a Htlv 
spate, through tlio {jreat dili{;eiu« and force of rt>wing with 
Cuoon, Ad- tlieir owers. So t'oiHjn tlie cliit-fe <^ptaiii« of the Atheniot 
minllorthe m-rcciving from Uie nhure this great fletc coniniing with 
Atbeniaiu. f^^l^ f^,,^ [^ assault then) : he then cried out to the souldia 

that they iliould runne to their sliip|MS, and being in a ntge^ 
to sec thinges in this daunger, called some bv their names, 
oU>era he inta-atcd, and the rest he compelled to take tlieir 
gallies. Itut all his diligence was to no purpow, bicause tiie 
souldiers wen? wholly R-jttl«Tcd here and there. For so soone 
as they wcrv set a lunde out of their gallics at their rctume, 
some went to buy )iruvisioD, other went a walking in the 
fieldes, some were set at supper in their eubincs, and other 
were laycd downc to slvepc, nothing mistrusting that which 
bftppeni'd to tliem, through their C'aptiiiiies ignoruimce nnd 
lacKc of exiwrieiioe. But when the onniiies wore rt-ady to 
joyne and fall ujion them with gifut crii-s and noyse of owcre, 
Conon having eight gsllies, stido tui^retiy out of Uie flccte. 

victftrj- of th 

and flying unto £vagoras, itaved him aelfe in the lie of 
Cijinis. In the mesne time, the I'eloponnesiana falling; apon 
tlie other gallics, toobe some of them emptie, and brake the 
others as uic souldiers beganne to come aborde apon them. 
And as for the men, some were slaine by their shippea as 
they ramie unto them like naked men without weapon, and 
out of order, tliiiildng to have saved them selves : other were 
killed Id flying, hicausc the enemies landed and bad them io 

I'araloi, the 

holy gnllcy of 


those. And there were taken alive of tlicm, three thowsanct I.YSANDER 

prisoners with the Captaint's, Lysander moreover tooke all 

the whole fleete of their i^hippes, tlie holic galley excepted 

called Paralos, and the eight that fled with Coiion : and after 

he had destroyed all the campe of the Athenians, he fastened 

the gallics that ncrv taken, unto the koclc of his gallies, and 

returned with songes of triumphe, with the sound of Rules 

and hoboyes, towards tlit- cltie of Lanipsacii», having wuniie 

a great victory with litli' htbor, luul hiul cut of in a suiuU 

time, the long continuing and most diverse worrc that ever 

was, and hod brought forth so inany »ini<lrie straunge t^ventcK 

of fortune, a.t art- uticredible. For there had Ix-ne infinite 

bittti-lls fought both l>y mm and Unde, and had nlti-red many 

sundry times, and tltere wa.<i slaine at tlint time moe Cap- 

taim-^ than in all tlie other warres of (ireece together: all 

whicli wei<e at the length brought to ende and actermined, 

hy the good wi»cdume and conduction of one onely man. 

And therefore some thought, that thts great overthrowe was 

geven by the gods, and sayd : that at the departure of 

Lysanders fleete out of the tiaven of Lan]]isacus, to goe set 

apon the fleete of the enemies, tliev perteaved over I^sanders 

ndlcy the two fin^s which thiv eall the starres of Castor and 

Pollux : the one on the tone side of the gnlley, and the other 

on thother side. They say also, that tlie fall of the stone 

11if Ktnrrw 
(if ('Httor, nad 

was a token, that did .signifie this great ovcrtlirow. For A (tone fell 

"■" "■ out nf the 


(minion of 
the ftAttva. 

about that tini«, (as many hohl opinion) then.! fell out of the 
aver u nmr>-eloii!> great «tone, in tm- place they call the g<>at«!i 
river, which titoiie is seem- yet unto thi--* day, holden in gn-«t J^to» "■ 
revercnct: by tlie inhabitauntes of the citit- of ('herriinestis. 
It is Mivd also that Anaxagoras did prognosticate', tluit one 
of the Dodies tyed unto the vaulte ot the heaven, should be 
pluckt away, and should fall to the ground by a alyding and 
shaking that should hapiM'n. For he sayd, that the stanrea 
were not in their proper place where they were first created, 
considering that they were heavy Iwdics, and of the nature 
of stone: howebeit tlmt they did shine by reflection of the 
fire elemcntorj', and had Iwne drawwi up thither by force, 
where they were kept by the gn-at violence of the circuler 
motion of the ekineiit, evvti ta at the begiimiog of the world 



What failmg 
BtsiTCa be. 

tMUmonie at 
the fSory eton« 
neent ici tli« 

All otJhw 
oplniuii of 

that fell 


tbcy bad bene stayed and let from falling downe beneath, 
at Uiat time when the separation was made of the coMc and 
heavy bodies, from the other substauiice of the tinivenuiL 
world. Then; is an otltcr opinion of certaine Philosopliers, 
where thiCTv iis more likelvhoodc then in that For they say, 
that those which we call falling stanx-s, be no fluxions nor 
derivncions of the fire cicmentorie, which are put out in the 
ay«r, in a miuiiicr so soouu an they be lighted : nor aho an 
inflanmiatioii or coiiibu»ti(pii of niiy [mrtc of the »yer, which 
by her to «vt.-rntu<;h quantity dotli s})n.'ad upwardet: but 
they are celettiall btHlii.'s, wliicii by Komu -slitekiiuTt of stnoigth, 
or falling from the ordinary course of heaven, are tlirowen 
and caftt downe here heneaUi, not ulwayett in any parte of 
the earth iiilmbitcd, but more ofter abroadc ij) the great 
Occcan sea, which is the cau&e tJiat we do not see ttiem. 
Notwithstanding, Aiiaxagoras words are confirmed by 
Dnmachiis, who writeti) in his booke of religion, that the 
space of three score and fifleenc yeares together, before that 
this stone did fall, they saw a great lumpc of fier continually 
in the ayer like a clowde inflamed, the which toricd not in 
any one place, but went and came with diverse bmkiii 
removing^, by tlw driving whereof there cume out lightnings 
of fire that fell in many pIiMxw. and gave Iiglit in fnlling, a* 
the starres do Uiat fall. In the enil, «hn» Uiis grcjtl Iwtly 
of (ire fell in tliat parte of the earth, tlie tnhabitiuit^ of the 
contrie, after that they weiv a litle lioldened from their 
feare and wonder, came to the place to 8ee what it was : 
and they found no manner of shew or npparautice of fire, 
but only a very great stone Iving upon the ground, but 
DoUiing in comparison of the least parte of that whicli the 
oompaiMe of this hodie of fire did shew, if we may so name it- 
Sure herein, Damachus wordcs had neede of favorable bearers. 
But againe if they be true, then he utterly confuteth their 
argumentes, that maintainc that it was a peece of a rockc, 
whicli the force of a boystcrous windc did teare from the 
toppe of a mountAine, luid uiried in the uyer, so long as thi» 
hurle winde continued : but so sooiie as that waa downe, and 
calme againe, the stone fell inimi-diAtly. Neither doe wo say 
that this lightoiug bodie, which apiKored so many daycs in the 


clement, WM very lire in decdv, which comiiiing to diwolve LV8AK0BR 
and to Ix- out out, did beget tlii.t vioUtit stormo und boynterou* 
wind in tlie element, tliat hml tJie force to tenre tJu- dtone 
in lunder, and to ca*t it dou-ne, Ne\'ertliele«, this matter 
requireth better discourse in Home other booke then this. 
But now to our story. When the tJiree thowHuid Atheniarm 
that were taken prisoners at that overtlirow, were condemned 
by the coumtell to be put to death : Ly^sander calling 
Pnilocles, one of the Captaines of the Atlienians, asked him 
what painc ho would judee him worthy of, that ^ve the 
citizens so cnicti ancl wicked couiisclf. Philoclcs beine riiilnclet 
nothing abn&hcd to see hini seife in that miscrie, aunswered w'o'rt'iicy, 
him : Accuse not them that have no judge to heart- their J^jAtllan- 
causc: but since the go<idc« have gcvcn thee grace to he j^^ 
conqueror, dw with u.t, aa we wouUl Yiiivc done with thee, if 
we had overcome thee. \Vhen he hat! sayd so, h<.' wnit to 
wa»he him lelfe, and Uten put on a fayer cloke upon liini, an 
if he should have gone to some feast: and went luxtely the for- 
metit man to execution, leading his contrio men tlie way, as 
Tlieophrastus wryteth. After thia done, Lysaiider witii all 
his fleete went by all the cities of the sea coast, where he 
commaunded so many Athenians as he founde, that they 
should get them to Athtns, letting them understand that he 
would not pardone a man of them, but put them all to death 
a^ many wi he found out of their city. ^Vnd this he did of 
policie to bring them all within the precinct of the walles of 
Athens, bieauKV he might so much the sooner famish them 
for luckv of vittf Hit : for otherwise they would have troubled 
him sore, if they hod hail wherewithall to have maintaj-ncd 
a long siege. But in all the cities «» he piLvw-d by, if they 
were governed by tlie authority <)f tlie people, or if that there 
were any other kindc of government, he left in every omr of 
thero a Xjicedsnionian Captaine or governor, with a coiinscll 
of tenne officers, of them tJiat had bene before in league and 
amity with him : the which he did as well in the dtiea 
that had ever bene confederates and frendes unto the 
IvUTcda-muniaiis, as in them that not long before had bene 
their enemies. So he went sayling all alongest the coastes, 
fayer and softely nudcing no haste, stabliuting in manner 



LYSANDEIt a gv&vmll pnnci)Mlitv over all 

Uii-in ofRovrs tliut were ttiv richest, the nobUvt, or 


tlie CumiooU 
PutiU uayiiiKe 
of the lice- 
die mouiaut. 

Grrecc. For ho did Dot 

liuiwittetl me-ii, btit Huvti fu w«re hut fmtdvv, out of th<Me 
tiibet which lie luul pliicLtl in everv dtiv : nntl to tliem he 
gave nutlionty to piiiii>h, aikI rew&ni audi as thvy liked of, 
and would lie pre.ient him K'lfe iu pentone Ut heipe them to 
put tlioNe to deatli, whoine they would execute, or otherwise 
expulae or banish their contrie. But this gave the Greeeiajnt 
small hope of good or gratfous government under the 
rule of tne Lacedjfmoiiiaus. Wherefore, me thinkes that 
Thcopompus the eoiuicall Poet doted, when he compared 
the Laced armoni an s, unto taverncrs wines, saying : that they 
luid gcvcii the Grvccians ii tast of the swcete drinkc of 
tibertic, and tiiut ailerwimlts they had oiinglcd it with 
viae^r. For, the ta«t th«!y gave the Greeci«n> of their 
government fnmi the l>eginning, was very sharpc unto them: 
bieauM' I.ywuider totike the ruleatid aittliority ofguvernmciit 
out of the peoples handen, and euve it unto a (ewe of the 
boldest, and iiknt aeditioun men in every citie, ThuH having 
ttpent a great time in thin voya^, to make these alteratiuius : 
lie sent newes before to Laceoarmon, that he wait comming 
with two hundred sailc. He spake also with the kinges Agis 
and Paiisania§, in the contry of Attica, [Krenading him seTfe 
that he should winnc the nty of Athens at the first assault 
Diit wlien he saw his expectation failed, and that tJiej 
Athenians did valliaiitly r«si.'st him : he rctunicd once againe 
with his fleete into ^Ysia, where he unidc an end of ehaunging 
and altering tlic niancr of government through every city in 
equall niancr, stablJNhing n counsel! (if teiim^ officers imly 
in cvoiy one of them, and putting every when- many citizens 
to death, and biuiixhiug many aUo. Aniong olhew, he dnivc 
all the SaiiiiajiK out of their cotitry, and restoixil againe nil 
them llial had Ix'ne iMiiUKlii^d befure : and the city of Sestos 
also, being yet in the Athenians handes, he toobc it from 
them. And fnrthermoi-e, he would not aufler the naturall 
Sestians to dwell there, but dravc them away, and gave tht-ir 
citie, their bouses, and landcs, unto shippe raaisters, officers 
of gallies, and galley slaves, that had bene in the "arrea with 
him. But therein the Lacedaemonians were again&t him, and 

The Aihen. 
iaiiii feelile 
up Alh^us to 


this wajt th« lintt thing that th«v did f<n-bid him : for ihty LYSANDER 
restored the St'sliaiiH, iigwiist his will, unto their liuicic^i 
ajiil goodes u^nc. Kut n.s tho tin-ei-ian^ wurc very miKh 
offended, to see the partis Lysiuider pUyed : so were they /ill 
vay slad sgaine, to see titi'^e othen which he nflerwaides 
did. For he restored the jGginetes agitine to their laiides 
aiid liouses, who had bene put ffwni them a long time. He 
n-storcd also the MeUaus, and the Scioneeians to their landea 
agaiue, which the Athenians had gotten from thi-ni, and 
dniTe out tbe Atbetuaas. Furthermore, Lystndcr being 
adverti;<ed, tliat the citizens and inhabitantcs of Athi-ns were 
pinched sore for lackc of vittclls, he retuntvd ugninc, und 
came into the hnvcn of Pira-u : by mcnncs whvrraf he kept 
the citif so .ttniight, tliut he iiwidc them ywlde iip|Kin s-ui-b 
condicions as he him »elfe would. Howbi-it then- art- ct-rtaiiie 
l^oediemoiitanN that say, l.ysaiider wroti; unto tlx^ Kphnrea : 
The city of Atht-nK 1.1 take-n. And that the P^jihori wrote 
againe unto him: It is well that it itt taken. But this ia 
but a tale devised to inake the matter seeme better: for in 
deede the capitulacions which the Ephori sent unto him, were 
these. ITie I^ordes of the coiuisell o( I..aeediemon have thiw 
decreed : that ye doc rase the fortification of the haven of 
Fines. That ye do overtlirow also the long wall that joyncth 
the haven to the citie. That yc yeelde up and ivdcliver 
all the citic* which yc doc holde, and content your selves 
with your lives and contiy only. This doing, ye shall have 
pence, so that vc perfornie our demntindoK. That ye Ahall 
receive those w'tiicn are banished : *ind for the number of 
shippcs, ye shall ditpose «f them iw we .slmll will yon. The 
Atnenians agreed unto the articles i-ontained in that bill, 
following tJie catm!H.-il of ThernmeneH, the soniie of Agiion. 
Who when a young orator called Cleomenes, did opeiUy askc 
him in ang<-r, if ne were ao Iwld to dare to doe, or say, 
any thing contrary unto that, which Themistocles had done 
b^are time, to assent unto tiie Laeedwmonians, that the 
walle which he built in despite of them, should by their 
coromaundement now be rased : he aunswcred him openly 
againe. Young roan, my (Vend, I doe nothing contrary tii 
Themistocles doinges. For like as he heretofore did t>uild 
ti-.HH Ml 

The miuicraf 


to thi! Athea- 


A nnUbte 
MyinK for Ui« 
wnllt of dtier. 

cm ell ndviiie 
Bg&iusl the 


tlii^ walle, for the sftfcty &nd benefit of all the citizens nnd 
people that were in Athene at that time : even so doc nc that 
an- iicre none, for the selfc Hamc cause plucke It dowtie and 
nuK! it. And if it be true that waJkrs doe make dtii-K hapm, 
then it munt iie«'<le* follow that the city of Sparta wnidi 
never had tuiy walle*, should be tlw unfortiinatest of all 
other. So Ly.tonder having r£oeiv<^ all the Athenians 
nhippes but twelve, and t)ic walleit of the city ntto to use 
tiiem at his pleasure: on the sixteenth day of Mtirch (on 
which day in olde time the Athenians had wonnc the battell 
by sea, within the straight of Salaniina, against the king of 
Persia) he counaeUcd them straig;ht to chaunge the fonnc 
of their government. The people could not brooke tluit 
motion, and were ninrvelouMy offended withall. Wherc- 
uppon LysandvT sent to deelnre unto them, Umt they bad 
broken the arliclw of the peace made betwene them, for that 
their v-alles were vet standing, the twine dayes Iwing expired 
in which they hao promised to overthrowe them : and tJiere* 
fore tiiAt he would once againe referre it to the detennination 
of tlie counaell, howe they should be used, that had broken 
tlie articles and covenaunts of the Jirst peace, Otiier say, 
that immediatly he referred it tmto the deliberaeion of the 
council of their confcderatoK, that is to say : whether they 
should altogether destroy the city, and make the inhabitaiites 
thereof, slaves, and bondmen or no. In this counscU, it is 
reported that there was a Tlieban called Eriiuithus, whose 
opinion was, that tJu-y should utterly rase the city, and 
make the contry a de»crt: so that it should never al>er 
•er\'e for other thing, but for pasturage uf )>ea)iteii. But 
during this dyet ana comisell, there wai< a banket made, 
whereunto all the Captaines and chiefe officers of tlie army 
being bidden, there was a Phodau, a singer of songes, that 
sang the entrv of the Chorus to the tragedy of EUctra, niade 
by the Poet f^uripides, which beganne in this sorte : 

Blectrs noble Dsme, Rnd daughter to a Vina : 
Even AganMtmitnn, kin^ of (irM>c«i, whose ramew wide did ring, 
I «iHn* DAW to your courUs, which lyi? both vide and wast : 
Byipojlcof WBrre«dc|M)pulitte, dnstroyod, oiul dwfcrML 

These words moved all the hearera «rith coinivuaion, so 


tliftt Uie most p«irt« of them tliouf;ht it nvri' too Rr«it u 
siniie to rfestroy bo noble a city, which brought forth su 
vaany &inouti wiiie men, and grvat )>enu}iM9i. Whtreforu 
Ly.sander, when the AtJieniaiift luul Hubmitt*Hl them welven 
altogether to his will, cau-ted all ttie women players of pipcii 
or shalnies to come out of the dty, and jratliered all those 
together which he had in hia owne campe aliM, aitd with the 
soimd of their iitstrumcntH lie made the wallcs and fortifica- 
tionti of the city of Athene to be pulled itowtic to the wry 
ground, and sut all thvir gnllies on lire, and buntt them in 
the prvaence of the confederates of tliv LaretUemontans, who 
dauiiced and playod in the in«anc ^enson wiUi giirlondt* of 
flowerH on thetr tuiuU-n, iti token tlmt that day wid n l)cf*in- 
niiig of their full and ]>i.'rfect liberty. Immediativ after he 
chauiiged alito the ittatt^ of tlie gownimeiit, efltabli-ilitng a 
counsidl of thirty Ma^atratei in the city, and otlicr tenne 
also in the haven of I'inea, havine all equaU and like 
authority: and tlierewithall made Callibius a gentleman of 
Sparta Captaine of the castell there, and left a good garrimn 
of the LaocdiemoniftnH with him. This C'Alliuius one day 
lift up his stalle he hnd in his hande to strike Autolycus 
withall, a strong nuidc man to wrewtlc: whvn-uppon Xeno- 
phon the Philosopher made U\» booke ia olde time, called 
Convivium. But Autolycus that was a cunninj; wreitler, 
liKving nil the Hlcight.-< of wrestling, ftodainly tripped Callibius 
with his legge, and lifting him up at the amies ende, cast 
him to the ground. Houlwit I.ysander was not angry with 
Autolycus for it, but reproved Callibius, telling him that 
he should have remeinbn?d (if he had bene wise) that he 
had the government over fnic men, and not of bonde men. 
NotwithSanding, shortly aftxr the thirty govemon of Uie 
city, to satisfic CallibiUis )>ut this Autolycus to death. 
Wnen Lysiuidor had done idl these things, he tooke sea 
ngninc, niid went into the contrv of Thnu-ia, and sent by 
Ciylippiis liefore tinto S[Mirta (who had l>one Captaine and 
gcnernlt iif Die Syracuaans in Sidlia) all the golde and silver 
that was \ct\ in his handed, with all the preaentes besides 
wliich had bene privately geven him, and with the crowncs 
also that had bene presented him : which were inarvelou« in 


The •we«le 
softtrned their 
cru«U Iie>rt8, 
HI 111 mov^il 
them to pity. 

the »«Ue> uf 
the d^ of 

Uin* of tli« 
C'MtUll of 

a cunnloge 

put tw death. 

Ecnt moniT 
to Sparta by 
Uy lippiu. 


"TffBiWrrn numlH-r lu it is to Ik thou^it, for that miuiv came to prvwnt 

him, consKic'rinj^ th»^ gn-jit [>i>wer he hiwl, luid tluit in mitiier 

he wds cliiffo itiut Mole [iriiwre uf nil Graw. Thi* G)'lippu* 

GyllppuB did rtppe the scamca of every bagge in the bottome where 

rabbed parte tjjg nioiiey was, and tooke a good iiuinmc out of every of 

^ wi'ed^to'' thvin : and afterwardes sowed them up againe, not thinlting 


that there had bene a border uppon every bagge, f^n 
the which was declared, the miniDer and Icindes of gold 
and silver that were therein. Now when he was come 
to SpArta, be hid the money be had stolen, under the 
house vavinges, and went and delivered the bAggt« he 
had brought, into the hnndcs of the Ephori, shewing them 
Lvsaiuli-ni M^nlc, which he hud set to every one of tiiein. 
The Epltori having opened the Iwggtw, iukI told the money, 
found that the »umme agreeil not witli the bonicw of the 
coiitvnt«s : ai»d yi't coulde not tell where the fault was. 
But a seirvaunt of tiylippus told them in darke wordea, ray- 
ing: tliat under the tyle.i of his masters house tltere lay a 
great number of owles. Nowe the greatest parte of the 
The Grekbhe coyne of golde and silver which was currant through Greece, 
ooyue WM ^r^s stamped with the marke of an owle, by reason of the 
Athenians. Ilius Gylippus after so many noble csploytcs 
done in warres, committing no shamcfid and vile n dcdc, 
was banished out of his ountry of Lucedirmonia. But the 
wisest men of Sparta, and of deepest judgement, fearing 
the power of golde and silver, and Ki-eing by proofe of 
Covet(>u>ii«K GylippuK duii)gc<, that it had mucIi power to make one of 
otmouty their chiof««t men to fall through covetouttnes : they K««Uy 
wmipted blamed Lyumder fur bringing of it into Lflce<ltt'inoii, be- 
o/tlie^lii'^eBt i^eeching U»e Kphori tliat they would send all this golde 
mm of Law- And silver out of Sparta, aa a plague, provocation, and 
(Urmon. wicked baite, to make them do evUl : declaring unto them, 

that they diouM use no other money, but their o»-ne 
only. Whereupon they referred all, to the wisedome and 
determination of the counsel!. Theopompus wrj'teth. that 
Scimphidas was he that did move the counsel of the Ephori 
in it. Howbcit Epborus eolleth him Phlogidas, who was 
the first that spake against it in the oounscU, ttuit they 
sliould not admit, nor receive into the dty of Sparta, any 

marked with 
an owte. 



money of golde or silver: but should onety content them 
aelTes with their owne c«ntry \nm cmyne, the which first of 
all, comming from the fire redde hotte, waa quenehed with 
vineger, to thend they should be forged no more, nor em- 
ployed unto any otiier ate. For it was so eager and brittle 
oy meanes of tnis temper, that they couldc no more convert 
it to any other purpose : and beside, it was very heavie and 
unhandsome to remove, conaiderinz that a great heapc and 
cuinntitic of it, was but of small value. And it sccmcth 
Uicy did use of oldc time, certain^ litlc iron money, tuid in 
•omc places copper money, called Obelind, from whi-nn- the 
small peccL-s of money now extant are called Oboli, whi-n-of 
six make a Drachma, so termed, fur that it was a» much ah 
tlie hand could gripe. Nevcrthelessv, at thv fAmetit sute of 
I.yiKnden> fmides that stoodc against it, and held hard with 
him : it was decreed in tht^ whuwII, thnt the money iJiould 
remaine in the city, and ordainvd tlmt it wht>uld l>e currant 
onely hut fur tluinayrk-M of the common wealth. And if it 
were found, that aiiy private man did eitlier locke up, or 
kepe any money, tliat he should suffer death for it : as if 
Lycurgus when ne made his lawes feared gold and silver, and 
not the oovetousnes and 'avarice whicli tnc goldc and silver 
briiigeth with it. The which was not taken away so much, 
prohibiting private men to have it: ns it was ingcndred 
only by a conunon tolleradon of getting it. For, the profit 
which they sawc it brought witluJl, made it to be <-«tevmcd 
and desired. For it was unpossibie they should despLn.- a 
thing privately for unprofitahte, which they ww reclcencd 
of commonly, as u tlimg very necvwtary : and that they 
should thinke it would not serve tlieir tiirnc privately, seeing 
it so commonly cstceim-d and desired. But we are ratJu-r to 
thinke, that private mens nnuiiiors are conformed according 
to the common uscii and customes of cities : then that the 
faultes and^vices of privat*! men doe litl|cities and common 
wcales with ill qualities. And it is more likely, that the 
partes are marred and corrupted with an infection of the 
whole, when it fallcth out ill : then that the partes corrupted 
should drawe the whole unto corruption. For to the 
contrary, the faultes of a parte destroyed, which might be 



rooiMiy of 

At whst tloie 
monian* ro- 

mid nilvcr 

osuiB of di>- 
onlor in a 
cum moo 


LYSANDER pivjudidall unto the whole, are oftentimes redressed and 
coTKcted by Utother partes, whole ajid entier. But they 
that tooke thb resolution in their counsell at that time, to 
have money in the common wealth : made fearc of punisb- 
ment, and of the law, to be the outward watchmea of 
citizens houses, to kt-epc that no money should come in to 
them. But all this while they made no inwardv provision, 
to kepe the entry of thvir soulcs lix>Di all passion and greedy 
dtsirra of money : hut to tiic contrary, they made them all 
to have a covrtuutt dcsirv to be rich, ax it tt were a greet 
and hiinoraklv thing. But for tluit wu have herlofore in 
X V "i other oliuts reproved Uie LAced^monians. . Antl moreover 
Lv^uUMi-r cauMe<l a statue of braiMe to be maoe like him &elfe 
o^ the spoile he had gotten of the enemiea, to set it up in 
the citie of Delphea, and for every private Captaine of the 
sallies in like case : and the two starrea of Castor and Pollux 
m golde besides, which vanished away a litle before the 
battell of Leuctres, and no man knewe what became of them. 
Agtune, in the chamber of the treasory of Brasidas, and 
of tlw Aeanthiaus, there was hIso a jicalley made of gold 
and ivory, of two cubittes long, which Cyrus sent uiito him 
after the victory he Iwd wonnc by sea, of the Atlieniuiut. 
And furthermore, Alexondrides the historiogranlier borne 
•t Delphea, wryteth, that the selfe same Lysaiider had left 
tltere to be kept safe, a tallent of silver, two and fifty Mina&, 
and eleven ])eeces of gold tailed Slatervs, But all this 
aocordeth not with that which all the otiier historiographers 
write, agreeing of his poverty. But Lysander being aloft 
then, awl of greater power then ever any Greecian was 
before him : cariod a greater jportc and countenaunce then 
Lj-RsiiJeni became his ability. For, as Duns writcth, he was the iinit 
honors oud of the Greecians unto whume they did ever erpct any aultere, 
V"^^ niul offer Mcrifioe unt*) a« a god, and in honor i>f wfiom they 

dill lirst fting any hyninca : and at this day there ii yet good 
tneniory of one which Iwganne in thi.* nianer ; 

The noble Csnuioet praise, we mesne to celebrate. 
Of Greece : thiLtUud which is devjne, lu every kiiide of state. 
Even he, trhich was both bomo, and brought to high renovite. 
AVltliin t)ie noble woalthlo walles, of Sp&rta stately towtie; 



The Saminns bj- piiblicko d«TW ftninin<>*i, Umt the fi'fuiW 
of Iiin», which u-rre called ititlteircityHofueOjiiliould be called 
Lysatidrin. I.ywuider had ever one ('l)cerilua, a Spartan Poet 
about him, to wryte and set forth »)) htHdoingeti in verse. An 
other l*oet callm Antilocus, one day made certaineAferse* in 
his praise : which pleased him so well, that he gave"hini his 
hatte full of silver. There were two other Poet*, Antiniachus 
Colophonian, and Niceratus home at licmdi-a, which did 
both tvrytc verses to honor him, striving wtiHhcr of tltcm 
should do best. Lysandcr jiid^d the crownc and victor)', 
unto Niccratu*: wherewith Antininchux was si> luigry, tlmt 
he nwted out nil that he had writU-n of liiin. But Pmto who 
at that time wa« young, and lo\'t-d AntiiiuuhiiA ))i<'jtiiM- he 
WA.S an L-xcelh^it Poi-t, tiid coinforte him, nnd toide him tliat 
ignoraunce did blincle the undentanding of the ignoraunt, 
as blindenefl dotli the sight of the blinde. Aristonous an ex> 
c«Uent player of the citeme, and one that had six times 
wonne the prises of the Pythian games : to winne Lysanders 
favor, promised him, that if ever he wanne tlic prise of hi* 
arte asaine, he would cause him )»clfe to be proclaimed 
Lysanders slave. This ambition of Lysander was very odious 
and erievous, only unto f^reat personi<H, and men of his estate: 
but bcwdi's hi« ambition, in thendv he became very pn>wdc 
and cruel, tlirough the flattens of his followers, and thcni 
that courted him : w that h« exceeded in rt'c»m|>encinj; hi^ 
frendes, as also in puni)>hinge of hia t>neniie& Fur, to gratitie 
his frendea and familiars, he gave them alwotute |mwer and 
authority of life and death in their townes and cities : and 
to pacific and appease his anger where he once hated, there 
was no other way but death, without all possibilitie of 
pardon. And that he plainly shewed afterwards in the city 
of Miletum, where, feaniig k-ttJit they would flie that tooke 
pnrte with the jKJople, and bictuiM' he would have them 
a»]H-«rc- that hid them «.'lv« : he gave his word, and swan- 
that he woidd doe them no hurt at all. The poore men 
gave credit to hw worde. But m soone as tltey came out, 
and did appcAre, he delivered them all into the hnitdcs of 
their adversaries, (which were the chiefest of the nobility) to 
put them all to death : and they were no lease then eight 



Plntoes Mj'- 
iiiK i>I Uie 

<yinL pared 
■ ith biiude- 


pride. Had 


\'T»kv his 
word Mid 
othp. and 

Siroriircd the 
loath of (light 





Tlivnu )iut 
t« df*th fur 
olf (aiding 
the law. 

Tli« Litcuiiinii 
ScyUIit wliHt 
mniior thing 
it w, Kod how 


liiindrnd men one with an other. He caused great murdeni 
of peoplo to aU» be done in other cities : for lie did not 
only put them to death that had privatly olfended him, but 
numbers besides, odcIv to satisfie and i-evenge the private 
quarretls, enmities ana covctousncs of hi^ freudes, whom he 
had in vvery place. And thvrcforc was Eteodcs Lacede- 
monian ercatly commended for his saying : that Gtvecc could 
not abioc two LyKanders. llivophnistus wrytcth also, that 
the very liku *iu »()<>kcn of iucibiadc* by Arehcstratus. 
Htjwbeit in Alcibiiuliw th<:rc wax iioUiin^, but hJs insok-ncy, 
aii<l vainc glory that nu-n miidiked : but m Lysandcr, a severe 
natutv, and !(har|x: condicioim, that made bix power fcarfull 
and intollerable. Neverthelc^ite, tlte Litcedienioniaiis piuncd 
over all other contplaintea exhibited against him : staving 
when they heart! the complaintii of Pharnaba/ua, who piir- 
poeely sent Ambassadors unto them, to <^>niptaine of tlie 
wrrongs aitd injuries Lysander had done him, spoyling and 
dcatroyiug the contry under his government, 'fhen the 
Ephori being offended with him, dapped up Thorax in 
))nsoD, one of his frc-ndcs and Captaiucs that had served 
(uider him : and finding that he had both gold and silver 
in his house contrary to the law, put him to death. And 
to him selfe they sent imincdiatly that which they call Seytala, 
(as who would i*«y, the scn>lk' wrytten upon a n>imde stafle) 
commauntling him that he nhould rvtorm^ imincdiatly »{>i)ii 
receitc Uicreur. The Srytala is in tliis sorte : When tlic 
Kphori doc Kende a Generall, or an Admirall to the warn«, 
they cause two title rounde staves to l>e made of the tike 
bignen and length, of which the Kphori doe keepe tlie tone, 
and thother they geve to him whorae they sende to the 
warrca. These two litle staves they call hcytales. Nowe 
when they will advertise their Generall secretly of mattere 
of iraportauQce, they take a scroUe of pardiement, long and 
narrowe like a leather thongc,and wreath it about the round 
stafTc. Icavingc no voydc space bctwcne the knottes of the 
scrowle. Anerwardes when tliey h^ive bound them fast 
together, then they wrytc up{M>n the jxirchment thus rolled 
wliat they will, and when they have done wryting, uii- 
foldc it, and scndv it to tlioir Genendl, who can not else 


possibly read it to know what is writtcD, (btcausc the LfSANDER 
ictt«n are not joined together, nor follow in order, but 
an.- scattc-rcd here and there) until! he tfdcc his litle rowlo 
of woilde which was gevco hiDi nt his dcpitrtiirf. ^Vnd 
tltcn wrrathing the scrowie of parchment about it which he 
receuveth, the futding and wreathes of the parchcment fall- 
ing jurt into the selfe same place as Uiey wen? fir*t folded: 
the letters also coiih: to joyiw one with an otJter, as th^ 
ought to doe. This litle scrowie of parchment also ts 
called as the rowie of wodde, Scytala : even as we com* 
monly see in many places tluit the thing mea&ured, is also 
callea by the name of the measure, ft'hen this parche- 
inent scrowie was brought unto Lysander, who was then 
in the contrie of Hellespont, he was mor^elously troubled 
witball, fearing above all otlHrr thingcs the accusations of 
Phamabazus : so he sought meanes to spcake with him before 
he departed, hoping thenby to make his peace with him. 
When they were together, Lysandrr prayed him he would 
write an other letter unto the Lordes of Sparta, contrary 
to his l)r»t, how that he had done hini no hurt at all, and 
that he had no cause to complaiiie of him : but He did not 
rememl>er that he was a Cretan, (as the common proverbe 
sayeth) tiiat could deceave ait other Cretan. For Phama- 
bfunis having promised him that he would performe his desire, 
wrote a letter openly, purporting the effect of Lysanders 
request ; but bchmde he had an other of contrary effect, so 
like on the out side unto the other, that by sight no man 
could disceme tbone firam the other. And when he came to l.ynasdft 

fut his seale, he chaunged the first with the last that was vniifth Ii^ttcrs 
iddcn.and gave it him. When Lysander came unto Sparta, "gunrthim 
be went as the maner is, straight to the fHtlliicc whrrt^ the 
Senate Wept, aiui gave his letU-r» unto the Ephores, thinking 
that by them he should have bene di^red from all dauneer 
of the greateHt arciuations they could liave burdened nim 
witball : bicause tliat Phamabazus was very well thought 
of of the Lords of Laced^monia, for that he did ever shew 
him belfe wilting and ready to helpe them in all their 
wanes, more then any other of the kinges Lieutenauntea 
of Persia, The Ephori having red this letter, they shewed 
3:U £49 




foeili tu 

LYSANDER it imU> him. llien did Lyaonder ploinlj see, Uiat the 
common proverb was true : 

Thnt Ulysses was not iubtill aloD& 

Tfaercuppon be weiit home to his house nmrvelously 
troubled. But within few dtives aflcr returning to tJie 
pallace ngoitie to Hpeake wiUi tlie Lord« uf llic counieU, lie 
told them thut he must oeede* moke a voyage unto the| 
brmple of lupiter Amnion, t» diKharge certoine sacrifioes^ 
which be hod vowed siid promised to him before be had 
woniie the battelU. Some say, that in deede lupiter AmmoD 
appeared to him in a dreame as he did besiece the city of 
the Aphygfeiaiis, in the contry of Thracia, and that by his 
commauiKlement he ratscd the sieec, and charged them of 
the city, that th«y should thaukc lupiter Aimnon, and doe 
sacriiicc unto him : by reason whereof, they thinke that h« 
m«nt good faith, wIkii he sued for licence to make this 
voyage into Libya, to performe the vowes which he had 
made. Hut the niOKt parte dill certaiiiely beleve that he 
made cute t» goe thn jotney, for a doke and colour only to 
absent him selfe, bicause he feared the Epliores, and tlut't be 
coulde not endure the yoke and subjection which he must 
abide remaining at home, neither could like to be com- 
niaunded. And this was the true cause of his nite to goe 
tliifl voyage, much like unto a horse taken out of a frobe 
pasture and goodly mcadowca. to bring him into a stable, 
and mitkc him to he jorneyc?d as he was before, Neverthc- 
Icssc, Ephorus wrileth an other cause, the which I will recite 
hereafter, In the end, Lysander having hardly obtained 
licence, tooke shippe, and crossed saile. But during his 
alwenoe, the kinge» of Lacednmon lemembring that be 
kept all the dties at his commaundenicnt, by meanes of the 
frendes he bad in every city, whom lie had made chicfe 
governors of the same, and tliat by tlivir mcancs he came 
m maner to be absolute prince over all Greece : they tookc 
uppon them to redeliver tnc government of the towno* and 
cities acaine into the handes of the peoi^ and also to put 
downe ms frendes wbomc he hod atabliabed th«ne. And 
hereupon fell out fp'eat insurrection agalne. For first of ail, 


tbejr that were banished from Athens, haTinc surprised and LYSANDER 

taken the cA^tell of Phyla upon the sodaioe, aid set apon the 

thirty govcmon tynuis (whom Ly)um<lcr hud placed there) 

and oviTcamv thnn in bttttell. Wtwrvuppon I^^ander 

struight n;tiirned to Spurta, and penwaded the Locedie- 

inonians to referre t)te e;overnment to t)>« nunilwr of a few, 

and to puniftli the ituolenvy of the people. So by bi« pro* 

curetnetit, they sent fint a tiundred tallents unto the thirty 

tynuiit for an aide to inaintaiiie this warre, and aiipointed 

Lyiander him selfe generatl. But the two kingea of S{)iarta 

en*"ying him, and fearing least he should take the city of 

Athens againe: they determined that one of them would 

go. Whereupon Pausanias went thither immediatly, who in 

appftraunce seemed to maintaine the tyraones against the 

people: but in effect, he did his indevor to appease this 

wan-e, for feare least Lyvander by mcancs of his fimds and 

followers should once af^itH* come to have the city of Atlienx 

in his power, the which hv might easily doc. jVnd thus 

baving agreed the Athentan-t againe one with lui other, and 

pacified nil faction and commonon among them, he pluckt 

up the roote of Lyianden ambition. But xhortly after, the 

Atheniam rebelling againe agaiuxt the I^aoedjemoiiianK, Pau- 

Minia-H him selfe was reproved, bicaiwe he yvhled so much to 

the Ivildnes and insolency of the i>eople, whidi were brideled 

and retrained before, by the autnonty of the small number 

of governors : and to the cont3rary, they gave Lysander 

the honor to be genemil, who ruled not in this rebellion 

to please mens mindes and to content them, ncitlier with 

fond ostentation of glor)', but severely, for the profit and 

commodity of Sparta. It k tnie he would geve great wordt«, 

and was terrible to them that n^Jsted him. An ho aunnwered 

the Argivcs one day, who contended for thi-ir confines with 

the Lacedaemonians, and secm*.-d to tUleage the best reasons. 

Even they (sard he) Uiat shall prove the stroneer herebv, 

shewing tnem hi-t sword : shan>e they Uiat ahal pleade thar 

ea(M> licitt for their confines. An other time, when a 

M^arian had tolde his niinde botdly enough in open ooun- 

gdl, he aunswcred biro : Thy wordea (good frend) nad neede 

of a dtr, meaning therby that he was of too meane a towne 

ia« recon- 
ciled the 





Lycoiulnr do- 
prirrtb Leoty' 
dudii* of bin 


LYSAKDER to us£ so great words. And to the Bceotiwis aUo, who 
were in dout to jirofunv them •elves frends or enemies : bo 
sent imto them, to know if lie should p«ue throush the 
contry with his pyket upwarde* or downevardeii. And when 
the Corinthimi* aJ*o were revolted from their allyance, he 
hrtnight his army harde unto their walles : but when he 
Hawc his men were afrayed, and made curacy whether thoy 
jtltould goe to the assault or not : by chaunce spying a hare 
cumming out of the towne ditches, he sayd unto them : 
Are ye not ashamed to be afrayed to goe and assault yottr 
enemies that are so cowardly and slothfull, as han^ doe 
kccpc their formes at case within the circuite of their wiilivs? 
Now king Agifl being deceased, he left behinde him his 
brother Agvfilnus, and hi» Kup{M))mI imimt? Leotychid^a. 
Whcrefort', Lywindcr tliat liad loved Ageiiilauit aforetime, 

f^vi,- him counaell to stande for the right of the crowne, as 
Hwefull heire and next of the blood, cfiscending of the race 
of Hercules : bicause it waa suspected that Leotychides was 
Alcibiades sonne, who secretly nad kept Timwa Agia wife, 
at what time he was banished out of nis contry, and came 
then to Tcmainc in Sparta. And Agis solfe also, coneluding 
by rcckening of the time of his absence, that his wife coulde 
not be with childe by bim : made rcckening of Leotychides, 
(and had openly shewed it all the rest of his life time) that 
lie did not acknowledge him for hiii .wnnc, untill itueli time 
AS falling sicko of thnl diw.-n.-M.' whereof he died, lie wa* caried 
to the city '>f Hirnea. And there lyin^ in hifi death bed, at 
the humble Nute of Ix-otvchidcH him selfe, aitd partely at the 
instant requeiit of his frendea who were Jmiwrtunate with 
him : he did acknowledge Leotychides for his soune in the 
presence of divers, whoroe he prayed to be witnesses unto 
the Lordes of Laoedsmon, of his acceptation and acknow- 
ledging of )iim to be his sonnc. Which they all did in 
favor of LeotychidcB. For all that, Agcsilaus tooke it apon 
him, by the support and maintenutmce of Lysnnders favor. 
Howebcit, Diopithc« a wise man, and knowen to be skilfull 
in Rimcieut propliecics, did great hurt to Age«iUiis side, 
by an ouncient oracle which he alleogcd ngainst a defect 
AgesilauK had, which was hia lomenes : 





Spartkn pcopk you, "-liich bcaro high hawtr h«rte*, LYSANDI 

And Uiuks B loft : Uke hiMde I lay, luoke well uiiUi jruur martM ; 

Leaat whilca jou rtaaili! upright, aiul guide your *tat« bjr i^nce. 

Some halting kini^um pririly. com* (reef Ids In k pace. 

By that mvaiiea mijflit yuu move, great trouMM, cnrke and e*ro. 

And iBlscIiiefe« lieuiie upon your hmd, before fou hr avarc. 

And ploiiged ghoula you be, even over heai mud cnrcs, 

With wwt of wnrren, which here on earth doth pirrish many p«u«e. 

Many by oc^wiion of thiH oracle, fell to take Leotjrchidcs 
parte : but Ly»ander deckred unto them, that Diopithcs 
did not conater tlie meaning of the oracle well. For God, 
sayed he, cared not whetl^r he halted of one Iccgv or 
no, that should come to be king of Lacvda-mon : but in 
dccde, the croime and kingdome snoutd haltc and be lame, 
if bastardcs not lawfully Iwgotten, should come to raigne 
over the true naturall issue and right line of Hercules. By 
th<!sv perswasioDs, Lysandcr with his gnnt coiuitcnaunce and 
authority besides, wanne all men to his opinion : !m> tliat 
Ago^ilaus by this meancs was proclaimed king of Lacedsmoo. 
Tlii« done, Lysander beganne straight to council him to 
make wiuTts m Aula, putting him fn hope that he should 
destroy tlie kingdome of Persia, and Hhoiild come to be the 
greatest roaii of the world. Moreover, he wrote unto hi> 
irendes in the cities of Axia, that tltey .thnuld send unto the 
Lacediemonians to require Icing Agetilaus for their cencrall, 
to make warria against the barbarous people. Which they 
did, and sent Ambaftsador?! jiurposely unto Sparta t*) «»c 
that they might have him : the which was no lessc honor 
procured unto Agesilaua by L^'sandeis uieancs, then that 
nc did, in making him to be cboMH king. But men 
ambitious by nature, being otherwise not unapt nor tmfit 
to commiiimdc, have this imperfection : that through the Ambition 
jealousio of glory, thcv doc commonlie envie their equallcs, aWdeth uo 
the which ilnlh grctitly hinder them for doing any notable *4<'*'«"' 
thii^e& For they bike them for their enemies, envying 
their vertue : whose Kvrricc and raeancs might heipe them to 
doe great matters. Thus Agiviluus being chosen generall of 
this cnterprLte, tookc Lysaodcr with him in this jomey, 
amoD^'st the thirty coumeUen whtch werv gevcn unto him 
to assist him : and made Apcciall cbovce of him, as by whose 


LTSANDER counsi'll hv Itopcd most to tx.- governed, and to have him 
Docrcft about nim, ns ttiK chivfi-st frmde. But whcii they 
were arrived in Asia, thvy of the contry having no acquaint- 
aunce with Agesikus, wldomc spake with him, or but Utk- : 
tuid to tlie contnuy, having knuwen Lysandvr of long time, 
they fulluwed him, and waited uppun him ia hi* tent or 
lodging, some to honor him, liicatLtc they were his frendea, 
others for feare, bicause they did mi.itruit him. Kveii much 
Uke aa it falleth out oft«ntimes in the Theaters, when th^ play 
tragedies there : that he that shall play tlie person c4 some 
messenger or servaunt, ahalbe the best player, and shall have 
the best voyce to be heard above all others ; and to tha 
contrary, that he which hath the royall hande about hk' 
heade, and the scvpter in his hande, a man doth scant 
hearv hitn spcake. £v(>n «o fell it out then: fur all the 
dignitie due unto him tliat commauiidcttt nil, wa» sinewed 
only uoto the counteUer : and there remained to the king no 
more:, but the royall name only of a king, witliout any power. 
T)ierefoi« me thinkcs tliat thi.s uitdisr-reete and im|K>rtuiiate 
ambition of Lysander, did well deserve reprooft^ perhappes, 
to make him only to be contented witli the second place 
of honor next unto the king. But for Agesilaus sgaine, 
through cxtrearoe covetousnes and jealousie of glory, to 
cast Lysander altogether of, and to set so %ht by his freode 
and benefactor, that surely became not him neither. For 
first of all, iVgesilaus never gave Lysander occasion to doc 
any thinge, neither did commit any matt^-r of weight imtoi 
liim, that might be honorable for him : hut which is worst] 
of all, if he perceived that he hiul taken any mens causes Ut'l 
liaiid, and that he did favor them, he did alwavM Hendsj 
them backe againe into their contW, denying tneir sut&rl 
without that they coulde obtaine any tning they sueaj 
for, lesfte then tlie meanest peraones tliat could haTe>| 
<-ome, extingui^iing I.ysanders credit by litte, and Ittle, and 
taking from him all authority by this meanea. Wherefore,'^ 
Lysander perceiving howe he was thus refused and rejected 
in all thinges, seing that the countenaunce and favor which 
he thought to shew unto his frcndes, fell out hurtful! unto 
them : lefl of to soUcite their matters any more, and prayed 



them to forbearc to come unto him, or to followc him, but LYSANDER 
to go to the king, and unto those that cotild doi- thcni bftter 
{ileastire then him sclfc, and specially tliosc that honored 
them. When they hcurd tlutt, many desisted to trouble 
him imy more in mtitti-n of iinportaunce, but not to doe 
him all the honor Uivy could, and continued Htill to nocoin- 
panie him, when he went out to walke, or otherwise to 
exercise him M>lfe: the which did aggravate and increase 
Agesilaut) anger inon; him, for the envy be bare 
unto his glory. Aiid where he mie very hoiioraule char^ 
and camroiHition in the warrea, oneBtimes unto very meanc 
eouldien to execute, or cities to goveme; he appointed 
Lysandcr tiurveyor generail of all the ordinary provision of LynuaAer 
vittcUfl, and distributer of flesh. And then mocking the ''?"*,'?!"I "^ 
lonians that did honor him so much : Let them go nov, *^ '" 
sayd ho, and honor my flesh distributer. AVhcrefore, Ly»- 
andcr seeing it high time to speakc : went unto Agesilatts, 
and toldc him in few wordcs after the Loconian manner: 
IVucly Agvstlaus, thou ha»t learned well to abase thy Lnanders 
frendes. In diwle saved he ngaiiie, so have I, when they ^"'J^J, 
wilhe greater then my selfe : and to the contrary, they that j ^ ft^ 
maintaine and increase my honor and authority, it i-i reamn t),^ LMooiau 
that 1 esteeme of them. Yea raary, sayd I.yttander, but per- moiier of 
happes I have not done as thou sayst. Vet I pray thee geve apeaking. 
me such an office, as I may be least hated, and most profit- 
able for thee : though it be but in respect of straungers eyes 
that lookc npon us both. After this talkc bctwene them, 
Agcsilaus sent him hie Lieutcnaunt into the contryi'^of 
Hellespont, where Lysander still kept this anger secret in 
his hart against him, but for all that, did not leave to doe 
all that be could fur the benefit of hi^ mnstere affaires. As 
•moDgcst many other thinge«, he cauM.-d a Pi-rtian Captainv 
called SpiUirituiteK to trbell ngain»t his master, who was a 
valUant man of bin bandit, and a great t-iicmy of Phanin- 
baxus, anil had an army also which be brought witli him 
unto Agcsiiaus. Now eonoi-niing this warre, this was oil 
that he did in that jomey. \Vherefore, he returned againe 
to Sparta not long after, with litle honor, being marvelously 
griercd and offended with Agestlaus, and hating more then 



■Mk«th ia- 
novnlioii in 
the utato of 

The FamiliM 


before, all the state and government of the citie of Sparta , 
by reason whereof, he determined to put that in pisc* 
tjse, wliich he had long time thought uppon, conceminffe 
the alteracion of government, and his ciittrprise was this. 
Amongcst tlie ofspring and issue of Hercules, who were 
mingled with the Dorians, and returned agaiite into the contrie 
uf Peloponnesus, the eneateet number and chiefe«t of them, 
dwvllixl in the city of Sparta: howbcit, tOl tiwy tliat cain« 
of that nun- had no ri^t of succession to thecrowne, saving 
two fninilti-« utt\y. the Kurytiontides, and the Agiaden. The 
oUkt fikmihes, albeit tbey were all for nobility uf blood 
descended out of one welfe liotiiie, yet had they no more right 
nor interest unto the realuie, then the residue of the people ; 
for, the dignities that were attained unto by vertue, were geven 
unto the inhabitauntes that could deserve them. Lysander 
then bein^ one of those which was disccndcd of the true race 
of Hercules, who notwithstanding had no interest in the 
crownc: when he stiw him welfc uloft, and called to great 
boiKir through his famous ucti« and mcrites, and that he had 
wonne many freiidcs, and great credit and authority by dctd- 
ing in matten of the rtjite : it grieved him much, to sec that 
tlicy which were no nobler then him seife, should be kingut 
in that city, which he had increauii by his vertiie, and tlukt 
he could not have so mudi power aji to take from two 
hotiAes, the Kurytiontides, and the Agiadcs, the premgative 
tltat the kinges should be chooen onely out of one of thoae 
two houses, and to cast it apon the ofspring of Herculea. 
Some say againe, that he would not only nave enlarged that 
prerogative unto the issue of Hercules, but unto all the 
naturail Spartans also : bicause that Hercules race should 
not only desire this rcwiird of honor, but even they also that 
followed hii steps in vertue, which had made him equal with 
the gods in honor. For hv douted nut, but if they would 
dispose the arownc in this sort«, tJtat there was no man in 
the city of Sparta that should sooner be cbwen king then 
him Rolfc: wherupon he attempted first to nerxwAde his 
dtiiiens by very good reasons, and to bring thts alwut the 
better, he conned an oration witliout booke, penned by 
Cleon Halicamasaeus, made him for this purpose. But 


sfterwardes w^iog with him sctfc, that tm great and stnuinge 
> cbsunge as he woiiliJ bring in, hml ikmo of some better 
(md fitrongn* hvlpc: hv bcj^inv to frame a devise as they 
say, to move the jH-«>|>k- by, tnudi after the niiiniKT they use 
iu tra^-di(«, framing ciigiiiisi to bring some god to come 
downe from hiMven unto tJiem, and Um was his faini'd in- 
vention. He dcviited certaiiie oracles and prapheda, think- 
ing that all Cleutis reth4>ri<:ke would stand hiiit in no steade, 
if first of all he did not fill the citizens Iiartes witli nome 
supersticion and feare of the goddes, that he might bring 
them afterwardes more easily unto reason. And Kphorus 
aaycth, Uiat he proved first to corrupt the \umie with 
moneV) that gercth all the oracles and aunswers in the 
temple of Apolio at Delplm: luid that afterwardes^ ho 
wouldc have wonne the Nuime also of the t^^'mplc of Dodonc 
with money, by Phen-cles prikcti-te, Am<1 th»t he being 
rejectetl by tliein botli. went lastly unto tlw t<-riijite of 
lupit^-r Anuniiti ; uiid that Uien: he s|»Jie unl4> the ]iric»leii, 
ana oflVrx-d tltein gn-at «tore of muney for llie .-tame purpose. 
But titey were ho ofTended with Lysonder, tliat tliey sent 
men of punxMie to Sparta, to accuse him, tliat )te wouhl Itave 
corrupted tnem with money. The counsell clearing Lysander 
of this accusation, the Libyans his accusers at tlieir departing 
Hiyd : We will one day judge more .justly, then you my 
Lonles of Lacediemou nave done now, when yuu shall oomc 
to dwell in our contry of Ubya : supposing there was on 
auncient prophecy tliat Kuyd, the Laced «-moniana one dav 
should come to dwell in the contry of Libya. But wv ^all 
doe better to wryte the whole *l«iry at large of thu proctiae. 
suttelty, and inidicious deviM-, which wan no mjttter of ttniJl 
im|M>rtaunce, nor lightly grounded : but asi in a matfae- 
uinlienll proposition there were many great conjectures aitd 
preHkip])ositioii.t, and many long cireumstanoes to bring it to 
eonclusioti, the which I will dilate from point to point, 
delivering that which an historiographer and tthilosopher 
both hath wrytten. There was in the marehi-s of the realme 
of Pont, a woniaii that sayed she wa» gotten wiUi childe by 
Apollo, the which many (as it is tu be tliuught) would not 
beleve at oil, and many also did belevc it : so chat she beingv 
3:KK 2S7 


ilevi«et]i faUe 
oracle*, aiid 
vith mooty. 

raiucd duvlM 

topaiiBi n the 



LYSANDGR delivered of a goodlv sonm.', diverse noble men luid of great 
estabe were cnrefull to bring him up, and to hnvc him 
tau^t. Tliis childe, I know not whereuppot), nor how, wns 
named Silviiu-s : und Lywiiider fi-tchingi- ttu- plat of \m deviate 
from llniuv, lulded tu all the rviit of him »vliv^ to goe on 
with his pnictbc. Now Itc hod tnsiiy (mid tliey n<> Hmall 
mm) that made hi* wtiy tu frame this, geviiig out a 
rumor of Ute birth of Uiis childe, without any suspicion 
gathered out of the intent of this rumor. And further- 
more, they brought other newes from Delphes, which they 
di5|>ersed ahroooe through the dty of Sparta, to wit: that 
tlie priestes of the temple kept secA;t Ixxikes of very 
Auncieiit oracles, which they them selves durst not touch nor 
handle, neither might any man read theio, onlessc be were 
b^otten of the scedc of Apollo, who alioitlde come after a 
long time, and make his birth appcare unto the prietttei* 
that kept tliese pELpcrs, and that by some secret nuirlcc and 
token, which thc^y bud iimongest them : and thi-TX-bv being 
knowen for ApoUm^ sonne, he might then take theoookes, 
' and read the auneieut rvvclnrions and prophecies of the name. 
These things pn-paxk-d in tliis sorte, there was order taken 
tlutt Silcnua should come and askv for these buokca as 
though he were tJie sonne of AjHtllo : and that the priestes 
whicli were privy to tiiis jiractisu, should make as though 
they did diligently ex/iinine him of every tiling, and how be 
wao borne. And that at tlie lengUi, aJlir they had seemed 
to know all, they should deliver tlieae prophecies unto him, 
as if he had bene in deede Apolloeo .sonne: and that he 
should openly read them in the presence of many witnesses. 
And among the rest of the propneciei, that he shoidd n»d 
that specially, for the which this long paltry fained drift was 
fmuied, touching the kingdomc of l^accdEeiiionia : that it was 
bctt«r, wufi itieetclicr for the Spartans they should choose 
them for their kingi-s, whome they found the mcctest mcit of 
all tlieir magistrates. But when Silcnus was eomc of full age, 
and brought tutu Greece of purpose to perfonne this practise, 
all the mistery was iiiarde by the foiiitc heart of one of the 
players and companions of Lysaiider, who holpe him to 
oountenaunce this deviw : who when the nuitter snould have 


taken effixrt, nhronckc for fear«, and let the mirterie alone. 
Hiifl notwithstanding, noUiing wa» bewray«d in Lysanden 
life time, till after nifi death. For lie (lyed, Wfore king 
Agesilftua returned out of Adia, lieinj; fullen into warrea witJi 
Ba'otia before hia deatli, or rather having him selfe made 
Greece to fall into warres. They doe reporte it eitlier way, 
and aomc lay the fault apon him, other apon the lliebans, and 
other apon tbcm both : and they burden the Thebane withall, 
bicausc they did utterly overthrowe the common aacrifioes 
which Agesilaus made in the city of Aulide. And they say 
aliH), thai AndrocUdes and AmphtthcuB did raise this warre 
among the Greccianc, being before corrupted with money by 
tl>e king of Pentiu to bring warres apon the Loceda-monians 
in Greece : and iK^ganne to invade and destroy the contiy of 
tJie Phocians. OUier say that Lysander wan very ajigry with 
the ThelMns, hicause they onvlv of all oilier their coiuMerate* 
did oske the tenth fmrte of all the »]ioyle whidi wa* wonne 
in the warre against Uu- Athcnianx: and that they were not 
plea;ied that Ly.tander had sent the money away unt»» Sparta. 
But above all Lysander did malice them mo<tt, bicauxe they 
were the first that made way for the Athenianit to be 
delivered from thopprcasion of thirty tymnnesi, whom he 
had rtablishod govcmorB in AthenH, and in whose favor (to 
make them to he dreaded the more) the I.ft«^edlemonians had 
ordained by a common edict : that they that were baniahed 
and did floe from Athens, might lawefiilly be taken and 
apprehended in what place soever they fled unto, and that 
whoeoeA'cr should resist or let them to do it, thev should be 
proclaimed rebells, and open enemies unto the I^cedav 
monians. Agaiiie to contrary this edict, the Thcbatis made 
an other very like, and mecte for the glorious dcdes of 
Bacchus and Hcreuli'v their auneestors, for whom it was mode: 
that every houw and city through the contry of BaM>tia, 
should Iw open for the Athenians that would come thither, 
and that he that would not holpo a banished man from Atlu-ns, 
against him that would take him away by foree^ simiild l»e fmed 
and amerced at a talent. And nUo if there were any Mnildien 
that went unto Atlieno, tlimugli the contrie of Rceolia, that 
the Thebans SLhotild not see nor heare it. Tltix was no 



Thn varrw 
of BooUa, 

IHvm OI14M 
RurmiMid of 
th« befcintiing 
of these ■wan. 

An edict 
t>HiiiBh«d men 
from AUieas. 

An edict 
miidt' by ike 
TKcbaiiR ill 
ttivor or the 

j<iriiey unto 





LYSANDER (lifwiniiilAtion to sfx^kv of, that tbev Hbould ondaine tliinges 
with w) gentle wonJfs, ftnJ *o tm-ete for the people of Greece, 
And thun Ihnt the deties should not auiuwer unto their edicta 
ftiid pi-oclainntimis. Fdrllintsyhulu-i, and hU fellowes of the 
con.suiracie, who kept the castell of Phyla, they deputed irom 
Theues, with annor and monev, and the Thebana did helpe 
them to beeinne and practise theirenterprise so secretly, that 
it was not discovered. These were the causes why Lysander 
was so earnestly bent a^inst the Thcbans, and his chollcr 
being so extreanie, by reason of his mclancholinr* that gltvrt 
dayly apon him more and men- through hi« nge, he iwhcited 
the Ephorcs so, tliat ho pcntwaded them to scnde a garrison 
thither : and him sclfc taking the char^ tif thetn, undei^ 
tooke the jomey straight with his men. But aflerwardes 
they sent kinge PausaninK also with an army thither, who 
was to fctchc a great comnatsc almut to enter into the 
contriuof Bu!otia,by mount Cithneron: and Lyttander shoulde 
goe to meete him through the oontr>' of rhocides, with a 
great company of Houldiers besides. Now as Lrsaader went^ 
ho tooke the city of the Orchomenians, who vnllinsly y«eld«d 
them selves to him as soone as he came Uiither. ftoni thmcc 
he went to the city of L^badia, which he spoylcd : and from 
thence he wrote itnto king PRUiuinias, that departing from 
Plaices, he should march directly to the city of Aliarte, 
where he would not failc to mecte him the next momii^ 
by breake of day at the tnwne walles. These letters were 
intcnrepted by ccrtaine skowtw of the Thdians, who met 
with the ines-teiigcr Hint cnried them. Thus the lliehana 
having intelligL'TiL-e of th«.'ir |Hirpose, left their citie in custodte 
unto the Atlieaiann wh« were come to aide them : and de- 
parted out of Thelies at>out midnight, and marched all night 
with great speede, that they came to Aliarte in the morning 
a litle before Lysander, and put halfe their men into the 
dtic. Now for Lysander, he was dctemiincd at the first to 
kccpc his men apon a hill which is ncrc to the city, and there 
to tary the comming of king Pausanias. But aflerwards, 
when ne isawe that the day was farre spent, and that he 
came not, he could tary no longer, but arming him sclfe, 
after he had made an oration unto the confederate* which 



he bad broi^ht «ith him, he marched on with his men iii LYSANDER 
battel) ray, fonser then large, by the hidi way that went 
unto the city. In the meane season, the Thebans that were 
left without the city, leaving Aliarte on the left hande, did 
set uppon LvsfUiders rerewajxlc of his army against the foun- 
tuinc railed Cissusa : when? the PocU fainc that tlic nurses Cubum font. 
of Biuxhus did washe him, when he came out of his mothers 
wombe, bicause the water thnt oommoth out of it (though it 
be very dcre and swi-etc to drinke) hath notwithstanding (I 
can not ti-ll by what mmn<?i)a cullour like wine: kikI not 
farre from tliencK thi^n_- gniw great plenty of Stvmp trw». 
The which tlie Aliartian^ do allenge, to prove that Kndiunaii- 
thus heretofore dwelt tn that {larte, and aoc shew hu sepulchre 
there yet to thi^ day, which they caJl Alea. And hard by 
that also, there ia the monument of Alcmena, which wm 
buried (as they say) in that place, and was man'ed to Rada< 
manlhus, after the death of Amphitiyon. But tlic 'i'hebanfl 
who were within the city with the Aliartians, stirred not 
untill they sawc that Lysandcr with the 6rst of his troupe 
WAS necrc unto the towne walles ; and then opening the 
gates on the sodaine, they made a saliv out upon Lysander, 
and ^lue him with his soothsnier and a few other, bicause L^-wndir 
the most jMirt of the voward fled, into the stn-nfflh of the nUin* hy the 
battel, Howln-it the Tin-buns gave thorn not over so, but 'Hipbnn*. 
followed them no vidiiinHy, that they brake their order, and 
made them all flie through tlie mountaines, <ifttT they hud 
slaine three thousand of them in the field : w weiv tlirre three 
hundred Thebans also staine there, who followed tlwir enemies 
so fiercely, till they recovered stxaight narrow wiuc!<, of gre^it 
strength for them. These Uiree hundred w(-re in nian<-r all 
those that were suspected in Thohes to favor the I^aveiliv- 
monians secretly : wherfore, for the desire they had to take 
away this opinion from their citizens, they hazarded tliem- 
Rclvcs to no pumose, and were cast away in this chase. King 
Paiisanios heard newos of this overthrow, going from Platees 
unto Thcspies, and went on further, mareliing still in battel 
rav towanis Aliarte, where Thrasybulus also arrived at the 
selfe same time, bringing the aide of tlie Athenians from 
1^ebe$. And when Pausunias was pur]>osed to send to aske 



To iwkn lcar« 
of then emit) 
to burye the 
deade U (li»- 


OpIltcH n. 

Dertiiiie iii- 


Itwnoe of the encmtei to take away the bodies of tliedr men 
which they bad sJaine, to tbint«nt to bury them : Uie aide 
Sputans that were in bis array, misliking it much, at Uie 
first were angry in them selves. But afler«ardes they went 
unto the kine him selfe, to tell him that he dishonored 
Sparta, to oflcr to take up Lysanden bodie by hb eneraies 
leave and favor, and that he should valliantly reco\'er him 
by force of anncs, and honorably burie him, after that he 
had overcome their enemies : or else if it were their fortune 
to be overthroweii, that vet it should be more honorable 
for them, to lye dead in tui; field by tiieir Caubiine, then to 
luke lejive to take up hiit IxkIv. But notwitlisttuiding all 
these wonles of t)>c old men, king PauKaoias M-cinf; that it 
WAS a Iiard matter to overcome the Thebans in battell, now 
that they had eotten thv victory, and furthermore, tluit the 
b<K)y of I.yHitnaer Lay hard bv tiie walU of Aliarte, and ttuit 
lie could not come to take it away witliuut great (Iniinger, 
although they should win the Iiattell : he sent a herauKl to 
the enemies. And having made truoe for certaine dayes, 
he led his armv away, and tooke up Lyaanden body with 
liiin, and burieifihim after they were out of the confynea of 
Ikeotia, within the territory of the Panopcians: where mitill 
this day his tombe reniaincth npon the high way, goinge 
from l)L-lphea unto the city of Charonea. Thus Pausaniaa 
campe being lodged there, it ie sayd there was a Phocian, 
who reporting the battell unto one that was not tlicrc, sayd 
that toe enemies came to gcvc a charge upon them, tut 
Lysaader hod pmssed the Oplitex. 1'hother wondring at 
that, there wa< a SpartAn a very frend of Lysandeni by, 
having heard all their taike, a«ked him what that wiw 
which he called Oplitcw: for tltat he had not heard Uiat 
word named iK-fnre, What? nuiiswered the Phocian to 
hira agajne. Even there it was when^ Ute encmic* did orer- 
Uirow the fintt of our men which were tilaini; in the lieldes : 
for the river that runneth by the waller of the dty, is called 
Opiites. 'Vhi- Spartan hvaniig that, hun>t out of weping for 
sorrow, saying: lljeji I see it is unixtssible for a man to 
avoyde his detttinie. For Lysander aforetime bad an oracle 
that tolde him thus : 



Lynuder, take good heede, cum« not I Dive advist! : LYSA>IDBB 

Neora OpIitH tbiit rivi>n baiicke*. in aiiy kiude of wise. 

Nur neeru the Dnucuu he, >v)iidi U tbe eartli Im (oune, 

^Vhu ikt llie leiigtli oill ihee &^8huIi, anil ou tliy bncke will ronne. 

Howi'bcit some tnki- it, that this river of OpIitiM is not 
thnt which p»s!R-tli by the wallvs of AliartA.-, but it itt Hie 
rivur thut ruiinuth iii.-i.ti- unto tho city of Coroncn, tttid faUeth 
into the river of Phlinrus, linrti by Utc city : and they sav PlUi«ru8 fl. 
tiiat ill oldc time it wjw calU-d Hoplim but now they mil it Hoplii, 
IxoiiiaiituH. He tliat slm- l-ywunltr, wiw iin Alinrtiaji called I»<»n»»«>tii». 
N«^iii-liorus, who tiirii-d n I)ragi>n |)atnti-(i a|xm liis target : NMchuru* 
and this was that which the onide of liki-lyhoo<le did sigiiific. ■l"" Lywn- 
Thcy say also, tlmt in the time of the warres of I'clopon- *'•'■■ 
nesus, the 'Iltebans had an oracle from the temple of Apollo 
IfoneniaB : which oracle did prophecy the hattcll which they 
w&nne by the ca&tcll of Uelium. and the battel) of Aliturte 
also, which was thirty yearcs after that. The effect of that 
oracle was this : 

IV'lieu tbuu liiy nets Hhalt spread, tlie wolven tor to lutrtippe : 

Beware tlivu come uut ueere unto, a title hill liy liappe, 

Of OrcliBllde, Nor ii«er«i, to any hU confyiiw : 

For there, the crnfly foxes keepe, th»ir dmiic* nnd privy miimL 

He calleth the territory that is about Deliuni, the utter- 
moet Gontynes, hicause Btrotia doth confine there with the 
contry of Attica: and the hill Orclialide which is now <,-nllcd 
Alopecon (to say the foxe dennr) which Ueth on tliut ittde of 
the dtic of Aliartc, that looketh towurdes mounte Helicon. 
Lynindcr being itlaine, tbe S|>artaiis tutikc hia dmth ho ill, 
that they would have condemns) king IViMinias of trea»on 
by law: who dimt not abide the tryall, but fled unto the 
citie of T^'«, where he ended the iv«t of his life within the 
Nuictuarie of the tem]ile of Miner>'a, ^Vhen Lyaander was 
dead, his povertje apjieared to the world whicn made his 
vertue faire more famous, than when he lived. For then 
they aawe, that for all the pold and silver which had passed 
through his hands, for all his great authority and counten- 
aunce that he had eained, and for all that so many cities and 
towDcs did oome to honor him, and briefly, for al that he hod 





cIcAne hanilM 

niid povertie 
romm ended 
lifter hii 
death e. 


coun«ell for 



wiwliMn fbf' 
bearing to 
shewe ex- 
tr«mitle to 
the ilead«. 
huuorcd hy 
the Sputam 
kfter nla 

Sitifflenai of 
life, l«te 
iBoriaffe, aad 
111 msriam 
piiiiiBhM bjr 
the LM»d»- 


HO great fuid puissant a kingdom in maner in liiN luuids : yet 
he did never enrich nor increase his house with no much, 
as one farthing. So writeth Thcopompus, whom we should 
rather beleve u-hcii he piuiscth, then when he discommendeth: 
for commonly he takctb more delitt- to dispraise, then to 
praiw any. It fortuned not lon^ aftw, as Ephorus writeth, 
that the LAcedu^mouians and their coiifederatt; fcl ut variance 
together, wlierupon Lvsanden; Icttens were to Ik? spciie tltat 
were in his house. Kiiigi- AgcsilauM guingc thitlier to pt-nwe 
them, iimoiigeKt uther writingcu, fouiide the oration pvJincd 
hy Ck-on HaliuLrnoMtftu whidi Lj-sandcr had prepared to 
pcnwude the Spnrtaii.s to ctiauiige tlieir government, and to 
declure unto tneni Uiat tliey shoulde revoke the prerogative 
which tiie Kurytiontides and the Agiades had : tliat the 
kingea of S])arta could not be choeen but out of those two 
fiunilies, and to leve the prerogative at hbcrty, that the 
cbiefest tnagistrats miglit be laiitiilly ehosen kiiig« of Spnrta. 
Agesilaus stood indifferent to have snewed this oration openlj^ 
to the people, that the Spartans might si-e what manner a 
citjn:n Lytandcr h«l bene in hia hurtc But Lamttidiu, a 
grftve wiKc niiui, rutil prvniili-nt at tliat time of the cmmm-l of 
the Kphori, would nut Niil!i-r him : saying, that he dioulile not 
digge Lynandor out of his grave againe, but rather hurv his 
oration with bim, that was so passingly welt, and eloiiuentty 
permed to pcrswade. Yet notwithstajidinge, they did bim 
great honor afler his death : and omongest others, condemned _ 
two citizens in a grest summc of money, that were made su 
to two of his daughters while he lived, and refused to marye 
them when he whs dead, seeing their father dyed »o poore : 
biciuisc they sought tn malche tn hiK house, supjjosing he 
had bene riehe, and furvooke tlivm oflcrwardes for their 
fatbcnt itovcrty, when they mw lie dyed a good and jiut 
man. 'I hu» we see, that at Sparta there was a puni»bmciit 
for them tluLt did not marv, or that maryed too late, or that 
maried ill : and unto this puni^liment were tliey inoitt 
subject, that sought great matches for oovetouanca 
of goods, 'inis is all we hare to wiyte of 
Lysanders life and acteo. 




UCrUS CORNELIUS SYLLA was of the Sj.lU« 
mtc of the Patriciftns, who be the nobli- •""r*^- 
tucn und K'^iithtncn of Roitif : nnd there 
wiu one of his auiici'^tcrs ivilleil Uufinus, 
that obtaiiMx) the dignity of Coiutil. He 
notwithi^iding his Coii»ul!»hippc, wannv 
more dishonor by defam«, then iti; oliUuiwxl 
honor by dignity of ('onsull. For tliey 

finding in his house above t«n powndes worth of plate, 
contrary to the lawe at that time expressely forbidding it: 
he was expuls«d the Senate, and lost his place there, after 
which dishonor once received, his issue never roec, nor yet 
nicovered it. And Sylla him sclfc had very Htic Icil him by 
hie fath<.T: so that m his youth he was fainc to hyer an 
other manx house, and sat at n smalt rent, as afterwards 
he was twitted in the teeth witluill, nhen they «aw him 
riclicr tfien thoy tliotight he Iwid deserved. For when he 
gloried and boasted of the victory at his rctumc &om the 
warrefl of Afrtck, there was a noble man that sayd unto him : SyllsM 
Why, how iit it possible thou shouldest be an honest man, '""i*«tj' >»■ 
that having nothing left thee by thy father, tlioii arte now [J,"'^'^"^ ,|7t,,, 
come to have so much? Now, though Home had left her grrnt wfiilth 
auncient justice and purencs of life, wherewith she brought 
up her people in former times, and that their hartes were 
poysoned with covetous desire of vaine superfluous delitea: 
yet notwithstanding, it was as fowtc a rcproche to them that 
did not maintaine thorn selves in the poverty of their fathers, 
OS unto them that did consume their patrimony, and bring 
all to naught which their ]>nrentes had left them. But 
afl^^Twurdes ui»o whui be caried the whole sway in Rome, 
and that he had put »o many meii to death : a free man 
being borne of tiic slaves infraochi#cd, and being ready to be 
throwen downe the rocke Tarpeian, bicaune ne had tuxved 
aiid hidden one of the outlawes and men procUumed to be 
3:LL 96S 


That la. bU 
cluw tliat ti/l 
in Itnea, tijt- 
iiili«th aker, 
which becum- 
cth mA wImd 
it It put to tlie 
lire, Aiid lh«r- 
tore sytlaceus 
oolor ill vitni- 
ria, KigniliDth 



put to clefttii, wlieresoever they vere foutxi : cast it iii Syllaea 
teetli, how that they had lived and dwelt together a long 
time ill one selfe house, he having payed thowsande Numnios 
for tlie rent of the uppcrmust roomes of the same house, and 
Sylla three thowsanci for all the ncathermost roomes beneath. 
So that bctwpDc both their wcatthra, there was but onely 
two thowsande and liftic Dr(u;hnias of Athens difFericncc. 
And this is that we tiiide in wr^'ting of his first wcultb. As 
for his stature and pertone, that appcorctb sufficiently by tho 
statiK^s and images that wcrv made for him, which vet 
rcmaine. But for hid eves, they were like (ire, and wonaer- 
full reddc : and the colour of his face withall, made them 
the more feorefull to beholde. For he •fa» i-opjier noued, 
and that was full of white streakes here ami there : wliere- 
iippon they say tliat the suroame of a Sylla was geven him, 
by reason of his cwlour. And there was a jeaster at Athens 
tfiat (inely mocked him in his verse : 

Sylla Is like a blaeke Bery spriiickled with ineal«. 

It is not amiMC to M>arch mit the natural! disposition of 
this ninn by Kiich outward markes and tokens. It is snyd 
also timt he wiu mi nntiinilly geven to iniM-Jic and jcast, tliat 
being a yotinc nian inikiiow'en, he would never be out of the 
eoniuany of mayersi, foole^ and toniblent, but Hill eating and 
tippling witli them in dissolute manner. And afterwarde* 
alito when he waa in his ehiefest authoritie, lie would 
ooinnionlv eatc and dritike with the most impudent je«.tters 
and sfoflere, and all such rakchcllcs, as made ]>rofe8aion of 
counterfeate mirth, and would strive with the baddest of 
them to gcve the finest moekcs: whcrin he did not only a 
thing uncomely for his yeres, and dishonored the majesty 
of his office and iliguity, but therby also grew carel«S8C 
and negligent in matter; of great importance, whennito ho 
should have tiikcn g^Kid rcganl. For after he was once scttc 
at his table, he was not to be moved any more in matters of 
weight. Now, though from the table he was commonly 
found both very active, painefull, tmd severe: yet falling 
into ftucli com))Any by drinking, bowsing, and making good 
chere, he sodainly lieeanic an other mnner of man. So that 



without all cotnpitssc of niodvsty and judgcmpiit, he wns too SYLLA 

fumiliar slid convermuiit with players, jcasU-rs, tumblt*r$, 

nii(] (Inunscrs : whu wheu tlicv luul him tn tliat vnine, miglit ^ 

doe whnt they would with him. Of this ryutiii<; came (in SylUo* volup- . 

mine u|)inioii) his vice of Ictchiiy, whfrciiiito he w(w greatly tuoaimei. 

geven, and eiuily draweti aftt-r hivc and (il»-«»iire; in sudi 

sorte, as hi.i gray hmres eotild nut rvKtraiiii- hiK voluptuous 

Hfe. Hi» unlawlull liuting love iK.'gantie in his young yeaiva, 

with one Metrobius a eonnnon player, whieh iitretehed on 

increasing hb amorous desire until! hi^ latter age. For at 

the first nc loved Nicopolia a rich curtlsan : and frequenting 

her company hy oft occesse, and besides that lie spent the 

prime of his beawty and youth in feasting her with great 

delight and passing pleasure, she afterwardcs bceanie in love 

with him, so that when she dyed, kIic made Sylla her heine of 

all ohv had. He wus heire also imto his mother in lawv, 

who lovc^ hini r« her owiiv iM-gutten sonne : and by thcne 

two good happcM hv was sti*])t up to pretic wodth. Aflcr- 

waraett bcingi? dioiten (^uii.«tnr (t<> say trcusorer) the (irat Sylla 

time that MiiritiK wiis Consull, he cinlmrked with him in hix Quawtor. 

i"omey into Afrieke, to wiirre with kitigx- Iiigurthe. When 
le was arrived at the camjH-, he .sliewed him xelfe a man of 
great service in all other ttiinges, but in this especially, that 
Be could wisely use the lienefit of any occasion offered him, 
and thereby wanne Bocchus kinge of the Numidians to be his 
fast and fsithfull frende: whose Ambassadors, that scnped from 
a company of Numidiaji theeves he curteously entertained, Tlie r-*uie of 
and having gevcii them go<}dly prescntes, sent them backe B""''"'? 
againe witJi a safe convoy. Now conceminge kinge Bocchus, JJ/g 'X^*^ 
he had of long time both hated and feared king lugurthv 
his Sonne in law : in^iomiich, that after he was overcome in 
Ixittell, luid came to him for succor, Bocchus practisetl tirasun 
againxt him, and for thin cause sent socretly for Sylla, de- 
siring rather that lugurthe should be bikcn (iy Syllm then by 
him selfe. Sylla brake this matter unto Afurius, of whom 
having received a small number of souldici'N to acir'im[Miiy 
him, (without respect of jierill or daunger) went and com- 
mitted him selfe to the faith and fidelity of one harbarou.s 
king, to take an other: coimdering abo tliat the king uhum 



lugurtho (tfr- 
Uveied unto 
SylU by kiu(ce 

Thotuir of 

Meribed uiito 

SjrllMD noble 
d«edrii under 
Man UN. 


he trusted wait so unjust of liin word, even unto hb neerest 
frends a»d <y>nfederat(4. Now !)f>cchiui having lugurtiie 
and Sylla both in hU jiower, and brought him aeUc to that 
pinch that of neces&itj he muAt betray the one or the other : 
(iftcr lie had taken good breath to resolve which of the two 
he should dctde withall, in thcnd went on with his first plat 
and devise of treason, and so delivered lugurthe into .SyllaM 
huiid(«. In dcedc Marius triumphed ^r taking of king 
lugurthu: but his evill wtllers, for the spight and grudge 
they baro him, did attribute the glory and honor of lugurthes 
taking wholy unto Sylla. Tliat secretly went to Marius 
horte, and N{)ecially for tiiAt SvlU being high minded by 
nature (conmiing then but newly (nmi a base, obscure, and 
unknowen life to be knowvn and well accepted of the people 
in Itome, and to tadt aIm) what honor ment) became so 
umbitious and ouvetouii of glory, that he caused the story to 
be graven in a ring, which he did ever after use to wcarc 
And aeale withall. Where king Bocchus was delivering of 
lugurthi' unto Sylla, and Sylla also receiving lugurthc 
pnsotlcr. These Uiinges misliked Marius much : but not- 
withstanding, judging that Svlla wa.i not so much envied lu 
him telfcT, lu- tookc him with fiim unto the warns. Marius in 
his secomle ConsiiUhi]), nxulc Sylla one of his Lieutetutuntes: 
and in hin third Con^uUhipui-, he had charge mtder him of a 
thousand footenien, and aid many notable and profitable 
exploytes for him. When Sylla was his Lieutenaunt, he 
to^e one Copillua, a general! of the Gaulea Tectoeage^ 
And when he was Colonell of a tliowsande footemen, he 
brought the Marsians (a marvelous great contry of people ia 
Italic) and perswaded them to remaine good frendes, and 
confederates of the Itomaines. For this his good service, 
he foundc that Marius grcwc in great misliking with him, 
bicaiuc from thence forth he nci'VT gave him any bonomble 
diargf, or occasiun to xbewe giwd iwrvice: but to the 
cotitniry, did what he ronld to hinder hi.-* ritiing. Wbea©- 
fore, Sylla all.Twardis tiK)kc Cl^atuluit LuctatJuc p«rt«, who 
was comimnion with ftlariua in hin (ronHtdAliip|»f. This 
Catulus was a very honest man, but Kooiwltat slocke and 
colde in manthall mattcra, which was the cause that in deede 


be did comtuitte unto Sylla all the speciall service, and 
mftttcrs of weight in his charge : whereuppon he gave him 
oecwion not ondy to incrviise his estimacion, but aUo his 
endit and power. For, hy force uf nHnes, he conquered the 
most (Hirte of Ok bttrbtutms pwule which inhabited tlic 
mountuiiK-s of the Alpcs: and Cntulu.t cain|H: lucking vittellti, 
having cummi-vtion, he nimk* a marvelous gn-nt quantity of 
pravixion to Im? brought thither, iii»oinuch m Catiilus catnpe 
being plentifully vittelled, they sent tht?ir utore and xur- 
plusage unto Mariuit souldiers, tJie which Sylln liim wife 
wrj'teth, did much miHlikc Marius. And this is tiie ftmt 
cauae of their cnniitv. The which being grounded upon so 
light occasion, was followed with civill warres, great emiaion 
of blood, and with incurable factions and dissentions: that it 
vndcd at the length with a cruel! tyraniu-, and confusion of 
all the Romainc state and Empire. This doth prove that 
F.uripidt-H th« Poet was a wihc man, and one ttuit foresaw 
the minus uf common wealcs, when hv counselled, and alw 
comiiuundvd governors to Hie ambition, m a inoi^t pestilent 
and mortall furie unto them that are once infecU>d with^dl. 
Now Sylla thinking that the reputation he hjul gotten 
already in the warros, would have made his way open to 

Ereferre him to some honorable office in the city of Kame : 
ems no sooner returned from the warres, but he would 
needn prove the peoples good willcs unto him, and procured 
his name to be bilicti among them that sued for the l*nctor- 
shippc of the city (that is to say, the office of the ordinary 
juage that ministreth justice unto the citizens) hut he 
was rt^ectvd by the voycc of the people. For the which he 
Uyed the fuultc uppon the meaner sortc, saying, that the 
commuiMiIty knew well enough the frend»hip[>c he had with 
king Biicchu.s and that therefore they hopinge that if he 
were made /Kdilis Iwfore he came to be Prator, hi- would 
make them see noble huntinges and great tightinge^i of wildc 
beastea of Libya. And that therefore they did uiooae other 
Prstors, and put him by his sute, in hope to compel 
him by this meanes to be first of all ^Kdilia Howbeit it 
sccmefli that be doth not confcssc the troth of his reAuiall, 
for his owne act doth cotHlemne him sclfe : btcauae the next 




The lirct cause 
of enmity be- 
lwe« SylU 
■ui) Mori 11*. 

Ambition Sb to 
be Hed, at k 
mortal) forle. 


Sylln chosen 

Irom th« king 
thiuw unto 


yen following be was chosen Pnttor, pttrtcly for that hv won 
the iK-oplc with curU%iv, anil partcly with monvy. So bej 
fulHiigi- t>iit with Cii-«nr ii|h)ii tlmt occasion, in his iini 
thn-AtmsJ him tlint he nuultic use thv power antl uuthonty 
of hiK ollicc tt|H)n him. But Ca'mu* sniihng, luinxwered him : 
Thuii host reason to call it thine ollicv, for in deetie it is 
thine, hiuiiiw tliou haat bought it. But after tlie time of 
his Pi'a;ton(hi|)))e was expimt, he was -lent with an army 
into Cappadocia, colouring his voyngu thither with com- 
mission to restore Ariobarzanes into his kingdom agsine: 
howbeit thonly cause of bis jomey was in deede to suppresse 
kinge Mithriaates a litle, who tookc too many thinges in 
hande, and incrcfued his power and dominion with a new 
signiory of no Icsse grcatncs, tb(.*n tltat wliich he had before. 
In trotn be bruueht no great army out of ItAlie with him, 
but he wjw faiuifulty holjK-n by the eoiifcdenites of tile 
Komaiiics in every plnw, through whion- aide he <iverthrewc 
n grvat nundxT of the (^pjindociiuii!. and anrrvrardi^ also a 
greater numlier of the Arntenimis, which cAme in liki- ca.te 
to aide them ; so tliat he expulsed Gordiits king of I'hrygia 
out of C'uppadot^ia, and restored Arioharieant-H to his realiiic 
againe. After which victory, Sylla remained by tlie river of 
Kiiphrates, and thither came unto him one Orobazus a 
I'arthiim, Ambassador of Arsaces, king of the I'arthians. 
Now these two nations, the Romaincs, and the I'arthians, 
were never frendvs before : and that with other thinges 
shewed the great good forttme Sylla had, that the Parthians 
came firet to him by his meunes to sci-ke frendshippc with 
the Ilomaines. Tltey sity, that rrceinng tJiis Aml>as«Mior 
Orob«uiu», he made tlin-v chavrc;» to be brought out, the 
one for king Ariolwrxane*, tlii.^ other for Ortibiuttu th« 
AmbuBudor, and the third for him nelfe, which he placed 
in the middest bctwene them both, and sitting downc lit 
the same, gave audietK'e unto the Amliassador: for which 
cause th<' knig of Partliia afterwardes put f )rob«iHis to death. 
Some d<H.- comnu-nd Sylla for this acte, for tiiat he kept his 
state in micIi majestv among the barliarous people. Other 
do reprove hi& ambition iii it, shewing him selie stately out of 
time, and to no purpose. We doe read tiiat a soothsayer of 


Chaldon being in OrobAztix trnuie, tinving diligently viewed 8VLLA 
and considered the phiMtognomy of SvHiS and ull fiio other 
movinges Hnd gcstturcs uf mittdv and body, to judge not l>r 
the clyinHte of the contry, Init nccording to the rules of httt 
arte wh«t his nature nhould be : all well conHidered of, he 
wyed thut Sylla one dny must needed oome to he n great 
niAn, and that he niarv'eled how he could suffer it that he 
wns. not even then the chiefest man of the worlde. When 
Sylla was returned againe to llonie, one Censorinua Accused SylU moeiued 
him of extorcion, that be had caried away a great summe of o'wtOTdnii. 
money with him, contrary to the lawe, out of one of their 
confederates contry : howebeit he prosecuted not his accusa- 
tion, but gave it over. In the mcanc time, the enmity 
bcgcmne betwixt him and Marius, kindled againe uppon a 
oew occiuion of king Bocehus funbition : who partcly to 
crccpc further into Uie peoples favor of Rome, and partcly 
also for to gmtifie Sylla, gave and dedicated ccrtainc images 
of victory oirying tokens of triumphe, uiito the temple of 
lupiter Cnpitolin, and next unto them also the image of 
lugtirtlie, which lie deliverc<l into the handes of Syllo, being 
all of pure giildi-. This did so offende Marius, that he 
attempted to take thein away by force: but (lUient did 
defend the cause of Sylla. So that for the quarrell of th«»e 
two, Uie dty of Rome taking aimea, had like to have brought Civil] warn*, 
all to ruine: had not the warres of the confederals of ItiUie 
bene, which of long time did kindle and smoke, but at the 
length brake out into open 6ame and sedition for that time. 
In this marvelous great warre which fell out very daungerous, 
by sundry misfortunes and great losses to the Itomaines, 
^larius did no notable exploytc : whereby it appeareth, that 
the vcrtuc of warlike discipline Iwith nccdc of a strong, lusty, 
and able body. For Sylla to the contrary, having done 
notable scrviec, and obtained many profitable victories, wanne 
the fmne and extimacion among tlie Komaines, of a noble 
eouldicr, and wortiiy Capt^iiiie: and among tlienemics them 
Belves, of « most foitunale num. Notwithatonding, Sylla did 
not a.H Timothcua Athcriiao, the sonne of Conoii had done: 
who, when hi.t advenaricit luid ill willent did Attribute his 
noble deedcs unto the favor of fortune, and did uaintc 





would not 
nttributu tliii 
(tlorjr of his 


Sj-IU give 
tumor of bII 


fortime in table*, that brou^t lata sll the cities taken and 
itnarvd in neU wltilest ht sk-pt : )k tookc it in very ill pftrtc-, 
and wan uiarvelotin aiigrii- uiUi tlicm tlmt did it, saying, that 
they nibbed him of the glory Uiat jlt^tly hcloufiwl unto him. 
Wherefore in>e day when this 'I'iinotliftis wivi rvluniiti frum 
the wan'es with grest victories, after he had openly ac- 

auainted the Athenians with the whole ducourse of his 
oinga in his voyage, he sayd unto them : My Lordea of 
Athens, fortune hath had no psrtc in all this which I have 
told unto you. Hereupon the goddes it should »ccme were 
so angry with this foolish ambition of Timotheus, that t>c 
never atUTwarden did any worthy tiling, but all went utterly 
againtt the hears wiUi nim : tintiU at the length he came 
to be HO hated of the people, tliftt in theod tiier banished 
him from Atlienn. But Sylla to the contrary, did not only 
padently abide their woraes tliat wiyed, he wa<t a happy 
man, and itingularlv l>eIoved of fortune : but also increasmge 
tliis opinion, and gIor)-ing as at a Hpeciall grace of tlic goddea, 
did attribute the honor of his doings unto fortune, either for 
a vaine glory, or for that he had in isnsy, that tJie goddes did 
prosper nim in all his doinges. For he wrote him selfe in 
bia commentaries, that the cnteniriscs which he hazarded 
most hottely, according to the so(Iaine occasion offcnx), did 
better pros[)er with him, then those which by good lulvise he 
had determined of. Fitrlhemiorr, when ho wiyil that he wa* 
better bonie unto fortune, then t<.> the warres : it seeineth 
tliat he confewed nil his prospi-rity came rather by fortune, 
tlien by his worthinesso. And to conclude, it appeareth 
that he did wholly nubmit him selfe tinto fortune, acknow- 
ledging tiiat be dill altogetlior depend upon her : considering 
that he did attribute it to the special! grace aiul favor of tlie 
goddes, that he never disagreed with Metellus his fatlier in 
law, vbo was a man of like dignitie and autboritie as him 
selfe was. For wUen it was thought he woulde have bene a 
grefttc hindercr of his doings, he found him verie ciu^coua 
and gentle in his behalfe, in all that they had to deale in 
togetlwT, by reason of the .todctic of tlieir offid-. And 
furthermore, in his comnn-nlariiw which Ite d«I)c-iit«l unto 
Lucullus, he cminwlted him to thinckc nothing more wrteine 


and aatiured, then that which the godcles tthould rereale unto 
him, and conimaunde him in his niehtea dreame. He 
wryteth also that when lie was sent witJj an anny unto the 
warreB of the confederates, the earth sodainly opened ahout 
Lavema, out of the which immcdiatly came a man-elous 
bright Same of fire that ascended up to Hie element. The 
wise men being asked their opinions about the Mune, made 
aunswcre : that a very honest, and also a mnrvclmis favcr 
man of complexion taking sovcrHiiH- uuthorilic in his handcs, 
should pocifie all tumiiU<» and Htiition which were at that 
time in Rome. WhercupoD Sylla saycd it was him twlfc 
whome the gtxide* ment, nicaune that nmongett other things 
hv iuul tliitt lingular gift of l>eawty> Utat his heare wa» velluw 
a.-< guide : and hi; was not aihanied to name him st-lfe an lKine»t 
man, afler he had woiine so many notable great victories. 
Thus have we sufficiently spoken of the trust he had in the 
favor of the goddes. And furthermore, he seemed to be very 
contrary in his manners, and unlike to him selfe. For if tie 
tooke away much in one place, he gave as much more also in 
an other. Some ho preferred without cause : and others he 
put downe without rea»on. He would be very gentle to 
them, of nhomc he would have ought : and unto those that 
sought of him, he would stand much apon his honor, and 
lookc for grvat reverence. \Vherby men could luutlly 
dticcnu: his nature, whether pride or flatt4.-ry did more 
abound in him. And as for the inequality he used in 
puniKhing of them that had offended him : sometimes he 
nanged up men for very small and light causes : Some other 
times againc to the contrary, he panently aboade the most 
grievous ofTences in the worlde : and ligntly pardoned and 
foi^ftve ftuch faultes as were in no wise to be forppven. And 
afterwards againe would punish right small crimes, with 
murders. efTiision of blood, and confiscation of goodcs. This 
judgement may be geven of him : that by noture he had a 
maucjous and a revcn;;ing minde : yet notwithstanding he 
qualified that natundl bitternes with reason, geving phu'C to 
necessity, and his bent-fit. For in tliis warre of tJie con* 
federates, hi« souldiei-s kIuc Albintis one of hi.i IJeutenauuteH, 
beating him to death with stavm and ^tonex, being a man of 
3 1 MM 278 


ill dr«ain«fi. 

A ■trauoKO 
■i)(ht ap- 
ueurod to 

Of condicloM, 


SylU choiten 

chiefe blfthop 
of Romv, » 
mnridd iDKii. 

SfUoM wivM. 


good iiuiOity, and one that liad bene Prstor. This great 
olTeiioc lie pnaited over with icileiice, using no niiuuiiT of 
puni»hini-nt, and turned it to a boaat in the end, sn^Hng, 
that hia n>en were the more obedient and diligent in any 
peece of service that was to be done, and that he nuidc tliem 
amende their faidtea by worthy service. And furthcnnore, 
he did not rcRarde them that did reprove him : but havinge 
determined with him aclfc to destroy Marius, und to procure 
that he might be chosen general! in the wnrres against king 
Mithriduti.'s, bimuse Uiat this wane of the confederats was 
now ended ; for this cause he flatt«'rwl and riirried favor with 
his MHiKlicrt that served iindvr him. At his retume to 
Home from tliew warrwi of the C(>nfe<ierate«, he was chosen 
('onitull with Q. Pnm|>ciuii, being then Hfty yeare olde, and 
maried with Ctecilta a nohle Ladie, ajid MetcUus daughter, 
who was then chicfe bishnppe of Rome, for which mariagv 
the common jieople sane songea and ballades up and downo 
Home against him : ana many of tlie noble men envied him 
for it, thinkinge him unworthy of so noble a Ladic, wltom 
they thought worthy to be Consul, as Titus Livius sayth. 
Now she was not his only wife, for ho had a yotmg wife 
before called Ilia, by whom he had s daughter. After her 
he Duirii-d MViti, then a thirdc called Cn.']ia, whom he nut 
away she brought him no children. But notwitli- 
KtAiiiling ^he Went honorably away from him with veir good 
wwrde-t of her, htstides many otnvr goodly riclie gifl«s he 
gave her : howbeit altortly after he maiied Metelu, which 
made the worlde nuiipeet Uiat Caelia wa.4 put away for her 
naughtinea. Howsoever it wa^, Sylla did ever honor and 
love Metella: in.somuch as lliu |>eople of Ilome aflerwardea 
making sute, that they Uiat were banished for .Mariiia 
faction might K> called home againe : and being denied, and 
refused by Sylla, they cried out witli open voyce for Mctclla, 
praying her to hclpc them to obtaine their request. And it 
Kcometli idso that wlien he had taken the city of Athens, be 
dt^lt more crui-llv with them, bieaiise that some of them had 
scoffed at Metella from the walles: howbcit that was after- 
warden. So Sylla making his reckcning at that time tliat 
Uie C4)tt«ul»hippc was a small matter, in comparison of that 


which he looked for ia tipw; to coidf : was marvelous 
desirous to go ngniiift MithridnU-s. But thcrrin Msriu» 
also, of a mad furiuti^ iiinbitiini uiid ccivi'tousncs of gloi^ 
stoodc i^ttinst him, oiiil Mied to f^oe Ui»t jomcy in like 
manncT, uviiig suljjcct to Uiosti;, whiilt iK-vcr wnxe 
oldtf, OS wi- inav dnjly »ee hy exjiericiicf. For Iwiiig now a 
tt«nvv inHii, xicVly uf body, aud broken iit st-rvico itbrmtde in 
till- wftire-i, from the which he came but newly hmnc, and 
brutted moreover with age: did notwithstanding >vt aspire 
to have tlie charge of the warres so farre of beyond Uje »ea». 
Wherfore, to obtainc his purpose, whilcst SjUa was gone n 
litle unto the campc to gcve order for ccrtaJnc thinges that 
were to be done, hi- rcniaiiiing in the city, did practise tJiis 
pestilent mortall sudition, which alone did more hurtc 
unto the city of Itonn-, then all tin? fiiMnivfi that Home cvei' 
had: tlicwhich tlie goildcs Ihtni selves IumI fiiivshcwcd by 
many signer ami tokens. For lire tooke of it sclfc In the 
staves of the enxignes, which they lind inudi a dca.' to 
qiieru'he. Three ravens brought tlieir young ones into the 
high way, and did eate them tip in tlie sight of many peojile, 
and aflerwanies caried the earbagv they left of them into 
their neaatefl. Kabi also having gnanen some juells nf guide 
in a church, tlie aextens setting a trappc for them, a rat wan 
taken full of young, and kendled bve yoimg rats in the 
trappe, of the which she ate up three. But more yet, on a 
&yer bright day when then* was no clowde ^eeiic in the 
clement at all, men hetu'd sticli n shnr]> sound of a tronipet, 
that tbcy were aImo*t all nut of their wittcs, for feare of so 
great a noyw. \Vbereiip|X)ii the wise in<'ii mid .iiiotlisnyers 
of Thusom Ijeiug asked tlieir opinions, toltie them : tlmt tlits 
>o straungi* mid woiulerfull sigue did pronounce the c'Iinii;ige 
of tJie worlde, and the departure out of this into an other 
life. For they holde opinion, that there should be eight 
worides, all contrary one unto an other, in manners and 
facions of life : unto everj' one of tiic which savd they, Gotl 
hath determioed a ccrtaine time of continuance. Howbeit 
they all came to ende their course within the space of tile re- 
volution of the great yeare : and that when tlie one is ended, 
and the other ready to begin, there are iiecnc such wonder- 



Mariua foode 

figav Mene 
before tlie 
civil 1 wurei. 


[)i)iiiioii of 
eiglit world en. 


3VIX(l ^" Htrauii)^' ngiiM on the oiuth, or in the dement. And 
MUcIi (u have stiidivtl that science, dot- CLTtainvly know, as 
suitttc lis int-ii Ik boriK-, which iin.- mciTc contiwry unto iite 
first in Uu'ir lives nxul iimnirrs, and wltich nn- wUier more 
or leswe luwjttwljle mito Uic p«i<li.-», tht-n Uuwc wjjicli lived 
in formt^r a^i-. Foi- tiiey say, that omoiigeHt grwit cliaungea 
and ftlteracions which are done in those places fix>in one 

3^ unto an other, the science of divination and fore- 
ling of thinges to come doth grow in reputacion, and 
meetcth in their predictions, when it plcaseth God to send 
moot certaine and nmnifest signea, to knowe and forctcU 
thinces to come. And in contrariwise also in an other 
affe it groweth to contempt, and loscth her reputation, for 
that it is very roshe, and failcth to nieete with the most 
parte of her predictions, bicause she hath but obscure 
moani<s, iind afl her instruments dvfaccd, to kiiowc what 
shoidd come. And these be the fables which the wise«t 
■oothsayers of Thiiw^m re|x>rt(^^ nbruadc, imd they (iprciiilly, 
who seemed to have some Miii^iler spceulutioo atlove «th<-n. 
But m the Senate were talkinjf witli the soothsayers of the«e 
wonders, iK-ing auM-mbltt) tofi^ther within tlie t^ple of the 
go<Ide^e llellonn, a Hpnrrow uune flyin;; into the cliurche in 
Hight of them all, ana corii^ a grft-tst-hupper ui her bill, and 
pej-ted it in the niiddest, ana lefl onv parte within the 
temple, and caried thother away with her, Where\ijion the 
wise men and interpreters of such wonders, saied, that they 
doubted a commotion and riaine of the contiy men against the 
commons of the citie, bicousc the common people of the citic 
doe crve out continually like grassGhoppers, ano the husband- 
men uoc kcpc them selves upon their tandcK in the contry, 
Thiis Mariiw grew great and very fainillicr, with Sulpitius, one 
of the Tribunes of the ]}cople, who in all kimles of wiekedncs 
and niiwhiofe that a man can ruckon, would gevc place to 
no living creature : m that a man nedc not to sccke or de- 
maund any where for a worse then he, but the question Ls 
rathtiT wherein he him )telfe wa» not the wor»t«! of all otlu'm. 
For he was full replet with all kindcs of cruelty, avarice, 
and rashnes&e, and tJuit so extreami-ly, H-t he tared nut what 
villany and wiekedncs he openly oomniitted, ito that the same 


migbt tunic to his profit. For he bid si-t up a tahle in the 
open market place, where he soldc freedomc, making slaves 
iucl stratingcn denizens of Home for their money : and for 
tbat purpose he entcrttkined a gord of three thowsand about 
hiin, bcsi<Ies a Iwintl of voiing gentlemen of the ord<T of 
kniglites tliat iitt^-iidcd (ifwnjcs apiin his persone nsady at 
eoinniitundeinetit, wtiome he culled Uie ganli- a^jrainst the 
Senate. And fiirtheniiore, him nelfe having named a lawe 
by the voyce of the peojile, that no Senator should borrow, 
nor ow, above two thowsande Drachmas : it was founde that 
at the bower of his dentl], be dyed tliree millions of l>racluna8 
in debt. This man nowe like a furious raging, l>eiDg 
left by Marius amongest the people, turned all thinges topsie 
turvey, by force of armes and mainc strength. He ntadc 
aUo numy wicked lawes to posse by voyce of the people, and 
uoongest others that one upecijilly, wherby he gave Mnrius 
commiKtion to make warnw agaimt king Mitbritlatt's. For 
which extreame uppreNsions and dcAlingc-t nf SuliiititiN, the 
two ConiiuU (Sylla and Qtiintus PompL-iiiN) left of to heare 
publike cau-ses, and ceased Uie cotiiinon euurti- of law and 
lustice. And as they were one day occupied about the ad- 
jomement of the law, in an open 8S!»embIy in the maritet 
place, before the temple of Caator and Pollux : SuJuitius the 
Tribune eame upon them with bis souldiers, and slue many 
people, and among others, the Consult I'onijieius owne sonne, 
and the father him selfc being C'onsull, bad mueh a doc to 
save his life by flying. ^Vnd Sylln the other Constill, was 
also pursued even mto Marius house, where he was compelled 
to promise before his departure, presently to goc and revoke 
thailjoniement of the law which he had before commaunded. 
Thus Sulpitiu* having deiirivt-d Pompeius of his Con-iul- 
t>hip|>e, did not depose Sytta, but only tookv from him the 
diuge he had geven him lo make warres against Milhridnti-s, 
Bad traiufevred that unto Marius. And (tending eolonelbt to 
the dty of Nola to receive the array that lay there, and 
to bring them unto Marius, Sylla prevented them, and fled 
to the eampe before tbcni, and told the souldiers all what 
had past, as it was in deedc : who when they heard it, fell 
all to a tumult, and slue Marius ooloaells with stou^. Manus 



Mnritu aiid 



AU lave 
ceased fur a 
tim«i, by 
FMuon of 
RiitjiitiiiB (iji- 
prrssioiii nud 
wickwl Iswea. 


Sylla tnvcli- 

lt«m«i with 
MX l«)fioii«. 

tli« dfrviiie, 
did profcno*- 
ticatc virtoiy 
unto Sjrlla. 

la bia dreamt. 


on the otiier side put ftJI Syllaes frvnds to (Imtl) Rt Rome, 
and tooke tlie spoyle of Ihuir goodes ami liiiu.tes: so vaa 
there iiotliiiig ehv out tlyiiig from tlio uinipe to Home, and 
ftXMn Rome to the muipc againe. 'I1ie Senate were in 
manner beside them selves, not being able to ooverne as 
they would, but driven to obey Marius and Sulpitius com- 
uuuiiidcmi-ntes. Who be! n;^ advertised tliat %lla was comming 
towiirdfs Home, sent strjifght two I'rictors unto him, Rnittis 
mkI Svn-ilius, to commnund Iiiin a» from the Senate, to ap- 
proeh no noan-r. IIr-sc twu Pnetors >ip«ke u IJtlr to boldly 
unto Sylla: wliert-uppoii the »ouldien fell to a mutinv in 
such (torte, that thev stoode indifferent whether to kill tiiero 
preHctitly in tlit- lield or no, howbeit they brake their aies 
and bundells of rodder] which were coned Iwfore tlii-in, and 
tooke their purple rol>ea wherewith tht-y were appatvlled as 
magistrates, from th<-m, and sent them home tnus shame- 
fully handled and intreated. Uppon their retunie now to 
Rome, their sadde silence only, and them selves so stripped 
besides, of all their markes and tokens of Pnctorioll dignitie, 
niiule all men then to judge thnt they brought no otbcr 
nrwcH, but such &f were Uh' worst thiit pos.'^iulv could Ik.-: 
and that there was no way then k-ft to piieiiie t)ii* scdittim, 
whicli was now nltttgethcr utu-untble. \Vherefon' Marius 
and hi« followmt iK'grm to make tlietn »elvf.s strong by force : 
and Sylln, with his oompaniou Q. Pom|H-ius, deported in the 
meane time from the city of Nola, and brougnt six entier 
lemons on witji him, who desired no otiier thing but to 
make hast to march to Home ward, Ilowbeit Svlla stoode 
in doubt with him selfe what to do, thinking oi tlie great 
daunger that might follow. Untill such time as his sooth- 
saver Posthumius having considered the signes and tokens 
of^the sacrilioes, which Sylla had made upon this determina- 
tion, gave him both his handes, and bad him btnde them 
liard, and shut him up fa^t, untill the day of battell diould 
be patt : saying, that lie was c«ntentl^) to suffer dcntb, if he 
hmi not good Kuw-i.'Nks and that out of hande, to Ilia gre«t . 
honor. And it \» saycd also, that the same night 
appeared unto Sylla in a dreame, the goddesse Beltona,*^ 
wlinme the Romainett do greatly honor, following therein 


tlie Cappadocianii: and I knowe not whetiier it be the moone, SYLLA 
Minerva, or Enyo the goddease of battelU. So he thought, 
that she coraming to him did put lightning into his hande, 
commaunding him that he &liould lighten upon hia enemies, 
naming them one after an other by tneir proper names : and 
that mev being striken with his lightning, fell downe dead 
before him, and no man knew what became of them. This 
vision encoragpd Sylla very much, and having reported the 
same to Pompcius, bis fellow Considl and companion, the 
oest morning he marched with bis army to Rome. When 
he was at Picines, there came other AniMuiMdon unto him, 
to pray him in the name of the Senate that he would not 
come to Rome in this heate and fury, declaring Uterwithall 
that the S^eiinte would graunt him nil thinges that Kbould be 
meete and reasoimble. Wheii SvHa liad heard thi^ message, 
be aunttwered them, that he would cam|>e tliere : and <to com- 
maunded the marslialls to devide the aquodrons according to 
their maner. The Amhaasadors beleving that he would so 
have done in deede, returned againe to Rome : howebeit 
their backes were no sooner turned, but Sylla straight sent 
Lucius Basillua, and Caius Mummius before to scase one of 
the gates of Rome, and the wallcs which were on the side of 
mount Esciiulin, and he him selfc also in pcrsone with all 
possible spcodc marched after tliem. Bacillus eiitrrd Rome, 
and wamic the gato by force. But tlu.' common jjcople un- 
armed, got them up straight to the lop of tlieir nouses, and 
with tylc« and stones stayed, and keut him, not onely from 
cotring any further: but also dravc nim backe againe, even 
to the very wa]K« of Uie city. In tiiin burly burly came 
Sylla him sclfc to Rome, who seeing apporantly in what 
state thingea stoode, cried out to his mat, and bad them 
Mt fyre on tiie houses : and him selfe taking a torche light Sylls »et the 
in his hand, shewed them the way what they should doe, '"'"•» » 1«« 
appointing his archers and darters to wburle and bestow *" Ro™*- 
their dartes, and other fiery instruments, to the toppes of 
the houses. Herein he was too much overeomc with unreason- 
able choller, passion, and desire of revenge. For, seeking 
only to plague his enemies, be tooke no regard to frends, to 
partrotcs, or confederates, neither hud be vet any maner of 



Su I pi till* 
to death. 


Tlie bmtl- 
tode ofSylU 


remome, or ptty : ituch and so fiery wu fain anevr then, that 
be put no Iciitd of dilTeiviioe l>etwen« tho«e thnt nnd oRendedfj 
and Uiem that )ia<I done liini no liurt at aJl. By Uiin tneanol 
was Marius driven into tlie city, unto the tvtnjile uf t)>e 
KarU), where he made open proclamation hy .sounde of 
trompet, that he woulde make free all the slaves that4 
wouiac oome to his parte. But forthwith came his enemies, 
set upon him, and urcst him so neere, that he was con- 
strnined utterly to nic and forsake the city. Then Sylht 
asscnihling the Senat*^', caiisMi Marius, and certaine others 
togi'Uicr with Sid|ntiiis Tribimr uf the pt-opU-, tx> be con- 
deiiinc-<I to death. Sul]iitiuK vtnn iN-trnytd liv a slttvc of hitt 
owne, whom Sylla made free aceordinj; to hw promise past 
by publike edict : but when tie had made him fra.-^ he caused 
him to be throwen downe headlong from the rocke Tarpeian. 
And not ttiiitentcd with thia, he proclaimed by promise a great 
!iumme of money to him tliat would kill Marius: A very in- 
grate and unthaiikcfidl pnrte, consideringe that Marius not 
many dayes before haviiige Sylla in his owne house, in hia 
handes and custody, delivered him from perill. aiid set him 
in safety. Which if at that time he had not done, but had 
suficred Sulpitius to hA%'e slainc him : him sclfc had bene 
sovcrainc Lord of tin- wholt? without all contradiction, and 
might have ruled all thing* at his owne will and iilcavure. 
But Sylla shortly "fter upon the like ndvantjigc, usc(l no such 
manner of rei)uitall or gratuitte towardt-H hitii, which br«! a 
secret misliking onu>ng»-st the Senate : Ivoweheit the common 
people m«di.t open shewe of the evil] will they bare unto 
Sylla, by rejectnig one Nonius his neview, and one Servius, 
who uppiin contidence of his favor, presented them selves 
lo sue for certaine offices. And besides Uie shame of this 
refitiall, to spyte him Uic more, they chose others in their 
Hteedes, whose honor and prcfcrrcmcnt they right well knew 
Uiat Sylla would not o»ely inislikc, but be much offciMlctl 
withall. Howbcit he wis<ly dii«cmbling the matter, seemed 
to be %'ery glad, saying, that by hi» meanes the people of 
Home enjoyed a fidl and perfit hl)crty, that in )iucn cases of 
election, llH-y might fn^Jy do what lliem nvlven litit^-d. And 
to mitigate soniwhat the peoph-K cvill will ttiwanlt him he 


determined to choose Lucius Cinna Consull, who wiu of 
a contrary faction to him : haWng flntt bounde him by 
aolenine othe and curse to favor his doings and whole pro- 
cedings. Wherupon Cinna went up to tlie Capitoll, and 
there holding a stone in his hand, did solemnly sweare and 
promise, that he would be Svllaes faithful) frende : beseech- 
ing the goddea if he did tlie contrary, that he might be 
tbrowen out of Rome, even as he threw that stone out of his 
hand : and with those wordcs, threw it to the ground befom 
many people. But notwithstanding all those curses, Cinna 
wa< no «oon«.T entred into his Considshippc, but presently 
he bt'gaiinc to chnungi^ and alter nil. For amongcst other 
thinge-s he would m-etk-s liave Sylla aeciiM'd: and procured 
Verginius, one of tlie Trihiines of the jieople, to be his 
accuser. But Sylla left him with his judges, and went to 
make warres against Mithridates. And it ix said, that about 
the time that Sylla tooke ahippe, and departed out of Italic: 
there fortuned many tokens and wamingcH of the goddes 
unto kinge Mithridates, who was at that pre«t-nt in the nty 
of Pergamum. As amongcst others, that tlie Pargniix-nians 
to honor Mithridates withall, ha\nng made an image of victoiy, 
caiying a garland of triumphe in her hand, which was let 
downe from aloft with engines : so soono as she was ready 
to put the garland upon hiit head, the image brake, and the 
crowne fell to the groundc in the middest of the Theater, 
and hurst all to pi>i:a'S. Wherehy all the people that were 

Ercsi-nt, were striken with a marvelous foare. and Mithridates 
im selfe beganne to mislike thiit evill lucke : although ail 
things at that time fell out more fortunately, then he 
looked for. For he had taken A-tia from the Unmaincs, 
and Bith^mia and Cnppadocia, from the kinges which he htul 
driven out: and at that time remained in the city nf I'or- 
gamum, to devide the riches and great territories among 
his frcndcs. As touching his sonnes : tlie eldest was in the 
realme of Ponttis, and of Bosphorus, which he inherited 
from his prvdiccssors, even unto the desertes heyonde the 
niaritises of Max)tides, without trouble or molestation of any 
man. 'Hic other also, Ariarathcs, was with a great army, in 
con()uenng of llirada and Mactxluii. Ilis Captaincs and 

Ludui Clnan 

Clnns sirare 
to b« SyltaM 

Sjrila went 






SYLLA Ueutenauntcs moreover, did many notable conquestea in 
divers ]ila<«s, with a great power : amonge<it the wliich, 
An'ht-laiia lieing Lord and master of all the sea, for the 
great number of §hippe8 he had, conquered the lies Cj-dodes, 
and all those beyond the hcd of Malea, and specially 
amongest othen the lie of Eubcm. And beginning at the 
city of Athens, had made all the nationi« of Greece to rebcll, 
even unto Thcswilii-, sHviiig thiit h« received ttomc losse by 
tiie city of Clwroiii-a. Whvre Hnitiu.t Stini, one of tlic 
LieuteuuimU--i of Snitiu.t giiv«rnor uf XJacedon (« man of 
gmt iritiedoiiiv luid vnlliitntneti) came agninxt him, and 
Ktnyed him for goinge any furtJier, overrunning the whole 
Dontry of Hwutia, like a furioua raging river. And setting 
ui>on Ardiolaus by the city of Clijcronea, overthrewe hiui 
in three severall Iwtlells: repidsod, and inforced him to 
take the acftcs againe. But as Knitii;s was following liim in 
chase, Lucius Lucullus sent him coniniaundcmcnt to geve 
place unto Sylla, to follow thoec waircs against Mithridatcs, 
according to the elutrgc and commission in that behalfe 
gi-ven him. Wht-reujjon Bnitius Siun went out of the 
oontry of Bcrotia, and retunii-d towiinic* his generall 
Sciitii» : notwithi'tiimtiiigi' his iifTitin^ pnis|XTVtl better then 
he could have wJKhwi, and that ail Grtt-cc were vi-ry willing 
to revolt, for tlit- re]iutactou of his wi.sitlom and goodnwi. 
Howhfit thv thtngCK that we l>efore luivc »iM>keii of, were the 
inojit notable matters that Brutius did in tn<»<^ pnrU-it. Sylhi 
now ujion his arrivall, recovered inimediatly all tlie other 
dties of Greece : who being advertised of his eomming, sent 
presently to pray him to come to their aide, tlie city of 
Athens onely excepted, which was compelled by the tyTan 
Aristion, to take jjartc with Mithridatcs. Sylla thereuppon 
Sylla bMleg- with all bis |mwcr went thither, besieged the haven of !*ir»a 
■Uitlwcity rounde, uumiig it to be battered and asstulted on every 
side, witii idl sortcif of englneit and instrumcntes of battcrv : 
wherew if lie could hitve luul jKicience but a litle Icnger, be 
might Iiave had the high towue by fnuiine, without putting 
him setfe in any maiuier of daungt-r, Uie same being brought 
to aoch extrenme dearth and scarsity of all kindo of vittells. 
But thir ha^t Uiat he made to retumr againe to Rome, for 

of Ath«n& 


fcare of the new c-)mu»ge which he iiiiird of limly from 
thence, 0(>iii|K-lli-t] him tt) hAzard Uiih whitc id thitt sorU: 
with j^ivat diitiii^r, mimy l>att«ll.'i, aiul iiifiiiito charge: con- 
HiJeritigo also, that l>CHiik-!« nil other proviHioii iitid funiitui-e, 
he had tweuty Uiowmuk] rauleit and muleta hilxiriaff daylv to 
furnishe his engines of batteries And when all oUier woodc 
fayled him, Wcause his engines were oftentimes marred after 
thoy wen* made, some hreakiiiu of them selves by reason of 
their waight, otliers consuuiea with fire thrower from tht 
t-iiemics ; at the length hi- fell to tin: holy wood, and cut 
diiwne till- tRfs of tin- Anuleniiii, Ix-ing hetter stored luid 
fitnii^ied, thet) any other uirkv uf jduisure in all tlie 
subtirlx-s of Uie city, ajid felil downv also the woil of Uie 
pnrki- l.voi-um. And standing in iKtxte of a gwat Kiimnie 
lit i]K)ti> V to enterlaiiie this warn- wiUiatI, he delt also with 
the hdlyest tempIc!* of all (ireeee, eau^ing Uieiu to bring him 
from the temples of Kuidaiiriim and Olympus, all the richest 
and most ]>retious juels they liad. He wrote moreover unto 
the counscll of tlie Ampnictyons holden in the city of 
Delphes, to bring him tac r«ady money they had in the 
temple of Apollo, for that it shotdd hv kept in better Mifety 
with him, then if it still remained there: promising IxT-ide^, 
that if lie t^hoidd by occasion be cuni|H-lled to use it, he 
would restore as nitieli agaiiiv uutit them : an<l fur this pur- 
wwe he st-nt ('aphis PJiocian, one of his very fn^n<ls and 
himiliani^ lutd conmmundvd him to wey all that he tooke. 
So Caphis went unto IJelphet; but when he came thither, 
being afraied to touch the holy thing)', in presence of the 
counscll of the Amphietyon*, he wept, that the teares ran 
dowue by his cheekes, as a man compelled to doe such an 
act against his will. And when some that were present told 
Capbls that they heard tlie sound of ApoUoes cithenie in 
the temple : wltether he belcved it was so in dcde, or bicause 
he wuuld put this siiperstitious fcnre into Syllaes huul, he 
wrote to him of it. But Sylla mocking him, sent him word, 
that hv marveled he could not consider, that singing and 
playing of tlic citlienie, were tokens ratia'r <if joye then of 
anger: and thcrefon; that he sjiould not faile Ut prucede 
further, and bring hiin tho»e tilings which he coniinauiKied, 



Sylln toiA* 
ll'itii iuellv Aiid 
reixljr mooey 
out nf all the 
tenipW of 
(irpc"."^, mid 
bmuirlit it 
til him to 

Cajthi* «uper> 
■ticion for 
touchitiK tho 
huty thiDgM. 


Tli« eomneu- 
dMlaD of th« 
for oHeriDg 
of their 
Knildirm, and 
aUo fur their 



for tlint (said lie) Apollo did gevc tticin liiiQ. Now for th« 
other juclls uf tlic U-mpIe of A|x>l!o, thv tx>niiiion pvopte 
knew not Uint they wrcrc seiit unto Svlla : but tlie silver 
toone, M')i)L-)i only was tliat that neinAiti«d of Uk- i>irentig«a 
of the kiiiga, the AraphictyonH were fainc to br<,-iike that in 
neces, bicause it waa so great and masue, tJiat the beaateii of 
draught could not drav it whole as it was. This act made 
them to remember the other auiicient Komaiiie Capt&ines, 
as Flamiiiiiis, Mauius Acilius, and I'aulus ^Emitius : of the 
which, the one having driven king Antiochus out of GTeecc, 
and the rest also having ovcrthtx>wi-n tlie kings of Maccdon, 
thoy never once touchud the gold and nilvcr of the temples 
of Greece : hut contranly sent tlwir ufrcrings thither, and 
hxid thorn all in groat honor and reverence. But as to them, 
thoy were all (laptJiines lawfully vluxtcn and sent to their 
chai;gc]t : tlieir »ouldier< wel tmtned, atid obeilietit at com- 
tiiaundeincnt, voitle of rebelliun, or any maner of mutiny. 
And for them Helves, were kings in greatnes of corage and 
magnanimity of minde : but id expence of Uieir persones, 
very spare and scant, without any lavish, but nedefull and 
necessary, proportioned by reason, and thiukinK more shame 
to fiattcr tneir souldicrs, then fonrc Uieir cneuiics. Now the 
Captaines contrarily in Syllnes tlino, sought not their pre- 
fcrremcnt in the common woalth by vertiio, but by force, 
and having greutor warn-:) one with an other, tlieo with 
straungers their enemies : were oom)>elk-<I to flatter their 
couldicrs whom they should comnuumd, and to buy their 
paines and Korvicv, feeding them »till wiUi lar^ and gtvtt 
cxpenccH, to and content tliein. \^'hl■^^■in tliey did 
not consider, that Uiey brought their oontry into bondage, 
and made themselves slaves of the vilest people of the 
world, whiles that in the meane time they sought to 
commaund by all meanes possible those, whicli in many 
respectea were farrc better then them selves. And this 
was the cause that both drave Marius out of Rome, and 
made him also to retunic agninc against Sylla, This 
selfc same cause made Cimia to kill Octavius, and Fimbria 
to slay Flaccus; of which ovilb, Sylls was the very first 
and only author, spending out of all nnsou, and geving 


the Bouldiers largely that served imdcr Iiim, to winne their 
good willes the more, and then-h)' also to allure tlidii. By 
reason whei-eof, Sylla had iR-dc of nimiiitaini-s of money, and 
specially at the siege where he wat : botli to make straungvrs 
traytors, nitd bcsiuvs, tu funiislie and satisfie his own« <I)s- 
•olute iwuldicn. For )te had sueli tin <^rni.'«t dtsirc to take 
tJie city of AUk-hs, that he a>uld not ixwsihly he dixswitded 
from it. And i-ither it wait of a certeii vaine ainhitiun he 
had to light a^iif<t tlie aiindent renutacion of that city, 
being then but a shallow to that it liad liene : or eh of a 
very anger, for the mockes and gibes whicli tlie tynui Aris- 
tion gave in his apechis from the waJs, against him and 
Metcfla, to spit« him the more withall. This tyran Aristion 
was full of all eruclty and wiekedites, having taken up all 
thv vorst uiuihtti's and great^^t imperfections of king Mith- 
ridates, and heaped them wholly together in him sv\fc : by 
reason whereof the poore city of Athens whieh hiul i-scajwl 
from so many warnv, tyrannK's, and civil) dissviitions until 
that present time, wiu by him, as hy an nneumblc discMUHr, 
bnitnit unto all extreaniity. For a bunhell of wheate was 
wortE a tbomaod Urachmaa, an<I nieit were drivt-n for famine 
to eate feverfew that grew about the ca-itetl : and they caimed 
old shoes and old oyle pots to be sodden, to deli*ev some 
savor unto tliat they did eate. wliilest tlie tyraji liiniselfe 
did nothing all day long but cramine in mcate, and drinlte 
dronke, daunse, maske, scoHe and flowte at the enemies, 
suffering the holy lampe of >liiierva in the meane season to 
go out for laeke of oyle. And when the Nimiie of the same 
tiniiple sent unto him for a nuarter of a bushel <if wticate, he 
KDt her n qiuirtvr of a busnell of {lepper. And when tlie 
counsellen of the city, the prientcs and ivligiou-t amte to 
the castd), holding up their hands, aiut beseeching him to 
take Home pity of the city, and fall to conijiosition with 
Sylla: he made them to be driven away, and seattered with 
sungs. In the end, very late, and yet with great a do, he 
sent two or three of his auafling companions unto Sylla, who 
when they were come to Kim, made no demaund of compo&i> 
tion for the townc, but began to praise and magnitie the 
dcdcs of Theseus, of Eumolpus, and of the Athenians against 


Sylla tbefirrt 
mwi thftt 
spoiled sJl 
good Dvrrics 
of Rou Idiom, 
by orcrmueh 
libcrtie and 

Ttie wicked- 
UM of the 
t^nui Aris- 


of Alarciin 

At]i«uA taken 
by SfllA. 

or thu AUtea- 
iaiu itfloT 
the taking of 


the Medes. Wh^vupwi Sylla made them thk aunswere: 
My goodly orators, rctumc you againe with all your 
reUiorickc : for t}ic Komuinvs a-nt toe not hither to leome 
oor to Ktitdy, but to uvvrpunK- und troiwiucr ttiose that aine 
ri'bfllfd ugninsl: tlioiii. Iii Uh- tiK-otic tirui- there were cer- 
Uiinv smcs iii thv city tlutt livani old nw-n talkiiiff together 
In a [)luix- oiUmI CvmniicuK, blaming the tyraj] Lkausc be 
kept ao better u-atcb imi tbut nidc of the wal that was directly 
over ngAinst the HeptaebalcMHi, wbit-h wa« the only place 
where the t-nemie^ mij^bt gel up tipjiim the walLi, 
11)iMe spies Kent straight unto Sylla, and tuld him what 
they tiad heard the old men say. Sylla traetctl no time, but 
came to the place in the night to see it : and perceiving tliat 
it was to be taken, set the matter straight abroach. And 
him selfe wrj'tt's in his commentaries, that tlie lirst man that 
scaled the walls, was Marcus Teius : who finding a souldier 
ready to resist hint, gave him such a sore blow with his 
swozxl upon )ii» lien<i j)i.^-cc, that his sword brake in two, 
and yet notwithstanding thai he saw him selfe naked and 
diformcd of a .-twurd, did not for all that give hack, but 
»loode still to it, and kept the p)ai-e sii long, till through 
him the city wa-i titken, ami all rt|K>n the Liilte of tht«! oltl 
men. So Sylla caused tlie wall to l>e pulled ilowtie Ix-tnenc 
the haven of llraw, and the holy haven: and hiiving iH'fore 
made the breach very plaine, entred into tlie city about 
midnight with a vronderfull fcarefuU order, making a mar- 
velous noise with a nimibcr of homes, and sounding of 
trompets, and all his army with him in order of battel, 
crying, To the sack, to the sack : kill, kill. For he had 
gcven them the towne in spoylc, and to put all to the sword. 
l%e souldiers thcrt^fore run through the stn-etcs with their 
swords dra wen, making an uiicrciiible slaughtt^'r: so that to 
this dayc they be not acknoweii, nor doir not dechuv what 
nombcT of persoos were ^iie, but to Mhew thu grcatnes of 
the murder that tliere was committed, the piaoc is yet 
extant to he secne where tlie blood ramie. For l>c«idcs 
them that were slaine through all tite city, the blood of 
them only Uiat were fllainc in the market Htede, did wt-t all 
the grouod of Ccramicus, even unto the very place called 


Dipylwi : and some sav also, that it mnoc by the sates into 
the suburbes of thecitie. But if the multitude of the people 
that were slaine in this sorte were great, much more (or so 
many at the least) it is sayd vere thmc that slue them selves, 
for tnc sorrow and compassion tht.-y had to sec their coatry 
in sticti pityful stntp, supposing certainly that their city was 
now coinv to utter rume and drstnic-tion. This opinion 
made the noblest meii of the city to (liK)ULire of their ownc 
mfety, and feared to live any len^r : bicaiutc they Uiought 
tht-y should findc IK> ntercy, no moderacion of cruelty in 
Sylla, Notwitlistanding, portely at tl)e requester of Midtiis 
and Calliphon, who were tmnifltted men from Athens, aiid fell 
at Syllaes feete upon their knee>: and (mrtely also at tlte 
requests of tlie Itomaine Senatois that were in hia cam|K-, 
who prayed him to pardon the body of the city, and the 
rather for that he had already qucnchod the tliirst of hia 
ravening mind sufficiently well, after that he had somwhat 
sayd in praise of the auncicnt Athenians, he eonchided Ui 
the end, to gevc the crcater number unto the smaller, and 
the living to the dead. Sylla wrytolh him selfe in his com- 
mentaries, that ho totike the city of Athens im the very selfe 
day of the ealeiides of March, whieh cnmmeth to n^x* with 
the first day uf the moneUi that we aUl Anthestrnon, on 
the which day by chaunt-e many tlunges an* don« at Athens 
in nioinnry of Noc^ flood, and of tlio universall deMtriictiun of 
the whole world that wax in olde time by rage of waters, 
falling out even in tliat very nionctli. When the city was 
tliiu taken, the tyran Aristion fled into the enatell, where ho 
was besieged by Curio, whomo Sylla left there of puqtose 
about that matter. And after he had a great time Kept it, 
at the last, constrained thereunto for lackc of water, yeldcd. 
I'be casteil was no sooner geren up, hut immediatly by 
Goddes ]jrovidence, the weather miraculously altered. For 
the selfe same day, and at the very selfe instant that Cnrio 
O'fuied the tvran Aristion out of the cast4-]l : the element 
being very layer and clere, tlie clowdcA sodainly gathered 
together, un<) there fell such a marvelous glut of rainc, that 
all the wwtell wna full of water. Shortly aft<T also, Sylln 
iiaving gotteu the haven of Pirwo, burnt tJie greatest (xu-tc 


. ayLLA 


The time of 

NlIEK fl(H>d. 

Aristion the 

ITm h»v«n of 
I'irau wotinv. 


■nrMry burnt 
hy SrQa. 

I'uilln Aiiny 
a hunilml 

fovwmen ; 
Tenn« tbon- 
BHnd h«r*«- 

Olid t«n thow- 
nmd c«rt<iii 
with Sj-thea. 

The force 
of tlje Bar- 
bariMU con- 
in thtir cart* 
with SytliM. 

The Ktraiicbt 





Tlie rity of 

SvlU end 

milt Bt 


of the buildiiiget: amonecst utitcn vnu the anwnoll and 
armory, which Fhilu in oli] timi* )uid caurxI to be built, 
bcin^ of a xtrauHge aiwl wondcrfull (Hiificc. In the mcaiM- 
tirai', Tftxilles, oik- of tlie Lii-uteimunt'« of king MithriiUti-s, 
coiniiiinf; from Thracia and MavMiuii, with a hundred tl)ow< 
s«nd footetnen, teiinc thowsiaiid horseraeo, and foure «coro 
And t£tine thaws»nd carts of warre all arined with !tyth«s : 
sent unto Archclaus to joync with him, lying yet at ancker 
in thi' haven of Munychia, and not willing to leave the sea, 
nor come to fight with the Romaines, but seeking rather to 
draw these warrcs out in length, and to cut of all nttella 
from his enemies. Sylla understanding this drift better tben 
him selfc, departed out of the contry of Attica (a very barren 
soyk'f and in dcede nut uhlc to kecpc him in time of peace) 
and went into Ikt'otin : wlKn-in most men thought he oom- 
mitti-d grwit iTTor, to li-ave Attica, which i* a veiy hard 
contry for honteiiK-n, and to go into Ba-otia, n piaine cham- 
pion : and mi mueh the rather, bicause he knew well enough 
that tlie cliiefest strengtli of tlii> barl>an>u.t people eooastcd 
in tlieir horsemen, and their armed carter witli aythca. But 
to aviiyd funiiiie, and laeke of vittelU a» we have &ayd, he was 
compelled to seeke battel). Furtlicniiore, he had an otlier 
cause also that made him afrayed, and comjwlled him to go : 
and that wa^t tlortcnsius, a famous Captaine, and very valliant 
also, who brought him aide out of Thessalte, and the bar- 
barous people lay in waitc for him in his way, in the straight 
of Tliermopylcs- And these were the causes that made 
Sylla take nis way into Buiitin. But in the mcaiie time, 
Caphis that was our contry man, deceiving the barbarous 
pcoplf, guiditt Hortciwiii* an iitherwny by mount Pnnuisus, 
luid brought him under the city of Tithora, which w«» not 
then KO great a city as nowe at thin present it t«, but was a 
CA«tcll only, Miituated upon tlie point of a mclce, hewen all 
about : whether the l*liocians in olde time flying king Xcrxea 
c'omming ui>on them, retyred them selves for their Rafcty. 
Hikrtenaius lodged there, and then? did also both defend and 
repulse his enemies, so long as dav light lasted : and when 
the night came on, got downe through very hard stony 
waves, unto the dty of Fatronide, where he joyned with 


Sylta, who came to meete him with all his power. Thus SYLLA 
beitiff joyned together, they camped upon a hill that 
stnnacUi about the middest of the plaine of Elatt-A : TbapUiiw 
the soyle was very good, and well replenished with great ofButm. 
■tore of trees, an^ wata, at the foots of the same. Tbv 
hill 18 called Philobseotus, the nature and scituacion PhilobKotus 
whereof, Sylla doth man'elously commend, AVhen they mon". 
WL-re camped, tlicy seemed but a haadfull In the eye of 
their wiemii's: and no more were thev in dccdc, for they 
had not above fifteeiie hundred horse, and Icssc then Their wboU 
fifteene thowiwnd footenien. Whereupon the other Cap- S^J**"'*'*' 
taine* their enemies, against Archelaiis minde, brought out ijooofooto. 
their bandes into the iield, and filled all the vaiTey and men. 
plaine Diereabouts with horsemen, with cartes, witli &hieldM 
and targettes, so that the ayer was even cut a sunder aa 
it were with the violence of the noyse and cries of so many 
■midry nations, which altogether did put them selves in 
battell ray. The sumptuousnes of their furniture moreover, 
was not altogether superfluous and unprofitable, but served 
greatly to feare the beholders. For the gibtering of their The brave 
hamcsse, so richly trimmed and set foorth with gold and *"nor aod 
silver, the cullers of Uieir arming coates upon their curaces, ^'"-pk"* j* 
after the fadon of the Medes and Scythians, mingled with nrirt Macodou- 
tlie bright glistering steeic and shining copper, gave such a inn», ■(irviiiK 
show OS they went and removed to and fro, that made a undor'l'nxitleg 
li^ht OS clcre as if all had bene on a very fire, a fearefttll j^^""^ "' 
thing to lookc apon. Insomuch as the Roniaincs durst not t«uauat. 
so nuich as once goc out of the treiichw of their compc, nor 
Sylla with all hiis piTswasion coulde take awav thi.t great con- 
ceived feare from them ; wherefore, (and l)icftuse also he 
would not com|>ell them to go fortlt in tliis feare) he was 
driven not to stirre, but close to abide, (though it grieved 
him greatly) to see the Ijarborous people so prowdly and 
villanously laugh him and hU men to scome. Howbeit the 
disdaine and scolfing of hi* enemies, stoode him to great 
good purpose afterwards. For they making now none Mmy com- 
acccimpt of him, kept small watche and ward, strayed up 7""^^^""'" 
and downo disorderly besides, though otherwifie they were „|jdi_J"' 
not very obedient unto their Capttunes, being many com- 
3 : 00 289 

Ce{itiJsus a. 

atnlghtoea to 
hit souldicra. 

A gaoi pulide 
biwcury foixre- 
full Miiilditfni 
Willi iiJttTeMnie 
U> Bwk« tkcRi 
dflfirout to 




nuundent. And fewc good followers: by reason whereof, a 
BinaU numlx-r ke^tt in the campe, and all the rest of the 
great multitude intised with the gaioe they made by spoyl- 
iitg and aacldng of townes thereabouts, dispersed them selves 
many dayes iomey from their campe. Fur it is sayd, that at 
that very time Uiev destroyed the city of Panopniio, socked 
the city of Lebadia, and spoylod the temple without com- 
maundemcnt or Uci-ttce of any of all tJicir Captainv* to doe 
it. Id the iiieum- wliik-, Sylla six-ing so many citii-M and 
town<« spoylixl und ikr»troyed, tonke it both grii-vouHlv. tuul 
tiiw mi^rilv : howclwit he siiflV-nisl not hi:t mi-ii to lie idlfly, 
but kept tliem in latxHr, to tunitr Uh- ci>ut>e of the river uf 
Cephiaus, and to cast great treiidiea, not xuflering any man 
to take ease or rest, but contrarily witlt great severity 
puniolied such as went faintly and lasely to worke, to thend 
that Iteins; wearied witli the paine they tooke after so many 
workcs, thev would rather prove to hazard Iiattell, as it fell 
out ID dcedc. For the third day after they had be^nne 
thus to labor, as Sylla passed by them, they cried out unto 
him to k-ude them against their enemies. But his awewcrc 
was unto thiiii ngiune; that those werr but cries of men 
weaiivd mtlKT with labor, then dttsirous to fight. Not^ 
willtftiuxlinj^, if it be mo in deede, and thjit yoti have bo 

f;ood A will to %ht a* you make ^howc uf : then I will snyd 
k-, that vou aniie your selvi-s prrscntiv, luid get you to 
yonder plaei-, showing tiicra thcn-withail where tJie cantell 
of the Parapotamiana stoodo in oldc time, which then (the 
dty being destroyed) was no more but the toppe of a stiuny 
mountaiiie cut all about, and Never«d from tJte mount <n 
Edyliiim by the breadth of the river of Assus that runneth 
Iwtwixt, and which at the very foote of the same mountaine 
fallcth into the river of Cephisus, and both these rivers 
ruiming in one, caryiiig a swift streame, doc make the 
kuap[>e of t)ie suyd hill very strong of scituacion to lodge a 
caropi^ upon. And tbervforc Sylla scciog the soiddiera of 
his enemies cainpe, nuirching with their copper targets to 
take it|i timl place to lodip- in : to nrc-vent them, luid to get 
it iK-fore Iheni (iln in dLi-Je he dt<i) lie marclK^l thither in all 
hast jxMtsihle, and got it evm with the eantcst good will of 


al] hia souldiers. Archelau§ being so repulsed from thence, 
turned hia way towards the city of Chsronea. W)M>n!U)Km 
OL-rtaine of tne Charonoans that were in Syllaes campe, 
besought him that he would not forsake their city, and leave 
it to tlicir enemy. Sylla desiring to gratifie them therein, 
si-iit one of his ColonclU GubiniuH with u leipon, and there- 
withuil gave the Chwroneuns leave to go thither, who did 
what tliey vouUl gHwsible to prt into their city before 
GabiniuK: but tliat they could nut, such was thv diligence 
and honetty of the man, aa he ttet-m*^ more dvsirous of their 
safety, U>en tliey were thcra selves. Nevortlielcmc, lubits 
doth not call the Colonell that wok sent thitlier Gubinius 
but Hircius. And thus was our city of ('hienmm [lu^erved 
^m the daunger it stoodc in at that time. In the meane 
time came very good newes to (he Itoumiiies, both of oracles 
and propheciefl, which promised them victory from the 
temple of Lebadia, and the cave of Trophonius : of which 
pnmhecics, those contry men make great mencion. Hut 
Syllu in his tenth booke of his commentaries writeth, that 
Quintus 'L'itiuK, u man of quality and name aniongest thmi 
that trafliked into tiie contiy of Greece, came unto him 
after he luul woime the l>att'ell of Cha-ronea, to tell him 
that 'IVophonius gave him to undewtand, tliat shortly after 
he should have a si>cond battell, and that he Hhould yci 
Bgftine have an other victory in tlie same place, After him 
an other man of warre called Salvenius, told him also what 
succcsse he should have in the warrea of Italic, saying;, tliat 
be knew it by revelation : and both these men agreed in the 
manner of the revelation. For they sayd, that they had 
seenc a god, in majesty, heawty, and greatnes, like unto the 
image of lupiter Olympias, Sylla havinge passed the river of 
Anus, went ti> Indgir at the foote of mnunt Edylium, hard by 
Archrlaus, who hiul plnce<l and fortified hi? eiun]>e iM-twenc 
tile two mountaiiies of Acontium, and of Kdvlium, joyningi.* 
to tl>e city of the Assians. I'he place where Archehtu» 
camped, beareth his owne name Archclau.« unto thi.s day. 
One day after Sylla had chaunged his lodginff, he left 
Mumna in his campe with a legion, and two cohortes, to 
keepc the enemies stiU occupied that were in great trouble, 



Sylla •end pith 
(inbiniiia with 
II IcKiuQ to 
aiile Lhay- 

OiucIm aiid 
pr(>|ili«cies of 
victory luito 

Silvraiiu a 






mom : o/i.'rr 

Morion il. 




founder of 

th« aty of 




and he him seiic in thu mulnv time went and sncriGced 
by the river of C<.-^)hUii». Hin »u;nfice heme t'ndi.'d, l»e 
mardiiti towtirdN tlic city of Cha-ruitoti, U> tuKc tlio force 
he liud thvtv uiidi-r GabiniuM, iin<) to know iJie mountaine 
also oJltd Thuriiini, whidi th<; t:ii«iuius had taken. It in a 
knurpe of a inouiitsint; very itlc'epe and ^larpe of all sides, 
with a namiwc ]K>iiit like a pine apple, by reawn whereof we 
doe call it Ortliopa^iiu. At Die foote of the »anie runneth 
the river called Morion, and there ir bIbo the temple of 
j^Millo simiamed 'lliurias: and they say that this sumaroe 
of Thurias was ceven unto him of the name of Thm-os, who 
was mother of Charon, the founder and builder of the edty 
of ChoTonea. Other thinke, that the cow which was gcven 
to Cadmus for a guide, cjimc to him in that place : which 
hath ever since kept the name, for that the Pheniciaus call 
a cow, T^or. Now whtai Sylla caine ueerc unto Cha-ronen, 
the Colonell Gabiniits whitmc- he liad sent tlutlter with a 
garrixon to defend tlie wnic, went to m«el« him with his 
men very well armed, wearing a lawrell garland: and Sylla 
after he had saluted him, and hiH itouldiers, made an oration 
unto them, exhortins them to do their duty in fightinf;. 
And as he was tn his oration, there came two citizens of 
Chieronea to him, one, his name was Omoloiclius, and the 
other Anaxidamus, who promised him to drive the enemies 
from mount Thurium which they had taken, if he would but 
ffcvc them some small number of souldiers. For there was a 
title path way, which the barbarous people mistnisted not, 
be^nning at n ylruv citlled Petroctui.*, hart! by the temple of 
the Mii»es, by tfie wliidi Ihsy mij^ht eiuiily go to the toppc of 
tills mountaine Thurium; so tJiat following that pathe, it 
would bring them over the barbarou-t iK-oples heads, and 
they might easily kill them with Htones, or at the tcAMt tbvy 
should drive them mawgre their heads, downc into tJie 
valley. Gabinius assuring Sylla that they were both very 
valliant men, and such as ne mieht boldly trust unto, Sylla 
gave them men, and commaunded them to execute their 
enterprise : and he him selfe iu the meane season went and 
set bis men in order of battell in the ploine, deviding his 
bonenwti on the winges, placed him sclfe in the right wing, 


appointinge tlie left unto Muneiia. Ualha and HorU-ibtius 
h]s Lieutenauntcii, were placed in the tayle with certaine 
bandes of the reregard whicli they kept upon the liils, to 
watch and let that the enemies should not inclose them 
behinde : bicause they perceived a forre of that the eiiemiefl 
put forth a great nuuibei' of horsemeu and footemen light 
armed in the wings, to theiid that the poj-nts of their battell 
might the more easily bowc and enlarge theni selves, to 
CompossG in the Komoincs on the backc side. Now in the 
mouic time, these two ChKToneians whonie SyUft hiul scat 
under Hircius Uieir Cautaine, having compassed abottt the 
niouiitaine Thurium, before the enemies were aware of thi-m: 
Modainly came to shew tht-m selves ujipun the topjiv of tlie 
mountaine, which did w fearc the barhnrouN pwiple, that 
they began imniedially to flie, oiw of Uiem for the moat 
parU killing an other. Iliere was no resiktaunw, but flying 
dovme tJic moimtaine, fell apon tlio puintett of their owne 
partisans and pvke^ and one of them Uirusting in an others 
tiecke, tomhletf hedlong downe the motiiitanie togetlier, 
having their aiemies besides on their backes, which drave 
them from the hill, and strakc them behinde where they lay 
open unto them : so as they were slaine a three thowsanne 
or them about this mountamc Thurium, And as for them 
that xought to save them selves by flight, Muni-na that 
wax already set in battell ray, met with some, cut them 
of by the way, and slue them downe right. The other 
fled directly to their cainpe, and came in great compftnie;*, 
thrusting into tlje bnttell of tlieir Tootvineu, put the nni«t 
parte of tiieni quite out of order, and marvelou.-<ly troubled 
their Captaines before they could set them agaiiie in order : 
which was one of tJie chiefest causes of their overthrowe. For 
Sylla went and gave a diarge uppon ttiem in this trouble 
and disorder, and had quirkely wonne the ground tliat waa 
bctwene both armies, wherby he tooke away tile foite of all 
their armed cartes with sytlies, which are then of greatest 
force, when they have the longest course, to gcve them a 
Bwift and violent stroke in their chase : whereas when their 
coiinw is but short, the blow is so much the weaker, and of 
lessc strength, even as urrowes are, that a farrc of enter not 


Syila ilrnvo 
nlde from 
the hill. 

'ITie fortt of 
the anii«<l 
Sjrthes coasl»t 



Aiot Kith 
ArckelauK at 

Slnvtw ninde 
free bvniitlio- 
ritjr of the 
iu the Mdt. 


deepe into the tiling tlii;y be »liot at : as at that time it fell 
out with tlie bnrburuus peuple. For Uieir lintt cartes set 
foorth 9o iaiiitly, tuitl came uti witli *o feeble a force, that 
the Romainet sent tliciii bocke, and eauily repuUed them, 
witJi great slaughter an<t clapping of handes one to an other, 
as they commonly use in tlie ordiitarie g&mea of horse running 
at Rome. When they had thus repulsed the cart«, the 
battell of SyllacH footcmen bcgannc to charge the burhanuus 
iJfoplf, who ba&ing their nykes, Htoodi- doBt- one to an other 
uieaiise they would not di? tttkcn : and the Romaini-s on 
thother side bestowed Rmt thi-ir dartirs among thnii, lUid 
then iMxiunly drewi- out tbeir swunioM in the lieatv they 
were in, ancf put u nitle the enemii-K pykes, wlwreby Uiej" 
might eume tieert-r to their Iwdics, There were fifteene 
tliow.iand nlave^ iu tlie fronte of the Imttell of the barbarous 
people, whom Mithridates l.k-uteiiaunt hat! made free by open 
proclamation, and had duvided them hy Imndes amongest the 
other footemen. By occasion whereof there was a Romaine 
Centurion, spake pleaaauntly at that time, saying, that be 
never saw slaves before have liberty to spctdcc and do like 
free men, but only at Satumes feastcs. Ncvcrthelessc, they 
against the nature of slnves, wrv very valHant to abide the 
shockc, and the Rumnine footemen euttld not so readily 
breakc nor ent«-r into them, nor make them gevc bncke, 
biotUM they »toode verv close one to an other, and their 
ranckes were of such n lengtli Ix^cies: until) such time as 
the RoMiainen Uiat were Iiehinde the first ranckv», did so 
pelt them with their sliiiges, hurling stones, heiitowing their 
dartes and arrowe* apon tliem, Uiat in thi^id tltey compelled 
them all to turne their backes, and flie a maine. And when 
Archelaus did first thrust out the right wing of his anny, 
supposing to enclose the Romaines behinde: Horten&ius 
itraiffht waycs caused the bands he hod with him to run 
and uarge ujmn the flanckcs. Which Archelaus perceiving, 
made the horsemen he had about him tumc their faces fortfi- 
with, which were in number above two thowsand : in.M)mueh 
Ki Hortensiiis, being set apon with all bif truwpc, was com- 
pelled to retyrc by litle and title towaides the mountaine, 
pcTTciving him wife foirv from the b«ttell of his footemen, 


and envirunned round about with bU enemies. Sylla seeing 
that, l>eing in the right wing of his btittcl), and haxing not 
yet fought, went straight to the rescue of Hortensius. But 
Arcbielaus conjecturing by the dust which the horses raised, 
what the matter was: left Hortensius there, and witJi speede 
returned a^aine towardes the right wing of his enemies from 
whence Sylla was gone, hoping nc had left it unfurnished of 
a sufficient Captaine to coniuiaund thi.-tn. Taxillcs on thothcr 
side, caused his rop])er targets also to march against Mura-oa: 
so as the noyse they made on both sides, cauiH.-d iIh* moun- 
taines to ring againc, wherewit)iall Sylla stayed, standing in 
doiit wluch way to take. At the latt hi; remlved, to rctumc 
to the place from whence he cami', and sent Hortcn$ius with 
foure ensignes to aide Munvna: and him sclfe with Uie fifl 
in great speedo, went tow&rdes the right wing of hi* army, 
the whidi was now already bickeriiie, and jojmed with their 
enemies, lighting liand to hand wiui Archelaus. By reason 
whereof, when Sylla was comen with bis aide, they did easily 
distresse them : and after they had broken Uieir array, they 
chased them flying for life to the river, and unto the moun- 
taine Aoontium. But Sylla notwiUistandiiig forgate not 
Muro-na, but went agaiuc to his rclicfc : and timnng that 
be on his side had also nut the enemies to flight, followed 
with him the chose of tncm that fled. There was a mar- 
velous slaughter made in that lield of the btirbaruus people, 
and many of them supposing to bAve recovered tlieir cimipe, 
were sliuno by the way : «o ait of all that inlinite multitude 
of fightin}^ ntci), U>ore escaped only tenne Uiowiwiide, who 
saved them selves hy flying unto the city of C'halcide. Svlhi 
for his parte wrytctb, that he could make reckening of no 
more but fourteene of his souldieitt onely tliat were staine, 
whereof tJiere came two againc to him the same night. 
Wherefore in the markes of b-iumphc which he set up for 
tokens of that wtorj', he caused to he wryttcn on the toppe 
■tiiereof. Mars, vktory, and Vrrni^ : signifying thereby, that 
ho bad overcome in these warrcs as much by good fortime, 
as bv force, poUcic, or marshall discipline. I'hesc morkcs 
of tniimphe were set up for the battcll which he wannc in 
the plaiite field, in that place where Archclaus hcgannv to 



SyllaM tIo- 
tory of Mlth- 
ridatos Lieu- 

Th« field was 
vonne in tbe 
ntsine of 


Moliu II. 



Flucoa Con- 
mil went 



flie, even unto the rirer of Motua. And he set up an other 
also in the toppe of mount 'ITiiirium, where the barbarous 
people were set upon behinde : and there is wrytten in Grceke 
letters, that the valliant deedes of Omoloichus and Anaxi- 
damus, gave way to the winning of this %-ictorie. Sylla for 
the joy of this great wonne battell, caused musitians to play 
in the city of Thebes, where he buildcd a stage for all the 
mutiitiaii5, ncere unto the fouotaine CEdipiu, and oertaino 
noble Greecinns were upfwinteil judges of that inuiticke, 
wlram be cnuxcd t» be sent for out of other dties, bkausc 
be mortally h«t«d the lliebutt : ituomuch a» he toolce from 
Uiein halfe tlieir la»d», which he oontecrsted unto Apollo 
Pj'tliinfl, and lupitcr Olvinpiax, aiipointtng that of the revenue 
tiiereof, they sliould redeliver and pay t>arke the mooey which 
he had taken and oaried away from otit of their templee. 
Sylta after this having intelligence that Flaccus, tme of his 
eaemies, was chosen Consull at Rome, and had passed the 
aea Ionium with an army, under pretext to nuke warre 
against king Mithridates,but in dccde to make warre with 
him selfe : tooke his jomev towards The&salic to meete him. 
But when he was in the citie of Mclitea, there came uewcs 
to him out of all partes, that there was a new and second 
army of the kings arrived, no lessc then tlu' first, the which 
spoylcd and destrcned all the contry which he had left be- 
hincle him. For Doi>'lnt», one of king Mithridatcs Lieu- 
teiiauutcs, won nrnvixi in the dty of Chalcide with a great 
fleetc of shijiprs, having brought thither with him fouiv 
score Uiowsand fighting men, the be»t trained, the Ix-st 
anni'd Mid np)>ointed rauldiers, that were in all his kingdom 
of Pontitf in Asia : aitd from theiice went into Doeotia, had 
all that contry at ronimaun dement, and sought to fight with 
Sylta, iiotwitlistanding that Arclielaus alleaged many reason* 
to disswade him from it: and furiliennon?, gave it out in 
every place, that so many thowsandes of souldiers ooulde 
not have bene cast away in the first battell. without some 
notable treason. Wherupon Sylla returned with all possible 
specde, and made Dorylaus know before many dayes passed 
over his head, that Arehelaus was a wise man, and knew well 
cDou^ the worthines and valliant coiage of the Itomaincs. 


And Diir)'lMus Imving hml but, u. litlv pruofe aaiy id ccrtAinc 
light skirmUIies which lie niadi- nauiist Syllti, uNrnt 'ni])h(i»- 
sion ill Tliesnalie : him iti-lfe wu* tW fimt that ciniUI Miy thvn, 
it was not for Uiein tu hastarde battell, hut ratht^r to diiiw 
out the warres in leiij^lii, iind sujiplaiit tht- Ktiiiiaintv 
with charge and expeiite. And jet not withst audi n;^, the 
coninioditv of the jfreat lai'ge plaine that lyi-tli all almut 
Orchomcnc, where they were encamped, gave great entomge- 
mi'iit to Archclaus, who judged it a very lit place to geve 
bttttcU in, specially bicaiisc he was the stronger of horsemen 
in the (ivla. For of all tht^' plaim.'s that are within the 
contry uf Bd'otin, the (greatest mid largest of them, is the 
plaiitc ncrc to the i-ity of Orchumciic: which is altogether 
without tn-esi, and runm-th out iri length unto Ihe niarisM-K, 
where tiie river of Meliw disiHTst-tJi it sclfu ahriwdi-. nie 
bead of tlie same river is not farre froin the city uf Oreho- 
mene, and that river only of all ntlier HverH in Gm-ce fnim 
the verj' head whence it eonnneth. It nnvigahte: and hiith 
besides an other singular pii>perty, that it risetli and swelk-Ui 
even in the longest somnier dayes, as the river of Nilus doth, 
and bringeth forth the selfe same plantes and trees, saving 
that Uicy bcare no frutc, neither arc they so great as those 
of Mgypt This river hath no longe course, bicause that 
the most part« of the water runneth into lakes and marissea, 
covvrvd with brunbk-Ti and briars, tuid there is hut a very 
litle parte of it that fulleth into tlie river of Ccphisus, in 
the lilace where the rede!< grow that they make good flutes 
withal. When thi-v wen- etiniped one nere to an nther, 
Archelau8 lay nuietly and stiirrt-d not. But Syila presently 
cast great trencnes irom one Hide to on other, tu stoppt- thft 
way against their enemies, that tliey could not enine into 
that great plaine where they might nave taken what ground 
they would for their men of armes, ajid have driven tlie 
Itoinaincs into the niarissc^. The barbarous ix.'ople not Ix^ing 
able to endure that, so soonc as their Captaines had geven 
thejn liberty, discharged with such a fury, that they did not 
only M»ttcr them that wrought in Syllae:s trenches, but put 
the mmi parte of their gard also that stoude in hattell ray to 
defeiul them, in a nuinelouit feore, who also beganne to flic. 


Th? (fooclly 
pi nine licfore 
the citj; of 

Th« river of 
Melas, snd 
nature Iherof, 




SylUw wgrdi 
to aiiicnuM 
hii wudlilierc 


Urf of Mltb- 

rUatea Lieu- 
leuuDtw at 


Wliich Sylln nerceiving, liglitcd straight from his horse, and 
tekLng ati etungii« in hu tiande, ran through the niiddcst of 
his men tliat Hed, itntill he came to hi^ enemies, and crjing 
out, sayd unto them : {> my Uomaine Houldieis, mine honor 
comroaundeth me to (h'c here, and therefore when finy mao 
BsLeth you where you forsookc your Captaine, reiDcnibcr that 
you BunswoT it wsx ttt Orehomco?. 'lite}' were so nshnmcd 
at thcsv wordc^s tliut be mude them tunic ; besiilo!) that 
there cainv two eohort<9 unto hioi from the right wing of 
hif hntteil, who tindi-r hi.H Iciuiing gitve such n hutti- diarge 
u|>on their ent-mies, thiit they fleiT forthwith n]>on it. That 
done, Sylla retyred witli his ni«ii, and auulv them dine : and 
therupon by and by set Ui«ni ogiune to tlie trenches to 
enclose his enemies campe, who ttieii oune out in better order 
then they did before. 'Iltere wa» Diogenes, Arebelaus wivea 
Sonne slaine, fighting valliantly bufon- them all in the ru[fat 
wing of their bnttelf. And the bowe men Itcing pressed so 
ticerc by the Homaines, that their bowes would doe no good : 
tooke their arrowes in their haodcs in stead of swordcs, and 
tftrakv their enemies with tbcm to force them to gcvc b<wke, 
until such tiute lu at the Iwst they were all driven into their 
cunpe, where tltey pivvwd that night in great .<orow, u« well 
for the losae of them tluit were slaine, us also for the number 
of tliose tliat wen; hurt. T\w next morning. SvUn luulitig 
his men againe towardcs the ca»i|)v of Iiik enemies, went on 
stiU continuing hi« trenches: and ocrtoine of tliem being 
oome out to skirmish with them, he set apon Uiem so lustely, 
that at tile first charge he put tln'm U> flight. That brought 
such a feare to all the whole campe of tlie enemies, that not 
a man durst abide any lenger : so as Sylla vallianllv following 
on his victory, shufflixl in among them as they tied, and in 
theiido tooke all together. Straight way all the marisses 
were filled with blood, and the lake fiiU of dead bodies : so 
that until) this present day they find there in that place 
many bowes of tJie hart>arou» people, moryann. jiccccs of 
tasscH, and swordcs drowned in tin- muddc of the mnrissos, 
notwithstanding that it is well neere two huudntl ycres a 
goe since this battel! was striken. And thus much for the 
warres about the cities of Cheeronea, and Urchoniene. Now 


the wAiTcs being pcwt in this sortc in Grfccr, Cinnn, and 
Carbo dcit veiy cnivlly nnd unnntumlly nt Rome- with thv 
noble men and groat«st perwnx: by ruoson whereof, many 
flying their tyniiiny, went to SyluvK cuinpe, w unto the 
haven of their hi-alth and fulnes of felicity, wj thi»t in nhort 
timi; Syllft had on ut-senihly of u Kantaine Si-tiAte iihout him. 
Mt'telln her sw-ife, hi* wife, haviiij^ stollcti avay vt-ry hardly 
with liLT diildren, came to hring him newes tliat his hou!«e» 
in the dtie and oontry both, were all burnt and deatioyed 
by hiH enemies: praying him that he would go and help 
them that yet remained at Rome. Sylla uppon hearing of 
these newes, fell in great perplexity. For on the tone side, 
it grieved him to see his contry so miserably afilicted : and 
on the other side he knew not well how he might go, leaving 
so great on enterprise as that wnrre was, and NjX'ciully ogainKt 
a king of such might and iwwer as Mithridatcs shewed hini 
sclfe to be. Arol being m these dumfMM, there eamc one 
Arrhclaus a man^hant to him, bnrnt- in the city of Delium, 
who brought him a wcret mi-sHitgi- fmm tliuther Archolaat, 
king Mithridiite-t LJeuteDaimt : tlic which pleated Sylla so 
wdl, that ill- desiri'd that Archelau.s and him iielfe miglit 
mei-te and taike together. So at the length they met by 
the nea aide, neere unto the dty of Delium, where there is 
a temple of Apollo. Archelaus begaone to enter the talkc 
with him, declaring unto Sylla that he would wish him to 
leave the conquest of Asia, and of the rcalme of Poat, and 
to retnme into his contry to tlic civil] warres at Rome : and 
in so doing, the king would furnish him, not oncly with as 
much money, hut with as many stiippcs and men, as be him 
selfc would desire. Sylla npon this motion told him ngainc: 
that he would wish him to foreake Mithridatcs service, nod 
to make hJni $elfv king, offering to proelaimc him a frc-n<l 
find confcdt^mte of the Romaines, «» that he would deliver 
him alt hix iiavie which then ho had in htM hande*. Archelauit 
seemed much to ahhorre to iu-aif him .ijieake of treason. 
but Sylla going on with lii.i tale, rcplyed againe unto him : 
Why Archelaus, sayd he, thou tliat art a Capnadocian, and 
servaunt to a barbarous king, or his (Vend at tne least : hast 
thou so good a hart with thee, that for all the benefits I offer 


Sylln iivor- 
ciun« Arohe- 
1«U( in twa 
nnd at Orcho- 

T*lke b*tvrbct 
SylliL kitd 
Ari'helnuii at 
Uioir tnwting. 



diultd ht- 

twttxt Svllk 






•uapneted of 

of Athent, 


thcc, thou wilt not onoc commit mi ill net? And art thou 
in deedf »u b(>l<lc to iiMAke to me of trewon, which luii the 
RoiiiaiiK-x Littitvtiiuit generall, «nd SjrlU? Ak if thou vr«rt 
not he, th«l at thv Iwttell of Chferones dtdest save thy wife 
by flyingt witli a unal number left thee of »ix kok thowiand 
fighUiia men, which thou before hoddest in iliy ounpe : and 
that hid thv selfe two dayea together in the marbses of 
Orcbomene, leaving the Scldes of BcEotia witii such beapea 
of dead bodies, that uo man could posse for them. After 
this rcplye, Archelaus altered his speech, and falling downe 
at Syllacs fei-tc, humbly besought him to endi* this wart?, 
and to make peace with Mithridates. Whcrvimto Sylta 
Bunswcrcd, that he wu very well contented withall. And 
thereupon peace vrruf. concluded bctwene them under con- 
didoDx: that Mithridntt-^ should di-))artv from Axia the 
leMC, and from Faphlit^^niiiii, tlmt lu- ^hou1d I^-^to^l- Dithynia 
unto Nicoinedes, and (^nrnxuloi-iit unto A riiilMuyjuu's, that he 
nhould pay two thowiand talents to tlie Komaintis, and geve 
them three acore and tenne gallics, with all tlieir furniture. 
And apon this, Svlla would also assure him the reiit of ha 
lealme: and would cause him to be proclaimed a frendc 
of the Romainea. These articles being past hy agreement 
betwixt them, Sylla taking his jomcy through Thcstalie, and 
Atacedon into the contry of Ileltespont, caried ArchelaUB 
with him, whom he honorably intreated. For Archelaus 
falling dauntrerously sicke of a disease iu the cttv of I.ariMH, 
be stayetl tiiere for htm, and was vi-ry caJvfuD to recover 
him, as if he had bene one of his chiefest Cnptaines and 
oompanions. And this wax the entire that miufe Archelaus 
to \k blamed for the battell of Chirronca, lis if he bad 
not fnithfully fimght it out, nor Sylhi truly won^it, but by 
treuon. And iu^ih', Archelau* wa* the more suspcctcfl, 
bicauAc Sylla re4)(:livi.-red Mithridate* all hu wrvnimts and 
frends whidi he had prisoners, saving the tyran Aristion that 
kept Ath«t<k, whonte he i>i>ymi)ed, bicause he was Archdaus 
enemie: hut specially, 'or the lands Sylla gave unto this 
Cappadocian. For he gave him tenne tlinwsand lugora, 
(or aker> of lande) within the lie of Eubcea, and gave him 
moreover the title of a frendc of the Komaine^ for ever. 



But SyII« denyvUi all thrsv Uiingcx in liis commentArieti. 
Ill thf muuiv time, Ambftssiidow came from king Mithriikte* 
unto Sylk, who to)<l him that the king their mai.iter ilid 
ratifie atul accept all the article* of peace, saving that he 
onely prayed him lie would not take the contry of Haphla- 
goiiia from him : and aa for Uie gallics, he would not ao 
much as once say he would proroifte thera. Sylla being 
offended herewith, angerty aunawered them aeaine : Then 
Mithridates, as ye say, meaneth to kepc Paphlaeonia still, 
and refufleth to gevc the shippcs I dpmaundaf: where I 
looked that be would have numbly tbanckiHl me on his 
knees, if I left him hia right hand only, with the which he 
put so many ItomMUc citixims to death. But I hope to 
make him tell mc aii other tale, if I come mice into Asia : 
but nowe at Pergamuni, he spcakvth hit iileosure of tliis 
warrc which he hatli not »<.'cne. The Amtiasnadon l>eing 
afrayed of hi« wordcM, replied not againe. Wlicreu|ioii 
Arcn«lnus fp«ke, and bewught him witli tearea in hi» eyea to 
be oont«nte(I, and tooke him by the hande. By intreatie. 
in thctid he obtained of Sylla to sende him unto Mithri- 
datt^ : promising that he would either bring him to agree to 
all tliearticleaand condidons of peace that nedenmunded, or 
if he could not, he would kill him selfe with his owne hondes. 
Upon this promise Sylla sent him away, and in the meanc 
while entred with his armie into the contrie of Mcdica : and 
after he had dtstroyed the most parte thereof, returned 
backe againe into Mact^on, where AJY^helaus being returned 
from Mithridates, foundc him nccrc unto the city of Philippcs, 
bringing him newt's that all should be well, howcbcit that 
hi« master Mithridates prayed him he might snctike with him 
in any cose. Now, the matter tliat made Mithridatc» so 
eamext to sjwake with Sylla, was chicfely for Fimbria : who 
having slainc FIimtcu'^ the Consull, being of the contrarie 
faction unto Sylla, and certjiine of MithridaU^i Licutcmuintcs 
also, went him wife agitinst him ti) iighl with bini. Mithri- 
dates fearing his comming, cho,M- rather to make him wife 
Syllaes frena. So Mithridates and Sylla met together in the 
contry of Truade, in the city uf Dardane : Mithridates being 
accompanied with a Itevte of two hundred saite of sliippes 


excc|itIoti tu 
tbv cuiiili- 

■cnt from 
Sylln to 

Sylla U)4 


Tli« otoirliie* 



fixoiMiCth hitti 
■elTe to SyUa- 

nuDHwur lu 

klttg of 


A iiundred 
knil 6Aj 
tJaiiie ill one 
lUy in Aai« 
by Mllfarl- 

dittvD (UID- 



with oK» At wwi, witli twenty thuwsiuid footcmcii, sixe thow- 
muiiIl- [i4>r^, aim] ft niiitib<T ut annrd cnrtc^ with sytltea besides 
by Iiuid, Sviln tiAviiif; oii<4y but foure enxigites of footemen, 
and two hundred honvrnvti. MiUiridates went to Sylla, 
and oRering to take him by tiie hand : Sylla s&ked him 
first, if he did acce])t the peace witii the oondiciom which 
Archclaus had agreed unto. Mithridates mado him nn 
aunswcrc. Sylla following on hin tale, sayd unto him : It 
is for outers to sjn-akir first, that have miUL-;tt to make ; 
and for cuni)ucrors, it is cnoti^i U* Iiold thi-ir }>i;hi,'V, and 
liearc what tlii-y will say. TIriiIk-jpui Mithricliitat to excuse 
liim Mtrlfc, luid to tfty thotxasion of the warrc, partly uix»n the 
urtUnaiince of tlie f^xide* that m> ha<i appointed it, and partJy 
alMi uppon tht! Komiuim th<-ni .tc-lves. Whereunto Syllk 
ivplyi-tl, that he had heard of long time that Mithridatee 
waft au eloquent Prince, an<l that he knew it now bv ex- 
perience, seeing that lie lacked no conielv words, to clofcc his 
fowle and shamefidl dedes : but withall The shar^ily reproved 
him, and drave him to confcsw; the crucltin he Iwwi com- 
mitted. And aflcrwardi's asked him againr, if be did v«hi> 
firmc that which Archdau» had done. MtUiritlateit made 
auuswcr tliat he did. TIh-ii Sylhi xalutcd, crnhnuvd, and 
kissed him : and calling for tlic kingtit Nicomedes, and 
vVriobarEnnvs, rcconcilvtl Uiein t«getl«-r, and made Mithri- 
dates tli«ir fn-ntle againe. In roncliiHioii, after Mithndates 
hod delivered Sylla three score and tenne gallies, and five 
hundred bow men, he returned by aea into his rcalmc 
of Pontu». But Sjlla hearing tiiftt his souldicrs were 
angrie with this peace made with Mithridatcs, bicausc 
they coidd not abide to behold that king, whom they 
accompted for their most cruell and morUdl encmv, (h/iv- 
ing in cme eelfc dav eaused a hundred and Hfly ttwwKiuul 
Itomanc citizens to oe slaini:, that were dixpenwd abrosde in 
divers places of Axia) so to dtjiart^', and goc hi* way Mife, 
with the richm and siwyk-s of^ tlie contry, which he liad 
bei\-fl thnn of, and used at bis plea.sur»', tlie spaci- of forty 
vcHii'n togctliiT : HintHwercd tlieiii in uxoum.- of him »e1fe, that 
lie WHS not alilo to nuikc warreti with MiUiridates, and Fim- 
bria both, if ojice Uiey were joyned together against him. 


And so Sylla departing thmcc, wvut a^tnst Finibriii, who 
then was ciicftmpcd nwn- to tli<! city of Tlnnlmuand lodged 
him sclfc 08 neereunto him ii* hi- conveiiivTitly might. Nwwc 
whili»it he wax compiuuiing in hin lodging with « trvudi, 
Fimbrijiwi s<)uldi«nt cnpie Dut of their canip^ in tlieir contcs 
without liny luiiior or weanun, to salute SyllAes noutilivn), 
ftiid holpe tlitin very freimly to make up thdr trenehe. 
^Vhil-h Fimbria seeing, and perceiving his aouldiera inin<lea 
so chauiigcd, of an extreame fearc which he liad of Sylla, at 
whose handes he looked for no mercy : killed him selfe in 
bis owne campo. Sylla hcreuppun cxmdemned the whole 
contry of Asia the Icsso, to [)ay the sumnie of twenty thow- 
sand talciit«s nmongcKt them, uiid pn'«cntly also he undid 
many |)oore hoitKcholderfi thrtxigh his iosolcnt soiildiers, 
lying long njMin their charge, which ho left in garrinun then?. 
For he ordniiied that t-vi-ry hoiiHeliiikier .-iliimld gt'Ve the 
souldter that lodged in hi.i hmise, foun^ Tetrudnichmaii n 
day, and should he hound to geve him and hin frendm (a.4 
many as he would bring with nim) their .tuniK-r ol.v*: and 
that e*ery Captaine should have fifty Uraclimas a day, a 
night gowne for the house, and a garment to goe ahruade 
into the citv wlien he thought good. \Vhen he had gi-ven 
this onler, he departed from tne city of Ephcsus with all 
his lleetc, and in tlirev dnyc«i sayling arrived in tlic haven of 
Pimea at Athens, where lie was received into the fraternity 
of thv mynteries, and reserved for him K-lfv the libntrie of 
A[K.'lli<-on 'IViaii : in the whieh were the most iiart*' of 
Aristotle and Theophraitus workes, not then tliougfit nieete 
to mme in every mans handes. And tht-y say, that thix 
lihrarie being brought to Uome, Tynuinioti tlie grainniftriiin 
founile the meanes to extract a great parte of them : and 
that Andronicus the Hhodian having recovered the originalln 
into his hands, put them in printc, and wrote the summaries 
which we have at this present. For the auneient I'erijiatet- 
ickc Philosophers were of them selvei* very wise and learned 
men, but they tuid not all Aristotles workes, nor Theo- 
phmxtiis amongent tliem, and yet those fewe they had. were 
not by Uiem »eene nil whole and [K-rfot-t together: bicsusc 
that the goodc* of Nekux Scep«ian (to whom Tbcopbrastus 



camped nt 

Fimbria sUo. 

Sylta very 
hardly in- 
Irent^ii Uicm 

of A«ift. 

Aristotle and 


Svlla ircot to 
the bniJiM Kt 
Adiptam Tor 
Uie K<>»t« ill 


Bubbin i>f 
file rinitiK out 
of a mc&uciw 
fcr l>ym- 

bJceik uleep- 


left all his bookcs by will) atmc to fait into the lioiuls of 
meaoc igtiorant men, who kni-w not the vortiie und nttimtictui) 
of them. And furtiK'nnoiv, SjUft Ix-ingnt Athviu luid »iicii 
u ptuiio und numiK-iwi^ in )ii-( Icgx^-N "i"! w>-'« >» lu-nvy withal), 
thut Strabo <:)ilk-tl) it a srpivi- of thi; gowte, that is to itay, a 
feeling or viitring theriitto, which then l>egiuii>e to route aiid 
take hold of liini. Upon which occasion Tie tooke tlie seaea, 
and wi-nt unto a place called Adipsum, where there are 
naturall hotte bathes: and there remained a while solacing 
him selfe all the day long with muaicke, seeing of playes, 
and entertaining such kinde of people. Upon a day as he 
was walking by the sea side, eertainc fisher men mode him 
« present of tiah, which pleased him mnr\'eloiis well, and 
demaunding of thctn whence they were : they uimswiird him 
agnine, that they wi-n; of the eity of Alca. What ? of Ales 
s»yd he : Is there any of them yet li-ft alive ? wx-akinf^ it, 
hicauKe that after Uie battel) of ()rcliomcne wlien he follow t-d 
the cImiac of hiH enemies, he hnd taken and diittToyed thrt-e 
citiet of lltL-uUa all at one selfe time, tu wit Anthedon, 
Laryninn, and Ales, 'llie poore fliiher men were ao amaxed 
with his wordes, that they stoode still, and could not tell 
what to say. Sylla fell a laughing thereat, and bad them 

So their wayes a gods name, and be not affrayed, for they 
rought no small intereessors with them, which were wortit 
the reckeiiiiig of. When Svlla bad geten them these wordcs, 
the jVlleians went home wfth a mery harte, to gather them 
selves together ngiuiic in their city. Sylla go psMing through 
Tliessalin and Maccdon, caiiK to the sea fdde, intending to go 
from tlie city of Dyrrachium unto Brundusiiim, with twelve 
hundred »ayle. Tiieeity of Apollonia is hard by Dymtehium, 
and tiiercalHiitti ix a {>arke eon>i,%-rttted unlu the nymphes, 
where in a fayer gottdly grcene ineailowe in many placet 
there commetli outgrcatbuiili-H of fire Uiat flame continually : 
and it is sayd that there was a Satyre taken sleeping, even 
in the very selfe same forme tlte painters and image gravers 
have set liim out He was brought unto Sylla, ana being 
asked by all sortes of interpreteis what he was, he made no 
aunswere that a man could undentand : but only put forth 
a sharpe voyce like the neying of a horse, or whynnying of a 


goat& Sylla wondering at it, nbhurrcd Iiim, and miuiv hint 
to be caried from hini rk it monstrutw thing. Fiirtht-mKirc, 
when Sylla had imharltLxl his uii'ii to pitKSC Hw w-h, he nas 
afraycd that so suoiic a» thi-y wi-rv Inndtxl in ItitlJc, thi-y 
would sjiritikc from him, and (-very nmn gii hunii' to his 
ownc. But thi-y swure and ((roiniwd first of thnn selves, 
tliiit they would tjiry an<l kc»-]K' t*>getlier, and by tlic-ir willes 
would doc no liurt in Italii-. MortMver, perceivini; thnt he 
staod« in tii'rtli- of money, they ofPred him of theirs, and 
ewiy man to lend him as his ability served. But Sylla 
would none, yet thanked them for tlieir goodwill : and after 
he had exhorted tliein to fi^ht like ^'alliant sotildtcrs, he went 
a^inst fifteene generally of armies uf his iiicniies, who had 
foure hundred and fifty onsignes of fotjtcmcii wt-ll nrmcd, as 
he him sclfe wryteth in hi* (.-ununi-nt/irit^. But the goddes 
promised liini good forlune in his wjirn^, by nmiiy «imdry 
apjmnuit signvH. For in a »tUTifiee hi; made by TartMititnt, 
afWr he was nmw n laridi*, tlie liver of a certaino bcjuit 
Mic'riHced, was altogether fariuned after the inniKT of a 
cniwm.- iir garland of laurell, out of the which did lumg two 
iHuidnt or miles. And a litle Ircfore he went into ('lanipania, 
i>cere unto the niountaine K)>heum. there a])[K'ared two great 

rtea in the day time fighting together, even as twu men 
when they fight : which neverthelesse was no matter of 
trueth, but a vision onely that apix-ared. and rising from the 
earth dispersed it selfe by title and litle here and there in 
the ayer, and in thcnde vanifihvd i|uitc away, as elowdes 
which come to nothing. Shortly iiflvr. in the selfe name 

I)Iace, Mnriu.* the younger, and Norltiuiii.-' the Consull, who 
)rmight two great armies against hi»i, wen- overtliruwen by 
him, lH.-fore he had set his men in hatteil, ur hatl appointed 
any man hi» place where he should fight : and thin proceeded 
oiiely upon the corage and life of his souldiers, whone good- 
will to serve against them was such, as following tliis victory, 
he compelled the Consull Norhanus after he hail slaine sixe 
thowsande of his men, to take the city of Cajiua for hi* 
refuge. This noble exploytr, (as him selfe reported) wa* the 
cause that his men kept so well together, that they neither 
went home to their houses, nor muue luiy reckening of their 


SjrIU wrrit 
uk'aitiiit fif- 

nllH. »ii(l 
To lire hit lid red 
niid llfti* 

SyllMM re- 
tume into 


Sjllji over- 
threw the 
C'uuBull Nor- 
btiiiuii Hiid 
Atsrlus the 
D«erc to the 


A nlnvn 
Syllai!!! vic- 
tory, anil the 
burnlug of 
the CapitoU 
out tnd)'. 

A winde that 
bicwe Ho vera 
out of a 
meadow upon 
the dty of 

Tiotory nt 

with Scjpiu. 


enemies, althougli they were many against one. And he sayth 
furthermore, that in the city of Sylvium, there wa* a lUvt" of 
ontl'ontiuBacitixen. who bcingc mspinil with a prophet ieall 
spirite, came to tell him from tJie gotldesse 13elloiia, that hv 
iJiould f!jw in strength, and carj' away the victor}' uf th«se 
wan: biowbt-it that if he did not bye him the sooner^ the 
Capitoll At Itomf xhoiild be burnt. And so it fell out the 
^Aiat- day acconJiiig to hi.-< wurdcH, lieing thi^ sixteene day 
of the n>oneth called (jiiintilitt, and now luly. Ami furtJieiv 
more al»o, LucuUiu (one of S>'llaea <'aptauies) being neere 
uato the city of ridentia with sisteene enaigncs onlv, 
against fifty ensignes of his enemies, knowing his men to &c 
rery well affeetcd to serve, bicause the most iiartc of them 
were naked and unarmed, wfu> afraved to haxaid the battel : 
and as he was even bethinking him silfe what wiu best to 
dcterintne therof, there rose a litle winde out of ft goodly 
mviuluw that blewe a woiiderfull sorte of flowew a|>u» the 
»(>uldier» on every unrte of them. Thtsc flowent staynl 
of Uieni aelva as tliey fell, Mimt- apon tla-ir targeti, aiul 
otherii apon tlieir moryaits, without falhng to the grounde: 
so that it seen]<^ tu their enemies a farre of, aa if they 
had bene garlandes of flowei-s upon their heades. Tiaa 
made Lucullus soiddicrs more lusty a great dcale, then they 
were before, and with this good will they determined to 
Mve a charge upon their cnemii-s : whom thcv overtlirew, 
*\iK righteene tnowHuid of thetn in the field, and tookc 
thi-ir campe. This Lucullus was brother unto Uie other 
Lucidlus, that afterwards overthrew the kings ^tithridutCK, 
and TigratKS. Nevertheles, Sylla iwrceiving that hi* enemies 
lay round about him witli many grent pui^utt anuii-s, tbouglit 
good to UHe nolicy with force: and tiierefun- practi.ti-d with 
Scipio, one oi the CoiiHulk, to make f>eaee witli hiin. Sctpio 
was willing to it : and thereu|)oii were oft meetings and 
aasemblics of both sides. Now Sylla drave of the conclusion 
of the peace as long as he could, still seeking occasion of 
delay, to thend that his souldicrs which were throughly 
nc(|iuunted with craft and ^ubtiitv as well as him selfe, 
might in tlw mnuie time eorrupt bcipiocs souldJers by re- 
payrr into his campc : for tkcy comming into Scipiocs 




caiDpc, being very conversaunt with them, straight cor- 
rupted some of them with ready money, other with ]]n.>mi»t«, 
and otiiL-r with fayer flattering wotxla, and many goudty tales 
tiiey told them. At the length, after this pructiHe had 
continued a while, Sylta coniming nerc unto ScipioeK campe 
witli twenty trnxigncs only : all ht» men saluted Scipioes 
Rouldiers, and they reMiluUn^ Uieni againe, yelded them 
selves unto Sylla, fto a« Scipio was left poste alone in his 
tente where he was taken, hut thev afterwards let him goc. 
So Sylla with hia; twenty enaignes, like unto tlie fowlers, that 
by their stales di«w other nirds into their netts, having 
gotten forty cn^gnes from his enemies by his craft, brought 
them away with him into his campe. There it was that 
Carho sayd of Sylla, that he had to tight with a foxc an<l a 
lyon both: but that the foxe did him more hurte and mis- 
chiefe, then the lyon. After this, Mariiis the younger having 
fourcxcore and hve rniugncs in his campe neerv imto the 
citie of Signiunt, privent4.'d bnttell uutu >yl\an who liaving 
very good desire to fight, and specially on that day, bicausc 
the night Itofore he had seene this vinion in hi.t drcante, that 
he tliought he sawe MariiiK the father (who wa* deceased 
long l>efure) warning his sonne that he should cnnie to him. 
Sylu for thb respect desired roarvelously to light that day : 
and thcrcuppon caused Dolobella to come unto him, that 
was before lodged forrc from him. Hut the enemies slept 
betwene him and home, and stopped liis passage to kcepe 
him from joyning with Sylla. Syllacs souldien to tnv 
oonlrarie, fought to keope the way open for him, "iUi so 
grvnt labor luid paine, that tliey were all wearie and <)ver- 
narried. And furthermore, then.- fell a marvelous great 
shower of raine ujion tlicm at tJiey were busie, o]>«iing the 
way, that troubled them more, tlien tite labor they had in 
hande. \Vhereu|inon the private Cnptaines of the bandcs 
went to make Sylla understande it, and to pray him to 
deferr« the battcll untill an other day : showing him howc 
the souldicre wearied with labor, lay downc upon their 
targettes on the groiinde to take tlieir ease, sylla per- 
ceiving this, wax contented withall, though greatly in decde 
against hi:< will. But when h«' bad gvven the signall to 



iruni Sotfifo 
lif |ioUde. 

CarboM mf- 
in^ ofSylU 
tnuchiiiff the 
foxe aud lytin. 

Muiui the 
youuKer wHh 
85 eusi^ruM 
Sj'llft iMktlell 
liy ihe city ot 

Syltaes vision 



Into AfVickc. 


the Sttmnytt! 
put Syllu 
m KTcat 


lodge, and that they Ix^^ine to trenclie nnd fortilk- their 
uuniK : Mariua the 'yo'ingw commeth a Jwrsc backe march- 
ing Dravely before all his companie, hoping to have siirpriMt) 
his encinit's in disorder, tuid by that meanes to hjivi- ovtT- 
throwcii them easily. But farrc otherw-isc did fortiim- Ibeii 
pcrfomw' the n-vefation which Sylla had in hU fon'sayetl 
(Irviune: for liis men fnllingc in a ragr wiUiall, h(t their 
workc in th« trenchv where they wroiiaht, rtucke their 
dartes uppon the biuicke, rnnne uppon their ei>emies with 
tJieir swordett drawen, and with a inarveloiiK crie set apou 
Uiem so valliantly, that thoy were not able to resist their 
furie, but sodainly tunied their backer and Bed, where there 
was a great and notable slaughter made of them. Alariua 
their C^ptaine fled to the citie of Pncneate, where he found 
the gates shut : but they threw him downe a rope from the 
wall, which he lied about hU midle, and so tricetl up by 
it. Yet Numo wryten »«y, nnd Feiiestella atnong other, that 
Mariu» never «iHe the bntt<'II : for beinp- wearied with Ul»>r, 
and verie sKwpie, he laye uikIit siinie tree in the uluidowe to 
rent a litlo, after he liad i^'ven the Mf^inll and u-ord of the 
battell, and slejit so HQwiidly, tliat he (^>iilde xcaiit awake with 
the noyse and fleeiuge of lik inoji. Sylla him selfe wryteth, 
tliat he lost at this battell but tliree atul twcnlie men, slewe 
twciitie thowsande of bis enemies, antl tooko eight thowsaiide 
prisoners. His Lieutenaiintes also had the like good sueeesse 
m other places, E*om]K-iiLs Craasua, Metelliis, and Sernlius : 
which without any IwMe of their men, or but with a vcrie 
SRUill, overtbrewe many great inigbtie annies of their onemiea. 
Iiuomuch a» C^rlx), the liiiide and chiefe of all the eontniric 
fiu-tion, am! bo I bat matt maintained it, Bed one nif;ht out 
of hin cjunjH-, and went bevonde the wyiest into Africke. The 
latt battell tliat Sytlii Imif, wan againxt Theh-^inu* Samnvte, 
who eomming like a frL->4}i champion to n-t n]M>n him, oKen 
he was alr^idy wearied, and bad fought many Imttelts, 
had almost slaine bim even at Rorai- gates. For 'llielcsiniw 
baviiige gathered together a great nundier of souldiers with 
one Lamponius Lucanian, marebcd witli all spenle towards' 
the rity of Fncneste, to deliver Marius the younger that 
was Ix-sieged there. But underetandingr that Sylla on the 


one side, came in ji^cut hnstc nlso to metft« liim, aiid tliftt 
Pon)|Kiniiis came Ix-hiiido him on tJii* otlier »ide, and per- 
coiving, moreover th«t the wiiy wnn so shut up, that be 
c-utild neither go forvrdrd nor buckcwturd : being a valliant 
winldior, niid one that liful bene tii many great fowhtcn 
fioldt-s, most daungerotetiv wnturvd to go sfught to Ronic. 
And so Mall- away by night witli all his whole power, and 
mardiing to Itome ward, had alnuiHt taken it at bin lirat 
eoniming, for tliat tliere was neitlier watch »or ward kept: 
but be stayed happely tenne furlonges from the gate Collins, 
bi^agging witli bini selfe, and lielering that he iihotdd doe 
wonders, for tliat be had n>ockcd so many great C«plainw, 
'iTie next morning betimes came diverse yoimg noble men 
and gentlemen out of the citie to skirmlshe with Tln-k«inu» : 
who slue a great number of them, and among others one 
Appius Clauuitis a yoimg gentleman of a noble house, and 
very honest. Whereuppon (as you may easily imagine) the 
citv trembled for fetire, and »j)eciany the women, who fell 
« sbreeking, and running >ip and downe, as if tlu*v had Ix-ne 
all taken. Hut in this gn-nt fean^ and tnmble, Dalbus 
(whom Sylla bad wnt) ejiine first with seven hundri'd horee 

Sion tlie spunv, anil dtaying Imt n litle t« coole and gev* 
oni breath, hridelud ^miglit againe, and went to Hct apon 
the enemiftt tlioreby to ntav thiin. Sonne after him mme 
Sylbt alno, who conimaundcd hif> nion that eanie lifKt, quiekely 
to eate somwhat, and Uiat done, put tJum Ktraight in battell 
ray: notwithstanding that Dulobella mtd 'roi-i|UHtit> per- 
Hwaded him to the contmrv, and lie.'kougbt liini not to put 
hiH souldiers wearied witli Uieir jomey, to so great and 
manifest a daunger, and tJie rather, bkautte they had not to 
fight witJi Carbo and Marius, but with the Samnytes and 
Lucimee, who were (both) warlike nations and gooil Houldiere, 
and ttit^se iH-sides that most deadly hated the Itomane^. 
Itut for cdl that, Sylla dravc them backe, and eommaunded 
his Iroinpets to soiuide the alarome. being almost within 
foun lioureH tif nigbt : and this battell was sharper and 
more cruell, then any other that e^er he fought before. The 
right wing when- Cnwsu* was. bad the better much : but the 
leift wing wa.s very M>re distn«»i-d, and stoode in great periU. 




SylU fl«d. 


■Umd Muriim 

Mvlttslife it 
is rei)ort«d 
RvlU biwleged 
Mariutt the 
rounir«r iu 
Wrunia, uid 
not m Pn^ 


Sylla hearing thereof, nnd thiiikiitff to belpc it, got up upi>ot] 
a whit4> ccMjnwr that wa« both dwifl. and very strong. 'ITie 
iiWRiivs knvwe him, and thvrv w^re two that lin«d up tltetr 
an»e« to throw their dartes at him, whom lie a&w not : but 
W» page gave hiM horse Huch a laih with his whippe, that he 
inaae niin %a to girtl forward, as the very pomtes of the 
darles catiie hand l>y tJie hone tayle, and stucke fast in the 
grounde. Some say that Sylla had a litle golden image 
of Apollo, which he brought from the city of Dolpltca, bdJ 
iu time of wanes ware it alwaycs in his bosomc, which he 
then tooke in bis hand, and kissing it, sayd : O Apollo 
Pythias, hast thou bo highly cxalt«l Cornelius Sylla, so 
fortunate hiUierto through iw innny famous victorivM, and 
wilt thou now with slianie overwhi^lmi^ him wl«)lly. even 
at the very gntcs of Im owne natumll city luiiong his eontry 
men ? Amino crying out to Ajmllo fur hdpe, into 
the prtiiue among ni.t men, intrcaiing Home, thrt'atniiig others, 
aitd layiiige apuii tltc rent to stay them. Hut for all he 
coulde doe, all the left winge of his army was broken and 
overthrowen by his enemies : and him selfe amoncest them 
tliat (led, was compelW to recover his campe with specde, 
having ItMt many of his frcndcs and familiars. There were 
moreover many citirxms slaine and troden under fwtc (both 
with horse and men) that came only to sec the battt'll 
fought : so that they within the city thought tliein solves 
utterly undone. Lucretiiu Olfellu furtliermore (he that 
iKsieged Mariiis in tint citiv of Pnenest*-) had almoftt raiwd 
his Mege, upon the wordi-x of them that fled and eamc thither 
fnwi tlie liatlell, who wiKliL-d him to remove with all speedc 
pOMible, for Svlla was Hlaim-, luiil 'llielesinus had taken 
Home. Now anout midnight came tertaine souldiers (mm 
Crassus to Syllaes campe, and asked for meate for Crassus 
supper, and nis mens, who hannc chased his flying enemies 
whom be had overthrowen, unto the city of Antrmiui (which 
thev tooke for refuge) had lodged his cuni|>e there. Sylla 
unoert tan ding tJiiit, and being mlvertiwd Unit the n«wt [>arte 
of his ent-mies were ovcrthn)Wen at this lMtt«-ll: wwit him 
sc'lfe the next morning Wtimufl unto Ant«-roiia, where tliree 
timwsand of his eiieniics sent to know if be would receive 


them to mercy, if they yelded tJiem selvca unto him. His 
aunswer was, that lie would pardon tlicir lives, so ks tliey 
would do some miachicfc to tneir fellowes l>efore Uiey camt^ 
to him. These three tliowsand licrcupon trusting to his 
promise, fell apon their conipanions : aud for the most parte 
one of them kdled an other. Notwithstaodin^, Sylla having 
gathered all those together that remained of his enemies, as 
wcl the three thowsnnd, as Uic rest, amounting in all to the 
number of six thowsnud men, within the sliuw place where 
they used to run their horsc-s : uhilest he him suif held a 
couiuell in (ho teniplv of the goiiiit-wtt- IVIlona, niid win 
nuking liia oration then.-, he haii itppoinU-<{ certeii to set 
upon tnuse six thciwsund, and put tJiem to the sword every 
man. Great and t^-rrible were the cries of Hueh a number of 
meiislaineinsosmallaroome, asniany may ea-sily conjecture: 
insomuch as the Senators sitting in eounsell heard them very 
easily, and marveled what Uie matter was. But Sylla con- 
tinuing on his oration which he had begon with a set steady 
countenance, without chaunging of colour, willed them onlv 
to hearken what he sayd, and not to trouble tliein selves witfa 
any thing done ahruadc : for they were but ccrteii oflenders 
and Ivwd persons that were piminbed by his curamauiidement. 
This was enough to shew the simplest Homnne in Rome, that 
they had but only chnimged the tymn, but not the tyranny. 
Now for MnriiiH, thiit Iwul Ik-tic ever of ii (-hurliNli and Meverc 
natun^ even fnmi h'vf chlUihond, lie never ehauiiged for any 
authority, but did rather harden his natural .ittiblHtnie^. 
Where Sylla contrarily in the beginning, was very modest 
and dvill in all his prosperity, and gave groat good hope 
that if he came to the autiiority of a prince, he would favor 
mibility wel, and yet love notwithstanding the benefit of the 
people. And being moreover a man in his youth geven all 
to pleasure, deliting to laugh, ready to pity, and wcepe for 
tender hart : in that he became after so cruell and bloody. 
Uie great alteracion gave manifest cause to condcmne the 
ioOPeaae of honor ana authority, as thonly meancs wherby 
mens roaiicrs coiitirmc not such iw they were at the first, but 
sUU do chaunge and vary, making sonte fooles, others vaiiie 
and fantasticall, and otliers cxtreame cruel and uunaturall. 


.1000 Mvuil 
llirin si-lve* I 
Autenuia : 
HI 1(1 y«lile<l I 
Syll« upon 
pramlie of 

KvIIa Agnlut ' 
w law of 
nrmci and 
his pr(>mi»F, 
caused Huic 
to be oUiur. 




Sylln Die 



InAnlte miir- 
t«(l In Rome 
bf %lliianil 
hw fnvomii. 

Thu b<iMii«K 
of (!aiu« 
Mrt«Uu*. to 
tell S)-lln 1>» 
cruoltjr In 
open i^eunW. 




But whether tKat altcracion of nature citinv by chnuugtng his 
stnte (iiid cntiilicioa, or that it wfu; uthvrwi»c n vitilviit brfjik- 
tDg out of liiddcti mnlii-e, which then uinie to xhrwe jt aelfe, 
when Hie w»y of liberty was layeil ojk-ii : Uiis iiiAtter i» to be 
dt-x'ideil ii) soine other treHtif^.*. ^> it cniiK> to jMt.<»i*, that 
Sy)l» fell t<J sheiuiinf; of bltHHl. rmd tilled all Rome with 
intinite Hiid iinspdikeitble luurthert: for diverse were killed 
for private (|UHm'l!i, th»t hiid iiotluDs to do with Svlla at 
any tinic, wlio Nulfi-red hijt frendti fma those about hint to 
workc their wicked wills. Until at the length there was a. 
young man called (>»ius Mi^tcllus, tliat was so bold to aske 
byllft in o{>en Senate, when all the^c miseries should end, and 
when they should know that all the niischieves were finished, 
the whieli they dayly sawe. For said he, we will not intretktc 
you to jMinloii life, where you have thn'tttiivd dnith : but only 
to put Ukiii out of douti whom you have detennincd to xavo. 
Wnerunto Syllii iiimle iiunswer, that he ««» init rwolvwl 
whom lie would save. Mett^'llus rvpltisl. Then ti^ll t» quod 
he, who they are that idiidl dye. Sylla nuxwen-d he woultl. 
liowlieit some my it wa-< not Mt-tellus, but Auliiiius one of 
Ilia flatterers, tliat spake thi.i Itutt word unto him. Where- 
fore Sylla immeiliatly without making any of the ma^istratfl 
privy, caused foure score mens names to be set up u|»on tmslea, 
whom he would put to death. Every man being ollended 
witiiitl, the next day following he set up two hundred niul 
twenty meii-t naini-K nxire: and likewise Uie third day as 
many mon-. Heniiion, ninkiiiir an urutioii t«> Uie [H-ople, he 
told them o!«idy tliat he htul ap|u>inted <U1 Ihein to dye, 
tliat he coulo ad) to remt-tnbmtnioe : howbeit that hervafter 
he woidd appoint them that should dye by daies, aa he did 
call them to niinde. \Vliosoe\'er saved an outlaw in hitt 
house, for reward of hi.i kindne.-f, he hiniselfe was cod- 
demiied to dye : not excepting them that had received their 
brothers, their somies, tlieir fathers, nor mothers. ^Vnd the 
reward of every horoycide and niurthcrer that killed one of the 
outlawes, was two talentcs : though it were a slave that had 
killed his master, or the sonne that had slaitie the fatlMT. 
Hut the most wicked and unjust act of all wivt, that hi- 
(Icprivvd the soniies, and suiuies KunucK of thein^wliom ho 


had killed, ut all credit aiid good name, aiid t>i-siJe!« tJint, 
had taken all their gtmds as conliftcate. And thin wa-t not 
only done in Iloino, but also in al the cities of Italic tliruugli 
out : and then? was no temple of any god whatsoever, no 
uiiltcr in any l>odiea house, no liberty of hospital, nor fathera 
house, that watu not cmbrued with biood and horrible murder. 
For the husbands were slaint' in their wives armes, and the 
cJiildrcn in their mothers laps: nnd yet they which were 
Klaiiie for privati- hatred luid tiialici-, were notliiiig in re- 
spect of those that vivrv inurdenHt oidy for their goods. 
And lliey that killed tlK-m iiiielit well sny, his gixMlly gn-at 
hoiiM- tnrnle thai man dye, lii.« gmxlly faycr garden the 
oUier: and hiit hotte bathes an otlu-r. As aniongicst othcrx, 
Quintus Aun?!iu8, a man that never niedled with anv thitige, 
and least looked that these cvills should light upon liim, and 
that only pitied those which he sawe so nnserably murdered : 
went one day into the market'place, and reading the bill setup 
of the oiitlawcs names, found hi^ owne name amoiigest the rest, 
Mid cried out alowde : Aliu the ihiy tluit ever I wo^ borne, my 
bouse of Allm mnkeili me to 1k' put to death. He went ntxb 
farre from the niitrket place, but met with one that killed 
him iiR-M-ntly. In tlie iiK-aiu- time, MariuM Die younger 
seeing he euuld by no muimi-s 4-^npe if he were Oiken, 
slue him selfe. And Sylla eommiiig to I'neneste, did Krst 
execute Uieni by one anil by one, keeping a eertaine Forme 
of justice in putting them to deatJ) : but afterwardes as if he 
bad no lenger leasure to remaine there, he caused theni all 
to be put in a place together, to the number of twelve 
thowsande men, whom he caused to be put to the sword 
ever>- man, saving his host only, unto whom he sayd, that 
he snewed him siKtially favor to sue his life. But liis host 
aunswered him stowtly agnine, that lie would not lie Iwhold- 
ing unto him for his life, seeing he ha<l xlnine all the nwt 
of his contry men : and so thruxting in aniongi'st tlie eitiKens, 
was willinply sUinv with them. They thought the act of 
Lueiuit Caiihiu- «!->(> vei-y straungt*, who had slaine his owne 
brollnT iM-fore the ei\iU warre was ended : and then prayed 
Sylla to ]>ut him in the number of the outlawcs, as if his 
brotlier had bene alive. SylU performed his desire. Gitiline 
ii : im SIS 


The murdCT' 
tif uutluww 

through Italy 

Aur<Jiu». a 
i\ui*\ man 
Uint m«dl«d 
not, Klaine for 
hi> h<nlM. 

Moriui tli« 
vi>uii)>i-r ulue 
Lim selfe at 

HyUn tlue 12 
in PneuMt«, 
being piit all 
into un« place 

Luduii Ciiti- 
liaa nlu^ hill 
owue brother. 


SYLLA Uiereuppon to liJiewc his thaokefulneise for the pleasure Sylla 
liad done him, went presently, and slue Marcus >{arius, who 
was of the contrary faction : and brought him his head for a 
present before all the jieople, in the uiidJcst of the market 
place whiTe he was sitting. When he had so done, lie went 
and washed his handcs uin>l<>udi(-d in tlM- hnltuwcd font of the 
temple of Apollu, tlint wax Iiard by. But betiidi^ so many 
munlcrs commitU'd, yet wtre there other things nl«o that 
grieved the pe»nle nmrveloUHly. For he pruchLinicd him 
flvlU sclfe Dictator, which oilk-e Iwul ii«t bene of mx wtn- yvan» 

Dictator. Ix'forc ill um-, and uinde the !s«-nat»' disclmrgi! hitn of all 

tluit was [>, i;<^^inf{ him free tilK'rty arierMnrd^-s to kill 
whom he would, and to conlUcate their goudes : to destruy 
cities, and to build up new as he listed : to take away king- 
domes, and to geve them where he thought good. And 
furthermore, he openly sold tlie goodea con6scate, by tbe 
crier, sitting so prowdly and stately in Ids chayer of state, 
that it grieved the people more to siv those goodea packt up 
by them, to whume he gave and di.s]KMicd them : then to see 
them taken from those tliat had forfeited them. For torn- 
times he would geve a whole contry, ur the whole revenues 
of oertiuuc citt<s, unto women fur their bcavi-ty, or imto 
piouauiit jca»t4-n, minstn-IlK, or wtcki-d xluvcs mode free: 
and unto nome, he wuidd gt.-ve other men* wivw by fom*, 
and make tlu-in to Ik^ maned agiiia-^t their wilU^ For t>c 
dniring (liawe»oever it happeiiMl) to iiiakc alliance with 
Pompcy the great, cominauuacd him to put away his wife 
he haa maried : and taking j^^ylia (the daughter of 
/Gmylius Scaurus, and of Metella his wife) from the great 
Glabrio, caused him to niarv her great with childe aa she 
was by Glabrio : but slie dyed in childbed, Ui I'oDipeyis 
house. LucretiiiA Ollella aL«o that had brought Marius the 
younger to that di!strc»e iit the city of Pncnc«te : suing to 
he Consull, Sylla comnuuindcd him to ccu»e his Mite. But 
he notwithstandingc Uiat expretcsir i-omiiuiutidement, went one 
day into the market platv, with a great tnune of im-n follow- 
ing him that favored his (uui.«e. whither Syihi M-iit <Hic of 
Lucretlua Im CentuHoiM Uiat slue Olfella lieforu (UI tW )>eupte : him 
OffetU lUine, »elfv sitting in a cJiayer of estate in the tvmiilc of Castor and 


Pollux, and seeing front nbove the murder done, l^e peoplv 
that werv itboiit Oflt-li/i, Iiiycd liold of tlie niiirderer striiifrht 
and brought him bt-fon- Syllii. iJut Syllit bad them bu iiuiet, 
that brought the Ceiitiirion with tumult, (uid that tliey 
should let Iiini goe, bicauHe he cumniaunded liim to do it. 
Furtlieniiore as touching his triuinjihe, it was a sumptuous 
sight to behold, for the rarenes of the riches, and princely 
spoyles which were shewed at Uie same. But yet was it so 
much tlie better set out, and worth the sight, to see the 
banished Uomancs, who were the chiefcst noble men of all 
the city of Itomc, following his cliarct triumphant wc&ring 
^larlandM of Rowers on th<:ii' header, calling Svlla thdr father, 
and savior: bicautH: Unit by his niciuics tnt-y n-tumed to 
their contrv, and rccovcivd their f^odM, wivw, and cliildrm. 
In the end of hix triumphe, he niodo an oration in open 
awcinbly of the people of Koitie, in the which he did not 
only declare unto them (at-tording to the cuntome) wliat 
thinges he hod dune, hut did aa carefully tell them also at 
well of his good fortune and, an of his valliant deedai 
beaide) : and to conclude his oration, told them that by 
reason of the great favor fortune had iJiewefi him, he would 
from thenceforth be called by them, Felix, to say, happy, 
or fortunate. And he him selfc when he wrote unto the 
Greecians, or that be had any thing to do with them : nir- 
named him sclfc Epaphroditus, aa who would say, a picasaunt 
man, beloved and tavorcd of Venus. His tokens of triumphe 
which arc yet in our contrv, have this superscription : Lucim 
Comeluts Sylla Ejmphrodihis. And when his wife Mctella 
had bnmj^lit him two twimK«, u »otme and a daughU-r: hv 
iiamctl hi.t sonii« FAUKtti.-(, signifying fortunate, and his 
daughter Fauitta : bieaiii>e the Komaritw adl Fmtstum that, 
whidi falleth out pros(K.Toiwly, and hapjwly. To be short, 
l»e trusted so much unto hiK goiKl fortune and doingci, that 
notwitliatanding he had killed and put so many mt-n to 
death, and had made so great a chautige and innovation in 
the common wealth, yet of him sclfe he left of his office of 
Dictator, and restored the people to the authority of elec- 
tion of Consults againc, without his presence at the election : 
atnl frequented the market place as a private man among 


Tilt order i 


Fnustu* uidl 


Sylla iMvet 
hi* UicUtor] 


Mm«us L»pl- 

Um people. 

yttw oWt 
aiul upward. 

ha nuwlv. 


the citiwtu. ofti--riiig him selfe to every man that would aske 
him ncc4inipt of hia doings past. It happened that a stowt 
atid nuth enemy of his was chosen Consul! against bts will, 
cnited Marcus Lepidus, not for any devotion the people liad 
to Lepidua, hut onely to gratifiv Pompi-y, who gave coun- 
tenaunc« and favor unto him. SylU Nreing Pompi-y coiiie 
mery honicwardes from the election, tmd joyfull that he had 
obtained his frendcs sute from nil other stiti-re : tookv him 
a side, an([ told hiui : In de«.-de thou bnKt great cauK to 
rejoycc, young man my frotide, for thou liast dotte a goodly 
actc : to choo»e Mareiis Ixqiidu.t C^nsull, the veriest as»e tn 
all Rome, iH^fure ('atuluN tlie honestetit man. Hut I tell thee 
mie thing, thou hjuide!>t imt m-de to nteqie: for tliou hast 
Htn-ngthened on enemy, that will be thine owne destniction. 
And Syllii proved a true prophet : for Lepidus being bent 
to all cruelty imniediatly after, flatly fell at debaunce 
with Pompey. Now Sylla consecratinge the dismes of all his 
goiidea unto Hercules, made exceeding sumptuous feastcs 
unto the Romanes, the provision whereof was so unreason- 
able great, that every- day tliey thrcwe a great deale of meate 
into tlie river, and tiiey (Iraiike wine of forty yeares olde and 
above. During thuie feiistvs which continued many dayes, 
his wife Mctelhi sickened, and dyed, and in her sicketies the 
Priestes uiul SoothxAyore willed Syila he should nut coinc 
neere her, nor sulFer hin house to Ik- polliiti-d and defiled with 
mouniin;; for the deiul. Whereiijion Sylla wan itivonsed 
fn>in luT in her sickencs, and eauKed her U> be cAried into an 
other houM-, wliilo^t she livmi. And thus dirl Sylla curiouKly 
obiterve tht^ Hupersticion and ordiuauncc of tite Sooth!«ayers : 
but yet he brake the law which he mode him nelfe, touching 
tlie order of funeralls, sparinge no coat at Metellaes burial). 
So did he also brcake an other order him selfe had made, 
touching tlie reformation of banckets : comforting his sorrow 
with ordinary feaAtes, full of all vanity and laseiviousnc^. 
\\'itliin H fewe monethes after, he had fcnsers games at the 
sharpe: and the roumes of the Theater being open and 
miKeveri'd, men and women sitting together, it fortuned that 
there wjis a faycr Lady, and of a noble house, that sat hard 
bv SvUn, called Valeria : she was the daughter of Mcssala, 


and ntit«r of Hortensius the orator, and had bene divoreed 
not long before from her hu&1»nde. 'ITjis Ladv passing by 
Sylla behinde him did softly put her hand on hia shoulder, 
and tooke a licare from of his gowne. and so went on to her 

1>lace, aitd sat her downe. ^^vlia niarvcling at this familiarity, 
Doked earnestly upon her : It is Dothing my Lord, (auod 
she) but that t dcsin- with others to be purUiker a litle of 
your happines. Her words misliked not Sylla, but con- 
trarily he shewed that she hiul tickled him with them : for 
he K-nt strnif^lit to n.'tke her name, and emjuinxl of what 
hmvw she was, luiil how she limi livod. But nfti-r many slye 
lucres U-twuic tiietii, Ihi-y tunieil Uieir faw* one to an other 
upon every occasion, with prety wniyling countenaunces : no 
tliat in thi- end, they came to promitte and contract m&riage 
together, for the which Valeria was not to be blamed. For 
though she wan am wijte, iia hiincit, and as vcrtuoiiH a Lady as 
could be jx)ssibie, yet tlie ix^asion that made Sylla mary her, 
was neither good nor conniiendahle, hicause ne was taken 
straight with a lookc and a (inc tongue, as if he had bene 
but a young boy : which commonly snew forth the filthiest 
passions of the niinde, to \k bo caried. and with such motions. 
Now, notwitlistanding ho had this fayer young Lady in his 
house, he left not tnc company of women minslrvlls and 
tuniblcrK, and to have pleasaunt jeasters and musitiaii^ about 
him, with whomo he would lye wallowing and drinking aJl 
the day long, upuon litle cowches mode for the tioiiest For, 
hi» mnipanions tnat were in greatnft estimucion with hiin at 
that time, wen^ thew- three : Itosc^ius a maker of common 
playes, Sorex a prince of st-iifier^i, and one Mctrobins a ringing 
inan, whom he wa.s in love withall while he livi^, and yet 
did not dissemble his love, though he wiis piLst age to lie 
beloved. This wicked life of his wa* caiisi^ of increasing hi* 
disease, the original! caust.^ whereof had a light foundacion 
at the firet For he lived a great time before he perceived 
that he had an impostuuu- in his body, the which by proccsse 
of time cun]c to corrupt his flcshe in such sortc, that it 
tum<Hl all to lice: so that notwithstanding he had many 
men about him, to shift him continually nigbt and day, yet 
the lyoe Uiey wiped away were nothing, in respect of them 



Valeria, de- 
sirDiu to tie 
SyllsM hap pi- 


Sylla niarit<d 
Valeria, tliL- 
Bister uf llur- 
UDsiiu tlie 

tutne turned 
to Ij-ce. 


Divers tiiin unit 
mini thatilyed 
of lyce. 

Syllnat com- 
contAina 22 

Syllaei Kontia 
tnat u'us dtfud 
Appeared tu 
him In htfi 
dreMii« in 
ill fnvtired 

■tTHUjteled ill 
S]rila«t eight 
by hbowne 



that mullipljcd atill upon bim. And there was neither 
apparell, linncn, iMthcs. washing, nor mcatc it spUc, but waa 
presently filled with swamios of this vile vcrmine. For he 
went many times in the day into the bathe to woshe and 
dense him Bctfe of them, bet all would not serve : for the 
chaunginfT of his flesh into tills piitriturc wonne it strttieht 
fl^lK. that tlierc was un clrnxing, nor shifline of tiim, that 
could kepe such « number of lyce from him. Some my, that 
in old time (ainonp-st the most Aimciciitest men, whereof 
thertr i.t any meiiiorv) Aco^tus the !)onne of reltan, dved of 
the lowAie evil! : an^ lung time after aUo, the Poet Alcman, 
and I'hcrecides the dcvine : and so did Calli&thenea Olvnthian 
in prison, and Mutiua a wi^ie lawyer. And if we shall make 
mcndon of those that are famous men, although it be not in 
any good matter: wc findc that a bonde man called Eunus, 
he that was the first procurer of the warrcs of the bondmen 
in Sicilia, being taken and earied to Rome, dyed also of the 
same dioense. Furthermore, Sylla did not only foresee his 
death, but he wnite some thing of it also : for he made an 
end of wryling the two imd twnitv booke of his coinmvn- 
taries, two dayes liefore he ilyed. tn that booke he xayth, 
that the wise men ofChaldi-n biul told him long K-fon-. tliat 
after he had IivmI honorably, he nliould ciide his itiiyeA in the 
flower of all his proajH^rity. And there In- sitytii also, tliat 
his Sonne (who deiiarted a litle liefon^ his mother ^letelia) 
appeared to him m hie sleepe, apparrelled in an ill favored 
gowne, and that comminge unto him, he prayed him he 
would go with him unto Mctella his mother, thenceforth to 
live in peace and ri'st with her. But for all hb disease, ho 
woidd not geve over to dcalc in matters of state. For tcnne 
daycs before his death he pai-ified a sedition, and tumult, 
riMO aniofu; tlie inlnibitantes of the city of Putcohtnum (in 
Italian called PoiEyx>lo) and ttterc he gave them lawcs and 
ordinaiinces, wherby tlit-v shoidd goverae them selves. And 
the day liefoi\' he dywl, ht-ariiig that Graiiius who was in 
debt to the commtm wenltli diTt^rnsI |wymiiit of his money 
lookins for hia death : he sent for him, luul made him come 
into his chamber, and there caused his men to eoinnasse him 
about, and oommaunded them to strangle him in )>ix Kight. 


The passion of his anger was so vehement against him, that 8YLLA 
by the extreame stiaitiinc of him wife, hv brake the impos- 
tuDie in his body, so as Uicrc gush€(l out n wontk'rfull (fcalv 
of blood : by reason whrrvof his strength failing hitn, he was 
full of {mine and paim>s that night, niid so dyed, h-aviiig Sy)lae«dmth. 
the two Irtle childim lie hml by Metella. For Valeria wtw 
brought to bed of » <lniightcr alU'r his dciith, whidi vrat 
call<xl PoKthunno, bicftui«e thv Roiimiu'jt call those children 
that Arc borne after Uie death of their fatht'Rt, Poithumi. PoHAumi, 
Now when Sylla was dead, many gathered alwut the ('onxull 
LepiduA to let that hU luidy sJiould not be honorably hurled, 
as they were aoeusti>med to bury noble pjeu and men of 
quality. But Pom()ey, though lie was angry with Sylla, 
bicausG he had gcven him nothing in his will, and had 
reracmbred all his other frendcs : yet he made somt for love, 
some by intn-ftty* and others with threatning to let it alone, SyllaM 
and avcontptinying tlie corps into Home, gave both safety '"'i*™'*' 
and honor unto the perfonnance of his funemlls. And it is 
aayd »l*o, that the Uomane Lndies, amongest other things, 
bt'stowwJ KiK'li a iiimnlity of perfinnesFiiid <>(lorif<'R>us matter 
towardei the wine : that besides thooe which wi-re brought 
in two hundred and teime greitt baskets, tliey made a great 
iinagt- to tlie likenea of Sylla hint selfe, and an otiicr of a 
serifeaunt caryine the axes l>efore him, all of excellent ineence 
and svnamon. \Vht'n the day of Uie funeralls came, fearing 
least it would raine in the forenone, all the element being so 
clowdy : they deferred to cary forth the body to be burnt, 
untill past three of the clocke in the aflcmone. And then 
rose there such a sodainv hoysterous winde, that it set all 
the stake of wodde straight a firr, that the body was burnt 
at a tryce, and the fin^ going out, fell a great shower of 
raim- that held on till night: so that it seemed good 
fortune following him even to hi» ende, did also helpc 
his obiwouicH after his death. His tomln* is to be seeno Syll»Mi 
ui the fielde of Mare, and tbey My that he him sclfc "piuphi!. 
made his owne epitaphe tliat is wrytten niion it, which 
was: iltat no man did e\'er passe hiin, neither 
in doing good to his frendes, nor in doing 
miachiefe to his enemies. 




OW Uiat WL- htit'L' nt Inr^^ alto wt forUi Uie 
life of the Komane, let ua uxiie to com- 
pare them both together. In tliia they 
are both a like, that botli of them grew 
to lie great men, rising of tliem selves 
through their oirae vertue : but this only 
is proper to Lysandirr, that all tho ofBccs 
aiiiJ dignities wluch he attaJnc-d tmto in 
the common wealth, were lajvd upon him through tJie jH-oples 
good wills and eonKeiiL-'. For hi-eonipelleti them to Dothingf, 
neither nsurued he uiiy extruortliniirie autliuritie uppon tttuni, 
vontraric to lawe : for, a» the cominun Miying is : 

Where mrtialitie, aiiil disoorde unce dou Tnii^iie : 

There wicked tneu nre mutt eeteemde, luid rule uitli grcat«t Ksine. 

Aa at that time in Rome, the people being eorruptet), aiid 
the state of government utterly subverted and brought to 
nouglit : to day there rose up one tyranne, to mopow an 
other. And therefore we niay not wonder if Sylla uaur 
ajid niled all, when Kuch fellonca as Glaucia and SatumintB^i 
did both banish and drive out of Rome such men as MetelUis 
was: and where also iti open assembly they slue Consuls 
sonnes in the market place, and where force of ajrmes was 
bought and sold for gold and silver, with the wh)c}i the 
souldiers were corrupted ; and wlwit they made new lawcs 
with fin- and .<wonl, and forwd men to obey the same. Yet 
1 Kpeake not thi^ in reprnoche of liim that in sneh trouble- 
Koine time* founde mcanes to make him Kclfe the grattest 
Tho chicTe man : but to tihvw that I mea.''ure not his honesty by the 
ppnHiaUnot dignity he grew unto in so unfortunate a city, altliougb Iw 
atwaj^wthc |)C(!anie the cldefe. And as touching him tliat aime from 
Sparta (at what time it florishid uiot^t, and vrai the btut 
governed common weale) he in all great vauHot, aiid id most 



honorable offices, was reputed tor the liest of all betta, and LYSANDER 

the chiefe of all diiefes. Wherefore it liappeiied, that the *'"' 

one resigned up Uie authority to his contry men, the citi/-<'iȴ, SYLL.\ 

which they haa geven him, who also restored it to him agtiinc 

many ana sundry times: for the honor of his vertue did 

alwayes remaine, and made him justiv aecompted for the 

wortliicst man. Where the other being once only chosen 

general] of an army, remained tenne veares continually in 

warres and hotitilitic. making him sdfc by force, sometime 

ConsuU, somtime vice Consul), and somtimc Dictator, but 

alwayes continued a tyranne. In dcdc Lysoiidcr attempted 

to chauDgc, and alter the state of govemmtMit in his contriv, 

howbcit It was with greater lenity, and more lawfully then 

Sylta did. For he sought it by rwwon.and good pcrswasion, 

not by the sword : neither would hv innke n chwunge of the 

whule at oni- sclfi- time ns Sylla did, but souglit only to re- 

ibrme the election of kingeii. 'ITie which thing acc^ording to 

nature, doubtlesse seemed very just: that he which was th« 

best amongest good men, should l>e eliosen king of that citie, 

which was the chiefe over all Greece, not for her nobility, 

but for her vertue only. For like as a good hunter doth not 

seeke for the whelpo of a good dogge, but for the good 

dogge him selfe : nor a wise man of armes also, the colte 

that commeth of a good horse, but the good horse him selfe. 

Even so, he that taketh upon him to stablish a civill govern* 

mcnt, committcth a fowte fault: if he lookc of whom his 

Prince should be borne, and not what the Prince him scife 

should be, oi>nsid(.'ring that the Lacodicmonians them wive* 

have dcprivi-d diverse of their kinges from their en iwnv and 

rcaime, oicntwe they were not Princely, but tmprofitable,and 

good for nothing. Vice, although it be in a noble man, yet 

19 it aJwnycs ill of it wife : hut vertue is honored for her 

selfe alimc, and not bicAiiNc Khe is placed with nobility. 

Now for the wronger and iojurio Ihoy both committed, the Ly*an<l«ra 

one did worke only to iiK-asun- his frorides, and the other to •"<' Syll»« 

offend them to whom lie wn» bounden. For it is certaine, '""'**■ 

that Lysander did great wronges to gratifie his famillinrs: 

and the most parte of them whom he put to death, was 

to cstabli&h the tynmnicall power of certaine his frendnt. 

8:ss aai 






and mode- 
ntt« Uf*. 

SyllnM liomu 
tiduaund jirti- 
dig«ll Ufn. 

olwll nying. 


\Vhere Sylla sought for spite to take away his army from 
Fompey, and the Admirallty from Dolobella, which lie tiim 
selfe hail s<^eD, and faiised Lucretius OfTelU to be slninv 
openly in his owne fight, bicause he sought to be CuiikuI), 
for n'Oimncncc of the good service he hiul done : fcir which 
cruelty ofhis, causinge his uwne frendcs to be rslniiie in sueh 
sorte, he nuule every man ufeard of him. Fiirtheniiore, 
tlieir behaviors toucluug oovetousrRv and {ilcMure doth aliew, 
tbat thv intent of tlte one was the desire of a gDo«l I'riaoe, 
aiid ttie other, that of a tyranne. For we doe not finde 
that LytMider, for all his gn-ut Printx-ly authority, did ever 
use any jntujleiicy or hi>eivi(iuKiie.s in hin dei-de-s but alwavefl 
avoyded an much a.i a man might, the re[>roache of Uiis 
common proverbe : ' Lyons at home and Foxes ahroade': He 
led such a true Laeontan life, straightly reformed in all 
pojiites. Whore Sylla could never moderate his imlawfull 
lustes, neither for poverty when be was young, nor yet for 
1^. when it came ii[)on nim. But whilest he gave hiwes to 
the Uomniim touching mutrimoniall hDm>stie and chastiUc : 
him »elfe in the iiH-aiic time did nothing but follow love, and 
commit ndultrivs, kk Salust wr<,-tt*tb. By nteiuH-K whereuf 
he so mucli im]H>verished Rome, and left it so voyde of gold 
and «iKx*r: that for n>ady money he »>ld absolute free<lome 
unto tlte citie-t their eonfcdemtvjs yet wiui it h'w (hiyly study 
to confiscate and take for forfeit, the richest and most 
wealthiest houses in all tlie whole citie of Konte. But all 
this ajxiyle and havokc was notliing in coiupariHun of that 
which lie dayly cast away upon his ieasters and flatteTers. 
What sjMuing, or measure may we thuiKe he kept, in his gifles 
at private bmickets ; when openly in the day time (afl the 
peojile of Home being present to see him sell the goodes 
wliicli be had cattM-d to he confiscate) he made oue of his 
freiMJCK and fumilians, to tritsse up a great deale of ttotise- 
liold HtufTe, for a very litle price. Aud when any t)th<'r had 
out bidden his price, luid tliut the crier had eriul it out 
alowde : tlien wan he angry, aud wiyd : My frendi^t, I have 

frvat wrong done me here, not to sulTcr nie m-II tlie sjMjile 
have gotten at uiinc owne pletuttn', imd di>{>0M.- it as I list 
inv selfe. Where Lymnder contrarily M>nt to the coninwo 


wealth of Sparta, willi other uioiwy, the very prpeentes that LVSANDER 



were gcven to him selfc, Aiid yet 1 do not commcndo him 
in that deede, Foi, peradvontnrc he did more hurt to 
Sptrta, brining tiitthcr that gold and tdlver: then Sylla 
did to Rome, in wa:(ting and consuming that he conmimed. 
Howbcit I allca^' this onely, for jiroofe imd declaration that 
Lysaiider wiw nothing covetous. Tliey l>«th liave done tliat 
unto their citie, which m-ver any oth<T hiit tliem wives did. 
For Sylla being a riotous mid liocnttoiiK man, brought hi« 
citixeni* iiotwitJistatKliitg to good order niul government : 
and Lysondcf eontrnrilv filleu hiH citie with vice, yet not 
infected withall hin» si-lfe. 'Hiiis were they l)oth onVndon^ 
the one for breaking the law he eommaimded to be kept, 
and the other in niakine tlie citizens worse then he was 
him seife : for he taught the Spartans to desire those 
thinges, which he above all things had learned to despise. 
And thus much eoneeniing peace and rivill government. 
Now for matters of warre anil battelb foiigbt, there is no 
comparison to be made of Lysunder to Sylla, neitlM-r in Syltu fbr wan 
numoer of vietorit% nor in huHinl of battell. For l>v*ander tu W pre- 
wanne only but two Ijatteils l>y »ea. Iiesidw the Ukiiig of the fentdMote 
citie of Alliens : which (though I grnunt him) l>eing rightly '^^"* *'' 
considered, was no givat exployte of warre, howheit it was 
a noble act, considering the fame he wan by it. And an 
for things which happened to him in Ikeotia, hard by the 
citie of Aliartc : a man might say peradventure that he had 
ill hieke. Hut yet me thinkes also there was a fault in him, 
for that he stayed not for king Pausanias aide (the which 
came from Platees immediatly after his overthrow) and bicauae 
he went in a geere in fury, and in a vainc ainbition to runoe 
hia head against a wall : so that men of all sortes makii^ a 
desperate salye out of Alin^t1^ upon him, shie him there to 
no purpose. Farrr unlike to C'leomlm>tus that din! at the 
bnttell of Lcuctres, rcwisting hi« enennc-i that dintn-3ts<-«l his 
meti : nor yet like CynL-s nor Eimminonda-s, who to keepe 
hid men from flying, and to geve them a.<t!>ured victory, re- 
ceived hiR deadly wounde: for all these men dyed tike noble 
kings, and railiant Captaines. Where Lysanaer rashly cast 
him aetfe away, to bia gKut dishonor, by too much venturing: 




Sf III fmigtit 
witb inaD ixf 

power and 




proving thoivbv, Ui«t the auiK-ic-nt S|iartam tiid like wise 
invii, to n\'(>)'ik- the light with Hnilfx. For the noblest 
and v«]]JM)t«»t niaii tlwt i-s or p<KtAil>te can be, msj' easily 
be Ko slaine, not onely by the tint iiouldier that commcth, 
but by every sedy woman or cliilde. As they say that the 
worthy Adiillod) was killed by Paris within the very gates 
of Troia. Now to the contrane ngaine, the victoncs tJtat 
Svlla waune in set battells, and Uie thowsandcs of (■m.-miest 
wVich he slue, are not easilv to be niunbred, bcwitli^ also 
that he tooke the city of llome twise, and tlie luiven of 
Athens : not by famine as Lvsander did, btit by fon.v, after 
he hod by many KTcat battclls driven Archclaiu out of firme 
land, into the niaine «^ It is to be conwitb.ivd nUo, against 
what Caplaines they niadi- wamis. For mc thinkes it was 
but a ptutime, m a mm might ny, for Lysander to fight 
with AntiochuK, a |iylot of AlcibindvM, or to surprise and 
decdvv Philoclut, a common omtor at Athenii : 

Murli nurse t)ii>ii twu eJ^il ttwiml. his busle toi^M diJ ■Mm* : 
miicli )initled Mil], and liunesUe djd oervr oncv ectoewe. 

And whom Iklithridates (in my opitiion) would not voucho* 
safe to compare with his honwkeeper, nor Marios witli one of 
his sergeauntes or mascbean-rs. Hut to leave a side thv 

iiarticuuir nain«s of all other Princes, Lordeii, ConsuUic, 
Vnrton, Cl^Aptaincs, and Goremont that made warre.^ with 
Sylla : what Roniane ('aptitinc was then.? more to l>e fearvd, 
then Jhfarius? what kin^ living wa» there of xiich jiower as king 
Mithridates ? And of (ietiL-ralU and Ui-utenauiitt^ of armies 
in all Italie, were there any ev<-r inon- vidliant, tlien Lampo- 
nius and Thelesinus : of the whieh Sylla dra\-e the one away, 
and brought the other to obey hiin, and alue the two last ? 
Btit the greatest matter of all tliat we have spoken of yet, in 
my opinion was, that Lysander did all his noble actee, v.-ith 
the aide of his whole contric i where Sylla to the contrane 
did his, (hcing banished from his eontr)) by his enemies. 
And at the selie same time that they drave Syllaes wife out of 
Rome, tliat they ovcrthrewe his houses, and slue his frcndcs 
also in Rome : nc notwithstanding made warrcs in the mcanc 
timv with itifiiut« thowsandcs of fighting mcu in Bceotia, 


and viiitrvd hix person in manifold ilaungera, »» tliat in the 
end he con()Uvred tlii-in nil to the honor (uid betidit of his 
coutty. Fiirthormoiv, Sylla would ncvvr Ktoupe to king 
Mitlmdatei, for luiy particular allyance he olTred him, 
neither yeelde unto him for any aide of men, or money, to 
warre a^nst hiti enemies ; hut a thing most chiefely to he 
noted above the rest, he would not voutiiesafe to sjjcakc 
to Mithridates, nor to take him by the tiande oncly, before 
he had spoken it with hb owne mouth, and faithfully pro- 
miaed, that he would forgoe Asia, deliver him his gallii-s, 
and geve up the realmes of Bithynia and Cappodoeia unto 
their naturkll kincics. This mc thinkes wat thi- fi>oodli<«t act 
that eviT Sylhi did, and procn-ded of the gn-iiti-st magna* 
nimity, to h«vi- prvferrwl tht- bent-fit of the cummim wealth 
In that «>rte, Ix-fon- his private cuuimudity. For tlieriii 
he wa« like unto a cockI gTx;yhotmd that fintt pinchetli the 
deare, and hoUletli him fust, till he luivv uwrthrowen him : 
and then afterwardes fulloweth tlie recovery of his owne 
private i|uarrell. And lastly, me tliinkos it i« easily judgi'-d, 
what ditlircnce tlien,- was betweiie tlieir two natureis in that 
they did lK)th tuwnnles Uie citie of Athens. For Sylla 
having taken it, after Iht- eitixens had made fierce warres 
with nim for the ineream> of king Mitliridates greatncs: yet 
he left it free unto titem, enjoying their owne lawes. Where 
Lysander to the contrary, semg such a mighty state and 
Empire as that, overthrowen from the groat rule it bare, had 
no pity of it at all, but tooke away the iibertie of popular 
eovenuncnt, whereby it had bene governed of long time 
before : and cstahllslicd there very cruell and wicked tyrnns. 
And therforc in mync opinion, we shall not much swarw from 
troth, if wc eevc this judgement : that Sylla did the grvat«r 
acts: and Lysander committed the fewer faultni. And 
that wc gcvi.- to the one the honor of a coiitin<-nt and 
modest nuin : and to the other, the cnmmenda- 
cion of a voiliant and skilfull aouldier. 




Sytlaes mtif(- 

judgement of 
Sylla aoil 




hia poaterit)'. 

ERIPOLTAS tlic Soothsayer, he that 

brought king OpheltJis out of 'i'heasalie 

into tbf contrj- of Baotia, with the 

i>copIc which wtfT iindrc his obi-dicnce : 

li-ft A [lOkt^-rity nAt-r him tliat long time 

Horishwl in Uiat nvntry, the mure f»rte 

of the which wt-n:- ewr rcsidnit in the 

city of ('hieninL-H, hinkiisi- it wti.* the first 

city that wtL-< coti4)iMTe(I from Die Imrlmroii^ people whom 

they expulmil tltenoe. All they thst vaine of tliat moc, 

were commonly men of great oora^, and naturally geveii to 

the warres: wlm were so forwaro and advtntumiw in nil 

daunj^ra thei-of (in the invasions of the Medi-s into Gruece, 

and in tlie battells of the GauleH) that they were slaine all 

of them, but onely Damnn (a Ittle childe left fatherle^w 

and motherlcsse) Buninmed I'eripoltas that escaped, who for 

goodly pcTsonage uid noble contge excelled all the lusty 

Tie nuinen youthcs of his time, though othcrwis«> he wm niT ntdc, and 

""■* ' "" of a seven.- nature. Now it forttined, that when Dumon waa 

growcn of full af;!', a Roiiinne ('aptiiiiie of ui eitsignc of 

footenien (lyiiiR in gtirriwm for the winter »«a«on in th«' citi* 

cJ Chirronea) fell in grt'At love with Damon: and bicnuse 

he could not ren]>e the fntte^ of hiti dishoneiit love by no 

intreaty nor cifl^ there appeared vdiement preimnpttonH 

that by force ne went about to abuse him, for that Chseroneii 

at that time (being mv naturall city where I was Iwrne) wan 

a small thing, ana (being of no strength nor power) title 

regarded. Damon mistrusting the Captaincs villanic, and 

detesting his abhominable desire watched him a shrewd 

tume, and got eertaioe of his companions (not many in 

numhei', btcause he might the morr secretly compasse his 

tnterpri«e) to bo a counsel with him, and take his parte 

against the Captuine. Now there were a sixteenv of them in 

consort together, that one night blacked their bees all with 


and lewd 

bamnn Peri- 


sootc, (Uid the next inoniing after th«v hud dronke together, CIMON 
by the bfx-jike of day Act u|k>ii tliis Komtine Captaiin-, tJmt 
wiu nikkirig ^acnticc in tlie iiiark<-t pWe, and >\\ie liiin with 
u good number uf his nieii : and when they had dune, fled 
out of the citie, which was Rtraiglit in a great uprorc for the 
ulurther ooroinitt^. 1*hereuppon they called a counsell, 
and in the market place condemned Damon and his con- 
federates to suffer paines of death : hoping thereby to have 
cleared their iimotciicic for the fact done to the Roraainefl. 
But the sclfc sainc night, as all the magistrates and officers 
of the city werc at supper together id the townc houoc 
according to their cu«tomc : Uuinon and his followers stale 
upon them Kuduinly, slue thviii all, and fltnl aguine upon it. 
It chuuniK^ about that time, that LuciuK LucuUus being 
Kent on somo jnniey, passed by the city of Chierunea with 
hw army : and bicau«> this miirther wa.i hut newly done, he 
ktayed there a few dayes to examine the troth antl urigiiiall Luciu* Luoul- 
tliereof. And found tliat the commons of the citie were in lu*e""n"mrtli 
110 fault, but Uiat they them selves abo hod mvivitl hurtc: ^emrther 
whentpou he tookc the souldiers of the Koinarics that 
remained of the garrison, and caried them away with him. 
In the meanc time, Damon destroyed all tlie contry tlicn- 
al}oiit, and still hovered Dccrc to the citie, inHomucli om the 
tnbabitantes of the same were driven in the end to send unto 
him, and by gentle wordes and favorable decrees handled bint 
BO, that thcv intvscd him to come againe into the city ; and 
when they had him amougcst them, they chose liim Gyni- 
naaarchuK, to say, a mantcr of exercises of youth. But 
shortly afU-r, a« tliey were rubbing of him with oylc in hi.i 
stoovc or hott£ hoUM*, ntarke luiked ax he wiu, they slue him Dumun aluiue 
by treason. And bicausc tluit there appeared sprights of ^y treaiuiu. 
Imig time after in that place, and that there were heard 
groniiigK and »ighingtt as our fatlient tolde iik, they caused the 
don^ of tlie hotte house to l>e nidled up : yet for all that, 
llicre are visions scene, atui terrible voyee» and crie.-« hcani u] 
tliat selfe place unto thi» present time, as the neighbours 
dwellinge by doe teatifie. Now they tliat were di»cen4led of 
this Damon (for there arc yet of his race in the c<jiitrie of 
rhoddes, necre unto the citie of Stiris, who do only of all 




tbc troth. 

HlMarte, to 

• MrtalM 

A prrty 


etfatf both kcepe Uw ki«i»e» and mocis of tk AaU«») 

m ***'*'' nJOOKNIiailt MgBu^IWB DlKU^Bao MHDCTnl Wltll 

note: bicaiw thrt Dknoa odlm fcOowM did y^ke their 
hwwfthMBfc yrtaa tfcqriluettgB— BBeCytifae. Bottlw 

■ad ihtrtcm tbeir n>gT n i ff'i bTcnd od inCDmer of 
m«*Hy™ meeaaetf to acciue Uk vbole dtie, (as if it had bene 
flOe privste pcsiaa •looe) for the inurtbo- of tbe ! **——«— 
vlione DuBon and his eaaqaaiaa* had drinf The todite- 
OKiit WW drawen. and the OM flwdeJ bdbfv the gDvemar 
of Maeedoo, for that the Bowiw did Knd no g oremoia 
at that tioie into Gmxx : and tfir wiimwIVif tfaat pleaded 
for the dtie of Cbxrooem^ rdled upon tbr testiiiiaaie of 
Lndus Lucvilui, referring them acmi to Ue rcporte, who 
knew the tnth. and bow it waa. T Tta e u poB te (^ovonor 
wrote nnto him, and Lucullus in bii letter of auimrnv 
adrutbtd the tci^ troth : ao wa» our dtv dcared of the 
■ecuntioD, which otberwMe atoode in oaumer of utt«r 
deatnictioEL The inhabitaBtea of the city of Charaoea, for 
that tbejr had escaped the daanger bj testimonie of Luciua 
lAcnDoa, to honor him wtthall, th«Y set up hi* image in 
■tone ia tiie matlcet place, next unto' the image of Baosbtia. 
And we abo that he linng at this preaent, tboqgh many 
jreana be gaot and passed sence, do ootwiihstandiiw reekcA 
our selves partakers of hb foKTWUwed benefit. Anabicsuse 
we are powadrd, that the image and portraiture that 
maketh ta acquainted with mens manners and eoulieioDs, t* 
' Cure more excellent, then the picture that rrprnnitt^h sn; 
Bam penon or ihape onlv : we wiU comprvhend his life and 
doingn acoordin^; to the troth, in this volume of noble mens 
livca, where we doe compare and K>rtc thrm one with an 
other. It shalbe sufficient for i» therefore, that we shew 
our selrm thankcfull for his bene6tT and we thinkr, that be 
himsrlfc would iniUtke for reward of hi* tnie te^tunonie, to 
W m(uitcd with a favorable lye told in hU behalfo^ But 
like a« when we will have a pasmn^ fnyer face drawen, and 
lively cnuntetftated, and that lutli lui vxcellcnt good srace 
witiudl, yet aone mannrr of bletuni^lte or im|)erfection in it : 
we will not allowe the drawer to kitve it out altoeetber, nor 


yet too curiously to shfu-c it, bicauHC thv one would Uefonne 
the countcrfratc, niui tlie other nmlcc it vt-ry unlikely. Even 
so, bicauM.- it is n hard thing (or to lutv better, peniaventure 
inipowible) to ilwttribt? ft man, whose life should altogether 
be innocent, And jK-rll-ct : we must llmt ^tuily to wr>'te bis 
vertues at lur^-, and thereby seeke perfectly to re^iresent the 
truth, e\en an the lifi- it selfe. But uliere by chaunce wc 
finde certaine fiiultes and errois in their doiiiges, proceeding 
either of pasaion of the luinde, by nevesstty of the time or 
state of the oommon wealtb : they are rather to be thought 
imperfectionn of vertue not altogether accomplished, tncn 
any purposed wickedncs proceeding of vice, or certAJnc 
malice. Which we sJiolI not nccde too curiously to espreiwc 
in our hiBtory, but rather to p(bt»e thcni li<{titly ovit, of 
reverent shame to the nieere fniycltv of iiinn-f riatun-, which 
cHii nut bringc ffwrth a man of kucIi vi-rtue aiid fHTfiVtiun, 
but thcHT is ever some impi^i-ctiun in him. And therefore, 
conxidering with my wife unto wbome I might compare 
Lucullus, I (hiiii<rht it lH>t lociinnmre him with Cimon.bicauAe 
they have bene Ixilli vulliant ainildiers against tlieir enenii(%, 
having butli done notable exploytes in warreft againat the 
barbarou.H pit>plo : and moreover, they have both bene cur- 
teous and mercifull unto their citizens, and were both the 
only uien that nacttied the dvill warres and disscntion in 
their contrie, ana both the one and the other of them wan 
notable victories of the barbarous people. For then; wi»s 
never Greecian Captainc iKfore Cimon, iKir Komane Cuptaine 
before LucuUus, tnat had mode warres so fnrrc of from their 
contrie leaving a parte the dccdcs of Biiediu.'' and of Herculm, 
and the deedcs nJso of Pcixeus, against th<^ .^JthiupiiuiH, the 
Mcdee, and the Armenians, and the dcedt?! uf laMtn al^i : if 
there rcmaine any monument extant »ince their time, worthie 
of crwiit in these our dayni. Furthermore, herein they are 
to be likeni.-d togellver : that they never ended their warres, 
they only overthrcwc their aiemies, but never overcame them 
altogether. Againc, they may note in them a great resem- 
blaunce of nature, for their lionestie, curteeie ana humanitie* 
which they nhewed unto straungers in their contrie : and for 
the oiagnifiuiucie and aumptuouwes of their life and ordinane 
3 : Tr 


I (owe to d»- 
■cribe the lifts 
uf n mail. 

C'ltnnn, and 
I.uniilliia la 
whnt thin^ 
thw wor« 




Cbnua il«- 
firnm] ill his 


CniMMu ouo- 


exptaice. It mav be we doe leave out soine other amUitodn 
tietwene them : bowbeit to the discourse of their lives thrjr 
will easily appeare. Cimon was the sotinc of Miltindcs and 
of UeKesipvIe, a ThraHan woman bornv, and the daughter oT 
king Inorus, as we findc wn-ttcQ in certaiiic povticall vcnei 
which Melanthius and Archclaus have wrytten of Citnoa. 
The father of Thucjdidcs the historiographer him aelfe, who 
wu of kinnc also unto Cimon, was called in like manner 
Olorui, Amnng bv the agiveii^ of the oame. that this king 
OlortH WM one of his aunccstcn, and did abo potacsse mines 
of gold in the conti^- of lliracia. It i* «yd moreover that 
he d)..-d in a certainc place called tl»i- dit<liie forrert, where 
he wa<k nlaine : honlteit tluit his aahcH and bones were caned 
into the contrtc of Attica, where hia tombe appearetb yet to 
thb day, aniongeiit the touibcs of theui of uie bouse and 
bmily of Cimon, neere unto the tombe of Cinums ownc siiler 
called Klpiiiice. Notwithatandiiig, lliiKydidea ww of tlic 
villa^ of Aliraus, and Miltiades of the t-illage of Ladn. 
Thif Tkliltjades Ctmons father, bein^ condemned by the state 
to |iay the eumine of fifty talentes, »-as for no» payment cut 
intu prison, and then- dyed : and left Cimon and hi* sister 
Klpinicc alive, both Oiphancs, and very young. Now, Cimon 
in iii" Unt young yoires had a veiy ill name and rcporte ro 
tliu dty, l>t-ing counted n riotous yotmg man, and a great 
drinker, following his giandfiither Cimons faciona up and 
downe, aa he had alao his name : Mving that htn grandiathGr 
for hi» beaatlines was Mimamied Coalemos, as muoi to sar as 
foole: Stesimbfotu-s lliasian, who wn» about Cimons tunc, 
wrjrteth, that Cimon never leamvd musike, nor any other 
of the liberall sciencea aocustonuibly taught to young noble 
mens sonoes of Greece, and tliat lie had no shame wjt, nor 
pood grace of speaking, a vertut- proper unto children borne 
in the contry of Attica : howbeit tJiat be was of a noble 
minde, and plaine, without diasimuladon, so that he mther 
lived I'eloponnesian like, then like an Athcoiaa For he 
waa even wii-h as the Poet Ktiripides described Hercules 


A limpU mail he wss, and MitU not well dligvlM: 

A> boii«st cice in thingts of wMgbt, as wJt muU wtU ieriae. 



This sen'ed fitly to be ftppliixl unto Stmrnbrotus wordvs CIMON 
wiytt«i of him : but notwithsUndinK. in his first youneo 
ycares he w«s guj«pected of inauitiiK-ncy with his sisttT, who Elpiuice 
in (leetle otherwi*e had no very good name. For slic was ("imonatirter 
very familiar witli tlie painter Polygiiotus, who pnintinc tlic ""'"■*'■ 
IVoiai) Ladies prinonerv, upon the woIIm of the gfuK-ry, 
called tlie Plesiatiaction, and tiow P<Gcile : (to my, »et out 
and beawtified with divers pictures) he drue (as they say) 
Laodices face upon P'.tpinicrt picture. Thia painter Poly- ['olynnotm 
gnotua was no common artificer nor hierling, tliat painted *•>• p*int«r. 
this gallery for moneys sake, but gave his labor franckely to 
the common wealth, as all the historiographers that wrote 
in that time do witnesae : and as the Poet Mt'lanthius also 
reciteth in these verses ; 

At hia oirne proper rharre, grent cuM he lifttli be8U>«eil : 
In decking up our temple* here with gihed roofe« emiwved. 
For honor of the Kodtles. And in our townc likewiBC, 
He hutli ndomd the i^ommoii plnce, with mnny k Itiic dcviie, 
Pkhiting nii<l netting forth, in lUtely show tn stfD, 
The imager ofAemy icnddot that hcr« omonKCtt uii be. 

Yet some say that Etplnici- did not si-cn-tly compnnio 
with her brotht-r Cimon, but lay with lum ojx-rdy as his 
lawfull maned wife, biaiuM' nHc <»tild not for her povi-rty 
haw a husband of like nobilitic and parentage to her K-lfe. 
Howbeit, that a ccrtaine man called Callia*, l>MHg one of 
the richest men of tlie citie, did aftcrwardes fall m fansie 
witli her, and dt^ired to niavy her, offering to pay her father 
Miltiadea line of tiftie talent^ wherein he stoode condemned 
a dolitcr to the state, so that he might have her to his »-ife. 
I Cimon was contented, and uppon that condicion maried his 

sister l^lpinic^ unto Callias. Iliis notwithatandingc, it is 
certoine that Cimon was somewhat amorous, and gevcn to 
love women. For Melanthius the Poet in ccrtaine of his 
elegies, maketh mencion for his pleasure of one Astcria borne 
at Salamina, and of an other called Mnestra, tw if Cimon 
had bene in love with them. But undoiilcdly, he lovwl 
his lawcfidl wife I.sodice marvelous well, the iiaught«r of 
I Euryjitolcmus, Megacles Sonne, and tookc her death vei^ 

f grievouslie, ns wc may cotijvctiire by the elegies that were 

^ 3S1 

beinft poar«, 
had re^nrde 
to tnutche Hc- 
state uid 

Cimon tubject 
to luHcivioua 



CIMON wtyttcn unto bin, to comfortc hint in his Mrowe. Panatius 
the Philosopher ia of opinion, that Archclaus the Phiaitian 
wrote those eWim: and sure it k not unlikely, considmng 
the time in which the? wore wrjtten. But furthonnore. 

The prdM of CimutiK tuLtiinr lunl <-onaicioits dvseneil gn.'wt ooinmendacion. 

Cinuiu con- For htN valliiiiitiie«»e he gwvc no plow unto Miltindcs, and 
tor \iu wi«tlonK- and juJgcinent, he was not inferior unto 
I'heniistocles : aiiij it ih out of all doubt timt tic wax a juster 
and hone&ter man, iJten dtlxT of tlieni botli. Fur Ik- wm 
equal! witli the l>e»t of either of hotli in the dii^ipiiite of 
warres, and for the vailiaiitnfsse of a nohle Capt&ine: and 
h* did much excell them both in the properties of a good 
governor, and in ttiadministracion of th« affayres of a citie, 
when he was but a voungc man, and bad no experience of 
worres. For when 1 heDiistoelcs at the comminge in of the 
Mcdes coiniselh'd the |K-opIe of Athens to goe out of the dtie, 
to leave their kndes tuul eontrie, and to shlp^x' into galliea, 
ami (i^ht with the barlmrous people bv wa m the straight of 
Sitliunina: i\s cvene man was wondennge at his bolde and 
vcnturoitx counseil, Cimon wiu the liret miui that went with 
a life ai]d jnlitte through thu .itrecte Ccrumirun, unto the 
cttiitell, acvom[>anie(t with htK youiwe &iniliiu> and com- 
panions, caryingt* a bitte of a oridle in his hitnde to con- 
secrate unio the goddejjte Minerva, signifyingt; Uterehv, that 
the eitie had no neede of horsemen at that time, liut of 
mariners and sea men. And after he liod gvven up his 
oiTerins, he tooke one of the targettes that hotige uppon 
the wall of the temple, and havinge made his praver unto 
Minerva, came downc to tJie haven, and was the first that 
made the most parte of the citizens to take a good harte 
to them, and coragioiisly to leave the taiMl, and take tlie 
sea. Besides all this, he was a man of a goodly stature, as 
Ion the Poet tcstiticth, and had a faycr curled heare and 
tJiicke, and fought bo valliantlic at the day of the battel], 
that he wannc immediatly great rcpntacion, with the love 
luid gixxl will of cverie man. So that many wen- still about 
him to etieonige him, to be lively and valljnnt, and to thinke 
Uienoe foortli t<i doe some aeten worthie of the glorie that 
hia father had gotten at the iMttvU of Maimtnoa. jVnd 

•oiucfl com- 


afterward)^ no aoone as he begaime to duile in matters of 
st*t«t the people were marvelous gUd of him, and were 
wwried with 'Ihemistocles: by meancs whereof Cimon was 
presently advaunced and prderred, to the chiefest offices 
of honor iji the citie, being veiy well thought on of the 
common people, bicause of his soft and plainc nature. 
Moreover, Aristides also did givatlie fiirder his odvaunce- 
ment, btcausc he sawe him of a good giiitlc iiiiture, and fur 
that lie would um.' bim as a coiuitix-{>c{L.M7 to cuntroll TIumius- 
toclcs cmft aud stowtaCTse. Wlien^'forc aftvr tht- Medcti 
were fled out of Greece, Cimoti being »cnt for by the 
Athenians fur their gericriill bv ^.-ii, when the citie of Atlictw 
hiul tlit-n no niiuiner of riili> nor eoiinnauiidement, but 
followed kinj:;e Faui«aniax and tite I^rediemoniima: he ever 
kept hi-Hi contaie men and eitiicens in marvelous good order 
in all the viages he niade, and they were readier to doe good 
service, then any other nation in the whole armie wltat- 
soerer. And when kinge Pausanias had practised with tlie 
barbarous people to betraye Greece, had wiytten abo to the 
kinge of Persia about it, and in the meane time delt very 
cruelly and straightly with the confederates of his oontry, 
and committed many insolent partes by reason of the great 
authority he had. and through his foolish pride whereof he 
was full: Cimon iiirre otherwise, gently entertained them 
whom Pausanias injured, and was wilhng to licarv them. 
So that by this his curtvou« manner, tiie Ijicedu-monians 
having no eye to his doingcs, he stale away the nile luid 
conimaundement of all Grecctr Trum them, and bri>u>;ht tlie 
AtheniuiN to lie sole Iconics of all, not by force and ciuvlty, 
but by liiK Hwcvtc tongue, and gracious manner of iiMng till 
men. For the nioxt itarte of ttic confedcruteK l)ejng no 
lengcr able to away with PRU,«nia.i pride and cruelty, canw 
willingly and submitted them Helves under the protection of 
Cimon and Aristides: who did not only receive them, hut 
wrote also to the i-ouiisell of the Kphores at lAeeda?mon, 
that they should call I'ausanias home, for Uiat he dishonored 
Sparta, and put all Greece to much trouble and w&rres. 
And for proofe hereof, they say that king Pausanias being 
ou a time in the citie of Byzance, sent for Cleonice, a young 


CimoQ Geoa- 
rail for th« 
by tea. 

KiuK Piiusaii- 
1m urough 
his inaoleney 
th« Laxvdir- 
muiiiniix all 
Iheir rule of 

tine Ti^n«. 


CIMON nuddca of a noblt- liuuae, to take hU pleasure of her. Her 
pftKutet dunt »ot keepe her from him, by reason of hu 
crueltie, but suffered him to cary her away. The young 
gentlewoman prayed the OToomea of Psusaniaa chamber to 
take away the liEntes, and thinking in the darke to come to 
Pausanias bed that wtu a sleepe, groping fur the bed as 
softly aa she could to make no noyse, &lic unfortunat^'lv hit 
against the lampc and overthrew it. The Calling of thv 
lampe, made such a aoysc, that it waked him on the tto<ltune, 
and thought straight therewithal! that some of hii ettetnics 
had bone comcn tmitcrously to kill him, wherupoii he tookr 
PaoMiiiM his dagger lying imder his bcddes head, and eu Ktalilnnl it 
**"*'' *»? '" *'""" >'*""'(? vginc, that nhv dyed immcdiatly iiiwn it. 
titf^.^^' Howlx-it she nurcr let PiiusaniaK take rert after tluit, oieause 
hvr Huiritc came every night luid Bp]>cared unto him, as he 
would foine have slept, and ^[wke this angrily to him in 
vcrw, as foDoweth ; 

K««{>« Uiou thjr aelte upright, anil luatice we thou fnrv. 

Fur «oe bdiI iham« b« nuto bim, that JusUee down* doth baar*. 

This vile fact of his did so stirrc up all the oonfcdRrates 
against him, that thvy came to besiege him in Bixaiitiuiii 
under the conduction of Cimon : from whom notwith- 
standing he escaped, and secretly saved him sclfc. And 
bicause that this mnicleiis Npirite would nevt^r let him re«t, 
but vexed him continually : he fled unto the city of 
Heniclett, where there was a. temple that conjured dead 
spiritcs, and tlicrc was the s^iirite of (,'leonice conjured, t" 
pray her to he contented. So xhc ap[>eared unto nim, and 
tola him that he tihould he delivercti of all his troubles bo 
soone as he came to Sparta: signifying thereby (in my 
o{>inioii) tl»e death which he shotild suffer there. Divers 
wryter* lio tlius reporte it. Cimon being accompanied with 
the confederates of the Greecians, which were come to him 
to take his parte: was advertised that ccrtainc great men 
of I'ereia, and allyed to the Viae himselfe, who kept the 
city of Eione, upon tl>e river of Strymon in the contrie of 
Thracia, did great hurt and dainiu^ unto the Grcccians 
inhabiting theieabouts, Upon which intelligence he tookc 




the sea, with liU urmic, oiid went thitlicr, where at his fint 
comming he vfuiquishinl wiil ovorthivwt.' the barlHiroiis iK'opK' 
ill batt«Ti : and hiiviiij^ wi-erthrowtn thL-iii, drnvi- kII the rvst 
IdIo the city of Eioiie. 'llmt done, ht- went to invade the 
Thraciatis that dwelt on the other side of the river of 
Strymon, who did comnuinly vittell them nf Eione: (Uid 
having driven Uiem to fdiMakc the contrie, he kept it, and 
was Lord of tlie whole him selfe. Whereiiimn lie held tlietn 
that were besieged at Eione so straightly fi'oni vittella, that 
Buteo the kins of I'ersJaes Lieutenaunt, dispayringe of the 
state of the dtie, set fire on th« same, and humt nim selfe, 
his ftendes, and all the goodes in it. Uy reason whei-eof, 
the spoyle taken in that citie was but smalt, hitause the 
barbarous people burnt all the best thingcs in it with them 
»eK*e8 : howebeit he coiujuen-d tlie pontnc thcrcahoutcs, and 
gave it tlic AtheuianM to iiihabite, being a vcrie plessaunte 
and fertyle soyle. In meniiiric wherwjf, the people of Athens 
HiitTered him to eonttecnite and tiet up openly three Hermes 
of stone, (which are foiire mjiiaiv pillers) upon the toppes of 
the which tliey set up heades uf Merciirye : upon the first of 
the three pillers, this inscription is graven : 

Th« people truely werv, of eunige lUiwte and UNCe. 

IV'ho bftvtDK >hut tlie Afviti^i fast up (ne slnriei do reliearce) 

M'ittiin the walti-d lowiie. of Eiouc thiit tj-de.. 

^Vhith oil llie '^itrtHine of Stryinou Btaads: thpy mnde them there 

The force of fflmii)e« pinche, and therewith made theni fecle. 
The dynte of wnrr* no mniiy a time, with Irimt)' toolt-n of itooie, 
"nil ill the end dinxurc. *o prarred in their thought, 
Aa thpr« they did dcitroy thrni selves, and no wen brought to 


Upon the second there is stuli an other: 

Thr citiiciu which dwRll, in Athens rtntcly lowiie, 
H«ve here »el up theii> monumeiit*. aiid picture* of rooowne. 
To honuT so ttiH fHcta, and ('<^ll^b^ltl! the iam<t, 
Their vallinut oil ieftai ties did achieve, in matiy a mnrthall game- 
That such ss after come, when they thereby perceive, 
How men of service for their deedes, did rich rewardu receive, 
Encon^ed may be, such men for to resemble. 
Id valltaiit a«t*, and dreadful! doedes, which moke thmr foes to 


and vict»rie 
in ThraciH. 

DatM baruoth 
nnd frenaM, 
far feu* of 

Statue* of 



■pake tt|{iuiut 
MilUwlen tc- 
quMt for the 
nrUud of 

Cimuii wnnii« 
the Jlo of 


And upon the third an other : 

U'hvn Moontfacuii dill Irjid forth of thU ritin hcrv, 

Ad nrmw to tlin Tmyntin wumsi, {by llonu'r dotli nppMiv) 

He wiu Bbuvi; Uic red, that out of UraKu went: 

A vulliiLut kui^lit. n wurthy <riKht, u Captatoe excellent. 

To lake in liund thi? I'httJge, w army for to guide : 

And eke W nm^e tliern orderly, !d MtleJI to abide. 

TbRt praiw of prgwMse then, (O gnrt Athcoieua) 

la DOW DO newM to All 111* turn of tliwe jvar dtaMu. 

Since through the world to trlde, tho fiime Bad worthy mjw, 

For menhiul fvntni, to you of y«rc hiith judgvd bc«D« uJwayee. 

Nmit, Uiotijrh (.'imoiiik iiaiiii; be not i-ompi-Ued iti thc^c 
iiucription.s yet tliey thought tliat this wa.4 a singular honor 
to him at that time: for neitlier Miltiades nor 'llieini-ttoctes 
had ever the like. For when Miltiades I'equeeted the people 
one day that they vroulde licence hint to weare a garland of 
olyve ooiighos upon his head : there was one Sochanrs, Ijome 
in the towne of Docck-a, that standing up in open assembly 

£!ikc against hint, and sayd a thing that marvelously pleased 
L- people, though in deedv it wtw an unthankeful rvoom- 
pvncc for the good service, he tuid done t« the ouroinon 
wealth. When you have Milliodcs, (suyd he) overxumc the 
iHurharoiM people alone in battell. then askc to be honored 
(done aUo. But howe wa.* it then, tliat Cimons service was 
w acceptable to the Athniiiui^r' Vt wat in myne opinion, 
bicaiuc they had with otlter Captains fought to <iefendc 
tiieiii selves and their contrio oiiely: aitd that under the 
conduction of Cinion, they had assulted and driven thvir 
enemies home to their owne dore.*, where they conquered thtf 
citiei of Kione and of Aniphipolis, which afterwardee they did 
inhahite with their owne dtueiiti, and wanne there abo the 
lie of Bcyros, which Cinion tooke upon this occasion. The 
Dolopians did inhabite it, who were idle people, and lived 
viithout labor or tillage, and had bene rovers of the sea of a 
wonderfull lone time, using pyracie altogether to maintainc 
them seh'es witliall : so Uiat in the end they spared not 
so much OS the marchaiint« and passengers tnat harbored 
in their havenis, but robbed certaiiie Thessibans that went 
thither to troBicke. ^Vnd when tliey luui taken their goodea 
&x>m them, yet would tliey cost th«m in pmou bcsidea, 


Howl>eit the priirancrs found nii>iui(.-« to uscapc, and aflvr 
they had sdveJ them sclvoti, rt^myrcd to the parliunent ot 
the Amphictyons, which 'm « f^'iiemll counscll of all Uit^ 
Rtatea oiiil people of Greece. The Ampliictyons undt^ntand- 
inge the matter, condemned the citie of the Hcyriaiu to giay 
a ffreat summe of money. The citixeuH refused to be con- 
tnbutaries to the payment of the fine, and bad tliem tliat 
robbed the inarchauiites and had the goodes in their handes, 
pav it if thej would. And therfore, bicause there was no 
otner likelyhood, but that the theeves them selves should be 
driven to aunawer the fine, they fearing it, wrote lettcre unto 
Cimon, and wilted him to come with his army, and they 
Would deliver their city into his hondcs: tlic which was 
performed. And thus Cimon having com|iiered this Hand, 
(Irave out the Dolopians thence, and rvd tlie sea i^Igeum of 
all pirateN therby. That done, remeniGriiig that the auncicnt 
Theseus, the sonne of /Kgeiw, flying from Athena came into 
that Ilaud of Scyron, where kin^ Lyconiedes suspecting his 
ctmiming had tniiteroiisly slaiiie nini. Cimon was marvelous 
carefull to seelce out hit tiimbe, bicause the Athenians had 
an oracle and propheeie, that commaundetl them to bring his 
ashes and hones backe againe to Athena, and to honor him 
as a demy god. But they knewe not where he was buried, 
for that the inhabitantea of the llandc would never before 
conferee where it was, nor sulFer any man to scekc it out, till 
he at the last with much a doe fouiide the tombc, put his 
bones abord the Admiral! galley sumptuously decked and 
set foortli, and so brought them againe into his eontry, foure 
hundred yoares after Theseus death. For tliis, the people 
thanked him mnr%-elousIv. and thereby be ivaime exceedingly 
the Athenians good willcs : and in mcmorie of hint they 
i-elebnitetl the judgement of the trn^ieall playes of the Foets. 
For when Sophocles the Foct, being « young man had played 
his first tragedy, AphcjHion llie president perceivince tliea-e 
was great strife and contention amongest the looKers on, 
would not draw them by lottex that should be judges of this 
play, to gei,-e the victorie imto that Foet tnat had best 
deserved : hut when (^mon an»l the other Captaincs were 
come into the Theat«r to see the same, (after they hud 
3:UU &87 


Tbfl ooumel) 
or the Am- 

bmuKht to 
Athena 400 
veres after 
nit ileath by 

cuu tell tiun for 


omeoina by 
ilweltetii iit 
8kJ)U, uid 
dyvth tbere. 

Chnoo MDK 

Cimoni cun- 
Biiu; divudon 
of ue iporlr. 


made their Accii-tUtmi-d ublatiomt unto the god, in honor of 
wbom tbje»c plu)'e« w(»« oelebratvtl) he xtaycid, luiii nuult.- 
them to minuter an othe unto tcnne, (which were of oc-ry 
tribir of the people, one) and the otlie being gevcn, he CAuscd 
t)M:ni to ut aa judeea to gtw Henteoce, which of tJie Poct« 
vhoutd eary away the prise. This made all the Poet<:3 ntrive 
An<l contend who best shoulde doe, for the honor of tiie 
judj^: but Sophocles, by their sentence bore away the 
victory. But ^lichilus (as they say) was so angry aud 
grievM withal), that he taried twt ioag after in Athena, and 
went for xpiehi into Sicilia, where he dyed aud wa& buried 
neere unto ttie citiv of Gvlii. Ion wryteth that he being but 
a youn^ lK>y> n<-«'ly come froiti Chio unto Athens, supped 
one nigtit will) (Jiiiton at LaonH-doos howe, and that arter 
supper when they had geven the goddes thankcs, Cimixi was 
intrcatvd by the company to sing. And he did King with ho 
good a grace, that evejy man praised him that heard him, 
nitd itayd !)(■ was more cui'teous then l'h«nii.>ito<-Ie!i fiirrv : wlio 
l>eing in like coinjiany, and requested aUo to play u[Mn the 
cithenie, auDsnercd them, he was never taught to Miig nor 
play upon the cithemt', howlx-it he oouhl niaKi- a pcwrc 
village to become a rich and mighty city. After that done, 
the company discoursing from one matter to an other, as 
it Mletn out commonly in upcechc, they entred in talke 
of Cimons doitigra : luid luivmg rehcanied the chiefest of 
them, hv hiui >elfc told one, which whs the notablest and 
wisest partv of all thi: ri-sl tliat ever he played. For the 
AtheniniiH tuxl th«-ir roiif<,xk-nttCH togctlter, having taken a 
grcut ntimbiT of bar1>arouH people prisonen, in the citiea 
of Svstoti and of UiKantium : the conrederaten to lionor him 
witJtall) gave him the preheminunce to devide tJte upoyle 
amongest them. Wliereupoon he made tlie division, and 
set out the lx>dies of the barbarous ncople all itakt'd by tin-m 
selves, and laveil the spoyles and their apj>arell by them st-lvos. 
The confederates founde this distiibution very unetjuall : but 
neverthcleMc Ciraon gave them the cboycc to cliooec whicli of 
the two they would, and that the Athenians should be con- 
tented witli that which they left So there was a Sandan 
Captaine called HcrophytiiK, that gave the confederat-t 


oouUBcl mUier to Uke the spoiles uf the I'ersianH, then the 
IVniiaiis thciii Helves, and so they did : for they tooke the 
H{>oile of Utc (trisoners Koodes and apparel), and left the men 
unto the Athenians. Wherupon Cimon was thought at that 
time of the cuiunion souldiers to be but an i)l devider of 
spoyli-, hicause that the confederate caricd nwnv great store 
of chained, karkanets, and l>mselets of gold, an<l goodly rich 

Eurpk- appar^ll bSIct the IVnian fAciuii : lutd the AtheiiiaiM 
rought away naked bodies of men, very tender aud un> 
acquainted with paine and labor. But Nhortly after, the 
parentea and ^ndes of these iirixuni'n, came out of Phrygia 
and Lydia, and rpdwniei! every man of them at a great 
raunNome: so that Cimon ^then^l xud] a mait.4e of rendie 
money together by tht-ir raunsiimt-, as he defrayed the whole 
dinrgt^ «l nil iitx galtie^ with tJie same, for the spaet^ of foure 
monetheit tifler, and left a great summe of monn bendes 
in the sparing treasure of Athena. Cimon by this meanes 
being nowe lK>eome richc, bestowed the gocmea which be 
had thus honorably gotten from the barbarous people, more 
honorably againe, in relieving his poore decayed dti7.enB. 
For he brake up all bis hittges unii incWures, and layed 
them plaine and open, tluit travellers jMivtJng by, and bis 
owne [)oore eitiix-'iis, might take as much (riite thereof iis 
they would, without any manvr daungrr. And furthermore, 
kept a oontiniuill taliie in his hotiw, not fttmished with 
many dishes, but with mwite sufficient for innny ih-dhkis, and 
where his poore conlrie men were dayly rvfri-Nlu-d, Unit would 
come unto tliat onlinary: mj at they net^fled not otherwise 
care to labor for their living, but might Ix- the n-adit-r, and 
have thv more Impure to serve the common wealth. Yet 
Aristotle the Philoscmher wiyteth, that it was not for all the 
Athenians indilferently, that be kept this ordinarie table: 
but ffff bis poore townes men oncly in the village of Lada, 
where be was Imme. Furtbermore, he had alwayes certalne 
young men waiting on him of his household servauntcs well 
apparrelled, and if he met by chaunce as he went up and 
downe the cttie, any oldo ciuxen poorely arrayed, he made 
one of tbeae younge men strip him sclfe, and chaimge 
apparell with tlK oldc man : ancT Uiat was very well thougnt 


SamUn, f[ave 
Cuuiiiteil Ui 

chuoie the 

Cim«iii liber- 
iJity and 



How Cinwo 




of, and ttiey all honored him for it Moreover, these 
jToung men csned ever good stora of money about thvni : 
and when the;y met wiUi any honest poore citizen in the 
market place, or cUc where, knowingc his povertie. they 
ecerctty x&vc him money in his hande, and wyd nwcr a 
woide. Which the Pot-t sclfe Cmtin\i« siiincth to spcokc 
of, in u comcdie of his )iitittdt.-d the JrchUixltet. 

I Am Melrobltts the Becretarle, he, 

Which did my MUe Mouro (in fe) woll chniahml b> be ; 

At ir(«Ithl« Cbnom bordo, -niun want na* neTrr found, 

\V'h(i(« dtttriWtioiM u>d lu* alnas did to thr poorv abound. 

Thnrr thi>ii|(bt I for to pwe mjrDO »fed jc*m awajr, 

^V'ith that rijtht iiohle Kodij nuu), which ww the Gtokudb >tay. 

I'\irthvnn<>re, Gorgios Lcuntinc Mtytl, tliat Cimon got 
Koodes to tuw them, and tliftt he lucd them to be honored 
by tbeui. And Critiiw that was one of tlie Uiirty tyrannes 
of Athens, he wuheth and desirvth of tlie goddes in his 

Tbs godd« of Scopw htymi, the gnat magtMetnc; 
And noblo hut of Cimon he, who aporod none exponcc ; 
Tho glarioiw rictorira, and high triuniph*&t Aoms, 
Of good Agniinuii kin^K, i;oodgoddn,ohgtsuiit mi: those. 

Tlic name of Liehas Spartan, hath bene fiunous amongcst 
thi- Greeciaibi: and yet ve know no other cbiim.- why, caving 
Uukt he tiMtl to f(«sl Mtnuingers that came to Lfin.-da*mon on 
their A-NtivutI day, to mx the sporU« and rxereist-s of the 
yoiitig n]cn dauiMinj; naked in the dty. But the mafnii- 
Hcence of Cimoti, did furrc cxoeede the anncient libeimlitjr, 
curtesie, and hoapitalitie of tlie Atlieniana: for tbev of all 
other were the first men tltat taught the Greedanfl tWoiigh 
out all Greece, how tliey HhouKl >u)w come, and gather it to 
nuintaiiie them selves uiUiall, and nl-w shewed tniem the ti»e 
of wcllc», and hone they »liould light aud keepe fire. But 
nnoiM godljr Cimon makinge an hoepitall of his owne house, where all 
"'~ his poorv citiaens were fed and relieved, and pennittinge 

MtnungcTs that travelled bv hU grouudea to gather such 
frutes then.', as the time ancf season of the yearc yeldcd : he 
brought agoinc (as it were) into the world, the goodcs to be 

Th« hocpttsl- 
■tjrof lielua 





ID common «inonKe!>t th«.iii, an tho Poeta say they were in 
the old time of bAtumes raigne. And now, where some 
occased Uiis Iionmt liberality of Cimoii, objecting that it 
was but to flatter tlie common people withall, and to winnc 
their good willei by thst meanes : the maner of life he led, 
accompanying liis liberality, did utterly confute and over- 
throw their opinions that way of him. For Cimon ever 
looke parte with the nobilitie, and lived afler the Laceda:- 
monians manner, as it well apjx^arcd, iu that he- was alwaycs 
a^nst The mist odes, who without all compnssc of n-a»on 
ciicreased the authority and power of the people : an<l for 
this cause he Joyiied with Anstides, and was againnit Ephi- 
altcs, who would for the peoples sake hnvx' put downc and 
abolished AriopRpus courtc. And where all oilier governor* 
in his time were extorcionom, and bribetaker*: (Ari.itidft. 
and K|itii«lt(-s only exeeplwl) lu- t" the cuiitrane led an 
uncorriipt life in nd n i in ii^t ration of justice, and ever had 
cleane liands, whattoever he snakt.- or did, for the state and 
common wealth, and would tlierefore never take money of 
any man living. And for proofe hereof, we finde it wrytten, 
that a noble man of I'erida called Kesaces, being a traitor to 
his master tlie king of IVmia, fled on a time unto Athens : 
where being continually bayteti and wearied, with the 
common accusations of these tale bearers and picke tlmnks, 
that accused him to the people, he rcpayred at the length 
unto Cimon, and brought him homo to his owne doru two 
bowleg, thone full of darickes of gold, luid the other of 
darickc* of silver, which ix- iktcc* of money so called, 
Iricauitc that the name of Dunus wa.'« written upon them. 
Cimon wi-ing this oRer, fell a laughing, and oskeil him 
whether of tlic two he would ratlier choose : to have him 
hia freiide, or his hierling. The barbarous noble man 
aunsirered him, that he had ratlier have him his frend. 
Then sayd Cimon to him ogaine, Away with thy golde and 
silver, and get thee hence : for if I be thy trend, that gold 
and silver shall ever be at my conimaunderoenti to take and 
dispose it as I have neede. About that time bcsannc the 
confctlcrates of the Athenians to be weary of we warres 
against the barbarous people, desiring thenceforth to live 



brouftht the 
Kuldeo world 

Cimvnii in- 
teirrit)- luid 
cl«uii) hands. 

attemjited to 
bribe Cimon. 

"hereof M> 

A nnblo uy- 
iiiK of (^imoti. 


"Tk* benellt of 
htvIm: kBd 
moility or moo 

pLifued th« 


qtiitftljr, and to haw kiinin' to nmnurc and hiutlNuiil UiHr 
grouiidcs, and to tnd&ckv nlso, vonsidcring that Uii*y luul 
driven tl»cir itwiitivs out of tiieir cootric, ftnd tlutt nuw they 
did them no tiior* hurtc : by rtwson wlwrcof tliey payed tlie 
money tliev were M-jsed »t, hut Un-y vrould i>i> inoe 
men nor shipjK's a.-* they ttiid done ttcfure. Hut the other 
Captainett of the Athenm»!i eoin[telle«I Iheni to it by all the 
meanes they could, aiid pra<«ecutcd law against them that 
failed payment, condemning them in grest itncs, and that ao 
cruelly, that they made the eeigntorie and dominion of the 
Athenians hateful) uiito their confedemtcs. Iluwbi-it Ciinon 
tooke a contrary course to them : for he cumpclk-d no man, 
but was content to take money and vovde shipi of them 
that would not, or could not sen'c in their ]»crM>ns, l>eing 
vtry glad to Hufler them to become slntlifull inongn-ll.t in] 
their houiH'», by loo nnivh rt»t, ai>d to lraii!t)>uiK' them selvc 
fn«n good nouUlivw wliich they Iwul beiie, to laborers, 
vhaimtiv, arid fanners, alto^-Uicr altered from armes and 
worres., tiirough the ben-xtiy sloliirull desire they had, to live 
pleaMtuntly at home. And eontrarily, causing a great 
number of Uie Athenians one after an other to serve in 
gallies, he so acquainted them with continuall paines in 
bis viages : that he made them in shorte space become 
LordeH and masters over them, tliat gave them pay, and 
entertainment. For they bcgnnne by litlc and btle to 
flatter ami feare the Atnonions, trhom they mw truincd 
continually in the warrcs, ever bearing nrmor, un«l carj-ing 
tlicir weapons in their 1i&ikI«, bccomniing expert Mnildli-rs at 
tJieir charge, by muton of the |}ay they gave them ; so that 
in the end, tiiey become »ubjectii anu coiitributarica ■*■ 
it wer« unto them, whi-re before they were their frendc 
and i-omi)nnioti!«. So om there never was Greedan Captaine 
that l)ri<ie]eil more tlie crueltie and power of that mightie 
Fersiaii king, then Cimon did. l-'or, after he had dm 
him out of all Greece, he left him not so, but following'^ 
him foote hotte, as we commonly say, before the barbarous 
petmie could take breath, or gevc wise and direct order for 
their doinges -. he made so great sppcdc, that he tooke some 
of their cities from them by force, and other some by prac- 


tUe, causing them to rebell against the king, and tum« to 
the GreecJana aide. Insomuch as there was not a mao of 
vaire left for the king of Persia, in all Asia, from the 
oontrie of Ionia, directly- donne to Pamphylia. And 
furthermore, being advertised that the kingea Captaines 
were uppon the coast of I'aninhylia with a great armie by 
sea, bicause he would feare tnem In sucli sorte, that they 
should not brave any more to shewe them selves apon the 
sea, on this side of the lies of the Chelidonians : he oeparted 
from the lie of Gindoe, and from Uir citie of Triouium, with 
two hundred gnllies, the which at th« (intt hud bene excel- 
lently well mwli^ and dcviHtl by Th^-iniittoclre, as well for 
Rwift snyliiig, (u for (uui« turning. Huwbeit Cimon mode 
tbvm to be eiilargitl, to tlie end they might caric Hk greater 
number of men of warre in battell, to assault th« enemies. 
And so went first against the Phaselites, who were Greedatts 
borne, and yet notwithstanding would neither take the 
Greecians paJte, nor receive thetr armie into their havens : 
landed there, destroyed all the contrie, and then came tutd 
camped with his armie hard at their walles. Uut tlie men 
of Chio being auncient fivndes of the Faselites, and in 
Cimons armie at that jonicy; did somewhat pacific his 
anger, and gave advertisement to them of the citie of their 
domges by letters, which they tycd to their arrowes, and 
ahotte over the walles. So as in the end they procured tJieir 
peace with condicion, that the FaM-liti's should pay ten 
tabntesfora fine: and furthermore xhould also follow the 
annie of the Grcceiaiut, and from thencefoorth light with 
them, and for them, againitt the barbarous poople. Now 
Ephorus sayth, that Uie Pcnian Captaino that ImuI charge 
of Uic anntt- by sea, wn-i <-Alti-d 'llthramtcs, and the Captaine 
of the armie by buide, rherendatej*. But Callisthcnes 
wrjteth, that Ariomandai the sonne of GobriaH wiw the 
kingea Lieutenauiit, bavinge chiefe authority over the whole 
armie that lav at ancker, before the river of Edrymvdon, 
and had no desire to fight, bicause they looked for a new 
supply of foure score sayle of the Phcnicians, that should 
come to them from Cyprus, But Cimon contrarily, sought 
to fight before these ^lics of the Phcnicians came to Joync 


Cliiou) Uo. 

CimoD WHQQe 

the kingM 
of kU whole 
army by sen, 
ryilitifc lit 
Hucl[«r beforw 
Uie rivi-T of 



CfaMNU vio- 




CinKio ttraJce 
twa hundred 
Ufle pTMon- 
enst the 
buttuli fuuh'hi 
W the river of 


with Utem, nm) put hin galliei in order of battrll, drter- 
miningtf tu geve a charge, nnd coropell them to fight, wotild 
th«y, or wuuU they noL Which tne barb«roiu iXMple ivr- 
ceivin^, drew iteerer iuto the nujuth of the rivtr hurj'ineoon, 
bicaaw they sbouLd not compiune them in beiiinde, nor 
force them to come to bftttell Kgainat their wittes. Which 
notwithstanding, when they «aw the Athenians come to set 
apon them where they lay, tliey made out against them, k 
flcetc of sixe hitndred sayle, as I'hanodcniiu declareth : or aa 
Ephorus wryteth, three hundred and fifty sayle only. But 
they did nothinge worthie of so great a i>ower, at tne least 
touchinge th« fight by sea, hut turned tlwir prooes straight 
to tile nvcr : wberc such as couldc reoorer the mouth thereof 
in time «ivcd them selrcs, flying to their annic by loitde, 
which nits not farrv from that place set also in order of 
battell. But the rcat that were taken tanly by the way, they 
were slaiiie, and their gallics mnke or taktn : when-by we 
may know tluit there were a gnat nuralxT of thein, for 
many were Mivcd as it is likely, luid many also were xplitted 
to peeces, and yet the Athenianti tooke two hundred of tliem 
prisoners. In the meaitc sea-ion, their nnnic by lande came 
neerer to the sea side: which (^mon perceiv-ing, stoode in 
»>ine doubt whether he should lande his men or not, bicaiue 
it seemed a hard and daungerous thing unto him, to land in 
spight of his enemies : and to put forth the Greedans ahready 
wearied with the first battell against the barbarous pcoide, 
who were altogether whole, freshe, and lustie, and witnall 
many in niimlx-r Jigoinst one. Ncvcrthelcsse, pcrceivit^ 
that his men tni>^-d in tln-ir force, besides the corage whic£ 
the fint victorie gave thi^'m, and tJiat they desired none 
other tiling but to fight with the encmi<'s: he put them 
a lande while they were wlwtte vet with the fiist batt«U. 
And so n-itli great furic and lowde erics they ranne immc- 
diatly against the l>arl>an>us jH-ople, who Ktoode still and 
sturrad not, and received tlieir first t-hnrgt- very valliantly : 
by reason wherof, the battell grew sJiaq)!- and hloody, inso- 
much as there were slaine all the greatest penonages and 
men of best accompt of all the Athenians armie. But tlie 
other fought it nut so rallianttv. that in the ende they wanue 


Uie field, ami witli marvelous difficultu- made tlie lxirluux>ux 
people flye, wliercof they nlue a grt^t iuinil>er in iiw iilncf, 
and tooke Uie rest priiioiK^rs with all their ti'iitt nnd pavilic)n.i, 
which were full of all sortea of riches. Thus Ciinon like n 
valliant champion of the holy gomes, having in one sclfe day 
wonnc two victories, aiid having excelled Uie battell by sea 
al*o which the Greecians had woniie within the chanDell of 
SalHmino, with that which he wanne then upon the lande : 
and the battdl which the Gra-ciaiw waimc by lande before 
the city of Platei's, with that which he wmme the day before 
on the sea: Vet he wiw not oont«tited with nil this. For, 
aftei' two so mmous victorim obteJned, Iw would once f^aine 
fight for the honor of the tokeim of triuniphe : and being 
advertised that the foure Mrure a&ylc itf the I'lnt'iiicians 
(comming too late to \k present at the first haltell by sea) 
were arrived at the head of Hydra, he sayled thilher witli all 
IKWsibie sjjccdtf. Now the Captaines of this fleele, knewe no 
certainty of the overthrow of their cHiefest arniie, but stoode 
in doubt of it, and would not be penwadcd that it was over- 
throwen in that sortc : and therrfore were they so much the 
more atfrayifl, when they d<wcried a farre of the victorious 
armie of C^nion. To conclude, they lost all their shippcs, 
and the greatest [jartc of their men, which were cither 
drowned or alaine. This vi<:torie against Uie Persians iljcl 
so dawnte and plucke downe the pride and loflie niindc of 
the barbarous I'eniian king, as he made Uiat condicion of 

Eeoce so much siioken of in auncient histories, in the whie)i 
e promited ana sware, that his armies thenceforth should 
come no nccrer to the Gra^cian sea, thai the carrere of a 
horse, and that he would saylc no further forward, tlien the 
lies Chelidonians, and Cyancanii, with any ^allies or other 
shipp<.-8 of warre. Howbeit the hiKtoriogntjiher Callisthcncs 
wryteth, that it wiw no parte of any article comprised within 
the condicion of peace, but that the king kept it for the 
feare he liad of this «o grwit an overthrow : and that after- 
wardes he kept so farre fnim the Gnecian sea, tliat Pericles 
with Bflie saile, and ICphijdtes witli thirty only, did tuiyle 
beyonde tJie lies Cheliduniae, and no barbarous Reete ever 
came against them. Yet notwithstanding all thin, amongest 
d:XX 3^ 

Cimon over* 
i-nme the 
baliell of the 

Eeople alau 
)' lan<I«. 

brouKbl th^ 
kJiig of I'tnia 
Ui coiidicioa 
of peace. 




lun)( of 

Cimoii waa nt 
thn charKB of 
certaini- <:cini- 
muD build- 

Cininij ilrave 
Uie Penuui* 
out of 


t])C comtnon acU"* uf Athens, which Cratcni» hath gitthi^red 
together, the btUcIcs of this pcaci; arc fouitd wiyttcii iit l&r^ 
aa a thing that u-ns true in dccdc. And it is M^'d, tliat for 
this oeouicni tiw AthviiiiuiM built aii aultor of peace, and 
that they did CitllitLt grent honor, for that he was !<ent 
AmbftMadur unto tho king t>f HcrMa tn lake his othe for 
oonliniuition of thiii |)etu«. So wlien all tlie>« spoilca of the 
enemies were sold to thein that would geve most, there wa« 
Huch store of ^Id and silver in the spoi-ing oofers of their 
treasurie, that there was enou^i to serve their tume for 
any aenicc they would employ it to, and besides that, tbeV 
had Huflicient to build up the side of tlie wall of the eastel! 
which looketh towitrdes the south, this voyagv anil great 
spoyle did m) enrich thein. And it is sayd morfovcr, tiiat 
tnc building of the long wmIIm that joync to tiw citie with 
the hftvfii, which tJtey eall the Ii-gget, «*iw built lUid Itniahed 
nftcrwards : howbeit the first fundiu-ionn tlicreof were built 
with tbi^ money Cimon gave t4>w«rtlisi it, for that the worke 
met with niuorinh and watery places by meane whereof they 
were driven to iill up the marisses witfi force of flyntcs and 

rat lo^es, which they threw unto the bottonic. It was 
also that first did bcawtilie and set forth the citie of 
Athens, with places of liberall exercise and honest pastime, 
which shortly iifU-r were much esteemed. For ho caused 
plane trci-s to be wt in the market place : and the Academic 
which before was vi.Ty drye imd nuked, he made it now 
a plfiisaunt grove, and full of giHxIly springes which he 
brought into it, and made fine wiveriHi nrliom to waike in, 
and goodly long Mtiooth allies to ruiine a gotxl course in. 
On a time he liad newes brought him, that oertaiiie Persians 
dwelling in Cheironesus, (to say a demy He of the contrie 
f>f *nimcia) would not be gotten out, but sent to the people 
of liigh Thracio, to pray their aide to defend them selves 
■gainst Cimon : of whomc they made but litle accomnt, 
bicause be was departed from Athens with a very few 
shippes, who set upon them only with foure gallics, and 
tookc thirtecne of theirs. And so having driven the 
Persians out of Cherroni-sus, and subdued tiic Tbraciaiut, 
he conquervd all the oontric of Cherronestis, from Thrucia 


unto his ownc contric. And departing from thence went CIMON 

3 gainst them of the Ilo of Thuos, that luul rcbclli'd Against 
le Atheninns : and having overeoine tlicni in battvll by sea, 
he wanne three and thirtie of their Khipp<«, and beside that 
tooke their citit- by »iege, and wanne the niynL-K of golde 
lying beyuiide t)ie 9>ame to ttie AUieniaiu, with all the lands 
that bi-Iongi.'d unto them. Tlii!) comjuest mode his way 
open into Macedon, and gave him great oportunitie to 
have taken the best {>arte thereof at that proient time. 
But bicause he let it alone, and followed not that 
oportunitie, he was suspected to have taken money, 
and to have bene bribed by presenter of king Alex- 
ander : whcreu{>on, his secret vnvmieii laycd their beodcs 
together, and accused him. But Cimon to clere him Cimon 
seffc beforv the judges of this accusation, Myd lutto tliem: accu«ed ud 
I have practised frentUhippe neither witlj the lontans, nor ^'***'*'Tf«°' 
yet with the 'nieasalians, oath which are very richo and 
wealtbie people : neither have I taken tlieir matten in hand, 
as some other have done, to receive both honor and )m>l)t by 
them. Hut in deede I am a fren<te to the LacedseinniiiunN, Cimou pnii>- 
for I confes&c I love them, and desire to followe tlieir solmetie, "fi I'le tern* 
and temperauiicc of lift, the which I pivfcrre and esteeme \i''^i*}^ 
above any riches or treasure : althoueh I am very glad not- nionlwiii. 
withntandinge to enrich our state and common wealth witli 
the spoyles of our cnemii>s. Stesimbrottis rcporteth this oe- Stmimbrotus 
cusutioii, and sayth : that hi.'* sister Elpiriice went to Perides the hSatorisn. 
house, (who wns the ^ and straightcst accuser of his) 
to pray him not to deale so extn-amely with her brother: 
and that IVricles laughing on her, sayd, Alas, thou art too 
old, Eljiiuiu-, thou, now to overcome these mattent. Yet 
for all that, when ('imonj* caiue came to hearinge, he was a 
more ge-ntle adversarie, then any other of bU aecuftent, and 
rose up but once to itpeake againnt him. and that for maniuini 
sake only : so that C"iraou thereby escaped, ami was cleared 
of this accusatiou. And furthermore, ho long as he was 
present in Athens, be alwayes kept the seditious people in 
obedience, who would ever crossc and thwart tlie authoritie 
of the nobilitic, bicause they would have all the sway and 
nde in their owne handes. But when Cimon was sent 



waa a vil]aK« 
of Man br 
AUieni. where 
caUed Arto- 
uiue* of mur- 
der, uid other 
waif[bti« miit- 
Un concern- 
Ln^the com- 
mon we«ltli- 

rule of c«n- 

FeridM lo 
rth the com- 
mtin wealth 
untu the state 

the goveri)- 
neiit of the 



ftbroiule any whither to the warrcs, then the comiaon pet^e 
liaving no bodie to gaincBay them, turned, and altered the 
ftovernmtTit of the citic topsie turvcy, and confounded all 
the auncicnt lawos and customes which they had obscr^'ed 
of long time, and that by Ihe [irocun-ment and M-ttiiig on 
of Ephialtes. For they tookc away all hearing of cause* in 
manor from the court of "Areopogiu, and put all AUthotitic 
of matten judiciall into Uie haiides of tlie people, and 
brought the state of tlie catie into a pure Democratia, to 
MV : a cummoii weale ruled by the sole and ahnulute power 
of'tlie pe«)ple, Periclea being then in great credit, who alto- 
gether favored the peoples faction. Wherefore Ciraon at hi* 
retume, finding thautnority of the Senate and counsell bo 
sharaefully defaced and troden under foote, was niarvelously 
offended withal), and sought to restore thauncient state of 
judgement ngainc as it was before, and set up tlic govern- 
ment of the nobility (called Optimada) that wa§ cstabluhed 
in the time of Clisthenr^ But tfien begannc his enemies 
againc with open mouth to erye out ujKin him, reviving the 
olde former naughty rumor tliut numv of him before, that 
he kept his ownc sister: and furthermore accusing him, 
that he did favor the Ijtccdiemonians. And amongest other 
thingea then- rajiue in the pt-oples mnuth<w the verses of the 
Poet KupoHs, which were made against Cimon : 

No wickeil man he wns, hut very ne^li^nt. 

And thrrcwithnl! to wync much more, Uien tmlo niunej bent. 

Ha ulnir somtjmvi awnv, at t^partA lor to sl^epc : 

And tuft p<H>re Klpiiiioc hi* wife, at hom« r]oii« to weepe. 

And if il be k>, that being thus ntgligent and geren io 
wyne, lie luive gotten so many cities, and wonne such sundry 
great battellK: it is out of doubt then that if he Imd beite 
sober and carcfull, then.^ had never bene before him nor 
since any Gnecian Captainc, that had passed him in glorie 
Cimon follow- of the warres. In deede it is true, that from the beginning 
«d the Lnco- he ever loved the manner of tin- Laeeda-moniau^ : for of two 
twyunes which he hud by his wife Clitoria, he named thone 
of them I.,aced»euionius, and thother Eleii», us Stesimbrotus 
wntetli, saying that for tljat catiw Pericles did c^-er twit 



thetn in the tet-th witli tlieir mothers stocke. Uowbcit CIMON 
Diodorus the Geographer wryteth, that both those tvo, and 
An otlier third cafled 'Hiessalus, were bome of Isodice, the 
daughter of Eurj'ptolemus, the sonne of Megactes. Howso- 
ever it was, it is certaine that Cimons credit grew the grfster, 
by the favor and countenauncc which the Lacodieraonions 
mive him, who had hated Themistocles of lon^ time, and 
for the malice they bare him, were glad that Cimon being 
but s young man, did bcare more sway iit Atltvns Uieii he. 
Which the Athenians prreeivod well enough, and were not 
offended withall at the K'ginntng: bicause the goodwill of 
the LacedfenionijutM towtinles him, did bring them great com- 
modity. For when the Athenians beganne to giowe of great 
power, aiid to practise Mecretly that the conf^erats of the 
Gnvcians should forsake the Laoedsmonians to joyoe with 
them : the I^aeedsmonians were not angrie withall, for the 
honor and love they bare unto Cimon, who did alone in 
nuner manedgc all fliaffayres of Gricce at that time, bicaiisc 
he was very curteous unto' the confederates, and also thonke- 
full mito the Lacedaemonians. But aflcrwordes when the 
Athenians were aloft and of great jiowcr, luid that they 
saw Cimon stuckc not for a liUc inatttT with the Lacodne- 
monians, but loved them more tlicn tliev would havt? had 
him : they beganne then to envy him, l)tcause in all his 
matters he had to do, he ever highly praisett and extolled 
the LacedannoniAnM before them. Rut specially, when he 
would reprove them of any fault they had committed, or 
that he would pcrswade them to do any thing : lite Looe* 
dienionians, sayd he, I warrant ye do not so. Iluit, as 
Sttiiiinbrotus sayth, made him niarvelously to be malirrd 
of the |ieiiple. But the chiefcst thing they accused him 
of, and that most did hurt him, fell out upon this occasion. 
The fourth yeare of the raigne of Archidamu-s, the nonne of 
Zeuxidamus king of Sparta, there fortuned the wonderful lest A man-dou 
and most fcarcfidl carthfjuake in the citic of Laceda^mon, and f^"* "f'*^ 
Ihercahouts, that ever was heard of. For the CJirth in many [jioedjBmon. 
places of the contrie opened, and fell as into a hottomlesse 
pit The mountaine Taygctuni »Iiooke so tenibiy, that Tsygelum 
points of rockc* fell downe from it. All the ciUe was w"* 




nved Uie city. 

Iloto al«v«B 
and boodtnpn 
toUie Lmo- 


\ttyeA on the gitmnd and ovcrtliniwdi, five houses only cx- 
pcpUxl, tlu- n»t bcini; wliuly (Itstnntrd. And it is said lUso, 
Uiut a litltf tx'fore tiiia eart)u)uake ctune, Uie youn^ men of 
Uiat citte were playing vriUi Uie y»iing boya exercising tlicm 
Mlves staHte nake^ under a great galery covered over : and 
aa they were sporting together, there atiu-ted up a hart* linnl 
by them. The young men spying Iter, raone after the hure 
atarke naked and oylcd as tney were, with great laughter. 
Tliey were no sooner gone thence, but the top of the gallery 
fell downe apon the Iwyea that were left, ana squaahed Utem 
all to death. And in mcmorie of the same, tlic tombe where 
they wcrvafterwnrdcs buried, iit calk-d unto this day Sismatias, 
as much to say, us the tombe of those which the earth- 
c)ual(c had slaiiie. But king Archi<lHmus foreseeing straisfat 
uppon the sodoinc the dautigi.-r that wju to come, by t£at 
he saw pr<.'sent, i)ermving his citiu^nK buMe iu Hiving thdr 
liouseholde Htuffe, and tltat they were running out of their 
houses : made the trompettere to sound a notte alarome 
upon it, an if their enemies had come ftteahngly upon them 
to take tlie citic, to tlinidc that all the iiihabitantes iihould 
presently repayrc unto him (scttinge all bufiinea apaite) with 
annor and weapon. That sodninc alarome doubUesK Haved 
the citie of Sparta at that time : for the Uota;, which are 
their slaves and hnndrnvii in the contrie of Laconia, and the 
contrie clou-nes of litlo villages tliereaboutcs, came running 
amied out of all part*.^ to .i]ioyle an<l robbc them upon the 
Hodainc, that wore c^^pcd from this e^irthqiuike. But when 
they found them well armed in onivr of huttetl, lliey re- 
turned backc againe a& they came : luid tiii-ii bt-gannu aftcr- 
wardcs to make open warres upon them, when Uivy had 
drawen certaine of their nei^bors unto their confederacies 
and specially the Meascnians, who made botte warres upon 
the SjMrtan-'^ ^Vhereupon the Lacedsnnoniaiifl sent Peri- 
elidax unto Athena to demaunde ayde : whome Aristophanes 
U>e Poet mocking, saved : 

With viM)(« ]iiilv Bud waiiiie, he on Uie suiter nte, 
In sluulct (fowne requiriim syde, to succor tbelr estate^ 

Against whom EpJiialtcs also ^wkc very much, protestinic 


that they shoukl not ayde uor relieve a tity that was an CIHON 
enemy unto Athens, but rather suffer it to fall to the ground, 
and to ^urne the pride and arrogancy of Sparta under their 
fectc. But Cimon (as Cricias saietli) being more careful! for 
the bcne6t of Sparta, then for thenlar^ing and cncn.'asing 
of his contry : brought it to passe by Ills pc-i^wa^ion, that 
thi' Athenians sent mm thither with n great jjowor to heipi- Cimon pro 
theiii. And fwrthermore Ion rehearscth the very selfc wroroes J"'*!] "{"*'■' 
that Cimon upake to move the people to graunt iiis ret)uvst. j!I-^o„iai,^* 
For he besought them tlmt they woulde not suffer Grwce to 
halte, as if Ijicedii-iuon hA<] l>etie one of her feete.And Athens 
tlie other: nor to itiiffer their eitie to lotte an other dtJe 
their frend, and subject to the yoke and defence of Gnece. 
Ha^nng therfore obteyned ayde, to leade unto the Lacede- 
monians, he went with his army through the Corinthians 
contry : whcrwith Lachartus a Captaine of Corinlhc was 
mur^'clotisly offended, sayinge, that he should not have 
eiitrcd into their eontnc with an nrmie, before he had 
asked licence of thetn of the eitie. For sayd lie, when 
one knocketh at a mans dorc or gate, yet he eommeth 
not in, liefore the iiiiwUt iif the hmiw.- coinmanndeth him. 
But ye Coi-iiithianii (xayed Cimon to him ngitine) liavc 
not knocked at the gate» of the Cleona'iant, nor of the 
Megarians, to oome in, hut have broken tJiem open, and 
entred by force of armes, thinkinge that all nhoidd l»e o]»en 
unto them that are the stronger. Thus did (.'inum stowtciv 
aunswere the Corinthian Captaine itgaine, bicause it stoode 
him uppon, and so went on with his armie through the 
contric of Corinthe. Aftcrwardcs the Idocditmonians sent 
agftinc unto the Athenians, to require aydc against the 
Mcsecnians and the llotvtt, (which arc their slaves) who 
liad wonne the dtic of Ithomo, Hut when the Athenians 
were c»n>e, the Ijicedfenionian.4 were afraywl of the great 
power they had brought, and of their iHildiies beiiides; 
wherefore they sent tneni liacke againe, and would not 
imploy them of all other their confederals that came to 
their succor, bicause they knew them to be men very tickle, 
desiring chaunge and alteracions. The Atlicnions returned 
home, mtsliking much that they were sent hacke ogaiiie : 


bMtbb«(l for 


JniioRiuch a« ever aft«r titey hated th«fli tlint fdvorad the 
lAcedKemoniaiu in aoy thing. And for tl>e Lacedmnoniuu 
sake tlierefore, takiujr a small oiic&sioii of offence against 
Cimon, they bani.sheu liim out of their contrie for tciinv 
ycres: which was tlie full t«rme appi>int«d and limited uiitu 
them that were banished with the OstracUmon bauiah- 
mcnt. Now within the terme of these ten yeares, the 
LacNKiirmonians fuHimcd to undertake the deliver)' of the 
title of Del)>h«i, from the servitude and bonda^ of the 
Phocians, and to put them from the awtodie and keeping of 
tho Uimple of Apollo, which is in the .savd city. W^lierfore, 
to obtAme their desire and pun)o»c, tncy ounc to plantc 
tlieir cauipt- neerc unto the eitie of Taiiagre in Phocidv, 
where tlie Athenians went to fight witJi tJiem. Cimim 
undenitanding tltttt, ulthutigli he wa-s in exile, came to th« 
AthcniauH campe aniied, iiith uitent to do his duety to 
fight with his contrie men against the Lacedicmonians, aji<i 
so went into the bandes of the tribe Ocncide, of the which he 
was him selfe. But his ownc contry enemies cried out agftinst 
him, and sayd, that he was come to noi>c other cnde, hut to 
trouble the order of their battcll, of intent that he might 
aftcfwordi^ bring them to the city i^clfe of Athens. Whcrc- 
uppoD the great counsell of the live hundnd ineti wcr« 
arrayed, and sent to thi- Captainejt to commRunde them they 
sliould not receive him into the l^attell : »o that Cimnn was 
oompeltetl to dejiai'te the canipe. But before he went, he 
prayed Kutliippus Anaphlystian, and his other frendes tlutt 
were suiipected as him selfe wa-s, to Cavor the LocedieinoniiuiM 
doinges: that they should doe their best endevor to Rght 
valliuitly against their enemies, to thintent their good) 
service at that battell might purge their innocencie towardet 
their contry men ; and ao they did. For the Atlieuiaua 
keeping the souldiers Cimon had brought with him, which 
were a nundi'cd in all, they set them apartc by them selves 
in n scpituiron, and fought It so valliootly and despcratly, 
that they were sloine every man of them m Uie field, leav- 
ing the Athenians mar%'erQus sory for them, and repenting 
them that tliey had so uujtutly mi^itni^ted them as traitors 
to their contrie. Wherefore they kept not their malice long 


agniiut Cimon, portely lu I am pcrswaded, bicait»e they ClUON 

called bis fomier good ttemoe to mincte which he had done 

to thvir coiitrie afoKtime, and partcly also, hicau»r the 

DecemiUe of the time »o required it. For the Athenians 

ha>infj lost a great battetl before Tanagre, looked for no 

other about the spring of the yeare, but that tlie I'tlopon- 

nefliana woidd invade them with a great power : wherefore, 

tht^ revoked Ciinons banishment by decree, whereof I'erides Cimon aIM 

eelie was the oidy author and procurer. So civill and tem- &*" ^^'■ 

perate were mens enmities at that time, regarding th« 

common benefit of their uiiblickt- ntnix aiid wndi- ; and so 

much did their ambition (Wing the most vehc-mi-nt passion 

of all other, and that mont tnnibleth mcn» mliuk-s) gvx'e 

place, and yvelde to the neci-xsititn tuul affayre* of the 

common wvtuv. Now when Cimon wa8 aguinv rvtumcd to 

Athens, he straight pacified the warn-, and reconciled botli 

cities together. And when lie saw that the Atheninnx could 

not live in iK-ace, but winildi- be doing still, and enlarge their 

dominions by warre, for lukent sake : to prevent them that 

they shoul<i not fall out with any of the Gmcians, nor by 

Hcowring and coasting up and downe the oontrie of Pelopon- 

netiua, and the Ile§ of Graxie, with so great a na\'ie, should 

move occasion of civill warres amongest the Grseiana, or of 

cora])laintes unto their confederates against them : he rigged 

and armed out two iiundrcd gallies to go againe to make 

warre in Cyprus, and in Egypt, biamse he would acquaint 

the Athenians with the wnrri^ of the barbarous people, and 

thereby nuikc them lawfull gainon bv the spm'Ics of those 

their natumll home enemies. But when all things were in 

readings to de^iarte, and the amiic pn.'Xt to shippe and snyle 

away : Cimon dreaming in the night htut tins vixion. It Cinwus 

seemed unto him that ho saw a bitch angrie witli him, and dreame. 

I>nrking earnestly at him, and that in the middext of her 

barking, she spate witli a mans voyce, and sayd unto him : 

Cgme hardily, 
"ly whi " 

not : fur if thou oome bv me. 
My wh«I])e«, iLni I whicli here do »t«Dil, will ,ju!ck«Iy wdcoina 

Tliis vioiou being verie bard to interpret, Astyphilus liorae 
3: YY 353 




>N b tbc citie of Paidacaa, a man expert in audi oaqjecture*^ 
ami Cimona fitniliir 6mde, tolde nim thftt tltts tuod did 
Th« intapf*- betoken bu destb, expoumliiif it in this Borte. The doege 
*f*^ ** ***• conunool; is an eDemie to nim he barietb at Anine, 
nothing riaddeth our cocmie more, thai to beaie m our 
^**^ death, rtirtfacmiofv, the ■"■"g**"p uf a mans voyn? with the 
>"'*'"g of a bitcfap, dgoifilth DoUiitig ,-U, but an enemie of 
tbc MmIvh r bicnutc the annic of uic Mcda b wiagiiaA 
with the barbaroui ueoplt; and the Gneeiua togatfaer. 
Boidci tfau vinoo, ax oe did wcrifiee to tbc god BaodiuB, 
the Iciest opening the beast after it was ttcrifiaxl, about the 
blood that fell txi the grounde, there aMw.inblcd a swanoc of 
antes, which caried tlie cuiig«aIod blood of from the gtmmdv 
by litte and title, and laved it all about Cimous great toe, a 
great wliile together before any man marked it : Ctmon at 
the last spied tt by cfaaunoe, and as he was looking of then 
to marice what they did, the minister of the $acri6oe brought 
the beastes liver that was sacrificed, to shew him, whereof 
the bigMt end that tbpv call the head was lacking, aod this 
they iud>^-d for n very Al token. Notwithstanding, having 
all tniiign rt-uilk- fur prvpantion of this jonn, so as be 
ouuld not w<-Il frtir backc, he liuinchcti into the Kca, and 
hoytnl sayle, and sending ttiru.- scurv of las gnllin into 
Egypt, aayled with the r&A upon tlie cuut of Painphylia. 
Vibere he wanne a ttattell by sea of the king of Penoa, over- 
comining the gallies of the l*benicians and the Ciliciaas, and 
conquered all the cities thereabouts, trfV'ng tlie way n-ry 
open to enter into Kgypt. Fih- be had no noail thouglitfi* in 
his minde, but reached to h^h enterprises, aiid det^mincd 
utterly to destrov the whole Empire of the mighty kings of 
Penna, and specially for that he understoode Tbemistocka 
was in marvelous crvtUt and repiitadon amongest the bar- 
barous people, bicautv he had promised the kioe of Persia 
to lead ttis armie for him, and to doe him notable service 
wbenwever he shoulde hitve occasion to warrr with the 
Gnedans. It t« thought thi« was the chiefe cause that 
made Themistodes powon htmM.-lfi-, fatcausc he dispaired 
that he could not performe that service against Grvoe 
which he had promi»ed : aMuriug him wife that it w«« no 

Ths (^uu> nf 



easie matter to vanqtiishe Cimons comgc, and good fnrtunc, 
who lay at that time with his armic all alotigi-st the lie of 
Cyprus, promising him selfe great matters at that itutant. 
But in the nwanc season, Cimon sent ccrtainc of his mm 
unto the oracle of luppiter Ammon, to B»kc him some 
secret question : for no man ever knew neither ttieti nor 
since, for what cause he had sent Uieni thit})er, neither 
(lid they also bring backe anv nunswere. For tliey wt-re 
no sooner come thither, but the oracle commuimdtt} them 
straight to retume : saying unto them, that Cimon was tlien 
oommiiig to him. So Cimons men receiving this aunawere, 
left the oracle, and tooke tiieir joniey hacke In the seawardes. 
Now when they were comiiien aj/aine to the tirscians campe, 
which at that prettent lay in Egypt, they heard that Cimon 
was departed tJiis worlde : and reckoninge the dayes scnix his 
death, with the instant of their amiswere received by the 
oracle, that Cimon was then comming unto him : they Knew 
straight that darkely be had aignilica his death unto them, 
and that, at that very time be was with the goddes. He 
dyed at the siege of the citie of Cjtium in C)-prits, as some 
reitortc, or else of a hurtc he received at a skimiishe, ns 
otner holdu opinion. Wbi-n he dyed, he commaunded thciii 
that were under his cluirge, to retunte into their contry 
againe, and in no msc to publishe his dcAth : whicti com- 
niaundement was so wisely and cunningly handeled, that 
they all cainc home safe, and not ixn eiieiiiK-, nnr any of their 
confederates that once undcrstoode any thing of it. So was 
the amiie of the (irieciaiis govemea and lid by Cimon, 
though him selfe was dead, the space of tliirtie dayes, as 
Phanodcmus wryteth ; Hut after nis death, there was no 
Gnecian Captainc that did any notable thing wortbic of 
fiunc against the barbarous people, bicause the Orators and 
governors of the chicfest cities of Gnecc stirred them up 
one against an other, and there was no man that would 
once stepjH- in nx a medinlor to make peace betwenc them. 
And thiin the Gneciaij* now did one destroy and spoyle an 
other by eivill warre amongi>t them selves : which ha[)pcly 
gave the king of Persia leje<un:- and time to rewtoiv him selic 
againe, and onntrarily was caune of mcb utter mine and 



The ilMth 
nf Cimoii. 

kept very 

No fiunous 
Mt done b]r 
nny (irncisus' 
tn thi' hw- 
bsroun |i«<>pla, 
after Clmoua 


at AUien*. 


destructioo of tK<.- wholi- puw(.'r and forcr of Gncct.-, as nt 
tongue can well cxprust*. In deotlv a long time nfU'r, kinec 
Agadlaua cnmo witli nii armic of thv Gnt-cians into Ank, 
aiM bemoDi' a mhaII wartv ii^^iiut the LiL'titviukuntcs of the 
king of Pvniiuv governors of the lower oouUia of Axia. 
But before he could doe any notable exployte, he was called 
home againe by occasion of newe troul)I«M and ciTill warres 
risingc atnoiige the Gnecians, and oompelled to retume 
into hi« contrie, leaving the treaaoren of th« king of 
Persia, raiiting of subsidies and taxes upon tlie citieti of the 
Graeciaii.t in ANia, attliough they were confederates of the 
Lacedaemonians. VV)iereas in the time that Cimon govenied, 
they never aawe any of the Icingcs sergeauntes at armee, or 
commissioner, that brought any letters pettentes or com- 
maundement from the king, or any souldicr that durst come 
neere Uie sea, by fortic furlongcs. The tombcs which they 
call unto tbii) present day Cmtonia, doe witnesse that hu 
a&hes and bones were brought unto Athens. NcnTthcleeso, 
ihey of the citie of Citium doe honor a crrtaine tombe, 
which thoy sAy is Cimon« tombe : bicau»e that in a great 
dearth (uid Imm^nncit of Uie earth, ttK-v had an oracle that 
oummaunded them, not to neglect Ciaton, aa tlie Orator 
Nauncrutc* wrileth it, but to honor and rever* 
ciice him as a god. f^uch was tlie life of this 
Grwdau Captaiite. 






for LucuUus, his ^nuulfHthcr wfu a Con- 
sul), imd KO vrai Mvti'lluii (sumamwl 
Numidiciu, bicause of hi« conquest of 
Numidw) hia uncle by the mothcn side. 
HU father notwith^taiidiiif; won cnnrict 
of frllony, for robltinp thf treasure of the 
ntjtte vrhile»t he un-i utfi(«r: and CnedlJa 
hia mother was reported to have led an 
unchast life. But for Lucullua selfe, ueforc he bore office, or 
rule in matters of state : the first thins he towched and tooke 
in honde for the cause of his contne was, thaccit^lion of 
Servilius the soothsayer (who before had aecuBc<l his father) 
for that he also had dcit falsely in his office, and deceived the 
common wealth. And tliis the Itomaiies thought very well 
handled of him, insomuch as a pretic while after there was 
no other taike in Rome but of that matter, as though it had 
bene a notable valliant acts done by him. For otherwise, 
though prii-ately they had no ju§t occasion, yet they thought 
It a noble deede to accuse the wicked, and it pleased them as 
much to see the young men put lawe breakers in sute, as to 
see a notable good course of a dogge ut a hare. Howrbcit 
there followed such sturre and bundingc uppon this sute, 
that some were vcrie sore hurte, and other slaiiie in the 
market place: but in fyiH% Servilius wat eWntl and cpiite 
ditiniiKMHl. IaicuIIuk was vorie elot|«e«t, weii ciwkon, and 
excellently well learned in the Grceke aiid I-alni tongue : 
iosomudi as Sylla dedicated unto him the commentjiricK of 
all his doingii which himselfe luid collected, as to one that 
could better frame a whole historie tiiereof, and cowchc it 
more eloquently togctlier in wryting. For he had not only 
a ready tongue to utter tliat he woidd speake, and pleadc 



sccuwth Ser- 
vilius lh» 

The ftomsDM 
thoug;ht it • 
iiobltt deile to 
MCDSO tha 




TLDCULLUS his matU-rs with KitMt eloquence, a» other be scene to doe, 
having uidtU-ni of mU- or open audience : 

Uk* l«nny tthm tii«j h*, which nriftly <Uv« mhI <lop]>«, 
Into tfao ooptb of Oeetsaa mi, withooteu nUy or itoppe : 

ttudi*d Philo- 
■ophjr in bU 
btter time. 

book* of tke 
wuTO of Uie 

LucuUu* lovR 
to hu brother 

Luctiu, Mid 
M. LucuUua 

But afUrwardes also vhen ye take them out of their 
conimon practise and pleadinges : 

Thvn me thty K^veld Mnught wlthouUD gnc« or bUII. 

Ttttit «luqu«uc« lyea Ui«o la dyke, and they then Mltva b« allU. 

For Lucullus had stiidivd hunuuiitic from hi* youth, and 
was well learned in all tbi* Ubcndl scicnous: but when he 
came to older ycarcs, to rcfrohc his wittc (af^ S^^nt 
tmubles) he fell to the studie of Philosophit^ which ()tiiekt.iKid 
the cuiiteniplative [wrte of liis noule, and moTtifii-d, 4>r at 
the li-asl bi'liiiifs brideW the ainLutiou.^ and active pmte, 
«[KH~iii]|y lifti-r thu dlvit'iitiou betvrixt him and i'ompey. Hut 
tu a«»)iutint yi)u bett«'r witli hi« learning yet, it is said, that 
whcii he was a yuung man, be layed a gre&i wager with 
Hortensius the Orator, and Siscniia the historiographer (in 
jest as it were at the first, but afterwardcs it ML to good 
earnest) that he would write the breviary of the warres of 
Mai^cum in verse or prose, in the Ljitin or Grceke tongue, 
which soever fell to his lotte : and I thinke his happe was to 
doe it in proBC in the Grceke tongue, bicausc we finde a litle 
Greekc stone extant of the warres of the Romanes against 
the Manians. He dearrly loved his brother Marcus L«icullus, 
as appeared by many manifest pruofes : but the chiefest and 
most not«-d proofe nni<mg the Komanoit was tliis. Plim selfc 
wa:c eltjcr then his brother Marciu, and yet for all that would 
never »uv to )>eiire olDce in tlte common wvaltlt, nor neccpt 
any before bli brotlier, but taried alwayca till lie should do 
«boaen,and let his oa'ne tinie{)a»c over. This great curtcsie 
to his brother so wanne the peoples barter, as Lucius being 
absent, they chose him vl-idilix, and bis brother Marcu* with 
him for his sake. Ue waa in the flower of hi* youth in the 
time of the Marslana warres, wherein he did many wise 
and valliant deedes. The cause notwitlistaiKling that moved 
Sylla to make choyce of him, was rather for bis constaacy, 



and good curteous nature, then for tiny othvr rcsjx'ct. For 
when Sylla had once wonnv him, lie over lifler i-ni]itoytf(l him 
continually in liis mo»t wei^htie muiK-«: n» in m eoniniiwion 
specially, lie gave hint to toyne monty. For in liwxie p«rte 
of the money thitt Sylta N)>ent in the wmrtvi ftfriiinst king 
Mithridates, wus uiyiied by I^ucuIIur eoinouiuiKli-mvnt within 
the cuntrie of PcIogioiinesuM : whercumni tliey were called 
LueuUiiin ]H>ecei<, and were currant a longe tiiiK; aniongent 
tlie souldiers, to buy such things as tliey atoode in nede of, 
and never rvfused by any. Sylla bciuff at^erwardii at Athens, 
the »troii^r by land, but the weaker By scb, so as his enemies 
cut of his vittells from him : sent LucuUua into Egypt and 
Libya to brine him such shippcs as he foimd in thoitc partes. 
It wan in the deepc of winti-r, and yet Itc spared nut to saylc 
with three brigontities of Gm.-(v, and k» many giillioti of the 
Uhodians, putting him selfe not only to tJie duimger of IIk- 
sea in so long u voyage, but of htit citcniio in like maiier: 
who knowing Uirm itclves lo be the stronger, went Mtyling 
every wlwre witli a great navie. But for all these dauiigt-rs, 
he nnt arrival in the He of Crcta, and wanne their good* 
wille*. Fn>m thence went to the citie of Cyreiie, where he 
found tlie inhabitauiits tiirmoyled with civil wam'H and con- 
tinuall oppressionH of tyraiis: m»ni which trotil)le» he dflivered 
them, and gave them lawes to establishe goveniment amongest 
them, putting tliem in rcmembraimce of Platoea wordes 
npoken to their aimcestcrs in old time, in the spirite of a 
prophecie. For when they prayed I'iato to write tncm lawcs, 
and to appoint them some forme of government for their 
common wealth, he made them imuswere : it was a hard 
thing to geve lawcs to so richc and fortunate people as they 
were. For to say tnicly, a* noUiiug is harder to be rulca, 
then a ridi man : so contrarily, nothing readier to reccave 
counscll and govcnimvnt, then a man in adversity. This 
lesson franuti tlie Cymiiiuis at that time to be more civill 
and obedient to the lawen Lueullus gave them. When he 
de|Hirtvil tlieiice, he eoa-tted towaniea f^ypt, where he lost 
thv more parte of hi» eihip))es by pyrates : but for his owue 
perKon, reaping their handcs, he was very honorably received 
IQ the dtie of Alexandria. For all the Kingcsarmie came to 



Sylla pare 

tniwioii to 
r.oyiie money 
in Pelopsn- 

ircvrth lsw«* 
to the 

A uotkMe Mjr- 
iog of PIsto. 


joroey iiito 


C'co Lu cut- 
by Itiuge 

doingM under 
SylLa by Mn. 



iTK-eU^ him xt »ga, gftllnntly trimmed nml app<>inte«l, lut Uiey 
wcro wont to welcome liome the kiiigc when he returned from 
aiiy voyage hy sea : and king Ptolomje him sclfe being ver^ 
voung nt that time, gave him as honorable entertainment as 
lie jHisaibte could. For amongest other honors that he did 
him, he lodged him in hi« courts, and delrayed his onlinarie 
dyet, whert' never straungp CaplaiiM? was lodged before : and 
did not only spend the ordinary allowance in feasting of him 
which he used unto otlters, but comtiiaunded fouro times as 
much provision more to he made as hv had before. Not- 
withstanding, LuculluK tookc no more then reasonable waa 
for his ]X'rson: nor yet would he rttx-ive any moner gift, 
althogh the king hiul sent tiini pn^ents to the viUih^ of foure 
score tAlentes. Anil which more ii, would not »o much as go 
see the citic of Maupliiit, nor any other of tlie famous mocu- 
nientcK and wonderfull !iight«:s in Egypt, saying : Uiat it ww 
for a man that travelled up and downe for his pleasure, and 
had teasurv witlialt. to see such thinges, but not for him titat 
hati left his Captaine in Uie lield, at the siege of the walles 
of his enemies. To conclude, this young Itine I'tolomje 
wouUl in no case fall in IVeiidshipue with Sylla, fearing leaat 
he should thereby put him sclfc into waiTcs : but gave him 
men and shippes to brinj^ him into Cynrus, And as be was 
ready to itnuarkc, the king bidding him farewell, and em- 
hrocmg htm, gave him n goodly rich I'merod set in gold, 
which Luniltus ni the fimt rrftucd, until! the king shewed 
him hi* [lictiin- gniven in it; mid tlkii ooiviitcd the gift, 
feftring kuist Ihc^ titter n-fuiiaJI miglit caiute the king thiiikc he 
went Away discontented, and should [>er)uip therefore lay an 
ambushe by »ca for him. Thus having gotten a certaJne 
number of xhinpes together of the porle towne* thereaboutcit, 
over fuid bexicies such as the pvrates and sen roviTS had 
hidden, l>eing parte of their spoyles, and bestowed with their 
receitors : went on with them into Cyprus, wh«-re he imder- 
stoode that his «iemies lay close in certaine ereekes under the 
foreland, watching to bourde him as lie sayled by, Where- 
uppon he unrigged and bestowed his shippes in docks, and 
sent worde to all the portc townes thereanouts, that he wait 
determined to winter there : and therefore willed theni to 



provide him rittclts and other necestuirie muiiitiuii to lie in LUCULLUS 
rcadined n^nst tlic spring. But in the im-ane wliile, when 
he MMT time coiiventcnt, hv put his whole Hwte againe to the 
sea witli all )>MKvibie .ipt^ilc, wi-nt him selfe away, and in the 
day time c-aiietl u lowe Rayk-, but in the night pockt on all 
the cloth he could fur hfe: aio tlwt hy Uiis craflJe fctchc, 
he wanne Ithodts, and lodt not one !tliip[>e. 'I'lic Ithodians 
they also funiished hint with shippes : and besides them* he 
so perswaded the Gnidians and the inhaliitantcs of the lie of 
Co, that they forsooke king Mithridates, and went to make 
warres with him against then] of the lie of Samos. But 
I.ucullus him selfe atone drave kiii^- Mithndnt«-s me>l out 
of Chlo, restored the Colo|>)ionians iif^aine to liU^rlie: and 
tookv Epigonus the tyranne priKotier, who had kept tlieni in 
bondaj^. Now about that time, Mitliriihitcit wiui eoin|)elled 
to fomake the citie of Pvrgiunum, and to retyre to the cdtie 
of l*itane, within the whioh Fimbria keiit him lx*iegcd very Fimbria 
stiaightly by laiide. Wherefore Mithndates haviiie the sea Ij^'?*!^'' 
open upon him, sent for his force and navy out of all partes, ju'i>i^nJ*' 
not daring to hazard battell against Fimnris, who was very 
Taliiimt. of a venturous nature, and at that time monoover 
was him selfe a eonqueror. Fimbria {leredving what Mithri- 
dates ment, and having no pow\?r by sea of his uwne : Kcnt 
straight to Lundlus to request him to eome with his narie 
iat«) thow pitrt^« to liis ayde, for Ihoverconiuitng of this king, 
the ffrcatol and nio$l criiell enemie tliat ever the Kiuiiaiie 
people hiul. Bi<»use that so notable a praye, which they 
followed with »uch ctnungcr and trouble, Khould not escape 
the Komaiiet), while they had him in their haiides, and was 
come him .telfe within their daunger : and that therefore he 
should so much tlic more harkeii unto it, bicause thut if it 
fortuned Mithridates ti> be taken, no man shoulde winne more 
honor and gturie by his takinge, then he that had stopped 
his pasM^, and layed handes on him, even as he thought 
to have ffed. And thereby should the praise of this noble 
victoric runne in equalitie t)etwenc them both : the one tluit 
had driven him from lande, and the other that had Ktop|)ed 
his [Muwoge by sea. And furthermore, that tl)e Komaiicw 
would iiothiogc regard all the famous buttell.> and victories 
3 : ZZ S61 


would not 
lude Punbria 
in bmie^^riK 

IdQff Mlthri- 
drntoi Ll«u- 


of SvlU in Graecc, which he had wonne before the cities 
of CWronea aiicl Orchonien« : in comparisoQ of taking the 
king. This was thi-Sect of Fimbriae^ mrasofftr s«nt unto 
Lucullus, whoifin thvrc wns iiothinc, in the which there wu 
not grvat likclyhoudc. For thvre is no man thjit cuti doubt 
of it, but if LuculluK woulii have Wlc^'cd him at tlint time- 
(and have gone thither with his sliim to stoppc the havens 
mouth of the citie, in the which Mithrid«te« wax bcsi«ged, 
considering nlso that )m; wiu «> nerre «t liniuU-) this wttire 
htid taken ende tlierc, and the worldc Ix-sidi'n had then bene 
delivi-ivd of iiilitiitc troubles which (M out aftervrardea. 
Bui-, whvtlier Lutrullus ])ivfernti thecmt^iderationand respect 
he had unto Svlla, whoise Lieuteiiaunt he was, l>efore all otlier 
<lue regarde of private or eonimon benelit : or that he detested 
and abhorred Fimbria as a cursed pn^sone, who not Ions 
before had through his nicked ambition imtirued his haniu 
in the blood of his Captaiiie : or else that it was through the 
secret providence nnd permission of the goddes that he spared 
Mithrtdiites at that time, to the end he might be reserved as 
n worthie enemie, against whom he might aJterwardes shew 
his valiire : howsoever it was, it so fell oiit tluit he barkened 
not unto F^mbdaes ausmgv, but gave Mithridnt(» tinu' and 
letMure tn flye, and Riuilt}' to seonie all FimbrilK^s force and 

I lower. Hut LuculluK selfe alone afterwanles overcAinc the 
■.m^ea nrmio by nea, onee neere unto the head of I>ectum, 
whieh is on the coast of IVoade: and an other time necrc 
unto the He of Tenedos, where Neoptolemus, MithridatM 
Lieutenaunt bv sea, lav in wayte for him with a farre greater 
number of shippes then he had. And yet so aoone as 
Lueullus had discried him, he sayled before all hia navie 
being Admirall, in a galley of the Rhodes, at five ores to 
u baneke, whereof one Demogonu waa master, a man well 
affected to the sen'ice of the Rcnnanes, and very skillfull in 
bnttell by tt-ti. And when Neoptolemus on the other side 
rowed against him with groat force, commaiinding his pylot 
tliat he Hhould so order h\x galley, that be might stenimc 
him right in the prowc r I>eniagoriw[ fcaringe tile full meet- 
inge of the kinges galley which Has very strong and hcavie, 
and furthermore well armed with poyntes and spurrcs of 


brAWC iK-forc, cUmt not encounter her with hiii prowe, but 
nimbly DiaHe Im gallie U> winde about, ami turned his poiipe 
towaracfl him. Whereby the galley being Ion* at that end, 
received the blow without burte, cousidering that they hit 
uppon the dead workes, and those partes which are always 
above water. In the meaiie time Lucullus other shippes 
were come, who commaundins his master to tumc the 
beakehead of his gallie forward, did maov famotLs actfs : so 
that he made his enemies flyc, and drave fJcoptolemus away. 
And departing from thence, wont to scckc out Sylla even 
as he was rcadie to posec over the netui, about CberTone^UK : 
^bolpo him to waft his urmie, and ko paxsfd him ovt-r with 
'Mnty. Aftcrwiinlc* when pence w(l< coiicliuti-d, ftn<i that 
king Mithri(lat4v was oomrii into his reiiliiw- and contries 
a^iiie, which lye upon the lea Major: Sylla condemned 
the province of Ama to pay the summe of twenty thowsand 
talentea for a fyne, by reason of their rebellion. And for 
leavying of this fyne, left Lucullus there with commission 
to coyne monev : which was a great comforte and hartcs 
ease unto the cities of Asia, considering the extreaniitio that 
Sylla had used towardes them. For in so grievous and odious 
a commission unto them all, as that was : Lucullus did not 
only behave him sclfc uprightly and justly, but also very 
favorably and curteously. For, as touching the MityU-niiui-t 
that were openly in armi-s tu^nst him, he was very willing 
Ihcy BhoLiki know tJidr fault, and thnt for satisfaction of 
thoffciR-c tlicy had contniitti.-d t/ikiugc Miu-iiis parte, they 
should Kuffer some light punishim-nt. And ai-eing tiiat they 
were furiously bent to continewe in their muightines, he went 
[•gMtist thciii, an<I liaving overcome them in battell, com> 
pellod them to keepe within their wnlles, and laved siege 
unto their citic, where he used this ptilicy with them. At 
noae dayen he launched into the sea, in tlie view of all the 
Mitv tenians, and sayled towardes the citic of Elea : howbeit 
in the night time secretly returned backr, and making no 
noysc, layed an ambushe nere unto the dtic The Mity- 
lenians mistrusting nothingc. went out the next morning 
very nuhly without order, and without any niancr wnt<li« 
or ward, to spoylc the campc of Uic Romoia-s, sup])i>Hiiig 



Lucullus put 
to llkht 

by DCA. 

at tli« ii«n) 
of the Mity- 


iitwJBa uf 


add Uacallua. 

M. C«Mi 



ertry idao hwJ bene gone : but l.iin»fliw oomniiBg ■odMnlt 
upon tbem, tooke a great aiimba- ptwmen, thm about Ave 
hundred xicfa as mmed, and wamie ose tfciWMndr riiwi, 
with an infinite ({uaotitie of othor >(M7le> Now did the 
goddea lu^ipelj preserrc Lucullus, tfaat Iw was do partaker 
at that tioK of tbr woodeditU iiiiwiiia and troutdee, wfakfa 
Sjrila and Marius made poon Italit wdkr, even tfacn wben 
be was ooci^ncd in tbc wanva of Ada : and Ttt notwttb- 
standiofT his abMnoe, be was in as good onfat and favor 
with Syila, hk any of his frendes about him. For as we 
have sayd befon^ he dedicated hb cooimentarie* unto him, 
(or the goodwill he bare him, and by bi» tB:(t will and testa- 
mat at>p<>inted him Tutor unto bis soone, leaving PonpiT 
out : wliich aeemeth to be tbe first oocasion of the ouurw 
and grudge that fell out afli^wardes betwene tban, nouar 
they were both youog men, aiid vehemently denrous of homr. 
iihortly after the death of Sylla, LucuUun was chosen Coosull 
with Marcus Cotta, about the three score Ol^-mpiade: and 
then they began to r^:%'ive the matter agaiue, that it was very 
ncedcfull to make waiTO against Mithridates, and apndally 
MarcuM Cotta, who gare out that it was not coded, but 
only f>k-]it for a while. Wben-forr, whi-n the ConsuUs csme 
to draw luttes what [irovinon they Khouid take chanee of, 
LucuUuN was marvelous torit; tluit the province of Gaulc, 
lying betwene the AIpcs and Italie, fell to hi> lotte : bicause 
be Uought it no contne whcrdn any great cxplttytcs were 
to be duite, and a^i>e, the glorie of I ompey grieved him 
greatly, whow honor daylv inoeased by the famou-t iMttcUs 
be wan in Spsine. So toat it was most certaine, Uiat so 
aoooe as Pompey had ended tbc wanes there, tbev would 
have chosen hiiu ftetKndl in the warrcs against Mitnridatca. 
Wherefore, when l'oini»cy sent to Rome in earnest maner, to 
fx-quirc moncv to tnaki- pay to his soiddiers, wryting to the 
Senate, thiit if they did not send him money the sooner, be 
would leave Scrtonus thf-re, S|)fUiH> behinttr him, and bring 
h\» aniiy hncke into Italic : Lucullus made all the mcaoes be 
oould to have it ipiickely M-nt him, fearing loiwt he should 
returoe into Ibdie uj>on any ooc-asion, while bo was ConsuL 
For Ite thought that if he returned agnine to Rome with so 






girat lui ormie, hv would ixsily do wliat him li*it : mmJ the 
ratlicr, Hcftiiw Uiat OUic^us and he could not n^ree, who 
at tluit time bore all the nwajr and rule Ht Home, l>icAu.te be 
«pnke and did all that [>l«a»cd the comiiwn people, beine a 
ritiouit liver, and di.i»>tut£ly ]l^ve», for which cauiie Lucuflua 
hated him. But there was an other coniiiioii Orator auione 
the people called I^Aicius (^uiiitiu<i, and he would have liad all 
Syllaes doinges revoked and broken : s matter to alter even 
the whole stat« of the common wealth, and to turmoyle the 
dtie of Rome ogaine with civill diasention, which then lived 
quietlv and in good peace. This Lucius Quintius Lucullus 
billced withall a parte to pcrswadc him, and openly reproved 
him with tiuch words, that he wiwt di«swailcd from his cvell 

Qosc, ami by reason ruled his nt«h nuibltion, haiidlini; it 
wiwely 'uiil u» cimiun^ly m Ik- amid pui^ibie (fur the 
safety of the cummoii wi.-itltn) bic«uw it wtu tlw iN-giiining 
of a dtiteaite, from whence intiaite troubles wei\: like tuj^rowe. 
Wliile these thinges were thus in hande, newes came tliat 
Octavius the governor of Cilicia was dead, ^straight where- 
uppon many put forward them selves to Hue for tnin cluirge, 
and to courte Cethegus, as tlie only man who alK>vc all other 
miglit make any man ofBcer whom he thought giKKJ. Now 
for Lucullus, he made no great reckeniiig of the government 
of Cilicia in respect of the contry, but bicause Cappadocia 
was hard adjovning to it, and perswoding him selfe that if 
be could obtamc we government thcreol, they would geve 
none other (but him sclfc) the authoritic to make warres 
with Mithridatcs: he deteniiincd to procure all the mcanm 
lie could, tliut none sliould have it but him selfe. And 
having proved sundry wayn, van com)H-lled in the eiide, 
against nis owne natLuv, to pmctisv a mcaite neither comely 
nor honest, and yet the readiest way he could (losKibly devise 
to obtaiiut his denin.-. There wtu a woman in Komi; at that 
time called Pnecia, very famoua for her passing l>eawty, and 
also for her pleaaaunt f^aoe in taike and discourse, howbeit 
otherwise unchast after curtisan manner. Hut himuKe she 
employed the credit and favor of them that frequented her 
companic, to the bene6t and service of the common wealth, 
and of them that loved her : she wamic the reporte (besides 


vitiaua livor. 

Luoiiu Quin- 
tius, > IMH 
tluua Orator 
>t Rome. 

LucuMu* am- 
liitioii tomake 
wtiTTM against 
king Mlthri- 

Pnrriik a 
fomuui curti- 
■aii uf lUimb 


ruled nil 


wuiwt l[tnf[ 
went gevea to 


ber other ex«.-llt-iit cuiniiteiittable graces) to be it very lovinge 
womaa, utd rvndiv to fuvor ana further any good enter- 
prise, uid it u-iuine ber great fiune and reputation. But 
afU-r nhi* bad otice wonite Cetbegua, (w)io ruled all the 
common wealth at bis pleasure) and brought hUn to be 
M> fanv in fancie with ner, that be could not be out of 
her siglit : then bad she all the whole power and authority 
of Kune in her bands, for the people did nothing but 
Cethegus preferred it, and Ccthcgus aid what ever Pnccia 
would will him to. Thus LtKuUus sought to come in favor 
with ber, seoditi^ her many prcscntcs, and unnz all other 
curtesies ho could offer unto her : besides that it HMcned a 
gK&t reward for so prowdc and ambitious a woman as Mite, 
to be Miivd unto by such a man as Lucullus was, who by this 
mcancs came to liave Ct-thc}^iM nt bis coiiinuiuutlemfnt For 
Cetbcgus did nothiii]; but coiiimviid LikuIKm in all u^strmblies 
of tbe people, to procure him the government of Cicilia : 
who after it was once gmunt«d liim, had then no neede of 
the belpe neither of Pnecia, tior yet of Cetliegus. For the 
iieople wholly of them selves with one consent did graunt 
Kim the charge to make u-arre witl) MitluidateA, bicause he 
knew iK'tler how to overcome him, tiien any otlicr Captaine^ 
and bicauAc that I'ompcy was in tbe warrcs with Sertorius in 
Spaine, and Metellus also growen too olde, both which two 
were the onely men that could deservedly have contended 
for this office with him. Nevcrthelcs, Jlarcus Cotta his 
fellow Consull, made such suto to the Senate, that they 
wilt him aim with an armic by sea, to kcc[>e the coastes 
of i'ropontidc, and to dcfcnde tlic contric of Bitbynio. 
Thus, Lui'idlii5 having his commission, went inia Ajiia 
with ot>c lcg}-on only, the which he Ivavied a new at 
Home : and when hv was come thither, he tooke the rest 
of the fltreniftli be founde there, which wertt men marred tuid 
corrupted altu^-UiiT of long time, thrtiitj^h covetouMtex luid 
delicacie of the contrie. For amonj^^t others, were Uw 
liandes which they ciklleil the Fimbrian bandeti, men geven 
over to selfe will, and very ill to be ruled by marsball 
discipline, bicause they had lived a long time at their ownc 
Ubertie, without all obedience to anv man. They were 


those selfe HoiiUIieni that togetlier witli Fimbria, ihie tlieir 
gencrall Ftai'cus, Comull of the Itoinane peopk', and that 
allerwardes betrayal Fimbrin him selfe, aiu) fursooke him, 
leaving him unto Sylla, being niutincns traitors, an<] wickt.-d 
people : howbeit otherwise ver>- vallyanl, well trsyncd, and 
IMiinefuIl Eouldiers. Notwithstanding, Lucullua in shorte 
time hrideletl their boldnes nicetely well, and reformed the 
othera also, who before had never proved (in my opinioii) 
wlittt the value of a good Captaiiie and Gencrall mcnt, that 
knew how to comniauiid : but were used to flattering leaden, 
that eomniaundvd the .'wuhltert no nion.* tlien ttivy thcni selves 
liked of. Now eoncerninn the st^ite of the enemies, thus it 
was with them. Mithritlnles that in the Ix-ginning was very 
brave ami bolde (n.t tlintc (lori^bing Suphiitent commonly 
are) undertaking worre ngainft the Komam-^t, with a vaine 
unprofitable armie, but naising frenhe and .numptuous to 
the eye ; but after tliat lie was onee foyled and overcome 
with no lease shame then losse, when he came to make this 
wcond warre, he cut of all supcrHuous {lompe, and brought 
his armie into a convenient furniture to serve for warres at 
All uauiyes. For he put by the confused multitude of sundric 
nations, the Rerce threatnitujcs of the barbarous people in so 
many sundrie tongues, and cleanly banisht also tne richc 
graven annoni with goldesmylhes worke, ant! set with precious 
atones^ thingen llwil mon- enriched the enemies thiit wanne 
them, then gave stn-ngth or eomge to Ihosi- that wan- tlun). 
And conlrsriwiae, cauxed long stifle swords to be made after 
the Romone fadon, aiid great ftOAvy shields, and brought to 
the field a inarvelous numlier of horw, more ready for ser%'ice, 
then riche in furniture. 'Hien lie ioyned sixv acore thowsand 
footemen together, appointed ana M't in order like unto Uie 
btttteU of the Romanes, with sixteene thowsand horse of ser- 
vice, besides those that drue his armed cartes with siethea 
about, which were in all to tlw number of a hundred. And 
besides all this land preparation, he brought also a great 
number of shippcs and gallies together, which were not 
decked with goodly pavilions as at the first, odthcr with 
stoovei nnr bathi'«, nor with chnmbers and cabbon», curiously 
hanged for Ladies and gentlewomen : hut furnished full of 


Ml II Idlers vc 

duuMiIaCr an 

>IlUiridsUa I 
srmle ugalna 



Into foKiMr 
tli« Rotnuw 


nll orereome 
by MlUirt- 


armor, arUltcrie, and slinges, and with money also to pay the 
Houldiers. With all this anni'c and prcixtration, he went 
first to invade Bithynia, where the eitira n-ceivfd hira very 
gladlr, and not those only, but all the utlicr eiUes of Asia 
wholly : the which were fallen againe into Uieir former 
niisenes and disenses, by the crucltiv of tlte Homane farxaen 
and HSCTCTH, who raifin^ ^«^(•s luid imiKwtes uppon thom, 
made tJiem abide untoTU-rubie Uiiiieisi. It is tnie that 
Luciilliu dnive thciii away aAerwaiuea, like the llaruyK, 
whieh tooke ttte iRvatc out of the poore mens niowtJH» : 
bowbeit at tJiat time be did tio more, but brought them to 
be more reoaounble by the perawasjons he used unto tbenif 
and Qualified a litle the inclination of the people unto 
rebdhon, being every one of them in manner willing to 
revolt. Now Lucullus being busie abuut these matters, 
Marcus Cotta the other Consul) {and his compantfin) Hup- 
posing that the absence of Luculliis was a fit occasion ofieied 
nim to doe notable service, prepared to fight wi t}i Mithridates. 
And altliough he had newes brought him from suiidrie places, 
tlint Lucidhis was with his armic in Phrygia, and comming 
t4>WHrd(v him : yet notwithstanding, imagining tltat he had 
tlte honor of triumphe n^Ntuvd alrvadie in his handes, and 
bicau:<e l.ucullux .vliotild Ix; no [mrtaker of it, he adraunoed 
fnrwanles to f^:vv buttclL But Mithridates oTcrnunc him 
both by sea and by taiide : so that Cotta by acft lost thre« 
score of his &)iip|>eH with all the men in them, foure tbnw- 
sand footemen hv lande, and was after with Khanie shut 
up and besieged in Die eitie of Chnln-don, renuuiUDg tliere 
hopelesse to eicape, but by Lucitlhis oiit-ly aydc and meanes. 
Howbeit there were in I^ucuUuk cainiH-, that were verr eamoat 
with him to leave Cotta, and to go lurtber, assuring nim that 
he should finde the realme of ^i^tll^idatc» lx>th without men 
of warre, or any defence at all : s« that he mi^t easily be 
Lord of the whole. And thew wi-rc the wordcs of' the 
iKmldicr» thnt spyted Cotta, bicauM- his fbo]i»be rashnvs 
and fonde imagination had irat only brought tbow men to 
the iihamblcK to be slaine and cast away, whom )k had tbe 
leadine of: but had let them also, that'Uiey could not ovcf 
come him, and ende this warre without blower, for that thej 


were driven to eo to his hclpe. Ilawtieit Lucullua making an 
Oration unto Uiem, aunsvrered, that he bsd rather save the 
life of one Rotnanc citizen, then winne ail that his enemies 
had in their power. And when Archelaus, (who had bene 
Mithridates Lieutennunt in Iki-utia in Uie first wam-s 
ngainst Sylla, and now in this secunde wairc tooke parte 
wttJi tlii- Uoni)iiieti) RKMired him Hint so Koonr iis thry Mwc 
him in the n-^iime of t'ontu.-), Uwy wwild aII nsv ugkinrt 
Mitliriiktc*, and ycelde them MUe» unto him: LucuIluK 
aunttwercd him thux, tltat lie would not shewe him ttelfe 
more fearefull, then the gnod hunters wliicli never suffer 
the heaflt to recover his denn& And when he had so aavd, 
he marched with his armie towardes Mithridates, having 
in all his campc thirtie thoWKand footemen, and two thow- 
sandc five hundred horse. When he came so necrc unto 
his rncmicK, that he might easily at eye disc«n>e nil their 
hottst, he wuiidercd ut the great multitude of souldient that 
were in their enmpe, nnd va» in minde to geve battel!, 
Klip|H)nin;; yet that the better way was to prolonf; time, 
ntid limwe th<5«e wurro* out in length. Hut one Mnrius n 
HouiHTK- ('apUiiic, whom Scrtoriiis liad sent out of S]iaync 
unto MiUnidatL':! with u eertntne nunilx^r of souldien; came 
forwonlex, anil provoked him to bdttell. LuniUus for hi» 
parte did put his men also in a readinesse to fight. But 
even a.t both battelk were iire[mred to joyne, the element 
opened upon tJie sodaine, without any shewe of chaiinge of 
weather decerned before, and they plainly saw a great flake 
of fire fall betweiie both armies, in forme and shape much 
like to a tonne, and of the colour of molten silver. This 
celestiall signe put both thnrmies iu such a fcare, as thev 
both rctyrcd, and fought not n stroke : and this wonderfull 
night fortuned (lu it appeared) in a place of l^brygin, adled 
Otryes, Nowe LucidluK aflerwiirtN ton.iidfring with lum- 
M'lfe, tiiitt then- wa.-< no richiii nor provision mi j^rcAt in titc 
world, tliat could suffice to viltell ho many thowKandes of 
people AK Mithridatis had in hia eampe any long time 
together, having his enemies campe so lying before them : 
willed that one nf the prisoners should lie brought into his 
tent, and (irat of all he enquired of him, how many of them 
3:A.VA S6B 


■nyina of 
Lurullun for 
the invinh' of 


A flnnie of &n 
fell lietweno 
bath nrnii«(, 
out of Uio 

politick* eoD- 
■Idcntion to 
diwiplia' tlie 


UCULLUS Uiy togt-tl; 

iil)iii, tlH?n whiit 

Ik- h^A left in their 





caubiii. Atvi wlit-ii tW priM>iu;r luid iitiii»wi-ivil U> lUI Ilia 
dcmaund<», he returned liiiii to priMitt, And sent for an 
other: then for a lliird, and queAtiomx) wiUi than nil as 
he hiul ilune with the fir^L 'itivn c^Muiiiorine the xtore of 
their tiinii', and other proportion of vitt«ll-i tliey had, with 
tlie nunilier of men the same slioulit niaintaine : he founde 
Uiat all would bo spent iti three or foure daye^ at thutouxt. 
Whereupon he relied on his first determination, to dd&y 
time witnout hazard of battcU. So he caused ft marvelous 
deale of H-Iieate to W' brought into his campe out of everie 
quarter, that the same heing tlimitghly vittelled, he might 
cosily tary the ocetiKion whicli his enemies necessitie should 
oSer him. MiUiridiite^ in tlii; nK-uiiv ttme^ M>ught which 
way hv niieht tjike the dtie of thu Cyzicenions, who hod 
bene overthrowen before with CottA nt Ihe battel! of 
Clioleedun, where tliey had Kxtt three tliow»»ndc men, lutd 
tcnn« of their shippea. And hicauHe that LueulIiiK sliould 
Dot undentand of his entcrprl'M', Mitliridatcs .ititle nwny by 
night after supper, taking Oie oportunity of a darkt- n^iny 
night, and marched thitherwardes with sudi speeile, that 
he was before the city of Cyzicus W breakc of day, otid 
pitetied his uuii]»e, whi-n- the tx-'mple of the goddune Adraatia 
staudeth, which %» the goddi'sse of fatall destinie. LucuUu* 
rwcivinc iiit«Iliceiice uf MiUiridates departure from his 
campc, ioIIowikI liim xtnught wuyes steppe by stepjie, aiid 
bcin;; gliid that he v/as not met withatl of his enemies Id 
diMinler, ludffi-d lii^ oniiie in a villnfn- oilled Thracia, in a 
phkvc of grvat advantage for liim, and eomiiiodiously seated 
aIao uppori the hiffh waye^and through fare of the neighbors 
thentlwutA, by the which they muat come of uocessitT bo 
vittel Mithrioates campe. Wncrefore l.uciilhis wisely lore- 
seiiig what would follow : would not keepe hiK purpose went 
fiom his soutdiers, but sfler he had wi-ll tremned oiid forti- 
fied llis eampe, called tlieni to eounaell, and there making an 
oration unto them, tolde them openly by manifest demotistra- 
tion of ussdri'd ho|K-, that err many dayes passed, he would 
gere victuric into their lumdcis and that without loose of 
one droppe of blood. In the meane season, Mithridatct 




en\-iroime(l the Gnedans round about by lande, having LUCULLUS 
dended )iis armie into tenne campeis and stonpetl up the 
mouth of tlie anne of the sea, which devideth tlic dtie from 
6nne lande, with his shippes from one .tide to an other. 
Now the Cyzicpnians were valliant men, and determined 
to abide all cxtreamity for the Romanes sakea: but one 
thing only troubled them much, that they knew not what 
was Decome of Lucullus, neither could they heare any newes 
of him, though his camiK- stoodv in such a place, when? they 
niiglit enisily di-ccrnf it from th<- citie. But MiUiridata 
somdiere deceived Uicm, for shctrtn^ them the Romanes 
compe that lay above luird by thc-m, sayd unto thctn : Doe 
ye see yonder campe then* ? 'llicry are the Medew, and the 
Annenian.t, whoin rigranes hath sent to the aytje of Mithri- 
dateii. Tluse wordea put the Cysdceniaiu in a marvelous Thettntta- 
feare, seeing such a multitude of enemies disj)erN«-d mund tJJ!^* "^ 
about them : that when Lucullus should come to their «ide, ' '^^J^*** 
he could not well tell which way to passe. Yet at the 
lenj*th they heard of Lucullus approach, by one called 
Demonax, whom Archclaus sent unto them, but they would 
not bclcvc him at the first, taking it for a talc, only to make 
thi-iu be of good corngc, and vidliuritiy abide the furie of tlie 
sic^' : untill sucii time as a litlc boy of theirs, esrajjed front 
the enemies that before had ttiken him prisoner, was come 
againv tinto them. Of whomc they inquired whore LucuUua 
was: the boy laughr^l iit them, thinking they jcasted to 
aske that ^uestimi of him. Rut wlien lie .law they were in 
good, he showtHi tlicni tJie Koaiaiit^ caiiipe with his 
finger: then they Ix-lt-vwl it in dec<le, and were coragious 
againe. There is a lake neere unto the ciUe of Cyzicus 
called Dascylitide, and it is navigable with convenient biggc 
boates. I.ueullus tooke one of the greatest of them, put it 
in a carte, and so caried it to the sea, and tliere ])Ht a* 
many souldiers in her as she could well cary, wlio bv night 
entred into tlie citie, the skowte of the enemies never di»- 
coying them. This small sunply did mar\-elously comfortc 
the besieged Cyzicenians: and it M-enietb that the goddes, 
delitiiig to see their noble corugts would further increase 
and Hx»iire tlie same, by iiuiny niHiiif<9t toki*iis which they 



A wiaod«rAill 
caw tliat came 
to offer her 
arieanlaos to 



sent fipom heaven, and specially by one whkh wus this. Tlie 
day of th« feast of Proserpina wus nt hand, and the citizens 
hnd never a blaeke cowe to ofTer in sulrniiie $«crifico, us their 
anncient cereniunics rvxiuirod: ik> they mude one of pia«te, 
and brought it hiuxl unto tlie nulter. Now, the eowv that 
wa» vowc^ to this .-Merilice, and whidi tlicy rv^-nil up of 
purpoM to scire for that day, woii feeding omoDireHt thtr 
tutord of tlie citle in Ute fi«ldefl, on thoUier Nide of tnv annv 
of tlte sen. Uut tliat day site kept alone from at) tlK^ re«t of 
the heard, and swanime over the anne of the .sea, and came 
into the citie: where she went of her selfe unto the place 
of the sacri6ce. Furthermore, the goddesse i'roserpina ber 
sclfe appeared unto Arista^ros in His dreame, secretary of 
the state and common wealth of the Cyziccnions, and sayd 
unto him ; 1 am come hither to bring the flute of Libia, 
Against the tromjict of Pont, and thercforu t^'ll the citizens 
from mc, tluit I will them to Iw of giwi corage. Tlie next 
morning when the secTL-torie hiul tt>!de them his viftiiui, the 
Cizioenions nt'irvellod much nt the ^<>>ld<^'<i.-> wordn, and 
could not imagine wliat tlivy inent Howlx-it at the breaks 
of day there rose a great whistling winde, thnt mode the sea 
billowni rise very higli : nnd tlte kings engines of Itatterie 
which were hrotight t<> tlie walles of the dtie to plucke 
tliera downe (bt-iiig wonderfull workes that one Niconidts u 
Thes&alian enginer had made and devised) liegan to miike 
Buch a noysc, and to breake in neecos by the roughnes of the 
winde, tmtt a man might easily judge what would foltuvr 
upon it. Then oil at one instant, the southwinde woa 
become so vehement biggc, that in a moment it burst all 
these engin« a simdcr, luid K|)eeially a tower i>f woildc of the 
height of » hundred cubitt^-s, which the winde shooke so 
vehemently, that it overLhR-we it to tlu' ground. And it is 
soyd furtliennore, that in Uic dtie of Ilium tlic guddesse 
Minerva appeim-d unto divviMj in their Klee|>e, all in a sweat, 
and showing parte uf her voile tontc, aa if she hnd bene 
newly rclonie*! from gi^ving nyde unto fJie Cyzi<*niaiv*: in 
conlirm&cion when^if, the iuha)utant4-s of Ilium liave a jtillcr 
yet unto this day, whereu|><in this matter is written for a 
perpetual! memorie. Now was Mithridates mar^'elous sory 




for tho breaking and losse of his engines, hy mesncs whcrof, 
tho Ciziccnians had escaped the daiinccr of assaultc, and 
of the siccc in like nmner, untill l>c truly understood of the 
l^rvat fiunioc that was in his cam|)e, and the vxtreamc dearth 
to be such, as the sotildicTs were eomiieUed to vnte mans 
R(.9h<% wbieh (bis Cnptuities abu^ng nini) hftd for a time 
kept secret from his kiiowk-dge. But when he wuscnformed 
of the truth in dede, he left of his vaine ambition ob)ctin«t«ly 
to cotitincvre siege: knowing well tliut Luciillus made not 
warreii with threats and braverv, but (afi the common pro- 
verbe sayth) lept on his belly with both his feete, tJiat is to 
my, he did what he could possible to cut of all the nttelb 
from him. And therefore one day when LucuUus was gone 
to assault a castell that troubled him very neere unto his 
campe: Mlthridatcs bicause be would not lose that oportunity, 
nt the most parte of bis horsemen to get vittels in Bithynia, 
with all his cartes, and beastes of cariagv, and his most 
unprofitable footemcn. Lucidlus hearing thereof, rcturrwd 
againe the selfc same night unto his nunpe, and the next 
morninge betiuKw Ix-ing in the winter season, followed them 
by the tracke with ten eiisigiies of footeinen only and all his 
hon^fineii. Hut the miuw was so d<.x-pe, the cold no terrible 
sharp, and the wenthi-r so rough, that many of hi»i souldiers 
not l>eing able to abide it, dyed hy the way. For all that he 
marched on still, till be overtooke his enemies about the river 
of Itindacus, where he gave Uieni such an overthrowe, that tlie 
very women came out of the eitie of Apollonia, and went to 
stealc the vittelts they had loden, and strippe the deail, which 
were a marvelous great number, as a man may judge in sueh 
a ease: and neverthelesae there were taken sixe thowsande 
horse of ser^-ice, an infinite number of beastes of cariagc, and 
fiftcene thowsande men besides, all which spoyle he brought 
to his campe, and passed hard by tbe campe of his enemies. 
But I wonder much at the historiographer Salust, who 
wrytiiig of this matter sayth, that here was the first time 
that ever the Romanes saw tmy camells. Me thinkes it 
straungi^ how he should thinko so, that they wlio long hcforc 
had overcoim-n AntirKhus the great under Scipio, and 
tbotheiB that a litlc before ha«i fought against Archelaus, 



famine 'm 

Provwbo: Hb 
lept un bb 
Idly with 
both hit 

Rinduiu It. 



lied bf BU. 

Orsnlcus B. 

footetiteu bv 
the river or 



n«ere iint<i tlic citi(» i>f Orc)ioiiieiie and Cbieronea, shuuld 
not liave Keen* ciuiu'll*. Hut to retume Againe to our inAtter. 
MithriclalcH l>eiiig fenred with thia overthrow, resolved with 
him wife immediatly to Bie, with all tlte ^>c«de lie could 
possibly make: and to entertaine and stay Luculltu for u. 
time lichinde him, determined to scnde Aristonicus hii 
Admirnll with his army by sea, into the sea of Graeoe. 
But us Aristonicus was rcsdv to hoyse saylc, his ownc men 
bctrnii-d him, and delivered ^im into the Knndts of LucuUus, 
with tenne thowtand crownes which he cariod witli hiim 
to eomipt if lie could parte of tlw Romanes army. Mithri- 
cl«t««t hvnring of tliis, fled by sni, leaving tlie rent of his 
armie by Innac in the handm of his Cnutaines to 1w brouglit 
away by them as well iw they could. Lucullus followed 
iiiilo the river of (iniiiieiis, wherv hi- set apon them, and after 
he had slaine tWL'ttty (.howsiinde of thnn, tooLe on infinite 
number prisoners. And they say there dyed in that warre, 
what souldier^ what slaves, what lackeis, and other stragslen 
that followed the campe, about Uie number of three hundred 
thowik-uid peojilc. This done, Lucullus returned to the dtie 
of Cyziciis, where after he had spent some daycs, tajoying 
the glorie due unto him, and received the hoQombIc enter- 
tainment of the Cyzicenians : he went to visitc tlie coast of 
Helkiipont, to gi>t shippcs together, and to prepare an armie 
by sea. And pushing uy Troadv, they )>rcpared his lodeJng 
within titc temple of Venus : whore, a» he Niept in the nigbti 
it seemed to liim he saw the goddcMc a|)pcarc before him, 
which niyil tJic-Ke ver^^s unto him : 

U Lyon fleree, aoil »towt« : wliy itteefiMt thou ^ Munde i 
Since at thy hande hi fayre a pray*, ih ready to be foniulr. 

Herewitli he rose incontinently out of bis bed. being yet 
d&rke night, and calling his frmds to him, toldc tliem the 
vision he bad in his <)rrmne : and about that verv time also 
there came some unto him from the citie of Ilium, that 
brought him nvwes of fiflccno gallics of kinge Mitbridatiti, 
having five ores to every baneke, that were scene in the hawn 
of the Achainns, and that saylcd towards the lie of I.«inno«. 
■Whereupon T.ueiillus tooke «hippc *trnight, went ainl tookc 



tlicm Kvciy one : for at hU first connning he slue the Cnptaine LUCULLUS 
cftlled InaurUH, niitl went aflerwardes tn the other marinere 
that lay nt aiicker on the coafit side, who aeeiiige him come, 
drew titwanles land with their §bippeB, in purpoiie to rimne 
them all a shore, and fighting above hatcnes, hurt many of 
Lucullus ttouldiers, bicause they could not compasse them in 
behinde, and for that altut the place where they had laycd 
their ahippes was such, as theHL- wiis no way to force them 
before, their gullies floting in Uie mw as Ihey did, and 
the others being fastiK-d to the land us tlicy wen*. Liicullus 
with much a uo all thiK notwitlistandinfr, fotind nieancs in 
the end to put a Nhore certaiiie of the best itouhJii'r^ he hod 
about him, in « place of the He where they might ca-sily 
huKlf. The^ Miuldien went stmif^ht and set ujKni tlie 
ciiuiiies l>eliinde, slue some of tlieni even at their first 
commine, and compelled tlie rest to cut a sunder the 
cables l£at fastned Uie gallies to the banckesL But when LucuIIii* 
they thought to flic from lande, the rallies brused and ovprramc 
bralce one an other : and that worst of all was, ranne upon M't'"i^'it«* 
the tmyntes and snuiTcs of Liicullus gullies. And so many 
of them that stoode itbove luitcbes wen- i<laine, the rest taken 
priisoners: among(^«t whom, MiuHus the Houiane Captaine 
was brought unto Lucullux, whom Serturius had sent out 
of Spaiiif unto Mithriduti.^. Hir had but one eye, and 
LueiiUu» had eounnnuiideil his men before they fought, not 
to kill any of his ciieii)ie.t tliat bad but one eye : biaiuw 
Mariua should not dye so happy a death, as to l>e filairie, but 
that be flhould dye some shamn^ull death, and he oontlenined 
by order of lawe. 'I'hat done, Lucullus went in ]»eri<»ne 
witli all the soeedc he could (KtssibU' to follow Mithridateti, 
hoping to finoe him yet upon the coast of Bithynia, where 
Vocomus should have stayed him : for he had sent this 
Voconius before with a certain** number of shiupcs unto the 
citie of Niconicdin, to stop him from Hying. But he taried 
Ml long in the He of Samotbraeiji Mu-ntii-ing to tlic goddes 
of the Kame, <m<I to Iw reei-ived into the fnit<-rnitie of their 
religion, that he coidd never after come necre Mitliridates to 
stoppe him from flying : having alreadie made sayli- with all 
the whole Reete, ana hasting with all possible speetle to ' 




daanger apon 

ambit! on oom- 


noover the nftlme of PonbiH, U-fore Lticulliu oouUl rxHumv 
from whence he vent Uut in Miyliii^ thitherwardes he mvt 
with »uch a terrible storme, Uint omotl piorte of his shippvs 
to nway, that tliey raiiiie ^traeHng to »eekc their ft>rtiine, 
and parte of them splitted and drowned outright: so that 
alt the coantes and rivers thereabouts, for many dayee after, 
were full of dead bodies and shippewrackcs cast a shore by 
waves of the sea, Nowe for Xlithridatts ownc pcrsone. hie 
was in a shippc of great burden, tite whicli for her greatnes 
could not suylc ncerc the shorv, nor n^covcr land, she was 
a])K> very evil) to be guided by the pylobi in so boyiitvrous s 
Rtortnc : t)ic ntitriiK-r^ bi-«id<v were ]H>t out of all tlinr skill 
an<l kuowlwigts and tin- Hhippv ht-r ruAfv moreover toDke in 
Kucli Ktoiv of water, luul wiu xtj hmvi-ly chained witltiil), that 
they dunt no ntore put Iter out to tIte sea. Itv rcfuton 
whereof Mitiiridatea was compelled to me abord a litJe 
tHnase of pyrates, and to put hini selfe and hli life into thdr 
nandes, by whooe heipe in tlie cnde, (beyond all expecta- 
tion, but not without great daujjger) he got to lande, and 
recovered the citic of Heraelea in the rttdme of Pontus. 
Now here is to be noted, that the great bnkverie Lttcullus 
shewed unto the Senate of Rome, fcC out aeiDrdirig tu his 
imagination by the favor of the goddt^ For when the 
Senate bad appointed for ending of UiCHe warre> to prepoiv 
A great navie of ithipj>cj, and tncrewithaU luid gevcn order 
for three thowtande talvntes : Lueullun stayed tiiem by 
tetUr^ tiiat Uiey should not doe it, writing bravely unto 
tlietn, tliat without all tlit* charge and great prejtaration he 
ii'ould l)e HtnHig entmgh to drive Mithridates from the sea, 
witJi tiie onely shipites he would borrowe of their frendes 
and confederates. And in deedo, through the spcctaU favor 
of the gD<Ides, hi/ brought it so to iiasse ; for they !*«y. that 
this terrible stornie that destroyed the Hmiie of Mitliri- 
dates, was raised up by Diana, being oliended ititli tlu> men 
of the realme of rontus, bicaus*- tliey liad dwtnjytni her 
temple in the citic of iSiapos, and hod omc^l uway h«r 
{mage. Now then: were divers that ooiutselled Luculltu to 
dcfcn« tite rest of this warrc, imtill an other KOion : but 
notwithstanding all their pcrswasious, be went tlirough the 



contrie of Gdlfitia oiid Bitiiynia to invsde the rcalme of 
Mitliridates. Iti Uil* which voyitgc, at the first beginning he 
locked vittclls, sy that then' wt-rr thirty thowsand men of 
GaUtia following his cnmiH-, tliat airifd cvt-ry one of them a 
ht»hell of wheaU on their shoiiUU-rs : howlx-lt entring further 
into the contrie, and c<)nqu<rring the whole, th^n- was such 
exceeding plenty of all Uiinges, that an oxc was sold in his 
campe but for a Drachma, and a Hiave at foure times as 
much. And of all otlier spoyle tliere wa» such great store, 
that either tliey oiade no reckening of it, or else tJiey made 
havoke of it, bicause there was no man to sell it unto, evenr 
man having so much of his owne. For they ranne over all 
thip contrie unto the citie of Thcmiscyra, and to the vallie» 
that lay apon the river of Thermodon, and stayed no where 
Icnj^r then they wen; a s{M>yiing. Thcrcu])on the souldient 
beganov to murmure nt Lucullu«, biutiisc he assured all the 
citiM upon coni[KMition, and never tookc anv of them by 
force, nor gave them any moanes to niridi them sciv« by 
spoyle : and yet »ayd Uiey, he wouUI make u» now go fiirthw, 
and leave AmisuK, a great ricli citie wliich we might owsily 
take hy force, if it were but a litle ntraightly Iwsieged, and 
lead us into the desertes of the 'llbarcnians and the Chal- 
deans to %ht against Mithridates. I^ucullus paawd ovei* 
all these complaints, and made no reckening of tliein, hicause 
he would never have tliought that they would have fallen 
into such mutinie and fune, as afterwards they did ; and 
contrarily excuaed Iiim selfc the more carefully to them that 
blamed and reproved him, for his long tarying upon towncs 
and villages that wen? not worth the reckening, and suflbring 
Mithridatcs in the mcane time to gather n new force and 
nrmie together at his nicnsiirc. 'For, said he, that is the 
' marke l shotte at, and thnt mnketh me linger time up and 
' downe a:> I doe, wi.'thing nothing m<in:, then Lhnt, he might 
' once againe make him selfc strong, and brin^ a second 

* armie to the field, that might embolden him to come 
' eftsoones to the fight with utt, and ruinie away no more. 

* Doe you not see, sayd he, that at hi:i> hacke he hath an 
' infinite number of desert contries, where it is unpossible 
' ever to follow him by the traeke : and hard by him also 

3 : BBB S7T 


iomey into 

All oze 
bought for a 

Tli« mutiny 
uf LuculluH 

iimtiuti aiid 
ciL'ut« Ui hi* 

tiiiiK of 






LVCULLUS ' the mounte Caucasus, and manr other unpeasablr places, 
' which are euflicicut uot only to hide him alonr, hut infinite 

* number of other prinora and kings bcsidos that would flic 
' battcll, and not come to licht f Furthormurv, it in but a 
' litis way from the oontnc of thv C<ibiriiiian« unto the 

* rvalnx; of Amieniii, whnv Tigraiii's tite king of kingvs 

* inhahitcth, wh<»« ]x>wer in »o great, tliat ha driveth the 
' Partbians out of Asia, and <»rteth whole towues and cities 

* of Grmce unto the reolmc of M«dia, who hath all Syria and 

* Falffistine in hia bandes, and hath tilaine and rooted out the 
' kinget and successors of the great Selcucus, an<l hath caried 
' away tlieir wives and daughters prisoners bv force, 'ITiia 
' great and mightie kinge is allyed unto Mithridates, for 
' he maricd Mithridatce daughter : and it i* not likely that 
' when Milhridates shall come and iutniite him to bolpc him 
' in his distmHH.', tluit Tigrimcs will refu»c him, but rather 
' we miut thinkc certainly that ho will make warmt u|M>n ua 
' in bis dt-feiK-e. And thus, in making hast to drive out 
' Mitbridiiti-!', vri: Khali bring our st-lv*« into gnnjt dnungvr, 
' to provoke a new eneniic, even 'l^granes agaiiLst u;*, who of 

* long time hath lurked for a just occasion to make wanva 
' witn us : and he con have no honeater cause to take anne*, 
' then to defend and kepe a king his neiglibour, and so neere 
' a kinscman, from utter destruction, and one that is c««n- 
' pelted to secke u[>on bim for sticcor. What neede we then 
' to provoke him to procure it, and teache Mtthridatea 
' (which be purposeth not) to whom he should repa>Te for 

* aide, to make wnrrm against our selves, and pricke him for- 
' ward, or to say better, put him witii our ownc handes into 
' Ute way to go M-eki' aide of Tigmiti'si : which i>f him selfe 
' he will never doe, (tliinkiug it a di.-Oidiior unto him) oule«sc 
' we drive him t^) it for very iieceiMitie. Is it not In-tter for 
' us to gcve hint leA.iure and time, U> gather a seeoitd force 

* Bgaine of him itclfe, and his ownt: pi.-opie, that we might 

* rather 'ight with the Colchiamt, 'niMreniaiis, Cappadoctana, 
' and with sueii other people wlioine we have so many times 
' overcome; tlien with the Medes and Amienians?' With 
this determination LucuUus taried a great while before the 
citie of jVmisu5, continuing this siege of purpose, without 



(]iBtr<.s«iig tlufn at iill. Aftvrwarclcs wh«n winter was past, 
be left Miiri-mi tJicrc to luntiiiui- the HicRC, and him sclfc with 
Uie r(-st "f his anniu went t« met-te ^IiUl^idutl.'s : who had 
planted hi.i (uiin)K- nccre unto the citie uf Cul>ira, deterniining 
to tarie the Uomiuies coiiiniiiig, having gntltered together 
uaine a new nrmie of furtie tliowMuul fout^iiieii, and fourc 
thowaand hnnteniv-ii, in Uu- whii'h lie put hU nioist c»n(iilei)cc 
and trust, so that he piwjii-d over tiw rii-er of l.yens, tuid went 
and presentee! battell tii the Itonmnea in tlii^ platne fielti. 
There the hoi-seuieii skiniiialiod, and the llomani^ \itu\ the 
worse: for there waa one Pompoaius a Rcmiane taken, of 
great estim&cion, who was brought unto king Mithridates 
hurt as he was. Mithridatcs asked him, if in saving his life, 
aiid healing his woundcs, he would becimie his servaunt and 
frend. ijtntight replvitl I'umjjonius, With all my hiu't (jiiod 
he, so tliat thou make peiiee with thi- Hiininm^ : if not, I 
will ever be tliine eiKiniv. The king esteemed bin corage 
much, and wuuld doe him no hurt And iw for LucuUii*. he 
was afirayed to oome into the plainc, bicau^e hiH enemie w&s 
the stronger of hor»einen : and tie doubted also on thotlier 
side to take his way by the mountainc, bicanse it was vi-ry 
high, uneasie to clime, and full of woddcs and forrcstes. Hut 
n» he stoode thus doubtfull, tliey tooke eertaine Gra-ciaua 
by chaunoe that were fled, and hidden in a cave hard by, 
among tJic which there was an old man called Artemidorus, 
who promised LucuUus if he would believe and follow him, 
he would bring him into a sure strong place to lodge 
his can])H% where was u castell ubovi- t\w citJe of C'abirn. 
Lucullus bcJeved tJie olde nian» wordt-K, wburefurt? no Mione 
aa night t^nie, he rained great tinn iii hU eainpe, and i«'ent hLo 
way : and ailer thity liati ]ia.s»ed cerlaine straight and daun- 
gerouH wayes of the moimtainett, he came in the morning 
unto the place whicli Artemidorus had promised to bring 
him. Now tlie enemies were niarvelously amazed when day 
lipht came, to see him there over them, in a place where if he 
ii'tt to light, he might come apon them with advantage : and 
if he liked not to sturre, it was unpossiblc to compel! him. 
For he stoode indifferent then to hsjiard lmtt«'II or not. But 
in the muanc season, they say certainc of the kiogcs campe 



mmnrd «t 


L;cus fl, 

iif a Konuuie 

tlicth Mithrl- 
dsUM hor*»- 

WCVLVOH by ch 


• R hunting the hortv. Titc HonuLnctt ]» 

The iifcht of 
n GfiDcrall in 
k bnttell in of 

deriM of tha 

Ro«nui«t to 


riani wKat 
iieuplii they 

iaun<^' wci 
CciMng that, fell iijjon Ihc-ni lo cut thciH ol t»y llic wnv : ac 
thfV bt'gan by this mvniics om- Im cliiirgc iiii oilier in KUch 
sorti-, rt'lii-fi' growing still from cithvr side, as Mithridatis 
men grow the stroiigi.-r. But the Rotnwies seeing their men 
Aie froRi the treticlica of their campe tibove, were in such 
a rage, tlmt thej' all ranne in a choller to Lucullua to prav 
him ne would leatle them to liattell, and geve them a signall 
to fight. Lucullus, bicause he would shew them by experi- 
ence how much the pi-esencc and eye of a good wigc Captaine 
in time of needc was worth : eommaundeJ them they should 
not once sturre, and he him selfc in persone went downc into 
the vallev, where he comniaunded the first of his men he met 
withall ffviiig. to st&y, and retitme to the figlit ugninv with 
him. Whicn liny presentiv did, and all the otlicr in like 
case: imd thus giitlieriiig tVni togi-ther againe^ did easilj 
itiiike their enemies nitunie. Hint bi-fon- had ttu-m in cha»e, 
and drave them tmcke, lighting with them even liard to their 
owne forte. Alterwaixlt^ iippon h!^ retume againe to bis 
campe, he sctte his snuldieni tliat fled, unto a oertaine peece 
of worke to shame them withall, which the Komanea are 
wont to use in such a case : and tJiat is, that he made theni 
digge a diteh of twelve foote longc, being in their shirtcs, ail 
uiitnis.'ted, and thetr other eomponions present seeinge them 
doc it. Now there was in king Mitiiridates campe, one 
Olthacus, prince of the Dnrdnriaiu (which arc cx-rtaioe bar- 
baroux peo]ile dn-elHng ii]k>ii the niaritihes of Kfa-otin) a noble 
geiitleiiian of his persoiic, vallyiuit, and skilfull in warres, and 
a man of very giM.«l judgement to dia' iitiy great enterprise 
as any that was in all the armie, and furlJii-nnorv a prince of 
great good grace and entertainment in companie. Knowing 
bow to focioa him selfe witli all men. Thi» prince, being 
alwaves at strife with other Lonles of his contrie, and coa- 
tending who should have the first placid of honor and favor 
i»b<nit the king: went unto Mithn dates and piimiiscd him 
tiuit he wimld do him notable service, and that was, tlmt he 
woidd kill I.iicullus. The king was very gUd of tliis promise, 
and prai»cd him morvelously in secret : bowbeit openly of 
purpose he did him many injuries, bicause he might have 



some colour to counterfeate anger and displeasure, and to 
gcve way for him to goe yeldc him selfe unto LucuHus as he 
did, Lucullus was marvelous glad of him, bicause he was 
one of the ehiefest men of name in all his campe. and to prove 
him withall, gave him cfaargf imnutliatly : ni the which he 
behaved him selfe so well, that Liicullus greatly esteemed 
his wtsedome, and commended his diligence, in such sortv 
that he did him this honor, to call him sonitimes unto the 
counsel!, and make him sit at his borde. Une day whvii tliix 
Dordarian prince Olthacus Uiought U* have found fit occasion 
to exe4;ute his enterprise, he cominauiidc-d his footemeii to bt- 
realty with hiit home out of the trencher of tlie i-ampe: and 
at none dayes when the aouldiers tookt- rest, and iileiit here 
and there in the canipe, he went unto Lucullus tent, thinking 
to have found no body there to kepe hira from comming in, 
considering the fantiliaritie Lucullus shewed him, saying also 
be had matten of great importance to talke with him of: 
and sure he had gone in immediatlv unto him, if sleepe that 
aurteth away so many other Csptaincs, had not at that time 
pi\»ened and S(H'cd Lucullus that slept. For one of the 
groomes of his chamber called Menecicmus, who by good 
fortune kept tJie dorc of the t«-nt, told him Uiat he ainie tn 
verv ill time, bicause Lucullus being wearied with travdl and 
lacKe of sleepe, was bnt tlieii newly laycd downe to rest. 
Olthacus wluitsoever the other sayd to him, would not I>e so 
aunswered, but tolde him he wnuld come in whether he 
would or not, for he must nedes speake with him in a matter 
of great importaunce. Menedeniusi aunswered him againe, 
that nothing could be of greater importance, nor more 
necessarie, then the preservation of his masters life and 
health, who had neede to take rest: and with these words, 
he thrust him backe with both his hands. Olthacus was 
afFraycd then, and withdrew him selfe secretly out of the 
trenches of the campe. touke his horse bat.-k, and rode 
Htmight to Mithridates campe without his purpose he came 
for, which was to kill Lucullus. And thus it plainly ap- 
peareth, that occ^ision, and oportunity of time, even in great 
matters deliven-th meancs, to save or di'stroy tlio life of man, 
like as drugged and mLtlidQes geven unto the sicke and 





ptiiifio <>f the 



rictory of 
cerUioB of 



■md ftmiliin, 


mktiny and 
of hU whvli- 



diseased personcs. Sliortly after, Lucullus sciit one of hu 
Captaincs called Surnatius to get vittells, with t«nne ensigoes 
of footcDicn. Wl>ereof Mithridatcs being adrertised, sent 
presently at his taylc one -of his Coptaines also, called 
McDaiKu-T) unto whom Somattus gave battell, and slue him 
with groat slaughter of hiit men beside. And afterwardcs 
Luculltw sent an other of liU LiLiiteimuntes uilli-d Adriiuius 
with « gT«At c«>mpaiite of Mrtddiens to get vittellK into his 
campe more tlien rit- should n»-dc. MiUiridnti.« did not U;t 
alippe this occasion, but sent HfUf him two of bin Captaines 
also called Meneinachus and Myron, with a great numlxT of 
men, as well footemeii as horsemen: all wliich were sUine, 
two only excepted, that brought newes backe to Mithri<latet 
campe : the which he sought to salve as well as he eould, 
saying that the los«c was much Icssc then it was thought for, 
ttiid Uutt it fortinied through tlic ignoraunce and rashnes of 
h)« Lietiti-iiiiuntts. But Adrianus at his retutn«, passed by 
Mitliridates cAmpe with gn-ut pom^w and nmjcstie, earying a 
huge tiuinlier of cjirt.s lodeii with eorrie and spoykrs he had 
wonnc : which drave Mithridatet Kelfe inti> ku grent a dis- 
paire, and all his people into sucli a feare and trouble, tlint 
ne presently determined to remove thence. Wh<-n;«iK»n, the 
nobility and such as had place of credit about hiui, lii^^aiuic 
to send before, and secretlv to convey thdr stuR*e out of the 
campc, but utterly prohibiting others to doe the same. Ihe 
rest of the soiddiere seiiig the stowtnos of the kiiiges minions, 
tx-ganni; to set uiion them with opim force, not suR'ering them 
on the other sule once to issue out of the campc. This 
mutiuie grt^we to such • fury, that they overUirv^'we thdr 
au-iage)t and sumpter moyles, and shie them pn.'nentiy downe. 
Ainongu»t others there was slaine Dorykus, one of the 
chiefest Caiitaiues of all their campe, who bad nothing 
about hini nut a purnle gowne, for the which they killM 
him : and HemueuB Ute I nest of the sacrifices was troden 
under foote, and smoothercd at the campe gate, by reaMinof 
the multitude of those that fled in so great disorder. The 
king him selfe amonji^t othcn Si-^, but baring never a one 
of his garde about him, nor any of th<t|iiiries of his stable 
to bring him a hotsc : Ptolomy, one of the grooincs of his 



chamber, percaving him in the company of tJicm that fled, LUCDLLM 
lighted of his ownc horw^, and pave him th# king, but even io 
manner too Intc. For the Uoniiu»^« tliut fulUtwiil liini were 
then even hm-d nt bis tnylc : (Uid it wn.-( not fur lackt^ of 
specde they missed the tiiking of liini, for tliey were very 
nei.'re hitn : but the eovetounnej< t>f Ute xouldiers was the lowe CovstonnM, 
of Oiv prwye they had so Imifr i>(>ught for, with so great paine the overthrow 
and hazard of huttellw, and depHved LucuUub of the honor *'»"'">''*•«"■ 
and reward of all liis victories. For ttiey were so neere unto 
him, that if they had but followed Mithridatcs never so litle 
further, tliey had out of doubt overtaken hinit and his horse 
that caried hira away. But one of the moyles that caried 
his gold and silver (whether by chounoc, or of pretended A rtnt*' 
policie of Mithriclutes, as a muttt^r p»q)o»eIy halmndoned K«an»e of 
to them that jmr<ued him) was found in the middest of the M'l^'ri'l't**- 
high way Ix-lwixt him that lli-d, and the Kiiiiiaiutt that 
foUowwi : who stiiyi'd there to robin- the giild and silvei', 
fighting about it, that Mithridates by that meane» wanne 
gruund ro farre l>efore tliejii, a>t they could never afler come 
iieeru him againe. And this losse was not all which tJie 
covetousnes of the aouldiers made LucuUus to lose. For, 
one of tlie (^hiefest secretaries of the king being taken, called 
Calli^tratus, whom LucuUub comtnaunded to be brought 
unto him to his cainpc ; Uicy that had the charge of him, 
hearing tell that he had five hundred crownut in a girdle 
about liim, for OTceilinek of them, slue him by the way, and 
yet notwitfutAiiding LLietilltiK suflVred them to spoyfc and 
destroy the whole cju)i)k' of their enemitst. After Mithri- 
dntes flight, i.ueulhw timke the citie of Cfthini, and many 
other cnstelLi and ntrnng places, where he founde grwit 
treasure, and tlit^ prisons full of poore prisoners of the 
GnecdanH, and many Frinccs a kinne unto the king him 
•elfe, which were thought to be dead long before : and 
I then seeing them selves delivered from this miserable 
bondoffe, by the grace and b«.-nefit of Lucullus, thought 
with them selves they were nut only taken out of piison, 
but revived and turned againe unto a second life. There 
was also taken one of king Mithridatcs sisters called 
Nitsa, wh««c taking fell out profitable for her : bicattsc all 




The cur^^e 
of Moulme 

Maulm^ )i«T 
throte waa 


Mithridat«s other wires and suten whome they placed 
furthest of, as out of all tlAimecr (and seot into a contrio 
of grratcst safety, nwru unto uic citie of Phamada) dyed 
pitiefully. and wtv iiiiscmbly slainc. For Klithridatea s^iit 
mw of thv frnmmo-s of iiw prtrio chamber unto them 
cullnl Baccliidus, to brine tlieni word that thvy must all 
dye. Amongest many other noble Lodin, there were two 
of the kingea sisters, called Rnxano and Statira, which were 
forty yeres old a pcece, and yt-t had nvver beni; mariird ; and 
two of his wives aUo whom he hafi tnaried, Iwth of the contrie 
of Ionia, the one called llerenict-, lH)niu in the III- of Chio, 
and the other Monime, in the citie of Miletum. Monimi-, she 
was very famous amongcst the Gradaiis : for notwithstand- 
ing king Mithridatcs importunate dealing, being farre in lore 
with her, insomuch as he sent her fiftecnc thowsand crowncs 
at one time, yet she would never geve eare unto hts sute, 
until! such time as the miiriitge was a^^cd upon betwvnv 
them, and that ho hiui went her his DIadcame or myall 
bandc, and calli.'d her by tlic name and titic of Queene. 
This pooro I,Hdii- aft«r the mariage of thi« barbarous king, 
had long lived a woefull life, bewailing continually her ac- 
cursed lieauty, that in ste-ade of a luHbatid, had pmcured her 
a master : and in steade of the inatrinianiall companic which 
a noble woman shoidd enjoy, had gotten her a gard ajid 
garrison of barbarous men, that kept her a^ a priwner, farre 
mim the sweete contrie of Gricee : in chaunge whereof, she 
had but A dreame and shadow of the hoped goods she looked 
for, having unforlunntelv left them witJiin her own« contry 
site happely enjoyed lK-^r>re. Now when this Bacchlde* wi 
come unto them, and had commnundcd them from the kin 
to choose what mancr of deAth they would, and which every 
one of them thought nitut Misiest, and least painefull ; 
Monim^ pluckt of the royall bande from her head, and tyit 
it on a knot nhuve Iter necke, hung her selfe, iMit the ban 
not UHng Ktrong enough, brake ineontincntlv. Whereupon 
she cried out: O cursed ainl wicked tissue, wilt thou not yet 
serve me to tiid my snmwfull daycs? And speaking these 
worde^ cast it on the gmunde and spit apon it, and beULj 
out her throte to Boochides to be cut a mndcr. The other,' 




Bcrvnic^: she t(K>kr a cuppe full of uuywm her mother being 

Sirceent, who prayeil her to let her haw h4Ufe, the which sJie 
lid, and they ilranke it of betwene them. The ftuve of tJie 
poyfloii wa.1 strange enough to kill the old mother weake 
with age, but not so quickely to destroy the dauc;hter: 
bicauae she had not taken that proportion whieh woulu have 
served her tume, but drue out the {tttine's of her death uj 
IcDgtli, untill such time as Daechiilos iiastiiig to dispatch 
her, she in tJie end did >-trai)gle her self. As for the liings 
two sisters, Koscane und Statyra, which were virf^ine* yet 
umnftried, they »uy, that one of Uieni niso dnuike poison, 
cuniog and detesting the cruelty of her brotlk-r : howbeit 
SUtira gave never Rti evill wonl, nor wtu faiute liarted or 
Homwfull to dye, but eontrarily did commend and thanke 
her bi'other highly, tliat seeing him selfe in daiuiger, imd 
not yet forgotten them, but was carefull to cause them dye, 
before they shoulde fall as slaves into the handes of their 
cnemio, and before they could come to dishonor them, or do 
them \i]lany. These pitiefidt misfortunes went to Lucullus 
luirt, who was eurteous aitd gentle of nature : iicvcrthcliSM- 
he w^.iit on further, still follonin^ Mithridittei> at the heeles, 
inito the city of Talaum. And thi-rL- iin<lersbiniliiig tltat ho 
was fletl foure <ltty<« before unto Tigrane^ ill Armenia, re- 
turned bocke agnine, having first subdued the ('htddianit, 
and tJie I'^baivninntt, taken Armenia the h«te, and brought 
the cities, castelU, and strong places unto hia obe<Iience. 
That done, he sent Appius (jodiai unto king 'I'igranes, to 
Bumuione him to deliver Mithridates unto him : and him 
aelfe tooke his iomey towards the citic of Amisus, which 
was yet besicgeo. The clause why this siege continued long, 
was the sufliacncie and great expcricnee of the Captaine that 
kept it for the king, i^led CallimHchus : who understoodv 
ao well howe all sortes of vugiiies of batterie wxtc to be used, 
and wm GO subtill bciddeit in all invciitionit that nii^it xene 
to di-fi-ndc u place besiegi-d, a.s he tmiibled tlie Komanes 
much in this att^-mpt: but afterwarden he wit^ not only met 
withall, and payed home for all hiit labor, but aitio outreached 

C.lus for all bia linenesse. For where before be had 
jBcd to sound tbe retreate at a oertaine bower, and 
C 3B£ 



The conge 

Appiiu do- 


Tigraiie* from 

e«iv«f oor of 

LucuJIui wan 

Amljui Aud 

Lncullnl cur- 
twc towardm 
tho citia of 

genUs myiog. 


to call his rocii backc from the assaultc, to rest them: one 
day be brake that order on the sodaitic, and commiDgc to 
usaultc the wnllc, at the 6rst charge wannc a pcccc of it, 
before those within could come in time to resist them. 
Callimachus seeing that, and knowing it was now unpot- 
sible to kvcpG the city any len^r, fon»okc it. But iMfore 
hiM departing )h' iH.-t tnv citic a (ire, vitlti-r fur th« malice to 
the Komi\iM.-s, bi«uL*e he would not tlwy sliould enriche 
them selvw witli tin; saeke of m great a citie: or else for 
a policy of warrc to luire the more leiuure to save him selfe, 
and flie. For no man gave eye to them that fled by sea, 
bicause the flame was so great, that it dispersed it sdfe even 
to the very walles, and the Uomane souldiers, they only 
prqjared to spoyte. LucuUub seeing the 6rc without, had 
companion of the citie within, and would gladly have holpcn 
it, and for the purpose prayed the souldiers i^uickely to 
quench it : but not a man would barken to him, every one 
gaping aflur the spuyle, making grvat noj'sc with ctossfaing 
of lianieMw, and Ix-ing very lowde besides othvrwi.ic, till at 
the U-ngth eiifore*-*! Uiereunto, he gave the city wholly to 
•po)']e, hoping tliereby ti> Mtvc the Imhikcii from lire, but it 
fell out cleaiio contrary. For Uie .toldicn tln-in selves in 
seeking all alwut with torclics and IJnrkes lighted, to see if 
any thing were hidden : they set a number of houses a fire. 
So as LucuUus comming into the citie the next nwming, and 
seeing the great desolacion the fire had made, fell of weep- 
ing, saying unto bis fiuniliar fiends about him: he had 
oflentimra before thought Sylla happy, howbeit he never 
wondred more at his good forttine, ttien that day he did. 
For, SylUi sayd be, desiring to save the citie of Athens, the 

riddes grauntcd him that favor that he might do it : but 
that would faine follow him thcnan, and save this citie, 
fortune thwarting my dexirc, hath brought me to the re- 

Sutacioo of MummiuM, that caused Corinthe to 1a> burnt 
'evertbdesae he did his best endevor at that time to helpe 
the poore citie againe. For touching the fire, even immv- 
diatly after it was taken, by Gods providenoe there fctl a 
shower of raine as it was newly kindled, that qtienchcd it : 
and LuculluH selfe before be left the citie, made a grcst 




number of the houses which were spoyled In fire, to be WCVLLVS 
built up a^ne, and curteoufily received all the inhabitauntes 
that were lied, besides them ne placed other Gnedans tliere 
also, that were willing to dwell amongest them, and increased 
the boundes and confines of the citie which he gave them, 
one hundred and twenty furlongea into the contrie. This 
citie was a colony of the Athenians, who had built and 
founded it, in the time that their Empire florished, and that 
they ruled the seas : by reason whereof, many flying the 
tyranny of Aristion, went to dwell there, and were made 
free of the city, u» the natural! inhabitAnte of the same. 
This good liappc fell upon them, that fonialcing t)>eir ownc 
goodes, they went to jKMtsesse and enjoy tlie goodat of otlier 
men: but the very citiiteDS of Athens it selfe that had 
escaped from this great dtsolation, Lucullus clothed them 
well, and gave tliem two hundred Drachmas a pecce, and sent 
them againe into their contrie. 'I'y'^'iii*''' ^^ grammarian TyruuiioBtlie 
was taken at that time, whom Mursna begged of Lucullus : gwmmariau 
and Lucullus having graunted him unto him, he made him ^'^^'^• 
free, wherein he dclt very discourteously, and did much abuse 
Lucullus liberality and gift unto him. For in bestowing this 
prisoner uppon him, who was a famous learned man, be ilid 
not meane Muriena»)}ould take him fora bondeman, whereby 
he should ncedc afterwardes to make him frcv. For seeming 
to make him free, and restore him to libertie: was no more 
but to take that frcedome and lilx'rty from him, which be 
had from hin birth. But in many other tbinees, and not in 
that only, Monena layed him selfe open to the wurld, that 
he had not all tlie partes a worthy C^ptaine Khuuld have in 
him. Whtm Lucullus departed from Amisus, he went to 
visitc the dties of Asia, to thend that whilest he was not 
now occupied with warrcs, they might have sonw refreshing 
of lawcs and justice. For, by reason that law was not 
executed of long time in Asia, the poorc cootry was so 
ftiHicted, and oppressed with so many cvilb and miseries: 
ait no man living woidd scant brieve, nor any tongue can 
well declare; For, the extrcamc and horrible cuvetousnes 
of the farmen, customers, and Komanc uscrers did not only 
devoure it, but also kept it in such bondage and thralilome, 


LtHiiilliui r«- 
llavttb Aaia 
from RXtrtaiae 


WCVUJOi that particularly the poor* fiithen were drinn to m^ tbdr 
coodly jroung MntM* aod diuf^ten id mwiafre, to pay tho 
interest (Uid uM^ry of the Dtutwy wliidi tln--v hud borovrttl 
to (liftciuLrf(C tlteir dnen witlutU: aiid publiKcly tiiv tftblc* 
dedioftted unto tite temntcH, tltc statues of their goddc*, and 
other trhurcti juelb : ana yet in the end, they them nelres won 
iUko j udged to be bondmen and slaves to their cniell creditors, 
to weare out their dayes in miserable servitude. And yet 
the wont of all was, tlie piB)-ne they put them to before thej 
were so condemned: for thry imprisoned them, set tliem 
on the rockc, tormeiitul Umiu uppon u litle brascn borae^ ^ 
aette them in the iitockcs, nutdc them «tande naked in the ^H 
grcairat hMttv of soramer, and on the i»e in the deepest of ^^ 
winter, •» an tltnt bonda^' wemvd unto thi-in a reliefe of 
their mi^x-rii':*, iind n runt of thvir tnnnentcs. luicullus found 
the vitio tif A.iiit full of sucli op|iresdons, but in n Hhorte 
time after lie delivered them ail that were wrongfully tor- 
mented. For liret be tooke order, they should luxximpt for 
the a<>ery that was payed monethly, the hundred parte of 
the principall dot ouely, and no more. Secondly he cut of 
ail UMerics that passed the principall. Tliirdlv, whicli wa^ 
the fpvatcsl matter of all, he ordamcti that the creditor and 
userer should enjoy the fourth parte of the pmfites and 
revenues of his dettcr. And he tiiat juyned uscry with the 

{trincipall, that is to tay, tooke itwTy upon usery : should 
ose the whole. So tJtat by this order, nil dettes were payed 
in lessc tlieii fourth yean'-s aitd the ownem lande» and revenues 
•et clcrc of all huiikt ■vtyniont.-i. This Min;haj]ge of iiseries, 
aune of the twenty thowsande taietiteit, wherein Sylla had 
condemned tlie coiitrie of Asia : the which summe tlioy had 
payed twise l)cfore unto the farmers and collectoni of the 
Konianes, wlm had nused it, still heaping usery upon iixcry, 
to the summe of sixe se»re thowsand talent^ K'herefore 
these eollectc»ni and farmers rnnne to Ktime, and cried out 
Upon LitculluK, saying, that be did them the greatest wrong 
that could he, and by nii-unexof money, tltcy procured L-ertaiiu* 
of the common «>uiL'>vlkT« to spcake n^oiiut him : which they 
miglit iwiily doe, bicause thev luid di\'ersic of tlieir names iu 
their bookes tliat dcit in UiaJraircH of the common wealth at 

Tliat I" «ft?r 
tlioratc of 13 
III tho hun- 
dred fur the 




Home. Bitt I.iicullus was Dot oiity beloved of those contries 
whom lie did good unto, but was wnilied fur aiid desired alto of 
others, wlio thought the coiitnes liappy that might have such a 
governor. Now for Appius Clodius, whom LucuIIub had seut 
Before from Talaura unto kine Tigranes in Armeiua,au<f whose 
sister at tliat time was Luciulus wife: he first tooke certaine 
of the kings men for guides, who of very luaJice guided him 
through the high contry, making him fetch a great compavtc 
about, by in&nydftye!<jonicvss])cnt invaine: until! such time 
as one of his iiifnuiclica(.-d ooiidmcn that was bom« In Syria, 
taiight him the right wiiy, Whereupon hv discharged thrav 
bWDarous gHidiw, luirl h-nving tJte wrung wayn they had led 
Urn, within fewe diiyts i«v<t over the river of Kuithrati.^ and 
arrived in tin- dtic of Antioci), sumomed E^idapntte. Where 
he liHtl CO 111 maun dement to abide 'Figranea retumc, who was 
thcti in the contry of Fhenicia, where he subdued certaine cities, 
and hail some other yet to conquer. Appius in the meane time 
wanne secretly divers of the princes and noble men, that obeyed 
this Armenian king but for fcare, by force, and against their 
willcs, amongest whom was Zarbienus, king of the province 
of Gordiama : and promised the aide of Lucullus also to 
many the cities that sent unto him, (which hod not long 
before bene subdued and brought into boudogv) to whom 
neverthelcs he gave in exprcs-sc cbarge, that for tiic time 
they should not once titurre, nor alter any thing. For, the 
nile of these Armenians was intoUemble tn the Gnvcians, 
And KiHTiaily the pride and arrogancieof th« king. Who, 
by roaxon of his great prosjtiritie, was growt-n to such pride 
uid pn^imiption, that what-wcver mi-n di<l wmmonly estccnie 
^best, and make most recJioning.of, he would not only have it, 
' and U!te it as his owne, but also tooke it that all wa.s made 
for him selfe whatsoevei': and this great overwening grew, 
I by reason of fortui>es speciall grace and favor towardes him. 
I for at the beginning no had but very litle, and yet with 
\ this litle (which few mode reckoning oQ he oonciuered many 
grvat nations, nod plucked downe the power of the Parthiaos 
as much as any man that over was before him. He re- 

Iilenishcd the coiitry of McsopotAmla with Grcocian in- 
uibituuntcs, which he brought liy force out of CiUcia and 



Ap|iiiM Clo- 
dius, Lucullus 
wivM brolhor. 

Eu|>lirat«t II. 


prlne itnd 


LUCULLUS Cappadoda, oompellmg them to inhabite there. lie made 
tlie Arabians chaunge their maner of living, who are otber- 
wiae called the Scenites, as much to say, as tent dwellers, 
bicAUBe they are vagaraat people that dwell in no other 
houses but tcntcs, which they ever use to carie with them, 
and brouf^t tliem out of tlielr natumll oontrSo, and made 
them followe him, uHiiig them for his commodity in trade 
of marohaundiwe. There were ever many ki>ig« in his courte: 
that waited on him : but amongest others hv had fourcl 
ktnges tliat waited continually on his person, as his foote- 
men : for when be rode abroade any whether, they raiuie by 
his stirroppe in their aliirtes. Ana when be was set in bu 
chaire of state to ffere audience, they stoode on their feete 
about his chaire hiding their handes together, which cotm- 
tenaimce shewed the most manifest confession and tokens of 
bondage that they eould do unto him : as if thev had shewed 
thereby that they resigned nil their libcrtie, antl oBcrcd their 
bodies unto their Lord and master, more ready to iHtfler, then 
any thing to doe. NotwithHtaiiding, AiHiitu Cloditia being 
notliiiig nboKhcd nor feared with ^1 this tmgicull |X)mp^i 
when audience was gc-vi-n him: toldc Ling Tigranc« boldtj^ 
__ t<» hi.t faw, tliat he was come to carie kinfj Mitnridates away 

aoto'ngniua. with him, who wa.4 due to the triumjihe of Lucultus: ana 
therefore did sunimone him to deliver tliat king into hl^ 
haiideH, or else that he proclaimed warrea upon him aelfe,] 
They that were present at this summons, knew well enough! 
that 'l^granes (^though he set a good countenaunce of the 
matter openly with a faintc oountcrfeate laughing) yet 
hearing these wordes so boldly and gallantly spoken out of 
this young mans mowth, was galled to tne quicke, and 
hitte at the harte. For l^granes having reigned, (or to 
say better tyrannically governed) live and twenty yeares 
space, hod never heard any bold or fronckc speachc hut 
tliat. Notwithstanding, he aunswemi ApniuK, that he 
would not deliver Milhri<lnte* : <md if the Homanes mode 
wnrres with him, that he would dt-fende him sxlCe. And 
Ix'ing grcatJy offended tlmt Litcullus in his letten gave him 
not the title, king of kingcsi, hut only king simply : in the 
letters he wrote hncke to IaicuUuh agoine, he did not so much 

I The MiIbw 
«f ApplM 



as voirchesave to call him Captsine oiiely. But vrhon Apuius 
tooke his leave, he sent him goodly ricfie prcsontes which he 
refused. Whereupon the king tient othent ngniiic* unto him, 
of the which Appiua tooke a cuppe only, hii-Ause the king 
should not thinke he refused ought of anger, or ill will: and so 
sending all the rest againe unto him, made great hast to re- 
tumc to his Captaine Luculius, Nowe ngranes before that 
time would not once see king Mithridates his so neere kinse- 
man, who by fortune of waircs had lost so puisant and great 
u kingdome, but prowdly kept him under in fciinie, marri»ihc, 
and unliolsome grounds, without any honor geven unto him, 
as if lie had bene n very prisoner in dcvdc : nowbcit then he 
sent for him honorably, and received him with great curtcsie. 
When they were necre together in the kinge» ]Mtlaix>, they 
talked ecL-retly one with on other, and excusing ihiin selves, 
clearing all suspieiuiis conceived betw^-ne them, to the great 
hiu^ of their servnuntes and fren<leK, whom they burdened 
with all thoccasion of unkindnes hetwene them : amongst 
which number Metrodorus Scepsian was one, a man excel- 
lently well learned, eloquent ni speache, and one whome 
Mitlu-idfltcs so much loved and esteemed, that they called 
him the kinges father. Mithridates at tlie beginning of his 
warres had sent him Ambn/isadur unto Tigraues, to pray 
ayde of him against the Itomancs. At which time Tigrancs 
sayd imto liim : But what sayest thou to it Metrodorus : 
what advise wilt thou geve me ? Metrodorus either hicausc 
he had regard unto Tigranc« profit, or else bieatue he was 
loth Mithridates shoold escApe, answered him againc: As 
Amha-iKsador, king, I wpuid you should do it : but a* 
a couaiellor, tliat you should not do it. Tigmnet now 
reported Uiis speadie unto Mitliridat*^, not tliinking he 
would have hurt Metrodorus for it, though in deede he 
presently put him to death upon it Whereat Tigranes was 
nortely sorie, and repented him greatly to have tolde him 
eo much, although he was not altogether the occasion of his 
casting away, having but only revived Mithridates cvill will 
before conceived against him. For he had borne him di»- 
pitwture of a long time, as appeared amongst his secret 
paper* and writit^ that were taken from him, where he 



f nco fmm 

tnkiiifc of 



Snhe, and 

■n Orator o* 
Athoiu, d)-ed 
in king T^tk- 
OM court*. 

dty ftandiu^ 
ftpooTIgriB II. 

A i>Utt*r too 
Dolpbia in, 



LDCVLLC3 had onlaitM.t! that Metroilorua »hould be put to tloath : but 
in rccompcncc thox'of Ti^miies buried hin body honorably, 
!())iiiritif! no cfist ut all uiitu thi; dt^ail Ixxty of him, whmi 
livinj^ liL- IimI b<-lniyed. Thi^re dyed in kiii^ Tifrnuuit wurte 
abu, an Uralor called AniphicratW, if he doerve that mm- 
tioti nhould be made- of him, for the citie of Athena sake 
whereof he was boi-no: for it is sayd, that when he woa 
banished out of hU oontnc, he fled into the city of Seteuda, 
which standeth upon the river of Tigris. When the inhaln- 
tanta of the same pnued him to tettchc them the arte of 
elo(|U(.-n(X in their contrie, hr woidd not vowchesavp it, but 
BUiwwen'd them prowdly i Unit a |)hittt.-r wils too litle to 
holde n Dulphiue in, nicjining tliat their t^itte wim too small 
a thine to coiitainc it. tVum thence he went unto Cicuptttia, 
Mithndttto daughter, and kino; Tigrancs wife, wliere he vnot 
qtiiekely itu-ijiected and accused : so that l»e was forbidden to 
n^ueiit tlie (irsecians company any more, nhiL-h ^rieveil him 
so much, that he famished Iiiin selfe to <)i»th. and would t^te 
no nieate. And that man was also veiy lionorablv buried 
by tJie Queene Cleopatra, nere unto a place called Sepha, 
as they call it in tnnt contiy. Now when LucuUus had 
quieted all thin^'» in A^a, ana had cetablitbcd good lawe& 
among them, he wim not oudene kIm of gotna and pieasaunt 
uostimes, but while he was at leANun^ in the city of Kphesus, 
lie made miuiy |i:nmrs feastefl, wresltin^-n and fence pUyes at 
the shiiriK- for joy of hist vicloiy, delif^hting all tlie cities of 
Atiia wito Uiein, tlie which in rvcumpence theruf did imtitutv 
a M^cmne feast also in tlie honor of hint, which tlwy colled 
Luctillen, and did celebrate it with, grc&i joy, shewinj; a tnie 
and nu fained frendshippe and good will towardes him, which 
pleased him better, and was more to his contentatkm, tlien 
all tlie honor they could dcvi^; to goe him. But after that 
Apnius Clodius was returned from hiii Ambussade. and had 
toiae LucuUus that he must make wurrcs with Tigranes : 
Lueullus went backe againe unto the rcolmo of Pontus, 
where he tooke hiit Armie which he had left in gani^on, and 
brought it before tlie city of Sinojw to ky «ir^ trnto it, or 
rather to btsiepe certjiine Cilici«iL-> tlmt were fiottni into the 
dty in tlic belialfe of Mitiiridate^ But vlicn they aawv 


Luciillus come agutut them, they slue n grcdt number of the 
citizens, niul setting fire on the city, fletl their way by ni^ht 
Liicullus being aifvt-rtLwti of it, entred Uic citii.', put eight 
thowsande of tlie Cilidaiia to the swonl which he found 
there, Rnd restored the naturnll citizen^i and iiiliabit«iites 
thereof to all that was theirs. But the original! cause tJiat 
made hitn to be carefull to preserve the city, was tliia vision 
he had. He thought iu hia nightes dreame that one canie to 
hinj, and sayd: Goe a Utle further LucuUus, for Autolycu* 
conimeth, wno is desirous to speake with thee. 'ITiis dreame 
awaked him, but bcins awake could not imagine what the 
vision mcnt. It wna uic sclfc same day on the which he 
tooke the city of Sinopc, where following the Cilicians that 
escaped by flying, he found on image lying on the ground 
upon the sea side, which the Cilicians would have caiied 
away : but they were taken nnd followed so neere, that they 
had Qo Icasure to Khii>]M.' it. Thi^ statue (as it is reportetl) 
was one of the goodlu^t and notablcst workes of Stheuis the 
Image gmver. And some sny that it was the image of 
Autolycus who founded the city of Sinope. For Awtwycus 
was one of the princt-s that went out of Thes^tlie with 
Hercules to go against the Amazones, and he was the sonne 
of Dfimadius. And tliey rcporte that at the retiime from 
this vdvage, the shippe in the which Autolycus was itnlmrked, 
with Demoleon and Phlogius, made shipjtewracke upon a 
rocke on tlie coast of Cherronesus, where slie was cast away : 
howbcit that he and his men scaping with all their furniture^ 
came to the city of Sinope, which he tooke from certaine 
Syrians, who came (as tliey say) of one Syrus the sonne 
of Apollo, and of the nimphe Sinoiic Asopiis daughter. 
Lucullus uiidentatiding this mntt«T, called a saying of Sylla 
to minde, which he wrote in bin commentaries : that nothing 
is more certaine, nor that we may gew more credit unto, 
tikcn that whidi if dignified to u» Irv drvamcs. In tlie meanc 
aetwm he vrtu lulwrtiM-il, llmt 'Hgrani's and Mithridat«s 
wete rciuly to come downe into I.ycoonia, and Cilicio, biciuLie 
they migiit dnl ent<^r A.-'ia. Lucu11u-i marveled much at 
T^grone* coutucU, that nithence he was minded to warre with 
the Romanes, he did not we Mitliridates ayde in his warrea 
3 : I)I)D 398 

Luciilliu Uk- 
«th Sinop« 
in PgntuK. 


A statue made 
by SthenU. 

fi>uuil«rof tli« 
city of Sinope. 

why fo called. 



LCFCUU.U3 at sttch time, aa wheii h« was in hi§ best strcncth and force ; 
and that be did not then jovne his power wiOi Mithridato*. 
rather then suffer him to be destroyed &nd ovcrthrowcn, and 
aft«rwardB with a cold hope go now to begin a new warre, 
basardins him selfc with those, that could not htrlw thma 
wives. \VliiIe these thincr« paascd in tht« torte, Machara 
king Mithridfttes sonnc, thitt It^t the r«alne of Boapbonu, 
sent a crowne of goldi- unto LtictillilS, of th*- vraight of k 
thowwndt- crownw, praying him tliat he would name him 
a frcndc and conf«)cnttr of the Romanes. Whereupon 
Lucullus thought he was th«n at the very last ende of 
hix first warre, and leaving SomatiuH with sixe thowsand 
men t<j kt«iie the realnie of Pontus, he departed with twelve 
thousand fi)otemeii, and lesse then three thowsand horsemen 
to go to the second warren And herein all the world oon- 
demncd him, and thought it too rash and light a parte of htm 
to goe with »> flmall a company to light with so many warlike 
nations, and to put him selfc unto the hazard of so many 
thowsandcs of horsemen, in a marvelous large contn', and m 
a wondcrfull length, environned rmind about with deepe 
rivers and mountiiines, covenxl with wiowe all the yeare 
through: so that his ^^tuldjert, which otherwise were no 
Kpeciall well traine<l men, nor oltcilient to Uii-ir Captaine, 
followed with an evill will, tuid did Htuhbonily diaoliey him. 
And on thother nide, the common ootm-teUefa at Rome cried 
out on him continually, and openly protested before all thA 
people, that o«it of one warre he liowed an other, which the 
common wealth had nothing to doe withall, and that he looked 
after none other thinge but still to raise newc occasions of 
wam-s, to the ende he might alwayes have armies at lits 
com mnun dement, and never leave the wanes, bicause he 
would make him selfe great with the cost and perill of 
t!>e common wealth. These crying counsi-lk-m in the end 
obtained their purpoite, which was: to call home LueuUus 
againc, and to .Mib»litutc Pomney in hi« piniv. But Lucullus 
for all that, march<-d on with ni» armv with all Hm'. possible 
spcede he cnulde, »o that Ito aune in few dayi-a unto the 
nver of Euphrates, the which he found very high and rough 
by reason of the winter »c«»on : whJch troubled him niArvel- 

»oiiii« urayeth 
of LucuHus. 

TlgraoM with 
■ simII com- 

The quarrel- 
Huge ooaawl- 

came to the 
river of 
ana founil it 
very high, ntid 



ously at that present, doubtine least it would hold him titen 
a long time in finding out of boates, and making of postex 
(utd planckes to build a bri<Igc to passe over hi.i army. But 
towardes night the water beganne to fall a litle, and in the 
night fell BO much, that the next morning the river was 
eomen to her ordioaiy rtrcome : and moreover, the contrie 
men them selves decerning certainc Utk- Ilandes that appeared 
unto them in the middcst of the water course, and trie river 
very cahne as a marrishc roundv about them, did honor 
Lucuilus a5 a god, bicausc it was a thing they Iiad never 
kaeene chaunce before, as though at hi" comming the river had 
tsodiunly yeelded unt«j him, and was become gentle to g»-vc 
him aaXe and essie {wssage. And bicause he would not loow 
that oportunitie, he passed over his oniiy immediatly : and 
was no sooner on thoUier ^ide, but he met with a happie 
t token of good lucke, which was tliis. On tJiotlier side of th« 
'river, there was a certaine number of kyne con.tecrated to 
Diana I'ersica, whom the barbarous people inhabiting be- 
ynnde the river of Euphrates, do reverence and honor above 
all the other goddes : and these kyne they employ to none 
other use, but only to sacrifice tnem unto this goddease. 
'JHiey wantler all about the contry where they will, without 
ny maner of tying, or shackling otherwise, having only the 
larke of the goddesse, which is a lampe printt^^l upon tbeir 
bodiec:, and tliey are not «Me to be taken when one would 
have them, but with great a doe. One of these eon.wcrated 
kyne, after that Lucullu* anny was pa>wed over Euphrates, 
came to ofTer her tielfe upon a rock which tJiey KU]ijKH(e is 
hallowed or dedicate unto this gnddeue, iHiwing downe her 
bead, and stretching out her necke, tike those that are tyed 
ahorte, sa if she had comen even of purpose to present ner 
aclfe to LucuUus, to be sacrificed as she was. And besides 
her, he sacrificed a bull also unto the river Euphrates, in 
token of thankes for his safe passage over. Lueullus the 
firrt day did nothing but encampe him selfe only, on the 
other side of the river : but the next morning, and the other 
dayes following, he went further into the contrj' by the way 
of Sophene, htirting none that came tuid yceldea tmto him, or 
that willingly received his army. For when his men would 


'riic rtruuDge 
luid >od*Uie 
full of tlie 
river of 
from her grant 



Kyne cotwe- 
crat«(l tu 

A Htmimg;e 
thing of II cow 
thnt cnme U> 
offer her nclfK 
to Lueullus to 
bo Mcrificed. 

The ootitrjr of 


"ngri* fl. 

the Arrt me*- 
D(inK«r that 
brouxht the 
iMwei of 

Modetli Mith 




have liitd him tu liftvc ttilceii a casbell bjr force, where th^ 
jutid KAM gn-at ntore of gold and silver: he shewed them 
ntownte TnuruN a farre of, and told them it is that which wc 
miut rntlier go to take. As for the thingea which be in 
tluK outtell, they be kept for them tJiat vanquisbc : and 
goiiiK on still with great jonieys, passed over the rirtrr of 
I'^gns, and ao aitrcu the rcalmc of Armenia nith a nuune 
arinie. Now for Tigrniies, the first man thiit vi-ntvired to 
bring him ncwes of Luciiilus comming, tiiid no jo>- of it : for 
he cut of his head for his labor. And therefore irom thence- 
forth there duntt no man tay any thing unto him, tmtill such 
time as ]ve vrtut at the Itut vnvimnned roiimle with fire, which 
LuculhiK nntiy had raised ahotit him, before hv could heare 
any thing tht-n.\>f. F(ir he was .sporting and gatiding with 
his faiiiiliiirs, hearing their flattering tales, that Lucullus 
in <leede were a noble Captalne, if he durst but tary 
I'igranes comming downe in the citie of Ephesus only, and 
hove he would straight flie out of all Asia, so soone as he 
might hut heare tell of his comming against him with »o 
triumphing an arinv of so many thousand men. And thus 
may we sec, that liKe on all builies and braintw, arc not a likv 
strong nor able to cnry much wine : so in like case all wittet 
be not n»iohitc and constant, never to doe amitoc, nor to 
swarvc from rcawni bnndes in great prosperity. Howbcit in 
the end, MithrobarTanes, (me of 'ngrancs familian, was the 
next man that eiilerf>ri.-«!(i to tell him the troth : whiioc bold- 
neA liad litlv better rewani for )iU newe^ then the finit that 
was beheaded. For Tigranes sent him iiimu^liatly with tliree 
' thowaaitd horse, and a good number of fixttemen, commaund- 
ing him that he should bring Lucullus alive unto him, and 
that furthermore, he should marche upon the bellies of his men. 
Now was Lucullus alreadic camped with parte of his arrov. 
and the other parte comming after, when his skowtcs brougftt 
him ncwcs of the harbaroiii; CaptAines approache : which at 
Ute firet put liira in fcnre, that itiho enemy should come and 
OKUiiU- them thus ^icattcrcd in companies, and not nuinged in 
battcll, and ready to fight, he might overthrow them whiles 
tliey were in disorder. And tJierefore he remained within 
fortific the same, and sent Scxtihus one ( 






Lieutenaunts, with a tiiowauul sixc hundred hone, and as 
many foatemcn (or a Tvr morv) as well naked as armed : 
commaunding hini to npjtrooch as nccrv to his enemy as h<> 
could without fighting, only to stay him there, untill such 
time as he heard newes that 'ill liis nrmy was comen togt-thvr 
into his campe. Sextilius went to doe his cummnundement, 
but he was compelled to Jight, (though against his will) 
Mithrobananes caroe so bravely and lustvly to assayie liim. 
So was the Itattell striken lK-twi>iii- them, in the which 
Mithr(>bur/ane:< wajt -ttaine valliantly lighting, luid all hi.'' 
men either broken or killed, fewe esceptfd, that onely by 
flying saved them selves. After this overthrow, 'I'igranes 
forsooke his great royall citie of Tigranocerta Uiat he built 
him selfe, and went to mownt Taurus, where he nsscmbled a 
great number of men out of all partes. Hut Lucullus would 
geve him no leasure to prepare ntm selfe, but sent Mura-nji 
on the one side to cut them of by the way, and to over- 
thruwe those that were assembled about him : and on the 
oth:;r side Sextilius to stojipe a great company of the 
Arabians that were coniming to Tigranos, whom Sextilius 
set apon as they were readv to lodge, and overthrew them 
in maner every man. And Murrena following king Tigranea 
at the heeles, spyed an occasion tii geve the charge as. he 
pasiied a long and narrow valley, in the Iwttonie wherof the 
way was very ill, and sj)ecially tor an armie of such a lencth : 
and taking the oportuiiity, set apon the rerewan), which 
Tigranes perceiving, 6ed straight upon it, making all his 
cariage to be throwen downe ui the way before the enemies 
to stay them. Ilicre were a great numucr of the Armenians 
dayne in this overthrow, and moe taken. Tliose thinges 
lutTing this succcssc, Lucullus went to the ctty of Tigrano- 
certa, the which he hcsJegeth round. In that citie were » 
marvelous number of Gra-cians that had lH*ne bn>ught 
thith«r by force out of Cilicia, and manv of the b«rbarouK 
people abo whom they hiul used in the like forcible mnner, 
aa Uiey had done Uie Ailiidx-nianis the A-tsyrians, the Gor- 
diaeniatu, and the (^piiadocian.'i, uIuim* t^twiics and citien 
TSgtanei had destroyed, and comm^lled them to come and 
inl«ibite there: By reason whereor, this dty of llgranoccrta 


aendetli Sox- 
tllius ucminrt 

Scrtiliui slue 


The dt J- of' 
bu£lt hj 


TmcJIm p«r- 

to %ht oil)) 
the RomaiiM. 


LITCUEXCS wtifl full of goldv umJ silver, of mcttell.t, )tUtue», tables and 

CtiireA, bicaune every man (as well private, as F r in ct s and 
rds) studied to please the king, to enrich and beawtifie 
thiii city, with all kindea of furniture and ornamentes fit for 
the same. And bcreuppou Lucullus straighted the niege as 
much as h« could, perewadinK him selfe that 'Hgranes would 
never sufier, that it should Tjl- taken, but (though he had 
otherwise dcteraiint-d) yet for very anger would present him 
battell, thereby to enforce him to raise his sieKc. And 
surely he gcssod right, liad it not bene that Mithrtdates had 
disHwitdcd him by vxpre«»e letteni and mestcngeni that be 
idiould in no caxv hanuxi bitttell, tuid penwoded turn rather 
to cut of the vittell:( on all xideN from the Romanes witJi his 
honcmeii. The selfe same oouii»cll and ativisi- <lid Taxilcs 
(tJie QiptAJne whom M ithridati.i< sent) geve him in lux 
cAm|>e, and prayed him very earnestly, that he would not 
prove tlte invincible force of the Komanea. 'I'ignmes 
padentlie barkened to their reasons at the Grst. But 
when the Armenians were come, and all the force of the 
contiy besides, and the Gordia-nians, and that the kinges of 
the Medes and of the Adialxruiana were commcn also with 
all their power, and that on thoUier side there came a mar- 
velous great host of the Arabians that dwell apon the sea of 
Babylon, and a multitude of the Albanians from the Caspian 
seOf and of the Iberians their neighbors, besides a great com- 
pany of free people living without a king, tliat dwell by th