Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 










committee of publication: 
Joseph Lkidy, M. D., Geo. H. Horn, M. D., 

Edw. J. Nolan, M. D., Thomas Meehan, 

John H. Redfield. 

Editor: EDWARD J. NOLAN, M. D. 



I herebjr ccnif) thai Cfipe. of the I'rocecHin^ for l)tK>j h 
II Ihc mfctin;:* of (he Acidcmy as followi 


I.I. |K)V) 


:;4. 1»«. 


1. 18KK. 


N. I8ft4 


22. 1HM 


M. IflSN. 


7. ISWt. 


■JS. IHS8. 

St,«mt«r L'6. IWK. 


£1. 188H. 

Decemlxr II. I8NH. 




8, IA«t. 


15. 1H89, 


27. \f«a. 


li mw., 

IB. |K89, 



RmrJimg Sttrrmry 


With reference to the several artkies contributed by each. 

For Verbal Communications see General Index. 


Allen, Harrison, M. D. The distribution of the color-marks of the Mammalia. 84 

The palatal rugae in Man 254 

Chapman, Henry C, M. D. Observations on the female generative apparatus 

of Hyaena crocuta. (Plates X, XI.) 189 

Chapman, Henry C, M. D. and Albert P. Brubaker M. D. Researches upon 

the general physiology of nerve and muscle. No. 1 »,. 106 

Researches upon the general physiology of nerve and muscle. No. 2.... 155 
Fielde, Adele M. Notes on an aquatic insect, or insect-larva, having jointed 

dorsal appendages. (Plate VHI.) 129 

Ford, John. Description of a new species of Ocinebra 188 

Hartman, Wm. D., M. D. A bibliographic and synonymic catalogue of the 

Genus Auriculella Pfr 14 

A bibliographic and synonymic catalogue of the Genus Achatinella, 

(Plate I.) 16 

New species of shells from the New Hebrides and Sandwich Islands, 

(Plate XIII.) 250 

Heilprin, Angelo. Contributions to the natural history of the Bermuda Is- 
lands. (Plates XIV, XV, XVI.) 302 

Ives, J. E. On two new species of Starfishes 421 

Jordan, David Starr. Description of a new species of Etheostoma (E. longi- 

mana) from James River, Virginia 179 

On the generic name of the Tunny * 180 

Kellcy, Edwin A. Notes on the Myology of Ursus roaritimus 141 

Keyes, Charles R. On the fauna of the lower coal measures 222 

Descriptions of two new fossils from the Devonian of Iowa. (Plate 

XII.) 247 

Leidy, Jos., M. D. Distinctive characters of Odontaspis littoralis 162 

Parasitic Crustacea 165 

Meehan, Thomas. Contributions to the life- hi stories of plants. No. II. Some 
new facts in the life history of Yucca. A study of the Hydrangea in 
relation to cross-fertilization. On the forms of Lonicera Japonica; 
with notes on the origin of the forms 274 

Conitiliutioiu u> the lirc-hiMoriei of pUnii, No. III. SmiUciiu Urciln. 

DichofpiTny and ili tigniticancc. Trienutii Americuia. On tbe 

liland* in tome Caryophjl lace mis Horcn 89t 

McCouk, Rev. Henry C., D. D. Dncriplive nolo on new Americui specici 

or ( >rb- weaving spiders _ 193 

A new fwsil spider, Eoatypai Woodwirdii 300 

Nesting hibiis of ihe new Aroetinn PurMweb ^der - 30.Y 

OchMniu*, Carl. On Ihe fonnUion of rock-oil beik and mother liqooi idlts. IHl 
CNbam, Henry t'airtield. Addiiioful oliserTUions upon the strnctore «nd 

clviitk:ation of the Me^oioic MuuBulia Sfi 

Pilibfy, Henry A. Un the llelicoid land Mo11u%kt of Bermuda (Plue 

XVIl.i 2S.'> 

Binguelieri;, KuECne N. S., M. D. Some new tpeciei of foMiU from tbe 

NiaRarn Shales of Wettem New York. (Plait* VII ) ISl 

KuKhenbcreer, W. S. W., M. I>. Itioerafihiral ixKice of Geo. W. Tryun Jr. 

(With ponraii.) - 39» 

Wachtmuih, Charlei and Frank Sprinj^er. Uiscovery of Ihe ventral itractore 

uf Taiocrinus and llaplocriiias and Conieqaenl modificalion in tbe 

clauitkaliun of the Crinuidea. (Mate XVIII.) 337 

Crucalocrinus: if. structure and aoolojical pi»i[i«.. (Plale* XIX. XX.) 3M 
Wii|hi, Itcdin Halt. l>e<i;riplion <il new •.ptcie'. of L'nkioei from Florida. 

(Plain II. Ill, IV. V, VI.l _ lU 


ti« ^Ml 




Thr |*r^i.|rfit. |»r. J'Mil'ii Li.ii»^. in ihr rhair. 

The Tnnifttirnc. |>r Jii»i rii Li.ipt. id itM* rhair. 

*^% 1 *iu0j r fAr /*t«M'i ri:**! I.tiii^ •f.m t<«t attrtit: n t'- a •\i 
|: .# t-V'T ' rmutai |airti*fi ••( a "k ili •!" »»••- I'imia. /'• ** '•■n-^-'i^r. atui 
xY tf«<' Ki^ia*ki« ritrr (*r%*T i^* ;• • r I*. »• ^ •>r>l« «i!f. tt;r t^tr- 
di^ntb*-wn it\jm m Dumlwr *4 •kuiU «*f our tsiuwum. 1 (•«- tij«»l Hrik* 


ing diflereoce is Id the interparietal crest which is higher and of 
more uniform height and is especially higher in front. The narroir 
part of the cranial case is narrower and the forehead is more mcaially 
depreeeed between the angular processes. Comparative measure- 
ments with two recent skulls of about the same size are as follows : 
Fossil Recent Recent 
Length of interparieUl crest 98 108 94mm 

Height of interparietal crest 10-15 &-12 8-12 

Height, on line of lower part of coronal 

■uture 15 10 5 

Breadth at narrow part of cranium 37 42 47 

Breadth at centre of squamosals - 74 75 75 

Breadth at zygomaU 150 150 145 

Breadth at frontal angular processes 74 80 81 

Breadth of narrow part of forehead 42 62 44 

Length of forehead to post-nasal depression 41 48 48 

Height of iniou from occipital foramen. 62 63 62 

January 17. 
Dr. A. E. PooTE in the chair. 
Eight persons present. 

A paper entitled "Some new fossils from the Niagara Shales of 
Western New York" by Eugene N. 8. Ringueberg M. D., was 
presented for publication. 

January 24. 
Mr. Geo. W. Tryok, Jr. in the chair. 
Twenty [wnwiis jircwnt. 

18M ] HATt MAI. M*1ESI(*1» or PHILAMXrillA. 11 

the <*nrtl it form* ft (rm IrftVr* nhii'h *i\(lvr WMlelir fr*irti fh«>nr whtrh 
•f»}irmr «»f» t^M aAinr |iUnt ft littlf IftiiT. Thr Ailtilt ttUk^ of lltmr 
ir«t W«%r« It fr*itii ft turtitk'th In ft t«*litli uttiftllrr ihftti the ftdull 

■tft-,-*- '*( th^ aiM^.tKl «»r Iftirr «lr%rloi»«-<| l«*«\r<«. ( frticinllv <>iilv fmm 

1i%9' U* IrO of tlKiM* 6r«t'lrftVr* ftf*' lirtMltJCVHl. 

Khrt the «r<^iu<i lrft\r« Imv^ii **' ft|»|»rftr. iUvti no morr f»f tKt* fint 
ii^ritt ftf* £T^*mn l»% lh«- |»lftiit. 

lo tbr ortlinft/% lr«vr» of S yurjtur^tt it it wril knoviti thai thr 
W««) »urti>outititi^ tlir h«illoir i<-ftf u f*rr4*t ftiicl in uo wim* proCrcift 
«f •^'▼♦rt it# «»f«tiiti^* In .V f*tr%olar%s lhi« !• jiul thr opjiiMai«»— 
Wrr thr h*Mal. ft litlir ftlMi%'r ftn<l iMM'k of thr o|irntn^. niftkm ft 
%kMr\* Wtmi C^riiftnl ftixi not unlv novrni orrr thr wholr orificv IhiI 
pfi^l« larviHUi) It on ftll •Him nrmrlv I inch. 

ThMv fin< or M^v^ilinj: Icmvt^ of .N pmrpurt^ rrmtnkiXr in form not 
thr Imlrr ftmJ ft<lijlt Umvni im thr Nirtir pUnt. but th<wr of S. rario" 
imrxs Thr h*««i w n«»t rnNi but ftn-lw^ »>vrf thr hollow Irmf in prt^ 
cMrjt thr «ftm«* tiiftnnrr an in thr ftilult lrft%-t« of X f*trmittrts. 

Thrnp mrr ftUo t»u fontm of Irftirw in .SL w^irt^lttris. In thi* plant, 
W «r«rr. thr *ii^rrnmi ftfr n<i( «i mtif h ft nialtrr of nhafir a* apiiar- 
roiii '4 armrtrtl tic-rrlotimrnt. Thr tir«l Ira**** arr %*rrr niu<'h likr 
iIm^ ^ull f<»nii tiQ thr Miur |4a'it 'mlv \wit\% fn>ni trn t4> l«mtir 
tiffv« «iiMilWr 

Bat thr itufMirtaat fai-t rrmauit to br •tatni : — llir firit lrtt%'r« frum 
r«i K 'if thrv plaut* anr itrrffx-t n.iniatun^ of rarh oClirr. It Wtiuld 
br t>r&t t«* itti(»M»ibir for an r&)M'rt to «i'|«ratr thrni. •houl«i tlirj 
kai^jTQ u* Iwotinr miic^l. an*! to act^urattlr i^av ahnh lirlon^^ to 
ti.^ «>r '»r vhu'h t<» thr «4lirr of iht two •|i«'< trfi. 

Thr pr««!u«tf<*n <»f thi» tir»t «*€ *»f Ifavi^w \%\ S. fmrft%trrti vihirh wo 
»*r* «-l Hrlf r>-<«rfs»blf> iIm' oniinar) l<-a\«"» «if .V r»irMk/«iri# ha«! Ird him 
Im tM'hv^r that tl«r •^m-^'ht^ ffurpurft l« a rrtr«*«rra«ir «irVrlopnA«'nt fmm 

ill* ^ii«f m tht« !•. h'»«r% rr. t%**i whoIU li«Mr^i oii thr pr^«i|urtion of 
thr rmtU lra%r». but rrM» ut«>n ar^rtal «4brr iti»{«irtaut fa* til. 

> f*§^%mlmr\§ f m\rr% hi»*nli •jw^ lAliiril plant f»r t!i«* ptir|ii»c of 
nat'hif^ at>l dt^r^lm^ in«r% i* ( p an<i «i>i«in 0»r mar^'tn of the 
«is»/ at««l a/'^ari'l tb« n«o4jth of {Ii«- pr>*!r<* t<-«l pit* bt-r ar^ numrnHi* 
L «J0"% jiai««i« In tbr int« r\'tr i* th«- •nj*>4h •ttrfa*^ an<i ml*** thr 
Lain ••*#» to irr^t-f^ ib« •-••mpr "I ifj««»tj» i»hi<L Ka%« f»«l up to ihr 
t «; 4 lim U^ftl afi*! lf}ru taib n itito 'hi* tf«.A« h« r>>ii« o^* n;ti.* Tl»r«r 
if «« taJ tela|4aS»>*c» ar»- all prv<«rtit in ^ ff%trj*Hr*j, t it %).* b*>t)rv 
jT^'i* arrS-411 tr^ r» Ir an% in^^jif at»«t an- •••n** t .n* ■• «\»n n»tJl- 
tianeblA/'* A^rait) tbr fltjul f MifHl iti > r »-'u*,'tr*# «^.r.t *n.» a <"n*l«|rr* 
a*"^ ^ jant^tY 'f a «|i,;*^ti\« frfn»«-m i»»ii. h •• t* tJjrr^tU ti|»»n xXw 
«eiraf»;ap«S itk«r« t» Tbi« u n •( ••» i»i tb« f! it«i ••%• f> 'f^l b^ th» l<a\r«ot 
A f^^rpwr^i Onli a tr»«»- of thi* f*rut»ut ««*j.-i U- I . iui\ altrr thr 
^«C ^arrful ' hreaMal irmri h for tt 


Jaituabt 31. 
Mr. CnAKLEB MoBBis id the chaii. 

T*rent;r-eight persons prewnt. 

Minury anuinj Piantt. — Prof. J. T. Rothrock remarked that 
smiifiK animaU Diiniicrr i^; usually related to the Hafetv of the indi- 
ridiial, or le^w fre<'|uenlly to the ease by which it may conceal it^lf 
utd thiui more retulilv cuptiire itn foixl. Whatever mar be the caiue 
of mimicry among plants, or by whatever governing fon-es one plant 
in the loni: run, may come to resemble another more or lesa remotely 
related to it, it i^ clear that neither of the causes which are aiwocialed 
with mituirry among animals can obtoln in the veijetahte kingdom. 

The« mimetic c&ft^ may conveniently be railed under two beads. 

1. Thu:« in which we find the resemblances between plants in 
groiipa clearly dirtinct. The lower of these may M>metimed well be 
called anticipating or prophetic types. 

'2. Those found l>etween planU in the same natural family, where 
the descent within recent i>eri<Ki, of one from the other, may R-a- 
xmably be *u[i(nirted by all who admit the doctrine of evi>lit[iim, 
Thio rewml>la»<x- i* of course often merely external, disappearing 
under even the sligbte»t examination; as, fur example, when one 
glances hastily U a specimen, particularly an herbarium iipecimen, 
of Zgyidtntit eUgana Purah, and then co^npares it with a narrow- 
leaved rt|>ecinK-n uf ■'yurerti/i prretinit. There are few who will not be 
■truck with the likencAi. yet the former is a well markeil repre:<en- 
tation of ihc nioniM-otyled>moiis ^roup. and the other as evidently one 
of the di'-otyltilunous plant. It is Mimewhitt startling to find 
along with murki-<l (Hiints of distinction that there exist certain struct- 
ural reH-mhlunces ; thus one may well compare the unusual mark- 
ings foiiiiil on the baiie> of the perianth divisions in Zgyndenut 
with the eiiiiiiUy itniHiiul gland found at the hose of the petals in 
Steertm. Dierf is in thei« r^iM' nib lances nothing which can in anj 
aenxe l>e called prophetic, because the relationship between the ex- 

IM^] ^ArtRAi. M'ltJK'M or riiii.Ai»i:i.niu. 13 

T^**- •rotftii i;r«iii|i !<• m hirh all>iM<»ii ha* Im^-ii m«air chiMir in whicb 
ttir rr^w-ni til art rr i« Iw-t^nrii*'! tilftiitfi. iiiA% Im* fairU illu«lnUrcl 

h% l\»r rrwfllMAtli-r lH-t«m*t« \*'ftrftt titerkttma And iAtmtum itMi- 
^.>x^:mV. r«(a« lall^ « lirii »• i* «»t\rti iIh* ram* ii« Xr^ffta iUr \wUoUm 
ar* %<r^ ni'j* h r««|iir«^l in li-tijlh 

\:j<*.«r ii'i-i»vi»l n^*riiM.-ttf«- • •»iih-« !•» niiinl. < >nr nmv r«»ilT 
«r*<l-r»ia-M «iK% tin t-tip l''>iiri*l nUiiit tli*- li:i««* <>t* tht Mi^'nia in m» 
teariv f ;!h I^'U iia'-«Mi- •h<*i|]«i U- ••> « \:i« tl\ n-|ii-iiti'«) in tlir allird 
\»rUr •( If ••!- uiJM^ »«■ H'lt h>ii nr>- «r l*t «\pl.iiri it* .*i{i|a*arafi(v 
lb <» iw'' i •n» f|' Ui« < »n;i«'r.ii •■.M- whirh fan harlly U* r«VAni«^l aa 
ri Mr « r*la:<l t>* ritltoT <*t' iIm- :tl»ii%-f tinirr*. Tlt«-«** n'^i'MihlaiKva 

ar^i ti«r •|i'"«!i..n« ^T**mtu^ •tut nl* tlwiu an* t«i U* furthrr o>tttti«l«*rrd 
la a !*(■'' tn «-«f«ir^* «»!' pn )tBr%ti<*ii. 

Mrwr« l^vnni-r J M**rri% Strwart Tulin and I^iUtI* Ijt lioutil* 
brr mwrr rWti^i HK-niU r«. 

Tbr ftlkfvin); ^rr*' «trtlrr«t| u* In* printi^i: — 



HY W. D. HARTHAN, 11. D. 

Gtnu AUKICnLSLLA. Dr. L. PbUbr. 

A. WBU, Preiffcr. (Frlek«lla.) Pr«. Zool, Soe.l. no. p. 3, IHJS. 

FriektUa ametna, Pfeiffer, Mai. Bliitt. ii-]85r», 166-1858. 
Aurieulella amana. {\m\. Proc. Zool. Soc. 91,-1873. 

Sandiciek I»land». 

A. ftmbtuU. Pm«. Jour. Conch. Ui, IHKS. Proo. Zool. Soc. KlU, ISSV. 

iSandinM Itlandt. 
fA. Hri«nU. PO. (FartaU.) Fcr, dyiirm, itn, Ku. fl. 
.iuricu/Wi* Aurimla, Ku.n. t. 3, p. 14-16. 
Aurieulella Otcaihiei^gU, Chcm. 
Tomalella (hmihiensis, PfeifTer, 1842. 
Pariula Oumnrtroy, Souly. 
J'artula Auricula, Albere. 
Aehatinetlu Aurimla. Pfeiffer, 1855. 
Auricula Sinittroraat Chcni. In Kust. t. 7, p. 14-16. 
Bulimus Armntiji, Migh. Proc. BoBt. Soc. II, p. I'J. 1K45. 
TorruUi'lla Hiimtrona, Pfr., Man. Hcl. viv ; 6-51!. 

Hauni, fiandicieh lalanda. 
tA. bnanaB, ritDiih. Pnic. Suul. Rw. I. Ifl, f. il-lHTI. 

Molokai. and Kauai. 

tA. C«rM. Pfr. (AlbmUMlU,) Pror. Zool, Soo. I. a<l. f. II-IK&S. 

Ackalinclla Vcrra. I'fr. Mall. Blatt,-18.').5. 

Aurieulella Cfrra, Pso. I'rw. Zuol. Soc. 64'.l-1660. 


fA. ezpama, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. Jour. Conch, xvi. t. 14, f. 8. 

Sandwich Islands, 

A. jeonnda, Smith. Nomen in Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. 331-332-1873. 

West Maui, 

fA. Inrida, Pfr. (AohatinelU.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, 552. 

Tomatellina Castanea, Pfr. Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 570. 
Balea Castanea, Adams. 

Tomatella Castanea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 
Auriculella luHda, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 304-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. Obeliiom, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, 563. 

Balea N^wcombia^ Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 67-1852. 

Temesia Newcombia, Bourg. 

Auriculella Oheliscas, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 166-1856. 

Sandwich Islands* 

A. patnla, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 24r-1873. 

Sandwich Islands. 
fA. petetiana, Pfr. (Tornatellina.) Mon. Hel. Viv. ii, 399. 
Auriculella Petetiana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 4-1855. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. perpmilla, Smith. Proc. Zool Soc. t. 10, f. 26-1873. 

Sandwich Islands. 

fA. palohra, Pse. Jour. Conchyl. xvi, t. 14, f. 6-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 
There is little difference between type examples of S, pulchra, Pse. 
and A. auricula, F^r.; the former are somewhat larger in size. 

A. pniilla, Gld. (Partnla.) Expd. Shells, t. 9, f. 90. 

Achatinella pusilla, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 166-1856. 
Auriculella pusillay Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 304-1881. 

Matea Island. 

A. lolida, Gul. Nomen in Ann. Lye. N. Y. x, 331-332-1873. 

Kanailola, Oahu. 
A. folidiffima, Smith. Nomen in Ann. Ljc. N. T. x. 331-332-1873. 

MakawaOj Oahu. 
A. tennil, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 27-1873. 

Sandwich Islands. 
A. triplicate, Pse. Jonr. Conch. 346-1859. 


fA. aniplioate, Pse. Jour. Conchyl. xvi, t. 14, f. 7-1869. 



BY W. t>. IIARTHAN, M. D. 

The genus Aehiilinella,* embraces a group of small, beautiful and 
Tariouiily colored land slicUs, [>6culiar to the Sandwich Inlands. 
Mr. Bwuineoii firet introduced the jrcnuf to the notice of uaturnlists 
in Brand's Journal, in 1828, and in the aanie author assigned 
it a position in the Bywtematic arrangement of Hj^cies, under the 
above name. Rince that period niuny ncn species have been dcscritH 
ed by naturalisU. Pr. I-. I'feiffer in the Mahikozoologischc Blatter, 
and subsequently others have pro|>osed sub-divisions for the numer- 
ous and diversified forms embraced by the genus. In some 
iuetancos the lines of these subKlivisions are well-defined, while in 
others they are less marked. They have been generally adopted by 
concholofpsts, as they are found convenient for the arrangement of 
a collection. Mr. Thomas Blan<i says "the distinctions derived 
fWtm the consideration of the form of the shells are arbitrary, and the 
limits are not well defined." Iliu classification of the sub^divisions 
of the genus, is chiefly founded on the structure of the lingual den- 
tition, "which indicates three groups, a. Partulina and Achatinella 
b. Nevxombia and /^miri«//a, and e. LepfocAolina,- Judging from the 
■hells alone, Buiimella and Apex belong to group a, while LabieUa 
belongs to group 6 or e rather than to a." This arrangement is 
chiefly in accord with that of Dr. I'fcifTer and Mr. William H. Pease, 
for the details of which I must refer the reader to their several pa- 
pers. I agree with Dr. I'fcifler in eliminating Carelia and Attrictt- 
UUa as separate genera from Achatinella, and I also concur with 
Dr. Gulick in the ojiinion that FrUkella should be added to Auri- 

1%M ) ^«n i£%i -« ii.%(i> ti» run %i»ij. 1*111%. !7 

miUrtkXu'tk tti the |*rrf*ar»ii<>ii of ilii« |m|«>r. aimI (**f the* |»n>»rtil it hmn 
br«f* nrfjiitK^i III ihf ^I'liii* |'-A»ififir//.i. Ill niittU /tf};; llif •|««*rif* 
«/ I.^fit^k'itHt {ifo'-i^^t^l hi I »r <toiiM. i»f nliirh L. ttrumiit'tt** <tld. 
«i^ I* •« jTj.ii«^i m« th« l\|««, tin \ an- f«Min.| («• U' <h\i«ti»h- tiilo thrre 
lfr»-fj;- Ifj !K« tir»l ii*a^ U ]>ln«^4l th«- « h-ii^'al** «»r r\ hritlht al ami 
•rft^i tni!.«|<iArrtjt \*»r'.«ti«*. a* i, •i'*»«iJti»Mi/ i. «/ri ifu/u ninl rf^ttilis 
i p- A \ •*" '■« »• I*l» sfh r. friir' r«.*»i l*«"i«^ . Urrhr'di* ainl mht <illl., 
1^ ! •♦.♦^ i N»«t In th«' M « ofMi. th«' "hort ox al rh ar ainl j«i»li«hr<l v»- 
n^-t**^. *• oh^m/i Mi^rh iNi/y^i|*i llartni hrrr%rul*t !'••• ami Ni/t<la 
\r». Afwl ifi th« thinl. iJh- lar^'ir iiitlat«*«l jii»«i iiH>n' •t«»ul »|«vitii, ma 

//^rfK* ;••♦» \« «♦ 1/ > #Mrr^iiff«j, fiiJN<«>#*i. at}«l * ttr^t Sv^lkv, tu»t^t aild 
re#««i%/ 1 < ml t..^ilHr «ith rttrfif^tii an<l /'yrtimM l*fr. Fhr iii«j<ir 
|«f1 /tl»- •{w^ ii^ art trrn'*lrial in th«*ir hahii*. mlnlr a f«-w arr 
aH» rral In rtn r%aiituiali'*ii «»f th^* .\<*haliiirll;r. I ha%t' al*«i iiiolu> 
«i*«i tK* ai!t*^| •t'liu* .\nrir%*UH*t Thr i^tiM-n*' iiaiiit* «»f .IrA^li*!**//* 
kjM (m^ ta ii«r«I }>% all author* |*rt\i«Ki« («i I >r. I*f<*itr**r'* •tih ilx i*icia 
of tK# ^f%n*\t\ Malak»/'-»l'v*^*< Im* lUattrr in \<*\ an«l IV»«>, Owinjf 
|<» «r ^ « f al t^ii*t « thr «!« » i« « ha\r U^ n lHinh«iH<l wtlh iiuiiM*n»u» 
§«;»"<. «fi.* n«jin« of mhi<^t lta\f U^ n ht-n-tn otiiitt«'«l. to a%(»i4l a 
imviIk'w rr|«-iitj»ti of nanx^ Tln^ir \ariahilit\ tii form, ajrr and 
r*"* f. ha« mt«i<^l naturmli*!* into thr rrrnf of multiplying thr »|ir- 
ci»» »f?«l a I hafsj* of rti% in.ntiw*nt I>r. Nr^'^^'Hih inf«»rm* u«, ia 
1l&^'«!3 to ••« aiu r th«> apfv-arsiKv of fti'mr. a» to raum* thrm Xt» \w 
■uvtakrti f«r «ii«4inrt •|«^i it-« A < haiu** of rn\ in>nmi'nt an«i mal* 
»utn:t> n Hiatrnalh ti*'«hti*^ th^ ^-ro«th of all animal*, and n«»- 
Mh^tit t« It n>or%* •>)«^r\ahif' than in tin* n)ollu*>-an fauna. T^ie 
diH' rrtit a|»|*^ran*>^ "f «lr|»«uj'rnjr*'«i **t aUrrani forni* of •hrlU i« a 
|#* hfer m^'j^t*.^ *'X *if rati*! • ft* ti "I < iit)Nirni.*«nH fit to thr •tud«*nt «»f 
Mkl^rml \ \»x r\ viiH^t o»rr«-^ t^>n« ran onU hr itia^lr hv thr rtanuti- 
ftU^^ '4 t«j«^ »n ••jkitrn^l < *>iU <~ti"n* Mr <f»^» \V Fr^on Jr m 
k4« rtr*'vtit ^u* k» -ti •^»»ih l'.'^ !.a« r» 1« jal«'»l l«» •>i.on\fi»% manT 
%imi'** b^fft* r r%' o^t«s.i» f*ii «f «|«>* i!i« \al'K. •-.rnt «f »hi«h arr 
«i«ut<Wm» \\m r»**jlt • f tti% sr*«n«** III **t h\ hn«ti#ati««i» In ih« ♦arU 
kt*i ^"^ ( \'t** ^tut% .1 "At .?*#»'..* I. iial'ira.i»l» m -htft r* ni j-art* -f the 
• ^ii •»♦* f f*^*.%^*»«t at lL« •afi««- iHiH i!« •!« *• f !''i!i J th« •j«« »*«. aii»«I 
•i.^B9r '4 \i^ nan** ii*« n ^M%«f» ha%« > iA\ (•* ii «-*iaf'ii*i*« «i ^•'i prv'rit]r 
«<f f«4*-li al* *. I i»« a|»j'h*ati"n >l Uiiajj »at«r !*♦ rurirx* thr at>' 
yMijkl. ».aVf^a!i» altrp* tl*€- «*4 r '♦! th* •h»li, • hafj^'Ui^' a ^Tnrii <*r 
W\^kt ^rtvo l*» a iirx% \* A"m . aini lh« nianufa* tur*- •! •[•ni"t<ii bir 


scraping, has also been resorted to. to increase the number of com- 
mercial fljM'cies. 

Hybridization may have been a factor in the orijpn of some va- 
rieties as occurs in the allied f^nus Partula. The preservation of 
the sitecicfl in the lower animals is due in a great measure to animal 
instinct, hut where nearly allied species are thrown together, as often 
happens in the involuntary change of position of Afhalintlla, or the 
proximity of broods, as occurs with Partula, hybridization may take 
place. It is well known that embryonic young are priceless to the 
biologist, and niiice the tissue cells of s]>ecie» evolute from pre-exist- 
ing germs aii<i <lii not originate de novo, the shape of the embryonic 
or Apical fold uf each s|>ecics nf vivigmrous niollusk, should be the 
true index of a si>ecics, except in the case oi hybrids, when it would 
take the form of one or the other of the parents, and would be far- 
ther distinguished in the adult, by the form, size and color of tbe 
predominating parent, a law always observable in hybrids. 

Dr. Isaac I^a has always maintained the importance of the shape 
of the apical fold, for a correct determination of a species of t nto, 
I have said elsewhere, that viviparous hermaphrmlite moll u sea (being 
wld blooded animals) would probably more readily hybridiie than 
warm blooded, which might in a measure account for the numerous 
forms and varieties of ITnioniiice and (jtreponiatidie in the rivers of 
the United States. The late Prof. Haldeinan believed that hybrid 
VnioH existed, anil farther that individuals between Melaniho decita 
and M. pondfroffi Say are oflen found, which look very much like 
hybrids of these six-cios. It is well-known that fish, fn^ and toads 
{which are cold bliHNled animals) hybridize, and ttH-cntly some spe- 
dea of salmon have l)cen successfully and profitably hybridiied. 

So far as known the finid plants of the Aehalinella have no in- 
fluence in the coloration of the shell; those species posseasing a 

l^M ] xATt RAi. w ii;9iriy or riiiLAHM.rHiA. 19 

\uw^ r^»mm*^rr at i\w* trniiiti«ti<iti nftiM* Hn»t (»tH* aiKlahiilf vhorb 
ti/ llir afw-t. which r«»rrr»|ii»n«U t«» Owir rmliryiitiir ajriv The «fiic«i 
f/ M tiM- of t}*r Am'tstr*t «rr i^Af^ly |»li«*mt«*. ifi lhi# n*|>r«*t nwrtn- 
hhts.: I^tmt-^ii-t Thu i* r*«{»*4>iallv llotii-fJihU' in thr rl«»f1)^t«« fli^ 

nr*» ft* J ■! Kfit'i. n*»%mtit», htfJi%r^iU%, //«i<Aifi#«'itti. turrtlriht aihI miiim 
trf^wr* «Ki«^i ha%r U-rti < la*>M^| mi(h I^tmutriiti \t\ pr !*(« iffrr ; in 
«<ii*r» tJ»« |»li« jr of thr a|*»% ■rt' »ii.iill « ririkU>«. uii<i in .1 Hrrtmrn^ 
r#rt.'%..' »".i f^ #€i# ^'!%i4tr>t, aimI •••III*- *»lh«'r». lh» :i|«* \ !• «ttMM>th aiMl 
r ■ .f.'i#«i l-.fti*ifi^* a •mI» ;:ftHi|» ••!" .|m(|j/r«i. A nn»ri' (^vititttiiiit rhar- 

ftrtrf ;• f -ai».i III i\n' •|«i -*!«-• »»f .|fM«l«fra l»« Iti^ iir»tttutr t,J tpinU 

j#r^- #-. tifl. nii^^ in i\tf n'»|r^t rn»iii t!i« |»<»r|»h%n»i«l A* hatiiirlUr. 
TK*' |»^i»^r«i U ir^ ^rf(]t.«| •|a<M« Bii«) li\ III;: Itttimlh (l«tt<l l€*«VCIi 
ATfi ^K« r «i« Ur%* « h« n tht *h« iU arr «l« |»ri\i^l <»f iIh* Aiiimal bihI arp 
eii.«i«»J i#. tl^ aIiii'>*{4m rt\ iIh* « |»i«I« rtiii» i» ui**n' n^aiiilv «iHa<'hrd 
tkjhf) 111 '^^»rr \« halitM-ll;r 

I >!*• (•« t» r^lttiii;^' t*» th«- •^•» «vTnf»hi*al •li-tnlMilioii *»( A^'kaii' 
m*U-* »ti*l tl*« >i« %f l«*|»fiiriil of Ml lar^* a tiiiiii}«i*r *»( •\m^'W liithin 
iW Iui.jU '»( •ti.all art-A*. art- \rr\ ntuarkaKU* aii«i itil«Ti««tin|f, 
aoi haur I'n'wrta*^! |ir*»KU im- U-arini* ••!. lh«* Utr«»rt«"^ «»f rvulu- 
tt 'ti l^jM h t*U!**l ha* It* «•«!! fv-^ tiliar •|«^*i«*«. aii«l ti<>l **t%\j •\m^rH^ 
^■wt it* ««%ti |«^ tiliar l%j«"*. «»r i:r>Hi|M *»f •|w««ir*, of •iintlar fomi. 
\jTiiU. ••♦> i*lati«l« m!»«n lh«r»* ha« l«tfii a full «lr\«'lo|iitH-nl «»f .|fA«- 
ft^' U. ra« h prui«-i|ial fiHtuntaiii ri'l«.««* ati«i tallr^ hai> it/» Mmii |«<t*u- 
li»f •{««««« '•h»«K ar* f'.tiri«l tiowhirv* tl*f , fA** •jf^/-i/^ f»r* r.irA rui^ 

•• * f " ♦ \»»' t?.«r !ti.|»rtaiit fa« t .il»Mr>««l in t\ r •li»tnh<itf«n •»! the 
.|'A«f«*#.Vi *• (hdt • {) ;i tii'Utitaut < haiii «ith iii3ii% < tiintiiialinf 

J»»4» \** U i ti* if ^ :• t«. «ij\ t-rj^ tr «• "f •j«'»M*. whiir "fi all IIhIi* 

}« &4, '. ?• *.♦ v4« !.♦ % I* i«« a **•!»'*• r^*« In*- •»!•}•« It • ' *' Til*' •tni« turr 

4 \*^ li%mMiAt l*Uf.'i» !• \ ■ .. aiil«- . ati«l tti •t«l<l\ ilJ;; tin- «il*lriKutl'*0 

' 4 tt^ ,• ik»f !f«t r s« jf .f-rt^r,; t«« n-t* !h« r» lali\» a»** • "4 lh<» 

mt*rM, •ia. !• «».*' ,;. 3].% •{• ik'.f ^* Kauai i* th« ••i«l««l fN ll 

• •'»♦ •*•.• •• • ^if 'J *J.- :. ^Ia :: wi'.h lK« a«l:' jtiiii/ t»;4ij»l« ♦•f 

« » * !ii I ;.» t« % * ; t fN* f.! f .1 ' J *»•.•.'. t '.;•••>'. Ill' i. U'th aa 
•• ^ k' •• ' if. ' m t 41 * % .tr> '\ ! ! 'tr. a;. I • ■ • !..*• '•* • jr» .il* f than 
• r » V : : - f .. . a • i «•.!?.-»•••*', I • 1 k. i • - »• i ■ • ! ! 1 .' : i ♦ f . * i tn« i« 
» • • ^ %% r ! 5. * lu 1 !t '.::»:* ff.A»*»* « > li . 1 jt» !» ■ If '.« rjiij^irm 
«^ t.a.s.* / e««'r<iritjii£i*. A I It j^ r ai»<i a •h>»rtt r ^t** «ith i;.an% u»- 


dependent nilminalrtitr peaks. The aggregate length of the two 
rsnf^ i.s oO mile:*. The niiitw .»f thc« ranges, their entire length, 
are furrowe<l hv dcfp vBlleyd separalint; lofty riilgc!". Tht.-* val- 
leys anil ridges iirt- the home i>f AekntineUa : each valley and 
ridgi> htu> it." own distiiiet tipecicH which are connectoil with those of 
the next viilU'v and ridge, by a multitude of intermediate varietici<, 
prt-Henting iiiiiiiite gnidiitiourt of fonn and color. The^te two rangeit 
of niountuini> have already furnMiwl -2'i7 distinct describeil jfjiet-ic* 
of AehatiiiMi, the nunilier of varieties lian lioen intimated af high ud 
800 or tfOO. All tliL-se »[>ev'wA and vorietien, are fuimd in lui arra of 
lew than 1*20 sijuurc niile^; and a considerable jMirlion of the longer 
range remuinit yet to l>e explored, Thcw siiecife" have all the va- 
rious BhajMit from glolmse to ranic, ovate and elnngale-conii-al, and 
prewnt almost ever}- [losaible fhade and variety of coloring, from 
pure white to jet hlnck, and all the I'haden of green, nw. yellow, 
brown and anh ; rHinietiniei* M-veral of these colors ar^ combined in 
one Biwciif, either in regidar or irregular banda, or leswellated, mar- 
bled or xigzaged designs." 

"Wn'T Mail On this lart of Maui we have the convente of 
Oahu. Itm individual moiw of niountain», cluetering around one com- 
mon centre |>eak, 2000 feet higher than any i>art of Oahu, fiirnishea 
only 30 described speciea of AehalineUa, each princijial valley and 
ridge hai< its own peculiar aperies or varieties ; but all the arboreal 
B[ieciefl can be refirrcd to eeven leading ty|>cs, the»e differ nin(.'h from 
the Oahu types, and do not present the mme varieties of form or 
color. The prevailing colont are white and dark brown with all the 
intervening nhadef ot either, plain or variously arranged in bandd 
or sigzagiil lines." 

" Ka^t Mai'1. The distribntion of AchaltneUa on this part 
of Maui is not fully known. All iu mountain gorges and ridg(« 

l^A^ ] ^ A Tin At M ir.!ifri2i <»r piiii.At»ia.f'iiiA. 2\ 

fimtUntT of •brll tvpr» whiUI mnem U* 'm*\u*mir that, if rrrr M»p«rmt0, 
iKrf mutt hmtr lirrn unit4^l lirforr thf' (icvelopmrnt of iiKilluicmii 
Uir . •4hmii«r «r Ahtiultl r«|MH*t tn find thr tvfv* of |-Ia«t and WcaC 
Mai: I dtArriniT »• niuc*h from rat h otiirr a* do th«Mr of Maut atid 
tW r«.nli^;n«*u« t*Und« ot MolMkai and Ijinai." 

" M*«t4»k4l Thr dUtribulion of ArKaltHfUa on thit t»Iand prf^ 
«rou *»mr nrw f«-atiin-« not olwrrvrd on anv nilwr inland. The 
••iand t* f*rtr niil«*« l^niC «i(h a «idt)i of only M*vcn miltv. it ia 
a^*>«it ^n«^(htnl tl«r viir t,f Oaliti. and Wkr it ha* a m<»untain range 
civtoditi^ n*'af1t thirty rnih* throu^jh iu Irn^rth. The ranj:?* b fur- 
r «r«i >>u rmth tt^lr \t\ drvp val)4*\». S»nir of tiK'M* mountain 
f'fC^ ^tT'Mrry « »*ir ami «*ut d«^'|» inli» thr narn>« aii« «»f tlir lAland. 
T *ir lar^-rf ..fH^ ha%r |»r»»Vf<| an rff«'<'lual harri«r to thr mi^rratiitn 
« / t^i»r ••»rii« Thr i^lan^i I* thu* «ii\ idr«l inti» thrv^r natural *tH-tiona, 
mn'i r^ h at^-tion retain* ttii own |it-« tiliar •|«^*tf«« without iiit«*rmin- 
i'.i'-j: «ttb th«^ of th** n«tt ••N lion ' '* M'>}<»kai furni«ht*« '.*.'i ik^ 
•rri^vJ •j«r^ H">» «hi«h arr al>*«ut r<|ually di\i<lt'<«i )H*tm<<rn th«* thrre 
•rrt; -ti* ««f x\,r i*land. thr^r •h<lU r^hihit niorv variety of form and 
€^l-r than th«t* <>f Ma<ii. and ha\t* |«*<Miliarilir« mhi<h fM<|»arat« 
lL«fTi tntjr^U fr»'«i ti i«^ of Mhrr i»lafi«l« " 

' 1.4^ %i Thi* !• th* •ntalif^t and m«i*t and of thr •h«ll |»r««duo- 
i£.£ flmn'U It* arra i* !<**> •«|uar«* niil«*». of mhi<*h |»rti)iaMv nol 
'»i#f t'tw trnth I* Mjit^tl f.r thr •ii|>|a>rl t»f ni"llu*k« Th«* i«lan«l ta, 
b-«r^rf n.*tahl«' a* lh«' honir m( A iw'i^na Adani*. th*- larj^i'H •hrll 
f <f tl!>r «h'»W .|'*Aifi«' *.'i famtlv S|«-« in>rii» m our «iihititt n»i'a>»ure 
1 • lo k*r^ 1 ''ii? th« wh -'.r tiutnlvf of •|w» it^m t,( ,| «'A')f ifir/^t on l^aiiai 
ft t * a2j«iti»«-« rihii'tt j«'<niliaritn^ "f t%|«r " 

* K »« %l rhj» f th«- •4d«'^ and n**—i \rrdant t*land of thr ;rf^»up. 
Is i»*-^ to thr «•<•( ..f Oahti. and i* •«'|»aratr*l fr-'fu it \*\ a < hannri 
»>irf tkan ••v'if* Utwr<rn any •>( thr .»tlM*r i»«U It* « ttrn«iTr 
I fwo. luturiAnt %«^TtjiH«'n and n» t^t rltmat*- rin.|#r it {v^-uharlr 
»la|^.«^i f • f tt»* *N«lr . I .I'-A .*»•'. 7i ; aiid "tif- »• ild naturaih i*i. 
I**-! t . ht^-i hrfr a i*r^-» r. and j! j«.*»}hU' h»jh«r lit %t l-.j.n>« nt «>f the 
iatt^^^t li..! «r art* do*n»«^i t'« 'Iiajii |»>uitni« ta. l\\*' t*l^nd % i^ id* no 
^*m rr-tki •!»■» »•-• tJ*r »?.«Ii« a*! tffr«^!njil. aii*) iK .«ir (-!A«^d with 
jl'-ANaf***^*^ ^wir-tj^' t«» t).«- j'iatt«««t f 'fn,* •►! tK« .|?ni#*ri ^r* 1 J.^f4^ 
carafa*a IfT'Hjj** » •f««j«-* t" ihr f rjt « r ar»d ;* l" lh« lattrr. 
Kik^^u^t. b'Wir^rf d •"* I i^:.".»K a \rrT !«• il:af .1^4 I }!it« ri'^titij i^roup 
isd Lary*- t*rmMrial t.^** a» r» n arkjiM* f r tK»ir ti.'fi^mtr torrrttrti 
Tbr jfrtjrn*- nanur of t .jr*-/* i ha* l«-rn pf«>\ I'ioi f*ir thr i^rrnip; 


it embraces some seven species. Specimens of Cartlia turrieula 
Migh. in mv cahioet measure three iDches long. This group btu no 
plac« ID the Arhalinella faiuiiy, as classed by M. Gulick. It lacks 
tbe peculiar :>piral twist of the columella and other geaeric charac- 
tera of thai family ; living Bpednteiu of Carelia are now very 
rare, but at some period in the hiatory of Kauai they were exceed- 
ingly abundant. The alluvial depodiA near tbe coast portiotu of 
the island, contain multitudes of these shells in a semi-foMil stale, 
which have been washed from the mountains by the freshets of ages 
pwL The small neighboring island of Nuhau also has a single 
•pedes of Canlia found in sand and mud deposits ; no living speci- 
mens are found there now." 

" Hawaii. This island embraces within its bounds two-thirds of 
the total area of the whole group. It is also supposed to be the must 
recently formed of the islands. The volcanic forces are still at work 
here. The extensive forests are as well adapted for the support of 
AekatineUa, as those of any of the other islands, but it furnishes 
only a single arboreal npecies, and five terrestrial. The arboreal 
species is A. phyta; it was first described by Dr. Newcomb id the 
Proceedings of the Zoolt^ical Society of London in 1853. Inasub- 
eequent number of the same Journal. Mr. Wm. H. Pease refers to 
tbis same shell as a "species rarely met with on the mountains of 
Hawaii." The centre of production is the Kohala range of moun- 
tains, notably the most ancient portion of the island ; and it exists 
there now in unjuralled abundance. During a recent visit to the lo- 
cality in n few minuter I collected several hundred s|)ecinion8, picking 
them from tredtaiid low bushes as rapidly of one would gather huckle- 
berricH fnim a prolific field. The shell appearw to be slowly migra- 
ting into thi- adjoining districts of Hamakua and Kona, and assu- 
ming new i<haj>es and varieties of coloring. One of these varieties 
JB nuf cabinW is almmil worthy of awigameol ■* a new »t»fcCM». Tlie 

1^^^ ] \A^\ Hit «« ii.!«( ly i»i niiLAi»i:i.i*iiu. 23 

mrr ♦#« ruiTrf'^i ii»«Kirjljiiii«, <lrfv«rly «^»viTr«l by V(*p*tatioii miiI tlwir 
•>tW« furr>'«rtl \*\ dt^p aihI alttMi*l inAii^^wihle ra^ifim and larin* 
4i*<n<i« on 4 Hihu Afi«i YliL^i Maui which havr nt*%'fr U*rfi vi«iti^l \n 
• hitr fiirti. rrmaiti %rt til U- fi|»lorr^l. It will n^jiiirr yi*«n» i»f rr- 
•rmr« h af>«l •(ii<i). U*f«*rv tin* tiumlM-r mtu\ nart distribution of thr 
tfu^iums •|«*n«« cmn hr a>«^'rt«ifM'«i. It i* alp*) prtirrmlly ihi|»|k«w^1 
tkas tij«^Mr tltrlU an* hroimiii): rttiiict by iht* ravaip-«<>f rattlr thruu^h 
tmr ( »rvlm Thu i« trut* in n^|H*<-t to a iiniit«Ml iiuiiiImt of ii|krrif>» 
"ti ibr itUi*<! «>f t hihu mb'MT habitats mvr%^ t)>r foH'sts un thr b)«rs4 
ra&«r«' **l hill*. S»iMP <tf tln-^* hilU have U^rn ilrnudnl <if WdiMiji, ii<A 
at)h b% mtllr. Init tbr wiMMlman'ii axi*. aii<i rrrtain »ih^*m mrr be- 
f*>tutnj: mrr TKr favoritr nwirts of many ii|ir<*i€ii an* ibr Ki « /^m- 
«ir%<t r#r«iiJ»<Ww ami thr ( Mona « lUnkmrria tttpulnrts ) Ixiih rirrllmi 
l*l<irr plaotik iiijt in ItM-mlitim whrrr thrvr plants havr lirrn fntirrlj 
4r^n>%ni by rmltlr. %hr sbrlU hare i^nrrmlly feWH*t4^i bomrs on uChrr 
adl;-Hntfi^ |»lanu. Tbr rava^cra |iarti<*tilarly of nib! cattle in our 
miF<MtitaiQ fonntU arr crrtainly t4> Iw* (ir|»r«H*a((Hi. nr^rrthrlnai br 
rWmnti|( tbr uD<irf brush thry rrntirr thr fonraU nMin* a«tv«iftiblr for 
U^ ^vllrt-tj*!) of known ^trt tr« ; an«l by o|«*ninf( thr |iaths U» hi^rhrr 
msimi a>>rr *irn«r f«>n-«Cs tl>rir fanbiatr thr (lis«^>vrn of twm siircira. 
Tb* m^ti*u^ u-*n thf>at« nint; tbr «h<*lr>«jib' «b-«t met i*tn of tlirsr little 
g9Stg» •</ tbr fi*rr»t arr t^M* rmts an<l mii*r. which ha\r U'«>»nir \rrf 
alK^L^-iafit in tt»*«onLatn f**r\M; |«rti« ularl} wbrrr then* an* n<i tmttie. 
Tbrtr rB«a4,*r« mtr n«»t (^<itiii«ti to (Im* •bdU %ib<Hw> habitats an* oii the 
gr*'*At^i bat rtt«ti«l t'» th'«M t'<>ui»«l I'll tn^«. It i* n«*t un«otsinion to 
ii»>i ar*'Ut»*i tiir « t.Arnal •« !U «>f tbrw nM%|.»ti« littb* antniaU huiNin^ia 
^4 *n.^4\ ts.ut)lai««i vbt lU N«>twitb*tAn«lin^ tlkr**' tbrralrnitit: airrti* 
c*r^ ttjr A* hatit>«-il^ an ttjll f|uttr abtiiMiaiit *»n t Nibti aii«i Molnkai. 
«l«m '-atti*- \*%\* :h« wiib-^^ ran^t . though tf>t ••> abunilxnt as f«*r' 
B«»f;« .<i Wr^t Maui ulitn- tb« « allb* raii^**-* an- «»UH*«ihat ltmit4*«i 
a£pi \it0 m\ V fl t) '^ ^'r«ml* r iitjmunit^ In a n-v-v nt < tcur^i*«fi with 
a ff irj^l tf.r --i^'ti s !• ft4»ti "l tb« !i»«»uittAii* f 'f^ •:• U iwf« n F.wa aixl 
1^ a*aia* <* • *ml-» n.- n than ..»••» •b* lU m* n «».Ur^ u»i in a t« w fia%« 
wm^hnb^tit^ \*r tit\\ •^mrfm **( .|^4«i*ifk#*.j. ^•iiw of t[.< iti tirii to 
•r'»»i^'r la a Mriiitsr tft|» aP^itfl M«»l-kai iH-afl% '»«i»»» w»r» «»»Urii*- 
W»l ceu^.ra*- if»^* tbirt* »|«^ >•* ••>n»*- nc w 

I VI r»ir I NrW'^.tiilt. M |) m«n thai. t*. ai.% a-.tK r -ti .|<-Aif»- 
•Mr<^«« w^ an tfMi«bi«*i f - r a •^•mrt ki. 'wUvli^r ^f t^n (it«4 n(«i<i tist^ 
/ tl^it fvm4ti; ^nu» ••( •Jh 11* lK«nn^ a n-si'bi.'t *>( cni»e 


yean in the SsndwiGh Islande he collected and reared larfre numbera 
of the diflercnt Apecies and ob«er\'ed the nunieruua varieties from » 
coiumoo parentage. When in Europe in company with the lata 
Dr. A. A. Gould he examined the types of Dr. L. Pfeiffer and others 
which enabled him to correct the eynonyniy of many doubtful upe- 
cieit; all of which he has embodied in hia Synopsis of the Genua, 
which entitles him to the designation of authority on AehatineUa 
" par excellence." 

For coDvonience of reference I have arranged the species alpha- 
betically under the aeveral gections, rather than in a connected series, 
as was attempted hy Mr. I'ease. The sections of Achatinetlo; being 
more or less artiiicial, authon are not always in accord as to which 
certain f>|>cci«s f<houl<l be aaaigtied. In the majority of instam-ce, I 
have followed Dr. Pfeiffer or Mr. Pease in the distribution of the 
species among the sections. Iwing guided in the main by authentic 
examples, or by figures and descriptions of authors; the eulvsectioD 
Helifterina adopt«d by Mr. Pease fnmi Baron Fenissac, has been 
supplanted by Parluli'mi, the former having been preoccupied. 

In the preparation of this paper I am indebted for aid to several 
friends. To Prof A. Agossiz for the loan of the entire Pcaiie collec- 
Uon of Aehatinelia together with all his duplicates amounting to 
near two bushels of examples. I have had in my |)ossession si'veral 
entire suites of Achatinellie, kindly loaned tomehy Prof. .Ian ich Hall, 
Dr. I>ca. .Mrs. George Andrews and Mr. R Ellsworth Call, by whicli 
I was enabled to identify types from authors hands. Itccenlly, at 
the invitation of Dr. Ncwcomb I s|>ent the great^^r [)art of two days 
in the exaniinatiou of hin collection of Aehatinelia made Mime years 
ago in the Sandwich Islands. My acknowledgements aru als<i due bim 
for assixtancf^ in the determination of many varieties. When in 
Eun>]>c in lKrii:t I purchase<lHonicof the species of Messrs Guliik and 
Smilh from G. H. Howcrby Jr. RwBntly I have been favored by 




the examination of books and examples belonging to the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. 

The following references have been abbreviated in the Catalogue: — 
Monographia Heliceorum viventium and Nomenclator Heliceorum 
viventium by Dr. L. Pfeiffer; Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London, containing the papers of Drs. Newcomb, Pfeiffer and 
Gulick ; Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
containing the papers of Drs. Gould and Mighels ; Contributions to 
Conchology by C. B. Adams; Proceedings of the California Academy 
of Sciences; the American Journal of Conchology, containing the 
papers of Dr. Newcomb, and also the Journal de Conchyliologie, 
containing many of the papers of Mr. Wm. H. Pease. 

Species marked f are in the author's collection. 

The arrangement of the sub-groups of Achatinella herdn adopted 
is as follows: — 

^ Partulina 
A < AchatineUaairum 

' Perdicella 

^ CarineUa 

C< Leptachatina 

Section PABTULINA Dr. L. Pfeiffor. 

P. aptyoha, Pfr. ^ (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 30, 1 1-1855. 

Newcombia aptycha, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165, 1856. 

Hellder aptycha^ Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 615-1869. 

Perdicella aptycha, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 315-1881. 

Sandwich Islands, 
tP. oinerosa, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proo. Zool. Soo. tab. 30, f. 5,-1855. 

{Helicter perversa, Pse.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. (Non Swains.) 

Sandwich Islands, 
tP. oompta, Pse. (Partulina.) 

Partulina compta, Pse. Jour. Conchy 1. xvii-1869. 


\f, orasia, Newo. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 24, f. 71-1853. 

Bulimella crassa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854, 163-1856. 

Partulina crassa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 



F. dolinm, Pfr. (AabatLnella.) Proc Zool. Soo. Ub. 30, r. 1»-18S3. 

BulimeUa dolinm, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 

Partulina dolium, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Sandvnch Iglandt. 

tP. dubii, Newfl. (AohitiUBlU.) P™. Zool. Soo. tab. 21, f. 65-1843. 

Aehatinella radiata. Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 116-1854. Non Gould. 
Butimella dubia, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 162-1856. 
Adtalinellastrum dubium, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc, 648-1869. 
Partvlina dubia, Pfr. Norn. Hellc. Viv. 305-1881. 

I. Dwightti, Mewc. (AohatinslU.) Amer. Jour. Copoh. ii, pi. IB, f. S. 
Parttitina Ihoighiii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 162-1856. 


tP. Oooldii, Newc. (AehatinelU.) Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 22, f. 1-1853. 

Achaiinella ialpina, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, 138-18.56. 
Partulina Gouldii. Pfr. Mall. Blatt 116-1854 ; 162-1856. 

Waialuku Maui. 

tP- gTlMi, Newo, (Acll«UaeU«.) Proc. Zool. Soe. pi. 24, f. 60-1853. 

Aehatinella dubia, Pfr. Var. fi. 1854. 
Partu/ina gruea, Pfr, Mall. Bliitt. 117-1854. 
Adiatinellaatrum grisea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869. 

East MauL 
), aid. (Aohatiulla.) Proo. Boat. 800. p. 200-1817. Eipd. Shalli 

Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 23, f. 


fP. perdix, Rye. (Aohatinella.) Mon. tab. 6, f. 43a, 43b, 1850. 

Achatinella pyramidaliSf Gul. Ann. Lye. N. 7, p. 32-1856. 

Achatinella undosa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 33-1856. 

Partulina perdix, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 116-1854.=marmorafa, Newc 

Partulina marmorata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soe. 647-1869. 

Lahaina and Kula, fj. Maui. 

Oba. Dr. Newcomb in his excellent synopsis of the genus Achor 
tinelUiy has described the animal of A. perdix Pfr. which materially 
differs from that of A. perdix Rve. ; they are doubtless specifically 

tP. proxima, Pse. (Partulina.) PI. f. 1-2. 

Partulina proxima, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 6-1862. 

Bulimella proadna, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 307-1881. 

fP. radiata, GId. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Boat. Soo. 27-1845. 

Partula radiata^ Pfr. Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 454. 

Partula densilineatay Rve. Mon. Part. pi. 2, f. 9-1850. 

Bulimus Oouldii, Pfr. Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, p. 74. 

Achatinella dubia, Pfr. (Non. Newc.) Mall. Blatt. 116-1854. 

Achatinella ffrisea, Pfr. (Non. Newc.) Mall. Blatt. 117-1854. 

Achatinellastrum radiatum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Partulina radiata^ Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 162-1854. 


fP. Bedfleldii, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. Ub. 22, f. 5-1853. 

Partulina Bedfieldii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 115-1854. 
Bulimella Bedfieldii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. 


P. rufa, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 3-1853. 

Achatinellastrum rufa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 137-1854-164-1856. 
Partulina rufa, Pse, Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Molokai, E, Maui. 

fP. iplendida, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 22, f. 4-1853. 

Achatinella Bayleana, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ; 202, pi. 7b, 31a. 

PaHulina splendida, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 115-1854, 162-1856. 

Waialukuy Maui. 
fP* Tappaniana, C. B. Adams. (Aohatinella.) Conch. Cont. 126-1850. 

\ Achatinella ebumea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 199, f. 28a, 28b, 1856. 

\A(JiatlneUa ampuOa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 200, f. 29, 1856. 


fAehatinflla /aaeiaia. Gill. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 201, f 30, Ibo6. 
Bvlimella TiippanUina, Pae. Proc. Zool. S^oc. 647-1869. 

tP. Ui»Uata, Ntitc. (AoliaUiwUft.) Proa. ZooJ. Soe. t. 33, f. 28-1 B63. 

AtAatinella iiuigni*, Mi^hls.T (Pfr.) 

Partulina tetaalata, Pfr. Mall BUtt. 115-1854, 162-1856. 


tP. TirrnUlft, Mighl. (PutnU.) Proc. B«t. Sw. 20-1S45. 

Suiimw, Hohri, Pfr. Zeitsch. 1846. 

Aehatinella Rokri, Rve. Tab. 1, f. 3-1850. 

Aehalinella inmgnit, Pfr. (Newc.) In schedule. (Pfr. &, Rvfc) 

Partnlina Hohri, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 114-1854, 162-1856. 

PaHvUiM inVjru/ald, Pfr. Nomen. HelJc. Viv. 305-1881. 

Swtira BVUMSLU, Dr. L. PteiOtr. 
tl. abbnvUta, Rt>. (AohatiHlU.) Hon. pi. 3, r. 19, April 1B50. 

Aehtdutella eUmeiUitui, Pfr. Proc. Zool. 6oc. 205-1655. 

AduUineUa nivoia, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 12, f. 6-1863. 

(MaoufacUi red. ) 

B%dimtUa (dAremaia, Pfr. Hall. Blatt. 1 35-1854. 

AdiatineUattntm alAreviata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

Btdimella abbreoMta,=ba<xa, P«e. Proc. Zool. Soc 647-1869. 

Palolo, OoAu. 
B.bMoa,R». (AolutiulU.) Uoo. pi. «, r. 4S. 

LamineUa bwxa. Ifr. Mall. Blatt. 1.15-1854. 

Aehatinellntlrum bacca, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

Buiimelta bacea, Pbc. Proc. Z«)l. Soc. 647-1869. 

Paiolo, Oahu. 
tB. taUnvldM, Swaiu. (AehaUailU.) Zool. Illai. II, lio. 

Aehntinelln bulimoidet, Rve. Mon. t. 4, f 28. 


tB. deoipiens, Newo. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 68-1863. 

Achatinella planospira, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 8-1856, 

JiAchatinella cuneaSy Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205, 1858. Sinistral. 

jfAchatinella torrida, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 68-1858. 


Achatinella eorrugata^ Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 66, 1858. 

(Short var.) 

Achatinella scitula, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 61. (Reversed 

smoothe var.) 

Achatinella herbacea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 52. Var. 

Bulimella viridans, Pfr. (Non Mighl.) Mall. Blatt. 121-1854, 


Bulimella dedpiena, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Bulimella dedpiens, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 306-1881. 

Koolauloa, Oahu, 
Obs. This is a species affected by environment, hence its protean 

fB. elegani, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tub. 24, f. 57-1853. 

(Bulimella elegans, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. 

Hanula, Oahu, 

3. faba, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 30-1859. 

Bulimella f aba, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

B. Forbsiana, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 16-1855. 

Bulimella Forbsiana, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Palolo Oahu, 
tB. glabia, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 23, f. 23-1853. 

Achatinella elegans, Pfr. (Non Newc.) Mon. Helic. iv-520. 

Achatinella platystyla, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. PI. 6, f. 25-1856. 

Bulimella glabra, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854. 

Kawaiawa Oahu. 
B. Hanleyana, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 202-1855. 

Bulimella Hanleyana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. 

Bulimella Hanleyana, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 
B. Lehniensis, Smith. (Aohatinellastrnm.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 8-1873. 
Achatinellagtrum Lehuiensis, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv, 308-1881. 

Lehui Oahu. 
Obs. This shell may equal Bulimella multicolor, Pfr. 

B. morbida, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 30-1859. 

Helider m^orbida, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 
Bulimella morbida, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 306-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 


fB. mnltieolar. Pfr. <&cliatia«Ua.) Proe. Zool. Soe. pi. 30, f. II, Jm'y 18SS. 

Aehaiinella oeiformU, Newc. Proc Zool. Soc. 208, Nov. 1855. 

BtUim^lla muUieolor, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. Oalm. 

tB. moltlilMBU, N'cwe. (AohaUnallB.) Pr«. Zool. Soe. pi. », f. 33-1S53. 

Helkter muilUineala. Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Achatinelh nwnaeha, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 9-1855. var. 
Bvlimella multUineaia. Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. 

Kolaupoco Maui. 

tB. Orata, Xewc (AohatineUa.) Add. L;c N. T. :Z-18S3. Pnn. ZooL Soc Ub. 

M, f. 2-1853. 

Aehaiinella Wkeatleyi, Newc. Ms. Syn. Ann. Lye N. Y. U7- 

^Ackatinella Candida, Pfr. Proa Zool. Soc. pi. 30, £ 4, 4a-1855. 
\AchatiMaa FrickH. Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 7, 1855. 

small var. 
t^cAo(ine«a vidua, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pL 30, f 10-1855. 
fAchatine/la rotunda, Gul Ann. Lye. N. Y. 249, pi. 8, £67- 

Aehaiinella eervina, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 241, pi. 8, £ 62-1868. 
fAchaHnella tpadieea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 214, pi. 7, £ 65- 

Aehaiinella phaeozona, Gul. Ann. Lye. H. Y. 214. pi. 7, £ 40, 

1865, immature. 
Aehaiinella lorata, Rve. Non F^r. 5Ion. pi, 1, f. 6. 


B. lolitaria, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 60-1853. 
Achatinellastrum solitaria, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Bulimella solitaria, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Paloluy Oahu. 

fB. lordida, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 27-1853. 

Achatinella Swainsonii, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 13-1855. 

Bulimella sordida, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. Lehui, Oahu. 

Obs. I have followed Dr. Newcomb in placing Swainsonii as a 
syDon jm of sordida. Dr. Pfeiffer in Nomen. Helic. Viv. gives it as 
a variety of sordida. 

fB. Sowerbiana, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 14-1855. 

"f Bulimella fuscobasis, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f 15-1873. 
Bulimella Sowerbiana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. Oahu, 

IB. inbyireiLB, Newc. (Acbatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 21-1853. 

Bulimella viridans, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. Non Mighls. 

Bulimella aubvirens, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Niu, Oahu. 

fB. taeniolata, Pfr. (Acbatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 38-1846. 

Aehatiiiella rubiginosa, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 59-1863. 

Bulimella taeniolata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854, 163-1856. 

Palolo, Oahu, 
fB. terebra, Newc. (Aobatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 40-1853. 

Achatinella attenuata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 12-1855. 

Achatinella lignaria, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f 35. (Var.) 

Achatinella crocea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 36. 

Bulimella aMenuata, Pfr. Nom. Helic. Viv. 307-1881. 

Bulimella terebra, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648r-1869. 

WaialuhUf Maui, 

Obs. I have followed Dr. Newcomb in referring Mr. Gulick's 
species to terebra, it varies in size and color ; some are attenuate 
while others are large and inflated. 

fB. viridans, Migh. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Jan'j 1845. 

Achatinella radiata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Aug. 1845. 
Achatinella cuneus, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. Sinistral. 
Achatinella rutila, Pfr. Var. /5. Mall. Bliitt. 1854. Non Newc. 
Acliatinella subvirens, Pfr. Var. /9. (Non Newc.) Mall. Blatt. 

AcJiatinella dedpiens, Pfr. Var. /9. (Non Newc.) Mall. Blatt. 

Bulimella viridans, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1868. 

Kouahuanui, Oahu^ 

SaoUon ACHATINELLASTRim. Di, L. Pfoifftr. 


fA. adniU, Rve. (AohatinelU). Mon. lab. i, f. 30-1850. 

Achatinellastrum adusta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 138-1 854 .=1,64-1 856. 


tA. ampls, Nenc. (AohntinelU). Proc. Zool. Sac. lab. 22, f. 19-1853. 

Achatinellastrum ampla, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854.-164-1856. 
Kolau Oahu, 

tA. bella, Rve. (Aohatinellii). Mon. Tab. 3, f. 17-1850. 

Achatinellastrttm bella, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854,-165-1856. 
AehatinellagtTum pulcherrimum, Pfr. Mon. Helic. B. ii, 237.? 
Jjaminella bella, Rve.^=PolUa, Newc. Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648- 
1869. Molokau 

tA. bellnlu, Smith. (AohatinellBStmiii). Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 9, C. 8-1873. 

Sandwich Mands. 
tA. Bnddii, Kewc. (AohatlnslU). Proc. Zool. Soc Tab. S, (. 8-1873. 

Adiatinellapexa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N". Y. 196-pl. 6, f. 26-1856. 

^Achatinella plumata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 217. pi. 7 f. 41- 

Aclmtinella papyracea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 207, pi. 8, f. 48, 

AchatineUa caesia, Gul. Ann, Lye. N. Y. 234, pi. 8. f. 53, 1856. 
(Junior Ex.) 

Laminella Buddii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 138-1854. 


fA. eoncinna, Newc. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. PI. 24, f. 79-1853. 

Achaiinelldstrum coiicinna, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 137-1854.-164 

Laminella eoncinna, Pse. Proc, Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 


fA. oonianguinea, Smith. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. PI. 9, f. 3-1873. 

A, concolor. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. PL 9, f. 1-1873. 

Ahuimanu Oahu* 

Obs, These two species of Mr. Smith, are probably only varieties 
of colorata. 

tA. eueumis, Gul. (Aohatinella). Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 4&-1858. 
Achaiinelldst'inim cucumis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869, 

Kaliua Oahu* 
A. formoiam, Gul. (Aohatinella). Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f.*55-lS58. 

Achatinellastrum formosuMf Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 046-1869. 


pL folgens, Newo. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 24-24a, 1853. 

Achatinella diversa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 222-1858. (Junior 

XAchatinellastrum angusta. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. 74, pi. 9, f. 7- 

Aehatinelladrum fulgens, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 137-1854, 164-1856. 

TTata/txa, south east end of Oahu. 

fA. faseolineata, Smith. (Aohatinellastrum.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 75, pi. 9, f. 2- 

Achatinellastrum fuseolineatum, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv, 307- 

Kaialua, Oahu, 

Obs. . A large quantity of duplicates of this species was contained 

in the collection of Wm. H. Pease. Mr. Smith designates versipellis 

Gul. as its nearest affinity, while Dr. Newcomb thinks it is one of 

the innumerable varieties of vulpina F^r. 

fA. faiooiona, Smith. (Aohatinellastrum.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 9-1873. 

Makiki and Palolo, Oahu. 
Obs. Judging from a suite of all ages, this may be a good species, 
although it approaches very near to fuscolineatay Smith. 

fA. g^rmana, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 62-1863. 

Achaiinellastrum germana, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 135-1854, 156-1856. 
Bulimella germana, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Makawao, Maui. 


tA. lohuoni. Xcwc. lAebkUuUa.) Prw. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. ^0-1X53. 

Aehatinel/a apluttre, Nowc. Prw. Zool. Soc. pi. 23. f. 51-18o3. 
Aehatinelfiislrum Johiuioni. Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 134-ia"»4. 

Pah/o Crater and Kolau, OoAu. 
A. lllMtam. Pfr. (AahftUiieUa.) Hon. lldk. Viv. vi m. 

AeKatmellagtrum lilaeeum, Pfr, Noraen. Helic. Viv. 308, 1881. 
Sandtoieh lalatuU. 
tA. UKatam, fmith. (AtbkUullMtniiii.l I'nn. Zuul. Soe. t. 9, f. i:t-lST3. 
A. diluta. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. fl, f. 14-1873. 

Waimula, Oaku. 
Obt. Examples of the above ID the Pcanc collection marked "new 
Species" equal a dcxtral variety of vulpina, F^r. 
tA.V*tUi, nitldo. \'>l>i>. (AohatinaUutrnm.) pi. T, r. 3. 

Bhcll (lextral, turbinate, apire half the length ; whorls 5, poliahed. 
tbe two last rapidly enlarged and infiatcd. Suture impreaaed, coU 
umella yellow, stout and twlKted. Color bright gamboge yellow, 
with one white and three wide chextniit bands beneath the suture, 
the latter visible from within the aperture ; aperture round ovate, 
white, labium white, slightly thickcne<l within, L. 16, D. 10, L, Ap 
8, D. 5 mill. 

Makawao, EL Maui. 
Obi. This Abell wan found at the above locality by D. D. 
Baldwin, Kiui. of l.nhaiiia Maui, who ban devoted much time and at- 
tention to the Ai'hnllnclla of the Sandwich Itilands. He has known 
of similar exiiiii|ile!i \w\n^ found at the same locality. The shell is 
not tjuite mature, and at fimt night hnK the facici» of an Apex. 
tA. oUTkMom. K>c. (Achktinalls.) Mod. ub. .1, r. ;0-l!<.'.(>. 
Achaliiiella prntiiinn. Kvf. Mini. Tab. 4. f. '27. 
Aduiliiir/I.ulnim o/U-areum, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 138-lM.'i4, 164-1856. 
Silndu/icti Jt/ands. 


Achatinella Dunheri, Cum. (Pfr.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 208-1855. 
Aehatinellastrum produdum, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 134-1854, 163 
— 1856. KolaUy Odhu, 

fA. pulcheTTimnm, Swains. (Achatinella.) Zool. Illus. pi. 123, f. 2. 

Achatinella naptts, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. f. 19-1855. 
Achatinella mahogani, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. f. 72-1858. 
Laminella pulcherrima, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854. 
AchatinelUidrum pulcherrima, Pfi. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

Ahonui, Oahu, 

fA. trilineatum, Gul. ( Achatinella.) Ann. Lyo. N. T. pi. 7, f. 46-1858. 

Achatinella zonata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 58-1858, (var.) 

Aehatinellastrum trilineatum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

fA. Tersipellii, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lyo. N. T. vi, pi. 7, f. 44a, b. 

Aehatinellastrum versipellisy Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Kaihm, Oahu, 
fA. Tulpinum, Fdr. (Helix.) Hist. Mol. tab. 155, f. 1. 

Achatinella vulpina, Rve. Mon, Tab. 4, f. 29. 

Achatinella livida, Pfr. Non Swains. 

Achatinella Stewartii, Green. Maelur. Lye. i, pi. 4, f. 1-2. 

Achatinella Stewartii, Rve. Mon. tab, 4, f. 26, 

Achatinella virena, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj, f. 47. 

Achatinella varia, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj f. 43. 

Achatinella crasaidentata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 23-1 855* 

Achatinellastruin tricolor. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 6-1873. 

Aehatinellastrum ligatum. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 12-13, 

1873. (Dextral var?) 
Aehatinellastrum longispira, Smith. Proc. Zool Soc. pi. 9, f. 2— 

1873. (Var. Stewartii.) 

Ebumella vulpina, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 139-1854. 

Aehatinellastrum milpinum, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 139-1854. 

A. lebra, Newc. (Achatinella). Ann. Lye. N. T. 142-1853. 

Aehatinellastrum zebra, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 308-1881. 
Laminella zebra, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

East Maui. 


SmUob EBUmaZLLA. Wa. H. Fmm. 

tl- euU. Nrwf. lAohrndBalla). Pnc. Zool. Sac ub. ^ f. i:!?^ 

Aehatinella dimorpha. Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pL 8, f. 56-1858. 

Achatintlla juneta, Gul. Ann. Ly& S. Y. pL 7, f 49-1858. 

Aehatinella eognaia, Gul. Aon. Lye. >'. Y. pi. 7. f. 60-1858 

Aehatinitllaarum aula, Pfr. Mall." Blitt. 13*^1854,-164-1856. 

Ebumella eatta, Pue. Proc. Zool. [^oc. WT-HseS. 

Ewa. Oaku. 

Obi. I have fullowed Dr. Newcomb in a«ji);ning Mr. Gulick'a 
•pecies to eatta, Mr. Gulick a<lmite E. dimophn ok a synonym, sn 
Proc. Zool. Soc. W-Sl-ISTS. 

tB. mrU, N'rwc. |A«hktluU«>. Pror. ZwI. Sac. Ub. 23, I. 4:--[ii^1. 

fAtJuUintlla dtUa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2:fl. pi. 8. f. 50-1858. 

Aehatinella eontraeta, Gul. Ann. Lvc. N. Y. 237, pi. 8, f. 57, 

\Aehatinell<utrum rhodoraphe. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc 74, pL 9, 
f. 10-1873. 

Ehumella pyipnen Smith. Proc. Zck-I. Soc. 75, pi. 9, f. 11-1873. 

Ijaminelta nirin, Pfr. Mall. Blitt. 13il-18-'>4. 

Aehniinetlattrum euria, Pfr. Mall. Blutt. ir>4-18-j0. 

Ebumelta earln, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. «47-l'<69. 

Ilum/ui, Oakn. 

Ob*. In a large niimtwrof ilupIi<-aU-s <-oniained in the collection 
of the luU; Wm. H. Pcuhc, the above synonymy wiv illuiArated. 
tB. UTida. :<<'*i». lAshatlnalU). Zn..l. Illu^. p. Ins. r ?. 

^ Aeh->ti,'eUa r.VtW.iiw. Rve. Mon. Tivh. 4. f. 25. (Non Migh.) 

Aehatinella Rrevii, C. B. A.iams. Conch. Cont. 128. 

fArhalinella Emrreonii. »kc. Proc. Zool. Soc, pi. 24, f. 74-1853. 


fE. reota, Newc. (Aohatinella). Proo. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 45-1853. 

Laminella recta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 136-1854. 

Achatinella nympha, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 251, pi. 8, f. 9-1858. 

Ehumella recta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Waialua, Oahu. 
X. saooata, Pfr. (Aohatinella). Mon. Helic. vj.-175. 

Ehumella saccata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

X. Mmioarinata, Newo. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 24, f. 76-1853. 

Bulimella semicarinata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854. 

Ehumella semicarinata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 309-1881. 


fX. undnlata, Newo. (Achatinella). Boat. Jour. Nat. Hist. 218-1855. Amerl 
Jour. Conch, pi. 13, f. 15-1866. 

Laminella carta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 139-1854. 
Achatinellastrum cwrto, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 
Ehumella curta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Waialua, Oahu, 
Ohs. I think this a variety of E, curta, Newc. 

fX. Tariabilii, Newc. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 70-1853. 

Achatinella fulva, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. 208-1855. 
Achatinella lactea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 27-1856. 
Bulimella variabilis, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854. 
Ehumella variahilia, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Section APEX, * Albert .-I860. 

♦The species of the Seclion Apex, are involved in almost inextricable confusion. 
Authors in many instances, have not given the localities of the species, and the 
great vaiinliility in size and color of many species, added to the many intermediate 
varieties, entails an almost endless task to separate them. To arrive at a certainty, 
the color of the animal and mantel must be observed, and local suites should be 
c<»Htrcted by which critical comparisons could be instituted. It is to be regretted, 
that s|Hrcies have been multiplied on slight grounds. In my endeavours to arrive 
at a correct synonymy, I may have erred by restricting the species within too 
narrow limits, which will be for future observers to correct. The Section Apex 
exhibits four prevailing types, as illustrated by the ^y>^c\GS> turgit/a,musteiiina, per- 
versa and Swij/iiy from which all others seem but modifications. 

fA. ceitns, Newo. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soo. t. 22, f. 8-1853. 

Biiliviella cestus, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 125-1854. 
Helicter cestus, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Apex cestus, Pfr. Proc. 2k>ol. Soc. 310. 

Palolo, Oahu, 


lA. ooneavoipiiB, Pfr. Pmc. 7>»l. Sm. 3fl-lSSfl. 

Ijaminella eoneavotpira. Pee. Proc Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Aekatinellattrum coneavoKpira, Pee. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 307. 

Sandwuh Itlandt. 
tA. dMOTS, Fer. (Haliz). tlixt. Mali. t. 156, f. b-1. 

Achatinelln decora. Gray. 

Bulimtu deeortu. Beck, and AotoD. 

Achatinelln veMita, Mi^^h. Proc. Boat. Soc. 1845. 

Achatinella lagubrU, Pfr. Noii. Rve. • 

AekatiHflhi vlttala, Pfr. Non. Rve. 

Aehatinella gimulam, Pfr. Non. Rve. 

LamintlUi decern. Pfr. Mall. Bliill. 140-1854. 

Helifier decora, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. C45-I869. 

Apex decora, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. .110. 

Kalinkoa and Akouin, Oahu. 

tA, flsTllU, «ul. (Apax). Proo. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 1-I87S. 

Apex Utbtratu, Gul. Proc. Zod. Soc. pi. 10, f. 3-1873. 

Kaluikao, Ahouin and Waialua, Oahv. 

Obn. Thia flhell may— dcxtral Swiflii which often varies greatlj 
in color. 
tA. OttUekti. Smilfa. (Apel). Trn:. Zool. Soc. pi. 9. T. 7-l'>73. 

iApfx albotaeciata, .Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 29-1873. 

fApex iiinolabilit. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc pi. 9, f. 23-1873. 

\Apei negleetiu, .Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. i»l. 0, f. 22-1873. 

\Apcx coni/ormu. Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9. f. 17-1873. 

^Apex vcrticotuT, (iul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 18-1873. 

Kiilikoa and Ahouin, OaAu, 

Obt. About two iiiinrts of the variety albnjiueiata was represen- 
ted in the Pca^ie collection. A" I poiwea the other varieties, I can see 
no difTerrncc in them. Dr. Newcomb pluccs the above with pe rv a t a 


Obs, Lorata and alba represent the elongate varieties, and verir 
trosa with nobilis the short and inflated varieties. 

tA. Ingubris, Chem. (Turbo.) No. 2059-60, t. 8, f. 9-10. 

Achatinella pica. Swains. Zool. 111. pi. 99, f* 1. 

Monodonta a&minigra, Lam. vii-37. 

Bulimus seminigray Menke. Syn. 26. 

Helix apex-fulva, Dix, Voyage around the World, 1789. 

Helix lugubrisy F^r. Hist. Moll. t. 155, f. 8. 

Helider lugvhriSy Beck. 

Achatina lugubris, Gray. 

Achatinella lugubrisj Pfr. 1841. 

Achatinelladrum lugvbris, Pfr. Mall. Blatt^ 140-1854, 164-1856. 

Helider lugubriSy Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex lugubris. Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310, 1881. 

Apex bicoloTy Gul. Mon. Hel. Viv. 529. 

Apex polymorpha, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 5-1873. 

Apex leucozonuSy Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 6-1873. 


fA. mnitellina, Migh. (Aobatinella.) Pro. Boat. Soc. 21-1845, Rve. Mon. t. 3, 
1 20-21a. 

Bulimella mustellinay Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 125-1854, 163-1856. 

Helider mustellinay Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex mustellinay Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 309. 

Wjianea, Oahu, 

A. ovum, Pfr. (Acbatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 336-1856. 

Helider ovum, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex ovum, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

fA. perversa, Swains. (Acbatinella.) Zool. 111. pi. 99, f. 2. 

Achaiinella conddenSy Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 54. 

Achatinella dnnam^ymeay Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 22-1858. 

Apex leueopheay Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 16-1873. 

Helider perversa, Pse.=^cinerosa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex decoray Pfr. Var. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Wdianea, Oahu, 

Obs. Dr. Newcomb remarks, " there are several varieties of this 

species, one of which has a near affiinity to decora which has led to 

their having been confounded with each other." 

fA. pulchella, Pfr. (Achatixiella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. SO, f. 2-1855. 

Helider pulchelhy Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex pulchella, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Sandwich Islands* 


tA. ■tmnla&i, Rre. (AohatlaeUk.) Hon. pi. 2, f. li. 

Achafinella decora, Pfr. Moq. Hel. iv, 528. (Noa F6r.) 
Bulimella simulans, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 125-1854, 163-1856. 
Apex tumefacttta, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 9, £ 20-1873. 
Apex simulans, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Wahiavia, Oahu. 

tA. BwUtU, Nenc. (AohmtinalU.) Prw. Zool. 6oc. pi. 22, f. 9-lBbi. 

Achatinella apicata, Newc. Proc. ZooJ. Soc. 210-1855. 

AchaHnella valida, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 54-1855. 

Bulimella apicata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 125-1854. 

Helicter Sudftii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex SmfiU, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Apex Jlavidns, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soe. pi. x, f. 1-1, a-1873. ' 

Apex Hlacea, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x, f. 4-1873. 

Apex leucoraphe, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x. f. 2-1873. 

Evn, Oahu. 
tA. turgida, Newo. (Aahattiiella.) Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 22, f. 1D-1SS3. 

Aehatinetlastrum turffida, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 138-1854, 164-1856. 

Apex turgida, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

^Apex turbiniformrs, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc pi. x, f. 7-1873. 

Apex albotpira, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x, f. 8-1873. 

Ahouni, Oahu. 

Oba. The two species of Mr. Gulick seem to be dextral varieties 
of tuTffida. 


P. minusonla, Pfr. (Ferdicella). Mon. Helic. Viv. iv. 562. 

Perdicella viinusculay Pse. Proc Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

fP. omata, Newc. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 55-1853. 

Netocombia omata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 118-1854.-165-1856. 
Perdicella omata^ Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 


P. lebrina, Pfr. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 202-1855. 
Newcombia zehrina, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 
Perdicella zehrina, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Sandwich Islands, 

Section NEWCOMBIA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

tN. oinnamomea, Pfr. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 22-1858. 

Newcombia dnnamomea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 230-1853. 


tN. Cumingii, Newc. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 59-1853. 

Netocombia Cumingii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 118-1854.-165-1856. 

Halea-Kala, MauL 
tN. Newoombia, Pfr. (Balimui). Mall. Blatt. 119-1854.-165-1856. 

Achatinella Pfeifferi, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 58-1853. 


tN. plicata, Migh. ( Achatinella). Proc. Bost. Soct.-1848. Rve. Mon. pi. 6, f. 44, 

Bulimus liratusy Pfr. Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 235. 

Newcombia liratus, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 

N. Philippiana, Pfr. (Aohatinella). Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 559. 

Newcombia philippiana, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 315-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 
tN. loloata, Pfr. (Aohatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 22-1858. 

Newcombia sulcata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Section LABIELLA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 
L. oallosa, Pfr. (Aohatinella). Mon. Helic. Viv. iv. 531. 

Labiella callosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

tL. labiata, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 33-1853. 

Labiella dentata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 27-1855. 
Achatinella loegena, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 3-1855. 


LabUUa dentnta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 142-163.-18.56. 
L, pMhyttoma, Tm. iLtbialUt. Joar. Cunrb. iiiij, KI-IM*. 


Lehui, OaAv. 

aMtien UUinXU, Dr. t. FfaUbr. 
tL. AlsxwdrU, Xc-c. (AohatinelU.) r.r. x,i. iriM.Sw. Iil-1M-I88i. 

Achtitinella Ale^andrin, Newc. Anicr. Jour. Conch, pi- 13, f. 14- 

Ptrdicella AUs-ntlri, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 64X-1869. 
Laminel/'i Akz-mdri. Pfr. Nomeii. Ilelic. Viv. P>12-18S). 

H'Mf -V-mt. 
tL. ottriu, Mi|{>>. -MS. (Aahatlnalla.) 

AekiiUnellit cHrina, Kve. Mon. tnh 5, %. 33-l«."»0. 

I^nninella eitri>m,=.venunt<i. Pec. var. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869- 

iflmiHeZ/.i ciirimi, Pfr. Nonien. Hclic. Viv. 312-1881. 


L. KMM, 1'k. (L«miii«U«.) Jour. Cgacb. ivij-1'4-1t<C9. 

tL. fawidaB, Nrwc. (AohktiBalla.l Amcr. Jonr. Cunch. ii, pi, n, r. s-isM. 
Aehiiliiieiliiitrumfiuioidea', Pfr. Nomen. Hclic. Viv. 309, 
LamiMdn fwoiden, P.-e. Proc. Zool. f>>c. 648-1860. 

tL. g»rtd«. F.-r. iHeliz.) Hi-i. M..ri. ub t.M, f. :!. 

Afhitinelh IflmomUi, C. II. A.liiiiw. C.nch. Conl. 126. 

I^miif:ll'i ffr-ti-iih, Pfr. Mnll. Bliitt, 126-lf*.'i4, 164-1856. 

Sumlifieh IfUindt. 
L. lawola, F.r. >H«lii.) Ili-i. Mull. Mt, [ii, r. 1!. 

BuUmm lufrohi>. Pfr. Mon. Ilclic. ii, 2.14-1841. 

Awiotm tnrrittlh, F«'-r.- lulcola, Ff-r. (IV.) Proc. 7,ool. Soc. (i-W- 


fL. physa, Newc. (Aohatiiiella.) Pro. Bost. Soc. 218-1853. Proc. Zool. Soc. pU 
24, f. 64-1853. (Junior.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 10 (adult). 

NeiDCombia physa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 117-1854, 165-1856. 

Laminella physa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 


Ohs. Mr. Pease observes, " this shell has no distinct allies " how- 
ever he places it amongst the Laminella to which I assent. This is 
an instance which exhibits the difficulties in many of the attempts 
to classify these heterogeneous forms. 

fL. pieta, Mighl. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. January 1845. 

Achaiinella bulbosa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 71-1858. 

Achatinella pieta, Rve. Mon. tab 67, f. 28. 

Laminella picta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

East Maui. 

L. Bemyi, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. T. 146-1855. Amer. Jour. Conch, 
pi. 13, f. 13-1866. 

Laminella Eemyi, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 165-1856. 

fL. langninea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 15-1853. 

Achatinella Ferussad, Pfr. (var.) Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 546. 
Laminella Ferassad, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 164-1856. 

Laminella sanguinea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 156-1854, 

Lehui, Oahu. 
fL. straminea, Rve. (Achatinella.) Mon. pi. 5, f. 38. 

Laminella straminea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 126-1854. 

Sandvri^h Islands. 

Ohs, This shell in the collection of the Jardin des Plants, is la- 
belled A. gravida, F^r. var. ; it is certainly distinct from gravida. 

fL. snbrostrata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 31-1839. 

LaMella subrostrata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Laminella subrostrata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 314-1881. 


Ohs, My examples of this species, obtained in London, and said 

to have been compared with the type, equals albolahris Newc. and 

is an Am^asira, 

L. tetrao, Newc. (Achatinella.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 11-12-1866. 

Laminella tetrao, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 314-1881. 

fL. venusta, Mighl. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soct. 21-1825. 

Laminella venusta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 127-1854. 

Laminella venusta,=citrina, Mighl. Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648— 


West Molohai, 


L. Mbra, Xcve. (A8h«tiMll». I Aon. Lrr. \. T. US-Has. 

Aehatinelliulrwn zebra, Pfr. Xomen. Hel. Vit. 308. 
Lnminella lebra. Pse. Pfw. ZooL Soc. 64*-lM9. 

•Mtign ASAsnU. S. ud A. Adama. 
A. aMiacto, liM. lAehatua. : Ppic. Biwt. foe. 2n-liUj, lild. Bipd. dh. tak T. 

I^pt-irh'itliui •iThi.l-j. P«. Proc. Ziiol. !5oc. 6.J0-1869. 

Am-ulr-i ■ir.-imi.i, PtV. Nomen. Hel. \'iv. til-lSHl. 

Obi. The K^re iif tiii:* dhell io Chemnitz. repreaentB an Amadm. 

tA. aflnU, S»ire. iABkatUaUa.1 Pt-b:. Zi».I. s-w. pi. 23, f. .'j-issa, 

fArh-itinell-i yoi.i'^toiM. Pfr. Phk-. ZooI. S)c. 2t)3-l855. 

I^mineU" 'i^niA. I'tr. Mall. Blitt. 1 <)■">- 1 A.)4i. 

,4ni.w/r.i n^nit. Psv. Piw. Z-wl. S,)o- 6-*<)-l'W9. 
tA. alb«labrlB, N**". 1 AohatiMUa. > Pr--. Z.v,i. .-^r, pi. :4. f. M-1K33. 

A.hnii,„ll.i »urUot.i, Rvo. ( Xon CWa.] pL 5. t 39. 

himiwIU 'tlboLibrU, PtV. Mall. Ulitt. i;t:;-18.)4. 16.5-1856. 

I^ibirlli -ifM-ibrit. Pse. PriHT. ZooL 5w. f>51-1869. 

tA. asiaU. -miib. ■ LamiMUa. > Piw. Z.->l. .-w. pi. 1». f. •o-hti. 

I^tmuflh 'imirt.,, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 314-lWl. 

SiiadfifA Itlaiidt. 

Oh*. Thix i'iii'll ni:i>- K-i\wA \. }i'lri.-obi. »wo. 

tA-AnthoBTi. N'->r. AlhatincUa . I'n-.-. <'al. Nit. Iti'i. .Sv. ii. p. »3-lSM. 
Ani.r. J..ur. < ii,|.|. 1.5. f. I'-l-M. 

Am'iJitr-i Atilhotitfi. P*. Prot. Z«h>1. Sic. Wlt-lHtiO. 

A. attlmtUi. Srmr. lAahatiMUa..! rr>v.Z-.l..<.v. pi. M. r. i3>l<iU. 
L'imiH'll-i ..*.;m.7M, Pfr. Mall. IJliilt. l-_'!i-l?*.i4. 


A. brevis, Pfr (Aohatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, 558. 

Laminella brevis, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 315-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 

•\ky eraiiilabruin, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soo. pi. 23, f. 31-1853. 
Labiella cra^silabrum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 
Laminella cra^silabrum, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 130-1854-165-1856. 

Waianea, Oahiu 

tA. oylindrioa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 11-1853. 
Laminella cylindrical Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 
Amastra cylindrica, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Waianea, Oahu, 

A. eonifera, Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 11-1873. 
Amastra eonifera^ Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 314-1881. 

Kula, East Maui. 

fA. cornea, Newc. (Acliatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 32-1853. 

Laminella cornea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 132-1854, 165-1856. 
Leptachatina cornea, Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 
Obs. Dr. Newcomb pronounces this shell an Amastra, in which 
I concur. 

fA. ellipioidea, Gld. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 200-1847. Exped. Sh. tab. 
7, f. 96. 

Achatinella decorticate, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 14-1873. 
Achatinella pupoidea, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 42-1853. 
Amastra ellipsoidea, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 311-1881. 


tA. elliptica, Gul. (Amaitra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 15-1873. 

Laminella elliptica, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Waianea, Oahu. 

tA. elon^ta, Newc. (Achatinella.) PI. I, f. 9, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 26-1853. 

Achatinella acuta, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. 142-1853. 

Laminella acuta, Pfr. == elo7igata. Mall. Blatt. 127-1854, 165- 

Helicter Hutchinsonii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 7-1862. 
Neiocombia Hutchinsonii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 
Amastra elongaia, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Makawao, Maui. 

Obs. Mr. Pease observes, this shell is the analogue of Amastra 

<^cura, Newc; like many other species of Amastra, it possesses the 


plicate apex of Laminella,, but wants the spiral strife, which is the 

beat evidence that it belongs to the section Amoitra. 

tA. fftioimen, Pfr. (AohatiMlU.) PI. I, f. S. Mod. Uel. Viv. ir, SSa. 

Laminella farcimen, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

AmaiAra farcimen, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

tA. flayetoeni, Newo. (AohftttnelU.)Proo. Zool. Soo. pi. 24, f. 6S-1853. 

Achatinella tenuiUihris, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 16-1873. 

Laminella jiavegeeng, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 130-1854, 165-1856. 

Amoitra Jlaveseens, Pse. Proc. Zooi, Soc. 650-1869, 

Hawaii, (Baldwin.) Wdnoa, Oaku, (Newcomb.) 

Obi. A comparison of types exhibits A. tenuilnbris, Gul.= 
fiavesceiis, Newc. The latter in the collection of the Jardin des 
Plantes, is erroneously labelled A. modesta, C. B. Adams. 

A. gigantea, Neve. (ADhKtinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 20, f. 17-1853. 

Laminella violaeea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 141-1854. 
Laminella gigantea, Pfr, JIall. Blatt. 140-1854. 
Laminella giifantea, ^violaeea, var. Pse, Proc. Zool. Soc 648- 

Amastra violaeea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 164-1856. 

Haleakala, Maui. 

Oba. The only example of gigantea ever found b in the British 

Huaeum. It probably equals a large example of A. violaeea, Newc 

tA. humllii, tienc. (AohatineUa.) Ann. Ljr:. N. Y. 143-13S5. Amer. Joar. 


tA. ma^a, C. B. Adams. (Aohatinella.) Conch. Cont. 125-1850. 

Achatinella Baldwinii, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 72-1853. 
Achatinellastrum Baldwinii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 140-1854. 
Amastra Baldwinii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 
Laminella Ghrayana, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. (Junior.) 
Amagtra magna, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 311-1881. 

Obs. Examples compared with Gray ana, Pfr. in the British 
Museum, exhibit Grayana as the junior of magna. Numerous ex- 
amples of all ages in the Pease collection, confirm the diagnosis. 

A, malleata, Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 18-1873. 

Kula, East MauL 

tA. Mastersii, Newo. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 67-1853. 

A. rvhens, var. Pfr. (non Gould.) Mon. Helic. iv, 552. 
Laminella Mastersii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 129-1854. 
Amxistra Mastersii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 


tA. melanosis, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 41-1853. . 

Laminella melanosis, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 132-1854, 165-1856. 

Amastra melanosis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

tA. micans, Pfr. (Laminella.) PI. I, f. 10. Mon. Hel. Viv. vj, 179, 

Amastra micans, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

tA. modesta, C. B. Adams. (Aohatinella.) Conch. Cont. 128-1850. 

Laminella modesta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 129-1854, 165-1856. 

Amxistra modesta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 


A. moeita, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 77-1853. 

Laminella moesta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 128-1854. 
Newcombia obscura, Newc.=?noe5to, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649— 


tA. mueronata, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 49-1853. 
JjamineUa mueronata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 129-1854-165-1856. 
Amastra mueronata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 


tA. nigra, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 219-1855. Amer. Jour. Conch, 
ii, pi. 13, f. 3. 

Amastra nigra, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 


48 pmHTEEDiNoe of the academy of [1888. 

tA- nlKToUbTi*, Smith. (AuMtra.) Pno. Zuol. S<ic. i>l. If, r. II.I8T3. 

lAtminella nigrolabru; Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Wahiatea, Oahu. 
tA. nnblloia, MLgh. {A«liaU««lU.) Piw. Bo.t. ftwi. !0-184i. 

A. nuhitoia, Rvo. Mon. pi. 1, f. 1-1850. 

LamineUn 7i>ibilom, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 129-1854. 165-1856. 

Amattra nubilota, Fse. Proc. Ztxil. Soc. f>50-l«6[». 

Obi. Dr. Newcomb saya mibUosa oomos from Molokai, while 
MigheU, R«cve, and Gould give Oahu as the locality. I have never 
Been a nhell that equak in size Dr. Mighels' figure in Reeve'a Mono- 
graph, and with Dr. Pfdifer I incline to the opinion that it c<)uals 
atiiimilit, var. 
fA. amnlB, .'^milh. {AmMtrm.) I'roc. Zvul. Sue. pi. in, I. ]f>-is;3. 

tA. BBtlaoU, ilU. lAtbatlnalU.) Proc. Bwt. Soc. :it-1»4.'<. 
A. briTll, I'rr.r I'mr. Zo<>l. S<>c. ISJj. 

iMminella nuelrola. Pfr. Mall. Ulutt. 142-]a54, Ifi^-lSoS. 
Amattra nueleola, Psc. PnK-. Zool. ^?oc. (i4»-1869. 

tA. ob«H, KrKC (AflbaUnalla.) Ann. I.^''. >'■ Y. 24-lsj.l. Pn*. Zv.l. S«. pi. 
J4, r. 31HKi3. 

Amattra obesa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. im^l8.'>ti. 
Amaitra ohf»a, IV. Proc. Zool. Soo. C4y-1««9. 

Haleakala. if.iui. 
tA. PaatU, Sniih. lAmutia.) I'hk-. Z...I. s.-. y\. lo. f. i:i-is::t. 
IjamineUa I'eaiii, Pfr. SonwiK-. Hel. Viv. :i|:!-l«81. 

fiaiidwieh Itlandt. 
tA. p*trieeU. N'w>-- lAahAUBtllft.l Amrr. Juur. C'>neh. U, yl. t.l, r. B. 
/^uiixW/n i^lricola. Pfr. Mall. Blitt. 16.')-1856. 


tA. pofilla, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 2.3, f. 39-1853. Amer. Jour. 
Conch, ii; pi. x, iij, f. 5. 

A, pulla, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 209-1855. 

LamineUa pusilla, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 334. 

Amastra pusilla, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 


tA. retioulata, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 54-1853. 

A, transversalisy Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. 
A, conspersa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 26-1853. 
Achatinellastrum reticulata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 141-1854. 
Amastra reticulata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 
AnuLstra reticulata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Waianoe, Oahu^ 

tA. rnbeiis, Gld. (Aohatinella.) Pro. Boat. Soc. 27-1845. Rve. Mon. pi. 6, f. 42b. 

Laminella rubens, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 129-1854-165-1856. 

Amastra Mastersii, Pfr. (Non Newc.) 

Am/istra ruheiis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 


tA. rnbida, Gul. (Amaatra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 12-1873. 

Laminella rubida, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Kahuku, Oahu 
tA. rudis, Pfr. (Acbatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 3, f. 17-1855. 

A, chlorotica, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. 

A. albida, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 202-1855. (Budis var. B.) 

Laminella rudis, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-156. 


tA. mstioa, Gul. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 17-1873. 

Kicla, East Maui, 
Obs, This species may be only a variety of variegata, Pfr. Mr. 
Smith says rustica is allied to conflera, which latter may be another 
vftriety of variegata, 

tA. m^losa, Pse. (Amastra.) Jour. Conch, xvij 95-1870. 

Kula, East Maui, 
Obs, This shell is near sphoerica, but the latter is larger and more 
depressed than rugulosa, 

tA. lerioea, Pfr. (Laminella.) Mon. Ilel. Viv. iv, 179. 

Sandwich Islands, 
tA. spirozona, F6r. (Helix.) Mon. tab. 155, f. 14-15. 

A. boetica, Migh. 

Laminella spirozona, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 127-1854-156-1856. 

Amastra spirozona, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1 869. 



A. iphoBriu, P»s. (Amwtra.) Jour. Concb. 1870. Jonr. CoDch. pL I, t i- 


A. solida, r>e. (AmaiUft.) Juu 

. Cunc 

.iij 1-3^1 


tA. UxtiUt, Fi^-r. (Haiti.) P1.I,f.H. TKb.Sr'l.AaimalMoll, p.Se,N'o.'l3ft-l81». 

A. venluliit, Rvo. Mon. No. 31 (non F6r). 

A. muTontoma, Gld. Proc. Bost. Soc. 25-1845. 

L'imindlit textUi*. Pfr. Mtill. Bliitt. 126-142-1854-164-1856. 

Ama»(ra textUu, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Sandmeh Itlandt. 
tA. tritUl, F.'r. H«lis (CoahloKsna). Tab. Sjnt. Animal. Moll. p. St, So. Hi 

I- IV. 

It.iUmne IrUtU. Pfr. Mod. Hel. Viv. ii, 240-1842. 

A.fidiginom. Gld. Prof. Bost. Soc. 28-1845. 

Lnminell'i trUlU. Pfr. Mull. Bliitt. 141-1854-164-1856. 

Am'iara trhli", I'.-if. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Patolo, OoAb. 
1A. tnrrlUlU, ¥it. IHalis.) lli^t. Mull. pi. 156, f. l:<. 

.4. Onhue.,ud'<. (irpcn. Mill. Lye. 1827. 

/.miunelt'i tiirntella. Pfr. Nonioii. Hel. Viv. 31.1. 

Jm-Miru lurritclla, Psc. i'roi-. Zoo!. 8oc. 650-1869. 

Snndicich Itlandf. 

tA. onblllotU, I'fr. lAchaUailU.) I'l. I, f, II. I'ruc. Z«ol. ?«. 206-1855. 

/^mhiclla ptlrlcota. Pfr. V«r. >[all. Blutt. 16-'>-l 8.'j6. 

S'indwich Inland*. 

Ob«. WIkh ill [/union I limi llic ^kA fortune to olitain this rare 

bIii'II, f.,r G. .M. S.worl>y K*i. Dr. Newcomb nftirms it to l»o a good 

BjM'ciuH, in whicli I coin'iir. 
tA. aniplioftU. N'>l>i-. (Anutra.) ri. 1, !. T. 
Shell ci(;xiriil, Hiili(i.t'hni;;iitc oviil, occiwionally cylimlrieal, whorls 


tA. variegate, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Zeitsch. 90-1849. 

A, variegata, Chem. Tab. 67, f. 14-15. 

A. rubenSy var. Rve. Mon. pi. 6, f. 42a. 

A, decepta, C. B. Adams. Conch. Cont. 127-1850. 

Laminella variegata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 128-1854-165-1866. 

Amastra variegatay Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Head of Boothea Valley, Oahu, 

Obs. This is a very variable species and the name may embrace 
others herein enumerated as distinct species. 

fA. ventului, F^r. (Helix). Tab. Syst. Animal. Moll. p. 56, No. 437-1819. (Non 

Achaiinella melampoides, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851. 
Amastra melampoides, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. viv, 311-1881. 
ATtiagtra ventuluSy Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Manoa, Oahu, 

Seotion CABINELLA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

fC. Xauaiensis, Newc. (Achatinella.) Syn. Ann. Lyo. N. Y. pi. 13, f. 1-1860. 
Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 1-1866. 

Leptachatina KauaiensiSy Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 
Carinella Kauaiensis, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 312-1881. 


tC. obesa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 59-1853. 

A. obesay var. agglutinanSy Newc. 

Amastra carinata, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. 83-1873. 

Carinella carinata, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 312. 

East Maui, 
Oba, Dr. Newcomb informs me that agglutinana and carinata are 
local varieties of obeaa, 

Seetion LEPTACHATIITA, Dr. A. A. Gould. 

tL. aouminate, Old. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 200-1848. Expd. Shells t. 
7, f. 100. 

Lepto/chatina a^cuminata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 154-1854, -166-1856. 
Leptachatina acuminatay Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 


tL. antiqua, Pse. (LeptaclLatina.). (Sub fossil.) Jour. Conch, t. 13, f. 6-1876. 

fL. balteate, Pse. (Leptacliatina.) Jour. Conch, t. 4, f. 4-1876. 


fL. breTienla, Pse. (Leptacliatiiia.) Jour. Conch. 169-1869. 



tL.aarB«Ua, DM. lAohattiialU.) ft. I. f. 13. Pnc. B«t. f^. »1-I8t0. 

Xeiveombia eerealU, Ffr. Mali. Bliitt. 119-18.74. 

AmiMrii eerealU, Pfr. Mall. Blutt. 164-1856. 

I^ptachatinn cereallg, Pfr. Malt. Blutt. 166-18-^6. 

Waianea, Oaku. 

fL. «iBfttU. ^tliKh. (AahatlBlUl.) PI. I. T. U. Prw. Boct. See. 3i~\mi. 

Aehaiinrlla dmidiota, Ffr. Phk:. ZooI. Soo. 205-1855. 

BiilimuK rinffula, Chem., t. 67. f. 57. 

Leptwhatiii'a nngula, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 144-1854-166-1856. 

Obx. Arliatiiiella dimidiata, Pfr. equals eingula, >Ii);h. in Coll. 
Newcoiub. ex Aiict. The figure of thin shell in Cli«mnitz does not 
repreiviit the species, but equals an Amattra. 
L. «UuUu. MiKh. (Bnlimai.l Pnc. Bu«t. i^. Nat. IIuL ZD-I31S. 

tL. eomptatt, Ph. (Lapfawbttink.) Juur. fonch. xviu-ixsa. 

Labiella romparlit, Pfr. Mon. Hcl. Viv. viij 219. 

tL. eoTDBola, Ifr. <AoliaUn«Ua.) Pr.--. 7.<>nl. .-ii-?. »o-i84J. 

Lepl'irhiilina rorwota, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 144-1K'>4, 166-1856. 

Labiella tormolu. I'sc. Pnic. Zool. Soc. Br>l-1869. 

.'iandicich Itlandi. 
fL. oomieBBi, >'i>bi». I'l. I, f. in. 

Bliell ilextral. ovate, very thin and [Mili^hcd, Kpire one third the 
length ; iijh'x ulittiw, whiirl" 4!, rouiidtil, the hkst one and it half in- 
flat<-<l ; HUture iniprciwil, a|>ertur»' ne mi -ovate, with a very thin wliit« 
lamellar tiNXli near the base ; labium sli^ditly thickened within and 
white, oolur aiiilMT. 

L !>. Diarn 4!. L. apt. :)}. Diani. apt. 21. 



X. extensa, Pse. (Leptaohatina.) Proo. Zool.Soc. 651-1869. Jour. Conch. 1870. 

tL. fumosa, Newc. (Aohatinella,) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 23, f. 28-1853 

Leptachatina fumosa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 143-1854-166-1856. 
LabieUa fumosay Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Manoa, Oahu, 

t> L. faioa, Newc. (Aohatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 33, f. 44-1853. 

Achatinella striaieHa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. t. 6, f. 6-1856. 

Achatinella petila, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. t. 6, f. 17-1856. 

Laminella fiisca, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 

Leptachatina fiiscaj Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Manoa^ Oahu, 
I. fasoula, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj, f. 8. 

LepiachaUna fu8<mla, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Molokanttj Oahu, 

tL. ^aoilis, Pfr. (Aohatinella.) Proo. Zool. Soc. pi. 30. f. 22-1855. 

Achatinella elevata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 209-1855. 

Achatinella suhila, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. yj, f. 19-1856. 

Leptachatina elevata^ Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

AchcUinellastrum elevata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1854. 

Leptachatina gracilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

I' glutinosa, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. 

Achatinella lachryma, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 4-1858. 
Achatinella glutinosa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 
Leptachatina glutinosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Lehui, Oahu. 

tL. ^ttula, Old. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 201-1845. Expd. Shells, t. 7, f. 

Leptachatina guttula, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 144-1854-166-1856. 
Achatinella gummea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj pi. 6, f. 10. 
Achatinella fragiliSf Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj pi. 6, f 11. 

East Maui. 

tL. ^ana, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj 29-1853. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
pi. 23, f. 46-1853. 

Achatinella granifera, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 13-1858. 
Achatinetla vitriola, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f 23-1858. 
Achatinella parvulay Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 24-1858. 
Leptachatina grana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 144-1854, 166-1856. 

East MauL 


tl. HvtBui, Sewc. (LaptMbatlBB.) Mr. Coll. Ne<ri»mb. 

Aek'iti>ie/ln cJitnHn, Pfr. (sub fo*-il.) Proc. Zoo). Soc 204-1855. 
Iximinella exfutrt'i, Pfr. Mall. Blilt, 16.S-1K56. 
J^taeh(diita extiwia, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Obi. Dr. Newcoiub having recent examples of this ehell, hu 
changed the name, the former being a misnomer. 

tl.. iMTll, VfT. iLcptMbiUU.) Juur. Conch. iviij-Bl-ISTD. »T, pL t, t. t- 


fl. liUMUU, Nf-r. [AeUUiwlU.1 Pr-;. Z«il..-;oc. t. J:!. f. 29-1853. 
lytminella Hneolntn. Pfr. Mali. BlUtt. 12ft-18ofi. 
AnKutra liiitolitta. Pise. Proc. Zool. 8oe. 650-1869. 

Obt. Kxamplei" of this shell from Dr. Newcomb, exhibits it u 
a Ijepl'tcliatina. 
8. Ineidk, I'h. (LtptMhatiat.l i'roc. ZmV .^oc. Gj|-I»e9. 

fl. aarffuita, ITr. lAobatinalU.I I'ror. Kool. Soc. Sni-ISjJ). 

Arh'iliiiMi gr-uiifera, (Jul. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873. 
UplnrhilloH m<irg'irita. I'fr. Mull. HIalt. 1G6-1856. 

11. nlUd». Xf".'. iAcUtiMll».i Pn--. Z™i. s«. I. M, f. :ni-isj.-i. 

,4.A.</.'<je/;.< 'riistnUimi, (Jul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj pi. 6, f. 14. 
Leiitachnih,- niluh, I'fr. Mall. Bliill. 144-1854-166-1856. 

Maui nnd OoAu. 

tL. obclavaU, ITr. (Acbatinalla.) Mun. iW\. Vii-, Iv. j<w, 

Arhntindh odvgnrxU-.V.iil Ann. Lye. X. Y. pi. 6, f. 18-1856. 
Arhiiinfll.i lurriUt. Cul. Ann. N. Y. pi. ti. f 20-1856. 
l^uUfh.itiwt ob<favtta, Pfr. Mulf. Hliitt. 166-18.)6. 

t. obtDia, Xfi 

1^* ] SATt JUL K-fC9rri9i or riiiKAt>i:i,riiiA. 5*% 

L t— lailt. *iml AtUUMlU . Asm l.^r N V Vj t. i. f ). 

L jMwIi. ^ A** UftoOfttiaft. |i I. f n 

^fe^I] •Irttrml. uvalr oiioir, thin atnl •rmi-|«'Iluci4l, •|»in> tm^tr thao 

kftif t^ Unc^ WbiirU (>, •li^liUr o»nvri. tbr laiit iiillatr«l. Mtiin^ 

«vU itfaf fi — li. «irf»rr Oi«nrlT •triaU*. A|M*rturr nniriilly «»%*atr, 

•«l»«&liilKmtr. nJunirlla lihitc. vitth an ffhli»ti^ pHcjp within ; int«^ 

rw« • / IaI-iuiu tihitr ati«i •lii;htlT thirkninl ; color pair ^TPi*n. 

\. 1<* Ihftfu •; t. ftft. 4 thani. IM mill. 

Ititb. Stmilmr%th /W«ifi#/j. 

'4<« Thnrr riAfu|4«'« of tht* p|«*ric« «rn* fnuiMl aiii4in^ thr du- 

f4*rst«« Y t>x- !*«««- «Y>IWtl«*ll 



.|'4.-.ri«#/i'4 »%«fr^'n.tfii. I till. Anil. Lyr. N. Y. vj |»1. ti, f. 7. 
is^l^* U #«..^H^'i. IV l*n«' XfX'l. >«i<*. '^M-)N>!«. 
1^4*. kiU^ «timi»^t. I*fr Mftll. liUtL 1»>V-K»«>. 

l^jM^tkmttHt ^irifi/H^. IV. rrtM'. /^H»l. >•«<* f L'lll- 1 HI',!!. 

ijryt^Kxitmn w^}^4'%. IV. Pr<. />-»l S- Cill-lVJ'l 

L ■■■iiiiiUiA. r** A«4aUm1U M & lU \.* .« ^ 

.l'4cfi»#' I 'K^^! ft. 4»til Ann I.*i- N. Y tj t •'•. !* .'». 

l^me^^^-^ «r»ii K^.a5.i. Tfr Mall Hlatt l»i«'»-l*vV» 

'4# I^f N««"'r:i*» tK:tik* it «|tit'»tj..tial4» if tl.i» feisiit^ i« ij..t % 

''U Kiaiaj'l*"* /. •»•?•'/ 1. N« ••• •»'»I N««« ail 1 /. f»".}''^, 
f^r \'. IV Afi •itn.lAr 

ijry.t-^^U'^itet^ii |*ff N n*t I. Hrl \-\ ;!♦, ;*«»l 

*!, •tr.At^.a i A«kaika«:U I'*-*- /• *• • .*».-:.•'« :. :*4 
|'«UA*. «' i^'trt Iff Pr - /-• I •^^ A i,' .-r ;»4. 
/^»/<^ «.^?.%4 «rr».i?«i;.i. |*fr Ma:i lli*f. i 4 M-V*. !•>;-!* .*; 

A' i^ii. 




tL. tMvleoiUU. Pu. (L«pUaluiUii«.| Jaar. Conch. IT0-1M9. 
Leplarhatina tenukontala, Pfr. Mall. BlaU. 16&-1S56. 

tL. UMbrOM, Ph. (L«ptMllfttis«.) Jour. CoDch. t. 3, f. i-lATt. 


L. UnbrtUi, <iut. (AoUtlsalU.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. *j t. 0, f. il. 
Ijeptaekatina terebralia, Pbc. Proc. Zoo). Soc 651-1*M)9, 


L. teTM, Pfr. tAahatlsslU.) Pros. Zool. Soc. 2M-l«bb. 

LeptofJuUina ierea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Sandxeieh Itlandi. 
tL. tniYidaU, Ph. (LapUahatiiu,) Juut. Coach. ivti}-XT-18Ta. 
Ijabieila ttirgidula, Pse. Jour. Conch, xviij-167, 
IjUlAaeknlina Utrgidula, Pre. Jour. Conch. 96-1876. 

tl. Titnft. N'flwr. (AebaUnsUft. ) l>n>c. Zool. 8oe. I. S.l, f. SI-1H6.1. 

Aekatinelln fumida, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. yj t. 6, f. 0-1853. 

Lep(,u-halina vitrea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 144-18S4-I66-1S.'>6. 
Lnbiella vitren, Pse. Proc. Zm)I. Soc. Bril-1H69. 

Manoah, Oaku. 

KxrtAX.vTios or Platb I. 

1 I'-trtulliia j.roj- 

2 hiriuliim },rur 
;t Ach-itimlh-lrxi\ 

i AmnAnijar 

an, Ps«\ Tvpii-al. 
»<i, Ps.-. Vurioly. 
.V.WiV. Ital.l. j;.>i>i«. 
Snriiii,-'. Variety, 
I. Pfr. Ty|.i<-al.' 

)I Aiii'iKlni jHirjihiiro'liiiii't. I'«'. lyiw. 
7 .4«j'ix/r'< iui!i>/inilti. Nobis. Ty|N". 
K .-l»»Mfr.. f>.rfi7M. |\--r. Tyiiicai. 

*^^ 1 3i4Tt lui. M ti m i> or riittAi»i:i.niu. '•? 

Ft-ttRt 4IIY 7. 

Mr Tfi«*ii%» Mi-Mi%^. Virr-I*rrpi(lriit. in the chmr, 
T art. ft f -tir |«r«t»it» prt^-nt. 

n«« >feath "f i»n> W Tnron. At mi thr .'»th inM. h»viii|r Imto 
obonl 0.« (••llovtri}' iiiltititi- na^ ail«>|»t«<«l - 

H K>'m> tKit tti»> i»'>t lir tlic titiir to fullv fV't fiirth thr trnricr* 
«^• .* ■ *\t twti rvinit n^l t«* tin* .\i-m<lriiiv ami to thr M*irffittfi4* 
m *i.i 11 **iT «ir|,Afif^1 iiM-iitU-r <»r.« \V Tr%«»ii. Jr. yri it ip tittitiir 
iL^t xijir •m^i afio«4itt«^ tiH-nt *>( lit* ii<-atli •IhhiIiI lie fulktwrii liT iin- 
fc^UiAU tJt 'i^h i-ti^t * %|»r*^j*»ii Mj'iiur wtrn'* - TlMfffurr lir it 

/•v».»^.^ That !•* tin- iUalli «'f Mr Tnon. tlw Arm^lnnv i»f 
Nal^r»; «s Mik.«* .if |*bilai|r||>|iia i^ U n-A «it **ur «»| itJ» iikwI faithtui 
%»mi uw/ii «'>rkrr» €>tM- fi)i««M' ilitMii.ti to thf itilrrr*t# of thr in- 
•Ciiut*>-b Ka» t«^ ti |*r«>>fffi iliirtitk' iHarU thirty %rar« in %'an<*«l arMi 
r««f»ik«at«« }*0it}i ti* <'f tru»t. hi r« |«*atf4l aii«l i^nrroiui fritl#. an«l 
at* «• al«. I'T iaUir f« r it* a«l% .-iim>i riit*nt . aiHl «h««rrmrtMM 
t^'w »:«i **«4f\.it]i in hi* ih<*«fi ti< M •{ •tit*h ha\r l^orn miar«l«^l 
« a •ti*«art.««| t^Uhril% »ht«h «tll Tirviir ronnt-rt htp ttaiiir 
« tkk \tj0 Kt*t'-r« afnt |»rt'4«rr«» tif I Mill h«»l«>'/i« al •• i« iic^ 

iiCfinv*««f «< ar« rciahlr*! hi ttur ••«ii kiiMvUNlipr of hi* 
a»^i« kt^'t\-tii\ aai'i ti«<hann«: *)iiAhti(« t«> •% iii|«:hifi' hrmrtil% mth 
t» (asxi It !i; t(»«)r *rri )«arahlf !••»•. 

Ih \V ** \V K :•< ft«« nf«rr.*t r «a* a|>f»'iriti<«l t«* |ir«fMirr a hi*»- 
r'**!^*' *' e*^-*"^ <•! Mr lri<'ii !« r |« att«>ri in th« t*rtK^'«iiii^«* 

Mii'Ti\'. "f rill |U>TtM« %i ^••'rii»\ 

It* |».f».* «f I»r \V - \\ K. •« III M.I I... I I, til t^H «hair 

T^ ifat*;!! lU .\*a<trai ^n .l^.'-.^n *'* «.i« .tnn^* iii« ««t Ai««i 
iStf 1 1* « •/ tt.iL «tr •hk*^ ^a•l U.n »»\ : (fl t % :h* Aia^hn i at 
iljff iM»vt.rr/ * • i'l }«*tf.iari 7, ha* n -i»i 

Tm \'»i«rt;T .f Nafirjil ^<Mt:««« • f' |V ! k.|. I| ^ la ha* hATiit^l 
• iSi; 'if*^ • rr« ♦Y tl>c tii»:h i I'r fV*- r \.a l.r.M ..f t *aOihri*l^-r. 
M^ffmik'* .wtu «^« ■ va* elf «tr*i a '• rr«»i« n 1« !.t :n I*''* In |>lai 
9Mg 11-* ?*•'* -fsj in t^r |V--r*«Jti»pr» »r ar*- wrahh l«' ^\r a«h«|^.atr 
»t|r<— c t« %Ait mum ^4 \\m irrrat lt«# «h;< h «r in o>iiitiM<n m\x\. 


the whole world of science, have simtained. A life extending to nearij 
four score years haa been wholly <)evote<i to scientific inveetigatiw, 
mninly in his chosen department of Botany, in which his labors and 
philosophic insight have been attended wii.h results that do hoimr 
to him and to his country. In entering upon the study of the flora 
of his native land, he early realized the imperfect character of it« 
existing literature and turned hifl attention to the examinatioo of 
the original tyi>es of various authors as found id the herbaria of 
North America and Europe. His ultimule object seems to have 
been the production of a complete flora of North America, which, 
though he lived to see far advance*!, he wa* not permitted to 
entirely finish. 

In the course of his studie-s his far reaching mind fouud deep in- 
terest in the difficult nucalioiis i^rtaining to the geographical dis- 
tribution of plants, and he wa« led to the discovery of the remarkahle 
iHMilogies Iwtween the flora of the Ea.-torn United States and that of 
KiiMrrn A.°ia. His reasoning upon this and kindred subjects ftn- 
pim'il his mind to give rofpectful attention to the deductions nuide 
by Diirwin, when they were first published, and though never > 
bJini! fiillower, he was one of the earliest scientists of our land to 
uphold the idea of progressive development, always maintaining its 
[)ortect harmony with theistic belief. Thus his labors iu the botanical 
field have IwH'n iiiilL7,i.>d for the entire scientific world. 

His intcn'st in tliis Academy never abntcil ; our library bears 
abundant evicU'ui'e of )iis researches ; our herbaritm) has tieen great- 
ly cnhan<'ed in value by his sluilie.s of its ty])es. and by his generous 
contributions; whilst his kind, geniiil and attractive prewnce at 
many of our nuvlings has endeared liini to us all. — Therefore be it 

lic^olvril — That this expression of our sorrow be communicated to 
his imnieiiiulc family with the as.turiinie of our deep sympathy with 
ihcm in a low which is ao widely I'cli. 

;^*.* ! %%ri K%i. •« II ^1 ij* *»i- niii %i»i I rill \. .M> 

• ^' ■ it rr<-".*nifi )iv [HiMir < \|»n'«*i'-ii tlir \aliit* i»f* m* iii«tiiiinii**tH^i 

• ..!• :• 5i*« tiii.»« in »hii ti It MX* i-A-i Th« rrfofi* Iw it rfsMilviNl.-- 

*•: TKat Hi th«- ilfath **( Vr%*ifmit»»r A*a <»rn\. tin* ll<itaiii(^l 
*Nr*-t f ff^w \. aiirttiT •"!* Nal'ifal **• H'lHt* of IMiilaiii Iphianov'tii- 
•» • ' ^ rvn ' \«1 -f -r:« « h** •t«ai«i «itth«iut » m »] ill lii« ihiM-ii firlil. 
7*« f a.'T t'.^lr "! Ki* «orL. til* iti4iit*trv nii«l nltilit\ with wliiih 
'* • h* rt<r««««r«| t Kr <I«arn«^<«» of' iii*i^'ht. th< triitlitiilti* •• uixl n<'<ii> 
•^i 1 {.•;!»wi :ri \\\ tKst h«' titi«it rt<«ik. ha\« ilolir tii<if« t«> « lii<'iiiat4.* 
t* • *Wi f N r*. y. \fi*» r» a. than ihr laUir* of .iii% iif lii« |>rt>ii'4^'!»- 

."•*l n i: w* li-«irv hrr*- i.» r*'>»nl iIm- fart, that a* hv wa« rv^r 
f- ^*.\ t-' a>*l :.:• <•« 'rLi r« hotit*\rr hiitiihh*. hv hi* «'%t*'n«t\t kn>i«i* 
k"'.*« f..» r* rt^ ^ 4I :• tl'itl'Ti^l a^ a I*m4 t*) th<* wh'tU- •• i«ii(iti<* ('••tn- 
- • r f 

••1 r ^-a^ « ^ 'U- l»i« ^nal ifitrllrt-ttial attaiiiriH ni« wi-n- o»iiil»:tit<«i 
m '^ \^m *J.*r-: • f a |rtjr'' lifr. a liartii ht art ati«l :i «harital«!i «U— 
■•• '. • »'. ^. ^\\* n ran it\rlifir«4 t^* hi* »h' U <«l»r. - tht-rt* 
•* -V ft!« »*i l< '\ ifi ir.ifl iiMi |Kir|»*^-. an 1111% it'Mt'u' «h'^ otiMn t* 'lutv, 
fci' i a.-, ml ■ / a: • •. • jli ri^'ht |'ruiripU* 

4*.' T* -• ^' «..l « Jh r^h \t\* riiiin-Ti aitii •fi-ha^or t»» f'<llt»w 
: :^ •:-• : *• •! : ir;*m» >■{ hi* lifi- in •« it n*^ . \*\ I»*t«rinj thrit frutiT* 
•-»! '•• r.^* «'.i :i U* ♦111 ••• It! !• h t-i «r»at«* ainon;; tfn- lH>t:iiti«t* 'jf 

<.*. • '. i* «• tr.i*l that hi* ntifxal ht n«^> i* hut th«* I'ti- 
:•!.-":»» 4 ;• • ar .-.• r ?>• i«l • f' a« ti<*ii. «•* «i«-*ir«- t" o|f« r tt» Mr* < »rav 
•^ I •'.• *■ !*:.%r* •••jr ii».*ii pnif'.iitfi •\tn|<ith\ in thrir Iw*- 

•<-• Ir »: t.**w^ r«-»l'itJ*-ri* U* rnt« r*-*! in full u|*»n llir minulm 
/ \h^ ^»t- *. *• J rv !•«! in thr i'r •«««iLttj* "I tin- .\<-»ih niv. and 
;^at a 'M ^ t t-«;i. ^•- t'An«tfiit!«^i !•• Mn Ifmi^. 

Mr VI M M I i^M iti ••o-ffKlin^ tlir n**>liiti*>fi* ^ahI — 
• ^-* f :?-■ "•- ••. r*TT arLahU- n « n • I "iir •••■iiitrv ariil. an a wi« ntiM, 
U^ *«^ i: « :: ar.'t v «•: i«u<*'U»t«| ahr»>aii • t aiiv Arii^rK-ati ft *»\ir 


4ai ».a* :«a«wi fr- m a;:--i.j iw 11m- (arli ati^antaL'*^ "f A«jI 
'»afti ««^ f* '. '"..a;.» l|r- wa* i>*4 a i***!!* ..** t'n*! Mian in (ht- «<r*li- 
iATt IN -v^^ft*.. ?< t ll«« t« rm an«i hi* n«- «.«• !■.• t* h:* • «n p:< muf* 
%ito! tff^'.'t It taiit I., tti* t'»iiu*ht t*t •{■uk 1 hi.'ii a* a*>*tiniatir 
|K4Aft itc I: • t !tvuit l*»r •Hjr %*'Mti.,'«r t* 4aiii-l^ t<t iv.nipnht h«i thr 
1 •• ft&Aif 4 Itw •. krtKT •hrfi l^r tirat lir»l U^ an* int«'ff»(€^i id iL 
% <& * ' / aAT »w«vrftt bad m Jtt IwrO duor i Xrr|4 ID tVf4rliiati£ 


the whole world of science, have Buftnined. A life extending to neulj 
four score yenrs haa been wholly devoted to scientific investigmtion. 
mainly in his cho$en department of Botany, in which his labors and 
philoeophic insight have heen attended with results that do honor 
to him and to his country. In entering upon the study of the flora 
of his native land, he early realized the imperfect character of it* 
existing literature anrl turned his attention to the examination of 
the original tyi>ea of various authors as found in the herbaria of 
North America and Europe. His ultimate object seetna to have 
been the production of a complete flora of North America, which, 
though he lived to see far advanced, he wa.'' not permitted to 
entirely finish. 

In the course of his stuilics his far reaching mind found deep in- 
terest in the difficult i|UC!>tioiis )>ertai]iing to the geographical di>- 
trihntion of plants, and he was led to the discovery of the remarkable 
analogies Iwtween the flora of the Eastern Unite^l States and that of 
Eastern Asia. His reasoning upon this and kindred subject* pre- 
pan'il his mind lo give respectful ulU'titlon to the deductions made 
by Darwin, when they were first published, and though never a 
blind fii!li)wer. he was one of the earliest scientists of our land to 
uphold the iilca of progressive development, always maintaining its 
|>ert'c('l harmony with theistic lielief. Thus his labors in the botanical 
field have Ik-cu uiillzi'd for the entire scientific world. 

His interest in this Acailemy never abated; our library bears 
abun'lant evideiicf of his rcsi'arclii's : our herbarium has Ijeen great- 
ly enhanced in value by his simlies of its ty[>es, and by hi« generous 
conlriliutions; whilst his kind, genial and attractive presence at 
many of our meetings has ciiiteam) him to us all.— Therefore l>e it 

Itf'iilrcil — That this e-tpression of inir sorrow be communicated to 
his immediate family with the aisiirance of our deep sympathy with 
them in a which is so widelv felt. 


L. retinula, Gal. (Aohatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. T. Vj. t. 6, f. 2. 

Leptachatina resimdaj Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

L. taeoula, Nobis. (Leptaohatina.) pi. I, f. 15. 

Shell dextral, ovate conic, thin and semi-pellucid, spire more than 
half the length. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the last inflated, suture- 
well impressed, surface coarsely striate. Aperture roundly ovate,, 
sub-umbilicate, columella white, with an oblong plicae within ; inte- 
rior of labium white and slightly thickened ; color pale green. 

L 10. Diam. 6. L aft. 4. Diam. 2} mill. 

Hab, Sandwich Islands^ 

Obs, Three examples of this species were found amongst the du- 
plicates of the Pease collection. 

jL. tuooinata, Newc. (Aohatimella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 220-1855. Amer. Jour. 
Conch, ii, 1. 1.3, f. 7. 

Achatinella marginata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. yj pi. 6, f. 7. 
Labiella sucdncta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 
Leptachatina succincta, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 

Wahaif Oahiu 
L. taxitiluB, Gal. (Achatinella,) Ann. Lye. N. T. vj. t. 6, f. 15. 
Leptachatina sa^citilus, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

L. Boolpta, Pfr. (Aohatina.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 609. 
Leptachatina sculpta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 



L. semiooBtata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 565. 
Achatinella costulata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj t. 6, f. 5. 

Leptachatina semicostatay Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 


Obs. Dr. Newcomb thinks it questionable if this species is not a 

synonym of L. fusca, Newc. 

fl. simplex, Pse. (Leptaohatina.) Jour. Conch. 1869-70. 

Obs, Examples L, nitida, Newc. (coll. Newc.) and L. simplex, 
Pse. (coll. Pse.) are similar. 

L. stiria, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj. t. 6, f. 22-1855. 

Leptachatina stiria, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 316-1881. 


fL. striatnla, Gld. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 28, January 15-1845. 

Achatinella clara, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. August, 1845. 
LeptacJiatina striatula, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 143-1854, 166-1856. 



botany. True there liinl been (rood norkere in this department, 
an<t tlic Inhom of Itnrtrnm niiil Mur^liall, uf Wnlter and Michaux, 
of'MnhlenlHTf; ami Elliott, of Schweiiiit/, I'urfh, Nutt&lt and othei*. 
Iiave always been iiigbly csteerne^l. Miiny forci^i botanists, from 
the time uf Liniiii'U;' ontviinl. liivl descrilic<l American epeciea The 
liihors of thr^- liail laid ii J'ottiiilallon for North American botany. 
Itiit niiiTiy of the (Ic.-^rijilioiiH were in divert and s<-)tttcre<l piiblie*- 
tionsand were otteii incomplete or faiiity. The synonymy had beeume 


February 7. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

The death of Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. on the 5th inst. having been 
announced the following minute was adopted : — 

While this may not be the time to ftilly set forth the services 
which have been rendered to this Academy and to the scientific 
world by our departed member Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., yet it is fitting 
that the sad announcement of his death should be followed by im- 
mediate though brief expression of our sorrow. — Therefore be it 

Resolved — That by the death of Mr. Tryon, the Acadenjy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia is bereft of one of its most faithful 
and useful workers — one whose devotion to the interests of the in- 
stitution has been proven during nearly thirty years in varied and 
responsible positions of trust, by repeated and generous gifts, and 
above all, by untiring labor for its advancement; and whose earnest- 
ness and assiduity in his chosen field of study have been rewarded 
with a well-earned celebrity which will fqrever connect his name 
with the history and progress of conch ological science. 

Resolved — That we are enabled by our own knowledge of his 
kindly, helpful and endearing qualities to sympathize heartily with 
his family in their irreparable loss. 

Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger was appointed to prepare a bio- 
graphical notice of Mr. Tryon for publication in the Proceedings. 

Februry 13. 

Meeting of the Botanical Section. 

The Director, Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, in the chair. 

The death of Dr. Asa Gray, on January 30, was announced and 
the following minute which had been adopted by the Academy at 
the meeting held February 7, was read : — 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has learned 
with deep sorrow of the death of Professor Asa Gray of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, who was elected a correspondent in 1836. In plac- 
ing this rec(»rd in our Proceedings we are unable to give adequate 

expression to our sense of the great loss which we, in common with 


l■l{<>C■KKIH^«;^' Of THK AL'AUKUY C 

.-.i. lix' 1 


Iwtany. True tlierc Imii Ix-eii gowi workers in thi» department, 
and the luliors of Bailmni .ind Miirshall. iif Walter and MJchaux, 
nf MiililenU'rg unci Klliott, of Si-limiiiit^ Pursh, Nuttall and utheiv. 
Imvc nivravs hwu liiglily esteemed. Many foreign IkotaiiisU, ffoiD 
tlie time of Linmeiis miwiird, hiul desrrilicd American species. The 
InhorH of tliesr liiid laid a j'oviulation fur Niirtli American boianjr. 
But muiiy of the dpncriiitiims wen- in diverse and scattered publica- 
tions iind wi'TC iitleri iiicortiplcte or faulty. Thefynonymy had become 
much coiifii^il. Viisi ri'^'ioii!* miw well kiinwn. were then lerT» 
iiiciifrniiji'. Kvvn ilu> fti.i-:i of so iifiir :i dicirifl as die pine laiidi 
of New .le.-s.-y «i.-= alrii.>st iinkuow... 

; liotuiiist. encoiirau'ed by (he lato Dr. 

[■ l>y hi^ lift'-loui; friend and a&«H-iate 

iie of iiitdi'ine and devoted )m whole 
So far a.* I know he was the timt 

Jinost ut onee the eHeet of his can-ful 
and exef'lh'iil lalnir iH-iran to ujijiear and mneh preliminary work 
wib' soon iIdiio. 1 )r. Torrcy had seen the inanifi-i't iiec<l uf a new and 
lii'iler ■■Khini of North Aiiieri,ii." Here was one who eould dm 
oidy assist him l<ii( taki' the main Imrdcn of the work; and soon the 

fLtniiliar with thl* work must have notiml hon rapidly the dexcrip- 
lions ir[i|iroviil ii^ the work went on, anil what a viL"t amount of new 
material 111.' rollivt ions of N.ittaU.rLviiioiit.. lames ami other explor 
tv* of our iN'-slei'ii Ti-rritorie? iiroii;rlit into it. While the s|ieeH« 
were thus uiil >iiidi.>d ami the new ones admirably deserilml. tl>e 
fullest unil iij'isl •;en<'roU' i-ri'ilil wil- always (fiveii to the discoverie* 
anil hdH>i-> of others. Hut lolhitions of the |)lanU of the great 
western re;.'ion-:, from |>iiMie and jirivate soiirees, began to i-ome, in 
tiiost eitdiarnLssiiLg rirhness. It became evident that the further 
piiblidiimtat'ihe "Floft" lauitt bedulav^ until the floral wtftlih of 

Xothiiiir dai 
Ik-ckof Albany and yel m 
Dr. ToM-ey, gave np the pn 
lime to bis tavorite seicnei 
Aineriian to foil v do this. 


should recognize by public expression the value of so distinguished 
a life to the times in which it was cast: — Therefore be it resolved, — 

Ist. That in the death of Professor Asa Gray, the Botanical 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia recogni- 
-zes the removal of one who stood without a rival in his chosen field. 
The magnitude of his work, the industry and ability with which 
it was executed, the clearness of insight, the truthfulness and accu- 
racy displayed in all that he undertook, have done more to elucidate 
the flora of North America, than the labors of any of his predeces- 
sors or cotemporaries. 

2nd. That we desire here to record the fact, that as he was ever 
ready to aid his co-workers however humble, by his extensive know- 
ledge, his removal is deplored as a loss to the whole scientific com- 

3rd. That while his great intellectual attainments were combined 
with the charms of a pure life, a warm heart and a charitable dis- 
position which gave a rare loveliness to his whole character, — there 
were also added an inflexible purpose, an unyielding devotion to duty, 
and an allegiance to all right principle. 

4th. Th?.t we will cherish his memory, and endeavor to follow 
the spirit and purpose of his life in science, by fostering that frater- 
nal feeling which he did so much to create among the botanists of 
our country. 

5th. That while we trust that his removal hence is but the en- 
trance upon a nobler field of action, we desire to oflTer to Mrs. Gray 
and to other relatives our most profound sympathy in their be- 

6th. That these resolutions be entered in full upon the minutes 
of the Section, be printed in the Proceedings of the Academy, and 
that a copy of them be transmitted to Mrs. Gray. 

Mr. Wm. M. Canby in seconding the resolutions said : — 
One of the most remarkable men of our country and, as a scientist, 
the best known and most esteemed abroad of any American of our 
day, has passed from among us. The early advantages of Asa 
Gray were not many. He was not a college-bred man in the ordi- 
nary acceptation of the term and his rise was due to his own genius 
and energy. It falls to me to-night to speak of him as a systematic 
botanist. It is difficult for our younger botanists to comprehend the 
low state of the science when Dr. Gray first became interested in it. 
Nothing of any moment had as yet been done except in systematic 

Co yMKKr.iiiyi.!' <ik thk acaukmy of [1888. 

botany. True tlierc hiul Ix'eii gowi workers in this department, 
and the liilxirs of Bartmni an.) Miirshall, of Wnlter nnd Michaux, 
of MuliicnU'rg iinil Ellioii, ..f S.-liwiiiiitJi, I'ursh, Nultall and othets. 
have nlways lutn liiglily cstei'incd. Many foreign l>otaiiiBl«, from 
the time of LiiuiieiiM onwaid, htul descrilHHl Aiiierintn ppecie& The 
]nI>or^ of thesd liiul laid a foumUtHon for North American botany. 
But muiiy of the (lesiTiptioiiH nero in diverse- and snittered puldica- 
tiona and wvrc often inconiplele or fmilty. Thefviiunymy had bcmtne 
nnich ronfiim'.!. Viu-t n>i:ions iioiv well known, were then temp 
ineopniht'. Kvni (lie Honi of so ntar ii di^tricl as ilie pine landf 
of New Jersey ulnicsl onknow.i. 

N.ilhiritr daiiiile.1. ihe yonnp Ixitanisi, encimra^i-.l by the lau> Dr. 
IWk of Alli;niy iinil yet more by his life-loti^' frieml'and osMH-iate 
Dr. Torrey. t:ave up llie pni<tii-»' of imiliiine and deviiled his whole 
liine to liis lavorilo seieiitv. So lar as ] know he was the tintt 
American to fnlly do this. AiinosI at unee the cttcet of hi.x nireful 
and excellent hilior lie^iui to ap|>ear and niiu'b preliminary wurk 
was soon done. Dr. Turn-v had s-eti the inunili.'j't nee<l of a new and 
Ix-tter "Flnra of N..rtli AmiTira,- Here wus one who eonld not 
only a-ssi.s| him but take the main ixirden oftliework: andsimuthe 
now eliLfie ■'r<irivy ami Cray's Flora" lie'.-an to apjiear. Any one 
familiar with lliis work must have iiotiifd how rapidly the descrip- 
tions imi'rov.'d as the work went on. and what a vast a'monnt of new 
materiid th.' of Nullall. 1'ivmont, .lames ami oiherexplor- 
ers nf our wrsleni 'fiTrituries hrmi^'ht inio il. While ilie S|ie(.'ie8 
were thus wi'li .-iiidi<'<l ami the new onex a.lmirably d.-serila-d. the 
fnllcsl and iiiosi geinroiis credit wa- always given to the disi-overie* 
and lalioi-s of others. Itiit enlli-ctions uf the plants of the great 
western ri'gions, from piililir and private sources, began to eonie, iu 
Mi'ift emliiirr!i:'Hiig riilincss. It heeuine evident tlinl the further 
IU bitching I if thi! "riora" muat lie tl«loyeJ until tlie floral wealth of 


of our own country, went forward rapidly and well. Less than a 
year ago I was told by the Governor of the Fiji Islands that Dr. 
-Gray's work upon the flora of those distant lands was still the foun- 
dation of their systematic botany. His researches into the flora of 
Japan and China are well known. Soon the **Manual of Botany" 
appeared with its excellent arrangement and its clear and accurate 
descriptions. Who can measure the influence of that work upon 
the botany of our country or the eflTect it has had to create and 
increase an interest in the science. At last, after an amount of 
well directed labor and research which could have been applied 
by no other man, and after very many "contributions" of new species 
and "monographs" of diflicult and little known genera had come 
from his pen, the time seemed ripe for a real and comparatively 
complete "Flora of North America" to appear. AYe all know how 
two volumes of this were issued and, in a second edition, extended 
and improved; and how fondly we had hoped, knowing how un- 
impaired was his mental and physical vigor, that the whole might 
have been finished before death claimed him. This was not to be; 
but we can never be sufficiently thankful that so much which he 
alone could give was made free to all. 

What estimate shall we place upon his work in this department 
of the science? None but the very highest would be just. To me 
it seems as if the systematic botany of our country owes nearly every 
thing to Dr. Gray. Much that he did not do personally was done 
under his eye or by his advice and approbation. He it was who 
brought order out of confusion and having made stable and secure 
the foundation of this branch of the science, erected thereon a noble 
edifice which his tireless energy well nigh completed. 

But no man could have done this who was less richly gifted than 
Asa Gray, for he had that clear insight and prescience which is 
genius rather than talent. In him, with eminent ability to detect 
the relations of genera and species, were combined a rare faculty of 
conveying his own knowledge to others by felicitous and accurate 
description, and the conscientious truthfulness which would allow 
BO work to be carelessly or incompletely done. 

Would that it were my place also to bear testimony to his great- 
ness of soul. But this I must leave to others, — only saying, what 
all will recognize as true, that in the death of Dr. Gray we have, 
in the largest sense, lost the best as well as the greatest of American 


Prof. J, T. RoTHROCK then said : — 

I desire here to speak of Asa Gray simply as a teacher, and shall 
not allude to his rich and n>unded career in any other relation, 
except 30 far iia may be required to bring out the teacher more fully. ■ 
His work as a systematist will receive fuller and better consideration 
from others, than I could hope to give it. 

Directly or indirectly almost all the botanical teachers and in- 
vestigators of this country owed their training, or their inspiration 
to Professor Asa Gray. If they had not been directly trained under 
his eye, they were at least taught by those who had been, or had 
used the text-books prepared by him for the special purpose of 
diffusing a popular knowledge of botany. Two of his least preten- 
tious books, — "How Plants Grow" and "How Plants Behave" are 
veritable missionaries which daily impart some worthy lesson to 
thousands of children all over the land. We can hardly tliiuk of" 
a time when these books will cease to be read, or to be popular. 

In each generation there are a few men to whom "the world owe» 
its most notable impulses." One may well say that the life and 
labors of Charles Darwin illustrate this statement fully; and with 
equal propriety wc may claim, that so far as our own country is con- 
cerned, the teaching and example of Asa Gray were no less note- 

There comes a time in the history of almost every ambitious yoiithr 
bent upon an intellectual life, when he is called upon to decide what 


great, warm-hearted teacher had won the pupil to himself and to 
botany forever. Had Asa Gray been a man of but medium attain- 
ments, his transparent and unselfish goodness would alone have 
made him a model teacher, whose example and whose memory a 
student must have revered to the end. 

Yet of all this personal power which Gray the teacher wielded, not 
a trace was due to toleration of half done work. On the contrary 
if he had a characteristic which absolutely predominated, it was 
thoroughness. Not once in years did I ever know him to rest satis- 
fied until he had obtained from a pupil the best results possible 
under the circumstances. From the outset he not only encouraged, 
but required a student to see, think and conclude for himself: often 
without aid from books and always without unnecessary aid from 
him. This may appear to many as harsh treatment, but systems of 
teaching can only be judged by theijr result, and in this light Pro- 
fessor Gray's method stands abundantly vindicated. How wretched 
the system of education which "crams" a lad with facts and leaves him 
unable to stand alone when beyond the authority of the preceptor. 
To the fullest extent Doctor Gray recognized this, and to prevent 
such a result insisted on mental discipline which left the student 
with a well-grounded confidence in his own powers. But on the 
other hand a student never could learn presumptuous trust from a 
teacher who had nothing of the kind himself. Those who received 
from Professor Gray the largest share of judicious "letting alone'* 
were the ones disposed to hunt an easy solution to their problems. 
It was never enough to simply reach a result in work. His common 
custom was to question and cross question until there could be no 
doubt in the mind of either teacher or taught, that the result was 
fairly obtained. Often the conclusion of the student was treated as 
a thesis to be sustained. 

Dr. Gray not seldom assigned to his advanced students, subjects 
for original investigation and of course required a written report, 
often for publication. Nothing shows more clearly his conscien- 
tiousness as a teacher than his strictness concerning these reports. 
It was not sufficient that the conclusions should be correct, but they 
must be stated in exactly the right way. An artistic turn of a sen- 
tence, making it graceful as well as logical, was in his eyes of the 
utmost importance. "There now, that is neatly stated," is an ex- 
pression which yet rings in my ears. It was uttered by Doctor 
Gray, when at last I had succeeded in "putting a point" as he thought 

64 rROTEEnixoi* of thk aiadkmv or [IMX, 

it should be. I had written my first scientific jwpcr nt leaat A% time*, 
and each time thought it voi na well done a» could be; certainlr m 
well done as I was capable of doing it. But my critic was mereilem. 
1 mentally reM)lve«l eat'h time, rhat I wmilil not re-write it; but 1 
did re-wrilcit: and waai)l>ligeil to continue doing m until bethought 
it might be allowed (o ]>iiivi. I can sec now the t>enelit of all that 
criticiem. It was the mo^t helpful IcMcm I ever received in the art 
ot'stoting thingM. How much easier it would have Itcen for I'mfcMor 
Oruy tn have made a mere [>crfunclory criticiitm, and then allowed 
the pa|>er to have gone, with the utatemenl. — it will do, but it should 
have l>ecu l>elter! The tact that be did not do »», however, ts jmtt 
the point that I desire to bring out in illuslnition of hisetuiM-ieiitiotu 
discharge of duty. 1 have ni) doulit he sighed more over having to 
take time to re-n'inl it, than 1 did over hiiving to re-write it. But, 
thiiugh to him lo^'t time, he wais izoik] rnnujfh to regard it as a duty, 
and a." i^ut'li he did it. Hi.-' chiirarlcr its ii teacher came out in the 
fact that he did imt jillow it to ].iis.-.. It was this di.iregard of hii 
own time when a duty tn a >tiidoiit WiLs apparent, which places him 
now s., Iii^h in tli(- esterm nt'scoirs uf pupils. 

During' working hours ]'rntes.M>r (iray woidd allow no talking for 
talk-sake, at least but fora moment, lie would, however, volunleera 
hint, !•> pbuT a stuiU'tit on the track in a diflicult pniblem, or if 
iieit'sjiary he winild checTfully give an hour for the same purpose, 
though he would not reveal anything which it wen> l)etter that the 
->tudent should discover for biuLs^lf. 

So far as 1 am aware he never forgot or lost interest in any one 
whom he had inMrui'te<l. This U <vruiinly true of thoxe who had 
s|)ent any considerable [wriiMl with him. Time and time again, 
have I known liiru to lie on the walch fora chaitce to help a student 


weakness, which tries to make a part appear greater than the whole 
of a thing. An individual of great force of character, may if he 
desires, impress his associates with an idea of the supreme impor- 
tance of his particular, partial line of study. But after all we only 
discover the solid bulk of anything when it is viewed from allsides^ 
This Is intended to hear especially uix)n the fact that Professor 
Gray's teaching lay mainly^ but by no means exclusively in the line 
of systematic botany. Just now there is a decided tendency to give 
more attention to morphological and physiological botany than ever 
before, which is right ; and to discourage systematic botany, which 
Ls wrong. It is merely a temporary swing of the pendulum. Gravity 
will at length place all these lines of botanical thought, as they de- 
serve to be, on an even plane. It should, however, be said that those 
who disparage the systematic side to which Doctor Gray leaned, and 
on which he mainly taught, have as a rule had so little training in 
it, that they fail to comprehend its full meaning. Even mere analy- 
sis of a plant may, nay must, if properly taught, indicate beside the 
name, those broader relationships w^hich express, or suggest the lines 
of descent by which the plant has come down to us. li it is a grand 
study, and it surely is, to follow the development of the individual 
from the egg or cell to the adult condition, is it not a nmch grander 
and broader problem to follow the evolution of the species or the 

Further, it should be stated that Professor Gray's work and teach- 
ing was directly in the natural sequence of events. Above all, it is 
to be remembered that the most timely work is always the most 
valuable. The iirst, most pressing task in the botany of any country 
is to correctly name and arrange its plants. This is a pre-requisite 
condition upon which the record of all other botanical studies then, 
and the diffusion of all knowledge thence, must rest. J t was to the 
completion of this great, this necessary work that Professor Gray 
was bending all his strength. 

It is well, however, to come to the clear statement, that no one in 
America, and but very few in Europe were so fully and practically 
acquainted w4th the latest thought and latest observations in all de- 
partments of botany as was the subject of this sketch. He could 
discuss just as clearly the functions of chlorophyll, or the dual nature 
of lichens, or the relation of a plant to its environment, as he could 
the relation of one American species to another, or of an Eastern 
United States plant to one from far away Japan. Let it then be 

66 I-KIK-EEIIIMie OF THE ACAtttVY OP [18ti8. 

Stated, tliul ju<l)^il liy tiie broudei't standftn), m a teacher. Am Grar 
stotMl |>eHVi'tly n)uniled in hiif kiiowleilffe. If anr une can douht 
thii<, let liini bill read the erilicnl n.-view> which during the part 
twenty year* Professor (iray has written for the ;' merican Journal 
of Scienre, and Im- convini'ed. Indeed the wide range nf his eiacl 
knowleilge was wonderful. But va^l ilj were his attainments, aixl 
vast tw was ihp sum of all that he has written, his strongert cluai to 
a perjietual reiiitiijlinince does not rest there. His was the task of 
starting.' a generntion of teachers in the right direction. True, the 
tinieii were rt|ie for the coming of Profe».ior Grav; hut how much 
more mill}:'""' l'"^ liarvesl would have been if he had not oonte! 
Certiiitdy it coiilii not have l>een what his care and culture harr 
made ii ! Il is u iiroal thiiig tu write a good book. It is a greater 
thing to write a clearer ImwU tor a iiniulry than ha<l been produced 
befdre. But it w us greatest of all. U) take the young, ambitious na- 
tumlisis of this growing and ediicalionnlly iinnintnre country and 
t«a<'h iheni how to teiii'h others, iicit imly oi^ ti> fact^. but as tn 
nietbixls. The vuliie i.f this labor I'ltsscs comprehension, fi»r it« 
uilimate elfects ivi-r wickning. reach far out into the future. Fact* 
inav be lost sight of. theories dis}<roven, hv[)ol hoses rejectwi as insuffi- 
cient, hilt men will hericeforlh never lose a key whieh unl.x-k» 
realms of kn.)« led-e. Asji < irnyV n hole life as teaiher and as inve*- 
tigiilor hits )h.,.m the iuu.lrl of I'l m^u-ter key. Those who have his 
)<ati.'i><-<', hi^ h.,ii.-~ly. his genhil faith in hii- iLss.K'iales will best un- 
IiM'k the si-ereis of our Horn .-o long jis any remain unrevealed. 

Think of him in uh;ii nhiiion we may. he smiids out in nnmg^ 
light for in-p'.ti^m. ih.- pir'ture of a "niiuily man."' Was he with- 
out f<-ar? Il Hu. U'lauM- he was without n'pniaeh. If tu the 
lib<l. his I'iii'i-rfulni-.-^ atid tiientid buoyancy aina/ed even those who 
knew him hesl. il w;i. tK'r:ui-e ihc elas(i<'it V of bis love of < IimI and 


Prof. W. P. Wilson said : — 

I wish to offer a few words on the relation sustained by Dr. Asa 
Gray to the various leading scientific societies and naturalists of the 
old world. I do this all the more gladly because like some others 
of our tnie scientific men he was known better abroad than in his 
own land. I do not wish to say that Dr. Gray was not well known 
at home, for he was. His series of text-books, eight in all, has in- 
troduced his name wherever botany is well taught, but had his 
celebrity in this country depended on his scientific papers and books 
not intended for the general reader, he might have been almost as 
unknown to the masses as Jeffries Wvman, who wrote no text-books 
but made some very important additions to science and consequently 
was much better known in England and on the Continent than here. 
In this country, to the great majority of individuals who had seen or 
heard of Dr. Gray, his name was inseparably connected with the finest 
set of text books ever issued in the English language. Only a few 
botanists and friends knew of his incessant labor on original ques- 
tions, and that the results of this work were frequently published in 
the proceedings of the different societies. It was this latter kind of 
work which rapidly gained for him abroad a great recognition. 

While Dr. Gray in his early career labored incessantly at his 
chosen work, went on numerous collecting tours, prepared important 
papers on the Grasses and Sedges, gave lectures on botany in two or 
three schools and colleges, published several minor papers in differ- 
ent societies and made himself indispensable in the early work of the 
Flora of North America which Dr. Torrey liad already begun — he 
was known only to a very limited circle at home. 

This activity, accuracy and ability in botany had already made 
him through his collecting and papers quite a reputation abroad and 
had as early as 1836 secured for him membership in three foreign 
societies: The Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm in 1829, 
the Imperial Academy Naturte Curiosorum, Warsaw, 188'), and the 
Royal Botanical Society of Regensburg (Ratisbon) 188(). 

Dr. Gray's visits to Europe were in all six. He first went for 
botanical study in November 1888, returning in the November or 
the following year. The progress of the North American Flora re- 
quired the study and comparison of the many collections which in 
earlier times had been sent over from America to the European 


In Glasgow he was the guest of Dr. W. J. Hooker, Among thoae 
vhoro he met in Englaod at this time were George BenthaiD, Robt. 
Brown, Balfour, Lindley, Boott, Bauer, Lambert, Greville and a 
score of others. Upon finishing his work in England he went to 
the Continent pushing his undertaking with great vigor. In the 
cfliirse of his extended tour he visited Paris, Lyons, Vienna, Munich, 
(Jeneva, Halle, Berlin, Hamburg and other cities, and made the ac- 
luaintance of such men as >Jussieu, Brongniart, Decaisne, Mirbel, 
Adrien, Gaudichaud, Gay, Delile, Duval, Eiidliclier, von Martina, 
Zuccariiii, the De Candolles, Ehrenberg, Schlechtendal, Klotzscli, 
Kunth, Link, Lehmann and many more. 

It will be seen that in this, his first visit to Europe, he made the 
Acquaintance of many botanists already eminent, and others who 
like himself were later to b%?onie so. This was one of the most im- 
portant years in his life. Acquaintances were made which were 
life-long ; corresjiondenees were opened and exchanges of plants 
and works begun which were alike helpful to all parties. It must 
be admitted that in America Dr. Gray had no equal, but in 
ICuro|)e there were iniiny who ivere working on kindred problems 
and U) whom ho might tuni for scientific companionship. Upon 
ri'turniiig home he prosecuted the work on the " Flora" with his ac- 
cu:»tomcd energy luid by the spring of 1841 had issued the first 184 
pagcH of Vol. II. 

Passing over ten years of hard work in collecting, writing and 


In 1855 he made his third journey, visiting some of his old friends 
but remaining from home but six weeks. His fourth trip to England 
and the Continent was made in 1868. Between the years 1855, the 
date of the last visit, and 1868 much valuable work had been done. 
He had issued his "Structural and Morphological Botany" which had 
no rival in America, and no superior in Europe. It was a model 
of clearness and conciseness in its methods of treating the general 
morphology of the plant and especially that of the flower. 

The **Manual" had been published and was already recognized as 
worthy a place by the side of Koch's German Flora. No higher praise 
could have been given to it. The two Manuals were regarded as 
models of clearness and brevity in description. 

The work, also that on the Flora of North America, had been con- 
stantly carried on, besides the publication of various papers on botan- 
ical subjects, the most important of which was : " Relation of the 
Japanese Flora to that of North America." This had been a very 
remarkable piece of work, requiring close reasoning and comparison,, 
all the more remarkable because the geological and palaeontological 
work on the fossil flora of the North by Heer had then not been 
done. The "Principles of Variation in Species" soon to be made 
known by Charles Darwin's " Origin of Species " was yet unpub- 
lished. Both of these works might have given great help toward 
the solution of the problem in hand. It is safe to say that this last 
work made him known to every active thinker in Europe. 

What w^onder is it then, that after the very successful issue of his 
valuable text-books, after many additions to the North American 
Flora and the publication of numerous papers including the last one 
mentioned on geographical distribution, this fourth visit abroad in 
1868, should have been one continued ovation? Leaving home in 
September he spent this and the following autumn at Kew, hard at 
work. In the interim, visiting Paris, he renewed old acquaintances ; 
worked with von Martins in Munich and with DeCandoUe in Geneva, 
and visited various herbaria all over the Continent before returning 
to England. 

Something of the high regard in which his scientific labors were 
held at this time may be gathered from the fact that when he sailed 
for home in 1869 he had been made a member of nearly every Koyal 
Scientific Society in Europe. 

He was in Europe twice after this; first in 1880, remaining about 
a year. He visited Paris, the Herbarium at Madrid, Spain, most of 


the Italian herbaria and then settled down at Kew for hard work, 
receiving plants for comparison from many of the German and other 
continental herbaria. Some time was, however, given to the visiting 
.of old friends. 

The last visit to Europe was made in April, 1887, returning in 
October of same year. A little work was done at Kew, and the 
Ijamarck Herbarium at the Jardin des Plantes was carefully ex- 
amined. Otherwise the time was devoted to pleasant tmvel and old 
friends. Returning in October, he had planned among other work 
the writing of his Recollections of European Botanists. 

Dr. Gray was known both in England and on the continent not 
alone as a botanist, but as one of the ablest exponents of evolution. 
In the early times after the publication of the " Origin of Species " 
he was its most out-spoken defender in America. Hia articles at 
this time were often copied by the English journals. He did not 
accept the theory in its entirety. Many letters of Darwin's attest 
how fully the latter relied on his judgment and support — Darwin 
saya in one of his letters to Dr. Gray " you never touch tlie subject 
without making it clearer," " I look at it as even more extraordinary 
that you never say a word or use an epithet which does not fully ex- 
press my meaning," "others who perfectly understand my hook, yet 
sometimes use expressions to which I demur." And again in the 
same letter he writes " I ho|)e and almost believe that the time will 
come when you will go further, in lielieviiig a much larirer amount of 



pardoned for referring to his own history, he would say that few 
have had better opportunity of knowing Dr. Gray in this respect 
than he himself. In 1857, at the instance of a friend he was led to 
open a correspondence with Dr. Gray upon the constant differences 
between the European and American forms of Spiraea salieifolia. 
Nothing could be kinder than the reply which urged him to continue 
his observations, saying that former authors had made the American 
form a distinct species under the name of S. carpinifolia and that 
Dr. Gray might probably adopt this name in the next edition of the 
Manual. The subsequent appearance of Darwin's "Origin of Species" 
so changed the hitherto prevailing idea of specific types that it is 
no wonder that it did not appear in the next edition under a dis- 
tinct name. But the encouragement given to the obscure young 
man was not lost. It led to a closer observation of similar phenom- 
ena, and the paper on the relative characters of American and Eu- 
ropean species, which subsequently received the approval of Darwin, 
Mivart and others, was the result of the encouragement given in that 
letter. That and many subsequent papers were submitted to Dr. 
Gray before publication, and not presented without his approval ; 
and it was not till later, after he had caught up with the whole lit- 
erature of the subject, that he ventured to stand alone without the 
aid of his early friend and monitor. 

Prof. Meehan then spoke of his long and frequent correspondence 
with Dr. Gray, growing out of his own editorial position. From 
month to month Dr. Gray would send his criticisms upon his edito- 
rial work. These were occasionally sharp and adverse, but always 
judicious, encouraging and kind, and Mr. Meehan cited many in- 
stances illustrative of this. 

It was characteristic of Dr. Gray to give the same attention to the 
poorest and most obscure, as to the most prominent, if only he found 
them to be earnest searchers for truth. It had been said that he was 
hard to convince, but this was because he himself had taken so much 
pains to reach the truth. Nothing but positive evidence would lead 
him to set aside a conclusion at which he had arrived ; but when 
once such evidence was produced, no one accepted it more readily 
or gracefully, and hence he was even more merciless in judging 
of his own work, than that of others. Of this readiness to re- 
verse his own decisions, and do justice to others, Prof. Meehan gave 
many pleasant instances. Few men could have a warmer heart 
towards friends than Dr. Gray — but this did not lead him to ig- 

l'KtX'KKI>INi;t< Oy THK ACi 

L>KMY ( 


More thfir fwiilts, nor [irevciit liini fri>ni e-xpref+'ing liis vifwi" cf 
them. Tender, loving jinil i-ousiiUTflte a* lie alwaya vai', be 
could be caustio and severe when lie helieve<l (he pood of M'iemY 
demanded it. Oin-e a very /eiiloui; lolleetor to whom H-ientv ww 
under many obligntion*, de.^mbeii and imbliiihed a large nuiiiWr of 
phintit, from inij)crffet iiinteruil, with nndiie hai'to und without com- 
petent knowledge. Dr. (iray had to shiiw that really there were 
Very few new !<peciu^ iimnng them, and in »o doing his critieisu was 
iiiiiii<ually severe. Mr. Meehan in wrilinj; to Dr. (iray ventured to 
niiiotistrate with him ii|>ini the severity whieli \u- had used. Tlie 
njily was, "' In my heart. 1 wi.idil have U-en mon- lender than ytw, 
hut 1 cannot aflord to Ih'. I urn, from my (Hisilion before the world, 
:i erilie, and I ciiunot shrink from the duly whicli such a jMHiiioD 
inijKises u|Hm loe. If you wei-e in the jiwition tliat I am. with a 
short life and a long task before you, and ju.'it as you thought tlie 
uay n:Li clear fur jirugrt^:-, snnie one >hould dump cart loadi^ of rub- 
bish in your ]>atli, ami yuu had to take off your coat, ndl up your 
>K'eves and s|N-nd wt-i'ks in iii;^ginp ihtil rubbish away l>efon' you 
louhl ]iriK'iTii, I should not .-ujiposi' von wnuM be a model of amia- 

lu L'i< 

giving Ihesi 

:■ reeolhrlions l>r»t. M.vhan ho|H><t that he should 

rib.iied t;>r : 

<o nnieh albu-^ion to his own history, but it was be- 

that hi>tor< 

k* bore sueli full and rich lestinionv to the critical„.kin<' 

I judgmeiii. Ihc frh.ndly aid and the warm and Io- 

earl of tli,. 

nian a.- well as the scientist, whom wc thi.- c%-cmng 

Mr. !>.».»(■ C. MAIirlM..\r.r: then s| of Professor (.iruyV M- 
onragrnx-nt i- y..uiig .-tud.iits. and of liis willingn.':>s always to aid 
hem in I lieir studies; this he was alilr lu testify from his own exper- 
and again assisteil while engaged with 


February 14. 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-two persons present. 

On the resemblance of the primitive foraminifera and of ovarian 
Ova, — Prof. Ryder remarked that upon cutting sections of nearly 
mature ovarian ova with their investing membrane, zona radiata, in 
place, it was found that, in quite a number of eases, fine protoplas- 
mic processes or pseudopods extended from the peripheral layer of 
protoplasm of the egg, through its capsule or zona and joined the 
aeUs of the granulosa or discus proligerus. This arrangement re- 
minded one forcibly of the filamentous pseudopods extended from a 
Heliozoon or of the slender pseudopods extended through the per- 
forations in the walls of the single chambers of Globigerina. This 
resemblance was all the more suggestive if one will compare a 
section of one of the chambers of a Globigerina made through the 
calcareous shell and its contained protoplasm with a similar section 
through the ovum of the Gar Pike, where the zona is formed of 
pillars of homogenous matter. Such prolongations of pseudopods 
through the investing zona radiata in the case of many species of ani- 
mal forms, shows fairly well that this must be the principal means 
by which new matter is taken up from without and incorporated, as 
there is no direct extension of the vascular system into the eggy by 
which it can take up nutriment. It is thus seen that the early 
stages of the growing ovum, not only resemble some of the lower 
forms of Helizoa and Foraminifera as respects the grade of their 
morphological differentiation but also as to the mode in which they 
exhibit their nutritive or physiological activities. This resemblance 
is still further heightened if a form like Orbulina is compared with 
certain stages of the development of ova. It is thus seen that, in 
many cases, the ovarian germ, at least, passes through a stage which 
may be morphologically as well as physiologically compared with 
some of the lowest grades of the Protozoa, 

Chaetopterus from Florida: — Prof Leidy directed attention to 
specimens which w^ere collected in the trip of Prof. Heilprin and Mr. 
Willcox, at the mouth of the Manatee River. The species apj)ears 
to be the Chaetopterus pergamentaceus of Cuvier, originally des- 
cribed from specimens from the AVest Indies. It is a remarkable 
form. It belongs to the Tubicolae or tube-living worms, but unlike 
most of these, is devoid of the numerous cephalic a])pen(lages, or 
tentacles and gills. The tube is membranous and laminated in 
structure and it has the appearance of parchment. The two tubes 
collected are 16 inches long by Hhs of an inch in diameter, and 
tapering towards the ends. An incomplete worm, not well preserved 
on account of its delicacy, in its present condition is 9 inches long, 


and appears very Dam>« in oi)mpArim>a with cbe capacity of Ita tube. 
The auteriur divUJua »t* the b<N)y. about an inch long, is flattened, 
and about halt' an vide, but narruwiDg behind, and a compcMed i^ 
eight poilai ivgmenif pn>vided with deoK btinche; of lustroiu, golden 
eetae. The ^uoeeeiling segment. Ii'dii and narrow, u provided with a 
pair of ning-like appenda^s an inch long, and each fiiroirhed with 
two bmulleTi of diverpne ^ta*^. Then follow five long narrow teg- 
nwnte with large tuenibranoui< appenila|>e!>. without seUe. Tw 
t4<rn]inal !^;h;lueuts. of which lo remaio in the specimen, are fiimiib- 
eil with jmins of loii^r pointeil appendaires with bundles of setae. 

The I'rvsident. l>r. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twfiilvonc iierKius prewnt. 

'I'lu' fiilliiwiujt [ta}M'rs were presented tor publication: — 

"KfHCHrchcs u|H>n [he general phv^iohigy ofNervesand Muscla.'* 
Ky Henry ('. t'hApnian M. I>. and' A. P. Bruhaiker M. D. 

"Notc!' on an ii>(iiatii' idJ^i't larva with jointed donal appeodagei." 
By A.U-1.' M. FieUie. 

XfCMfily j'ltr /iVnVtny iht yomfmclature of Amtriean Spidfr».~~X)w. 
M(<*i>OK reiiiark^il that duriu£ the summer of 1887, wnile visiling 
tl:e /•K>h>i:inil Library of the British Muwum of Natural Hiatoiy. 
lie piiiii'il inforiiiiition which mav rev'>Intioniie, or at least compel 
a nuiit-al ri'vi.''ii<ti of the iionionolniure of American spiders. 

Mix itiliTi-^l in lht-M> aninnil.^ Uin^- known by some of the zoolo- 
ffisU in thv his iittcniion wa.-- calleii to a volume of unpubliahed 
fignn->> of .\nii'ri(-an tipiilcrs tht'M in the library. ThMe drawinn 
H-er." nnidc by Mr. John AbUu, an Kn-lLdimansetiled in Savanwi 
durin;; the latter part of the i'ij;h[tvnt!i ceniun,-. The figures were 
made lis nirlv as 17!*2. At It'ii.-^ ibev bear that date. Mr. Abbot 

. r.. 1.^1. 

ived to lie lli» 


It was known, of course, from Walckenaer*8 introduction to his 
descriptions that he had purchased Abbot's* drawings of over five 
hundred species of spiders and other arachnids; that he also had the 
manuscript drawings made by Bosc of South Carolina spiders. But 
Americans seem to have been in ignorance of what had become of 
these drawings, and the fact that they were in the Zoological Lib- 
rary appears to have escaped the observation of the little circle of 
British students of araneads; at least the speaker could recall no 
reference made to them in current literature. It was not until the 
above incident that an American student was known to have a clew 
to the whereabouts of the valuable volume which the British Mus- 
eum is so fortunate as to possess.* How the book happened to come 
into its present place, or in what manner it was procured from Baron 
Walckenaer or his executors. Dr. McCook was not able to say. 

On the day when the discovery was made, he had engagements 
which prevented him giving more than an hour or two to the study 
of the figures, and as he was about to leave London, no further oppor- 
tunity presented for making extended notes. However, he was able 
at once to recognize a number of species which have long and fa- 
miliarly been known under the names published by Hentz. He took 
notes of a number of these species, pnncipally among the orbweav- 
ers, a group with which he was at present particularly engaged. 
He also took the numbers under which the figures are listed by 

After returning to America Dr. McCook went over Walckenaer's 
descriptions, comparing them with his own notes, and found that 
there is no doubt at all as to the identity of these drawings with the 
original ones from which Walckenaer described his published spe- 
cies. The number of Abbot's figures as they appear in the manu- 
scripts correspond with the numbers cited by Walckenaer in his 
references to the same. Moreover, Walckenaer's descriptions, view- 
ed in the light of the speaker's recollection of the drawings, together 
with his own notes and identification on the spot, remove all doubt 
as to the identity of at least a considerable number of the species. 

The importance of this discovery is seen in view of the following 
facts: Walckenaer published his descriptions of Georgia species in- 
1837; Professor Hentz, the father of American Araneology, made* 
his publications in the Proceedings and Journal of the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History beginning with the year 1841, and con- 
tinued until 1850. The latter have been gathered together and 

* Walckenaer erroneously refers to the author as '•Thomas'* Abbot; his name is- 

' The full title of the book is "Drawings of the Insects of Georgia in America 
by John Abbot of Savannah. Vol. XIV, 1792." Zoological Library of the 
British Museum of Natural History, London. 


published in book form under the title of "The Spiders of the United 
States," eilited by Edward Burgess and with notes by Mr. Emerton.' 

Hentz had some previous papers of no very great consequence, 
and in 1835 he uubhshed a simple list of 125 species arranged under 
the genera to which he supposed that they belonged. This was in 
the Second Edition of Hitchcock's Report of the Geology of Massa- 
chusetts, (1835.) Ad examination of this list shows that it includes 
a nuDiber of the species which Walckenaer described in 1837 from 
the drawings of Abbot. So far then as the bare publication of these 
names is concerned Hentz has a priority of two years. 

The question of priority involved is yet more complicated by the 
fact that the second volume of Walckenaer'a work, containing many 
of the American species and all the orbweavers, bears a. date whose 
integrity is seriously questioned. The title page gives "1837" as the 
year of publication, tlie same as that rightly borne by the first vol- 
ume; but Dr. T. Thorell, who is one of the highest living authorities 
in Araneology, declares that this volume "did not come out till 
1841."' This fiict, however, does not seriously effect the points in 
issue, as only a few species of the Mygalidae were published by 
Hentz in 1841;' all the remaining species were published during 
and subsequent to 1842. 

The attitude of American students of spider feuna toward Walck- 
euaer's dei^criptions alluded to above has been something aOer the 
fjishionof the famous Scotch verdict "not proven." In oilier words, 
in the absence of any types or specimens any where existing to which 
his de^riptioiis might be referred ; in the absence of the original 
drawings from which his descriptions were made, for none (or only 
one) ot theni wen? made from the specimens themselves; and in the 
Vilgt'a,T to whfthcr thot-c drawiii 


new phase upon the matter? Shall we not be compelled, in view of 
the fact that there can now be no doubt of the identity of AValcken- 
aer's species, to give the priority to him ? 

The very few American students of our spider fauna have become 
80 familiar with many of Walckenaer's species under Hentz's names, 
that it will be difficult to throw those names out of mind. Moreover 
they have entered into all our literature up to this date, and there 
will be great confusion in making the corrections. Besides, it must 
be allowed that Hentz/s names are better chosen then Walckenaer's. 
If Abbot, whose patient, long continued and intelligent labors de- 
serve the r^al honor, could receive the credit of entitulation, one 
might, at least on the ground of sentiment, feel more reconciled to 
seeing the priority pass from Hentz; especially as Baron Walcken- 
aer was often indifferent to the prior rights of fellow naturalists. 
But the laws of priority must be considered, and honesty and justice 
can give no room for considerations of convenience and sentiment. 

Many of Walckenaer's descriptions may be considered as fairly 
g(X)d, and indeed they have all along been recognized as clearly 
covering some of Hentz's species. But when those descriptions are 
placed alongside of Abbot's drawings, from which they were made, 
all doubt is removed as to the identity. For the most part, Abbot's 
drawings are tolerably accurate, well finished, are colored after 
nature, and there was no difficulty at first sight in identifying a 
large number of our well known species, under the names published 
bv Professor Hentz. It seems unfortunate that such good work 
should have remained so long unnoticed, and that credit for the same 
should have been so whollv lost to the author. It is at least some 
satisfaction to be able to render such justice and honor as this notice 
may bring, to one who barely escaf>ed the distinction of being the 
father of American aranoology by inability to publish or procure 
the publication of his faithftil labors. 

There are thus raised very delicate points as to the law of priority, 
concerning which Dr. McCook desired to obtain the judgment of his 
ass^)ciates: — first, in view of the fact that Walckenaer's species were 
described not from the spiders themselvas, but from the drawings of 
them made by another hand, can we be permitted to give priority 
to Hentz, whose descriptions were made from the animals them- 
selves? Second, does the fact that two years j^revious to AValcken- 
aer's descriptions, Hentz published the names of one hundred and 
twenty five species, many of which are identical with those of Abbot's 
drawings and Walckenaer's descriptions, entitle the American au- 
thor to priority as to these si)ecies? Under ordinary circumstances 
it would perhaps be at once admitted that Hentz could have no 
claim, but in view of the special circumstances alluded to may there 
not be some departure from the strict construction of the lex prlorita- 
tis? The inconvenience of overthrowing Hentz's names would be 
a peculiar hardship to American araneologists, unless the original 
or a fac-siraile of Abbot's Drawings couhl be obtained and made ac- 
cessible on this side of the Atlantic. With the book in the British 




Museum, there U no final court, before which to test the integrity 
of sjjecies, available for the bulk of American students. While 
Walekeuaer'a descriptions are generally intelligible with the draw- 
ings in hand, many are obscure without them. This is equally true 
of Ilentz's descriptions ; but then we have his figures to interpret the 
descriptions sufficiently well to enable us to identify the species,* 

Dr. McCook presented a list of a few of the best known species, 
especially among the orb weavers, of those which were recognized 
by him as identical with the corresponding numbers in Abbot's 
drawings, and which, if Walckenaer's claim to priority be conceded, 
must hereafter be known under the names assigned by that natural- 
ist. A reading of this brief list will give araneologiats some idea of 
the serious labor that must be wrought by them before fixed and 
satisfactory results can be evolved from the confusion iuto which our 
existing nomenclature has been startled by the unexpected reappear- 
ance of Abbot's long lost manuscripts. 

These species are here given in the following tabulated form. 
The first column shows the name given by Hentz. The second shows 
Walckenaer's names. The third column gives the names of the 
species as tbev must hereafter be known if Walckenaer's names are 
to be accepted. 

Table of Revised Nomenclature of American Spiders. 
Hentz. Walckenaer. Revised. 

Epeira eoufpieellata ' Epeira con»picellata. 
Epeira araheaea ' Epeira arabesca. 

Epeira steUata 




Epeira riparia 
Epeira fasdata 
Epeira cancer 


Plectana stellata ' Plectana stellata., 

Epeira nobilis * 

Epeira cerasiae * 

Epeira iris *° 

Epeira cophinaria " Argiojye cophinaria. 

Epeira argyraspides " Argiope argyra»pides. 

Plectana ellipsoides " 

Epeira rugosa 
Epeira spinea 
Epeira mitrata 
Epeira caudata 

Gasteracaritha ellipsoi- 
AcTosoma gracilis, 

Acrosoma sagitfata, 

Acrosoma reduviana, 

Oyrtophora turbinata. 


Tetragnaiha fulva. 

Plectana gracilis " 

Plectana sagittata ** 

Plectana reduviana *• 

Epeira turbinata " 

Epeira gUnnosa " 
Tetragnaiha grallator Tetragnatha fulva *• 
Phyllyra riparia Uloborus Americanus^ Uloborus Ainericanus 

The numbers under which the species described by Walckenaer 
:and listed in Abbot's figures are here given for the convenience of 
those who wish to refer to the originals. The reference numbers 
attached to them correspond with the reference numbers in the 
second column of the table and in the foot notes. 

Abbot's Manuscript Numbers.— 116, 121^; 331, 346 ^ 375, 
389, 484'; 126*; 119, 120^ 117«; 181, 182, 183^ 161 ^ 166^ 
336, 341 ^^ 151"; 156"; 118"; 47, 48"; 50"; 49"; 79, 80"; 
77, 78"; 211, 216, 221 -»; 44^^. 

• id II, 171. This is probably the figure to which Hz. refers (Sp. U. S. p. 125) 
"when he cites Bosc as authority for the name. The species which Walck. has 
named nobilis^ iris and cerasiae all seem to me to be stellata^ and it is odd that 
AValck. should have put them even into a different genus from stellata which is 
<Icscribed in his "Tabl. des Araeides" p. 65, fig. 54. If this spider is to be placed 
in a genus other than Epeira^ it might retain the now abandoned name of Plectanay 
irhich is here provisionally revived to receive it. Emerton gives the species to 
Hcntz. ("New Eng. Epeiridae," p. 319). 

•id p. 119. w id p. 120. "id p. 109. " id p. 110. i3 id p. 155. 

" id p. 193. 15 id p. 174. »« id p. 201. " id p. 140. 

1* id p. 144. This bears some likeness to my species Cyrt. bifurca and may 
prove to be the same. 

'• id p. 212. Abbott figures a number of Tetragnathas including what appears 
to be Emerton's T. caudata ( T. lacerta Wlk) ; but a careful study will be re- 
quired to determine which are simply variations. Henlz's grallator is probably 
the one here designated. Walckenaer's Tetragnatha zorilla (Aptr. II, p. 221 and 
PI. 19, 2 B) which is figured from Abbot's mss., belongs to his own genus Latro- 
4ectus (Lathroiiectus)y and is Hentz's Theridion verecundum and Hneatum, It 
is also the Latrodectus formidabilis and Z. variolus of Walk. (Apt. Vol. I. p. 
647, 648.V The name of this interesting spider will now be Lathrodectus form- 
idabilis WALCK. 

» id p. 212. 


Virolana feasting on the EdihU fV^A.— Pnif. Leidy rtated that 
on last Saturrfav, having occasion to jw to B«ich Haven. \. J. dur- 
ing n leisure half hour .<trol) along »hore, he notieeH. here ati<) there- 
a ileal) cruti, CallineeUJ' hattntut. lying on the snnii, near the last 
high tide mark. The cral># oWrvetl happeneil to be ail female:! and 
they appeared to have diet! recently a.'^ winie were quite fresh and 
Bhowctl no signs of decomposition. (Hhent, hruken open l>y remov- 
ing the canipai-e, were fi)und to have thehody cavity swarDiing-witb 
a living isopod. the Cirolnnn eonrhirvm, which had preyed h|>oii the 
organs and were variously colored \>y the fiK>d with which they were 
gorged, ¥n>m a single cnil> thert wtre taken IIW* of the Cindaru 
ranging from lo to 22 mm. in length hy o to 7 mm. in hreadth. 

The isi)|HHl is gnivish tninslucetit alK>ve luid whiti:<h t^«n^lncent 
l>oneath, and eentndly variously colnreil, hruwn, lilack. red or yellow, 
from till- fotid contents. The dorsal plates are minutely dotted, black 
or hroivu, in hands. The eyes are triangular with rouitdetl angles, 
ami hlnck. The anlrniiue are nearly dimhle the length of the anten- 
nules. The mundihii's me fiirni!'he<l witJi n strong, brown, tricuspid 
ni<dar. The caudal plate or t«is(in is triangular with a blunt, slightly 
ennirginule ]1|k'\ and with a iiair of spiucs each ."ide of the latter. 
The i.-^iiKxl hii.-^ birn ohsorvcd by Stini|isiin at (.'haHcston, S. C. and 
by Harf,'cr ill Viucyanl Sound, Mil.-;,''., Iiut hit; not previously befO 
'irscy. Thn-c isolaleil sjiecimens 
shore of lleach Haven, the Ian 

reported from tlif ( 
of the same were j.i 


of N, 

1 iij. or, 

.«■ .1. 
< Ihc 

Oh BopyrM pul-i 
ous.-'IM-cinicnsof th 

iiara.-;itc, R<>ii>ir'i-' ;j 

c ].ri 

twn, J- 



From about Iwn ,|u 
of fifty coniuiricd tli 

1,. 11, 

of th,' 



of I A 

Illy also pn-sentod numer> 
'■li/fl'iriK. infestcii with the 
il at Itcaih Haven. N. .1. 
;'lit for tish-bait, upwards 

Fi:iie:i AiiY 2«. 
The I'rcsidont. Dr. Lkei.v, in the chair. 


entlj indicated a rapid development and growth of the animaL 
Portions of apples were exhibited with dense hemispherical groups- 
of attached barnacles an inch and a half in diameter with the barna- 
cles from 2 to 3 lines long, and several cranberries with bunches in 
which the barnacles are from 2 to 6 lines long. 

Reputed Tape-worm in a Cucnimber, — Prof. Leidy stated that 
several years ago, his colleague in the University, Prof Wm. Goodell, 
submitted to his examination a tape-worm, which he received from a 
correspondent, with the label "From the middle of a cucumber pre- 
served in brine. S. E. Robinson, West Union, Iowa, May 29, 1876.'^ 
The specimen appears to be complete and in its present condition,, 
preserved in alcohol, is about eight inches long. The head is large^ 
spheroid, provided with four, small, equi-distant hemispherical both- 
ria, and surmounted by a prominent crown with a double circle or 
strong hooks. The neck is a slight constriction whence the body 
rapidly widens and again tapers behind. The anterior segments are 
transversely linear vnih a gradually increasing length and more 
acute and prominent lateral ends; the middle segments are about 
twice the breadth of the length and slightly companulate; and 
the p>osterior segments are proportionately longer and narrower. In 
the latter, the uterus is distended with eggs only at their anterior 

The hooks are partially lost on one side of the crown; and it is 
estimated that there were about 40 or more. 

The head is '875 mm. broad; the crown of hooks *625 mm.; the 
neek '8 mm.; at the middle of the body six segments together are 
1 cm. long and 3*5 mm. wide ; the terminal segments are about 4 mm. 
long and 2*5 mm. wide. The eggs measure from '032 to "036 mm. 

While it cannot be admitted that the worm belonged to the cucum- 
ber, nor is it clear how it reached this position, it is a question as to 
the species. It bears a near resemblance to the Taenia crassicollls of 
the Cat, but is not more than half the size of this as it ordinarily 

In comparison with a complete s})ecimen of the latter, six inches 
in length in the contracted condition as preserved in alcohol, we find 
the following measurements. 

T. of the cucumber T crassicollls^ 

Breadth of head ... 

Breadth of crown of hooks 

Breadth of neck - - . 

Breadth of middle segments 

Length of middle segments 

Breadth of terminal segments - 

Length of terminal segments 

Diamonds in Meteorites. — Professor Carvill Lewis exhibited a 
small fragment of a meteorite which had fallen in the district of 
Krasnoslobodsk, Government of Penza, Siberia, on September 4, 1886^ 



1*875 mm. 






1-25 '' 



f) to 8 '' 











and which be had obtained through the kindaess of Mr. Creoi^ F. 
Kuaz. The specimen waa of especial interest on account of the re- 
port (see Nature. Dec. 1, 1887. xxxvii, p. 110) that Professor Lat- 
«hinof and Jerofief had detected in the insoluble residue small cor- 
puscles having all the characters of diamonds. 

The speaker had extracted from the fragment in his possesion 
two small oval bodies with extremely high index of refraction and 
showing only stiglil traces of polarization, such as is common to 
man^ diamonds. They were colorless and transparent, resembling 
<»rtain specimens of Brazilian "bort." Having been able to dis- 
tinctly scratch a polished sapphire with portions of the meteorite, he 
waa disposed to agree with Professor Latchinoff and Jerofief that 
these bodies were true diamonds. The olivine in this meteorite was 
also in the form of oval grains and had a deep yellow color and 
bright polarization. The rounded form of the olivine and the dia- 

>nds may have been due to corrosion c 



i mass. This 
a basic enip- 

rounded form is very commonly shown by the olivin 
tive rocks. 

While diamonds have never before been found in meteorites, car- 
bon has long been known in them in its graphitic or amorphous form. 
Recently Fletcher ' has described under the name of Cliftonite a 
cubical form of carbon, somewhat harder than ordinary graphite, 
which he found in an Australian meteorite. 

The important bearing of the present discovery upon the vexed 
question of the diamond is evident. The speaker had recently en- 
deavored to show that the commonly received notion that itacolumite 
was the original matrix of the diamond is a mistake, and that dia- 
monds really occur iu, or in the neighborhood of, basic eruptive 
roL'ks.' Tli(! t'uftri regardinj,' the iissDui.itioii.- of iho dlu ' ' 


able to say whether they bred there or not, and until this is proven 
it is not possible to say that they have become perfectly adapted to 
the new condition of life. Many observers have noticed that Coe- 
lenterata move up rivers, but this is an interesting case, as the transi- 
ition from the salt to the fresh water must have been very sudden. 
At the time of observation Dr. Sharp said that on drinking the 
water he could not notice the slightest trace of salt. 

Messrs Henry A. Pilsbry and S. G. Morton Montgomery were 
elected members. 

The following papers were ordered to be printed : — 



The variutionain tlie ciiliirsoi'the Imir and the akin are of ■ char- 
actor and ini[iortaii(-c wliich warniHt a fy^teniatic study. I har« 
v«ntur<'d to fnrmiilnto my imiiressioiia on this subject, and while de- 
pnrtiii;; in wmic degree from the dlreetiuns of approach which tout* 
of^t:' Imve <lcvcl<>jM?d, I have not I trust, stated the cow withont 
due regard to the views of othert^ on this perplexing pliaw of obser- 

My iii:iiu object has Ix'cn to contemplate color marks as the remit 
of nutritive I'rocesM^ cuntnille<l liy recogtiized hiologieal fiima bolk 
in hi-iiith and disease, I will not liesitute to treat of a perverted 
f^rowtli in the human fubjeet as comi>ani]ile to a normal growth in 
any metulier of the niaunuuUan r^'ries. 

Si:itoiiient:i will Ih; nuitle resjHH'ting the distribution of rolorv of 
hair, I the sujM'rticial color, or rnthor the effect of the main eoW uf 
the hiiir u|>ou the eye liein;; here iiiteiuleif J <if the <-olors of pigment 
marks 'in the skin, of hx-nllMtl hy{>i'rt rophics and atrophies, of ri- 
bris-ie, iif |>il<'se unil nuked warlf, ns though they were co-ordinatM 
of equal value. 

I liiive e.viiniiiuil the museums at FhiUidelphia, Kew York, New- 
lluven iiml Wx-'liinifton. I h:ive conxulteil the illuxtrations of 
V'orks on Niiluriil IliMory iind Inivi- mmle extended oliscrvations on 
the ilcinie>lieuietl anitniils cspH'iully of dogs, lioRK-s, cattle, guine*- 
pi^'i> and ralibils. 

The eiiiiehi-i<.ns drawn ai this tiniehavestood the test of nepentnl 
re-cxiuuiiialiiins and whih' liiey are nut all suseejitihlc of l>eing faetd 
as ri:.'i<l lUilurlions fmui llie jtri'uiiM-s, they presi<nt, I think, a gnnip 


observed radiating from certain points, and second as it is seen to 
converge to certain points. 

The following are the main points of radiation. The parietal bone, 
a short distance to the right of the obeleon, and the axilla. The pa- 
rietal centres may be symmetrical. 

The following are the main points of convergence. The head at 
the obeleon and directly above the auricle ; the face at the inner end 
of the eyebrow, and at the root of the nose ; the neck over the cen- 
tre of the hyoid bone ; the sternum at its upper third ; the abdomen 
at the summit of the bladder ; the under surface of the penis at the 
base ; the nape of the neck on each side of the vertebral column ; 
the trunk over the lower part of the coccyx ; the side of the trunk ; 
the arm at the insertion of the deltoid muscle ; the elbow at the ob- 
cranon ; the wrist at the head of the ulna ; the ilium over the ante- 
rior superior process; the thigh at the lower end of the femoral artery; 
and the ham at the inner border. 

It will be found in the course of the ensuing statements that the 
points of convergences are often found associated with the regions of 
markings which contrast with the ground-color. Thus the obeleon 
is the site of brown or black spots in the dog ; in the same animal 
the tan-colored wart is found in black and tan dogs ; the centre of 
the hyoid bone is also the centre of the gular white or gorget in many 
carnivorous and quadrumanous animals ; the sternal point is often 
white in the horse and dog ; the lower end of the back at the sacrum 
and coccyx is black or brown in ordinarily parti-colored dogs ; the 
msertion of the deltoid is the lower end of the epaulette-region which 
is frequently of a contrasted color to that of the rest of the limb ; the 
spot over the head of the ulna is in the line of the fringe of the fore- 
leg in the setter-dog and in some lemurs. The nape of the neck, the 
root of the nose, the summit of the bladder, the base of the penis, 
the olecranon, the anterior prominence of the ilium, the femoral 
point and the inner border of the ham are not found associated with 
color-marks. These cannot in turn be entirely separated according 
to Eschricht from being in the line of union of parts which unite late 
in the development of the foetus. A complicated disposition at the 
upper lip is held by the same writer to result from the union of the 
right and left halves at the median line. Some points, as for exam- 
ple the olecranon and the iliac process, answer to bony surfaces 
which are near the skin. The femoral point is also the region at 
which the long saphenous nerve pierces the fascia. The point on the 


side of the trunk is associated with the naked trunk surfaces of birds, 
and the colored area in IndrU brevieaudatus. (See infra.) 

In men who are notably hairy (the cases of universal hyper- 
trichosis are not here included) the hair is chiefly developed on the 
breast and the anterior wall of the abdomen at its upper part,-on the 
region over the trapezius muscle near the scapula- and on the lower 
part of the loin and the shoulder. In a number of examinations I 
have made of hirsute men, I have never found the teeth defective 
unless a disposition to universal h v pert richosis was present This 
disposition is shown (in addition to the dental defect) by great shag- 
giness and looseness of contour of the eye-brows. They meet across 
the inter-orbital space and stra^Ie off toward the temporal side of 
the forehead. The best marked of the naked places of the body in 
the hirsute men are the forehead, and the side of the trunk. Eschricbt 
mentions having found but a single example of the trunk being 
naked at the side. His observations appear to have bees made in 
Copenhagen and may perhaps exhibit a national peculiarity. In 
America I am sure such naked places are frequently seen. I can 
confirm Eshricht's statement that hirsute individuals usually have 
black hair, are of stalwart build and do not of necessity have strong 
beards or more than ordinary growths from the head. 

An instructive analogy can be detected to exist between the na- 
ked sur&ces on the sides of the trunk and the great lateral feather- 
le-ss spaces (aplervlia) of most birds. Above I ha' 


The transverse body stripes are the highest form of development of 
a body-mark, and succeeds in phylogeny the series of dotted-marks. 
This order is the reverse of that suggested by Darwin. A paper by 
G. T. Rope* describes two varieties of coloring in the English form 
of the domestic cat viz : transverse stripes or rows of dots on a white 
ground and white markings of a more or less longitudinal direction 
on a black ground. 

The following list includes the arrangement of the subject-matter 
of the present essay. 

1. The " break " from the prevailing or ground color compared 
with the positions at which hair is retained in nearly hairless animals. 

2. Brindles. 

3. The regions in which color-marks are found regularly disposed. 
These are : the dorsal line of the trunk ; the back of the neck ; the 
the dorsi-facial line ; the ventre and limbs ; the ulnar border of the 
foreleg ; the axilla and pudenda ; the "collar;" the regions of the spe- 
cial senses ; the sides of the body ; the regions of nerve-endings ; 
muscle-regions ; regions which are rich in seba and moisture. 

4. The effects of age. 

5. Bilaterality. 

6. Antero-posterior symmetry. 

1. The " Break " from the ground Color, or prevalent 
Color, compared with the Positions at which Hair is re- 
tained IN NEARLBS8 HAIRLESS Animals. — When an animal of 
a single color changes (even in a slight degree) the uniformity of 
the tint, the new color will appear in an order definite enough 
for the variety, species, and sometimes for the family to which 
the animal belongs. A black, gray or chestnut colored dog when 
thus changing almost invariably has a white spot appear at one of 
the following localities : The tip of the tail,* the breast, the dorsal 
surfaces of the feet, and the tips of the ears. I have observed these 
changes in the New Foundland dog, the greyhound, the Irish setter 
and the collie. In the sunbear ( Ursus malayanus) the prevailing 
black is relieved by a crescentic whitish-yellow spot on the breast. 
SarcophUua when varying from its prevalent color exhibits a spot of 
white in the same region. Horses having white feet and a white 

'Zoologist, 1881,363. 

' According to Gervais the first white appears at the tip of the tail. G. T. 
Rope (Zoologist, 1881, 353) states that where only a very minute portion of white 
occurs, it is most likely to be found on the chest. 


«tar nil the breast while the remaiDder of the bodiea are dark are 
olijecU' ofcommoD ob^n'stioii. It cannot be an accidental cimim- 
stance that animals that are nearly hairlesd retain tiporiK clump* in 
the ^nmc localities. lihinoeerot Uuiotii \» hairier except at the tip 
of llic tail, the dorsal surfaces of the feet and the tips of the ean. 
Hhinoeero* iiidietu shows the same peculiarities to a lew marked 
extent. In Elephaf the tip of tail is similarly furnishc<i. Id the 
^lexioan variety of the so-called hairless dig the satne regions named 
in Uhinoeero* arc alone hairy. In another variety the breast u 
fiirniiihed tvith un abundant growth of hair. Men, who are more 
thiin usually hniry, yet who do not belong to the group of univeml 
hyiMTtrichosis, po^A<ess hair on the pectoral region, and are apt to 
biivi- u sparse growth of hair at the upper margin of the auricle and 
» .-iniilar but separate line of hair along the po^erior Ixirtler, as well - 
III- a piUi'h on the loin or near the coccyx in the median line of the 

Il may ]w ."aid that the regions named tend to behave difTerently 
from thf pnvniling diK[>(iKiiion in hair-nutrition. In breaking from 
a unifiirm color these regions present a contrasted color, and the 
sjimo rt'^iims tend to retain hair which elsewhere for the most put 
is lost. 

[!ut it must Ik- ai-knowlinlgeil that in animals which are for the 
miiM part hairlcs.% clum{is an^ s«-cn which do not lK>long to the above 
catiiT'iry. These are ili.-'i-ussci) under other heads. See hair at junc- 
tion i>t limbs lo muik. ( p.!)4) hairs on dorsal line (p. H9) hair at nerre 
,-i,iU. , ],. m; 

'1 Bki.mii.i'.". — In some animals the break fn>m the prevaleot 
color as.-'Uiiics another dis{H>sitiiin of a widely spread character. I 
which the entire \>ch is loverod by alternations 
iihr;u-<>the"brindlesj," The 


The Dorsal line of the Trunk. The line of the dorsal spines of the 
Tertebral column (including the head as far as the parietal foramina/) 
is one of the most instructive of these. The black line in the ass 
and the horse has especially received the attention of Darwin. 
Prof. Jno. Ryder' detected a dorsal arrangement of hairs in an 
■embryo of the domesticated cat. It retains the same color in many 
carnivores. In the domestic cat two pairs of black stripes are often 
found on either side. In domesticated cattle these are supplanted by 
a white line. In piebald rats the stripe is commonly black. 

Lemur collaria,^ has a prevalent squirrel gray color, while the head 
is black and a black spot is seen at the root of the tail on the dorsal 
surface. In Propithecus diadenuij^ a conspi'cuous dorsal line is con- 
tinuous with a black sacral region and tail. In Lemur varius^ the 
same character of dorsal line is seen as in the foregoing animal but 
is not so marked. In the parti-colored Indris hrev^icaudatua^ the 
region of the back of the sacrum is distinguished from the rest of the 
fur by being a uniform dull ochreous hue — a hue unlike that met 
with in any other region of the body. In Propithecus verreauxi 
^oquerelii? the dorsum near the lowQr part of the thorax is marked 
by a dark spot, which is in contrast to the surrounding color. The 
^ sacrum and loin are of a dirty gray color. In animals which ex- 
hibit spots on the line which are in contrast to the prevalent color 
the retained colors may be looked upon as persistencies which for 
some reason have resisted the forces which have displaced the line 
itself. Such a view is in harmony with Darwin*s statement® that 
dappled and spotted animals were originally striped. One of the 
numerous forms o^ Lemur varius exhibits a white circle at the base 
of the tail the prevalent color being light brown. This does not of 
necessity correlate with the dark sacral spot. But distinctive kinds 
of marking at the root of the tail in the dog are of the same signifi- 

^ These are persistent in the human cranium near the sagittal suture a short 
distance in advance of the lamdoidal suture. 
' Animals under Domestication pov. 
» Proc. of Acad, of Nat. Sci. 1887, 56. 

* American Museum of Natural History at New York. 
6 Ibid. No. 263. 

• Ibid. No. 266. 
^ Ibid. No. 260. 

• Ibid. No. 973. 

* Animals under domestication I. p. 65.(Eng. Ed.) 


90 l'R(XEKUI><;S OF THE ACADEMY OF [!888. 

canccas thewicrnl siHtt. In Didelphy» a <lark pigment ring eticirr left 
the \ia^ of the tail. In roiin horseii a white ring is occaBioDally 
fuuDd wliii-h also encircles the base of the tail. 

Id Thylaeinut, Fel'u titaiiul,' Hyena tlriata, }tifrmeeobiiu,&nd in some 
of the viverriiie f^nera, the line is iiitemipted and & number of sad- 
dle marks are seen which are best marked jKiftcriorly. In the dog 
when tlie Idack ami tan (Mlorx are l>red out, as in the Engtiub wtter, 
the bull terrier and the fox terrier, the diirsal lino i» retained only at 
the wuriini niid at the root of the tail. It often forms an irregular 
mark which may extend ii|W)n the Hanks. In the "Chester redi:)," 
a variety of hog bred in Eagtcrn Pennsylvania, black is persirt- 
ently bred out, yet a umall black spot i^^ commonly found at the rac- 
rum. In J'lwcn /<ueiatn a broad white band crosiws the trunk at the 
sacral region. 

In Cereopilheeiu diatm, the greater part of the dorsal region and 
all the sacral region are of a red color whieh extends downward upon 
the outer surface of the Hank, 

This disposition is i<ecn in a number of the quadrununa. It ap- 
[icars to Ih! re|>cHte<l in many dugtt (as already mentioned) in which 
a flauk mark is continuoui> with the sacral spot. The mark may be 
homologous with the saeral sad<lle mark of Thylaeinwa and Felt* tiffriat 

In a eoloiiy of piebald rats observed at the Zoological Oanlen, 
I'hiladclphia, the sacral region was black while the prevalent hue 
woi! white. 

I will niiw attempt to explain the jwrsistence of color marka at the 
region of the sacrum anil the root of the tail, though the varietie* of 
the colors ihems^'lvcs arc not at prtwnt sus<.-eptihle of demonstrmtion. 

In the range of human observation, L. Tnit* records the frequent 
l)08se»'sion — nearly 4.1 imt cent — of a pit, or "sacral dimple," over 
the sacral n-gion in women. 


occasional deformity of the sacral spinal processes and he ar- 
rives at the conclusion that the sacral pilosity is often connected with 
attempts at formation of spina bifida. Both Tait and Ecker con- 
nect the presence of the sacral depression with the formation of an 
exserted tail. I make the suggestion that the retention of white/black, 
tan or lemon colored patches at the sacral and lumbar region is an 
evidence in tailed quadrupeds of the great activity of nutritive pro- 
cesses between the superficies and deep-seated parts. It is but a 
step further, and a legitimate step I think, to connect the sacral pig- 
ment patches with the subject of sacral tumors which has been so ably 
elucidated by R. Middeldorpf* This writer traces the congenital 
sacral tumors to retention-cysts of the neuro-enteric canal of the em- 
bryo, as defined by Kowalensky. The canal is the same as the post- 
anal gut of Balfour. It has been identified in Ascidians, AmphioociiSy 
and in plagiostome and teleostean fishes. Should the retention of 
the pigment patch at the superficies of the region where such pro- 
found changes are seen to occur be proved to be associated with 
minor degrees of interference at the same region, it follows that in 
the individuals thus marked, minor changes in the sacral elements, 
and possibly in the condition of the lumbar swelling of the spinal 
cord, might be sought for. 

The Back of the Neck, — The region of the back of the neck inclu- 
ding the withers is well known to be often furnished with a mane of 
long or short hair. It is of interest to note that in a case of trichosis 
circumscripta recorded by Virchow' a distinct pilose growth lay over 
the region of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae. 

As already remarked p. 88 the breast may be hairy in an animal 
which in other respects is nearly naked. It remains to mention the 
gnu in which form a pendant growth of hair from the same region 
is found associated with an animal having short hair — and a long 
tail ftimished with a terminal brush. 

The dorsi-fadal Line. — The region of the head as far as that of 
the parietal foraminal belongs to the trunk while that in front is 
distinctive. A white median stripe is commonly found in the region 
last named in parti-colored dogs. In some varieties a spot of the 
prevalent color lies directly at the beginning of the trunkal region 
near the occiput which interrupts the dorsal white line, in the rare 
instances of its backward prolongation or may be enclosed by it. 
Mephitis may exhibit a white spot on the dorsum of the face especially 

1 Virchow's Archiv 1885, 101, 37. 
« Zeitsch f. Ethnologic VII, 279. 


in the young. Horses commonly show a white mark, the " star," 
in the middle of the forehead between the eyes. In CercopUkecus a 
median whit« spot is often seen on the dorsum of the nose. 

The Ventre and Limbs. — The hair of the under part of the trunk 
is in all animals less thick than that of the upper and is apt to be of 
a lighter shade of color. The color of the ventre is continuous with 
the inner sides of the limbs, and with the throat where it is apt to 
pass in Quadrumana to the crown. The account of the color-marks 
of the limbs cannot be disassociated from that of the trunk. The 
hair of the outer surfaces of the limbs extends to the sides and dor- 
sum of the trunk and neck, while the inner surfaces extend to the 
ventre. "Stockings," by which term is meant patches of white color 
wliich pass entirely roimd the manus or pes above the palm or sole, 
are exceptions to the rule. 

The feet of an animal are liable to be of the same color and this 
color to be black or a break from this color to a contrasted one (see 
p. 88). In the horse this is notably the case— a bay horse has 
black feet or exhibits a break from the black color to white. Both 
fore and hind feet of the ThilKtan beartAiluropusmelanoleiunu, are 
black, the rest of the animal being white, with faint shades of brown. 
The fore foot in mammals is apt to a greater degree than is the case 
with the hind foot to retain the same color for the arm and the re- 
gion of the scapula. This is remarkably well seen in Ailuropua, in 
which form the entire fore limb including the shoulder is black, 


marked in a number of diverse forms. In many bats a tuft of white 
color distinguishes this region. In the llama, camel and bison 
shaggy tufts of hair adorn it. Cynocephalus hamadryas exhibits on 
both shoulders conspicuous growths of hair which extend back- 
ward. In la specimen of Coluhus guerza} the shoulder was found 
furnished with an epaulet of long white hair. In other exam i)les of 
this species the epaulet extends backwards. B. Ornstein'^ describes 
an instance of trichosia circumscripta, in an adult man in which a 
clump of hair was found on both shoulders. 

In Quadrumana the colors of the limbs are apt to be differently dis- 
posed from the arrangement in quadrupeds. In Lemur catta the 
colors are much like those in lower animals and in all varieties white 
stockings may be seen in the fore arm and leg. The inside of the 
limb is apt to be of a lighter color than the outer. 

With this qualification I think I may say that the outer surface 
and anterior surface of the thigh to a point answering to the prox- 
imal third or fourth of the tibia is differently colored in Quadrumana 
from the leg and the foot. This is noticeable in Indris brevicauda- 
tus^ and Propithecus verreauxi-coquerelL* 

The manus is commonly black in Quadrumana. In Indris brev- 
ieaudatus^ the outer side of the arm is black, while the entire fore- 
arm is white. 

In the figures of Audebert* the separate color marks of the limbs 
often correspond to the regions of manus, fore-arm, arm, pes, leg 
and thigh especially for the outer surfaces. From the well known 
artistic abilities of Audebert these figures may be accepted as au- 

The ulnar Border of the Foreleg. — The ulnar border of the fore- 
leg often displays hypernutritive characters. The disposition is not 
confined to the mammalia. In this class the growth is most likely 
a survival of the natatorial form of foot and is* at best an adaptative 

1 Am. Mus. No. 298. 

' Arch. f. Anthropologic 1886, 507. 

» Am. Mu^. No. 260. 

* Ibid. No. 973. 
5 Ibid. No 260. 

• L'Histoire Nalurelle des Singes, des Makis, et des Gal6opiih6ques, 1800. 

f C. F. Maynard (Quarterly Journ. Boston Zool. Soc, 1883, II, 18) states that 
in the variety of l)ear ( Ursus Americanus) met wiih in Florida "brownish lines" are 
seen "starting from the point of each shoulder and extending down the legs on the 
inside." This disposition is certainly exceptional. 


effort to extend a fold of skin from the sides of the limh. A akin- 
fold is demonatratable in Menopoma (where it is supplied by a 
branch of a nerve) as well as in Emys and its allies. It h the be- 
ginning of the hair-covered membrane in the flying squirrel (Sctur- 
opterus) and in Belideus; it is enormously displayed In tjie bat. 

The long fringe on the ulnar border of the fore-arm in the setter 
dog may be named as an example of its occurrence in a terrestrial 

The fold corresponding to it is not so evident in the hind leg — 
where it would naturally be sought for on the inner border. The 
line of feathers seen in some varieties of the pigeon and of the domes- 
tic fowl on the outer border of the leg may be associated with a 
similar proclivity to that above named. 

In a case of trichosis circumscripla recorded by B. Onistein' in an 
adult male a growth of liaii^ was found on the ulnar border of tii<i 
fore-arm of both sides. 

In some s|>ecies of Quadrumana the hair of the arm and the fore- 
arm inclines toward the elbow. Wallace' and Darwin' describe this 
arrangement in connection with the use made of it by the animal in 
shedding the water falling upon the flexed limb. That the hair in 
Syhbaten agilU should be directed toward the wrist is evidently an 
aberrant arrangement if wo are to foll<iw the distribution of the 
lanugo as outlined by Eschricht and Voigt. 

A marked instance of growth of the hair from ulnar border of the 
fore-arm and the correa ponding border uf the 


It would appear that retention of hair at both junction of the fore 
and hind leg with the body is in someway connected with se- 
<;retion and with retention of heat at these localities. (See p. 94.) 
The black stripe which is well defined in many examples of Lemur 
varius may extend as far as the patella or a little distal of that bone. 
In the case of the child exhibiting circumscribed trichosis reported 
by H. Ranke^ a large pilose patch occurred at the front ot the pa- 
tella and the upper part of the leg to its distal side. Two small 
patches were found in line with the front of the thigh. 

The position of the pilose marks above mentioned can be consist- 
gently placed in the same category as the thigh marks in the lemurs. 

The Collar. — The region of the head is distinguished in some of 
the more specialized mammals by a transverse band extending from 
the vertex down over or near the auricle (commonly in front of this 
appendage) and is variously dispersed on the neck. It is an inter- 
esting region since it affords some of the most striking superficial 
color-marks of the Quadrumana and is the probable precursor of the 
hair of the crown of the head and of the beard in man. 

In the figures of Eschricht's and Voigt*s papers on the lanugo al- 
ready quoted, the outlines of the region of the color are clearly deter- 

In many species of Quadrumana the region of the vertex of the head 
to near the occiput, the auricle, the region below the auricle and the 
throat and submaxillary regions are white. This disposition is con- 
spicuous in Hylohates lar,^ In Colobiis guereza, the prevalent color 
being black, a white color is disposed as above and extends down 
the neck to the clavicle. In Colobus vellerosus the collar is white 
and includes the gular region. In Cercopithecus diana, the white 
collar is interrupted by black at the side ; the chin is furnished with 
a white goatee. The prevalent color is a squirrel gray. In Cebiis 
hypoleucua the collar is continuous down the neck and is continuous 
with the white scapular region and with the outside of the arm to a 
little below the elbow. The prevalent color is black. 

In Lemur varius^ the ears, retromaxillary region and the neck 
uniting the head lines, are white. In Lemur albifrons^ a white band 
extends from the white crown over the head and thence to the 

» Archiv. f. Anthropologic, 1883, 3b9, XIV. 
2 American Museun) of Natural History, No. 953. 
» Ibid. No. 266 
* Ibid. No. 275. 


In Lemur coHo' the prevalent color being squirrel gray, the white 
color between the eyes unites with tbe color round the eyes and 
thence passes to the front of the neck. In another individual of the 
same species (No, 268) the crown remains black, while the rest of 
the collar is white. In Phoca fwiciata a white band encircles the 
head and neck at the region of tlie auricle. 

It will be seen from these examples that the color of the vertex 
which may be defined as the crown of the heaii, excepting the mar- 
gin near the occiput, is dften white ; that this color tends to pass- 
down over the region of the ear to the neck, where it may unite 
with the white of the ventre and embrace more or less of the arm. 
With the exception o{ Phoca fasciata I have not met with this color 
mark outside of the Qiiadrumana. Within the. group last named 
the band appears to be homologous with the hair of the crown and 
the whiskers of the human subject. In the Saki the color is black 
in this region and inclines forward to the submandibular growth 
or the beard proper. 

The abruptness of termination of the white patch on the crown as 
it approaches the occipiit, appears to relate to the limitation of 
baldness of the human subject, and explains the common retention 
of hair at the line of the occiput The occiput is under the control 
of the causes which maintain the body color as distinct from that of 
the rest of the head. 

Tke Regions of the Special Senses — In addition to the dorsi-facial 


patch surrounds one eye and includes one or both ears. Such are fox 
terriers, bull terriers and bull dogs. The two patches of circumpal« 
pebral black may interrupt the dorsi-facial white stripe as is seen 
occasionally in the beagle. 

Both the eyelids and the auricle may be included in the same patch 
of black as is seen in many dogs especially in pointers. The same 
is noticed in the Japanese dog. This disposition leads the observer 
to note that the same black patch may extend still farther backward 
and be found on the sides of the body. A typical example of such 
an arrangement is seen in Myrmecophaga jubata. In Myrmecohiu^ 
the circle extends backward in a stripe. I have seen a similar stripe 
in the Scotch collie. In Procyon the patch is for the most part in- 
fra-orbital and extends backward to include the ear. In one of the 
many varieties of Mephitis the ear and auricle are included in a 
line of black, while the rest of the head is furnished with white lon- 
gitudinal stripes ; more commonly, however, the entire head is black 
except a jugal stripe which is white and extends down on the sides 
of the trunk but inclining toward the dorsum as in Myrmecophaga. 
When the auricle is black the tip may be furnished with a pencil of 
white hairs which suggest the reversion to the plan of coloratit^n de- 
scribed on page 88. 

The region of the nostrils or the muzzle is pigmented black in 
most mammals an exception being found in the Quadrumana as in 
Semnopithecus nasalis. 

It is interesting to find that in the bull terrier the black may dis- 
appear in whole or in part from the muzzle. 

The special organs containing as they do black pigment often ap- 
pear to determine retention points of the same color at the periphery. 

The breaks in the circumpalpebral color determine the disappear- 
ance of the color from the region in hairless animals excepting the 
brow where it is apparently caused by the presence at that point of 
the circumorbital wart. The eyebrow in man is in reality a stripe 
which tends to pass backward in obedience to the tendency oi the 
stripe in animals generally. 

But the direction taken by the eyebrow is not a guide to all the 
transitions in the form of the black about the eyes. A vertical 
black stripe extends from the eye to the mouth in the cheetah ( Cyn- 
cdurus jubatus). The same patch includes the lip in some New 
Foundland and pointer dogs. ■ 


The auricle and the hair grooving from it Deed not be eDtirely 
black. The margin onlyiablack in the hoary bat (^(ofapAaemerea) 
and in I>idelphy«. The hair upon the auricle maybe entirely white 
instead of black as in the North American badger (Taxidea amer- 
ieana). The base of the auricle may be alone covered with black 
hair as in the fox-terrier, or with tan as in the beagle. 

The auricular black in the dog may include the skin of the side 
of the head for a variable distance and may cross the vertex and be 
in common with the corresponding patch of the opposite side. This 
arrangement interrupts the dorsi-facial white stripe. The appear- 
ance of black, tan or white spots on the vertex surrounded by patches 
of a contrasted color form "points" of breeding in some of the var- 
ieties of the dog.' 

Way it not be expected that a connection can be traced between 
the region of the obeleon and the pineal eye? Embryology teaches 
that the presence of various color marks of the skin appear before 
many of the more important deeper organs, and that the species 
to which an embryo belongs can be determined before the genus. 
The occasional reappearance in the dog of a patch of pigment at 
the spot at which an organ of special sense appeared in a remote 
ancestor, but which has no functional expression in the living de- 
scendant, is in harmony with many of the conclusions drawn from the 
-data presented in this paper. 

The Sidtis of the Body. — In Peeora the sides of the abdomen and 


the black of the special organ above mentioned. In the tiger*s marks, 
as seen on the muzzle, they are undoubtedly correlated to the distribu- 
tion of the infra-orbital nerves. It is probable that similar patches 
of color, either black or white, are related to similar causes. Among 
them may be mentioned the black oral angle in Felisoncay the white 
lips of Tapir jywchaque, and the black lower lip in some varieties 
of the bull terrier and the fox terrier. In the ground hackie 
(^Tamuis striata) 1 have demonstrated that the main longitudinal 
body stri|)e answer to the terminal filaments of the intercostal nerves 
and to those nerves w hich are in serial homology with them.^ I have 
founrl the spots on the fawn of the Virginian deer ( Cariacus Virginia" 
7ius) answer to the places at which the cutaneous nerves pierce the 

The papilla on the flexor aspect of the fore-arm which is seen in 
the domestic cat, the sciurmorph and myomorph rodents, and in 
some of the lemurs, is furnished with bristle-like hairs with the ex- 
ception of the last named animals. It is supplied by a separate 
nerve in the domestic cat. The length of the hairs correlate with 
the length of the vibrissa* of the labial set, and are used (as I have 
observed in the common mouse) for cleansing the face and especially 
in combing the labial bristle?. J. Bland Sutton* found a small 
bristle-bearing w^art on the flexor surface of the the fore-arm in 
Lemur catta, Chirogaleus coquerli and Hapalemur griseua. No special 
pigment patches or hair clumps have been found associated with 
this papilla. 

The so called "chestnut" of the fore-leg of the horse is probably 
homologous with this growth. Owing to the changes in the limb 
coincident with the reduction of the toes the growth assumes a more 
posterior position. 

All warts and skin caruncles are best developed on the naked 
spaces at or near the margins of hairy surfaces. They are well seen 
on the margins of the regions of the whisker and the moustache in 
the human subject. They are found about the mandibles in the 
moose (Alces canadensis) and the hog. The same positions are 
seen occupied by warts in the bat where the face is sparsely haired. 
P. Michelson' found warts on the margins of the pilose patches in 
iridiosis drcumscripta. 

* Science 1887. 

> Ptt>c Zool. Soc. Lond. 1887, 372. 

» Virchow's Archiv. 1885, C, 66. 


Animals which are uniformly furred carry occasional warts on 
the face — one of these is always supra-orbital and another is on the 
cheek, and forms in the dog the so-called ■' kiss mark." It is often 
separately marked by tan in the black and tan terrier, when it con- 
stitutes a "point" for the breeders of this animal. 

Virchow' expresses the opinion that retention of lanugo upon the 
face may be confined to the distribution of the fifth pair of cranial 

Muscle-Regions. — The stripes and spots on the limbs and the dap- 
ple-marks on the tnink, aa well as some of the broader sheets of color, 
appear to be related to the intervals between muscle-masses or to 
the extent of skin-surfaces which corresponds to muscles. 

The depression between the radial and digital extensors in the 
Felidte is often marked by a black stripe. Felia ckaus of India ac- 
cording to Sir W. Elliot' exhibits a brown bar on the inside of the 
arm. This writer assumes that the mark is distinctive of the East 
Indian species. I have seen a black mark in the same locality, in 
many examples of the varieties of the domestic cat in or near 

The black mark on the front of the thigh in lemurs (see p. 93) is 
limited distally to the region of the tibia at which the gracilis, scmi- 
tendinosus and sartorius muscles are inserted. The region of the 
back which answers to the lower trapiezius sheet is abruptly outlined 
in pure black, in contrast to the white color of the loin and of the 


white feet. In a word the fawn gray of adult life turns to white in 
the same regions (with the exception of the tip of the tail and the tip 
of the ear) that an animal is apt to break from its prevalent color. 
(See p. 88) 

The loss of hair from the crown in man is the loES of the dorsal 
part of the "collar" of the Quadrumana as alreadv mentioned on 
p. 95. 

The growth of the hair from the tragus in man is more decided in 
middle life than at an earlier period and turns gray at a later period 
than the whisker. 

5. BiLATERALiTY. The study of color marks in connection 
with the law of asymmetry yieJds many attractive results. Prof, 
Wm. H. Brewer' found the white marks on the feet of horses more 
developed on the left than the right side. In Nyctipithecut I have 
found the left supra-orbital region white, and a white spot detected 
on the left cheek, while the remainder of the fiir was gray. H. 
Kanke' describes a case of trkhoHs dreumscripta in which a pilose 
patch was seen on the left cheek in advance of the region of the 
whisker but none corresponding to it on the right. The left arm, 
according to R. Hilbert,' may be alone pilose and a patch of icthyosis 
be confined to the shoulder of the same side. Dr. Henry H. Donald- 
son found as the result of many observations on the human subject 
in the south of Germany, the wart on the nasio-labial groove 
to be much more frequent on the left than the right side. 


Naevus bearing abundant growths of hair has been found by J. 
Nevins Hyde ^ confined to the left side of the body in the form of 
three bands which followed in the direction of the intercostal nerves; 
a fourth band extended from the perineum to the scrotum and 

6. Antero-posterior Asymmetry. — The anterior half of the 
body may be disposed with reference to the color marks and the 
quantity or kind of hair, in a manner different from the posterior^ 
This disposition is strikingly seen in many specimens of the tapir, 
the anterior part (with the exception of the lips which are white), 
being dark, while the posterior is white. In Hystrix the posterior 
half of the body alone bears the quills. In Phascolarctos the poster- 
ior half of the body is white. In Hapale bicolor a similar coloration 
is seen. In Chrysochloris aurata the posterior half only of the body 
justifies the name. 

Concluding Remarks. — In reviewing the subject of the distribution 
of color marks in mammals it is evident that the causes of the ar- 
rangements are various, and do not admit of easy solution. The 
points which I have attempted to elucidate do not invalidate biolog- 
ical principles already established, while it must be acknowledged 
that some of them do not remain explained by these principles alone.. 
That variations of deep lying structures will influence the periphery 
which over-lie them is a well established law. Illustrations are seen 
in the relations which exist between the true organs of generation 
and the skin coverings over them. It is but another application of 
the principle to find the sacral spot correlating to conditions of the 
neuro-enteric canal, and yet another in the skin about the nostril, 
the eye and the auricle remaining black because the true organs of 
olfaction, vision and audition also contain black pigment. The 
principle of antero-posterior symmetry — of bilateral symmetry and 
asymmetry are also illustrated. 

The general contrasts of the color marks of the head as opposed 
to those of the body, which are so common in parti-colored animals, 
may be explained by the enormous influence which the brain must 
exert over the nutrition of the entire region. That nerve-endings 
can influence the color of the integument near them is abundantly 
proven. From the lateral line of teleostean fishes to the ground 
hackie is a long series in which the influence of nerve endings on 
the sides of the trunk can be associated with color marks. Sebaceous 

' Chicago Med. Journ. and Examiner, Oct. 1877. 

riiiK i:i:inNi;s nr nii: ai ahlmy cr [l-^^. 

;.-; if tniNi iIh- oirciiitiif :i stimrliLril i-lenK-nt. a Danivil'- ^ill 
,..:,-:■;,■.« li.>rt'i'Uriro-niotiviliirr(-i>kn..wii 1-1 i«V..1i,an am-. i,t 

—(-. s:itKcii'iit tn ni'utriili/i> nr ciimiM-ii-^aic llii- cnrrmt -hA- i-t- 
S- ■/:;»-m'[, llu> liitliT 'liii' I'l ill,- .■lecir'^iii..iivf ..i" ;i,.- 

-,■ :t iutvc iiiiil wliicli U ti. iii'iK-tcniii I. Tliii-,f>.rM:iri,i-k 

. . "'ivi^,. thai tlu' i-l.-c'iri.-:il .■urnmi .livcrifl l.y th- u-n-i-Uiri- 
.r'iti>I,.r.-..rflwtn»lvs. FiiT- 1 lKiJr..ri.lli.-wrvri.rrnii«>l.- M. 
.- ^ulv:iiinr.i..[,.r iC) )..■ siim.-i.-iit t.. .i.-tl.-c; th.- ma<rn«-l i- m 
-. ,-,.rr,.^|K.n<ii]i- 1- I'CT .iivi-i..ri^ ..f lli.- «-alc. If n-iv it,.- 
Kii-;.tur lu- i,inv.-il so III.- wlu-.-! Ill U- ..|,[.,^ii.. i, . 
.■itii|iti-. pari r.r til,, vnrrvut fr..(n the Ilimicll ,-k-ri">iit will r.iiirn 
■U IVII r wlunn- it ciurii- uml part throiiL'h III I"' i.. :!;.- 
',■ , M i:uni. Ill-ill^' in tlic n-V(-rsc 'Hn-ction [.. timt nt'the •'urivtii 
a.uhlu,' In ill.- nius.-].-. [Iu> ■iiu-iiet will be A..vW l.i^.u-lii ).a.-k 
tlu- III.- :;i;rili .livi.-i.,n .a- tiu: st-alo l.i, (he wli.-el III tlito 
iiu'iii;iii. nr tlu''^2i>[h 'livi^^imi nf ili.' wItk- ••!' llit- o'Ihi-'Tlj- 
lu- Uiii.T .>■ . t"-iiiu' 'lividcl itito HhX) part.". Sin-li U-inu' th« 
I i>,-viil.-tii ihai ili.-.-li'.-lrii-iii..iive llin-c of the mii»i-li' .-r X i- i- 
i-.iiiipi-ii-'aliii;.' i[, nr tn < I >. rt|i.< iiin.xiiit of llu' ■-■•iii|«-ii-atjii^ 
.l.-]>.-:>.liii'.: iipnn iIil- r.>si<i:iii>'.< <>ll,.r.-.l l>v ili.- fra.-tiniial j-r- 
>rilu-«ii-.- I..a.-tli.-.-!.-.-tr,..mntiv,-ti.r.-,-n|-il»-I)-4mdl.-!<'iii.iit 
i- t..ili. hIi..|.. iv-iMaii,v..r W- 1., ..r lu-n- l.rirtiv: — 
X':l::i:: W- L 


■ wh-K- «ir.. 1.. i- (.. ti:. 


change must cause variations in the rates of growth in accession or 
repression of force which will call into activity one or more of the 
proclivities above named. The e:^treme variety of this individual 
experience doubtless explains the great difference seen in the ways 
that animals are colored. 

The fact that coloration is limited, or that it is apt to be limited, 
to the points of convergence of Eschricht and Voigt would appear 
to be a tentative conclusion. The careful study of the peculiarities 
of the animals which are born naked would probably greatly 
strengthen it. 

I will conclude by making the suggestion that the distribution of 
color-marks along the directions already indicated is a larger phase 
of the subject of evolution than is outlined by "mimeticism" and by 
"natural selection." I assume that Ailuropua does not, for the reason 
that it cannot, change the black feet, the black auricle and the black 
circum-ocular region for one in harmony with the ground color, not- 
withstanding the disadvantage to which the contrast between the 
black and white subjects him. I also assume that the breeders of the 
dog cannot run out the black from the skin over the sacrum and 
the root of the tail with the same ease he can determine many other 
colors. According to natural selection and domestication the vari- 
ous regions above named explain the frequent occurrence of colors 
which are of great use to the individual but they often meet with 
abrupt limitation owing to the influence of deep-lying restraining 

occurrence of acne pustules or syphilitic papules in positions in which the marginal 
warts occasionally appear, — the retention of the hair near the bregma and at the 
occiput in instances of loss of hair other than from age, can be noted in studying 
the distribution of eruptions upon the skin and of naevi as well as of color marks. 
But the field of observation is difficult when the conditions are often so fleeting. 
The impressions of a single observer are not sufficient to secure definite conclusions: 
For information, including literature of this phase of the subject, the reader may 
refer to the experimental researches of A. Irsai and V. Babesin ^ upon the influence 
of the nervous system upon the pathological conditions of the skin, and to T. 
S. Dowse on the nervous affections of the skin and its appendages.2 

1 Vierteljahresschr. f. Dermatol, u. Syphil. 1882, IX, 433. 

a Med. Press and Circular 1879, I, 499. 






No. 1. 

EledrKal currenU and Electro-motive force of Muscle and Nerve in 
frog. Whatever view may be entertained as to the nature of the 
electrical currents present in injured muscle or nerve, whether the 
aaine be regarded as pre-existing in the uninjured condition, or as 
being developed through injury, there can be no difference of opinion 
as to the fact that such currents exist, at least in the injured condi- 
tion. In 98 much, however, as so far known to the authors of this 
communication, all researches hitherto undertaken with the object 
of demonstrating the presence of electrical currents in muscle and 
nerve, and of more particularly determining the electro-motive force 
of the same, have been made by Prof. Du Bois Reymond it does 
not appear superfluous to bring before the attention of the Academy 
the results of some recent investigations made by the authors in the 
Laboratory of Jefferson Medical College upon large specimens of our 
our common frog, Rana Cale&biana. That the presence of electri- 
cal currents in nerve and muscle should have long escaped the notice 
of physiologists was doubtless due, not only to the imperfect forms of 
nnmelera forniei-ly in u^e. but ajao to the fnct of electrical c 




applied to the equator and transverse section of the muscle and nerve 
respectively. The methods made use of by the authors in determin- 
ing the electro-motive force of the gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic 
nerve of the frog as given in the synopsis below is essentially that of 

Scheme of Determination of Electro-Motive Force with 

Round Compensator. 

I VII Wire of round compensator. 

N Nunnber of its divisions 1000. 

L Resistance offered by same. 

S Switcher. 

K Key. 

D Daniel! Element. 

W Resistance ofiered by D IVII B P^ D and by IVII F P' D. 

P' Whippe. 

B Coils. 

F Coils. 

P^^ Commutator. 

G Galvanometer. 

E Electrodes. 

M Muscle or Nerve. 

K Key. 

Ill Wheel. 

1 Fractional portion of vi'ire of compensator. 

n Number of the division necessary to compensate. 

Poggendorff with the difference that the round compensator was 
used instead of the long rheocord. This method* consists essentially in 

1 Du Bois Reymond, op. cit. S 257. 
Archiv fur anat. u. Phys. 1885 S. 381. 



shunting off from the circuit of a stantlai'd element, a Dniiiell's ceil 
forexample.whoseelectro-motiveforce is knottn=I-OSVolt, an amount 
of current sufBcient to neutriiliite or com]»ensatc the current deflect- 
ing the magnet, the latter due to the electromotive i'orce of tlie 
muscle or nerve and which is to be determined. Thu.^i, for example, 
let U3 suppose that the electrical current diverted by the non-polari- 
zable cylinders or electrodes, Fig. 1 (E) from the nerve or muscle ( J[) 
to the jjalvaiionieter (G) he sufficient to deflect the magoet lo an 
extent corresponding to 267 divisions of the scale. If now the 
compensator be moved so tliat the wheel III be opposite (n) 
for example, part of the ciirrent from the Daniell element will return 
through IVII F whence it came and part through III P" to the 
muscle (AI) and, being in the reverse direction to that of the current 
from and due to the nuiscle, the magnet will be slowly brought back 
from the the 267th division of the scale to zero, the wheel III then 
standing at (n), or the 820th division of the wire of the compensa- 
tor, the latter (N) being divided into 1000 parts. Such being the 
case it is evident that the electro-m olive force of the muscle or X is to 
that compensating it, or to (I), (the amount of the com[>eusniiDg 
force depending upon the resistance offered by the fractional por- 
tion of the wire L) as the electro-motive force of the Daniell element 
or (E) is to the whole resistance or W+L, or more briefly; — 
X*: 1 : : E : AV+L 


muscle as a fractional portion of E, tlie latter being the electro-motive 
force of a Daniell element. To accomplish this let the circuit M 
G F' IV III P" K M and the circuit D K I, III, IV II F F D, 
be opened and the circuit D S IV II B P' D offering a resistance 
W be closed, D being put in communication with IV by the 
switcher S, B being a coil of wire offering the same resistance as 
F and brought sufficiently near the galvanometer G to slightly af- 
fect it, the intensity of the current will then be equal to the ratio of 

E to W or I = ^^ or if we call J the number of the divisions of the 


scale corresponding to the deflection of the magnet, then J =-v,f 

Let now D be put in communication by means of the switcher S, with 
I, the beginning of the wire of the compensator, that is the cur- 
rent D K S I III IV II B P' D be closed and offering a resistance 
W+L, L being the resistance offered by the wire I II of the compen- 
sator, the intensity of the current will then be equal to the ratio of 

E to W+L, that is I = ^,^ .,- or if we call J* the number of divis- 


ions corresponding to the deflection of the magnet, then J^:= W-i-f " 

or -ji= -Y=r =~w~ whence W -^r =^^ +1^ or 

W_ 1 _ J' 
L ~ ^-1 ~ J— J' 

If now this value of __ be substituted in equation (2) we will obtain 

X=^ X^ X E (3) 

in which equation 

X = the electro motive force of muscle. 

n = the number of divisions of the graduated scale of the wire 
of the compensator necessary for compensation. 

N = 1000 ; the number of divisions of the wdre of the compen- 

J z= Number of divisions of scale corresponding to deflection 
of magnet excluding the wire of the compensator. 

114 i'Kt.M.'i:t:ms"»i# vF tiir ACADtniY of [Iw, 

mental iirea iiumw. imiU>niiil slo[« ^ubaii^lar. anterior umr^nD 
projertiTiir and iiiiiliirnily riHiiuKil. Iwfcjal mar^ii slijjhily ami «ni- 
foniiiy ciin'til. E|>uiiTiiiU niKIL-^h. iiitcrnipted by twar**-. i)i<taiit 
nuiiiuirig lines of a liliukish c.lor. Grcalcj't ■len;rth near liie 
itii'ldle of till' shfll, U'liks t'rmlt-il am) onmmeiited willi ilir»* tu 
five niiliatin;; cioviKions. I'tnlM^ broiul :iml nmnilnl : narrp iMiciic 
ficsli e„l,.r to i.iiik. usually <U-!ir. rar-'ly nmtllt-1 with waxy ►[-.!*: 
i-anlinal U^-ih ilisixis..) to b>.> iloubk- in butli valvc~>. slender. ••><■ 
liijiic, liiiiir luitl clL'litralt'iv cronulate, Intoral kt'tli Ion}; aiid hfavy, 
riirvi-it; tavity of tlic licak dw'ii and roundwl, i-avity of iht- ^hell 
di'<']i, iuid iHi-asiotiully iIk! snrface i.-> int4;rnipte<l with nmlulatinc 
rid;;iv- near llii' anti'rior j>ortiim of the cavity; dorsid diiitrii'w 
fonninu' :i i'i>iit|nLi<«]:J liui' cxti'mlin;; from the bai« of the (>ostcri»r 
.'ardiTi:il tn.ith l>;..'kward f:>r one lialf inch and ilirei-tiy iimicr 
lh<' ed;;e of tlii' ii>nf lu llio lioak cavity; anterior eicalnits -niall, 
thi' >n|H'ri<ir nne iitiil<'i'niitiin<: the anU-rior jxirtioii of the eunliiiil 

}iM„rirr I '.. |,,.t,..-rli L'..">l'. Ifremllh 41 inches. 
ff-/'i'-t.,r W.K»lriLir. Volusia Co. Florida. 
Mil-. .\,:u\. \:,\. Sri.n.vs. Newcomh Coll., Coniell Tniv. 

found in Florida i 
:.n.l r. M.AIu,}.fr^.« 
thinner, ha- more j.n 
' fonnrhil umhiis. ih--'|aT 

ir i<otanieal fH'iid 




motive force of the semi-membranous muscle was found in several 

instances to amount to as much as the yVth of a Daniell or 0*1 D. 

The deflection of the magnet due to the electrical current of the 

sciatic nerve corresponded on an average to 21 divisions of the scale, 

the electro-motive force giving rise to it to the ^th of a Daniell or 

0*0237 D. a result agreeing closely with that of Du Bois Reymond^ 

viz : — 0*022 D. In conclusion it is worthy of observation that the 

electro-motive of the muscle is more than three times as great as that 

of the nerve. 

Synopsis of results of observations upon the electrical currents and 

electro-motive force of muscle and nerve in frog. 

Gastrocnemius Muscle. 


1. Magnetic Deflection. 

Electro Motive Force. 


186 div. 

of scale. 

0-0625 D. 


























































































































— 5438 


217 div. 


— 0.0696 D. 

>0p. cit. Band II, S. 250. 


Tu:\r^'iu liluriily rouiidc-J, t)a*al Jiiargin with a tendency lo emannM- 
linti in ijld fi-nialc'-: <|iiitt utiifurmly curvetl iu males; (."rvai^Tii 
(liuiiieiCT near the- luiddlc of tlic li^mment, greatest lenfrth at i-mfn- 
'<r i-iid i.f .ii.r^il iiiif;; <:-urdin:it ti-ttli double in lioth valvv:^, cnif.iv^ 
f-d, very oliltcjiii'. crenuiaii-. itie anterior tooth in the rifrht \-al%w i< 
iiiiirh ilie snialKT. rt- i> tlic jxweri'ir one of the \vt\ valve; lateral 
I..1I1 Mti-lc iu til.- ri.L'lil and d.»ul.Ie in the left valve, eur%-.>.l an-i 
-I'-ridiT; imrri' li-lit jmrple iiud i^ymieii with a few dark-waxy j-ptt*; 
d.>i--;il •i.-ulri'v. \n„ In i^iir ^md in a diau^mal row fnmi the t>a.-« of 
tlif antirinr ciirdinal ino-.h airoA^thc centre of the eavity of the 
l'i:ik, aiiriTi'>r (■iv:ilri'-.-> <li>liiiel and nell iniprfttjSed. 

I»i:uiiet.r.«. Un-th l/.'. ISreadlh :ii indios. 

If:hll.,i, Lake A^lit.v. Volutin County. Florida. 

MiiMiirri A. ad. Nat. '.Si. I'hila. Newconih Coll., t'ornell Univ. 
N;.i. Mii-.-nm. 

H' m'n-l.'. 'I'iii- d.lii'ali- r-jfcic:., U |M>Ti.-iiidy relateil to L' popfr^- 
■■,:. i.uiild- r.ii[ Dr. i;..uM in hi:; de-friplioii of that !'|ieeie!', Hai> 
tlr:ii "ii r<-\\i\A-- .\ii-<l:,iii-i I o.ij.cri'iii'i Ixa, in shu|ie, delieaeTSiHl 

Uiiio Hol.D 
Mi.ll » 

(iipiliiri;,'in r. .I'f;r//i/ to remind oneof, hi. f'tmpCTi- 
i;i- ilir i>ii(liii.' of r. orr-U'i* Ix'a. hut it:* affinity i^ 
• l..-a. Inn dilhr^ iti heinj; very thin, almort {ia(M>r- 
:it ru'li rnd, and without a dejin-!^-)! area at the 
tjr. N;ir„.d i;.r Mr. Wm. D. Averell publisher of 
■1- i:xHian-,>. .ifl'hitadL'li.hia. I'U. 
'. I\.fi;, 1, 

t III. ciiJi-r chi.'k. iH'atitifnlly gioli.'hed thr<>u|;bom. 

iirnl with liiiiv* i.'n.riii-b niv;*; e])idemii^ yellowi*h 
■.OIL- ; ili.r-al iiiar::in arriiale. anterior ninrj;in pr««- 
>inuii'<j. Ii;i-ial iiiarL'ln sul>eniar;;tnato, ]K«teriur 



Unio Fryanus. Plato IT, fig. 1. 

Shell elliptical, very smooth, very inequilateral, substance of the 
shell thin, inflated in the umbonial region, beaks projecting very 
slightly beyond the hinge line, ligament short, thin and light brown. 
Epidermis yellowish red and covered with bright green rays which 
are so thickly set upon the upper portion of the shell as to give that 
part, a bright green color: the young are of a bright shining green 
over the entire surface, the green being interrupted by heavy lines 
of growth of a light red color. Ligamental margin sub-angular 
before and slightly arched, posterior margin disposed to be slightly 
bi-angular and quite uniformly rounded above, anterior margin 
abruptly rounded ; basal margin uniformly rounded ; cardinal and 
lateral teeth double in the left and single in the right valves, the 
cardinal teeth short, oblique stout and crenulate, lateral teeth slightly 
and uniformly curved , dorsal cicatrices deep and slightly posterior 
to the cavity of the beak, anterior cicatrices slightly impressed and 
distinct. Nacre quite uniformly purplish. 
Diameter .60. Length 1.00. Breadth, 1.75 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Ashby, Volusia County, Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. Phila. Newcomb Coll., Cornell Univ. 
National Museum. 

Remarks. This species is highly polished, and the young are 
rich in lustrous rays. The strongest affinity is with U. spams Lea. 
It approaches XJ. fuscatns Lea, but is thicker through the umbonial 
elevation, and the umbos are farther forward, and its valves thicker, 
heavier, and not so flat. The dorsal view shows it is enlarged anteriorly, 
while that of Juscatns is not so. It can not be mistaken for U. per- 
lucens or XJ. micans Lea. Abundant on the muddy bottom of the 
outlet of Lake Ashby, Volusia Co. Fla. 

Named for Mr. T. Marshall Fry, of Syracuse, N. Y. who is an 
enthusiastic collector and student of the Unionidse. 

Unio Websterii Plate 11, fig. 2. 

Shell oblong, inequilateral, considerably inflated, rounded at the 
sides, surface roughened by numerous obtuse irregular lines of 
growth, substance of the shell thin, ligamental margin moderately 
arcuate and rather short, posterior margin slightly biangular, liga- 

i'<)!' of the acadexy of [!Ah8. 

V emarginut^. anil raised in^1 a dUtinct and angled Mrina, 
U ihin and ivnipresaeil. Li^nionUl area often with fvverii 
l>lii'a>. Tho pt*;terior end is iKn^rally sharply conipmwd 
:ii)-) Iv-loK. :;ivini: it a himv-yhaped and ani-ij»ita) »p|>fnnum. 
iii:il rjiijv liepn':!)^^!. iiarr->w. aii>l miinded. AiileriiT niar):in 
:■>] ami jli^litU- otili.jiie. hn-A mnnnn convex. Kpidermi* 
isli-lir>wn or "livo fol-rynl, -ir even liri^ht given, with >leiiilrr 
r.iv in unovoii t;k*fi'li'i. .-r ntyl,-** and redilUh-hroun all nv^-r. 
i vor>- mii.h H:it:..:ie.l. :ui.l Vnliks vt-rj- .'inall and |>, liav- 
iVw (■■ ■!!.■.■ 11 trii- t'-'Id^. Cavity "( the lieaks nearly '>)>r'ilel«. 
1 .■i.';itri.v> -mall mid divp. (.'arilinal teeth ohli-jiu- an<l verr 
I^:or:iI t.i'ih l'>n_'. ihin. iin<liilaie>l and nearly ."trai^i. 
Mlm "A -'T ;n:r:-!.'. •>t 'i~--Ai misof. Sholl .larker Uhiud and 

:. r .:.">. lA!i.-:h l.\-2. Yin-idih L'.-IO in.hf*. 

- ■. l.;iko W...-ln:ri: V Ivjvii f-.,. Fl.-rida. 

. A .li. N;i:. S;.;, ,-. ^■■■^■.^■■•^ I'nivor'iiy. Xati-nal MiL-^. 
; V. r-., !,:; i- ;iki^:;.:i-h-r:.r than the. .iher. It* alEn- 
,ii::: /; - i •- ^ !..,». «!.i-h !i;t- ti::i. h lar.^■r rtiviti,- njhU-r 
l■^-. :':, ;,i:- !,;'.: o ■nr-.r :i::i u ■: iiii-liilaiiu^ and ihi- an- 
. r; i !;,■; ■■';;.; :-'v r>::..:.d. an.i 1* n 'I ravisl. It >-.LUii>>t Im 
.,:. ;■ :- f .1 > I..... \V, ;.:iv. -^ at i-l.-a^tir*- in .i.-li.-.- 

- .- ;.- : M-. t ,,-: - r. - :.;--ii.f»Vallala. NVl.nwka. 
-.; ■ . ■■! -.: :: -•:;.---.■ r:...i; wa .>f Fl-rido. 

vti:ri.-—< and verr 
iiid .!i_-hlly raise.!. 
iiiit'ini) tliii-kiiM0; 
r Ait-M: i>-»'ierti»r 


Remarks, This species has tlie general form of U. Emmonsii Lea, 
and is more in affinity with that species, than with U. Shepherdianvs 
Lea. The former is a much heavier species, and with coarse heavy 
teeth. U. Shepherdianns Ixa, is deepJy emarginate on its basal 
margin, and the sides of its valves are very much constricted ob- 
liquely from its projecting umbos down, while U. Waltoniy is very con- 
vex: in its basal margin and its umbos not projecting, and its anterior 
end very obliquely rounded, instead of evenly rounded, and a thin 
shell. It can not be confounded with U. perlatua, Lea, though the 
obliquity of the anterior end is much alike in both. It is with much 
pleasure that we name this curious species, after Mr. John Walton,. 
a zealous and working conchologist, and artist of Rochester N. Y. 

Unio Dorei. Plate III, fig. 1, ^ 

Shell ovate, heavy; polished, ray less; epidermis reddish, with 
brownish colored elevations or growth-ridges ; beaks blunt and mas- 
sive, dorsal margin very broad, short and slightly arched; posterior 
margin quite straight; Umbonial angle sharp and supplemented by 
two parallel elevations which arc more or less broken by undulations,^ 
basal margin slightly rounded, anterior margin truncate and angu- 
lated above; cardinal teeth with a tendency to being double in both 
valves, very massive, smoothish; lateral teeth very long, heavy and 
uniformly curved; nacre a rich salmon color; cavity of the beaks 
almost wanting: of the shell considerable. Named for Mr. H. E. 
Dore, and enthusiastic collector of mollusca of Portland Oregon. 

Diameter 1.25. I^ength 1.6. Breadth 2.60 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Monroe, Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Sciences ; Coll. B. H. Wright. 

Remarks. The affinity of this species is with U. Conasaugaensis 
Lea, but the teeth diffi^r, the umbos of the hitter are not so broad 
and blunt, and are farther from the anterior end, and has a ivhtte 
nacre. There is much disparity between it and U. Bncklyi Lea. 

Unio Averellii. Plate TIF. fii;. .'i. 

Shell obovate, thin, fragile, slightly inflated, inequilateral, smooth^ 
polished, interrupted by numerous green capillary rays arranged in 
fascicles w'hich are narrowest at the anterior end of the shell, and broad- 
en gradually until near the umbonial angle where they merge together, 
giving the posterior portion of the shell a dark green color; epider- 
mis yellowish; beaks flattened, rather blunt, slightly and coarsely 
undulated; dorsal margin nearly straight; ligament short, horn 
colored, thin; anterior margin short and gracefully rounded; posterior 


margin bluntly rouuded, basal margin ivith a tendency to emarginn,- 
tion in old females; quite uniformly cun'ed in males; greatest 
diameter near the middle of the ligament, greatest length at posteri- 
or end of dorsal line; cardinal teeth double in both valves, compress- 
ed, very oblique, crenulate, tJie anterior tooth in the right valve is 
much the smaller, as is the posterior one of the left valve; lateral 
teeth single in the right and double in the left valve, cuired and 
slender; nacre light purple and spoted with a few dark-waxy spots; 
dorsal cicatrices two to four and in a diagonal row from the base of 
the anterior cardinal tooth across the centre of the cavity of the 
beak, anterior cicatrices distinct and well impressed. 

Diameter .8. Length 1.2. Breadth 2i inches. 

Habitat. Lake Asbby, Volusia County, Florida. 

Museum Acad. Nat. fid. Pbila. Newcomb Coll., Cornell' Univ. 
Kat. Museum. 

liemaThi. This delicate species, is possibly related to V. papyra- 
ee>is Gould. But Dr. Gould in his description of that s]>ecies, says 
that "it resembles Atiodonta Coiiperiana Lea, in shape, delicacy and 
even color." 

But there is nothing in U. AverellH to remind one of An. (huperi- 
ana Lea. It has the outline of U. oeeullus Lea, but its afEuity is 
with JJ. rvtitans Lea, but differs in being very thin, almost paper- 
like, less blunt at each end, and without a depressed area at the 
anterior ligament. Named for Mr. AVm. D. Averell publislier of 


Remarks, This beautiful shell was found by Mr. J. B. Upsoii 
several years a«ro. Its affinitv is with U. cornens Lea, and with U, 
PosieUil Lea. From the latter it differs in not having a striated and 
scaly epidermis, and in not having thick, but compressed cardinal 
teeth. The former has much heavier teeth, the groove of the lateral 
teeth being shorter and much farther from the cardinal teeth, and 
the beaks farther from the anterior end, and the post-ligamental area 
much more conspicuous. It can not be taken for f7. planilateris 
Con. which has a stramineus epidermis. 

We name this peculiar s^pecies for Dr. Edw. J. Nolan, Librarian- 
to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

TJnio Hinkleyi. Plate IV, fig. 2. 

Shell oblong, trapezoidal, attenuated and pointed behind, smooth, 
slightly inflated, and often flatish ; rather thin, polished above. 
Epidermis black, thickly covered with brown, indistinct fine rays, 
visible w^th transmitted light. Posterior margin subemarginate, 
raised into a compressed wing. Anterior margin rounded and slightljr 
oblique. Dorsal margin a slightly arched curve. Basal margin 
slightly convex. Umbonial slope raised and obtusely rounded. 
Cardinal teeth compressed, thin, very oblique and grooved, double 
in both valves. Lateral teeth very long, slender and undulating, 
nearly straight. Dorsal cicatrices four or more ift one or two 
rows. Nacre pinkish, and iridescent. Umbonial region broad and 
blunt, very slightly projecting, but often deep. 
Diameter 1.00. Length 1.50. Breadth 3.00. 

Habitat. Lake Monroe, Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. National Museum. 

Remarks. In outline this species is similar to that of [7. decUvis 
Say, but its black epidermis, its pinkish or purplish nacre, readily 

distinguishes it from that species. 

It is dedicated to Mr. A. A. Hinkley, of Dubois Illinois, an ac- 
tive collector of Union idte. 

TJnio Simp90iii. Plate V, fig. 1. 

Shell oblong-ovate, pointed behind, and often very slightly unci- 
nate below the point, inequilateral, remarkably smooth and polished. 
Valves thin, slightly inflated, and rarely with a few coarse, perpen- 
dicular, impressed grooves near the centre. Sometimes the valves 
are very flat. Ligamental margin higher behind, and straight 
or slightly arched. Posterior slope biangular below, straight or 


flightly emargiDate, and raised into a distinct and angled carina, 
which is thin and compressed. Ligamental area often with several 
small plica. The posterior end is generally sharply compressed 
above and below, giving it a lance-shaped and ancipital appearance. 
Uiuhonial ridge depressed, narrow, and rounded. Anterior margin 
rounded and slightly oblique, ba.sal margin convex. Epidermis 
yellowish-brown or olive colored, or even bright green, with slender 
green rays in uneven fascicles, or rayless and reddiah-hrown all over. 
Umbos very raueh flattened, and beaks very small and pointed, hav- 
ing a few concentric folds. Cavity of the beaks nearly obsolete. 
Dor.sal cicatrices small and deep. Cardinal teeth oblique and very 
small. Lateral teeth long, thin, undulated and nearly straight. 
Nacre salmon or purple, or both mixed. Shell darker behind and 
at the base. 
Diameter .75. Length 1.12. Breadth 2.30 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Woodruff, Volusia Co., Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat, Sciences. Cornell University. National Mus. 

Remarks. The left beak is often shorter than the other. Its affin- 
ity is with U. viridicatxLs Lea, which has much larger cavities under 
the beaks, the lateral teeth coarser and not undulating and the an- 
terior end not obliquely rounded, and is not rayed. It cannot be 
mistaken for U. Jayanus Lea. We have ga'at pleasure in dedica- 
ting this species to Mr. ChaTles T. Simpson of Ogallala, Nebraska, 
who has done very much In studying the moUusca of Florida. 


Jtemarh. Tiiere is an aHiiiity of this f;i>eoie3 ivith U. reiimtua 
Lea, but is more comprcssud behind and is larger. It has been 
lai^ly distributed as (7. B'ickleyi, thus cjiusing much confusiou as 
to what tlie latter really is. U. JBiietfeyi Lea, is more pointed be- 
hind, not nncinnte there nor emarginate on the basal margin. Its 
umbos are farther forward and less elevated. Its greatest diiinieter 
as well as greatest length, is just behind the beaks, while in XJ.DnU'd 
the greatest length is through the summit of the umbos. 

It is named for Mr. W. H. Dall of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Dnio Trfoni. Plats VI, fig, 2. 

Shell wide, narrow-eliiptical, compressed posteriorly, thin, polished 
above. Umbos slightly elevated, the beaks being close to the ante- 
rior end, and in the young undulated ; epidermis brownish or grayish 
black, raised into numerous fine scaly striie, roughiah, rayless, or with 
some capillary obscure rays near the centre of the valves. Dorsal 
margin straight, posterior margin bluntly rounded or truncate, aud 
triangular ; often subemarginate above, basal margin slightly convex, 
anterior margin broadly rounded. Cardinal teeth of the left valve 
are long, erect and widely separated to receive the single wide tooth 
of the right valve. The anterior tooth is shorter and less pointed 
than the posterior one, and the latter is curved upward. Lateral 
teeth verj' long, rather slender and nearly straight. Nacre livid or 
light salmon colored and often with several dark-brown circular 
spots. Cavity of the beaks very shallow. 


March 6. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

Action of Hydrofluoric Acid on a Sphere of Quartz. — Dr. Otto 
Meyer reported an experiment, which he had undertaken in con- 
nection with Mr. Sam'l. L. Penfield. A sphere of quartz was sub- 
jected to the action of hydrofluoric acid for more than two months. 
The acid dissolved the quartz, principally in the direction of the 
main axis and thus flattened the sphere. In the direction of the 
lateral axes the etching action proceeded with much less activity and 
at three places on the periphery the acid had not eaten away any of 
the material, but left the original surface of the sphere intact. These 
three places were situated at one end of each of the lateral axes, the 
result being a triangular disc. This experiment shows that a mineral 
may be soluble in a liquid in certain directions and on certain planes 
while at the same time insoluble in other directions and on other 
planes. Dr. Meyer exhibited the result, the object resembling a 
three cornered lens. — A more detailed account will be given else- 

Remarks on the Phylogeny of the Lamellibranchiata, — Dr. Ben- 
jamin Sharp brought forward some points regarding the classifica- 
tion of the Lamellibranchiata, and stated that in considering this 
group, a diversity of type was to be found that is equal to, if not 
greater than that found in any class of the animal kingdom, with 
the possible exception of the Hexipoda. 

In examining the different forms, he pointed out two well marked 
extremes, Ostrea and Aspergillum. In the former as is well known, 
the two large unequal shells entirely cover the body, and they are 
closed by one large muscle, the adductor. The large and important 
organ, so common in the Lamellibranchiata generally, the foot, is 
entirely absent. The mantle edges arc separated for nearly their 
whole extent, and there is no indication whatever of the mantle 
uniting to form a siphon. 

In Aspergillum, on the other hand, the two shells are so diminu- 
tive, that they only cover an exceedingly small area of the animars 
body, the siphon is enormously developed, and it is protected by a 
secretion of carbonate of lime, in which the shells are immovably 
embedded ; the mantle is closed throughout its entire length, except 
at the anterior end, where there is a minute opening, and at the 
mouths of the two siphonal tubes. 

His object in making the communication was to prove that these 
two v^ry marked and different types of Lamellibranchiata arose 

Mm:. It JT. 
Til- l'r.-i-i.t,r. Dr. .I.-i.i-H in tli^ ohiir. 

\ i-N). .■ .i.ritl..,! -N,,r.- .,n ti,- .Myl-.-y ..f Tr-.i. m.irithi.u-." 
V IM.'. \, K-]]y. Mil- i-n-iii...l I'.-r 

■/■- '■'■■I- - .:/ '/.. M--l-r.,i. I'r..r. t.Ki r.v ^ii.t.-.i that in li,- •■..}:.-.■- 

■-. ■-)■ Ih. \. ,.li„v l',.iv ,, ,, via! Ia(,.-il...| "u.-rm- U:l,: th- -ll- 
■iiMF,, ,rtl,.. M,i-kr..r;' Tl.. r.. ar.. :;.■. uorm-. un.i in i-.-^-ul 
.'i.Ht,„, i1„.v ;.,. ,,.,1.. ^r.,^^>, l...r.;.■^..ll.v.^il^kl.^mn.:.h.iIIV.l..lrv 
■|.| I-' !■. 1- - I.. II.' I.v ) 1: 1-.-, mm lir....t. Ir" m.t i.|.-i,ii.-:.l. 

■ ■■ .-. . ■.... Iv ,lli,. J t., /;; ■ ,.,. .<-l,;.,.,l.,m. ii, ii„- malur* 

.ir. 'i,.- .:, ,1... I,- ,u,.| .i|,.r »:,r.T liini- \ iti ih.' krval -tal.- 

I f 1. ■..,.;■! -i;.,ilv II..- Mii-kra! .Mt- iW l:.H.-r - tlial il m^v 
:..-,. I. ... i:, ;;-■.. j i.i ill- -:ii„.Ti,;i.jr..T :,-ll,>. .|!...k- ami Ihi.* 

»i , . .. U. ,','. :,„.i"..'l'.,. r- J.-.TJ(..- /'. .'.hiH.'.tu,,. a. Uvi.i.' ih^ 

.1' i '-;. '..I.. !in>at.'.»lii.'li i-ii.>nK<'r:iM' witli ill- I>i^ 

.11', • .■ I ., i ,,;,.■ -,,i;.. iluiiImt 'll .-[iiiir;'. II.- i'liarui'iiT- arv M 

V. I i..-, .:!..-!. -..I 'mt..! 111,.-, ttirli ill.. ii...-k l»i..Tiii.' aii-i llw 

.. I . ii,.i' I II- .1.1 nii:r..rrii. wiili a .'..r.,i,rt '.t •ir'.iiz- 

': ■■■•:- '..(.. :.M .:•'.. V..iiiiMa...'i:.l.iiliri»miirl.)anr.Ttti»n 

. I I -.1.'. ... .,: r. I..I-. ..1' •U- ii.-.'k a >l..irt .li.-liiii.v UVivA 

;. . ::. ....... ,i \',.\\ ■■( u- .u]\- iiiiilonii »i.ltli. (Iril unla- 

• :'. ..■..!..,■■..■.; ;.,;. -rl iiiijilcaml iijirn.w. (».nital 

I. ■.,. ....- ■.,:•■■• ■■{ ilii. vi-iilral ari-lalniliiiii; I'trni* 

; r .. .....'IV..! :;ii i -ii;....ili: ii'.-ii- aliiii>'i mill- 

.1. : .i I.,, s. ■III..: ;ii . t.ilmlum :iii.| lail : iiviilii.-i< ini.<iiHti l>o- 

.-i ;. I. :,'..ii.Lr. •:,!..,!.:!. ; . .v ^i ..val, V'il">^ : vit.illltiv t'liiniL' krcf 
.. !...,. I.I.. Ill . . . . \..'ii.iiii- af.'iiL- lilt' idlo.-tiiiw frum tlw 


|-l:<>I.Ei:itIN>i^ OF THE ACADEMY OF 


of iiiiiiiiii- ii'-.k^' )M-i«e<-n tlif anl^ri<>r [lair of the U>t)in3 ami «ith 
u l:ir;^-r jsiir hii-I lun -ntall [-nir- Itetwc^n tlK Ian jiair xf Ixilhna. 
(ii-iiiial ujHTtiin- wiili a 'iri-ular "f a tranivene oval rr>r>iiM-i "f 
iliiny-iH.. lii-ik^ of .-i|iKi! kn^nli. No *■)(* viAhk. Leueili .-l-ii.-a- 
K-'i I'r'iin 4 l<i i; iiiMi.: •■iminKiinsr I" alwiut balTtbe Immti in-l 

I{<'-i<ii-> lilt- l^n L-'.iu^' ihoK- was foun^l iii ihe iatestinc of iiim' ..f 
t)i<' T<-rni)>iii> ;i ]iiii<- I>iM»me. of :! mm. lt>n:rili. which thi>u;:h tnatuiv 
li.- h!i.l u..t til. I,'i»]n lo .'Xiuiiltj.-. He aL«> olvfened in th.- itifiit 
..f ..n.' :i i.iiruU r uf linU' »nL'uilhi la-like worms trhirli lie Hkt-«l-« 
.li.l i.ol , ^umitl.^ 

111 !ili till- 'r.rr:i[iiiis ili(> llf.-h, liver, and oiher jians than ih-fv 
iiliiivi- tiiiri[i.iii.rl \\,Ti- riiiinlv clear of parar'iirf: therefoiv in [-re- 
nal in.- lli.v aiHTiiuN f-r |o.h| ii ]y.t-iL^v lo free ihem frr.m the hitt.T 
\.\ r.'ii'.'Liiii'ihr lii';i.l. ii.i.~iiii<'s aixl l>la<l(]{T ; urif it if ibouL'hi ile- 
.-iiiiliii' tn itx* (III' illll'^Iitt<'- llit'V >liould l>e slit open aixl clvmi^-<t •■{ 

: Lri.iv :i<ia<'<l Iliat h.-lMI.I 


leciillv fuiind in the oilWlio 


' like thos 


■, zn.) 

.■lii,-. iS^,. I'ror. lsf*7, 3!)3 
■llioiiia>. .Ii-I.n li.lXnveraiKlGemtt II. WVav- 

■n- oniiTi'd to Im' |>riiitiii; — 


He picked up a few recently dead Lady-crabs, Platyonichus ocellafus, 
and found in thera a number of the Oirolana concharumy feasting 
upon the flesh and other parts, as he had previously noticed them 
feeding on the edible crab. See page 80. Prom these observations 
it would appear to be the usual habit of the Cirolana to prey on 
dead crabs and probably other animals. 

Parasites of the Striped Bass. — Prof. Leidy exhibited numerous 
specimens of a minute crustacean parasite from the gills of the Striped 
Bass or Rock-fish, (Labrax lineatus), brought to our market. He 
said it is a common parasite and he had been familiar with it since 
1851. It was described by the Danish naturalist, Dr. Henrik 
Kroyer, under the name ot Ergasilus lahricU, obtained from the same 
fish at Baltimore, (Danske Naturh. Tids. 1868-4, 303, Tab. xi, fig. 2). 
Common as it seems to be Mr. R. Rathbun, in his published list of 
the parasitic Copepoda from American waters, says he had not ob- 
served it, (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1884, 483). The little crustacean 
lives suspended on the outer surfaces of the gills, where it is conspic- 
uous, from the white color of its thorax and egg-pouches on the red 
color of the gills. The length of the parasite together with its egg- 
pouches is 2125 mm; without the latter 1*25 mm. 

Prof Leidy further exhibited portions of two intestines of the 
same fish with numerous attached worms pertaining to Echivorhyn- 
chns protciis, which infested many fishes, both of fresh and salt water, 
of Eurojx*. It is not only a frequent and abundant but a constant 
parasite of our Striped Bass. It ranges from 5 lines to an inch in 
length. The young ones are white; the older have the body yellow, 
bright orange, or brownish orange, with a white neck and proboscis, 
which together are one fourth the entire length. Diesing attributes 
to the proboscis 8 to 10 rows of hook», but Dujardin gives double 
the number, and this accords with the condition observed in our 
specimens. The parasite lives in the large intestine with the pro- 
boscis and neck together embedded in the wall and the body sus- 
pended in the cavity. The proboscis and bulbous commencement 
of the neck together protrude externally and form on the outside 
of the intestine brown pyriform tumours, giving to the organ a 
peculiar tubercular appearance. The worms exhibit the following 
characters: Body widest at the commencement, where it is rounded 
and slightly constricted from the rest, which tapers to the posterior 
obtuse end. Proboscis cylindrical but expanded at the middle and 
base. Neck very long, bulbous at the commencement becoming 
narrow and cylindrical and a little dilated at the base; smooth 
throughout. Length of a large one 2\ mm ; proboscis and neck 6 
mm ; proboscis 1*25 mm long, 0*175 thick, 0*25 at middle expansion ; 
bulb of the neck 1 mm, narrow part below 0*375 thick, at base 0*5 
thick. Body £ft commencement 2 mm thick, near posterior end 
1 mm thick. 

1C1CEDISU3 OF TI[1-; ACAllKMV OF [1888. 

The President, Dr. Joski'H Lkidy, in tlie chair. 

Twenty-five pursons present. 

A paper entitled "Nott?s on the Myology of Ursus maritimus," 
by Edw. A. Kell_v, waa presented for publication. 

Treiiuiiodes of the Mu^krat: — Prof, Leii»y stated that in the collec- 
tion of the Aeiideniy there i* a vial labelled "wornia from the duo- 
denum of the iluskrat." There are 2S worms, and in their present 
condition they are pale brown borden;il by dark brown, and measure 
from V2 to 18 nun long by 1 to I'o mm broiid. If not identical, 
they arc closely allied to Sisfumum echinatuin, which in the mature 
fitnte lives in ilncks and other water birds and in the larval st-ate 
in fi'edh water suails. The .Muskrat eats the latter m that it may 
likewise become infested in the »inie manner aa the ducks and this 
would also seem to make It probable that the piii-asitc is the same. 
Dujanliii, Wedl, and others describe />. erhinatitni as having the 
fore-|Kirt of the body cchinate, wliieh is not tlio case with this Distome 
of the Mu^krat. though in both the head i^ armpd in the same 
mtiuner and with tiie same number of spines. Its characters are ns 

Body long, flattened, band-like, with the neck tapering and the 
tail obtusely rounded. Ilea^l reiiifurm, with a coronet of ntrong- 
strjiight i^jnnes, from SO to :>(>. Ventral acetabulum tunch larger than 
the head, situated at the base of the neck a r^hort distance l>ohind 

^%T- I «l ^ :!%• !•• I lllli %i*IM-|II\ 


itm irtriu or rotiiu rtoa the hiauaia imalcs 


* I \ 

■ *• • I , . *i 

\ 1. 



« • 

U*. If '11 I c-t|i' i 

■ • 

• - 

. ■ I- ■ 1 • .- \ .. .1.. 


. . - ■ ! li.t 

■ I 

. M !.| 


■ iT I /■ . u't 

1 . 

I : ' . r V I- • 

■ . •■. . r 

1 » . . *. r 
• • •• . _ 


• /. 

b • 


•• ^ 

i" • r 


• ■ t 

1 Mjii ■« ' • • • • • 

• !i4 ^' .ft « 'b. ' *Aw' : ' 

* • •• 


• •• • 

1 • • • • 


of minute hooka betweea the anterior pair of the bothria and with 
a larger pair and two small pairs between che last pair of bothria. 
Geaital aperture with a circular or a transverse oval coronet of 
thirtv-two hooks of equal length. So eves visible. _ Length elonga- 
tes] from 4 to t> mm.; contracting to about half' the length and 
widening proportionately. 

Besides the foregoing there was found in the intestine of one of 
UieTerrapinsalittTcDistome, of 3 mm. length, which though mature 
he had not the leisure to examine. He also observed in the throat 
of one a number of little anguillula-like worms which he likewise 
diii not examine. 

In all the Terrapins the flesh, liver, and other parts than those 
above mentioned were entirely clear of parasites; therefore in jire- 

Kring- these animals for food it is easy to free them from the latter 
rejecting the head, intestines and bladder ; or if it is thought de- 
srrable to use the intestines they should be slit open and cleansed of 
the contents. 

Prof Leidy added that he had recently found in the collection of 
the Academy, a bottle labelled "alimentar)' worms in terrapin." 
These proved to be seven bot-lar\-a like those described and exhib- 
ited at a former meeting. (See Proc. 1887, 393.) 

Messrs Lancaster Thomas, John B. DeaverandGerritt H. Weav- 
er were elected members. 

The following were ordered to be printed: — 





I have found here (at Swatow, China) in May and June, the tem- 
perature of the air being about 80° F., in still pools of fresh, living 
water, an insect or insect larva, having upon its back four longitu- 
dinal rows of jointed appendages, of nearly the same length as the 
body of the insect, and capable of being raised, lowered or bent, 
either by the insect or by external pressure. During this year and 
last year, I have found over a hundred specimens, varying from i 
to I of an inch in length. Rotifera, Vorticella and Oscillatoria with 
shreds of vegetable fibre, were attached upon and among the appen- 
dages. The color varies with the habitat, from pale green to black. 
As it slowly crawls upon water-plants, it resembles a minute porcu- 
pine ; but it is discerned with difficulty, because of its similarity to- 
its vegetable environment. . I have caught my specimens in only 
one way — by taking from the pool, in which I hoped to find them,. 
a quantity of the water and algse, and keeping these in a basin till 
the staleness drove the insects to the sides of the vessel, where they 
escaped the sinking, decaying rail in which they had been concealed. 
Several of the larger specimens found have been kept alive for more 
than a month, in a soup plate in which the water was daily changed. 
They appeared to feed on microscopic objects, probably the heliozoans,. 
rotifers and infusorians, which swatmed on the plate. They neither 
grew nor moulted within the month, and finally died, oppressed and 
perhaps suffocated by the diatoms that stood out like branches from 
all their appendages, making them look like moss. That these 
creatures moult in growing is proven by the exuviae of varying size, 
found in the waters they naturally inhabit. 

The head is flat, with a pair of large eyes, made up of clusters of 
six ocelli, projecting from the sides. The antennae are short, six 
jointed, and just in front of the eyes. The biting mouth-parts are 
strong and horny. The three thoracic segments bear three pairs of 
six-jointed legs, ending in a long claw. All are used deftly in 
clearing the back from parasites. The second pair is double the 
length of the first pair, and the third pair a little longer than the 
second. The abdomen has nine segments, with the prominent vent 
on the ventral side of the posterior segmeiits, which bears two sharp 


aDastonidit'^ iiilo nn irregiiliir network. The branches siwni to 
anastomuse as frefnioiilly l>y llie frnming towftrdi- each other of two 
adjtioent branelief; i\h'h- iinile whenever they eh ante to meet into 
a common branch, whiih -rrowH iipwiinls and bifiinatc^ m ix-fi-nl 
as by tlie more slciuhr dui^^onal coniiectiiip filaments. 

By reason of this [lei-iiliar nuxle of growth no single hmnch r-an. 
a» a rule, W Inieeil fi<r any eonsitlcrnble ilistuiic<> as maintaining its 
iilontity, for us it bifurcates each bifurcation is often nx-t bv that 
from the iidjoiniiiLi two briincheH and they, by uniting, tiirm a i^ingle 
br.inch ; iii llie outer margin the hranehes tajier down and terminate 
in from tno to more ^hurp points, or serrations. 

Surfliic of the branchw marked by strong, irregular hmExitinlinal 
wriulilcs, which at tiiiici^ weni to assume a Kemi-scabrons i-banu-tcr. 
Margins of branehea rarely prewnt a slight serration or mngbnt*'; 
and ill phices wlicre )Mirti<His of the black corneous branchtv have 
H'ulc'd off the cast ^hows tlie obverse side to have the same character 
as the other. 

Thi> oiK'uings in the network are of viirions fizea and .4ia[ie!< but 
mostly oval or fusiform, no two licing alike. 

The ty|H- sjiecinn ii present.^ alniut one third of the circumfen-nc* 
of u circle and measures nine c. m. from the n>argin to as near the 
eenier as is jiri'scrvcil and which judging from the angle of radiation 
of the br.imhcs could n<it !«■ more than one c. m. further. 

There is sjhhc hoitiincy in plai-ing this s]H'eics in this genus l>e- 
causi' all the funiis which we an.- acquainleil with are rather lniir<-I» 
branching Willi tiw if any anasiomoses or reticulations. Still the 
chanicler of ihe branches so closely Rtst'inbles those belonging to 
this gijius that I am constrained to place it here. 

Trum the lii\ur ilnrd of the shale at L')cki>ort ranjfing as high 
us the I[..t 





In the following descriptions of seven new species from this vicin- 
ity will be found representations from the three divisions of the 
Niagara Shale including three genera which I believe to be new to 
the Niagara of this State i. e. Mariacrinus, HyoUthes, and Plumuli- 
tes. The specimens were all collected at Lockport and the types 
are in my collection. 

Buthotrepis gregaria. (n. sp.) PI. VII, fig. 1. 

Plants small, gregarious, each separate plant growing in an irregu- 
larily radiating manner from a central point, commencing in several 
original trunks which rapidly branch out without any system or 
observable regularity, by bifurcations and lateral shoots. Diameter 
of the radiating fronds as spread out, from two to three and at times 
four c. m. It is however hard to get accurate measurement on 
account of the habit of this fucoid of growing in little clumps con- 
taining many individual plants, whose branches often interlace in 
a confusing manner. Its growth in different directions is rather 
irregular; sometimes one branch seems to out-grow all the rest, or 
again two opposite will spread out till the plant is twice as wide in 
one direction as in the other. The radiate arrangement, however, 
seems to be quite constant. Thickness of the branches averages 
about one millimeter. 

This curious little fucoid is readily recognized by its radiate growth, 
which together with the size of the branches seems to be quite in- 
variable — and also by its habit of growing in little clumps, occasion- 
ally specimens may be found which seem to grow upon the branches 
of some of the stouter fucoids; such as Buthotrepis gracilis var. 
crassa. Hall. 

Found in the harder shale bands from the middle third of the 
shale at Lockport N. Y. 

Inooaulis anastomotioa (n. sp.) PI. VII, fig. 2. 

Frond flabelliform or possibly circular or cyathiform in the per- 
fect state. 

It is composed of large coarse branches, the principal ascending 
ones of which are from two to three millimeters in width, with 
smaller lateral branches and tips. Whole frond united by frequent 




iulo nti irregwiiir network. The brunches r**ni to 
aiia-'tiimusf us frei|iietilly by the Knuviiijt towards ench other of two 
odjiiopiit bnitichc!' ; tliew; utiito whenever tbey chance to meet lato 
a common branch, wliirli •;row:i ii]>«'arils and hifureatc^ u.i lM'f"rv: 
as by tho niort' slcmlcr itiii<^mul connei'tin^ filaments. 

By rca.-'dn c.f tliii jHL.-ulinr mixli; of (rrowth ni) single bran<'h ran. 
a> II nitc, l»- Iniifd fur iiiiy coiisideriilile ilistiince as niaintniniiiL' it? 
identity, for us ii bifurcates each bifurcation is often met by thai 
from the udjuiiiiiiL' two linuichiei and they, by iinitin^r. form a i-in^'le 
bnincli : at t lie oiiI<'r mar^nn the l)mnche.-> tajier down and temiiuatc 
iti from two to more shurji jioints, or sernitioiis. 

Snrfiire (if the hntnchi-s marked by stroiijr, irrepdur b>ni;itiidinal 
wrinkles, uliich :ii time.i siKni to u.-'sunic a sonii-^ioabnHis ebanicter. 
Mnr;;ins of brunches nirely ]iro«'nt a sli;iht wrratioii or roti^bntw; 
and ill {iluces wiicre pnrtinns of the black corneous bmnehcs have 
ncuUd olf the east slums tlic obverse side to have the (ame character 
as the other. 

The »|H'niiip' iti the nctivurk arc of vurion.s sixef and .-^ia)>cs hut 
m.t^ily oval .t fusifnrm. iir> twc, bcinj; alike. 

r'iiiicTi [in'sents uboiit one thini i)f the cireumference 
. mi'iisurcs nine c. ni. from the ii>ur);iti to aii near the 
^-rvcil und which jndjjiii!; fnmi the an^Ie of radiation 
eunld not be more thiniOne c. m. further. 
f hoiiuiicy ill ])bicin;; this s|>eeies in this penu> l«- 
caiisc all the liiriiis wbicb we arc acijiuiintcd with are rather loiiselv 
brunehiii;: wiili few if any iinust.innises or n't icu hit ions. tkiW the 
ehuraeler <if ilic liniiiclus .so ch)scly rcsi'iiible.x those belongiii-; In 

l-'roiii ibi' lomr tliinl <>f ihe sbulc at i^>ek|><<rt raut;in^ ax hi/b 
as the [loi 

The ty[K. s| 
of a circle a 



wide, slightly arched transversely giving the base of the calyx a 
moderately pentagonal form which is shared by a few of the upper 
joints of the column. 

Basals long. 

First radials wide and short with a deep horse-shoe shaped articu- 
lar facets in the center of the upper margin which arches strongly 
outward to conform to this facet which is directed upward and out- 
ward for the reception of the brachials. These are about eleven in 
number before any bifurcation takes place. One ray is observed to 
bifurcate twice above this point. Only the anterior sides is as yet 

Column round, long, thick in its lower portion where it is quinque- 
partite ; it gradually tapers as it ascends till within a short distance 
below the calyx where it is less than half of its original thickness, 
and here its quinque-partite character disappears; and it continues 
of the same thickness for some distance till wdthin four millimeters 
below the cup when it again commences to enlarge, finally becoming 
sub-pentagonal just before reaching the calyx. Length of column 
twenty centimeters — diameter near base about two and one half 
millimeters; at a short distance below calyx about one millimeter. 

Radix tapering, inclined to one side and throwing off lateral root- 
lets from the under half; it has been traced for about two centime- 
ters but evidently was somewhat longer. 

This species is readily distinguished from Z). longidadylus Hall, 
which is found in this group by the elongated calyx with its much 
higher basals and underbasals also by having about twice as many 
brachials before the first bifurcation takes place, and by having a 
sharper ridge in the first series; being there much like those above 
the first bifxircation in the former. The peculiar character and 
appearance of the brachials are almost sufficient to mark it as a 

The calyx was carefully scaled out of its matrix but unfortunately 
the posterior side was found to be so crushed in as not to admit of 
an accurate discription. 

ICariaorinus warrexii (n. sp.) PI. VII, fig. 4. 

Calyx inverted penta-pyramidal, irregularily expanding from the 
base to the second bifurcation of the radials, at which point it is, in 
the type specimen, thirteen millimeters high; angles sharp with 
strongly projecting, heavy, rounded carinae, the surface of which is 
crossed by well defined, and generally transverse, rugae. 


Surface of the radial plates trnnsversed by coarse radiating ridges 
of which there are four or five oii hoth sides of the central elevation 
in each of the radials, surface between the ridges seems to be i|iiite 
smooth, although s" much difficulty was experienced in removing 
the adherent shale that this point could not be decided accurately. 
The interradial and inter-axillary plates have less prominent riiljres 
ornamenting their surface. 

Arms long, slender, of nearly equal diameter till near the tip, 
where they are very gradually tapering to a quite acute termination; 
surface smooth. Length about six centimeters, pinnules very deli- 
cate from five to seven millimeters long at the lower portion; rapidly 
shortening at the tip of the arm. 

Column stout, as thick as the base of the calyx, at that point, 
from which it evenly tapera as far as it is preserved, which is about 
twelve centimeters, to one half its diameter at the calyx. Joints 
with rounded central projections, which are not quite so wide as the 
joint is long. 

This species differs from M. carleyi, Hail, with which it agrees in 
the general size and contour of the calyx, principally in the surface 
ornamentation ; it having a smoother surface and more numerous 
i-adiating ridges on the radial plates, and they are also thicker than 
in the former and the base is somewhat wider. 

This specimen is from the upper third of the shale, and is associa- 
ted on the same slab with the Dendrocrinus just described, its column 


Dorsal valve with umbo but slightly projecting beyond the hinge 
line, outer profile having an S like or line of beauty curve, with the 
concavity at the apical end and the convexity anteriorly; inner 
or marginal profile regularly convex. Area small. Ventral valve 
strongly convex in profile, inner profile concave ; area triangular, as 
high as wide, with the foramen occupying one-half of its width ►^ 
Surface marked by strong radiating striations which seem to increase 
mostly by interstriation : they are from ten to twelve to fifteen in nura- 
her on each lobe at the margin. These are crossed by lines of growth 
which vary in distance from each other and increase in definition as 
they approach the margin. 

This little shell belongs to the same group of orthidean forms as 
Orthis biloba Lin. PI. VII, fig. 6. and 0. varica Con., and when 
first found w-as regarded as an example of the former, but upon com- 
parison with some Wolcott, N. Y. specimens it was found to differ much 
more from that and 0. varica than they do from each other. The 
principal points of specific distinction are the more elongate outline 
of the shell with longer and more pronounced lobes ; a deeper anterior 
sinus, more acute rostrum and a greater disparity between the size 
and curvature of the tw^o valves ; and a hinge line w hich is compara- 
tively only about one-half as long as that of the species under com- 
parison. Only two perfect specimens have been found, but occasion- 
ally a single valve is seen imbedded in the shales of the middle and 
lower thirds at Lockport. 

Not a single individual of 0. biloba has fallen under my observa- 
tion from this vicinity. 

Hyolites subiinbrioatxiSf (n. sp.) PI. VJI, fig. 7. 

Shell conical, sides regularly sloping from acute apex, aperture 
about half as wide as height of shell. Surface marked by very faint 
and closely arranged minute longitudinal striae, which are crossed 
by irregular transverse striae placed at various distances apart, with 
occasional stronger lines of growth which at times take on a slightly 
imbricating character. 

On account of the partly flattened condition of the only example 
thus far secured, the exact angle of divergence of the sides from each 
other, and the outline of the aperture cannot be ascertained. 

This species bears some resemblance to H. columnaris of Barrande^ 
as figured by him, but the longitudinal striae are very much finer and 
more closely arranged, so that they are hardly noticeable except 
under a lens, and the shell is not so tapering. 

134 pftomiKPaB or tbc icadoct op [Ift 

riBHkUtM gmSOmiMm*, la. ^) PL VII. If. «. 

Piitle exceedjnglj' frul Kad dclintle. Phjrlliibnn hwc brti 
«r«nlv uperin;; to kb arale apex, cnrred lataranf. mw laar) 
tlif btir oocare or nemrij Anl^kt, Um oUmt quH* conrex : Uiif I 
trr cifk u irrinsidenibly Bbortflr tluui tbe Mbcr, tliia (rirtng w i 
wRrd *InpF u> ibe hue toward* thw sidr. Surlarc ornanu'nted tn 
mnJiu) narrow ridfte which followi Ui» same fcnoml curve Ml 
pUl« and U(i«n lo a point at the apex. Chi th« ItwRvr lialf of i 
|tlal«, M ilirtdN) bjr th« nieilian elcTatioD. lbc» U a weoudatr ( 
form ridgt^ornlriittioRMibdividing thai purtion into two M|Ual bair 
it itxtrntlH fnini the biuw upwanla towanli ibc apical end. finatlr 1 
■iiniinf; li»t WTorc imrbing it. 

Tbw* Iww lonpKidinal earinir nrr ptdbwhI bj iweirp or oh 
trniMvcrec linra which eurre dow-nwnnb in the cmtre fnim tb> t 
•iilra townrdfl. and having tlie fame contour at. tbt mai^n nf I 
htue ; thcr arc eqiii-dislaut and are ptand about n&r apan a>t 
width of thp L'eDtral elevation. I^enijth six millimctera. 

ThisMp^c-tMupprnacheii P. minimut Ilsrr., in aiie, but id ruundt 
gaU' likt! /'. ilelicntwt Burr., fnim whiiUi it difletv in having a ic 
rower t.viitriLl r-h-vution. It» line luleral ^lrintion which again « 
divide the longer Intorul hulf isi|u!lu diailiurtivc. 

Fiom the lowor third of the shnli: at Ixwkport oulj- »i.>]Mtnil« pla' 
have na yet licen fouild. 

HxrL.iSATtox or I'late VU. 
Fi|;. 1. Uuthtitrqiu ffrcgttria, u. up. One iodlTidaa] from the tr 


Vin- 2. Inneuftli* aniulomotiea, ti. itp. IVirtidn of the Irpe fnrn 
0. Terminal uf n linuieh froni another portion uf t 
fninii enlnrgcd. 
Fill' ■' /Vni(rWTi»iM rrltut. n, "p. Spci-imen with (inly b pnrti 


Fig. 5. Orthis acutiloba, n. sp. 

a. Ventral view enlarged three diameters. 

c. Dorsal view enlarged three diameters. 

d. Profile view enlarged three diameters. 

Fig. 6. Orthis hiloha Lin. Outline of a species from Walcott, 
N. Y. in my collection to show the difference in contour from 
O. acvtiloha. 

Fig. 7. Hyolithis subimbricatus, n. sp. 

Fig. 8. PlumulUes graeilmimus, n. sp. 

a. Same enlarged three diameters. 




Afril 3. 
The President, Dr. Jmeph Leidt, in the chair. 
TweDty-two personu present. 

A paper entitled " Re^arehc« on the General Anatomy and 
Physiol«^y of Nenes and Mu«le^. No. II." By Henry C. Chap- 
man M. D. and Albert P. Brubucker, M. D. wan pre^ntei) for pub- 

A Vrustaeean Pitranle of (he Red Snapper. — Prof. Lmdy remarked 
that in the examination of the ti^h called the Red Snapper, Lutj^iHut 
Blaekfordi, brought to our market from Florida, he had obwn-e<l a 
curious cnistacean para»iite adhering to the throat about the pharyn- 
geal bone». It appears to l>e an undeHcribcd species of AneAoreila, 
which, from it^ having a bundle c<msiating of half a dozen posterior 
appendages, inditdtiig a pair of large egg pouches, may be named 
'"' animal is milk, white, though in the frevh con- 
dition lilt- cyj; i.oiicliL-.. ac. .li-l.;h i.^IJUh. 
and it ie about naJf an inch long. iuc-ludioK 
the latter. The body is pyriform with iu 
T long a^is in the some line with the atni^ 
))suspensory arm, and with the head and nedt 
Ted outward and a little (lownwaid lo 
one nide. The head is bird-beod-likv in 
shape, with beak directed upward and Air* 
nishcil with two pairs of minute nuudUipMk. 
The Kusuen-Hory arm. or brachium. aboat aa 
long as the IhukI and neck together. U •tnd^l 
and is surmounted by a button, which a m» 
eile and iulenially atriated. At the twM of 
the brachium on each ude thei« ia a misate 
lapilla. The posterior appctulu[Cii ( _ . _ 
if two long cylindrical egg poacoM and tin 
each side two much shorter i 


the C nanus y Kroyer, if it is not identical with it. It is 1'125 
mm. long. The cephalothorax is about as wide as it is long 1*875 
mm. ; the first abdominal segment is obcordate 1*5 long and 1'25 
wide ; and the second long and narrow 1*375 long and 0*375 wide. 
The cephalic bothria 0*25 diameter. 

April 10, 
Mr. UsELMA C. Smith, in the chair. 
Nine persons present. 

April 17. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

" Distinctive Characters of Odontaspis littoralis. " By Joseph 
Leidy, M. D. 

" Parasitic Crustacea. " By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Note on Eleonorite from Sevier Co.y Arkansas. — Prof. George A. 
KoENiG submitted his identification of Eleonorite. This species oc- 
curs in cavities of Dufrenite and likewise intimately interlaminated 
¥ath it. It is of deep blood red color and gives a yellowish streak. 
The habitus is prismatic columnar, the prisms showing strong vit- 
reous lustre and pleochroism — light yellow, in one direction, deep 
red brown in a direction at right angles. On the very scant mate- 
rial at the author's disposal, no planes are suflSciently developed to 
allow of an identification of the crystallographic characters. The 
specific gravity was found = 2 "949. The crystals can be heated in 
a mattras to red heat without decrepitation, without change of color, 
lustre and shape, while yielding a strong condensation of water. 
Reactions for iron and phosphoric acids. The mineral is slowly 
dissolved in nitric acid, rapidly in hydrochloric acid. The iron is 
entirely /«Tic. The water is completely expelled at 250**C. Owing 
to the scantiness of the material, the analysis was made with only 
54 mg. of the mineral. 

This quantity yielded : water = 8 mg ; Mg* P» O' = 26-3 mg. 
Fe' C = 26-8 mg.; AP O' = 2 mg. In percentage 

ffO =14-81 

P'O'^ =30-93 

Fe*0» = 49-60 
A1*0'= 4-50 


P^> . F- X. '■*'* . e~-<> = I : l-<e5 : 37* 
= -2 : :l-il : 7-.5« 
= i ■ 3 : -* 

h«ii'i> -he riimiiia F-^'P^".-^ — * ff*>. "nii* » the ibrmaU e«uJ>- 
liKliMit 17 .\_ Hu-"mr 2i!ic--ar. t Krrw. imi Min. V.ii. T, p. JW), 
♦Vrirh irtMi-wi rrnm x -w -Jiwi«di-mi jimnU F«' HO' IWi'. 
■2. ffij. TiiwiL rr-inM:>. t. JT-oh™. Bnmuvhweif I?«2,- Ib 

'i>it -■.au.'urt )c' 'ru-.c ir «rii;i:ur^. •jr'ica't stmuila. anumiiij time 
rj<iirtr:ili9 ;^!i7L-;t7'- 'nii 3i;c v-td m oiauiaeiL The nier miui 
r* ■*r.(iiii.ii>r^i Ti>iil7 tit XLii^r if ;rTH.kllizacioii. 

Rii^'.Di'.nTJt iiiW '3<!r'%'.D.r° >wn Imown one iriia one localilT, the 
■ E"wivn-,r- ■ :rni aiiae a*»ar <'iLRMeii, la •jermaaT. SMiie speciraes* 
ar-' :n Mr. C t-. B^mivr't ■;ou'*";iiiQ, with whi-'ii the matlMt cotoMnd 
tr.-^ ciiaurL frim :hL-» a*^ l-j-nli^. Ic w%t £m soDoanced &t A. 
\.^ in I*'?) B^r. i ^ynfu'Ms^. '>». fi«r N«ar. o. Heilk. No,'l9.) 
*x:'\ •>iri-H>i^->^n:i7 idiiieii bv ^ :kna2. wbo <iHermlB«l the Bfin- 
ir.-^sry ii> m'>D<'.'*7aiaiMrlc uiii cauhtiafaeil die feraola grren tHavwt. 

Apkil 24. 
Mr. Jobs H. Redfteij}. in the chur. 

Twftnty-niiw f*r?.JDi prewnt. 

^Sftinu^l H. Fn<>a'i. M. D. wu elected m 

TW following were ordered tt> be priaUd:- 

1^*^ ! %%nii4i «• 11.^1 M «>r niii.AMi flit %. HI 

111 l.|»»|\ % Ktlll:\. 

mkm.09l li.r^* ^*%r• '*\'\ «hit h r««-«-iitU «lit«l at lh«- /««*>i*'«:i* aH •*'•!« >i« 
tm V^'i ^l«!i'Sia At*-! «a« rrt^t^f-*! at tli«* I iiui r»ity thrt*u«r)i tlir 
«««rt«^v -f Mr A 11 |tr«*«ii. Sii)«*riiitriMi« III ofthr ;:ar«i«ii« III** 
Wk^s.a^ nH«*ur««i aU.t|t ftNir aii<l a half ft^*-! tnitii ii^m- t«i r«>»l «*f tail; 
tf Wl *»• fi rat^wr r**u«'hl% •kitin*^! aii*l r% f«Yrali«l. ••» that littl<* 
#*««.4 ^v a«i«njiittr«| «iifM^ riiiru* th«' f<iiiiiit-iilii«. aUhnninal aii«I |«ri* 
fe*«i R^-i« Uw \t« attrntitii «a* L'^%f*fi inaiiiU t«> thr liinli*, ari«t I 
Watr ^mrr n^tiii-4ir*\ oiiU •t|i h nniM'li^ a* «*-^ iih^I !•• |»n'«t-iil ii<*t«* 
fi'^tf « *-*.arm.' trr» 

Nit Ik s^^'mtHs ftiitiiiii tKv** III fap« 14 at th«* *i*«-«*ti«i t|tir«Al \«r- 
tr^^^ »%l <t* iiiuv -jlar ana -In* r^^ fp'tit th« qimMU- Iiih* until at 
\S^ •• ' t f ir»arrta .n oci t)i«* lariit*«i'«'.*ial ri*l^. it t* «*\rr t«<» iii« )h^ 
i^wCa* * 1*- "i i*.» ff ll<>« • t lUr •>it|MMi*«- •i«|«> 

T' *"<' ' «»>m€'»./ n»« « fr**iii th« f ••irth «^-r%i>*al ti» th«- fir«t •ioF«al 
ivr*^*'-^ ^ U-t»l« ti> •rt 'T !•'«• «i(h tli«- •)>l«-iiiii« antrri*irl% aii*i •h'»»« 
A VrT!'! •< ^« in«i'n}4i"fi '•:*|««*ili tl.t an*. 

^ "vi^; «.'^« Ka* a •*i.ali •*'|«ira!t •lip {"r'aii th«' fttirth i^-r%i<Ti]. an*! 
W^ r«* tfai r\9r* in •«nini*>n mth tin- tra^ Ih l*»*iiui»t«*i*l t«» th«* tir»t 

T"*'*^* **mt!%j ^rr%^» mtrr;* a* u»nal int** the la^t fi%f «-« r^ i« aU 
•All • *«'«Ki"V/%# frrf.t.* ruti* tn>!ti thf ta-oin*!. thir^l aii<l t nrth 
«»n » rait t • ttf traii»%«-f»r |tr«««* ••f iIk* a!la.<» 

.^'"4 •^x0f,0*-i f a •( -tit tti !•• I* «hi« h l>l«ti<U «ith it* ff-I)**« i 'T 
%km.nA a l.*^ rl / tt^ «a« ii|* |}^ iit«k . at titt- l<\rl «if' |)m •h'««j)«i« r 
tf '^i.^ *V« lat" 1««' twiiar« a t***!* r** *itt« rtial ••ih «htt'h i*(kltii i« • t>i 
IMm Ti.kH •! j'rs-v^*. at.'l a n. -r* •!• ?• i« r afi!«n-« it*rnal h«.»ii «}.!« h 
ff%tti» t ^var^l ar^l '^it^arl • r>iM»i* j ••Mi<ft«l« x\,r • !ri<l . n.A»t* t|, 
ft»i '4«r-i4« mAh, tlir »l;a«t)t « • {•.^at- • l.'iiiM ral 

' V%A*'«to&4#>k-v.| K** It* !k»:ial r* latx'U* rx»ni^ iti f-nin n «iT^ tlw 
t. r«i a£*>i .i: % t raTiriaT fr* ni it a^«-.jt 11** tin- ill* f' !^« 7.««k, 
;at" ihr •!««}• fa'^- • t I^m «rf*(ta'-> ^ iiim ral at ;) « ^K • .«-*• r it 
Mi»'4 st^rfw •irfk'irr than tt*« vtf n. »n.a*t< tl 

^iNa» i f w* i w a «vll •lv«rl»j«r.| ri>»U 4i aU .t thrw*.« r» ■ f an 
.A vvJlJi. filiirk nmn fr»ni Ihr ai«trn<'r U<ri<r •( tf»r m af'ula. 

frva iKr r^inafv***! |ir«JcvM. ai«i f 'U'>«* a ir^otJv 




tooth; th«' remaJijiiig teelh faccemaxely decraasiii;. In ihe oaAa 
JBw lL«' fin<[ toolb it email, about uoe-half tl>e bk <^ the next, « hich 
is the largest ; and then the uthera eucceflBrelT iWn iriM 

Millleraud Henle. Ablmti, and Guniher inliniMe tbat iu Od**- 
;(i«pi«. iu the upper denta) ieriee, there are uoe or two Mnall wth 
aA«r the third lar^ ivotb. Id oone of our vpecuneot are there two 
email teeth iu tfau pusitjon, but after the an^le BmaU tooth there i| 
a biatu«, in diflerent jawtt ranging from a third to more than half ■■ 
mcb, which pn«eiite no trace of a tooth. This hiatus u uoiMval ia 
the dental eeriet< of Eharks ; and it perhape gave rise to lite infiutau 
and wuM^jueut aseertion that it U normallj occupied bv a wooad 
email touth. In the figure of the dentition of Od&ntatpit (otirM m 
given by Miilleraud Henle, notwithelauding thnrBtatcmenL. a RBfle 
small louth appears after the upper third large tooth, io acrordaaa 
with vhat we obaerve in O. liUjntUit. In 0. laurtu, the &m tooth 
in both jaws ie represented hs being nearly equal and about a third 
le«» than the adjoining teeth ; and the upper third and lower Hcoad 
leeih appear at the largest of the series. 



The subject of these notes was a young female polar bear, probably 
about three years old, which recently died at the Zoological Gardens 
in Philadelphia, and was received at the University through the 
courtesy of Mr. A. E. Brown, Superintendent of the gardens. The 
animal measured about four and a-half feet from nose to root of tail; 
it had been rather roughly skinned and eviscerated, so that little 
could be ascertained concerning the panniculus, abdominal and peri- 
neal muscles. My attention was given mainly to the limbs, and I 
have here mentioned only such muscles as seemed to present note- 
worthy characters. 

Neck. Splenitis commences in fascia at the second dorsal ver- 
tebra and its muscular area diverges from the middle line until at 
the point of insertion, on the lambdoidal ridge, it is over two inches 
distant from its fellow of the opposite side. 

Trachelo-mastoid rises from the fourth cervical to the first dorsal 
vertebra, blends more or less with the splenius anteriorly and shows 
a tendinous inscription opposite the axis. 

Complexus has a small separate slip from the fourth cervical, and 
behind that rises in common with the trachelo-mastoid to the first 

Transveraalis cervicis inserts as usual into the last five cervicals 
and a complexus tertius runs from the second, third and fourth 
cervicals to the transverse process of the atlas. 

Stemo-mastoid is a stout muscle which blends with its fellow for 
about a third of the way up the neck ; at the level of the shoulder 
it divides into two bellies, a postero-internal one which continues to 
the mastoid process, and a more slender antero-external head which 
runs forward and outward, crossing obliquely the cleido-mastoid, 
and blends with the adjacent cephalo-humeral. 

Cleido-mastoid has its usual relations, rising in common with the 
stemo-mastoid and diverging from it about the middle of the neck, 
to insert into the deep face of the cephalo-humeral at the shoulder; it 
is much more slender than the sterno-mastoid. 

Omo-hyoid is a well developed ribbon about three quarters of an 
inch in width, which rises from the anterior border of the scapula, 
some distance back from the coracoid process, and follows a gently 
curved line to the basi-hyal bone. 


The I're>i(ient. Dr. Lcii>t. in tbe chsir. 

Tv«at_v-six jierp'jnr {irewnt. 

PnT'u'dv. nfihr. Ri^k Fish. — Dr. Lrii>T luiol that be mentlj \aA 
vxuuiiKd tlie (rillx ati'l ^ritniU of ■ R-ick-fijli. Lutmi £rV<<^iw. 
wtri^iui; 'iif {>'Hin(]i>, (in wliich he made the f illdaing muariEf. Tk 
^iU were I'wuriiiiii;; with ttie lidle cnuurvsn pftnat« Eiyatilm 
■uAr\ici4. In niuiiy 'if the*- the thorax «ii-i f,r_'-«» were ofAi^at 
iuilk-whit«, Itut in iii'>!'I of them the latter were toon trmntlucdit 
uiJ of a h]w i>i\i>r. Tlji-<>liffereDcie i^iltie to tbe(leTolo|»ent i/tbe 
^uibiTO^, within wliich there a[>)>e9ir<- blue pigment- 

Atiai'hei] to th<- (fil^ [here were three o)«c{ue aiilk-«hit« fluke- 
wortiu ati'l a fourth i>f th(; fame kind wan emhedded in tbe muMular 
ojttt iif the iiharynx. Tbew appear to pertntn (o as undevcribcd 
spet-ieit. ana nmy therefore l>e ilirtin^Lthed by tbe following name 
luitl deiurriiiti'in : — 

DiKToui'M i;ai.a'tiifu>mi*m. 0|iaque milk-white, depnwed. fpni- 
ulate. iiurrowcift in u'lvuneu, iihlueelv rounded at both extremitiei, 
duriFully iMinvex, ventriilly flat. Heud r<>unded truncal^ or Iniw- 
verwiy oval •lii^.Mid, with pnimlnent niarpo. unarmed; neck diort, 
iilighliv widf'nint: t<i the ventral atvtabnlum. which i« •neUe, luftr 
than [he nral iicetiibuliini. and with itf nrifitv appearing triangnliu'; 

Itu^tt-riiir part of the luHly elliptical, in movement expanding and 
tfconiiiif; tliinm-r ami tranMlueenl, and connive beneath whb 

r>p:u]iie whin- interline on each niiic nhininfr through. At nn 
t ti mm. Ion;; hy 'J nini. wide ; el')n;>atinf; to 12 mm. by 2*5 nnL 
[HB'Icriorly, iind 1 mm. at the baw of tlio neck. 
Iter U-iii^ killcil in ililule alcohid. the fpei-itnenf reanined nf 
ihite fUn\<t; ti to M mm. lon^'. 2 mm. wide behind. The oral 

nm. ba.-kofll 
Wlieii the 11 

ventral acptabnium rituMed l'^& 

fthe henii. wai^ ntl7"> broad. 

n motion iiiidcx|>:mde<l the porterior por- 

^ » : I * - ■ I % i> ) I i< : \ I I 1 riir % . »», 


'. •■ ■ - I • ■ ,■• r.i TV. \ ■ 

t •• 

' ■ . ^ • . . I : 

i: : • .1' .- 

■■•••■. I : I 

». ; 
■l • -. . . ' 

. .1 •• • 

> . • 


^* •.■".:/• I • I ' 

' . L ■ ■ ' ' ' 

. • !■»•■■'.'■ ( 
» 1 ^ ■ : • . r ■ .• N 

\ . 

ill ^ ■ • • ■* • 

■ i 

I- ■ I ■ 
I. I". 

■k r- r fc ■ ■ '. ' 

« V ■■* 


I. . 





I t 


M' f 


\1 } 



\ I 


^riS pRoc-EEniNGi* OFTHE ACADtarr or !-■**- 

n&iiie ot' th'n organ were ftuUrneil in mitIm*. rnai r-KWsv i t 
*,>»i^. which produce*! an induration, ul<.«ntioa. azvj £z^'t i^rif- 
Ain>u It' the membrane." 

The i;haractern of Menopon pernle as drawn fr-a ii* t:£3^ 
nianiucript are a« follow: Head wider than W»r, tr»s:»x-t r»* ?<>-> 
:''Tm, pale brown with a darker patch and a crt«»s^>■: ■■':*-« f>« 
rurtween the dyjpeuB and t«mple, fringed in front wiii 'TiT. sa:;*. 
'4ith a lunger turt at the [WHtenor lateral i<^, as-i a r « <f ".zXi 
:ii-)ng Che poitteriof concave border. Anl«nn» <x>DonM*i '-•t£>«4:c :» 
leaii. with the terminal ioint largest and oral. MaiMatt- r«^» 
I'v lindrioal, reaching to tlie lateral border of ibe be*d. : -^-^ .■:i>ii 
Maudibleit strong, d«e]>lv two-toothe<l. blark. Er^^t :« . 'j" 
tu;:ether »n each Hide at tne lateral border of the bc^. Prxiuni 
ULirrower than the head, rounded hexagonal in outlis« aijO itf^iiirri 
luteRilly in a strung conical tioint, pale brown aVoTc wi:£ * -iari*? 
bund i-rmwing the niiddiv and darker at the lam^ 'rk-'ri^r^. <^>(L 
Mrtatborax an widt! im the head, bell-nhaped in -fUtliDt-. w];-> ij:m. 
r-'iiuded angles; croHMcd by a row of haini. LiniW well j<r>limii. 
Aiiu-rior ti'niura short and robust ; the [MMterior iwf. Dtsriv iwi» a* 
LoN^ a^ the forniiT and <larker brown in orilor. Tibiv wiih a fpor 
M. [he di.ital extremity. TarsuA with an orat« ap(i»t>daj« at tbe 
rip'xiinal extremity, and a xingle hair at the diwal exiMt.iiT. Ua- 
i;<itt> strong, black. AlMlomen long elliptirai, nearly trit* ihir Ici^tli 
\ii the hi>ad and thorax and widest at the fourth K^mrai. i^csn^t* 
vt' ninrly e«)nal length, the last one manuniiifonn. all wnh a widr 
L-ht-slnnl bn>wn band, and a niwof xhort hair» emanating fruadear 
cireiilar tuM-a. iMrX, segment with an addiiiooal taA •<€ bain on 
eat-b ^ide. 

Kntin- len^h '1\ lim-^i ii>liir tram'luceni whitiA and um tm nnAj 
^linvA with chestniil bniwn. Smaller individnak paler ia a>kir 
wni, ,iarr..«erstri|--ofbp)wn. 

Ill an individual 4-7.'> nmi. long, the head wa» 0-7-5 long aad 1 
i»ui brxxid: the pr<>th<imx ■N'i,? long and 0-435 bniAd: ike acte- 
thoniv O'ti'J-'i long ami I mm. bmad ; the abdomen 2'A7-> loaf ami 
I -J't in. br\>a<l. 

Vt[.H.-he>) sinirly ■>r in gntup* up bi fifteen o 


^ATI R4t w II.Ki iJi III riitt AlilI.rillA 


f ^r*i\ ^g% anii |4ilr«inlo|"i;y, nr in aurh |»artii'iilAr l»nui«'hf« 

/ »• ti.«T ^«r •IrviiTtiaKnl Thr AHApl AHil aII tUAttrrv ritnnr«ir«| 
il^. xr* !■ («- •ftrO riiiitii^l )*% ■ •'»>iniiiitt«^ tt> Im* ■rl«'<i«il in All 
•f rvAtf v..At.i.«r K\ tlir A* a«i«'ni> 

Mo •* 

T^* I'n^i'lctif l>r l.iii*\. in thr rhAtr 

TW i \i »t:..' }•«;■ r» »»T» I'H^ nl«^l f'»r |i«ittlirali'«n 

"^ ( ^ tf^ i rti.At»"D -Y r'«k*4lt U«iii An>i ni'4hrr-li>|ii«*r hiIu " 
Bv I*r I «r. • ^ Km r.iu* 

~ Iw« r''.;<i o fa b« « tiv^ir* "f < ^-lllr(lrA " |l% Jnhti Kunl 

/*v«#ti#t f 'ir iVi^-ffi" |>r 1.1 1 ft^ r«iiiark*^l ttiAl An.'inf* tin- 
rr «4* lufAtiW-* «Ki< h AM- ti>« titi'-li«>l A« llif««lin^ thr l*iki-. /^ x 
f } -f ■]• t»- T<r* I I i« iii<ii' atiil I:, tin- I'li kt nl. /^ / r»fi**. 
^ t- .i*.\ !> ir n.arktt ■ •|a«'t<'« •■!' tt>r lAtt* r aitiH-tir* to \w 
£. 1-. t« !i»K«« h* I ii!i't i.alf A «t /• t). Ill thff* tltta^tllir Allil 
•t. Ai»l .:4 ar^-CtHf • •tt..*l« :ti-ii\ ;*{*ia1 !«>• fi^c't tn Irn^'th It 
\^^ \ im\\ tfir T'T^ht** tm^'. j!%*t», li>(i<v<l in l\*r U*«-k lixm, 
••4^*J.« 'v^-'»f»'M l'r« . 1^*7 .* 1 atfl tiia« !«• thr Kantt- Ih»- 
.iti^.TV it «il^ tt.« r.ariir ..| I %IM« lirT«»«.M% \i» t-hsrxrff r» 
af« M i «* « Ik-ii 1 11/ ah'l tKiii aii'l at th« t>r«*|«airt thnAtl- 
bk* ll'^l ubArn«r«l «itii--it r<«u-lltirii «itli f>*ur o{titili*tAiit 
ru aI ^••^thna t«r« k \*r« •ir-rt ••r ifti*- atitrri-«r f«»'n«riit« 
nrrm.^ iitvAT. ibAiii t.ri"-- «!•)• r than l<!ij |*wttn<>r «-/n»ri.l« 
I'BAi.t fwm*.eu:t j: pr |* rii tta:* \\ l>ii^-<rr ai.'i •|*ia»irAtf- aiiii Itarrrl 
i1 f«:.VAi A|«rtur*t Altrrr«aiin/ irr«vu!arlr iHm 

|^«i^it. 1r *L. Mt !•• tiifK aij-t t«>ti!i •w iti< h«^ •h*>nr nih,; t>i i4»« ■ 
IaV « «r^ * rv-^ilh t' • ax. I .* •!■.!:. I |f ^1 •' J • ;.• •' '• n.pi hr a«l , 
WC^na ••!.*• :■■ '•!? ■ r v.. \:.!if. r i»/ti.-t.!» an in* K !n-tii tN*- 
W»i "IT • rur.. 1 .«./ t'l 1 n.n. t-r «&>! |«»»e*n r •■/•.••n;* ••'•:. 
<»Ti &A. • r.^ ? 1 J t .* • n.Hi ' f ^».i i •\ a •»••-'*:-•••» t J !i«ni \u 

Mi^ » -vx ■ ' * . • ■•'I' ■• . • * v,:i!«'l I.. *■•■•»•» 1 » :. n*. 
^mt va« ^ '.!«' »a£«^ t •*:. a* t.^it I tV* /* . i \;^.flr U .i.j in 
A>«4i ^ :i« rjr^i !*;.«^ v- <-.- aj* ••.*.'• •: • . «.lr «.:t. t^H '--(I.Ma 
^I an. .1 ! -A3»f'r 1 )j- -.m^x, r- r jar*. ! :: • • -f \ • i^ * tf-t traiw 
«lf tfVlMf^:*:' & «.t:. tiir t*v!:f«-t.U *•**' • is.ri. :. • \'\ *»•'• «»*lr 



C%pBr Taeliary ImierUbraXtit fnrm Wett tide ttf CketajMak» Bif.— 
Dr. Ono Hetes made boom reaurks on Upper Itrtimn tat«>t» 
brobtt. Dr. BMijsmin Bharp had givm biin fbr rmminaii— ■ 
Nptfimen of It<Uanu^ eontawtu Bronn, wklch lu<l been irrllirtid I9 
Dr. J. Allitui Kit«, ou the we« side of Cbenpealu hmj, Tk 
[tulnDiiii hiu a diameter of two incbe*. It« tefvnm hv a baf 
Hiiiir lu in the specimens of Balaniu eoneatnu from tne Knglhtk Cnc 
tli« jmricU^, however, are fltnoolh. while [h>;{'ra)^#p(<ciiiM:fia annt 
boH. The Acutuni ia le«« elaborately »cglplunal than a «mtaa rf 
the Nime species from Yorklown Va. in hut rtiUwtion. 

The inside of thin BaUuus waa tilled with Hand inataininK Adh 
etc. From tfaij twnd he had piikod oiiL th« following epeoee. 


Vritcibulum oti4tatum Moi 
(yepidula fiirnUala I^am. 

Cifwn tfvhni Mmitagu, 
= C. annuii/um Emnions, 
;= C, pulchfUum Stiuipson, 
iVoMn trivittata 8ay, 
Trochus Itm II. C, Lon. sp., 


Adeorbit eoaeaua H. C Lea, Uf, 
Ccrithiopti* tenbmlit Adaaa^ 
= a eCMvuim H. C. Lea, f. 
Eiilima eborea Oonr., 
Urot/ilyii'^ eintretu ^r, 
Pltnroloma mar^nttun Conri 
Tornatella ovoiaa CiMir. 

Peet«n tbiireit* ('onr., 
Ijiicina errniJata ('■oor., 
KrniM cortinnria Kuj^rs, 
Corbula etinaala Kay, 

Baiantu eoncamif Bronn. 

Vythere sp, 

Oirdium sp., 
Mn'ira »p., 

Atigtna larvit H. C. Li 
.l^*(7;na aharpi n. #p. 




(I^etcrmincH by Mr. A. Woodward.) 
ifiliatina »eminuliim Linn, up., Gaudryina pupoideni'OMfoy. 
f^ili/inorjihina cotiifirfxtfi d'Or- 


from the manubrium and running obliquely ontward and backward 
to blend with the cephalo-humeral and insert in common with it on 
the middle of the humerus. Beneath this and crossed obliquely by 
it was a large square mass (" ectopectoralis " of Wilder ; " second 
division" of Mivart) which rose along somewhat less than the anterior 
half of the sternum and inserted into the proximal half of the 

Upon reflecting this, three deep divisions were exposed. The 
most anterior, p. minor, rose on the middle third of the sternum, 
and inserted as in the bear ; it would evidently correspond to that 
section in the cat, which is termed by Mivart the " third division, " 
and by Wilder the " entopectoralis, div. cephalica. " The next di- 
vision, which immediately adjoined the last, rose along the remainder 
of the sternum and posterior costal cartilages and inserted by apon- 
eurosis into the pectoral ridge of the humerus at the middle of the 
insertion of the " ectopectoral. " It occupied the position of the 
** entopectoralis, div. caudalis " of Wilder and seems to correspond 
to the pectoralis quartus of Marsupials. The thoracic nerve, coming 
out behind the p. minor, ran backwards a short distance over the 
surface of this muscle and then dipped into its substance where it 
could be traced between two ill-defined laminae almost to its posterior 
border. This muscle seems to be the realization of the tendency 
which was showing itself in the two other bears. The position of the 
mass, its partial separation into two laminae, the relation to these of 
the thoracic nerve, and a certain greater obliquity of its antero- 
extemal than its antero-internal fibres, all appear to indicate that 
it is the representative q^ the involuted fold of the pectoralis major 
of the polar bear, which has been split off from the main mass and 
had its two layers nearly combined. According to the provisional 
hypothesis of Wilder this division would be part of the pectoralis 
minor, but the present comparisons indicate it rather to be an inde- 
pendent derivative of the pectoralis major. 

The remaining slip, which was quite delicate, rose for a short 
distance along the linea alba and inserted beneath the last, which 
also received the insertion of the panniculus and a slip from the 
latissimus dorsi. I suppose it to be the ventro-humeral division of 
the two bears and to answer to the " xiphi-humeral " of the cat, 
which would then, according to this theory, owe its origin to the 
pectoralis major and not to the latis^mus or panniculus. 


The inteniKdiate and clonal layen ire cloflelv fiued, u in (.'ar- 
nivora jfeneratly. The comhined pv^tems appkrentlr send a fitnt 
brevif lit-ud Ut the i<e>^m'ii(l and phalanx, un each i>ide of «arfa di^ 
but the exiut homnlogr of the long tendniu which run hack to ibe 
extenwir » Ktem y, with the exception uf abductor minimi di«iti. nut 
easily inteq>reted. The^e latter are two to everv digit, one on earh 
eide, and a:t a rule, show no superiority in «ie or distinctnea* an 
either "ide ; they are in^rted into the extciuor tendon near the end 
of the finjrer. and are coinnif>nly derived fnim that portion of the 
miiKcli- which Vurn nearest the Ixine, so that they wind around the 
jMilmur tiurlace of the flexor brevis in theircoursie. Which reprewnt 
interoMei and which do not, is not plain. 

In the iMilk'X, the lon^' teud<in of the radial side' inwrts partly on 
the haw of the [iroximal phalanx, and partly continues as a cord, 
which <|uickly changes to yellow elastic tissue and inserts into the 
distal phalanx &? a retractor ligament, in common with the main ci- 
teniv)r tendon. On the ulnar side the corresponding band twta» lo 
c-ontmct no tendinous union with the proximal phalanx, but rootin- 
iiea din-ctly to the distal as the elastic retractor ligament — Terr 
mig^'cr'tive facts, tvfiecially as most of the "long tendons " in the other 
fingi'rs Icrruinnte in the extensor system juit at the point when the 
retnu'tor li<rnnK-nts cummcuce, while in the foot as mentioned below, 
Di-veriil iif them are more or less continuous with the retntcton. 

In the niinimu.-' the place of the ulnar long tendon is taken by the 
abdiuior mimhni digiti, which rises from t))e pisiform bone and ac- 
<|uirinf; HOtircely any uiiioii with the phalanx, inserts into the tendon 
of the extens'ir minimi [li);:iti. The loD)f tendon on the ndial nde 
is nion^ delicate than »*na\. 

The flexor lircvis ixilHcis and the outer flexor muBcle of tbe 3rd, 
I the left hand at least, a small head of origin from 


fuse like the other with the inferior surface of the sublirais tendons 
of the 3rd and 4th digits. I have called the present muscle flexor 
sublimis because of the direct continuance of its tendons into the 
digits, the small accessory tendons seeming merely to insert upon the 
under surface of the broader tendons of the large muscle. In the 
cat, on the other hand, it is the accessory tendons which have a di- 
rect connection with the phalanges, and the tendons of the long con- 
dylar muscle, relatively more delicate and more intimately blended 
with the palmar fascia than in the bear, appear to insert upon the 
surface of the perforatus sheaths formed by the " accessory " mus- 
cles. Mivart hence calls the long muscle " palmaris longus, " but 
in the numerous and often reciprocal variations existing in the 
palmaris longus,* flexor sublimis and accessory flexor sublimis 
throughout the mammalian series, questions of homology would ap- 
pear to be very uncertain. 

Lumbricales four in number with their usual relations. 
Supinator longus rises by two heads, one from the supinator ridge 
immediately above the extensor carpi radialis, and the other, which 
can be traced more than two-thirds of the way up the humerus, from 
out the substance of the brachialis anticus. The two unite before 
reaching the elbow, and the resultant belly runs down the fore-arm 
as a ribbon about i in. wide, to insert by fascia on the lower end of 
the radius. 

Supinator brevis reaches to within 1 J in. of the distal end of the 

Extensor communis digitorum and extensor minimi digiti as in the 
cat or black bear. 

Extensor indids fused with ex. secundi internodii pollids. 
Hand. According to the " typical arrangement " of intrinsic 
muscles, so admirably presented by Cunningham, the elements in 
the hand are as follows : 

In the right hand the palmar layer consisted of adductor poUidSy 
I in. wide, adductor indicis, i in., ad, annularis j i in., and ad. minimus, 
I in. The adductor annularis was a very delicate slip and did not 
appear in the left hand. Adductor minimus divides before reaching 
the base of its digit into three portions, of which only one inserts into 
the digit ; of the other two, the more radial ends in a long tendon, 
which runs toward the end of the digit to insert into the extensor 
tendon, and the ulnar turns directly backwards and inserts fleshily, 
also into the extensor system, opposite the end of the metacarpal. 

- I' -. 

^ % 

t I )(. 4 M : i ii: % 

I • • 

• . • • 

.» ■ . . 

.■■.■••■ I 

1 .. . 



f ■ ■ . 





The leg in each case was disarticulated at the knee and ankle, and 
the crua thus obtained cleared from fascia and the extrinsic ham- 
Etrin^' muscles. The test was perhaps not entirely fair, as the eat 
wii.4 probably older in proportion than the bear, but it was 4]uiie a 
spnrc specimen and cannot have much increased the proper diSer- 

The results were aa follows: 

Urmt maritimnt. 

Entire cru8 

29 oz. or 

lll0 5( 

Gustrocneniial i 


and plantarifl) 10 " " 



4 " " 

13-8 'A 


3 ■■ " 



3 " ■• 
Felia domariiea. 



46-5 grams, or 

100 ^ 

Gaxtrocnemial system 

18-5 ■• •■ 



12-3 •• " 

2H-5 '/, 


2-2 •• " 



40 - " 

8-6 5i. 

A Inrge muscular cat gave 4^'r> ^ for the gastrocneinial systeai 
and '2K-5 ^„ for the gaatrocuemiui', fo the difierence is not gnat. 
In the above examples, it will aino be seen that in the bear ibe 
gik:<tn)cneniius constitutes 40 ^ of its own system, while in the cat 
it is i>i>-.') '/f . 

F<H>T. Exfentor brevU di^Uonim divides into three muscular 
bellies, of which the outer one sends a tendon to the outer lade of the 
4th digit, the next dividex into two tendons which supply the inner 
tiiiic of the 4th and ihc outer side of the 3rd, and the third similariy 


-flexor longus digitorum and flexor longus hallucis. Its muscular 
flbres are restricted to the side of the foot, all that portion on the 
sole being tendinous. 

Lumbricales four, as usual ; the one inserting in the fifl;h digit 
rises from the 4th deep tendon. 

Rising from the 5th deep flexor tendon, beside the lumbricals, is a 
■similar but somewhat longer belly, which blends with the 5th flexor 
brevis tendon. This seems to correspond to what Mivart describes 
as " accessorius " in the third and fourth digits of the cat.* The cat, 
however, has a distinct accessorius similar to the one in the present 

In the plantar layer of adductores we have adductor hallucis, ad, 
indieiSf and ad. minimi digiti, which rise in common from the bases 
of the 2nd and 3rd metatarsals and are united for a third of the way 
out towards the phalanges. The adductor minimi digiti soon di- 
vides into two heads, of which the outer inserts into the inner side 
of the distal end of the 5th metatarsal, constituting the opponens' 
minimi digiti. The other head again divides into two slips, of which 
the more distal becomes the normal adductor, while the more prox- 
imal runs around to blend with the extensor system at the metatarso- 
phalangeal joint. 

The intermediate and dorsal systems are fused, as in the hand, 
and terminate in a similar manner. Flexor brevis slips appear to 
be given to each side ot each digit ; the flexor brevis Tudlucis rises by 
a number of small heads from the cuneiform and ligaments at the 
base of the hallux. 

In the dorsal system there is a slender abductor ossis metatarsi 
minimi digiti, frx)m the posteit)-external part of the plantar sur£EU^ 
of the calcaneum to the tuberosity at the root of the 5th metatarsal, 
and a stout abductor minimi digiti, which was much cut on both 
sides by the skinning. 

The '* long tendons ** described in the hand appear on both sides 
of each digit except the 1st and 5th. There is none on the outer 
side of the 5th, its place being taken by the regular abductor, and 
there appeared to be no representative on the tibial side of the hallux 
in either foot, though the mutilation of that region in the skinning 
might have destroyed it. That on the fibular side of the hallux in- 

^■^■^^^■— ^— ^^^— ^— — III- M»» ■■■ ■ ■ m m mm I .i^ m i ■■ . ■■■■■■ ■ i ■■ tm^^m^^^^ 

^ 1 have recently seen a cat which lacked the connecting muscles in the third 
and fourth digits and possessed one on the fifth, thus repeating the structure shown 
here in the polar bear. 



eerto partly into the proximal phalsnx, sending also a few fibres to- 
the extensor tendon at that point, and partly continues as a yellow 
elastic cord to form the retractor ligament of that side. 

The relation of these long tendons to the retractor ligaments was 
also more or less evident in the other digits, especially in the 4th of 
one foot. On the outer side of that digit the long tendon, after giv- 
ing a slip to the extensor system at the metatarso-phalangeal joint, 
ran on to join the extensor tendon near its insertion, bnt before do- 
ing this gave off a broad band which blended with the entire width 
of the normal retractor ligament of that side. On the inner side the 
long tendon joined the extensor, but some fibres immediately left it 
again to become elastic and form the dorsal border of the retractor 





No. 2. 

Resistance offered by Nerve and Muscle to the parage of an Elec^ 
irical Current, It was shown by the authors in a previous communi- 
cation made to the Academy, No. 1, that both muscle and nerve are the 
seats of electro-motive force amounting in the case of muscle to the 
0-0696, of nerve to the 0*0237 of a Daniell, capable of deflecting the 
magnet of a Wiedemann galvanometer as indicated by the scale to 
an extent of 217 and 21 divisions respectively. Now since the 
current after passing from the muscle or nerve to and through the 
galvanometer, in returning to the point from which it started, must 
pass through the muscle or nerve, it becomes a matter of importance 
as well as of interest to determine the resistance offered by the latter 
which must be overcome by the muscle and nerve current as the 
internal resistance of the battery must be overcome in order that the 
electrical circuit may be completed. The method made use of 
by the authors in determining the resistance offered by muscle, 
nerve etc. to the passage of an electrical current is that known as 
the Wheatstone bridge method, a brief account of which is indis- 
pensable to the proper understanding of the apparatus to be presently 
described and by which the results to be communicated were ob- 
tained. To illustrate the theory of the Wheatstone bridge let us 

suppose that a current 
from a Daniell element D 
enters the wire A B Fig. 
1 at A, the wire being 
graduated into 1000 parts 
and along which the slid- 
er S can be moved ; such 
being the case if the slider 
be pushed along the wire 
FiT"i. close up to A, then of the 

current entering at A, part returns through the galvanometer G and 
part returns through A S B to the Daniell element whence it came. 


Suppose, however, that the slider be pushed from B only as f&r aa S, 
then the current entering at A will divide into two branch currents 
passing respectively to S and X. The one branch current on reach- 
ing S will subdivide again into two currents one of which will return 
through S B to the Danietl element the other passing into the galva- 
nometer G and deflecting the needle to the left for example, suppoBing 
it to be unopposed by the current which we shall see passes into the 
galvanometer G in the opposite direction from T, The other branch 
current on passing through X, the muscle or nerve whose resistance 
is to be determined, on reaching T will similarly divide into two 
currents, one of which passing through the resistance bos R will re- 
turn through B to the Daniell element ; the other passing into the 
galvanometer will deflect the needle to the right supposing it to be 
unopposed by that passing into the galvanometer G from 8 in the 
opposite direction. The resis- 
tance box j uat referred to, Fig. 
, is so called on account of 
a offering a refflHtance to the 
passage of an electrical cur- 
rent the amount of resistance 
offered being determined by 
the number of plugs out. Let 
us suppose for example, the slider being at B, that we make 
the resistance box offer a resistance of 100 ohms (1) by taking 

] KATI ft4l, aHLX* IJI «i| riiii.%i*i:i-riitA 191 



111 Ml < AkI «Mll«| Ml • 

■ m w-ll kr^i vn ttial •■v«ii «a;« r. frutii nhirh k11 priiititivr r^ k* 
^.A%fl t«« li firii.««l. ••■iitaifi* «*ti thr A\irKir**-ft '< ti^*^l t 
n^.tC:* jf :.;• •■•' «;.: h '.*« - t« ••tliiirn i-hl>Ti<lf', ihf n-iiiAiii- 
tia«: f n ft«::««^i-iti. .'••n.|«'Wij«l«. •-&!« ititii •iilphalr. |ki|aMtiiiin 
•iiMR* ltr -nn'ir aii<| •iiiaII •|iiBiititit • **( U*r**n. ii*liiir bihI 
«a vA't* &• vrll a* tni«w ••! t \t M ••thf-r f !■ tnmt.iif vim li iii<t««^l 
r cti«M rr* r t^n ••cKrr <^ini|*>utiil. ^'liiMr in waKrr mtu\ timt b 

br '^vts ara prr* iititata"* ii" •alt. Imt in \tm\» |«rtiAlli' i ut ••IT 
I II a<ir|««:ti- ri ran tak*- |<1ai«- uikIit •-v-rtaiii « irrutiwt«iii'«^. iii 
a vsv %Km\ ^^]•^^n^ f 'rru* thr Ka^r. axt*i anti^ilntt tin* ii|i|^r- 
l \My*r i t! • •«'! •i«{p-**ii. thi* i« |'laitil% m\\\ in vAiry larv«" 
•^mll ^»«i !%.< n«i't« nrif* cltt m-»iir of f'TTiiatiiin of vii* It •ir|M«it« 

kW »rt •(. aj! Ill*'* ti« lhrv« iliH^tl 'li*. whiih )iil}|i-rt • \\A\r tT- 
bf^ »«br«ha( i:««t|>a<aM« l*t t)i« ali<« ii''« 'if f'>i«»iU in iIm* 
vk:Wl Xh^ i«ci«-^U ir'.ri/ r— k» "l'l« ii • ••iitjiti t).« in «• 11 pr«'^*r\ol 
ta a' •I'li^. <r .'(« 1 tK* -rLall •^i;aftit|]« • •-(' <A«tl\ wlnMr iika*;- 
■a ab^ ja fik«». :ii. ajil**, th- i.*!! ;fif\ «*n ■ >-i«taiii«^l III ihf •«-a- 
^ aa^l •*! !.*«'' rrfla** ?ii« fit • t' t^«'«f U:tf r ^> < !)• "f tht ii.>-«t 
^&^^ .««.••.•. ;r:.t« \ if ••ii}-i;Ati !' l:r:i« in thr f" .rn* .-l" a ■ «]• ^f 
r»iftv if^ »'**aIi'<I .l»%\v-J-i'\'.f I ^••^- fa« t« i-an. li .«• \t r !•• 
>i. i! v*^ :ak« a h«ir jrap^-'' >I • !« nM i:S \\t tK« har it.t.i 
lb I'- ;f»*»« f f rrr.aii i. W K* n a litarU 1. ri-'Nt^lit 
M^ t«<* ^it« !f a liat f^r Ti. t.^* ai a -- tf.aS n!) a* !2.:i> K ••a- 
W Hift* I& I'f :: a* .• •-> Mj}* i.*att«l t'« ■^afv'ra!'. u :r- ti. t^t« 
•r» / ll««' la^ • c. ar,i tt«r ••■ |4r*.ia!!« «» ;ur:a:t •! |» r!. rir*'«:\*^ 
•a^n^ toii.t^ >u« ■•! t^fY-*}* , I '^ ra.!. r r.:.:. :./ «a:« r a •}• j-wiU ^ti 
lA ta4r« p^A^T :ti liir var '. *• •it*.ri^--i 

ft aaifi a •*! U*« ?" .. •■.r.^* ; *• r. •■.•;.a :x.a\ •-- ^-^rxt-t IK** 
• •Irr r.-.L.r / i:. » ia{» • r.- • t: i * \ '.J. a:: .: : ? • *;! i*. a i|., 
»«>J • tjt;.: ^* •.•.» f iS • >% aft • r :.; ..»■ \ .? ria**-: I !' •■ 
rf l^MfwO f »»!»r aarr:^*! ' % \\ , - .:. .:!.k a- •;.. i .-^ •. -;-. .:. 

f . -a'. 4. ••{,.:.«■ .!. t; - •:. '.» a^ ■ .• •.'.• .i« *•- n •• 


mltuDg the resistance offered by muscle aiid nerve to a current o4 
dectricity aa in the case of the detennination of the electro-motive 
foT«. of th««, 

tlie authors Diade 
use however of the 
round compensa- 
tor Fig. 6 with 
Christ iani's mudi- 
ficatiou, that is 
with the addition 
of the binding 
screw O, a much 
more reliable and 
convenient instru- 
ment than the 
long rheocord. 
The relatioQB ex- 
isting between the 
resistance to be 
(leterttiiued or X 
aud that of tlie 
resistance box R 
and the portions 
of the wire A S 

* * ' \ 

\ I ■ » I r ■ ■ \ : ) • i ii ■ % 

• ■ 


■ i 

160 PEtiTEEDisoe or the AC^iitMT or [IMt 

Keo thw by thie pamculu- metbod the proportiiHi of X : B : : AS 
: ? B ubuinf a( vben li»e roond cxnnpoualor w nMd. tl>e obIt 
difl<TeB« being that in mifcing ai onoe A S = 8 B, tbr tsIdc of X 
if inferred ^m thai tif B. In cxoicIdbmi it mar be pointed o«t 
thai whik- tit^ reaKanot oSered bv tht fanman bodj to tb« pMM^ 
of an ekicu-ica] curreni ic rerr greai in a Mate of bealtli, it afifMaui 
to be diniinii<b«d in a naie of difleaee. notablv in Grarec d 
deed k> mucb ho a« to oonsdtoU' an important diagDoctic ■ 
of thai condition. 

Tabulated rcfutt ofretitltutet ttferedbf wuiteltand nftrt t^ajnf 
to a etirrml uf thelrieihi. 

HanoriuE, length and breadtli 2 cent, tfakknew 1 milliin. K uk k 
aoce of 70 obtui offered bj pade indoding ebieldi in each tmt 
deducted from leeult. 
Fonnula for experiments X : R : : A S : 8 B, X = 

l«6en«c [in 

LoDgiUidinaUr X ; 2000 : : 47R : 512, X = 1836 

LuogitudiuallV X : 4000 : : 319 : 682, X = 1795 

Longiludinally X : 5000 : : 271 : 729, X = 1788 

Mean 1806 

Tnmeven^l.v . X: 2000 :: 857 : 143. X = U916 

Trai«.ven*lv X : lOOUO : : 540 : 4«0, X = 11670 

Mean I179S 

2Dd Seri(-« of eiperimenb). 

Longitudinally X : 2000 : : 515 : 485, X = 2053 

Longitudinally X : 4000 : : 334 : 666, X = 1936 

L<mgil.idinally X : 5000 : : 290 : 710, X = 1972 





Sciatic, length 2 cent, breadth 1 cent, thickness 0'5 mm. Resist- 
ance of 47 ohms offered by pads etc. deducted from result. 
Formula of experiments X: R ::AS:SB, X = Resistance 

let Series 
Longitudinally X : 2000 : : 840 

Longitudinally X : 4000 : : 735 

[in ohms. 
160, X = 10453 
265, X = 11047 





2nd Series of experiments. 

X : 5000 ; : 690 : 310, X = 11082 





, 120, X — 



; 4000 : 


215, X — 





255, X — 




; 2000 : 


166, X — 





275, X = 





320, X — 






: 140, X = 





260, X — 





: 315, X — 




Mean 11481 

Ratio of mean longitudinal to transverse resistance as shown by^ 
Ist series of experiments 1 to 3. 

Ratio of longitudinal resistance to that of mercury taken as unity 
12066000 to 1 of transverse resistance 32099000 to 1. 

It will be observed that the ratio of the longitudinal to the trans-^ 
verse resistance in nerve as well as the ratio of both the longitudinal 
and transverse resistance in nerve as compared with mercury taken 
as unity differ from the same ratios obtaining in muscle. It must 
be borne in mind, however, that this difference is due to some extent 
at least to the amount of nerve tissue used, being less than that of 



In tlie collection of the Academy 19 « ahnrk, Hi foot long, w 
TTii^ caught some yeans ago at Beealey's Point, New Jency. I 
prmcnt when the shark was caught, aad helped to land it ami 
pare the skin ami jaws for preservation. Attacbeit to the shftrk 
a niimher of lemean parasites, subsequently to be deMvthcd. 
ceutly, wishing to know the exact name of the shark, I detertn 
it to be the Odonlairpig littorali», but fuund its distinctive nhAm 
ratlier vaguely indicated by authorities. The shark in tint um 
uiiin on our const ; and is commonly called the " tnan-cat«r. ** 
color it is iron grey above, paler at the side« and ilusky whil« beoi 
In the form, relative position of the fins, and other external chorw 
it clearly accordi* with the figure I, of pinic 36, of Storur's ViMh 
MaAsachusettJi, referred to CbrcAnrin* grUeju of Ayrea. In Um 
lire the branchial clefts are represented aa being placed we 
ailvancc of the pectoral fin, as in our specimen, and not cloae It 
Itttti'r aii indicated by Mtiller and Henlc in the figure of (Mont 

Dr. Abbott ( Proo. 1861. 400), in describing our specimen nan 
(tdonUvfpU lanr.rinnuD and gives the dental character* m foUo* 
"Teoth with a single toothlet on either sitle, hut occanionally 
wanting. Upper nnd lower first liioth «maller than the adjoi 
tfolh ; then follow nlwvo two very long teeth ; then another )m 
Mmiewlmtiimallcr teeth; then two somewhat increase in luinUi ; 
i\\v mmnindcr grmlually decrea-w. In the lower Jaw the UMh { 
tiuUy dccnuiiu' from the tirMt jmir. " 

I'ruf. l.:ill, in a Synopvut of the EnMcrn Amencnit (Ultarfcii, (I 



^ ktx it%t «• II \* ij« <»i- riiii 4t>ri 1*111 % 


«/ M'^SW Aj^i il«-ct!«* Iff j*\\m a* • hiirmrti r* *»( thr (|riititi«>n, 
^ mp^r fkr4 t<**th r><*( «niailrr thuti Om* vre-ttKl . 'tttr 'ir !«•» •niall 
^i^«r«>n thr upfw-f thini aikI f«>urth loinj irrth . Lirjr»* Uvth 

J -f*!*'. mr%-\ (tiUvrt iti Ou "•^ti'*!**:* >*( xUr Vi*}^-* •»!* N«»rlh Aiwr* 
•nik * ' '♦<■«•• i*^'^* /iff»«r.|/«#. al».i iti« ltt<|f aII lh»- ••ihrr naitirw mrti- 
»••«?*• n« n* -'i* « x<^-{>t tKt '/ ''iiir u« A* «)i«liti« tivr •'hArA<'t«'r« 
i 5< t^<r .iiAiTTfMt* • t /''.-; .i-i^.A. '/i«« ..f (ill! •' lir»t ami f«>ijrth 
(' tfa* i(>f«rr 'A» aifl hr«; •( t^M- l>i«« r •irii|>l«-. witlitxit l>a«il 
MuiUr mti I llrnU- «*t\« « a* < ham* t« r« of t hiit9%U%sy%» U%ur%ut 
• «r5«rf Sr^t t'»4h •iii*'.I« r tJ>«n f«.M«.» t»«» \fr> l*»ti^ U^th . ihrn •»fir 
«r t«-. •».&!»• r *n*^ tK<-fi Ajaiii lar«^* ••fH*« fr«iiii wluth tf»rr i^nnl- 
•A»If W rrihflp I bt I »»t r t«Mh ^ni«lu«IU «lri ri*ji««- from U>r •■•^^•ihI " 
| i w i » ii >f t.*»r Aiw intrti « 1 f^i>Hft»pis /if'«r-j/«# fr»»in |V»'«i«J«*% '• point. 
wm %>Mtit at •• ft)iBuit>*l K«)f a <l t/rn *> U "( j.i«<* «'f th** <Min>t' •i*^ ir» 
<V tWar -tfer i« fr 'fti \ 4titij« k«*t. ati«l at>*>th«r f'r •in r>«iii««*f>«r« Itilrf. 
?C J Xt^ <f** r» ha%« fi'» !•»• aliU niarkr«l In a!l Om* r-^M'titial 
■Ur% { xtw 'i*tittti n »fv aiik< . ♦•'it lh»T 'I- n«»l a«'»«»n| liith 
^^i Ka^r )«tfn aTi^*"** *• 'li^ti?;' ti\» t.f tKt •j«mii«-« TIi«* 
,imt i U^th xmr^* a* t "fillip' a» tK« r« ar« a It w ..r inor*- *t( ih*- 
«ir«itafi •^€v at tl»c m U ••!' th<- •« ri«-«. hut thi« i* a tiilff mi<*«- «>t 
m» ^iMC^ '^^- ^ •!ii«' a* a Ilk* \ari9tt'-ii •«< =ir* ••!} th«* t«** •i(l«'<< <»f tK«' 
;•• In m'A —if •|»^-in># ii*. wtthout • \» • |»tii»ti, th** t^vth arv 
« .th a |vair <f <!• 'itK U>« . ti 'tit- I** tn^ •itnplr aji intimati^l 
f 9*:'.l a£»l >»t (fftiUrt a?»«l J •r^lan. iti th«* •l»a^ii«»*i» •*( ^^w^rmftk**- 
T^*» afctirn»f l^^-th .Ti fc'^T*. ral ar»- l"!»j tiarT«»«. ati«l •i^fii«»i'l, 
t^tr •Wtjii'^U^ af» • -iftr^l Thr tu*«r«- |»«»t#n'r. latrml aini 
ft t^wtk afr •i>"ftrr than lh«* f •rn»rf ari«l |>r>(*>rti'natrU »i«lrr. 
kat« a**' •^wTttt an 1 «i')<-r •i«-titit Iri* In •liff**rvitt •|a^itiMtM» 
^tii^ivt a %anahW- •iiAivttiti-'n t'» tht pr-liti*n «>f a •r<('«>f)«l 
ilrnt Ira'.A* Ir In f.^'- f thr «■•• -.f lAH* in whs' h thr trvih anr 
•iri.; I««f<ai»*i thr •4ifh ut wr !it..l thr f li-.i«i!j^' raii„*» -f numU r» . 

1% :: !'.♦ t: .•»» i* :: :\ .*♦ .*i 
:^ ;• > i: i* m r« r« j.' :i 

ft«e.;^ -*.;ir l*f.:i! ■•*?*. !rr» arv a*! l.m» In thr 'i|>|«-r 

lJtr»^ -*T* t*wtr ! •?. f. :*♦ ^f•: a: 1 v T\ \f» i.»arl» r*nj*l 

tA^ ••'<*! ;• •! ^'^ : » ■»^**^r ?-.ft?. t«!" \«f% •malt aU»'»t 

iM^ifiMm •€*# f tf.« ? f 1^ f 'i.^n ! .1 •• 1 » :;• -Irra^U hiatu* . 

W 'Jbt artrfith u**.». f,*arl% «|ual «:. i *ti » than ibr ihir^i 


tooth ; the remaining teeth successively decreasing. In the under 
jaw the first tooth is small, about one-half the size of the next, which 
is the largest ; and then the others successively decrease. 

Miiller and Henle, Abbott, and Giinther intimate that in Odon- 
taspia, in the upper dental series, there are one or two small teeth 
after the third large tooth. In none of our specimens are there two 
small teeth in this position, but after the single small tooth there is 
a hiatus, in different jaws ranging from a third to more than half an 
inch, which presents no trace of a tooth. This hiatus b unusual in 
the dental series of sharks ; and it perhaps gave rise to the inference 
and consequent assertion that it is normally occupied by a second 
small tooth. In the figure of the dentition of Odontaspis taurua as 
given by Miiller and Henle, notwithstanding their statement, a single 
small tooth appears after the upper third large tooth, in accordance 
with what we observe in 0. littoralis. In 0, taurus, the first tooth 
in both jaws is represented as being nearly equal and about a third 
less than the adjoining teeth ; and the upper third and lower second 
teeth appear as the largest of the series. 



Attached to the Shark, Odontcispis liMoralia, caught at Beesley's 
Point, N. J., above indicated, on each side of the mouth, hanging 
from the upper lip, were a number of lemean parasites, and these 
were thickly covered with a hydroid parasite. The lernean appears 
to be an undescribed species, and may therefore be distinguished by 
the following name and characters. 

Lenuonema prooera. 

Animal pale yellowish. Head horizontal, semi-oval, convex 
above, with three, short, blunt occipital tubercles, fore part convex, 
excavated beneath and enclosing the mouth, antennae and maxilli- 
peds ; neck long, linear, cylindrical ; body short, fusiform, and trun- 
cated behind ; tail longer than the body, linear, cylindrical. Egg 
pouches, long, linear, cylindrical. Length 70 mm. ; including egg 
pouches 90 mm. Head 3 mm. long ; neck 30 to 45 mm. long, 0*375 
thick ; body 10 to 12 mm. long, 1*75 thick ; tail 12 to 15 mm. long, 
0'5 thick. Egg pouches 20 mm. long, 0*25 thick. 

The hydromedusarium appears to belong to Ettcope parasUicay 
found in the same manner, by A. Agassiz, on a lernean of Orihor 
goriscus mola. Some of the stems rise from the creeping root from 
5 to 8 millimeters, with short branches, two or three ringed. The 
polyp-cups are 0*375 mm. long by 0*25 wide. The steins are 0*1 
mm. thick, and the alternate lateral branches about 0*2 long. 

From the fin of a Shark, also caught at Beesley's Point., but the 
name not ascertained, there was obtained a single specimen of a 
lernean, which nearly resembles the Perrisopua dentatus, of Steen- 
stnip and Lutken. It is 5 mm. long. The cephalothorax is a little 
smaller than the abdominal segment, and between them are three 
pairs of dorsal lobes which completely cover the space. The egg 
pouches are linear and 0*25 mm. thick. 


May 1. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-six persons present. 

Paraaites of the Rock Fish. — Dr. Leidy stated that he recently had 
examined the gills and entrails of a Rock-iish, Labrax lineatus, 
weighing 20 pounds, on which he made the following remarks. The 
gills were swarming with the little crustacean parasite Ergasilus 
labracis. In many of these the thorax and egg-sacs were opaque 
milk-white, but in most of them the latter were more translucent 
and of a blue color. This difference is due to the development of the 
embryos, within which there appears blue pigment. 

Attached to the gills there were three opaque milk-white fluke- 
worms and a fourth of the same kind was embedded in the muscular 
coat of the pharynx. These appear to pertain to an undescribed 
species, and may therefore be distinguished by the following name 
and description : — 

DiSTOMUM GALACT080MUM. Opaque milk-whitc, depressed, spat- 
ulate, narrowest in advance, obtusely rounded at both extremities^ 
dorsally convex, ventrally fiat. Head rounded truncate or trans- 
versely oval discoid, with prominent margin, unarmed ; neck short, 
slightly widening to the ventral acetabulum, which is sessile, larger 
than the oral acetabulum, and with its orifice appearing triangular ; 
posterior part of the body elliptical, in movement expanding and 
becoming thinner and translucent, and concave beneath with 
the opaque white intestine on each side shining through. At rest 
about 6 mm. long by 2 mm. wide ; elongating to 12 mm. by 2*5 mm. 
wide posteriorly, and 1 mm. at the base of the neck. 

After being killed in dilute alcohol, the specimens remained of 
spatulate shape, 6 to 8 mm. long, 2 mm. wide behind. The oral 
acetabulum 0*625 broad ; the ventral acetabulum situated 1*375 
mm. back of the summit of the head, was 0*875 broad. 

When the animal wai> in motion and expanded the posterior por- 
tion of the body to such an extent as to render it translucent, the 
intestine on each side became especially conspicuous through its 
white opacity. The intestines extended directly from the minute 
pharynx to the caudal extremity, more or less tortuous according to 
the degree of elongation or shortening of the animal. They are 
widest back of the ventral acetabulum and are sacculated. In the 
expanded condition of the body, by transmitted light, it exhibited a 
minutely reticular ap[)earance, the lines of the rete being more opaque 
white and apparently according with a capillary net communicating 
laterally with the vessels proceeding from the caudal vesicle. The 
opaque white appearance of the body seems to be due to the presence 
of granules of calcium carbonate, for the application of acetic acid 
caused their disappearance with the evolution of bubbles of gas, and 

! . ■ \ 



t ■ 


. . » 






inside of this organ were fastened in patches, great numbers of a 
louse, which produced an induration, ulceration, and finally perfor- 
ation of the membrane." 

The characters of Menopon perale as drawn from his original 
manuscript are as follow : Head wider than long, transverse reni- 
form, pale brown with a darker patch and a crescentoid black spot 
between the clypeus and temple, fringed in front with short hairs, 
with a longer tuft at the posterior lateral lobe, and a row of eight 
along the posterior concave border. Antennae concealed beneath the 
head, with the terminal ioint largest and oval. Maxillary palpi 
cylindrical, reaching to the lateral border of the head, four-jointed. 
Mandibles strong, deeply two-toothed, black. Eyes two, close 
together on each side at the lateral border of the head. Prothorax 
narrower than the head, rounded hexagonal in outline and produced 
laterally in a strong conical point, pale brown above with a darker 
band crossing the middle ana darker at the lateral borders, smooth. 
Metathorax as wide as the head, bell-shaped in outline, with lateral 
rounded angles ; crossed by a row of hairs. Limbs well produced ; 
anterior femora short and robust ; the posterior two nearly twice as 
long as the former and darker brown in color. Tibiae with a spur 
at the distal extremity. Tarsus with an ovate appendage at the 
proximal extremity, and a single hair at the distal extremity. Un- 
gues strong, black. Abdomen long elliptical, nearly twice the length 
of the head and thorax and widest at the fourth segment. Segments 
of nearly equal length, the last one mammiliform, all with a wide 
chestnut brown band, and a row of short hairs emanating from clear 
circular bases. Last segment with an additional tuft of hairs on 
each side. 

Entire length 2i lines ; color translucent whitish and transversely 
striped with chestnut brown. Smaller individuals paler in color 
with narrower stripes of brown. 

In an individual 4*75 mm. long, the head was 075 long and 1 
mm. broad ; the prothorax 055 long and 0'825 broad ; the meta^ 
thorax 0*625 long and 1 mm. broad ; the abdomen 2875 long and 
. 1*25 m. broad. 

Attached singly or in groups up to fifteen or more between the 
folds of the lining membrane of the pouch of Pelicamis trachyrhyiv- 

The President was authorized to execute on behalf of the Academy 
an acceptance of a Deed of Trust, by which Mrs. Emma W. Hayden 
conveys to the Society in trust the sum of $2500.00, to be known as 
the Hayden Memorial Greological Fund, in commemoration of her 
husband the late Prof. Ferdinand V. Hayden M. D., LL.D. 

According to the terms of the deed, a bronze medal and the bal- 
ance of the interest arising from the ftind are to be awarded annually 
for the best publication, exploration, discovery or research in the 


sciences of geology and paleontology, or in such particular branches 
thereof as may be designated. The award and all matters connected 
therewith are to be determined by a committee to be selected in an 
appropriate manner by the Academy. 

May 8. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Eighteen members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"On the formation of rock-salt beds and mother-liquor salts." 
By Dr. Carl Ochsenius. 

" Description of a new species of Ocinebra." By John Ford. 

Parasites of the Pickerel, — Dr. Leidy remarked that among the 
numerous parasites which are mentioned as infesting the Pike, JEsox 
Indus, of Europe, no Tcenia is indicated. In the Pickerel, Esox retic- 
tUatus brought to our market, a species of the latter appears to be 
common. In two fishes he found half a dozen, in the intestine and 
stomach ; and in another a single individual two feet in length. It 
resembles closely the Tcenia ambloplitis, noticed in the Rock Bass, 
Ambloplitis rupestris (Proc, 1887, 23) and may be the same. Dis- 
tinguishing it with the name of Taenia leptosoma, its characters 
are as follow : Body long, and thin, and at the fore-part thread- 
like. Head unarmed, without rostellum, with four equidistant 
hemispherical bothria ; neck very short or none ; anterior segments 
transversely linear, many times wider than long ; posterior segments 
gradually becoming proportionately longer and quadrate and barrel 
shaped ; genital apertures marginal, alternating irregularly. Ova 

Length from six to nine and twenty six inches, shortening to one- 
half or less ; breadth to 2 and 2*5 mm. Head 0*25 to 0*5 mm. broad ; 
bothria 0*125 to 0'175 mm. Anterior segments an inch from the 
head 0'175 mm. long by 1 mm. broad ; posterior segments 0*5 to 
0-75 mm. long by 2 to 25 mm. broad. Ova 0*028 to 0032 mm. in 

A single slender Scolex associated with the longest Tcenia was 4 
mm. long by 0*25 wide, but elongated to 8 mm. by 0*1 wide. The 
head was oi the same form as that of the Tcenia, After being in 
alcohol, the head of the Scolex was 0*225 mm. wide with the bothria 
0*1 mm. in diameter. The posterior part of the body exhibited traces 
of s^mentation, with the segments 0*075 mm. long by 0*25 wide. 




Ooinebra Miohisli, Fun). 

Shell t'usirorrii, rather dlcndcr, tiirreted, li);lit gray, vith a narrow 
mctliiiii hrowii bund ; nhiirls 5, c<iiiv<>\, shouldered abtiro, the a[^>cr 
ones curiimte; sciil|)Uirod with iiumerDUs mther coan* revirlriitf 
lirntions, the iiilersticw with rihlotJi lioariug crowdftl fvaHxaeA 
lainelhe of ^rrnwth, which arc alio* {tromiiicnt )>elow iht^ Miture*: 
lungitudiiiiilly iiruiiiiiieiitir )ilicnte, with al)uiit seven fold." tu earli 
whorl ; n[><.<rtiirc oval, white within, nngiiliir alxive ; anterior mia] 
(]iiite long, o|>en, striii!.'ht; outer lip ihiekenrd within, hearing ax 
Mnmll tuU:r('le^i coluniellu nearly Btraighl ; witli a whitish csllw 


In two cases only did he try to give synonyms and definite 
names. The species of Cwcum of which he found nearly a dozen 
specimens, agrees with a specimen of Ccdciiin annulatum Emmons, 
in the collection of the Academy, which species has been described 
from the Tertiary of North Carolina. He was unable to distinguish 
the form specifically from specimens of Ccecum pulchellum Stimpson, 
from the Atlantic coast of America, and considers specimens of 
Ccecinn trachea Mont., from the Atlantic coast of Europe as belong- 
ing to the same species. 

Cerithiopsis davulus H. C. Lea, sp., of which species he found a 
specimen with smooth embryonic whorls in material from York- 
town, Va., agrees with the recent Cerithiopsis terebralis Adams, 
from the Atlantic coast, Florida specimens of which show three 
and a half smooth embryonic whorls. If the nucleus of Cerithiopsis 
terebralis should agree with the nucleus of the European Cerithiop- 
sis trilineata Phil , the two species would be identical and the name 
of Philippi would have the priority. 

Aligena sharpi, n. sp. Convex, subrotund, somewhat oblong, 
posterior margin slightly truncated. Beak small. Hinge with one 
small cardinal tooth. Ligament internr.l in a shallow sulcation, 
running from the beak past the dorsal margin obliquely posteriorly 

and interiorly. Anterior muscular impression 
much elongated ; posterior muscular impression 
oval. Pailial line apparently entire. Surface 
f \ with irregular prominent strisB of growth. 

Only the figured specimen was found. 
The genus A ligena is not mentioned in the 
Manuals of Conchology of Tryon and of Fisch- 
^^•^^^ -^^ er. It was founded bv H. C. Lea (Trans. 
— Amer. Philos. Soc. (2)* vol. IX, p. 238.) in 

1843, and was defined by him in, the following way: — "Shell equi- 
valve? subequilateral, closed posteriorly and anteriorly; hinge with 
one cardinal tooth and a long shallow sulcation under the beaks. 
The cardinal tooth is in general rather small. The sulcus appears 
to have received the ligament. It commences at the beak and runs 
obliquely past the dorsal margin into the cavity under the beak." 

The two species of H. C. Lea have been placed by the authors 
after him, in the genus Kellia. In accordance with it Dr. Meyer 
has (at another place) enumerated Kellia laevis H. C. Lea, among 
the fossils which occur at Yorktown Va. But an examination of 
recent species of Kellia^ especially of Kellia suborbicularis Mont., 
made him believe that these Miocene shells should not be placed in 
this genus. 

The two species Aligena leavis H. C. Lea, and Aligena striata 
H. C. Lea, do not differ in shape from each other and are probably 
identical. A. Sharpi, however, differs from them greatly in shape, 
being more rounded and more inflated. 

100 riiiKiiRrnsiis of the academy of [!■" 

"f thp s.Tutiini. ..liiaiiiin^' in many n( llie oaniivora. A- my .11- 
si'ciiiin of llw liTiiiik' i.t'iK'rativi' a|ijiariiiii!i of Itmriii Cfm'ft ihi: 
rnvmly .liv-l ;.t ili.- I'l.ih..k-li>liia Z.>..l..j:ical Ganien aiT.- :i 
fVtTV n-siii.-t' with that uf I'nif. Watson, fln<l aj" the (lt?4Tii-ii<-n ■■:■ 
ihe purts ;:ivi-n \>\ that anatnnii^t \* esci-IWl, my ilnvlliiiL' I'lifib-r 
n|>'in till- same in ik'lail iijian from ci)ntirmulii>n. woiil'l Ik- miit- I will limit niy«?lf ihiTetbrv, rather to tlie o-ii-^i.iff»ti-s 
iif how sinh an cxtninrdinary ili^ixisiiion of p-nfrntivc a|>]-an- 
tns niii:ht Uf i>r<iu^')it ahont iitul t<i [Hiintini; out it.- ?'i::nili''an-> is 
the ih'i<-riiiimiii<'n of tht- h<>nioh>::oii. parts of the malv uikI frnok- 
^.t'luraiiv,- ur^-an. ..f tin- maiiinialia (rent-rally. It i^ wvll k«-»B 
thai at -.m oxin-nnly early [M-riiMl of intni-iitcriw life. aUm: ^it 
ivit'k-. fur c\am|il<'. in tilt- <'a>^<- iif iht- hnuinn fml>ry«. < TUt.- Xi. 
H;,'- -.1 tin- :m'\ i- utnii^iiiiiruiT^halilc. i.variw -ir tisticli-s iir>- iin-lrv.:- 
o|H-.l. i\xy Mnll.rian ati-l W.illhan .hi.-ts. hla.hler ami n.t.iii. l-r- 

niiiiai.' in a ooni n rr.vplarl.- ur i'lna<-;>. nhilc n<> <-Kt.-n)nl p-n-r- 

ativ.' nrirui. an- .>l.>.-rval>l.-. As \\w •k-vt-lopmont of ihv 
ailvann-^. h'>vvi'v<-i'. the rciiiini anil hhuMi-r iii-|ianm' ami ■•|H'n >'y 
•li-iirk'l .'|.'niii-<. Il»' anil- ai..! lir.'ilira. Ilio ^h.a.-al conaid-n t.riii; 
ifiainf.i tlir..iiL:li lilv ..n)y it> (t.;.illwry„fh>,^ ami »AiV...i. ll-- 
W.illliaii .In.-H U; l\w v-a-h ihlVn-niia. th.' Mnllcriaii .lu.1^ 
ain.phyin-. -uif -in^- ih.- iii.livi.hia! to lH'<--.nH- a tnal.' -r tW 
\V..1l)ian .In.'t. aM'..].liyiiiL.' an.l thi' MnlK-riaii ilii.i^ iM-o.m.- inn^ 
f irriK-'l iiitii Fall'>|>iati inlx-s. nlcriis ami va}:ina. Mi)i[M>7int; tli« JiHli- 
vi.lnal t'> lT<..m.' a t^mal.-. ili.- tu.. li.NJics np to thi^ momt'nl. iii.lif- 
f.'n'iii fiimli.inally. l.finmin^' tl'•-til-ll■^ ur ovarii-* n-s[HH-tivi-ly — the 
l.-^li.'ii- iiMiallv in tiiui- ih-ii-miin;: intu a xcnitnni. thi- tirt'thr* 
pa-.-iii;:lhr..nL'li ih.' ]<.'ni^. Ii i. w.-ll known that in tl>.< f.-n.alt- 
of,.,.riaii> -liiv«-. ri.-.l,- an,l l.-m.irs an-k a- n-<vnl!y ..l.^-rv,-l l.y the 

anih-r in ih. < h . ( ■..;.c.."irw ;,,7..r..^v.. - I'lal.- XI. 

■ 1.1 lUe ureibra iMb^'ti thriAigh tho oiitori- m thnmiih \iu [ 


3 In old age the color changes are very decided in almost all 
■speciea. In some, as Eperia trifoHum and Epeira thaddeus, the 
<:hanges give added brilliancy to the color at certain parts of the 
body. Some of the color changes of tri/b/ium are very beautiful and 
the same Is true of thaddeus. 

But advanced age, as a rule, makes the colors darker. Orange 
and brown then have a ruddier hue ; yellows darken into orange and 
brown. Sometimes the yellow patterns are entirely lost, and the 
spider becomes very dark, almost black. There is a grizzled appear- 
ance about the animal in this stage which reminds one of the corre- 
sponding condition of man and lower vertebrate animals. These 
last named changes are manifest in the spider after the final deposit 
■of eggs. 

4 In gravid females the changes of color are often very decided. 
Some of the bright colors upon Irifolium and thaddem are doubtless 
due to this condition. Most spiders during gestation have a lighter 
color, which may be the result of mechanical changes in structure. 
The skin becomes distended and more transparent, the pigment is 
thereby distributed, and thus centres of color are broken up and the 
color matter diffused. Not only the skin, .but other parts of the ab- 
domen are distended during gestation, and this distension produces 
changes in the color of the animal by modifying in some way the 
various secretions from the liver and other organs. 

5 The little pita or dark spots upon the dorsum of the abdomen 
which mark the attachment of the muscles within, appeared to him 
to be centres for aggregation of coloring material. At least the 
dorsal patterns seem to be grouped in some regular way around 
^hese muscular attachments. Thus the action of the muscles on the 
akin and chitinous shell or walls serves to compel certain aggrega- 
tions along the lines of use, that form these colors and patterns. 
It might be important in this connection to consider what is the 
ordinary efiect of muscular action upon the distribution of pigment 
ID the human system or with vertebrate animals?* 

The color rings or annuli around the joints of the limbs of spiders 
may also be produced by action of the muscles. It is noticeable 
that the tendency of these darker and more vivid colors is towards 
the ends of the joints, as though by the outward action of the mus- 
cles the pigment were forced mechanically or otherwise attracted 
toward these points. 

In the cephalthorax may be noted the same tendency of color to 
group itself around the pomte of muscular attachment, particularly 

•After Ihe remarks here recoittLvi. Di". N'ol.m, llie Secr.'l.,r\. .;.ill.<l 
Jhe fact thai he then had in hand ioi pubhcatton a pnpei l>y Di. J Ui 
on "The Di»lribution ol ihe Color Matks of the Mammalia." This paper 1i 
nowappcared.a-iid is a most valuable and interesling one. (See Proceed. Acad. N: 
Sei, iTiila., 1888, pp. a5-105). The foliowiiiE 5eiitei.ce is quoted Ihefefrom 
bearing upon Ibe above suggestion : " The stripes and spots on tbv UBlH-'lttir' 
dapple-marks on ihe imnk, as well as some ot the broader iheeB of ESitei ""^ 
-to be related lo the intervals between the miu^ctE-mBSSes or lo lfa»a(^] 
snrbces which eoneipond lo muscles." p. 100. 


Mr. Thomas Meehax, Vk-e-Prwident, in the rhair. 
Ton jier^iii^ [mf^ent. 

Xol,- oil .V-i:>iuifitf, 
mUu'ntl .Usi 
nil .lir.vti..u 



vl>r is .i,..|. I 

Rraviiv ;!:iil7. 
au,>-l As O 
11. li. tii^-^ ai 

eir tjteeiet. — I'rof. Gko. A. KoKMit id- 
this niinonil at Zacutccu^, Mexim, imbr 
i-[ iif M.tzii]til. The cnstiib are veil (!cvel»iw>l ii 
Thi'v are <>( orihorh-jmliie jiyiiinietrT exhibitiit: i 
i>mliii)atiiiii with a Hrachv dume and a iiyraniM. Tb 
'f>'«ii rt-d. iu':irly blaok. hut traniipareDt at the ftlsa. 
is iii'urly 7. it" streak irreeiiUh yclluw. The >pe<^ 
'•<>.. In i-l>^-^''l luU'a white crvitalUiie «uhliniate upr- 
s ' <> ' :ui'l nitiiT. while the imwilfr tiinu ilark hiticn. 
'^ ai :• [•• a I'hu-k .'Ixhulo. I In I'haivual thewlor rtfarMfltr 
il. With U>r:i\ only irou rea<ti<iii. Kaailv Mluhle it 
llv'l. A !'rtlii!iin;iry aualysi' [>r"v« the imnera] to l» 
■■-,..■,■,■ :-i.,.:^. The Ftnu-iiirj) fomiiilaniuKt bemidetkt 
' :i 111 tx' :h r^'ii^rh iuv.~tijati.>n, urhicli the speaker pi» 
■irry .;;; ill ;■;;,■ i'liU. Thi> mineral i:* the tiwt repreKoto- 
■ v!;'." :';';n :ir- tr;.- in nature and i^ therefore of BMrfc- 
F T :':> ■.'.■.•A-.: r::U ;:i>' atiih'T i> indehted to the indcftl- 
:" I>r. F. A, F -le. y\\- \< n-st in Mexien. 

■. ■"::■.; »;i- rviin-i I--- '* ['rimed: — 


inquiry. Argiope riparia &nd fasdata have protective wings of reti- 
telarian lines thrown out on each side of their nets, which protect 
the exterior of their bodies ; and a thick shield-like sheeting which 
protects the underside of the body. These spiders are highly colored 
and conspicuous by size ; they dwell in shrubs, bushes, grasses, low 
trees, and commonly are stationed in the centre of their round webs, 
having no domicile or tent to which they retire. 

The very bright colored spiders Epeira insularia and trifoliurrty do 
not hang habitually in the centre of their webs, but live in leafy 
tents and their habitat is among shrubs and trees. Insularis inclines 
to groves etc., much more strongly than trifolium. Epeira thaddeua 
has the same habit. 

Per contra, Eperia strix, w^hich is not a bright colored spider, by 
any means, is one of the most secretive orb-weavers in its habits, 
dwelling in a domicile of rolled leaves, shrinking away into cavities 
and holes, under bark etc., and only occupying its snare during the 

Epeira domidliorum and dnerea {Harrisonce) are also spiders of 
rather inconspicuous colors, and both of them screen themselves in 
tents, though domiciliorumj at least, not so habitually as insularis and 

Epeira lahyrinthea and triaranea are among the most strongly 
protected by industry, having besides their orb and thick reti- 
telarian snare, a dome-shaped silken tent as a domicile, and lab- 
ryinthea in addition a dry leaf as shelter above her body or tent. 
These spiders are strongly marked as to their patterns but do not 
have the bright hues which characterize Argiope, Epeira insularia 
and others. 

Meta hortorum is one of the most brilliantly colored of our indig- 
inous spiders. Although its colors harmonize, particularly its green 
and metallic silver, with its leafy surroundings, it rests beneath its 
horizontal orb, and has straggling, pyramidal, retitelarian lines be- 
neath it. It dwells mostly in wooded places, at least in this neigh- 
borhood. -Epeira ^i66ero«a is also a bright colored spider. It dwells 
beneath a sort of hammock or stretcher of lines woven between the 
edges of a leaf. It is thus very well protected. 

Our three indiginous species of Acrosoma, rugosa, spinea and 
mitrata are all, particularly the first two, well marked spiders. They 
are protected, mitrata least conspicuously, by spinous processes, (if 
such can be called protections). They live in the centre of their 
orbs as a rule, and their webs are most frequently found stretched 
between the trunks of young trees, in openings of groves, woods, and 
like spots. 

Oasteracantha, with its strongly developed spines has very much 
the same habit as our indiginous Acrosoma, but the spines appear to 
be wanting in the young of this genus, the very age, one would 
think, at which they are most needed. However, the young of 
Oasteracantha, at least with numerous specimens sent from the Pa- 



cific coast, are almost black in color, a feature which may certainly 
be regarded as protective if bright colors best invite the observation 
of enemies. 

On the whole, the conclusion seems justified that many spiders 
that appear to be more exposed to enemies by reason of bright colors 
or greater size, have developed, or at least possess, special variations 
in industry and habits that in some degree are protective. But 
there are a number of apparent exceptions which require more care- 
ful study before any general deduction can be warranted. 

May 22. 
Mr. J. H. Redfield, in the chair. 
Twenty-one persons present. 

May 29. 

Mr. J. H. Redfield, in the chair. 

Eleven persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

" Description of a new species of Etheostoma (E. longimatiay* 
By David Starr Jordan. 

" On the generic name of the Tunny." By David Starr Jordan. 

June 5. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

On an Insect-Larva Hibiiation, — A communication was read from 
Miss Adele M. Fielde stating that during June of last year there 
were found near her house at Swatow, China, two specimens of an 
insect larva-habitation, of a sort that she had not seen there before, 
during a residence of a dozen years. The one was attached to an 
exotic oak-leaved geranium, the other was crawling upon a path 
under a Pinus sinensis. The first, some days later, gave issue to a 
small brown moth. She opened the second and found the occupant 
to be three-fourths of an inch in length, and black, with white specks 
on the head and thorax. It had three pairs of short legs, ten ab- 
dominal segments, and biting mouth-parts. Its house was builded 
from small dry stalks of plants, cut evenly and laid side by side in 
a spiral of expanding whorls, the larger coils overlapping the smaller 
at the lower ciige, showing the lower ends of the straws. The colors 


varied from pale green to dark brown, and were laid in such a way 
as to indicate that one straw had been used up before another was 
sought for the building. There were a hundred and twenty pieces 
in the structure, the lower small end being open as well as the upper. 
The house was lined with a brown silk cocoon, upon which the straws 
were very tightly and evenly cemented. 

Hoping to see the method in which the creature worked, she re- 
moved from the upper portion of the truncate inverted cone, half a 
whorl of its straws, put the larva back, closed its house, put it under 
a wire screen, on a plate of tender rose leaves, and stuck through the 
screen several dry, small stalks of grass. The active and shy larva 
would never emerge from its domicile when she was looking at it, 
but she managed to surprise it at its work so many times as to make 
sure of its method. The holes made in the rose leaves indicated that 
they furnished food for the worker. The dry straw was drawn into 
such a position that its end could be laid upon the house, and 
cemented, with silken lining, into its place at the upper, enlarging 
end of the spiral layers. When laid and fastened, the lower end 
being exactly in line with previously laid stalks, the upper end was 
made by biting off the straw in the line of the upper edge of the 
structure. Thirteen new straws were thus laid on to replace what 
she had violently removed, and, after two weeks of active life under 
the wire screen, the larva closed the upper aperture (its front door 
and place of egress) by fastening it with a veil of silk, to the top of 
the screen, from which it hung suspended. She did not perceive that 
it had ever voluntarily departed from its house, though its head and 
thorax often projected beyond its front door. By the small lower 
aperture refuse was cast out. This specimen died without having 
reached its metamorphosis. 

June 12. 
Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Fifteen persons present. 

June 19. 

Mr. Charles Morris, in the chair. 

Thirteen persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication ; — 

" Observations on the Female Generative Apparatus of Hyaana 
crocuta." By Henry C. Chapman M. D. 

" A new Fossil Spider, Eoatypus Woodwardii." By Rev. Henry 
C. MeCook, D. D. 


The deaths were announced of 8. Fisher CJorlies and Rachel L. 
Bodley, M. D., members, on the 13th and 15th inst. respectively. 

June 26. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Forty persons present. 

A paper entitled "Nesting habits of the American Purseweb 
Spider." By Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., was presented for pub- 

The death of Dr. J. L. Ludlow, a member, on the 21st. inst. was 

Mr. Wm. W. Jefferis was elected a member of the Council, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. S. Fisher Corlies. 

Mr. Benjamin P. Wilson was elected a member. 

Mr. John Donnell Smith of Baltimore was elected a correspondent. 

The following were ordered to be printed ; — 




Subgenus IXOSTOMA, Jordan. 

Head 4 in length to base of caudal: depth 5. D. IX or X, — 
12 or 13. A. II, 8; scales 6-43-7. Type No. 24619. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. ; 8 specimens, the largest 2i inches long. 

Body moderately elongate, not much compressed; head rather 
long, somewhat blunt anteriorly, convex above the eyes, profile of 
the snout steep and nearly straight; premaxillaries protractile; 
lower jaw included; maxillaries reaching front of orbit, about as 
long as eye which is 4 in head, and about as long as snout; teeth 
rather strong; gill membranes very slightly connected ; cheeks nearly 
or quite naked ; opercles with some scales. 

Lateral line complete; scales rather large; nape naked; belly 
naked anteriorly, with ordinary scales posteriorly. Pectorals ex- 
tremely long, reaching front of anal, about 1 J times as long as head; 
ventrals long, but not reaching tips of pectorals. Dorsal spines 
high, the longest li in head ; soft dorsal very high, 1 A in head ; anal 
rather large, but smaller than soft dorsal ; anal spines small, the 
first longest ; caudal subtruncate. 

Color in spirits, olivaceous ; traces of about 5 dark cross-shades 
which extend on the dorsal fin; fins nearly plain, the spinous dorsal 
somewhat mottled ; snout and suborbital with some dusky ; a dark 
spot at base of caudal. 

The types of this interesting species were taken by Professor 
Baird, about 1855, in a tributary of the James River, Virginia* 
They were found by me in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
bearing the Mss. name (from Professor Agassiz or Prof. Putnam,) 
of Cottogaster longimamis. 

192 prockedisgs oftileacanesiy of [1*w. 

July 3. 

>[r. TnoHAS Meehax, Vice-FreHident, in tb« chair. 

Ten persons prciieiit. 

Note tin Maiapil'ite, a new ipeciee. — Prof. Geo, A. KoEXtn la- 
uoiinoetl ihc occurrence of thU iiiineral at Zacate<»fl, Mexiro. id tbt 
uiiueral tlistrict of ^lazapil. The crystaU ure well develnjwil id 
all directions. They nre of orthorhomhic symmetrj oxhibitiiur i 
flat printn in conibi nation with a liruchv dome and a pyramid, tht 
color is drpji bninn red, nt>arly black, lint tnuwparcnt ni the filuM 
The hardnoiw in nearly 7, itn utrciik greenish yellow. The iipeci6c 
groviiy 3"'>H7. In chiiwd tube a white crystalline nuMiniate upm- 
dnce<l (;Vs'()') nnd water, while the powder tnriis dark brown, 
B. B. fiine^ at 3 to a black {.'Inbule. On charcoal the otlor of arwoir 
is obHcrvi.>d. With tKirax only iron reaction. Eaailv soluble in 
in warm IICI. A prelim in iir)' analyi»i:t proves the mineikl to ht 
a eafciiim j'erric ar*enite. The strnclund formula niui<t be made the 
subject i>f n more thnn>ui;li invcstiju'ation, which the speaker fn- 
post's to carry nut in the fall. Tliis mineral is the tintt repreM ' 
tive of [ht< ciiis-s of pun- urscnitcs in nature and is therefore of ta 
cd For the material the author in indebted to the lod 
ijral)lc cif Dr. F. A. Fm.te. wb-i ii" now in Mexico. 

The following wn.s ordcrwl to lie printed:— 





As is well known that ocean-water, from which all primitive rock- 
salt masses have been formed, contains on the average Si % fixed t^ 
6. saline constituents, of which 2 J % is sodium chloride, the remain- 
der consisting of magnesium compounds, calcium sulphate, potassium, 
chloride, sodium bromide and small quantities of boron, iodine and 
lithium sails, as well as traces of every other element, of which indeed 
there exists one or the other compound, soluble in water and much 
more so in salt-water. 

The open sea precipitates no salt, but in bays partially cut off 
from it, a deposition can take place under certain circumstances, in 
such a way that gypsum forms the base, and anhydrite the upper- 
most layer of the salt deposit ; this is plainly seen in every large 
rock-salt bed. In considering the mode of formation of such deposits 
we are met on all sides by three questions, which hitherto have re- 
mained somewhat inexplicable: — Ist the absence of fossils in the 
salt, whilst the neighbouring rocks often contain them well preserved 
and in abundance, 2nd the small quantities of easily soluble mag- 
nesium and potassium salts, though they were contained in the sea- 
water, and 3rd the replacement of these latter by one of the most 
insoluble constituents, viz. sulphate of lime in the form of a cap of 
anhydrite, the so-called Anhydrithut, These facts can, however, be 
explained, if we take a hydrographical element, viz. the bar, into 
account in the process of formation. When a nearly horizontally 
running bar cuts off a bay from the sea, so that only as much sea- 
water runs in over it as is compensated by evaporation from the 
sur&ce of the lagoon, and the so partially separated portion receives 
no large additions of fresh — , i. e. rain or running water a deposition 
of salt takes place in the way to be described. 

In such a bay the following phenomena may be observed : — The 
searwater running in evaporates, and by the amount of salt it adds, 
the solid constituents of the bay are continually increased. The 
upper sheets of water, warmed by the sun, sink as they get specific- 
ally heavier from the larger amount of salt, and in the course of time> 
a vertical circulation setting in, the whole aqueous contents become 


enriched in saline matter and rise in temperature.' The greater 
part of the deliquescent magnesium salts however remains in the 
upper layers, while chloride of aodium is found preponderating below. 
As the saltness increases, organisms possessing free locomotive 
power, are compelled to seek a new habitat and make their escape 
into the open sea against the currents and waves sweeping over the 
bar; those without free movement die ofFand generally leave only 
indistinct remains in the strata, which are next deposited. The 
formation of the latter commences with the precipitation of osideof 
iron and carbonate of lime, as soon as the concentration lias pro- 
ceeded BO far as to double the amount of saline matter in the lagoon 
and then ceases until the solution contains five times as much salts, 
when a second layer of carbonate of lime settles, this being brought 
about by a, double decomposition between the soda and gypsum held 
in solution in producing calcium carbonate and sodium sulphate. 
At the same time gypaum begins to deposit and constitutes the basis 
proper. As soon as the saline solution has increased its weight of 
salts eleven times, its specific gravity reaches 1'22 and the precipita- 
tion of chloride of sodium begins in the form of the well know foliated 
crystalline masses, accompanied by some calcium sulphate etc., added 
from the sea-water running in. 

Though generally speaking the sediments follow in reverse order 
of their solubilities, as Usiglio ' has shown in his exhaustive experi- 
ments, it often happens that small quantities of easily soluble salts 


ratory experiments. This is especially the case with borates, magne- 
sium borate in particular, as well as with silica and titanic acid. As 
thrf depositing process continues, the greater part of the deliquescent 
salts remains dissolved in the upper layers and constitutes the mother- 
liquors (Jlfwi^erfow^en), which contain, along with sodium chloride, 
the potassium and magnesium compounds etc. We have then in the 
mother-liquors above the rock-salt, approximately arranged in order 
of solubility : sulphate of magnesium, chloride of potassium, chloride 
of magnesium, borates, bromides, lithium salts, an iodine compound 
probably magnesium iodide, and calcium chloride. In the course 
of the continued growth of the rock-salt beds and likewise of the 
mother-liquors, the latter attain the level of the bar and commence 
flowing out seawards directly over it, as soon as their specific gravity 
can overcome the current of the inflowing sea-water. After this 
stage is reached, ordinary sea-water can only have access through 
the upper portion of the bar-mouth, the lower part being occupied 
by the outgoing mother-lrquors. 

At this point the last.stage of the process begins viz., the deposition 
of the uppermost bed of sulphate of calcium in the form of the 
A nhydrithut. Portions of the concentrated mother-liquors get mixed 
with surface-water washed in, and this, from the increased amount 
of the hygroscopic chlorides of magnesium and calcium, lessens the 
superficial evaporation of the bay, and hence the influx of sea water 
diminishes gradually. The sulphate of lime in the sea-water that 
has flown in, is now precipitated, the other salts mixing with the 
mother-liquors and flowing out with them over the bar. As the 
gypsum falls through the concentrated mother-liquors, its water of 
combination gets abstracted, and a seam of anhydrite is by degrees 
deposited. Sometimes a compound is formed of gypsum with the 
sulphates of magnesium and potassium (the latter by double decom- 
position of sulphate of magnesium and chloride of potassium) viz.^ 
polyhalite, a mineral occurring in the upper strata of many salt 
deposits. The bay meanwhile assumes the character of a bitter-lake 
and influences the surrounding shores, the organisms inhabiting the 
littoral waters dying off*, and the neighboring rock disintegrating to 
dust, which is blown into the lake, forming the material for the 
salt-clay ; this offers a good explanation for the increased thickness 
of salt-clay seams often observed in the upper layers of salt deposits. 

A regular succession of these briefly described phenomena will 
rarely be found in nature. Every alteration in height of the b|ir. 


resulting from stormd and other disturbances, naturally affects the 
precipitations about to take place, by accelerating or retarding them, 
or even redissolving some of the layers already in gitu. In some 
cases where the Anhydrilhut was never formed, the bar not having 
retained its original height long enough, the salt-slay plays the 
part of protecting covering ; however, even under these circumatances 
the resulting series of deposits are so characterised as to point clearly 
to their mode of origin. 

Salt beds deported from aqueous solutions under the above-named 
conditions, are found in all geological epochs as far back aa the 
Archfean rocks ; this is shown by the super-position of Silurian strata 
to the salt in Salt Range in India. The existence of primitive salt 
beds points conclusively to the presence of shores, *'. e., terra firma, 
at the time of formation. At the present day the first of the above 
stated agents is found in operation in several localities on the East 
coast of the Caspian, especially in the great bay of Adschi Daija, 
whose narrow mouth, Karaboghaz (" black abyss "), is partially cut 
off from the Caspian by a bar. The bay is one of the saltiest of this 
inland sea, and receives no supplies of water at all from the land, 
only its evaporation being balanced by a correeponding influx of 
sea-water. Under these circumstances no animal can live in the 
Adschi Daija waters, and the bottom is covered with a layer of salt 
of unknown thickness ; in a specimen of this deposit dredged up by 
Abich, the latter found gypsum intermixed with rock-salt C. 


sium compounds, and hence causes a degeneration in the marine 
fauna and flora on the East coast. The Oxus (Amu Darja), which 
two centuries ago poured its waters into Adschi Darja prevented a 
deposition of salt there, but since sand-storms have diverted this 
stream into the Aral, the change of the Caspian into a bitter-lake 
has been accelerated by the formation of sand-bars along the East- 
coast bays, w^hich are converted into salt-pans. 

The above description of the processes now being carried out on 
the East coast of the Caspian will suffice to illustrate the origin of all 
rock-salt deposits, from the Silurian down to the present era, and 
further, the occurrence in each of gypsum, as basis and the Anhydrite- 
cap with salt-clay as cover. Fossils are hardly ever present, and 
mother-liquor salts rarely in. large amounts. 

To go back to the time when the first signs of the anhydrite-cap 
make their appearance, we find that an increase in altitude of the 
bar, sufficient to cut off the influx of sea- water, causes the mother- 
liquors to stagnate and under favorable conditions of temperature to 
solidify. Such a process has taken place in the Egeln-Stassfurt ba- 
sin, and in some other localities of the old North-German Permian 
salt-se^. The potassium and magnesium salts, together with boron 
and bromine compounds, have crystallized out and been exception- 
ally well protected against re-solution by a clay seam impermeable 
to water. There are to be seen lying on a rock-salt bed many hun- 
dred yards thick, consecutive zones of carnallite, kieserite and poly- 
halite ; the latter generally encloses the sulphate of lime, which was 
still contained in the waters of the bay at the time of the closing in 
by the bar, magnesium sulphate occurs especially in the second, and 
in the zone of carnallite are found the chlorides of magnesium and 
potassium, borates and magnesium calcium bromide (brom-car- 
nallite). Calcium chloride is also met with in certain minerals, 
such as tachhydrite etc., and in some cases undergoes in presence of 
magnesium sulphate a double decomposition, calcium sulphate and 
magnesium chloride being formed. 

The total quantity of chloride of magnesium occurring in the 
Stassfurt beds does not correspond to the normal amount ; 
of this substance must have made their exit over the 
lithium and iodine salts, or have been absorbed hj 
(N. B. lithium is found in the salt-clays dbove, 1 
were carried away in solution later on. Henoe 
mother-liquor salts in StassAirt is not quite com 


• ".EEL-JX'— '.'F THE A^^IlENY OK ['l'» 

Tijr'jark varirtv ..I'lhi- pj-*^-!.-:. n?r*nil>li- 
;!..-- iuarkiiii.-"flhcabJ.)nieD iht- li^htrrvmrit 
li.- ai'i'iiKrri. howewr, m tl.f P|i-i'iinrn< : 
r^—,-ii \-y me. a]>pean Ut \i- ••( a m-^Tf litif 
..v;il ji.ajif thr'iuzh'iui. The <i,l,.r- .if th- 
'i-iii-ii an- hi.icli. wiili vt-ll'>w murLiiii^. 
■-iil»r :.r.- two t.n.a.l -f 

in ir-.iit uikI ui ilu- a|i>-x. TW i>']-li:il"itr 
ami th.- It-L-s aro Ufa -Urfc n-Wi-l. l.r..« II ..rt 
l.lacki-h. The \>aH>U -n tliu .-t'[>h:tl..tli'Tai 
uImi •|iiiu> Iilack. a:' are the tijrs i>f ilit; ra 
Tlii> may l>e the D.iniuil cA-t ..f tlir iVn 
iiiU-rii>i"iriliii^lhe oMMfm, l>m I Iiuw-micu. 
^[H'ciIllt■Il- (Imt arc umrkt^l in thi- ttav. t 
the .liliirt-iii-e. iSt-e Fi^'. ^.) . i>. rrrt^Ar 

1. 1 hiivr ilinc limali' s|H'ciiiiMis of thi.- Itcautifiil -j'iilfr. un- 

liirlilrMl|,.rl.ilinFlnri.lii;«!i:<sciilhyMr.C. A.T-.wQ* 
Mill Su:ii, Mniiil, (':irilil>o:iii St-a, amla tliirtl wiks ^•m (.. mc (.y 
,1.' Mr. \\'illi:iiii M. (;al>l>. fr»in Saiilo IKiiiiiii^i. 
Til., -pi.l.r- .iilti-r littU' it. siw, an.l nwiviirv in l.-ii;nh I-"' n 

■/■' " 

■■ili,.,;„„. 'I'lu' al>.l<ii>i.'U i^ a l>ri;^^)>t y.-ll-w .-■ 
inuli'il ii|i<iii tlii> siili'.- and iiniiiiKl thf vctiirt- «iii 
.. ,,f y.ll..vv <.i- y.lli.Hi-lihn.wii. Tl.f inarkiiiL- :.r. 
,11,'. .if liiii'- ilniwii from tl.<- |>itK tiiai iinlimic tl.f th 
iu< ill-. I<iii::iiihliii:itly. t'itlii>u|>t'X. Tlic'iiiniifn-t". 1< 
MiTi.f uLri-rlit orai.p'. t'.viv|.t «hen' 


During their flow or collection the sulphates often separate from 
the chlorides ; borates, once precipitated, remain so, and give rise to 
suffioni ; carbonic acid decomposes saline solutions more or less, but 
chloride of sodium is scarcely ever entirely absent, and boron, iodine, 
bromine and lithium are represented by traces. On account of this 
remarkable action of carbonic acid on mother-liquor salts, the min- 
erals accompanying trona thermonatrite etc., must be principally 
sodium compounds, (chloride, sulphate, borate, silicate etc.) the car- 
bonates of calcium and magnesium being separated out as fairly 
insoluble precipitates. The carbonates of the alkalis decompose 
silicates of lime in the rocks around forming carbonate of lime and 
silicates of sodium and potassium as intermediate products, which 
easily undergo decomposition, silica thereby being separated out in 
the hydrated state : allowed to remain in contact with animal det- 
ritus, saltpetre is produced ; magnesium chloride and sulphate con- 
vert limestone into dolomite and certain silicates to serpentine ; the 
sulphates of magnesium and lime also are often decomposed by cer- 
tain organisms, giving rise to sulphuretted-hydrogen and a separation 
of sulphur; lastly magnesium chloride dissolves all metallic com- 
pounds, and even gold, hence mother-liquors with or without the 
aid of water impregnated with carbonic acid, must have played a 
great part in the deposition of most of our ores, by dissolving out the 
metals contained in the diifferent rocks around and concentrating 
the same in cavities of various kinds. 

As the bituminous matter contained in brine-springs doubtless is 
a product of decomposition of organic substances met by the mother- 
liquors on their way, so the origin of petroleum, which is always 
intimately connected with salt districts, can be accounted for by the 
sudden destructive action of an overflow of mother-liquors over a 
rich marine fauna and flora, the accompanying mud serving to shut 
off* access of air from the cadaverous remains, and the presence of 
some chloride of aluminum enabling the formation of all the repre- 
sentatives of the hydrocarbon series from the small particles of 
anthracite occurring in lodes, to the masses of volatile hydrocarbons 
of the vast oil districts. In slu)rt, in most littoral districts of past 
and present oceans, from the depths of our mines to the summits of 
the mountains, which ocean-water has not reached, but where mother- 
liquor residues have been transported, do we find tangible proofs of 
the remarkable effects of which mother-liquors have been the primary 




- 1 

1 !.■■ :' " . :- : • '.- r,ii-;_v wt-Il ]in?«-n'>ii h-.i-r— 
,. i;.-.r.. rr::.t:_v ,.- i;;[r!:.i Kav. M- •/ w':.-:: 
. :■■ A .. r'—.i. l<7. W •■•i'litnl -^-rii n«? raj-t- *■:-. 
\ iV' !i. , r: ■ ,i|:--!.-K-l -lix-riiiiioii Iia»hf: 
;■,,,; .,., -,,-,. -.^i.;,; .i,...K i!i- Ti»-w whii-h I wi-i: 
ik. ;i- !■. li,-- -;-:-:ii!ni-' i-hux' nl' the ^iiwitLTi 
I :irii jii.|-,!i.-i 1.. iiiir..r.-. iti->ii;:h wiili fion- ijut 

i.Ti rli:i[ :iii :ii;in-il"L-i-t tt'iul.i fifl in fduinzt:- 
;i- III uliilliir il i"-!..!!:;- »iili the Siilii^rn,]^ • 

r I'lli.Alli.h. |--rl.:i].....r«ilt. tli.-T.-rTi!.ia.-.- 

:.-. TLm^. V, !>■. li:iv.- .■s:ui.i.i-.l fiK-iU ..f i,„,-i. i:. : 
|M,iU. .'.,H-.-i;iMy ..r til.- Arlii.-;.. »ii] iini- :- 
ill ili'ti'i'iiiiiiiiiL' Willi ali-ihiif :iri'itr-.i<'\ tL-ir _-':- 
rMiik. :iii<l uill. ili.'n't''.n-. ii.<i W r-iirfri-t-.l ii: :' ■ 

<'.']>li:ili>ili-<riixi<>4iiti('c\i>-iit.fs[KTiallt ar-ti-a-i 
li—li ill till- [triii:>)i Mii.t'iiiii. :iii<l tinTi- inLrii.iLljKt 

111- f.ii.'..- 11- i„.i..,| in il ^i.l.- virw ..r ih,. -|.-,:in.o [h;il ill.- t'—il liuiv U'lulii: !ii ihi- t':ini:> 





The Hysena, as well known, was regarded by many of the ancients 
as being a hermaphrodite. Thus Aelian^ observes " if you see a 
male hysena one year the next year you will see a female, if now 
truly a female, afterwards a male, for it partakes of both sexes," 
while according to Pliny^ " the vulgar believe that the hysena is of 
both natures and are on alternate years male and female, and bring 
forth without a male." The same opinion appears also to prevail 
to a considerable extent even at the present day among the natives 
and settlers in South Africa. Like many other popular opinions 
and superstitions the view of the sexes being united in the same in- 
dividual in the hysena is based to a certain extent upon fact, as in 
one species at least, the HycBna crocuta, or spotted hysena, the 
male and female individuals resemble each other so closely that 
naturalists as well as animal dealers and showmen find it impossible, 
without dissection, to distinguish one sex from the other. Such 
being the case it might naturally have been supposed that the at- 
tention of anatomists would long since have been called to the con- 
sideration of the generative apparatus in Hyosna croctUa, especially 
as in the other two species and Hyaena striata^ Hyctna hrunnea, 
the disposition of the generative apparatus is normal. It is only, 
however, within recent years that it was shown by Prof. Watson 
of Manchester, England, that in the female of Hycena crocuta 
the uterus passes directly without an intervening vagina into the 
urethra to form a uro-genital canal which, perforating the clitoris, 
offers a passage-way, not only for the urine but also for the 
foetus. Such a disposition would naturally suggest without dissec- 
tion the idea of the animal being a hermaphrodite — especially as 
not only are the vulva and vagina entirely absent, (Plates IX 
and X), but there are present in addition to the large and well de- 
veloped clitoris two projections below the anus simulating a condition 

* Hyaenam si videos uno quidem anno marem altero videbis foeminam, si ver6 
nunc foeminam, p>ostea marem, utniisque enim sexas particeps est. Claudii Aeliani, 
De Animalium natura. Ludguni, 1616, Lib. 1, Cap. xxv. 

^ Hyzenis utraqua esse natura et altenus annis mares alteris foemias fieri, 
parere sine mare vulgus credit. C. IHinii Secundi Naturalis Historiae. Venetiis 
1559, Lib. viii, Cap. xxx. 


Neither would ■m* St warrantetl to characterize a new fxnui hxiit 
absetK-t .>:' r-vri ami ^piniiorf. since these organs were ■i'^ui>ii*» 
piVT^t'nt but iitivif simply taile<l t» inipre^ thenu>elve^ i)[h>d Uf 
matrix. I ha vr. there ti)re. felt compelled, on the one hand ti> pro- 
pose a now jr»iieric place for this fosisil. and on the other, to pn««e 
no sharply iktiiiixl ^iioric charade ris^iok Indeed, it mu*i l» 
odmittL-d that tiei^iiles expre^iii^ the general Tacie* of the f<tt-iL» 
allure dt-si'rilvil. the generic value of the name Eaatypur O'Dhm 
lurgelr in .issigning the sjieclmen rank Oi- a fu^il !^pider. 

On line side, jxirtiaus of all the four legs are i)re«ervcd. the Ift 
three showing the articulation! at the trochanter, femur and pai^Ui. 
The seciiiid leg show's also the patella entire, indicating the artionl*- 
tion with the nietnlarsiis. On the other side a portion of th* frmnr 
of the Rrm leg i.'i shown with the patella and Ua articulations. Botfc 
hind legs arc reprc^nted by the apical parts of the femora. 

The horizon from which ihid new foaeil was obtuned v thai frea 
which mo:it £iiro[>can fossil spiders have been taken, viz., thr Eotar 
Tertiary. It is also that from which have come our Amencan tn- 
neud fussile as recently studied by Mr. S. H. Scudder from »[ieciaHB> 
collecU'd at Florissant, Colorado. 


to the skin on the under surface of the penis. It has already been 
mentioned that an early stage in the development of the mammalian 
embryo the rectum, bladder, Mullerian ducts (the latter in the female 
becoming the vagina and uterus) pass into the cloaca, and that as 
development advances the rectum separates from the cloaca, open- 
ing by the anus. With a still further advance in development the 
uterus separates from the uro-genital canal and opens by a distinct 
canal, the vagina, the bladder opening. through the urethra. While 
such is the normal order of development of the female generative 
apparatus in the mammalia, it may be readily conceived that, should 
the development be arrested at the stage in which the uterus and the 
bladder still pass together into a uro-genital sinus and should the 
latter traverse the clitoris in the same manner as the urethra does in 
the case of Ckipromys etc., a disposition precisely similar to that found 
by Prof. Watson and the author, in the female of Hyaena crocuta 
would result. If the above view be admitted, then the peculiar ar- 
rangement of the female generative apparatus in Hycena cromita 
may be regarded as due to an arrest of development. One of the 
most remarkable peculiarities of the female generative apparatus of 
Hycsna crocuta, to which we have hitherto only incidentally alluded, 
is the entire absence of a vagina, the uterus passing directly into 
the urogenital canal in which respect the animal differs from 
all other mammalia, except perhaps the elephant. In the latter an- 
imal in both the Indian and African species, as observed by the 
author^ a long and capacious urogenital canal leads into the bladder 
on the one hand and on the other into a cavity which the author 
regarded either as corresponding to a vagina or to the neck of 
the uterus, this cavity leading in turn into the body of the uterus. 
Should the latter view be accepted, that is if the cavity in question be 
regarded morphologically as uterine, then the vagina would be ab- 
sent in the elephant, as it is without doubt in the hyaena. In con- 
clusion it may be mentioned that the fact of the vagina being undoubt- 
edly absent in Hyijena crocuta and probably also in the elephant 
settles definitely, at least for these animals, the question as to whether 
the utriculus or sinus pocularis of the male should be regarded as 
the homqlogue of the uterus or the vagina of the female, since if the 
vagina be absent in the female hysena and elephant the utriculus of 
the male of these animals must necessarily be homologous with the 
uterus of the female. 

^ On the Placenta and female generative apparatus of the Elephant. Journal 
of Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Philad., n. s. VIII p. 413. 

rr.<:iC£EDiNi» of ihe academy or 


r. Al-t-t'* liirurts U env i>f thi? .\l_Tpii« whii I. In- '|s.k 
;--i: riU:* a.- "iln- yuTtv wch ^inilcr", i n |Ht|iiibr naiuc "hiri 
- £i<I ']': . mi'l niakos a hriff ami fumtt ni>to nf it.- tiA!.ia. 
r-.ihir ^Jn■cil-s." he say*, "iuakt>^ a well liko a nioiuv [.uw 
> of l:irj>- tni-^ ill tho ImiiiiiKii-kij 'ir £wani]i». tive -rsi 
• ■i' thi- ;rr<>tiiiil. tafit'rit.-<l tn iW in-4-, aii<l thi- ••tlior eml a 
I :il- -.ii tin- -:inic- .l.-i-lli ..r .liii*r. To the .rfitil 
ii- LT'iiiiil ill.- ^jiiJ.-r n-lri'at*. I imagine ihfv ■"■■n* c I.....1 i.y i.i^-Iii n^ I ii>v.T..Wn-«i ont- ..iit ..f it,«.i! 
Ur liii ir y-.iT):; '•tii^ in v:iM numK^iv covt-r the aUloOr: 
i:il<' -.r.-A ilii' iil>i]<iiiii-ii ihcii iiiipeam vcrr uiurh ^hnitik 
i- ilii' •itialli-:'!. liiit tia> llic l<iii;n'«t ni|>{K>n. TakrO x 

iTii<ii->ii Kt' ll<-iit7.' w:i' iiiailo fniiii a sitiiilo fjienmn. i 

iiKi'i-. r-iitiil ill Juno '<n nowly tiirm-<l 6oil ml Non^ 

:iii>]>tMii, Mu^-. Mr. William Ilulden ivpoiu it at 

.' i-'illccti'l in olii...' Till' iij>i<ler imfht tberclvKUk 

ti-iui'l ill ilie MiiMlo and Ailiiiitic Stales of .4 

liiit I liiivt' ui-viT Ucii VII fortunate a.* to bk it 

iiii-l liuvo nt'ViT lit".inl fli* uiir one who 1 

F-.i-. i]]i<in it. It ]>ri>)iiil>U- i^ nil ahiindaut, or itf mwin 

li:iliii-iiiLf-i Iii-^'naily iiimlilicilliT chan^ of latilnk: 

i-iii' u..iilil >ii|i{Ki-«> that t(:< vm' (iiu!<|ticu(tus untt wi-ul-l 

-r':i]H'.l iiiiiii->'. I >r, nun- »<■ Mi[i|>«!>e that it i." ili^t'fn:- 

i|i- lia- ili-Li]i)>i'iiivil Ixrnrc till- [•ro^-ri'sv of human t-iriliti- 

11. iii>i liii'TiiiN HI' Tin: Minn. 
ni\-ls !iiv Mlki-n UiIh-s ..(* ruruin:! len-;thi' ami Mft* 
i-ii iiK'ho luiiu' :inil thn->'-f<iiirlh>> iiii-U in •linnx-tir. :■ 
I ■'<» illl'lll-^ Ion;.', anil ulxint i>nL>H-i;;Iiih incii II 



Epeira ggmtUB. n. ep. 

1. (Fig. 1.) This is one of the largest orbweavers of the Pacific 
coaat, and is found from San Diego northward as far as Victoria, 
British Columbia. The s|)ecies varies a good deal in size and mark- 
ings, but the largest aUult female (a gravid specimen) measures 
over 20 mm. in len^h. The abdomen 
is 15-5 mm. long; the base of the abdo- 
men is crowned with two large conical 
processes. The markings upon the abdo- 
men are as follows: The forepart which 
rises quite abruptly from the cephalotho- 
rax is of a blackish brown color, inter- 
. spersed at irregular [)eriods with yellow 
t>>. Along the median line extends a 
TOW band of yellow, upon which are 
placed two angular or lance head mark- 
ings, the first of which is placed about 
the middle of the basal part, and the sec- 
Eptini gemma, femaii, X i. ^nd near the crest. This band continues 
more or less regularly along the dorsum to the apex. About 
the middle of the dorsum is a shield-shaped figure with scol- 
loped edges, blackish brown in color for the most part, though in- 
terrupted by yellow lines of a herring-bone pattern, A narrow 
yellow border encompasses the shield. The color of the abdomen is 
yellow, and this color extends U> the posterior half of the abdom- 
inal processes, the anterior half of the same being darkish brown. 
Dark brown waving and interrupted lines extend along the sides, 
and between these are small round spots, which are distributed 
laterally along the sides with more or less regularity. A brownish 
band extends along the ventral part of the abdomen from the spin- 
nerets to the epigynum, bordered on either side by a yellowish band 
and with two short parallel yellowish longitudinal lines drawn equi- 
distant between these two. 

The epigynum is comparatively small, and between and slightly 
bent over the dark lateral lobes is a short flat flap ; it is thickened 


Mr !.: k -:■■. v.:!;-;- -.i- TV:ili..r.. ... ■! 





spider I described in a verbal <-ommunication to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Pliiladelphia. Tbe apeci- 
raena were fouml id nests of rolled leaves, 
after the maDtier of Epdra insvlaris and 
kindred spiders, and were attached by a taut 
trapline to the centre of its adjoining snare. 
The specimens then obtained were not mature 
and ou tlie appearance of Mr. Emerton's de- 
scriptions of New England Epeiroids I con- 
cluded that my species waa identical with his 
Epeira silmtica, wliich it greatly resembles in 
external form. Subsequently, I received a 
number of adult specimens from Professor 
Peclcham of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, collected 
by him in that state, and thereafter, (1886) 
I myself collected a number of the same 
Epiira biceniinnana, female, gpecies in the Adirondack mountains of 
New York, in the neighborhood of the Saranac lakes and elsewhere. 
A study of these led me to conclude that these ex- 
amples differ from E. silvatica. The species is 15 mm. 
in length ; is distinguished by two processes on either 
side of the donuii of the abdomen at the base. The 
markings are n< t unlike those of Epeira silvatica, 
Q but the epig>num of the female differs from that 
' organ as repre'^nted b\ Emerton * This is shown 
by a compari on of Fig 4 with Fig. 5. This 
appears to indicate a specific, or at least, a varietal 
difference between the two animals. According 
to Emerton in adult females of atfoafica "the under 
side of tlie abdomen is dark brown without mark- 
ings;" but the adults of bieentennaria have a 
yellow lunette on each side of the venter below 
Fio, s. Epigynumof [he gills, and a yellow circular patch on each side 
fipirtiidcvitw^upptr, of the median line, both at the middle and at the 
above, spinneret^. The abdomen is somewhat triangular 

in shape. The breadth at the base is a little less than the length ; 
the color is a yellowish gray with brownish markings. On the 
basal part is a yellow mark, often assuming the shape of a lyre 

* See Emerton, " New England Spiders of ihe Family Epeiridae." Trans, 
Conn. Acad. Vol. vi 1884, PI. xxxv, fig. 6. 


or the letter "U." A shield-shaped figure with scolloped edges i 
pies the middle of the dorsum. Oa each side is a broad, light un- 
dulating band, with five or six tolm of unequal length. See fig. 3. 
The cephalothorax is 5 mm. long ; is smooth and marked hy brown- 
ish bands along the sides and middle. The legs are strongly s 
lated with brown rings about the joints and also in the middle ol 
the thigh, tibia and metatarsus. Length : 1st pair, 22'5 mm. ; 2Dd 
pair, 21-75 mm. ; 3rd pair, 16 mm. ; 4th pair, 205 mm. 
Epeira 7eTt«brftt«, n. ap. 

3. A number of specimens of both sexes and various ages of this 
spider have been received from Mrs. Rosa Smith Eigenmann, San 
Diego, California, at which point the species seems to be abundant, 
and indeed is distributed to some extent northward along the Pacific 
coast. The specimens include two forms, which are very distinct 
in their shades and coloring, one form being darker than the other, 
so dark indeed, that some examples seem quite black. 

Female- (Fict, 6,1 Tjeng:th of body, ab- 
um. ; cephalotliorax 4'5 mm. 
The abdomen is of a yellowish brown col- 
or ; a V-shnped whitish figure opening jjos- 
teriorly, extends from the cephalothorax to 
t of the abdomen. The margins of 
s figure are broad and irregular. A series 
white spijts extends across the 

r »• 


The dark variety of this species resembles in 
the markings of the abdomeD the lighter variety. 
the abdomen, however, in the specimens pos- 
sessed by me, appears to be of a more uniform 
oval shape throughout. The colors of the ab- 
domen are black, with yellow markings. On 
either side are two broad broken bands of cir- 
cular and irregular waving figures, which meet 
in front and at the apex. The cephalothorax 
and the legs are of a dark reddish brown or even 
blackish. The bands on the cephalothorax are 
also quite black, as are the tips of the palps. 
This may be the normal color of the female 
afterdepositing the cocoon, but I have so many 

FemBi*, <i8rk variety. X 3- specimens that are marked in this way, that 

it seems well to note the difference. (See Fig. 8.) (^Ep. vertebrata, 

var. pullug.) 

Ep«iTa bkUuitina, n. e\i. 

4. I Jiave three female specimens of this beautiful spider, one of 

which I collected in Florida ; another was sent by Mr. C. A. Townsend, 

from Sivan Island, Caribbean Sea, and a third was sent to me by the 

late Mr. William M. Gabb, from Santo Domingo. 

The spiders differ little in size, and measure in length 15 mm. 

The abdomen is of a slightly triangular shape, in this respect approx- 


num presents somewhat the appearance of the thumb of a human 
hand clasped over the closed fingers ; the thumb representing the 
posterior flap and the knuckles the. folds and rugosities of the thick 
anterior one. 

Epeira parvula. Var. conohlea. 

5. There are few spiders that present such striking variation in 
markings upon the dorsum of the abdomen as Epeira parvida. It 
is a curious problem, which remains yet to be solved, what causes 
this variety. It is probably due in some degree to those changes 
which in certain species are evidently effected by the various moult- 
ings which spiders undergo. But that this cannot be the sole cause 
is shown by the fact that the varied markings appear even among 
mature specimens, particularly of the females. In a quite large 
collection received from Wisconsin, through Prof. Peckham, and 
from California through Mrs. Rosa Smith Eigenmann, I observed a 
number of individuals upon whom a further and even more striking 
change was manifest. 

The abdomen of Epeira parvula is triangular shaped upon the 
dorsum, and the apical part, instead of rounding into an oval, ends 
perpendicularly ; that is to say, is a Straight wall from the spinnerets 
to the top. In the variety alluded to, which I have named Epeira 
conchlea, the terminal part of the dorsum of the abdomen assumes 
the shape of a caudal process, resembling that which is characteristic 

of the tailed spider, Cyclosa caudata. (See Fig. 6, a.) 
This peculiarity I have traced in about a dozen spe- 
cies, and in some much more decidedly than in others. 
In other respects the specimens appear to be nearly 
identical with Epeira parvula. The epigynum is in 
form the same, although larger, the finger being very broad at the 
base, and rapidly terminating in a point that is slightly curled. In 
I front of the base is a tri-lobed black corneous flap. (Fig. 
.4 6,e.) 

The body length is about 7 mm. The maxillae are 
Fig. 6, e. broader or as broad as long and subtriangular at the tip. 
Habitat, Wisconsin, California. 

212 Fill iri:Kiiix<if> of tiik acadevy op [IS**. 

Mil III ion. Till- iiiihIi' i>t' euiislnitrtiiif; the tiil>e w o1>mtv<-<] I>r Mr. 
JCiii)i.-k is sul)4ttuitiully tli;it ivliicli I hnvc alnive iloj>(*ril>ot) a^ prar- 
liifil \iy our I'lir^fwi'li Al_v|>«s. After tin; conipletion of her lul- 
I'iiviin ivii;* ^ivii til taki' tt l<ini1<>l'siiii(l IwtWM^n itsj (alcn?, et-trj- imia 
ot'wliicli ii iK-niy iruirli-il with ils l'nn;n'. litfRilIy [Miiihint; iWirriiB* 
tliruu<:li llii- siilc III' the tiilx-. Hiiviii^ oxIiuiiKied it" •'■([•l-ly it 
roviTsoil its )i<Miii>ii. ri'tiinit'il ti) tiic bultimi, iiix) ro|i('ato<l thi-.-i'M->n 
ofsrilluTJiiu' iitiil lUslrilmtiii}; tlie «m(l. At thfi-ii-l ..f nii hLiirif*! 
II liidf it lu»i iimi|>litily nivfiTii the silken tiitx> wiili juunl. iv.tT 
};r:iiii i.t' whii'li it [mil Iinntciit ii[i tnini the siirtiiee <it' the ;;r>.i:ihl. 
thnist it lliroii^'h tiK' silki'ii tulic fnmi the iii^iile. iiinl nfterwimi-. u- 
the (ieeu.^iiiii it'i|uiml. siiiiiothed uver the rent with newly ■■xtru'i-'l 
silk. The iieM inoniiti;: u sni:>II 'giiiintity nf stiml liuil lH>.-n t'-r-^l 
(lilt III the tiiji III' the tiiiie. :-hiiwiii<; thiit the iiHhMtriiin- ereiitiir*- li;.) 
eiintiiinei) its UiIhh' ilnriii:: the iii^rht; ami this, iiiiktil. wa- rr- 
i..npa .h.rii.- 111.- LTt'iUer iiiirt ..f the ihiy. The f.ilhiwin- iil.'h: ;'. 
hiiil hii^'iheii.ii ilie iieriiil imrtinn of the tul«c ninl enven-l ii » tK 

siiiiil.' We tuiiy |.,'rlia|>s ultide tnnii these fiuts thiil iL-' -{..It 

hud iii.|.;iivtit[y >irii|.ly en.leavi.nii t.i save itself the Iiil«>r ..f .-am- 
iii^' saiiil ii) ihe i.i|. 1.1' ii* tulie, hy [ui.-'hinj: it thn>ii;;h the niii -i-i--. 
11 IiielhiHl ulii.'li w.,i]Kl 1i<- nutiiraJly siiKP'^^tt-*) )>>' it^ eii-I-in -l' 
iijieiiiii^' the liilo' t.i Hike in its prey. 

Mr. Mii;.'L''i' attriliiite.l this sniiilin;; wf the esterii.r l» a [t- 
teelive ]mr|iii>i'. [imi ulliiiles to the fnit that while tuheK nf .If;'/-" 
jii,itijt t'.iiinil iiii Miiiily liiuiks wen- t-overeil with Kind, a tH>l tuk>n 
at Triiyis, I'lam-e. in a iiiii>sy site. Iiait" utiil [ihint Ahr^s w<>v> n 
ii|Hiii ii.' Itnt :iMlie .| r ill snih envin.nnient wmihl U-<-i<iiii«-nt.i 
til eleiir miay |i:irliih> ..|' in-ys, riH>t (ilin-s tie., in estemliii;: llw 
nest over ihe miiI':!'.' uml lhriiiit;h the ehisi; oliitKltnt; slenw. there 
iiliiHiirs t" lie 111. riLi.-iii mIiv it iiii{;hi unl treat thia ehiit[Kiin> i*»- 
oiacly «e it did the wtml iu Mr. Enock'a mamplo. Ma doobt tl 


1 m, ; width of abdomen at the base 3'5 mm. ; width of abdomen at 
the apex 1-75; width of tlie cephalothorax at the caput 2'25 ; width 
«f ceplialothorax from nmrgiii to mat^iu across the middle 35 mm, ; 
lengtli of palps 2 mm. Both palps are represented by rather thin 
lines, showing slight marks of joints, and on one palp is a suggestion 
of a terminal bulb which migtit indicate it to be a young male. 

The caput and median part of the cephalothorax as viewed from 
the cast, are well elevated and defined ; the cephalothorax narrows 
towards the abdomen. But in the original impression in the rock 

Fig. 1. tualjpul WotJwir.lii.ii. 

and distiDctly on the casts, there appear outlines on either side 
of tlte margin of the cephalothorax, as though by pressure those 
parts had been flattened, and only the caput and a part of the dor- 
sum of the cephalothorax along the median line had withstood the 
pressure and had been pushed upward into the matrix by the same. 
These outlines are visible, but not as distinct in the plaster cast. 
It is at this point that one experiences difficulty in determining 
■whether the specimen is related to AUus or Atypus. If the broader 
marginal markings are impressions of the original cephalothorax, 
the inference would be that the spider represented by this fossil be- 
longed to the Atypinae. That such is the case, I am strongly in- 
clined to believe, both on the ground just named, and the charac- 
teristics of the mandibles, as well as the general facies of the impres- 
sion and cast. (See Fig, 1.*) In the absence of the characteristic 
eyes and long, jointed superior spinners it would be impossible to 
relegate the specimen to the genus Atypue with absolute authority. 
■ This tigute has been drawn from the cast and compared carefully with one 
kindly made for me in the Genlt^cal Department of the British Museum, and fur- 
nished by the Keeper, Di. Woodward, 




quarter tubiug; was built within twelve hours, althoiifrh of couree it 
cannot be determined how much of this time was actually cuiisumed 
in spinning work, probably not more than two hourm. It ix at least 
evident that a length of two inches or more a day is quite within the 
spinning capacity of Atypus. 

2, The Foundation Frame and mode o/ Spinning the Exterior 
Tube. — Another specimen gave a very witisfnctory clew to the entire 
mode of coniitructing a tube. It first took its position at the foot 
of the stick in the centre of the jar and wove a smull lutenil tube 
extending partly around the base. (See fig. 7.) At fl o'clock ia 
the evening this tube was pierced at the top, and the crentutv Iiegan 
to erect n vertical Uil)e along the sur< 
face of the stick. The miHic of pro- 
ceeding was substantinlly a* follows: 
Single thrcad.<! were attachc<] to the 
(itick about two inches almvc the sur- 
face. Thei*c thrcadu were i-trctched 
downward and over n lalcrnl space 
about the width of the tiil>c u> I>c3pun, 
extending to the little openiiv.' which 
ha<l l)ecn made in the tulie ai the base 
of the stick. The linen were rc|>.ut<-<l 
and over laid until at last iIk'v ac- 
(piired considerable consistency of tex- 
ture. At the top terminus thev were 
attached to the stick or lo oni' uimiher. 
' At the bottom the iM>int of attachment 
was a little distance from the surface 
of the stick so that most of the lines 
had a slanting position. Their apjicar- 



Genus ATYPUS. 
AtypuB Abbotii (Walck). 

1792. Purse Web Spider Abbot. Mss. drawings of Georgia In- 
sects, Vol. xiv, PI. 8, No. 36, 
Zool. Lib. Brit. Mus. Nat. 
1837. Sphodros Abbotii Walk. His. Nat. des Ins. Apt. Vol. i, 

p. 247. 
1842. Atypus niger Hentz. Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. iv, 

p. 224, p. 2, viii. 
1875. Atyptis niger Hentz. Spid. of the U. S. p. 19, PI. ii, fig. 1. 

During a visit to Florida in April 1886, 1 had the pleasure of 
observing in natural site for the first time the nests of Abbot's 
Atypus, an aranead heretofore known as the black Atypus, or Atypua 
niger of Hentz. I had possessed for a number of years specimens 
of the long tubes in which this creature dwells ' concerning which I 
only knew that they were reported as being spun along the outside 
of the trunks of trees. 


The field of observation was on the plantation of Dr. William 
Wittfeld,' at the lower part of Merrit's Island, which is situated be- 
tween the Indian and Banana Rivers, a few miles south of Cape 
Canaveral. A large number of specimens were collected, some of 
which are submitted for inspection. The species is distributed 
widely throughout the state of Florida, is found in Georgia, and 
probably in the Southern Atlantic States. 

The female of this Atypus has not heretofore been described, al- 
though it has recently come to light that it was known and figured 
nearly a century ago by Mr. John Abbot, an Englishman settled 
in Savannah, Greorgia, during the latter part of the last century * 

^ The substance of this paper was given as a verbal communication before the 
last meeting (1887) of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, at 
Manchester, England. 

' I had Floridian examples of the nest from Professor Riley the Entomologist 
of the Agriculture Bureau ; and also from Dr. Greorge Marx of Washington. 

* Fairyland, Georgiana, Brevard Co. Fla. 

' See the author's paper in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 74, on Necessity 
for Revising the Nomenclature of American Orbweaving Spiders. 


apina tlie silken liniDg of her well kaown and much admired trat^ 
door nest. 

4. The Netting Tube Spvn in Seftioiu. — It was further determin* 
«d with reasonable certainty that the spider builds its tube in sec- 
tiono. A letter from Miss Anna Wittfeld, after I returned from 
Florida, informed me that the spiders had spun complete tubea with- 
in the jars which 1 had left under her care. The question was at 
OQce raised, were these tubes completed by adding to the section 
which had already been observed? From correspondence with Miss 
Wittfeld the information was obtained that the tubes had been 
finished as I had conjectured, by adding to the portions previously 
forniHl. We may, therefore conclude first, (1) that the mode of 
constructing these tubeK is for the first time fully determined; sec- 
ond, {2) that the original section, of greater or lew length as the 
case may be, is spun in the manner now determined and described ; 
and third, (3) that additional sections, of probably about the same 
length, are added thereto according to the fancy or necessity of the 
builder, and com^tructcd in the same manner as the preceedtng one. 
It U thus within the power of Atypus to lengthen out her tube and 
«ict«nd along the trunk to any desirable height, the web sur&ce 
available asa snare for taking food. Thus, also, as she ascends along 
her arlioreal hunting ground she carries with her the protecting 
walh" of her tubular home, which is truly her castle. 

A large number of tubes was collected, and these I cut open with 
the view of determining whether any trace of this mode of spinning 
by sections had be*n k'flin the iorm of scams or joints; but nothing 
of the sort was found. The [Mints of juncture were so skilfully 
covered over that they differed in no respect from the texture of 
other |K)rtions of the tube. The silk on the inside, however, was of 
beautiful smooth white color, decidedly in contrast with the a)>pear- 




ThciiO tubes are found attached to the trunks of tree,?, along which 
they estciid upwards for various distances according to their size; 
tlie size being evidently det«niiiiied by the age of tlie occupant. 
Tlie young spiders have very small tubes. The adults occupy large 
tubes. The nests are fastened to the bark of the trees at several 
points by white threads. They are often open at the top, that is, 
there is no designed closure like a lid or door ; but for the most part * 
the top eilge of the tube drops in 
or folds over, making an accident- 
alclosuro. Beneath the surface of 
the ground the tubes extend into 
the sandy soil around the root 
of the tree for various distances, 
sometimes eijualling the length 
ibove the "urfice and in one or 
two casts even e\<.eedmg it 

The spider setms to ha\e no 
preference for an\ special tree 
i^ainst whith to tpm its tubes. 
The [mlmetto was frequently 
chosen, and I counted as many 
as thirteen tubes, great aud small, 
long an<I short, extending around 
a large portion of the base of one 
palmetto trunk. Some of these may have been the nests of a 
brood the individuals of which had established themselves in close 
neighborhood. Very frequently these tubes were found attached 
to small trees or bushes. When 
the trunks of the saplings have a 
slanting position, as occasionally 
happens by reason of external pres- 
sure of some kind, the tube gener- 
ally drops straight down to the 
(ground, forming an angle with the 
jMjint of attachment instead of hug- 
^^iug the bark of the plant. Most 
of the tubes which I followed be- 
neath the surface terminated in a 
point or had a club-shaped termi- 
nus ; but in one case at least the 
tube broadened out into an irr^u- 
lar chamber with two short branches constructed like the main stem. 

7io. 3. Colony of Pun«Kb ipMci'i c 




Immenae numbers of these iie&ts were found throughout the woods 
on Che grounds of Dr 1\ ittfeld bpiders when found i 

tubes were UBuall) ihnging to ihe 
top or were found in tlie same positio 

short distance from the 
underneath the soil. The 
most persistent observation 
at various hours, night and 
day, failed f-o uncover any 
of the spider's habits aa to 
capture of prey, the mode 
of building the tube, or the 
uses of the tube in the life 
economy of the creature. 
I have no doubt, however, 
that in the uses of its pecu- 
liar web the Purseweb spi- 
der will lie found to resem- 
ble closely her British 
congener, Atypus piceus. 
According to Mr. Fredrick 
Enock,' this aranead cap- 
tures the insects that crawl 
upon the outer surface of 

Ni" } \: -:'^ i- ) M''*"ir 111! i 

(I » 

! "4! !' . 

I I 


1 !: 
\ • ■ 

.' «■ 

^ V 

\ ■ 

1 - 


W . 

I . 

214 PEOCEEDISG9 OF THE ACADI-:inr OF [1888. 

tbe Un name*) dntes the younglings make their ezode.nnd after be- 
in^ dUper^nl in tlio manner uKunl to spider I in gH, proceed t» make 
oay lube^ which ureminiatureaof thepuroiit aeet. Aa the develop- 
nieDt of s|>ider lite in Great Brituin ix later than in the I'liited 
C^cuAi ihe tulwlet:^ <if tlie rouiig of AhlM)t'8 Aty|)us may be hx>ked 
ft* in the early aiitiiiiin. Some of the Florida S|>ecinien8 which I 
colWteil in A|>ril within their tubca, I ju<l^ to l»e memben of the 
[Kvcixlinj; autumn Imxids. 


Tbe tiilH>- making faculty appears to be, an far aii necondary niuses 
aiv vVu^tTuetl, the imtiintl n^iilt of the inntinet of self-protect ios. 
It » |vrh»{M iiKwt iintiirul tliat the lower animals should i^-k to 
}>n4^vl iheiUM'lviii within liarriera formed by their ImxIv secretion^ 
«» iii the eaiH' iiiii»ii^ the larv:e of many inseetn. The ivutle^ iii^ve- 
m-ul:> of the body chunicteriftic of these creatures, conjoineil with 
ilio iimtiiift 1" I'over tlienii^'lves up, to protect themselves from un- 
&\v>rwl>lc ni'Ulher i'hmi;.i':< ami from the approach of e^emil'^, may 
K- » lultii-ii'iit naliinil explaiiatioii of the orifrin of the tube-making 
Vthrt I'hui" the silk moth larva while seeivtiiig silk from the 
^IkUtU nhii'h ii|H-n mi the under lip, moves backwanl and forwanl 
,\tulitiHHll> i)i<lriliiitin|r its m-eretions, and at the same time by the 
MK4it>ii i>)' tl« l»Hty limits ihcm to the borders of the S{>a(.-c urouad 
«hi.'h tl iii<>\i-« hi the same way the social ealerpilloni have 
kMtiN'd to "hut ihi-niM-lveM within their well known tent, which 
^^wiiii HI lui>.'i'ly the :ip|H-aninec of ailesigned structure, but which, 
lu It* oiiKi'ii ■'< h-ii>l, may have l)een quite a-i much the rcfult of 
4,«4<li>iii, ilii' ■iMk-ii >-i'< ri'iiiin ximply hardening around the limits of 
Ut.~ iiui.o llii'iiiKh »hii'h the nvtlcss crcaturen move, and which by 
ibH'4t iKxii'iua l)i<'> Ik'i'P free from threads. In like manner the 
hht\-t >■( il>> »■■<> III ih<' moment when Xatun' brinpt upon it the 

1^^« j ^4Tiii%i «i It H« tji 111* niitui»ttriii4. '2\^p 

\ri *^.,* \h* ■{•••If r f^i'ina thi* hal>it i« |*«rtinil«rlr |ir«iniir»rtit It 

tl««« T * « \-«t :^a with ltia«-« !• Ill • lar\«l rftAlr. ImiI ill thr ^mrfr^X 

fttk'.n.ft! tK ■ r \\ >-tM «itK (■•••iKU iirif r%i'ip|i(i«'fi/ nf «hi«*h «r hA\r 
kn- «i«^l»-« Tf.* t .*■ tnaLiiii; iiiBtiiii t (if tfi«-« U Im-iii^* f^>iifiiir<l t«> th«* 
lAri»l (• r. -1 n '• lis^Mt vhiih t-hani« trnir« t\tr Urisr ••! iiiwrt* 
M 'arr^'i 1- r-aaf'! t*< t('« ;■ fi'<r<-t miifual Aiii«>tit: thr \rmntj Tli«* 
i.»^.'. f {•»•%•(::./ !K<ti.«iUi-* U\ tu^»tiUr •ptiiiiinj ^ f^ >'■ "i>** 

f rrj. ' ar. t^ * r • t;»!» ;»•:. itt^» ■•.fi.r •!«« H-^ of r^« r* ■• ■ ti««li -r Ifll"' 
\':. :/ :•:• Mr'<«tA\fr« mr l»a%r •tnh riani|ilfv »• Fff^t^^i §ir\j, 

m\.\ \. •: ::.• A \- *\^\i •:!k*-M < %Ii(fi«r. •»|Mffi at •*iir mtl Within thi* 
•).«- ■ >kr« K« r * :iH ar> i h<-hl« % «-«>TiiH^*ti"ii «ith kirr rt'tithl tnArf* 
\y r;.« a:.* ! .i *.' r*-*«l 11. i* tii)«- i« •|**iii «ithiti rairiti*"* «ff \An«4l« 
» rtt a: 1 f\t :. «i:rr.:i) a • urlt^l Iraf I'hf hahlt u Ajfmiik i!lu*(nitr«i 
ar: ; .* :.' ' < >r ' «• i\* r* !•% th« U-audril •ilkrii il«>nir» ttf t* iit/i «ith 
• •.(^ .*. a !« A?^ .» \.nTij •'»• h a» arr fi-riuoi h]i \\ht Iii«iilar •jti* 
•i» • /;'-i •■»'^ i-.» r tJ-.« **liafiir'« k •|»i»I«t h.^\r*i fr%fit4%^w^ 

A" ^ .• :*• li* '.*?• lar:.r -r I jiHWf-atrr* «• ha\r vurh r\aru|»lr« 
»■:*« ;*«'.t\ T it- t!.tr tf lit ••!' 7'^''*'>'/i«iv« ztloixf-ysim «hli h I ha%<* 
f ».: !•••.*• ,■ •»•:. • .• J.cli* i« J*.-* Ui tf-r A'tiT'titlai k fiin*«l» i^*QtAin< 

.:..* •.'• ?: ■ r .i:,i * -.r./ Thf **alti jra«lf « i'f Vaulliit«; •|»i*Uf» 

•f ■ k • Ik' * ! J«-« «i:} ;t. «h.< h iIm t vhf itfl r tlM-tlitrltrv tluniiif 

m^- • • *: I " ! ;. f .^i. 1 n «hi h aU- th. % U-«t«'« tb^ir rvV«*«"«. 

T* • I ^'' r /• \ 1* • I i i\* ! it»'! •^t I;m-«l iii**|r rural h a littlr tutHaUr 
tf * : » i; . ■»* t! < r -•> '..'. allh •ii^h ihf tii^M* tiiakitii; ha^it «nrm* 
I •■ .« h**. V t -i .1*. :..* t).«*r of all t)»r araiH-a^l faiiulic*. Thr 
1 . • «• w^r* * ■ ;r«« a* (^i .r iiariit im|-Ii««. ha^r • vCr**!!/ lri»- 
->'. I ^r••t I !<•{•««!. ^'fi.t rviiiArkahIr riajsiplr* nf 

:.^*/.ar :••*• r: ai '*■• '. ;:. i Ati^h^ thr!i«. a* in thr ra^c ft our 
M'^ '.X. •\ i f T'/' .II". v^'./iz-ii^ii/M . aik«l thr fiiniH I •haf««l 
• r.if' r •. *• *j«« l".«i| ; »Uw»a%«r .Ij^i.'rH-i H^rr^i , «hif*h it « r* 'if 

\y * ' -: • • • . r. ••, i« r» ; Ait<«ri' a 

I - '.' K f :: • A «•«*•:. A »• a t ;*« . ■•rtrtit:n*r* -.f t t^bv^lrrahle 
.*r.v *• • •• \1'.» .: ?r ri. :Kr i..|>>.|«-Mn^ iiit« a •hnrtM 

•c.&*« '. ' fct • • f> vt \*f*'',fr- . I. •!:!:«: •'irfa*«« at< i t* u*ua..% h'utrvl 
f • •••••'. . • . • fi * ?. I.J j'varl It fiai *■• •« t. • i?«:.!ri*;; 

• •. • A* '. ■ • A.*. ! {• !..ri,"» !?.• ' : t'.if r »• 4.- I l.r r i.- 1*^ ai«i| 

:*•• .1* % : :.••'•' a«* • I y »%• t> i^\.X \^,\\ 1 !.a%« ««:» ir.ti'^- 


^pias tlie silken lining of her well known and much admired trap- 
door nest. 

4. The Nesting IhAe iSpwn in Sections. — It was further determin- 
«d with reasonable certainty that the spider builds its tube in sec- 
tions. A letter from Miss Anna Wittfeld, after I returned from 
Florida, informed me that the spiders had spun complete tubes with- 
in the jars which I had left under her care. The question was at 
once raised, were these tubes completed by adding to the section 
■which had already been observed? From correspondence with Miss 
Wittfeld the information was obtained that the tubes had been 
finished as I had conjectured, by adding to the portions previously 
formed. We may, therefore conclude first, (1) that the mode of 
■constructing these tubes is for the first time fully determined; sec- 
ond, (2) that the original section, of greater or less length as the 
«ase may be, is spun in the manner now determined and described ; 
and third, (3) that additional sections, of probably about the same 
length, are added thereto according to the fancy or necessity of the 
Jjuiider, and constructed in the same manner as the preceeding one. 
It is thus withiu the power of Atypus to lengthen out her tube and 
extend along the tnuik to any desimble height, the web surface 
availal>le aa a snare for taking food. Thus, also, as she ascends along 
her arboreal hunting ground she carries with her the protecting 
■walls of her tubular home, which is truly her castle. 

A large number of tubes was collected, and these I cut open with 


5. Doors. — An examination of the numerous nesls shows that 
openings are usually but not always left at the top of the tube. 
These openings are placed indifferently beneath, at the side and 
above. When the spider is not near the upper portion of its tube, 
the silk naturally collapses, and the opening is not apparent. How- 
ever, it must be remembered that a very slight stroke of the mandi- 
bles would open the tube at any part and give the spider egress. 
So also a few movements of the spinnerets would close the aperture. 
Moreover, if we accept the conclusion that the mode of capturing 
prey is the same as that of Atypus piceut (as above described) there 
appears to be no special need for a door for the main necessity of 
life, since the spider has little or no occasion ever to go outside her 
own tower or cave. 


It has been stated that one of the individuals put under observa- 
tion, after having spun her snare, covered it more or less thickly 
with grains of sand. It was thus indicated that the sanded condi- 
tion of the tubes found in natural positions is the result of purpose 
on the part of the builder. What purpose does it serve? Many 
spiders of various families are in the habit of protecting their cocoons 
or eggsacs by covering them with mud, with particles of soil, with 
bits of decayed wood and bark scraped or broken off, with various 
minute chippage, and even with the debris of insects' wings, heads, 
legs etc., captured for food. In this behavior the purpose is obvi- 
ously to protect the enclosed eggs from hurtful weather changes and 
various enemies, cheifly the parasitizing ichneumon-fly, Pezomachvs, 

The use of the sand deliberately placed upon the outside of the 
nest of Atypus is not so obvious, although it perhaps serves to 
toughen it, and possibly protects its inmate from the assaults of 
certain enemies as yet unknown. In natural site the sand and 
weathering give the tubes almost the exact appearance of the out- 
side of the tree along which it is placed. In a large proportion 
of my specimens the sand wats intermingled with brown wood-dust 
from decayed bark and the dark colored vegetable mold which was 
heaped around the base of the trunk, and into which the spiders 
had excavated. 

It has been conjectured that this is an example of so called mimi- 
cry. Some observations made by Mr. Frederick Enock on the 
habits of Atypus piceus^ the British congener of our Florida spe- 
cies, raise a doubt upon this supposition, at least indicate another 


solution. The mode of coiistructiag the tube aa obeerved by Mr. 
£nock is substantially tliat wliicb I have above described as prac- 
ticed by our Purseweb Atypus. After the completion of her tube 
Piceus was seen to take a load of sand between its ialces, every grain 
of which it deftly guided with its fangs, literally pushing the grains 
through the side of the tube. Having exhausted its supply it 
reversed its position, returned to the bottom, and repeated the action 
of gathering and distributing the sand. At the end of an hour and 
a half it had completely covered the silken tube with sand, every 
grain of which it had brought up from the surface of the ground, 
thrust it through the silken tube from the inside, and afterwards, aa 
the occasion required, smoothed over the rent with newly extruded 
silk. The next morning a small quantity of sand had been forced 
out at the top of the tube, showing that the industrious creature had 
contiuued its labor during the night; and this, indeed, was pro- 
longed during the greater part of the day. The following night it 
had lengthened the aerial portion of the tube and covered it with 
sand.' We may perhaps, conclude from these facts that the spider 
had a]»parently simply endeavored to save itself the labor of carry- 
ing sand to the top of its tube, by pushing it through the rent sides, 
a method wJiich would be naturally suggested by its custom of 
opening the tiibe to take in its prey. 

Mr. Sloggridge attributed this sanding of the exterior to a pro- 
tective purpose, and alludes to the fact that while tubes of Atypiia 


^ATi K4t. wii^i in 111 rnii.ftivi.ij'iiu. 


of ll«ipilr «til) tbr Aililiti*'!! tif A«ilkrti libiii|:* vbirh aku U rmrrinl 
r tl)« vtirfAiT- »n.i Altai Kril to trrtv • 4i r or to tlir ailJAmit brrlv 

nthrr Hi » •lr«i4,*ht tul*r h t>r m runnl nor {fK 

I'tM t» 

T .•• v^- • ::.t . ■ rr*-*|-';j tnitnU r iii thr t'iti|rT*ilr •rric* 

I ^ * J «« ••• •• « ('urr •« •iu*)»Cii 'iil^ liiir«l At thr BiMUth, mifl 

rmrr«« i .; w%*i *•• \t !?.• •viMa** iiKrr«- il u Mi|«|«inni bf m ru*lr 

tarr^ : I • •.^•;. !;(■ i« L «i \ • r. •'!« ti Ab<l 10 rutlnunitari «# 

I - 'I -..' :. *• :• ! tl • ;« • mtlr* Oi*** A «rt rltvrr llirtMV* in 

/.^r- f.; '. . I »• '• I fi* Ivt nan.r«l •i>i<lrr h\ ilimt ft>rfu ff 

•s.r1* -« ■ ' -'. : ^ • '••1 aN \« I :,; "• 4 •!• ■••«• a nitir hi^);«-«Ci< lO 
*(',:.' ■•»: •i**»;:i«r« t « •' • ^ • ii «li«-(lMr •{•liii «tthtti a ^r^'Utxl 
t^rr « I / *" I 1 r «.tK.:i tti« n'l«>^ "I \tmrk ij|Kia a tnv 4. &* 

M « '.' * H*a-' M«i.<^;. •!«•:«• t.A* Attr^ tr«l l^ir Ailmmll'*!! D<4 

•}• «. A '.f«v .:i« ih* ;r \>:kti IritNil Ai»<riAlr«. tbr |*ur«rfirb 


the last named dates the younglings make their exode, and after be- 
ing dispersed in the niauner usual to apiderlings, proceed to make 
tiny tubes which are miniatures of the parent nest. As the develop- 
ment of spider life in Great Britain is later than in the United 
States the tubelets of the young of Abbot's Atypus may be looked 
for in the early autumn. Some of the Florida specimens which I 
collected in April within their tubes, I judge to be members of the 
preceding autunm broods. 


The tube-making faculty appears to be, as far as secondary causes 
are concerned, the natural result of the instinct of self-pro tectioD. 
It is perhaps roost natural that the lovrer animals should seek to 
protect themselves within barriers formed by their body secretions, 
aa is the case among the larvic of many insects. The restless move- 
ments of the body characteristic of these creatures, conjoined with 
the instinct to cover themselves up, to protect themselves from un- 
favorable weather changes and from the approach of enemies, may 
be a sufficient natural explanation of the oiig^n of the tube-making 
habit. Thus the silk moth larva while secreting silk from the 
glands which open on the under lip, moves backward and forward 
continually distributing its secretions, and at the same time by the 
motion of its body limits them to the borders of the space around 
which it moves. In the same way the social caterpillars have 
learned to shut themselves within their well known tent, which 


Among the spider fauna this habit is particularly prominent. It 
does not exist as with insects in a larval estate, but in the perfect 
animal, the only one, with possibly one exception,* of which we have 
knowledge, the tube-making instinct of insects being confined to the 
larval period. This habit, which characterizes the larva of insects 
is carried forward to the perfect animal among the Araneae. The 
habit of protecting themselves by tubular spinning work in one 
form or another exists among some species of every section or tribe 
of the spiders. 

Among the Orbweavers we have such examples as Epeira strixy. 
which spins a tough silken cylinder, open at one end. Within this 
she makes her home, and holds a connection with her round snare 
by means of a thread. This tube is spun within cavities of various 
sorts, and often within a curled leaf. The habit is again illustrated 
among the Orbweavers by the beautiful silken domes or tents with 
or without a leafy covering, such as are formed by the Insular spi- 
der, Epeira insularis or the Shamrock spider, Epeira trifolium. 

Among the RetitelariaB or Lineweavers we have such examples 
as the pretty tubular tent of Theridium zelotyppum which I have 
found swinging among pine leaves in the Adirondack forests contain- 
ing the mother and young. The Saltigrades or Vaulting spiders 
spin thick silken tubes within which they shelter themselves during^ 
summer and winter, and in which also they bestow their egg-sacs. 
The Laterigrades I have found sheltered underneath a little tubular 
tent, guarding their cocoons, although the tube making habit seems 
to be least decided among these of all the aranead families. The 
Tubeweavers, of course, as their name implies, have a strong tei> 
dency in this direction. Indeed, some remarkable examples of 
tubular nests may be found among them, as in the case of our 
Medicinal spider (Tegefiaria medidnalis), and the funnel-shaped 
snare of the Speckled tubeweaver (Agalena ncBvia), which is one of 
the most common spiders of America. 

The nest of this Agalena is a tube, oftentimes of considerable 
length, which broadens out from the top-opening into a sheeted 
snare that is spread over surrounding surfaces, and is usually guyed 
or supported by lines reaching upward. It may be seen extending^ 
within little cavities and openings, insect burrows, gopher holes and 
the like, and in some cases I have thought that I have seen indica- 

^ Psocus. See my "Note on a Web-spinning Neuroptcrous Insect, Psocus 
scxpunctatus." Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia 1883, pp. 278-9. 


tions that the occupant had assisted in accommodating her spinning 
work to her usurped quarters by widening and deepening the hole. 
At all events, the snare when seen in such sites presents a very 
striking appearance of having been a work of design, both in the 
burrow and in the inter-spun tube, precisely as in the case of the 
Tunnel weavers. Agalena has one remarkable physical character- 
istic in common with Atypus and other Theraphosids, namely, the 
long jointed spinnerets which are used so actively in spinning her 
characteristic tube. 

When we come to the two remaining tribes, the Lycosids and 
Tunnelweavers, (Territelaria) we see this habit possessing special 
developments, and here also we see it associated with the burrowing 
habit which is such a marked characteristic of many of the higher 
animals and even of man himself. 

The nest of Cyrtciuchenius elongatus as described by M. Eugene 
Simon closely resembles that of A galena ncevia in the character of the 
tube alone ; but this tube is enclosed within a deep cylindrical bur- 
row, and is prolonged upward for about three inches above the sur- 
face of the ground, and enlarged into a funnel-shape, so that it be- 
comes from two to three inches across at the orifice. This aerial 
portion is snow white, and at once attracts the eye even from a con- 
sideral)le distance; the nests, rising up amid sparse grass which 
serves to support but not conceal them, present the appearance of 
.scattered white fungi. Cyrtauchenins belongs to the Territelarise, 
and appears to be nearly related to Aiypits and Nemesiu, Mr. 
Moggridgc classifies its nest among thosjc of the trap-door spiders, 
characterizing it as the funnel-shaped nest* 

The nest of Cyrtauchenius even more closely resembles that of 
certain Lycosids found in the United States; for example, Lycosa 
tigrinar is quite abundant in the Atlantic States of America. It^con- 
structs a nest which answers closely to Simon's description of Cry- 
tauchenius, the only exception being that the portion of the nest 
above ground quite invariably forms an oblique angle wnth the tun- 
nel within the ground, and the burrow is not lined with spinning 
work below the mouth. The aerial portion of this spider's nest is 
sometimes formed into a beautiful vestibule above the mouth of the 
burrow, and as the winter season advances is occasionally shielded 

1 Harvesting Ants and Trap-Door Spiders, Supplement p. 190. Mr. Mogg- 
ridgc gives a diagramatic figure of this Spider's nest from the description of M, 
Simon. Sec pi. 13, p. 183. 

* Tarantula tigrina McCook. Proceed. Am. Entom. Soc. 1879, p. xi. 


with a sort of swinging door. Hentz says that one winter he found 
a burrow of a Lycosa (species not named) supplied with a lid, and 
he thinks it probable that all Lycosids close the orifice of their holes 
for hibernation.* I may say here that probably all burrowing Ly- 
cosids close the openings of their nests as the cold season approaches, 
and it is possible that the same habit will be found to prevail as a 
protection against heavy rains even in the summer and autumn. 
Mrs. Mary Treat says that certain Lycosids thus shut themselves in 
just before moulting, and remain so until quite recovered from the 
after debility'. 

Another interesting Lycosid tubemaker is the turret spider.' This 
creature constructs above the surface of the ground to the height of 
one or two inches a little tower which is in form an irregular penta- 
gon, and is composed of bits of straw, stalks of grass etc. It is quite 
like the old fashioned mud-chimneys which I have often seen at- 
tached to the gables of log cabins in the far west.* Unlike the sur- 
face nest of Tigrina, the tower of Arenicola is invariably built in the 
line of the burrow, the whole forming a straight perpendicular tube. 
We have thus established, through the nest of Cyrtauchenius, a very 
close connection between the nesting habits of the Lycosids and that 
of the TerritelarisB. 

In the case of Atypus suherij as it is seen in England and de- 
scribed by its first observer, Mr. Joshua Brown, the nest assumes the 
shape of a pendant inflated tube, covered with particles of sand, 
closed at the top, extending nine inches more or less above the silk- 
lined burrow of like depth, and attached to surrounding foliage. 
In this form it cannot diflfer largely from that of our Purse web 
spider except that the former is stayed among the grass-stalks and 
the latter is fastened to the tree trunks. It would be interesting and 
perhaps highly suggestive were Abbot's Atypus to be domiciled in 
a grassy site away from trees, to note its behavior. Would it make 
a nest quite like that of the English Atypus? * 

^ Spiders U. S. p. 25. 

« " My Garden Pets," p. 82. 

• Lycosa arenicola^ Scudder. Psyche. Vol. II, p. 2, 1887. 

* McCook, " Tenants of an Old Farm," figs. 44, 46, p. 131-5. 

B Efforts to pursue my studies of the Purseweb spider were prevented by the loss 
of the living specimens sent me by Miss Wittfeld from Florida. We exha :d 
our ingenuity in providing protection for packages sent through the mail, ^ot 
a spider lived. Evidently the species is more sensitive to taoSta confinemeui n 
many others. I regret to record that since writ 
tioned has died. Her keen and intelligent 
and were highly appreciated not only ^ my»6u i 


The nests of the same spider ^ according to other observers have 
the projecting part trailed along the ground or surface growth of 
grass or moss. Thus the tube differs from that of the Purseweb 
Atypus simply in that it is spun horizontally along the surface in- 
stead of being attached in a perpendicular position to a tree. M. 
Eugene Simon says that Atypus piceus conceals herself in dry locali* 
ties, partly underground ; sometimes in woods, principally the plan- 
tations of evergreens. Its retreat is altogether hidden, sometimes 
by the stones, at other times by the moss, so that it is necessary to 
search with care and over large spaces in order to discover it. This 
Atypus burrows obliquely a deep tunnel of 15 to 20 centimetres of 
the size of its body. It constructs part of its tube quite straight and 
of a tissue very thick, of which the upper part is longer than that 
within the subterranean gallery. It is continued horizontally upon 
the soil and terminates in a tapering closed point. Near its lower 
extremity, the tube presents a large expansion where it dilates into 
the form of a chamber quite spacious, within which the spider dwells. 
It is at the entrance of the contraction that it suspends by a few 
threads the cocoon containing its eggs. Simon presents a drawing 
in site of the nest of Atypus,' and a good figure of a collected speci- 
men is given by Moggridge.' 

These comparative results suggest a very interesting analogy be- 
tween the spinning industry of the two aranead tribes, the Citi- 
grada3 and Territelariae, which I venture to present in diagrammatic 
outlines at Fig. 8 and 9. The first figure in the cut (Fig. 8, 1) rep- 
resents the simple burrow of the Mygalidae, which, in many species 
and especially our own American tarantula, is a tubular hole in the 
ground without any silken tube or lining. This quite corresponds 
with the unlined tubular burrow which is the typical nest of the 
Citigrades as represented by most of the Lycosids (Fig. 9, 1.) 
The second figure of the series' (Fig. 8) shows the silken tubular 
nest of the Atypiuse, as represented by the American and European 
species considered in this paper. Here we have the ground burrow 

■II - , ^ 

1 Note on Atypus sulzeri, Mr. Edward Newman, Linnean Society. See also 
Zoologist, Vol. xiv., 1856. p. 5021. See also Moggridge, Trap-Door Spiders, 
p. 185. 

s Annals Entomological Soc. of France, 5th Series, Tome 3, 1873, Plate 4. 

* Harvesting Ants and Trap Door Spiders, Supplement, p. 183, PI. xiii. 




(^Mygale with the addition of a silken lining^ which also is carried 
ftbore the surface and attached to trees (a) or to the adjacent herb- 
age either in a straight tube (b) or a curved one (c). 

Fig. 8. Nesting Industry of the Territelariae. 
X. Mygale. a. Atypus a, A. Abbotii, b, c, A. piceus, 3. Cyrtauchenius. Cteniza 
and Nemesia. 

Fig. 9. Nesting Industry of the Citigrads. 
I. Lycosa. 2. L. arenicola. 3, 4. L. tigrina. 

Turning to the corresponding number in the Citigrade series 
(Fig. 9, 2) we see the burrow slightly silk lined at the mouth, and 
carried upward above the surface where it is supported by a rude 
turret. The silken tube is, however, open and is rudimentary as 
compared with that of Atypus. 

The third members of the two series show a yet closer likeness in 
in the nest forms viz., that of Cyrtauchenivs (Fig. 8, 3) and that of 
Lycosa tigrina (Fig. 9, 3). The last named spider by that form of 
surface nest described above (Fig. 9, 4), shows us a rude suggestion 
of the trap-door spider's nest which, whether spun within a ground 
burrow (Fig. 8, 4, a), or within the ridges of bark upon a tree (4, 6) 
as with certain Mexican species, has attracted the admiration not 
only of naturalists but of all observers. It is curious to note, by the 
way, the tendency of these accomplished nest builders to domicile 
upon a tree like their American tribal associates, the Purseweb 

^ Some of the large creatures known generally as the Mygalidae or tarantulas 
I have no doubt silk line their burrows. We might therefore add to this series 
another and intermediate form of nest between Mygale (1) and Atypus (2) as here 


^-iuiaWm rirguhfta Geiuitz, 1866. Carb. utid Dyua Id NGbnuks, 
I. Til. 

Tiw Mily brrozoDQ remains from the black shales consist of s few 
»ro! fcwrrvcJ specimens of this species. From tbc inTestigations of 
WniA. tai Ethridge it would appear that Prout's jrenufi Setopora is 
•^•nrv.'tTaoaf with Sgnoeladia, nm) acconling to the former wril«r 
S /v?*-i>»«* from the Choi'tor lime.fionc is very ciosclv a)lic<1 U>, if 
t-N i.viiiii"al with, S. bueriali*. Thii* would give Synoelailia biterialit 
« )r..x4i more citten«vc vertical range than hod hitherto been sup- 


Linffulanmbaintt'i (Vx, l""!", Geo). Sur\-. Kv., Vol. III. p. 576, 
pi. X, fig. 4. 

LiHfuh vmhou-iti White. 1SS4. 1.1 Ann. rep. Geol. Ind.. pt. II. 
p. 120. pi. XXV. fitf. H. 

The 8|K'riint'us fn'in Ih's .Mnino!" ure nomcwhat larger tlian the 
one origiiinliv ti>:Mn«iI bj- i\<\ (hte. cU.), and like that are broader 
txMteriorly t» ih" uiid lcni:lh than anteriorly. The [Mist^'Hor mar- 
gin is broadly r.>niid.-*l iiiMeiid of Iking obtusely angular as it is 
often Mi'l <" '"'• "<*'' "* '* "honn in Munc figures of this xpecies. 
None of lhi< *|>i'>'inifiH uiidor ciuiKidenitiuu are, thon-fiire. to promi- 
nnillv sub:iiii:uliii ••" th<' p'>-<t<'rii>r margin, and bnmdor anteriorly 
hi the mid li iii:i'' »' ll'""' ■•'"'*" >" ''"■ fig""* of -Meek and Wwrthen' 
df a frrtw *>hii Ii tlii'i ■nil /.. iiiiili/i'i'lf^ Siiwerliy. while specimens of 

i^i«vvbi'< ■|'> " ■■>'""''l ''>' I'.ihridge' have the jxMlerior margin 

«tVH w.*iv *l"iM''» • '■■■' '"■ "'""«•'>' angular. Xo opportunity 

Ilm Imvii "tli-ii'il toi ilitri'lly iMMipuring the American with the 
V\tM'|s>4" *> ' "<"' >'"<>">''|<ii-iilly their exact sj)ecific ivluti<in:< hare 


July 10. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Eleven persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"On the Fauna of the Lower Coal Measures of Central low^a.** 
By Charles R. Keyes. 

"Descriptions of two new Fossils from the Devonian of Iowa. 
By Charles R. Keyes. 

The death of Edwin L. Reakirt, a member was announced. 


July 24. 

Mr. Isaac C. Martindale in the chair. 

Nine persons present. 

A paper entitled "New Species of Shells from the New Hebrides 
and Sandwich Islands." By W. D. Hartman M. D. w^as presented 
for publication. 

The death of Henry Carvill Lewis, Professor of Mineralogy in 
the Academy, was announced. 

July 31. 
Mr. Charles Roberts in the chair. 
Thirteen persons present. 
The following were ordered to be published : — 





The carboniferous rocks of the region in the immediate vicinitj 

of Des Moines have, until quite lately, yielded only fragmentary 

remains of fossils. Recent investigations, however, have disclosed 

a rich fauna embracing, as hereafter enumerated, more than 36 

genera and nearly 60 species, the majority of them in a most perfect 

state of preservation. In Iowa the lower coal measures present, 

lithologically, a marked contrast with both the under-(subcarbomf- 

erous) and the over-lying (middle and upper coal measures) strata 

which are pre-eminently calcareous, while the lower coal measures 

are characterized by an almost total absence of the calcareous 

divisions, which are represented only by a few thin bands of impure 

limestone, local in distribution. A section of the rocks at Des 

Moines presents : 

Drift 20 feet. 

Loss 15 " 

Middle coal measures 40 " 

Lower coal measures 160 " 

St. Louis limestone (not exposed in Polk county.) 

The superficial deposits have been quite thoroughly studied by 
McGree and Call,* but the palaeozoic rocks have in Polk county 
received but a passing notice. Though economically of far greater 
importance than any other formation in the state, the lower coal 
measures have received comparatively little geologic attention ; and 
the two attempts at an exhaustive and detailed survey of this 
formation in Iowa, and a correlation of the different coal horizons 
was unfortunately rendered abortive by circumstances entirely 
beyond the control of those engaged in the study of the Des Moines 
valley region. In Iowa the lower coal measures probably have a 
maximum thickness of more than two hundred feet, but notwith- 
standing the fact that at Des Moines the entire formation underlies 
the city, which is situated just at the eastern border of the middle 
coal measures, this maximum is nowhere, in Polk county, attained. 
The base of the middle coal measures as characterized by Mr. St. 
John^ and as is clearly shown in several localities in the immediate 
vicinity of Des Moines, is composed of variegated clays and shales, 

^ Vide Am. Jour. Sci., vol. xxiv, Sept. 1882. 
' White's Geol. Iowa, vol. I, p. 272. 


vrith one or two intercalated bands of impure nodular limestone. 
These variegated shales have a thickness of forty or more feet, and 
are easily recognizable at numerous exposures in the bluffs of the 
vicinity by the thin limestone bands, which within the city limits 
liave yielded twenty or more species of fossils. There are also 
included in the middle coa-l measures some local depositions of 
micaceous sandstone, usually soft, and unfit even for the roughest 
masonry ; some of it, however, is concretionary and quite durable. 
Formerly these portions were quarried for local use, but of late no 
attempt has been made for its utilization. At the southern extrem- 
ity of Capital Hill this sandstone reaches a thickness of more than 
twenty-five feet. A short distance north of the city a sandstone 
having a thickness of twelve feet caps the bluff, and forms a high 
mural escarpment along the south side of the Des Moines river. 
Although the Des Moines and Racoon rivers have, in Polk county, 
"Corraded their channels through the upper strata, the lower coal 
measures are fully represented from the underlying St. Louis lime- 
stone* — the nearest exposure of which is about thirty miles below 
Des Moines — to the superimposing variegated shales just mentioned. 
This formation as represented in this vicinity is composed almost 
entirely of clays and shales, with a few thin layers of soft sandstone, 
and at least three workable beds of coal. The relative positions of 
the latter are shown in the following sections at the Giant Coal 
Mine where the fossil forms hereaflier mentioned were chiefly 
collected : 

Drift clay and carbonaceous shales 
Coal No. 1, .... 
Shales, etc. . . . • 
Coal No. 2, . 

Shales, lower layers fossiliferous. 
Coal No. 3 . 

To the southwest, from Capital Hill, the distance between coals 
No. 2 and No. 3 appears to increase, and the latter vein attains a 
thickness in some places of seven feet. The coal measures of Iowa 
have a general dip to the south and west. To the northeast from 
Des Moines, the coal veins appear to thin out and finally are want- 
ing, as shown in the accompanying sections ; the first at Altoona, 

^ Vide White on the Unconformability of the coal measures upon the older 
rocks, etc. Geology of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 225 et seq. 

56 feet 






224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE acadp:my OF [1888, 

nine miles from Des Moines, and the second three miles north of 

Mitchellville, or sixteen miles from Des Moines. 

Drift and carbonaceous clays . . . 110 feet. 

Shale 60 " 

Sandstone 15 " 

Coal 1} " 

Shale 15 " 

Coal 4 " 

A boring near Mitchellville at the eastern border of Polk county 

shows an almost entire absence of coal. 

Drift 64 feet. 

Blue and black shales with a thin band of 

limestone and one of sandstone . . 17i " 

Impure coal 1 J *' 

Gray, black, blue and sandy shales with two 

layers of sandstone . . . . 1 41 i ** 

Limestone, with marly partings . . . 39 J " 

Coals No. 2 and especially No. o, are the most profitably worked 
and furnish nearly all the coal mined in the county. Immediately 
overlying, and thus forming the roof of, coal No. 3 is a soft black 
clayey shale often slaty in j)lacas, highly fos^iliferous and containing 
much iron j)yrites in the form of crystals and nodules ; many cubes 
of the former being over an inch along the edges, and the latter often 
containing shells of mollusca. The shell substance of the fossils 
from these sliales, aside from those contained in the pyritiferous nod- 
ules, is replaced more or less completely by pyrite. In some S[)eci- 
mens the replacement is complete; in others only a thin film of 
pyrite covers the shell, leaving the interior of the shell substance 
with the original calcareous constituents; between the two extremes 
all degrees of replacement by pyrite occur. In a few instances — 
JjophopJn/fluni, fish-teeth and the remains of crinoids — no replacement 
ha;s taken place. These fossiliferous shales are, upon exposure to the 
weather, easily and speedily disintegrated into a fine black clay, 
and the iron pyrite contained cpiickly discomposes; thus render- 
ing it extremely difficult to obtain good specimens of fossils, unless 
the shales are examined immediately uj)on being taken from the 
mines. This fact may account, in i):irt, for the apparent rarity of 
fossils from the lower coal measures of Central Iowa, as all traces of 
fossil remains are ([uickly obliterated after the shales have been 

Independent of its biological and geological relations, the fauna of 
the lower coal measures of Des ]\[oines is of considerable interest in 
its bearing upon the geographical distribution during carboniferous 


times of certain species ; and also on account of the close similarity 
in many respects, of this and the fauna of the lower coal measures 
of eastern Illinois, particularly that of the superimposing black 
shales of the "Danville" coal, or coal "No. 7" of the general 
Illinois section. Stratigraphically the relations of these two fossilif- 
erous shales to the principal coal-beds are the same — each forming 
the roof of the most extensive coal stratum in their respective 
localities ; lithologically the two shales are apparently identical. 


Lophophyllum proliferum McChesuoy. 

Cyathaxonki proUJera McChesney, 1860. Disc. New Palseo. Fos. 

p. 60. 
Cyathaxonia 5p?. Geinitz, 1866. Garb, und Dyas in .Nebraska, 

pp. 65, 66, tab. v, figs. 3-4. 
Lophophyllum proliferum Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Surv. of 

Nebraska, p. 144. 
This species though a characteristic, and usually one of the most 
abundant, fossils of the coal measures is extremely rare in the lower 
coal measures of central Iowa ; however, it is not to be expected 
that the remains of coelenterates would occur very abundantly in 
bituminous shales. 

Bhombopora lepidodendroides Meek. 

Rhomhopora lepidodendroides Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Sur. of 

Nebraska, p. 144. 
Rhombopora lepidodendroides White, 1875. Expl. and Sur. W. 

100 merid. Vol. IV, pt. 1, p. 99. 

From the lower coal measures but a single specimen of this species 

has been collected. In a thin band of limestone of the middle coal 

measures about one hundred feet higher than the horizon from 

which this specimen was found, this species occui*s quite abundantly, 


Eupaohyorinus (sp. ?). 

The only remains of echinoderms as yet discovered in the black 
shales are a few stem joints and a brachial i)late which evidently 
belong to one of the coal measure species of this genus. 


Synooladia biserialis Swallow. 

Synoeladia biserialis Swallow, 1858. Trans. St Louis Acad. Sci.^ 
Vol. I, p. 179. 


Synoeladia virgulacea Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 
p. 70. 

The only bryozoan remains from the black shales consist of a few 
well preserved specimens of this species. From the investigations of 
Meek and Ethridge it would appear that Front's genus Setopora is 
synonymous with Synocladuiy and according to the former writer 
S, cedrienm from the Chester limestone is very closely allied to, if 
not identical with, S, bUerialis. This would give Synoeladia btaerialis 
s. much more extensive vertical range than has hitherto been sup- 


Xingula umbonata Cox. 

Lingula'umbonaia Cox, 1857. Geol. Surv. Ky., Vol. Ill, p. 576, 
pi. X, fig. 4. 

LingtUa wnbonata White, 1884. 13 Ann. rep. G^ol. Ind., pt. II, 
p. 120, pi. XXV, fig. 14. 

The specimens from Des Moines are somewhat larger than the 
one originally figured by Cox (fee. cit), and like that are broader 
posteriorly to the mid-length than anteriorly. The posterior mar- 
gin is broadly rounded instead of being obtusely angular as it is 
often said to be, and as is shown in some figures of this species. 
None of the specimens under consideration are, therefore, so promi- 
nently subangular on the posterior margin, and broader anteriorly 
to the mid-length as those shown in the figures of Meek and Worthen* 
of a form which they call L, mytiloidea Sowerby, while specimens of 
Sowerby's species figured by Ethridge' have the posterior margin 
«ven more sharply rounded or obtusely angular. No opportunity 
has been offered for directly comparing the American with the 
European forms and consequently their exact specific relations have 
not been sufficiently considered. 

Diioina nitida Phillips. 

Orbtcula nitida Phillips, 1836. Geol. Yorks., II, p. 221, pi. xi, 

figs. 10-13. 
Disdna nitida Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., Vol. V, p. 

572, pi. XXV, fig. 1. 
This species is common at the Polk county coal mine but has not 
as yet been discovered elsewhere in the county. The specimens 

^ Geol. Illinois, Vol. V, p. xxv, figs. 2a, 2b, 2c. 

* Proc. Nat. His. Soc. Glasgow, Vol. IV, pi. v, fig. 3. 


collected are, on the average, smaller than those from other localities. 
Meek and Worthen regard D, missouriensis Shumard a synonym of 
this species. 

Produotui nanni Meek and Worthen. 

Prodnctus naniis Meek and Worthen, 1860. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., p. 450. 

Ptoductus nanus Meek and Worthen, 1866. Geol. 111., Vol. II, 
p. 320, pi. xxvi, figs. 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d. 

This species was described from the lower coal measures of Jeffer- 
son couAty, and inasmuch as the St. Louis limestone is exposed in 
many of the creeks of that locality, its horizon is near the base of 
the coal measures ; the horizon at Des Moines from which the spec- 
imens under consideration were obtained is somewhat higher. 
Though quife rare it will doubtless be found in other localities in 
the Des Moines valley. It is associated with P. muricaivs N. and 
P. to which it presents differences that are both characteristic and 
constant. The almost total absence of spines in this species forms a 
marked contrast with the congeneric species of the same locality. 

Produotui oora D'Orbigny. 

Ptoductus cora d'Orbigny, 1842. Voyage dans TAmerique 

Ptoductus prattenianus Norwood, 1854. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci* 

Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 17. 
Productus asquicostatus Shumard, 1855. Greol. Rep, Missouri, p. 

201, pi. C, fig. 10. 
Ptoductus flemingi Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 

p. 52, tab. iv, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Productus cora White, 1884. Ind. GeoL Rept. for 1883, p. 126, pi. 

xxvi, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
A single specimen from the Polk County coal mine. This species 
was originally described from South America; but with the exception 
of Owen' and Marcou,' American paleontologists have until quite 
recently adopted for this form Norwood's name of P. prattenianus, 
A Produ/stus collected from the Kinderhook in the vicinity of 
Burlington, and from the same horizon in Marshall county, unques- 
tionably belongs to this species ; if, however, this is the form de- 
scribed by White' as P, loevicostus, the latter is certainly synonymous 

^ Geol. Rep. Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 1852. 

' Geology of North America, 1858. 

» Boston Jour. Nat. His., Vol. VII, p. 280, I860. 


with p. cora ; the vertical range of which would extend downward 
to the base of the subcarboniferous. 

Produotns mnrioatue Norwood and Pratten. 

Produdus murioatus Norwood and Pratten, 1854. Jour. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 14, pi. i, fig. 8. 

Productiis muricatua White, 187o. Exp. and Sur. w. 100 merid. 
vol. IV, pt. I, p. 120, pi. viii, fig. 4. 

In the geology of Yorkshire, (p. 214, pi. viii, fig. 3) Phillips iu 
1836 described Producia mnrlcata : but the description is very brief 
and his figure would indicate that he had in hand a specimen of 
less than average size of P. costatus described .by Sowerby nine 
years before. In Iowa, Dr. White found Norwood and Pratten's 
P. muricatuSy most characteristic of the middle coal measures ; the 
recent discoveries, however, show that it is the mo^t abundant 
brachiopod of the lower coal measures in the region around Des 
Moines, yet the average size is somewhat less than that of the 
same species from the calcareous strata of the middle coal measures 
of the same localitv. Both Davidson aud Meek re^jard P. muricatiLB 
N. and P. identical with P. longispinus of Sowerby. Throughout 
Iowa at least, P. muricatm N. and P. ]>resents characteristics that 
are remarkably constant ; and when associated with P. longinpinxis 
no hesitancy whatever wouhl be entertained iu separating the two 
forms. The si)ecies of 7Vr>(///<^/«.§ described have been numerous, as 
is attested bv an extensive and remarkable svnonvmv, which is only 
too iipparent to those wlio liave given the subject careful att<*ntion. 
Tlie widegeogra})hical distribution of some species, and the extensive 
vertical range of others, togetlier witli the concomitant differences 
of environment at tiie time when the sju'cies were living, readily 
accounts for the extreme variations presented. Inattention to this 
im])(>rtant factor has often led to the basis of species upon sujK^r- 
ficial characters wliich are relatively unimj)ortant as cla.ssificatory 
criteria, and tlie confusion arising therefrom lias rendered the study 
of this group extremely unsatisfactory. 

Chonetes meaoloba Norwood and Pratti-n. 

CJionetes mcsoloha Norwood and Pratten, 18.")4. Jour. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila, Vol. Ill, p. i>7. 

Chonetcs me.iohbd White, 1^7'). Expl. and Surveys w. 100 me- 
rid., Vol. IV, p. 12-], pi. ix, fig. 7a. 

This species is one of the most abundant of the brachiopods 
occurring in the bituminous shales of this locality. The average 


width of fifty specimenjs is nine millimeters, much below . normal ; 
specimens very much larger occur in other horizons. Here it is 
generally perfectly preserved in all its details ; the mesial fold is 
more sharply defined, and the depressions on each side of the fold 
relatively deeper than is usual with this species. The depauperate 
condition of this, and in fact of all the brachiopods from the same 
horizon, is suggestive of an environment, at the time these animals 
lived, that was extremely unfavorable to the full development, and 
to the attainment of a normal size that would be rendered possible 
by a more congenial habitat. 

Chonetes IsBvis nov. sp. (Plate XII, figs. 3a, 3b.) 

Shell small ; much wider than long ; transversely semi-elliptical ; 
the cardinal line as long as the greatest width of the shell, or often 
slightly extended beyond the lateral margins. Ventral valve con- 
vex, with no indication of a mesial sinus ; beak not prominent ; 
cardinal area rather narrow but w^ell denned centrally, becoming 
linear toward the extremities ; foramen moderately wide ; cardinal 
margin bearing from four to seven oblique spines on each side of the 
beak. Dorsal valve flat or very slightly concave ; with no mesial 
fold. Surface of both valves apparently perfectly smooth ; but 
under a magnifier it is seen to be marked by numerous fine concen- 
tric striae, and more prominent, often somewhat imbricated, lines of 
growth ; these are sometimes crossed by fine nearly obsolete radia- 
ting striae. 

Length 7 mm. ; breadth 12 mm. 

This species is found in the superimposing black shales of coal 
No. 3 at Des Moines; and is associated with Chonetes mesoloha, 
Productus muricatus, and the minute gasterpods hereafter mentioned. 
The glabrate character, and the absence of a mesial fold and sinus, 
as is constant in all eight of the specimens found, forms a marked 
contrast with the associated congeneric forms, in which the radiating 
striae are unusually sharp and well defined ; and also with the other 
carboniferous forms of the same genus. This species is closely allied 
to, and perhaps identical with, the form described by Geinitz^ as 

^ Carbonformation und Dyas in Nebraska, 1866, p. 60. 
Chonetea glabra; but this name, however, was preoccupied by Hall 
in 1857, for a species from the Upper Helderburg. 

fltreptorhjmohui oreniitria Phillips. 

Spirifera crenistria Phillips, 1836. Greol. Yorks., II, p. 216, pi. 
ix, fig. 6. 


Orthmna erana Meek and Hayden, 1858. Proc. Acad. NaL 

Sci. Phila.. p. 260. 
Orthia robueta Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I. pt II, p. 713. 
Orthit laaalletuu McChesDey, 1860. New Palteo. Fobs., p. 32. 
Orthit riehmondi McCTiesney, 1860. Kew Palseo. Pose-, p. 32. 
HemipTonilea errueut Met;k and Hayden, 1864. Palie. Upper 

Miedouri, p. 26. 
Orthit erenittria Geinitz, 1866. Carb. uod Dyas in Nebrafka, p. 

Hemipronitet cratsut McChesney, 1867. Trans. Chicago Acad. 

6ci., p. 28. 
HemipTonitet erattu* Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. III., vol. 

V, p. 570. 
At the Pioneer mine eeveral moderately larger specimens bave 
been obtained. This spcciea baa been more genendly known as 
Semipronita erattut M. and H. It is a common and charactcru- 
Uc fosHil of tbe coal measures throughout Iowa anil the contiguous 
states, and presenU many varietal phases. Hall's Orthu roinuia 
described from this state is unquestionably identical with this species. 
There is alsu a»sociate<l with tbe Dea Moines specimens a smaller 
fonn, about five millimeters id width, which appears to differ very 
materially from any forms of 3. crenittria examined. 

Syirilarm MBWrata Morton. 

Spirijer mmeratut Morton, 183C. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. XXIX, p. 

Spirtfereameratui Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, 

p. 573. 
Though a moet abundant and characteristic species of the coal 
measures of tbe west, this species is represented in the Des Moioea 
collections by only two specimens, one fairly good though somewhat 


Spirifera rookymontana Marcou. 

Spirifer roekymontanua Marcou, 1858. Greol. N. A., p. 50. 

Spirifer opimua Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, pt. II, p. 711. 

Spirifer mbventricosxis McChesney, 1860. Disc. New Palae. Fos» 
p. 44. 

Pioneer mine : three specimens. This and S. opimus Hall are 
unquestionably synonymous ; and though both names were proposed 
the same year, Marcou's has priority as has been shown by White 
( Vide under Betzia mormoni). McChesney in 1860 described thia 
form as Spirifer suhventricosua, but in the revision of his first paper 
he makes his species synonymous with HalPs & opimus. 

Spiriferina kentnokeniii Shumard. 

Spirifer kentuekensis Shumard, 1855. Greol. Sur. Missouri, p. 203» 
Spiriferina kenttickensis Meek, 1872. U. 8. Geol. Sur. Neb., p. 

Pioneer mine ; two specimens. This species is quite common in 

the calcareous strata of the middle coal measures of the same locality. 

Athyrifl gubtilita Hall. 

Terebratula subtilita Hall, 1852. Stans. Exp. Gt. Salt Lake, p. 

Athyris subtilita Newberry, 1861. Ives Exped. Colorado River^ 
p. 126. 

Not common; in fact, brachiopods are comparatively rare in the 
lower coal measures of the region under consideration, and with two 
exceptions the species are represented by few examples. In the 
limestones of the middle coal measures this species is quite abundant, 
and often attains a large size. As is well known it has a wide 
geographical and vertical distribution, being found from the Appa- 
lachian to the Rocky Mountain regions ; it also occurs in the sub- 
carboniferous of Europe and India. In all probability several species 
described from the subcarboniferous of this country will prove 
synonymous with this form. In North America its vertical range 
would then extend from the subcarboniferous through the coal 
measures into the permian. 

Xetiia mormoxii Maroon. 

Terebratula mormonii Marcou, 1858. Geology N. A., p. 51. 
Retzia punctilifera Shumard, 1858. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci.^ 

vol. I, p. 220. 
Retzia mormonii Meek and Hayden, 1859. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

ScL Phila., p. 27. 


Thi* species is reprcaected by two specimens, oDe of which is 
•4>mt<nhat crushed. There appears to be satisfActory evidence that 
Man»u's name has priority. Dr. White says in a foot note on p. 
li>, volume IV, of Explorations and Surveys west of the 100th 
meridian : 

" Orfhii peeoti, ReUia mormoni, Rhynehonella via, if. roctymon- 
(.ina, and Spirifer rockymontaiia wore published by Marcon in his 
G»Hi)oE:y of North America. I have obtained satisfactory evidence 
ihat ihe work was published as early as March 1, 1858. Vol. XV, 
tif the Bulletin de In Socif-t^ G^logique de France contains a 
statement that a copy of the book was sent to that society on April 
'*i*. l8.)8. lu the same year Shumard and Swallow published a 
paper containing descriptions of the three first named species, under 
other names, in the irniisactions of the St. Louis Academy of Sci- 
ences, but that publication was not made until about the first of 
June, In December of the same year. Hall published in the 
Oiilojrical Report of Iowa, 5pin/era rockymontanaaaS. opimui; and 
in 18(»0, SIcChesney publi^thed R. rockymoiUana, as R. etoniajonnu. 
Il thus ap])ears clear that Marcou is cntitlnl to priority of all five 
of the names given above, as stated in the synonymy heading the 
descriptions of those species in this report." 

Xjaliiu fwaUavi MK'hHO'^y. 

Myalina ttmllovi McOhesney, 1860. New. Palie. Fow.. p. 57. 
Myalina twillovi Meek and Worlhen, 1866. Geol. III., II, p. 

Giant mine : not common ; some of those obtained are in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation. 
ATleDlopMt«B oosanai U«k ud Wonhcn. 


Avwulopecten neglectus Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., 
vol. V, p. 589. 

The specimens referred to this species are somewhat larger than 
either of those figured by Geinitz, or Meek and Worthen, but other- 
wise correspond in every particular. It is without ornamentation 
excepting concentric lines of growth and the folds or wrinkles of 
the ear. 

^Faoulana belliitriata Stevens. 

Leda bellistriata Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci., 2nd series, vol. 

XXV, p. 261. 
Nuculana bellistriata White, 1884. Geol. Rep. Ind. for 1883, p. 

At Des Moines this species is not common; but in the black 
shales overlying the workable coal seams at Van Meter in Dallas 
county it is very abundant, often being found in " nests " closely 
packed together. 

JTaonla parva MoChesnej. 

Nticulaparva McChesney, 1860. Disc. New False. Foss., p. 54, 

Nucula parva Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 

589. ^ 

Giant mine ; quite rare. Owing to its small size it might easily 

escape notice and this fact may partly account for the apparent 

rarity of this species. 

ITaoala ventriooia Hall. 

Nucula ventricosa Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, pt. ii, p. 716. * 
Nucula ventricosa White, 1884. Geol. Rep. Ind. for 1883, p. 146. 
Many of the specimens collected exhibit the internal characters of 
the shell — ^the characteristic and well defined muscular impressions, 
and the small prominent teeth along the hinge line. 

Sehiiodui (sp. und.) 

This genus is represented by casts which occur in nodules of iron 
pyrites, but the specific characters have not as yet been made out* 

Clinopiitha radiata Hall. 

Edmondiat radiata Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, p. 716. 
Clinopistha radiata Meek and Worthen, 1870. Proc. Acad. 

Sci. Phila., p. 44. 
Some of the Des Moines specimens exhibit no g 

whatever, though the concentric lines of growth are oi i < 
spicuous. Inasmuch as the smooth forms and those ii 




radiming itruc, and between the two extremes ererj degree of 
gradfttion occur amosted. it is qaeetionable whether the Tmrtety 
Iterit M. mad W. can be coandeicd u haviog eren the valoe ot a 
▼arieiv ; but is lo be regarded rather u an indiyidiial and not > 
Tarielal diflereoce. 
SAlBBoMfm MlaaUaraia Oil 

Solenomya goUnifortnis Oox. 1S57. GeoL Sur. Kentackj, toL m, 
p. 573. 

At the Giant mioe tbe form which is here referred to the species 
described in the Kentucky Geological report, vol. Ill, p. 573, i» not 
common ; it is considerably larger than that figured by Cox, but 
otherwise corresponds in all other observable particulars. It is bj 
iar the largest lamellibrancb yet found at Des Moines, but the shell 
is very thin and easily detached from tbe matrix. 

D«Bt4UDin mMktanBn Ociniii. 

Dentalium meek'uinum Geinitz, 1 

XtTOfVa, ]>. 13. 
DenUUiiiin meekianumf Meek and Worthen, 1873. 

vol. V, |.. 590. 

Thin s[)ecii:H is represented by numerous specimens, but none of 
thcin liiiviiig both extremities perfectly preserved. The onuunenta- 
tioii iiiHoiiifof the specimens is well preserved, in others it is obsolete, 
and u few ure jicrfcclly glabrate. 

mnUliam annnloitrlstDm Me«lt >pd Wonhin. 

Dcntiilium T annuiogtriitlum Meek and Worthen, 1870. Proc 

Arwi. Nut. .Si. I'hilu., j>. 45. 
DenUilium t a,mulo»truilum iMcek and Worthen, 1S73. Oeol. lU., 

vol. V, ]>. .WO. 

Carb. und £>yas in Xe- 
G«ol. IIL, 


Bellerophon monfortianui Norwood and Pratten. 

'Bellerophon Tnonfortianus Norwood and Pratten, 1855. Jour. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. Ill, p. 74. 
Bellerophon monfortianus Geinitz, 1866. Garb, und Dyas in 

Nebraska, p. 8. 
Giant mine ; a highly ornamented species, but not as common as 
its associated congeners. 

Bellerophon urii Fleming. 

Bellerophon urii Fleming, 1828. Brit. Anim., p. 338. 
Bellerophon urii Keferst, 1834. Naturg. des Erdk., II, p. 430. 
B, urii Phillips, 1836. Geol. Yorks., II, p. 31, pi. 17, figs. 11-12. 
jB. atlantoides d'Orbigny, 1840. Monog. des C^phalop. Cryptodibr., 

pi. 4, figs. 14-19. 
jB. urii Phillips, 1841, Palse. Foss. Cornwall, etc., p. 106, pL 

xl, fig. 199. 
B, urii d'Arch. et de Vern, 1842. Geol. Trans., (2), vol. VI, pt. 

ii, p. 386. 
B, urii Fleming et Portlock, 1843. Rep. on the Geol. of the 

County of Lond., p. 400, pi. XXIX, fig. 9. 
B. d'Orhignyi Portlock, 1843. Rep. Geol. Lond., p. 401, pi. 

XXIX, fig. 12. 
B, (^EuphemuB) urii McCoy, 1844. Syn. Carb. Fos. Ireland, p. 

jB. urii de Koninck, 1844. Descriptions des Animaux Fossiles 

(de Belgique), p. 356, pi. XXX, fig. 4. 
jB. urii J. Morris, 1854. Cat. Brit. Fossils, p. 288. 
jB. urii Norwood and Pratten, 1854. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

vol. Ill, p. 75, pi. IX, fig. 6. 
B. urii McCoy, 1855. Brit. PalsB. Foss., p. 555. 
jB. carhonarius Cox, 1857. Palseont. Rep. Ky. Greol. Sur., vol. 

Ill, p. 562. 
jB. blaneyanus McChesney, 1860. New Palse. Foss., p. 60. 
jB. urii F. Romer, 1863. Zeitschr. d. d. geol. Ges., vol. XV, p. 

582, taf. XV, f 4. 
B, carbonariua Gteinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, p. 6, 

tab. i, fig. 8. 
B. blaneyanus McChesney, 1867. Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., vol. 

I, p. 45, pi. ii, fig. 5. 
jB. urii Armstrong, 1871. Trans, Greol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. Ill, 

suppu p. 61. 


B. earhojiariui Meek. 1872. U. 8. Geol Sur. Nebruka, pt 224, 
pi. IT, fig. 16; etpl. xi, fig. 11. 

B. tin'i de Kooiock, 1873. Recherches sur ies Ajunuuiz Foauln, 
p. 98, pL iv, fig. 2. 

B. earbonariut White, 1884. GeoL uu) Nat His. 8ur. IndUna, 
13 r«p., p. 158, pi. xixiii, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Ahuadsnt at the Giant mine. The sbeU is of medium siie; nib- 
globose; dorsum broadly rounded. Umbilici closed. Aperture 
transTeraelj semilunate, but not eipanding more rapidly thaji the 
uniform increase in the site of the volutions ; inner lip but sligbtlj 
developed ; outer lip thickened and rounded towards the umbilici, 
but becoming very attenuated toirards the middle ; its medial anus 
rather broad, rounded and not very deep. Medial band obscure on 
the coetate portion of the shell, but on the terminal half of the body 
wbor) more or le« distinct and in some specimens bordered oo each 
side by a low, narrow, yet well defined, ridge. Surface except the 
last half of the outer whorl ornamented with from fifteen to thirty 
or more sharp, simple, nearly parallel costse. TermiDat half of body 
wborl smooth, except along the medial portion which is often marked 
by lines of growth, and sometimes by the low ridges, to which 
reference has already been made. 

The form considered here under the name of BeUerophon un't is 
the one usually designated by American palieontologisis as B. ear- 
^onartus <.'ox. A careful comparison of the descriptions and figures 
of the various writers on this group of Gasteropoda, and a large 
series of specimens fails to furnish any valid reason for separating 
specifically the American from the European form described by 
Fleming in 1828 as BeUerophon urii. Norwood and Pratt«n referred 
Cox's specimens tu B. urii; but Cox in 1857 made it the type of a 
species which he called B. earbonaritu, distinguishing it from the 
European form by tins slight latuntl expamtiou <jf tho mouth aud 


species and the European form the possession by the former of only 
sixteen costse, or about half the number ascribed to B. urii by de 

Pleurotomaria brazoeniii Shumard. 

Pleurotomaria brazoensis Shumard, 1860. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
Sci., vol. I, p. 624. 

Pleurotomaria brazoensis f Meek and Worthen, 1866. Greol. 111., 
vol. II, p. 354. 

The specimens of this species collected do not present much varia- 
tion. The two peripheral carinae are nearly equal and between them 
is located the concave band of the sinus. The whorls are orna- 
mented by sixteen or seventeen strong filiform lines — nine below the 
lower carina, upon which there are two filiform lines ; three above 
the upper carina upon which there are two and sometimes three 
lines ; and a single line on the sinal band. Crossing the revolving 
lines are numerous prominent, equidistant transverse lines which 
give to the whole ornamentation a peculiarly yet regularly cancella- 
ted appearance ; between, and parallel to, these transverse raised striae 
are also from three to six microscopic, yet sharp and distinct raised 
striae. Meek and Worthen refer with a query to Shumard*s species 
a form from Macoupin county, Illinois, having about twenty-five 
revolving lines (twelve of which occupy the lower side of the body- 
whorl) instead of thirteen or fourteen as ascribed by Shumard to 
this species. Shumard says : " surface of volutions ornamented with 
from thirteen to fourteen rather strong filiform striae which are 
crossed by sharp transverse striae ; " if by this he intends to convey 
the idea that this is the entire number of lines including those on 
the under side of the body whorl. Meek and Worthen remark that 
they " should scarcely entertain a doubt in regard to our [their] 
shell being a distinct species, since it uniformly has about double 
that number of revolving striae on the last whorl." In this and 
some other groups of gasteropods much classificatory importance 
appears to have been attached to the number of revolving costae ; 
and sometimes a variation of three or four in the number has been 
almost the only basis for specific distinction. After a critical exam- 
ination of a large series of different species presenting these characters, 
the question has arisen relative to the value of the number of costae 
as a classificatory criterion. In some gasteropodous groups it has, 
within certain limits of course, small value ; its exact importance 
in Pleurotomaria and some allied genera has not as yet been satis- 

3-39 raocEXDtVG* or the academt of [1888. 

fiurtorilf made out, bat it is certain, however, that in •ome groapa at 
least, it does not poneM specificsUT such an important claanfiotoiy 
value as hu been generallv supposed. 
TUontamaria MadMta bot. ip. (PI*4c XII, if*, la. tk.) 

8heU amal), sublenticular, spire greatlj depreaaed, volutiona Ax, 
obliquely flattened above ; body whorl very large, rapidly increasing 
in size, sharply angular on the periphery, flatteoed or very slightly 
concave above, prominently rounded below, suture line linear ; 
spiral band very narrow almost linear, very slightly impressed and 
occupying a position just above the peripheral angle ; on the spin 
the band is obscured by a single series of conspicuous nodes ; aper- 
ture subquadrate, or subrfaombic; umbilical re^on slightly im- 
prvst«<l, but not perforated ; surface glabrate ; under a glass exhib- 
iting fine lines of growth ; the lart whori with a series of small 
transverse folds, or wrinkles, toward the tuberculated mar;^n ; each 
fold apparently originating at a uodc and extending about one-half 
or two-thirds the distance to the periphery', 

Twi'nty or more specimens of this beautiful little species have 
been obtained from the black superimposing shales of coal No. 3. 
It ajiproaches more closely than to any other the form described by 
Cox ait P. depret»a and may eventually prove identical with that 
form. /*. depresga, however, was preoccupied by Phillips in 1836; 
and this name was also used by de Koninck and by Passy. 
PUarot«nula Kr*rvlU«iuU Nomood Bod Pniten. 

JfeurQlomaria f/rayvillentie Norwood and Prattcn, 1855. Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Bc-i. Phila., vol. Ill, p. 75. 

PkiirotomaTia grayvilUtitU Gcinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in 
Nebraska, p. ^. 

Shell rather small, conical subovate, longer than wide; sfnra 


toward the suture. The number of raised revolving lines appears to 
Tary with the size of the specimens, and the maximum given is for 
the largest specimens collected. This species was originally de- 
scribed from Pasey county, Indiana, and Grayville, Illinois. 

^learotomaiia oarbonaria Norwood and Pratten. 

Pleurotomaria carbonaria Norwood and Pratten, 1855. Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., (2), vol. Ill, p. 76. 

This is by far the largest gasteropod yet discovered at Des Moines, 
and the test, as compared with that of the associated species, is ex- 
tremely thick and heavy. A closely allied species has been described 
from the coal measures at Newport, Indiana, as P. newportenais 
White. According to Dr. White it differs from P. carbonaria in 
having " its revolving band ample and raised instead of concave, 
with revolving lines within it, as in that species ; and also in having 
its aperture subcircular instead of semicircular." 

Kaorooheilai hamilii, nov. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 1.) 

Shell very small, short, subfusiform, or elongate-subovate ; spire 
prominent, forming one-third or more of the entire length of the 
43hell; volutions about six, increasing moderately in size, slightly 
<;onvex. Test rather thin. Columellar fold distinctly visible within 
the aperture, which is subelliptical ; callosity clearly defined but 
not conspicuous; outer lip thin, sharp. Suture well-defined but 
not deeply impressed. Surface smooth, but under a glass exhibiting 
lines of growth. Length 6 mm. ; width 3*5 mm. 

This little species is from the superimposing black shales of coal 
No. 3, at the Giant mine ; and is found associated with the numerous 
other small gasteropods mentioned hereafter. 

Kaoroohailai graoilii Cox. 

Macroeheilvs gracilis Cox, 1857. G^l. Sur. Kentucky, vol. Ill, 
p. 570. 

The roof shale of coal No. 3, has furnished a good series of this 
species, representing all stages of development up to those fifteen 
millimetres in length. The smaller specimens are less ventricose 
and have the spire proportionally higher than in the older ones, 
vrhich approach nearer the form described as M, ventricosus Hall, 
and there is therefore reason to believe that the two species will 
eventually prove identical. Cox states in his description that his 
apecies was most likely a young shell. White^ considers Soleniscus 

1 Gcol. Ind., Rep. for 1883, p. 156. 


(MntTodieiliu) brevu White, described in the rapplemrat to rot, 
III, 'it the ExpL utd Sarv. west of Uw 100 merid. nnonrmoa* 
with M. venlrieo*'!! HalL 
MMTMkaUu — W iif l ^tntvM. 

Loxonemanetebcrryiikevtos.lSS^. Am. Joor.Sci^(2),ToLXXV, 
p. 259. 

Macroehaftu neir&erryi Hall, 1858, G«oL low*,, toL I, p. 719. 

The ■pecimens collected «t Des Moine« present cooaidcrabls 
Tariatioo : snme are typical if. nevherryi, tram which others gradat* 
into forms more nearly approaching that ducrtbed by Hall from 
Alpine Dam as Jf. fimformu ; hence their identity is not improbable, 
ThU in also in corroboration with the mggcMi«i of Dr. White in the 
Indiana geological report for 188-3 that " with fidi collections at 
hand, it will be difficult to clearly define the specific characters 
between M. neteberryi, M. planiu and Jf. Ju«iformit." 

Ortk*B*Ba «oal»« Mtck aitd Worth en. 

Orthonema eoniea Meek and Worthen, 1866, Proc, Acad. Nat. 

8ci. Philft., p. 270. 
Orthonema eoniea Meek and Worthen, 1873, Geology lU., voL 

V, p. 390. 
This species is represented by only two specimens, both somewhat 
smaller than those figured by Meek and Worthen. 
A«t»«aia mlDnta Htrta: 

Loxonenia minvia Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci., (2), vol. XXV, 

p. 260. 
Aciaonia minuta Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol, V. p. 

This is one of the most abundant of the small gasteropoda occur- 
ring in the bituminous shales overlying coal No. 3. 


Aclis TohuBta Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 

Abundant. This and the preceding species were described hj 
Stevens under Aclia^ but in 1881 de Koninck established the genus 
Aclisina which now includes the four American carboniferous species 
originally described under the former genus. 

Streptaoii whitfieldi Meek. 

Streptacis whitfieldi Meek, 1871. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p,> 

Streptacis whitfisldi Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., voL 

V, p. 596. 
This species is very rare, and is found associated with the four 
preceding species. 

Anomphalaf rotului Meek and Worthen. 

Anamphalus rotulus Meek and Worthen, 1866. Proc. Acad» 

Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 268. 
Anomphalus rotulus Meek and Worthen, 1873. Greol. 111., vol. 

V, p. 597. 
One of the most abundant species occurring in superimposing- 
shales of coal No. 3. In some of the specimens there is a tendency 
to become angular around the periphery toward the terminus of the 

Enomphalaf rugofui Hall. 

Euomphalus rugosvs Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, p. 722. 
Straparollus (Euomphalus) suhrugosus Meek and Worthen, 1873* 

Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 607. 
Euomphalus rugosvs White, 1884. 13th Rep. Geol. Indiana, p. 

This species is quite common. 

Enomphaliii pernodoiui Meek and Worthen. 

Straparollus (Etwmphalus) pernodosm Meek and Worthen, 1870^ 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 45. 
Straparollus (Euomphalus) pemodosus Meek and Worthen, 1873. 

Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 604. 
But a single specimen of this large Euomphalus has been found 
at Des Moines. 



OrthoMTU rvihaads MeChamej. 

OrOuHXTM riuheiuu McChesney, I860. New Pais. FoaBiU, p. 68. 
Orthoeeraa rushauU White, 1884. G«ol. Report Ind. for 1883, p. 

Specimena of this, and perhaps other species, often occur qoitc 
abuadaotly. The specific characters of the described species of 
this genus are so obscure that all attempts to separate manr of the 
ao-called species prove futile. A careful comparison of the carboD- 
iferous forma will doubtless lead to a considerable increase in the 
synonymy of this group, and a reduction of the number of species to 
four or five. 
OrtlieMTu ((p. Dsd.) 

A single specimen from the Pioneer mine ; it is nearly 50 cm. in 
length and has a diameter at the larger extremity of about 5 cm. 
It is by far the largest specimen of this genus yet observed in the 
carboniferous rocks of Iowa. 
Vantiliu UsallauU MhIi and Worthn. 

yaulitjis latalUneU Meek and Worthen, 1866. Proc Acad. Kal. 

Sci. Phila., p. 261. 
Xautilvg Itualletunt ^feek and Worthen, 1873. OeoL 111., vol V, 

p. 610. 
Quite common at the Giant mine ; but few of the specimens are 
in a very good state of preservation. 
■•ntUas OMldaatslU So allow. 

XaiUilut occidentalit Svallov, 1858. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci, 

vol. I, p. 196. 
NatUiltu quadntngnlarit McChesney, 1860. Disc. New. Palsb 
Foes., p. 6o. 


Nautihi^ {Teninocheilus) winslovi Meek and Worthen, 1873. 

Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 609. 
Nautilus winslovi White, 1884. Geol. Ind., Rept. for 1883, p. 

Not common, and usually fragmentary. 


Cythere nebraoeniii Geinitz. ? 

Cyihere nebracensis Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 
p. 2. 

It is with some doubt that the form from Des Moines is referred 
to G^initz's species ; it is much smaller than that which he described, 
and also differs in other particulars. A dozen or more good speci- 
mens were collected at the Pioneer mine where they were associated 
with Synocladia biserialii. This and a trilobite are the only crusta- 
cean remains thus far discovered in the carboniferous strata at Des 
Moines. The remains of articulates in the lower coal measures of 
Iowa are exceedingly rare, and the only hitherto known specimens 
of this group are more or less fragmentary remains of a single genus 
of trilobites. Prior to this, ostracoid crustaceans have been collected 
in Iowa in the upper and middle coal measures, and now is recorded 
their presence in the strata of the lower coal measures of the state. 

PhilUpiia (sp. ?) 

Of the trilobites only a single pygidium of a Phillipsia has been 
collected, and this at the Pioneer mine. 


Petrodaf oocidentalii Newberry and Worthen. 

Fetrodus occidentalis Newberry and Worthen, 1866. Gteol. 111. 
vol. Ill, p. 70. 

From the Pioneer mine have been collected nearly all the remains 
of fishes that have been found in the carboniferous strata of this re- 
gion. It is with some little doubt that the dermal tubercles that are 
here referred to this species really belong to it. The base is subquad- 
rate in outline ; and the thin abruptly sharpened edge is broader 
than in the one figured by Newberry and Worthen ; the ridges ex- 
tending downward towards the obtuse angles of the base are much 
more prominent than the others, which do not extend to the top of 
the crown. There has also been collected at this mine the fin spines 
of two species ; one about two centimeters, and the other four centi- 




meters ia length ; the former ia the more common and in a very 
perfect state of preservation. 
Diplodni tp. ? 

From the superimposing shales of coal No. 3 at the Giant mine. 
The specific characters of the teeth collected have not been satisfac- 
torily made out. They are evidently not far removed from D. 
amplicatus M. and Worthen, but the denticles are larger, more 
slender and much longer than in that species. 

Synoptical Table of Genera and Species. 





species 1 














■ Gasteropoda 












Summing up the predominant faunal features as presented in the 
accompanying synoptical table, it appears (1) that in those groups 
having an optimum habitat marine there was not only a fewness of 
species but also an extreme paucity of individuals ; (2) that brach- 
iopoda though well represented in both genera and species were in 
fact not as proportionately abundant as might be expected when it 


composed more than one-third of the entire fauna. Not only did 
they exceed in species but they far outnumbered all others in indi- 
viduals, and while as a rule they were small and some of them even 
minute their great numbers made up, in great part at least, for the 
conspicuity of larger but few forms. Though the majority of the 
forms of this group are small it is not a depauperation as among the 
brachiopods, as is shown by the average size of the individuals of 
each species being normal, and in some instances even considerably 
above. Some of the species are also of interest because of their 
recognition for the first time within the limits of the state, and thus 
to a considerable extent their known geographical range is increased. 
Others of the species enumerated are now known to have a wide 
geographical distribution which is suggestive of a somewhat ex- 
tended vertical range. Among recent mollusca and especially land 
forms a wide geographical distribution, as has been remarked by 
Binney, appears to be indicative of a high antiquity for the group. 
The corroborative evidence is abundant : a notable instance is the 
living ZoniteSy four or more species of which are circumpolar in their 
distribution; and the genus; — even a subgenus Conulua to which 
one of these living forms belongs — ranges back to the carboniferous, 
while the genus Pupa is represented in the carboniferous by four 
species. Cephalopods are not abundant in the region under consid- 
eration and are represented by only two genera and five species, yet 
a Nautilus attained a diameter of twenty centimetres, and an Or- 
thoceras was fifty centimetres in length with a diameter at the 
larger extremity of five centimetres. Of the lamellibranchs the 
majority are small, though two of them are comparatively large, 
attaining a length of nearly ten centimetres, yet having an extremely 
thin and fragile shell. One of the specimens collected is of especial 
significance as exhibiting in all its details the internal features of 
the shell — the characteristic well-defined muscular scars and the 
edentulous hinge margin; in fact, so closely does it resemble in 
these characters, the general form and external appearance, a mod- 
em Anodonta that it is difficult to see how it can be generically 
separated from it ; and should further investigation prove that the 
specimens imder consideration really belong to that genus, it would 
be of unusual interest in its bearing upon the distribution of fresh- 
water or non-marine mollusca during geologic times. The modern 
Vnio and allied genera certainly have both a wide geographical and 
geological distribution, as is shown by the rich discoveries of Union- 


ida in the Mesozoic strata of the vest : and the genus Anodonia ie, 
if the opinion of Hall is adhered to, represented in the Devonian by 
two epeciea, hut that these two fonuB really belong to Anodonta is 
still questioned. Dawson has described several allied forms from 
the carboniferous of Nova Scotia; their family position is as yet 
also unsettled. With these considerations in view, the evidence 
thus far obtained points to a high antiquity for this group of bivalves 
which now is so abundantly represented in all our streams and 
ponds. As will be noted Crustaceans are represented by a species 
of Cohere; and a triloblte of which a single pygidium only has 
been discovered. Vertebrates are rare also, a few fish spines about 
two centimetres in length, and several teeth, and dermal tubercles 
are the only remains of this class found. 



Conooardiam altum nov. sp. (Plate XII, figs. 4a and 4b.) 

Shell of medium size, subtrigonal, anterior view broadly cordate. 
Anterior end truncate, with a forward slope from the umbones to 
the lower anterior sharply i-ounded extremity. Dorsal margin 
i)ekind the. beaks slightly curved, with the edges of the valves 
incurved, while in front of the beaks it is produced forward into a 
more or less prominent alate extension ; basal margin crenate within ; 
f)08tenor extremity -at the hinge line decidedly angular. Beaks 
rather prominent, gibbous, incurved. Hiatus lanceolate ; occupying 
about two-thirds of the lower posterior margin. Surface marked by 
eimpl«, regular, radiating costse, about forty in number, twenty-five 
of which occupy that portion of the shell behind the umbonal slope ; 
the umbonal slope is broad, bordered on each side by a prominent 
costa wheels gives it a decided biangular appearance ; the costse are 
crossed by numerous fine, crowded concentric lines ; and a few larger 
somewhat imbricated lines of growth. 

Length 24 mm. ; breadth 21 mm. ; height 20 mm. 

Horizon and locality. Limestones of the Hamiltonian at Iowa 
City, Iowa. 

This species somewhat resembles certain forms of C trigonale of 
Hall, but the very broad strongly biangular umbonal slope readily 
distinguishes it from that species. It also approaches some congen* 
eric forms from the Devonian of Europe, especially certain species 
frt)m the western part of France, recently described by M. CEhlert* 

Cyrtooerai opixnum nov. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 5.) 

Shell rather large, strongly curved, gradually expanding toward 
the outer chamber, but enlarging more rapidly transversely than in 
the opposite direction ; transverse section broadly elliptical, slightly 
flattened on the ventral side. Distance between the septa about one* 
fifth or one-sixth the transverse diameter. 

Horizon and locality, Hamiltonian of Johnson county, Iowa. 

This is a large and robust species from the Iowa Devonian, hav- 
ing a length along the dorsum of probably forty or forty-five 
centimetres, and a transverse measurement of eighteen or twenty 

^ £tude sur quelques Fossiles D6voniens de I'ouest de la France. 

• • • • • * • •* 


centimetres ; dorso -ventral diamet«r of outer chamber nearly dx 
centimetres. It baa been found at varioua exposures of Hamiltonian 
limeatone in Johason and the contiguous counties. It appears to 
be closely related to certain species from the Niagarian of the west- 
ern states. 

Explanation of Plate XII. 

Fig. 1. Macrockeilua humilie n. s. P^g^ ■ 

Enlarged about 5 diameters. 
Fio. 2. PleuTotomaria modetta n. s 

2a. View from above, X 2. 

2b. Profile, X 2. 
FiQ. 3. Chonetea lama n. s , 

3a. An average sized specimen, X 2. 

3b. Longitudinal section, X 2. 
Fig. 4, Conocardium. allum n. s , , 

4a, Lateral view. 

4b. Dorsal outline. 
Fig. 5, Oyrloceraa opimum n, s. . 

Bed need to i natural size. 

] nATTftAL Ml KscDi or nuLAtuxmu. 249 

Mr Tii'>ii4tt Miiiii%. ViiY- i'nrvhirnt. in thr rhair 
T««-Ut |N-r» 11* prrvtit 

Mr rii&« II 1*1 ^^ii'«i Ki i; 111 (lir I liair 

At ..(-T .M 
IH A K. l**-'Tt in iIh- (liair 

Al -.1 •¥ J* 

Mr l*««t I M%i.ii^ii%ii iti &ljr I hair 
Mr J r ;. *").a.i' r «v «&• t '^> !ffil a n.« riikvf 


X|r I II -w %• Ml ■ II i^ \ I'T l*r^*t<i«i)t in tlir • Kmir 
I •-.T*,«» :. j« r»* t.* J T* •• i.S 

1 1-7 1 Ml II. : ! 

I If J |l ili.:%: % .*. !.'.< • hi.r 

t c :. I*** ' ' t **■•* !•* 



Futnla RiiTtnUiiB, Nobii. PL. XIII, Bg. I. 

Bhell dextral, ovate, solid, smooth, spire short, one-fourth the 
length, whorls 5, rounded, bodj whorl large, suture deeply impressed, 
spiral strite numerous and very fine ; umbilicus slightly compressed, 
aperture somewhat oblique, lip white expanded and slightly concave, 
peritreme not connected by callus, shell pale horn color, spire in 
most examples denuded of epidermis, presenting a white appearance. 

L. 16. Diam. 10. L. apt. 8. Diam, 5 mill. 

Hab. Aura Island in the Malo Pass, Santo Espirito group New 
Hebrides. A common species. 

Oh. Received from E. L. Layard, Esq., H. B. M. Consul at 
New Caledonia. 
FaitnU ounieolor, Nobis. PI. XIII, fig. 2. 

Shell dextral, ovate elongate, spire attenuate, acute, more than 
half the length, whorls 5, rounded, suture impressed, spiral stris 
very fine; umbilicus compressed, aperture ovate, slightly oblique, 
columella wide at base. Lip white, expanded and slightly concave, 
shell a pale flesh color, with wide darker stria running obliquely 
through it. 


Partula albesoens, Nobis. PI. XIII, fig. 4. 

Shell dextral, ovate elongate, spire acute, regularly tapering, 
equal to one half the length, whorls 5, rounded. Suture impressed, 
body whorl somewhat inflated, spiral striae numerous, regular and 
very fine, umbilicus open, aperture ovate, oblique, peritreme connect- 
ed by a thin callus, columella wide at base, lip white, expanded, 
and concave, color a clear white and translucent. 

L. 25. Diam. 13. L. apt. 8. Diam. apt. 5. 

Hab. Aura and Satova Islands, N. Hebrides, E. L. Layard, Esq. 

Obs. A pretty species, resembling Partula alahastrina Pfr. 

from Figii Isles, except that it is larger and the spire is more acute. 

Troohomorpha rubens, Nobis. PI. XIII, figs. 5, 5a, 5b. 

Shell sub-lenticular, translucent, convex above, whorls 5, acutely 
carinate, compressed, planulate, lightly striate beneath the suture, 
which is margined by the acute carina, base convex, with very fine 
transverse striae, umbilicus large, perspective one fifth the diameter 
of the shell, aperture oblique, diagonal, peritreme simple, except near 
the base, color reddish brown, with a darker revolving line at the 
periphery, visible within the aperture, and extending to the apex. 

H. 5. Diam. 15. H. apt. 2 J. Diam. apt. 6 mill. 

Hab. Aura Islands, N. Hebrides. 

Ohs. Mr. Layard observes, "this shell has a general range 
throughout the N. Hebrides," it differs from all others with which 
I am acquainted. T, planorhis is thinner, more translucent, and 
more depressed, with a wider umbilicus exhibiting the whorls to the 

Helioina Layardi, Nobis. PI. XIII, figs. 6, 6a. 

Shell dextral, orbiculate, thin, spire convex, whorls 4, compressed, 
the first one and a half foveate, with thin indistinct elevated spiral 
striae, the remainder transversely and finely striate, suture distinct, 
umbilical region covered by an elevated vitreous callosity which is 
foveate, aperture triangularly lunate, peristome slightly revolute, 
moderately thickened, emarginate at base, color pale lemon yellow, 
with two blood-red bands, one above, the other beneath the periph- 
ery, and visible within the aperture. 

H. 4i. Diam. 7. H. apt. 3 J. Diam. apt. 2 mill. 

Hab. Aura Islands, New Hebrides, E. L. Layard. 

Oba. Resembles H. priineana Gass. from New Caledonia. 


Amutra BiiniiUiit, Soba. Ft. Xin, fig. T, 

Shell dextr&l, ovate cnnic, whorls 5t, slightly rounded, body whorl 
aotnewhat inflated, two thirds the length, the first one and a half 
compoeed of slightly curved plicie, suture lightly impressed, epiderm- 
is dark brown with black zig-za^ed lines and linear striie, body whorl 
a dark red color beneath the epidermis, aperture eemi-ovate, dark 
red, columella straight, with a white twisted plait near the base. 

L. 15. W. 7. L. apl. 6. Diwn. apt 3 mill. 


Ob». Received from D. D. Baldwin, Esq., and so called fi^m its 
Mze and resemblance to A. miteronata Newc. 

Kelania ftbb«T«iu Brot m>. RobiB. Plat« XIII, figs. 8, So. 

Shell solid, elongate, the last one fourth of the spire, rapidly taper- 
ing to the acute apex, whorls 16 or more, horn color, with numerous 
longitudinal plictB over the whole surface, which are decussated by 
transverse lines giving it a granulated appearance, the base of the 
plicae of the last whorl, are spinous, which are sometimes absent. 
The surface of the shell between the plicffi is staooth ; base spirally 
striate; aperture rounded ovate, white within; a heavy callus de- 
posit on the columella, which is incurved and twisted, opercle with 
the polar point near the base. 

Length, 44 mill. 

Hab. Vati, New Hebrides. 

Obg. I have received a number of examples of this shell, from 

liM ] nATi'ftAi. iHii.3i<-ni or rniuiuiuj^u. ;2&S 

MrTmnm 1^ 

Mr riMRi 1^ M'*iii(i« in the chair 
I* .••.« •. |« r». n* { r««i t.t 
A :•!:• r • ^ -. ' 1 I :.• TtiaSt! K u'-t in Man," \*% llarn^iti AlWtt 

••» IT I m I I. J'l 

1 *r .1 1» lii.iN T<>H It. ihr « Kair 



The structures of the hodj which are the most constant and 
those which are the most variahle have alike an ioterest to the 
biologist and to the physician. When conBtant they present char- 
act«rs which may be employed in classification, and when variable 
they are accepted as delicate testa for the activity of the nutritiye 
and developmental processes. I propose iu the connections laat 
named to study the folds or rugee of the hard palate f£ they are 
seen in the human subject after the period of infancy, especially is 
subjects who have reported to me for the treatment of chronic 
nasal catarrh. A group of minor structures is here met with which 
can be presented in a systematic manner notwithstanding the wide 
range of variation they exhibit. 

What variations from the type met with in the lower animals are 
seen in man ? How do these variations in turn associate themselves 
with morbid states? With what structures do these variations 
correlate? What forces are at work to produce in man results so 
different from those seen in the animals related to him? 

I will attempt to answer these questions, I will also ^ve among 
related appearances those which may have a clinical significance. 

In the main it may be said that the rugee of the lower animals 


maxillie, and the tnmtve pad which is an elliptical or pear-shaped 
body which answers to the position of the incisive foramen. 

The raph6 is ordinarily composed of two parts, one of which 
represents the median line and the other is deflected from it to the 
left at the posterior free end. (See figa. 2, 4, 7.) 

The rugie extend back no farther than the first molar tooth. The 
region answers to an imaginary plane which bisect the infra-orbital 
foramina. The rugse are composed of papules which are arranged 
in series, an arrangement which is most evident in the posterior 
folds. The folds are smallest where the membranes are the thin- 
neat and are the largest where they are the thickest. 

As a rule the incisive pad is in line with the raph6, but it may 
be deflected (see fig. 3) or continued forwards between the central 
incisors (see fig. ,5). Occasionally the antftrior end can be seen from 
the front lying in the interval between the teeth named. It may 
persist in the aged long after the loss of the incisors. When the 
deflection is decided it enters into the causation of tonu palatintig} 

The areh is wide and moderaiely arched. The rugs as a rale are 
entire, — the exceptions being both first posl-sulural ruga:— and the 
last postsulural on the left side. The neck folds are conspicuous. 
The largest transverse fold lies between the canine teeth or be- 
tween them and the first bicuspid and answers to the suture between 
the maxilla and the premaxilla. It will receive here the name of 
• For reference to terus palalinui see W. Sommer, Virchow's Archiv. 1888, 
v<iL94, 21. 


the ttdural ruga. The sutural ruga is the widest of any in the 
entire series. It ia usually iuclined somewhat backward, but nenr 
forward. A deep sulcus is often seen at the base of the sutural fold 

The sutural fold divides the hard palate into two parts, the pi»- 
sutural and the post-sutural. The pre-sutural space thus answers to 
the premazilla aad has but oue ruga' (see fig. 2). The post-sutaral 
space has fdVir to seveu rugie and are oamed is order from before 
backward the first, second, third, fourth, etc. Of these folds the third 
is the best developed. As a rule the first and the second are the 
least 80 and are represented usually by small nodules, or by groups 
of papules, at the outer portion of the vault. They are often aborted. 
The fifth, sixth, and seventh are also often aborted or represented by 
faintly expressed broken sinuate lines. The presutural portion of 
the vault is nearly fiat and is of a special use in presenting a firm 
surface for the tip of the tongue to press against in mastication and 
in speech. The post-sutural space is concave with an abrupt declivity 
forwards. The alveolar processes of the molar range and the declivity 
named bound the true palatal vault. It presents extraordinary 
varieties, no two subjects being in all respects the same. 

The pre-sutural rugse were found in an examination of 90 ex- 
amples of hard palates, present on the right side alone in 11, on 
the left side alone in 1, on both sides, 17, absent in 50, doubtful in 
II. Occasionally a system of minute raised folds extends from the 


utterrak of equal size or are clustered at the alveolar border op- 
poute the bicuspidB. 


The arch is flat and wide, the ruga: entire ; no hyperostosis is 
present; moderate lateral concrescnce is seen on (he left side. 

When the two parts, (the nicdiaD and the lateral) are contiguous 
the rugse may be said to be entire. But when they are separated 
by intervals more or less ai>j)reciable they may be said to be broken. 
In palates of a moderate curvature i. e. midway between the flat and 
the high vaults, the folds may be evenly disposed and be without breat 
•on one side while they are irregular and broken on the other. The 
left side is commonly the must devclo[)ed, a feature which the rugee 
exhibit in common with the mandible, the left ramus of which ia 
commonly the larger. 

An elliptical exostosis which is often met with on the roof of the 
mouth is almost always larger on the left side. The left sutural 
ruga (see fig. 3) is generally prolonged back farther than is the 
right. A similar disposition is seen in the first post-sutural ruga 
but to a less degree. The post-sutural rugs especially on the right 
side (see fig. 9) may extend obliquely forward. The third is com- 
monly BO placed, but the fourth, fifth and even the setwnd may il- 
lustrate this disposition (see fig. 8). As opposed to exostosis the 
term kyperottofit will be employed to denote the general excess of 
bone deposition along the line of the intermaxillary suture. It is a 


common form of hypertrophy in the Anglo-American and one wluch 
has a diBtioct clinical significance (sec fig. 5). 

The palate is moJerateh high arched The lateral elements are 
elongated. The median elements are either two famt to be appareDl 
or are absent. 

The right lateral incisor is absent an<t the incisive pad shows an 
inclination to the side of defect. The left sutural fold is directed 
backward at the raphe. 
The union of the tJglit ^nturiil umi jii>st~ sutural i 


the udes of the vault is marked by a whitish surface which yields 
to pressure. In some individuals this motioD can be traced as fer 
forward as the first post-sutural fold. The tract is best developed 
when the roof is normally formed. With a flat arch and a median 
exostosis present, the track is small. With rugffi well shown, but 
broken, the place of the interruption occurs across the track. The 
pale tracks appear to be entirely absent in high, acute arches. An 
association of the track and the color marking of the hard palate 
can also be detected, The high-arched palates are uniformly of a 
red color, while the flat arches are red only along the median line 
and at the region of the gum. A test exisU here for the rate of 
blood vessel activity of the palatine structures and, by inference, of 
the rates of development of the maxilla. 

The palate is nonnal in curvature. The incisive pad and raphft are 
conlinuous. The sutural folds are entire, the left fold extending 
farther up along ihc raphe than does the right. Median concresence 
is seen on the left side. 

Variations of the Rdg^. 

At the risk of repeating some of the facts of the preceding 
description it is proposed to discuss under this head the principal 
variations of the rugse. They will be included under the following 
propositions t 

I. The rugie of the left side tend to be the better developed (see 
figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,). 


II. The rugte of high laterally compresaed as well as tbe wids, 
fiat vaults are apt to be entire. (See fig. 8.) 

III. Therugeeof vaults whose median anture baa become tha 
seat of general hyperostosis are always broken. (See. fig. 5.) 

I. Not only is tbe group of rugie on the left side more promineat 
than on tbe right, but tbe distance from tbe median line to tbe 
canine tooth is greater on tbe left than on tbe right side. The 
pre-sutural space is slightly tbe more promioent on tbe left. Tbe 
left Eutural rugse is apt to be inclined backward as it approaches 
the median line to a point beyond that reached by tbe right. Tbe 
right side exhibits a forked sutural ruga, and a larger first poet- 
sutural fold than is seen on the left (seep. 261). The obliquely 
placed last poat-sutural fold is as peculiar to tbe right side as the de- 
flected sutural is to the left. 

II. The rugrc of the high compressed vaults not only tend to 
remain unbroken but are well developed. The membranes are 
thick, cushiony and vascular. TJie incisors are thrown forward, 
since they cannot be accommodated in the narrow space between 
the canines, or tbe teeth last named remain out of the arch. 

Tbe skeleton is slight and the tonsils large if not hypertropbied. 

Tlie hard palate with a wide, fiat arch is associated with thin 
rugie whose intervals are wide (see figs. 2 and 9). The sutural 
rugas tend to be deflected less than in tbe other types. A hyperosto- 


Most rariatioDB in human aoatoiny are aaid to be reversioDS. 
While this method is a most valuable one it has a limited use when 
applied to the study of the rug^e, excepting in the instance of the 
broken ruga, and even here the comparison is not exact. 

The human rugie derive their peculiarity from two causes: 
First, the divergence from the median line of the dental arches as 
they are traced from before backward; this is much greater in man 
than it is in the lower animals. Out of 96 examples of dental 
arches examined by me 58 were found to be deflected more on the 
left than on the right (see figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 9,), 21 deflected more on 
the right than the left, (see figs. 1, 2) while 17 only were symmetrical. 
If.asI haveassumed.the folds in part at least are the result of compres- 
sioD it follows that abrupt and varying deviations of the boundaries 
of the palate must greatly disturb the harmonious development of 
its rugie. 

The deviations of the curves of the vault especially when inter- 
rupt«d by a disposition to hyperostosis must also be a disturbing 
influence. In 90 examples of palates the hyperostosis itself was 
found in 51. This is certainly a remarkably high proportion and 
when it is remembered that the specimens were from the mouths of 
patients who were suflering from chronic nasal catarrh, the associa- 
tion is suggestive of a relation between coincident causes. 

The arch is wide. The raphi lies on a conspici 
forms a hyperostosis. The nigx are irregular, whilf 
are long and entire, ulhen are c.inverled into clu-lers of ciMtse 

Again, in 90 examinations the aides of the vaults along the range 
of the bicuspids and molars was in 27 instances, both right and left. 


the hard palate be entirely free. In a man fifty nx jeaiaalaga 
from whom I bad removed a number of polypi the pad WM tfaa 
■eat of §orenew and pain for a week after the operation. It conit^ 
tnted the only annoyance which followed upon an operatioD of 
exceptional extent. In children who have been operated upon ftr 
deflected septum the necka of the teeth are surrounded by a par- 
plieh red line as long as the plug is worn in the noee. 

Abienct! of Rugtt. The rugte may disappear by pressure from 
within, aa from a nievus or a Bbrous tumor, and from without, ■■ 
&om the pressure from a plate for artificial trath. The absorption 
of the alveolar procesB after the extraction of teeth, as a rule, induce 
the absorption of the rugte, but occasionally the rugie peimst and 
are found lying directly acroee the positiun of the former dental 

Medico-Legal Value of the Ruga. The persistence of the ruga 
after death leads to the conclusion that they may aflbrd vatualtle 
signs by which the body can be identified, for during the proceoea 
of decomposition the mucous membrane of the hard palate is 
among the last to be losL When the positions of the rags are re- 
corded (as iu the event of a patient having been recently under the 
care of a dentist and the impreasion of the rugie having been taken 
in plaster,) it is certainly tnie that the folds could be used in connec- 
tion with the teeth, or even in the absence of these oi^aoa, in 
identifying the subject. 

Congenital Syphili*. In congenital syphilis I have often ofaaerved 
that while the roof uf the niuutb especially at the anterior part was 
of a deep red coW from iuflamnrntion that the rugie were milk whil«. 
Tbe folds l>e<-onie t^wollon and [minful in acute inflammation of the 
roof uf the mouth unil iiifiltrate<l iu cuses of prolonged suppuration 
from the alveolar priKi'Stifs. • 


The rugte may be convergcDt on one side and transverse on the 
other. It 18 thus seen that the disposition of the rugte to form little 
clusters is noticeable. 

The palate is ^[de but with deep rccesiies from a moderately high 
arch back of the sulural nigfc. The lateral elements on the left are 
regular and elongated; (hwe on ihe right are unusually irregular, 
and first and second post-9utura1s very oblique The median ele- 
ments on both sides are strangely disturbed. Median coocresence 
exists oo both ^ides. 
The inclination for the third, fourth and fifth rugas on the right 
ride to incline forward is especially marked. 

In 90 specimens I found the right rugse thus Inclined in 33, the 
left only in 2 while in both right and left, 16. In the whole number 
the inclination of the third rugae is the rule. The disposition is 
marked in palates with hyperostosis. 

The median half of each ruga may incline independently of the 
lateral, but the inclined fold is, as a rule, entire. The degree of incli- 
nation is variable but it may be expected to be so great that the 
Butural and post-sutural folds may unite. 

The approach of the rugie one to another their entire length is 
much less frequently seen than the foregoing. The sutural, the 
third and the fourth post-sutu rals may be coalescent. In 90 ex- 
amples this was noted on the right side 9 times, on the left 6 and 
on both 2. 

The union of the sutural and pre-sutural I have seen but once. 
It was symmetrical. 

264 PBocEEDnros of the academy op [18S8. 

The folds may be coDtiguous OD)y. In 90 examplee I fimad the 
orrangemeDt on the right side 3 times, on the left 1, and for botft S, 

It ia probable that gome forces create the variations above nuMd, 
which are distinct from those already named. They are evidently 
often out of harmony with one another,~the right side exhibiting 
their effects oftener than the left. Sometimes they are operating 
on the ends of the folds, sometimes in their entire length of the median 
halves. That they -are correlative with morbid phenomena is un- 
doubted (see p. 269). For the clumping of the nigse their entire 
length is often found in atrophic foetid catarrh, and ia the eenile 
state. But it may be so by coincidence. No data exists which covere 
the entire rai^ of appearances. Certainly nothing comparable to 
such dispositions are seen in the lower animals. 

The term coneresence- is an exact and convenient t«rm to use in 
describing this class of modification of the rugie. 

The common abortion of the first and second post-sutural rugae 
is not the least instructive of the changes afiected by coneresence. 


tions (if indeed they may be Mid to hare any at all) on tbe g«aanl 
pfaysiological laws operating in all the tiMue changes of the bo^ 
What was once " morbid " is now natural. If the word u to la 
retained by naturalists, it should have a strictly medical appUcatiaa 
— the one originally designed for it by practical men. 

The correlation between the ruos and the dctebiob 
of the hose. 

I have met with ten examples in which tbe left side of the mm 
was smaller than tbe right and in which the same ade of the haid 
palate was also the smaller. Care must be taken to distinguish tha 
common variety of narrowing of the iioee by a deflectioo of tfaa 
septum from the much rarer form or reduction of the chamben M 
all directions. 

In six cases tbe right side of tbe nasal chamber was the lai^^ 
and a corresponding increase in size of the right half of tbe palala 
was det«cled. 

But the association between palatal and nasal conditions is by ■• 
means unifurm and at the same Ume I cannot conclude that Um 
cases brought forward in evidence were coincidences. I have stad- 
ies of iudividnal cases in which not only was harmony present 
between the proportions nf tbe nose and the hard palate but betweaa 
these structures and the cranium as well. 

It may be said that, in a manner, tbe law of symmetry is not with- 
out e xe m pi ifi cation H in the harmonica of the arrangement of the 
sided of (he hard palate, with the nasal chambers and with the cor- 
responding side of the head hut that thiit e^templification is subjeot 
t(i so many exceptions by the operation of minur disturbing GtctOB 
as to he rarely present. 

In examples of hyperostosis of the inter-maxillery suture the \»- 
ferior turhiniUcd bones are high and apparently comprcMcd. TMi 


pteuliaiities of the nose the roof of the mouth is diBtiDguished by a 
mall inciBive pad aod coalescence of the Butural and the third poet- 
Mtural folds. The toosils are moderately enlarged. 

The arch is nairow and high, the pre maxillary portions beii^ 

thrOwD forward. Hence the space between the sutural niga: and the 

incisoiial pad and all the parts in advance of the sulural ruga; are 

exceptionally open. The third poal rugx is confluent with the sutural 

on both sides. The pre sutural rug% are absent. 

The Relation between the Rug.£ and the Teeth. 

The relation exiatiog between the rugx and the teeth is not aa 

important aa would at lirst sight appear. For the pre-maxilla it 

may be gaid that no influence is exerted by the incisor teeth over 

the pre-sutural nigse. The sutural ruga is directly opposite the 

esnine teeth, the first post-sutural. directly between the canine and 

the first bicuspid, the seeond ruga upposit* the bicuspid, etc. In 

the Proceedings of the Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Phila, p. 310, 1882, 1 

proposed a system of naming of the parts in accordance with these 

&ct8. But it is less satisfactory than the one used in this paper. 

Nevertheless the following statements would coufirm the position 
uaumed that some connection between the rugss and the teeth must 
be accepted to exist. 

268 PBOcEEDntce op the academy or [1888. 

The ttxia of the incuive pad when deflected from that of Um 
median line is incliaed toward the aide which » minimised bj tht 
noD-appearaoce or extnution of one of the incisor teeth of the pv- 
manent set, by the eruption of a tooth on the bnccal or labial tide 
of it* arch, or by some third related cause (see fig. 3), 

In one adult subject whose palatal vault exhibited straight, r^ 
uUr, unbroken rugse on the right side retained on the left all the 
rugse broken and part^ of two entering into the composition of the 
pre-sutural and the sutural. The left side was narrower than the 
right. It is not likely that the irregulanty of the ruge on tbe left 
side was independent of the fact that the lateral incisor and the 
second bicuspid were absent from the upper jaw, and that tbe sec- 
ond bicuspid on the same side of the lower jaw was also absent, its 
place being taken by the second milk molar which had never been 
changed from the time of Its eruption and was in all respects a 
normal, healthy tooth. The left side of the face was slightly small- 
er than the right. 

In a girl of twelve ycare the ru^ne were normal on the left but oo 
the ri;,'ht the sutural fold was forked and the remaining folds broken. 
On the left side the left second bicuspid tooth was absent, while 
on the right both teeth were in |)0!>itiun. 

It ii4 always of inijHirtnnce to remember that the mouths of chil- 
dren in whom the deciduous canines um) molars are yet in position 
at a time when the iM?rniiinenl incisois and the lirst permanent 
molar have l>eeii eru|)lcil, tliat tlie rii;,'-.i? exhibit a disposition to 
approach one unolhcr lowunl tiie-ic Xotih. Is it possible that the 
change from th<> iitliiiitili' iirning^iiu'iit wlirre the folds are entire, 
regular and xytu metrical ti> thut of ihc older child, where the ac- 
quired variation:* take place, is due cither to the retention of tbe 
deciduous canines niiil molars, or to the retardation in development 


r in which the rugie are aborted by prolusion of the premax- 
illaiy elements, and of the hyperoBtoais of the structures at the 
raph£. When the vault is flat— the rugse tending to be B/mmetrical 
though feebly developed, — a condition is present which is oAcd 
found associated with chronic rmhI catarrh of the atrophic type. 
If the arch is wide the side» of the palate and the alveolar processes 

The hard palale i> nithoul necL folds is ot low arch and is vide. 
The raph* is neatly oblileraied The nigi are hroken. TTie lat- 
eral half of Ihe third post sutuial fold extends obliquely forward and 
is in line with one of Ihe median element'i (probably of the second). 
No similar disposition is seen on the left. Lateral concresence is 
seen on the left side. 
are not well developed, the rugie are gathered in a clump upon an 
anterior declivity of low inclination, the turbinal scrolls are small, 
and the membranes nonerectile. The teeth in such individuals are 
large especially the incisors, the patient is predisposed to premature 
recession of the gums from about the necks of the teeth and to 
suppurative affections of their roots.' 

The IneUive Pad. Tbe pad is often of a bluish red color when 
the palate elsewhere ia of a pale hue. At other times the pad is of 
pink color and the base surrounded by a deep blue line. Thus the 
pad may be congested either in whole or in part while the rest of 
1 For the connectioD between atrophic catarrh and premalure recession of the 
gimi see a paper bj the author in Dental Cosmos, ]8S.>> xxvii, Z'J9. 


the hard palate be entirely free. In a mao fifty six years of age 
from whom I had remoTed a number of polypi the pad was the 
■eat of soreness and pain for a week after the operation. It consti- 
tatfid the only annoyance which followed upon an operation of 
exceptional extent. In children who have been operated upon for 
defiectcd eeptum the necka of the teeth are surrounded by a put^ 
plish red line as long as the plug is worn in the nose. 

Absence of Ruga. The rugte may disappear by pressure from 
within, as from a ntevua or a fibrous tumor, and from without, as 
&om the pressure from a plate for artificial tt«th. The absorption 
of the alveolar process aflerthe extraction of teeth, as a rule, induce 
the absorption of the rugae, but occasionally the rugie persist and 
are found lying directly across the position of the former dental 

Medieo-Legal Value of the Rugw. The persistence of the rugte 
after death leads to the conclusion that they may afford valuable 
signs by which the body can be identified, for during the processee 
of decomposition the mucous membrane of the hard palate is 
among the last to be lost When the positions of the nigie are re- 
corded (as in the event of a patient having been recently under the 
care of a dentist and the impression of the niKie having been taken 
in plaster,) it is certainly true that the folds could be used in connec- 
tion with the teeth, or even in the absence of these organs, in 
identifying the subject. 


and teeth taken in plaster with great care.^ The material therefore 
ifl not of the average. It is based upon the hard palate of individ- 
uals known to have some disease associated with disturbed states of 
secretion of the nasal chambers. 

In order that the study should have a more extended application 
it was thought to be desirable before any exact clinical conclusion 
could be drawn that a study of similar extent be based on material 
known to be derived from entirely healthy individuals. 

To make such examinations I visited the State Earftern Peniten- 
tiary in this city and by the courtesy of Dr. W. D. Robinson, the 
physician of the Institution, was enabled to stuby the mouths and 
nasal chambers of the inmates. In this way ninety examinations 
were recorded. 

In no instance was hyperostosis present in the form spoken of in 
the foregoing pages. Nor was a single case of hyperostosis of the roof 
of the mouth back of the region of the rugse seen. In a word no form 
of rugsB was detected which was broken by the descent of the median 

In twenty-two examples the raph4 was sufficiently prominent to 
form a slight fullness which could be felt by the finger. The re- 
maining fifty-eight examples were perfectly smooth. 

The rugae were very commonly of the form exhibited in Figs. 1 
or 2 with a disposition for the folds to be concrescent at their outer 
ends. The examples of the left suturai rugae deflected along the 
line of the raph^ were but six in number ; moderate degree of 
asymmetry of the sides of the roof in seven ; concresence of the 
right suturai and post-sutural as to form a fork-like figure in but 

It is evident that the variations of the arrangement of the rugae 
were within a much narrower range than in the ninety cases from 
subjects from other sources. 

The roof of the mouth presented no narrowing of the vault with 
compression as seen in Fig. 8, and no flat wide palate as seen in 
Fig. 9. Thus the extremes of variation — viz., of the high narrrow 
vault and the low, wide vault were absent. But one instance of a 
moderately compressed vault was seen and in this example the 
pre-maxillse were not thrown forward. 

* I desire in this connection to acknowledge my indebtedness to many of my 
friends especially to Dr. L. Ashley Faught, Dr. E. C. Kirk and Dr. J. M. McGrath. 
Dr. J. W. White and Dr. W. Storer How of the S. S. White Dental Mfg. Co,, also 
greatly aided me in the investigation. 




Respecting the presence of catarrhal affections in the cases it b 
necessary to s&y that sot a single man among the entire number ex- 
amined had cumplained to Dr. Robinson of any of the symptoms of 
these diseases. I detected small quantities of secretion in the nasal 
pharynx in nfleen instances. I cannot admit that this circumstance 
bad any siguificaDce in the absence of any of the usual appearances 
of the membranes. 

The teeth and nasal chambers were also examined but nothing 
found which is of spedal mention. 

Conelvmotu. The following conclusions may be drawn from the 
statements made in the paper. 

(1) That the range of Tariation in the roof of the mouth and its 
folds is greater in subjects of nasal catarrh than in those who are 
free from this diaeane. 

(2) That the variations of the rug» are diKrent on the two 
sides of the roof. 

(3) Tbat excess of development of the pre-maxilla and the hori- 
loutal plate of the maxilla, especially at the anterior portion, con- 
stitutes a condition which is found in about fifty percent, of ca^es of 
chronic nasal catarrh. 

(4) That chrouic nasal catarrh is found associated vrith so many 
phases of asymmetry of the rugie of the hard palate and the dental 
arches that the disease should be studied as a morbid action which 
ia based upon morpholc^cal elements and not alone upon climatic 


ill all three turn vpIIow : 

ion after 

plant wocm (Hfleaiit. The Am 
they ii|>en. 

On iu-c(iui)t lit' this chani^, tlic plant is kiiuwn n- "Silver iinii 
Cold" in Japan. 

The flowers o|K'n townrils cvenin<;. At ihc oxjiiinsiitn of thi- <i- 
rolla, the stanien:^ luul ])isii] urc of eiiiiiit leii;rlh. The flower is jini- 
terofrynous. In the morning the slif^miis will luihore, if limiiifht 
together liv ihcir viscid secret iims; lint the anthers ihi not di^iiefM- 
ItoUeii till later. The cvfiamleil flower remains white <ir rosy-tinted 
all the day alk-r o|M'nin>:, and turns yellow the second day, fadinc 
the third. The tnhc of the conilhi is about an inch hiiig. On ihe 
evenin;; of cx|iaiisic)n it iiuitiiiiis no honeyir<l seeretion. Iii the 
morning' the jirixhiction of nectar is ciH-val with the hurstinir f<f the 
anther eells, hv noon the sw.-<-t li<iuid has risen u). the t<ilK> for al><>nl 
one-third its len;:lh. It continues lo flow al^-rlhc change- lo yellow; 
mid l>y cvtnioL'. lli<' tuhe is full for half its l.'uv'lh, or half an ineh. 
When' III.- Ilowcr whoUv fade-, rile swc't whieh ^Wis ll'.e 

nai .flioneysueklelotlietiimily is still there. all tlu-s.- inmil. 

i.f unitnnnity. tli.T.' an- diHi-rcnees in |.rodu.'tivcn.-ss. The f.rm 
known as A. hr-<vh;,l.;lrfi<i is ahnudantly tvrtilc : in occasi>uial in- 
stance- onlvio theotlxTs hear fruil. TJii-i^ worth notin;:. Th.nt. 
iwitiin;: oTi lr.'lli-^es. under cxactlv tlic same <'on<litions. varv r- 

iiarkuldy iti their r< 
itrn niaih- Ix-fun- on 
liufr. -Mr. Darwin . 
■idmds ..\ a si«.cies 
i-c the term ein|do. 

I her 

■ JioWen 

«. and a 


' l.av 

th<> fa.-L- 

rf r.';.'! 

iinieil a- |>ii/- til 

at sonit' indi- 


. atfinities > i<> 

■ly alii 
'iia|>, V 

, ex|.h 


.-.1 s| ..f 
i.|,. •.»..!,. , 
lin anyihin.'. 
t Individ ml- 



Tlie President, Dr. Josei»h Leidy, in the chair. 

Fifteen jK^rsons j)rosent. 

Megnlomjx JeffcvHonU. — Prof. Leidy exhibited an ungual phalanx 
oi\Me(/u/ont/x Jeffersonii, submitted to his examination by Prof. J. 
E. Todd, of Tabor, Indiana, who informed him that it Was found in 
a sand bed, below tlie drift, in Mills Co., Iowa. 

Anonmlies of the human skull. — I^rof. TiEiDY exhibited the right 
half of a skull, from France, in the maxilla of which, besides the 
usual number of incisors, the canine and premolars, there is a series 
of four molars, of which tlie last one is about half the size of the 
others. In the same skull the fore part of the middle turbinal is in- 
flated and forms a large sinus forming part with the anterior eth- 
moidal sinuses. 

Further, in the same specimen the venous ])ortion of the jugular 
foramen is nearly obsolete, and its inner portion forms a distinct 
foramen for the inferior petrosal sinus. The descending portion of 
the groove for the lateral sinus, about the eighth of an inch wide, 
ends in a large mastoid foramen. 


Mr. John II. Kedfield in the chair. 

Eighteen persons present. 

A paper entitled "Contributions to the Natural History of the 
Bernuida Islands," by Angelo Heilprin, was presented for publica- 

The following, received through the l^otanical Section, was order- 
•ed to be printed: — 






W» i,.,i*'. iu rach ■■a.-* iiiiri.Kiuwtl, vh Wine three distinct htk* fK«n 
^ojv- .-n^iially, ilicrt- nii::hl W a rham* f-.r crwti-f.Ttiliiaivin wli<-o Ini.i^ crr-n aliojcilier, a? in ili.ise un-Ier my ob!*r\aii'iti. 

U.11 I I'^uinl thai t!n' iK-ts, and "iticr >hnrt-tunjnifi viyilini in- 
■«v.v ,v:il-f n..t, in any way, aid in fVnilixiDg ihe flower, when caih- 
vJtBj; iiiviHr, la lln--*- li>rnij. ihe Mai»ens aud jiisiil aiv •■urvtd 
u>-«itiNl, - tlial ;tni)i< r- and Mi-^nia arv tar ali've iht- t..«i-r Hi', '^n 
«i>i.ti ilii' in>4'(-i uli;:}ii^. Ifanv in-^Tis aid in cros^lVnilizati'ii. it 
•xv.:,\ W til.- |».l].<n-LiitlK'n[iL- u'-e^. nnd <,|)iei>: Ixit (lii* will n-Tfi*T 
l!.v .i«i-. Illation ill (-"nn.-'ii-.n wiili ilk- •kvrlopmeiil of ii.ilar. and 

iviw-,-i;ill\ in n.iiii.ii with tlie far-t ii'.it-d. thai tho :-ii..n-i"niriitNl 

u.L,si, ,Mn -.-t tl..' li.jni.i ill -i-it.- -'flW i.n.lnnL-.-.! Iiilw. 

U ,. ii.n:.l, uh.n ^^ in^laii<-t- in -tlirT i.Iant- have l>e,'n u-W-i. 
l-> wfiikiu il..- f.T.-.- ..r lb.- |p-^-..n- ili.y icafh, l.y .il.j.x-tln-. thai 
(iiunv tliirii- "may liiiv<- ha)>{H-tii'.l. " In till." ca.-*'. il nmild )>e 
iiii;i-.l. lliiil lli'-n- njii'lit li.- -nn.- irw(-t> in the nalivi- i-"umry of 
ir,,-, li.-ii.'\-ii.-kl<-. tliai vv hav.' ii..t li.r.- where tlie plant 'i» inin>- 
d.i.>.-.t , liii- h^.ijM [i..t ■■jian-i- ilio fa.i. thai «hal.-vor ihey may 
I., \i,,^ vt...ild .lilj Im' divi.h-d Ini.. h.tii'-1..n:;n.<.l and ^h..^t t..'n;.nie.| 
. \.i-^'. liu.l that -".inr h.'.'s -alher lionry only. whiU- otlivr- are de- 
>,.i,.d I.. -■..Il.-.tiii- |H.ll..ii: n..r w..iil.| it "i-ii..r.- thr fact that th.- Ma- 
u»i.- aii.l -lylr an. -m ..f ili,- r.-a.-h of the >h>.rl-| da^-. Il 
"'I...IV U- ' aU> iirirrdllial at't.T th.- tnU' had l-fii l.'n:.lhenn) (■> .-s- 
<l(i.l.' ill'- -liori-IonL'iK-'l in^^'.'i, tin- plant had :-illi!H'<tii<<iilly. under 
.\i-.--n.- .-x.-ilation Iron, (]i<- l..iiL'-toni:n.-.i visiL-r-. if 

L.i.iid-U|.|di.'d n- ne.-tarlluin il had originally -iven : and u ;.- i1i<- -' may In'- " .dl<n indnLt-d in, i- llial '.( a ' n.D- 


small insects, drone bees, and other creatures live in indolence by 
the sweat of other brows. There are many parallels between plants 
and animals. Is Yucni to be a case of absolute servitude on the 
part of the insect, froui sheer indolence on the part of the Yucca to 
do its own work? It seems to me we shall not be able to draw the 
veil from this <;reat mvsterv till we make continuous and careful 
observations of all the facts in its history, and place them on record 
for comparison with those which others may make. 

Prof. Rilev once made the remarkable statement that he had seen 
the Yucca Moth collect pollen, and thrust it down the tube of the 
8tigma, as if it knew that some such process was necessary to insure 
fertilization. Dr. Engelmann had found in the Yuccas he examined, 
that the apex uf the ])istil was not stigmatic, — the receptive portion 
was low down in the tube. The two observations, taken together, 
gave color to the supposed object of the insect. I have shown, (see 
Proceedings of the Meetings at Cincinnatti, Saratoga and Buffalo,) 
that pollen applied to the apex in Y. angnHtiJolia, and protected by 
gauze from the insect, resulted in seed just lu* well as when the work 
was done by an insect. The tubular character noted by Dr. Engel- 
mann cannot therefore be a constant one; and we shall have to 
admit that the reasoninj? of the insect which led it to thrust the 
pollen down the tube in the other species, leads it to ]>erceive there 
is no tube in Y. anfjnstijolhu and that the application of j)ollen to 
the bare apex is sufficient in this species. 

Up to this season I had never been able to detect the insect be- 
have in the plant.s around luy house, as Professor Riley saw them 
behave: but I have alwavs conceded that he is too careful and too 
close an observer to have been mistaken in such an observation. 
The record of the act of the insect thrusting its tongue down the 
stigmatic tube, from so accurate a naturalist, needs no confirma- 
tion from anv one, however one mav be allowed to hold his judgment 
in suspense as to the object of the insect in such l)ehavior; not then 
as confirming: Prof Rilev, but its part of m v observations of this year, J 
desire to sav that I have recentlv seen an insect at the same ta.-k. It 
worked its proboscis up and down x\w tul)e of the pistil, much as a 
sportsman wouhl load his gun. 

I find, in this region Ynccn jihimtntom commenced to bloom this 
year about the end of June. Some plants will bloom a full week, or 
occasionally ten days before others, tiiough years ago, all the i)lants 
under my notice came from root cuttings of one stock and not from 

Tlie flowers liegiii to expand ii 
iiig a ciiiii]iiiniilatc furin hy dnrk. 
they arc clowtHl, and they iijiiiaiii vU 
when tiicy again i.-\|mncl, and ^ 
hefore. But at tlic third cveiiiii|^'s 
rotntc, closing iigiiiu the next niorni 
awav. Tlio flower owns ami lailes ' 


seed. The flowers liegiii to expand an hour before son-down, assum- 
Ky sunrise the next niorninj; 
•('(1 till an honr beibrc pnn-ptt 
) through another day iis 
^xj'unsion they become aliu<wt 
ig but only to wither and full 
>'itiiin three days. 
Duriug the first week or len days of the flowerhijr period, an 
enormous amount of niuistiire exudes from every part of the flower. 
It trickles down the outer surface of the [>eriuiiths, collecting in 
drops at the apices of the lobes, sometimes almost covering the leaves 
with spots where the drojis have fallen and indicating a somewhat 
gummy cliaractei-. The pistil is eomi)letely covered with minute 
bullie, fnmi which the same kind of liquid exudes. It is not a sweet 
liquid, indeed diflcrs from pure water only in having a very slight 
trace of bitterness. The moths liccome very active just after sun- 
set, traveling up and down rapidly over the moistened stigma, 
niy idea being that they wci-e feeding on the moisture, aud that this 
probiihilily also included the case of the one noted above as thrust- 
ing its proboscis down the liibc of the stigmii. But the insect's 
motions arc so rapid that in the [wilight I could not feel absolutely 
sure of the objects for which they were lal)oring so hard.' 

The nlo^t intei-cstiiig part of my observations coniesin here. When 
about half tin; blossiims on ibc liugc i>anicle hiid matureil, the pro- 


during winter, apparantly ready for the enormous draft on the stor- 
age basins which the sudden bui-st of masses of young foliage must 
entail in s[)ring. All know how maples and other trees bleed on the 
slightest wound before the bursting of the leaf, — and how completely 
destitute of moisture the tissue seems a short time afterwards. All 
bleeding ceases as the young leaf has fully expanded. Will not the 
same necessity exist for a provision of moisture for the enormous 
number of juicy succulent flowers the Yucca has suddeidy to pro- 
duce? May there not be enough and to spare in the earlier period, 
with none to waste towards the last? These suggestions are all useful 
a3 clews to further discoveries. The dauii^er in science is that we 
rest satisfied with plausibilities, and mistake them for facts. 

My object is to show that the nuich discussed y^ucca is yet 
a comparatively unexplored field; and that its unknown life- 
history yet promises to be one of the most interesting subjects the 
teleoloo^ist can possibly irive his attention to. 

A studi/ of the Iff/dranf/ea in relation to cros^s-fertUlzation. — That 
many flowers ai'c arranged for cross-fertilization needs no argu- 
ment to sustain it, nor is it less certain that some flowers can only 
be fertilized through the aid of wind or insects. Sprengel, it is well 
known in the early part of the present century, ])laced this beyond 
doubt. The great (piestion is not, <lo jdants generally cross-fertilize, 
but \\\\\ do they do it ? Mr. Darwin's i^reat work in this connection 
has been to prove that ])lants abhor in and in breeding, that the 
strugsjle for life is neces?iarilv the chief object of existence, and that 
cross-fertilization tends to make the race stronijer and better fitted 
to engage in this struggle than close breeding would do. The results 
of many of Mr. Darwin's experiments sustain his views, as do those 
of many others; but to mv mind just as larj^e a number do not 
sustiiin them. Mr. Darwin himself has can<lidlv stated that con- 
trnuous .self-fertilization does not in the least impair the fertility of 
the race. Mere neirative viiror is the leading!: advantajre he finds 
in crossed plants. (Cross and Self-fertilization, Chap. IX, p. 327.) 

It is not my object now to controvert the views of Mr. Darwin, or 
or of his numerous followers. My view of one object of nature in 
ci"08.s fertilization is to ai<l in production of variety. I have shown 
ever since discussion grew warm on these subjecti^. that variation is 
essential to the jiresent order of things, — that nature, to be consistent 
with herself, must provide for variations if for no other purpose than 
to make variety. I now propose to show by some studies in 


Hydrangea, tliat tlic variations in tlie species are of the most con- 
tradictory cliiiractor taken from tlie stand-iwint of benefits in the 
strnggle for life; wliilo they are entirely consistent with my view of 
variation for variety's sake. Our ganlen Hydrangea from Japan, 
l[i/dmHgen hortensia^ lias the ray flon't^ sterile, or rather it is the 
lateral florets of the compound cyme, that give the enlarged sepals, 
and fail to perfect the gyntrcium. The terminal florets are fertile. 
In H. <iiiercij'olin, all the lateral florets are fertile, and it is only the 
terminal one that lias |>etaliiid se|>als and is barren. Will any one 
assert that these exactly opposite conditions can have any bear- 
ing whatever as aiils in a struggle for life? Huppose we aay that tlic 
attractive sepals are given Ui these sixscies for the purpose of attract- 
ing insects, and thns aiding cross-fertilization. With this view we 
exaiuitic the American species H. arboreiceiia, and we find barely 
an attempt to make these enlarged pctaloid sepals. There are 
small ones on a tew terminuls and this is all. It lias made out 
i-crtainly iis well in the great stniggle as cither of its two brethren. 
Bnt i.s it a fact that ihe showy .tcpals arc given to the plant to attract 
insects? There is neither piiUen nor nectar in the male flowers of 
H. kortciiHU. Tliey conceal the terminal hcrma]ihrodites, and it i.s 
s(^arceiy probable many insects, if any, visit the flowers. In the 
other two, many insiicts visit the llowcrs-so far as my observations 
go, as manv visit the H. arbnretims witlioiit the attractive sepals, as 
the H. qucrcifolin thiit makes such a show of them. 


i?eries mature, and ensures that self-fertilization which the pollen 
from the first series may possibly have missed. The only possible 
aid insects can give is in self-fertilization. 

It is broadly asserted that we owe to the existence of insects the 
various forms and colors of flowers with their irrateful odors and 
sweet secretions. Here we have illustrations of the most dissimilar 
and contradictory variations in a single genus, variations which 
cover all the leading points called for by the insect-adaptationists^ 
und so far as any argument in common use goes, could have occurred 
with as much reason if not a singh^ insect ever existed. The facts 
ure absolutely inexplicable on any theory of the survival of the 
fittest in the struggle for life, — but on my view of the absolute 
necessity of variation for its own sake, the explanation seems simple 

Variation is inseparable from even the closest in-and-in 
breeding. We are as fullv iustified in saying that nature abhors a 
perpetuity of form as that she abhors in-and-in breeding, and we 
can just as earnestly claim cross-fertilization as an agent in bringing 
about variation for the sake of variety, as for the rciisons usually 
given, and which we find we cannot apply with consistency in so 
many cases. 

That cross-fertilization aide variation, we may well believe is a 
sufficient reason for its existence, — without assuming that it has 
no other office to perform. 

Oa the foruui of Lonicera Japonim ; ivith notes on the orujin of the 
Jorinx. — The well-known honeysuckle of our gardens, Lonicera Ja- 
ponica Thunberg, gives three forms of this in general cultivation, 
sup|)osed to be distinct species. One, known as L. Jfalleana, intro- 
duced into America about a quarter of a century ago, I take to be 
the plant so intended by the author of the original name. It is the 
plant figured in BotuniaU Iierjister, j>late 70. Another is X. brachy- 
hotrifu Asa Gray, a well-known form, ])referring to creep and root 
in the ground, to climbing. The third hiis been long in cultivation 
as ** Chinese woodbine," a favorite for its rosy, sweet flowers, and is 
the L.fiexuosa of Loddiges. All the characters given by the authors 
of the several names, can be found in different stages and conditions 
of the same plant. Flie segments of the corolla in L.jiexuoba are 
somewhat narrower than in the other two; and it has a rosy pur- 
ple tint in the stems, leaver and flowers. The leaves in L. brachy. 
hotrya are shining, and the hair, being a little shorter, makes the 



And since llie Ulniiil ia ty|>ically iK-eanJc, "a solitary peak rUing 
abrii)>tly from ii l>U:<e only 120 miles in diameter" surroimded on all 
eido.i by iK'twcoii 2'>00 iiml '.iO\M futlioiiis dc]>th. we have un indica- 
tion lirn- tliiit Imid molliwkn of many tiimilie:^, Helicida, Zonitider. 
Sardiiidir. I'ujiiilir, Ifi/i'ciiiiilir.i'vvn riiffiiiii/if/fr, (fura largo uude»- 
criltcd !'|>ede.-' of ) ayi'ii ii^di exi.std u)Hin tlic inland) iiiiiy l>e lnin»- 
{Ktrtcd very gn-at distunctb) Uy tnn, Iiy, in all prol lability, the ageiicif» 
montioni'd above. 

The {■oiisiileruble divcr^fcin-e exi.-ilinj,' between the various Hpecic:* 
of the Zonituid f;tnii* inH-uliiir to BiTUiuda, I'oeei/otuiiiUt, iiidical«i< 
that llie island is iit' coii-iiiterable anti'jnity. 

We niLiv d.'fine llie <r''nii:» as followii: 

(leiierieeharaclers: Sli 
or subdi<it'»i<ial. pertbraU.' 
ed with radiating I'-ig^-a}; I 
01) a lighter ground ; who 
body whorl more or less 
carinat^' |ieri]diery, not 
le»s irregiihirlv lunate; 
the piil'ir williin. Anini 
short [Histeriorly, scanvl; 
tiidinal furrows above its 
genitaliii on llie right sidi 
mantle margin simple : \i 
with a broad Id.inl m. 
tricuspid (Tntral li-etli h 
cm\» pnyectiiig U'vond t 
wde ciiHiis riither shi>rt, ' 


ell lielifoid,8ubtnn-hiform,de|) eoiiic, 

or iimhilienle. obliquely striate, omainenl- 

Hammnlesorijpiral bandd of ehestnut eidor 

iris unnierous f7-lU) vcryslowly widening ; 

Hatteneil or eompnaticd below the usually 

descending anloriorly; aperture more or 

peristome siin|ile, the coliitacllar margin 

iekened with a white callus which enrircleit 

lal :>imilar in form t" Hells; liMrf narrow, 

y roaebing iH'hiiid the shell, without htngi- 

iirgin or eundal mucous (vire; orifice of 

f neck, near, but not under the mauilo ; 

like that of f.hnnx. very thin, arcuate, 

an projectii'u anteriorly ; rudula with 

ing (piadrate baf>al plates, the central 

anterior margins of the basal platce. the 

h well rt'HL'xetl cutting [toints; lateral 


admitted as almost certain that some structures, such as .... a long 
tubular corolla have been developed in order that certain kinds of 
insects alone should obtain the nectar." {Cross-aiid Self-fertiliza' 
tioiiy Chap, .r, p. 382.) The honey-bee visits all these forms freely. 
The honey nearly fills the tube, and bees have no difficulty in col- 
lecting freely. It can scarcely be believed that the plant made an 
effort to exclude short tongued visitors, and that the long tube was 
the result of that effort, and then secreted so much nectar as to 
nearly fill the tube by which the short tongued insects could get as 
much as before the effort was made. 

Nor must we lose sight of the supposed objects for which insect 
visitors are to be encouraged, namely, cross-fertilization. 

In order to make no mistake in our conclusions, it is proper to 
note here, that modern literature has misconceived the whole idea of 
cross-fertilization. There cannot possibly be any physiological bene- 
fit from one ffower crossing another on the same plant; but this is 
about all that is involved in much that is written in connection 
with the visits of insects. Yet Darwin takes especial pains to ex- 
plain that this is not cross-fcM*tilization. He says: "cross fertiliza- 
tion ahvays means a cross between distinct ])lants raised from seeds'' 
(p. 10). Even distinct plants, unless under distinct conditions 
scarcely constitute crossings in his mind. "The mere act of crossing 
two distinct plants, w^hich are in some degree inter-related, and 
which have long been subject to the same conditions does little good" 
(p. 61). Referring to Compositie (p. 17o) he notes that the florets 
were "self-fertilized " though with different florets from the same 
head. On p. o4o he declares " pollen from the same plant is equally 
injurious or nearly so, as from the same flowers." And, after all, it is 
<lifficult to tell what Mr. Darwin reallv means bv " iniurious," for 
the most of his ex])eriments, when in his mind resulting beneficially, 
referred to vegetative luxuriance, in many little related to those 
greater vital questions on w hicli the good of the race depends. He 
distinctly states (p. 327) " there is therefore, no evidence at present, 
that the fertility of plants goes on dimiiiishing in successive self- 
fertilized generations, although, there is some rather weak evidence 
that this does occur with respect to height and growth." Still 
it is clearly his idea, and evidently the proper one, that the cross- 
fertilization can only be fairly entertained when the physi- 
ological conditions vary in the individuals crossed. Though the 
honeysuckles referred to are all from cuttings from the one in- 



().TOIlKR IG. 

Rev. ]I. C. MuCooK. I>. I)., Vioe-Prwiaeiit, in the clinir. 

Tweiiiv-lwo jicrsfHi!:' |ire3t'rit. 

The fiiUi)wiii^' [uiihtj were jirei^-nteil for piihlicntimi : — 

'■A(iiliii(.(i:il Nole^ i>ii the Stnieliire aii<l ('la«iitioation of tin- 
Mesoxoie Muniniulia." Uv Heiirv Fiiirehild Oshorn. 

"On the l!cHe.ii.l l^in.l M,.ll"usks of !termn<iii;' Itv II. A. 

<)iT(iiti:it '1'.). 
Mr. ('iiAi:!,!^ Muiiitis in ihe L'Uair. 
Twenty.i.ine |K.r..,ns i>res..rLl. 

The fi.lh.wiiij,' |.:i[«T> were |ir.-s(-nted for |mliiie!itiim:— 
■■('r..Ial..iTitin>. U- Sinifturi- an>t Z.Kih.frii'al I'.e<iti.>n." Kv 
fharie:. Wa.'lisnmrli -.xwA Knuik Si,riii-er. 

'■On a New S[«.-<ie.^ uf Starti-li ..flhv fp-ims I'teniMer." Bv .1. K. 

TIm- l'iv>i.i. rii. I).. .l.^-i;i-n l,i:ii.v. in Die eliair. 
l-'ifly |HTsi.ri- |iri-^cnt. 

The tMl.iwiiii,' j.ii|"Ts wi'H' |ir.wnleil fi.r |.iihlle:iti<ins:— 
•■I)i-i'..verv ..r ih,- V.iilrul Sinii'tiire ..f T:i\...Tinii- iiixt Hapl..- 


ing the term " adaptation " to ** design " in many cases. At any rate, 
I am unable to see a reason for the special form and arrangement 
of parts in the honeysuckle flower, that will accord with prevalent 
speculations, and am constrained to to believe the plant has been 
forced to assume them for varietifs sake. 



PP.i" tl.MX'i- >.r THE A 

OF [1888. 

'[iioi"l "■ ViieciiDZuniien SiHdb^rgtr." in 
tlif- Z.-.l.-i.' i:..-..r.i l^r 1'"'4. iiii.l [liU .rn.r wa.-^ rti«at«i by 
Trvijij- uIj., L'iv.- ill.- tir-i .liai'ii'^l- .>(' ill*- ■•T:\i\\ [.uMi-btd, giving 
H. (,erin'fl'r..tM a- ili'- ivj. :nj<l ■>nl.v -[■-(-i.->. \\\ may. tben. o.n- 
ciiitr tli.- //. h':r,„.,-lr,.,i, I'lV-, ill'- lyir s|¥-(-i^ ■■( ih«- Lf-nW. Wh^ih- 
fcr iht- //. h„bnr.,l., Uraiiii I"- ;."«^^iui..l wiih ihi- IVmiiiJaii ^^..■1L. 
ur imi i- J |-(iiii -lill 1.1 If -i-iili.i. Til.- siiix-rtii'ial n'vriiiMano i* 
iiiarki-<l: hiii a- i\w Li-(.,ry .itili.- ^|i.-.-ic-^ -li P'ieiloz'inUf4\enc\\f~»f. 

"^y^tMNUllzillL'" UWr.M hlllll lliolhl-ks l.y Iho >llell> uluUt- i^ lllf 

Tlif lii'i ili!it ill.' Iii"il -[H.-io:- uhiili Ilr. Ii<MiijpT pn>iMD>ts !■> 
uitiu- «itli tin- [;. riiiii.|:in t'.iriii i- iV-mi ihc l^.wvr Mioi-ent fi.riua- 
lioii iit'iii-niiiuij. i- ill ii-.-ll'iin irreui ..liji-riimi i... liio vit-w that tliey 
an- n.iiir.iK-ri'-: l..r n.. iii.i i-* Ulur — t:ililiflii'<l in lualafo-tpsiL-ra- 
jiliv [liaii ill.- .!■.;-.- iillitiiiv ixistiti;; Iwiwi-i^i thi- Kiiro|>vuii Tertiary 
Liii.i ii.-.|lu-..a:i...lili.,-.-ii.,« iiiliai-iliiiL' t!.p WVi In.liw.' T.- ox- 
jihiiii ihi-. r.-hiljiiri-lii]. i-xi>liii;.' Ix-twii-ii iw.i rfjriim? M-jiaratctl by ihe 
«lu.l..-x|iiiii-.- ..I" ill.' Aihuiiii', vari.>ii> ilit-.-rifs liiiv.- bwn ..flli^-d. 
Uiii; ..f till' tiKt-t |ilaii-ilil.' i'^ ihiii ttliii-li l>ri.i;,-tM tin- Atlnnlic by ah 
uiiiit-iil 1 Km-i-rii-. Karly iiii.l MiiMIr Miu<.-t'iir iL-untiiieiit — an .4(/<iiirii'. 

1-1 . * It / l; I.CJ ir. „if.,,m,.: Ill, l«;.ilyi,,. Vul H.lhei lio;l .lalicr wohl ,)« 

uml //.-..I 


small insects, drone bees, and other creatures live in indolence by 
the sweat of other brow?;. There are many parallels between phinU* 
and animals. Is Yucca to be a case of absolute servitude on the 
part of the insect, from sheer indolence on the part of the Yucca to 
do its own work? It seems to me we shall not be able to draw the 
veil from this great mvstery till we make continuous and careful 
observations of all the facts in its history, and place them on record 
for comparison with those which others may make. 

Prof. Riley once made the remarkable statement that he had seen 
the Yucca Moth collect pollen, and thrust it down the tube of the 
8tigma, as if it knew that some such process was necessary to insure 
fertilization. Dr. Engelmann had found in the Yuccas he examined, 
that the apex of the ])istil was not stigmatic, — the receptive portion 
was low down in the tube. The two observations, taken together, 
gave color to the supposed object of the insect. I have shown, (see 
Proceedings of the Meetings at Cincinnatti, Saratoga and Buffalo, ) 
that pollen applied to the apex in Y. «»f7//«^//b//a, and protected by 
gauze from the insect, resulted in seed just ius well as when the work 
was done by an insect. The tubular character noted by Dr. Engel- 
mann cannot therefore be a constant one; and we shall have to 
admit that the reasoning of the insect which led it to the 
pollen down the tube in the other species, leads it to perceive there 
is no tube in Y. angustifolla, and that the ap])lication of pollen to 
the bare apex is sufficient in this species. 

Up to this season I had never been able to detect the insect be- 
have in the plant^s around my house, as Professor Riley saw them 
behave; but I have always conceded that he is too careful and too 
close an observer to have been mistaken in such an observation. 
The record of the act of the insect thrusting its tongue down the 
stigraatic tube, from so accurate a naturalist, needs no confirma- 
tion from any one, however one may be allowed to hold his judgment 
in as to the object of the insect in such behavior; not then 
as confirming Prof. Riley, but its part of my observations of this year, I 
desire tosav that I have recently seen an insect at the same ta.<k. It 
worked its proboscis uj> and down the tube of the pistil, nuich as a 
sportsman would load his gun. 

I find, in this region Ynccn jilmntiito<a commenced to bloom this 
year about the end of June. Some plants will bloom a full week, or 
occasionally ten days before others, tiiough years ago, all the plants 
under my notice came from root cuttings of one stock and not from 



By error, tlie genus was quoted " Poecilozoiiit 
tlie Zwlofjical Record for 1«84, mid tliis err^r was repeated by 
Tryon' who gircs the first diagnosis of the group published, giving 
H. bermudemU as the tyj« and only si>ec'ies. We may, then, con- 
eider the H. bermudeam Pfr., the type species of the genus. Wheth- 
er the ]I. imbricatu Hraim be associated with the Bermudan sitells 
or not is a point still to be settled. The superficial resemblance is 
marked; but as the hiiJtory of the species of Po-eiVojowi'iea teaches us, 
•' systematizing " helicoid laud molluski? by tlie shells alone is the 
merest guess-work. 

The f;»ct that the fossil species which Dr. Bocltger proposes to 
unite with the Bermudan form is from the Lower Miocene forma- 
tion of (ierraaiiy, is in itself no great objection to the view that they 
are congeneric; for no fact is better established in malaco-geogra- 
phy thau the close affinity existing between the Kuropean Tertiary 
land mollusca and those now inhabiting the West Indies.' To ex- 
plain this relationship existing between two regions separated by the 
whole e.x pa use of the Atlantic, various theories have been offered. 
One of the mo.'^t plausible is that which bridges the Atlantic by an 
ancient (_ Eocene, Early and Middle Jliocene) continent— an AllantU. 

isL {«ie/. 11. Li-i Tr. 
vci^lt-ioli der fMU >i 

I'fr.) beiilzen. Viel nShcr lieKt daher wohl lier 
lit der kleineren, mil iwei braunen bSndetn 
I'fr. von den Btnnudas, dereii Uebcrcinstimmung 
Ijleicli soforl in die Angen 


This view has been advocated by the well-known conchologist Dr. 
W. Kobelt' and by other.<. 

But althoiii^h this theory exphiins many anomalies in the distribu- 
tion of molhiscs, I must freely confess that the objections to it seem 
to me almost insurmountable. The recent work of the Challenger^ 
Bhike, and other deep-sea explorations, all tend to confirm the view 
held by Guyot, Dana, Agassiz and others, that the great oceanic 
basins, practically as the}' exist to-day, are of great antiquity; and 
render the existence of a former Atlantic continent with any con- 
siderable Western extension, highly improbable. 

A view more in accordance with the facts with which we are at 
present accjuainted, seems to me to be the following: It is a well 
ascertained truth that until toward the close of the Miocene, large 
portions of Nothern Africa as well as Europe were submerged ; and 
it appears probable that the westward flowing Equatorial current of 
the Indian Ocean extended across northern Africa, and united witii 
the Atlantic northern equatorial current, which now flows westward 
from northern Africa, through the Antilles into theGulf of Mexico. 
This current would afford a means of transport not only for the free 
swimming embryos of marine molluscs, (and there are not a few 
forms both of gasteropods and pelecypods, common to the Mediter- 
ranean and Gulf Provinces,) but also, through the agency of floating 
materials, trees, etc., swept from rivers, land mollusks may have 
been transported across the; Atlantic, just a.s they have been carried 
by the Gulf Stream from the West Indies to the outlying island of 
Bermuda,' a distance of over 700 miles. 

A further development of the same idea explains certain peculiari- 
ties in the distribution of species common to the Pacific and the 
Gulf of Mexico. The presence of Miocene and Pliocene deposits 
render it certain that there was communication between the Gulf 
and the Pacific across the isthmus of Panama as late as the Pliocene. 
And a portion of the equatorial current probably swept directly 
throuuh to the Pacific. Thus it is likely that those forms common 
to both sides of the isthmus, will prove to be of Atlantic origin, and 
to have been <listributed westward. 

The indiirouousBermudan mollusc-fauna, marine as well as terres- 
trial, has undoid)tedly been derived wholly from the West Indies. 

' NacliriclUsblalt d. deutschen Malak. Gesell., i887, y>. 147. 

2 Sec Darwin, Origin of Species, Glh cd., p. 358. Also a paper by Mr. C. T. 
Simpson, On l!ie Distribution of Laml and Fresh-water Shells in the Tropics, 
Conch. Ex. ii, p. 37, oO. 


And since the island ia typically oceanic, "a solitary ]>eak rising 
abruptly from a biise only 120 miles in diameter" surrounded on all 
sides by between 2o00 luid ^tODO fathoiiis depth, we have an indica- 
tion here that laud niolhisks of many fatnilici^, Helieida, ZonUidte. 
Succinidte, Pupidm, Hclieiitidce, even Vag!i>.ulid<e, (for a large unde^i- 
cribcd spcciei' of Vafflmilag exists ujxin the island) may be trans- 
ported very great distances by sea, by, in all probability, tlie agencies 
mentioned above. 

The considerable divergence existing lictween the various species 
of the Zuuitoid genus peculiar to Bermuda, PoecihzonUes, indicates 
that the island is of considerable antiqnity. 

We may <ieiinc the genus as follows: 


Generic characters : Shell helicoid.subtrochifbrm, depressed conic, 
or aubdiscoidal, perforate or umbilicate, obliquely striate, oruamciit- 
ed with radiating zigzag flammutes or spiral bands of chestnut color 
on a lighter ground ; whorls nuineraus (7— lU) very slow; ly widening; 
body whorl more or less Hattened or compressed below the u.'<ually 
carimite iwriphery, not descending anteriorly ; aperture more or 
less irregularly lunate; peristome simple, the columeliar margin 
slightly expanded and thickened with a white callus which encircles 
the pillar withiu. Animal similar in form to Helix; foot narrow, 
short posteriorly, scarci-ly reaching behind the shell, without longj- 
ttidinal furrows above its margin or caudal umcous iwre; orifice of 


The relationship of the species of Poecilozojiites to one another is 
shown by the similarity of the radiilfe and jaws, and of the external 
characters of the animal ; and in the shells, which at first glance 
seem to be a heterogeneous assemblage, by the callus which coats 
the columella, the compression of the whorl below the periphery, and 
especially by the color-pattern, which is the same in all the species, 
consisting of zigzag flammules radiating from the sutures. In P. 
bermiideiisis the flammules coalesce into continuous bands above and 
below the periphery in the adult ; but an examination of young 
specimens reveals the same pattern that is found in P. circumfinnata, 
P. reiniana, etc. The internal spiral lamella of P. circumjinnata 
would incline one at first to separate it from the other species ; but it 
is scarcely of generic importance, in view of the fact that in all other 
characters the species is very similar to P. bermudeiisis, etc. 

The following analysis shows the inter-relations of the various 
species : 
^4. Base of shell with a revolving lamina within 

circumfinnatiis, discrepans. 
B, Base of shell without lamina. 

a. Aperture rounded below ; umbilicus wide reinianus. 

b. Aperture angulate below ; umbilicus narrow 

hermudensis, neJsoni, 

Poeeilofonites bermudensis Pfr. ipl. xvii, fig?, e. c; 

The typical species is a form of about twenty-five mill, diameter, 
solid, coarsely irregularly striate and acutely carinate at the j)er- 
iphery; a broad chestnut band usually encircles the shell above 
the periphery, and another below it; but these are sometimes 
absent; the inner whorls of the spire usually retain traces of the 
original color-pattern of radiating flames, and the base in young 
examples, is radiately streaked ^ pi. xvii, fig. k;. The base is con- 
vex, and not indented around the narrow and <leep umbilicus, but 
is angulated at its margin; the parietal wall is generally covered 
by a shining white layer with whi^h the interior of the shell is lined. 
Reeve, Trvou and other author^ have figured the shell of this 

The jaw is like that of P. circumfinnafn. 

The radula (pi. xvii, fig. c) is rather long. The central teeth have 
basal plates almost as broad as long, the median cusi)S projecting 
below their lower margins, with well-develoiKrd cutting points, the 
side cusps short, attaining about the middle of the ba«al plate, and 



And since the island is typically oceanic, *'a solitary peak rising 
abruptly from a l)ase only 120 miles in diameter" surrounded on all 
sides by between 2500 and .*]000 fathoni.s depth, we have an indica- 
tion here that land mollusks of many families, Helicidce, Zonitidcr, 
Siiccinidir, Pupidcc, HcUcinidcv^ even Vaginulidce, (for a large undes- 
cribcd species of Vaglmdiis exists u|)on the island) may be trans- 
ported very great distances by sea, by, in all probability, the agencies 
mentioned above. 

The considerable divergence existing between the various species 
of the Zonitoid genus peculiar to Bermuda, Poecilozonites, indicates 
that the island is of considerable antiquity. 

We may define the genus as follows: 


Generic characters: Shell helicoid,8ubtrochiform, depressed conic, 
or subdiscoidal, perforate or umbilicate, obliquely striate, ornament- 
ed with radiating zigzag flammules or spiral bands of chestnut color 
on a lighter ground ; whorls numerous (7-10) very slowly widening ; 
body whorl more or less flattened or compressed below the usually 
carinate {wriphery, not descending anteriorly ; aperture more or 
less irregularly lunate; peristome simple, the columellar margin 
slightly expanded and thickened with a white callus which encircles 
the pillar within. Animal similar in form to Helix; foot narrow, 
short posteriorly, scarcely reaching behind the shell, without longi- 
tudinal furrows above its margin or caudal nmcous i)ore; orifice of 
genitalia on the right side of neck, near, but not under the mantle ; 
mantle margin simple; jaw like that of Limax, very thin, arcuate, 
with a broad blunt median projection anteriorly ; radula with 
tricuspid central teeth having quadrate basal plates, the central 
cusps projecting beyond the anterior margins of the basal plates, the 
side cusps rather short, with well reflexed cutting points ; lateral 
teeth similar but lusym metrical, lacking the inner cusps ; marginal 
teeth aculeate, with simple thorn-shaped cusps and oval basal plates. 

It will be seen by the above definition that the genus cannot be 
included in any of the groups with which its species have been 
associated by authors ; the Zonitoid dentition at once removing it 
from the Helicidce, and the absence of a caudal mucous pore, the 
more anterior position of the orifice of the genitalia and the coloration 
of the shell, separating it from Zonitea and its subgenera. 


ed ; the base concave around the umbilicus, and the general aspect 
that of Patuld. 

The jaw is like that of circumfirmata. 

The radula (pi. xvii, fig. d) is similar to that of beimudensis except 
in the following points : the cusps are larger, with mucli more widely 
reflexed cutting points ; the perfect lateral teeth are seven on either 
side ; the cliange to marginals is quite abrupt, as there are but two 
real transition teeth ; the marginals number about sixteen on each 
side, the inner six or seven of about equal size, the outer ones rapidly 
decreasing toward the edge. The basal plates are longer than in the 
other species. A central tooth with two adjacent laterals and one 
marginal are shown in the figure. 

Poecilozonites circumfirmatus KcdficUl. (]»1. xvii, figs. f). 

A form with nuich the appearance of Hyalosagchiy a group with 
Avhich it has been classed bv some authors. It is a delicate subtranslu- 
cent yellowish brown shell, marked with brown streaks, spots and 
flainmules ; the whorls are separated by moderately imi)ressed sut- 
ures; the apex is like that of reiniana ; the last whorl is more or less 
angulate around the periphery, rather flattened below the angle, then 
convex, indented around the narrow deeply perforating umbilicus ; 
there is a white calcareous deposit around the columella, inside, as 
in the other species, and an acute white lamella which revolves 
within the base near to the i)eriphery, a character which none of the 
preceding species possess. The variation in form is very great — spec- 
imens more elevated than my figure F being not infrequent, and 
these are connected by examples more and more depressed (fig. g) 
"with the flattened lenticular form called by Pfeiffer H. dlsa^epans. 
This extremely depressed variety, now figured for the first time, (PI. 
xvii, fig. H.) cannot be considered specifically distinct from the P, 

Jaw (pi xvii, fig. li) transparent, very thin, arcuate, with blunt 
extremities and a wide obtuse median projection below. 

Radula (pi. xvii, fig. a) as described for F, bermndensiSy but with 
onlv seven laterals, two or three transition teeth, and about twentv- 
eight marginals. The marginals have longer basal plates than in P. 


dividual iu each case introduced, yet being three distinct ones from 
seed originally, there might be a chance for cross-fertilization when 
three kinds grew altogether, as in tliose under my observation. 

But I found that the bees, and other short-tongued visiting in- 
sects, could not, in any way, aid iu fertilizing the flower, when gath- 
ering nectar. In these forma, the stamens and pistil are curved 
upward, so that anthers and stigma are far above the lower lip, on 
which the insect alights. If any inceets aid iu cross-fertilization, it 
must be the poll en -gat he ring bees, and others ; but this will render 
the speculation in connection with the development of nectar, and 
the prolongation of the tube in favor of certain classes, of no value, 
especially in connection with the fact noted, that the short-tongued 
insects can get the li<|uid iu spite of tiie prolonged tube. 

It is u^ual, when similar instances in other plants have been noted, 
to weaken the force of ihc lessons they teach, by objecting, that 
many things " may have happened." In this case, it would be 
urged, that there might be some insects in the native country of 
tiiese honey.sucklcs, that we have not here where the jilant is intro- 
duced ; hut this would not change the fact, that whatever they may 
be, they would still be <livided into long-tongued and shorttongucd 
classes ; and that some bees gather honey only, while others are ilc- 
voted to collecting pollen; nor would it ignore the fact that the sta- 
mens and style arc out of the reach of the short-tongiied class. It 
"maybe" also urged that after the tube had been lengthened to ex- 


The relationship of the species* of Poedlozonites to one another is 
shown by the similarity of the raduloe and jaws, and of the external 
characters of the animal ; and in the shells, which at first glance 
seem to be a heterogeneous assemblage, by the callus Avhich coats 
the columeHa, the compression of the whorl below the periphery, and 
especially by the color-pattern, which is the same in all the species, 
consisting of zigzag flammules radiating from the sutures. In P. 
berrnudensis the fiamnuiles coalesce into continuous bands above and 
below the periphery in the adult; but an examination of young 
specimens reveals the same pattern that is found in P. circumjinnata, 
P. reiniana^ etc. The internal spiral lamella of P. circumfinnata 
Avould incline one at first to separate it from the other species ; but it 
is scarcely of generic importance, in view of the fact that in all other 
characters the species is very similar to P. berrnudensis, etc. 

The following analysis shows the inter-relations of the various 
species : 
^4. Base of shell Avith a revolving lamina within 

circumfinnatus, discrepans. 
B, Base of shell without lamina. 

a. Aperture rounded below ; umbilicus wide reinianus. 

b. Aperture angulate below ; umbilicus narrow 

berrnudensis, nelsoni, 

Poeoilozonites bermudensis Pfr. (pi. xvii, fig?, k. c.) 

The typical species is a form of about twenty-five mill, diameter, 
solid, coarsely irregularly striate and acutely carinate at the per- 
iphery; a broad chestnut band usually encircles the shell above 
the periphery, and another below it; but these are sometimes 
absent; the inner whorls of the spire usually retain traces of the 
original color-pattern of radiating flames, and the base in young 
examples, is radiately streaked (pi. xvii, ^^^. e). The base is con- 
vex, and not indented around the narrow and deep umbilicus, but 
is angulated at its margin ; the parietal wall is generally covered 
by a shining white layer with which the interior of the shell is lined. 
Reeve, Tryon and other authors have figured the shell of this 

The jaw is like that of P, circumfirmata. 

The radula (pi. xvii, fig. c) is rather long. The central teeth have 
basal plates almost as broad as long, the median cusps projecting 
below their lower margins, with well-developed cutting points, the 
side cusps short, attaining about the middle of the basal plate, and 



directed outward; the lateral teeth are similar, hut Inck inner cusp?; 
they are about eight in Dumber, and are followed by about four 
transition teeth ; the marginaU number about fifly on either .'^ide, and 
their cusps become more slender toward the outer edge, and the Imsnl 
plates shorter. A central with five adjacent lateral teeth, and a 
group of transitiou teeth ivith a true marginal tooth are shown in the 

Helix albella of Chemnitz, (not of Linnieus), and H. ockroleuen of 
Pfeiffer, (not Ferussac) are, I believe, synonymous with this species. 
The former is placed in Euryeratera in Pfeiffer's Nomenelator, and 
the. latter has lieen compared to I'<tckystyla rujozonaia, a form somc- 
wliat similar in characters of the shell, but belonging, of coui'se, tn a 
distinct group. 
PoeDiloionitat nelioni BtamJ. |]il. xvii, figs, j, k, i.]. 

A fossil form, difiering fnmi bermudeiieU in the much greater size, 
greater number of whorls, more convex buise, coarser strialion, im- 
pressed sutures, and especially in the peculiarly |iromtnent dome- 
shaped upper whorls. These are, indeed, so closely coiled as to 
i^esemble a specimen of /'. eircinHjimuila. The coloration, imperfect- 
ly sliown in several specimens hclorc me, is that of beniuiikn^U; 
and whilst its affiiiitios are with the hitter sirecies, I regard it as a 
divergent braucli, ratiicr tiiau as an anwritor of that form. 

As has been observed in other cases of sjteeies approaching extinc- 
tion, and probably subject to ^ome decided and unfavorable cban;,'0 


«d ; the base concave around the umbilicus, and the general aspect 
that of Patida. 

The jaw is like that of circumfirmata. 

The radula (pi. xvii, fig. d) is similar to that of bennudensis except 
in the following points : the cusps are larger, with much more widely 
reflexed cutting poiuts ; the perfect lateral teeth are seven on either 
side ; the change to marginals is quite abrupt, as there are but two 
real transition teeth ; the marginals number about sixteen on each 
side, the inner six or seven of about equal size, the outer ones rapidly 
decreasing toward the edge. The basal plates are longer than in the 
other species. A central tooth with two adjacent laterals and one 
marginal are shown in the figure. 

Poecilozonites circumfirmatus lledficld. (j)l. xvii, fig?, f). 

A form with nuich the appearance of Ilijalosagduy a group with 
Avhich it has been classed by some authors. It is a delicate subtranslu- 
cent yellowish brown shell, marked with brown streaks, sj)ots and 
flammules ; the whorls are separated by moderately impressed sut- 
ures; the apex is like that of reinlana ; the last whorl is more or less 
angulate around the periphery, rather flattened below the angle, then 
convex, indented around the narrow deeply perforating umbilicus ; 
there is a white calcareous deposit around the columella, inside, as 
in the other species, and an acute white lamella which revolves 
within the base near to the |)eriphery, a character which none of the 
preceding species possess. The variation in form is very great — spec- 
imens more elevated than my figure f being not infrequent, and 
these are connected by exam})les more and more depressed (fig. (i) 
with the flattened lenticular form called by PfeifTer H, disci^epans. 
This extremely depressed variety, now figured for the first time, (PI. 
xvii, fig. H.) cannot be considered specifically distinct from the P. 

Jaw (pi xvii, fig. «) transparent, very thin, arcuate, with blunt 
extremities and a wide obtuse median projection below. 

Radula (pi. xvii, fig. a) as described for P, hermudeims, but with 
only seven laterals, two or three transition teeth, and about twenty- 
eight marginals. The marginals have longer basal plates than in P. 

300 rHOCEKDisns of the academy of [1S88. 

tion, n'iiiic tlirei' of tlio i^jtecimens shown upon the inner face hnve 
■eight nioliinf. As dorivwl from a ftudy of Professor Mni^h'*! eollec- 
tion, the ha-'i^ufili^tinction Iwtwccn the% genera will (le[tcnil : 1, 
upon the nunilx^r of the teeth in the adult condition; 2, upon the 
presence of a heel, which is apparently wantinp in Atlhenodon ; 3, 
upon the ))re»ence of one or of two transverse crests connecting the 
-external with the pair of intiTnal eones. 

The name Stiilotloii U preoccupied, but Aiiib/ofheriiim has the pre- 
cedence of .%firco(?oH, (JIarsh) and A. noririiiiim can probably J>o 
retained for the larficr sj)ecies with seven molars, thus cnihraeing »S. 
robiuivs with wliich it a^'rees closely in measure men I. I'h'uvohfttf 
would then enil)riire ihi' s|H;cies with eight molai-:'. lint these <|ue!*- 
lions can onlv Ih- linnllv determined l>v a careful rr'vision of all the 

It now seems proliaMe lluU the type maxilla of A'«rfiirfoii t No, 
477'>'>.) tig. -1 u. shoiihl be plaied >oine"whcre in this s,-ries, as held by 
( )wen and not repri'sciu a distincl family as miiintninetl bv the writer. 
ISince the original study ami lignring of the niobirs, the matrix has 
(Mvn extensively ivtnoveil, so that the outer faces of the crowns are 
t'XiMised and show a low anlero'internal ensp near the base oftlic 
vrown : this cll^p is very ini[Hirtanl beeansi- it is aii]iarently hotnot- 
ogons with the |Mist,.r.i-iriiernal cnsp of ibe Amblilhvnnm h)wer mohir. 
Further, a- Mr. I-ydekkcr has iminied out a.p. eil.. |>. 2',n . the 
' "I'l"'"' 



It is frr 

admitted that the 

ws befori 

iu- those ..f 
r-xpre-s..! by 


AmphUesfes with six molars and Triconodon witli four. The second 
fipec.'imcii, a left ramus also seen upon the outer surface, has three 
premolars in hHu and the space for a fourth, (jwii); in front of 
this is a deeper alveolus, probahly for the canine, preceded by the 
alveoli of at least three incisors, so that the lower dental formula 
may now be given with considerable certainty as follows: 

The canine is not ])reserved. The premohirs as viewed upon the 
outer surface have prominent cingules but not the true basal cusps 
seen in Triconodon. The outer face of the molars is entirely devoid 
of a cingulum. None of the specimens give any evidence that the 
angle is distinct, but indicate that the lower border rises to the level 
of the condyle precisely as in PhtiHColotherinm, Spalacotherlnm and 
Triconodon. This strengthens the writer's reference of these genera 
to one family as opposed to the views of Marsh and Lydekker; never- 
theless, as shown below, Spahicotherinm is a more specialized type 
than the others. 


Besides the type in the British Museum there is a beautifully 
preserved specimen belonging to this genus in the Oxford Museum 
and through the kindness of Mr. James Parker of Oxforil the writer 
had an opportunity of examining a third specimen in his private 
collection. The latter, which has been figured in Phillips' **(feology 
of Oxford," is remarkable for the extension of (hecoronoid beyond 
the vertical line of the condyle. The Oxfonl Museum specimen^ 
contains only the four posterior molars, probably ?U4 — m-; with the 
fangs of m^ and m^. It may however be readily distinguished from 
the Aniphiie.iteii sjHicimens by the stout cones and by the fact that 
the internal cingulum rises in two points upon the inner faces of 
the njolars instead of in a single |M)int beneath the protocone; also 
bv the stout character of the iaw. 

A renewed study of the molar teeth in the tyjHj sjvcimen shows 
that all the post-canine teeth present the characters of molars in 
sonje re>pect,s. The first tooth behind the canine has a main cusj) 
like that of the posterior molars and an internal cingulum horizontal 
and rising in two points instead of showing the sweep downwards and 
backwards which is so characteristic of j)remolar cingula. The 
accessory cusps are either covered with matrix or broken off. The 
second tooth has a fractured cinirulum so that one cannot determine 

1 'i'hc ca»*t of this specimen in the Natural Histrny Museum (m. 23<K)) has been 
inii>takenly referred to AmphiUstes by Lydekker, op. cit., p. 1272, on the ground of 
**the small development of the accessory fore-and-aft cusjjs." The basal cusps of 
the molars are quite as prominent as in the typ?. 




iho z.,<.l<rj:y <il'n Mrruii])r,t'U!iiii.l>liiit Itnle 

'I'll.- x-A\ .wii,_. 

k.«.>»n t" ilu' ii:itiir.ili~t un- I'li^c-.! ..ii ]H:-iv.iiia) .)li.-i-rvuii..ii-. au.i '.ii 
ivlU-lion- nufU' .ItirihL' a l.ritt' >• joiirii on l)u- UhiixN .tiiriiij i)>t- 
[fi-t -iimiiitT. ill •'<iin[>:iiiy n'nh a ciai'-'ofi-liiiWnU fruiii tlir Ac:i>it-iiiy 
<.•! N,itMr:il S,-i,!ii,-. Itiit Utile MMiiiialii.' work, otlii-r ihmi thai id 
Ih,' a.i>artnu'nl> uf „riiilh<>I»;.-y. i<'l,iliy<>l<.<:y. aii<) lioiuiiy. Iia<l liiih- 
vi'i.. 1.-VU .|ni„- ill ilii.. ri'tiiarkaMy iiiu-rf:.lin;:, aii.I lyi.icaUy .^vatiic. 
Ubii.l ::r..ii|i. aiicl ii was tlmUirlit tliat a iiiun- rritical Mirwy ini.'lit 
hritii: ..lit fa.'t.- Ml' ;.',-i,<-ral iiiKTUsi tu iIk' z<)i<l.>;:ioal ^tiul.'iit. aixl 
llir'>» :...iiH' a.Uliii'.iial li-lil ii]"'" lli<> inlricute ."iiKjci-I <if /...^^'.--ra- 
[.hy. In Ih.- iv-u!ts ol.iaiiK'.! I liavi- m.r l^t-ii .li-apiH.iiiCc.l. Tl«- 
fXulH-raii.-,' nfaiiiiinil lii;- lia- vi<-UI.-<l iiiiK'li llmt ha- |ir.n-ii1 1.. U' ti,-» 
t.> 111.- ^^•U■,n■.iU'^. ^^],■i]■■ v.naiii nuiarkalilo ]K-(-utinrilii-s in tl>.- M~ 

IvihiiMnriMla u lM'<MvrtIy[H-s<>l'aiiiiii«l'<ui>t'IMii.vM.i.-^ 

ill ji-,.-iiij'liii'al ili-iiiliiitiiuj wlii.-h ai)|«.'arli, iik'iU )in.'M'ii( t.i n'i-.-U' 

i .larka. -. an.), [x-rliai^. tiial lo •Iran uiily mure d.»4>ly (tx- v.-il 

.n.iilii- :iH-t.n..ii--iili>-.-i. 

Mii.'l. ..r iii> liiii.' »a-. .1.-v..[('.l 1., an .-Naiiiiiialion <>t';.'C..|..i:iral 
li-.,ii.iv., aii.I,' i...I>..-.l, [ill' >ii.iial "LJ.-i-i „|- itii- j.>iirii,-y wa- |.> 



n.l .1. ^ 

Tilt 1 




III.' ];.■ 

■al i-lini.l-. Till' >uli:'iaiicf ..I' inv 

,l..'.u.[...i.-ii. tliMi. 

I |.M||i t'll,.' ,....]' 

^illl>.' I in II futiin- [HiiHT. ( 'Illy 
Ik-iv |.uI)H>Ii<'.I. iiiiistiiii.-li a- 

Umi limmry. tui» bcm iifumJM'd bf local i^iilkftofiK 



^4» Ci, ^5, ?7i6, or p^, 7717, as given by Lydekker and adopted by the 
writer. Owen's formula, ^v,, m^, includes the canine in the pre- 
molar series. 


We are fortunately able to greatly increase our knowledge of 
this genus. Upon uncovering the anterior molars of the type speci- 
men of LepiocladuSj an antero-internal cusp came into view, leading 
to the discovery that the latter genus is identical with Peramus, 
and still more interesting is the fact that the type specimen 

of Spalacofherhnn mimis, 
(Owen) presents the much de- 
sired internal vjew of the 
Peramus molars. A third 
specimen confirms the facts 
derived from the second and 
shows that altogether there 
are six or, possibly, seven 
specimens in the British 
■Museum collection which 
should be referred to this 
ffcnus, o^ivini^ us neariv all 
the characters of the mandib- 
ular dentition. These are: 

The type, Xo. 47742, also 
No's, 47744, 47754, 47743. 



c^ , * ' * V 1 h f\ 

1 - ^ . 




Fig. 1. 
a. Peramus i^Spalacothcrium^ minus 

Owen. Internal view of left mandibular ^^ 

ramus. b. P. {^Leptodtuius) liuhius Owen, 

External view of left mandibular ramu>. c. All except tllC last, portions of 

r.tenuirostris Ow'tw. Ouier face of anterior tllC left mandibular ramus 

portion of left ramus. Also, Second Molar seen upou the OUtCr face. 

f.f Amphilhcrium Prn'osfii Owen, 'nlernal j^^,^'^,j,^^^| \^y Owqm to Peramus 

\ lew. Also, Second molar of P. minus, ^ i' * i k t „ i^i i ^ 

, ^ ' ^ 'and so adopted bv Lydekker 

t ninrged from fig. 1 a above; internal view. . * ^ " 

/r, proloconid./^/, paraconid. w<r, metaconid. ^ 1* •' 1 • ~ ' v 
/iv, hypoconid.wir, mylohyoid groove. Much To which should be added: 

enlarged. No. 47,739. the type of 

Leptocladus dub ins, (Owen, op. cit., p. 53, PI. Ill, fig. 4 ; Os- 
born, op. cit., p. 239, PI. 9, fig. 10 ; Lydekker, op. cit., p. 29L) 
A left mandibular rannis seen upon the outer surface. 
No. 47,751, the type of Spalacotheriwn ininus, (Owen, op. cit., 
p. 28, PL I, fig. 3!).) A left ramus seen upon the inner 
The heel upon the molars of S. minus and the an "O 

cusp upon the antepenultimate molar of Leptoch \ 

* Al<o possibly, No 47799, referred by Lydekker to Spt 
op. cit., i», 294. 


further examination Avhich developed the fact that all the specimens 
of the above list agree in the following particulars: 1. In evidence 
of the presence of three incisors, (No's 47744, 47730, 47743). 2, In 
evidence, direct and indirect, of the presence of six jireinolarifonn 
teeth, (No's 47743, 47739, 47742). 3, In evidence qf the pres- 
ence of but three molariform teeth. 4, In the fact that the mvlo- 
hyoid groove does not terminate at the dental canal but extends 
back beneath the lower border of the pterygoid fossa, (No's 47751, 
47754). All the specimens which do not directly bear upon these 
four features of agreement sup}K)rt them indirectly, or at least pre- 
sent no negative evidence. 

The formula, pwig. ''I3. is very exceptional, and Mr. Oldfield 
Thomiuj, who kindly examined these specimens and discussed the 
dentition with the writer, suggested a different division of the series. 
In No. 47739 the third and fourth premolars present lower crowns 
than the succeeding tooth, fig. 1 />, but this is apparently because 
tlie tips are not fully exposed. And as we have at present no other 
data than the mere form of the teeth, it seems that we are bound 
to take the dentition as it stands, exceptional as it is, and divide 
it provisionally as foHows: 

The almost invariable presence of four premolars among the 
]Mesozoic and recent mammals is a very difficult fact to explain. 
This genus and apparently Amphitherium are among the few 
exceptions. Why was the line drawn exactly to include five teeth 
behind the incisor series, tiie first of these developing into a canine? 

In describing Peramus (op. cit., p. 2(33), the writer questioned the 
reference of the anterior portion of the jaw, (No. 47743 ) to it on several 
grounds, but now considers this less doubtful, as the single incisor 
preserved is very similar to that in No. 47744., and both differ from 
those oi' iSffjlodon. the only other type which this s])ecimen resembles. 
The last premolar has a heel very similar to tliat of the molars. The 
molars, fig. 1 a, are very similar to those of some of the eocene Creo- 
donta, presenting the primitive tubercular' sectorial tyj)e. Among 
the Jurassic Mammals, they apparently ai)proach most closely the 
molars of Ainj>hithcriiihi. 

A comparison of the three specimens belonging to this genus, two 
in the Oxford collection, and the one previously studied in the 


British Museum, has enabled the writer to determine fully thestruc- 
ture of the molars and premolars and to correct a previous error. 

In examining the lirst and second molars of the type specimen 
under a strong lens, an external cusp was detected directly between 
the internal pair, a discovery of great interest, since, in connection 
with the last genus, it adds two important types to the tritubercular 
series. This external cusp is probably the one referred to by Owen, 
(op. cit., p. 14) in describing the penultimate molar of the second 
specimen of Amphitherium,^ He speaks of the latter tooth as the 
posterior molar, but one can detect the tips of a molar behind this, 
just breaking through the jaw. 

The molar of Amphitherlum is thus apparently similar to that of 
Peramns with the exception that the external cusp, in the type species 
at least, is less loftv. This observation led to a reexamination of the 
jaw in the British ^Museum, No. 36822. This unquestionably belongs 
to Amphitherlum^ as previously determined, (Osl)orn, op. cit., p. 192, 
iig. 2.; Lydekkcr, op. cit., p. ')74), but presents the inner face of the 
right ramus instead of the outer face of the left ramus as previously 
described. This is proved ))y the double internal cusps, by the cin- 
gulum upon the premolar, and by the faint mylohyoid groove, near 
the lower border, which wjis previously overlooked. The individual 
is much smaller and younger than tiie two Oxford types, which are 
nearly.of the same size, and the tips of the para- and metacones arc 
entirely unworn.- 

In the Memoir, the formula of ^Im^j/i/Z/icr/w^i was doubtfully given 
as pm^, m^, (following Lydokker). An examiiuition of the 
Oxford types shows that Prof. Owen was more nearly correct in 
putting it, ^/Wfi, ?/j«. If we deduct the foremost ))ifanged tooth 
which he naturally reckoned with the premolar series, but which is 
probably the canine, we have Ci, pm-^, m^. In the second Oxford 
specimen there are undoubted traces of three ])re molars in front of 

1 "The posterior molar shows a middle internal and part of a larger external 
cusp." This observation shows ihc keenness of the observer, for the molar referred 
to is in a very fractured condition. 

2 The teeth in the Stonesfifld Slate specimens are much more brittle than those 
in the Purbcck series, but it would Ic well to run ihc ris.k cf injuring one of these 
molars to expose the external cone. 


the two complete ones. In front of these, Prof. Owen describes 
sockets for a bifanged tooth, (the canine), and for four single incisor 


A reexamination of the superior molars in the type maxilla of 
this genus reveals an inconspicuous but important feature in the 
crown which escaped Professor Owen's notice as well as the writer's. 
That is, the presence of a low transverse crest connecting the antero- 
internal and antero-external cusps. This puts the functional adapta- 
tion of the Peralestes molar in a different light from that described 
in the Memoir, since it shows that this molar is subtrenchant. A 
close examination of the anterior faces of these crests, moreover, 
yields some evidences of wear by the crown of an inferior molar. 
These crowns are placed somewhat obliquely, but when the jaw is 
tilted so that the teeth can be viewed directly upon end, they are 
seen to have a triangular section, Avith the base with its lesser cusps 
directed outwards, and the nuiin cone directed inwards, j)recisely as 
in the primitive tritubercular crown. When viewed in this way, 
this pattern at once suggests that of the Spahicothei'ium lower molars, 
which consists of a triangle reversing the above, L e. with the main 
cone external and the base internal. Mr. Lvdekker was the first to 
reach this conclusion as to the probable identity of these two genera 
but upon different grounds,^ and the writer has hitherto held quite 
an opposite opinion,'* which is now withdrawn. 

The j)reinolar formula oi' Perulestp,i is somewhat uncertain and tlie 
molars agree in number and size with those of Spahicotherimn, At 
present, however, the evidence for the union of these genera is hardly 
sufficient to justify more than the placing of Peralcdes in bracket* 
with the above genus. 


After all the systematic work which has lu'cn done u]>on the genera 
embraced in this faniilv, there are none in greater confusion as to no- 

' ♦' The true molars (Of Pera/esUs) agree so closely in struciure with those of 
Chrysoddoris tliat there is every probahility that the specimen belongs to Spalaco- 
therium tricu^pidens"' op. cit., p. 204 : In the writer s opinion, the molars of Chrys- 
ochloris hear only a remote resemblance to those of Spalacothcrium, 

'•' "A review of Mr. Lytlekker's Arrangement of the Mcsozoic Mammalia." 
American Naturalist, Marcli, 18SS, p. Ii8'), " The molars of this genus are widely 
diflfetent Irom those of Spalacotheriutn etc." 




menclature. As the writer anticipated after examining Prof. Marsh's 

Dnjolestes, (Am. Naturalist^ 
March 1888, p. 234 and Mem- 
oir, p. 2^0.) the genera Amhlo- 
therium and Achyrodon prove 
upon further examination and 
exposure of the crowns to be- 
long to the Stylodon type. 

It further appears that Mr. 
Lvdekker was correct in plac- 
ing Peraapalax with Aviblo- 
fherium (op. cit., p. 275)^ 
althouirh lie did not recognize 
the tritubercfilate character 
of the crown with the styloid 
external cone and two internal 
cu:^ps and heel. The writer 
was in error, first in describ- 
ing the external cusp of the 
niohirs of this genus (Peras- 
p(ila.v) a.s separated by a valley 
from the internal cusps, for 


Fig 2. 
<7, Kurtodon. Superior molar series of 
the left maxilla, viewed upon the wearing 
surface. 3, Amblotherium soriciuum, infe- 
rior molar series, viewed from above, /'i 
j4. [Pffospalnx) talpoides. A lower molar 
viewed upon tiie internal f^ce. c. The 
same. A lower molar viewed from above. 
</, Athyroiion nanus. A lower molar 
viewed from above. .Much enlarged. 
Abhreviation.s as in tiir, 1. 

there proves to be a distinct 
tran.sverse crest; probal)ly al.^o, second, in a.^sociating this jaw with 
the Peralestes maxilla, (op. cit., ]). 2')o). 

It is now evident that tlie molars of Profess(H' Owen's types of 
Amblotherium soriclnKm (Mes. Mannii., 1871 p. 2i)) of .1. mnstehda 
(ibid., p. 81.), of P/K/.9co/<^.s^'.<f lonf/lro^tfri.-^ (ibid., p. o').), oi Achyrodon 
nanus (ibid., p. oT.), of .1. puailhi.i (ibid., ]). '^1).), of Peivispala.v 
talpoides (ibid., p. 40.), all j)»'esent substantially the same crowns, 
(.<ee Fig. 2). It is also probable, but not actually demonstrated, that 
Stylodon pusillus (Gool. ^lag., 18()<), p. 10l>.j and S. robustus (ibid.) 
have the same molar pattern. Professor Marsh has further applied a 
series of generic and speciiic names to the closely allied American 
genera. Altogether it will prove a difficult matter to clear up the 
synonomy of the.<e numerous species and will recjuire a close exam- 
ination and revision of all the material available. 

It is sinofular, in view of the probable similaritv of manv of these 
species, that all the specimens referred tnStylodony because exposing 
the external fttce, possess but seven molars, with one possible excep- 


tion, while three of the specimens shown upon the inner face have 
•eight molars. As derived from a study of Professor ^Marsh's collec- 
tion, the ba.sis of distinction between these genera will de|Xind: 1, 
upon the number of the teeth in the adult condition; 2, upon the 
presence of a heel, which is apparently wanting in Asthenodon ; 3, 
upon the presence of one or of two transverse crests connecting the 
-external with the pair of internal cones. 

The name SUjlodon is preoccupied, but Amblofherium has the j)re- 
■cedeuce of StylacodoUy (^Earsh) and A. 8oricinmn can probably be 
retained for the larger species with seven molars, thus embracing S. 
robustus with w^hich it ao^rees closely iu measurement. Phascolestes 
would then embrace the species with eight molars. But these ques- 
tions can only be finally determined by a careful revision of all the 

It now seems probable that the type maxilla of Kurfodon (No. 
47755.) fig. 2 «, should be placed somewhere in this series, as held by 
•Owen and not represent a distinct family as nuiintained by the writer. 
Since the original study and figuring of the molars, the matrix has 
been extensively removed, so that the outer faces of the crowns are 
<5xposed and show a low antero-internal cusp near the base of the 
erown ; this cusp is very important because it is apparently homol- 
ogous with the postcro-internal cusp of the Amhfotherium lower molar. 
Further, as ^[r. Lydokker has pointed out (op. cit., p. 201) the 
block No. 47786 (iS*. pusUlusf) contains upper molars of a very 
similar nattern associated with lower teeth, resemblinir those of 
Stj/hdon. It is freely admitted that the views l)efore expressed by 
the writer are not sustained by this additional evidence, although as to 
the more definite question, it is not as yet evident with which of these 
jaws the Kurtodon maxilla should be placed. The question will be 
settled by the exposure and study of the crowns of the numerous 
specimens referred to Sfylodoii. The Kurtodun crowns are unlike 
those of Auiblotherlum i<oricinum or of Ac/njrodo)i since the summit 
is much broader and the wearing surface, instead of l)eing trenchant, 
is grinding, tis previously described, (op. cit., p. 109). 


The principle features of the present contribution are the follow- 
ing: 1, Additional characters of Amphiledes and the probable 
determination of the premolar-molar formula. 2, Additional char- 
acters of Phaseolotheri limy suggesting a division between molars and 
premolars. 3, A review of the Amphityliis dentition. 4, The union 


of Leptocladus diibius and Spalacotherium minus Avith Peramiis, andf 
determination of the mandibular dentition of the latter genus. The 
molars are tritubercular. 5, The discovery also of apparently tritu- 
bercular molars in Amphither nun and probable determination of the 
premolar- molar formula, (confirming Owen's views). 6, Confirming 
Lydekker's suggestion of the probable union ofPeralestes with Spala- 
cotherium, and ot* Pera^palax with Amblotherium. 7, The probable 
union ofPeraspalax, Amblotherium, Achyrodon, Phascolesies, Stylodon 
and Kurtodoii J into two or three genera Avith a substantially similar 
molar structure. 8, The correction of the writer's former views as 
to the family separation of the Peralestldce and probably of the 

The general result of the renewed and more extended study of these 
mammals has thus been, first to reduce the number of genera and 
eliminate two of the families proposed in the Memoir ; second, by the 
discovery of the molar structure of Amphitheriuni and PeramuSy to- 
substantially reduce the number of molar types among the English 
genera to two, viz. : the triconodont in AmphilesteSjPhascolotheriumy, 
Triconodon and probably AmphityliiS'yiind the tritubercular in all the 
remaining genera. 

This latter result is of great interest in its bearing upon the theory 
that the molar teeth of all the mammalia have either passed through 
the tritubercular stage or have been arrested at one of the steps in 
tooth development leading to this stage. 





The following notes on the zoology of a group of islands l)ut little 
known to the naturalist are l)ase(l on personal observations, and on 
collections made during a l>rief sojourn on the islands during the 
past sunniier, in company with a class of students from the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. But little systematic work, other than that in 
the departments of orinthology, ichthyology, and botany, had hith- 
erto been done in this remarkably interesting, and tyjncally oceanic, 
island group, and it was thought that a more critical survey might 
bring out facts (jf general interest to the zoological student, and 
throw some additional light upon the intricate subject of zoogeogra- 
phy. In the results obtained I have not been disappointed. The 
exuberance of animal life hits yielded much that has proved to be new 
to the systematist, while certain remarkable peculiarities in the dis- 
tribution of a number of well-known types of animals open up vistas 
in geogra])hical distribution which appear to me at present to recede 
into darkness, and, perhaps, tend to draw only more closely the veil 
over this mysterious subject. 

^luch of mv time was devoted to an examination of fjeoloijical 
features, and, indeed, the special object of the journey was to 
ascertain, ill the light of more recent inquiry, what evidence could 
be obtained from the Bermudas bearing upon the question of the 
growth and development of coral islands. The substance of my 
observations in this field will l)e presented in a future paper. Only 
a portion of the zoological results is here published, inasmuch as 
additional material in certain departments, intended to fill in gaps 
in the incpiiry, has been promised by local collectors. 

The specimens noted or described in the following pages were 
mainly obtained through dredgings, which were carried on as well 
in the outer water as in the snudler interior sounds and lagoons. 
As might have been anticipated the greatest profusion of animal 
life was found on the edge of the growing reef itself, the shoals 
surrounding the cluster of rocks on the northern l>arrier known as 
the North Rock. The wealth of forms occurring here almost tran- 
scends belief; unfortunately,4;he combination of limited time at our 
command and the state of the weather prevented more than a cursory 


examination of this locality, which is made comfortable for collecting 
and wadin;^ durin^j^ a partial exposure above water of some three 
houi*s. All the dredgings were confined to depths within 16 fathoms, 
which also represents tiie greatest sounding made by us in the la- 


The true stone corals of the Bermudas are comprised, as far as we 
now know, in some twenty-five species, the greater number of which are 
represented by identical forms in the Bahaman or West Indian seas. 
The genera thus far indicated are Ondina^ Mycedium, Asirway 
*Slderast )'(£(!, PoriteSy IsophijUia, Mxcuidrina^ and Diploria. The 
genus Madrepora, one of the commonest of the Bahaman and Flor- 
idian corals, a])pears to be absent. On the south and east side of the 
island group the outer margin of the growing reef, largely covered 
by a serpuline and vermetus growth, approaches to within a few 
hundred feet of the shore, where it breaks the inflowing surf into a 
white crest. Within the line of these breakers the depth of water is 
in places as much as ten or twelve fathoms. The brain coral (IJiplo- 
ria) and various gorgonians develop here in great profusion, the huge 
yellow masses of the former a|)i)earing ahnost everywhere at depths 
of from ten to twenty feet. Vast growtiis of millepore also cover the 
jshallower bottoms, presenting in the ensendilea wonderful garden of 
animal development. Tiiis })rofusion of coral growth is, however, 
5^urj)assed on the north side, where the reef recedes to a distance of 
some eight or nine miles from the island- shores, enclosing an exten- 
sive body of water whose deptii is in general about eight or ten fath- 
oms, and more rarely twelve fathoms. Much the same coral growth 
is indicated here as on the south side, the large brain corals pre- 
ponderating by their masses. Wiiile, probably, the greatest profusion 
of animal life is really met with on the actual edge of the growing 
reef, this does not api)ear to i)e the case with tlie corals themselves. 
At any rate, I was unable to satisfy myself that there was any marked 
difference to be observed between the marginal growth and that which 
extends gradually backward from the margin into deep water. 
Indeed, ajs far as the brain-corals themselves are concerned, it ap- 
peared to me that their largest masses were to be found some distance 
within the bounding reef, and consciuently beyond the breaking 
action of the surf. This condition is again shown in the compar- 
atively quiet and sheltered waters of Castle Harbor, where portions 
of the platform-bottom may be said to constitute one almost connect- 


ed mosaic of huge Diplorias. Iq so far, therefore, the Bermudas 
differ from the greater Dumber of coral nlandf. in which, a? is otm 
monly ^atetl. there U a marked deficiency in the coral growth 
within the hounding area, and an e((uali_v market! luxuriance on ibe 
crest and outer slope of ihe reef. 

In most places the largest corals do not come nearer than a ('ft or 
two feet of the surface of the water, the massive brain-corals rarely 
appeariog iu water of less depth than live or six feet. But in the 
ghallons off the Xorth R">ck we found Porite-i ustraoide^ alni<jst 
at the surface in low water, and just off the entrance to HarrinziOD 
Sound, on the nonh shore, Sid^raitrai galaxe'i was covered by ciily 
about two inches of water. The borders of Harrington .Sound are 
largely overgrown with si)ecie# of Isophyllia, which likewise approach 
to within a short dinance of the surface. In the greater depths of the 
Sound we found only Oculina, down to ten fathoms, the dredge-net 
being fre(|uenily caught and reversed by their ramose stems; bevond 
ten fathoms the dreilge usually came up emptT. 

The following species were obtained by us ; 

Kjeediam fragile, I'ana. 

Two Specimens. North Rock ? 
OeDliiu diffiiia, Lauik. 

Harrington Sound. 
OcqUba VI 


Bepprts, Zool<^, XVI, p. 51.) The species does Dot appear to have 
been hitherto observed in the Bermudian waters. 

Oe«li]ia ooroaalis, Qnelch. 

Harrington Sound. First described from the Bermudas (Challen- 
ger Reports, Zoology, XVI, p. 49.) 

Quelch, in his report on the reef-building corals of the Challenger 
(op. dL, pp. 9 and 49), enumerates as an additional member of the 
Bermudian &una the Ocxdina Bermudiana of Duchassaing and 
Michelotti. I have been unable to find anything in the description 
or figures furnished by these authors (Supplhnent au Memoire sur 
les Coralliaires des Antilles, p. 162, pi. IX, figs, 1, 2 — Memorie 
della Reale Accad. Seienze di Torino^ Ser. Sec, XXIII, 1866) to 
distinguish their species from Ocxdina speciosa, nor does it appear 
to me to be distinct. The characters upon which the form is sep- 
arated are exceedingly trivial, and well within the amount of 
variability which is presented by individual specimens of nearly all 
the species of Oculina. I further believe that 0. coronali^y and 
possibly also 0. recta, will have to be united with 0. speciasa, 

Iiopliyllia amtraUs 1 Edwards and Haime. 

Three specimens from the North Rock, doubtfully identificil with 
this species. 

Iiopliyllia firagilii 1 Dana. 

I am unable to satisfy mjself as to the positive existence of this 
species in Bermuda, although Quelch refers to a single specimen 
having been obtained there by the Challenger party. This author- 
ity doubtfully refers one of the forms figured by Pourtal^s (op. dt, 
pi. VII, fig. 3) as /. dipsacea to Dana's species, but from an 
examination of a number of Bermudian specimens which agree 
absolutely with Pourtal^s's figure I am fairly convinced that this 
identification is incorrect. The specimens do certainly not agree 
suflBciently with Dana's description, and if they are not the types of 
a distinct species, then they represent probably only a certain phase 
of development of I. dipsacea, as in indicated by Pourtal^. 

Iiopliyllia dipiaoea, Dana. 

Three specimens, from Castle Harbor. 

Iiopliyllia itrigoia, Duchaosaing and Michelotti. 

A number of specimens, from HarriDgton Sound, which agree 
with the description of this species. I am doubtful as to the species 
being distinct from laophyllia dipsacea; possibly, however, some of 


the varieties (so-called) of the latter species figured by Fourtal^ are 
really memhers of this species. Its principal distinguishing char- 
acters appear to be the thinner and more irregular septa, and the 
terminal cleft that indents or separates the septa of opposing calyces 
where they cross the common wall. It also presents a more bristling 
appearance than /. dipeacea. 
IiDpli;lliB ChiadslonptQBi*, Pourlalis, 

One specimen, This appears to be a good species, although by 
Quelch it is referred lo laophyllia elrigoaa. 

In addition to these forms Quelch enumerates hophyllia {Sytn- 
pkyllia) marginatn, I. cylindrica, and I. Knoxi, all of Duchassaing 
and Michelotti, as having been obtained at the Bermudas, but I 
have failed to detect any specimens among our collections which can 
be confidently referred to these species. On the other hand, I find 
one or two forms which I have not yet been able to identify with 
any described forms. 
SiderMtnea gtdaxeft, EUi» ami SoloniUr. 

Abundant on the shoals of Gallows Island, near the mouth of 
Flatts Inlet, where the colonies come to within about two inches of 
the surfiice; also on the borders of HarringtoD Sound. 
Forites oUvaria, r.»uik. 

Two spoeiniens, dredged in Harrington Sound. 
Forites astrteoidei, l.nmk. 


corallura is thus openly turbinate, or even pediculate, and exhibits 
in regularly scalariform outline the successive stages of outward 

Diploria oerebriformis, Lamk. 

This species is exceedingly abundant in the shoals lying to the 
leeward of the marginal reef, where its huge hemispherical or reni- 
form masses of bright orange, measuring as much as four or five 
feet in diameter, can be distinctly seen through the transparent 
waters at depths of from six to fifteen or twenty feet. I cannot say 
how much further down the species extends. It is equally abundant 
in Castle Harbor, where it is largely instrumental in building out 
the shore-platform which, at a moderate distance from the shore, 
descends vertically into deeper water. When attached by a con- 
tracted base, the brain-coral may be readily removed from its moor- 
ings; but where the base is largely co-extensive with the under-surface 
of the corallum the difficulties of removal are very great, neces- 
sitating much undercutting with a chisel. The largest specimen 
obtained by us measured about 28 inches across ; our efforts to 
dislodge a specimen about four feet in diameter proved unsuccessful. 

Diploria Stokesi, Edwards and Haime. 

We obtained a number of specimens of this species in Castle 
Harbor and through presentation ; for the latter my thanks are due 
to Miss A. Peniston, of Penistons. The habitat of the species, as 
far as I am aware, had not hitherto been noted. Edwards and 
Haime in their description of the species {Hist Nat dea Coralliaires, 
II, p. 403, pi. D, f\g, 3) state " Fatrie inconnue. " 1 believe it may 
be assumed that this species is the form described and figured by 
Knorr as Madrepora labyrinthiformis (DelidcB Natures Selectee, I, p. 
18, PL A 4, fig. 1). In our collections we have a closely related, 
and possibly identical species, which assumes a ring form, and in 
which the peculiar calycular hollows of D, Stokesi run out into 
parallel transverse grooves on the inner side of the ring. 


The gorgonians are abundant in the waters inside of the bounding 
reef, whence nearly all our specimens were obtained. A few were 
nipped up on the south side of Castle Harbor, and at the passage way 
conducting from the north into that body of water. 




mtipidDKaTgia flabellnm, ValencieiiDea. 

The purple variety of this species is abundant more particularly 
Id the northern waters, both near the outer reef and on the shallows 
known as Devonshire Flats. We failed to obtain any of the yellow 
forms, and I am not positive that this variety has ever been found 
at the Bermudas. 
OoigDiiis (Plexcnra} pnrpnreft. PallBs. 
(hirgODik (Flszauri) flaxaoia, Lamonroui. 

This species, of which we obtained several specimens, is, I believe, 
without doubt the Gorgonia anguicalua of Dana (U. S. Exploring 
Expedition, Zoophytes, p. 668). It is referred to under Lamouroux'a 
name as a member of the Bermudian fauna in Dana's "Corals and 
Coral Islands, " p. 114, 1872. 
OorgonU (Plezanra) bomomallB, Eeper. 
QoTgonia (Flezftnnt) maltiosada, Lum. 

{Gorgonia crasea, Ellis and Solander.) 

(G. vermicM^ata, Edwards and Haime.) 

The exact limitations and synonymy of this species are difficult to 
make out, but as far as my studies have permitted me to analyze 
the forms above indicated from the rather insufficient or deficient 
descriptions that have been furnished by their authors, they appear 
to represent an identical form. As such as I have accordingly 
referred them in this list. 


I have not been able to satisfy myself as to the exact affinities of 
this species. It appears to differ broadly from the common purple 
sea-feather of the West Indies, and does not have the depressed 
brancheS/Which are assumed for Esper's Pterogorgia acerosa. It is, 
however, with little doubt one of the forms that are included by 
Pallas in his Gorgonia acerosa (Quercus murina Theophrasti)^ and 
may be the one that is referred to by Milne-Edwards as Pterogorgia 

Of the species of gorgonians above enumerated Dana indicates 
Hhipidogorgia Jlabellum, Gorgonia flexuosa, G. homomalla, and G. 
crassa as coming from the Bermudas (** Corals and Coral Islands, " 
p. 114). I find no mention in any more recent work of the occurence 
there of either Gorgonia psendo—antipathes or G. dichotoma. On the 
other hand, we failed to obtain the Pterogorgia Americana mention- 
ed by Dana. 


Of the zoanthoid forms of actinians we collected three species, 
Palythoa (^Cortieifera) glareola, Lesueur, P. ocellata, Ellis and 
Solander, and a species of Zoantha, closely related to Z, sociata, but 
possibly new. The first of these species was found in large encrusting 
masses at the North Rock, partially exposed at low water. The 
glary white or yellowish crusts were nearly half an inch in thickness. 
Palythoa ocellata also occurs, but more sparingly, at the same local- 
ity ; on the western exposure of Gallows Island, at the entrance to 
Flatts Inlet, it was much more abundant, forming large patches in 
association with Siderastrcea galaxea. The species of Zoantha was 
sparingly developed off Gallows Island, but in one or more rock- 
hollows in Tucker's Town Bay, Castle Harbor, the bright green 
colonies of this beautiful polyp were plentiful. 



The animals of this order are in places excessively abundant ; in- 
deed, excepting the corals, they may be said to constitute the most 
distinctive feature of the fauna of the sand bottoms. Where other 
forms are apparently entirely absent, the black masses of the great 
Stichopus stand out in prominent relief over the white bottom. 
Motionless, seemingly, during the greater part of their existence, 
these singular creatures present the appearance of big black blotch- 
es on the sand, of which they consume, whether for nourishment or 

310 pROCEEDiuaa of the academy of [1888. 

otherwise, vast quantities. All the individuals that were opened 
had their intestinal canal, or more properly, their entire digestive 
tracts, completely choked with calcareous particles. 

The following are the species of holothurians observed by us, 
only one of which, I believe, had hitherto been nol«d from the 
Bermudas : 
Holothniit Floriduia, PcurtalSs. iHolothniia atra, Jilger.) pi. 14, figK. 6. fn, 

I identify with this species five small individuals of an olive-green 
color which were obtained in Castle Harbor, and which in a general 
way agree with the description of the species given by Pourtales 
(Proc. American Assoc, 1851, p. 12). Unfortunately, no figure 
accompanies the description, and that part which pertains to the 
calcareous bodies embodied in the skin is too vague to permit of sj*- 
cific determination. Selenka (_ZeiUckrijt fur teieaenechajiliehe Zool- 
ogie, xvii, p. 324, 1867} has supplemented the original description 
with further details of structure and with illustrations of the spicules, 
which practically leave no doubt in my mind that the Berniudian 
■ forms, even though differing somewhat from the type described by 
Pourtnli^s, are really that sj>ecie8. I have examined the spicular 
bMlics of all the individuals, and find that they exhibit considerable 
variation (PI. 14, figs. 6, (!n, 7, 7o). This is especially noticeable in 
the form of the stools. 1 really doubt if very much dependence can 
be placed upon these bodies as furnishing chiiracters for speciffc 


West Indies — but on this point I can offer no satisfactory evidence, 
never having had an opportunity to examine authentic specimens of 
Jager's species. 

Holothuria oaptiva, Ludwi^. (PI. 14, figs. 4, 4a) 

Two individuals, agreeing with the species described by Ludwig 
from the Barbados. 

Holothuria abbreviata, n. sp. (Pi. 14, figs. 5, 8, 8a.) 

Among the smaller forms of holothurians is one which in many 
of its characters agrees most closely with Ludwig's H. captiva, but 
yet differs to such an extent as to compel me to recognize it as a 
distinct species. Indeed, by many systematists it would probably be 
made the type of a distinct sub-genus or genus. The distinguishing 
peculiarity is the abrupt truncation of the body, which carries the 
vent on the dorsal surface, immediately about the extremital border. 
In the singlejspecimen before me I could determine only 17 tentacles, 
with as many tentacular vesicles, and but a single Poliau body. A 
large Cuvierian bundle is present. The pedicels are arranged ven- 
trally in three more or less distinct rows. Color olive green. 
Length about two inches. 

The stools, buttons, and fenestrated plates of the pedicels are 
figured on plate 14. It will be seen that in general they bear a close 
resemblance to those oi Holothuria captiva, but the rounded sum- 
mits of the stools serve readily to distinguish them from the some- 
what similar, but more strictly castellated, bodies of the other spe- 

Semperia Berxnudensis, n. sp. (Pi. U, figs. 2, 2a, 3.) 

Body cylindrical, spindle-shaped, tapering almost equally to both 
extremities. Tentacles 10, of which 4 are shorter than the remain- 
ing 6; pedicels crowded, arranged in five broad rows, and scattered 
over the interambulacral areas ; two genital bundles, with very 
numerous non-divided, and greatly elongated filaments ; two Polian 
vesicles ; two long respiratory trees. Color greyish white, minutely 
speckled with brown ; five narrow longitudinal brown bands sepa- 
rating the ambulacral areas. Length about 3 j inches. 

Calcareous bodies consisting of baskets, knotted and smooth but- 
tons, and perforated more or less circular disks; pedicels with fen- 
estrated plates. Calcareous ring with long back processes for the 
attachment of the powerful retracted muscles. 


■aatUafr^aa* ■iaataa, L. 

One small specimen dredged off Shellv Bsf. 
Orapsaa ■wl«ta«. Cuab;. 

On« Iftrge female, and cumerous empty shells from Hsiru'fi Bar. 
south shore. 
Paekjgnptu trucnnai, liibbw. 

Numerous specimen^, includingovigerous females; veir abundant 
on the Ttcki about the mouth of HarringtoD Sound, and also on tbe 
Pigeon Rocks, Bailey's Bav. 

Reconled from Florida. West Indies, Australia. 
CjolofTapnt intagvr, Milne- E-lwuib. 

One small female. Species recorded from Brazil and Florida. 
floBiapti* eratBtatot, t^tr. 

One female, from the mangrove swamp of Hungarr Bar, south 
•horc. Although the .''pecies was very abundant at this locaJitr we 
only succeeded in catching a single individual. The mangrove crab, 
or " man)^rove climber" as the animal is sometimes called, burrows 
among the thickets of mangrove stems and roots, up which it not 
infrequently elinilH to a height of several feet. The great similarity 
itxi.ttinu iH'twcen its coloring aud that of the bright and partially 
vc- of the ntangnive, especially in the shades of yellow 
mknt the animal difficult of detection, and often at a 
iitilv A few foot, buried among the fallen leaves, the^ 
rci c?«!iijic<l ol»!*rvalion, even when attentively soujcht 
liuvc licTL' line iif thu most remarkable instance* of 
iliiriii;;. or .'H-nii'niiinicry, with which I am acquainted. 

' sjHTiniC'ii:'. from the beach of Flatte Village. The 
'wn iiliini>i everywhere scampering over the rocka. 


fl lea 

and rt 

.1. rei 


■e of . 

uirib- ' 





variously branched genital organs, which are disposed in two 
great bundles. Tentacular vesicles present. Two Polian vesicles. 
Calcareous ring with long back processes. 

Calcareous bodies in the form of stools very numerous (PL 15, 
fig. 16.) C-shaped bodies very scanty, and possibly in some cases 
entirely wanting. 

Color black, somewhat more intensely so on the dorsal surface, 
becoming Vandyke brown or chocolate in alcohol. 

Length, about one foot; width of corresponding animal about 
three inches. 

Abundant over tlie sandy floor of the entrance to Harrington 
Sound, opposite Flatts Village, in Harrington Sound, and in Castle 
Harbor, whence it was obtained in several of our dredgings. 

I have little doubt that this species is the dark-brown form 
which is referred to by Th^el as having been obtained by the 
oflBcers of the Challenger at the Bermudas, and which is doubt- 
fully refen-ed by that authority to Semper\s Siichopus Haytiensis 
(Report on the Holothuroidea, Challenger Reports, Zoology, XIV, 
p. 162.) But a single specimen appears to have been obtained, 
which when examined was too deformed to permit of positive spe- 
cific determination. I cannot agree with Th^el's determination. 
Apart from the differences which Th^^el himself points out, is the 
great diffierence in coloring. Semper {Reisen, PhiUppineriy Holo- 
thurien, 1868, p. 75) states that his species is dark chocolate-brown, 
blotched with yellow spots, which form five longitudinal bands, 
corresponding to the iuterradii. No such coloration is visible incur 
species, although probably we observed as many as a hundred indi- 
viduals, all of which were uniformly black. Seniper's description of 
the coloring of Stichopus Haytiensis is restated by Lampert. 

Stiehopui xanthoxnela, n. sp. (PI. 14, fig. 1 : PI. ]b, fig. 3.) 

Body stout, flattened vent rally, and bearing on the basal margin 
two rows (one row on each side, as in the preceding s})ecies) of prom- 
inent wart-like processes. Tentacles 18, unequal, whitish or gray, 
edged with brown. Dorsal papillre fairly prominent, scattered. 
Pedicels on ventral surface crowded, arranged in three longitudinal 
series, five to eight, or more, in each transverse row. 

Body-cavity, as in the preceding, largely occupied by the respira- 
atory tree and the double genital bundle, the filamental processes of 
the latter much finer than in S. diaboli. Tentacular vesicles present. 
One (?) Polian vesicle. 


Calcareous bodies, in the form of atoola (PI. 15, fig. 3), very 
numerous. C-shajx.'d bodies scarce, in the form of broadly-opened 
calipers. Ground-color reddish-yellow, irregularly blotched with 
black or very dark brown. The spots on the ventral surface more 
or leas coalescent in the median line, forming there abroad longitud- 
inal band, or entirely united to form a uniformly dark-colored 
base; on the back, united into two irregularly ramifying or wander- 
ing bands. 

Length of longest specimen about ten inches ; width about two 
and a-balf or three inches. 

The same habitat aa that of the preceding si)ecies, although appa- 
rently much less abundant. 

I strongly suspect that this is the form which Thfel, in his report 
on the Challenger holothiirians (loc. eit, p. 159), identifies with 
StickopiK Miibii fSeniper), one s(>ecimen of which, " rather deformed 
and comprosse<i" when examined by Theel, was obtained at the 
Bermudas. I assume the identity in this case, as well as in that of 
the preceding species, on the ground that the two species here de- 
scribed are the characteristic forms of the archipelago, and it is 
barely [lossibic that they could have escaped the attention of the 
Challenger jieople. But the identification with fiemjier's species 
appears to me to be erroneous. The resemblance to Stichopm Mobil 
api>cars to almo^-t wholly upon the form of the spicules, which 
are largely similar in mniiy very distiiirt forms of Slickopus, and in 


lateral tubercles, nor is the coloring like that of our species, although 
in this regard there may be considerable variation. The number 
of tentacles is stated by Ludwig to be 19, and their color yellow. 
The form from the Barbados which is somewhat doubtfully referred 
by Th^el (Joe. dt, p. 191) to Ludwig's S, errans would seem to be 
more nearly related to the Bermudian species. 


We obtained but a single species of star-fish on the Bermudian 
coast. This is the Aaterias Atlantica of Verrill, a form which had 
already been previously noted from the Bermudas (Trans. Conn. 
Acad. Sciences, i, p. 368), and whose range extends to the Abrolhos 
Reef, Brazil. With very few exceptions the rays were either six or 
eight in number, and of the total number of individuals examined I 
believe that not over two had five arms. The species exhibits a marked 
want of constancy in ornamentation and coloring, the dorsal spines 
being in some cases acute, while in others they are terminated by a 
minute bead ; again, while the maculation is brown in some individ- 
uals, in others it is blue, or of both colors combined. 

Asterias Atlantioa, Verrill. 

Common in the entrance to Harrington Sound, opposite Flatts 
Village — under stones ; dredged in Harrington Sound. 

Ophidiaster Guildingii, Gray. 

This species, which was first described from St. Thomas, is appar- 
ently a member of the Bermudian fauna. A single specimen, marked 
as having been collected by Mr. Janney in the Bermudas, is in the 
lX)ssession of the Acadenjy of Natural Sciences. 


Six species of ophiurians were obtained in our dredgings and 
under rock shelters, the greater number of which, as far as I am 
aware, had not hitherto been reported from the Bermudas. For a 
critical examination and review of the species I am indebted mainly 
to my assistant, Mr. J. E. Ives, who has made a careful study of all 
the species in the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
From an examination of many of these forms I feel satisfied that 
too much dependence should not be placed upon the constancy in 
minute details of either the form or relative size of the arm plates 
and their appendages, nor upon an exact scheme of coloration. 
These characters, and others that may be added, which have been 


•t^u u-jieil 08,a characterUtic of the West Indian 

'.ae various speciw of Triion, Triton dtloroetomii SDii 

'iii:iiiL)er« of the ^laiirttian fauD&. and Triton eynu- 

m'e-irf <if llie fiiiiim (if iht- PhilippiDes; Hawlla 

i\} JQ tilt' variety Ji. rhotlodonut, from MHuriliu.-\ 

I'.te c-fiicinHU:>. fruin the r)iilipi>iDes, U rejireseniot in 

'»' ;( iiitmlHT of individuul? which are nb^iiu-Iy 

If, U>lh in AifW orn:irnciitittioD aud colur-iuarkiniT'. 

■ii:-. altlimiirh they (iitfi-r soroewhut fmin the 

^'■/rti', frnm Antiji'ia- A niiHiher of other forms, (-..m- 

■n-l of Afriia and to the i^Hithcni uaterri <•( Kur<<|*', 

m a iHiiiiliiT of AniiTican west cwut spei-ios whiih, 

■t hitherto iK'eri n-conU-"! fnmi the Atlantic may U> 

> rxo-jiin, and Tclfiiui 0"ul'lli. I>»th fn.iii ili.- 

In the cjise ,(f Ix.ili ..f tiie«- form-i I have very 

k-s«-)f as to alisoltite identity. Are-i >»liila fr-ni 

..I a|)[K-ar to diller meiLMiraMy from .1. A<lan,.ii_ 

wliich lias its re|iRseni:itive in the lkTmii> 

: iii>ti-s 

on new s|h» 

iriveu in advanee of tin- 

. tM< 

I. ..I' the full lis 


id tn he aliondaiit In the ItcnniKliaii wal 


u II -t MTV sui'ci'sst'nl in onr search alter these animals. Th" 
■..I, \\ \.,\-z'- iiilniiiKls. wliiih He CDuhl only see, but not iilrtutn. 
,..".lil\ U' till' c-iinitnon Wist Indian i.Mojim vilyttrif. <tT '>w 

\..i ill- I lia[ liiive iH'iri M'|>arali-<l olf from It aj* a distinct s|M-ei<?. 
iii.i.l. .-..ii-idiridilr .tll.rls 111 ia|itun.' one of these, tmt all 
ii, iii|'i~ t.iilidotijt'tlie cn'alnre from its liold njxjn the inu-ri'-r 
villi nmvioe wi;rn unavailing- The follow 


Ophiomjrxa flaooida, Ltttken. 

One specimen, dredged in Bailey's Bay. 


The number of species of echinoids observed by us is six, of which 
five had already previously been ascribed to the archipelago ; Oidaria 
tribuloideSy as far as I am aware, had not hitherto been collected — 
at any rate I have been unable to find any mention of its occurrence 
there. One species, Mellita sexforisy we did not ourselves collect, the 
specimens in our possession having been kindly donated to us by 
local collectors. 

Cidaris tribuloides, BI. 

Fairly abundant among the coral shelters of the North Rock. 
Biadema setosa, Gray. 

This species, one of the gems among sea-urchins, is exceedingly 
abundant in the flats about the North Rock, where, in magnificent 
contrast to the wealth of color by which it is surrounded, its ebony- 
black masses stand out in prominent relief from the coral shelters 
which it inhabits. All the individuals occupied recesses in the coral 
growth, which they had by some means probably managed to keep 
open. It seems hardly likely that they should have crept into these 
shelters after they had been already formed, and that the association 
is one of mere selection. It is a noteworthy fact that while most of 
the animal forms inhabiting this portion of the growing reef were 
brilliantly colored, harmonizing with, and shielding, one another by 
their party tints of red, yellow, purple, and green, these urchins were 
alone conspicuous by the absence of any such protective cloak ; but 
just in their case no protective guise in the form of coloring would 
be needed, inasmuch as these animals are abundantly able to shield 
themselves by means of their extremely attenuated spines. 

This species is also abundant in the moderately deep water that 
lies within the reef border. 

HipponoS esoulenta, Leske. 

North Rock, and the deeper water within the growing reef 

Eohlnometra sabangularis, Leske. 

Several specimens from the flats about the North Rock. There 
is a certain amount of variation in the coloration of the spines, 
which ranges from olive or sea-green to purple. 


Taxopnenitei variegatni, LnDih. 

We found this species very abundantly in Harrington Sound, 
where it rarely escaped being hauled up in our dredge. It seems to 
frequent the calcaruous bottom to a depth of 10-12 fathoms, or even 
more. Probably the species is equally abundant elsewhere. 

HellitK uxforta, Agaaeii. 

Aa before remarked, we did not ourselves obtain any specimens of 
this species. It is said to be abundant along the calcareous bottoms 
of some of the inlets, as, for example, opposite Flatts Village. 

For the following notes on the Crustacea I am principally indebt- 
ed to Mr. Witmer Stone, one of my assistants on the trip, who has 
made a careful study of all our specimens, as well as of the allied 
and identical sjjecies contained in tlie collections of the Academy of 
Xatural Sciences. In the case of in any way doubtful forms I have 
))ersonally satisfied myself as to the determinations, and particularly 
ill cases where the geographical range appeared to indicate possible 
or probable error. The occurrence in the Bermudas of a number of 
what had hitherto been considered to be distinctively Pacific or Old 
World types, as for example, Palemonella iennlpes (Sooloo Sea), Pale- 
mon affi.Hii (Pacific), Penacus vehitinus (Pacific) — may be considered 
positive, even thougli it be opposed to the common facts of zoogeogra- 
pliv. But this anomaly in distribution is again repeated among the 


a character which appears to be very variable. The three individ- 
uals differ in this res{)ect among themselves. 

Aotaa setigera,. Milne-Edwards. 

One male dredged off Shelly Bay. The individual differs from 
the description given by ^lilne-Edwards (Nouv. Arch, du Mus. 
(THist. Nat.y i, p. 271, pi. xviii, fig. 2) in having the color of the out- 
side 01 the hands red, instead of black. It however agrees precisely 
with specimens attributed to Milne-Edwards' species in the collec- 
tions of the Academy, and labeled as coming from the Florida reefs. 
The s|)ecies has also been recorded fr om Cuba. 

Panopaeas Herbstii, vur. serrata, Dc Saussen. 

Numerous small specimens, both male and female, from under 
stones on the beach of St. George's Causeway, and at the mouth of 
Harrington Sound. The specimens vary greatly in color, some be- 
ing very light, others dark brown, while a few are reddish ; other- 
wise they are identical in structure. 

The species, described in the Hut Nat. du Mexique et des Antil- 
les (Cmstac.f p. 16, pi. 1, fig. 7), had previously been recorded from 
the Bermudas. 

Lobopilumnis Agassizii, Stimpson. 

One small male, agreeing well with Stimpson's description (Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, p. 142) except in that it lacks the subhepatic 
spine. Recorded from Bermuda and Florida. 
Heptanas hastatus, L. 

(N. dicanthus.) 
Two small males. 

Oeooarcinas lateralis, Trcm. 

Numerous large specimens, from the banks and fields near the 
south shore. We found them specially abundant near the locality 
known as Spanish Mark or the Chequer Board, and again not far 
from Peniston Pond. The burrows in places extend diagonally three 
or four feet, or even more, beneath the surface, and the animals, 
rapidly retreating into these, are frequently difficult of capture. 

This is, doubtless, the s|>ecies that is referred to by Willemoes 
Suhm in the Challenger narrative as Gecarcuius lateralis, and is 
apparently the G. lagostoma (?) described by Miers in the systematic 
portion of the Challenger Reports (Zoology, XVII, p. 218), in so far 
as this description applies to the single Bermuda specimen. 


ITantilograpini minntni, L. 

Ooe small specimen dredged off Shelly Bay. 
OrftpiDi mMnUtm. Csteabj. 

Ooe large female, and numerous empty shells from Harris's Bay, 
south shore. 
Fschygiapini traniTenat, Oibbes. 

Numerous specimens, including ovigerous females ; very abundant 
on the rocks about the mouth of Harrington Sound, and also on the 
Pigeon Rocks, Bailey's Bay, 

Recorded from Florida, West Indies. Australia. 
Cyolograpina iotegei, Milne-EdwHrda. 

One small female. Species recorded from Brazil and Florida. 
OoniopitB oraentatni, Lur, 

One female, from the mangrove swamp of Hungary Bay, south 
shore. Although the species was very abundant at this locality we 
only succeeded in catching a single individual. The mangrove crab, 
or " mangrove climber" as the animal is sometimes called, burrows 
among the thickets of mangrove stems and routs, up which it not 
infrequently climbs to a height of several feet. The great similarity 
existing between its coloring aud that of the bright and partially 
withered leaves of the mangrove, especially in the shades of yellow 
and red, renders the animal difficult of detection, and often at a 
distance of only a few feet, buried among the fallen leaves, llie?e 


Cenobita Diogenes, Latr. 

A number of living specimens obtained at Wistowe, opposite 
Flatts Village, and kindly presented to us by Miss Edith Allen, 
daughter of the American Consul. Most of the animals are still liv- 
ing (October), and apparently flourishing, three months after their 
capture. The shells occupied by the largest individuals are those of 
Natica catenoides, 

Calcinas obscaras, Stimpson. 

Several specimens obtained on the beach of Flatts Village. 

Clibenarias (Pagn^ms) tricolor, Gibbes. 

Numerous on the beach of Flatts Village and at the St. George's 
Causeway ; under stones, etc. 


Falinams Americanas, Lamk. 

We observed a number of specimens of the large Bermuda cray- 
fish, but unfortunately obtained none. I am unable, therefore, to 
state positively if the species is correctly referred, but i^ all prob- 
ability it is the same as the common West Indian form. 

Soyllaras sculptus, Milne-Edwards. 

One specimen, purchased at the Crawl, which agrees with Milne- 
Edwards' description (Hist Nat des Crust, ii, p. 283) and Lamarck's 
illustration in the Encyclopediey pi. 320. The locality of the origin- 
al specimen appears to have been unknown, nor have I been able 
to obtain data regarding this species from any of the later writers, 
by many of whom it is entirely ignored. 

AlpheuB avaruB, Fabr. 

(A. Edwardsii, Audouin.) 

(-4. Bermudensis, Spence Bate.) 

A series of some twenty specimens collected at the same locality 
shows considerable variety of form. The smaller specimens are 
evidently the A, Bermudeims of the Challenger Reports, while the 
larger ones, agreeing with these in the structure of the head, etc., 
more nearly approximate in the configuration of the hand A, avarus 
and A, Edwardsii, the former a common Old World species, and 
the latter, a species described from the Cape Verde islands. Our 
series contains what might be considered undoubted representatives 
of all three (so-called) species, showing all the gradations that unite 
or separate the forms from one another. Hence, I am constrained 



to look upon them as mere varietal forms of a single species, tlie Al- 
pheus avarus of Fabrieius. The older the specimens, the more 
deeply grooved is in most cases the hand. 
Alphau mLiiDa, Sa; . 

A number of species taken from sponges and tunicates collected 
in Harringtou Sound. All the individuals were of small size, meas- 
uring rather less than an inch in len^h, although the females were 
abundantly provided with eggs. 
Alpbtoa Iormo«o(, Qibbes. 

One specimen (dredged) which agrees well with Gibbes' descrip- 
tion (Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1850, p. 196), and seems to indicate that 
the species is distinct from Alpheus minm, with which it is united 
by Kingsley. The specimen is larger than any of the individuals of 
A. minm, and is also differently colored, although apjwaring identi- 
cal in alcohol, 
PalomoQella tenoipai, Dana. 

Several specimens dredged off Shelly Bay, which agree perfectly 
with the species described by Dana from the Sooloo Sea (U. S. Ex- 
ploring Expedition, Crustacea, p. 582). The remarkable distribu- 
tion here indicated induced me to make a very careful examination 
of the Bermudian s^jecies, which has left no doubt in my mind as to 
the identity of the forms from the antipodal region of the earth's 
surface. The only other known species of Paliemonella, P. orientalie 


of the common form of the eastern United States, Palcmwn vulgaris. 
Whether the species is entirely absent or not I cannot of conrse say, 
but it is surprising that it should not have been observed by us. 

PensBas velatinas, Dana. 

One specimen, which agrees with the figure and description of the 
species obtained by Dana off the Sandwich Islands (U. S. Exploring 
Expedition, Crustacea, p. 604), and which was subsequently coUect- 
eii by the Challenger party at various points in the Pacific, and be- 
tween Australia and New Guinea (Challenger Reports, Zoology, 
XXIV, p. 253). This species, as well as all the immediately related 
forms, has, as far as I know, been found thus far only in the Pacific. 
The case is, therefore, another example of remarkable geographical 


GonodaotyluB ohira^a, Latr. 
One specimen from the beach of Flatts Village. 


The enumeration of species of molluscous animals is left for a 
future paper, as our collections, large as they are, are doubtless in 
great part deficient. Through the kind energies of local collectors 
I hope to supplement at an early day the material obtained by us^ 
and to present, as nearly as is possible, a full list of the species 
inhabiting the Bermudian waters. We ourselves collected some 110 
or 120 marine species, which is largely in excess of the number 
that has thus far been chronicled in any list of Bermudian species, 
but the examination of private collections in the islands satisfies me 
that there must be an additional 30 or 40 species, or more, that are 
common to the island group. 

It is a well-known fact that the Bermudian molluscan fauna 
is distinctly, and it might be said, overwhelmingly Antillean in 
character, by far the greater number of species being found in 
the Bahaman and West Indian Seas, or along some part of the coast 
of Florida. The practically total absence of species of the Eastern 
United States which are not found in the Floridian waters is aston- 
ishing,- and shows how insuperable is the barrier which the waters of 
the Atlantic, and of the Gulf Stream particularly, oflTer to a free 
migration or dispersion of the species. This, again, appears the more 
remarkable in the light of certain anomalies of distribution which a 
critical examination of the species reveals, and which had already 


in many cases been noted as, a characteristic of the West Indian 
fauna. Thus, of the various species of Triton, Triton ehlorostoma and 
T, tuberosus are members of the Mauritian fauna, and Triton eyno- 
cephalus and T, pileare of the fauna of the. Philippines ; Ranella 
cruentata crops up in the variety B, rhododoma, from Mauritius. 
Again, Epidromua concinnus, from the Philippines, is represented in 
our collections by a number of individuals which are absolutely 
undistinguishable, both in shell ornamentation and color-markings, 
from the Pacific specimens, although they differ somewhat from the 
closely relatedJ5J. Smjti, from Antigua. A number of other forms, com- 
mon to the west coast of Africa and to the southern waters of Europe, 
also occur. Among a number of American west coast species which, 
I believe, have not hitherto been recorded from the Atlantic may be 
mentioned Chama exogyra and Tellina Gouldii, both from the 
Californian coast. In the case of both of these forms I have very 
carefully satisfied myself as to absolute identity. Area solida from 
the west coast does not appear to diflTer measurably from A. Adanuii^ 
a West Indian form which has its representative in the Bermudian 

The following notes on new species are given in advance of the 
publication of the full list. 


Cuttle-fishes are said to be abundant in the Bermudian waters, but 
we were not very successful in our search after these animals. Two 
mo<lerately large octoj)ods, which we could only see, but not obtain, 
may possibly be the conmion West Indian Octopus vulgaris, or one 
of the forms that have been separated offfrom it as a distinct species. 
We made considerable efforts to capture one of these, but all 
our attempts to dislodge the creature from its hold upon the interior 
of a rock crevice were unavailing. The following species was ob- 
tained beneath a stone on the beach of Flatts Village. 

Ootopas chromatUB, n. sp. (PI. 16, fig. 1.) 

Body spheroidal, somewhat acuminate behind, and impressed, but 
not furrowed, ventrally; mantle opening extending about one-half 
around the circumference of the body, and terminating some distance 
below and back of the eyes. The head not much narrower than the 
body ; eyes not conspicuous, with a wart above each ; funnel largely 
free, reaching about half way to the base of the web, which is about 
as long as the body and head combined. 


Arms longest as 1. 3. 2. 4, although possibly the second pair 
outmeasured the third pair previous to contraction ; slender, very 
tapering, and exceedingly attenuated toward the apex ; suckers fairly 
large, closely placed, and in regular.zigzag alternation from the base, 
contracting with a quadrangular outline. 

Body granulated posteriorly, and to a less extent in the region of 
the neck. Color milky, closely blotched or speckled with ochre, 
giving a yellowish appearance, and sprinkled with brown. 

Length of specimen about nine or ten inches. 

The only form with which I can closely compare this species is the 
Octopus Bermudensis of Hoyle (Challenger Reports, Zoology, XVI, 
p. 94, PL II, fig. 5), which is described from a single young specimen, 
measuring, including the arms, not more than two and a-half or three 
• inches. It differs from this form in the extremely tapering and 
attenuated arms, their relative lengths (1. 3. 2. 4 instead 1. 2. 3. 4), 
' and in the disposition of the acetabula, which are in zigzag alterna- 
tion from first almost to last ; the body is also in part granulated, 
and the siphon, instead of being attached for nearly its full length, 
is largely free. 

I should have hesitated perhaps in describing this as a new species, 
distinct from 0. Bermudetisis, and preferred supposing that the 
characters indicated by Hoyle were not very clearly marked, or that 
they possibly represented only the immature form, but Hoyle dis- 
tinctly states that while his specimen is probably immature, the 
characters are so well marked as to safely permit of their recognition 
as typical of a new species {pp. dt, p. 95). 


Aplysia aBqaorea, n. sp. (Pi. 16, figs, 2, 2a, 2b). 

Body broadly oval, with a moderately elongated neck ; tentacles 
cylindrical, slit at the extremity ; buccal lobes broad, infolded ; 
mouth between fairly developed lips ; aperture to opercular cavity on 
a slightly raised papilla. 

Color drab or greenish ; exterior surface with thin black annula- 
tions and irregular markings, which are few and scattered ; the inside 
of the mantle-lobes, as well as the cover to the opercular cavity, al- 
most free of blotches. 

Shell narrowly-elongate, somewhat oblique, and calcareously lined; 
longitudinally radiated, and transversely finely striated. 

Length of animal about four and a-half inches. 

A single specimen, found in shallow water on the south side of 
Castle Harbor, opposite Tucker's Town. 


The nearest ally of thia species ia probably the Aplysia oeellata of 
D'Orbigny, from the Cauary Islands, or the common A. dactyloiuela, 
&om the eastern Atlantic, of which the former is by some authors 
considered to be only a local variety (Rochebrane, Nouvelles Archives 
du Mtuium, 1881, p. 264). From both of these forms, apart from 
other characters, it differe in the absence of the heavy ocellatJon, and 
from A. dadylomela in lacking the purple lining on the mantle 
margins. From A. oeellata, again, it is clearly marked off by the 
non-maculated surface of the interior of the mantle lobes and of the 
opercular covering. The shell in the Bermudian form is compar- 
atively narrower than in any other large species of Aplysin with 
which I am acquainted, and wholly different in outline from that of 
either of the two species above referred to. I have fully satisfied my- 
self on this point through an examination not only of the figures 
furnished by Rang and D'Orbigny, but of actual specimens. 

Dobson, in a communication made before the Linnsean Society of 
London (Journ. Linn. Soc., Zoology, xv, p. 159, et geq., 1881), iden- 
tifies a specimen of Aplyaia from the Bermudas with the A. dady- 
lomela, and describes the color as being "a rich drab, marked all 
over with circles and streaks of velvet black, the latter most abund- 
ant on the mantle covering the shell and on the lateral swimming 
lobes. The shell agrees in all respects with that of A. dacfi/lomeh as 
figured by Rang, and the only difference observable is that the mar- 
gins of the swimming lobes are not tinged with violet. This might 


80 imperfectly characterized that it is almost impossible to determine 
its exact relationships. 

ChromodoriB zebra, n. sp. (PI. 16, figs. 3, 3a.) 

Animal of the form typical of the genus ; head portion consider- 
ably extended and expanded in motion ; caudal portion moderately 
elongated ; base flattened; mantle beaded immediately over the tail. 

Color bright blue above, variously lined and streaked with light 
yellow ; on the dorsal surface the yellow markings are disposed in 
longitudinal wavy or nearly straight lines, one or more specially 
prominent lines along the dorso-lateral border. Sides of animal ir- 
regularly reticulated or angulated with yellow markings ; under 
surface pale blue, bordered with faint yellow. 

Rhinophores deep indigo or black, the rhinophoral aperture border- 
ed with yellow ; gills 12 or 13, black, bordered with yellow, and carry- 
ing blue cilia ; under surface of head blue, with yellow spots. 

Length, when expanded, three and a-half inches. 

Three specimens, dredged in about ten fathoms on the north side 
of Harrington Sound. I dissected one of these and found that the 
stomach is lodged entirely within the mass of the liver. The ali- 
mentary canal is sharply deflected forward (dorsally) beyond the 
buccal or cesojihageal tracts, and is caught up in a nerve ring pro- 
ceeding from the supra-(iesophageal ganglia. 

This species appears to be third or fourth of the genus found in 
the western Atlantic. It diflers clearly from the C. pidurata of 
Morch (G Mdrchii, Bergh, 3fu8. Godef., part xiv) and C. gonafophora 
of Bergh, two West Indian species. In the scheme of coloring the 
species appears to be nearest to Doris pulcherrima of Cantraine (Main 
dcologie Mediiei'rancenne, p. 57, PI. 3, fig. (i, = D. Villafranca? of 
Risso), from which, however, it diflfers in a number of details, such 
as the number of gills, etc. 

Onohidiam (Onchidiella) trans-Atlantioum, n. sp. (PI. 10, figs. 4, 4a.) 

Body convex, smoke color or dark olive ; lighter, dirty or greyish 
green on the under surface ; pedal disk considerably more than one- 
third the width of base, yellowish green ; mouth margin papillose, 
bunchy ; under surface obscurely or obsoletely tuberculose ; dorsal 
surface closely verrucose, with finer granules interspersed between 
the warts. 

Anal aperture immediately beyond the extremity of foot, infra- 
marginal to a raised border; respiratory orifice between the anal 
pore and the apex of body. 


Length about three-quartera of an inch. 

About a dozen specimens, found in a rock hollow on the north 
shore just beyond Wiatowe, near Flatta Village, at an elevation 
of about two feet above the water. 

This is, as far as I am aware, the only species of Onckidium that 
has thus far been recorded from the western Atlantic. Its occurrence 
is, therefore, of considerable interest as bearing upon the subject of 
geographical distribution. Nearly all the species of the genus are 
confined to the Eurafrican aud Indo-Pacific waters, although one 
species is known from Arctic America, one from the Califocnian 
coast, and one from the west coast of South America (Bergb, 
in Seroper's Reiaen im Arehipel d. PkUippinen, Land Mollusks, 

The Bermudian species appear to be most nearly related to 
O. Oarpeiiteri, from the Califoraian coast, but difiers from it in color. 
The positions of the anal and respiratory apertures differ from what 
b indicated by Steams (Proc. Acad- Nat. Sci., Phila., 1878) to 
«xiat in the west American form, although agreeing with the deter- 
minations made by Bergh for manifestly the same species. 


November 6. 
The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 
Forty-nine persons present. 

November 13. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Thirty-six persons present. 

A paper entitled "Contributions to the Life History of Plants, 
No. III." By Thomas Meehan, was presented for publication. 

November 20. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

The President was directed to convey to Mrs Clara Jessup 
Bloorafield Moore the thanks of the Academy for her gift of Five 
Thousand Dollars as an addition to the fund endowed by her father, 
the late Augustus E. Jessup. 

November 27. 
The President Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-four persons present. 

Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger read his biographical notice of the 
late Greo. W. Tryon Jr. prepared at the request of the Academy. 

Remarks on the fauna of Beach Haven, N. J. — Prof. Leidy stated 
that he had spent the last two summers at Beach Haven, on which 
he made the following remarks : The place, a summer resort, is 
situated on the island of Loug Branch, a sand bar but a few feet 
above the ocean level, 22 miles long and little more than half a mile 
wide, off the New Jersey coast, from which it is separated by Little 
Egg Harbor and Barnegat Bays. The island consists of the ocean 
beach, flanked by long low sand hills and meadows extending to the 
bays. It is treeless, but produces frequent patches of wax-myrtle, 
Myrica cerifera. While the variety of marine animal life in the 
vicinity is comparatively small, a few forms adapted to the special 
localities are abundant. The ocean beach consisting mainly of fine 
silicious sand without pebbles, between tides, swarms with the mole 


crab, Hippa talpoidea, and the little mollusk, Donaxfossor. Above 
tides, the beach oft-times is lively with sand-fleas, among which are 
conspicuous the Talorckestia macrophthalma, and less commonly the 
T. longkomU. Still higher extending to the sand-hiils, the sand- 
crab, Oeypoda arenaria, is frequent. The mud of the bays and 
sounds swarms with tlie scavenger snail, Ryanosia obaoleta, while 
the meadows abound with the marsh snail, Melampiis bideiitatw. 
The borders of the meadows are thickly planted with the horse- 
mussel, ModUila plimtula. or are honey-combed by the fidler crab, 
Gelasimua ptiltfilator. The bays supply the market with abundance 
of tlie oyster, which is extensively cultivated for the purpose. The 
clam, Venus mercenaria, also occurs in the greatest abundance, and 
is constantly gathered for the market. Tlie squirt-clam, Mya 
arenaria, is likewise supplied from mud flats of the bays. The 
edible crab, Calliiiectea hadnhig, often occurs in the bays in great 
numbers. The previous summer, the bottom appeared to swarm 
with them, but the last summer they were less numerous, in conse- 
quence, as the fishermen report, of great numbers having been de- 
stroyed by the severe cold of last winter. In a visit to Beach 
Haven, in February, I observe<l many recently dead crabs thrown 
up on the ocean beach, and feasted on by multitudes of the isopod 
crustacean, Cirolitna coiichiirnm. 

The previous summer also, the ladv-crab, Plntyomthm ocellatus, 
was frequent ou the ocean beach near low tide, but during last sum- 
mer was almost absent. It probably, also suffered from the cold ot 
last winter, for in February, at Atlantic City. I found a number 
recently dead, and likewise feaste<l on liy the Ctrotnna. 

In the bays the spider crab, Libinia miialicuhfa, the shrimp, 
Palurmiinelig oiitiiiiris. and llie hermit t-nib, I'm/iirKX loiigii-nriiii 


es of bladder-wrack, Fucus vesiculoaus ; the latter often attached to 
a horse mussel, on which the plant grew. Frequently attached to 
the plants are various animals, especially Bugula turrita, Ohelia 
commissuralis, Perophora viridis^ Lepas fascicularisj etc. Occasion- 
ally there are thrown ashore a live beach-clam, Mactra solidisdma, 
a dead shell of the same with attached branches oiSertularia argen- 
tea^ the collar-like sand egg-cases of Natica and the chaplet ones of 
Fvlgur, In the experience of two summers medusae were rarely 
wafted ashore, and these were in fragments and pertained to Cyanea 
arctiea and apparently Aurelia Jlavidula, 

Goose barnacles, Lepiis fascicularis occnsionaWy are not infrequent; 
and more rarely L. anatiferay attached to fragments of timber, is 
thrown on the sands. High up on the beach, at the base of the 
sand-hills and often extending into the valleys between them are 
multitudes of bleaching shells, the remains of occasional severe 
storms. Most of the shells are those of the beach clam, Mactra sol- 
idissimay which, everywhere on the open coast of New Jersey, ap- 
pears to be the most common lamellibranch, except the little Donax 
fossor. The younger shells of the ^lactra are often observed along 
shore, with a circular hole through the umbo, made by Natica. 
Some years since, at Atlantic City, I observed a number of beach 
clams, in the sand between tides, which were in possession of Natica 
heros in the act of boring the shell. 

Among the occasional shells on the beach, fragments of large ones 
of Pholas costata are not infrequent, and yet an experienced clam 
catcher, who is familiar with the ordinary animals of the locality 
informed me that he had never found a living one. 

My friend Josej)h Willcox and I made several attempts at dredg- 
ing in Little Egg Harbor, but with very little result of interest. 
Near the mouth of the bay, we drew up great quantities of Mytil- 
us eduiu, less than half grown, accompanied by many star-fishes, 
Asterias arenicola. In some positions we took numerous dead shells 
of the oyster and clam, Venus mercenarla, preyed upon by the sul- 
phur colored boring sponge, CUond sulphurea. This, after drilling 
and tunneling the shells in all directions, continues to grow into 
masses from the size of one's fist to that of the head, in which condi- 
tion it is known to the clam-catchers as the '* bay pumpkin." The 
skeleton of this sponge is constructed of calcareous pin-like spicules. 
It also attacks and preys on the shell of the living oyster, but ap- 
pears not to do so on the living clam. The sedentary habit of the 
former, no doubt, facilitates its attacks. The shells of the oyster 
and clam, Vemcsy bored in a sieve-like manner, and freed from the 
sponge, are frequently thrown on the ocean beach, and with them 
rarely the shell of a Mactra bored in the same manner, but I could 
not ascertain whether the Cliona lived on the shore of the open 

Another sponge frequently observed growing on living oysters 
and on dead shells of the same and of the clam, VenuSy is called by 
the catchers the " red beard, " Microciona prolifera. It is bright 


Termilion color when alive, but brown when dead, and masses of it 
in the latter condition are often found on the ocean beach. It is a 
silicious uponge and does not prej on the shells of mollusks. 

From an oyster bed we took up some young oyst«ra, an inch to 
two inches long, with the shell perforated by the "' drill," Uroealpinx 
cinerea. The perforation, made in the vicinity of the adductor mus- 
cle, about admits an ordinary bristle. An oyster catcher, James R. 
Gale informed us that the " drill " was introduced into the locality, 
with spat brought from the coast of Virginia. With the Uroaal- 
pinx we took another snail, Ajiaehia similU, which Mr. Gale assured 
us was more destructive, as a borer, to young oysters than the form- 
er. Another snail which we took, the Eupleura caudata, Mr. Gale 
says baa the same habit. 

Attached to oysters were also found a great profusion of the poly- 
zoon Vesicularia diehotoma. 

Of the mollusca of the vicinity of Beach Haven I observed the 
following : 

Ilmnassa obaoleta. Exceedingly abundant 

Melampua bidentatua. Exceedingly abundant. 

Fulgur cariea. 
FutguT CQTialiculata. 
Natuia heros. 
Naiioi duplicfUa. 
Uroealpinx cinerea. 
Eupleura caudata. 
Anachix similis. 
BUtmm nigrum. 
Orepidida, fornicata. 


Scapharca transversa. * 

Area pexata. Common. 

Area transversa, 

Mytilus edulis. Abundant. 

Modiola plicatula. Exceedingly abundant. 

Pecten irradians. Common. 

Anomia glabra. Abundant. 

Ostrea virginiana. Exceedingly abundant. 

Teredo navalis. 

Of Crustacea the following were observed : 
Callinectes hastatus, 
Platyonichus ocellatxis. 
Cancer irroratus, 
Ocypoda arenaria, 
OeUmmus pugnax, 
Oelasimus pugilator, 
lAbinia canaliculata, 
Panopeus Sayi, 
Pinnotheres ostreum, 
Eupagurus pollicaris, 
Eupagums longicarpus, 
Hippa talpoidea, 
Oebia affinis. 
Palaemonetes vulgaris. 

Orchestla palustris. ' 

Orchestia agilis, 
Talorchestia longirostris, 
Talorchest^a macrophthalma. 
Gammanis ornatus, 
Undola irrorata. 
Caprella geometrica. 
E/riclisonia attenuata, 
Cirolana concharum, 
Bopyrus palaemoneticola, 
lAvonica ovalis. 
Lepas fasdcularis. 
Lepa^ anatifera. 
Limulus polyphemus. 

The Turret Spider on Coffin's Beach. — Dr. Henry C. McCook 
remarked that he had spent July and August, 1888, at Annisquam, 
Mass., a port of Cape Aim at the mouth of the Squara river where it 
enters into Ipswich Bay. The eastern shore oi the bay opposite 
Annisquam consists in part of a stretch of sand hills, known as 
Coffin's beach. The sand is of a beautiful white color and is massed 
at places in elevations of considerable height, constituting what is 
known as the " sand hill, " or ** the dunes. " The fragrant bay bush 
grows in clumps along the edges and summits of these irregular sand 
elevations, and this is intermingled with patches of tough grass. 


At his first visit to this beach he difcovered several burrows of 
Lyeoaa arenicota Scudder,' popularly known as the Turret spider.' 
Subsequently he explored the tield and found numbers of these 
Lycosids domiciled in the sand and spread very generally over 
the dunes. They came down very close to the tigh water mark. 
Thirteen burrows were found quite near together, seven in a circle 
of six feet in diamet«r. Most of these burrows were about half an 
inch in diameter. Two were located within twelve inches, and sev- 
eral others within two feet of the edge of the sandy ridge whicli 
marks the point of highest tide. The tubes vary in size and depth. 
Some are scarcely larger than a quill, some, indeed, not much larger 
than a good big darning needle. These were occupied by young 
spiders. The adult spiders occupy burrows in the sand about twelve 
inches or less in depth ; the younglings make holes four inches deep 
or less. 

In digging for spiders Dr McCook began to remove the sand ten 
inches or more from the opening of the burrow. Thus the dry sand 
immediately surrounding drou(>ed away into the excavation, leaving 
the silken tube which lined the burrow adhering to the grass stalk 
or twig which he had inserted within it. The burrows proved to l>e 
silk-lined for n space of from four to seven inches, the lining however, 
being of a very thin texture, not like the tough silken tube with which 
the Trap-door spider lines her nest, or which the Purseweb spider 
erects along the trunks of trees. Below that point the burrow enters 
into the sand nnlined. The top of the sand is quite dry, but the 
bottom part, wherein the lower portions of the burrows are made, 
was invariably found to l>e damp, and of course closely packed, so 
that it wad not very liable to fall into the excavation. A little cir- 
iular ridge of sand ordinarily surronnds the opening of the burrow, 


the sand over which it was found hopping. These gi^asshoppers 
probably furnish food for the spiders, but the only remains of animal 
food found within the burrows were those of a large brownish 
beetle, several specimens of which were picked up on the beach. 

Among the other denizens of the beach are ants of a small species 
whose nests are well nigh numberless. They are made in the sand, 
but it seemed that the little creatures must have considerable dith- 
culty in preserving their galleries and rooms from continual destruc- 
tion by the caving in of the incoherent particles. However, they do 
manage it, although in digging to find the character of their galleries 
the speaker could not so manipulate the sand as to prevent it from 
tumbling into the formicaries and thus hindering him from studying 
of the interior. He did not know what the ants feed upon, although 
he found some of them engaged at the carcass of one of the brown 
beetles above alluded to, and no doubt the flotsam of the sea thrown 
upon the beach affords them abundant material for food. He made 
a number of visits to these sand dunes both by day and night, pro- 
longing his stay to a late hour in the evening in order to discover 
something of the outdoor habits of the colony of Turret spiders, but 
succeeded in learning very little that is new. 

A lady artist who with some companions was sketching upon the 
beach, (for Annisquam is a favorite field for painters,) informed Dr. 
McCook that about dusk a large spider was seen moving over the 
sand towards the water. Supposing this to be one of the above colony 
the question at once arose, do they come down from the dunes to the 
wide flat stretch of beach, that is covered at flood and that is uncov- 
ered at ebbtide, in order to prey upon the sea life that may be left 
at the retiring of the waters ? Two afternoons and nights were spent 
from five until nine and ten P. M.endeavoring to solve this prob- 
lem, but without any results. He then tried another method. Visit- 
ing the beach in day-time he captured a couple of mature spiders ; 
placed them upon a smooth stretch of clean sand and permitted them, 
and when necessary compelled them by prodding, to move over the 

/surface. They lefl upon the sand a 
# peculiar track which is here roughly 
* A I represented by two sections taken 

^ JL /* '• ^'^^"^ different parts of the trail. 

%J Jr ^ Having made a careful sketch of 

rj. ./ 

next morning and made a careful 
examination of the beach for a coii- 

I these foot prints he returned early 

• siderable distance along the shore. 
Many tracks of various kinds of creatures, including such insects 
as beetles and gra^jshoppers, and also of some small vertebrate 
animals, were found. 

But by far the greatest number were tracks which correspon- 
ded precisely with those made on the previous day by the captured 
Arenicolas. Multitudes of these were seen upon the sand covering 
the surface and slopes of the hills and extending to the very border 


of the eurf line. Thej traversed the ground which had been cover- 
ed by the tide, but which for a. considerable distance is there exposed 
at the ebb. These foot-printa could be traced everywhere as imuing 
from and returning to the burrowDwhich he had marked by fla^^zing 
the graaa stalks in their neighborhood. It v/as thus demonstrated, in 
this indirect way, that the narrative of hin artist friend was correct, 
and that the Turret spiders do istiuc from their burrows during the 
night and perhaps at other periods and traverse the sandy flats, no 
doubt in seal ch of prey. One half grown spider was captured while 
wandering on the flat 

These 'spider tracks were in themselves an interesting study, and 
Dr. McCook expressed regret that he did not sketch a longer consec- 
utive series. The motion of the feet was so rapid that he could not 
determine the order in which they wereplaced down, nor identify the 
mark made by any particular fiwt. The scratch in the figures he 
thought might have been made by the spiimerets at the apex of the 
abdomen trailing in the sand. 

Dr. Charles S. Dollky had observed similar tracks upon the 
sandy beach of I^^ike Ontario, near Rochester, which were made bv 
the same spiders that dwell in that vicinity. He ha<l found the xpi- 
ders sheltered under the drift on the very edge of the shore whither 
they had doubtless gone in pursuit of prey or to drink. 

Messrs Auguste Sallt- of Paris, Louis Bedel of Paris and Dr. 
David Sharp of Wilmington, England were elected correspondentd. 

The following were ordered to be printed ; — 






Since the publication of our paper "on the Summit Plates of 
Blastoids, Crinoids and Cystids, and their Morphological Rela- 
tions," * we have made several important discoveries bearing on this 
subject, which have materially modified some of the views expressed 
therein, as well as at some places in the Revision of the Palseocri- 

Hitherto we have recognized in the summit of the Palseocrinoids 
a central plate, surrounded by four large proximals and two small- 
er ones, with anal plates interposed between them. In our earlier 
writings we regarded the two small proximals as representing pos- 
teriorly a fifth plate; but these, as we have explained (Revision Pt. 
Ill, p. 47), are really the two posterior radial dome plates, pushed 
in by the anal structures, the three other radial dome plates being 
placed at the re-entering angles of the four larger proximals. This 
was clearly pointed out on PI. VII, in figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 
on Plate VIII, figs. 1, 3, in which the plates formerly considered as 
the smaller proximals were marked as actinal radials, and designated 
by the letters "x r." In fig. 7, PI. VII, they correspond to, and prob- 
ably are, the first or inner covering pieces of the ambulacra. After 
discovering that these plates are situated radially and not inter- 
radially, we met with frequent difficulty in identifying the two small- 
er proximals, and mistook for them some of the plates which we 
now clearly see are anal pieces. In some cases, and especially in 
very complicated forms, we observed intercalated between the prox- 
imals, touching the central piece, certain plates which we regarded 
as the representatives of the first and second radials of the dorsal 
cup, absent in the vault of simpler forms; while we considered those 
underneath which the bifurcation of the ambulacra takes place — 
being the radial dome plates in the simpler forms — as the representa- 
tives of the third or axillary radials. 

From the internal structure we found that the radiation of the 
ambulacra was from underneath the central plate, in a similiar man- 
ner as the ambulacra from beneath the five orals in the Neocrinoidea, 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, March, 1887. 



and it was thU, priiicipnlly, that led us to the suppoaition that the 
central plate, and this onlj-, represented in the vault of the Palreocri- 
noids the five oraU collectively, and that the four large and two 
Btnaller proximnls were iuterradial vault plates, corresponding to the 
interradials of the abactiital aide (Rev, III., pp. 44-d!)). The latter 
was contrary to the viewsoriginally expressed by us (Rev. II, pp. 13 
and 16), when we supi>osed that "the six proximala surrouDding 
the central plate represented the basals or genitals." The great 
objection to this inter[>rctation was that it involved a humology 
between six plates and five, and we were so greatly impressed with 
the force of it, that we were afterwards led to consider these plates 
as interradials. as tu which on the dorsal side a division of the pos- 
terior intcrrailial into two plates by the interposition of an anal 
plate is a frequent occurrence in Palieocrinoids. It seemed to us 
therefore very natural that n similar division of the posterior plat« 
should be found on the ventral side. 

Dr. P. Herbert C'ar|>entcr, like ourselves, recognized a central plate 
and six proxinials, but he rcganlotj the formeras the actinal reprcwnta- 
tive of the dorso-central or terminal plate of the column in the Peti- 
tacrinoid larva, and established lor it the term "oro-central," as a 
distinct element in the vault of the Pulrcocrinoids, unpreaented ia 
other Kchinoderms. He luluptcd the theory that the surrounding 
six proximals are the honioliigiies of the liasids, and as such are the 
oral plates — he j'onsidering lh?,t the posterior one was divided by 
anal ]>latcs into two. His views on this subject are fully set forth 
iu the ClinHen-,'tT Ileport on the Stalked Crinoids, pages 158 to 1^4, 
and the same iiitcr]irt<tation of the plates in tjuestlon was reawertcd 
by Ethcrid;:!' and (.'ariienter iu the Catalogue of the Blastoidca id 
the (.fcolii;;ical DrpiirEnicnt of the British Museum, )>age8 66 to 75. 

Although this cimi'cption of the morphological relatione of the 


mit plates, in conformity with these ideas, was discussed in the Re- 
vision of the Palseocrinoidea, Part. Ill, pages 44 to 59, and after- 
ward in greater detail in our paper on the Summit Plates, above 
referred to. . 

Another consideration which strongly influenced us in adopting 
this view was the supposed presence of a central plate in Haplocri- 
nuSy to which considerable importance was attached both by Car- 
penter and ourselves in our discussions of the oral question, though 
leading us to very different conclusions. On page 56, Revision, 
III, we said : "A far less objectionable interpretation of the central 
plate than that given by Carpenter would be to regard it as a pos- 
terior oral. In this case the orals would be represented by five 
plates, and not by six ; the anus would be placed outside the oral 
ring, and the radial dome plates would occupy the same position to- 
ward the orals as the calyx radials toward the basals. But it would 
place the mouth underneath the posterior oral, and it offers no ex- 
planation of the central piece in Haplocrinus" 

This theory seemed to us at that time very plausible, and we 
should have advocated it, if it had not been for the central plate 
in HaplocrinuSj which we discovered, as we supposed, in a speci- 
men of H. mespiliformiSf our observation being verified by Carpenter, 
to whom we sent the specimen for examination, (Challenger Report, 
page 158). 

When we took up a year ago, the investigation of the Larvi- 
formia, the group to which Haplocrinus belongs, we had before us 
the original specimens of H. clio from New York, and found 
ourselves unable to discover any suture between the so-called central 
plate, and the posterior vault plate, and we began to suspect there 
was something wrong about the central plate. During a visit of one 
of the writers to Europe in the winter of 1887-8, he procured in the 
Eifel mountains a very large series of good specimens of H, mea- 
piliformisj with a view to ascertaining if possible the real fact about 
the central plate, and also the anal opening which was fully as great 
a mystery. These specimens at once disclosed the fact that the 
"central plate" is a myth, and that what had before been taken for 
it was simply a more or less tongue-like or polygonal prolongation 
of the posterior plate, sometimes surmounted by a small node — the 
"knopf ' of Goldfuss. We had mistaken a fracture in our original 
specimen for a suture on the posterior side, and have seen another 
in which a similar mistake might have been made if one had that 



f THE a«:ade3CT hf 

NjMX'iriKiri al'iiifr. Th*- renl -tni'.-iun: cit' th>i r:mlt ■>(' H-tphn^an* id 
fii>r"ll"w.'<: T[ifi liv trian^iular«:"^ini[«i!'in2thi; vpniral pynnii<I 
mfi'i- in the f^nter by •iiciireM ichich m iitreD •liffieult l>» ••;(:. The 
ti«aUTi''r [il.iU H the Inr^^ntt. an<l priijecti> id bi;twe«»] the two p>vli-r'>- 
iKlcrnl 'intT, <5im[ilf^tf-ly Twparatiti^ tht-m, ami interlix-kini with tb* 
ftiit^ff lateral [)lace- I'V a variety uf jilan.*. fnim a ifiupli; lijia^ "iiture 
l/i a trirtn:.'iilar 'ir <i<ivetaiieii in.-^-rli'iii, or a lunji *li;n<ler t<mziie ^x- 
ti-ndin:; into iht: latter [>l:ite». vchi.h are <-ut away U> tit it : PI. XVIII. 
fii(!i. (i^ anil tilj. Tlii-'< [>rr>jei:ti'>n :*tan<l.^ :«)in«t(ine« at a l>>wer Ivvi;! 
than thn other part 'it' the plab: ami the ailjifioin^ platei*, Wvin^ a 
(InpreKflinn in the a.iitcr which L" wimetime' partially ■jci-upici by a 
«mall R'xle. In other ca.-*eii a hish riil^ ruiu fn>n) tho p<i^tt.-n<)r 
(tlate 'ivr the t-eiitrjl apaf*. branchini; to the two antm -lattral 
plateM / I'l. XVni, fit'. 'H). It thiLi appparn that the wh'.ie ventral 
tiiirfn(»! in Ilijilnrriini* \* ■■•.vertil by five large plateit which inf«t in 
the rarnter iw in Al/'irj^rrimii. 

TIk' niiiil '>[tt;[iiii:; in Il'i/ifo^tinu ha^ not heretotiire liet'D oTivi't* 
ly iiientilii-d, bill it b.w Ixt-n generally rlainivil to he locateil at the 
Riiliire Ix-twieti twii rmliuN iin'l the i>'>»teri»r vault plate. Id the 
llfViA-m III, pp. I-'>7 an>i \l'y^. we allmle^l to a ^mall p>irc we bad 
obnTveil in uni' -jjcciiiien iit' //, mttjiiUhirini*. the position *>f whi<'h 
i* iniH'-:itii) in tii:. 1 . on I'l. V, of that wurk. We atWrward bwame 
natitfi''l tliiit ihi- jion' wa.t due tn diemica) action, or waie im- 
IH-ri'*'i'tii>n in tin- i.i-t :ni'l wii!- not orpinie, ak »ul>M>tjiient examina- 
tion ot'a very Ian.'!' iiiiimIht of ^|>eeimen:< tit' the ^anie i^iHinc^. iM-tter 
)>n'-erv<il. tiiiliil to 'liM'li>M' iiriyo)N'iiin^ in that iw^ition. AtU-r we 
.li:"-.,v.n-.l ihiit ill.; ^M-.illi-.i o-niral plaU- wa# nothinft hut a pro- 
loiii.'iition lit' the |H.^terior vault plate, it liccunie eoi^y tci ■lifitin^uii'h 
thai |iliil<' in the r>]<i'['iiiien>. uml we iN'pin a careful iwarch upon thftt, t'nuii ih>' riiiliiil- up, for thf anal oiM-niiii!. \Vc *>oii fimnd « 


piercing the plate, in a similar manner, and in the same position as 
the anal opening pierces the deltoid in OrophocriniLSy and we could 
not find on these ground specimens, any indications of another open- 
ing lower down. These facts led us to the conclusion that the above 
described opening must be the anus, and that it was probably closed 
by minute pieces as in Orophocrinua. We think it quite probable 
that the tubercular elevation which appears in several of the speci- 
mens, may represent the closed condition, the plates being too small 
to be distinguishable, especially in fossils whose preservation is so 
peculiar that the suture lines between the large vault plates are 
often invisible.* 

So long as the central plate in Haplocriniis was recognized, we 
saw good reason to believe in the existence of a similar plate in 
other groups of the Pahneocrinoidea, especially as a plate similarly 
situated over the center of radiation was so conspicuous a feature in 
the vault of many different genera. But afler it became evident 
that no such pjate in fact existed in Haplocrinus and allied forms, 
the idea recurred to us that the plate, so apparently central in 
many Platycrinidae and Actinocrinidae, might after all be the pos- 
terior oral, pushed inward to a central position by anal structures, 
which we had formerly' suggested. With the objection arising out 
of the supposed condition of Haplocrinus removed, this interpreta- 
tion seemed to us to be one of the greatest force, more likely than 
any other to answer the conditions of a valid homology, and to 
obviate the principal objections urged by Carpenter and ourselves, 
respectively, to other theories. 

Upon comparing the summit plates of the Platycrinidae and 
Actinocrinidae, it will be seen that the so-called central plate is 
always inserted between the four large proximals, so that in most 
cases it occupies, more or less, the center of figure, being enclosed on 
the posterior side by anal plates, and abutting against them. In 
Dorycrinus (PI. XVIII, fig. 2), an enormous development of the 
central plate is shown. In Agarlcoerlnus (PI. XVIII, fig. 3), the four 
proximals have been separated from it by the intercalation of other 

1 Upon our communicating^ to Dr Carpenter several months ago our observalioiiS 
upon Haplocrinus as al)ove set forili, he informed us that Prof. Beyrich, of Ktilin, 
had independently discovered the same facts, both as to the construction of the 
ventral pyramid, and the location of the opening which we consider to be the anus, 
and that Beyrich also regards this as the anal opening, while he (Carpenter) thinks 
it an open question whether it be the anus or a water pore, in which btttr case 
the anus would remain undiscovered. 




plates; while in the later Ta^aromnu* (PI. XVIII, fig. 7) they seem 
to have diaappeaied entirely, leaving only the central plate, from 
which the covering plates to the ambulacra pass directly out. In 
forms like Batocriniu (fig. 5), and Eretmoerimu (fig. 10), where 
there ta a strong, nearly central ana! tube, we find the c-entral plate 
resting against, and forming the base of the tube, and the four prox- 
imals pushed fur uver to the anterior side, and greatly displaced. 

In some forms of Plalyeruius the central jmsition of the posterior 
plate is well marked (Kev. III. PI., VII, figs, 5, 6. 7. 8, and PI. 
VIII, fig 0), varying somewhal in degree. Some recently acfjuired 
specimens of this genus exhibit most clearly a transition from a 
centrally located plate surrounded by proximals and anals, char- 
acteristic of the foregoing figures, lo a set of five nearly e()ual 
plates, occupying the center of figure in the vault, and from whose 
five re-entering angles the ambulacra pass out to the arms, us showo 
by the beautiful specimtn in fig. lo. (and also by figs. 4, H, and Vi- 
la all these cases it will be observed that the posterior plate i» in- 
serted l>etween the four proximals to a greater or less extent, BC|ia- 
rating the postcro-lateral ones, so that the five plates meet in the 
vault in a manner sulwUmtially similar to the five plates composing 
the ventral pyramid of Haplocriiiiis. No one who ia acquainted 
with the structure of palaeozoic crinoids will doubt that the five 
u nay ni metrically arranged plates in the vault of Doryerinug. B'ltoeri- 
niM, etc. are structurally idenlical with the five nearly etjual plaie« 
centrally locitlcd in the specimens of Plntyrriuiu alwve mentioned. 
An<l il will l>e seen at once that all the disturbance observable io 
ditferent degrees in these various forms was primarily cause«l by 
the anal struclurcs. which pii:<h<^l (he plates — csgtecinlly the jwsterior 
one — ')n( of thoir primitivu ]K>sition. Regarding these five plateK as 
the orsds, it will be found that the five radial -dome- plates lie within 


ambulacra pass out to the rays. The first of these objections, which 
was raised by lis already in Revision III, p. 56, is readily explained 
if we suppose that the posterior oral was pushed inward over the 
mouth by the plates connected with the anus, and that this became 
a constant character in palaeontological time. The presence of a 
single large central plate in Talarocrimts, etc, may be accounted for 
by resorption of the four anterior orals, the posterior plate actually 
performing the functions of all. It might also be possible that this 
large plate in these forms represents the whole oral pyramid, five 
plates coalesced, in a similar manner as the basals in some instances 
at the dorsal side. 

The§e considerations were quite suflScient to convince us that the 
five orals of Neocrinoids were represented in the Palaeocrinoids by 
^ both the central plate and four large proximals taken together ; 
thus in a large measure reconciling the conflicting views of Carpen- 
ter and ourselves upon this question — the orals being found at last 
to consist of a portion of the proximals which he has claimed, with 
the addition of the central plate which we have contended for. 
This rational result, as often happens in such cases, adopts what was 
sound, and rejects the errors in the views of both parties. 

The evidence which we had obtained was entirely satisfactory to 
us, and we were prepared upon the foregoing facts to announce our 
final conclusion, as above stated, when we made a most unexpected 
discovery, which in our.judgment not only settles the oral question 
in conformity with these views beyond all controversy, but bears so 
strongly upon questions of classification, that it may justly be regard- 
ed as one of the most important discoveries ever made in palaeozoic 

In the Ichthyocrinidae the ventral structure has been hitherto 
almost totally unknown. Some small plates had been seen on the ven- 
tral side in a few instances, apparently belonging to a plated integ- 
ument, but not in a condition to afford much information, and its 
real nature has been a matter of conjecture and theory. We have 
been of the opinion that it was a vault, covering a subtegminal 
mouth and ambulacra, but pliant, yielding to motion in the calyx 
and arms; while Carpenter believed that it was a disk paved by 
plates as in some of the Neocrinoidea. It was evidently of the most 
fragile construction, and this, together with the fact that in this 
family the arms are generally found closely folded and firmly im- 
pacted over the vault, was strongly against the probability of ever 


fiDtliog the rentnil coveriog in [ilace. We had wen, however, in 
some ^pei'iiuen^ of Tirorrinii* from the Kiuderbook heds at Le 
Grand, lowit. that there wa$ an integument of <>ame kind taking 
the foim of poucheif alonz the ventral fide of the ny», and thiit in- 
duced a faint hope, in riew of the UQu^uallr fine preaerraiion of the 
fos^ik at that localitr, that j<omething mur? might ereatuallr be 
found out ahoui it. 

On the :>th of Au^» la.-'i. we made an exmreiuD to Le Grand, 
for the {iurpOi!« of oliiaining fome needed material tor our work on 
the Crinoiib of Ni>nh America now in proifre»«i. I'pon Arriving at 
the stati<») we met Mr. George I'ull. the a^'eni <jf the Chicajro »nd 
Norlhwe?iero Railway, to whom we were alreadv indebted for nianj 
&vor«^ While exhihitinz to uf ;r>me ioiereMing foa»ib collt-rted 
br him in that viciniir. be produced a sjKoimen of 7*aran-iitiL( with , 
ibe greater part of the n>T-i br.>ken off. We «w at oooe that it had 
tbe ventral cnverinz piesene-.! in place, though largely irobeddi-l in 
a matrix of exceeilin'.'ly tine caloarev-uj muil. I'pon being tnf'iriD- 
ed that the ^pei.*in>en [•K'lre^^ed r^iieeial value sii throwing light ufani 
imporlAm :«?ieniidc igueitioD?. he to uk with the re- 
mark : "1 will d'-naie it t" Soiemv." For tbe valuable aM<tanoe 
be therehv atf irthyl us he ha.'' our i;rateful thanki>, and in thi# we are 
$urv ihat eVf rv iiaturalisi who h iniere^ted in tbe murjiboLiirical 
su.K ..f Kchin-.dvni» will j-in ii^. 

Al:h-'U_*h W'^ -aw at that there wa# an iuieguBietK of very 
$mall pif\'^. with i-ivi'n-i atuhiilacnl fum^Wf runniug Inward wme 
lar..*e i-lai-.T' in the ivntrr. it wa- n>ii until we hail with frtvai tabur, 
an<l ihv iU'<-t 'l<-iicatt- niaiiii>uia:i<'M. oleane<l tbe sjiei-imen from tbe 
fin- :tih-nii; mairii. thai «e di-o .vor\%l the eiiraiTdinarr iWt 
iha: i: :.:i- ■! . ---•■ --.i' i-. . -.'i. ••i'r-n-.i'-i hy irt ['irlfi <rml j,t.U^4, 
lei'fi 'i- ■ '■ 'I'-i "■ ••■'.y I-: :•■ •' :•• i |. twine •»• f-^frfn tkt omt*. 

Tb« tCMnMSQ I^iOK* *" » «!»**« whici. wc t-i.-- ■!-----rilT.l and 


of the rays are broken off a little above the first bifurcation, so that 
the whole structure is plainly visible, and, except in one or two 
places, is in the most perfect condition (PI. XVIII. figs. 11 and IL). 

The ventral surface is covered by an integument of very small^ 
irregular plates, attached to some larger plates within the dorsal cup, 
and the marginal plates along the free rays, forming in connection 
with the latter along the rays pouches or sacs which extend far up 
along the arms, being traced in other specimens to the second and 
third bifurcation. Along the median radial portions of this integu- 
ment rest the ambulacra, which pass from the middle of the disk to 
the rays, following their bifurcations. There are two rows of sub- 
ambulacral pieces, transversely elongate and alternately arranged, 
forming the floor of the groove. The groove is bordered by side 
pieces, and roofed over by two rows of interlocking covering plates, 
which seem to have been moveable, as they are open in several places 
in the specimen, — indeed they appear to be mostly in that condition. 
The anterior ambulacrum is perfect, with the covering pieces in place, 
and slightly gaping. In the right antero-lateral ambulacrum the 
covering plates and side pieces have slipped off from the subambu- 
lacral plates, and lie interradially to the left of them, but are other- 
wise not much disturbed. In the other three ambulacra the covering 
pieces for the most part are gone, leaving only the floor with the 
subambulacral plates in ix)sition. The plates covering the interpal- 
mar areas are also well shown in the specimen at three sides; at the 
two others the integument is not intact, and the plates lie scattered 
upon the surface. When one sees the exceedingly frail character of 
this covering, he may well wonder at the exceptional good fortune 
by which it is preserved in this specimen, and will not expect to find 
it soon again. 

The central region is occupied by five rounded or very obtusely 
polygonal plates, interradially disposed, rather elliptic in outline. 
The two an tero-1 literal plates are tolerably good-sized, and the 
postero-lateral ones slightly smaller. All four of them have a con- 
siderable thickness, extending downward below the level of the 
ambulacra, and also rising somewhat above it. The posterior plate 
is nearly three times as large as any of the others, and almost twice 
as long as wide, extending well in between the two postero-lateral 

The relative positions of these plates are exactly like those of the 
five plates at the summit of the forms of Flatycrbuis illustrated on 


Plate XVIII. figs. 4, 8, 9, 10. 15, except that ther do not meet in tbe 
cen t«r, but leareaslightivexccntric, obtusely peotagooal oral opening, 
tnwsvereelv elongated, ita loDgeat ^ide next tn the posterior oral plate. 
Into thb ojjening. vhich ia deep, and contains at the bottom some 
dark-colored substance, converge the ambulacra, their lipa turning 
downward at the five comers. They enter between the five platea, 
touching thcro. and completely separating the risible portions of 
those plates from each other. Whether there is any lateral projec- 
tion beneath the ambulacra, by nhtch they come in contact again, 
cannot be seen, but from the form of the exposed portions we should 
think not- 

That the five platen around the center, although somewhat unequal 
in size, rcpre^tent the five oraU of the recent genera Rhiaxritmt, 
Hyoeriniu, and Holopu», and that the iutegument of small pieces ia 
a disk and not n vault, nobody will deny af\er seeing the specimen. 
And a comparUon of the parts in Taxocrmiu with the summit plate* 
in Platycrinut, Aetituxrinut, etc. leave^i no roitm for duubt that the«e 
are likewise orals. In the posterior interradius (PL XVIII, fig. 1, 
c). there is a small lateral apjienduge or probomis composed of a row 
of rounded quadrangular plates gradually ta[ieriug upward. This 
appendage is supjx>rte(l by a small anal plate, which rests upon the 
right upj>er corner of the posterior liasal and the right imsterior 
radial, both of which are somewhat indenieil lo r^Hvive It. The ftp* 
pendage seems to be attached by its inner iiidc lo the integument, and 
there are to the right of it, within the posterior iulerradius three 
small tapering ridges coniposeil of very small plates, which look like 
branches from it; u|Min close ins[>ectiou, however, they are seen to be 
folds in the jierisiime. into which they arc incor[Kirate<l at their upper 
ends, in a similiir manner as the row of larger plates. At the upper 
end of the ap]>cndage there are a great many minute pieces closely 

Lckeil together, an<l we think it probable thet 


of its posterior side bears a striking resemblance to the form under 
consideration. From all that we can see on our three specimens, and 
some examples of Onychocrinus exsculptus, in which a similar set of 
plates and parts of the perisome are preserved, we do not believe that 
there was a second appendage in the disk as in Thaumatocrinus, but 
think that the row of large plates supported the anus. The shape 
of the visible portions of the disk varies in the three specimens, and 
it is evident that the whole perisome was pliant and could be expand- 
ed or contracted. 

A similar integument has been found between the rays in Taxocrinns 
robustus W. and Sp. from the same locality, a new Taxocrinus from 
the St. Louis limestone, and in Onychocrinus aster iaeformis from the 
Burlington limestone. In a specimen of Onychocrinus diversus 
lying on the ventral side, and from which we removed the basal and 
some of the radial plates, giving an inner view from below, we can 
see in two rays the alternating subambulacral plates converging near 
the center, but not the orals nor any part of the perisome. In one 
of Onychocrinus exsculptus we find remnants of the perisome and 
traces of the oral plates, however not in position. The last two 
specimens are those mentioned by us in Revision Pt. I, p. 32, on 
one of which we based our statement (Rev. I, p. 54), under Onycho- 
crinus, that "in the median portion of the vault there are six rather 
thin but large apical dome plates", which we were afterwards in- 
•clined to modify, as we could not make out satisfactorily the ar- 
rangement of the plates (Rev III. pp 20, and 67). In several speci- 
mens of the last named species we have seen the anal appendage, 
with the integument extending either way to the rays, and the 
same thing was long ago observed by Meek and Worthen (Geol. 
Rep. Illinois., Vol. Ill, p. 494.). 

It is thus evident that the ventral covering of Taxocrinus consist- 
ed of perisomic plates with external mouth and food grooves, and 
^VQ oral plates, surrounding the mouth and separated by the ambu- 
lacra. We have now verv little doubt that the structure thus dis- 


■covered is substantially that of the Ichthyocrinidae generally, and 
that the ventral side of the calyx in this family is morphologically 
in the condition of Thaumatocrinus, and similar to that ofSyocrinu^ 
and Rhizocrinus. 

Although we have heretofore entertained a different opinion, we 
yield most cheerfully to the proofs, and we are heartily glad to be 
the means of bringing to light one substantial fact to take the place 

iiUi^'-'irMiiiian- H* »:w!i_r. <• ili-u^j- rt-i '^iii:: iiiif iu:.. t' ;»;- 




iM -irtii.-'.'irv -.1 T-i-iry-nu— \,--it a •*-! -f Err: r*j\;al :!*V*. *_t=.2:^- 
■iciih ii^.-.i.r.T'i ■T'-nf.^ (ij'>'jth *. id iV larva ■fj!%r^j ^.^r^-i-ir* 

^ucitiii -Jan \i-:-r.-t ],\a\i-. I; [• n-aiUly r^a TJvabJr. sLji: ':■_*■ :k* 
:Utn>j»i;n.'i.rt;: --i xw- aiia! i-Iai^. t.'.*r [■■•»s^ri-.r •rai wa.* t-^-fa^i t" * 
wuinii ■.■■'•:::■. :i. and r^iiiaiti-il t>rniuti<;ti:ly i:i iha: r-.O'ii'.i n. Th« 
: lai 1*4 1 ;<■--: tn-rii riv.- iit:-j->ul I ■ tivt:**jual -.ra!- I'tjp.u.'h -j-ti f.-m.-** 
l%,i^T.:.«A V\. XVIII, li- 1:. . -*nj- al— -viiie aj-mivn!, !!.♦ 
rkti :;;i; tfi- !.■■•■.• riirL* [•l;it«— ■■I'lii*' a(ii!>iila''rj \r. •■•it fjvv-iiurr. r*-'! 
.>k:Hiiii< ■.':■.'■ iai^r-il .■■!_■.- -.I'tln- \' -■ninin- -... th.c ' >>M-n'a:i' ■!)« 
K-f.t-;' f: isia-i.- a'l.'t..' r—i-Tit 'Tim.ii- in uliii-h -TaU hare i»^-n 
AXArvv-i. In all ■,! ih.-in ll..- H!ii)<iiiui-n pii- in a: ib-ir •■utrr tuar- 
^iti>. a::<1 \h- |iliiI'-> im* i-art-<l "i a- t-i t'->riii ■•[■.■n :>lilA In ik^ 
t.-»;<,.ir..::i [!.- -ral- r..r;.;;-'i, .;.,-.!. jtul (Ik- an.l.i.Ia.ra.— wh.i. . t- 
!n-!».i iU ;iii.— Willi ili-ir l"--I .t-.v.- .1.--^^). cnii-rihe rauU ■■ii --r 

%%;'i«: ••:i%>i»'i iiiiiti-iiiiiik 





I s •■ i ,. 



r . 



I . 

• ■ 



.• • kT 

"l » . \ \' 

I *. ■ I - I I 1 1 : : « 


i» I 

■ • 



I / 

• I 

■ I . » • 



» • ■ 

1 •• 


I» 1 

• ■ 



» • 


>— .p -ni; . 


Hl..-'^....... «,.-j «».., 

j:^.!.-../— r.l* '•-f^T^iIrt*. -l.!-v- 

•^ X><~i.7ijr,«^a.'i..-iait. .<.lV>— •>•««. 

K.r. ■- (jc:i;n:i^i-rt n ii« !..-»■. 

_!. »i..-i z J- T^-.L-' Chca.-^ kj>£ 

;■ T ^a-a— '; 57 um- itoce^. Ani:a^ 

hu jU-ir.i^»^.^.w. '4a»ab<r-^«.w 

-_i^ -jnla. Ma_ uGt > ta.,Ti. ij 

1^ V/>. I-i£.ifurT-.a.u Msti _\~SC-t-»- 

^^ »• £-V.-.-«m*V. U fT^U* .f 

.- ii. ;rT^ir-.:4h-.t iz. --ae "-•*»^ , tt« 

V, a «*<*!-*=*:« ■>? :•■:■ •;-r =-:« 

i. *;«, f.>fit>i in :1h Rccnl »i3» 

. 1N>1. pp. :»6 u^ 

\ i - - I «: -• M ' I - I I ii:: iM I rii! % 

• ■ • 


A • ^ ■ . • ' '. • y 

\ \ \ »i . ;• list 

.• • r.»* 




. K 

!. r 



• • 





N r 



•• - • 

. ■ • • ■ ■ *: r 


I ,- •• 1 1 



1 .5. 


/ : • • r . ■ • ' ■ !• * » • f -f 


•4 *« ' * f •■ 

} ■ 

r ■. ■ . 

• ■ « 

■ • • \ • • %•• . ». 1 ■••-•, . • ' 

• I -A* ! f?i.ta. 
• ■ • ■ • -. ■ ■.:■ . v« 'I • \\". *"• .: .'{ if 

• • . ^ ■ • I ' ' I • ' ... 1 •. • • • : • ' -."<i«« 

■ • »■ • » • ■ ■ * •. • • ' ■. ' -.!-•■ r •', i • * :?• r 1 • ■ • ll*• 
^ • • * : k . i • :•... -1 ; .A!r«. 

\ i : «: • ■■ Vfck '. >«* 

■ if 

L,. - . -K. V . 

I « 

. \ I - » . ■ i 1 . I I n 



• . I 



■ 1 


■ • 

I r 

• * 


of theories, even though some of our own views suffer in consefjuence. 
We also take pleasure in hearing this testimony to the soundness of 
Dr. P. H. Carpenter's views aa to the nature of the ventral covering 
in the Ichthyocrinidae. He always considered that this family rep- 
resented an approximation to the Neocrinoids, and that the integu- 
ment was comparahle to a disk and not to a vault.' 

This discovery Is also a confirmation of the opinion always insist- 
ed uf>on by us, as a conclusion necessarily following from the struct- 
ure of the calyx and arms, that the ventral covering of the Ichthyo- 
crinidae was pliable, yielding to motion in the calyx and arms, and 
emphasizes the distinction between this group and other Palaeozoic 
Crinoids based on the summit structure, as pointed out by us at the 
beginning of our writings (Rev. I, p. 6), although, we admit, to a 
higher degree than we ever anticipated, 

Recnrring now to the orals, it is easy enough to understand from 
the structure of Taxocrimm how a set of five ei]ua! plates, symmet- 
rically disposed over the mouth as in the larva of Antedon, could be 
so altered by the presence of anal structures, as to bring the mouth 
beneath the posterior plate. It is readily conceivable, that by the 
encroachment of the anal plate, the posterior oral was pushed to a 
central position, and remained permanently in that condition. The 
transition from five unequal to five equal nrals through such forms as 
Platyerinvs (PI. XVIII, fig. 15), seems also quite apparent. The 
fact that the covering plates of the ambulacra in our specimen rest 


relations of the ventral plates in HaplocrinuSf in view of the discov- 
ery that it has no central plate? Those plates raeet in the center, 
and cover the mouth substantially in a similar manner as the five 
orals in Platycrinus ; being, however, more alike in form and size, 
and more regular in their arrangement. They also closely resemble 
the five orals of the Pentacrinoid larva of Antedoriy but, unlike 
them, are suturally connected with one another as well as with the 
radials. The plates also occupy the position of the fi\e inter radials 
of Cyathocriniis and the deltoids of the Blastoidea; resting like the 
latter upon the limbs or upper extensions of the radials. 

We have heretofore contended, against the views of Carpenter 
and others, that the ventral plates of Haplocrinus are interradials 
and not orals, believing the latter to be represented by the "central 
plate," which we took to be the homologue of the so-called central 
plate of Actinocrinidae and Platycrinidae. 

It would seem to follow naturally that with the elimination of the 
central plate from the question, the chief objections to considering 
the five summit plates as orals, which impressed us so strongly 
before, would now be removed. A serious morphological difficulty, 
however, is still found in the position of the opening which we 
suppose to be the anus. This, as we have already dascribed, pene- 
trates the middle portion of one of the vault plates — a structure not 
found in any other known Crinoid, either in the adult or larval 
state. The position is the same as that of the anus in the deltoid of 
the Blastoid genus OrophocrinuSy which complicates the case still 

It is further a fact that in the lowest Silurian Camarata inter- 
radials are more profusely represented than among Carboniferous 
forms, frequently extending over the whole ventral surface of the 
calyx, while the orals apparently are unrepresented. From this it 
would seem to follow that if Haplocrintis represented a larval form 
of the Palaeocrinoidea, the plates in question could not be orals, or 
the structure would appear to be at variance with the palaeontolog- 
ical development of the group. 

For these difficulties we are unable at present to offer any ex- 
planation, but nevertheless we admit that there are very strong rea- 
sons for regarding those plates as orals. They present a striking 
resemblance to the five plates composing the unopened oral pyramid 
of the Pentacrinoid larva before its separation from the radials 
by perisome, and there are unquestionably very strong grounds 

856 PROOEEl>lN09 OF THE ACADEMY OF [lft88. 

moiisly developed [leridomic plutes" (Revisioo, Pt 111, p. 6-t), and 
not as true intcrnidiul:^, nltliuiigli they ]>rcHeiit a more rigid ii[))ioHr- 
auee timii perisomic platen gRiierally have. Our viewn have been 
strengthened liy De Luriol'^ important diiwovery of the plati-s cover- 
ing the ventral surface in -l/HOcriHiw roittyauiu. ' According to 
his descri))tiiin the space l>etween the rays, fnmi the first or the first 
two intcrradial jiifcos up, arc occupied liy tnuisverse ktw nf two or 
three small, soinewhut regular plales, which gradually lose their r(>g- 
ularity. ami at the top of the third nidial become for the miwl i>an 
entirely irregular ami unequal. They differ in their form and 
arrangement in every one of the intemidial spaceit, and pana into 
a conical "ventral sac," which rises to the top of about the ninth 
brachial piece. The plates com|M)sing this ventral covering are 
equally irregular, and, though tolerably strong, are not alwolute- 
ly rigid. De Loriol considers them as con:<tituting a pliable integu- 
ment, and not a solid vault like that of ./trfino'Tiniu, but in the 
specimen the central portion was not preserved and he could not dis- 
cover the condition of the mouth, nor could he find traces of the 
amhulacrn. In the same paper, on page 14, De I^oriol alsode^-rilea 
a s[)ceinicn of Ajiioerlmis mugnifieiu, in which the interrudial 
Bimccs iKtween the third railials, and up to the iirst brachial piece, 
are nccujiicd by numerous irregular [ilate!i, dissimilar in the ditTerent 
Hjiaccs. He considers these intcrradial plates, in Uith speci(>s as l>e- 
longing to the '"ventral sac," which was capahle, in his opinion, of 
couiraction or cxjiimi'ion. 

A similar irregularity in the interradialsc\ista anion^ the Ichthyo- 
crinidae. In Ichthyiicniiwt interrndiiils ami inlcraxillarics are gon- 
endly wanting, but in the one siwiics in wliich llivy have l>ocn found 
their arrangi'ment seems lo 1k' rather utiitiinn in the dilTcri-iil sjmce?. 
In FurbKfW'-riiiu*. which als't has iuterradiiils, »c freigucntly find two 
plate.t in the lirst row al the ir/y[.">u.''sidc. in uthercnses l.iit one. In 




Dicyclic, Monocyclic, 










Column,^ Exterior angels of. 
Column. Sections of. 



Column, Sutures. 

Column, Sides. 

Column, Cirri when present. 
Column, Axial canal. 







We have found this rule to be without exception among palaeozoic 
crinoids, and upon the strength of this, and an examination of the 
column of such Neocrinoids accessible to us as possessed an angular 
column, or cirri, we came to the conclusion, as stated in the Revision 
III, p. 8, that "probably many Neocrinoids either possess small 
underbasals, or these were present in their larval form. " We became 
more and more of the opinion that the Neocrinoids, for the most part, 
were built on the plan of dicyclic crinoids, and we again stated (Rev 
III, p. 7 1 ), that "all Neocrinoidea, or at least the most of them, in their 
larval state may have possessed rudimentary underbasals, hidden by 
the column. " On pages 294-299, we discussed this question more 
at length, and stated our conclusion to be (p. 298) that "either the 
rules which meet with no exceptions among Palaeocrinoidea, as far 
as we know, do not hold good for the Neocrinoidea, or the genera to 
which we alluded, and which are built otherwise upon the plan of 
dicyclic crinoids, really possessed rudimentary underbasals during 
life, as Extracrinu^ and certain species of Millericrinimy or that 
perhaps underbasals were present in their larva. The ventral surface 

1 Our observations respecting the column were naturally restricted to species 
in which the stem and axial canal are angular, and in alluding to the sections and 
sutures of the column we refer to species with a pentapariite stem. In cases in 
which only basals are visible, and the angles of the stem are interradial, underba- 
sals invariably are present beneath the column. 


of the centro-doraal in some species of Antedon is almost identical 
with that of the top stem joint o£ Millericrinus; the plate is also 
interradial (PI. 6, fig. 11), and resta, as in the Apiocrinidae, against 
the outer face of the basals, not within the ba^al ring. It is similar 
iu other Comatulae, in all of which the centro-dorsal is interradial, 
and upon this, mainly, we base the opinion that perhaps also the 
Comatulae in their early larva had rudimentary underbaaala. That 
these plates if present were not observed, is not surprising, as they 
may have been very minute, and been covered entirely by the 
«olumn." ' 

So strongly were we impressed with the conviction that the Com- 
atulae were dicyclic crinoids, that we urged European investigators 
to make a fre:«h search for the underbasals in the larva, notwith- 
standing that no trace of them had been found by Wyville Thomson, 
the two Carpenter, Gotte and others, who had extensively studied 
the embryology o£ Antedon. 

It was therefore with no little satisfaction that we received the 
information in July 1887 that the underbasals, whose existence we 
had thus predicated upon palaeontological evidence, had actually 
been discovered in the early larva o{ Antedon rosacea. This import- 
ant discovery was made by Mr. H. Bury, who announced it at the 
Manchester Meeting of the British Association in 1887. Mr. Bury's 
paper giving the full details of his investigations, has not yet appeared, 
although understood to be in press. The results, however, are staled 


directed interradiall y. lu two species of Millericrimis rudimentary 
underbasals have already been found by De Loriol,* and in both of 
them the plates in question are attached to the top stem joint. 

From these facts we may fairly say that the dicyclic plan prevails 
far more generally among Neocriuoidea than among Palaeocri- 

It is very interesting to note, in this connection, that the under- 
basals in many of the Ichthyocrinidacare of an exceedingly rudiment- 
ary nature. In Ichthyocrlnus they are scarcely ever seen at all, being 
usually visible only on the interior of the dorsal cup, In Taxocrinua 
they are always hidden by the column, and sometimes visible only 
within the calyx, which led Schultze to call them " cryptobasalia. " 
In Forbesiocrinus and Onychocrinns they are nearly always concealed 
by the column, and furthermore in some cases they seem to be fused 
"with the upi^r joint of the column, for they separate from the 
basals and remain attached to the column w^hen the latter is broken 
off. It is therefore a suggestive fact that in Millericrimis polydactylus 
and M. Orhignyi, the two species in which De Loriol discovered 
underbasals, these were in a precisely similar way separated from the 
basals and firmly attached to the column. 

Another distinction relied on by Carpenter is that in Neocrinoids 
"** by far the greater number of genera have five equal and similar 
basals, with five equal and similar radials resting upon them. " He 
excepts HyocrinuA^ ^vhich has three basals, and Holopus and Eudeai- 
crimis in which the radials are not symmetrical; and he adds: "but 
'this want of svmmetrv is not due to the intercalation of any anal 
plates as in nearly all Palaeocrinoids. " He therefore admits a certain 
amount of asymmetry in Neocrinoids, so long as not due to anal plates, 
though he elsewhere attaches some importance to a similar irregularity 
in some Palaeocrinoids, when confined to basals and radials only, and 
not in any way connected with anal plates, as for example Eucalypto- 


Another point characteristic of the later crinoids brought out by 
Carpenter is that *' the articular fixcets of the first radials occupy the 
whole w^dth of their distal faces, so that the lowest parts of the rays, 
whether divided or not, are of nearlv the same width as the radial 
plates which bear them (Chall. Kcp. p. 155). Exceptions to this are 
found in Hyocrimis, Plicatocrinm and Marsiqyites. It is true that 

» Paleont. Franc, Vol. XI. Crinoides Pts. 110 and 116. 
^ Challenger Report, p. 151. 



in the PnloeocHiioid^ there are many families in which the articular 
facet of the first radial simply occupies the middle of its distal edge, 
but this is Dot the case with the Ichthyocriuidea, the most of the 
Poteriocrinidae, Cupiessocrinidse, and Symbathocrinidae. 

The main point, upon which Etlieridge and Carpenter,' and after- 
wards Carpenter alone,' distinguished the two groups was stated to 
be the regularly pentamerous symmetry of the calyx in Neocrlnoids 
contrasted with the asymmetry of the Palaeocrinoids, in which " the 
pentamerous symmetry of the calyx' is almost always disturbed by a 
greater or less modification of the plates on the anal side, " From 
this Carpenter was obliged to except the genus Tkaunuito(ynnvs, as to 
the Ncocrinoidea, which has well developed anal plates. 

A far greater number of exceptions are found in the Palaeocrinoidea, 
among the Camarata as well as the Inaduuata and Articulata. 
Among the first may be mentioned Dolatocrinua, Slereocrinua, Centro- 
eriniM, Technocrinus, Coiymbocrinus.Encalypiocrimis and Callicrinus, 
in which the anal interradius cannot be di.stinguished in the dorsal 
cup from the four others; Lyrtocrimig, Ripidoeriiius, Tkylacocrinve, 
Rhodoerinus, and GilberUocrinm, in which it is rarely distinct ; and 
Briarocrimta whose irregularity is not caused by anal plates. Among 
the Inadunata there are Codiacrinue, Lect/lhioerinut, Slemmatoerinut 
and ErUocriiiiiS, in none of which the usual aual plate is known to 
exist. Among the Articulata, we note Iddhyocrinris and Niptero- 
crinvs as being in a similar condition as Briarocrimta. In some of 


In alluding to the symmetry or asymmetry of the calyx, we must 
consider only the arrangement of the plates in the dorsal cup, as the 
ventral covering in all crinoids, whether composed of vault or disk, 
is more or less disturbed by the anus. 

We do not regard it as a good distinctive character that in the later 
crinoids the basals are generally pierced by interradial canals or 
grooves in connection with the chambered organ, when not a vestige 
of them is seen in MarsupiteSy and similar grooves are found in 
Catillocrinu8y Mycocrinus^ Crotalocrinus and many Fistulata. Nor 
do we think it of much importance that in some palaeozoic forms the 
first division of the rays does not take place upon the third radial, or 
that in one or two cases the first radials themselves are axillary, when 
among Neocrinoids MetacrinuSy as well as PllcatocrinuSy form excep- 
tions to this rule. 

Another of Carpenter's distinctions is that in the Neocrinoidea 
with the exception of Thaurnatocrinus, the primary radials are in 
contact with one another by the entire length of their sides; but the 
fact is that there are also among the Palaeocrinoidea a number of 
genera, both of the Ichthyocrinidae and Inadunata, in which a 
similar structure is found. 

Now to the presence of interradials, a character upon which we 
placed so much importance as separating the older from the later 
crinoids. We held that interradials were present in all groups of 
the Palaeocrinoidea, but among the Neocrinoidea only in Thaumato- 
criniis. This applies very well to the Camarata and perhaps to all 
Fistulata, but it is possible that among the latter, in certain Carbon- 
iferous genera, especially within the Poteriocrinidae, their interradials 
became resorbed. Interradials are also absent in the Larviformia, 
if we regard their large ventral plates as orals. We also doubt if 
the so-called interradials of the Ichthyocrinidae are the homologues 
of the interradials in the Camarata, but rather regard them as com- 
parable with the unevenly distributed, interradially disposed plates, 
which occur in some of the Apiocrinidae, and which we take to be 

The so-called interradials of the Apiocrinidae, which occur only in a 
few species, vary among individuals and are irregular in their ar- 
rangement. According to De Loriol * they are represented various- 
ly by one or three plates in the lower row, even in the same species. 
Owing to this irregularity they have been regarded by us as "enor- 

1 Paleont. Francaise, 1st Serie Anim. invertebr., Crinoides, p. 272. 


mously developed perisomic plates" (Revision, Pt III, p. 63), and 
not as true interradials, although they present a more rigid appear- 
ance than perisomic plates generally have. Our views have been 
strengthened by Dc Loriol's important discovery of the plates cover- 
ing the ventral surface in Apiocrinm rousyanus. ' According to 
his description the space between the raya, from the first or the first 
two interradial pieces up, are occupied by transverse series of two or 
three small, somewhat regular plates, which gradually lose tlieir reg- 
ularity, and at the top of the third radial become for the most part 
entirely irregular and unequal. They differ in their form and 
arrangement in every one of the interradial spaces, and pass into 
a conical "ventral sac," which rises to the top of about the ninth 
brachial piece. The plates composing this ventral covering are 
equally irregular, and, though tolerably strong, are not absolute- 
ly rigid. De Loriol considers them as constituting a pliable integu- 
ment, and not a solid vault like that oi Adinnerinus, but in the 
specimen the central portion was not preserved and he could not dis- 
cover the condition of the mouth, nor could he find traces of the 
ambulacra. In the same paper, on page 14, De Loriol also describes 
a specimen of Apiocrinua Tuagnificus, in which the interradial 
spaces between the third radials, and up to the first brachial piece, 
are occupied by numerous irregular plates, dissimilar in the different 
spaces. He considers these interradial plates, in both species as be- 
longing to the "ventral sac," which v 


calated opposite the second and third radials and an interaxiUary 
between the second secondary radials. In Onychoerimis, and those 
forms of TaxocrinxLs which resemble it in the expansion of the rays, 
like T. ivtermediuSy there is frequently a large first interradial, suc- 
ceeded by a variable number of smaller ones; while in other cases 
(PI. XVIII, figs. 1 a, b, c) the lower plates themselves are quite 
irregular, following the curvature of the rays. They are connected 
with their fellows in the same interradius by the plates of the disk, 
which are attached to their inner edges. In both these genera the 
structure of the posterior interradius resembles that of the recent 
genus Thaumatocrinv^ in having a succession of anal plates forming 
a lateral proboscis-like projection, connectea for more or less of its 
length with the ])erisome. Lecanocrinus, Pycnosaccus, Cyrtidocrinus 
and Mespilocrinus have an azygous and anal plate, but as a rule no 
interradials. Lecanorrhius macropetalus of New York has no 
interradial plates ; while a specimen from Sweden, which agrees with 
the genus otherwise, has at each side one large interradial. Calpio- 
criniis^ has an azygous plate passing well down between the basals 
toward the underbasals, and from one to four interradials in the 
same species. Sagenocriiius^ has a remarkable azygous plate in line 
with the basals — the sixth parabasal of Angelin — and some varia- 
bility in the other interradial spaces, although on the whole it is a 
rather symmetrical form. 

The irregularity in the arrangement of the interradials, so frequent- 
ly found in this group, their presence between the higher radials, 
and absence upon the first primary radials in species, and even among 
individuals of the same species, has always presented to us a diflSculty 
in classifying the Ichthyocrinidae with the Palaeocrinoids. , 

* Calpiocrinus is not the aberrant genus which we supposed from Angelin's 
figures (Rev. I, p. 30, S8). A good series of specimens from Dudley, not other- 
wise distinguishable from C. fimbriatus and C.^^/^r^^^r/j//«j,— which are probably 
synonymous — shows that it has the usual calyx plates of the family — three under- 
basals and five basals. In a specimen of C. ovatus^ the underbasals are concealed 
by the column, and it is probable that this is the case in most ©f the Swedish speci- 
mens, and that in some instances the peculiar azygous plate, in line with the basals, 
has led to a misconception of the latter plates. 

' Examination ol the specimens leaves little doubt that ^^^^«^<rf7"««j belongs 
to the Ichthyocrinidae. We noted its resemblancfe to Taxocrinus (Rev. II, p. 
202), and it always appeared to us out of place in the family Rhodocrinidae, 
which is greatly improved by its removal. Our generic diagnosis, made entirely 
from the figures and insufficient descriptions, is defective and incorrect in some 
particulars, and will be improved hereafter, as the genus has been discovered in 


The interradials in the Apiocriuidae, extending up between the 
rays, connecting with, and forming a part of the ventral covering, 
find a close parallel in those of many of the Ichthyocrinidae, and 
since the discovery of a disk and open mouth in Ta^ocrinus, we 
have not the slightest doubt, that these plates represent the same 
elements in both groups, forming in both of them parts of the disk, 
and that perhaps the same is the case with the interradials and 
interaxillaries of UlntacrinuSy which in many resjiects resemble those 
of the Ichthyocrinidae. 

The subtegminal mouth, which we supposed to be thi best char- 
acter of the Palaeocrinidea, proves to be subject to exceptions fully 
as great as the others. Our recent discoveries s]ir»w that in some 
palaeozoic crinoids, and probably in the Ichthyocrinidae generally, 
the mouth is exiK)sed, and there is no vault aside of the orals; and 
we are not certain but that we may find other exceptions among 
the later Poteriocrinidae and Encrinidae. We now know that there 
are no additional elements in the oral system of palaeozoic crinoids, 
but that the mouth oi)ens out in a very similar manner by the part- 
ing of the orals as in the larva of recent forms, and this leads us to 
put less faith than before in the condition of the moulh as a char- 
acter for the subdivision of the Crinoidea. For these may well be 
different stages in the development of the mouth, represented in 
palaeontological time, and we need not be surprised to find at some 
time a Silurian Ichthyocrinoitl with the orals closed, or a Haplo- 
crinoid with the orals parted. 

From this review of the principal characters relied upon to dis- 
tinguish the earlier from the later crinoids, it will be apparent that 
the exceptions are so numerous as to leave nothing stable or definite 
on which to base such important primary divisions, and we are again 
confronted with the problem of rectifying the classification of the 
Crinoidea, or proposing a new^ one. It is true that many of these 
exceptions are due to differences which tend to separate the Ichthyo- 
crinidae from the Palaeocrinoids, and unite them with the Neo- 
crinoids ; and it might be the simplest, as well as the least radical 
change, to modify the definition of the Neocrinoidea so as to admit 
the Ichthyocrinidae, which would thus fall exactly into that place 
among them, for which Car|)enter was always obliged to make an ex- 
ception in favor of Thaumatocrinus. In so doing, however, we 
would be bringing together some of the earliest and latest formsi 
which would render the name Neocrinoidea wholly inappropriate. 


The two groups would be separated chiefly upon the condition of the 
mouth, and the name "Stomatocrinoidea," which we proposed in 
1879 (Revision I, p. 22), might be revived. The greatest objection 
to this phm, however, lies in the possibility, as before mentioned, of 
fin<ling an Ichthyocrinoid with closed mouth, or a Haplocriiioid 
with parted orals, whicli w^ould upset the whole arrangement. 

To attempt to modify the definition of the Palaeocrinoidea so as 
to admit forms with an external mouth, is in our opinion entirely 
out of the question, and would simply increase the difficulties now 
encountered, because there could not be pointed out a single reliable 
character by which the two groups could be distinguished. 

After considering the question in all its new aspects, Jis presented 
by the facts recently brought to light, it is our best judgment, that 
all attempts to subdivide the Crinoidea by separating the palaeozoic 
from the mesozoic and later forms as natural divisions, will have to 
be abandoned, and some mode of separation sought for, entirely in- 
de|>endent of geological age. In that case, the names Palaeocrinoidea 
and Neocrinoidea — unless in the sense of mere conventional terms 
for designating the palaeozoic and later crinoids — will have to be 
laid aside. 

To this end we think that four well defined groups can be dis- 
tinguished as independent primary divisions of the Crinoidea, viz : 

1. Camarata. 

2. Inadunata, including the branches Larviformia and Fistulata. 

3. Articulata, * including the Ichthyocrinidae, and possibly Uui- 
taonmis and Thanmntocrinus, 

4. A fourth division to include the most of the mesozoic and re- 
cent crinoids, for which the name Caualiculata' might be very ap- 
propriately adopted. These divisions will be suborders or orders, 
depending upon the rank which may be ultimately assigned to the 
Crinoidea — a question we think still open for discussion. In the 
definition of them many classificatory criteria, such as the condition 
of the mouth, the presence or absence of interradials, the relative 
proportions of the actinal and abactinal regions in the calyx, which 

* The CrotalocriniHac, whicli we formerly assijjned to ihe Articulata. have 
been found to belong to the Camarata, as we have shown at length in another 

' This name was proposed I)y Prof. E. J. Chapman in a paper entitled -'A 
classification of Crinoids," Toronto, 1874, to include the genera Peftiaerinus, 
Antedon^ Encrinus, Euj^eniticrinuSf Aptocn'nus, Bourgtteticrinus^ and Rhizo- 


when applied to the older and later crinoids seem to lose mucii of 
their significance, will form strong and distinctive cliaracters. Pa- 
laeozoic and recent crinoids may, if necessary, be brought together in 
the same group, according to their zoological characters, free from 
embarrassment arising from restrictions as to geological age. 

The Camarata, Inadunata and Articulata would be defined, as to 
their most general characteristics, substantially aa we have already 
defined them in the Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, witli some 
modifications as to the ventral structure in the Inadunata and Ar- 
ticulata, to conform to recent discoveries. 

We are strongly of the opinion that the recent genera ffolopw, 
BathyeriniM and Myocrimtg might very projieriy be arranged under 
the Larviformia. All three are monocyclic, and like the Haplo- 
crinidae and Symbathocrinidae retain through life large oral jilates. 
But while the orals in these two families are closed anil rest direct- 
ly upon the radials, in the above named recent forms they are part- 
ed, and separated from the radials by a narrow band of perisome, 
which, we strongly suspect, was also the case in the Gasterocomidae- 
The aberrant genus T/uiumatocrlnua might be referred to the Ar- 
ticulata, with which, for the most ])art, it agrees in the asymmetry 
of the calyx and the construction of the azygous side. UtHtucrinug 
will very likely fall into the same group; while the Encrinidae will 
probably find a resting place among the Fistulata, and perhaps also 


sensiis of opiuion on this subject is much to be desired, and would 
greatly facilitate future studies. 

From an interchange of notes with Dr. Carpenter we understand 
that we are now in substantial agreement upon the oral question, but 
he will shortly state his own views at length in a paper now in prepa- 
ration. Should the views herein set forth contribute toward the es- 
tablishment of a sound classification, we shall consider that our long 
controversy with Dr. Carpenter, both in print and by letter, has borne 
good fruit, and we shall waste no regrets over the fact that in some 
points the result has proved that he was right and we were wrong. 

We give herewith a corrected diagnosis of the family Ichthyo- 
crinidae to conform to the ventral structure as we now know it. 


Test pliable. Symmetry of the calyx irregular and usually dis- 
turbed by anal plates. Base dicyclic. Underbasals three, unequal^ 
rarely visible beyond the column ; the smaller one directed toward 
the right postero-lateral radial, ^ frequently anchylosed to the upper 
stem joint. Primary radials perforate; variable in number among 
species and individuals from two upward ; either abutting laterally, 
or separated by one or more plates. Radials and arm joints united 
by muscles and ligaments ; line of union more or less undulating, 
frequently with patelloid projections from the proximal margins of 
the plates; articular surface usually occupying the whole distal face 
of the first and succeeding radials. Arms uniserial, apparently 
without pinnules. Interradials irregular in form, size and arrange- 
ment, sometimes entirely wanting in species in which they are usually 
present ; their lateral faces provided with deep ligamentous fossae. 
Posterior interradius with or without anal plates ; the latter, when 
present, frequently associated with an azygous plate. Disk, so far as 
known, paved with irregular perisomic plates, and larger plates 
between the rays. The center of the disk occupied by five unequal 
orals surrounding the mouth. Mouth exposed, at least in the later 
forms. Food grooves lined by moveable covering pieces. Column 
large, decreasing in size rapidly near tlie c^lyx. Geological Position: 
Palaeozoic. From the Lower Silurian to the Upper Coal Measures. 

^ In ihe Revision, Ft. III., PI., VI, fig. 23, we represented the underbasals of /cA- 
ihyocrinus incorrectly as directed anteriorly. We have since examined nurnier- 
ous specimens of various genera, and find the small underbasals located, as above 
staled, in all of them. 


Explanation op Plate XVIII. 

Fig. 1. Taxocrinus intennedius W. and Sp. 

11 Specimen showing the irregularly arranged interradial 
plates and pouches along the free rays ; 1^ posterior v^iew 
of the same specimen, showing the lateral proboscis, and 
the perisomic plates; l!: posterior side of another speci- 
men, showing the proboscis and folds in the perisome ; li 
the proboscis and ventral perisome in another s|)ecimen ; 
l!: ventral view of the same specimen as IL, showing the 
ventral perisome, the ambulacra, mouth and parted onils. 

Fig. 2. Vault of Dorycrmus mmissipjnoisus with an extremely 
large posterior oral. 

Fig. 3. Yault of Agar icocrinns Wortheni The orals very irregu- 
lar and separated by small acce^ory pieces. 

Fig. 4. Vault of Platycrinus diacoideits with more regularly ar- 
ranged oral plates. 

Fig. 5. Vault of Batocrtmis clypeatus, the orals pushed over to the 
anterior side by the subcentral anal tube. 

Fig. 6!: Haplocrinus viespilifonnis, posterior aspect, showing the po- 
sition of the anal oj^ning ; 61!: showing the 5 large anal 
plates, and the tongue-like projection of the posterior 
oral ; (>!: anoihei- specimen, showing the "knopf ' of Gold- 
fiiss at the upper end of the posterior oral, and the proxi- 
mal arm joints. 

Fig. 7. Vault of a new Hpecies of Talarocrimia, with a single large 
plate in the center. 

Fig. 8. Vault of Platycrinw^ Yandelliy the posterior oral pushed 
out of place by the proboscis. 

Fig. 9. Vault of Platycrinus americamis with more regular orals. 

Fig. 10. Vault of Eretmoerinus coronatm. The orals very much 
displaced by the proboscis. 

Fig. 11. Vault of RhodocriniLs Whlteiy apparently without oral 

Fig. 12. Vault of a new Rhodocrimis from New Mexico, like the 
preceding species apparently without orals. 


Fig. 13. Oral plates of Amjyhoracrimis quadrispinus. 

Fig. 14. Inner floor of the orals of a Plsocrimis from Indiana. 

Fig. 15. Vault of a young Platycriniis symmetricm W. and Sp., with 
almost uniform orals. 
(All specimens in the collection of Wachsmuth and Springer) 



The type of Crinoids that has been described under the name 
OroialocrimiSy is one of tlie most extraordinary yet brought to light 
from palaeozoic rocks. Its net-formed radial appendages, so widely 
different from those of any other known Echinoderm, and resem- 
bling rather the fronds of a Bryozoan tiian the arms of a Crinoid, 
have long made it a puzzle to naturalists, and the efforts of all 
writers up to the present time — ourselves included — have contribu- 
ted but little toward any satisfactory determination of its systematic 
relations. Though so highly differentiated in its structure, the 
genus is confined to the upper Silurian, so far as known. It has 
been found in the island of Gothland, Sweden, where it was first 
noticed by Hisinger in 1828, and afterwards described by him as a 
Cyathocrinus in 1837. It was also found at Dudley, England by 
Parkinson in 1808, who called it the Turban or Shropshire Encri- 
nite ; and it was redescribed by J. S. Miller in 1821, as Cyathocrimis 
rugosus, No trace of it has ever been discovered at any other locality. 
Good sj)ecimens are rare and difficult to obtain, so that the facili- 
ties for its study, outside of the countries where it occurs, have 
hitherto been practically nil. 

The arm structure was not understood until 1854, when Johannes 
Miiller figured and described under the name Anthocrinns Loveni 
the principal Swedish species, although Austin had established the 
genus Crotalocrinus in 1843, for the English form, without figure 
and with a very meagre description. Angelinas elaborate work on 
the Swedish Crinoids in 1878, contained numerous beautiful figures 
of apparently perfect specimens, and seemed to give the most ample 
illustrations of every part elucidating the structure of this curious 
fossil. Upon these descriptions and figures, and without any oppor- 
tunity to study even a single specimen, we prepared our description 
of the genus, and discussions relating to it, as they a[)peared in Part 
III of our Revision of thePaljeocrinoidea. 

Not long af^er the publication of this work, we found reason to 
believe that our interpretation of the structure and affinities of 
Crotalocjnnu8 was erroneous, and that much of what we had written 
on the subject was altogether worthless. During a visit of one of 
us to Europe last winter, he had an opportunity of examining the 


best known English specimens, in the British Museum and other 

collections, and hy considerable cflfbrt succeeded in obtaining some 

excellent material for more detailed study, both from England and 

Sweden. Besides this we have enjoyed the unexpected privilege of 

studying a number of the original specimens used by Angelin. For 

this we are indebted to Dr. Gustav Lindstrom, Curator of the 

Palffiontolftgical Department of the National Museum at Stockholm, 

who on being informed of our perplexity regarding this genus, upon 

his own motion, sent us these and other specimens, with liberty to 

study them at our leisure; and also furnished us most important 

information in the way of drawings and observations upon other 

specimens. It was an act of thoughtful kindness for which we find 

it difficult to adequately express our gratitude, and if this paper 

shall be found to be of any value to our fellow naturalists, it will be 

in a very large measure due to the facilities thus generously afforded 


In the Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, Part III, pp. 140-143, we 
referred CroUthcrinus and Enallocrinus to the Articulata, and at 
various places (pp. 18, 19, 56, 64, 65) based some of our arguments 
as to the character of this suborder ujwn the supposed structure of 
these two genera. On pages 18 and 19 of Part III, we stated that "In 
the Crotalocrinidae, which include Crofalocrlnus and Efiallocrinus, 
the whole ventral surface, in what appear to be the best preserved 
specimens, is composed of strong, convex plates, without definite 
arrangement. In these 8j)ecimens there is no central plate, nor 
proximals, nor traces of ambulacra (Icon. Crin. Suee., PI. VII, fig. 3a; 
PI. VIII, figs. 6, 7, and PI. XXV, ^<f;. 2.); there are, however, other 
figures of Angelin, apparently of a closely allied species (ibid. PL, 
XVII, ^g. 3a), in which the plates paving the ventral surface are much 
more delicate, and consist of a central plate, large proximals, and sev- 
eral rows of covering pieces, without the intervention of either anam- 
bulacral or interradial plates. It would be difficult, with the utmost 
stretch of our imagination, to recognize in the former figures cither 
proximals or central piece, w^hich, as admitted by Carpenter, are 
present in all these crinoids, and we think there can be little doubt 
that the two sets of figures represent different parts of the animal, 
the one the disk, the other the vault, and that the one covered the 
other. A similar opinion was evidently entertained by Zittel 
(Handb. d. Palaeont. I, p. 357), who stated that Crotalocriiitis pos- 
sessed five *grosse Oralplatten, bald unter der Decke, bald ausserlich 


aichtbar.' According to our JnterpretalioD, the calyx of the Crotalo- 
crinidae extends ventrally to the oral pole, and the ambulacra, 
central piece, and proximals are siibtegminal, covered by interradial 
plates, which extend out to the lower rows of covering plates and 
side pieces (Icon. Crin. Suec, PI. VIII, fig. 6, and PI. XXV, fig. 2). 
A similar condition probably prevailed in the Icbthyocrinidae, with 
which the Crotalocrinidae Rave close affinities." 

As our reference of these genera to the Articulata was based ex- 
clusively ujK)n the figures, especially those of Angelin, it will be well 
to examine them now in the light of the knowledge we have since 
obtained. The only figure of those quoted that gives the vault 
structure correctly, is fig. 3a, on Plate XVII. It shows very plainly 
four large proximals and a large plate toward the posterior aide, 
which, according to the terminology we then employed, we regarded 
as a central plate. The proximals are elongate- nail-shaped, and 
two of them touch the incurved ends of the upper faces of the first 
radials, while two others abut against a small interradial plate, and 
the larger posterior plate against small plates around the anus. 
Within the re-entering angles, between every two of the large plates, 
there are several series oi small pieces ramifying toward the arm 
openings and laterally connected. Dr. Lindstrom has sent us a 
very carefully prepared drawing of a specimen which he thinks is 
the original of the above mentioned figure. This is reproduced by 
us on PI, XX, fig. 4. The structure appears substantially the same. 


ment of the plates covering the visceral cavity is extremely irregular^ 
scarcely any two plates being alike. There is neither a central 
plate, nor anything that might be compared with the four large 
proximals, and no plates corresponding to, or which might be identi- 
fied as covering plates until the region of the arms is reached. In 
PI. VIII, fig. 6, the plates appear ornamented by small nodes up to- 
the second bifurcation of the ray, and a similar ornamentation cov- 
ers the anal structure, of which portions are visible. This ornamen- 
tation is so marked, and gives to this part of the figure such a total- 
ly different aspect from the higher branches of the rays, in which it 
is entirely absent, that we regarded it as a vault, from underneath 
which the covering plates emerged. The whole figure gives one the 
impression that it was made from a very perfect specimen, in which 
the minutest details of structure were exceptionally well preserved^ 
The other figure-7-on the same plate exhibits a similar vault, but 
with less elaboration of ornament and surface details. Covering 
plates are here visible only upon the parts which extend beyond the 
limits of the calyx, nor is there any trace of proximals or central 

Figure 3a, of PI. VII, which is said to represent ^* pars perisomatia 
ventralu " of Enallocrinus scriptus, shows a complete uninterrupted 
covering of the whole ventral surface of the calyx and portions of 
the rays. As in the other figures, the plates are wholly wanting in 
definite arrangement, no summit plates can be discovered, and the 
covering pieces, as before, begin at the periphery of the calyx. 

Another figure of the same species, apparently from a most beau- 
tifully perfect specimen, to judge from the drawing, is given on PI. 
XXV, fig. 2. It is stated in the explanation of the plate to be the 
same specimen as fig. 1, seen from above, and there is no reference to 
any imperfection or restoration. It appears to show all the plates 
of the ventral covering from the center of the summit to a long dis- 
tance out upon the arms. In this figure, as in the preceding, there is 
a complete absence of any regular plan of arrangement among the 
plates forming the ventral part of the calyx. It would be impossi- 
ble by any degree of imagination, to identify among them anything 
like summit plates or covering pieces, the latter commencing beyond 
the limits of the calyx. The plates are generally represented as no- 
dose, and those toward the middle as the largest, but beyond thia 
there is nothing in the figure to distinguish any of them. 


It was Upon the informatiou derived from these figures that we 
based our conetugiou — hasty as it may have been — that there were 
ttro integuments in these geiiera.oneabove the other; one representing 
the perisome containing the nmbulncra, the other a vault of irreg- 
ular pieces, and to some degree pliable. 

We could not see how two such totally differeut structures as those 
shown by PI. XVII, fig. 3a, and PI. VIII, fig. 6, could represent the 
same elements in one and the same genus, and we therefore adopted 
the idea of a double covering as the only solution we could find, al- 
though after considerable hesitation, feeling that such an arrauge- 
ment was quite anomalous, and without a parallel elsewhere. We 
were also influenced in no small degree by the fact that Prof Zittel, 
who had the opportunity to see the Swedish collections, iuterpreted 
the structures in a simitar way.' 

We could not, of course, imagine that such magnificent figures as 
are represented in Angelin's work' in the absence of any esplana- 
nation to that effect, could be wholly imaginary as to the most im- 
portant parts of the structures illustrated. The fact is, however, aa 
we now know, that all these important figures are to a large extent 
fictitious ; that the middle portions of them, where the summit plates 
and covering pieces of the vault should have been found, were not 
shown in the specimens at all, but were filled in by the artist accord- 
ing to his own notion of their probaWe structure. 

The only specimen in the National Museum at Stockholm which 


the middle is entirely broken away, leaving, however, partially in 
place a few plates around the anal opening. There is nothing in the 
specimen from which the form and arrangement of the summit plates 
could be even inferred. 

Of fig. 3a, PI. VII, Dr. Lindstrom writes : " The figure is not 
correct. The central plates are totally wanting, as in all specimens 
o£ Enallocrinits 1 have seen, and there are no vestiges left to infer 
its true nature. There can be no satisfactory drawing made of it.'' 

Among the specimens sent us from Stockholm was one labeled 
** VII 3, '* which we suppose to be one of the originals from which 
Angelinas PI. VII, fig. 3a, was in part deduced. We have figured 
it to illustrate our description of Enallocrinus (PL XX, figs. 6a,6), 
and •we learn that there are no other specimens of Enallocrinus 
which show any more of the summit than this. 

As to fig. 2, PI. XXV, Dr. Lindstrom writes: "I cannot con- 
ceive how such a drawing could have been executed out of it. The 
upper side is so badly preserved that no good figure can be taken.'' 

The original of the splendid figure 6, PI. VIII — Crotalocrinuspul- 
cher — which was from the Marklinean Museum at Upsala, cannot 
be found, and we are therefore unable to give any particulars about 
it. We have not the least doubt, however, that this figure, which is 
stated to be enlarged (how much, we do not know), is even a greater 
fiction than the others. In our own specimen of C. pulcher from 
Sweden (PI. XIX, figs, la, 6, c), we succeeded in exposing enough 
of the summit, while cleaning around the ventral tube, to show that 
it is composed of covering pieces, interradials and summit plates^ 
just like the Cambridge specimen (PL XIX, fig. 3). 

These four figures, thus shown to be to a large extent incorrect and 
misleading, were the ones on which we entirely relied in the statement 
above quoted from Part III of the Revision. That statement was 
critized by Dr. P. Herbert Carpenter in a paper " On the structure 
of Crotalocrinus," in which he asserts, that " in their [our] statement 
that * there is no central piece, nor proximals, nor traces of ambulacra ' 
in the figures of Crotalocrinua pulcher and Enallocrinus acriptus, they 
appear to me to be seriously in error." ^ 

It must be observed first, that in this portion of the paragraph 
quoted, we were speaking solely of the vault proper, and not of the 
rays and arms beyond the limits of the calyx. We distinctly 
refer to the existence of " covering plates and side pieces to which 

1 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1886, p. 339. 



the interradiak extend" (p. 19), and on page 143, in our diaguosis 
ot the Orolaloerinidae, we stated ; "Ambulacra! furrow deep, rami- 
^Dg with the arm branches, covered by alternating plates, aiid 
bordered by side pieces." The ambulacra and covering pieces over 
them, in the armg, which those figures all &how, were therefore clear- 
ly recognized by us always. 

It is worthy of note, however, that Carpenter, while pronouncing 
us " seriously in error " in saying that there is no central piece, nor 
proximals, nor traces of ambulacra in the figures of Aiigelin above 
referred to, does not undertake to poiut out the presence or location 
of either one of those elements upon the figures in question, although 
he expresses on p. 403 his belief "that the small covering plates of 
Crotaloerinus rugosus are the representatives in a smaller crinoid* 
'of thelargerigid plates' shown infigures6and7, * * * * while 
I shall also continue to believe, until the contrary is demonstrated, 
that the central plate and proximals are among the irregular pieces 
occupying the oral pole iu the originals of these two figures." Nei- 
ther does he inform us that the figures themselves are totally incor- 
rect and fanciful, although at that time fresh from an examination 
of the type specimens at Stockholm. 

Carpenter says (op dt. p. 399) that " while the summit plates are 
clear and well defined in some species and genera, there are other 
closely allied forms, in which these plates are almost or entii'ely un- 
distinguishable among the large number of plates to be found in the 


mostly Silurian, of different families, in which the vault is composed 
of an integument of innumerable minute pieces in which they are 
undistinguishable, and, in our opinion, do not exist. But we know 
of no other case of a vault composed of well defined and even 
ornamented plates, in which in the same genus there was a total 
absence of plan of arrangement in one species, and well defined 
summit plates and covering pieces in another. It seemed to us 
impossible that the summit plates and ambulacra, which were so 
distinct and conspicuous in the one specimen, should be entirely absent 
in another species of the same genus; and the only solution of the 
mystery which we could arrive at, was that in the latter they must 
be subtegminal, and that the covering of irregular pieces, shown in 
the four figures above quoted, was broken away in the specimen 
which exhibited the summit plates. * 

As we have said before, we had no opportunity to study the 
Crotalocrinidae from actual specimens when we prepared the 
Revision. It required but a single glance at the specimens from 
Dudley and Gothland coming under our observation lately, to show 
us that our. conception of the structure and relations of OrotalocrinvSy 
and its congener, was completely erroneous, and that our views 
respecting the subtegminal summit plates and double covering are 
without foundation in the facts. We now renounce them altogether, 
and all conclusions or arguments based upon the supposed existence 
of these structures are hereby withdrawn. The same inspection of 
specimens that disclosed to us our error, revealed with equal clear- 
ness the real nature of those plates, and left not the least necessity 
for inferring the existence of summit plates among the irregularly 
arranged vaults of Angelinas restorations. 

While it is of course unpleasant to be obliged thus to correct 
descriptions and repair arguments upon which we have laid consider- 
able stress, we regret it in this case the less, because the result at 
which we have arrived regarding the systematic position of Orotalo- 
crinua and Enallocrinus, confirms in a most satisfactory manner the 
validity of the great groups which we have recognized as subdividing 

♦ The references to these figures in Part III of the Revision were unfort- 
unately mixed up in the printing. They should be corrected as follows: on page 
64, 7th line from bottom, for '* PI. 6, " read " PL 8, " and for *• figs. 15 and 25, *' 
read /i^s. 2 and /j; " and in the 6th line from bottom, for " PI. 13, " read " PL 
8, '* On p. 65, 6th line from top, for " PI 6, " read " PL 8. " We also misunder- 
stood Angelin's fig. 15, PI. 25, and Joh. MuUers' fig. 10, PI. 8, and our references 
to them should therefore be ignored. 


the palaeozoic urinoids, and proves that, while the groups themselves 
are entirely correct, our error consisted simply in a wrong under- 
standing of the family, which led us to assign it to a group to which 
it does not belong. 

Let us now proceed to ascertain to what group Orotalocrinus 
should be assigned. 

We established the suborder Articulata to include the group 
defined by us under the family name Ichthyocrinidae with the addi- 
tion of Orotaloerinua and Enallocrinua, (Revision III, p. 140). It is 
clear from what we now know of their structure, that the two latter 
cannot remain among the Articulata as that suborder has been 
defined by us. * 

There is no doubt that Crotalocrinus possesses some characters 
Iwlonging to each of the three groups which we introduced in the 
third part of the Revision. It resembles the Articulata in the peculiar 
articulation of the arms. In the arrangement of some of its calyx 
plates it bears a very close relation to the Inaduuata, especially 
Cyathocrin-us, to which genus J. S. Miller referred it. Like that it 
has three rings of plates, the upper one including a single anal plate. 
A casual glance at the structures succeeding these would lead one to 
think them somewhat similar to the unconnected rays of the Inndu- 
nata, but a more carefiil study will show that they are constructed upon 
the same principle as the same parts in some groups of the Camarata. 
They are actually neither true radials nor free arm plates, but, as in 


crinidae. The mode of insertion of the higher radials upon the first 
primary is similar to that found in PterotocriniLs (PL XIX, fig, 6), 
and Marsupiocrmus (PI, XIX, fig. 7, and also Angelinas PI. XXII, 
figs. 1, and 28, PI. XXVII, fig. 4), and is upon the very same 
principle that prevails in the Platycrinidae generally. 

A further striking resemblance to the Platycrinidae is to be 
observed in the structure of the vault. We give for comparison fig- 
ures of three of the most perfect vaults of Crotalocrimis ever found. 
Fig. 4, on PI. XIX is from the Swedish specimen already described 
as the original of Angelin's PI. XVII, fig. 3a. Fig. 3 is from a 
specimen formerly in the Fletcher collection at Dudley, but now be- 
longing to Cambridge University. It differs somewhat from the 
others in the form of the four smaller orals, which are nearly equi- 
lateral instead of clavate, and in having a few more interradials. 
Fig. 2!L is from a Dudley specimen in our own collection. We can 
see enough of the vaultinour specimen of C. pulcher from* Gothland 
to show that it is built upon the same plan as in the three specimens 
of C rugosus illustrated, but it cannot be exposed suflSciently to afford 
a good figure without mutilating the specimen more than is justi- 

Taking all these facts together, the vault of Crotalocrimis seems 
to have been composed of well developed oral plates (four proximals 
and a central), large interradials, several anal plates, with anus in 
form of a subcentral openin^^ or a tube, and covering plates. The 
latter are solidly inserted in the vault between the other plates, so as 
to form a part of the wall, contrary to the Inadunata, in which the 
covering plates, and the ambulacra generally, rest upon the edges of 
the other vault plates. 

Taking now for comparison the vault of Marsnpiocrinns tennes- 
seensis (PI. XIX,fig. 7), we find the same arrangement of orals; the 
same solid covering pieces incorporated into, and forming part of the 
vault, originating at the re-entering angles of the five orals, and pass- 
ing outward to the arm bases ; we also find a system of interradial 
and anal plates substantially like that of the Cambridge specimen of 
Orotalocrinus (PI. XX, fig. 3). Indeed, if we had the vaults alone 
of these two specimens under examination, it would not be a very 
easy matter to point out why they migiit not belong to the same ge- 
neric type. Certainly no one can look at the two figures, and not be 
entirely convinced that they represent the same plan of summit 
structure. And if we then compare the parts above the first radials 


in the two forms, there cannot be the slightest doubt that they be- 
long to the same group, and that that group is the Camarata. It 
might indeed be fairly said that the calyx of Crotalocriniu, in all 
that determines its subordinal rank, is nothing more than a dicrclic 
3far»upiocrimu. The mode of union of the plates in the dunal oup 
is also somewhat similar in the two genera. There are in both of 
them along the suture lines small conical pits, which ))enelnite a 
short distance inward but do not pass through the t«at (PI. XIX. fig. 
5); the inner half of the apposed faces is peculiarly striated, indicat- 
ing a sort of syzygial union. On the other hand, the vast multipli- 
cation of arms, with their lateral connection into a net-work, con- 
stitutes a wide differentiation of this tyjie from nny other grrmp of 
the Camamta, and is without a parallel among crinoids generally. 
But this is a character which docs not affect the fumlamental ]ilaa 
of structure, which unites it unquestionably with the Camarata. 

Another very reraarkalile character of this family is the perfiira- 
tion of the higher mdinla and arm joints by a dorsal or axial canal, 
which in the higher radials is very large, ramifying to the arnv. and 
in CVofd/ocri'ritM extends t4> their estrcmities. The canals of each 
ray unite into one on the inner surface of the first radials, ami ]ias0 
downwani toward the base. This perfi>ration, and the fact that the 
arm joints arc united also by inu^clc:< instcn<l of ligiinients only, di^ 
titiguishes the family sharply from all other Camarata. It was this 
mainly that led us to ]>lacc them among the .Vrticulnta not knowing 
the solid structure of the vault. The arms in this gn>np must 
have piisscwicd a high <lcjrrec of flexibility. Ix'ing found ixmietimes 
closely fcildc<l tiipethcr lengthwise, often Npread out lioritontally — 
even dmpping oviT llic calyx — and s<mietimes compactly inndW 
for a considerable diitlaiiw from the ends, art shomi in our figure y I'i. 
XIX. fig. 1-0. 


gliedert, nur au der Basis scheint sich zuweilen ein Stiickchen 
abzusetzen. Die Hohe der Piunulae gleicht am breiteren Theil der 
Hand der Dicke der Glieder." 

In the specimens which we have examined, the small alternating 
plates which cover the ventral furrow are very plainly seen, but we 
find no trace of the so-called "pinnules or saumplattchen," which 
were figured and described by Miiller and Angelin. It is evident 
that the alternating imier plates, covering the ventral furrow, are 
the ''saumplattchen'^ or covering pieces, and not the outer ones along 
the lateral margins of the furrow, which, if they exist at all, proba- 
bly are ad-ambulacral plates ; they cannot be pinnules in the ordi- 
nary sense, for there are, according to Miiller, 3 to 4 to each arm- 
joint. In one of our specimens (PI, XIX, figs, la, 6), high up along 
the arms, the covering plates are perfectly seen in place, and there 
appear at their sides in some places, along the margin of the furrows, 
what seem like serrated edges, several to a joint, and it may be that 
Miiller and Angelin took these edges, w^hich rise somewhat above 
the level of the covering plates, for pinnules. If these are the struct- 
ures figured by Miiller and Angelin (Ban. d. Echinod. PI. VIII, figs. 
7 and 8 ; and Icon. Crin. Suec, PI. XXV, figs. 19, 19a), then the 
projecting parts are mostly broken away in our specimens, and in all 
others we have seen. 

The arms of the species named by Miiller Anthocrinus Loveni — 
but which Angelin considered to be a synonym of Crotalocrinus 
pulcher — were described by him as resembling the five leaves of a 
flower, which when spread out would not connect, but when closed 
were folded up, and overlapped each other. It is possible that this 
is the case in that species, and in fact his cross-section ( Op, dL PL 
VIII, fig. 4) clearly indicates it. But we have had before us three 
specimens from Sweden and one from Ehgland, considered to be 
C, rugostiSf all having the arms completely spread, in some cases 
bending downward, and in these the arms are certainly in lateral 
contact, not only within the rays, but continuously all around. Also 
the cross-section of the arms of this si)ecies, given in Murchison's 
Siluria (3rd Ed. p. 247, fig. 4a), shows the continuous connection of 
the arms, and how they fold in upon themselves when closed. The 
specimen figured in PI. XX, fig. 4, which, in our opinion, is not C. 
nigosus but an undescribed species, represents a form in which the 
rays may have been disconnected as in C. pulcher. It difiers widely 
from both species in the first radials, which are excavated and have 


large, limb-like projections, deeply incurved between the bases of the 
rays. This form which occurs also at Dudley, associated with G 
rugo»u8, is usually labeled as such in collections. 

The reticulate arm structure, which distinguishes Orotalocrinua 
from all other crinoids, is its most interesting character. The arms 
are deeper (from the dorsal to the ventral side) than they are wide, 
they extend to a great length, and bifurcate just often enough, and 
at such intervals in (7. rugosm, to fill up the spaces necessary to form 
a complete circle with the arms in lateral contact out to the periph- 
ery, and the number of branches in the adult specimen, when perfect 
must have been enormous. In our specimen of C. rugosxu (PI. XIX, 
fig. 1), at the height of the fifteenth joint, there are forty rami to 
each ray, and this is not more than one third their full length, so 
that the number of ultimate divisions would amount in this speci- 
men to at least five or six hundred. The joints at the same height 
are of the same length, and the sutures arc in the same line all 
around, so that they form regular concentric circles. Each joint has 
two lateral projections given off from the middle part of each side, 
which meet with those of adjacent branches, forming points of union 
by which the arms are connected throughout, but leaving open 
spaces or meshes which produce the reticulate appearance. The arms 
of Enallocrinus resemble those of Crotalocrlnus in their mode i«f bi- 
furcation and extraordinary length, but are not connected laterally 
except for a few of the lower joints. They have, however, frequent- 
ly, if not always, lateral projections along the joints on each side, and 
hence possess the cross-shaped arm joints of Crotalocrimis (PI. XIX, 
^jg (jc^). The sutures between the joints are also in the same line, 
and do not alternate as we formerly sup])03ed. 

The mode of insertion of the higher radials upon the first radial 
is very |)eculiar, and has not hitherto been understood. We might 
have still remained in ignorance about it, had it not been for the 
fortunate discovery among our Dudley specimens of an isolated first 
radial with the succeeding radials attached, so that we could see 
them from all sides (PL XX, fig. 4). By the aid of this, and a 
very interesting, much weathered specimen, loaned us by Dr. 
Lindstrom, we are enabled to describe and illustrate the position of 
these parts quite satisfactorily. The plates from the second radial 
up are of considerable size, but they are not always visible on the 
dorsal side. In C. pulcher they are plain enough (PI. XX, fig. 1), 
but in C. rugo8U8 they often appear as mere points or thin edges 


(PI. XX, rig. 21). The other ends emerge upon the ventral side, 
where they present a considerable surface, containing a large ambu- 
lacral groove. In order to attain this position, the plates, which are 
wedge-shaped, bend inward and upward until their opposite ends 
stand nearly at right angles to each other, and the arms at their 
origin pass out in a horizontal position. This can be seen in fig. 21 
PI. XIX, which represents a vertical section, giving a side view of 
the same succession of plates as is shown dorsally by fig. 21, and 
ventrally by fig. 21 on the same plate. The successive pieces are 
numbered in each figure to correspond, and by comparing them, 
and remembering that they present three different views of the same 
elements, we think there will be no difficulty in understanding them. 
We cannot see the least evidence of mobility of these plates until 
they become free from the first radial, and thus attain the rank of 
arm plates. Whenever the arms are found folded up, the bending 
from a horizontfil to a vertical position takes place in the lower 
arm plates, and not in the higher radials. The lanceolate areas, 
which are such a conspicuous feature of the ventral surface, and 
extend from the second axillary to the fifth or sixth bifurcations, 
are formed by a great thickening along the outer edges of the 
marginal plates of two adjacent rays, and therefore consist of two 
rows of arm plates, respectively radials, decreasing in width in their 
upward arrangement. 

The anus is excentric, and in C. pnlcher takes the form of a large 
tube, while in all authentic specimens of C. rugosus it seems to be a 
simple opening. The form and position of the tube have been 
wrongly described by us. Angelin's beautiful looking figure, pur- 
porting to show it to its full length (Icon. Crin. Suec, PI. XVII, 
fig. 1), originating at the edge of the calyx, and lying outside the 
arms, proves to be an ideal figure, based upon the erroneous inter- 
pretation of some fragmentary pieces. Our specimen (PI. XX, fig. 
IL) shows the base of the tube very well, but not it^ full length. To 
judge from the fragments, shown by Angelinas PI. XXV, figs. 8 — 
13, it must have been of considerable length in some specimens. It 
seems to have been somewhat more highly organized than the anal 
tube of the Camarata generally, and to approach the ventral sac of 
the Fistulata. The actual length has not been observed, but from 
the manner in which the large cavity within tapers in different speci- 
mens, we have no doubt that the opening is at the upper end, and 


represents a true anal tube, whatever other function it mar bare 
posaessed. Nothing is known of the ana! opening of EnaUocrintu. 

We give herewith new definitions of the Crolalocrinidae and their 
two genera Crotaloerimu and Enallocriniu, to take tho plac« of 
those given by us in the Revision, Part III, p. 143, and pp. 147 — 
152, and we request all who may be using the Revision to eub«tttute 
them at once. 

We now direct attention to another point of considerable interest 
which has been developwl by this investigation. A very perplex- 
ing figure was given by Angelin (PI. XVII. fig. 2b), and a itome- 
what similar one by Murehison (Siluria, 3rd Ed,, p. 247, fig. i>), 
which show certain extensions apparently from the inner rim of the 
first radials, and which superficially re^nihle the so-called "consoli- 
dating apparatus" of Ciipresioeriniu. A closer examiaatioa of 
Angelin'a figure shows these extensions to be composed of small 
plates ; both figures, however, are misleading, for our epecimens 
ahow that the plates forming those extensions do not rest againat 
the inner edges of the first radials as represcnte<l, but up>n their 
upper faces, as correctly shown in Angclin's PI. XVII, fig. 2a. 
They are nothing but the exposed ventral surfaces of the second 
primary and succtcdiug radials, the elevations being the projecting 
margins along tlie unibiilacral grooves. Neither do they extend m> 
far inward as would sK-ni from AnguUn's figure, they project in- 
ward onlv for a short distance, and form underneath a surface of at- 
tachment for certain organs hereafter descrilwd. 

MiiliiT ilwcrilH-.! and figurcl ttirrettly {Op. rit. p. 18(», PI. VIII, 
fig. -)). llif inward curvatUR- of the plates, hut we cannot agree with 
him in hi* staleinciit ihiit liy niciins of this curvature a roofing i* 
foriniii iiviT iIr' |HTipiicry of the calyx. This is not confirmed by 
the >|H('inipn:', in which llie calyx i* covfrt-d liy Mimniit plat<.f . in- 


Carpenter in his paper on Crotalocrinus^ explains that **the calyx is 
broken across near the level of the top of the basals, so that the inter- 
nal faces of the radials and the following plates are exposed to view, 
with the remarkable striations upon them, which were regarded by 
Angelin as corresponding to the consolidating apparatus of Oupress- 
ocrinusj^ and he proceeds : "It is possible that, like this structure, 
they may represent an uneven surface for the attachment of muscles 
and ligaments, but whatever else they may be, the striae are certain- 
ly not hydrospire slits, as supposed by Wachsmuth and Springer in 
1879 * * * 5K. But in any case they will no longer be able to re- 
fer to this family as Palaeocrinoids which 'probably have hydro- 
spires within the calyx,' and to use this supposed fact as an illustra- 
tion of their theory that Blastoids, Cystids and Crinoids are so close- 
ly linked together that they are not entitled to rank as Classes of 
Echinoderms equivalent to the Urchins and Starfishes." 

We have been able to study the organs in question in our speci- 
men from Gothland (PL XIX, fig. 1), and in two of those used by 
Angelin, loaned to us from the National Museum of Stockholm, in 
all of which they are very well shown. They are totally different 
structures from the so-called consolidating apparatus of Cupresao- 
crinus, which we regard as muscle plates for the attachment of 
muscles and ligaments to move its huge arms. The muscle plates 
of Cupressocrinua are appendages of the first radials, and form part 
of the upper surfiice of the vault, similar to the muscle plates of 
Sipnbathocrinus, in which we know from direct observation that they 
constitute parts of the vault, only the central space being closed by 
additional plates. In both genera those plates are apposed by cor- 
responding faces upon the first brachials, and there is no roof or 
covering of any kind above them, tliey being necessarily external if 
they served for places of muscular attachment to move the arms. 
The case is totally different in Crotalocrlnus in which the parts in 
question are roofed over by very solid covering plates, leaving little 
more than the faces forming the lanceolate areas exposed. Angelin 
applies the name '^consolidating apparatus" not only to the over- 
hanging margins of the radials, but also to the lamellae under- 
neath, to which Carpenter refers as "remarkable striations," possi- 
bly for "the attachment of muscles and ligaments." These so-call- 
ed striations consist of parallel lamellose walls or partitions, located 
in regular sets within chambers or recesses, which underlie partly 

1 Op. cit. p. 406. 


the overhanging margins of the higher radials constituting the 
lanceolate areas, partly the ontermoat interradial, and are limited on 
either aide by the inward extensions of the second and succeeding 
radials. There are two seta of these lamellae to each interradius, 
those of adjacent rays meeting laterally and entering the same 
chamber where they are closely connected; while those of the same 
ray stand at an angle from each other, and are apparently disconnect- 
ed except by a mere point. Each set is composed of five to seven 
folded lamellie, with continuous walls forming loops at each end. 
They stand upright, and seem to be attached at their lower ends to 
the inner surface of the first radials, and those in the same ray come 
together by their upper ends at a small angle under the small trian- 
gular second radial, where it projects farthest inward. The upper 
ends are further attached along the inner walls of the higher radials 
and the outer interradials, underneath which the two adjacent sets 
meet by parallel plates and form a close connection. The arrange- 
ment at the anal side is not clearly shown in any of the specimens. 
In Enalloerinus we have not been able to discover anything of the 
lamellse, but we had for examination but a solitary specimen show- 
ing the interior of the calyx. There are seen, however, the same 
chambered spaces in which they might rest, and we have little doubt 
they existed in that genus also. Their position and structure in 
Crotaloerbuis nigoaug arc shown in our figures IL and IL on Plate 


them. There is nothing else like them in any known crinoid. If 
they are hydrospires, then they certainly do afford a strong illustra. 
tion of the close alliance between Blastoids, Cystids and Crinoids. If 
they are not hydrospires, we should like to know what they are. 

Enallocrinus is evidently very closely allied to Crotalocrinua, The 
genus occurs at Dudley, England, whence we obtained specimens 
showing the arms better than the Swedish ones, but nevertheless our 
material for the study of this type was by no means so satisfactory 
as that of Crotalocrinus, The English specimens are all more or 
less crushed, and do not throw much light on the structure of the 

Angelinas figures purporting to show the vault are imaginary, as 
we have before shown. The only specimen in the Stockholm Muse- 
um showing any part of the ventral covering has been sent to us for 
examination, and we give two views of it (PI. XX, figs 5 til). It 
is somewhat abnormal, two of the rays being grown together in 
such a way as to modify the arrangement of some of the plates. It 
is one of the specimens from which it is supposed Angelinas figure 
3a, PI. VII was constructed. The insertion of the higher radials 
upon the first radials is upon the same plan as in Crotalocrinus , es- 
pecially the species shown by Angelinas PI. XVII, fig. 3a, and our 
PI. XX, fig. 4, and from this, and what little we can see of the ventral 
covering in the specimen above alluded to, we conclude that the 
vault must have been constructed substantially like that of Orotalo- 


We figure a flattened specimen from Dudley (PI. XX, fig. 61), 
which shows the arrangement and bifurcations of the arms, but not 
by any means to their full length. We have another set of arms 
which seem to have their filiform extremities nearly complete, and 
from this we should infer that the specimen we have figured shows 
but little over half the length of the arms. Figs. 61 and 61 illus- 
trate the projections from the sides of the joints, in the same speci- 
men. We consider them important characters, perhaps representing 
the projections on the arms of Crotalocrinus , and indicating a tend- 
ency toward the reticulate arm structure, which is the only well 
marked distinction between the two genera. 

The specimen represented by Angelinas PI. XV, figs. 1, la, and 2, 
as Enallocrinus assulosus, and which Dr. Lindstrom assures us is 
correctly figured, represents in the reduced lateral connection of the 
arm bases, and the presence of small interradials on the dorsal side. 


a considerable departure frani the typical form of the genua. It i> 
incousUteot with the generic definition of Angelin, who described it 
as having "inierradialia nulla." It is a variation in the directicm 
of the English form of Margupiocrinut — M. eoelattu — (PI. XX, fig. 
7), which differs in its dorsal interradiaU from M. Unneueennt in al- 
most the same way. 

Crolaheriniu and Enalloerinru form a good family, which b con- 
nected through ifarstipiocriniu ' with the other Camarata. 
Suborder CAMARATA. 

Base dicjcHc, symmetry bilateral. Calyx throughout composed 
of rigid plates. Dorsal cup constructed almost exclusively of under- 
ba:uils, basals, the first radials, and a small anal plate. Higher 
radials up to the third or fourth order irregularly wedge-shaped, 
their sharp ends direct«i outwards or sometimes hidden from view, 
their larger ends, which curve upwards, grooved for the ambulacra. 
The plates rest partly upon the first radials, partly against the raiUab 
of the preceding order, being with the former, and with one anntber. 
and laterally (vith those of adjoining rays, firmly united by suture. 
Arms capable of great mobility ; uuiserial ; long; dividing into very 
numerous branches, which are free, or connected laterally by tis- 
sues so as to form a net-work around the calyx, cither continuous, or 
limited to the rays aud forming five reticulate leaf-like arms. The 
arm branches are perforated by large nxial canals, which penetrate 
also the higher radials. 

Ventral surface of calyx flat, composed of five unequal orals — the 
posterior one the larger — five ratlial dome plates, one or more inter- 
radials, and several .scries of covering pieces which take the rigid 
form of vault plates. 

Column large, round ; central cavity extremely large. 


1854. Salter, apud Murchison, Siluria, (Ed. 2), p. 219 ; (Ed. 3), p. 
247, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

1855. McCoy, Brit. Pal. Foss., p. 54. 
1873. Salter, Cat. Mus. Cambr., p. 1 23. 

1878. Angeliii, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 26, PI. 7, PI. 8, PI. 17, PI. 25. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Palseont., I., p. 356, fig. 244. 
1882. De Loriol, Pal. de France, tome 11, Crin., p. 51. 

1886. Wachsmuth and Springer, Kev. Palaiocr., Pt. III., p. 165. 
1886. P. H. Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, for November, 

p. 397. 
Syn. CyathocrinuSj 1821, J. S. Miller, Nat. Hist. Crin., p. 89, with 

plate; Anthocrinus, 1853, Joh. Miiller, Abh. Akad. Berlin, 

pp. 188-192, PI. 8 ; 
1855. Roemer, Letlisea. Geogn. (Ausg. Ill), p. 255. 
1855. Quenstedt, Handb. d. Petref., IV, p. 943, PI. 75. 
1857. Pictet, Traits, de Paleont., IV, p. 312, PI. 100. 
1860. Bronn, Klassen. d. Thierreichs., (Actinozoa), PI. 27. 
1862. Dujardin and Hup^, Hist. Nat. Zooph. Echinod., p. 117. 

Generic diagnosis. 

When the arms are closed the crinoid resembles an elongate bud 
with folded leaves ; when these are spread, it is wheel shaped, with 
five lanceolate areas between the bases of the rays. Calyx sub- 
globose, flattened above. 

Underbasals 5, large, pentangular, of uniform size. Basals 5, very 
large, extending three fourths the height of the calyx, all hexagonal 
except the posterior one, which is higher and has the upper angle 
truncated for the reception of a comparatively small, quadrangular 
anal plate, which rests between the first radials. 

First radials much wider than high, their distal faces thickened, 
either concave or straight, and occupied by small, shallow depres- 
sions for the reception of the second and higher radials, which to the 
third or fourth order rest partly upon this plate. The second radial 
occupies a very small space at the middle of the first, where it ap- 
pears as a small, trigonal bifurcating plate, sometimes scarcely visible 
dorsally. From its dorsal or outer side to its ventral side, the plate 
is very long and slender, bent upwards almost to a right angle, so as 
to bring the face opposite to that exposed dorsally into a horizontal 
position, and on a level with the vault. The secondary radials rest 
against the sloping faces of the second primary, and upon the first ; 
they are bifurcating plates, and as such support immediately the ter- 


tiarr radinb, which in C. rti^onu, sometimes together with tbe first 
plate uf the fourth order, rest partly upon the first radial. All of 
these plates, in various ways, are firmly attached to the first rsdial, 
and united suturallj with one another, and all of them, by curving 
upwards and inwards, extend from the dorsal to the ventral surface 
of the cnly.x, forming as such a sort of transition between true nidi- 
als and arm plates, in a similar manner as the higher radiald of ihe 
Platycrinidae, which they resemhie in their arrangement. The plates 
are wedge-form, thinning out toward the dorsal cup, where they are 
reen as mere points or lines, or one or more of them are invisible al- 
together. Their larger up[)er hices, which are exposed ventrally, are 
deeply grooved for tbe reception of the ambulacra, and, when the 
covering plates are in position arc only i)artly exposed. The pUtes 
above the fourth order are not in contact with the firet radials. and 
may Itc regarded iLs true arni-platcs. which ther referable In form 
and In ]H>int of mobility. 

Tbe arms arc long and branch frpjucutly ; they are connectetl lat- 
erally hy jtoints of attachment from near tbe middle of each joint, 
with ojK'n spares between them, forming together a sort of network 
around the calyx with innumerable elongate meshes. In C rufftmu 
the network is continuous around the calyx, but in C. jmleher the 
rays are se|mratc<l. and tbrm five broad reticulate leaves, which, when 
clo^^l over the calyx, overlap each oilier, contrary to the case of C. 
nigoim in which the undivided network is closely plicated and fold- 
ed. The lower |>lates of the rays, to the third or fourth order, are 
immovably iimnecteil among each other and with the first railials : 
hut higher up in the rays, where the plates arc no longer in contort 
with the first radial.s, an articulation hy strong muscles and fu^xte 
takcf the place of suture. The arm joints, owing to their lateral pro- 
jections, have the form of a cni.''s with short arms; they are long flat 
1 the donrnl <urfa<Mt, lul<irally compresHed, vrith stntight aJiica, and 

:—• ■ 

^iTir.ii wii^iijixi I iiti %i>i I Mil » 


. % .' •.• \\ '. *.. ,'.. f !:..',■■. ? ! f . •.!% * •• • .' • (ill !• •:ktiiT 

I • 


» ' ■ . ' ! • i • 1 : .' . 1 ^ » fi . 

.• >» ' 

1 ■ 

1 . 

• \ ■ 

• ■ • 

■ • • • ■ . • » 1 . . * - ■ • ar 

. • • • , • . • r ■ ■- ! •.•■■■ . • ■ r 

■ . ■. I • • f .' A'. •• % r ,; 

• ■ 

I ■ 

•■ \» T\ I • J .1". 

» '. 


• * • • ■ m i*\i!r-: ! I. i • !'-^ •■•. 

u ■ 

I. - 

• » . 

1 -l 

... . • 

. '•• 'f A I A. ■•",■'■ .t I ■ ■ '.• \ 

•• I ■ ; * ■ • » i* . ■.•••■ •..•.-'■ 1 • 

■ ■ ■ .'■ • ' . • ■ • ,• . : , i' - I 

.•* ■ • , ] ^ . » ' \ . '_ •■ -. ■• 

t . ■ • I ! • ' k 

\ \ ■ . ' . \ i X ■ •• • 

i \ \ ... 

^ 1 : 

1 *** % « II I. 11 ^ II %< Iji ••• I IIII IM I fill i .1^7 

/ •:. ill .. J r.fclft.'. I J. ..r.h,: JI4 l-^^i.c^'Li* 
• .: ' ■ " ■ -I .*.• r.... ,, , iia!. j». .| I'.tfi !*. :• t\ . IV. J. 

•i ' .• 4' i***' u i:. I— i:«i r*i....f !••. III. j 

! * . • * , 1 f . .. . ■ . \ ■ ^ . I ■ • ■ .^* • i r ■. ■• .« . J ".Vi 

I- MI . " 
« •.! ..••'..-... I' III !,• • KiSVrn-t \*% 

\ ■ . ' r \ \ 1 1 ' . • . fc ' ♦ s - .#».j 

1 •• - ■ fc- •• I i *«« -l* r %; I I » l.. 1 In.' 

nALLOCliirt : i^* 

I . ^ I'' .•• 1 l'»: J 4'. i ir** II. p llj 

i - . % • %■ . 1 X| .f r. * fi -it.n* .p*l |<| |. .'IT 
I" -.: I ' . . I I'l; IV : ..•'• 
I> t' ; ^r : II .'• ||;«t i.ii*. A- ] :. r.. f.m | 111 
\ . . I - f • f • •• .' \ ' * 
' • / ■•. lU- i .1 iVii I ! ■*. 

U * ' .r- .'.K !•. ! - f ■ .-. r i:. 1 |M».-r I't II|.|. 1'-. 
*» I; ...■•# II •?..•*? :*»r". 

V " • "I". » !»•••'. ,••! 1 ; *••. |>%lii«^^««%j t^utrk*tr«lt in |«ft 

I •»'. • 1 : 1 • • V •. ' i r i •!.».!»*•■.:• :»i .» • • 'j* -.••1 hi a tlwi' 

'1 *% 1? ■ : ■ • : * « ■■ •• ^«l : f. r:.»f^ ar*<l ••• r !■ » Ki^Krr 

• fc '.•■••. •••.'.■.* • •.Iff !f.!, a:« •v. • • -I f rtn^Afv a2j«1 

• , ' ■ • • • I i" • .•-•••■••: %•. \ ■ • i» r«t! &• ;r. ' » rf -i." •'^«*«%«. r\ir» ifij; 

«.?:»■ t »; ;■ »r r ^* ' • ' . ^ . r *. * t^ • ■(• I ti »•;;!.. 'ar «•« iSa« • 
■ •■ « : ••• :.■' '...I •> r . T» . • ♦^t r ^! *■-• -J- ati*! iKr Kfru* >»- 
.• •-.- 11* .1 '-!■.• V. ?-.r \ :?^ f "jMh ^if jn aU- I. 
•s. ; • 1 1 1 • • • • • v*. . • 1 • 1 ;. » . ■ » * » .\ ■ » ! ■ ^ 1 ■ h {iawr « •! « l» 

• »• . • 1 • . » ' . ■ • : I 1 al« »-. 1 ]iaMr« .a!., l»« 

»• • • i -•• . • : ■ i:. : •. •. r •• I ...'.• r ,••.!. 

\* • - • :» '. \ • • .• ■■ !.• a*. -.•*:'.• r.,'r;.* ri 

' • -w • ■ • . ' 1 ■ • • .\ • • • * *••*■-■*• f *•■•..* . 

\ ••• • .-. ; . . • - ,«i'.'' ■ . *::. r .%:r tK* arr..* 

* .1 • • . • • \: .r • J ' 'i t \' -.•• •>, f'.rf'. 

• • 

'r^ V.rn •a^lt Iff / •>r /line — *ni>-3 an hair nrututuiac ub 

V, nt t^n w't^n ' *-WMl 'Vti'ii 'I^ -Mir. i iMrSnaii iiiD*acaa>» 
■ttioh > ft/.-> f/.nvt-,' nar'.i.vf '•ixnrt :ii« fiKU -tmif iif-:3t* xm 

»\tJ-fi,*ft>/ '^i^f ft*'ln< U»* fcrm of vault pLuo. trfueli paae -jc: 
'■>.|iifhii rriirfl. vKtf Urj*. oiih tbfiTt jfitnu&a-l this wall<: canai 
tif'lii'jir'il I'oiili/in, 'ir.. V.\i\mx ■■filurun mf ;r;wed«i and England. 

IK'/M Afi.i//'>/'rfniu ru«ui^>i>u Antfclin, IcriD. Crin. Suec^ p. 26, PI. 

XV, IV' I t l|i|K:rSiliirinn.Outhland,!**eden. 
Invn /; •i;i/,hi* llMinif'-r ( Cijiilh'icriniU»T >, Antectca IV,p."217; 

I'l V, »((. "; (''■ VII. flu- I.— 1«U. (.ipt"<wrint(ffl (?) •cri> 

hn). Aiili'ikii V. p, rj''t, I-^M|tiiiMe il'un tableau des Pttret'. 

<|i. Ill »iif.,l.., ]., j;i. I k:i7. I^-th. Stiw., p. 89. 1'l. XXV, ties. 

I mill ■-' llOrl.iKiiy, IMIO (.V.V/ertrriiitM *(Tfp(u<), Hi-t. 

N.II lilii.. |>. HI. I'l. XVI, fit!. 211.— Itioil. Prodr. d. Pal.. I. 

|. til XiiHilih, 1«7«. Iciiii. Criii. Sutv.. p. -Jii, PI. VII, fii.-*. 

I ;iH. PI, iX. IW-. IH »mi lit; PI. XXV. figs. 1—7; PI. 

WVIl.tlK" 17 2t>H. 

N* II h'"<iU—iii,u^ j'tintiiituf Ilistiiirvr. Leth- Saec, [>, '•V. — 

»/.,■■ M..IUIM ^....i,(.ifM» l>Orluj:iiy. HU(. Xm. Crtii_ [>. '.H. 

PI W I Ik .10. A,''t<t^7.>.TiiiHj ^uiirtiitM Salter, umi 

Vt Mt XIX 

• • *■ 

■^Hi^J*;, •.' m:'.^ '.>.• -.Jifirf f! ••f .if Oi«» r«lil. l\hr 
! w «■ !.••■ ar« %• a? I !*.r I'a? r« f< Kc«| arni* «:',): 1 ^' :r •|(t{> 
\ I r.' - », /r- • \ I • .11.' I ill |..a. « • !!<# .f .» ■%• r: ri^» |>.f • «-• th# 
••••• • ■ ' . »rr' • ■ ■ .,••1 ';|- •- .%• V- t t {• •• V • :f 1 f •*! ^Anv. 

n»- . k.'.'/ ; .■•• .IT :.'.■ . •» r rigjii! .'lAt*.! i« rt.« r nr- 

I ,• M*.; ^ 1. \ .. « ! » I* '"• »•• • ! tJ»'' •Jim*' •Jwriliirfi. ».*. ■ifiif 

•I* '. i: < .'ii U :i«-ath !Kr > i r ft ari^'iii|f Riar-|fint nf lt»f Ki^ti* 
• f ra-l .!• 

I' / 1 \"i •.••■%. * :• « fa {• rtfti f \).r •rtn* rciUrv*^i 

» f f»il' I • :• '» f !*'■•■ r »•»••# »Ti » if # ,** thr «l'>r^al irl' . ^ 
'.:.* 1!, ." Hi. •. ini\mf trUr •.. \\^ •mn*r ^Am'.r^ in all 

• < 

r * r-* : . .1 ,• 

« » - * • 

! ^Sr Ai. '.'{Art r^l.alt, i aih) V- ftar 

I , \ . r • • \! :\'- • • <:•• •an ••:■•••■• ff«n • •fwifnrn in tKr 

r , ■ .', ■ • • • r : . . :. AT J • '. \' * • :- % \ 
I . 4 V : • *' : i f ''r ; f r A ! I. {;.'-• «Ar*4r t|«* «*• «itlt 

I . . : \\ :k ; ■:. ^: *: -I "•; f i..-^ t 

P » . w 

> , ' » - . , . . \ .'• \ •• f 1 •••■-«:■.• !. 


liflrr radiali, which in C. ni^oew. Kimerime^ t'>2«iher with the &r¥t 
plate of the Iburth order, rt^t panlv upon ibe £r9 ndial All of 
these p!aie^, in rariouj ways, are firmly aitacbcd to the firri radial, 
and ttoited suturallr with one another, and ail of them, bv curving 
upwards and iuwaixU, extend from [he dorsal lo the ventral surface 
of the calvi, formiog as fucb a sort of iransiiion between true radi- 
al? and arm plat^, in a similar manner as the higher radiaU wf the 
Platrcrinidae, which they r^emble in iheir arran^ment. The plates 
are wedge-form, thinning out toward the dorsal cup. where tbev are 
eeea as mere points or lines, or one or more of them are invisible al- 
together. Their larger upper faces, which are espo^ed veutrallv, are 
deeply grooved for the reception of the ambulacra, and, when the 
covering plates are in position are only partlv exposed. The plates 
above the fourth order are not in contact with the Grst radiaU, and 
mav be regarded as true arm-platen, which thev resemble in form 
and in point of mobility. 

The arms are long and branch frequently ; ihey are connected lat- 
erally by points of attachment from near the middle of each joint, 
with open spaces between them, forming together a son of network 
around the calyx with innumerable elongate meshes. In C. rugotut 
the uetwork h continuous around the calyx, but in C pvleher the 
rajs are separated, and form five broad reticulate leaves, which, when 
closed over the calyx, overlap each other, contrary to the case of C 
rugotiu in which the undivided network is closely plicated and fold- 


and all converge into one in the second radials, thence passing down- 
ward along the inner surface of the first radials toward the basals. 
The bifurcations near the calyx are unequal, the sloping faces of the 
axillaries next the outer margins of the rays being considerably 
wider than the inner ones, and the plates which they support are as 
large in proportion. This continues on to about the sixth axillary, 
above which the bifurcations gradually become regular, and the 
outer plates attain the same width as the inner ones. By this peculiar 
arrangement there appear, when the arms are spread, along the outer 
plates of adjacent rays, five well marked lanceolate areas, to the top 
of which the rays remain in lateral contact. The bifurcations along 
the arms are extremely numerous, and take place at various inter- 
vals, sufficient to fill up the full segments of the circle when the arms 
are extended ; they taper but slightly, are very long, and become 
thread-like at the ends. 

The higher radials from the first primary up project inwards, beyond 
the periphery of the calyx ; the second projects the farthest, and the 
plates of the second order slope away from it, as also those of the 
third. The latter form the proximal ends of the lanceolate areas 
whose overhanging margins, together with the outermost interradial, 
form a roof, under which are located five large recesses or chambers, 
interradial in position, each of which is occupied by two sets of lami- 
nated structures, in form and arrangement closely resembling the 
hydrospires of the Blastoid genus Orophocrinus, Each set apparently 
is composed of five to seven folded lamellae with continuous walls 
and loops at each end ; they stand upright, face laterally the inner 
walls of the overhanging primary radials, their upper ends attached 
to the inner floor of the outer interradial, being thus completely 
covered by vault structures. 

Vault flat, on a level with the spreading arms ; composed of five 
oral plates (the so-called central plate and the four large proximals). 
The posterior oral (central plate) is large, somewhat elongate, its an- 
terior end resting between the truncate faces of the four others, the 
posterior end againt small anal plates. The four small orals vary 
from elongate-clavate (PL XX, figs 2^ and 4) to almost regularly 
hexagonal (PI. XX, fig. 3). Outside the orals, and alternating with 
them, are five somewhat irregular radial plates, which are axillary, 
giving off two sets of covering pieces, two rows of plates to each set, 
all in lateral contact ; they are heavy, convex plates, a little wider 
than high, alternately arranged, and solidly inserted into the vault. 



Between the covering platea, and abutting against the four smaller 
orals, are two or more interrodials, the inner ones the larger.- Be- 
tween the radiaI-tiome-[iliitejt, and against the large posterior oral. 
are numerous small anal plates which embrace the anus, and of 
which the outer ones face the anal {ilut« of the dorsal cup. The aniu 
is exceniric, and its form varies among species, being either ext«D(led 
into a tube, or placed at the top of a small protuberance. The tube 
appareucly reached considerable length, and seems to have been 
composed of several row^ of transverse pieces longitudinally ar- 
ranged, with a large octagonal cavity. 

Column very large ; terminating in numerous rootlets. Canal 
large, round. 

Geological Fotition, etc. Upi>er Silurian of England and Swedeo. 
1840. Crotalocrintu pulcher Hisinger, ( tyaihoeriuvt puleher), Leth. 
Suec, Supp. 11., p. 6, PI. XXXIX, figs. 5 a. b.-l878, Angelin, 
Iconogr. Crin. Suec, p. 26, PI. VII, figs. 5—7 a, b ; PI. VIII. 
figs. 1— 9a ; PI. X Vli, figs. 1, la— d ; PI. XXV. figs. 8— 
20.-1879, Zittel, Handb. d. Palaeont, Vol. I, p. 357, figs. 2, 
4, 4 a— e.— 1886, W. and Sp., Revision Pal»ocr., Pt. Ill, p. 
Syo. Anthoerinvt JMveni Job. Miiller, 1853, Abh. d. Berl. Akad. d. 
Wissensch., p. 192, PI. VIII, figs. 1— U.— Pictet,1857,Tr*it£ 
de. Palfont., Vol. IV, PI. c, figs. 8 a, b, c— Dujardin and 
Hui>£., Hist. nat. Zuoph. Echinod., p. 117. — Quenstedt. 1885, 
Handb. d. Petrefaclenk., IV, p. 943, PI. 15, fig. 4. 
Upper Hilurian, Gothland, Sweden, and Dudley, Eng. 
1821. Crotaloerinus rugotu* Miller, {Cyathoerinut ruffotut), Nat. 
Hist. Crin., p. 89., with plate.— 1837, Hisinger, (C>riAomii«i 
ru^osiu), Leth. Suec., p. 89, Tab XXV, fig. 3 ; also Autckn, 
Heft tV. p. 217. PL VII. fig. 3.~18:t9. PbiUip 



Zittel, Handb. d. Palseont., I., p. 357, fig. 244.^1885, Quen- 

stedt, ( Cyathocrinus rugosua), Handb. d. Petrefactenk., IV, p. 

943, fig. 349.— 1886. W. and Sp., Rev. Palseocr., Pt. Ill, p. 


Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden and Dudley, Eng. 
1878. Crotalocrinns superbus Angelin, leonogr. Crin. Suec, p. 26, 

PL XVII, figs. 2, 2 a, b.— 1886, W. and Sp., Rev. Palseocr., 

Pt. Ill, p. 150. 

Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden. 
Orotalocrinua (undescribed species). PI. Ill, 1^g, 4 (Referred by 

Angelin, PI. XVII, figs. 3, 3 a, b, to C. rugosus). 

Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden and Dudley, Eng. 

ENALLOCBIinrS D'Orbigny. 

1850. D'Orbigny, Prodr. d. Pal., 1., p. 46 ; Cours. 616m., II, p. 142. 

1854. Salter, apud Murchison, Siluria, (3rd Ed.), p. 247. 

1857. Pictet, Traits d. Pal, IV., p. 320. 

1862. Dujardin and Hup6, Hist. nat. Zooph. Echin., p. 134. 

1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 25. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Pal., I., p. 356. 

1886. Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Palseocr., Pt. Ill, p. 150. 

Syn. Apiocrinites (Hisinger) in part ; 

Millericrinus (D'Orbigny) in part ; Anthocrinus (Quenstedt) in part. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Calyx similar in form and construction to 
that of Orotalocrintts ; interradials sometimes appearing dorsally. 
Arms not reticulate. 

First radials wide, their distal faces usually occupied by a deep 
lunate excavation in which the second primary and one or two higher 
radials rest; sometimes, however, truncate. Second primary and 
higher radials inserted and connected as in Crotalocrinvs, curving 
upward and appearing on the ventral side in a similar way. Rays 
completely disconnected from the first radials up, and the arms be- 
coming free variously between the first to the fourth bifurcation. 
Second radials perforated by a large axial canal which passes down- 
ward ; it ramifies within the higher radials, and passes into the 
arms, but apparently does not extend to their fiill length. 

Arms uniserial, very long, tapering little, bifurcating at lengthen- 
ing intervals toward the upper parts into very numerous equal 
branches, the ultimate divisions being extremely attenuate ; the arms 
capable of being spread out horizontally. Arm joints shorter than 
in CrotalocrinuSj with parallel sutures; those of adjacent branches 


opposite each other Dot alternating. Toward the upper ends of the 
arm joints there are more or less conspicuous traDsverse projectiotu 
^-oue from each side of the joint — which are more prominent and 
elongate at the ventral side. They border the arm fiirrow, «uid give 
to the arm, when viewed from the side, a pectinate appearance, 
which is more strongly marked toward the distal ends of the &rms 
(PI. XX, figs 6^). Ambulacral furrowa shallow, with covering 
plates arranged in the usual way. ' 

Vault apparently similar to that of Crolaloerinut ; median part 
unknown ; ambulacra toward the periphery roofed over by convex 
alternating pieces having the form of vault plates, which pass out 
over the arms. Anal opening unknown. 

Column round, very lai^, withshort joints and thin walls; canal 
round and of extremely large size. 

Oeoloffieal Position, etc. Upper Silurian of Sweden and England. 

Liil ofSpeeieg: — 
1878, Enatlocrinut attulotii* Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec,, p. 26, PI, 

XV, Hgs, 1 — \. Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden. 
1828. K. KrijAuD Hisinger {CijathoeriniUtt), Antcckn IV,p.217; 

PI, V, fig. 9; PI. VII, fig. 1.— 1«:}1. {Apioerinitei (?) «t.> 

(im). Antcckn V, p. 123, Riquisse d'un tableau des Petref. 

de la SuWe. p. 2.1.-1837. Leth, Suec. p. 8». PI. XXV. fijr*. 

1 and 2.— D'Orbignv. 1840 {.VilUriirintu »eripfmi. Hi*I. 

Nat. Crin., p. 114, PI.'XVI, fig. 29.-1851). Prodr. d. Pal,. I. 

p. 46.— Angflin. 1878, Icon. Crin. Suec. p. 25. PI, VII. fig», 

1— 3a: PI. IX, figs. 18 and la; PI. XXV, figa. 1—7; PI. 

XXVII.figB. 17— 20a. 

Syn. — Enaliorriinu punelattu Hisiiiger, Leth, Suec, p. ^l'. — 

yfUlerirriniu imnetaiiu D'Orhigiiy, Hist. Nat. Crin., p. 94. 

PI. X\'I, tig. .'10. — Kimilorriniu punetatu* Soltrr. apud 

1888.] natural sciences op philadelphia. 389 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate XIX. 

Fig. IL Orotalocrinus rugosus. Ventral aspect of a large specimen 
from Sweden, showing the inner floor of the calyx, the 
lanceolate areas, and the outstretched arms with their deep 
ventral grooves, and in places their covering pieces ; the 
tips of the arms coiled up so as to expose their dorsal face. 
The covering pieces at the lower right hand corner re- 
stored from another specimen. 

(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 

Fig. 1^ Oblique view of a portion of the same specimen, showing 
the lamellae beneath the overhanging margins of the high- 
er radials. 

Fig. 1!: Ventral view of a portion of the arms enlarged. 

Figs. 2!:^ Diagramatic figures showing the arrangement of the high- 
er radials in Crotalocrinus rugosus ; 2!i the dorsal side ; 2il 
the ventral side ; 2!i a vertical section through the dotted 
line in 21. The numbers refer to the same plates in all 
three figures, i. e. IL and IL to the first and second prima- 
ry radials, 2L to the secondary radials, 3L and 3L to the 
tertiary radials, 4L and 4L to the quaternary radials; 
the succeeding plates are brachials. 

Fig. 3. Ventral aspect of the same species from a specimen in the 
National Museum of Stockholm, showing the rigid cover- 
ing plates around the margin of the calyx. 

Fig. 4. A portion of a first primary radial of the same species with 
the higher radials in place resting upon it. 
(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 

Fig. 5. Enlarged view showing the markings on the lower face of 
a first radial of the same species. 

Fig. 6. Radials and lower arm plates in Pterotoerinus. 

Fig. 7. The radials and lower arm joints in Marsupiocrinus ten- 

Plate XX. 

Fig. 1!: Crotalocrinus pulcher. Anterior view of a specimen with 
arms from Gothland, Sweden. 

(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 


Fig. 1^ Posterior view of the same specimen, showing the base of 
the proboscis. 

Fig. 21 Calyx of a small specimen of Orotalocrinua rugoeue from 
Dudley, England. 

(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 

Fig. 2^ Ventral aspect of the same specimen. 

Fig. 3. Ventral aspect of Crotalocrimis £p.? 

(Drawn from a gutta percha cast. Original in the Muse- 
um at Cambridge, England.) 

Pig. 4. Oroialocxinva sp, und., from Sweden. Ventral view, from 
a fine drawing by Mr, G. Liljevall. (Original in the 
National Museum at Stockholm). 

Fig. 51 Enallocrin.'us scriptus. Posterior view of a specimen from 
Sweden in the National Museum at Stockholm. 51 ventral 
view of same specimen, showing portions of the covering 
plates in some places ; the middle of the vault broken 

Fig. 61 EnaUo&rinus aeripUia. Anterior view of a nearly complete 
specimen from Dudley, England (Collection of Wach- 
smuth and Springer), 61 transverse section of column of 
same specimen, showing the large central canal ; 61 en- 
larged side view of a portion of the arm, showing the 
pectinated projections ; 61 Dorsal view of same. 




Smilacina bifolia. Observing in a large tract of Smilaciiia bifolia 
that the leaves were for the most part at a very light angle, indeed 
almost vertical, it seemed to afford a good opportunity to test a 
prevalent idea that, in such cases, the stomata are nearly equal in 
numbers on each surface of the leaf. Dr. J. B. Brinton kindly made 
a careful microscopical examination of some leaves I furnished him 
with, but he found no difference in this respect to leaves with a 
purely horizontal direction. On a small section, of which he hands 
me a drawing, there was only one stoma on the upper surface, 
while there were fifteen on the under surface. 

Dichogamy and its significance. Dichogamy has reference to the 
relative period of maturity of stamen and pistil. When the stamens 
are in the advance the flowers pre said to be proterandrous ; when the 
pistil is mature before the stamens, the flower is proterogyuous. Usu- 
ally the term is employed in connection with hermaphrodite flowers. 
But as it is a mere question of the time required for the development of 
the sexual organs necessary to the perfecting of a complete individual, 
it is obvious that we may extend the term so as to include monoecious 
and dioecious plants. 

The law under which the separate sexual organs are retarded in 
their growth in some instances and accelerated in others, cannot 
but have supreme importance in the study of vegetable biology. If 
we can trace the working of this law in the hermaphrodite flower to 
the extent of acceleration or retardation for but a single day, we can 
easily get to understand how some plants may come to have the 
maturity of these orgaus days apart, and to finally divide into 
monoecious or dioecious classes. 

Among the contributions I have made to botanical science, few 
impress me with more importance than the determination of the fact 
that a degree or measure of heat capable of exciting the male organs 
to growth, may yet be wholly inadequate to start growth in the 
female (see Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 1885, p. 

I observed that the aments of walnuts, hazel-nuts and similar 
plants were oft^n perfected weeks and occasionally months before 
the female flowers were in conditon to receive pollen, and that it 


was only in seasons when the stamena and pistils matured simultA- 
ceousl^, that large crops of nuts followed. I bad overlooked at that 
time, the fact that something similar had been placed on record be- 
fore. In the Tramaetiotu of the Horticultural Society of LondoH, 
vol. V, 1824, is a paper by Rev. George Swayne, showing that the 
filbert crop in Kent fails two years out of five; that some season* 
the catkins mature before the female flowers open, and at others not 
till afterwards, and that failure to produce a crop results from the 
absence of pollen at the period when the female flower is in receptive 
oondition. All I can, therefore, claim as original is the formula that 
varying measures of heat influence variously the separate sexes, — 
the smaller measure influencing the male, while the female still con- 
tinues to rest. 

Since my observations were made on the hazel, I have extended 
them to other plants. It has long been known that in many of the 
Central Slates coniferous trees that produce secdn abundantly farther 
north, rarely have one perfect seed in those regions. I know this is 
so in the vicinity of Philadelphia. The Norway spruce may pro- 
duce cones by the cart-load, with not an ounce of seed in the lot. 
Since the obsenations above cited I find that the male flowers ma* 
ture long before the female, nud affords a satisfactory reason for the 
failure. Further north, where winter does not co<)uette with spring 
as here, they remain in rest etiually, and advance together. In their 
gregarious, forest condition, no doubt the extentof surface conduces 
to on cquilibrial condition of climate not surrounding isolated trees 
in u cultivntetl state. 

In brief, I may enumeriite a nunil>er of conlfene, alders, walnuU. 
chestnuts, oaks, hickories and tiic hazel-nut as among those that I 
carefully watched for the few years |>ast, noting a wide range of 
difference each season lictween the times of maturing of the male 


difficulty in perceiving in these elms and maples in the spring of 
1887, that the pollen had been dispersed weeks before the pistil was 
mature. The past season (1888) examination showed the anthers 
bursting simultaneously with the receptive conditions. There was 
an abundant crop of seeds. The maple is usually inclined to dioecism. 
Although the flowers may seem perfect, the stamens in some fertile 
flowers never proceed beyond anthers that give no pollen, while in 
other cases perfect stamens with filaments and fertile anthers are 
produced, when the gynoecium seems unable to fulfil its functions. 
But the elm, at least here, seems a full hermaphrodite, yet only this 
season of three successive ones, had it full hermaphrodite functions. 
In the two first it was so very proterandrous as to be barren. It 
was not proterandrous this year, though I cannot say it was pro- 
terogynous. It was, in fact as well as in name, hermaphrodite. 

Surely I am warranted in presenting the formula, that varying 
measures of temperature variously affect the separate sexual organs, 
and that the dichogamy has its origin in this simple circumstance. 

It is interesting to note how near we may get to a great truth 
without actually perceiving it till long afterwards. In 1868, I 
announced, through the Proceedings of the Academy, my discovery 
that Mltchella repeas was not merely heterostyled but practically 
dioecious. I had subsequently found a white-berried variety which 
bore berries freely when surrounded by its companions, but I never 
had one during the many years it was under culture in ray 
garden. « Up to that time and subsequently, the course of these 
phenomena was obscure. Mr. Darwin, in Forms of Flowers (Chap. 
VII), observes : " But according to Mr. Meehan Mitchella itself is 
dioecious in some districts, ^i^ * * Should these statements be 
confirmed, Mitchella will be proved to be heterostyled in one district 
and dioecious in another." With our present light we can readily 
see how this may easily be. 

Now what is the significance of dichogamy? The general view at 
the present time is substantially the same as given in the work 
above quoted. There Darwin expresses it in these words : " Va- 
rious hermaphrodite plants have become heterostyled, and now ex- 
ist under two or three forms ; and we may confidently believe that 
this has been effected in order that cross-fertilization should be as- 

With the new light I have thrown on the origin of dichogamy, I 
am sure the great Darwin would be ready to modify this view. It 
cannot have the significance we all thought it had at that time. 



We uow see that a plaint may lind itself in a climate or in suf- 
roundiags favorable to an early development of etameng ; in anoth- 
er case in a locality or country where the reverse will prevail. 
Dichogamy will then vary. We also know that heredity plays a 
part in fixing a constantly recurring local tendency, so that a plant 
having acquired a tendency to proterandy or it may be to proter- 
Ogyny, would continue to carry the habit long after the superinduc- 
ing causes had passed away. Plants remaining for ages in a local- 
ity where the conditions would be favorable to a wide difference 
between simultaneity, would probably become in time montecioue 
or dicecious, and all this, as we see, from no particular assurance 
that cross-fertilization would thereby be affected. 

In trying to reach generalizations of this character, we should 
not, however, forget that in nature, things seldom follow from a 
single cause, but from the operation of united forces. In this con- 
nection I have shown, (see Proceedings of the American Aesociotion 
for the Advancement of Science, Salem, and subsequent meetings,) that 
sex itself is largely influenced by the amount of nutrition available 
when the primordial cell ia fertilized. If sex itself may be influ- 
enced by nutrition, the subsequent growth of its representative or- 
gans may still further be influenced, which would introduce into 
the consideration an additional element aside from temperature 
, I have my own postulate as to the significance of dichogamy. 


I have collected this plant in its various forms over widely sepa- 
rated portions of the American continent, — Canada, the Alleghanies, 
California and Alaska, — and though holding its own wherever 
found, it does not show evidences of the extension that must have 
characterized it in the past,. when, with no remarkably special- 
ized organs favoring distribution, it managed to travel in its various 
forms — as T, Europcea, T, Americana and T, Arctica—o\&r the whole 
north of Europe and across the American continent to Behring's 
Straits. So far as I have seen in the localities named, the plants 
seem to produce seeds, though not abundantly ; but there are no 
evidences of seedlings. In the Chestnut Hill location, the only tract 
on which the plant is found is but a few hundred square feet, yet 
though unnoted, it must have been confined to this limited area for 
at least a hundred years, or perhaps for many centuries. The piece 
of wood is a favorite botanical hunting ground. I myself have 
wandered through it for over a quarter of a century, and the early 
Philadelphia botanists — sharp-eyed as they were — would surely have 
seen it here if at all common in those times. It is worth while 
considering how so great a wanderer in remote ages should 
have acquired such remarkable stay-at-home habits in recent times. 
Some conditions favorable to distribution must surely have existed, 
which have disappeared in modern ages. What can these changes 

So far as persistency is concerned I note a fact, not recorded any- 
where, that the plant is stoloniferous, bearing a small tuber at the 
end of a slender thread, which reproduces the plant next year, the 
whole of the previous years' plants, except these little tubers, dying 
away. In this way the plant, through its progeny, can be a traveler 
at the rate of two or three inches a year. It is remarkable that this 
character is not noted by systematic authors, for the specimens in the 
herbarium of the Academy taken at various times during the flowering 
period, from different parts of the world, exhibit traces of the little tu- 
bers at the ends of stolons that have evidently been passed over for 
true roots. It is hardly to be supposed that the plants have wan- 
dere<l wholly by the aid of these little tubers, valuable as they 
must be for persistency when once a foot-hold has been obtained. 
We are forced to the conclusion that at some former period it re- 
ceived much more aid from seed and seedlings than it receives in 
modem times. 


As we are often aided in the study of the geographical wauderings 
of plants, a list is appended of comparatively local plants, found in 
companionsbip with IrientalU on the 3rd of June. 
Allium Canadense Pogonia. vertuAllata 

Avielanchier Botryapium Potemonium repUmi 

Cypripedium pubescent Pyrola elliptica 

Sypoxys erecta Pyrw arbuiifotia 

Mediola Virginica Viburnum acerijolium 

Mitchella repem Viola pubescetu 

Qoodyera pubeacena Veratrum mride 

Omiunda tpeetabilvt Aepidium crietatum. 

Oxalis violaeea 

On the glands in some Caryophyltateout fiowera. It cannot be 
said that the existence of glands near the base of the common 
chickweed and its allies, has been wholly overlooked, but they are 
seldom referred to, and no attempt has been made to read their 

In regard to the chick-weed, Stellaria media. Withering notes in 
the Britiah Flora (p. 547) " stamens glandular at the base." Dr. 
Bromfield notes of a closely related species, Stellaria ulignosa, 
" stamens 10, those alternating with the petals inserted on shortish, 
flattened glands ; near, but not close to the base of tie gernien ; 
being, iii fact, above the latter and at the top of the conical enlarge- 
ment of the calyx below the sepals" (Flora Vectmisis 71). At p. 


same time of day as in the former case, I found the exudation as 
abundant in the Cerastium also. Profiting by this hint, and exam- 
ining at this time of day all species coming under my notice, I can 
say that glands exist in Cerastium viscosum, C arvense, Arenaria 
serpyllifolia, Stellaria longifolia, S, media; I could not find the 
glands in Stellaria pubera. 

It is well knoAvn that in Caryophyllacero generally, there are 
usually ten stamens, in two series, — the outer alternate with the 
petals, — the inner five alternate with the outer, and opposite the 
petals. There are often less by abortion, in which case it is the 
members of the inner series that disappear. No glands are between 
the stamens of the inner series. There are never but five, and these 
alternate with outer stamens. The outer series mature the anthers 
a day before the inner series mature them (except, I believe, in S 
pubera) ; but the liquid exudation occurs with the maturity of the 
anthers of the first series. 

The liquid (in the chickweed) has a slightly sweet taste, and is 
very viscid, as a little taken out with the point of a pen-knife and 
rubl>ed between finger and thumb, testifies. 

The five outer stamens in Arenuria serpyllifolia bend inwards, and 
the abundantly polliniferous anthers rest on the apex of the stigmas, 
completely covering the stigmas with own-pollen. The inner ones 
turn outwardly, resting on the petals or nearly so, and seem to have 
anthers wholly destitute of pollen. In Cerastium vlscosumj the pollen 
matures before the pistils. At the time the pollen scatters, the fasicle 
of pistils are keeping close company. Soon afterwards they diverge, 
push themselves up among the iwllen-clothed stamens, and are cer- 
tainly self-fertilized in most, if not absolutely in all cases. 

Examining the chickweed as it grew over a very large tract of 
waste ground, and soon after noon, when with a close naked-eye ob- 
servation the comparatively large globules can be seen glistening in 
the sun, — one can scarcely neglect asking nature the chief object of 
this enormous production of sweet liquid, — for the collective quan- 
tity from these millions of flowers may be truly styled enormous. 
It has been asserted that nectar is given to flowers to attract insects 
for the purpose of cross-fertilization, and many observations confirm 
the deduction in numerous instances. Certainly the nectar attracts 
and as certainly the visits often result in fertilization — sometimes 
by the flowers' own pollen, oftener by the pollen from flowers on the 
same or neighboring plants, and occasionally from flowers from 


plontd under diSerent conditions, the true E>arwiDi«a idea of cro#- 
fenilizatjoD. But I could see no bees visiting the cfaickweed for 
thU bantiaet of nectar set befure them. As the flowers are mmui:>ed 
for delf-fertilizution. there could be no a^sisUuice to the flowerv in 
this work even did bees visit them. If inaecta came, in do way doe* 
it appear they could be of any advantage. Because I did Dot <ee 
any bees using the aectar during warm days following the first ob- 
servations, it does not follow that thev never resort to it. Bee^ pt 
to those flowers where their hard task is the eadest. 1 have ntleD 
seen them collecting pollen from chiclcweed, when a few warm earlv 
spring duTS attracted them from the hive, but at soon as tbe male 
catkins of the willow mature, with their very abundant crop of pollen, 
they leave the chickweed, and indeed meet other fiowen, while tbe 
willow pollen lasts. 

Later on, about the middle of May, I found nectar-collect ing 
honey bees working A-eely on Cerattium eiteotum. It is never saJc 
to say bees or other insects do not visit certain flowers. It depend* 
largely on the supply of material. When abundant they evidently 
have preferences, and let the more difficult tasks alone. 




** for, go at night or noon, 

A friend, whene'er he dies, has died too soon, 
And, once we hear the liopeless He is deady 
So far as flesh hath knowledge, all is said." 

yames Russell Lowell — A^assiz. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia requested me, 
February 7th, 1888, to prepare a biographical notice of the late 
George W. Try on, Jr. for publication in its Proceedings, He died 
February 5. The suddenness of the event shocked all his personal 
and many of his merely scientific friends, far and near. One (Mr. 
C. E. Beddome), who is in every sense qualified to justly appraise 
his worth, said to me in a note, dated Tasmania, April 4, not very 
long since received^ — " I have respected him as one of the grandest 
conchologists of the day. I feel that I have lost my most valued 
correspondent ; but what must be the loss of your academy and the 
conchological world. His great work * Manual of Conchology,' not 
yet finished, will be the grandest monument that could be erected to 
his memory." 

Eminence, fairly acquired by a toiler on any path of learning or 
scientific research, wins admiration, especially from those moving 
forward on the same quest, whether in his neighborhood or in places 
widely remote ; and after he dies, they become more or less curious 
about his origin and career. Some are pleased to seek causes of his 
success in the circumstances of his life, assuming that social environ- 
ment sways the formation of character, just as physical conditions 
surrounding certain organisms are supposed to influence their de- 
velopment. Students of this class ask where the eminent man was 
bom and raised and trained, as well as what notable features char- 
acterized 'the locality where he grew to be distinguished among his 
associates. Those of another sort, who confide almost entirely in 
the doctrines of heredity, are disposed to ascribe the notable qualities 
of a contemporary to his parents and their ancestors, thus failing to 
recognize in him any merit wholly and clearly his own. They seem 
to forget that uncommon intellectual force, mental capability is not 
always traceable to heredity or to environment in any considerable 

♦)•> raiyciix,nK» fit the acadestt or [19M. 

truat. AH tbe ^noi h^r^s ■>! ^cienw umI Ihentoi* did Dot have 
iataii&'C ajiixsti-jn -.'F ^■ienddc eDTif.'OiiKDt. the gcniiu cd neiUter 
Fruiklin not "hiktspeare was an ioEt^riuiKe. 

G«>if^ Trr-vn Jr. [t)«el>ie>t ••«of Edwud K.Trron 
and bis m'dk. »yi A'klliK ^Ticl. waf \>,ni Mar 2». l>3d. on Green 
street b«cv«eD Fr>>Dt an-l Ncwicarkir'C ^tr«et#. iben in ibe ali^rici of 
the Nvrthem Uberti^^- The place trf hij birth is about twelve or 
fifteen hun-itvil jar<l^ to the northward and e«eiward of the ^^t« 
Hou^ of Philailelpbia. — In-k[ien<lence HalL The localiir was 
never a ^hioaa}>Ie <{U3ner of the cirv. It atRMinds id alleT: and 
couru of >mall tenements, havinr; iiaati windiws glaied wiib eiirht 
bj leo inoh pm^. an-l n^fe ■>( cedar jhinzle*. ta may be se*n to-dav. 
A ^ub^ancial. iniu^ri-iu^ peo;>le. m<i?t of them engaged in mechan- 
ical purmit>. iohabiunl (he ncizbborh-'*<l. the atlev# anil ^rpeU nf 
whii'h were the [<lav.t{rjund« of tbetr manr children. It if nnw as 
it wa; titiv yean- a^: 'inW the ^ign^ of a^ in wnie tpott are prob- 
ably ni.ire apictnrni. 

Ciejrje Wa-'hin^'toD TryoD. a ^nsmiib, had trained hi^ «on. 
Edwanl K. Tryon in the manufai'ture and trade in fire-ann» and 
fponnienV nci?ijulreiiieut:!. a liuMue^-i which be had eatabli^ihed and 
condu'.-ted !iuc«srfully during a i|uartcr of a centurj- or more. He 
reiirvd in \'*i7. Icavini: hU son in {><>si<«.>^ion of the e«:tabli^hnient. 

Ciei^nre W. Tryi.n Jr. at an e:irly age manifested a retiring, cheer- 
ful and (.-oni-iderate di-jn edition. Hi:' intercn in the sport* and 
gamt« of IhiV:. iva= n^il ^iitfii-iftit to ilivert him from bookt When 
about si'Vtii vfars <>\>l he lieLiin in colloci »|iecimens of natural his- 
tory. The taste wa.-' encoURt;ri'd by ;.'iving him a room at home in 
which to di>]ilay them to iiiembtre of u AK-iety of infant naturaliiits 
which he f..rme.l. Fntm the :iturt, =helU received most of his atten- 

harncler of the child's mind i 

%«r'i:\i -ii%ii-<>i I nil «i'i z I III « 


J • .■:••■■ 1 r. • %. k .1.:. ■ ;-.•!• . • •. r . I : . :, i»' 

■•. *• - • \ im !« !•••.•.'; \ '. '-V-'-»'»\l.l- It 

- w • • • I;. . I I I ' .• ■• '. 

■ ■ . . ... ! 1 • . ; * . 1 1 .■■■.. . ,• 

• • . •■ • ■: -■ . . : » ■ I ■ . . •' •• ! ■ • 

■ *- .■ i ■••..• ■ • : . • . ....•..., .■•.■!■■ 


( . 

'. « ■ ' \ ■ f • I • . ' 

'.:• ! T' ^ - • r I . 1 • :.:••■•.; r ■•■«.■ . 

• '• 'f* *.**« ■'■%*' '*■' fta" 

. •. • • : • » I • ^. - - ■...•. .'J ■. • . • * 

* ■ »• • ■ i .■ ■ ■ . ' » r • . I ■ • • • . fc ■ ■ . ^ ■ ,• k , 

.1 . • r • k ■. . • . * . •••••,■ J •:..; ■ 

• • 



\ ■ 


\ . • ' 

' • •. I ! \ • 



t I 

• r 

.■. T'.rr *i vj*fi. Tin 
Utrv ami lield tin- "tfiiv 


He was taught the rudiments of learning at home. After he had 
passed through one or two private schools for children, it was deter- 
mined that he should receive academic instruction in the Friends' 
Central School, because it was regarded to be the best available. It 
was then in Race between Fourth and Fifth streets, and now is at 
the S. W. corner of Race and Fifteenth streets. 

He became a pupil of the institution in October 1850, and con- 
tinued till his school days ended, June 1853. During the almost 
three years here his attention was given only to English studies 
and drawing. The transfer of the family residence, in 1852, to 
Pittville, one of the purlieus of Germantown, five or six miles 
from the business centre of Philadelphia, did not interrupt his regu- 
lar attendance at school, nor hinder the growth of his museum. 
The family returned to, and was permanently established in the city, 
in 1869. 

Very soon after leaving the Friends' Central School he employed 
tutors in the city and studied French, German, and Music until he 
had acquired knowledge enough, to write and speak the languages 
suflSciently well for practical purposes, and to understand the princi- 
ples of musical composition. About this time with some of his 
young friends he formed a musical society or club. Their perform- 
ances enlivened the evenings at their country homes. 

His interest in books created in him a desire to be an author. 
His first effort in this direction was a history of the United States 
finished when he was twelve years old, but not printed. A few 
years later he announced that literary and scientific work would be 
his permanent occupation. But, at the earnest request of his parents, 
he relinquished the project, for a time, and engaged in mercantile 
work in his father's establishment. At the age of nineteen, 1857, 
he was given a share in the business, and on the retirement of his 
father in 1864, he became the principal of the firm, and so contin- 
ued till 1868, when he retired with a modest income, suflScient in 
his estimation to justify indulgence in unrestrained pursuit of science 
and letters. 

He found relaxation from business cares in music. Though not a 
notably skilful player on any instrument, he was acquainted with 
the science of music. 

He wrote a comic opera in three acts, entitled. Amy Cassonet or 

the Elopement, which was acted at the Amateur Drawing Room, 

and published; but it was in no sense successful. The copyright is 

dated 1875. 

4ll4 l'Ii',>CEEIiI!Iftf- OF THE AC1.I>EICT OF [I**"*. 

Ti' lilt- J'rin-wdiiic* of ihe Academv of \Uurat Science*. ui<1 to 
lilt Auieritaiii .lnuniul til l oncholi^ Mr. Tnron cootrihuwil *iiiT- 
fimr iminTr-. lieiivtten ]M'.] aiid ]»<m", iucluBJve, s list of which i# aj- 

In i(.ii.inu<iiiiii will, Mr. TTni. C4. 1864.Mr. Trron e-iiwi 
iht-cmijilcH- wmiii?!-iif C. ^^. RnfiueKjut- on rownt and fttsjnl trmch- 
'..lorv. In im-. l.t ]>i]Mish^d A Moucjrntph od the l«rn«tnal m-I- 
lu-11 <rf' lilt riiin^l Suii,~; ill ]«T0. A Munopraph of tW Fn>h- 
wuur laiivalvi uii.Husi-a of llic ruiiwj ^tatw; in If'TS, Ani.-ri-'M 
Muribt^ < iiii'liiili'L'v. ami A MiiutiCTutih i»n the ?treptonjaliila' Aiurr- 
icuii Mt'luiiiiuiF (d'Ntirih Aiuerics. Thi^ work was prejiorei] al tht 
iu-iiBiicc t-liiif Siniiiwiniau luittitution. and published in it* Mi;".Tl- 
luiitf 'u^ < ■■.llf(Tioii>, iu 1 K'lviiilier. It was a rrault of several Ttar>' 
^liidy. TLt iiiiUiUMTi]'] sil- ci>inpleied in If^x and laid afmIv. A: 
thi^ end I'f r^'V'-'U '.>r ficlii '"(•ar!-, he a^rain look up the Mihject, whii'h 
h<^ rt-jardf J a? " '-lii <•{ ttic in<p-l tnu-reflinfr and >]iflic-i)li Kninclir> ■•f 
Aiiicricaii (\'iidi' ■!■ 'zy." and f-uml hinir>elf "inclined to i|U(^ii»ti 
many nf tin- '■■ihIum.u?" wliirh hi- had reacheil. In the pntatvf 
tlji- W'lrk Ik- -;h>: — "A uii.i!\- enlarireil aci^uaintanee with fresh- 
H;iii-r -hell- r.iuviiir-i-s ii.t' that a niurh jrreiiter reduciirm i>f th* 
LiitiiUr i>f -i".-'if> tliaii I liavi- attempted must eventually ix- niaile; 
IjiH iiiiiii lilt- [T'litic ivaii ri nf the Southeni State* have Ihvu -y- 
l'-muii<-al]y vxj.lured. and a i:reat oi.lleetion of s]>eein>en.< .>htnim'<]. 
iv|ji<-}j -]j:iI] r>-|>ri''K.'iil i-ven' jxirtiim iif those streams am] ineluilc a> 
many tran-iiinniil f'Tui- ii* t-an !f |>nK'ured. a definite monn^raph 

r M] 


I'-I Ix' Hri 

ivnrk tha 
-ake >.t 

Mr. Trvon's habitual devniino 
is <'ontaine<l in the hi.^tory of the 
ii"t nijuirfi. 
'la\.ition, left Philadelphia. Mat 


At his instigation the Conchological Section of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences was founded, December 26, 1866. He was a con- 
stituent member, and its Conservator from December, 1875, thir- 
teen years. His skill in conchology is manifest in the admirable 
arrangement and classification; and his incessant carefulness, in the 
excellent condition of the collections which were under his official 
charge. According to the annual report of the Section, December 
1887, they consisted of 189,150 specimens, contained in 51,327 trays 
each with an appropriate label. This enormous collection, and an al- 
most complete conchological library of 954 volumes, besides 455 
pamphlets, bound in 26 volumes, all accessible under one roof, render 
the facilities of study of the subject in the academy unsurpassed. 

April 9, 1867, he made a special deposit of more than ten thousand 
species of shells and more than a hundred jars of specimens, chiefly 
of naked moUusks, in alcohol, gathered during his life-long devotion 
to the subject, on condition that none should be loaned. They were 
appropriately intercalated with the academy's collection. The dupli- 
cates were sold, by his direction, and the proceeds of sales covered 
into the treasury of the Conchological Section. It is notable that 
he did not stipulate that this very large contribution — the largest 
private collection in this country — should be kept separate from the 
rest of the museum and designated by his name, which is a 
usual condition attached to donations of private natural-history 
cabinets to public museums. It was his opinion that it is unwise to 
accept cabinets on such terms, because it must result sooner or later, 
in encumbering the museum with the care of numberless and useless 
duplicates, for which space cannot be easily afforded. 

The records show that Mr. Tryon contributed valuable specimens 
to the museum every year during the remainder of his life. 

He gave, May 7, 1867, 119 volumes and 56 pamphlets on conchol- 
ogy to the library. 

The first number of the American Journal of Conchology, of 
which Mr. Tryon was the editor and proprietor, was issued, Febru- 
ary 1865. Seven volumes were published, the last number in May, 
1872. After the institution of the Conchological Section of the 
Academy it was issued, nominally, by the publication committee of 
the Section, of which Mr. Tryon was chairman, but he was still the 
editor. The third and subsequent volumes contain summaries of 
the proceedings of the Section at its stated meetings. 


extent. All the great heroes of science and literature did not h«ve 
acieDtific anceators or Bcientific environment. The genius of neither 
Franklin nor Shakespeare nas an inheritance. 

Geoi^ Washington Tryon Jr. the eldest son of Edward K. Tryon 
and his wife, iiee Adeline Savitd, was born May 20, 1838, on Green 
street between Front and Xewmarket streets, then in the dirtrlct of 
the Northern Liberties. The place of his birth ib about twelve or 
fifteen hundred yards, to the northward and eastward of the ?>iate 
House of Philadelphia, — Independence Hall. The locality was 
never a fashionable quarter of the city. It abounds in alleys and 
courts of small tenements, having small windows glazed with eight 
by ten inch panes, and roofs of cedar shingles, as may be seen to-day. 
A substantial, industrious people, most of them engaged in mechan- 
ical pursuits, inhabited the neighborhood, the alleys and streets of 
which were the play-grounds of their many children. It is now as 
it was fifty years ago, only the wgna of age in some spots are prob- 
ably more ap|>arent. 

George Washington Tryon, a gunsmith, had trained his son, 
Edward K. Tryon in the manufacture and trade in fire-arius and 
sportmen's accoutrements, a husine.'M which he hud established and 
conducted successfully during a quarter of a century or more. He 
retired in ]8'37, leaving his .son in jHxssession of the establishment. 

George W. Trycm Jr. at an early age manifesteil a retiring, cheer- 
ful and considerate disposition. His interest in the sports and 
games of boys was not sufficient to divert him from books. When 
about seven years ohi he l>egan to collect sj>ccinicns of natural his- 
tory. The taste was encouraged by giving him a room at home in 
which to dii^play them to niemlwra of a society of infant naturalists 
which he formed. From the start, shells received most of his atten- 

The observant and reflective character of the child's mind is 


Pisa, Rome, Naples, Sorrento ; returning through Venice, Florence, 
Turin, Geneva, Chamouni, Berne, Mayence; the Rhine, Cologne, 
Brussels, Antwerp and back to London, Liverpool and home, in the 

Now, naturally imbued with the love of truth exclusively for the 
truth's sake ; possessed of the true methods of scientific inquiry, and 
equipped with the results of his life-long home studies of the mol- 
lusca, as well as of his observations in the European museums and 
cabinets, Mr. Tryon devised the plan of his greatest work — Manual 
of Conchology — and promptly began its execution. 

The plan embraced four series of volumes. The first series of 
•ileven or twelve volumes is devoted to the marine univalves ; the 
second, of six or seven, to the terrestrial mollusca ; the third, of four 
or five, to the marine bivalves, and the fourth, of four or five vol- 
umes, to the fluviatile genera. 

The Manual of Conchology, completed according to the author's 
plan, will consist of from twenty-one to twenty-nine octavo volumes, 
all fully illustrated. 

The scope of this great work is described in the " advertisement " 
or preface of the first number, which was finished and ready for pub- 
lication in the last week of December, 1878. Mr. Tryon says, the 
Manual " will include, in systematic order, the diagnoses of all the 
genera and higher divisions of the mollusca, both recent and fossil, 
and the descriptions and figures of all the recent species ; together 
with the main features of their anatomy and physiology, their em- 
bryology and development, their relations to man and other animals, 
and their geological and geographical distribution." 

The numbers of the first series were issued quarterly. Volume 
IX was completed December 1887. The nine volumes include 3125 
pages of text, illustrated by 680 plates of 12.055 figures. 

The first number of the second series — terrestrial mollusca — was 
distributed January 1885, and thereafter quarterly to the close of 
Vol. Ill, December 1887. The three volumes contain 942 pages of 
text, illustrated by 187 plates of 6,434 figures. 

Conscious that he probably might not live to complete his enter- 
prise, but without foreboding, Mr. Tryon interested Mr. H. A. Pils- 
bry in it. To him he freely imparted his purposes and views in 
connection with it, so that he might continue the publication, should 
it become necessary. Mr. Pilsbry, who had the unreserved confi- 
dence of the author, has succeeded him in his oflSice and will edit 

4U:; PBlxjCEUlKOr OI THt ACADEMY OF [l""-***. 

Ht rmu^: i< !<iiraic l itivt- of music amtoifr tbe people ui<i i- 
«ifV4ii< iiit;i! uint:. Witi. luL- in Tif« lie juui«d io tbe muta^im-iit 
vi lilt ■.Termiuiit. '.'rcursini l<ir u cuhmiu. It war a fiulure. Hi^ 
puniiL-; uiaupinaiivi.. luid }iz. Tr^'tni Imd to supjily penmiArv 'ifti- 

li. •■iiiiiiMii. II vi;i t niu^iciu-iiulilicaiauii fimi — Lw uid W»lLer. — 
lit ediifc utic. iiui>iisin^ iiri»T li' i<f~'-i. lilirettufe uf fifiy-twn ii&O'i- 
iin.: uiid iMiiiuiu: i>in^tii£. Ituriiip 1^74 and 187-!). be rerUvd mad 
tdiiw: lilt siiw;-iiiusi( iiuhlioii iuiiF of hi* aud Walker, and iu tbr 
Maui' icun- vunrc Tin Anmu-ur : a moutiilr inagaziDe vf niueit- ami 
liifru:i;rt. Ht ui^-i timuirrd u Merits- of ('{(entic kid^ wbirb »rrt 
jtirii;-[i-;.. iL >Tr'. midiT ili* ijile i)f (.ijienttic Gem& In 1»<4. bt 
jiUfiiMn:! •■ ^-a-.-n-ii Shjl'? li>r (.'imir tmd Home Circled, a CuUemii'ii 
wf ^'jo-. <.-.'ii'.trrirJ J'i*"*e. Hyuiiis. etc." ibe tniuic of vbicb cwii?i>t- 
*'J iii.':,'v;_v ■i M-ivrii.'tiT t-f.n. ilit sciirt* of ibe more popular operas. 

Mr, Trv.'L »a- b wiiriu admirer of tbe fine arW, mod occa»iuDallv 
tuuu-^i t.itu?^if will. ] mil] till::. 

Mu-'i'.- and lilt fiiit^ nn? wt-rv neivtidarv occupations; tbev ner«r 
djvtrnoi Liiii Ir -ti. ibe j-jryuil uf ualural bietorr. 

H* «at a iu(ujt*r ■•ftbe Academr "f Natural Scienw of 
J'biladdjiLia.JuiK Is'it*. From that time till tbe end of hU life do 
•iii't 'li'i iijon: i'.> i-r":ii'<i« the iui«n«t.- uf the institution. Hi:- »cr- 
vi'.i:- were mauy and iiujx.i-taut. The jooietv i» largely indebted tn 
.Mr. 'Irv..ii f>jr the i-iiiiw whirb it now occupies. On hii< moiiiiii. 
Nvvi-iijii-r I4t)i. I"'!', a (uniiuiltee was formed ** to devise meth^Hb 
I'T wlvan'-'inj ilie \T<»]*Thy aud efficiency of the academy, by the 
enfii'iJi "f 11 biiilrliii:; " tic. He va^ appointed chainuao of the 
f'lKniiiin-i-. Tin- iiH-iL-ures ni'oniuiendttl by it were adopted. Tbe 
ele'-iir,), „f a K.^rd i.f Trur^Uvs uf the Building Fund fulloweil. Jan. 
II. I^tiT. Mr. Tryon »us apjKiiiiteil Secretary and held the office 
I, twuntT-onu yeor^ He wai a rorwUT i 


Italy, Spain and Germany,* he contends that in as much as the 
theatre has originated independently and exists under many types 
of civilization — Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Greek, Roman and mod- 
ern European — and the influence of the Christian Church exerted 
against it through so many centuries has failed to extirpate it, the 
institution is likely to continuously thrive. Therefore, instead of 
persistently denouncing the stage, it would be more politic to 
kindly endeavor to point out and eliminate from it all acting that 
is, in any degree, detrimental to morality. 

His manner of treating the subject may be seen in the following 
quotations : 

** The first charge is, * that dramas are frequently immoral stories, 
abounding in covert or open inde;cencies of language or action — 
sometimes actually blasphemous.' We appeal to any regular theatre 
goer whether his experience does not partially confirm this. Even 
those who frequent dramatic representations with the intention of 
encouraging only meritorious and unobjectionable plays, occasionally 
through ignorance of the matter of some new drama, or misled by 
uncandid notices of the press, find themselves * assisting ' at repre- 
sentations, quite bad enough to destroy their faith in the theatre. 
Our own experience, however, and we believe that it will be borne 
out by the experience of every play-goer who has not depraved in- 
stincts, is that plays are* usually entirely innocent, and those of a 
serious character are intended to and do inculcate good morals and 
right living, that they teach man's whole duty with, (no words are 
more expressive), dramatic force ; that is to say, they make an im- 
pression such as can never be made by either reading or lecture ; 
for, to the power of trained declamation is added the verisimilitude 
of scenery and action. The eye as well as the ear receives and 
transmits the lesson to the brain and heart. No sermon can be 
so effectual for good, simply preached from the pulpit as when it is 
embodied in appropriate action : — that brings it home to us in all 
its reality ; it is no longer a mere abstraction. 

The play's the thing 
Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king. 

" Such is a good play, better than the best sermon, not only more 
powerful but more far-reaching in its beneficent mission. 

" Then if we take up the clerical charge once more, and agree 
that the amount of evil done by conveying this indecency or blas- 

^See Harper's Magazine, Dec. 1888, p. 62. 


phemj^ through the vividnese of dramatic portrayal is iccalcuable ; 
that it fiuniliarizes the auditors with wrong thinking, speaking and 
doing, and thus lowers the moral tone of the oommunitr,' on the 
other hand, a good play, by parity of reasoning, should have an 
equally incalculable good influence, and we believe that it baa. The 
vast majority of men [who} are not attracted towards the church, 
find themselTes unable to comprebend its methods, endure its limita- 
tions, or perhaps appreciate its motives — and for these, else left 
without moral JnBtruction, the play yields along with iu human 
interests and entertainment, its realistic teaching by example as 
well as precept. 

" Nay more, the clergyman who objects to the representation of 
the prayer scene in ' Hamlet,' does not hesitate to read the passage, 
or to hear it read, perhaps by the very actor who is accustomed to 
play the part, and who will throw into it all the emotion and all 
the actioD that the lecture platform permits him. He will even 
listen to this recital in the opera house probably, and without 
alarming bis conscience ' because it is not a dramatic performance, 
but only a recital.' 

"Thus, to be consistent, it seems that we must at least tolerate 
upon the stage, that which we approve iji the library or lecture 
room. But this point is not yet exhausted : there c 


as we assert, the vast majority of plays exert great, though un- 
obtrusive moral influence, then so far as their profession may be 
supposed to affect their conduct we should expect to find actors 
respectable and worthy the acquaintance of the pure and noble. 
But, it will be said, there is abundant evidence that at least many 
actors are dissolute people, that they live low, vagabond lives, are 
indecent in language and conduct, drunkards, gamesters, irreligious. 
The evidence, alas ! is abundant, and if it could be proven that the 
proportion of actors who are disreputable is larger than in other 
professions, we might accept the fact as some evidence of the cause 
assigned for it; but it is notorious that in all public professions 
lapses from rectitude are numerous. 

" A word in conclusion concerning those who, whilst despising 
the stage and its associations, yet avail themselves of its fruits. They 
owe their best music to its inspiration ; their best choir singers there 
received their education ; their minister is himself indebted to it, 
either directly or indirectly, for the force and grace of style and dec- 
lamation which render him so impressive. Without the stage you 
would not be possessed of Shakespeare — whose single influence for 
good has certainly far outweighed all the evil which the theatre has 
ever done mankind. Those who while discountenancing the theatre, 
read Shakespeare or hear him read ; who listen with delight to the 
operatic overture or aria; who hang entranced upon the eloquence 
of the rostrum, are meanly, (I had almost written dishonestly) 
enjoying the fruits of an institution which they condemn." 

Whether Mr. Tryon's championship of the stage be acceptable 
or not, few persons will fail to perceive in it his philantrophic dis- 
position and love of justice, as well as the degree of his inclination to 
render homage to the Muses. 

To those who would withhold all such matters from a biographical 
account of a scientist as not pertinent, and to those whose hostility 
to the theatre is relentless, the above citations may seem too long; 
but they may be excused. They prove that his mental scope took in 
very much more than the truths of natural science; that the com- 
paratively inferior and ignorant classes of society had his sympathy, 
and that he was ready to help improve their mental and moral level. 
Thus, they indicate a feature of his character not portrayed else- 
where in his writings. None will deny that a feature partly or 


the work according to the plan. It will be pnblislied by tbe Cooch- 
olof^cal Section of the Academy, of which Mr. Pikbir b th« Cod- 

Mr. Tryon published the first volume of Structural aod System- 
atic Conchology, in 18g2 ; the second, in 1883, and tbe third and 
last volume, in 1884. The three volumes contain 1195 octavo paga 
of text, illustrated by 140 platee of 3,067 figures. 

During the last ten years of his life, Mr. Tryon wrote 5262 octavo 
ptm^eti on conchology, illustrated by 1007 plates of 21,576 figarea. 
Tu the labor of composition the business cares of publication ureiv 
addc<) : he was the publisher of his own works. 

Until his atlmission into the Friends' Central School, October 
18''>0, whatever religious impressions he may have imbibed in child- 
hood, if any, cnme from the Sunday School and the example and 
teaching of his parents whu were Lutherans. After lea^-ing acbool, 
June 185't, he became int(>rcsle<l in the Society of Friends and reg- 
ularly attended its meetings during several years. For reason;, no 
doubt conclusive ami satisfiictory to hiniaelt' he left the meeting* of 
the Friends, ami, from about the year m76, he was usually present 
at the stated serviceH of the First Unitarian Church of Philadelpbia. 
When it was iiroposed, altout 1883, to construct a new building for 
the church .Mr, Tryoii vmx choncn one of its trustees. The work 
interested him. He gave very generously (81000) in aid of its com- 
jilctiiin. He was long chairman of the Society's committee on 
mu:>ir, and, until his death, was prominent among those who. in 
various ways, actively promoted the interests of the church. 

He wus not, however, rigidly i^'Ctariuii. Knowing that there is 
difference on every <pie.«tion thnt intcrcetn men. his natural s|iirit of 
tiiltriuice swayed bin views and conduct relatively to those holding 
o])itiions ojiposiu.' to his own. 

tirinted for nrivate circulattou. a pmnuhlet eiitttlad. 


firom which is to be applied to augment the Conservator's salary, to in- 
crease the collection of shells, as well as to other purposes, at the 
discretion of the Section. All profits which may be derived from 
his conchological works and from his conchological publication bus- 
iness are to be added to the ftmd. 

This provision, in connection with the present vast collections and 
an almost perfect library, goes far towards establishing in the United 
States the centre of conchology at the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Tryon was methodical in all his ways, and unswervingly firm 
of purpose. He always did what he believed to be right in face of 
all opposition ; but he tranquilly considered argument against his 
opinions, and gracefully yielded them whenever he could not answer 
it. He passed much of his time in the academy at work among its 
collections and books. For health^s sake he appropriated time for 
daily exercise in the open air, without much regard to the state of 
the weather. On Saturday, January 28, 1888, while the temperature, 
ranged between 12° and 17° F. and the wind was blowing freshly 
from the north-west, he walked briskly in an easterly direction more 
than a mile, and returning faced the wind. Paroxysms of diflSicult 
breathing forced him to stop many seconds, and several times. On 
reaching home he was much depressed physically ; his circulation 
was abnormally slow and weak, but he soon rallied and seemed to 
be surely recovering. In the course of two or three days a kind of 
roseola, to which he had been liable at times since an attack of scar- 
let fever in childhood, appeared, and towards the last became hem- 
orrhagic. He died February 5, the eighth day after his cold walk. 

His father, a brother and a sister survive him. His mother died 
December 23, 1869. He was a bachelor. As far as known he was 
at no time inclined to change his celibate condition. 

Accepting a definition that poetry is merely the blossom and 
bloom of human knowledge, Mr. Tryon was Laureate of the king- 
dom of the mollusca. He well knew all its inhabitants — they were 
thousands — and characterized every typical one in descriptive lines 
— full of knowledge but without poetic cadence or poetic measure of 
any kind. But his whole attention was not given to those moUusks. 
He had eyes for all natural objects. He was fond of flowers, had 
studied botany successfully, and learned to botanize. In the summer 
it was his custom to take long walks in the country. On reaching 
home from those walks he was almost sure to be laden with flowers 


and grasses, gathered by the way, some for study in connection with 
his herbarium, which was Urge, and others to bedeck cert^n rooms 
ID the house. And now and then a mineralogist was surprised to 
hear him talk so knowingly about minerals. Indeed, his acquaint- 
ance with natural history, generally, was sufficiently intimate to 
make the title of naturalist appropriate to him. His knowledge of 
nature and natural things was a pure accomplishment, in no sense 
associated with his bread-wining work while he was the succeasful 
man of business. 

This imperfect sketch of an eminent benefactor of the academy 
is fittingly closed with the following tributary stanzas, written by 
his friend, our fellow member, Mr. John Ford, Feb. 15, 1888. 

In hehoriah. 
As &]la the oak, mature and strong in limb, 

A giant 'mong its fellows tall and grand, — 
So fell the peer of those whom Science crowns, 

Th' immortal Tryon, type of noblest men. 

Not human hearts alone do feel the blow 
That struck him down in life's meridian, — 

The leafy woods, the vales, and quiet streams 
Where Nature's gems he sought, alike are grieved. 


List of Papers and Books wrptten 
BY George W. Tryon Jr. 

On the mollusca of Harper's Ferry, Va. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philad. 1861, pp. 396-399. 

Synopsis of the recent species of Gastrochaenidae, a family of 
acephalous mollusca. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1861, pp. 465- 

On the classification and synonymy of the recent species of Phola- 
did». Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, pp. 191-220. 

Description of a new genus, (Diplothyra) and species of Phola- 
didse, (Dactylina Chiloensis.) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, 
pp. 449-450. 

Notes on American Fresh Water Shells, with descriptions of two 
new species (Vivipara Texana, Amnicola depressa.). Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, pp. 451-453. 

Monograph of the family Teredidse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 

1862, pp. 453-482. 

Contributions towards a monography of the order of Pholadacea, 
with descriptions of new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad* 

1863, pp. 143-146. 

Descriptions of two new species of Fresh Water mollusca, from 
Panama, (Planorbis Fieldii, Amnicola Panamensis,). Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, p. 146. 

Description of a new Exotic Melania, (M. Helenae.). Proc. Acad. 
Nat, Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 146-147. 

Descriptions of new specias of Fresh Water Mollusca, belonging 
to the families Amnicolidte, Valvatidse, and Limnseida), inhabiting 
California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 147-150. 

Description of a new species Pleurocera (P. plicatum.). Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 279-280.- 

Description of a new species of Teredo, (T. Thomsonii) from New 
Bedford, Mass. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 280-281. 

Descriptions of two new species of Mexican Land-Shells, (Helix 
R^mondi, Cyclotus Cooperi.). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, 
p. 281. 

Synonymy of the species of Strepomatidae, a family of Fluviatile 
Mollusca, inhabiting North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 
1863, pp. 306-322. 


Synonomy of the species of Strepomatidse, a family of Fluviatile 
Mollusca inhabit! Dg North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. So, 
Philad. 1864, pp. 24-48, 92-104; 1865, pp. 19-36. 

Description of two new species of Strepomatidte ; Groniobasis 
Haldemaai, Pleurocera Conradi. Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 1866, 
p. 38. 

Descriptions of dcw species of Pholadidje. Amer. Joum. Conchol. 
1. 1865, pp. 39-40. 

Observations of the new genua lo. Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 
1865, pp. 41-44. 

Catalogue of mollusca, collected by Prof D. S. Sheldon, at Dav- 
enport, Iowa. Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 1865, pp. 68-70. 

Observations on the family Strepomatidse. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
I, 1865, pp. 97-135. 

Catalogue of the species of Physa, inhabiting the United States. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. 1, 1865, pp. 165-173. 

Descriptions of new species of Melania. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
I, 1865, pp. 216-218. 

Descriptions of new species of Amntcola, Pomatiopsis, Somato- 
gyms, Gabbia, Hydrobia, and Rissoa. Amer. Journ. Conchol. i, 
1865, pp. 219-222. 

- Descriptions of New Species of North American Limneeida). 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. i, 1865, p. 223-231. 

Review of the Goniobases of Oregon and California. Amer. 


Note on Mr. Pease's species of Polynesian Phaneropneumona. 
Amer. Joum. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 82. 

Description of a new species of Vivipara; V. Waltonii. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 108-110. 

Descriptions of new Fluviatile Mollusca. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
ii, 1866, pp. 111-113. 

Observations on an abnormal specimen of Physa gyrina. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 114. 

Note on the lingual dentition of the Strepomatidae. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 134-135. 

Monograph of the terrestrial mollusca of the United States. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. II, 1866, pp. 218-277, 306-327 ; iv, 1869, 
pp. 5-22. 

Description of a new species Columna ; C. Leai. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 297-298. 

Descriptions of new species of Melaniidae and Melanopsidse. 
Amer. Jour. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 299-301. 

Description of a new species of Septifer; S. Trautwineana. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 301. 

Description of a new species of Helix ; H. Bridgesi. Amer. 
Joum. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 303. 

On the terrestrial Mollusca of the Guano Island of Navassa. 
Amer. Joum. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 304-305. 

Notes on Mollusca collected by Dr. F. V. Hayden in Nebraska. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. iv, 1869, pp. 150-151. 

Catalogue of the families Saxicavidse, Myidse, and Corbulidae. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. iv, 1869, (Append.), pp. 59-68. 

Catalogue of the family Tellinidse. Amer. Journ. Conchol. iv, 
1869, (Append.), pp. 72-126. 

Descriptions of new species of terrestrial Mollusca from Anda- 
man Islands, Indian Archipelago. Amer. Jour. Conchol. v, 1870, 
pp. 100-111. 

Descriptions of new species of marine bivalve mollusca in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. v, 1870, p. 170-172 ; vi, 1871, pp. 23-24. 

Note on Cyclophorus foliaceus, Eeeve (non Chemnitz) and C. Leai, 
Tryon. Amer. Journ. Conchol. vi, 1871, pp. 25-26. 

Notes on Dr. James Lewis' paper "On the shells of the 
Holston River." Amer. Journ. Conchol. vii, 1872, pp. 86-88. 

Catalogue of the family Cyprinidse. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
vii, 1872, p. 252. 


the work according to the pttin. It will be published hy the Conch- 
ological Section of the Academy, of which Mr. PUsbry is the Cod- 

Mr. Tryon published the first volume of Structural mnd Svatem- 
atic Conchology, in 18S2 ; the second, in 1883, and the third and 
last Tottime, in 1884. The three Tolunies contain 1195 octavo pages 
of text, illustrated by 140 plates of 3,087 figures. 

During the last ten years of his life, Mr. Tryon wrote 5262 ocUto 
pages on conchology, illustrated by 1007 plates of 21,576 figures. 
To the labor of composition the business cares of publication were 
added : he was the publisher of his own works. 

Until his admission into the Friends' Central School, October 
1850, whatever religious impressions he may have imbibed in child- 
hood, if any, came from the Sunday School and the example and 
teaching of his parents who were Lutherans. After leaving school. 
June 1853, he became interested in the Society of Friends and reg- 
ularly attended its meetings during several yeara. For reasons, no 
douht conclusive anil satisfactory to himselt* he left the meetings of 
the Friends, and, from about the year 1876, he was usually present 
at the stated services of the First Unitarian Church of PhiUdelphia, 
When it was proposed, altout 1883, to construct a new building for 
the church Mr. Tryun was chosen one of its trustees. The work 
interested him. He gave very generously (81000) in aid of its com- 
pletion. He was long chairman of the Society's committee on 
mu!>ic, und, until his death, was prominent among those who. in 
various ways, actively promoted the interests of the church. 

He wa« not, however, rigidly sectarian. Knowing that there is 
difference on every ({ucstion that interests men, his natural spirit of 
tolerance swayed liis views and conduct relatively to those holding 
opiniuuH opposite to his own. 

1 for Drivate circulation, a paroiifalet entitled. 


the author, 625 Market street, Philadelphia, 1866. 8vo, pp. 159+ 
XLIV; plates 18, with colored duplicates; figures, 430. Bailliere 
Brothers, New York ; J. B. Bailliere, et Fils, Paris ; Triibner & 
Oo., London ; C. Bailly-Bailliere, Madrid ; Asher & Co., Berlin. 

A Monograph of the Fresh water univalve moUusca of the 
United States, in continuation of Prof. S. S. Haldeman's work, pub- 
lished under the above title. By George W. Tryon Jr. Published 
by the Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, 1870. 8vo, pp. 238, plates 32. 

American Marine Conchology : or descriptions of the shells on 
the Atlantic coast of the United States, from IVIaine to Florida. 
By George W. Tryon Jr.. member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Published by the author, No. 19 N. 
Sixth street, Philadelphia, 1873. 8vo, pp. 208 ; plates 44 ; figures 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, (253). Land and Fresh- 
Water Shells of North America. Part IV. Strepomatidse (Ameri- 
can Melanians). By George W. Tryon Jr.. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Washington, December, 1873. 8vo, pp. LV+435; 838 
figures, intercalated with the text. 

Manual of Conchology ; Structural and Systematic ; with illustra- 
tions of the species. By George W. Tryon Jr., Conservator of the 
Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. Published by the author. Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Corner Race and Nineteenth streets. 

Vol. I, 1879. Cephalopoda. 8vo, pp. 316; plates 112; figures 

Vol. II, 1880. Muricidse including Purpurinse, 8vo, pp. 289 ; 
plates 70; figures 977. 

Vol. Ill, 1881. Tritonidse, Fusidae, Buccinidaj. 8vo, pp. 310; 
plates 87 ; figures 1287. 

Vol. IV, 1882. Nassidse, Turbinellidse, Volutid», Mitridse. 8vo, 
pp. 276 ; plates 58 ; figures 1345. 

Vol. V, 1883. Marginellidae, Olividae, Columbellidse. 8vo, pp. 
276 ; plates 63 ; figures 1351. 

Vol. VI, 1884. Conidse, Pleurotomidae. 8vo, pp. 400; plates 
65 ; figures 1550. 

Vol. VII, 1885. Terebridae, Cancellariidse, Strombidae, Cyprseidse, 
Ovulidse, Cassididae, Doliidae. 8vo, pp. 309; plates 75; figures 


■ I^LlUMi!- 'II Till ,1' -il'EKY ••! 

■"■'"I'ili*"^ ijf (iruniuij' i-Tlmva l- llr-;il- 
ii- uiidiior- viit iit<'Ii- :iiiiii:iu-, <:-:i(.:) 
ii-r> till uiuru! t-m- .1: :ii- -•nimuiii:' 


"Hi II 

■ :.' "ii: iiilliii:!)'- . jinti «• i-li-v :iia: 1: i.:i- 

,■,,. ;.. .-.iiiiiiivii-iiii ii- infill. ^i- •'!iiliir> 1:- 
,;i;.ri-r'iiii, ii- iiKiiin- — •Alii, i-r :ii~- •■: 
-ii'-:ii'ii. til- I'luv yi-'iii- :ii-iii' »-i:i 1:- 1 
:u;iiiiii-ii'l. it;- ri:ulis:i< t<^-iiiiLL- \" •.^mt. 

■■.■•rrvM„i,, wi„, ,,).i,.,.:- I, :i,, r-T.r^ 

llu> ;..Mt--i...i' |j-i;«i. !. n-u.. : 

>!i:ui>- i'v iiii v«-ri a--;-'- win 1- u- 
Hii v".. ihv-v iiii-- 1; ill' :ii' •111-: 

1 :.'• i-iall .rii in-niii:- uiii. Hi 

ii, til- ■iB-ru iini- :.r.llla1•:^ , ;.; 

%ini:%l «i ii.^< Iji ••! I'llll %l*l I I'lll » 



Wk* »• AMM rt \\,r %a«l tijii*>nt\ i.f i>!ai» • \rrt hTMat. lK«4i;-l. iiti 
t '.tf i«.\f III ral itirtittM^ lliiii Ail far %* Oi«ir |>r<fi-Mi>.ri tiiAi \w 


• i|-^*.M.f t- afft.t tKftr •«»tHl-i<t «• •)» HiM ri|«-<i tti li«i<l J. {"r* 
r««'« t «* .1 y:, \ m>r\h\ i\*v a< «|-i!»iii(alirr of ;h« |'*irv nlnl zi ''Ir 
|l .*. * «..« '» • i:>l ih« r«- :• j*>iri*l4ti( «-\i«ltri-i- *.i^%l at It a«( rii %m 
A* r< ar> !.•« . it« |a«(';i l*i4t '.hit li\* i •« \.t^*i^»'!it hut .ir< 
i!> \» * • ' iH \ %t /-ii.'' Hi< I ■ ■ !i 1 » t -if .i:A if'l- p- »•!.• *'* r« :rf« . ,' •'!• 
I ' • i \ . !• r, « .» *• ■ i« .■»■ .'. 1 1:.? .ili-i il' :f • ' si'l U I'f \ ■ ;. t^ A*. :hi 
\'t i- r* t. f ^. f r» •! A*' l"«r» I- ilA- •• »• \\r^T than :t. -tJirr 
jr {•••.••.• «■ !;.;,*t I a<»'|t l'.« f.i. • .%• fc.fiH • * J ti n-^ 'tf il.. - aua 
AM ."••i f r ! • it it !• ti ■*■ r- ;• If. at id all |'tiMi< |ir-tf<^«Mti* 
ia;***« ff ri. "^^ t '. i-i» ar» i.uti^. f-*** 

\ • f'i • ■ • •- ! J» ■•! 

ri«riiit«: tK •■ «ii-. «i)il*t •|f-*]'t*i:i«* 
t?' •:*/• »r J .'. « »•* • »jt . f.» 1 • t a\ ■%'. *.}. iii«« m«-« "f tl* t*r\ii!« I *■• * 
. ■! : ■ ■ .r '- •! T- .• t ■ ;!• ?:•; • r i! ; •*. t 'i. .f *• •! • K-Mf •iti^»» r • ! ■ • r^ 
n « %<•! '^'.r ••( :■ at: r* !t«;r titirii«!t r t« .':ii;:w']f tti-trMi*! t- t|, 
■ : • • • \ "^ i \ f ! • . . i : f * , ! . > f r t f • I ' ri"* a ? • I »• f ■»• « ■ ^f "l i W a?*' I • lr« 
'a: »• » • h r* II !• f f.T :;.•■■■••; 't •• * . \\ :ifi .tjt thf •ta^- * ■•;i 

» . ! •• :• •••• M-.l * *•■ ii> >r» .kr« « !i -w •ifi^lt infY i« ti « f -f 

.• • •: ' k* .••.»;•.! I far ■! •• »■? • . .t!i I* . • l .. •!.:'!. llir l>i« aTf* *.»• 
« 1 « f 1 •■• ■. !• k • 1 I r. t^ « f »'..'■■•.* I'.ta fiarit :tij ill* t .*■« a!r* 
r« » i "*■ 11- • • *•• f ■ * »r f .M. »• 1 1 » *. ii«t« 11 • .'.h «!• \\^\.\ !■ ■ :h« 

• ;«'"i' \«»:.r» 'ara »*^-i'.r •»!,■*•! -ij-fitfi***-!-]*'.** 

• f !•• '■••tf.- a*' r .• *■ * I tt-l a!r:..«t m*\:uv. ttiah !i«^ti« 

• ' '■.-:'.• !f !• • »• ■•!■.' r » : } t}.< « •* ti !• v.ri 

W ' V.' • Mr In • • •.!..: ;.•• ■ ! : *• •'..».•» *^ ai-'« : ta ••• 
. r '■ ■ ^ • ;• •• • • •; I I . r. :- r » ■ .• •. :: i. .• j * .laritr"-}** . !.• 

;• •• : a-' : \ » ■ r ^r * \* m . .. x* \:,* i« ,•?*• !*;•:% 'i::.a'.. ■'■. '. ■ 

r* -. : • • ij. • • ' . \| :•• • 

1 ^ • v « .!••.'• • * . v ■ »rs. f» ff n. a • ,-r i: • a 

t •.'•■• 1'. • - ••.;#••..-••. . ' \ ■ ■•::** ^ •'...■, . 

f .'.•.'-.■ \ 1 • » . ■• ' . I » 
^••l ■• •. ' • \ •'.'•'. • 

jti* *: ■ 1 * • ' ■ . 

a : : . •• k» ' . . ' 

1 • .• '. * . I ' . , V .• 

: • i ! ■ • « • •. a . • 

•IH »TI'»',-I23i:»Iir -rf TBL ACAKOTT OF 

fmiir.iiii.- ii' t- irfiui. 

viin'. ?'b' ifijTv-iiiii. nfjtimiiiiiL uiauem U' siuulb Im- did iicx sT<r>n- 
•zinv vi^ tucur . mi- rrcan. ii i«t sni'iur si* "hj«n* nf MSemiac 
rw.-u"r). Jut ur L ir-'vuu iL utt imik>u iiiTER&il of mL ibt i»t»r 
Kb' iiefiiut'- iii-tuc iK unt '.-uuirititiUid tuvftrdr il. dfdicfai^ is Ui» 
lfiM'7 <i{ uir r^irimtnn.. vtioL-T uimiiudfui (if xitt jtesinaimi diaaztnym 
l»* tmr' iiB'-* iuir.-i «mi'?t ii>r hinimid. *m. Mr. Tixmi tuiied f- pe^- 
lu'iu lit* w>-dim luic liuiM (if lilt koidciDr. inLbtn UK tH>iiiid» of 
wIti-i (>■ HfyiiKsC lo ui;vt iiK^rjTtKi iiu- M^HOitifir ai*}HrBiJutia. Ff-v 
I*!' 'wi t' I H ;i. iLit -— ':*"•: : tun iii- t-suuiile icbt hsT^ f •!- 

•»"i»'-,*ii; I'.' U'.'i', ''ft*.. Ht i?»ei, rtrfiBte^ u< jicxinii frieiHl* K- a-.-D/- 
nm'j i.iit i'n yr'Hj'.tf-j.i j- riiii -ut in m wideir. and t» af^tanrDdj 
iii'Jrt" fi';i I', till: ij lU'T '<f ii>fiiititi>-ij!f. in '.ttber uitiiaukiDs. H* 
•li'j ti'rt ■(!"; I'j I'^iJ-ii-i liiUi ut- in- b c.>m*j»:mdiiic tucuher "f iht 
' »,rJvr'jia A'TE^'i-Ujv ^rf Nuiiiriil ^-.-k-ticts. December 'i'^'l: oi 
M,. J^,.i',j, ri-y-lMv ..;■ Nhiurni Hi-l^.t7. frjB, Marrh 1W4: ..f the 
Ifc/iaJ ~,-nty '>i 7it-;:;iiiiui. fr'.m June l^s**, nor of «By -•ther in 
.W,i. ;. I,j. i,i.H,. had t-*i, tbr .IW. 

Mr I ry ,t:'' ;"■-. j -< nv- uii'l u:j^lfi*li tiaiure ; hie rbe«rful. unpr«> 
t>-ii'i'/ii. ■J'(*.nimiJi ai nlJ liiuir-. ^-ii f->r hiin ■fenionale fwp«t 
;iN'l iTi'l'jnii;.' frJi;i'i-J.ij/-. JW-au-i- lie »*■ )>um-tual. pn.mj.I Uiil 
ilh-Koi in ■i'.in.'. wiiijiij lliT liij.iL- "f '.ffirial duty. whaU'Vcr iMD- 
ai' be dt^erveil and hail th« 

•f «.irk <i'.in' during hi* bap{iT i-»n>er 

iii]r<.'iiiil[iii;: iiidiHtry and vArit-)) abil- 

illi';.'i;itt' training atid the Ma^UT'* 

\lT Kil •iTI^'l.-'f IIIM «l>l I l-lll % 

■ a • 

'» ■ 

• . I 

• • 

. ; • . • .4« N . . 1 A» : • .'.■ f ; • : . - • .1! *. ' ■ 

\ '.. I r ' '.. n ■ f: : tt '• '. r . . ..1 '• ■: 
• ' . :. ! .'■.■ l^ J- . .:■ at ■ ;• 

••i ■^••w'»\k«r * \ ■•!•■■{ 

1 I . • • * *. • \' y ,-.••■ . ;• •■ 4 

• . I ■.-! 

• I 

• ■ 

I •,;■■ ■■.•»■■ ,.?*■ 

I ■ •..»".■». 

^ • fc ■ } f ■ 1 I ■ • ■ » k ■ • , : ■ • I ■ . • '. ■. • : 

: • - - I • »i • .". • r- , i: i : •.'...■.■ r 

- ■ " • . .■ : . . ) *■ : : . » :••••• •.•.■!•••■. 

Ik.-: ' - k • k: 

:. • k«'.. • . I •! '1 ■ T, 


■ ' ■ 

* ii ! ■• • . 1 

• • 

'• V i «• 

«'. ^ L f • ir 



x ■ k 

( . 

M • 

.■ 1 

• . • 



.- I . 

I • 

ii'/ l>JlM-£t:iUIiUt W TBE. AC4DSMT OF 

ttiul grMBta, ipUiM^red W tlw war, miiik £ir ttndr is e 
hu itntiMurivm, wiiii^ vus iar^. and odns to b 
ill l)i« lioiKm. Aud uvw tuid chen a mineralugiK ww rarpriMfd k 
licur liiiii Ulk lirj ku'/wuifJr a^ruut miiiemk. Indeed, im arauftun- 
Uliiiu with iiHluml h'M/ifry, ^tocnUj. ww BufficiendT i"' ■"■■»* v 
limku lliu tillt; oCimturmlut appfvjjnslre tc luiu. Hk koowiedn <^' 
liitllllti itml imtiirul tliiiigt) wa« a pare aooomplwhiiignL. in uf' mw 
itutiniitluil will) Ilia bread- wiuiog work vbUe fae ww iht- aorreaetcl 

I'lkU iiii|turfMil abct^-li of an eminent benefacior of liie acadncr 
l> RIMii^K iiIiuhhI witli tlie following tributair wannn. wnu^n W 
In, uiwKl, i.iir tuUiiw member, Mr. John Ford^ Feb. IS. IHS*. 


lid t'ulU ilii; <tak. matun- and strong in limb. 

A ^iimi 'iiivU£ h» fcllov? ull and grand, — 
t> li'll lli>- |ttvr itf ibiiM' wbom Science cTowat, 

'I'll' jiiiiif>K>] TrTioi. iTpe of noblext men. 

■ Ill liiiiimii bran» aliiae do feel the blow 
riint >rrm-k bini d.i»n in life's meridian, — 

'111' li'iit'v n xi^ iW rales, and (juiet rtreams 
WliiTi- Natun-^ iz^-iu^ he sought, alike are grieved. 

;'t-(i Ni'i'liiiii- iii.>iim? ihe 1** of one who knew 
Hi^ MM-Uini rl'il'lrv'u all br nght aod name; 
u«l tVorii tiii-ir L::irii.-< ibf Tritons Midly turn 

[iiii'tu ihn>u)rh bonis of pearl. 

:*•*- j 

^ ki\ R*i. « ii^< iji «ir niii.«M.i rtiift 


I ^ < ti • r.'.i \V I i:\<>% .li: 
« > :■ ■ J*. % f II i; ■• r - !'• rr^ Va Tr - \ -ail \a! •n 

I'- v : •*.; ; . :••. . • . 

< : t» • 

f ■ • ' *. • * • ■ • 

i *l 

« > . :*.• - i *•• f. »■ V .»fil 1^ fi '..y '..\ f t ^i- rt««iit •(■«-»<• t.f |*h .Ij^. 

I>i •! '»«-.:•(.•;• IV. X*! \«i H. Thil**! !••..•. 

u * I •" 

.. « . •. .• \.i '.^rA I<\aiii \*iii.jt*-la >ti f-r««*a l*r*" \' a>l 

M . .».• ! ••*. 'ii, .1 If.. I;. I. IV' \.»i| \»l •*. V)i'i».\ 

' ■ •' .! • : • I' It ^ :■■ 'I .-^a; J.i f !>.« nltr ••! I'li- ia>U'*a. 
" ■' I- • • •• •:,.•.;•!.. I'r - \,al \»l •*•* l*.*.:lAi|. 

: 4 . «• 

I ^ - • ; '. • t !• :■■* n •{«. »• |' In*** Wairr riflitiar«. frilit 

N .4 -^ T' 1 ! :••. : : 4*. 

i^ • • .■' ! a • • ■ I t -i.- M* '.a\:a. M W'^tu* IV- Vrsdl. 

\ .' -. v x\ :*-.. ; : : 4'. : 4: 

•a- . • \ ..*. J. \ t \a*. '1* aiti |^-i.r.»hl» inKAJ'ititig? 

• • • t r- • \ ii Ni*. -^ I'v vi >•.. IP m: \-0t 

I * » ' r .1 •,.«••..• I' .•.*•! I' {'!i'-al itii l*r»^ 

I- M .- I' \ .: Ni: •-. I" »■. >-.: ; ;. J-. ;•! 

1 * • • . • • ' ■ • » . • ' M I 1-. I J i ••• - :.• II' . I 

I; : • . . . . • J- \ . N»: "•- r.v .*■ >*.i 

: '» • 

A •»• . . « 


• I 

A I'r \ al NaS -s |' i a.1 

^•' •-: 


in 11 comb decreases towanls the end of thp arm. The amlitilar- 
fill feet are in two rows, SO-fM) feet in each ray. There are tui'lv.- 
spines at ench angle of the niouth forminj; a single weh. The f>>ur 
central spine:^>are the longest, the tir^t pair of ggtincd nn the <]uli>iili- 
uf thc» rather smaller, the next half the §ize of the last pair, anil the 
two ont«rmo»t [mirs very shiirt. Two large well developoil !<e<."Oii<larr 
mouth-spines in each intcrra<iial angle. 

Greatest diameter of ^^iJeeimen fn)m tip of one arm to tip of an 
oiipo-->itc arm 100 mm.; proportion of radium of disk to radiun »f ami 
as 1 to 2 : height of disk .'{■'> mm. 

A single s[>ccimen ; color in alcohol, dnll yelluwitih grey. 

This species differ.'' from i^cmj''er//u/ri7/iM,Sars,t(iwhichiiap[>tar* 
to lie closely allied, hy its longer arms ; the aliscncc of large ciiiiii-al 
giupilh^ ii[>oii the i^npra-thirsal mcnibnine ; it* greater siif. U-in^' 
about half as large again; the relalivcly much greater nuniU-rof am- 
hnlacral combs and actinii-luteriil spines, and the dlfferenl ^izi- an<l 
niimlier of tlio spines of the ainbiiiacnil conilis. It also itp|H-:ii^ :• 
be closely allied to 11. >ei„irrli<,t*, Sl:ulen, bnt may In- dj.iiii- 

giiished friim it l>y (he | 

which [wrforace the suji 

..a-dorsal membrane; the gri'atcr mitiil» 

amldiHcrenceinsi/oif I 

be spinicnla ; the abseni-e of any leii.l.n.- 

towards a ({iiadriiple :irrii 

iigcmcnt of ihenmbnlacral feel — the gn-ai 

cr niunher "f aniluihicra 

1 and month spines, ami in it.s gn'atiT ,-ii 

being about :15 limes il* 

largi' as It. t'tnlflinihtw. It ditKr. a'. 

tiigethiT from ll.-r-t'-h-r ■ 

ni,„n,>. descrilwl hy Dr. II. Ludwiir fr-.r 

IWiringS,.a, -/•/.. ./*..r«; 

• havitiL' n<i oscular oHliir. h. 'i/»<>->m a) 

[H^ars u, be ih. ly spn- 

ifs I.I' It'-i-'ii'lvr thill hat hiiherlo Imvii <\r 

.-•crilMMl from thai rc-ion. 

Ilclow. I giv,. a li-t . 
licsf-rilinl U|> lo lli.- |.ri'.-r 

.Mix' >|«rivs .,f /VrnW-r that have In-.- 
n[ liirii-. 

1^«.« } %4Trk4i m ii.%i 131 iir riiti.Ai»ri.rtiiA i\'* 

lkr«« f .t ii i«i 't m (M « •|««i«-« !•! Vt%i|i«ni: V Wall' •mi \n»rr 
.1 .iir: 4 : t. 1 n. \^\»\ ;». l*i«» 11m 

». :••• : : r. : ii : 

( >^* '1 a! . til ti art »'•-. >r*:. «i •;• • iii«« rt -Y l*h« »a ^T^ rina \n<« r 

,1 •• i .1.. *. : ti !*•-•. } : : » 

M •■' '.'raj'h t tti« ti rr« •'.rill rn -il i^ a of th« I'nitf^l .^ali^ 

\r:-' .1 ifi < r.. h : II >•.*. |.|. .M* .'77. ^•;-a.»7 : It. I -•;*•. 

,.,. . - 

t k to n{<<i<>ii ''f a iM « «(B^ N^ < '•*liimii« i' l^^mi Amrr J'^urii 
* ■'. II l^-i** ;■!» .•*.•! .**•* 

fih *. ri(4) •!)• of iif « •|«^it-« -.f M« Utiiiil» Afifl Mt lAn<-)«*-tJ> 

l^-^rM'-'M <*f a III « •|v^-»r<« i<f Ni |4:iii-r . S Trmist«tiH«iia 
\f:-. r J irn ( •«iirh<tl ii. !*»•*•. |» P»l. 
tk«.n|.ti'n **f a iir« •!■-:«•« .f llrlit . || llri*lj:r«i .Kutrr 

.1 ifv 4 .fM ii l ti !*♦>• p i«»i 

< K. ihr Urrv^tnal M**li«i*na **( Uic ItuJUft |»Ua«I •/ Nava«« 

N <r* • I. M Hu** a (^'lic^i«*i Ki |ir I* V Havilrti in Nrlirm^ka 
\\0t A '.r-.i « . :. j, .1 II !•»**.■•, |.|i r»i» I'll 
t a'.ai •a,*-i»' «•! tb« fati;:iir<* *saii'-a« »-ljr. Mviiljr. ami i'liflialiil* 


\*:*«f J •^JfTi f ..f.i h -I 1%. 1^»'» A|*]«tk*l |i|ft v.* *•* 

I alal %rLK 'if \\tr faniilt Tt 11 inula' Amrr Jifura. i'uOrllfJ i%. 
\^'* \\»\wu*i |.p 7 J !.•»' 

|itr^^rii<4t<«b» -f n^« t|«r«^o* ..f irffralrial M<>Uu«rm trim Aodi* 
B^a.* UlafkiU. lo«lian Arthi)ala*^» Amrr J-Mir t'oiMrlliil r. ]*7u. 

If :••» in 

Ik«,f :<a n« f t«r« tf V w • ! • aniw ^'i«aUr B»41tt«rm iri ihr 

C» .f*1- -fi f l*.»* \rjtf\fz\ { Nal.rai •*• *rt*r»« ipf l*hlLaf|t ^(^lA 

An*? J jfi i < ^ 1 :•:•• ;. :7'*-::j ti. 1*71.151 -•--* 

N <*« |»r ,!*•-• !*■ • ; 4> -• « ••- :•/« •>:«!i* -i xim 

II •'. Ii ■•• A ■ . f .1 -.f:i I • : . \ l»r.* ;^ ^.-%«» 



I^^.iin > ..m-i.i. T-i. '."ri pp. i^-v-iT". 

^■■ttra. •' -lu-ai't. "i. I'Ti pp. i'^:k— 1". 

•ixait-^Hf AOtt -T-iK 0^*31 1- It' 'Jm meuil ^pcdes -it* tiie mmiir 
I^.-:ji:d». ?TM-. Ai-ait. XiU. ~i-, PHilaii- I.'^TS. pp. ;*:;-:»«. 

It :a* imii- tZTiamiiiy. Ptne. AisuL Sal. .■S.-i Philad. 

Pnjc A«wL Sji 

Xi:. -■. i"r.. 
N.i:. -^■- ?■:.. 

>.'r-», r--.'TJt rMsniriKiMl*. <.'iTce buliTarimto. P-*. 
\.-..: •■;:.■:.;.•.-.? ■/ aw amilr Ijaleommiilx. [*t'«-. 
lt. : -jryr.-::.- :{ ::if taauij Leptonids. Pr»K-. A'-ait 
i:;.: .t-.'.r Y :ii* funilT Laaeiiiu. Pb»c. A^-ad. 
;n'i -77. r.jn-.^ fih- funilr Ajartklae^ Pmc, .Voad. 
f :;-.- fi.-.-.;.j ^ .,rrtTi.l3e. Pmc Acad. Xai. S:. PhiIa.L 

.;.■ r_-- W. T.-;. t. Jr. 

j.-..i il ;r;a:u* Mollnscm ffym Vlak. Pph:. 

* ■.-'•'. (yiitnl hr William G- Bitut^v. mod 
..•■:.. r-r- ■ f :h«^ Acai^ny of Nstonl !vi«Qi.'e« 

■ \ 


« • 

* • ■ . 

« I • • 

-.1 ■ 

.. Iir.-. t-.., !-■■ ;..!,.-. «:i--;.---..lj--.i i:-IU 11 -t.l.,.i:,r-l 

I -.1 ;i ;..-i. -rir,.- ir .J, r k-r-.l. Ti.- ->-i.Kr I- .-.,1- 

.i..| H,.-.- :.,. .:..i TN.. -t:.i! :.lm.«,.l li..lii-lv.- i.V 
. II,.- -I,.. ^;,.,ij.tI,,^.. il,.lli...:lir..«iii.,I..l»r«.i.. 
I I.T l,:.l.n-,:-l |..r.|. :.-..ii..i iL- .v.,ir:.l »l,ii. 

■.. . II tl,.. iDrli ;>ii.| ■_''Hl, ..t Aii.'iiM -i..' l-'.-xu. I., iwtr 

Mr M -. .,f r-. <mi-l n- .un fill Mii-lv -l" it..- 

■.,ui ll.:.t it ^^■.,- .|.iiu ,:,rW -ii tli.- iix.niin^': lh:il at 
.' "'III. tlif.'.i ir h:i- :i< nliiti' :■> -li-'H' : lli:i: liii' 

ntUir tlw'ii Iwnfun to vtrup it ufi. itinl ii giv* wm*ll(-f autt *iiniHi.'f m 

\ I 


• I 



Vol. Vri[. 18H6. yiiticidic, Calyplrwidie, Oniistiilie, Turritel- 
lidse, VerinetidoB, Crecidfe, Eulimtdie, Pyramid el lidie, Tiirboiiillidie- 
8vo, pp. 401 ; plates 79 ; figures l.'»82. 

Vol. IX, 1887. Solariidje, lantliinida;, Trichotropidic, Scalariidte, 
Cerithiidfe, Rissoidie, Littorinidae. 8vo, pp. 488 ; plates 71 ; figures 
1991. (The first serie-; will be completed iti eleven or twelve- 

Secoud series Terrestrial AIoli.usc.v. 

Vol. 1, 1885. Testacellidie, Oleacinidre, Streptaxidie, Hclieoidea, 
Vitriiiida;, Limacidic, Arionidre, etc. 8vo, pp. 3^4 ; plates GO ; fig- 
ures 1698. 

Vol. II, 1886. Zonitidre. 8vo, pp. ae-l ; plates r,4 ; figur&« 2072. 

Vol. in, 1887. Helicidie (begun ; to he (lomploted in tlirec or 
four volumes). 8vo, pp. .313 ; plate 63 ; figures 2664. 

Third series — Marine Bivalves — ^4 or 5 vohimes. 

Fourth series — Fluviatile genera — 4 or 5 volumes. 

Note — Tlie second, third and fourth series will be continued 
and completed by H. A. Pilsbry, Conservator of the C'oncliological 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Pliiladelphia. 

Church and Stage, Philadelphia, March !■>, 188(1, (printed for 
private use). 8vo, pp, 12. 

Structural and Systematic Conchology; An introduction to the 
study of the Molhisca. By George W. Tryon Jr. Conservator of 
the Conchological Section of tlic Academy of Natural Science? of 


December 4. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Twenty-five persons present. 

Theories of the Formation of Coral Islands. — Mr. Charles Morris 
remarked that there exist, as is well known, two theories of the 
formation of coral islands, the subsidence theory of Charles Darwin, 
and the recent theory propounded by John Murray and others, 
which claims that the phenomena can be explained without calling 
in the aid of subsidence. It was not his purpose to offer any argument 
on this controverted question, and he would simply say that the 
Darwin theory seemed to him much the most probable, the objec- 
tions to it being, in his view of the case, far less cogent than those 
to the Murray theory. 

If the subsidence theory were accepted, however, there was one 
consequence necessarily deducible from it which, so far as he was 
aware, had not yet been definitely considered, and which was not 
without scientific importance. 

The area occupied by coral islands in the Pacific is, as stated by 
Dana, 6000 miles in length and from 2000 to 2500 miles in width, 
thus covering from 12,000,000 to 15,000^000 square miles. This 
includes a blank central area of 1,000,000 square miles in which the 
subsidence is supposed to have been too rapid to permit coral growth, 
beyond which is a region of small atolls, and outside this the region 
of ordinary atolls. Outside this again is a region in which barrier 
and fringing reefs replace atolls, and if this region be included the 
total area of subsidence must have been, according to Le Conte, 
about 20,000,000 square miles. 

The depth of subsidence is variously stated. Dana considers that 
the extreme subsidence was at least 9000 or 10,000 feet. Later 
authorities give it at about three miles. As regards the average sub- 
sidence of the whole area it may perha])s be safely assumed as not less 
than 5000 feet, possibly considerably more. If the Darwin subsidence 
theory be accepted, tl^en, an area of sea bottom equal to that of the 
largest continent must have sunk bodily to a depth of at least a 

This subsidence may have been correlative with a considerable 
elevation of the land surface, but there is no reason to believe that 
there was any equal elevation of other portions of the ocean bed. 
There are many evidences of local elevation, but all of them taken 
together are unimportant as compared with the great subsidence 
over the coral island area, and may have been balanced by local 
subsidence elsewhere. Yet such an immense subsidence, with no 
corresponding elevation of the ocean bottom, could not take place 
without adding greatly to the capacity of the ocean basin. It formed 
what we may speak of as a huge valley in the ocean bed, of 20,000,000 


square miles in nrea and oue mile in average depth. The fiUinj; of 
such II i'hIIcv u'ith water must iieceiisarily have cauiied n murkeil 
lowering of the general ocean level. If the figures above fpvvu lie 
assumed as correct it is easy to calculate the amuunt of deprtsx-iim 
of Rea level. 

The area in <|iicstion isequal to that of Asia and Europe ci>ml>ine<l, 
and the elTect of its sinking woulil be equivalent to that <>f the 'ink* 
ing of the Eurasian continent till covcre<l with water to the avt'ruiri- 
depth of one mile; since to till such a valley in the ocean iH-d would 
re<{uire o-s much water on to cover a continent sinking to the lonie 
ilcptli. The area named is very nearly one seventh of thv whole 
ocean area, and to fill it to a depth of one mile would cause a eenenU 
oceanic depression of one-seventh of this depth, or about 7.>0 feel. 
If the average subsidence be taken at a somewhat greater figure, say 
7000 feet, the consequence would be a depression of the ocean level 
of 1000 feet. 

Thi? is no fanciful conclusion. If the subsidence stated really 
took place, without important elevation uf (he ocean l>ed el^wberc, 
such a lowering of the genenil ocean level must necenarilv have 
occurred to an extent governed by the average extent of subsidencp. 
The effect on the relations of lami and ocean altitude would be 
equivalent to an elevation of the whole land surface of the earth to 
a height of 7'>D or 1000 feet, or some other height dependant on the 
real degree of subsidence. 

Such an effect mui't have left its marks, in the exfMHure of con- 
siderable areas of new land along sloping shores, in the dniinin>r <>f 
Imvs and estuaries, the |K>ssihle conversion of bays into {mrtly or 
fully landlocked sejts, and other dminagc results. In fact if such a 
virtual elevation of all the shon> regions of the eartb took place il 
would seem a^ if il must have lefl some generally traceable indica- 
tions, which would furnish an argument in favor of the sultsidence 
theory. Yet it may have Ix-en so complicated with actual elevations 
and depressions of the land surface as to destroy evidcni-w of its 
existence in most localities. That land drainage and shore eleva- 
tion did take placi' to a considerable extent during the Tertiary 
epoch is acknowled);ed, hut whether these were due M actual eleva- 



While engaged in reviewing the starfishes in the collection of the 
Academy, I found two forms belonging to the genera Pferaster and 
CoronoAter which do not appear to have been described. They may 
be thus characterized: 

Pteraster tesselatas, n. sp. 

Dorsal surface very convex : arms tapering at their aboral ends, 
and much recurved. Bupradorsal membrane regularly reticulated ; 
reticulation forming obliquely arranged hexagonal areas, which are 
very a])parent upon the sides of the arms. No spicules found in the 
supra-dorsal membrane. Paxillse about 2 mm. high. Each paxil- 
la surmounted by eight radiating spinelets enclosing a number of 
smaller ones. 

The spinelets when examined under the mi- 
croscope are found to be composed of two or more 
connected many-sided hollow cylinders, the sides of 
which are perforated by elongated apertures as shown 
in the figure representing a portion of a cylinder 
highly magnified. The distal ends of the spinelets 
are inserted into the delicate membranous bands which 
form the reticulation of the supra-dorsal membrane. 
Some of the spinelets perforate this membrane in the 
centres of the hexagonal areas, projecting slightly on 
the surface. On the dorsal surface of the disk and arms, especially 
in the hollows of the inter-radial portions of the disk and of the 
recurved arm, there are numerous niinute folds of the integument 
that produce a somewhat granulate appearance of the membrane. 
There are 25-30 spiracula in each hexagonal area. The oscular 
orifice is surrounded by a number of webbed spinelets. 

On the ventral surface the actino-lateral spines are short, about 
70 on each side of the ambulacral furrow\ There are a correspond- 
ing number of ambulacral combs. At the base of the arm each 
comb has 6 spines ; the three outer spines are the longest and about 
equal ; the fourth (counting from the outside) rather smaller, the 
fifth very small, and the rudimentary sixth spine very minute, and 
directed towards the aboral end of the arm. The number of spines 

422 PBOCEEDixns of the acadkmy of [1888. 

in a comb decreases towards tlio end of tlip arm. The ambnlac- 
ral feet are in two rows, 80-90 feet in each ray. Tliere arc twelve 
opines at each angle of the mouth forming a single web. The four 
central epinesiare the longest, the first pair of spines on the outside 
of these mther smaller, the next half the size of the last pair, and the 
two outermost pairs very short. Two large well developed secondary 
mouth-spines in each interradial angle. 

Greatest diameter of specimen from tip of one arm to tip of an 
opposite arm 100 mm.; proportion of radius of disk to radius of arm 
as 1 to 2 : height of disk 35 mm. 

A single specimen; color in alcohol, dull yellowish grey. 

This species differs from i^erasfei-pii^M/^««,Sars,'to which it appears 
to he closely allied, by its longer arms ; the absence of large conical 
papillie upon the supra-dorsal membrane; its greater size, l)cing 
about half as large again; the relatively much greater numl>er of ani- 
bnlacral combs and actino-lateral spiiiei^, and the different size and 
number of the spines of the ambulacral combs. It also appears lo 
be closely allied to Pt. eemirelmilatun, Sladen, but may be distin- 
guished from it by the prominent central spinelets of the pai^ilhe, 
which perforate the supra-dorsal membrane; the greater number 
and difference in size of the spiracnla; the absence of any tendency 
towards a quadruple arrangement of the ambulacral feet — the great- 
er number of ambulacral and moulh spines, and in its greater Am 
being about 3! times as large as I'i. semiretieuliihtn. It differ.^! al- 


P. Dance, Verrill. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. xii, p. 386 ; 

Trans. Conn. Acad. vol. i, p. 568, pi. IX, figs. 11, 11a. 
P. affinisy E. A. Smith. Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. xvii, p. 108. 
P. rugatiis, Sladen. Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xvi, p. 195. 
P. stellifery Sladen. Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xvi, p. 195. 
P. semireticulatus, Sladen. Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xvi, p. 195. 
P. carihhcBiLSy Perrier. Comptes Rendus xcii, p. 59 ; Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. ix, p. 13 ; Nouv. Arch. Mus. (2) vi, p. 216. 
P. aporiis, Ludwig. Zoologische Jahrbiicher 1886, p. 293. 

Coronaster bispinosus, n. sp. 

Twelve long slender arms. 

Dorsal skeleton of disk reticulated ; formed of imbricated ossicles, 
and enclosing irregularly shaped meshes in which are found from 
four to ten respiratory tubes. Distributed irregularly on the skele- 
ton of the disk are short spines, each bearing a little cluster of cross- 
•ed pedicellariic. Madreporic plate small and submarginal. 

Dorsal skeleton of arms reticulated : Reticulation formed by 
five longitudinal bands of imbricated ossicles, connected at about 
«very fourth plate by similar transverse bands, forming large rec- 
tangular meshes.* Meshes longest in the direction of the arms, con- 
taining a large number of tentacular papilla?. Sometimes closer and 
irregular in shape at the base of the arms. At the junction of the 
Ipngitudinal and transverse bands, stand long pointed spines, each 
«pine surrounded about its middle by a closely packed cluster of 
crossed pedicellariai. 

Each of the adambulacral plates carries an inner and outer spine, 
the outer spine being slightly more adoral than the inner one, thus 
showing a tendency of the two spines to alternate. 

Length from centre of disk to end of arm, 140m; radius of disk, 

Color of the single specimen in alcohol pale flesh color, with the 
skeletal }X)rtions white. 

This form undoubtedly belongs to the genus Coronaster of Ferner 
{Echinodermes du Travailleur et du Talisman, Annates des Seien 
Naturelles, VI« Serie, T. XIX. No. 8, 1885.) He gives, however, 
a character of the genus the existence of a single spine on « l i 
ambulacral plate, whereas in Coronaster i % 

such spines to each plate. This character oft 
fore be modified in order to admit tl 

. ^ -^ /•!•.' .Jt t 

434 rROcEKUiNiis of the acakkmy of [18*(t. 

The iivemge ntteniiance at the mcclinKS ha^ been alHuil the sacoe 
sii lust vear. . Comijumiculi<mii, whk-li have Ufn interf^tiiid uixi 
varied, have been made by Mes^ra Lcldy. Heilpriii, Lewis. Meeliaii, 
Chapman, Mcfook, Koeiiig, D(.llev, livder, H«.rii, B^K^k^ Dall. 
Kothmek, Binder, Willco.x, Morris, Wilson. Kelly. F.Hrfr. i^harj.. 
Meyer, Woolmuii, McKeun, Robin^in. Ford, Brintuii, Ktilfield. I'. 
C Smith, Ivei*. Hi)l»t«in and I* Bontiliier. 

Eleven tuenibcrd and four corrrapoiMleiils have been clti-tt-'l. Tlie 
deaths of thirteen nieiiil>crM and two correspondents have l>eoi) an- 
iiouuecil and two inenibena, Messrs ('. I.. Kilhiirn and Hew iU': 
X). Bourdtnaii, have resigned. 

The vacancy in the Council caused by the death of Mr. S. Fi.>luT 
I'orliea was filled June 'J6, by the election of Mr. \Vm. W. Jrffi>ri^. 

The following estriiet from the will of the late Geo. W. Trvon Jr. 
wna read at the meeting of Feb, 14, 1S88: — "I give to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences ofFhiladclphia my coileetion of shells now dc|Ht:>ited 
uith that Micicty conditioned that they shall not l>e loane*! <>r n>- 
iHoved from the immediate custody of the said Academy and of it* 
<'on eh o logical Section." The Iwtiuost waa accejite^l on the coDiUliou 
M stated. 

A t>ond of indcmnilv having Inrn given Feb. 14 to the ,.WN:nt..r> 
«r the e.-late of the late Mary H. I). St.iilh, the Antdemy uiu- pL.,-,-,) 
iu ixyses-iioii of the sum of «12<ll.4;i llie |>r<i|iortion of ^li.l fstan-' 
lictiucalheil In the wiiiciy l»y Mi.-^ Smith. 

The Ihauks of the Academy were vote! to Dr. Charles Schafli-r for 
lii^ gil> of S4!i:tlP..'>»4. the amount reccivcil by him as .-..nunis.Moii. 
while acting as executor under the will of the" late John Bryd.n to 
whose i-staic. in accirdanit- with the «i>b of Dr. Schalf.r, th.-^'ift 
has birn < 

A like vole ol thanks wa* lcnder<Hl lo Mr. Th.-odore D. Rand for 
the L'ift uf ^100.00. Oip aatoum rewivitil br liini for t 


December 11. 
The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-three persons present. 

A paper entitled "Description of a New Species of Orithopristis^ 
from the Galapagos Islands.** By David S. Jordan and Burt 
Fesler, was presented for publication. 

Double Cocooning in a Spider. — Dr. Henry C. McCook remarked 
that spiders may be divided into two groups in relation to their 
cocooning habit. The individuals of one group habitually spin 
several cocoons. Those of the other group habitually spin but one^ 
The latter, however, are subject to some variation, the reasons for 
which have not been satisfactorily explained. Epeira diademata 
for example, habitually spins but one cocoon, and yet the Spanish 
investigator Termeyer,^ in the early part of this century, discovered 
and announced that she would spin as many as six cocoons when 
specially nourished. The fact struck the speaker as an extraordinary 
one, and he had never yet quite obtained consent to fully admit it. 

There are some facts, however, which have recently been uncovered 
that show a tendency to a variation of habit in this line in one of 
our familiar orb- weavers. Several years ago a clerical friend, the 
Rev. Dr. P. L. Jones, had brought him two cocoons of Argiope 
cophinaria (Walck.)'' which had been spun on his premises by the- 
same spider. The fact seemed to him strange and interesting, and 
he reported it. About a year ago, Mrs. Mary Treat brought to- 
Dr. McCook's notice the fact that she had discovered what appeared 
to be a variety of Argiope cophinaria, which makes four cocoons^ 
and which she had accordingly named Argiope multichoncha,* She 
sent him a string of these cocoons of which there were four of the 
usual shape and about the usual size, strung within a few inches of 
each other. They were spun on the wall of a kitchen in a house in 
western Missouri. Mrs. Treat also sent the spider which spun the 
cocoons. The specimen was very much dried up and in such a con- 
dition that the speaker could not make a very satisfactory study of 
it, but he found nothing in it differing in the least degree from 
Argiope cophinaria. If it be the same species, what are the peculiar 
circumstances that have caused such a remarkable variation in the 
habit? or is it true that this species does, more frequently than has- 
been supposed, indulge herself in the luxury of an additional egg- 
sac? Two cocoons of this lot were opened and found to contaiD 
young spiders that had hatched, but died within the egg-sac probably 

* See Walckenaer's Apteres Vol. I, p. 152. 

* Arg. riparia (Hentz). 

3 American Naturalist, December 1887, p. 1122. 





of Gxainining the scries of our publications on their nheive*. Tbe 
deficieiieicd which wc could probablv itiipply were indicated. a» well 
as those not at our disposition- 
All expreAsei) Ihennelvcs sHinfiud with the wodin^r of our publica- 
tions bv mail and promlried to <lo the fame when the ^ize of their 
volume permitted. 

During; the year there have been electe<l four < 'orres|>ondetit# ••£ 
the Academy all of whom have l>een pnmipily notilied. 

The <iuty of acknowledjrin); donnti<ms to the museum which liy the 
by-laws, devolves on the Corrcs|>oniUiip Secretary, hai> been rnvuni- 
cd by the Curator-in -charge. The (,'orrespondinn Secniary 
would ucraiii sugi.'c^t ^uch modification of the law» a^ will rcmler 
this le^fal. The reasons for the change are too obviou* to need ex- 

Kesi>ectfully submitted. 

Gkokuk H. Hors. M. D.. 

Corrftfioniting Secretary. 


The additions to the library reconlwl since November .ti>, )fW7 
anionnt to .'19-57, an increase of '>77 over those receivcii during the 
preceding year. They consists! <if ti.lit volumes, 32M pani[ihletit 
parts of [KTiodicaU and instalments of continued works and 14 

Thr acci'ssiirtis have \tevn received from the following sourtvs: — 


lation, he wiis able to draw out this mass, and was delighted to find 
th'it he could restore with very little damage the spider's orb, the 
central shield and zigzag ribbons being quite intact. 

The cocoons were both of them spun within tents of crossed lines 
five or six inches long and four or five wide, and had a thickness of 
between two and three inches. The lines constituting the under 
edges of the tents were attached to the post of the stall on which the 
web was spun. The lower cocoon which was spun first, had the top 
lines of the surrounding tent stayed against an iron bar used to 
support meat hooks. The upper tent has its roof lines sustained and 
<lrawn out from the post by the foundation line of the orb. The 
lines of which these tents were spun were of a greenish yellow silk, 
■similar to that which the spider uses in preparing the cocoon. He 
took the cocoons home and dissected them. The lower one was one 
and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide; was composed 
of a soft yellow silken j)lush, and inside was constructed precisely 
like the ordinary e^g-sac of this species. It contained 120 eggs, all 
of them sterile. The onlv i)eculiaritv in the cocoon was that the 
stem which one usually finds at the top was missing. The second 
cocoon was not quite so large, one inch long, and five-eighths inch 
wide, but it was more perfect in shaj)e, containiniij the usual stem. 
The eurirs within this cocoon were also sterile, and the number did 

err? ' 

not exceed 50. As he had on several occasions counted over a 
thousand eii^^:^ in the cocoonof this species, it will be seen that the 
spider was not in a normal condition. Indeed he had concieved the 
idea that in most cases where this spider spins more than one cocoon, 
it will be found tlint the eggs are not fertilcj, and that on the con- 
trary when the ei^^;^< are in the normal condition, but one cocoon 
will be made. 

We may probably account for the making of the second cocoon 
by some abnormal condition of the ovaries which prevented the ovi- 
positing of all the eggs at once. The first lot when extruded were 
protected in the usual way; subsequently Nature compelled the 
mother to get rid of the remaining vi^^^, and, moved by the same 
impulse that caused her to cover the first lot, she was excited to 
overspin the second also. 

This species will make an imperfect or but part of a cocoon in 
confinement, and Dr. McCook exhibited a specimen which shows 
that she sometimes does likewise in natural site. This is a branch 
which in one place shows the beginning of a cocoon, being the little 
cup against which the 0(s;g:i are always s|)un, and also what appears 
to be the inner egg-bag. There is nothing more, and the whole is 
stayed and shut in by the usual tent-like spinning work. Near by 
is a perfect cocoon secured in quite the same manner. If we suppose 
that those two were made by the same spider (as is highly probable) 
we may infer that the original cocooning purpose of the mother was 
diverted in some manner, perhaps by alarm, which drove her from 
the spot. She returned to enclose the work partially done; but 
moved by the urgency of motherhood, •• iborii 

site and finished her maternal dutv 


Ihe Vahie of Abbot's Manuscript Drawings of American Spiders. — - 
Dr. Henry C. McCook reviewed some recent criticisms upon a 
communication presented by him to this Academy. He spoke as 

In the last number of "Psyche,"' Mr. J. H. Enierton prints a 
criticism upon my paper in the Proceedings cif the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,' based upon the recent discovery 
of Mr. John Abbot's drawings of American spiders. This criticism 
requires some comment. 

1, Mr. Emerton intimates doubt of what he calls my "off-hand 
identifications." I spent between one and two hours iu the Zoologi- 
cal Library of the British Museum, aided by the courteous offlcials. 
I confined my attention almost wlioUy to the one tribe with which 
I am most familiar, the Orbweavers. Of those I published m my 
paper twenty one (21) numbers, embracing seventeen species Mr. 
Emerton says: In 1875 I looked over these same drawings at the 
British Museum "I, like Mr. McCook, made hasty identifications of 
such few of them as I could." It might have been true thirteen 
years ago that Mr. Emerton was unable to determine accurately that 
number of common species within the time which I gave lo them, 
but I do not hesitate to say that he could not plead such inability 
now after his study and publication of the New England E]>eirid:e. 
At least, I should have small opiiiion of my own attainments if I 
could not identify "off-hand," from tlie admirable drawings of John 
Abbot, such familiar species as most of tha'^e named in my list. I 
think that any entomologist, familiar with Mr. Abbot's work, who 
will substitute for spiders seventeen species of insects with which he 
is most familiar, will quite agree with me that such determination is 
(if grciit (liff '" 


moral as to "the uncertainty of off-hand identifications of these draw- 
ings by two persons both familiar with the common spiders of the 
Northern States." But the inference is wholly deceptive, for the 
basis of his comparison is entirely faulty and unfair. He published 
a list of thirteen (13) numbers, noted by him as identified thirteen 
years ago when he visited the British Museum. Of these, four 
numbers are of other species than Orbweavers; two other 
numbers are Orbweavers which I did not notice or did not list. 
Emerton includes all these in his estimate; but it is manifest that 
any comparison, in order to yield just results, should throw out these 
six numbers not listed or considered by me, and should be con- 
fined wholly to the seven numbers which both of us attempted 
to identify. Such a comparison justifies a conclusion quite the 
reverse of Mr. Emerton's. We agree as to the following: Nos. 121, 
116, 117, 79 and 80 — five out of the seven. How stands it as to the 
remaining two numbers, (one species) 77 and 78? Mr. Emerton 
marks them with a generic name, ** Uloborus. " I list them as 
** Cyrtophora caudata Hentz, " but in a secondary place, and in a 
foot-note express my uncertainty as to the identification, and think 
they may prove to be my own species C. bifurca. Concerning the 
only species, (embraced in these two numbers) about which we differ, 
I express my uncertainty, and Emerton merely gives a generic name, 
showing his uncertainty as to the species. In other words, we are 
both more or less uncertain, and thus we agree in that respect also. 
I submit, therefore, that instead of justifying Mr. Emerton's inference 
of uncertainty, and thus casting doubt upon my identifications, the 
contrary is shown, for we actually agree in one way or another on 
€verv number concerning which both give an opinion. In other 
words, we absolutely agree concerning five-sevenths of the numbers 
mutually identified, and agree to be uncertain concerning the other 

As to which list is nearer the truth in the one uncertain factor, 
I do not venture to decide. Turning to the original description of 
Walckenaer,' one finds that he is left in doubt, and the doubt can per- 
haps not be removed. Walckenaer makes one of the numbers a variety 
of the other. If we read the description of the animal itself, Mr. 
Emerton's identification as Uloboriis is well justified; but when we 
turn to Abbot's account of the habits of the spider, we find that 
they differ entirely from all we know of UloboruSy and correspond 
exactly with the peculiar habits of Cyclosa caudata, especially the 
habit of covering the central diameter of its vertical net with pellets 
of silk mixed with insect detritus. Uloborus spins a horizontal 
snare; has many ribboned decorations as caudata frequently has, 
but never has been observed, so far as I know, to decorate her orb 
with insect scalpage. 

1 Op, cit., p. 144. 


4. Mr. Emertoirs conclusion concerning the questions raised by ray 
j)aper is timt we should wait until all the common spiders of America 
are described before attempting to determine priority of names. 
This seems to me very curious reiuionin<r. Emerton lias descrii)ed 
and figured all but two of the spiders contained in my list of Abbot's 
drawings. Does he intend us to count his work as worthless for 
comparative service? I think better of it than that. With his 
New En.rland ''Epeiridte'* and Hentz's "Spiders of* the United States** 
in mv hand, I have no doubt at all of mv ability to determine 
positively therefrom the ultimate names of many si)ecies by comparing 
the same with Walckenaer's descriptions and Abbot's drawings. 
What we need chiefly is a facsimile copy of the latter somewhere in 
America; but in lieu of that, that some one should take up the 
matter in London with a good collecti(>n of American spiders. 

Meanwhile, no naturalist ouarht to doubt that it is our dutv to recoir- 
nize the Walckenaer species which we know by whatever means to 
be identical with descriptions made by Ilentz, re|K?ated by Emerton 
and others, and now thorouffhlv familiar and recoi^nizable. As to 
the doubtful sjH^cies, there can, of course, be no question that they 
had better remain as named by Hentz and more fully described by 
others. Walckenaer's descriptions are undoubtedly incomplete and 
some are ])ositively bad, but they are no worse in this resj)ect than 
many of Ilentz's, and in my opinion are just as readily identified by 
the aid of Abbot's drawings as are Hentz's descriptions by the aid of 
his own drawings. 

At this point I may submit the opinion of one who stands at the 
very head of living araueologists. Professor T. Thorell, who thus 
writes me from Italy in a letter dated April 7th, 1888: "The dis- 
covery of Abbot's (ira wings of American spiders is indeed a fact of 
the greatest interest, not only to American but to all arachnologists, 
and I congratulate you upon having had the luck to make this 
discovery. Of course I have read with sfreat attention what vou 
have said on the subject, As to me, I do not entertain the least 
doubt that you and Professors Ivcidy, I^ewis and Dall are right, and 
that the earlier names should in all cases be adopted. The law of 
priority must be resj)ected, and is the only one that prevents arbi- 
trariness and that gives stability to nomenclature. I think, then, 
that in all such ciises, in which Walckenaer's species can with toler- 
able certainty be recognized, his names should be preferred to names 
more lately published, even if these names are more commonly used, 
or the species better described or figured under these newer names." 
The weight of this distinguished authority can not be questioned, 
and I place it in the scale against the judgment of ^Ir. Emerton. 

I venture to add from the same letter the following sentence, with 
the earnest expression of hope that the suggestion therein may be 
realized: ''Would it not be possible to have Abbot's work publish- 
ed ? There are in America so many wealthy citizens who are 
willing to make sacrifices for scientific purposes; and in this case an 
appeal to the national feeling of your countrymen, would not, I 


think, be out of place." Over again!»t such an ox])ro.ssion as this I 
am willing to place uiy critic's words, ''Mr. McCook is inclined,^ 
however, to set too high a value on these drawings." 

5. Finallv, I think I may sav under all the circumstances that 
I am excusable for believing that my so called "discovery" of 
Abbot's drawings was a genuine novelty. I cannot remember a 
single allusion in any araneological literature to the existence in the 
British Museum or elsewhere of those drawings. The bust reference 
made to them of which I have knowledge was Dr. I^. M. Underwood's 
paper on the "Progress of Arachnology in America," in the Avierirun 
Xatiiralist of November 1887. The author alludes to Abbot's 
manuscripts (miscalling him "Thomas," by the way, instead of 
"John"), and adds. "Knowledge of the date of preparation of this 
series of drawings, as well as its present place and condition is want- 
ing. But it was in London as early as 1802, and wiis purchased by 
Baron Walckenaer in 1821." Mr. Emerton, in his several admira- 
ble monographs, makes no reference to the fact that he knew of the 
existence of the drawings, and does not make the slightest attempt 
to compare the list in his possession with the descriptions of Walck- 
enaer. This seems to me all the more remarkable in view of the 
fact, as above shown, that he had accuratelv determined some of 
Hentz's species as identical with some of Abbot's numbers, and could 
readily have made the further step of determining their correspond- 
ence with Walckenaer's descriptions. His reasons for this reserve 
are doubtless satisfactory to himself, and I will not venture to criti- 
cize them ; but will say that I am quite satisfied with having taken 
the opp()sit<» course and given to the world, at the earliest available 
op}K)rtunity, the information which had accidentally been placed in 
my possession, and which I believed at the time to be new and 
valuable. That it was new to most students of spiders has been 
nmde very certain by the responses to my paper. That it is valuable 
may in scmie minds admit of doubt; but, on the whole, I think that 
I have shown here, if not before, that the measure of doubt is very 

Food of Baruucles. — Prof Leidy stated that last summer, in 
June, while walking on shore at Beach Haven, N. J., he picked up 
a bunch of Goose-barnacles, Lepas fnncioUarls^ attached to a frag- 
ment of a griLss stem, Spart'uia. Finding at the time nothing else 
of interest, he examined the specimens, not having previously dissec- 
ted a Barnacle since 1848, when he observed the eves in Balanua 
rurfo.^us (See Proc. 1848, 9). 

All the specimens of JjepuA, of which there were nine, had the 
body distended with a brownish-yellow Cyclops, in large number, 
fresh in appearance and generally entire. Untler the circumstances 
he at Hrst suspected that they might be a larval form of the Lepas, 
though aware of the fact that the cirripeds proceed from a Nauplius 
embryo, which ])asses through a Cypris stage before assuming the 
Barnacle condition. On further investigation he was convinced 


Attentiun i* again called to tKe important question of f^uo'lay 
opening. The numerous rcque^tt^ for adniUvion into the museum •m 
Hundny.t clearly speak the public mind, or at aur rale, the wi^b c>f a 
large niintber iif the city'ii inhabitants. The Academy of the Fine 
Art ami the Zoological Society have set an example in the riirbt 
direction, und there seems to be no reason. i)eyond an inadetguacy .i|' 
funds to maintain nxivh o|)ening, why our Ai.-ademy should ni>t ful- 
luw the lead. .Snnduy-ojwning would certainly be a I'haritv to that 
large IkkIv of useful citizenti whoiie ilaily employment debam tln-ni 
from the »dvaututK>« which the institution otherwise offers. 

During the year s|iec-imen8 for study have Ixen loaned to I'n-f. 
K. r. Whitfield, of New Y<.rk ; to Pn.fs. Oalwrn and Scott. -I 
Princeton ; to iJr. ( i. IJuur, of New lluven ; to Ur. (ieorge Mars, i.f 
Woiihingtiin : and to I>r. Harrison Alk-n, uf this city. 
Ites|)ectfnlly sutimilied, 

.\s<ii;i.<> Hkii.i'Uiv, 

f 'unitor-ia- (.^itnjr, 

Ji>sKl-|| T.Kd-Y. 

C/i'i. I'linitorf. 


Till- lLiral..r ofthf William S. Vaux i'.dWtions r.-*i«ct fully .-ub- 
iiits lii» sixth iinnuiil n'|s>rt to the t'ciuncil uf the Academy. 
Th<' i-olh'cliiin.'' arc in g<><Hl order and nuidilion, the only cbnng>- 
iidr siiirv thi- r.'i>ort id'IM.sT. being the introduction of one hundn^^l 


The follo>ving animal reports were read and referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee: — 


In view of the full reports of the Treasurer, the Curators, the 
Librarian and the various sections of the Academy, the Recording- 
Secretary has, as heretofore, but little to report apart from the 
statistics of the meetings of the society and the operations of the 
Publication Committee. 

One hundred and sixty-eight pages of the Proceedings for 1887 
and two hundred and seventy-two pages of the current volume have 
been issued and distributed. Provision has been made for twenty 
j)lates in illustration of the papers presented for publication during 
the year. These number thirty-four and are by the following au- 
thors: — 

Rev. H. C. McCook 3, W. D. Hartman 3, Jos. Leidy 2, D. S. Jordan 
2, Harrison Allen 2, Angelo Heilprin, 2, Thomas Meehan 2, Charles 
Wachsmuth and Frank Springer 2, II. C. Chapman and .A. P, 
Brubacker 2, H. C. Chapnmn 1, Otto Meyer 1, B. H. Wright 1, A. 
M. Fielde 1, E. N. S. Ringueberg 1, E. A. Kelly 1, C. Ochsenius 1, 
John Ford 1, C. R. Keves 1, H. F. Osborn 1, H. A. Pilsbrv 1, J. E. 
Ives 1, John Eyerman 1, R. W. Schufeldt 1. One of these has been 
withdrawn by the author and the others are all in course of publica- 
tion although two or possibly four will have to be held over until 
the issue of the first sheets of the volume for 1889. 

Eio:hteen additions have been made to the list of foreign corre- 
spondents to whom the issues of the Proceedings are distributed, the 
number being now four hundred. The (h)mestic exchanges are 
now sixty-eight, an increase of seven over last year. The subscrip- 
tion list remains the same, so that five hundred and ei;rhtv-tw(> 
coj)ies of the one thousand printed arc ])romptly distributed. 

The second part of the ninth volume of the quarto Journal con- 
sisting of (me hundred and ten pages and five lithographic plates 
was distributed, aft(»r much vexatious delay in the printing office, on 
the sixth of August. Fifty copies were sent to foreign and twelve 
copies to domestic exchanges, while thirty-nine copies were supplied 
to subscribers, making a total distribution of one hundred and one 
copies of the five hundred printed. 


The average attendance at the meetings hns been nliniit the same 
ad last year. . Communications, which have l>een iiiteresiing and 
varied, liavc lieeii made by Messrs Leidy, Heilprin, Lewir;, Meelinn, 
Chapman, McCoolt, Koeiiig, D«lley, Ryder, Horn, Br.>ol(s, Dall, 
Rothrock, Binder, Willcox. Morris, Wilsoii, Kelly, Foote, Wharp, 
Meyer, Woolman, McKeau, Robinson, Ford, Brintoii, Kedfield, U. 
C Smith, Ives, Holstein and 1* Boiitiliier, 

Eleven members and four correspoiwleiits have been clcctcl. The 
deaths of thirteen meml»ors and two correspondents have lieeu an- 
nounced and two members, Messrs C. 1^. Kilburu and Rev. Oco- 
D, Boardman, liave resigned. 

The vacancy in tlie Council caused by the death of J[r. S. Fisher 
Corlies was filled June 26, by the election of Mr. Wm. W. Jefferi!<. 

The following extract from the will of the late Geo. W. Tryon Jr. 
was read at the meeting of Feb. 14, 1888; — "I give to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia my collection of shells now dejxtsited 
with that society conditioned that they shall not be loaned or re- 
moved from the immediate custody of the said Academy and of its 
Conchological Section." The bequest was accepted on the condition 
na stated. 

A bond of indemnity having been given Feb. 14 to thee-vecutors 
of the estate i the late Mary R. D. Smith, the Academy wius ])liiced 
i ] ses o of the aum of 81201.4!' the proportion of said estate 
1 q e tl e 1 t the society by Miss Smith. 


•executed on behalf of the Academy, May, 1, 1888, and the following 
resolution for the appointment of the required committee was 
adopted : — 

Resolved — That a committee not exceeding five, to be appointed 
under the deed of trust of Mrs. Emma W. Havden, shall first be rec- 
ommended by the Council of the Academy and shall be selected 
from the members at large and their names submitted to a vote of 
the Academy annually, and if said vote of the Academy shall show 
their election, they shall act as such committee under said deed. 

The thanks of the Academy were ordered, November 20, to be 
conveyed to ]Mrs. C/lara Jessup Bloomfield Moore for her liberal addi- 
tion of $5000.00 to the Jessup Fund endowed by her father, the late 
A. E. Jessup. By subsequent action of the Council the entire amount 
was ordered to be placed to the credit of that portion of the fund 
which is appropriated to the assistance of young naturalists. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Edw. J. Nolan. 

Recording Secretary. 


The duties of the Corresponding Secretary during the past year 
have been neither important nor onerous. 

The correspondence has related mainly to the publications of the 
Academy, being either acknowledgments from corresponding socie- 
ties or the usual letters transmitting their publications. 

The acknowledgments number sixty by letter and forty-three by 
card, divided as follows : 

By card, American societies 28, Foreign 20. 
By letter, American societies 15, Foreign 45. 

The letters of transmittal represent thirty-eight bodies, of which 
but one is American. These, with the latter exception, are very 
nearly all those continuing their send ings through the International 
Exchange Agency. 

During the past year the duties of the office were kindly perform- 
ed by the Curator-in-charge for five months in the interval of the 
Secretary's absence abroad. 

An opportunity was afforded of seeing personally the officers 
in charge of the libraries of some of our corresponding societies, and 


of examining the series of oiir pnl)lieations on their shelves. Th& 
deficiencies which we could probably supply were indicated, as weU 
as those not at oar disposition. 

All expressed themselves satisfied with the sending of our publica- 
tions by mail and promised to do the same when the size of their 
volume permitted. 

During the year there have been elected four Correspondents of 
the Academy all of whom have been promptly notified. 

The duty of acknowledging donations to the museum which by the 
by-laws, devolves on the Corresponding Secretary, has been assum- 
ed by the C'urator-in -charge. The Corresponding Secretary 
would again suggest such modification of the laws as will render 
this legal. The reasons for the change are too obvious to need ex- 

Respectfully submitted, 

Geokije H. Horn, M. D., 

Corretpunding Secretary. 


The additions to the library recorded since November 30, 1887 
int to 3957, iHi increfiso of J')"1 over those reoeivM during the 




Geological Survey of New Zealand, 7 
■GeolojTJcal Survey of Roumanin, 6 
■Geological Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, 6 

Her Britannic Majesty's Govern- 

Smithsonian Institution, ... o 

Briiish Museum, 5 

War Department 5 

University of Aberdeen, ... 4 

Kjeological Survey of Portugal, . 4 

Henry C. Gibson, 

Department of Mines, Nova Scotia, 
Dr. Benjamin Sharp, .... 
California State Mining Bureau, 
Prince Albert of Monaco, . 
United States Coast Survey, . 

M. Marlet, 

I^oston City Hospital, .... 
Dr. Charles Schaflfer, .... 
East Indian Government, . . . 
Dr. J. W. Eckfeldt 

They were assigned to the several departments of the library as 
follows : — 

Journals, 3034 

-Geology, 267 

Botany^ LSo 

•General Natural History, . . . 107 

Conchology, 43 

Mineralogy, 42 

Entomology 41 

Medicine, 3o 

Anatomy and Pysiology, ... 34 

Physical Science, 32 

Voyages and Travels 30 

Public Documents, 28 

Chemistry, 22 

Ornithology 22 

Anthropology, 21 

Encyclopedias, 9 

Ichthyology 8 

Bibliography, 8 





Herpetology, , 


Unclassified 12 




The appended list of additions will indicate more specifrcally the 
nature of the year's increase. 

We have procured from the publishers in Germany the parts 
lacking in the set of De Martins, Flora Brasiliensis, received last year 
from the Brasilian Government, and the work is now complete as 
far as issued. 

The revision of the catalogue of Journals, commenced last year, has 
been completed with the exception of the Scandinavian and Russian 
publications. It is hoped that the entire work may be finished be- 
fore the end of the year. 

With the assistance of Signor Fronani, whose services I have been 
again enabled to secure, two hundred and thirty-four letters asking 
for supply of deficiencies, were sent in September to foreign societies. 
Seventy-four answers have already been received and the increase of 
accessions over those recorded last year is mainly, if not altogether, 
due to the liberality of our correspondents in supplying us with the 
volumes and parts asked for. 

The card catalogue, exclusive of periodicals, was compl d • ly 
in the year and the geographical entries of journals ye i 
finished. Cross references and title e 
course of preparation. This will c 

446 PRrx.'KF.Diyoii of the academy of [ism. 

the arrangement of the familieit NerUida, Phanaitellidte and Ttirhi- 
tiidce has Iwen nearly completed." 

No dinnges have been luadi- in the By-Laws i>f ihe S^tion. 

The officers of the Hection for l>*«9 are : — 



Treaifurer, . 
Seeret'iry, . 
Llbrariim, . 

Ko#|>eit fully 

W, S. W. Riischenberfter. 
. John Ford. 
. Ktlwurd J. Nolan. 

S. Raymond Roberti'. 
. JohnH. Redtield. 
. Pjlwunl J. Nolan. 
. Henry A. I'iUhry. 

f*. HaY-MOMJ Riibkrts, 



The Viit'-Direct<jr of the Botanical Section respectfully report-' % 
continued inleran on the part of the meiiihers. The nH-mlienhip 
conlinuci' iiliont iw heretofore, the meetings have l>een regularly at- 
tendeil. ami miiiiy fnct« of great interest brought to the attention of 
the SeeLiiiii iiml di«'ii.''^d by the (ueml>erK. The t^tion \* out of 
debt with a .-'niiill .surpliis in its treafury. 

The officers elcctitl for the vesr ensuing are :— 

Dr. \V. S. W. RuschonWr^rer. 

Thomas Mcehan. 

l>r, Charles rtehaHer. 

Isirne ('. Manindale. 

Jobn li. Rodlield. 


rector . 






r. SfcrrUiri/ < 


itAirMlor. - 




The Curators present the following statement of the Curator-in- 
Charge, Prof, lleilprin, as their rej)ort for the year 1888: — 

The Curator-in-Cliarge respectfully reports that the collections of 
the Academy are in good condition, and that their status, as far as^ 
classification and arrangement are concerned, has been materially 
improved during the year As heretofore, the Academy has prof- 
ited largely through the work ot volunteer specialists, and \s 
hence placed under special obligation to those who have thus gen- 
erously contributed their time and assistance. To Mr. J. H. Red- 
field, Conservator of tlie lierl)arium, and to ^Fr. Thomas Meehan, it 
is almost wholly indebted for tlie careful work that is beinij svsl^ni- 
atically applied toward the expansion and proper distribution of the 
, botanical collections; while to the officers of the Entomological Sec- 
ti(m and of the American Entomological Society it is placed under 
obligation for work done in connection with the department of ento- 
mology. In the death of Mr. George W. Tryon, Jr., its Conservator 
in the department of conchology for thirteen years, the Academy 
has lost one of its truest and most efficient members — one who ha(] 
for a full (juarter of a century given much of his daily time to the 
interests of the institution. That the department will feel fT)r some 
time the want of his vast experience, and the absence of his governing 
influence, there can be no (piestion ; but it is hoped that under 
the special direction of the new conservator, Mr. H. A. Pilsbry^ 
and of the Conchological Section, it will be kept in that command- 
ing position which it has so firmly and justly held. 

In the dei)artments other than those here specified the work has 

been done almost avIioHv under the dire(*tion of the Curator-in- 

Charge and his assistant, Mr. J. E. Ives. As in preceding years the 

alcoholics have been completely overhauled, and it is satisfactory 

. . . * * 

to be able to report that there has bei^n practically no loss in this part 

of the Academy's collections since the j)reparation of the last annual 
statement. It is less agreeable to report that during the latter part 
of the present year several attem|)ts to force the ornithological cases 
have been made, with the result of robbing the collection of some 20O 
specimens of South American and Australian birds, mainly repre- 
sentatives of the family Tanagridie. The greater number of these 
have been recovered, and it now seems that the full loss resolves it- 
self to possibly not more than a half-dozen specimens. A change 


4, Mr.Emerton'sconcluaioiicoiicerningtheqiiestionsraisedbj- ray 
paper is that we should wait until all the common spiders of Amerii 
are described before atteinptiiig to deterii ' 
This seems to me very curious reasoning. 
and figured all but two of the spiders contained ii 
drawings. Dogs be intend ur to connt \na ivoi 
comparative service? I think belter of it tha 
New Kni^lund "Epeirida;" and Hentz's "Spiders of the United Sttites" 
in my hand, I have no doubt at all of my ability to determine 
positively therefrom the ultimate names of many s|)eeiesby com|mring 
the same with Walekenaer's ilescriptions and Abbot's drawings. 
What we need chiefly is a facsimile copy of tlie latter somewhere in 
America; but in lieu of that, that some one .-should take up the 
matter in London with a gimd t;olleetioii of American spiders. 

Meanwhile, no naturalist ought to doubt that it i,« our dulv to recoir- 
luze the Walckenaer siwries which we 
be identical with descriptions made by Ilent/. n 
and others, and now thoroughly familiar and 
the doubtful species, there can, of course, be u 
had better remain as named by Hentz and more fiillv described bv 
others. Walckenaer's descriptions are undoubtedly incomplete and 
some are positively bad, but they are no worse in this resjiect than 
many of Hentz's, and in my opinion are just as readily identified by 
the aid of Abbot's drawings as are Hentz's descriptions by the aid of 
his own drawings. 

At this point I may submit the opinion of one who stands at the 
verv head of living araneologists. Professor T. Thorell, who tbns 
writes me from Italv in a letter dated April 7th, 18S8: "The dis- 
eoVfiT of M)\«,\'^ drawings of American spiders is indeed a fii.l of 

• priority of names. 

lerton has described 

y list of Abbot's 

irk as worthless for 

I that. 

.' whatever means to 
■epeated bv Emerlou 
recognizable. As to 
.) (luestion that ihoy 


think, be out of place." Ov'er against such an expression as this I 
am willing to place my critic's Avoids, ''^Ir. McCook is inclined, 
however, to set too high a value on these drawings." 

5. Finally, I think I may say under all the circumstances that 
I am excusable for believing that my so called "discovery" of 
Abbot's drawinji^s was a jjenuine noveltv. I cannot remember a 
single allusion in any araneological literature to the existence in the 
British ^Museum or elsewhere of those drawings. The last reference 
made to them of which I have knowledge was Dr. L. M. ITnderwood's 
paper on the ''Progress of Arachnology in America," in the Ameriean 
Xaturalisf of November 1887. The author alludes to Abbot's 
manuscripts (miscalling him "Thomas," by the way, instead of 
"John"), and adds. "KnoAvledge of the date of preparation of this 
series of drawings, as well as its ])resent place and condition is want- 
ing. But it was in London as early as 1802, and was purchased by 
Baron Walckenaer in 1821." Mr. Emerton, in his several admira- 
ble monographs, makes no reference to the fact that he knew of the 
existence of the drawings, and does not make the slightest attempt 
to compare the list in his possession with the descriptions of Walck- 
enaer. This seems to me all the more remarkable in view of the 
fact, as above shown, that he had accuratelv determined some of 
Hentz's species as identical with some of Abbot's numbers, and could 
readily have made the further step of determining their correspond- 
ence with Walckenaer's descriptions. His reasons for this reserve 
are doul^tless satisfactorv to himself, and I will not venture to criti- 
cize them: but will say that I am quite satisfied with having taken 
the opposite course and given to the world, at the earliest available 
op|)ortunity, the information Avhich had accidentally been placed in 
my possession, and which I believed at the time to be new and 
valuable. That it Avas new to most students of spiders has been 
made very certain by the responses to my paper. That it is valuable 
may in some minds admit of doubt; but, on the whole, I think that 
I have shown here, if not before, that the measure of doubt is very 

Food of Barnacles. — Prof Leidy stated that last summer, in 
June, while walking on shore at Beach Haven, N. J., he picked up 
a bunch of Goose-barnacles, Lrpas faAclcnlaris, attached to a frag- 
ment of a grass stem, Sparthia. Finding at the time nothing else 
of interest, he examined the specimens, not having previously dissec- 
ted a Barnacle since 1848, when he observed the eves in Balanus 
rnfjofius (See Proc. 1848, D). 

All the specimens of Lepas, of Avhich there were nine, had the 
body distended with a brownish-yellow Cyclops, in large number, 
fresh in appearance and generally entire. Under the circumstances 
he at Hrst suspected that they might be a larval form of the Lepaa, 
though aware of the fact that the cirripeds proceed from a Nauplius 
embryo, Avhich passes through a Cypris stage before assuming the 
Barnacle condition. On further investigation he was convinced 



The Recorder of the Conchologieal Section respectfully reports 
that during the year ending Dec. Ut, 1888, the Academy has con- 
tinued to publish such coneliological papers as have \men offered. 

Two membera have been elected. The loss to the section by 
death has been the severest in its history. On ilanuury 2l9t, 1888, 
our honored Treasurer, Mr. Wm. L. Hactier, was called from works 
to reward, and we had hardly turned from paying our last tribute 
of respect to his memory, when we were aq^ain summoned to perform 
the same service for our beloved Conservator, the eminent Conchol- 
■ogist, George "W. Tryon Jr. who died February 5th, 1888, while 
yet in the prime of life. 

At a special meeting of the Section called for the purpose and 
held February 22nd, 1888, appropriate minutes prepared by the 
Director were adopted and by direction sent to the families of the 

William Laurence Mactier, a member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia since Jan. 1860, was born iu the city of 
New York, May 28, 1818, and died at his home in this citv Jan. 21, 

His father, Heury Mactier, was a native of Scotliuid, and his 
mother, a daughter uf Augusitiiie Hicks I^aurence and Catherine 
Luquer, wius honi in New York. 


He wa^ a member of the Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia, 
and read a historical sketch of the institution before the Society 
Jan. 29, 1885, which was published. He was treiLsurer of the So- 
ciety from 1804 to 1880, — sixteen years — and vice-president since 

He was Ion*; a member of the Philadelphia Atheneum. At forty- 
j^ix consecutive annual elections of the Philadelphia and Reading 
Railroad Company he was one of the judges of the election. 

He was active in the Board of Publication of the Presbyterian 
Church ; a Director of the *' Mercer Home ;" Secretary of the Pres- 
byterian Hospital ; a member of the Deaccm's Court, and associate 
superintendent of the Sunday School of the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia. 

The position which he held, the work he did, are significant of his 
friendliness to natural science, of his benevolence and public spirit 
a.s well as of the excellence of his character. 

Resolved, That in the death of William L. Mactier the ('oncholog- 
ical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
has lost an estimable member and efficient treasurer, that, in testi- 
mony of appreciati(m of our loss and as a tribute to his memory, 
this brief of his virtues be entered upon the record of Proceedings, 
and that a copy thereof be transmitted to his fa?nily by the Re- 

The Director's extended and appreciative biographical notice of 
Mr. Tryon is published in the present number of the Proceedings of 
the Academy. 


Our Conservator, Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, reports: — 

"The principal additions to the nuiseum consist of suites of Medi- 
terranean shells from jMalta and the Balearic Isles received from 
Messrs B. Tondin and Alfred (^^aruana ; of Sandwich Is. land 
shells, a large series from Mr. Baldwin ; and new Tasmanian shells 
from C. E. Beddome. From the family of the late Wm. L. Mactier, 
a number of interesting forms mostly of well known marine species. 
A large number of American species have been received, among 
which may be mentioned alpine land shells from Colorado, Florida 
marine shells and a series of Texas shells. A full list of the dona- 
tions are included in the " Additions to the Museum." 

The total number of additions made is 46, amountlDgto 603 trays, 
3455 specimens. The collection now contains 192,606 
51,930 trays. A valuable series of alcoholic spec 
ceived from Mr. Bryant Walker, Detroit, iK 

448 pr<x:eedixG3 of the academy of [1888, 

the arrangement of the familie* Xeritida, FhwiaitelUdK and Tiirbi- 
nidie has l>ecn nearly corn|ileted." 

No (-hflnge« have been madf 
The officerif of the Section fo 



Recorder, , 
Treasurer, . 
Secret'iry, . 


liespect fully ! 

In the By-Laws of the Section. 

\V. S. W. Ruschenberger. 
John Ford. 
tMwurd J. Xolan. 
S. Raymond Roberts. 
JohnH. Redfield. 
EdwanI J. Xolan. 
Henry A. PiUI>ry, 
S. Raymond Kobkrts, 



The Vice-Director of the Botanical Section respectfully reports a 
continued interest on the part of the members. The membership 
continues about as heretofore, the meetings have been regularly at- 
tended, and many facts of great interest brought to the attention of 
the Section and discussed by the ineml>ers. The Section is out of 


The Conservator's report to the Section, giving the details of these 
additions, is added as a part of this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas Meehan, 

Vice- Director. 

Coiuervator's Report for 1888. — The Conservator of the Botanical 
Section reports that during the year closing Dec. 10th, the additions 
to the herbarium consist of 2525 species, of which 2296 are vascular 
plants, and 229 are Lichens, Fungi and Algae. Of the 2296 species 
of vascular plants 1040 are believed to be new to our collection, 77 
of them being of genera not before represented. 693 species are 
North America, 1414 are from Tropical America, 171 from the East- 
em Continent, and 18 are Australian. 

It is gratifying to know that the rate of increase has not declined, 
and that so large a jx)rtion of it is of forms not previously represent- 

The most important addition of the past year is the completion of 
the collections made by Dr. H. H. Rusby in Bolivia and the neigh- 
boring regions in 1885 and 1886, consisting of 983 species of which 
nearly 600 are believed to be new to us. Including the portion of 
this collection received by us the previous year, the whole consists 
of 1433 species. These have been contributed by members of the 
Section, supplemented by the proceeds of duplicate plants sold by 
its order. Other valuable additions to our representation of the 
flora of Tropical America are — 266 species collected by C. G. 
Pringle in the Province of Coahuila, Mexico, and 100 species 
collected in the Mexican Province of Tabasco and presented by Sr. 
Jose N. Rovirosa, from whom we have reason to expect further con- 

The number of species of vascular plants in the herbarium of the 
Academy, at the date of the last report, was estimated at . 27,267 
to which add the accession of new sjiccies of this year . 1,040 
giving the estimated present total ..... 28,307 
of which 8200 are North American, that is from the region covered 
by Gray's Synoptical Flora. 

In May last was completed the work of mounting the special 

herbarium of North American plants. This work was begun in 

1878, and has been continued from year to year in the intervals of 

other duties. In this the Conservator received most efficient aid 


450 PROCEEDINOa OF THE ACADI':MY <)!■' [1888. 

from the late Charles F. Parker, from F. L. Seribiier ami more recent- 
ly from Mr. Isaac Burk. 

A complete list of the ndditioDs to the herbarium is ajipended, 
and will appear in its proi)er place under the head of "Additions to 
the Museum," 

Respectfully subniitteti, 

.John H, RKnFiELD, 



The Director of the Mioeral and Geological Section of the Acad- 
«my of Natural Sciences, would respectfully report that meetings of 
the section have been held nearly every month during the year excejit 
the summer months. Some of these have been quite well attended, 
at others the attendance has been small. On the whole, he 
regrets to say, the itnt«rest has not been as great as in former yearii, 
but this has been largely due to absence of active members from 
causes beyond their control. 

The meetings during the latter part of the year have been better 
attended and more int«rest has been manifested than in the earlier 
part, so that the outlook is more favorable. 

The following officers were elected to serve during the ensuing 


which, as heretofore, has been ilhistrated or supplemented with prac- 
tical field demonstrations. He has also delivered in the hall of the 
Academy, a number of lectures before the Teachers' Institute of this 
city, and contributed four lectures to the Friday Evening course of 
the Academy. During the month of July be conducted a class in 
the exploration of the Bermuda Islands, which had hitherto received 
but little attention from naturalists. The inquiry extended as well 
to the zoological as to the geological features of the island group, 
and has resulted in bringing to the museum a rich store of materi- 
al, the greater part of which is new to the collections. The details 
of the exploration, to which reference is also made in the Curator's 
Report, are being published in the Academy's Proceedings. 

The collections in the department of Invertebrate Paleontology re- 
main pretty much as they were last year. A number of additions, 
but none of any great significance, have been received. Perhaps 
the most valuable of these is a collection of cretaceous plants from 
Kansas, obtained from C. H. Sternberg in exchange for certain vol- 
umes of the Academy's Proceedings. Mention should also be made 
of a fine selection of crinoids from the Carboniferous formations of 
the central United States, generously given to the Academy by 
Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer, of Burlington, Iowa. 

The general condition of the collections is good. But here as in 
almost all other departments of the Academy's Museum, additional 
4iccommodations are badly needed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Angelo Heilprin, 

Professor of Invertebrate Paleontology, 



During the past year the course of lectures usually delivered by 
me was omitted owing to my absence from the city. 

The collections have received some but not extensive additions 
this department. It would be desirable and would benefit U 
branch of instruction were all the ethnologic objects in the p 
ion of the Academy arranged and classified separately from 
other collections, and according to the ethnic method of d «y. 
accomplish this the exclusive use of sufficient space would be 


to exhibit the objects and allow room to fill the lacuDsa in the col- 
lectioD. At present, this does not appear to be within the power of 
the Academy ; but it seems proper to state that such an arrange- 
meut is very desirable so that it may receive consideration in any 
future extension of the Society's building. 

Respectfully submitted, 

D. G. Brinton, 
Projeggor of Ethnology and Archaology. 




For the Year Ending Nov. 30, 1888. 


To Balance from last account « 2007 56 

" Initiation Fees 110 00 

" Contributions (semi-annual) 1590 57 

Life Memberships 300 00 

Popular Lectures 226 75 

" Publication Committee — Sales of Proceedings, Journal, 

etc 659 30 

" Interest on Investments 2503 65 

" Interest on Money awaiting Investment 889 90 

" State tax on Mortgages 113 10 

■*' Wilson Fund, toward Salary of Librarian 300 00 

" Rentals from Real Estate 1662 48 

" Sale of Duplicate Books 7 70 

•** Miscellaneous 123 57 


110494 61 


By Salaries, Janitors, etc 3742 78 

" Printing and Binding Proceedings, etc J450 79 

" Printing and Stationery 78 28 

** Plates anfl Engravings 248 00 

" Postage 69 77 

*' Gas 102 68 

*' Coal 367 50 

" Insurances 55 00 

" State Tax on Mortgage Investments 113 10 

•« Taxes and Water Rents 418 25 

" Cards, Trays and Boxes 74 27 

"** Municipal Expenses - 179 42 

" Repairs and Expenses to Real Estate 216 80 

" Glass and Glassware 102 49 

"** Lecture Fees paid to Professors 213 10 

" Specimens 75 00 

** Cases and Drawers 5 00 

"" Expenses Publication Committee 150 00 

** Real Estate Title Co., Insurance of Title to 3 Mortgages 

for 132000 80 00 

" Miscellaneous 849 72 

"" Life Memberships transferred to Investment account 300 00 

8891 95 

Balance 11602 66 



Balance overdrawn last slatement 307 60 

Books 2284 22 

Colleciing 84 66 

Taxesand Waler RenS 200 M 

Repairs to Houses 214 18 

J3091 21 

Rents CoUccied ]041 50 

Ground Rents Collecied 669 64 

Amount transferred from General Fund (Interest on money 

awaiting investment) 135 00 

Proportion of repairs refunded 12 04 

1858 IS 

Balance overdrawn (1233 OS 


Balance overdrawn as per last statement 57 69 

Books 231 16 

Transferred to General Account toward Salary of Librarian 300 OO 

Less Income from Investments 525 00 

Balance overdrawn f63 H> 

JESSUP FUND. (For assistance of .Students.) 

Balance last statement 288 01 

Interest from Investments .-. 560 00 

.,_ 848 01 

Disbursements 480 00- 


" received from sale of lot in Manayunk to Edward 

Haugb \ 300 00 

** received from Mrs. Clara J. B. Moore (addition to Jessup 

Fund) 5000 00 

" transferred from General Account (3 Life Member- 
ships) 300 00 

38624 95. 

Of the above amount there has been invested in 3 Mortgages 

on city properties 32000 OO 

Balance 16624 9^ 


The election of Officers, Councillors aod Members of the Finance 
Committee, to serve during the year 1889, was held, with the fol- 
lowing result : — 

Pretidenl, . . . Joseph Leidy, M. D. 
Yiee-PresidenU, . . Thomas Meehan, 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D. 
Recording Secretary, , Edward J. Nolan, M. D. 
Corresponding Secretary, George H. Horn, M. D. 
TVeoawrer, . , . AVilliam C, Henszey, 
Librarian, . . . Edward J. Nolan, M. D. 
Curators, . . . Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Jacob Binder, 

W. S. W. Ruschenberger, M. D. 

Aiigelo Heilprin, 
Councilors to serve three Edward Potts, 
yeart . . . Isaac C. Martindale, 

Theo. D. Rand, 

J. Bernard Brinton, M. D. 
Finance Committee, . Isaac C Martindale, 

Aubrey H. Smith, 

George Y. Shoemaker, 

William W. Jefferis, 

Joseph AVillcox. 




Archaeology, Ethnology, Etc. 

Stewart Culin. Chine^^e medicines. 

G. Y. & W. H. McCracken. A collection of Peruvian mummies, crania, pottery, 

M. Sommerville. Celt, from Schleswig-IIolstein. 

D. G. Brinton. Human foot-print, Nicaragua. 
J. Willcox. Shell remains from mound, Florida. 


E. A. Kelley. Spermophilui grammurus^ California ; Thomomys talpoideSy Cal- 

H. C. Chapman. Cetacean and manaiee remains from South Carolina. 
J. E. Ives. Vesperugo serotinus^ Philadelphia; disarticulated skeleton of cat. 
Zoological Society of Philadelphia. Marmosette (jFJapale anHpus) ; Hapale Geof- 
froyi\ aoudad; jaguar; elk; puma. 

Birds, Etc. 

F. Beamer. Malformed epjg of fowl. 

Zoological Society of Philadelphia. Psittacula ; Cnnurus Petyi ; Penelope cris- 
tata ; Conurus cactorum ; Eos reticulata ; Corvus monedula. 

Reptiles a.nd Amphibians. 

E. A. Kelley. Pityophis Sayi^ Bascanion constrictor^ Eumeces Skiltonianus, 
Gerrhonotus ccsruleus^ Bufohalophilus^ from California. 

J. E. Ives. Tropidonotiis leberis^ Philadelphia. 

F. Reynolds. Crotalus adamanteus (skin), Mexico. 

C. W. Hoffmann. Skin of ophidian, Hammonton, N. J. 
2^1ogical Society of Philadelphia. Varanus Bengalensis. 

Fishes (Recent and Fossil). 

C. S. Bement. Fossil fish, from Green River, Wyoming. 
E. A. Kelley. Sebastodes chlorostictuSy San Francisco. 

Recent Invertebrata (excluding Mollusca). 

E. A. Kelley. Crangon Franciscorum^ California. 

C. P.Perot. Sponge (2 species), Rhipidogorgia flabelluniy Oreaster reticularis ^ 

from New Providence. 
J. Lcidy. Cirolana concharum^ Palamon palamoneticola^ Lepas fascicularis. 

Beach Haven, N. J.; Cirolana concharumy Atlantic City, N. J. Scorpion, 

Bridger Station, Wyoming. 
M. Sharp. Mygale Hentzii. 

A. M. Fielde. Annelid, Swatow, China. 

J. Ford. Arbacia punctulata^ Atlantic City, N. J. 
L. Woolman. Pleurobrachia^ Atlantic City, N. J. 
J. Willcox. Flustra/oliacea, Pterogorgia^ from Florida. 

B. Sharp. Balanus concafus, Chesapeake Bay. 

458 pRoci':EDixu3 of the acauemv of [1888. 

MoLLirscA (receni). 
W. D. I tartman. Three new species of Parlula. Thirty-six phot<^aphs ai neir 

specie* oK Parlula and Atkalinilla. 
W. B. Marahall. Bythinia Itnlacuhla, from Albany. N. Y. 
John Ford. Types of NalUa Ferdiana Simpson, and Otiva inflata var. ovum- 

ralii Ford. Two species of Helii, Aatlia luras, FyramUeUa, etc. 
B. P. Ruggles, Sii species of SfihariUa from Vermont. 

H. A. Pil-bry. Ten species of American KissoiJ^. Type* of sii new species. 
Dr. W. H. Rush. Ten species of marine shells, dredged off Florida. 
UryanI Walker. Fiflyfour species o( U. S. Limniades. Twenty-seven jars and 

vials of alcoholic Limnaida- 

E. W. Roper. Three species aiSphariiJa. 

Miss A. M. FieUe. LiatHoa from Swalow, China. 

W.L. M iciier. Thirly one specie; of marine shells. 

Wm. A. Marsh, Two specie- of fresh water shells, 

Wm. D. Averell. Three sj^ciei of Hilix. 

T, D. A. Coclterell. Fifiy-lwo species of Colorado mollusks. 

Fredcnck Stearns. Fuurieen spe.-ies of Bihaman shells. 

b. H. Wright. Twenty-three Florida Unioiies, including lypes of his new species. 

Jos, Willcox. Fifty Irays of Florida shells. 

S, Raymond Roberts. Acmaa vulgala from Ireland. 

F. A. Simpson. Twenty-eight species of Mivsouri shells. 
Chas. T. Simp^n, Six species of Indian Territory shells. 
Henry Hemphill. Ten species of fresh-waier univaH'cs. 
Hon. F, E, Spinner. One species of Florida mollusk, 
Pro(. Angelo Heilprin. Four species of Cyfraa. 

B. Tomtin, Thirty seven species of European marine shells. 
H. E. Djre, Three species of Ot^on shells. 

John Campbell. Cyfiraa 

Alfred Carnana. Forty-five species shells from Maha (in exchange), 

C. W. Johnson. Twenty-one species Florida shells, 
J, A, Sim-ley, Fifty-nine trays of Texas shells. 

Wm. Baldwin. Sevdnty-eight trays of Sandwich Is. land shells. 
C. E. Bjddome, Four species '" 



Prof. Edward L. Greene, University of California. 36 species o\ new or choice 

California plants. 
Prof. Thos. C. Porter of Lafayette College, Easlon, Pa. 15 species of plants fron> 

Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 
Frank Tweedy, of U. S. Geological Survey. Ertgeron Tweedyi Canby, a new 

species from Montana. 
Wm. M. Canby. 18 species of European plants, and 10 species from the mountains 

of North Carolina and Tennessee, including the rare species Senecio Rugelia 

Gr. and Buckley a distichophylla Torr. 
Miss Adele Fielde, of Swatow, S. China. Boekmeria nivea (L.) Hk. and Am, 

with specimens of its fibre and of fabrics woven therefrom ; acorns of Quercus 

fissa Camp. 
C. Mclntyre. Nut of PhyteUphas macrocarpay (Vegetable Ivory). 
Isaac C. Marti ndale. 32 species of North American and Ballast plants. 
Thomas Meehan and John H. Redfield, supplemented by proceeds of Academy 

Duplicates :— 983 species of plants collected by Dr. H. fl. Rusby mostly in 

Bolivia in 1885 and 1866, a large majority of them being new to the collection. 
J. M. Price through Wm. Hunt. 2 species of Australian Eucalypti, and 2 species of 

Australian Acacta, cultivated in California. 
Herbert Aldrich, Springfield, Mass., through Thos. Meehan. 5 species of Arctic 

Plants, from north-western coast of Arctic America. 
Dr. Geo. A. Rex and Dr. H. Wingate. 20th and 21st Centuries of Ellis and 

Everhart«i' North American Fungi. 
Roberts LeBoutillier. StreptosoUn yamesoniiy Miers, (cult.) a native of New 

Granada; StaphyUa Colchita Stev. (cult.) vind Symphytum aiperrimum Sims^ 

(Cult.) natives of Caucasus. 
Miss Frances Whitney. Fasciate form of Ranunculus bulbosus L. from Bryn 

Mawr, Pa. 
Aubrey H. Smith. 25 species of plants from mountains of western North Carolina 

and New Hampshire, and Carex miliaris Mx. from Maine. 
Prof. N. L. Britton, Columbia College, N. Y. Aesculus arguta Buckley, Kansas^ 

Corema alba L. Portugal; Hicoria alba (L.). Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) and 

Hicoria minima Marsh, from Staten Island, N. Y. 
Wm. H. Dougherty. Clianthus Dampieri A. Cunn, native of Australia ai.d 

Leonotis Leonurus L. native of South Africa, both cultivated at Mt. Pleasant, 

New Jersey. 
John Donnell Smith. Specimens of Darbya umbellulata Gr. both pistillate and 

staminate plants. 
Prof. John H. Barbour, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. Mimulus luteus L., na- 
tive of California, established in fields, Norfolk, Ct. 
Wittmer Stone. Oxybaphus nvctiginrus Sweet and Bromus sterilis L., introduced 

at Wayne Junction near Philadelphia ; 41 species of vascular plants, 3 of Lichens 

and 23 of Algae collected by him in Bermuda. 
Miss Van Wyck. Leaf of Aponogeton fencstralis Hk, native of Madagascar, froi» 

Botanic Garden of Mauritius. 
Mrs. Lewars. Sarcodes sanguinea Torr. (Snow -plant) from California. 
Prof. Joseph T. Rothrock. 60 species of plants collected by himself in Manatee Co.^ 

Florida, in spring of 1887. 
Jos6 N. Rovirosa. 100 species of plants from vicinity of San Juan Bautista, province 

of Tabasco, Mexico, of which 52 are new to the collection, 
Tohn H. Redfield. 266 species of plants collected by C. G. Pringle in province of 

Coahuila, Mexico in 1887, of which \'2.\ are new to the collection ; 191 species 

collected by himself in New England and 220 species mostly from western 

stales to supply desiderata, in the Herbarium. 

Plants (Fossil). 

L. Woolman. Sigillaria, Elkland, Pa. 

H. W. DuBois. Plant remains from the Trias of New Jersey ; Sagenopteris, 
Newark, N. J. 


MiNBKAU, Rocks, Etc. 

\V. W. Jefferis. Quam in Mici; Epidoie.Pa.; Garnels, New York Cily; Phlogo- 
pilc, Ontario ; Moan-stone, Amelia C. H., Va., Haydeoile, Beaumonlite, Stilbile, 
Chal«wite, Siderite, from Baltimore; BuchoUite, Philadelphia ; Bowenile, R. I.; 
Phlogopite, Ontario and New Voik; Rose Tuunoaline, Chesterfield, Mass.; 
Muscovite, Del.; Menaccanite, Parkerville, Pa.; Feldspar, luly; Roxbniy 
Conglomerate; Granite, Virginia City; Garnets, New York Cily. 

J. M. Buck. Concretion formed on bolt, Pt. Pieasini, N. J. 

Mineralogical Section A. N. S. Aiurite and Malachite from Arizona ; Bemeniiie, 
Green' Tourmaline, from Franklin, N. J. ; Ripidolile, Brewster, N. Y.; Se- 
piolite, Ontario ; Microlile, Amelia Co.. Va. 

C. E. Ronaldson. Syenite with nodules, SmeJIey, Pa. 

S. Tyson. Tysonile, Colorado Springs, Col, 

E. A. Kellcy. Trap rocks. Cal. ; Argenlitc, Montana. 

M. Sommerville. Aragonile, Hyacinth, Epidote, Grossularite, Idociase, and Ice- 
land Spar, from France. 

H. W. DuBois. Artificial pumice; Stylolite, Delaware Water Gap. 

J. E. Ives. Steatite with Dolomite, Lafayede, Pa. Selenile, Siliceous Concre- 
tion, from Goat Mand, N. Y. 

T. M. Hartman. Hematite, Orinoco River. 

vl. H. Gifibrd. Worn rock, resembtinj> implement. 

J. E. Roberts. Umber. Lancaster Co., Pa. 





Abbott, Helen C. De S. Comparative chemistry of higher and lower plants. 8vo^ 
T. Aug. and Sept. Philadelphia, 1887. The Author, 

Abercrombie, Hon. Ralph. Weather, a popular exposition of the nature of weath- 
er changes from day to day. 8vo. New York, 1887. 

I. V. Williamson Fund, 

Abich, Herman. Geologische Forschungen in den kaukaischen I.flndern. HI, 
Th. Geologie des armenischen Hochlandis. II OsthSlfte. 4to. Wien, 

1887. With folio atlas. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Geologische Fragmente aus dem Nachlasse Hermann Abich's. I, Karten 

und Profile zur Geologie der Halbinseln Kertsch und Taman. II, Zur 
Geologie der Ponzalnseln. — Barometrische Hohenmessungen im Kirchen- 
staate, etc., etc. Text 4io, Atlas folio. Wien. 1887. 

1 V. Williamson Fund, 

Admirality manual of scientific enquiry. 5th Ed. Edited by Sir Robert Ball. 

8vo. London, 1886. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Agassiz, Alexander. A contribution to American thalassography. Three cruises 

of the United Stales Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer "Blake" from 1877 

to 1880. Two volumes. 8vo. Boston and New York, 1888. 

I. V. Williamson Fund, 
Allen, Timothy Field. The Characene of America. Part I. The Author, 

Observations on some American forms of Chara coronata. 4to T. May, 

Thomas Meehan. 

Allgemeine Naturkunde. Lief. 99-117. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Ami, Henry M. Flora Temiscouatensis. May, 1888. 'Ihe Author. 

Anderson, John, M. D. Anatomical and zoological researches; comprising an 

account of the zooloj;ical results of the two expeditions to Western Yunnan 

in 1868 and 187o ; and a monograph of the two cetacean genera, Platanista 

and Orccila. 2vols. 4to, Text and Plates. London, 1878. 

1. V. W'illiamson Fund. 

Australian Mu*:eum, catalogue of the library. 8vo. Sydney, 1883. Guide to 

the contents ot. Hvo T. Sydney, 1883. List of old documents and relics. 

8vo T. Sydney, 1884. Plan of the, and its contents. March, 1887, 

Report of the Trustees for 1887. Ogilby's catalogue of fishes. Part 1, 1888. 

Bale's catalogue of zoophyte^, 1884 See Authors. The Trustees. 

Baer, K. E. Uel^er Entwickelungsgcsthichte der Thiere. 2er. Th. Schlussheft. 

4to. 1888. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Baillon, M. H. Dictionnaire de botanique. 22e Fasc. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

The natural history of plants. Vol. VIII. 8vo. London, 1888. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Bale, W^ M. Australian Museum. Catalogue of the Australian hydroid zoophytes. 
8vo. Sydney, 1884. ' The Trustees. 

Ball, John. Notes of a naturalist in South America. 8vo. London, 1887. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Ballot, C. H. D. Buys. Verdecling der Warmte over de Aarde. Amsterdam, 

1888. Royal Academy of Amsterdam. 
Baltet, Charles. Le Surgreffa<;e des Vegetaux. ' Thos. Meehan. 
Banquet to commemorate ihc framing and signing of the constitution of the United 

States. '1 he Committee of Arrangements. 

Barcena, Mariano. Informe sobre el estado actual del volcan de Colima. 

The Author. 
Barrande. J. Sysidme silurien au centre de la Boheme. VII. 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fund, 





The Author. 
I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Uuckiin und Dr. Ca.l 
1. V. Williamson Fund, 
.o. Nrw Vork. 1888. 

Bary, A. De. Coniparalive morphology and biology of Ihe Fungi, Myceloioa 

and Bacleria. Tran^lalion by Henry E. F. Gstn'ey, revi-ed by Isaac Bay. 

Icy Balfour. 8>o. Oxfoid, 1887. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Baur, G. BeilrSge lur Morphogenie lie-i Carpus und Taisus der Vettebralen. 1 

Th., Balrachia. 8vo. Jena, ISt^S, I. V. Williamson Fund. 

B«echer, Chatles K. A method of preparing for niicioscopical study Ihe raduls 

of smallspeeiesof Gasleropoda. Nov.18,1"— - - ""■ ' ' 

Ber^haus H. Physikalischer Atlas L. 14-JB. 
Bibliotheca Zoologica, Merausgegeben von Dr. 

Chun. H. 1, 
Binet, Alfred and Charles F6rf. Animal Magneli 

1. V. Willi 

Boettger, Oikar. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Madagascar. 4lo. Frank- 
fun a/M. 1877. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Boguslaivski, G. V. and Otio Kiiimmel. Hnndlincb der Ozeanographie, II. 8vo. 

Slultsan, 1887. I. V. Williamson Fund, 

Bohemia. Naiurwissenschaflliche I^andesduichforschung von liohmen. VI, 4, 

5, e. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Bollman, Charles H, A preliminary list of ihe Myriapoila of Arkansas. 8vo T. 

February, 1888. The Author. 

Bombicci, L. II Gabinello Universilario di Minerali^ia in Rolocna XXVII 

anni dopo la sua fondaxione. ^(clazionc letia. Bologna, IftHS. 
Un Muaeo djdattico per rinsegnamenlo <^ettivo elemenlare con mnnografie 

circolanti. Fondato dalla Society degl' insegnanti. liok^na, 18);8. 
Sulla funnazione della Grandineesu! fenomeni adessaconcomilanli. Uoli^na, 

1888. The Aulbor. 

Borre, A. Preudhomme de. LIste des cent et cinq esp^cca de coliopt^ies lamelli- 

corne^ actuellement authentiijuement capluiies eo Belgique svec W tableau 

aynopliquc de leur dislribulion gtographique dans le pays. Jan. 7th, 1888. 

The Author. 

Bourgeois, M. L. Encycl. Chim. (Fremy), T. II. Metalloides. Keproduction 

artificielle des mineraux. 8vo. Paris. 188*. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Bourkc, John G. Compilation of notes and memoranda bearing u]K)n the use of 

human ordure and human urine in rites oi a religious or semi -religious 

charaoU-r among various iialinii'i, Wa-binKlon. ISISK, Tlit .Aullior, 


Brinton, I). G., Henry Phillips Jr. and Monroe. B. Snyder. Rejxjrts of 
llie Committee appointed October L'l, 1887, to examine into the scientific 
value of Volapiik, piesented to the American Philosophical Society, Nov. 
18, 1^^87 and January 6, 1888. The Authors. 

British Museum. Catalogue of the fossil Reptilia and Amphibia. Part 1. 1888. 
Catalogue of the Pa>seri formes or perching birds. Oligomyodiv. By Phillip 

Lutley Sclater. London, 1888. 
Guide to the shells and starfish galleries (mollusca, echinodermata, vermes) 
in the Department of Zoology. 8vo T. 1887. The Trustees. 

Britton. N. L. Contr. from the Herb, of Columbia College, No. 5. New or note- 
worthy North American Phanerogams. April, 1888. 8vo T. 
Note on the growth of a vinegar plant in fermented grape juice. Jan. 10, 

1887. 8voT. 
On an arch.xan plant from the white crvstalline limestone of Sussex County, 
N. J. Jan. 9th, 1888. 8vo. ' The Author. 

Britton, N. L. and H. H. Rusby. Contr. from the Herbarium of Columbia College, 
No. 4. A list of plants collected l>y Miss Mar}' B. Croft at San Diego, 
Texas. Oct. 3rd, 1887. 8vo T. The Authors. 

Bronn's Kla^^sen und Ordnungcn des Thicr-Reichs. 5er Bd. V, 18, 19; 6er 
Bd. III. 57-62; IV, 18-22; V, 30, 31. Wilson Fund. 

Brown, Jno. Allen. Palaeolithic M#in in N. W. Middlesex. 8vo. London, 1887. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Brown, Nathan Clifford. A catalogue of the birds known to occur in the vicinity 
of Portland, Me. 8vo T. 1882. Portland Natural History Society. 

Bucquoy, E., Ph. Dautzenberg and G. Dollfus. Les mollusques marins du 
Roussillon. Fasc. 14. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Burckhard, Hugo. Andreas Gaill. Feslrede, Universitat Wiirzburg. 4to T. 

1887. University of Wiirzl urg. 
Burmeister, H. Atlas de la descrij^tion physique de la Republi(jue Argentine. 

2e Section. Mam., 2 and 3 L. Supplcmentc, text pp. 37-1 2o. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Burnham, S. M. Historv and uses of limestones and marbles. 8vo T. Boston, 

1883. ' I. V. W^illiamson Fund. 

California State Mining Bureau. 7th annual report of, for year ending 1887. 

Bulletin, No. 1. Sacramento, 1888. The Director. 

Letter of State Geologist, 1864-65. Address, Jan. 30, 1868. Statement of 

progress, 1872-73. Report of Secretary of War, Tyson's memoirs, 1850. 

In Exchange. 
Call, R. Ellswoith. Memoranda on a collection of fishes from the Ozark Region 
of Missouri. May, 27, 1^87. 8^o T. The Author. 

Canada. Geological and Natural History SurNey of Canada. Annual reports 
(new ser.) II, 1886. with portfolio of maps. Catalogue of Canadian plants. 
By John Macoun, 1886. Part III, 1886. IV, 1888. 
Meteorological Service. Report (Carpmail), 1885. The Survey. 

Cape Horn, Mission Scientifiquc du, 1882-83, I, II, III, IV, VI Arachnides, In- 
sects, Rr)'ozoaires. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Carruthers, G. T. The earth's polar floods in perihelion. 8vo T. 25th March, 

1888. The Author. 
Casey, Thomas L. On some new North American Rhynchophora. Part I. New 

York. 1888. 8vo T. The Author. 

Challenger Reports. See Thomson, Sir C. Wyville. 

Champlin, A. F. The Catawba language. 8vo T. Jan., 1888. The Author. 

Chaper, M. Extraits d'un rapport de mii-sion sur la cOte nord du Venezuela. 

The Author. » 

Cholera, statistics of, with sanitary measures adopted by the Board of Health prior 
to and during the prevalence of the epidemic in Philadelphia in the summer 
of 1849. 8vo T. Philadelphia, 1849. Wm. J. Potts. 

Ciofalo, Saverio. Eco dell' Isola. 4to T. Ottob. 22. The Author. 



ClesKn. 5. Die Molluslten-Kiuni Oe< 
1, 2, S. 6vo. Nurnberu, 18H7. 

Cohen. E. Zu^ammenMtllunB [)elrugia|) 
Nrg. Marz, 1«84. 

Cohn, K. Kryptoganion- Flora von SchI 

Cole, Jas. E. The Eailh's orbil and <hM 


Colin, G. Traii 
Combe, George. 

: de iihysiologie c< 

The consliluiioi! 


1 untl dcr Schweii. I- 

I. V. Wiliiaitison Fund. 

:her L'nIenuchunRinielhoden. Slrau- 

I, V. Williamton Fund. 

thiesien. 4e L. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

The .\uihor. 
ipai^edesanimaui,!]. Kvo . 1^m. 

[. V. \V.IUamM.n Fund. 





il oh. 
_ Fo.. 

Coolidge, Richard II, StJti-.tica1 report on the «ickne!F and monality in Ihc : 
of the United Stales, Jan. 1839 Lo Jan. 1855. 4lo. Wa>hini;lon. ia><i. 

William J. 
Coopei.J. G. West Coast I'ulmonala, fo^^il and recenl. Svo T. Ilcc.3l, IHmT. 

The .\u1lio.. 
Cooper, W. M. Track from Kai.)oml 


n Mu«i 

:. Jan. 30. ISKH. 

The Auihor. 

Coles E. C, and C. Swinhoe. A calologue ol ihcmo<h«of India. II and III. 

Bombyces. «vo. Calcutta, 1887. TrnMces of Ihc Indian MuMum. 

Cowan, Frank. Contributions tu Anthropology. Papei Xo. 1. llie principles 

and practice of medicine in Chosen ui Corea. GreenesLnirc. I'l.. 1SA8. 

fivoT. The Author. 

Crtpin, Francois. Nouvellcs rcchetches ti faire sur le Rosa olxu^ifolia Do>. 

Oct. 8th. 1887. 

l.ei rose* des lies Canarirs el de Vile de Madfre. Nov. Vi. IKHT. 

Thos. Median. 
Culin. Slewan. China in America. Philadelphia. 1887. The Auilior. 

Cutler, Rev. Manasseh. On ihe sea anemones of Swallow llouie or cave in the 

rocki ol NahanI near I.ynn, Mass. 
Dunes, W. and F'. Kay>er. PaU'onloUf ische Abhandlungen, IV, 1 . 2. 

I. V. WilliamMn Fund. 
Danielli, Jacopo. II Corridore Martinclli. »)swrva/ioni anrropologiche. IWM 

Tecnica anlro|ioloG<a. May IK. \KH6. The Author. 

l)arwin, Chark's. The life and lellers of, indudiiii; an aulolnographicil cha|>tet. 
L-vols. 8vo. New \ork, IW(7. 
Oil Ihe origin of si<«iF>. (jih VA. Kvo. New York. 1887. 

I V. Wdliam-jn Fund, 

Davidson. R. B. Ilislorv o( the lniie.1 l(o»mcn of l-hiladcliihia. M.o L 

I88» Cha.» P. HaMTs, 

DaWSon, Sir J. The Eeohigieal hitiory of pianli. H»o, New Vnik. 



De Hass, F. S. Buried cities recovered, or explorations in Bible Lands. 8vo. 

Philadelphia, 1887. Angelo Heilprin. 

Deichmiiller, J. V. Die Meteoriten de> mineralogischen Museums in Dresden, 


Uber Urnenfunde in Uebigau bei Dresden, 1884. The Author. 

Delauricr, E. Essai d'une th^orie gen^rale sup^rieure de philosophie naiurelle et 

de thermo chimie avec une nouvelle nomenclature binaiie notative pour la 

chimie minerale et organique. ler — 4e Ease. 8vo. Paris 1888-1884. 

Nouvelle theorie fond^^i sur I'exp^rience de la cause de la production de 

Telectricii^ dans les piles hydro et thermo^lectriques et remarques sur les 

courants electriques 8vo T. 12ih Oct. 1885. Paris, 1886. 

Proc^de pour r^soudre facilement les probl^mes de chimie les plus compliques 

par des equations tauKibles a I'aide des notations et d'une niethode graphi- 

que. 5 Oct. 1885. 8vo T. Paris, 1886. The Author. 

Delgado, J. F. N. Conimissao dos Trabalhos geologicos de Portugal. Estudo 

sobre os Bilobites e outros fosseis das quartzites da base do systema Silurico 

de Portugal. Supplement-^, 4to. Lisbon, 1888. The Survey. 

Derby, Orville A. and Luiz F. Gonzaga. Extrahido da Revista do Obser\atorio. 

Meteoritos Brasilieros. Notas sobre meteoritos Brasilieros p<3r Orville A. 

Derby. Nota sobre a localidade do feno native de Santa Catharina por 

Luiz F. Gonzaga de Campos. Rio de Janeiros, 1888. The Authors. 

Desor, E. et P. de Loriol. Echinologie Helv^tique. Description des Oursins 

fossiles de la Suisse. Echinides de la periode lurassique. 4to. Text and 

Atlas. Weisbade, 1868-1872. " I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Detmer, W. Das pflanzenphysiologische Praktikum. 8vo. Jena, 1888. 

.1. V.' Williamson Fund. 
De Toni, G. B. e David Levi. Civico Museo e raccolta Correr in Venezia. Col- 
lezioni di storia naturale. I, Collezioni botaniche, I'Algarum Zanardini. 
8vo. Venezia, 1888. The Authors, 

Dove, John. A vindication of the Divine authority and inspired accuracy of the 
Mosaic cosmogany and scriptural philosophy generally; 1757. Collated and 
republished by the Biblical Science Defence Association. Croydon, 1888. 

The Society. 
Dublin Science and Art Museum. Reports, (1887) 1888. The Director. 

Dubois, Alph. Compte Rendu des observations ornithologiques faites en Belgique 
pendant I'annee 1886. 
Description d'un Rongeur nouveau du genre Anomalurus. Jan. 10th, 1886. 

The Author. 

Dulles, Charles W. Report on the Hydrophobia. June, 1888. The Author. 

Durand, Th. Index generum phanerogamorum usque ad 6num anni 1887 pro- 

mulgatorum in Bentham et Hookeri "Genera Plantarum" fundatus cum 

numero specierum synonymis et area geographica 8vo. Berolini, 1888. 

1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Another copy of same. Thomas Meehan. 

Ecker, A. Die Anatomic des Frosches. le Abth., 2e Aufl. Braunschweig, 1888. 

1. V. Williamson Fund. 
Eckfeldt, John W. The lichen flora of Florida. 8vo T. 1887. The Author. 
Emerton, James H. Life on the seashore or animals of our coasts and bays. 8vo. 
Bo-ton, (n. d). I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th Ed, XXIII. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Encyklopaedie der Naturwissenschaften. le Abth., 54-57; 46-5(\ 2e Abth* 
46-5(). I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Endlicher, S. et C, F. P. de Martins. Flora Brasiliensis. Ease, 2-5, 7-11, 13, 
14, 25, 26. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Engelmann George. The botanical works of the late George Engelmann, collect- 
ed for Henry Shaw, Esq. Edited by William Trelease and Asa Gray. 
4to. Cambridge, 1887. Henry Shaw. 

Engelmann, D. G. J. Die Geburt bei den Urvolkern. 8vo. Wein, 1884. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 



Naiur;richichle det Invcii 


I. V. Will.i 



i:r.Ur).lv |< 

r ALlI 

1. V. Wil;.am-...i 


ndc^ »f ihc 


-i Ihc 

il-ndge, Aug 


G. K»rl.>w. 

I. V. Willia 


e JtMi lie I1..1 

rum o 



»- M< 

> et les liuttlc 


T, V. Willii 


Enth-m, \V. K- 

FcdMhenko. AleiU. ReUe in Turkettan. L. lo. 1 
t'enariiu. lo. Bapl. lo. Bipl. Kcrrarii SidCibU e Soc: 

Liiiri IV. 8>o. kom.i:. 1«.*1. 
Feriyilcia Bxtlonc. Cde, La traffic, ferude Mir 1e> u 

Pari-. IWtfi. 
Finlanil. EnpiililHm i'olaire Mnlandaise. Ei|iloraik>n inlcm 
[rtlair-r., IHM.'-Iwa et ISHS-ISS4. rmni>h 

Fil/Se"ld. R. D- Australian wchid,. I'ms (1. 7, II. I :;. 

Trasleoofilie .■ 
Flammarion. Camille. The wonders of the heavens. From t 

Xomian I«kjer. n. d, 
FokLer, A. 1', L'nUr.uchun^en dlwr lIclcrogrncK III, Svo. 

1. V. Will'lm-im funa 
Ford, John. IJc%n|ition of a new species or<Jcinel>ra. Sio T. Julv. IR<v4 

the Aulli..r. 
Fold, Auf{. Aftpendiccs a mon mimoire &ur 1e> sensations des insect-, t^t -i^r 
IWW. 8vo T. 
Einige Itemerkun^en iiltr den ytycnwSrtiyen Stand der Fraj;c lic* llv-[i 
noli^mui iieliit e«enen Erfahrunijen. (und Xachlrag). 8vo. I'. Ift-W." 

The Authn,, 
Forel, K. A. Le Lac Iceman. 2ine eil. Kvn. Bale, IKSfl. 

lingcn, \SM. 

Fonnad, Henry K Coinjxujtive Muiiies of nianimallan 
ftrJncc tci the mitniscoiiical diagnosis of hlood » 
8vo. I'liiladctpliia. IHKM. 

F'm4u£. K. lliUl. Kient. conti:m)i1. Lcs trcmblcmcnts < 

'. Wilham'..n 


>es eru(«i..ns. 4to. ran., 1879. I. V. \VilliamN..n fund 

V. Michel Uvy. Minist^ie lies Travaui PuMiCs. Memxtrcs 
'if a rex|>licali»n ile la caite gtol<>i;i<|ue d^laili'c de la Krancr. 
;;ie microcraiihirjue, loches tru]itivei francaises. 4ii>. Tcalc ai.d 

I'ari., lK7it. 
'ot der SUndfluth. 8vo. Slutlf-art, 18811. 

I. V. William«.n Fund 
A hioader/ield for the United Stale* Ccoloeicat Suivey. 8v., T. 

of lien 

vill U- 

Auc 1B88. 

vo T. 


Oaudry, Albert. Les ancetres de nos animaux dans les temps g^ologiques. 12mo. 
Paris, 1888. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Geikie, Archibald. The teaching of geography. 8vo. London, 1887. 
Text book of geology, lind Ed. 8vo. London 1885. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Geinitz, II. B. Zur Dyas in Ilessen. Kassel, 1886. 

Nachtrage zu Funden in den Phosphatlagern von Helmstedt. Biiddenstedt 

u. a. 1883. 
Die Versteinenmgen des lithographischen Schiefers im Dresdener Museum. 
1881. The Author. 

Genth, F. A. Lansfordit, ein neues Mineral. 8vo T. (1888). 

A letter to the lion, the Board of Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. 

June L>5, 1888. The Author. 

Gerstaecker, A. Das Skelet des Doglings, Ilyperoodon rostratus. 4to, Leipzig, 

1887. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gibson, John. Great waterfalls, cataracts and geysers, described and illustrated. 

8vo. London, 1887. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gilbert, G. K. Statistics of the Philosophical Society of Washington. 8vo T. 

The Author. 
Gilbert, J. H. Results of experiments at Rothamstead, on the growth of root- 
crops for many years in succession on the same land ; being a lecture deliv- 
ered July '27, 1887, at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 8vo T. 

The Author. 

Godman, F. Ducane and Osbert Salvin. Biologia Central i Americana. Zoology, 

Pt. 62-69. Botany, Pt. 24. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Godwin-Austen, H. H. Land and freshwater mollusca of India. Plates and 

text. Pt. VI. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Goodall, Geo. L^. The wild flowers of America. With illustrations from original 

water color paintings by Isaac Sprague. 4to. Boston, n. d. 

I. V. William«:on Fund. 
Gosse, Phillip Henry. Actinologia Britannica. A hisiory of the British sea- 
anemones and corals. Svo. London, 1800. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Gould, T«hn. The Birds of New Guinea. Pts XX— XXIII. 

Supplement to the Trochilidie or Ilunmiing Birds. Pi. V. Wilson Fund. 

Grandidier, Alfred. Ilistoire phvsi(|ue, naturelle et politique de Madagascar. 

XVI, Atlas, 17e. Fasc, XVIII, T. 1, Texle, Ire. P«irtie, loe. Fasc ; 

XXII, Atlas, 16e. Fasc. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gray, Asa. Memorial of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 18S8. 

The Society. 
Portrait of. Editors of Torrey Botanical Bulletin. 

List of the Writings of. Mrs. Asa Gray. 

Green A. H. Geology. Part L, Physical geology. 8vo. London, 1882. 

1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Greene, Edward L. Pittonia. I, 1-8. 8vo. 1887. The Author. 

Griiber, Wenzel. Beobachtungen aus der menschlichen und vergleichenden 

Anatomic, VIII. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Giimhel, K. Wilhelm von. Geologic von Bayern. I Th.. .5 L; Title and 

Index. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gueme, Jules de. Campapnes scientifiques du Yacht Mon^jrasque L'Hirondelle. 

Troisieme ann^e, 1887. Excursions zoologiques dans les lies de Fayal et 

de San Miguel f Azores). 8vo. Paris, 1888. Prince Albert of Monaco. 

Guppy, 11. B. The Solomon Islands, their geology, general features and suitability 

for colonization. 8vo. London, 1887. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Harden, John H. and Edw. B. The construction of maps in relief. 8vo T. 

July, 1887. Edw. B. Harden. 

Harvey, F. L. The fresh water algae of Maine. 8vo T. The Author. 

Haughton, Rev. Samuel. Geometrical illustrations of Newland's and Mendelejeff 's 

periodic law of the atomic weights of the chemical elements. April 28th 

and May 14th, 1888. 8vo T. The Author. 





nrH-ihoie. Hra. Philad 18S8. 

Kxi. \Jmo. PhiUa. 1S8H The Aulh^ir. 

* fnun Califomii- ftvo. T. 1»*7. 

Henwig. Oxar anil Richard L'niFr^acban^ 

dcr ZelU. I[ 1-1. Sv... J<na IfHI- 

llenn-. A. » Sfa mr^^.. A c .Hector^ i;n 

of muine alii.c. nvi.. Ifcxton, l^H^. 

;s rlc malacbl'r^ic rt ite ■ 

t Mr J. G. lMi\a]so. Ji 

Mid^igo. j.c:. I 


HiMd>ran(l. Vr 

lui Murph.>lnt;rc un'< I'hvM 
i I, V, Willam-wn 

r and an ininhlucikm td Tht 
I. V. Will<ain<.>n 
iichilki'ogie (omuDl |ianit 


The .' 

.n<l Han'. Tectninger ur Sevcn-1 
l«i.ka Mu«eum. H. I. 2. 3. 4lo. Xockholni l«7.t-lN-3. 

Knval Acailemvor lielln letlrcs. hi-^nn and aalir[uilie^ oi SirKkli- 

Hillebrand, Wrn Kl.jra of the Ilauaiian I-UmU. ' John 1[, Kc.l!i 

Ilindc, Geiir;;^ Icnniiig^. On llie hi-lnrj and characrcn of (he cenus Srpiri.i 

h'<>'\i. il8«l) ami the m<leiili[y of if (fpe ipeciet irilh ihal of I. It 

»^lr«a Dancan 1 1>*ST). 8vo T. Mi», 18Sf. 

XiXe on ihe *picule* de-.ciilwd by Billinip- in i-onneetion with ihe siructui 

Ar*:h:tocvaihui Mini^antn^i-. 8va T. IN8S. The .\:t\ 

llolden. KjH-anl S. Li.I of recorded eanh<|uake^ in California. Ore^.i'i 

WaOiinjton Te.r.lor.. Hvo T. Sacramento. ISH7. The A.n 

Holme*. Wm. II. The use of gold and other metaU among the ancient >nh; 

anls ofChiriqui. Islhmu-. of Darien. Sfo T. 1RS7. 

Hooker, I, D. The flora ol BiitLah India. Part XIX. 

The Ea^it Indian i;.>vernm 
Hooker. William Jackson and (;. A Walker Arnoti. The boiar. ofCn- 

Bcechey-. Voyacc. jlo. Lon Ion, 1 84 1 . J«hn H. Re.lf. 

Hough, (tumeyn B. The American wood.<. eihibiled by actual sprcmien. 

with copioui eiplanalort lent. Pan I., representinf: tweniy.tiie -|ieci< • 

Iwenty Kven sels of section!. 8«o. I^wville, ISMK. In punfolin. 

Dr. Cha.le- Scha 
Howards I.. O. United Staler Dep. of .\gricuhure. I>iv. of Entomolocy I 

No. 17. The chinch bug ; a general uimmarv of >1< hi'lory. habii«. en 

ies, and of ihe remeilie* and preventives t 

Washington, 1*188. 
lloyle, William E. List of .helK collected by Johi 

Alriea and the adjacent i-1and.. Kvo T. 
Hunt, T. Sicrty. Coal and iron in Southern Ohio. 

Hockini; Valley: liemg an acconni of its coals, iron.ore*. bliM funi 

and railroad, with a map. 8v... Kosiun. 1M81. T, V. Wilham^n I 
Iluilcr, T. II. and H. N Manin. A cour>e of elementary biolot?. Ke^ 

rd.ii<Hi It «i II. Hcwei and IL 11 >»-.m. w,ih a |^la.-e Ux IW Hu 

be used ai^ainsi It. »■<< 

The Deg.artti.e 

Railavon the ire-t c.....| 

The Au h. 


James, U. P. and Jos. F. On tlie monticuliporoid corals of the Cincinnati Group, 
with a critical revision of the species. January and April, 188S. 8vo T. 

The Authors. 
Jo) is, Aug. F. le. Le Glyceria Borreri k Cherbourg. (1888). 

I.iste des m^moires scientifiques. (18{r8). The Author. 

Joseph, S. A. R. L'Archiduc. Climatologie compar^e. E«sais d'acclimation des 

plantes et influence d'un hiver trds rigoureux a Fiume. Svo. Alger, 1888. 

M. Marlet. 
'Karston, Heermann. Geologic de I'ancienne Colombie Bolivarienne, V6n6zuela, 
Nouvelle Grenade el Ecuador. 4to. Berlin, 1886. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Kelley, Edw. A. University of Penna., Dep. of Biology. Syllabus of the anatomy 

of the frog and terrapin. (1888). The Author. 

iKentucky, Geological Survey of Geology of Bath and Fleming Counties. W. M. 

Linney. Report for 1886, 18.S7. The Survey. 

Shaler's report of progress. Vols. 1 and 2. 1876-77. Purchased. 

Loughridge's report on the geological and economic features of the Jackson's 

purcha««e regions. IHSS. 8vo. The Survey. 

Tvingsley, J. S. The Naturalists' assistant. 8vo. Boston, 1882. 

I. V. Williamson Fund; 
KirchofF, Alfred. Un«^er Wissen von der Erde. II, ler Th. 3 Abth. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Kobek, W. Die gcographischc Verbreitung der Land-Deckelschnecken. 8vo T. 

1887. . The Author. 

Iconographie de# schalentragenden europaischen Mceresconchylien. H. 8. 

4to. Cassel. 1883- I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Prodromus faunae molluscorum testaceorum maria europaea inhabitantium. 

Fasc. 4. 8vo. Nuniberg, 1886. I. V. William.son Fund. 

ICommissioii zu wissenschaftlichen Untcrsuchungen der deutschen Meere in Kiel 

fur das Jahre 1882 bis 1886. oer Bericht, XII-XVI Jahrg. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Kooperberg, Ph. Geneeskundige Plaatsbeschrijiving van Leeuwarden. 8vo. 
S'Gravcnhage. Urecht Society. 

Xunz, George, F. Chaiooga County, Georgia, Meteorite. Dec. 1887. 8vo T. 
Ea^t Tennessee (?) mtteorite. 8vo T. Dec. 1887. 
(i(^l(i ornaments from United Slates of Columbia. Svo T. Sept. 1887. 
Gold and silver ornamenls from mounds of Florida. 8vo T. July, 1887. 
llvdrophane from Colorado and silver nuggets from Mexico. Dec. 1887. 

Svo T. 
'On a large garnet from New York Island. May 30, 1887. 8vo T. 
A North Carolina diamcmd. Dec. 1887. 8vo T. 

•Gn the meteoric iron which fell near Cabin Creek, Johnston County, Arkan- 
sas, March 27, 1886. Svo T. June. 1887. 
On the new artificial rubies, (^ct. 4, 18S6. S^o T. 
<> 1 two new meteorites from Carroll Countv, Kentucky, and Catorze, Mexico. 

March 1887. Svo T. 
Powder Mill Creek meteorite. Dec. 18S7. Svo T. 
Pi'.'cious stones. Abstracts from Min. Resources of United States 1885, 1886. 

8vo T. 
Precious Stones. Article from Appleton's Physical Geography. 1887. Svo T. 
Rhodocrosite from Colorado. Dec. 18S7. Svo T. 
Taney County meteorite. Dec. 18S7. Svo T. 

Waldron Ridge, Tennessee, meteorite. Dec. 1887. Svo T. The Author. 
l>agorio, Alexander. Die Andesite des Kaukasus. Svo T. Dorpat, 1878. 

The Author. 
Vertjleichende petrographische Studien iiber die massigen Gesteine der Krym 
Svo T. Dorpat, 1880. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

iLakes, A. Geology of the Colorado ore deposits, 1888. 8vo T. Denver, Col. 

The Author. 


Langillr, Rev, J, Hibben. Our binls to iheir hanuts. 


Lea, M. Carey. Contrtbulioi 


Le Cnnle, joxiih. A compcn 

Boson. 1881- 
'. WiminuoD FuDd- 
Lawe«, John Bennet. Memoranda of the origin, pbn and re&all^ of ihe field and 
olher e»perimenls conduaed on ihe farm and in the laboralorv of Sir John 
•■ ■ •■ ■ mslcd, Haerts. June 1888. The Amhor. 

• lo Ihe American Journal of Science lor ibe vear 
Tbe Anthor. 
I of geology. 8vo. New Vori;, 1887- 

I V. William<ion FunJ. 
Leder, H. Freisverzcichniss VI. VerkauRicher MoUu'-ken der KaukasusISnder, 
1881-88, The Auihor. 

Liebig, Jusiu-i. Sleel engraved porlrait of. Mrs. Dr. C. Hcring,. 

Lendenfield, K. von. Tbe Au'^lratian Mu!«um. Descriptive catali^e of the 
Auslralian seas. In two pan-^. Part I, Scyphomedui-*. Pail II, Hydro- 
medusa:. 8vo. .Sydney, 1887. The Museum. 
Leuckart. Rudolf. Zoiili^ische Untersuchungen. 2es H. Salpen und Verwandie ; 
3e*. H. Heleropodeu, Zwiiierschnecken, Heelocolvliferen. ^K^. Gicssen. 
18.53 and 18VI. ' I. V. Williamson Fund.. 
Leuckan, R. und Carl Chun. Bdiliotheca Zoologica. Orijjrnal .Abhandlungen au^ 
dem Gesammtgcbiete der Zooli^ie. H. 1 and 3. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Light. Svo. Edinburgh, 1584. I. \". Williamson Fund- 

Linden, J. Lindcnia. Iconographie des Orehidecs III, i~Vl, IV, 1, 2, 3. 

Thomas Meehan, 
'irst <ind 1-econd annual reports on the injurious and other iosecl^ 
e of New York. Bvo. Albany, 188^-8). 
Some pests of Ihe pomologisl. Sept. lilb, 1887. 4lo T. Boslon, 1838. 

The Amhor. 
Locard. Arnould. Etude eriiique des Tapes des c6tes de France. Svo T. Dec , 

.er. I. A. 
of Ihe : 

Lockycr, J. Norman. Outii 

Svo. Ijindon, 1887. 

Ixiuislana, Hopkins' third n 

s of physiography. The mo 
lual report of the geoli^ical si 
Das Bucb der SchmetterlinRe, L. 1-7. 

The A 
cnis of the earth. 
Williamson Fund, 
y of, 1872. 

In Exchange. 
Williamson Fund. 


Martini aivl Chemnitz. Sy>temaiisches Conchylien-Cabinet von II. C. Ku-ter;» 

8V^-3'>4 L. Wilson Fund. 

Martin, Daniel S. Geoloi^ical map of New York City and vicinity. Mounted 
sheet and 8vo pamphlet. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Martius, C. F. P. De and A. G. Kichler. Flora Brasiliensis. Fasc. XCVII-CI. 

The (iovernment of Urazil. 

Maryland. Fifth and sixth agricultural reports of James Higgins, A. M., M. D. 

Annapolis, I806. In Exchange, 

Massachusetts. Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game; Report of, for the 

year ending Dec. 31, 1887. 8vo T. Bosion, 1888. The Comissioners, 

Report of a q[eoloj:ical Survey of. By E. Hitchcock. Part I., Economic 

geology. Amherst, 1832. 
Report on the geology, mineralogy," botany and zoology. By Edw. Hitch- 
cock. 2nd. Ed. Amherst. 1835. 
Report of the State Biard of Education on the proposed survey of the Common- 
wealth. Bosion. 1874. In Exchange. 
May, Joseph. Joseph Priestly, LL. D. A discourse delivered in the First Uni- 
tarian Church of Philadelphia, on Sunday, March 18, 1888. Philadelphia. 

The Author. 
Maynard, C. J. The birds of eastern North America. 4to. Newtonville, 1881. 
The butterflies of New England. 4to. Boston, 1886. 

The Naturalist's guide in collecting and preserving objects of natural history. 

Revised edition. 8vo. Boston, 1888. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

McCook, H. C. Description of new American species of orb-we.iving spiders. 

8vo T. July, 1S88. ^ 

Nesting habits of the American purseweb spider. 8vo T. 18S8. 

Notes on the relations of structure and function to color changes in spiders. 

8vo T. July. 1888. 
A new fossil spider, Koatypus Woodwnrdii. 8vo T. July, 1888. 
Tenants of an old farm. 3d Ed. New ^'ork, 18S<). The Author. 

McCoy, Fred'k. Natural history of Victoria. Prodronius of the zoology of Victoria. 
Decades I-XV. Government of Victoria. 

McEwen, Jos. W^ Pr^tobiology ; or the philosophy of life, llimo. Philadel- 
phia, 1887. The Author. 
Medical a d sur^^ical history of the war of the rebellion. Part HI, Vol. 1. 
Medical history. Washington. 18S8. • War Department. 
Meinert, Fr. Entomologische Meddelelser, I, 2, 3, 4. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Mendenhall, T. C. A centurv of clectricitv. 12mo. Boston and New York, 
1887. I. V. W'illiamson Fund. 
Meyjr, .A, B. Abbildungen von Vogel-Skelelten hi*rausgegeben mit Unter- 
stiitzung der General-direction der Sammlungen fur Kunst und Wissen- 
schaft in Dre-den. 4to. Dresden. l87i)-18S(). I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Meyer, Otto. On Miocene invertebrates from Virginia. March iJi, 1888. 

The Author. 
Michigan. Jackson, Foster. Whitney and Hubberl's reports. Messages and docu- 
ments, 1840-50. Part III. In Exchange. 
Milne, John. Earth([uikes and other earth movements. 8vo. New York, 18S6. 

I. V. W^illiamson Fund, 

Minardi, A. Sul c.italogo dei coleolleri dei dintorni-di Termini Imerese egregia 

Sig. Prof. Ciofalo. 4to T. The Author. 

Minnesota, Cieolo^ical and natural history survey of, anuual report. Bulletin 

Nos. L>, 3, 4. The Survey. 

Captain John Pope's rejx)rt of an exploration of the territory of, 18')0. 

Ill Exchange. 
Mojsisovics, E. r. und M. Neumayer. Beitragc zur Palaeontologie Oslerreich- 
Ungarns und des Orients. IMs. I-VI, I- 1, VH, 1, 2. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 


Mo1e>choll, Jac. Unteisuchungcn lui Naturlehre des Menschen and dct Tlii 

XIII, 6es H, I. V. Williarown Fund. 

Moore. Charlei. A census of the plants of New South Wales. 8*0. Sjdnej, 

1861. Trustees of the AustraliMi Mtueum 

Moore, Fred'k. Descriptions ol New Indian lepidopterout insects from the col 

lection ol the late Mr. W. S. Atkinson. Helerocera. Part 111. 1885. 

E. Indian Government 
Morchead, Mrs. L. M. A few incidents in the life of Prof. James T. E-^py, Itimo 

Cincinnati, 1888. The Author. 

Morrii, Augustus. Tobacco, its culiure and thecutingof the leaf. 8voT. Sydney, 

1877. Trusiees of the Au^t^alian Museum. 

Morris, Charles. The Aryan race, its origin and its achievements. Chicago, 1888. 

Mueller. T. voi 
■ Svo T. 


Iconography of Au-«ra1i 

1-11. 410. Mellxiu 

Notes on a new Papuan 

The plants indigenous 

ind Shark Bay ai 

The Auiho 
>n of a new M e Ian osiomaceous plant from New Guine 

mt. 8vo T. Feb. 1SS6. 

Thomas Meehan. 

nd cop n ale genera. Decade 

GoveiiimeiU of Victoria. 

.1 iis vicinity. 4(o T. Penh. 

Sysicmalic census of Australian plants. Pan I, Vasculare?. Second annual 

supplement for 1881. 4to. Mellwurne IWfi Thoma.s Meehan. 

Muenslcr, A. E. The -iOth Jubilee of the Acadom'cian Nicolai inanovilsch 

Kcikschamw, June fi, 1887. and short biogrjphy of him. Hvu. St. Peters- 

hurg, 1887. {InRus-lan.) 
Miillan. John. Reporl on a con-truction ol a niilllary road from Fori W.-tlla- 

Walli. to lort Benton, 18«3- In Exchange. 

Murray, KeginaH A. F. Victoria geology aud geography. 8vo. Mel- 

Nagiglas. F. Zelandia iliustrata. Verzamellng van Kaaiien, Poitretien &c. 

MIddelhuig, 1S8J. 
Naiibcn. Ftidljof. Bcrgena Museum. Bidrag til My/oslomerue» annlomi og 

lii=iologi. 4loT. lier^en, ISR.3. The Mils eum. 


Newton, Alfred! Early days of Darwinism. 8vo T. February, 1888. 

The Author. 
New York, Natural History of. Geological survey of the State of New York. 
Paleontology. Vol. VI; Vol. VII ; Vol. V, pt. 2, Suppl. 
Report of the State Geologist (James Hall), 1882-1887. 

Geological survey of Counties of Steuben, Madison, Washington, Orange, 

Essex, Seneca and Onondaga. From State agricultural reports. Reix)rts 

in relation to a geological survey of. Jan. 6, 183(). 

Catalogue of the Slate Cabinet of Natural History, 1853. Natural Ilistorj'. 

Pari V. Apriculture, Plates, III. In Exchange. 

New Zealand. Colonial Mu.seum and geological survey of. 1886-87. Index. 

Reports of geological explorations during 1885. 

Annual reports geological survey 2nth-22nd, and IGth and 17th annual reports 

of Botanic Garden. New Zealand, 188fi. The Director. 

Noll, Fritz. Experimentelle Unlersuchungen iiber das Wachstura der Zelimembran. 

4to T. Wur/.burg. 1887. University of Wurzburg. 

Nordenskiold, A. E. Vega-E.xpeditionens Vetenskapliga laktlaiielser, IV, V. 

8vo. 1887. I. V. \Villiam.son Fund. 

Nova Scotia. Department of Mines, report, 1887. The Department. 

Ogilby, J. Douglas. Catalogue of the rtshes of New South Wales with their 

principal synonyms. 4lo T. Sydney, 18S(5. 

Trustees of the Australian Museum. 

Oliver, Charles A. Description of a case of colobonia of the iris, lens and choroid, 

with .study of the visual fields. 8vo T. 1887. The Author. 

Ormay, .Alexander. Supplementa faunae coleoptcrorum in Transsilvania. Nagy- 

Azeben, 1888. The Author. 

Outerbridjie. Alex. E., Jr. Pig iron: including the relation between its physical 

properties and its chemical constituents. 8vo T. Phi!ad., 18*^8. 

The Author. 

Owen, Maria L. A catalogue of plants growing without cultivation in the 

County of Nantucket, Mass. John 11. Redfield. 

Owen, Richard. Memoirs on the extinct wingless birds of New Zealand ; withan 

appendix on iho-e of England, Australia, Newfoundland, Mauritius and 

Rocirigucz, 4lo. Text and Plates. London, 1879. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Paetel, ¥. Catalog der Conchylien Sammlung. 5e-8e. L. The Author. 

Paleoniologie Francaise. Ire Ser., An. invert. Terrains lerliaires, L. 11-14. 
Terrains jiirassi(]ues. L. 8"), 8(5. Wilson Fund. 

Palajontographica. Beitra^je ziir Naiurgeschichte der Vorzcil (Zittel). XXXIV, 2-6 
XXXV, 1. ^ Wilson Fund. 

Pariatore, Filippo. Flora Ilaliana, conlinuata da Teodoro Caruel. VIII, Pt. 1. 

The Author. 

Peckham, Geo. W. and Eliz. G. North American 5^:piders of the Family Attidse. 

Sept. 1888. The Author. 

Pennsylvania. Second Geological Survey. Reports A 2, C 7. Annual Report, 

188(). I -IV. Text and Alhi^. The Commissioners. 

Same. Hon. Chas. M. Belts. 

P6res de la Compagnie de J^^us. Memoires concernant Thistorie naturelle de 

I'Empire Chinois. 8me Cahier. II, 1, 2. 4U). Change- Hai, 18!i5. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Pergens, Ed. Sur I'Sge fie la paitie su| erieure du Tufeau de Ciply. Dec.,- 1887. 

Remanpies sur la reunion du calcaire de Mons el du Tufeau de Ciply. Juin, 

1888. The Author. 

Perrier, E.lmond. Ribl. scient contemp. Le transformisme. 12mo. Paris, 1888. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Pfaff, Friedrich. Die Glelscher der Alpen, ihre Bewcgung und Wirkung. 8vo, 

Heidelberg, 18->6. . 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Philippi, R. A. Die tertiaren und quartaren Versteinerungen Chiles. 4to. 

Leipzig, 1887. . I. V. Williamson Fund. 





Piagel, E. Les r^diculines. Es'ai monograph i'lue. I Texl, 11 Planches, Supple- 

mcnl. 8 vols. 4lo. Leide. 1880-1885. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Pietch, J. Herleituiig und Ausprache der wissensehofllichen Namcn in dem E. 

F, von Homeyer' sehen \'erieichnisse der V3gel Deutschlands. Wein,188M. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Pillinc, J. C. Bibliographv of ihe Eskimo languase. 8vo T. Wasliington, 18S7. 

Biblii^apliy of ihe Si'ouan languates. 8vo T. Washington, 1888. 

Smithsonian Inst. 

Pilsbry, H. A. Description of a new Hydrobi:i, with notes on other Kissoid.i.-, 

8voT. 1886. The Aullior. 

Pi n i. Napoleon e. Molluschi terrestii e d'acqua dolce viventi nel terrilotio ili 

Esino. 8vo. MiUno, 1876. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

PUny, C. C. Piini Secundi naiuralis historie Libri XXXVII. Recoanavil aiijue 

indieiiius instruxit Ludo.i ens Janus. Vol. I. Lihr I-VI. Kdilio aliera 

dcnuo reeogniia. 12n)0, Lipsia. Dr. B. Sharp. 

Pope, John. A tour through the southern and western territories of ihe Uniied 

States of Nnrlh America, the Spanish dominations on the River Mis^is- 

sip]>i, and Ihe Fliiridas, tlie countries of the Creek nations and many 

uninhabited ]>atts. 8vo. Richmond, 1T92. (Reprint ISR8'. 

I. V. Williamson Fund, 

Report on artesian well experiment>^. Messages and documents. I)^iO-!). 

Port 11. In EvchaDge. 

Popper, Julius. The Popi>er Expedition. Tierra del Fuego. A lecture deiivcr.d 

al Ihe Argentine Geographical Institute, March 188T. Buenos Airc:s 

1837. T. V. Williamson Fund. 

Portland catalogue of the Maine plants. 8vo T. Portland, 18H8. 

Portland .Siiciely of Natural Hi.story. 

Portucal. Sce?So dus trahalhos geologicos de Pormsal. CommimicafOes. 1. 2. 

Description dc la fauiie jur.issiquc du Portugal, II, 2. pp. 37- 


Ramsay, E. P. Australian Museum. Catalogue of a collection of fossils. 8vo» 

Sydney, 1883. 

Australian Museum. Hints for the preservation of specimens of natural 

history. Sydney, 1887. The Trustees^ 

Ranvier, L Trait6 technique d'histologie. 7me. Fasc. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Rath, G. vom. Vortrage und Mittheilungen. 8vo T. Bonn, 1888. 

The Author. 
Ratte, F. Australian Museum. Hints for collectors of geological and mineralog- 
ical specimens. 2nd ed. 1887. The Trustees. 

Rayet, M. Commission m^leorologique de la Gironde. Observations pluvio- 
m^triques et thermomdlriques faites dans le d6partement de la Gironde^ 
Juin, 1885 ^ Mai, 1886. Bordeaux, 1885. The Author. 

Read, M. C. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio. Archax)logy 
of Ohio. Tract 73. The Author. 

Reade, T. Mellard. The origin of mountain ranges considered experimentally^ 
dynamically and in relations to their geological history. 8vo. London^ 
188^1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Rein, J. Gerhard von Rath, ein kurzes Lehensbild. 7 Mai, 1^*88. The Author. 
Renault, B. Bibl. scient. contemp. Les plantes fossiles.. 12vo. Paris, 1888. 

I. V. William«;on Fund. 
Renter, F. Observationes met^orologiques faites k Luxembourg. H, HI. 1887. 

Insiiiute, Luxembourg. 
Reyer, E. Theoretische Geologic. 8vo. Stuttgart, 1888. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Richon, Charles et Ernest Roze. Alias des champignons comestibles et venencux 
de la France et des pays circonvoisins. Fasc. 8, J*. Paris. 

I. V. William.son Fund. 
Ringuebercr, Eugene N. S. The Niagara shales of western New York. May, 

1888. The Author. 

Rossmassler's Iconographie der europaischen Land-und Siisswasser Molusken 

(Kobelt). HI B. 3-0. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Roth, Justus. .Mlgemeine und chemische Geologic. I; II, 1, 2. 3. 8vo. Berlin,. 

1879-18S7. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Roumania. Harla geologica generala. Sheets 10-13. 

Ministerul Lucrarilor publice. Anuarulu Biuroului Geologicu. Anul 1882— 
83. No. 3, V, 1, Geological Survey of Roumania. 

Rusbv, H. 11., M. D. The cultivation of cinchona in Bolivia. Oct. 1, 1887. 12mo- 
' T. 

An enumeration of the plants collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in South Ameri- 
ca, 188V8(>, I, III. The Author. 
Russ, Karl. Die fremdlandischen Stubenvogel, IV, 8. I. V. Wi'liamson Fund. 
Russia. Comite Geolo^ique Russe. Bulletin. 1887, Nos. 6-10; VI, 11, 12; VII,. 
1-5, an J supplement. Mcmoires II, 4, 5; III, 3; V, 2-4; VI, 1, 2; VII, 
1 , 2. The Survey. 
S.iccardo, P. A. Svllo^e funijorum omnium hucuscpie cognitorum. Vol. IV 
Hyphomycet/s. 8vo. Patavii, 1S8(). II, HI, IV, VII, 1. 

Ex. of Dr. G. Martin. 
S.ichs, Julius von. Lectures on the physiolocv of plants. Translated by H. 
Marsha'l Ward, M. A. 8vo. Oxford, 1887. 
Vorlesungcn iiber Pflanzen Physiologie, 2e neubearbeitete Auflage. 8vo^ 
I^eipzig, 1887. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Sampson, F. A. and A. W. Vogdes. Notes on the subcnrboniferous series at 
Setlalia, Mo. Description of two new species of carboniferous trilobites. 
8vo T. New York, 18S8. The Author. 

Sandberger, Fridolin. Untersuchungen iiber Erzgange. H. 1 and 2. 8vo. Wies- 
baden, 18S2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Saporta, G. de. Bibl. scient. contemp. Origine palt^ontologique des arbres cul- 
tiv^s ou utdis^s par I'homme. 12mo. Paris, 1888. 

I. v. Williamson Fund. 

Schimper. A. F. W, 

in trophi»:hen Ami 
Schmidt, Adolf. " ' ' 


-Sitasin, Paul and Fr'iu. Ei^ebnisse naturwissenschafllichtr FotschunEen aal 
Ceylon iti den Jahr=n,188^-8I1. I.a,3; IC. 2- I. V. WilMianon Fund. 
Sairttchenko, P. Alias des potssons v£n«neux. Fol. St. Petersburf;, 1889. 

I. V. Williamwn Fund. 

SchiRfranek, A. Floral almanack, conlalninglhc flowering season of one ihousand 

and seven hundred phaenogamou^ planu of Floridi 

Schenk. August. Die fossile flora der grFnichtchien des Keupers und Lias 
Fiankens. 4to. Text and Alias. Weisbaden, 1868 

I. V. William*on Fund. 
e Wechselbeiiehungen laischen Pllatizen und Ainehen 
erika. Jena. !888. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

;r Diatom aceenkunde. L. 29-32. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Sclioenlein, ;. 1.. AI'biMungen von fossilen Ptianien auii dem Keuper Franken^ 

mil crISulero.len Texte nach dessen Tode herau^gepelien von Dr. August 

Schenk. 4lo. Wiesbaden, 188.1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Schomliurgk. R. Kepoit on (he progress and condition of the Botanic Garden 

(South Australia) diiririf; the year 188J.-1887. The " " 

SchnEi<l<T. Anton. Zoi.logische Beitri^e. II, 2. I. V. WilUamwi 

Sthott, Charles A. U. S. CoasI and Geodetic Survey, F. M. Tliorn, Supt 
Ihodt and results. Secular variation of the magnelic declination 
United Slates and al some foreign staltons. Sixth Ed. Appendix. 
Report for 1888. Tlie .Survey. 

Sciibner. F, Lamsnn. Fungicides, or remedies for pli 
April, Llilh 1888. 

Dep. of Agric. Report of tha Chiefofthe Section of vegetable pathology 

for the year 1887. Washington, 1888. Report of the Mycologist, for the 

year 188B. The Author. 

Scliiibeii^r, F. C. Vividarium Norvegicum. I, 2. Universilv ofNorway. 

Scfly, ll.-G. The fresh water fishes of Europe. 8vo. London, ISSH. 


Surgeon-General's Office, U. S. Army. Index-Catalogue of the Library. Vol^ 
VIII. 8vo. Washington, 1887. IX. War Department- 

Sweden. Sveriges Geolouiska Under>6kning. Ser. Aa. 92, 94, 97-99, 101, 102; 
Ser. Ab. 11, 12; Ser. Bb. 5 ; Ser. C. H5, 78-84, 86-91. Six Maps. 

The Survey^ 
Tait, P. G. Properties of matter. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1885. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Taschenberg, O. Bibliotheca Zoologica. II, 4, 6. I. V, Williamson Fund- 

Tale, Ralph. Description of some new species of South Australian marine and 
fresh-water mollusca. Oct. 5, 1886. 
A revision of the recent Lamellibranch and Palliobranch mollusca of South 
Australia. Oct. 5, 1886. The Author.. 

The Taxidermist's manual. 8vo. New York, n. d. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Teall, J. J. Harris. British petrography, pp. 196 et seq. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Thomas, Cyrus. Work in mound exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology. 8vo T- 
Washington, 1887. Smithsonian Inst. 

Thomson, C. G. Opuscula entomologica. Fasc. XI. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Thomson, Sir C. Wyville. Report of the scientific results of H. M. S. Challenger. 
Zoology, XXIII ; XXIV, text and plates; XXV-XXVIl. 

H. B, M. Government. 
Torrev Botanical Club. Preliminaryc atalogue of Anthophyta and Pleridophyta^ 
' April 25, 1888. Chas. E. Smiths 

Trimen. R. and J. H. Bowker. South African butterflies. Vols. 1 and 2. 8vo. 
London, 1887. South African Museum^ 

True and particular relation of the dreadful earthquake which happened at Lima^ 
the capitol of Peru, and the neighboring port o( Callao, on the 28lh of Oc- 
tober, 1746. 2nd ed. London, 1748. Mrs. L. Fox. 
Tryon, G. W., Jr. Manual of conchology, structural and systematic. Parts 36- 
39. 2nd Series, Pt. 12-15. The Author. 
Tschermak, G. Die mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Meteorilen erlaulert durcb 
photographische Abbildungen. 4to. Stuttgart, 18S5. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Tuckermann, Edw., framed portrait of. J, W. Eckfeldt- 

Tuckermann, Edw. A synopsis of the North American lichens. Part I, com- 
prising the Piirmeliacei, Cladoniei and Coenogoniei. 8vo. Boston, 18^.- 

I. V. Williamson Fund.. 
Uhler, P. R. The Albirupean formation and its nearest relatives in Maryland^ 
Jan. 6th, 1888. The Author- 

Uhlworm, Oscar and F. H. Haenlein. Bibliotheca botanica. H. 9-11. 

I. V. Williamson Fund^ 
United States. Chief of Engineers, United States Army, report of. 1886, l-S. 
1887, Pis. 1-4. Eno. Dep., U. S. A. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, report of the Superintendent, showing the pro- 
gress of the work during the fiscal year ending wiih June, 1886. 4to^ 
Washington. Treasury Department. 

Commissioner of Agriculture, report of the, for the year 1887. 8vo. Wash- 
ington. Dep. of Interior.. 
Commission of Fish and Fisheries. The fisheries and fisheries industry of 
the United Stales. Section II. 4to. Washington, 1887. 

The Commission. 
Department of Agriculture. Botanical Division. Scribner's report on the 

treatment of the grape vine. Bulletin No. 6. 
Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology. Bulletin No. 10. 
Riley's, Our shade trees and their insect defoliators. 8vo T. Washington.. 
No. 19. Periodical Bulletin I, 1-5. 
Department of Agriculture. Report of the Statistician, No* 50. New Series^ 
April, 1888. The Department 

Department of the Interior. Census Office. Tenth Census of the United 
States. Vol. XII. 




Mole-cholt, Jac. Untersuchungeo lur Natutlehre des MenKlien unci dcr Tliicre. 

Xm. 6cs H, I. V. Williainwn Pun.l. 

Moott. Chirlei. A census of ihe plants of New South Wales. 8to. Sidney, 

1881. Trustees of (he AuMrahan MuKum. 

Moore, Fred'k. Descriplions of New Indian lepidopteroui insccti ftom the col- 

leciiunoflhclaleMr, W. S. Atltinson. Helerocera. Pail III. 188H. 

Moreheid, Mn. L. M. A few incidentn in Ihe life ci 

CincintiBIi, 1S88- 
Morrii, Augustus. Tubacco. its culture and ihe curin 

1877. Truslei 

Morris, Charles. The Aryan race, its origin and its ai 

Mueller. T. voii. Deiicri|>lio 
' 8vn T. Jan. ]88!(. 
Deicriptioti of a new Papuan Dillei 

1-11. 410. Mellm 


Prof. James r. E-i>y. 


The Ai 


of their 

il. SviiT. Sv 


: ..f the ;■ 

lu-.r..lian Mi 



lis, Chicauo, 


The A 


(ous plan 

I from Xe»: G 


Svo T 

. Kek ISSft. 

Thomas Mcehaii. 


iiy. 4t.> T. I-cnh. 


supplement for IK8I 
Muenstrr, A. E. The ^lOih InUilee i>f i 

K<.kNch:.rnw, [line U, 1S87. ami shoi 

l-urj;, 1K87. (In Ku-iaii 1 
Mullan. John. K>-|K<ri on a e>m..iruc1iun 

WbIU. lororlHenlor, IHIU. 
Murray, Kej^inal'l A. K, Victoria ticology 

N-Ifilcla^. K. 

Nan pen. Kridljuf. Bcr);rn? 

hisLoloKi. 41(1 'I". B 
NaIiirwi»enM:hal'll. l.1nd.'T^I 



:1 |.liy< i;"'n;f.->i''i: 

Vcrianicling van KaaiU'n, 
I. Uidraii til My/o>t.>nicn> 

, -if Iho Tti, 

-filie ICrit-h.iU-<.f<) 


Wierzejski, Anton. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Siisswasserschwamme. 4 Apr. 

1888. The Author. 

Wigand, Alhert. Botanisches Heft. 3-s II. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Wilson, E. and II. E. Quilter. The rhaetic section at Wigston, Leicestershire. 

Sept. 1884. The Author. 

Wilson, Kev. J. Lei«;hlon. Western Africa: its history, condition and prospects. 

8vo. New York, 1856. William J. Potts. 

Wisconsin. First annual re|)ort on the qeoloRical survey of. By Edw. Daniels, 

18-54. Annual reports for 1876 and 1878. By T. C. Chamberlain. 

In Exchange. 
Woorsaae, Chaml)erlain J. J. A. The prehistory of the North, based on con- 
temporary memorials. Translated, with a brief memoir of the author by 11. 
F Morland Simpson, M. A. 8vo. London, 1886. 

I. V. Williamson Fund, 

Yokoussi, linouma. So-Mokan-Zoussets. (Japanese Botany). I-X, XVI-XX. 

8vo. Thomas Meehan. 

Zeiller, R. Ministere des travaux publics, feiudes des gites mineraux de la 

France. Bassiu houiller de Valenciennes. Description de la floie fossile. 

Texte and Atlas. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1888. 

The Ministry of Public Works. 
Zirkel, Ferdinand. Lehrbuch der Petrographie. ler and lier Bd. 8vo. Bonn, 
Untersuchungen iiber die mikroskopischeZusammensetzung und Slructur der 

Basaltgesteine. 8vo. Bonn, 1870. 

Die mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Mineralien und Gesteine. 8vo. 

Leipzig, 1878. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Zittel, Karl A. Handbuch der Paleontologie. I Abth., Ill Bd., 2 L.; II Abth. 

6 L. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Zoologisches Station von Neapel. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. 

Monogr. XV; XVI, 1,2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Zopf. Wilhelm. Untersuchungen iiber Parasilen aus der (irup))e der Monadinen. 

4to T. Halle, 1887. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journals and Periodicals. 

Adelaide. Royal Society. Transactions, IX. The .Society. 

Albany. Albany Institute. Transactions, IX, X. The Society. 

New York State Museum of Natural History. 36th-80lh annual reports. 

Bulletin I, 2, 3. The Trustees. 

Ames, Iowa. State Agricultural College. Botanical Department. Bulletin, 

iaS8. The College. 

Amiens. Soci6te des Anti(piaires de Picardie. Bulletin, 1886, 1-4; 1887, 1- 

4; 1888. Memoires, 3me. Ser. IX, XI. The Society. 

Societe Linneenne du nord de la France. Bulletin VIII, 175-186. 

Tiie Society. 
Angers. Soc. Nat. d'AgricuUure, Sciences et Arts. Mdmoires, 4me. Ser., 1. 

1 . The Society. 

Anvers. Societe Royal de G(^ographie. Bulletin XII, 2-5; XIII, 1, 2. 

The Society. 
Auch. Societe Frangaise de Botanique. Revue de Botanique, HI, 61-72. 

The Society. 

Augsburg. Nalurhistorischer Verein. 29er. Bericht, The Society. 

Auxerrc. Soci^t6 des Sciences historiques el naturelles de I'Vonne. Bulletin 

XL, I, 2. The Society. 

Baltimore. American Chemical Journal, IX, 6; X, 1-5. The Editor. 

Johns Hopkins University. Circulars, Nos. 61-68. Studies from Biological 

Laboratory, IV, 3, 4. 
American Journal of Mathematics, X, 2, 3, 4. The University. 



Peabody loslkute, 2lsl annual reporl. The Inslilule. 

Bamberg. Nalurforschenile Gesellscliaft. 14ei, liericlil. TheSociely. 

Basel. NaluTforschende Gesell^chafl. Vethan.llungen, VIII. 2. The Society. 
Schweizerische palaonlologische Gesellschafl. Alihainlluni;en, XIV. 

The S-ciely. 

Balavia, Nalutkundig Verecn in Ncderlanckcli Indie. Namutkundij; Tijd-clinft 

voor Nedetlamlsch In<Me. fie Ser, VUl. The Society, 

Balb. Postal Microscnpical Society. Journal of M icroscopy and Natural Science, 

New Senes 1-4. The S.^ciely. 

Belfan. Naiural Misioiy and Philo'opliical Society. Proceedings, 188S-87. 

The S .ciely. 

Namrnlisls' Field Cluli. .\nnual Report, II. 7. The &.ciely. 

Bei^en. Bergens Museum. Aarhberctniiig for 1880. The Diieclor. 

Berkeley. Pinonia. \-i. The Kdiior. 

University of Caiiforitia. Register. 1887-88. The Univer-iiy. 

Berlin. Atdiiv ftlr Naiurg«chiciiie, Lll, II. 1,2; I-lII, I, I, 2. The K.lilor. 

Botanischer Veiein der Pcovinz Brandenburg. Verhandlungen, XXIX. 

Tlie S .. 


Deulscher enlomoli^ischer Verein. Eiilomolc^ischo Zeitschrifl, XXXI, 2, 

pp. ]47-38l(. The Society. 

Berliner enlotnologische Zeilschrifl, XXXII, 1. The Kdiiot. 

Deuticher Fischerei Verein. Circulars 1887, Nos. 4, 3