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American Philosophical Society 








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Vol. XL.VI1I. 

January-April, 1909. 

No. 191. 


Ceremonial Stones Used by the Australian Aborigines. By R. H. 

Mathews i 

The Exploration of the Upper Air by Means of Kites and Balloons 

By William R. Blair 8 

Why America Should Re-explore Wilkes Land. By Edwin Swift 

Balch '. 34 

The Nation and the Waterways. By Lewis M. Haupt 51 

On a New Variety of Chrysocolla from Chile. By Harry F. 

Keller 65 

The Purification of Water Supplies by the Use of Hypochlorites. 

By William Pitt Mason 67 

The Detonation of Gun Cotton. By Charles E. Munroe 69 

The Comparative Leaf Structure of the Strand Plants of New Jersey. 

By John W. Harshberger 72 

The Destruction of the Fresh- water Fauna in Western Pennsylvania.. 

By A. E. Ortmann 90 

On Certain Generalizations of the Problem of Three Bodies. By 

Edgar Odell Lovett in 

The Past History of the Earth as Inferred from the Mode of Forma- . 

tion of the Solar System. By T. J. J. See 119 

Commemorative Addresses and Obituary Notices of Members 
Personal Reminiscences of Charles Darwin and of the Recep- 
tion of the "Origin of Species." By James Bryce iii 

The Influence of Darwin on the Natural Sciences. By Geo ge 

Lincoln Goodale xv 

The Influence of Darwin on the Mental and Moral Sciences. 

By George Stuart Fullerton ; xxi* 

The World's Debt to Darwin. By Edwin G. Conklin xxxvili 

Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose, M.D., LL.D Iviii 

Daniel Coit Oilman, LL.D Lxii 

Minutes of Meetings from January 1 to May 21, 1909... i 


104 South Fifth Street 

American Philosophical Society 

General Meeting— April 21-23, 1910 

The General Meeting of 19 10 will be held on April 21st 
to 23rd, beginning at 2 p. m. on Thursday, April 21st. 

Members desiring to present papers, either for themselves 
or others, are requested to send to the Secretaries, at as early a 
date as practicable, and not later than March 19, 19 10, the titles 
of these papers, so that they may be announced on the programme 
which will be issued immediately thereafter, and which will give 
in detail the arrangements for the meeting. 

Papers iiv any department of science come within the 
scope of the Society, which, as its name indicates, embraces the 
whole field of useful knowledge. 

The Publication Committee, under the rules of the 

Society, will arrange for the immediate publication of the papers 






Secretaries . 

Members who have not a6 yet sent their photographs to the Society will 
confer a favor by so doing ; cabinet size preferred. 

ft is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To the Secretaries of the 

104 South Fifth Street 

Philadelphia, U. S. A. 






January-April, 1909 

No. 191. 



(Read January J, 1909.) 

The following is a short description of some remarkable stones 
used by the aborigines in certain areas scattered over the north- 
western portion of New South Wales, which may be approximated 
roughly as lying north of 34 degrees south latitude and west of 148 
degrees east longitude. The objects referred to have been observed 
by squatters and other residents of the bush in different places for 
many years past, but like most other matters connected with the 
aborigines, very little attention has been paid to them. They are 
occasionally found lying on the surface of the ground, or only 
partially exposed, on the flanks of sand-ridges, which may have 
been either old camps of the natives or places of their ceremonial 
gatherings. They have also been discovered below the surface, 
having probably been overlaid by drifting sand or soil, or were per- 
haps purposely hidden when not in use. 

The scattered remnants of the tribes in the region indicated are 
all more or less civilized at the present time and have ceased to use 
these stones in thejr ceremonies, owing to the occupation of the 
district by Europeans for upwards of half a century. For this 
reason it is especially important that all available information should 


be recorded and published as widely as possible, in order to bring 
these relics under the notice of every person who may have oppor- 
tunities, of obtaining further particulars regarding this interesting 

The stones in question vary in length from about six inches up 
to as much as two feet, but the more common lengths range from 
eight to fifteen inches. They are widest at the base, gradually de- 
creasing in dimension towards the other end and terminating in a 
blunt point. They consist of different material, including sandstone, 
quartzite, clayslate, kaolin and such other kinds of stone as might 
be available. 

For the present I shall describe only four of the specimens in my 
possession. One is a fine-grained piece of clayslate, which when 
found by the maker was probably very close to the requisite 
form and needed only a little trimming or grinding to bring it to its 
present shape. It is just a trifle under one foot in length by a 
maximum width at the base of two and four-fifth inches, by a 
thickness of one and a quarter inches. The weight is two pounds 
six ounces. It was found in the bush by Mr. E. J. Suttor, owner of 
Tankarooka Station, on the Darling River, near Tilpa, New South 

I have prepared two diagrams exhibiting the two wide faces and 
the edge of the implement, together with a view of the extremity of 
the base and have numbered the figures from I to 12. One face of 
the stone is practically flat throughout its length, being rounded off 
towards the edges on either side. The opposite face is slightly 

Fig. 1 delineates the flat face of the stone, which contains a large 
number of marks cut or scratched into the surface with some sharp 
instrument, such as a mussel shell, a sharp flake of hard stone, or a 
marsupial's tooth. Some of them are merely well-defined scratches, 
whilst others are cut into the stone about one-sixteenth of an inch. 
The marking extends from the base to the apex. 

Fig. 2 shows one of the edges of the implement, the marks upon 
which are not reproduced, because they are continuations of those 
given on the two faces. I have, however, shown the position of three 



principal incisions, which will be again referred to in dealing with 

Fig. 4- 

Fig. 3 is the convex face of the stone, which contains about eighty 
marks similar in character to those of Fig. 1. 

Fig. 4 has been introduced to exhibit the position of an irregular 
spiral incision which extends quite around the implement in a little 
over three folds. The firm black line on the diagram represents the 
cuts facing the observer ; the dotted lines indicate their position on 



Scale of Inches 


REM, del. 

Fics. 1-5. Views of a Ceremonial Stone used by the Australian Aborigines. 

the other side, if the stone were transparent. The position of the 
spiral on one of the edges of the stone is shown in Fig. 2. The com- 
mencement and end of the spiral appears on Fig. 1. It begins at 
three and seven-eighths of an inch from the apex and terminates at 
five and one-eighth inches. 


A spiral of this kind has not been observed by me before and 
consequently adds to the value of the present specimen. In a few 
other cases, however, I have seen a single, continuous incised line 
girdling the upper half or pointed end of the stone. In most of the 
specimens in my possession, as well as in those which have come 
under my notice elsewhere, a girdling incision of any sort is absent. 
It is on this account that I have drawn attention to the peculiar 
marking of the stone now described. 

Fig. 5 is a view of the basal end of the stone. A characteristic 
of all the stones of this class which I have seen consists in their 
having a saucer- or dish-shaped depression chipped or ground into 
the larger end. In our example there are three such depressions 
ground into the end of it. (See Fig. 5.) The two smaller ones are 
very shallow, although easily discernible, but the larger has a depth 
of nearly one-tenth of an inch in the center. The present is the only 
instance in which I have observed three of these depressions — one 
only being the general rule. 

Another point to which attention may be invited is the very 
much elongated oval form of a section through the shaft. This is 
prominently seen in Fig. 5, where the diameter is more than twice as 
great in one direction as in the other. Most of the stones of this 
kind are nearly circular in section, whilst an elongated oval section 
is rarely met with. . Again, very few of these stones are so profusely 
inscribed as the present example. 

Fig. 6 is a long, thin, cylindrical spindle of a very hard clayslate, 
eighteen and a quarter inches long. At four inches from the base 
the greatest diameter is two inches, and at ten inches from the base 
(Fig. 7) the smallest diameter is one and eleven-twentieth inches. 
Fig. 7 represents the implement turned a quarter round. 

A large amount of chipping and grinding has been done by the 
native artificer to bring this specimen into its present shape, especially 
at the pointed end and near the base. About the middle of the shaft 
the original surface of the stone is seen in a few patches some inches 
in length. 

Commencing a little over an inch and a half from the base there 
are numerous incised marks, both horizontal and slightly oblique, 
all the way to the apex. About half an inch from the extreme point, 



one of these incisions reaches all around the stone. At the middle 
of the shaft another line encircles it, but the two ends of the line, 
instead of meeting, overlap each other some two inches, and are 
from one-quarter to one-half inch apart. This encircling line is 
very faintly marked. There are about one hundred and forty well- 

Fics. 6-12. Three Ceremonial Stones used by the Australian Aborigines. 

defined incisions on the entire surface of this stone, one hundred 
and twenty of which are accurately reproduced in Figs. 6 and 7. 


In addition to this number there are many other marks which, 
although distinguishable, are mere scratches and have evidently never 
been anything more. They are of the same character as the well- 
defined cuts, but much shorter. 

Fig. 8 gives a view of the base of the stone, in which there is a 
saucer-like depression, the average diameter of which is nearly an 
inch and a quarter. This concavity has been made by picking the 
surface with some sharp instrument, such as a pointed flake of hard 
stone, the punctures being still plainly discernible. After the picking 
out was done the surface was rubbed or ground fairly smooth. The 
depth of the hollow formed in this way is a little more than one- 
twentieth of an inch. The specimen was found on Buckanbee Run, 
Darling River, and its weight is three pounds twelve ounces. 

Fig. 9 is a soft sandstone, sixteen and one-half inches long, with 
a practically circular shaft, the greatest diameter of which is two 
and sixteen-twentieth inches, from which it evenly diminishes to a 
well-defined point. At four and one-quarter inches from the point 
there are two slightly curved parallel lines cut well into the stone. 
On the opposite side of the specimen are two similar incisions, which 
are not of course visible in my drawing. These comprise all the 
marks on this stone. 

From the thickest part of the shaft to the base the diameter 
slightly decreases, until it averages a little over an inch and three 
quarters (Fig. io). The diameter of the depression in the base 
averages nearly two inches and its depth is one-eighth of an inch. 
The stone was found on Kallara Station, Darling River, and weighs 
three pounds fourteen ounces. 

Fig. ii is another specimen of decomposed sandstone, sixteen 
and five-eighth inches in length. At the thickest part the diameter 
measures two and eighteen-twentieth inches, and a section through 
any part of the shaft would give an almost circular outline. On 
the face selected for illustration there are twenty-one incised lines, 
comprising triplets, pairs and single marks. 

Fig. 12 represents the base, whose diameter varies from one and 
three-quarter inches to two and a quarter inches. The usual saucer- 
shaped concavity has a mean diameter of nearly an inch and a half 


and its depth is one-twentieth of an inch. This specimen was dis- 
covered on a sand ridge on Maira Plain Station, about fifty miles 
southeast of Wilcannia, and weighs four pounds and a half. 

A few remarks will now be made respecting the uses of these 
stones, information on this point being now difficult to obtain for 
the reasons stated in the beginning of this brochure. " Harry 
Perry," an old aboriginal of the Darling River, who died at Bourke 
about a year and a half ago, informed me that although he had never 
seen the stones in actual use himself, his father and other old men 
of the tribe had told him that they were employed in ceremonial 
observances connected with assembling of the tribe at the time the 
nardoo seed was ripe. The people would be invited to meet at a 
place adjacent to some low-lying ground which had been moistened 
by showers during the early spring months, or over which water had 
flowed in flood time, and which was consequently expected to produce 
large quantities of the nardoo plant. When the natives from the hin- 
terland, in whose country there was little or no nardoo, came to the 
gathering at the appointed time they brought with them articles as 
presents or for barter with the people who had allowed them the 
privilege of feasting on the nardoo seed. My native informant be- 
lieved that the stones in question were used in incantations for pro- 
ducing an abundant supply of nardoo and other seed bearing plants, 
as well as for an increase in game and fish. He also said that the 
messengers who were sent tp gather the different portions of the 
tribe for these festivals, generally carried one of the incised stones 
to show the purpose of his mission. 

As soon as other duties will permit I shall take pleasure in sub- 
mitting to this Society a further article for publication, describing 
the various forms and materials of the interesting aboriginal relics 
briefly touched upon in the foregoing pages. 


New South Wales, October 31, 1908. 



(Read March $, 1909) 


The kite, so far as we know, was first made and flown by the 
Chinese general, Han Sin, in the year 206 B. C. It was for a time 
used in war, being employed by the inhabitants of a besieged town 
to communicate with the outside, but later seemed to degenerate 
into a mere toy. Games in which kite strings are crossed and cut 
by the friction of one on the other are popular in China at the 
present time and great skill is shown in handling the small kites 
used for this purpose. 

Professor William Wilson at Glasgow University and Benjamin 
Franklin at Philadelphia in the years 1749 and 1752 respectively 
were the first to use the kite in the study of upper air conditions. 
Wilson obtained temperatures at "great elevations" by means of 
self -registering thermometers, while Franklin used his kite as a 
collector of electricity. 

Especial interest in upper air temperatures grew out of the con- 
sideration of the formula for refraction of light by the atmosphere, 
and kites carrying thermometers were again used in the years 1822 
to 1827; this time by the Reverend George Fisher and Captain Sir 
William Edward Parry. At the same time upper and lower surface 
stations and captive balloons were first used for the purpose of 
obtaining temperatures aloft, the former by Sir Thomas Brisbane 
and the latter by the Earl of Minto. Readings were obtained at 
elevations of 400 feet with the kites and 1,340 feet with the captive 

An editorial in the Edinburgh Journal for January, 1827, con- 
tains the following paragraph : 


To those meteorologists who have sufficient leisure and the means of 
performing such experiments, we would recommend the use of kites and 
balloons for ascertaining the temperature and state of the upper atmosphere. 
The Earl of Minto has obtained several very interesting results by the use 
of balloons. 

Ten years later, Espey, in our own country, U5ed kites to prove 
his theory concerning cloud altitudes. He held that the base of a 
forming summer cloud should be as many times ioo yards high as 
the temperature of the air at the earth's surface is above the dew 
point in degrees Fahrenheit, f. e., that these clouds form in ascend- 
ing currents and that the air cools one degree Fahrenheit for every 
ioo yards it ascends. He was able to put his kite in the base of a 
cloud 1,200 yards above the earth's surface and not only proved his 
theory within the error of observation, but found that the motion 
of the kite in the base of the cloud showed ascending air currents. 
He also obtained some striking electric effects, wire being used 
instead of string to fly the kite. 

The report of the Franklin Kite Gub, about 1838, on the dis- 
covery of ascending air currents gave further proof of Espey's 
theory and stated that this theory had the recommendation of the 
American Philosophical Society. 

A contemporary of Espey, James Swain, flew kites for the pur- 
pose of determining daily the height of that layer of " electrified 
air whose positive electricity was concentrated enough to expand 
the leaves of an electrometer." Swain used No. 30 steel wire, 
which he wound on a reel four feet in circumference and having 
a glass axle like the pne used by the Franklin Gub of Philadelphia. 
Steel wire is now universally used in kite flying. 

In 1847 Admiral Back flew kites from the deck of his ship, The 
Terror, and obtained free air temperatures over the ocean. 

Up to this time the kites used have been small and rather unstable 
in their flight. Little more was done with them until Archibald, an 
Englishman, began to look into the mechanics of kite flight in 1883. 
In the meantime mountain stations and captive balloons were 
further developed in an effort to get temperature readings at greater 
altitudes than had thus far been possible. An observatory was 
established at Mt. Washington in 1870 and one at Pike's Peak in 


1873. The results obtained by these observatories showed, as was 
pointed out by Professor Abbe and others, that the readings were 
not sufficiently isolated from terrestrial influences, and attention was 
again turned to kites. 

Archibald showed the value of vertical planes for steering pur- 
poses, constructed kites of greater lifting power and in 1887 used 
them to carry up a camera. Captain Baden Powell in England, 
interested in the possible use of kites in war, made them large 
enough to lift a man. Eddy, at Bayonne, N. J., in 1890, constructed 
a diamond kite in which the ends of the cross stick were bent back, 
thus introducing a vertical component in the planes which added to 
their stability in flight. In 1893, Hargrave, an Australian, invented 
the box or cellular kite. This kite, although of more complicated 
construction than forms heretofore used, very soon displaced them 
for every purpose and seems ta contain the fundamental principle 
upon which all stable aeroplanes are constructed. 

Eddy's work was taken up by Mr. Rotch and his assistants at 
Blue Hill near Boston, and Hargrave's by the U. S. Weather Bureau 
under the immediate direction of Messrs. Marvin and Potter. 
Marvin's study of the mechanics and equilibrium of kites led him 
to make some modifications in the original box pattern. The 
Marvin-Hargrave kite, at present quite widely used, is not only more 
efficient, but is stronger and, for meteorological uses, more con- 
venient in details of construction than the Hargrave. About this 
time Marvin designed a meteorograph and convenient hand reels for 
the wire which were used in a series of upper air observations made 
at seventeen different stations during the summer of 1898. In this 
series daily flights were attempted but only 44 per cent, of these 
attempts were successful, the failures being due to lack of wind or 
other adverse conditions. Of the 1,217 ascensions made, about 180 
were a mile in height, while two were slightly over 8,000 feet. The 
observations made have been reduced and are published in Bulletin 
F of the U. S. Weather Bureau. 

Nearly all first rate weather services now have one or more upper 
air observatories. Our own upper air work has been concentrated 
at Mt. Weather, Va., under the immediate direction of the writer, 
where, since the first of July, 1907, daily except Sunday, ascensions 


have been made with either kites or captive balloons, the latter being 
used only when the wind is insufficient to support the kites, or about 
one day in twenty. The apparatus in use at Mt. Weather is still 
undergoing improvement. The mean height at which daily (except 
Sunday) temperature and other observations are obtained is ap- 
proximately 3,000 meters, or about 2 miles, above sea level. The 
highest altitude So far attained by means of kites is 7,044 meters, 
about 4§ miles. This flight was made at Mt. Weather on October 
3, 1907. Flights closely approximating this in height were made at 
the same observatory on April 14 and September 30, 1908, while the 
fourth highest record, 6430 meters, was made by the German 
Observatory at Lindenburg in November, 1905. 

In the same year that Hargrave invented his kite, Charles Renard 
suggested the use by meteorolgists of small free balloons made of 
paper or other suitable material and having sufficient lifting power 
to carry up self-recording instruments. A balloon of this sort par- 
tially inflated with hydrogen at the earth's surface rises until the 
gas expands sufficiently to burst it, and the instrument is let down 
safely from this point by means of a small parachute. 

Teisserenc de Bort, at his observatory at Trappes, Paris, and 
from the decks of ocean steamers, has obtained upper air records of 
great importance to meteorology with these paper balloons as well 
as with kites. More recently Assmann introduced india-rubber 
balloons about six feet in diameter. These are now the more gener- 
ally used. 

Preparatory to an ascension, this balloon is filled until the rubber 
begins to stretch, i. e., from 3.5 to 4 cubic meters, depending on the 
weight it is to carry. The instrument is suspended from a small 
parachute thrown over the balloon, space being provided for the 
expansion of the latter to two or three times its diameter or to about 
twenty times the volume it had at the earth's surface. Sometimes 
two balloons are used, one of which bursts — the other lets the instru- 
ment down slowly. Records of temperature and humidity have 
been obtained at altitudes of 25,000 meters, over 15 miles above sea 
level with sounding balloons. 

At present about twenty-five observatories — two in this conti- 
nent, one in India, the others in Europe — are cooperating with the 


International Commission for Scientific Aeronautics, using either 
kites or sounding balloons, or both. Captive and manned free bal- 
loons are occasionally used. Of these observatories, the universities 
of Manchester and Kasan each maintain one. 

Apparatus and Methods. 

The site chosen for an upper air observatory is to some extent 
determined by the kind of work to be done. A kite field should be 
clear of trees and other obstructions that might either entangle the 
wire or hinder the movements of the men who manipulate the kites. 
It should be situated on an eminence just high enough to prevent its 
being sheltered by any other in the immediate vicinity, but not high 
enough to introduce the complications of mountain and valley 
effects, unless indeed such local effects and not the general condi- 
tions obtaining in storms as they pass, be the object of the study. 
It is well if the country for thirty miles around in the vicinity of 
the field be free from large bodies of water and inhabited, for kites 
break away at times and these conditions facilitate their return. 
Close proximity to a city, on the other hand, is likely to bring kite 
flyers into unpleasant relationships with the local telephone and 
other electric compaflies who transmit power on overhead wires. 

For captive balloons the conditions should be the same as for 
kites. Sounding balloons may be started from any place at which 
the true surface conditions can be recorded for comparison with 
the upper air data, except that the land area immediately to the 
east should be free from large lakes and fairly well settled. The 
balloons set free in this country by Professor Rotch have invar- 
iably traveled in an easterly direction and landed within a radius 
of 300 miles from their starting point. Each balloon carries with 
it instructions to its finder for packing and shipping and informs 
him that he will be rewarded for his trouble. This plan has brought 
back about 95 per cent, of all sounding balloons liberated in St. 
Louis, the only place in our country so far chosen for this work. 

The ideal upper air observatory is one at which all three of 
these methods may be used, kites and captive balloons being less 
expensive and more efficient for levels up to 3,000 or 4,000 meters, 
2 or 3 miles, and sounding balloons for higher levels. 


The self-recording instruments used in kite and sounding balloon 
work are numerous in variety. Many observatories have instru- 
ments made from special designs. All are built on essentially the 
same plan. A clockwork rotates a cylinder which is covered with 
either a sheet of paper ruled to scale or a sheet of smoked paper 
or aluminium. Upon this sheet the pens or points, as the case may 
be, connected with their respective elements, trace the conditions. 
Paper scales are the more convenient and are used when the tem- 
peratures to be recorded are not so low as to freeze the ink. The 
instruments are made as light as possible, aluminium being the metal 
used in the construction wherever it can be adapted. From 750 to 
1,500 grams is the usual weight of an instrument, those for use in 
kites being more substantially built than those for use in balloons. 
The anemometer usually consists of a small aluminium pin wheel 
mechanically geared to the pen — some are electrically connected. 
The hair hygrometer is the only form yet available for self-recording 
purposes that is light enough. The temperature is measured with 
either a bimetallic element or a partially coiled tube containing 
toluene. The barometer is of the aneroid type. The order of accu- 
racy of these instruments is not high. Difficulty is experienced in 
keeping the anemometer properly oriented while the kite is flying. 
The hair hygrometer, if kept in good condition, probably records 
within less than 5 per cent, of the correct value. Records of pres- 
sure are, in nearly all cases, correct to within 2 mm., in many to 
within 1 mm. The temperature may be relied upon to one degree 
Centigrade in the records obtained from most kite flights, to less in 
many. When used in sounding balloons at very great altitudes the 
absolute error in any element is of course greater than those men- 
tioned. In this case no anemometer is used, the wind velocity 
being determined from observations on the drifting balloon with 
one or more theodolites. 

The differences in the various instruments consist chiefly in the 
way of exposing the elements so as to best obtain true records of 
the conditions in the vicinity of the instrument. It is essential that 
the temperature element especially be properly ventilated and insu- 
lated. The method of ventilation is of course different in sounding 
balloon and kite instruments. The former, being carried by the 




wind 9 is in a calm except for its own upward motion through the air. 
It is therefore exposed in a vertical tube at the top of which is a 
funnel to insure the passage of a sufficient air current through the 
tube and about the element. The latter are held by the kites in the 
horisoatal current in which the kite flies. The velocity of this cur- 
rttth always sufficient to keep the temperature element well venti- 
lated- SO that care need be taken only to see that the element is in 
this ■current and screened from either the direct or reflected rays 
of the sun. 

Tbe meteorographs in use need comparison with standard instru- 
mests, at first to determine their scale values, frequently thereafter 
to guard against error due to slightly defective elements. Before 
aa& after an ascent the instrument is placed in a standard shelter 
wife standardized instruments and allowed to record. Frequent 
readings of the latter are taken not only at these times but during 
the entire ascension. A base line for computation of altitudes is 
that furnished, also a record of surface conditions for comparison 
wife those of the upper air. To facilitate this computation and 
comparison, as well as to avoid errors due to the sluggishness of the 
elements, stops in the ascent and descent are made at frequent inter- 
vals. These stops need be for but a few minutes. Their times are 
recorded at the lower station and they are easily distinguishable on 
Ae traces. Of course it is impossible to make such stops with 
sounding balloons, and consequently instruments sent up by means 
of them should be, to some extent, at least, tested for sluggishness 
in addition to the tests made for scale values. 

The cellular kite invented by Hargrave or some of its numerous 
modifications is the one most generally used for meteorological pur- 
poses. The Marvin-Hargrave kite, in which three planes are put in 
the front cell and the entire framework strengthened by fine steel 
wire braces, is the one in use at Mt. Weather. With slight modifi- 
cations in the size and shape of the planes and in the proportion and 
distribution of lifting and steering surfaces, this kite has been made 
to serve in all winds from 3.5 to 22.5 meters per second. The dimen- 
sions of a medium-sized kite, one well adapted to carrying an instru- 
ment in winds of from 5 to 10 meters per second, are as follows : 










Height 204 cm. 

Width 197 cm. 

Depth 81 cm. 

Width of planes 64 cm. 

Plane space 76 cm. 

Weight 3.2 to 3.8 kg. 

There are five lifting planes, so called, and four steering. The 
area of the lifting planes is 6.3 square meters, while that of the* 
steering planes is one third as much. Kites varying from these di- 
mensions and necessarily therefore from these proportions are built 
for winds higher and lower than those to which the above-described 
kite is adapted. A type of kite which has flown in winds up to 22.5 
meters per second has lifting planes aggregating 5.4 square meters 
in area. Its steering planes have half this area. It is a longer, 
narrower kite than the one whose dimensions are given above. A 
kite that has carried an instrument in winds as low as 3.5 meters 
per second has for the total area of its lifting planes 11.2 square 

The term lifting is not properly applied to any plane in the rear 
cell of a Hargrave kite, the function of that cell being more particu- 
larly steering. When a kite of the pattern described is sent up in a 
fog or low cloud in which the temperature is below freezing, ice 
crystals are found to attach themselves to the under side only of the 
three parallel planes in the front cell, but on both sides of all other 
planes in either cell, showing that practically all of the lifting is 
done by the front cell. A study of the formation of these crystals 
and the amount of ice deposited on different parts of a plane is very 
helpful in determining the most economic width and location of 
planes in a kite or other aeroplane. 

At Mt. Weather we attach the meteorograph to the middle back 
rib of the first kite just behind the front cell. This insures it 
proper ventilation during the flight and adequate protection against 
injury in case the kite breaks away. Other, secondary, kites are 
attached to the line at intervals depending on the wind velocity and 
in numbers depending on the length of line put out. Their purpose 
is to support the wire. Twelve kites with a combined lifting plane 
area of 774 square meters is the greatest number we have ever used 






in making a flight. They carried a line 12,100 meters long. In our 
highest flight above referred to 11,735 meters of line was put out on 
nine kites. 

Fie. 5. Method of bridling kite. 

The line is of piano wire made up about as follows : 




Inch in Diameter. 



In all about ten miles of wire. 

The reel is a very important part of the kite-flying apparatus. 
Its design should be such that the operator can easily control the rate 
at which wire goes out or comes in from o up to 4.5 meters per 
second. This enables him to keep his kites flying even if they are 
becalmed during flight, to throw them up through the calm strata 
of air which are often encountered, especially in the summer months, 
and, with the aid of a skilled field man, to start and land kites with 
little or no breakage. Our reel at Mt. Weather is equipped with a 
variable speed motor so geared to the drum that the wire may be 
brought in at any rate up to 2.7 meters per second. 


Too careful attention cannot be given to the condition of the reel 
preparatory to making a flight, and in general all apparatus must be 
well looked to. Failure in any one of the many details to be 
attended to at this time and during the flight is almost certain to 
result in some catastrophe. The field work has, for this reason, all 
the interest of our best college games and the man who is not 
equipped physically and mentally to enjoy such games will hardly 
enjoy or make a success of flying kites and balloons. The fact that 
for the past eighteen months no day (Sundays excepted) has passed 
in which one or more records of upper air conditions above Mt. 
Weather were not obtained speaks well for the spirit and efficiency 
of the men engaged in this work at that observatory. 

The power plant at present in use is equipped with a 35 H.P. 
double cylinder gasoline engine, a 25 KW. dynamo, and an electro- 
lyzer by means of which water is separated into oxygen and hydro- 
gen, the latter for use in the captive balloons, and a gas compressor 
which may be used to compress hydrogen for shipment or to make 
liquid air with which to get sufficiently low temperatures to test 
sounding balloon instruments. A new combination steam power and 
beating plant is in process of building. 

The computation of altitudes from the pressure trace of the 
meteorograph record by Laplace's formula and the evaluation of 
the other elements at these altitudes is another matter altogether and 
yet not devoid of interest. From five or six up to twenty or twenty- 
five levels are computed in each trace, i. e., enough to show all pecu- 
liarities or changes in the temperature gradient or air currents, alti- 
tudes of clouds passed through, depth of cloud and fog layers and 
the highest points reached. From these data the temperature grad- 
ient, i. e., the change of temperature with altitude, usually expressed 
in degrees centigrade per 100 meters, is plotted for each day and the 
upper air isotherms continuously charted. The whole, with more 
or less comment, is published quarterly in the Bulletin of the Mt. 
Weather Observatory. A study which has for its purpose the sum- 
marizing of the first year's data is still in progress. Valley stations 
are maintained on either side of the mountain. At these, data are 
collected for comparison with the surface readings obtained on Mt. 
Weather, 1,000 feet above them. 


Five men besides the writer are engaged in the work of obtaining 
and reducing the records and in studying the resulting data. Duties 
are so arranged that these men take turns at outdoor as well as 
indoor work. In this way the work itself furnishes most of the 
physical recreation needed. None of the routine duties becomes 
especially irksome and the special lines of work are kept in better 
relation to each other and to the work as a whole than would be 
possible under another arrangement. 

Concerning Data and Results. 

The history of upper air work is, as we have seen, a brief one. 
The Hargrave kite and the sounding balloon are but fifteen years 
old, and with them began the study of the upper air as it is now 
carried on. This sort of investigation is comparatively new. The 
facts already — shall we say "aired" — have been made. the subject 
of considerable comment. They themselves have so far had but 
little to say. They are cold and, among themselves, somewhat un- 
sociable facts as yet, but we have become well enough acquainted 
with them to be certain that they with others yet to be " aired " or 
"unearthed" constitute a law-abiding community. "Unearthed" 
is used advisedly, for the energy liberated by the uranium deposits 
near the earth's surface may prove to be a considerable factor in the 
origin and development of disturbances occurring in the lower strata 
of the atmosphere. As a source of the energy displayed in the 
storms that continually pass over us, this factor has been considered 
by meteorologists as negligible compared with the energy received 
from the sun. The heating of the air from this latter source is due 
to the absorption by it of : (i) The direct rays of the sun, (2) the 
sun's rays which have been reflected from the earth's surface, and 
(3) the long heat waves radiated by the earth on account of its 
being heated by its absorption of the direct rays of the sun. Heat 
waves sent out by the earth due to other causes, such as radio-active- 
minerals, would be operative in this third subdivision. 

Water vapor absorbs the long heat waves readily and mpon its 
vertical distribution in the atmosphere depends to a great extent the 
altitude at which their energy becomes effective in heating the air 


and setting it in motion. Observations upon this distribution show 
that at 2,500 meters the moisture content of the air is one third 
what it is at sea level, at 5,000 meters one tenth. Most clouds of 
the cumulus and stratus types form below the latter level. It is to 
be expected, therefore, and we are not disappointed in finding, that 
this lower stratum of air is in continuous and complicated motion, 
vertical currents as well as horizontal obtaining. Above this stratum 
the air movement seems to be less complex. 

When an air mass is heated to a temperature higher than that of 
the air about it, as we now see may be the case near the earth's sur- 
face, an unstable condition obtains and convection currents set in. 
A body of air rising to higher levels is cooled by its own expansion 
as it passes into the rarer atmosphere. This is called adiabatic 
cooling. If the body of air in question were dry, the rate of adia- 
batic cooling would be about one degree Centigrade per 100 meters, 
or one degree Fahrenheit per 180 feet. If it contain moisture, it 
will not cool so rapidly for the moisture in condensing gives off 
its latent heat into the air. This effect is a function of the relative 
humidity and tends to accelerate the upward motion and postpone 
the return of stable conditions. Sufficient condensation soon takes 
place, so that heat from this source ceases to offset the adiabatic 
cooling, and the convection current finds its upper limit. Other 
moist air coming in from below supports the system thus set up, 
and the whole moves with the upper westerly wind. This sort of 
circulation on a larger or smaller scale, more or less modified by 
other circulations of the same sort, is in progress continuously. An 
almost unmodified type of it may often be observed during the sum- 
mer months in the formation of a single cumulus cloud. The cloud 
formation shows the outlines of the ascending air column. The 
horizontal air movement is slight at such times and the column 
nearly vertical. 

We should expect to find then that the change of temperature 
with altitude is less in the lower moist stratum of the atmosphere 
than in that immediately above it and always, when mean conditions 
for a sufficiently long time, say a year, are considered, less than the 
adiabatic rate of cooling for dry air, some moisture being present at 
all altitudes. The sounding balloon observations in middle Europe, 














































DM ft 





t • 

r > 

' H 

r 4 

r tf 

p m 

t * 

r « 

r « 

r « 

p ti 

t 1 

r ti 

r i 

r •• 

Fig. 7. Mean gradients for January and July, 1908. 


as compiled by Hann, give the mean gradient up to 3,000 meters 
as 45 degree Centigrade per 100 meters, while at twice this altitude 
the temperature change is .70 degree Centigrade per 100 meters. 

Within the moist stratum itself, observations on the relative 
humidity show that the yearly minimum at the earth's surface occurs 
in the summer months. The result is that condensation begins at 
higher levels in summer than in winter. The temperature gradient 
responds to these conditions, being greater nearer the earth's surface 
and less near the upper region of the moist stratum in summer than 
in winter. Values closely approximating the adiabatic rate are often 
found for the first 500 meters above sea level in the summer months. 
Comparison of the mean temperature gradients as observed in 
Europe and in this country, at Mt. Weather and Blue Hill, points 
to the fact that condensation takes place at lower levels in western 
Europe than here. This is reasonable when the comparatively dry 
surface condkons which obtain on our continent are taken into 

It follows from the above that the moist or storm stratum is: 
(1) Deeper in summer than in winter, (2) deeper over a conti- 
nent than over the ocean or smaller land areas. Convection cur- 
rents are more sluggish where the relative humidity at the surface 
is low and therefore the barometric changes are less pronounced: 
(1) In summer than in winter, (2) in continental than in insular 
climatic conditions. Upon these considerations alone we should 
expect the deeper storms to be the less intense, but this is not in 
general true and another factor, viz., the velocity of the upper 
westerly winds, must be taken into consideration. By storm inten- 
sity is meant the suddenness of the changes brought about by the 
passage of the storm — probably best measured by the barometric 

These upper currents apparently control the rate of motion of the 
storms. Their velocities are found to vary with altitude, increasing 
up to heights of 10,000 or 12,000 meters. They also vary with 
the seasons. At an altitude of 3,000 to 5,000 meters their mean 
velocity for January is found to be fully one and a half times the 
mean for July. It follows that, for a given season, the deeper 
storms move faster, i. c, continental and insular climatic conditions 



-7* -4tf -tf -4<f -MT -t< -1* <f 1* i< 













^ -,* -,* -4/ -^ -,* »ig» # - W- | 


Fig. 8. Temperature gradient showing permanent inversion. 


are respectively characterized by more and less rapidly moving 
storms. The effect of rapid motion upon a storm should be in 
general to intensify it, for, the more rapidly it moves, the greater 
the quantity of moist surface air that will be drawn up into it, and 
consequently the greater the amount of latent heat liberated because 
of the moisture condensation. 

The conclusion is that, for a given location and season, the depth 
of a storm should indicate something of its rate of movement and 
consequently of its intensity. This is in accord with the experience 
at Mt. Weather. 

It is said that American storms are more intense than those of 
Europe. If this be true, it is directly because of their more rapid 
motion and indirectly because of their greater depth. 

Summer storms are less intense than those of winter. They are 
not only deeper but move less rapidly. 

Cyclonic storm paths are, in general, found to pass through the 
regions of greater surface humidity. They seldom cross the arid 
or dry mountain regions, but travel along the great river basins, 
over the Great Lakes or along the gulf and ocean coasts. 

So far the mean temperature change with altitude has been con- 
sidered in two strata of the atmosphere: the lower, moist or storm 
stratum extending from sea level up to 4,000 or 5,000 meters, and 
the stratum above extending thence to 10,000 or 12,000 meters above 
sea level. In the first the mean temperature gradient is about .5 
degree Centigrade per 100 meters, in the second about .7 degree 
Centigrade per 100 meters. The mean temperature at the top of 
the first stratum is about — 10 degrees Centigrade, at the top of 
the second about — 65 degrees Centigrade. 

Above these strata still a third distinct stratum has been explored 
to an altitude of 25,000 meters above sea level. The striking pecu- 
liarity of this stratum is that in it the temperature increases from 
its base upward as far as it has been sounded. Its temperature 
gradient is. small but negative. It was at first called the isothermal 
layer because the temperature seemed to change but little with 
altitude. Later observations, however, show a decided negative 
gradient or inversion of temperature and in consequence it is often 
called the upper or permanent inversion, the adjective being neces- 


sary to distinguish it from temporary inversions frequently found 
in the lowest of the three strata described. The existence of the 
permanent inversion is a well established and interesting fact. Of 
the many balloons sent into it, only a few have been followed 
all the way. up with the theodolite, consequently the wind velocities 
have been but little observed. The winds are found to be variable 
and of low velocity, 3.5 meters per second has been observed. This 
is in pronounced contrast to the prevailing west winds of extremely 
high velocity which characterize the layer just below it. Leading 
meteorologists still differ as to the explanation of this warm stratum. 
Their opinions may be found in the October 1, 1908, number of 
Nature in the form of a report of the discussion organized on this 
subject by the committee of Section A of the British Association. 

Isothermal charts, such as the one for the first two weeks in 
August, 1908 (Fig. 6), illustrate the change in the upper air tem- 
peratures with the time. The daily rise and fall of temperature is 
seen to extend to about 1,500 meters above the surface. Super- 
posed upon this and somewhat complicated by it is an aperiodic 
change which follows the passage of high and low barometer over 
the station. This sort of change extends up to the permanent inver- 
sion. Still a third change in temperatures aloft with time has an 
annual period. The time of greatest cold occurs near the earth's 
surface in January, at an altitude of 5,000 to 7,000 meters it comes 
in March and April, 7,000 to 9,000 meters in July, and 9,000 to 
11,000 meters in September. 

Means of temperature records from 581 balloon ascensions made 
by Teisserenc de Bort show that the greatest annual fluctuation in 
temperature occurs at an altitude of 6,000 meters above sea level, 
i. e., about the base of the second stratum above mentioned. From 
this level up the annual fluctuation decreases gradually. Almost as 
great a change occurs at the base of the lower stratum, t. e., near 
the earth's surface. In this layer the fluctuation reaches a minimum 
at an altitude of 3,000 meters. These facts compel us to set aside 
the idea not long ago prevalent that, at an altitude 7,000 to 9,000 
meters above sea level, the temperature should be constant through- 
out the year. 

Special interest attaches to the particular study of the peculiari- 



8 8 8 
5 1 

115 5 



*^Vy~"~ "* 








/ • 


















s — — 




v . 


' y 









■ -■ i 








/ / 










L — * 






















-- -< 









*- 4 




: .* 





V ... . 


j . i 

3 1 

! 1 

1 i i 





* is 



ties in the temperature gradient as recorded from day to day in the 
lower stratum, since these, together with the wind directions and 
velocities, must be relied upon for a knowledge of the air circula- 

N ■ 












r at 

■ \ 
















1* at 

HT at 


Ufc 1 ' 


T, \ 



> at 

It w*. 






•* 1 2 3 4. 5 6 78910 1112 13,1^ 



Fig. 10. Horizontal projection of path of a sounding balloon, Uccle, 
Belgium, July 25, 1907. 

tion in particular storms as they pass. Among the most interesting 
of these peculiarities are the inversions. Fig. 9 shows a charac- 
teristic series beginning on September 15, 1908, and ending Septem- 
ber 19, 1908. The advent of this inversion is preceded by a small 
temperature change with altitude at 2,900 meters on September 14. 












During these five days an area of high pressure which was central 
over Vermont on the fifteenth moved south westward over the 
observatory. The highest pressure in this area was 775.2 mm. on 
the morning of the fifteenth; this decreased to 765.0 mm. on the 
morning of the nineteenth. Under the influence of this area of 
high pressure, the surface wind was northeast on the fourteenth, 
southeast on the fifteenth and northwest during the remainder of 
th$ period. On the fourteenth and fifteenth the change in wind 
direction with altitude was counter-clockwise, while during the 
remainder of the period it was clockwise. The upper current in 
which the inversion occurred varied from north-northeast on the 
fifteenth to north-northwest on the nineteenth. These warmer 
northerly winds aloft are apparently due to an area of low pressure 
which was central about 300 kilometers east of the southern ex- 
tremity of Florida at 8 a.m. on the fourteenth and moved north- 
northeast along the coast, reaching the Gulf of St. Lawrence at 8 
a.m. on the nineteenth. This area of low pressure seems to have 
overhung the weak area of high pressure. 

Fig. 10 shows the horizontal projection of the path of a sound- 
ing balloon. It illustrates not only the variability of the winds 
both as to direction and velocity with altitude, but the method of 
determining these elements when sounding balloons are used. What- 
ever the wind direction at the surface, the kites do not often go 
more than 3,000 meters high without coming into a wind with a 
strong westerly component. These changes in the wind, together 
with the temperature gradient, enable us to get the depth of a great 
many of the storms as they pass us. 

Fig. 11 shows the map for February 26, 1908. The wind direc- 
tions shown by the flight of this day were as follows : 

Surface ' NW. 

1,000 meters WNW. 

2,000 meters W. 

3,000 meters WSW. 

4,000 meters SW. 

The peculiar arrangement of the two low pressure areas in the 
northeast is the interesting feature. The wind directions observed 
on this day during the kite flight show that the small or secondary 
low pressure area was only 2,000 meters deep. At this altitude the 


kites swung into a W. to SW. wind appropriate to the circulation 
about the center of the primary low pressure area. The kite en- 
tered the circulation of the primary low at a lower level in the 
ascent than in the descent. This is shown both by the variation of 
the wind with altitude and by a slight inversion of temperature 
which occurred at an altitude of 1,768 meters in the ascent and at 
2,600 meters in the descent. The secondary low is the center of a 
deepening storm, and its motion of translation becomes more rapid 
as its altitude increases. We find on the map for the next day that 
it has become the chief storm center. 

Aside from this sort of study of the data obtained in the upper 
air work at Mt. Weather, the peculiar features of each day's record 
of conditions aloft are telegraphed to the Forecast Division in 
Washington at 8 p.m. They frequently prove of value in the 
making of the forecast. We have, however, but the one station at 
which the upper air is explored and, unless the disturbance with 
which the forecast for the day has chiefly to do is operating in our 
vicinity, we are unable to furnish much helpful information about it. 

It happens sometimes that on a day when a flight of a certain 
height would be of especial interest, the winds are insufficient to 
carry the kites to the desired levels. The use of sounding balloons 
at Mt. Weather is inadvisable because of its proximity to the ocean. 
However, enough is being done to make the present work very much 
worth while, and to show us that the value of three or four stations 
at which both kites and balloons could be used would be inestimable 
in obtaining general as well as particular information of the storms 
as they pass. The latter, in the light of the former, should add to 
the accuracy of the forecast and perhaps extend the period for which 
a reasonable forecast may be made. 

In this paper results based on upper air records of temperature, 
humidity, wind direction and velocity only have been touched upon. 
Kites and balloons furnish us the means of getting at electrical 
potentials and other electrical phenomena in the upper air, also may 
be the means of measuring the amount of insolation at different 
levels, all of which, as seen in the morning twilight time, promise to 
contribute much to the brightness of the day that is dawning in this 
field of applied physics. 


(Plate I.) 


(Read April 22, I909-) 


In the year 1899 Sir Clements R. Markham, then president of 
the Royal Geographical Society, read a paper "The Antarctic 
Expeditions" 1 before the International Geographical Congress at 
Berlin. In this paper he mentioned the names and work of many 
Antarctic explorers, but he omitted the names of Wilkes and 
Palmer, and, in fact, he did not refer to any American. More- 
over, he proposed to divide the Antarctic regions into four quad- 
rants, all of which were to receive English names, and over the 
land which for fifty years has borne the name of " Wilkes Land," 
he intended to affix the term " Victoria Quadrant." 

This remarkable attitude towards Americans, of a man holding 
such a prominent scientific position in England, arrested the atten- 
tion of the writer, who began to study carefully Antarctic litera- 
ture to find out on what Sir C. R. Markham based his opinions. 
It did not take long to become aware that although there were 
plenty of papers and some books of explorations about the South 
Pole, yet there was nothing in the shape of a connected history 
which was in the least accurate. Many things were omitted, and 
what was not forgotten was often wrong. A then recently pub- 
lished book " The Antarctic Regions," by Dr. Karl Fricker, teem- 
ing with errors and prejudice, was a shining example of this worth- 
less method of writing geographical history. 

That American explorers were thrown aside, was also evidently 
partly the fault of American writers. Wilkes was neglected, 
Palmer almost forgotten, and Pendleton entirely so, by their 

1 The Geographical Journal, 1899, Vol. XIV, pp. 473-481. 



countrymen. Under these circumstances, why should others think 
of them? And yet America's record in the Antarctic is a brilliant 
one, indeeed the most brilliant of any nation! 

It has taken the writer years of hard work, studying records 
and maps, and ransacking libraries and archives in America and 
Europe, to gradually work out the evolution of the discovery of 
the Antarctic regions. Beginning with a letter to The Nation 1 in 
answer to Sir C. R. Markham, following this with a long paper 
"Antarctica, a History of Antarctic Discovery," 1 then again with 
a longer book "Antarctica," 4 and another paper "Antarctica 
Addenda," 5 it has proved necessary to supplement this with still 
another one, " Stonington Antarctic Explorers,"* and even yet the 
history is incomplete. 

It soon became apparent, while working up the various records, 
that the nomenclature of the Antarctic regions was in a state of 
hopeless confusion. In many cases the names originally given by 
the discoverers had been superseded by names given by later trav- 
elers. Such was the case with the " Powell Islands " justly so called 
and so first charted after their discoverer, the English sealer George 
Powell, which was superseded by the meaningless name " The South 
Orkneys." The name " Palmer Land " wandered all over the map, 
according to the fancy of the map maker. The name "Graham 
Land," belonging to a small stretch of coast, was often applied 
to the whole massif of known lands in the western Antarctic. This 
arose from a curious cause. Graham Land lies some four degrees 
south of the Shetlands, and on Mercator charts, owing to the enor- 
mous relative increase in size for every degreee of latitude south, 
Graham Land swelled to inordinate dimensions, and the name was 
printed in giant letters, which pushed it into an unwarranted 

The most curious thing of all was that there was no generic 
name by which to distinguish the lands which could be reached f rom 
South America, from those which could be reached from Australia. 

"May 10, 1900. 

'Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1901, Vol. CLI. and Vol. CLII. 

4 Philadelphia, Allen, Lane and Scott, 1902. 

1 Journal of the Franklin Institute, February, 1904. 

•Not yet published. 


" The lands lying south of South America " and " The lands lying 
south of Australia" were impossible titles to use in writing. It 
was necessary to invent something shorter, and in 1902, the writer 
proposed the names "West Antarctica" and "East Antarctica" 
to distinguish Antarctic lands in the western hemisphere from those 
in the eastern hemisphere, and first placed those names on a chart. 
Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, while wintering at Snow Hill, felt the 
necessity of such a nomenclature and invented independently the 
names " West Antarktis " and " East Antarktis," which on his return 
he decided, after reading the writer's "Antarctica," to change to 
" West Antarctica " and " East Antarctica." 1 

The name "West Antarctica" has already been placed on sev- 
eral maps, but apparently only attached to the South Shetlands, 
Palmer Land and Graham Land mass. Of course, "West Ant- 
arctica " should include all the lands in the western Antarctic, such 
as Coats Land and King Edward Land, just as " East Antarctica " 
should include all the lands in the eastern Antarctic, namely, Wilkes 
Land, Victoria Land, and Enderby Land. 

Little by little, as the writer unearthed neglected printed records 
and manuscripts, a grand story of forgotten American enterprise 
and pluck was revealed. As far back as the year 1800, Captain 
Swain, of Nantucket, discovered in Antarctic waters a small island, 
which was reported afterwards as sighted by two other Americans, 
Captain Macy and Captain Gardner. In 1819-1820, Captain Shef- 
field and Mate N. B. Palmer reached the newly discovered South 
Shetlands on a sealing voyage. In 1820-1821, Captain Nathaniel 
B. Palmer discovered the coast of the northern mainland of West 
Antarctica, which was rightfully called Palmer Land. In 182 1- 
1822, Captain N. B. Palmer sailed along this coast, and afterwards, 
in company with the English sealer Powell, discovered the Powell 
Islands. In 1822-1823, Benjamin Morrell sailed over part of the 
Antarctic Ocean, and sighted some of the coasts of West Ant- 
arctica, south and east of the Shetlands. Before 1828, Benjamin 
Pendleton sailed south and west from the Shetlands, and discovered 
the coast, afterwards called Graham Land, and the entrance of a 
great strait, doubtless Gerlache Strait. In 1830, Nathaniel B. Pal- 

T " Antarctica or Two Years amongst the Ice of the South Pole," p. 69. 


mer and Alexander S. Palmer explored a large section of the Ant- 
arctic Ocean, west of the Shetlands. 

In 1839 and 1840, the United States Exploring Expedition, under 
the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., made two 
voyages to the Antarctic. The first was in West Antarctica, to the 
Shetlands and along the coast of Palmer Land. The second was in 
East Antarctica. Starting from Australia, in January and February, 
1840, Wilkes discovered the coast of East Antarctica and sailed along 
it for about 1500 miles. To this coast he gave the name of " The 
Antarctic Continent," but geographers have gradually and rightfully 
renamed it " Wilkes Land." While Wilkes did not see the whole 
coast of Antarctica, yet he saw enough to make it certain that there 
was a continental land mass at the South Pole. Geographers have 
hardly even yet, and Americans in general have certainly not, real- 
ized what a great discovery Wilkes made. There have been only 
three continents discovered since ancient times, America, Australia 
and Antarctica, and Americans ought to be proud that the discovery 
pi the third was made by Americans. 

Shortly after Wilkes came the sealer Smiley, of whom there are 
unfortunately almost no records. There is one, however, hitherto 
unnoticed, which is interesting. On a globe, manufactured by Gil- 
man Joslin in Boston and copyrighted by Charles Copley in Wash- 
ington in 1852, which is now in the Academy of Natural Sciences 
in Philadelphia, is charted " South Shetland " and south of this in 
about 69 S. lat. "I. of Alexander," and in about 72 S. lat. 
" Smilies I." Smiley is known to have gone far south, but whether 
he actually went beyond Alexander Land, or was only the second 
to resight the Russian discovery, can, however, not be inferred from 
this. In our generation many voyages have been made by Amer- 
ican sealers, Captains Osbon, Eldred, Glass, Buddington, Lynch, 
Fuller and others, principally to various parts of West Antarctica 
in a search for fur seal skins. 

To-day, however, America is no longer doing her share in the 
exploration of the continent discovered by Americans. Other 
nations are doing all the work and reaping all the glory. The 
"Frozen White Continent" remains the one great unexplored area 
on the surface of the earth, and towards the end of the nineteenth 


century, it began to exercise the irresistible fascination of the 
unknown on the thoughts of geographers and explorers. And 
nobly have Europeans answered the call. A Belgian expedition, 
under de Gerlache, explored the strait which bears his name, and 
traced by soundings a long piece of the continental shelf of West 
Antarctica. A mixed expedition, under Dr. Borchgrevink, wintered 
in Victoria Land. A German expedition, under Dr. von Drygalski, 
discovered a new portion of the coast of East Antarctica, Kaiser 
Wilhelm II. Land, and confirmed the existence of Wilkes* Termina- 
tion Land. A Swedish expedition, under Dr. Nordenskjold, ex- 
plored and charted the eastern coast of the northern mainland of 
West Antarctica, the unnamed stretch of which, between King Oscar 
II. Land and Joinville Island, should certainly bear the name of 
"Nordensjbld Land." A Scotch expedition, under Dr. Bruce, 
sailed and sounded in the Weddell Sea, and discovered an unknown 
part of the coast of Antarctica, " Coats Land." An English expedi- 
tion, under Captain Scott, explored and charted Victoria Land and 
discovered King Edward VII. Land. A French expedition, under 
Dr. Charcot, reexplored Gerlach Strait and the outlying archipelago, 
and sighted, south of Graham Land, a new piece of coast, which 
Charcot called " Loubet Land," but which might well be renamed 
" Charcot Land." An English expedition, under Lieutenant Shack- 
elton, last January reached, it is reported by cable, 88° 23' S. lat., 
162 E. long., and also the South Magnetic Pole, 72 25' S. lat., 
154° E. long. And, at the present moment, a French expedition, 
under Dr. Charcot, is wintering somewhere in West Antarctica. 

Is it not time for America to once more put her shoulder to the 
wheel and help science dispel ignorance? And if she does, what 
ought she to do? She ought to reexplore Wilkes Land, and get 
a more accurate chart of its shores. Why? First, because Wilkes 
Land is an American discovery; second, because little is known °* 
about it ; and third, because so much doubt has been cast on Wilkes a 

and Americans by some foreign geographers. 

I say but little is known of Wilkes Land. For some reason \< 
explorers have fought shy of its icy shores. The French admiral \ 
Dumont d'Urville landed in one bay of its coast ; the English sealer 
Balleny caught a glimpse of it at one spot ; and the German Dr. von 




Plate I 



Drygalski reached the extreme western end : otherwise nothing has 
been done there since the immortal cruise of gallan Charles Wilkes. 

The doubts and slurs cast on Wilkes's discovery are another 
paramount cause why Americans should reexplore Wilkes Land. 
It should be looked on as a national duty to do so. It is unfortu- 
nately necessary in this connection to speak anew of the abuse and 
the disbelief heaped on Wilkes. The whole trouble was started 
by Sir James Clarke Ross. Angered at being forestalled in the 
discovery of Antarctica, Ross wrote most unfairly about Wilkes. 
Although Ross had Wilkes's book before him, and could read there 
the "Instructions" 8 directing Wilkes to go to the Antarctic, yet 
Ross wrote as if Wilkes had no business to do so when an English 
expedition was expected to go there the following year. Ross did 
not go to Wilkes Land nor anywhere near it, yet he deliberately left 
all of Wilkes's discoveries off his chart 9 

Accepting the angered fancies of Ross as facts, many writers 
wrote disparagingly of Wilkes. 10 The most vehement of his op- 
ponents was Sir Clement R. Markham, who, after many times 
speaking of Wilkes as if Wilkes were utterly unreliable, finally 
reached the stage when he thought he could simply omit all refer- 
ence to American Antarctic explorers. Owing to his important 
position, however, of president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
Markham's opinions naturally carried great weight in England and 
affected the judgment of younger men, chief among whom was Cap- 
tain Robert F. Scott. 

Captain Scott commanded the British Antarctic expedition to 
Victoria Land in 1901-1904. On his return northward, when in 
about the latitude of Hudson Land, he altered his course, and sailed 
due west for about nineteen degrees of longitude. When within 
about fifteen or twenty miles of Wilkes's "Cape Hudson," Scott 
turned northward and returned to Australia. He therefore did 
not go to any part of Wilkes Land. Nevertheless he asserts with 
the greatest emphasis in his book 11 that once for all he has definitely 

• u Narrative United States Exploring Expedition," Vol. 1, p. xxvii. 
•° Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic 
Regions." See " Antarctica," by Edwin Swift Balch. 

'•See "Antarctica," by Edwin Swift Balch, pp. 169, 176-178, 211. 
u " The Voyage of the Discovery." 


disposed of Wilkes Land and that it must be expurgated from the 
charts. But as Captain Scott did not go to Wilkes Land, his ukase 
about it, which is really nothing but a reflex of Sir Clements R. 
Markham's anti- American prejudices, will be politely pigeonholed 
by the douma of world geographers. Captain Scott is also quite 
unconscious of the fact that Hudson Land may easily be fifty or 
one hundred miles further south than Wilkes supposed, and that 
even if this is so, it would not in the least invalidate Wilkes's 

Captain Scott's chart shows his track towards Wilkes Land and 
his turn away from it. Scott admits that he was on the continental 
shelf, because he took soundings four times in shallow waters. But 
there is a curious fact connected with these four soundings. In 
Scott's book they are given as 250 fathoms, 254 fathoms, 245 fath- 
oms, and 260 fathoms ; but on Scott's chart they are given as 256, 
354 y. m., 248 m., 264 m. Not only does Scott disagree with him- 
self about these soundings, but he disagrees with Lieutenant Armi- 
tage, his second in command, who in his book 12 puts down these 
soundings as 256 fathoms, 354 fathoms, 284 fathoms, and 264 fath- 
oms, and says: "Although we did not see land, our soundings 
indicated that it was not very far off." Moreover Scott and Armi- 
tage also disagree about the weather. Scott says: "The sky has 
been dull, but the horizon quite clear; we could have seen land 
at a great distance;" but Armitage says: "The weather was not 
the kind in which one could see any great distance." It is to be 
hoped that Captain Scott's other observations are less contradictory 
than those he made near Wilkes Land, whose proximity apparently 
affected his observing powers. 

Probably, however, the most curious fact in regard to Sir J. C. 
Ross's and Captain Scott's decision to expurgate Wilkes Land out 
of the world, is that the expeditions which they respectively com- 
manded proved absolutely the existence of Wilkes Land. For they 
discovered and explored Victoria Land. And Victoria Land, a long 
range of high mountains, fronting to the east on Ross Sea and the 
Great Ice Barrier, is backed on the west by an ice cap some 9,000 
feet in thickness. Now this ice cap, the main plateau of East Ant- 

u " Two Years in the Antarctic." 


arctica, cannot vanish into thin air or disappear in a hole in the 
ground: it must have a northern and western edge somewhere. 
And common sense points out that the northern and western edge 
of this great ice plateau is Wilkes Land. 


While it is perhaps impossible to determine positively who first 
suggested an American Antarctic expedition, it is probable that it 
was Dr. Frederick A. Cook. As far back as 1894, he published a 
paper " A Proposed Antarctic Expedition." 11 Dr. Cook wished to 
explore the northern mainland and islands of West Antarctica, and 
thought $50,000 would cover the expenses. His proposition un- 
fortunately met with no response, or the discoveries of Palmer and 
Pendleton would doubtless have been verified and enlarged by 

In the year 1899 Mr. Albert White Vorse published a strong 
plea 14 in favor of an American Antarctic expedition, winding up in 

What, then, is the profit in dragging out of the dust of libraries its 
forgotten scandals? There can be but one excuse for it: the hope that 
national pride may be moved to send forth a second Antarctic expedition 
that shall retrieve the mistakes of the first one. . . .* Is it well for the 
United States to be behind in scientific research, or to permit other nations 
either to disprove or verify the report of its first attempt at foreign ex- 

Mr. Vorse's words, however, were barren of result. 

In 1903, an Englishman, Dr. Hugh Robert Mill — whose recent 
excellent book " The Siege of the South Pole " is so different from 
old-fashioned works about Antarctic history — in a note to Science 
in reply to one of the writer's, also suggested sending an American 
expedition to the Antarctic. Dr. Mill said: 15 

Yours is a land of millionaires : the Antarctic is still scarcely touched by 
explorers, and all nations would rejoice to see a well-equipped American 
expedition sent out to help to solve the present problems which, after all, 
are those most nearly concerning us. 

a " Around the World," Philadelphia, February, 1894. P- 55- 
"Scribner's Magazine, 1899, Vol. 36, p. 704. 
the following words : 

u Science, Vol. XVIII., August 7, 1003. 


The writer immediately answered: 15 

The final suggestion of Dr. Mill deserves unqualified approval Would 
it not be possible to send an American expedition, either private or govern- 
mental, to reexplore the coast of Wilkes Land? A steamship like the 
"Bear," commanded by naval officers, should be able, in the course of one 
southern summer, to bring back fresh data about the land discovered by 
Americans in East Antarctica. 

Here the matter slumbered again. 

When Captain Scott, however, published 17 his unwarranted, 
inaccurate statements about Admiral Wilkes, the writer wrote two 
articles, "Antarctic Nomenclature" 18 and "Wilkes Land." 19 The 
latter article wound up in these words : 

And now to take up another phase of this question. The whole of East 
Antarctica may be one great land mass. Or it may be that Wilkes Land 
is one mass, possibly a continuation of Australia; and Victoria Land one 
mass, possibly a continuation of New Zealand. No one can say positively, 
until an expedition is sent out to explore systematically the northern coast 
of East Antarctica. Mr. Henryk Arctowski, a member of de Gerlache's 
Antarctic expedition, is trying hard to keep up interest in Antarctic ex- 
ploration and to have international cooperation in the future, as he has 
explained in a recent monograph. Is it impossible to wake up governmental 
interest in the United States in this matter, or, if it is, would not some 
American multi-millionaire furnish the funds to send an expedition to 
settle for all time the facts about the greatest geographical discovery of the 
nineteenth century, the coast of "The Antarctic Continent" discovered 
by Charles Wilkes? 

In an editorial commenting on these articles, the New York 
Tribune 10 said: 

It is extremely unfortunate that Captain Scott did not extend his survey 
to the precise spot at which Wilkes made his historic observations. Few 
disinterested geographers will attach any value to his report so far as the 
reality of Wilkes Land is involved. To assume on the strength of such 
evidence that any mistake has been made heretofore is premature, to say 
the least Not until a new expedition has gone to the region in question 
and has made a more thorough search than did Captain Scott would it be 
wise or honest to drop the name Wilkes Land from Antarctic charts. For 

u Science, Vol. XVIIL, September 4, 1903. 

" " The Voyage of the Discovery." See supra, Mr. Newberry's letter. 
"Bulletin American Geographical Society, December, 1905. 
"Bulletin American Geographical Society, January, 1906. 
"February 5, 1906: 


die honor of this country and of one of her ablest naval officers it is to be 
hoped that the point at issue may be thoroughly investigated before many 
years. A special expedition for the purpose might well be organized in 

As a result also of these articles, the American Geographical 
Society took up the matter and sent the following letter to the 
Secretary of the Navy : 

February 15, 1906. 

The council of this society respectfully invite your attention to the fol- 
lowing passage from " The Voyage of the Discovery," by Robert F. Scott, 
R. N., London, 1905, Vol. II., page 392 : 

" The sky has been dull, but the horizon quite clear ; we could have seen 
land at a great distance, yet none has been in sight, and thus once and for 
all we have definitely disposed of Wilkes Land." 

This authoritative utterance by a recent explorer in the Antarctic is but 
the culmination of a series of representations, continued through sixty years, 
reflecting on the importance of the work accomplished by the U. S. Exploring 
Expedition of 1838-1842, under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, 
U. S. N. 

Wilkes Land is the name given by map makers to the land discovered 
by Wilkes on the nineteenth of January, 1840, in E. long. 154° 30', S. lat 
66° 20', followed for 1,500 miles, and called by him The Antarctic Continent 

No subsequent explorer has followed his track. 

It is hoped that it may be the purpose of the government to dispatch a 
vessel in order to verify the results of the exploration made by Wilkes, and 
this society will appreciate information on this point. 


Chandler Robbins, 

The Hon. Domestic Corresponding Secretary. 

The Secretary of the Navy, 

Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Truman H. Newberry, Acting Secretary of the Navy, re- 
plied in the following letter: 

Navy Depaxtment, Washington, March 8, 1906. 

Replying to your letter of the 15th ultimo, inviting, on behalf of 
the Council of the American Geographical Society, attention to a certain 
passage from u The Voyage of the Discovery," by Robert F. Scott, London, 
1005, Vol. II., page 302, therein quoted, to the effect that the vessel in 
question on her homeward voyage from Victoria Land, in March, 1903, 
crossed the track that had been followed in January, 1840, by the vessels of 


the U. S. Exploring Squadron without seeing any of the lands that had 
been indicated by Wilkes as lying southward of the "Icy Barrier," between 
the meridians of longitude 154° and 158 east of Greenwich, and stating it 
is hoped that the Government will dispatch a vessel in order to verify the 
results of the Wilkes Expedition: I have to inform you that the Hydrog- 
rapher of the Navy Department, to whom you letter was referred, has sub- 
mitted the following comments thereon: 

" On the nineteenth of January, 1840, in longitude 154 30' east, latitude 
66° 20' south, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes sighted, or believed that he sighted 
land to the south. On the same day, in longitude I53°40' east, latitude 
66° 31' south, Lieutenant Hudson also thought that he saw land to the south. 
Other officers of the expedition, among them Lieutenant Alden, Gunner 
Williamson, and Passed Midshipman Colvocoresses, made statements to 
the same effect. The American vessels sailed westerly, and on the 22nd 
and 23rd of January reported land again. They then continued their 
cruise in a westerly direction along this coast for a distance of about 
1,500 miles, to longitude 97 $f east. Returning to Sydney, Australia, on 
the nth of March, 1840, without touching at any intermediate port, Lieu- 
tenant Wilkes announced his discovery in a report to the Secretary of 
the Navy on the day of his arrival at Sydney, in the following words: 'It 
affords me much gratification to report that we have discovered a large body 
of land within the Antarctic Circle, which I have named the Antarctic 
Continent, and refer you to the report of our cruise and accompanying 
charts, inclosed herewith, for full information relative thereto/ 

" At page 18 of Volume One of ' The Voyage of the Discovery/ published 
in 1905, Captain Scott makes the following statement: 

" ' Wilkes with his five ships sailed from Sydney at the end of December, 
1839. His ships took various tracks, but he himself in the 'Vincennes* 
reached latitude 66° S., longitude 158° E., on January 16, and at this point 
point he claimed to have first seen land to the south. Hence he cruised 
to the westward, approximately on the latitude of the Antarctic Circle, with 
a comparatively open sea to the north and masses of pack-ice to the south; 
and beyond the latter he again and again claimed the discovery of high 
mountainous land. He passed close to Adelie Land and Cote Clarie only a 
few days after their discovery by D'Urville, and continuing his cruise, 
alleged the discovery of further extensive lands to the westward. 

"'On his return to civilisation Wilkes claimed a vast discovery. The 
courses of his ships had practically traversed an arc of the Antarctic Circle 
of no less than 70 , and, although he did not assert that he had seen land 
continuously south of this arc, he reported its existence at such frequent 
intervals as to leave little doubt that it was continuous. 

" ' At a later date a great controversy arose as to the accuracy of Wilkes's 
observations, and resulted in much discredit being thrown on work which 
in many respects was important. Whilst there can be no possible object 
in attempting to revive such a controversy, it is evident that the true 
geographical condition should be known, and therefore I make bold to give 
my opinion of the matter. In the course of this narrative I shall show that 


the mountainous lands reported by Wilkes to the eastward of Adelie Land 
do not exist, and it must be recognized that those to the west may be 
equally unsubstantial, but it is not clear that Wilkes wilfully perverted the 
truth; only those who have been to these regions can realize how con- 
stantly a false appearance of land is produced, and no position could be 
more favorable to such an illusion than that in which this expedition was 
placed when it skirted the edge of a thick pack containing innumerable 
icebergs. It must be supposed also, for reasons which I have given, that 
Wilkes, in common with other explorers, expected to find land about the 
Antarctic Circle, and when after his return he learned of D'Urville's dis- 
coveries, the position of Adelie Land would naturally have tended to dispel 
any doubt which he may have had as to what he or his people had seen. 

"' Wilkes's ships were ill adapted for battling with the ice, and, apart 
from their discoveries, the fact that they continued so long in high latitudes 
reflects great credit on their navigation. Had he been more circumspect 
in his reports of land, all would have agreed that his voyage was a fine 

"Captain Scott's statements about the non-existence of lands which 
Lieutenant Wilkes reported to be situated in the vicinity of the Antarctic 
Circle, between the meridians of longitude 97 and 158 east of Greenwich, 
rest upon the fact that, in her voyage homeward from Victoria Land, 
on March 4, 1903, the "Discovery," in longitude 154 E., crossed the track 
that had been followed in January. 1840, by the vessels of the U. S. Explor- 
ing Squadron without seeing any of the lands that had been indicated by 
Wilkes as lying southward of the Icy Barrier between the meridians of 
longitude 154° and 158° east of Greenwich. It is with reference to this 
incident of the approach to the crossing of the tracks of the two expeditions 
that the language quoted as follows in the letter of the American Geograph- 
ical Society has been used. 

"'The sky has been dull, but the horizon quite clear; we could have seen 
land at a great distance, yet none has been in sight, and thus once and for 
all we have definitely disposed of Wilkes Land.' 

" Even if it be admitted that there! is no land at the crossing where Cap- 
tain Scott did not see any, this fact should not operate to induce a conclusion 
that, within the extent of the remaining 50 of longitude through which the 
United States Expedition skirted the Antarctic Circle, land does not exist." 

There is no vessel of the Navy available at the present time for dis- 
patching on a voyage of discovery to the Antarctic regions to verify the 
results of the exploring expedition (1838-1843) under the command of the 
late Captain Charles Wilkes, U. S. N. 

Very respectfully, 

Truman H. Newberry, 

Acting Secretary. 
Mr. Chandler Robbins, 

Domestic Corresponding Secretary, 

The American Geographical Society, 
15 West 81st Street, 
New York, N. Y. 


In forwarding copies of these letters to the writer, the late 
George C. Hurlbut, librarian of the American Geographical Society, 
wrote as follows: 

March 12, 1906. 
My dear Mr. Batch: 

We received on the 10th an answer to the letter written to the Secre- 
tary of the Navy about a ship for the Antarctic, and I enclose a copy for you. 
It is final for the time, but no one knows what may come to pass. 

Sincerely yours, 

George C. Hurlbut. 

Miss Wilkes, the daughter of our great explorer, also sent the 
writer the following letter: 

814 Connecticut Avenue, 

Washington, D. C. 
My dear Sir: 

Your ideas as to an Antarctic expedition to substantiate my father's dis- 
covery of a continent appeals more and more to my sister and me. We 
hope that you will see fit to endeavor to persuade some government official 
or some man in power politically or financially to work upon and push your 
plan to successful completion calling it the " Balch Expedition." If we can 
do anything in our little way to bring your idea into notice, we shall gladly 
speak or write. 

But alas I we are women, not ever of much use in such grand projects 
as you, with your knowledge and courage in speaking for the truth, are so 
fitted to undertake. It was really a happiness to talk with you, who have 
done so much to uphold my father's name. My sister and I both regretted 
very much that she too had not the gratification of meeting you and your 
wife. We will hope to see you both in Washington when you come, with 
your admirable manner and convincing words to lay your most kind intention 
before the officials here. With most grateful thanks to you and regards to 
your wife, 

Very cordially, 

Eliza Wilkes. 

April 12, 1906. 

Not long after this, the writer succeeded in enlisting a powerful 
helper in the cause of Antarctic exploration. This was Com- 
mander Robert E. Peary, who up to this time, curiously enough, 
had apparently taken no interest whatever in the Antarctic. Indeed, 
in his letter of September 2, 1903, explaining his plans for a new 
Arctic expedition to the Secretary of the Navy, Commander Peary 
showed that he was unaware that there was a south polar problem, 
when he wrote : 21 

* Bulletin American Geographical Society, Vol. XXXV., 1903, p. 375. 


The North Pole is the last great geographical prize the earth has to 
offer. Its attainment will be accepted as the sign of man's final physical con- 
quest of the globe; and it will always stand as one of the great milestones 
in the world's history. 

The attainment of the North Pole is, in my opinion, oar manifest 
privilege and duty. Its attainment by another country would be in the 
light of a reproach and criticism. 

To which the Acting Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Charles H. 
Darling, replied very sensibly , M showing that he recognized that 
the South Pole was just exactly as important geographically as the 
North Pole : 

The attainment of the Pole should be your main object. Nothing short 
will suffice. The discovery of the Poles is all that remains to complete 
the map of the world. That map should be completed in our generation 
and by our countrymen. 

Commander Peary also made no reference to south polar prob- 
lems in his book " Nearest the Pole," published in 1907. 

In December, 1906, however, the writer sent a copy of "Ant- 
arctica" to Commander Peary, also calling his attention to the 
article " Wilkes Land." Commander Peary replied as follows : 

Washington, D. C. 

December 14, 1906. 
Dear Mr. Batch: 

I have the copy of "Antarctica" and thank you very much for the 
valuable present I shall read it through at the earliest possible opportunity. 
The accompanying pamphlets are also extremely interesting. Accept my 
best thanks for all. 

The references which you give I shall certainly look up and add to my 

I greatly appreciate your kindly words and look forward to the pleasure 
of seeing you again on the 21st 

Very sincerely, 

R. E. Peaky, 
2014, 12th Street, N. W. 

Commander Peary, after the necessity for American exploration 
in the Antarctic was brought thus to his notice, evidently studied 
up the matter and in 1908 he put himself on record as willing to 

a Bulletin American Geographical Society, Vol. XXXV., 1903, p. 376. 



undertake the task of organizing an American Antarctic expedition 
by sending to the Commission Polaire Internationale a " communi- 
cation " which was presented by Mr. Herbert L. Bridgman, presi- 
dent of the Peary Arctic Club. In this " communication " Mr- 
Peary says : 

I beg to state that on my return from my coming Arctic Expedition, 
I shall endeavor in every possible way, consistent with my other duties, to 
promote and organize a National American Antarctic Expedition, to secure 
for this country its share of the honors and valuable scientific information 
still awaiting the explorer in that region. 

The fact that Commander Peary has at length become interested 
in the Antarctic regions and is indorsing the writer's cherished 
views in such a practical way, renews hope that before long an 
American expedition will be on its way to Wilkes Land. 


There is an almost unlimited field for scientific research and 
observation in south polar regions, and many branches of natural 
science will be advanced by properly equipped expeditions. Geog- 
raphy, oceanography, glacialogy, geology, palaeontology, zoology, 
bacteriology, meteorology, magnetism, all need many more years of 
study in the south by trained observers. There are some scien- 
tific problems of the first magnitude awaiting solution. One of 
them, for instance, is the Great Ice Barrier. It appears to be afloat 
as far back as observed and to be moving. Where does it extend 
to? What formed it? What causes its motion? No one can say ! 
To solve this wonderful glacial problem would be worth all the 
money spent to do so. 

In zoology, in ichthyology, in bacteriology, in botany — in fact 
in regard to life in all its forms — there is any amount of work 
still to be done in the Antarctic. For an American expedition, 
however, collecting would be more important than observing on 
these "Tines, because, although so many American vessels have 
visited south polar regions, neither the American Museum of Na- 
tural History, nor the United States National Museum, nor indeed 
any of the great museums in America has anything like a repre- 


sentative collection from Antarctica, and therefore one of the most 
fruitful results of an American expedition would be to bring home 
specimens of all kinds. 

But geography is the most pressing science. The interior of 
Antarctica is almost unknown. The coast line is not half laid 
down, even if the continental shelf has been traced by soundings 
in several places where land has not been sighted as yet. And the 
paramount geographic duty for Americans should be a more accu- 
rate charting of the coast line of Wilkes Land, which could be 
largely done even in one southern summer by two steam whalers. 

Starting about the middle of December from Australia, an 
American expedition should aim for Piner Bay in about 140 east 
longitude, and thence it should sail eastward to about 170 east 
longitude. It should, while avoiding getting caught in the ice, 
hug the coast as much as possible. Such a cruise would settle for 
all time the question of the existence of the great land mass of 
East Antarctica. It would also prevent any possible wrangling in 
the future about Case Land, and Alden Land, and Hudson Land, 
which will all probably turn out to be fifty or seventy-five miles 
further south than Wilkes charted them. 

Is there now any way of bringing about such an expedition? 
The United States government, practically speaking through Mr. 
Newberry, Acting Secretary of the Navy, declined to take the 
matter up. What can be done either to induce the government to 
rescind its negative decision, or towards finding some private indi- 
viduals to finance the undertaking? 

It would seem as though the first thing to do would be to arouse 
more general interest among scientific men. The American Geo- 
graphical Society has already shown approbation. Would not some 
of the learned societies in the United States, such as the American 
Philosophical Society, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History endorse the project in some shape 
or other? 

If some of the geographic and scientific societies would put the 
seal of their approval on an American Antarctic expedition, the 
next step forward would seem to be the formation of an Antarctic 


Committee, each member of which should represent some scientific 
or geographic society in the United States* If a committee were 
formed, of such men as Cyrus C. Adams, Herbert L. Bridgman, 
Henry G. Bryant, Hermon C. Bumpus, William Morris Davis, 
Charles E. Fay, Adolphus W. Greely, Gilbert H. Grosvenor, George 
W. Melville, Robert E. Peary, Winfield Scott Schley, Harvey M. 
Watts, each one chosen from some learned body like the American 
Philosophical Society, the Smithsonian Institution, the American 
Museum of Natural History, the Franklin Institute, the American 
Geographical Society, the National Geographic Society, the Peary 
Arctic Club, the Appalachian Mountain Club, the American Alpine 
Club, the Association of American Geographers, etc., and such a 
committee would issue and distribute some memoirs on the impor- 
tance of Antarctic research, public interest might be aroused and the 
matter take a concrete form. 

When one considers all the facts in the case — that the last un- 
known continent was discovered by Americans ; that the commander 
of our most successful expedition was immediately arraigned and 
attacked by the angry commander of the next British expedition; 
that a recent ex-president of the Royal Geographical Society and 
also the commander of the British National Antarctic expedition are 
eager to wipe out all American discoveries from the map; that 
many branches of science would be advanced; that big gaps in 
American museums would be filled; and above all, that the dis- 
coveries by the United States Navy in the Antarctic would be veri- 
fied and increased — it would seem as though some Americans would 
take the matter up, and, while helping science, link their names with 
that of our great Antarctic explorer. 


By LEWIS M. HAUPT, C.E., A.M., ScD. 
(Read April 22, 1909.) 

This mysterious planet which we inhabit has been the object of 
profound reasearch by many self-constituted investigators since the 
creation of man, yet he has not wholly unravelled her secrets nor 
fathomed her innumerable resources. 

She may be likened to an immense gyroscope, whose pole is the 
sun and whose radius-vector is the tether which checks her eccen- 
tricities as she floats through space. Her form, size and density 
have been carefully determined and it is found that of the four 
great circles which constitute her envelope, only about 53,500,000 
square miles are above the level of the sea, and that of this portion 
but about 28,000,000 are arable land. 

Such is the present extent of our heritage, as a storehouse for 
the maintenance of life, and it is recorded that when, in the process 
of time, this physical orb had been suitably developed for habitation, 
then the Lord God, by His creative Word, said : 

"Let us make man in our image, after our likeness and let them have 
dominion over all the earth.. • . So God created man and blessed them 
and said unto them, 'Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth and 
subdue it; and have dominion over . . . every living thing that moveth 
upon the earth/ " 

In the fulfillment of this divine commission man has multiplied 
in numbers, notwithstanding many vicissitudes, until to-day it is 
estimated that there are not less than 1,500,000,000 souls to be sup- 
plied with the necessities of life, yet the earth is not full, nor are 
her resources exhausted. This enormous host of humanity is scat- 
tered, more or less densely, over the habitable portion of the globe, 
subject to different environments, beliefs, aspirations, habits, gov- 
ernments, faculties and purposes, yet all imbued with the common, 



imperious instinct of life, from the lowest barbarianism to the high- 
est civilization. 

To level up these hordes of humanity, free circulation, tending 
to promote community of interests, is necessary, and yet some of 
the most favored nations are enacting legislative barriers to prevent 
migration and restrict commercial intercourse, not only between 
nations but even between states. 

From these two factors of available area and present population 
it appears that, if uniformily distributed, there would be a density 
Of 53.6 individuals to the square mile, or 11 acres per capita. But 
it will give a better idea of the capacity of the earth to state that 
the entire population of the globe could be included in the State 
of Texas, at the rate of nine to the acre, whereas the safe sanitary 
limit is taken at one hundred per acre. Belgium, one of the most 
densely settled and prosperous countries, has a density of 1.12 acres 
per capita, or 0.9 of a person per acre. 

The annual increment of the world is stated to be: births, 
36,792,000; deaths, 35,639,835— difference or increase, 1,162,165. 
Were this rate to remain constant, on this basis, it would require 
over a thousand years to even double the present population, so 
tha^ there would appear to be ample room for the normal increase 
even within present limits of territory. But these figures must be 
discredited inasmuch as they give only three fourths of one per 
cent, increment per decade, while the annual excess for Europe, as 
determined by Professor Marshall, was 1.06 per cent., or fourteen- 
fold greater. 

Suffice it to say, however, that while there appears to be ample 
room in the world for thousands of years to come, yet the increase 
in the United States is believed to be far more rapid than in any 
other country on earth. Here the rate is more than double that of 
Europe, and this fact also is an earnest of her influence as a world 
power in the maintenance of peace, regardless of great armaments. 
Large portions of the industrial world are dependent upon her 
granaries for their materials and subsistence, thus intensifying the 
necessity of reducing the cost of transportation and increasing her 
facilities, by providing capacious channels as well as an adequate 
merchant marine, for the distribution of her products. 


This question of cheap transportation becomes, therefore, one 
of international importance, deserving of the careful consideration 
of all classes of people and, although much has been said and done 
to meet the demands of commerce, our retired President has char- 
acterized the results as being " largely negative," which he attributes 
to the absence of a comprehensive plan which led to the policy of 
" repression and procrastination," and he adds : 

"In spite of large appropriations for their improvement our rivers are 
less serviceable for inter-state commerce to-day than they were half a century 
ago, and in spite of the vast increase in our population and commerce they 
are on the whole less used." 

This pregnant paragraph represents a condition resulting from 
a change of policy which has rendered these lamentable results pos- 
sible, and which is so diametrically opposed to the .fundamental 
principles of this democracy that a brief statement of these innova- 
tions seems essential to point out the proper remedy. 

Fundamental Principles. 

In his excellent analysis of the dangers threatening the utilities 

of the railroads, from legislative restriction, Mr. Stuyvesant Fish 1 

calls attention to the words of Washington, when retiring from 

public life, as follows : 

"It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking, in a free country, 
should inspire caution in those intrusted with its administration, to confine 
themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the 
exercise of the powers of one department, to encroach upon another. The 
spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the depart- 
ments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real 
despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and a proneness to abuse 
it which predominates the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the 
truth of this position . . . If, in the opinion of our people the distribution 
or modification of the constitutional powers be, in any particular, wrong, let 
it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the constitution designates. 
8m let there be no change by usurpation for though this, in one instance, 
may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free 
governments are destroyed." 

Now, more than a century later, our distinguished Secretary of 

1 " The Nation and the Railroads," address before the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science. No. 553, 1908. 


State and ex-U. S. Senator, P. C. Knox, in an address delivered 
February 12, 1908, said : 

"When the Government assumed charge and control of the navigable 
streams of the interior it entered into a practical contract with the States 
and communities bordering these streams that their waterways should be 
improved to their highest capacity. The States were thereby prevented from 
improving the streams themselves. Corporate enterprise was forbidden to 
undertake the canalization of important stretches and fix the cost of their 
works and franchises on the traffic. The Federal Government has made its 
formal and deliberate declaration that it will do this work. That necessarily 
involves that it will make the improvements adequate to modern needs and 
possibilities. To do any less would be a mockery and breach of good faith." 

Thus, it is manifest that the federal government has assumed 
charge and control of the waterways of the states, but without 
formal agreement, and has paralyzed the former corporate or local 
initiative as commercial enterprises, and in consequence of the ina- 
bility of the national treasury to meet even a small fraction of the 
demands upon it for this class of public works, has added to the 
general congestion of the transportation and increased the cost. 2 

The great relative loss in water-borne commerce during the past 
half century may be ascribed in large part to the rapid increase in 
the mileage and capacity of railroads which have erroneously 
regarded waterways as competitors and waged a war of extermina- 
tion upon them; as well as to the policy on the part of some of the 
states and localities to tacitly prefer appropriations from the national 
treasury rather than from their own revenues and thus apparently 
sanction the forfeiture of sovereignty over these works, to an 
extrinsic authority, having no constitutional rights to exercise them. 

Even if it were constitutional for the general government to 
assume and control the improvements of all the rivers and harbors 
of the several states, it has been demonstrated time and again that 
it is impracticable to secure the necessary appropriations from the 
general treasury, necessary to meet the demands of a rapidly ex- 
panding commerce, which furnishes a tonnage increasing five-fold 
faster than the facilities for transporting it. With all sections 

"At the closing session of the 60th Congress the appropriation was only 
nine-tenths of one per cent., while 60.5 per cent, was for militarism and its 


clamoring for expenditures in their districts for isolated improve- 
ments it becomes impracticable to enter upon any continuous and 
systematic plan of relief. The frequent failure of the appropria- 
tion bill for waterways is in itself conclusive evidence of the serious 
obstacles to the development of these works due to general legislation, 
and the paralysis resulting from the assumption of control over all 
such works by a central authority is too often in evidence. With the 
many devices available for the defeat of meritorious legislation, the 
issue is always in doubt and is frequently determined by the policy of 
the " steering-committee " or the demands from other departments or 
bureaus of the executive departments, which have their headquarters 
at the capital, and are in position to direct legislation by making or 
withholding recommendations for certain influential sections. Thus, 
the multitude of bills, the shortness of the closing sessions, the 
reference to committees not having the right of way on the floor, 
the ability to filibuster or talk a measure to death through courtesy, 
the reference to a committee with instructions to pigeon-hole, the 
failure of a member to receive recognition, the necessity of dis- 
tributing the patronage over the country to secure a sufficient num- 
ber of votes to pass the bill, the strenuous opposition of vested 
interests fearing competition, and the local, sectional jealousies 
existing between adjacent centers, all tend to retard or defeat the 
normal development of our avenues of transportation and to pro- 
mote those of our foreign competitors in the markets of the world. 
That these statements are not mere glittering generalities will, 
appear by a brief reference to the history of the colonies when the 
rivalries of trade and the cutting of rates were so severe that to 
avoid impending ruin, it was determined to form a confederation to 
protect the colonies from the devastation of the foreign powers 
which were destroying their trade. Thus it was that the Constitu- 
tion of the United States was adopted on the seventeenth day of 
September, 1787, whereby the states empowered the Congress to 
"regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several 
states, and with the indian tribes." 

Many are the expositions which have been published as to the 
scope and meaning of these powers, but the opinion of the framers 
of this Magna Charta, are unanimous as to the fact that the states 


did not relegate their jurisdiction over their waterways, water- 
powers or franchises to the national government and this right 
was retained and exercised by the states to their great benefit, as 
well as to that of the nation, up to and after the Civil War when 
the policy gradually changed and the "control was assumed," as 
Senator Knox puts it, by the government. Under this policy of 
encroachment and national control, it has become necessary for all 
sections of the country to organize great political and local associa- 
tions and to combine these into national congresses which assemble 
annually at the capital, to urge by every legitimate means that 
$500,000,000 bonds be issued, to enable the waterways of the coun- 
try to be prepared for traffic, yet the results thus far are almost 
negligible, and it is stated by members of Congress that the people 
would not justify such measures. This opinion appears to be well 
supported by the fact that during the past half century more than 
$600,000,000 have been appropriated for these purposes from the 
public treasury and yet the President has declared that the results 
are largely negative, but the method of procedure would seem to be 
radically wrong in basing the appeal for money on the experience 
of the past with no prospect of better returns for the future, which 
can only be effected by a reformation of the system which has ren- 
dered such returns possible. Thus it happens that the largest and 
most enterprising commercial and trade organizations of the coun- 
try are memorializing Congress for such a reorganization as shall 
place these works under a cabinet officer, to be created with definite 
and systematic plans for the continuous execution of such works 
as may properly come within the jurisdiction of the United States 
and to encourage the state, corporate and local initiative as was 
the practice in ante-bellem days when the waterways and canals 
were so rapidly and successfully developed at a minimum cost by 
private capital, as have been the railways and highways of the 
federal domain from its foundation. In short it is vital that there 
should be a return to the early policy underlying the foundation of 
this republic and which was the spirit embodied in its Constitution. 
It was the genius of our government, that 

"What individual enterprise could effect alone, was to be left to indi- 
vidual enterprise; what a state and individuals could achieve together was 


left to the joint action of states and individuals; but what neither of these, 
separately or conjoined were able to accomplish, that and that only, was the 
province of the federal government." 

In the application of this principle as construed under the Con- 
stitution is it asserted that the recent practice of appropriating pub- 
lic moneys for projects which are essentially and indisputably de- 
signed to benefit local and personal interests is radically wrong. 
This attitude was firmly maintained by many of our Presidents 
from Washington to the present time. 

Thomas Jefferson, long president of this distinguished society, 
who was the first Secretary of State, under the Constitution, and 
also vice-president from March 4, 1797, to 1801 and President of 
the United States for the two following terms during the formative 
days of the Republic, in his sixth annual message to Congress, 
dated December 2, 1806, refers to the prospective plethora of 
income from imposts and suggests the desirability of expending a 
portion of these funds upon public improvements but states em- 
phatically that it will require an amendment to the Constitution as 
it is not authorized under the powers vested in Congress. He 
recommended the abolition of the imposts on the necessary articles 
of trade and their continuance on foreign luxuries, appealing to 
the patriotism of those who were able to pay for their use that the 
revenues might be applie'd 

" To the great purposes of the public education, roads, rivers, canals and 
such other objects of public improvements as it may be thought proper to 
add to the constitutional enumeration of the federal powers. By these 
operations new channels of communication will be opened between the 
states, the lines of separation will disappear, their interests will be identified 
and their union be cemented by indissoluble ties. . . . The subject is now 
proposed for the consideration of Congress, because, if approved by the time 
the state legislatures shall have deliberated on this extension of the federal 
trusts, and the laws shall be passed and other arrangements made for their 
execution, the necessary funds will be on hand without employment. I 
suppose an amendment to the Constitution, by consent of the states, necessary, 
because the objects now recommended are not among those enumerated in 
the Constitution, and to which it permits the public moneys to be applied." 

So that as the Constitution has never been thus amended it 
would appear that many of the appropriations which have been 
made from the public treasury are without warrant in law. 


A few years later when the necessity of greater facilities became 
still more manifest, his successor, President James Madison, also 
urged that Congress should pass enabling legislation by amendment 
to the Constitution and felt required under his oath of office to 
veto a bill passed by Congress appropriating public money for works 
of this class, in the following words : 

"March 3, 181 7: Having considered the bill this day presented to me 
entitled 'An act to set apart and pledge certain funds for internal im- 
provements, and for constructing roads, and canals and improving the 
navigable water courses, in order to facilitate, promote and give security to 
internal commerce among the several states, and to render more easy and 
less expensive the means and provisions for the common defense/ I am 
constrained by the insuperable difficulty I feel in reconciling the bill with 
the Constitution of the United States to return it with that objection to the 
House of Representatives, in which it originated. . . . 

44 The power to 'regulate commerce among the several States' cannot 
include a power to construct roads and canals and to improve the navigation 
of water courses in order to facilitate, promote and secure such a commerce, 
without a latitude of construction departing from the ordinary import of the 
terms strengthened by the known inconveniences which doubtless led to the 
grant of this remedial power to Congress. . . . 

"If a general power to construct roads and canals and to improve the 
navigation of watercourses, with the train of powers incident thereto, be not 
possessed by Congress, the assent of the states to the mode provided in the 
bill cannot confer that power. . . . 

" I am not unaware of the great importance of roads and canals and the 
improved navigation of water courses, and that a power in the national 
legislature to provide for them might be exercised with signal advantage 
to the general prosperity. But seeing that such a power is not expressly 
given by the Constitution, and believing that it cannot be deduced from 
any part of it without an inadmissible latitude of construction and a reliance 
on insufficient precedents; believing also that the permanent success of the 
Constitution depends on a definite partition of powers between the general 
and the state governments, and that no adequate landmarks would be left 
by the constructive extension of the powers of Congress as proposed in the 
bill, I have no option but fo withhold my signature from it, and to cherish 
the hope that its beneficial objects may be attained by a resort for the neces- 
sary powers to the same wisdom and virtue in the nation which established 
the Constitution in its actual form and providently marked out in the instru- 
ment itself a safe and practicable mode of improving it as experience might 

As these Presidents were contemporaneous with the framing of 
the Constitution their official interpretation of its powers and scope 


should carry great weight, indicating as they do the fear of trench- 
ing on the rights of the states and checking their development by 
trespassing upon their own resources. 

Presidents Jackson, Tyler, Polk and Pierce also emphasized these 
views by their emphatic vetoes and even after the war, when Con- 
gress had adopted a policy of making such appropriations, Presi- 
dents Grant, Arthur and Cleveland vetoed bills, while others failed 
of passage because they did not contain enough patronage for local 
projects to secure the necessary votes. This pernicious principle, 
which was feared by the founders of the republic, was clearly shown 
in the application of the State of New York for federal aid in the 
construction of the Erie Canal, a work of undoubted national im- 
port. When its legislature sent a committee to Washington on 
December 21, 181 1, President Monroe stated that he was embar- 
rassed by scruples derived from his interpretation of the Consti- 
tution. The next day, the Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gal- 
latin, of Pennsylvania, stated that he was under the opinion that 
pecuniary aid could not be given, but that sufficient grants of land 
might now be made without inconvenience to the fiscal affairs of the 
union. The opinion prevailed in Congress that it would be wise to 
amend the Constitution for such purposes, but the delegation 
felt it a 

"Duty to declare, on all proper occasions, a decided opinion that the 
States would not consent to vest in the national government a power to cut 
up their territory, for the purpose of digging canals." 

It was also reported : 

" Your committee found another idea operating with baleful effect, though 
seldom and cautiously expressed. The population and resources of the 
State of New York furnish no pleasant reflection to men, whose minds are 
imbued with state jealousies'; and although the proposed canal must not only 
be of the highest importance to the western states as well as to the States 
of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and greatly promote the prosperity of the 
whole union, it was obvious that an opinion as to its superior benefit to 
this state was sedulously inculcated. ... It became evident that the object 
of this state would not be separately attended to and your committee were 
desired to prepare a general system ... as being necessary to secure the 
consent of a majority of the House of Representatives. . . . Others again, 
who have too much understanding to doubt the resources of the state and 


too much prudence to expose themselves to ridicule, by expressing such 
doubt, triumphantly declare, that her legislature has not the spirit and intel- 
ligence to draw out and apply her resources to that great object These men 
console themselves with a hope that the envied State of New York will 
continue a suppliant for the generosity of the Union, instead of making a 
manly and dignified appeal to her own power. It remains to be proved, 
whether they judge justly who judge so meanly of our councils." 

The sequel is well known and reveals the wisdom of abandoning 
all efforts to secure national aid, and to depend upon local resources 
and initiative for early developments, as was done. 

In vetoing the bill on August I, 1882, President Arthur said: 

" My principal objection to the bill is that it contains appropriations for 
purposes not for the common defense or general welfare, and which do not 
promote commerce among the states. ... I regard such appropriations of 
public money as beyond the powers given by the Constitution to Congress 
and the President. I feel the more bound to withold my signature because 
of the peculiar evils which manifestly result from this infraction of the 

" Appropriations of this nature to be devoted to purely local objects tend 
to increase in number and amount, etc. Thus as the bill becomes more 
objectionable it secures more support. This result is invariable and neces- 
sarily follows a neglect to observe the Constitutional limitations imposed 
upon the law making power." 

Yet the passage of the bill in the face of this plain declaration 
of the evils to result therefrom indicates how great is the tempta- 
tion to cater to one's constituency, at the public exjJense. 

Commenting on the morale of similar appropriations in his day, 
President Jackson said in part, May 27, 1830 : 

" In the best view of these appropriations, the abuses to which they lead 
far exceed the good they are capable of promoting. The subject has been 
one of much, and, I may add painful reflection to me. It has bearings that 
are well calculated to exert a powerful influence upon our hitherto prosperous 
system of government, and which on some accounts, may even excite 
despondency in the breast of an American citizen." 

Then denying the power of Congress to appropriate public money 
for local or private benefit, he added : 

" This is the more necessary to preserve other parts of the Constitution 
from being undermined by the exercise of doubtful powers or of too great 
extension of those which are not so, and protect the whole subject against 
deleterious influences of combinations to carry by concert measures which, 
considered by themselves, might meet but little countenance." 


This fear, which amounts to a prophecy, is fulfilled in the vast 
assemblages, conventions and caucuses which are found to be neces- 
sary to secure the predetermined policies of the dominant party, 
but the effect as applied to waterways is far more injurious because 
of the assumption of jurisdiction over all possible waterways in the 
United States or its possessions, so that even where the government 
is unable to make improvements it is now practically impossible for 
localities or private parties to inaugurate works on their own ac- 
count and at their own risk. It is still further proposed to extend 
the powers of the government into the waters of the several states 
and make them a source of revenue to the general government by 
the imposition of royalties on the water-powers which are now or 
have been free, thus further taxing the industrial products of the 
Nation, at the expense of the consumers. 

Another phase of these improvements, so called, is touched 
upon in the veto of President Cleveland which is worthy of careful 
consideration. After many years of experience in efforts to pro- 
vide capacious channels at public expense, he stated on May 29, 
1896, that: 

"Many of the objects for which it appropriates public money are not 
related to the public welfare, and many of them are palpably for the benefit 
of limited localities or in aid of individual interests. On the face of the 
bill it appears that not a few of these alleged improvements have been so 
improvidently planned and prosecuted that after an unwise expenditure of 
millions of dollars new experiments for their accomplishment have been 
entered upon. . . . These cannot fail to stimulate a vicious paternalism 
and encourage a sentiment among our people, already too prevalent, that 
their attachment to our government may properly rest upon the hope and 
expectation of direct and especial favors. I believe that no greater danger 
confronts us as a nation than the unhappy decadence among our people 
of genuine and trustworthy love and affection for our government as the 
embodiment of the highest and best aspirations of humanity and not as the 
giver of gifts, and because its mission is the enforcement of exact justice 
and equality, and not the allowance of unfair favoritism." 

These patriotic opinions from the highest authorities, whose offi- 
cial positions qualify them to speak ex-cathedra, should suffice to 
convince the most skeptical of the necessity of some modification 
of the system which will give assurance of better returns for the 
money expended and for a restoration of the policy of local and 


state aid in the development of local improvements. The great 
increase proposed in the amount of the appropriations gives no 
guaranty that the defects of the system will be remedied but 
rather increased. In commenting on the passage of the largest 
bill ever passed, namely that of 1907, for $87,113432, it was stated 
that one item alone of over a million dollars was for a purely local 
scheme and although thoroughly exposed and denounced in the 
public press while the bill was pending, there was not a voice against 
it when the bill was passed. This was not the only one in the 
measure, yet to have cut them out would have caused the defeat 
of the entire bill. 

"If the rivers and harbors bills cannot be passed without such abuses, 
the. system should be changed, and that quickly, for conditions could hardly 
be more demoralizing." 

These conclusions are reiterated at almost every meeting of the 
National Board of Trade and of many commercial bodies all over 
the country, yet they are " more honored in the breach than in the 

At its recent session, the National Civic Federation resolved that 
such legislation should be passed as would preserve individual ini- 
tiative, competition, and the free exercise of a free contract in all 
business and industrial relations. The National Board of Trade 
resolved : 

" That the public works of the government, excepting that of the military 
and naval establishments, be placed under the direction and control of a 
department to be created, which shall be called the Department of Public 

A natural sequence to the above expose of the operation of the 
existing system, may be found in the inability to secure adequate 
appropriations from the public purse, at the last session, for works 
of internal improvements in the face of so great a deficiency 
threatening the Treasury, yet the sums allotted for the destructive 
agencies of war, navy and pensions were largely increased. The 
river and harbor appropriations aggregate less than one tenth of 
the former bill for this purpose and the money is limited to the 
"Repair, maintenance and preservation of these public works 


heretofore appropriated for by Congress, and for continuing in 
operation such dredging and other plants or equipment of any kind 
owned by the United States government. ,, Thus no extension of 
works is permitted and furthermore it is proposed to increase the 
dredging plants owned by the government doing work by the eight 
hour day and in open waters, without regulating works to maintain 
the channels so improved. 

A brief analysis of the unprecedentedly large appropriation of 
1907, indicates that more than one half is applied to transfer points 
on or near the seaboard and at terminals, so that the overland, 
domestic traffic is not materially relieved, while a large sum is also 
applicable to tentative works and to efforts to compete with the 
deteriorating forces of nature by mechanical devices, involving large 
annual expenditures for operation and maintenance. 

A general review of the conditions which prevail as to the deca- 
dence of the waterways of the country, indicates that the assump- 
tion of authority by the government has operated to restrain state 
and corporate initiative, has reduced the available mileage of the 
-canals to about one half that of i860, has added largely to the 
•expenses for maintenance and has rendered it difficult, if not im- 
possible, to secure legislation for much needed local improvements 
because of the claims of governmental jurisdiction and control, thus 
destroying competition by water and preventing development. 

Remedial Legislation. 

Since it has been shown, in extenso, by citations from the high- 
est authorities that the states have not surrendered their sovereign 
•control over the local waterways included within their boundaries, 
and that it is practically impossible to secure national appropria- 
tions for such local improvements, save for political purposes, it 
would appear to be most practicable and necessary to confine the 
operations of the government to those interior waterways which are 
strictly interstate, and the improvement of which would promote 
the general welfare; such as the rivers which form borders between 
two or more states in whole or in large part, as in the case of the 
Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Delaware, Potomac, Savannah, Colum- 



bia as far as Wallawalla, the Rio Grande, St. Lawrence and others, 
as well as to the principal harbors of the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific 
with the Great Lakes and the internal canals connecting these 
trunk lines. 

All other waterways lying within or traversing the areas of the 
several states, in whole or part, with local harbors, inlets, canals 
or other improvements should be emancipated from the assumed 
control of the government and be relegated to the states to develop 
under their reserved rights by the granting of charters to locali- 
ties or private corporations as formerly, but any state or corpora- 
tion desiring government aid may apply to Congress and receive 
such assistance as that body may deem justifiable, for the public 
good, said appropriations to be returned to the national treasury 
in due course as determined by the terms of the loan. 

Thus by mutual cooperation and consent the tributary avenues 
of trade may be synchronously developed, as the trunk lines and 
terminals are enlarged, to meet the rapidly expanding demands of 
the country. Otherwise at the present rate it may require from 
fifty to one hundred years to meet the present requirements, with 
no prospect of overtaking those of the future for which the nation 
must wait and pay the extra charges for overland carriage. The 
engineering and administrative features of this pressing problem 
must be deferred for lack of time and because they are subordinate 
to the vital element of securing enabling legislation, involving as it 
does a reorganization of the system of control. 

In the words of our immortal President Lincoln: 

" Let the nation take hold of the larger works, and the states the smaller 
ones; and thus, working in a meeting direction, discretely, but steadily and 
firmly. What is made unequal in one place may be equalized in another, 
extravagance avoided, and the whole country put on that career of prosperity 
which shall correspond with its extent of territory, its natural resources, and* 
the intelligence and enterprise of its people." 

If this policy of cooperations were rightly carried out it woulct 
conform to the fundamental conception of the framers of the Con- 
stitution to establish a government " of the people, by the people and, 
for the people. ,, 


(Read April 23, Wp.) 

Like other cryptocrystalline or amorphous minerals the hydrated 
silicates of copper collectively designated as chrysocolla vary con- 
siderably in their chemical composition. They also show very 
marked differences in color, some of the varieties being deep green, 
while others exhibit various shades of bluish-green and blue. In 
many instances the color of the mineral is doubtless modified by the 
presence of admixtures, such as the oxides of iron, manganese or 
copper, but we can hardly account for the existence of both the 
decidedly green and the pure blue modifications without assuming 
that they are different in composition. Thus in the case of the 
hydrated carbonates of copper, malachite and azurite, the difference 
in color is known to be due to a difference in the proportions of 
chemically combined water. 

Now the analyses of certain green varieties of chrysocolla closely 
approach the composition CuSi0 8 -f- 2H 2 0, but those of other 
occurrences, and particularly of the blue varieties, have yielded not 
only different proportions of silica, oxide of copper and water, but 
also notable quantities of other constituents, like alumina and phos- 
phoric acid. Among several Chilean chrysocollas of which speci- 
mens were presented to me by my brother, Mr. Hermann A. Keller, 
there is one which appears to me of peculiar interest as its analysis 
may throw some light on the constitution of the blue varieties of 
the mineral. It was found at Huiquintipa in the Province of 
Tarapaoa, and is in the form of turquois-blue, enamel-like crusts, 
disseminated through a honeycombed silicious matrix. It is brittle 
with a hardness of 3.5.. The powder is of a pale greenish color. 
When heated in the closed tube, the mineral gives off considerable 
moisture and blackens, and it is readily decomposed by the mineral 
acids, without gelatinizing. 



The analyses yielded : 

Calculated for 
« ^ » ,. iH,CSiO.),+ 

Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Specific gravity 2.532 

L _ II. CuH,fSiO,),+aH t O 

SiO« 46.14 45.89 4731 

CuO 28.85 28.69 31.39 

A1.0. 58 47 

FeO 1.38 1.33 

CaO 1.64 1.67 

MgO 83 1.01 

HaO 20.15 20.32 21.30 

9954 99.38 100.00 

It was found, as a mean of several closely agreeing determina- 
tions, that two thirds of the water (1341 per cent.) escapes below 
125 C, while the remainder (6.83 per cent) can be expelled only 
by protracted ignition at a red heat. There can be no doubt, then, 
that the latter portion is present in the substance as part of an acid 
salt, as in dioptase for example. Assuming that the other two 
thirds of the water is simply " water of crystallization " and, further, 
that the small amounts of iron, calcium, magnesium, etc., are ad- 
mixtures, the formula calculated from the above analytical data is 
CuH 2 (SiO t ), -f- H 2 0. 'This differs from the composition generally 
assigned to chrysocolla in that it shows the Chilean mineral to be an 
acid metasilicate of copper. I venture to express the belief that a 
careful reexamination of other blue chrysocollas may lead to similar 

Central High School, 



(Read April 23, /pop.) 

There is no question but those of us who have taken ground as 
opposed to the " disinfection " of water by " bleach," hypochlorite 
of sodium, or other similar substances, must change our position. 
The experimental work in France and England; the improvement 
of the water of Bubbly-Brook at the Chicago Stock Yards, and, 
above all, the remarkable results secured by the Jersey City Water 
Supply Co., when operating upon the entire municipal supply of 
Jersey City, suffice to silence opposition to what may be termed the 
most recent purification method of to-day. 

It is true that some years ago the " Woolf " process was pro- 
posed, whereby an electrolyzed salt solution was employed for addi- 
tion to either sewage or water; and still further back the "Web- 
ster" plan was advocated; but none of the hypochlorites was 
exploited in the systematic and exhaustive manner that has been 
recently accomplished, nor has the smallness of the " dose " that will 
accomplish efficient treatment ever been suspected. Let the follow- 
ing facts speak for themselves : 

Lake water was treated with increasing " doses " of " bleaching- 
powder" equivalent to the amount of available chlorine indicated. 
It was then allowed to stand three hours in the dark, shaken and 
sowed for " total count " of bacteria. 

Dose of Bleach. 

Grains per Gallon. 


per Million. 

Bacteria per c.c. 






















Numerous similar sowings were made and even lower counts of 
residual germs were found. 

Upon examining waters charged with pure cultures of Bacillus 
coli communis, and others contaminated with fresh fecal material of 
human origin, no gas- forming bacteria of any kind were found alive 
in any instance after the use of even the smallest dose of " bleach " 
shown above. 

Other experimenters have reached similar conclusions with still 
smaller doses of "available chlorine. ,, The most satisfactory test 
of the process, however, is the practical one of treating the entire 
municipal supply daily furnished to Jersey City. The dose there 
used during the month of December, 1908, averaged approximately 
.03 grain available chlorine per gallon and has since been materially 
reduced. While using the above amount the daily counts of bac- 
teria for the month were : 

Raw Water. 

Maximum 1,600 

Minimum 240 

Average 559 

Treated Water. 

Maximum 30 


Average 2.7 

No part of this minute dose of hypochlorite reaches the con- 
sumer and protection against pathogenic organisms appears to be 

It is not expected that the process will take the place of filtration 
because it does not aid in improving the physical appearance of a 
water, but as an adjunct to a filter plant there can be no question of 
its usefulness in times of emergency, and it can surely be depended 
upon to render a reasonably polluted water safe for domestic pur- 
poses, and do it at a moderate price. 

It goes without saying that the hypochlorite of sodium, obtained 
by elect roly zing a solution of common salt, can be substituted for 
the bleaching powder whenever local conditions allow of its cheap 
manufacture. The effect upon bacterial life is the same. 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 
Troy, N. Y., 
April, 1909. 



(Read April 23, 1909-) 

In the use of gun cotton in mines or torpedoes, advantage is 
taken of the discovery of Mr. E. O. Brown that gun cotton, which 
is completely saturated with water, may be detonated by the deto- 
nation of "dry" gun cotton in direct contact with it, for it thus 
becomes possible to secure a large margin of safety for the naval 
vessels carrying gun-cotton torpedoes by keeping the major portion 
of this cargo completly saturated with water so that it is immune 
from the danger common to the powerful nitric esters of accidental 
explosion through so-called "spontaneous combustion" while it is 
still available for use at any moment as a detonating charge. It is, 
in fact, as my experimental demonstrations have shown, an even 
more efficient rupturing or shattering explosive than the same volume 
of dry gun cotton is, the explanation of this increased efficiency 
being found in the increased density, and therefore rigidity, im- 
parted to the porous mass through its interstices becoming filled 
with water. 

The blocks, or discs, as thus used, contained, on the average, 
35 per cent, of water. In practice, this wet charge, in the service 
torpedo, was fired or detonated by four 2-inch discs of " dry " gun 
cotton, or its equivalent in £-inch discs or blocks, which was known 
as the priming charge. As used the term " dry " meant air-dry and 
necessarily referred to a variable condition dependent upon the 
atmospheric conditions which obtained at any time and the exposure 
of the primer to these conditions. 

It is desirable to know how reliable this system is and what 
assurance may be placed in it. This may to a degree be determined 
by 'ascertaining how much moisture the priming disks may contain 
and yet detonate the wet gun cotton with certainty. It was not 
feasible to carry this out on the large scale with charges of the mag- 




[March 5. 

nitude used in torpedoes, nor did it seem necessary to the solution 
of the problem that this should be done. As I have previously 
shown, such tests may be made upon single unconfined blocks or 
disks of wet gun cotton, resting upon rigid iron supports, the evi- 
dence of complete detonation being found in the impressions left 
upon the iron support with which the explosive is in contact, and 
this method was resorted to in this instance. 

Number of 

Dry Primers, 

Wet Primers, 

Per Cent, of 













3 ! 7 

II. 21 


































13- «5 

































340 + 






15- 13 




































2 I 




• 4 






In carrying out the tests steam-dried blocks of gun cotton, which 
were to be used as priming charges, were carefully weighed. They 
were then immersed in water for awhile and again weighed, the 
increase in weight showing the amount of water that had been 
absorbed by each priming block. Immediately after weighing, and 
before evaporation from the primer could take place, these primers 
were placed, one after the other, upon blocks of saturated " wet " 
gun cotton and fired by the service detonator, containing 35 grains 
of mercuric fulminate, in the usual manner. The results of the 
trials are set forth in the following table, in which they are arranged 


in the ascending order of the percentage of water present in the 
priming blocks, although of necessity the experiments were made on 
the primers as taken from the water and containing varying quanti- 
ties of this substance. 

The results show that detonation was effected in every case in 
which the primer contained less than 12 per cent, of moisture, but 
that this also occurred in experiments number 7, 13 and 17, in 
which the primers contained 12.77, 14.09 and 15.13 per cent, of 
water respectively. These irregularities may be explained by the 
irregularity of absorption of water by these blocks, owing to a lack 
of regularity of porosity in them, for we can readily understand 
that if the centers of these blocks, about the detonator holes, were 
more highly compressed and therefore denser than a portion of the 
remainder of each block, while the total water absorbed by the block 
would be represented by the percentages given, yet the center might 
remain dry enough to respond to the effect of the detonation of the 
mercuric fulminate in the detonator, and thus determine the detona- 
tion of the whole primer and also of the wet gun cotton block with 
which the latter was in contact. This criticism may also apply in 
a reverse manner to the primers containing less than 12 per cent, 
of water, but the likelihood of such an excess of water about the 
detonator hole as to prevent the detonation of the primer becomes 
the more remote the less the total percentage of water present. It 
is true that these vagaries may have sometimes been due to varia- 
tions in the detonators used, but this factor was eliminated in these 
experiments, so far as seemed possible, by previous severe tests of 
the detonators. Admitting all of these possibilities, it would still 
seem reasonable to conclude from these experiments that primers 
containing less than 12 per cent, of water, when fired by means of a 
detonator containing 35 grains of mercuric fulminate may be relied 
upon, so far as the moisture content is concerned, to detonate wet 
gun cotton with which they are in contact. 

The George Washington University. 


(Plates II-V.) 


(Read April 23, 1909.) 

In the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society for 
last year (XL VII: 97-110. 1908), I presented the results of my 
study of the leaf structure of the sand dune plants of Bermuda. 
So many points of interest developed in the course of that investi- 
gation, that I undertook a study of the leaf structure of the char- 
acteristic species growing along the sea shores of New Jersey. This 
investigation was also in part a continuation of those previously 
conducted on the geographic distribution of the New Jersey strand 
flora begun in 1892 and continued down to the present year. 

Phytogeography of the Strand. 

The strand flora of New Jersey comprises several well-marked 
phytogeographic formations, namely, the sea beach formation, the 
dune formation, the thicket formation and the salt marsh forma- 
tion. The sea beach formation comprises those plants which grow 
on the middle and upper beaches, the lower beach being wave swept. 
The typic plants of this formation are Cakile edentula, Ammodenia 
(Arenaria) peploides, Salsola kali, Euphorbia polygonifolia, Cen- 
chrus tribuloides, Ammophila arenaria, Xanthium echinatum, A tri- 
plex arenaria, Sesuvium maritimum, Strophostyles helvola and 
Solidago sempervirens. The dunes of New Jersey consist of wind- 
blown silicious sand and occur at greater or less height along the 
entire coast from Sandy Hook to Cape May, while back of them 
occur salt marshes which fringe the open bays, or river channels. 
The character plants of the New Jersey dunes are the marram 



grass, Ammophila arenaria (Plate II, Fig. i), which anchors the 
sand, the beach pea, Lathyrus morititnus, Hudsonia tomentosa 
(Plate II, Fig. 2), Solidago setnpervirens, Euphorbia polygoni- 
folia, the wax berry, Myrica carolinensis, poison ivy, Rhus radicans, 
beach plum, Prunus maritima, and Virginia creeper, Ampelopsis 
(Parthenocissus) quinquefolia. 

The thicket formation (Plate III, Fig. 3), as it exists on the 
New Jersey strand consists in some places entirely of shrubs, in 
other places, it is composed of trees which form a characteristic 
forest growth. The vanguard of this thicket consists of cedars, 
Juniperus virginiana, which never rise above the level of the dunes 
among which they grow. Young trees in the dune hollows are 
spire-shaped, but upon the tops reaching the general level of the 
dune summits, they become flat-topped and incline in a direction 
opposite to the prevailing wind. The following species enter into 
the thicket formation throughout coastal New Jersey: Juniperus 
virginiana, Q. nana (=Q. ilicifolia), Q. lyrata, Q. obtusiloba 
(=Q. minor), Q. phellos, Pinus rigida, Sassafras officinale, Dio- 
spyros virginiana, Nyssa sylyatica, Acer rubrum, Magnolia glauca 
(=M. virginiana), and as secondary species in the form of shrubs 
Rhus copallina, Prunus maritima, Vaccinium atrococcum, V. corym- 
bosum, Myrica carolinensis and such lianes as Vitis Labrusca, V. 
(Bstivalis, Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Rhus radicans together with 
a host of herbaceous species mentioned in former papers. 

Geographically there are two regions of salt marshes along the 
New Jersey coast, viz., that of the northern coast, north of the 
head of Barnegat Bay and that of the south and middle coast along 
Barnegat Bay and southward to Cape May. The salt marshes on 
the north coast are confined to the shores of the rivers which man- 
age to cut their way through the sand barriers in order to reach 
the ocean. They are, therefore, comparatively circumscribed in 
area and are, as a rule, narrow strips bordering the tidal channels 
of the seaward-flowing streams. The salt marshes, however, south 
of Bay Head widen out into extensive expanses of flat, featureless 
character cut by numerous tidal channels (Plate III, Fig. 4). Those 
north of Barnegat Inlet nowhere exceed a mile in width, while south 


of Barnegat Inlet the salt marshes widen out until in places they may 
be from two to four miles wide cut by thoroughfares into character- 
istic marsh islands. The tidal channels are generally bordered 
throughout the two regions by the tall salt grass, Spartina stricta 
maritime, back of which occur Spartina patens, Juncus Gerardi and 
Distichlis spicata. On the flat marsh only flooded to a depth of 
an inch or two at high tide occur Limonium carolinianum, Ptantago 
maritima, Aster subulatus, Suada linearis, Distichlis spicata, Cheno- 
podium rubrum, Pluchea camphorata, Salicornia herbacea, S. mu- 
cronata, Tissa marina and Gerardia maritima, while Baccharis 
halimifolia and Hibiscus moscheutos occur in salt marsh soil which 
is never flooded with each rising tide. Eleocharis pygmaus forms 
floating mats in the sloughs surrounded by salt marsh at Sea Side 
Park (Plate III, Fig. 4). 

Ecologic Factors. 

The ecologic factors must be considered under two heads, be- 
cause the strand plants are found growing under two distinct en- 
vironmental conditions. The typic strand plants display various 
xerophytic adaptations to their growth in the silicious sand of the 
sea beaches and sand dunes. The factors which are instrumental 
in producing the xerophytic structures which the leaves of strand 
plants show may be considered to be the following: (i) The per- 
meability of the sand to water, so that after a rain the surface 
layers dry out. (2) The action of strong winds that blow across 
the sandy beaches increasing the rate of transpiration materially 
and carrying sand, which is directed against the plant, as a sand- 
blast. (3) The relatively dry soil and the increased transpiration 
by wind action necessitates the adoption of structures which will 
enable the plant to conserve its water supply. (4) The reflection 
of light from the sand and the foam-crested breakers beyond is 
influential, but this influence is not so marked as in Bermuda where 
the sand is a white coral sand and presumably the sunlight is 
reflected to a greater extent. (5) The illumination from above has 
also been effective, but perhaps not so much so as in Bermuda. 
(6) The action of the salt spray blown inland by the wind is 


effective in modifying the structure of the beach and dune plants, 
but is hardly active upon the species of the thicket formation. 
(7) Formerly it was supposed that the plants of the sea beaches 
had to contend against the salt content of the soil, but Kearney has 
shown that the amount of salt in the sand of sea beaches is a 
negligible quantity, as many agricultural soils of the interior con- 
tain relatively more salt than the seashore sand. 

While the beach plants have, therefore, according to the re- 
searches of Kearney, been removed from the list of true halophytes, 
nevertheless the typic salt marsh species show marked halophytic 
adaptations and belong to the second category of strand plants. 
The most potent factor which is here influential is the presence 
of free salt water about the bases and roots of the salt marsh plants. 
It was pointed out by Schimper that any considerable amount of 
salt in the cell sap is detrimental to the plant and that here we have 
the probable cause of the characteristic halophytic modifications 
which aim, therefore, at decreasing the amount of water transpired. 
To this Warming replied, that even if transpiration were diminished, 
slowly, but surely, an amount of salt would accumulate in the plant 
which would prove its destruction. On the other hand, Warming 
proposed that the protective contrivances against strong transpira- 
tion are necessary in halophytes, because absorption of water from 
a salt solution is slow and difficult and what water the plant had 
absorbed must be conserved in order to provide against desiccation, 
while the plant is absorbing enough water to replace that lost in 
ordinary transpiration. Sodium chloride in solution is known to 
have strong plasmolytic properties, removing water from living 
cells when subjected to its action. Ganong has found that the root 
hairs of Salicornia herbacea, a typic halophyte, can endure a 100 
per cent, sea water without plasmolysis ; those of Suada maritima 
80 per cent. ; those of Plantago maritima 70 per cent. ; while those 
of A triplex patulum withstood 50 per cent, sea water. Graves 
found that the root hairs of Ruppia maritima could stand a 105 
per cent, sea water with occasionally very slight plasmolysis, while 
with no per cent, sea water, it was rather slow, but finally distinct. 
So that the group of halophytes with which we are here dealing 


possesses great power of resisting the action of sodium chloride 
in solutions as strong, as sea water. This is reflected in their 

Structural Adaptations. 

These will be treated as applicable to the strand plants, as one 
category, and to the salt marsh plants as the other. 

Strand Plants. — The leaf adaptations to light are found in the 
increased number of palisade layers, their presence on the upper 
and under sides of the leaves and their arrangement, so that the 
central part of the leaf becomes palisade throughout. When both 
leaf surfaces are equally illuminated, the leaf may be termed iso- 
photic, when unequally illuminated, diphotic. Diphotic leaves which 
show a division into palisade and spongy parenchyma have been 
called by Clements diphotophylls. Isophotic leaves are of three 
types, viz., the staurophyll, or palisade leaf ; the diplophyll, or double 
leaf; the spongophyll, where the rounded parenchyma cells make 
up the bulk of the leaf in cross-section. Succulent leaves are those 
developed for water storage and to some extent the presence of 
latex provides against desiccation. The depression of the stomata, 
the development of a thick cuticle, the presence of a hypodermis 
of thick-walled cells, the presence of hairs and the formation of 
air-still chambers by a folding of the leaf tissue are all structures 
which assist in the regulation of transpiration. The following 
is a classification of the different leaf structures with reference to 
the strand plants which illustrate such adaptive arrangements. 

Thick Cuticle: Ammophila arenaria, Quercus obtusiloba, 
Ilex opaca. 

Thick Epidermis: Baccharis halinufolia, AmpelopSis quinque- 
folia, Euphorbia polygonifolia, Cakile edentula. 

Hypodermis Present : Ammophila arenaria. 

Two or More Rows of Palisade Cells: Lathyrus maritimus, 
Strophostyles helvola, Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Quercus obtusiloba, 
Vitis Labrusca, Ilex opaca, Baccharis halimifolia. 

Stomata Depressed (slightly) : Euphorbia polygonifolia, Lathy- 
rus maritimus, Ilex opaca, Hudsonia tomentosa; (deeply) Am- 
mophila arenaria, Lathyrus maritimus (Sea Side Park), Atriplex 
hastata, Vitis Labrusca. 


Succulent Leaf : Cakile edentula, Soli dago sempervirens, A triplex 

Leathery Leaf: Lathyrus maritimus, Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 
Quercus obtusiloba, Xanthiutn echinatum, Ilex opaca. 

Wiry Leaf: Ammophila arenaria, Cenchrus tribuloides, 

Hairy Leaf : Ammophila arenaria, Xanthium echinatum, Quercus 
falcata, Hudsonia tomentosa, Vitis Ldbrusca, V. astivalis, Cenchrus 

Leaf Surface Papillate : Euphorbia polygonifolia. 

Leaf Becoming Erect in Sun Position: Strophostyles helvola, 
Lathyrus maritimus, Euphorbia polygonifolia (leaf blade folding 
along the midrib). 

Overlapping Leaves : Hudsonia tomentosa. 

Latex Tissue : Euphorbia polygonifolia. 

Raphides : Vitis (Bstivalis, V. Labrusca. 

Sphaerocrystals : A triplex hastata, Ilex opaca. 

Idioblasts : Cenchrus tribuloides. 

Diphotophyll : Euphorbia polygonifolia, Strophostyles helvola, 
Lathyrus maritimus, Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Quercus obtusiloba, 
Q. falcata, Vitis Labrusca, V. iestivalis, Ilex opaca, Baccharis halimi- 

Diplophyll: Cakile edentula, Atriplex hastata (Belmar), Xan- 
thium echinatum. 

Staurophyll: Atriplex hastata (Normandie), Solidago sem- 

Spongophyll: Hudsonia tomentosa, Cenchrus tribuloides. 

Salt Marsh Plants. — The majority of the salt marsh species 
studied showed two marked characteristics, namely, succulency and 
wiriness. The following is a categoric presentation of the structure 
of their leaves. The smooth character of the leaves will be noted 
with the exception of Gerardia maritima, Hibiscus moscheutos, 
Pluchea camphorata which grow back in the interior of the salt 
marshes away from the tidal water. 

Thick Cuticle: Spartina stricta maritima (lower surface). 

Thick Epidermis: Distichlis spicata (lower surface), Aster 


subulatus, Suada linearis, Gerardia maritima, Limonium caro- 

Hypodermis Present: Spartina stricta maritima, Distichlis 

Two or More Rows of Palisade Cells : Aster subulatus, Limon- 
ium carolinianum, Gerardia maritima, Hibiscus moscheutos. 

Stomata Depressed: Spartina stricta maritima, Tissa marina, 
Plantago maritima, Aster subulatus, Chenopodium rubrum. 

Hairy Leaf: Gerardia maritima, Hibiscus moscheutos, Pluchea 

Succulent Leaf: Tissa marina, Plantago maritima, Aster subu- 
latus, Suada linearis, Chenopodium rubrum, Limonium carolin- 

Wiry Leaf: Spartina stricta maritima, Distichlis spicata, Ger- 
ardia maritima. 

Leathery Leaf : Hibiscus moscheutos, Pluchea camphorata. 

Diphotophyll : Aster subulatus (drawing is upside down), 
Limonium carolinianum, Gerardia maritima, Hibiscus moscheutos. 

Diplophyll : Tissa marina, Suada linearis. 

Staurophyll : Chenopodium rubrum. 

Spongophyll : Plantago maritima, Pluchea camphorata. 

Detailed Srtucture of the Leaves. 

The sections of the leaves which were studied were made free- 
hand with a razor, stained with Bismarck Brown and mounted for 
permanency in Canada Balsam. The drawings of these sections 
were made by the use of the micro-projection electric lantern, so 
that in every case (32 leaves) the sections were enlarged to the 
same extent and therefore the drawings were made on the same, 
scale. The details of leaf structure and those of the stomata were 
made from a microscopic study after the main features of the 
leaf structure had been located by the micro-projection lantern. In 
this way the relative size of each leaf section is maintained in the 
thirty-two detailed drawings presented in the accompanying two 
plates (Plates IV and V). The drawings of stomata were not made 
to scale. 


Sirand Plants. — The typic sand-inhabiting plants will be der 
scribed first. 

Ammophila arenaria (Plate II, Fig. i; Plate IV, Figs, i, la, 
2, 2a). — The beach, or marram grass, is a perennial species with 
firm, running rootstocks, which on account of their length, and the 
readiness with which the rigid, leafy culms arise from them serve 
to bind the drifting sand. The one-flowered spikelets are crowded 
in a long spike which reaches its full development in August and 
September. The leaves are involute and in a Wildwood-grown 
specimen (Plate IV, Fig. i) examined microscopically the lower 
epidermis consisted of small cells with thick outer wall reinforced 
by 2-3 rows of hypodermal sclerenchyma isolated in patches below 
the vascular bundles. The upper epidermis, covering the grooves 
and the ridges, is irregular owing to the development of short, 
sharp-pointed hairs like canine teeth, which help to form an air-still 
chamber. The stomata are much depressed and level with the 
lower wall of the epidermal cells (Plate IV, Figs, la and 2a). 
Beneath the epidermis, hypodermal sclerenchyma is found in several 
well-marked rows. The chlorenchyma occupies a position on either 
side of the veins which run lengthwise. In the leaf section of a 
plant gathered at South Atlantic City (Plate IV, Fig. 2), the lower 
epidermis is reinforced by a continuous band of hypodermal scleren- 
chyma. The hypodermal sclerenchyma in the upper part of the 
ridges is more abundant than in the Wildwood-grown plants. A 
section of a leaf from a plant that grew on the low dunes of Belmar 
had comparatively little hypodermal sclerenchyma and in every way 
it was a thinner leaf than those from the Wildwood and South 
Atlantic City specimens. 

Euphorbia polygonifolia (Plate IV, Figs. 3 and 3a). — The sea- 
side spurge is a prostrate, spreading herb, with oblong-linear leaves 
slightly cordate, or obtuse at the base and folding together along 
the midrib. The most conspicuous feature in the section is the 
large latex canals which fairly fill the center of the leaves and are 
marked by large surrounding, secreting cells. The upper epidermal 
cells are papillate, and the lower epidermal cells are without these 
papillae, but the outer wall is thickened. The stomata are slightly 



depressed (Plate IV, Fig. 3a). The loose parenchyma is prominent, 
as also the single row of palisade cells. 

Strophostyles helvola (Plate IV, Figs. 4 and 4a). — This annual, 
trailing, leguminous herb has ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets with a 
more or less prominent rounded lobe toward the base. The flowers 
produced from June to September are greenish-white to purplish. 
In the hot sun, the leaflets assume hot-sun positions. The cells of 
the upper epidermis are thin-walled with the outer wall slightly 
thickened. Two well-marked rows of palisade cells are present, 
while the stomata are at the surface (Fig. 4a). The loose paren- 
chyma is clearly seen and the lower epidermis consists of thin- 
walled cells. 

Lathyrus marititnus (Plate IV, Figs. 5, 5a, 7, 7a). — The beach 
pea is a perennial, stout, trailing plant, as it occurs on the dunes 
of New Jersey. The coarsely toothed stipules are nearly as large 
as the leaflets, which are 6-10 in number, ovate-oblong. The leaf- 
lets assume hot-sun positions, especially those near the surface of 
the sand. The flowers are large and purplish, appearing from June 
to September. The epidermal cells on both the upper and lower 
surfaces of the leaflets are thin-walled with a slightly thicker outer 
wall, rounded, almost chain-like in arrangement. The loose paren- 
chyma is compact and there are two rows of palisade cells. 

Cakile edentula (Plate II, Fig. 1 ; Plate IV, Figs. 6 and 6a). — 
The sea rocket is a fleshy annual growing on the upper sea beaches 
and in clumps on the sand dunes (Plate II, Fig. 1). Its fleshy- 
leaves are obovate, sinuate and toothed. The epidermal cells are 
large with outer walls slightly thickened, while the parenchyma cells 
are large and directed vertically with the exception of a few central 
cells, so that the leaf structure is that of a typic diplophyll. The 
stomata are at the surface (Fig. 6a). The xerophytic structure is, 
therefore, seen in the fleshy character of the leaf and in the arrange- 
ment of the internal parenchyma cells. 

Solidago sempervirens (Plate IV, Figs. 8 and 8a).— The seaside 
golden-rod is a smooth, stout plant 0.3-0.5 m. high. The somewhat 
fleshy leaves are entire, lanceolate, slightly clasping; the lower ones 
are oblong-lanceolate, obscurely triple-nerved and all of the leaves 


are vertical or nearly so. The contracted panicle of heads appears 
from August to November. The thin-walled, upper epidermal cells 
are approximately square in outline in the transverse view, only 
the outer wall being somewhat thickened. Chlorenchyma cells 
almost homogeneous, are directed vertically, hence the leaf is a 

A triplex hastata (=A. patula var. hastata) (Plate IV, Figs. 
9, ga, io and ioa). — The orache is an erect, or spreading, stout 
plant and at least the lower leaves are broadly triangular, hastate, 
often coarsely and irregularly toothed. The upper and lower epi- 
dermal cells are large, thin-walled. The chlorenchyma of similar 
elongated cells extends from the upper to the lower surface, so that 
the leaf is a typic staurophyll. Large sphaerocrystals are present 
in the parenchyma cells of the leaf and the guard cells of the sto- 
mata are considerably sunken Wneath the surface (Figs, ga and 
ioo). The leaves of the specimen from Belmar were somewhat 
thinner than those from Normandie and the chlorenchyma cells 
were more rounded. 

Hudsonia tomentosa (Plate II, Fig. 2; Plate IV, Figs. 11, 11a). 
—The dunes are in many places covered with this heath-like plant 
(Plate II, Fig. 2), which is an important sand binder, as it grows 
in dense clumps. The small awl-shaped leaves are oval or narrowly 
oblong and are close-pressed and imbricated, covered with a downy 
tomentum. The epidermal cells of the leaves are thin-walled and 
covered with slender, sharp-pointed hairs with a smooth cuticle. 
The hairs are so numerous on both sides of the leaf, that they act 
effectively in controlling transpiration. The guard cells of the 
stomata are only slightly depressed (Fig. 11a). 

Cenchrus tribuloides (Plate IV, Figs. 12, 12a and 12&). — The 
sand bur grass branches extensively and sometimes has the trailing 
habit. The blades are more or less involute, owing to the presence 
of bulliform cells. The upper epidermal cells are marked by crys- 
talline idioblasts (Fig. 12a) in an elongated form like the cystoliths 
in the leaf of the rubber plant, Ficus elastica. The epidermal cells 
on the under side of the leaf where the sclerenchyma occurs are 
terminated by short cusp-like spines. The guard cells (Figs. 12b 


and 12c) are not sunken below the general surface. The upper 
epidermal cells are large, irregular in size and rounded. The lower 
epidermal cells are irregular and consist of bulliform with spiny 
hair cells opposite the leaf veins. The leaf exhibits a typic spongo- 
phyll structure. 

Xanthiutn echinatutn (Plate IV, Figs. 13 and 13a). — The cockle 
bur has broadly ovate, cordate leaves and the whole plant is rugose, 
especially the leaf surfaces. The upper and lower epidermal cells 
are thin-walled and provided with stout, projecting, multicellular 
hairs. The palisade cells extend through the leaf except a narrow 
row of cells near the center. Although this leaf has been classified 
as a diplophyll, yet it might with equal propriety be called a 

Quercus obtusiloba (Plate IV, Fig. 14). — The post oak is a com- 
mon tree in the pure dune sand 'of the New Jersey coast. The 
leaves are obovate in outline, 1-2 dm. long, the usually fine lobes 
spreading, the middle pair of sinuses are deep, wide and obliquely 
rounded at the bottom of the lobes. The leaves are leathery, thick 
and shining with scattered hairs above, densely gray, or yellowish 
hairy beneath. The epidermal cells are small with thick cuticle 
and the lower surface shows the presence of multicellular hairs. 
The palisade rows number from two to three and the loose paren- 
chyma is compact. The leaf is a typic diphotophyll. 

Quercus falcata (Plate IV, Figs. 15 and 15a). — The Spanish 
oak has leaves which are prolonged into a more or less scythe- 
shaped lobe with the under leaf surfaces grayish-downy or fulvous. 
The upper epidermal cells are large and thin-walled, as are also 
the lower epidermal cells. From the lower surface, a lot of com- 
pound hairs project, the tines of which are straight, sharp-pointed 
cells. The stomata are not depressed and a single row of palisade 
cells is present, so that the leaf is a typic diphotophyll. 

Vitis Labrusca (Plate IV, Figs. 16 and 16a). — The northern fox 
grape has large leaves which are entire, or deeply lobed, slightly 
dentate. They are rusty-wooly beneath. The vines begin their 
growth on the forest trees, and as the sand drifts in around them, 
the grape vine branches grow out in a prostrate manner over the 


surface of the dune sand. The upper epidermal cells are thin- 
walled. The palisade layer consists of one row of cells and below 
it we find cells here and there containing a mucilaginous substance 
in which are imbedded raphides, or needle-shaped crystals. The 
loose parenchyma is prominent and the lower epidermal cells are 
thin-walled and from them grow out long unicellular, sharp-pointed, 
straight hairs which become matted together. This hairy covering 
is of use in the regulation of transpiration. The guard cells are 
somewhat depressed (Fig. 16a) and the leaf exhibits a typic di- 
photophyll structure. 

Vitis cestivalis (Plate IV, Fig. 17). — The summer grape has large 
unlobed or more or less deeply and obtusely 3-5-lobed leaves, pro- 
vided with a very wooly and mostly rust-red, or tawny-flocculent 
tomentum. This tomentum does not appear in the section, because 
the wooly hairs are mostly attached to the veins beneath and merely 
cover the epidermal surface between, so that a section which does 
not include the veins does not show the hairy covering of the under 
side of the leaf. The upper and lower epidermal cells are thin- 
walled and in the single palisade layer are found cells containing 
a mucilage in which are imbedded raphides, or needle-shaped crys- 
tals of calcium oxalate. 

Ilex opaca (Plate III, Fig. 3; Plate IV, Figs. 18 and 18a).— In 
the reproduced photograph (Plate III, Fig. 3), the holly is found 
associated with Sassafras officinale, Rhus radicans and Solidago 
sempervirens. The leathery oval, spiny-margined holly leaves have 
an upper epidermis of small cells covered with an extremely thick 
cuticle. Three rows of palisade chlorenchyma are present and a 
loose parenchyma, as an area of considerable width with large inter- 
cellular lacunae. The lower epidermis consists of thick-walled cells 
and the guard cells, if sunken, are only depressed to the extent of 
the thick cuticle. Sphaerocrystals are present in some of the cells 
of the third palisade row of cells. A tree with spineless-margined 
leaves was formerly found on the dunes at South Atlantic City. 
The leaf is a typic, xerophytic diphotophyll. 

Baccharis halimifolia (Plate IV, Figs. 19 and 19a). — The leaves 
of the groundsel bush are thickish, vertical and obovate to wedge- 


shaped, coarteiy toothed, or the upper leaves entire. The upper 
epidermal cells have a considerably thickened outer wall with a 
^ warty cuticle. Stomata occur on both leaf surfaces with their 
guard cells not depressed below the surface. Palisade chlorenchyma 
of two rows of cells extends to the centrally placed bundles of the 
leaf and it is rather openly arranged. The loose parenchyma with 
large spaces shows its cells generally directed in a vertical manner, 
suggesting a staurophyll, but the bifacial structure is clearly recog- 
nizable, so that we may classify the leaf as a diphotophyll. The 
lower epidermis of thin-walled cells shows a roughened outer cell 
wall surface. 

Ampelopsis quinque folia (Plate IV, Figs. 20 and 20a). — The 
Virginia creeper with a compound leaf with five leaflets is an ele- 
ment of the dune flora of New Jersey. It begins to ascend forest 
trees, and if these trees are surrounded by drifting sand, the vine 
spreads out over the sand surface. In other places, it grows on 
the surface of the dunes and helps to bind the wind-blown sand. 
The sand-grown plants have leathery leaves in which the upper 
epidermal cells are compact with the outer wall thickened and its 
surface rugose. Two rows of palisade cells may be found and the 
loose parenchyma occupies the other half of the leaf below the 
midrib and the veins. The stomata are not sunken, and the leaf 
is a typic diphotophyll. 

Salt Marsh Plants. — The plants of this group are all of them 
true halophytes, and at the conclusion of the description which fol- 
lows of the histology of their leaves, a comparison will be drawn 
between their leaf structure and that of the leaves of the sand 
strand plants previously described. 

Spartina stricta maritima (=S. glabra) (Plate V, Figs. 21 and 
21a). — The salt marsh grass is a tall species 0.6-2.4 m. high, leafy 
to the top and growing along the shore in pure salt water. The 
leaves are 5-7 dm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, usually flat, but sometimes 
involute. The lower epidermal cells are strongly cuticularized, and 
where the bundles occur they are reinforced with hypodermal scler- 
enchyma. The upper leaf surface is raised into ridges, which are 
covered with small cuticularized epidermal cells without hairs, while 


the stomata found near the bottom of the grooves have their guard 
cells depressed below the surface (Fig. 21a). Bulliform cells are 
absent. The chlorenchyma is radially arranged on each side of the 
bundles, while the parenchyma sheath surrounding the bundles also 
contains some chlorophyll. 

Distichlis spicata (Plate V, Fig. 22). — The spike grass, or alkali 
grass, occurs in the salt marshes along our eastern coast from Nova 
Scotia to Texas, along the Pacific coast and in alkaline soil through 
the interior to the Rocky Mountains and southward in alkali sinks 
into Mexico. The culms are 1.5-6 dm. high and the leaf blades are 
often conspicuously distichous, rigidly ascending. The lower epi- 
dermis consists of thick-walled cells, the outer wall being especially 
thick. The upper epidermis consists of projecting hair cells with 
thick walls resembling in shape a canine tooth and found covering 
the ridges down into the grooves between, so that an air-still chamber 
is formed. The bundles are surrounded with thick-walled cells, 
which are in turn engirdled by a parenchyma sheath, while the rest 
of the leaf section is occupied by chlorenchyma. 

Tissa marina (=Buda marina, Spergularia salina, Spergularia 
marina) (Plate V, Figs. 23 and 23a). — The sand spurrey is a much- 
branched, procumbent, or suberect, annual herb more or less dis- 
tinctly fleshy. The leaves are linear and terete surrounded with 
large, thin-walled, epidermal cells with several rows of palisade 
parenchyma directly beneath and completely surrounding the large 
thin-walled parenchyma cells of the interior. The stomata are de- 
pressed below the surface (Fig. 23a). A typic, succulent diplophyll. 

Plantago maritima (=P. decipiens) (Plate V, Figs. 24 and 
24a). — The seaside plantain has linear to nearly filiform leaves 1-10 
mm. broad, indistinctly ribbed and fleshy. The epidermal cells are 
large thin-walled with the outer wall slightly thickened with minute 
projecting points. Palisade cells are entirely absent and large 
parenchyma cells with chlorophyll fill the interior, extending to the 
bundles placed near the center. The stomata are not depressed, or 
only slightly so (Fig. 24a). 

Aster subulatus (Plate V, Figs. 25 and 25a). — The leaves of 
the salt marsh aster are linear-lanceolate and pointed. The upper 


leaf surface (turned upside down in Fig. 25) consists of thick- 
walled epidermal cells beneath which are two rows of illy defined, 
palisade cells, while beneath the palisade are compactly-placed, 
rounded chlorenchyma cells extending to the loose parenchyma 
cells with large intercellular spaces. The lower convex, epidermal 
surface is composed of thick-walled cells, the outer wall being espe- 
cially thick. The guard cells are depressed the thickness of the 
outer cell wall (Fig. 25a). 

Limonium carolinianutn (Plate V, Figs. 26 and 26a). — The sea 
lavender has thick, stalked, radical leaves from which the much- 
branched scape arises, bearing small, lavender-colored flowers. The 
epidermal cells are large, thin-walled, but the outer wall is slightly 
thicker than the other walls. Two rows of palisade cells are found 
and a spongy parenchyma of rounded cells. The stomata are at the 
surface (Fig. 26a). 

Suceda linearis (Plate V, Fig. 27). — The sea blite is an erect, 
or ascending, fleshy, saline plant 2-9 dm. high. Its leaves are nar- 
rowly linear and acute. The epidermal cells are thin-walled, but 
project as rounded knobs the tops of which are thickened, The 
chlorenchyma, as palisade tissue, is found equally developed on the 
upper and the lower surfaces, while the interior cells are large and 
rounded parenchyma elements. A typic diplophyll. 

Gerardia maritima (Plate V, Figs. 28 and 28a). — This marsh 
plant is a slender, erect, branching annual, somewhat fleshy with 
linear, obtuse leaves. The upper leaf epidermis has two kinds of 
hairs, straight, projecting ones and low, dome-shaped hairs, the 
terminal cells containing a brown substance. The palisade chloren- 
chyma forms two well-defined rows with compact spongy paren- 
chyma beneath. The lower epidermis consists of thin-walled cells 
with superficial guard cells (Fig. 28a). 

Chenopodium rubrum (Plate V, Figs. 29 and 29a). — The coast 
blite has a much-branched, angled stem with thickish, triangular, • 
lanceolate leaves tapering below into a wedge-shaped base and above 
into an acute point, sparingly and coarsely toothed. The epidermal 
cells are thin-walled, with the outer wall curved outward. The 
vascular bundles are centrally placed, while the elongated, rounded 


chlorenchyma cells are aligned as palisade. Sphaerocrystals are 
abundant and the guard cells are depressed considerably (Fig. 29a). 

Hibiscus moscheutos (Plate V, Figs. 30 and 30a). — The swamp 
rose-mallow is a tall perennial with showy rose pink, pink or white 
flowers and alternate ovate, pointed leaves, sometimes 3-lobed with 
a downy, whitened, under surface. The upper epidermal cells are 
comparatively thin-walled, while the lower epidermis of thin-walled 
cells is characterized by clusters of long, straight, pointed hairs 
densely matted together. There are two rows of palisade cells 
beneath which is found spongy parenchyma, while the guard cells of 
the stomata are slightly raised above the general epidermal surface 
(Fig. 30a). The leaf is a diphotophyll. 

Pluchea catnphorata (Plate V, Figs. 31 and 31a). — The salt 
marsh fleabane is an annual with oblong-ovate, or lanceolate, slightly 
petioled leaves. The stem and leaves are somewhat glandular, 
emitting a strong, or camphoric, odor. The epidermal cells are thin- 
walled and multicellular hairs abound on both surfaces. The sto- 
mata are not depressed (Fig. 31a). The chlorenchyma in the form 
of rounded cells is not differentiated into palisade and spongy paren- 
chyma. A spongophyll. 

Eleocharis pygtnaa (=£. nana) (Plate V, Figs. 32 and 32a). — 
This small sedge formed small floating masses on the surface of the 
salt water sloughs at Sea Side Park (Plate III, Fig. 4). The bristle- 
like culms are tufted at the base and in section show large air canals, 
or lacunae, surrounded by small thin-walled parenchyma cells. The 
bundles are reduced in size and the epidermis is composed of small 
thin-walled cells. A typic hydrophyte adapted to an halophytic 

General Conclusions. 

We have listed twenty plants among those which grow on the 
sand strand and eleven which may be considered to be typic salt 
marsh species. Out of the twenty strand plants four are suc- 
culent, or twenty per cent., while out of eleven salt marsh species 
six are succulent, or over fifty per cent., so that the salt marsh 
species are preponderantly succulent. Only three of the salt marsh 
plants studied have epidermal hairs, while nine of the strand plants 


are hairy. Eleven of the strand species are diphotophylls, and of 
these six have two rows of palisade chlorenchynfa. Only four of 
the salt marsh species are diphotophylls, and each of them has two 
palisade rows. Reference to the classification of sand strand and 
salt marsh species given above will enable the student to pick out 
other differences existing between the sand strand and the salt 
marsh species, as regards their leaf structure. 

Bibliographic Notes. 

Little has been done in America to study the influence of envir- 
onment upon the internal structure of plants, but a start has been 
made and it is only a matter of time when a large amount of im- 
portant data will have been collected for comparison and generaliza- 
tion. As bearing upon the study of the sea strand vegetation may 
be mentioned the following papers. Kearney has discussed in his 
paper, " The Plant Covering of Ocracoke Island : A Study in the 
Ecology of the North Carolina Strand Vegetation" (Contributions 
U. S. National Herbarium, V: 280-312), the histologic structure of 
plants found upon Ocracoke Island as sand strand and salt marsh 
species. In this paper the following plants concern us: Spartina 
stricta, Tissa marina, Solidago sempervirens, Aster subulatus and 
Baccharis halimifolia. In a second paper, " Report on a Botanical 
Survey of the Dismal Swamp Region" (Contributions U. S. Na- 
tional Herbarium, V: 484-509), under anatomic notes, Kearney 
discusses the leaf structure of some selected plants. None of these 
plants actually concern this paper, except Pluchea fcetida and Bac- 
charis halimifolia. Edith Schwartz Clements, in a thesis submitted 
to the faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Nebraska 
for the degree of doctor of philosophy (June, 1904), gives a useful 
historic resume of the study of leaf structure from an ecologic 
standpoint and also considers in a detailed manner the structure of 
about three hundred species collected in the Colorado foothills and 
mountains of the Pikes Peak region of the Rocky Mountains with 
reference to the surrounding physical factors, which were deter- 
mined by careful instrumental readings. Lastly, Harshberger, in a 
paper noticed above, discusses the leaf structure of some seventeen 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 191 

Plate II 

Fig. i. 

Fu:. 2. 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 191 

Plate III 

Fit;. 3. 

K.<;. 4 . 

Proceedings Am. Phclos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII No. 191 

Plate IV 


Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 191 

Plate V 


species of Bermudan plants with relation to the environmental fac- 
tors of the sand dunes upon which the plants grew. In this paper 
a short bibliography of the principal papers is given. 

Explanation of the Plates. 

In Plate II, Fig. i, is shown the frontal sea dune at Sea Side 
Park covered with the marram grass Ammophila arenaria and a 
large clump of Cakile edentula, while in Fig. 2 is represented the 
crest of the frontal dune covered with marram grass, back of which 
occur the waxberry Myrica carolinensis and the clumps of Hud- 
sonia tomentosa. 

The photograph reproduced in Plate III, Fig. 3, represents the 
thicket formation at South Sea Side Park composed of Ilex opaca, 
Sassafras officinale, Rhus radicans and Solidago setnpervirens. In 
Fig. 4, Plate III, is represented a slough with floating rafts of Eleo- 
charis pygmaa. The twenty enlarged figures with details of stomata, 
shown in Plate IV, represent the structure of the leaves of the sand 
strand plants of New Jersey, while the twelve figures and stomata 
enlargements represent the leaf structure of typic salt marsh species 
(Plate V). 


(Plate VI.) 


(Read April 23, /pop.) 

It is generally known that the advance of civilization in a conn- 
try is connected with a retreat and the disappearance of the indige- 
nous fauna. This has been observed most distinctly in those parts 
of the world which have been settled by the white man in more 
recent times, and in many cases we have positive records with ref- 
erence to the killing and crowding out of the original inhabitants of 
the country, belonging to the animal kingdom; yet these records 
chiefly concern the more highly developed forms of life (mammals 
or vertebrates in general), which preeminently attract attention. 

But there are many other forms of animal life, chiefly among the 
invertebrates, which suffer the same fate. Such cases generally are 
not noticed, but students particularly interested in such groups often 
have reason to deplore the disappearance of interesting creatures, 
which used to be abundant. 

The present writer, in connection with his duties as curator of 
invertebrate zoology at the Carnegie Museum, has made it one of 
his chief objects to study and to preserve records of the fresh-water 
fauna of the northeastern section of the United States, and first of 
all, of the country lying in the immediate vicinity of Pittsburgh. 
This region belongs to the drainage of the upper Ohio and of Lake 
Erie, and it is well known that originally a very rich fauna was 
present here, a fauna which forms part of the great fauna of the 
interior basin, eminently rich in all forms of fresh-water life. It 
is also a well-known fact that on account of the progress of civiliza- 
tion in western Pennsylvania, on account of its industrial and com- 
mercial development, and all the various features of " improve- 



marts" connected with it, the fresh-water fauna has deteriorated, 
has become poor, and in many cases extinct. Yet it is not realized 
how far this process has advanced, and to what extent the fresh 
water of this region has become unfit for the indigenous life. The 
present paper has the object to record the present state of things in 
this respect, and to point out which rivers and creeks are in such a 
state that they do not offer any more the required conditions for 
animal life, and which are yet in a good or fair condition. It may 
be remarked that all facts collected here have been ascertained by 
the writer in person, in the course of his studies during the last five 
years. All streams recorded on the map accompanying this paper 
(Plate VI) have been visited by the writer, and collections of their 
invertebrate fauna and observations on their vertebrate fauna have 
been made, wherever such was still present : but in many cases his 
efforts were in vain, and life had entirely disappeared in many 
streams. The blue color on our map tells a pitiful story, pitiful not 
only from the standpoint of the scientific man, but also with refer- 
ence to the question of utility. For we must not forget that the 
original fauna of the fresh water forms part of the "natural re- 
sources '* of the country. In many cases the direct ecqpomic value, 
chiefly of the fresh-water invertebrates, is not very apparent; but 
considering the fact that all forms of life in an ecological com- 
munity are mutually dependent upon each other, we realize that the 
more important forms (mussels, fishes and aquatic mammals) can- 
not be preserved, unless the creatures which furnish the necessary 
conditions for their subsistence are also preserved. Thus the de- 
struction of our fresh-water fauna forms a chapter of the book on 
the destruction of our natural resources, a record which is not at 
all to the credit of the nation. 

I. The Fresh-Water Fauna. 

The part of the fresh-water fauna which has chiefly been studied 
by the writer is, as has been stated, the invertebrates. However, 
during his investigations, he kept his eyes open for vertebrate life, 
and among the latter it is chiefly the fishes to which he paid atten- 
tion. He did not make systematic collections of the fishes, and thus 


he cannot give positive information as to the presence or absence of 
particular species of them. But the question of their existence in 
general in the different streams is easily settled, in fact this is the 
most conspicuous criterion by which people generally judge the con- 
dition of a stream — whether there is " good fishing " or not. 

However, the presence of fishes in a stream does not always 
indicate that the latter is in good shape. The condition of the 
streams, as we shall see below, often changes during the season; 
it is bad in dry weather, but improves when there has been copious 
precipitation. The fishes are most apt to take advantage of such 
temporary improvement on account of their great power of locomo- 
tion (vagility) ; in fact, many fishes migrate more or less regularly 
up or down stream, and thus may be present at certain seasons in 
parts of our water-courses, which are barren in other seasons. 

Other vertebrates are of minor importance. Among the mam- 
mals we should mention the muskrat (Fiber zibethicus). This 
animal is fairly abundant everywhere, but, as might be expected, 
tends to disappear, where its food disappears. The latter consists 
only in part of invertebrates (mussels for instance), while in another 
part it is vegetable (roots of aquatic plants, and also various parts 
of land plants). Thus it is understood that the pollution of a 
stream does not render the existence of muskrats impossible. And 
further, the bad condition of the water does not harm the animal 
directly, since it is an air-breathing form. The fact that the musk- 
rat is decidedly less frequent in polluted streams is probably due to 
the fact that the pollution is greatest in the vicinity of larger settle- 
ments, where there is greater danger for them by being hunted 
by man. 

Of the reptiles, water-snakes (Natrix sipedon and leberis) and 
turtles should be considered. As regards the former, it is a general 
rule that they disappear from polluted streams, and very likely not 
on account of the direct influence of the water upon their body, but 
on account of the destruction of their food — fish and crawfish. 
The turtles live in part upon animal, in part upon vegetable food ; 
they are found, at present, in numbers only in streams which are in 
good condition, and have disappeared, more or less, in those with 


polluted waters; this, however, at least in certain species, is appar- 
ently due also to direct extermination by man. The soft shell 
turtle (Aspidonectes spinifer) is a good example; it used to be 
present almost everywhere, but it has been exterminated practically 
in the Ohio, the lower Allegheny, the Monongahela and Youghio- 
gheny. It is still present, for instance, in the clear waters of the 
upper Youghiogheny, the upper Allegheny, in Lake Erie, etc. 

Among the amphibians, frogs and toads do not prefer the 
streams ; they rather are pond and lake forms, and, besides, inhabit 
the water only at certain seasons. They do not seem to be very 
susceptible to the quality of the water, since they are air-breathing 
animals, and, consequently, are still abundant, although certain spe- 
cies show a tendency to become rare. Thus the bullfrog is met 
with in numbers only in the northwest of the state, where clear 
streams, ponds and lakes prevail. Yet in this case, extermination 
by man has surely played a part. 

Of the Urodela, the smaller salamanders and newts do not in- 
habit in large numbers the rivers and creeks, but prefer rather the 
mountain streams, the ponds and lakes, where generally the condi- 
tions are yet good. Thus there does not seem to be an appreciable 
reduction of their number. The two large salamanders, the hell- 
bender (Cryptobranchus allegheniensis) and mud puppy (Necturus 
maculosus) surely are influenced by the pollution, yet not directly, 
but by the destruction of their food. They seem to be the last mem- 
bers of the fresh-water fauna which disappear, and are occasionally 
found where there is no other permanent life. (Hellbenders were 
frequent in the Conemaugh River at New Florence, Westmoreland 
Co. Nothing but a few fish and crawfish were at this locality, which 
apparently came from a clear tributary.) 

The most important forms of invertebrates, which I have studied 
more closely, are the crustaceans and the mollusks. Occasionally I 
have collected fresh-water sponges, worms, bryozoans, but of all 
these we may say that the^ disappear very soon after the stream 
has become polluted. They are found only in such waters which 
contain an abundance of other life. 

The crustaceans of the genus Cambarus (crawfishes) are rather 
susceptible, and we may say that generally the pollution of a stream 


destroys them. They seem to be slightly more resistant than the 
Unionidae (see below), but their presence in a polluted stream is 
in many cases clearly due to a restocking of the stream, by immigra- 
tion from a clear tributary. The crawfishes are rather vagile, and 
possess the power to migrate, although less so than the fishes. There 
surely is the possibility for them to take advantage of a temporary 
improvement of the condition of a stream. 

The most important group, with reference to the matter in ques- 
tion, are the bivalve mollusks of the family Unionidae, the fresh- 
water mussels or river-clams. They are the most reliable indicators 
of the pollution of a stream. Being rathefr sedentary, living on the 
bottom of the rivers, breathing water, they are easily influenced by 
the deterioration of the water. Of all the more important groups 
of our fresh-water fauna, they die first, and after they have been 
exterminated, it is exceedingly difficult to restock the stream on 
account of the complex life history of the young mussels. It is 
known that the young Unionidae are transported and dispersed by 
fishes, but in a polluted stream the fishes have also disappeared, and 
even in a case of a temporary recovery of a stream, in times of a 
high stage of the water, if there should be a restocking with young 
mussel- fry, the latter will surely be killed during the next low stage, 
when the pollution again is concentrated. In this respect the Union- 
idae surely are worse off than the fishes and crawfishes. 

Of other mollusks, the gasteropods belonging to the family Pleu- 
roceridae (Pleurocera, Goniobasis, Anculosa) should be mentioned. 
They are generally absent in polluted rivers, but have been found 
surviving, together with crawfishes, in parts where Unionidae were 
entirely, and the fishes for the greater part gone (Allegheny River 
in southern Venango County). Other mollusks, which are air 
breathing (genera Lymncea, Planorbis, Physa) are more resistant, 
and this is especially true of Physa, which represents in certain 
instances the only remaining life in certain rivers. But there also 
seems to be a limit to its power of endurance, and in very badly pol- 
luted streams also Physa is absent. 

Thus we can establish, in a rough way, a certain succession for 
the disappearance of our fauna. 

The first sign of pollution of a dangerous character in a stream 


is given by the disappearance of the Unionidae, and, generally, this 
fauna is irreparably lost. Close upon this follows the disappear- 
ance of the fishes, yet in times of recovery of the rivers (at high- 
water stages), fishes reappear, coming from tributaries, etc., which 
have acted as preserves, and this may go on indefinitely as long as 
the river is recovering again at times, since the fishes possess a high 
power of locomotion (as we shall see below, the construction of 
•dams in a river puts an end also to this). Crawfishes stand it a 
little longer than fishes, but they also disappear finally, and the tem- 
porary restocking of a stream takes place only in a limited degree. 1 
With the crawfishes, or soon after them, the Gasteropods of the 
family Pleuroceridce are driven out. When the process has reached 
this stage, the higher forms of life, which subsist on these various 
forms are compelled to abandon the stream: tailed Batrachians, 
Snakes, and part of the Turtles. Finally, only Lymncea, Planorbis 
and Physa, and the muskrat survive. Of these, Physa disappears 
last, while the muskrat may stay indefinitely, being not entirely 
•dependent upon animal or aquatic food. 

II. The Causes of the Destruction of the Fauna. 
A. Direct Extermination by Man. 

A number of fresh-water animals are directly killed by man, and 
thus disappear in streams, the character of which has not been 
changed unfavorably for life. This is true in the first line for the 
Jishes. Fishes, forming part of human food, are sought for every- 
where, and in consequence of the increase of the population neces- 
sarily must be decimated in number. Yet a complete destruction 
of the fish life hardly has ever been brought about by man alone, 
chiefly so, if the fishing is carried on under the restrictions put upon 
it by law. The fact is that there are many places where " fishing is 
good," and where fishermen freely avail themselves of this chance, 
but where fishes are still abundant (upper Allegheny River, for 

l It happens sometimes that restocking of the lost territory is done by 
a different species. Thus in the Mahoning Creek at Punxsutawney, Jefferson 
Co., and in Slipperyrock Creek at Branchton, Butler Co., the original species, 
which was destroyed, was Cambarus obscurus, and subsequently, C. bartoni 
■entered the creek. 



instance). This is not so in certain remote streams, but not on 
account of the legitimate pursuit of the sport, but in consequence 
of the illegal destruction of the fishes. The worst is the dynamiting 
of the streams which, of course, can be carried out safely only in 
such places where the fish warden is likely not watching. I can 
name at least one stream, in which this has had serious conse- 
quences: Raccoon Creek in Beaver County, and here it is done, as 
I have been informed, by parties that come over the state line from 
West Virginia and Ohio, and that have no right whatever to fish in 
our waters. The fish warden cannot be on the spot all the time, 
and the farmers of the region are powerless to stop the abuse, and 
thus Raccoon Creek, which is physically in good condition, and 
which used to teem with fish life, has been spoiled. For the dyna- 
miting kills all fishes, old and young indiscriminately, and must be 
regarded as the most contemptuous way of wanton destruction. 

I do not doubt that it is resorted to in other parts (I heard of 
one case in Deer Creek, Allegheny County, not far from Pittsburgh), 
yet, of course, since it is executed by the guilty parties only under 
rigorous precautions, in order that they may not be caught by the 
authorities, such cases generally escape detection. 

There is only one other group of fresh-water animals which is 
of direct value to man (if we disregard the muskrat, which is hunted 
for its pelt, and some turtles, which are eaten). These are the 
fresh- water mussels (Unionidae). For food they are not much 
sought, but the occasional occurrence of pearls in them makes them 
valuable. In Pennsylvania pearl fishing is not much practiced, yet 
I know that certain individuals hunt for pearls in mussels along the 
Allegheny River in Armstrong County, and once I came across a 
party of three, hunting pearls in the Ohio in Beaver County. These 
people were from somewhere down the Ohio in the state of Ohio or 
West Virginia, and it was indeed a sight to look upon the wholesale 
destruction carried on by them. 

In general we may say that by the direct action of man our 
fresh-water fauna, chiefly that of the fishes, has suffered a good 
deal, but the complete extermination has not been brought about by 
it in any stream. Fishing might go on in the usual way, under the 
established legal restrictions, and our fish fauna will survive indefi- 


nitely. If we further consider the fact that the state is trying to 
restock our streams artificially, this might entirely counterbalance 
the losses caused by the fisherman, and thus we may say that fishing 
alone would never destroy our fish fauna. 

B. Pollution of Streams. 

The worst damage to our fauna is done by the pollution of the 
streams, that is to say, by the discharge into them of substances 
which are directly injurious to life. This is connected directly with 
our commercial and industrial progress, and the damage done by it 
is irreparable, unless there is some radical change in the way of the 
disposal of the industrial refuse, which at present is generally 
allowed to run directly into the nearest stream. 

The most widely distributed pollution of a stream is by sewage 
from the larger towns and cities. This in itself is rather innocent. 
I am not discussing the deterioration of the waters from a sanitary 
standpoint; but with regard to animal life in our rivers, sewage does 
not seem to be harmful ; on the contrary, certain forms (fishes, craw- 
fishes, mussels) seem to thrive cm it. Only in a few cases I have 
seen sewage so concentrated (certain small runs in the city of Pitts- 
burgh), that animal life is killed. 

Much more dangerous sources of pollution are given by our coal 
mines. Under this head I unite all sources of pollution, which are 
connected with the mining of coal, with the coking process, and with 
the steel industry. This kind of pollution is very widely distributed 
b the western part of the state. It is a process which charges the 
water of our streams with certain acids, which, when they reach a 
certain degree of concentration, directly kill the life. 2 A stream 
polluted by "mine water" is easily recognized (when clear) by the 
peculiar bluish-green color qi the water, and by a peculiar rusty-red 
deposit upon its bottom. 

Another source of pollution is furnished by the oil wells and the 
oil industries. The simple working of an oil well already yields 
injurious matter: during the drilling of the well invariably salt 
water is pumped up, and the oil itself is capable of destroying life, 
if present in excess, and forming, at low stages, a deposit upon the 

*See Stabler H., Water Supply and Irrigation Paper no. 186, 1906, p. 5. 


bottom of a creek. But the worst are the oil refineries, which dis- 
charge into the water chemicals which are utterly destructive to life. 

These are the two most important sources of the pollution of our 
streams : coal and oil. In addition, there are others, which are more 
or less local, yet may become quite important in certain sections. 
These are various industrial establishments, such as glass factories, 
china factories, different kinds of chemical factories, wood-pulp 
mills* saw mills, tanneries, etc. There are certain sections of the 
state, for instance the region of the headwaters of the Allegheny 
and of Qarion River, where establishments of this kind are the 
chief source of contamination. 

It is not my intention here to treat of the chemical side of the 
process, because it is rather complex, and needs careful investiga- 
tion by experts. This investigation is rendered more difficult, since 
in most of our streams it is not one cause, which contributes to the 
pollution, but several, often all of them, which contribute their share 
in a particular stream. 

Finally, a last cause of destruction of life should be mentioned, 
which, however, is not connected with a deterioration of the quality 
of the water. This is the damming up of certain rivers. This has 
been done most extensively in the Monongahela River, and in a 
part of the Ohio below Pittsburgh. The dams and locks have been 
built for the advantage of the shipping interests, producing a more 
uniform level of the water, permitting navigation all the year round. 
By this process the rivers, which originally possessed a lively cur- 
rent, with riffles, islands, etc., have been transformed into a series 
of pools of quiet, stagnant water, and this change has driven out 
certain forms of life. It is most destructive to mussels, most of 
which require a lively current. Dams also prevent free migration, 
for instance of fishes, and thus they must 'be an obstacle to the nat- 
ural restocking of the rivers in periods of high water. 

1 See Phelps, E. B., Water Supply and Irrigation Paper no. 226. 1909. 


III. Sketch op the Present Condition of Our Rivers. 

(See map, plate VI.) 

i. The Ohio River Below Pittsburgh. 

At Pittsburgh, the two main rivers, Allegheny and Monongahela, 
unite to form the Ohio. As we shall see below, both the Allegheny 
and Monongahela are as badly polluted as they possibly could be, and, 
consequently, it is not astonishing that the Ohio immediately below 
Pittsburgh is also in a deplorable condition. In addition, it is 
dammed up, this "improvement" extending down to dam No. 6 
at Vanport (below Beaver) in Beaver County. Generally, there is 
not much life in this part of the Ohio. Fishes are found occasion- 
ally, during high water, due to some migration, probably from 
farther down the river, but even this has been rendered difficult or 
even impossible in consequence of the perfection of the dams (dam 
No. 6 was finished and put in operation toward the end of 1907). 
There are crawfishes in this part of the river, but they are disap- 
pearing fast. Unionidae have disappeared long ago. There was a 
colony of them in the left branch of the Ohio at Neville Island, 
Allegheny County, up to 1904; during that year, however, they died 
out, and in 1905 the last living one was found there. 

Farther down, below dam No. 6, conditions improve. This is a 
very interesting and important fact Although the Ohio collects 
most of the polluted water of the western section of the state, and 
although it is in a very bad condition below Pittsburgh, it loses its 
bad qualities, at least in part, about thirty miles farther down. 
Since there are only two important tributaries along this part of its 
course, Chartiers Creek and Beaver River, both of them also badly 
polluted, this improvement of the water cannot be due to dilution 
alone, but it is evident that some of the injurious substances in the 
water must be removed from it, and very probably by precipitation 
upon the bottom of the river. We shall observe indications of this 
process elsewhere, and shall discuss its significance below. Here it 
is sufficient to point out, that at present (1908) the condition of the 
Ohio below dam No. 6 is good or fair, life being not only possible, 
but abundant in it, all the way down to the state line at Smith's 


Ferry. This is shown first of all by the abundance of Unionidae 
in this part of the Ohio ; in fact, here are found the most favorable 
localities for them known to me in western Pennsylvania. It seems 
that in 1907 these conditions extended a certain distance farther up ; 
at any rate, in that year I found evidence of the presence of Union- 
idae in the Ohio at Beaver (the stage of the water was not low 
enough for proper investigation). But since the completion of dam 
No. 6 this is all over now, and if there should be life in the pool 
above dam No. 6 it will have disappeared by this time, at least 
most of it. 

Moreover, there are indications that the fauna in the Ohio below 
Vanport is already suffering. There are at least two tremendous 
banks, consisting chiefly of dead shells (with many living ones 
among them) in the river, one at Industry, the other at Shipping- 
port. Since dead shells are dissolved rather rapidly, these masses 
indicate a recent dying of mussels on a large scale. And further, 
it is very remarkable that among the living shells collected by myself 
there are hardly any young individuals. It seems to me that, while 
the old and tough ones (some of them probably ten years old and 
older) are able to stand the poor condition of the water, the latter 
is too much for young and delicate ones, so that there is no new 
generation growing up. This, of course, would be the first step 
toward the final destruction of the mussels in this part of the river, 
and the destruction of the other forms of life then will also be 
accomplished in due time. 

2. The Smaller Tributaries of the Ohio. 

There is a group of streams in Greene and Washington Counties, 
running westward through the panhandle of West Virginia into the 
Ohio. These are (from south to north): Pennsylvania Fork of 
Fish Creek, Wheeling Creek, Buffalo Creek, Cross Creek, Harmons 
Creek. They are all clear creeks, only Harmons Creek and Cross 
Creek are slightly polluted by mine water, but not much damage has 
been done yet. They are all rich in aquatic life. I have not visited 
Wheeling Creek in Pennsylvania, but I know it in West Virginia, 
above Elm Grove, near Wheeling, where it is in good condition. 

Raccoon Creek, which empties from the south into the Ohio 


below Vanport, is in very good condition for most of its length, 
only way up at its sources, in Washington County, it is slightly 
polluted by mine water. This creek used to be rich in all forms of 
life, and is yet so here and there, but, as has been said, its fish fauna 
has greatly suffered in consequence of illegal fishing. 

At the point where the Ohio leaves the state a very beautiful 
tributary flows into it from the north — Little Beaver Creek. This 
was, and partly is, a model stream with regard to all forms of fresh- 
water life. Yet in 1908 there were, in its upper parts, near New 
Galilee, in Beaver County, signs of pollution, in this case in conse- 
quence of new oil wells being drilled in the vicinity. Salt water 
and oil was discharged into the creek, and the fauna (chiefly the 
mussels) indicated distinctly the deteriorating effect by their dis- 
eased condition and by the frequency of shells which had died 
recently. This may be only a temporary effect, and if there is no 
additional pollution, conditions may remain favorable. 

Immediately below Pittsburgh, Chartiers Creek, coming from 
the south, empties into the Ohio. It is hopelessly polluted by the 
coal mines and oil refineries in Allegheny and Washington Counties. 
There is no life whatever in this creek : the last traces are known to 
have existed in it as late as 1900, when a few Unionidae were col- 
lected in it for the Carnegie Museum. The condition of Chartiers 
Creek is now beyond repair. 

3. The Beaver River Drainage. 

Beaver River flows into the Ohio from the north at Beaver, 
Beaver County. It is utterly polluted in its whole length, up to 
the point where it is formed by the confluence of Mahoning and 
Shenango rivers. The source of the pollution is situated on the 
Shenango River, along its last two miles, in and below Newcas- 
tle, Lawrence County. The steel mills and various other establish- 
ments furnish a tremendous amount of injurious refuse draining 
into the river, and rendering it entirely unfit for life. This state 
of affairs has been brought about during the last ten years, for in 
1898 the fauna of the river was very rich at Wampum, Lawrence 
County, as is shown by collections preserved in the Carnegie 


Connoquennessing Creek, flowing into the Beaver from the east, 
is another badly polluted stream. In this case there are various 
causes of pollution, but the chief one is the refuse from the glass 
works at Butler, Butler County. In the lower parts of Connoquen- 
nessing Creek traces of life are yet present, but in a few years every- 
thing will be gone. Above Butler, the creek is in a fair condition. 
Of its tributaries, Glade Run is polluted by oil well products. Brush 
Creek is good, and also Slipperyrock Creek in its lower course. 
The latter is an example of the natural clearing of the water, for in 
its upper parts, in northern Butler County, it is in a very bad con- 
dition, polluted by mine water. In this case dilution of the pollution 
apparently plays an important part, for at least two of its tributaries, 
Wolf and Muddy Creeks, are in good condition. In Wolf Creek the 
effect of plain sewage is distinctly seen by the fact that the fish- and 
mussel- fauna are favored by it — the Unionidae attain an unusual size 
just below the point where the sewage from Grove City, Mercer 
County, goes into the creek. 

Of the two rivers which form the Beaver, Mahoning River is, 
as has been shown by Leighton, 4 badly polluted in the state of Ohio 
at Alliance, Warren, Niles and Youngstown. Yet in Pennsylvania, 
in its lower parts, it is rich in life. We again have to deal here with 
the natural clearing process of the water. At Hillsville, where the 
Mahoning enters our state, it is in poor condition, yet there is some 
life. Then comes a dam at Edinburg, and below this dam condi- 
tions are much better. In fact, the fauna is rich, and continues so 
till the river joins the Shenango. In this case, there are no impor- 
tant tributaries along this stretch, and the clearing of the water 
cannot very well be attributed to dilution. 

The Shenango River above Newcastle is in good condition all 
the way up to its sources, and so are its tributaries, Neshannock 
Creek, Pymatuning Creek and Little Shenango River. Only at and 
below Sharon and Sharpsville, in Mercer County, some pollution 
goes into the Shenango from the steel mills, but it has not had much 
effect yet. However, the damage is bound to increase, and I am 
afraid in a few years the effect will be noticeable. At the present 

4 See Leighton, M. O., U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply and Irrigation 
Paper no. 79, 1903, p. 133- 


time these creeks are in splendid condition at many points, and this 
is preeminently the case, as regards the fish fauna, in Neshannock 

4. The Monongahelo Drainage. 

We may say that of the Monongahela drainage by far the great- 
est part is utterly polluted, chiefly by mine water. 5 The Monon- 
gahela and its chief tributary, the Youghiogheny, drain the most 
important coal regions of the state, and there are, in this whole 
region, only a few streams left which have clear water. They are 
the following : Ten Mile Creek and Dunkard Creek in Washington 
and Greene Counties, yet the South Branch of Ten Mile Creek 
became polluted in the spring of 1908 by the bursting of an oil pipe- 
line near Waynesburg, Greene County. Dunkard Creek is yet 
splendid in every respect. Cheat River is clear, but there are only 
two or three miles of it in the state, and on its right banks, at Cheat 
Haven, a small run empties into it, which brings a great amount of 
mine water from the coke-ovens at Atchinson, killing everything 
along its right banks. 6 

The Youghiogheny is in a fair condition above Connelsville, 
Fayette County, and Indian Creek, one of its tributaries, is very 
good (trout stream). However, the Youghiogheny has improved 
from Confluence down. For at this place it receives a badly pol- 
luted tributary, Casselman River, which brings mine water from the 
mines in southern Somerset County. The Youghiogheny above Con- 
fluence, south into Maryland, is very clear and pure. 

For the rest, all the more important creeks tributary to the 
Monongahela system, in Washington, Fayette and Westmoreland 
Counties, are polluted by mine water. This is especially true in the 
cases of George and Redstone Creeks, draining the Uniontown dis- 
trict, Jacobs Creek, coming from the Mount Pleasant and Scottdale 
mines, and, worst of all, Turtle Creek, with its tributary, Brush 
Creek, which drain the coal fields of Westmoreland County. 

i Leighton, ibid., p. 126 ff. This condition obtained already in 1898, see 
Rhoads, S. N., in Nautilus, 12, 1899, p. 133. 

•The condition of the Cheat below Parsons, Tucker Co., W. Va., is 
dreadful, it being polluted by the refuse from a wood pulp mill. But it 
improves farther down. 


5. The Allegheny Drainage. 

(a) The lower Allegheny, from Oil City and Franklin (Venango 
County) downward, is first badly polluted, then it improves, and is 
again polluted to a very considerable degree. The chief source of 
pollution are the oil refineries at Oil City and Franklin. The injurious 
substances discharged into the river at these two places are simply 
amazing, and render the river entirely unfit for life; for thirty miles 
and more below there is not a mussel, not a crawfish, nor a fish able 
to live in this water. Then a gradual improvement begins in south- 
ern Venango County (pond snails, Physa and Goniobasis are pres- 
ent, also crawfishes begin to appear), and in northern Armstrong 
County conditions become almost normal. In spite of some addi- 
tional pollution going into the river at Kittanning and Ford City 
(china factories), the good condition continues down to the point 
where the Kiskiminetas River discharges its mine water into the 
Allegheny from the left side. This destroys life on the left banks 
of the Allegheny, but conditions continue favorable on the right 
banks into Allegheny County, till we reach Natrona and Tarentum. 
Here additional pollution comes in in the shape of salt water (salt 
works at Natrona) and the refuse of various mills, and this goes 
on all along the river down to where it unites with the Monongahela 
at Pittsburgh. Here the Allegheny is utterly polluted, and we have 
here possibly the greatest variety of pollution of any of the streams 
in the state. 7 

(6) The Smaller Tributaries of the Lower Allegheny River. — 
Of the following smaller tributaries of the lower Allegheny, the 
condition is known to the writer. On the right side, Pine Creek, 
in Allegheny County, is polluted more or less, chiefly by oil wells, 
but its headwaters are in a fair condition. Deer Creek and Bull 
Creek are rather good. Buffalo Creek, running along the boundary 
line of Butler and Armstrong Counties, is in very good condition, 
and contains an abundance of life. On the left side is Puketta 
Creek, forming the boundary of Allegheny and Westmoreland 
Counties, which also is in rather good condition. 

(c) The Kiskiminetas Drainage. — As has been stated above, the 

7 See Leighton, M. O., /. c, p. 122. 


Kiskiminetas River, at its point of union with the Allegheny, is in 
a fearful condition, the pollution consisting chiefly of mine water 
from the extensive coal regions of Westmoreland, Indiana, Cambria 
and Somerset Counties. In fact, we may say, that in almost all of 
the drainage basin of the Kiskiminetas fresh-water life is extinct. 8 
For the main stream, the Kiskiminetas-Conemaugh, this is true for 
its whole length, from above Johnstown in Cambria County down- 
ward. The Loyalhanna River from Latrobe downward is even 
worse than the Conemaugh. Black Lick Creek and its tributaries, 
Two Lick and Yellow Creeks, in Indiana County, are also polluted, 
and so is Stony Creek in Somerset County. There are, in the whole 
Kiskiminetas drainage, only very few streams possessing clear 
water and a tolerably well preserved fauna. In Westmoreland 
County we have a small stream, Beaver Run, which is good, and the 
Loyalhanna River above Latrobe contains a rich fauna. In Indiana 
County Blacklegs Run and the upper parts of Two Lick and Yellow 
Creeks are in good condition ; in the lower part of Yellow Creek the 
fauna was destroyed during 1908. A mine had been opened in 1907 
above Homer City, and the mine water discharged into the creek 
did its deadly work in the summer of 1908, when the stage of the 
water for the first time after the opening of the mine became so 
low that the concentration of the pollution was great enough to kill 
the fauna. On July 23, 1908, the writer personally witnessed the 
actual destruction of the fauna, and the number of dead and dying 
fishes seen in Yellow Creek at Homer City was perfectly appalling. 

Clear tributaries of the Conemaugh are found in the valley 
between Chestnut Ridge and Laurel Hill: Tub Mill Run, for in- 
stance, near New Florence, is very good (trout stream). As has 
been said, Stony Creek, in Somerset County, is polluted. Of its 
tributaries, at least one is in good condition: Quemahoning Creek; 
others have not been investigated, but probably there are more clear 
streams, chiefly among the headwaters coming down from Laurel 
Hill and Allegheny Front. 

(d) The Great Eastern Tributaries of the Allegheny. — There are 

• This is very deplorable in view of the fact that for several fresh species, 
described by Professor Cope, the Kiskiminetas is the type-locality. No 
topotypes can be secured any more. 


a number of important tributaries, running about parallel to each 
other from the east to the west into the Allegheny. These are 
(from south to north): Crooked Creek, Mahoning Creek, 9 Red 
Bank-Sandy Lick Creek and Clarion River. Crooked Creek is 
good, indeed, one of the best creeks in the state, yet in the region 
of its headwaters pollution begins. Near Creekside, Indiana County, 
new mines have been opened during the last years, and a small 
tributary discharges here a considerable amount of mine water into 
Crooked Creek, killing the fauna for several miles. Of course this 
is bound to become worse in the future. Mahoning Creek is utterly 
polluted, the pollution beginning in the region of Punxsutawney in 
Jefferson County, and consisting chiefly of mine water. Yet a tribu- 
tary, Little Mahoning Creek in northern Indiana County, has clear 
water, and correspondingly a rich fauna. Red Bank-Sandy Lick 
Creek also is polluted, chiefly by mine water, which reaches it from 
the numerous mines existing in its drainage basin. Clarion River 
possibly is one of the worst streams in the state. In the region of 
its headwaters, in Elk County, it is not mine water, but the refuse 
of various establishments, such as wood-pulp mills, tanneries, chem- 
ical factories (Elk Creek), which renders the water unfit for life, 
and finally Toby Creek, emptying into it in the southwestern portion 
of Elk County, adds its share in the form of mine water. The 
water of Clarion River, in this region, is black like ink, and retains 
its peculiar color all the way down to where it empties into the 
Allegheny (at Foxburg) ; here the deep blackish brown color of the 
Clarion River water contrasts sharply with the bluish green water 
of the Allegheny River. 

(e) French Creek Drainage. — In contrast to most of the streams 
mentioned so far, French Creek and its tributaries are generally 
clear and possess a wonderfully rich fauna. In fact, this region is 
one of the best collecting grounds for all forms of fresh- water life. 
French Creek is fed by several streams draining some of our glacial 
lakes — Conneaut Lake in Crawford County, and Conneauttee Lake 
and Lake Lebceuf in Erie County. Also these have clear water and 
a rich fauna. 

(/) The Upper Allegheny. — Above Oil City, Venango County, 

• Not to be confounded with Mahoning River in Lawrence County. 


the Allegheny itself is clear, and also forms a fine collecting ground 
for the zoologist. This is especially true for the fish fauna and the 
fauna of fresh-water mollusks. This good condition continues up 
to the New York state line in Warren County. Of the tributaries, 
Oil Creek is badly polluted at Oil City, where it falls into the Alle- 
gheny, but it is pure at its headwaters. The intermediate parts have 
not been studied by the writer, so that he cannot name the exact 
spot where the pollution begins. It is due chiefly to oil refineries. 
Tionesta Creek, in Forest County, is polluted by chemical refuse, at 
least where it enters the Allegheny; the upper parts have not been 
investigated. Brokenstraw Creek, in Warren County, is in a fair con- 
dition, but it belongs to the class of streams which improve during 
their course : its headwaters are polluted by refuse from tanneries at 
Cory in Erie County. Connewango Creek, in Warren County, which 
brings the outflow of Chautauqua Lake in New York, is good. The 
headwaters of the Allegheny in McKean and Potter Counties are 
generally good, but there are some tributaries which are polluted, for 
instance, Potato Creek, in McKean County (polluted by chemical 
factories). Where Potato Creek falls into the Allegheny it is in a 
very bad condition, but its size is not sufficient to influence the 
Allegheny noticeably. 

6. The Lake Erie Drainage. 
Of course Lake Erie itself is clear, and contains a rich fauna. 10 
In our state there are rather insignificant streams draining into the 
lake, and they all have pure water, and, as far as they have been 
examined, a well-preserved fauna. The largest is. Conneaut Creek, 
in Crawford and Erie Counties, which has been investigated at sev- 
eral places by the writer, and found to be in good condition. The 
only other streams known to the writer are Elk and Walnut Creeks, 
in Erie County, which are also good. 

7. The Potomac and Susquehanna Drainages. 
Only the headwaters of these streams or their tributaries are 
situated in western Pennsylvania, and the investigations of the 
writer are not very extensive in this region. 

"Our knowledge of the Lake Erie fauna is deplorably poor, chiefly so 
with reference to the Pennsylvania shores. 


Wills Creek, in southern Bedford County, flowing to the Potomac 
is clear, but it becomes polluted by mine water farther down, at Mt. 
Savage Junction in Maryland. 11 Several of the headwaters of the 
Juniata River, in Blair County, chiefly in the region of Altoona and 
Tyrone, are polluted by industrial establishments. 12 The headwaters 
of the West Branch of the Susquehanna and Clearfield Creek, in 
Cambria and Clearfield Counties, are generally polluted by mine 
water, 18 but there are some clear tributaries. A rather good one is 
Cush-Cushion Creek, in Indiana County. The latter fact is very 
important, for it is the point of the Susquehanna system which is 
most advanced in a westerly direction, and marks the most western 
extension o # f the Atlantic fresh-water fauna in our state, and it may 
be said here that Cush-Cushion Creek indeed contains a pure At- 
lantic fauna, which is in sharp contrast to the western fauna present 
in some of the tributaries of the Allegheny in the same (Indiana) 
county, Little Mahoning, Crooked, Two Lick and Yellow Creeks. 


The sketch given above of the present condition of our streams 
and their fauna is sufficient to give an idea of the tremendous damage 
done in recent times to our fresh-water fauna. Considering the 
fact that most of this destruction has been accomplished during the 
last twenty years ; that it is going on continually, and that every year 
new stretches of the rivers, new creeks are added to the list of the 
polluted waters, conditions are indeed alarming. I think a glance 
upon the map accompanying this paper will tell more than any 
words possibly could. 

It is not for the writer to suggest remedies, yet two conclusions 
are forced upon him. The first is, that with regard to the improve- 
ment of the fish-fauna, which is attempted by the State Fish Commis- 

11 See Parker, H. N., Water Supply and Irrigation Paper no. 192, 1907, 
p. 219. 

u The quality of the water was poor already in 1904, see Leighton, M. O., 
in Water Supply and Irrigation Paper no. 108, 1904, p. 65. 

u Leighton (ibid., pp. 56 and 57) gives in 1904 a rather favorable report 
on the quality of the headwaters of the West Branch of the Susquehanna 
(chiefly with regard to drinking purposes). Apparently this has changed 
to the worse during the last four years. 


sion by way of restocking our rivers with game and food fishes, this 
is a useless undertaking in all those streams which are polluted. 
Any fishes set free in such waters will not live, or will not stay 
there, if they can. The other suggestion is furnished by the fact, 
repeatedly mentioned above, that a river, badly polluted at a certain 
point, improves in its further course, provided no additional pollu- 
tion in great quantities is reaching it. 14 This is seen first of all in 
the Ohio itself in Beaver County, and further in the Allegheny in 
Armstrong County. Additional examples are Slipperyrock Creek, 
Mahoning River (Lawrence County), Raccoon Creek, Brokenstraw 
Creek, Cheat River. This improvement of the waters, of course, is 
partly due to the dilution of the injurious substances by the addition 
of clear water from tributaries. But it seems as if this is not the 
only source of the improvement. In the case of the Allegheny in 
Armstrong County, the main tributaries (Clarion, Red Bank, Ma- 
honing) themselves are polluted, and the other tributaries are very 
insignificant in comparison with the size of the Allegheny. This is 
also seen in the Mahoning River in Lawrence County, which hardly 
has any tributaries along its course, where the improvement takes 
place. I think the precipitation of the injurious substances to the 
bottom plays an important part here. We always have, in polluted 
streams, some sort of precipitate upon the bottom, most noticeable 
in streams charged with mine water, where it consists of sulphate 
of iron," and, consequently, the injurious element must be elimi- 
nated, at least to some degree, from the water. This observation 
suggests a natural remedy — if we could prevent the water charged 
with polluting substances from reaching our streams directly, that 
is to say, if we could arrange it that this water is kept in basins or 
reservoirs for some time, till it has gone through this natural clearing 
process, and if we allowed only the overflow of these clearing basins 
to reach our rivers, that is to say, the most superficial strata, which 
contain the smallest amount of polluting substances, 16 I think this 

14 See Stabler, Water Supply and Irrigation Paper no. 186, 1906, p. 28. 

"See Leighton, /. c, p. 24. 

"Of course, the oil from the oil wells floats on the surface, but this 
floating oil does not do much damage. It is well known that before the 
discovery of oil in these parts, the Allegheny was famous for the oil floating 
upon its surface. 


would improve conditions considerably. The presence of dams in 
our rivers or creeks furnishes, to a certain degree, the conditions 
required for such clearing basins, and we have observed instances 
(Mahoning River at Edinburg, Lawrence County), where such a 
dam actually improves the river to a considerable degree. This is 
also the case, although not so strikingly, with dam No. 6 in the Ohio 
River. But the trouble is these dams improve the water after much 
damage has been done already, and are injurious in other respects 
(see above). 

This much, however, should be clear — unless we improve the 
quality of the water of our rivers, it is impossible to bring back the 
original condition of their fauna, and attempts to restore our nat- 
ural resources with regard to the fish fauna, by restocking our pol- 
luted streams with fish, will be labor and money thrown away. 

Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 191 

Plate VI 



The Rice Institute, Houston, Texas. 

(Read April 23, 1909.) 

The object of the following note is fourfold: first, to determine 
all the problems of three bodies in which the bodies describe conic 
sections, under central conservative forces, whatever be the initial 
conditions of the motion; second, to specialize the preceding solu- 
tions, so as to single out those in which the force-function contains 
only the masses of the bodies and their mutual distances; third, 
to generalize the latter group to the case in which the orbits are 
the most arbitrary possible; fourth to generalize the last to the 
case in which the functions defining the orbits appear in the poten- 
tial function. 

1. If three given particles (r lf 1 ;m 1 ) 9 (r 2 ,0 2 ;m 2 ), (r M ,0 M ;m M ) 
describe, under central censervative forces, three given coplanar 
curves whose equations in polar coordinates referred to the center 
of gravity of the system are 

(0 /i('i,*i)=o, / 2 (r 2 ,0 2 )=o, / 8 (r 8 ,0 8 )=o, 

the forces are derived from a potential function which may be 
written in the form 1 

'' IMF ' 


1 On employing the usual substitutions the form given follows immediately 
from Oppenheim's solution in rectangular coordinates. See his memoir in 
the third volume of the Publications of the von Kuffner Observatory. 




where c is the constant in the integral of areas, that is, 

(3) '-Z>itf^- 

In case the orbits are described independently of the initial condi- 
tions, Oppenheim has remarked that it must be possible to throw the 
function P into the form 

(4) P = Pi + h, 

where h is a constant independent of the parameters which enter 
P l ; if such a decomposition of P is impossible, the motion takes 
place only for special values of the initial constants. 

When the orbits are conic sections the equations (i) become 

(5) /<( r *> *<)= r *i( A i cos 2 $i + 2Hi sin 4 cos t 

-fSi sin 2 $i)+2u(Gi cos 0« -f F< sin $i) — C« = o, (»= I, 2, 3.) 

If the corresponding functions 

d Ii r 5 A l d A 

dr ( ' r *dr t l r.dd. 
are constructed, and substituted in the form (2) the latter becomes 

tm i {(H^A£^ + 2[(H^ i ^B i G i )cose i 

(6) qJ " HHfir-Aft sin 6 i+ F?+ <? +(4,+*«)Q 

{ Z *,[(<?« cos 6. + F. sin 0.)r. - CJ J* 

this is the most general form of potential function giving rise to 
conic section trajectories in the problem of three bodies under central 
conservative forces. 
2. From the relations 

(7) mitnjpif = mi(nti + m^u 2 + m^m* -f m^rf — tn k 2 r k 2 , 

ijk= 123,231,312, 

where pa is the distance between the bodies (u, Oil Wi) and 
(?h 9*\ w»/ ), it follows that if Q is to be a function of the masses 
and mutual distances alone we must have 

(8) Fi = Gi = o, (1=1,2,3). 


If in addition we have 

H? — A l B l = ff t s — AJB t — H* — A S B S — some constant, 



the function Q may be written 


(io) = *E *y/ + <*>Vi T5— " & + *• 


Finally, no noting that the equations (7) lead to the relation 

(11) (Em i )£mrf-M l ™fJ + f*Mn+"Vhl>u> 

we have Q x in the well-known form 


(12) (2j - -3 (0Wu + «y% ! + *Wsi*)> 

which is thus made to appear as the unique case of conic section 
orbits for all initial conditions under forces varying as the masses 
and a function of the mutual distances. 

It may be observed here parenthetically that if a similar study 
be made for the cubic a first condition will be found to demand that 
the orbits be defined by equations of the form 

(13) Qixf + 3&<^i 2 y« — 30iXiyi 2 — 6«;y«» — d = o, (i = 1, 2, 3) ; 

the remaining analysis of the problem offers no difficulty. 
3. Writing 

(14) J5-* % r v { , 

the function (2) becomes 

(15) j±* l (» l i + ^)/{±w,} , ; 


considering the case in which 

/t6^ ** ^ -'-I m — ^ 

we find immediately that 

(17) u t -±*, v'-rfy-f*; 

and on subjecting these values of Ui and Vi to the condition of in- 
tegrability we have the following relations 

(18) ri 2 4>i — ^i f = some constant, say A* 2 , (t= 1, 2, 3), 

connecting the functions £4 and ^4. The construction of the func- 
tions defined by the equations (17) and (18) is effected directly by 
a simple integration which yields the result that under forces derived 
from the potential function 

(,) *-&*(*p)/{M- 

three arbitrary masses mi describe the respective orbits 

(20) ft&dr t -±\fi t + p v («-i.2,3) 

where the function ^4 is absolutely arbitrary, and the quantities A4, m 
are any two constants. 

In virtue of the relations (7) the function R contains only the 
masses and mutual distances of the bodies, further, on writing the 
function ^i 2 in the form 

(21 ) ^i* = aiu* + «<('<)» 

where m is an arbitrary function and an any constant, it is evident 
that R can be written in the form (4) ; whence it follows that the 
three bodies under forces derived from (19) describe orbits of the 
form (20) whatever be the initial conditions of the motion of the 


4. In order to generalize certain of the preceding results further, 
let us write the equations of the orbits thus 

(22) *<m /<(*«,?<)— c< = o, (1=1,2,3) 

and the potential function as follows : 

{23) P- ~ g «/A f + ^/[g m k*iPi + JW«)] . 

the axes being rectangular about the center of gravity of the system 
as origin. 

Let us consider now the case in which we have 

(24) J A , § , ^ N rf^xf + yi* (1=1,2,3), 

from these it at once follows that 

ri 2 qi=yifi: 

(25) i . . (t=I,2,3) 

The condition of integrability applied to (25) gives 


an equation whose integration determines <£i when ^i is given, and 

(a) In case the functions <£« and fi contain only r« the equation 
(26) becomes 

<27) £W*« -**")-<>. 

that is to say, it takes the form (18). Accordingly the equations 
(25) assume the simpler forms 

(28) n 2 pi = xtfi ± \iy if rfqt = y^ zp kiX if 

whence, by integration, the orbits (20) reappear. 

(&) Let <f>i be a function only of r« and ^i a function of n&u 


where n« is an arbitrary constant ; then the condition (26) becomes 

(29) r, j 2*/A - *: WW } " °> ('- '• 2 ' 3), 

from which we conclude that 

(30) +,-*v*-«>, 

<m being any constant. The expressions (25) in this case assume the 


VA =F xy*?r*«-" - *X 


The determination of the form of £4 from the equations (31) can 
be affected perhaps most simply in *the following manner : That ^< 
is a function only of n&i amounts to saying that 

(32) *< = X V<(x)> 

substituting the partial derivatives of this function in one or the 
other of the expressions (31) we obtain the following equation : 

(33) ± A^ ,} -"/*«'- ««*/«- ( * +50//' 
whence we have the ordinary differential equation 


(34) //-g^Kf/,* A^+ i)--*«V?}. ft-^. 

The integration of the latter equation may. be facilitated by the 

(35) 2v< = n<log(£< 2 + i), 

under which (34) takes the form 

(36) £ -/1 ± f!3 W«* - «W 

1,^1 _ 1 

Putting now 
(37) «/*/<*/" = sin *o 



the equation (36) 



*« + » . 

<&, / Is 



that is 



(40) /1 - J (ft 1 + 0" *!(!•! tan- 1 ft + /S,); 


or finally the equations of the orbits become 

(40 ^sin(*£. + £.) = 7 ,-; 

the corresponding form of the force- function may be written down 

without difficulty. 

If we note that for three equal masses the relations (7) squared 

(42) pa 4 = 4(u 4 + r/) + r k 4 , ijk = 123, 231, 312, 

we see that the solution (41) for n = 3 is also a solution of the 
problem of three equal masses under forces varying as the masses 
and the cube of the distance. 

(c) Let </>i contain both Zi and u, while tj/i is a function only of 
*<*i ; the condition (26) becomes 

(43) 2(1 - *.)<fc + n % sxf> igi + rAf> iri =0; (f - I, 2, 3); 
whence it appears that fa must have one of the forms 

in case «i is unity an arbitrary additive constant may be appended 
to each of these forms. Since $« and ^« are arbitrary functions we 
have here an infinitude of problems. Considering the second of the 
forms (32) a little further, the equations (25) become in this case 



and if in particular the symbol ¥ indicates the square we have 


rfqt = Si(tHyi qp Xi V 1 — »< 8 ) ; 

from which we conclude that the orbits are represented by the equa- 

(47) r ;^* JI=*+* - 7if (,' - 1 , 2, 3). 

(d) The case in which each of the functions <f>i and fa contains 
both variables u and Z\ leads to a multitude of problems in which 
these functions are subject to the single conditions 

(48) r, [2*,(i - * <% ) + r& in + *,*, J - 2+& iri - o. 
00 H 

where a* an arbitrary constant, o>< an arbitrary function, the inte- 
gration follows a course parallel to that pursued under (&) above, 
and leads to complicated transcendental equations for the determina- 
tion of the corresponding orbits. 

February 25, 1909. 





By T. J. J. SEE. 
(Read April 23, 1909) 

In No. 4308 of the Astronomische Nochrichten (February, 1909) 
it is proved that the mode of formation of the solar system has been 
very different from that heretofore imagined by astronomers. It 
will, therefore, be of decided interest to physicists and geologists, as 
well as to astronomers and mathematicians, to consider the bearing 
of this new work upon the past history of the earth. If we could 
certainly recognize the general process by which the solar system 
was formed, it would of course follow that the earth, as one of the 
inner planets of that system, originated in the same way, and much 
new light might be thrown upon the problems of the physics of 
the globe. 

The investigation outlined in the Astronomische Nochrichten, 
No. 4308, was undertaken for astronomical purposes only, and was 
therefore in no way biased by other considerations. And since the 
new method is accurate and conclusive, so as to demonstrate with 
all rigor the actual processes involved in the formation of our sys- 
tem, it becomes peculiarly valuable in throwing light upon the past 
history of the earth. In fact this new theory gives the only accurate 
and reliable data that we have on the subject, and it is difficult to 
see where other data of equal trustworthiness could be obtained. 
We shall therefore first summarize the process by which the solar 
system was formed, as shown by the researches in astronomy, and 
then apply this general theory to the past history of our particular 

Though Laplace was the greatest master of celestial mechanics 
since Newton, and formulated the nebular hypothesis as the culmi- 
nation of his researches on the dynamics of our system, yet it was 




[April 23, 

Table Showing the Application of Babinet's Criterion to the Planets 

and Satellites when the Sun and Planets are Expanded to 

Fill the Orbits of the Bodies Revolving About Them. 

Solar System. 



The Sun's Observed 
Time of Rotation. 

Observed Period of 

Time of Sun's Rotation 

Calculated by Babinet'a 




The earth 







25.3 days 
= 0.069267 yrs. 

a 24085 yrs. 

0.61237 " 

1.00000 " 

1.88085 " 

4.60345 " 

11.86 " 

29.46 " 

84.02 •' 

164.78 " 

479 7". 
1673 « 

3102 " 

7424 " 

24487 " 

86560 « 

290962 " 

II 76765 " 

2888533 " 







; Adopted Rotation of 

Obsenred Period of 

Time of Planet's Ro- 
tation Calculated by 
Babinet's Criterion. 

The earth 

The moon 

I day 

27.32166 days 

3632.45 days 



24 h . 62297 

7.6542 hours 

190.62 hours 


30.2983 " 

1193.52 " 



9 h .928 

n.9563 " 

64.456 hours 


1.7698605 days 

14.60 days 


3.5540942 " 

35900 " 


7.1663872 " 

93-933 " 


16.7535524 " 

290.63 " 


250.618 " 

10768.8 " 


265.0 " 

1 1602.4 " 



61997. 1 " 


Inner edge of ring 


0.236 •' 

0.6228 days 

Outer edge of ring 

0.6456 " 

2.383 " 


0.94242 ** 

4.2902 4 « 


1.37022 " 
1.887796 " 

7.0615 " 


10.822 " 


2.736913 " 

17.751 " 


4.517500 « 

34.620 " 
186.05 " 


15.945417 " 


21.277396 " 

273.06 " 


79329375 " 

1580. 1 " 



20712 " 



!O h .III2 

(Cf. A. N„ 3992) 

2.520383 " 

33714 " 


4.144181 " 

65.435 " 


8.705897 " 

176.05 " 


13.463269 « 

314.83 " 



I2 h .848i7 

5.87690 " 

141.8 " 

(Cf. A. N., 3992) 


reserved for Babinet of Paris to point out 1 a rigorous mechanical 
law which enables the mathematician to test the nebular hypothesis. 
Nevertheless, Laplace himself constantly uses the same principle, in 
the law of the conservation of areas, though he does not apply it to 
the development of our system. The principle involved is that of 
the constancy of the moment of momentum of axial rotation. Ac- 
cording to this law, we have 

C mm £ mr*a> =» a>E,ntr* — *£*»*, ( I ) 

where r is the radius of the rotating globe, o> the angular velocity of 
rotation, and C a constant; while i> and «' are the corresponding 
quantities at some other epoch. Thus at any two epochs, however 
much the freely rotating globe may have changed by contraction or 
expansion, we always have 

*'?* = <**. (2) 

By taking accurate values of the radii and rotation-periods of 
the sun and planets as now observed, we may calculate the corre- 
sponding rotation-periods when the globes are imagined expanded 
to fill the orbits of the planets and satellites. The accompanying 
table gives the most important data for the solar system. 2 

It will be found from this table that the sun would have rotated 
with extreme slowness if it had been expanded to the orbits of the 
several planets, and the planets also would have rotated very slowly 
if they had been expanded to fill the orbits of their satellites. 
The difference between the observed periods of revolution and the 
calculated periods of rotation is so great that we readily see that the 
planets could never have been detached from the sun, and the satel- 
lites could never have been detached from the planets, by accelera- 
tion of rotation as imagined by Laplace. It is evident, therefore, 
that all of these bodies have been captured or added from without, 
and have had their orbits reduced in size and rounded up under the 
secular action of the nebular resisting medium formerly pervading 
the planetary system. 

Ever since the time of Laplace it has been believed that our 

1 Comptes Rendus, Tome 52, p. 481, March 18, 1861. 
'Cf. Astron. Nachr., no. 4308. 


system was formed from a nebula, and to-day we know that this 
nebula was of the spiral type, due to the automatic coiling up under 
mutual gravitation of two or more streams of cosmical dust Wher- 
ever such streams meet, or pass near one another, there is developed 
a cosmical vortex, with rotation about a center, and a definite mo- 
ment of momentum about an axis. This is due to the fact that the 
impact is never central, but always unsymmetrical, and thus gives 
rise to a rotation. 

The two or more streams which meet continue to wind up, under 
the effects of mutual gravitation, and thus we have the different 
observed types of spiral nebulae. The nebula continues to rotate 
and the coils are drawn closer and closer together, and the whole 
mass slowly settles towards its center. The planets, which are 
formed by the agglomeration of cosmical dust in the convolutions 
of the nebula, revolve constantly in the surrounding nebular medium. 
As the planetary bodies grow by the gathering in of the cosmical 
dust in which they revolve their orbits are reduced in size and 
rounded up under the secular action of the resisting medium. 

It is shown by this line of inquiry, and especially by the round- 
ness of Neptune's orbit, that our system extends much beyond Nep- 
tune ; and that the orbits now observed to have a round form were 
originally much larger and also much more eccentric than they are 
now seen to be. It is impossible to determine definitely how much 
the orbits have been reduced in size, but owing to the almost total 
obliteration of the eccentricity, it seems certain that they were origi- 
nally two or three times larger than they are now. 

Moreover, it is proved that in a resisting medium of given den- 
sity the secular effect is proportionally greater on a small planet 
than on a large one. This is owing to the fact that the mass, and 
therefore the moment of momentum, is proportional to the cube of 
the planet's radius, but the surface, and therefore the resistance of 
the medium, proportional to the square of the radius; so that the 
changes in the orbit of a small body are greater than in that of a 
large body in the inverse ratio of the radius, for masses of the same 
mean density. 

Accordingly it follows that small planets, such as the asteroids 
or inner planets were at a former epoch, when revolving in a 


nebula, have a tendency to settle towards the center more rapidly 
than large planets. In our system the asteroids have been gathered 
into their present position partly by the effects of resistance, and 
partly by the disturbing action of Jupiter, which throws them into 
the stable region wkhin his orbit. When the paths of the asteroids 
cross his orbit, the motion is shown to be unstable, and therefore 
such overlapping orbits are temporary and not permanent. 

It follows, therefore, that the orbit of the earth was originally 
much larger and much more eccentric than at present. The earth 
may have begun to form almost as far away as Jupiter's orbit, or 
even beyond it. In time the primordial earth was thrown within 
that orbit, where the asteroids now revolve. Thus the earth re- 
volved in safety and continued to grow by gathering up more and 
more cosmical dust. The history of Mars was similar. The major 
axis of the orbit was decreased by the effects of resistance, and at 
the same time the eccentricity steadily diminished, till we have the 
planets as they are to-day. This is as certain as anything can be, 
and it throws an interesting light on the past history of our earth. 
While the information thus given us is meager, it is, so far as I 
know, our only means of fathoming the mystery which has always 
surrounded the origin of our planet. 

We may therefore say that in the beginning the earth was a 
small body like one of the asteroids; it then revolved in a much 
larger and more eccentric orbit than at present, and was augmented 
gradually by the sweeping up of cosmical dust in its ceaseless motion 
around the sun. In general, this process of building up the earth 
was excessively slow, though at times the motion through streams 
may have given larger additions of matter; but the full process may 
have occupied a billion years. Of course, geological history began 
only after the earth had attained about its present dimensions. And 
the study of the crust of the globe shows that no large additions 
to the matter of our planet have been made since geological history 
began. The sedimentary rocks are not filled with any considerable 
amount of meteoric matter precipitated from the heavenly spaces. 

From these considerations it follows that the earth was built 
up very gradually by accretion; and that this growth took place 
because our globe was revolving in a resisting medium made up of 



fine cosmical dust. In the later periods of the earth's history, the 
medium has been so rare that but little matter has been added to 
our globe; so that not only is the whole history very long, but the 
latter part longer than the earlier part, as measured by the accretion 
then going on. In other words, the accretion now taking place is 
so slow as to give us by calculation, based on the observed rate, an 
exorbitant age of the earth ; while that once going on was so large 
as to give too short a duration for the genesis of our planet. All 
estimates on the age of the earth must therefore be subject to a 
wide margin of uncertainty. But we may feel entirely confident 
that we have at length recognized the true process by which the 
earth was formed. 

There is, however, a modifying cause which should be taken 
into account, in our final judgment of the process involved. It 
cannot be assumed that the sun was of its present mass at the start; 
on the contrary, we must suppose this mass to have steadily in- 
creased. The result of the augmentation of the sun's mass would 
be a decrease in the length of the year. Thus while the resisting 
medium reduced the major axis and eccentricity of the planetary 
orbits, the growth of the sun's mass also shortened the periodic 
times, without, however, decreasing the mean distance of these 
masses to any appreciable extent. 8 

In the actual history of our system, these two causes have there- 
fore conspired together and the results now observed must be 
ascribed to both causes combined. If we wish to inquire at what 
rate a change of a given percentage in the sun's mass would affect 
the length of the year, we may proceed as follows. By a well known 
law for circular motion we have 

M + m = ^ r -. (3) 

If we differentiate this expression, considering M and t alone to be 
variable, we shall get 

dM(P) + (M + tn)2tdt = o, 

dM _ 2dt . 

M + m~ t ' U> 

•Cf. Laplace, "Mecanique Celeste," Liv. X., Chap. VII., §21. 


This simple expression shows that a change of a given percentage 
in M produces a contrary change half as large in /. In other words, 
if the sun's mass be increased by one per cent., the length of the 
year will thereby be decreased by two per cent. Thus in the lapse 
of ages the augmentation of the sun's mass may have shortened 
the periods of the planets very materially; and this would slightly 
decrease their mean distances, as in the case of the resisting 
medium. Nevertheless, a gradual change in the sun's mass would 
not affect the eccentricity as it does the major axis. 

Accordingly the small size and round form of the planetary 
orbits must be explained mainly by the secular effects of the resist- 
ing medium formerly pervading our system. And as the earth has 
been formed by accretion, and not at all by detachment from the 
sun, as supposed by Laplace, it follows that the matter of the globe 
is essentially of the same character throughout. For we have else- 
where shown that friction and resistance to motion in the body of 
our globe would prevent the heavier elements from separating 
from the lighter ones. So that the old theories which ascribe an 
iron nucleus to the earth must be given up as unjustifiable and mis- 
leading. And the increase of density, rigidity, and temperature 
towards the center is due principally to the pressure of the super- 
incumbent matter upon the layers confined within. It is this pres- 
sure which gives the globe its great effective rigidity. If the pres- 
sure were relieved, the imprisoned matter, which now behaves as 
solid, would expand as vapor, owing to the high temperature still 
existing within the globe. 

U. S. Naval Observatory, 
Mare Island, California, 
April 5, 1909. 



Euler's Remarks on the Secular Effects of the Resisting 

Medium upon the Orbital Motion of the Earth, and 

on the Origin of the Planets at a Great 

Distance from the Sun. 

In view of the results briefly indicated in Astronomische Nach- 
ricten, No. 4308, and of the paramount part played by the resisting 
medium in shaping the orbits of the planets and satellites, as well 
as the orbits of the attendant bodies in other cosmical systems 
observed in the immensity of space, some remarks of the celebrated 
Leonard Euler are of much interest to contemporary astronomers 
and mathematicians. These remarks are included in the Philosoph- 
ical Transactions of the Royal Society for 1749, pp. 141-142, under 
the title: "Part of a Letter from Leonard Euler, Professor of 
Mathematics at Berlin and F.R.S., to the Rev. Mr. Caspar Wetstein, 
Chaplain to the Prince of Wales, dated, Berlin, June 28, 1749; read 
November 2, 1749." And this is followed by a similar extract from 
a second letter to Wetstein, dated, Berlin, December 20, 1749, read 
March 1, 1750. 

The views of Euler here set forth are very remarkable not only 
for the insight they show into the mechanism of the heavenly 
motions, but also into the true mode of origin of our solar system. 
It must be remembered that, in reaching these views on cosmogony, 
Euler preceded both Kant (1755) and Laplace (1796), and that he 
was the first mathematician since Newton to consider the secular 
effects of a resisting medium. His views on the origin of the 
planets are therefore free from every possible prejudice, and the 
direct outcome of the continued action of forces which he believed 
to be operative in the heavenly spaces. 

Newton seems to have held that the spaces where the planets 
move are essentially as devoid of matter as a vacuum. This is 
expressly stated in first paragraph of the General Scholium to the 
" Principia." Yet he may have believed that some waste matter is 
diffused in the celestial spaces, for in the paragraph just before the 
General Scholium, he says : 


The vapors which arise from the sun, the fixed stars, and the tails of the 
comets may meet at last with, and fall into, the atmosphere of the planets 
by their gravity. 

Cheseaux was the first to express the view that the heavenly 
spaces are not perfectly transparent, but that light suffers a certain 
amount of absorption or extinction in passing over great distances. 
(Cf. L. de Cheseaux, " Traite de la Comete qui a paru en 1743 et 
1744," 8°, Lusanne & Geneva, 1744, p. 223.) This account of 
Cheseaux was written five years before the promulgation of Euler's 
views, and it is uncertain to what extent, if at all, Newton and 
Cheseaux had influenced Euler in reaching the conclusion that the 
planets suffer resistance in their motion about the sun. 

The extracts from Euler's letters are as follows : 

1. First Letter: 

XXII. Monsieur le Monnier writes to me that there is, at Leyden, an 
Arabkk manuscript of Ibn Jounis (if I am not mistaken in the name, for it 
is not distinctly written in the letter), which contains a history of Astro- 
nomical observations. M. le Monnier says, that he insisted strongly on 
publishing a good translation of that book. And as such a work would 
contribute much to the improvement of Astronomy, I should be glad to see 
it published. I am very impatient to see such a work which contains obser- 
vations, that are not so old as those recorded by Ptolemy. For having 
carefully examined the modern observations of the sun with those of some 
centuries past, although I have not gone further back than the 15th cen- 
tury, in which I have found Walther^s observations made at Nuremberg; 
yet I have observed that the motion of the Sun (or of the Earth) is sensibly 
accelerated since that time; so that the years are shorter at present than 
formerly; the reason of which is very natural, for if the earth, in its motion, 
suffers some little resistance (which cannot be doubted, since the space 
through which the planets move, is necessarily full of some subtile matter, 
were it no other than that of light), the effect of this resistance will grad- 
ually bring the planets nearer and nearer the sun; and as their orbits thereby 
become less, their periodical times will also be diminished. Thus in time 
the earth ought to come within the region of Venus, and in fine into that 
of Mercury, where it would necessarily be burnt. Hence it is manifest 
that the system of the planets cannot last forever in its (present) state. 
It also incontestibly follows that this system must have had a beginning; 
for whoever denies it must grant me, that there was a time, when the earth 
was at the distance of Saturn and even farther, and consequently that no 
living creature could subsist there. Nay there must have been a time when 
the planets were nearer to some fixt stars than to the Sun ; and in this case 
they could never come into the solar system. This then is a proof, purely 
physical, that the world in its present state, must have had a beginning, and 



must have an end. In order to improve this notion, and to find with exacti- 
tude how much the years become shorter in each Century; I am in hopes 
that a great number of older observations will afford me the necessary 

2. Second Letter: 

XXIII. I am still thoroughly convinced of the truth of what I advanced 
that the orbs of the planets continue to be contracted, and consequently 
their periodic times grow less. . . . The late Dr. Halley has also remarked 
that the revolutions of the moon are quicker at present than they were in 
the time of the ancient Chaldeans, who have left us some observations of 

Euler then discusses the difficulty of finding the number of days 
since the time of Ptolemy, and thinks the uncertainty may be a day 
or two, also raises the question whether the length of the day is 

At present we measure the length of the day by the number of oscilla- 
tions which a pendulum of given length makes in this space of time; but 
the ancients were not acquainted with these experiments, whereby we might 
have been informed, whether a pendulum of the same length made as many 
vibrations in a day as now. But even though the Ancients had actually made 
such experiments, we could draw no inferences from them, without sup- 
posing, that gravity on which the time of an oscillation depends, has always 
been of the same force; but who will ever be in a condition to prove this 
invariability in gravity? 

He finally concludes that both the lengths of the year and day 
are diminishing, "so that the same number will answer nearly to 
a year." 

The views of Euler here set forth that the earth and other planets 
were at one time farther from the sun than at present are so remark- 
able that it is scarcely necessary to do more than bring them to the 
attention of astronomers. 

U. S. Naval Observatory, 
Mare Island, California, 
April 24, 1909. 





>U XLVIIL May-August, 1909, No. 



The Evolution of the City of Rome from its Origin to the Gallic 
Catastrophe. By Jesse Benedict Carter .„,.„ , 

Hie Linear Resistance Between Parallel Conducting Cylinders in a 
Medium of Uniform Conductivity. By A. E« Kennelley.,..,. 

On an Adjustment for the Plane Grating Similiar to Rowland's 
Method for the Concave Grating* By Carl Barus „..,. 

1 29 




The Electron Method of Standardizing the Coronas of Cloudy Con- 
densation, By Carl Barus , .,,. mmn 

The Elect rometric Measurement of the Voltaic Potential Difference, 
Between the Two Conductors of a Condenser, Containing a 
Highly Ionized Medium. By Carl Barus 

The Absorption Spectra of Various Potassium, Uranyt, Ura nous and 
Neodymium Salts in Solution and the Effect of Temperature on 
the Absorption Spectra of Certain Colored Salts in Solution. 
By Harry L\ Jones and W. W, Strong .„.,.„. 

Earthquakes: Their Causes and Effects. By Edmund Otis Huvey 

The Evolution and the Outlook of Seismic Geology. By William 
Herbert Hobbs 

Seismological Notes, By Harry Fielding Reid 

Some Burial Customs of the Australian Aborigines. By R, H, 
Mathews ,.,. , 

104 South Fifth Street 

American Philosophical Society 

General Meeting— April 21-23, 1910 

The General Meeting of 19 10 wilt be held on April 2\>.t 
lo 23rd, beginning at 2 p„ m. on Thursday, April 21st. 

Members desiring to present papers, either for themselves 
or others, are requested to send to the Secretaries, nt as early a 
date as practicable,, and not later than March 19, 1910, the titles 
of these papers, so that they may be announced on the programme 
which will be issued immediately thereafter, and which will give 
in detail die arrangements for the meeting. 

Papers in any department of science come within the 
scope of the Society, which, as its name indicates, embraces the 
whole field of useful knowledge. 

The Publication Committee, under the rules of the 

Society, will arrange for the immediate publication of the papers 







Members who have not as yet sent their photographs to the Society will 
confer a favor by so doing; cabinet aizc preferred. 

It is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To the Secretaries of the 

104 South Fiith Street 

Philadelphia, U* S. A. 





Vol. XLVIII April-August, 1909 No. 192. 


(Read April 22, 1909.) 

In a normally constituted man time and space are in permanent 
coordination. In the world of historical science such a permanent 
coordination is sought after, but not yet everywhere obtained. The 
student of history and the student of topography are too apt to 
work in ignorance of each other. The history of Rome has usually 
been written with small regard for that material and physical thing, 
the city of Rome; while the writer on topography is far too apt 
to see the buildings and the piazzas of ancient Rome as an empty 
stage, a place for action, but for an action in which he is not pro- 
fessionally interested. 

Yet the transition through which so many of the natural sci- 
ences have recently gone, the change from being merely descriptive 
to being biogenetic, ought to serve as a lesson to the topographer. 
It is not possible to study even the site of ancient Rome without 
taking into account the vicissitudes of history in which this site 
has been involved. 

I would accordingly ask your attention today to an attempt to 
sketch in its outlines the development of the city of Rome from its 
earliest beginnings through the Gallic catastrophe. Such a bio- 



graphical sketch (for under this treatment the city itself becomes 
endowed with life and the product is veritably a biography) covers 
a distinct field in that long series of periods which follow one 
another in the story of the Eternal City. 

Yet this period of the origins has been strangely neglected by 
modern scholars, at least in so far as attempts at the coordination 
of material are concerned. The student of ethnography has formed 
his own opinions regarding the early settlement of this part of 
Italy, the student of language has drawn his own deductions; the 
student of religion has discovered certain perfectly definite things 
regarding the civilization of these primitive peoples; and the stu- 
dent of topography has made his own discoveries, but has also held 
his own counsel. Yet the language of communication between 
these special students has been in the main the old traditional one 
of Rome's founding. 

The greatest difficulty which confronts the student of the origins 
of Rome is not the absence of statements regarding it, but rather 
the superabundant presence of such statements. If what was after- 
wards the great city of Rome had been entirely unknown in its 
birth, we would have placed it in the category of many other famous 
individuals, and thought nothing of it. But the presence of such 
a plenitude of sources has at least two bad results; first it leads 
to endless and hopeless attempts to reconcile conflicting statements 1 ; 
and second even after our reason has convinced us that these 
statements are without authority and represent merely the late prod- 
ucts of artificial legend making, we have great difficulty in casting 
them to one side, and we unconsciously and instinctively recur to 
them, so much are they a portion of our intellectual heritage. 
We may prove that Romulus was not known in Rome until after 
the Gallic catastrophe, 2 and that we have no reason to suppose 
the Palatine settlement to be any older that the Capitoline or the 

1 Compare the attempts periodically made to reconstruct the early history 
of Rome on the basis of the legendary accounts. 

8 See Carter: "The Death of Romulus," American Journal of Archeol- 
ogy, I909» pp. 10-29; and (more fully) my forthcoming article, s. v. 
"Romulus," in Roscher's " Lexikon der griechischen und romischen 


Quirinal, 8 but out of the ruins of our tradition Romulus, Remus 
and the wolf arise. Thus it is that we are still presenting the 
subject according to the scheme and phraseology of Varro, though 
there is scarcely any other part of Varro's learning which we ac- 
cept unhesitatingly. 

In the first place our study of Roman religion and its coordina- 
tion with the study of the primitive religions of today have shown 
us that, down to the dawn of history, the inhabitants of the region 
of Rome were a semi-barbarous people. Their religion was still 
involved in animism. They felt themselves surrounded by a count- 
less host of potentialities, whose names they knew, but of whose 
nature they were otherwise ignorant, except in so far as that 
nature externalized itself in definite acts. 4 Their religious organi- 
zation shows that this primitive people was divided, as its most 
original division, into curiae or brotherhoods, and that every mem- 
ber of the community must of necessity belong to one of these 
curiae. 5 Their religion shows us further that their interests were 
agricultural. 6 

Further we know that they lived in little communities on the 
hilltops surrounded by a circular wall or stockade. Such a primi- 
tive settlement was certainly not a city — an urbs. At best it might 
. be dignified by being called a town, an oppidum. 7 

The geological character of the campagna, the presence of vast 

*See below, and also "Roma Quadrata and Septimontium," American 
Journal of Archeology, 1908, p. 181. 

4 See Wissowa : "Religion und Kultus der Roemer," p. 20, " Sammtliche 
Gottheiten sind sozusagen rein praktisch gedacht als wirksam in all 
denjenigen Dingen, mit denen der Roemer im Gange des gewohnlichen 
Lebens zu thun hat " ; and Carter, " Religion of Numa," p. 5 ff. 

•If we accept the theory that matriarchy existed in Rome before the 
institution of the patriarchal system, we are virtually driven to consider the 
Curiae as preceding the family. For an excellent discussion of the Curiae, 
cp. Eduard Meyer, "Geschichte des Altertums," Vol. II., p. 511 ff. 

*Cp. the table of gods for this early period, as reconstructed by 
Mommsen, " Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum," Vol. I., Part 1, ed 2, p. 288, 
or by Wissowa, " Religion und Kultus, " p. 18 and cp. p. 20 : " es spiegeln sich 
in ihr (der alten Gotterordnung) die Interessen einer in Ackerbau und 
Viehzucht . . . lebenden Gemeinde." 

T Cp. the investigations of E. Kornemann, " Polis und Urbs," in " Klia 
Beitrage zur alten Geschichte," 1905, p. 72 ff. 


quantities of running water, and the consequent erosion, produced 
a large number of tongue-shaped or circular elevations, admirably 
suited to such settlements. 8 These clusters of houses surrounded 
by a ring-wall were merely habitations. The people tilled the fields 
in the valleys below. It is impossible for us to distinguish clearly 
between these hill-top towns in their early history. They were 
probably very similar in population and consequently in customs. 
Judging however by the presence or absence in historic times of 
old cult centers it would seem that there was no settlement upon 
the Aventine,* possibly because it was too close to the river. Nor 
does there seem to be any particular justification for supposing 
that the Palatine was in any sense the leader in this group of hill 
towns, by virtue either of its superior age or of its greater influence. 
The Palatine is singularly free from old cult associations. 10 Such 
associations as seem old are connected with the later legends, for 
example that of Romulus and Remus, which did not arise until the 
fourth century, and even in these cases the Capitoline offers a dis- 
tinct rivalry to the Palatine. 11 It is easy to understand how at a 
later day the Palatine might have been elevated into this position 
of superiority. 12 

• Cp. the presentation of Richter : " Topographie der Stadt Rom," p. 25, 26. 

•At least in later times it is known as pagus Aventinensis, CIL., XIV., 
2105 (inscription from Lanuvium) ; and the fact that it was later opened 
to the plebeians for settlement would indicate the absence of any older 
settlement. The town of Aventum is an unfortunate suggestion of Jordan 
(" Topographie," I., i, 182) and never had existence. Cp. Huelsen in Pauly- 
Wissowa's " Encyclopaedic der classischen Altertumswissenschaft," s. v 
Aventinus, Sp. 2283, 23 ff. 

"Cacus and the very doubtful Caca, in whom Wissowa ("R. und K., ,% 
p. 24, note 1) is inclined to see a pair of ancient gods, belong really on the 
Aventine rather than on the Palatine. Huelsen's statement (Jordan- 
Huelsen, I. 3, p. 45), "von den Kulten auf dem Palatin cheinen einige in sehr 
alte Zeit hinauf zu gehen, wie der der Febris, der Fortuna, der Dea Viriplaca, 
der Luna. Noctihica," must be taken merely relatively, as none of the deities 
mentioned (with the exception of the uncertain Dea Viriplaca) precede the 
later kingdom. 

11 Cp. the rival casa Romuli on the Capitoline; and the Salii Palatini 
versus the Salii Collini. 

" Owing to its popularity as a residence during the closing years of the 
Republic, and the preference of Augustus and his successors. 


This little group of towns is not as yet however the city of 
Rome : it is possible that in the course of time it might have become 
the city of Rome, either by the superior power of one oppidum 
which would shortly have added the others to its territory, in some- 
what the way in which the traditional account considers that Rome 
was actually founded, — the Varronian scheme, which proceeds from 
the presupposition of the primacy of the Palatine,— or by some sort 
of reciprocity, resulting in union, of which we see the first traces 
in the annual joint sacrifices of the Septimontium. 18 But either 
one of these ways would have required a very long period of time, 
and in either case the intellectual development of the people would 
have been continuous so that the traces of barbarism even in the 
conservative field of religion would have been much fewer in num- 
ber. Every indication points to a rapid change and one which 
affected the towns equally. Such a change could come only from 
outside, and from a people superior to Rome in culture. When 
we ask what this people was, the answer comes more clearly every 
year, — the Etruscans. 

It seems fairly certain that the Etruscans as we know them 
in the history of Italy were a composite people made up of a native 
Italic stock combined with an invading stock, whose original home 
was in Asia Minor. 14 Further it seems probable that the invading 
stock came by sea across the Mediterranean and landed on the west- 
ern coast of Italy, and that their advent did not precede the begin- 
ning of the eighth century. 15 Allowing them about two centuries 

"On the Septimontium, compare Varro, L. L. 6, 24: dies Septimontium 
nominates ab his septem montibus, in quis sita urbs est, feriae non populi 
sed montanorum modo, ut paganalia qui sunt alicuius pagi ; and the interest- 
ing treatment by Wissowa in the Satura Viadrina-Gesammelte Abhandlungen, 
p. 230 ff. Cp. also Platncr : " Classical Philology," I., 1906, p. 69. 

u The hypothesis of the East, more especially of Asia Minor, as the 
original home of the Etruscans is at present pretty generally adopted. Their 
acquaintance with the Babylonian haruspicina and with Greek mythology, 
the general plan of their houses and the shape of their helmets all indicate 
an eastern origin. For details see the admirable resume* of the present 
condition of the Etruscan problem by Korte in Pauly-Wissowa s. v. Etrusker. 

"Whether the Etruscans came by land or by sea is still a subject of dis- 
cussion, though the hypothesis of the sea route seems to be gaining strength 
at the expense of the other. There seem to be traces of their movement on 


to accomplish their amalgamation and conquer the region afterwards 
known as Etruria, they would come into contact with the Roman 
stock in the plain of Latium about the beginning of the sixth 
century. 16 

The Etruscans, therefore, a sea-faring and so a city-loving folk, 
conquered these hill towns and enclosed them all together with the 
intervening valleys with one wall. But before building this wall, 
they drew the plough about the space to be enclosed and thus 
created the pomerium ritu Etrusco. 17 We do not know very much 
about their wall but we do know about the pomerium, and as the 
wall was surely inside of it, 18 we have a general idea of its position. 

the islands of the eastern Mediterranean, especially on Lemnos, where an 
inscription practically Etruscan in character has been found. It is uncertain 
exactly what we are to call these people before the " Etruscan " people were 
brought into being by the amalgamation of this immigrant stock with the 
Italic stock. It has been suggested with a reasonable degree of probability 
that they were the Pelasgians. The date at which they entered Italy is a 
matter of some considerable uncertainty. The date as given above (circa 
800) depends upon the validity of the supposition that in the long series 
of tombs which the cemeteries (especially near Bologna) show, the earlier 
tombs are not of the Etruscans but only the later ones, the tombe-a-corridoio, 
and the tombe-a-camera. However several scholars, who are in hearty 
accord with the eastern origin, and the journey by sea, are not content 
with so late a date as the eighth century, on the ground that it does not 
allow sufficient time for the development of the Etruscans in the peninsula 
of Italy. According to them the coming of the Etruscans should be placed 
two or three centuries earlier. 

"This date corresponds with the tradition of the later kingdom. 
Tarquinius Priscus reigned thirty-eight years, Servius Tullius forty-four 
years, Tarquinius Superbus twenty-five years, a total of one hundred and 
seven years, which added to B. C. 509, the supposed year of the founding 
of the Republic, gives B. C. 616, as the beginning of the so-called Later 
Kingdom. Such an agreement may be of absolutely no value, on the other 
hand it may have a certain significance if the tradition represents the faint 
reflection of the period of time when the new influence came. 

17 Not only the Pomerium, but the whole idea of delimitation seems to 
have come to Rome from Etruria. Much of the terminology of Roman 
surveying bears the imprint of Etruria. Roman tradition recognized the 
Etruscan origin of the Pomerium : cp. Varro, L. L. V., 143 : oppida condebant 
in Latio Etrusco ritu multi, id est iunctis bobus, tauro et vacca, interiore 
aratro circumagebant sulcum. 

"On the whole question of the pomerium and its relation to the city 
wall, compare American Journal of Archeology, 1908, p. 177. 


Thus was created what the topographers call "the city of the 
four regions." 19 It would be preferable to use the old Roman 
term urbs et capitolium, for this city, the urbs did indeed contain 
four regions, but apart from the city though inclosed in the same 
wall was the citadel, the capitolium. 20 Such an arrangement is in 
itself an added proof that the Palatine was not the ruling spirit. 
The Etruscans coming from without were free from prejudice and 
chose the Capitoline as their citadel simply because it offered su- 
perior advantages from the fortificatory standpoint. 

On the Capitoline arose the Etruscan temple of Jupiter, Juno 
and Minerva. It is strange that the Etruscan character of this cult 
has not been more readily recognized. Minerva herself is more 
than half an Etruscan deity, hitherto unknown to Rome, 21 and the 
triad, Jupiter-Juno-Minerva, is a favorite among the Etruscans. 
The temple was built in the Etruscan style by Etruscan workmen 
and the ornamentation and the very images of the gods came from 
Etruria. 22 

With the coming of the Etruscans begins a tradition which has 
in part an historical value. This tradition presents us with the 
figure of Servius Tullius, unquestionably a real person, probably the 

""Die Vierregionenstadt " of the Germans. I do not know of any 
instances of the term in antiquity. The ancient term seems to have been 
urbs et capitolium. 

*The capitolium had of course a protecting wall of its own. This is 
dear from the fact that it was capable of being held against the Gauls, even 
after the Gauls had captured the city proper. The other hill-top oppida 
which were included in the urbs certainly had walls of their own, but these 
walls probably ceased to be kept up after the large surrounding wall was 
built. In the case of the Capitolium however the original wall was pre- 
served and probably strengthened. 

n Minerva has no festival in the old calendar, the so-called calendar of 
Numa. The Quinquatrus which occurs in that calendar and which is ordi- 
narily associated with Minerva had originally no connection with her, but 
belonged entirely to Mars. Minerva's cult seems to have originated at 
Falerii and to have spread from there into Etruria and also into Rome. 
On Minerva, cp. Wissowa in Roscher's Lexikon, s. v. Minerva, and " Religion 
und Kultus," p. 203; and Carter, "Religion of Numa," p. 44 ff. 

a The image of Jupiter came from Etruria; compare Pliny (N. H., 
XXXV., 157) and Ovid (F., I., 201 ff.) ; also the quadriga on the roof 
(Pliny, /. f.). The workmen employed on the temple gave the name to the 
Vicus Tuscus, where they lived. 


first historical character in the annals of Rome. But though the 
character of Servius is a real one, legend has added many of the 
" events " attributed to him. One of these events concerns our own 
theme — it is the building of the wall of Rome. The tourist knows 
this wall as the inner of the two walls, of which traces still remain 
in Rome, that wall of which there are remnants beside the railway 
station and on the Via Nazionale. 28 Up to the present the state- 
ment that Servius built a wall has been accepted as an historical fact, 
and though it was recognized that the so-called Servian wall as 
we know it dates from the end of the fourth century before Christ, 
scholars have almost always assumed that there was another wall 
on the same spot and that this previous wall dated from the Servian 
age. 24 But, as I hope to be able to show in a moment, this is an 
altogether gratuitous assumption, and serves simply to hinder the 
understanding of history. In the first place there is absolutely no 
proof that Servius Tullius built a wall, other than the name " Servian 
wall " which attaches to a structure obviously of the fourth century. 
The tradition would in any case be worthless, but we have not even 
a consistent tradition. A study of the growth of the city as at- 
tributed to the various kings brings no profit, but exhibits merely a 
mass of contradictions and inconsistencies. 26 So far as the name 

" Sections of this wall are Constantly being discovered. At the date of 
writing (April, 1909) a very fine piece has been unearthed near the 
Spithoever property. 

14 The only exception to this statement known to me is Eduard Meyer 
(Hermes, XXX., 1895, p. 13) : " dass die Servianische Mauer nicht alter ist 
als das vierte Jahrhundert, ist seit O. Richter's Nachweis unumstosslich. 
Sie umschliesst die Grossstadt der Samniterkriege." That this statement 
has not been more appreciated is doubtless owing to the fact that it is 
capable of being understood to apply merely to the date of the actually 
existing Servian wall, leaving always the possibility that it implies another 
wall on the same site preceding the "Servian" wall. 

"In Dionysius of Halicarnassus (4, 13) and in Strabo (p. 234M) 
Servius Tullius is aid to have added the Esquiline and the Viminal; but 
Livy (1, 44, cp. the author of de vir. ill. 7) says that he added the Quirinal 
and the Viminal and increased the Esquiline; whereas the Quirinal is else- 
where (Dionys. 2, 50, Strabo, p. 234M) supposed to have been included in 
the city of Romulus and Titus Tatius. On the other hand the so-called 
Servian wall included the Aventine, hence Servius is supposed to have added 
this hill to the city, whereas a very strong ancient tradition attributed the 


itself is concerned, in the minds of the cionten^oraries and succes- 
sors of Cato a wall at that time nearly two hundred years old 
would be easily associated with the kingdom and might readily 
be named after the most famous of the kings, Servius Tullius. 
There are in other words no traces of a real Servian wall either 
preserved in monumental form for the topographer or found in the 
historical records. The occasional references found in Livy to the 
gates of what we know as the " Servian Wall," in connection with 
events which happened at or before the Gallic catastrophe, are most 
rightly explained as anachronisms, and they offer no difficulty to 
one who is accustomed to the vagaries of the Roman historians. 26 
On the contrary, it is on the face of it extremely unlikely that 
an enlargement of the city limits would have been necessary so 
soon after the building of the large encircling wall which we at- 
tribute to the Etruscans. Yet, as a matter of fact, the so-called 
" Servian Wall " includes a much larger space than the wall of the 
" Four-Region City." 27 It includes on the northeast the high table- 
land where the Quirinal and the Viminal unite, but still more im- 
portant it includes the Aventine. It is the inclusion of the Aven- 
tine which creates the chief difficulties in understanding the history 
of Rome until after the Gallic catastrophe. Let us try the experi- 
ment of considering the Aventine as a suburb and of reading our 
history under such a condition. 28 The city which the Etruscans 
founded and in which Servius Tullius lived, and according to our 
present assumption the only city of Rome until after the Gallic 

addition to Ancus Martius (Cicero de rep. 2, 18; Dionys. Hal. 3, 43; Strabo, 
p. 234M; Liv. I, 33; de vir. ill. 5). The difference of opinion regarding the 
Caelian is still more marked. On the whole question compare Jordan, 
" Topographie," II., p. 206, 207. 

n E. g., Livy (5, 41) speaks of the Gauls as entering by the Porta Coll in a, 
referring doubtless to the gate in the " Servian " wall, as it existed in his day. 

r At this point the reader may be inclined to challenge these statements 
and to ask what we know of the course of the wall of the Four Region City. 
Of the wall itself we know nothing, but we do know that it lay inside the 
pomerium, and we know approximately the course of the pomerium, and to 
what extent it in its turn lay inside the Servian wall. 

" It may require a certain amount of practice to conduct this experiment 
successfully, just as it takes practice to eliminate the arch of Severus in 
reconstructing the Forum of the Republic and early empire. 


catastrophe, was that particular form of the city wlych the topog- 
raphers call "the city of four regions" and which was more fa- 
miliarly known in history as urbs et capitolium. 

In the first place we note the permanency of the phrase urbs et 
capitolium 29 and we ask whether it is likely that the phrase would 
have obtained such immortality if the form of the city to which 
it was applicable had so soon given way to the other form, the so- 
called Servian city. The permanence of the name seems to argue 
for the long existence of that particular city from which the name 
was derived. In the second place the annals of religion offer us 
in this early period at least this knowledge, namely, the establish- 
ment of temples to various deities more or less strangers to Rome, 
in the region outside of the pomerium. 80 One of the most important 
of these deities was Diana. She came into the religious life of 
the state merely because of her connection with the Latin league, 
and her temple was not a temple of Rome alone but of the whole 
league. 81 This temple was situated on the Aventine, 82 and while 
of course it was outside the pomerium it has always been difficult 
to understand why Rome made bold to put a league temple inside 
her city wall, when all the expanse of the Campus Martius was at 
her disposal. But if as we are now supposing the Aventine also was 
a suburb, the difficulty disappears. Conversely when the temple of 
Apollo 88 was built, while it must of necessity have been outside the 
pomerium, it is difficult to see why it should have been placed in 
the exposed Campius Martius, when there was the possibility of 
placing it on the Aventine itself outside the pomerium but sup- 

"Urbs et capitolium occurs; Caesar de bell. civ. I, 6, 7; Liv. 3, 18, O; 
cp. Liv. 38, 51, 13; Flor. Epit. 2, 6, 45; Jord. Rom. 202. 

30 A useful list of these temples and their dates is given in Wissowa's 
" Religion und Kultus," p. 516 ff. It is based largely on E. Aust, de sedibus 
sacris populi Romani unde a primis libera reipublicae temporibus usque ad 
Augusti imperatoris aetatem Romae conditis. Marburg, 1889. 

tt Cp. Carter, "Religion of Numa," p. 53 ff.; Wissowa, "Religion und 
Kultus," p. 198 ff. and in P. W. sub verbo. Diana came into the worship of 
the league as the goddess of Aricia. 

"For the question of the exact location of this temple, cp. Jordan- 
Huelsen, " Topograph ie," I. 3, p. 158 ff. It is found on fragment 3 of the 
Forma Urbis Romae. 

u On the temple of Apollo, cp. Jordan-Huelsen, " Topographie," p. 535 ff. 


posedly protected by the city wall. For the worship of Apollo was 
purely an affair of the Roman state, and hence could well be inside 
the wall provided it was outside the pomerium. But again under 
our present supposition we realize that the Aventine also was a 
suburb and hence, so far as protection was concerned, it would be 
a matter of indifference whether the temple was on the Aventine 
or in the Campus Martius. 

Turning from the field of religion to that of constitutional de- 
velopment, it has always been difficult to understand why there 
should have been only four city tribes, named after the four regions, 
in case the city so soon extended its borders and took in the Aven- 
tine. But if the Aventine was added two centuries later it will 
readily be seen that the force of habit two centuries old caused the 
number of city tribes to be limited to four even when the city had 
exceeded the local limits of the four old regions. 

But when we turn to the question of the increase in Rome's 
population and the disposal of it we have our best argument for 
treating the Aventine as a suburb. The population was increasing 
rapidly — we see signs of it in the growing number of foreigners 
both tradespeople and handicraftsmen. By degrees there arose a 
problem very similar to that of modern Rome, a dearth of houses for 
the working classes. It was then (456) that a law was passed pro- 
viding for the plebeians on the Aventine. 84 Had the Aventine been 
an internal part of the city it is difficult to see why it would not 
have been occupied long before. But as an extreme measure the 
expedient of giving the plebeians land in the suburbs might easily 
have been adopted. 

Thus it was that the city began to outgrow its walls, both in the 
Aventine region and in the Campus Martius. The proof of this 
outgrowing is given us in the story of the Gallic catastrophe in 
B. C. 390. For it is only thus that we can understand why the city 
was no longer capable of defending itself, and why the Gauls cap- 
tured it without difficulty, the capitolium alone offering a successful 
resistance. The tradition of the Gallic catastrophe seems to do 

** On this law, the lex Icilia, cp. Dionys. 10, 31, and Liv. 3, 31, 1. 


violence to the truth in at least two respects; first in underesti- 
mating the completeness of the Gallic victory; and second with 
that sublime indifference to contradiction which is so apt to char- 
acterize tradition, by overestimating the amount of physical damage 
which the Gauls did to the city. At a later time it was customary 
to attribute all the crookedness and lack of plan which characterized 
the arrangement of the city streets and buildings to the haste with 
which Rome was rebuilt after it had been destroyed by the Gauls. 85 
But this presupposes that the Gauls wrought an amount of destruc- 
tion which would partake of an industry quite at variance to what we 
know of their natural indolence. But quite aside from the question 
of destruction the Gallic catastrophe had brought one lesson home to 
the Romans, namely, that their city needed a defence. It is not 
surprising that in the years following the retreat of the Gauls a 
new wall was built on a new line so as to include the now populated 
Aventine. To include the suburb at the south of the Campus Mar- 
tius was impossible because of engineering difficulties. 

It is no wonder therefore that a passage in the sixth book 
of Livy (chapter 32) dealing with the year B. C. 378 speaks of 
the building of a wall, 8 * and that another passage (Book VII., 
Chapter 20, under the year B. C. 353) speaks of repairs to walls and 
towers. 87 Rome was beginning her conquest of Italy, and it was 
necessary that she should herself be protected from hostile forces. 
This is accordingly the epoch from which dates the so-called Servian 

M Cp. the striking passage in Livy (5, 55): antiquata deinde lege 
promisee urbs aedificari ccepta. Tegula publice prabita est, saxi materiaeque 
caedendae, unde quisque vellet, ius factum praedibus acceptis eo anno aedificia 
perfecturos. Festinatio curam exemit vicos dirigendi, dum omisso sui 
alienique discrimine in vacuo aedificant. Ea est causa, ut veteres cloacae, 
primo per publicum ductae, nunc privata passim subeant tecta, formaque urbis 
sit occupatae magis quam divisse similis. Cp. also the passage in Tacitus 
(Annal., 15, 38) where he compares the rebuilding of Rome after the Gallic 
catastrophe with the rebuilding after Nero's fire. 

"Et tantum abesse spes veteris levandi fenoris, ut tributo novum fenus 
contraheretur in murum a censoribus locatum saxo quadrato faciundum. 

n Legionibusque Romam reductis reliquum anni muris turribusque 
reficiendis consumptum, et aedis Apollinis dedicata est. 


With the capture of the city by the Gauls, Rome enters upon 
her period of inyiolability for almost exactly eight hundred years, 
and the thought suggests itself irresistibly that the reputation for 
inviolability thus gained may have been a large factor in pre- 
serving her inviolate. Even in these early days the city began to 
be " that so holy spot, the very Rome." 

Rome, April 2, 1909. 




{Read April 24 1909.) 

It is the purpose of this paper to present formulas and tables 
for the computation of the linear resistances, conductances and 
capacities between parallel cylindrical conductors, or between a 
cylindrical conductor and a parallel indefinitely extending conducting 
plane. As is shown in the appended bibliography, the problem is 
by no means new ; but the mathematical mode of presentation, and 
the arithmetical tabulation, here offered, are believed to be new. 
It is hoped that these will be useful to students of electrical engi- 
neering. Antihyperbolic functions are the natural vehicles of ex- 
pression adapted to this problem. 

Infinite Conducting Plane and Parallel Cylinder. 
Linear Resistance. — Let a uniform conducting cylinder of radius 


Z' O Z, 

Fig. 1. Section of a conducting cylinder DEF parallel to the indefinitely 

extending conducting plane Z'OZ. 

<r cm., shown in section at DEF in Fig. 1, be situated at an axial 
distance d cm. from a parallel indefinitely extending conducting 




plane Z'OZ. Let the space above the plane unoccupied by the 
cylinder be filled by an indefinitely extending medium of uniform 
resistivity p absohm-cm. Then the linear resistance between the 
plane and the cylinder, t. e. s the resistance of the medium between 
them, as comprised between a pair of infinite parallel planes per- 
pendicular to the cylinder and I cm. apart, will be 

r = — cosh 

* 27T 


absohm-cms. or C.G.S. magnetic 
units of resistance in a linear cm. ^ ' 

If the conducting surface EDF of the cylinder were unrolled 
into a flat conducting ribbon 2™ cm. in breadth, and the ribbon 
were supported parallel to the plane Z'OZ at a uniform distance 
L=<r cosh -1 (d/<r) cm. above it, as indicated in Fig. 2, with ver- 
tical insulating side walls, Ez! and Fz, to limit the flow of current 
through the medium to the parallel distribution shown; then the 
rectangular slab of medium EFzz' of Fig. 2, would be the equi- 
valent in electric resistance to the indefinitely extending plane and 
cylinder system of Fig. 1. 

In Fig. 2 the depth, or distance across the slab, following 
the lines of current flow, is L = <r cosh -1 (d/<r) cm., and the 







Fig. 2. Equivalent slab section corresponding to infinite plane and parallel 

cylinder of Fig. 1. 

surface area of each face of the slab, per linear cm. of its length, 
is S = 2va cm. 2 /cm. so that the linear resistance of the whole is 

L <r cosh" 1 (d/a) p 
r , = -cP = P ' = --cosh- 

1 ( - ) absohm-cm. (2) 

5 ' 27T<T 27T 

Since the linear resistance of the plane cylinder system of Fig. 1, 
or of the slab in Fig. 2, does not depend upon its absolute dimen- 
sions, the scale of linear dimensions in the diagram may be chosen 


such that cr— i unit, in which case the depth of the slab is 
cosh _1 d units and the breadth of the slab is 2v units. 
The quantity Y defined by the relation 

Y = cosh -1 ( d/a) numeric ( 3 ) 

may be called the distance factor of the plane-cylinder system; 
because the distance between electrodes in the equivalent slab of 
Fig. 2 is 

L = Y<r cm. 

When the radius a of the cylinder is very small with respect 
to the distance d; so that d/a is a large number, we have 

F= log, — numeric (4) 

so that for such cylinders the linear resistance 

p p 2d 

r = — F= — log, — absohm-cm. (5) 

The accompanying table gives for successive values of d/<r in 
column I., the corresponding value of Y in column II. Column III. 
gives the resistance factor Y/2v which, when multiplied by the 
resistivity p of the medium, gives the linear resistance of the plane- 
cylinder system considered. 

Thus, if a conducting cylinder with a radius of 2 cm. is sup- 
ported at an axial distance of 10 cm. from an infinite conducting 
plane, in a medium of resistivity p = 3 X io 10 absohm-cms., we 
have d/<r=$. The table gives for this ratio the value of Y as 
2.2924, and the value of the resistance factor F/2ir= 0.3649; so 
that the linear resistance of the system will be 3 X io 10 X 0.3649 
= 1.0947 X io 10 absohm-cms. ; or 10.947 ohms in a linear cm. 

Linear Conductance. — The linear conductance, or conductance 
per linear cm. of the plane-cylinder system will be by (1) 

27T 27T 27T 

^- pcosh^(d/<r) -p?-^T abmhos per cm. (6) 
where y is the uniform conductivity of the medium in abmhos per 


cm. The quantity 2w/Y may be called the conductance-factor of 
the plane-cylinder system. It appears in column V. of the table. 

Thus, if a conducting cylinder of radius <r = 0.5 cm. be sup- 
ported at an axial distance of d=7-5 cm. from an infinite con- 
ducting plane, in a medium of conductivity y=io~ 10 abmhos per 
cm., the ratio d/<r in column I. is 15, and the conductance factor 
for this ratio appears in column V. as 1.848. The linear conduct- 
ance of the system is thus 1.848 X io~ 10 abmhos per cm. The 
distance-factor of the system is given in column II. as 3.4001 ; so 
that the depth of the equivalent rectangular slab of medium is 
1.700 cm., the breadth being 3.142 cm. 

Linear Electrostatic Capacity. — The linear capacity c p of a 
plane-cylinder system in a dielectric medium of specific inductive 
capacity #c, is numerically the same as the linear conductance of the 
same system in a medium of conductivity k/^w or resistivity 4*/* 5 
so that, in C.G.S. electrostatic units : 

C * " 2coah\d/a) " * " 1Y st ^^ ds P" cm " to 

The values of the capacity factor i/(2F) appear in column VI. of 
the table for each selected value of d/<r. 

Thus, a cylinder of radius <r = o.4 cm. is supported at an axial 
distance of I cm. from an infinite conducting plane in a medium of 
« = i. Here d/a = 2.5, and i/(2F)= 0.3192. The linear capacity 
of the system is therefore 0.3192 statfarad per cm. 

In order to convert the linear capacity c p stat farads per cm. into 
microfarads per km., expressed by c p ', we have : 

C K I 

c ' = — = - • - lr microfarads per km. (8) 

* 9 9 2Y v v ' 

Similarly, to express the linear capacity in microfarads per mile 

C K \ 

c " =: — t — = x -t> microfarads per mile (9) 

* 5-591 5.591 2Y * vy/ 

That is, we must divide the capacity- factor of the table by 9 to obtain 
microfarads per km. or by 5.591 to obtain microfarads per mile. 



Potential Distribution. 

On the Median Line Beneath the Cylinder. — It is well known 
that the flow of electric current, and the distribution of potential, 
between the conducting cylinder and the plane, are such as might be 
produced by removing the conducting cylinder and substituting a 
conducting polar line at A, parallel to the plane. The point A lies 
on the line OC, and at a distance a from the plane defined by the 

a = a sinh Y =y/~d 2 -^P*. cm. ( 10) 

The values of the polar ratio a/<r are given in the table in column 
VII. for each of the selected ratios d/a up to d/<r= 50, beyond 
which the difference between a/a and d/a is less than I part in 
5,000. For most practical purposes, it is, therefore, sufficient to 
regard the polar line as coinciding with the cylinder axis when the 
distance of that axis from the plane exceeds 50 radii. 

In the steady state of flow, the potential at any point y t on the 
line OA (Fig. 3) distant y x cm. from O, will be 

u x = /- tanh- 1 ( -M abvolts (11) 

where / is the current strength per linear cm. of the system in 
absamperes, the potential of the plane Z'OZ being taken as numer- 
ically zero. 

Similarly, the potential at any other point y 2 on the median line 
OY, below A, distant y 2 cm. from O, will be: 

/£tanh- l (^A abvolts (12) 

Consequently, if the potential of the surface of the cylinder be u lf 
and y x be the distance of the lowest point of the cylinder from the 
plane, the potential of any other point on the line OA between the 
cylinder and the plane, distant y 2 cm. from the latter, will be : 

tanh" 1 (yja) , v 

«.-*SaF^T abvolts (13) 

Potentials on the Median Line Above the Cylinder. — In the 

steady state of flow, the potential at any point y 3 on the median line 

OY, and distant y z cm. from O, above the polar point A, is: 



coth-M ^j abvolts (14) 

where / and ir have the same meanings as above, and the potential 
of the plane Z'OZ is reckoned as zero. 

Similarly, the potential at any other point y 4 on the median line 
OY, distant y 4 cm. from Q, and above the polar point A, is: 

Jcoth- (^A abvolts (15) 

Consequently, if the potential of the surface of the cylinder be 
tt 3 , and y 8 be the distance of the highest point of the cylinder from 
the plane, the potential at any other point on the median line, above 
the cylinder, and distant y 4 cm. from the plane, will be : 

•<-*SSF^fo abvolts (16) 

Potentials at Points Outside the Cylinder and off the Median 
Line, — If the point in the plane Z'YZ at which the potential is 
required, lies off the median line OY, the potential may be expressed 

(a) In terms of rectangular coordinates z and y of the point. 

(b) In terms of the ratio of radii vectores to the point, from the 
polar point A, and from its image. 

(a) Potential in Terms of Rectangular Coordinates. — Let P, 
Fig- 3> be the point whose potential is required, and whose rectan- 
gular coordinates are y and z, measured respectively along the me- 
dian line OY, and the line OZ in the infinite conducting plane. 
Then u, the potential of P, is : 

u - ^ tanh_l (?^?-+?) abvolts < x 7) 

where /, p and a have the values previously assigned, and the poten- 
tial of the plane Z'OZ is reckoned as zero. Eliminating Ip/ir with 
the aid of (11), we have: 

u = u. — =— T7 — j-t — - abvolts (18) 

1 2 tanh" 1 (yja) v ' 



[April 24, 

u ± is the potential of the conducting cylinder, upon the lowest point 
of which y = y x and xr = o. Thus, taking the point P in Fig. 3, 
defined by the coordinates y=i and z=2, and referring the 


Fig. 3. Coordinates of a point at which the potential is required. 

potential u of P to u 19 the potential of the surface of the cylinder, 
where y x = 2, z = o, we have a = 34642 and 

tanh" , (6.Q284/i7) 
»" %tanh-^/ 3 . 4 643r a3285 *'- 
Formula (18) may also be presented in the form: 

«= K, 

tanh - 

W + J'.V 

abvolts (19) 

(6) Potential in Terms of Radii Vectores. — A line parallel to 
the axis of the conducting cylinder, drawn through the point B, 
Fig. 3, on the median line OY and with the distance OB = OA, may 


be called the image of the polar line through OA. The point B, 
thus defined, may be called the image polar point. The points A 
and 5, taken together, may be called the polar points of the diagram 
with respect to the infinite plane and cylinder. 

Let P be any point in the plane of the diagram (Fig. 3). Then 
let r 1 and r be the lengths of a pair of radii vectores BP, AP, drawn 
from the polar points B, A, to P respectively. Let these distances 
rV be called the polar distances of the point P. Then the ratio m 
of these polar distances will be : 

m = r*/r numeric (20) 

This ratio may be called the polar ratio, for purposes of reference. 
The polar ratio will manifestly be a number greater than unity for 
all points in the diagram above the infinite conducting plane Z'OZ. 
It is a well known result that 

u = — log, m abvolts (2 1 ) 

If a point be selected on the surface of the cylinder, having a poten- 
tial ttj abvolts, and for convenience the lowest point of coordinates 
y 1 and z=o, the polar distances of this point may be denoted by 
r / and r x ; while their ratio may be denoted by m x = r x 'fr x . Con- 

u x = — log # nt x abvolts (22) 

and eliminating /, p and 2* between (21) (22), we have 

u - u x .-=*-- mm u. . Sl ° abvo ts (23) 

The potential of the infinite plane is here reckoned as zero. It may 
be observed that 

r * a + d—a a + d . , K 

m x — — — — — — numeric (24) 

1 1 

When the cylinder radius is very small, compared with the axial 
distance d, d=a, and 


m. = — = — = — numenc (25) 

1 r x a a N Jf 

It follows from the preceding equations that the equipotential 
surfaces in an infinite plane-cylinder system are all cylinders having 
their axes situated on the median line. If u x be the potential of the 
conducting cylinder, and if we denote by F x the value of the distance 
factor Y for this cylinder, according to formula (3), or to column 
II. of the table, then the distance factor Y of any cylindrical equi- 
potential surface whose potential is u becomes 

Y=* Y x — numeric (26) 

u i 

We have for any such cylinder the equations of condition : 

Y= cosh- 1 (d/<r) =sinh- 1 (a/<r) =tanh" 1 (a/d) = coth" 1 (d/a) 

= 2tanh~ 1 (y/a) numeric (27) 

whence d, the axial distance, or y coordinate, of the cylinder whose 
potential is u, will be along the median line OY: 

d= 7— t T\ cm. (27) 

tanh(F l -) 

and the radius a of this equipotential cylinder is : 

<r = t — ^~y cm. (28) 


tah K) 

The coordinate y of the lowest point of any such equipotential 
cylinder will be : 

^=*(Jtt) cm -( 2 9) 

= atanh(-J=atanh^^-J cm. (30) 

so that 


tanh" 1 

u = u. \ ,n ~r * / abvolts (xi\ 

1 tanh- 1 ^,/*) V3 ' 


an expression for the potential of a point in the medium in terms 
of its polar ratio m, and the distance y x of the conducting cylinder 
from the plane. 

The current density 8 at any point whose polar distances are 
r and r' will be perpendicular to the equipotential cylinder passing 
through the point and will be equal to 

8 =: / - • —j absamperes per cm. 1 (3 id) 

The preceding formulas for potential distribution have been de- 
veloped with reference to a conducting medium between the infinite 
plane and cylinder. They are, however, applicable to the case of a 
dielectric medium, if the electric flux <f> replace the electric current 
/, and the dielectric constant * be substituted for y or i/p. No 
substitution will be needed in formulas (13), (16), (18), (19) and 
(23) to (31), inclusive, which apply either to an insulating or to a 
conducting medium. 

Two Equal and Parallel Conducting Cylinders. 

If, instead of an infinite conducting plane and a parallel conduct- 
ing cylinder, as in Figs. 1 and 3, we have two indefinitely long par- 
allel conducting cylinders of equal diameter, as in Fig. 4, at an 
interaxial distance CC of D cm., then each cylinder may be regarded 
as forming an independent plane-cylinder system with a fictitious 
infinite conducting midplane Z'OZ, axially distant d = D/2 cm. 
from each. This midplane will be perpendicular to the central line 
CC. The double-cylinder system will have two polar lines equi- 
distant from the system center O, and represented in Fig. 4 by the 
polar points AA\ The potential of the midplane Z'OZ will be 
midway between the potentials of the two cylinders; so that if these 
have equal and opposite potentials, the potential of the midplane 
will be zero. All of the preceding formulas for plane-cylinder sys- 
tems may, therefore, be applied, in duplicate, to the double-cylinder 
system of Fig. 4. 

Linear Resistance of Double Cylinder Systems. — The linear 
resistance from either cylinder to the midplane is given in formula 



[April 24, 

(1). Consequently, the linear resistance of the double cylinder 
system of Fig. 4 is ,-t i 

P P 

r w = - cosh -1 (d/a) = - Y absohm-cms. (32) 

where d=D/2. The resistance factor of the system is thus Y/w, 
or double that given in column III. of the table. 

Thus, if the two cylinders, each of radius <r=2 cm. separated 

Fig. 4. Two equal and parallel conducting cylinders at interaxial distance 

of D cm. 

by an interaxial distance D = S cm. in a medium of resistivity 
p = 5 X io 10 absohm-cms. we have d = 4, and d/a = 2. 
Y = cosh -1 2 =1.317, and the linear resistance is 

5 x io 1 


-r x 1.3 17 = 2.096 x io 10 absohm-cms. 


Linear Conductance of Double-Cylinder Systems. — The linear 
conductance of a double cylinder system will be half that of a plane- 
cylinder system of equal d/a ; so that : 


*• = pcosh-'^) - JY - T abmhos per cm - < 33) 

where y is the conductivity of the medium. The conductance- 
factor of the double-cylinder system is therefore half of that given 
in column V. of the table. 

Linear Electrostatic Capacity of Double-Cylinder Systems. — The 
linear capacity C 00 of a double-cylinder system in a dielectric me- 
dium of specific capacity #c is half the capacity of a plane-cylinder 
system of equal d/cr ; so that : 

'« = 4 cosh-V/<r) - * 'i? statfarads P"" lo °P cm - (34) 

The linear capacity of each cylinder to the zero-potential plane, 
or the capacity of the system per cylinder-cm., is given by formula 
(7). The capacity factors of a double-cylinder system of given 
d/a are thus half of the values given in column VI. of the table; 
but the capacity factors of the system per " wire " cm. to zero 
potential midplane are those recorded in column VI. 

At interaxial distances large with respect to the cylinder-radii, 
K=log f D/a, and we obtain the well known formula 

—. r^rr\ statfarads per cm. (35) 

The linear capacity of a double-cylinder system expressed in 
microfarads per km. is 

C K \ 

c w f as - =x - • —y microfarads per cm. (36) 

C K \ 

'00" - J~^[ - j7 5 ^ x ^y microfarads per mile (37) 

Potential Distribution in Double Cylinder System. — All of the 
formulas (10) to (31) inclusive referring to the potential distri- 
bution in a plane-cylinder system apply immediately to a double- 



[April 14. 

cylinder system, after the latter has been analyzed into two asso- 
ciated plane-cylinder systems. 

Two Unequal Parallel Conducting Cylinders. 

Let two parallel conducting cylinders, with their axes at C Y C V 
Fig. 5, have unequal radii a x and a t cm., and be separated by an 
interaxial distance D cm. If the' radii were equal, the midplane sfz 
would be the plane of zero potential, when the potentials of the 
cylinders are equal and opposite. The zero-potential plane is, how- 

• •o 

Fig. 5. Two unequal parallel conducting cylinders at interaxial distance of 
D cm. showing the displacement of the zero-potential plane. 

ever, displaced from the larger towards the smaller cylinder through 
a distance of SA/2D cm. ; so that : 

, D 2A 
d * = l + 2D 

^ 2 " 2 "" 2D 




where 2 = <r x + <*% is the sum and A = a x — <r 2 is the difference of 
the cylinder radii. 


After having established the position of the zero-potential plane 
Z'OZ, the linear resistance between the cylinders may be found by 
using formula (i) on each side of the plane and adding the two 
parts. The linear conductance will then be the reciprocal of this 

The linear capacity of each cylinder to zero-potential plane is 
to be found by formula (7). The linear capacity per loop cm. may 
be found from the linear resistance per loop cm. by the formula : 

2 ty+ Y) statfarads P cr cm - (39) 

For example, if two conducting cylinders of radii <r 1 = 2 and 
^=1 cm., respectively, are separated in air by an interaxial dis- 
tance of 8 cm., the zero-potential plane is displaced through a dis- 
tance of ft cm., so that d 1 =4ft, rf 2 = 3il cm. The ratio djv x is 
thus 2.094, and dja 2 is 3.815. The distance factor Y t is 1.37, and 
Y t is 2.014. The linear capacity of C x is 0.365 statfarads per cm. 
and of C s 0.248 statfarads per cm., each to zero-potential plane. 
The linear capacity of the pair by (39) is 0.1477 statfarad per 
loop cm. 

The potential distribution in the unequal cylinder system may be 
obtained as easily as when the cylinders are equal, since the polar 
points A x A 2y Fig. 4, lie at equal distances from the zero-potential 
plane Z'OZ. 

Excentric Cylinders. 

Let the two parallel very thin conducting cylinders be hollow, 
with radii a x and <r 2 . Let one be placed excentrically within the 
other, as shown in Fig. 6, at an interaxial distance D. Let the line 
C X C 2 joining their centers be prolonged as indicated in the figure. 
The infinite zero-potential plane will perpendicularly intersect this 
line at an inferred distance of SA/2D cm. from the middle point of 
D; so that: 

2A D 
d ^^D + l cm - ( 4 °) 


a 2A D i \ 

d *-^D~l Cm ' < 4I > 



[April *4* 

The linear resistance between the cylinders can now be determined 
by finding the linear resistance of each to the infinite conducting 
plane by formula (i) and then taking the difference between these 
linear resistances. 

Thus, let Oi = 4 cm., <r 2 = 2 cm., D = 1 cm. Then 2 = 6, A = 2, 
and ^ = 6.5 cm., ^ = 5.5 cm. 

The resistance factor for d 2 by the table is 0.2657. 

The resistance factor for d x by the table is 0.1697. 

The resistance factor between d 2 and d t 0.0960. 



Fig. 6. 

Two parallel excentric cylinders, one enclosing the other, and the 
inferred common zero-potential plane. 

which multiplied by the resistivity of the medium gives the linear 
resistance between the cylinders. 

Through the use of formulas (40) and (41) all cases of excen- 
tric cylinders may be computed by reduction to the equivalent pair 
of plane-cylinder systems. 

Graphical Construction of Equipotential and Stream Lines 
in a Plane-Cylinder System. 
To draw the equipotential and stream lines of a plane-cylinder 
system, when the polar distance OA or distance a of the polar axis 



from the parallel plane is known, draw sOK, Fig. 7, to represent 
the plane and on the median line OY, perpendicular to zOK mark 
off, to scale, the polar distance a = OA. Then to locate any 
equipotential circle of radius <r=OE', mark off with center O, a 
distance d=OC=AE'. With center C and the required radius 
a, describe the equipotential circle FEB. The distance factor Y 
for this circle will be expressed by 

F=» 2 tanh" 


numeric (42) 

where y x is the distance OF or the y coordinate of the lowest point 

d totf 

Fig. 7. Diagram for graphic construction of equipotential and stream lines. 

°n the circle. The potential of the circle with reference to the 
Phne will be 


u= —Y abvolts (43) 

To draw a stream line which shall include with the median line 
OA the nth part of all the linear flux in the system, mark off on 
OK a distance OG = a cot 2v/n; so that the angle OGA will con- 
tain 2v/n radians. Then with center G and radius GA, describe 
the circular arc AH, which is the required stream-line. 

It may be observed that if we draw two coordinate axes ov ow 
in the vw plane, the function tanh (v-\-w\/ — 1) will correspond 
on the yz plane to the required loci, magnified by a. The locus 
of this function, when v is given successive constant values and 
w alone varies, is a series of equipotential circles, while when w 
is successively assigned constant values and v alone varies, the 
loci of successive stream-lines are produced. If w is expressed 
in terms of v as w/n and 2v= Y, we have 

OF = a tanh v = d — a cm. (44) 

OB = a coth v = d-{-a cm. (45) 

CE = a/sinh Y = a cm. (46) 

OC=a coth Y = d cm. (47) 

also OH=a tan ir/n cm. (48) 

OK=a cot v/n cm. (49) 

GA = a/ sin (2ir/n) cm. (50) 

OG = o cot 2v/n cm. (51) 

Fig. 8 presents the graphical construction of the function 
tanh (v + w V — i ) carried from the vw plane to the ys plane, over 
the limits v= — 1 to z/ = +i and w= — v/2 to «/ = + ir/2. 
The points marked on the vw plane have their corresponding points 
marked on the yz plane. Thus the point p defined by z/=i.o, 
w=w/2 on the vw plane is represented by the point p defined by 
y = 1.313, z = o, on the yz plane, or tanh (1 + v/2-yf — 1) = 1.313. 
Corresponding areas on the two planes are shaded alike. It fol- 
lows from the formulas already discussed that linear resistances, con- 
ductances and capacities are the same between corresponding conduct- 
ing surfaces in the two diagrams. Thus, the linear resistance of the 
double-cylinder system pqrs — tuvx is equal to the linear resistance 
of the rectangular slab system with pqrs as one electrode and tuvx 



as the other; i. e., 2/v absohm-cm. Moreover, the linear resist- 
ance of any curvilinear element, such as between qr on one cylinder, 
and uv on the other, in the yz system, is equal to the linear resist- 
ance between the parallel electrodes qr and uv on the rectilinear 
vw system (io/ir absohm-cms. with unit resistivity). 

Fig. 8. Graphical comparison of (v + wV — i) and of tanh (v + wV — i). 

In Fig. 8, a=0A = i; but it is easy to see that the proposi- 
tion of equal linear resistances, conductances and capacities between 
corresponding conductors in the double-cylinder and corresponding 
rectangular slab systems, is independent of the magnification in 
the diagram. 



[April 24, 




















sinh Y 



1 .01 

































0.66l I 
























1. 1232 






































































































































0.31 10 

0.51 17 




3-7 ' 




































2. 1 137 




























































0.2 181 







































xi y 





•inn Y 






























5.61 16 































































































' 0.3071 












0.541 1 














0.561 1 



0.14 18 









































































































a 1 185 







0.1 169 







0.1 155 







0.1 141 







0.1 129 














0.1 106 



















[April J4# 




















sinh Y 




















0.21 19 

























































1. 2 10 




























1. 1464 







1. 1298 









































a 16834 









































I. 0l80 









0.9725 • 













0.15 109 




















1. 0716 

0.1485 1 






















0.915 1 












I.I I46 







1. 1284 





















1. 164O 














1. 1838 












VI . 






sinh K 
































1 100 






1 100 



































































0.1 1986 







0.1 1920 







O.1 1857 





















0.1 1687 







0.1 1636 







0.1 1587 







0.1 1540 







0.1 1495 







0.1 1452 














0.1 1370 







0.1 1332 







0.1 1295 







0.1 1259 







0.1 1224 







0.1 1 191 



















9.01 18 


0.1 1097 







0.1 1067 







0.1 1038 























































a= polar distance or distance of polar axis from parallel plane 

in a plane-cylinder system, cm. 

c p = linear capacity of plane-cylinder system, statfarads/cm. 

Cp = linear capacity of plane-cylinder system, microfarads/km. 

c p " = linear capacity of plane-cylinder system, microfarads/mile 

c 00 = linear capacity of double-cylinder system, statfarads/cm. 

c 00 ' = linear capacity of double-cylinder system, microfarads/km. 

c^" = linear capacity of double-cylinder system, microfarads/mile 

d = distance of cylinder axis from plane, cm. 

d x d s = distances of cylinder axes from plane in double-cylinder 

system with unequal cylinders, cm. 

D = 2d or interaxial distance between two cylinders in a double 

cylinder system, cm. 

A = o- 1 — <r 2 = difference in radii of two cylinders, cm. 

8 = current density at a point in the medium, absamperes/cm. 1 . 

g p = linear conductance of plane-cylinder system, abmho/cm. 

<7 00 = linear conductance of double-cylinder system, abmho/cm. 

K = specific inductive capacity of medium, 

y = conductivity of medium, abmho/cm. 

/ = linear current in a system, absamperes/cm. 

L= length of flux paths in rectangular slab, cm. 

w=r'/r, polar ratio, or ratio of vector lengths from poles to 

a point in the medium, numeric 

i/n=a fractional part of the total linear flux, limited by a 

1 stream line. , 

w= 3.I4IS9 •••• 

rj = polar distances or vector lengths from poles to a point. 

r p = linear resistance of a plane-cylinder system absohm/cm. 

r 00 = linear resistance of a double-cylinder system, absohm/cm. 

<£= linear electric-flux in a system, statmaxwells/cm. 

p = resistivity of medium, absohm-cm. 

S= linear surface area of a conducting slab, cm.Vcm. 

2 = <r t + <r 2 = sum of radii of two unequal cylinders, cm. 
<r= radius of a cylinder, cm. 
u = potential of a cylinder, abvolts or statvolts 

vw = rectangular coordinates of points in a plane, cm. 

Y= distance* factor of a system = cosh -1 (d/<r), numeric 

yz= rectangular coordinates of points in a plane, cm. 

y x y t = y-coordinates of points on median line below a cylinder, cm. 

y 8 y 4 = y-coordinates of points on median line above a cylinder, cm. 

Kirchhoff, Dr. S. 
1845. Uber den Durchgang eines elektrischen Stromes durch eine Ebene 

insbesondere durch eine kreisformige. Poggendorfs Annalen, 184s 

Vol. 44, pp. 497-514. 


Smaaaen, Dr. W. 

1846. Vom dynamischen Gleichgewicht der Electricitat in einer Ebene oder 
einem Korper. Poggendorfs Annalen, 1846, Vol. 69, pp/161-180. 

Vom dynamischen Gleichgewicht der Elektricitat in einem Korper und in 
unbegranzten Raum. 

1847. /' Cimento, An V., 1847, May-June. 

187a Carl's Reperiorium fur experim. Physik, Vol. 6, 1870, p. 11. 


186a. Ann. de Chim. et de Physique, 1862, Ser. 3, Vol. 66, p. 203. 


Resistance Electrique de TEspace compris entre deux cylindres, quoted by 

Gaugain in 1862; also Journal de Physique, Vol. 3, p. 115, April, 1874. 
Smith, W. Robertson. 

1869-70. Proc. Edin. Roy. Soc, 1869-70, pp. 79-99. 
Foster, 6. C, and Lodge, 0. 
1875. On the Flow of Electricity in a uniform plane Conducting Surface. 

Phil Mag., 1875, 4th Ser., Vol. 49, pp. 385-400 and 453-471. 
Heaviaide, 0. 
1880. The Electrostatic Capacity of Suspended Wires. Jour. Soc. Tel. 

Engrs., 1880, Vol. 9, p. 115. Electrical Papers. London, Vol. I, pp. 42-46. 
Kennelly, A. £. 
189a. The Problem of Eccentric Cylinders. The Electrical World, N> Y., 

1892, Vol. 20, pp. 338-339. 
Houston, £. J., and Kennelly, A. E. 
1894. The Inductance and Capacity of Suspended Wires. The Electrical 

World, 1894, Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 6. 
Lichtenatein, Leo. 
1904. Uber die rechnerische Bestimmung der Capacitat von Luftleitern and 

Kabeln. E. T. Z., 1904, p. 126. 
1907. Die Wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, Berlin, 1907, 

p. 44-46. 




(Read April 24, 1909) 

i. Apparatus. — The remarkable refinement which has been at- 
tained (notably by Mr. Ives and others) in the construction of 
celluloid replicas of the plane grating, makes it desirable to con- 
struct a simple apparatus whereby the spectrum may be shown 
and the measurement of wave-length made, in a way that does 
justice to the astonishing performance of the grating. We have, 
therefore, thought it not superfluous to devise the following inex- 
pensive contrivance, in which the wave-length is strictly propor- 
tional to the shift of the carriage at the eye-piece; which for the 
case of a good 2-meter scale divided into centimeters, admits of a 
measurement of wave-length to a few Angstrom units and with 
a millimeter scale should go much further. 

Observations are throughout made on both sides of the incident 
rays and from the mean result most of the usual errors should be 
eliminated by symmetry. 

In Fig. 1, A and B are two double slides, like a lathe bed, 155 
cm. long and 11 cm. apart, which happened to be available for 
optical purposes, in the Laboratory. They were therefore used, 
although single slides at right angles to each other, similar to Row- 
land's, would have been preferable. The carriages C and D, 30 cm. 
long, kept at a fixed distance apart by the rod aRb, are in practice 
a length of £-inch gas pipe, swivelled at a and 6, 169.4 centimeters 
apart, and capable of sliding right and left and to and fro, normally 
to each other. 

1 The investigations in this paper were undertaken throughout in con- 
junction with my son, Mr. Maxwell Barus; but it seemed advisable that I 
should undertake the publication in these Proceedings myself, with the 
present acknowledgment. 





The swivelling joint which functioned excellently, is made very 
simply of ^-inch gas pipe Ts and nipples, as shown in Fig. 2. The 
lower nipple N is screwed tight into the T, but all but tight into 
the carriage D, so that the rod ab turns in the screw N, kept oiled. 
Similarly the nipple N" is either screwed tight into the T (in one 

Fig. 1. 

Plan of apparatus. A A, BB, slides; C, D, carriages ; 
R, connecting rod. 

method, revoluble grating), or all but tight (in another method, sta- 
tionary grating), so that the table tt, which carries the grating g 
may be fixed while the nipple N" swivels in the T. Any ordinary 


laboratory clamp K and a similar one on the upright c (screwed into 
the carriage S) secures a small rod k for this purpose. Again a hole 
may be drilled through the standards at K and c and provided with 
set screws to fix a horizontal rod k or check. The rod k should be 
long enough to similarly fix the standard on the slide S carrying the 
slit and be prolonged further toward the rear to carry the flame or 
Geissler tube apparatus. The table tt is revoluble on a brass rod 
fitting within the gas pipe, which has been slotted across so that the 
conical nut M may hold it firmly. The axis passes through the 
middle of the grating, which is fastened centrally to the table tt with 
the usual tripod adjustment. 

2. Single Focusing Lens in Front of Grating. — I shall describe 
three methods in succession, beginning with the first. Here a large 
lens L, of about 56 cm. focal distance and about 10 cm. in diameter, 
is placed just in front of the grating, properly screened and throw- 
ing an image of the slit 5* upon the cross-hairs of the eye-piece E, 
the line of sight of which is always parallel to the rod ab, the end 
b swivelled in the carriage C, as stated (see Fig. 2). An ordinary 
lens of 5 to 10 cm. focal distance, with an appropriate diaphragm, 
is adequate and in many ways preferable to stronger eye-pieces. 
The slit S, carried on its own slide and capable of being clamped to 
c when necessary, as stated, is additionally provided with a long 
rod hh lying underneath the carriage, so that the slit 5* may be 
put accurately in focus by the observer at C. F is a carriage 
for the mirror or the flame or other source of light whose spectrum 
is to be examined; or the source may be adjustable on the rear of 
the rod by which D and S are locked together. 

Finally the slide AB is provided with a scale ss and the position 
of the carriage C read off by aid of the vernier v. A good wooden 
scale graduated in centimeters happened to be available, the vernier 
reading to within one millimeter. For more accurate work a brass 
scale in millimeters with an appropriate vernier should of course 
be used. 

Eye-piece E, slit S, flame F, etc., may be raised and lowered by 
the split tube devise shown as at M and M' in Fig. 2. 

3. Adjustments. — The first general test which places slit, grating 
and its spectra and the two positions of the eye-piece in one plane, 




is preferably made with a narrow beam of sunlight, though lamp- 
light suffices in the dark. Thereafter let the slit be focused with 
the eye-piece on the right marking the position of the slit; next 
focus the slit for the eye-piece on the left ; then place the slit mid- 
way between these positions and now focus by slowly rotating the 
grating. The slit will then be found in focus for both positions 

7 ^tTjV 

Tig. Z 

Fig. 2. Elevation of the grating (g) and the eyepiece (E) standards. 

and the grating which acts as a concave lens counteracting L will 
be symmetrical with respect to both positions. 

Let the grating be thus adjusted when fixed normally to the slide 
# or parallel to A. Then for the first order of the spectra the 
wave-length X=d sin $, where d is the grating space and the 
angle of diffraction. The angle of incidence i is zero. 

Again let the grating, adjusted for symmetry, be free to rotate 
with the rod ab. Therf $ is zero and X=d sin i. 

In both cases however if 2x be the distance apart of the car- 



riage C, measured on the scale ss, for the effective length of rod 
ab = r between axis and axis, 

\ = dx/r or (d/2r)2x, 

so that in either case A and x are proportional quantities. 

The whole spectrum is not however clearly in focus at one time, 
though the focusing by aid of the rod hh is not difficult. For 
extreme positions a pulley adjustment, operating on the ends of h 

Figs. 3, 4, 5. Diagrams. 

is a convenience, the cords running around the slide A A. In fact 
if the slit is in focus when the eye-piece is at the center (0=o, 
f = 0) at a distance a from the grating, then for the fixed grating, 
Fig. 4, 

r 2 

a! = a 



where a' is the distance between grating and slit for the diffraction 
corresponding to x. Hence the focal distance of the grating re- 
garded as a concave lens is /' = ar 2 /x*. For the fixed grating and 
a given color, it frequently happens that the undeviated ray and 
the diffracted rays of the same color are simultaneously in focus, 
though this does not follow from the equation. 

Again for the rotating grating, Fig. 3, if a" is the distance be- 
tween slit and grating 

r 2 — ** 
af'-a 1 —^-, 

so that its focal distance is 

r* — x* 

It follows also that o'Xfl" = d 2 . For a = 80 cm. and sodium light, 
the adjustment showed roughly f = 6$o cm., /" = 570, the be- 
havior being that of weak concave lenses. The same a = 80 cm. 
and sodium light showed furthermore a' = 91 and a" = 70.3. 

Finally there is a correction needed for the lateral shift of rays, 
due to the fact that the grating film is enclosed between two moder- 
ately thick plates of glass (total thickness t = .gg cm.) of the index 
of refraction n. This shift thus amounts to 

ixf 1 L_A* 

But since this shift is on the rear side of the lens L, its effect on 
the eye-piece beyond will be (if / is the principal focal distance and 
6 the conjugate focal distance between lens and eye-piece, remem- 
bering that the shift must be resolved parallel to the scale ss) 


t .. ■ ..- 


where the correction e is to be added to 2x, and is positive for the 
rotating grating and negative for the stationary grating. 

Hence in the mean values of 2x for stationary and rotating 
grating the effect of e is eliminated. For a given lens at a fixed 
distance from the eye-piece (b/f — 1) is constant. 



4. Data for Single Lens in Front of Grating. — In conclusion we 
select a few results taken at random from the notes. 



Observed ajr'. 


Corrected ax. 




H. Violet 


















The real test is to be sought in the coresponding values of 2x 
for the stationary and rotating cases, and these are very satisfactory, 
remembering that a centimeter scale on wood and a vernier reading 
to millimeters only was used for measurement. 

5. Single Focusing Lens Behind the Grating. — The lens Z/, which 
should be achromatic, is placed in the standard behind g. The light 
which passes through the grating is now convergent, whereas it was 
divergent in §2. Hence the focal points at distances a', a" lie in 
front of the grating ; but in other respects the conditions are similar 
but reversed. Apart from signs, for the stationary grating 

a! m*a — p — , 
and for the rotating grating 


The correction for shift loses the factor (b/f — 1) and becomes 



As intimated, it is negative for the rotating grating and positive for 
the stationary grating. It is eliminated in the mean values. 

6. Data. Single Lens Behind the Grating. — An example of 
the results will suffice. Different parts of the spectrum require 

Grating. Line. 

Stationary D% 

Rotating £>, 




1 184O 

+ .13 



— .13 



The values of zx, remembering that a centimeter scale was used, 
are again surprisingly good. The shift is computed by the above 
equation. It may be eliminated in the mean of the two methods. 
The lens L' may be more easily and firmly fixed than L. 

7. Collimator Method. — The objection to the above single-lens 
methods is the fact that the whole spectrum is not in sharp focus at 
once. Their advantage is the simplicity of the means employed. If 
a lens at L' and at L are used together, the former as a collimator 
(achromatic) and with a focal distance of about 50 cm., and the 
latter (focal distance to be large, say 150 cm.) as the objective of 
a telescope, all the above difficulties disappear and the magnification 
may be made even excessively large. The whole spectrum is bril- 
liantly in focus at once and the corrections for the shift of lines 
due to the plates of the grating vanish. Both methods for stationary 
and rotating gratings give identical results. The adjustments are 
easy and certain, for with sunlight (or lamplight in the dark) the 
image of the slit may be reflected back from the plate of the grating 
on the plane of the slit itself, while at the same time the transmitted 
image may be equally sharply adjusted on the focal plane of the 
eye-piece. It is therefore merely necessary to place the plane of 
spectra horizontal. Clearly a' and a" are all infinite. 

In this method the slide 5" and D are clamped at the focal dis- 
tance apart, so that flame, etc., slit, collimator lens and grating move 
together. The grating may or may not be revoluble with the lens L 
on the axis a. 

8. Data for the Collimator Method. — The following data chosen 
at random may be discussed. The results were obtained at different 
times and under different conditions. The grating nominally con- 
tained about 15,050 lines per inch. The efficient rod length ab was 
U= 169.4 cm. Hence if i/C= 15,050 X -3937 X 338.8, the wave- 
length \=C-2x cm. 

Grating. Lines. 

Stationary D* 

Rotating D t 

Stationary D% 

Rotating D, 

9X 1 



I l8.I9 




I I8.I6 

1 18.05 



Rowland's value of D 2 is 58.92 X io -6 cm. ; the mean of the two 
values of 2x just stated will give 58.87 X io -6 cm. The difference 
may be due either to the assumed grating space, or to the value of R 
inserted, neither of which were reliable absolutely to much within 
.1 per cent. 

Curious enough an apparent shift effect remains in the values of 
2x for stationary and rotating grating, as if the collimation were 
imperfect. The reason for this is not clear, though it must in any 
case be eliminated in the mean result. Possibly the friction involved 
in the simultaneous motion of three slides is not negligible and may 
leave the system under slight strain equivalent to a small lateral 
shift of the slit. 

9. Discussion. — The chief discrepancy is the difference of values 
for 2x in the single lens system (for D 2 , 118.7 and 118.5 c* 11 -* re ~ 
spectively) as compared with a double lens system (for D 2 , 118.2 
cm.) amounting to .2 to .4 per cent. For any given method this dif- 
ference is consistently maintained. It does not, therefore, seem to 
be mere chance. 

We have for this reason computed all the data involved for a 
fixed grating 5 cm. in width, in the two extreme positions, Fig. 5, 
the ray being normally incident at the left hand and the right hand 
edge respectively for the method of § 6. The meaning of the sym- 
bols is clear from Fig. 5, 5" being the virtual source, g the grating, e 
the diffraction conjugate focus of S for normal incidence, so that 
b = r is the fixed length of rod carrying grating and eye-piece. It 
is almost sufficient to assume that all diffracted rays V to b" are 
directed towards e, in which case equations ( 1 ) would hold ; but this 
will not bring out the divergence in question. They were therefore 
not used. Hence the following equations (2) to (5) successively 
apply where d is the grating space. 

( 1 ) cot ff = (b/g + sin 0)/cos 6 ; cot 0" =(b/g — sin 0)/cos ; 

(2) a = b/cos 2 0; a ' = a" =V0 2 + <* 2 ; 
( 3 ) sin i' = sin i" = g/a' ; 

(4) — sint v + sin(^ + ^)=X/d; sin0 = A/d; 

sin i" + sin {6 — ff') =k/d; 

(5) cos 2 i7a / = cos 2 (d + ^ / )/fc'; cos*i"/a?' = cos*($ — r)/b". 


Since 0, g, A, d, b, are given ff and 0" are found in equation (4), 
apart from signs. If 8 X and 8/' be the distance apart of the projec- 
tions of the extremities of V and b, b and fr", respectively, on the 
line x, 

*/ =g+ (b — V) sin Q — V sin i' 

B l "=g+(b ,, — b) sin 6—b" sin t" 

If 8 2 ' and 8 2 " be the distance apart of the intersections of the 
prolongation of V and b, b and b", respectively, with the line x, 

8 2 ' = sin (0 + 0O(& cos 0/cos (0 + 00 — V) 

8 2 " = sin (0 — ff'){b"— &cos0/cos (0 — 0")) 

Given 6=169.4 cm., = 20° 22', about for sodium, <7 = 5 cm., 
the following values are obtained : 

ff = 1 ° 36', a = 192.7 cm., V = 166.0 cm., 

0" = 1 ° 34', a' = a" = 192.8 cm., r = b = 169.4 cm., 

i' = t" = 1 ° 30', b" = 1 72.4 cm., 


8/ = 1 .92 cm., 8 2 " = 1 .74 cm. 

These limits are surprisingly wide. If, however, they should be 
quite wiped out on focusing, for any group of rays and symmetrical 
observations on the two sides of the apparatus, this would be no 
source of discrepancy. The effect of focusing the two parts of the 
grating may, in the first instance, be considered as a prolongation 
of V till it cuts jt, together with the corresponding points for the 
intersection of V with x. Thus the values 8 2 ' and 8 2 " are here in 
question and they are 

8 2 ' = 1 .97 cm., 8 2 ' — 8/ = .05 cm. 

8 2 " = 1 .65 cm., 8/' — 8 2 = .09 cm. 

are the conjugate foci for the extreme rays of the grating, respec- 
tively, beyond the conjugate focus of the middle or normal rays b, 
on x. Hence the mean of the extreme rays lies at .07 cm. beyond 


(greater 0) the normal ray and the A found in the first instance is 
too large as compared with the true value for the normal ray. 

The datum .07 cm. may be taken as the excess of 2x, corre- 
sponding to the excess of angle for a grating one half as wide and 
observed on both sides (2x), as was actually the case. Finally, 
since the whole of the grating is not in focus at once a correction 
less than .07 cm. for 2x must clearly be in question. This is quite 
below the difference of several millimeters brought out in §§ 4 and 6. 

To make this point additionally sure and avoid the assumption 
of the last paragraph, we will compute the conjugate focus of the 
central ray (different angles 0) on the V focal plane parallel to the 
grating and to x and on the V focal plane parallel to x. The com- 
putation is simpler if the central ray is thus focused, than if the 
extreme rays are focused on the x plane. The distance apart will be 

h z '=g — V cos (0 + 00 (tan (0 + 00— tan0), 
h"=9 — &"cos(0 — 0")(tan0 — tan (0 — 0")). 

Inserting the results for 0, 0/, 8", V, b", g, 

S 8 ' = .06, S 3 " = —.04. 

Both the b foci thus correspond to large angles. Their mean, 
however, may be considered as vanishing on the intermediate x 

Thus it is clear that the effect of focusing is without influence 
on the diffraction angle and much within the limits of observation. 
It is therefore probable that the residual discrepancy in the three 
methods is referable to a lateral motion of the slit itself due to 
insufficient symmetry of the slides A A and BB in the above adjust- 
ment. This agrees, moreover, with the residual shift observed in 
the case of parallel rays in § 8. " 

Brown University, 
Providence, R. I. 



(Read April 24, 1909.) 

1. Introductory. — Last year I published some preliminary experi- 
ments 1 in which the coronal display of the fog chamber was stan- 
dardized by aid of the value of Thomson's electron, io 10 * = 3.4 
electrostatic units, and of the known velocity of the ions. Later 
similar experiments were made in terms of the former datum and 
the decay constants of the ions, though this method is not here to 
be considered. In the experiments in question a separate leaded 
condenser was used to determine the ionization, while the nucleation 
was measured in a cylindrical fog chamber. The data, though nec- 
essarily rough, owing to the dampness of the room in the summer 
time, when used for the determination of e by aid of my earlier and 
independent constants of coronas, nevertheless gave a series of 
promising values. In the paper cited it was assumed that the whole 
current due to both positive and negative ions is measured. If, 
however, the current observed is due to negative ions, while the 
negative ions only were caught in the fog chamber used, as now 
appears probable, then the data would be (V denoting the fall of 
potential per second, dV/dr the average field, all referred to volts, N 
the number of nuclei (negative ions), per CUW9 centimeter). 




XO 10 4 

















where the velocity of negative ions in a unit field of dry air is taken 
as t/=i.87 cm./sec. 

1 American Journal of Science, XXVI., 1908, p. 87 ; idem, p. 324. 




[April 24, 

In the following experiments I have returned to the measure- 
ments of N in terms of e and the velocities of the ions, modifying 
the method by using the cylindrical fog chamber both as an-electrical 
condenser for the measurement of current, as well as for the speci- 
fication of the number of ions in action by aid of the coronas of 
cloudy condensation. 


2. Apparatus. — This consists of a cylinder of glass C, F, about 
45 cm. long, 13.4 cm. internal diameter, closed at one end F and pro- 
vided with a brass cap C, with exhaust E and influx attachments /, 
in the usual way. There is a layer of water w at the bottom. The 
glass must be scrupulously clean within ; and this is best secured by 
scouring with a probang of soft rubber under water, until the water 
adheres as an even film on shaking. The fog chamber is put to 
earth, as at e. 

The end F is perforated at h, to receive the aluminum tube tf, 
closed at f and open at t, 40 cm. long and .64 cm. external diameter. 
Sealed tubelets of radium r, r, . . . may be placed at intervals within 
this tube to ionize the surrounding wet air. The walls being about 
.1 cm. thick, p and y rays are wholly in question. Neither emanation 
nor a rays escaped the double thickness of aluminum. The tube tf is 
grasped at t by a sheath of hard rubber with an annular air space 
and fixed in place by a rubber cork. If care be taken to keep the 
tube in dry air except when in use, there is no conduction leakage 
of consequence. 

The end t, moreover, is placed in connection with a Dolezalek 
electrometer, by aid of a thin wire (not shown) running axially 


within an earthed tin drain pipe and away from the fog chamber, 
to escape the action of y rays as much as possible. In fact their 
combined effect does not exceed 2 per cent, and is determined in 
special measurements. 

The keys to the electrometer, 2 etc., were all placed on pillars of 
hard rubber and actuated by long wooden rods from a distance. 
So far as possible the electrical wires of the room were surrounded 
by earthed pipes, but it was not practicable to carry this out com- 
pletely so that a method of correction appears in the work below. 
Even when the electric lighting circuit was completely cut out, the 
electrostatic drift in question remained. 

The measurements were standardized and the electric system 
charged by a Carhart-Clarke cell. 

The radium tubelets used were as follows : 

No. I, 100 milligrams, strength 10,000 X 
No. II, 10 milligrams, strength 200,000 X 
No. Ill, 100 milligrams, strength 10,000 X 
No. IV, 100 milligrams, strength 7,000 X 
No. V, 100 milligrams, strength 20,000 X 

3. Electrical Condensers. — To give the fall of potential a suitably 
small value relatively to the period of the damped drop of the needle, 
a number of auxiliary condensers, C, C", Fig. 1, are needed. It 
suffices, however, to measure three capacities, viz., 

1. That of the cored fog chamber alone, c; 

2. That of a relatively large auxiliary condenser, including 

the electrometer, the piped wires and the fog chamber, 
C" + c; 

3. That of a standard condenser, C, for reference. 

In the present paper C was computed by the equation 
ri A ( 1 / J% \6V^A(d + d') _,_ d+d'\\ 

where A is the area, d the distance apart and d' the thickness of 

*The disposition of condensers C, C", cell, etc., earthed at e is sug- 
gested in Fig. 1. 


the brass plates. Since A is equal 315 sq. cm., d = .o82 cm, 
d'=.6y cm., 

C = 305.6( 1 + .0784) = 330 cm- 

This value will suffice for the present purposes, though it needs 
further correction by comparison with a standard condenser, not 
now at hand. 

A special key was provided (Fig. 1) whereby C could be 
switched into the electrometer system or out of it and put to earth. 
Hence in a series of successive discharges 

(C" + OF = (C" + C' + c)P', 
( C" + c ) V = ( C + C + c ) V", 

etc., so that for n discharges, if the residual potential is V n 

V(C" + c)»=V n (C" + C + c)», 

from which the total capacity C=C" + C + c is determinable in 
terms of C. The results were : 

Positive charge, C" + C' + c= 1,445, *M3, *A2*, 

Negative charge, C" + C +c= 1,482, 1,480, 

Mean C= 1,459, 

the experiments alternating from positive to negative charge, be- 
cause of the marked drift by the electrometer system when isolated 
from the cell, as already specified. To measure the small capaci- 
ties c, of the fog chamber, the same method with ten discharges 
suffices, if C" is excluded and C retained. Thus the data were 
successively found, 

+ Charge, c=ii.8 12.4 12.2 12.9, 

— Charge, c = io.8 10.4 11.1 11.5, 

Mean c = ii.3 114 11.6 11.2, 

eliminating the drift in the final mean, c = 114. 

Since the capacity c in terms of the effective internal radius R 2 
and external radius R t the length / of the clindrical condenser may 
be written 

ik*£- 1 


the constant c furnishes a mean value for the factor on the left. 
The ratio of 4.6 c to the measured value of (log RJR % )/1 was 
.568, a reduction factor used throughout the tables below. 

4. Method Pursued. — If C is equal to C"~\-C + c we may 
write the equation for the negative ionization N (positive charge) 

N _ C\nRJZ l d(\nV) _ K d(\nV) 
** 6ocnrlve dt dt ' 

where if j, if 2 and / are the effective radii and length of the con- 
denser, io 10 * = 34, ^=1.51 cm./sec., and w=i.37 cm./sec, the 
velocity of the negative and positive ions in the unit field, volt/cm., 
in case of moist air. The factor (In RJRJ/l is replaced by 1/2C, 
as specified in §3, which must here be regarded as an adequate 
correction for the ends and the imperfect cylindricity of the con- 
denser fog chamber. 

Similarly the equation for the positive ionization is (negative 

** 6ooirlue dt dt 

and the total ionization is therefore N -(- N'. 

The experiments below will show that even if the fog chamber 
is put to earth, there is a drift towards negative potential, suffi- 
ciently steady to be eliminated in the mean results. Hence if V 
be the effective negative potential of the wet glass envelope we may 
write tentatively, 

„_.^Q or N ( t _$)..<J*p 

where V is intrinsically negative. 

N '{ 1 + y) 

dt ' 

Hence if V = V, N -\-N' the total ionization is again 

Direct experiments, however, show that the drift results from 


the influx of a high permanent positive voltage. Curiously enough 
even when the lighting circuit is cut out, the effect remained with 
undiminished intensity. It will appear elsewhere, that in the absence 
of radium and of initial charge in the condenser, the equation 
I = CV where V for any given ionization is a constant negative 
quantity, applies very closely within the limits of measurable F 
values. Hence in the presence of radium in the core of the cylin- 
drical fog chamber and a positive charge, 

7 + 6oo7rlVNev/(ln RJR 2 ) = CV. 
Thus in this case 

NV=Kd(V—V )/dt; —N'V' = K'd(—V'—V )/dt, 

and for the same V=V, to a first approximation 

N + N' = d( K In V + k' In V) Ymy ,/dt, 

as before. If the equation for N is integrated and N/k = K, 
since I = CV , V being intrinsically negative, 

r- «-»( V e - VJK) + VJK; V . «-«( V,' + VJK') - VJK', 

where V and V c ' are the initial positive and negative potentials. 
The constant V increases with the strength of the ionization but has 
a fixed value for a given ionization. 

5. Data: High Ionization: Currents — The tables 8 investigated 
contain the mean potentials V, the positive and negative logarithmic 
currents d(log V)/dt (apart from the constant), the apparent 
nucleation N positive and N' negative, computed from these data 
and additional information as to conduction leakage and effect of 
y rays. In most of the cases the corresponding logarithmic cur- 
rents due to y rays outside the fog chamber was carefully measured 
in the same units, by placing a short hard-rubber rod between the 
end t of the aluminum tube, Fig. 1, and the wire leading to the 
electrometer. This cuts out the fog chamber but leaves the whole 
remaining circuit undisturbed. Similarly the leak value of 
d(log V)/dt in the absence of radium and due to mere conduction 
of moist parts is always quite negligible. Thus in the data in 

8 The tables will be removed for brevity, as Figs. 2-4 sufficiently repro- 
duce the data. 


question for relative logarithmic currents of the order of .035, 
the y ray effect is .0010, the conduction leakage smaller than .0001. 
The other extreme, 1. e., the value of d(log V)/dt for the freely 
falling needle is about .1 in the same units. Hence it follows that 
if the needle falls faster than would be quite trustworthy, the 
auxiliary capacity selected is too small. The time interval between 
observations for V was 4 sec, throughout. 

6. The Same: Coronas. — These results (to be given in Figs. 
2a and 2) contain the data for the maximum ionizations obtainable 
with the radium tubelets I., II., III., IV., V. at my disposal. The 
corresponding corona was a large orange-yellow type, representing 
(in my former reductions) 506,000 nuclei in the exhausted fog 
chamber. I have supposed this to be equivalent to 653,000 when 
the fog chamber is at atmospheric pressure, seeing that the coronas 
are actually displaced during exhaustion; i. e., at the maximum 
ionization does not coincide in the position with the largest corona 
on exhaustion, 4 but is displaced in the direction of the exhaust 
currents. The observation would seem to mean that exhaustion 
is more rapid than the reproduction of ions to restock the region 
of dilatation. In general this inherent discrepancy of a marked 
distribution of ionization increasing from end to end of the fog 
chamber is still outstanding. It is partially allowed for since the 
observations are made near the middle of the chamber where the 
average conditions supervene. 

7. The Same: Summary. — The data given in Fig. 2a merely show 
the fall of potential in scale readings, in the successive observations 
4 seconds apart, for positive and negative charges. Fig. 2 gives the 
corresponding positive and negative apparent ionizations. If the 
two curves between .8 and 1.2 volts be considered, the mean ioniza- 
tion of each is 

Apparent positive ions (negative charge), N= 540,000. 
Apparent negative ions (positive charge), #' = 1,164,000. 
Total true ionization, N + N' = 1,704,000. 

Total nuclei caught, 650,000. 

It will be seen that N -f AP i s the true total ionization, positive 

* See papers cited ; also Science, XXVIII., p. 26, 1908. 



[April J* 

and negative, if io 10 * = 34. Only 65/170, or about 38 per cent., 
of this is actually caught in the given fog chamber on exhaustion, 
provided the old coronal values are corect. 

If, however, it is assumed that negative ions only are caught 


during exhaustion in the fog chamber in question, then the value of 
the electron would be 

io 10 * = 3.4 X 2.62 X i=44 electrostatic units. 

The irregularities of the curves, Fig. 2, are due in part to fluctua- 
tions of the drift and in part to errors inevitable in derivations so 


close together; but such errors necessarily compensated each other 
in the mean values. 

10. Data: Moderate Ionization: Electrical Currents. — These re- 
sults were obtained by placing but one radium tubelet, No. IV., in 
the aluminum tube tf of the condenser-fog-chamber. The data 
were found in the same way as in the above. Af = #cd (log V)/dt, 
as usual. 

Both positive and negative currents were observed in succession 
and the true total ionization is N -\-N' as before. Moreover, the 
capacity of the condensers were widely varied, 410 to 1459 cm., 
without showing serious divergences. 

11. The Same: Coronas. — At a fall of pressure of 21 cm. (and 
somewhat below) or $/>//> = .27, the nucleation was stationary and 
equal to N= 113,000 in the exhausted fog chamber. At atmos- 
pheric pressure therefore 113,000X1-37=154,000 nuclei should 
have been present. The effect of a charge on the core of the con- 
denser did not appreciably diminish the nucleation. 

12. The Same: Summary. — The successive observations in scale 
parts at intervals, 30 seconds apart, are shown in Fig. 3a, the slopes 
only being of interest. The apparent values of N are given in Fig. 3. 
All the four series show about the same drift, even though taken 
many days apart. The condenser effect (excessive rapidity of 
needle) may be considered eliminated for capacities greater than 
500 cm. 

By averaging the ionizations between V = .6 and ^=1.24 in 
both curves the data found are as follows: 

Apparent negative ions, AT = 278,000. 
Apparent positive ions, AT' = 107,000. 
True total ions, N + N' = 385,000. 
Total nuclei, 180,000. 

Hence about 47 per cent, of all the ions were caught on exhaustion, 
if the values of u, v, e, N, inserted, are correct. Supposing that 
negative ions only are caught in the above fog chamber, the value 
of the electron would be • 

10™* = 34 X 2.14 X i = 3-6 electrostatic units. 



[April u, 



13. Data: Small Ionization: Electric Currents. — In the next 
series of experiments the aluminum tube ff , Fig. 1, was surrounded 
by a lead tube with walls .117 cm. thick, leaving the y rays only 
effective and these much reduced in intensity. The data are suffi- 
ciently given in the following charts. 

14. The Same: Coronas. — The coronas found at a drop of pres- 
sure similar to the above Bp/p = .300, corresponded in my tables to 
46,200 nuclei in the exhausted fog chamber. Hence at atmospheric 
pressure there should have been 64,000. The effect of charging the 
core was not definite. 

15. The Same: Summary. — The drop of potential in scale parts, 
in successive intervals 30 cm. apart, is given in Fig. 4a, showing how 
much slower the negative charges are lost than the positive charges. 
The apparent values of AT are given in Fig. 4, to which remarks 
similar to those already made are applicable. There is the usual 
drift and the usual temporary fluctuation. 

If the mean data be taken between F=i.i and 1.4 volts, the 
results are 

Apparent positive ions, N' = 37,000. 
Apparent negative ions, N = 98,000. 
True total ionization, N -f- N' = 135,000. 
Total nuclei caught, 60,000. 

It follows, then, that about 44 per cent, of the total ionization 
computed from io 10 * = 3.4, u and v, is caught on condensation. 

If we suppose the negative ions only are caught in the above fog 
chamber the electron value is 

e X io 10 = 34 X 2.3 X i = 3-9 electrostatic units. 

Conclusion. — Supposing the electron value to be io 10 *== 3.4 elec- 
trostatic units as before, the normal velocities of the ions in wet air 
to be 14=1.37, ^=1.51 cm./sec, in the volt/cm. field, the coronal 
equivalent of the ions caught in the above fog chamber is in the 
several cases, 

Total ions, 1,700,000, Total nuclei, 38 per cent. 

385,000, 47 per cent. 

135,000, 44 per cent. 


When N is 1,700,000 the coronas are too diffuse for sharp speci- 
fication. If it is assumed that negative ions only are caught, and if 
the nucleations corresponding to the coronas seen in the given fog 
chamber be taken as developed in my earlier work, then for 

N + N'= 1,700,000, 385,000, 135,000, 

the electron values are 

io 10 * = 44, 3.6, 3,9, 
electrostatic units. 

With regard to the two parts of this paper that need revision 
the first, the comparison of the computed condenser capacity C with 
a standard, is a minor matter; but the other, s. e., the marked dis- 
tribution of ionization along the axis of the fog chamber, will need 
further inquiry. In the direction of the exhaustion the amount of 
ionization may vary in the ratio of more than 1 to 2, in a fog cham- 
ber of about one half meter of length; and this under conditions 
where there should apparently be no variations and irrespective of 
the production of radiation from within or from outside of the fog 

Brown University, 
Providence, R. I. 


(Read April 24, 1909) 

I. Introductory. — The difficulties encountered in the preceding 
paper (§4), were made the subject of direct investigation by replac- 
ing the fog chamber with a metallic cylindrical condenser, the core 
of which was an aluminum tube, 50 cm. long and .63 cm. in diameter, 
the shell a brass tube, 50 cm. long and 2.1 cm. in diameter, coaxial 
with the former. Sealed radium tubelets could be placed within the 
aluminum tube, or withdrawn from it. Moreover, either the outer 
coat or the core of the condenser could be joined in turn with the 
Dolezalek electrometer, the other being put to earth. The conduct- 
ing system now appears as follows (Fig. 1), C being the outer coat 
or brass shell, A the aluminum core and r the radium tubes in the 
cylindrical core. Conductors are earthed at e. BB show the 
metallic connections with the auxiliary condensers C, C". £ is one 
of the insulated quadrants of the electrometer with the highly 
charged needle N, E being virtually also a condenser. 


A Clark standard cell may be inserted for standardization, but 
it is otherwise withdrawn. 

Direct experiment showed the self charging tendencies to come 
apparently from the highly charged needle N, as if positive ions were 
loged into the conductor EBB A for a positive needle, negative ions 



for a negative needle. In addition to this however there is a 
voltaic difference, aluminum-brass, at AC when radium is in place 
and the medium therefore highly ionized. The latter potentials are 
usually negligible. These are the chief electromotive forces, the 
first very high (150 volts) and in a weakly ionized medium; the 
other low (.2 volt) but in an intensely ionized medium: thus they 
may produce equal currents. Other voltages such as the room 
potential may be operative, but their effect is secondary. If the 
capacities C, C", are successively removed the electrometer current 
increases proportionately, showing its origin to be directed from the 
needle toward the insulated or non-earthed pair of quadrants. 

If the condenser metals are reversed (see Fig. 1), the voltaic 
couple is reversed. This makes it possible to obtain both the voltaic 
contact potential and the ionization in the condenser C, from a pair 
of commutated measurements. 

2. Theory. — Let V n be the potential at the, electrometer, V e the 
voltaic potential difference of the two metals of the condenser, V the 
potential of the insulated conductor BB, measured by the electrom- 
eter. Let n be the hypothetical ionization in the electrometer, N the 
(radium) ionization in the condenser (length /, radii R 19 7?,). Let 
C be the total capacity of the systems CBBE. Then 

where A is a constant, u and v the normal velocities of the positive 
and negative ions, e the charge of the electron. The needle is posi- 
tively charged. This may be written 

V=K — K(V-V e ), 
where for N = o, K = o, or 

V=V a = A(V n — V)n, 
i. e., the current in the electrometer, observed in the absence of 
radium, from needle to quadrants. This is directly measurable with 
accuracy. It is nearly proportional to V n since V is much within 
1 per cent, of V n . 

The integral of this equation is, t being the time, 

V={V a /K)(i-KV c /V a )(i-e-«). 


If now^he needle is left positively charged, but the condenser metals 
exchanged (commutated), so that the aluminum core is earthed and 
the shell put in contact with the electrometer (see figure), the equa- 
tion becomes 

V f =(V a /K)(i+KV /V a (i — e- Kt ). 
Let k = N/K and k' = N/K' where K' refers to the normal 
velocity of positive ions, u. Then if k = V c /KV a , and k' = Vc/*'Va, 

V=V a (i — kN)e- Kt . 
V'=V a (i + kN)e-". 
If the potential V = V w ditt=oo, 

V. = KVa/N — V„ VJ = kV g /N + Vo, 

two equations from which both N and V may be found, if the 
limiting potentials V m , VJ, and the electrometer current V* are 
severally observed. If V m is not obtainable, it may be computed 
from observations at t and t x = 2t, as 

V m ^=(2V—V 1 )/V 2 and VJ=(2V — V 1 f )/V , \ 

Here however there is a difficulty as the curves begin with a double 
inflection not yet expained. The times t x = 2t must therefore be 
estimated from the observations beyond the double inflections; or 
the rearward prolongation of the curve for those observations, to 
meet the time axis. The initial tangents may be found in the same 
way, but this is not necessary since their values are, respectively, 

V a (i — kN)zndV a (i + kN). 

3. Data: Origin of the Electrometer Current. — The seat of the 
chief electromotive force in the electrometer follows from the follow- 
ing data, in which the capacities C, C, C", Fig. 1, are successively 
removed. The currents increase in the same ratio as the reduction 
of capacities, E being that of the electrometer. The data are (poten- 
tials in scale parts where 1 cm. is equivalent to .0595 volt), V a being 
the fall per second : 


C + C + C' + E 

C' + C' + E 

a +e 

E 4.3 .256 


y m in Volu. 









The change of voltage throughout the main contours of the curves 
is almost a linear variation with the lapse of time, except that at die 
beginning the motion is accelerated from rest as usual; for instance: 

Va .. 

o 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 60 sec 
-3 1-5 37 6.1 8.7 11.0 13.4 15-5 3io cm. 


4. Aluminum Tube Charged with Radium Tubelets L-V.: Data. 
— The air in the condenser C is now highly ionized and its voltage 
becomes appreciable. The data obtained are given in Fig. 2. The 
needle is positively charged, thus impelling positive charge toward 
the quadrants. In the four series of data observed the aluminum 
core of the condenser is twice joined to the electrometer, the 
brass shell being put to earth (series 1 and 4) and twice com- 
mutated (aluminum to earth series 2 and 3). The results are 
identical except that in series 3 the insulation was perhaps better, or 
V a may have changed. The accelerated march of the needle from 
rest is obvious in both curves and is thus independent of the sign of 
the limiting voltage, V . It may be mere inertia, but it is of less 
consequence here because the initial data are not needed in the 
following computation. 


5. Results: Ionization, N. Voltaic Contact Potential Difference 1 
V c . — The equations 

V e = K V a /N—V , 
— V e =: K V a /N— VJ, 

may now be used to compute N and V e . The constants are numer- 
ically (all in scale parts, 1 cm. equivalent to .0595 volt), 

* = 36.i X io«, V«=— 3.45* V a = .\42 

*' = 397 Xio 6 , VJ = 9 3, 

J\f = 876,000 ions, either positive or negative, 

J7 C = 6.37 cms., or .376 volts. 

1 [The drift, Va, which in the above experiments was eliminated by com- 
mutation, was eventually traced to a defect in the electrometer. It vanishes 
on replacing the given instrument by another. Data since obtained for 
Aluminium-Copper and Aluminium-Zinc condensers showed 

Al-Cu, Ve = .58 volts, 

Al-Zn, Ve = .06 volts, 

Zn-Cu, .52 volts, 

a result, however, which varied much with the surfaces, etc.] June, 1909. 

Brown University, 
Providence, R. I. 



(Plates VII. to XIV.) 


(Read April 24, 1909.) 

(A report on part of the work on absorption spectra that is being 
carried out with the aid of a grant from the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 

I. Experimental Methods. 
II. Absorption Spectra of Potassium Salts in Aqueous Solutions. 

III. Absorption Spectra of Uranyl Nitrate (under Different Conditions). 

(a) In Aqueous Solution. 

(b) In the Crystalline State. 

(c) As Effected by Dilution. 

(d) In Methyl Alcohol. 

(e) In Mixtures of Methyl Alcohol and Water. 
(/) In Ethyl Alcohol. 

(g) As an Anhydrous Salt. 

IV. The Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Bromide, Uranyl Acetate and 

Uranyl Sulphate. 

(a) Uranyl Bromide in Water. 

(b) Uranyl Acetate in Water. 

(c) The Uranyl Bands of the Acetate. 

(d) Uranyl Sulphate in Water. 

V. The Absorption Spectrum of Neodymium Chloride in Glycerol. 
VI. The Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Chloride. 
- (a) In Water. 

(b) As an Anhydrous Salt. 

(c) The Characteristic Bands in Water. 

(d) As Affected by Calcium and Aluminium Chlorides. 

(e) In Methyl Alcohol. 



(/) In Methyl Alcohol with Calcium Chloride. 

(g) In Methyl Alcohol and Water. 

(A) In Ethyl Alcohol. 

(0 The Blue-violet Band. 
VII. The Absorption Spectrum of Uranous Salts. 
VIII. An Example of the Complexity of the Problem of Explaining the 

Origin of Spectral Lines and Bands and the Proposed Method of 

Attacking this Problem. 
IX. Effect of Rise of Temperature on the Absorption Spectra of Certain 
Salts in Aqueous Solutions. 

(a) Uranous Chloride. 

(&) Copper Bromide. 

(c) Chromium, Calcium and Aluminium Chlorides. 

(d) Uranyl Chloride. 

(e) Neodymium Salts. 
(/) Erbium Chloride. 

X. Summary. 

I. Experimental Methods. 

On account of tHe large number of bands in the absorption 
spectra of uranium and the rare earth salts, a study of the absorp- 
tion spectra of these salts is more interesting and more fruitful 
of results than the study of the absorption spectra of the ordinary 
colored salt like those of nickel or copper. The absorption spectra 
have been mapped for potassium ferricyanide, potassium ferro- 
cyanide, potassium chromate, potassium dichromate, the acetate, 
bromide, chloride, nitrate and sulphate of uranyl in water, of 
uranyl acetate, nitrate and chloride in methyl alcohol, and of uranyl 
nitrate and chloride in ethyl alcohol. Beer's law has been tested 
for these salts as well as the effect of foreign substances on the 
absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of two uranous salts, 
the chloride and sulphate, have been photographed and the ab- 
sorption spectra of neodymium chloride in pure glycerol and in 
mixtures of glycerol and water have been studied. In this work 
the methods used by Jones and Uhler 1 and Jones and Anderson 2 
have in the main been employed. 

The investigations on the effect of changes in temperature on the 
absorption spectra of solutions have been confined to different con- 
centrations of aqueous solutions of the chloride, nitrate, acetate, 

Publication No. 6o, Carnegie Institution of Washington. 
'Publication No. no, Carnegie Institution of Washington. 


sulphate and sulphocyanate of cobalt, the chloride, acetate and sul- 
plate of nickel, the chloride, sulphate and acetate of chromium, 
chrome alum, the nitrate and bromide of copper, uranous chloride, 
erbium chloride, the chloride and nitrate of praesodymium, the sul- 
phate, acetate, chloride and nitrate of uranyl and the chloride, 
bromide and_ nitrate of neodymium. Spectrograms are made of the 
absorption spectra for a given concentration of a salt, keeping the 
thickness of layer constant for every 15 between o° and 90 C. 

To make a spectrogram light from a Nernst glower and from a 
spark is allowed to pass through the solution that is being in- 
vestigated. It is then focused upon the slit of a spectroscope — and 
falling then on a concave grating, the light is spread out into a 
spectrum on the film upon which it is photographed. The films used 
were made by Wratten and Wainwright of Croyden, England, and 
were very uniformly sensitive to light from X2100 to A 7200. 

The sectional diagram (Fig. 1) will make the experimental 
arrangement of the apparatus clearer. N is a Nernst glower whkh 
is arranged to slide along the rod AB. P and P* are quartz prisms 
which are held by a lid L. The prism P is stationary, whereas the 
prism P' can be moved by the travelling carriage E back and forth 
through the trough T which contains the solution whose absorption 
spectrum is being investigated. AB is so inclined that the optical 
length of the light beam from N to P' 9 P and the concave mirror M 
shall be constant, whatever the length of the solution between P 
and P' may be. The greatest length of path PP' used was 200 mm. 
The hypothenuse faces of P and P* are backed by air films which 
are enclosed by glass plates cemented to the quartz prisms. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in finding a cement that 
would adhere to the polished quartz prisms at the higher tempera- 
tures. For aqueous solutions baked caoutchouc was found to work 
fairly well. D is a brass box holding the trough T. D is filled with 
oil and is placed in a water-bath whose temperature can be varied 
between o° and 90 C. The path of a beam of light is then from 
the Nernst glower (N) or spark to the quartz prism P f . The light 
is totally reflected from the hypothenuse face of this prism through 
the solution to P. This prism also has its hypothenuse face backed 
by an air-film, so that the light is totally reflected upwards to the 




concave speculum mirror at M. M focuses the light on the slit of 
the Rowland concave grating spectroscope, G being the grating and 
C the focal curve of the spectrum. The prism arrangement was 
designed by Dr. John A. Anderson. 

Fig. 1. 

This apparatus was found to work very well for aqueous solu- 
tions. Some evaporation took place at the higher temperatures, but 
distilled water was added in proper quantity and mixed with the 
solution so as to keep the concentration constant. By using troughs 
of different lengths it was possible to vary the length of salt solution 
through which the light beam passed from 1 to 200 mm. One 
inconvenience was experienced at low temperatures ; moisture would 
sometimes condense upon the exposed prism faces. To overcome 
this an air blast was directed upon these faces and this helped very 
materially to prevent the condensation of moisture. 


II. Absorption Spectra of Potassium Salts in Aqueous 


Most potassium salts in solution are colorless, and for this reason 
it is considered that the potassium atoms do not themselves absorb 
any light in the visible portion of the spectrum. Several colored 
potassium salts are known and the color of these is due in some 
way to the other atoms in the salt molecules. In the present work 
the absorption spectra of potassium ferricyanide, potassium ferro- 
cyanide, potassium chromate and potassium dichromate have been 

Using a 3 mm. length of solution of potassium ferricyanide in 
water we find that for a normal concentration there is complete 
absorption of all the shorter wave-lengths of light beyond A 4800. 
As the concentration is decreased the edge of transmission moves 
continually towards the violet. It should be noticed that the 
region between complete absorption and complete transmission for 
the more concentrated solutions is quite narrow, being less than 40 
Angstrom units; thus making solutions of this salt quite good 
screens for absorbing light. Continually decreasing the concentra- 
tion we reach a 0.0156 normal solution, when a transmission band 
begins to appear. For a certain range of concentration there ap- 
pears an absorption band in the region A 4200. Further decrease in 
concentration results in increasing transmission throughout the 
violet and ultra-violet. For dilutions greater than 0.00195 normal 
there is almost complete transmission throughout the ultra-violet. • 
Very faint bands appear in the regions AA2500 to 2600, AA2950 to 
3050 and AA3200 and 3250. 

Several spectrograms were made, keeping the product of con- 
centration and depth of solution layer constant. In this case the 
spectrograms will be identical if Beer's law holds. Beer's law was 
found to hold according to this method of testing within the ranges 
of concentration over which the spectrum was mapped. 

The absorption of aqueous solutions of potassium ferrocyanide 
was investigated in the same way. A half -normal solution 3 mm. 
deep shows that all light of shorter wave-length than A 3950 is 
absorbed. Keeping the depth of layer the same, it is found that 


with decrease in concentration the transmission gradually moves 
towards the ultra-violet, and for dilutions greater than 0.0078 normal 
there is transmission throughout the whole spectrum. Beer's law 
was found to hold. 

A 2-normal aqueous solution of potassium chromate 3 mm. in 
thickness, shows complete transmission of wave-lengths greater 
than A 4950. Decreasing the concentration causes the transmission 
to move gradually towards the violet and for a 0.01 normal solution 
a transmission band appears at A 3 100, or, in other words, there 
appears an absorption band whose center is about A 3700. As the 
concentration decreases this absorption band fills up, the violet edge 
of the transmission band gradually pushes out into the ultra-violet, 
and for dilutions greater than 0.0005 normal there is complete 
transmission throughout the spectrum. Beer's law was found to 
hold for potassium chromate throughout the above ranges of con- 
centration, except in the more concentrated solutions between 2 
normal and 0.25 normal. 

Potassium dichromate in water was found to have a much 
greater absorbing power than the solutions previously described. A 
one-third normal concentration absorbed all wave-lengths shorter 
than A 5350. As the concentration is decreased the transmission 
extends farther and farther out into the violet. For a 0.0026 normal 
concentration a transmission band appears in the violet, thus giving 
an absorption band whose center is about A 3800. As the concen- 
tration is further decreased transmission becomes greater and 
greater in the violet and ultra-violet, and is practically complete for 
a 0.0006 normal concentration. Beer's law has been tested between 
the above ranges of cencentration and has been found to hold. 

In photometric measurements of Beer's law, the equation defin- 
ing the quantities to be measured is : 

/ = / io.-^ 

/ is the intensity of the light that enters the solution (neglecting 
any loss due to reflection), / the intensity of the light as it leaves 
the solution, c the concentration in gram molecules of the salt per 
liter of solution, / the thickness of layer and A a constant if Beer's 
law holds. Strictly speaking the above equation holds for mono- 


chromatic light. For ordinary white light one would have to 
integrate this equation over the range of wave-lengths used. The 
equation would then have the form 

The quantity p is called the index of absorption and A the molecular 
extinction coefficient. If the absorption is proportionately greater 
in the more concentrated solutions, then Beer's law fails and A 
decreases inversely as the concentration. 

From photometric measurements Settegast 8 and Sabatier 4 con- 
clude that the absorption spectrum of potassium dichromate is the 
same as that of chromic acid, and that the absorption spectrum of 
potassium chromate is entirely different. This is corroborated by 
the present work. Settegast finds that Beer's law does not hold 
for potassium chromate and potassium dichromate, the coefficient A 
decreasing with increasing concentration. Griinbaum 5 finds the 
following values of A and e where € = c/A. 

Potassium Dichromate. 
Value of A. Value of A. 

A c=034 * = .oo34 

509 624 58.O 

521 28.7 26.2 

538 7.24 6.2 

It will be seen that the deviation here from Beer's law is in the 
opposite direction from that of Settegast. Griinbaum finds that c 
and therefore A depends on the depth of layer. 

An example will be given where the same concentration was used 
and different depths of the solution. 


Values of c for c = .0034 

as cm. layer. 

1 a cm. layer. 

5 cm. layer. 









Our work indicates that Beer's law holds for all small concentra- 
tions and usually the deviations for concentrated solutions is very 

• Wied. Ann., 7, PP- 242-271, 1879. 

4 C. R., 103, pp. 49-52, 1886. 

9 Ann. d. Phys., 12, pp. 1004, ion, 1903. 


small. Of the potassium salts above described, only potassium 
chromate between 2 normal and 0.25 normal showed any consider- 
able deviation from Beer's law, and in this case the absorption of 
the concentrated solution was greater than would be expected if * 


Beer's law held by about 40 Angstrom units. 

The present method is a very good qualitative test of Beer's law, 
and gives the results for each wave-length, whereas most photo- 
metric methods only give integrated results over a more or less wide 
region of wave-lengths. 

III. Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Nitrate under Different 

There are two groups of uranium salts, the uranyl salts con- 
taining the U0 2 group, and the uranous salts. The uranyl salts in 
solution are yellow and usually crystallize from aqueous solu- 
tions with a certain amount of water of crystallization; for ex- 
ample, at ordinary temperatures uranyl sulphate crystals have the 
composition U0 2 (S0 4 ) 2 3H 2 0. The uranous salts are intensely 
green and are very unstable, oxidizing very easily to the uranyl 
condition. Uranous sulphate crystals have the composition 
U(S0 4 ), 9 H 2 O. 

(a) Uranyl Nitrate in Aqueous Solution. 

The spectrum of uranyl nitrate in water is a typical example of 
the uranyl salts. Using a depth of solution of 3 mm. its absorp- 
tion spectra was investigated between concentrations of 1.5 normal 
to 0.0234 normal. For the 1.5 normal solution the absorption con- 
sists of a band in the blue-violet and absorption throughout the 
ultra-violet portion of the spectrum. As the concentration de- 
creases the blue-violet band fills up with transmission, and the 
ultra-violet absorption is pushed farther and farther out into the 
ultra-violet. The blue-violet band is practically gone at a concen- 
tration of 0.5 normal, and there is almost complete transmission 
throughout the ultra-violet for concentrations less than 0.02 normal. 

During these changes in concentration a large number of bands 
about 50 Angstrom units wide make their appearance. Near the 
edge of an absorption band these bands are relatively quite clear. 


As the absorption edge recedes from the uranyl bands, the general 
transmission is so great as almost to entirely obscure them. 

A, Plate I, represents the absorption spectra of an aqueous 
solution of uranyl nitrate of different depths of layer. The narrow 
and rather weak bands shown here are the uranyl bands. Twelve 
of these bands have been photographed. Starting at the band of 
longest wave-length they shall be designated by the letters a, b, c, d, 
etc. On account of the irregularity of the distribution of light in 
the spark spectrum and the small intensity of the uranyl bands, the 
Nernst glower was used as the source of light in the ultra-violet, 
and long exposures were made. A screen was used that cut out 
all wave-lengths greater than A 4200. A represents a typical 
spectrogram of this kind. Starting with the spectrum strip at the 
top, the concentrations were 1.5 N, 1.1255 N, 0.75 N, 0.5 N, 0.375 
N, 0.25 N, and 0.1875 N. The slit width was 0.08 mm. and the 
current through the Nernst glower 0.8 amperes. The spectra of 
wave-lengths greater than A 4300 represent the absorption of a 
depth of layer of 15 mm.; the spectra of shorter wave-lengths rep- 
resent the absorption of a depth of layer of 3 mm. The upper 
spectrum strip represents then the absorption spectrum of a 1.5 
normal solution of uranyl chloride 15 mm. thick, exposure being 
made 1 min. to the Nernst glower. It will be seen that the uranyl 
a band comes out very strongly. The screen was then placed in 
the path of light and exposure of 5 minutes made to the violet and 
ultra-violet beyond A 4300; a solution of uranyl nitrate of 1.5 
normal concentration and 3 mm. depth of cell being in the path 
of the beam of light. This amount of uranyl nitrate absorbed 
practically all the light in this region. A very short exposure was 
afterwards made to the spark in the region A 2600, in order to get 
a comparison spark spectrum in this region, so that the wave- 
lengths of the uranyl bands could be measured. 

Throughout this work a comparison spark spectrum usually 
containing the very strong line A 2478.8 was photographed on each 
spectrum strip. In measuring the uranyl bands all measurements 
were made from this line as a standard, and although the absolute 
wave-lengths of the uranyl bands may not be correct to within 20 


Angstrom units, yet their relative accuracy is probably correct to 
within less than 10 Angstrom units for the finer bands. 

The second spectrum strip from the top represents in the long 
wave-length end of the spectrum the absorption of a 15 mm. solu- 
tion of a 1. 125 normal solution of uranyl nitrate exposed 1 min. 
to the Nerast glower. The a band appears, although not nearly 
as intense as in the spectrum strip above. The region of shorter 
wave-lengths beyond A 4300 represents the absorption of a 3 mm. 
depth of layer of a 1.125 normal concentration exposed 5 min. to 
the Nernst glower. A very faint transmission is shown in the 
region A 3700. The ultra-violet line A 2478.8 is shown in the com- 
parison spark spectra. The other spectrum strips were made in 
a similar manner, using the concentrations given above. 

By this method of exposing two new bands were detected in the 
ultra-violet. In aqueous solutions the intensities of the bands are 
much the same. In other sofvents however and for other uranyl 
salts, the relative intensities of the bands change very greatly. In 
uranyl nitrate crystals the bands are even more closely related to 
each other than in aqueous solutions. The longer the wave-length 
of the band the more intense and wider it is as a rule. The posi- 
tion of the long wave-length bands in the orthorhombic uranyl 
nitrate crystals U0 2 (N0 8 ) 2 6H 2 is the same as the position of 
the bands for an aqueous solution. The wave-lengths of the 
bands are as follows : 

Water Sol. 4860 

Water Sol. 4870 

be d e f g 
4720 4540 4380 4290 4150 4020 Deussen. 

4705 4550 4390 4155 ^3°{ J Sfrong d 
4705 4500-4565 4405 4275 4170 4050 

Crystals 4870 

Water Sol. 

h i j k I 
3870 3790 3690 Deussen. 

Water Sol. 

3905 3815 37io 3605 35i5{ J °^ n a g nd 


3935 3830 (3720?) 3600 

In the original film from which A, Plate I, was made all these 
bands except d could be very distinctly seen. The bands of longer 


wave-length are slightly wider. The t band is considerably weaker 
than its neighboring bands. 

(b) Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Nitrate Crystals. 
In the aqueous solution there is no sign that the bands can be 
broken up. In the crystal spectrum this is not the case. The 
a band is narrow. The b band is also very narrow, about 15 
Angstrom units wide. A very faint band appears about A 4650. 
The c band, on the other hand, is very wide, about 70 Angstrom 
units, and is probably double. The d band is about 50 L u. wide, and 
the e band is about 70 Angstrom units wide and appears double. The 
/ band is the most intense and is about 40 A. u. wide. The bands 
g, h, i and / keep decreasing in intensity respectively. The above 
description is of a spectrogram taken of a crystal in Canada balsam, 
and of course the width of the bands varies with the time of ex- 
posure and various other things. The above spectrogram showed 
many details, however, that other spectrograms did not. It will 
thus be seen that the a, b, c, d, j and k bands of the solution agree 
fairly well with those of the crystal, and ttiat the crystal bands 
f, g, h and i are shifted towards the red with reference to the 
bands in the aqueous solution. 

(c) Effect of Dilution upon the Uranyl Bands. 
The effect of dilution on the position and intensity of the blue- 
violet, the ultra-violet and the uranyl bands of the acetate, nitrate 
and sulphate of uranyl in water was tried. The absorption spectra 
of solutions of about 1 normal and 3 mm. depth of cell was photo- 
graphed along by the side of the absorption spectra of the same 
salts of 0.008 normal concentration and 380 mm. depth of layer. 
The absorption consisted of the blue-violet band, the ultra-violet 
band and the a, b, c, i, j and k bands. Between the blue-violet and 
ultra-violet bands there was the transmission band containing i, j 
and k. For each of the three salts this transmission band was 
much weaker for the dilute solution, whereas in the cases of the 
sulphate and nitrate the long wave-length transmission edge of the 
blue-violet band was stronger for the more dilute solution. The 
opposite was true of the acetate solution. In the dilute solution of 


the acetate the bands were more intense than for the more concen- 
trated solution. There was no noticeable change in the position 
of the bands. Neither the intensity nor the position of the uranyl 
nitrate or the uranyl sulphate bands was changed by the above 

A more detailed study was made as to whether Beer's law holds 
for uranyl nitrate and for the other uranyl salts. The method 
of taking the spectrograms is the same as that used for the potas- 
sium salts. 

Beer's law was found to hold for dilute solutions of uranyl 
nitrate in water. When the concentration is greater than .5 normal 
the absorption is greater than it should be if Beer's law held. 

(d) Uranyl Nitrate in Methyl Alcohol. 

In methyl alcohol the general appearance of the absorption is 
very similar to that of the aqueous solution; the blue-violet, the 
ultra-violet, and uranyl bands appearing under the same general 
conditions that they appear for aqueous solutions. There is a very 
marked deviation from Beer's law for the more concentrated solu- 
tions, however; the absorption of concentrated solutions being 
greater than it would be if Beer's law held. The positions of the 
bands are quite different from the positions of the uranyl bands 
of the aqueous solution, or of the crystals, as shown by the follow- 
ing values : 



















(e) Uranyl Nitrate in Mixtures of Methyl Alcohol and Water. 

In the previous work of Jones and Anderson* it was found that 
in some cases (for example neodymium chloride) a salt in water 
had a different set of absorption bands compared with the same 
salt in another solvent as, e. g., methyl alcohol. 

When the salt is dissolved in mixtures of these two solvents, 
say methyl alcohol and water, it was found that as the amount of 
one solvent, methyl alcohol for instance, decreased the methyl 

•Publication No. no, Carnegie Institution of Washington. 


alcohol bands of the salt decreased in intensity, but did not change 
their position in the spectrum. At the same time the water bands 
of the salt became more intense. In the present work it is shown 
that the uranyl nitrate bands in pure water and in pure methyl 
alcohol occupy different positions. The problem to be investigated 
is to find out whether in mixtures of water and methyl alcohol, the 
uranyl bands will show a gradual shift, or whether the methyl 
alcohol uranyl bands and the water bands will both exist together ; 
their relative intensities being proportional to the relative amounts 
of methyl alcohol and water. It was found that the two sets of 
bands exist together and that the methyl alcohol bands decrease in 
intensity quite rapidly with increase of water. The blue-violet 
band showed marked changes until the amount of water reached 
about 20 per cent. In this work the amount of uranyl nitrate in 
the path of the light was kept constant, and the only variable was 
the relative amounts of methyl alcohol and water. The above 
would indicate that uranyl nitrate in water is " hydrated " and in 
methyl alcohol it is " alcoholated." The above data indicate that 
the effect of " hydration " is much more persistent than that of 
" alcoholation." It is quite possible that this is due to a greater 
number of water molecules producing the hydration than there is 
methyl alcohol molecules taking part in alcoholation. 

(/) Uranyl Nitrate in Ethyl Alcohol. 

The absorption of uranyl nitrate in ethyl alcohol was mapped 
and the general characteristics were found to be the same as for the 
water and methyl alcohol solutions. A new band was found at 
A 5200 which was about 50 Angstrom units wide. All the uranyl 
bands were very faint and wide and therefore difficult to measure. 
Beer's law showed deviations similar to those found for the methyl 
alcohol solution. On account of the diffuseness of the bands no 
spectrograms were made of mixtures of water and ethyl alcohol. 
Following are approximately the positions of a few of the bands : 

X 5000 4800 4630 4475 4325 4i&> 4080 3970 3875 


(g) Absorption Spectrum of Anhydrous Uranyl Nitrate. 

When it was first discovered that the uranyl nitrate "water" 
bands were all shifted to the violet with reference to the bands of 
the other uranyl salts in water, as well as with reference to the 
uranyl nitrate bands in other solvents, it was thought that possibly 
it was more hydrated than the other salts in solution. The uranyl 
salts crystallize from water solutions at ordinary temperatures with 
the following composition: U0 2 (N0 8 ) 2 .6H 2 0, U0 2 S0 4 .3H 2 0, 
U0 2 (CH 8 COO) 2 .2H 2 O, and U0 2 C1 2 .H 2 0. This fact would favor 
the supposition that in solution the nitrate might be more hydrated 
than the other salts. The fact that the absorption of the aqueous 
solution of the nitrate and the crystallized salt was very much the 
same as far as the positions of the uranyl bands is concerned, also 
seemed to favor this view. 

In this connection it was considered important to examine the 
absorption spectrum of the anhydrous uranyl nitrate. The salt was 
powdered and placed in a closed glass tube just above the slit of 
the spectroscope. The light of a Nernst glower was then focused 
upon the surface of the salt nearest the slit and an exposure of 
about three hours made. In this way we examine light that has 
penetrated a short distance into the powder and is then diffusely 

The absorption spectrum was found to consist of quite a large 
number of bands, which seem quite different in many respects from 
those of the solution. The following are the approximate wave- 
lengths: AA4800, 4650, 4500, 4420, 4360, 4280, 4180 (broad), 4060 
(broad), 3950 (broad), 3820 (broad), 3700 (narrow) and 3600 
(narrow). The bands marked broad are from 50 to 60 Angstrom 
units wide and the narrow bands about 20 Angstrom units. If the 
first band is the a band, then the bands of the anhydrous salts are 
to the violet of the corresponding bands of the crystals and of the 
solution. If it is the b band the opposite is the case. On account 
of the smallness of the intensity of the bands it could not be settled 
whether A 4800 is the a or the b band. Further investigation of this 
point will be made. 

There are two difficulties to the above theory, difficulties for 


which no explanation so far has been suggested. In the work on 
the effect of rise of temperature on the absorption spectrum it 
was found that the uranyl nitrate bands did not shift to the red. 
On the other hand, the uranyl sulphate and uranyl chloride bands 
were shifted to the red under the same conditions. (In these cases 
aqueous solutions were investigated.) If the uranyl nitrate bands 
owe their position to a large amount of hydration it would be ex- 
pected that with rise in temperature they would be shifted towards 
the red more than the bands of the sulphate and chloride. Another 
difficulty is that of the effect of dilution. The greater the dilution 
the greater the dissociation, and, therefore, according to the theory 
of Arrhenius for very dilute solutions the U0 2 group should exist 
in the ionic condition and the absorption spectrum of all the salts 
should be the same, i. e., the uranyl bands should then occupy the 
same positions independent of the kind of salt. No effect of this 
kind is to be noticed, as was shown above under the division de- 
scribing the effect of dilution. It is intended to use much more 
dilute solutions in the future. 

IV. The Absorption of Uranyl Bromide, Uranyl Acetate and 
Uranyl Sulphate. 

(a) Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Bromide in Water. 
The absorption spectrum of uranyl bromide in water was 
mapped and found to be very similar to that of the nitrate. The 
ultra-violet, blue-violet and uranyl bands appear and are affected in 
the same manner as the same bands of the nitrate. Beer's law was 
found to hold. The uranyl bands were found to be much wider 
and more diffuse than in the case of the aqueous solution of the 
nitrate. The following are their approximate positions: 

a b c d e f 

4880 4720 4560 4450 4280 4160 

(b) Uranyl Acetate in Water, Beer's Law. 

A spectogram was made to test whether Beer's law holds for 

an aqueous solution of uranyl acetate between the concentrations 

0.25 normal and 0.031 normal. The spectrogram showed that there 

was a very great deviation from the law, and in the opposite direc- 


tion to any deviation hitherto found either in this work or in 
that of Jones and Anderson or Jones and Uhler. The absorption 
of the more dilute solutions was found to be proportionately much 
greater than for the more concentrated solutions. A similar run 
was made for a solution of the acetate, in methyl alcohol and a 
deviation from Beer's law in the same direction was found, although 
the amount was not so great in this case. 

(c) The Uranyl Bands of the Acetate. 
The following table gives the approximate wave-lengths of the 
uranyl bands of the acetate in water, in methyl and as the anhydrous 

Bands of Uranyl Acetate. 

In Water 4910 4740 4595 4455 43io 4160 4070 3970 3830 

In Methyl Alcohol 4900 4770 4600 4460 4320 4200 4090 
As Anhydrous Salt. 4910 4760 4610 4460 4330 4190 4070 3980 

From this table it seems that the positions of the bands of the 
acetate under these different conditions is about the same. 

(d) Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Sulphate. 
The mapping of the absorption spectrum of uranyl sulphate in 
water showed that it was very much like that of the nitrate in 
water. As in the case of the nitrate the i band was much weaker 
than the adjacent bands. Beer's law was found to hold. The 
addition of a large amount of sulphuric acid was found to make 
the uranyl bands much sharper, but not to cause them to shift. 
Much more work will be done on the effect of strong acids on the 
uranyl bands. The following gives the wave-lengths of the sulphate 

a b c d e f g h i j k I 

4900 4740 4580 4460 4330 4200 4070 3970 3850 3740 3630 3530 

V. The Absorption of Neodymium Chloride in Glycerol and 
Mixtures of Glycerol and Water. 
The absorption spectrum of a glycerol solution of neodymium 
chloride is much like that of the aqueous solution in its general 



characteristics, but when proper concentrations are used so as to 
bring out the fine bands it is found that the two spectra are entirely 
different. For example, the aqueous solution shows a very fine 
band at A 4274. In the glycerol there is a band that on first sight 
appears exactly identical with this 4274 band. However, its wave- 
length is about A 4287, and it has two extremely fine components on 
each side, one at A 4273 and one at about A 4300. The same is true 
throughout the spectrum. 

In general, in mixtures of water and glycerol the appearances 
indicate that there are "glycerol" bands and "water" bands and 
as the amount of one solvent is increased, so are the bands cor- 
responding to this solvent increased in intensity. Herein lies a very 
large field for investigation and considerably more work is being 
carried on here along these lines. The above described spectrum 
of the glycerol solution of neodymium indicates that glycerol has a 
a very great influence upon the vibrations of the electrons within 
the neodymium atom — and that this is due to a kind of "atmos- 
phere " of glycerol about the neodymium atom. Jones and Ander- 
son showed that alcohol has a similar effect, and that the " alcohol " 
bands were much less persistent than the water bands. Further 
work is being done upon the relative persistence of " water," " alco- 
hol" and "glycerol" bands; also on the effects of foreign sub- 
stances and rise of temperature upon these bands, both in the pure 
solvent and for mixtures of solvents. 

VI. Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Chloride. 

The absorption spectrum qi uranyl chloride was mapped for an 

aqueous solution, a methyl alcohol solution, an ethyl alcohol solution, 

a mixture of methyl alcohol and water, a mixture of methyl alcohol 

and calcium chloride, and a mixture of water and aluminium chloride. 

(a) The Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Chloride in Water. 

The absorption spectrum of uranyl chloride in water was found 
to be very similar in general to that of the other uranyl salts. The 
uranyl bands were less sharp than the bands of the nitrate and sul- 
phate in water. The wave-lengths of a few of the bands are as 
follows : 


a b c d e f g 

4920 4740 4560 4460 4315 4170 4025 

(b) Absorption Spectrum of Anhydrous Uranyl Chloride. 

The absorption spectrum of the anhydrous uranyl chloride was 
photographed in the same way as that of the anhydrous nitrate. 
The bands differ considerably from the bands of the aqueous solu- 
tion, and one cannot tell very well whether they are identical with 
the corresponding a, b, c, etc., bands of the solution or not. Their 
wave-lengths are approximately as follows: AA4950 (narrow), 4860, 
4765, 4700, 4615, 4540, 4460, 4320, 4290, 4160, 4050 and 3940. 

(c) The Characteristic Bands of Uranyl Chloride. 
In addition to the bands already described, uranyl chloride has 
several remarkably fine bands in the green. These bands are not 
more than 5 Angstrom units wide and were first seen on spectro- 
grams taken upon Whatten and Wainwright red sensitive films. 
They appear only for aqueous solutions, and the addition of cal- 
cium chloride or aluminium chloride causes them to disappear. 
They do not appear in alcoholic solutions. Aqueous solutions of 
uranyl sulphate show them very faintly. The wave-lengths are 
approximately as follows: 

AA5185, 5200, 6000, 6020, 6040 and 6070. 

These bands have never hitherto been noticed as absorption 
bands. H. Becquerel 7 gives quite a full set of measurements of the 
phosphorescent bands of various uranyl salts at room temperature 
and at the temperature of liquid air. Among the bands given for 
the double chloride of uranyl and potassium at room temperature 
are AA6070 to 6040, and AA5220 to 5193. Whether these corre- 
spond to the above absorption bands is quite difficult to say. Fur- 
ther work is being done in this direction. 

(rf) Uranyl, Calcium and Aluminium Chlorides in Water. 
Spectograms were taken of aqueous solutions of a constant con- 
centration of uranyl chloride to which varying amounts of calcium 

f C. R. t t. 101, p. 1252, 1885; PP- 459 and 621, 1907. 


chloride were added. The addition of calcium chloride causes the 
ultra-violet, the blue-violet band and the uranyl bands to widen gen- 
erally. The effect upon the uranyl bands is however, very small. 
The effect of aluminium chloride, however, is very great. The two 
narrow and faint bands at A 5200 only appear in the pure aqueous 
solution of uranyl chloride. The a band in the aqueous solution 
is about 60 Angstrom units wide, and is almost as intense as the b 
band. The addition of aluminium chloride causes the band to be- 
come quite narrow, about 25 Angstrom units wide. A slight addi- 
tion of alminium chloride decreases the intensity of the band very 
considerably. Further increases in the amount of aluminium has 
very little effect. The addition of alminium also causes the bands 
to shift to the red; the shifts in some instances amounting to 25 
Angstrom units. The b and c bands have their intensity very greatly 
increased by the addition of aluminium chloride; and by making 
the solution about 2 normal of aluminium chloride these bands are 
shifted about 30 Angstrom units to the red compared with the same 
bands for the pure uranyl chloride solution. The d, e, f, g and h 
bands are also increased in intensity, but are but very slightly 
shifted to the red. The d and e bands are widened so that they 
practically form a single band. 

(e) Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Chloride in Methyl Alcohol. 

In the absorption spectrum of uranyl chloride in methyl alcohol 
the a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and / bands all appear, the b and c bands 
being the largest and most intense. The following are the approxi- 
mate wave-lengths of the bands: 

Uranyl Chloride in 

Methyl Alcohol 4930 4760 4590 4465 4345 4220 4090 3980 3860 3760 
Uranyl Nitrate in 

Methyl Alcohol 4930 4760 4610 4460 4325 4190 4070 3970 3855 
Uranyl Acetate in 

Methyl Alcohol 4900 4770 4600 4460 4320 4200 4090 

It is seen from the above table that the uranyl bands of these 
three salts in alcohol occupy almost exactly the same positions. 


(/) Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Chloride and Calcium Chloride 
in Methyl Alcohol. 

In the solution of uranyl chloride in methyl alcohol the d and e 
bands are very diffuse, but are entirely separate. By adding cal- 
cium chloride a very peculiar phenomenon takes place. The d and e 
bands come together and as far as one can tell form a single band. 
At the same time the /, g and h bands shift to the red. For a solu- 
tion containing a .9 normal solution of calcium chloride one finds 
that the b and c bands have practically remained in the same posi- 
tion, the d and e bands have merged into one and the f, g, h bands 
have moved to approximately AA4260, 4120 and 4010 respectively. 
The de band is approximately at A 4420. 

(g) Absorption Spectrum of Uranyl Chloride in Methyl Alcohol 

and Water. 

A spectrogram was made of a solution of uranyl chloride of con- 
stant concentration in mixtures of methyl alcohol and water. A 
small addition of water causes a considerable decrease in the absorp- 
tion power of the uranyl chloride. When the amount of water has 
reached about 16 per cent, very little further change is produced by 
further increasing the amount of water. The most important effect 
of the addition of water is the effect upon the uranyl bands. For a 
pure alcoholic solution the a and b bands appear ; the b band being 
quite intense. Adding water causes a and b to both decrease in 
intensity and apparently to shift towards the violet. A spectrogram 
of smaller concentration shows the a, b, c, f, g, h and i bands ; the 
solution containing 8 per cent, water the b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i and ; 
bands; the 16 per cent, water solution b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i and /; the 
24 per cent, aqueous solution shows all these bands greatly weak- 
ened, and in solutions containing a greater amount of water prac- 
tically only the b and c bands appear, and these are very diffuse. 
The general effect upon the positions of the bands is quite remark- 
able, the b and c bands apparently being shifted to the violet with 
increase of water, whereas the ultra-violet bands appear to be 
shifted towards the red. 


(h) Absorption of Uranyl Chloride in Ethyl Alcohol. 

The absorption spectrum of uranyl chloride in the ethyl alcohol 
shows the uranyl bands quite strongly, although they are less intense 
than for the methyl alcohol solution. A very interesting resemblance 
has been found for the various uranyl bands of different mixtures. 
The absorption spectrum of a solution of uranyl chlofide in ethyl 
alcohol has been found to be almost the same as that of a methyl 
alcohol solution of uranyl chloride containing a 0.9 normal concen- 
tration of calcium chloride or an aqueous solution of uranyl chloride 
and a 2 normal concentration of aluminium chloride. 

The positions of the uranyl bands for the ethyl alcohol solution 
was approximately : 

X 4900 4750 4580 -4400 4400 4250 4100 3980 3860 

The relation above mentioned comes out much better in comparing 
the spectrograms. The values of wave-lengths thus far given does 
not bring this out very well on account of the difficulty of making 
measurements. Much more work is to be carried on along this line, 
and the measurements above given are to be considered as more or 
less of a preliminary character. 

(t) The Blue-Violet Band. 
Under the various changes above noted, t. e., of changing the 
acid radicle, of changing the solvent and of adding foreign sub- 
stances, the position at which the blue-violet band faded away was 
approximately A 4200. This is rather unexpected when we con- 
sider the very considerable effects which are produced upon the 
finer bands. 

VII. Absorption Spectrum of Uranous Salts in Solution. 

It is quite well known that by reduction the yellow uranyl 
salts are changed to the intensely green uranous salts. In the 
present work this reduction was accomplished by adding the same 
acid to the solution that corresponded to the anion of the salt and 
then putting in a metal that would produce a colorless salt. 

The absorption spectrum of uranous sulphate and uranous 


chloride in water was found to be very similar. The absorption 
of the shorter wave-lengths' was complete under the conditions 
used. The following are the approximate positions of some of 
the bands: AA6700, 6500, 6300, 5480 and 4900. The 6500 band 
was the strongest one of all, and upon increasing the depth of cell 
this band widened out so as to unite with the bands AA6700 and 
6300, forming an absorption band covering hundreds of Angstrom 
units. This is a very characteristic property of many of the 
uranous bands, that of widening out so as to include a very large 
portion of the spectrum. The uranyl bands do not change in 
width very greatly on increasing the depth of cell. 

Besides the bands described above uranous chloride shows 
bands at AA 4600, 4770 and 4970. 

The absorption spectrum of uranous chloride in methyl alcohol 
was found to differ very much from that of the aqueous solution. 
The bands at AA4600 and 4780 appeared, closely resembling the 
water bands at the same position. The band A 4970 in water was 
broken up into two bands in methyl alcohol at AA4930 and 5030. 
In the alcohol a very broad band appeared at A 5300, which does 
not appear at all in the water solution. The band at A 5580 is very 
similar to the water band. Weak and broad bands appear at 
AA6150, 6300 and 6480, and a strong band at A 6750. As the depth 
of the alcoholic solution is increased the widening of the bands 
is very different from the widening of the bands of the aqueous 

The absorption spectrum of a mixture of calcium chloride and 
uranyl chloride in water was found to be very similar to that of 
the pure uranyl water solution. Much further work along the 
above lines is being carried on. 

VIII. An Example of the Complexity of the Problem of 

Explaining the Origin of Spectral Lines and Bands 

and the Proposed Method of Attack. 

It is a fact that investigations upon the spectral emission and 
absorption of bodies has been far less fruitful in extending our 
knowledge of the structure of the atom than had been expected. 


This is largely owing to the almost infinite complexity of the struc- 
ture of the atom and our general ignorance of the forces that exist 
there. Probably the best known example is that of the uranyl 
group which we have been describing. Let us consider the spectral 
vibrations that can be produced by components that exist or may- 
be produced from the apparently simple U0 2 group : ( i ) We have 
the absorption spectrum described above. At low temperatures 
most of these bands break up into much finer bands. (2) The 
uranyl salts under various methods of excitation emit a phosphor- 
escent spectrum of a large number of rather fine bands throughout 
the visible region of the spectrum. It is quite possible that this 
spectrum is intimately connected with that of the absorption spec- 
trum. (3) We have the absorption spectrum of the uranous salts 
which has been described above. This spectrum has been probably 
caused by the change of valency of the uranium atom. Uranium 
is known to form quite a large number of oxides and it is quite 
possible that for each valency of the uranium we have a character- 
istic spectrum. (This also is being investigated.) It is also quite 
probable that at low temperatures those spectra would consist of 
quite fine bands. (4) We have the spark spectrum and the ab- 
sorption spectrum of oxygen, and (5) that of ozone, which bears 
no relation to that of oxygen. (6) There is the exceedingly com- 
plex spark spectrum of uranium consisting of thousands of fine 
lines and also (7) the complex arc spectra. From radioactive ex- 
periments it is known that uranium is continually breaking down into 
ionium. (8) Ionium possesses the properties of a chemical atom 
and most likely has a spectrum of its own. This would make 
eight spectra. (9) Ionium breaks down into the radium and radium 
has a very characteristic spark spectrum, as does also (10) the 
radium emanation. During the various radioactive transforma- 
tions several a products are emitted with a velocity almost as 
great as that of light. It is probable that these particles are mov- 
ing with very great velocities in the uranium atom under ordinary 
conditions. (11) The a particles are known to be charged helium 
atoms and therefore under proper excitation would give the helium 
spectrum. The radium emanation breaks down into Radium A, 
B, C, D, E and F. These products behave like chemical elements 


and probably have characteristic spectra. (12) The final product is 
lead, which has a very complex spark and arc spjctra. During 
these transformations several electrons have been thrown off from 
the various products with enormous velocities. In a very large 
number of the above spectrum lines the Zeeman effect indicates the 
presence of negative electrons and charged doublets. 

We thus see what an extremely complex system U0 2 must be 
and it might seem almost hopeless to entangle the mystery of its 
various spectra. At present we know that the arc and spark 
spectra problem is very complex and that we have very few methods 
of producing any changes in it. Practically the only method of 
changing the frequency of these vibrations is by applying a very 
powerful magnetic field or great pressure and these changes in the 
frequency are very small. One very important result, however, 
has been accomplished by Kayser, Runge, Wood and others. This 
work consists in separating spectrum lines into various series. A 
series of lines are those whose intensity and Zeeman effect vary 
in the same way when the conditions outside the atom are changed. 
The work of Wood is very important and shows that spectrum 
lines are due to different systems of vibrators inside the atom. 
By using monochromatic light of different wave-lengths he has been 
able to excite diffirent series of lines which constitute altogether 
the fluorescent spectrum of the element. 

Present theories of the atom usually regard the electrons and 
other vibrators that are the sources of arc and spark lines as being 
far within the atom and as affected by external physical conditions 
only under very special circumstances. Stark believes that these 
electrons may rotate in circular orbits, the locus of the centers of 
these orbits being a closed curve, say a circle. This system will 
be equivalent to a positive or negative charge according to the 
sense of rotation of these electrons. These electrons we will call 
ring electrons. Supposing these systems to be positive charges, 
it will require electrons to neutralize these charges. Several of 
these neutralizing electrons may be in the outer parts of the atom 
and under certain conditions might be knocked off from the atom. 
These easily removable electrons will be called " valency " electrons, 
and can exist under different conditions of " looseness " of con- 


nection with the atom. Most of the neutralizing electrons will 
probably lie far within the atom. For instance, we would expect 
that in the uranium atom the charged helium atoms are neutralized 
by negative electrons. 

Our theory is that the finer absorption bands of such salts as 
neodymium, erbium and uranium are due to vibrations of these 
neutralizing electrons, and that the forces acting upon these are 
considerably different from those acting on the ring electrons, 
which, in many cases, give a normal Zeeman effect. It is probable 
that these neutralizing electrons play the greatest role in the optical 
properties of bodies, such as the properties determining the index 
of refraction, the extinction coefficient, etc. 

Usually the equation of motion of such an electron is given by 
an equation like the following when a light wave of an electric 
field E cos pt is passing by it: 

m -^ + k -j t + t?x = E cos//. 

where m is the total mass (electromagnetic and material) of the 
electron, * • dx/dt is the damping or f rictional term and n 2 x is the 
quasielastic force. It is an experimental fact as shown by the 
above work and the work of other investigators, that * and n 2 are 
not only functions of the electron and the atom, but that they are 
also functions of the physical and chemical conditions existing in 
the neighborhood of the atom. 

On the other hand, the effect on * and n 2 for a ring electron, 
when external physical and chemical conditions are changed, is 
very small. It is for this reason, and the probable fact that there 
are relatively few neutralizing electrons, that we believe that much 
greater progress can be made in determining some of the properties 
and constitution of various interatomic systems of atoms and 
molecules by the study of the absorption spectra of uranium and 
neodymium than by a study of the arc or spark spectra of the same. 

The method of attacking the above problem will be to study the 
effect on the spectra of a body produced by changing the physical 
and chemical conditions about the light absorbers or emitters within 
as wide ranges as possible. Some of the possible changes that 


can be made are as follows: Take for instance the uranyl group 
U0 2 . We can find the effect upon the absorption bands produced 
(i) by diluting the solution, (2) by changing the acid radicle to 
which the uranyl group is united, (3) by changing the solvent and 
using mixtures of solvents, (4) by adding other salts (like alumin- 
ium chloride), or (5) by adding acids of the same kind, as that of 
the salt of the uranyl group. The effect of adding foreign salts 
and acids at the same time and then varying the solvent, or the 
temperature, can also be tried. In this way a very large number 
of very interesting things can be tested. In most of these changes 
Ic will be kept constant. 

In the above examples the temperature (7), the external pressure 
(8), the electric field (9) and the magnetic field (10) can be 
changed between wide limits. The latter effect is a very important 
one. For example, in aqueous solution neodymium salts give a 
large number of fine bands, in glycerol there are quite a number of 
new bands replacing the " water " bands, and in the alcohols there 
are various "alcohol" bands. At low temperatures these bands 
become very fine and it is quite possible to detect the Zeeman effect. 
Now it seems quite probable that a "glycerol" band and an 
"alcohol" band that seem to replace each other as the solvent is 
changed are both due to the same vibrator. If the Zeeman effect 
is the same in both cases it would be a strong argument in favor of 
the above theory. A case that will soon be described is very im- 
portant. It was found that certain neodymium lines in a pure water 
solution did not have their wave-length changed when the tempera- 
ture was changed from o° to 90 . If, however, calcium chjpride 
was added, then on raising the temperature the above bands were 
shifted to the red. A very interesting and important investigation 
is whether the Zeeman effect on this band would be affected by the 
presence of bodies like calcium chloride. 

To be compared with the above changes are changes in the 
absorption spectra of the crystals of the salt (11) as affected by 
water of crystallization, or by the presence of foreign substances, or 
as affected by the polarization (12) or direction of passage of light 
through the crystal. The absorption spectra (13) of the anhydrous 
powder at different temperatures, etc., should be found. The 


phosphorescent spectrum (14) should be studied in this connection, 
especially as affected by the mode of stimulation (X-rays, cathode 
rays, heating or monochromatic light of different wave-lengths). 
The temperature, electric or magnetic field could be changed about 
the phosphorescing body. The effect of change of state (15) 
should be tried if this is possible, also any possible changes of 
valency of the atoms (16) composing the body investigated. We 
shall attack the problem from all of these standpoints. 

After correlating the data obtained by the above named in- 
vestigations it is pretty certain that it will be possible to take each 
vibrator and trace the effects produced upon it by the above changes. 
It is also quite certain that we shall also know something of the 
nature of the vibrating system and the part that it plays in that 
complex body we call the atom. We shall now describe a few 
results obtained by changing the concentration and temperature of a 
solution of the chemical compound whose absorption spectrum we 
are studying. 

IX. The Effect of Rise in Temperature on the Absorption 
Spectrum of Certain Salts in Aqueous Solution. 

(a) Uranous Chloride (B, Plate VII.). 

To a normal solution of uranyl chloride in water was added a 
small amount of hydrochloric acid and zinc. The production of 
hydrogen reduced the uranyl to the uranous state. The same can 
be done in some cases by simply passing hydrogen gas through the 
uranyl solution. The solution was placed in the glass trough and a 
temperature run made as in the usual manner. The thickness of 
layer was 1 mm. The length of exposure was 50 sec. to the 
Nernst glower and 4 mins. to the spark, the current through the 
glower being 0.8 amperes and the slit width 0.20 mm. Starting 
with the strip nearest the comparison scale the temperatures were 
8°, 17 , 33°, 48 , 62 and 73 . An exposure was also made at 
8o° which is not shown in the spectrogram B. 

At 8° a mist formed on the prisms and for this reason the spec- 
trum film taken at this temperature is much underexposed and the 
bands appear wider than at the higher temperatures. At this tern- 


perature there is complete absorption of the shorter wave-lengths to 
A 3650. A blue-violet absorption extends between A, 4050 and A, 4450. 
Following this band are three strong bands of about equal intensity 
and each almost 100 Angstrom units wide. Their wave-lengths are 
approximately AA4590, 4760 and 4970. Following is a band at 
^5500, a wide band from A. 6400 to A 6630 and a rather narrow 
band at A 6740. 

The absorption does not change very greatly until a temperature 
of 6o° is reached. Above this temperature the increase in absorp- 
tion is quite rapid as the temperature rises. At 73 the ultra-violet 
band has widened to A 3800, the blue-violet band covers the region 
from A 4050 to A 5000. The bands AA4600, 4770 and 4980 at 8° 
have shifted slightly to the red with rise of temperature. 

None of the other bands seem to shift to the red at all and 
the broadening seems to be quite symmetrical. The band at A 5500 
has become about twice as wide as it was at the lower temperatures 
and the two red bands have merged into one band running from 
A 6350 to A 6800. Between 73 ° and 8o° the absorption increases 
very greatly. All short wave-lengths are absorbed up to A 5050. 
The band in the green runs from A 5450 to A 5600 and the band in 
the red has also widened very greatly, extending from A 6200 to 
A 6800. 

(fe) Copper Bromide {A and B, Plate VIII.). 

The two spectrograms showing the absorption spectra of copper 
bromide in water for various temperatures were made for different 
concentrations of the salt. A gives the absorption of a 2.06 normal 
solution 1 mm. thick and B the absorption of a 0.25 normal solution 
8 mm. thick. The time of exposure to the Nernst glower was 2 mins. 
(current 0.8 amperes and slit width 0.20 mm.) and to the spark 
6 mins. Starting with the strip nearest the comparison scale the 
temperatures at which exposures were made for A were 6°, 17 , 
30 , and 45° ; for B 6°, 17 , 31 , 46 , 59 , 71 , and 85 . 

As the spectrograms show, the effect of change of temperature 
on the absorption spectrum is very marked. Above 45 ° the concen- 
trated solution did not transmit enough light to affect the photo- 
graphic film. 


(c) Chromium, Calcium and Aluminium Chlorides (A and B, 

Plate IX.). 

A, Plate IX., represents a spectrogram showing the effect of rise 
of temperature on an aqueous solution of chromium and aluminium 
chlorides. The concentration of the chromium chloride was 0.125 
normal, and of the aluminium chloride 2.28 normal. The depth of 
layer was 9 mm. The length of exposure to the Nernst glower was 
4 mins. (current 0.8 amperes and slit width .20 mm.) and to the 
spark 6 mins. Starting with the strip adjacent to the comparison 
scale the temperatures were 6°, 19 , 36 , 51 , 66° and 8i°. 

The most marked effect of the aluminium chloride was the pro- 
duction of a very pronounced unsymmetrical broadening, which does 
not occur when a pure aqueous solution of chromium chloride is 
heated. At 6° the ultra-violet band extends to A 3000, at 81 ° to 
*3300> a much greater widening than takes place for a chromium 
chloride solution in water. At 6° the blue-violet band extends from 
A, 4100 to A, 4600 and the yellow band from A 5800 to A 6200. Not 
only do the red sides of the blue-violet and yellow bands widen 
out enormously towards the red, but the short wave-length edges 
of these bands actually move towards the red. This effect is much 
more pronounced in the changes of temperature from 51 ° to 66° 
and from 66° to 81 °. At 81 ° the blue-violet band extends from 
A 41 50 to A 5050 and the yellow band from A 5900 throughout the 
remaining portion of the spectrum, as far as the film is sensitive. 
The fine chromium bands in the red do not appear. 

B, Plate IX., is a spectrogram, giving the absorption spectrum 
of a .125 normal concentration of chromium choride and a 345 
normal concentration of calcium chloride in water at different 
temperatures. The length of the solution was 9 mm., the leiigth of 
the exposures to the Nernst glower were for 5 min. and to the spark 
for 6 min. The current through the glower was 0.8 amperes and 
the slit width 0.20 mm. Starting with the strip adjacent to the* 
comparison scale the temperatures at which the exposures were 
made were 6°, 19 , 31 °, 45 , 64 and 8o°. 

The effect of rise of temperature upon the absorption spectrum 
of a mixture of chromium chloride and calcium chloride is very 
similar to the effect on the mixture of chromium chloride and 


aluminium chloride. The blue-violet and the yellow bands widen 
unsymmetrically and the short wave-length edges of these bands 
apparently moves towards the red at the higher temperatures. 

At 6° the ultra-violet band extends to A 2800, the blue-violet band 
from A 4000 to A 4400 and the yellow band from A 5600 to A 6100. 
At 64 the ultra-violet band extends to A 3100, the blue-violet band 
from A 4000 to A 4600 and the yellow band from A 5650 to A 6300. 
At 8o° the ultra-violet band extends to* A 3250, the blue-violet band 
from A 3950 to A 5000 and the yellow band from A 5700 throughout 
the red end of the spectrum as far as the film is sensitive. 

(d) Uranyl Chloride (A and B, Plate X.). 

A spectrogram (A, Plate X.) was made of the absorption 
spectrum of a normal aqueous solution of uranyl chloride, the depth 
of cell being 3 mm. Exposures were made to the Nernst glower for 
90 sec., current 0.8 amperes and slit width 0.20 mm. The time of 
exposure to the spark was 6 min. Starting from the comparison 
spectrum the temperatures were 6°, 18 , 34 , 52 , 68° and 82 . 

At 8° the ultra-violet band extended to A 3550, the blue-violet 
band from A 4000 to A 4450. The bands a, b and c appeared, but 
the a band is very faint. The wave-lengths of the b and c bands 
were AA4565 and 4725. 

At 82 ° the ultra-violet band extends to A 3700, and the blue- 
violet band from A 3950 to A 4600. At this temperature only the b 
band appears, — a being very weak and c being completely merged 
into the blue-violet absorption band. The b band is located at 


A spectrogram, B, Plate X., was made of a uranyl chloride 
water solution 0.0156 normal concentration and a depth of layer of 
196 mm. Exposures were made to the Nernst gower for 30 sec, 
current 0.8 amperes and slit width 0.20 mm. No exposures were 
made to the spark except for comparison spectra. Starting with the 
numbered scale the temperatures were 6°, 18 , 29 , 44 , 59 , 71 
and 79 . 

For this concentration there is a very slight temperature effect. 
There is a very faint transmission band between the ultra-violet and 
blue-violet bands. This is extremely faint and is practically un- 


affected by temperature. The blue-violet band widened slightly 
with rise in temperature. The uranyl bands in the concentrated 
solution were much stronger and wider than in the dilute solution. 

(e) Neodymium Salts, 

A spectrogram (A, Plate XL) of the absorption spectrum as 
affected by change of temperature was made of neodymium chloride 
solution in water, the concentration being 3.4 normal and the depth 
of layer 12 mm. The length of exposure was 2 min. to the Nernst 
glower, current 0.8 amperes ; slit width .20 mm. The time of ex- 
posure to the spark was 6 min. Starting with the strip nearest the 
numbered scale the temperatures were n°, 22 , 33 , 45 , 59 , 73 
and 85 . 

An absorption band appears Sit about A 2970 for the 11 ° tempera- 
ture, a very strong band from A, 3250 to A 3285 and an adjacent 
band from A 3285 to A 3310. At n° a very narrow and feeble 
transmission band separates these two bands. At 85 ° the trans- 
mission band has weakened very much. .At n° a very strong 
band lies between A 3490 and A 3580. The band A 4274 is about 8 
Angstrom units wide. An extremely narrow band appears at A 4297, 
A 4306 and A 4324. At A 4234 is a wider and rather diffuse band, it 
being about 12 Angstrom units wide. Bands at n° lie between 
AA4415 and 4470, AA4580 and 4650, AA4665 and 4710, AA4740 and 
4775> AA4815 and 4835, and the very wide bands AA5010 and 5300 
and AA5665 and 5935. Weak bands are located at A 4645, A 4800, 
A 5320, A 6235, A 6255, A 6280, A 6305 and A 6380. Rather diffuse 
bands appear at AA6780 and 6840, at A 6850 and from A 6870 to 
A 6920. 

The effect of rise of temperature from n° to 85 ° is quite 
noticeable, although it is not great. In the ultra-violet there is a 
slight increase in the general absorption. The band AA3285 and 
3310 widens slightly. The band AA 3490-3580 at n° has widened 
so that at 85 it extends from A 3450 to A 3600. The band at AA4415 
and 4470 has widened but little. The group of bands from A 4600 
to A 4800 have also widened but little. The faint diffuse bands 
AA 4645 and 4800 have practically disappeared. The bands AA 5010 
and 5300 and AA5665 and 5935 at n° have widened at 85 ° to 


AA 5010 and 5350 and AA 5660 and 5985. The widening of the latter 
band is distinctly unsymmetrical. The existence of the band A, 5320 
causes the band A 5010 to A 5300 to widen unsymmetrically. 

The bands in the region A 6300 become less sharp as the tempera- 
ture rises. At n° there was considerable transmission in the region 
A 6850. At 85 , however, this transmission disappears and there is 
practically complete absorption from A 6760 to A 6920. The very 
sharp bands AA4282, 4300, 4310, 4322 and 4343 do not appear to 
change very much with change in temperature. On the strip taken 
at 73 these bands appear sharper than on any of the other strips. 

A spectrogram (B, Plate XL) showing the effect of rise in tem- 
perature was made on a neodymium chloride solution in water of 
c.17 normal concentration and a depth of layer of 196 mm. The 
amount of neodymium chloride in the path of the light is approxi- 
mately the same as in the spectrogram, showing the effect of tem- 
perature upon a 34 normal concentration and a depth of cell of 12 
mm. In this case the temperatures were 5 , 16 , 28 , 42 , 59 , 72 
and 82 . Exposures were made to the Nernst glower for 3 mm. 
current 0.8 amperes and slit width 0.20 mm. Each strip was ex- 
posed to the spark for 6 mm. The purpose of making this spec- 
trogram was to find the effect of concentration of a salt upon the 
changes produced by change in temperature. 

A description of the bands at 5 and 82 will be given. Any 
change between these two temperatures that takes place is a gradual 
one. Transmission begins at A 2600. Bands appear between AA 3250 
and 3300 and AA.3455 and 3575. The band A 4274 is much sharper 
and narrower than for the more concentrated solution. The nu- 
merous fine bands in the region A 4300 are very faint. The bands 
AA4420 to 4460, AA4600 to 4630, A 4645, A A 4680 to 4705, AA4745 
to 4770 and A 4820 have rather diffuse edges. Wide bands appear 
from A 5020 to A 5290 and from A 5685 to A 5920. Diffuse bands 
are located at A 5310, A 6810 and A 6900. The group in the region 
A 6300 appear, but they are extremely faint. 

At 82 the general absorption has increased in the ultra-violet 
and has reached to about A 2800. It will be noticed here that the 
effect of rise in temperature is greater upon this general ultra-violet 



absorption in the dilute solution, than it is for the concentrated solu- 
tion previously described. 

The band AA3455 to 3575 at 5 has widened slightly, having the 
limits AA3445 and 3580 at 82 , the widening being about 15 
Angstrom units. This band in the concentrated solution widened 60 
Angstrom units. Practically no effect of temperature is to be 
noticed upon the bands from A. 4200 to A, 4900 with rise in tempera- 
ture. At the higher temperatures the bands are slightly more 
diffuse, but this change is very small. The band AA 5020 to 5290 at 
5 has widened to AA 5015 and 5285, about 10 Angstrom units. The 
corresponding widening for the concentrated solution was approxi- 
mately 50 Angstrom units, although it must be noted that in the 
more concentrated solution this widening was mostly due to the 
increased absorption of the band A 5310 at the higher temperatures. 
The band A 5685 to A 5920 at 5 has widened to AA5775 and 5930, 
about 20 Angstrom units, compared with a widening of 55 Angstrom 
units for the more concentrated solutions. None of the other bands 
show any appreciable change with change in temperature. 

A spectrogram (A, Plate XII.) was made showing the effect of 
temperature upon the absorption spectrum of a 1.66 normal aqueous 
solution of neodymium bromide, the depth of layer being 6 mm. 
An exposure of 4 mm. was made to the Nernst glower, at .8 amperes 
and a slit width of 0.20 mm. The length of exposure to the spark 
was 6 mins. The temperatures of exposure, starting with the strip 
adjacent to the comparison spark, were 4 , 20 , 36 , 50 , 68° and 

83 . 

At 4 there is complete absorption in the ultra-violet up to 
A 2600. A broad absorption band appears at A 2660 to A 2800 and 
from A 2950 to A 3060. These absorption bands appear with a more 
or less general absorption. Bands appear at AA 3460, 3500 and 3540. 
The band at 4274 is weak. Weak and diffuse bands occur at 
AA4440, 4630, 4695, 4760, 4825, 5095, 5260, 6810 and 6900. Wider 
bands are located at AA5116 to 5140, AA5200 to 5240 and AA5710 
to 5850. 

At 83 ° the spectrum is almost exactly the same as at 4 . The 
ultra-violet absorption is complete up to A 3050. The bands at 
A 3500 have increased in width slightly and the band A 4274 is 


slightly broader. The bands that have widened appreciably are 
AA 5 195 to S 2 ^ and AA5700 to 5880. The change in the absorption 
is greatest when the temperature is changed from 68° to 83 °. Up 
to 68° there is practically no change in the absorption spectrum at all. 
A spectrogram (B, Plate XII.) showing the effect of temperature 
was made, using an aqueous solution of .055 normal concentration 
of neodymium bromide, the depth of the layer being 197.4 mm. 
This spectrogram was made to compare with that taken with a 1.66 
normal concentration of the same salt and a depth of layer of 6 mm. 
The exposures to the Nernst glower lasted 90 sec. in this case, 
current 0.8 amperes and slit width oi 0.20 mm. The length of ex- 
posure to the spark was 6 mins. Starting with the strip nearest to 
the comparison scale the temperatures of the solution were 5 , 16 , 
29 , 42 , 55 , 68° and 84 . 

At 5 there is practically complete transmission of light between 
A 3400 and A 2600, no ultra-violet bands appearing, as was the case 
for the more concentrated solution. The bands AA4445, 4^93* 476o> 
4825 and 5095 were somewhat sharper than they were in the con- 
centrated solutions. The two largest bands extended from A, 5200 
to A 5250 and from A 5710 to 5850. As in the case of the more 
concentrated solution, so here, the greatest change in the absorption 
took place in the change from 68° to 84 . The ultra-violet absorp- 
tion increased up to A 2900. The bands at A 3500 became consider- 
ably stronger, but they widened very little. The bands AA4445, 
4693, 4760 and 4825 are somewhat weaker than at 5 . The wide 
bands remained practically as wide as at 5 , A 5200 to A 5250 and 
A 5705 to 5870. This indicates a widening of about 25 Angstrom 
units for the latter band. For the more concentrated solution the 
widening of these two bands was 25 and 40 Angstrom units re- 
spectively. It is thus seen that in the more concentrated solutions 
the bands widen more with rise in temperature than they do in the 
less concentrated solutions. At 42 ° in the dilute solution there ap- 
pears a narrow band at A 6710. This increases in intensity with 
rise in temperature. This band does not appear at all in the con- 
centrated solution. 

A spectrogram (A, Plate XIII.) was made of neodymium chlo- 
ride and calcium chloride in water. Exposures were made for 30 sec. 


to the Nernst glower, the current being 0.8 amperes and the slit 
width 0.20 mm. The length of exposure to the spark was 4 mins. 
Starting with the strip nearest the numbered scale the temperatures 
were 6°, 17 , 31 b , 49°, 63 , 74° and 82 . 

The general effect of the addition of calcium chloride is to make 
all the bands hazier, and to increase the transmission throughout the 
region of the band. At 6° there is a slight transmission throughout 
the ultra-violet portion of the spectrum. As the temperature is 
raised this general transmission is decreased, and at 82 practically 
no light passes through the solution of shorter wave-length than 
A, 2800. Sharp bands occur at A. 3464, A, 3500, A 3535, A. 4276 and 
weak diffuse bands at A 4295, A 4305, A 4340, A 4445, A 4620, A 4695, 
A4760, A4825, A5095, A5130, A5225, A5260, A5320, A5710, to 
A 5860, A 6245, A 6810 and A 6900. 

At 82 the bands in the A 3500 region are slightly more intense 
than at 6°. Practically all the bands from A 4200 to A 5200 have be- 
come much weaker at the higher temperature. This is especially 
true of the band A 4276, its intensity being less than half what it is 
at 6°. Most of the bands are shifted to the red with reference to the 
same bands at 6°. For instance, A 5095 is shifted 5 Angstrom units 
towards the red. The bands A 4695, A 4760 and A 4825 are all 
shifted to the red at the higher temperature, and especially A 4825, 
the shift in thise case amounting to. 5 Angstrom units. In the case 
of these bands the shift is not an apparent one due to unsymmetrical 
broadening, for in this instance there is no broadening at all. 

The band from A 5710 to A 5860 at 6° has widened very unsym- 
metrically and has the limits A 5710 to A 5920. The short wave- 
length side is quite sharp and its position is practically independent 
of the temperature. The long wave-length edge is quite broad and 
recedes quite rapidly towards the red as the temperature is raised. 
The bands in the red AA6810 and 6900 grow fainter and fainter 
with rise in temperature, and have practically disappeared at 82 . 
The band A 6245 is very weak at 6° and has disappeared at about 6o°. 

It will thus be seen that not only does the presence of calcium 
chloride modify greatly the absorption of neodymium chloride, but 
that it changes the effects due to temperature very fundamentally. 
In pure neodymium chloride practically no bands decrease in in- 


tensity with rise in temperature, and at present no shift has been 
detected. When calcium chloride is added to the solution most of 
the bands decrease in intensity with rise in temperature and several 
are shifted towards the red at the same time. Several bands dis- 
appear. Moreover, the band AA6800 to 6900, although it widens, 
this widening is entirely on the red side, whereas for the pure 
neodymium chloride solution this widening always takes place on 
both sides of the band. 

A spectrogram (B, Plate XIII.) was made to show the effect of 
change in temperature upon a 2.15 normal aqueous solution of 
neodymium nitrate. The length of layer was 3 mm. The exposures 
were for 40 sec. to the Nernst glower, current 0.8 amperes, slit 
width .20 mm. The length of exposure to the spark was 6 mins. 
Starting with the strip nearest the comparison spark the tempera- 
tures were 4 , 17 , 29 , 43 , 58 , 71 and 84 . 

The changes in the spectrum due to this change in temperature 
of 8o° was very slight. The NO s band extends to about A 3250 at 
4°, and to about A 3280 at 84 . The bands at X 3500 became con- 
siderably wider and their edges more diffuse at the higher tempera- 
tures. At the lower temperatures fine bands appear at AA 5210, 5225 
and 5240. At 84 these bands all merge into a single band. The 
red band extends from X 5705 to 5860 at 4 . The band at A 5820 is 
very faint at the lower temperatures. At 84 it is unrecognizable, 
At this temperature the red band extends from A 5700 to A 5880. 
The widening of this band for the concentrated solution is somewhat 
greater than for the dilute solution, but the effect of concentration 
is very slight. This is to be expected since the effect of temperature 
itself is so very minute. 

A spectrogram (A, Plate XIV.) was made of an aqueous solu- 
tion of neodymium bromide 1.66 normal concentration and 54.6 mm. 
depth of cell. The exposures were 3 mins. to the Nernst glower and 
6 mins. to the spark. The current in the Nernst glower was 0.8 
amperes and the slit width 0.20 mm. Starting with the strip nearest 
the comparison scale the temperatures were 6°, 20 , 33 , 47 , 62 , 
73° and 82 . 

The effect of rise in temperature upon the absorption spectra 
of this salt was quite marked ; practically all of the bands broaden- 


ing and becoming more intense. At 6° the ultra-violet absorption 
extended to A 3600. At 82 it had advanced to A 3800. Very nar- 
row and fine bands appear at A. 4186, A. 4300; A 4308, 4345, 6240, 
6265, 6290, 6305, and much broader bands at A 6380 and A 6740. 
Wide bands occur at from AA4390 to 4480, AA4550 to 4850, AA4990 
to 5340> AA5650 to 5950 and AA6760 to 6930, at 6°. At 82 ° these 
bands have the following limits respectively: AA4380 to 4500, AA 4540 
to 4910, AA4960 to 5370, AA5620 to 5990 and AA6730 to 6960. 

(/) Erbium Chloride. 

A spectrogram (B, Plate XIV.) was made to show the effect of 
rise in temperature upon the absorption spectrum of a solution of 
erbium chloride. For this purpose a 0.94 normal solution of erbium 
was used and the depth of layer was 48 mm. The solution probably 
contained a considerable number of impurities, so that in fact the 
amount of erbium was quite small. The absorption spectrum was 
found to change but little with rise ki temperature, thus indicating 
a dilute solution. Exposures were made for 30 sec. to the Nernst 
glower and 4 mins. to the spark. The current through the glower 
was 0.8 amperes and the slit width 0.20 mm. Starting with the 
spectrum nearest the comparison scale the temperatures were 7 , 
17 , 29 , 46 , 6o°, 70 and 8o°. 

At 70 the ultra-violet is absorbed to A 3950. As the temperature 
is raised the ultra-violet absorption increases, and at 8o° it reaches 
A 3150. Bands from 20 to 40 Angstrom units wide occur at A 3235, 
A 3510, A 3640 and A 3785. These bands are slightly wider at 8o°, 
but as for all the other erbium bands this widening is very small. 
Weak and narrow bands appear at AA4165, 4425, 4458, 4500 
(strong), 4S3S, 4540, 4555, 4580, 4685, 4750 (30 A. u. wide), 4810, 
4840, 4855, 4870 (strong and 20 A. u. wide), and 4920, A 4920 lies 
alongside of a fuzzy band extending from A 4910 to A 4950. 

After these comes a rather wide band which for a shorter length 
of layer would most likely be broken up into a number of much 
finer bands. This band extends from A 5190 to A 5250. At A 5217 
there runs a narrow sharp line through the fuzzier and wider band. 
Broad (about 30 A. u. wide) and very faint bands are located at 
A 5630 and A 5760. For greater concentrations these would prob- 


ably show as finer bands. The band at X 6540 is much more 
diffuse on the red than on the violet side ; this possibly being due to 
a component that is not separated at this temperature. Other bands 
are located at AA.5365, 5380, 5425, 5445, 5505, 6410, 6440, 6495 and 

The general effect of rise in temperature here is to cause the 
lines to become slightly fuzzier and to show more of a "washed 
out " appearance. No shift due to rise in temperature was noticed. 

Throughout all the previous work the wave-lengths were read 
directly from a scale. This scale was made so as to give the wave- 
lengths in Angstrom units directly. It was fQund in the measure- 
ments that the Seed films did not correspond to the Wratten and 
Wainwright films, when the same spark spectra on the two kinds 
of films were placed beside one another. This was probably due 
to different shrinkage of the two kinds of films on fixing, washing 
and drying. For this reason the wave-length measurements are not 
intended to be absolutely correct but only relatively so. All the 
temperature work was done with Wratten and Wainwright films. The 
relative measurements of fine bands for any spectrogram are prob- 
ably correct to within a few Angstrom units. 

X. Summary. 

The absorption spectra of the uranyl salts contain a series of 
bands in the blue and violet. Twelve of these bands can usually 
be detected for each salt. Starting from the blue end of the series 
the bands are designated by the letters a, b, c, etc. These bands 
are usually diffuse and from 30 to 50 Angstrom units wide. 

The uranyl bands of uranyl nitrate in water are all farther to the 
violet than the uranyl bands of any other salt investigated, or of 
uranyl nitrate in other solvents. 

The uranyl absorption bands of crystals of uranyl nitrate agree 
with the absorption bands of an aqueous solution of the nitrate, 
with the exception of the /, g, h and i bands; these latter being 
shifted to the red in the crystal. 

Dilution within the ranges studied does not affect the position 
of the uranyl bands. Theoretically, all the uranyl salts in water 


should give the bands of the same wave-lengths for very dilute 

The uranyl bands of the nitrate in methyl alcohol are all shifted 
to the red about 50 Angstrom units, with reference to the bands in 
water. Mixtures of water and methyl alcohol show that we have 
both sets of bands existing for the same solution, the "water" 
bands increasing in intensity as the amount of water increases. The 
water bands are the more persistent. This indicates the existence 
of a hydrate and an alcoholate of the uranyl group. In ethyl 
alcohol the a, b, c and d bands are shifted to the red with reference 
to the methyl alcohol bands. The other bands appear to have the 
same positions as the methyl alcohol bands. 

The absorption spectrum of the anhydrous salt is very complex 
and the bands could not be recognized. 

The bands of uranyl bromide in water, of uranyl acetate in 
water and methyl alcohol, and also of the anhydrous salt, are ap- 
proximately of the same wave-lengths, differing but slightly from 
the wave-lengths of the uranyl nitrate bands of an aqueous solution. 

The bands of uranyl sulphate in water are all shifted towards 
the red about 50 Angstrom units, with reference to the uranyl 
nitrate bands in water. For both the sulphate and nitrate in water 
the bands are very much alike. The i band is very weak in both 

Uranyl chloride bands of an aqueous solution are shifted to the 
red with reference to the uranyl nitrate bands of an alcoholic solu- 
tion. The addition of calcium chloride or aluminium chloride is 
found to produce very marked effects upon the uranyl chloride 
bands. The addition of sufficient aluminium chloride to a water 
solution of uranyl chloride, or of calcium chloride to a methyl 
alcohol solution of uranyl chloride is found to cause the d and e 
bands to come together, so as to form a single wide band, and to 
cause the other uranyl bands to shift so that the whole resulting 
series of bands is almost identical with the series of bands of an 
ethyl alcohol solution of uranyl chloride. The effect of adding 
foreign substances also greatly modifies the intensity of the bands. 
An example of this difference of action is the effect of adding 
aluminium chloride to an aqueous solution of uranyl chloride. The 


a and b bands are affected entirely differently ; the a band being very 
much reduced in intensity and made narrower, whereas the b band 
becomes very much stronger and wider. 

A new set of fine bands in the green has been discovered in the 
absorption spectrum of an aqueous solution of uranyl chloride. 
These only appear for pure water solutions; a small amount of 
aluminium or calcium chloride causing them to vanish. They do 
not appear for methyl or ethyl alcohol solutions, and for no other 
uranyl salt except very faintly for the sulphate. 

The absorption spectrum of several uranous salts has been 
photographed. The spectrum is entirely different from that of 
the uranyl compounds. The absorption spectra of uranous chloride 
in methyl alcohol and in water were found to be very different. 
The absorption spectrum of neodymium chloride in glycerol was 
found to be entirely different from that of the salt in water. 
Mixtures of water and glycerol seem to indicate the existence of 
both sets of bands in the same solution. The " glycerol " bands are 
more persistent with reference to water bands than " alcohol " bands 
are. Much more work along this line is contemplated. 

Rise in temperature has been found in general to cause an in- 
crease in the amount of absorption, and to cause the absorption 
bands to widen. This widening of the bands may or may not 
be symmetrical. 

Some of the absorption bands of uranous chloride widen very 
rapidly with rise in temperature. Other bands do not widen so 
rapidly, and seem to be slightly shifted towards the red. 

In solutions containing a single salt, it has invariably been found 
that the bands widen with rise in temperature, and that this widen- 
ing is greater, the greater the concentration of the solution. 

The uranyl bands of aqueous solutions of the chloride and sul- 
phate of uranyl are shifted towards the red with rise in temperature. 
The intensity of the uranyl bands does not seem greatly modified by 
changes in temperature. 

The effect of rise in temperature on the absorption syectrum of 
a solution of a salt containing calcium or aluminium chloride is 
very peculiar. The bands usually broaden very unsymmetrically, 


and in all cases investigated, the widening has been on the longer 
wave-length edge. A tyipcal example is shown in Plate III. 

Rise in temperature causes the neodymium bands to widen 
slightly, but no shift of the bands has been noticed. However, 
when calcium chloride has been added to the neodymium solution, 
a rise of temperature causes many of the bands to become much less 
intense, and also causes some of the bands to shift to the red. In 
the recent work of Becquerel and others it is quite possible that the 
presence of various foreign bodies in the crystals along with the 
neodymium may have a very great influence upon the absorption 

All the above conclusions must be understood to be limited to the 
conditions and within the ranges described in the earlier parts of 
this paper. 

Physical Chemical Laboratory, 
Johns Hopkins University, 
May v 1909. 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 

Plate VII 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 

Plate VIII 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 Plate IX 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 

Plate X 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVUI. No. 192 

Plate XI 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 

Plate XII 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 

Plate XIII 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc Vol. XLVIII. No. 192 

Plate XIV 


(Read April 24, 1909.) 

The occurrence of three earthquakes in the western hemisphere 
within the space of nine months in 1906-1907, all of which were 
attended with disastrous effects upon human life and property, at- 
tracted as never before the attention of the world, and particularly 
of the United States, and focused interest upon the science of 
seismology in a manner calculated to advance materially the study 
of movements and other physical changes in the earth's crust. San 
Francisco, in April, 1906, Valparaiso, in August, 1906, and Kingston, 
in January 1907, attracted wide notice, but the disaster that over- 
whelmed Messina, Reggio and vicinity on December 28, 1908, 
capped the climax, and sufficient reason is apparent for the universal 
interest now prevailing, one manifestation of which is the present 
symposium. The thesis of the seismologists is that the chain of 
earthquake observatories that have been established in the past 
decade and ^ half should be extended and united into a network 
of stations covering the globe, sufficiently, at least, to furnish a com- 
plete record of the important vibrations propagated through the 
earth, indicate their places of origin and provide data for more 
satisfactory theories as to their causes. 

Great earthquakes rank with volcanic eruptions as being the 
most terrifying of all natural phenomena. Usually coming with no 
recognized warning, often happening in the night, extremely indefi- 
nite as to source, extent and duration, they fill the mind of the human 
observer with the horror of utter helplessness. They have been 
far more destructive to human life and property than volcanic 
eruptions have been, for we have the earthquake shocks of Sicily, 
1693, w ^h 60,000 victims; Yeddo, Japan, 1703 (200,000) ; Peking, 
l 7V> (100,000) ; Lisbon, 1755 (60,000) ; Calabria, 1783 (60,000) 
and Messina-Reggio, 1908 (200,000) ; besides many others, to 



compare with the volcanic outbursts of Krakatoa, 1883, destroying 
36,500 victims; Vesuvius, 1663 (18,000); Mt. Pele, 1902 (29,000) 
and the Soufriere of St. Vincent, 1902 (1,400), other historic 
eruptions having entailed comparatively small loss of life. 

Although earthquakes have been recorded frequently throughout 
all historic time, seismology is one of the youngest of the sciences 
— it is still in its formative state. Scientific interest in the subject 
has indeed not been lacking, but real edvance was retarded by the 
fact that, up to the latter part of the nineteenth century, the causes 
of the phenomena were sought without rather than within the earth 
itself. Geology was not seriously called upon for aid in solving 
the problems. 

The modern science of seismology is generally held to have had 
its beginning with the publication, in 1862, of Robert Mallet's great 
book upon the so-called Neapolitan, or better Basilicata, earth- 
quake of 1857. Mallet, however, approached his task with the pre- 
conceived idea that earthquakes were always caused by subterranean 
explosions, and his observations and deductions were warped ac- 
cordingly. The science received its real start from Eduard Suess, 
when he published in 1874 1 his brilliant generalization showing the 
intimate association of more than forty Austrian earthquakes with 
the already well-known Kamp, Thermen and Miirz fault lines near 
Vienna and postulated crustal movements as an important cause of 
seismic disturbances, thus combatting the' "centrum" theory of 
Mallet and others. Suess followed this paper with a still more im- 
portant paper 2 the next year along the same lines showing the inti- 
mate relation of the great earthquakes of southern Italy and Sicily 
to the fault zones of the region. Impetus was added by the publi- 
cation of the illuminating treatise of Rudolph Hoernes 8 in 1878, in 
which earthquakes were first definitely classified into ( 1 ) those due 
to the collapse of the roofs of cavities within the earth's crust, (2) 
those resulting from explosions connected with volcanic eruptions 
and (3) tectonic quakes, or those caused by crustal movements 
along fault planes or due to other effects of the action of mountain- 

1 " Die Erdbeben Nieder-Oesterreichs," Denkschr. k. Akad. Wiss., Wien, 
XXXIII., Abth. I., p. 61, 1874. 

*"Die Erdbeben des sudlichen Italien," id., XXXIV., Abth. I., p. 1, 1875. 
*Jahrbuch d. k. k. Geol. Reichsanstalt, XXVTIL, p. 387, Wien, 1878. 


building forces. Many others in Europe, Japan and America have 
contributed to the advance of seismology, but particular mention 
should be made of the services of Professor John Milne, of England, 
whose long residence in Japan and intimate study of the earthquake 
phenomena of that and other uneasy regions have enabled him to 
contribute more than any other one person to the advance of the 
new science. 

The perfecting of instruments for the purpose of recording 
movements of every kind in the surface of the earth has vastly 
extended our knowledge of the character of earth vibrations and 
enhanced the value of deductions affecting the theory of earth- 
quakes. The instrumental study of earthquakes by means of seis- 
mographs, however, can hardly be said to antedate the year 1892, 
but within the past decade and a half the number of fully equipped 
earthquake stations has vastly increased, the growth having been 
considerably accelerated through the interest aroused by the dis- 
asters of the last three years. There are now in Great Britain and 
her colonies fifty seismographic stations equipped with the same 
type of instrument, while in all the world there are more than two 
hundred stations equipped with instruments capable of recording 
world-shaking earthquakes. More than half of these stations are 
in Europe. 

No large part of the surface of the globe seems to be entirely 
stable, but certain regions or zones are much more liable than others 
to the occurrence of earthquakes. If we study a map of the world 
upon which their location has been plotted, we find in the eastern 
hemisphere a broad belt of seismic activity extending from west to 
east through the Mediterranean Sea, Persia, the southern Himalayas 
and the Sumatra-Java group of islands. A branch zone stretches 
from the southern end of the Caspian Sea northeastward half way 
across Asia. This is de Montessus de Ballore's " Alps-Caucasus- 
Himalayas " belt and it has furnished more than 53 per cent, of 
recorded shocks. 4 A seismic belt practically encircles the Pacific 
Ocean, the principal points in it being the Japanese Archipelago, 
Alaska, California, Southern Mexico and Central America and the 

*F. de Montessus de Ballore, "Les tremblements de terre," p. 24, Paris, 

238 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES : [April «, 

northern and southern Andes. This " Circum-Pacific " or " Andes- 
Japan-Malay " belt has given 41 per cent, of the quakes. In the 
western hemisphere in addition to a part of the circum-Pacific belt, 
there are the West India Islands and the mountains of Venezuela 
forming a seismic zone. Earthquakes mostly of volcanic origin have 
visited many of the islands of the South Seas. The major portions 
of Africa and South America remain blank upon such a map, 
probably because little is known about their seismicity. 

We are in the habit of thinking of eastern North America as a 
region free from earthquake shocks. The impression, however, is 
erroneous, since New England has experienced about 250 recorded 
shocks since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, and there have been 
at least four great earthquakes in the eastern half of the continent 
within the past two and one half centuries, one on the fifth of Feb- 
ruary, 1663, which affected the St. Lawrence Valley over an area 
more than six hundred miles long and three hundred miles wide as 
described in the "Jesuit Relations." 8 In 1811-1812 heavy quakes 
occurred in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, accompanied 
with considerable subsidence fifty miles south of the junction of the 
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Strong shocks continued for more 
than a year and evidence of the sinking still persists in lakes and 
submerged trees. The southeastern part of the United States was 
the center of an earthquake shock January 4, 1843, the waves of 
which were felt at points at least eight hundred miles apart.* In 
1886 occurred the Charleston earthquake, an event still fresh in the 
minds of most of our population. 

As to earthquakes of the several classes, the falling in of the 
roof of a buried cavity causes slight shocks. Quakes of this kind 
have often been reported from certain parts of Switzerland, the 
Tyrol and elsewhere, but all have been local in character. It seems 
certain too that the blocks falling in the caverns of southern Indiana 
and Kentucky produced vibrations sensible on the surface, but re- 
ports of such have not come under my eye. 

Earthquakes arising from volcanic explosions or associated with 
eruptions form a much more important subdivision. Until within 

•W. H. Hobbs, "Earthquakes," p. 315, New York, 1908. 
6 H. D. Rogers, Am. Jour. Sci., I., xlv., 342, 1843. 


thirty-five years, indeed, it was the general belief that volcanic earth- 
quakes were by far the most numerous and destructive of all. This 
idea controlled and vitiated Mallet's work, but it is now known to 
be erroneous, for although it is true that earthquake zones coincide 
in part with belts of volcanic activity, shocks are more frequent and 
more severe in non-volcanic regions. The severest quakes of South 
America have not happened around the great volcanoes ; the shocks 
of California are evidently independent of the now extinct or at 
any rate dormant volcanoes of the Cascade Range; the recent 
( I §99) great earthquakes of Alaska were in the vicinity of Yakutat 
Bay, at a long distance from the active vents of the Aleutian Islands 
or any recent volcanicity ; the earthquakes of Japan are most numer- 
ous and severe in the non-volcanic parts of the islands; the great 
disasters of the Caribbean Sea have occurred in Jamaica and at 
Caracas, hundreds of miles from Mt Pele and St. Vincent's Sou- 
friere, and have not been contemporaneous with any eruptions. 

On the other hand, some of the most violent of historic volcanic 
eruptions have been unattended by severe earthquakes or have given 
rise to shocks of merely local significance. The Island of Mar- 
tinique in the French West Indies lies within a markedly seismic 
zone, but the great eruptive activity of 1902-1903 was free from 
earthquake shocks. This fact is of particular interest, because the 
eruptions were of the most highly explosive character. Although, 
however, no vibrations were felt upon the island of Martinique and 
no subterranean noises were heard there, dull sounds like the boom- 
ing of distant cannon were heard the morning of the great eruption 
of May 8, 1902, at Caracas, Venezuela, 450 miles distant, south- 
west, where people feared that a naval battle was in progress off 
their coast. Similar booming was reported from St. Kitts, 200 
miles northwest of Martinique and from other regions. I myself 
was on the island of St. Vincent, 100 miles due south of Pele when 
the great eruption of June 6, 1902, occurred, and I felt several dull 
thuds, as if some heavy object had fallen in a neighboring room. 
The noises seemed to come from beneath the ground, and they 
were due, in all probability, to subterranean explosions or to the 
rushing of lava into underground cavities, somewhat on the prin- 
ciple perhaps of the water hammer. On the island of St. Vincent 

240 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES : [April ** 

some observers, indeed, had noted an increase of seismic shocks for 
a year or more before the volcano burst into violent eruption in 
May, 1902. The eruption itself, however, was free from earth- 
quakes, except apparently for the quivering of the mountain due to 
the uprush of steam and ejecta through the conduit, just as hap- 
pens in the chimney of a fire engine under full blast. The chattering 
vibrations thus set up in the volcano shook a narrow strip of recent 
beach formation from the west base of the mountain, where the 
declivity of the shore is considerable. 

Vesuvius being the volcano that has been most continually and 
thoroughly under observation throughout its known history, we 
naturally look to its records for light upon the relation between 
volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. When this old center, which 
was not known to the ancients as a volcano, renewed its activity in 
the year 79, the first phase was a series of earth shocks which in- 
creased in frequency and severity until the afternoon of August 24, 
when the eruption actually began. The ground is said to have 
rocked to and fro like the sea, but we read of no great damage as 
resulting therefrom even in Pompeii and Herculaneum at the very 
base of the mountain. The outbreak of 163 1 occurred after centuries 
of repose and was heralded by a half year of earthquakes and terrific 
noises in the interior of the mountain. This history has been re- 
peated again and again in greater or less degree, particularly when 
the eruptions have been of the explosive kind. According to the 
report of A. Lacroix, violent earth movements shook the cone of 
Vesuvius during the great eruption of April, 1906, and were felt 
throughout much of the surrounding region. Whatever effects have 
been produced have been local in extent and comparatively light 
in degree. 

The eruptions of Etna usually have been accompanied by the 
formation of great fissures in the upper part of the cone, and the 
opening of these fissures has been accompanied by severe vibra- 
tions of the surface of the mountain, as has been vividly portrayed 
by Silvestri in his account of the eruption of 1879, but the shocks 
seldom affect the mainland of Calabria across the narrow Strait 
of Messina. Stromboli, the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean," 


often shakes its island, but the disturbances are rarely felt in nearby 

The most violent of all recorded volcanic explosions is that which 
took place in the Strait of Sunda, August 26-27, 1883, when the 
volcano of Krakatoa was blown to pieces. This outburst destroyed 
half the mountain and left soundings of 160 fathoms where part of 
the cone had formerly stood. It produced sea waves that affected 
tide gauges half way around the world; air waves that traveled 
three times ardund the globe before they ceased to be distinguish- 
able ; and it threw dust into the air to such a height that it remained 
suspended for months, but the earthquake shocks produced were 
strictly local in character and were scarcely felt at Batavia, 90 
miles from the crater. 

Another of the great explosions of modern times was that of 
July 15, 1888, when the Japanese volcano Bandai-san, extinct for a 
thousand years, burst into sudden eruption. In the immediate 
vicinity of the mountain a moderately severe earthquake shock last- 
ing about twenty seconds was felt at half past seven in the morning. 
This was soon followed by additional shocks which culminated 
when the explosion occurred at the surface, but none was felt 
severely beyond a limited area. 

Even the eruptions of the Hawaiian volcanoes, Kilauea and 
Mauna Loa, which are the types of the class of " quiet volcanoes," 
have sometimes been accompanied by severe local earthquakes. Many 
eruptions of Mauna Loa, indeed, have been recorded of which the 
first indication to the inhabitants of the town of Hilo only a few 
miles away has been the light seen at night reflected in the clouds 
from the streams of flowing lava. On March 2j, 1868, however, 
there began a series of earthquakes on the southern flanks of the 
mountain which increased in frequency arid intensity for a week 
and culminated in one of the most severe eruptions known in the 
history of the volcano, during which a great fissure opened, dis- 
charging vast quantities of lava that flowed to the sea. 

In the words of Dr. Titus Coan, 7 who was on the island at the 

''Am. Jour. Sci., II., xlvi., 107, July, 1868. 


242 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES : t April a* 

Meanwhile the whole island trembled and shook. Day and night the 
throbbing and quaking were nearly continuous. No one attempted to count 
the sudden jars and prolonged throes, so rapid was their succession. And 
even during the intervals between the quakes, the ground and all objects 
upon it seemed to quiver like the surface of a boiling pot. The quaking 
was most fearful in Kau. . . . The shocks and quiverings cintinued with 
different degrees of intensity until Thursday, the second inst. [April] . . . 
when, at 4 P. M., a shock occurred which was absolutely terrific All over 
Kau and Hilo the earth was rent in a thousand places, opening cracks and 
fissures from an inch to many feet in width, throwing over stone-walls, 
prostrating trees, breaking down banks and precipices, demolishing nearly 
all stone churches and dwellings, and filling the people with consternation. 
This shock lasted about three minutes. 

Mr. F. S. Lyman 8 writes as follows of his experiences at Kau 

during this disturbance : 

First the earth swayed to and fro from north to south, then from east 
to west, then round and round, up and down, and finally in every imagin- 
able direction, for several minutes, everything crashing around and the 
trees thrashing as if torn by a hurricane, and there was a sound as of a 
mighty rushing wind. It was impossible to stand; we had to sit on the 
ground, bracing with hands and feet to keep from being rolled over. . . . 
The villages on the shore were swept away by the great wave that rushed 
upon the land immediately after the earthquake. 

Some observers estimated that more than 2,000 shocks occurred 
during this period of disturbance. In spite of the violence of this 
earthquake on Mauna Loa, it was quite local in extent. No damage 
was done in the northern half of Hawaii even by the heavy shock of 
April 2. This shock was felt distinctly on the island of Maui, no 
miles distant, for 90 seconds, shaking furniture, pictures and walls 
and causing small sea waves. At Oahu, 210 miles from the cen- 
trum, the shocks were slight, and though they occurred in the middle 
of the afternoon, most of the inhabitants of Honolulu were not 
aware that an earthquake had occtfrred. 

From the human standpoint, the most disastrous of the earth- 
quakes assigned to volcanic causes is that which occurred at Casa- 
micciola on the Island of Ischia, July 28, 1883. When it took place 
there was a large assemblage of people in the theater, which was of 
stone and collapsed under the shock, killing most of the audience. 
Only one house in the whole town was left standing and it is esti- 
mated that about 1,900 people lost their lives in the disaster. In 

• Am. Jour. Set., II., xlvi., iio, July, 1868. 


Naples, however, only twenty-two miles away, the shock was felt 
by but few people, and the seismographs in the observatory on Mt. 
Vesuvius did not record it at all, though the instruments at Rome 
and Florence showed the passage of some extremely light vibrations. 
The depth of the focus has been calculated at about a half mile and 
Casamicciola received the vertical shock. The latest eruption of 
Mte. Epomeo, Ischia's great volcano, occurred in 1302. 

Many other instances of volcanic earthquakes might be cited, but 
perhaps none within historic times have been more severe than those 
which have been mentioned. All show extremely restricted areas 
of disturbance, a fact which indicates a comparatively slight depth 
for the origin of the shocks and a far smaller expenditure of total 
energy than is developed in connection with the great tectonic 
quakes. It must not be overlooked, however, that some earth- 
quakes, the origin of which is doubtful, may rightly be assigned to a 
volcanic origin. Furthermore, the intrusion during past geologic 
time of countless dikes, sills and laccoliths of igneous rock, the 
occurrence of which is known from exposures all over the world, 
must have been accompanied by sudden dislocations, causing earth- 
quakes. Such quakes would be of combined volcanic and tectonic 
origin. It cannot be asserted positively that they are not occurring 
at the present epoch. 

This brings me now to the consideration of the third and most 
important class of volcanoes, viz., tectonic quakes, or those which 
are caused by dislocations in the earth's rock crust due to the action 
of mountain-building forces. Mountain regions of high geological 
antiquity, like the Appalachian pr6taxis and the Scandinavian 
Peninsula, have had time to adjust themselves to the crustal strains 
due to their elevation and hence are rarely the scene of great earth- 
quake shocks. In the younger mountain systems, however, such as 
the Apennines, the Japanese archipelago, Central America and those 
of California, where young strata abut unconformably against old, 
the adjustment to strains is still going forward, the cumulative 
effect being followed by sudden and irregular release of pressure, 
producing the vibrations which we know as earthquakes. Some of 
these tectonic quakes have sensibly affected enormous areas. That 
t of Lisbon, 1755, was felt from northern Africa on the south to 


Scandinavia on the north and to the east coast of North America 
on the west, an area estimated by Baron von Humboldt at four 
times that of the whole of Europe. The Andean earthquake of 
1868 shook severely a strip of country 2,000 miles long. The 
modern seismographs have given pronounced records of earth- 
quakes whose origin was certainly not less than 8,000 miles distant — 
truly world-shaking events. 

The depth of the origin of the shocks below the surface of the 
earth probably never exceeds thirty geographical miles and usually 
is not more than from five to fifteen miles. The geological struc- 
ture of the region through which the earth waves are propagated 
affects the rate of advance of the same earthquake in different direc- 
tions and produces many changes in the direction of movement and 
great differences in the destruction wrought upon buildings. 
Heavy earthquake shocks are transmitted through the earth at a 
greater velocity than light ones and the same shock shows different 
rates in different materials. 

In the case of distant quakes three disturbances are recorded 
instrumentally. The first set of waves to arrive comes on a direct 
course through the earth's mass; the second set comes along the 
shortest route on the surface, while the third set arrives by the 
opposite and longest surface route. The last are comparatively 
feeble, and they may arrive three and one half hours behind the 
second set. The first set of waves, those coming through the earth, 
are propagated with the greatest velocity, which is practically uni- 
form and is about ten kilometers (6j4 miles) per second. These 
direct waves have been shown by Marvin to be longitudinal in 
character, and this character combined with their velocity is sup- 
posed to cause them to give out the musical sounds which are the 
premonitory rumblings of an earthquake. The second set are the 
surface waves due to the " principal portion " of the earthquake, and 
the increased use of delicate instruments of measurement has led to 
the acceptance of 3.3 km. per second as their normal rate of propaga- 
tion. The determination of these various velocities leads to the 
conclusion that the crust of the earth is practically uniform in con- 
stitution to a depth of at least thirty miles. 

The duration of an earthquake and the number of shocks in it 


vary indefinitely. The Charleston, San Francisco, Kingston and 
many other quakes lasted only from thirty to forty seconds. Milne 
states that the average duration of 250 earthquakes of moderate 
intensity recorded by instruments in Tokyo between 1885 and 1891 
was 118 seconds. The first shocks are almost always succeeded by 
after shocks which may continue for weeks, months or even years. 

It has not been possible yet to determine the periodicity of 
shocks or to predict with any degree of accuracy the time of the 
occurrence of an earthquake. Some earthquake regions are subject 
to frequent shocks, while others experience them only at long 
intervals. The frequency of earthquakes, considering those of all 
amplitudes, is not generally realized. The globe, indeed, may be 
said hardly ever to be free from seismic disturbances of some kind 
somewhere, since the average of all recorded shocks, according to 
de Montessus de Ballore, is more than fifteen per day, and there are 
between fifty and sixty heavy shocks per year. The bare enumer- 
ation by this author of those occurring in 1903 alone fills a book of 
six hundred tabulated pages, and he has compiled the data and 
plotted the position of 159,781 earthquakes that have been recorded 
up to the end of 1903. 

At the same time that important quakes are the result of tectomc 
movements in the earth's crust, they may themselves be the causes 
of more or less important changes in the surface of the earth. 
Sharp waves passing through mountain regions have been known to 
produce land slides, shatter rocks, displace larger or smaller seg- 
ments of cliffs, open fissures in the soil or cause subsidence in 
alluvial regions. Springs, brooks, rivers and lakes have been 
formed, altered or obliterated as a result of earthquake action. 
Great earthquakes have usually produced important sea waves caus- 
ing much destruction along the coast and, sometimes, permanent 
changes due to erosion and transportation of material. 

Several scales for the purpose of indicating the severity of an 
earthquake shock have been proposed. The one most commonly 
employed is known as the Rossi-Forel scale, which distinguishes 
ten degrees of intensity according to the effects produced upon 
human observers and structures. Another widely used scale is that 
which has been devised by Professor G. Mercalli. This likewise 


consists of ten degrees of intensity and depends upon human ob- 
servers and the effects upon buildings for the classification of a 

On account of the vagueness of these series, the influence of the 
personal equation of the observer in placing shocks in accordance 
with them and the over-importance attached by them to effects upon 
human property, other scales have been proposed, the best of which 
are based upon instrumental records. Difficulties in using the 
latter, however, arise through the small number of instruments 
actually at work, and the Rossi-Forel and Mercalli scales are still 
found very useful, particularly in the collection of data. 

I shall close what I have to say regarding the subject of the 
afternoon by brief descriptions with illustrations of the earthquakes 
that occurred at Charleston, S. C, in 1886, at San Francisco in 
1906, at Kingston, Jamaica, in 1907, and at Messina in 1908. 

The Charleston Earthquake. 

The most important earthquake occurring in the eastern part 
of North America during the historic period was that which de- 
vastated Charleston, South Carolina, in 1886. This was investigated 
under the auspices of the United States Geological Survey by Major 
Clarence E. Dutton and his assistants, their report being published 
in the Ninth Annual Report of the survey. 

About eight o'clock in the morning of August 27, 1886, the 
villagers of Summerville, 22 miles northwest of Charleston, S. C, 
were startled by the noise and shock of what was at first thought to 
be a heavy blast or a boiler explosion. The sound seemed very 
near, but no cause for it was learned that day. Around five o'clock 
the next morning the noise and shock came again and more heavily, 
and the idea that an earthquake had occurred became general and 
was strengthened by light tremors that were felt that day and the 
next. The affair seemed then to be over, for nothing unusual was 
heard or felt on the thirtieth and during daylight of the thirty-fifst. 
The noises or shocks were felt by very few people in the city of 
Charleston, but they were the premonitions of the great earthquake 


that began at 9:15 P. M. of the thirty-first. In the words of Dr. 

G. E. Manigault, a resident of Charleston, as quoted by Dutton : 9 

Although the shocks at Summerville excited uneasiness in Charleston, 
no one was prepared for what followed. ... As the hour of 9:50 was 
reached there was suddenly heard a rushing, roaring sound compared by 
some to a train of cars at no great distance, by others again to an escape 
of steam from a boiler. It was followed immediately by a thumping and 
beating of the earth underneath the houses, which rocked and swayed to 
and fro. Furniture was violently moved and dashed to the floor, pictures 
were swung from the walls and in some cases completely turned with their 
backs to the front, and every movable thing was thrown into extraordinary 
convulsions. The greatest intensity of the shock is considered to have 
been during the first half, and it was probably then, during the period of 
the greatest sway, that sq many chimneys were broken off at the junction with 
the roof. The number was afterwards counted and found to be almost 

Apparently there were two maxima, the first of ten seconds 
duration, the second of six, with an interval of comparative quiet 
of 22 to 24 seconds. The whole period to be assigned to this 
destructive double shock is about 68 seconds. 

Another observer states that four severe shocks occurred before 
midnight and that three others followed at about 2, 4 and 8:30 
o'clock A. M. 10 Afterquakes occurred for months. Twenty-seven 
persons were killed outright and at least 56 more died from injuries 
received and exposure suffered. The money value of the property 
destroyed was estimated for Charleston alone at between $5,000,000 
and $6,000,000. Not a building wholly escaped injury. Damage to 
buildings was greater on the low made ground than on the natural 
higher parts of the city. 

The occurrence of visible surface waves was so definitely as- 
serted by so many observers and with such detail of description 
that the fact of their formation cannot be discredited. The pass- 
ing of such waves has often been included in the description of 
earthquakes, but their actual existence had been doubted, on account 
of the difficulty of explaining their origin. The amplitude of the * 
surface waves in some parts of Charleston is estimated by Dutton 
at nearly or quite a foot and the average amplitude for the city at 
three or four inches. 

• Ninth Annl. Rept. U. S. Geol. Survey, p. 231. Washington, 1889. 
" Op. cit., p. 217. 

248 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES: r April** 

Besides throwing down walls and chimneys and moving houses 
bodily on their foundations, the earthquake caused wooden posts 
and brick piers to sink vertically into the earth ; compressed railroad 
tracks into more or less complicated curves or stretched them apart ; 
opened innumerable fissures in the ground, and formed hundreds 
or craterlets at many places out of which gushed water, sand and 
mud in copious streams. 

The earthquake waves traversing Charleston were localized as 
coming from the northwest and from the west. The principal 
epicentrum was determined as being about sixteen miles northwest 
of the city and one mile from the little railway station at Woodstock, 
and a secondary epicentrum about fourteen miles due west of town. 
The focus of disturbance was a line or plane estimated as being 
twelve miles below the surface " with a probable error of less than 
two miles. ,, The velocity of the wave motion throughout the 
eastern half of the United States was calculated as averaging 190 
miles per minute. The intensity reached No. 2 of the Rossi-Forel 
scale as far away as New Orleans, Clinton, Mo., La Crosse, Wis., 
Saginaw, Mich., Burlington, Vt, and Boston — an extreme radius of 
about 1,000 miles. The Charleston earthquake is classed as a tec- 
tonic quake, though no evidence of faulting was apparent on the 

(Lantern slides were shown depicting the destruction of build- 
ings in Charleston and vicinity and the formation of fissures and 

The San Francisco Earthquake. 
California has always been known as a seismic region. Pro- 
fessor E. S. Holden has catalogued 514 shocks, 254 of which affected 
the region of San Francisco alone, within the period between 1850 
and 1886. During the nineteenth century there were ten severe 
quakes; that of 1868, known as the Mare Island quake, having 
such a disastrous effect upon the city of San Francisco that serious 
doubts were entertained of the advisability of rebuilding on the same 
site, but these fears were soon forgotten and the city rapidly rose 
again. It was rebuilt, however, without much reference to the 
lessons that might have been learned from the experience. 


In the Sierra Nevada, forming the eastern half of the state, 
earthquakes are likewise frequent. In 1872 occurred the great 
Owens Valley quake, which was one of the most severe on record 
and was the result of movements producing a series of faults along 
a line more than 100 miles long with a throw of from ten to twenty 
feet. This mountain system is formed of Precambrian granites, 
gneisses and schists, upon which have been laid down upon the 
west an unconformable series of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. 
The coast ranges, in which the earthquakes occur with far greater 
frequency, are composed of a granitic core against which rest ex- 
tensive Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata upon which are thick marine 
Pleistocene and recent beds. The latter are full of the fossil shells 
of still living species of mollusks and show that elevation is still 
going forward in California. 

The San Francisco Peninsula is traversed by at least five known 
lines or zones along which movement, or faulting, has occurred 
again and again. The principal of these zones is the San Andreas, 
which takes its name from an important lake through which it 
runs. It is likewise known as the Stevens Creek fault, as the 
Portola-Tomales fault or more simply as " the rift." This zone con- 
tinues northwest in a slightly curved line to Point Arena and south- 
east to the mountains west of Hollister. This is the continuous 
extent of the fault, some 190 miles, but it probably extends under 
the ocean beyond Cape Mendocino to the north and into the moun- 
tains southeast of the line recently disastrously affected. 11 Accord- 
ing to H. W. Fairbanks 12 the recognized rift extends from Shelter 
Cove, Humboldt County, as far southeastward as the Colorado 
desert and is 700 miles long. Dr. Fairbanks states further that the 
great Tejon earthquake of 1857 was caused by movement in the 
same fault zone. 

The recurrence of horizontal and vertical movement along the 
northern 200 miles of this fault line caused the earthquake which at 

""The California Earthquake of 1906," by David Starr Jordan and 
others. G. K. Gilbert, map, p. 317. San Francisco, 1907. 

" "The California Earthquake f 1906," pp. 321-337. See also "Report 
of the California State Earthquake Investigation Commission/' by A. C. 
Lawson, chairman, p. 48. Washington, 1908. 


5:12 o'clock A. M., western time, April 18, 1906, wrought ruin or 
serious damage over a belt 50 miles wide and 300 miles long. The 
approximate position of the epifocal point of the disturbance is 
given by F. Omori as being in latitude 38 15' N. and longitude 
123 W., near Tomales Bay. 18 The horizontal shearing movement 
varied from nine to twenty feet toward the N.N.W. or the S.S.E. ; 
the vertical movement did not exceed two feet at any locality and 
usually was absent, upthrow where present being on the west side 
of the rift. Among the effects along the line of the fault were 
rifting and bulging of the soil, offsetting of fences, roads and walks, 
splitting and overturning of trees, landslides in the mountains, 
wrecking of railway tunnels, spreading and telescoping of lines of 
waterpipe. This is the most disastrous earthquake that has visited 
the United States, though the chief destruction wrought was due to 
the fire that followed in the train of the quake rather than to the 
shock itself. About four hundred people are known to have lost 
their lives in the catastrophe, and at least $350,000,000 worth of 
buildings and other property were ruined by the shock or consumed 
by the flames. An exact statement of the pecuniary loss caused by 
the shock cannot be made, but the insurance companies finally agreed 
upon a settlement to the effect that one-fourth of the damage was 
due to the earthquake and three-fourths to the fire, and this esti- 
mate may be accepted as the best that can be made. More than 
four square miles of the city of 400,000 inhabitants was devastated. 

The main part of San Francisco lies about eight miles northeast 
of the fault line, and the propagation of the waves through the 
city was in a direction N. 76 E., nearly normal to the fault line. 
In general the advance of the wave motion on each side of the rift 
was away from it. Omori concludes that both sides of the fault 
line were displaced toward the N.N.W., the west side more than the 
east, the amount of apparent slip being merely differential. In San 
Francisco the chief damage was wrought upon structures built upon 
alluvial or made ground. High steel-frame structures which were 
not stiffly braced acted like inverted pendulums, causing ruin to 
their walls. This was illustrated in the case of the City Hall in 
San Francisco and the library buildings at Stanford University 

u "The California Earthquake of 1906," p. 289. 


and the City Hall at Santa Rosa. The main source of the earth- 
quake is thought to have been situated at a considerable depth below 
the surface (Omori). 

(Lantern slides were shown to illustrate the destruction! of 
buildings in San Francisco, Santa Rosa and Leland Stanford Jr. 
University, and the geologic and topographic changes wrought in 
the surface of the ground along the line of fracture.) 

The Kingston Earthquake. 

The Blue Mountains, rising 7,400 feet above the level of a sea 
18,000 feet deep, form the back-bone of the island of Jamaica. 
They trend northwest-southeast and, according to Robert T. Hill, 14 
from the earliest axis of folding now apparent. Upon this have 
been super-imposed later east-west flexures corresponding with the 
crustal movements that early in the Mesozoic era determined the 
chief characteristics of the Greater Antilles. Charles W. Brown, 15 
reports observing "transverse faults in the Blue Mountain region 
which undoubtedly indicate lines along which fractures may occur." 
Professor Hill assumes an east-west axis of folding with an anti- 
cline producing the trend of the Greater Antilles and leaving a 
parallel syncline coinciding with the Bartlett Deep just north of 

Such strong relief coupled with folding indicates a high state of 
tension in the earth's crust. Resistance to stress is diminished on 
steep slopes, especially when the application of pressure to the ends 
of an axis is not made in the same plane, giving rise to torsional 
strains. Fracturing results, tending to follow old fault planes, and 
these fault planes were originally determined by zones of weakness 
in the rocks. Fracturing, as we have seen, produces earthquakes. 
Montessus de Ballore acquiesces in the folding postulated by Hill 
and embraces the Greater Antilles, including Jamaica, within the 
great Alpine geosynclinal. The region experiences frequent shocks 
and one of the most dreadful disasters of modern times occurred 
within it in the year 1692, when, as a result of an earthquake, the 
greater part of Port Royal, the capital of Jamaica, sank into the 

"Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool, Vol. XXXIV., p. 164. 
"Popular Science Monthly, Vol. LXX., p. 385, May, 1907. 

252 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES : [April a* 

sea. The city was built upon a narrow sand spit formed of the 
detritus brought down by rivers from the mountains of the interior 
or cast up by the sea. It is estimated that 2,000 people lost their 
live£ in this disaster, when a tract of land about a thousand acres 
in extent sank so as to lie thirty or forty feet under water. 

After the destruction of Port Royal the city of Kingston was 
established on the gradually rising Liguanea plain across the harbor 
from the old capital, and it flourished for 215 years, becoming a 
compact city of 60,000 inhabitants. Its business portion extended 
along the water front and was only twelve blocks long and two wide. 
The city was built, however, upon unconsolidated gravels and sands 
— alluvial and coast deposits that gave a foundation but little more 
secure than the sand spit gave to old Port Royal. Hence when the 
earthquake of January 14, 1907, occurred, 85 per cent, of the build- 
ings in the city was injured or destroyed, and fire completed the ruin 
over ten or fifteen blocks of the business and warehouse section. 

The shock probably began at 3 133 P. M., though an exact state- 
ment tannot be made through lack of accurate standard time in the 
island. This defect as to time has made it impracticable to plot any 
coseismal lines. The first series of vibrations, the great shock, 
lasted 35 seconds, more or less, but the duration varied with the 
position of the observer. The longest period" was reported from the 
north shore and as being 90 seconds. After the preliminary tremors, 
which were heard before they were felt, the shock was double, the 
first maximum being reached in about ten seconds, followed by a 
second and less acute climax before the vibrations ceased. The in- 
terval between the preliminary tremors and the main shock was 
almost insensible. After shocks occurred for several months. 
Through the city of Kingston and its immediate vicinity the earth- 
wave shown by the first climax passed from west to east, but three 
miles north of town the direction of motion was distinctly from 
the south, while in the Hope River valley five miles east of the city, 
the advance was from the northwest. The earthwave recorded by 
the second maximum of shock was more undulatory in character 
than the first and seems to have originated more to the south of the 
city. This direction of motion combined with the first produced a 
twisting counter-clock-wise movement of slender upright structures 


like statues, columns and chimneys and had a noticeable effect on 


According to Professor Brown: 

The dip of the angling cracks at Kingston points to a locus of dis- 
turbance much to the west of that city, while the lines of isoseismals indicate 
the intensity area to be in the eastern half of Kingston. . . . The only 
conclusion then is that the eastern end of the Liguanea plain was the 
nearest area to the real epicenter that by nature of material would give 
the greatest amplitude to the destructive epi focal waves. Further, the angle 
of emergence at Kingston coordinated with the proximity of a probable 
epicenter together with the limited area of disturbance indicates a shallow 
origin of about three miles. 

As is demanded by theory and observed in fact the vibrations 
increase in violence on passing from an elastic to an inelastic 
medium — the destruction wrought in Messina, San Francisco and 
other places has been worse in the sections built upon alluvial or 
other loose soil than in those built upon rock, and Kingston was 
entirely upon such loose material. The experiences of these and 
other regions show that the destructiveness of an earthquake is not 
necessarily greatest in the epi focal area. If the locus of disturbance 
is in or under an elastic rock-mass and the shock is propagated into 
a region of inelastic loose material, the destruction in the latter may 
exceed that in the real epicenter. The fault which was the locus of 
the San Francisco quake is some miles from the city. 

The shock of the Kingston earthquake was not sensible on the 
island of Haiti to the east or on Grand Cayman to the west, but 
Santiago de Cuba, 120 miles to the north, felt it slightly. This in- 
dicates an ellipse as being the generalized form of curve for the 
isoseismals, with the longer axis extending approximately north and 
south. At Annotta and Buff Bays on the north shore of Jamaica, 
opposite Kingston, the destruction wrought was almost as severe as 
at the capital city. The inference is that renewed faulting along 
north-south fault lines caused the earthquake. 

The building construction of Kingston was as bad as the founda- 
tion upon which the city rested. Brick structures predominated, 
but for the most part it was evident that the brick had been laid dry 
in poor mortar. Such buildings collapsed under the shock. Those 
that were properly put together withstood the quake better. Wooden 
houses with good braces and well fastened together were not thrown 

254 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES: r April u, 

down. Massive walls showed cracks from half an inch to two inches 
wide. The double amplitude of the wave motion of the earth is 
estimated at not more than one inch. Such an amplitude is small 
when compared with the four-inch amplitude calculated by Omori 16 
for the earthwave of the San Francisco (1906) quake, the 6 to 
12-inch amplitude estimated by F. A. Perret 17 for the earthwave at 
Messina in last December's quake, or the one foot maximum ampli- 
tude given by C. E. Dutton 18 for the Charleston earthquake wave. 
These largest estimates were derived from effects in soft ground 
and are probably excessive. 

From a geological standpoint the movements causing the King- 
ston earthquake were less important than the changes in the earth's 
surface that were produced by it. Surface evidence of the former 
has not yet been discovered, but the latter are quite apparent. Be- 
ginning in the city water front, a belt of Assuring and subsidence 
skirted the eastern half of the harbor and returned along the inner 
(northern) base of the Palisadoes. Opposite the city the zone of 
disturbance forked, one branch maintaining the original direction 
and passing through Port Royal, while the other curved north- 
westward touching Ft. Augusta and dying out in the River Cobre 
valley, eight to ten miles northwest of town. 

From soundings taken for Professor Brown, it was learned that 
" in several places along the edge of the harbor the bottom had sunk 
from old soundings of a fathom and a half to over six fathoms, 
and that on the harbor side of the base of the Palisadoes a series 
of step faults reached a maximum depression at the shore to the 
north of four fathoms." Port Royal sank from 8 to 25 feet. 
The zone of disturbance was from 100 to 300 yards wide, contain- 
ing where exposed many fissures and craterlets out of which water, 
sand and mud gushed to heights of three or four feet. The Assur- 
ing was caused by the compression and expansion of the earth due 
to the passage of the earthquake wave, but the cause of the sub- 
sidence is not clear, for the harbor as a whole did not sink— only 
an encircling belt. Perhaps solution of the soft limestone where 

""The California Earthquake of 1906," p. 307, 1907. 

" Am. Jour. Set., IV., xxvn., 327, April, 1909. 

18 Ninth Annual Rept. U. S. G. S., p. 269. Washington, 1889. 


the ground waters enter the harbor left caverns into which the 
overlying material was shaken by the quake (Brown). No sea 
wave of importance accompanied or followed the shock. 

(A series of lantern slides was used to show the destruction 
caused in the city, the sinking of Port Royal point and the faulting, 
Assuring and formation of craterlets along the Palisadoes.) 

The Messina-Reggio Earthquake. 

Time after time during the historic period Italy has suffered 
from the effects of serious earthquakes, but never before so severely 
as from that which occurred in Calabria and Sicily on December 
28, 1908, whea 200,000 human beings are supposed to have lost 
their lives. The cities of Messina in Sicily and Reggio in Calabria 
were completely wrecked, and many other villages and towns were 
laid in ruins or damaged throughout an irregularly elliptical district 
85 miles long by 50 miles wide, extending from Pizzo, Calabria, 
on the northeast to Riposto, Sicily, at the sea base of Mt. Etna, on 
the southwest. The epi focal area was the Strait of Messina, with 
the epicentrum at or near the northern end of the Strait. More 
precisely, the longer axis of the ellipse of greatest destruction 
(from Ali to Palmi, about 35 miles), as shown by isoseismals, lies 
in the strait and runs N.N.E.-S.S.W. 

Calabria and northeastern Sicily form a district of extreme 
seismicity that has been visited by several disastrous earthquakes, 
among which those of 1783, 1785 and 1905 stand out with pfom- 
inence on account of their destructiveness to human life and prop- 
erty. Volcanic quakes have been associated with eruptions of Mt. 
Etna, but they have been strictly local in effect, and their influence 
has not been seriously felt across the Strait. All the severe shocks 
have originated in Calabria or under the Strait of Messina are of 
tectonic character, the geological structure being particularly favor- 
able to the production of such quakes. Forming the backbone of 
Calabria and extending beyond Messina in Sicily there is an 
elongated area of Archean gneisses and mica schists. Along this 
axis there occur nearly horizontal beds of Miocene age up to an 
altitude of 3,300 feet above the sea, while along the Strait of 


Messina there runs a fault with thousands of feet of throw, the 
uplift being upon the Calabrian side of the Strait. Movement ap- 
pears to be still going on along this and other fault zones, resulting 
in repeated earthquakes. Furthermore, the slopes into the sub- 
marine depths on both sides of the " toe " of Italy are very steep 
and therefore unstable. 

Toward the end of 1908 the seismic activity of the region was 
evidently on the increase, and noteworthy shocks were felt No- 
vember 5 and December 10, while F. A. Perret 1 * reports that at 
5 :20 A. M., December 27, just twenty- four hours before the occur- 
rence of the great shock, the seismograph at the Messina observa- 
tory registered an important earth movement. The observatory 
was wrecked by the great earthquake, but the instruments had been 
installed in its cellar and Dr. E. Oddone 20 of the seismographic 
service found them intact and the records intelligible, when he 
reached the place January 1. These records showed that the quake 
began at 5:21 115 o'clock A. M., December 28, with a gentle move- 
ment the force of which increased during ten seconds and then 
diminished during ten seconds. After two minutes of calm came 
the great shock, lasting 30 to 35 seconds, which was recorded by 
seismographs all over the world. This was followed by com- 
paratively light shocks at 5:45, 5:53 and 9:05 o'clock A. M. of 
the same day, and by noteworthy quakes at 2:51 and 7:30 o'clock 
P. M. of the following day. For several days and even weeks 
minpr shocks continued to occur. Some of these " after-shocks " 
were strong enough to add to the damage caused by the principal 
quake. According to Mr. Perret 21 the intensity within the mega- 
seismic area was between the ninth and tenth degree of the Mercalli 
scale decreasing rapidly with increasing distance from the epi- 
centrum, and the centrum was not deeply located, being possibly 
fifteen kilometers (9! miles) beneath the surface. 

Messina was a beautiful city stretching for miles along the 
shore of a magnificent harbor. Lying in an advantageous position 
on the short cut from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Tyrrhene 

19 Am. Jour. Set., IV., xxvil, p. 321, April, 1909. 
"La Nature, XXXVIL, 103, January 16, 1909. 
n Loc. cit., p. 321. 


Sea, the city has enjoyed prosperity for centuries, in spite of fre- 
quent visitation from earthquakes. The city was almost com- 
pletely destroyed by a shock in February, 1783, but the people seem 
to have learned nothing from their experience with an unstable 
land. The Messina of yesterday — the city does not exist to-day — 
was constructed of stone and rubble and old cement. The build- 
ings lined narrow streets and were three, four and even five stories 
high with massive walls. Hence when the shock came and raised 
and then dropped the ground for half a minute, the houses, stores, 
hotels, churches and government buildings were shaken into un- 
recognizable heaps of debris, filling the sites of the structures and 
obliterating the streets. The sea-wall in front of the city was 
partly destroyed, and the promenade along the harbor sank in 
places below the water. 

Reggio di Calabria likewise has suffered frequently from 
earthquakes, but until within the past few years the inhabitants 
had not profited by experience to put up earthquake-proof build- 
ings, and all the old houses in the city were /lemolished by this 
latest quake. New houses not more than ten meters (33 feet) 
high are said to have resisted the shocks perfectly. Throughout 
the Calabrian earthquake district the buildings erected since the 
disaster of 1905, according to the specifications of the Milan Com- 
mittee, are reported to be intact in spite of the severe shaking thus 
received, but all these are low structures. 

Photographs show that there was some Assuring of the ground 
at Messina, and it is reported that " vast chasms " were opened at 
both Messina and Reggio, but the latter statement is probably in- 
correct. Professor G. B. Rizzo is quoted as stating 22 that the sea 
bottom rose in some places, for he saw several boats out of water 
at the places where they had been anchored some distance from 
the original shore. The extensive breaking of telegraphic cables 
indicates submarine disturbance, but the fact of any considerable 
change in the configuration of the sea bottom remains to be proven 
and can only be established by careful soundings. No changes in 
the coast line have occurred, as far as can be detected without an 

n Nature, Vol. LXXIX., p. 289, January 7, 1909. 


258 HOVEY— EARTHQUAKES : [April 14, 

instrumental survey. It is stated positively that the ground sank 
in several places in Messina, Reggio and elsewhere, particularly 
along the harbor front in Messina and along the sea front and in 
the center of Reggio ; but all the low-lying parts of the two cities 
were built upon unconsolidated alluvial and shore material, per- 
mitting, as in the earthquakes of San Francisco and Kingston, 
severe and destructive oscillations and displacements. 

As is usual with shocks occurring along or near the seacoast, 
the earthquake was accompanied by a "tidal wave," the sea re- 
treating for a considerable distance and then returning into the 
strait with growing force. The wave was not at all violent in the 
deep water of the strait and was of importance only as it came into 
the shallower water near shore, where it was eight or ten feet 
high. Its crest swept across the marina, or esplanade, bordering 
the harbor at Messina two or three minutes after the great earth- 
quake shock occurred, and some comparatively slight damage is 
assigned to the water. The wave was somewhat higher at Reggio 
than at Messina ayd attained its maximum on the coast south of 
Taormina (Perret). In Reggio the buildings on the low land 
along the coast were flooded. The wave injured a few boats at 
Syracuse near the southeastern corner of Sicily ; but it was scarcely 
perceptible at the Island of Malta, about 165 miles south by east 
of Messina, where it arrived at 7:15 o'clock A. M. The sea gauge 
at Ischia, about 190 miles north-northwest of Messina registered 
maximum oscillations of 22 centimeters (8.6 inches) at 2:30 o'clock 
P. M. and at 8 o'clock P. M. If the former was due to the quake 
that destroyed Messina and Reggio at 5:25 o'clock that morning 
the rate of advance northward was much less than it was south- 

(A series of slides was shown illustrating the effects of the 
earthquake in Messina, Reggio di Calabria and Scylla.) 



(Plates XV and XVI.) 


(Read April 24, 1909.) 


Paet I: Evolution of Seismic Geology. 

The Natural Development of Seismology Prevented by False Theory. 
The Process of Averaging in Mapping Isoseismals and Coseismals. 
The Evolution of the Fault-block Theory of Earthquakes. 
The Relation of Earthquakes to Volcanoes. 
The Mesh-like Distribution of Volcanic Vents. 
Volcanic Extrusions in Relation to Block Adjustments. 
A Possible Explanation of Volcanic Earthquakes. 
The Conditions of Strain during the Growth of Block Mountains. 

Part II : The Outlook of Seismic Geology. 
The Ultimate Cause of Earthquakes. 
Earthquake Forecasts. 
Periodicity of Earthquake Cycles. 
Possibilities of Future Prognostication. 
Need of Expeditionary Corps. 
A Service of Correlated Earthquake Stations. 
Preparation of Maps of Fracture Systems. 

Maps of Visible Faults and of Block Movements for Special Earthquakes. 
Rate of Mountain or Shore Elevation by Quantitative Methods. 
Investigation of Earthquake Waterwaves. 

Part I: The Evolution of Seismic Geology. 
Introduction. — Speaking generally, the present condition of a 
science is so largely the consequence of an evolution by slow stages, 
that if the past be reviewed the present stands revealed. Zoology, 
which began with the encyclopaedists as a descriptive science, passed 
into the comparative stage with the advent of Cuvier, and entered 



upon its fruitful genetic period when the modern view-point was 
given it by Darwin. Looking back upon this evolution, we note 
that the order is in every way a natural one. The facts of observa- 
tion should first of all be assembled; they must next be compared 
with a view to establishing correspondences, and, finally, the explana- 
tion of the correspondences must be sought in genetic relationships. 

Of geology it may be said, that the natural order of its evolution 
was exactly reversed; for the genesis of the earth and the full order 
of events in its history had supposedly been given to man through 
divine revelation. The growth of the science began, therefore, 
only after a measure of emancipation from the tyrrany of religious 
dogma had been achieved. 

The Natural Development of Seismology Prevented by False 
Theory. — It may well be doubted if there is another branch of 
science which has been so long held in fetters by false theory as the 
branch of geology which treats of earthquakes. Had fate been 
more kind, it might have been the earliest to develop ; for the seats 
of ancient culture were in earthquake countries, and it will hardly 
be claimed that the phenomena of earthquakings are not such as to 
attract the attention. Theories of cause do, indeed, date back before 
the beginning of the Christian era, the dominating one being that of 
Aristotle which connected the quakings with explosive sources of 
energy, conceiving that gases confined in subterranean cavities 
brought on quakings in their struggles to escape. For the times, this 
theory seemed to be well supported by facts, since earthquakes were 
generally manifested at the time of great volcanic eruptions, and 
volcanoes and earthquakes were common to the same countries. 
The Aristotelian theory of earthquakes acquired prestige from the 
adhesion to it of Strabo and Pliny among the ancient philosophers, 
and at the opening of the nineteenth century, through its adoption by 
von Humboldt and von Buch, who then dominated the field of geo- 
logical thought. 

The middle of the nineteenth century is a turning point in the 
history of nearly all sciences toward a greater exactness of ob- 
servation. Academic discussions in large measure gave place to 
careful and painstaking observation or to laboratory experimenta- 
tion. Yet almost at the moment when Darwin and Huxley were 


opening a new world to students of biology, the way to progress in 
seismology was effectually closed through the commanding authority 
of a pseudo-scientific work of great compass, written by the English 
physicist, Mallet. Darwin's great theory was an induction reached 
on the basis of extended observations and of meditations with an 
open mind ; Mallet, on the other hand, approached his work firmly 
intrenched in a preconceived notion which the facts were assiduously, 
though perhaps unconsciously, twisted to confirm. 

Assuming that Mallet's method had been a sound one, his 
elaborate observations conclusively proved the fallacy of his theory; 
for instead of pointing to a definite centrum, his results ranged with 
noteworthy uniformity between depths of 10,000 and 45,000 feet. 
The history of science furnishes no more striking example of a great 
monograph wrought out with laborious scientific method and yet 
absolutely lacking in scientific spirit or judgment, for with a naive 
simplicity Mallet drew from his results the conclusion that, "the 
probable vertical depth of the focal cavity itself does not exceed 
three geographical miles, or 18,225 feet, at the outside." Nowhere 
in the two bulky volumes of his report is the possibility of a non- 
existence of the centrum even raised. 

As was true of the famous fallacy of Werner concerning the 
origin of basalt, it was here the commanding position of the author 
which gave his theory its authority; and, although the impractica- 
bility of his method soon came to be generally recognized, the funda- 
mental idea was destined to survive at least half a century as the 
standard doctrine of seismology. It was the brilliant system of 
Huyghens for treating the propagation of wave motion carried over 
bodily to seismology, which caused it to be so warmly welcomed by 
physicists and elasticians, to whose care this branch of science was 
thereafter entrusted. As late as 1899, the depth of the imaginary 
origin of a particular earthquake was sought by no less than four 
different methods with results which ranged from 21 kilometers on 
the one hand to 161 upon the other, these results apparently not 
shaking the worker's faith in the reality of the earthquake focus. 

It becomes ever more clear that men of science discover in the 
main those facts only which their working hypotheses indicate to be 
important. For this reason a theory which is largely correct, grows 


by elimination of the false and augmentation of the true, whereas a 
theory essentially false yields nothing, and by discouraging effort 
bars the way to progress. With the aid of mathematics and by an 
abundance of exact observation, the more or less occult Aristotelian 
theory was by Mallet clothed in a modern dress and thus made 
respectable in the company of the modernized sister sciences. The 
cause of the earthquake disturbance was by the very nature of the 
theory hidden so deep beneath the earth's surface as to be removed 
from direct observation, and was, therefore, a matter suitable only 
for speculation. 

At the opening of the twentieth century, almost fifty years after 
Mallet had modernized the theory of Aristotle, authors of text- 
books of geology quite generally disposed of the subject of earth- 
quakes by a treatment of the outlines of the Mallet theory in the 
compass of a few pages. How generally the investigation of earth- 
quakes was excluded from the field of research in geology is strik- 
ingly shown by the activities of the United States Geological Survey, 
a bureau employing the largest staff of working geologists of any in 
the world and including in its field subjects as diverse as paleon- 
tology and mineral resources. In the years 1868, 1872, 1886 and 
1887 earthquakes of the first magnitude wrought damage to property 
within the national domain, and with one exception no effort was 
made by the national bureau to investigate these phenomena, and but 
little by independent geologists. Since the intellectual shock from 
the California earthquake of 1906, individual geologists have begun 
to take advantage of this opportunity for study, even though the 
golden opportunity had already passed. 

The Process of Averaging in Mapping Isoseistnals and Coseis- 
mals. — Aside from its occult and speculative basis, which removes 
it from the reach of direct observational studies, the centrum theory 
has yet assumed to adopt the observational method of modern sci- 
ence. The isoseismal and coseismal lines which belong to the Mallet 
conception of an earthquake centrum must be obtained through 
averaging the results of observation either of the intensity of the 
shocks or of the time of their arrival. In how far it has been nec- 
essary to "adjust" data in order to make the circular or elliptical 
curves concentric about the epicenter and represent uniformly de- 


creasing values as they recede from it, one who has not compared 
the individual data will scarcely believe. A local intensity which is 
too large can be explained either by a soft or a wet basement, by an 
earthquake "bridge" or by probable error of observation; while 
one too small may be explained by an earthquake " shadow," by an 
interference of waves, etc. Many curiously anomalous data not 
possible of explanation on any of these grounds may be dismissed 
as " earthquake freaks." 

As regards time of arrival of shocks, " too early " or " too late " 
data have not uncommonly been included among those which seemed 
a priori the most reliable. Especially good examples of such data 
are furnished by the studies of the Agram earthquake of 1880, the 
Andalusian earthquake of 1885, the Charleston earthquake of 1886, 
and the Indian earthquake of 1887. Out of 260 time data collected 
by Dutton in connection with the Charleston earthquake, 47 were 
rejected as " too early." 

To average the determinations of an unvarying value in order to 
eliminate the errors of observation and experiment, is indication of 
a desire to secure accuracy which must be commended as eminently 
scientific in its nature ; but to average the values of a property the 
distribution of which either in space or in time is likely to be sig- 
nificant, is, on the contrary, one of the most pernicious, as it is one 
of the most common and unconscious methods. Such a practice is 
often condoned on the ground that the data may otherwise appear 
to possess an accuracy beyond what they really have ; forgetting, what 
is far more important, that through the averaging process the data 
lose their most significant characters. Now that so many sciences 
are entering upon their quantitative stages it is important that this 
method be corrected. 

A companion fallacy to the supposed necessity for averaging 
data of different values is that nature in all its moods has avoided 
angles and straight elements in favor of the curving outline, and 
that in consequence results are incorrect in proportion as they bring 
out strong accent, or definiteness of character, or exhibit straight- 
ness of contour. In no field, perhaps, has this fault been more often 
committed than in topogr&phic mapping, where it has been encour- 
aged as tending toward accuracy. A new era is dawning, however, 


and the wonderfully improved maps which have been brought out 
in recent years by the United States Geological Survey and by Euro- 
pean surveys have been secured through the elimination of the 
process of averaging and "rounding off" of angles. Significant 
character is thus taking the place of a lack of expression in the 
older maps. 

In a. similar way the isoseismals and coseismals, which have 
assumed to represent the distribution in space and in time of the 
seismic activity of a district, have through averaging of results 
removed all true expression of seismic distribution. It is likely, 
however, that this method will yet, at least for a number of years, 
effectually retard the natural progress of seismology. 

The Evolution of the Fault Block Theory of Earthquakes. — It 
would be incorrect to state that no progress was made in seismic 
geology during the last half of the nineteenth century, but it would 
be only the truth to say that such progress as there was, was 
achieved in spite of and almost in defiance of the orthodox doctrine 
of seismology. Nine out of ten reports upon special earthquakes 
made during that period have included only the maps of isoseismal 
and coseismal lines, to which has been added a computation of the 
depth of the supposed origin. 

It is now proposed to trace the development of the tectonic con- 
ception of earthquakes as it has grown into the fault-block theory 
of the present day. To the Austrian school of geologists and to its 
leader, Eduard Suess, must be credited the pioneer work upon the 
geology of earthquakes. The discovery of the localization of heavy 
shocks along definite lines, or the recurrence of epicenters (surface 
loci of heavy shocks) along such lines, has been a characteristic of 
the Austrian method, which dates from a paper published by Suess 
in 1872. Such lines in the surface, generally approximating either 
to a right or to a broken line, were in some cases identified with the 
traces of fault planes and in others were shown with much proba- 
bility to be the course of such displacements. Here, then, was the 
first important recognition of the tectonic nature of earthquakes, 
and, as a consequence, the Austrian school of seismologists has since 
endeavored to examine earthquakes in the light of the geological 
structure of the affected region. 


It must be regarded as quite remarkable that the recognition of 
this fundamental fact was reached in Austria, for the opportunities 
offered by the Austrian field were by no means exceptional. In 
fact, the great surface faults which have been a feature of great 
earthquakes in other districts, have there been seldom observed. 
In New Zealand, for example, accompanying a heavy earthquake in 
1856, an area of country comprising 4,600 square miles was sud- 
denly upraised to form a visible escarpment varying from one to 
nine feet in height. This event was duly described by Lyell, who, 
in the eleventh edition of his widely read " Principles of Geology " 
reported this and other similar cases apparently without seeing that 
they throw any discredit upon the centrum theory. 

In 1884 1 Gilbert, in a brief note, explained the earthquakes char- 
acteristic of the Great Basin of the western United States as due 
to the interrupted jolting uplift of the mass of the mountains by 
vertical thrust. The stresses tending to uplift the range aided by a 
fissure already in existence, accumulate until they overbalance the 
starting friction upon the fissure, when through movement the strain 
is relieved and the potential energy of the system reduced. In a 
later note published in 1890 2 he showed that during the earthquake 
of 1872 in the Owen's Valley, California, the ground was moved in 
strips both vertically and horizontally. 

In 1893 Koto, describing the great Japanese earthquake of 1891, 

in referring to earlier earthquake rents within the same district 


The event of October, 1891, seems to me to have been a renewed move- 
ment upon one of these preexisting fissures — the Neo Valley line of fault, 
by which the entire region lying to the right of it not only moved actually 
downwards but was also shifted horizontally towards the north-west for 
from one to two metres along the plane of dislocation. This vertical move- 
ment and horizontal shifting seem to me to have been the sole cause of the 
late catastrophe.' 

Without the aid of surface faults, Leonhard and Volz, in 1896, 
expressed clearly the idea that the Silician earthquake of 1895 was 
the result of an adjustment among orographic blocks or Schollen. 
Their statement was: 

1 Amer. Jour. Sci., Vol. 27, 1884, pp. 49-53- 

*Mon. I., U. S. Geol. Sur., pp. 360-362. 

1 Jour. Coll. Sci., Tokyo, Vol. V., 1893, P- 329. 


We must, therefore, regard the cause of the earthquake of June n, 1895, 
as a movement of the Nimpt complex of orographic blocks, which occurred 
along the southern and eastern fracture margins.* 

The great Indian earthquake of 1897 was thoroughly examined 
from the geological side with results which seem to have afforded 
indication of the movement of the ground in individual blocks. 
This, however, was not the theory adopted by R. D. Oldham, who 
wrote the report upon the earthquake, apparently for no other rea- 
son than that it seemed to require an expansion of the affected area. 
In consequence, the unique hypothesis was offered that the earth- 
quake was due to a movement upon a thrust plane beneath the 
affected region. The mental attitude of Dr. Oldham is brought out 
in the following paragraphs from his report in modification of his 
choice of theory : 5 

Though apparently the most probable this is not the only possible, 
hypothesis. The surface features of the Assam range, described in the last 
chapter, are compatible with, in some respects they suggest, the idea that these 
hills are what the German geologists call Schollengebirge, that is, mountains 
which have arisen from straight up and down thrusts, instead of from lateral 
compression, like the Alps and Himalayas. // this be so, the faults by which 
the fault scarps are formed would be normal faults* and so far from there 
having been any compression, the elevation of these hills would have been 
accompanied by an extension of the surface. The state of strain, too, which 
preceded the earthquake would have been one of tension and not compression. 

The mechanism of the production of this form of mountain is not prop- 
erly understood, and a condition of tensile strain in the crust of the earth 
would be still more difficult to explain, but the fact of the existence of such 
mountains and structures cannot be gainsaid, so the possibility of the state 
of tensile strain they imply must be allowed. 

// such is the nature of the Assam range, and of the cause of this earth- 
quake, there would be no thrust-plane underlying it, and the focus of th<* 
earthquake would have to be regarded as a complex one. That is to say, 
there would be no general focus, but a number of independent ones, along 
each fault, and the magnitude of the earthquake experienced would be due 
to the simultaneous occurrence of a number of earthquakes of various 
degrees of severity. 

Whether we regard the focus as a thrust-plane, or as a network of faults, 
it practically covered an extensive area. 7 The hypothesis of a thrust-plane 

* Zeitsch. f. Erdkunde z. Berlin, Vol. 31, 1896, pp. 1-21. 

B R. D. Oldham, " Report on the Great Earthquake of 12th June, 1897," 
Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Vol. 29, 1899, pp. 165-168. 

• The italics are mine. — W. H. H. 
1 The italics are mine. — W. H. H. 


is the simplest to work with, as also the most probable, and it is that which 
has been adopted in the following pages. 

As we shall see, the fundamental difficulty which stood in the 
way of the acceptance of the Schollen idea at the time Oldham was 
writing, has since been removed by the " distant " studies of earth- 
quakes (see below, p. 285), and the theory of a thrust-plane, which 
he chose to adopt, has remained without any support in later work. 

Additional and important contributions toward the fault-block 
theory of earthquakes have crowded about the beginning of the 
twentieth century. In the year 1900, Yamasaki, in describing the 
great earthquake of northern Honshu, which occurred in 1896, gave 
as its cause the movement on two visible displacements which 
opened on opposite sides of the mountain mass. 8 

Two long lines of fracture were discovered by me to be the cause of the 
Riku-U. earthquake. . . . They lie on the two sides of the mountain 
axis of the Central chain, and so this earthquake offers an example of the 
longitudinal quakes (Ldngsbeben) which but seldom occur. 

Thoroddsen, in a report which reached the scientific world first 
through a German abstract of the year 1901, 9 was able to show that 
during each of the five heavy shocks of the South Icelandic earth- 
quakes of 1896, a separate block of country had been shaken. These 
several areas were all included in a low plain walled in by a ram- 
part of mountains, and with a single exception they were contiguous 
areas which did not overlap. 

Each of the heavy shocks was limited to a circumscribed area which was 
made evident by a mass of collapsed houses, and from this the earthquake 
waves were propagated outward in all directions. 

The ground beneath the low plain is probably separated into individual 
parts and the continued movement on these cross lines [across the main 
fissures on which the volcanoes of the island are ranged. — W. H. H.], as 
well as the faults between the individual parts, appear to be the causes of the 
many earthquakes of this district. If one studies the statistical tables of 
the ruined houses from each shock [given in Icelandic report. — W. H. H.] 
it is seen that the individual areas are somewhat sharply delimited; while 
upon them nearly everything was destroyed, the damage outside was rela- 
tively small. 

•N. Yamasaki, Pet. Mitt, Vol. 46, 1900, pp. 249-255, map. 
'Pet Mitt, Vol. 47, 1901, pp. 53-56. The full report had appeared in the 
Icelandic language two years earlier. 


Writing in 1902 Professor John Milne, who has done so much 
to advance seismology, gave expression to his views upon the cause 
of the larger and smaller earthquakes : 10 

The earthquakes to be considered may be divided into two groups — first, 
those which disturb continental areas and frequently disturb the world as a 
whole, and secondly, local earthquakes which usually only disturb an area 
of a few miles radius and seldom extend over an area with a radius of 100 
or 200 miles. 

These former I shall endeavor to show are the result of sudden accelera- 
tions in the process of rock-folding accompanied by faulting and molar dis- 
placements of considerable magnitude, whilst the latter are for the most 
part settlements and adjustments along the lines of primary fractures. The 
relationship between these two groups of earthquakes is therefore that of 
parents and children. 

Professor Milne's studies of " distant " earthquakes had revealed 
the fact that the world-shaking earthquakes most frequently occur 
upon the floor of the ocean. 

When a world-shaking earthquake takes place, and its origin is sub- 
oceanic, we occasionally get evidence that this has been accompanied by the 
bodily displacement of very large masses of material. For example, sea- 
waves may be created which will cause an ocean like the Pacific to pulsate 
for many hours. 

To indicate the grand scale of the mass movements of the crust 
upon the continental areas, a list of twenty-two larger disturbances 
was compiled by Milne and the following important conclusions 
drawn : 

If it can be admitted that world-shaking earthquakes involve molar dis- 
placements equal in magnitude to those referred to in the preceding list, . . . 
then, in the map showing the origins of these macroseismic effects, we see 
the districts where hypogenic activities are producing geomorphological 
changes by leaps and bounds. 

The sites of these changes are for the most part suboceanic troughs. 
When they occur, the rule appears to be that a sea becomes deeper, whilst 
a coast-line relatively to sea level may be raised or lowered. For nearly all 
the regions of the world where they take place we have geological and not 
unfrequently historical evidence that the more recent bradyseismic move- 
ments have been those of elevation. This elevation, however, only refers 
to the rising of land above sea-level, while the mass displacements seem to 
be accompanied by sudden subsidences in troughs parallel to the ridges where 
rising has been observed. In short, at the time of a large earthquake, two 

M " Seismological Observations and Earth Physics," Geogr. Jour., Vol. 
21, 1003, pp. 2, 9, 11. 


phenomena are simultaneously in progress. A suboceanic trough may sud- 
denly subside, whilst its bounding ridge may be suddenly increased in height, 
and the concertina-like closing of the trough may account for the sea-waves. 

Dutton, in 1904, 11 included in his classification tectonic earth- 
quakes, and by supplying data concerning the earthquake of Sonora 
in 1887 contributed an additional example of uplift en bloc of a 
mountain mass accompanied by a great earthquake. Of this range, 
the Sierra Teras, he says : 

In other words, the range seemed to have been uplifted several feet 
between faults on either flank. 

Yet the implication in the context is that these observations are 
hardly decisive, and in a paper read before the National Academy 
of Sciences in 1906 12 it is made clear that Dutton at this time still 
adhered strongly to a modified centrum view to which he had con- 
tributed in 1889 in his report upon the Charleston earthquake of 

The Dutch geologist, Verbeek, in 1905 published a catalogue of 
the earthquakes of the island of Ambon in the East Indian Archi- 
pelago, together with a full account of the heavy earthquake which 
caused much damage upon the island on January 6, 1898. 18 His 
study of the distribution of the damage resulting from the latter 
quake brought out the fact that the shocks were largely limited to 
narrow zones on either side of a main fault running in a north and 
south direction across the island, and to similar zones about three 
additional faults which cross the first nearly at right angles, the 
stronger shocks belonging with the first mentioned displacement. 
Of this north and south zone he says : 

The terrane most disturbed, which one designates "the pleistoseismic 
area" does not here have the form of a circle or of an ellipse, as in the case 
of so many earthquakes, but that of a long band relatively straight, which 
shows clearly that we have here to do with a tectonic quake; now since we 
have shown above in the description of the geology that there is at the 
south of Ambon a fault which is prolonged to the north through Ambon 
and southward ... to the southern coast, it is altogether natural to 
attribute the earthquake to a new dislocation along this cleft or fault of the 

u " Earthquakes in the Light of the New Seismology," 1904, p. 55. 
""Volcanoes and Radio Activity," Englewood, N. J., 1906, p. 5. 
"R.D.M. Verbeek, " Description G^ologique de Tisle d'Ambon," Batavia, 
1905, PP. 300-323. 


earth's crust. Since the formation of this cleft, which is at least of pre- 
Cretaceous age, doubtless movements have often occurred which continue 
even to our time. . . . 

In the following year the Count de Montessus de Ballore, who 
had already become known as a seismologist of reputation by reason 
of his masterly essay upon the distribution of seismicity over the 
globe, brought out a comprehensive work entitled " Seismic Geog- 
raphy." In this volume, as a result of the study of no less than 
170,000 recorded shocks of earthquake, their distribution within 
each province was analyzed by new and ingenious methods of com- 
bination. In each case the known faults of the district under con- 
sideration were discussed, and so far as possible, their relation to 
the seismic distribution was brought out. 14 

Much the clearest demonstration of the adjustment of por- 
tions of the earth's crust as individual blocks, and here by well- 
demonstrated changes of level, is to be found in a paper by Tarr 
and Martin upon the results of earthquakes in Alaska in the fall 
of 1899. 15 Some portions of the coast were found to have been 
elevated, and other smaller ones to have been depressed. The sea, 
which here cuts up the district by a number of fiords, permitted the 
changes of level to be measured by the height of the abandoned 
shore lines of 1899. In the absence of earlier soundings or of cor- 
rect maps, the submerged areas were determined with much less 
precision, though forests now below sea level bear abundant testi- 
mony to the local direction of the earth movement. Still older 
abandoned shore lines, appearing as notches above the raised beach 
of 1899, proved that the latest elevation is but one stage in the 
progressive, though interrupted, general uplift of the region. Tarr 
and Martin's statement of their view is as follows : 

Briefly summarizing the inferences which the facts seem to warrant, we 
conclude that in 1899 there was a renewal of mountain growth, uplifting 
that part of the mountain front bordering the Yakutat bay inlet to different 
amounts — 7 to 10 feet in the southeast side of the bay, and 40 to 47 feet on 
the northwest side. This uplift occurred all within a little over two weeks 
and mainly on a single day (September 10). It was complicated by move- 

M "Les tremblements de terre; G^ographie seismologique," Paris, 1906, 
PP. 475- 

" " Recent Changes of Level in the Yakutat Bay Region, Alaska," Bull 
Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 17, 1906, pp. 29-64, pis. 12-23. 


ments along secondary fault lines, which produced at least three (and 
perhaps more) major blocks. . . . The first and largest of these blocks, 
... is apparently titlted upward toward the southwest 

Accompanying this faulting was a minor fracturing apparently due to 
local adjustments in the tilted blocks. Doubtless this minor fracturing is 
much more common than our observations indicate, for it was discovered 
in more than half our expeditions into the interior when we went out of the 
valleys away from the sea coast , 

The evidence accumulated for the tectonic origin of earthquakes 
and their inseparable connection with the process of faulting in rock 
strata, has shown that seismology must be considered as a part of 
tectonic or structural geology — that part, namely, which is con- 
cerned with the recent and present-day history of the earth. So 
soon as this fact receives general recognition, the field of study must 
be added to that now explored by geologists. For their loss in this 
quarter elasticians will be more than compensated by the enlarged 
opportunities which are now offered them for studying earth waves 
as they are registered at a distance upon the newly devised earth- 
quake instruments. 

Recognizing, then, that earthquakes manifest the time of opera- 
tion of these larger mass movements of the earth's crust which have 
brought about changes in level as well as changes in horizontal posi- 
tion in connection with faulting, it becomes necessary to place the 
subject en rapport with the latest that has been learned in the wide 
field of tectonic geology. This treatment of earthquakes as a part 
of tectonic geology was attempted by the present writer in two 
monographs published in 1907 in connection with a description of 
the Calabrian earthquake of 1905, 18 and later, in the same year, in a 
treatise upon seismic geology. 17 

Having in mind the fact that the traces of fault planes are but 
rarely exposed to view, and in only a small percentage of cases 
possible of determination from purely geological studies, the inves- 
tigation of the Calabrian earthquake was directed toward deter- 
mining whether, (1) there are lines or narrow zones of special 

* " On Some Principles of Seismic Geology," with an introduction by 
Eduard Suess. "The Geotectonic and Geodynamic Aspects of Calabria and 
Northeastern Sicily," with an introduction by the Count de Montessus de 
Ballore. Gerland's Beitr'dge z. Geophysik, Vol. 8, 1907, pp. 219-362, pis. 1-12. 

n " Earthquakes, An Introduction to Seismic Geology," New York, 1907, 
PP. 1-336. 


intensity of shocks, (2) whether these are repeatedly the seat of 
special danger from successive earthquakes, and (3) whether such 
lines, if they exist, are expressed in the surface of the country as 
earth lineaments. The investigation showed that at the time of an 
earthquake the surface of the country affected is peculiarly sensi- 
tized to reveal the courses of hidden faults, which, if thus made 
apparent, may be designated seismotectonic lines, and that strong 
seismotectonic lines correspond in position to the striking linea- 
ments of the country. In this we find a means of deriving through 
the study of the topography, the tectonic geology and the seismic 
history, an imperfect yet none the less a valuable map to display 
the architecture of each seismic district. 

It is a curious illustration of earlier misdirection of effort, that 
up to the year 1907 no detailed map of the fault system within an 
area disturbed by destructive earthquake had been attempted. The 
maps which best display the disposition of adjusted fault blocks 
were the small-scale charts by Thoroddsen and by Tarr and Martin. 
In the summer of 1907, at the writer's suggestion, the expert topog- 
rapher and geologist, Mr. W. D. Johnson, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, prepared accurate maps of the surface faults of certain 
areas disturbed during the Owen's Valley earthquakes of 1872, 
which maps were published in part during the same year. 18 The 
sudden changes of displacement on individual faults and the mosaic- 
like structure of the disturbed region were thus brought out with a 
clearness and accuracy never before attained. 

Seismological science may be said to have suitably celebrated its 
emancipation from the bondage of the centrum theory, when in 1907 
there was published from the pen of the Count de Montessus de 
Ballore the most comprehensive treatise upon the subject. 18 * This 
book recognized the adjusted fault block theory as the best avail- 
able working hypothesis of the science, and with a grasp of the 
subject which was based upon a lifetime of study, and upon a quite 
unparalleled knowledge of the literature, earthquakes were so treated 
as to make the work the one authoritative reference book of the 

M In the author's "Earthquakes," Figs. 23, 45 and 64. More complete 
maps will appear in a special monograph. 

Ma La Science S£ismologique, Paris, 1907, pp. 579. 


The common characteristic of all phases of the modern tectonic 
theory of earthquakes, the evolution of which we have now largely 
traced, is that the adjustments in position or attitude of sections 
of the earth's crust are regarded as the proximate cause and not 
the effect of the shocks themselves. So far as molar movements 
have been recognized by the advocates of the centrum theory, they 
have been regarded as the direct consequence of volcanic or explo- 
sive shocks emanating from a deeper-seated origin. Two recent 
papers of a somewhat speculative nature, prepared by an astronomer, 
have sought the cause of earthquakes in a leakage from the bottoms 
of the oceans. 19 

The Relation of Earthquakes to Volcanoes. — As already pointed 
out, the earliest of the generally accepted theories of earthquakes 
connected them directly with volcanic action, and this idea has sur- 
vived in the centrum theory. The tendency of later study has been 
to indicate that while both betray a certain relationship to each 
other, this is not often of such a nature as to call for a quick response 
of the one phenomenon to the other. Regions of volcanoes are sub- 
ject to earthquakes, yet some of the heaviest earthquakes have 
affected a region distant from any volcanic vents. Again, most 
great volcanic outbursts are inaugurated by light earthquakes, but 
great earthquakes produce as a rule no perceptible immediate effect 
upon the activity of neighboring volcanoes. Thus, for example, 
during the late Messina earthquake, which was so heavy about the 
slopes of Etna, that volcano showed no sympathetic response. 
Catalogues setting forth the seismic and volcanic activity within 
any province betray, however, certain periods of years during which 
both seismic and volcanic activity are at either a maximum or a 
minimum ; though within these periods no close time relation of the 
one phenomenon to the other is apparent. In short, it would appear 

' "T. J. J. See, A.M., Lt.M., ScM. (Missou.), A.M., Ph.D. (Berol.), "The 
Cause of Earthquakes, Mountain Formation and Kindred Phenomena Con- 
nected with the Physics of the Earth," Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., Vol. 45, IW, 
pp. 274-414. " Further Researches on the Physics of the Earth, and espe- 
cially on the Folding of Mountain Ranges and the Uplift of Plateaus and 
Continents Produced by Movements of Lava Beneath the Crust Arising 
from the Secular Leakage of the Ocean Bottoms," ibid., Vol. 47, 1908, pp. 
x 57-*75. 



that both earthquakes and volcanic activity are different indica- 
tions of *he operation of a more fundamental geological process- 
mountain formation, with its concomitant manifestation in changes 
of level. 

Going back in the direction of the ultimate cause of mountain 
building, we are probably correct in assuming that it is a conse- 
quence of the contraction of volume of the planet and the wrinkling 
of the outer shell, as that shell adjusts itself over the diminished 
volume of the core beneath. In the past much confusion has arisen 
from assuming that flexuring has taken place within the outermost 
shell of the earth, and that the faults discovered are an incident to 
the folding process within one and the same set of beds. Thus we 
have come to speak of "dip faults" and "strike faults," "longi- 
tudinal faults " and " cross faults." Later studies have shown that 
the processes of folding and of faulting within rocks take place 
under different conditions of load corresponding to different depths 
below the surface; and that, therefore, the folding which accom- 
panies the rise of a mountain range is so deeply buried beneath the 
roots of the range that it can be laid open for study only after a 
blanketing layer of rock some miles in thickness has been removed. 
Those mountains which are growing to-day — such, for example, as 
the Sierra Nevadas of the Pacific border of our own country— are 
being pushed up in blocks which are outlined by steep faults. The 
elevation goes on spasmodically, and each successive uplift causes 
a jolt which is manifested as an earthquake more or less destructive, 
according as the movement is of large or of small amplitude. Deep 
below the surface, the rising* blocks of the crust rest upon arches of 
folds which a future generation of geologists may be privileged to 
study after a layer of the present surface some miles in thickness 
has been carried away. Those parts of the earth's crust which are 
not shaken by earthquakes are, in the language of de Montessus, no 
longer living — they are dead. 

Not only are earthquakes the indication of changes in level such 
as accompany the process of mountain growth, but active vol- 
canoes are now recognized to afford evidence of the same move- 
ments. Wherever mountain ranges are now rapidly growing, there 
active volcanoes are to be found. The full significance of this fact 


is only beginning to be appreciated. Fortunately this hypothesis 
may be fitted to the now quite generally accepted view that the 
earth is essentially solid throughout, and is maintained in that condi- 
tion at great depths below the surface by the high pressure from the 
superincumbent material. Now the arching of strata in the process 
of folding is competent to lift the load from underlying rocks, so 
that wherever their temperature is such that fusion would occur at 
the surface, a reservoir of molten lava is produced and will be 
brought to the surface from the action of gravity whenever a path 
is open for it. A reason is thus found for the presence of lava 
bodies at moderate distances only from the surface in those districts 
where the process of mountain building is in operation. 

The Mesh-like Distribution of Volcanic Vents. — The lineal 
arrangements of volcanoes and the dependence of this alignment 
upon the existence of fissures through the crust, seems to have 
been one of the earliest of geological observations, so soon as the 
less civilized continents had been scientifically explored. In Europe 
the systematic arrangement of volcanoes is much less strikingly dis- 
played, and it was there in consequence a later discovery. The 
credit for having first recognized this important fact of observation 
is generally given to von Buch, because of his classical study of the 
Canary Islands. It seems probable, however, that Alexander von 
Humboldt, his friend and colleague in the field of geological ex- 
ploration, was the first to make the observation. The latter showed 
that the volcanoes in the Cordilleran system of South and Central 
America furnish striking examples of such alignment. Von Buch, 
in his turn, emphasized this significant relationship, but found cer- 
tain volcanic districts within which the alignment of vents was not 
apparent, and so he distinguished volcanic chains from central 
volcanoes. Other explorers like Dana and Darwin soon added con- 
firmation of a linear arrangement from the regions which they had 
individually visited. Dana, a member of the Wilkes Exploring Ex- 
pedition, brought out the lineal arrangement of the Polynesian 
Islands and showed that all these were alike rows of partly sub- 
merged volcanic peaks. 20 Darwin, during his voyage on the 

* " Manual of Geology," pp. yj* 282. 


"Beagle" made observations 21 which advanced the knowledge of 
volcanic distribution, as we shall see, very nearly to that of the 
present day. 

As early as 1825, that pioneer and master of vulcanology, Paulett 
Scrope, discussed the arrangement of volcanoes in the following 
manner : 21 

The generality of volcanos have a decided linear arrangement; one vent 
following the other in the continuation of the same straight or nearly straight 
line; and when volcanos have been formed on neighbouring points out of 
this principal line, they are in almost all cases situated upon other rectilinear 
bands parallel to the first. 

Later Scrope expressed his doubt of the existence of v. Buch's 
class of central volcanoes, for which it had been claimed no align- 
ment could be discovered. 28 In 1844 Darwin proved the existence 
of neighboring parallel tissues outlined by volcanoes, and was further 
able to show by his studies of the Galapagos Islands that the arrange- 
ment of the vents there brought out the existence of a network of 
fissures composed of two rectangular series with the principal vents 
at the intersecting points. 24 The directions of the two series were 
northwest by north and northeast by east. Virlet d'Aoust had 
already discovered the same kind of structure in the arrangement 
of the volcanoes within the Grecian archipelago. 25 

Inasmuch as a mesh-like disposition of volcanic vents within a 
network is of the first importance in its relation to the mass dis- 
placements which occasion earthquakes, it is pertinent to examine 
the more recent literature of the subject with a view to establishing 
its truth or falsity. The newer and more accurate methods for pre- 
paring maps which have been introduced since the time of Darwin, 
make such a review at the present time in every way desirable. 
There are two regions especially which have been recently carefully 
studied by authorities of the first rank in the field of vulcanology. 
I refer to Iceland, surveyed at his personal expense throughout a 

* " Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands, etc.," 1844. PP« 

a " Considerations on Volcanos," London, 1825, p. 126. 

""Volcanos," London, 1862, p. 258. 

"L. c, edition of 1900, p. 131. 

"Bull. Soc. Geol. France, Vol. 3, 1832-33, pp. 103-110, 201-204. 




period of seventeen years by Professor Thoroddsen of Copenhagen, 
and the islands of the East Indian Archipelago, surveyed for the 
Dutch Government by the distinguished geologist, Verbeek. Of the 
Icelandic volcanic region Thoroddsen says: 26 

Of larger eruption fissures and crater chains I have found 87, all of 
postglacial origin; . . . 

. . . The many fissures which are common to several districts can not 
possibly be entered upon a map of small scale; the terrane is often so 
divided by clefts that both within the flat country and upon the slopes of 
mountains it appears to be separated into numerous narrow strips some 
kilometers in length. . . . 

. . . Between the numerous non-volcanic and the volcanic clefts which 
have poured out important streams, no difference is to be noticed; an ordi- 
nary cleft may suddenly become volcanic. . . . 

. . . Where larger fissure systems cross, there are often found large 

Map showing arrangement of volcanoes in the western part of the 
Island of Java. (After Verbeek.) 

volcanoes, as for example the largest volcano in Iceland, Askja, with a 
crater of 55 sq. km. area situated at the intersection of the southland fissure 
running NE.-SW. and the northland one trending N.-S. , 

""Die Bruchlinien Islands und ihre Beziehungen zu den Vulkanen," 
Pet. Mitt, Vol. 51, 1905, pp. 1-5, map pi. 5. 



[April *4, 


With the exception of the report on Krakatoa the five mono- 
graphs and accompanying grand atlases which have been issued by 
the Geological Survey of the Dutch East Indies under the direction 
of Dr. Verbeek, seem to be but little known; yet they contain the 
results of extended and detailed surveys within one of the world's 
most interesting volcanic regions.* 1 Nowhere have such trustworthy 
data been compiled which permit of a thorough study of the arrange- 
ment of volcanic vents. Clearly aligned upon fissures the map of 
Java displays the elements in the intersecting volcano network, as 
may be seen from atlas drawings reproduced in Figs. 1-2. 

Though more accurately worked out, it does not appear that 
these instances of intersection of volcano rows is exceptional. Felix 


^rf\ / 

Fig. 3. Map to bring out the arrangement of volcanic islands and submerged 
volcanic peaks in the Lipari group. 

and Lenk 28 have explained the prominence of the mighty volcanoes 
of Mexico, Popocatepetl, Ajusko and Nevada di Toluca, as due to 
their location at the intersection of important fissures, though the 
warrant for this has been questioned by others. The volcanic Lipari 
Islands of the Mediterranean, which were formerly regarded as 

"Verbeek, "Sumatra's Westkust" (Dutch language), Batavia, 1883, 674 
pp., atlas of 16 maps. Verbeek, " Krakatau," Batavia, 1885, 567 pp., atlas of 
25 pis. Verbeek et Fennema, " Description G6ologique de Java et Madoura," 
Amsterdam, 1896, two volumes, 1,183 pp., atlas of 24 maps. Verbeek, " De- 
scription Geologique de Tile d' Ambon," Batavia, 1905, 323 pp., atlas of 10 
maps. Verbeek, "Rapport sur les Moluques," Batavia, 1908. 1844 pp., 
atlas of 20 maps. 

* Zeitsch. d. deutsch. geol. GeselL, Vol. 44, 1892, pp. 303-326. 


built up on radial fissures going out from the ruptured center of a 
depressed area, reveal a regular plan with the volcanic peaks and 
craters at the crossing points of intersecting lines, so soon as the 
submerged cones are brought into the problem (see Fig. 3)* The 
volcanoes of Italy and surrounding waters furnish an example of 
a much larger network within which the vents are located at inter- 
secting points. 80 

What is true of the arrangement of ordinary volcanic cones 
within individual provinces, is repeated in the case of the monti- 
cules or parasitic cones which are built up upon the flanks of larger 
composite volcanoes, such, for example, as Etna. 81 To some extent 
a similar arrangement may be inferred on a far grander scale than 
any that has been mentioned, as in the longer trains of the volcanic 
islands. As long since pointed out by Neumayr, the volcanic island, 
St. Helena, is located at the crossing point of two long lines of 
widely separated volcanoes, one trending NE.-SW., and the other 
NW.-SE. (See Fig. 4). One of these, the well known " Cameroon 
fissure," bisects the Gulf of Guinea and includes the volcanic islands, 
St. Helena, Annobom, Sao Thome, I. do Principe, and Fernando Po. 
On the land this fissure is continued in a striking manner by the fault 
bridge which ends in the Tschebitschi, 2,000 meters high, which then 
drops suddenly to the level of a low plain less than 200 meters above 
the sea. The volcanotectonic line which intersects this striking 
lineament at St. Helena, includes Ascension, one of the eastern cones 
of St. Paul's Rocks and a conical, submerged elevation upon the 
sea floor, almost under the tropic of Capricorn about 800 kilometers 
southwest of Amboland. 

In addition to these two fissure directions, a third is like them 
strikingly characteristic of the African continent, as shown by the 
remarkable north and south lines of volcanoes and rift valleys in 
central Africa east of the Nile. To these three prevailing directions, 
northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south, must be 
added a fourth less common direction, namely, east-west. Simmer 

"Hobbs, Gerlands Beitrdge s. Geophysik, Vol. 8, 1907, pp. 316-317. 
m Ibid., pp. 315-316^ smaller map of pi. 3. See also Suess, "The Face 
of the Earth," Vol. 1, p. 144. 

" Hobbs, /. c, pp. 348-349» PL 10. 




in a noteworthy compilation 82 has shown that these directions are 
brought out for the African continent not only in the lines of 

Fig. 4. Volcanotectonic lines which cross at St. Helena. 

volcanoes but by the fracture systems revealed in the rocks, so far 
as they have been studied. It is interesting to note that these 

•*"Der aktive Vulcanismus auf dem Afrikanischen Festlande und den 
Afrikanischen Inseln," Munchener Geographische Studien, No. 18, 1906, 
218 pp. 


directions are also the dominant ones in the fracture system of 
North America. 88 

A number of papers of a controversial nature have appeared 
notably by Branca 84 in opposition to the view that volcanoes are 
aligned upon fissures, but inasmuch as they deal with districts in 
which the evidence is more or less equivocal they need not be con- 
sidered here. The problem of arrangement of volcanoes must be* 
solved not in southern Europe nor on the Mexican plateau border, 
but in the volcano gardens of the world, such as Iceland or Java. 

Volcanic Extrusions in Relation to Block Adjustments. — Clar- 
ence King in his description of the area included in the Fortieth 
Parallel Survey, 85 an area divided by vertical faults into great blocks 
which underwent adjustments at the close of the Miocene, has 
furnished a classical instance of the relation of volcanic outflow of 
lava to block movement. He says : 

Single ranges were divided into three or four blocks, of which some 
sank thousands of feet below the level of others. The greatest rhyolite 
eruptions accompanied these loci of subsidence. Where a great mountain 
block has been detached from its direct connections and dropped below the 
surrounding levels, there the rhyolites have overflowed it and built up great 
accumulations of ejecta. Whenever the rhyolites, on the other hand, accom- 
pany the relatively elevated mountain-blocks, they are present merely as 
bordering bands skirting the foothills of the mountain mass. There are a 
few instances in which hill masses were riven by dykes from which there 
was a limited outflow over the high summits — but the general law was, 
that the great ejections took place in subsided regions. 

The study of the great rifts of eastern Africa seems to have 
shown that the volcanoes which have there been built up, are simi- 
larly related to the sinking of the great strips of country which have 
caused the chief inequalities of the general surface.* 8 The two 

"Hobbs, "The Correlation of Fracture Systems and the Evidences of 
Planetary Dislocations within the Earth's Crust," Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci., Vol 
15, 1905, pp. 15-29. 

M W. Branca, "Zur Spaltenfrage der Vulkane," Sitzungsber. Ak. Wiss., 
Berlin, 1903, pp. 748-756. 

""United States Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel," Vol. 1, Sys- 
tematic Geology, 1878, p. 694. 

" Ed. Suess, " Die Bruche des ostlichen Af rika," Denksch. Weiner Akad., 
Math. Naturw. Kl, Vol. 58, 1891, pp. 555-584- 


chains of volcanoes in Mexico as mapped by Sapper 81 seem to be 
similarly associated with the great rift valley lying on the western 
border of the Mexican plateau. 

It is in Iceland, however, that the most extended studies have 
been made of the most interesting field, in which the relation has 
been worked out with the greatest thoroughness. 88 Says Thoroddsen : 

One gains the impression that the form of the surface has no significance 
as regards the volcanic force, which breaks out above upon the ridges, as 
well as below in the valley, yet the volcanoes are always found associated 
with areas which are either sinking or have sunk. 

The lava stream Ogmundarhraun in Krisnoik, which dates from about 
1340, was poured out from two parallel clefts. The southernmost portion 
of this stretch of country between the clefts after the beginning of the 
eruption sank about 66 meters, and one side of the western fissure rose like 
a vertical wall with four half craters open at the brink, the other halves 
having sunk. At the end of the cleft is a visible dike which leads up to 
the row of craters. 

Where great fractures or faults are present in the crust, the volcanic 
forces have not always made a single passageway through them, but in the 
vicinity on parallel clefts, often upon the high fracture margin; thus one 
fracture line 50 km. long extends without volcanoes from Krisnoik to 
Hengill, at which place the north side is sunk 200 to 300 meters; parallel 
with this is here found above at the margin of the cliff an almost uninter- 
rupted series of craters which have formed not alone upon a single fissure 
but over several slices and small fissures running parallel to one another. 
A similar phenomenon is to be observed on the southern fracture margin 
of the peninsula of Snaefellsnes where the craters are mainly found above 
upon the edge of the bluff. Often, also, the reverse is the case, as for 
example, in the Odadahraun, where the rows of craters for the most part 
extend along the bases of the mountain chains, which rise as horsts from 
the sunken ground on either side ; a like example occurs at Myvatu, although 
here the rows of craters occur at times above upon the ridge. 

In none of these cases have we evidence that the eruptions coin- 
cided closely in time with the earthquakes which must have accom- 
panied the movements of the earth strips between their bounding 
faults, but the relationship of the one phenomenon to the other could 
hardly be more clearly proven. Summing up the discussion, we 
note that volcanoes, no less than earthquakes, help us to find the 
positions of those fissures within the crust by which it is separated 

tr a 1 

'Ueber die raiimliche Anordnung der Mexikanischen Vulkane," 
Zeitsch. d. Deutsch. GeoL Gesell, 1893, pp. 574-577- 
U L. c, p. 3. 


into a mosaic of blocks, and that these lines of fracture may there- 
fore be designated seistnotectonic or volcanotectonic lines or simply 
lineaments according as they are revealed by earthquakes, by volcano 
rows, or by topographic and geologic peculiarities. 

A Possible Explanation of "Volcanic Earthquakes." — Writing 
before 1885 Suess distinguished two classes of earthquakes, the dis- 
location and the volcanic earthquakes, and to these Rudolph Hoernes 
added the type of in-caving earthquakes to cover especially some 
of the light shocks of the Dalmatian coast. If we were to supply 
a complete category of earthquakes it would be necessary to add 
further a type of cataract earthquakes to cover the occasional fall 
of limestone blocks in the Niagara cataract, as well as many other 
minor forms, such as blast shocks in mines, etc. In point of im- 
portance two classes only stand out sharply as they were originally 
announced by Suess, and the present writer has been of the opinion 
that even these may perhaps be subclasses only of a single phenome- 
non. The mechanics of volcanic eruption, so far as it applies to 
the cone, is now so well understood that we are able to connect 
the outflow of lava which marks the beginning of the grand stage 
of paroxysmal eruption in a composite cone, with the rending of 
the mountain and the opening of a fissure — a distinctly tectonic 
movement induced by the lava as it rises under the influence of 
gravity, aided perhaps by the expansive power of the associated 
steam. I believe we have been misled into supposing that the 
fissures which are thus opened are necessarily radial to the cone, 
since this would be presumed if the mass of the cone and its base- 
ment were throughout homogenous, with no preexisting fractures, 
and were acted upon by hydrostatic pressure from the central 
shaft only. 

Etna is a giant mountain rising nearly 11,000 feet directly from 
the sea, its diameter is more than twenty-five miles, and since the 
higher portions are so largely concentrated at the center, the aver- 
age thickness of visible volcanic ejectamenta over the base of the 
cone is only about one half mile. Apparently, therefore, this super- 
ficial layer of volcanic material may play a relatively small role in 
the rending of the entire mass which accompanies an outflow of 
lava. So soon as we examine the lines of parasitic craters which 


are distributed upon the flanks of the mountain, we find that the 
majority of these are not radial to the mass at all, but comprise a 
network. A notable instance of a line of craters not in radial rela- 
tion to the central cone is furnished by the chain of Monti Segreta, 
Nocella, Pizzuta, Gervasi, Arso and Difeso. Nearly parallel to this 
chain is that of the Monti Mazzo, S. Leo, Rinazzi, Guardiola and 
Albano. A map of these and other monticules upon the flanks of 
Etna has been already published by the writer. 80 It is, therefore, 
not only possible, but extremely probable, that in many instances the 
earthquakes which so generally accompany the rending of a volcanic 
cone, are directly associated with the opening of, and perhaps a 
differential movement upon, those fractures in the basement of the 
mountain which are a part of the larger fracture system of the 
district. Lacroix has recently shown that a network of fissures 
appeared upon Etna in connection with the eruption of i9o8. 89a 

The Conditions of Earth Strain During the Growth of Block 
Mountains. — If we copsider any circumscribed portion of the earth's 
crust within which mountains are growing through the adjustment 
by individual blocks or compartments of the crust, it is necessary 
to assume that the superficies is increased during the process. Indi- 
vidual blocks may indeed be actually depressed as a consequence of 
the adjustment, but yet the average movement must be assumed to 
be upward rather than downward. Such a conclusion is, however, 
in contradiction of the generally accepted view that mountain growth 
comes about through a ^eduction of superficial area from secular 
cooling. This very obvious difficulty in the way of adopting the 
Schollen conception of mountain structure has been quite generally 
recognized, and we have already seen how Oldham, in seeking the 
cause of the great Assam earthquake, was led to reject the theory, 
even though the vertical faults and the differential changes in level 
were plainly to be observed. 

In the opinion of the writer, the recent study of " distant " earth- 
quakes by modern seismographs has removed this difficulty in the 
way of a general acceptance of the fault-block theory. By extend- 

" Gerland's Beitraege z. Geophysik, Vol. 8, 1907, pp. 348-350, PL 10. 
"•L/eruption de TEtna en avril-mai 1908, Revue gSnSrale des Sciences 
Pures et appliquies. 20* annee, 1909, pp. 298-314. 


ing our knowledge of surface displacements of the earth to the floor 
of the oceans, it has brought us a surprise ; for we have learned that 
to these areas, by many regarded as so stable, belong a much larger 
proportion of the grander movements, and by presumption of the 
smaller ones as well. The recent study of the ocean floor through 
soundings, examined with reference to the loci of suboceanic quakes, 
has told us, further, that though the movements upon the land are 
generally upward, those upon the ocean bottom, on the contrary, are 
downward. The so-called " origins " of the oceanic quakings are 
most frequently the steep borders of the great sea troughs where the 
greatest depths have been revealed by soundings. Now it is as impos- 
sible to separate the idea of molar displacements from these great 
disturbances as it is to avoid the conclusion that since these troughs 
are now the deepest bottoms, this is a direct consequence of the 
repeated displacements which must accompany the quakings. It 
has, moreover, been a general result of direct observation, that with 
noteworthy local exceptions the sea-coasts are to-day undergoing 
elevation, and that the steeper coasts face the greater depths. 40 

It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the general upward 
movement of the margins of the continental areas and the general 
downward movements of the near-lying oceanic floors are inter- 
related as parts of one general adjustment within the outer shell of 
our planet. This granted, there is no difficulty in conceiving of the 
rise of block mountains upon the continental borders, since the 
increase of superficies within the affected continental region is com- 
pensated by a contraction of area in portions of the sea floor which 
in the same general period are subsiding. A rise of block moun- 
tains to the accompaniment of an earthquake, if our theory of cause 
be correct, though it calls for an expansion of the surface, should 
reduce the superficies of the affected region */ measured on the sur- 
face of a sphere at its former level. A renewed and sudden com- 
pression of the district is thus made possible through the action of 
the tangential compressive stresses within the contracting shell. 
The writer believes that evidence of such compression has been 

* See, among others, G. Schott u. P. Perlewitz, " Lothungen I. N. M. S. 
"Edi" und des Kabeldampfers "Stephan" im westlichen Stillen Ozean," 
Arch. d. deutsch Seewarte, Vol. 29, 1906, pp. 5-1 1. 


found in the case of most large earthquakes in the behavior of rails 
and bridges. 41 

Part II : The Outlook of Seismic Geology. 

The Ultimate Cause of Earthquakes. — No one should be deceived 
into concluding that because we seem to have found some evidence 
of the nature of the process by which the external shell of our planet 
undergoes its adjustment at the time of an earth shock, we have 
thereby discovered the ultimate cause of earthquakes. That is a 
far deeper problem, to which the discovery of the proximate cause 
is but an initial stepping stone. It is in this field that the deeper 
secrets lie hidden. The outlook of the science indicates two lines 
of effort to be followed up. These are: (i) To make practical 
application of the knowledge already gained, and (2) to investigate 
with every possible improvement in method until we have so laid 
bare the laws of seisms that we may forecast the time, the place and 
the probable severity of future earthquakes with at least as much 
accuracy and forewarning as is now possible in weather prediction. 

Earthquake Forecasts. — It is much to be feared that the science 
of earthquakes is to pass through a stage not unlike that in meteor- 
ology which ushered in the day of scientific prognostication. Judg- 
ing from statements which have been published, a "Farmer's 
Almanac " of earthquakes and popular earthquake prophets may be 
looked for as a possibility of the near future. It will be well, there- 
fore, to consider the nature of the earthquake forecasts which have 
been so widely advertised. Examined with care it is found that 
these, in so far as they have found any verification, apply to a 
single, though the most important, seismic zone, and that all are 
indefinite as to the time and largely so as to place. Dr. Omori, of 
Tokyo, after 'the California earthquake of 1906, made a forecast 
which he himself subsequent to its partial verification reported as 
follows : 42 

As to the probable position of the next great shock on the Pacific side 
of America I expressed my view that it would be to the south of the equator 

tt Hobbs, "A Study of the Damage to Bridges During Earthquakes," 
Jour. Geoi, Vol. 16, 1908, pp. 636-653. 
"Bull E. I. C, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 23. 


(that is to say, Chili and Peru), as it was very likely that the seismic activity 
would extend to either end along the great zone in question, and as the 
coasts of the countries above named are often visited by strong earth 

About two months after the prediction was made occurred the 

Valparaiso earthquake, but at the same hour an earthquake of the 

same order of magnitude visited an area in the Aleutian Islands 

within the same seismic belt, though nearer and in the opposite 

direction from the one predicted. On the same grounds Lawson 

in a lecture read in March, 1907, said of the stretches between 

southern California and Central America, and between northern 

California and southern Alaska: 

These strips, I believe, will be visited before long, and then the long line 
of this earthquake will be complete from Chili to Alaska. 

The Guerrero earthquake in Mexico occurred only a few weeks 
later and bore out the geologist's faith in the soundness of his 

The method upon which such predictions are based is already 
indicated in the quotations given. Briefly expressed it is the prin- 
ciple of immunity from shock for a considerable period after heavy 
earthquakes, combined with the conception of relief secured through- 
out an extended zone in sections by alternation. An extended zone 
on the earth's surface is recognized to be what might be called an 
orographic unit; that is to say, it is all undergoing progressive 
though interrupted elevation. Stresses tending to produce uplift 
are presumably cumulative and may be of varying amounts in dif- 
ferent sections of the zone. The resistance to movement under the 
strain — whether due to the rigidity, to the vice-like compression, to 
the absence of suitable fissure planes on which the movement might 
occur, to the healing of such fissures by mineral matter, or to any 
other causes — may be assumed to be different in different parts of 
the zone. Relief of stress through sudden uplift should, therefore, 
occur first within some one section of the zone where stresses are 
greatest, resistance least, or both. The earthquakes furnish abun- 
dant proof of the general correctness of this view. Now it is sim- 
pler to assume that relief having been secured in one section of the 
belt, a certain lowering of the potential energy of the system of 


stresses is to be expected in the near-lying sections on either side, 
particularly since the shock tends to discharge the system of strain 
as would a fulminate. On the theory of probabilities the area next 
to be relieved should be the most distant, providing stress has there 
been accumulated for an equally long period. The third and fourth 
steps in the cycle of release of strain should in position be inter- 
mediate between the first and second on one side or the other. Later 
steps in the " letting down " process should affect especially the still 
intermediate unrelieved sections of the zone. 

This method, simple as it is in theory, permits of only the broad- 
est generalization and, as already stated, has been tested in but one 
zone and for one cycle of relief. This zone is the great circle belt 
which surrounds the Pacific Ocean, and the cycle of relief seems to 
have begun with the Colombian earthquake of January, 1906. Only 
two months after this disturbance came the Formosa earthquake, in 
a province between one third and one half the distance around the 
planet. The area of the California earthquake, which occurred a 
month after that in Formosa, is intermediate between the first two, 
though nearer the first than the second. By examination of Fig. 5, 
which is drawn to scale, it will be noted that the distances separating 
the approximate centers of these and the later disturbances in the 
series, generally bear out the hypothesis that each later earthquake 
affects an area farthest removed from those sections of the zone 
which have already found relief. 

The rapidity with which the steps in the process of securing 
relief have here succeeded to one another, lends strong support to 
the view that the zone in. question should be regarded as a definite 
orographic unit, and that the stress-strain conditions within all 
except the southernmost portions were before relief began, remark- 
ably uniform. The planetary order of magnitude of the movements 
would thus seem to be clearly indicated. The section of the zone 
last to be relieved was, it is interesting to note, one which had been 
partly relieved of stress during two earthquakes six years and four 
years before the main cycle of relief was inaugurated. The section 
which separates the district of the Aleutian from that of the Cali- 
fornian earthquake had also been visited by earthquakes seven years 
and six years previous to the main cycle of relief. The portions 



of the zone in which the probability of heavy shocks is now most 
imminent, are the Japan-Kamschatka segment, the Peru-Bolivian 
segment, and the archipelago region to the southeast of Asia. Inas- 
much, however, as between 1899 and 1903, 29, 12 and 41 heavy 
shocks had been registered by seismographs from the vicinity of 

Fig. 5. Diagram showing the distances which separated the approximate 
centers of areas of the series of earthquakes within the circum-Pacific zone 
in the years 1906-7. 

these three segments respectively, 48 the time may be long before the 
limit of strain may again be reached in them. The problem is thus 
far from simple and prediction would be extremely hazardous. 
It should not be forgotten that prediction of any sort has thus 

a Milne, Geogr. Jour., 1903, map. 


far been possible only within this circum-Pacific zone, which, at the 
time, is passing through a remarkable seismic history. It is little 
likely that any such sudden relief of strain will take place again in 
the same zone before a considerable period has elapsed. 

Yet, outside this zone and within out own country, earthquakes 
of the first order of magnitude have visited the lower Mississippi 
Valley, the coastal plain in South Carolina and the valley of the 
St. Lawrence during the brief period that the country has been 
occupied by whites. Of these sections of country, as of most 
others, the only safe prediction that can now be made, is that dis- 
tricts already visited by historical destructive shocks, as well as 
some others, notably New England and the Middle States, will 
eventually suffer from disastrous earthquakes. To the time of such 
visitations we have not even a clue. 

Periodicity of Earthquake Cycles. — The " letting down " of the 
potential energy of the system of stresses within the circum-Pacific 
belt, as brought out by the events of 1906-7, is, in the writer's 
belief, as regards its close sequence, an event without parallel in the 
history of seismic geology. Something approaching it appears, how- 
ever, to have been in operation within a somewhat longer period in 
the other great seismic belt of the globe. Making all due allowance 
for the fact that our quite recent study of distant earthquakes has 
greatly extended our horizon, it still seems necessary to conclude 
that the present is a time of very exceptional seismic intensity. 

So soon as we admit the planetary scale of these seismic dis- 
turbances and explain them as a result of mountain growth upon 
the borders of the continent, we are led to expect the existence of 
such maxima and minima of seismic intensity. If now we examine 
the history of earthquakes in those countries possessing the longest 
records, we find evidence in support of this view. The stronger 
earthquakes in Japan, which are on record for a period of fifteen 
hundred years, betray a strong tendency to group themselves. The 
154 heavy earthquakes recorded in that country since the beginning 
of the fourteenth century may be divided more or less definitely into 
41 groups separated by average intervals of 13$ years. In Kyoto 
a complete record has been kept for a thousand years. Here there 
was a strong maximum of destructive and strong earthquakes be- 


tween the middle of the fourteenth and the middle of the fifteenth 
century, this maximum period being followed by a steady decrease 
to a minimum in the last half of the nineteenth century. Minor 
fluctuations reveal an average period of 6£ years, or about one half 
that revealed by the records for the Empire as a whole. 44 

The natural objection which would be raised to making use of 
these data for basing conclusions upon the behavior of the earth 
as a whole, is that the maximum of intensity in Japan may well have 
been compensated by a minimum in a neighboring district. What 
we need for basing our conclusions is a world catalogue of earth- 
quakes extending over a sufficiently extended period. Thanks to 
John Milne and those who have followed his lead, we are now pre- 
paring such a catalogue, which is sure to permit of a definitive 
answer to the question of earthquake periodicity. Even within the 
first section of this catalogue, comprising as it does the thirteen 
years from 1892 to 1904, Milne believes he has made out a relatively 
short period with the maxima of world shaking in correspondence 
with the more abrupt changes in direction in the orbit of the earth's 
pole. On a priori grounds it is reasonable to connect seismic dis- 
turbances with sudden changes in latitude, and the further data upon 
the pole movement and the seismic world maxima, will be scrutinized 
with interest. 

Possibilities of Future Prognostication. — It is too early to pre- 
dict whether more satisfactory bases for future forecasting of earth- 
quakes will be discovered, but the indications are certainly encourag- 
ing. Two, and perhaps three, lines of inquiry are already suggested. 
Most promising of these, is, perhaps, the study of terrestrial magnet- 
ism; for in a considerable number of instances, destructive earth- 
quakes have been preceded by periods measured in hours and some- 
times in days, within which the behavior of magnetographs was 
singularly abnormal. It seems likely that this change in magnetic 
conditions may sometimes be utilized as a warning signal For 
solution of this problem the completion of the magnetic survey of 
the world, may be expected to contribute. 

Evidence is not lacking that fore-shocks, or rather fore-tremors, 

"Kichuchi, E. I. C. Pub., No. 19, 1904, pp. 11-13. 


for they would appear to have an extremely small amplitude of 
vibration, are a fore-runner of most heavy earthquakes. These 
fore-tremors should not be confused with the preliminary tremors in 
the record of ttye distant seismograph, for they are of such small 
amplitude that they would probably not be registered by any instru- 
ments today constructed, except perhaps within the affected district 
itself. Our best evidence that such fore-tremors exist is furnished 
by the behavior of certain of the lower animals. In the opinion of 
the writer, such a body of evidence has now accumulated, that it 
can no longer be waved aside. Just as the sense of smell is so much 
more highly developed in the dog, for example, than it is in man, 
so there seems no valid reason for doubting that the detection of 
small motions by the lower animals may be by as much superior to 
the human sensibility. Dr. Omori has expressed his belief that 
seismographs will yet be made sufficiently sensitive to record these 
microscopic tremors. Just as a block tested in our experiments 
assumes very large deformations as it approaches rupture, so the 
earth structure may behave during a period which is as much longer 
in proportion as the time of augmenting the stresses exceeds that in 
our experiments. Judging from the recorded behavior of animals, 
it would not be surprising if the period during which warning may 
be possible on this basis, should prove to be a large fraction of a day, 
or even longer. If measurable deformation does occur as a result 
of the accumulated stresses long before the limit is reached, it may 
be possible in the case of those earthquakes particularly which 
result in horizontal shearing movements, to determine by frequent 
measurement of the distances which separate properly placed monu- 
ments, the approach of the strain limit. It is a subject which is at 
least worthy of investigation. 

Since the days of Perrey, who devoted his life to an attempt to 
find a connection between earthquakes and lunar conditions, there 
have been those who have sought to connect seismic and volcanic 
disturbances with periods of special gravitational stress due to luni- 
solar phases. The most recent advocate of such a connection, is 
Perret, 45 who is so convinced that he has found the secret behind 

*"Some Conditions Affecting Volcanic Eruptions/' Science, Vol. 29, 
1908, pp. 277-287. 



[April 24, 

the phenomena as to have ventured to predict for the year 1908, a 
grand eruption of Etna. 4a This eruption not having materialized, 
Perret has accepted the Messina earthquake as a substitute. 47 As- 
suming that his method is correct, it is possible to see how a period 
of seismic or volcanic activity might be predicted ; the method, how- 
ever, gives no clue as to what part of the earth's surface is likely to 
be thus affected. The predictions of the author of the theory have, 

Fig. 6. Abandoned Sea Cave 10 feet above water on Coast of California. 

(After Fairbanks.) 

on the whole, been less remarkable than the statements made by one 
of his supporters. 48 

Need of an Expeditionary Corps. — It may well occasion surprise 
that governments have been so slow to appreciate the necessity for 
providing means for the investigation of earthquakes. Our own 
government, which has shown such commendable generosity in 
providing the sinews for scientific investigation, has in this particular 

* The World's Work, November, 1907. 
"Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. 27, 1909, pp. 322-323. 
48 Jaggar, The Nation, Vol. 88, 1909, pp. 22-23. 


field lagged far behind other nations. In Japan since 1892 there 
has been an Earthquake Investigation Committee, and whenever a 
destructive earthquake is reported from any part of the world, Pro- 
fessor Omori, the secretary of the committee and its chief expert, is 
despatched by his government to prepare a report upon it. Under 
orders from the Japanese government, he is today in the vicinity of 
Messina engaged in a study of the latest great disaster. While 
these expeditions have been of value in securing information, the 
time has come when with the incease of our knowledge of earth- 
quakes, something more than a reconnaissance survey is required. 
One man without assistants and without elaborate equipment, is 
today in no position to secure those more important data which alone 
can advance our knowledge of earthquakes beyond its present status. 
Today a scientific party should have at its disposal one or more 
surveying vessels — small gunboats or protected cruisers could be 
easily adapted for the purpose — provided with modern sounding 
apparatus and with a full equipment of necessary instruments. The 
crops of scientific workers should include skillful topographers and 
their assistants and all suitable instruments for preparing accurate 
topographic maps. The party should also include trained experts 
whose duty it should be, among other things, to map the distribution 
of the surface intensity of the shocks. An expeditionary vessel of 
the type described could be utilized upon occasion to study volcanic 
as well as seismic disturbances ; such, for example, as the late erup- 
tions in the Windward Islands. The seismic events of the years 
1906-8, would have been more than sufficient to take up the atten- 
tion of two surveying vessels with their corps of scientific workers. 49 
In times of relative seismic inactivity the ships and their comple- 
ments could be employed to advantage in work which will be more 
definitely indicated below. 

A Service of Correlated Earthquake Observatories. — In addition 
to the study upon the ground, which may be expected to lay bare 
some important laws of seismic geology, there should be installed a 
series of stations equipped with modern seismographs for the regis- 

# Ina late number of the Popular Science Monthly (February, 1909) the 
writer has pointed out . the exceptional opportunities which the recent 
Messina disaster has offered for study by this method. 


tration of the distant as well as the nearer and local earthquakes. 
These stations should be well distributed over the national domain, 
and should include a number of stations of the first rank provided 
with the more sensitive type of pendulum adapted to the registration 
of distant earthquakes. A larger number of stations of lower rank 
should be provided with simpler instruments suited only for secur- 
ing full dafta upon the local shocks. These smaller stations should 
be located with due regard to the more important seismic provinces 
of the country. The United States Weather Bureau already 
possesses suitable buildings for installing such apparatus, and the 
regular employees of the stations could be trained to add the care of 
the instruments to their other duties. In 1907 with the hearty 
approval of the heads of the various scientific bureaus of the govern- 
ment, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
upon recommendation of its Committee on Seismology, memorialized 
Congress upon the pressing need of such a service. A year later, 
the Geological Society of America passed a resolution of similar 
import, and in the same year, no positive result having been secured, 
the Committee on Seismology renewed its first memorial by a second 
resolution. 4 ** 

Scientific research has already gone far to remove some of the 
greatest scourges of human existence. Of those which are char- 
acterized by sudden and usually unexpected visitation, are pestilence, 
flood, conflagration, earthquake and volcanic eruption. Of these 
flood and conflagration must be in part laid at the door of earth- 
quake disturbances, to which they have all too frequently been an 
almost inevitable sequel. They have, moreover, taken the larger 
toll of human life and property. As compared with epidemic 
diseases, like the plague and smallpox which repeatedly overran 
Europe during the middle ages, earthquakes and their consequences 
have been the less destructive of life. It has been estimated that 
in Europe, the plague alone carried off no less than 25,000,000 
people. Yet medical science has discovered the mystery of the 
disease, and in sanitation and isolation provided the remedy. To 
meet the great dangers of conflagrations, \frhich from time to time 

**See also the resolution passed by the American Philosophical Society 
on April 24, 1909. Proceedings No. 191, p. xii. 


have swept over our cities, we have as yet made only partial provi- 
sion, yet the remedy is known and the country does not hesitate to 
make an annual expenditure conservatively estimated at $25,000,000, 
and in addition compels its citizens to build according to approved 

A single earthquake has involved us in a loss of over $350,000,- 
000, or nearly ten times the loss from the Baltimore fire. 50 Yet the 
government has expended nothing in an attempt to safeguard the 
future by avoiding the recurrence of such disasters. In Europe 
within a few months an entire city has been laid in ruins with a 
loss of life which may reach 150,000, yet the latest information 
makes it almost certain that this quake was not an exceptionally 
heavy one, and that most of the loss of life and property might 
have been avoided if proper methods of construction had been 

It can hardly be claimed that the comparatively recent California 
disaster gave us our first warning of danger, for twenty years earlier 
the earthquake in South Carolina caused a loss of over one hundred 
lives, and property to the value of between $5,000,000 and $6,000,- 
000. The earlier earthquakes within our territory have been far 
heavier and the small loss of life and property is accounted for only 
because the districts were at the time so thinly populated. We 
must not, therefore, overlook the fact that the United States is an 
earthquake country, and this not alone in its Pacific section. Some 
of our largest and most prosperous cities are almost certain to pass 
through their trials in the future, as Charleston and San Francisco 
have so recently. On February 5, 1663, almost the entire valley of 
the St. Lawrence and large sections of New England were visited 
by an earthquake, which, if the country had been built up as it is 
today, would have caused a disaster which it is not pleasant to 

Preparation of Maps of Fracture Systems. — As we have seen, 
earthquakes register the movement of portions of the earth's crust 
between planes of fracture. In just how far these fracture planes 
are present in advance of the movement, and in how far they result 

• The official figures kindly furnished by Professor J. W. Glover. 


from the relief of strain at the time of the shocks, has not yet been 
determined. Some writers have dismissed from consideration as 
" secondary phenomena " most of those visible fractures which 
first appear at the surface during an earthquake. It seems certain, 
however, that many of these fractures, at least, as regards both 
direction and position, are dependent upon the fracture system 
already present in the underlying rocks ; and there is, therefore, need 
for extended study of the fracture and fault system within the rock 
basement of each earthquake province. With this study might 
perhaps be combined the determination of the depth and the earth- 
quake properties of each of the overlying unconsolidated deposits. 
Experiments are further necessary in order to determine whether 
large thicknesses of such deposits are controlled by the same laws as 
are the thinner ones. 

In every district which has an earthquake history, this record 
should be examined to learn if possible the points, the lines, or the 
areas of heaviest shock. Whenever data are sufficiently complete, 
maps should be compared to represent the approximate distribution 
of surface intensity for each earthquake, and comparisons instituted. 

Maps of Visible Faults and Fissures and of Block Movements 
for Special Earthquakes. — It has been pointed out that in the case 
of a single earthquake only has a map been prepared to show in 
detail the distribution of the surface faults and the block movements 
of the ground. * Thirty-five years after the event which brought 
them into existence, these faults have been mapped in detail by Mr. 
W. D. Johnson, of the United States Geological Survey. It has 
been possible to prepare maps of portions only of the district 
affected, and the full results are not yet published. Within the 
national damain there are at least two other provinces which promise 
fruitful results from such a study. These are the regions affected 
by the Sonora earthquake of 1887, an d, even more important, the 
country about Yakutat Bay, Alaska, so profoundly modified in its 
relief during the earthquakes of 1899. A scientific party with head- 
quarters upon a surveying vessel, such as we have described, would 
here find almost unequaled opportunities for securing important 

Rate of Mountain or Shore Elevation by Quantitative Methods. 

































— The studies of earthquakes during the last few years have done 
much to destroy the illusions of more than half a century. Since 
the time of Lyell, the burden of all geological instruction has been 
the extreme slowness of terrestrial dynamic processes. Oscillations 
of level described as slow and uniform warpings of the crust, had 
been gauged by measurement upon shores, which in the expressive 
language of de Montessus are dead, and where in consequence earth- 
quakes are seldom or never left. If movements accomplished within 
a week and largely upon a single day, can elevate stretches of coast 
over 47 feet, as was true of portions of the Alaskan coast in 1899, 
what modifications of our traditional theories will be required! 
There is a pressing need for extended studies on rising coasts to 
determine by some scale the rate of elevation. 

Now it happens that one of the most rapid of erosional processes 
is that accomplished by the waves as they beat upon a lee shore, and 
this process is one capable of fairly accurate quantitative measure- 
ment. The Pacific coast of North and South America, the greater 
part of the way from Alaska to Patagonia, has, during a recent 
period, been rising to the accompaniment of earth shocks. As we 
now understand, these uplifts have been mainly spasmodic, and 
the strand-lines abandoned with each successive uplift now stand 
revealed in a series of steps or terraces, which, when closely 
examined, reveal the characteristic marks of wave action sometimes 
at heights of fifteen hundred feet and more (see Fig. 7, and Plates 
XV. and XVI.). Careful maps prepared after correlation of these 
strand lines throughout long distances when combined with precise 
studies of the rate of wave cutting, could hardly fail to shed light 
upon the broader problems of seismic geology. 

In some cases such abandoned shores now in an elevated posi- 
tion reveal clearly that their uplift was sudden and that no interval 
long enough to permit wave cutting separated it from the inaugura- 
tion of the present level. Thus in figures 6 and 8 are represented 
shores which might almost be described as fossilized earthquakes, 
for the evidence is clear that the elevation took place in what was 
essentially a single sudden stage and must have been accompanied 
by a great quake. 

Seacoasts offer the best possible data for observation and meas- 



[April 14, 

urement of the rate of uplift, because the level of the water can be 
made use of for the zero point. There are, however, other available 
means for investigating the rate of continental uplift. In arid and 
semi-arid regions, such as the Great Basin of the United States, the 

Fig. 7. Elevated shore on the coast of California showing marks of wave 
action. (After Fairbanks.) 

rare but violent storms cause torrents in the streams which de- 
bouch upon the plains from the mountain fronts, and so broad fans 
and aprons are there built up. Now if the uplift of the range goes 
on more slowly than the alluviation along its borders, the mountain 
front deposits will bury and hide the escarpments which are opened 
at the time of each successive uplift. If, on the other hand, the 




uplift is the more rapid, fault scarps will appear cutting the uncon- 
solidated deposits. Such scarps, some of them twenty feet in height, 
are characteristic of both the Eastern and the Western margins of 

Fig. 8. Elevated and present shore lines registered in notches of chalk cliff 
at Cape Ciro, Celebes. (After Paul and Fritz Sarasin.) 

the Great Basin region. From careful study of the rate of deposi- 
tion there is here the possibility of reaching an approximate measure 
of the rate of uplift. 

Investigation of Earthquake Water Waves. — The great water 
wave which followed the famous Lisbon earthquake of 1755 was 


more destructive to human life than the shocks which proceeded it. 
The earthquake water wave which inundated the shore of Japan on 
June 15, 1896, destroyed human lives to the number of 29.953. 
Such waves have been especially destructive along the western coast 
of South America. The new seismology, by instrumental methods, 
points more and more definitely to the cause of such disturbances in 
the subsidence of great sections of the neighboring ocean floor; yet 
with the exception of relatively small waves within the Mediter- 
ranean, we are without observational data in the form of soundings 
in confirmation of this hypothesis. The bottom of the ocean is each 
year being charted in new areas, and we are fast accumulating data 
on which to base a decisive series of observations to settle this im- 
portant question. This will certainly be one of the larger problems 
for investigation in seismic geology. 

Conclusion. — It has been possible to indicate a few only of those 
directions along which effort will be directed in the early future of 
seismic geology. From this summary, I think it will be seen that 
there remain no other fields of investigation so long neglected and 
yet so full of promise in important discoveries, which are likely to 
touch so intimately the lives and happiness of human beings. What 
we have already learned is much of it as yet only half learned, and 
we need careful experimentation on lines already marked out, so 
that recommendations may be made for adapting our lives to future 
seismic conditions. Probably nine tenths of the danger from earth- 
quakes can be avoided through practical methods of construction, but 
the relative cost of the different means of securing immunity must 
be carefully considered. The studies which are necessary are on 
such a scale that they call for generous government support, and 
it cannot be too strongly urged that the United States government 
undertake a work so clearly demanded by the situation. This sup- 
port should be nothing less than the foundation of a bureau for 
earthquake investigation, with regular appropriations sufficient to 
carry out studies by a system of correlated earthquake stations, and 
also upon the ground of each devastated region whether it be at 
home or abroad. 

University of Michigan, 
April 21, 1909. 



(Read April 24, 1909.) 

(a) Conditions Preceding and Leading to Tectonic 

There are two classes of earthquakes : Volcanic and Tectonic ; 
the former, connected with volcanic outbursts, seem to be due to 
explosions or to the sudden liberation of steam; the latter are due 
to ruptures of the rock. It is only the latter class that we shall 
consider at present. 

Rock, like all solids, is elastic, and when subjected to external 
forces it suffers an elastic strain; if this strain is too great for the 
strength of the rock to withstand a rupture occurs ; but it is never 
possible for a rupture to take place until the rock has been deformed 
or stretched beyond its elastic limit. When the rupture occurs, the 
two sides spring apart under the elastic forces and come to positions 
of equilibrium, free of elastic strains. The following experiments 
have been made to illustrate these conditions. Two short pieces of 
wood were connected by a sheet of stiff jelly 1 cm. thick, 4 cm. wide 
and about 6 cm. long, as shown in Fig. 1. The jelly was cut 
through along the line, tf, by a sharp knife and a straight line, AC, 
was drawn in ink on its surface. The left piece of wood was then 
shifted about 1 cm. in the direction of f, and a gentle pressure was 
applied to prevent the jelly from slipping on the cut surface. The 
jelly was sheared elastically and the line took the position AC shown 
in Fig. 2. On relieving the pressure so that the friction was no 
longer sufficient to keep the jelly strained, the two sides slipped along 
the surface tf and the line AC broke into the two parts AE and DC. 
At the time of the slip A and C remained stationary, and the amount 
of the slip, DE, equalled the shift which A had originally experi- 
enced. A straight line, A'C, was drawn on the jelly after the left 
side had been shifted, but before the jelly slipped along tf. At the 





time of the slip, the same movement took place in the neighborhood 
of this line, as near AC, and A'C was broken into two parts, A'E 
and D'C ; the total slip, D'E', being equal to DE. A third experi- 
ment was tried; the left piece of wood was shifted I cm. and a 
straight line was drawn across it; it was then shifted a half centi- 
meter more and the straight line took the position A"C" in Fig. 3. 
When the jelly slipped along the surface, ft*, the line broke into the 



Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

two parts,* A"E" and D"C"; the slip, D"E\ being equal to the total 
displacement of the left side. Two characteristics of the movement 
are to be noted ; the total slip on the ruptured surface equalled the 
total relative displacement of the blocks of wood; and, at the time 
of the slip the blocks remain stationary, and the whole movement 
at that time was an elastic rebound of the jelly to a condition of no 

These experiments illustrate as well as simple experiments could 
what occurred at the time of the California earthquake of April 18, 
1906. Fortunately, early surveys had been made of this region 
which Dr. Hay ford, in the report of the California Earthquake Com- 
mission has, for the sake of discussion, divided into two groups ; I., 
the surveys made from 1851-65; II., those from 1874-92. A third 
survey (III.) was made after the earthquake in 1906-7. These 
surveys extended from Mt. Diablo, about 33 miles east of the fau't, 
to Farallon Light House, about 22 miles west of it. They showed 
that between the I. and II. surveys Farallon Light House had shifted 
relatively to Mt. Diablo, 4.6 feet north-northwest, practically in a 
direction parallel with the fault-line; and between II. and III. sur- 


veys it had shifted 5.8 feet more in nearly the same direction, making 
a total shift in about 50 years of 104 feet. 

Observations in the field on the offsets of fences and roads 
showed that at the time of the earthquake there was a relative move- 
ment of the two sides at the fault-surface, amounting to something 
like 20 feet, and it is only reasonable to suppose that this movement 
was equally divided between the opposite sides of the fault. The 
surveys show that the actual displacement which took place between 
II. and III. diminished as the distance from the fault became 
greater; on the east side the displacement practically died out at a 
distance of four or five miles from the fault, and on the west side the 
displacement became equal to that of Farallon Light House at about 
the same distance from the fault. All the phenomena were in close 
accord with the experiments described above. The main difference 
consists in the fact that a straight line on the earth's surface across 
the fault and at right angles to it did not break up into two straight 
lines, as in the experiment, but into two curved lines. We ascribe 
this curvature to the fact that the forces which produced the dis- 
placement of the ground were applied below the crust of the earth, 
whereas in the experiment they were applied at the outer boundary 
of the jelly. 

The elastic rebound near the fault-surface, of course, took place 
suddenly at the time of the earthquake ; and the surveys show that 
between I. and II., and between II. and III. there was a relative 
shift of very extensive regions on opposite sides of the fault, but 
the surveys do not determine whether these shifts took place sud- 
denly at the times of the great earthquakes of 1868 and 1906, or 
whether they were the effect of a slow, gradual movement con- 
tinuing through the years. We must turn to other considerations 
to decide this point. In the experiments we have described the 
elastic rebound was greatest at the ruptured surface, became 
progressively less at greater distances from this surface, and the 
jelly in contact with the wooden blocks did not partake of the 
movement at all. The experiments might have been varied and 
instead of a slow shift of the block gradually setting up an elastic 
shear, we might have set up the shear suddenly; but this was not 



necessary to produce the phenomena which we know took place at 
the time of the earthquake. It seems impossible to think that the 
general shift was sudden ; for we cannot imagine what forces could 
have produced a sudden displacement, amounting to four or five 
feet, of a portion of the earth's surface covering thousands of square 
miles. But we have indubitable evidence, in the foldings of the 
rock common to all mountain chains, of the slow displacement of 
large regions to considerable distances ; and unless such a displace- 
ment were slow enough to allow the rock everywhere to flow 
viscously and thus adjust itself to its new position, there would be 
places where the elastic stresses would from time to time be greater 
than the strength of the rock and ruptures would occur causing 

This view of the case is so entirely in accord with the elastic 
properties of rock, and with the slow movements of large regions, 
familiar to geologists, that it commends itself strongly without 
further argument; but there is a consideration which seems almost 
decisive in its favor. In the experiments described we saw that the 
relative slip at the ruptured surface was exactly equal to the total 
relative shift of the wooden blocks ; this, of course, was independent 
of the slow or sudden nature of the shift. The slip on the fault- 
surface at the time of the California earthquake was about 20 feet ; 
therefore the shift of the more distant regions which brought about 
the break must have been as great ; but the surveys show that be- 
tween II. and III., the shift was only 5.8 feet, and between I. and 
II., 4.6 feet; that is, in all, only about 10.4 feet since the earliest 
surveys, some 50 years before the shock. We can therefore say, 
definitely, that the shift which set up the elastic strains which finally 
resulted in the earthquake, not only did not wholly take place at 
the time of the rupture but that even fifty years earlier it had 
already accumulated to about one half its final amount ; that between 
the I. and II. surveys it increased to about three-quarters of this 
amount, and that the last quarter was added between the II. and 
III. surveys. It is hardly possible, in view of this history not to be 
convinced that the shift accumulated gradually. 

Since the general order of events, that is, the setting up of 
elastic strains resulting in the rupture of the rocks which preceded 


and caused the California earthquake, were the consequences not of 
special conditions but of the general properties of rock, we may 
make the general statement that tectonic earthquakes are caused by 
the gradual relative displacement of neighboring regions, which sets 
up elastic strains so great that the rock is ruptured; and that at the 
time of the rupture no displacements of large areas take place, but 
there occurs merely an elastic rebound, to an unstrained position, of 
the lips of the fault extending but a few miles on each side of it. 
- It is not necessary of course that the slow displacement should 
*set up a simple horizontal shear, as in the case of the California 
earthquake, but simply that an elastic strain of some kind should be 
produced by the relative displacement of adjoining regions. This 
may be due, for instance, to the slow sinking of a large region with 
the production of vertical elastic shears around its boundary, and 
when these shears become sufficiently strong a break will occur and 
the movement of the two lips will be vertical and in opposite direc- 
tions, thus producing a fault-scarp. The main, sinking region, 
however, would not suddenly drop at the time of the break; there 
would only be an elastic rebound around its boundaries; its own 
displacement having taken place slowly over a long period of time. 
The elastic strains might also be set up by a horizontal compression, 
in which case the rock would be folded upward, and when the 
curvature became too great it would break like a bent stick, both 
sides of the broken surface flying upwards under the elastic forces 
and leaving an open fissure between them. Examples of this kind 
of rupture are only known on a small scale. 

It is possible that the rupture may not be confined to a single 
surface, but may be distributed over a number of neighboring 
surfaces, and a small block between these surfaces may be displaced 
as a whole ; but this must be looked upon as a minor phenomenon of 
the fault-zone, and is not an example of the readjustment of large 

(b) Some Characteristics of Seismological Instruments. 
When efforts began to be made, some thirty or forty years ago, 
to produce an instrument that would record the actual movement 
of the ground caused by an earthquake, the object aimed at was to 


produce a " steady mass," that is, a heavy mass that would remain 
at rest in spite of the movement of its support ; and by recording, 
either directly or through magnifying levers, its movement relative 
to the ground, the hope was entertained that the actual movement 
of the ground would be obtained. But the hope was futile. Every 
seismograph consists essentially of two parts : a heavy mass adjusted 
in a greater or less degree to a condition of neutral equilibrium, 
and the drum or other surface on which the record is made. If 
the mass could be adjusted absolutely to neutral equilibrium and 
could be kept in that condition in spite of the movement of its 
support, it would remain at rest, and would record the true move- 
ment of the earth ; but the size of the recording apparatus is limited 
and in order that the record should be made on it, the heavy mass 
must remain pretty closely in one position, which is practically in- 
compatible with neutral equilibrium. It was found necessary to 
keep the mass in stable equilibrium although the force brought into 
play by a small displacement might be very small. If displaced the 
mass would, therefore, vibrate about its position of equilibrium with 
a period of its own; and the record of every earthquake is the 
combination of the earth's movement with that of the heavy mass ; 
and if the period of the vibrations of the earth happens to approach 
that of the heavy mass, the amplitude of the latter increases greatly, 
and indicates a movement of the earth much larger than actually 
occurs. We cannot deduce the movement of the earth from the 
record except by a careful analysis based on the mathematical theory 
of the seismograph. This, fortunately, has been worked out; but, 
unfortunately, it is rather complicated, and it is only in compara- 
tively simple cases that it can be applied- without very great labor. 
The earlier investigators also thought that all solid friction or 
viscous damping reduced the sensitiveness of the instrument, and 
that a long period of vibration increased it. Solid friction is indeed 
always harmful and should be reduced as much as possible, but 
viscous damping is a great advantage and simplifies the interpreta- 
tion of the record. Remembering that every earthquake consists 
of vibrations of many periods, a glance at figure 4 will show the 
great benefit of strong damping. The curves show the magnifying 
power of the seismograph so far as it depends upon the ratio of the 




period of the earth's vibration to that of the seismograph itself, and 
upon the viscous damping. The damping ratio is the ratio of the 
amplitude of successive swings of the heavy mass, when it is 

Jd/UOrf SujflJIU§B^ 

allowed to swing freely. If this ratio is nearly i : i, that is, if there 
is very little damping and the amplitude of the swinging mass dies 


down very slowly, the curves show that the magnifying power for 
vibrations of very short period is unity ; that is, the record gives the 
true amplitude of the earth's motion ; for vibrations of longer period 
the magnifying power rapidly increases, and when the ratio of the 
periods is unity ; that is, when the period of the earth's motion and 
the free period of the seismograph are equal, the magnifying power 
becomes extremely large. For still longer periods the magnifying 
power again decreases and when the period becomes very long, it 
becomes extremely small. Since, therefore, the vibrations of 
various periods are differently magnified, it is quite evident that the 
record of an earthquake would be greatly distorted, some vibrations 
being unduly emphasized, and others unduly minimized. It is just 
in this respect that damping is beneficial. Within limits, the in- 
equality of magnifying power for various periods becomes less as 
the damping ratio becomes greater ; and when the damping is great 
enough to reduce the relative amplitude of successive swings in the 
ratio of 8:1, the magnifying power is nearly uniform for all 
periods less than that of the seismograph. A seismograph, damped 
to this amount, and with a period as long as the longest of those 
present in the earth's vibrations, would give a much truer representa- 
tion of the earth's movement. 

The advantage of a long free period is not to increase the sensi- 
tiveness of the seismograph but to increase the range of periods over 
which its sensitiveness may be maintained. Contrary to a very 
general belief, the magnifying power for vibrations of very short 
periods is not affected by the amount of damping. 

(c) Suggestions for a National Seismological Bureau. 

The work of collecting information regarding earthquakes, and 
studying this material is so extensive that it cannot be carried out 
thoroughly except with the aid of the federal government. The 
United States is almost the only country of importance which does 
not give governmental aid to the study of earthquakes; and, al- 
though, fortunately, the larger part of this country is only subject to 
occasional slight shocks, extremely destructive shocks have occurred 
within our boundaries, and certain districts are frequently visited 
by earthquakes which cause much damage. The study of earth- 


quakes is a thoroughly practical subject, and if properly prosecuted, 
will be of distinct benefit to the country. 

Let us glance, for a moment, at the special problems which a 
national bureau should take up. They may be enumerated as 
follows : 

i. The collection of information regarding earthquakes in tha 
United States and its possessions. 

2. The study of the distribution of earthquakes in the United 
States and the preparation of maps showing this distribution and 
its relation to the geological structure. 

3. The study of special regions, such as the California coast. 

4. The prompt examination of a region which has suffered a 
severe earthquake. 

5. The collection of information regarding earthquakes under 
the sea, and tidal waves. 

6. The study of the earthquakes of the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Caribbean Sea from the records of instruments around these areas. 

7. The issue of monthly bulletins, giving the records of felt 
earthquakes and of seismographs in the United States. 

8. The study and dissemination of information regarding the 
best methods of construction in areas subject to earthquakes. 

9. The theoretical study of earthquake instruments. 

10. Other theoretical studies. 

The variety of these studies requires the sympathetic cooperation 
of many branches of the government for their successful prosecu- 
tion. The Weather Bureau and the Post Office Department are 
especially adapted to collect information regarding felt earthquakes ; 
and the trained observers of the former, distributed as they are all 
over the country, could readily add a seismograph to the instruments 
under their charge and obtain important records of distant and 
near earthquakes. The Navy, through its personnel and through its 
Hydrographic Office has especial facilities for collecting information 
regarding earthquakes felt at sea. The Geological Survey alone 
could study the relation of geological structure to the occurrence of 
earthquakes; and the Coast and Geodetic Survey has on its staff 
able mathematicians capable of deducing the characteristics of the 
interior of the earth from the velocity of earthquake waves through 


it, and of finding the answer to the question whether earthquakes 
produce changes in the earth's magnetism. 

In looking over the history of the various scientific bureaus of 
the government, we see that they were, in general, started by the 
Smithsonian Institution, and after their work had been thoroughly 
marked out and justified, they became independent. It seems not 
only conservative, but most practical, to follow this precedent in 
the establishment of a seismological bureau ; for the Smithsonian is 
excellently adapted for prosecuting earthquake studies, and it could 
probably secure the hearty cooperation of all the other departments 
of the government more easily than could any single one of these 



(Read May 21 , 1909.) 

Oval-shaped objects used in connection with native burials in the 
valley of the Darling River, New South Wales, were manufactured 
from burnt gypsum, 1 reduced to a powder, and fine sand or ashes, 
well compounded with water, just as we would mould anything of 
the kind out of cement or plaster of paris. The necessary shape 
could be given to the mass while plastic and then allowing it to dry 
in the sun. These objects are in the shape of a large egg, varying 
in length from about three to nine inches, by a width of say two and 
a quarter inches for the smaller ones, up to double that width for the 
larger. (See Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, page 314.) 

They are often approximately circular in a section through the 
middle part, but in other cases such a section would be ovate. Some 
of them are flattish on one or both sides and are not unlike a cake 
baked in an elongated form. In a few of the flattened productions, 
one side is slightly concave, but whether this was intended by the 
maker it is difficult to say. Probably the wet mass assumed this 
shape when drying in the sun, because the heat would naturally 
cause the outer margin, which would dry first, to turn upward, simi- 
larly to the way a board warps toward the sun, when exposed in a 
free state. Nearly all the specimens I have seen were evidently 
manufactured in the way above described, but an occasional one 
consists of a piece of sandstone or shale, of a light color, found in 
the bush, which required but. little fashioning to bring it to the 
required shape. 

An old aboriginal, of the Ngunnhalgu tribe, known as Harry 
Perry by the white people, told me that these kopai objects, which he 

1 Called kopai by the natives ; often erroneously written copi and kopi by 
the European residents of that region. 



called murndu, were made out of powdered kopai and a little sand 
or ashes, much in the way we mix up flour when making dough for 
baking into bread. He said that when a native of either sex died 
and was buried, the relatives came to the grave and placed these 

123 4 

This picture shows three medium sized cakes and one small one, all of 
which are made from gypsum (kopai), as above described. I shall call them 
murndu, their native name in the Ngunnhalgu tribe, which occupied the 
country from about Wilcannia up to near Louth, being the tract from various 
parts of which my specimens were obtained. 

Fig. 1. The murndu numbered 1 in the picture, is 6$4 inches long, by a 
maximum width of 4^ inches. The thickest part, at right angles to the 
width, is tf/i inches. The weight of the article is 2 lbs. 9 oz. 

Fig. 2 measures 2% inches in length, by a mean thickness of 2% inches. 
Weight, 4/2 oz. 

Fig. 3 has a length of a little over J% inches and its greatest breadth is 
4^ inches. It is oval in section, with a thickness of s l A inches. Weight, 2 
lbs. 14 oz. 

Fig. 4 is 6& inches in length, with a maximum breadth of 3H inches. 
It has a practically circular section through the middle. Weight, 2 tbs. 8 oz. 

Scattered here and there through the composition of the balls are pieces 
of gypsum as large as gravel, showing that the mineral was not very well 
pulverized; a fact which does not surprise us, when we remember that the 
natives had to burn the gypsum in a camp fire. For the same reason the 
powder became mixed with small quantities of wood ashes. 

kopai balls on top of the mound of earth. For example, if the body 
were that of an adult man, his widow would place a murndu on the 
ground above his head. The deceased's brothers would each place 
one or more along one side of the grave; his mother and sisters 
might also lay a murndu or two on the other side ; and so on. 


An old man of the Murawarri tribe informed me that in his 
language the kopai ball or tablet is called yurda. When a man, 
woman, or young person beyond the age of childhood, died, leaves 
were strewn over the earth covering the grave, and on top of the 
leaves were laid the yurda. There might be only one or two yurda 
deposited, or there might be more, depending upon whether the 
deceased had few or many friends. Mr. E. J. Suttor tells me that 
he has seen a dozen or more of these kopai balls lying on a native's 
grave. They were put on as soon as the corpse was buried. 

A Ngeumba blackfellow told me that in his tribe the name of 
the kopai balls is dhaura. The gypsum was collected, burnt and 
pounded fine by the women, and the men shaped the dhaura. 

A resident informs me that gypsum is very plentiful on Yantara 
Station, near Lake Cobham, about 120 miles northwesterly from the 
Darling River, where tons of it could easily be obtained. Another 
correspondent, at Kallara Station on the Darling, states that gypsum 
is quite plentiful there. In fact, gypsum and pipeclay are both 
easily obtainable along the valley of the Darling, as well as in the 
hinterland, all the way from its junction with the Murray River up 
to Brewarrina. There is also a kind of slacked or rotted gypsum 
which occurs in patches, resembling slacked lime. 

Old Perry and others above quoted said that the- object of deco- 
rating the grave in the way described was to induce the bo-ri or 
spirit of the dead person, to remain in its place of sepulture and thus 
prevent its roaming through the camp at night to do injury to anyone 
with whom the deceased might in his or her lifetime have had a 
feud. When the spirit saw that its owner's death had been properly 
mourned for in accordance with the tribal custom, it felt more 
friendly towards everybody. The spirit comes up during the night 
and sits on top of the grave and commences licking or sucking one 
or more of the kopai balls. 

Sir Thomas L. Mitchell is the first author to mention these kopai 
balls. He says : 

It was on the summit of a sandhill where I fixed my depot on the Darling 
[Fort Bourke] that we saw the numerous white balls, and so many graves. 
The balls are shaped as in the accompanying woodcut, and were made of 
lime. ... A native explained one day to Mr. Larmer [a member of Sir 



[May 21, 

Thomas's Staff] in a very simple manner the meaning of the white balls, by 
taking a small piece of wood, laying it in the ground and covering it with 
earth. Then laying his head on one side and closing his eyes, he showed that 
a dead body was laid in that position in the earth, where these balls were 
placed above.* 

In 1901, Mr. G. Officer, of Kallara Station, described some kopai 
balls or cakes found at a grave on Curronyalpa run on the Darling 
River, about fifteen miles above Tilpa. There were thirty-nine 
specimens at the grave, some of which were lying on the surface, 
others were partially revealed, and the remainder were found by 
digging a little way into the sandy soil underneath. 

■ Fig. 5 is an exterior view of a kurno or widow's cap, a being the front, 
or part fitting over the forehead, whilst b represents the back of the head. 

Owing to the unusually large number of pieces on this grave, I 
am inclined to believe that the greater portion of them had been car- 
ried from other graves in the neighborhood to this spot and hidden, 
for the purpose of protecting them from the vandalism of the white 
men, who were in the habit of carrying them away as curios. Mr. 
Higgins, a long resident of the Darling region, writes me that two 
old blackfellows had stated to him that, when the natives observed 
that the white people desecrated their burying places in this way, 
they themselves buried the kopai balls in the ground to keep them 

a " Three Expeditions into Eastern Australia" (London, 1838), Vol. I., 
pp. 253-4. Seven kopai balls are illustrated in the woodcut referred to. 




out of sight. Possibly nearly all the specimens recovered by Mr. 
Officer had originally been concealed with earth, but the violent 
winds of that district had blown the sandy soil away and left them 
visible. The grave was on a sandhill about three miles back from 
the river and was therefore out of the way of the white men, whose 
principal traffic lay along the course of the stream. 

Helmet-shaped objects, called kurno, known to have been worn 
on the heads of widows as a sign of mourning, were made from 
gypsum, burnt and pounded fine, and mixed with water. A fiber 

Fig. 6 shows the interior of the cap, with the marks or impression of 
the net, and the size of its meshes, plainly discernible. This cap weighs n 
lbs. I oz., and has been formed of kopai or gypsum in the way already de- 
scribed. The specimen was found on a native grave on Lower Budda run, 
Darling river. I am indebted to Mr. F. W. Beattie for the two photographs, 
which he took at my request. 

or rush net was first placed on the woman's head to protect the hair, 
and the soft mixture applied outside until it resembled a cap, hence 
called " widow's caps " by the Europeans. The mixture was not all 
put on at the same time but by a series of additions extending over a 
few weeks. The marks of the meshes of the net are distinctly visible 
in the interior of some of the " caps " of this kind which have been 
preserved by white men. When the mourning cap had been worn 


the customary time, it was taken off and placed by the widow upon 

the grave of her late husband. When the deceased left a plurality j 

of widows, each wore an emblem of mourning and disposed of it in ; 

the same way. If the net was firmly embedded in the dried gypsum, 

it was left in it, but if the net could be readily detached it was taken 

out of the cap for future use. In some cases, portions of the woman's 

hair had to be cut to get the cap off. If the net was left in the cap, 

it rotted away, but its impression remained. (See Figs. 5 and 6, 

pages 316 and 317.) 1 

Sir Thomas L. Mitchell reports that on the Darling River he j 

found " Casts in lime or gypsum, which had evidently been taken 
from a head, the hair of which had been confined by a net, as the j 

impression of it, and some hairs, remained inside." The same author 
states that, on the Murray, some distance above its confluence with 
the Darling, he saw some native graves with mounds of earth raised j 

over them, on which were laid the " singular casts of the head in ! 

white plaster " which he had before seen at Fort Burke. In some j 

cases the casts of the head were found lying beside the gypsum balls. 
He gives illustrations of these two " casts," showing also the .marks 
of the net inside. 8 

In 1838, Mr. Joseph Hawdon observed some skull-shaped caps, 
made of white plaster, which he thought was obtained by burning 
shells and grinding them into powder. They were laid on the grave 
of a native near Lake Bonnie on the Murray River. He says that 
inside the cap was a network of twine. Mr. Hawdon states that he 
also noticed a great quantity of crystallized lime or gypsum in the 
locality ; it was in masses some tons weight.* 

Mr. E. J. Eyre gives an example of the "Korno, or widow's 
mourning cap, made of carbonate of lime, moulded to the head." 
The specimen illustrated by him weighed 8£ lbs. 5 

• Op. cit., Vol. I., pp. 253-254, and Vol. II., p. 113. ! 

4 " Diary of an Overland Journey from Port Phillip to Adelaide in 1838 " 

(MSS). ; 

'"Journs. Expeds. Discov. Cent. Australia" (London, 1845), Vol. II. t j 

p. 509, Plate I., Fig. 17. | 


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Vol. XLVIII September-December, 1909 No. 193. 


(Read April 22, 1909.) 

When the thirteen original colonies and the mother land closed in 
1783 by the Treaty of Paris the civil war that had raged between 
them since 1775, and the United States were recognized by Great 
Britain as a member of the family of nations, both parties thought 
that, by that treaty of partition of 1783, they had arranged all 
the differences then existing between them. But during the cen- 
tury and a quarter that has elapsed since the Treaty of Paris was 
signed, the United States and Great Britain have been engaged in 
endless discussions and arguments concerning the proper interpreta- 
tion of that treaty. Among these mooted questions, that of the 
Atlantic fisheries has been a fruitful bone of contention between the 
two leading Anglo-Saxon powers. At length, just as so many other 
points of difference between these two nations have been settled 
in peace by a reference to international arbitration, so this question 
of the Atlantic fisheries is to be so arranged by referring it to the 
decision of The Hague International Court. This sensible and 
humane agreement of two great powers to refer the solution of this 
question to that august tribunal instead of allowing it to become a 
cause of war, will be another " mile stone " in the evolution of inter- 



national arbitration. In the following paper, I have briefly con- 
sidered this important and live question. 

Great Britain and her North American colonies shared in the 
burdens and anxieties of the struggle that resulted in the overthrow 
of the French power in North America, and after the cession of 
Canada and the French maritime provinces around the Gulf of Saint 
Lawrence to the British Empire in 1763, the motherland of England 
and the British North American colonies had in common a large 
heritage in northeastern America. And the fishermen of the north- 
eastern colonies resorted to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and adja- 
cent waters to catch their share of the rich harvest of fish that was 
to be found in those waters. 1 

During the negptiations for peace at Paris in 1782 between the 
motherland and her revolted colonies, one of the subjects that gave 
much cause of trouble to the negotiators was the right to participate 
in the fisheries. On November 25, 1782, the British commissioners 
proposed to the American negotiators that the citizens of the United 
States should have the liberty of taking fish of every kind in all the 
waters of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and on all the Newfoundland 
banks, and to dry and cure fish on the shores of the Isle of Sables 
and of the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, so long 
as those coasts remained unsettled, on " condition that the citizens 
of the United States do not exercise the fishery but at the distance of 
three leagues from all the coasts belonging to Great Britain, as well 
those of the continent as those of the islands situated in the Gulf 
of Saint Lawrence. And as to what relates to the fishery on the 
coast of the island of Cape Breton out of the said gulf, the citizens 
of the said United States shall not be permitted to exercise the said 
fishery but at the distance of fifteen leagues from the coasts of the 
island of Cape Breton." 2 

By this proposition not only were American citizens prevented 

1 Sir George Otto Trevelyan, " The American Revolution," New York, 
1899, Part I., pp. 263, 264. 

* Francis Wharton, "The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of 
the United States," Washington, 1889, Vol. VI., pp. 74-76. 


from drying fish on the shores of Nova Scotia, but also to catch 
fish within three leagues of the shores around the Gulf of Saint 
Lawrence and within fifteen leagues of the shores of Cape Breton 
Island on its seaward side. Thus by this last provision the British 
envoys wished to close to American citizens the right to fish in a 
part of the high seas that were then recognized as a joint possession 
of all mankind. These proposals were promptly rejected by the 
American commissioners, and on November 28, John Adams, for 
the latter, submitted a counter plan. 8 Further parleys were held on 
this important question. As the Americans contended firmly for 
the rights of their citizens to fish on the Newfoundland banks, and 
Adams said he would not sign any agreement that did not secure to 
the American fishermen the right to catch fish in the Newfoundland 
and adjacent waters, the British commissioners yielded the point. 4 
After numerous propositions and changes, the contending negotia- 
tors at length agreed on the following article that was embodied in 
the treaty of peace finally signed in 1783. 5 

Article III. It is agreed that the people of the United States shall con- 
tinue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand 
Bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the Gulph of St. 
Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both 
countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the inhabitants 
of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part 
of the coast of Newfoundland as British fisherman shall use, (but not to dry 
or cure the same on that island;) and also on the coasts, bays and creeks of 
all other of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and that the 
American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the 
unsettled bays, harbors and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and 
Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled; but so soon as the 
same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said 
fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlements, without a previous agreement 
for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors or possessors of the ground. 

Thus that treaty, that provided for a partition between the 
motherland and her North American colonies of the territory that 
they enjoyed in common, also provided for a partition in the en- 

* Francis Wharton, " The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of 
the United States/' Washington, 1889, Vol. VI., p. 85. 

4 Francis Wharton, " The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of 
the United States," Washington, 1889, pp. 86-87. 

•"Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States of 
America and other Powers since July 4, 1776," Washington, 1889, p. 377. 


joyment of the "right" to reap the benefits of the rich fisheries 
around Newfoundland and in the adjoining waters that the subjects 
of the motherland and the colonies had won by their joint exertions 
and valor. And subject to the provisions of the treaty of peace as 
embodied in its third article, American fishermen continued to take 
fish in the waters around Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Law- 
rence as formerly they had fished in those same waters as British 

When the American and the British negotiators met at Ghent 
in August, 1814, to agree upon a treaty of peace to put an end to 
the state of war existing between their respective countries, the 
British commissioners said, among other things, that 

They felt it incumbent upon them to declare that the British Government 
did not deny the right of the Americans to fish generally, or in the open seas ; 
but that the privileges formerly granted by treaty to the United States of 
fishing within the limits of the British jurisdiction, and of landing and drying 
fish on the shores of the British territories, would not be renewed without 
an equivalent.* 

A few days later the British commissioners also brought up the 
question of the free navigation for British subjects of the Mississippi 
River. 7 In the following November the American negotiators in 
submitting a project for a treaty to their British colleagues, said, 
in an accompanying note that they were " not authorized to bring 
into discussion any of the rights or liberties " that the United States 
had up to then enjoyed in the fisheries. After much sparring be- 
tween the two groups of negotiators as to the fisheries, the naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi and other points of difference, the two sides, 
who were both desirous of concluding peace, agreed to exclude 
altogether any mention of either the fisheries or the navigation of 
the Mississippi from the treaty of peace that they concluded at 
Ghent on December 24, 1814. 8 

The rights of American fishermen in the northeastern American 

•"American State Papers: Class I., Foreign Relations," Washington, 
1832, Vol. III., p. 705. 

'John Quincy Adams, "The Duplicate Letters, The Fisheries and the 
Mississippi ; Documents relating to transactions of the Negotiations of Ghent/' 
Washington, 1822, pp. 54, 55, 184. 

• " American State Papers : Class I., Foreign Relations/' Washington, 
1832, Vol. III., pp. 744, 745. 


fisheries came to public notice a few months later. On June 19, 
181 5, the British sloop Jaseur, warned an American cod fishing ves- 
sel, when out in the open sea some forty-five miles from Cape Sable, 
not to approach within sixty miles of the coast. This act trenching 
on the rights of all mankind to fish in the open sea, the British gov- 
ernment disowned.* Lord Bathurst, however, at the same time said 
to John Quincy Adams that while the British government " could 
not permit the vessels of the United States to fish within the creeks 
and close upon the shores of the British territories," it would not 
interfere with American fishermen " in fishing anywhere in the open 
sea, or without the territorial jurisdiction, a marine league from 
shore." 10 

The question of whether or not the third article of the American- 
British treaty of peace of 1783 — whereby American fishermen were 
secured fishing rights in certain of the territorial waters of Britain 
in North America — was abrogated by the War of 1812, was during 
the next few months discussed by John Quincy Adams, American 
Minister to Great Britain, and Lord Bathurst, British Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. On September 25, 181 5, Mr. Adams, in a com- 
munication addressed to the Earl of Bathurst, argued that the treaty 
of 1783 was " not, in its general provisions, one of those which, by 
the common understanding and usage of civilized nations, is or can 
be considered annulled by a subsequent war between the same par- 
ties." 11 

On October 30 following, Lord Bathurst replied to Mr. Adams 
at length. He said: 12 

To a position of this novel nature Great Britain can not accede. She 
knows of no exception to the rule, that all treaties are put an end to by a 
subsequent war between the same parties. . . . The treaty of 1783, like many 
other, contained provisions of different characters — some in their own nature 
irrevocable, and others of a temporary nature. . . . The nature of the liberty 

•"American State Papers: Class I., Foreign Relations," Washington, 
1834, Vol. IV., p. 349. 

*" American State Papers: Class I., Foreign Relations," Washington, 
1834, P- 350. 

""American State Papers: Class I., Foreign Relations/' Washington, 
1834, P. 352. 

""American State Papers: Class I, Foreign Relations," Washington, 
1834, PP. 354, 355- 


to fish within British limits, or to use British territory, is essentially different 
from the right of independence, in all that may reasonably be supposed to 
regard its intended duration. ... In the third article (of the treaty of 1783), 
Great Britain acknowledges the right of the United States to take fish on the 
banks of Newfoundland and other places, from which Great Britain has no 
right to exclude an independent nation. But they are to have the liberty to 
cure and dryrthem in certain unsettled places within His Majesty's territory. 
If these liberties, thus granted, were to be as perpetual and independent as the 
rights previously recognized, it is difficult to conceive that the plenipotentiaries 
of the United States would have admitted a variation of language so adapted 
to produce a different impression; and, above all, that they should have 
admitted so strange a restriction of a perpetual and indefeasible right as that 
with which the article concludes, which leaves a right so practical and so 
beneficial as this is admitted to be, dependent on the will of British subjects, 
in their character of inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the soil, to 
prohibit its exercise altogether. It is surely obvious that the word right is, 
throughout the treaty, used as applicable to what the United States were to 
enjoy, in virtue of a recognized independence; and the word liberty to what 
they were to enjoy, as concessions strictly dependent on the treaty itself. 

On January 22, 1816, the American Minister addressed a reply 
to Lord Castlereagh, who had in the meantime succeeded Lord 
Bathurst as foreign secretary. He said the treaty of 1783 was 
intended to arrange the whole scope of the diplomatic relations 
between the two nations. He said the British note admitted that 
treaties often contained recognitions in the nature of continuing ob- 
ligations; and that it admitted that the treaty of 1783 was such a 
treaty, except a small part of the article relating to the fisheries and 
the article about the navigation of the Mississippi. 

In searching for the answer of International Law to this differ- 
ence of opinion, two principal sources can be looked to — the judg- 
ments of courts of law and the opinions of leading international 
jurists. In the first class there are two judgments, one rendered by 
an American and the other by an English court, that sustain the 
American contention that the third article of the treaty of 1783 was 
not terminated by the War of 1812. 

In the case of the " Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts vs. The Town of Newhaven," the Supreme Court of 
the United States, in rendering judgment, was called upon to pass on 
the continuance or extinguishment of treaties, especially upon that of 
1783, by a subsequent war. On March 12, 1823, Mr. Justice Wash- 


ington, 18 delivered the opinion of the court. On the continuance of 
treaties, he held: 1 * 

But we are not inclined to admit the doctrine urged at bar, that treaties 
become extinguished, ipso facto, by war between the two governments, .unless 
they should be revived by an express or implied renewal on the return of 
peace. Whatever may be the latitude of doctrine laid down by elementary 
writers on the Law of Nations, dealing in general terms on this subject, we 
are satisfied, that the doctrine contended for is not universally true. There 
may be treaties of such a nature, as to their object and import, as that war will 
put an end to them ; but where treaties contemplate a permanent arrangement 
of territorial and other national rights, or which, in their terms, are meant to 
provide for the event of an intervening war, it would be against every prin- 
ciple of just interpretation to hold them extinguished by the event of war. If 
such were the law, even the treaty of 1783, so far as it fixed our limits, and 
acknowledged our independence, would be gone, and we should have had 
again to struggle for both upon original revolutionary principles. Such a 
construction was never asserted, and would be so monstrous as to supersede 
all reasoning. 

We think, therefore, that treaties stipulating for permanent rights, and 
general arrangements, and professing to aim at perpetuity, and to deal with 
the case of war as well as of peace, do not cease on the occurrence of war, 
but are, at most, only suspended while it lasts ; and unless they are waived by 
the parties, or new and repugnant stipulations are made, they revive in their 
operation at the return of peace. 

In the case of " Sutton vs. Sutton," in order to decide the case 
at bar, it was necessary for the British High Court of Chancery to 
pass upon the continuance or abrogation of the treaty of 1794, be- 
tween America and Britain, known as Jay's Treaty, after the War 
of 1812 between these two powers. Sir John Leach, Master of the 
Rolls in the British High Court of Chancery held : 15 

The relations, which subsisted between Great Britain and America, when 
they formed one empire, led to the introduction of the ninth section of the 
treaty of 1794, and made it highly reasonable that the subjects of the two 
parts of the divided empire should, notwithstanding the separation, be pro- 
tected in the mutual enjoyment of their landed property; and, the privileges 
of natives being reciprocally given, not only to the actual possessors of lands 
but to their heirs and assigns, it is a reasonable construction that it was the 
intention of the treaty that the operation of the treaty should be permanent, 
and not depend upon the continuance of a state of peace. 

"Mr. Justice Bushrod Washington. 

"Wharton's "United States Supreme Court Reports," New York, 1823, 

"Russell and Mylne's "Chancery Court Reports," Vol. I., 676. 


International publicists are not unanimous on the question 
whether war terminates all or every part of treaties. Formerly 
the weight of opinion held to the view that a state of war between 
two nations terminated the treaties between them in toto. To-day, 
however, the weight of opinion, in accordance with the trend of 
International Law towards the more humane go^l of mitigating and 
lessening war, tends to the view that many treaties, either in their 
entirety or in part, are not abrogated by a state of war by the con- 
tracting states. 

In support of the former or English view, there is Vattel, who 
says : ie 

Les conventions, les traitls f aits avec une Nation, sont rompus ou annulled 
par la guerre qui seleve entre les contractans; soit parce qu'ils supposent 
tacitement T6tat de paix, soit parce que chacun pouvant dlpouiller son ennemi 
de ce qui lui appartient, lui ote les droits qu'il lui avoit donnes par des traites. 

Phillimore, the English jurist, maintains almost the same view. 17 
Oppenheim, formerly of the University of London, now of Cam- 
bridge University, leans rather to the modern and more liberal view. 
He says : 18 

The doctrine was formerly held, and a few writers maintain it even now, 
that the outbreak of war ipso facto cancels all treaties previously concluded 
between the belligerents, such treaties only excepted as have been concluded 
especially for the case of war. The vast majority of modern writers on 
International Law have abandoned this standpoint, and the opinion is pretty 
general that war by no means annuls every treaty. But unanimity in regard 
to such treaties as are and such as are not cancelled by war does not exist 
Neither does a uniform practice of the states exist, cases having occurred in 
which states liave expressly declared that they considered all treaties annulled 
through war. Thus the whole question remains as yet unsettled. But never- 
theless with the majority of writers a conviction may be stated to exist on 
the following points : 

3. Such political and other treaties as have been concluded for the purpose 
of setting up a permanent condition of things are not ipso facto annulled by 
the outbreak of war, but in the treaty of peace nothing prevents the victorious 
party from imposing upon the other party any alterations in, or even the 
dissolution of, such treaties. 

u Emer de Vattel, " Le Droit des Gens ou Principes de la Loi Naturelle." 
A Amsterdam chez E. van Harrevelt, 1775, Vol. II., p. 81. 

"Robert Phillimore, "Commentaries upon International Law," Philadel- 
phia, 1857, Vol. III., p. 457, et seq. 

"L, Oppenheim, "International Law," London, 1906, Vol. II., p. 107. 


Henry Wheaton, an American, says that all treaties are not ter- 
minated by war. lf 

Englishmen, too, holding Government positions, have thought 
that not all treaties were abrogated by war. Thus in February, 
1765, Sir James Marriott, the advocate-general, held that the treaty 
of neutrality of 1686 between Great Britain and France was " a sub- 
sisting treaty, not only because it is revived, by a strong implication 
of Words and facts but for that it may be understood to subsist be- 
cause it never was abrogated." 20 And speaking in the House of 
Commons in 1783, Charles James Fox gave it as his opinion that all 
treaties were not ended by a subsequent war between the contracting 
nations. 21 

From 1815 to 1818 Great Britain continued to maintain, in spite 
of the third article of the Treaty of 1783, that American fishermen 
had no right to fish in British territorial waters; and during those 
years British government vessels seized numerous American ves- 
sels found fishing in British waters. These seizures and the conse- 
quent partial stoppage of the fishing rights of the American fisher- 
men created much bad feeling. 

In order to avoid this continual cause of friction between the 
American republic and the British empire, which kept alive and 
inflamed the bad feelings between the peoples of the two nations, 
the two governments agreed on October 20, 1818, on a convention 
to settle the fishery controversy on the principle of mutual con- 
cessions. This convention was negotiated for the United States by 
Albert Gallatin and Richard Rush, and for great Britain by Fred- 
erick J. Robinson and Henry Soylburn. The fishing rights of Amer- 
icans in the British territorial waters were defined in Article one 
that read as follows: 22 

Article I. Whereas differences have arisen respecting the liberty claimed 
by the United States for the inhabitants thereof, to take, dry, and cure fish 

" Henry Wheaton, " Elements of International Law," eighth edition, edited 
by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Boston, 1866, p. 340. 

" George Chalmers, " Opinions of Eminent Lawyers, on Various Points of 
English Jurisprudence, Chiefly Concerning the Colonies, Fisheries and Com- 
merce of Great Britain," London, 1814, Vol. II., p. 355. 

* Hansard, "Parliamentary Debates," Vol. XVIIL, London, 1814, p. 1147. 

*" Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States of 
America and other Powers since July 4, 1776," Washington, 1889, p. 415. 


on certain coasts, bays, harbours, and creeks of His Britannic Majesty's 
dominions in America, it is agreed between the high contracting parties, that 
the inhabitants of the said United States shall have forever, in common with 
the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, the liberty to take fish of every kind 
on that part of the southern coast of Newfoundland which extends from 
Cape Ray to the Rameau Islands, on the western and northern coast of New- 
foundland, from the said Cape Ray to the Quirpon Islands, on the shores of 
the Magdalen Islands, and also on the coasts, bays, harbours, and creeks from 
Mount Joly on the southern coast of Labrador, to and through the Streights 
of Belleisle and thence northwardly indefinitely along the coast, without 
prejudice, however, to any of the exclusive rights of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany: And that the American fishermen shall also have liberty forever, to 
dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours, and creeks of the 
southern part of the coast of Newfoundland hereabove described, and of the 
coast of Labrador; but so soon as the same, or any portion thereof, shall be 
settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at 
such portion so settled, without previous agreement for such purpose with 
the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground. And the United 
States hereby renounce forever, any liberty heretofore enjoyed or claimed by 
the inhabitants thereof, to take, dry, or cure fish on, or within three marine 
miles of any of the coasts, bays, creeks, or harbours of His Britannic Majesty's 
dominions in America not included within the above-mentioned limits; Pro- 
vided, however, that the American fishermen shall be admitted to enter such 
bays or harbours for the purpose of shelter and of repairing damages therein, 
of purchasing wood, and of obtaining water, and for no other purpose what- 
ever. But they shall be under such restrictions as may be necessary to prevent 
their taking, drying or curing fish therein, or in any other manner whatever 
abusing the privileges hereby reserved to them. 

By this new agreement both sides gave up something, and, as 
they thought at the time, they also in that way expected to peace- 
fully adjust the whole northeastern fishery question for the future. 
The march of time and events have shown how far wrong the two 
governments were in the latter hope. And to-day what is meant 
by the language of the first article of that treaty is in dispute be- 
tween the two powers, and the fishery question remains for all 
practical purposes as unsettled to-day as it was before the negotia- 
tion of the convention of 1818. 

A comparison of the provisions of the Treaty of 1783 and that 
of 1818 in reference to the fisheries, shows that the right of Amer- 
icans to catch fish" in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, on the New- 
foundland Banks, and at all other places in the sea, remain the 
same. In other words, that both diplomatic agreements confirm 
the rights of Americans to take fish on the high seas, that is in all 


waters that are not known as territorial. But the liberty granted 
to American fishermen to fish within British territorial waters by 
the Treaty of 1783 is much curtailed by the convention of 1818. 
The former instrument gave to Americans the liberty to fish along 
the British coasts generally and " to dry and cure fish in any of the 
unsettled bays, harbors and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands 
and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled." The 
convention of 1818 curtailed the liberty of Americans to fish in 
British territorial waters to the shores of Newfoundland, along its 
southern coast from Cape Ray to the Rameau Islands and on its 
western and northern sides from Cape Ray to the Quirpon Islands ; 
to the shores of the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of Saint Law- 
rence; and to the coast of Labrador from Mount Joly indefinitely 
to the east and the north. 

On June 14, 1819, the British Parliament passed an act to 
carry the first article of the convention of 1818, which specified the 
rights of Americans to take fish in the waters around Newfoundland, 
into effect. 

Everything on the fishing grounds did not run smoothly. A 
number of American fishing vessels were seized by the British au- 
thorities. Correspondence upon the subject between the constituted 
authorities of the two powers resulted from 1822 to 1826. 28 Then 
for a decade, comparative quiet seems to have reigned concerning 
the fishery rights. In 1836, however, the legislature of Nova Scotia 
began to attempt to prevent American fishing vessels from catching 
fish in the waters adjoining the shores of Nova Scotia. First it 
passed a " hovering act," to prevent American fishing vessels from 
sailing within three miles of the coast ; then Nova Scotia sought to 
exclude American fishermen from all bays, including even the Bay 
of Fundy, which is over sixty miles wide and nearly a hundred and 
forty miles long, that are bound by the shores of Nova Scotia. 24 
That province also attempted to deny to American vessels the right 

* Senate Executive Documents, No. 100, 32d Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1852, pp. 1-55. 

* Senate Executive Documents, No. 100, 32d Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1852, p. 108. 


of free passage through the Gut of Canso between Nova Scotia and 
Cape Breton. 25 

The British authorities based their rights to exclude American 
vessels from fishing in the Nova Scotia bays, no matter what their 
area, upon the renunciation by the United States in the first article 
of the convention of 1818 " to take, dry, or cure fish on, or within 
three marine miles of any of the coasts, bays creeks, or harbors of 
his Britannic Majesty's Dominions in America " outside of those of 
the shores of the Magdalen Islands, the coasts of Canada and Labra- 
dor east and north of Mount Joly, and a part of the shores of New- 
foundland. To this preposterous claim of the British authorities, 
that ran counter to the accepted Law of Nations that had gradually 
opened the high seas to the vessels of all nations except within three 
miles of the shore and within those bays and fiords that were less 
than six miles wide, the American government protested. American 
fishing vessels were seized within the Bay of Fundy by the British 
authorities. Conscious that this attempt to apply territorial rights 
to such a large body of water, which obviously constituted a part 
of the high seas, was in contravention of the Law of Nations, the 
British government in 1845 gave up its claim as to the Bay of 
Fundy, stating, however, that it made this concession as to that one 
bay only. 28 Daniel Webster, Secretary of State for America, and 
Lord Malmesbury for Britain, stated in 1852 the views of the two 
countries. In the summer of the same year, Senator Cass, in the 
United States Senate, spoke on this question. He illuminated the 
subject by referring to the last part of article one of the convention 
of 1818 which provided that " American fishermen shall be admitted 
to enter such bays or harbors for the purpose of shelter and of re- 
pairing damages therein, of purchasing wood, and of obtaining 
water," and argued that this language meant the small bays into 
which vessels were accustomed to seek shelter from storms. Sen- 
ator Cass said : 

"Lorenzo Sabine, "Report on the Principal Fisheries of the American 
Seas," House of Representatives, Miscellaneous Documents, No. 31, 426. Con- 
gress, 2d Session, p. 221. 

" Documents of the United States Senate, Special Session called March 
4. 1853, Washington, 1853, Senate Document 3, pp. 4-S, 9-21. 


That such was the understanding of our negotiators is rendered clear by 
the terms they employ in their report upon this subject. They say: "It is in 
that point of view that the privilege of entering the ports for shelter is useful," 
etc. Here the word "ports" is used as a descriptive word, embracing both 
the bays and harbors within which shelter may be legally sought, and shows 
the kind of bays contemplated by our framers of the treaty. And it is not 
a little curious that the Legislature of Nova Scotia have applied the same 
meaning to a similar term. An Act of that Province was passed March 12, 
1836, with this title : " An act relating to the fisheries in the Province of Nova 
Scotia and the coasts and harbors thereof," which act recognizes the conven- 
tion, and provides for its execution under the authority of an imperial statute. 
It declares that harbors shall include bays, ports, and creeks. Nothing can 
show more clearly their opinion of the nature of the shelter secured to the 
American fishermen.* 1 

In 1853 America and Great Britain agreed to a convention, 
whereby a settlement of all claims by citizens or corporations of 
either country against the other should be referred to a mixed 
. commission, composed of two commissioners, one for each nation. 28 
In every case where the commissioners could not agree the con- 
vention provided that they should refer it to an umpire. In that 
way the claims arising out pf the seizures by the Canadian authori- 
ties in 1843 °* ^e American fishing vessel, Washington, 29 while fish- 
ing in the Bay of Fundy, ten miles from shore, and in 1844 of the 
American schooner, Argus* on St. Ann's Bank, twenty-eight miles 
from the nearest land, were referred for settlement to the umpire, 
Mr. Bates, an American by birth, residing in England where he was 
a member of the banking house of Baring. In both cases he 
awarded damages to the American owners, on the ground that in 
neither case were flie American vessels fishing in contravention of 
the convention of 1818. 

With the object of amicably adjusting the various controversial 
points that had arisen under the interpretation of the convention of 
1818, the British government in 1854 sent Lord Elgin to America to 

""Congressional Globe," 32d Congress, 1st Session, Appendix, Washing- 
ton, 1852, p. 895. 

""Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States of 
America and other Powers since July 4, 1776," Washington, 1889, p. 415. 

" Senate Executive Document, No. 103, 34th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1856, p. 184. 

"Senate Executive Document, No. 113, 50th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1888, p. 59. 


negotiate with the American government to that end. And on June 
5, 1854, the Hon. William L. Marcy, the American Secretary of 
State, and Lord Elgin, special British envoy, concluded a treaty 
relating to the fisheries, commerce and navigation. By its provisions 
liberty was extended to American fishermen to catch fish of all 
kinds, " except shellfish," in British or Canadian territorial waters 
over and above the British territorial waters in which they had the 
right to fish by the convention of i8i8. G1 The treaty extended a 
similar liberty to British subjects of fishing in the American Atlantic 
territorial waters above the thirty-sixth parallel of north latitude. 
It provided also for reciprocal free trade between America and the 
British North American colonies in various articles ; and prescribed 
certain regulations for the navigation of the Saint Lawrence River, 
Lake Michigan and such Canadian Canals as were necessary to an 
all water way communication between the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Great Lakes. The treaty went into effect on March 16, 1855, and, 
according to the notice of the United States terminated March 17, 
1866. During this period friction over the fishery rights of Ameri- 
can fishermen reserved in British waters by the convention of 1818 
were happily avoided. And upon the termination in 1866 of the 
reciprocity treaty of 1854, the Canadian government, for three years, 
granted licenses to American fishing vessels, at so much a ton, to 
exercise the same liberties they had obtained under the treaty of 


For the fishing season of 1870 the practice of granting licenses 
to the American vessels was stopped, and the British government no- 
tified the government of America that her Britannic Majesty's gov- 
ernment was of the opinion that by the convention of 1818 the Amer- 
ican government had " renounced the right of fishing, not only within 
three miles of the colonial shores, but within three miles of a line 
drawn across the mouth of any British bay or creek." This com- 
munication continued : 

It is, therefore, at present the wish of Her Majesty's government neither 
to concede nor for the present to enforce any rights which are in their nature 
open to any serious question. Even before the conclusion of the reciprocity 

,x " Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States of 
America and other Powers since July 4, 1776," Washington, 1880,, p. 449. 


treaty Her Majesty's government had consented to forego the exercise of its 
strict right to exclude American fishermen from the Bay of Fundy, and they 
are of opinion that during the present session that right should not be 
exercised in the body of the Bay of Fundy, and that American fishermen 
should not be interfered with, either by notice or otherwise, unless they are 
found within three miles of the shore, or within three miles of a line drawn 
across the mouth of a bay or creek which is less than ten geographical miles 
in width, in conformity with the arrangement made with France in 1839* 
. . . Her Majesty's government do not desire that the prohibition to enter 
British bays should be generally insisted on, except when there is reason to 
apprehend some substantial invasion of British rights. And in particular they 
do not desire American vessels to be prevented from navigating the Gut of 
Canso (from which Her Majesty's government are advised they may lawfully 
be excluded), unless it shall appear that this permission is used to the injury 
of colonial fishermen, or for other improper objects.** 

On November 25, 1870, an American vessel, the White Fawn, 
was seized at Head Harbor, New Brunswick, because she had bought 
herrings intended to be used as bait for fishing. Judge Hazen, of 
the vice-admiralty court of St. John's, before whom the case of 
whether she was liable to forfeiture came, held that though she 
had bought bait within the British territorial waters, she had not 
actually proceeded to catch fish with it, and consequently that the 
seizure could not be sustained. 84 

Previously in June, 1870, the British authorities seized in the 
North Bay of Ingonish, on the shore of Cape Breton Island, the 
American fishing vessel, /. H. Nickerson. They charged her with 
entering to procure bait and of having obtained it. The case came 
before Sir William Young in the vice-admiralty court at Halifax. 
In his decision November 15, 1871, while he condemned the vessel 
to forfeiture because she had bought bait in a British port preparing 
to fish, Sir William Young admitted that had she merely entered to 
buy bait without the intention of fishing, she would have been act- 
ing within her rights. 85 

** On this point see Westlake, " International Law," Cambridge, 1904, Part 
I., pp. 184, 187. 

""Foreign Relations of the United States, 1870," Washington, 1870, pp. 

**" Award of the Fishery Commission: Documents and Proceedings of 
the Halifax Commission, 1877," Washington, 1878, Vol. III., p. 3381. 

""Award of the Fishery Commission: Documents and Proceedings of 
the Halifax Commission, 1877," Washington, 1878, Vol. III., p. 3395. 


Commenting on this decision Wharton says: M 

In the case here cited there ought to have been no conviction, even under 
the statute, unless it could have been shown that the purchase was a prepa- 
ration to fish within the forbidden belt, and that this was put in process of 
execution. Sir W. Young's dictum on this point, therefore, cannot be sus- 
tained as a matter of municipal law. As a ruling of international law it is of 
no authority, since preparing to fish without fishing is in any view not a 
contravention of the treaty of 1818. But Sir W. Young's ruling, on the merits, 
coincides with that of Judge Hazen, since he concedes that merely buying 
fish within the three miles is not a violation of the treaty. 

In order to eliminate the friction caused by such seizures of 
American vessels in the British fishing grounds, the American- Brit- 
ish Joint High Commission, which met in Washington in February, 
1871, to negotiate a comprehensive treaty whereby "the Alabama 
Claims/' the chief cause of difference between the two countries, 
should be submitted to a satisfactory form of arbitration, 87 and all 
other points of difference between America and England then caus- 
ing friction and dispute and liable to imbitter their peaceable rela- 
tions should be satisfactorily adjusted, took up for solution with 
other questions that of the northeastern fisheries. In respect to that 
question, the Treaty of Washington of May 8, 1871, extended facili- 
ties and liberty to American fishermen to take fish in the sea fisheries, 
and to British fishermen like facilities and liberty to catch fish in 
the American Atlantic sea fisheries north of the thirty-ninth parallel 
of north latitude. 88 The treaty provided for reciprocal free trade 
for a term of years of " fish-oil " and the fish taken from the sea 
fisheries between America, and Canada and Newfoundland. 

As a result of the Treaty of Washington of 1871, the difficulties 
arising from the divergence of the views of the two governments as 
to the rights of American citizens to catch fish in the British North 
American colonial waters, were mostly, during the time the treaty 
was in operation, smoothed over. However, in Fortune Bay, New- 
foundland, on Sunday, January 6, 1878, the local inhabitants, pre- 

M Francis Wharton, " A Digest of the International Law of the United 
States," Washington, 1887, Vol. III., p. 53. 

w Thomas Balch, "International Courts of Arbitration, 1874," 3d edition, 
Philadelphia, 1899. 

""Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States of 
America and other Powers since July 4, 1776," Washington, 1889, p. 486. 


vented from fishing by local regulations of Newfoundland, attacked 
some American fishermen, who, invoking the protection of the pro- 
visions of the treaty of 1871, prepared to fish. 8 * The Newfound- 
landers destroyed the boats and nets of the Americans. In the 
official correspondence that ensued, the British government argued 
that the treaty granted to the Americans only the right to fish in 
common with British subjects, and thus the former were amenable 
to the local Newfoundland laws and regulations. 

The American authorities contended that the local laws could 
not be allowed to regulate or prescribe the provisions of the treaty; 
in addition they maintained that damages were due the American 
fishermen because of the violent attack on them. Eventually this 
dispute was adjusted by a money payment by Great Britain to the 
United States of £15,000 " without prejudice to any question of the 
rights of either government under the treaty of Washington/' 40 Ex- 
cept for this incident the fishing seemed to proceed smoothly until, 
upon the giving of due notice by the United States, the provisions of 
the treaty of 1871 regulating the fisheries came to an end on July 1, 
1885. As a result of informal negotiations between Secretary Bay- 
ard for America, Minister West for Great Britain, and Sir Ambrose 
Shea for Canada, it was agreed that the privileges of inshore fishing 
in the respective American and British waters to which the provi- 
sions of the treaty had applied would be continued for the whole 
season of 1885. 

In the year 1886 the Canadian authorities seized many Ameri- 
can fishing vessels. 

On May 6 of that year the Canadian steamer Landsdowne seized 
in Annapolis Basin, Nova Scotia, a landlocked harbor, where it 
would seem ridiculous to suppose that an American vessel would 
attempt to fish, the David J. jidams of the American fishing fleet. 41 
She was then taken by the Canadian authorities to Saint Johns, New 
Brunswick, and on May 10 brought back to Digby, Nova Scotia, 

"House Executive Documents, No. 84, 46th Congress, 2d Session, Wash- 
ington, 1880. 

* " Foreign Relations of the United States, 1881," Washington, 1882, p. 509, 
41 "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1886," Washington, 1887, pp. 
341-346, 373-3&), 396-404. 



without any explanation or hearing being given to her captain. At 
Digby, a paper, which was alleged to be the legal precept for her 
capture and detention, was nailed to her mast. But this alleged 
writ was placed so high that it could not be read. The Canadian 
authorities refused the requests of both the captain of the vessel 
and of the American Consul General to be allowed to detach this 
paper in order to learn its contents Neither would the captain of 
the Landsdozvne tell the American Consul General the ground upon 
which he had captured the American vessel. After many vigorous 
protests by Secretary Bayard and Minister Phelps to Lord Rose- 
berry, the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Lionel Sackville West, the 
British Minister at Washington, communicated to Mr. Bayard a 
minute of the Canadian privy council that agreed that the condemna- 
tion proceedings against the David J. Adams should be stopped 
for the alleged violation of the fishery statutes, provided that the 
owners of the vessels would agree that they would not base upon 
this discontinuance a claim for damages or expenses. This minute 
of the Canadian privy council was practically an avowal that the 
seizure of the David J. Adams had been made without good or suffi- 
cient cause. 42 

On October 7, 1886, a little before midnight, the American fish- 
ing vessel, Marion Grimes, arrived seeking refuge from a storm at 
sea, at the outer harbor of Shelbourne, Nova Scotia. 43 She an- 
chored about seven miles from the port of Shelbourne, no one leav- 
ing her until six o'clock the next morning. She then hoisted sail and 
stood out to sea. As soon as she had started, however, the Canadian 
cruiser Terror sent a boat's crew to arrest the Marion Grimes. 
Captain Landry of the American vessel, was then forced to proceed 
to Shelbourne to appear before the collector of customs there. In 
spite of the fact that the customs house was closed during the night, 
that the storm proved he had merely sought a haven 'of refuge from 
its violence, that he had stayed a very short time and that the Marion 
Grimes was equipped only for deep sea fishing, Captain Landry 

tt " Foreign Relations of the United States, 1888," Washington, 1889, Part 
I., p. 802. 

a " Foreign Relations of the United States, 1886," Washington, 1887, pp. 


was fined $400. This fine was imposed chiefly by the insistence 
of Captain Quigley, commander of the Terror. Captain Landry 
then applied to Mr. White, the American consular agent. Owing to 
the importance to the success of the venture of the Marion Grimes 
that she should not be detained, Mr. White at once telegraphed the 
facts of the case to Mr. Phelan, the American Consul General at 
Halifax. Mr. Phelan took the matter up with the assistant commis- 
sioner of customs at Ottawa, who replied the fine could not be re- 
duced, but that the $400 could be deposited at Halifax, to await a de- 
cision in the case. Mr. Phelan made the deposit at Halifax and tele- 
graphed to Captain Landry he was at liberty to take his vessel to sea. 
On October 11, Captain Landry, whose vessel had by that time been 
held up four days, telegraphed to Consul General Phelan that " the 
custom-house officers and Captain Quigley " refused to let him 
go to sea. The next morning the consul general called on the col- 
lector of Halifax to learn if the order to release the Marion Grimes 
had been issued, and was told such an order was sent, " but that the 
collector and the captain of the cruiser refused to obey it, for the 
reason that the captain of the seized vessel hoisted the American 
flag while she was in custody of the Canadian officials." Mr. Phelan 
telegraphed this news to the assistant commissioner at Ottawa, 
and received a reply dated October 12 that the " collector had been 
instructed to release the Grimes from customs seizure. This depart- 
ment has nothing to do with other charges. ,, The same day the col- 
lector of customs at Halifax sent a dispatch to the collector at Shel- 
bourne to release the Marion Grimes, in which he said that " this de- 
partment (customs) has nothing to do with the other charges. It 
is the department of marines. ,, 

What happened concerning the hoisting of the American flag by 
the captain of the Marion Grimes over his vessel was thus told by 
Secretary Bayard in a dispatch to Minister Phelps: 

On October 11 the Marion Grimes, being then under arrest by order of 
local officials for not immediately reporting at the custom house, hoisted the 
American flag. Captain Quigley who, representing, as appeared, not the 
revenue, but the marine department of the Canadian administration, was, with 
his "cruiser" keeping guard over the vessel, ordered the flag to be hauled 
down. This order was obeyed; but about an hour afterwards the flag was 
again hoisted, whereupon Captain Quigley boarded the vessel with an armed 


crew and lowered the flag himself. The vessel was finally released under 
orders of the customs department, being compelled to pay $8 in addition to 
the deposit of $400 above specified. 

For this insult to the American flag, Secretary Bayard demanded 
an apology, and December 7, 1886, the British Minister at Washing- 
ton, under instruction from the Earl of Iddesleigh, British Secre- 
tary of Foreign Affairs, communicated to the American government 
a communication from the government of the Dominion of Canada 
apologizing for the hauling down of the flag of the Marion Grimes 
by Canadian officials. 44 

Owing to this harassing of American fishermen in Canadian 
territorial waters, under the guise that they transgressed the Can- 
adian customs regulations, the American Congress on March 3, 1887, 
approved an act whereby power was given to the president to retal- 
iate upon the Canadians. 

Negotiations, with a view to arrange an amicable settlement were 
continued by the American and the British governments. 45 Finally 
a convention was agreed upon at Washington, February 15, 1888, 
subject to ratification by the American Senate, the Canadian Parlia- 
ment and the Newfoundland Legislature. 46 

This convention provided that the width of exclusively territorial 
bays, wherein American fishermen were excluded from taking fish 
by the Treaty of 1818, should be extended from six miles from 
shore to shore, according to the well-recognized and established 
custom of International Law, to a distance of ten miles from land 
to land. Thereby the extent of Canadian and Newfoundland terri- 
torial waters from which American fishing vessels were barred was 
increased. In addition, the convention restricted American fisher- 
men from fishing in specifically named bays, such as the Baie des 
Chaleurs in New Brunswick, and Fortune Bay in Newfoundland, 
that varied in width from ten to twenty-one miles from shore to 

44 " Foreign Relations of the United States, 1886," Washington, 1887, pp. 
491, 492. 

44 Senate Executive Documents, No. 113, 50th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1888, pp. 56-65, 112-119. 

40 Senate Executive Documents, No. 113, 50th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1888, pp. 127-142. Joseph I. Doran, " Our Fishery Rights in the North 
Atlantic," Philadelphia, 1888, pp. 54-67. 


shore. In that way the extent of territorial waters from which 
American fishermen were excluded under the treaty of 1818 was still 
further extended. The convention guaranteed free passage to 
American fishing vessels through the Gut of Canso, 47 a right to 
which they were entitled by the Law of Nations. The convention 
also provided a right of refuge to American fishermen in Canadian 
ports fleeing from the danger of storms — a right to which all sea- 
faring men are entitled in the ports of all civilized countries — and, 
when the American vessels needed to make repairs, the privilege 
to land their catch and tranship it to America. 

In view of the very great advantages that were given by this 
convention to Canada and Newfoundland in exchange for rights 
which American fishing vessels already possessed under the Law of 
Nations without any grant by treaty from either Canada or New- 
foundland, the American Senate very properly refused August 21, 
1888, to confirm the convention, and so it failed to become a treaty. 

During the latter part of 1890 and the beginning of 1891, Secre- 
tary Blaine for America and Sir Julian Pauncefote for Great 
Britain held numerous parleys concerning the fishery question as 
between America and Newfoundland. Their negotiations finally re- 
sulted in a convention known as the Blaine-Bond Convention, since 
Sir Robert Bond, the Newfoundland premier, inspired the negotia- 
tions of the British Minister. 48 This convention was to last for 
five years from the date it should go into operation, and migjit 
thereafter be renewed from year to year. It provided that Amer- 
ican fishing vessels entering Newfoundland waters should have the 
privilege of buying bait on the same terms as Newfoundland fish- 
ing vessels. Also it was agreed that American fishing vessels 
should " have the privilege of touching and trading, selling fish and 
oil, and procuring supplies in Newfoundland, conforming to the 
harbor regulations, but without other charge than the payment of 
such light, harbor and customs dues as are or may be levied on New- 

41 Senate Executive Documents, No. 113, 50th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1888, p. 135. John Westlake, " International Law/' Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press, 1904, Part I., p. 193. 

tt " Convention between the United States of America and Great Britain, 
for the Improvement of Commercial Relations between the United States and 
Her Britannic Majesty's Colony of Newfoundland." This unratified agree- 
ment is known as the Blaine- Bond Convention. 


foundland fishing vessels." The convention provided for a recipro- 
cal free exchange of various American and Newfoundland products. 
To make the convention operative the plenipotentiaries agreed that 
it should be subject to ratification by the American Senate and Her 
Britannic Majesty, and that it should " take effect as soon as the 
laws required to carry it into operation shall have been passed by 
the Congress of the United States on the one hand, and the Imperial 
Parliament of Great Britain and the provincial legislature of New- 
foundland on the other." Owing to a -vigorous protest from the 
Canadian government, the British imperial government in a memo- 
randum addressed on May 21, 1891, by* the British Legation at 
Washington to the State Department, notified the American govern- 
ment that it could not agree to ratify the convention, " unless pari 
passu with the proposed Canadian negotiations." 

A joint commission of two experts, ojie named by each govern- 
ment, to examine and report upon the subject was agreed upon in 
1892 ; and the commission reported early in 1897. 

The northeastern fisheries question was included in the work 
submitted for adjustment to the American-British Joint High Com- 
mission that met and organized for business at Quebec, August 23, 
1898. Owing to the Joint High Commission being unable to come 
to a satisfactory agreement concerning the eastern frontier of the 
Alaska lisidre, which was then in dispute between the American re- 
public and the British empire, the Joint High Commission adjourned 
in March, 1899, without having arranged the fisheries or any other 
of the questions submitted to it. 49 

In 1895 and again in 1898 Canada unsuccessfully sought reciproc- 
ity herself. Secretary of State Hay and Ambassador Herbert took 
up at Washington the discussion of the fisheries as between America 
and Newfoundland and finally agreed on November 8, 1902, upon 
a new convention, known after the American Secretary of State 
and the Newfoundland premier who inspired the negotiations of the 
British Ambassador, as the Hay-Bond Convention. 50 

*• Thomas Willing Balch, " The Alaska Frontier," Philadelphia, 1903, pp. 
162, 168. 

M Senate Executive Documents, No. 49, 57th Congress, 2d Session. " A 
Convention with Great Britain, signed at Washington on November 8, 1902, 
for the Improvement of Commercial Relations with Newfoundland." 


As in the case of the Blaine-Bond Convention of 1891, the Hay- 
Bond Convention of 1902 provided that the American fishing ves- 
sels should fish in the Newfoundland waters subject to the local 
Newfoundland regulations regulating Newfoundland fishing vessels. 
The convention also provided for reciprocal free trade concessions, 
whereby Newfoundland gained vastly more than she gave. 51 

The Hay-Bond Convention remained in the Senate Committee 
on Foreign Relations unacted on, for three years. Oh June 15, 
1905, the Newfoundland government enacted an act intended to 
hamper the American fishing vessels in their lawful occupation of 
taking fish under the provisions of the first article of the Treaty 
of 1818. 52 In the autumn of 1905, Premier Bond notified Secretary 
Hay of certain concessions he was willing to have inserted in the 
Hay-Bond Convention in the form of senate amendments. After 
these amendments were added by the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, the Senate as a whole made further changes that it was sa 
clear would not be satisfactory to Newfoundland, that the conven- 
tion as amended was never brought to a vote in the Senate and so 
never became a treaty. ' 

In view of the probable serious interference by the Newfound- 
land authorities with the American fishing vessels in taking fish in 
those territorial waters of Newfoundland on the southern coast of 
Newfoundland from Cape Ray eastward to the Rameau Islands, 
and up along the western coast of the island from Cape Ray and 
round on the north coast to Quirpon Islands as guaranteed to them 
by the Treaty of 1818, Mr. Root, the American Secretary of State, 
wrote on October 19, 1905, to Sir Mortimer Durand, the British 
Ambassador at Washington, an expression of some of the views 
held on the fisheries question by the American government. Reas- 
serting once again the view of the American government of the 
right of American fishing vessels to fish in the treaty waters unham- 
pered by the local regulations of Newfoundland, he said: 58 

"Speech of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, April 2, 1903. 

m " Supplement to the American Journal of International Law/' James 
Brown Scott, chief editor, January, 1907 ; " An Act of Newfoundland Respect- 
ing Foreign Fishing Vessels," p. 22. 

""Foreign Relations of the United States," 59th Congress, 1st Session, 
1905. House Documents, Vol. I., Washington, 1906, p. 491. 


Any American vessel is entitled to go into the waters of the treaty coast 
and take fish of any kind. She derives this right from the treaty (or from 
conditions existing prior to the treaty and recognized by it) and not from 
any permission or authority proceeding from the government of Newfoundland. 

Secretary Root also called Sir Mortimer Durand's attention to 
the evident hostile animus of the colony of Newfoundland towards 
American fishing vessels as shown by the " Foreign Fishing Act " 
enacted the previous June by the Newfoundland government." 
The provisions in that act that gave authority to Newfoundland 
officials to search any foreign fishing vessel in any of the territorial 
waters of Newfoundland and upon finding any bait or fishing ap- 
parel to arrest and bring the vessel into port, Secretary Root pointed 
out were a clear and palpable infringement of American rights 
under the Treaty of 1818 in the treaty waters. Secretary Root also 
referred Sir Mortimer Durand's attention, as a result of the New- 
foundland legislation that prohibited the sale of bait by the New- 
foundlanders to American fishing vessels, to the unrest and pro- 
found dissatisfaction existing among the local population living 
along the shores of or near the " Bay of Islands " on the west coast 
of Newfoundland with the resulting situation and the risk of serious 
violence resulting therefrom. 

To these observations of the American Secretary, the British 
-Ambassador in reply enclosed in a note of February 2, 1906, to Mr. 
Reid, the American Ambassador at London, a memorandum of Sir 
Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary. 65 In this memorandum 
the British government replied that the privileges of fishing " con- 
ceded " by the Treaty of 1818 in some of the territorial waters of 
Newfoundland were " conceded, not to American vessels, but to in- 
habitants of the United States and to American fishermen." The 
British memorandum reasserted the old view enunciated by Earl 
Bathurst, that by the Treaty of 18 18 " a new grant to inhabitants of 
the United States of fishing privileges within the British Jurisdic- 
tion " was made. In the memorandum it was further maintained 
that " American fishermen " could not claim to exercise the right of 

""Supplement to the American Journal of International Law," January, 
1907, p. 22. 

" " Supplement to the American Journal of International Law," October, 
1907, P. 355- 


fishing within the territorial waters of Newfoundland " on a footing 
of greater freedom than the British subjects 'in common with' 
whom they exercised it under the convention. In other words, the 
American fishery under the convention is not a free but a regulated 
fishery, and, in the opinion of His Majesty's government, American 
fishermen are bound to comply with all colonial laws and regulations, 
including any touching the conduct of the fishery, so long as these 
are not in their nature unreasonable, and are applicable to all fish- 
ermen alike." The British note went on to argue that all American 
and other foreign vessels sojourning within British territorial waters 
should obey the local law, " and that, if it is considered that the local 
jurisdiction is being exercised in a manner not consistent with the 
enjoyment of any treaty rights, the proper course to pursue is not 
to ignore the law, but to obey it, and to refer the question of any 
alleged infringement of their treaty rights, to be settled diplomati- 
cally between their government and that of His Majesty." In 
reply to Secretary Root's contention that the Newfoundland foreign 
fishing-vessel act of June 15, 1905, was directed against American 
fishing vessels so as to interfere with their rights in the treaty waters 
the British memorandum maintained that that act, especially the 
first and third sections, upon which Secretary Root had largely 
based his complaint, was not aimed at the rights of American ves- 
sels in particular. The memorandum referred to the seventh section 
of the act, as safeguarding " the rights and privileges granted by 
treaty to the subjects of any state in amity with His Majesty." And 
then the British note went on to admit that " the possession by in- 
habitants of the United States of any fish and gear which they may* 
lawfully take or use in the exercise of their rights under the con- 
vention of 1818 cannot properly be made prima facie evidence of the 
commission of an offense, and, bearing in mind the provisions of 
section 7, they can not believe that a court of law would take a dif- 
ferent view." 

Nevertheless, this was an admission by the British Foreign Office 
that the act was so framed that the Newfoundland officials could, 
through legal processes, so harass and " hold up " an American fish- 
ing vessel that her trip would be rendered unprofitable, as hap- 
pened in many cases during the latter eighties in the ports and terri- 


torial waters of Nova Scotia, for example in the case of the Marion 

As a result of the views expressed by Secretary Root in his 
letter of October 19, 1905, the Newfoundland government repealed 
the act to which he objected and enacted on May 10, 1906, a second 
act relating to fishing in her territorial waters by foreigners. 66 The 
new act was drawn so as to avoid for American fishing vessels the 
two special provisions against which Secretary Root had complained, 
but at the same time new provisions that were added gave the power 
to obstruct and harass American vessels in their fishing ventures 
should it become advisable. 

To the views of the British government as expressed in its memo- 
randum of February 2, 1906, Secretary Root replied in an elaborate 
and able letter on June 30, 1906, addressed to the American Am- 
bassador at London, Mr. Reid, by whom it was communicated to 
Sir Edward Grey. 57 Secretary Root protested in this letter against 
the possible inferences suggested in the memorandum that the New- 
foundland government has the right to require of any American 
captain entering the treaty waters or any port of the colony to fur- 
nish evidence that all the members of his crew are inhabitants of 
the United States, and the Secretary of State denied the assertion 
that the colony of Newfoundland has the right irrespective of any 
agreement on the subject, between the parties to the Treaty of 1818, 
America and Great Britain, to interfere through local legislation 
with the American fishing vessels in the exercise of their fishery 
rights under the Treaty of 18 18. 

In previous correspondence regarding the construction of the Treaty of 
1818, the government of Great Britain has asserted, and the memorandum 
under consideration perhaps implies, a claim of right to regulate the action 
of American fishermen in the treaty waters, upon the ground that those waters 
are within the territorial jurisdiction of the colony of Newfoundland. This 
government is constrained to repeat emphatically its dissent from any such 
view. The Treaty of 1818 either declared or granted a perpetual right to the 
inhabitants of the United States which is beyond the sovereign power of 
England to destroy or change. It is conceded that this right is, and forever 

M " Supplement to the American Journal of International Law," January, 
1907, p. 24. 

w " Supplement to the American Journal of International Law," October, 
1907, P- 364. 


must be, superior to any inconsistent exercise of sovereignty within that terri- 
tory. The existence of this right is a qualification of British sovereignty 
within that territory. . . . 

For the claim now asserted that the colony of Newfoundland is entitled 
at will to regulate the exercise of the American treaty right is equivalent to a 
claim of power to completely destroy that right. 

As a result of this vigorous exchange of views between the 
America and the British government, a modus vivendi, with the 
object of avoiding any clash between the American fishermen and 
the Newfoundland authorities or inhabitants during the fishing 
season of 1906-07, was concluded early in October, 1906, at Lon- 
don, between the two governments that were parties to the Treaty 
of i8i8. B8 The British government agreed to the use of purse 
seines, and the shipment of Newfoundlanders by American vessels 
outside the three-mile limit. On the other hand the American gov- 
ernment waived the right of American vessels to take fish on Sun- 
day, and agreed that they would pay lighthouse dues, and where 
possible comply with the local customs regulations. The provisions 
of the Foreign Fishing Vessels Act of 1906 of Newfoundland, and 
the objectionable first and third sections of the Act of 1905 were 
not to apply to American vessels. With this agreement in force, 
the fishery of i9o6-'o7 was happily accomplished without unto- 
ward incident. At the beginning of September, 1907, a new modus 
vivendi to apply to the next fishery season was agreed to by the 
two interested nations. 59 This new modus vivendi was practically 
the same in its provisions as that of the previous season, except 
that the American government made a further concession of waiv- 
ing the use of purse seines. In July, 1908, the modus vivendi of 
the previous year was renewed for the fishery of igdZ-'og.* 

In order to finally settle this vexatious dispute between the 
American republic and the British empire over the Atlantic fisheries 
question, in January, 1909, the two Powers at a conference held in 
Washington agreed to refer the matter to the decision of The Hague 

" " Supplement to the American Journal of International Law," January, 
1907, pp. 27-31. 

* " Supplement of the American Journal of International Law," October, 

1907, PP. 375-377. 

" " Supplement of the American Journal of International Law," October, 

1908, pp. 327-328. 


International Court. At this conference, America was represented 
by Secretary of State Root, and the British empire, by Ambassador 
Bryce, who was aided by Mr. Aylesworth and Mr. Kent respectively 
for the Dominion of Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland. 

In deciding upon the American-British Atlantic fisheries dispute 
The International Court at The Hague will be called upon, accord- 
ing to the terms of the Root-Bryce Treaty of January, 1909, to give 
its decision upon first the right of American fishing vessels under 
Article I. of the Treaty of 1818 to take fish in the bays and gulfs, 
more than six miles wide ; whether the rights retained to inhabitants 
of the United States by the Treaty of 1818 concluded between Amer- 
ica and Great Britain, two sovereign States members of the family 
of nations, can be regulated at will by the legislation of either Great 
Britain herself or one of her colonies or whether all changes or reg- 
ulations applicable to the treaty can only be made by a mutual agree- 
ment between the original high contracting parties, the American 
republic and the British empire; and also, whether the inhabi- 
tant of the United States have the liberty under Article I. of the 
Treaty of 1818 to take fish in the territorial waters along that part 
of the southern coast of Newfoundland which extends from Cape 
Ray to the Rameau Islands, or along the western and northern 
coast of Newfoundland from Cape Ray to Quirpon Islands or in 
the territorial waters of Canada around the Magdalen Islands ? 

By an agreement, expressed in two letters exchanged on January 
27, 1909, between Secretary Root and Ambassador Bryce, the right 
of American vessels to pass through the Gut of Canso and to take 
fish in the Bay of Fundy are not to be submitted for decision to the 
International Court at The Hague. 

While the right of "innocent passage" by American vessels 
through the Gut of Canso will not be submitted to The Hague Court, 
yet the raising of that point by Canada in the past is too illumi- 
native of the whole fishery question to pass it over without notice. 

About 1839 the point was raised by the authorities of Nova 
Scotia that the Gut of Canso, 61 a passage of salt water connecting 
the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence that passed 

61 Senate Executive Documents, No. 100, 32d Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1852, pp. 73-74- 


between the Province of Nova Scotia and the neighboring island of 
Cape Breton, a part of the colony of Nova Scotia, was not a free 
passage to American vessels, because the Gut of Canso, which at 
some points was only a mile wide, belonged as territorial waters to 
Nova Scotia. Though this attempt to lay a claim to close the Gut 
of Canso as a free highway of the sea to American vessels was hot 
seriously pushed at the time, the effort to claim the right to close it 
to American vessels was renewed in the Bayard-Chamberlain Con- 
vention of i888. 82 In that instrument Canada proposed to guaran- 
tee to American fishing vessels the free passage through the* Gut of 
Canso. But Canada was thereby undertaking to concede to Amer- 
ica what already belonged to America as a right by the Law of Na- 
tions. Not only in 1888 but long before that it was a well-estab- 
lished principle of International Law that passages of the sea con- 
necting two large bodies of water, were open to navigation by ves- 
sels of all powers. 

Westlake, who for twenty years held the chair of International 
Law in Cambridge University, and for six years was one of the 
English members of The Hague International Court and to-day is 
in the forefront of international jurists, in speaking of the right of 
passage through straits, says : 88 

If the strait connects two tracts of open sea, as the Gut of Canso between 
Cape Breton Island and the mainland of Nova Scotia, or the Straits of 
Magellan and the other passages in the extreme south of America, the lawful 
ulterior destination is clear, and there is a right of transit both for ships of 
war and for mechantmen. 

Many other authorities can be cited to the same purpose, but 
in view of this clear statement by Westlake, who, together with 
Holland of Oxford, is one of Great Britain's leading living authori- 
ties on questions of International Law, it does not seem worth while. 

The attempt at various times to include within the jurisdiction 
of Canada and Newfoundland bays and gulfs more than six miles 
in width, such as the Bay of Fundy and the Baie des Chaleurs, for 
instance, is an attempted restriction on the freedom of the high 

"Senate Executive Documents, No. 113,50th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, 1888, p. 135. 

"John Westlake, "International Law," Part I., "Peace"; Cambridge, 
1904, p. 193. 


Ever since the famous argument between Grotius and Selden 
as to whether the high seas should be free to the vessels of all the 
world or whether parts, greater or smaller as the case might happen 
to be, of the high seas should be subject to the jurisdiction of one 
nation, the verdict of the world has leaned more and more towards 
the view of the famous Hollander. 64 Practically all international 
jurists are agreed now that the high seas are free and that the terri- 
torial waters of a nation only extend to three miles from land and 
over those bays or portions of them that are not more than six miles 
across from shore to shore. 

The learned Belgian jurist, Mr. Justice Nys, a member of the 
Court of Appeals of Brussels and of The Hague International Court, 
thus sums up the question of the freedom of the high seas. He 
says : M 

La haute mer, la pleine mer, la mer pour employer la designation usuelle, 
est libre. Elle n'est pas susceptible de possession et de propriete a cause de 
sa nature physique, de la mobilite et de la fluidite de ses flots, de l'etendue 
sur laquelle devrait s'appliquer la sanction des ordres ou des prohibitions; 
elle ne peut tomber sous le droit de police, de suprematie, d'empire d'un ou 
de plusieurs fitats a cause de l'egalite* juridique des membres de la societe 

Oppenheim who now sits as successor to Westlake, by whom he 
was chosen, in the chair of International Law at Cambridge Univer- 
sity, holds that many enclosed seas that are connected with the ocean 
by passages less than six miles in width are as free to navigation 

M Le Comte de Garden, " Traite Complet de Diplomatic," Paris, 1833, Vo1 - 
I., pp. 402-404. A. G. Heffter, " Le Droit International de l'Europe; Qua- 
trieme Edition Francaise, augmentee et annotee par F. Heinrich Geffcken," 
Berlin and Paris, 1883. F. de Martens, "Traite" de Droit International," 
traduit du Russe par Alfred Leo, Paris, 1883, Vol. I., pp. 491-494- Alphonse 
Rivier, " Principes du Droit des Gens," Paris, 1896, Vol. I., pp. 236-237. 
Hannis Taylor, " A Treatise on International Public Law," Chicago, 1901, pp- 
290-294. John Westlake, " International Law," Cambridge, 1904, Part I., pp- 
160-163. Ernest Nys, " Les Origines du Droit International," Paris and Brussels, 
1894, pp. 379-387 ; " Le Droit International, Les Principes, les Theories, les 
Faits," Paris and Brussels, 1005, Vol. II., pp. 135-138. L. Oppenheim, " Inter- 
national Law," London, 1005, Vol. I., pp. 300-306. George B. Davis, "Ele- 
ments of International Law," New York, 1908, p. 57 et seq. 

w Ernest Nys, "Le Droit International, Les Principes, les Theories, les 
Faits," Paris and Brussels, 1905, Vol. II., p. 134. 


for the vessels of all nations as any part of the ocean. He says : 6e 

The enclosure of a sea by the land of one and the same state does not 
matter, provided such a navigable connection of salt water as is open to 
vessels of all nations exists between such sea and the general body of salt 
water, even if that navigable connection itself be part of the territory of one 
or more rfparian states. Wheras, therefore, the Dead Sea is Turkish and 
the Aral Sea is Russian territory, the Sea of Marmora belongs to the open 
sea, although it is surrounded by Turkish land and although the Bosphorus 
and the Dardanelles are Turkish territorial straits, because these are now 
open to merchantmen of all nations. 

So, too, Hudson's Bay is a part of the high seas, for the en- 
trance to that large interior sea to the vessels of all nations is through 
Hudson Strait that is much more than six miles wide. 

It is only within territorial waters that a state can by its legisla- 
tion restrict vessels of other nations from doing all those things that 
the vessels of all nations can properly do upon the high seas. What 
are the territorial waters of each state? 

Phillimore, judge of the British High Court of Admiralty, says : 67 

The limit of territorial waters has been fixed at a marine league, because 
that was supposed to be the utmost distance to which a cannon-shot from 
the shore could reach. The great improvement recently effected in artillery 
seems to make it desirable that this distance should be increased, but it must 
be so by the general consent of nations, or by specific treaty with particular 

The three-mile limit as the extent of the territorial waters of 
nations along their sea front, except where a modification has been 
made by treaty between the contracting parties, is to-day universally 

With the aim of bringing about a universal change in the extent 
of the territorial belt of waters along the sea front of nations, the 
Institute of International Law in March, 1894, after careful con- 
sideration and weighing the arguments pro and con, gave it as its 
opinion that the belt of territorial waters along the coast line of each 
nation should be extended from three to six miles from low water. 68 

" L. Oppenheim, " International Law," London, 1905, Vol. I., p. 307. 

m Sir Robert Phillimore, " Commentaries upon International Law," second 
edition, London, 1871, Vol. I., p. 237. Phillimore was a member of Her 
Majesty's Privy Council and judge of the High Court of Admiralty. The 
first edition of this volume appeared in 1854. 

* Charles Calvo, " Le Droit International," Paris, 1896, cinquieme edition, 
Vol. VI., p. 67. 


And that in the case of bays the line from headland to headland that 
should show where the open sea ended should be twelve miles across, 
except in those cases where immemorial usage had consecrated a 
greater distance. In view of the modern development of arms and 
the more rapid means of communication and the vast expansion of 
commerce, this would seem to be a most admirable change in the 
universally existing recognition of the extent of territorial waters. 
But the Institute of International Law is a body of gentlemen 
learned in the Law of Nations and not a congress of representatives 
from all the nations of the earth with plenary powers to change the 
Law of Nations for the best interests of mankind. Consequently, 
however advisable the recommendation of the institute may be, it 
cannot change the extent of territorial waters unless the nations 
of the world agree. And America has not joined in any such 
agreement. But even if the American government had joined the 
governments of other nations to double the extent of the territorial 
belt of water, yet such an agreement would not alter the extent of 
the rights of American fishermen to catch fish in the Bay of Fundy, 
the Baie des Chaleurs and other smaller bodies of water as defined 
in the first Article of the Treaty of 1818. The limit of the area 
over which American fishing vessels can take fish along the coasts 
of the maritime provinces of the Dominion of Canada and New- 
foundland, is limited only by the recognized three mile limit, except 
that in the treaty waters American vessels have rights to catch fish 
that the vessels of other nations do not possess. 

In addition to attempting to offer to America the right for Ameri- 
can fishing vessels to navigate the Gut of Canso and also to curtail 
the area over which they possess the right to catch fish in the high 
seas close to the shores of Canada and Newfoundland, both Canada 
and Newfoundland have sought by various local legislation to so 
hamper American fishing vessels in their just rights to take fish as 
to make their occupation unprofitable. 

The aim of all these various attempts of Canada and Newfound- 
land to nullify the privileges of American fishing vessels as de- 
fined by article one of the Treaty of 1818 has been to force America 
to grant to Canada and Newfoundland favorable trade reciprocity. 
But the contracting parties to the Treaty of 1818 were neither Can- 


ada nor Newfoundland. The contracting parties to that treaty were 
the American republic and the British empire. Of what use would 
it be for these two sovereign members of the family of nations to 
agree solemnly by treaty to define the respective rights of their sub- 
jects in the Atlantic fisheries, if power was reserved to either party 
by local legislation to completely nullify the plain and evident intent 
of the treaty which recognizes that American fishing vessels pos- 
sessed in those waters certain rights and privileges to catch fish that 
the fishing vessels of all other nations do not possess under the 
ordinary Law of Nations. As Vattel justly says, treaties are sacred 
contracts between nations. 69 

The Brazilian jurist Calvo, after quoting in full the text of 
article one of the Treaty of 1818, says of the purpose of this 
article : 70 

Rien dans cet article ne permet d'inferer que la Grande-Bretagne ait 
confere aux fitats-Unis le droit de peche. Ceux-ci n'ont fait que renoncer a 
certains privileges, ce qui implique, de la part de TAngleterre, que ces privi- 
leges existaient et que les £tats-Unis ont uniquement cede une fraction de 
leur droit souverain. La Grande-Bretagne n'a pas dit aux fitats-Unis : " Venez 
seulement pour chercher un abri ou faire de l'eau ou du bois," mais les Etats- 
Unis disent a la Grande-Bretagne : " Nous, les proprietaires en commun de 
ces pecheries consentons a ne pas prendre de poissons et a ne pas les secher 
ou les saler dans certaines limites, et a ne pas abuser d'ailleurs de privileges 
qui nous sont cohce'd^s." 

And he goes on to say : 71 

Jamais loi municipale ne saurait pr£valoir sur une convention internationale. 

The uselessness for members of the family of nations to make 
certain agreements by formal treaty, if those agreements could be 
nullified by the local legislation of a colony or province or state of 
a party to the treaty contract seems self-evident. In the constitution 
of the United States provision is made to insure the maintenance of 

• Vattel, " Le Droit des gens," Paris and Lyons, 1820, Vol. II., p. 25. 

"Charles Calvo, "Le Droit International Theorique et Pratique," cin- 
quieme edition. Vol. I., Paris, 1896, pp. 486-487. 

"Charles Calvo, "Le Droit International Theorique et Pratique," cin- 
quieme Edition, Paris, 1896, Vol. I., pp. 487^-488. 



international treaties entered into by the American federal govern- 
ment. Article sixth of the American Constitution says: 72 

All treaties made or which shall be made, under the authority of the 
United States shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every 
State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any 
State to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The chief powers of Europe at the London conference in 1871, 
on January 5, adopted, as the Russian jurist de Martens tells us, this 
principle : 78 

The plenipotentiaries of the North German Confederation, Austria- 
Hungary, Great Britain, Italy, Russia and Turkey, to-day assembled en confe- 
rence, recognize that it is an essential principle of the Law of Nations that no 
power can liberate itself from the engagements of a treaty, nor modify its 
stipulations except with the consent of the contracting parties obtained by 
means of an amicable arrangement. 

Thus Great Britain has affirmed the sanctity of treaties in a for- 
mal manner. Very properly America maintains that any modifica- 
tion of the rights of American fishing vessels under the Treaty of 
1818, whether by amendment to that treaty or by police or maritime 
or customs or other regulation, can only be accomplished by agree- 
ment between the two parties to the contract known as the Treaty 
of 1818, the governments of the United States of America and of 
the British empire. Were an opposite doctrine recognized by the 
Hague International Court, what would become of the validity of 
many international treaties in force to-day between the nations of 
the earth. At the bar of the Hague International Court the United 
States of America will appear to defend the maintenance and sanc- 
tity of international contracts known under the generic name of 

"For the argument of the strict constructionists see William E. Mikell, 
" The Extent of the Treaty Making Power of the President and the Senate 
of the United States," University of Pennsylvania Law Review and American 
Law Register, 1909, pp. 435-458, 528-562. 

For the argument of the loose constructionists see Chandler P. Anderson, 
"The Extent and Limitations of the Treaty Making Power under the Con- 
stitution," The American Journal of International Law, July, 1907, pp. 636-670. 
See also the exhaustive treatise of Charles Henry Butler, "The Treaty- 
making Power of the United States," New York, 1902. 

n F. de Martens, "Traite de Droit International," traduit du Russe par 
Alfred Leo, Paris, 1883, Vol. I., p. 546. 


All through the negotiations relating to the fisheries question 
since the treaty of partition of 1783, the British empire and her two 
colonies of Canada and Newfoundland have sought to cut down the 
rights assigned by the partition treaty of 1783 to American citizens 
to catch fish in the territorial waters adjoining the Gulf of Saint 
Lawrence and the adjoining regions. Some of those rights America 
consented in the formal Treaty of 1818, concluded with the British 
imperial government, to give up. But not satisfied with the substan- 
tial gains then obtained, both Canada and Newfoundland through 
one subterfuge or another, have again and again tried to obtain 
more concessions from America by offering a shadow, as guarantee- 
ing the right, for example, for American fishing vessels to navigate 
the Gut of Canso, for a reality. As in the case of the Alaska fron- 
tier where Canada's land claims grew greater with the passing of the 
years, so in this fisheries dispute the position of America on the 
one hand, and of Great Britain, Canada and Newfoundland on the 
other hand, is well summed up in the words with which Count Nessel- 
rode, nearly ninety years since, contrasted the positions of the Musco- 
vite and the British empires when they were discussing their Russo- 
British American frontier : 

Ainsi nous voulons conserver, et les compagnies angloises veulent acquerir. 


(Read April 23, 1909.) 

Last autumn four members of our Society were invited by the 
German Emperor to attend the first performance of Fried rich 
Delitzsch's Sardanapal at the Royal Opera in Berlin. The climax 
of this historical pantomime, which is based on Lord Byron's 
tragedy Sardanapalus and a ballet of Paul Taglioni, 1 is the 
great pyre in the last scene, on which Sardanapalus burns himself 
with his queen, his attendants, and his treasures. The whole stage 
is full of fire ; but, of course, nothing is burnt. The blaze is pro- 
duced by steam with reflected red light. In the same way you see 
the stage full of fire in the last scene of Richard Wagner's 
musical drama Die Walkiire. Wodan passes through the flames, 
but he is not scorched. 

The black cloud over Mount Vesuvius has a fiery aspect at night, 
but this is merely the reflex of the fiery lava within the crater. The 
pillar of smoke over a volcano consists chiefly of steam and ashes. 
Volcanic eruptions are often not central, but lateral. The great 
eruption of Mont Pele in the northern part of the island of 
Martinique, on May 8, 1902, was a lateral eruption. In the case 
of Mount Etna, lateral eruptions are more frequent than eruptions 
from the central crater. There are several hundred parasitic craters 
on the flanks of Mount Etna, especially on the southern side, in 
the zone^between an altitude of 1,000 and 2,000 meters. This region 
is wooded. The volcano is covered with trees up to an altitude of 
2,200 meters, and shrubs grow up to 2,500 meters. If there should 
be in this region a cloud of steam over a lateral crater, the shrubs 
around it might seem to be afire without being consumed. This, I 

1 Compare Sardanapal. Grosse historische Pantomime in 3 Akten oder 
4 Bildern, untcr Anlehnung an das gleichnamige Ballet Paul Taglioni' s 
neu bearbeitet von Friedrich Delitzsch (Berlin, 1908). 



think, is the great sight (Exodus, Hi., 3) which Moses observed on 
the Mountain of God about 1^00 b. c. 

Mount Sinai is generally supposed to be a mountain on the so-called 
Sinaitic Peninsula between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akaba. 
The majority of scholars believe that the Mountain of the Law was 
the present Jabal Musa (the Mountain of Moses) which is the 
highest point of this barren peninsula in the south, rising to a height 
of 7,362 feet ; but the two famous Egyptologists Richard Lepsius 
and GeorgEbers claimed this distinction for the Jabal Serbal in 
the northwest, which is 6,731 feet high. 

Mount Sinai, however, cannot be located on the Sinaitic Penin- 
sula; it was a volcano in the land of Midian on the northeastern 
shore of the Red Sea. Midian is not the name of an Arabian tribe ; 
it denotes the Sinaitic amphictyony, i. e., the league of worshipers of 
Jhvh* in the neighborhood of Elath, the Edomite port at the north- 
eastern end of the Red Sea. 

Midian is derived from the old Sumerian word din which means 
in Arabic not only judgment, but also religion. Law and religion 
are intimately connected in the East. The Jewish religion is known 
as the Mosaic Law. In the New Testament the Jewish theologians 
are called lawyers. 3 The Arabic term fakih denotes a scholar versed 
both in jurisprudence and theology. 

Midianite is not a name like Arabic, but a term like Islamic. 
Priest of Midian means a priest of the Sinaitic amphictyony. The 
name of Moses's father-in-law was Jethro, which may be connected 
with the name of the Egyptian sun-god, Ra, which we find also in 
Potfphera* and Potiphar (for Petiphro; compare Jether for Jethro). 
In the original tradition, Moses was the son-in-law of a priest of 
On or Heliopolis, the city of the sun-god. Moses's Egyptian wife is 
contemptuously referred to (in Numbers, xii., 1) as the Ethiopian 

*For Jhvh (i. e., Jahveh or Yahivdy, not Jehovah) see the notes on the 
translation of the Psalms, in the Polychrome Bible, page 164, line 4. The 
first syllable of JaHveH should be pronounced like the jah in Hallelujah. 

•Compare Matthew, xxii., 35; Luke, vii., 30; x., 25; xi., 45. 52; xiv., 3. 
It might be well to add that publican means toll-gatherer. Sinner = unortho- 
dox; compare John, vii., 49. 


woman, f. e., the negress. 4 Afterwards this tradition was trans- 
ferred to Joseph (Genesis, xli., 45). 

Moses is not a proper name, but a title meaning Deliverer. He 
was an Edomite, but the son-in-law of an Egyptian priest of Helio- 
polis, near the western end of Goshen where the Edomite ancestors 
of the Jews lived before the Exodus. According to Acts vii., 22, 
Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. 

If we bear this in mind, we can appreciate the remarkable state- 
ment in Deuteronomy, xxiii., 8 (which was written about 690 B. c.) : 
Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother ; thou shalt 
not abhor an Egyptian, for thou wast a stranger in his land. The 
children that are begotten of them shall enter into the congregation 
of Jhvh in their third generation. 

The Edomites were not enemies of their brethren in Jerusalem 
at the time of Nebuchadnezzar (about 586 B. c.) but they were 
unfriendly disposed toward the Jews at the time of Judas Mac- 
cabaeus (about 164 B.C.). Both Moses and David were Edomites. 
Moses established the Jewish religion, David founded the kingdom 
of Judah. Moses corresponds to Mohammed, David to Omar. The 
Levites were Edomite priests. According to Exodus, ii., 1, Moses's 
father belonged to a priestly family (beth lewi) and Moses's mother 
was the daughter of a priest {bath lewi). 6 

Jewish monotheism is derived from Egypt. Monotheism can 
have originated only in a highly civilized country as a reaction 
against excessive polytheism. About 1350 B.C. Amenophis IV. of 
Egypt endeavored to supersede the old polytheistic religion by the 

* Compare Jeremiah, xiii., 23 and my paper The Aryan Ancestry of Jesus 
(Chicago, 1909) page 9= The Open Court (April, 1909) page 201. The 
admixture of African blood in the Semitic race may be tested by the 
new sero-diagnostic methods (based on deviation of the complement- 
whereby the phenomenon of haemolysis is inhibited) which were discussed 
by H. Sachs at the 39 th congress of German anthropologists, held at Frank- 
fort, Aug. 4, 1908. Compare Max Seber, Moderne Blutforschung und 
Abstammungslehre (Frankfurt am Main, 1909) page 44. See also, below, 
page 365, note 44. 

8 A lewi (for lawi) is a mbreh; Arab, dlwd is equivalent to Heb. horah. 
In Exodus, iv., 14; Judges, xvii., 7 lewi evidently means priest. For eth 
before bath lewi see Haupt, The Book of Esther (Chicago, 1908) page 
18, line 6. 


exclusive worship of the Sun. 6 He prohibited the cult of Amon and 
of all other gods; their images were destroyed, and their names 
erased from the walls of the temples and other public buildings. 
After his death, however, a reaction set in, and his innovations were 
abolished. 7 But some priests of this monotheistic cult may have 
survived in Heliopolis, and Moses's father-in-law may have been 
one of them. 

Hobab is not a proper name, but a term for jather-ithlaw? 
Jethro, the hobdb of Moses, was attached to the Edomite clan 
Reuel. Jhvh was an Edomite god. The meaning of the name is 
He who causes to be. In Exodus, iii, 14 we must read instead of 
the meaningless ehyeh asher ehyeh, I am that I am: ahyeh ashir 
ihyeh, 9 I cause to be what is. 10 The old name of this god of the 
Edomites was Esau, which is a dialectic form of the Hebrew word 
'Oseh (for 'dsai) Maker. The Jews are the descendants of the 
Edomite worshipers of Jhvh, 11 who were united under the leader- 
ship of David about 1000 b. c. David belonged to the Edomite clan 
Ephrath in one of the fertile valleys about Hebron. He was not a 
native of Bethlehem, neither was any son or descendant of David 
ever born at Bethlehem. 

•An uncle of Amenophis IV. was high-priest in Heliopolis; see Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, vol. lxiii., page 247, 
line 29. Userkaf, the first king of the Fifth Dynasty, is said to have been 
high-priest of Heliopolis prior to his accession to the throne (about 2680 
b. a). Compare below, page 368, note 59. 

1 Compare the notes on the translation of Joshua, in the Polychrome 
Bible, page 49. 

*In the Targum Jerushalmi ii. we find (Deuteronomy, xxvii., 13) the 
feminine habibtha, lit. the beloved, for the Heb. hothtnth, mother-in-law. 

• The pronunciation yihyeh is incorrect. We say Israel, not Yisrael. Con- 
trast the dissertation of Erich Ebeling, Das Verbum der el-Amarna- 
Briefe (Berlin, 1909) page 10. 

"This would be in Assyrian: usdbsd sa ib&sil; in Arabic: ukduwinu 
ma yakunu. 

M The majority of them were Edomites, but they comprised also Horites, 
Canaanites, Ishmaelites, Moabites, Hittites, Amorites, Philistines, Egyptians, 
and Ethiopians, *. e., a mixture of Asiatic, African, and European elements. 
For the Philistines compare the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 
Archeology, vol. xxxi. (London, 1909) page 233. Even the Phenicians may 
have come from Europe. Herodotus, who states (i., 1; vii., 89) that the 
Phenicians were originally settled on the Red Sea, confounds the Phenicians 
with the Jews. 


Judah (YihUdah) is not the name of an Israelitish tribe, but a 
feminine collective to ythodeh, he confesses. 12 King of Judah is 
originally a title like the Islamic Commander of the Faithful. The 
worship of Jhvh was introduced in Israel by David (about 1000 
b. c.) after he had conquered the northern confederation of Israel- 
itish tribes; but after the death of Solomon (about 930 B.C.) the 
Israelites relapsed into their former idolatry. 18 The Israelites have 
vanished ; they survive only, mixed with numerous foreign elements, 
including a considerable percentage of Aryan colonists, 14 in the 
Samaritans whose number is now reduced to 170 souls. 

The Israelites were not in Egypt, but the Edomite ancestors of 
the Jews were in Egypt (about 1230 b. c.) under the reign of 
Merneptah, 18 whose name appears in the Old Testament as Me- 
nephtoah. 16 At that time the Israelites were settled in Palestine, 

" The relation between the participial form modeh, confessor, and the old 
imperfect form ythodeh, he confesses, is the same as the connection between 
the modern Jewish name Meyer (Heb. Me'ir) and the old name J air (Heb. 
Ya'ir) which appears in the New Testament as Jairus. 

a Compare the translation of Joshua, xxiv., 2. 14. 23, in the Polychrome 
Bible, and the Notes, page 91, lines 3-6; also Genesis, xxxv., 2; xxxi., 19. 

M In the second half of the eighth century b. c. the Assyrian kings sen* 
Babylonian colonists from Babylon and Cutha to Samaria; they also trans- 
ferred there Aryan colonists from Hammath and other Galilean cities; see 
Orientalistische Literaturzeitung t vol. xi., columns 237-239. 

"Canon Cheyne notes in his Encyclopedia Biblica, col. 1182, below, 
that thirty years ago Mr. Baker Greene (Hebrew Migration, pp. 37. 117. 
199. 310) brought the passage in the Anastasi papyrus (vi., 4, 14, where a 
high official asks permission for the entrance into Egypt of tribes from the 
land of Aduma) into connection with the settlement of Hebrew tribes, such 
as the Josephites and, as he thought, the Kenites. — The Josephites, however, 
were not in Egypt. The ancestors of the Israelites came from the pasture 
grounds south of Haran in Mesopotamia, and invaded Palestine from the 
northeast; whereas the ancestors of the Jews, who had sojourned in Egypt, 
came from Elath, at the northeastern end of the Red Sea, and invaded Pales- 
tine from the south. The Israelites settled in Palestine about b. c 1400; 
the Jews came about the end of the eleventh century. Compare below, page 
366, line 8. 

"Heb. ma'yan me nephtbh (Joshua, xv., 9; xviii., 15) does not mean 
The fountain of the waters of Nephtoah, but The Fountain of Me(r)neptah. 
The modern name of this place is Liftd. In this village, about two miles 
northwest of Jerusalem, there is a large fountain, the waters of which are 
collected in a great walled reservoir of very early origin. The locality is 
undoubtedly ancient. See Cheyne's Encyclopedia Biblica, col. 3304. 


in the region of Mount Ephraim. At the time of Gideon (about 
noo b. c.) the Israelitish peasants in Palestine were idolaters, while 
the invading Midianites were worshipers of Jhvh. The legends 
of the ancient Israelites have been subsequently conformed to 
Judaic standards, just as the traditions of South Arabia have been 
systematically altered by the followers of Mohammed. The names 
of the ancient Israelitish gods in the old legends were afterwards 
replaced by the " Angel of Jhvh " 1T or Jhvh. 18 Gideon's name 
Jerubbaat 19 shows that he was not a worshiper of Jhvh. 

If the Midianife bedouins had not been defeated by the Israelitish 
peasants, they would have conquered Palestine from the east. As 
they were repulsed at that time, they afterwards invaded Palestine 
from the south. 

It is possible that in the time of Gideon the son of an Israelitish 
herdsman was sold by Midianitish Ishmaelites (or Ishmaelitish 
Midianites) 20 as a slave into Egypt, where he afterwards attained a 
prominent position. But the statement that this happened to the 
ancestor of Ephraim and Manasseh is a later modification of the 
original tradition. As the Israelites never were in Egypt, the 
official historians tried to create the impression that Ephraim and 
Manasseh had been born in Egypt, and that the Israelites had been 
from the beginning worshipers of Jhvh. The story of Joseph 
seems to have been influenced in some respects by the ancient 
Egyptian poetic autobiography of Sinuhet (about 2000 b. a). 

Liftd = Nephtah; change of / and n is not exceptional: the modern name 
of the Biblical Shunem is Stilem; on the other hand, Bethel is now known as 
Beitin, and Jezreel as Zer*\n. Talmudic tartrtgol, rooster, is the Sumerian 
dar-lugallu, king of the variegated birds (chickens). Compare J. Hunger, 
Babyl. Tieromina (Berlin, 1909) p. 42. 

"Wellhausen remarks in the notes on the translation of the Psalms, 
in the Polychrome Bible, page 176, line 36: Judaism has turned the heathen 
gods into angels, commissioned by Jhvh to govern the various nations. 

"Compare, e. g., Genesis, xxxi., n. 13; also xvi., n. 13; Judges, vi., 11. 

"The name Jerubbaal means Baal requites, rewards. The Hebrew verb 
rtib or rib, to strive, to sue, means originally to retaliate, to try to obtain 
redress. It has recently been v shown that we have the same verb in the 
name of Sennacherib, Assyr. Sin~ahe~riba, O Moongod give brothers as a 
reward! Gideon's god was Baal-btrith (Judges, viii., 33) i. e., the Baal of 
Oracular Decision. Also sefr hab-bMth (Exodus, xxiv., 7) means not the 
Book of the Covenant, but The Book of (Oracular) Decision (s). 

M Compare Judges, viii., 24 ; Genesis, xxxvii., 25-28. 


Also Balaam was a prophet of Jhvh, while the Israelites, who 
were to be cursed by this Edomite seer, were idolaters. In Num- 
bers xxiii., 7 we read that Balaam came from Aram, from the great 
mountain 21 in the east, i. e., Mount Sinai in the neighborhood of 
Elath, on the northeastern shore of the Red Sea. This Aram is 
not Syria, but the Koranic Iramu which we find in the 89 th sura 
in connection with the Adites. Iramu (or Aramu) denotes the 
region southeast of Elath. Balaam is identical with Lokman the 
Wise. Lokman is a translation of Balaam. 22 Both names mean 
Devourer. The name of Balaam's father is Be' or, and Lokman's 
father was called Ba'ur. Lokman was born at Elath; elath or 
eloth means tall trees, including palms, and there is a large grove 
of palm-trees near Elath. In Judges, i., 16 Elath is called The 
City of Palm-trees. 

In the Koran the Midianites of Elath are called aghabu-'l-aikati, 
the People of the Grove. Aikat is an adaptation of Ailat, the Arabic 
name of Elath. Just as Midian is not a tribal name, but the ancient 
term for the Sinaitic amphictyony, so the Adites, referred to in the 
Koran, are not a tribe, but a religious confederation. Arab, 'ad 
is the collective to 'ddah, custom, usage, institution, a synonym of 
sunnah which may be connected with Sinai ; it is originally a desig- 
nation of the Worshipefs of Jhvh, as are also Midian and Jehudah, 
the prototypes of the later Congregation (Heb. kahdl and e edah). 
Hud, the name of the prophet who was sent to the Adites, is but a 
shortened form of Jehudah. Shu'aib, the Arabic name of Jethro, 
means small tribe. 2 * 

a The mountains = the great mountain ; compare the notes on the trans- 
lation of Ezekiel, in the Polychrome Bible, page 157, line 22. 

"Similarly Nazareth is a translation of the older name of this Galilean 
town, Hinnathon or Hittalon, mispointed Hannathon and Hethlon, which 
means Seclusion; see my paper The Ethnology of Galilee in the Transactions 
of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions (Oxford, 
1908) vol. i., page 303, line 3. The original form of the name Nazareth 
may have been Nacdrath with final t as in Zarephath = Sarepta ( Assyr. 

"Compare Heb. tne'the tnispdr, or m&thc mt&t, or ha-mf&f mikkU 
ha-ammim (Genesis, xxxiv., 30; Deuteronomy, iv., 27; vii., 7; xxvi., 5; 
Psalm, cv., 12). For the Adites compare the new Enzyklopadie des Islam, 
edited by Houtsma and Schade, page 128. 


Mount Sinai, the sacred mountain of Midian, must have been a 
volcano. When the Edomite ancestors of the Jews came to Mount 
Sinai after the exodus from Egypt, there were thunders 24 and 
lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the 
trumpet exceeding loud. . . And Mount Sinai was altogether on a 
smoke . . . and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a 
furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. This passage 
(Exodus, xix., 16. 18) describes a volcanic eruption accompanied by 
earthquakes and thunderstorms. The voice of the trumpet (or 
rather ram's horn) 25 denotes the subterraneous roaring, rumbling, 
and thundering accompanying a volcanic eruption or earthquake. 
Homer (//. xxi., 388) uses trumpeting for thundering. 29 We use 
blare not only of a sound like that of a trumpet, but also of a loud 
or bellowing noise. We speak of the blare of trumpets and the 
blare of thunder. In Babylonian omen tablets the blare of thunder 
is compared to the voices of various animals: rams, asses, horses, 
hogs, lions, dogs, rats, chickens and other birds, etc. 27 Pliny 
(ii., 193) says that earthquakes are preceded or accompanied by a 
terrible noise which resembles either a murmuring, or a roaring, or 
the shouting of men, or the clangor of arms (praecedit vero comitar 
turque terribilis sonus, alias murmuri similis, alias mugitibus aut 
clamori humano armorumque fragori). A Winchester physician 
said of the recent seismic shocks in Virginia at the beginning of this 
month (April, 1909) : I felt two earthquake shocks. They were 
like the boom of heavy cannon fired in quick succession, and were 
followed by a loud roaring and rumbling. The earth trembled, and 
my house swayed perceptibly. 

In the same way the walls of Jericho, which were excavated a 

* Lit. voices; the plural is intensive ; compare above, page 360, note 21. 
Thunder was regarded as the voice of God. 

* See the cuts in the Appendix on the Music of the Ancient Hebrews 
in the translation of the Psalms, in the Polychrome Bible, page 222 ; compare 
the translation of Joshua, page 63. 

"Compare also the various uses of Lat fremitus, sonitus, strepitus; 
Greek &ayrt 9 icHm^ Pp6[i^ etc. See my paper on the Trumpets of Jericho 
in the Vienna Oriental Journal, 1909. 

''See J. Hunger, Babylonische Tieromina nebst griechisch-romischen 
Parallelen (Berlin, 1909) page 168. 


year ago by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft** were destroyed by 
an earthquake accompanied by shouting and horn-blowing, 1. e., 
roaring and rumbling. The idea that the walls of this ancient im- 
pregnable fortress fell down owing to the shouts of the Israelites and 
the horn-blowing Israelitish priests 29 is a later embellishment. 

Similarly, Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by a tectonic 
earthquake. This was discussed more than ten years ago by the 
German geologist Blanckenhorn, in his book on the Dead Sea 
and the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Berlin, 1908). 30 
Also the explanation of the Pillar of Salt was given long ago. At 
the southwestern end of the Dead Sea there is the so-called Moun- 
tain of Sodom, consisting of crystallized rock-salt. From the face 
of it great fragments are occasionally detached by the action of the 
rains, and appear as pillars of salt, advanced in front of the general 
mass. Such pillars (or pinnacles) have been often noticed by 
travelers. Lieutenant W. F. Lynch described one which was about 
40 feet high, cylindrical in form, and resting on a kind of oval 

"Sec No. 39 of the Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 
(Berlin, 1909). 

"Compare the translation of the sixth chapter of the Book of Joshua 
in the Polychrome Bible and the Notes, on page 62. The failing of the 
waters of the Jordan, as described in Joshua, iii., 16 (compare the Notes 
on page 60) may have been due to a landslip some 16 miles north of Jericho, 
near Ed-Damieh (the ancient Adam, or rather Adamah, south of the mouth 
of the Jabbok) where the valley of the Jordan contracts to a narrow gorge. 
Canon Cheyne states in his Encyclopedia Biblica, col. 2400, that minor 
landslides still occur in that region, and a large one might again dam up the 
Jordan, and let it run off into the Dead Sea, leaving the bed temporarily dry. 
An Arabic historian relates that on Dec. 7, a. d. 1266, in the neighborhood 
of Ed-Damieh, a lofty mound, which overlooked the river on the west, fell 
into the water and dammed it up for several hours. 

"Compare Diener, Die Katastrophe von Sodom und Gomorrha im 
Lichte geologischer Forschung in the Mittheilungen der K. K. Geographi- 
schen Gese Use haft in Wien, 1897, pp. 1-22; also Cheyne' s Encyclopedia 
Biblica, col. 1047. For the fire (Genesis, xix., 24. 28) following the earth- 
quake, note Genesis, xiv., 3. 10 (the region was full of slime pits, i. e., bitumen 
springs). From the Lord out of heaven (Genesis, xix., 24) is a subsequent 
addition; rained does not necessarily mean that the brimstone and fire came 
out of heaven; compare Psalm lxxviii., 27. The Cologne Gazette of April 
2^7, 1909, reported that during the recent earthquake at Lisbon, on April 23, 
1909, boiling water, smoke, and sulphureous dust were ejected from several 
large fissures. — There are sulphur springs in the region of the Dead Sea. 


pedestal, some 50 feet above the level of the sea. A picture of it is 
given in Lynch* s Narrative of the U. S. Expedition to the River 
Jordan and the Dead Sea (Philadelphia, 1850) page 3o8. ei Canon 
Driver, of Christ Church, Oxford, says (in Hastings's Dic- 
tionary of the Bible) : It is probable that some such pillar, conspicu- 
ous in antiquity, gave rise to the story of Lot's wife. The late 
Professor Edward Robinson, of Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, remarked in his Biblical Researches (vol. ii., page 108) 
that during the rainy season such pillars were constantly in the 
process of formation and destruction. 

The other day my little girl, who is but 12 years old; was read- 
ing some of the numerous clippings which denounced my allusion to 
the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and raised the question 
how I could explain the Pillar of Salt. 82 She said, How could Lot 
see that his wife became a pillar of salt? If he had looked back, 
he would have become a pillar of salt. The meaning of the original 
text in Genesis, xix., 26 is undoubtedly that as soon as Lot's wife 
looked back, she became a pillar of salt. In a Philadelphia paper a 
correspondent stated, I had overlooked the comma. T*here were no 
commas in the original text. The majority of the readers of the 
Bible do not realize that the title-page of the Authorized Version 
contains the statement translated out of the original tongues and 
with the former translations diligently compared and revised, by His 
Majesty's special command. 

In Exodus, xxiv., 17 we read: The sight of the glory of Jhvh 
was like devouring fire 88 on the top of the mount in the eyes of the 
Israelites. According to Exodus, xiii., 21, Jhvh was before them 
by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire. 84 
The modification that this pillar of smoke or fire preceded them on 
their march in the wilderness is a later embellishment suggested by 

u Compare my paper on Jonah's Whale in the Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, vol. xlvi., page 162, note 3. 

C I alluded to it in a paper on the location of Mount Sinai, which I 
read at the annual meeting of the American Oriental Society, New York, 
April 16, 1909. 

"Compare also Deuteronomy, iv., 24. 36; ix., 3; Psalm, xcvii., 3; 
Hebrews, xii., 29. 

** Compare Genesis, xv., 17. 


the custom of carrying at the head of a caravan, in a cresset mounted 
upon a long pole, a beacon-fire, the blaze of which served as a 
guiding-light at night, while the smoke signaled the direction during 
the day. According to the Priestly Code (which was compiled by 
Jewish priests during the Babylonian Captivity about 500 b. c.) the 
cloud was over the Tabernacle by day, and by night fire beaconed 
there. 88 But originally the cloud was on the top of Mount Sinai, 
and at night it had a fiery aspect. 

Sinai means covered with senna shrubs} 9 This seems to be the 
older name of the Mountain of Jhvh. Horeb, which is equivalent 
to Mont Pete, i. e., Bare Mountain* 7 is a later name. 88 The top of 
the mountain may have been bare after the eruption observed by 
the Hebrews after their exodus from Egypt. 88 The volcano may 
have been dormant for centuries 40 when Moses saw the first flame 
of fire out of the midst of the bush, i. e., 2. clump of senna shrubs. 

The famous Arabian geographer and historian Abu If eda (who 
died in a. d. 1331) says : Opinions differ with regard to Mount Sinai. 
Some say, It is a mountain in the neighborhood of Elath; others, 
A mountain in Syria. According to some, sind denotes the stones of 
the mountain; according to others, the shrubs thereon. 41 Sana' is 
the Arabic name for senna, and sina means small stones, i. e., the 
lapilli of the volcano. In Exodus, xix., 13 the Hebrews are warned 

"See Haupt, The Book of Canticles (Chicago, 1902) page 22 = The 
American Journal of Semitic Languages, vol. xviii., page 212; compare 
Haupt, Biblische Liebeslieder (Leipzig, 1907) page 22. 

m Cassia angustifolia. This shrub, which is more than six feet high, is 
found on the shore of the Red Sea. The best senna leaves (folia sennae) 
come from Arabia. 

"Horeb may also be interpreted to mean making bare or Destroyer 
(Arabic hdrib). 

"In several passages (Exodus, iii., 1; xvii., 6; xxxiii., 6; i. Kings, xix., 
8) Horeb represents a later addition. The name Horeb does not occur 
before the 7 th century b. c. 

"The top of Mount Etna, which is now bare, was wooded in the six- 
teenth century. 

40 Mount Vesuvius seemed to be extinct from 1500 to 163 1 ; it was covered 
with trees and shrubs, the cattle browsed within the crater; but on Dec. 
16, 1631, there was a terrific eruption which destroyed some 3,000 men. 

41 The Arabic text (p. 69 of the Paris edition) reads: wa-f&ru Sind'a 
'ht&lafti fihi, fa-qila: huwa j&balun bi-qurbi Ailata, fa-q\la: sin&'u hijdratuhu, 
wa-qila: sdjarun fihi. Mount Sinai is called also turu Sinina. 


against drawing too near to the mountain, inasmuch as any man 
or beast might be killed by a volcanic bomb or the lapilli ejected 
from the volcano. The universal interpretation of this passage 
(which we find also in the New Testament, Hebrews xii., 20) 
that men or beasts that disregarded this prohibition were to be 
executed by being stoned or shot with an arrow, is grotesque. 
No Hebrew ever shot a domestic cow with an arrow. 

There is a mountain in the neighborhood of Elath, known as 
the Jabal an^NUr, the Mountain of Light, or Jabal al-Bargkir, a 
modification of barghil, which denotes a region near the water 
or between cultivated land and the wilderness. The Arabs say 
that the Lord spoke to Moses on that mountain. There is also 
a Jabal Harb* 2 southeast of Elath, which is 7,218 feet high. It 
is situated near the eastern shore of ' the Red Sea, about lat. 
28 N., west of Tabuk, north of Ziba on the Red Sea, on the route 
of the pilgrims from Egypt to Mecca. We ought to send an 
expedition to Akaba to find out whether these two 
mountains are extinct volcanoes and covered with senna 
shrubs.* 8 Systematic explorations of this volcanic region of the 
cradle of Judaism w6uld no doubt yield most striking results. 

I am inclined to think that not only the Edomite ancestors of 
the Jews came from that region, but also the Semites who invaded 
both Babylonia and Egypt. The aborigines of Egypt must have 
been a negroid race, 44 but Semites must have invaded the valley of 
the Nile in the prehistoric period. Some of these Semitic invaders, 

•My attention has been called to the fact that A. H. McNeile, The 
Book of Exodus (London, 1908) p. cv. states: Horeb must ... be located 
... on the east of the Gulf [of Akaba]. And it is worthy of notice that 
hi modern maps a Jabal Harb is situated on the east of the Gulf, a little 
south of lat 28 . 

a Wc ought to disinter also the ancient capital of Galilee, at the hot 
springs (Hammdth) south of Tiberias, and the traditional home of Abraham, 
Ur of the Chaldees, the present Mughair. I have been advocating excava- 
tions at Mughair for more than 25 years. Dr. John P. Peters states in 
his work on Nippur (vol. ii., page 300) : I have seen no mound which 
seemed easier and safer to excavate, or promised richer results than Mughair. 

** See my paper The Aryan Ancestry of Jesus, page 9, note * ; compare 
the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlondischen Gesellschaft, vol. lxiii., page 
250, lines 24-30. See also above, page 356, note 4. 


it may be supposed, came over land, across the isthmus of Suez, and 
founded the northern kingdom of Egypt in the Delta. Others came 
across the Red Sea, near Koseir, 45 and established the Southern 
Kingdom in Upper Egypt. The northern and the southern king- 
doms were afterwards united by Menes, about b. c. 3300, just as 
David united his southern kingdom with the northern kingdom of 
Israel about 1000 b. c. 

The Israelites may have originally lived with their Edomite 
brethren on the northeastern shore of the Red Sea, but they must 
afterwards have sojourned for some time in Mesopotamia 46 before 
they settled in Palestine. They may be a branch of the Semites 
who had invaded Northern Babylonia and had afterwards gone to 
Assyria. 47 The Edomite ancestors of the Jews invaded Palestine 
from the south prior to b. C. 1000, but the Israelites must have come 
to Palestine from the northeast (probably through Rakkah on the 
Euphrates, Palmyra, and Damascus) 48 prior to b. c. 1400, and settled 
first in the northern region of the country east of the Jordan, *. e., 
Bashan and Gilead. 49 If the Israelites sojourned in Mesopotamia, 
we can understand the points of contact between the Israelitish law- 
book 50 in Exodus, xxi., 2 — xxii., 17 and the Code of Hammurapi 
(b.c. 1958-1916). 51 The Decalogue (Exodus, xx., 1-17) repre- 

49 On the western bank of the Nile, at Nakadah and al-Ballas, about 
five days' journey from Ko§eir, there are some of the earliest settlements in 
Egypt Compare also the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology, 
vol. xxxi. (London, 1909) page 210, line 4. 

a Probably on the pasture-grounds south of Haran, between the Eu- 
phrates and the Chaboras. Compare above, page 358, note 15, and Genesis, 
xi., 28. 31; xxiv., 4. 10; xxvii., 43; xxviii., 2; xxxi., 18; xxxiii., 18; 
Deuteronomy, xxvi., 5. The Hebrew term for Mesopotamia, Ar&m-Noharaim, 
means The Arameans of the Great River, i. e., the Euphrates; see Haupt, 
The Book of Nahum (Baltimore, 1907) page 31. 

4T In Genesis, x., 11 the Authorized Version renders correctly in the 
margin: he went out into Assyria. 

*■ Rakkah means bank, shore; Palmyra = Tadmor (for Titmur) : palmy, 
abounding in palms; and Damascus seems to be a contraction of Dor-maskt 
well-watered region. See my paper on the Ethnology of Galilee (cited above, 
page 360, note 22) and the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, vol. xli., page 195, line 9; also Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 
vol. x., col. 306; vol. xii., col. 214, note 15. 

• Compare Genesis, xxxi., 21. 47; Deuteronomy, i., 4, etc 

"Compare above, page 359, note 19. "See next page. 


sents the quintessence of the old moral and religious precepts, 52 
which was probably extracted by the prophets 58 in the seventh cen- 
tury, after Israel had fallen in b. c. 721, and which was afterwards 
still more concentrated by Jesus. 54 

According to later Judaic tradition, Abraham came from Ur of 
the Chaldees, and went afterwards to Egypt (Genesis, xii., 10). 
The same source" states that Abraham had an Egyptian concubine 
(Genesis, xvi., i b ). The object of such statements as we find, e. g., 
in Genesis, xliii., 32, is to emphasize the fact that the Egyptians, 
among whom the Edomite ancestors of the Jews sojourned for some 
time, considered themselves superior to the forefathers of the 
Israelites. Genesis, xxvii., 36 (compare xxv., 33) explains how it 
happened that the Israelites in the north possessed a higher civili- 
zation than their Edomite brethren in the south. The Israelites 
were peasants ; the Edomites, on the other hand, semi-nomadic shep- 
herds. Sons of Leah means cowboys; Sons of Rachel, shep- 
herds™ The statement that Joseph, the father of Ephraim and 
Manasseh, was a Son of Rachel, must be viewed in the same light as 
the tradition that the Israelites were in Egypt (compare above, 
Page 359, line 19). 

The ancient Egyptians called themselves Worshipers of Horus, 
the god of light. This deity may be ultimately identical with the 
god of the Sinaitic volcano. Harr is the Arabic term for volcanic 
regions. In the Old Testament we find harerim in Jeremiah, xvii., 
6. Nahor, which was originally the name of an Aramaic deity, can 
hardly be connected with Horus. 56 

" Compare the Johns Hopkins University Circulars, No. 163 (June, 1903) 
page 59; A. H. McNeil e, The Book of Exodus (London, 1908) page 
xlvii; Ed. Meyer, Geschichte der Altertums, vol i., part 2 (Stuttgart, 
1909) Page 450. 

"Compare Exodus, xxii., 17-xxiii., 19. 

" See my paper The Religion of the Hebrew Prophets in the Transactions 
of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions (Oxford, 
1908) vol. i., p. 270. 

"See Matthew, xxii., 40; vii., 12; compare Romans, xiii., 9. 

"Heb. leah=z cow, racfo/ = ewe. See my paper on Leah and Rachel in 
the Zeitschrift filr die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Vol. xxxix. (Giessen, 
1909), pp. 281-286. 

"For Horus in Old Testament names see Cheyne's Encyclopedia 
Biblica, col. 3304, §81. 



Every statement with regard to prehistoric periods is, of course, 
more or less conjectural. But I adhere to the principle that the 
probably right is preferable to the undoubtedly wrong. The possi- 
bility cannot be denied. It is even possible that the Sumerians are 
Egyptian emigrants of the pre-Semitic population of Egypt, who 
left their native land after the double Semitic invasion across the 
isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea near Koseir.* The Sumerians 
may have come from Egypt to Southern Babylonia through the 
Persian Gulf. This would explain the legend of Oannes 57 and 
several remarkable points of contact between Egyptian culture and 
Babylonian civilization. There is even a racial resemblance between 
the Sumerian heads of Telloh and the head of the famous statue of 
the Egyptian scribe in the Louvre or the head of the well-known 
wooden statue known as the sheikh al-balad** 

We have, of course, no mathematical evidence for the prehistoric 
periods of Arabia, Egypt, and Babylonia. But so much is certain: 
Jewish monotheism is derived from Egypt, 50 and the sacred moun- 
tain of the Edomite ancestors of the Jews was a volcano near the 
ancient Edomitic port of Elath at the northeastern end of the Red 
Sea. The Burning Bush on the Mountain of God as well as the 
miraculous passage of the Hebrews through the Red Sea 60 are not 
legendary, but historical. 

"See Zimmern's remarks in E. Schrader, Die Keilinschriftcn und 
das Alte Testament (Berlin, 1903) page 535. 

"See the plates in Ed. Meyer, Sumericr und Semiten (Berlin, 1906) 
and Aegypten zur Zeit der Pyratnidenerbauer (Leipzig, 1908). 

w We can trace the beginning of the solar monotheism of ancient Egyptian 
theology to the Fifth Dynasty (2680-2540 b. c). Horus was gradually 
superseded by Ra, just as Jhvh was substituted for Esau. Compare above, 
page 357, note 6. 

*° The Edomite ancestors of the Jews may have crossed the Red Sea at the 
small peninsula, 75 miles (120 kilometers) south of the northern end of the 
modern Suez Canal, between the larger and the smaller basins of the Bitter 
Lakes which formed at that time the northern end of the Red Sea. Major- 
General Tulloch observed that under a strong east wind the waters of 
Lake Menzalah, at the northern end of the Suez Canal receded for a distance 
of several miles. In the same way the water northeast of this peninsula may 
have been driven by a strong east wind (Exodus, xiv., 21) into the larger 
basin of the Bitter Lakes, while the water in the shallow lower basin receded 
at low tide. Although the Bitter Lakes and the Red Sea are now connected 


I believe that the Deliverer was a historical person. But we 
need not believe that Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and 
seventy of the elders of Israel saw God (Exodus, xxiv., 10). The 
author of the Fourth Gospel says (John, i., 18) : No man hath seen 
God at any time. Deuteronomy, iv., 12, states: The Lord spake 
unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of the 
words, but saw no similitude ; only ye heard a voice. But Jesus told 
the Jews according to St. John, v., 37 : Ye have neither heard His 
voice at any time, nor seen His shape. 

only by the modern Suez Canal, the tide extends to the southern end of 
the Bitter Lakes. The present northern end of the Gulf of Suez is prac- 
tically dry at low tide. Pi-hahiroth (Exodus, xiv., 2) should be read 
Pi-haherith, i. e., the mouth (£1) of the canal ( ha-herith = Assyr. heritu) 
connecting Lake Timsah (north of the Bitter Lakes) with the Nile. See 
my papers on the crossing of the Red Sea and the palm-grove on the Red 
Sea in Peiser's Orientalistische Literaturseitung, vol. xii. (Leipzig, 1909) 
columns 245 and 250. Further details concerning the statements made in 
the present paper may be found ibid., in my articles on the birth-place of 
David and Christ; the ancestors of the Jews; Hobab, father-in-law; the 
name Jhvh (cols. 65, 162, 164, 211) and especially in my paper on Midian 
and Sinai, pp. 506-530 of vol. lxiii. (Leipzig, 1909) of the Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 


(From the Department of Neurology and Vertebrate Zoology, 
Cornell University.) 

With Four Maps. 


(Read October i, 1909.) 


This paper is based mainly upon the records made by members 
of this department since the opening of the university in 1868; our 
personal observations have extended over the last twelve years. 
For valuable notes, helpful criticism and material assistance we are 
indebted to Professors B. G. Wilder, T. L. Hankinson and E. H. 
Eaton and to Messrs. G. S. Miller, Jr., L. A. Fuertes, A. A. Allen, 
G. C. Embody and John Vann. Many others have aided in various 
ways and acknowledgments are made in the proper places. 

The paper includes all the vertebrates known by us to occur in 
this basin. Each record is based upon specimens taken within our 
limits. In cases of doubt as to identification the specimens have 
been submitted to specialists in the group. 

The only previous publications which deal specifically with the 
vertebrates of this region are : " Fishes of Cayuga Lake," by B. G. 
Wilder, published in the Weekly Ithacan for June 25, 1875, " Notes 
on the Fishes of Cayuga Lake Basin," by Seth E. Meek, published 
in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. IV., 1899, 
and " The Lake and Brook Lampreys of New York, Especially those 
of Seneca and Cayuga Lakes," by S. H. Gage, in the " Wilder Quar- 
ter-Century Book," 1893. There are numerous other publications 
which contain notes upon the vertebrates of this basin, particularly 
the birds and reptiles, to which reference will be made elsewhere. 


Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 193 

Plate XVII 

Map of Ithaca and Vicinity. 

ftoCEEDiNGs Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 193 

Plate XVIII 

Relief Map of the Ithaca Quadrangle. 

Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. XLVIII. No. 193 

Plate XIX 

Cross-section of the Finger Lake Region. 

i9o 9 .] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 371 

The Maps. — The map of the Ithaca region (PL XVII) is from 
Dudley's " The Cayuga Flora." It shows this region in more detail 
than the general map. A small portion of the southern end of the 
basin is shown in a photograph (PI. XVIII) of a relief map made 
by William Stranahan from the U. S. Geological Survey sheets. It 
gives a very accurate idea of the gorges and general surface carving 
in the southern portion of the basin. It is through the courtesy of 
Mr. Stranahan and the authorities of the Cornell University Library 
that we are able to reproduce it here. Plate XIX represents a cross- 
section of the finger-lake region, showing the comparative depths and 
altitudes of lake levels and the altitude of intervening land. The 
lakes are represented in section at their deepest points, the land as 
indicated by the lines A, B, C on the figure in the lower left-hand 
corner of the plate. The distance between the lakes is not propor- 
tional to the elevation. Plate XX is a map of the lake region of 
central New York based primarily upon the map published by Pro- 
fessor Dudley in his flora of the basin. It has been modified in 
many particulars in order to adapt it to the needs of the present 
paper. The modifications are based largely upon the maps of the 
U. S. Geological Survey and in a minor degree upon personal obser- 
vations. The number accompanying the name of a town or hill 
indicates its altitude above sea level. The altitudes are taken from 
bench marks so far as they are given. In other cases the altitude 
given is that of the contour which passes through the center of a 
town or indicates the top of a hill. 

The Lake Basin. — Cayuga is the largest of a series of approxi- 
mately parallel lakes in central New York which extend in a north 
and south direction. They are long and narrow, virtually deep 
river valleys, and consequently have been very appropriately des- 
ignated the " Finger Lakes." The basin as delimited in this paper 
(PI. XX) comprises about 1,600 square miles. Throughout the 
greater part of this area only the actual catchment basin has been 
included, but, in the northern portion, the limits as we have set them 
are, to a certain degree, arbitrary. It includes a portion of the 
Clyde and Seneca rivers and the large Montezuma marshes which 
cover an area of 45 square miles. 

The greatest length of the basin is about 65 miles, extending 


from the source of Butler Creek southward to the source of the 
Cayuga inlet near North Spencer. The width gradually increases 
from 12 miles at Montezuma to Taughannock Falls, where it sud- 
denly broadens to about 30 miles because of a finger-like extension 
along the course of Fall Creek. 

The length of the lake is usually estimated at thirty-eight miles, its breadth 
from one and a half to three miles. In appearance, therefore, it resembles 
a great river; indeed it is said to occupy a part of a preglacial river channel 
of which the Neguaena 1 valley was the continuation. The height of the lake 
above mean tide is 383 s feet, the greatest depth found by numerous soundings 
of the Cornell University Engineering Department was 435 feet at a point 
directly off Kidder's Ferry. In the section between Myers Point and Sheldrake 
Point it is in many places over 400 feet deep. On account of its depth its 
waters are comparatively cold far into the summer, and rarely become so 
chilled in winter as to admit of the formation of ice over the deeper sections. 
From one half to two thirds of the middle section usually remains open, but 
in the winter of 1884-5 the lake was frozen over before the middle of Feb- 
ruary and the ice did not break up till the first week in April. There is a 
tradition that this occurs about once in twenty years (Dudley).* 

Data collected from various sources show that this tradition has 
some foundation in fact. Since the beginning of white settlements 
in this basin, soon after the Revolutionary War, the lake has frozen 
over seven times and the intervals have been, with one exception, 
from eighteen to twenty years. During the winter of 1836, ice cov- 
ered the lake throughout its extent but was apparently very thin, 
for in an article under the caption " Cayuga " 4 written in 1846 the 
writer observed that this condition lasted for a day or two only. 
Prior to 1836, the lake had been frozen twice but nothing is known 
concerning the dates further than that the intervals were about 
-twenty years — probably about 18 16 and 1796. During March and 
April, 1856, ice ten inches thick closed the entire lake. At many 
points teams were driven across. The Ithaca Weekly Journal of 
March 12, 1856, contains the following note: 

Cayuga Lake is frozen over completely from one extreme to the other. 
The like has not been known for over twenty years (1836) : 

1 Now called the Inlet valley. 

"The average level as given by the U. S. Geological Survey is 381 feet 

* Dudley, William R., " The Cayuga Flora, Part I. : A Catalogue of the 
Phaenogamia Growing without Cultivation in the Cayuga Lake Basin," Bul- 
letin of the Cornell University (Science), Vol. II., 1886, Andrus and Church. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

4 Ithaca Daily Chronicle, Dec. 22, 1846, Vol. I., no. 140. 

isk>9.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 373 

During the last half of February and the first of March, 1875, ice 
thirteen inches thick covered the entire lake. On February 15, 
1884, tne lake again froze over completely and remained so until 
April 4. Since this date Cayuga has frozen from end to end but 
once and then during February, 1904. In certain places the ice was 
22 inches thick. The shallow water at either end of the lake is 
frozen over usually by the middle of December and remains in 
this condition until the middle of March or the first of April. 
Dudley further observes: 

The temperature of the lake unquestionably influences the development 
of vegetation in its immediate vicinity. Plants on its shores are usually a 
week later in the spring than in the neighboring ravines and the warm valley 
about Ithaca, and a week earlier than on the distant hills; and during the 
first half of November, the blue flowers of Aster Icevis and the white plumes 
of Aster sagittifolius still remain in considerable abundance, while they have 
long ago matured and faded near Ithaca. 

Proceeding southward from the gently sloping shores near Cayuga Bridge 
the banks become gradually bolder, until in the vicinity of Levanna the first 
cliffs appear on the eastern shore. Between Willets and Kings Ferry these 
reach their culmination in the " High Cliffs " ; but stretches of lofty, pre- 
cipitous, or more or less broken declivities occur on both shores until within 
a few miles of the southern extremity. At intervals, especially near the mouth 
of some stream, are low, half-sandy points which yield many rare plants. 
Near Ithaca, and about two miles from the lake, the great valley forks, the 
main portion continuing to the right of South Hill, a preglacial valley of 
erosion extending southwardly to Waverly in the Susquehanna Valley. The 
other portion on the left of South Hill is similar to the first and forms the 
present Six Mile Creek and White Church Valleys, and opens into the Sus- 
quehanna at Owego. These deep valleys penetrate and cut through the great 
dividing ridge between the St Lawrence or Great Lake hydrographic system 
to which our streams and smaller lakes are tributary, and the Susquehanna 
system, and are parallel to similar valleys east and west of us. The head- 
waters of the streams occupying them, *". e., the summits between the two 
systems are usually very near the crossing of the dividing ridge. (Dudley.) 

Hydrographic Areas. — A glance at a hydrographic map of the 
state will reveal the existence of seven river systems, only two of 
which lie within the province of this paper, namely : the Oswego, of 
which the Finger Lakes are a part, and the Susquehanna. The 
latter has in New York a catchment area of 6,267 square miles and 
comes into very close relation with the Oswego system through 
the numerous inlets of the Finger Lakes where the origins of many 


of the streams of each system are very close, in a few instances 
with actual water connection. 

The close relation existing between the Finger Lakes and the 
Susquehanna system is most marked in the tributaries of Cayuga 
Lake. Sixmile and Wilseyville creeks arise about three miles apart 
with a considerable elevation intervening, but within the upper three 
miles of their respective courses, they approach within three fifths 
of a mile of each other at precisely the same level with no high 
land between. Buttermilk creek arises one fourth of a mile from 
Michigan creek and three tenths of a mile from Danby Creek, all 
at an elevation of 1,100 feet. Taughannock Creek arises in the 
same marsh with a tributary of Cayuta Lake at an elevation of 
1,300 feet. The inlet of Cayuga Lake arises one and one half 
miles from Spencer Creek at the same elevation and in the same 
stretch of marshy area. The west branch of the Inlet at its source 
is one fifth of a mile from Cantor creek in Pony Hollow. Sixrfiile 
Creek and the west branch of the Owego Creek rise in the same 
marsh at an altitude of 1,280 feet. The west branch of the Owego 
Creek also comes into close relation with Fall Creek through the 
tributaries of Dryden Lake. 

These examples serve to show not only the possibility of recent 
connections but in the case of several streams of the two systems 
an actual connection at the present time. The sources of Sixmile 
and Wilseyville creeks are so close that they are connected for lim- 
ited periods during flood times. Professor R. S. Tarr has expressed 
to us the belief that before the region was settled and the dense 
virgin forests cleared away, many of the streams of the Cayuga and 
Susquehanna systems, with present close relations, were actually 
connected in the heavily wooded swamps. 

The outlet of the Finger Lakes is the Seneca River, which con- 
stitutes the principal component of the Oswego system. The stream 
itself is about fifty miles long and according to the U. S. Geological 
Survey has a drop of only twenty feet which accounts for its slug- 
gish, meandering and marshy course. It receives the drainage of a 
little more than three thousand square miles of territory. 

Area of Water 

Area of Catchment 

in Square Miles. 

Basin in Square Miles. 
















The following is a table of the elevations, and area of water and 
of catchment basins of the Finger Lakes taken from Rafter: 5 

Elevation in 
Lake. Feet. 

Canandaigua 686 

Keuka 720 

Seneca 444 

Cayuga 381 

Owasco 710 

Skaneateles 867 

Otisco 784 

Thus it appears that Cayuga has a slightly greater water area, 6 
a decidedly greater catchment basin and a lower level (PL XIX) 
than any of the other Finger Lakes. The catchment basin is larger 
than the combined basins of the other six lakes. The usual fluctua- 
tion between high and low water in Cayuga is not great. Upon 
this point Rafter observes (p. 112) : 

According to figures given in the Eleventh Annual Report of the State 
Board of Health of New York it appears that the maximum fluctuation of 
Cayuga Lake for a long series of years has been 7.56 feet, although this large 
fluctuation may be possibly partly due to work done by the state in cutting 
out the channel of the Seneca River for the purpose of draining the Mon- 
tezuma marsh. Ordinarily, the fluctuation of Cayuga Lake does not exceed 
between 2 and 3 feet. From March 4, 1887, to December 2 of that year, the 
lake fell 2.93 feet. By way of illustrating how these great natural reservoirs 
tend to prevent floods, it may be mentioned that the configuration of Cayuga 
outlet with relation to Clyde River is such that frequently, when there are 
heavy rainfalls in the catchment area of the Gyde River, Cayuga Lake being 
at the same time at a low level, the entire flood flow of Clyde River is dis- 
charged into Cayuga Lake without affecting Seneca River below the mouth 
of the Clyde River at all. It is undoubtedly due to this fact that fall floods 
on Oswego River are almost entirely unknown. 

The evaporation of the Oswego River catchment area is exceedingly 
large — about 28 inches — whence it results that the run-off from a mean annual 
rainfall of from 36 to 37 inches does not exceed about 9 or 10 inches. 

During the winter of 1908-9 the lake level fell 1.25 feet below the 
mean level (383 feet), the lowest it had been for twenty years. 

•Rafter, George W., "Hydrology of the State of New York," Bull. 85 
of the New York State Museum, 1905, p. 216. 

•Much greater if the forty-five square miles of the Montezuma marshes 
are included. 


The principal tributaries of Cayuga Lake are : Cayuga Inlet, Six- 
mile Creek, Cascadilla Creek, with a combined catchment area of 173 
square miles, Salmon Creek, with a catchment area of 90 square 
miles, and Taughannock Creek, with a catchment area of 60 square 
miles. In their upper courses all these streams follow broad and 
gently sloping preglacial valleys without waterfalls. All, however, 
except the inlet, have cut a mile or more of post-glacial channel 
just before entering the lake valley. Here the channels are narrow 
and deep and the descent sudden, forming the gorges and waterfalls 
so characteristic of the tributaries of Seneca and Cayuga lakes. 
The fall of these streams in the last two miles (more or less) is be- 
tween four and five hundred feet. What is said here of the princi- 
pal tributaries applies to most of the streams entering Cayuga lake. 
In this connection Professor Dudley wrote: 

There remains but one other feature to mention in this general review. 
Nothing in the physical aspect of this region strikes the stranger as more 
characteristic than the so-called gorges or ravines found in the first great 
bench above the lake and valleys, wherever a creek or even a brook descends 
to the lower level. The true gorges are probably, without exception, of recent 
or post-glacial origin; the walls are frequently of perpendicular or overhang- 
ing rock from fifty to two hundred feet or even much higher, as in Taughan- 
nock and Enfield ravines. Within these great chasms are usually falls or 
cascades, some of them exceedingly beautiful and of considerable height 

The Life Zones. — The Cayuga Lake basin is, in the main, typi- 
cally Transitional, although in certain localities there is a trace of 
the Upper Austral and Canadian. All of the nine species of mam- 
mals, which, Miller 7 observes, " will serve to identify any part of the 
Transition zone in New York," are found within the basin. These 
forms are: 

Southeastern red squirrel, Sciurus hudsonicus loquax. 

Southern flying squirrel, Sciuropterus volans volans. 

Northern pine mouse, Microtus pinetorum scalopsoides. 

Naked-tailed mole, Scalops aquaticus. 

Hairy-tailed mole, Parascalops breweri. 

Northeastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus lysteri. 

Bonaparte's weasel, Putorius cicognanu 

Big brown bat, Vespertilio fuscus. 

T Miller, Gerrit S., Jr., " Preliminary List of New York Mammals," Bull 
of the New York State Museum, Vol. VI., No. 29, 1899. 




Of the eastern birds which find their northern breeding limit 
in the Transition zone, nineteen out of the twenty-two mentioned 
by Miller breed in this basin. They are: 

Ruffed grouse, 
Mourning dove, 
Yellow-billed cuckoo, 
Least flycatcher, 
Baltimore oriole, 
Grasshopper sparrow, 

Indigo bunting, 
Rough-winged swallow, 
Northern loggerhead shrike, 
Yellow warbler, 
Parula warbler, 
Long-billed marsh wren, 

Brown thrasher, 
Wood thrush, 
Blue bird, 

Colinus virginianus. 
Bonasa umbellus umbellus. 
Zenaidura macroura carolinensis. 
Coccyzus americanus. 
Antrostomus vociferus. 
Empidonax minimus. 
Icterus galbula. 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus. 
Ammodramus savannarum aus- 

Passerina cyanea. 
Stelgidopteryx serripennis. 
Lanius ludovicianus migrans. 
Dendroica estiva. 
Compsothlypis americana usnece, 
Telmatodytes palustris. 
Dumetella carolinensis. 
Toxostoma rufum. 
Hylocichla mustelina. 
Sialia stalls. 

Of the ten eastern birds which find the southern limit of their 
breeding range in the Transition zone of New York, six breed in 
this basin: 

Pied-billed grebe, 
Purple finch, 
Nashville warbler, 
Chestnut-sided warbler, 

Tachybaptus podiceps. 
Carpodacus purpureas. 
Vermivora rubricapilla. 
Dendroica pensylvanica. 
Penthestes atricapillus. 
Hylocichla fuscescens. 

In the higher hills and in the upper parts of the gorges at the 
south end of the basin there is an unmistakable tinge of the Cana- 



dian zone. In these localities are found five of the ten Canadian 
mammals characteristic of this zone in New York. They are: 

Canadian white- footed mouse, Peromycus maniculatus gracilis. 

Common red-backed mouse, Evototnys gapperi gap peri. 

Woodland jumping-mouse, Napceozapus insignis. 

Northeastern mink, Putorius vison vison. 

Smoky shrew, Sorex fumeus. 

Of the sixteen more characteristic Canadian birds breeding in 
New York, the Blackburnian and Magnolia warblers breed upon 
these hills. Associated with this assemblage of Canadian forms are 
others which, while not characteristically Canadian, may be con- 
sidered northern forms. Such are: 

Slate-colored junco, J unco hyemalis. 

Nashville warbler, Vermivora rubricapilla. 

Black-throated blue warbler, Dendroica ccerulescens. 

Black-throated green warbler, Dendroica virens. 

Water-thrush, Seiurus noveboracensis. 

Canadian warbler, Wilsovia canadensis. 

Winter wren, Nannus hiemalis. 

Hermit thrush, Hylocichla guttata pallasii. 

In about the same degree in which a trace of the Canadian zone 
is found in the higher portions of the basin there is a trace of the 
Upper Austral in the lowlands about the head and outlet of the 
lake. In these places are found such of the characteristic birds of 
the Upper Austral zone as breed in New York, viz., 

Louisiana water-thrush, Seiurus motacilla. 

Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens. 

Hooded warbler, Wilsonia citrina. 

Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus. 

Tufted titmouse, Baolophus bicolor ( one specimen) . 

In the same localities with the above are found species which 
reach their northern breeding limit in the Transition zone in New 
York having a wider breeding range to the southward, viz. : 

Barn owl, Aluco pratincola. 


Red-bellied woodpecker, Centurus carolinus. 

Rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis. 

Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius. 

A few Lower Austral forms, as the glossy ibis, the egret and 
the turkey vulture, have been taken in Montezuma marshes during 
the summer season. In the lowlands about the head of the lake, 
particularly the Renwick marshes, there remain throughout the 
winter a number of transients and summer residents. They are: 

Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon. 

Flicker, Colaptes auritus luteus. 

Meadow lark, Sturnella magna. 

Song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. 

Swamp sparrow, Melospiza georgiana. 

Winter wren, N annus hietnalis. 

Long-billed marsh wren, Telmatodytes palustris. 

Robin, Planesticus ntigratoria. 

The localities where the more southern birds are found breeding 
and where a few summer residents pass the winter are the alluvial 
flood plains which constitute the " sheltered spots " of the basin. 
According to Dudley a few very rare plants belong to these levels, 
among them the more southern species. 

Meteorology. — The basins of Canandaigua, Keuka, Seneca and 
Cayuga lakes constitute a meteorological subdivision of the state 
termed the Central Lake region. On the north this subdivision 
meets the Ontario region. Lakes Owasco and Skaneateles are con- 
sidered as within the meteorological subdivision known as the East- 
ern Plateau which lies to the east and southeast of the central lakes. 
The Seneca lake basin, except for a small portion of its northern 
extremity, lies wholly within the Central Lake region while that of 
Cayuga is not only continuous with* the Ontario region in its north- 
ern extremity but its southeastern portion projects for a considerable 
distance into the Eastern Plateau. 

The normal annual temperature of the Central Lake region dif- 
fers only slightly from that of the Ontario and to the extent of 
about three degrees only from the Eastern Plateau. The normal 
temperature for each of the three regions computed from the nor- 



mal annual temperatures for eleven years, 1891-1901, is: Ontario 
47.5 , Central Lakes 48.3 , Eastern Plateau 45.9°. Thus it appears 
that the Central Lake region is .8° warmer than the Ontario and 
2.4 warmer than the Eastern Plateau. 

The extent to which the lake modifies the climate of the basin, 
if any, is still to be determined. Dr. W. D. Wilson, of Geneva, in 
comparing the influence of the lakes upon Ithaca and Geneva, 8 states 
that the northerly winds in winter are warmed by their passage up 
the lake valley, which they follow more or less closely, and cause the 
temperature in the vicinity of Ithaca during this season to stand 
3.3 degrees higher than it otherwise would. According to E. C. 
Turner the observations made at Ithaca prior to 1897 substantiate 
Dr. Wilson's views and moreover indicate that they apply to the 
whole of the central lake region. 

The normal monthly temperature for Ithaca compiled from data 
collected from 1875^0 1905 follows: 

January 24.1 July 70.6 

February 25.1 August 68.2 

March 31.9 September 60.6 

April 44-2 October 49.5 

May 57.0 November 37.6 

June 66.2 December 284 

The sum of daily heat units above 32 degrees is 14,317, com- 
piled from a table of normal daily temperature for 33 years and 
the average normal daily temperature of the six hottest weeks 
is 70.4 degrees. According to Turner, from 1879 to J 893 the 
average date of the latest freezing temperature was May 6, the 
extremes being April 9 and May 29. The average date of the first 
freezing temperature in the fall was October 10, the earliest being 
September 26, while in one year 32 degrees was not reached until 
October 31. A table of the la'test spring and earliest fall killing 
frosts from 1900 to 1907 at three stations in the basin follows : 

Ithaca. Romulus. Auburn. 

1900. May 7-Oct. 20 May 10-Oct. 20 May 6-Oct 16 

1901. April 12-Oct. 28 Oct. 18 April 12-Oct 6 

•See Turner, E. T., Eighth Annual Report of the New York Weather 
Bureau, Assembly Documents, Vol. 25, 1897, p. 440. 






May 10-Oct. 


May 15-Oct. 


May 14-Oct 



May 2-0ct. 


May 2-Oct. 


May 2-0ct. 



May 12-Oct. 


April 22-Sept 


April 22-Sept, 



May 2-0ct. 


May 3-Oct. 


May 2-Oct. 



May 21-Oct. 


May 21-Oct. 


May 21-Oct. 



May 12-Oct. 


May 21-Oct. 


May 21-Oct. 


The average precipitation for the Central Lake region is slightly 
less than that for either the Great Lake or Eastern Plateau. The 
mean annual precipitation for these regions compiled from precipi- 
tation data for the years 1891 to 1902 is : Great Lakes 35.65 inches, 
Eastern Plateau 40.8 inches, Central Lakes 34.46 inches. The nor- 
mal monthly precipitation at Ithaca compiled from the last twenty- 
nine years follows: 

January 2.16 in. July 3.75 in. 

February 1.87 in. August 3.24 in. 

March 244 in. September 2.83 in. 

April 2.29 in. October 3.17 in. 

May 3.43 in. November 2.58 in. 

June 3.88 in. December 2.64 in. 

From 1900 to 1907 there have been from 150 to 185 rainy days 
each year. For the same period the annual snowfall (unmelted) 
has varied from 46.4 to 75.8 inches, the average being 63.6. One of 
the striking features of the region about Ithaca is the small per- 
centage of clear days, as the following table will show : 

Percentage of 
Cloudy. Partly Cloudy. Clear. Clear Days. 

1900 174 109 82 22.4 

1901 171 126 68 18.6 

1902 149 151 65 I7.8 

1903 195 98 72 I97 

1904 l8o 115 71 19-4 

IOX>5 I48 126 £l 24.9 

1906 164 92 109 29.8 

1907 163 I40 62 16.9 

Based upon average hours of sunshine from 1900 to 1903 R. G. 
Allen derived 49 per cent, as an annual mean of sunshine, or a 
monthly mean of 189 hours of sunshine. 

The average of mean relative humidities at Ithaca from 1900 to 


1907 is 77 per cent., based upon readings taken at 8 A.M. The 
range for these years being from 73 to 80 per cent. 

The total movement of wind in miles varies from 62,556 to 79,- 
172. The maximum velocity ranges from 36 to 54 miles per hour 
in the period from November to March. . The prevailing direction 
of the wind for the past eight years has been northwest. Besides 
the general winds there are local currents or night winds particularly 
in the southern portion of the basin. Concerning these Dr. W. M. 
Wilson 9 writes : 

The night wind commonly sets in two or three hours after sunset, first 
as a light breeze, but gradually increasing in strength until a velocity of about 
eight miles per hour is reached. This current has its origin on the hillsides 
at the southern end of the lake and flows northward down the channels of 
the two principal streams which form the inlet, converging into the main 
depression at the head of the lake. The flow of the current as it moves 
northward over the level surface of the lake is augmented by the cool cur- 
rents which join the main stream through the numerous gorges and water 
courses entering the valley from either side. Along the western shore at 
the southern end of the lake, where the densely wooded slopes cool the air 
near the surface, the flow of the cool breeze down the water courses towards 
the lake often continues throughout the day. The night breeze is usually 
stronger, but the day breeze as it comes from the depths of the woods is 
delightfully refreshing. 

The meteorological conditions of the Cayuga basin and more 
particularly those about Ithaca are thus commented upon by Gar- 
riott: 10 

In spring, summer and autumn precipitation is preceded twelve to forty- 
eight hours by southeast winds and falling barometer, and the barometer gen- 
erally falls to 29.90, or below, in spring and summer, and to 29.95, or below, 
in autumn before precipitation begins. In winter southerly winds precede pre- 
cipitation, but the winds shift more quickly and the signs of precipitation are 
not so well defined as in other seasons; precipitation begins in this season 
with a falling barometer and when the barometer has fallen to 30 or below. 
On account of the position of this station on the hillside and above the lake, 
diurnal winds are noticeable, especially during the warm months. When not 
influenced by passing storms these winds come as a gentle east to southeast 
breeze by night and by day a northwest wind having a velocity of two or 
three times greater than the day breeze. When, instead of shifting to the 

•Wilson, W. M., "New York Section of the Climatical Service of the 
Weather Bureau in cooperation with Cornell University," August, 1906, p. 59. 

"Garriott, Edward B., "Weather Folk-lore and Local Weather Signs," 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bull. 294 of the Weather Bureau, p. 93. 




northwest in the early morning, the wind continues from the southeast and 
begins to increase in force, the approach of a storm is indicated. While rain 
begins most frequently with falling barometer, the heaviest rainfall often 
comes, especially in the warmer months, after the turn of the barometer from 
falling to rising. 

Richard's registering hygrometer shows that in spring and summer the 
humidity sometimes decreases before rain, but rapidly increases after rain 
begins; in spring rain begins with relative humidity from 50 to 98 per cent, 
and in summer it may be as low as 50 per cent one hour before rain begins. 
In autumn the effect of day and night seems greater than the influence of 
passing storms, and rain will begin with relative humidity as low as 50 per 
cent one hour before rain. In winter there is usually an increase in humidity 
from one half to four hours before rain, and dry snow will begin with relative 
humidity as low as 40 per cent 

Cirrus clouds are reliable indications of precipitation in all seasons, but 
are liable to be obscured by lower clouds of local formation in the colder 
portion of the year. These clouds appear moving from the west in the 
spring and winter, from the northwest in summer, and from the southwest 
in autumn, twenty-four to thirty-six hours before precipitation begins. Special 
characteristics of clouds have not been noted except in connection with 
cirrus clouds. 

Frost is likely to damage fruit or other crops in May and September. 
Heavy frost is generally preceded by high barometer, low temperature and 
humidity, very high wind and clear weather. 

The Fishes of the Basin. — The fish fauna of the basin comprises 
65 species distributed among 21 families, as follows: 

Petromyzonidae 2 species. Umbridae 1 species. 

Acipenseridae 1 

Lepisosteidae 1 

Amiidae 1 

Siluridae 5 

Catostomidse 4 

Cyprinidae 19 

Anguillidae 1 

Clupeidae 1 

Salmonidae 5 


Esocidae 2 






Percidae 7 

Serranidae 1 

Cottidae 2 

1 species. 

As yet too little is known of the fish fauna of the finger lakes to 
draw any definite conclusions concerning the general distribution of 
species or the relation of these faunas to others. Lake Cayuga and 
Seneca River have water connection with Lake Erie and the Hudson 
River through the Erie Canal ; with Lake Ontario both through river 
and canal (Oswego) ; with the Susquehanna system through several 






very common, 



very common, 



very common, 






very common, 





• common. 










of the southern tributaries at certain periods of the year. It is pos- 
sible, therefore, that these lakes may receive species from all three 
sources. Of the 65 species found in the basin 19 are common to the 
Ontario and Susquehanna basins although frequently varying in 
abundance. A table follows: 

Exoglossum maxillingua, 
Semotilus bullaris, 
Erimyzon sucetta oblongus, 
Esox reticulatus, 
Catostomus nigricans, 
Hybopsis kentuckiensis, 
Chrosomus erythrogaster, 
Percina caprodes zebra, 
Lota maculosa, 

Several of the basses are common to all three basins but the in- 
troduction of these species from one place to another renders them 
of no comparative value. 

Twenty-one species are common to the Cayuga and Ontario 
basins. Two species, Cottus gracilis and Notropis procne, are com- 
mon to the Cayuga and Susquehanna basins. There are in the Cay- 
uga basin four species which do not occur in either the Ontario or 
Susquehanna. One of these is the smelt, Argyrosomus osmeri- 
for,mis, confined to the interior lakes of New York. The others, 
Notropis umbratilis, Notropis anogenus and Lepomis cyanellus, are 
most common in the northern portion of the basin and doubtless 
found their way hither through the Erie Canal from Lake Erie. 

It appears that the fish fauna of the Cayuga basin bears the 
stamp of Lake Ontario with just a trace of the Susquehanna and 
Erie basins. There is a possibility that species which seem to have 
found their way here from the Erie and Susquehanna basins were 
introduced along with game fishes or from bait pails. Observations 
made in Monroe Co., New York, by A. H. Wright 11 indicate that 
fishes find their way eastward through the Erie Canal. 

Amphibia. — One of the characteristic features of our vertebrate 
fauna is the relative abundance of amphibian species and individuals, 
particularly in the southern portion of the basin. In this respect the 

"Wright, A H., MS., "The Fishes of Monroe Co., New York." 


basin is similar to the mountains of Pennsylvania. The seventeen 
species are distributed among the following families: 

Proteidae i species. Pleurodelidae i species. 

Ambystomidae I " Buf onidae i " 

Plethodontidae 5 " Hylidae 2 " 

Desmognathidae 1 " Ranidae 5 " 

Reptilia. — Twenty species of reptiles are known within our limits. 
The lizards are represented by a single specimen of the Ground Liz- 
ard, Leiolopisma later ale, found just northeast of Caroline on the 
divide between Sixmile Creek and a branch of the Susquehanna. 
Twelve species of snakes are known, three of which are now very 
rare. The rattlesnake so far as we know is met with only occasion- 
ally in the region about McLean, while the blacksnake and pilot 
snake are confined to the extreme southern portion of the basin near 
Newfield and Danby. 

There are seven species of turtles, representing four families as 
follows : 

Trionychidae 1 species. Kinosternidae 1 species. 

Chelydridae 1 " Emydidae 4 " 

Only three of the seven species, the snapping turtle ( Chelydra ser- 
pentina), Agassiz's painted turtle (Chrysemys marginata), and the 
wood tortoise (Clemmys insculpta) are found distributed throughout 
the basin. The other four are confined to the extreme northern por- 
tion. The musk turtle (Terrapene odorata), a species fairly widely 
distributed east of the Mississippi, was first found in this basin 
in the fall of 1908 and proved to be common in the Seneca 
River near the Erie Canal. The Soft-shelled turtle (Aspidonectes 
spinifer), a species of more northern and western distribution, is 
very rare at the south end of the basin but found fairly common 
about Montezuma. The Speckled tortoise (Clemmys guttata) is 
widely distributed in central and eastern United States but in this 
region is confined to the vicinity of the Junius Ponds north and west 
of Waterloo. Muhlenberg's turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii) , a spe- 
cies limited in its range to eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and 
the Hudson Valley, is the only more eastern form found here aside 
from those of wide distribution. 



Birds. — The birds that have been recorded for this region com- 
prise 257 species distributed among 51 families as follows: 

Colymbidae 3 species. 

Gaviidae 2 " 

Alcidae 1 

Laridae 9 " 

Procellariidae 1 " 

Phalacrocoracidae 2 " 

Pelecanidae 1 " 

Anatidae 33 " 

Ibididae 1 

Ardeidae 6 

Gruidae 1 

Rallidae 6 " 

Phalaropodidae 3 " 

Recurvirostridae 1 " 

Scolopacidae 20 " 

Charadriidae 4 " 

Aphrizidae 1 " 

Odontophoridae 1 " 

Tetraonidae 1 " 

Columbidae 2 " 

Cathartidae 1 " 

Buteonidae 9 " 

Falconidae 3 " 

Pandionidae 1 " 

Aluconidae 1 " 


Strigidae 8 

Cuculidae 2 

Alcidinidae 1 

Picidae 7 

Caprimulgidae 2 

Micropodidae 1 

Trochilidae 1 

Tyrannidae 8 

Alaudidae 2 

Corvidae 3 

Icteridae 8 

Fringillidae 31 

Tanagridae 1 

Hirundinidae 6 

Bombycillidae 1 

Laniidae 2 

Vireonidae 5 

Mniotiltidae 31 

Motacillidae 1 

Mimidae 2 

Troglodytidas 5 

Certhiidae 1 

Sittidae 2 

Paridae 2 

Sylviidae 2 

9 species. 


The following tables show the seasonal status of each species 
that has been found in the lake basin. 

Permanent Residents. 

Ruffed grouse, 
Red-tailed hawk, 
Red-shouldered hawk, 
Barn owl, 
Long-eared owl, 
Short-eared owl, 
Barred owl, 
Screech owl, 
Great horned owl, 

Hairy woodpecker, 

Downy woodpecker, 

Red-headed woodpecker, 

Prairie horned lark, 

Blue jay, 



Song sparrow, 

White-bellied nuthatch, 





Transient Visitants. 

HolboelTs grebe (sometimes in 

Horned grebe (sometimes in 

Common loon (sometimes in 

Bonaparte's gull, 
Common tern, 
Red-breasted merganser (a few 

regularly in winter), 
Mallard (a few regularly in 


Green-winged teal, 
Blue-winged teal, 
Lesser scaup duck (sometimes 

in winter), 
Ring-necked duck, 
Buffle-head (sometimes in win- 
Ruddy duck (sometimes in 

Great blue heron, 
Black-crowned night heron, 

Pectoral sandpiper, 
Least sandpiper, 
Red-backed sandpiper, 
Semipalmated sandpiper, 
Greater yellow-legs, 

Solitary sandpiper, 

Black-bellied plover, 

Semipalmated plover, 

Broad-winged hawk ( found breed- 
ing in 1890), 

Duck hawk, 

Pigeon hawk, 


Yellow-bellied flycatcher, 

Alder flycatcher (breeds locally), 

Rusty blackbird, 

Nelson's sparrow, 

Acadian sharp-tailed sparrow, 

White-crowned sparrow, 

White-throated sparrow, 

Junco (uncommon in winter; 
breeds locally), 

Lincoln's sparrow, 

Fox sparrow, 

Northern loggerhead shrike, 

Blue-headed vireo (found breed- 
ing in 1893), 

Black and white warbler (breeds 

Nashville warbler (breeds locally), 

Tennessee warbler, 

Parula warbler (breeds locally), 

Cape May warbler, 

Black-throated blue warbler 
(breeds locally), 

Myrtle warbler, 

Magnolia warbler (breeds lo- 

Cerulean warbler (breeds on 
Howland Island), 



Bay-breasted warbler, 

Black-poll warbler, 

Blackburnian warbler (breeds 

Black-throated green warbler 
(breeds locally), 

Pine warbler (breeds locally), 

Palm warbler, 

Water-thrush (breeds locally), 

Connecticut warbler (fall only), 

Mourning warbler (breeds lo- 

Yellow-breasted chat (breeds 


Black duck (a few found regu- 
larly in winter), 

Wood duck, 


Least bittern, 

Green heron, 

King rail, 

Virginia rail, 


Florida gallinule, 



Wilson's snipe (not common at 
this season), 

Spotted sandpiper, 


Mourning dove, 

Marsh hawk, 

Sharp-shinned hawk, 

Cooper's hawk, 

Hooded warbler (breeds locally), 

Wilson's warbler, 

Canadian warbler (breeds locally), 


Red-breasted nuthatch (some- 
times in winter), 

Golden-crowned kinglet (some- 
times in winter), 

Ruby-crowned kinglet, 

Gray-cheeked thrush, 

Olive-backed thrush ( found breed- 
ing in 1890), 

Hermit thrush (breeds locally). 


Bald eagle, 

Sparrow hawk, 

Yellow-billed cuckoo, 

Black-billed cuckoo, 

Belted kingfisher (sometimes in 

Yellow-bellied sapsucker (not 

common at this season), 
Flicker (sometimes in winter), 
Chimney swift, 
Ruby-throated hummingbird, 
Wood pewee, 
Least flycatcher, 
Red-winged blackbird (a few in 





Meadow lark (a few in winter), 

Baltimore oriole, 

Bronzed grackle, 

Purple finch, 

Vesper sparrow, 

Savannah sparrow, 

Grasshopper sparrow, 

Chipping sparrow, 

Field sparrow, 

Swamp sparrow (sometimes in 


Rose-breasted grosbeak, 
Indigo bunting, 
Scarlet tanager, 
Purple martin, 
Qiff swallow, 
Barn swallow, 
Tree swallow, 
Bank swallow, 

Rough-winged swallow, 

Cedar waxwing (irregularly in 

Red-eyed vireo, 
Warbling vireo, 
Yellow-throated vireo, 
Chestnut-sided warbler, 

Louisiana water-thrush, 
Maryland yellow-throat, 
Brown thrasher (uncommon at 

this season), 
House wren, 
Long-billed marsh wren, 
Wood thrush, 

Robin (a few regularly in winter), 

Winter Residents. 

Herring gull, 
Greater scaup duck, 
Golden eye, 

White-winged scoter, 
Surf scoter, 

Canada goose (more common as 
a transient), 

Rough-legged hawk, 

Pine grosbeak, 

Red crossbill, 

White-winged crossbill, 


Pine siskin, 

Snow bunting, 

Tree sparrow, 

Northern shrike, 

Winter wren (found breeding in 

Brown creeper. 



Of Rare Occurrence. 

Red-throated loon (winter), 
Brunnich's murre (winter), 
Kittiwake (winter), 
Iceland gull (winter), » 
Ring-billed gull (transient), 
Fork-tailed gull (winter), 
Least tern (transient), 
Common cormorant (transient), 
Double-crested cormorant (tran- 
White pelican (transient), 
Barrow's golden-eye (winter), 
King eider (winter), 
Greater snow goose (winter), 
Brant (winter), 
Whistling swan (transient), 
Glossy ibis (summer), 
Egret (summer), 
Whooping crane (transient), 
Yellow rail (transient), 
Red phalarope (transisnt), 
Northern phalarope (transient), 
Wilson's phalarope (transient), 
Dowitcher (transient), 
Stilt sandpiper (transient), 
White-rumped sandpiper (tran- 
Hudsonian godwit (transient), 
Willet (transient), 
Long-billed curlew (transient), 

Hudsonian curlew (transient), 
Golden plover (transient), 
Turnstone (transient), 
Turkey vulture (summer), 
Goshawk (winter), 
Saw-whet owl (winter), 
Snowy owl (winter), 
Hawk owl (winter), 
Arctic three-toed woodpecker 

Red-bellied woodpecker (sum- 
Olive-sided flycatcher (transient), 
Orchard oriole (summer), 
Lapland longspur (winter), 
Leconte's sparrow (transient), 
Dickcissel (summer), 
Philadelphia vireo (transient), 
Worm-eating warbler (transient), 
Golden-winged warbler (sum- 
Tufted titmouse (summer), 
Orange-crowned warbler (tran- 
Yellow palm warbler (transient), 
Carolina wren (summer), 
Short-billed marsh wren (tran- 
Wheatear (fall), 
Avocet (fall). 

Accidental Visitants. 

Black-capped petrel, 
Blue goose, 

Evening grosbeak, 
European green-winged teal. 

«909.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 391 




i. Family Petromyzonid;E. The Lampreys. 

i. Petromyzon marinas unicolor (De Kay). Lake lamprey. 

Abundant in the lake, where they are very destructive to the 
larger fishes because of their parasitic habits. 11 They are found 
in great numbers in the lake inlet during the spawning season, which 
occurs between May 25 and the middle of June. There is, how- 
ever, considerable variation in this respect according to the season. 
In 1900 the crest of the spawning season occurred during the last 
days of May. In 1902 active spawning continued until June 7, 
while in 1903 spawning was over entirely by June 1. Larvae of 
various sizes are found at all seasons buried in the mud and sand 
bars below the spawning grounds. Transformation occurs from 
the last of August to the middle of October. The latest record of 
transforming individuals is that of three specimens taken October 
16, 1907. In one of these transformation was just beginning. 
Judging from the different sizes of larvae found at a given season 
the larval period is of about four years duration. 

2. Lampetra wilder! Jordan and Evermann. Brook lamprey. 

Common in the inlet, where they may be found in abundance 
during the spawning season, which occurs during the middle of May 
beginning, according to Professor Gage's observations, about the 
eighth of the month and lasting until about the twentieth. The 
maximum period averages near the middle of the month. This 
species is not parasitic at any stage in its life-history. It probably 
takes no food in the adult stage. 

"Sec Gage, S. H., op. cit.; also Surface, H. A., "Removal of Lampreys 
from the Interior Waters of New York," Report of the New York Fisheries, 
Forest yid Game Commission, 1898, pp. 191-243. 


B. Class PISCES. 

2. Family Acipenseridje. The Sturgeons. 

3. Adpenser rubicundus Le Sueur. Lake sturgeon. 


A large specimen of this species, now in the collection of Cornell Univer- 
sity, is reported as being from Cayuga Lake. Mr. Seth Green informs me 
that sturgeons have occasionally been taken in Cayuga Lake; but, so far as 
he knows, they have never been found in any other of the small lakes of 
central New York. I copy the following letter of recent date from Mr. H. V. 
Kipp, of Montezuma, N. Y. : " There have not been any sturgeons taken from 
Cayuga Lake since 1880, but quite a number before that date, and the largest 
known weighed 35 pounds." (Meek.) 

On June 4, 1905, a specimen four feet long and weighing forty- 
two pounds was taken at Sheldrake by Dr. L. A. Gould and on 
December 3, 1908, a specimen '(C. U. 5130) weighing fifty pounds 
was caught in the Seneca and Cayuga canal near Montezuma by 
William Ferrei and George Wildner. These are the only records 
of the sturgeon since Meek's list was published. 

3. Family Lepisosteiixe. The Gars. 

4. Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus). Long-nosed gar. 

Rare. "Occasionally, taken from the north end of the lake. 
Not as numerous as they used to be" (Meek). There are in the 
Cornell University Museum seven specimens taken at the south end 
of the lake as follows : 

June 17, 1877, in the lower course of Fall Creek. 

June 13, 1894, from shallow water at the head of the lake. 

June 8, 1896, in Fall creek about one half of a mile from the 

March 26, 1899, from the lake near Ithaca. 

April 17, 1899, from the lake near Ithaca. 

May 28, 1900, from shallow water at the head of the lake. 

August 12, 1908, from the lake near Ithaca. Most of the speci- 
mens taken here are small, still showing the dark lateral band. 



4. Family Amiidje. The Bowfins. 

5. Amiatus calva (Linnaeus). Bowfin. 

Abundant. Meek recorded this species as " seldom taken near 
Ithaca " and " not common at the north end of the lake." During 
recent years the bowfin has increased so rapidly in numbers that it 
has become a serious pest. In shallow water during the month of 
August hundreds may be seen in rowing a quarter of a mile. Foster 
Parker, of Union Springs, reports that he has repeatedly seen them 
capture and swallow the young of marsh birds. 


5. Family Silurid;E. The Catfishes. 

6. Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). Spotted catfish. 

Rare. Only two specimens have been recorded; one eleven 
inches long was taken on hook and line near the mouth of the inlet 
by Mrs. R. J. Ashdown July 10, 1902 ; the other, ten inches long, was 
taken in the same locality August 25, 1908. 

7. Ameiurus natalis (Le Sueur). Yellow cat. 

There is one specimen (No. 888) in the collection of Cornell 
University taken from the lake September 27, 1877. This is prob- 
ably the specimen referred to in Meek's list : " I have seen but one 
specimen of this species from the lake. It was taken a few years 

8. Ameiurus vulgaris (Thompson). Long-jawed cat. 

The collection of Cornell University contains two specimens of 
this species taken from the lake; one November 7, 1885, the other 
February 16, 1886. 

9. Ameiurus nebulosus (Le Sueur). Common bullhe&d. 

Abundant in the lake and all of its tributaries. In the larger 
streams it is found above the falls. 

10. Schilbeodes gyrinus (Mitchill). Tadpole cat. 

Common throughout the lake along muddy shores and in the 
streams, below falls, over a muddy bottom. 




6. Family Catostomid^e. The Suckers. 

ii. Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede). Common white sucker. 
Abundant throughout the basin both above and below falls. 

12. Catostomus nigricans Le Sueur. Hog sucker. 

There is a specimen in the U. S. National Museum from Cayuga 
lake. Mr. Richard Rathbun writes: "The specimen is among the 
Museum's earliest collections and is not accompanied by complete 

13. Erimyzon sucetta oblongus (Mitchill). Chub sucker. 

This species occurs throughout the lake although much more 
abundant at the north end. 

14. Moxostoma aureolum (Le Sueur). Red horse. 

Common at the north end of the lake and taken occasionally at 
the south end. Meek recorded this species as M. tnacrolepidotum. 
Specimens recently taken and the specimen in the collection of Cor- 
nell University are all clearly aureolum. 

7. Family Cyprinid^. The Minnows. 

15. Chrosomus erythrogaster (Rafinesque). Red-bellied dace. 
One specimen taken July 13, 1901, by T. L. Hankinson near 

Ithaca in a cold brook which is tributary to Fall Creek. 

16. Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque). Blunt-nosed minnow. 
Abundant at both ends of the lake and in the sluggish portions 

of the streams below the falls. 

17. Semotilus bullaris (Rafinesque). Fall fish. 

Two specimens have been recorded. One taken from the lake, 
January 24, 1891, and another from Beaver Brook near McLean 
May 21, 1902. 

18. Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill). Creek chub. 

Found throughout the basin as the most common minnow. In 
the streams above falls it is the most common fish. 

19. Abramis crysoleucas (Mitchill). Roach. 

Common in all sluggish waters over a muddy bottom. It has 
not been found above falls. 

ipo9.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 395 

20. Notropis anogenus Forbes. Black-chinned minnow. 

" Quite common in the canal near Montezuma " (Meek). It has 
been taken several times in fairly large numbers at the mouth of 
Fall Creek and in the lower course of Sixmile Creek. 

21. Notropis cayuga Meek. Cayuga minnow. 

Common in the lake and the lower course of tributaries. It 
has not been found above falls. 

22. Notropis heterodon (Cope). Varying-toothed minnow. 
Common in the south end of the lake and the lower courses of 

streams where the water is sluggish. It appears to be uncommon 
at the north end of the lake. The only record we have for that 
region is twenty specimens taken in the Canoga marshes, June 24, 
1901. In 1885 J. H. Comstock and S. E. Meek took several speci- 
mens from Beaver Creek near McLean. This is the only record of 
its occurrence above the falls. 

23. Notropis blennius (Girard). Straw-colored minnow. 
Found only at the north end of the basin in sluggish water. 

24. Notropis procne (Cope). Swallow-tailed minnow. 

Not common. It has been taken several times in the lower 
courses of Sixmile and Renwick creeks. 

25. Notropis hudsonius (De Witt Clinton). Spot-tailed minnow. 
This species was found for the first time in this basin on April 

25, 1908. It was taken in large numbers with a minnow seine in a 
slough at the Needham Biological Station in the Renwick marsh. 

26. Notropis whipplii (Girard). Silverfin. 

Common in the lower courses of all the streams at the south end 
of the basin. In the fall of 1903 several specimens were taken from 
Eddy pond in Cascadilla Creek above a series of falls which aggre- 
gate about 400 feet. This is the only place where the species has 
been found above falls. Its presence here is probably to be ac- 
counted for by the following : Mr. Wilbur Genung during the sum- 
mer of 1903 stocked a mill pond, situated at the source of Casca- 
dilla Creek, with fishes taken from an ice pond on the lowlands 
near Ithaca where this species is common. Specimens of this were 
undoubtedly among other species taken and later, when the dam 


went out during a flood, found their way to Eddy pond between 
which and the site of the dam there are no falls. 

27. Notropis cornutus (Mitchill). Red fin. 
Abundant throughout the basin. 

28. Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque. Rosy minnow. 

Rare. Meek took one specimen in Sixmile Creek and a few at 
Montezuma. Two specimens were taken near the mouth of Fall 
Creek November 23, 1906, and another at the Needham Biological 
Station April 25, 1908. 

29. Notropis umbratilis lythrurus Jordan. Blood-tailed minnow. 
Meek records one specimen taken from a small stream near the 

Montezuma dry dock. 

30. Rhinichthys atronasus (Mitchill). Black-nosed dace. 
Common in the southern portion of the basin and as far north 

as Ludlowville. At present there is no evidence of its occurrence 
at the north end of the lake. It is found both above and below falls. 

31. Hybopsis kentuckiensis (Rafinesque). Horny head. 

The only record we have of this species is that of Meek: "A 
few specimens taken from Montezuma only." 

32. Exoglossum maxillingua (Le Sueur). Cut-lip minnow. 
Common. Found in all streams below falls in clear water. 

33. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. Carp (introduced). 

Abundant in the lake and in a few of the streams. This species 
was first noticed in the lake about 1889. Four or five years prior to 
this date three different persons had constructed ponds and stocked 
them with carp. One was at Newfield in a tributary to the inlet, a 
second was in a small tributary to Fall Creek six or seven miles from 
the lake and a third was at Ludlowville in a tributary of Salmon 
Creek. In 1888 all three of these ponds gave way during a heavy 
flood and in the following year carp began to be in evidence in the 
lake and have increased rapidly to the present time. 


8. Family Anguillidje. The True Eels. i 

34. Anguilla chrysypa Rafinesque. Common eel. 

Common in the lake and the larger streams and ponds. The 
largest specimen taken in the basin of which we have any record 
is one caught in the lake May 29, 1893, which measured three 
feet in length. One caught off Kidder's Ferry a few years ago is 
said to have measured five feet. 

9. Family Clvfejdm. The Herrings. 

35. Pomolobus pseudoharengus (Wilson). Alewife, saw-belly. 
One of the most abundant fishes in the lake where it has been 

known since 1872. In the spring from the first of May to the mid- 
dle of August they die in great numbers and are washed ashore. 
During the summer of 1907 dead individuals were much more 
abundant than in the three preceding years. 

Many persons in the region of Cayuga lake attribute the presence 
of the alewife here to its introduction by Seth Green who, accord- 
ing to Dr. H. M. Smith, 18 disclaimed any responsibility for their 
presence in Lake Ontario, but we* have been unable to find any 
statement concerning Cayuga Lake. Dr. T. H. Bean 14 is of the 
opinion that they have come hither of their own accord, for he 
writes : 

As to. their presence in Seneca and Cayuga lakes, New York, we have 
ground for believing that they have, of their own accord, penetrated thus far 
into the interior of New York State. Mr. Fred Mather writes that he has 
seen alewives go up the canal locks at West Troy and Professor H. L. Smith, 
of Geneva, who first noticed them in the neighborhood of Seneca Lake in 
June, 1868, states that the canal was opened at about that time and thinks that 
they might come into the New York lakes from the Chesapeake or Delaware 
Bays through Elmira and Painted Post 

* Smith, H. M., " Report on the Fisheries of Lake Ontario," Bull. U. S. 
Fish Com., 1892, p. 188. 

u Bean, T. H., " The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States/' 
Section I., Natural History of Aquatic Animals, Washington, 1884, p. 590. 
" Fishes of New York," Bull. 60, New York State Museum, p. 200. 


Mr. John Diltz, of Ithaca, for many years a fisherman, and Mr. 
E. C. Stillwell, now of Ithaca but formerly a ferryman at Kidder's 
both state that the alewife was introduced about 1872. Mr. John 
Vann tells us that they were introduced purposely as food for the 
lake trout. 

10. Family Salmonid^. The Salmons and Trouts. 

Coregonus clupeiformis (Mitchill). Common whitefish. 

" I have seen no specimens of this species from the lake of which 
it is however undoubtedly an inhabitant" (Meek). Various re- 
ports have been received of whitefish taken from the lake but we 
have never seen one that was of this species. Mr. John Vann states 
that all of the so-called whitefish brought to his notice have proved 
to be ciscoes. We do not believe that it is found here, the fact that 
it has been introduced notwithstanding. 

36. Argyrosomus osmeriformis (H. M. Smith). New York smelt 
Still taken in fairly large numbers but not as common as for- 
merly. Old fishermen tell us that it has never been abundant since 
the introduction of the alewife. Prior to that time, according to 
their statements, it was very abundant. 

37. Salmo fario Linnaeus. Brown trout (introduced). 

This species of trout is found in considerable numbers in the 
lake inlet, Enfield, Sixmile and Taughannock creeks. During the 
last season a very large specimen was caught in the reservoir in 
Sixmile Creek. 

38. Salmo irideus Gibbons. Rainbow trout (introduced). 
Fairly common in the lake inlet and its tributaries. Mr. Vann 

has seen individuals make their way up over the low falls in Enfield 

39. Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum). Lake trout. 
Common in the deeper portions of the lake. They have appar- 
ently increased in numbers within the past few years. Mr. Vann 
has observed that they follow the alewives into shallow water in 
the spring. During the late spring and summer months many in- 
dividuals, dead from lamprey wounds, are picked up from the sur- 
face of the lake. Occasionally one is found not quite dead and 
with the lamprey still clinging. 


40. Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill). Brook trout. 

Common in suitable streams throughout the lake basin. Dur- 
ing the summer of 1908 many of the younger individuals perished 
because of the long draught which dried many of the smaller streams. 

11. Family Umbrioe. The Mud Minnows. 

41. Umbra limi (Kirtland). Mud minnow. 

This species has never been taken at the south end of the lake. 
Meek took it in small numbers at Montezuma and Cayuga. 

12. Family Esocidje. The Pikes. 

42. Esox reticulatus (Le Sueur). Eastern pickerel. 

Common throughout the basin. Many individuals from this 
region approach very closely the characteristics of Esox vermicular 

43. Esox lucius Linnaeus. Northern pike. 
Common throughout the basin. 

13. Family Pceciliidje. The Killifishes. 

44. Fundulus diaphanus (Le Sueur). Gray-back. 

Abundant in the lake, marshes, flood lands and the lower courses 
of the streams. 


14. Family Gasterosteid^. The Sticklebacks. 

45. Eucalia inconstans (Kirtland). Brook stickleback. 
Common in standing water and pools both on the flats and up- 
lands above falls. 


15. Family Percopsiixs. The Trout Perches. 

46. Percopsis guttatus Agassiz. Trout Perch. 

Common. Found in the south end of the lake and the lower 
courses of the streams. At the breeding season, which occurs dur- 
ing the first two weeks in May, they are abundant in the shallow 
sloughs of the marshes. 


16. Family Atherinidje. The Silversides. 

47. Labidesthes sicculus (Cope). Brook silverside. 

"Not found near Ithaca. Several specimens taken from a 
small stream which empties into the canal a few rods south of 
Montezuma " (Meek). It is now found to be common at the south 
end of the lake over a muddy bottom along shore and in the lower 
courses of streams. 

17. Family Centrarchdxe. The Sunfishes. 

48. Pomoxis sparoides (Lacepede). Calico bass. 

Common at the south end of the lake. During the late summer 
and early fall of 1906 the young of the species was abundant in the 
lower course of Fall Creek and its tributaries. 

49. Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque). Rock bass. 
Common. The young are abundant in the lower courses of all 

streams throughout the basin. It is not found above falls except 
in Eddy pond in Cascadilla Creek where its presence is probably to 
be explained in the same way as Notropis whipplii. 

50. Apomotis cyanellus (Rafinesque). Green sunfish. 

No specimens of this species have been recorded from the lake 
basin in recent years and never from the south end. Meek found 
a few near Montezuma. 

51. Lepomis pallidus (Mitchill). Bluegill. 

Meek found it in small numbers at Montezuma. None have 
been recorded from other localities in the basin. 

52. Eupomotis gibbosus (Linnaeus). Pumpkin seed. 
Abundant throughout the basin. It spawns during the whole of 

June and first part of July. 

53. Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede. Small-mouthed black bass. 
Common. Meek recorded this species as not found by him at the 

south end of the lake where it is now common. During late sum- 
mer and early fall the young are found abundantly in the lower 
courses of the streams tributary to the lake. By the last of August 
the young vary between four and five centimeters in length and by 
December have attained a length of from six to seven centimeters. 


54. Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). Large-mouthed black bass. 
Common in the lake. Young of this species are found in sum- 
mer and fall along with those of the former species. Specimens 
obtained in the streams in December average between seven and 
eight centimeters in length. 

18. Family Percim:. The Perches. 

55. Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill). Wall-eyed pike. 
Found in the lake but not common. 

56. Stizostedion canadense (Smith) Sauger. 

Found in the lake in about the same abundance as the preceding 

57. Perca flavescdns (Mitchill). Yellow perch. 

Abundant throughout the basin. It spawns during the first of 

58. Percina caprodes zebra (Agassiz). Manitou darter. 

Rare. Two specimens have been recorded in this basin; one 
May 27, 1907, in Fall Creek near the mouth and one July 18, 1907, 
in the inlet about four miles from the lake. 

59. Boleosoma nigrum (Rafinesque). Johnny darter. 

One specimen taken in Ren wick brook on the flats April 21, 
1900, by T. L. Hankinson and C. O. Houghton. 

60. Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi (Storer). Tessellated darter. 
Common in the lake and tributaries below falls. 

61. Etheostoma flabellare Rafinesque. Fan-tailed darter. 
Common. Found in localities along with the preceding species. 

19. Family Serranim:. The Sea Basses. 

62. Roccus chrysops (Rafinesque). White bass. 

Two specimens of this species have been taken from the lake 
basin; one from the inlet April 18, 1877, and one April 15, 1896. 

20. Family CorimdE. The Sculpins. 

63. Cottus ictalops (Rafinesque). Blob. 

Common at both ends of the lake in cold water. The eggs are 


deposited in masses attached to the under side of stones where they 
are guarded by one of the parents. 15 

64. Cottus gracilis (Heckel). Miller's thumb. 
Not common but found throughout the basin. 

21. Family Gadidje. The Cods. 

65. Lota maculosa (Le Sueur). Burbot. 
Not common. Found only in deep water. 



22. Family PROTEnxdE. The Mud Puppies. 

66. Necturus maculosus Rafinesque. Mud puppy. 

Abundant in the lake and the lower courses of the inflowing 
streams. They have been taken in the inlet three miles from the lake. 

23. Family Ambystomiixe. 

67. Amby stoma punctatum (Linnaeus). Spotted salamander. 
Common throughout the basin. Depending upon the season, egg- 
laying begins the last of March or the first of April immediately 
after emerging from hibernation. The earliest date March 13, 1903. 
Transformation of the larva begins the last of July or about four 
months after the eggs are laid. From this time to the middle of Sep- 
tember transforming individuals may be found. 

24. Family Plethodontim:. 

68. Hemidactylium scutatum Tschudi. Four-toed salamander. 
Not common. The first specimens recorded were obtained near 

Ithaca in the valley of Sixmile Creek by H. W. Norris in April 1889. 
No other specimens were found in this basin until October 22, 1905, 
when twenty-one specimens were found on Larch Hill, two miles 
south of Ithaca on the east side of the inlet valley. They were all 
found under stones or about the bases of stumps in the open. 

15 Gage, S. H., " Notes on the Cayuga Lake Stargazer," The Cornell Review, 
November, 1876, p. 91. 

i909.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 403 

69. Plethodon erythronotus (Green). Red-backed salamander, gray 

Common. Found usually in dry places under stones or any 
object which will furnish cover. They appear from hibernation the 
last of March or the first of April. The earliest date upon which 
they have been recorded in the spring is March 17, 1903. The latest 
date on which they have been observed in the fall is November 1, 
1903. The eggs are deposited during June and July, under logs, 
loose bark or in decaying wood, in bunches of from seven to twelve. 
Each egg is attached by a slender cord to a common focus and the 
whole cluster is attended by the female. The young transform im- 
mediately after hatching. There is every possible gradation be- 
tween the red-backed and gray forms. 16 During the summer of 
1908 a pure red individual was found at Chautauqua, N. Y. 

70. Plethodon glutinosus (Green). Slimy salamander. 
Common but limited to certain localities. Found usually in 

moist humus, manure piles, damp moss banks and decaying vegeta- 
tion. Its breeding habits are not known. 

71. Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Green). Purple salamander. 
Common. Found in all cold springs and streams flowing 

through gorges or ravines. They remain in the larval stage for a 
period of two years, at least. The only record of transformation 
which we have obtained is a specimen 11.5 cm. long found March 14, 
1903, in which the larval characteristics have almost entirely disap- 
peared. A female taken May 12, 1906, with mature eggs in the 
ovaries and what appeared to be a larva not long after hatching 
taken from a cold brook June 29, 1901, are the only clues we have 
to the breeding habits. 

72. Spelerpes bislineatus (Green). Two-lined salamander. 
Common in and about cold swift brooks. The breeding habits 

have not been observed in this locality. 

w Reed, H. D., " A Note on the Coloration of Plethodon cinereus" Am. 
Nat, Vol. 42, 1908. 


25. Family Desmognathhme. 

73. Desmognathus fusca (Rafinesque). Dusky salamander. 

One of the most abundant salamanders in the lake basin. It is 
found under most any sort of object which will furnish cover in 
wet and marshy places along the cooler streams. The maximum 
period of egg-laying is July. The eggs are laid in clusters joined 
by a slight cord to a common focus but not attached to extraneous 
objects as in the case of Plethodon erythronotus. The female at- 
tends the eggs and is found usually with the body partly encircling 
them. The larvae transform from September to December, when 
they are from 18 to 20 millimeters long. 

26. Family Pleurodelidje. 

74. Diemictylus viridescens Rafinesque. Vermilion-spotted newt. 
The most abundant salamander found in the lake basin. The 

adult is found in every pool, pond, ditch and stretch of standing 
water. Individuals in the red land stage are common on the woods 
under dead leaves and decaying bark and wood. The eggs are de- 
posited singly upon the leaves of aquatic plants from April to June. 
Larvae begin to transform to the red land stage in August, continuing 
until September. Some individuals pass the winter in the larval 
stage. After two and one half or three years the red land form 
assumes a viridescent coloration and becomes permanently aquatic. 17 

27. Family Bufonidje. The Toads. 

75. Bufo americanus Le Conte. American toad. 

Abundant. The average date of emergence from hibernation is 
April 15. The earliest recorded date is March 19, 1903. They 
proceed immediately to the water where the eggs are deposited. The 
maximum period of egg-laying is between April 20 and May 30, 
although stragglers continue to spawn until July. The larval period 
lasts for about sixty days, the tadpoles beginning to transform about 
the last of June. The latest fall record for this species is October 
20, 1906. 

,T See Gage, S. H., "Life-history of the Vermilion-spotted Newt," Am. 
Nat, 1891, p. 1084. 


28. Family Hyuixx. The Tree Frogs. 

76. Hyla versicolor Le Conte. Common tree toad. 

Abundant. It appears from hibernation the last of April or very 
first of May. The eggs are laid the first of June in bunches of 
from four to twenty-five, which float at the surface either attached 
to vegetation or free. Transformation begins the first of August 
making the larval period of from fifty to sixty days duration. The 
latest fall record for this species is October 25, 1905. 

77. Hyla pickeringii (Holbrook). Peeper. 

Abundant. It emerges from hibernation the last of March. The 
height of the egg-laying season is April although individuals are 
found depositing their eggs as early as the last of March. The eggs 
are attached singly to vegetation beneath the surface of the water. 
Sometimes they are found in bunches of from four to twelve. 
Transformation begins the middle of July at the end of a larval 
period of from 90 to 100 days duration. The latest fall record is 
October 30, 1901. 

29. Family Ranid^e. The Frogs. 

78. Rana pipiens Schreber. Leopard frog. 

The most abundant anuran throughout the basin. They come 
out from hibernation the last of March or the first of April. The 
eggs are seldom deposited before April 10 from which date active 
spawning continues for about four weeks. The tadpoles begin to 
transform the middle of July, about 100 days after the eggs are laid. 
The latest fall record is November 18, 1906. 

79. Rana palustris Le Conte. Pickerel frog. 

Common. The average date of its appearance in the spring is 
April 13. In some seasons it has been found to emerge the last of 
March. The eggs are deposited in bunches attached to submerged 
twigs and grasses. As a rule egg-laying does not begin until the 
last of April. They may be distinguished from the eggs of other 
frogs. of this region by their decided yellow color. The tadpoles 
transform the last of July, about 90 days after the eggs are deposited. 
The latest fall record for the species is November 1, 1902. 


80. Rana clamata Daudin. Green frog. 

Common. It appears from hibernation the middle of April. 
The eggs are not laid until the first of June, through this month, 
July and a part of August. The eggs are deposited in a frothy 
film which floats at the surface of the water. The larval period is of 
about thirteen months duration transformation beginning the middle 
of the July of the following year in which the eggs are laid. The 
latest fall record is November 1, 1902. 

81. Rana catesbeiana Shaw. Bull frog. 

Common. This is the last one of the frogs to emerge from hiber- 
nation, never appearing before the middle of May. The eggs are 
laid the last of June and the first of July in an irregular sheet or 
film attached to sticks or twigs near the surface of the water. The 
larval stage lasts for a period of two years, the tadpoles transform- 
ing in July and August of the second year following hatching. 

82. Rana sylvatica Le Conte. Wood frog. 

Common. It appears in the spring, the last of March or the first 
of April. Egg-laying begins almost immediately. The young trans- 
form the last of June about 90 days after the eggs are laid. The 
latest fall record is November 1, 1906. 



30. Family Colubrhwe. The Harmless Snakes. 

83. Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus). Ring-necked snake. 
Common. The earliest date upon which it has been observed in 

the spring is April 19, 1900. The latest fall date is October 16, 1905. 

84. Liopeltis vernalis (Harlan). Smooth green snake. 

Not common. De Kay, however, records it as common at the 
north end of the lake in the marshes. The latest fall record is Octo- 
ber 20, 1906. 

85. Bascanion constrictor (Linnaeus). Black snake. 

Formerly common. Now confined to the region about New- 
field and Danby in the southern portion of the basin. 


86. Coluber obsoletus obsoletus Say. Racer. 

Rare. Only four specimens recorded for the basin. Two of 
these were taken June 14, 1883, one during the summer of 1889 
and the fourth, a specimen five feet long, was captured alive at New- 
field in August, 1899. 

87. Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus (Boie). Milk snake. 
Common throughout the basin. 

88. Lampropeltis doliatus collaris (Cope). 

One specimen taken June 16, 1903. So far as we know this is 
the first record of this variety for the state. The specimen agrees 
with Cope's figure and description and with a specimen of collaris 
taken at Danville, 111. 

89. Natrix sipedon (Linnaeus). Water snake. 

Abundant throughout the basin, especially in the marshes where 
on clear days they are found coiled on stools of dead sedges. 

90. Storeria occipitomaculata (Storer). Red-bellied snake. 
Common throughout the basin under logs, pieces of bark and 

dead leaves along hillsides and dry places. In the fall they are seen 
in the open upon lawns, roads and walks. The earliest spring 
record is March 18, 1903. The latest fall record is October 21, 1906. 

91. Thamnophis saurita (Linnaeus). Ribbon snake. 

Common, especially in the lowlands and moist meadows. The 
earliest spring record is March 19, 1905. The latest they have been 
seen in the fall is October 30, 1901. 

92. Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linnaeus). Striped garter snake. 
This is the most abundant snake in the basin. They appear in 

the spring about the first of April and are abroad until the last of 

31. Family CROTALnxE. The Pit Vipers. 

93. Crotalus horridus Linnaeus. Common rattlesnake. 
Formerly abundant. They are still met with about McLean. 


32. Family Scincedje. The Skinks. 

94. Leiolopisma laterale (Say). Ground lizard. 

One specimen (No. 3550) taken at Caroline April 23, 1892, by 
W. J. Terry and L. A. Fuertes. 

33. Family Trionychidje. The Soft-shelled Turtles. 

95. Aspidonectes spinifer (Le Sueur). Common soft-shelled turtle. 
Common at the north end of the lake. A few specimens have 

been taken at the south end. 

34. Family Chelydrios:. The Snapping Turtles. 

96. Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus). Snapping turtle. 
Common. Found in all marshy places. The earliest spring 

record is April 13, 1906. The eggs hatch the first of October. On 
October 3, 1883, twenty-four specimens were found that had just 
hatched. A few were still in the nest but the larger number were 
in line moving towards water. 

35. Family Kinosternim:. The Musk Turtles. 

97. Terrapene odorata (Latreille). Musk turtle. 

Common in the Seneca river and marshes about Montezuma 
where it was first found by A. A. Allen and J. T. Lloyd, September 

24, 1908. 

36. Family Emydidje. The Pond Turtles. 

98. Chrysemys marginata (Agassiz). Agassiz' painted turtle. 
Abundant throughout the basin. On January 25, 1906, a single 

individual was observed swimming under the ice on a pond near Ithaca. 
The same day 150 were taken by fishermen at the head of the lake. 
This early emergence from hibernation was due to the extremely 
mild winter up to that date and the unusually warm week of January 

25. On the same date this species was observed along the southern 
shore of Lake Ontario. 

i909.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 409 

99. Clemmys muhlenbergii (Schoepff). Muhlenberg's tortoise. 
For the present this species must be considered rare. Thus far 

only three specimens have been taken; one on June 15, 1877, near 
Ithaca, and two at Junius, May 26, 1906. The specimen taken near 
Ithaca was kept alive for a time and on July 20 deposited eggs in 
the sand of the terrarium. 

100. Clemmys insculpta (Le Conte). Wood tortoise. 
Common throughout the basin in wooded regions along water 


101. Clemmys guttata (Schneider). Spotted turtle. 

The only records of this species are from Junius in the extreme 
northwestern portion of the basin where it is common. 

E. Class AVES. 

XXIII. Order PYGOPODES. The Diving Birds. 

37. Family Colymbitxe. The Grebes. 

102 (2). 18 Colymbus holboelli (Reinhardt). Holboeirs grebe. 
Not an uncommon transient during April and November. A 

few are found regularly in winter. The latest spring record for 
this species in the basin is May 25, 1907. They are seldom taken at 
the south end of the lake. 

10 3 (3)* Colymbus auritus Linnaeus. Horned grebe. 

Common transient from April 1 to May 10 and occasionally 
taken in winter. In the spring they become common about the mid- 
dle of April and all have disappeared by May 10. They appear in 
the fall the first of October, gradually increasing in numbers until 
November throughout which they are common. 

104 (6). Tachybaptus podiceps (Linnaeus). Pied-billed grebe. 

A common transient and an uncommon but regular summer resi- 
dent in the marshes at the north end of the lake. In the spring they 
appear April 1 and are common throughout the month. In the fall 
they become common the first of October and continue so until Nov- 
ember 1. The latest fall record is a young female taken Novem- 

" The number of the species in " Check-list of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union." 



ber 15, 1897. In a collection of birds made at Ithaca about fifty 
years ago are several immature specimens ranging in size from just 
hatched to birds two-thirds grown. In the spring of 1909 a nest 
was found in the Renwick marshes. 

38. Family GAViiDiE. The Loons. 

10 5 (7)- Gaviaimmer (Briinnich). Common loon. 

Common transient. They appear in the spring from April 14 to 
May 20, being the most common the very last of April. On April 
28, 1908, Mr. L. A. Fuertes reported a flock of 50 off the mouth of 
Taughannock Creek. All of our fall records of this species occur 
between October 29 and November 29. Audubon mentions this 
species as breeding on Cayuga Lake in 1824. 

106 (11). Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan). Red-throated loon. 
Rare. There is a specimen of a male in the collection of Cornell 

University taken on Cayuga Lake at Ithaca, November 4, 1875, by 
Dr. M. J. Roberts. Another specimen was taken at Sheldrake a few 
years ago by Jacob Cram. It was identified by L. A. Fuertes, who 
states that it was probably killed in November, 1889. 

39. Family Alcidm. The Auks. 

107 (31). Uria lomvia (Linnaeus). Briinnich's murre. 
Occasionally seen in recent years. " The first record for Cayuga 

Lake was a specimen reported in 1854 by William Hopkins of Au- 
burn. 19 On December 14, 18195, a specimen was shot and is now in 
the possession of H. G. Wilson, of Ithaca. On December 16 of the 
same year two more specimens were killed. According to our 
records they did not appear again until the fall of 1899 when in Nov- 
ember a female was obtained. Eaton 20 mentions them as on " Cay- 
uga Lake, winter of 1899." The next record was a specimen taken 
at Ithaca December 19, 1901 by T. L. Hankinson. Since that date 
we have no knowledge of this species on the lake. 

* Hopkins, William, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, Vol. V., p. 13, July, 1854. 
" Eaton, E. H., " Birds of Western New York," Proc. Rochester Acad. 
Sci., Vol. IV., pp. 1-164. 

1909.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 411 

XXIV. Order LONGIPENNES. The Long-winged Swimmers. 
40. Family Larid^e. The Gulls and Terns. 

108 (40). Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus). Kittiwake. 

A specimen was reported by William Hopkins in 1854. 

109 (43). Lams leucopterus Faber. Iceland gull. 

A specimen was taken on Cayuga Lake by L. A. Fuertes during 
the winter of 1896-7 and another was brought in by a fisherman 
March 17, 1897. 

no (51). Lams argentatus Pontoppidan. Herring gull. 

Common winter resident. It is abundant during the spring and 
fall. They appear in the fall the first of September and leave in 
the spring about May 25 the latest record being June 2, 1906. 

in (54). Lams delawarensis Ord. Ring-billed gull. 

Foster Parker, of Cayuga, has a specimen taken on the lake a few 
years ago. 

112 (60). Lams Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte's gull. 
Transient. Common in spring, rare in fall. It is found in the 

spring from April 20 to May 25 and is usually common during that 
period. On June 14, 1908, a flock of eleven individuals was reported 
at the south end of the lake and on July 24 of the same year L. A. 
Fuertes reported a single individual from Cayuga at the north end of 
the lake. In the fall this species is found occasionally in October 
and November. 

113 (62). Xema sabinei (Sabine). Fork-tailed gull. 

One specimen taken at the north end of the lake about 1887 by 
Foster Parker. It is now in the collection of E. H. Eaton. 

114 (70). Sterna hirundo Linnaeus. Common tern. 

Regular, though not common, transient through May and the 
first of June. Mr. L. A. Fuertes reports a specimen the latter part 
of April 1898 and two adults near the mouth of Fall Creek at Ithaca, 
July 6, 1908. The only fall record of this species is a single indi- 
vidual reported by L. A. Fuertes the last of August, 1907. 


115 (74). Sterna antillarum (Lesson). Least tern. 

Mr. F. R. Rathbun 21 recorded two specimens taken on Cayuga 

116 (77). Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis (Gmelin). Black tern. 
Not an uncommon spring migrant during the last half of April 

and the first of May. Foster Parker has found them nesting on old 
musk rat houses in the Cayuga marshes. L. A. Fuertes took a speci- 
men August 28, 1900, at Ithaca, and reported three others seen at the 
same time. 

XXV. Order TUBINARES. The Tube-nosed Swimmers. 
41. Family Procellariid^:. Shearwaters and Petrels. 

117 (98). <Xstrelata hasitata (Kuhl). Black-capped petrel. 
There was a specimen in the collection of L. S. Foster, number 

759, taken in Cayuga Co., early in September, 1893. 

XXVI. Order STEGANOPODES. The Totipalmate Birds. 
42. Family PHALACROCORAODiE. The Cormorants. 

118 (119). Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus). Common cormorant. 
A specimen was reported by William Hopkins as taken by him at 


119 (120). Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson). Double-crested cor- 

Rare. An adult male was taken November 16, 1875, by Dr. J. M. 
Roberts. A second specimen was taken September 29, 1905, at Au- 
rora, N. Y., and is now in the collection of Wells College. An im- 
mature specimen was obtained at Ithaca, August 2, 1906, by L. A. 

43. Family Pelecanid^e. The Pelicans. 

120 (125). Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. White pelican. 
There are two records of this species for Cayuga Lake. A 

specimen was obtained by Mr. Cave in 1876, concerning which Mr. 
J. W. Beal 22 writes as follows : 

n Rathbun, Frank R., " A Revised List of the Birds of Central New York," 
p. 41, Auburn, N. Y. 

* Beal, J. W., American Naturalist, Vol. I. (1867), p. 323. 


Sometime during the spring of 1864, near a marsh on Cayuga Lake, two 
large birds were seen for several weeks, but one of them left a few days 
before the other was killed. None of the hunters had ever seen anything of 
the kind about here before. It proved to be a specimen of the white or 
rough-billed pelican (Peleconus erythrorhynchus Gmelin), in good condition, 
and its wings measured fully eight feet from tip to tip. 

In the late summer about 1888 Foster Parker killed a specimen which 
is now in the New York State Museum. 

XXVII. Order ANSERES. Lamellirostral Swimmers. 
44. Family Anatitx£. The Ducks and Geese. 

121 (129). Hergus americanus Cassin. Merganser. 

Common winter resident from the middle of October to the last 
of April. The latest spring record is April 27, 1907, upon which 
date they were still common. 

122 (130). Hergus serrator Linnaeus. Red-breasted merganser. 
Common transient and found in small numbers during the winter. 

It is not common after April 25 and the latest date upon which they 
have been recorded in the spring is May 25, 1907. 

1 23 ( 1 3 1 ) . Lophodytes cucullatus ( Linnaeus ) . Hooded merganser. 
Common transient from the last of March to the last of April. 

Foster Parker reports it as breeding occasionally in the Montezuma 
marshes. In the fall individuals are common from the middle of 
October to the middle of November. 

124 (132). Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus. Mallard. 

Common transient during March and April and again in October. 
It is sometimes found in winter and Foster Parker reports it as 
breeding in the marshes at the north end of the lake. They first 
appear in the fall about the middle of September and remain as late 
as the last of November but are most common in October. 

125 (133). Anas nibripes tristis Brewster. Black duck. 
Common transient and regular but not common in winter. It 

breeds regularly and in fair numbers in the Canoga and Montezuma 


126 (135). Chaulelasmus streperus (Linnaeus). Gadwall. 
Common transient the latter part of March and the entire month 

of April. They appear in the fall the last of September and remain 
until the very last of October. The latest fall record is a male 
killed November 20 at Cayuga. This species is not common at the 
south end of the lake. 

127 (136). Hareca penelope (Linnaeus). European Widgeon. 
Mr. F. S. Wright of Auburn has a specimen killed on Cayuga 

lake in the spring of 188 1. It is an adult male in full plumage. 
Foster Parker reports that several have been killed at Cayuga. 

128 (137). Hareca americana (Gmelin). Baldpate. 

Common transient from March 23 to April 26, the bounding 
dates of our records. In the fall they appear during the last week 
of September and remain until the first of November. The latest 
date upon which they have been recorded in any numbers is October 
22, 1905. 

129 (138). Nettion crecca (Linnaeus). European teal. 
Accidental. A male was shot by Will Canfield at Cayuga, April 

10, 1902. The specimen was identified by E. H. Eaton. 

J 3° ( I 39)- Nettion carolinensis (Gmelin). Green-winged teal. 

Common transient during April and October. Arrivals are to be 
noted the last of September but it is most common during October. 
This species is very rarely found in winter. 

131 (140). Querquedula discors (Linnaeus). Blue-winged teal. 
Common transient during April and in the fall during the last 

half of September and throughout October. It formerly bred in 
fairly large numbers in the marshes at the north end of the lake. 

132 (142). Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). Shoveller. 

Common transient. It is not often found at the south end of the 

*33 043)- Dafila acuta (Linnaeus). Pintail. 

Transient during the last of March and the first of April and in 
the fall during October and the first half of November. 


134 (144). Aix sponsa (Linnaeus). Wood duck. 

Summer resident but not as common as formerly. It still breeds 
in small numbers at Cayuga. During the summer of 1907 a pair 
nested in the woods of the Renwick marshes at Ithaca. 

135 (146). Harila americana (Eyton). Red head. 

Common transient and regularly present in winter. In the spring 
it is common from the middle of March throughout April. In the 
fall it is found during October and November. 

136 (147). Marila vallisneria (Wilson). Canvas-back. 
Common transient and a regular winter visitant in smaller num- 
bers from the middle of November to the last of March. 

137 (148). Harila marila (Linnaeus). American scaup duck. 
Winter resident from the first of October to the very last of 

April. It is more common during migration. 

138 (149). Marila affinis (Eyton). Lesser scaup duck. 
Common transient. A few are occasionally found in winter. 

They arrive in the fall the first of October and remain until the 
middle of November. In the spring they are to be found from 
April 1 to June 24, the latest date. 

139 (150). Harila collaris (Donovon). Ring-necked duck. 
Usually a rare transient. Foster Parker reports it as common 

during the spring of 1905 at the north end of the lake. 

140 (151). Clangula clangula americana (Bonaparte). Golden-eye. 
Common winter resident from November 1 to April 1. 

141 (152). Clangula islandica (Gmelin). Barrow's golden-eye. 
Rare. One specimen, an adult female, taken at Cayuga by L. A. 

Fuertes, December 20, 1906. (Coll. of L. A. F., no. 1523.) 

142 (153). Charitonetta albeola (Linnaeus). Buffle-hea*d. 
Common transient. It appears in the spring from the middle of 

April to the last of May. In the fall arrivals from the north appear 
usually the second week in October and remain until the last of 

143 (154). Harelda hyemalis (Linnaeus). Old-squaw. 
Common transient and not uncommon in winter. They arrive 

the middle of October and remain until the first of May. 


144 (162). Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus). King eider. 

" A mounted specimen of an adult male, taken on Cayuga lake, 
is now in the barroom of the Cornell House at Trumansburg, N. Y." 
(L. A. Fuertes). On November 3, 1908, at Cayuga four individuals, 
three females and an immature, were shot from a flock of twenty. 

145 (163). Oidemia americana Swainson. Scoter. 

Common transient and uncommon winter resident. The earliest 
fall record is a specimen shot October 13, 1885. 

146 (165). Oidemia deglandi Bonaparte. White-winged scoter. 
Common winter resident from October 3 to May 1. 

147 (166). Oidemia perspicillata (Linnaeus). Surf scoter. 
Uncommon. We have no spring records of this species. The 

earliest date upon which it has been recorded in the fall is that of a 
specimen shot by L. A. Fuertes, October 13, 1906. 

148 (167). Erismatura jamaicensis (Gmelin). Ruddy duck. 
Common transient in the fall from October 1 to November 1. 

It is occasionally taken in the spring but much less common at this 

149 (169a). Chen hyperborea nivalis (Forster). Greater snow 

Two young were killed near Ithaca during the last of March, 
1876. 28 

150 (169.1). Chen caerulescens (Linnaeus). .Blue goose. 

Two specimens, male and female, were killed a few years ago on 
Cayuga Lake by Foster Parker. They are now in the New York 
State Museum. 

151 (172 y. Branta canadensis (Linnaeus). Canada goose. 
Common transient and an occasional winter resident. They are 

common in the spring from March 10 to May 7. In the fall this 
species begins to arrive from the north about October 1 and is pres- 
ent until December 1. The latest record of what appeared to be 
migrating flocks is December 9, 1907. 

n Forest and Stream, Vol. 7, p. 283. 


152 (173a). Branta bernicla glaucogastra (Brehm). Brant. 
Rare. No specimens of this species have been recorded from the 

lake basin in recent years. Foster Parker has in his possession a 
specimen shot on Cayuga Lake a few years ago. From the Auburn 
List 24 we quote the following: 

One shot on Cayuga Lake, N. Y., near the railroad bridge by Mr. Charlie 
Traverse. The same was identified by Mr. Greene Smith. — Horace Silsby, 
in Auburn Daily Bulletin of December, 1877. An adult male received from 
Cayuga Lake, November 26, 1878, which was also shot near the railroad 
bridge by Mr. David Copeman. 

153 (180). Olor columbianus (Ord). Whistling swan. 

Rare. Two specimens were shot by Foster Parker a few years 
ago and another is recorded by Fowler, Wright and Rathbun" from 
the Seneca River. On March 16, 1908, a flock of 118 individuals 
was reported from the north end of the lake. According to Father 
Raffeix swan were common on the lake in the days of the Jesuits for 
he writes: 1 * "It [Cayugal abounds in swan and geese all winter." 

XXVIII. Order HERODIONES. The Heron-like Birds. 
45. Family Ibidid)e. The Ibises. 

154 (186). Plegadis autumnalis (Hasselquist). Glossy ibis. 
William Hopkins recorded a specimen from Cayuga Lake in 

1854. There are two specimens in the possession of Foster Parker 
taken on the Seneca River in 1902. F. S. Wright shot one specimen 
and saw three others on Howland Island in May, 1902. On May 
27, 1907, two males and two females were shot at Cayuga by Foster 

46. Family Ardeidje. TJie Herons. 

x 55 OS* )- Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu). Bittern. 

Common summer resident. It nests in every marsh of any size 
throughout the basin. The average date of spring arrival is April 
15, the earliest, March 28, 1908. Nesting begins the middle of May 

""A Revised List of Birds of Central New York," collected and pre- 
pared for publication by Frank R. Rathbun, Auburn, N. Y. 

* Ornithologist and Oologist, Vol. 7, p. 133. 

* Father Raffeix, " Relations for the Year 1671-72," Quebec edition, p. 22. 


and continues for the rest of the month. Young in the nest are 
found from the first to the middle of June. They depart for the 
south the first of November. 

156 (191). Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin). Least bittern. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 15, the earliest May 9, 1908. The active period of nesting 
extends from May 20 to June 10. Young are found in the nest 
from about June 8 to June 25. We have no records of this species 
in the fall later than September 10. 

157 (194). Ardea herodias Linnaeus. Great blue heron. 
Common spring and fall transient and summer resident at Mer- 
idian, N. Y., at the north end of the basin. The average date of 
spring arrival is March 28, the earliest, March 18, 1890. In the 
fall they appear at the south end of the basin the last of July, the 
earliest record being a specimen taken July 18, 1889, by L. A. 
Fuertes. We have no records indicating that this species remains 
after November 1. 

158 (196). Herodias egretta (Gmelin). Egret. 

This species was recorded in 1854 by William Hopkins. Foster 
Parker has in his collection a specimen shot at Cayuga but without 
record or recollection of date. 

159 (201). Butorides virescens (Linnaeus). Green heron. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 2, the earliest, April 18, 1906. Nesting begins about May 
10 and continues until the middle of July. On July 11, 1906, four 
nests were found, one containing four eggs and the others, young 
birds which left the nest upon approach. This species leaves in the 
fall about the last of September, the latest record being October 2, 

160 (202). Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Boddaert). Black- 
crowned night heron. 

Never common but a regular spring and fall migrant In the 
former season our records extend from May 11 to June 2, in the 
latter from July 14 to October 29. 


XXIX. Order PALUDICOL^E. The Cranes and Rails. 

47. Family Gruid^e. The Cranes. 

161 (204). Grus americana (Linnaeus). Whooping crane. 
"Several years ago a specimen was killed on Cayuga Lake — 

Frank A. Ward" (Eaton, 1901). 

48. Family Rallim:. The Rails. 

162 (208). Rallus elegans Audubon. King rail. 

Not an uncommon summer resident in the marshes at the north 
end of the basin. There is but one record of this species at the 
south end of the lake, an adult male shot November 29, 1901. 

163 (212). Rallus virginianus Linnaeus. Virginia rail. 
Common summer resident in all the marshes throughout the 

basin. The average date of spring arrival is May 1, the earliest, 
April 24, 1904. They nest the last half of May and throughout 
June. The earliest date for nest is May 18, 1905. The latest date 
upon which nest and eggs have been found is July 9, 1906. They 
are abundant throughout September and the first half of October. 
All have usually departed by November 1. 

164 (214). Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus). Sora. 

Common summer resident throughout the basin. The average 
date of spring arrival is May 1, the earliest, April 14, 1908. About 
the middle of October this species becomes exceedingly abundant and 
usually all have left by the last of the month. The nesting period 
is the same as for the preceding species. 

165 (215). Coturnicops noveboracensis (Gmelin). Yellow rail. 
Mr. F. S. Wright, of Auburn, reports that two or three have 

been taken at the north end of the lake. One of them was a male 
shot at Meridian, N. Y., in 1897. 

166 (219). Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein). Florida gallinule. 
Fairly common summer resident in the marshes at the north end 

of the lake where it arrives the last of April. Ralph and Bagg 27 

* Ralph, William L., and Bagg, Egbert, " Annotated List of the Birds of 
Oneida County, N. Y., and Its Immediate Vicinity," Trans, of the Oneida 
Historical Society, Vol. III., p. 101, 1886. 


recorded this species as very common in the marshes of Seneca 
River where they bred in great numbers. In recent years it has not 
been recorded near Ithaca. E. H. Eaton informs us that C. J. 
Pennock saw a female with young in the Renwick marshes in July, 
1879. Cornell University has recently come into the possession of a 
collection of birds made near Ithaca in 1850. Among the skins is 
one of an adult male and one of a young individual in first plumage. 

167 (221). Fulica americana Gmelin. Coot. 

Common transient the last of April and the first of May and an 
occasional summer resident in the marshes at both ends of the lake. 
On May 25, 1907, a nest containing five eggs was found in the west 
marsh at Ithaca. On June 1 it contained ten eggs and on June 9, 
when it was last visited, the number was the same. During October 
this species is very common and departs usually by the last of the 

XXX. Order LIMICOLiE. The Shore Birds. 
49. Family Phalaropodim:. The Phalaropes. 

168 (222). Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus). Red phalarope. 
Rare transient visitant. William Hopkins reported a specimen 

in 1854. In the collection of Cornell University there is a specimen 
of a male killed on Cayuga Lake October 18, 1885, by E. H. Sar- 

169 (223). Lobipes lobatus (Linnaeus). Northern phalarope. 

In the collection of E. H. Eaton are two specimens, male and 
female, taken at Montezuma in 1895. In the collection of Cornell 
University is a specimen taken at Ithaca in 1850. 

170 (224). Steganopus tricolor (Vieillot). Wilson's phalarope. 
One specimen, a young individual, was obtained by L. A. Fuertes 

at Ithaca in the fall of 1892. 

49a. Family Recurvirostrioe:. The Avocets and Stilts. 

170a (225). Recurvirostra americana Gmelin. Avocet. 

One specimen (C. U. 5219) was taken at Renwick, September 
16, 1909, by Mr. A. A. Allen. 


50. Family Scolopacio-e. The Snipe. 

171 (228). Philohela minor (Gmelin). Woodcock. 

Summer resident in moist areas throughout the basin. They 
arrive in the spring the last of March and leave in the fall during 
the first two weeks of November. The woodcock is slowly in- 
creasing in numbers about Ithaca. Mr. John Vann tells us that in 
the fall of 1908 all the individuals of several localities succeeded in 
migrating without any loss from shooting. He attributes the in- 
crease partly to the growth of cover in the uplands where they are 
found during the fall. 

172 (230). Gallinago delicata (Ord). Wilson's snipe. 
Common transient between April 12 and May 20. In 1908 one 

was recorded on April 3. They are most abundant during the latter 
part of April. Our autumn records fall between September 22 and 
November 18. The downy young were found at Meridian, N. Y., 
by E. G. Taber and F. S. Wright states that it is a rare breeder in 
the marshes at Cayuga. 

173 (231). Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmelin). Dowitcher. 
There is a specimen in the collection of Foster Parker taken on 

Cayuga lake but without other data. From August 18 to 26, 1908 
Foster Parker shot one and saw five others. 

174 (233). Micropalama himantopus (Bonaparte). Stilt sandpiper. 
Foster Parker shot a specimen at Cayuga October 10, 1907, in a 

flock of red-backed sandpipers. August 25, 1908, E. H. Eaton took 
a specimen at Cayuga and two more on September 20. On Sep- 
tember 28, 1908, A. A. Allen and J. T. Lloyd shot a specimen at the 
north end of the lake. 

175 (234). Tringa canutus Linnaeus. Knot. 

Two specimens were shot at Cayuga by Foster Porker, August 
30, 1908. Mr. E. H. Eaton and Mr. L. A. Fuertes report them as 
frequently seen at Cayuga in the fall. It is altogether probable that 
this species is not an uncommon transient. 

176 (239). Pisobia maculata (Vieillot). Pectoral sandpiper. 
Common transient at the north end of the lake but rare at the 

south end. L. A. Fuertes has taken one specimen at Ithaca on each 


of the following dates: During the fall of 1892, August 13, 1899, 
and October 12, 1890. 

177 (240). Pisobia fuscicollis (Vieillot). White-rumped sandpiper. 
One specimen taken at Montezuma October 12, 1906, by L. A. 


178 (242). Pisobia minutilla (Vieillot). Least sandpiper. 
Common transient. Most common in spring from May 7 to 2j. 

The latest fall record is October 12, 1906. Regarding the time of 
first appearance in the fall we have no data. 

179 (243a). Pelidna alpina sakhalina (Vieillot). Red-backed sand- 

Common transient being most abundant in the fall during 

180 (246). Ereunetes pusillus (Linnaeus). Semipalmated sand- 

Common transient, fn the spring they are found all through 
May. In the fall they appear August 20 and leave November 1. 
They are most common during the first half of October. 

181 (248). Calidris leucophaea (Pallas). Sanderling. 
Specimens are frequently taken at both ends of the lake. It 

appears to be a fairly common transient in both spring and fall. 

182 (251). Limosa haemastica (Linnaeus). Hudsonian godwit. 
"A rare spring and autumn migrant" (Auburn List). A speci- 
men was taken at Ithaca about November 5, 1878, by C. J. Pennock 
and mounted by R. B. Hough. 

183 (254). Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin). Greater yellow-legs. 
Transient. Fairly common from April 30 to May 20. It is com- 
mon in the fall during October. 

184 (255). Totanus flavipes (Gmelin). Yellow-legs. 

Common transient from May 10 to June 1, the earliest spring 
date being April 28, 1908. It is common in the fall during October. 
The latest fall date is November 10, 1900. 

185 (256). Helodromas solitarius (Wilson). Solitary sandpiper. 
Common transient from April 28 to May 20 and July 14 to Sep- 


tember 20. The average date of spring arrival is May 1, the earliest 
date being April 28, 1905. 

186 (258). Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin). Willet. 

"A regular migrant. Three secured in the fall of 1876" (Au- 
burn List, p. 33). This species has not been recorded in recent 

187 (261). Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein). Upland plover. 
The only record of this species which we have is a pair found 

breeding by Foster Parker during the summer of 1907. In the 
Auburn List (p. 33) it is spoken of as not an uncommon summer 

188 (263). Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). Spotted sandpiper. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival is 

April 24, the earliest, April 20, 1906. The active nesting period 
is from May 20 to June 15. L. A. Fuertes reports that he has found 
nests with eggs as late as July 26 (1900). 

189 (264). Numenius americanus Bechstein. Long-billed curlew. 
" A regular but somewhat rare migrant " (" Auburn List," p. 23). 

Not recorded in recent years. 

190 (265). Numenius hudsonicus Latham. Hudsonian curlew. 
"Occurs irregularly during the migration. One specimen pre- 
served in the collection of the Phoenix Sportsman's Club at Seneca 
Falls, N. Y. ("Auburn List," p. 34). There is a specimen (C. U. 
1 158), in the collection of Cornell University taken at Union Springs 
in 1882. 

51. Family Charadriiixe. The Plovers. 

191 (270). Squatarola squatarola (Linnaeus). Black-bellied plover. 
Regular transient in the fall and occasionally in spring. On 

October 14, 1899, L. A. Fuertes shot a specimen at Ithaca which 
constitutes the only record for the south end of the basin. Mr. 
A. A. Allen and Mr. J. T. Lloyd reported it common at the north 
end of the lake on September 26, 1908. Our fall records all occur 
between September 20 and October 30. 

192 (272). Charadrius dominicus Muller. Golden plover. 

The only record of this species is a specimen taken by E. H. 
Eaton and L. A. Fuertes at Cayuga, October 29, 1907. 


193 (273). Oxyechus vociferus (Lhinaeus). Killdeer. 
Common transient and not uncommon summer resident from 

March 12 to November 15. It is most abundant in the fall. 

194 (274). JEgialitis semipalmata Bonaparte. Semipalmated 

Transient. Uncommon in the spring, fairly common in the fall 
from August 15 to September 30. 

52. Family Aphrizid^. The Turnstones. 

195 (283a). Arenaria interpres morinella (Linnaeus). Turnstone. 
Mr. L. A. Fuertes took a specimen at Ithaca June 3, 1906 and 

Foster Parker reports several taken at Cayuga. 

XXXI. Order GALLINiE. The Gallinaceous Birds. 
52a. Family Odontophorim:. The Quail. 

196 (289). Colinus virginianus (Lipnaeus). Bob-white. 
Common permanent resident. It is very scarce all along the 

eastern part of the basin. 

53. Family Tetraonim:. The Grouse. 

197 (300). Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus). Ruffed grouse. 
Common permanent resident. All of our nesting records fall 

between April 20 and May 15. 

XXXII. Order COLUMB^. The Doves. 

54. Family CoLUMBiDiE. The Pigeons. 

198 (315). Ectopistes migratorius (Linnaeus). Wild pigeon. 
Formerly abundant. None have been recorded here since 1892 

when "A few were seen in Ithaca — L. A. F." (Eaton, p. 32). 

199 (316). Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (Linnaeus). Mourn- 
ing dove. 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival is 
April 1, the earliest, March 8, 1890. Nest building has been found 
to begin as early as April 15 and eggs have been found until June 


1 8. In the Renwick marshes they nest in colonies varying from 
three or four to a dozen pairs. The nests are frequently only a few 
feet apart, built upon stumps, brush piles, logs and heaps of debris. 

XXXIII. Order RAPTORES. The Birds of Prey. 

55. Family Cathartid;e. The American vultures. 

200 (325). Cathartes aura septentrionalis (Wied). Turkey vulture. 
Mr. C. J. Hampton saw eight individuals hovering above a rank 

woodchuck on July 1, 1900, at Cosad, N. Y. One specimen was shot. 
On June 20, 1908, Mr. J. T. Lloyd reported one from the Renwick 
flats at Ithaca. 

56. Family Buteonid;e. The Hawks and Eagles. 

201 (33 1 )- Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus). Marsh hawk. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is March 27, the earliest being. March 25, 1906. They remain in 
Autumn until the last of October, the latest fall record being Octo- 
ber 28, 1908. The only nesting records of this species which we 
have are : a nest and eggs found May 27, 1904, and a nest with five 
young found June 29, 1906. 

202 (332). Accipiter velox (Wilson). Sharp-shinned hawk. 
Common summer resident and occasionally taken in winter. It 

is common from the last of March until the first of November. The 
only breeding record is a nest of young which took wing on July 16, 

2°3 (333)- Accipiter cooper! (Bonaparte). Cooper's hawk. 

Common summer resident, more abundant in the fall. The aver- 
age date of spring arrival is March 25, the earliest, March 17, 1907. 
They remain in the fall until November 1. 

204 (334). Astur atricapillus (Wilson). Goshawk. 

Uncommon winter visitant. A specimen was taken near West 
Candor, November 26, 1907, by C. S. Gridley. Mr. Fuertes reports 
that he sees one or more every winter. It is recorded in the Auburn 
List as an " uncommon winter visitor." 



205 (337)- Buteo borealis (Gmelin). Red-tailed hawk. 
Common resident species. 

206 (339). Buteo lineatus (Gmelin). Red-shouldered hawk. 
Common resident species and more common in winter than the 

preceding species. The earliest nesting date recorded is April 26, 

2°7 (343)- Buteo platypterus (Vieillot). Broad-winged hawk. 

Uncommon summer resident. The earliest spring record, March 
16, 1906. 

208 (347a). Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmelin). Rough- 
legged hawk. 

Regular but not common winter visitant from Jan. 1 to April 1. 

209 (352). Haliaetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus). Bald eagle. 

Not common permanent resident. It is more frequently seen in 
the spring and fall. It bred formerly near Crowbar point and still 
breeds in the vicinity of Union Springs. 

56a. Family Falconim:. The Falcons. 

210 (356). Falco peregrinus anatum (Bonaparte). Duck hawk. 
Rare transient during spring and fall. 

211 (357)- Falco columbarius Linnaeus. Pigeon hawk. 
Uncommon transient. 

212 (360). Falco sparverius Linnaeus. Sparrow hawk. 
Common summer resident from March 15 to November 15 and 

occasionally taken in winter. 

566. Family Pandionioe. The Fish Hawks. 

213 (364). Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin). Osprey. 
Common transient during May and October. Several are seen 

every year during the summer months but we have no evidence that 
they nest within the basin. The average date of spring arrival is 
April 12, the earliest, April 5, 1901, 1902 and 1906. Migrants begin 
to arrive in the fall about September 20. They are common from 
the last of September to the middle of October. The latest fall 
record is a female killed October 25, 1899. 

'909.1 THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 427 


57. Family ALUcoNiDiE. The Barn Owls. 

214 (365). Aluco pratincola (Bonaparte). Barn owl. 

The barn owl has been recorded within the basin at various 
intervals since 1880 at which time Foster Parker reports one taken at 
Cayuga. On December 13, 1885, one was taken at Auburn by F. J. 
Stupp. Another was taken by L. O. Asbury September 23, 1900, at 
Sennett and on December 1, 1904, a specimen was shot near South 
Danby. Mr. Samuel Tisdel, of Ithaca, has in his possession a 
mounted specimen taken near Ithaca in the fall of 1907. He states 
that during the fall of that year three others taken near Ithaca were 
brought to his shop to be mounted. On June 6, 1908, A. A. Allen 
and J. T. Lloyd saw one in the Renwick Marshes. November 27, 
1908, one was killed in Michigan Hollow in the extreme southern 
portion of the basin. There is little doubt that this species is in- 
creasing in the lake basin. 

58. Family Strigim:. The Owls. 

215 (366). Asio wilsonianus (Lesson). Long-eared owl. 
Common permanent resident. The only breeding record which 

we have is a nest containing eggs found April 9, 1905. 

216 (367). Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan). Short-eared owl. 

A resident species. Common in summer at the north end of the 
basin, uncommon in the southern portion. 

217 (368). Stryx varia Barton. Barred owl. 
Uncommon resident. 

218 (372). Cryptoglaux acadicus (Gmelin). Saw-whet owl. 
Rare. "Adult male taken July 18, 1878. Two specimens re- 
ceived, taken in Cayuga Co., April 14, 1877, and November, 1878 " 
("Auburn List," p. 27). A female was taken at Sennett January 
2 5> 1904, by Charles Lyon and one was taken at Ithaca January 16, 
1908, by A. A. Allen and J. T. Lloyd. 

219 (373). Otus asio (Linnaeus). Screech owl. 
Abundant permanent resident. 

220 (375). Bubo virginianus (Gmelin). Great horned owl. 
Uncommon permanent resident. 


221 (376). Nyctea nyctea (Linnaeus). Snowy owl. 

Irregular winter visitant. In the collection of Cornell University 
are three specimens from this basin taken as follows: winter of 
1878 at Aurora, December 12, 1890, at Covert, February 22, 1902 at 

222 (377a). Surnia ulula caparoch (Muller). Hawk owl. 

The only record of this species is a male taken by L. O. Ash- 
bury at Conquest, November 23, 1902. Two birds were seen and 
one captured. 

XXXIV. Order COCCYGES. The Cuckoo-like Birds. 
59. Family Cuculhxe. The Cuckoos. 

223 (387). Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus). Yellow-billed cuckoo. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 10, the earliest, May 6, 1905. 

224 (388). Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wilson). Black-billed 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 
is May 9, the earliest, April 24, 1904. 

60. Family Alcedinhxe. The Kingfishers. 

225 (390). Cerylealcyon (Linnaeus). Belted kingfisher. 
Common summer resident. On December 23, 1874, a female was 

taken at Ithaca and on January 15, 1905, one individual was seen 
near an open stream in the Renwick wood at Ithaca. The average 
date of spring arrival is April 4, the earliest, March 17, 1907. It is 
common in the fall until the middle of October. By the 25th of this 
month all have usually disappeared. 

XXXV. Order PICI. The Woodpeckers. 
61. Family Picim:. The Woodpeckers. 

226 (393). Dryobates villosus (Linnaeus). Hairy woodpecker. 
Common resident species. 

is**.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 429 

227 (394c). Dryobates pubescens medianus (Swainson). Downy 

Common permanent resident. The active season of nesting is 
from May 10 to June 15. The earliest record of nesting is May 6, 
1904. Our earliest record of young on the wing is June 9, 1904. 

228 (400). Picoides articus (Swainson). Arctic three-toed wood- 

An occasional winter visitant. Specimens were taken at Ithaca 
during the winter of 1895-6 and on November 1, 1901, by L. A. 
Fuertes. A female was taken October 19, 1901, at Sennett by L. O. 

229 (402). Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus). Yellow-bellied sap- 

Common transient and " reported as breeding in Cayuga, Yates 
and Oneida Counties" (Eaton). The average date of spring ar- 
rival is April 10, the earliest, March 30, 1908. They become com- 
mon the last of April and the first of May. The latest date upon 
which individuals have been seen at Ithaca is May 26, 1900. Usu- 
ally all have left by May 15. They appear in the fall from Sep- 
tember 20 to November 1. The latest fall record is one seen Nov- 
ember 27, 1908. 

230 (406). Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus). Red-headed 

Rare in winter but becomes common about May 5. The only 
nesting records which we have are eggs found June 13, 1903, and 
May 16, 1907. 

231 (409). Centurus carolinus (Linnaeus). Red-bellied wood- 

Rare. There are in the collection of Cornell University three 
specimens taken near Ithaca. One in 1850, another in 1858 and a 
third taken by L. A. Fuertes in November, 1894. Mr. G. C. Em- 
body took a female in a small swamp just north of Auburn, March 

232 (412a). Colaptes auratus luteus Bangs. Northern flicker. 
Common summer resident and occasionally present in winter. 


Migrants begin to arrive the last of March from which time it is 
common until October 20. Frequently many are seen as late as the 
first of December. 

XXXVI. Order MACROCHIRES. The Goatsuckers, Swifts and 


62. Family Caprimulgid^:. The Goatsuckers. 

233 (417). Antrostomus vociferus (Wilson). Whip-poor-will. 
Common summer resident in the basin from May 1 to September 

1. In the region about Ithaca it is very uncommon. The latest that 
it has been observed in the fall is October 7, 1907. The earliest 
spring record is April 29, 1906. 

234 (420). Chordeiles virginianus (Gmelin). Nighthawk. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 19, the earliest, May 15, 1906. 

63. Family Micropoduxe. The Swifts. 

235 (423). Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus). Chimney swift. 
Abundant summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is April 23, the earliest, April 19, 1889. Nests with eggs are found 
from May 20 to July 5. Usually all have departed in the fall by 
October 1. 

64. Family Trochiliixe. The Hummingbirds. 

236 (428). Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus). Ruby-throated hum- 

Common summer resident from May 10, the average date of 
spring arrival, to September 10. Nesting dates all fall between May 
23 and July 21. The crest of the nesting season is between June 15 
and 30. 

XXXVII. Order PASSERES. The Perching Birds. 
65. Family Tyrannim:. The Flycatchers. 

237 (444). Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus). Kingbird. 
Common summer resident. The average date o£ spring arrival is 

May 6, the earliest, May 3, 1902. They nest the very last of May 
and during June. 

'poo.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 431 

238 (452). Myiarchus crfnitus (Linnaeus). Crested flycatcher. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 4, the earliest, May 1, 1900. Nesting begins the last of May 
and lasts through June. 

239 (456). Sayornis phoebe (Latham). Phoebe. 

Abundant summer resident along the streams and lake shores. 
The average date of spring arrival is March 20, the earliest, March 
9, 1899. During the first half of October they depart for the south, 
latest record being October 19, 1902. Nesting begins April 20 and 
continues through May and June. The earliest nesting record is 
April 13, 1901. The latest date for eggs is a nest found June 21, 

240 (459). Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson). Olive-sided fly- 

Rare. A specimen was taken in Fall creek gorge by L. A. 
Fuertes May n, 1905. G. C. Embody toolc a male at the north end 
of the lake May 30, 1898. 

241 (461). Myiochanes virens (Linnaeus). Wood pewee. 
Abundant summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 13, the earliest, May 1, 1900. They nest throughout the 
month of June. 

242 (463). Empidonax flaviventris Baird. Yellow-bellied fly- 

The definite records are three specimens, two males and one 
female taken at Ithaca by R. B. Hough on May 29, 1882, and several 
taken in the vicinity of Waterloo and reported by E. H. Eaton. A 
few are reported seen each year between May 15 and June 10. 

243 (466a). Empidonax traillii alnorum Brewster. Alder fly- 

Uncommon transient and rare summer resident. The average 
date of spring arrival is May 14, the earliest, May 4, 1905. The 
yellow-bellied and the alder are the last flycatchers to arrive in the 
spring, the latter loitering along into June. In 1906 it was found 
until June 9 in the willow and alder thickets along the west side of 
the Renwick marshes. L. A. Fuertes reports it as breeding at Cay- 


uta, N. Y., just outside the Cayuga basin on the southwest A. A. 
Allen and J. T. Lloyd found a nest containing two eggs on June 16, 
1908, at Ithaca. 

244 (467). Empidonax minimus Baird. Least flycatcher. 
Abundant summer resident. The average date of spring ar- 
rival is May 4, the earliest, May 1, 1906. Abundant everywhere ex- 
cept the denser wooded areas. 

66. Family Alaudidje. The Larks. 

245 (474). Otocoris alpestris (Linnaeus). Shore lark. 

It is reported by Mr. Fuertes that the shore lark was formerly 
common in this basin. It is now replaced by the prairie horned lark. 
A few are, however, still found in winter. Mr. G. C. Embody took 
two specimens at Auburn. 

246 (474&). Otocoris alpestris praticola Henshaw. Prairie horned 

Permanent resident although not common during December and 
January. They become common about the first of February. This 
species is the first of our Passerine birds to nest On April 7, 1904, 
a nest was found at Trumansburg which contained one egg and two 
young. Dating back fourteen days, which, according to Bendire is 
the period of incubation, the eggs must have been laid not far from 
March 20 to 23. On April 20, 1902, there was taken at Ithaca a 
young individual which had just left the nest. On April 6, 1906, 
young just beginning to fly were seen. In 1907 Mr. A. A. Allen 
found on April 3 a nest containing eggs and on April 4 another 
nest in which the eggs hatched April 10. The young of this nest 
were killed by a very heavy snow storm a few days later. 

67. Family CoRvnxas. The Crows and Jays. 

247 (477). Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus). Blue jay. 

Common permanent resident. It is now rarely seen in the vicin- 
ity of Ithaca except for a short period during the spring and fall. 
It has not been known to nest in this immediate vicinity since 1889 
when a pair built in a small grove of oaks on the Cornell Campus. 


In all other portions of the basin they are fairly common. At En- 
field on May 5, 1907, A. A. Allen found a nest containing five eggs. 

248 (486a). Corvus corax principalis Ridgway. Northern raven. 
" Formerly not uncommon at the north end of the basin. The 

last reported was one, seen by Foster Parker in 1880, pursued by a 
number of crows." ( Eaton) . 

249 (488). Corvus brachyrhynchos C. L. Brehm. Crow. 
Common permanent resident. Nests containing eggs are most 

commonly found from April 10 to 20. In 1903 a nest containing 
eggs was found on April 3. The latest record of nest and eggs is 
May 16, 1900. 

68. Family IcTERiDiE. The Blackbirds and Orioles. 

250 (494). Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus). Bobolink. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 4, the earliest, April 30, 1900. By July 10 they are gathered 
in large flocks in the marshes where they remain through August 
and the first of September, at about the middle of which they depart 
for the south. 

251 (495). Molothrus ater (Boddaert). Cowbird. 

Abundant summer resident. The kverage date of spring arrival 
is March 28, the earliest, March 14, 1899. Eggs are found from 
May 5 to June 15. The maximum period of egg-laying is the last 
half of May. The phoebe, the vireps, redstart and yellow warbler 
are the most common victims of the cowbird's parasitic habits. 

252 (498). Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus). Red-winged blackbird. 
Common summer resident and found regularly in small numbers 

in the marshes during winter. Migration begins about March 10. 
The earliest record is a large flock of males in full song, seen Feb- 
ruary 22, 1902. The earliest record of nesting is May 12, 1906. 
The most active breeding period is from the middle of May to the 
first of June. Young are on the wing by June 5. During the first 
two weeks of July this species collects in large flocks in the marshes 
-where they remain until the last of November. Flocks containing 
hundreds are seen migrating all through November. So far as they 
have been observed at Ithaca they follow the inlet valley towards the 


253 (501). Sturnella magna (Linnaeus). Meadow lark. 
Common summer resident and found regularly in small num- 
bers in winter. The average date of the spring arrivals is March 
17, the earliest, March 4, 1906. They remain common until the 
last of October. 

254 (506). Icterus spurius (Linnaeus). Orchard oriole. 

Rare. On May 30, 1898, G. C. Embody took a male at Cayuga. 
On May 27, 1899, Burdett Wright found a pair nesting at Monte- 
zuma. A male was taken at Ithaca, May 3, 1890, by L. A. Fuertes. 
who saw a pair at Ithaca, June 7, 1902. A male in song was found 
May 18, 1908, in the Inlet valley just south of Ithaca and in the same 
locality A. A. Allen and J. T. Lloyd found a nest which contained 
four eggs and one young. 

255 (507). Icterus galbula (Linnaeus). Baltimore oriole. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 3, the earliest, April 30, 1900 and 1905. They nest from 
May 10 to June 1. 

256 (509). Euphagus carolinus (Miiller). Rusty blackbird. 
Common transient. It arrives usually the last days of March. The 
earliest date is March 18, 1901. It is common from April 15 to 30 
but small flocks are seen until May 15. 

2 57 (5"20* Quiscalus quiscula aeneus (Ridgway). Bronzed 

Common summer resident and occasionally found in winter. 
The average date of spring arrival is March 14, the earliest, March 
4, 1906. Nesting begins the last half of April and continues through- 
out May. By May 25 large numbers of young are on the wing ; dur- 
ing the first week in June this species begins to collect in flocks and 
resort to common roosts. 

69. Family FringillidjE. The Sparrows. 

258 (514). Hesperiphona vespertina (W. Cooper). Evening gros- 

Accidental visitant. During the winter of 1890 when it was so 
common in New England it appeared here in fairly large numbers 


from January 22, when first seen, to March 28. They were not seen 
again until April n, 1904, when L. A. Fuertes shot a pair on the 
Cornell Campus. On December 8, 1906, Mrs. A. T. Kerr reported 
one which she saw on Cornell Heights. 

259 (515). Pinicola enucleator leucura (Miiller). Pine grosbeak. 
An irregular winter and spring visitant but never common. In 

1890 it was reported by L. A. Fuertes on January 23. Since that 
date it has been recorded as follows : 1904 on January 7, April 26 
and 29 and May 5. In 1905, April 20. In 1906, March 5. 

260 (517). Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin). Purple finch. 
Common summer resident from March 22 to November 10. It 

is occasionally seen in winter. It nests during May and June. The 
latest date of nest and eggs is June 21, 1905. 

261. Passer domesticus (Linnaeus). English sparrow. 

262 (521). Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm). Red crossbill. 

An irregular visitant. Although commonly seen during March 
and April they are frequently present during late spring and sum- 
mer. In 1889 L. A. Fuertes reported them on June 16. In 1900 
T. L. Hankinson saw a flock of 30 individuals on May 30 and again 
on July 15. On August 7 of this year another flock was seen. In 
1906 a flock of ten were seen on the Cornell Campus from June 21 
to 24. In 1907 they were first seen on May 2y and continued com- 
mon until June 24. In 1908 they were seen daily from June 10 to 16. 

263 (522). Loxia leucoptera Gmelin. White-winged crossbill. 
Rare winter visitant. During the winter of 1907 this species was 

more common in the basin than in any year since records have been 
kept. Specimens were frequently taken and seen from January 5 
to the first of March. The last specimen recorded that year was one 
killed at Taughannock Falls, March 4. November 15, 1882, a fe- 
male was taken at Ithaca. L. A. Fuertes took a specimen at Ithaca, 
February 8, 1906. 

264 (528). Acanthis linaria (Linnaeus). Redpoll. 

An irregular winter visitant but usually common when present. 
There are no records of their occurrence before January in any year. 


There is a specimen of a female in the collection of Cornell Univer- 
sity taken at Ithaca in January, 1876, showing that they were present 
that winter but no notes to indicate whether or not they were com- 
mon. On January 10, 1879, a male was killed by R. B. Hough. 
They were reported by E. H. Eaton as common that winter in Cay- 
uga Co. In 1904 they were common all through January, February 
and March on the twenty-ninth of which L. A. Fuertes shot a speci- 
men from a large flock. In 1907 they were common from January 
13 to March 24. In 1909 the first individuals appeared January 5 
and were common everywhere in the southern portion of the basin 
until February 1. 

265 (529). Astragalinus tristis (Linnaeus). Goldfinch. 
Permanent resident although more or less irregular in winter. 

They become common in the spring from the tenth to the fifteenth 
of April. The breeding plumage begins to show about April 20 and 
is complete about the middle of May at which time the males are in 
full song. Nests and eggs are commonly found during July. 

266 (533). Spinus pinus (Wilson). Pine siskin. 

An uncommon winter and a common spring visitant f rom the last 
of April to the middle of May. The latest spring record is May 
30, 1907. The earliest winter record is a specimen taken January 20, 

267 (534). Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus). Snow bunting. 
Common winter resident being most common from January to 

March. In the fall they arrive the last week in October and remain 
until the middle of March. The latest date is March 26, 1890. 

268 (536). Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus). Lapland longspun 
Rare. Mr. Fred Allen took a specimen near Auburn during the 

winter of 1876 and Mr. Charles Lyon took a male near Auburn, 
March 3, 1899. 

269 (540). Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin). Vesper sparrow. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival is 

March 28, the earliest, March 23, 1903. The active breeding period 
is May and June. The earliest record of nest and eggs is April 25, 
1900, the latest, July 23, 1900. This species remains in the fall until 
the last of October. The latest fall record is November 27, 1908. 



270 (542a). Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (Wilson). Sav- 
annah sparrow. 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 
is April 6, the earliest, March 23, 1905. About July 25 this species 
begins to collect in flocks which become numerous the first of Octo- 
ber. All have left usually by the middle of the month. 

271 (546). Ammodramus savannarum australis Maynard. Grass- 
hopper sparrow. 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival is 
May 2, the earliest, April 26, 1905. 

272 (548). Passerherbulus lecontei (Audubon). Leconte's sparrow. 
One specimen was shot in the Renwick marshes by L. A. Fuertes, 

October 11, 1897. 

273 (549.1). Passerherbulus nelsoni (Allen). Nelson's sparrow. 
The numerous specimens taken since 1900 justify the conclu- 
sion that this species is a common visitant during the fall migration 
from the middle of September to the first of October. They have 
always been found in the rushes close to the water where they 
skulk and run in a fashion very suggestive of a mouse. When 
flushed they rise for a moment and disappear again much as a wren. 

274 (549.1a). Passerherbulus nelsoni subvirgatus (Dwight). Aca- 
dian sharp-tailed sparrow. 

Uncommon but regular fall visitant. It arrives the very last of 
September or first of October, about a week later than the Nelson's 
sparrow and remains for a period of from 12 to 15 days. Neither 
this nor the preceding species has ever been taken in the spring. 
The definite records are skins, which are now in the collection of L. 
A. Fuertes and that of Cornell University, taken between September 
26 and October 12. 

2 75 (554)- Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster). White-crowned 

Common transient. The average date of spring arrival is May 
4, the earliest, May 2, 1907. It remains until May 20 becoming com- 
mon from the tenth to the fifteenth of the month. It is common in 
the fall during the very last of September and the first half of Octo- 


ber. The latest record is October 28, 1908. A single individual 
was seen in the marshes at Ithaca, February 24, 1906. 

276 (558). Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). White-throated spar- 

Common transient. The average date of spring arrival is April 
17, the earliest, April 13, 1903. They become common the last week 
of April and remain until May 20. The latest record is May 23, 
1908. In the fall they appear about September 20 and are common 
throughout October. The latest record for the fall is November 
4, 1908. 

2 77 (559)- Spizella monticola (Gmelin). Tree sparrow. 
Common winter resident. They arrive October 1 and remain 

common until April 25. A few stragglers have been noted after this 
date. In 1889 L. A. Fuertes saw several on May 8. In 1904 a few 
were seen on May 2 and in 1906 the latest date was April 30. 

278 (560). Spizella passerina (Bechstein). Chipping sparrow. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is April 2, the earliest March 2j t 1907. The maximum nesting 
period is from May 15 to June 30. They remain in the fall until the 
last week in October. The latest record is November 1, 1902. 

279 (563). Spizella pusilla (Wilson). Field sparrow. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is March 30, the earliest, March 25, 1907. The nesting period ex- 
tends from May 15 to June 5. They remain in the fall until the 
very last of October. 

280 (567). Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus). Slate-colored junco. 

A common transient, uncommon winter resident and a rare sum- 
m<r resident. They become common in the fall the last week in 
September and are abundant during October. In the spring the first 
influx from the south occurs the last week in March. They remain 
abundant throughout April. The first of May there is a decided 
reduction in numbers and by May 10 the migration ceases. On 
June 21, 1878, F. H. King 28 found two individuals in the Enfield 
gorge. In 1907, each day from July 21 to 25, two individuals were 

"Bull Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. Ill, p. 195. 

*909.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 439 

seen in the same locality. A. A. Allen and J. T. Lloyd found two 
adults and three young just leaving the nest, June 19, 1908, at the 
source of Cascadilla Creek. 

281 (581). Melospiza melodia (Wilson). Song sparrow. 
Common summer resident and not uncommon in the marshes dur- 
ing winter. Migrants from the south begin to arrive about March 
10. For the remainder of the month this species is abundant. The 
nesting season extends from May 1 to July 22. A few nests have 
been found the last of April. 

282 (583). Melospiza lincolni (Audubon). Lincoln's sparrow. 

An uncommon but regular transient. It arrives the very last of 
April, the twenty-seventh being the earliest date. It is met with 
occasionally until May 15. It appears in the fall the last of Septem- 
ber or first of October. 

283 (584). Melospiza georgiana (Latham). Swamp sparrow. 
Common summer resident. It is occasionally taken in the marshes 

in winter. The average date of spring arrival is April 12, the ear- 
liest, March 29, 1904. During the second week in October there is 
a decided reduction in numbers and all have left before the last of the 

284 (585). Passerella iliaca (Merrem). Fox sparrow. 
Common transient. The average date of spring arrival is April 

15, the earliest, March 17, 1908. They are very rarely found after 
April 15, the latest being May 8, 1908. In the fall they appear the 
first week in October and are found until the first week in November. 
The latest date is November 15, 1908. 

285 (587). Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus). Towhee. 
Common transient and an uncommon but regular summer resi- 
dent. The average date of spring arrival is April 23, the earliest, 
April 18, 1905. It is found nesting in a few localities, at the south 
end of the basin, from May 25 through the larger part of June. 
Young on the wing have been seen June 19. They remain in the 
fall until October 20. 


286 (595)- Zamelodia ludoviciana (Linnaeus). Rose-breasted gros- 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 
is May 6, the earliest, April 30, 1900. Eggs have been found from 
May 16 to June 9. They remain in the fall until the last of Septem- 
ber. The latest date is October 1, 1908. 

287 (598). Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus). Indigo bunting. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 14, the earliest, May 6, 1902. Eggs have been found from 
June 7 to July 15. Usually the middle of September marks the limit 
of their stay in this basin although a few have been seen after that 
date. October 1, 1908, is the latest date. 

288 (604). Spiza americana (Gmelin). Dickcissel. 

This species nested in the town of Jamaica, Seneca Co., in 1875. 
One of the specimens taken at that time is now in the collection of 
E. H. Eaton. 

70. Family Tanagrid^:. TheTanagers. 

289 (608). Piranga erythromelas Vieillot. Scarlet tanager. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 8, the earliest, May 6, 1906. Nesting begins the last week in 
May and continues through the first half of June. A few nests with 
eggs have been found in the latter part of June and one as late as 
July 9 (1906). This species has steadily increased in numbers since 
1899. It remains in the fall until the middle of September, the 21st 
of this month constituting the latest record. 

71. Family Hirundinim;. The Swallows. 

290 (611). Progne subis ( Linnaeus ) . Purple martin. 

Rare although formerly very common. Two were seen at Ithaca 
April 26 and 27, 1905. One was seen at Taughannock Falls, June 
3, 1906. It is still found in small numbers in the northern portion 
of the basin. 

291 (612). Petrochelidon lunif rons (Say). Cliff swallow. 
Formerly a common summer resident but rapidly decreasing in 

numbers. The average date of spring arrival is April 25, the ear- 

i9<*.] THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 441 

liest, April 20, 1900 and 1905. It nests through June and departs the 
very last of August. 

292 (613). Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert. Barn swallow. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is April 19, the earliest, April 13, 1905. This species along with 
individuals of the preceding begin to collect in large flocks in the 
marshes about July 15. The latest fall record is September 26, 

293 (614). Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot). Tree swallow. 
Common summer resident and abundant during migration. The 

average date of spring arrival is April 2, the earliest, March 23, 1907. 
Nests with eggs have been found from May 8 to June 15. It be- 
comes abundant the last of September, suddenly disappearing about 
October 15. In 1906 large flocks were common until October 13. 
In 1907 numerous flocks were seen until October 12. 

294 (616). Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). Bank swallow. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is April 25, the earliest, April 14, 1906. Nesting begins May 10 and 
lasts until June 15. The nests are found usually in gravelly or sandy 
banks. The larger proportion of individuals leave during the first 
week in September. Our latest record- is September 26, 1908, 

295 (617). Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon). Rough-winged 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival is 
April 26, the earliest, April 22, 1906. Nests and eggs have been 
found from May 10 to June 10. This species is not so partial to 
sand and gravel banks as the preceding. They are often found nest- 
ing in shale banks along the lake shore, in the crevices of rocks in the 
gorges and in banks of loose earth. Frequently we find them nest- 
ing in isolated pairs and always the colonies are smaller than those 
of the Bank Swallow. As a rule all have left by September 10. 
The latest date is a specimen taken September 26, 1908. 

72. Family Bombycillhxe. The Waxwings. 

296 (619). Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot. Cedar waxwing. 
Common summer resident and frequently seen in small flocks 



during winter. They are more or less irregular at all seasons ex- 
cept mid-summer. Nests with eggs have been found from June 15 
to August 8. 

73. Family Laniid^. The Shrikes. 

297 (621). Lanius borealis Vieillot. Northern shrike. 
Occasional winter visitant, most often seen in January and Feb- 
ruary. The earliest record of this species in the fall is November 
8, 1875, and November 25, 1908. The latest spring record is Feb- 
ruary 24, 1905. 

298 (6221). Lanius ludovicianus migrans W. Palmer. Northern 
loggerhead shrike. 

An uncommon but regular spring migrant. The average date of 
arrival is March 24, the earliest, March 17, 1907. The latest date 
upon which it has been seen is May 24, 1904. " A nest with six eggs 
was found at Ithaca in May, 1877, by A. R. Ingersoll" (C. J. Pen- 

74. Family Vireonim;. The Vireos. 

299 (624). Vireosylva olivacea (Linnaeus). Red-eyed vireo. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is May 5, the earliest, April 30, 1906. The nesting season extends 
from May 30 to July 1. It remains in the fall until the last week 
in September. 

300 (626). Vireosylva philadelphica Cassin. Philadelphia vireo. 
Rare. Three specimens have been taken within the basin as 

follows: a male May 16, 1906, and a female September 21, 1907, 
both in the collection of L. A. Fuertes, and a specimen, taken Octo- 
ber 1, 1908, in the collection of Cornell University. 

301 (627). Vireosylva gilva (Vieillot). Warbling vireo. 
Common summer resident. The average date of arrival in spring 

is May 2, the earliest, April 27, 1908. Nests with eggs are found 
from May 12 to June 10. It departs in the fall about the middle of 
September. An individual seen on September 19, 1908, is the latest 

302 (628). Lanivireo flavif rons (Vieillot). Yellow-throated vireo. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 


is May 3, the earliest, April 30, 1905 and 1906. Nesting begins 
May 20 and lasts until June 15. This species is seldom seen after 
the first week in September. L. A. Fuertes shot a specimen Septem- 
ber 26, 1889. 

303 (629). Lanivireo solitarius (Wilson). Blue-headed vireo. 
Common transient and a rare summer resident. The average 

date of arrival is May 4, the earliest, April 25, 1906. It is not com- 
mon after May 15 but a few have been seen between this date and 
May 28. In 1893 L. A. Fuertes found a pair breeding in the Casca- 
dilla Woods near Ithaca. In the fall it is found throughout Septem- 
ber. The latest fall date is October 6, 1907. 

75. Family Mniotiltid^. The Wood Warblers. 

304 (635). Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus). Black and white warbler. 
Common transient and occasionally found breeding. The aver- 
age date of spring arrival is April 30, the earliest, April 26, 1905. 
The bulk of migrants have passed by May 18. On June 13, 1902, 
T. L. Hankinson found a nest containing five young at North Spen- 
cer, about a mile outside the lake basin on the south. June 19, 1908 
A. A. Allen found young just taking wing near the source of Casca- 
dilla Creek. L. A. Fuertes reports it as breeding on Snyder HilL 
Migrants are common in the fall from July 13 to September 1. 

304a (639). Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin). Worm-eating 


The only record of this species in the basin is an adult male taken 
by A. A. Allen, May 6, 1909, at Ithaca. 

305 (642). Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus). Golden-winged 

Mr. F. S. Wright, of Auburn, has taken specimens at the north 
end of the basin as follows: June 6, 1883, an adult male on How- 
land Island; May 13, 1898, an adult male at Sennett, N. Y.; May 
25, 1901, an adult male on Howland Island; May 5, 1902, an adult 
male on Howland Island. Two other specimens have been taken in 
that vicinity but we do not have the data. 


306 (645). Vermivora rubricapilla (Wilson). Nashville warbler. 
Common transient. A few breed on South Hill near Ithaca. 

The average date of spring arrival is May 3, the earliest April 28, 
1908. The migration is over by May 20. On May 27, 1905, a nest 
with five eggs was found on South Hill and on June 6, 1906, in the 
same locality a nest containing five young. The latest fall date is 
September 19, 1908, when it was still common. 

307 (646). Vermivora celata (Say). Orange-crowned warbler. 
Rare. An adult male was taken May 17, 1900, near Auburn by 

Charles v Lyon. On October 6, 1907, a specimen was taken at Ithaca 
by L. A. Fuertes. There are two specimens in the collection of 
Cornell University taken at Ithaca, one October 6, 1907, the other, 
October 12 of the same year. On May 11, 1909, Mr. A. A. Allen 
killed an adult male at Ithaca and on May 12 saw four more. 

308 (647). Vermivora peregrina (Wilson). Tennessee warbler. 
Common transient. The average date of spring arrival is May 

15, the earliest, May 10, 1908. It is not found after May 30. 

309 (648a). Compsothlypis americana usneae Brewster. Northern 
parula warbler. 

Common transient. The average date of arrival in spring is May 
6, the earliest, April 30, 1905. It has been found breeding on the 
Cornell University Campus and on South Hill. The latest fall date 
is Ofctober 1, 1900. 

310 (650). Dendroica tigrina (Gmelin). Cape May warbler. 
Common transient. The average date of arrival in spring is 

May 13, the earliest, May 10, 1899. The migration of this species 
lasts for a few days only. None have been noted later than May 
20 but very frequently are common up to this date. 

311 (652). Dendroica aestiva (Gmelin. Yellow warbler. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is April 28, the earliest, April 25, 1908. It nests from May 13 to 
June 1. The latest date on which it has been noted in the fall is 
September 21. 


312 (654). Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin). Black-throated blue 

Common transient. It breeds regularly in small numbers on 
South and Snyder hills. The average date of spring arrival is May 
3, the earliest, April 29, 1905. Nesting continues through June and 
the first half of July. The latest record in this connection is a nest, 
found on August 11, which the young were just leaving. This spe- 
cies is found in the fall until the middle of October. 

313 (655). Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus). Myrtle warbler. 
Common transient. The average date of arrival in spring is 

April 22, the earliest, April 14, 1904. The migration of this species 
ceases usually about May 15. After this date only a straggler is 
seen. The latest record is May 21, 1904. The fall migration be- 
gins the middle of September, becoming common about the first of 
October. From the middle of this month they gradually diminish in 
numbers finally disappearing about October 20. The latest fall 
record is October 28, 1908. 

314 (657). Dendroica magnolia (Wilson). Magnolia warbler. 
Common transient. A few breed regularly in the southern por- 
tion of the basin. The average date of spring arrival is May 6, the 
earliest, April 27, 1902. Migrants remain in the basin as late as May 
30. On July 8, 1906, A. A. Allen found, on South Hill, a nest con- 
taining eggs. The young left this nest on July 14. In the vicinity 
of South Hill this species has been seen on the following dates : 1905, 
June 4; 1906, June 7, July 30, August 1 ; 1907, July 22, two imma- 
ture birds. On May 30, 1909, a nest containing two eggs was found 
on the hills near Michigan Hollow in the southern portion of the 

315 (658). Dendroica caerulea {Wilson). Cerulean warbler. 
Uncommon but regular transient. It breeds on Howland Island 

at the north end of the lake. The average date of spring arrival 
is May 10, the earliest, May 2, 1902. 

316 (659). Dendroica pennsylvanica (Linnaeus). Chestnut-sided 

Common transient and not uncommon summer resident. The 
average date of arrival is May 18, the earliest, May 3, 1905. Nests 


with eggs have been found on South Hill from May 25 to June 20. 
On July 8, 1906, a nest of young were just taking wing. The latest 
fall record is September 19, 1908. 

317 (660). Dendroica castanea (Wilson). Bay-breasted warbler. 
Common transient. The average date of arrival is May 11, the 

earliest, May 7, 1905. The bulk of migrants have passed before 
May 25. The latest record is May 30, 1907. "I have found it 
breeding in the immediate vicinity of Cayuga Lake" ( Audubon). *• 

318 (661). Dendroica striata (Forster). Black-poll warbler. 
Common transient. The average date of spring arrival is May 

16, the earliest, May 10, 1905. It is common from its arrival to 
May 30. A few are seen always during the first week of June, 
the latest record being June 9, 1907. In the fall it is present from 
September 10 to October 20 and is most common from September 
25 to October 10. 

319 (662). Dendroica fusca (P. L. S. Miiller). Blackburnian 

Common transient and regular but uncommon summer resident 
The average date of arrival is May 4, the earliest, April 30, 1908, 
and May 1, 1900, 1905 and 1906. The migration ceases about 
May 20. On June 13, 1900, L. A. Fuertes first found them breed- 
ing on Snyder Hill. Since that date they have been found to breed 
regularly there and on South Hill. 

320 (667). Dendroica virens (Gmelin). Black-throated green 

Abundant transient and common summer resident. The average 
date of arrival is May 2, the earliest, April 25, 1908. Eggs have 
been found from June 5 to July 8. It is abundant all through Sep- 
tember and disappears the first week in October. The latest date 
is October 7. 

321 (671). Dendroica vigorsi (Audubon). Pine warbler. 
Common transient and common locally during the summer. The 

average date of arrival is April 14, the earliest, April 2, 1905. No 
nests of this species have been found but it is common in growths 
of pine during May, June, July and a part of August. 

" " Ornithological Biography," Vol. I., p. 447, 1831. 


322 (672). Dendroica palmarum (Gmelin). Palm warbler. 

Not a common but a regular transient. The average date of 
arrival is May 2, the earliest, April 27, 1908. The latest record for 
spring is May 21, 1908. 

323 (672a). Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea Ridgway. Yellow 
palm warbler. 

One specimen, taken October 25, 1908, at Danby. 

324 (674). Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus). Oven-bird. 
Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 3, 

the earliest, April 27, 1908. Nests with eggs are found from May 
25 to June 20: The bulk of individuals have left for the south by 
September 15. The latest fall date is October 1, 1908. 

325 (675). Seiurus noveboracensis (Gmelin). Water-thrush. 
Common transient and breeds in small numbers. The average 

date of spring arrival is April 30, the earliest, April 27, 1908. They 
cease to be common about May 5. They breed in small numbers 
at the base of West Hill and in a small marsh on East Hill near 
Ithaca. In the fall they become common the first week in August 
and remain until October 1. 

326 (676). Seiurus motacilla (Vieillot). Lousiana water-thrush. 
Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 

is April 16, the earliest, April 14, 1906. Nests with eggs are found 
from May 7 to June 3. On June 13, 1906, L. A. Fuertes found 
four young just leaving the nest. 

327 (678). Oporornis agilis (Wilson). Connecticut warbler. 
Common transient in the fall from September 7 to 30. Not 

present in the spring. 

328 (679). Oporornis Philadelphia (Wilson). Mourning warbler. 
Common transient and frequently found during summer. The 

average date of arrival is May 10, the earliest, May 4, 1905. No 
nests of this species have been found but males in full song are 
seen every year in the woods of Renwick marsh through May, 
June and July. On June 30, 1908, immature birds were seen in 
the Renwick woods. 


329 (681). Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus). Maryland yellow-throat 
Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 

4, the earliest, April 30, 1905. Nests with eggs are found from May 
25 to June 20. It ceases to be common in the fall about the first 
of October. The latest date is October 10. 

330 (683). Icteria virens (Linnaeus). Yellow-breasted chat. 
Fairly common summer resident. The average date of arrival 

is May 12, the earliest, May 4, 1905. Nest-building begins about 
May 25. Eggs are found throughout June. On June 26, 1902, L. 
A. Fuertes found a pair just beginning to build. Formerly this 
species was rare in the region about the south end of the lake but 
has increased greatly during the past eight years. 

331 (684). Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert). Hooded warbler. 
Rare transient and summer resident at the north end of the lake. 

It is found between May 8 and 20, but appears to be more common 
from the tenth to the fifteenth of the month. Mr. G. C. Embody 
reports a nest with young which he found near Auburn and Mr. F. 

5. Wright reports one found four miles east of Auburn. 

332 (685). Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson). Wilson's warbler. 
Common transient. The average date of arrival is May 11, the 

earliest, May 10, 1900. It is common from its arrival until the 
twentieth of the month. A few are sometimes seen after this date. 
The latest date is one seen June 7, 1908. 

333 (686). Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus). Canadian warbler. 
Common transient. It breeds in small numbers on the hills in 

the southern portion of the basin. The average date of arrival is 
May 8, the earliest, May 5, 1905. They continue common from 
their arrival until May 30. They have been found breeding on 
South Hill and Ellis Hollow from June 7 to 19. On the latter date 
a nest of five young were found. 

334 (687). Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus). Redstart. 

Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 
3, the earliest, April 29, 1905 and 1906. They nest from May 10 
to June 15. A few are found nesting later than this date. On 
July 11, 1906, a nest was found which contained eggs. This species 


departs the first of September. The latest date is September 10, 

76. Family Motacillim;. The Wagtails. 

335 (697)- Anthus rubescens (Tunstall). Titlark. 

Common transient from April 7 to May 15 and from September 
20 to October 20. 

yy. Family Mimdxe. The Thrashers and Mockingbirds. 

336 (704). Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus). Catbird. 
Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 

5, the earliest, April 27, 1908. Breeding occurs through the last 
half of May and whole of June. The majority of individuals have 
left in the fall by September 30 but a few are seen always during 
the first days of October. The latest date is October 8, 1908. 

337 (7°5)« Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus). Brown thrasher. 
Common transient and an uncommon summer resident. The 

average date of arrival is May 1, the earliest, April 27 ', 1908. The 
migration lasts for about two weeks, ceasing as a rule about May 15. 
A few breed regularly on South and Snyder Hills. The latest fall 
date is October 6, 1900. 

78. Family TROGLODYTiDiE. The Wrens. 

338 (718). Thry othorus ludovicianus (Latham). Carolina wren. 
Rare summer resident. On March 22, 1890, L. A. Fuertes found 

a pair on the west shore of the lake about four miles north of Ithaca 
where they bred that summer. It was not seen again until June 12, 
1903, when a pair was found in Cascadilla gorge on the Cornell 
campus where they remained until observations ceased about the 
middle of August. 

339 (721). Troglodytes aedon Vieillot. House wren. 

Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is April 
30, the earliest, April 26, 1905 and 1906. Eggs are found from 
May 25 to July 10. They are much reduced in numbers by the 
middle of September and all have left by the last of the month. 
In the southern portion of the basin this species has increased 
seventy-five percent in the last 10 years. 


340 (72a). Nannus hiemalis (Vieillot). Winter wren. 
Common transient and regular but not common winter resident. 

Migrants arrive in the spring the very last of March or the first 
of April and are common until May 1. The latest date is May 7, 
1907. It is quite probable that a few breed in the colder gorges, 
for on June 21, 1878, Mr. F. H. King 30 found five individuals in 
the Enfield Gorge just below the falls. One specimen was shot and 
proved to be "a fully fledged young bird, but so immature as to 
leave no doubt that it was one of a brood which had been reared 
in the glen." They make their appearance in the fall about Sep- 
tember 25. 

341 (724). Cistothorus stellaris (Lichtenstein). Short-billed marsh 

One specimen, taken October 15, 1898, by T. L. Hankinson in 
the Renwick marshes. 

342 (725). Telmatodytes palustris (Wilson). Long-billed marsh 

Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 
2, the earliest, April 18, 1906. It has been recorded (seen) twice 
in winter — 1904 and 1905. Eggs are found from May 20 to June 
15 and occasionally as late as the middle of July. It remains in 
the fall until the last of October. 

79. Family CERTHiiDiE. The Creepers. 

343 (726). Certhia familiaris americana (Bonaparte). Brown 

Common transient and winter resident. They become abundant 
in the spring about March 20 and continue so throughout April. 
All have left as a rule by May 10 at which time they are frequently 
in full song. They arrive in the fall about September 15 and are 
abundant from October 1 to 15. 

80. Family Srrrnxfls:. The Nuthatches. 

344 (727). Sitta carolinensis Latham. White-bellied nuthatch. 
Common permanent resident. Eggs are found from April 19 

to May 10. 

"Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Vol. III., p. 195. 

1909.] ' THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 461 

345 (728). Sitta canadensis Linnaeus. Red-breasted nuthatch. 
Common transient and occasionally found in winter. The aver- 
age date of spring arrival is May 5, the earliest, April 28, 1908. 
None have been recorded later than May 30. On January 5, 1908, 
a specimen was shot at Ithaca and January 31 another was seen. 
A second specimen was taken at Ithaca, January 25, 1909. The first 
migrants arrive from the north the very last of August, becoming 
common the first two weeks in September. They remain until the 
middle of November. 

81. Family ParidjE. The Chickadees. 

345a (731). Baeolophus bicolor (Linnaeus). Tufted titmouse. 
An adult male was taken May 30, 1909, at Michigan Hollow. 

346 (735). Penthestes atricapillus (Linnaeus). Chickadee. 
Common permanent resident. Nests with eggs have been found 

from April 29 to June 3. The earliest record of nest-building is 
March 24, 1890. 

82. Family Sylviim:. The Old World Warblers. 

347 (748). Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein. Golden-crowned kinglet. 
Common transient and an occasional winter resident. The aver- 
age date of spring arrival is April 1, the earliest, March 13, 1903. 
The average date of departure is May 7, the latest May 17, 1902. 
Migrants arrive in the fall as early as September 8, but they do not 
become common until the first of October. They remain until 
November 10. 

348 (746). Regulus calendula (Linnaeus). Ruby-crowned kinglet. 
Common transient. The average date of arrival is April 19, the 

earliest, April 12, 1907. The average date of departure is May 
9, the latest, May 22, 1907. In the fall the first arrivals are noted 
the last of September. They are common from October 1 to 15 
and have disappeared by the twenty-fifth of the month. 

83. Family Turdid^:. The Thrushes. 

349 (755)- Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin). Wood thrush. 
Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 


8, the earliest, May 2, 1908. The breeding season lasts from May 
25 to June 20. The latest fall date is November 6, 1908. 

350 (756). Hylocichla fuscescens (Stephens). Veery. 
Common summer resident. The average date of arrival is May 

3, the earliest, April 24, 1908. Eggs have been found from May 19 
to June 21, but the maximum breeding period is from the first to 
the middle of June. The majority of individuals have left for 
the south before September 20. The latest fall date is October 
16, 1901. 

351 (757). Hylocichla aliciae (Baird). Gray-cheeked thrush. 
Numerous specimens of this thrush have been taken in the basin 

but they are not scattered enough and field observations are not 
certain enough to justify limiting dates. We believe, however, that 
it is not an uncommon transient. 

35 2 (75&0 • Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Cabanis). Olive- 
backed thrush. 

Common transient. The average date of arrival is May 5, the 
earliest, April 21, 1900. It is not common after May 25 but has 
been seen as late as June 8. Migrants begin to arrive from the north 
about September 5 and are common from September 20 to 30. The 
latest fall date is October 21, 1908. Mr. L. A. Fuertes found a 
pair breeding in the Fall Creek gorge in the summer of 1890. 

353 (759 & )- Hylocichla guttata pallasii (Cabanis). Hermit thrush. 
Common transient. The average date of arrival is April 13, the 

earliest, April 1, 1908. The migration ceases about May 20. It 
breeds in small numbers on Snyder and Turkey Hills. It is com- 
mon through October and usually departs before November 1. The 
latest date is October 31, 1905. 

354 (761). Planesticus migratorius (Linnaeus). Robin. 
Common summer resident and present regularly in small num- 
bers in winter. The first migrants arrive about the middle of March 
from which time this species is common until November 20. The 
breeding period extends from the first of April to the middle 
of July. 


355 (765a). Saxicola oenanthe leucorhoa (Gmelin). Wheatear. 
A young female was taken in the town of Junius, Seneca Co., 

September 9, 1872, by C. J. Hampton. The specimen is now in the 
collection of E. H. Eaton. 

356 (766). Sialia sialis (Linnaeus). Bluebird. 

Common summer resident. The average date of spring arrival 
is March 9, the earliest, February 24, 1906. It is abundant through 
the larger part of October. Usually by the first of November all 
have departed. Eggs are found from March 30 to June 1. 


XXXVIII. Order MARSUPIALIA. The Pouched Animals. 
84. Family Didelphidid^. The Opossums. 

357. Didelphis virginiana Kerr. The Virginia opossum. 

The opossum has been captured in the vicinity of Ithaca at 
various times since i860. F. C. Hill has mentioned 81 the escape of 
a female and twelve young from Dr. B. G. Wilder's laboratory at 
Ithaca about 1878. There are no museum records of this escape 
and Dr. Wilder has no recollection of such. In the summer of 
1896 seven individuals escaped from a cage in the Renwick Park 
where they were on exhibition. During the following six or 
seven years numerous specimens were captured about Ithaca, whik 
prior to that time none had been seen for a number of years. The 
latest record is a male captured in the fall of 1903. Dr. Wilder's 
notes record specimens taken in i860 and 1872 long before any 
individuals were known to have escaped from captivity. 

XXXIX. Order GLIRES. The Rodents. 
85. Family Sciurid^e. The Squirrels. 

358. Sciurus hudsonicus loquax Bangs. Southern red squirrel. 
This species is by far our most common diurnal mammal. It 

is not confined to any particular habitat, being found alike in all 

n Hill, F. C, " The Opossum at Elmira, N. Y.," Am. Nat., Vol. 16, 1882, 
p. 403. 


kinds of localities. There is but one record of a pure albino but 
individuals with albinistic tendencies are not infrequent. The young 
are born the last of March or the first of April. 

359. Sciurus carolinensis leucotis ( Gapper ) . Northern gray squirrel. 
Fairly common throughout the basin. It is believed by many 

that this species is no longer found in the southern portion of the 
basin. On Cornell Heights, along Fall Creek, along the Buttermilk 
gorge, in the region of Enfield gorge and on the tops of all the hills 
they are still common. The black phase is rarely seen although it is 
stated that such individuals were relatively very common. Two 
albinos have been taken at Danby. 

360. Sciurus ludovicianus ludovicianus Bangs. Northeastern fox 
squirrel (introduced). 

In the spring of 1906 six pairs were brought from another local- 
ity and liberated in a small grove of oaks on the Cornell Campus. 
During the first two months after their liberation several were found 
dead and brought to the laboratory. Each showed signs of bruises 
underneath the skin and it was thought that boys and slingshots 
were responsible. They had been reared in captivity and were 
extremely tame. Mr. A. A. Allen who looked into this matter 
informs us that they were very clumsy, probably due to confinement, 
and died from injuries received in falling from the trees. One 
individual which fell from a considerable height was dead before 
the spot where he had fallen was reached. During the fall of 1906 
a few of the survivors remained in the oaks on the campus where 
they constructed large nests of leaves but apparently none success- 
fully passed the winter. A few migrated to the woods along Casca- 
dilla Creek where they did survive the winter of 1907-8 and one 
pair at least reared young during the following spring. 

361. Tamias striatus lysteri (Richardson). Northeastern chip- 

Abundant, especially along the ravines, stone fences and in old 
wood lots. It is not found in the marshy areas. It goes into winter 
quarters during the latter part of November and remains until the 
middle of March. The latest fall record is November 26, 1906. 
The earliest it has been seen in spring is February 26, 1905. Mr. 


A. A. Allen informs us that the young are brought forth a little 
later probably than with the other squirrels, for on May 9, 1908, 
a female was secured which showed signs of recent suckling. 

362. Marmotta monax (Linnaeus). Woodchuck. 

Abundant throughout the basin in the more open and dry areas. 
It goes into hibernation about the middle of November and is not 
found abroad again until the first part of March, usually before the 
first snows are melted. An adult male albino was taken during the 
spring of 1876. On April 13, 1901, T. L. Hankinson shot a female 
which contained three fetuses (one in the right and two in the left 
horn of the uterus) 50 mm. in length. 

363. Sciuropterus volans volans Bangs. Southern flying squirrel. 
Common throughout the basin wherever suitable hollows for 

nests or cover during the day are obtainable. The young are born 
about the middle of April. 

86. Family Murim. The Rats and Mice. 

364. Mus musculus Linnaeus. House mouse. 

Abundant in buildings, open fields and woods in the lowlands 
about the head of the lake. 

365. Mus norvegicus Erxleben. Norway rat. 

Abundant. Found in the same abodes and areas as the preceding 
species. During the winters of 1907-8 and 1908-9 there were three 
instances of persons attacked while sleeping by individuals of this 

366. Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis (Fischer). Deer mouse. 
Common throughout the basin. Breeding begins April 15 and 

continues until August. Mr. A. A. Allen observes : " Three to five 
young about once a month for five or six months of the year, serves 
to preserve the species." 

367. Peromyscus maniculatus gracilis (Le Conte). Canadian 
white-footed mouse. 

This species is common on Turkey Hill and in Michigan Hollow. 
It will undoubtedly be found on some of the other high hills when 
search is made. 


368. Fiber zibethicus (Linnaeus). Muskrat. 
Common along water courses and in the marshes. 

369. Hicrotus pinetorum scalopsoides (Audubon and Bach man). 
Northern pine mouse. 

On September 18, 1898, T. L. Hankinson took a specimen in a 
small evergreen woodland about two miles east of Ithaca. On 
March 14, 1909, another specimen was taken by A. C. Chandler on 
Snyder Hill. 

370. Hicrotus pennsylvanicus (Ord). Common eastern field mouse. 
Common. It is found to be the most abundant rodent in the 

moist lowlands. 

371. Evotomys gapperi (Vigors). Eastern red-backed mouse. 
Common in all the higher wooded regions, in the sphagnum bogs 

near McLean and the marshy land in Michigan Hollow. 

87. Family Dipodid.s. The Jumping Mice. 

372. Zapus hudsonius (Zimmerman). Northern meadow jumping 

Common in the moist lowlands. It begins to hibernate in late 
November and emerges about the middle of April. 

372a. Napsozapus insignis Miller. Woodland jumping mouse. 

One specimen (5207), a female, was taken in Michigan Hollow, 
June 14, 1909, by Messrs. A. A. Allen, F. Harper and J. S. Gutsell. 

88. Family Leporid,e. The Hares. 

373. Lepus americanus virginianus (Harlan). Southern varying 

This species has disappeared from many localities in the basin. 
It is still fairly common in the vicinity of Connecticut Hill, in the 
hills near Danby and Caroline and the series of hills about Dryden. 
The summer pelage begins to show in the latter part of March. 

374. Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi (Allen) . Eastern prairie cotton- 

Common in wooded, open, dry and marshy lands alike. All the 

'909.1 THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 457 

specimens taken in the basin have been identified by Dr. E. W. Nel- 
son, of Washington, who writes : 

There is remarkably wide variation in the skulls of this lot though the 
specimens are externally so much alike. Ithaca is on the border line between 
the ranges of two subspecies and while these specimens are intermediate in 
some characters they are not very close to either subspecies (mearnsi and 

XXXX. Order FER^. The Flesh Eaters. 
89. Family Felid^e. The Cats. 

375. Lynx canadensis Kerr. Canada lynx. 

A female now in the collection of Cornell University (C. U. 
4834) was killed north of Wilseyville N. Y., November 16, 1906. 
Another was seen in the same locality a few days later. During 
the latter part of October, 1908, another specimen was shot near Park 
Station, about ten miles west of Spencer. It is now in the possession 
of John C. Munson of Erin, N. Y. 

90. Family CaniDjE. The Dogs. 

376. Vulpesfulvus (Desmarest). Red fox. 

Common and in some localities gradually increasing in numbers. 
They are especially abundant in the vicinity of Newfield and Danby. 
The young are born about the first of May. 

91. Family Mustelios. The Weasels. 

377. Lutra canadensis (Schreber). Otter. 

While formerly quite common it is probably no longer to be 
found in the basin. The last specimen noted was an adult male 
taken in the gorge at Enfield, April 27, 1894. 

378. Putorius vison vison (Schreber). Southeastern mink. 
Common in the swamps and along water courses. They are still 

a source of considerable returns to the trappers. 

379. Putorius cicognanii (Bonaparte). Small brown weasel. 
Common in woods, fields along fences and water courses. 

380. Putorius noveboracensis Emmons. New York weasel. 
Abundant. Found in woods, stone piles, brush piles, stump 

fences and places of the like. The change from summer to winter 



coat is completed the last of November and by the first of May the 
summer coat is again complete. 

381. Mephitis putida Boitard. Southeastern skunk. 
Abundant in all localities. 

92. Family Procyonim:. The Raccoons. 

382. Procyon lotor (Linnaeus). Raccoon. 
Common thrbughout the basin. 

XXXXI. Order INSECTIVORA. The Insect Eaters. 

93. Family Talpid;E. The Moles. 

383. Condylura cristata (Linnaeus). Star-nosed mole. 
Common in swampy and moist ground. 

384. Scalops aquaticus (Linnaeus). Naked-tailed mole. 
Two specimens were taken at Taughannock Falls in 1907. 

385. Parascalops breweri (Bachman). Hairy-tailed mole. 

One specimen taken near North Spencer by T. L. Hankinson, 
June 9, 1902. 

94. Family SoricidjE. The Shrews. 

386. Blarina brevicauda (Say). Short-tailed shrew. 
Abundant throughout the basin and taken at all times of year. 

387. Sorex f umeus Miller. Smoky shrew. 

Fairly common in the higher hills and upland marshes. 

388. Sorex personatus Geoffory St. Hillaire. Lofig-tailed shrew. 
It has been found only in the swamps near Danby and in Michi- 
gan Hollow where it is common. 

95. Family VespertilionidjE. The Ordinary Bats. 

389. Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois). Hoary bat. 

From data collected during the past few years by Mr. A. A. 
Allen it appears that this species visits the lake basin during the fall 
migration only. Although diligent search has been made no speci- 
mens have ever been taken except in the month of October. Data 

■909.1 THE CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, N. Y. 459 

collected outside the basin indicate that its occurrence here is limited 
to the fall. 

390. Lasiurus borealis (Muller). Red bat. 

One of the most abundant bats of the region. In the spring they 
are not much in evidence until the middle of May and disappear the 
last of October. 

391. Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le Conte). Silvery-haired bat. 
Common, especially in the gorges. It appears the first of May, 

the migration reaching its height by the middle of the month. 

392. Pipistrellus subflavus (F. Cuvier). Pipistrelle. 

Common, especially in the gorges. It appears in the spring the 
first of May along with the silvery-haired bat and is the last of all 
our bats to disappear in the fall. Specimens have been taken as late 
as November 1. 

393. Vespertilio fuscus Beauvois. Big brown bat. 

Common. It is the first bat to appear in the spring. It may be 
looked for the first of April a month before any of the others are 

394. Myotis subulatus (Say). Say's bat. 

One specimen taken at Ithaca, July 2, 1904, by A. G. Hammar. 

395. Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte). Little brown bat 

This is the most common bat of the region. They appear in the 
spring the last of April. 


(Read October I, 1909.) 

During the latter part of 1908 I submitted an article on the 
above subject, accompanied by diagrammatic drawings showing 
front and side views of several specimens. 1 Since that time I have 
obtained a photograph of a number of similar stones in the posses- 
sion of Mr. A. G. Johnston, of Murtie Station, Darling River, New 
South Wales. I have thought that the publication of this photo- 
graph will add to the value of what has already been written and 
encourage further investigation in this important subject. 

In explanation of the photograph, Fig. 1, the specimens are con- 
tained in a cabinet in which there are three shelves. I have ruled 
lines across the face of the photograph corresponding to the bases 
of these shelves, the picture being thus divided into three partitions, 
marked A, B and C, for the purpose of explaining its contents. 

Partition A, or the lower shelf, contains thirty-two ceremonial 
stones, of various lengths and proportions, which the reader will 
readily recognize from a perusal of the drawings in my former 
article on the subject. The four large flat, ovate stones at the back 
of the shelf, are lower millstones, used for grinding grass seed. 
There are also three upper millstones, which are much smaller, 
used for pounding and grinding the seed upon the larger lower 
stone. The upper millstones, as well as four stone hatchets, are 
not distinguishable without the aid of numerals. I have not thought 
it advisable to number any of the objects, lest the picture should be 
overcrowded and defaced. In the middle of the shelf, near the top, 
is a boomerang. 

Partition B, or the middle shelf, has fourteen more ceremonial 
stones, four lower millstones, one upper millstone, four stone 

1 Prog Amer. Phil. Soc, Vol. XLVIIL, p. 313. 



hatchets, a boomerang, a nulla-nulla, and a kopai ball like those 
illustrated in my paper on " Burial Customs." 

Partitition C, or the uppermost shelf, contains four more cere- 
monial stones, two lower millstones, four stone hatchets, and a black- 

Fig. I. Ceremonial stones, nardoo stones, boomerangs and nullas. 

fellow's skull. It appears therefore, that the cabinet, with its three 
shelves, contains a total of fifty ceremonial stones, without counting 
the other specimens. Owing to the great number of articles com- 
prised in Fig. i, everything appears proportionately small. To 
remedy this, several representative specimens of ceremonial stones 
have been taken out of the cabinet and a separate picture, Fig. 2, 
photographed on a larger scale. Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are reddish 


tinted sandstone, all of them being more or less profusely orna- 
mented with incisions. Nos. S, 6, 7 and 9 are gray sandstone* 

Fig. 2. Ceremonial stones. Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 are of red sandstone, 
all much marked. Nos. 8 and 10 are of slate. No. 8, is 19 inches long. The 
rest are of gray sandstone. 

Nos. 8 and 10 are clay slate — the former being nineteen inches 
long. The three small articles on the floor of the picture are stone 
hatchets, and are without numbers. , 

The two plates now submitted, if studied in connection with the 
comprehensive diagrammatic drawings given in my former article, 
will enable the reader to form a very clear conception of what these 
remarkable stones look like. 



Stated Meeting January I, ipop* 

Mr. J. G. Rosengarten in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of Dr. Richard A. F. Penrose at 
Philadelphia, on December 26, 1908, aged 81. 

Mr. R. H. Mathews, of Paramatta, N. S. Wales, presented a 
paper on " Ceremonial Stones used by the Australian Aborigines." 

The Judges of the Annual Election of Officers and Councillors 
held on this day, between the hours of two and five in the afternoon, 
reported that the following named persons were elected, according 
to the laws, regulations and ordinances of the Society, to be the 
officers for the ensuing year. 

William W. Keen. 

Vice-Presidents : 
William B. Scott, Simon Newcomb, Albert A. Michelson. 

I. Minis Hays,. James W. Holland, 

Arthur W. Goodspeed, Amos P. Brown. 

Charles L. Doolittle, William P. Wilson, Leslie W. Miller. 

Henry La Barre Jayne. 

(To serve for three years.) 
Charlemagne Tower, William Gilson Farlow, 

Robert S. Woodward, R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. 


iv MINUTES. [January* 

Special Meeting January p, ipop. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Professor J. P. Mahaffy, of Trinity College, Dublin, read a 
paper on " The Irish Race." 

Stated Meeting January 15, ipop. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Barton C. Hirst read an obituary notice of Dr. R. A. F. 
Penrose. (See page Iviii.) 

The decease was announced of the following members : 
Prof. George E. Hough, at Evanston, 111., on January 1, 

1909, at. 72. 
Mr. Joseph Wharton, at Philadelphia, on January 11, 1909, 
set. 82. 

The following papers were read: 

" Some Aspects of the Question of English Speaking," by Prof. 
J. W. Bright. (Introduced by Dr. W. W. Keen.) Discussed by 
Prof. Schelling, Prof. Learned and Dr. Keen. 

"The Solgram System of Color Photography," by Mr. W. C 
South. (Introduced by Dr. W. W. Keen.) 

Stated Meeting February 5, ipop. 
William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

An invitation was received from the New York Academy of 
Sciences to attend its Darwin Centenary Commemoration on Feb- 
ruary 12. Prof. Henry Kraemer, President Henry S. Pritchett and 
Prof. E. G. Conklin, were appointed to represent the Society on 
the occasion. 

The decease was announced of Mr. Charles Piatt, at Philadel- 
phia, on January 23, 1909, aged 80. 

Prof. E. G. Conklin offered a minute in commemoration of the 
centenary of the birth of Charles Darwin (see page hi) which was 
unanimously adopted. 

Prof. Maurice Bloomfield read a paper on " The Hindu Idea," 
which was discussed by Prof. Jastrow. 

I909.1 MINUTES. V 

Stated Meeting February ip, ipop. 
William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Prof. Charles M. Andrews, of Johns Hopkins University, pre- 
sented an obituary notice of President Daniel C. Gillman. (Com- 
municated by Dr. W. W. Keen.) (See page Ixii.) 

The decease was announced of Mr. Robert Patterson, at Blacks- 
burg, Va., on February 14, 1909, aet 90. 

Mr. Frederick H. Newell, director of the U. S. Reclamation 
Service, introduced by the President, presented a paper on "The 
Conservation of Water Resources in the Western United States." 

Special Meeting March 3, ipop. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Hon. Charlemagne Tower read a paper on "Diplomatic Life 
and Diplomatic Usage." 

Stated Meeting March 5, ipop. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of the following members : 
Prof. Guillaume Lambert, at Brussels, on February 22, 1909, 

aged 92. 
Prof. James W. Moore, M.D., at Easton, Pa., on February 28, 
1909, aet. 64. 
Mr. William R. Blair, director of the Research Observatory of 
the U. S. Weather Bureau, introduced by the President, read a 
paper on " The Exploration of the Upper Air by means of Kites 
and Balloons." (See page 25.) Discussed by Mr. Lehman and 
Mr. Goodwin. 

Stated Meeting March 19, ipop. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of Prof. Martin Hans Boye, at 
Coopersburg, Pa., on March 5, 1909, aged 97. 
The following papers were read : 
" On Coal Tar Products a/nd their Application in the Arts and 

vi MINUTES. [AprflH 

Medicine," by Prof. Marston T. Bogert, introduced by the Presi- 
dent, which was discussed by Prof. Keller, Mr. Du Bois, Dr. Hol- 
land, Prof. Kraemer and Prof. Bogert. 

" Recent Surgical Progress," by Dr. W. W. Keen. 

Stated Meeting April 2, 1909. 
William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of Dr. William Henry Wahl, at 
Philadelphia, on March 23, 1909, aet. 60. 

Prof. A. V. Williams Jackson, of Columbia University, intro- 
duced by the President, read a paper on "Mithraism and Mani- 
chaeism — Two Developments of Early Persian Religious Thought" 
Discussed by Prof. Jastrow. 

Stated Meeting April 16, 1909. 

I. Minis Hays, Secretary, in the Chair. 

The disease was announced of Dr. Persifor Frazer, at Phila- 
delphia, on April 7, 1909, aged 65. 

General Meeting April 22, 23 and 24, ipop. 

Thursday, April 22. Opening Session — 2 o'clock. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : 

"The American-British Atlantic Fisheries Question," by Thomas 
William Balch, of Philadelphia. 

" The Nation and the Waterways," by Prof. Lewis M. Haupt, 
of Philadelphia. Discussed by Dr. Cyrus Adler. 

"The Evolution of the City of Rome from its Origin to the 
Gallic Catastrophe," by Prof. Jesse B. Carter, of Rome, Italy. 
(Communicated by the President.) Discussed by Dr. W. W. Keen. 

"Why America Should Reexplore Wilkes* Land," by Edwin 
Swift Balch, of Philadelphia. Discussed by Admiral Melville, Mr. 
H. G. Bryant and Dr. W. W. Keen. 

"The Volcanic Formations of Java," by Henry G. Bryant, of 

i*o9.] MINUTES. vii 

The following preamble and resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, The United States in former years made many bril- 
liant discoveries in the Antarctic, including the continent of Ant- 
arctica by Charles Wilkes, and 

Whereas, The United States has not taken any part in the 
recent scientific explorations of the South Polar regions, there- 
fore be it 

Resolved, That The American Philosophical Society requests 
the cooperation of the scientific and geographical societies of this 
country to urge on the Government of the United States that it do 
make sufficient appropriations to send a vessel, under the direction 
of the Secretary of the Navy, to thoroughly explore and survey the 
coast of Wilkes Land, and other parts of Antarctica. 

Friday, April 23. Executive Session — 10 o'clock. 

William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Prof. Josiah Royce (elected 1908) was admitted into the 

The proceedings of the Officers and Council were submitted. 

Morning Session — 10.05 o'clock. 
William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

" The Brains of Two White Philosophers and of Two Obscure 
Negroes" (illustrated by specimens and diagrams), by Prof. Burt 
G. Wilder, of Ithaca, N. Y. Discussed by Dr. E. A. Spitzka. 

" Some Conditions Modifying the Interpretation of Human 
Brain Weight Records," by Dr. H. H. Donaldson, of Philadelphia. 

" Some Notes on the Modification of Color in Plants," by Prof. 
Henry Kraemer, of Philadelphia. Discussed by Prof. Harshberger, 
Prof. Hobbs, Prof. W. T. Hewett and Prof. Kraemer. 

" Comparative Leaf Structure of the New Jersey Strand Plants," 
by Prof. John W. Harshberger, of Philadelphia. Discussed by 
Prof. Wilder and Mr. Harrison S. Morris. 

"The Composition of Chrysocolla," by Prof. Harry F. Keller, 
of Philadelphia. 

viu MINUTES. [April** 

" The Chemical Work of the U. S. Geological Survey," by Frank 
Wigglesworth Clarke, of Washington. 

"Recent Work on the Physics of trie Ether," by Paul R. Heyl, 
of Philadelphia. (Introduced by Prof. Harry F. Keller.) 

"Effect of Bleaching Powder Upon Bacterial Life in Water," 
by Prof. William Pitt Mason, M.D., of Troy, N. Y. Discussed by 
Prof. Kraemer and Dr. W. J. Holland. 

" The Detonation of Gun Cotton," by Prof. Charles E. Munroe, 
of Washington. 

On motion it was ordered that a telegram conveying the Society's 
good wishes and great regret at his absence from the meeting be 
sent to Prof. Simon Newcomb. To this telegram a reply was re- 
ceived from Prof. Newcomb thanking the Society for its kind greet- 
ings which he highly appreciated. 

Afternoon Session — 2.30 o'clock. 
William B. Scott, LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

" South American Fossil Cetacea," by Dr. Frederick W. True, 
of Washington. Discussed by Prof. W. B. Scott 

" The Destruction of the Fresh Water Fauna of Western Penn- 
sylvania," by Dr. Arnold E. Ortman, of Pittsburgh.* . 

" The Stratigraphic Position of the Oolitic Iron-Ore at Blooms- 
burg, Pa.," by Gilbert van Ingen, of Princeton. (Introduced by 
Prof. W. B. Scott.) 

Albert A. Michelson, LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

" Machines and Engineering in the Renaissance and in Classical 
Antiquity," by Prof. Christian Hiilsen, of Rome Italy. (Intro- 
duced by Dr. W. W. Keen.) 

"On the Extent and Number of the Indo-European Peoples," 
by Prof. Maurice Bloomfield, of Baltimore. 

"A Mechanical Device for the Tabulation of the Sums of 
Numerous Variable Functions," by Prof. Ernest W. Brown, of 
New Haven. 

" The Burning Bush and the Origin of Judaism," by Prof. Paul 
Haupt, of Baltimore. 

wo.] # MINUTES. ix 

" On Certain Generalizations of the Problem of Three Bodies," 
by President Edgar Odell Lovett, of Houston, Texas. 

" Penrose's Graphical Method for Orbit determination," by Prof. 
Eric Doolittle, of Flower Observatory, Philadelphia. 

Evening Session. 
William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Commemoration of the Centenary of Charles Darwin's Birth 
(February 12, 1809) and the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Publica- 
tion of the "Origin of Species" (November 24, 1859). 

The following addresses were delivered: 

" Personal Reminiscences of Charles Darwin and of the Recep- 
tion of the ' Origin of Species' " by His Excellency, the Right Hon- 
orable James Bryce, British Ambassador at Washington. 

" The Influence of Darwin on Natural Science," by Prof. George 
Lincoln Goodale, of Cambridge. 

" The Influence of Darwin on the Mental and Moral Sciences," 
by Prof. George Stuart Fullerton, of New York. 

Attention was called to the fact that there were two members of 
the Society still living who were friends and colaborers of Charles 
Darwin — Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr. Alfred RusSell Wal- 
lace, and it was ordered that on the occasion of this Commemoration 
the Society transmit by cable to them its greetings and congratula- 
tions on the general acceptance of the views in the elaboration and 
promulgation of which they took an active and effective part. 

Saturday, April 24. Executive Session — 10 o'clock. 

Albert A. Michelson, LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Candidates for membership were balloted for, and the tellers 
reported the election of the following: 

Residents of the United States. 

Louis A. Bauer, Ph.D. (Berlin), Washington, D. C. 
Marston Taylor Bogert, New York City. 
Hermon Carey Bumpus, Ph.D., New York City. 
Alexis Carrel, M.D., New York City. 

x MINUTES. . [April m. 

Edwin Brant Frost, Williams Bay, Wis. 
Robert Aimer Harper, Ph.D., Madison, Wis. 
William Herbert Hqjbbs, Ph.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
A. V. Williams Jackson, Ph.D., LL.D., Yonkers, N. Y. 
John Frederick Lewis, Philadelphia. 
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Boston, Mass. 
William Romaine Newbold, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 
Charles Bingham Penrose, M.D., Ph.D., Philadelphia. 
William Howard Taft, Washington. 
Charles Richard Van Hise, M.S., LL.D., Madison, Wis. 
Victor Clarence Vaughan, M.D., ScD., LL.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Foreign Residents. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., F.R.S., Cambridge, Eng. 
Hermann Diels, Ph.D., Berlin. 
Emil Fischer, Ph.D., M.D., Berlin. 
Friedrich Kohlrausch, Ph.D., Marburg. 
Wilhelm Pfeffer, Ph.D., Leipzig. 

Morning Session. 
Albert A. Michelson, LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Prof. Robert William Wood (elected 1908) and Dr. Louis A. 
Bauer, a newly elected member, were admitted into the Society. 

The following papers were read : 

"On the Remarkable Changes in the Tail of Comet C. 1908 
(Morehouse), and On a Theory to Account for these Changes/' by 
Prof. E. E. Barnard, of Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis. 
Discussed by Prof. M. B. Snyder, Prof. Michelson, Dr. George F. 
Becker and Prof. Ernest W. Brown. 

"The Past History of the Earth as Inferred from the Mode of 
Formation of the Solar System/' by Dr. T. J. J. See, of U. S. Naval 
Observatory, Mare Island, Cal. 

" The Linear Resistance between Parallel Conducting Cylinders/' 
by Prof. A. E. Kennelly, of Cambridge. 

" Vacuum Effects in Electrical Discharge around a Right Angle 
in a Wire," by Prof. Francis E. Nipher, of St. Louis. 

" The Ruling of Diffraction Gratings," by Prof. Albert A. Mich- 

«909-l MINUTES. xi 

elson, of Chicago. Discussed by Prof. Robert W. Wood, Prof. M. 
B. Snyder and Prof. Doolittle. 

"On an Adjustment for a Plane Grating similar to Rowland's 
for the Concave Grating," by Prof. Carl Barus, assisted by M. Barus, 
of Providence. 

" The Electron Method of Standardizing the Coronas of Cloudy 
Condensation," by Prof. Carl Barus, of Providence. 

"The Electrometric Measurements of the Potential Difference 
between two Conductors of a Condenser containing a highly Ionized 
Medium," by Prof. Carl Barus, of Providence. 

" Solar Activity and Terrestrial Magnetic Disturbances," by Dr. 
L. A. Bauer, of Washington. Discussed by Prof. Kennelly and Dr. 

" The Effect of Temperature on the Absorption Spectra of Cer- 
tain Solutions," by Prof. Harry C. Jones, of Baltimore. (Intro- 
duced by President Ira Remsen.) 

"The Specific Chemo-Therapy of the Protozoal Diseases," by 
Dr. Simon Flexner, of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search, New York. 

" The Unsuspected Presence of Habit-Forming Agents in Bever- 
ages and Medicines," by Dr. Lyman F. Kebler, of Washington. 
(Introduced by Dr. Harvey W. Wiley.) Discussed by Dr. E. A. 
Spitzka and Dr. Kebler. 

Afternoon Session — 2.30 o'clock. 
William B. Scott, LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Prof. William Herbert Hobbs and Mr. Abbott Lawrence Lowell, 
newly elected members, were admitted into the Society. 

The following papers were read : 
Symposium on Earthquakes. 

" Introduction — Classification — Discussion of Volcanic Earth- 
quakes — Description, with illustrations, of the Charleston, S. C, and 
Kingston, Jamaica, Disasters," by Prof. Edmund O. Hovey, of New 
York. (Introduced by Prof. W. B. Scott.) 

" The Present Status and the Outlook of Seismic Geology," by 
Prof. William H. Hobbs, of Ann Arbor, Mich. 

xii MINUTES. [M«3r« r 

"Conditions Leading to Tectonic Earthquakes — Instruments 
used in the Study of Earthquakes — Suggestions for a National Seis- 
mological Bureau," by Prof. Harry F. Reid, of Baltimore. (Intro- 
duced by Prof. W. B. Scott.) 

These three papers were discussed by Profs. Michelson, William 
Morris Davis, W. H. Hobbs, H. F. Reid and W. B. Scott. 

The following preamble and resolutions were presented and 
unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, Earthquakes have been the cause of great loss of life 
and property within the territory of the United States and its posses- 
sions, as well as in other countries, and 

Whereas, It is only through the scientific investigation of the 
phenomena that there is hope of discovering the laws which govern 
them, so as to predict their occurrence and to reduce the danger to 
life and property, and 

Whereas, Such investigations can be successfully conducted only 
with the support of the general government, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, That this Society urge upon Congress the establish- 
ment of a National Bureau of Seismology, and suggest that this 
bureau be organized under the Smithsonian Institution with the 
active cooperation of the other scientific departments of the govern- 
ment and that this bureau be charged with the following duties : 

(a) The collection of seismological data. 
- (6) The establishment of observing stations. 

(c) The organization of an expeditionary corps for the investi- 
gation of special earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in any part of 
the world. 

(d) The study and investigation of special earthquake regions 
within the National domain. And 

Resolved, That copies of these resolutions be transmitted to the 
President, to the President of the Senate, to the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, and to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 

19091 MINUTES. xiii 

Stated Meeting May 7, 1909. 
William W. Keen, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Charles B. Penrose, Mr. John Frederick Lewis and Prof. 
William Romaine Newbold, newly elected members, were admitted 
into the Society. 

Letters accepting membership were read from : 

Louis A. Bauer, Ph.D. (Berlin), Washington, D. C. 

Marston Taylor Bogert, New York. 

Hermon Carey Bumpus, Ph.D., New York City. 

Alexis Carrel, M.D., New York City. 

Edwin Brant Frost, Williams Bay, Wis. 

A. V. Williams Jackson, Ph.D., LL.D., Yonkers, N. Y. 

John Frederick Lewis, Philadelphia. 

William Romaine Newbold, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Charles Bingham Penrose, M.D., Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

William Howard Taft, Washington. 

Charles Richard Van Hise, M.S., LL.D., Madison, Wis. 

Victor Clarence Vaughan, M.D., Sc.D., LL.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

A letter was received from Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, thank- 
ing the Society for its kind greetings sent when celebrating Darwin's 
centenary. (See page ix.) 

The decease was announced of Mr. Andrew Mason, at New 
York, on April 28, 1909, aged 80. 

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell read a paper an "Aerial Locomo- 
tion," which was discussed by Mr. A. E. Lehman and Prof. M. B. 

Stated Meeting May 21, ipop. 
Mr. H. La Barre Jayne, Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Letters accepting membership were read from : 

Francis Darwin, M.A., F.R.S., Cambridge, Eng. 

Hermann Diels, Ph.D., Berlin. 

Emil Fischer, Ph.D., M.D., Berlin. 

Friedrich Kohlrausch, Ph.D., Marburg. 

Wilhelm Pfeffer, Ph.D., Leipzig. 

A letter was received from Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker expressing 

xiv MINUTES. [Mayai, 

his thanks for the Society's greeting conveyed by cablegram on the 
occasion of the commemoration of the centenary of Charles Darwin. 
(See page ix.) 

An invitation was read from the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology inviting the Society to be represented at the inaugura- 
tion of Dr. Richard C. Maclaurin as President, on June 7. On 
motion the President was authorized to appoint such a representative. 

The decease was announced of Dr. C. Newlin Peirce, at Phila- 
delphia, on May 16, 1909, aged 80. 

Mr. R. H. Mathews read a paper *on " Some Burial Customs of 
the Australian Aborigines." 

Stated Meeting, October 1, ipop. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. James Christie, elected to membership in 1908, was admitted 
into the Society. 

A letter accepting membership was received from Prof. Robert 
A. Harper. 

Invitations were received : 

From the University of Geneva to be represented at the Cele- 
bration of the 350th Anniversary of the foundation of the 
From the President and Fellows of Harvard University to be 
represented at the inauguration of Abbott Lawrence Lowell, 
LL.D., as President of Harvard University. 
The decease was announced of the following members: 
Dr. Aristides Brezina, at Vienna, on May 25, 1909, aet. 62. 
Dr. Edward Everett Hale, at Roxbury, Mass., on June 10, 1909, 

aet. 87. 
Prof. Simon Newcomb, at Washington, on July 11, 1909, aet. 74. 
Dr. Henry C. Chapman, at Bar Harbor, Me., on September 7, 

1909, aet. 64. 
Dr. Anton Dohrn, at Naples, on September 26, 1909, aet. 68. 
The following papers were presented: 
" The Vertebrates of the Cayuga Lake Basin, N. Y.," by Hugh 

'909.1 MINUTES. 


D. Reed and Albert H. Wright. (Communicated by Prof. 
Burt G. Wilder.) 
"Further Notes on Ceremonial Stones, Australia," by R. H. 

Stated Meeting, October 15, 1909. 
William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of Prof. Otto Donner, at Helsing- 
fors, on September 17, 1909. 

Dr. Randle C. Rosenberger read a paper on " Typhoid Carriers." 

Stated Meeting, November 5, /pop. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Invitations were received : 
From the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, inviting the 
Society to be represented at the dedication of its New Hall. 
From the XVIIth International Congress of Americanists to be 
represented at the Congress to be held first at Buenos Aires 
from May 16 to 21, 1910, and then in the City of Mexico in 
the following September. 
The decease was announced of: 
Henry Charles Lea, LL.D., at Philadelphia, on October 24, 

1909, aet. 84. 
Hon. William Butler, at West Chester, Pa., on November 3, 
1909, aet. 87. 
Mr. Harrison S. Morris read an obituary notice of Mr. Joseph 

Dr. W. B. Cannon read a paper on "The Correlation of the 
Gastric and Intestinal Digestive Processes and the Influence of 
Emotions upon Them." 

Mr. John C. Willis, Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Co- 
lombo, read a paper on " The Vegetation of Ceylon." 

Stated Meeting, November 19, 1909. 
William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 
Prof. C. L. Doolittle read a paper on " Halley's Comet." 

XVi MINUTES. [November 19. 

Prof. Edward C. Pickering was elected a Vice-President to fill 
the unexpired term of the late Prof. Simon Newcomb. 

Stated Meeting, December 3, 1909. 
William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

An invitation was received from the president of the Eighth 
International Zoological Congress to send delegates to the Congress 
to be held at Graz, Austria, from August 15 to 20, 1910. 

Prof. E. P. Cheyney read a paper on " The Court of Star Cham- 
ber in the Time of Queen Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts." 

Stated Meeting, December 17, ipog. 
William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of M. Serge Nikitin, at St. Peters- 
burg, on November 18, 1909. 

The Annual Address of the President was delivered by Dr. 
William W. Keen. 

Dr. Edward Meyer, of Berlin, read a paper entitled " The Story 
of the Wise Ahikar." 


Absorption spectra of certain solu- 
tions, effect of temperature on, 

194, xi 
Aerial locomotion, xm 
Ahikar, story of the Wise, xvi 
Air, exploration of the upper, by 

means of kites and balloons, 8, v 
Australian aborigines, burial customs 

of, 3i3» xiv 


Bacterial life in water, effect of 
bleaching powder upon, viii 

Balch, Edwin Swift, Why America 
should re-explore Wilkes Land, 34, 
vi, vii 

Thomas Willing, The American- 
British Atlantic Fisheries Ques- 
tion, 319, vi 

Barnard, remarkable changes in the 
tail of Comet C, 1908 (More- 
house), x 

Barus, adjustment for a plane grat- 
ing, 166, xi 

electrometnc measurement of 

the voltaic potential difference be- 
tween the two conductors of a 
condenser, 189, xi 

electron method of standardiz- 
ing the coronas of cloudy conden- 
sation, 177, xi 

Bauer, solar activity and terrestrial 
magnetic disturbances, xi 

Bell, aerial locomotion, xiii 

Beverages and medicines, habit- 
forming agents in, xi 

Blair, exploration of the upper air 
by means of kites and ballons, 8, v 

Bloomfield, extent and number of 
the Indo-European peoples, viii 

The Hindu Idea, iv 

Bogert, coal tar products and their 
application in the arts and medi- 
cine, v, vi 

Brain weight records, some condi- 
tions modifying the interpretation 
of human, vii 

Brains of two white philosophers 
and two obscure negroes, vii 

Bright, some aspects of the question 
of English speaking, iv 

Brown, device for tabulation of the 
sums of numerous variable func- 
tions, viii 

Bryant, volcanic formations of Java, 

Bryce, personal reminiscences of