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Full text of "Proceedings of Central Ohio Scientific Association of Urbana, Ohio"

PROCEE DINGS 



i' 



-OF- 



CENTRAL OHIO 



Scientific Association 



OF 

URBANA, OHIO. 



■V"031j. i-:pa.:e^.t i. 



PUBLISHED BY THE ASSOCIATION". 



URBANA, OHIO; 

Saxtun & Brand, Printkks 

1878 



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PROCEEDINGS 



-OF- 



CENTRAL OHIO 



Scientific Association 



-OF- 



URBANA, OHIO. 




V^v^r^^ 



/j^^^oi-.. i-:pa.i?.t 1. 



PUBLISHED BY THE ASSOCIATION. 



URBANA, OHIO: 

Saxton & Brand, Printers 

1878 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

1. Organization and History 5 

2. Constitution and By-Laws 13 

3. List of T)cr.r<:ions 16 

4. luaugural Address, President T, N. Glover 19 

5. Report of the Ancient Remains of Madriver Valley, with an account of the 

opening of the Baldwin and Roberts Mounds, (Illustrated); T. F. Moses 23 

6. Altitude of the Clinton Limestone at Osborn, Ohio ; S. F. Woodaed 50 

7. Report of Survey of Earth-works on Haddix Hill, near Osborn, O, (Illustrated) ; 

J. E. VVeeren 52 

8. Report of Ancient Pottery fouiid near Green Bay, Wisconsin, (Illustrated); Rev. 

Geo. Gibson, President Archasological Society of Northern Wisconsin 62 

9. Account of a Sculptured Rock from Marblehead, O, (Illustrated); J. E. Weeren 66 

10. Shell Heaps on the coast of Maine, (Illustrated); T. F. Moses , 70 

11. Pioneer History of Champaign county, John H. Young 77 

12. Contributions to a Life of Simon Kenton; Geo. A. Weaver... 88 

13. Meteorological Record made at Urbana, O, for 25 years, from 1852 to 1878, (Illus- 

trated); MiLO G' Williams 91 

14. Appendix 97 



Report of Committee 
Publication. 

The Committee appointed to prepare a volume of the transactions 
of the Association for publication, respectfully present the following : 
Part 1, Vol. 1. Proceedings of the Central Ohio Scientific Associa- 
tion, as the result of their labors. In performing the Avtj assigned 
them, the committee has selected such papers as have been read from 
time to time before the Association and recommended for publication, 
and they have also prepared a preliminary statement of the organiza- 
tion, membership, constitution, donations, etc., together with an ab- 
stract from the minutes of what has been done since the foundation of 
the society, and of the work proposed to be undertaken in the future 
Of the preliminary statement the committee have decided to issue an 
extra edition of 300 copies for the Association. 

The illustrations of the work have been made with great care and 
regard to accuracy, and are all from original drawings. Of these 
Plates 1 to 8 inclusive, were executed by Mr. D. H. Sherman. The 
drawings for Plates 9 to 12 inclusive, were prepared by Prof. J. B. 
Werren. Those illustrating the Meteorological report of Milo G-. Wil- 
liams, Esq., were prepared by himself All of these gentlemen have 
donated their work, thus materially reducing the cost of publication. 

Thos. F. Moses, ) ^ 

Chas. a. Smith; > (Committee. 

Note.— The Association does not assume any responsibility for the statements 
made in the articles in this publication. The author of each article is alone responsible for 
its subject-matter. 



l^feN the evening of October 20th, 1874, the following persons met 
^^ at the office of Dr. R. H. Boal, Urbana, 0., for the purpose of or- 
ganizing a scientific association, viz: T. N. GtLOVER, of Woodstock, 
K. H. Boal, J. F. Meyer, T. F. Moses, W. F. Leahy, P. R. Ben- 
nett, Jr., of Urbana, and L. C. Herrick, of Woodstock, 0. 

T. F. Moses was called to the chair and W. F. Leahy chosen Sec- 
retary pro tern. A committee of three was appointed to draft a con- 
stitution and by-laws. After due deliberation the committee report- 
ed, and the constitution submitted by them was unanimously adopt- 
ed. The Society then proceeded to effect a permanent organization by 
the choice of the following officers to serve for one year : President, 
T. N. Glover; Vice President, P. R. Bennett, Jr.; Recording 
and Corresponding Secretary, W. F. Leahy; Treasurer and Curator, 
T. F. Moses. At the ensuing meeting, changes were made in the 
above list of officers as follows : T. F. Moses to be Corresponding 
Secretary, and J. F. Meyer, Treasurer. 

objects of the association. 

The objects for which this association was formed will be found 
stated in detail in the Constitution. For the better attainment of 
these the following Sections were adopted at the meeting of March, 
1875, the membei's selecting for themselves the Section or Sections 
preferred for their field of labor : 

1. Natural History and Geology. 

2. Pioneer History and Archaeology. 

3. Anthropology. 

4. Physics. 

In order that the work of the Association might be, as far as possi- 
ble, of general benefit to the community, another object, not specified 
in the Constitution, has always been had in view, the founding of a 

PUBLIC museum. 

In this museum the collections of the Association will be placed, and 
such other collections as shall be donated or loaned by individuals, 
whether members or otherwise. It is believed that all persons owning 
collections will recosnize the unselfish character of the work in which 



<7 

the Association is engaged, and that they will willingly place these 
where they shall be accessible to every one and thus perform a larger 
use than scattered private collections can possibly do. To further- 
this object, efforts will be made to erect a suitable building at some 
future day for the reception of the museum, and for other uses of a 
similar character. Meanwhile, through the generosity of Mr. W. A. 
Brand, Postmaster at Urbana, the Association has been enabled to 
carry out this plan to a certain extent, and has placed a part of its 
collections in the Post Office building. Perhaps no location could be 
selected more suitable for such a museum than the city of Urbana. 
In the words of President Glover's inaugural address, "We have a 
field that has scarcely been worked, and one that is replete with ob- 
jects of interest and importance. Within a radius of a hundred miles, 
lies a magnificent geological field with its paleontological treasures. 
The drift and more recent deposits have been but little studied. In 
natural history, zoology and botany, the region is a rich one; in an- 
cient remains, the richest in America. Dr. Foster in his Prehistoric 
Nations says that Ohio alone contains 10,000 tumuli or mounds, and 
Mr. Baldwin states that of these not over 500 have ever been 
opened." The advantages to our city of such a collection of speci- 
mens of the natural history of the neighborhood as well as of the 
relics of its pioneer inhabitants and of those races, unknown to his- 
tory, whose numerous implements, ornaments and articles of domestic 
use, annually turned up by the plow, make their mute appeal to our 
human sympathies, are so obvious that they hardly need be stated. 
Gathered together and preserved, they not only excite curiosity and 
stimulate research on the part of every individual of the community, 
both young and old, but they at the same time add to that vast mass 
of material which is being accumulated all over the country, and out 
of which is, at some day, to be evolved the histor}^ of our predecessors 
upon this Continent. In so good a work will not every one aid, who 
has in his possession a stone ax, arrow head, pestle, pipe, badge or 
■other relic, dug up from the soil or obtained from burial mounds, by 
contributing them to the museum? Due credit will be given to 
each depositor and all articles will be carefully labelled, and classified. 
In the explorations that have been made by the Association, during 
the past three years, much valuable material has been gathered to- 
gether, especially of an archaeological character, and when all the 
necessary data are obtained it is proposed to publish a 



MAP OP THE ANCIENT REMAINS OF MAD RIVER VALLEY. 

This map will contain the exact location and dimensions of all the 
mounds and earth-works situated in the valley of Mad river and of 
its tributaries, and will constitute a valuable contribution to the gen- 
eral archaeological map of Ohio. The importance of this work can 
hardly be over-estimated. Already many of the smaller earth-works 
have disappeared, having been destroyed through constant cultivation 
of the soil, and their location must be a matter of uncertainty and 
can be determined only by tradition. This process of destruction is 
going on with ever increasing rapidity and thoroughness under the 
demands of agriculture, so that in a few years it will be too late to 
.secure the record of the site and extent of these ancient land marks. 
And yet there has been no period since their earliest discovery when 
so much interest has been aroused upon the subject of these x-emains, 
as at the present. The vast amount of material brought together at 
the Centennial Exposition and viewed by thousands from all sections 
of the country not only excited an intense interest in all matters per- 
taining to the prehistoric inhabitants of the continent, but it has also 
had the farther effect of spreading an intelligent appreciation among 
people every where of the character and variety of the relics found 
in the soil, and of the importance of collecting and preserving them. 
Of equal interest also are the earth-works and mounds, the only 
structures which have been left by time, as indestructible, when un- 
disturbed by the hand of man, as the stone implements themselves. 
From these last must be gathered the greater part of all that can ever 
be known concerning the customs, domestic, ceremonial and religious, 
of their builders and of the degree of their civilization. The plan of 
the Association, in selecting a definite and limited field for its opera- 
tions in this direction, will, it is believed, be productive of more valu- 
able results than can be secured by desultory surveys and excavations 
in different parts of the State, and the work thus accomplished will 
supplement the labors of other similar societies. In the work of pre- 
paring the archseological map of Ohio the Association will cordially 
co-operate with these societies. 

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE. 

From the organization of the Association up to the present time 
the monthly meetings have been quite regularly held, and considering 
the small number constituting its membership, the meetings have 
been well attended. At these meetings discussions have been held 



and papers have been read upon a variety of topics. The following 
synopsis, gathered from the minutes, will exhibit the range of sub- 
jects: 

1. Inaugural Address, - - - President T. N. Glover. 

2. Stone Bas Relief, found at Marblehead, 0., - J. E. Werren. 

3. Method of Preserving Woods for Cabinet Specimens, 

L. C. Herrick. 

4. How to Geologize, - - - - T. N. Glover. 

5. Shell Mounds on the Coast of Maine, - - T. F. Moses. 

6. Method of Preparing Casts of Specimens, - R. H. Boal. 

7. Contributions to a History of the Life and Times of 

Simon Kenton, - - - Geo. A. Weaver. 

8. The Drift of Champaign County, - - T. N, Glover. 

9. Geology of Eastern Virginia, - - P. B. Cabell. 

10. Geological Relations of Champaign Co., - T. F. Moses. 

11. Mineral Deposits of the Lake Superior Region illus- 

trated with specimens gathered during the 

summer of 1875, - - - J. E. Werren. 

12. Report of Meteorological Observations made at Ur- 

bana, 0., from the year 1852 to 1878, inclu- 
sive, - - - - - M. G. Williams. 

13. Report of a Recent find of Human Bones near the 

Catawba Station of the C. C. C. & I. R. R., 

Geo. G. Harriman. 

14. Report of the finding of a Copper Needle and a de- 

posit of 280 Flints, in Ashland county, 0., 
also some bars of Lead used in Crawford's 
Campaign against the Indians, - - Aaron Atbn. 

15. Inaugui-al Address, - - President Geo. A. Weaver. 

16. Report of Rock Wells or '-Pot Holes" examined at 

Eben-e-cook and Berlin Falls, Maine, and at 

Kanawha Falls, West Va., - - T. F. Moses. 

17. Report of Supposed Mound on the farm of Dr. 

Pearce, east of Urbana; also of the discovery 
of a grave of the daughter of the Chief of 
the Mingo tribe of Indians, at Mingo, Ohio, 

Thos. L. Johnson. 

18. Report of the Roberts, Baldwin and other Mounds 

explored by the Association, - - T. F. Moses. 



9 

19. Report of Mound on the Dallas farm, two miles 

south of Urbana, and of the contents of a 
mound opened on the Hunt farm (formerly 
the Simon Kenton farm), - Dr. Hamilton Ring 

20. New mode of transferring Photographs to glass and 

of coloring the same, - - P. R. Bennett, Jr. 

21. Report of Pottery and Copper Implements found 

near G-reen Bay, Wis., - Rev. GrEO. GtIBSON, 

Prest. Archfeological Society, of Northern Wis. 

22. Report of a new improvement in Telephony where- 

by sounds may be recorded and reproduced at 

any future time, - - - - R. H. Boal. 

23. Report of the discovery of the Liquefaction of 

Oxygen and other gases, - - J. E. Werren. 

24. Report of Survey of Ancient Earth-woiks, near Os- 

born, 0., with map, - - - J. E. Werren. 

25. Stratigraphical position of the Clinton limestone, at 

Osborn, 0, - - - - S. F. Woodard. 

Such of the above named papers as have been recommended by the 
Association for publication will be found in the present volume of 
Proceedings. 

field work. 

This has been almost entirely confined to the examination of 
mounds, earth-works and aboriginal remains, and is detailed in full in 
the Report of the Ancient Remains of Mad River Valley. Nearly 
all of the members have engaged in the work, at one time or another, 
and have always found it a very enjoyable line of research. During 
the coming season it is proposed to make a systematic survey of the 
remaining earth-works in this neighborhoood, and to open such 
mounds as the time and means of the members may permit. 

SPECIAL meetings. 

By invitation of P. R. Bennett, Jr., the Association met at his 
house on the first Tuesday in December, 1875, where the members 
enjoyed the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Bennett, and were also en- 
tertained by the exhibition of numerous microscopical objects pre- 
pared by Mr. Bennett. The excellent microscopes of Dr. H. C. 
Pearce and Dr. W. F. Leahy, of Urbana, were kindly loaned for 
the occasion. It was decided to hold meetings uf a similar character 



10 

from time to time upon invitation ot members or citizens, the meet- 
ings to be of a more social character than the usual monthly meetings. 
A special meeting was held in the afternoon of Dec. 19, 1876, which, 
was honored by the presence of E. S. Morse, of Salem, Mass. 
Prof Morse being requested to favor the Society with some remarks, 
said : 

REMARKS OF PROP. E. S. MORSE. 

That he was pleased to see the Society in so flourishing a condition 
as to membership and apparent enthusiasm ; that the usual history of 
scientific associations was an enthusiastic beginning, a gradual decline 
and a final extinction, which in most cases arose from a failure, of the 
meynhers to attend the regular meetings. Members should make it 
a point of conscience to attend, if only to see that there was no busi- 
ness and to adjourn. He then gave a short history of a society of 
which he had been a member which, by the continued persistence of 
its supporters in all their duties, had attracted public attention to 
such a degree as to secure legacies from unexpected quarters, and 
though burned out twice, had arisen from its ashes and become a per- 
manent and powerful institution. After some interesting general re- 
marks on the importance and surpassing interest of scientific research, 
he advised the Society to adopt some special branch of usefulness- 
and devote its energies to that, rather than to dissipate their efforts in 
too wide a field. He suggested the importance and necessity of an 
annual assessment for expenses, and that the usefulness of such au 
association was by no means dependent upon the size of the town in 
whicli it was located, but rather upon the enthusiasm and faithfulness 
of \i'i members. 

A special meeting was also held on the evening of Jan. 3, 1878, to 
inaugurate the new Society rooms in the Weaver building. Prof. E. ^ 
S. Morse, being in the city to deliver a public lecture, was invited 
to be present, and he favored the Society with much interesting in- 
formation about Japan, in which country he had become a resident. 

pioneers' meeting. 

Agreeably to a resolution of the Society, a committee consisting of 
Messrs. Young, Boal, Aten, Cabell, Moses and Harriman attended 
the Pioneer meeting held at Mingo, in May, 1877. The visit was made 
by invitation of the Pioneer Association of Champaign and Logan Go's, 



11 

and had for its object the presentation of the plan of work of the So- 
ciety and its interests in general, with a view to securing the co-opera- 
tion of the members of the former association. At the meeting ad- 
dresses were made by Messrs. Young and Harriman on behalf of 
the Scientific Association, and Dr. Moses gave an account of the re- 
cent opening of a mound. Many Indian and Mound Builders' relics, 
from the cabinet of the Association and that of Mr. Aten, were ex- 
hibited with the hope of exciting an interest in the collection of these 
objects, and it was suggested that all having such articles in their 
possession should deposit them in the museum of the Association for 
their better preservation, until a building suitable for the public mu- 
seum can be secured. This suggestion was quite generously re- 
sponded to on the part of several persons. The results of this meet- 
ing were so satisfactory, that it was thought advisable to send dele- 
gates to future meetings, and, if possible, secure a more intimate con- 
nection between the two Associations for the more successful pursuit 
of such objects as they have in common. It is important that our 
Pioneers, who are passing away, should leave behind them, not only 
the traditions of their early struggles and triumphs, but a more sub- 
stantial memorial in the way of historical records and actual me- 
mentoes of their mechanical and domestic appliances. To gather 
these mementoes together and place them in a museum where they 
may always be seen by those who have inherited the land secured 
with so much difficulty from the savage, and thus to preserve a lively 
remembrance of the early settlers of the county among their descend- 
ants, is one of the aims of the Scientific Association. 

NEW SOCIETY ROOM. 

In January, 1878, the Association took formal possession of the 
new room in the Weaver building which had been especially fitted up 
for its use under the superintendence of Mr. GrEO. A. Weaver. Up 
to this time the meetings had been held in the rooms of Dr. R. H. 
BoAL, who had kindly granted the use of them free of charge. Al- 
though the present room is well adapted for the holding of meetings 
and as a place of deposit for a certain class of the Society's collec- 
tions, it is probable that at no distant date more space than it affords 
will be required, unless the plan of the public museum can be carried 
out. 



12 

INCORPORATION. 

At the meeting of February, 1878, a resolution was passed to the 
effect that it is the desire of the Association to become an incorpor- 
ated body, and the executive committee was directed to take steps to 
secure the necessary articles of incorporation. Six Trustees were al- 
so appointed to serve for periods of one, two and three years. The 
Articles of Incorporation were duly executed and filed May 10, 
1878. 

Officers Elected Oct. 19, 1874. 

President— T. N. Glover ; Vice President— P. R. Bennett, Jr. 

Recording Sec'y—W. F. Leahy; Coresponding Sec'y— T. F. Moses 
Treasurer — J. F. Meyer; Curator — R. H. Boal. 

Officers Elected Nov. 16, 1875. 

President— T. N. Glover ; Vice President P, R. Bennett, Jr. 

Recording Secretary — R. H. Boal; Cor. Sec'y— T. F. Moses ; 
Treasurer — L. C. Herrick; Curator — R H. Boal. 

At the meeting of Feb. 15th, 1876, Mr. Glover tendered his resigna- 
tion as President, being about to change his residence to Joliet, Ills. At 
the following meeting, T. F. Moses was elected to fill the vacancy. 

Officers Elected Nov. 26, 1876. 
President— Geo. G. Harriman; Vice President— P. R. Bennett, Jr.; 

Recording Sec'y— P. B. Cabell; Cor. Sec'y— T. F. Moses; 

Treasurer — C. G. Smith; Curator — ^R. H. Boal. 

Offcers Elected October 17, 1877. 

President— Geo. A. Weaver ; Vice Pres.— Hamilton Ring; 

Recording Sec'y —J. S. Parker; Corresponding Sec'y— T. F. Moses; 

Treasurer — Aaron Aten; Curator — R. H. Boal. 

Trustees Elected Feb. 19, 1878. 

FOR 1HREE YEAKS. 

George A. Weaver, R. H. Boal. 

FOR TWO YEARS. 

Jno. H. Young, Tiios. F. Moses. 

FOR ONE YEAR. 

Chas. G. Smith, Hamilton Ring. 



CONSTITUTION 



ARTICLE 1. The Society shall be called The Central Ohio 
Scientific Association. 

OBJECTS. 

Art. 2. The Objects of the Association shall be, 

First — The cultivation of Physical and Historical Science. 
Second^ — The study of the region around us and its inhabitants. 
Third — The development of a scientific taste in the community. 
Fourth — Mutual acquaintance among scientific workers. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Art 3. All members shall be chosen by ballot, after having been 
nominated at a preceeding meeting. The affirmative votes of three- 
fourths of the members present shall be necessary to a choice. Cor- 
responding, Honorary and Associate members may be elected, and 
shall be free from all fees and assessments. Ladies only shall be eli- 
gible to the class of Associate members. Active members only 
shall be entitled to vote. 

ASSESSMENTS. 

Art. 4. Any person, on being elected to the Association, shall 
pay an initiation fee of two dollars ($2.00), and such person shall not 
be considered a member or entitled' to the privileges of membership 
until his initiation fee is paid. The annual assessment for each mem- 
ber shall not exceed Ten dollars ($10.00). and shall be made at or be- 
tween the October and January meetings of each year. 

OFFICERS. 

Art. 5. The officers of this association shall consist of a Presi- 
dent, Vice President, Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 
Treasurer, and Curator. They shall hold their offices one year, or 
until their successors shall be appointed. They shall be elected by 
ballot. 

EXECUTIVE board. 

Art. 6. The President, Recording Secretary, and Treasurer, shall 
constitute an Executive Board. 



14 

BY-LAWS. 

Art. 7. By-laws for the more particular regulation of the Society 
may be made. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Art. 8. Amendments to or changes in this Constitution may be 
made by a two-thirds vote ot the Society at any regular meeting, due- 
notice having been given at a previous meeting in writing, signed by 
three members of the Society. 



BY-LA^VS. 

Section 1. The Annual Meeting shall be held on the third Tues- 
day in October, when the election of officers shall take place. 

Sec. 2. The Regular Meetings of the Association shall be held on: 
the third Tuesday in each month. 

Sec 3. Any member who shall fail to pay his assessment on or 
before the first day of April, after having been duly notified, shall 
forfeit his membership. 

Sec. 4. The Order of Business shall be, 

First — Calling of the Roll and reading of the minutes of the 

previous meeting. 
Second — Report of the Treasurer and Payment of Dues. 
Third — Reports ot Committees and Correspondence. 
Fourth — Reading of Communications and G-eneral Business- 
Fifth — Adjournment. 



List of Members. 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. 
Theo. N. Grlover, Dowagiae, Mich. L. C. Herrick, Woodstock. 



P. R Bennett, Jr., Urbana. 
R. H. Boal, Urbana. 
Greo. A. Weaver, Urbana. 
Jno. H. Young, Urbana. 
Jeremiah Deuel, Urbana. 
P. B. Cabell, Urbana. 
Hamilton Ring. Urbana. 
J. S. Parker, Urbana. 
Greo. Gr. Harriman, Urbana. 
S. F. Woodard, Osborn. 



Thos. F. Moses, Urbana. 
Wm. F. Leahy, Urbana. 
J. F. Meyer, Urbana. 
Thos. L. Johnson, Mingo.- 
J. F. Gowey, Urbana. 
J. E. Werren, Urbana. 
D. H. Sherman, Urbana.. 
C. Gr. Smith, Urbana. 
Aaron Aten, Urbana. 



Jas. Pillars, Lima. 
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 
David T. Robinson, Urbana, Ohio. 
Prof. D. S. Jordan, Pardee University, Indiana. 
Dr. R. M. Byrnes, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Lyman C. Draper, Wisconsin. 
Prof. Edw. S. Morse, University of Tokio, Japan. 
HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Milo Gr. Williams, Urbana. John. H. Klippart, Columbus- 



Donations to the Cabinet 

From 1874 to 1878. 

R. H. BoAL — Copy of Boston Gazette and Country Journal, of March 
12, 1770. 

Jno. H. Klippakt, Columbus, 0. — Ohio Agricultural Reports for 1859, 
1871, 1872. 

D. T. Robinson — Niagara Fossils from Madison, Indiana. 

Maryland Academy op Sciences — Charter, Constitution and By-Laws. 

Geo. a. Leakin — Pamphlet entitled The Periodic Law. By G. A. 
Leakin, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. — Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions, Nos. 34, 160, 261 and 278. 

Peabody Academy op Sciences, Salem, Mass. — Annual Reports from 
the First to the Tenth, inclusive. 

F. W. Putnam, Salem, Mass. — Remarks on the Family Nemophidae. 
Notes on Tjparis and Cj^clopterus. Mounds at Merom and Hutsonville. 
Notes on Ophidiidae and Fierasferidae. Description of stone knives 
found in Essex county, Massachusetts. 

Interior Department, Washington, D. C. — Synopsis of Acrididae of 
North America, Thomas ; Extinct Vertebrate Fauna, Leidy ; Bulletin of 
U. S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Second 
Series, No. 1. 

Report on Cretaceous Flora, Lesquereaux. 

TJ. S. Geological Survey of the Territories, by F. V. Hayden. Re- 
ports of 1867, 1868, 1869, 1871, 1872 and 1873. 

Flora of Colorado— T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter. 

List of Elevations, Third Edition, by Henry Gannett. 

Birds of the North-west — Coues. 

Department op Agriculture, Washington, D. C. — Reports of 1872 
1873. 

Hon. T. a. Cowgill, Ohio House of Representatives— Geology of 
Ohio, Vol. 2. Ohio Statistics for 1875. 

Griffith Ellis, Esq. — Palaeontology of Ohio, Vol. 2. 

Hon. "W. R. Warnock, Urbana— Ohio Centennial Report. 

Robert Clarke, Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio— Prehistoric Remains, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, R. Clarke. 

S. W. Garman, Cambridge, Mass.— The Skates of the Eastern Coast of 
United States. S. W. Garman. 

Davenport Academy of Natural Science, Davenport, Iowa — 13 Pho- 
tographs of Pipes, Copper Axes and Skulls. 

Cincinnati Society of Natural History — Proceedings, Number 1. 



17 

M. G. Williams, Esq. — Report of his Meteorological observations 
made at Urbana, 0., from 1852 to 1868. 

Jos. Chamberlain, Rush township. Champaign county, Ohio— Speci- 
men of Bog Iron Ore. 

T. N. Glover, Joliet, Illinois — Cast of Stone Image Pipe found on 
banks of the Darby River, Pleasant Valley, Ohio. 

Jno T. Hunter, Mingo, Ohio— Indian Tomahawlj, of British make,, 
found in 1828 near Mingo. 

James McLary, Mingo, Ohio — Comb Saw brought to America from 
Germany, by Jno. Barrett, in 1806. 

Dr. L. C. Hekrick, Woodstock, Ohio — Indian Skull dug up in Wayne 
township, from a gravel bed. 

Chicago Academy of Science, through C G. Smith, Esq., of Urbana,. 
Ohio— Collection of 76 species Shells from coast of Florida, Gulf of Mex- 
ico and California. 

T. F. Moses — Ancient Vase from Drevant, France ; Arrow Head from 
Champaign county ; Minerals from Buchanan's Farm, Lancaster, Pa. 

Aaron Aten — Stone Ax, Wyandot county, Ohio ; 11 Arrow Head& 
from a lot of 182 found buried 12 inches below surface of ground, Wyan- 
dot county, Ohio ; fragment of ancient mill-stone, Lead Ingot, Ashland 
county, Ohio ; Cannon ball from battle-field of Shiloh ; Concretions and 
water- worn stones from Wyandot county, Ohio; Mortar, Pestle, and 3 
Fleshers, Clay Pipe, numerous specimens of Galena, Iron Ore and 
Quartz, from Washington county. Miss. 

T. N. Glover — Ancient Pottery from Darby Plains, Stone Pipe, frag- 
ments of Elk Horns found in peat bog near Woodstock, Ohio ; Cornifer- 
ous Fossil, Coal Plant. 

W. R. Haedman, Enon, Ohio— Stone Flesher, Stone Hammer and two 
Flints. 

W. K. Patrick, Urbana, Ohio — 2 Celts, 2 Axes, Stone Hammer, 
Gorget, Sinker, 3 Flints, 1 Pipe from Licking county, O. 

Wm. Patrick, Urbana, Ohio — Part of Simon Kenton's coffin. 

P. R. Bennett, Jr. — Stone Ax, 

Jno. H. Young— Pestle, 2 Flint Implements and portion of mill-stone • 
plowed up on his farm in L^rbana. 

E. E. McFarland — Mica from a mound on the J. D. Wilson farm. 

Lauson Showers, Urbana, Ohio — 3 Flint Arrow Heads. 

Frank Magrew, Urbana, Ohio — Flint Arrow Head. 

M. Arrowsmith — 3 models in wood of ancient badges from a mound 
on the farm of the late Ezekiel Arrowsmith, of Madriver township. 
Champaign county. 

Dr. H. C. Houston, Urbana, Ohio— 2 Terra Cotta Images from Mexico. 

Dr, W. F. Leahy— Lead bullet found in the heart of a tree from Sag- 
inaw. 

Geo. a. Weaver— Specimens of Native Woods. 



18 

Ohas. Van Meter— Arrow Head from near Circleville, 0. 

Dr. H.- Ring- Stone Pestle from the Dallas farm, below Urbana, also 
piece of Conglomerate. 

R. M. GwYNNE— Set of Minerals, Fossils and Fresh Water Shells. 

Edgar Hodge, Champaign county — Set of 45 Flints from S. E. part of 
■county, near Buck Creek. 

Frank Boal, Urbana, Ohio — Specimens of Silurian fossils from Warren 
county, O. 

Jas. Pillars, Lima, 0. — Sea Mat. 

Clay Johnson, Urbana, Ohio — One Stone Pipe found in Champaign 
■county, O., (on deposit.) 

Dr. H. C. Houston — Sea Bean from Florida. 

W. P. Dabbs, Urbana, Ohio — Wood showing work of tree-borers. 

Jas. Landis, Urbana, Ohio — Cotton Bole, Jackson, Tenn. Snout of 
Saw Fish. 

Mrs. Major Hunt, Clarke county — String of Wampum from an 
Indian Tribe in the North-west. 

Chas. Roberts, Clarke county— 5 Pestles, 1 Hammer, 5 Mauls, 2 Axes 
and 6 Flints from Clarke county, near Buck Creek. 

Aaron Aten — Part of rib of mastodon, petrified; Fossil tooth, 3 pairs 
■of Deer horns, Tomahawk, Pipe, from Crawford's battle field. 

Prof. J. E, Werren, Urbana University — Original chart of earth- 
works on Haddix Hill, Osborn, 0. Also, original drawings of Plates 9 
to 12, inclusive, of the Heliotype illustrations of the Proceedings. 

D. H. Sherman, Drbana, Ohio — Original Drawings from which the 
Heliotype illustrations of the Proceedings were made. Plates 1 to 8 in- 
clusive. 

Chas. G. Smith, Urbana, Ohio — Pair of large Elk horns. 

M. H. Crane — Rattlesnake killed near Mad river. Champaign county, 
Ohio. 

D. H. Sherman— United States Geological Survey. Featherstonhaugh, 
1836. 

Mr. Haddix, Osborne, 0. — Stone Pipe from Mound. 

Dr. L. C. Herrick, Woodstock, Ohio— Wool-wheel, Flax-wheel, Reel 
and Hackle. These were formerly owned by Mrs. Mary Overfield, of 
Rush township. Champaign county, O., and were brought by her from 
Virginia, 



Inaugural Address 

—OF— 

Delivered November 17 th, 1818. 



"Gentlemen of the Association : 

When the President of such a society as this entdrs upon the dis- 
charge of his duties, it is customary for him to deliver an address. I 
follow the custom; but, instead of talking upon a scientific subject as 
is generally done, I confine my thoughts to the work of our Asso- 
ciation. 

Our constitution declares that the objects of our meetings shall be : 

1. The cultivation of Physical and Historical Science. 

2. The study of the country surrounding us, and its inhabitants. 

3. The cultivation of a scientific taste in the community. 

4. The mutual acquaintance of scientific students. 

I suppose the most prominent thought one has, when he hears the 
first object stated, is the question, Why are the two classes of science, 
Physical Science and Historical Science, connected? It is not usual 
for such societies as this to aim at more than one class ; and, in this 
■age of specialties, if we would do good work, we must confine our at- 
tention within as narrow limits as possible. 

I would answer that the two are connected in this society, because 
Iby nature they are connected. No one knows a subject when he is 
acquainted with it in its present phase only. Since scientists have 
studied the antiquity of the human race, their views of ethnology 
have been materially changed. The study of paleo -botany has 
■changed some old views of modern botany. That man has an influ- 
■ence on the earth is admitted; and, in order to trace this influence, 
we must have the aid of historical sciences. A writer in the Encyc. 
Brit, groups the mathematical and physical sciences, claiming that 
"with the exception of magnetism and electricity all the so-called 
physical sciences have been aided largely by the mathematical. 
Though it may be submitted whether or not the mathematical sciences 



20 

do not constitute a division of the physical, yet on the principle he has 
laid down, — the aid the one has given the other, — I claim that the 
historical and physical sciences must not be separated. 

And in the question which may here arise, Which sciences consti- 
tute the physical sciences? a grave difficulty presents itself. We have 
no standard of definition. One author, (another writer in the Encyc. 
Brit.), says all the physical sciences can be grouped under Geology 
and Astronomy; the author quoted above says they are only electricity 
and magnetism ; while if I remember aright, a much quoted author, 
Dr. Campbell, in his Philosophy of Rhetoric, follows the old Grreek 
classification and includes Psychology and Natural Theology. 

The question is one of importance to us, since we are meeting on 
common ground and wish to avoid all questions which tend to excite 
dissensions. Hence I take the liberty to recommend earnestly that 
you consider this matter, and as soon as possible form a list of those 
sciences which you deem physical, and which shall be allowed on the 
floor of this Association. 

In regard to the historical sciences, the same trouble, in a measure, 
is encountered; and the recommendation just made may be applicable. 
Yet the way is more clearly defined. Prof Neander has given a 
beautiful definition of history. "Its office," says he, "is to impart 
unity to the consciousness of mankind when it has been divided by 
Time. It originates in the eff"ort to connect the present with the 
past." So whatever bears directly upon this is Historical; be it in 
point of age, a thing of a thousand or ten thousand years ago, or of 
scarcely five minutes past ; be it in point of matter, a conclusion of 
Comparative Philology, a conclusion derived from comparing manners 
and customs and beliefs of people ; an examination of the remains of 
ancient cities, of the grave mounds of Europe, Asia, or America; of 
cave remains ; a transcript of the scrolls of Egypt or India ; copies of 
records from any part of the globe at any period of time and of any 
nature whatever; or a statement of what men now think, how they 
dress, what they believe, and how they live. 

The second object of our Association is the study of the surround- 
ing region and its inhabitants. Here we have use for both the Phys- 
ical and Historical sciences. Here we have a field which has never been 
worked, and which is replete with objects of interest and importance. 
Within a radius of an hundred miles lies a magnificent geological field 



21 

rich in paleontological treasures, beautiful for historical arrangement, 
and worth an investigation by the economic geologist. The drift, and 
more recent deposits of America, have never yet been worked up. In 
Natural History, that is, in zoology and botany, our field must not be 
neglected. In Indian remains, it is very rich ; and, in prehistoric re- 
mains, the richest in America. Dr. Foster, in his Prehistoric Na- 
tions, says that Ohio alone contains over 10,000 tumuli, and Mr. Bald- 
win states that not over 500 of these have been opened. 

Then we have customs and beliefs and methods of talk which are 
worthy of preservation. A man not long ago gave me his reasons for 
believing that boulders grow after the manner of vegetation ; the idea 
is worth preserving as a matter of history. In the matter of provin- 
cialisms, we can find much profit. Then in woi'king up the early set- 
tlement of this country by the whites — the manners and customs of 
the Indians who lived here at that time — the field is comparatively 
untouched. 

In regard to the third object of our Association, there is pleasure in 
knowledge, and scientific knowledge is much easier gained than many 
other kinds. So when men pass the matter carelessly by they deprive 
themselves of much pleasure. But more. Science itself is a loser 
thereby. To appreciate a thing we must understand it. Men appre- 
ciate money, for they know its use. Cortez destroyed the Mexican 
remains because he did not know their nature. The relies and the 
specimens of natural history in this country are thrust aside uncared 
for. Corals of the most common varieties are showered upon the col- 
lector under various names, such as petrified deers' horns, honeycombs, 
&c., while a really valuable coral, or a stone ax, or arrow head is 
passed by. A farmer has in his field a prehistoric mound — he either 
plows it down without any care, or if he examines it, he does it with 
so little care that his work is almost worthless. More than this, in an 
economic sense, science has claims — for a people who appreciate its 
surroundings are always wealthier than one which does not. 

In regard to the mutual acquaintance of students : Of the many 
points of interest which our society presents, I esteem no one of more 
importance than this. Troubles present themselves to one student 
and keep shy of another. One student can benefit another by ex- 
changing with him observations and speculations, by pointing out his 
errors, by discussing scientific views. One potent cause of men's ig- 



norance of every-day subjects is, they know not how to go to work at 
them. 

This much, gentlemen, as to the objects of our organization. We 
do not meet here as a social school, as some people have supposed. 
We do not come here to do our work, but to compare our works, to 
criticise them, to aid each other in our diflficulties, to preserve what- 
ever we may have gathered. And this leads me to the one thing 
which we must bear in mind : That we are to work. Our meetings 
are not to be playspells ; nor are we to work carelessly. First-class 
work is the demand — work done carefully, conscientiously. Treat our 
subjects thoroughly. We have a superabundance of science for pop- 
ular use ; altogether too much scientific work, so-called, done when 
one has wandered into the fields and seated himself on the velvet moss 
beneath the leafy canopy of some umbrageous oak ; too many scien- 
tific Fourth of July orations. The need is of accurate, complete 
work, independent work- — ^reliability must characterize it. We must 
be an authority in our field. 



Report of the Antiquities of 
Mad River Valley. 

BY PROF. THOS. F. MOSES, URBANA UNIVERSITY. 



The relation of the physical features of a country to the distribu- 
tion of its population is a well-known fact, especially as regards the 
location of cities and towns along the shores of seas and lakes and 
upon the banks of navigable rivers. At the present day, since the 
general introduction of railroads and canals, centers of population are 
found somewhat remote from the old highways of commerce, so that 
this natural relation is somewhat obscured. In the prehistoric times 
of our continent, however, when the streams were navigable in their 
smallest branches, and almost to their very sources, by the vessels of 
light draft common to primitive peoples, we should expect to find a 
more uniform relationship between the early settlements and the wa- 
ter-courses than now exists ; and it is the fact that we do find the 
mounds and earthworks constructed by the early inhabitants in close 
proximity to the rivers and their tributaries, those of less extent be- 
ing found along the smaller streams while those of greater magnitude 
occupy the larger river valleys and positions of greatest natural ad- 
vantage. Hence, in describing the ancient remains of the valley of 
Mad river we follow a natural method and confine our attention to a 
well-defined area, the study of which must necessarily yield more sat- 
isfactory results than that of one bounded by county lines or other 
arbitrary limits. 

As at the present day the topography of a country in other respects 
has greatly to do with the location of the settlements, so in these times 
the sites for erecting structures were carefully selected upon the eleva- 
ted plateaus and alluvial terraces where the salubrity of the air and 
the fertility of the soil afford peculiar advantages. Frequently the 
structures occupy the summits of lofty hills overlooking the valleys, 
and it is noticeable that the situations thus chosen are remarkable for 



24 

the beauty of prospect, showing that this also had its influence as well 
as the more utilitarian objects mentioned above. These latter struc- 
tures were evidently chosen as burial places or as being suitable for 
purposes ol observation and defense. Those occupying the alluvial 
plains are usually more extensive in character and were undoubtedly 
the seats of large towns. So well was their site chosen with reference 
to the natural advantages of the country that most of them are 
to-day covered with flourishing cities. In the words of Mr. E. 6. 
Squier : 

"It is worthy of remark that the sites selected for settlements, towns 
and cities, by the invading Europeans, are often those which were the 
especial favorites of the mound-builders, and the seats of their heaviest 
population. Marietta, Newark, Portsmouth, Chillicothe, Circleville and 
Cincinnati, in Ohio ; Frankfort in Kentucky, and St. Louis in Missouri, 
may be mentioned in confirmation of tliis remark. The centers of pop- 
ulation are now where they were at the period when the mysterious race 
of the mounds flourished."* 

GEOLOGY. 

The valley of Mad river, the chief tributary of the Great Miami, 
presents a well-marked geographical region characterized by numerous 
interesting topographical features. The main stream takes its rise but 
a short distance south of the ridge which constitutes the divide be- 
tween the waters flowing north to Lake Erie and those flowing 
south to the Ohio, the upper part of the Scioto valley alone in- 
tervening. The head of the stream lies east of Bellefontaine, in 
Logan county, in the Huron shale where, according to President 
Orton's report in the State Geological Survey (vol. I., page 454), 
the source has an altitude of 1,438 feet above tide water, being an 
elevation equal to that of any other in the State. In the upper 
part of its course the bed of the river lies over the Corniferous 
limestone and during its passage through the northeast part of Cham- 
paign county it is underlain by the Helderberg limestone. For the 
remainder of its course in Champaign county the river meanders 
through a series of peat bogs and marshes which overlie the drift. In 
this part of its course it is fed by numerous perennial springs which 
give to the stream a permanent character even in the dryest seasons. 
In the neighborhood of Urbana these springs are very numerous and 
the supply of water they afford is practically inexhaustable. The 
construction of the well for the Water- Works recently erected at Ur- 
bana afibrds the following facts bearing upon this point: The well is 

=''Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. 



25 

dug in the bottom just at the foot of the terrace upon which the city 
stands, not far from the junction of the Pennsylvania and Mad river 
railroad. The depth of the well below the surface of the water is 
nine feet and its diameter fifteen feet. In its construction the utmost 
difficulty was encountered owing to the rapid inflow of water, two 
rotary pumps and three steam engines being employed to keep it clear 
of water while the excavation was going on. Mr. Parrott, the en- 
gineer of the Water-Works, informs me that in making the "duty 
test," 2,000,000 gallons were thrown out in twenty-four hours. After 
pumping two hours, the level of the water had been lowered three 
feet, but there was no farther sinking during the remainder of the 
test. 

The whole region of Mad river valley from the line where the 
Helderberg formation breaks off in the north-eastern part of the county 
to the first contact of the river with its rocky borders is, in fact, a 
vast basin occupied in many places with vegetable accumulations sat- 
urated with moisture. The depth of these accumulations to the under- 
lying gravel is not many feet, and the width of the basin varies from 
one-half to three miles. The river itself occupies but an insignificant 
part of the basin except in seasons of heavy rains, when it runs riot 
over the whole plain, the sheet of water becoming in some places sev- 
eral miles in width. It is partly to this erratic tendency and partly to 
its tortuous channel and rapid flow that the river is commonly sup- 
posed to owe its name, but I am informed by John H. James, Esq., 
of Urbana, that its original name was from the Indian tongue, the 
translation of which is "River of Anger."* 

The hills which here form the borders of the valley are entirely 
composed of drift materials, nc rock being anywhere exposed, even in 
the bed of the stream. Indeed, supposing a uniform dip to charac- 
terize the underlying strata, similar to that exhibited at Springfield, 
the nearest rock or upper stratum of the Niagara limestone would be 
85 feet below the surface at the railroad station at Urbana. This 
theoretical estimate, made by the writer from a comparison of the A. 
& Gr. W; railroad profiles with the observed dip of the strata, can only 

"This information was communicated to Ool. James by Robert Flemming wlio, when a 
boy, had been the servant of one McKee, an Indian trader. Before the revolution 
McKee resided at Fort Pitt, but on the Declaration of Independence he casi his lot with 
the British and went to reside witli tlie Indians beyond the Ohio, taking the lad Flem- 
ming with him. Flemming spent many years with the Indians, learning their lan- 
guage and customs. He stated that the name "River of Anger" was given to this stream 
because the Indians here brought their captives to be burned. The place where this 
punishment was executed was near the source of the river in Logan county, on a tract 
of land formerly belonging to Col. James. 



be verified by a series of borings. In this part of its course Mad 
river receives a number of tributaries from either side, the most con- 
siderable on the east being Macachack, Kingscreek and Pleasant- 
run, and on the west Griady's creek and Muddy creek, which drain the 
high land near Spring Hills, and, proceeding south, Spring, Nettle 
and Stormes creeks, and Black Snake run, on the borders of Clarke 
county.* 

The country drained by these tributaries is mostly of a gently 
undulating character, the knolls being composed of clay, sand and 
gravel, the materials of which have been largely furnished by the 
rocks of Ohio. There are also a number of well-marked terraces 
where the gravels are overspread with a rich alluvial soil, either with 
or without an intervening stratum of clay. Along the valley of 
Buck creek, in the eastern part of Clarke county, the gravel hills 
slope gently down to the level of the broad plain in which the 
stream lies, presenting a very picturesque appearance. In the opin- 
ion of President Orton these ridges are not the remains of a general 
superficial deposit, but were laid down during the period of the 
post-glacial in the same form that they now possess.* 

The shape and general appearance of the ridges certainly 
favor such a supposition. Their gentle and uniform slope, the 
numerous gorges which penetrate their sides giving to them 
a peninsula-like form but having apparently no present connec- 
tion with the drainage system, the occasional depressions found 
upon their summits, all these conditions seem to favor the 
notion that they were deposited in strong counter currents of 
water very much as we see gravel banks forming along the course of 
our rivers at the present day. The examination, however, which the 
writer has made of sections of several of these gravel hills in the 
neighborhood of Catawba station, on the C. C. C. & I. R. R., and at 
Baldwin's mill, do not seem to corroborate this theory. In these sec- 
tions the horizontal lines of stratification are clearly seen, and in every 
instance the strata run quite to the edge of the hill where they termin- 
ate abruptly in the thin surface covering of the soil. These ridges 
are the favorite sites selected by the Mound-builders for their struct- 

*I am informed by Col. J. H. James that the present Dugan's run, emptying into 
Mad river south-west of Urbana, is an artificial tributary resulting from the construction 
of a drain from a marshy tract of land known as Dugan's prairie. In constructing the 
ditch it was necessary to cut through a ridge, and the natural drainage was formerly, 
probably toward Buck creek. 

jState Geological Survey, Vol. 1, p. 459. 



27 

ures in Champaign and Ularke counties, and they are also frequently 
found to contain large deposits of human remains over which no 
structure has been raised. The origin of these deposits is as much 
involved in obscurity as that of the mounds and their contents. 

That portion of Mad river valley which lies in Clarke, Greene and 
Montgomery counties has been so well described in President Orton's 
reports contained in the "Ohio Greological Survey," that it would be 
unnecessary to attempt the description here, except for the purpose 
of presenting the subject as a whole and in a connected manner, hence 
a brief summary only will be given. In the upper half of Clarke 
county the topography is essentially the same as in Champaign coun- 
ty, the only marked change observable being that the valley is gener- 
ally narrower and the bordering hills higher. These side hills, like 
those bordering the Ohio at Cincinnati, are in reality only the margins 
of the general level of the country, and mark the limits of a former 
period of erosion. In the latter instance the erosion has been ef- 
fected principally through the Silurian limestone, while in the region 
we are now describing it has taken place in the overlying drift depos- 
its. The resemblance to hills is increased by the lateral channels ot 
erosion which communicate with the main valley. Most of these 
coinmunicating channels are short, steep gorges rising rapidly to the 
general level of the plateau, while others traverse a large extent of 
country and contain the present tributaries of the river. In this part 
of its course the river traverses a large "cedar swamp," in which grows 
the white cedar or Cupressus thyoides. This swamp and a smaller 
one farther up the stream in Champaign county, are the only localities 
in this part of the State where these trees are found native In the 
peat bogs, especially those bordering Buck Creek, large trunks of the 
red cedar are often met with several feet below the surface, but none 
are found growing anywhere in the vicinity at the present day. 

If the surface deposits of Champaign, Clarke, Grreene and Mont- 
gomery counties were stripped off and the rocky floor laid bare, 
we should see a succession of limestone steps or platforms ris- 
ing from the south and ascending toward the north-east of this 
whole region. Across the northeastern part of Champaign and 
Clarke counties would be seen the upper platform of this flight of 
steps composed of the Helderberg limestone. Next in order would 
be seen a broad platform ot Niagara rock, spreading over, probably, 
the whole of Champaign and the greater part of Clarke counties. 



28 

Bordering this platform in the south-western part of Clarke county 
would be seen the next step in the series, that composed of the 
Clinton limestone, much lower and narrower than the others, and of 
very irregular outline. Finally, spread over the rest of the region 
indicated, would appear a floor of Blue limestone, hidden from view 
here and there by patches or islands of the layers already mentioned, 
some of these islands being composed of the remains of the next 
higher step, some of the two preceding ones, but none showing any 
traces of the highest or Helderberg formation. The whole surface 
would appear scarred and seamed by erosive agencies, some of which 
are now in operation and some of which have long ceased to exist. 
Let us now suppose this series of steps to be inclined somewhat 
toward the nprth-east so that their outer edges rise to nearly the same 
level and there inner angles form a series of shallow troughs. The 
long axis of these troughs extends generally from the north-west to 
south-east and Mad river traverses them nearly at right angles, its 
general trend being from north-east to south-west. The edge of 
the Helderberg step is crossed in the northern part of Cham- 
paign county as we have already seen. After this the river is 
bedded in the overlying drift deposits with which the whole trough 
at the foot of the Helderberg layer is filled. Of this basin and its 
marshy character we have already treated. The next step reaches 
the surface in the neighborhood of Springfield, that of the Niagara 
limestone. Through the edge of this the river has worn a narrow 
gorge for some distance. The picturesque cliffs at Moore's and 
Holcomb's quarries, nearly one hundred feet in height, are good 
examples of this erosion. Here the river valley is suddenly nar- 
rowed, its width opposite Moore's quarries being not more than one- 
quarter of a mile. Before this rocky barrier was worn away the 
river may have had a considerable fall at this place, the rock 
structure being precisely like that at Niagara Falls, and continuous 
with it. We may also suppose the marshy region behind to have 
been occupied by a lake or series of lakes, before the present free 
outlet for the waters was afforded. At Springfied, Buck creek en- 
ters Mad river from the east, and two miles below the city Mill 
creek. These latter have also wrought the latter part of their 
channels through the Niagara limestone. Five miles below Spring- 
field, at Snyder's station, the river traverses the next layer of the 
series, the Clinton limestone. The valley now rapidly broadens and 



29 

the course of the river lies over the blue limestone of the Cincin- 
nati group until it debouches into the Great Miami at Dayton. At 
Osborn it receives its last principal tributary, that of Mud run, the 
southern boundary of which is formed by the Clinton limestone. 
Haddix Hill, on which is an extensive system of earth-works con- 
structed by the Mound-builders is one of the islands or "outliers" of 
Clinton limestone left by some former erosive action ol great magni- 
tude. Other detached masses of this limestone are found in the 
neighborhood. The cause of this extensive erosion is usually ascribed 
to glacial action of which there are abundant evidences. The pol- 
ished and striated surfaces of the cap-rock of the Helderberg at 
McComsey's quarry, east of Urbana, in Champaign county, of the 
Niagara at the Springfield and Moore's quarries, of the Clinton lime- 
stone at Snyder's Station in Clarke county, show that the great ice- 
mass ground its slow way along over the edges of all the steps in the 
series we have described. A very remarkable example of this glacial 
polish has been brought to light in stripping the surface of Booher's 
quarry at Taylorsville, in Montgomery county. This quarry is situ- 
ated on the summit of a large island of Clinton and Niagara limestone, 
which is bounded on the west by the valley of the Great Miami, and 
is separated from the same formations on the east by an ancient eroded 
channel which, in the opinion of President Orton, was the former bed 
of this stream This channel is now occupied by Honey creek, flowing 
north-west and emptying into the Miami, and by a small tributary 
of Mad river which takes a southerly direction, reaching the river 
at Osborn. In opening this quarry several feet of clayey soil were 
removed to expose the rock which at this place is the lowest mem- 
ber of the Niagara series, the Dayton limestone. The whole rocky 
floor thus exposed, already several acres in extent, is smooth and pol- 
ished and planed down almost to a perfect level. It is cut into 
tables for flag stones and similar uses, blocks ten feet square being 
sometimes removed which present so smooth and true a surface that 
they seem to have been artificially dressed. The cyathophylloid cor- 
als and other fossils which occur in the stone are finely exhibited in 
vertical and cross sections. Comparatively but a small portion of this 
polished floor has as yet been uncovered and its probable extent has 
been estimated at not less than 200 acres. 



30 

ANTIQUITIES. 

The location of the earth-works of Mad river valley that have thus 
far been examined are found to bear a close relation to the topograph - 
ical features of this region as described above. They occur usually, 
on the high land overlooking the river valley, the exceptions to this 
rule being nearly always in the upper part of its course where a 
mound is occasionally found located on low ground at the junction of 
the main stream with one of its smaller tributaries. The works con- 
sist almost entirely of mounds, there being but one enclosure, as far 
as is known at present, namely, that situated on Haddix Hill near 
Osborn, and described in Prof. Werren's paper.* The mounds vary 
greatly in size. The smaller ones are usually low and flat on the sum- 
mit, and might be styled disk-shaped mounds. These are from three 
to five feet in height and from thirty to fifty feet in diameter. An- 
other class of mounds is more conical in shape, varying trom eight to 
fifteen feet in altitude and having a diameter at the base of from 
seventy to eighty feet. The very large mound at Enon, in Clarke 
county, belongs to the class of Grreat Mounds, like those at Miamis- 
burg, 0., and Gravecreek, Va., described in Squier and Davis' Mon- 
uments of the Mississippi Valley. This mound is from fifty to 
sixty feet in height and is situated a short distance from the village of 
Enon, upon the east bank of the river. The internal structure of 
all the mounds of this region that have been opened is nearly 
homogeneous in character, being generally of a clayey loam like the 
surface soil. In regard to the relation of the mounds to each other, 
sufficient data have not yet been obtained upon which to base a 
definite statement, but it is observed that in the case of those sit- 
uated upon high ground, one or more may be distinctly seen from 
the summit of another, as in the case of the Baldwin and Roberts 
mounds on Buck creek, and of the mounds at Enon, Haddix Hill and 
Kauffman's farm, suggesting the idea that they may have been used 
as signal stations. Of the mounds thus far opened by the Associa- 
tion, those upon the farms of Mrs. Samuel Baldwin and of Mr. Charles 
Roberts have yielded the most important results, and the description 
of their excavation and contents will be given in detail. The Bald- 
win mound was opened in the summer of 1876 and the Roberts mound 
a year later, but an account of the latter will be given first. 

♦Another earth-work is reported about five miles east of Springfield, but ii has not yet 
been examined. 



31 

THE ROBERTS MOUND. 

This Mound, like the Baldwin Mound, is located upon a high hill 
composed of drift gravels and sand, the materials having been chiefly 
derived from the limestone strata of our own State. Standing upon 
its summit a wide and beautiful prospect meets the eye in whatever 
direction one may turn. On the east the horizon is bounded by a 
range of hills. These hills are in reality the termination of a broad 
plateau and they indicate the contour lines of the eroded valley 
formed during some former geological period, into which valley now 
flow the streams which furnish the natural drainage of the country. 
Similar plateaus stretch away to the north and to the south and 
their numerous upland farms, teeming with abundant harvests, betoken 
the extraordinary fertility of the soil. One of these elevated plains 
is styled "Pretty Prairie." This name is applied to the southern part 
only of the northern plateau, but geologically it extends to the east- 
ern side of Urbana, the city itself being placed upon a lower terrace, 
and is the whole tract included between the valley of Madriver and 
that of its eastern tributary. Buck Creek. But perhaps the most re- 
markable feature of the landscape is the broad valley itself, which 
sweeps down between the plains above described from near Mechan- 
icsburg on the north-east, and taking a course due west as it flows by 
the base of the hill upon which the mound stands, finally trends away 
to the south-west, broadening as it goes, and, at last, lost to view in 
the distant horizon. One cannot fail to be impressed with the idea 
that this valley once held a noble river, smoothly flowing through 
its generous channel and hiding from view the present alluvial plain. 
The only remnant of this river, if such there were, is the little stream 
called Buck Creek, so named from the manner in which its smaller 
branches here unite with the main trunk like the antlers of a stag. 
Standing upon this mound, the prehistoric inhabitant could see the 
mound on what is now the Baldwin farm, crowning the summit of the 
opposite bank, and give to his friends across the stream a token of 
welcome or a signal of approaching danger. These sites, selected 
as they undoubtedly were with unusual care, as burial places for their 
dead, betray on the part of this little known people a love of nature 
and an appreciation of its beautiful features which are to be classed 
among man's nobler faculties, and which cannot fail to excite in us 
some tender sentiments mingled with our curiosity to learn something 
of their lost history. The grave mounds or barrows o*f Great Britain 



3^ 

were located with a similar regard to beauty of outlook and conspicu- 
ousness. Llewellyn Jewett, in "Grave Mounds and their Contents," 
writes as follows : 

"The situations chosen by the early inhabitants for the burial of their 
dead were, in many instances, grand in the extreme. Formed in the 
tops of the highest hills, or on lower, but equally imposing positions, the 
grave mounds commanded a glorious prospect of hill and dale, wood and 
water, rock and meadow, of many miles in extent, and on every side, 
stretching as far as the eye could reach, while they themselves could 
be seen from afar oflf in every direction by the tribes who liad raised 
them, while engaged either in hunting or other pursuits. They became, 
indeed, landmarks for the tribes, and were, there can be little doubt, 
used by them as places of assembling." 

Permission having been generously granted by the owner of the 
property, Mr. Chas. Roberts, to make such use of the mound as the 
Association should see fit, it was at first proposed to remove it layer by 
layer with plow and scraper, in order to expose its whole floor at once, 
hut a careful survey soon made it apparent that such a mode of pro- 
cedure would be out of the question owing to the number of trees, 
some of considerable size, scattered over its surface, and their inter- 
lacing roots. Work was accordingly begun by carrying an adit from 
the northwest side and sinking a central shaft of the dimensions of 
about four by eight feet, the longer diameter of the shaft running 
north and south. In the side adit, which was dug first, nothing was 
disclosed till the floor of the mound was reached, when just before 
coming to the natural surface of the soil, perhaps a foot above it, the 
trench passed through a layer of white ashes. This layer was after- 
ward found to extend from nearly the outer margin of the base of the 
mound, across its whole floor, arching up over the center so as to pre- 
sent a convex surface above. Its thickness varied from half an inch 
to one and a half inches. The layer presented near the center of the 
mound an almost stony hardness, causing it to come off in large flakes 
to which masses of the surrounding clay often adhered. When the 
clay was cleaned off the layer disclosed a mottled surface of a reddish 
brown color. The hardness wag apparently due to the lime of which 
the ashes seemed to be mainly composed, and the reddish brown surface 
might have been produced by a covering of bark placed over the ash 
layer, or more probably in the manner related in the following passage 
from "Grave Mounds and their Contents," describing the mode of 
burial probably practiced by the ancient Celts: 

"It not unfrequentlj' happens that the spot where the funeral fire has 
been lit can very clearly be perceived. In these instances the ground 



beneath is generally found to be burnt to some considerable depth; 
sometimes, indeed, it is burned to a fine red color, and approaches some- 
what to brick. When it was intended that the remains should be col- 
lected together, and placed in an urn for interment, I apprehend from 
careful examination, that the urn, being formed of clay, * •■■ * 
was placed in the funeral fire, and then baked, while the body of the 
deceased was being consumed. The remains of the calcined bones, the 
flints, etc., were then gathered up together and placed in the urn ; over 
which the mound was next raised. When it was not intended to use an 
urn, then the remains were collected together, piled up in a small heap, 
or occasionally enclosed in a skin or cloth, and covered to some little 
thickness with earth, and occasionally with small stones. Another fire 
was then lit on the top of this small mound, which had the effect of 
baking the earth, and enclosing the remains of calcined bones, etc., in a 
kind of crust, resembling in color and hardness a partly baked brick. 
Over this, as usual, the mound was afterward raised." Page 83. 

A chemical analysis will doubtless throw farther light upon these 
points. Below this layer at a varying depth, but of 8 or 9 inches on 
the average, a second layer was reached similar in character to the up- 
per one. The space between was filled with clay like that composing 
the mound. The relative portion of these two layers is seen in the 
accompanying diagram (Plate 1, Fig. 6). At the point of junction be- 
tween the side adit and central shaft, was found a heap of loose ashes 
mingled with small fragments of calcined human bones, (Fig. 8, D). In 
the heap were found also, several rudely fashioned flint arrow heads and 
a pierced ornament of stone. These seemed to have been acted upon by 
heat, as if some warrior, with his ornaments and weapons upon him, 
had been incinerated and the remains carefully collected and depos- 
ited where found. At a later day one or two other heaps of calcined 
bones were found, all at about the same distance from the center of the 
mound, (Fig. 8, E). The point to be determined is whether the whole of 
the ash layers was not originally composed of burnt bones. In carrying 
down the central shaft some fragments of human bones, much decayed, 
were unearthed near the surface, marking the site of an intrusive 
burial. Some scattered fragments of calcined bones were also found 
which will be referred to farther on. At the depth of from three 
and a half to four feet near the center of the mound a human skele- 
ton was reached, lying on the back, the head toward the north, (Fig. 7). 
It was firmly imbedded in the compact clay, and so great was the care 
required in removing it that only the head and upper part of the 
trunk was secured before night came. It will be proper to mention 
that during this first day's work, the writer was assisted by Mr. John 
B. Niles, of Urbana University, who also gave valuable aid during 
the whole exploration. The following Monday the work commenced 



u 

on Saturday was resumed. The party this time was increased by the 
addition of Mr. Aaron Aten, of the Association, and Messrs. Roberts, 
Bacon and Cabell, Students at the College. We were also favored 
with the presence of Mr. Gralen C. Moses, of Bath, Maine, a gentle- 
man much interested in archaeological matters, who showed his zeal 
by coming more than a thousand miles, expressly to be present at the 
opening of this mound. He remained with us two days and contrib- 
uted much to the success of the work by his practical suggestions. 
The first operation was the uncovering of a space some twenty feet 
long by eight wide, and to the depth of three and a half feet, in 
which nothing was exposed save a quantity of burnt clay and charcoal, 
to which reference will again be made. The work of disinterring the 
remainder of the skeleton discovered on Saturday, was soon resumed 
and after an hour and a half of hard labor, conducted with great cau- 
tion, we had the satisfaction of securing almost the entire skeleton, 
only a few bones of the ankle and wrist and several phalanges being 
wanting. It should have been mentioned above that in making the 
preliminary excavation, a handsome and perfectly formed perforated 
stone ornament was found, which, however, seemed to have no connec- 
tion with the burial, as it lay at a considerable distance from the 
skeleton and not on the same level with it. This skeleton has been 
found to weigh exactly nine pounds. 

A more particular description of the crania and bones found is re- 
served for a subsequent paper. It is an interesting fact that the breast 
bone has been perforated by some sharp instrument, probably a flint 
spear or arrow head, as the aperture is much larger on the outer than 
upon the inner surface of the bone, showing it to have been made by 
a tapering instrument. The external opening measures 1^ inches 
while the internal one is but f of an inch. Under the right 
thigh, near its upper third, was found a fragment of quartz rock as 
large as the palm of the hand, one side of which was flat and polished, 
the polished surface extending in the arc of a circle over one of the 
edges. Unfortunately this relic was misplaced, and could not after- 
ward be found. This concluded our "finds" for the day. The next 
day, Tuesday, two workmen were set at work in the morning to deepen 
the excavation, under the superintendence of Mr. J. B. Niles, the 
writer, on account of College duties, not being able to reach the scene 
of operations until noon. In the afternoon the skull of skeleton No. 
2 was reached, (Plate 1, Fig. 8, B). This skeleton was in a very im- 



perfect condition, and but a small part of it was removed. As far as 
could be judged from the position of the scattered fragments it had 
been placed upon the back, with head toward the west. It was un- 
derneath the upper layer of ashes, and the head was but a short 
distance from the heap of calcined bones first described. At a short 
distance from it the bones of another skeleton -were found which we 
will designate as No. 3, (Fig. 8, Gr), as parts of the one were unearthed 
simultaneously with parts of the other and all presented a very con- 
fused arrangement. The fact of there being but two skeletons was 
not ascertained at the time, but only disclosed alter several hours work, 
at a later day, in arranging and comparing the fragments. The posi- 
tion of the parts of No. 3 was indeed such as to seem to render it 
conclusive that the bones had been gathered together and burnt side 
by side, but after study renders it not impossible that the body had 
been folded together and laid on its side. The bones of the forearm 
and hands are, however, entirely wanting, and but very little of the 
spine is present. This might have been the result of decay but the 
bdnes that remain are remarkably heavy and nearly vitrified. They 
were covered over with a thick incrustation and presented the appear- 
ance of having been in the fire. This crust could not be removed at 
the time, but I find that after exposure to the air for some days, it has 
a tendency to scale ofi". One of the small bones of a leg and the upper 
bone of an arm lie across each other and are firmly. attached. The 
articular end of the long bones are nearly all absent in this skeleton, 
the lower jaw is much awry and the skull has a very low and retreat- 
ing forehead. Altogether it presents the appearance of a very low 
type of humanity. Near by a gouge or spoon, hollowed out of the 
metatarsal (?) bone of the elk (?) was found This was also incrusted 
in a way similar to the bones above described. Implements of bone 
are frequently found among mound relics and they constitute an 
important group in the classification of prehistoric articles. I have 
now mentioned nearly all that has been found in this mound up to the 
present time. (Plate 5, Fig. 5). 

Some two feet from the surface, at the south end of the excavation, 
a mass of charcoal was met with the fragments of which were of large 
size. With the charcoal was found a piece of thigh bone, charred 
and petrified, and part of an ulna or bone of the forearm. Near by 
was a stratum of clay, burnt nearly red; at the side, however, and not 
resting upon the charcoal. It is inferred that these charred fragments 



36 

of bones and charcoal, as well as those found on the surface, were 
scraped up from the site of the cremation, having been left behind 
when the ashes were gathered for burial, and that they were thrown 
on the mound with the surrounding earth during the process of its 
construction. 

In this mound two modes of burial appear to have been simultane- 
ously practiced, viz : those of inhumation and cremation, unless we are 
to regard the imperfect skeletons on the floor of the mound as belong- 
ing to the latter, the operation being but imperfectly performed. The 
condition of some of the bones hardly justifies such a conclusion. 
Mounds containing examples, both of inhumation and cremation, were 
of frequent occurrence in Grreat Britain, and many of them are de- 
scribed in Mr. Jewett's '•Grrave Mounds and their Contents." The 
skeleton found nearer the surface was of course deposited at a later 
date than the others, and may have been an intrusive burial, or it may 
have been deposited upon the former surface of the mound and the 
mound afterwards increased in size. The character of the bones 
themselves must be our only guide in determining this point. The 
practice of cremation, sufficiently common in ancient times, is still ob- 
served to some extent by the native races of North America, though 
entirely foreign to the spirit pervading the funeral rites of modern white 
races, as is shown by the attention excited by the two or three recent 
instances of it. A paper, read before the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, will serve to illustrate 
this mode. (See p. 58, "American Naturalist," for 1875). Some 
tablets recently found in a mound in Iowa, by the Rev. J. Gass, give 
a pictorial illustration of the process. (See p. 109, vol. 2, part 1, 
Proc. Davenport Academy of Sciences.) 

THE BALDWIN MOUND. 

This mound is located upon the top of a hill lying between the 
north and east forks of Buck creek at their junction, some eight miles 
southeast of Urbana and upon the farm of the late Judge Samuel 
Baldwin. It is nearly conical in shape, about seventy-eight feet in 
diameter at the base, and fifteen in height. Upon it oak trees of con- 
siderable size are now standing. The south side of the mound shows 
evidence that a considerable portion had at some time been removed. 
I am informed by Mrs. Baldwin that this appearance is due to the 
fact that the clay from the mound was used to make the brick for the 
house now standing upon the farm and occupied by Mr. Frank Bald- 



37 

win. This house, a two story brick, was built some fifty years dgo. 
In the process of removing the clay it is said that a quantity of bones 
was unearthed but afterward re-interred. Work was begun by carry- 
ing an adit from the side towards the center, and after the center was 
reached sinking a shaft toward the base. Some two feet from the 
surface the bones of several skeletons were found. These are fre- 
quently found in the surface of mounds, and are generally accounted 
to be those of some Indian tribe and of comparatively recent date. 
At the depth of twelve feet the original place of sepulture was reach- 
ed. Here a rude structure of bark and branches had been made as a 
receptacle for the dead, constructed, as nearly as could be ascertained, 
in the following manner: First a layer of bark was laid down, then 
the bodies placed upon this, the head of the one being directed toward 
the east, of the next toward the west, and so on. Logs were placed at 
the sides and between the bodies, dividing the grave into as many 
compartments as there were persons to be buried. The whole was 
then covered with a thick layer of bark, upon the surface of which 
was found a thin layer of charcoal. Bark, branches and bodies had of 
course reached the last stage of decay, only the ashes of the former 
remaining to show how they had been disposed, and long hollow cavi- 
ties filled with dust alone indicated the position of the logs. The 
whole mass had been pressed down and flattened by the weight of the 
overlaying earth, and most of the bones showed evidences of the great 
pressure, being crushed in and broken. The first skeleton reached 
was found lying with head toward the east, and it was judged to be 
that of a female. In the vicinity of the pelvis a number of bones of 
the head and limbs were found evidently belonging to an unborn 
child, judging from the condition of the teeth in the lower jaw, and 
that of other parts of the skeleton. Some of these bones are figured 
of their natural size in Plate 1, Figs. 3 and 4, and also in Plate 3, 
Figs. 3 and 4. (In Plate 1 Fig. 3 represents one of the bones of the 
toes, and Fig. 4. several of the fingers. In Plate 3 the bones of the 
thigh and leg are seen). A small copper ring was found near the 
head which had probably been worn in the ear or nose. (Plate 2, 
Fig. 2). Further excavation disclosed a second skeleton, having its 
head directed to the west. The bones of this skeleton were evidently 
those of a warrior, being very large and strong, and those of the lower 
limbs were in a remarkable state of preservation. Near the hand and 
lying across the body were the flint heads of three spears or arrows. 



38 

Their position seemed to show that they had been held in the hand by 
the wooden shafts now mouklered away. The upper part of the body 
when exposed to view presented k remarkable appearance, being 
crushed and distorted to a great extent by the pressure above. It 
had apparently been placed upon its left side and the arrows were 
grasped in the right hand. Removing the earth carefully from this a 
third skeleton was seen, its head pointed to the east. This was lying 
upon its back, and measured from its toes to the top of the head near- 
ly six feet; but this measurement cannot be considered perfectly reli- 
able, owing to the flattening of the body from pressure. The teeth 
were thirty-two in number and perfectly sound. Around the neck 
was a string of beads made of mother of pearl, probably taken from 
the shells of the river mussel. (Plate 2, Fig. 3). This skeleton 
seemed to be that of a young woman of from 18 to 20 years. (Plate 
4, Fig. 1 represents the profile and Fig. 2 the face view of the skull). 
The skeleton next disclosed was that of a young man of about six- 
teen years. The head was placed in the reverse position to that of 
the one preceding it. The skull of this one is remarkably well 
shaped as may be seen by reference to the illustration, (Plate 3, Figs. 
1 and 2). Over the breast were found several plates of mica, cut in 
the form of a crescent, (Plate 2, Fig. 1). Plates of mica, often of large 
size, are frequently found in mounds and the mica is believed to have 
been brought from Carolina. This, with the copper from Lake Su- 
perior and the small shells from the Grulf of Mexico about to be men- 
tioned, is an evidence of the commercial habits of the people. The 
next space was occupied by the skeletons of two small children placed 
feet to feet. Near the head of one of these was a heap of small sea 
shells, belonging to a species now found in the Gulf of Mexico. These 
were pierced at the ends and may have been worn as a necklace, 
(Plate 2, Fig. 9). The succeeding skeleton was that of an adult per- 
son and near it was found a small implement made of banded slate, 
belonging to the class called "boat shaped" implements in the collec- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution. It may have been worn as a 
mark of dignity or badge of office. It is not pierced by holes, (Plate 
2, Fig. 5). An eighth skeleton was found belonging to this group, 
near which also lay a small quantity of shell beads like those last de- 
scribed. Following these, near the margin of the mound, were three 
others thrown down apparently without regard to position, as they 
were disposed at various angles with the limbs crossing each other, 



39 

and no protection of logs had been placed arround them, nor were any 
ornaments found with them. It is worthy of note that of all the 
skeletons found in the mound the eight first described were buried 
with especial care and each of them had some mark of distinction or 
token of affection. The arrangement of the bodies was also somewhat 
remarkable, they being placed with great uniformity with the heads 
alternately toward the east and west. The suggestion is offered that 
this arrangement was made simply with a view to economise space. 
During the last war the writer had occasion to visit the battle field of 
Chantilly, Va., for the purpose of obtaining the body of a relative 
killed in that battle. There had been a hasty retreat and but little 
time was afforded for the burial of the dead. The body sought was 
found in a shallow pit evidently made in haste, and in this pit 37 
bodies had been placed and barely covered with earth. The arrange- 
ment of the bodies was precisely the same as in this mound, heads and 
feet being placed alternately, with the evident object of crowding as 
many as possible into the excavation. This disposition of the bodies 
allows a greater number to be placed side by side than if all had been 
deposited with the heads in one direction. 

The excavation above described occupied the northwest quarter of 
the mound and nothing farther was found in this section. Some days 
later work was resumed by carefully uncovering the whole of the 
northeast quarter of the mound until the floor was reached. The 
space was found covered with skeletons, 10 in number, which had 
been promiscuously thrown down, the bodies being bent at all angles 
and the limbs of one often lying across those of another. As in the 
case of the former deposit a layer of charcoal was found over the upper 
surface and another had been placed below. The cross section of the 
mound plainly exhibited these two layers of charcoal. No implements 
or ornaments were found with these bodies. In one corner of the 
area, near the center of the mound (Plate 1, Fig. 5, X.), there was a 
small heap of ashes containing a few burnt bones and calcined mussel 
shells. At the outer angle (Fig. 5, V.), was a vase of baked clay 
crushed to fragments, the rim only retaining its original form. This 
vase or funeral urn was placed with the mouth downwards. Its in- 
terior surface was coated with black carbonaceous matter. In the 
south half of the mound, that part from which the clay had been 
taken for making brick, a pit was dug and bones were reached quite 
near the present surface. Here were parts of three skeletons, and as 



40 

no others were found near by, it was conjectured that these might be 
the remains of those which had been encountered at the time of mak- 
ing the brick, and which were said to have been again buried. The 
excavation was continued toward the center of the mound without 
farther results, but this may have been from not carrying it to a 
sufficient depth. A test pit was also made on the west side, but noth- 
ing was found. The plan of the several excavations and of the depos- 
its found is shown in Plate 1, Fig. 5. The vase is represented in Fig. 
1. The shape there given is somewhat conjectural, as the upper part 
could not by any possibility be restored, owing to the small size of the 
fragments and the crumbling away of their edges. That the general 
form was rounded is known from the shape ot the fragments. Fig. 5, 
Plate 3, represents a fragment of what appears to be the metatarsal 
bone of some species of the deer family. Comparison has been made 
with the same bone in the elk and other species of the deer family, 
but a remarkable variation is observed in the proportion of the parts. 
In this specimen the width of the outer condyle is much greater in 
proportion to its thickness than in the case of the recent specimens. 
An implement of bone having a sharp cutting edge and polished sur- 
was also found near the first group of skeletons. This is shown in 
Plate 2, Fig. 4. Figure 9 of the same plate represents a small flint 
instrument of unusual form. It is represented of natural size. Fig- 
ures 6, 7 and 8 are of objects not found in this mound and are de- 
scribed elsewhere. It is quite probable that much more remains to 
be discovered in the remaining portions of the mound, and it is the 
design of the Association to continue the exploration at some future 
day. The soil of which the mound is composed is a clear yellow clay, 
quite free from stone or gravel, and cutting under the spade with a 
smooth bright surface. The hill upon which it rests is a loose mix- 
ture of limestone pebbles having a thin surface covering of dark loam. 
For a considerable distance around the base of the mound the earth is 
somewhat similar in character to that of the mound, but is not so free 
from stone. Such pebbles as were found in the mound were of quartz 
and sandstone, only a single specimen of limestone being found and 
that a water worn one. The material did not appear to have been 
scraped up from the surface, but was probably brought from a 
distance. The clay was nearly homogeneous throughout and very 
compact. At the base a complete arch had been formed by the decay 
of the log structure, the superincumbent soil having first become 



41 

sufficiently firm to retain its position. This peculiar structure of the 
mound was the cause of what was well nigh a serious accident. 
While stooping down near the center of the main excavation to ex- 
amine a heap of ashes and being at the time some ten feet below the 
surface, one of the excavators, the writer of this article, was suddenly 
buried by the caving in of the side wall. The blow was a terrible 
one and for a few moments the situation seemed critical, as respira- 
tion was nearly impossible, owing to the weight of the mass of earth 
that had fallen. Through the exertions of Dr. J. L. McLain, Mr. 
Frank Showers and Mr. Corbin, who were assisting in the excavation, 
a timely rescue was effected with no serious result. The incident is 
mentioned in the hope that it may be of service to those engaged in 
similar work, and as a wholesome caution, especially as during the 
same month a similar accident occurred in the process of opening a 
mound in West Virginia, which had a fatal result. 

It was the intention to append to this account of the opening of the 
mound a description of the crania and other bones, of which a large 
number was secured, but these will be made the subject of a separate 
paper. In general it may be said that the same peculiarities that are 
mentioned by other writers, such as the foreshortening of the skulls 
and their want of symmetry, the flattening of the tibia and perforation 
of the humerus are all exhibited in a marked degree. Many of the 
bones had become bent by the weight of earth resting upon them and 
much of the distortion exhibited in the skulls is believed to be due to 
this cause rather than to compression during life. This was proved 
in some instances in attempting to replace the bones of skulls that had 
fallen apart, a wide gap remaining at the completion of the work be- 
tween parts that should have come into contact and which the most 
skillful manipulation could not conquer. To account for this bending 
and warping of the bones it is only necessary to consider the peculiar 
conditions to which they have been subjected. For centuries they 
have lain beneath an immense mass of earth, and this constant and 
long continued pressure, accompanied by a kind of molecular disinte- 
gration and re-arrangement of the particles of bony matter, is amply 
sufficient to produce these changes of form. Frequently bones lying 
over each other were found soldered together from the same cause. 

OTHER MOUNDS. 

A nulnber of mounds, of less important character then those just 
described, have been opened from time to time by the Association. 



42 

A small flat mound at the junction of the Mackachack with Mad 
river on Mr. Clem's farm disclosed nothing but a layer of charcoal 
near its base. If it had contained any bones or other objects of inter- 
est, these had either decayed or were not reached by the line of exca- 
vation. A mound of similar character was also opened on the farm 
of Mr. Michael near Buck creek. In this nothing but a small quan- 
tity ot charcoal was found. 

Two mounds have been opened by the Morse Natural History 
Society in which work the writer was also associated. One of these 
is located on the ridge northeast of the Baldwin mound on the farm 
of Mr. Wilson. It is a low mound, being only three feet in height 
and about thirty in diameter. In it were found simply the frontal 
bone of a skeleton, fragments of a stone pipe and a few flints. A 
mound has been recently opened by the same society with the assist- 
ance of James Bacon, Esq., of Springfield, which has yielded interest- 
ing results as far as the exploration has been carried. This mound is 
situated on the Foley farm, about four miles east of Springfield on a 
ridge midway between Buck creek and Beaver creek. The mound is 
eight feet in height and seventy feet in diameter at the base. It is 
situated in a wood and is covered by the present forest growth. An 
excavation eight feet square was carried down through the center to 
the base. The line of junction of the mound with the ground on 
which it stands is very well marked. Four feet from the top, a mass 
of burnt clay was encountered in which were found fragments of 
charred bone and the skull and other parts of a skeleton that had not 
been charred. Bits of pottery were met with here and there during 
the whole of the excavation. The principal deposit was reached at 
the base of the mound immediately upon the surface of the ground. 
Here were several skeletons variously disposed. They were placed in 
a small area close together and apparently without any enclosure of 
wood, bark or stone. There was no charcoal about them, and the 
bones were firmly imbedded in the clay. The first skeleton exhumed 
was folded together, the knees resting against the chin, and was placed 
on the right side, the head toward the north. Next to it was a skel- 
eton in a similar position with the head toward the south. Beside 
these, stretched at full length, were two others. The first was placed 
on its back with the head turned on its left side toward the north and 
facing the east. Close behind this was another skeleton in a similar 
position to the former, the skulls of the two being in contact and the 



43 

right arm of the latter lying across the breast of the former. Near 
the pelvis of the last one were found a quantity of very small human 
bones, apparently those of a fcetus. The three bones of the ossa 
innominata were found separated, never having become united. Near 
the feet of the two skeletons was found a few handfuls of ashes 
mingled with fragments of mussel shell. This last deposit was simi- 
lar to one found in the Baldwin mound and probably had something 
to do with the funeral rites. The skulls of two large rodent animals 
were also found near by. The skull and most of the long bones of 
the last or female skeleton were saved entire. The skull is similar in 
shape to the others which have been exhumed, having the same cu- 
boidal form and vertical occiput which are characteristic of the 
genuine mound skeletons. Up to the present time no art relics have 
been discovered save the fragments of pottery mentioned above. 
Several other mounds are located in this neighborhood on the banks 
of Beaver creek. 

Several miles below Springfield at Snyder's Station on the A. & Gr. 
W. railroad, east bank of Mad river, a mound was opened by John 
Snyder in which was found a cache containing 128 flints of the "leaf- 
shape" pattern of various sizes. The flints are similar to the ones in 
the possession of Mr. Aaron Aten and figured in Plate 5, Figs 4 and 
5. Mr. Aten's were plowed up in a field in Wyandot county and are 
182 in number. 

A mound was recently opened upon the farm of the late Judge 
Dallas, four miles below Urbana, by Mr. James Dallas, who has ex- 
hibited to me the results of his exploration. This mound is placed 
on the summit of the bend overlooking Mad river valley, and as the 
valley here changes its direction, making a sweep towards the south- 
east, and is some three or four miles in width, the situation is a very 
commanding one. The beauty and extent of the view from this 
mound is remarkable. The mound, from a survey made by Dr. R. H. 
Boal, was found to be fitty feet in diameter and four feet in height, and 
situated 105 feet from the edge of the plateau. A few rods below, on 
the slope of the hill, is a small circular ridge, some fifteen feet in 
diameter, the earth forming the ridge being thrown out in such a way 
as to leave a small conical elevation in the center. The relics obtain- 
ed from the mound and now in Mr. Dallas' possession consist of 
several boat shaped badges, a number of arrow heads and leaf shaped 
flints, a fragment of a stone tube and in addition to these articles a 



44 

quantity of charred bones, among which was a mass of charred cloth. 
This last interesting deposit will be described in detail elsewhere. 
One of the badges is much longer and more tapering than the others 
and is the only one pierced with holes. It is made of banded blue 
stone, and as new and fresh as if it had just been wrought. It is a 
matter of regret that the opening of the mound had not been made by 
some experienced person so that the relative position of the cloth and 
bones might have been observed. 

The places of sepulture over which no structures have been erected 
are exceedingly numerous throughout the region we have been de- 
scribing. Hardly a railroad or turnpike cutting is made, or gravel 
bed op.ened, that does not disclose a mass of skeletons. The hill tops 
are literally sown with the dead. It is probable that these burials 
belong to all periods in the history of the country down to the time 
of its occupancy by Europeans. The mound builders may have 
buried their common dead in this way, reserving tumuli for their 
chiefs and their families and for other distinguished persons.* The 
two modes of bvirial are, it must be observed, entirely diiFerent from 
each other. In the case of the mounds the remains are placed upon 
the surface of the ground, often being first incinerated, and the earth 
heaped over them, while in the latter instances, a pit is dug and the 
remains are interred below the surface. In the case of these gravel 
bank burials every surface indication of the cemetery below has usu- 
ally been effaced by time. The bones are found in the knolls, quite 
near the top. Generally, when exposed, the depth of the deposit may 
be known by the mixture of the surface loam with the gravel under- 
neath. The bodies may occur single or in graves grouped together, 
or crowded promiscuously into large trenches. They have been 
found in almost every posture, prostrate, sitting and even standing. f 
Sometimes the parts of the same skeleton are quite widely separated 
from each other and so mingled with the materials of the drift that 
they would almost seem to have been deposited by some surface action 
before the alluvium was laid down upon it. This condition of things 
was especially observable in a deposit examined by Dr. J. L. McLain, 
Prof J. E. Werren and myself, on the farm of S. M. Hodge on the 
east side of Buck creek valley and near the southeast corner of Cham- 
paign county. The bones of portions of several skeletons were found 

^Ancient Remains of the Mississippi Valley p. 171. 

fAn instance of this last posture was related to me by an eye witness, but I do not know 
how reliable the statement may be. . 



45 

on the side of a gravel knoll, four feet from the surface, completely 
imbedded in the gravel, which showed no trace of the superficial soil. 
In the case of one of the skeletons the lower jaw was removed two feet 
from the skull to which it belonged, and the bones generally were 
much scattered. It is- an interesting fact that a thigh bone, having a 
perfectly re-united fracture, was found among the bones. The posi- 
tion of the united parts is bad, and the amount of shortening is up- 
wards of three inches. A few rods distant on the summit of the knoll 
stands a small mound; there is also another in the bottom and still 
another on a hill on the opposite side of the stream. Many flints are 
plowed up in the neighborhood. 

A large deposit of skeletons has been unearthed at Catawba station, 
on the C. C C. & I. railroad, in the work of removing a portion of the 
steep gravel bank at this place for ballasting the road bed. Rev. Gr. 
G. Harriman reports that the bones were found buried in two 
trenches, running east and west, eight feet apart and eighteen inches 
below the surface, resting on the top of the gravel. There was no 
appearance of any regular burial, but the bodies had apparently been 
thrown in helter skelter. They comprised both those of children and 
adults. Most of the bones fell down the bank during the work of 
excavation and were carried off on the gravel trains. The place was 
visited by parties from Delaware, Springfield and Cincinnati, who all 
secured specimens, and a skull and several of the long bones in a good 
state of preservation were obtained for the cabinet of the Association. 
I examined on the spot as many of the bones as I could gather and 
observed that a large percentage of the humeri, or arm bones, was 
perforated. The skulls seen are small and rounded in form, much 
resembling those found in the mounds of the neighborhood. It was 
estimated that several hundred skeletons had been exhumed from 
these trenches. The hill on which these remains were found is 
the eastern border of a jutting portion of the plateau or bench which 
borders Buck creek valley. This extends out into the valley on the 
west like a kind of promontoi-y, and on the end of the promontory are 
three circular depressions. From these depressions a graded way, as 
wide as an ordinary wagon road, leads to the foot of the hill. The 
attention of the Association was called to these depressions by Mr. 
Joseph C. Glenn, upon whose farm they are found. 

An account of the antiquities of Mad river valley would not be 
complete without a map which should contain the location of every 



46 

mound and earthwork at present existing in this region. The con- 
struction of such a map is contemphitcd when the necessary materials 
for it have been collected. Finally, it is not out of place to mention 
here the existence of another class of ancient remains, namely, those 
of the mastodon, which are quite frequently found. Within a few 
years not less than three deposits of this character have been discov- 
ed in the peat bogs bordering the river. These were casually discov- 
ed in the work of ditching and doubtless the remains of many more 
are scattered through the valley. 



Explanation of Plates. 

PLATE I, 

Fig. I. Vase found in Baldwin Mound. Reduced ^. 

Fig. 2. Soapstone Pipe found in a stone mound on Haddix 

Hill, near Osborn, O. Page 53. 

Fig. 3,4. Bones of toe and fingers of infixnt found in Bald- 
win Mound. Natural size. 

Fig. 5. Diagram of excavations made in the Baldwin Mound, 
showing position of the skeletons and other ob- 
jects. 

Fig. 6. Vertical section of the Roberts Mound, showing po- 
sition of the skeletons and ash layers. - - Page 33. 

Fig. 7. Plat showing position of the upper skeleton, Roberts 

Mound. ------- Page 33. 

Fig. 8. Plan of floor of the Roberts Mound, showing the 
skeletons at B and C and the heap of ashes and 
burned bones at D and K. - - - Pages 34,35. 

PLATE IT. 

(Sec descdptioa of Baldwin Mound, pages f!6, 37, "8). 

Fig. 1. Pieces of Mica found with a skeleton in the Bald- 
win Mound. Reduced ^. 

Fig. 2. Copper ring from skeleton in the Baldwin Mound. 
Natural size. 

Fig. 3. Several of the mother-of-pearl beads found around 
the neck of one of the skeletons in the Baldwin 
Mound. 8ize of nature. 

Fig. 4. Bone chisel from Baldwin Mound. 

Fig. 5. (Stone liadge found with one of the skeletons in 
Baldwin Mound. Reduced ^. 

Fig. G. Bird shaped ornament of banded blue stone, from 
Wyandot Co. Collection of Aaron Aten. 

Fig. 7. Bird shaped badge, same material as above, found 
on farm of D. Talbott, Champaign Co., O. Re- 
duced -^. 

Fig. 8. Stone Pestle from farm of Judge Dallas, near Ur- 
bana, O. Reduced ^-r. 

Fig. 9. Small flint implement from the Baldwin Mound. 
Size of nature. 

Fig. 9. Small marine shells from Baldwin Mound. 



48 



PLATE III. 

Fig. 1. Skull from Baldwin Mound. Profilie. 

Fig. 2. Same, face view. 

Fig. 3. Thigli bone of infant, Baldwin Mound. Size of 

nature. 
Fig. 4. Bones of the leg, same as above. 
Fig. 5. End of metatarsal bone of elk, found in Baldwin 

Mound. ------- Page 87. 

PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. 2. Profile and face of skull from Baldwin Mound. 

Fig. 3. Small bones of the ear, Baldwin Mound. - - Page 37. 

PLATE V. 

(All articles in this Plate redxiced one-half). 

Fig. 1. Badge of banded blue stone found on the bank of 
the Broken Sword, in Eden Township, Wyandot 
Co., O. Collection of A. Aten. 

Fig. 2. Badge, or "Ceremonial Ax," from Antrim Tp., Wy- 
andot Co., 0. Collection of A. Aten. 

Fig. 3, 4. Leaf shaped flints being the largest and smallest 
of a lot of 182 plowed up in a field in Antrim Tp., 
Wyandot Co., were placed in a pile, the largest at 
the top. Collection of A. Aten. 

Fig. 5. Implement of bone from Egberts Mound. - - Page 37. 

Fig. 6. Plummet or Sinker. Collection of A. Aten. 

PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1. Stone Pipe ti*om Champaign Co. T. N. Glover. 

Fis;. 2. Stone Pipe. Cabinet of Urbana University. 

Fig. 3. Cast of Clay Pipe found near Woodstock. T. N. 
Griover. 

Fig. 4. Sandstone Pipe resembling Toucan, found in Cham- 
paign Co. Property of C. Johnson. 

Fig. 5. Sandstone Pipe from Pipe Town, plowed up in 
1871. Collection of A. Aten. 

Fig. 6. String of ivory beads or wampixm. From Mrs. 
Major Hunt. 

PLATE VII 

Fig. 1. Double Crescent, or "ceremonial weapon" of banded 
slate. From Antrim Tp., 3 miles below Upper 
Sandusky, 0. (Reduced ^). Collection of A. 
Aten. 

Fig. 2. Stone Ax from bank of the Broken Sword. (Re- 
duced ^). Collection of A. Aten. 



Pi. ATE I, 



F I O. I 








ff&,4- 











FIG, 6 







mt^\^^'^:^ 







F'lG,/ 



FIG.8 



JZ). H .Sliemianv J)eZ. 



The HeiiotypePrintinoCo. 220 Devohshikf. St, Bostor. 



Plate 2 







Hl/Ml-ui-rTruini^el 



TheHeliotypePrihtinoCo. 220 DBMBgHiEE St. Boston. 



Pl-ATE 3 




FIG. 5 



F;G.4- 



3). jti-tShey'r/t^n-^ii-t, 



The HEUOTypEPRfliTiNoCo. 220 DmoNSHiRE St. Bostoh. 



Plate. 4- 




D.H.S kemta/t J>e'7, 



The HELiOTirePRniTffloCo, 220 DEVOHSHmE St. Bostoh 



Pt.AX£ 5 




D. H. Qfiei'mcwi'.De'l'. 



The HeuotteePrimtmgCo. 220 Deyohshire Sr.Bosroit 



Plate 6 




3J,Mftermr/7t Mrp. 



The HeuotyeePrimtikgCo. 220 Deyohshihe St Bostoh. 



PUATC 7 




3) .WStv^-Ttui/n^Del. 



The HeuotieePrihtikoCo. 220 Deyomshtre St, Bostoh. 



PuATeS 




JJJI. "Slvei y •?7t.ci,'?i^-DeZ" 



'THEHEUOTYPEPRIBTIHOCO. 220 DEY01I5HIKE St. tJOSTOK 



49 



PLATE VIII. 
(Figures reduced one-half). 
Fig. 1.2,3. Stone badges or "pierced tablets." Cabinet of 

Urbana University. 
Fig. 4. Stone badge. Cabinet of Urbana University. 
Fig. 5. Badge of banded slate from Antrim Township, Wy- 
andot Co. Collection of A. Aten. 
Fig. G. Perfectly formed ax of fine grained syenite, found 
in Clarke Co. Collection of T. F. Moses. 



Altitude of the Blue Lime- 
stone Formation at 

OSBORN, O. 



BY S. F. WOODARD, OSBORN, OHIO. 



In Vol. I, Chap. XIII, of the State Geological Keport, the Cin- 
cinnati Grroup or "Blue Limestone" foi'xnation is treated oi. In that 
chapter reference is made to the height of the top of said formation 
above low water mark at Cincinnati at several points, which are indi- 
cated on the map opposite page 413 in the volume mentioned. The 
altitudes of said points are also given in a tabular statement on page 
414 of the same volume. Comparing the altitude of said points, the 
top of said formation is shown to decline four feet to the mile, going- 
north along the arch of the Cincinnati Anticlinal. (See Vol. I, 
pages 414 and 415). Therein, Station K, one mile above Osborn, is 
given as having an altitude of 415 feet above low water mark at (Jin- 
cinnati, whereas, it should have a height of 450 feet to be in harmony 
with the altitude of the other points given. 

Station L, somewhat east but only about four miles south, has an 
altitude given of 4(J(j feet, and Station F, a very little west and about 
13 miles farther south, is given as having a height of 503 feet. De- 
ducting four feet to the mile, in either case, leaves about 450 feet for 
the height of Station K, instead of 415 feet as given in the survey. 

On page 414 of the same Report, Prof Orton attempts to account 
for this discrepancy by supposing the whole outlier of the above 
Clinton Limestone to be there depressed below its normal level ; but if 
any one will take the pains to examine he will undoubtedly come to 
the conclusion that the Professor has made a mistake in taking the 
altitude of the top of the Blue Limestone formation at Station K 
instead of there being a depression of the Clinton Limestone. For, 
mark, in Volume Second of the Geological Survey Prof Orton him- 
self, in his article on Greene county, page 662, gives the altitude of 
Osborn as 410 feet above low water mark at Cincinnati. Now, running 
up the railroad track one mile to Station K, the elevation of the track 



51 

at said Station would be about 415 feet above low water mark, and it 
will be evident to any one on examination that the Cincinnati formation 
extends to a line of springs 25 to 35 feet higher up the hill. At 
least the Blue Limestone formation can be seen 15 feet higher than 
the railroad track, where a wagon road has been cut on the hillside, 
and the evidences would show its elevation to be about 450 feet 
instead of 415 feet as given by Prof. Orton. Should this prove to be 
the case, as it undoubtedly will, the Blue Limestone formation at 
Station K will be in harmony with the altitude of the same formation 
at other points given on page 414 of Volume First of the Survey. 



Report of the Survey of An- 
cient Earthworks near 

OSBORN, O. 

BY PROF. J. E. WERREN, URBANA UNIVERSITY. 



The hill upon which the earthworks are situated, lies about one 
mile east of Osborn, southeast of the two E.. E.. lines (the C. S. & C, 
and the A. & Gr. W.); it is of an irregular oval shape, with the greatest 
axis nearly N. and S., and about one mile in length. It rises from 
the ancient bed of the Great Miami river, above whose waters it 
probably projected as an island, 50 feet high (its present elevation 
from the surrounding valley). The insular character is well attested 
by the absence of sand and gravel (as well as drift) on the top, and by 
the sedimentary formation in the outliers south and east, where clay, 
gravel, and boulders are of common occurrence. 

The surface-layer of rocks belongs to the Clinton Limestone, 
whose base, "or rather the summit of the underlying Cincinnati 
Grroup, is a notable water bearer, or is shown by the fine line of 
springs that issue from this horizon,"* noticeable especially when 
ascending from the railroad. Other evidences of the Clinton Lime- 
stone, especially this, that at many points the beds are extremely fria- 
ble, are exhibited on this hill in the vicinity of the Springfield and 
Dayton pike, where on"e quite remarable "sinkhole" may be observed; 
it is without water, and to its lowest bottom studded with lofty trees. f 

In the absence of a name given to the hill collectively, the custom 
is here followed of designating the localities on it, where aboriginal 
remains are found, by the names of the respective owners, according 
to which usage the northern extremity (marked A on the accompany- 
ing plan) is known as Haddix Hill; south eastern extremity (marked 
B) is owned by Mr. Mitman, and this portion is known as Mit- 
man's Hill. (Haddix Hill lies nearly entirely in Clarke county; the 
remainder of the hill, together with Mitman's Hill, is in Greene Co). 

*For further information see Part II, p. GG6 Ohio Geology. 
fReport of the General Survey of Ohio Geology." 



53 

The chief earthworks are found on Haddix Hill, and may be classed 
in two groups, viz : Mounds and Lines of ^arthworJcs. Of the 

MOUNDS 

there are three (3) constructed of earth and one stone mound, all on 
Haddix Hill, and are shown on the accompanying plan marked a, b, c, 
and d, respectively. 

Mound (c), situated in cultivated land, is by far the most exten- 
sive, and bears no traces of ever having been disturbed by explorers. 
Like all mounds of exposed situation it has greatly changed its form, 
having extended its circumference at the expense of its height; it is 
now about ten (10) feet high and about sixty (60) feet in diameter, 
with a nearly circular base. 

Mound (a) is the next in extent, about ten (10) feet high and fifty 
(50) feet in diameter, also circular at the base. It has been opened 
and explored to some degree; but the investigation, having been 
carried neither with the necessary amount of carefulness, nor to a 
sufficient extent, has revealed little beyond the proof that it was a 
burial mound. The adits still visible warrant the supposition that a 
future investigation might still be of profit. 

Mound (b) is in the line of earthworks "f" and the smallest of the 
earth mounds, about one-half the size of mound (a). The "Morse 
Natural History Society of Urbana University" have explored this 
mound and proved it to be a sepulchral mound. Parts of two skele- 
tons were found in rudely made stone receptacles, overlain by heavy 
flat stones, serving, evidently, as a covering. 

Mound (d) consists of an irregular heap of stones out of whose 
midst. a vigorous tree has grown which is standing now (1878). 
Were it not for relics, and human remains found there, one would 
hardly suspect in it the work of a prehistoric race, so much does it 
resemble an ordinary heap of refuse rock. It is perhaps two (2) feet 
high and twelve (12) to fifteen (15) feet across.* During the sum- 
mer of 1877 there were found in this mound a stone pipe, afac simile 
of which is found on Plate I, (Fig. 2), and a needle. The pipe is 
quite a curiosity as it has been broken in two, and shows how the 
owner endeavored to mend the break by cutting a groove in the upper 
and lower broad surfaces, evidently for the purpose of receiving a 
wooden or metal crosspiece to hold the fragments together by means 
=''For further notice, see Appendix, "Interview with Esq. Haddix." 



54 

of a string, tightly tastened round, which latter the notches on one 
side prevented from slipping. The pipe is not ornamented. The 
needle is formed from the tooth of some rodent; the root is perforated 
to serve as the eye, and the crown brought to a rough point. The 
original curvature of the tooth seems to be nearly unaltered. 

THE LINES OP EARTHWORKS 

exist in two groups: farthest to the north runs almost across the en- 
tire hill, (east to west) an irregular angular ridge., meAsuring now 
about ten (10) feet across, two and one-half (2^) feet in height and 
1,150 feet in length; it is provided with three sharp angular projec- 
tions, by the inhabitants of Osboni not unreasonably termed "bas- 
tions." They are situated one each near the extremities, and the 
third about iu the middle.* The top of the hill having been used 
for fifty years as a pasture, the ridge has in many places been trodden 
down and somewhat lost its distinctness, especially the extremities and 
the sharp angles of the "bastions." 

Immediately behind the ridge (to the south of it) and closely fol- 
lowing its course, is a ditch, averaging about one and a half feet in 
depth, and width nearly the same as that of the ridge. Whether this 
ditch was merely the result of the excavation, whence the material for 
the ridge was obtained, or in itself intended as a part of the earthwork 
(fortification) is rather conjectural, yet its regular occurrence along 
the same side of the ridge, and its entire absence from the second line 
of earthworks, seem to argue rather in favor of the latter theory. 

The eastern part of this line of works (e) is lost in the slope of 
the hilLf 

About five hundred feet to the south of earthwork (e), just de- 
scribed, is found another more regular line of ridges, (f) showing no 
distinct ditches accompanying it, and consists of two rectangular en- 
closures. The larger of them is a field containing a little over 7^ 
acres. The ridge, whose dimensions are similar to those of the first 
mentioned, is not everywhere so distinctly traceable as the former, 
having still more suffered from the destructive causes above mention- 
*See table of measurements appended. 

tin various places, at irregular distances, the ditch is strewn with stones of various 
sizes, and as they occur mostly at or near the projections, there are many who believe 
that these stones had been deposited there by the aborigines for purposes of defense, and 
to conjecture even that apparatus for throvVing them "mechanically at the enemy had 
been in vogue ; but as the surface layer of soil is a mere scum it may, with a greater de- 
gree of probability, be surmised that these stones were simply, like the earth, thrown up 
for a like purpose as itself. 



55 

ed. The opposite sides are nearly parallel, and the angles very near 
right angles. The bearings of the longest lines is about south, 15° 
east.* The enclosure of this field is complete, excepting the mid- 
dle of its north wall, which affords an entrance of about 18 feet width. 

The second rectangular enclosure lies north, projecting from the 
middle of the former. The walls of this are double, in parallel lines, 
whose lateral termini are uncertain. The outer wall, or ridge, is con- 
siderably lower than the inner one.f 

Since the farmer's ax is gradually clearing away the forest trees 
from the top of the hill, and the cultivated land encroaching more and 
more upon these grounds of ancient relics, it is fair to presume that 
the dawn of a new century will hardly recognize the traces of these 
aboriginal works. These same aggressive causes may have rendered 
futile the efforts of the party to find some further earthworks men- 
tioned by Esq. Haddix.J 

It is certainly no uninteresting question to inquire here how these 
aboriginal tribes, with means we generally suppose too crude, were en- 
abled to form with such regularity their angular (chiefly the right 
angled) figures, and to draw with so much accuracy their parallel lines 
of considerable length. In connection with this it might be stated 
that some hold quite confidently the idea, that the direction of princi- 
pal lines, such as point nearly east and west, or north and south, 
may, at the time of erection, have been due east and west, north and 
south lines, and that by comparison of these with the directions of 
ancient astronomical structures (or the Egyptian pyramids), whose 
age is known, the age of this extinct race of builders might be ap- 
proximately calculated. 

On a plat made by a resident of Osborn, Judge Chas. W. Dewey, 
(and quite carefully executed, and which has been used for reference 
and comparison, and also depended upon for a general outline of the 
hill), the walls of this outer earthwork are shown as partially closed; 
but it was deemed more in accordance with the facts, to leave them 
undetermined on the plan, even in the face of the ingenious imagi- 
nation of many which proposes that the outer wall afforded an en- 
trance, at the southeast junction with the larger enclosure, thence 

* Notes of the survey at the end of this article. 

■J-Por measurements see table of survey at the end of this article. 

|8ee appendix. 



56 

continued uninterruptedly to join it again at the southwest termini, 
whereas the inner wall was perfectly joined at the southeast junction, 
but itself afforded a entrance at the southwest junction with the 
enclosure of the larger field. The two outer ridges would, according 
to this surmise, have formed a kind of a labyrinthian or masked en- 
trance of this shape: 



It has also been deemed advisable, for the present at least, not to 
indicate a supposed mound in the middle of the outer enclosure where 
a rise of about a foot is noticed but which seems rather a product of 
nature. 

On a promontory of the southeast extremity "B," upon what is 
known as "Mitman's Hill," little beyond the Springfield and Dayton 
turnpike (marked on the plan "p"), there are found four nearly 
circular depressions, each occupying a projection of the hill, separa- 
ted from each other by inlets, which, farther down, are quite 
steep ravines. Each of these depressions shows a little rise in the 
center, perhaps produced by the accumulation of the soil, thrown in 
from the circumference. On the whole these four depressions seem of 
a more rude nature than the earthworks on Haddix Hill. 

In conclusion it might be mentioned, that in and around Osborn a 
considerable number of mounds and tumuli is found. They are, for 
the greater part, situated in cultivated fields, and hence through 
plowing down greatly reduced, altered in shape and less imposing, 
though some are, notwithstanding these unfavorable circumstances, 
of still imposing dimensions, as the one on KauiFman's farm (about 
one mile beyond Mad river), which is still fully fifteen (15) feet high 
and eighty (80) feet in diameter. 

Five miles up Mad river, at Enon, is again a large mound on a~ 
prominent hill, and others still farther up along the river bed crown 
the most important hills, where they may also have served as out- 
looks and signal stations, for the friendly intercommunication, or 
warnings and signs of distress, perhaps, among the lost and enigmatic 
tribes of our now modern country. 

The peculiar form of the solitary earthworks described above singu- 
larly coincides with the following description of aboriginal remains, 
mentioned in the "Report of a Geological Reconnoissance, made in 



57 

1835 from the Seat of Grovernment, by the Way of Green Bay and 
the Wisconsin Territory to the Coteau de Prairie, by Gr. W. Feather- 
stonhaugh, U. S. Greologist." (Doc. 333, printed by order of the Sen- 
ate) p p 129 — 132 ; where the author states : 

Having a copy of Carver's Travels with me, an d having always found 
his descriptions deserving of very great confidence, I had been anxious 
to discover a remarkable locality he speaks of,* and which, from the 
doubts expressed by other travellers,! they evidently had never seen. 
The passage in Carver is so minutely descriptive, and the existence of 
the remains of a work capacious enough to hold 5,000 men was some- 
thing so remarkable, that I was solicitous not to miss the place, however 
troublesome the search, since he does not say on whicli bank of the river 
it is, and merely speaks of it as "some miles below Lake Pepin." 

On climbing the bank where these evergreen trees wore, which is the 
right bank of the Mississippi, about eight miles S. E. of Roque's.|: trading- 
house, near the entrance of Lake Pepin, I found myself on an extensive 
and beautifully smooth prairie. At a distance not exceeding two miles, 
I saw some urmsual elevations to the south ; and, hoping I had had the 
good fortune to find, at length, the true place, I walked to them, and, on 
reaching them, was at once persuaded that I had found tlie locality de- 
scribed by Carver, and which was sufficiently remarkable to justify the 
description he had given of it. The elevation had the appearance of an 
ancient military work in ruins; externally there was the appearance of a 
ditch, in places filled up with the blowing sand, and having a slope com- 
ing down from what might be supposed the walls of the work to the 
ditch, of about twenty yards. Inside was a great cavity, with irregular 

*"One day, having landed on the shore of the Mississippi, some miles below Lake 
Pepin, whilst my attendants wi'ii' iireimrins my dinner, I walked out to take a view of 
the adjacent country. I h;id noi ihiiccciIimI far hoi'ore I came to a line, level, open plain, 
on which I perceived, at a lilllc disiancc, a, i)artia.l elevation, that had the appearance of 
an intrenchment. On a nearer inspection 1 had greater reason to suppose that it had 
really been intemled for this many centuries ago. Notwithstanding it was now covered 
withgrass, I conld plainly discern that it had once been a breastwork of about four feet 
in height, extending the best part of a mile, and sufficiently capacious to cover five 
thousand men. Its form was somewhat circular, and its flanks reached to the river. 
Though much defaced by time, every angle was distinguishable, and appeared as regu- 
lar, and fashioned with as much military skill, as if planned by Vaubau himself. The 
ditch was not visible, but 1 thought, on examining more curiously, that I could perceive 
there certainly had been one. From its situation, also, I am convinced that it must have 
been designed for this purpose. It fronted the country, and the rear was covered by the 
river, nor was there any rising ground f(jr a considerable way that commanded ; a few 
straggling oaks were alone to be seen near it. In many places small tracks were worn 
across it by the feet of the elks and deer, and from the depth of the bed of earth by 
which it wiis covered, I was able to draw certain conclusions of its great antiquity. I 
examined all the angles and every part with great attention, and have often blamed my- 
self since for not encamping on the spot, and drawing an exact plan of it. To show that 
this description is not the offspring of a heated imagination, or the chimerical tale of a 
mistaken traveller, I find on inquiry since my return, that Mons. St. Pierre and several 
traders have, at different times, taken notice of similar appearances, on which they have 
formed the .same conjectures, but without examining them so minutely as I did. How a 
work of this kind could exist in a country thai, has hitherto (according to the generally 
received opinion) been the seat oi war to untutored Indians alone, whose whole stock of 
military knowledge has only, till within two conliiries, nniounted to drawing the bow, 
and whose only breastwork "even at present is tlie thicket, I know not. I have given as 
exact an account as possible of this .singvdar appearance, and leave to future explorers of 
these distant regions to discover whether it is a production of nature or art." — Travels 
through the interior parts of North America, in the years ]7(J6, 1767, 1768, by J. Carver, 
Esq. Page 57, 58. London, 1778. 

fKeating's Narrative, Ac. vol. 1, page 276. 

|A half-breed known in the Indian country by the name of Wahjustahchay or Straw- 
berry. 



58 

salient angles; and at three different parts were the more regular re- 
mains of something like bastions; the cavity was seventy yards in diam- 
eter, N. W. and S. E., including the ruins of several terraces; the cir- 
cumference of this singular place, including the angles, was four hundred 
and twenty-four yards. Seven hundred yards S. S. E. of this was 
another, resembling it in form and size ; and at an equal distance, E. S. 
E. from the last, was a larger one, eleven hundred yards round, with sim- 
ilar remains of bastions; this cavity would easily contain one thousand 
people; its walls, if the word may be applied to them, are lofty, and 
there is a deep ditch on the south side. In the area to the south I count- 
ed six more of these elevations, each having a rude resemblance to the 
other, with what also appeared to be a line of defence, connecting these 
works with each other. At the northern end of this singular assemblage 
of elevations, everything bears the appearance of rude artificial construc- 
tion ; at the southern end, however, and not far from the river, the works 
pass gradually into an irregular surface, a confused intermixing of cavi- 
ties and knells, that might be satisfactorily attributed to the blowing of 
sand.* There is a growth of oak timber, as Carver observes, upon all 
this part of the elevations. All the angles and bastions are very much 
rounded by the weather, and some of the slopes outside consist of sand 
brought there by the wind. It is undoubtedly true that all the appear- 
ances I have described may have been produced by the action of the 
wind; but those who think so, after personal inspection, are bound to 
account to themselves why other parts of this prairie, and of other 
prairies similarly situated, are not blown up, and why the ground cover- 
ed by these elevations is blown up in such a manner as to resemble arti- 
ficial works so closely. If, when this curious place becomes more known 
and investigated, Indian antiquities should be discovered commensurate 
with the extent of the work, such as the stone instruments and weapons 
of offence usually found about Indian encampments, it would decide 
with me the question. If anything of that kind is there, it is probably 
buried beneath the sands too deep for passing travellers to find. I 
brought nothing away with me but a plan of the general appearance of 
the locality, and one or two of the principal elevations.! 
='=It is sand prairie, covered with a foot or two of vegetable matter. 

tWe are through the courtesy of the War ^Department informed that ilie plans and 
elevations, mentioned at the close of the above extract, are not on the files of the office 
of the Chief of Engineers, and regret not to be able to reproduce them here for the bene- 
fit of students of American archa?ology. 



59 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLAN AND FIELD NOTES OP THE SURVEY. 
A. HADDIX HILL. 

a, b, c, Earth Mounds; d, Stone Mound; e, Earthworks, consisting of 
I. Ridge, 21 feet high. 



STATION.^ 


COURSE. 


CHAINS. 




1 . . . . 


S. 


76° 30' 


E. 


1.00 




2 ' 










N. 


25° 


E. 


,75 




3 










S. 


25° 


E. 


.50 




4 












East 




2.50 




5 










S. 


80° 


E. 


3.34 




6 










N. 


70° 


E. 


.53 




7 










N. 


10° 


E. 


.57 




8 










S. 


52° 


E. 


.52 




9 










N. 


62° 


E. 


.66 




10 










N. 


35° 


E. 


1.35 




11 










N. 


15° 


E. 


,64 




12 










N. 


65° 


E. 


1.60 




13 










N. 


55° 


E. 


.32 




13 to Apex of| 








.90 




Bastion j 










Apex of Bastion | 








1.00 




to Station 14 j 










14 ... . 


N. 


20° 


E. 


1.00 




Apex of Bastion ") 
Sta. 13andl4 j 


N. 


32° 


W. 


5.50 


To Mound a. 



60 



II. Ditch along tlie Ridge, average 1 to 1^ feet deep. 



STATION. 



(E) 13 



COURSE. 



S. 8° 



W. 



CHAINS. 



5.20 



CTo angle (2) in 
} the earthworks 
(^ to the south. 



/. RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURES. 



STATION. 


COURSE. 


CHAINS. 




1 . . . . 


S. 15° 


E. 


1.05 


To terminus. 


1 










N. 75° 


E. 


1.75 




2 










S. 15° 


E. 


1.05 




3 










S. 15° 


E. 


.84 




4 










S. 75° 


W. 


.88 


To opening. 


5 










S. 75° 


W. 


1.50 




6 










S. 75° 


W. 


2.24 




7 










S. 15° 


E. 


9.50 




8 










N. 75° 


E. 


7.75 




9 










N. 15° 


W. 


9.36 




10 










S. 75° 


W. 


3.00 


To Station (4). 



B. MITMAN S HILL. 

4 circular depressions, measuring 70, 80, 65 and 80 feet in diameter, 

respectively. 

Note. — As the survey of the hill was not the object of the work, its outline on the 
plan is to be regarded as representing the appearance of the hill in a general manner 
only. 



J^/^/^^ ,9. 



®gg(i>siKi,®K]a(D 

P; ThIJ1o.«s, J.E.Wsrren. 











•"'■'""SmS 



/J^lffi^ll^^y'"'"" 



^ 



^ 










^ 



^oejf/^. ^>^/^/^/^ Tr/fo/l. 



^ 















J.J^.7!fyfr/-f-J'r ^(•r. 



The HEUOTiPEPRfflTiMGCo, 220 Dbvohshiee St. Boston 



Appendix. 



AN INTERVIEW WITH SQUIRE HADDIX. 

The gentleman was found at his fireside; he is 87 years old, and 
his faculties remarkable well preserved. At the age of 11 years he 
moved with his father to Osborn, where he has been a constant resi- 
dent for 76 years. The "hill" was his "play house," and upon it Mr. 
H. discovered the embankment during the first year of his residence 
at Osborn. He states that numerous wandering Indians of the Shaw- 
nee tribe were entirely ignorant of its existence. 

The sq^iare mound (no longer to be found) at the N. W. brow of 
the hill was described as looking 70 years ago like the foundation of a 
house, made of earth, raised, and flat. 

Mound (a), according to the gentleman's account, was once opened 
as early as 50 years ago; but nothing extracted beyond some charred 
bones. 

About -10 years ago Mr. H. discovered the stone mound (d) under 
the following circumstances: he had a wagon made, and in pay for it 
was digging a well, intending to avail himself of the stones ready in a 
pile for the construction of the wall. But almost at the very top he 
struck upon a skeleton : he covered it up again and picked his stones 
from another place on the hill. 

The stone pipe, and needle made of a tooth were found in this same 
stone mound during the summer of 1877, and generously donated by 
this gentleman to the Museum of the Central Ohio Scientific Associ- 
ation. 

Mr. H. also mentioned the existence of lines of earthworks (no 
longer traceable) south of mound (c), extending clear across the hill 
and dividing it into two distinct parts, each division being provided 
with an excellent descent to the water (which Mr. H. supposed sur- 
rounding the hill then), or to springs, and bearing evidence, he 
thought, that two "camps" inhabited the hill. 

Mr. H. tells us that wrestling was quite a regular sport among the 
you:ng Shawnees, and practiced in a particular manner. He engaged 
himself in the exercise and practically demonstrated how it was done. 
The "hold" was in this wise. The right hand passes under the oppo- 
nents left and firmly grasps the belt (or top of clout) behind. 
The opponent does likewise. Then the left hand joins the opponent's 
left in front of the chest: The object then is to raise the opponent 
with hand or hip, or both, from the ground and to throw him. This 
was the extent of Squire H.'s information. 



Report of a Finding of Pot- 
tery ON Fox River, near 
Green Bay, Wis. 

BY REV. GEORGE GIBSON, PRESIDENT OP THE ARCH^OLOGICAL 
SOCIETY OP NORTHERN WISCONSIN. 



About the middle of June, 1877, during a walk along the track of 
the Wisconsin Central R. E.., and within a mile of the city of Green 
Bay, I was accosted by the section boss having charge of that portion 
of the line, who informed me that he had just struck some curious 
pieces of pottery. Having often ridden with him in my expeditions 
and shown him fragments of diiferent kinds, he was, in a measure, 
prepared to recognize anything of the kind when it came under his 
notice. He was engaged at the time with a gang of men ballasting 
up the track, and only a few moments before had rescued the remains 
I found there, which he had deposited on the bank above the pit in 
which the men were digging; and although pretty well broken up I 
saw that he had rescued portions of what had belonged to two well 
preserved vases. The workmen from whose shovels these pieces had 
been saved, had evidently struck the vessels about midships, and cart- 
ed away the lower half, which they had rammed into smaller frag- 
ments under the ties before my coadjuter himself came up to the spot. 
Had either of us been there half an hour sooner we might have se- 
cured two fine specimens of burial urns. I secured about three- 
quarters of the rim of one of the vases, averaging four inches in width, 
together with fragments of the body enough to compose J to ^ of 
the jar. One-half the rim of the second was found with an average 
depth of two inches. Few or no fragments could be discovered beside 
the above. These portions of rim I have restored. (See Plate 10). 

There were two graves to which the vases belonged, lying east and 
west. A number of human bones, together with a quantity of fish 
and bird bones, were found. The human remains were portions of 
the shoulder, arm, and leg bones. These have been submitted to Dr. 



C. R. Brett, of Grreen Bay, a member of the Archaeological Society of 
Northern Wisconsin. The vases are dissimilar as to construction. No. 
1 is globular in form and of about two gallons capacity. Externally 
the rim is a f in. bevel, ornamented with a series of slanting lines, |^ 
in. in width and cross-barred, resembling' the section of a honeycomb 
cut vertically; or much as though made by the little cross-barred roll- 
ers with which our mothers used to. ornament the upper crust of the 
apple pies of old. The inner edge of the rim is tipped off in the same 
manner. Under the bevel, or flange, is another but shorter series ot 
indentations slightly inclined and cross-barred after the same fashion. 
The body of the vase is covered with an irregular sort of ropy tracery, 
running from top to bottom, and looks as though the plastic surface 
of the vessel, when green had been mopped over with a swab of loose 
cordage. No. 2 (Plate 10, Fig. 2) has an hexagonal top with globu- 
lar base. The rim is an inch flange, with a number of creases parallel 
to the opening running around. The creasing is rather irregularly 
done, and is crossed at short intervals by slanting lines. The inner 
edge of the rim, and also the space under the flange, are indented 
similarly to No. 1, but not cross-barred. Its capacity is about 1 gal. 
The material of the vases is an equal mixture of red clay and horn- 
blende. Their thickness varies from ^ to ^ of an inch. 

Both vases appear to have been in a state of good preservation, up 
to the moment they were so unreservedly demolished by the diggers' 
pick. The fresh surface where broken looks as bright and clean as 
the fracture in a brand new jug, and the reticulations or cross-bars 
referred to about the rim and flange are sharp and well defined as 
when they came well baked out of the maker's oven. 

Sta. 2, Fig. 3, shows the place where the vases were discovered. The 
upper line is intended to represent the ridge running parallel to Fox 
river. This formation rises in height from 50 to 100 ft. above the 
Fox. It is a huge mass of clay interspersed here and there with beds 
of gravel. The latter material seems to have been distributed in the 
most eccentric way in the mass of hard clay and then covered again by 
the same material. This ridge is a tongue of land running between 
two considerable streams, the Fox and East rivers, and is such a point 
as the Indian is noted for selecting for burial places. Many relics of 
a people passed away have been discovered at various times, but noth- 
ing has been preserved. 



64 

In August last I secured at Station 1, ^ mile nortt of Station 2, 
two very perfect copper spear heads and an awl, the latter weighing 7f 
ounces. Here are the remains of a people who certainly existed long 
before any European ever visited these American shores to tell the 
story. Station 3, Plate 10, is one mile south of Station 2, and adjoin- 
ing an old military post, known as Camp Smith in the early days of 
Green Bay. Here in a corn field during the summer of '76, I found 
a piece of ground comprising about 2 acres strewn with fragments of 
pottery, varying from minute particles to a couple of inches in size. 
Many pieces were nearly decomposed so that they would crumble into 
dust at the touch. I gathered some six quarts of these fragments 
which I preserved. From time to time I assorted them into two 
classes as to difference in ornamentation and form of rim. Selecting 
according to ornamentation I found about 40 different vases represent- 
ed that could be definitely re-produced. Taking 50 other fragments 
more or less mutilated, but still definite as to their relative place in the 
vase, that is in the rim, we have no less than ninety or a hundred sep- 
arate vases here represented. Taking these facts into account, 
together with the condition of the ground which has been un- 
mistakably deeply colored by the abundance of this material, I con- 
jecture that the spot may have been a place where the pottery was 
extensively manufactured. Near by, human remains have been and 
still are found in abundance. Two fragments suggest the use of the 
lathe; one of them belonged to a vase that had a series of concentric 
horizontal bands of ^ of an inch running around it, and their regular- 
ity could scarcely be produced in any other way. The other had a 
set of lines and bands so perfectly drawn upon a smooth field that it 
is impossible to conceive they could be produced by hand. A third 
fragment found at Station 2 is of the same pattern as No. 1, and while 
it shows that the pattern No. 1 has been imitated in the case of No. 3, 
it bears unmistakable evidence ot the fact of having been done by 
hand. The fish and bird bones found at Station 2 show at least a 
certain relation to the customs of the Indian tribes that come within 
the range of history. We know very well that it was a common prac- 
tice of the North American Indians to place in the grave food, cloth- 
ing, trinkets, etc., for the use of the spirit until it arrived at the 
happy hunting ground. This practice implies a use of the vase for it 
is rarely anything is found in a condition to positively indicate this 



j^/i^/^ yr^. 








^?>. 3. 




,/. ^. //i'f'y-'^y' a'^A 



The HeliotypePrditmoCo. 220 Deyokshihe St Bostoh, 



65 

relation. Obviously the vases would be a receptacle of the food, and 
not only the food, but the various articles and trinkets that found a 
place among the donations of friends to the dead. 

There would thus be established the fact that the use of vases 
among the Indians was analogous to that of the burial urn of the 
Ancients, which not only received the ashes of the departed after 
the burning, but a variety of articles; rings, precious stones, gold and 
silver ornaments, utensils for the toilet and other purposes, and in 
certain cases, as the Hydriataphia informs us, among burial urns dug 
up in Denmark, instruments of recreation and amusement were dis- 
covered. 



Report of a Sculptured Rock 

FROM MARBLEHEAD, O. 



BY PROF. J. E. WERREN. 



Urbana University has recently come into possession of a queer 
piece of antiquity consisting of a stone, in size and form like the hu- 
man body. To the superficial observer the object is hardly more than 
a stone, but whoever lends the massive stone a few moments' investi- 
gation, to him it becomes an object of interest; out of the moss-cover- 
ed surface first develops a well shaped head of human form, immedi- 
ately recalling antique sculptures on the rocks in Egypt with their 
yet unread hieroglyphic mysteries. 

The shape of the head is oval, widest across the eyes. The upper 
part, including the forehead, being not square but rounded, while the 
lower at the chin is of a sharp oval, adds to the face that stern look 
which characterizes the appearance of the sphinx of Memphis. The 
details of the eyes and mouth are suggested by indentations rather 
than executed in their proper places, while the nose is hardly indica- 
ted by a prominence. The ears and arms are mutilated by the ma- 
rauder's unmerciful strokes, the efl^ects of which are recognized by the 
rounding moulds left by the hewn out chips. The neck is finely 
chiseled and in proportion ; and the arms, although sadly mutilated, 
can be traced as crossed over the breast. The body is slightly devel- 
oped above, but is barely traced out below the clasped hands. The 
stone out of which this strange image is hewn is a hard limestone of 
the corniferous group, rich in fossils. 

It is perhaps not so much the figure in itself which claims our at- 
tention, as the untold history suggested by its strange outlines. What 
purpose did it serve? When was its form chiseled out of the rock? 
These are questions which naturally follow the first inquiry, and 
although the answer can not be gathered from any written or printed 
chronicle, we will endeavor to present a few remarks on these points 
as communicated by old settlers living near where the image was 
found. 



j^A^t^ //. 




•y./s-y^'^-^-^ 



The HeliottebPrhitingCo. 220 Devonshire St Bostoh 



67 

The attention of visitors to Ottawa county, 0., the greater part of 
which forms a peninsula in Lake Erie, is soon directed to those little 
traces whose abundance indicates a territory where once the "wild 
Indian" roved. These evidences are mainly stone implements, such 
as arrow heads, spear heads, axes and the like. Even a solitary Indi- 
an inscription may yet be found on a neighboring island. The penin- 
sula, although now entirely under culture, offers in its present disguise 
an aspect that reveals its adaptability to savage life. The northern 
shore is partly abrupt and rocky, and partly consists of very low land 
which, on the occurrence of south-western gales, is left entirely dry. 
Here is at one place a submerged Indian burial ground, known to 
fishermen only, who occasionally happen there when the water is very 
low. They also sometimes find there copper implemelits, although 
these are rather rare. The eastern shore extends as a sandy ridge a 
little below the surface of the water almost across to the opposite 
shore of the lake, and forms the boundary line between the lake 
proper and what is known as Sandusky Bay. The southern shore 
sinks gradually into the yellowish green waters of the shallow bay. 
The extreme slopes of the peninsula were formerly covered with trees 
to the central ridge, which is a level strip of land. This ridge pre- 
sents the appearance of prairies, and is actually called by that name. 
These prairies, used only as pastures, are meadows whose rich soil 
covers with a thin layer the underlying rock of limestone. 

The position of a piece of land such as this peninsula offered there 
an excellent resort for game of all kinds, water fowls together with an 
abundance of fish, and tradition can not be far wrong in making the spot 
the often contested ground of many an Indian tribe, the last of which 
has given Ottawa county its name. Among the many particular 
places bearing Indian names is especially one on the bay shore which, 
in its translation, is now known as the "Indian Orchard." The earli- 
est settlers of Ottawa county, who tell of many a treacherous encounter 
with the red men, as early as the end of the last century commenced 
the cultivation of isolated spots on the peninsula, but did not as yet 
dare to build themselves permanent habitations ; they had, however, 
abundant opportunity to observe in peaceful times the customs of the 
Indians. One of the usages which most engaged the attention of the 
white man was the strange occurrence of a visit annually celebrated 
by a strange and unknown tribe, to what was first imagined to be an 



Indian grave. The place where the tribe camped and offered un- 
known petitions was the "Indian Orchard." Under three stout trees 
(not one of which is now standing) growing close together, was found 
upon examination a human figure, concealed in the shadow of the 
overhanging branches, hewn in the rock of the here out- cropping 
limestone. Further research proved that the place was not a burial 
ground, there being no indication whatever that such had ever existed 
there, and the only conclusion was that the figure represented a deity 
still worshipped there after the tribe had abandoned the peninsula. 
Many a lover of the remains of Indian art has desired to have this 
rare relic in a more miniature form to add to his collection, but was 
forced to content himself with a chip of the stone, which he does not 
fail to point out to visitors and friends as a "piece of the Indian Idol." 

Fantastic stories in connection with this image did not fail to arise, 
as a matter of course, but their truthfulness could not be verified by 
the writer. It was, for example, asserted that even while the reser- 
vation was wholly in possession of white settlers the Indians kept on 
visiting the "Orchard," covering the idol with tobacco, pouring 
whisky over it, and leaving a quantity around it for future supply, 
which was regularly stolen from the sanehiin by the white man. 

Another story more worthy of note is this, that the image was 
originally in an upright position, and that carelessness and negligence 
let it fall to the ground, in which position the civilized population first 
found it. This theory would naturally suggest a quite recent origin 
of this Indian monument, and although it might perhaps be unique, 
it would be of little historical value. The erection of a standing 
figure requires a high mental culture, and considerably more mechan- 
ical skill than the working of a natural rock where the position is 
given and the setting accomplished with the last strokes of the work- 
man. The writer has therefore taken pains to ascertain the truth of 
this statement, and by unearthing the idol, where it lay, found that it 
was actually hewn out of the solid rock, the best proof of which was 
that it could only be removed by means of iron wedges, a process well 
known to quarrymen. 

The original of this "Idol" is the stone above referred to, now in 
possession of the Cabinet of the Urbana University. It is all the 
more worthy of preservation as there are but few such in the country, 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington being the only place where 



69 

the writer is aware of having seen anything approaching it in charac- 
ter. The donor of it is Mr. Mallory, the present owner of the Indian 
Orchard. The figure is life size and executed in fully one-half relief 
With the portion of stone quarried ofi" to give it the necessai-y strength 
for bearing transportation its weight is nearly one thousand pounds. 



Shell Heaps on the Coast of 

Maine. 



BY PROF. T. F. MOSES. 

The shell-mounds described in this paper are located on the Damar- 
iscotta river in Maine, some twelve miles from its mouth and just 
above the "Falls," and the site of the towns of New Castle and 
Damariscotta, between which the river flows. They lie on both banks 
of the river and are of great extent. The deposits examined were all 
on the west bank. Deposits of this character have long been known 
to the natural historian. In Europe these mounds are found on the 
Scandinavian peninsula, and in Denmark where they are known by the 
name of Kjoekkenmoeddings or kitchen refuse-heaps. During the 
past year similar heaps have been discovered and examined in Japan 
by Prof Edw. S. Morse, of the University of Tokio. In our own 
country they are found in the Mississippi valley along the banks of 
rivers, and more extensively on the sea coast and the banks of streams 
contiguous to the coast, from Maine to Florida. Those of the interior 
are composed of various species of fresh water shells, which those of 
the sea-board are made up of marine shells belonging to species either 
now existing or known to have formerly existed in the neighborhood. 
The exploration of these heaps has been made only within compara- 
tively, recent years, and their true character ascertained. These 
explorations were conducted by Chadbourne and Jackson in Maine; 
by Prof Chas. Rau in New Jersey ; by the late Prof. Jefi'ries Wyman, 
of Cambridge, along the coast of New England and Florida; by Prof. 
Baird of the Smithsonian Institution, who made the matter a subject 
of special investigation under the direction of the Secretary; by Mr. 
F. W. Putnam and his assistants of the Peabody Museum of Archae- 
ology, Prof E. S. Morse, Count Pourtales and others. Besides these 
explorations many others of a more private character have been 
carried on. 

In the spring of 1859 it was my good fortune to be invited, togeth- 
er with Mr. Jno. M. Brown, of Portland, Maine, to accompany Prof 
Chadbourne, of Bowdoin College, (now President of Williams College) 



71 

on a scientific expedition to the shell heaps at Damariscotta. At this 
time but little was known of the character of the shell heaps, and they 
were generally regarded as being of natural origin. Indeed, so emi- 
nent an authority as the elder Agassiz had pronounced the shell beds 
at Damariscotta to be a natural deposit; his decision was based, 
however, upon specimens sent to him, and would have been quite a 
different one had he examined the beds in situ. It was with the view 
of ascertaining the real character of these beds'that Prof Chadbourne 
was sent to visit and examine them in the spring of 1859, by the 
Maine Historical Society. The result of his exploration was to settle 
for the first time the question as to whether they were the result of 
geological agencies or the works of men. His report was published in 
the Transactions of the Maine Historical Society, Vol. 6, and I here 
insert it in full, as furnished me by the Secretary of the Society, Prof. 
A. S. Packard, on account of its marking an important event in the 
history of Archaeological investigation : 

Williams College, May 18, 1859. 
John McKeen, Esq., 

Dear Sir: — On the twentieth of April I visited the beds of oyster 
shells at Damariscotta, according to your suggestions. I did not have 
time to visit all the beds in that region, but I believe I examined 
those that are considered the most important. I have no doubt that 
the shells examined by me were deposited by men. This I infer: 
First, from the position of the piles of shells; Second, from the 
deposit beneath them; Third, from the arrangement of the shells in 
piles; Fourth, from the frequent occurrence of charcoal mixed with 
the shells, even to the bottom; Fifth, from the fact that fires have 
evidently been built among them, near the bottom, turning a portion 
of them to lime, which is mingled with charcoal; Sixth, from the 
mixture of other animal remains, as common clams {my a arenarid), 
thick shelled clams (ve7ius mercenaria) , fragments of birds' bones, of 
beavers' bones, with their teeth, and sturgeons' plates. 

First, The first thing that strikes the observer is the occurrence of 
the shells in small piles, ten or fifteen feet in diameter, and apparently 
two or three feet deep. They seem to rest upon the surface, and to 
have no soil upon them except that formed by their decomposition 
and the other substances that would naturally collect from fall of 
leaves, decay of plants, and movement of dust from year to year. We 
did not have the time to dig through any of these. I give only the 
impression that I gained by examining them as they now are, and that 
is, that they were deposited upon the land in its present position. 



72 

Second, Where tlie river has washed away the bank we have a fine 
opportunity of examining the deposits beneath the shells, and also 
their line of juncture with that deposit. We find that deposit made 
up of sand, gravel, and boulders mingled — a diluvial deposit like all 
the land in the vicinity beyond the shells; and the line of juncture 
gives the appearance of shells thrown upon dry ground. There was 
no appearance of wearing or mingling of the sand with the shells, and 
in one place, where a boulder was upon the surface of the sand, they 
seemed to rest against it in a way that precluded, in my mind, the 
action of the water. 

Third, Wherever we found a deep section of shells so lately made 
that the surface had not decomposed, the open appearance of the shells 
was marked. They were not mingled with fragments of bone or 
broken shells or with sand, presenting, in this respect, an entirely 
diiferent appearance from the great deposit of oyster shells by water at 
the mouth of the St. Mary's river, Georgia, which I had an opportuni- 
ty of carefully observing two years ago. 

Fourth, In these places, in deep sections, we found fragments of 
charcoal mingled with the shells under conditions that showed conclu- 
sively that it could have been deposited there only as the shells were 
deposited. The coal left with you was taken out in a deep section 
very near the bottom. So common did we find the coal that I feel 
confident it can be found there by any careful observer. 

Fifth, In one section a dark line was seen near the bottom of the 
deposit. Perhaps a foot from the bottom, along that dark line, frag- 
ments of charcoal were found, and the shells for a few inches under- 
neath were decomposed, as though they had been acted upon by fire; 
and in this same place were found most of the fragments of bones left 
in your possession. I have no doubt a fire was built upon the shells 
when the bed was about one foot in thickness. 

Sixth, The fragments of bones left in your possession are to be sub- 
mitted to any person desirous of examining them. I consider the jaw 
and teeth of the rodent animal to be those of a beaver. There is cer- 
tainly one fragment of a bird bone. And I would call especial atten- 
tion to the manner in which these bones are broken — as though done 
with some instrument. I can think of no other means by which they 
could be broken into such fragments. 

The large mass of shells might be used as an argument in favor of 
deposition by water, but if careful examination proves that they were 
deposited by men, then the great mass only proves the great number 
of men or the great length of time during which these shells were 
accumulating. No man can pronounce an intelligent opinion upon 
them without an examination. From what I had heard I expected to 
find that they were deposited by water. There may be beds of shells 
in that region deposited in this way, but I am fully convinced that 
those examined by me were deposited by men. I would write more 



73 

at length but I am very much pressed by my duties. Some future 
day I should be glad to explore those beds more fully. 

Very truly yours, 

P. A. Chadbourne. 



The shell-heaps extend along the banks of the river for a distance 
of nearly half a mile ; one small deposit is seen on a small island near 
the western bank. They vary greatly in size and form, but are mostly 
continuous with each other, except where separated by the river. 
Some of the smaller heaps contain a few bushels only of materials 
while the largest one examined reaches a height of thirty feet. They 
rest upon the natural surface of the soil, which is composed of clay 
and gravel and sandy loam, belonging, geologically, to the drift. 
Granite ledges rise to the surface in the neighboring hills and numer- 
ous bowlders lie scattered about, but none are seen on the surface of 
the shell-beds themselves. A tolerable heavy growth, chiefly of ever- 
greens, covers the surface of the larger mounds. The soil upon them 
is quite thin, so that a slight stirring of the surface is sufficient to 
betray the presence of any underlying shell deposit. The water of 
the river is salt, and the river is, in fact, like many of the so-called 
rivers on the coast of Maine, simply an inlet from the sea, like the 
fjords of Norway. The coast of Maine is notched with these narrow 
fjords into which the salt water flows, often for many miles into the 
interior. This peculiar character of the coast line is considered by 
geologists to be due to the direction of the rocky strata. In New 
England these jut ovit irregularly with their ends toward the sea, 
while along the rest of the coast they lie parallel to it. 

The shell-beds first examined by our party were those on the west- 
ern bank. Through the gradual erosion of the bank by the water the 
eastern edge of the beds has been worn away, so that a longitudinal 
section is exhibited along the line of the shore. The shells lie very 
loosely, are remarkably white and friable, being in a state of partial 
decomposition and readily falling to pieces when handled. The great 
majority of them are oyster shells, many of them of great size and of 
a peculiarly long and narrow shape. One of these shells measured 14 
inches in length. Mingled with the oyster shells are found those of 
the common clam [niya arenaria) and the quahog {venus mercenaria) , 
and occasionally those of the mussel and pecten or scallop shell. The 



74 

deposits are entirely free from any admixture of soil or debris of any 
sort, and one is struck with the appearance which a fresh section pre- 
sents, the clean white wall of shells looking like a kiln of freshly baked 
porcelain. Another circumstance that strikes the explorer is the 
extremely loose condition of the shells, even at the base of a deposit of 
great depth. The shell may be drawn out with the greatest ease from 
any portion of the bank, and, with a little caution, in an entire state, 
although readily crumbling if not handled with great care. From all 
that I can learn the oyster is no longer found in this vicinity, but 
tradition has it that it still thrived in the river when the early settlers 
first came.* In digging down from the surface of one of these heaps at 
a depth of three or four feet fragments of charcoal were found, and 
here and there a layer of the same substance. Above and below these 
layers was some times a conglomerate mass of shells, apparently burned 
to lime by the action of fire. Among the articles found during the 
first exploration were some bony scales of the sturgeon, a fragment of 
the jaw and the incisor of a rodent animal. Near the layers of char- 
coal fragments of bird bones were also found, apparently the relics of 
a feast. Two and a half feet below the surface was found a piece of 
pottery. Similar bits of pottery had been found by Mr. R. K. Sewall 
of Wiscasset in the neighborhood of a former Indian settlement at 
Eben-e-cook, in Sagadahoc county. The evidence seemed conclusive 
that these shell-mounds were not extinct oyster beds left exposed by 
some former uplift of the Atlantic coast, but the work of aboriginal 
tribes who repaired to this favored region at certain seasons of the 
year and celebrated their feasts with the delicious bivalve which must 
have formerly abounded in these waters. That these feasts were held 
periodically and perhaps at considerable intervals is shown by the con- 
dition of the larger deposits, and especially the large one which slopes 
to the water's edge on the west bank of the river. Here, at intervals 
of about a foot, occur lines of vegetable mould marking the limit of 
successive deposits, so that many years must have passed during their 
accumulation. The accumulation of such vast deposits and the cli- 
matic and other changes which led to the disappearance of the shell- 
fish once so abundant, will long afford matter for interesting inquiry 
to the archaeologist. Several of the mounds were measured, and some 

*Mr. Puller, Curator of the Portland Society ol Natural History, informs me that oys- 
ters are yet talieu in considerable qiiantity in the Sheepscott river, which is a stream a 
few miles west of the Damariscotta. 



J^^&^e :/2.. 







[WJ 

m 
% 

ri 







^^ 






•^. £". *7/h^-y.^ 



The HEUOTYiEPHniTmoCo. 220 DEWfflSfflEE St Boston. 



75 

sketches and diagrams made. The accompanying representation from 
a sketch by the writer (Plate 12, Fig. 2) will give a general idea of 
the larger heaps, though by no means a faithful picture of them. One 
of the deposits as surveyed by Mr. John M. Brown and myself, has 
the following dimensions (Fig. 3): Shape oval, length 180 feet, 
breadth 100 feet, depth 6 feet; height of base above high water mark, 
4 feet. The top of the loftiest mound is 31 feet above high water 
mark. It descends abruptly toward the river, and at its base the 
action of the water has formed a fine shell beach. The shore line of 
this mound is about 100 feet in extent, but its extent inland we did 
not satisfactorily determine, its limits being obscured by a heavy 
growth of pine, fir and beech, with a dense undergrowth. The speci- 
mens collected during this first expedition were deposited by President 
Chadbourne in the Peabody Museum of Archaeology, at Cambridge. 
During the present year (July, 1878), in company with Mr. Geo. 
F. Moses, I made a second visit to the shell-heaps at Damariscotta. 
Nearly twenty years had elapsed since the time ot my first visit, and 
during that time many visits, including one from Prof. JeflFries 
Wyman, had been made to these deposits. Near the largest bed a 
lime kiln had been erected and a large excavation in its summit 
showed where its operations had been carried on. The shells were 
burned in the kiln in order to reduce them to a condition that would 
render them suitable for fertilizing purposes. The marks of numer- 
ous explorations were every where visible. During this visit we ver- 
ified the results of the former expedition with President Chadbourne, 
finding as before charcoal, animal bones and fragments of pottery. 
The most interesting find on this occasion was the exposure of a stone 
wall at the base of a large mound on the bank of the river. The 
bank had been dug into by other parties and a portion of a wall com- 
posed of bowlders was here exposed. Removing a mass of the shells 
we discovered that the wall was regularly laid up in alternate courses, 
and as far as we could then ascertain, that the shell deposits had 
accumulated around and above the wall since it was built. Not hav- 
ing time to continue the exploration, we did not ascertain the extent 
of the wall. On returning to the village I reported the matter to Dr. 
R. C. Chapman, a gentleman residing in New Castle who has given 
much time to intelligent research among the shell-heaps, and have 
since received from him the following letter : 



76 

New Castle, Me., July 10, 1878. 
Dr. Moses: — Dear Sir: — I have uncovered the entire wall of 
which you saw only a part. The main wall is about nine feet 
long and four feet high, terminating in short end walls running out 
at right angles with the main wall. These end walls are about four 
feet long and slant off from top to base, the whole wall being on about 
four feet of shells and in this shape : 



E. 

Now I think there was a front wall and longer end walls, which 
have fallen down and rolled into the river or been hauled away. You 
will see that by supplying what I have supposed belonged to it once 
that we shall have a very respectable lime kiln, which I have no doubt 
it was from the fact that I found lime in quite a large quantity; say 
a bushel or more on what I judge to be the floor of the kiln, it being 
on a level with the lower stones in the wall. Also a little less than 
half of a hard burnt brick — like our bricks. No charred wood, bones 
or implements of any kind were found. Ic is my opinion that the 
early settlers of this locality cut a channel into the shell-bank, built 
this kiln and burned the shells into lime ; after they left it the shells 
fell into it and covered it from view. In process of time the outer 
wall next the river became exposed by the washing away of the bank 
and disappeared as I have supposed above. I shall investigate further 
and will inform you of any new discoveries that I may make. 

R. C. Chapman. 

Dr. Chapman has gathered an interesting collection of relics from 
these mounds. Among them are numerous pieces of pottery includ- 
ing quite a large fragment of a gracefully shaped vase which he had 
restored. A number of stone axes and implements are also in his 
possession, but these were mostly gathered in the neighborhood of the 
mounds and not in the mounds themselves. Indeed, there seems to 
be a remarkable scarcity of such articles in the shell-heaps at Damar- 
iscotta. Near the summit of the large mound a human skeleton was 
exhumed, but this Dr. Chapman regards as an intrusive burial. No 
other human bones have ever been found in them, the shell mounds 
here differing in this respect from those on the coast of Florida, 
where, according to Prof. Wyman, fragments of human bones are often 
found, evidently the remains of cannibal feasts. 
*(3ee article in American Naturalist, Vol. 8, p. 403, entitled Cannibalism. 



Incidents Connected with the 
Early History of Cham- 
paign County. 



BY JOHN II. YOUNG, ESQ. 

The history of the first settlement of Champaign county connects 
itself very closely with the history of the first settlements of the 
State. 

The first settlements made in what is now the State were made soon 
after the termination of the Hevolutionary war, and were composed 
largely of Revolutionary soldiers or their families, coming here in the 
spirit of adventure or driven hither to seek compensation for their 
services or a home, because of the inability of the General Govern- 
ment to pay them for their services except in lands and land grants. 

Indeed there was an express military reservation for the benefit of 
Revolutionary soldiers which extended into our own county. After 
the close of the Revolutionary war Virginia ceded to the United 
States the larger portion of the great domain received by her under 
charter from King James the First, but in doing so, sb.e reserved all 
the lands lying between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, in Ohio, 
for the purpose of paying the Virginia soldiers who served in the war 
of the Revolution, and it was distributed amongst the officers and 
soldiers in quantities proportioned to their several grades in the army. 
What is known in this county as Ludlow's line was one of the westerly 
lines of this military reservation. 

That grand old soldier of the Revolution, Gen. Putnam, settled at 
Marietta in the spring of 1788, and this was the first settlement made 
in the State. It was made at the mouth of the Muskingum river and 
the settlements continued up the valley of the river. Washington 
county, of which Marietta became the county seat, was the first county 
formed in the State. 

The next settlements were made near the mouth of the Little Miami 
river and on the present site of Cincinnati. These settlements were 
made in November and December of the saiue year, IT'IS; and in a 
very few years thereafter they were extended up the valleys of the 



78 

Little and Great Miami rivers to our own beautiful Mad river valley ; 
for history hath it, "that as early as 1795 the region between the 
Little and Great Miamies, from the Ohio far up toward the source of 
Mad river, became checkered with farms and abounded in indications 
of the presence of an active and prosperous population." Hamilton 
county, of which what is Champaign was part, was the second county 
established in the State. 

How little is known, as it ought to be, of the men who by their 
heroic struggles with the savage and the wilderness prepared the way 
for the advent and progress of these settlements — the beginning of a 
State now so grand in its intelligence, its wealth and its population ! 
Who can properly estimate the value to Kentucky and Ohio of the 
services of Simon Kenton and Daniel Boone in the conquest of these 
States from the savage and their allies? 

The first settlements seem to have been made upon, and to have 
followed up, the valleys of the rivers — just as the wild animals and 
wild Indians had followed and roamed along and dwelt upon them. 
These favored portions were first sought by the Indian and afterwards 
by the white man for the same reasons. All up and down the valleys 
were the great hunting grounds of the Indian. 

On the farm immediately west of Urbana, formerly owned by Judge 
Smith, more recently by his son James C. Smith, have been ploughed 
up on the fields and found, various Indian implements, such as broad 
arrow heads, stone pestles, etc. It is said that in the spring of 1795, 
Tecumseh was established on Deer creek, near the site of Urbana, 
where he engaged in his favorite amusement of hunting, and remained 
until the succeeding spring. The Deer creek referred to was prob- 
ably our town branch, and he was also probably located on the Smith 
farm througE which it ran. There were very fine springs there. On 
the farm next west of this — the Bryant farm — in a mound on a hill 
overlooking the Mad river, were found large quantities of human 
bones. At the mouth of Mac-a-cheek, where it empties into Mad 
river, are the evidences of an Indian settlement. On the farm now 
owned by David Miller and Frank Mcllvain, in Salem township, was 
an old Indian corn field. Up the valley of Kings creek, near the 
town of Mingo, was the village of the Mingo tribe of Indians, to which 
the great chief Logan belonged — Alfred Johnson now owns the farm 
embracing that covered by the village, with its great spring — and a 



79 

beautiful location it is for either Indian or white man. On one of the 
eminences overlooking Buck creek and the valley, on the farm of 
John W. Baldwin, have been discovered human bones buried at con- 
siderable depth, which from the method with which they were buried 
and the appearance of the face bones, indicate that they may have 
belonged to, and probably did belong to, a race of people long anterior 
to the Indian. Excavations made at considerable depth on the farm 
of Joseph Townsend, along Kings creek, have revealed human bones 
that must have belonged to the Indian or an earlier race of people. 
Like discoveries have also been made on the farm known as the Judge 
Dallas farm, south of Urbana 3 or 4 miles. Kings creek took its 
name from the tragic death of an Indian chief upon its bank. He 
was shot one-fourth of a mile below where Kingston mills now are. It 
occurred in 1786, during the march of Boone and Kenton with Gren. 
Logan against the Mad river towns. A portion of the army on horse- 
back, marching up the valley and along near where John Eicholtz 
now lives, encountered a few Indians. The Indians being headed off 
from the hills and woods on the east were pursued to the high grass 
on the bank of the creek, where one of them jumped to his feet, aimed 
at one of his Kentucky pursuers, but his gun missed fire and the 
Kentuckian shot and killed him. From his dress and appearance he 
was supposed to be a King, hence and from that Kings creek took its 
name. 

The Mac-a-cheek towns, ten or twelve miles north of Urbana, were 
the headquarters of vai'ious tribes. It was to these towns that Col. 
Crawford, the friend and companion of Washington in earlier days, 
who commanded the unfortunate expedition against the Sandusky 
towns in 1782, was brought a prisoner, and from which he was after- 
wards returned to the Sandusky towns and tortured to death with a 
cruelty so atrocious and fiendish as to excite Washington to tears and 
stir the hot blood of men everywhere to a desire tor revenge. 

The State of Ohio was admitted into the Union in 1802. Cham- 
paign county was established as a county in the year 1805; and the 
town of Urbana was laid in the same year, 1805. Montgomery and 
Greene counties were established in 1803 and each taken from Hamil- 
ton and Ross counties. By the Act of the Legislature passed Feb. 
20, 1805, the boundaries of Champaign county were fixed as follows: 
Beginning where the range line between the 8th and 9th ranges 



80 

between the Great and Little Miami rivers, intersects the eastern 
boundary of the county ot Montgomery, thence east to the eastern 
boundary of the county of Greene and to continue six miles into the 
county of Franklin, thence north to the State line, thence west with 
said line until it intersects the said eastern boundary of the county of 
Montgomery, thence to the place of beginning. The third section of 
this Act fixed the temporary seat of Justice at the house of George 
Fithian in Springfield. The first Court met at the house of George 
Fithian in Springfield, and its officers were as follows: Francis Dun- 
levy, President Judge; John Eeynolds, Samuel McGollough and John 
Runyon, Associate Judges; Arthur St. Clair (who was a son of Gov. 
St. Clair), Prosecuting Attorney; John Dougherty, Sheriff; Joseph 
C. Vance, Clerk. The first Grand Jui-y was composed of Joseph 
Layton, Adam McPherson, Jonathan Daniels, John Humphries, John 
Reed, Daniel McKinnon, Thomas Davis, William Powell, Justis 
Jones, Christopher Wood, Caleb Carter, William Chapman, John 
Clark, John Lafferty, Robert Renniek. 

Amongst the first Petit Jury were Paul Huston, Charles Rector, 
Jacob Minturn, James Reed, James Bishop and Abel Crawford. 

Amongst the earliest Attorneys was Thomas Morris, who many 
years after became United States Senator from Ohio. FA. W. Pearee 
was a resident attorney and perhaps the first. Moses B. Corwin, 
Henry Bacon and James (^ooley were amongst the early attorneys. 
Amongst the Grand Jurors at the May term, 1809, were Frederick 
Ambrose, Simon Kenton, John Guthridge. 

The first trial at the first term of the Court — September, 1805 — 
was the cn.se of the State of Ohio against one Taylor for threatening 
to burn the barn ot Griffith Foos, at Springfield. The form of 
arraignment was peculiar — the defendant being asked in what manner 
he would be acquitted, plead not guilty. 

At the first session of the Supreme Court, in 1805, the Judges were 
Samuel Huntingdon, Chief Judge, William Sprigg and Dtiniel 
Symmes, Judges. The first case tried was the State against Isaac 
Brackon, Archibald Dowden and Robert Renniek for assault on an 
Indian named Kanawa Tuckow. The defendants pleading not guilty 
and taking issue, for plea, put themselves upon God and their country. 
They were defended by Joshua Collett, afterwards one of the Supreme 
Judges, and were acquitted. The jury was composed of William 



81 

McDonald, Sampson Taljiott, Justis Jones, George Croft and others. 
A Supreme Court and a jury and the common Law! "There were 
giants in those days." 

In the year 1817 Chanipaign^connty was shorn of much of her ter- 
ritory, Logan county on the north and Clark county on tlie south 
being established in that year. Amongst the first settlers in what is 
now Champaign county was Gen. Simon Kenton. He was familiar 
with it and with almost every part of Ohio before he came to settle in 
it. lie first went to Kentucky in the year 1771, when but a boy, and 
soon became associated with Daniel Boone in his expeditions against 
and encounters with the Indians in Kentucky and Ohio. In 1778, 
when on one of his first expeditions through. Ohio, he was taken pris- 
oner by the Indians on the north bank of the Ohio river, and lashed 
on the back of a wild horse, witb his hands tied, and a rope around 
his neck fastened under the horse's toil and around the horse's neck 
and his feet fistcned under the belly, the horse let loose in the woods 
kicking and plunging through the bi'ush, but escaping from death 
marvelously. He was then taken to Chillicothe and there compelled to 
run the gauntlet, and was then brought to the Mac-n-cheek towns and 
Wapatomicn (the latter town was about where Zanesfield, Logan 
county, now is) and was compelled to run the gauntlet at each place, 
and was then condemned to a horrible death, but by the generous con- 
trivance of the Mingo Chief, Logan, he was taken on to Detroit and 
there afterwards escaped and returned to Kentucky. This was in the 
midst of the Revolutionary war. He was afterwards taken prisoner and 
again escaped after great sufferings. It is said of him that he was 
probably in more expeditions against the Indians, encountered greater 
peril and had more narrow escapes from death than any man of his 
time. In the year 178G the Mac-a-cheek towns and other towns at 
the head of Mad river were destroyed by a body of Kentuckians under 
General Benjamin Logan. In this attack Col. Daniel Boone and 
Major (afterwards General) Simon Kenton commanded the advance. 
He finally settled in Urbana in 1802, and from that time until after 
the war of 1812, was identified with the intei'ests, the perils and the 
strifes of the people of this county. He had possessed large quanti- 
ties of land in Kentucky, but generous and kind hearted as he was 
brave, he incurred obligations for others which gave him much annoy- 
ance. With every opportunity for being rich, the owner of valuable 



lands in Kentucky and Ohio, he was kept comparatively poor by the 
assistance rendered to others and the treachery of professed friends. 

Judge Burnet, in his notes on'*'the Northwestern Territory, says 
that he became acquainted with Kenton at Marietta, in the iall of 
1796, while attending Court there — Kenton being there as a witness — 
that he was then possessed of a large estate, and a more generous, 
kind hearted man did not inhabit the earth. ''His residence was in 
Kentucky, in the vicinity of Washington, where he cultivated a 
thousand acres of land, equal in fertility to any in the world." 
Unfortunately he was illiterate and altogether too confiding. He judg- 
ed others by himself and was not conscious of the imposition to which 
he was exposed. He believed men were honest, nor did he awake 
from that delusion till he was defrauded and robbed of his estate. 

He had certificates of purchase for 5 tracts of land in Ohio, 
to-wit: 1,200 or 1,500 acres of land on the Scioto river, also what 
was known as the Maquechack (Mac-a-cheek) tract, now consti- 
tuting most of what is the large farm of John Enoch, the tract called 
Kenton's old place, about half a section, now owned by the heirs of 
Maj. Wm. Hunt on the road from here to Springfield — he had a cabin 
on this at one time and lived there; also Kenton's mill tract and a 
place in possession of one Anderson. The Kenton mill tract is now • 
Lagonda. The tract occupied by Anderson embraced what afterwards 
became the farms oi James Johnson and Orsamus Scott, in Concord 
Township. Kenton and Col. William Ward owned several tracts 
together in Ohio, and in the division it was claimed by Kenton as the 
contract that as he took the Maquechack tract and AVard the tract on 
which Urbana was located, Ward was to convey him half a section of 
land adjoining Urbana, which he never did. Col. Ward obtained the 
patent for Sec. 23 on which Urbana was located, as well as Sec. 22 
south of it and Sec. 24 and 25 north of it. 

One of the incidents connected with our first Court was the return 
of the Sheriff on a writ of capias issued against Philip Jarbo and 
Simon Kenton for the recovery of a debt for which Kenton had 
become surety. It illustrates the reverence of the Court and ofiicer 
for the brave Kenton. The return of the Sheriff on the writ was, 
"found Philip Jarbo and have his body here in Court — found Simon 
Kenton, but he refuses to be arrested," and he was not arrested. The 
first jail was on Market street, near where Peter Lawson lives. Ken- 



ton was the Jailor about the year 1811, and was at the same time on 
the jail bounds for a surety debt, and was therefore his own Jailor; 
but violated neither his duty nor the obligations of his bond. 

He took part in the war of 1812. Joined the army uf Gen. Harri- 
son and was at the battle of the Moravian towns, where though now an 
old man, he displayed his usual courage and intrepidity. His skill 
and courage and knowledge of the Indian character were of great 
value throughout that contest. He gave his youth, his manhood and 
his old age to the service of his country. One who knew him and his 
history well, says "that after he joined the adventurers in Kentucky, 
about 2 or 3 years before the declaration of American Independence, 
he was engaged in all the battles and skirmishes between the white 
inhabitants and the savages." He was also an intrepid leader in most 
of the expeditions against the Indian towns northwest of the Ohio. 
Those conflicts continued during the long period of twenty years. He 
was one of the Judges at the first municipal election held in this 
town, that first election being in 1816, and he, Anthony Patrick and 
George Hite, being the Judges. Congress assisted him in his old age 
by making a generous provision for him. If ever soldier- — if ever 
great and distinguished service to one's country might deserve it, 
surely Simon Kenton deserved of the people of Ohio some memorial 
testifying their appreciation of his services and their reverence for his 
memory, but so far no token or monument marks the place of his 
burial — he lies 

"Unhouored and unsung." 

William Owens is supposed to have been the first settler in the 
county. In the year 1797 he settled on what was afterwards known 
as Owens creek, about two miles below where Westville now stands. 
Most of his fiirm was that on which the late Henry Blose lived. 
Pierre Dugan, a Canadian Frenchman, some time prior to the year 1800, 
settled at the head of the prairie east of Urbana, which took its name 
from him and is known as the Dugan prairie. Some question is raised 
as to whether he or William Owens was the first settler. His log 
cabin stood somewhere not far from the homestead of James Long, 
deceased. Captain Abner Barrett settled on- the head waters of Buck 
creek, about six miles east of Urbana. John Runyon, John LafFerty, 
Jacob Minturn and Justis Jones settled near and south of where 
Texas bow is, and not long after Henry and Jacob Van Meter. 



84 

Nathaniel Cartmill, Benjamin and William Cliency, settled farther 
down Buck creek valley, near what is now Catawba station, and Park- 
er Sullivan, John Pence, John Taylor, Nathan Fitch, Jacob Pence, 
Ezekiel Arrowsmith and William Kenton, a brother of Simon, settled 
alonj:; Mad river, west and northwest of Urbana. John Beynolds set- 
tled in the western part of what is now Mad river township about the 
year 1803, and erected the first frame house built in Urbana. This 
was built on the northeast corner of what is now the W^eaver House 
block. He afterwards built the frame house on the Public S(j[uare 
now occupied by George Collins, and the brick store west of it on the 
corner of the Square and South Main street, now enlarged and 
improved. 

Arthur Thomas, who was afterwards massacred by the Indians in 
the war of 1S12, settled about five miles north of Urbana. Jacob 
Johnson and Matthew Stewart settled on Kings creek. John Thomas 
settled about three miles south of Urbana, about where Mrs. Newell 
now lives, and had a small distillei'y up the branch, between where 
the Newell and Donavan houses now stand. Besides these Felix 
Kock, John Logan, John Owen, John Dawson and others settled in 
the county prior to 1805. 

The town of Urbana was laid out in 1805 by Col. William Ward, 
who had entered and owned the soil on which it was laid out. He 
came from Kentucky, though originally from Greenbrier, Virginia. 
The first house ex-ected in the town was a log cabin built by Thomas 
Pearce on market space, immediately north of the present City Hall 
building and east of South Main street. Christopher McGill, still 
living in the city, was born in 1802, within the present city limits, in 
a cabin standing on the east side of the Smith farm. J. H. Patrick, 
a sturdy pioneer, was born in a log cabin about where Mrs. Keller 
now lives, in 1811. 

Amongst the first settlers in the village were Joseph C. Vance, 
George Fithian, Samuel McCord, Zeph. Luse, William H. Fyffe, Wil- 
liam and John Glenn, Frederick Ambrose, John Reynolds, Simon 
Kenton and Edward W. Pearce. These first settlers were sterling 
men and came of good stock. The descendants of most of them still 
live here. Col. Ward, the proprietor, came from Kentucky, was an 
intelligent and enterprising man. In Ohio and Kentucky he had some 
business relations with Kenton, out of which a long continued litigation 



85 

grew up, involving thousands of dollars in lands and money. He was 
the grandfather of the distinguished artist, Quincy Ward. He built 
and lived in a double cabin situated about where Dr. Murdoch now 
lives. Joseph C. Vance was originally of Virginia stock ; served through 
the Kevolutionary war; settled in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
where his son. Gov. Joseph Vance, was born ; moved to Kentucky, as 
very many Pennsylvanians and Virginians did, before coming to Ohio; 
settled in Urban a about or just prior to the year 1805 and became clerk 
of the first Court and continued clerk until he died, in 1809. His son, 
Joseph Vance, was elected to the Legislature from Champaign county 
in 1812. The county then embraced a large .territory, the northern 
boundary being Lake Erie. He was elected to Congress for the first 
time in 1820 and continued to represent in Congress the district of 
which Champaign county was part until 1836; was again elected in 
the fall of 1843 and served for one term. He was elected and served 
one term as Govenor of the State. I recollect to have noticed him 
spoken of favorably at one time while he was in Congress, in the old 
whig times, as candidate for the Vice-Presidency. He was not a 
learned man, but a man of good strong common sense, had a proper 
conception of what it was right to do and had the honesty and man- 
liness to try to do it. Samuel McCord became a member of the Ohio 
Legislature and George Fithian represented the Senatorial District of 
which Champaign was part. John Reynolds was one of the first 
Associate Judges ; he was a man of great purity of character, of whom 
it might be justly said, that the town in which he lived and the people 
by whom he was surrounded, were better and nobler because he lived 
amongst them. Samuel McCord came from western Pennsylvania, 
Fithian from Kentucky and Reynolds from Maryland. William H. 
Fyfie came from Kentucky to Ohio ; he filled various county ofiices 
acceptibly. Frederick Ambrose became Sheriff' and afterwards Treas- 
urer of the county. William and John Glenn were men of great force 
of character, and if they did not hold offices it was because they did 
not want them. I think they had great contempt for politics and for 
politicians. Zepheniah Luse was said to have been acting Commissary 
during the war. He settled on West Main street about where his 
son, Col. Luse, now lives. Edward W. Pearce was a reputable lawyer 
and lived in a house on the lot now owned by Gen. Fyffe's heirs. 
Of Gen. Simon Kenton I have already spoken. 



86 

When Col. Ward laid out the town he dedicated a square in the 
center of it for public county buildings. A frame house on what is 
now Court street, standing on the lot next west of Mrs. Keller's was 
first occupied as a Court House in 1806 and continued to be temporarily 
occupied until a new Court House was built in the Public Square, in 
1814. That new Court House was a spacious brick building, facing 
to the south. The Court room was on the first floor in the north part 
of the building; the main entrance to it was from the hall coming in 
from the south door, on either side of which were the Clerk and 
Recorder's ofiices; the other county ofiices were in the second story. 
Part of the second story was occupied as a Masonic Lodge, for many 
of the prominent early settlers were greatly given to Masonry. No 
fence surrounded the Court House, it was easily accessible; it was the 
place of all public and political meetings, and for the elections of town 
and township, and much of the marketing was done on the north side 
of it; and people h'om town and county were wont to gather about it 
and discuss politics and business generally. My first acquaintance 
with it in a business capacity was as far back as 1832, when as a boy 
I wrote in the Recorder's office. On the north side of it was a well, 
from which the water, pure, and bright and cold, was drawn by 
windlass until in "modern times" that sweet old "moss-covered bucket" 
was compelled to give way to the unhappy invention of a pump. The 
old CourD House disappeared about 1840 ; the old well remains, how- 
ever, but was covered from human sight and human taste when the 
town threw off the rustic but sensible village garb and put on city 
airs,- including oppressive taxes and other evils that style usually 
begets. My first acquaintance with lawyers practicing in that Court 
House was in 1835, when I began the study of the law under Israel 
Hamilton. The lawyers then residing here and practicing were Moses 
B. Corwin, John H. James, Israel Hamilton, Daniel S. Bell, Samuel 
V. Baldwin, Richard R. McNemar — Geo. B. Way came soon after. 
Amongst the distinguished resident lawyers of the past had been 
James Coolly, who went as charge de afiairs to Chili, in 18 — , and 
died there. His widow still lives in this city. He was a man of fine 
ability. C. P. Holcomb was here for a while and so was Henry 
Bacon. Hon. Joseph R. Swan was the President Judge, and Ohio 
has never had a better, a purer, or more learned one. 

Gen. Return J. Meigs had his headquarters here in the spring of 



87 

1812, preparatory to the arrival of Hull's army to the North, and 
iudeed Urbana became the headquarters for the Northwestern Army. 
A large portion of the army under Cass, Mc Arthur and Finley, 
rendezvoused here awaiting the arrival of Col. Miller with the regu- 
lars, and occupied the grounds where Thomas Berry and others now 
reside, until June, when Col. Miller arriving the whole army moved 
forward for Detroit and Canada, and so favorable were the reports 
from the army as it reached the neighborhood of the British, and 
victory seemed so assured for Hull, that the people here raised a tar 
barrel on a pole in the center of the Public Square and burnt it with 
many joyful demonstrations. But when the news of Hull's surrender 
came back over the country none felt the mortification of that defeat 
more than Urbana. 

About the year 1815 a small grist mill was erected where Mr. 
Fox's woollen factory now stands, but not being A^ery profitable and 
other mills springing up along Mad river, it was abandoned. 

The early settlement of this county, so far as the present bounda- 
ries are concerned, was Tiot attended with as many difiiculties as the 
early settlement of many portions of the country. Mad River and its 
tributaries, King's creek and Buck creek, were rapid streams, and 
although the country was comparatively level it was easily drained, 
and so was less affected by miasmatic influences. A large portion of 
the county, especially Salem township, where were the lands called 
the barrens and especially the Pretty Prairie, was not heavily timber- 
ed ; and at a very early period a large part of it was readily opened up 
as a rich farming country. And whether from prejudice or tradi- 
tion, or from knowledge derived from those "who have come down to 
us," I am sure those early settlers were very decent people. 

Amongst those "who have come down to us from former genera- 
tions" and attest of the early history of the town and so link us to the 
last, are those worthy gentlemen. Judge William Patrick and Col. 
Doug-lass Luse. 



Simon Kenton. 



A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE MAN AS HE WAS KNOWN IN URBANA. 



BY GEO. A. WEAVER, ESQ. 

An excellent portrait in existence, a copy of wliieli this Association 
has, represents Kenton apparently at the age of 70, with a face clean 
shaven, a kindly expression of eye, a prominent chin, well moulded 
mouth, long nose, deep overarching eyebrows, and high forehead, 
somewhat narrow toward the top. The whole fkce is a striking one, 
and indicative of a higher type of intelligence than was usual among 
the frontiersmen even of his time. Unlettered, really unable to read, 
and quite unused to the ways of civilization, yet he knew the events 
of his day and the men who took part in the Indian warfare in a way 
that showed rarer intelligence than is exhibited in most of the regis- 
tered accounts of those times. Colonel Jno. H. James says that in an 
interview which he had with him a few years before his death, with 
the purpose of writing up from his own lips with that peculiar diction 
of his, his own life, he found him with one of the most remarkable 
memories he ever met with. 

He was a great snuflf taker and the habit affected, somewhat, his 
manner of speech. Not unpleasantly however, for his way of snuffing 
at the air, with a sidelong hitch of mouth and chin, gave a sort of 
emphasis or novel energy to his peculiarly abrupt utterances. His 
manners were usually bland and courteous; and no man, says 'Squire 
Patrick, was more chaste in habits and conversation. "He resented," 
says the 'Squire, "the charge that he was a horse thief. 'I never stole 
horses, except from the hostiles.' He looked upon that as only an act 
of reprisal. He never utilized the horses but always restored them to 
the lawful owners or to those who had suffered losses of the kind." 

The eccentricity of voice and the archaic style of his language 
accorded well with the shrewd character of his comments. The very 
manner of the man would have been worth preserving, and it is most 
unfortunate that Col. James could not have completed the sketches 
that he began. Being asked what he thought of General St. Clair, 



lie of fair military fame, but who was singularly unfortunate in his 
campaign against the Indians in Darke county, he answered, as he 
twitched his chin and gave one of his habitual snuffs, slowly measur- 
ing his words, ''Humph ! he was a well dis-sip-lined, minister-looking 
man, but dear me, he Jiadn't the brier in his eye." As to a writer 
who wrote more about him than he knew, he said, "That fellow tells 
a good many lies about me; he wrote about talks I had with Indians, 
and says I said ^sir^ to 'em," and the old man shook himself and scowled 
at the reflection. ' "Why, sir, I never 'sirred' an Indian in my life." 

'Squire Patrick relates that he knew him as a quiet, undemonstra- 
tive man, whom one might see talking modestly when questioned 
about himself, walking in the midst of the civilization that grew up 
about him almost as one who had no share in it. For a year, at one 
time here, he was kept in prison bounds. That was when the embar- 
rassment of his wealth in Kentucky lands gave him trouble; for some 
Kentucky creditors had him arrested for debt, under the old barba- 
rous law. The prison bounds in Urbana then extended from Dr. 
Brown's alley on Scioto street to High street, and from Ward street to 
Reynolds street. These bounds were afterwards extended to the 
county limits. He has seen him, he says, walking with his long staff, 
draw near the same prison bounds, when as if about to pass the line, 
he would bring up with a sudden halt. 

These Kentucky land claims which Kenton has been supposed to 
have possessed an almost unalienable title to, were partly charged to 
the account of Col. William Ward, the founder of Urbana, who united 
with Kenton in early days of Kentucky in their purchase ; Ward fur- 
nishing some capital and his knowledge of land titles and conveyances. 
Kenton, to whom was left the business of seeing to payment of taxes, 
neglected it, involving loss to Ward, who filially closed, by written 
article, his partnership with Kenton. The consequence was Ward 
was accused of perfidy and cheating Kenton of his lands; but the fact 
is Kenton was a shiftless man, and in civilization he did'nt get on 
well. As to Ward, Kenton scarcely afterward alluded to him, and 
about these business ventures with him he was always extremely 
reticent. 

In 1811-12 he was jailor here, when the jail, a half log and half 
frame building, stood on the southeast corner of Locust' and Market 
streets. Jno. McCord, his son-in-law, was with him. 



90 

When Hull's army encamped here some of the soldiers seized a 
friendly Indian whom they falsely accused of killing one of their num- 
ber. Kenton heard of it, made his way to the scene where the excited 
company, in spite of all representations and entreaty, were hurrying 
the unfortunate Indian to the nearest tree. Kenton, roused by hon- 
est indignation at the atrocity of their intentions, pushed into their 
midst. The men fell back before the man who carried in his eye a 
fierce determination that has often looked terrible to his enemies. He 
seemed to repVesent the majesty of the law, who, with his rifle in his 
hand, placed himself beside the Indian and demanded to know of the 
mob what they meant by taking an innocent man, and without a word 
of questioning whether he was innocent or guilty, would put him out 
of the way? He concluded with the information that the first man 
who dared to touch a hair of this Indian's head would, the next 
instant, be a dead man. He then led, without interference, the vedskin 
by the hand outside the town and told him to make tracks. 



Results of Meteorological 
Observations 

MADE AT URBANA, OHIO, FOR 25 YEARS; LATITUDE, 40° 6^ NORTH; 

LONGITUDE, 83° 43^ WEST; AND 1044 FEET 

ABOVE TIDE WATER." 



BY MILD G. WILLIAMS. 



EXPLANATIONS. 

The observations and records were made in accordance with the 
forms adopted by the Smithsonian Institution ; the regular hours of 
observation being 7 o'clock A. M., 2 P. M., and 9 P. M. 

Thermometer. — Besides the regular observations the temperature 
at sunrise was noticed; this was recorded as the minimum for that 
day. The annual minimum is the lowest observed point for the year, 
and the maximum the highest point for that year, without regard to 
the regular times of observation. The monthly and annual means are 
obtained from the three regular daily observations. 

Barometer. — The height of the mercury is given after the proper 
reductions are made; and the means are procured from the three reg- 
ular observations. 

Clouds and wind. — The degree of cloudiness is indicated by num- 
bers, the scale being 10 to 0; 10 indicating entire cloudiness, 5 one- 
half, and entire clearness, &c. The course of the clouds is given to 
eight points of the compass, and the prevailing course for each day is 
recorded. The record of the force and course of the wind is entered 
in the same manner. 



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y-lr^r/p r^^-''-^*^ ^7/ ^//^c'/i^ (7 ./^'^if'evr/f S 



Appendix. 



ADDITIONAL MEMBERS. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS. 

Wm. A. Brand, Urbana, 0. Jno. B. Niles, Niles, Mich. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Jno. H. James, Urbana, O. Lemuel Weaver, Urbana, O. 

Wm. Patrick, Urbana, 0. Wm. M Murdoch, Urbana, 0. 



ADDITIONAL DONATIONS. 

Emanuel Stover, Urbana — Pestle and Flesher from Mad river town- 
ship, Champaign county. 

Hakry Miller, Urbana — 2 Arrow Heads from Clark county. 

Thos. Rawlings, Urbana — Stone Pestle. 

Wm. Quein, Urbana— Arrow Head and Borer found in Champaign 
county. 

J. M. Poysell, Urbana — Stone Ax from Miami county. 

R. H. Cheetham, Urbana — Water-worn Stone, plowed up on his farm 
in Champaign county. 

Dr. L. M. Ayers, Champaign county — Stone Charm, found with a 
skeleton buried ir sand in a bed of clay, on Treacles Creek ; also, 31 
Flints and Spear Heads, and 2 Stone Axes from same creek. 

Pearl Craig, Champaign county — Fossil Coral, 2 specimens. 

C. E. Col well, Urbana — Snout of Shovel Fish, from Illinois river. 

W. A. Brand, Urbana — Copies of old newspapers, as follows : Far- 
mer's Waiehtower, Urbana, O., June 9, 1813. The Ohioan and Mad River 
Journal, November 19, 1825, Urbana, 0. Farmer^ Friend, Nov. 8, 1820. 
Copies of ilfad River Courant, Urbana, O., Aug. 16, 1828; Oct. 22, 1831; 
Jan. 7, 1832 ; Aug. 20, 1831. Country CoUustrator, Urbana, O., Aug. 18, 
1831. Columbian Herald, Dec. 20, 1787, published at Charleston, S. C. 
Western Statesman, Columbus, O., Dec. 30, 1826, and April 16, 1827. Wilson's 
Knoxville Gazette, Jan. 6, 1812. The Log Cabin, New York and Albany, 
Aug. 29, 1840. Western Reserve Chronicle, Warren, Trumbull county, O., 
Dec. 28, 1820. Anti-Slavery Bugle, Salem, O., Dec. 8. 1848. Christian Ban- 
ner, Fredericksburg, Va., June 11, 1862. Address to Jackson Electors of 
the 5th Congressional District by Wm. Russell, West Union, Sept. 1832. 
Fac Simile of the last Rebel newspaper, Vicksburg, Miss.-, July 2, 1863. 
VicJcsburg Daily Citizen, June 20, 1863. Schoolcraft's N. A. Indians. Re- 
port on Forestry, U. S. Document. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UBRABIES 






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