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MEMOIRES 



KT 



COMPTES RENDUS 



[>K I. A 



SOCIKTE HO YALE 



CANADA 



1'OUK I/ANNKK 18!)4 



TOMK XII. 
INIiKX C.hCXBKAL, I.-XII. 



OTTAWA 

JOHN UflUK KT KILS 
TOHIXT>. LA CIK rOPP-CI.AUK : IX)XIJES, (i. B., BRRNAIM) grAIMTCII. i:, ]'IC( A DII.I.V 

1-'-:, 



PROCEEDINGS 



AND 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



CANADA 

FOR THE YEAR 1891 

VOLUME XII. 
GENERAL INDEX I. -XII. 



OTTAWA 

JOHN DURIE & SON 
TORONTO, THE COPP-CLARK CO. ; LONDON, G. B., BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY 

1895 




T THE itAzrrnt PKISTIM. MIMTAN^. MUNTHKAI.. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PROCEEDINGS. 

PAIJE 

Proceedings for 1894 I.-LXXVII. 

Officers and List of Mem bers LX X I X 

List of Presidents LXXXII 

Bibliography of the Members of the Royal Society 1-79 



TRANSACTIONS. 



SECTION I. 

PAGE 

/. Le Fondateur de la Presentation (Ogdensburg) : I' Abbe Picquet. Par L'ABBE A. 

GOSSELIN 3 

II. Chouart et Radisson, (Suite.) Par N.-E. DIONNE 29 

III. Le Socialisme aux Etats-Unis et en Canada. Par JOSEPH EOYAL 49 

IV. Le Baron de Lahontan. Par J.-EDMOND ROY 63 

V. Le Comted' Elgin. Par J.-M. LEMOINE 193 

SECTION II. 



/. Sable Island : Its History and Phenomena. With map. By Rev. GEORGE PATTERSON 3 

77. The Voyages of the Cabots in 1497 and 1498. Illustrated. By S. E. DAWSON 51 

III. The Innuits of our Arctic Coast. By Lieutenant-Governor SCHULTZ 113 

IV. The Supernatural in Nature considered in the Light of Metaphysical Science. By 

Archbishop O'BRIEN 185 

V. Cartier's Course. Illustrated. By Bishop HOWLEY 151 



,, TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



SECTION III. 

/. Presidential Address. By G. T. GIRDWOOD 8 

//. On the Strength nf Dn<)las Fir, White Pine and Red Pine. Illustrated. By 

II. T. JtovKV " n 

///. Ot>xcrr<tti<>ns II/IIK .vine Structural Variations hi certain Canadian ConifertK, Ilhts- 

tratf.l. \\\ 1>. I'. IY.MIM.I...W 19 

IV. \ .I,:* ..! Error." iii Meridian Transit OliserrnlioKS. By C. II. McLKOP 43 

T. (>l.>,-rr.,lion." <> tin <Ji,,ii;i ; , </ the Air at Oltmr.i. I$y F. T. SlIUTT and A. McGlLL... 47 



SKCTIiiN IV. 

/ II., l-',,,;:\ix of ('.iiKiiln unit t/.rir Dislriliittioti. By .loiix MACOVN 3 

// !'! /'.'-./.in/ .//../ ' '.;/.->'. ;..!/> l-'::i-uiiitins i >f (jtii-li,;- inn/ Eastern Ontario. By 

I;. W. KM.- 21 

/// /'.^ /;,,-, '.y, /,//,./' )',..(/../ , I iiiim ''.> iiinl <i.- l'l<i/*ii-nl Correlation. By WESLEY 

MILLS. ' .' 31 ' 

/ \\ i: l,< ',>-.!//..//.. llln.^ri: I'ar Mjrr. I.. \KI..\M.MK 63 

I'. >'.;"/-' ..r '/.. Mr-hi-t'itLimi Aiiiiiiiilti f the Pahrazdie in Canada. By Sir J. W. 

KAW....N 71 

I'/, o,. fA, f ,-,/.i/,,.- A', ,./.'/..- ..r' '/.. l,;nl,- Ilii-,,- (ii-oii/,. .\n. If. |{\ G. F. MATTHEW.... 89 
I'//, n,. >)., o,-,/,;,,,,- //, ////!.'>.,;' ^/,, l.Hil, Ilirrr (i'niii/1. .\. III. Illustrated. By G. 

K. MATTIIKW 101 

\'///. Sf-.i.,)..^ ii-,.,ii ih. Wi.^ii-,-,, f.,,1.^ o/ .\o,-tl, .\,i,i,-ini. Illnxtf,it,-<l. By L. M. LAMBE... 113 
/.Y. .N ''' /' '/'< /'//!>.< /' K.i'fi film nit. ii> < 'ri'Hti-t'i r/ili:iin/ nl tin- Espcriinciitiil Farms. 

\l\ \V. 139 

.Y. {fault* 'if Eri*riiH fat* in '/'/-//./.'/'/.</ ../. //.c .\ortl,n;-Kt I'lulnx. By the Kiime 143 

A/. "" '/if 1 Prejtfrriitinii of Fruit." m ('luiuim! Fluids fur ]\Jnxciiii> Purposes. By the 

wi n i<- ... 145 

XII. 'lit F**il <'" i;*i<-hi." of f \>,rtl, Aiiiii-ii-<i. liv S. II. SCI'DDKR .. 147 



GEXERAL INDEX 

Of I'nK-eeding and TransactionB, Vols. I.-XIL, inclusive, divided into (1) Proceedings, 

(2J Authors, and (3) Subjects. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Ill 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



SECTION II. 

One map to illustrate Dr. PATTERSON'S paper on Salile Island. 

Twenty-two maps and cuts to illustrate Dr. S. ]]. 1) AWSON'S paper on theCaliot Voyages. 

Thirteen maps and cuts to illustrate Bishop HDWLKV'S paper on Cartier's Course. 

SECTION III. 

Four cuts to illustrate Professor BOVKV'S paper on the Strength of Douglas Fir, etc. 
Three cuts and four plates to illustrate Professor I'KNII u.i.ow's paper on Structural 
Variations in Canadian Coniferse. 

SECTION IV. 

Five cuts to illustrate Mgr. LAFLAMME'S paper on L'Ehoulis de St-Alhan. 
One cut and one plate to illustrate Mr. MATTHEW'S paper on the Organic Remains of 
the Little River Group. 

Three plates to illustrate Mr. LAMBE'H paper on Sponges. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. 

THIRTEENTH GENERAL MEETING, MAY, 1894. 

SESSION I. (May 2L'/u/.) 

The Royal Society of Canada held its thirteenth general meeting in tlio Assembly Hall of the 
Normal School at Ottawa, on Tuesday, May 22nd. The President, Dr. George M. D.ivvson, C. M.(i., 
F.K.S., took the chair at 10 o'clock a.m., and formally called the meeting to order. 

The Honorary Secretary, Dr. J. G. Bourinot, C.M.G., read the roll of members, and the following 
answered to their names : 

LIST OF MEMBERS PKESENT. 

The President, Dr. G. M. Dawson. 

The Vice-President, Mr. J. M. LeXIoine. 

The Honorary Secretary, Dr. Bourinot. 

The Honorary Treasurer, Dr. Selwyn. 

SECTION I. A. D. DcCellcs, Louis Frechette, Abbt? Gosselin, F. G. Marchand, J. Marmette, J. E. 
Eoy, Joseph Royal, B. Suite, M* r Tanguay. 

SECTION IF. Archbishop O'Brien, Rev. /Eneas McD. Dawson, S. E. Dawson, G. T. Donison, W. 
Kingsford, George Murray, Rev. G. Patterson, George Stewart. 

SECTION III. C. Baillairge", H. T. Bovey, E. Deville, S. Fleming, G. P. Girdwood, W. L. Goodwin, 
M gr Hamel, G. C. Hoffmann, A. Johnson, T. C. Keefor, T. Macfarlane. 

SECTION IV.- L. W. Bailey, R. Bell, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Sir J. W. D.iwson, J. Fletcher, James 
Fowler, Sir J. A. Grant, J. Macoun, G. F. Matthew, A. II. Mackay, C. II. McLeod, T. Wesley Mills, 
D. P. Penhallow, W. Saunders, J. F. Whiteaves. 

The following new Fellows were formally introduced : Archbishop O'Brien, Dr. S. E. Dawson, 
Professor C. H. McLeod. 

ADDRESS TO His EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 

At eleven o'clock Their Excellencies the Earl and Countess of Aberdeen entered the Hall, and 
the Governor-General immediately took his seat upon the platform as Honorary President of the 

Proc. 1891, A. 



H ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Royal Society. The following address was then read by the President, Dr. G. M. Dawson, as follows : 

" May it please Your Excellency, 

" Twelve yvm have passed since the Royal Society was founded by the Marquess of Lome, who, 
during hu adininwlration, in this as in other matters showed the interest he took in the development 
of the art, literature and science of tho Dominion. Since he left the country, which he learned to 
love w sincerely and with whose prosperity ho has never failed to identify himself whenever the 
opportunity hM offered, Canada has had as his successors two distinguished noblemen, the Marquess of 
Lansdowne and the Earl of Derby, who encouraged by many judicious public utterances, and by all 
the means in their power, the objects of this relatively new society. 

It has now become the duty of the Royal Society to solicit from Your Excellency the same sym- 
pathetic interest which ii always received from previous Governors-General. In asking you to become 
their honorary president, in accordance with the provision of their constitution and act of incorpora- 
tion, the menibeis of the Royal Society point with satisfaction to the principles on which it has been 
organized the union of two race* in friendly rivalry for tho promotion of literature and science. The 
eleven large volumes ,,f transactions which have been already published, through the liberality of the 
Parliament of Canada, and whi.-h are now distributed in every country of the world, show that French 
a- well as English Canadian writer- and students have combined to stimulate scientific, historical and 
other incjuiries. and to aM'ord -nine interestini,' illustrations of tho accuracy and elegance with which 
the French language is studied and written in this dependency of the crown, whoso whole system of 
political and o, ial institutions rests on a broad basis of equality of races, and on tho desire to raise 
a national olilicc to which French a- well as Knglish Canadians can point with tho same confidence 
aii'l pride. 

It is alo with satisfaction that the Royal Society of Canada calls attention to the fact that since 
its establi-liment it has had the cordial cooperation in its work of all tho scientific, historical and 
oilu-r association* engaged in kindred studies. In this way the Royal Society has become, in a mea- 
sure, a literarv union of all those elements of our population which have for their stimulating objects 
the cultivation of letters and the elevation of our people aliovo those more material necessities which 
are naturally dominant in a country like this, still in the infancy of its development. In this respect, 
to quote the words of the Karl of Derby when he said farewell to ' his fellow members,' the Royal 
Society, ' has stepped in atid done good work, and has united those who were scattered by distance, 
ami who tind in the meeting of our Society a convenient opportunity of coming together for the 
exchanging of ideas and renewing of those friendships which, though perhaps only yearly meetings 
|ermit, are nevertheless enduring.' 

' Kver since Your Kxcellency and the Countess of Aberdeen have come into this country Canadians 
have bail many evidences of the lively interest which Your Excellencies take in every subject affect- 
ing not merely the material advantages of the Dominion, but tho culture and education of the people 
t large. Your Kxcellency has tho inestimable advantage of belonging to an estate of tho realm which 
ha given many great names to the political as well as literary history of England. Not least among 
lbo*v name* we tind that of your eminent grandfather who was once truly designated by a famous 
English poet, ' the travelled Thane, Athenian Aberdeen.' Canada has had already abundant evidence 
from yoor public utterances that Your Excellency inherits the tastes of your distinguished family, 
and that it will be your desire to develop among us that high culture without which no country can 
ever become truly great. 

" It in with deep interest that the Royal Society has noted the ability and energy with which Her 
Ex. ollency the Counter of Aberdeen is identifying herself with a national movement which must tend 
lo make tho women of Canada far more important factors than they are now in the social and intel- 
lectual life of thi new country. 

" With the*s few imperfect words the Royal Society now takes this the earliest opportunity its 
member* have bad, wince Your Excellency's assumption to office, to welcome you to this country, and 



PBOOEEDINGS FOR 1894. Ill 

* 

to wish both yourself and the Countess of Aberdeen every success in your earnest efforts to promote 
the happiness of the Canadian people, and to give us additional evidence of how mufib. we owe to those 
distinguished men who are sent from time to time to preside over the administration of public affairs, 
and to represent that illustrious sovereign whose reign best illustrates the genius of the English race, 
and is coincident with that admirable system of government unde'r which Canada has attained hoi- 
present favourable position among the communities of the world." 

His EXCELLENCY'S REPLY. 
Lord Aberdeen replied to the address in the following terms : 

" Mr. President, Your Honour, 1 Ladies and Gentlemen, 

" Most cordially do I thank you for this loyal and kindly address. .Such a greeting, such a welcome, 
as it contains and conveys, coming as it does from a society so representative and comprehensive in 
its nature, and objects, cannot fail to be deeply valued. 

"Allow me, sir, before going further, to express my hearty endorsement of the allusions which 
this address contains to the founder of the Society, the Marquess of Lome. (Applause.) It is not neces- 
sary to have been in this country during the period of his official residence in it, to understand how 
deep and thorough was the practical interest which he displayed in all its affairs. We, in the old country, 
were not unaware of this fact, and since Lord Lome returned to Britain ho has, as you have pointed 
out, continuously displayed the same practical and permanent interest in all that concerns the welfare 
of this country; and it is obvious that a man in his position and with his experience of Canadian 
affairs can render no small services in the mother country by the information which ho can afford to 
the public there as to what is being done in the Dominion of Canada. In view, then, of the connec- 
tion of Lord Lorne and Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise with the formation of this Society, 
it is not surprising that you have alluded to it in this address, nor is it surprising that the interest 
which Lord Lorne and the Princess Louise have taken in the affairs of Canada since the time they 
were here, has had a special exemplification in connection with this particular Society. I had not 
been many weeks in Canada before I received a letter from Lord Lome with special reference to the 
Royal Society of Canada (applause) ; and that quickened the interest which undoubtedly in any case 
I should have felt with regard to its operations. 

The address is gratifying to me, not only on account of the sentiments which it contains, but also 
because of the practical information which it affords as to the work and operations of the Society, and 
I take leave to congratulate you, Dr. Dawson, and your colleagues and fellow-members upon the record 
which this Society can show. There is one point in its constitution and character which I cannot help 
thinking would in itself commend it to the grateful approval of all intelligent Canadians. I refer to 
the opportunity and incentive which it affords for harmonious co-operation between different branches 
and races of our community in the matter of promoting not only literature, art and science, but 
indirectly community of interest and good feeling. (Applause.) It must bo evident that when one 
section of the community shows respect and courtesy and consideration towards another section, they 
show respect to themselves and also to their country. It is obvious also that any deficiency in this 
respect is inconsistent with true patriotism, and with the dictates not only of courtesy and duty, but 
of common-sense (applause) ; and the community at large must be grateful for the example in the 
carrying out of this necessary principle which is afforded by your Society ; I say ' necessary,' because 
obviously any permanent want of co-operation, harmony and sympathy as regards the affairs of the 
country at large would be fatal to its true progress and happiness. (Applause.) 

" When we come to look in more detail at the operations of the Society, apart from its more general 
aspects, there is, as I have said, ample ground for satisfaction and for more than satisfaction, for con- 
gratulation, on the foresight and judicious action of those who took part in the original formation of 

: Among the large audience was His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba. 



, v ROYAL SOCIKTY OF CANADA. 

the Society because when wo come to think of it, it implied no little confidence in the country that 
uch a Society as this should have boon originated at the time when it was started. As compared 
with the mother country and some other countries of the world, Canada is comparatively young, 
and .11 Ihe belter for her, because of the splendid prospects before her, and the vigour and vitality 

of her life. (Applause.) 

Of course it would bo impossible for me to dilate upon the various subjects which are 
embraced in your work, but I cannot help thinking that your programme for the next few days 
show,, how useful and effective, as well as deeply interesting, is the scope of your operations. This 
programme, which your esteemed honorary secretary tolls mo is larger than any previous programme, 
will !* in iuelfa manifesto of what the Royal Society mean-*, and of what it can do. 

" Then- is ..no oihor jKiint in the address to which 1 cannot forbear from alluding. It appeired to 
mo I.. U extremely appropriate that a society which not only promotes but watchfully observes the 
literary and intellectual, as well a- the social development of the country, should have taken approv- 
ing note of the recent formation of the National Council of Women. (Applause.) Those who from 
the lir>t l-eli.-vcd that this movement was capable of exerting a very useful influence have had that 

opinion < tinned bv the progrc-* thus far of the Council ; and at the same time, I hope that those 

who at lir-t w.-re doubtful as to the practical utility of the movement, are already beginning to feel 
that pet-hap- their doubt-, or mi-giving*, if they hud any, were not well founded, and that the associa- 
tion l.a- before it a verv useful future. (Applause.) I cannot help thinking that this tendency to 
apprrciiti'-n will increase as tlie work goes on, at any rate, on the part of those who observe the 
matter with an open, intelligent and unprejudiced mind. Having alluded to this movement, I cannot 
retrain from exploring on my own behalf, and I am sure on behalf of Lady Aberdeen, the apprecia- 
tion with which we have listened to the special references to Her Kxcellcncy contained in this address. 
(Apphiiioc. i Y"ii can understand how much we value this token of confidence, good-will and encour- 
agement, and I tiu-i that \ on may not bo disappointed by fuither experience of our endeavours to 
take part with vii in the w.nk of this S x-iety. I -ay that, because, in accordance with your kind 
|,ii'li-al. I am olli iallv connected with the Society as honorary president, and I hope the 'Transac- 
tions' ..I the Suci.-ty whieh I have ha I the plea-ure of receiving from my friend l>r. Hour! not may bo 
regiinled it- not merely an otlicial gift, but one which I may carry home with mo to Scotland. 
(Applauw.) 

1 In coiichiMon, I have only to offer my warmo-t and heartiest good wishes for a most successful 
aerie* of meetings This convention cannot fail to lie deeply interesting, and I believe a large amount 
of int'-ie-t will he manifested in the proceedings ; and I am sure that those who attend will bo heartily 
glad that they have done so." (I/nid applause.) 

Hi- Kxccllency then called upon the Honorary Secretary to read the following 

REPORT or COUNCIL. 
The Council of the Royal Society of Canada have the honour to make the following report: 

I. PRINTINQ AND PUBLICATION. 

The Honorary Secretary who has been Kditorof the 'Transactions' for the post two years, makes 
the following report on the publication of the volume, on behalf of the Printing Committee, of which 
be U > member: 

Tbe eleventh volume of the ' Transactions ' appeared a month earlier than in previous years, and 
(now in course of distribution. It contains with the illustrations some 600 pages,and is consequently 
among the largest issued since 1882. In addition to the volume 3,400 copies of separate papers, or 
10 P*K** ' n ". nave been ii-sued to members and gone into general circulation. The cost of the 
volume bM been somewhat larger than was anticipated at first, on account of the numerous and 
espcn-ivo illustration* and of the necessity for the printing of the conclusion of the Abbe Cuoq's 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. V 

valuable work on the Algonquin tongue. The full page illustrations and the largo maps apart from 
several small cuts in the text are twenty-two in number; the valuable paper on Canal* by Mr. T. C. 
Reefer requiring elaborate plans. The cost of circulating the lenth volume last year was increased 
by the fact that it had to bo forwarded by the Society itself to members of the two Houses of Parlia- 
ment on account of it having been ready only after the exceptionally early prorogation. In previous 
years the distribution was made while Parliament was in session, and the members consequently able 
to transmit their own copies direct through the Post Office. This year an experiment has been made 
in the publication of the first number of a series of historical monographs of the Royal Society, with 
the view of meeting the necessity of reaching the public in a more convenient and readable form than 
is offered in the large quarto volume of 'Transactions' whoso circulation and value are chiefly confined 
to libraries and societies for purposes of reference. The literary sections have heretofore been placed 
at a considerable disadvantage compared with the scientific sections who prefer the largo quarto book 
on account of the facilities it offers for illustrations. In some cases whore maps are necessary the 
quarto form may be available even for monographs in the English and French sections, but these 
cases are exceptional, and a desire is generally folt to give larger publicity to valuable work of the 
section than is possible by means of the quarto volume. Authors can toll from their own experience 
that the large quarto size is a barrier to the general sale of a book even though popular in its scope 
and object. Valuable monographs have been refused to the Society simply on this account, and the 
effectiveness of the literary sections consequently impaired. The scientific sections have so far not 
only taken up the larger share of the text of the volurt.es, but have also required fully four-fifths (if 
the expensive and numerous illustrations that have appeared and cost upwards of $3.000 since 1S82-3. 
Under these circumstances the scion tide sections may fairly be called upon to assist the literarv 
sections in a matter of so much interest to them. These monographs will be placed in the principal 
book stores by the publishers. It is hoped that the experiment of the past year will be such as to 
induce the Society to continue it from time to time in the ease of valuable monographs which are 
likely to meet with popular favour. It is proposed that the author should receive any sum that may 
remain over from the sales after the expenses of publication have been reimbursed to the Society. 
The Society runs little or no risk in such a venture, which can rarely cost more than an illustrated 
paper in a scientific section. It is suggested that this matter bo loft whore it properly rests, in the 
hands of the Printing Committee. They can make from year to year such arrangements as are con- 
sonant with the pecuniary and other interests of the Society. The presence on this committee of Dr. 
S. E. Dawson, the Queen's Printer, and a former publisher of important works, will enable the com- 
mittee to como to a safe conclusion. 

"The following suggestions are also made with reference to the ' Transactions' : 

" That the volume be kept as near as possible to six hundred pages, and that the amount set 
apart for maps and illustrations do not exceed five hundred dollars, unless in exceptional cases which 
may be considered and approved by the Printing Committee. 

" That the amount of copies of the ' Transactions' bound in cloth be limited to eight hundred instead 
of over twelve hundred as at present, to be forwarded to the great libraries of Europe and Ameiica, 
and to the more important institutions in thoso countries. The remaining four hundred and odd copies 
can bo inclosed in strong boards for transmission to exchanges. At present very few bound copies 
are received from American and European societies, and it seems an unnecessary expense to circulate 
the ' Transactions' in so expensive a form in all cases. This saving can go to the equalizing of expen- 
diture and revenue and to the larger circulation of useful monographs. 

" As the number of papers appears increasing each session, and several are now left unavoidably 
over since last year, it is suggested that each section carefully select the papers to be published in 
full, and in less important cases print abstracts. It is also necessary that all manuscripts should be 
type-written or at least written in a clear, legible hand, and kept flat in all cases. The expense of 
printing papers has been increased by the illegibility or obscurity of the manuscript, and the con- 
sequent difficulty of proof-reading " 



VI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

II. ACCOUNTS. 

Tho account.-, for the publication of the volume nro herewith submitted after examination and 
auditing by the Accountant of the Department of Public Printing. The contractors for printing 
intend providing new type for the next volume. Arrangements have also been made with the well 
known antiquarian bookseller in London, licrnard Qtiuritch, to act as agent for all the publications 
of the SiH-iety, and hi* last catalogue has full page advertisements of the principal papers that have 
nji|K-arol in the ' Transactions ' for the |>;i-l twelve years. 

I'uBi.isiiiNo ACCOUNTS. 

MONTREAL, May 21, 1894. 

So-'tfty of <\imi'lii, Otlaira. 

To UA/BTTE I'KINTINO Co., Dr. 

KM. 

Iml.iin din- mi Litl arc-omit, including $"! for :m copies of Cape Breton, 

"ii.itii-il in fit-count rendered s] IK;-' It; 
niii|Mi-<iti(iii .in voliiinc XI. of TnniMirlions. circulars, cards, etc. 1,157 70 

rrininik' p.i|H-r. in. hilling imtlioiV i-opics j ()(jg go 

<<irn-ciioiiH and alli-riiliuiis In iiullnir>. ;jjy ]Q 

ilnrial, |mKif reading mill .illn-r niisc.-lhiiK-iiiiH expenses , (iOO 00 

20750 
lllil-tnili.ni-., niap-. flc.. (Snlii>toli Co.l SHU 50 

$5,080 76 

Cr. 

l*H. 

Hr CA*|I paid (inzette Co. to dnU* an per Htatement below $4,58668 

HalalK.- line --(Ja/cttc" Co a 49408 



MONTREAL, February 28, 1894. 
Royal S"cirty <,f Canada, Ottawa. 

To THE MANI KACTURINO STATIONERS' COMPANY, Dr. 

To Korrigii mid dnim-ntie freight charge* 
" Ca*e. hhippiim rx|x-iie>. 

Author*' nipt, doing up .in. I expe^nen 

" liindlnK . . 207 75 

" In.unorr. .tormgp. etc 768 75 

" Sutionery 113 *" 

1525 

11,47 90 

Or. 

By caob to date M per *ttmrnt below 

$1,10000 

BtlMc* dM Manufacturing Sutlonen,' Co. U> date 

$ 38790 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. VII 

GENERAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF ROYAL SOCIETY PROM MAY 22, 1893, TO MAY 21, 1894. 

DR. 

To Cash on hand (Hon. Secretary), May 21, 1893 ... . ? 985 63 

" Government grant for 1803-4 5 QQO QQ 

" Amount received for insurance on volumes damaged at Trotter's 194 50 

$6,180 13 

By Paid Gazette Printing Co, May 25, 1893 . 8 985 63 

August 22, 1893. 1)0m , 

" November 13, 1893. 75,, < K) 

" " February 20, 1894 55,, m 

May 14, 1HB!.. liam u , 

" Dawson Bros., August 2.5, 1893 -,,,,, m 

April 2, 1894 )illo IMI 

" British American Bank Note Co., August 21, 1893 48 95 

" D. A. McLaughlin, for illustrations, December 27, 1893 i,in m 

" Not man & Co., illustrations :i 25 

" .1. Marmette, for copying archives 5ti 01 

" Additional proof-reading <.m m 

" Cash in hands of Honorary Secretary to date 108 21 

86,180 13 
Amount of subscriptions in Treasurer's bands to May 21, 1891 s 179 75 

III. VISITORS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 

The Council of the Royal Society some time ago invited several representative gentlemen in the 
United States to attend the present meeting and take part in its deliberations, and in those discus- 
sions of the respective sections which may be of especial interest to them. The following have 
accepted : 

Professor O. C. Marsh, of Yale University, President of the National Academy of Sciences. 
Mr. S. 11. Scudder, of the Geological Survey of the United States, and member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston. 

Dr. Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard University. 

Mr. B. E. Fcrnow, Chief of the Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

The co-operation of these distinguished gentlemen must do much to promote the usefulness of 
this Society, and tend to keep up that feeling of friendship which should animate the peoples of the 
United States and Canada in all their relations, whether commercial, social or intellectual. 

IV. ASSOCIATED SOCIETIES. 

In accordance with the practice of the Royal Society since its foundation, invitations were sent 
to the various literary and scientific associations of the provinces, asking them to co-operate as usual 
in the labours of this Society, by sending delegates to take part in this meeting, and make reports of 
their work during the year. The following is a list of such societies, and of the names of the dele- 
gates so far as reported to the Honorary Secretary : 



VIII 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



SOOIBTY. 


PLACE. 


DELEGATE. 




Montreal 


Mr. Justice Wiirtele. 


Natural History Society 
NuniUniatlr and Antiquarian Society . 


do 


Mr. DC I^ry Macdonald. 






do 


Dr. Uirdwood. 


MicnK-copical Society 




Soclele hWorlijuc. 


do 


Not represented. 


Orrlr Illleraire et inimical dc Montreal. 


do 


Rev. C. K. Amaron. 




Literary' >' HiM<>ricnl Society. 


Ou -bee 
" 


Mr. 1'. B. Casgrain. 




Cfotfniphiral Sxiely 


do 


Mr. N. Ijevasseur. 


In-lit ill rniiadii-n 


do 


Mr. N. Olli\ ier. 


l.it.-niry and S icntillr Soviet) 


Ottawa 


Mr. V. K. Hennetts. 


Kirld Natiirali-t-' Cluh 


do 


Mr. K. T. Shutt. 


I.'lnnlitiit (aiiadim fr.iurai- 


do 


Mr. B. Suite. 


llainill'in A -"ialion 


Hamilton 


Mr. II. H. Small. 


Kipl'pipi"l"-'H al SH ii-l\ -pf Ontario. Ixindon . 


Itev. Mr. Kyle*. 


i ini'ii.ui In-ii'iitr Foronto 


Dr. KIcmiiiK- 


Niiinnil Hi-torj SM i-t> of N.ll . St. -lolin. 


Mr. C. I 1 . Hay. 




Hi tv ( V- iv -i -N-'ipl i i D f ' ^ II Mjiekjiv. 


l-l.-n-'.tl r-* >i ll'l j ( 'l Ai i It ^< ill in 'i'p 
Nainr.il lli-tMi) S..i ii-ly (pf ll.C . X'icloria. H.I'. 


Not represented. 


U <.|iiMnrili I'i'pni . r and Ili-torii -al N icl) . Hiimilt Onl 


Hon. Donald Maclnncs. 


KU-in lli-iiiri< ill and S. -inn ilic In-til nie. St. Tlioma>. Out 


Mr. Colin Scott. 


H i-l'-riiMl S ** iri \ of M.in i! >t.,i \\iniiipr_r. 


Lieut. -(lOV. Selllllt/. 


lUilank-al Chili IP! Canada. llalifa\. N.S 


Dr. A. 11. Mackny. 


Am-TK-aii |-'-ilk I.-irr S'M-ii-l \ . Montreal 


Mr. .lohn Kcadc. 



\'. I-'II.I.INO UK VACANCIES. 

Nuiniiiiiiiipii |iit|ior- wofc ^('llt "lit in duo c'iurso for (ho election of one additional member in the 
Tliinl and Fourth S'Tli'ui- iv-jii-ctivi-ly, l-ui no cumliduto received the riquisite majority of votes. In 
Sevli-ui Tlirce there are at prr-fiit milv twi-nlv iiu'inlicrs, ii-^ il liiw not horctolbre complied with the 
rule whii li alliiw> lhc % election of an iidditional ineinber each year until the number of twenty-five is 
reai-lidl. Tlie Fir<*t and Second Sections have carried out the rule and annually elected such addi- 
ti"ltal ineinliei-H, and tliey now contain roi|>eclivfly the number of 1 went} -three. The Fourth Section 
contain-* twenty two im-inhcrM. I'ndor tlio circumstances the Council refer the whole matter of the 
elocti'in lo the Third and Fourth Sections, and recommend that steps be taken to make their mem- 
bernhip :i clticient and complete :.s jKii-sihle. 

VI. <'oRHE8i'ONDiN(i MEMHEUS. 

Al the annual general meeting in 18!>3 the First and Second Sections unanimously elected as 
rorroH|tonding membei-H M. .lulen ('larctic, of the C<im^die-Franf;aiso, and Mr. Henry Harrisse, now of 
1'ario. The following rt-plie hove Ix-cn received from these two gentlemen, one of whom accepts, 
nd the other ia compelled to decline the distinction for reasons which are quite intelligible, and of 
which the Society w ignorant at the time of nomination : 
" 1680-1803, 



otjittui.. PARIS, 17 juillot 1893. 

I.B SECRETAIRE. Mon ami M. Fauchcr de St-Maurico nvait bion voulu m'annoncer la 
noavello dont vuun n. uvi-cr. oflicicllcment, el je I'livuia pile ile dire 4 1:. Socidle' royale du Canada avec 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. IX 

quoin sentiments de gratitude j'ai accueilli le grand honneur qui m'dtait fait. II me semble que je 
viens de contractor envers le Canada une dette de reconnaissance qu'il me sera tr6s doux de payer, et 
jo vous prie, Monsieur lo Secretaire, de vouloir bien vous faire, aupres de vos honoris collogues. Pin- 
torprto de cette reconnaissance et de mon ddvouement. 

" Ce sera une des joie de ma vie de me sentir lid ainsi, dans ce qu'il y a de plus elevd, a ce Canada 
dontj'admire la vaillance et dont j'aimo lo coeur. 

" Vouillez, Monsieur le Secrdtaire, recevoir ['expression la plus profonde do ma sympathio et de 
ma gratitude. 

Signe, " JULES CLAKETIE." 

" HOTEL DES ROCHES-NOIRES, TROUVILLE-SUR-MER, 5 aout 189:i. 

" MONSIEUR, En rdponso & votro obligoarito Icttro du lerjuin m'informant quo la Soc-idte rovale 
du Canada m'avait dlu membro correspondant, j'ai le regret, ayant dedine pareil honneur do la part 
d'autres socidtds savantes, do no pouvoir accepter e<.-lui quo votro docto compagnie a bien voulu me 
confdrer. 

" Prdsontcz, je vous prie, mes romcreiements les plus sinccres ;i la SociiHd royalo du Canada, et 
vcuillez agrder, monsieur, 1'a.ssuraneo do ma consideration la plus distingude. 

Signd, "IlKNiiY UARIUSSE. 

" M. J. G. Bourinot, C.M.G., LL.D., Docteur es Lettres, Secrdtaire honoraire." 

VII. ATTENDANCE OK FELLOWS. 

The attendance of Fellows for the past four meeting-; has boon exceedingly irregular, owing 
chiefly to the facts that the membership is scattered over so largo an area of territory and the expense 
of travelling is a serious matter to some persons. Professional and business engagements, necessarily 
of primary importance, have also constantly intervened to prevent I bat attendance we sbonM like to 
see at our meetings. Kvery man belonging to the Royal Society is busily employed in scientific, 
educational, or journalistic pursuits, or in oflicial life, and it is often at much inconvenience and 
expense that many of our members havccome to Ottawa to discharge their obligations to the Society. 
It is also necessary to remember that several men who have done good work iii science and literature, 
like Mr. Thomas Kirby, the Abbe Cuoq and Horatio Halo, now feel the burden of the years of a very 
active and industrious life, and are unable to venture on the risks and excitement of travel. At the 
present time Archbishop Bdgin, who was always an active member before the assumption of his high 
office, is in Rome and not likely to return in time for this meeting. Mr. Ramsay Wright, who deli- 
vered one of the public lectures last spring, is now in Genoa. Mr. Justice Routhior is engaged in 
his judicial duties. Dr. Loudon, President of Toronto University, cannot possibly leave his onerous 
duties during the meeting. The Abbd Laflammo is busily employed in investigating the causes of the 
serious calamity which occurred so recently at Saint- Albans, in the county of Portncuf. Mr. Carp- 
mael is in bad health and on his way to England. Several other members have sent excuses regret- 
ting and explaining their unavoidable absence. On the whole, it must be admitted, the attendance is 
above the average of that common to scientific and other societies of America, where the membership 
is far larger. Whilst recognizing this fact as satisfactory, we must not lose sight of the indifference 
or apathy that appears to bo shown by one or two Fellows who never attend or even send excuses. It is 
hardly necessary to say that it is most desirable that this Society should have its annual meetings as 
fully attended as possible in order that its discussions and proceedings may be conducted with oven 
greater energy than at present, and its influence in all the centres of thought and activity increased 
by the presence of men anxious to promote the objects the Society has in view. It was with the 
object of extending its usefulness that provision was made some time ago for increasing the member- 
ship of a section from twenty to twenty five in the course of five years. It is now proposed that the 
rules of the Society should be rigidly carried out, and that each section should carefully revise its 

Proc. 1894, B. 



X ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

membership and consider whether any member who has failed to attend for three years in succession 
without presenting a paper, or assigning reasons in writing satisfactory to the Society, shall not be 
called upon to resign or else give some evidence of his desire to assist iu the work of the Society. It 
in suggested by the Council that each section consider if it has any such cases, and instruct the 
secretary to notify the indifferent members of the rule, and to express the hope lhat they will hence- 
forth identify themselves closely with the labours of the Society. It is also suggested that those 
gentlemen whose years preclude their attendance should bo placed on the retired list. Active mem- 
berhip is absolutely necessary to the usefulness of a society like this. 

VIII. Tur. 'TRANSACTIONS' AT THE CHICAGO WOBM>'S FAIR. 

The Honorary Secretary forwarded (o the World's Fair at Chicngo, at the request of the com- 
missioners, a full sot, bound in morocco, of the ' Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada ' as well 
n.H a special copy of 'Capo Breton and Its Memorials,' one of the publications of the Society. A 
medal has been awarded the Society for the typographical and generally meritorious character of 
theito works. 

IX. INDEX. 

It i- proposed I" add to the twelfth volume an index of all the subjects, as well as of the authors 
who-c name* appear in what will thru I HI considered and named the First Series of Transactions, viz., 
from ono in twelve, inelushc. Surh an index has now become a necessity to all those who wish from 
time I" time to consult a series which deals with a great variety of subjects, urchieological, ethnological, 
historical, literary, and scientific, to which at present reference can be made only with great difficulty 
and I"Cs of time 

X. lilBI.IOGRAPHT. 

During the pat I year the Honorary Secretary, in accordance with the recommendation made in 
two report- of the <' uincil, mailed circulars to all the Fellows, asking for a complete list of all their 
published work-, memoir-, and essays, with a view to the printing of a bibliography of the Society. 
Answers have been received from the greater number of the members and it is only the indifference, 
or |n>rliaps pics-ing business, of a very few gentlemen that has prevented the appearance in the last 
volume of what must prove to lie of much interest and value to all engaged in scientific, historical or 
literary pursuit*. At the pre.-ent time, there is no work which gives the information which will bo 
contained in the promised bibliography. Under these circumstances it is hoped that those members 
who have not yet complied with the circular in question will lose no time in sending the necessary 
information to the Honorary Secretary, who proposes to publish the notes in the forthcoming volume, 
t is also suggested that every member should make his answer as complete as possible, and not 
throw upon the Secretary the responsibility and labour of searching for information when it can be 
mont cattily and accurately given by the author himself. 

XI. LONGITUDE OK MONTREAL. 

The Secretary has received the following communication from Professor McLeod on a subject 
of intercut to the Society : 

" Mc(JiLL COLLEGE OBSERVATORY, Montreal, May 16th, 1894. 
" Dr. J. O. Bmtrinot, C.M.G. 

DtA Sit, In reply to your inquiry as to the progress of the determination of the longitude of 

l, I bg to state that the first reduction of the clock errors, depending upon preliminary 

Ur place* s obtained from various catalogues, was completed in June last. The resulting 

together with all the result* of clock comparisons wore immediately forwarded to the 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XI 

Astronomer Royal. From these quantities and the corresponding results obtained by the English 
observers the following provisional values of the longitudes of the several stations are derived : 

H. M. s. 

Montreal (McGill College Observatory transit pier) 4 54 ]8-7 

Canso (Commercial Cable Co.'s office, Hazel Hill 4 04 41-3 

Waterville (Commercial Cable Co.'s office, Ireland) '40 093 

" This value for Montreal is slightly (0'15 see.) in excess of the value hitherto accepted. 
" Early last winter the corrected star places were received from Greenwich and from these the 
clock errors have been entirely recomputed. The final results are now in the hands of the Astronomer 
Royal, and I hope to be able to announce the new value of the longitude of Montreal during the pre- 
sent meeting of the Royal Society. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Yours very truly, 

"C. II. McLEon." 

XII. OBSERVATION OP TIDES AND CURRENTS. 

It is satisfactory to learn from the report of the Department of Marine for 1893-4, that progress 
continues to be made with the survey of tides and currents in Canadian waters. This, report 
contains a very full and interesting account (see Appendix A) of all work clone up to January last, 
by Mr. William Bell Dawson, O.K., who has been appointed to take charge of this important branch 
of the public service. From this report wo make the following extracts as quite sufficient for our 
purpose of keeping the members of the Royal Society conversant with the progress of observations 
in which they have taken the deepest interest from its very inception : 

" Tide Gauge Statio7is Established up 1o December, 1893. 

" St. John, N.B. Gauge placed against wharf in harbour. D. L. Ilutchinson, meteorological 
observer, in charge. In operation since December, 1892. 

" Southwest Point. Anticosti Crib erected for gauge. II. Pope, lighthouse-keeper, in charge. 
Observations commenced July, 1893. 

" St. Paul Island, O.B. Gauge on a crib built into an opening between rock clillk John Camp- 
bell, lighthouse-keeper, in charge. Observations commenced September, 1893. 

" Magdalen Islands At Grindstone, on east side of the islands. Gauge in a well in a timber break- 
water for better protection. A. Le Bourdais, local superintendent of telegraphs, in charge. 
Observations commenced October, 1893. 

" Quebec Gauge placed at the LeVis Dry Dock. U. Valiquet, engineer of Dry Dock, in charge. 
Observations commenced November, 1893. 

" Father Point (Unfinished.) Gauge to be placed in a well sunk on shore, and tide to be led to it 
by a trench and piping. 

" Completion of the Survey. 

"The time required for the survey of the currents on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts will be 
about six or eight years, on the basis of an annual expenditure as indicated below, and the average 
annual cost should be fully covered by the amount of the present estimate; with the exception of the 
sum allowed for the use of the steamer, which in future years should be available for the whole 
season. With this proviso, it will be possible in the time stated to survey the currents in the open 
waters traversed by the ocean-going vessels, and on the main routes leading to our principal harbours ; 
but it does not contemplate an examination in detail of the currents in the less important bays and 
straitt-. The amount of the estimate also includes the additional tide gauges to be established in the 
first two seasons in advance of the survey of the currents in each region. The margin corresponding 
to this in later years can be used to carry forward the tidal work, until the completion of the survey 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

of the current* ; when the remaining tidal work can be completed satisfactorily on the basis of a 
much reduced expenditure. 

" Summary. 

" The following summary may be given in conclusion, with special reference to the work for the 

coming season : 

" 1. The representations ma<lo in pant yean have shown the imperative need of obtaining full 
information a* to tlic tides and currenU in Canadian waters; and this is now generally admitted and 
recognized. 

'2. A practical commencement has been niiide by the erection of five tidal gauges now in 
npeiaiion, mid also l>y the publication of tide tables for the port of Halifax by this department. 

It It is now promised to complete tho series of tide gauges required in the Gulf, and on the 
Atlantic coast ; ninl also to commence the survey of the currents in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

I. The credit of $10,000 voted by Parliament, was for the erection of tide gauges and the reduc- 
tion of tin- tidal observations; and did not include provision for the survey of the currents. 

.'>. It mav al-o In- noted that out of the two annual credits of $10,000 each, madeavailable up to 
June. I-'.':!, little over one fourth was actually expended on the work. 

' Surrey of Tidrs and Currents. 

"KsTIMVTK FOR THE KlSCAI, YKAR l*!>4-95. 

Three new tidal stations at Belle l>\u, Halifax, and Yarmouth, including cost of 

tide gaiiire- and eu-'-tion 8 3.500 

Keiuoval of tide gauge from Magdalen Islands to Mirainichi, after nine months 900 

Completion of gauge at leather Point 700 

Maintenance ol nine tidal stations, at $l!00 each, including salary of observers 2,700 

Publication ol tide tables 300 

Knginei-r in charge, salary 2,000 

Assistant to super-vise erection of tide gauges, and three assistant surveyors and 

computers, for survey of the currents, and for working up the tidal observations. 3,600 

Travelling expenses and tiold expenses of stall 1,800 

Hire of IxKiiincn 900 

Fittings for steamer, deep sea anchorage, sounding appliances, current meters, 

in -mi in cuts, tc 2,500 

Add for contingencies say 5 per cent 1,100 



$ 20,000 
I'l-e of hteamer fur four months at the rate of $15,000 a full season of seven months. 9,000 



$ 29,000 

XIII. POSTAGE ON SCIENTIFIC SPECIMENS. 

The Hoyal Society of Canada has received from the Council of the Scientific Alliance of New 
York, a copy of the following resolution which is referred to the consideration of the Third and 
Fourth Sections : 

" Rnolcrd, That the Scientific Alliance of New York, consisting of the members of the New York 
Academy of Science*, the Torrcy Botanical Club, the Now York Microscopical Society, the Linmean 
Society of New York, the New York Mincralogical Club, the Now York Mathematical Society, the 
New York Section of the American Chemical Society, and the Now York Entomological Society, 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XIII 

hereby appeals to the several societies and associations with which it is in correspondence, both in 
this country and in foreign lands, to memorialize the postal authorities of their respective governments 
in behalf of a reduction of postage upon scientific specimens, and to use their influence in every prac- 
ticable way to further this object, so important to the interests of scientific study and research, with 
special reference to obtaining some united action among the governments associated in the Interna- 
tional Postal Union, at the approaching conference of representatives of that body." 

XIV. CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS. 

The Council have received a circular from the Royal Society of London, calling attention to the 
proposed compilation, under its direction, of a catalogue containing the titles of all scientific publica- 
tions, whether printed in periodicals or independently. This catalogue, it is suggested, should lie 
issued as rapidly as possible, and arranged, not only according to authors' names, but also according 
to the subject-matter. As the preparation arid publication of such a catalogue is beyond the power 
and means of any single society, the President and Council of the English Royal Society have 
appointed a committee ' to inquire into and report upon the feasibility of such a catalogue being 
compiled through international co-operation." The Council refers the circular to the consideration of 
the two scientific sections for their report. 

XV. REVIEW OF CANADIAN BOOKS. 

A number of literary men, some of whom have no connection with the Royal Society, have 
asked the Honorary Secretary to direct the attention of the First and Second Sections of French and 
English Literature to the advisability of having published in the 'Transactions' a short critical review 
of those Canadian books which have appeared in the course of the year and are deserving of notice 
and encouragement. History, poetry, romance, and political science, might be included in this 
review, which, of course, could be extended to pure science. The object would bo to stimulate 
literary taste by that judicious criticism which is rarely been in the Canadian press. As things 
are now, we see either the indiscriminate eulogy of zealous friends or the wholesale advertising of 
publishers who appear to have literary editors ir. their employ, whose special duty is to insert notices 
in the press. In a country like this, where a newspaper's staff is fully occupied in editorial and other 
ordinary journalistic work, it is only at rare intervals, and in a very few journals, wo can see, or expect 
criticism of new books in the true sense of the term. Newspaper notices for they cannot be digni- 
fied, as a rule, with the name of reviews consequently only rank as so many advertisements. In this 
respect the press of Australia shows a superiority over that of Canada, speaking generally. If the 
Royal Society could induce some of its members to devote themselves to a judicious criticism of new 
Canadian books, which could be read at our own general meetings, it is quite possible a positive 
encouragement would be given to our nascent literature. At all events it would be an advantage to 
have published in this way what would be at least a yearly review of Canadian publications of merit, 
which would enable the world outside of Canada to have a fairly accurate idea of the progress of 
Canadian letters. The subject is at all events deserving of the earnest consideration of the two sec- 
tions under whose purview it seems naturally to fall, and the Council therefore refers it to them for 
their report. It is suggested that each section should obtain the assistance of a member of each sec- 
tion to take charge of the matter as editor, and to obtain the co-operation, when necessary, from time 
to time, of other members in his section. 

XVI. LOCAL HISTORICAL SOCIETIES AND COUNTY HISTORIES. 

From time to time we hear of the establishment of local historical societies in different sections 
of the Dominion. For instance, we notice the organization in the city of Belleville of the Bay of 
Quint^ Loyalist Historical Society, which ought to be of much value in preserving the records, 
written and oral, of a district which has peculiarly interesting associations of the early history of the 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

province of Ontario. Similar organisations now exist in other parta of Ontario, and the Royal 
Society will be glad to promote thoir objects by every means in it* power. Ite 'Transactions ' are 
always open to the publication of report* of their work from year to year. Such societies should 
make it their s|>ocial duty to press on the municipal councils of their respective counties the value 
of Humiliating the compilation and publication of local or county histories, which must always have 
positive value for the historians of our general history, who have now to go through a great deal of 
research and drudgery, which they would bo saved in the way suggested. Such local histories, if 
compiled in a conscientious and patient spirit of inquiry, and with some enthusiasm for the subject, 
niUHt always win the attention of those who have an interest in the past. The time has gone by 
when it ran U- Miid that Canadian history, us a rule, is devoid of deep interest. It is not always the 
subject, but rather its writers that arc responsible for an opinion which has no foundation in reality. 
Fr-'in K. d Kivcr and Mackinaw to Louisbotirg there arc to bo found themes which may inspire men 
and women to imitate the example of r'rnncis I'arkman in history, and Mary (lartwell Cathcrwood 
in romance. 

XVII. A SHOUT CANADIAN HISTORY. 

In i his roimci-iion reference may be male to the fact that for several years past there has been a 
inovciiu ni, nut very weighty so far, which has lor its object the production of a short Canadian 
hi-torv wh:rh won], I U> |) >niinin in iis -cope and interest, and written with that catholicity of view 
which cmild make it a text book in all the public schools of this country. At the recent meeting of 
tin- National Council i.f Women, established under such favourable conditions under the presidency of 
Her Kx' cllencv the Counts- of Aberdeen, the matter came up for discussion, and several ladies 
interested in tl.c practical work of education, or in the intellectual development of the youth of this 

country. expr I view.-, some of iheni a little divergent, as to the practicability of the scheme. In 

refei rin_- now to the -ul.jcct. I he ( 'ounril of the Royal Society may say that they have no other desire 

ii to stimulate the ell 'it- of all historical .-Indents in this country, and they would gladly welcome 

the publication o| n Work of moderate compass to meet what is probably a want in the public schools. 

In -hort. -uch a hi-tnry. to (jiioie the National Council, as is "calculated to foster in the minds and 

heart* of i he yniing in Canada a spirit of loyally and enthusiasm, a love of their country and a pride 

<>i,c can c|uiio understand that the ehort school histories which are used in some of 

x inces are not always calculated to encourage a love for Canadian history or stimulate Cana- 

Jian patriotism. Hut the very dulness of these .-crappy, weary histories, of itself is an evidence that 

cannot It always- pn,duce<l to order like so many circulars, to meet tho demands of publish- 

the necessities nf an educational department. Tho writing of a good history, large or small, 

spontaneous, but the icsult of years of thorough research, and a deep love for the subject. 

Cenius of any kind cannot be stimulated by mere prizes or lotteries, and it is safe to bay that there 

lamoii- writers who have entered on their career by answering advertisements. When wo 

consider the excellent work that has already been accomplished, both in French and English Canada, 

L- writing of large histories is concerned, we may have every confidence that a small text 

I in style, correct in narration, and impartial in judgment, will sooner or later appear 

naturally, without any of that artificial stimulus which is rather calculated to develop mediocrity. 

r knowledge in a far more important factor with a true historical student like Parkman, 

, or Ca<.grain, or Suite, than the incidental advantages offered by a committee of judges, 

>t always selected with discretion or comprehension of their capacity for a decision. In tho mean- 

Umo, while this nhori school history is being developed in tho mental crucible of some industrious 

it may bo suggested that the persons at the head of our educational systems can advantage- 

otuly avail UicmMlvea of the work of present historians. A work by Mr. Lamed, the first volume 

, ban boon issued with the title " A Uistory for Ready Reference and Topical Reading," may 

'me of our educators an idea how the labours of Canadian historians can be well adapted to tho 

.ional requiremonu of the Dominion. Mr. Larned's plan, for instance, is to give a historical 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XV 

sketch of Canada compiled from the best writers on the subject. In this way, every author of note 
is made to contribute to the different epochs or periods of our history, and a most readable and 
valuable compilation prepared for the use of students. It represents the mental effort* of the most 
thorough and cultured historical writers, far more so assuredly than the inferior abstracts that are 
dignified among us by the name of school histories abstracts too often destitute of any redeeming 
literary merit. 

XVIII. A TEXT-BOOK OF GOVERNMENT. 

While giving expression to these opinions with respect to (ho writing of a readable general 
history for the purpose in question, the Council of the Royal Society feel that they can heartily sym- 
pathize with the desire of the National Council to see introduced into the public schools of Canada. 
as soon as it is compiled by some qualified person, a small and intelligible text- book, ' having fin- its 
object to fix in the minds of the boys and girls of the Dominion a just conception of their rights and 
duties as citizens." "Probably never before," to quote again the apt words of the resolution of the 
National (5ounc.il, "was there such urgent need for a clear understanding of the principles ot our 
government." Wo agree with the National Council that such studies arc of primary importance, 
and cannot be impressed at too early an ago on the youth, on whom rest the future happiness and 
stability of this rising nation. 

XIX. THE HISTORICAL ARCHIVES OK ('ANAHA. 

The Council refer the Jioyal Society and all tho-e interested in the collection of historical archives 
to the following interesting report by Dr. Marmette, assistant archivist of the Dominion . 

" The importance of that branch of the public service which has had charge of tin. 1 historical 
archives of Canada since its foundation in 1872, has been shown more clearly year by year, with the 
steady accumulation of now and numerous copies of unpublished documents which come to us from 
England and France. Hardly a day passes without our receiving from all parts of Canada and the 
United States requests for information on certain questions to which we can alone give a satisfactory 
reply, if not always a complete solution, in view of the fact that we alone in America possess the 
copies of unpublished historical documents relating to matters of war, politics and diplomacy all'ect- 
ing these two countries and England. 

" Apart from the copy of the Bouquet collection, which comprises thirty written volumes and 
covers the years from 1757 to 17U5, and the Haldimand papers, which take up one hundred and thirty- 
two volumes, and include the historical records from 1758 to 1787, wo have at present in hand three 
hundred and sixty-four volumes copied from the State papers of the Colonial Record Office at London, 
and containing the correspondence between the English authorities, the governors and oilier official 
personages in Canada, commencing with 17GO and coming down to 1831. The copying of these 
interesting documents is now going on in London under the direction of Mr. Brymner, who has 
nearly closed the investigations which are necessary for the guidance of the copyists charged with 
completing a collection which is unique in America. 

" At the same time there is going on in London, the copying, commenced this year, of the War 
Office papers, of which we have already fifteen volumes, as well as of the Board of Trade papers, of 
which wo have now twenty-nine volumes collected. 

" Besides this collection, so rich in new material relating to the history of the country under 
English dominion, we have also the advantage of possessing one thousand and sixty-three manu- 
script volumes of military records all quite original touching the public events and military works 
during the occupation of Canada by the English troops from 1760 to 18(57. 

" The French portion of the archives somewhat behind for reasons beyond control comprises a 
hundred volumes of manuscript relating to the ' terrier', and the judgments of the inteudants under 
the French regime, as well as the commencement of the correspondence between the court of Franco 
and the French governors and intendants of Canada. 



XVI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

' Tho arrangement* continue for copying in Paris the numerous State papers relative to our 
history, which arc found, for the greater part, in the archives of the new Minister of Colonies (for- 
merly Minister of Marine and Colonies), where I had the advantage of examining and cataloguing 
these .|-M inn. -nt- -Kim- years ago. 

" I am referring here only to the manuscript section of our archives, and leave out of consider- 
ation our consulting library of printed books, which already comprises several thousand volumes. 

' It in much to be desired that the government soon take measures to provide the department 
with accommodation more suitable for a library, already so important in the way of manuscripts and 
printed books. Tho three small rooms set apart for the archives are already so encumbered that we 
are at -.trait* to place the now collections that we are constantly receiving. Indeed, the dampness of 
the quarter*, which are situated in a basement, is injurious not only to the health of the staff, but also 
to the preservation of the valuable documents which are under its care." 

The Council hope that the Government of the Dominion will soon find itself in a position to 
provide Miitahlc accommodation for liooks and manuscripts collected at such largo expense, and so 
invaluable to the country, and indeed to the world at large. If it were possible to build a national 
inn-. -ma worthy of the I) .minion, then a section of it could bo properly devoted to this service. In 
the meantime care should bo taken to prevent any damage or deterioration lo these valuable manu- 
script-, and to enable the stall' to make the best possible arrangements for purposes of reference. 

XX. A CAIIOT CEI.EIIKATION IN 1S97 SUOUESTED. 

The w.-l] known historical writer, ami a member of this Society, the Rev. Dr. Moses Harvey, of 
St. .|..lin's, Newfoundland, has addressed a letter to the Honorary Secretary requesting him to call the 
attention of the Council, and through them of the Royal Society, to an interesting event in the his- 
tory .if tlii- continent and of the Dominion, the four hundredth anniversary of which will occur three 
hence. It \vu- on a .1 unc. lay in 1 1'.(7. live years after Columbus had landed on an island of the 
We-t I i.dian archipelago, and given a new dominion to Spain, thai a Venetian, John Cabot, in a Bristol 
-hip manned by Kngli-h sailor-., -ailed under the authority of Henry VII. of Knglund, to find a north- 
wi tern passage to the riches of A-ia, in emulation of the discovery of the great Genoese. Much 
controversy has gone on lor year- with respect to this memorable voyage, and the landfall actually 
made in ni tbea-tern America by Cabot. |-\ir years this landfall was believed to boBonavista on the 
eastern coast <.| Newfoundland, but latterly a dispute has grown up between the advocates of Cape 
North in Cupe Breton, as it is shown in a recent monograph on that island in the 'Transactions of the 
Royal Society, 1 and the advocates of some point between Cape Chidley and the headlands of Sandwich 
Bay on the coast of Labrador, as il is warmly argued by Henry Harrisso in his latest work. In 1498, 
another voyage was made by John Calot to North America, al.-o under English auspices, and the best 
authority goes to show that the landfall on that occasion must bo placed south of the first, and the 
exploration embraced the northeast coast of the present United States as far as Florida. The famous 
map of 15iK) of the Bincayan pilot, Juan do laCowi the first map we have of the new world clearly 
give* evidence of thenc English discoveries in its delineation of a continuous coast line of a continent 
which at the north contains a line of English flags, and the inscription Mar discubierta por los fngleses 
nd a cape at the extreme north called Cauo de ynglaterra. In the Ribero map of 15'.'9 we have 
evidently also reference to the English discoveries under Cabot, in the inscription applied to a 
northern country. The planisphere of 1544 ascribed to Sebastian Cabot, and discovered in 1843 in 
Germany, in the chief authority on which the advocates of Capo North as the landfall of 1497 mainly 
rt their claim, and it is difficult to set aside the strength of the claim while the authenticity of this 
map can be successfully or, at least, strongly defended, as it assuredly appears to be the case so far 
M the argument has advanced. But this is not the place for an examination of the respective conten- 
Jonsina cartigraphical and historical controversy which waxes very warm at times, and make* 
Henry Harris* an advocate rather than a judge. Its nature has already been reviewed in the mono- 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XVII 

graph previously mentioned, as well as in an elaborate paper which is to be read by Dr. S. E. Dawson 
before the second section at the present meeting. One fact is quite certain, that it is to John Cabot 
must be given the honour of having first landed and planted the English flag on the eastern coast of 
North America, very probably at Cape North in the Dominion, or at some other point of British 
North America. The landfall may be in dispute, but not the fact of the discovery, under English 
auspices, of eastern North America, and of the Atlantic seaboai-d of the United Stales. If Columbus 
was honoured in 1893, why should not John Cabot also receive his meed of recognition three years 
hence for his discovery which gave England her first claim to territory in the New World, of which 
the Dominion of Canada, and Newfoundland forms so largo and important a portion at the present 
day ? The matter is submitted to the consideration of the Second Section of Knglish Literature and 
History, as well as to that of the various historical societies of the provinces of the Dominion. Of 
the claims of John Cabot to honour from Englishmen and other colonial descendants in North America, 
Mr. Clements R. Markham the eminent geographical scholar, says with truth, " John Cabot was tlie 
great navigator, the explorer and pioneer, who lighted Knglish enterprise across the Atlantic. He 
was second only to his illustrious countryman as a discoverer, ami his place is in the forefront <>f the 
van of the long and glorious roll of leaders of Knglish maritime exploration." 

XXI. A TRIBUTE TO FRANCIS PAHKMAN. 

Since the last meeting of the Royal Society we have to record the death of one of it> most hon- 
oured corresponding members, Francis 1'arkman, whose great series of historical narratives on 
" France and England in North America," a scries of eleven volumes has connected his name to 
all time with the annals of the continent, and especially with those of the I>ominion of Canada. It 
was he who, above all other writers, first showed the world the piediroMjiie and even dramatic 
features of the two hundred and sixty years or so that had passed since I'e.Monts landed at Sic. Croix, 
and Champlaiu founded the ancient capital of Quebec. Dulncss and Canadian history were too often 
considered synonymous, and with some reason, before the publication of his " Pioneers of France ir. 
the New World "in 1865, or fourteen years after the appearance of his ''Conspiracy of Pontiac," 
the first being the beginning, and the latter the end of his series of narratives. The only meritorious 
history of the French regime that had appeared before 18(J5 was that by (larneau, a French Cana- 
dian; but its circulation was chiefly among his compatriots, and the imperfect and ill done Knglish 
translation that had been made did not tend to make him popular among Knglish speaking peoples. 
The first volume of Ferland's excellent work had boon printed in 1HIM, and the second in 1S(55. but it 
is safe to say that very few persons, even in Knglish Canada, are yet awaieof its value. In the I'nihd 
States neither Garneau nor Ferland had any readers except a few historical students. Hut despite 
their undoubted merit, these French Canadian authors can never captivate the reader like Parkman 
with his power of vivid narrative, his charm of style, his enthusiasm for his subject, his remarkable 
descriptions of historic scenes and places, which are so many pen pictures of the past. To his great 
work, which he conceived in the commencement of his manhood, he devoted his life with a rare 
fidelity, industry, and patience that have never been surpassed in the domain of letters. The record 
of those years during which he laboured to accomplish what he made essentially his mission is one of 
struggle not with ill fortune, or straitened means, for ho was happily well supplied with the world's 
goods, but with physical infirmity to which many other men of less indomitable purpose would have 
yielded. The story of his life should be often told to animate the youth of our country to patient 
effort, whatever may be their vocation in life. " He who shall tell that story of noble endeavour," 
writes one who knew him well, Justin Winsor, whom the Royal Society gladly welcomes to-day, 
"must carry him into the archives of Canada and France, and portray him peering with another's 
eyes. He must depict him in his wanderings over the length and breadth of a continent wherever a 
French adventurer had set foot. He must track him to many a spot hallowed by the sacrifice of a 
Jesuit. He must plod with him the portage where the burdened trader had hearkened for the lurk- 

Proc. 1894. c. 



XVIII ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

ing savage. He must stroll with him about tho ground of ambush which had rung with the death- 
knell, and must survey the 6eld or defile where tho lilies of Franco had glimmered in the smoke of 
battle, lie who would represent him truly must tell of that hardy courage which the assaults of 
pain could never lesson. He must describe tho days and months, and even years when the light of 
the sun was intolerable. Ho must speak of tho intervals, counted only by half hours, when a secretary 
could read to him. Such were the obstacles which for more than fifty years gave his physicians little 
hope " But nowhere in tho pages of his books, so distinguished by bright, graphic narrative, is there 
any evidence of depression of spirits arising from that suffering which would have daunted so many 
men. and infu.-cd a certain vein of melancholy into their writings. Tho genius of his intellect, stimu- 
late! by a doop enthusiasm for the work in hand, always carried him far above all such considera- 
tions of Ixxlily suffering. After all. in a sense, this same spirit of devotion to a worthy object was 
the influence that animated the Jesuit missionaries whose story he has so eloquently and accurately 
told. It was the same spirit of patience and endurance that gave La Salle tho courage to overcome 
the dittii-ultio- which personal enemies, us well as obdurate nature so long interposed as he followed in 
the p:ith lir-t broken bv J"lliet and Manjuctte. and at last found his way down the Mississippi to tho 
<iii!t of Me\ii-n. A groat book and ho certainly wrote such a book is as much an event in history' 
as the dNonvery of new land or river. Much happier, however, than tho heroic men of whom ho writes, 
he lived long enough I" see ihe results of his laborious life crowned amid the plaudits of tho world. 
It is an opinion now generally entertained that among the historians of tho century not one can sur- 
pass him in clearness of stylo, in that charm which ho throws around tho lightest incident, in tho 
fidelity with which he used the material he accumulated at such groat expense and despite so many 
difficulties, in that disregard of all sentiment when it became a question of historic truth ; but there is 
another and most conspicuous feature of his works which has certainly been never equalled by any 

lisiorian. European or American, anil that is his ability to bring before the reader tho true natural 
characteristic- of the scenes of his historic narrative. Every place which forms the subject of bis 
history boars the impress of an enthusiastic student of nature in her varied guise of one who knows 
every rock, stream, lake, and mountain associated with the incident ho relates. Whilst everywhere 
in his narrative we see the skill and lidolity of a true historian, at tho same time we can note tho love 
of the man for the forest and river, for trees and (lowers, and all the natural beauties of tho country 
through which he leads us in the movement of his history we recognize one who has studied Indian 
hie in tho wigwam and by the camp tires, who is a poet by tho power of his imagination, and his 
depth of admiration for t.od's creations, who is a political student who can enter into the animating 
purpose and motives of ambitious priests and statesmen. A great historian must in these days com- 
bine all such i|ii.ilii jes if he is to rai-e his work above the level of the more annalist. It may be said 
that his love of tho picturesque was at times too dominant in his narrative, but if that be a fault or 
weakliest, it is one which the general reader of history would wish to see more frequently imitated. 
vcnU, it cannot l said that the imaginative or dramatic faculty of his nature ever led him to 
conceal the truth as ho read it, or to attempt to deceive his readers by so obscuring his facts as to 
lead us to wrong inferences. He had the love of the Puritan for truth and none of that narrowness 
or bigotry that too often made tho Puritans unsafe teachers when it was a matter of opinion or feel- 
ing. A few of iw, especially in French Canada, will differ from some of his opinions and conclusions 
on moot-point* of history, but no one will doubt his sincerity or desire to be honest. In paying this 
tribute to Francis Parkman the Royal Society of Canada, composed of English and French Canadians, 
meeting on a common platform of historic study and investigation, need only add that its members 
neognttc in him a writer of whom not simply New England, but Canada is equally proud, since 

leraturc knows no geographical or sectional limits, and though we cannot claim him as one of our- 
m>lve* by birth, we feel ho became a Canadian by the theme he made his own, and by the elevation 
and mtermtbe ha* given to the study of tho history of this Dominion. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XIX 

XXII. THE WORK OP THE ROYAL SOCIETY. 

The Council, in concluding this report, must once more press on the members of the Society the 
obligation that rests upon them as upon every similar organization to show their sympathetic interest 
in the work of the Society, not only by a regular attendance but by their contributions to the dif- 
ferent departments of literary and scientific labour that the 'Transactions ' open to them. So far the 
results that have been reached amid all the disadvantages that necessarily stand in the way of intel- 
lectual progress of any high order in a relatively new country are of a character which should give 
the Society much confidence for the future. On the whole these results may fairly challenge compar- 
ison with the work of similar institutions in other and older countries. During the present session 
the contributions to the English literary section take a far wider range than at any previous time since 
its organization. The catholicity of the Society, in a secular sense, can be judged from the presence 
of men differing widely in politics, creed, and opinion, but meeting here on a common platform of 
intellectual advancement, and in this way doing not a little to remove those asperities and prejudices 
which do so much to keep men apart in the world. The Society rests on a bi-oail basis of thought and 
discussion, and recognizes no sectional, political or sectarian distinctions in the selection of its mem- 
bers, or in the pages of its ' Transactions." Carefully avoiding nil those purely controversial or party 
questions which are antagonistic to the success of a literary and scientific association, it claims at the 
same time for its members the freest and fullest discussion within the limits of its legitimate work. 
It is not selfish or narrow in its aim or object, and the literary or scientific student who has anything 
valuable to offer will always find free access to its pages. If wo consult the programme of the present 
meeting, it will be seen that a fair proportion of the papers are otic red !>} learned divines, public 
functionaries, and scholars who are not members of the organization, but come forward voluntarily to 
give us the benefit of their mature thought and study. On this basis the Society has already been 
able to enlist the cordial and active co-operation of a number of able scholars and thinkers, whilst at 
the same time adhering to that rule of limited membership which it has always deemed best calcu- 
lated to sustain the high standard which is necessary for the development of literary and scientific 
culture. It is satisfactory to know that the labours of the Society have so far obtained an amount of 
recognition among scientific and literary bodies of other countries that fully comes up to the hopes of 
its most sanguine promoters and friends. The 'Transactions ' reach every scientific, historical and 
literary society, as well as library of note throughout the world, and it is now beyond our means to 
meet the demands that are made upon us to supply the early volumes of the series. The Society has 
circulated its 'Transactions ' with great liberality under the conviction that it can in this way best 
discharge the responsibility that parliament has placed upon it in placing at its disposal a generous 
grant for the publication of its proceedings. In its typographical appearance, and wealth of illustra- 
tions and maps, the ' Transactions ' are only equalled by some half dozen societies of a cognate char- 
acter in Europe and America. The Council are convinced that the wide distribution of the volumes 
has been a positive advantage to Canada since they have reached a large body of learned men and 
earnest students in many countries who otherwise would know very little of many phases of the 
scientific, material, political and intellectual progress of Canada. The contents of the ' Transactions' 
are now so varied in their character, that the foreign reader can gather a vast amount of information 
in the eleven published volumes of over six thousand large quarto pages respecting the Dominion, 
that no other series of volumes, printed in this or any other country, can pretend to offer. Papers on the 
geology and mineralogy of the Dominion supplement the labours of the able geological staff of Can- 
ada, and are printed simultaneously with disquisitions on the development of government, and the 
nature of our political institutions. The canal system of Canada is brought to our notice, as well as 
the progress of literature and science in French and English Canada. The language and traditions of 
the aborigines are treated with as much fulness as are the history and story of the ancient rocks. 
Under the circumstances the Royal Society claim from the Canadian people the same encouragement 
and attention that it is receiving from those countries where its 'Transactions' are now studied, and at 



XX ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

the name time appeal to it* own members to keep over steadily in view the high duty and responsibi- 
lity resting upon every one of them. To quote the language of one of its founders, twelve years ago : 
" We must discharge this high duty and responsibility in the most perfect manner possible, and with 
a regard not to personal, party or class views, but to the welfare of Canada and its reputation before 
the world. We should prove ourselves first unselfish and zealous literary and scientific men, and 
next Canadians in that widest sense of the word in which wo shall desire, at any personal sacrifice, to 
promote the best interests of our country by the aid of a pure and elevated literature, and a true, 
profound and practical science." 

On motion of Dr. Dour! not, seconded by Dr. Stewart, the consideration of the report of the 
Council was deferred until the general meeting on the following day at 10 a.m. 

liKPonrs OK SOCIETIES. 

The Honorary Secretary again read the list of societies who take part in the work of the Royal 
Society, and the following reports wore submitted by their respective delegates: 

I._ From '/'A* 1 \,ilnr<il /listury Society f Montreal, through Mr. Justice WURTELK, D.C.L. 

The Natural History Society of .Montreal has, this year, us in the past, taken advantage of the 
privilege, which it |M.s-csse.-<, to send a delegate to the meeting of the Royal Society of Canada. 

The w.'i k n( the society during the past year has been satisfactory, and the interest therein of 
the members and also of the public has been shown by the increased attendance at its meetings and 
Use of the library by members and associates has increased, and this is due, in some 
measure, to ihe addition which has been made to it of a few new books. The society regrets however 
that its museum, which is well worthy of a visit, is not more generally resorted to, and it will 
endeavour to make arrangements to open it gratuitously to the public, as soon as its finances will 
permit the necessary outlay. 

During the pa-t year, the society lost one ordinary and one corresponding member by death, 
but on the other hand, it added twenty-six ordinary members and three associate members to its 
membership. 

It was considered that a closer association between the various societies, in Montreal, which are 
engaged in the study of natural history, would conduce very materially to promote that study by con- 
centrating their etlorU and bringing their members into pen-anal intercourse. The report of the 
committee, intrusted with this matter, states: " that the object aimed at is not in any way to improve 
the financial [>"-i:ii>n of one society at the expense of another, but to bring the workers in the 
various branches of natural history in Montreal into closer contact, thus strengthening all the 
iclie* and making their work more efficient." The Natural History Society, _with that view, 
entered into negotiations with several of its sister societies, and these negotiations have resulted in 
the affiliation with it at the present time of the Microscopical Society, the Entomological Society and 
the Agoseiz Society. Kach of these societies forms a section of tho Natural History Society, and 
while retaining it- name and organization, tho members become associate members of the latter 
society. 

It has been decided to extend the range of subjects to be presented to tho society at its monthly 
meetings so a* to include both the natural and the physical sciences, and, with a view to give a more 
popular character to tho papers which are road at the meetings, to request their authors to use 
language as free as possible from technicalities. Those papers, however, which are accepted by the 
society for publication in tho ' Record of Science,' may be recast and appear in technical language, 
hoald the authors desire it. 

The ' Canadian Record of Science ' has been published for a number of years by tho Natural His- 
tory Society, and u appreciated in scientific circles, and its discontinuance would be much re- 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XXI 

gretted. It has hitherto been in part maintained by the small annual grant of $400 made by the 
legislature of Quebec, and when this grant was discontinued it was feared that the society's funds 
would not permit its further publication. The society was loath to see it disappear, and resolved to 
use every effort to continue its quarterly issue. It appropriated from its funds a sum of $200 
towards the cost of its publication and trusts to the well known liberality of the citizens of Montreal 
for subscriptions to cover the balance. 

The lectures of the Somerville course were delivered on the Thursdays from the 1st February to 
the 15th March inclusively and were as follows: 

1. The Dog, his origin, history, characteristics, varieties, etc., by Professor T. Wesley Mills, 

M.D., D.V.S. 

2. The Dog, his management, his relation to the family and the community, the dog and the 

cat compared, by Professor T. Wesley Mills, M.D., D.V.S. 

3. Cattle in their Commercial Relations, by Professor Duncan McEachran, F.R.C.V.S. Eng. 

4. Cattle in their Sanitary Relations, by Professor Duncan McEachran, F.R.C.V.S. Eng. 

5. The Domestic Cow and Dairy Industries, by Professor M. ('. Baker, D.V.S. 

6. Milk and Microbes, by Professor Adami, M.A., M.D. 

7. The Horse, by Professor D. McEachran, D.V.S. 

All these lectures were free and were remarkably well attended, and, except the second and 
fourth, were illustrated. 

The following papers were read and discussed at monthly meetings of the society: 

1. The Guanches or Aborigines of the Canary Islands, by Sir .1. William Dawson, LL. I)., 

F. R. S., F.G.S., etc. 

2. Hibernation and Allied states in the Lower Animals and in Man, by Dr. T. Wesley Mills. 

3. How a Chemical Analysis is made, by N. N. Evans, M.A. Sc. 

4. Denudation, or the Waste of Land, by F. D. Adams, M.A. Sc., Ph. D. (Heidelberg). 

5. The Mechanics of Haulage, by J. T. Nicholson, B. Sc. (Kdin.) 

6. Ancient Myriapods, by G. F. Matthew, F.R.S.C., of St. John, N.B. 

The annual field day of the society, last year, was on the 3rd of June, at the village of Sto. 
Agathe, on the Montreal and Western Railway. The scenery in that part of the province of Quebec is 
very beautiful and the day was much enjoyed by the excursionists. The thanks of the society were 
given to the mayor and inhabitants of the village for the cordial welcome extended to its members. 
This year the field day will be on the 2nd of Juno and the trip will be extended to Sault aux 
Iroquois, now called the village of Labollo, which will give the members the opportunity of seeing 
more of that section of the country which may be called the Switzerland of Quebec. 

The gentlemen whose names now follow are the present officers and members of the council of 
the society : 

Honorary President Sir J. William Dawson, C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., etc. 

President Dr. T. Wesley Mills. 

First Vice-Prosident James S. Shearer. 

Vice-Presidents Hon. Edward Murphy, J. H. R. Molson, J. Stevenson Brown, Sir 

Donald A. Smith, Rev. Robert Campbell, George Simmer, Very Rev. Dean Car- 

micbael, J. H. Joseph, B. J. Harrington. 
Recording-Secretaiy R. W. McLachlan. 
Corresponding Secretary Dr. J. W. Stirling. 
Members of Council Edgar Judge, Frank D. Adams, Albert Holden, L. A. N. Latour, 

Hon. J. S. C. Wurtele, Joseph Fortier, Samuel Finley, Professor Cox, C. S. J. 

Phillips. 

Chairman of Council George Sumner. 
Superintendent Alfred Griffin. 



XXII ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

In conclusion, thenocietj deeiree to nay that, to the extent of its ability, it will always bo happy 
to aid workers in the study of natural and physical science. 

II. From The Entomological Society of Ontario, through Rev. THOMAS W. FTLES, F.L.S. 

I have the honour to report that the Kntomological Society of Ontario continues, with zeal and 
suet-ens, it* researches into all such subjects as naturally full under, or in any way have a bearing 
u|x>n scientific und economic entomology. 

The membership of the society during the past year has greatly increased, especially by addi- 
tions from tli- province of Ontario. This fact betokens both a growing interest in the subject of 
entomology, and also an increasing confidence in the society as a guide and helper in its pursuit. 

The society was established in 18IJ3. Of its founders but few now remain to us. Most of them 
have U-cii losi to ti- through death or departure to distant places of residence. By the members of 
the present duv their memory is held in grateful respect. The society, however, still enjoys the 
U-nctit of the experience and scholarship of the Rev. C. J. S. Bothuno and the business talent of Mr. 
.1. M. IVnton. The names of those gentlemen appeared in the first list of officers published by the 
-ocielv. and thevare louud al-o in the list published in the present year. 

The -ocii-tv enjovs the contidence o|' the many able entomologists who have been appointed to 
p..-iti..n- in the colleges and i-xperimental stations of the United States of America, and numerous 
:n -tide* from these gentlemen have appeared in the society's publications. It also numbers among its 
correspondent* leading entomologists in Kngland and Germany. 

It i- largely due to the wise and liberal support of the Ontario Government that the society ban 
U-.-n enabled to attain it.-- jire.-ent eminent position of usefulness. 

The report of Mr. J. A. Balkwill, treasurer of the society, shows that its finances are in a highly 
satisfactory state all expenses having been met, important purchases for increasing the advantages 
of the society having been made, and a sufficient balance remaining for carrying on the immediate 
Work of the society. 

Seventy volumes have been added to the society's library in the course of the year, by donation 
and pun-base. Among-t them are the tenth volume of the Proceedings and Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Canada, the Report of the Ontario (iame and Fish Commission, the Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Rejiort of the New York State Museum, the Mammals of Minnesota, the 
Hawk- and Owls of the t'nited States, and the Seventeenth Report of the Geology and Natuial 
History nf Indiana. The number of books in the library is now 1,284. Very important additions 
have ul-o been made to the society's collections of natural objects. 

Valuable work has been done by the ornithological, the botanical, the microscopical and the 
geological sections of the society; and a report from each of them was read at the annual meeting. 
With a view to bringing the knowledge and experience of the members of these sections to bear more 
frequently for the good of the society at large, a committee on field days, consisting of Dr. Woolverton, 
Messrs. McClement, Klliott and Stevenson, and one representative from each section, was appointed at 
the annual meeting. 

The Montreal branch of the society held eight meetings during the year, at which interesting 
papers were read and much profitable conversation upon entomological subjects generally was held. 
The branch numbers among its members men well acquainted with the entomology of the Montreal 
inland, Mown. L. Gibb, A. F. Winn, F. Hansen and H. B. Cashing ; and the hospitality of Mr. H. H. 
l.yinan, the president of the branch, and the access he has afforded to his extensive collections of 
Lepidoptera have made the meetings of this branch exceedingly pleasant and profitable. 

The annual report of the society, printed by order of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, con- 
tain* record of the proceedings of the annual meeting held October llth and 12th ; reports from 
the council and the various officers and sections of the society; the opening address of Mr. James 
Fletcher, given in the absence of the president, and telling of the injurious insects of the year and the 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XXIII 

various modes of dealing with them ; and the annual address of the president, Mr. W. Hague Harring- 
ton, likewise containing much valuable information on these subjects. These are followed by con- 
tributions from members of the society, viz. : 

Entomological Mistakesof Authors, by Rev. Thomas W. Fylcs, South Quebec. 
The Season of 1893, by Rev. Thomas W. Fyles, South Quebec. 
Mosquitoes, by J. Alston Moffatt, London, Ont. 
Canadian Uroceridro, by W. Hague Harrington, Ottawa. 
Additional Notes on Japanese Insects, by W. Hague Harrington, Ottawa. 
Notes and Queries, by Rev. W. J. Holland, Ph. D., Alloghany, Pa. 
The Dragon Fly, by T. J. McLaughlin, Ottawa. 
The Song of Thyreonotus, by William T. Davis, Staten Island, N.Y. 

Notes on some of the more important Entomological Exhibits at the Chicago Exhibition, by 
James Fletcher, Ottawa. 

Then comes a full report of the annual meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists, 
furnished by Mr. L. O. Howard, of the Division of Entomology, Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D.C., together with some of the most generally interesting papers read at the meeting. Some 
of these are by the most eminent and practical entomologists of the United States, and all of them are 
valuable. The closing pages of the report are devoted to book notices, obituaries, etc. 

The 'Canadian Entomologist,' the society's monthly organ, completed at the end of the year its 
25th volume. This volume contains descriptions of no less than 162 new species of insects. The 
contributors to its pages number 50. Amongst them are men of world wide reputation. 

That the society may be of service to the community at large, by teaching our fanners, gar- 
deners and fruit-growers the life-histories of their insect friends and insect foes, and by showing them 
how the injurious attacks of the latter are carried on and what steps should bo taken to meet and 
nullify them is, we believe, the earnest desire of every one of its numerous members. 

Appended will be found a list of the officers of the society. 

Officers of the Entomological Society of Ontario : 

President "W. H. Harrington, Ottawa. 

Vice-President J. W. Dearncss, London. 

Secretary W. E. Saunders, London. 

Treasurer J. A. Balkwill, London. 

Directors Division No. 1 James Fletcher, Ottawa. 

Division No. 2 Eev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope. 

Division No. 3 Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 

Division No. 4 A. II. Kilman, Ridgway. 

Division No. 5 R. VV. Rennie, London. 
Librarian and Curator J. A. Moffatt, London. 
Auditors J. H. Bowman and J. M. Denton, London. 

Editor of the 'Canadian Entomologist 'Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope. 
Editing Committee J. Fletcher, Ottawa; H. H. Lyman, Montreal; Rev. T. W. Fyles, 

South Quebec; J. M. Denton, London; J. H. Bowman, London. 
Delegate to the Royal Society Rev. T. VV. Fyles, South Quebec. 

III. From The Wentworth Historical Society, through Senator D. MAC!NNES. 

The Executive Council of the Wentworth Historical Society have the honour to report as follows : 
The annual meeting on June 6th, the anniversary of the battle of Stony Creek, was marked by a 
larger attendance than usual. 



XXIV ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA. 

The officers' rcporla were received and the following officers elected : 

President Geo. H. Mills, Esq. 

1st Vico-Preeident Hon. A. McKollar. 

2nd Vice-President F. W. Fearmnn, Esq. 

3rd Vice President Mrs. J. Rose Holden. 

Secretary Treasurer J. II. Land, Esq. 

Corresponding-Secretary Justus A. Griffin, Esq. 

Executive Committee Hon. D. Machines; F. M. Carpenter, M. P. ; Hugh C. Baker, Esq. ; 

W. F. Burton, Esq. ; Hon. J. M. Gibson ; J. Alexander, Esq. ; J. Muir, Judge Co. 

Wentworth ; J. W. Jones, LL.B. ; Adam Brown. Esq.; Alex. McKay, M.P. ; Maj. 

H}-. McLaren. 

The thanks of the society wore tendered to the Secretary of the Royal Society for the volume of 
proceedings for 1*!>2. 

< n the I'.ith of June, lS!r.;, at a reception numbering quite 700, Mrs. John ('alder a descendant 
of DUO ni' the lir-t t". K. I. nvalist settlers presented a beautiful banner to the society, commemorative 
<il' the battle of Slimy Crock, when addresses were made by A. Brown, Esq., Chairman, Principal 
Gnint, (it C^iieen's. and Mr. Sanford Evans, president <>f the Canadian Club. Airs. John ('aider read the 
following address : 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of t lie Wentworth Historical Society: The day and the 
voar in-crihod on the banner which I have the honour of presenting to your society record both a war 
and a decisive engagement. The war of 181--K5 was an unprovoked and unjustifiable invasion by a 
country people-! by eight millions against u population of but 250,000 peaceful and unoffending 
French inhabitant* and British pioneers, scattered over the then sparsely settled portions of the now 
wide and great I) niiinin of Canada ; "luring which war Canada gave so freely of the life-blood of hoi- 
son- in defence of our glorious patrimony. It has been said, ' Blessed is the, country that has no his- 
nay. rather would I say, perish the people which have no spirit of patriotism to warm and 
stir the ptil-e of national life inciting them to noble thoughts and deeds ! 

" I'IKUI reading the first publication of the proceedings and transactions of the Wontworth His- 
torical S.M-iety I was impressed by the records, and with the fact thai you, ladies and gentlemen, us a 
M-ieiy. are worthy custodians of the few but glorious memories of our still young country. I am 
proud to bo able to claim descent from 1'nited Empire Loyalists, as my great-grandfather, Captain 
James Gage, was killed while lighting under the old flag in the revolutionary war of 177>. My great 
grandmother, unhappy and broken-hearted at the loss and the result of the war, and not content to 
remain under the rule of the newly formed republic, preferred, in connection with other U. E. 
Loyalists, to seek a new home under the British flag, and with her only son undertook the long and 
periloiu journey to Canada. God grant that Canadians may never dishonour the memory of that noble 
ban! of exile* whose loyally to their king and country led them to Canada, and afterwards to perform 
no many heroic dee 1- in its defence. 

" I feel, therefore, that I have a hereditary right to hand over to the keeping of your society 
thin banner, commemorating the engagement of Stony Creek, which was fought upon the home- 
stead of my grandfather, James Gage, and which was taken possession of by two thousand Americans, 
and his family imprisoned, until released by a small but gallant band of British and Canadian heroes, 
in number but 704, who defeated the invaders at every point, and whose bravery has bequeathed to 
an the pricelemi boon of Canadian freedom. And you, gentlemen of the Canadian Club, I am sure, 
will never fail to honour the national sentiment which this banner is intended to foster and perpetuate, 
nd that you, if ever summoned to emulate the deeds of the heroic post, will be over found at the post 
of doty. 

" I h*T great pleasure, sir, in presenting you with this banner." 



PROCEEDINGS FOE 1894. XXV 

President George H. Mills replied as follows : 

" Dear Madam : As the unworthy representative of the Wentworth Historical Society, I accept with 
profound respect and sincere gratitude this beautiful banner, along with your patriotic and impressive 
address. I understand that the presentation waa intended for the 6th of June, the anniversary of the 
memorable battle of Stony Creek, but that unavoidable circumstances prevented the presentation on 
that day. By singular coincidence, however, the ceremony of this evening very appropriately hap- 
pens on the identical date, 19th June, when in 1812 the declaration of that unnatural and unprovoked 
but unsuccessful war against Great Britain and Canada, referred to in your address, was ratified. It 
is indeed eminently fitting that you, the direct descendant of patriotic United Kmpire Loyalists, 
upon whoso farm the brilliant engagement took place, should bo the donor of tliis significant 
memorial. It also appeared to me as eminently fitting that the presentation should take plaee in the 
county of Wontwortb, and especially in this temple dedicated to justice, inasmuch as it will be 
remembered that the place whore we are now assembled is historic, ground, that within a gun shot of 
this building still lie the remnant of earthworks on Burlington Heights, erected in defence of our 
country, whence issued that small but brave band of men, that forlorn hope, whose heroism, under 
Harvey, turned back an invading and victorious force, numerically thrice their own strength, pre- 
served this land to the British crown, and conferred peace and prosperity upon their descendants. It 
is well that memories of such events bj perpetuated ; and you, madam, have contributed not a little 
to that end by this presentation. 

"Speaking for the Wentworth Historical Society, I can safely assure you that to our successors 
recorded instructions shall be given to preserve and transmit the valuable gift that we. through your 
generosity and patriotism, have this evening been made the recipient. 

" In conclusion, I desire to earnestly thank you, not only on behalf of the society over which I 
have the honour of presiding, not only on behalf of all loyal Canadians, but as well on behalf of Kng- 
lishmen, Irishmen, Scotchmen and Frenchmen too, with British la-arts imbued with love for their 
inherited or their adopted country." 

The banner was, at the request of the Canadian Commissioners, sent to the World's Kair at 
Chicago, and placed in the Canadian building. 

The society has, during the year, again petitioned parliament for a grant in aid of the erection 
of monuments at Burlington Heights and Stony Creek. 

In compliance with tho action of other sister societies, (he Wentworth County Council has been 
respectfully requested to make provision for a money prize to be given for the best essay on the his- 
tory of the county. 

Tho only paper read before the society this year was one by J. W. Smith, M.D., of Dundas ; bis 
subject being Notes from the History of the County of Wentworth, which was delivered on the even- 
ing of January 15th, 1894. 

Membership of the society, 213. 

IV. From The Hamilton Association, through Mr. II. B. SMALL. 

The officers of tho association for the ensuing year, elected at tho annual meeting, May 10th, 
1894, are as follows : 

President S. Briggs. 
First Vice-President A. T. Neill. 
Second Vice-President Dr. Reynolds. 
Corresponding Secretary W. M. Logan, B.A. 
Recording Secretary S. A. Morgan, B.A. 
Assistant-Secretary Walter Chapman. 
Treasurer Thos. Morris, Jr. 
Curator and Librarian A. Gaviller. 

Troc. 1894. D. 



XXVI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Members of Council-J. Ferres, A. E. Walker, J. H. Long, B.A., R. L. Scriven, W. H. 

Elliott 

Since its last report, the association has held seven general meeting?, at which the following 
||>eit* were read : 

1893 Nov. 9. Recent Discoveries in the Scientific World, by A. Alexander, F.S.Sc., London, 

England . 

Dec. 21. Early Printers, Printing and Books, by II. B. Witton, Sr. 
1894 Jan. 11 The Kinetic Theory, by W. L. Miller, I!. A., Ph.B. 
Fcl>. 7. Biological Notes, by William Yatea. 
Feb. 7. The Antigone of Sophocles, by Professor Hutton, M.A. 
Mar. . I-antern Slides, being an exhibition of the year'h work by the Photographic 

Section. 

April 11. Sound, by J. K. I'. Aldous, B.A. 
Mav 10. Biological Notes, by William Yates. 

Tin' association is divided into (he following brunch sections: Geological, Biological, Philolo- 
gical, and Photographic. 

It i- in th.- work of these section- that (he value chielly lies. The several departments have been 
activclv engaged in pur-nit.- of a more special nature (ban that exhibited by the papers read before 
(lie general meetings of the association. 

K-|n-cial mention is necessarv of the work of (he geological section, whoso investigations, directed 
l-v it- indefatigable chairman, < 'ol. <".('. Grant, have attracted ihe attention of scientists, both in 
America and Kurope. 

A number of donations have been made to (he museum during the session, including a valuable 
case of botanical specimens from (he late Professor Wright, of Los Angeles, California. 
The published transactions of the association arc in great demand. 



V. From Tl,e .AV<i Scotia Historical Society, through A. II. MACKAT, LL.D. 

t'nder the jucsidency of the Hon. M. II. Kichoy, the society has done the usual amount of work 
during the year l*!t.'{-'.'4. 

The papers read were as follows : 

1. Voyages and Discoveries of the Cabots, by the Rev. Moses Harvey, LL.D., F.R.G.S., 

F.U.S.C., Nov. lUb. 1893. 

2. The H.-collet Fathers in Canada, by (ico. Patterson, Jr., M.A., Dec. 12lh, 1893. 
.'{. Some Observations on ' Evangeline,' by F. Blake Crofton, Esq., Feb. 13th, 1894. 

4 Names of Places in Nova Scotia, by Rev. Geo. Patterson, D.D., F.R.S C., Mar. 20th, 1894. 

At a special meeting of the society held July 28th, 1893, after an address by Dr. Sandford 
Fleming, C.M.G., the following resolution was moved by Mr. F. Blake Crofton, seconded by Dr. De- 
Wolfe, and unanimously adopted : 

" JSetolced, That this society respectfully seconds the recommendation of the Canadian Institute 
that the government of Canada should adopt some means of commemorating the fact that the first 
vowel propelled by steam through the entire voyage across the Atlantic was the ' Royal William,' built 
at Quebec and owned in Canada, and which made the pioneer voyage from Pictou to London in 1833. 

" And further Ketolvfd, That this society suggests thecxpedioncj' of having the evidence proving 
Ihe pioneer ocean steamship to have been a Canadian vessel properly collated and published in 
pamphlet form under the auspices of the government. 

' And further Revolted, That the members of parliament and senators from Halifax and Pictou be 
requested to prevent these recommendations to the Dominion authorities." 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 18!>4. XXVII 

It is satisfactory to note that the action of our own and kindred societies has borne good fruit. 
On the 17th of April, 1894, the Under Secretary of State addressed the following letter to Mr. Stairs, 
M.P. for Halifax : 

"SiR, Adverting to the subject of your letter of the 31st July last, wilh which you transmitted 
copy of a resolution of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, respecting the ' Royal William, ' I have 
the honour to inform you that His Excellency the Governor-General having had such resolution 
under his consideration in council, was pleased to order that the suggestion therein contained as to the 
collation of evidence to prove the pioneer ocean steamship to have been a Canadian vessel, should be 
acted upon. 

" Subsequently, a pamphlet prepared free of charge by Captain F. C. Wiirtele, Honorary Secretary 
of the Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, in which evidence is collected establishing the fact in 
question, was submitted to His Excellency in Council, and His Excellency in Council having been 
pleased to authorize the publication of the same by this department, it will be added in the form of a 
special appendix to the report of the department for the current year." 

VI. From The Nova Scotian Institute of Science, through A. JI. MACKAY, LL.I). 

Under the presidency of Professor George Lawson, LL.D., F.R.S.C., etc., the Institute, during 
the year 1693-94, has had more than the usual number of papers presented and read. The character 
of the work will be generally indicated by the lilies of the papers, which follow : 

1893 Nov. 8. 1. Isothermal and Adiabatic Expansion of Gases, by Professor James Gordon 
MacGregor, D.Sc., F.R.S.E., of Dalbousio College. 

Dec. 11. 1. Notes on Native Forms of Jun/ perns and of Lanlus borenlis, by Professor 
Somers, M.D., of the Halifax .Medical College. 

Dec. 11. 2. On a Reported Shower of Worms in Xova Scotia, by 1'iincipal .Mai-shall 
of Richmond School, Halifax. 

Dec. 11. 3. Remarks on some features of the Kentucky Flora, by Professor (leo. 

Lawson, LL.D., F.R.S.C., of Dalhousie College. 

1894 Jan. 8. 1. The Nictaux Iron Ore Field of Nova Scotia, by Edwin Gilpin, LL.D., 
Deputy Commissioner of Mines. 

Jan. 8. 2. On the Operation of the Kenned}* Water-pipe Scraper and its recent failure 
in connection with the Halifax Waterworks, by F. W. W. Doane, C.E. 

Feb. 12. 1. On the Botanical and Commercial History of Nova Scotia Foxberrics, by 
Professor Geo. Lawson, LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

Feb. 12. 2. List of Plants collected in and around Shelburnc, Nova Scotia, by G. H. 
Cox, B.A. 

Mar. 12. 1 . Venus, Morning and Evening Star at the same Time, by Principal Came- 
ron, Yarmouth Academy, Nova Scotia. 

Mar. 12. 2. On the Measurement of Resistance of Electrolytes, by F. J. A. McKittrick, 
of Dalhousie College. 

Mar. 12. 3. The Coming Development of Artificial Illumination, by D. M. Bliss, Am. 
Elec. Inst. of Eng. 

Mar. 12. 4. A Brief Review of some Modern Methods in Iron and Steel Manufacturing, 
with some suggested analogies from a partial study of the Evolution and 
Nature of some of the Processes employed, by John Forbes, Esq., Presi- 
dent " Forbes Manufacturing Company." 

April 9. 1 . General Considerations concerning Bacteria, with Notes on the Bacterio- 
logical Analysis of Halifax Water, by Professor D. M. Campbell, M.D., of 
the Halifax Medical College. 



XXVIII ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

May 14. 1. Notice of a Now Test for Antipyrine, by Professor Goo. Lawson, LL.D., 

F.R.S.C. 
May 14. 2. Summary of Observation for 1893, on Times of Flowering of Plants and 

Migration of Birds, by A. H. Mackay, LL.D. 
May 14. 3. Notes on a Sponge from Herring Cove, Halifax Co., by Professor Somers, 

M.J>. 

May 14. 4. Notes on Additions to Nova Scotia Zoology, by Harry Piers, Esq. 
May 14. 5. Notes on it Collection of Silurian Fossils from Capo George, Antigonish, 

Nova Scotia, by Henry M. Ami, D.Sc., F.G.S. 
May 14. 6. Notes on Sedimentary Formations on the Hay of Fundy Coast, by R. W. 

Ells, LL D., F.K.S.C. 

May II. 7. Additions to the Flora of Truro, by Percy J. Smith, Esq. 
Mav 14. 8. Deep Mining in Nova Scotia, by W. II. Prost, Esq., School of Agriculture, 

Nova Scotia. 

Tin- publication i >f the ' Proceedings and Transactions' for 1892-93 (being part 3 of volume i. of 
tin- now serievi lia- been somewhat delayed, but has now been issued, and is being distributed to 
menilxTs and corresponding societies. Besides shorter papers, it contains a long, valuable and well- 
illustntted discussion of tlie I'ictou coal-tield, l>y II. S. 1'oole, Ksq. The 'Proceedings and Trans- 
Hctioiif.' for l*'.>.'!'.i| is under way and will probably be issued during the summer. 

Tlie librarv continues to grow at a rapid rale, a large number of now exchange arrangements 
having been made with other .societies during the past year. The- available accommodation in the 
prnviiu ial building having become too small, the f-ection of foreign publications has boon removed to 
a room kindly furnished by Dalhousie College. The institute still finds itself unable to rent suitable 
riMim- lor the accommodation of the library, but hope is still entertained that such accommodation 
may be provided by the provincial legislature for the institute and other similar societies and for the 
collections of the provincial mu-eum. 



VII. From The Yv Hrunsicick Natural History Satiety, through Mr. (i. U. HAY. 

I haw the honour, its delegate from the Natural History Society of Now Brunswick, to present 
the following report of the work of the society lor the pa.it year: 

TI.e work of tin- past year has been increasing in interest and value to the community, and wo 
IIOJK-, in making better known, from a scientific point of view, the resources of the province. The 
papers read, as the subjoined list will show, have been on a variety of topics connected with the 
natural hitry of the province, and designed to make this subject bettor known to the other pro- 
vinces of the Dominion as well as to countries abroad. For this purpose the usual yearly bulletin 
(No. XI.) has been published for distribution among the members and copies have been sent to 
scientific societies abroal. 

In onlcr to make the society's work more popular, and add to its membership, a series of scien- 
tific lectures was arranged and carried out, in addition to the usual monthly paper* read. The society 
haa kept the object steadily in view for years of giving elementary instruction to all those who desire 
to avail themselves of such privileges; and by the aid of its museum and library, which are con- 
stantly being added to and increasing in value and importance from year to year, we notice with 
satisfaction an increasing interest in natural science, especially among the teachers of the public 
school*, who have it in their power to such a largo extent to foster the study of natural science in the 
future, and make it of permanent and ever-increasing interest. 

In August of last year the society held a summer camp for general field work, and especially for 
the collection and study of archwological remains at French Lake, in Sunbury county, New Bruns- 
wick. About twenty-three members attended, and ten days wore spent in studying more especially 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XXIX 

the implements aud weapons of the Indian period. Much information was gathered and the archaeo- 
logical department of the society's museum was greatly increased. 

The membership of the society shows a healthy increase, and the associate membership, com- 
posed of ladies, has done much to advance the objects of the society. 

The report of the botanical committee of the society shows a list of over thirty species of flower- 
ing plants new to the province within the past few years. 

A circular has been received from the Philadelphia Academy of Science, and another from the 
Council of the Scientific Alliance of Now York, in regard to the much desired reduction of postage on 
natural history specimens between students and workers. We hope that this matter may be con- 
sidered by the Royal Society, and a memorial sent to the Government to secure, if possible, a 
reduction of postage on scientific specimens. If a bureau could be established in Canada for the 
exchange of the publications of the different scientific and literary societies throughout the Domin- 
ion, it would load to more economy and a better distribution than if each society managed such 
exchange on its own account. 

The following papers were read before the society during the past year: 

1893. 
June 6 (1) Report of the delegate to the Royal Society, G. U. Hay. 

(2) Archseozoon Acadiense, with a description of its nature and a new locality, 

Geoffrey Stead, C.E. 
Oct. 3 (1) Report on the Summer Camp held in August at French Lake, Geo. F. Matthew, 

F.R.S.C. 

(2) Report on the Botany of the Grand Lake Region, F. G. Borton, A.B. 
Nov. 7 Geology and Mines of Eastern Cape Breton, G. Stead, C.E. 
Dec. 5 Addresses on the late Patron of the Society, the late Hon. Lieut. -Governor Boyd, 

G. F. Matthew, F.R.S.C., and S. W. Kain, Esq. 
1894. 

Jan. 2 The Red Indian of Newfoundland, II. G. Addy, M.D. 
Feb. 6 Notes on the Fish-life of the Upper St. John, with descriptions of eighteen species, 

Wm. McLean, A.B. 
March 6 (1) The Peculiar Movement of Ice in Kennebecasis Bay, with reasons why it moves 

towards the northern bank, Wm. Murdoch, Esq., C.E. 

(2) Dr. Silas T. Rand the value of his work to the Linguist and Ethnologist, 

Miss Eleanor Robinson. 

(Note. First paper roiul before the society by a lady.) 

(3) Flora of the Parish of Blissfield, Sun bury Co., H. F. Perkins, Esq. 

(4) The Intellectual Pre-eminence of the Germans, W. F. Ganong, M.A. 

April 3 (1) Spring Birds at Petitcodiac, with tables showing the dates of arrivals of migratory 

birds for five years, John Brittain, Esq. 

(2) Microbes: a talk about them, illustrated with lantern views, W. F. Best, Esq. 
April 10 A New Re-agent in Blow-pipe Analysis, Prof. W. W. Andrews, M.A. 
May 1 An Outline of Phytobiology, with special reference to the study of its problems by 
local botanists, and suggestions for a biological survey of Acadian plants, 
W. F. Ganong, M.A. (First paper.) 

The course of elementary lectures already alluded to embraced three on Palaeontology, by G. F. 
Matthew, M.A., F.R.S.C. ; two on Bacteria, by W. F. Best, analytical chemist ; three on Birds, by 
Philip Cox, A.B., B.Sc. ; two on Plants, by G. U. Hay, Ph.B. 

The following are the officers of the society for the current year : 

President G. F. Matthew, M.A.. F.R.S.C. 
Vice-Presidents G. U. Hay, Ph.B., H. G. Addy, M.D. 



XXX ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Secretary S. W. Kain. 

Treasurer Alfred Soely. 

Curators G. Stead, Wm. Murdoch, A. Porter. 

Librarian Wm. M. McLean, A.B. 

Ad.litionnl Members of Council J. Roy Campbell, Edwin Fisher, P. G. Hall. 

VIII. From The Microscopical Society of Montreal, through Dr. GIRDWOOD. 

On behalf of the Microscopical Society of Montreal, I have the honour to report that they have 
limi a very successful session. Their meetings have been as usual on the second Monday of every month 
from October to May inclusive, and the papers road at the meetings were as follows : 
IS'.J.'t Oct. 9. President's address, Dr. Girdwood. 

Nov. 13. The histology of the "central nervous system," Dr. McConnell. 
Dec. 11. Vegetable Histology, Dr. Girdwood. 
|S'.i4 .Ian S. The Protozoa, Dr. Drake. 

Fob. \'2. Tln> pcriphiral nervous system, Dr. McConnell. 
March 1L'. Plant Sections, Dr. Stirling. 

April '.'. Leach's lantern microscope as itn aid in demonstration, C. F. Williams, Esq. 
May 14. Method of mounting Polycistina, Fred. Richards, Esq. 

The attendance at these meetings was good and the discussion on the papers instructive. Besides 
the papers read many subjects of interest were al.-o brought before the society. Specimens of the ova 
of some of the poly/.oa f'rinttiliflla maynijica of Dr. Leidy were hutched out by some of the members, 
and the living specimens brought before the society. 

Tlie Microscopical Society has arranged for a series of papers for their meetings for the coming 
session, and have arranged with the Natural History Society of Montreal by which the members of 
the Natural History Society are admitted to the meetings of the -Microscopical Society, and notice of 
the subjects for discussion and papers to be read are given in advance, so that members and visitors 
may be prepared to enter into the discussion of the papers with some preparation. It is hoped by 
this means to have a large audience at these meetings and to popularize the subject of microscopical 
science and by interesting a larger number of individuals, to have more workers and to increase the 
general knowledge of nature and the methods adopted by those who devote themselves to the study of 
her mysteries, and thus by extending education drive out ignorance and superstition. 

The society has much pleasure in being able to report that no loss has occurred this year in their 
number, but that five new members have been elected, and two corresponding members in the United 
That they have no arrears on their treasurer's book; all debts are paid and a balance of $220 
to their credit. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are : 
President Dr. Girdwood. 
Vice-President Dr. Stirling. 
Secretary C. J. Williams, Esq. 
Treasurer J. Shearer, Esq. 

IX. From Le Cercle litttraire et mvtical de Montreal, through Rev. C. E. AHARON. 

La Bontftl quo j'ai 1'honnenr de represcnter, recrute ses membres, du moins pour la plupart, dans 
Iw rng du protetantismo francais de Montreal. Tout en n'e"tant pas exclusifs, nous n'admettons 
quo cenx doot lea gcuu littcYaires sent sufflsamment prononces pour les porter a prendre une part 
active dan* lea trmvaux da cercle. Nous nous rlunissons deux fois par mois pendant sept mois de 
l'anne. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. 



XXXI 



Notre nouvieme anne"e, disait notre secrdtaire, ft. la stance du 4 novembre dernier, s'ouvre d'uno 
manure brillante et tout promet quo cet hivor encore, nos sdancos continuoront 4 fournir un sujot 
d'intdi-6t etdo pluisir. La prediction a eu son accomplisscment. Los travaux out did nombreu.x et 
varids aux quinze stances quo notre cercle a tenues durant les mois d'hivor. 

Appelds comme nous le sommes nous mouvoir dans un milieu plus ou moins anglais, nous sen- 
tons la ndcessitd de rdagir contre lesanglicismes qui mcnacent de ddnaturer la langue des Corneille ct 
(li-s Racine. 

Nous n'avons pas jugd il propos cettc annde de nous borner il des sujets purement littdrairee. Nous 
avons permis une cortaine latitude a ceux auxquels lea divers travaux ont 6(6 assigrids. Outre leu 
nombreux chants, les recitations et lectures choisios, la inusique instrumental, les pieces du genre 
tragiquo et comiquo quo nous nous sommes efforcds d'interprdtor, dix-neuf travaux originaux ont did 
prdscntds. Nous en donnons la listc : 



j-M. F 



Frechette. 



Les Fiancds du hasard. 

'Tit Pit'e Vallerand. 

Description du palais d'Agra M. Beaugrand. 

Maclounc. ) 

Labetea g randequeue./ M 

Travail sur la Hollande M. Boisserani. 

La statue du gdndral Brock :\ Xapiervillo M. 

Lafleur. 

Les mines de la Li6vre M. II. Herdt. 
Les clubs de femmes M" 10 Covnu. 
Le patriotisme M. Amaron. 



L'amour do la patric M. Coussirat. 
Vie de S. Francois d'Assisea M. Duclos. 
La littdraturc au Canada M. Morin. 
Lo cerveau de la fommc M. Hordl . 
( 'eux qu'on a vus et entenduw M. Lafleur. 
Les castors M. Duclos. 
L'drable M. Morin. 
Le progres M Coussiral. 
Le siege ile Belford M. Darey. 
L' Influence de la mer sur la langue en Ilollande 
il. Boisserani. 



Ces travaux ont souvent provoqud d'intdrcssantos ct profi tables discussions. 

Les limites de temps ndcessairement preterites aux deldgues des socidtds adjointes no nous per- 
mettent pas d'en dire plus long pour donner une iddo exacte de la physionomic des sdances de notro 
cercle. Un simple extrait, tird des proces-verbaux petits chefs-d'oeuvre littdraires en cux-meines 
de notre spirituelle secrdtaire, M mc C'ornu, sera plus intdressant quo quoi que ce soit quo jo puir.se 
dire, et completera mon rapport : 

" Le sort ayant ddsignd M. Frdchotte pour inaugurer la reprise de nos travaux littdraires, il n'avait 
qu'4 plonger la main dans ses tiroirs et nous avail apportd deux rdcits dont le contraste rehaussait le 
charme. Le premier, Les Fiances du hasard, est une gracieuse histoiro sentimentale, racontde dans 
ce style coulant et clair et avec la note touchanto que nous apprdcions si vivement. 

'' Le second, 'Tit Pit'e Vallerand, dtudo de moeurs prise au vif, d'un naturel saisissant qui tantot 
nous secoue d'un rire inextinguible, tantot nous fait frdmir d'horreur. Car ces " cageux " ont des 
poetes, et des podtes d'apocalypse, leur imagination excitde par toute sorte de Idgendes, par les grnnds 
silences des forets, 1'influence d'une nature sauvage qu'ils peuplent do toutes sortes d'etre.s sauvages, 
se livre i la plus extravagante chevauchde qu'on puisse rver. Et quel vocabulaire ! celui de M. Frd- 
chette, j'entends, car quelque rdels que semblcnt ces personnages on a peine 4 croire qu'ils possedent 
un choix aussi abondant d'dpithetes pittoresques, uno tello pldthore de vorbes ! Bref, nous avions 
totalement oublid que nous dtious commoddment assis sur des fauteuils confortables dans un salon 
modorne, et il nous semblait Stre emportds dans la nuit noire sur le radeau tournoyant, le long des 
flancs de la montagne maudite, une bande de Jacques Mistigris 4 nos trousses. Bnfin, de quoi nous 
faire river toute la nuit. Un morceau de musique est venu nous rappeler il la rdalitd, ou plul6t nous 
prdparer 4 ce qui allait suivre." 

Je me fais 1'interprete des membres de notre socidtd quand je dis que nous apprdcions 1'honneur 
que nous a fait la Socidtd royale en nous demandant d'envoyer encore une fois, cetto annde, un ddldgud 
a cette fgte intellectuelle. Si nous rdussissons i donner une impulsion au mouvement littdraire qui 



X X XII ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

s'accentue dans lea rangn du protestantismo francais, nous aurons accompli une oouvre, quelquo faible 
<|u'elle soil, dont nous aurons raison de nous rejouir. 



X. From The Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, through Mr. FRANK T. SHUTT, M.A. 

I have the honour to make the following report respecting the work and welfare of the Ottawa 
Field Naturalists' Club. 

Puring the past session seven general meetings have been hold. The large attendance of mem- 
U>r* and their friends at these, and the discussions that have been taken part in at the close of the 
lectures, assure the council that the year 1893-4 has been one of the most successful in the history of 
the club. 

The lecture course was n particularly interesting ono, embracing as it did lecturers of scientific 
reputation and subjects of importance mid fascination in the various branches of natural science. A 
n..vel feature, and one that proved exceedingly valuable to our audiences, was the use of the oxy- 
calci in lantern for illustrating the lectures. 

The programme, as prepared and carried out, is as follows: 

I*:I:!|IT. IL'. Inaugural Address: The Kxtinct Northern Sea ( 'ow and Early Russian Ex- 
plorations in the North Pacific, Dr. <i. M. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
lsi4 .Inn. :> Following a Planet (With lantern illustrations), A. McGill, B.A., B.Sc. 

.Ian. _'.'.. Biological Water Analysis (With lantern illustrations), Dr. Wyatt Johnston, 

Montreal. 
Feb. I!. IIow Rock- are Studied (With lantern illustrations), Frank Adams, Ph.D., 

(M.-Uill College, Montreal). 
Feb. l!'i. The Transmutations of Nitrogen (With chemical experiments), Thos. Mac- 

tarlane F.R.S.C. 
Mar. !. Ottawa Butterflies, .lame- Fletcher, F.H.S.C. 

Notes on the Natural History of the Islands of Behring Sea, James II. Macoun. 
Mar. I'M. Annual Meeting. 

The summer excursions have given, as in past years, much enjoyment to the members of the 
club and their friends, though owing to the unpleasant character of the season for outings several of 
our field-days were either postponed or their pleasure seriously marred. The talks given by the 
leader- at the close of these excursions uj>n the collections of the day, have always contributed largely 
to the information of our members upon the fauna, flora and general natural history of the district 
visited. 

The "Ottawa Naturalist" for the past year forms a volume of 178 pages, and contains, besides 
the transactions of the club, man)- original contributions to science. Its circulation now numbers 
about 400, and its monthly appearance is looked forward to with much pleasure by our members in 
Canada, the United Stales and abroad. By its means the club has been enabled to disseminate much 
information of a scientific and educational character. In this way, undoubtedly, our society is doing 
a good work, but one that perhaps has scarcely received the appreciation in the past that it deserved. 

The financial condition of the society is satisfactory, though the council are of the opinion that 
the usefulness of the " Naturalist " could bo greatly extended if a larger sum than now at their com- 
mand could IKS appropriated to its publication. Hitherto the club has been self sustaining, but since 

its influence and work has of late so greatly increased it is felt that a small annual grant given fr 

the provincial treasury could be wisely expuudcd in improving and enlarging our publication. Hold- 
ing these views the council have formally applied to the provincial legislature for a grant, urging 
their claim on the ground of an equal right to support with other Canadian societies doing educa- 
tional work. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XXXIII 

The membership of the club is nearly 300, showing that the vitality of the society is unimpaired 
and that the interest of its members is marked with the same activity as in the past. 

At the annual meeting, held in March last, the following officers wore elected for 1894-5 : 

President Dr. George M. Dawson, C.M.G. 

First Vice-Presidont Mr. Frank T. Shutt, M.A. 

Second Vice-President Mr. James Fletcher. 

Secretary Dr. Henry M. Ami. 

Treasurer Mr. A. G. Kingston. 

Librarian Mr. R. H. Cowley, B.A. 

Standing Committee of Council. 

Publishing James Fletcher, A. G. Kingston, 11. II. Cowloy, W. II. Harrington. 
Excursions Frank T. Shutt, Dr. Ami, A. G. Kingston, Miss Shenick, Miss Harmer, Miss 

Living. 
Soirees Dr. Ells, Prof. Prince, R. H. Cowley, Miss Living. 

Leaders. 

Geology and Mineralogy Dr. Elle, Dr. Ami, W. F. Forrier. 
Botany R. B. Whyte, J. Craig, R. H. Cowley. 
Conchology J. Fletcher, R. F. Latchford, Prof. Macoun. 
Entomology J. Fletcher, "W. II. Harrington, T. J. McLaughlin. 
Ornithology A. G. Kingston, W. A. I). Lees, Miss Harmer. 
Zoology Prof. Prince, Prof. Macoun, IF. H. Small. 

Editorial Staff. 

Editor W. II. Harrington. 

Sub-Editors Geology, Dr. Ells ; Mineralogy, \V. F. Furrier ; Botany, J. Craig ; Concho- 
logy, U. K. Latchford; Entomology, J. Fletcher; Ornithology, A. (i. Kingston ; 
Zoology, Prof. Prince. 



XI. From The Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society, through Mr. F. K. BENNETTS. 

I have the honour, as delegate from the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society, to make the 
following report to this honourable body, upon the affairs of the society for the year ended on the 31st 
March, 1894. 

The prosperous state of the society's finances, reported last year, has continued to exist, and the 
number of new members elected was larger than for many years past. 

The library now contains over 2,600 volumes, of which about a third were added during the year. 
Three thousand five hundred and eleven books were taken out, very nearly twice as many as in any 
previous year. The books added to the library have consisted of standard works of history and 
biography, many valuable works on sociology, some of the most recently published scientific works, 
and a number of recent works of fiction. Although overshadowed by the great parliamentary library, 
the society's library is very useful. Thei;e is no public library in Ottawa, and our library is open to 
any one on payment of a small fee ; it is yearly increasing in extent, and is accessible in the evenings 
and at all times of the year. 

The reading room has been well attended. A large number of the leading British, Canadian and 
United States newspapers and periodicals are supplied to it, and through it the society does all in its 
power to keep its members informed of current events, and in touch with modern thought. The 
lecture course as carried out was as follows: 

Proc. 1894. a 



XXXIV ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

1893 Nov. 16. Inaugural Address: Prom Myth to Science, the President of the Society, W. 

I). LeSueur, Esq., B.A. 

Dec. 7. The Valley of the Ottawa in the Seventeenth Century, B. Suite, Esq., F.R.S.C. 
Dec. 14. A View of Matthew Arnold, Prof. S. W. Hyde, Queen's University, Kingston. 
1894 Jan. 4. Coleridge, Prof. Clark, Toronto University. 

Jan. 11 Even and Spectacle*, A. Mi-Gill, Esq., B.A., Assistant Dominion Analyst. 
Jnn. IS. The Mask of Life in Nature, James Fletcher, Dominion Botanist, Expl. Farm. 
Fi-1). 1. Lightning and Electrical Discharges, Prof. Cullendar, McGill University. 
Keb. l. r >. Alaska, OttoJ. Klotz. Esq., D.L.S., Alaskan Boundary Survey. 
Mar 1. Buddhism, Dr. S. E. Dawson, F.R.S.C. 

The course was perhaps the most successful one over hold by the society. The attendance 
throughout WHS largo and the greatest interest was shown. It may be hero said that during the last 
few yearn the society has brought professors from the foremost universities in Canada, to the city, 
thus providing liierarv and scientific entertainments of a high order for the public, .and bringing 
Ottawa into closer intellectual relation with other centres of thought throughout the Dominion. The 
lecture courw- i- intended to In- a stimulus to intellectual activity rather than a series of classes, and 
the greatly ini-rca.-ed at tendance and interest shown last year led the society to believe that the 
course I'u Iti In a very useful pur|xc.. The closing lecture, that of Dr. S. E. Dawson, was honoured by 
tin- pre.-cni e of Hi- Excellency the <iovcrnor-( ieneral, who was pleased to say a few words of appre- 
ciation and encouragement. 

The i|ucst.on of securing new pi cruises lias been before the society for some years, and at present 
a -cliotne is iifnirr consideration, and .some steps have been taken looking to the erection of a building 
in which not only will this society find quarters for itself, but may possibly bo able to supply roonia 
for other societies having somewhat similar aims. 

Last year the delegate from (his -ociel y had the satisfaction of stating that Colonel Allan Gilmour 
had made the generous donation of 8.~>(HI to the funds of the society. I am glad to bo able to report 
that this munificence has been renewed, I lie society having received a similar amount from the same 
donor, who in this very practical w;iy testilies his approval of, and interest in, the work the society is 
doing. A large portion of this amount will, as last year, be devoted to the improvement of the 
library. 

At the annual general meeting, held on the 27th April last, Mr. W. D. LoSueur was re elected to 
the presidency, and the other members of the council were, with the exception of Mr. R. E. Gemmill, 
re-elected to the offices they previously tilled The new member is Mr. J. C. Glashan, public school 
inspector for the city of Ottawa. 

XII. From The Eijin Historical and Scientific Institute, through Mr. COLIN A. SCOTT. 

The Elgin Historical and Scientific Institute begs leave to report. The officers of the institute 
are att follows: 

President K. W. McKay. 

Vice-President W. Atkin. 

Secretary W. II. Murch. 

Curator J. W. Stewart. 

Treasurer J. A. Bell. 

Editor Judge Ermatinger. 

Council -The officers, together with Messrs. A. W. Campboll, J. S. Robertson, W. K. 

Jackson, J. S. Brierley, J. Wilkinson, Frank Hunt, J. H. Coyne and Dr. Way. 
During the year valuable additions have been made to the library and museum. A visit was 
made to Victoria, Fisher's Glen and Turkey Point. Information of historical interest was collected 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XXXV 

from persons living in the neighbourhood, especially Simpson McColl, Ksq., ex-M.P.P., with refer- 
ence to the conquest of Canada, the early settlement of the county of Norfolk, the war of 1812 and 
the rebellion of 1837. A paper on the war of 1812, based partly on these reminiscences, was read 
to the institute by His Honour Judge Ermatinger. 

Arrangements have been completed for the publication of a volume of transactions of the institute 
which will contain an historical account of the country of the Neutrals, the early history of the 
Talbot settlement and the county of Klgin, and also a paper outlining the development of local 
government in this section of the province from the settlement of Detroit up to 1853 when the 
organization of the county of Elgin was completed. The expenses of the publication will be defrayed 
by a grant generously made by the county council for that purpose. It is hoped that this will be 
ready by next fall. 

XIII. From The Canadian Institute, Toronto, through DR. SANDFORD FI.EMINO, C.MG. 

The forty-fifth annual report of the Canadian Institute shows that a largo amount of valuable 
work has been done during the past year. Besides the annual meeting recently held there wore 
twenty-three ordinary meetings of the society, exclusive of meetings of the Biological section, the 
Historical section and the Geological section. In all fifty-four papers were road, coin prising papers 
on, (1) Archffiology, (2) Astronomy, (3) Biology, (4) Ethnology, (5) Fine Arts, (G) Geography, (7) 
History, (8) Literature, (9) Meteorology, (10) Natural History, (11) Sanitary Science, (12) Minera- 
logy and Geology. 

There has been an increase in the attendance at all the meetings, and an increase in the number 
of members. 

The curator of the museum has received many valuable additions to the collections, especially of 
Astec, Zuni and Toltec pottery and images carved out of stone. He also obtained for the institute the 
premiums for tlie best collection presented by any nation at the World's Columbian Exposition, being 
the highest award made by the commissioners. The exhibit of the institute attracted a large amount 
of attention. 

The transactions of the institute continue to be widely circulated in all parts of the world. The 
last number issued contains exclusively a monograph on the Western De'ne' Indians by the Rev. A. G. 
Morice, a work of very great interest and value, being an archaeological, industrial, sociological and 
ethnographical sketch of these native tribes of British Columbia, describing the characteristics of a 
fast vanishing people of whom little is known. 

The librarian's report shows that a very large amount of literature is annually received from 
foreign societies in exchange for the transactions of the institute. The total number of exchanges is 
3,062. They are received from the following countries, viz., the United States, Mexico, South 
America, the West Indies, Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, Belgium. Denmark, France, 
Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
British India, Java, Japan, China, Australasia and Africa. 

During the past year the institute has jointly with the Astronomical and Physical Society of 
Toronto continued the efforts to secure at an early day the unification of the astronomical, civil and 
nautical days. As the results are of world-wide interest the report of the joint committee is presented 
to the Royal Society in full. 

UNIFICATION OF THE ASTRONOMICAL, CIVIL AND NAUTICAL DATS. 
Report of the Joint Committee of the Canadian Institute and the Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto. 

COMMITTEE. 

Sandford Fleming, C.M.G., LL.D., C.E. Chairman. 

Arthur Harvey, Esq. Charles Carpmael, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

George Kennedy, M.A., LL.D. John A. Paterson, M.A. 

Alan Macdougall, M. Inst. C.E. G. E. Lomsden, Esq. 



XXXVI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Tho joint committee, appointed by the Canadian Institute and the Astronomical and Physical 
Society of Toronto, have the honour to report on that branch of the subject of time-reckoning spe- 
cially referred to tlicm. 

The unification of the reckoning of theday hon long been under consideration. Sir John Herschell, 
in hit* "Outlines of Astronomy," alluded to the advantages which would result from bringing into 
agreement the civil, the astronomical, and the nautical days. Ho pointed out that the adoption of 
the civil day for astronomical purposes would but slightly inconvenience astronomers, and that in 
a cjiioslion which concerns all other classes of men, astronomers should resolve to act on general prin- 
ciples and cheerfully submit to a small inconvenience in view of the far wider interests which would 
l>c l.enelilc'l. I'niforinity," ho .said, " in nomenclature and mode of reckoning in all matters relating 
to time, space, weight, moasu.'e.s, etc., is of such vast anil paramount importance in every relation of 
life as to outweigh every consideration of technical convenience or custom." 

The civil day In-gins at midnight ami ends at the midnight following. Tho astronomical day 
begins at no .n of the civil day and continued until the, following noon. The nautical day concludes 
at noon nf the civil day, having commenced at the preceding noon. 

It is obvious that any given date extends over, or into, throe different days. Take for example, 
Wednesday, .lime llith. Hy astronomical and nautical reckonings, only half of this date in each case 
is on Wednesday : the lirst half of Jam- !.'{, according to nautical reckoning, is on Tuesday, Juno 12, 
while the second half of the same date i.lune Kith), according to astronomical reckoning, is on 
Thin-day, June 14th. civil time. 

In thi~ we have tho element* of confusion, and it is not surprising that the Washington Interna- 
tional Conference "i l- s St recommended that the civil day should take the place of the astronomical 
and nautical days for all purp'ises. The recommendations of the Washington Conference must be 
held to carry weight, a- this assembly comprised representatives of science from twenty-five nations 
specially called together to consider questions of time-reckoning. Among them were astronomers 
of world-wide fame, as well as men who held high rank as navigators. They were unanimous in 
the opinion that as soon as practicable the astronomical and nautical days should be arranged every- 
where to coincide with the civil day. 

The civil day is the reckoning used by the generality of mankind. It is the exact mean 

between the astronomical and nautical days, and differs precisely twelve hours from both. To effect 

a complete coincidence, it is only necessary to shift astronomical and nautical days each twelve 

hours, and this -hitting will bring both to the civil day. Many ships have already abandoned nau- 

ical lime and date their logs according to civil reckoning; all ships would use the one reckoning 

tho Nautical Almanac and Kphemerides generally were arranged for civil time. There can 

be no doubt whatever that the marine of all nations would benefit by the change. 

we consider the subject simply in its relation to the Nautical Almanac and navigation, the 

unification of time-reckoning would simplify the calculations of mariners and reduce the chances of 

error. One correspondent (Dr. Johnson, of Alcliill University), points out very truly " that the 

omission of even a single step in an oil-repeated process of calculation has an obvious advantage; 

when the simplification removes at the same time that most dangerous source of error, an ambiguous 

' l 'comes great gain." He says that the subject resolves itself unto a question of 

practical utility, viz., what is the greatest good of the greatest number ? Tho Nautical Almanac, aa 

name implies, is for the use primarily of navigators, who are very numerous and yearly increasing. 

d with the men who guide tho floating tonnage of tho world, astronomers are extremely few 

number, and astronomers as a class are skilled calculators ; moreover, astronomers can make 

calculations under tho most favourable circumstances, consequently with the least liability to 

error, as they arc removed from tho disturbing influences to which seamen are frequently exposed. 

The joint committee considered it important to ascertain how far astronomers generally would 
the proposal which would practically abolish the astronomical day. On April 21st, 1893, a 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. 



XXXVII 



circular was issued to astronomers of all nations, inviting replies to the following question, viz. : " Is 
it desirable, all interests considered, that on and after the first day of January, 1901, the astronomical 
day should everywhere begin at mean midnight ? " The circular was sent to every astronomer 
whose name appears in tho general list of observatories and astronomers prepared by Mr. Lancaster, 
of the Royal Observatory of Brussels, with the following result: 171 replies in all have been 
received, a complete list of which is appended ; of these 108 are in favour and C3 are not in favour of 
the proposed change. Many of the former are strongly and earnestly in favour of tho adoption of tho 
civil day for astronomical purposes, while tho writers of some of tho latter seem to have been under 
a misapprehension. They object to the adoption of the civil day on the ground that its division into 
two series of 12 hours, designated A.M. and P.M., would bo inconvenient for astronomers. It is obvious 
that this objection has no weight, as tho '24 hour-notation would remain associated with astronomical 
reckonings as at present; moreover, indications are not wanting that the astronomical practice of 
counting the hours in a single scries from 1 to 24, will gradually win its way into general favour in 
civil life. The 24 hour-notation has already boon introduced into use over wide districts in Canada, in 
the whole of Italy, and throughout the Indian Empire, and there is a movement in Europe, in Aus- 
tralia, as well as in tho United States of America, especially among railway men, to bring this mode 
of reckoning the hours into general use. 

In classifying the replies from astronomers according to the countries from which they have 
been received, the votes for or against tho change, stand as follows: 



Austria, 
Canada, 
France, 
Ireland, 
Mexico, 
Scotland, 



Germany, 
Norway, 



In favour of the change. 

Australia, 

Colombia, 

Greece, 

Jamaica, 

Roumania, 

Spain, 

Unfavourable to the change. 



Belgium, 
England, 
Italy, 

Madagascar, 
Russia, 
United States. 



Holland, 
Portugal. 



According to this classification of the astronomers hoard from, those of eighteen countries are in 
favour, and those of four are against, the adoption of the recommendations of the Washington Inter- 
national Conference of 1884 with respect to the astronomical and nautical days. If we compare the 
shipping of the countries thus classified (and tho shipping has an important relation to tho Nautical 
Almanac), wo find that the first list, that is to say, the countries in favour of adopting the civil day 
for astronomical purposes, represents ij, or 85 per cent, of the tonnage of the world's marine. 

Thus it appears that there is a preponderating weight of opinion among astronomers themselves, 
that a change should be made in the astronomical day. The joint committee, therefore, feel war- 
ranted in recommending that the home authorities be informed of the facts and that a respectful 
appeal be made to have the Nautical Almanac adapted to the change proposed to take effect at the 
beginning of the coming century. The joint committee are of opinion that the proper course is to 
lay before His Excellency the Governor-General a respectful memorial asking His Excellency to 
bring the whole matter to the attention of the Imperial Government in order that some common 
international understanding may be reached, by which all nations shall assent to the change, and in 
order that the Nautical Almanac which has to be prepared four or five years in advance may be made 
conformable to the change. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

SANDFOKD FLEMING, 

Chairman, 
Joint Committee of the Canadian Instititte and 

the Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto. 



XXXVIII 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



KKPLIES KKCEIVED TO THE FOLLOWING (QUESTION SKNT APRIL 21sT, 1893, TO THE 
ASTRONOMERS OP ALL NATIONS: 

" I* it desirable, all interests considered, that on and after the first day of January, 1901, the astronomical day 
sh.,ul(' everywhere begin t nienn midnight f 



N A M K. 


OlISKKVATORY, ETC. 


PLACE. 


COUNTRY. 


ANR. 


Abbe, Cleveland 
Aiiguiano. Angel 
Anton. Dr. !', nlin.iml 
Arrimix. A. K. 
\hli->. Miss Mary 
\uers. Dr. A. 

Haeklionse. K. W 
HJU .,ii. Clias. A 
Itanlnell. Klix.lbech 
Hnrnev Willis S. 
Bans, hiiiuer. Dr. .1 
He, k.r Prof. Dr. K. 

It.--. A. lie . . 

Horg.-n. Prof. Dr. ('. 
Hraini. Dr. 1 has. 
Hn.wn. M V 
Hrui.s. Hi II 
Hun khaller (has 

'arpmael. Cbas. 
|lallll--rs. li. 1' 
'lire,-. Clia. 

hristie. \V 11 M 

\.bb, John X 

'oil. .11 \ I. 


United Slates Weather Bureau 
National Astronomical Observatory 




United States 


Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No. 
No. 

Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 

Yes. 

Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yea. 
No. 
Yes. 
No. 
Yes. 

No. 
Yes. 

Yes. 
No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 

Yes. 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 

No. 

No. 
Yes. 
No. 
Yes. 
No. 
Yes. 


Tacul>avo. 


Mexico 


Trieste . . .... 


Austria 


Meteorological Institute 


Madrid 
Hath 


Spain 
Kngland 




Berlin 


Germany. .... 






Kngland 


Smith Observatory 
Mount 11"! yoke College Observatory 
Private Observatory 

Uni v eixit v Observatory 
Pri\ate Observatory 
Marine Observatory 


Bi'loit, Wis 
S. Had ley, Mass 
CharlcHtown, Ind 
Munich, Bavaria 


United States 
United States 
United States 
Germany i 
Germany. 


Ant vverp 
Willielmsh.'iven 
KaliK-sa. Hungary 
(ireencastle, Ind 
Leipzig 
Oakland, Cal 


Belgium 


Germany 
Austria 
United States 
Germany 
United States 

t 'ana. la 


Kaloesa Oliserv atory 
Me K i in ( Miser . at <>ry 
1 nivcrsitv Observatory. 
ChaUit Observatory 

The Observalorv. 
N'ort hlicld Grange Observatory. 
Kew ( Miservatory . . . 
lioyal Observatory 

l.iek Observatory 
K,.v al Observalory . . 
\Va>hburii < Miser v atorv . 


Richmond. 


ICngland 






Mount Hamilton, Cul. 
Tananarivo. 
Madison \Vis 


United States 


United States 


'..ml.-. I-'. P 
'omst.H k. lie,, 1'. 
I'., nt. u in,,. I'raiK csco 

I). irliimiller. Prof. Dr. 1'. 

Devil'... K. 

Kgnilis, D. 
Kn^. lhar.lt. Dr. Hanmd'. 
Kpst.-in. Dr. Tli. 
K-iiion.l. llarw in \V 
Kel!. Marshall D 

Ken\ i. .1 
Kergoler. Kin 
Flint. V 1. 
K.,lie. K. 
1 lilt. .11. Hobt. II 
Kiiss. V 

J.illc. Dr. Andreas.. 

. ill.-. Dr. .1. G 
laiidiberl. C. M 
..iut i.-r. It ... 
,.-.|.-,.no . D 


United States 


Capo di Monte 

University Observatory 
Surveyor General 

lioval Olmervatory 
d'ringrlhardt Observatory 
Private Oliservatory .. 
lieraldiue Observatory . 
Private Observatory. . 


Naples 

Bonn 
Ottawa 


Italy . . . 

Germany 
Canada 

Greece 






Germany. . 


Frankfort, A.M 


Germany 


S. Evanston, 111 


United States 
United States 


Hav nalil Ohservatory 
Ca|n, di Monte Observatory 
Wjisliburn Observatory. . .'. 
lioyal Observatory. 
University Observatory 
School for Pilots 

Hoyal Institute of Geology 
University Observatory. 


Kaloe.sa, Hungary 
Naples 
Madison, Wis 


Austria 


Italy 


United States 


IVcle... 


Belgium 
1 'nited States 


I'luversity, Miss 


Kussia 


I'otsdam 
Breshiu 


Germany 


Germany 


Private Observatory 
Geneva Observatory 


Vaison . ... 


Paris 




Switzerland 


Astro-Physical Oliservatory . 


TiiHhkend 


M-elmiiy.h-n. Dr. II 
ilaeomelli. Dr. Kr 
iiovannoui. Dr. G 
Jlnuwr. .1 
iogow*. Pnif. COIIN. ...... 

ioil/Jlles. Jus,- M 

Gore. .1. Kllnnl 
Gru-u>. Pnif. 1 >r. G 

Hodden. David E 


University Observatory 


['hriHtiania 
Home . 


Norway . . . 
Italy ' 


Capitol Observatory 


Ximcnian Observatory . 


Florence.. 


Italy 


Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Na 

Yes. 
Yes. 
Na 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No. 

Yes. 

Yes! 


Kjtilway Kngineer 






University Observatory 
l-'lammarion Ulwervatory. 


Bucharest . 


1 .'' HIM I.I 11 i.l 


Bogota 


Colombia 


Private Observatory 


BalK'Nodare. 




Imperial Observatory. 


Prague 


Bohemia 


Private Observatory 




United States 


Hall. Maxwell 


Government Meteorologist 


Montego Bay 
Hamburg . 




Hanla. Dr. C 
Hart wig. Dr. Krm-sl. 
Hancr. I'mf. Dr. Paul.. 
HaMlngv Cha* 


Hamburg Observatory .. 




C. llameis Observatory . . 


Iijimlx?rg Bavaria . . 

(iotha... . 




Ducal Observatory. 


iierinany 
United States 


Yale University Observatory. . 
Oltcrbeln Univenilty OWrvatorv 
Private Olmervatory 


New Haven, Conn.. . , 
Wrsiervillc, Ohio 
Fort Dodge, Iowa 
Mount Hamilton, Cal. 


Havw ood, John. . 


llein. K 


United Slates 
United States 
Kngland 


Molilrn. Dr. E. 8 
Hopkins. II. J 


Lick OrMorvatory 
Private Ormervalory . . . 


Horr. Dr. Ana. 


I'rivate Oliervatory 




lloiie, Capt. 11. 1. 


Field ObMT>-atory.. 


Willets P" N Y 


United 1 States 









PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. 



XXXIX 



REPLIES RECEIVED TO QUESTION SENT TO ASTRONOMERS, ETC. Continued. 



NAME. 


OBSERVATORY, ETC. 


PLACE. 


COUNTRY. 


ANH. 




Columbia College Observatory 
Private Observatory . . 


New York 
Uridport 
Montreal 


United States... 
England 
Canada 

Switzer land 


No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 

No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 

No. 
Yes. 
No. 
Yes. 
No. 
No. 

Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No. 

No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 

No. 

No. 

Yes. 

No. 

No 






McGill University 


Kammerman, A 


Geneva Observatory 


Geneva. 


Kirk Ed Bruce 


Private Observatory 




Scotland 


Knobel Ed. B. 


Late Prest. Royal Astronomical S'ty 
Grand Ducal Observatory 




Knopf Dr. Otto . 


Jena, Saxe Weimar. . . 
Strasbourg 




Kobold, Dr. H 


University Observatory 


Germany 








Kreutz Prof Dr H.. 




Kiel 


( lennany 




Roval Technical School. 


Dresden 


Krueger, Prof. Dr. A 
Kiistner, Dr. F 


Hoyal Observatory. 




Royal Observatory 

Hoyal Naval College Observatory. . 
Gresham College Observatory 
Capitol Observatory . 


Bonn 

Greenwich . . . 
London . . 
Home 
Berlin 


Germany 

Kngland 
KnuhlMl 
Italy 
( iennain . 
Portugal 
A ust ral ia 
Kiiglitnd 
Hnssia 
lierniany 
( ierman \ . . 

Austria 
Austria 
< lerinany 




Ledger, Rev. E 


Legge Dr. Alf. di. 




Roval Observatory* 


Leite, Duarte 


Polytechnical Academy 
Sydney Observatory 
Hoyal Observatory 
Counsellor of State 


Porto 
Sydney 
( Jreenwirli 


Lenahan, Henry A 
Lewis, Thomas! 
Lindelof Dr L 


Helsingfors, (''inland 
Potsdam 
Kaiiiherg 

I'arcn/o 
Trieste 
Breslan 


Lohse, Dr. O. 


Astro-Physical Observatory 
Hameis Observatory 

Private Observatory 


Lorentzen, Dr. G 
Mayer, Lt. Chas 


Micknik H University Oh.serva.torv 


Monnichmeyer, Dr. C. . . . 

Naccari, Prof. Dr. Joseph 
Niesl, Prof. G. von 
Niesten, L 


University Observatory 


Naval Observatory 
Technical University Observatory 
Royal Observatory 
Capo di Monte Observatory. 


Venice 
Briinn, Moravia. . 
Ucele 
Naples 
Mitnstield. I'cklield... 
Halt imore, Ind 
Pulkova 


Italy 
Austria 
Hel^ium 
Italv. . 
England 
United States 
Russia. 

Germany 
Holland. 


Yes. 
No. 

Yes. 
N.I. 

Yes. 

Yes. 
No. 

Yes. 
\',i 


Noble, Capt. Wm 
Numsen, W. H 


Private Observatory 
Denmore Observatory 
Imperial Observatory 


Nyrieu, M. 


Oppenheim, Prof. Dr. H . 
Oudemans, Prof. J. A. C. 

Parkhurst, Henry M. . . 
Pasquier, Prof. Dr.E.L.J. 
Pavey, Henry A 


Private Observatorv 


Merlin 
Utrecht 


University Observatory 


Private Observatory 
Royal Observatory 
Private Observatory 


Brooklyn, N.Y 
Louvain 
Hillsboro', Ohio 
Wimbledon 
Leipzig 
Koenigsberg 
Belniont, Out 


United States Yes. 
Belgium Yes. 
United States Yes. 
England Yes. 
Germany No. 
Germany No. 
Canada Yes. 
Italy Yes. 
Germany No. 
France. . Yes 


Penrose F C 




Peter Dr. B 


University Observatory 
University Observatory 
Private Observatory . . 


Peters, Prof. C. F. W ... 
Pettit, H 


Pittei, Dr. Constantine. . 
Plassman, J 
Pluvinel, Ay de laBaumc 
Pond, Lt. Chas. F. 


Royal del Museo 
Professor of Astronomy 


Florence 
Warendorf, Wtphalia. 


Navy Yard 


Mare Island, Californi i 


United States 
Italv 


Yes. 
Yes. 

No. 

Yes. 
Yes. 

Yes. 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 


Porro, F .... 


University 


Pritchett, H. S 


Washington University Obser'tory. 


St. Louis, Mo 
Philadelphia 


United States.. 

United States 
Mexico 

Ireland 


Quimby Alden W 


Quintana, 


National Astronomical Observatory 


Tacubayo 

Dublin 
Breslau 


Rambaut, Prof. A. A. ... 
Rechenberg, G. 


University Observatory 


Germany 
Russia 


Renz F 


Imperial Observatory 
National Astronomical Observatory 




Rey, F. R 


Tacubayo. . . 


Mexico 


Riggenbach, Prof. Dr. A. 


Basle 


Switzerland . 


Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 


Creighton Observatory 
National Astronomical Observatory 
University Observatory 




United States 


Rivero F. D 




Mexico 


Rizzo, Dr. J. B 


Turin 


Italv 






England . ... 


Rockwell, Chas ... 


Private Observatory 


Tarrytown, N.Y 


United States 
Russia 


No. 

No. 

No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
Yes. 
Yes. 


Romberg, Hermann ... . 
Safarik Dr A 






Bohemian University Observatory.. 
Professor of Mathematics 




Austria 


Scherbner, Prof. Dr. W. . 
Schiaparelli J V 


Leipzig 
Milan 
Hamburg 




Italy 
Germany 
Germany 


Schorr, Dr. Richard 
Sehur, Prof. Dr. W 
Searle, G. M 
Serviss, Garrett P 








Catholic University Observatory. . . 
Private Observatory 


Washington 
Brooklyn 


United States 


United States 







XL 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 
RECEIVED TO QUESTION. SENT TO ASTRONOMERS, Etc. Continued. 



NAME. 


OllSKKVATOHT, ETC. 


PLACE. 


COUNTRY. 


Ays. 


>r\t"'th J 




Pulkova 




No 










No 


Smith 11. I.. 


lloluirt College Observatory 


Geneva, X. Y 


United States 


Yes 


Solar Phylo Commit!**, 


South Kensington Depart, of Science 


London 


England 


Yes 


Stri lint Dr C 








No 


Strrii.M-k 1.1 Col It von. 


Military Institute . . 






Yes 


Slockvvcll .Inhii 


Private Observatory 


Cleveland, Ohio. 


United States 


No 


Stone ]'.. .1 


Kadcliff Olisrrviitorv, 


Oxford 


KnKland 


No 


St.uiev. (J. .lolinsionc 


Korincrlv Atutistailt to Earl of |{OHMC 


Dublin 


Ireland 




Slmnfianl, Dr. 1' . 


Hovnl OfiMTvatorv 


I'ccle 


Hi'lgium 


Yes 


Strmc. Olio 


Ancit'ii DirccltMir' I'ulknvn Oli'torv 


St. I'eter.sburK 


Hu.ssia 


Yes 


Sw ift l.cw in . 


Warner Obwrvatory 


Rochester, N. Y. 


United States 


Yes 


TntUk .b.lin 






United States 


VPS 


Tennaiit. l.t. Ceil. -1. I'' 


I'rivale OKsi-rvnturv 


London 




No 


Tlilrioii, J. 

Till". 'II. \le\isde 


leMiit OlwMTvatory 
Ciirn'NlMiIidiliK MrinlM-r Academy of 
S-ielire, I'aris 


1 .HIM a in 

St. Petersburg 


Belgium 
KuHgia . 


Yes. 
Yes 


Tn.incloi. K. 1, 
Tiirn.-r. II II 


A si ro-IMi vsiral ( )lwii i rviitory 
Ho\al Oliservalnrv. 


Meudon 
(Jreenw ich 


France 
England 


Yes. 


Vail.-. F 
Vceder. lr. V M 
V.-r\. Frank \\' . 
V in.' it. .1 


N.iii.inal Astronomical Observatory 
Private Observatory ' 
A llf^haii) (Ibservatory , . 
Astro IMi\sii-al Observatorv 


Tacnbavo 
LVOIIM, N.Y 
Alle^hany 
1'ari.s 


Mexico 
United States.... 
United Slates 
Krance 


Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes 


Vugel. 1'n.f. Dr. II C 

Waiiach. Dr. II 
\\Vim-k. Dr. l.a<li-l.nis 


Asim Physical Observatory 

1 ni\ersit\ Ohservatorv. 
Imperial aixl llo\ al < lbser\ ator\ . . 


I'otsdam 

St ranhurff 
I'ranne. Bohemia.. . . 


(lerinany 

(iermany 
Austria. 


No. 
No. 


\Vi-v.-r. Dr. li. D. F. 


1 nivei-Miv Obsei valorv . 


Kii-l 




No 


While. K. .1 


llflliiiiirne < lbsi-r\ al'ir\ . 


Mclbonriii- 


Australia 


Yes. 


\\ illian.s,,!,. I'rof. .1.. 


Kingston ( Ibserv ator\ 


Kin^Nton 


' 'anada. 


Yes 


Wilson. Win. K 


I'rivatc Observalorv 


Hal liowen. . 


Ireland. 




Witlr.-ini, I'r-.f. Hi. Tli 


Imperial ( tbservatorv. 


l'nlk<iva 


HiiHsiu . ... 


No. 


Wiltttein. Dr. A . 
W..lf. Hi Ma\. 

V.-n.l.-ll. P. ."s 

| 

/.ellgiT. Chas. Veil. 


I'rivale ()bser\ alory 

1 'lli\ cl'sit \ ( )bsrr\ alor\ 

l'ri\ale Obsi-rvalon 
I'olvtechiiic SI-IHHI! ()lisi.r\ator\ 


Leipzig. . 
lleidelberK 

Don -hester. Mass 
Prague 


(lernianv 
(lerniany 

United States 
Austria 


No. 
Yes. 

No. 


X.elbr. Dr. K.ul 


I'rivale Obxi-rvatorv 


Ml Mhll . 


Austria . . . 


No. 


. 











REPLIES. Classified uccnrdinj,' to tin.- Countries from which they have been received. 



Ciir.MHiKs. TOTALS. 


YKAS. 


NAYS. 


MAJOHITIKH. 


Austria 
Australia 


1-2 
2 
li 
5 
1 
211 
4 
:w 
I 
1 
11 

4 

1 
1 
5 

1 
1 

11 
1 
2 
4 
88 


7 


ii 
5 
1 
11! 
4 
7 
1 


K 
4 
1 
1 
5 


1 
A 
1 
2 
2 
2H 


5 
li 
li 
li 

4 
(1 

:il 



1 
:i 



(i 
(i 
(i 

1 
D 
5 


2 
10 


In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 

In favour. 


\_'.lilisl. 

Against. 

Against. 
Against. 

Equal. 


Belgium 


Canada 
Colombia , . . 


Kngland 
France 


Herman v 


< i HMH'e 


Holland 


llnlv ... 


In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 


Ireland 


.1.110. Ill .1 . . . 


Madagascar 


Mexico 


Norway 


Portugal 


Koiiinaiiia 


In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 
In favour. 


K ii Mia 


Scotland 


S|in 


Sw itzrrland 


I nit1 Slatei. 


In favour. 


ToUla. 


171 


108 


3 


18 


4 





The genernl meeting of the Royal Society w M then adjourned until the following day, and the 
members met for the organization of sections. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XLI 

XIV. From The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, through Mr. P. B. CASQRAIN. 

The general and annual meeting of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec was held on 
the 10th of January last past in the library of the society, when the following wore elected officers 
for the presi nt year: 

President Archibald Campbell. 

Vice-Presidents The Very Reverend J'eari Norman, William Hossack, P. B. Casgrainand 

John Hamilton. 
Treasurer J. Geggie. 
Librarian Frederick C. Wurtele. 
Recording Secretary T. A. Young. 
Corresponding Secretary A. Robertson. 
Council Secretary William Wood. 
Curator of Museum W. Clint. 
Curator of Apparatus James Morgan. 
Additional Members of Council J. M. LeMoinc, Peter .lohuston, Cyrillc IVsM'.'r an<l 

W. II. Carter. 

We have to lament the removal by death of the following members of our society : (\. Collev 
(a life member) ; Messrs. S. II. Holt, T. II. Jones, Commissary -General M. liell Irvine, < '.M.<!., and 
Messrs. C. A. Scott and W. A. Asho. 

As the past and present position of the society is most graphically described by the out-going 
president, Mr. Cyrillo Tessier, in his report of last year's proceedings, I cannot do better than extract 
such portions of it as will answer the present object. 

I may preface by stating that in 1828 the most prominent men both of French and Knirli-h origin 
in Quebec, united to form a literary and historical association for British North America, and it is 
due to the memory of the late John Charllon Fisher, a graduate of Oxford and a gentleman of high 
attainments, to recall its initiative in its formation. 

The bettor to promote their object the members of the association obtained in IS.ifl a charter of 
incorporation from His Gracious Majesty William IV., under the name of " The Literary and Historical 
Society of Quebec," " for the prosecuting, procuring and publishing interesting documents as to the 
natural, civil and literary history of British North America, and for the advancement of the arts 
and sciences in tho province of Lower Canada, from which public benefit may bo expected." 

Among the names of the incorporalors tho society has pride in mentioning tho Earl of Dalhou.-ie. 
Sir James Kempt, the late Chief Justice Sewe'.l, the Lord Bishop of Quebec, Rev. Joseph Signay, 
future bishop of Quebec, the late Chief Justices Sir .lames Stewart and Vallierosdo St. Heal, Rev. Mr. 
Demcrs, Sir John Caldwell, Messrs. Perreault, Price, Taschereau, Wurtele, Campbell, Ilamel, doSalles 
Laterrier, F. X. Garneau, Ed. Caron, Morrin, Parent, Sheppard, Lee, McCord, Rouchette, Panet, 
Wilkie and many others, the last surviving of whom is our aged and valuable friend Mr. (r. W. 
Wicksteed, who wo are all happy to see present at this convocation. 

Many of tho above-named appear as contributors to tho literary lore of Canada, as may be seen 
in the following work. 

Latterly our librarian, Mr. F. C. Wurtele, after considerable research, has prepared and published, 
under the auspices of tho society, a report of tho scientific works produced by the leading members or 
lecturers of the association, from its inception. Among those were : Chief Justice J. Se well, Dr. 
John Charlton Fisher, Admiral Bayliold, General Baddely, R. K. ; George B. Fairboault, Honourable 
William Shepherd, John Langton, Honourable T. D'Arcy McGeo, Commander Asho, R.N. ; James 
Douglas, Honourable P. J. O. Chauveau, the historians Garneau, Cusgrain, LoMoine, Miles, Turcottc, 
John Rcade, F.R.S.E., General Noble, R.A., Lieut.-Col. Strange, R.A., Andrew Stuart, Amable Ber- 
thelot, Joseph X. Perrault, Dr. J. W. Anderson, Bishop Mountain, Rev. Dr. Wilkie, Dr. George 

Proc. 1894. F. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Stewart, Alfred Sandham, E. A. Meredith, Professor Goldwin Smith, Dr. J. Harper, Fred. C. 

Wtlrtele, etc. 

During tho post year one of our most esteemed ox presidents, Professor James Douglas, now a 
resident in the United States, and who kindly acted as our delegate to Spain during the festivities 
organized there to celebrate tho discovery of America, gave us a most delightful account, accompanied 
with illustrations, of his trip, touching, amongst other things, upon the voyages of Columbus, 
Magellan and others, navigators of the 16th century. 

The Honourable Mr. Joly do Lotbinierc was good enough to favour us with a very useful paper on 
tho most rapid and economical mode of growing forest trees, exhibiting to his audience specimens of 
black walnut and other trees, the produce of his own plantation, on his manor property at Pointe 
Platon. 

The Reverend Dr. Norman, tho I >oan of Quebec's paper on Julius Ciusar, was also very highly 
appreciated. 

On perusing ilio transactions of tho Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, disseminated 
now over tho whole world, it must bo admitted that tho society has not been recreant to tho useful 
and M-itntitic minion which its illustrious founders contemplated. 

So well satisfied were the public of the advantages derived from the labours of the society that up 
to the la-t two ye,n> the government proposed and the legislature thought fit to vote an annual grant 
for the pur|Mic of enabling the society to publish and disseminate the transactions of tho society, 
and exchange them with those of similar societies of other countries. 

Hut this brilliant vision of tho past and its course of desired improvement of the present must 
now, we tear, come loan end. that is tosav, so far as the publications are concerned, if, unfortunately, 
or sociely cannot reckon any longer upon the treasury of the province of Quebec for this sustenta- 
tion ; or unless the large and benevolent spirit of liberality prevailing among the merchant princes of 
Montreal finds a similar echo in the heart and mind of some of the wealthy citizens of Quebec, in 
order to perpetuate the noble end of the society. 

It is not out of place to mention that in the past, for three-quarters of a century, the society, the 
eldest of its kind in ( 'anada. has been an honour ami a credit to tho city of Quebec, not only through- 
out I 'anuda but al.-o abroad. 

It is to be sincerely hoped that the provincial government may find means to continue tho small 
subsidy hitherto extended to our society, and to preserve tho continuity of printed records, so in- 
teresting alike to strangers and citizens desirous of maintaining the historical and literary traditions 
of this ancient province. 

It is to bo regretted that, owing to various causes, the number of the members of our society has 
not sufficiently increased to become independent of extraneous support. 

Hut at the same time it must be admitted that the intellectual progress of the city of Quebec is 
on tho increase, for we see that a public library, in addition to our own, is to bo created for St. 
Hoch's suburb, a monument which is due to tho public spirit and spontaneous liberality of a few of 
it* prominent citizens and self made men, among whom deserve to be mentioned Mr. LaMberte", the 
most extensive furrier trader in the Dominion ; Mr. Paquet, the large dry goods merchant, and Mr. 
Rochelte, an enterprising manufacturer. 

Tho society has to apologize to the other sister societies for being unable, for the causes stated, 
to exchange this year their usual publications. 



XV From The Botanical Club of Canada, through A. H. MAOKAT, B.A., B.Sc., LL.D. 

I bog leave to present the following summary of tho work of tho club throughout tho Dominion 
during the past year, 18U3-94, and of its objects and present constitution. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XLIII 

ONTARIO. On the 19th April, 1893, Professor John Macoun started for the Pacific Coast and 
spent the summer collecting on Vancouver Island. Collections were also made at Victoria, Nanaimo, 
Comox, Valdez Island, Sooke and many points inland, and a large series of specimens was obtained. 
Altogether 1,400 species were collected ; and in addition to the many new species detected in 1887, 
over thirty additional ones have been so far worked out from the collections made. New species of 
Musci, Hepaticro and flowering plants 'have been named, and others are under consideration. Mr. 
James M. Macoun is writing a series of papers on the plants in the herbarium of the Geological 
Survey, which will appear in the 'Canadian Record of Science' (the first of the series is already pub- 
lished). In these articles all (he later revisions of species will be discussed and descriptions of now 
species as well as copious notes on the herbarium specimens will be given. Later in the year many 
now facts will be arranged and published, and it is hoped that all working botanists will be helped by 
this series of papers which will appear regularly. Mr. William Scott, late of Ottawa, and now of 
Toronto Normal School, did some excellent work last summer. During his vacation he crossed over 
to Vancouver Island and collected there and at various points on his way home nearly 1,000 species 
of flowering plants and ferns. Among other novelties, ho obtained on Vancouver Island, Linaria 
Canaden&is, and in the vicinity of Ottawa, Myriophyllum alternillorum, I. inn. Another member, Mr. 
Roderick Cameron, of Niagara Falls, has been at work for some years in milking a complete catalogue 
of the plants growing without cultivation on the Canadian side of the Falls. Mr. .1. Dearness, Lon- 
don, although for a part of the collecting .season at Chicago, in charge of the educational exhibit, 
reports the addition of nineteen now species to the Fungi of the province. Those include a curious 
Licea described by Dr. Morgan, in the Cincinnati ' Journal of Science,' as Lii'ta bifuris, (externally 
it closely simulates a small bivalve) and a new species of Asche,rson/a, a rare genus not hitherto said 
to be reported north of Mexico. Mr. James White reports seventeen additional species of .Musci to 
the local flora of Edmonton. 

QUEBEC. The work of Professor Penhallow, during the year, on the determination of the species 
of American Conifersc by the structure of the stem (which is now being presented to the society), is 
recognized to be of very great importance in the development of phanerogamic botany. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. Lists of local floras have been sent in during the year from many of the 
county secretaries, as well as the dates of the more common flowering of plants which form a portion 
of the so-called phonological observations referred to elsewhere in this report. Those most worthy of 
specification were from J. Vroom, St. Stephen, Charlotte Co.; N. F. Perkins, Queen's Co.; Alex. Ross, 
B.A., Restigouche Co., and Miss Fenwick, Upper Springfield. Mr. Geo. Oulton, Dorchester, County 
Secretary for Westmoreland, reports much interest throughout his district in botanical work. 

NOVA SCOTIA. Botanical work here has been, to a considerable extent, associated with the 
phonological observations. 0. B. Robinson, B.A., for the first part of the year of King's County 
Academy now of Pictou Academy, reported the dates of first flowering of about 270 plants, with 
valuable additions to the flora of Pictou county. Prof. Coldwell, M.A., of Acadia College, took charge 
of the organization of a corps of phenological observers in King's county. Miss Antoinette Forbes, 
B.A., of Yarmouth County Academy (agent for all material generally required by botanists), Mr. 
Harry Piers, Halifax, Principal W. R. Campbell, B.A., Truro, Miss Mary E. Charman, of Wallace, 
and Miss Louise M. Paint, of Port Hawkesbury, sent in similar reports from their districts. Charles 
E. Brown, Esq., of Yarmouth, sent in a list of the local grasses. Geo. H. Cox, B.A., prepared a 
paper on the local flora of Shelburne, which is being published in the transactions of the Nova Scotia 
Institute of Science. The number of persons engaged in similar work this present year is very con- 
siderably greater than ever before. A summary of the phenological observations has been collated 
for publication in the transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. Mr. John McSwain has been working on the mosses of the island 
during the year. 



XL1V 



KOYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



NEWFOUNDLAND. Rev. A. C. Waghornebaa made a very good report, indicating a very energetic 
prosecution of the work of collecting and of the determination of the species collected. The follow- 
ing table summarizes the annual addition to his large list of the previous year (referred to further on) : 



Moti-s 

l.irln-ns 





NEWFOUNDLAND KlXJRA. 


LABRADOR FLORA. 


GRAND 












Spec-lew 


Var. Forms. Total. 


Speeies 


Var. 


Forms. 


Total. 




ins 


s 


a 13 


111 


3 




22 


25 









;.2 


17 i:t 112 


lit 


26 


8 


47 


159 


1(1 


:( ' in 


1(1 


(i 


a 


19 


38 


"1 


"l 


IS 






1H 


32 


.,| s Ilii .V, III IliS 


06 





6 


106 


254 



IN- i- now making ii|> named -els of Newfoundland plants for oxchunge or sale, and has already 
ivicivc'l -evcral largo orders Iroui abrond. 

MAMTOHV. The provincial press repuhlished much of the lust report of the club with the result 
<!' tin' -tin nil a 1 1" n n! a < 'on-idcrahlc degree >! botanical interest at various points. 

> \sk \IVIIF.\V AS i 'olid-lions nf plants were being made by the members and some very interest- 
ing -|M-I -ic- w.rc reported, cspci -ially from liattlcford. Membei's are preparing for the publication of 
11,1.1 1- r plcte li-N nf the plants of the district. 

AI.HKKTA. A new provincial Hecivtary has just been appointed for this province. 

IliiiTi'-ii i '"i.t'MiiiA. l-'i'iim being the most inactive province in connection with (he work of the 
11 >iuiii<-al i-liib, it has thi- year at one bound become one of the most active under the new provincial 
i-i-rriarv A. .1. I'inen.who ha.- issued a circular to the lending botanists, teachers and others interested 
in natural > -ieiice, with the result of enrolling nearly one hundred members. 

I ijiinte the following paragmphn from the general secretary's report for the year 1892-3 pub- 
li-he-l mi the 1st of March, IM'I, in which the membership is given as one hundred and twenty-eight, 
receipt-. ?L'3 .">(, exju-inlitiiro. $14.. r >0, leaving a balance in funds at date of $9.00. 

l-'i-nm Ontario, .1. Dearness, of London, on thuliiUh April, 1803, sent a reprint of two papers by 
him onu a study and description of anew fungus (Cylindrosporium Chrysanthemi) ; the other (with 

. Kilis) de-ci iptive of twenty new Sphaeropeid&e and ffyphomycetes found at London, Ontario. 
I Hiring the year 1 S !I2 he discovcreil 67 new species of fungi, 2!l of them being Pyrenomycetes 
described in the February number of the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei., Philadelphia, by Ellis and Everhart, 
authors of the " Pyrenomycetos of North America." Ho also makes interesting notes on the distribu- 
tion, etc.. of over twenty species of Phanerogams. .James White sent in a list of mosses collected in 
the vicinity of Edmonton, Out , among which are some interesting find?. 

" From Prince Kdward Island, F. Bain sent in a printed catalogue of additions to the flora of the 
inland, including :J3 Phanerogams and l-'ilicos and 63 Alga-. 

Specially wmthy of notice is the work of the Rev. A. C. Waghorne, in Nowfoundland. He 
has commenced the publication of the floi-a of the island in the Proc. and Trans, of the Nova Scotian 
Intitutc of Science. In the hpring ho re|K>rtod from Labrador to the Islands of St. Pierre and 
fiquclon, a flora consisting of Phanerogams 907, Acrogens 61, Bryophytes 68, Mosses 285, 
Li.- ben- W.I, Algii- 73 ; total 1,17. To this li*t he added in his last report, from Newfoundland and 
Labrador, Phanerogams 27, M owes 34, Algio 13, Fungi 17, Lichens 87, a total of 154 (120 species 
and 31 varieties). 



PEOCRE DINGS FOR 1894. 



XLV 



"In Nova Scotia a specialty has been made of the observation of the times of the flowering of 
plants, etc., in addition to the ordinary work going on in all the other provinces. 

"Following the suggestion of ray circular of the 12th April, 1892, observations made at several 
stations in the province were sent in, from which I select a few by way of example, with the notes 
made thereon at the time. In order to facilitate the changing of the day of the month into the day 
of the year and vice versa, note the number of the day of the year corresponding to the last day of 
each month for 1892. January 31, February 60, March 91, April 121, Hay 132, June 182, July 213, 
August 244, September 274, October 305, November 335, December 3;6. Such a table may be found 
convenient when a calendar giving the day of the year with the day of the month is not at hand. 
For the record book, the day of the month is probably in all cases the safest for general use. The date 
can bo readily converted from the day of the month to the day of the year when necessary for aver- 
aging for a district. 

" Natural history observations for the year 1802, as recommended by the committee of the 
Royal Society of Canada. Observers, Lunenburg count}', Dr. Hamilton ; Mahone Hay ; Hants 
county, Harry Piers, Windsor; King's county, Pi of. A. K. Coldwoll, Aeadia College, Wollville (this 
column being the average of four sub-stations in the county) ; Cumberland County at Amherst, K. .1. 
Lay ; at Springhill, N. D. MacTavish : the average of whose figures form the column for the county. 
(Fourteen, selected as sample of method of averaging for a province.) 



PLANTS. 


Liinrn'g 
Co. 


Hants 
Co. 


Kinn* 
Co. 


Cumberland Co. 


Nova 

Scotia. 


1*02. 


Springhill . \mlicrsl Cum. Co. 


Alnus incana (Pollen) 


l>7 


H7 


121 
152 
115 
00 
130 
12!) 
201 
Ml 


113 
143 


127 


113 

135 


1U2 
12* 
ISO 
122 
100 
120 
131 
203 
148 
150 
115 
151 
157 
120 


11 April. 
7 May. 
20 Ma>. 
1 May. 
April. 
* May. 
10 May. 
21 July. 
27 May. 
2!l May. 
21 May. 
30 May. 
5 June. 
2!t April. 


Populu.s tremuloides (Potion) . 


(Leaf) 
Acer rubruin (Flower) 


152 
118 


117 
121 
96 
12S 
138 
206 
Ml 
117 
14t 
161 
IX 


Ml 
105 
135 
134 


130 

131 
136 


135 
105 
132 
135 


Epigtea repens (Flower) 


Taraxacum oflicinale (Flower)... 
Fragaria Virginiana (Flower) 
(Fruit) 
Cherry, cultivated (Flower) 
Prunus Pennsylvania (Flower). . 
Amelanchicr Canadensis (Flower) 
Apple cultivated (Flower) . 


12T> 
127 
201 
!*{ 
150 


152 


15(1 


156 

152 
117 
152 
105 
11!) 




140 
15.'! 


146 
165 


152 
168 


117 
160 
121 


Syringa vulgaris (Flower) 


Spring Wheiit (Sown) 


11!) 











" In all good common schools, and especially in every high school and county academy, there could 
be compiled from year to year and carefully preserved for comparison, with very great advantage to 
the stimulation of the observing instinct of pupils and even of more mature students, and to the 
general development of the scientific habit and culture in tho community, local lists of the times of 
flowering, etc , of plants, to bo permanently kept in the archives of the school. From year to year 
these might also be reported to county or provincial centres, with much addition of interest to the 
local work." [Summaries of these local observations might be published annually in the transactions 
of local societies or in the local newspapers. Provincial summaries might in like manner be pub- 
blished in the transactions of provincial societies or in the provincial newspapers. Local and provin- 
cial statistics could then at any time be collated and compiled for Dominion or continental range.] 
" All schools making observations should most punctiliously receive credit for their contribution to 



XLVI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

the county or provincial summaries based on thorn, when these summaries or generalizations are pub- 
lished. In this way a great deal of valuable information could be gathered, practically without cost, 
and jKKtitively to the advantage of scientific training in the schools of the whole of Canada. I hope 
~-.ii to be able to report the full realization of this plan in the schools of Nova Scotia so far as the 
county academics are concerned. 

There is often a very great difference in the times of flowering of plants even in the same small 
circumscribed locality, according as the place is a specially sheltered one or otherwise. In a spot 
abnormally situated with respect to the heating of the sun's rays and to protection from cold winds 
or even cold nil in some cases, solitary plant may bloom in January, and a May butterfly burst 
from its chrysalii-in February. Tocount such sports as indicating the date of the first normal appear- 
nnce of flowers, etc., for a given locality, would bo very misleading. 1 would suggest the uniform 
adho-ion to tin- practice of recording two dates when necessary. First, the date of the sport, if one 
.hoiild !. ol.-ervcd. inclosing it within brackets; sfcond, the date of the first flowering which is imme- 
diately fallowed l.v the rest of the same species in the particular locality. This latter date is the one 
which i> of the greatest importance, perhaps the only one of very much importance from a general 
I*. int .if view. The tit>t or abnormal appearance is often, however, of great local interest, and by 
inclo-in:,' it within brackets the two dates may be recorded on the same line; but for section, district 
or province avei ai,'c> (botanical sections, districts and provinces), the normal first appearance would 
alone be utilized." 

Co.NSTlTTTION, ETC., OK THE f'LUIi. 

The r.olani' al ('lull of i 'anada was organized by a committee of Section IV. of the Royal Society 
ot t'aiiada at its meeting in Montreal, May 2!>th, ISill. 

"The object i to adopt means, by concerted hical efforts and otherwise, to promote the explor- 
ation of the flora of evei y portion of British America, to publish complete lists of the same in local 
P:I|HM> a> the work goes on, and to have these lists collected and carefully examined, in order to 
arrive at a correct knowledge of the precise character of our flora and its geographical distribution. 

" The method is to stimulate, with the least po.-sihle paraphernalia of constitution or rules, 
increased activity in our botanists in each locality, to create a corps of collecting botanists wherever 
there may be few or none at present, to encourage the formation of field clubs, to publish lists of local 
flora.- in the local press, etc., etc. ; for which purpose the secretaries for the provinces may appoint 
dccn-tarien for counties or districts, who will be expected in like manner to transmit the same impetus 
to a.- man}* as possible within their own sphere of action. 

" Members and secretaries, while carrying out plans of operation which they may find to bo 
promising of success in their particular districts, will report as frequently as possible to the officer 
under whom they may be immediately acting. 

Before the end of January, at the latest, reports of the work done within the various provinces 
luring the year ended December 31st previous, should be. made by the provincial secretaries to the 
general secretary, from which the annual report to the Royal Society shall be principally compiled. 
By the 1st of January, therefore, the annual reports of county secretaries and members should be 
ient in to the provincial secretaries. 

"The annual report to the Royal Society will contain, in addition to other information, a cor- 
reeled list of active members and officers. 

" To cover expense* of official printing and postage, a nominal fee of twenty-five cent* per annum is 
expected for membership (or one dollar for five years, in advance, or five dollars for life membership). 
Provincial secretaries in remitting the amount of fees from members to the general treasurer are 
authorized to deduct the necessary expenses for provincial official work, transmitting vouchers for 
the name with balance." 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XLVII 

SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS. 

1. Tho recording and publishing of phonological observations in as many localities as possible, as 
suggested in the quotation from the report of 1892-93 given above. 

2. Tho formation of a standard list of the flora of each locality, so that a report of the number of 
species known to bo contained in it may bo briefly given under, say, the following provisional heads: 

Dicotyledons, ; Monocotyledons (non-glumaceous), ; Glumales (grasses and sedges) ; 

Pteridophyta (ferns, horsetails and club-mosses), ; Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts), : 

other Cryptogams, , total species, Tho additions to the flora of any locality during the 

year may then be briefly reported thus: D., ; M., ; G., ; P., ; B., ; O. ('., 

; T.sp, 

3. The herbarium in the museum of tho Geological Department at Ottawa the nucleus of which 
is the private collection of Prof. John Macoiin has been increased to many times its original M/.C 
during tho past ten years. Prof. Macoun or his assistants have collected in all the provinces, and many 
additions have been received from botanists working in various parts of tlie Dominion, so that the 
herbarium now contains, with few exceptions, specimens of all plants known to occur in Canada. 
Tho aim has been to procure at least one sheet of specimens fiom each province in which it is found 
for every species. In addition to this, all forms that dill'er in the slightest from the tvpi- have been 
preserved ; so that of species of wide distribution there are in some cases as many as twonty-tivc or 
thirty sheets of specimens. Tho value of this is shown when tho extreme eastern ami western forms 
of common species are compared. Those of the east often appear to present good varietal diU'ci-ences 
from those of tho west; but when the specimens from various other parts of tho Dominion are com- 
pared with them, it is frequently found that they represent intermediate forms running into one 
another, that though the extreme forms, when coiixidercd alone, might be taken to lie separate 
varieties, the intermediate forms show that this is not the case. The greatest value of such an 
herbarium lies in its ottering a ready means for the determination of doubtful specimens collected l>v 
local botanists. What may appear to them a new variety of a plant with which they are familiar 
may prove to be only a form that is common elsewhere. It is important, therefore, that when 
possible specimens of all divergent forms should be sent to the "national " herbarium. 

In order to encourage the formation of private and other herbaria, Professor .Macoun has ottered 
to receive specimens from any locality and to give in exchange for them an equal number of the desi- 
derata of the person or society sending them. Tho only proviso being that the specimens he from 
the vicinity in which tho collector resides, and not from several parts of a province. To facilitate 
such exchange, check-lists will bo sent to all who may apply for them. All communications connected 
with such exchange should be addressed to tho 

CUBATOR OK THE llEKBAKIl'M, 

Geological Survey Department, 
OTTAWA. 

Letters and parcels of specimens are transmitted to this address without postage, according to law. 

4- The place and date of every specimen should always accompany it. If this label be lo.-it the 
specimen may be valueless. If the label should happen to go with the wrong specimen it is worse 
than valueless. 

5. The most convenient manner of obtaining the determination of plants from the curator of the 
Canadian herbarium or any other botanist, is to make an exact duplicate of tho set, the specimens 
being similarly numbered. Tho botanist determining the plants keeps the set sent him, and returns 
simply a list of the names corresponding to each number. Great care must be taken, especially in 
the case of the smaller Cryptogams, that one and the same species are in the duplicates. Mistakes 
often occur from the indiscriminate division of a tuft of moss or lichen supposed to contain only one 
species, while it may contain two or more, and even these in different proportions, in tho supposed 
duplicate. 



XLVIII KOYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

"The local prens will no doubt help in this work with pleasure and profit, nnd its powerful aid 
slinuld not only be invoked, but also duly appreciated by the botanist*. Where there is no botanist 
to commence work, all that is necessary is to get one or more collectors, whose collections can bo 
determined and named at any time. Such collectors will find their correspondence with the club 
officers an admirable means of facilitating their own botanical studies and of speedily transforming 
them into genuine botanists." 

PROVINCIAL OFFICERS ELECTED 25ru MAY, 1894. 

President Professor George Lnwson, Ph.D., LL.D., Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
General See. Treas. A. H. Mackay, B.A., B.Sc., IJj.D., Halifax. 

SECRETARIES FOR THE PROVINCES. 

Newfoundland Rev. A. ('. Wnghorne, St. John's. 

Prince Edward Inland Francis Bain, Esq., North River. 

Ndva Scolia A. II. Mackay. ((Jen. Scc.-Treas.), Halifax. 

Now Krimswi.k-r.. I'. May, M.A.. I'll. 15., St. John. 

Quebec Professor I ). P. Poiiballow, 15. Sc., Mc(!ill University, Montreal. 

Ontario J. A. Mm ton. Esq., Wingham. 

Manitoba Rev. W. A. Hnnnaii, H.I).. Winnipeg. 

All'crta T. N. Willing, Esq., ( 'algary. 

Saskatchewan Rev. ('. W. Bi-ydon, Battloford. 

British Columbia A. .1. Pineo, B.A., High School, Victoria. 

Addresses of members beard from, and annual duos received since the issuance of the circular 
lejM.ri dated 1st March, 189 J, up to the 25th .May, 1894, with the terms of membership beyond 1894. 
. NCI arrears are charged against members, all annual duos being credited to the current year or the 
future, according to the amount). 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Rev A. ('. Wughurno (life) ; Professor Holloway, Principal Methodist College; Arthur White 
(ls!i-T), Survey Otlice; Dr. I. S. Tail, M.A. (IS'.Hi) ; A. I. W. McNeilly, Q.C. (1898), $1.00; all of St. 
John's. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

Francis Bain, North River (1S95), 50c. ; John McSwain, Principal Public Schools, Charlotte- 
town. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

Professor Coo. Lawson, President (life); Dr. A. H. Mackay, Prov. and Gen. Sec. (life); A. W. 

. Lindsay, M.I), C.M. ; Florence A. Peters, County Academy (1898), $1.00; Ida M. Croighton, 

Prin. Compton Avenue school ; Harry Piers, Stanyan, all of the city of Halifax. Rev. James Ross- 

, Maqnodoboit Harbour; George Arthur, B.Sc., Northwest Arm, 25c., all of Halifax County. 

. MacKiltrick, B.A., Lunenburg (198), $1.00; Carrie B. Heraeon, Liverpool, Queen's Co., 25c. ; 

reo. II. Cox, B.A., 25c. ; C. Stanley Bruce, 25c. ; Angus M. Swanburg, 25c. ; Ella R. Cox, 25c.; 

. Lylc, 25c. ; Mary V. Allan, 25c. ; Maude A. Murphy, 25c. ; Maggie A. Hogg, 25c., all of 

Shelburne. Caasie McKay, Middle Ohio, 25c. ; Lizzie J. McGill, Middle Ohio, 25c.; all of Sholburne 

!oanty. Antoinette Forbes, B.A. (1895) ; Charles H. Brown, Mrs. B. J. Vickery, Mrs. Allan Hard- 

>da Goudey, Theodosia (Joudey, Mary Lovitt, Hattie J. Gunn Florence Brown, Joanetto Cann, 

fcnn. Anne Lovitl, Bclh Lovitt, all of Yarmouth. I. M. Longley, Prin. Academy, Digby Co., 

. Mac Vicar, Annapolis ; Profenaor A. K. Coldwcll, M.A., Wolfville ; Ida Parker, Ber 

., all of King'H Coanty. J. A. Smith, M.A., 25 C .; Blanche K. McLatohy, 25c.; N. A. Bur- 






PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. XLIX 

goyno, 25c. ; Helen Bonnet, 25c. ; G. L. Borden, 25c. ; A. E. Dimock, 25c , all of Windsor, Hants Co. 
E. J. Lay, Prin. Academy (1895), Amherst; Mary E. Charmnn, Wallace, 25c. ; all of Cumberland 
Co. W. R. Campbell, B.A., Truro, Colchester Co., 25c. ; C. B. Robinson, B.A., Pictou Academy ; N. 
D. McTavish, Carriboo ; Clarke Gormloy, River John, 25c., all of Pictou Co. Professor MacAdam, 
Antigonish, Louise M. Paint, Port Hawkosbury, Inverness Co., 25c. ; Thomas G. McKay, B.A., Bad- 
dock, Victoria Co. ; Frank I. Stewart, Academy, Sydney; Louise Macmillan, Norlh Sydney, all of 
Cape Breton Co. K. B. Smith, B.A., Guysborough, 25c. ; II. Macneil Smith, B.Se., Oxford, England 
(1897). 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

Geo. U. Hay, M.A., Ph.B., St. John (1895), J. Brittain, Science Muster. Normal School, 
Frodericton, 25c. ; Goo. J. Inch, B.S., Fredericton, 25c. , Goo. J. Oulton, Don hosier (1898), 81.00; 
Geo. J. Truoman, Upper Sackville, 25c. ; II. C. Henderson, Andovor, 25c. ; I. J. dm-, Kichibudo, 
25c. ; Edith Darling, Nanwigewauk, 25c. ; H. F. Perkins, Clarendon, 25e. ; J. Vroom, St. Stephen, 
50c.; Lauretta Phinnoy, Dorchester, 25c. ; Alex. Ross, B.A., Dalhoiisio , T. (i. Berton, B.A., 
Bathurst. 

QUEBEC. 

Professor Ponhallow, B.Sc., McGill University, Montreal; Dr. T. .1. W. Hurgi-ss, Supt. Prot. 
Hosp. for Insane, Montreal (1898), $1.00; Rev. Robert Hamilton, Grenvillo (1895); MissC. M. 
Derick, Clareneeville (1896) ; S. W. Mack, Salinas, California, U.S.A. (ls',17). 

ONTARIO. 

J. A. Morton, Wingham (1896); Professor John Macoun, .M. A., Ottawa (lS9i!) ; .lames .\l. Macoun, 
Curator, Herbarium, Geo. Surv. Dept., Ottawa (1895), 50c. ; .lames Fletcher, l><>niinion Kxperi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa ; William Scott, Science Master, Normal School, Toronto; John K. WiUon, 
427 Yongo street, Toronto, 25c. ; Rev. Professor James Fowler, M.A., (Queen's University, King- 
ston, 25c. ; J. Doarness, London (1898), $1.00 ; James Goldie, Guelph ; R. S. Muir, Walkcrton ; 
James White, Edmonton, 25c. ; Roderick Cameron, Niagara Falls, South (1898), 1.00. 

MANITOBA. 

Rev. W. A. Burman, B.D., Winnipeg, 25c. ; Thos. R. Donelly, Pleasant Forks, Assinihoia, 25c. ; 
Mrs. Morrison, St. Francis Xavier (1898), $1.00 ; W. R. Tymms, Duck Lake, N.W.T., 25c. 

ALBERTA. 
J. D. Higginbotham, Lelhbridge ; Geo. McLeod, Banff. 

SASKATCHEWAN. 

Rev. C. W. Bryden, Battlefoi-d (1895), 25c. ; Dr. L. A. Pare 1 , N.W.M.P., 25c. ; P. G. Laurie, 
Battleford, 25c. ; H. Richardson, Battleford, 25c. ; Mrs. G. H. Storer, Battlefoid, 25c. ; Rev. V,. K. 
Matheson, Prince Albert, 25c. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

A. J. Pinco, B.A. ; E. B. Paul, M.A., Principal ; Agnes Dean Cameron, A. B. McNeil, E. G. 
Lawson, all of the High School, Victoria ; J. K. Henry, B.A., High School, Vancouver ; Mis. A. J. 
Hill, New Westminster; Elizabeth Watson, William Loorimer, Edgar Robinson, all of Victoria. 

Also the following pupils of the Victoria High School : Thos. Hickoy, Henry Boyd, Fred. 
Herd, Harry Pridham, Fdward Kcrmode, E. Purcoll Johnson, Benj. C. Nicholas, Leonard A. Gill, 
Wm. H. Winsby ; Talbot G. Devcreux, Wm. Fraser, Herbert Arthur, R. Jesse, E. H. Griffith, W. 
Bowdoin Smith, W. W. Wilson, J. W. Spencer, J. N. Leorimer, Norman Cuthbert, Wm. Northcott, 
Alfred Nicollo, Francis A. Thomson, John H. McConnell, Hans Kroeger, Cecil Berkley, John N. 

Proc. 1894. G. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



Calbert, Earl Clarke, Edward Tuck, Kenneth Wollaaton, Morris Thomas, Ewen Cameron, Christopher 
Loat, Paul Renwick, Walter Storey, Maurice Berkley, Chas. Steers, Arthur Thomas, Charles Wilson, 
Gorge Brown. Howard McKwan, George Pickard, Richard Hale, and the Misses J. Colquhoun, J. L. 
Fancetto, L. R. Renwiek, A. Loe, With Byrne, Cassie Minerve, Annie Murray, Nora Denny, Kate 
Wolfendon, Eva Shrapnel, Mary Mason, .lane G. Loat, N. H. Netherby, Maggie Murray, Alice Dalby, 
Elmo Arthur, Minnie Nicholas, M. ('. Maclean, E. M. Shrapnel, Eleanor G. Nisbet, C. Macgregor, 
Ethel Ciwkford, Evelyn Mart-bant, Blanc-he Cowes, Mary Creech, Pearl Flemming, Beatrice Tobm, 
Lilian Sutherland, Annie C'nthcart, Cora Loat, Winnie Creech, Eva Miller, I. McTaggart, Maud 
Et-kcntlcy. May Duncan, Alice Doran, Parker Northeott, Bertie Nason, Rose Jackson, Bessie Mor- 
rison. Isabel Lcoming, Annio lilac-kbourne, Lizzie Fletcher, Agnes Petit, Mabel Sylvester. 

KIXA.NVIAI. STATKMKST (From 1st January to 25th May, 1894). 



.Ian. I. llnl. Cnsli il'nl). U.-p. 1 Mar.l 
........ Krrnr 

Mit\ i">. From Nrw foiindliiiiil. (above) 

I'rincr Kdwnnl Island, (us uliovr) . 
...... Xma Scotia " . 

Ni-\v Itniu-ui.k . 

gu.-li.T 
...... Onlari'i 

M.iniTiili.i 
Sn-kalclirati 



$ 9.W 
0.2.1 
1.IKI 

. (I. .TO 

. S.i'i 

. H.~>0 

I.KI 

.'l.i'i 

l.T.'p 

l.'ill 

s.'di.m 



March 1. 1'ostanc, :X) circulars 9 3.00 

April H. T. C. Allan & Co., 5(10 circulars, etc 11.45 

" Postage, Phcn. circulars, etc 1.00 

" 10. " Sup. I'lien. circulars, etc 1.00 

i " Kxp. Prov. Sec., Manitoba 0.25 

l;!. Special Phen. circulars 1.75 

May 1*. Pontage, correspondence ... 0.05 

>. Hal. cash on hand. . 10.90 



XVI. From The American J-'olk- l.re Society (Montreal Branch), through Mr. JOHN UEADE. 

The fifth annual meeting of the American Folk-Lore Society was held at Montreal on the 13th 
and 14th of September, 18'.'3, Prof. I). P. Penhallow. of Mcdill University, second vice-president, in 
the chair. 

After an address of welcome from the chairman, tho secretary, Mr. W. W. Newell, read a letter 
that he had received from tho president, Mr. Horatio Hale, M.A., of Clinton, Ont., in which ho 
regretted that the state of his health would not permit him to be present, and set forth the lines 
of research comprised under the head of folk-lore. 

Mr. Newell then read the report of the council, which showed steady progress both in member- 
ship and work accomplished. The society had been incorporated by an act of the Massachusetts legis- 
lature. The number of local branches had increased. Advance had been made in tho project of 
publishing a aerie* of folk lore monographs to be entitled " Memoirs of tho American Folk-Lore 
Society," and the first volume of the series, " Folk-Tales of Angola," collected and edited by Mr. Heli 
Chatelain, late of Loanda. Africa, was already passing through the press. Another volume, by Prof. 
Alcte Forlier, of Tulane University, New Orleans, would deal with the dialect tales of Louisiana. 

Tho report having been adopted and other business disposed of, the following papers were read 
or presented : 

Canadian Folk-Songs, by Mr. John Keude. 

On the Origin of Some Popular Oaths, by Mr. J. M. LeMoine. 

Some Causes of the Retarded Development of African Civilization, by Mr. Heli Chatelain, 

late of Loanda, Africa. 

Indian Writing and Hieroglyphics, by Mr. H. Beaugrand. 
The Study of Folk-Lore : its Material and Objects, by Mr. W. W. Newell. 
Mythology of tho Columbian Discovery of America, by Dr. A. F. Chamberlain. 
Dexlral and Sinistral Circuits, by Mrs. Fanny D. Bergen. 






PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LI 

Notes on Irish Folk-Lore, by Mrs. Ellen Powell Thompson. 

Brer Rabbit riding on Brer Fox to his Lady-love, by Prof. Adolf Gerber. 

Five Short Louisiana Folk-Tales, Dialect and Translation, by Prof. A. Fortier. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 
President Prof. AIce"e Fortier, New Orleans. 

First Vice-President W. Matthews, Surgeon and Major, U.S.A., Fort Wingate, N. M. 
Second Vice-President J. Owen Dorsey, Washington, D.C. 
Councillors (to serve for throe years; Dr. A. F. Chamberlain, Worcester, Mass. ; Prof. 

M. M. Curtis, Cleveland, Ohio; Prof. F. W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. 
Permanent Secretary and Editor of ' Journal of American Folk-Lore ' W. W. Newell, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Curator Steward Culin, Philadelphia. 

The first meeting, session 1893-94, of the Montreal Branch of the American Folk-Lore Society 
was hold on the second Monday in October, and the last on the second Monday in June. 

The following papers were read : 

1893 Oct. 9. The Fall of Jlochelaga, by Mr. Horatio Halo, M.A. 

Nov. 15. The Origin of Some Popular Oaths, by Mr. J. M. LcMoine. 

Nov. 15. The Werewolf, by Mr. II. Beaugrand. 

Dec. 11. Some Tales of the Kootenay Indians, by Prof. A. F. Chamberlain, Ltd). 

1894 Jan. 8. Mistletoe, by Mr. II. Mott. 

Fob. 12. Some Phases of Irish Folk-Lore, by Dr. II. M. Patton. 

Feb. 12. Usages associated with Guy Fawkes' Day, by Dr. W. G. Nichol. 

Feb. 12. Nitolia the Sorcerer, by Miss Blanche Macdonell. 

Mar. 12. Some Ojibwe Legends, by Dr. Robert Bell, F.G.S. 

April 9. All Fools' Day, by Mr. Henry Mott. 

May 21. Notes on the Dialect and Folk-Lore of Newfoundland, by Rev. G. Patterson, D.D. 

. June 11. The Folk-Lore of Plants, by Miss C. M. Dei-rick. 

June 11. The Goose in Folk-Lore, by Dr. W. G. Nichol. 

At the second annual meeting in January, the following officers were elected : 

President John Reade. F.R.S.C. 
First Vice-President W. J. White, M.A., B.C.L. 
Second Vice-President K. Boissovain. 
Secretary F. E. Came (re-elected). 
Treasurer Dr. II. M. Patton. 

Ladies' Committee Mrs. R. Reid, Miss Blanche Macdonoll, Mrs. J. Fortier, Miss S. M. 
Saxe, Mis. H. Beaugrand, Mrs. K. Boisevain. 

SESSION II. (May 22nd). 

The Royal Society and delegates held a public meeting in the evening at 8 o'clock, in the 
Assembly Hall. His Excellency the Governor-General presided as honorary president Among the 
large audience present were Her Excellency the Countess of Aberdeen, His Honour Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Schultz, Mrs. Schultz, and many prominent citizens of Ottawa; and the distinguished visitors 
from the United States, Dr. Justin Winsor, Professor S. H. Scudder, Professor O. C. Marsh, Professor 
B. E. Fernow. 

After a few remarks by His Excellency the Governor-General, the retiring president, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S., delivered the annual address as follows : 



I.I I ROYAL SOriKTY OF CANADA. 



THE PROGRESS AND TREND OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION IN CANADA. 

In a society formed to include as fur as possible representatives of ull branches of literature 
and of hcience, it appears to be nio.-t appropriate that the president for the time being should 
devote the address whii-h it is his privilege to deliver, to Borne specific topic, or to the consideration 
of such matters of interest or im|>ortnnco as may lie particularly in his own line of work or thought. 
At the last meeting of the Society, Dr. Iknirinot presented a masterly essay under the title of 
" Canada's Intellectual Strength and Weakness," dealing principally though not exclusively with the 
literary. artistic and political development of the country. It may now be of some interest and 
service tu supplement thi- e>say by a very general and very brief review of what has been accom- 
plished, and what remains I" be accomplished in ( 'anada. I)}' various scientific agencies working in the 
investiir-itjnii !' I In- natural features and towards the development of the natural resources of the 
country. 

\\ c lind ourselves |M-M'>-ed in ' 'anada of a country vast in its dimensions, but of which the popu- 
lati'.ri is a- ye! comparatively small. If. therefm-e, we have good reason to believe that the natural 
resource- "I mil territory :uo in any respect commensurate with its aro:i, wo may look forward with 
e.iniideiiee (.. a L -ie:i! future. Hut in order that this maybe realized properly and soon, wo must 
devote ourselves to the exploration and definition of our latent wealth, and to the solution of the 
problem-- which inevitably arise in the course of its utilization under circumstances which are often 
more or lc>- entirely novel. For HIM purpose, we are provided at the present day with methods, 
appliances and an amount of accumulated knowledge not previously thought of, but which wo must 
|M' prepared to enli-t in our service if our purpose is to be achieved. 

Ii is unsatisfactory to read, as we often may, the statement that ('anada is possessed of " unlim- 
ited natural resources," for such a statement means little more than that we have boon unable to 
make even a reasonably complete inventory of these resources. In order intelligently to guide the 
work of those endeavouring to utilize the benefits given to us by nature in the rough, and to attract 
population and capital for this end, it is necessary to be much more specific. It is true that great 
regions of < 'anada still remain very imperfectly or almost altogether unexplored, but we are never- 
theless already in a position to form some general estimate of the importance and character of the 
prodiii-tH which the country at a whole is best capable of yielding. Thus, in respect to mineral 
wealth, 1 believe we are justified in assuming that Canada is equally rich with any known area of the 
earth's surface of comparable dimensions. So, in regard to products of the sea, these, relatively to 
oar length ofcoa-t line and this is very great are probably at least as valuable as those of any other 
similar length of coast. Of arable and pastoral land, because of the rigorous climate of the northern 
portions of the geographical urea of Canada, the extent is not commensurate with that of the country, 
but it is practically so great that we may bo pardoned if describing it at present as " unlimited." As 
the natural wealth represented by our forests, it is probably correct to state that Canada is still 
capable of affording more timber than any other country in the northern hemisphere; but of this, 
with the constant and increasing drafts ii]x>n it, we can already begin to see the end, unless some 
ive in.-a-iit e tdiall be Uikcn, and that soon, toward* its conservation and reproduction. Wo have, 
in fact, yet to leain to regard a forest as a special kind of farm, in which, if wo do not sow, we cannot 
hoj> to reap perennially. 

, however, my purpose to enter into any details respecting the natural wealth of the 

wintry, but raiher to point out as briefly as may be what has been done and what still remains to be 

mpli-hwJ by means of the various scientific organizations and associations of Canada, in aid of the 

utilization of them) resogrcwi, in the matter of making them known to the world at large, and toward 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LI II 

the solution of various important questions which lie before us in connection with them. Science is 
but another and a convenient name for organized knowledge, and as such it has entered so largely 
into every branch of human effort, that when, at the present time, any one attempts to pose as a 
" practical " in contradistinction to a scientific worker, he may bo known to be a relic of the past age, 
in which much was done by rule of thumb and without any real knowledge of the principles involved. 
Neither can we safely make any division between what is sometimes called " practical " or '' applied " 
science and science in general, for the knowledge must be gained before it can lie applied, and it is 
scarcely yet possible to bar any avenue of research with a placard of "no thoroughfare," as an assur- 
ance that it cannot lead to any material useful end. 

At the same time, there are certain directions in which investigation is very closely wedded to 
results of immediate and tangible value, and it is practically in such directions that the State may 
reasonably be expected to exercise its activity. But the line should not be too rigorously drawn, for 
should the investigator for a time stray into some by-path of research, because of his individual 
interest in his work, it is not improbable that be may return from his excursion with some unexpected 
discovery, which may prove to have important bearings on the problems of every -day life. Take, for 
example, the study of Palaeontology which, relating as it docs, to extinct forms of life, might appear 
to be a branch of science wholly removed from any practical object, however interesting it ma}- lie to 
disinter and to reconstruct these remarkable forms. Hut we all know that this study has become an 
indispensable one as an aid to the classification of the rock formations and thus to the search for llie 
useful minerals which some of these contain. This is more particularly the case perhaps in the 
instance of coal beds, which are usually confined in each region to some set of strata, which may be 
defined with precision only by the aid of the evidence afforded by fossil remains. 

Before going further and entering into the principal subject of my remarks, I should make it 
clearly understood that in endeavouring to give some account of the several agencies of scientific 
work in Canada, it is my purpose to refer to those only which may be considered as engaged in 
widening the borders of knowledge by means of original research, tending more or less directly to 
the development of our natural resources and advantages. Thus the very numerous matters in which 
science has already been enlisted in every-day service of a routine character will not be alluded to, 
neither is it intended to allude to the numerous educational institutions in which a scientific training 
is given ; nor is it possible, within the limits by which I must be bounded, to note the results which 
have accrued from the individual labours of scientific workers throughout the country, though in 
many cases these have been of the most creditable and important character. 

THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY' 

may be said to be the senior or doyen among the scientific efforts of the Canadian Government, for 
although the Magnetic Observatory had been established some years earlier in Toronto, it did not 
till long afterwards come under the control of the government of Canada. 

The first effort made toward the establishment of a Geological Survey in Canada, appears in a 
petition addressed to the House of Assembly of Upper Canada in 1832, by Dr. John Rao. .Nothing, 
however, came of this or of several other attempts of the same kind, till in the first united Parliament 
of Upper and Lower C'anada, in 1841, the Natural History Society of Montreal and the Historical 
Society of Quebec joined in urging the matter upon the government, with the result that the modest 
sum of 1,500 sterling was granted for the purpose of beginning such a survej'. 

The selection of a geologist was referred to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, by Sir Charles 
Bagot, the governor, and on the recommendation of the best known geologists of the day in England, 
Logan, afterwards so well known as Sir William Logan, was appointed. Born in Montreal in 1798, 
he was at the time forty-four years of age, and his admirable work in the survey of the South Wales 



1 Most of the notes here given relating to the early history of the Geological Survey are derived from Dr. B. J. 
Harrington's life of Sir William Logan, Montreal, 1883. 



L1V HOYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

coal fields, had attracted the attention of Sir Henry De la Bocho, under whose auspices the Geological 
Survey of Great Britain had lately been inaugurated. In 1843, Logan entered upon his new duties, 
with the greatest possible zeal, and for more than twenty-five years the history of the Survey and 
that of its director were the name. 

It must be remembered that at thin time the utility of geological purveys had only begun to be 
generally recognized, and the Survey of (i real Britain, which became the parent and model of so many 
others, was scarcely twelve years old. 

It is not my purpose to follow, even in outline, the story of the progress and results of this 
Survey; but as it has very recently celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its foundation, it may be 
useful to refer to some matters connected with its work which early impressed themselves upon ita 
first director, several of which still retain the importance they had at that time. 

In 1854. a select committee of the legislature was appointed to investigate the working of the 
Snrvcv. Ample evidence was produced of its utility within the limits possible with the small amount 
o: ni'Hicv granted, and so thoroughly were the members of the committee satisfied on this point that 
they ivco'iitncnded the provision of greatly increased facilities for the enterprise. 

When before the committee, Logan was asked what the principal difficulties he had met with 
were; ho replied : " Independently of those unavoidably incident to travelling in canoes up shallow 
' river-, or on toot through the forest, are those arising from the want of a good topographical map 
of the country. Accurate topography is the basis of accurate geology." In answer to other ques- 
tion- relating to thoconnectimi between the ' scientific" and the "practical" result* of the Geological 
Survev, he ad<luce<i a number of instances showing this connection which had already occurred in the 
course <>f the work then done, and added: "The object of the survey is to ascertain the mineral 
resources of the country, and this is kept steadily in view. Whatever new scientific facts have re- 
Miltc-l from it, have come out in the course of what I conceive to bo economic researches carried 
" on in what I conceive I" lie a scientific way.'' 

I'nlnrtunately the complaint made at this time in regard to the want of trustworthy topogra- 
phical maps -till holds, anil this want yet constitutes an important obstacle, oven in some parts of the 
country which have long been inhabited and are thickly peopled. Unfortunately too, there are still 

f.iund, even in these days of popular education, those who call aloud for " practical results " 
without appreciating the necessary concurrent or antecedent stages of scientific investigation by 
means of which such results may be attained, or the way of attaining which is thus evidenced and 
made plain. 

To take a very recent instance of what I mean, allusion may be made to the present conditions 
in the region about Ilainy Lake, in western Ontario. It had long been known to geologists that 
among the Archa-an or oldest rocks of the eastern part of Canada, those of the Huronian system are 
often found to contain metalliferous deposits of value. No such deposits had been found in this 
particular region, but several years ago iu rocks wore carefully mapped out. Within the last few 
months veins of gold-bearing quarts have boon discovered in these rocks, and hundreds of prospectors 
are flocking to the district, while the Geological Survey is besieged for copies of the map, by which 
the researches of the miner may bo guided. Meanwhile, the Survey is at work elsewhere in preparing 
similar map*, and though it is not always possible to be, as in this instance, in advance of the pros- 
pector, he may at least in most cases be followed up pretty closely. 

At about the time ut which the committee of inquiry above referred to wa constituted, Logan had 
b*cnpre*ed to accept a geological appointment under the government of India, but fortunately for 
Canada and for the continuity of iU Geological Survey, he declined the appointment. Writing to his 
friend, Ie la Heche, on this matter, he says: " Just look at Arrowsmith's little map jf British North 
America, dedicated to the Hudson's Bay Company, published in 1842. * * * You will see that Canada 
*.mpriM* hut small part of it. Then examine the groat rivers and lakes which water the interior 
between that American Baltic, Hudson's Bay, and the Pacific Ocean some of the rivers as great as 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LV 

the St. Lawrence, and some of the lakes nearly as large as our Canadian internal seas, with a climate, 
as I am informed, gradually improving as you go westward, and becoming delightful on the Pacific. 
It will be a great country hereafter. But who knows anything of it geology ? Well, I have a sort 
of presentiment that I shall yet, if I live long enough, be employed by the British Government, under 
the Survey you direct, to examine as much of it as I can, and that I am here in Canada only learning 
my lesson, as it were, in preparation." He then states that ho had been informed of the existence of 
coal in the Saskatchewan territory and Oregon, adding : " In Oregon the value of coal for the supply 
of steamers protecting and connected with our new Chinese trade will perhaps soon be felt, and it 
might be an item worthy of the attention of the British Government in any settlement of the Oregon 
question with the Americans. When the British Government gave up tho Michigan territory at the 
end of the last American war, with as little concern as if it, had been so much bare granite, I dare say 
they were not aware that 12,000 square miles of coal field existed in the heart of it." 

This it will be remembered was written as long ago as 1845, and what Logan then foresaw has 
since come to pass, though not precisely in the manner he anticipated. Some years later (1H51) Sir 
John Richardson, after his journey through tho northern part of tho continent in search of Franklin, 
was still able to write thus : 

" Beyond Lake Winnipeg no geologist has yo( penetrated and tho descriptions of the rocks 
occurring within tho space of twenty degrees of latitude that lie to the north of that sheet of water 
are, with all their imperfections, entirely my own. It would be true economy in the Imperial ( iovrrn- 
mont, or in the Hudson's Bay Company, who are the virtual sovereigns of the vast territory which 
spreads northwards from Lake Superior, to ascertain without delay the mineral treasures it contains. 
I have little doubt of many of tho accessible districts abounding iti metallic wo:ilth of far greater 
value than all the returns which the fur trade will ever yield. 1 '' 

Following Richardson, tho first fruits of geological exploration in the western part of tho 
Dominion, were gathered by Dr. (now Sir James) Hector, attached to the liritish Xortli American 
Exploring Expedition in 1857 to 1860, by Professor Hind, despatched by the Canadian (iovornnu'iit 
in connection with the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition in 1858, and by the N'orth 
American Boundary Commission, with which I had the honour to bo associated, in 187'! and 1871. 
But at about the same time with the work of tho last mentioned expedition, tho investigations of tho 
Canadian Geological Survey were extended to the Northwest Territories, and Logan (who had then 
retired from the directorship of tho Survey) had at least tho satisfaction of seeing before his death. 
which occurred soon after, tho initiation, under tho auspices of the Survey which he may be said to 
have created, of the work which ho had outlined so many years previously and had then hoped to 
have himself taken part in. 

This work has since been continued, with results which may be stated without contradiction to 
have been of great importance to the settlement of tho country and to the development of railways 
in it. 

The extension of the work of the Geological Survey above alluded to, followed naturally from tho 
confederation of the various parts of British North America. It was no longer limited to Upper and 
Lower Canada, but spread to the maritime provinces in the east and over a truly vast area to the 
west and north. 

The general nature of the objects to bo attained by the Geological Survey, as originally contem- 
plated, were set out as follows in Logan's own words, incorporated in the act of 1845 : " To make an 
accurate and complete geological survey of tho province, and furnish a full and scientific description 
of the rocks, soils and minerals, which shall be accompanied with proper maps, diagrams and drawings, 
together with a collection of specimens to illustrate the same ; which maps, diagrams, drawings and spe- 
cimens shall be deposited in some suitable place, which the Governor-General in Council shall appoint, 

1 Arctic searching expedition ; a Journal of a boat voyage through Rupert's Land und the Arctic Sea. London, 
1851. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

ami shall serve as a provincial collection. Any duplicates of the same, after they have served the pur- 
pOBce of the Survey, shall be deposited in such literary and educational institutions of the eastern and 
western divisions of (ho province as by the same authority shall be deemed most advantageous." 

Tlio Inter act under which the Geological Survey is now carried on, specifies the nature of its 
operation* in somewhat greater detail, but the general linos thus originally laid down have not 
changed, although the scope of its operations has, from the very necessities of the case, gradually 
enlarged. The investigators in the Meld found themselves everywhere in contact with the flora, the 
fauna, the climatic conditions and the native races, and, particularly in the less known regions where 
all these presented new features and where no other scientific agencies were at work, it did not 
liehoovo ivallv intelligent observers to omit to record and, in so far as possible, to study those subjects 
when (ipporlunitv otl'erotl. Time, Iwtany and, to some extent also, zoology have become auxiliary 
branches nf the work "f the Survey, and in l>oth subjects much useful work has already been done, 
while far in relating to ethnology, meteorology and other similar subjects are contained in appendices 
tn in:inv f the published report*. The statistical return* of mines and minerals have also of late 
years I'ccn given a prominent place; aii'l from the very first, much geographical and topographical 
work \\-.\- licfii unavoidably assumed by the explorers. 

The field work of ihe Geological Survey necessarily began with exploratory trips in. which the 
main feature^ to be dealt with, in a country almost entirely unknown geological I}', wore ascertained. 
In maiiv parts even of the older provinces such explorations arc still requisite, but in most of those 
province-, it bei-ame possible after a time to proceed with the more systematic mapping of definite 
aiva-. the map sh. ets produced forming parts of a connected whole. When the great western regions 
wen- added to the lield, these could only be attacked by extended exploratory journeys in which 
geolugv ami geography went hand in bund. As it is now, the tielil work of the Survey may be divided 
under thri e ela-.-es : (1) Reconnaissance surveys. (2). The approximate mapping of large ATOM 
on a -mall -ca!e. ('.',). Finished map sheds on a larger scale and forming continuous series. All these 
three class, of work arc in progress concurrently in different districts, while the auxiliary chemical, 
pnhcontoliigical and lithological investigations in the office arc kept in touch with the field work and 
render it possible to bring this together in a homogeneous form. Were there in existence any com- 
plete topographical maps of Canada, approaching in accuracy to those which have been made in older 
countries, much more geological work could be accomplished with a given amount of money and in a 
given time, and thus the construction of such maps must bo stated yet to be, as it has been from the 
beginning of the Survey, one of the principal desiderata. There is, however, one other matter which 
at the present moment must be regarded as even more urgent, and one which might bo attained 
within it short time and at a relatively small cost. This is the construction of a suitable and safe 
museum building for the preservation and display of the important collection which has grown up as 
the result of 80 many years of investigation. This collection is not merely a matter of record, closely 
connected with all the publications of the Survey, but it is fitted to become also a great educational 
and I may add a groat advertising medium in regard to the mineral resources of the country. With 
proper accommodation it* utility could bo vastly increased for all purposes. 

Nothing can be adduced which is more creditable to the system of government in Canada, than 
the quietly persistent and uninterrupted supjwrt accorded to the Geological Survey by every political 
party, but it remains to provide such a museum building and centre for the work as that of which I 
have spoken, and it may be confidently asserted that nothing would be more favourably received by 
the general public. This museum should be of a national character, and there is every reason to hope 
that when it i* undertaken, it plan will include provision for all the valuable collections which have 
been or may bo made by the several government departments, so that it may form in effect a repre- 
Miitation of the resources, the history and the various linos of activity uf tho whole country. 

It in -.in. time, asked : When will the work of the Geological Survey bo completed ? To such 
a question one can only reply, that so long as mining or industrial operations dependent upon the 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LVII 

minoralsaiul rocks of the country continno, the work of some such department AH the Geological 
Survey will never bo quite completed. We may, it is true, look forward to a time when all accessible 
purls of the country will be geologically examined and mapped, when the expenditure on thin work 
may be relatively diminished; but in a region so vast as the Dominion of Canada, thin time lies in 
the distant future. I have already spoken of " finished maps," but in doing so I employ :i relative 
torm. The maps so described vary much in their amount of detail and accuracy, not only as between 
themselves but also in different parts of a single sheet. As settlement progresses and as now sources 
of mineral wealth are discovered, it will become possible and necessary to add largely to the detail 
and accuracy of many of these maps. But apart from this primary condition it will always bo 
requisite to place on record and keep up to date, for public use and reference, tin- developments made 
in the mining and utilization of mineral products and to paint out in the case of new discoveries, in 
the light of our knowledge of the geological structure of the country, where and in what manner 
further developments of the same kind may reasonably be anticipated. 

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE ANI> MAGNETIC < (RSERVATORY. 

Although I have stated that the Geological Survey was the first scientific branch of the Govern- 
ment service established by Canada, it must be noted that several ye:irs previous to its inception the 
Magnetic Observatory had been founded at Toronto. This, however, was not at that time under de- 
control of the Canadian Government, but had been originated and was supported for man}- years bv 
the Imperial Government. It was established as the result of representations made bv the I'.i-iti-h 
Association for the Advancement of Science, at its meeting in Newcastle in 1S;;8, acting in conjunction 
with the -Royal Society of England, and as a part of a system of magnetic research on sea an 1 in the 
colonial possessions of Great Britain. 

The observations wore actually begun, under Lieutenant ('. .1. B. Iliddell of the IJoyal Arlillerv, 
with three non-commissioned officers of the same force, in IS.'iO. Toronto had been selected as the best 
place for the observatory, and for a time the observations were conducted in a barrack situated in 
what then represented the city of Toronto ; but in (bo next year, a log building was erected as an 
observatory on the site still occupied, a grant of two acres and a halt of land having been accorded for 
the purpose by the University of King's College, now the University of Toronto. The lir-t director 
was succeeded by Lieut. Lefroy, II. A., afterwards so well known as General Sir .1. II. Lefrov. for his 
various scientific researches. From its foundation, up to 1853. the expense of maintenance of this 
observatory was defrayed by the Imperial Government, after which it was supported by the United 
Provinces of Canada, till at the time of confederation it passed under the charge of the Dominion 
Government. 

Meteorological observations had been made concurrently with those relating to magnetism, from 
the time of the establishment of the observatory; but it was not until 1871 that the Canadian Govern- 
ment first made a grant of $5,000 for a meteorological service. Prof. G. T. Kingston, who had boon 
appointed director of the Magnetic Observatory in 1855, was an enthusiast in meteorology, and in 
1869 he had succeeded in establishing a voluntary meteorological association among a number of 
amateur observers in Canada. In 1871, in conjunction with Dr. Smallwood, who had long maintained 
weather observations in the vicinity of Montreal, he represented the importance of the work to the 
Dominion Government with such force, that the initial grant above referred to was made in favour 
of the work. Communication was then had with the United States Signal Service, which had been 
established a few years previously, and a system of exchange of telegraphic weather reports was 
arranged for. 

Professor Kingston's first report on the work, published in 1872, a model of concise statements, 
shows how clearly he had, even at that time, the proper constitution and future lines of develop- 
ment of the meteorological service mapped out before him. He then had one hundred and twenty- 
three stations in Canada and two in Newfoundland in communication with him. 

Proa 1894. H. 



L VIH ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

In 1876, the issue of daily weather forecast* and storm warnings was begun, and since that time 
these have become so much a part of the evory-day life of the country, that it is unnecessary to enter 
into any explanation of their character or to present any plea in their favour. They are equally 
important and necessary to the farmer as to the navigator, and are, in addition, of value in a hundred 

other ways. 

In 1SSO. owing to failing health, Professor Kingston retired, and was then succeeded by the pre- 
sent director, Mr. Carpmacl, under whose control the service has grown, till there are at the present 
time over four hundred stations in Canada reporting to the central office, of which twenty nine make 
daily telegraphic lejxn-U, useful primarily in affording data for the weather forecasts. The meteoro- 
logical service thus developed naturally (nun the Magnetic Observatory, and both have become merged 
in a common organization, the growth of the meteorological work now perhaps overshadowing the 
original inagneiir purpose of the observatory in its immediate interest, though the importance of 
the magnetic observations lias never been lo.-t sight of. 

In Professor Kindlon s first report, already alluded to, he specifics throe matters, which, as he 
sav-. Ih'inifh line. nnected with the subject of the report, by reason of their importance "justify my 
introdu^im; them tn your notice." These are us follows: 

1 Arrangements forgiving the correct local time throughout the Dominion. 

'_' Tin- determination of the latitude- and longitudes of places. 

;;. The rectification of the magnetic chart-' of Hritish North America, and more particularly the 
correct determination of the i-o^.inic line- or linen of equal magnetic declination. 

I mention these desiderata here for the purpose of stating in how far they have since been sup- 
plied. The lir-t item has now, largely in consequence of the development of telegraphs and railway 
linen, been prettv satisfactoi -ily covered. It has been greatly facilitated by the system of stand- 
ard time, which one of our members, Mr. Sundfoid Fleming, C.M.ft., has been so largely connected 
with bringing into employment. 

The determination of latitudes and longitudes yet remains to bo fully accomplished. Much 
accurate work of this kind ha- been done in connection with the Dominion land surveys in the far 
we.-t. but many large towns in the eastern provinces, not to mention places of smaller importance, 
are still laid down on the map only approximate! v and with large possible errors. The longitude of 
Montreal ha- long been that most accurately fixed, this having been done by telegraphic comparisons 
between the observatories of Mcdill and Harvard universities ; but the methods of effecting such com- 
jMris'ins have, of late years, been so much improved, that it became eminently desirable to effect a 
new determination based directly upon the initial meridian of Greenwich. The Royal Society of 
Canada has been largely instrumental in bringing this about, and in securing the co-operation of the 
Royal Observatory, the Admiralty, and the Department of Marine of Canada for this purpose. The 
requisite observations have since been carried out, and it remains only to complete the reduction of 
the observations to establish the result. We have thus now, in the observatory of Mc<iill Univer- 
sity in Montreal, an excellent ]n>\i\l of reference for the exact determination of all other longitudes in 
Canada. 

Respecting magnetic charts of the Dominion, much also remains to be done, for though scattered 
observations of precision have been made, particularly in the west, no systematic attempt at a 
magnetic survey has liocii undertaken since that accomplished in an extended journey through the 
northern parts of the country in 1842 and 18 J3, by Sir J. H. Lofroy. It is well to remember that the 
magnetic polo itself is situated within the limits of Canada, and that problems of the greatest import- 
Mica, both fn-m a purely scientific and from a practical point of view call for solution by a systematic 
study of iU secular movement as well as of any changes in intensity and dip by which this may be 
accompanied. These are all strictly domestic problems and they should not be left for solution to 
enterprise from abroad. 

In regard to further requirements in connection with the meteorological service, it is of course 
much to be desired that the number of stations, and particularly that of those reporting telegraph!- 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LIX 

cally to the central office, may be increased, for all suih increase means greater precision and a longer 
reach in time for tho weather forecasts. There is another mutter, however, to which the director of 
this service has called attention on several occasions, namely, greater facilities for the reduction of 
tho observations and a special appropriation for the production of a climatology of Canada to be 
based upon such reductions. Such a work would bo of essential service from an educational point of 
view and as a record to date of the great mass of observations on the climate of the country which 
have now accumulated. 

DOMINION LANDS SURVEY. 

Next in order in regard to the date of its inception is tho Dominion lands survey, with a history 
not nearly so long as that of the organizations already noticed, but which has already accomplished a 
great amount of valuable work. 

In 1869, it became evident that some convenient and accurate method must be adopted for the 
subdivisions into farm holdings of tho great western country, which had then recently come under 
tho control of the Dominion. The late Lieut-Col. Dennis, was intrusted with the duty of devising a 
plan of operations, and although the scheme at that time elaborated by him was subsequently consid- 
erably modified, the basis upon which it was drawn up has remained substantially unchanged. While 
tho primary objects of this survey may bo described as cadastral, it must bo classed as a survey of a 
distinctly scientific character, by reason of the great tract of country over which it has extended, and 
the accuracy and refinement of the methods employed, as well as because of its later developments in 
various directions and the great body of trustworthy observations on the general character of the 
country which have been brought together by its means. 

The actual work of surveying can scarcely be said to have begun until 1S71, in which year also 
the first edition of a Manual of Surveys, explaining and affording the requisite data tor the methods 
to be employed, was published. These were primarilj 1 , tho establishment of a number of " prin- 
cipal meridians," crossed at certain intervals by lines known as ' ; base-linos " and corrtction- 
lines," the whole forming the skeleton for tho division into rectangular townships, sections and 
quarter-sections. Upon the '' correction lines " the "jog" resulting from the convergence of merid- 
ians was allowed for, and methods of chock were established intended to insure the greatest accuracy 
in the whole of the work. 

In 1874 and 1875, a system of triangulation was undertaken, under the immediate superinten- 
dence of Mr. Lindsay Russell, by which it was proposed to establish the ruling points of the entire 
survey, beginning at an initial point near the Red River; but owing to various causes, this was not 
continued much beyond the 102nd meridian. Since 1875 the ruling points of tho survey have been 
established astronomically, and telegraphically. 

Until 1884, this system of surveys had been confined to Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, 
where a great extent of country had already been covered, but in that year work was extended to the 
so-called " Railway belt" in British Columbia. This was continued and telegraphic determinations of 
longitude were made in British Columbia and in tho Northwest Territories in 1885 and 188C. 

In 188C, also, topographical surveys of the western mountainous region were begun, which have 
since covered considerable tracts of country. In the following year, tho photo-topographical method 
of survey was introduced in connection with this branch of the work, and though much has been said 
for and against this particular method, it must be admitted that under the direction of Capt. Deville, 
the surveyor-general, it has accomplished excellent results in practice, and has been developed into 
a method of precision, and upon a scale not heretofore considered possible. 

No detailed mention is here called for of the continued progress from year to year of the ordinary 
work of the Dominion lands survey; although it may be affirmed, that no region comparable in 
size to that over which its operations have extended has ever before been so expeditiously and so 
accurately surveyed for purposes of settlement. But the work still to be accomplished and the 



LX ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

requisite expansion of the activity of this survey or somo oven more comprehensive one which may 
grow out of it, is still very groat. While the methods heretofore employed may be described as next 
best to those of a trigonometrical survey, it if the experience of other countries that such a survey is 
ooential as a basis for the complete geographical delineation of any groat area. The topographical 
work proper, embracing hypsometric determinations and leading to the production of contoured maps, 
can only bo considered as begun, while the demand for such maps is yearly becoming greater, not 
only in the Kockv Mountain region, where mining and other operations are extending in advance of 
the geographer, but also on the great plains and in the foothills, where schemes of irrigation are 
already lcing discussed, for which maps of this kind, together with accurate determinations of the 
volume of water carried by the rivers and streams, are absolutely necessary. 

SD far, 1 have spoken only :>f the western lands which are under the direct control of the 
I > minion Government. It must not bo forgotten that the actual state of the geographical delinea- 
tion K|" tin' i, MIT provinces leave* much to bo desired. Many parts of those wore surveyed during the 
ca.lv IH-I..I v "f the country by methods which would now bo regarded as extremely primitive, while 
n p -ii'-h tiling :is a topographical map. properly so called, exists for any considerable tract in any of 
the-e I'p'vii.ccs ; although some approximations to such maps have had to bo attempted in certain 
district-. IP\- i lie < I. -illogical Survey, for its own purposes. It is possible only to form an adequate idea 

I' the eoiiijplirated inacciiraeic-i of the older html surveys, when an attempt is made to combine thorn 
into ruin': Tnt map> nl' largo areas. 

It i-. iheiTt'iire now most desirable that some system of survey of a gcnei al kind, based upon 
modem and accurate methods, should be extended throughout the Dominion. Exactly what form 

ii'-h a sv-trin shoul'l take or under what au-pices it should bo carried out, 1 do not venture to 
-u^'gi'-t , but it i- eh-ar that something in the nature of an established geodetic survey must bo ranked 
a- aiming the requirements of the immediate future. 



EXPERIMENTAL FARMS. 

Thi- branch of the public service was established as the result of the recommendation of a select 
coininitti-c of the House of Commons appointed in 1881 to inquire into the best moans of encouraging 
and developing the agricultural resources of Canada. Mr. G. A. Gigault was chairman of this 
committee, and in iSSt!, in consequence of the ctl'orts of Sir John Carling, then minister of agricul- 
ture, the "' Kxpcrimcntal Farm System Act" was passed, and the organization of the work began in 
the same year. 

It is thus only about seven years since the initial steps in this new scionti6c enterprise of the 
government were taken, but in that time, thanks to the energy and ability of the director and start' of 
the farms, great progress has been made, and the way has been opened in many directions for still 
further usefulness. Besides the central farm at Ottawa, which was first undertaken, branch farms 
have been established for the Maritime Provinces, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories and 
British Columbia. 

If any line can be drawn between that which may be described as strictly practical and that 
which may bo called purely scientific work, it will bo found to run through the centre of the field of 
operations of the Experimental Farms. An inspection of the reports already published will show 
that the work consist* largely of submitting actual observations in the field to scientific tests, and in 
the application in turn of the best rosulu of scientific knowledge to matters of overy-day importance 
on ovary farm throughout the land. 

It is, however, from the side of original scientific investigations, rather than from that of applied 
cienco, that I am regarding tho work carried on by the government at the present moment, and from 
thin point of view, the following may perhaps be selected for mention from among tho many lines of 
work undertaken in this service : 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXI 

s 

One of these is the origination of new crosses or hybrids of cereals, fruits, and other useful plants 
to meet the requirements of the varied climates and conditions of different parts of Canada. Special 
attention is drawn to the importance of these experiments by the director of the farms, who states 
that a large number of such new forms are already under cultivation and observation. Their 
importancj will be obvious to anyone who considers, in view of the great area over which any crop 
may bo grown, how great a financial benefit must accrue to the fanner if he is placed in possession of 
a variety of grain capable of producing any substantial increase of yield to the acre. Even in the 
case of fodder plants, the introduction of a now variety capable of producing a larger yield of hay or 
ensilage to a given area, means, in concrete form, that the farmer may be able to keep and to market 
a proportionally greater number of cattle than may before have been possible. 

Other branches of the work involving much original research arc : the investigation, by chemical 
analysis, of soils, in their relation to fertilizers, and of grains, grasses, fodder plants and other products 
of the farm, by which a fundamental knowledge of their respective value and of the best and most 
profitable methods of their treatment may be arrived at and the stud}' of insects and parasitic plants 
injurious or beneficial lo vegetation and to stock, such as to enable the pests of the agriculturist to bo 
combattcd cither by methods which may be classed as direct or !>} means which are indirect. The latter 
implies a study of the life-history of the forms to bo dealt with, including not only those which arc 
native to the country, but those also which may bo from time to time introduced, such as the 
Colorado Potato Beetle, the Horn Fly and many others. It includes also the study of the best 
means of counteracting the attacks by all those lower forms of vegetation, known as rust, smut. 
mould or mildew, which prey upon the plants which arc the special care of the farmer. 

Even in connection with the familiar and almost world old operation-: of butter and cheese 
making, the results of purely scientific investigations are now being proved to have a great 
importance. I do not refer merely to the best mechanical methods of dealing with the milk from 
which these are made, but particularly to the fact that the nature of the vegetable ferments which act 
upon this milk and upon the cheese, after it has been produce I, ar:> now known to give character to 
the product. That is to say, the effect of inoculation of the mass with some particular species of 
ferments is favourable, while the presence of others is deleterious. Thus the results obtained in the 
whole field of bacteriology are being made contributory to the success of the dairy. Already in 
Denmark "pure cultures" of certain kinds of ferments are beginning to be regarded as necessary to 
the success of the butter maker, and essays of a similar kind are actually in progress here. 

It is not possible to refer in detail to the innumerable experiments and tests being made or which 
may be made of varieties of plants and animals which may be already well known, but of which it is 
desirable to ascertain those best suited to the actual circumstances of the country. Nor is it possible 
to enter into questions such as the tests of fertilizers, the testing of the vitality of seeds, or the 
propagation of trees suited for planting on the plains of the Northwest. Though a part of the useful 
work of the farms, these do not imply original research in the same measure with those subjects 
already alluded to. Neither can I at this time refer to the methods adopted of making the information 
gained available to the public, such as the publication of special bulletins and reports of progress, the 
distribution of samples of seed grain (which in 1892 reached the number of 30,000) and of young trees 
for plantations. All these are obviously the necessary outcome of the work done on the farms. It 
is in addition most important by such means to make known throughout Canada the results which 
have already, or may from time to time bo reached by experiments conducted by similar institutions 
in the United States or elsewhere, many of which are equally applicable here. 

In his report for 1892, the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States writes with reference to 
the similar work carried on by his department : " The Natioual Government has taken, as it were, a 
contract with the farmers, and to carry it out efficiently this department must be prepared to answer 
all reasonable expectations in bringing into the service of agriculture all that science, whether in this 
country or in any other country upon the globe, has been able to evolve for ite benefit." 



LX II ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Thin expression may serve as a general indication of the ficope of the work lying before the 
Kxpcri mental Farms, but in order to show more clearly into how many branches this work may 
ultimately divide itself, it may further be noted that in the volume just alluded to reports are 
contained from the chief of a bureau of animal industry, a chemist, an entomologist, an ornithologist, 
a mammalogiM, a botanist, a chief of division of pathology, a pomologist, a microscopist, a chief of 
division of forestry, a special agent in charge of fibre investigations and a chief of seed division, 
besides executive and some other special reports. All these lines of investigation and more, are 
c<ju:illv im|N>r(ant to the agricultural industry in Canada, and while it may no doubt bo some time 
before tlio area to IH) covered can l>o divided under so many separate heads, it will obviously conduce to 
tin- value of the results to place each branch of the work as far as possible in the hands of some 
trained specialist. 

Ik-fore concluding this brief review of the i-evoral branches of scientific research or work carried 
on by the government, allusion inu^t l>o made to several comparatively lato undertakings of this 
nature begun under the auspices of the Department of Marine and Fisheries. 

l'ndcr the name ol the "(ieorgian Hay Survey," :i hydrographic survey of the Canadian portion 
of the (treat Laker, was begun in 18S.'!, and several excellent charU of the northern part of Lake 
Huron liave already been published. The outline of the northern shores of the Great Lakes had up 
t . ibis tune de|>eiided mi old siirvev- by Admiral Bayfield, which, though exceedingly good as 
ivcoiinai-sanee work, have long cea.scd to bo up to the requirements of the increased and increasing 
navigation of th.--c water-. As many parts of our sea coasts, both on the Atlantic and Pacific side, 
should now al-o be rccliartcd and more acrurately laid down, it is to be hoped that this hydrographic 
. tu:iv U- eontiniieil and extended. An able plea for the establish in out of a regular hydrographic 
siirxev wa. it will be remembered, laid before this Society by I'rof. Johnson at the last meeting. 

When the Itritish Association for the Advancement of Science mot in Montreal in 1884, a com- 
mittee n!' that holy which had lor many years been engaged on tidal determinations, interested itself 
in the cxt'-n-ion of siic-h observations to ('.inadiati waters, and a joint committee of the Associa- 
tion and of the IJoyal Socic'y of Canada was formed, by which the importance of such observations, 
made - teiuatically and with modern appliances of accuracy, was urged upon the government. In 
IS'.ui, a beginning was made in this work, and provision has since been made for its continuation and 
extension. The earrying oui of such tidal and current observations cannot fail in the near future to 
pro lu< e praetieal results of the greatest importance to shipping, particularly in the gulf of St. 
where a want of proper knowledge of the cm-rente has already often led to groat loss. The 
investigation is essentially a scientific one, involving questions of considerable intricacy, but its 
outcome should 1-e the formulation of plain and definite rules which may servo as a guide to the 
navigator. 

Another promising departure is the initiation of a scientific study of that inostjinportant element 
in the wealth of the country, the fisheries. Much has already been done in Canada in the matter of 
the propagation of food fishes, but much yet remains to be done in investigating the conditions of the 
fisheries of both salt and fresh waters, and it may now be anticipated that before many years an 
im|M>rtant l>a.is of fact will have been built up upon this subject. 

So far, I have npokcn chiefly of the scientific enterprises under the control of the general gov- 
ernment, but it must not be omitted to mention that several at least of the provincial governments 
have contributed their share towards the encouragement of scientific research. This has been done 
very often by according annual grants to the local scientific societies, and in Nova Scotia and in 
British Columbia by the initiation of provincial museums. It is to be hoped that none of the prov- 
ince will long remain without such a museum. Again, in several of the provinces mining depart- 
ment* exint, which though chiefly occupied with economic details and statistics, occasionally afford 
omo contribution to the scientific basis upon which all such work must rest. 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXIII 

A few words may now bo added respecting the various scientific societies and associations 
throughout the Dominion. Most, if not all of these have, since the organization of the Royal Society 
of Canada, entered into affiliation with it, and send each year to our meetings some representative 
authorized to speak in the name of his society. This fact, with the circumstance that the very inter- 
esting annual summaries of progress made on the part of those societies appear in full in our ' Trans- 
actions,' render it necessary scarcely to do more than to mention the names of the several societies 
for in those statements each has very well told its own story. In so doing I refer, of cour.-e, to those 
only which interest themselves in natural science, as distinguished from literature and history. 

The three oldest Canadian societies of a scientific kind are the Literary and Historical Society 
of Quebec, the Natural History Society of Montreal and the Canadian Institute of Toronto. It is 
perhaps not strange that these societies weie founded in the order above given, which corresponds 
with the order in date of origin of the cities in which they are situated. 

The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec dates from the year 1S2.'!, when it was (bunded 
at the instance of Lord Dalhousio, then governor. The name of this society does not indicate the 
fact that in its transactions are to bo found many important sc"ientitic papers, a fact which enables mo 
to include it for consideration in the present address. The Natural History Society of Montreal closely 
follows the last in the date of its organization, having been incorporated in 18153. The Canadian 
Institute of Toronto comes next, having been incorporated under a royal charter in 1^51. 

These three veteran societies of Canada have almost from the first published their proceedings 
or transactions, and the volumes thus accumulated now form a small library by themselves, and arc 
. particularly in the case of the two societies last mentioned -replete with information on the natural 
history and natural resources of the country, and absolutely indispensable as works of reference to 
the Canadian investigators of the present day. Each of these societies has accumulated and continues 
to maintain a valuable museum. 

The Entomological Society of Ontario, though much later in origin, dating from 1 $(>.'! only, may 
next be alluded to. In 1868, it began the publication of the" Canadian Entomologist," which remained 
for some years thereafter the only publication in America devoted entirely to the science of ento- 
mology. This journal is notable for the amount of original investigation which has appeared in it, 
both of a purely scientific and of a strictly economic character. Its excellence has been freely acknow- 
ledged both in Canada and abroad, and the membership of the society is largo and exceptionally 
active. The Literary and Scientific Society of Ottawa was incorporated in 1860, arising then from 
the fusion of an older Natural History Society with a Mechanics Institute. Since that time it has 
had a career of uninterrupted usefulness, although it publishes no account of its proceedings. The 
Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club was founded in 1880. It at first interested itself in purely local nat- 
ural history, but has latterly achieved a wider scope, welcoming all scientific papers relating to 
Canada and publishing a monthly journal. The Hamilton Association for the Promotion of Litera- 
ture and Science (dating from 1857) and the Murchison Society of Belleville are two other active 
scientific organizations in the province of Ontario, the first-named issuing a very creditable journal, 
in connection with which it may be noted that McElwraith's book on the Birds of Ontario found a 
means of publication. In the province of Quebec, wo have in addition to the two societies already 
named, the Geographical Society of Quebec (incorporated in 1874) and the Montreal Microscopical 
Society. 

In Nova Scotia, we find the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science, organized in 1862, as a 
result of the effort made to represent the province fitly at the London International Exhibition of 
that year. It has since published a number of volumes of its transactions, well and widely known. In 
New Brunswick the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, established in 1862, has since 1882 

r published bulletins, which excel in respect to the proportion of original work represented by them. 
The Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba organized in 1879, has since produced good 
work, and has published much of interest in the form of bulletins; while in British Columbia, we 



LX1V KOYAL SOCIBTY OF CANADA. 

find tho Nntural History Society of that province (founded in 1890) with which several able natural- 
ist* ure associated, working in conjunction with tho provincial museum, and publishing results of 
exceptional value on tho fauna of that comparatively now field. 

In concluding this lint, which may possibly not bo an absolutely complete one, mention must be 
made of tlie Kotanical Club of Canada, an organization which grew out of a recommendation made 
lV Sot-lion IV. of the Royal Society of Canada and which by tho compilation and publication of local 
lint* of plant*, ba-l upon the collections of its member*, is contributing toward a complete knowledge 
i>f the gcojriaphical distribution of our flora. 

I regret (hat it is not possible on this occasion to mention, oven by enumeration, the many indivi- 
dual workers in geology, /.oology and botany, who as amateurs and without any public support, have 
devoted thorn-elves to the study of various branches of natural science in Canada. The names of these 
pri\ate investigators would form a long and very honourable list. They may be found of constant 
oecuiTcncc in the transactions of the h-arncd societies just referred to, as well as in those of the 
i;.>\al --oeietv <if C.-mada and no inconsiderable part of our actual knowledge has resulted from their 
effort*. 

'I'hf IJoval Niciotv of Canada at the time of its organization in 1882, at the instance of the 
Mnnjuess of Jjorne. had m-t before it a niiinlier of objects. It was inlcndcd to constitute a bond of 
roniiociion between tho heretofnrc scattered workers in literature and science in Canada and a mode 
of a elation between i he variou^ societies alreadv existing for the furtherance of those objects. It 
wa- inioiided al-o i" atlord a -uitahle means f publication for scientific, literary, or historical work, 
not lion -ai'ilv oiiiciinod to that accomplished by its members. It was to promote original research 
in i!.c-c lieM-. and it w;i- undei'sto'xl tliiit its advice and assistance would bo at all times at the dis- 
|i -a! ot tin- x'ovci nuieiit for the solution of problems which might from time to time arise. 

'I'll'- Society has MOW been in existence twelve years, and has been consistently aided in its work 
hv the i_'ovei iiim -nt, bv means of ai: annual grant toward publication and in other ways. It may 
therefore be well to inquire in how far the field of activity originally mapped out for it has now been 
covered. It has, I believe, been suecos-fiil in forming a rallying point for scientific and literary 
wi-iki-r- throughout the country, and ii, bringing about a spirit of fraternity and of mutual interest 
an i co-operation, nut only amon^ individuals but between the various societies and associations, 
who-e representatives form an important element in our annual meetings In respect to publication, 
the Sieieiy, I conceive, ban achieved at least an equal measure of success. The cloven handsome 
volumes o| ' Transactions,' including not only memoirs ai.d special treatises by tho members of the 
Society, but contributions from other workers who have been glad to avail themselves of this medium, 
contain great mass of valuable matter, much of which could not otherwise have been published satis- 
factorily in Canada, and some of which would undoubtedly, under other circumstances, have found 
publicity through scattered M-ienlilic journals abroad. The publications of tho Society have now in 
fact It-come an indispensable part of every scientific library, and care has been taken that they shall 
be no distributed as to be generally available. It may, I think, bo claimed that they are a credit to 
the country. 

The encouragement of original research has also already followed to some extent from the organ- 
ization of the Royal Society, but chiefly in an indirect way and largely by means of tho facilities 
afforded by its publications. Wo have as yet no funds (as the Royal Society of England has, both in 
the form of government grant and in that of piivato benefactions) directly at tho disposal of the 
Society for pursues of original research. Those, it is to bo hoped, will come in time. A valuable 
and exhaustive report was, it will be remembered, made by a committee of the Society in 1885, which 
dealt chiefly with the benefit likely to accrue from the establishment of fellowships or foundations in 
connection with universities, by the aid of which students might be enabled to engage in original 
invent i gat ion* 

He-pecting that aspect of tho functions of the Society in which it is contemplated as an auxiliary 
to the scientific effort* of the government, much remains to be developed. The Society has from 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXV 

time to time, by means of deputations or memorials, drawn the attention of the government to 
matters which appeared to it to possess especial importance. Those have generally been of a char- 
actor such as to require some expenditure on the part of the government, but they have in all cases 
been favourably received, and in some inHtances have already been acted upon. This has been the 
case in respect to the tidal surveys, and the determination of the longitude of Montreal, both already 
referred to. At least one matter of importance which has constantly been before the Society since 
its organization has, however, not yet achieved any practical recognition, this is the establishment 
of a National Museum to which I have already alluded. Hut the relations of the Royal Society to the 
State wore not intended to consist merely in petitioning the government in favour of certain lines of 
action. In a thoughtful essay on the subject read before the Society in lH8:t, the late Dr. Todd 
explained in some detail the connection existing between the Imperial Government and the Royal 
Society of England upon the general lines of which the Roj-al Society of (Jana 'a is frann-d - 
pointing out in what way this had grown up, in consequence of the marvellous flexibility of that 
complex organism, the British Constitution. 

As this appears to me to be a matter of importance and one which should engage our attention, 
I need make no apology for quoting Dr. Todd's words. Ho writes : " It is well known to students of 
political history that one result of the establishment of popular government has been to oblige the 
ministers of the crown to take the initiative in preparing and submitting for the sanction of 
parliament whatever measures may be required by the public interest, whether it be to improve our 
administrative or social system ; to amend the operation of existing laws, to aid the progress of an 
advancing civilization, or to encourage tho application of scientific truths to practical beneficial ends. 
Ministers are expected, not oidy to forward sound legislation in these directions, but to re>i-t and 
expose every crude, imperfect, or otherwise objectionable notion of this description which may be 
propounded by private members. It is impossible that any ministers, however able and enlightened, 
can be invariably competent to deal intelligently with questions which form no part of an ordinary 
political education. Neither can they always command in the ranks of the civil service, capable 
assistance upon such topics. Realizing this deficiency, the Imperial Government have gladly availed 
themselves of the co-operation of the Royal Society of London, to assist in the disposal of mallei's 
requiring a special knowledge of art or science, in regard to which executive or parliamentary 
interposition may be necessary. In such cases it has been of inestimable public advantage that the 
executive government could have recourse to the advice and assistance of a body occupying the 
impartial position of the Royal Society, and could freely avail themselves of their services, not 
merely as individuals, but with tho acknowledged weight and responsibility attaching to them in their 
corporate capacity." 



I trust that in the review which I have attempted of tho various institutions engaged in scientific 
work and investigation in Canada, I have succeeded in conveying tho impression that while something 
has already been accomplished, much more remains to bo done, while the continued expansion of the 
interests of the country is every year opening up new fields of investigation and new problems which 
must bo undertaken and solved. In each such case 1 have endeavoured to connect tho new work which 
appears to lie before us with that one of the present organizations to which it appears to be naturally 
affiliated, but one important line of inquiry must yet be mentioned in which no systematic beginning 
has been made, either under the auspices of the government or by any society or institutions 
especially devoted to it. This is the field of ethnology, which in Canada is a very extensive one, and 
which calls for immediate effort, inasmuch as the native races with which this study is concerned, are 
either rapidly passing away or are changing from their primitive condition. The late Sir Daniel 
Wilson, by whose death tho Society has suffered so great a loss, more than once brought this subject 
to our notice in eloquent terms. 

Proc. 1894. j. 



LXVI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, when that association 
met in Montreal ten years ago, was so much impressed with the urgency of investigations of this 
kind that it not only appointed a committee to deal with the subject, but has since given each 3 - ear 
a substantial grant from its own funds in aid of this work. The Canadian Government for several 
years supplemented this grant, and eight reports tilled with valuable observations on the Western 
triU'- hare HO far, as a result of this action, been published in the annual reports of the association. 
It has been decided, however, that the functions of the committee, with the grant accorded by the 
association, shall cease this your, so that if further progress is to be made, the mutter must now be 
taken up by the Canadian Government. It is earnestly to be desired that the governmont'may at 
least contemplate the attachment either to the Indian Department or to some other department of 
a properly <|iialilied ethnologist, by whom these investigations may be continued. 

The Royal Society of Canada has fortunately been able to afford the means of publication for some 
valuable ethnological and philological material, to which it may be observed several missionaries have 
contributed largely. The government has also on several occasions by moans of small special grants, 
aided in the production of dictionaries of the Indian languages. But this is not enough ; the investi- 
gation of the native race-- themselves should lie systematically prosecuted till all that can bo gathered 
in relation to tliem shall have been ascertained. Specimens, too, illustrating the arts, the manufac- 
tures and the anthropology of the native races should be collected and carefully preserved. Upon 
the Pacific Coast, where the alioriginal arts are most remarkably developed, many collectors have 
already descended, hearing away to Germany and toother foreign countries much that should have 
the grcato-t intere-i to Canada To fully appreciate the importance of this task it is necessary to 
endeavour to realize in u hat way the next generation may regard any omission on our part in 
fulfilling thi- duty. 

Canada is perhaps too young to a fiord public support to purely abstract researches in such 

subjects as diemi-try, physics or biology, however valuable their possible results may be to the 

u'eiicral knowledge of the world. Neither can we expect at present to organize and send abroad 

c mi ions of exploration or expeditions to enrich our museums with the records of ancient 

li/utions drawn from the mounds of Syria or the sepulchres of Hgypt. For such enterprises, if 

they are to he undertaken, we must trust entirely to the munificence of private individuals ; but for 

eld of scientitic investigation which relates to our own vast territory, I fool strongly that we 

should accept the responsibility, and in expressing this feeling trust that I have the sympathy not 

only of the members of this Society, but also of the general public. 

On the conclusion of the address u vote of thanks was given to the learned president on the 
motion of the Governor-General. 
The meeting then adjourned. 



SKSSION III. (May 23rd.) 

The Society, in accordance with order, met in the Assembly Hall of the Normal School at 10 a.m., 
and the President called the meeting to order. 

The consideration of the report of the Council was further deferred until a later meeting on 
Friday. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The following resolutions wore adopted : 

) few/cat, That Rule 6 be suspended, and that His Honour John U. Schultz, M.D., Lieutenant- 
Manitoba, who wa* unanimously elected a Fellow of the Society by Section II, be 
ow of the Royal Society. (On motion of Dr. Stewart, seconded by Dr. Bourinot.) 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXVII 

(2.) Resolved, That Rule 6 be suspended, and that Dr. MacCabe, who was unanimously elected a 
Fellow of the Society by Section ![., be declared a Fellow of the Royal Society. (On motion of Dr. 
Stewart, seconded by Mr. George Murray.) 

(3.) Resolved, That Rule 6 be suspended, and that Mr. Arthur Harvey, who was unanimously 
elected a Follow of the Society by Section II., be declared a Fellow of the Royul Society. (On motion 
of Dr. Stewart, seconded by Mr. George Murray.) 

(4.) Resolved, That Rule 6 be suspended, and that Mr. W. Wilfred Campbell, who was unanimously 
elected a Fellow of the Society by Section II., be declared a Fellow of the Royal Society. (On motion 
of Dr. Stewart, seconded by Lieut.-Col. Denison.) 

(5.; Resolved, That Rule 6 bo suspended, and that Mr. G. U. Hay, who has been unanimously 
elected by Section IV., be declared a member of the Royal Society. (On motion of Prof. 1). P. Pen- 
hallow, seconded by Mr. J . Macoun.) 

(6.) Resolved, That Adolphe Poisson, of Arthabaskavillo, who has been chosen unanimously by 
Section I. of the Royal Society be elected a member of that Society. (On motion of Mr. B. Suite, 
seconded by Dr. L. Frdchette.) 

(7.) Resolved, That Rule 8 be suspended, and that the Rl. Jlon. James Bryce, author of the 
'American Commonwealth,' on the recommendation of Section II., be elected a corresponding member 
of the Royal Society. (On motion of Dr. Stewart, seconded by l>r. Bourinot.) 

(8.) Resolved, That Rule (! be suspended, and that Rev. G. W. Taylor, of Vancouver Island, B.C., 
who has been unanimously elected by Section IV., be declared a member of the Royal Society. (On 
motion of Prof. D. P. Ponhallow, seconded by Mr. Win. Saunders.) 

(9.) Resolved, That Rule bo suspended, and that Mr. \V. II. Harrington, who has been 
unanimously elected by Section IV., bo declared a member of the Royal Society. (On motion of 
Prof. D. P. Penhallow, seconded by Dr. C. .1. S. Bethunc.) 

On the unanimous recommendation of Section IV., the final meeting of this Society for the 
reception of reports and election of officers was ordered to be held on 1'Yiday afternoon at half-past 
two o'clock instead of Friday morning as previously announced. (On motion of Prof. I). I'. Pen- 
hallow, seconded by Mr. Matthew.) 

The meeting then adjourned until 2.30 on Friday afternoon, and the members met in their respec 
tive sections for the reading and discussion of papers. 



SECOND SESSION. (May 23/vZ.) 

In pursuance of notice duly given by the Royal Society, Mr. F. G. Marchand, M.L.A., of Quebec, 
doctcur es let Ires, delivered a lecture in the Assembly Hall before a large audience on " Un Tour do 
France durant la Seconde Re"publi<[uo." The vice-president presided. 



THE QUEEN'S BIRTHDAY. (May 24th.) 

No business or sectional meetings were held to-day, and a number of Fellows and delegates paid 
a visit to the Experimental Farm at Ottawa, to which they had been invited by the director, Mr. W. 
Saunders . 

In the afternoon the Royal Society, delegates, and American visitors had the honour of attending 
at Government House a luncheon and a garden party, to which they received a gracious invitation 
from their Excellencies the Governor-General and the Countess of Aberdeen. 

His Excellency the Governor-General sent as Honorary President the congratulations of the 
Society to Her Majesty the Queen . 



LXVIII ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

FIRST SESSION. (May 26th.) 

In accordance with order, the Royal Society mot at 2.30 p.m., on Friday, in the Assembly Hall 
of the Normal School building, the President in the chair. 

THE QUEEN'S ANSWER TO TUB .SOCIETY'S CONGRATULATIONS. 
The Honorary Secretary read the following letter from His Excellency the Governor-General : 

" GOVERNMENT HOUSE, 

"OTTAWA, May 25, 1894. 
" IViir l>r. Bot KtNoT, 

1 In accordance with the proposal which was HO heartily endorsed by the members of the Royal 
Sociolv yesterday, I despatched a telegram as follows : 

'I am df|ititr<l by the Royal Society of Canada, assembled on the Queen's Birthday, to offer 
their loyal congratulations for HIT Majesty's gracious acceptance.' 

' Thi- niorning I hail the honour of receiving the following prompt and gracious reply : 

'I :iin commanded to expie.ss the Queen's thanks for the loyal congratulations of the Royal 
Society ..| ( 'aiiada. ' 

''I'liis i- signed by Sir Fleet wood F.dwards, the Kquerry-in-Walting upon Her Majesty. 

" Believe me, 

" Yours very faithfully, 

" ABERDEEN. 

".I. (', Bonn NOT, !:-.[ ., C.M.<;., LI,. D.. etc." 

REPORT iiF THE COUNCIL CONSIDERED. 

The report of the Council was then considered and the following resolutions approving of certain 
recommendations therein were unanimously adopted : 

(1.) Resolve J, That this meeting approve of the publication of the bibliography of the Royal 
Society, commenced by the Honorary Secretary, and hope that all members will assist him by all the 
means in their |>..\ver. (On motion of Dr. Stewart, seconded by Dr. Patterson.) 

i Resolitil, That this meeting heartily endorses the suggestion made in the Council's report for 
the publication in the 'Transactions' from year to year of carefully prepared reviews of the best 
< 'anadiun Ux>ks of the year. (( >n motion of Rt Rev. Dr. O'Brien, seconded by Dr. Stewart.) 

ilt-e-l, That Dr. Bourinot, Dr. S. K. Dawson, and Mr. B. Suite, be the printing committee 
for the cn-iiing year, with full power to add to their number when necessary, and to make such rules 
1 arrangement* for printing and publication of papers as are essential to their usefulness and wide 
distribution. (On motion of Mr. J. F. Whiteaves, seconded by Dr. R. W. Ells.) 

INVITATION PROM ST. JOHN, N.B. 

Mr. Matthew read the following telegram, dated 22nd May, from St. John, N.B. : 
" To Geo F. Matthew, Royal Society Meeting, Ottcuca. 

On behalf of citizens I have much pleasure in inviting Royal Society to meet in St. John next 
nummer 

" (Signed,) GEORGE ROBKBTSON, 

" Mayor." 
After dome debate, the following resolution was adopted : 



PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXJX 

Resolved, That (ho Royal Society of Canada here assembled return their thanks to the Mayor of 
St. John for the invitation, and recommend the same to the favourable consideration of the Council. 
(On motion of Rev. Dr. Patterson, seconded by Mr. McFarlano.) 

A HYDROGBAPHIC SURVEY. 

The committee appointed in May, 1893, on the organization of a Hydrographic Survey for the 
Dominion made the following report : 

" Your committee beg to report that they had an interview with the Hon. Sir < 'has. Ilibbcrt Tapper, 
Minister of Marine, to-day, at which they were most courteously received. The President and Vice- 
President of the Society, Sir William Dawson, ox-President, and other Follows of the Society, formed 
part of the deputation. On behalf of the Society a representation was made in which the need for 
placing the hydrographic work of the department on a permanent basis, with u suitable organization, 
was strongly urged. The committee are happy to state that the minister, in his reply, not only 
expressed his entire accord with the views of this Society, but informed them that action had already 
b.en taken by the department in this direction, and that in future there would be a permanent 
hydrographic staff in connection with the department. 

(Signed,) " ALEXANDER .IOHN.-ON, 

" May 25th, 1894. " Convener." 

REPORT OF SECTIONS. 

The secretaries of the four sections then made the following reports of the election of otlicers 
and of other business : 

Rappurt ile la Section I. 

Travaux lus et reus pour impression : 

1. L'honorablo Jos. Royal Du socialisme aux Etats-Unis et en Canada. 

2. A.-D. DcCelles La Nouvolle-France et la Nouvelle-Angleterre aux XVII" et XVIII' sieclcs. 

3. B. Suite Morel de Ladurantaye. 

4. L'abbtS A. Gosselin L'abbd Picquet, fondateur de La Presentation (Ogdensburg). 

5. Joseph-Bdmond Roy Les anciennes seigneuries de 1'Acadie, avec carte in<klite. 

6. L'abb^ H. Verreau M. de Maisonneuvo <5tait-il gouverneur dc Montreal quanJ il arriva en 

Canada ? 

7. M. Faucher de Saint-Maurice L'arm^e et la marine franaise en Amerique durant la guerre de 

I'lnde'pendance. 

8. Joseph Marmette Un regard sur la literature frangaise au C Canada. 

Les travaux suivants ont aussi 616 lus aux cours des stances : 

1. M. F.-G. Marchand Un tour de France durant la seconde Rdpublique. 

2. Pamphile Lemay Mariette, nouvelle en prose. 

3. Dr N.-E. Dionne Les intendants Raudot. 

4. Paul de Gazes Etude sur les anciennes armes trouv^es au lac Mistassini. 

5. A. do Le>y-Macdonald, de la soci(5t des Antiquaires de Montreal Notes et commentaires sur 

la Galerie Historique du Canada. 

6. B. Suite Souvenirs historiques de la valle'o et de la ville d'Ottawa. 

7. J.-M. LeMoine Observations sur les absences prolonge'es de certains membres de la section 

et sur ceux qui ne nous adressent point de travaux ; 1'extreme importance de nous re'unir 
avec assiduit^, afin de pouvoir utiliser toutes nos sources de renseigneraent au cours des 
sessions. 

II a 6(6 propose par B. Suite, second^ par L. Frechette, que la regie 6 soil suspendue et que M. 
Adolphe Poisson, d'Arthabaskaville, soit nomm membre actif de cette section. Adopts unanimemont. 



I.\\ 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



II ost propose 1 par 1'honorable Joseph Royal, secondd par Joseph Marmotto, quo B. Suite soil 
nomine" pour drover le catalogue des livres et des Etudes publics en languo franchise dans notre pays 
pendant I'annde 1894-95. Adoptd unanimement. 

II cst propc*d par M. I'abbd Gosselin, socondd par L. Frechette, quo MM. Suite, DeCelles et Mar- 
mette torment lo sous comitd d'examen des manuscrits it imprimer. Adoptd. 

Los membrcs suivant-s de la section out pris part aux stances : J.-M. LeMoine, F.-G. Marchand, 
honorable Joseph Royal, L'mis Frechette, I'abbd A. Gosselin, Mgr C. Tanguuy, B. Suite, Joseph- 
Kdmond R->y, A -D DoCollos, Joseph Marmette. 

Des lettres out did revues do la part de MM. Verreauot Tasse 1 , oxpliquant leur absence par cause 
do muladie 

I > un dioix unanirnc, los otliciers suivants ont etd elus pour 1'annde 1894-95 : 
l.'aliU'- II. Vcrreau President. 
I.'lionorable Jo-o|)li Royal Vii-e-prdsident. 
Joseph- Kdmond Roy Secretaire, rddlu. 

.1 -KiiMo.s-ii Rov, F.-G. MARCHAND, 

Sfrrttiiirr. Pris. pro tern. 

Ottawa. J."> inai 1S'.I4. 



of Section If. 



OTTAWA, MAY 25, 1894. 



Thr t'lllowini; |J:I|T-, wi-re read In-fore the scu-tion : 



1. Tin- Supernatural in Nature considered in the Lij^ht of MeUiphysical Science. By the most 
Reverend Dr. O'Hncii, Airlil.i>li..|. of Halifax, N. S. 

.' The <'ali .1 Voya-es of Mil" an.l 1 J9S. I'.y Dr. S. K. Dawson. 

An iii'iniry into tlie landlall of both thou voyages and into the situation of the Island of St. John. 

The Philology of the Ouananiehe. By K. T. I). Chambers. Communicated by Dr. George 

Stewart, F.R.I J.S. 

The author refers to the many forms of the spelling of the name of Canada's fresh water salmon 
that have pcrplexe-l the ieadcr> of its literature. 

t. Language u a Criterion of Ethnological Certitude. My the Rov. Father A. G. Morico, O.M.I. 

Communicated by Dr. (I. M. Dawson. 

When it i- a <{iic-iion 'if determining with precision and without fear of error the ethnographical 
differences upon which is baed the distribution of mankind into distinct races, philology alone is 
entitled to uii(|iialilicd confidence and respect. In the words of Gallatin, language " is found to be 
a more enduring monument of ancient affinities than the physical type, and there is no tribe however 
situated from which thin proof of affiliation should not be obtained." To prove that thin statement 
i* fur from exaggerated is the object of the monograph. 

5. The Sun Worshipers of the Canadian Northwest. My Lieutenant-Governor Schultz, LL.D., of 

Manitoba. Communicated by Dr. Mourinot. 

Thin i- an account of the religious beliefs, traditions and worship of the Bloods, Piegans and 
Blackfeet of Canada and of some tribes south of the boundary, with speculations as to their origin and 
migration, and a review of their present condition, &c. 

6. The Innuiu of Our Arctic Coast. By LieutenantrGovernor Schultz, LL.D., of Manitoba. Com- 

raunicaled by Dr. liourinot. 

an account of the habito, traditions and religious belief of the Esquimaux, from 
Ung.va Hay, in Labrador, to Alaska, with some Bpeculations as to their origin, their relations with 
other Indian* of the Arctic circle, and their probable fate. 






PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXXI 

7. The Greek Anthology. By George Murray, M.A. 

What it is. Different opinions as to its merits. The history of ite growth. Meloager, Philippus, 
'Strato, Cephalos and Planudes, its compilers. The seven sections into which the Anthology may be 
divided, viz.: 1. Amatory pieces. 2. Dedicatory. 3. Sepulchral. 4. Epigrams written as poetical 
exercises or show-pieces, literary and artistic; the longest and most miscellaneous section. 5. Didactic 
pieces on life and death, the 'criticism of life.' 6. Convivial, witty and satiric pieces. 7. The .Muse 
of Strato. Specimens from each section translated in prose and verso, the use that lias been made of 
the Anthology by numerous Engli.-h poets ; and, finally, a select list of its most successful translators. 

8. Notes on the Folk Songs of Canada. By William Wood, (Quebec. Communicated by Dr. George 

Stewart, F.K.G.S. 

1. Now-popular songs. 2. Folk songs proper. 3. Characteristics of Canadian folk songs. 4. The 
chivalrous element. 5. The warlike element. 6. The survivals of mythology. 7. The influences of 
religion. 8. Manners and customs in folk songs. 9. Songs of the voyagours. 10. Love songs. 11. 
Variants local, French and foreign. 12. Poetry in Canadian folk .song. 

9. The Tablet of the Cross at Palenque and other Hieroglyphic Inscriptions of Central America 

deciphered. By Rev. John Campbell, LL.D. 

This essay is an original decipherment of four monumental inscriptions in the hieroglyphics of 
the Huastec-Mayaguiche peoples of Yucatan, Guatemala, and the neighbouring countries. The well 
known tablet of the Cross was found in a palace among the elaborate ruins of the city of Palcnquc on 
the borders of Yucatan, anil the Mexican province of Chiapas. Inthc.-c memoirs, the author fully 
states his process of decipherment, not only of the long Palenque inscription, but also of those of the 
Copan altar tablet and the tablets of Chichanchob and Akatzeeb in Yucatan, lie provides ample 
material for the interpretation of other Central American documents, whether in the shape of monu- 
ments or of codices. 

10. Technical Education for the People in Untcchnical Phraseology. I5y ( '. P>aillairg< : , ''.!". 

11. Documents Illustrative of the French Occupation of lie St. .lean, now Prince Kdward I>land, 

Edited with Notes by Dr. Bourinot, C.M.G. 

During the past year the editor has had collected and copied in the Paris Archives for the Royal 
Society a large number of valuable documents relating to the earl} 1 history of Prince Kdward Island 
when it was in the possession of the French. One of the most valuable and interesting documents is 
the Report of Siour Franquet, the French Government Engineer, on the voyage of inspection lie 
made in 1751 to the ports and settlements of St. Jean, to Forts Beausejour and Gaspareaux in Acadia, 
and to Port Toulouse in Isle Royalo. This report is accompanied by valuable sketches and plans of 
projected forts in the Island of St. Jean, as well as of maps of the harbours and settlements. M. 
Franquet's report is very full in details, showing thoroughly the condition of the island at the time 
of his visit, just seven years before it fell into the possession of the French after the fall of Louisbourg. 
In addition to this report, extracts are given from other documents showing the trade and population 
of the island at other times, from 1732 to 1758. The editor purposes to give these documents, both 
in the original and in a translation, and to add such notes as will make them more intelligible to the 
modern reader. He also gives an introduction on the discovery and settlement of the island, when it 
became an appendage of lie Royale. The most interesting maps and plans will illustrate the text. 
These documents and illustrations will appear for the first time in print in this complete shape. 

12. The Jamaica Maroons. By Douglas Brymner, LL.D., Dominion Archivist. 

The following comprises subject-matter : Authorities. Derivation of the name. Early history of 
Jamaica. The first Maroon war, 1738-39. The treaties with Cudjol and Quaco. Character of the 
Maroons. The final conflict, 1795-96. Removal to Nova Scotia. Transfer to Sieri a Leone. 

13. A few Notes on the Dialect find Folk-lore of the People of Newfoundland. By Rev. Dr. Pat- 

terson . 



LXXII 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



14. Snblo Island : Its History and Phenomena. By the sumo. 

1. Description of the island. 2. Early notices of it, 1500-1600. 3. From the removal of LaRoche's 
colonist* tilt the establishment of the first life-saving station, 1803-1801. 4. First relief establishment 
on the island, 1801-1809. 5. History of relief establishment continued, 180D-1848. 6. Life on the 
inland, 184S 1855. 7. Till the present time, 1855-1894. 8. Physical changes and future prospecto. 

15. The National Historical Gallery. By do LeYy Macdonald. Communicated by Dr. Bourinot. 

16. Jacques Carlier in the Golf. By the Right Reverend Bishop Howley, D.D., of Newfoundland. 

Communicated by Dr. Rourinot. 

17. Certain Historical Phases of the fiscal relations between Canada and the United Slates. By J. 

t'.istell Hopkins. Communicated by Dr. Bourinot. 

1* The early lucks between Likes St. Louis and St. Francis begun by Governor Haldimand, 1778- 
]S1 1. With maps and views of the present condition of the abandoned works. By Thomas 
Monro, ( '. E. Communicated by Dr. Kingsford. 

The IJight lion .lames Bryeo, M.I 1 ., D.C.Ij., President of the Board of Trade, England, and 
author of the American Commonwealth, was elected u corresponding member. 

Tin- following gentlemen were unanimously elected Follows of the Society by this section : His 
Hunour .i i '. Seliulu. I >r MacCabo, Arthur Harvey and W. W. Campbell. The fact was duly com- 
iniinicatol to the I!oval Society, and was ratified. 

Tin- jiiiniiii^ committee is composed of Mr. (ieorge Murray, Dr. ,1. G. Bourinot and Dr. George 
Stewart. 

The Editr of Litciarv crilicisni is Dr. Boitrinot. 
The 1'ilice hearer- for the ensuing year are : 

President Key. Prof. William Clark, LL.D. 
Vice-President Dr J.Ooorge Bourinot, C.M.G. 
Secretary Dr. (leorgo Stewart, F.R.G.S. 

GEO. STEWART, 

Secretary. 
Itt'l'fjrl f>f Section III. 

I. rebuts hriving held live meetings, at which the following papers were read : 

I. The formation of h>ilrol>romic- acid by the action of free bromine on water, by Dr. G. P. 
(iirdwood. 

_'. Error-, in Meridian Transit Observations, by Prof. McLeod. 
:;. The traiiHvei>o Htrength of Douglas Fir, by Prof. Bovey. 

4. Observations iij>on Htructural variations in certain Canadian coniform, by Prof. Penhallow. 
*. Some observations on the quality of the air at Ottawa, by F. T. Shutt and A. McGill. 
Communicated by Mr. McFarlano. 

6. Longitude of Montreal, by Prof. McLood (by title). 
The paper* were referred to the publication committee. 

The oflicei-H elected for the coming year are as follows : 

President Dr. B. J. Harrington. 
Vice- President Prof. H. T. Bovey. 
Secretary E. Deville. 

The following resolutions were passed, and are now submitted to the Society : 
On motion of Prof. Bovey, seconded by M^r. Hamel : 

Th this section recommends that authors proposing to read papers be requested to prepare ad- 
typc w.itic,, copies for diHtribntion among such members of the several sections as may be 
interested in the special subjects of which the papers treat. 






PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXXIII 



On motion of Dr. Sandford Fleming, seconded by Mr. Hoffmann : 

That Section III. unanimously recommends that Rule 6 be suspended, and that the Rev. James 
Williamson be elected a member of the Royal Society. 

The section consists of twenty members, of whom twelve were present. 

E. DEVILLE, 

Secretary. 

Report of Section IV. 

Section IV. respectfully reports that seven meetings have been held during the present 
session of the Royal Society, and that the amount and value of work accomplished has ex- 
ceeded that of any previous year. Thirty papers in all were presented. Of these twenty were by 
members and ten by non-members; three only were read by title, the others being presented in full 
or in abstract. The attendance has been fairly largo and very enthusiastic, and wo may safely report 
this as the most successful series of meetings in the history of the section. 

It has given the members special gratification to note the presence of His Excellency Lord 
Aberdeen, and the constant presence of Dr. S. II. Scuddor, of Cambridge, Mass., Prof. O. ('. Marsh, of 
New Haven, Conn., and Prof. B. E. Fornow, of Washington, all of whose observations upon the 
papers read have contributed in largo measure to the interest and success of the meetings. In this 
connection, the section feels that the policy of inviting distinguished scientists from abroad so suc- 
cessfully instituted this year should receive a larger measure of consideration in the future. 

Three new members have been added to our list this year: G. U. H:ty, I'h.B., of St. John, N. 15., 
Mr. W. Hague Harrington, of Ottawa, and l!ev. G-. W. Taylor, of Victoria, British < 'olumbia. 

Respecting questions referred to the section by Council, wo beg to report as follows : 

1. Concerning the promotion of systematic reviews of scientific and literary publications there is 
no representation. 

2. With respect to the formation of a catalogue of scientific papers, the information now in our 
hands is insufficient for the formulation of a definite recommendation. 

3. That upon an examination of the attendance and work of the various members, only one has 
been found to deserve admonition, and it is asked that the secretary of the section communicate the 
rule of the Society to him, and advise him that its observance in the future is desired. 

It is also recommended that because of eminence in their respective fields of work, and tlieir con- 
tributions to Canadian science, Sir James Hector, of New Zealand, and Dr. Samuel II. Seudder, of 
Cambridge, Mass., be elected corresponding members of this Society. 

The section would also report that, having carefully examined the phonological data so far col- 
lected, they observe great want of uniformity and some inaccuracy in the results submitted. They 
therefore feel that the continuation of those observations should be referred to local societies who 
should bo urged to place this important work in the hands of competent observers. Reports may 
thus be embodied in the annual reports of these societies to the Royal Society, and interim re- 
ports may also be made to and consultations held with the secretary of the Botanical Club of Canada. 
The election of officers for the following year resulted as follows: 
President Mr. James Fletcher. 
Vice-President Dr. Wesley Mills. 
Secretary Prof. D. P. Penhallow. 

The whole respectfully submitted. 

D. P. PENHALLOW, 

Secretary. 
THK MODE OP ELECTING FELLOWS. 

The Honorary Secretary communicated the following notices of motions with respect to the 

mode of electing Fellows of the Society : 

Proc. 1894. K. 



LXXIV ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

" That at the next meeting of the Royal Society, the undersigned will move: 
"That in any contest for the election of Fellows should no candidate receive the requisite number 
of votes, the Council shall elect such members as it may deem most suitable, at any mooting of the 
Council held before the date fixed for the annual meeting, provided a quorum of members of Council 

l>e present." 

UENBY T. BOVEY. 

HALIFAX, May 19th, 1894. 
Thf lion. Sfcrettiry of /Ac Roijtil Society of Canada. 

lr. \R SIK, Heing unable to bo present lit the approaching meeting of the R. S. C., I take the 
liberty nf addressing 1" you a few remarks to servo as a contribution to the discussion of the amond- 
iiifiit nf Rule ; mi (ho mode of eltvtion of mombers. 1 assume you are familiar with the modes of 
election propo-rd liv l>r. Fleming and myself respectively and referred to in the Proceedings of the 
hint two years. Thev -o far as I know are the only methods under discussion. I wish to institute a 
<-"Mi|ian-'in nt' their ro-poctivo merits or defects. 

l>r. Fleming's method may fail to effect an election even when the voting papers contain sufficient 

information l"i- the purp >-e. Tim- let there lie live candidates A, 15, C, D, E, and lot us suppose 

i-li -\i-n \oi.-r- attai-h the niiinl'ors f>, 1, '.',, '_'. 1 to their names respectively ; three voters the numbers 

1. :; i. .V .' . other three voter- the numbers 1, '2, 4, 5, ,'J ; one voter, the numbers I, 2, 3, 5, 4; one 

the unrulier-. I, .'!, -, I. ">. an I one voter, the numbers 2, 1, 3, 4, 5. Their totals are thus 65, 65, 

il.'i. ti.'i. In n-pectivoly. If therefore then- lie only one or two or three vacancies, I>r. Fleming's 

I fail- to deet, although obviously a majority of the voters wish A to till the first vacancy, B 

to till the -fe.ind and C the third. 

If, a- would appear from l>r. Fleming's statement of his method in the Proceedings, he proposes 
to require :i candidate, in order to election, to obtain a total equal tu two-thirds of the highest possible 
total, hi- in ft Imd will frequently fail to elect. In the above example no candidate has so largo a total ; 
and thu- in thi- ea-e even if there were tour vacancies bis method would fail to elect. But this 
restriction i- not e.- ential to his sy-tem and may therefore bo led out of account. 

My method alr-o may tail to elect , but only in the case in which the voters are equally divided 
bftwri-n candidates (in which ca-e an election can be effected only by some species of fictitious com- 
promi.-e under an}- good system), and in the case in which the voting papers do not supply sufficient 
information Ui show that at least one candidate is preferred to all others (in which case also com- 
promise is the only resort, as c. /. in the ordinary method of balloting at public meetings). So far 
a.- I can see no method of voting by letter can meet these case-i. In my "propos-ed amendment of rule 
6 (Proceedings of IH'.i^, p. V.) the first case was provided for; the second case, which would probably 
be of very rare occurrence, might IK> provided for by referring the election in any such case to the 
next meeting of the section, to bo conducted by the ordinary method of ballot. 

That Dr. Fleming's method may effect an election in both these cases is so obvious that I need 
not give an example. At first sight this might seem lobe an advantage; but the election of a 
candidate whom the majority of the voters do not wish to elect, cannot be advantageous. 

The possibility of electing the wrong man, ie., of electing one candidate when the majority of 
th voters wish another to be elected, is the most serious defect of Dr. F.'e method. That this is 
powible was shown by me in the Proceedings of '!)2, p. VI., in the case of a single vacancy, and was 
tacitly admitted by the committee appointed to report on these methods (Proc. of '93, p. XLV.) ; for 
they reported that in the case given, Dr. F.'s method elected "the best all-round candidate," not the 
candidate whom the majority of the voters wished to elect. 

That even when there are two vacancies the wrong candidates may be elected is obvious from 
the following example :--Let there be five candidates, A, B. C, D and K. Let eleven voters attach to 
their name- the numbers 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, respectively, arid nine voters the numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 3. The 






PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. LXXV 

totals are 64, 62, 69, 67 and 38, respectively. Thus Dr. Fleming's method would elect C and D 
whereas obviously the majority of the voters prefer A and B to all the other candidates. 

With twenty electors voting, a similar complete miscarriage may occur if there are three 
vacancies, provided there be six candidates. I need not give an example, for the assertion is easily 
verified. 

The committee, in asserting that the candidates elected by Dr. F.'s method in such cases are the 
best all-round candidates, give no adequate grounds for their assertion. They obviously regard the 
numbers by which a voter indicates the order of his preference of the candidates as somehow giving a 
measure of his opinion of their merit. That they do not give any such measure, however, even of the 
roughest kind, is clear from the fact that though one voter may regard the candidates as all very good, 
and another as all very poor, he yet uses the same numbers in indicating his order of preference. In 
the former case No. 1 means: very good, but not so good as the others ; in the latter ease it means : very 
poor and poorer than the others, but still fit to be a Fellow, llcnce, to conclude from the fact that 
though a candidate gets few high numbers awarded him ho also gets few low ones, that if his total is 
greatest he is the best all-round candidate, seems to me to be a complete non *e<juitt<r. 

The possibility, according to Dr. F.'s method, that a candidate who is considered best by a major- 
ity of voters may lose his election if a sufficient minority place him low down on their lists, gives a 
minority a veiy dangerous power. It seems improbable that with four or live candidates in the tield 
one so eminent as to be considered best by a majority should, on grounds of fitness for a fellowship 
alone, be ranked sufficiently low by a sufficiently largo minority to lose his election. Hut it may readily 
happen that he is placed sufficiently low to give this result on other grounds, say because the minor- 
ity arc not familiar with his work and have not taken the trouble to make proper inquiry, or because 
he is connected with an institution, or is resident in a province already in their opinion sufficiently 
represented in the Society. Thus Dr. F.'s method enables a minority of voters to reject, on what I 
may call unworthy grounds, a candidate whom the majority wish to elect. This seems to me a very 
dangerous power to confer upon a minority. It may be right enough within certain limits to elect a 
candidate of less eminence in order to secure a more equable representation of institutions, provinces, 
etc., but this should bo done by the will of the majority of voters, not of a minority. 

Dr. F.'s method makes no provision for the case in which a voter may regard two or more 
candidates as equal in their claims, a case which may frequently arise. If a voter considers A best, B 
and C equal and second best and D the least desirable of four candidates, is he to attach to their names 
the numbers 4, 3, 3, 2, or 4, 2, 2, 1, or 4, 3, 3, 1, or 3, 2, 2, 1, or is he to toss up as between B and C 
for the numbers 3 and 2 ? The result of an election on Dr. F.'s method may obviously turn upon the 
mode of notation in such cases. 

The committee report that Dr. F.'s method is much the simpler of the two. It should be noted, 
however, that it is the simpler ordy so far as the work of the scrutineers is concerned. Both methods 
use the same voting paper, except for the defect in Dr. F.'s method mentioned in the last paragraph. 
The simplicity which is desirable in an election is simplicity in the voting paper. Scrutineers can 
easily be found to do the work of collating the voting papers; but it is often difficult to get even 
intelligent electors to fill up properly a complicated voting paper. As, except for the difficulty 
mentioned in the last paragraph, the voting papers are the same according to the two methods, Dr. 
F.'s has no advantage in this respect. With my method the work of the scrutineers is less simple 
than with Dr. F.'s, but the number of voters being small, the difference is hardly appreciable. After 
many trials, I find that to determine who are elected in any election such as wo hold, my method 
requires say fifteen minutes more than Dr. F.'s, while the process is within the capability of any 
school boy. The difference of simplicity is therefore negligible. 

I dare say it was the form of my proposed amendment of rule 6 that made my method appear so 
complex to the committee. But if Dr. F. will prepare an amendment embodying his mothod and 
providing for all cases that may arise, I think it will be found to assume an equally complex and 
repellent form. 



LXXVI ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

To test the two method*, I have this evening conducted 19 elections, the number of candidates 
ranging from 3 to 6 and the number of vacancies from 1 to 4 and the voting papers being made out 
in a perfectly haphazard manner. The result was as follows: In one case Dr. F.'s method brought 
out two candidates as equal when my method showed that one of them ought to have been elected. 
In two cases Dr. F.'s method elected a candidate between whom and another candidate my method 
showed that the voters were equally divided. In one case Dr. F.'s method elected a candidate to 
whom mv method showed another candidate to bo preferred by the voters. In all other cases both 
methods gave the same result. Thus 21 per cent of the elections resulted in miscarriages with 
In;* method, and a little over 5 per cent in miscarriage of a serious kind. If a larger number of testa 
were applied the.se percentages would probably be different, though whether larger or smaller it is im- 
pov%iMe to KIV. They seem to me, however, to show that before adopting the recommendation of the 
committee the Society should refer the mutter back to them with instructions to apply a large num- 
ber of tests and determine how frequently miscarriages are likely to occur. 

It would bo better still, it seems to me, to avoid the possibility of miscarriages altogether by 
adopting the method which I proposed. When it effected an election, the candidate or candidates 
elected would bo those whom the voters wished to elect, and when it failed to effect an election the 
failure would l>e due to the equal division or the very conflicting opinions of the voters. I know, sir, 
that you would not object to the additional fifteen minutes of time which it would require of yon as a 
scrutineer. 

Should tlio matter come up for discussion in the Society, I should be obliged by your reading 
this communication. Should it be referred to a committee this letter might bo laid before the com- 
mittee. 

Yours very truly, 

J. G. MACGREOOR. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR 1894-95. 

The Royal Society then proceeded to the election of officers of the Society, for the year ending 
May, 1W5, and the following gentlemen were unanimously chosen : 

President J. M. LeMoine, Esquire. 
Vice- President Dr. Selwyn, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Honorary Secretary Dr. Bourinot, C.M.G. 
Honorary Treasurer. James Fletcher, Esq., F.L.S. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The following resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

1 1.) Resolred, That Rule 6 be suspended and that the Reverend Dr. Jamea Williamson, of Queen's 
University, Kingston, Ontario, be elected a Fellow of Section III. of the Royal Society. (On motion of 
Dr. Sandford Fleming, seconded by Mr. Hoffmann.) 

(2.) Retolved, That Dr. S. H. Scndder of Cambridge, Mass., be nominated as a corresponding 
member of the Royal Society of Canada. (On motion of Prof. Penhallow, seconded by Dr. Selwyn.) 

) Resolved, That Sir James Hector be elected as a corresponding member of the Royal 
Society of Canada. (On motion of Prof. Penhallow, seconded by Dr. G. M. Dawson.) 

(4.) Resolved, That in the report presented May, 1893, to the Society, the Council made 
reference to the effort of a number of societies throughout Canada, associated with the Royal 
Society, to have some permanent memorial established respecting the " Royal William," the pioneer 
ocean steamship ; 

That as a result of these effort* it is intended at an early day to place by order of Parliament a 
memorial brass within the precincts of the Parliament buildings, and it is felt that on the occasion 






PROCEEDINGS FOR 1894. 



LXXVII 



of the brass being so placed, it would be well to have the Royal Society and associated societies 
represented ; 

That the president, officers and resident members, or as many of them as can conveniently be 
present, bo requested on the call of the Honorary Secretary, to represent this society and associated 
societies. (On motion of Dr. Sandford Fleming, seconded by Dr. Bourinot.) 

(5.) Resolved, That this Society desires to express its appreciation of the hospitality extended to 
it by their Excellencies the Governor-General and the Countess of Aberdeen and by the citizens 
of Ottawa. (On motion of Prof. Penhallow, seconded by Dr. Stewart.) 

(6.) Resolved, That the Royal Society of Canada express the pleasure and profit they have 
derived from the presence at this meeting of our distinguished visitors from the United States, and 
of so many delegates from associated societies in this Dominion. (On motion of Dr. G. P. (Sirdwood, 
seconded by Dr. Kingsford.) 

(7.) Resolved, That the thanks of this meeting bo given to Dr. J. A. MacCabe, for the use of 
the Assembly Hall and for other courtesies extended to the Royal Society. (On motion of B. Suite, 
seconded by 1'abbe* A. Gosselin.) 

(8.) Resolved, That this meeting has full appreciation of the valuable services rendered to the 
Royal Society during this week by Mr. Edward B. Cope, Secretary of the Normal ami .Model Schools. 
(On motion of Mr. Murray, seconded by Mr. Keefer.) 

(9.) Resolved, That the minutes of proceedings for the session of 1893, as printed in volume 
eleven, be approved. (On motion of Dr. Stewart, seconded by Mr. Murray.) 

The Honorary Secretary announced that Professor B. Iv Fernow, chief of the division of Forestry, 
in the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C., would deliver a public lecture on Friday 
evening at 8 p. m., on " The Battle of the Forest," with very full illustrations. 

The thirteenth general meeting of the Royal Society then adjourned sine die. 



THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 

FOUNDER : THE IUGHT HONOURABLE THE MAUQUKSS OP LOHNE. 



OKKICKKS KOR 1894-95. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT : 

HIS EXCELLENCY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 



PRESIDENT 
VICE-PRESIDENT 



SEC. I. Frcii<-k 



J. M. LeMOINE. 

A. R. C. SELWYN, C.M.G., F.R.S., L.L..D 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONS. 

.i-fitiii;; ///.v/,,/-,/, n,,,! A //;,;/ ,S'///,/,v/.v. 



PRESIDENT 1,'ABBK VKKKE.UI. 

VICK- PRESIDENT HON. .1. ROYAL. 

SKciiETARY .1. !;. HOY. 

SEC. II. English Liti'.i-tittnr, ///.xA,,-//, ,i,,,l .I///,,/ ,xV v >, /..,. 

PRI-SIDENT REV. \VM. CLARK, D.C.I,., I.I..I). 

VICK-PRESIDI..NT DR. HOUR I NOT, C.M.G. 

SECBEFARV ( iKU. STKU'AIIT, Jrx., D.C.L., U..D. 

SEC. III. Mathematical, Physicdl, <nxl C/ionicul S<-lcnccn. 



PRESIDENT 

VICE-PRESIDENT 

SKCRETARY 



H. .1. HARRINGTON, B.A., Pli.I). 
PROF. BOVKY, M.A. 
E. DKVILLE. 



SEC. IV. Geological and Biological Sciences. 



PRESIDENT 

VICE-PRESIDENT 

SICRETARY 



JAMES FLETCHER, F.L.S. 

DR. WESLEY MILLS. 

D. P. PENH ALLOW, B.Sr. 



HONORARY SECRETARY JOHN GEO. BOUR1KOT, C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L., D.L. 

HONOBAKY TREASURER JAMES FLETCHER, F.L.S. 

ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF COUNCIL: ' 

ABBE J. C. K. LAFLAMME, D.I). 
SIR J. W. DAWSON. C.M.G., F.R.S. 
DR. G. M. DAWSON, GM.G., F.R.a 

1 The Council for 1894-95 comprises the President and Vice-President of the Society, the Presidents, Vice- 
Presidents and Secretaries of Sections, the Honorary Secretary, and the Honorary Treasurer, besides ex-Presidents 
of the Society (Rule 7) during three years from the date of their retirement, and any four members of the Society 
who have formerly served on the Council, if the Council should elect them every year. 






THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 1894-98. 



IJtcis, MfiK I..-N., Archcv^que do Cyri-no, 
CA,HAIS, i.'Aimfe II -li., dix-tcur cs lettrtw, (Jutlxr, 
(aiicinn pr&tidi-nt). 



I.-LITTERATUJIK FRANgAlSK, HISTOIRK, ARCHtiOLOGIE, ETC. 

GOSSELIN, I.'ABBE AUGUSTE, docteur es lettres, Qutbee. 
LBOBNDRK, NAPOLEON, docteur es lettres, Qutbee. 
LKMAY, PAMPHILE, docteur es lettres, Qutbee. 
LEMoiNR, J. M., Qulbec. 
MAUGHAM), F.-G., docteur us lettres, Saint-Jean, P.Q. 

MARMBTTB, JOSEPH, docteur es-lettres, Ottawa. 

POI.SHON, ADOI.PIIE, Arthabaskavitte, P.Q. 

ROUTIIIKR, A.-B., doctenr en droit et es lettres, Quebec. 

ROY, JOSBPH-EDMOND, Ijtvi*, P.Q. 

ROYAL, L'IIONOKARLK JOSBI-H, Montreal. 

SUITE, BENJAMIN, Ottawa. 

TANCUAY, MGR CYPRIBN, doctetir es lettres, Ottaiva. 

TASSE, L'HONORAHLB JOSEI'O, Monlrto.1. 

VERRBAU, L'Aimfe HOSPICE, docteiires lettres, Montreal. 

II.-KNGLISII LITKRATURK, HISTORY, ARCHEOLOGY, ETC. 

liomivn-, JOHN ;BORCK, C.M.C.., LL.D., D.C.L., D.L. KINOSKORD, WILLIAM, LL-D., Ottawa. 

MACC-ABB, J. A., LL.D., Principal of Normal School, 
KIIYMNKK, I'"i '.1 AS, LUD , Doiniiiiiiii Archivist, Oitumi. Ottawa. 

MAIR, CHARLES, I'rince Albert, N-W.T. 

MURRAY, GEORGE, B.A., Montreal. 



I)AVM>, I--"., tfontrt'i!. 

DHCA>. I'AU, dcM-tiMir > lt?ttri<s, (juf.lxr. 

I)K<'KU KX, A. -I)., doc-tour >s Icttrcs. Ollnmi. 

l>i"SMt, N.-K., (Jnrlc. 

KAURI:, HUTOU, '(>iii|ia^n<m do 1'onlre <les SS. Mirhel 



ct (ipor>!e, J'nrif, Fr'tiicf. 

KAl'i'HKH liK SAIST-MAl'BK'B, N., (locU'lir >S lnttrt'8, clie- 

\aliiT tie hi It-triiin il'lmnncur, 



1'Kfa'iiKTTK, l>ofis, diK'U?ur en droit, doctenr ijs lottres, 
de la l^^ion d'lionnenr, Montrtal. 



( 



u KKV. JOHN, LUD., Prt-sbyterian C 



i MI'BKI t , \V. WII.HIKII, I N'partiiiont of the Secretary of 
SUta, Oltnira. 

CLARK, Rv. W., D.C.U, LI. I)., Trinity University, 
Toronto. 

PAWHOX, Rv. jENRA MACDONHLI, LUD., Ottmin. 
DAWK*, SAMI BI E., D.L., Otlatm. 

K, Lr.-CoL. G. T., B.CL., Toronto. 

r, VRT Rv. G. M., D.D., Principal of Queen's 
Unirenity, Kingttm, (x- President) 

I! i.r, HORATIO, M. A. (Harvard), Clinton. 
HABTKY, Arrnr, Toronto. 

HA*VIT, Rr. MOKCB, K.R.G^., LUD., Si. John'*, New- 

: 



MURRAY, RHV. J. CLARK, LUD., McGill University, 
Montreal. 

O'BRIEN, Most Rev. Dr., Archbishop of Halifax, Hali- 
fax, N. 8. 

PATTERSON, REV. GEORGE, D.D., New Olatgow, N.H. 
READB, JOHN, M.A., Montreal. 

ROBERTS, CHARLES G.D., M.A., King's College, Windtor, 

N.S. 
SCHCLTZ, J. C., LL.D., M.D., His Honour, Lieutenant- 

Governor of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

STEWART, GEOROB, D.C.L., LL.D..D.L., F.R.G.8., Quebec. 
WATSON, J., M.A., LL.D., Queen's University, Kingston. 
WITIIROW, RET. W. H., D.D., Toronto. 



THB ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 
III. MATHEMATICAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES. 



BAILLAIRGR, C., C.E., Quebec. 

BOVBV, H. T., M.A., C.E., McQill University, Montreal. 

CARPMABL, C., M.A., Superintendent of Meteorological 

Service, Toronto. 
CHAPMAN, E. J., Ph.D., LL.D., University of Toronto, 

Toronto. 

DB FOVII.LB, REV. P., Montreal College, Montreal. 
DBVILLB, E., Surveyor-General, Ottawa. 
DUPIHS, N. F., M.A., F.R.S.R., Queen's University, 



Kingston. 

ELLIS, W. H., M.D., Toronto University, Toronto. 

FLEMING, SANDFORD, C.M.G., LL.D., C.E., Ottawa (ex- 
President). 

GIRDWOOD, G. P., M.D., McGill University, Montreal. 

GOODWIN, W. L., D.Sc:., Queen's University, Kingston. 



HAMEL, MONSIGNOR, M.A., Laval University, faelxc 
(ex-President). 

HAKKINGTON, B. J., U.A., Ph.D., McGill University, 
Montreal. 

HOFFMANN, G. C'., F. Inst. C'hoin., Geological Survey, 
Ottawa. 

JOHNSON, A., LL.D., McGill University, Montreal. 

KEBKEH, T. G, C.M.G., C.E., Ottauii. 

LOUDOV, J. T.,M.A., President of University of To- 



ronto, Toronto. 

MACKAKLANH, T., M.K., Chief Analyst, Oltaira. 
MAcGitEGoit, .1. <;., M.A., D.Sc., F.K.S.K., Dalhou.sic 

University, Halifax. 

McLF/>i>, C'. H., M.K., McGill University, Montreal. 
WILLIAMSON, KEV. !>., Queen's University, Kingston. 

IV.-GEOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

BAILEY, L. W., M.A., Ph.D., University of New Bruns- 
wick, Fredericton. 

BELL, ROBERT, B.Ap.Sc., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S., Geological 
Survey, Ottawa. 

BETHUNE, REV. C. J. S., M.A., D.C.L., I'ort Hope, 0. 

BURGESS, T. J. W., M.D., Montreal. 

DAWSON, G. M., D.Sc., C.M.G., F.R.S., A.K.S.M., F.G.S., 



Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

DAWSON, SIR J. WILLIAM, C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., Mont- 
real (ex-President). 



LAKI.AMMK, AI:I;K .1. C. K., ] ).!)., .M.A., I. aval I'ni- 
versity, (Juehec. 

LAWSON, (i., I'h. I)., LI,.1>., Dalhnu.sio University, llnlifnj: 
(ex-President). 

MACOUX, .1., M.A., l-'.L.S., Geological S'irvcy, Otlaiea. 

MATTHLW, (!. F., M.A., St. J.,hii, A"./>'. 

MACKAY, A. H., LL.D., l5.Sc., H.ilij.u: 

MILLS, '!'. WKSI.EY, M.A., M.D., McGill University, 



Montreal. 
ELLS, R. W., LL.D., F.G.S.A., Geological Survey, PENIIALLOW, D. P., K.Sc., McGill University, Montr, al. 

Ottawa. 
FLETCHER, JAMES, F.L.S., Dominion Entomologist, 

Ottawa. 
FOWLER, JAMES, M.A., Queen's University, Kingston. 

GILPIN, EDWIN, M.A., F.G.S., Inspector of Mines, 



Halifax. 

GRANT, SIR J. A., K.C.M.G., M.D., F.G.S., Ottawa. 
HAY, G. U., St. John, N. B. 
HARRINGTON, W. HAGUB, P. O- Department, Ottawa. 



SAUNDERS, W., Director, Dominion Experiraonta! 

Farms, Oltitva. 
SIOLWYN, A. H. (.'., C:.M.(J., LL.D., F.U.S., F.G.S.. Dire.-t.ir 

of tho Geological Survoy, Ottawa. 
TAYI.OU, Ruv. G. W., Victoria, I!. C. 
Wiin'BAVBs, .1. F., F.G-S., Gnoloiical Survoy, Ollami. 
WRIGHT, R. RAMSAY, M.A., I5.Sc., University of Toronto, 

Toronto. 



COERKSPONDINCI MEMBERS. 

TUB MARQUKSS OF LORNB. 

BONNBY, T. G., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., London, Enyland. LH ROY, ALIMIOXSB, professeur de philosophic i 1'nni- 

BRYCB, BT. HON. JAMES, M.P., D.C.I,, London, England. verait<5 lle Li ^'- ot membre (le I'^'a-Wniie royal,- 



CLARETIE, JULES, de 1'Acadernie francaise, Paris, France. 
DOUCET, CAMILLB, secretaire i>erp6tuel de 1'Arade'mio 



de Bclgique, Liege, Belgium. 
RAMHAUDBSAIST-PKUH.RDMK, D.L., A<lon, bnret, France. 



francaise, Paris, France. 

HECTOR, SIR JAMBS, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Wellington, New 
Zealand. 






KIRRY, W., Niagara, Out. 

OSLBR, W., M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Balli 

more, Md. 
MACCOLL, EVAN, Toronto. 



SCUDDKU, DR. S. II., Washington, I). C., U. .S". A. 
WINSOR, JUSTIN, LL.D., F.R.G.S., Boston, Mast. 

RETIRED MEMBERS. (See RULE 7.) 
BOUKASSA, NATOI.EON, Montcbdlo. 

CHBRRIMAN, J. B., M.A., Ryde, Isle of Wight. 
HAANKL, E., Ph.D., Syracuse University, Si 



N.Y. 






LIST OF PRBSIDENTS 



S'U" o 



1891 ' -2 
1892- 1-3 



SIR J. \V. DAWSON. 

L'HONORAIILB P. J. O. ClIAUVBAU. 

DR. T. STKRKY HUNT. 



SIR DAMEI. 
MONHKINOR HAHEI. 
DR. G. LAWHON. 
Dr. SANDFORD FI.BMINO. 
I.'AUUI: CAHCRAIN. 
PRINCIPAL GRANT. 
I.'AUUK I.AKI.AMMK. 

DR. J. G. BOURINOT. 
DR. G. M. DAWSON. 






BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF THE MEMBERS OK THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OK CANADA 



BY 



JOHN G E o ii ( ; v i: o u R i x < > T 



EDITOR OF THK TRANSACTIONS AND HONORARY SKl'HKTAHY or Till; HOYAI. SOCIETY 




PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE SOCIETY, MAY 25 r ni, 1MI4 



PREFATORY NOTM 

Any imperfections in this bibliography must lie largely ascribed to the ditliniltv tin- 
editor has experienced, in some cases, in obtaining information from iiicmlicrs ot'thc Soci.-iv, 
and to his own inability to supply the missing facts in tin- parliamentary library and other 
institutions to which he has applied. On the whoh-. liowevcr. tin- hihlio^raphv, which is 
modelled on that of the American Historical Assneiittiuii, now a branch of the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington, will be found as accurate as it is possible to make it. in view of 
the very range it takes for nearly half a century. It will be, probably, of min-h advantage 
to scientific and literary students when they wish to obtain all the literature on certain >ul>- 
jects in which many members of the Royal Society have been earnest workers fur years. 
It is proposed to publish each year a similar bibliography of the work of the members of 
the Royal Society, and to include the publications of deceased members, which have not 
been available for the present volume. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF THK MK.MBKKS OK THK 



ROYAL SOCIETY OK CANADA 



Bailey, Li. W. 

Notes on New Species of Microscopical Organisms 
from the Para River, South America. 

Bntlon Journal of Ffutural Ili*t'iri/. Vol. VII., No. 3, 
July, 1861. Pp. 3ffl-;51. with 2 Platt?. 

Notes on Diatomaceie from the St. .John Uiver. 
Canadian Xaturalut anil Genlngiit. April, 1C63. 

Report on the Mines and Minerals of New Bruns- 
wick. Fredericton, 1H64. I'p. 75. 

Mineral Localities of New Brunswick. Ext racted 
from No. 3. 

Observations upon the Geology of Southern New 
Brunswick, with a Geological Map. Printed by 
the Legislature of New Brunswick. Frederic- 
ton, 1865. Pp. 159. 

On the Geology of the Island of Grand Manan. 
Canadian Nuturalitt, Vol. vi., No. 1, with Map. 

Report on Water Supply to the City of Frederic- 
ton. Fredericton : H. A. Cropley, 1867. 

The Woods and Minerals of New Brunswick. A 
Descriptive Catalogue for Use at the Centennial 
Exhibition in Philadelphia. By L. W. Bailey 
and Edward Jack, C. E. Fredericton, 1876. 
Pp. 51. 

The Study of Natural History and Use of Natural 
History Museums. An Address at the Enccenia 
of the University of New Brunswick. June, 
1872. H. Chubb & Co., St. John. Pp. 23. 

Remarks on the Age and Relations of the Meta- 
morphic Rocks of New Brunswick and Maine. 
Bailey and Matthew. 

Proceedings American Attociation for Advancement 
of Science- Vol. xvm., 1869- Pp. 16. 



Ituilc.y, I,. \V. Ctnil in mil. 

On the Dialomac is Kurths of Maine. 

Hit: -he, */.-' l!rp-irl "H tlf l,'.",l,,:n/ ,n,,l A 1 

i if Min'ai-. 18rt2. I'IL :;.<",. 

Klcnifiitary Natural IINtm-y. Ne 1 irunsu id; 
School SerieM. St. .John : .1. A A. McMillan. 1^7. 
Pp. 91. 

Helics of the Stonr Auc in New Brunswick. 

Ilullitini.J .\,ti,,-il> 111- Inn, Socitly ,.( ,\. :, lii-ilnt- 

i.'iVfr. V"l. vi., HS:. I'p. IB, ill, :: Phot,,.-. 
Notes on (lie Surface (Jeology of Soul li western 
Nova Scotia. 

Traiwieliimn >( .\;ni Xcf, Innliliite i,f Scnnc, 
llttlifilJt, 1890-91- P|.. H. 

On the Acadian and St. Lawrence Water Shed. 

Cimniliun Ikciinlnf Sfienrr, July, 1898- Pp. 16. 
On the Mineral Resources of New Brunswick. 

Canadian Minintt ntnl Mechanical llirinr, 1891 
(leology and Geologists in New Brunswick. 

Canadian Reenrd nf Kciener, Vol. n., \o. 2, I8J6. 
Desmids and Diatoms. 

Amrriran Xaturaliil, Vol. 1, pp. 505-687, with Plate. 
Salem, 1868. 

Fresh Water Sketches. 
Ibid. 

In the Reports of the Geological Survey of Canada : 
Report on the Geology of Southern New Bruns- 
wick. 1870-71. Pp. 228. 

Geological Investigations in New Brunswick. 

1871-72. 
On the Carboniferous System of New Brunswick. 

1872-73. (Bailey a'nd Matthew.) 
Summary Report of Geological Explorations in 

NewBrunswick. 1874-75. (Bailey and Matthew.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



llnlli-T. I*. W. f'oitfintM-rf. 

Report on the Ix>erCarlx>niferous Belt of Albert 
,,d Westmoreland Counties, New Brunswick, 
with Section and Geological Map. 187U 77. 
(Bailey and KIN.' 

Heport on the Geology of Southern New Bruns- 
wick. 1X7* 79. (Bailey. Matthew and Klls.) 

Report of Kxplorations and Surveys in Portions 
of York andCarleton Counties. New Brunswick. 
1S H4. Pp. 31. 

KxplonUion-i and Surveys in Portions of the 
(-..untie-, of Cnrleton, Victoria, York and North 
iimlicrlaiid. New Brunswick. New Series, Vol. 1. 
liCi. Pp. 13'. ith Map. 

Kxpl. .rations in Portions of the Counties of Vic- 
toria. Northumberland and Rcstigoiiche, New 
Brunswick. I**;. 'I- \V. Bailey and \V. Me 
limes. i Pp. 17. 

l-Aplorations and Surveys in Portions of Northern 
N.. Brunswick, an. I Adjacent Areas ingueU-c 
an.l M,i, no. I--77 T-. (Bailey an. I Mclnnes.i 

In thr Ti-'ii<i'-t"'i ,ii lii'H'it .s'nci.'.r/ .'/' I'linniln : 

On the Phy~ic.il nn.l lieolonical llist.iry of the 

St. .I. -Im l!i.-r, Ni-w Brunswick Ahsiract. 

I.. Sec. 4, l k --. 
On Ceol.iKieul I'., niad> and Ancieni Krosioii in 

S.ntliei-n nn.l ( 'entral New Hruiisw iek. \ ol. 11., 

Sec. I. I--I. 
,,,. m >\-teni .,f Northern Maine. New 

Hrunstti.-k and yuel.ee. Vol. n.. See. I. ISH'i 
in, the Physiography and (o-olou-yof Arooslook 

i unity, Maine. Vol V., See. I. 1--T. 
On the l'r<v'"-- "' (leolo^i.-al ln\c-tiKation in 

N.-w Brunswick. Presidential Address. \ ol. 

S II.. Sec. I. I---".', 
llallli.ui:.-. < 

Ci.nfi-ri-nces illiistrers surl' Astroiioinie. rOpti.|iie, 
hi Pni-iiinati.|ue. r.Vci.ustiiiue, I' Atmosphere. 
!. \ enls. U-sConnin's, laVapeiir et la Machine 
a vapeiir, la Me-ani<|iie, etc. ; de deux heures 
cliarune en movenne. dans la Salle d*s Seances 
ili- r.Vncien Parlenieiit ilu Has Canada, rues 
Ijiinontaxne et Port Dauphin, devant desaiidi 
t..in-s de 7(>l a Hill pi-rsomies. QueU-c : C. Dar 
TertU. 1H4S .VV 

!< Calori'ere : ChaufTaKe A I'air chaud. Illu-iie. 
yu.-U-c : Bureau et Marcotte. IKKt. 
Sro.. pp. Z3 

Nouvenu traite de ( ie.un.-i i ie et de Trigonometric 
rrotiligne el spheri>|Ue. Toiso des surfaces et 
volumes. Tahlrs logarithmi(|ucs et sinus, etc., 
natiirrN. Ouvrage illustre. Quebec : i'. Dar- 
veau. 1MIA. 

B0.. pp. H. 

llap|.rt General de I'lng. de Ponts et Chausst^es 
de la \ ill.- de Qurlicc, enibras<<ant Ics depar- 
trmrntH du Fen. des Marches et Italics, de !a 
Trmvenwdu Kleuvr, de la Police, etc. QueU-c : 
C. Dweau. IMBH. 
ITO..PP.M. 



.. C. Continued. 

General Report of the City Engineer, Quebec, 
embracing Poads and Bridges, Markets, Ferry, 
Health, Fire, and other department*. Quebec : 
C. Darveau. 1872. 

STO..PP. 120. 

Geometry, Mensuration, and the Stereometrical 
Tableau. Illustrated. Read before the Liter- 
ary and Historical Society of Quebec. Quebec : 
C. Darveau. 1873. 

8vo., pp. 44. 

Geometric, Toise, et le Tableau Ste>eoni6trique. 
Illustree. \M devant la Socidte Litteraire et 
llistorii|Ue de Quebec. Demonstration et dis- 
cussiim de la formule par 1'Abbe Maingui, de 
rtlniversiUUjxval. Quebec : C. Darveau. 1873. 

8vo.,pp. 66. 

Cle Synoplique ou abr^gec du Tableau Stereome- 
trique. Illustree. Quebec : C. Darveau. 1874. 

8vo. , pp. 16. 

AhridKeil Key to Stereometrical Tableau. Now 
System of Measuring nH Bodies Segments, 
Krusta and I'ngulir. of such Ixxlies by one and 
the same rule. Illustrated. Quebec : C. Darveau. 
1874. 

8vo., pp. 16. 

Cl.-dii Tableau Stereometrique illustrie. Prece- 
d'-e ilu tolse des surfaces, tables, etc. Quebec: 
C. Darveiiu. 1874. 

8vo.. pp. 2Vi. 

Hi-rthii/iibel, on I.e Diuble Devenu Cuisinier. 
('oini-die c-n un m-te (episode de la guerre 
li'Itulie de 1.<>!1) jouee jwr la Cie Maugard a la 
Salle .laciiut's-Cartier et deux fois a la Salle de 
Mu.sii|iu>, Quebec. Quebec : C. Darveau. 1873. 

8vo. ( pp. 21. 

Reports on Sections of the then so called North 
Shore Railway (now the C.P.R.) between Quelwc 
and Montreal. Quebec : C. Darveau. 1874-5-6. 
Fnlin. 10 pp. r.i.-li 

The Proposed Improvements in the Estuary of 
the River St. Charles, Quebec. Quebec: C. 
Darveau. 1H73. 

8vo.,pp. 10. 

Toise des Surfaces illustree. Quebec : C. Darveau. 
1K75. 

8vo., pp. S8. 

Supplementary Report on the North Shoie Rail- 
way (now the C. P. R.) between Quebec and 
Montreal. Quebec: E. Vincent. 1875. 

8ro , pp.14. 

Rapport Supplemcntaire de 1'Ing. de la Citd de 
Quebec sur le cheinin de fer du Nord (aujourd 1 - 
hui le C. P. R) entre Quebec et Montreal. 
Quebec : E. Vincent. 1876. 

8vo., pp. 15. 

Report on the Fire-escape Appliances and Facili- 
tii-- of some ninety-six Public Buildings of 
Quebec and Environs, including Schools, Col- 
leges, Convents, Theatres, Lecture and Music 
Halls, Manufactories, Hotels, Churches, etc. 

Folio, pp. Iu5. 

The Proposed Dry Dock in the Mouth of the 
River St. Charles. Quebec : C. Darveau. 1876. 
8vo., pp. 4. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



ItuillairKe, C. Continued. 

Report on the Piles Branch of the N. S. Railway. 
Quebec : C. Darveau. 1876. 

Folio, pp. ft. 

Rapports sur le chemin de fer du Nord (aujourd'- 
hui le C. P. R) entre Quebec et Montreal. 
Quebec : C. Darveau. 1874-5 6. 

Folio, pp. 8 ft 10 en moyenne. 

Key to the Stereometricon, illustrated ; mensura- 
tion of areas, tables, etc. Quebec : C. Darveau. 
1876. 

8vo., pp. 228. 

The Municipal Situation. Quebec. Yearly De- 
ficits. Financial Situation. Quebec : C. Dar- 
veau. 1878. 

8vo., pp- 57. 

General Report of the City Engineer, Quebec, on 
Roads, Bridges, Markets, Ferry, Fire, Health, 
and other departments. Quebec : E. Vincent. 
1878. 

8vo.. pp. 1UO. 

The Stereometricon. Areas of spherical triangles 
and polygons to any radius or diameter. Illus- 
trated. Montreal : Lovell & Son. 18H(). 
8vo., pp. 38. 

Rapport du Chev. C. Baillairge, Ing. de la Cite de 
Quebec, sur 1'amelioration de son Aquedue. 
Quebec: E. Vincent. 1881. 
8fo., pp. 82. 

Report of the Quebec City Engineer on the Pro- 
posed New Aqueduct 130" diameter). Quebec : 
E. Vincent. 1881. 
8vo., pp. 80. 

A Particular Case of Water Hammer. Illustrated. 
Transaction* of Royal Society <>f Canada. Vol. n,, 
See. 3. 1884. 

Le Stereometricon. Illustre. Tables, surfaces 
des triangles et polygones spherlques sous un 
rayon ou diam. quelconques. Quebec : C. Dar- 
veau. 1884. 
8vo., pp. 133. 

The Stereometricon. Illustrated. Tables, areas 
of spherical triangles and polygons to any radius 
or diam. Quebec : C. Darveau. 1884. 
8vo , pp. 132- 

Papers read before the Royal Society of Canada, 
1882-83. Illustrated. Quebec : C. Darveau. 
1884. 

8vo., pp. 4H. 

M6moires lus devant la Societe Royale du Canada, 
Sec. ni., 1882-83. Illustr(5s. Quebec :C. Darveau. 
1884. 

8vo.,pp. 46. 

Some 15 reports on as many separate 10-mile sec- 
tions of the Quebec & Lake St. John Railway 
North of St. Raymond. Quebec : E. Vincent. 
1883-87. 

8vo., pp. 15 to 25 each. 

Quelques 15 rapports sur autant de sections dis- 
tinctes du chemin de fer Quebec et Lac St. -Jean 
au Nord de St-Raymond. Quebec : E. Vincent. 
1883-87. 

8vo., pp. 15 :i 25 obacun. 



liaillaii K<;. C.Conlinuerl. 

I,a veine liquide contractee. Conference lue de- 
vant la Societe Royale du Canada, Sect, in., a 
Ottawa, I8S.V 

Quel>ec, passe, present, futur. QuelxT : J. (Jjn 
gras et Cie. 1885. 

8vo., pp. s. 

The Aiiueduct, Quebec. Tables of pressures, 
heights, etc. Quebec : E. Vincent. 1855. 
8vo. , pp. 7. 

Rapport sur le nouvel aqueduc dc Quebec. Que 
bee : E. Vincent. 1885. 
8vo., pp 29. 

Concernant la theurie de M. Steckcl sur " La 
veine li<|iiide contractee," lue devant la Societu 
Royale du Canada, Sect, in., le 28 mai Iss5. 

An ordinary 1 l-hoiirs day's work of (lie City En 
gineer, Quebec. Quebec: I-]. Vincent. l*.^i. 

Fulio, p)>. 8. 

Ceometrie dans I'espace. Steivomet rie. Stereo 
tomie. Illustiv. Juliette : Revd I-'. A. Hail 
lairgc. 188<>. 
8vci., p|.. II". 

Le Stereometricon couronne en France, en Bel 
gique, en Angleterrc, en Hussie, au .Iapon.au 
Bresil, en Canada, aux Etats-Unis d'Ameri(|Ue. 
.loliette : R-vd !'. A. Haillairgc. ISM!. 
8v<>., pp. 2U. 

A Practical Solution of the Creat Social and llu 
manitarian Prol>lem : Escape from buildings in 
case of lire. Head before the Hoyal Sociel v of 
Canada, Sec. ill.. May i~>, lsK7. Quebec : C. Dar- 
veau. 1887. 
4to., pp. K. 

1'elili' .Mat liemal iqne ecrite pour et publiee dans 
I'Etudiani. i-ilitr- a Juliette par le Hev.l I-'. A. 
Baillairge. ls-<7. 

The Art of Building. Head before the Canadian 
Association of Civil Engineers, .Montreal, 18>7. 
Fol., pp.2ii. 

The School of Industry and Arts, (ilaeis Street, 
Quebec. Published by the City Press, Quebec. 
1887. 

Nouveau dietionnaire francais. Systcme edueat if. 
Rimes, Consonnances, llomoiiMncs. Quel>ec : 
C. Darveau. 18,88. 
8ro.,pp- OCX). 

L'Art de Batir. Public da:is un Journal de Que 
bee, deux numeros consecutifs. 1888. 

Revision des Elements de (Jeometrie d'Euclide. 
Lue devant 1 1 Societe Royale du Canada, Sect. 
III., 23 mai 18HH. 

Folio, pp. 8. Also in Abstract in the Mtmoirt* tt<- In 
Socitti Kwate, Vol. vi.. See. 3, 188S. 

Pavements. The sanitary pavement question. 

Sanitarv Era, New York, 188*. 

The Quebec Disaster of September 19, 1889. The 
land slide. Illustrated. 

Canadian Architect anrf Builder, Toronto, Oct., 1889. 
Folio, p. 1. 

Instructions to Architects for Competition Plans. 
New City Hall, Quebec. Quebec: E.Vincent, 1889. 
Folio, pp. 16. 



8 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TIJE 



lUlllnirice. '. Continual. 

I>. --n Xo.5<lM feet hiirhmf the proposed great 
TO- ( T for Ignition. Illustrated letter press, es- 
liin.il.--. vie. Illustrated catalogue <>f the BS 
competitive ili-sinn- sent in. Printed by " In- 
d-trie." Ijondon, 358 Strand. lm. 

Kuli... pp. H 

HiiiiiniiYiiie.s francai*. .lolieltc: Hevd !'. A. Bail- 
liiir^t-. 1*1. 

I.'ia.. . PP. -MJ. 
Kiik'li-h Homonym-.. Quebec: ('. Darveail. 1XSI1. 

l:'in<... PP l'". 
tirn.r.tl ltr|n-i nf tin- City Kngiiieor, Queliec, on 

r.M.Mirnt.. rlr. (Jin-live: K. Vinrrnt. 

'.. pp. I-' 
l.i ii I. .n. 111! 1 1. ut ali solution ilu problcinc : !'> 

t HUT l.i li.uitriii aiirinir I'.n mi project ilc 

(in . . i. '..iniiiii! .111 nnr.iii il'nn il '-' p.irii. .1 

)itililll nil i-l! I O'nnll. I. llr -I- v. lilt l;l SiH'irtr 
l;..v.tl. 'In I 'an til. i. >rrt. III.. Ir -7 lllili |W.'l. 

n il. I -VI. 

\ |..I|MT n-l:iliii_- I., ill.- ln-i^lii I" \\ liirli a iiii>ili' 
Mlnrli. in ilr-i iMiiliiiiT a.-ain (u tin- 

'.v In. h n \\.t-. pmin tril. | liirril a 

I;, ml iM'fnri 1 Sect, n I.. l!"\al 
i iiiiiila, M.i> -7. I-!M. Mnntival. I.-VI. 

\ id .iiH i- ! In. pr.".-mv |n-r Ki|iiarr 

i h a -.!-. tin Koilri- i-\ jili nidi fruiii 

, Illri-il li\ I lie i'\]i|.i^i.ni. Hi-. nl 

KIM .,1 - ly nf Can. i. la. .Mmil iv;il. 

1 i- llr ill 'illllr ilr- i llrl - lI'llIU' r\|ililsiun 

prfssinn -. ill ~ It . jii'-l li' 

I.I ' I I .Ur ill \ alll la Srrt . III. ill- 

. '. li'ilillr 'In I '.in. i. l.i Ir -7 in. u I.V.I, a 

\|..: '.' ' '. I'.u nail. l-'.l|. 

I . irii h-li! iiu in all tin- |.rinri|,al 

i itii- ..f Ni.nl, \n,. 

II '.,'. .... I I!;. I N, 'v.irk, I .'.<.'. 

r-"li... pi- i. 

I . ; 1 1 "i 1 1 t-iii !-i i :i_:-- in rasr () f h j ,-. 1 1 111 -I ral r.l. 
II. a.i I- f.,ir ih, C.tiia.lian A-siM-ialimi nl An hi 
li >-\-. Mmiiri-al. l-'.fj. 

'' I ^:^,il. <! lluil,!,,-. T.riiiiii. ami Mont- 
real. !--'. 
F.I,,.. PP. 4. 

|ji \i-iililiiliiin lll.rr il.- i-trnui> en rapjiurl avrc 
I lijKifin- il.- I lialiiiatinii. .Inlii-iti- : Hi'vil ]'. A. 
KiiillairK'-. l.ne ilr\aat la Sei-l. ill.. SiK'ii'tc 
K"..i.. tin Camilla, inai I .-'.I'. 
nru..|i|>. IT. 

Tin' frvr and lilM-ral vciitilatii)ii of M-werx in its 
rrlaii'.ii to tli<- sanitntiun of our dwelling". 
gni-iM-c: C. Darvpau. Hi-ad Ix'fon- the Hoyal 
Surlrtjr of Canada. S-cl. III.. May. 1HJ2. 
Folio, pp.7 

l,i Unir il Iliid-uni. (.'exploitation prn|>iKsee de 
r r .in. ... de terre et de mer. Nouvelle 
cnlonie. Chemin de fer pour n'y rendre. Joll- 
< tte : ll.-v,l K. A. Haillair K 'i'. 1808. 

Conference falte noun leu aimpirex de la Soci'-t<- de 
(irofcniphie de Quelter A I'InMltut Canadien. 
Jnli.'tte : Hevd F. A. Haillaiix< 1 . 1O. 
If*. 



HaillairKe, C.-Continue<1. 

The Quebec Land Slide of SeptenilHT HI, 1888. 
Illustrated and technically explained. Head 
before the Canadian Association of Civil Engi- 
neers, Montreal, and published in the Transac- 
tions of the Society, 1B. 

8vo., pp. 33. 

RetainiiiK Walls. The defects in the new dock 
walls at the Louise Basin, Quebec. 

I'ntiii-li'iii Engineering NCKI, Montreal. 
Technical Kducation of the People in Untechnical 
LaiijiiiaKe. Head before Section n. of the Royal 
Society of Canada, Ottawa, May, 18SM. Quebec : 
C. Darveau. 1M. 
Hvo., pp. -Ill 

U.-uin. Miui-i-iniH in I.OIIIN \u/.air<*. 

l.a I'riniaiite et rinfaillibilite des Soiverain 
I'nntifr-. I.CCIMIS d'histoire donnees ii 1'Uni- 
viTMti- Liivnl. QuelH-c: L. II. lluot. 1H73. 

l-'ni"., pp. O>. 

l.a Sainte KeriMire et la Regie de Foi. Quel>ec : 
An^usliii C'ott* et Ci*'. IS74. 

r.'nni . pp. 20S. 

l.rl'ulir Catholii|iie. QueU-c : AiiKiistin C6t4 et 
Cir. IS?:,. 

12in.i , pp. 1SI. 

Clinninln^ii' de I'llistoire du Canada. Quebec: 
C. Darveau. IfO^i. 
ISino., pp. 3fi. 

I'aiie^yriiine tie Saint-Thomas d'A(|uin, prononcA 
a la Cathedrale de St-llyacinthe, a 1'occa.sion du 
lir rt'iit I'liairr de la inort de Saint-Thomas. 

r.. il. ::,,i., ii. 

In thf /'ti til irHtitnt* of t/ic Gcoloffico.1 tftn't'ei/ of. 

t 'ft tittila, i'i~. : - 
The Natural lli-tory of the Lower St. Lawrence, 

the SaKuenay and Lake St. John. It'i>ort for 

l.s'iT. 
Catalogue, with Notes, of Animals and I'lantx 

eolleeteil on the Southeast Side of the St. Ijiw- 

rence, from QuelH'c to (iaspp. Report for 1H5H. 
Supertieial (Jeolo^y of Canada. General Report 

on " The Geology of Canada,' 1*<M, l>p. 8H01MO. 
.Coloured .Map, with Kxplanations, showinK the 

Disiriliutionof the Superficial Deposits Ix'tween 

Lake Superior and (iaspe. \ila~ accompany- 



CeoloK.v of Grand Manitoulin Island. Report for 
1863-fiO. 

Geological and Topographical Map of a portion of 
the Gaspe Peninsula, from Surveys by Dr. Bell, 
accompanying a Report on the Occurrence of 
Petroleum in that Region. Pamphlet published 
for the Geological Survey in Quebec, 1H05. 

Geology of the Western Portion of Grand Mani- 
toulin, and of Cockburn, iJrummond and St. 
Joseph's Island. Report for INKWIO. 

The Northwest Coast of Lake Superior and the 
Nipigon District, with a Topographical Map of 
the Thunder Bay and Lake Nipigon Regions. 
Report for 186600. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



9 



Bell, Itobert, Continued. 

The Country North of Lake Superior, between 
the Nipigon and Michipicoten Rivers (Pic River, 
Long Luke, etc.). Report for 1K70-71. 

The Country between Lake Superior and the 
Albany River. Report for 1871-72. 

The Country between Lake Superior and Lake 
Winnipeg. Report for 1872-7H. 

The Country lietween Red River and the South 
Saskatchewan, with Notes on the Geology of 
the Region between Lake Superior and Red 
River. Contains an Appendix by Mr. Hoffmann 
on Lignites. Report for 1873 71. 

The Country West of Lakes Manitoba and Win- 
nipegosis, with Notes on the Geology of Lake 
Winnipeg. Report for 1874-75. 

Explorations in 1875 )>etween James' Hay and 
Lakes Superior and Huron. Report for 1X75-7I>. 

In Part : Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of 
the Economic Minerals of Canada at the Phila- 
delphia International Exhibition, 187>. Special 
Publication of the Geological Survey. 

Geological Researches North of Lake Huron and 
East of Lake Superior. Report for 1870-77. 

An Exploration of the East Coast of Hudson Hay 
in 1877, with a Map of the East-main Coast, li 
Plates and 3 Illustrations. Report for 1877-78. 

Explorations in 187K in the Country between Lake 
Winnipeg and Hudson Bay. With Map of Lake 
Winnipeg, Map of Nelson River and the Boat 
Route between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson 
Bay, including an enlarged Plan of the Mouth 
of Hayes' River and Vicinity of York Factory ; 
also 5 Plates. Report for 1877-78. 

Explorations in 1879 on the Churchill and Nelson 
Rivers and around God's and Island Lakes. 
With Maps of these Lakes, li Plates, and the 
following Appendices : I. On some Silurian 
and Devonian Fossils from Manitoba and the 
Valleys of the Churchill and Nelson Rivers 
J. F. Whiteaves. II. List of Plants collected 
by Dr. Bell around the Shores of Hudson Bay 
and along the Churchill and Nelson Rivers 
J. Macoun. III. List of Fresh-water Mollusca 
from Manitoba and the Valley of Nelson River 
J. F. Whitea es. IV. List of Lepidoptera 
from Nelson and Churchill Rivers and the West 
Coast of Hudson Bay Herr Geffcken. V. List 
of Coleoptera collected by Dr. Bell in 1879 on 
Nelson and Churchill Rivers J. L. Le Conte. 
VI. List of Birds from the Region between 
Norway House and Forts Churchill and York 
R. Bell. VII. Variation of the Compass in 21 
Localities in the Regions Explored R. Bell. 
Report for 1878-79. 

Hudson Bay and some of the Lakes and Rivers 
lying to the west of it ; also Log of a Voyage in 
the " Ocean Nymph " from York Factory to 
London. 

The Northern Limits of the Principal Forest 
Trees of Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains, 
with a Map on which they are shown. 



Bell, Robert. Continued. 

This Report also contains the following Appen 
dices : I. List of Fossils collected by Dr. Bell in 
Manitoba in 1881) .1. K Whiteaves". II. Tabu 
lated List of Plants collected by Dr. Bell west of 
Hudson Bay- J. Macoun. III. List of Coleop. 
tera collected by Dr. Bell in 188(1 jn Manitoba 
and between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Hay 

> I- !> C I\'. List of the Land. Fresh'. 

water and Marine Mollusca collected by Dr. 
Bell .1. F. Whiteaves. V. Analyses of I he 
Waters of Haves' and Nelson Rivers Professor 
Win. Dillmar. F.R.S. VI. Seasonal and Peri 
odic Events at York Factory Compiled by 

Dr. Bell. VII. Tables showing dales of ll,e 

opening and closing ,,f Haves' River al York 
Factory, from Records bv .\| r . \Vm. Woods. 
Meteorologist, York Factory. VIM. D.iii-s of 
Ihe arrivals of the vessels of the Hudson's Ba\ 
Company al York Factory and of their sailings 
for ! 13 years, from 17811 to I8,so. both incliisi\,.. 
IX. Seasonal or I '. -i -i-.ilir |-;\ , -ni - at Moose Fac 
lory. \. Dates of i he arrivals of the vcs.sels of 
the Hud -on's Hay Company at Mo> se Factorv 
and of t heir sailings for I 17 vrars. from 17.T, to 
188(1. both inclusive. XI. Statistics of I he 
Weather from Observations taken at York and 
Moose Factories. Report for |s7'.isii 

Geology of the Basin of Mo. s ( . Kiverand adjacent 
country. With a Geological Map. Report for 
18,8(1 81.82. 

Geology of Lake of I he Woods and Adjacent 
Country. With a Geological Map. Report for 
188(1 .81 82. 

On Pan of the Basin of \thab.-i--.a River. Will. 
a Map of the River from Lac la Riehe to Lake 
Athabasca, one Plate and one Appendix con 
taining a list of Lepidoptera colle.-t.d in 
Dr. Bell in the Northwest Territory in l>s_> 
Report lor 1.88i; 83.8|. 

Observat Ions on the Coast of Labrador and on 
Hudson Strait and Bay, made in ls>|. With :.' 
Steel-plate Engravings and the following Ap- 
pendices: I. List of Plants collected h} Dr. Dell 
in Eastern Labrador and on Hudson St:ait and 
Bay J. Macoun. II. List of Mammals, wiih 
Notes Dr. Bell. 1 1 1. Lis of Birds, u it h Notes 
Dr. Bell. IV. List of Crustacea collected by 
Dr. Belial Port Bin-well S. J. Smith. V. List 
of Lepidoptera collected by Dr. Bell in Hudson 
Strait H. H. Lyman. VI. List of Coleoptera 
from Fort Churchill. Report for 1882-S3-8-I. 

Observations on theGeology, Zoology and Botany 
of Hudson Strait and Bay, made in 188."). With 
a Map of the Ottawa Islands, 2 Steel-plate En- 
gravings, 2 Illustrations, and the following Ap- 
pendices: I. Lists of Plants collected in New 
foundiand and Hudson Strait --J Macoun. II. 
Partial lists of Insects collected on the Expedi- 
tion H. H. Lyman and G. H. Home. Report 
for 1885, DD. 

Explorations of the Attawapishkat and Albany- 
Rivers. Lonely Lake to James' Bay. With 4 
Plates and an Appendix containing a List of 



1O 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THK 



114-11. Kultfn.-CtHtlinurd. 

lpMnptrrit from the Southern part of Keewai 
tin District, l>y H. II. Lyinan and others. Re- 
|mrt for 1KHO, 

Geology cif the Sndbury Mining District. With a 
dctiiiled Topographical and Geological Map, 4 
Plates, S Figures. ami tin- following Appen- 
dices: Notes on the Microscopical Characters 
of 5O kind* of Kix-ks, mostly from the Sud- 
hury District Professor Gen. II. Williams. of 
Johns llopkin- I'niversity. II. Levels of the 
l.'ikes of I hr District nlxive the Sea. List of 
KIcMitions on tin- Canadian Pacific Hallway. 
III. ltc|Hirt. ilh List, of 7H Species of Lepidop- 
ii-ni oillceled by Dr. It. -II in tin- Country north- 

vv.ll.l f Lake Illll-iill II. II. Lymail. of Mnlll 

,val. Win. II. F-dwards. Professor -I. H. Smith. 
,.( \i-\\ J.-i-se\ ami l!'-\. Geo. 1>. lliiNl, of 
llr.M.kltn. IV. Me.-iniiiL-s "I liuli.-iii Gco^raphi- 
i. 'i I Name- in tin- Count rv around Smlliury 
Hi. Ili-ll. U.-P..I-I for 1-KMil. I'.irl I. 

C.iiitriliiiiioii. in i! Summary l!e|ioi-|s from |s'7<i 
I.. l-''i. j.ul.l i - li.-'l in tlx- . \iinual K purl - of the 
1 )i-[.,ii ' in- 'ii t <>f tin- Int. Ti.. i. ati<! i-.-j.ri nt t-.l in 
i ' .-, of 1 1..- I ..-.il.i^ii-al Survey 

l,,lhl l> -IM../. /.. ./is.. ' II,- /.'..(/.I/ >'m-/',/l/.i/r.///ill/i/ .- 
Sill ----- 1. tin- Hi I. Not 11 II, I-,, II I! iv. Vol. I., Src. I, 



C.i 1 1 -i- - ..I the I '.-it iliiy of I In- I.aii.l in tin- Cat la 

ill. Ill Virthi--t. \'ol. I.. SIT. I. 1-iNl. 

MM- <,.. ..'._'. .in. I K. .in.imii- .Mitii-r.il- ..f llll.Kon 
Nortln-rn I . ma. la. \'..l. it.. SIT. I. 



i in >. in i.- I', i lit - in llrfi-n-in .- t.. I. .- I'lii'iiomena. 
\'..l. n .. .--... :;. I-N;. 

I he l'.-tr..|.-iini l-'i. Ill ..f (Inlai-io. \'ol. \.. See. I, 
l-v-7. 

'I In- ( 'liifkar.-r, i.r II.-.l S. (iiirn-l. An A ii|ii-inii\ to 
Hi. T. W.--I.-> Mill-' l'a|..-i-,,n Sipiii-reN. \',,l.\.. 
S-r. I, Ixs7. 

Tin- I lui '-in. in S>--ti-tii in Canada. Presidential 
A.l.lre-s to S,., . | Vol. \.. See. I, I.S.S.S. 

lilaeial K el lie Hole- in Canada Vol. Ml.. Sec. I. 
MM 

in Hi. /lull, ti,t <,( Ilir t;,<,l<yiil Siirifly ,,l 
.\ tin rim , t'i:. : 

On lilai'inl PhenoniPim in Canada. Vol. i.. 
pp. i(7 :t|n. April, l)*m. 

The Nickel and Clipper Deposit-, of Sudluiry Dis 
Irit-l. Canada. With an Appendix on the Silici- 
ll-d l.l.i-- lir.-i . ia of the District, by l'n>fetisor 
Citinci' II. Williams, of Johns Hopkins I'niver- 
itlty. Vol. ii.. pp. 135 110. February, Mil. 

|ii-. n ion of the MI|.|MI-.-.| l'..-t (ilai ial Outlet of 
the (lira! Ijike- through Ijike Ni|.i inj; and 
the Matta Hiver. Vol. iv.. pp. 4->t\.~. Pro- 
erwllnjp. of thr Ottawa Meeting, Deeemlx-r 
UK 

Pr<- Pahcoiolc Decay of Crystalline Itot-k North 
of Lake Huron. With i Plates and :i Figure*. 
Vol. v., pp. :i57-an. March, 1XM. 



Hell, Hubert. Cantintirtl. 

In the (\inntHttn Xntitrali.it and fifologixt and (its 
successor) the Canadian Reran! of Science, 
Mont real, viz. : 

Natural History of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the Distribution of the Mollusc* in Eastern 
Canada. Vol. IV., lt(t, pp. 5M1-251. 

On the Occurrence of Fresh-water Shells in some 
of our Post-Tertiary' Deposits. Vol. vi., 1861, 
pp. 42-51. 

List (with Notes) of Recent Ijvnd and Fresh- 
water Shells collected around Lakes Superior 
and Huron in IRiO-OO. Vol. VI., IHfil, pp. 2fi8 270. 

Catalogue (with Notes) of Birds collected and ob- 
served around Lakes Superior and Huron in 
ISim. Vol. vi., IStil, pp. 270-275. 

Superficial Geology of the Gaspe Peninsula. 
Vol. \ tit., ISItt, pp. 175-1S1. 

Hooliun Slate as a Source of Wealth in Canada. 
Vol. VIM., ii:f pp. :8-:t. 

The Nipi.uon Territory. Ser. n., Vol. n, 1870, 

j.p. MS-iai. 
Mineral Region of Lake Superior. Ser. ii., Vol. 7, 

|s~."i.pp. -411-51. (Kpitomi/ed by J. K.Whiteaves.) 
The Forests of Canada. With Map. Canadian 

llrrunl of Sen -nrr. Vol. II., April, 1X80, pp. fio-77. 
Hio-rapliy of the late Alex. Murray, Geologist. 

With Portrait. Jliiil.. April, 18!)2, pp. 77-1)6. 

/// I In I'll n ad iii ii Jon i- mi I and (its successor) the Pro- 
rri'iliiiijxiij tin Citnailian lnxfih<te,for(ito,viz,: 
Sketch of the Geology of the Route of the Inter- 
colonial Hallway. Canailian Journal, Ser. II., 
Vol. 15, 1S7S. pp. :1-:187. 

On the Occurrence of Petroleum in the North- 
west Territories, with Notes on New Localities. 
I'rori-riliitfi* (' ntiiliini Inxtituti', Ser. III., 
Vol. I. 1H7H-83, pp. ai r >-S). 

The Mode of Occurrence of Apatite in Canada. 
Iliiil.. Ser. ill.. Vol. :i, 18HJ-H5, pp. gIM-Mtt. (A 
Pa|)erby Dr. Bell on the same subject is pub- 
lished in the Engineering and Mining Journal, 
Vol. :', p. Mill, May Uth, 18H5.) 
Marble Island and the Northwest Coast of 
Hudson Hay. fl,i<l, Ser. III., Vol. I, 18S5-86, 
pp. I'.t^-JOI. 

In thr Anitttls of thr liulanical Society of Canada : 

Catalogue of Plants collected on the South and 
Kast Shores of Lake Superior, and on the North 
Shore of Lake Huron. Kingston, 1861. 

The Trees and Shrubs growing around Lakes 
Superior and Huron. Kingston, 1861. 

.\fincrlliinrtiun 1'ttblirations : 

Annual Reviews of the Progress of Mining in 
Canada from 18I to 1877. 

M'm'ta'v Tint' i, Montreal : Kngintn iuo ami Mining 
jHunal. New York; Mining J-x-mnl, London, and 
lirjxirli on the Trade and Commerce of Montreal. 

The Enniskillen Oil Region. London, England, 

1805. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



11 



Bell, Robert. Continued. 

On the Occurrence of Petroleum in Gasp6. New 
York : C. S. Westcott & Co. 1805. 

Luke Superior. 

Chamu'-r*' Enrvclopediu, Edinburgh, Vol. ix., 1807. 

The Oil Region of Gaspe. New York : John A. 
Gray and Green. 1805. 

On the Modes of Oecurrenceof Plumbago inGren- 
ville. New York, 1806. 

Report on a Railway Route North of Lake Supe- 
rior. Transmitted to the Dominion Govern- 
ment, 22nd February, 1870. 

Reitort* of Survey* itf the Pacific Hitiliruv, 
Sir William Logan and Our Geological Survey. 

New Dominion Monthly, Montreal, February, 1870. 
The Rochon Micrometer Telescope as a Surveying 
Instrument. 

Enifineerinff Neirs. Chicago, 1872- 

Sketch of the Geology of the Provinces of Ontario 
and Quebec. 

Wii/litin't All ami Gazitti , i- ,,/ Ciinailn, 1875. 

Provisional Report on the Country between Luke 
Winnipeg and Hudson Bay, with reference to 
the proposed openingof communication between 
York Factory and the Northwest Territory. 

Report nf the Di-pin luifiit <if the Int, rior for 1877-78. 
Special Appendix A. 

Recent Explorations around Hudson Hay. 

Ti-nnifietioiii of thi- Ge.oQi'npliicitl Society of Qui-f" r, 
Vol. i., No. 1, 188(1. 

A New Route to Europe from the Interior of our 
Northwest Territories. Montreal, 1MS1. 

The Commercial Importance of Hudson Hay. 

Proceeding! of the Iloual Geotiraphiral Sociitii. 
York .Meeting, 1881. 

Description of the Country between Hudson Bay 
and the Red and Saskatchewan Rivers. 

Picturetf/ue Canada, 1882. 

Return to an Order of the House of ('ominous (of 
Canada), dated 21st February, 1883, for Inform- 
ation as to Hudson Bay. 

Commons* Souwnal P<ipern, 1883. 
A Plea for Pioneers. 

Proceedings of the Ammciatiim of Dominion f.an-1 
Svneytavt 1885. 
Government Map-making. 

Proceedings of the Aisocntion of Duuiinion Land 
Surveyors, 1886. 

The Medicine-Man. 

Canada Medical and Surgical Journal, March and 
April, 18%. 

The Mineral Resources of the Hudson Bay Terri- 
tories. 

Transactions nf the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers. Pittsbnrg Meeting, February, 1886. 
Seven (7) Annual Reviews of the Progress of Sci- 
ence in Canada from 1878 to 1886. 

Dominion Annual Register. 

Report on the Labrador Coast and Hudson Strait 
and Bay. 

Report of Department of Marine and Finheriet. 
" Neptune " Expedition, 1884. 

Report on the Geology of Hudson Bay and Strait. 
Report of Department of Marine and Fuherict. 
"Alert " Expedition, 1885. 



Boll, Kobert. Continued. 

Report on the Third Hudson Bay Expedition. 

Hi port of Depart HI nit of Marim'aiul Finkerin, 188fi. 
Forest Fires in Northern Canada. 

Report of Aniirii-iin Forestry Coni/ren. Atlanta 
Meding. Read fith December, 1888. 
Notes and Maps in Report of a Select Committee 
of the Senate, on the Great Mackenzie Basin 
1888. 

The Origin of Gneiss and of some other Primitive 
Rocks. 

Proteedina* of tl,, American Ai*oci,ition for I/,. A'/- 
run.-..,,,, ; o/.VciV/i,-,.. Toronto Meeting, 18S9. 
In Part : Report of the Royal Commission on the 

Mineral Resources of Ontario. 1H!K). 
Geology of Ontario, with Special Inference to 

Economic Minerals. 

Glossary of Geological and .Mining Terms, etc. 
The Laurentiaii and lluronian Systems North of 
Lake Huron. With Map. 

It'ltort nf i/,. llm.oii /' .!/,', Ontario Ivl 
pp. IW-'.U. 

The Contact ..f the Laurentiaii and llnroiiian 
North of Lake Huron. Abstract <>! a Paper 
read before the Geological Society of America 
at the Ottawa Meeting. December. IS!! 

'/'/-' -1 i''-" Gtolouint, \\\. xi.. No. 2, February, 

'>!, PI-. K l:;ii. 

List of Public Led iirex mul .\<l<l,-. >-.> mul ,,f I'n/urs 
rniil In fun- Ncit'iitiJtcSncii'tien,bi/DH. I!. |!KI.I,.(// 
ii-/i i'f/i A/i.f/i-td-ts,,,- Hi'/nn'ls Inn; Inn, /.iiti,!*/,, il : 

Lectures as a Method of Instruction in I'niver- 
sity Kducation. Introductory Adiln ss as I'r.i- 
fessor of Chemistry anil 1 he Natural Science-, 
at the Opening of the Session of ISiil CM, deliv- 
ered in Convocation Hall, Queen's I 'ni ver-it > . 
Kingston. 

Certain Chemical Manufactures which mii_'lit l<e 
advantageously established in Canada. Tilth 
Somerville Lecture, Montreal, Sird March. INCi. 

Household Chemistry. Six Popular Lectures de- 
livered ill Kingston, February and March. IstiT. 

The Geological Relations of Gold. A Paper read 
before the Philosophical Society of Kingston, 
loth March, 1S07. 

Grand Manitonlin Island. A Lecture' in Convo- 
cation Hall, Queen's I'niversity, Kingston, 
April, 18(i7. 

Canada : Its Resources and People. A Lecture 
under the auspices of His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor-General of Newfoundland the Legisla- 
ture, and the St. John's Atheiwum. St. John's, 
1st February, 1869. 

The Indians of Canada. A Lecture before the 
St. Gabriel Young Men's Association, Montreal, 
10th January, 1870. 

The Intelligence of Animals. A Paper read 
before the Natural History Society of Mont- 
real, 31st January, 1870. 

Explorations in the Nipigon Country. First 
Somerville Lecture, Montreal, 10th February, 
1870. 



12 



MHLIOGIiAl'IIY OF THE 



ll.-ll. Itiilwri. -Continued. 

Note- on the Natural History of the Nipigon 
Country. A Paper read before tin- Nnturnl His- 
lory Society of Montreal. 3Sth Keliruary, 1K70. 

Thr Hegion North of I-akc Sn|>erior. nntl the Pro- 
P.I-.C.I I'acitie Railway. A l.ietnre Ix-fore th 
Mechanics' lii.stilutc. Toninto, ITtli June, l-7n. 

Tlu 1 Various Species of Deer inhabiting the Do- 
minion A I'.IJKT read Ill-fun- the Natural His- 
tory Sn-icly of Montreal, llith December, ItfiO. 

Tin- Wonders of the Glacial Period. Fourth 
Siucr\ illv Lecture. Montreal, tn\ February. 
1-71. 

The Coal llelds nf ('.mad. i. A Lecture under the 
au-piccs uf tin- Grand Trunk Heading room 
A ori.il ion. I'oinl St. Charles, llllli Kehrnary, 
1-7:;. 

Tin llur. .ni. in and other M ineral-hc.-iring Hocks 
..I Lake Sii|ieii.ir. A l'a|n-r read before the 
Natural Ili-tory Society of Monl real. I'll li l-'cli 
Mian . I -7:t. 

- \niiiials ,.( Canada. Fifth 
- in > \ille I .eei u re. .Mmit real, L'7i h February. 
l-7:l. 

\ -''.urn, i lion. Montreal to the Saskalchev, an 
' !' ; \ Lecture l f..re ih,- St. (;..,!, ,-i,. | 
\ mini: \l.n - \--..i i it ion. lilt li |-'ehruar\ , I. -7 I. 

1 ""! \ '' < ''"' dellM-red in the Media II irs' 

Montreal, mi 1,,-half of the \V,,rkin K 
x '' ' ~ Mi ii , I:, u. tit and \\'id.is' a,,, | () r . 
|.han- l'r..\id.-nl Siiciely, Mareh. 1-7.'!. 
\ Siiiniiifr on ih.- I'lain-. Third Soi m -i-\ ill,- 
I.eetlire, Montreal, I'.Mh reliinarv. 1-71. ,\l-u 
ered IK fore tl,.- St. \,,dreu'- Chiireh In 
-' :' Hi' 1 . ' H taua. si h A|.l il, l-'.nl. 
The lira ho|i|ier I'laiiiii- in the N.irl Inn-st Terri 
'"'>- I liinl Soinerville l.eciiin-, .Montr.-al "lili 
M:.n h. I-;:,. 

e.ofa Ce,, logical Siiriev. A 1,,-etlll-e i|... 

i.ied at I'rinee Arthur's Landinj;. ()etol,er, 

I'm- i.r.Mt N.,rthes| ; , s ,-, l|,,n,e f., r ,|,,. ].; 
u-rant. S.-conil SniM-rville Lecture, Montreal 
i:ith l-'eliinary, Is7n. 

Thfiiianal K|K-|I in Canada. A l.oel nre hefoiv 
the ()itaa Literary and Scientilic Society. 3lth 
lantiary, |s>|. 

S<i,.|iiiii, Work in Canada. An Address at 
Queen's Cniversity on n-ceiviiiK the Degree of 
LI..D.. -J.'.!!, April. |sxt. 

The Athaliasca Mackenzie Ilasin. Fifth Somer 
ville Ix-ciur.-, Montreal, 1st March, ISKt. 

'on I)ise.M.s ntiK.ng the Indians. A I'a|>er 
n-n<l l,ef,,re the Hathnrst and Itidenu Medical 
Association, Ottanrn, January, 1K85. 

Kxploratioim in Cnnadnliy Forest, Sea and Plain 
A lecture Ix-fore the St. Paul's Young Men's 
AflMcUUon, Montreal, 14th Decenihcr, 1H85. 

IVrwnal lU-mininrences of the late Sir William 
Logan. A Ix-< tun- delivered in St. James' Hall 
)tlw, l(h March, 1HK5. Also Somerville 
lecture. Montreal, a6th March, 1885. 



Ilell, Robert. Continued. 

Hudson Bay. A Lecture before the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Ottawa, 10th March, 
1SNO. 

The Hudson Bay Territories and their Inhabi- 
tants. A Lecture before the Ottawa Literary 
and Scientific Society, 7th January, 1888. 

Hudson Bay and the Hudson Bay Route. The 
Queen's University Lecture of 1H88. Delivered 
in Convocation Hall, Kingston, 20th April, 1888. 

Illustrations of our Northern Wilderness. A 
Lecture delivered in St. George's Church School- 
room, Ottawa, 7th March, 1888. 

North America Furs. A Lecture delivered in 
St. Bartholemew's Hall, Ottawa, 4th April, 
1SX!I, tinder the auspices of His Excellency the 
Governor-General. 

The Origin of Some Geographical Features In 
Canada. Head before Sect. I v.. Royal Society of 
Canada, Ottawa, 34th May, 1888. 

Some ();ili\ve Legends. Read before the Mont- 
real Hranch of the American Folk-lore Society, 
April, 1. 

The ( Uncial Succession in Canada. A Paper read 
before the World's Congress of Geologists, 
Chicigo. August, !S!i:t. 

Our Forests. An Illustrated Lecture delivered 
under the auspices of Their Excellencies the 
Governor-General and the Countess of Aber- 
deen at Hideaii Hall. Ottawa, aith March, 181M. 

I!. -11111111-, ('. .1. S. 

The Production of Silk from the Caterpillars of 
Canadian Moths. 

Journal nf thr B'lanl nf Aria and Manufacture for 
L'i,i"r r'ni</<.. April, 1861, pp 85-87. 
Description of some species of Nocturnal Lepi- 
doptcra found in Canada. 

I'u ,,n, I in, i J,,urnal, To onto, February, 1863, pp. 1-16. 
Nocturnal Lcpidoptera found in Canada. Part II. 

Iliiil.. July, 18^5, pp. 247-260. 
Insect Life in Canada. March and April. 

r,,i,,,<linH Monthly Magazine, Toronto, April, 1863. 
Description of three new species of Canadian 
Nocturnal Lepidoptera. 

Proceeding! of the Entomoloffic^l tfficiety of Philadel- 
phia, Vol. iv., 1865, pp. 213-5. 
Nova Scotian Lepidoptera, 

PfOfinlintJt of tke Jfowi Sootim Institute n/ Natural 
Heir Hem, llulifai, Vol. II., Part 3, 1868-9, pp. 7P-87. 
Insects of the Northern Parts of British America. 
(From " Kirby't Fauna Boreali-Amaricana : In- 
ecta.") 

Reprinted from the Canadian Entomulofiit, VoU> 
II.-xiii.. 1870-U81, pp. 156 + U. 

Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 

Toronto Agricultural C<immi*noH t Toronto, 1HH1, 
Vol. in., pp. 22-61, (Appendix E). 

In thr Canadian Entomologist and Reports of the 

Entomological Society of Ontario,* viz. : 
A Luminous Larva. 

<'nn,,di,, n Entnmologut. Vol. i., 1868, pp. 2-3 ; 38-39. 

* In thu Hit the SutomoloeiealJournal it mentioned by name, 
and the Report! of the Society only by number, to (are repetition. 



EOYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



13 



Bethune, C. J. 8. Continued. 

Notes on Canadian Lepidoptera. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vol. I , 186S'9. pp. 9-11 j 17- 
18 ; 43-15 ; 47-18 ; 70-72 ; 85-Stf. 

Snow-flies (Civpnia pygmiea, liurm.). 

Ibid., Vol. I., 1869, p. 81. 

Larva infesting the Parsnip (Depressaria Onta- 
riella). 

/AW.. 1869. Vol. ii.. P. 1. 
Butterflies in July. 

/</., 1869, Vol. ii., p. 8. 

Larva of Hyperchiria varia, Walk. 
lbid..lK>, Vol. ii. .19-20. 

Note on Amphipyra tragopogonis, Linn. 

Ibid., 1870, Vol. H., pp. 73-4. 
Insects affecting the Apple. 

First Annual /Import on thi- NojcimtH Innects of tlti- 
Province of Ontario, Toronto 1870, pp. 68-9:i. 

Entomological Notes during a Trip to Lakes 
Huron and Superior. 

Canadian Eatomulcgut, Vol. in., 1871, pp. 81-84. 
Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

/lii</.. Vol. in. 1871, pp 121-3. 
Insects affecting the Apple. 

Secanil Report. 1871, pp. 12-lfl. 
Insects affecting the Wheat crops. 

Ibid., 1871, up. 45-64. 
Insects affecting the Cabbage. 

Ibid., 1871 . pp. 82-88. 

Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

CiiiuuliiH Entomologist, Vol. iv., 1872, pp. 210-4. 
Insects affecting the Hop. 

Third Report ,1872, pp. 27-34. 
Beneficial Insects. 

Ibid., 1872, pp. 59-75. 
Cabbage Butterflies. 

Canadian Entonmli>pist, Vol. v., 1873, pp 37-.'i'l 
4143. 

Pieris rap;c- Scmbling Noxious Insects. 
Ibid., Vol. v , 1873, pp. 139-14(1. 

The Fall Web-worm (Ilijjihantria te.i-tor, Harris). 

1IM., Vol. v., 1873, pp. 141-'. 

Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

n,id.. Vol. v., 1873, pp. 182-4. 

Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

Fointli Report, 1873, pp. 3-4. 
Grasshoppers or I<ocusts. 

Fifth Report, 1874. pp, 29-42. 
The Grape-vine Phylloxera. 

Ibid., 1874, pp. 54-62. 

Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

Canadian Entomologist, Vol. vi., 1874, pp. 181- 6. 
Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 
Sixth Report, 1875, pp. 5-7. 
The Western L-cust. 

Ibid., 1875, pp. 45-54. 

The Destructive Locust of the West. 
Seventh Report. 1876, pp. 29-34. 



Kethuiie, C. J. 8. Continued. 

A few Common Wood-taring Beetles 

Eighth Report. 1877, pp. 22-3". Also, Canadian En- 
tomologist, Vol. ix., 18"7, pp. 211-6. 
The Hessian Fly. 

Eighth Re.i*,rt, 1877, pp. 5fi-59. 
The Tomato Worm (Sphin.r a-mnrxlatii}. 

Canadian Eii'omoliigiit, Vol. X , 187H, pp. 218-9. 
Spiders. 

Tenth Rev,rt. 1H79. pp. 4-63. 
The Tomato Worm (Sji/iin.,- n-iniicultifri\. 

Canadian Enlomoligist, Vol. XII., 1S8, pp. 101-4. 
Noxious Insects in England. 

El'-rrnlli Report, 188(1, pp. 42-48. 
Ants. 

/'//'/. 1880, pp. 76-89. 
Noxious Insects in England and Canada. 

Tici-lftk Iteimrt, 1881, pp. 71-V.. 

Review of "Insects In.juricms to Fruits." hv 
William Saunders. 

Cantflian Eiilomo/oiiiit, Vul. XV..1SS.3, pp. 117 (I. 

Humble Hers. 

ftifte, H th 11, ,!, !S85, pp. 27-31. 
Editorial. 

Canadian Knto,i,,.l-,;sl. Vol. x\ III , 1836. pp. 1S1-3. 

Remedies for Noxious Insects. 

Si-rent- i-ntli Annual Report, ]88>'.. |.p. f-64. 
The Cotton Moth in Canada. 

Eiahii i n'li l!,ji-ii. 1SS7, pi>. 7-19; 3 :-3fi. 
Remedies for Noxious Insects. Part II. 

//,/./. 1S>>7, ,ip. 51-59. 

Hevieu of " Kntoinoldgy for Meginners." bv Dr. 
A. S. Packard, and " An Int roilucl ion to Ento- 
mology," by Prof. .1. II. Coinstock. 

Cuuii-liun Enliiiiiiili-iiiit, Vol. x\ , 1SSS, pp. -2\- l'::i 

Remedies for Noxious Insects. Part III. 

KinitecHtb H<iK,rl, 18S8,pp. 6J-74. 

Review of "Insects Injurious to l-'rnils." |, v 
Win. Sannders (^nd edilioiil. 

fit n-iili'in f-.'nlO'ii'itiioixt, Vnl. \\l., ]sSH, p. llfll. 

Miscellaneous Notes. 

Tir-nli-tli H- ;.r/, !*$, pp 85-91. 

Review of "The Cave Fauna of North America." 
by Dr. A. S. Packard ; " American Spiders and 
their Spinning Work," by Dr. II. C. McCook : 
"Insect and Fungus Pests in Australia," by 
H. Tryon, etc. 

Canaiiifin Kittoi>i'>ttii*t, Vul. xxll., IS'.i'l, pp. 77-9. 

Annual Address of the President of the Entoino 
logical Society of Ontario. 

Tieentv-Jint Repot t, 1890, pp. 4 1 1 . 

Review of " Insecta," by A. Hyatt and J. N. Arms. 
Canadian Entiiinolngint, Vol. XXIII., 1891, i>. 2". 

Review of " Annual Report of the Experimental 
Farms, Ottawa," and " The Butterflies of North 
America," by W. H. Edwards. 

Ibid., Vol. xxni., 1891, pp. 139 40. 

Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

Tvxnty-necond Report, 1891, pp. 11-16. 

Review of " Insects injurious to Forest and Shide 
Trees," by Dr. A. S. Packard ; " Diagrams of 
Insects injurious to Vegetation," by Miss G. E. 



14 



HIBLIOGRAPHY OF THK 



K.-i limn-. C. J. 8. Continued. 

Onnerod ; and "A Manual of North American 
Butterflies," by C. .1. Maynanl. 

<',,,,,/, A'r.,,,,,,/. 17 wf, Vol. xxir., 1892 i>i>- 2>i-2* 
Itevicw i>f "Special Heport on the Gypsy Moth." 

/*W.. Vol x\iv..lN>>2. p. 156. 

Annual Address of tin- President of (lit- Knloino 
I. .-:i, .il StM-irty of Ontario. 

TVrnlv-fAl'n/ Krp'rl. \Kf2, pp. 7-lS. 

Id-view of " A TVxt l>ook of \gricult ural Kntomo 
logy." hy Miss K. A. OrmiTod. 

Mi./.. liWj. pp. 83-S5. 
The I.'ilo I'rofcvsor West wood. 

i'.,,,.,,/,,,,, AV.,m../..(7i.f. Vol. \\v . IS9-'!. pp y,l-2. 
lii -\ii-w nf Kxperimcntal Farms : Beports for 
IHW." and -I. H. Sinitli's Catalogue of the Nor 
tiii.l.c found in It. .real America. 

/'.../.. V..I. \\\ , I'll. pp. 2V>-!i. 

The l.ale II. T. Staiiitnii. F. U.S. 

Tirrati/-f"Uilk lt'l>Tl. ISStt. pp. JIIS-'.I. 
It< nk Hi* vil'WM : Srirlirr ( iossip, etc. 

' ' -. Vil. \\vi.. 1SI4, pp. 111.',. 
/,, III. i 'unit, In f-'tirmrr: 

)'.."' In-.-.is ifiiiiinl in Mrirchi. \',,1. n.. April. 

1ST..',. ),. lit!. 

\ Pnrnip catinu ('al.-rpill.ir (t'i rnmini i.i-n.itn. 

linen. i. \'..l. ii.. .lime. INT,, p. |i;7. 
I 'nrr.uii Inish ( 'aterpillars. \',,1. n.. August, ISI'M 
PP. 'St\ 'I. 

\ CIl.TM in-l' Iteetle. V,,l. II.. All^llxl. | HM. 

p. L'l-. 

I'ear an, I ChiTr\ t n-e ^luv-. Srpiciiil.er, Isifi, 

P _iii 

W.ilkinu -!irk Insi-ci. \Vlieai .luiiit |-'|y. (Irm- 
l r. I>IM. p. .-17. 

The I ii imp ( 'alerpillitr. Octuliei . 1M>.1, p. :!1 1. 

Til.- ^,ll,,^^ lie,-ked Ap|)le live Caterpillar. l)e 
celnlier. IXi.",, pp. IfiS-ll. 

Ilie. I, lint worm. 1 li-remlier. IxiTi. p. :(71. 

The lle-isjiiu I'ly ill tin- Coiinij nf lliir,, M . .laim 
;\r\ . IvHi. p. .V 

The IU-s>iaii Fly anil \\'heal joint Fly. Felirnurv 
I .*>>. p. Id. 

Kndurance of Cold liy Insvcls. Frhrniiry. 1SIKI, 
p. .Vi. 

Tin- Canada Thistle Caterpillar. March, ISM. p. 71. 
The IVa Weevil. Man-h, IStMl, p. S7. 
liiM-rb. tor iilenlillcation. April, ISM, p. Mil. 
t'^Ot 1'iira.Mt.e.s of the Tent Ciiterpillar. I'rvraii- 

lion> aKaiiiM Dc.siniclive Insects: the Field 

May. !. pp. KI5 I:C. 

I'rrt-autionN aKalnst Dextructivc liiKects: the 

Orchard and (iardi-n. May, ISHfl, p. 151. 
The Ixf cutting He. June, im^ ,, \ffj 

Silk prmlurliiK Mothn. Apple tree Bark Lice 
linn-. IHtm. p. 1HI. 

The May Heetle (IjchnoU-nia). July, IHIIO, p. lau. 
BUu-k File. (Slmuliunu. July, 1HH6, p. 215. 

The Apple trae Pruner (Stenoccrus villosiu) 
August. 1MB, p. 231. 



is.-i lui in-. C. J. 8. Continued. 

Insects infesting the Willow. August, 1H86 
pp. 247-H. 

Noxious Weeds. August, IHfifl, p. 241. 

Insects allectiuR the Apple-tree. October, IHOtt, 
p. a. 

The Cicada. The Privet Sphinx Caterpillar. 
October, ISlkl, p. 309. 

A Plague of Ants. November, 1886, p. 327. 

The Gooseberry Saw fly. The Chinch-bug. De- 
cember, ISttO, pp. 358-0 ; 370. 

The Earth-worm, January, 1807, p. 8. 

Oak-tree Borer (Chrysobothris dentipea. Germ.). 
January, 1807, p. 22. 

Ants and their (,'ow.x. February, 1867, p. 47. 
Insects injurious to the Turnip Crops. February, 
1'>7, p 51. 

Grasshoppers, or Locusts. March, 1867, p. 87. 
Cut worms destroying Spring Wheat. April, 
I* 7, p. 123-4. 

The Canker-worm. May, ]8t!7, pp. 133, 160. 

The Si|iiasli-lmg (Corrtis tristix, l)e Geer). June, 
l.^iT, p. 173. 

Flcu-beetli-s on Hhubarli and Spinach. The 
I'liini tree Cnri'ulio {('onotnichelu* nenuphar, 
llcrlisti. June, \>H\~, p. 10(1. 

The Striped Cucumber-beetle (liiabrotira rittata, 
l-'ab.i. Currant worms. July, 1HH7, p. 202. 

State KntomologlHt in Illinois. Abominable 
negligence (Tent Cnt.orpillars). July, 18fr7, 
Pp. L'lli, 221. 

The Barley Joint Worm. Fir-tree Caterpillar. 
Strawberry Insects. August, 1H(!7, p. 238. 

Horse Flies. Cherry and Pear Aphis. The 
Three lined Potato- beetle (Lema trilinrata, 
Oliv.). August, ISir?, p. 252. 

The Barley Joint-worm. The Hop Aphis. Fir- 
tree Caterpillars. Apple-tree Caterpillars. Sep- 
lember, l,S<i7, pp. 2(i7-!). 

Humble Bees. September, 18fr?, p. 283. 

The Clothes Moth. Strawberry Worms. Octo- 
ber, IS(i7, p. 311. 

Insects injurious to the Grape. Nos. 1 and 2. 
NovcmlK-r, lr?. pp. :J27-8 ; 351. 

The Potato Sphinx (.V. quinque maculata. Haw.). 
December, 18(!7, pp. 365. 

Insects injurious to the Grape. No. 3. January, 
isiis, p. 7. 

Hair Snake. (Uordius aquatints). January, 

1868, p. 28. 

The Locust-tree Borer (Clytnt flfxuosus, Fab.). 
March, 18(18, p. 75. 

What is an Insect? March, 1868, p. 90. 

The General Structure of an Insect. April, 1868, 
p. 103. 

The Head of an Insect Insects of Karly Spring. 
April, 1868, p. 126. 

The Wheat Midge and its Parasites. May, 1868, 
pp. 134-5. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



18 



Bethune, C. J. 8. Continued. 

Antennae of Insects. The Earth-worm, May, 
1868, p. 157. 

Entomological Report of the State of Illinois. 
Singular Cocoons (Callosamia jtromttltea, 
Drury). June, 1868, p. 172. 

The Plum Curculio (Conotrachelita nenuphar, 
Herbst). A Strawberry Bug. June, 1868, p. 189. 

The Wheat Midge (Cecidomyia IrHicit. The 
Palmer-worm. July, 1868, pp. 200-7. 

Burying Beetles. The Plum Curculio. July, 
1868, pp. 214-6. 

Specimens reared from larva- or pup.e. August, 
1868, p. 254. 

Entomological Queries. The Red-humped Apple- 
tree Caterpillar. The Squash-bug. September, 
1868, pp. 282-3. 

The Horned Corydalis. An Emperor Moth's 
Cocoon. Specimens from a School Girl. Sep- 
tember, 1868, p. 278. 

A Man slaying Caterpillar ! The Cecropia Em- 
peror Moth. Beech Aphides. October, 1868, p. 316. 

Cockroaches. November, 1868, p. 327. 

The Wheat Midge. November, 1868, p. 350. 

Apple-tree Borers. December, 1888, p. 'Ml. 

What is the use of Entomology I Galls and their 
origin. January, 186!), pp. 30-31. 

Strawberry Worms. Ants and their habits. 
Strength of Insects. February, 180!), pp. 58-'J. 

Ravages of the Midge in 1868. The Meal Worm 
(Tenebrio molitor, Linn.). March, 180!), pp. 90-7. 

Tiger Beetles. Currant-bush Caterpillars. Curi- 
ous doings of Ants. April, 1809, pp. 136-8. 

The American Vapourer Moth, and other Notes. 
May, 1869, pp. 177-9. 

Carnivorous Ground-beetles. June, 18(81, pp. 217-8. 

Unicorn Beetle and other Insects. The Apple- 
tree Bark-louse. The Dog i ick. The Goose- 
berry Fruit-worm. Cut-worms. July, 186!), 
pp. 255-8. 

Popular Entomology. Apple-tree Bark-louse. 
Maple - tree Borer. The Rose - bush Slug. 
Squash Bugs and Cucumber Beetles, etc. 
August, 18(59, pp. 295-9. 

The Grain Aphis. The Raspberry Cane-girdler. 
September, 1869, pp. 336 9. 

Poisonous Worms again. Larva infesting the 
Parsnip. The Potato Flea-beetle. Garden Ene- 
mies. October, 1869, pp. 378-80. 

A Collect on of Insects. The Pea Weevil. No- 
vember, 1869, pp. 425-6. 

Cabbage Insects. Insects affecting the Balsam 
and Spruce. December, 1869, pp. 457-8. 

Water Beetles. Parasite on the Saw-fly Currant- 
worm. The Six-ribbed Pine-beetle. January, 
1870, pp. 17-19. 

Emperor Moth Cocoon. Those terrible tomato 
worms again. February, 1870. pp. 58-9. 

Carrion Beetles. New Species of Insects. March, 
1870, pp. 112-3. 



Bethune, C. J. 8. Continued. 

The Pea Weevil. Scavenger Beetles. Ijobk out 
for the Colorado Potato-beetle ! April, 1870, 
pp. 137-8. 

Apple-tree Bark-louse. May, 1870, p. 11M. 
Precautions against Noxious Insects. How to 
collect insects. How to destroy ants. June, 

1870, pp. 232-5. 

Entomological Queries and Replies. July, 1870, 
pp. 271-1. 

The Colorado Beetle Invasion of Canada ! Pop- 
lar-tree Caterpillars.etc. A'lgust, 1870, pp. 2911 !. 

The Cattle Fly. Entomological Queries and Re- 
plies. The Apple Curculio. September, 1X711. 
pp. :<X>-~. 

The Poisonous (!) Tomato Worm. October, |s7l>. 
p. 3-0 ); December, p. 455. 

The Potato Sphinx. Entomological Queries anil 
Replies November, 1870, pp. 424-5. 

Dung Beetles (Sritrtiljn -iilir). February, 1871, p. 72. 

The White-marked Tussock Caterpillar. Karth- 

worms. April, 1871. pp. 135-6. 
The Colorado Potato Beetle. May, 1871, p. 1!NI ; 

June, 1871, pp. 2111-2I). 
Wire-worm**. Mud-dauber Wasps. June, 1S71, 

p. 220. 

Apple-tree Borer. Kntomologieal Notes and Que- 
ries. July, 1X71, p. 271. 

The Hessian Fly. August, 1871. p. 30!). 
Entomological Queries and Replies. Spiders. 

September, 1871, pp. 336-7. 
Entomologic-il Queries and Replies. October, 

1871 , j>. 375. 

The Locust tree Borer. Parasite of the Colorado 
Potato-beetle. The Hag-moth Caterpillar. No- 
vember, 1871, pp. 4 15-6. 

Luminous Insects. April, 1872, p. 136. 
Lady-bi ds (Cord urtliiln ). May, 1872, p. 17-"i. 
The Colorado Potato Beetle. June. 1872, p. 208. 
Insect Economy. January, 1873, p. (i. 
Entomology, Past and Future. February, 1873. 

pp. 36-7. 

The Potato Crop and the Colorado Beetle. Feb- 
ruary, 1873, p. 53. 

Insects of March. February, 1873, pp. 58-7. 
Wheat Insects in 1872. March, 1873, p. 1)7. 
Books on Insects. March, 1873, p. 102. 
The Codling Worm. May, 1873, pp. 180-1. 
A Humming-bird Moth. The Luna Emperor 

Moth. June, 1873. p. 197. 
Pine-borer Beetle(Afono/tai < 11.1 confusor,Klrby). 

July, 1873, p. 237. 
Entomological Queries and Replies. July, 1873, 

p. 244. 
The Promethea Emperor Moth. September, 1873, 

p. 329. 

Spread of Noxious Insects. October, 1873, p. 357- 
The Potato and Tomato Worm. October, 1873, 

p. 378. 



16 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



II.. in in.. I. John <;<i>r|i'. 

*Thr Confederation of the Provinces : A Review of 
I'.unplilei l>y thf Hon. Joseph Howe. 

Serie* -f three article* in Halifax Ermine Re- 
j.,rf.r. I*'*. (The writer wa editor of thU Pper. 
IfMvfiS .11 . 1 the r.litorials. for the mint Prt. during 
Ih.oe years. ere from hi* pen.) Al> in pamphlet 
fc.rm. llli(.j.l*Ki"'.. 
Statesmanship nnil Letters. 

Xf.inrt'. /.I'lri-ilry f wirfrr/y.Sl. John. N It..!" 1 '". 

Tlif M \nlerv nt tin- Chateau des Ornieiiiix. 

ll.id.. 1SIW. 
Hriii-li \iniTii-iin I'nion considered in relation to 

tin- interests "f ra|><- Hivton. A pamphlet, pp. 

1 lit. ll.ilifax. VS.. l."vs. 

AI-. in //.,',..! I',,!, ,,,!, ISl'.S. 

Si i nir- i- li.-.u.l .1 n : tin- I 'i in. 

,s> ,: l..,.ra, v tj,,.,rt.,l, SI. .Mm. X.l!-. !>.'. 

li. ntli -in, -ii .\.l\enturers in \i-ailia: I.. Haron <h- 

|'.,ulm HIM ; II.. Cliarles '!< la Tour : HI.. 

It. IP. n .lean Vim-eni <lc Saint Castin. 

V. / , i: - M nlr.-iil. is'iii. 

\.iti-s ill i I! lllll.ll- Ihl-.in-li Cap.- Hrcl.ill. 

V , V ' . M ..Mr.-il. Mny, l*is'. 

A - . Vnr, Sj Ini-y, M;iy '". 1W. 

i; .-..-. ,111.1 l'i',-|,,-, i- ,.! i 'ape Uivt.pii. 

I i: i , I! I.. I.. M.i--.. l.''.t 

..I .1 I. -I Tril..-. iTIn- It. -'I In. Man- 
- .,( \,- f. .iin.ll. in. 1. 1 

\ /. , M , M..I Irrnl, Cl.-tiilicr :in.l N- 

\ . 

111 ..( \!l:lil - in \..\;l S.-.ilia. 

\ ..-i i,-...! I.II.T- un ill.- li.-|..-:il ..I C.inl'i-.J.-niii.Mi 
in . . '^ . i - i' i.t. tli.it :i|.|..';.r.-'l in T<" '/'.*..., 

I- - 

I In- I i p. l!n i.,n : \\- Ili-i,, ix. S.-.-ni-ry 

.,M.| I 

--, .i-/ /..- . . -. ,Sl. .liil.n. X.I), is7n. 
Tin- M.intiiin- l-!iiti-i-pri-.- ,,f llriti-li Ain.-iii-.-i. 
/'. / . -'". 

S.iTi- (I..III OlI.IW .1. 

''MKI.IVIII ./-..'/,'.., Ti,r. !>!'., AiiKii-t, IST'i. 
M.ir.-ii.-ril.- : a l.il.- f l-'nr.-i I. if.- in it,,- NYw 
Duinilii'in. 

.V. - /*., .I/.. ,././!,. Montre:,!. lsTu-71. 

Canal (<iiiiiniiti. I..-I l.-r in tin- Hiiinniralili- 1 In- 
S<-i r,-tar\ .,f Slate (nun I In- Canal ('oiiiniissiiin- 
. i- rr-;.. . ! m_- 1 1].- IIII|I|.I\I-MII-M| of the In], in, I 
Navigation of 'In- lloniinion of Caniula. Ottawa, 
Jlth Kelirunrv. !><7I. 

Thi rei->rt w< the ulh'.r'- w.,rk rrrlatimrtlittr- 
nit-a. n, |.i fn.m |,p. .Vt-'.M. which give ilcoinion of the 
. -:I.M. i !', r- und the engineer'ii rep' rt 8vo., 
M- .XSl. 
The Work of Administration at Ottawa. 

An rUt>- r.iir evay on the proclical w.irkinK 'if the 
guTernmcnt depiriinenli. nl Oilnwa. etc , ixued nf a 
rtmpaign document hy the Unit, Toronto, ]&72 
From the Cn-al l.ake> to the Sea. 

'.,.(..,. M.,,iklt. Toronto. June. 1872. AIM in the 
.Y* Y<.rt HTrU. in Utrmct. in 1H71. 

Cnnxlian Material* for Hintory. Poetry and 
Homanrr. 

Jin* /*,-..,.,. M.,>H,, Montreal. 1871. 
What hpp.-ii,,| at Hcuvolr one Christinas Eve. 
A^r.. Montreal. Deceralwr. 1W2. 



It.. HI-MI. .t. John (leorge. Cotilinn>;l. 
The Marine nnd Fisheries of Canada. 

Prncrfdingno/llif Ruvat Colonial lutliluli , 1872-TS. 
Vol. iv. 

Alo in Canadian Monthly, Toronto, Fehruary, 18 3. 
The Old .lap-'iie-e Cabinet. 

r,i,ri./i',in .Voiif*//;, Toronto, 1874. 
Canailiaii Historic Names. 

/Aid., April, 1875. 

The Ottawa Valley: Its HisUiry anil Resources. 
A lecture before the Ottawa Literary and Scien- 
tific Society. 

In abstract, Ottawa Citizen, December 11. 1872. 
In full, Canadian Monthly, Toronto, January, 1875. 
Titles in Canada. 

Cantulian M.mthtv. Toronto, October, 18:7. 

I'Sirest liiinxers and Voyatfeurs : I., Gentleinen 
Adventurers and Coureurs de Bois ; II., Songs 
of the Forest and River. 

K'lir-Bclfo'd Canadian Mmtthlv. Toronto, April 
anil May, 1877. 
The River of the Desert. 

HilfiirtC* Monthly Magazine, Toronto, February, 

1S7K. 

Al""iu fJSomarftaa 3/oufA/y, Toronto, January, 1878, 
n-iili n few adililioni} Hnd changes, under the title of 
" Throug-h the Phonphato Country to the Desert." 

House of i '.num. mi ill Session. 

{'auadiau M-mtlilu, Toronto, 1878. 
Forms and I'sanes. 

Itoir-lti'lfiinl't Canadian Mi'iithlu. Toronto, March, 
18711. 

Review of the Progress of Literature in Canada. 
M.mini'.in .Inniifi? lt:iii*trr, Oltiiwu, 1879. pp 263- 
%fi. 

Cape Hreton ; the I.OIIK Wharf of the Dominion. 

TmnMKlvinaot thf (jrnpraiuiifal .VonV/i/ fif Quflxc. 
Vol. I , No. 2, 1HS1. 

Also in ( 'anwlian Muntlilii, Toronto, April, 1S82 
National Development of Canada. 

I'aa-idiau M,,ntli/u, Toronto, March, 880 

Also in /'rafridiniii <,f Knu-tl Colonial Intlilulf, 

1 ,:M! ,11. Vol. II. 

The Intellectual Development of the Canadian 
People. An Historical Review. 
Canadian M;ntlili,. Toronto. 1R80. 
AlfO Toronto, 1881. 12mo.,xi +128. 

The Old Forts of Acadia. 

Canadian Month/v. Toronts, 1874. 

Also, in Tranxartiimit of thf Itoyal Society o/Canada. 
Vol. I., Sec. 2, 1882-83. 

Also, in Tli. Current, Chicago Vol. i.. pp. 102, 
111. 

Canada as a Home. 

Wtttmintter Rerietr, London and New York, July, 
1882. 

Also, in pamphlet form, London, U82. Utnn., pp 30. 
Al-'i. in Frenchi ll.ru, Britanniaue, Paris. 1A82. 

RelationR between Canada and the United 
States. 

The Current, Chicago. Vol. i., p. 54. 
The Progress of the New Dominion. 

Blactwood'i Ma.tii.in- , Edinburgh and New York, 
March, 1881 

Canada: Its Political Development. 

Scotiuk Keeieie, Paitlej, London and New York, 
1885. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



17 



liouriiiot, John George. Continued. 

The Fishery Question : Its Imperial Importance. 

WrttiHMtter Review, London and New York, 1886. 
Also, In pamphlet, London, 188G. 
Canada as a Nation. 

La Revue Coluniale-lntirnatiimiile, Amsterdam, 
mars 1886. 

French Canada. 

Scottiih Rrvieie, Paisley, London, and \ew York 
1887. 

Canada During the Victorian Era : A Short His- 
torical Review. In two parts. 

Magazine of Amerian Hixtarii, Now York, 1887. 
Canada and the Federation of the Empire. 

La Revue Colonialt-Internationale, Amsterdam, 
juillet, 1887. 

Local Government in Canada. 

Johns HopkinH Unirt-rsitn .S'(m/iVx, Baltimore, 1887. 
Also, Trantnrlionn of R<,\ial Snelrlu <>f Cana'tn. Vol 
IV., Sec. 2, 1886. 

Federal Government in Canada. 

A series of four lectures before Trinity University, 
Toronto. Printed in Mnu Ilopkin* Unirrnitu Simlii-i 
1889. 

Canada: Its National Development and Destiny. 
Quarterly Review, London and New York, July, 1837, 

See also Proceedings nf WV(, Amo,-intl,,n i,f 

Writer*, Richmond, Ind., 1890. 

The Study of Political Science in Canadian Uni- 
versities. 

Tmnsartliau of Royal Sufielunf Caixidc,. Vol. vrr., 
Sec. 2, 1889. AUo one of a course of lectures before 
Trinity University, Toronto. 

Federal Government in Canada. 

Canadian Law Times, Toronto, 1889. 

The National Sentiment in Canada : an Historical 
Study. 

University (Quarterly fieri, w, Toronto, 1S9II. 
Canada and the United States. 

Scottish Review, Piiisley,Londonnnd New York, 13(10. 
Canada and the United States : A Study in Com- 
parative Politics. 

A lecture before Harvard University (Sever Hall) 
and the School of Political Science, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md. Printed in Ann,,lnf Amer- 
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The Federal Constitution of Canada. 

1 lie Juridical Reriew, Edinburgh, 1890. 
Parliamentary Procedure and Practice in Canada. 
With an account of the origin, growth, and 
operation of Parliamentary institutions in the 
Dominion. And an Appendix containing the 
British North America Act of 1807 and amend- 
ing Acts, Governor-General's commission, in- 
structions, etc), forms and proceedings in 
divorce, etc. Montreal : Dawson Bros. 

1st edition, 1884, 8vo., pp. xv. + 785. New edition. 
1891, 8vo., pp. xx. + 929. 

A Manual of the Constitutional History of Can- 
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including the B. N. A. Act, 1867, and a Digest 
of Judicial Decisions on Questions of Legisla- 
tive Jurisdiction. Montreal: Dawson Bros 
1888. 

A republication of the first chapter of the author's 
work foregoing, on Parliamentary Procedure for the 
use of students. 12mo., pp.xii. + 238. 



Bourlnot, John Geor K e.- Continued. 



Canada and the United States : Their Past and 
Present. 

>'''/>< / the African Hi,t,,rical A***!,,,!,.,,, 
Washington. Vol x. 

Also, in The Quart, rly R t -vi.,r. No. 344, April. 1891 
in an abridged form 

Responsible Government in Canada: Its Historv 
and Results. 

Nalianal Clul, Pup, r,, Toronto, 12mo., 1891. 
^Alsu appears in series of papers on Parti,,,,,.-,**,, 
Oovtrnmcnt in Caaai/n. Sec below. 
Canadian Studies in Comparative Politics. 
:. The English Character of Canadian Institu- 
tions. II. Comparison between the Political 
Systems of Canada and the United States. III. 
Federal Government in Switzerland compared 
with that of Canada. Montreal : Dawson |! ro s 
1891. 

First delivered as a scries of three lectures before 
Trinity University and afterwards printed in Ito 
pp. 91. 

Also in Tra.wi;.,,,-, / /i., u ,,i Xoci.ti, / f ,/ 
Vol. ix., Sec. 2, Istil. 

^"rliamentary compared with Congressional Gov- 
ernment. Continuation of foregoing studies. 

7V ( ,,,,,, r ,,,,,,, ,, f /{,., s.,,;,t,i ,,f C.im.l.,, Vol. xi.. 
Sec. 2. 1893. Also forms part of series in f'arli;,,,,,,- 
I'lru Govern,,,, nt I'M (''in'ula, as below. 
Once Famous Louisliourg. 

Miioa~.in, A,,,: ,;, ///,. .\\. w York, March, IS '!'. 
The Acadian French in Cape Bivum. mice lie 
Royale. 

Tl,.- It',,/,-, Toronto, April, lS:i_'. 
Louishourg in Is'.M. 

Republican .Inm-n'il, Ik'll'iisl. Me., Janu:iry 14, : < 12. 

Historical and Descriptive Account of the Island 

of Cape Ilreton, and of its .Memorials of the 

French Hegime ; wit h historical, bibliographical 

and general notes. 

Llirno 4to, pp. 177. With illustrations and limps 
Montreal, 189L'. Also in Tratuarlviiii, <,,' ih, I;, ,,,-,, I 
Swi'tiinf Canntl,,, Vol. Ix., See. 2, 1891. 
Parliamentary Government in Canada. A Con 
stitutional and Historical Study. Washington : 
Government Printing Ollice, IKUi 

Reprinted from Annual 11,-iiort ,,f ,1,,- A,m, ;.- 
Hi*turicttl Auorintum for ls!U, pp. 309-40'. 
The English Character of Canadian Institutions. 
Cant, mporaru /fcriVir, London and New York, 
October, 1892. 

Alexander Mackenzie's Place In Canadian History. 

Tin- W, ,-k, Toronto, Nov. 18, 1894. 

A Canadian Manual on the Procedure at meet 
ings of municipal councils, shareholders and 
directors of companies, synods, conventions, 
societies, and public bodies generally, with an 
introductory review of the rules and usages of 
parliament that govern public assemblies in 
Canada. With an analytical index. Toronto : 
The Carswell Co., Law Publishers, 18U4. 

8ro., pp. vin + 444. 

A Protest against Historical Hysterics and Pla- 
giarism. A review of "Cape Breton Illustrated." 
The Wett, Toronto, April 27, 1894. 
The foregoing protest against historical pretenders 
is the first of a series of reviews in the same paper. 



8 



18 

It .in in.. i. Jutiii Jsi>r|i'. Cunliniiril. 



HIHLIOUKAI'HY OF TIIK 



The Constitution of Canada, pp. 7. 

Ha, il'k'r'l DuminioK of C-IKII in : .1 llnxitltiok fur 
7Vtir<oW>. Lriplie. 1894. 

llovry. Ili-nry T. 

I 'nli Work in ('.ininln. 

/V.<r.Jme, / Inililulr Ciril Knoinrrr* (Eng.). Nu. 
IT*'. 1WI. 

Ap|.li.-.l Mivlianirs. Two parts. Montii-al : .1. 
l.m.-ll ,V S is-y. 

I'-Mliy."*-.... |>|'. IV'-l'"' 1 

AII ln\i--(iiMti.m a* I" Ilir Maximum Bending 
M. .infills, ii tin. I'oiiitHof Sup|iorl iif Cunt inuouH 

lilpl.-rs 'if " Sp III". 

/v.. ..... , .. /.,,,,;>.;.< i./ <'..n.../". V.il. v.,Sec. 

I'll.- M iMiiinm >li.-.ir .nut llfiidini; M.. mriit pro- 
i l.n. ]..i,i i .it .liil'f ivm poinl- nl 

II ' , : , 1 . 1 V 1 ! " f - ; ., 1 1 1 I . 

..--. . :-'. 

. ' "II 'llllllllllS. 

.!'.'. 

mil v n-MKtli "I Mal.-i-ials. 
S ... ^ irl .1 U i-j ,\ SMI,-, !.<!. 

; -II. 

Hi:: M (in Montri-al .1. I.ov.-ll k v Sun, 
I:, nts mi I i .ui-\ f r-i- Si iv n.;t li 

I'M I.I II \\ Ililr I'll,,-. 

r,,n , - > - firil Enainnn, 
M 

III > Mill. I , ll..iii;|a>. 

\ l.irj. p.irl "I In- work v\.i- .-dili.rial. and thriv 
fur.- .iti- >i i \ in- .MS In I-7J. In- \\ a- ^i-li-ih-il tu 
- i . 1 i|.j ni in. -MI nf Ak'H 

.ml >l.il l-t ii - at < Itl.iu.-l. fur tin- 
iiut .irr.iiiL.-. in. nl .if III.- .lr7i,V, - / 
' :t,,:fl,t. |'.,r tin- lir-l i, in.- u-ars. tin- work of 
.irran^'.-im-iii \\ii- rarrinl nn -n aH in have ihr 
in.', ri.il ulin-li lia.l IK-I-II i .ill.-, i.'il put in Mirh 
a rnii.|iii..ii ;i \\inilil rriuli r Ilir works of rrfer 
>.|H-I. ia-tl\ ari'i'ssilil). to iiivrstixalors. Hr 
|.rt- on I lie pro^r.-ss of ih.. work ran hr sri'll in 
tin- 1,'i/Mirts ni' lln llfinirliiiinl ( .\yrirull\irr 
f..r 1.-7J :\o. isii; for 1>7:( ( N'o. ^|i. The ri-port 
for I>TI lui~ also one from thr AlilM- Vrrivaii 
< under pm|n-r ln-ad in tlii- liililiiiKrapliyi. 

Tl>' l\ftt . t ,ii"it' rrj,rt n Cuna-linn Arrhirm wa 

l>ul'li>hr.l in \V<2. Mag an m-count "f th iirorrcilinp- 
f ihe iirariiiai. ye*r (InSl). Thut rep..rt wa of cn- 
rl naturr. u it included mn account of the lystcm 
'.f kr. ,.inc ihe pul.lir ncardt. It eonUiim a iiketch of 
lh orifin of the |>re*cnt Pablic Record office* in Lon- 
don and Kdinburrh, and a catalogue of Ihe mnnu- 
criH in Ihe llrituh Muwum relatini to Canada. It 
mu arded aj of M much value, that the whole 
report w.i pukliihrd in that of the Public Record 
<MM, I/doo, for IK2. 

ri rrp.nl far !.' (publiibtd in 1881) rire. detaili of 
Ibe work in the branch, a table of ihe diriiioni of the 
Dominion of Canada, commercial table*, ana upeei- 
mmt at th. iritea adopted for calendarinc the docu- 



llry 111 nor, ltt>nft\a*.('(mfinue<l. 

The report for 1883 contains Hynopses of papers in the 
Public Record Office, London, relating to Canada, and 
the MIIIIO lij Mr. Marraette of papers in the State De- 
partments, Paris ; letters on the state of Canada in 
1835, by T. Fred. Elliot, secretary of the (losford com- 
mission, and by Hon. A. N. Horin in 1811, in antici- 
pation of the flnt meeting of the Legislature of United 
Canada : also, " Transactions relating to Hudson's 
Buy in 1687." 

Fur 1884, the prrliininarv report contains a sketch of 
the capture of Quebec by Kirk in 1629, and its restor- 
ation by Charles I. to France in 1631. A very interest- 
ing letter written in 1631 by Charles to Wake, the 
ambassador to France, unearthed by Dr. Brymner in 
the British Museum, was published in Iliis report, 
clearing up an obscure historical point. A manuicript 
account, written in 1678, of (he martyrdom of Fathers 
Hivl'ii-ui' and L'Allcmant is printed in this report, 
with a translation inlo English. In the description of 
Nova Scotia hy Lieut. -Col. Morse, in his report dated 
in 17S4, is the first proposal fur confederation of the 
Provinces, the place suggested by Col. Morse for the 
metro|>otis being Cape Breton An abstract of the 
" Fealty Kolln " of L'iwer Canada has proved of great 
vnluc to inquirers respecting the first grants and suc- 
cessions to the seigniories in that Province* The 
calendar of the llaldiniand collection was begun in 
this volume. 

In l^sfi, tin tj/nofww o/ papers in the department! at 
I'.in . the abstract of the Icalty rolls and the calendar 
of the llaldiniand collection were continued. In the 
l>r.-l iiniiiHrv rej.nrt a sketch is given of the events, so 
far as they atlrcted Canada, of the American Revolu- 
tionary War, and a hiatus supplied in the letter writ- 
ten l>y Lord Ucorge Uennain to Sir Guy Carloton* 
which, it ,-i.|.in- probable, led to the resignation of the 
latter. The correspondence is given in full in a note 
Uimrked U) to the report. A careful outline of the 
life of an ex-Jesuit named Rimbaud : s of interest to 
the investigators of Canadian history. 

In ISSi) tht rrprt i>n ^rt licit Art-h iff a ami th<' calendar 
of t fir Iliiltti Hinntl ciill'ftiim are continued. The pre- 
liinini.ry report gives an account of the capture of 
Ijiiist><>tirg in 174'), with chart of Uabarus Bay and 
plan of Louisboiiric, showing the position of the fort, 
etc. ; note A giving the proposal of Samuel Waldo 
for its redaction in l"-"8. The journal of Legardeur 
St. Pierre in H.W to 1752, with Sir (!uy Carleton's re- 
marks on Western trade (notes C and D), and the 
letter-bonk of Mil".- Macdonell, reporting his pro- 
ctcd ngs with the emigrants taken at the expense of 
I.'.r.l Selkirk to settle Rupert's Land, give a view of 
different parts of the Canadian North-West at differ- 
ei.t periods. The history of the construction of the 
first canals on the St. Lawrence in 1780 and 1781, and 
ill. discovery that a canal was in existence on the 
Canadian side of the Saiilt Ste. Marie from 17-7 and 
a few year?* onwards, are of interest to engineers. 
The visit of Capt. Knys to Niagara in 1787, the journal 
of which is published in full, has been regarded bj 
geologists as of considerable importance. 

In 1887, thr Ilrp'irtnn trench Archivet anil the cal- 
rnilnrofthe fliililiuianil paper* were continued. In 
the preliminary report is the sketch of the life of 
Cieneral Haldimand, who became Hover nor of Canada 
in succesiou to Sir liuy Carlctonand who continued in 
command till the close of the Revolutionary war. A 
letter fiom M. Tremblay, agent for the Seminary of 
Quebec, dated in 1896, published in full with a transla- 
tion, affords reason for a sketch of the ecclesiastical 
affairs of that Province during the incumbency of the 
first Bishops, Her. de Laval and Mgr. St. Valliere. 
The account of the capture of Fort Shelby, at Prairie 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



19 



Bry inner, Douglas. Continued. 

du Cbien, by Lieut. -Col. McKay, in 1814, taken from 
the original documents among the Archives gives de- 
tails of a little known episode in the war of IS] 1 .'. 
Fort McKay, so called after the capture, was restored 
to the United States at the close of the war. Some 
idea may be formed of the hardships experienced by 
the early explorers for a route to be used by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, by the journal kept by Mr. 
llanington of his survey in the Rocky Mountains 
during the winter of 1874-5. 

In W8, tlir calendar of ike I/alilimand cnllreli'in 
was continued. The papers published in full as notes 
to the preliminary report have the titles : The Walker 
Outrage, 1764; General Murray's Recall ; the French 
Noblesse in Canada after 17C:I ; Pierre du Calvet ; the 
Northwest Trade and French Royalists in t'pper 
Canada. In tho preliminary report are sketches of 
the character. etc.,ol Walker, the subject of the out- 
rage, and of Pierre du Calvet, who^c statements are 
rigorously weighed in the light of the correspondence. 
The almost forgotten attempt of French Royalists 
under the Count de Puisaye to settle in Upper Canada 
alter the Revolutionary party in France had been fully 
established is clearly shown by the correspondence on 
the subject, which is published in this report in full, 
and by the sketches in the preliminary report. 

In 1SS9, III, calmdar </(/!. Ilal,limau<l (.;// clinn is 
complete;! and the diary of llaldimand, containing 
many curious entries among many that are very 
trivial, is printed in full with careful translation the 
names mentioned being so far as possible identified. 
The Bowiui-t C'll/i-cti'iu is also calendared, being liestun 
and completed in this report. Iiou<iuet, it may lie 
mentioned, was a brother toldier with Ilaldiuiand, 
both being foreign officers of the Royal American, 
afterwards the nOth regiment. In the preliminary re- 
port is a reprint of a paper on Archives, read before 
the American Historical Association, which tjivcs a 
history of the origin and progress of the department. 
A sketch of the schools and schoolmasters in Canada 
is in the body of the preliminary report ; remarks 
on early explorers in tho Northwest : additional re- 
marks on the forgotten canal at Sanlt Ste, Marie, with 
lithographed views of the remains. The general 
topics dealt with arc Northwestern explorations, the 
journal of La Verandryc of 1738-li'J and other twelve 
documents on the subject being printed in full ; re- 
ligious, educational and other statistics ; Vermont 
negotiations; liefore and after tho battle of Edge 
Hill (usually called the battle of Bushy Run), includes 
the original correspondence published in full ; the 
Reservation of Indian Lands (after the capture of 
Canada in 1700 and the treaty of Paris in 170-'l) ; cor- 
respondence respecting tho construction of a canal 
from Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence in 1785 to 
1789. 

In 1890, the calendar of the Stale Papers fur tin- 
Province of Qurluc was begun, the preliminary report 
giving a summary of the history included in tho 
papers, such as the advances made by Amherst, the 
first Governor, to give the inhabitants after the sur- 
rentler in 1760 an opportunity to retrieve their fortunes- 
the Government and recall of Murray) the first Lieut. 
Governor ; the accession of Carleton ; the passing of 
the Constitutional Act of 1774 ; a reference to the 
Revolutionary war, and a summary of the papers 
published in full, which are under these heads: Ad- 
ministration of Justice (after the close of the military 
rule in Quebec; Correspondence respecting the Con- 
stitutional Act of 1791 ; Northwestern exploration ; 
Internal communication in Canada ; Relations with 
the United States after the peace of 1783 A litho- 
graphed map ot one by Peter Pond, an Indian trader. 



Ilry inner, Douglas. -Continued. 



hitherto unpublished, illufttratet, the documents re- 
specting the Northwest in the report for this year. 

/ 1801, the cnlenitrir of ttir Sltt'e t'ajHTH fur ///tr'-r 
ami Upiw.r Canailit, the Province of Quebec being ii'iw 
divided into two. is begun, and contain* liutt of the 
applicant; for and grantees of lands, place 1 in alpha- 
betical order at the end of each volume calendared 
which contains the applications. The preliminary 
report surnmari/es the history "f the period cov. red 
by tho calendar from 17iy to 1800 in the case ol Luner 
Canada, and to 1S01 in that ,,|' Upper Canada. The 
correspondence is published in full on the sul-jeelc of 
which the- titles are; Settlements and survey-. I)ivi 
sion of I'ppcr Canada; War with France. Frenfh 
republican designs On Canada: and the inarriano l:iw 
in Upper Canada. A map of Upper Canada for 17!"* 
shuws the extent of settlement at that date. 

In IV.rj, //,, ,/,,/,, ,,f Xt,,t, !'! ,: f,,r I.:,,,: i- ,1,1 / 

l'l>l>-r (;,n,,,il,i i,:,,,, HI Ki to ISO? .,. ...jriii,, |. | n 

the preliminary report llio eff.irts In increase the P-- 
venue in Lower Canada are trai'"'l, an I e-|> < al.y in 
reward to the St. Maurice Forges ; Ihe teti 1 1:>_- <.t 
lands in both Provinces; the q.uc-ti<>n -it tin 1 .li--n I 
Estates: a sketch ol the scrv i.'es i.f Mr. liouch.'tin 

the Surveyor-General . tin- ^lati- t reli-'i n, a:, : the 
steps towards building an Aii^licin ratnrdral r. Que- 
bec: remarks cm the Northwest fur trad.'. I lie 
titles of the subject*, in regard ID whirh the i> iper- are 
published in full, will serve to .-how lh*' ynnr.il n i- 
turr of tin 1 rejiorl. Thr-r ;tre : Sef :h-mi'ii!s and sur- 
veys; Lower Canada in Isui; K.-clt'Masth'al aiV.nr' in 
Lower Canada: Politie:il .-rat" t' l'|.per C.iriad:!, \-~": 
and l^iiT; Courts of iii-rire t"r tin 1 lnili;in cnuniry: 
and Proposed tr-'tieral fi>her> and fur cnini'a'iN . 

//( IS';;, owinf; to the absence of l>r. Br>inncr in 
London, making investigations, the rei"irt i- <-'.:iti"i'd 
to the i':ilendar of State I'.iia-r- for Luwi-rat,'! I l>["-r 
Canada from l^os to 1*1:;. 



SS, 'I'. .1. \V. 

I *ol\ pus (if I hi- I Irarf . 

Cnliniliila ./.,..;.!/ .,/ .W. ./,'."i/ .SV/. rtr- , May, H7|l, 

Toroiito. 

Tho lictii'liccnt iiinl Toxic Kll'ccts (P f tin- N'ariuiis 
S))ecics of lilius. 

lliiil., November, l-*^ 1 , Toronto Also. \. ,'. ,,/,>v 
Amiri>-'in >';;;./. mini, Heccmlier. l^-io. New Vorli. 
liotiinical Notes from Cannila. 

H::H,in,-<il (,'n:,lti; Vul. v.t., N'os. K and '>. Anirn-t 
and September, l^S'J. Indiaimii ilis. In. I. 
A Botanical Holiday in Nova Scot i.-i. 

//.i'./., Vol. IX., \ s. 1. 2, 3 and 4, January. Feb- 
ruary, March and April, 18S4, Indianapolis. Ind. 
Canadian Kilicinea-. Hy John Marcum, M.A.. ami 
T. .1. W. Hurgess, M.1J. 

Tmnmctioni of tin- llniiil fir!<-lit r Can'/-< Vol. 
il , Sec. 4, 1884. 
AspUlium Oreoptcris. 

Botanical Gazette. Vol. xi., No. 3. March, 18Sf>, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Recent Additions to Canadian Filii-tm-jr, with 
new stations for some of the species previously 
recorded. 

Irannacli'JJU <i/lhc Royal Suciflll of Canirlil. Vol. 
vt., Sec. 4, 1HS6. 
How to Study Botany. 

Jmirnaland Proceedings of Ihe Hamilton A*VH-\atio* 
Part iv., 1887-8, Hamilton. 



2O 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



M. T. J. W. Conlinunl. 

Tn-hldn. 

J-.umalamlPrverrd'intioflli' Hamilton Atvrialion. 
I'jrt iv., 1*17-11. Hnrillon. 

Notes on lh- Flora of the 40th Parallel from the 
I jikc of tin- Woods to the Kooky MountainH. 

Mi./. P.irt it., 1887-8, Hamilton. Alo. in AW"- 
/r~.Srplruilr 11. I**, Saint J'aul. Minn. 
Tin- |jik<- Kric Shore as a Hotanlzlng-ground. 

'.,,,/ ./,../ /' .H.../IPI.;. ..MA- llnmilt'm Affation. 
I'.ri v.. I***-'.', lUmilion. 
An in lli' Sirk room. 

7i...... January ''. 1 *'.'. Hamilton 

Null mi lli'- Hi-lory of liotnny. 

./.,-,.. ,/.,,!./ /V...-. Una- "' lli- Hamilton A""'-i'iti"". 
I'urt 1 !.. IV*:' '.!. llanuI'MD. 
M|.lii..;;lo-..-ii-.i- ami Kilire*. 

f. ,'!,,:. ,.i I .m, .. I, ,in /'/.in'.. l'.y Jullli Mlir.ilin. 
M V . I.I..-. I'.irl v.. lf.i. |.|.. l'x'l-N7. 

V.l,.- ..ii ill.- i, .-nil- Ithil-. 

/,,,.,;.,/ / Han,..' it,, //.i, ,/'.. ,i A'"*iiiti. 

, . I- '1 .'. ll.'.lllllt.MI 

< .tin). In II. I 'In- KI-XI-I i-M.I .li.lin. 

,..(lli. \l_-,,ii. |Hin I. alii.'iiai;r-.. 
/ . / ' ./. , N..U Series, Y"t. i. 

|.,r..iii... HI,, . |.|.. r. M. 
\ H-- in Nurlli AIII.M-I.-;I. 

. 1^1. T..r,.i:t... vn . |,|,. 171 :";. 

Iti rt lip !.!'. ..( \nc i MII ll.-li.'i.in- ami < 'i\ ili/al inn. 
|[i ;., iuti .1 fp.in ' 'iiiiiiilitin ./>IH i mil, AII-II-I. 
1-71. Toronto. 

1 1>. '-'. 

C..|,n. Ill, IN. hi in l.aiit:ii:iK'- "f 111'' Iniln 
l.ui..| .in I-'. innl .. lii'].i i n( r. I fn ,ni I'niiiiiliiin 
./..n, mil. .lul\ .in.l 1), , .Miil.iM . l>7_. TiirniMn. 
H.... | I . I . 

!, , C,,!,,niv- in tin- \,,illi an, I \Vc-l. 

/frilt'./. ../ f',.r-i ..-..lull, 1S.11. 

1. "ii. I. .11 -v.. . |.|.. tVi-47'i. 

I'un.Mi' I nl,, 

/V. .'!,(. ri.m i:.ll..,,.l::,l,,,,,l, |l|.,-..|lllH.r. IS'.I], M,,|||. 

rr*l, <>.. |,|'. '.'I-'W. 
I), -, .-III of Mttll. Qur*liiii,. tif III- Ilili/. Molil 

rr.il : |lr\-.|.ili-. |SfC.. 

Hv.,., |. r . '-lll. 
I . i ji < in -.-in nf thr I'ellH. 

i',mi,/i'i.i Jnunal, |H7i">. anil January. 1>*77. reprini. 
Tonnti. *ru., |,|>. 'Jl and "tt 

Kllitli. HrlnlioiiN of Ilic /iinri. 

Trwattiom* .Vt*ciV(|i //ii/i>n/ Arrlt'>lt-M, Vul. VI., 
UTS Ixindnn- 8vn., pp. STV-gii. 

Klnirin Cnpla. 

/'"<-. /i(M r.in.l./lVin In'liltitr, V'01 II., 1886 

Toronto 8T<... pp. I4I-2A',. 

Hiitii.-.. their Iniwriptiiiii and their Hihtory, 2 
Vol., IHWi. Toronto: Williainwin & Co. 

Sro.. pp. X't and 3W. 
Ilitiiir- in .ViniTim. 

<'.i.../i... .VarnrWix, Vol. II., 1479. Montreal re 
piinl .. pp. 22 and 2i 
HoriU*. 

rm*fiim*Jomrmnl.U*r, 1873. reprint. Toronto. Uro. 



C"amplN>ll. Tht> Ilev. John. Contimtl. 

Hornet of Scripture. 

Pretibvlcrian Quarterly and Princtton A'.ri. ,r, 
October, '.87S. New York. 8vo., pp. 677-692. 

Inaugural Address, University College Literary 
and Scientific Society, 1865. Toronto : James 
Bain. 

8ro., pp 31. 



British and Fitrrign Epangrliral Rrricir, April, 1880. 
London. 8vo., pp. 291-313. 

The- Khitnn Languages ; the Astec and it> Bebt- 

lions. 

/',,,.-.,-. /in,;. Canadian fn'iiiulr. Vol. II-, Fasoic. 2, 
1884, Toronto Svo., pp. 158-180. 

Monumental Kvidence of an Iberian Population 
of tlie Hritish Islands. 

Trnniarti'HiH Crltir .SViciV/// "/ Montrtul, 1887- 8vo. 
pp. 1-69. 
Mound Uuilders Identified. 

/V.-*i'/iHf/ A'H^nVdii Awotintion <>f .S'ciVncr, 1883. 
Siilcm, 1S84. 8vo., pp. 419-21, 
Origin of Some American Indian Tribes. 

fiiniK/iiin K<itnralit. Now Series. Vol. II., 1879. 
Montreal. 8v , pp. f5-8(l and lftt-212. 

Origin of the Aborigines of Canada. 

TniitH'irtioHH Lilfrnrji und llittorirat Society of 
(,/,/,.., 1S.H], Quebec. 8vo., pp. 61-115 and I.-XXXIT. 

Origin of the Phoenicians. 

/triliufi an,/ f-'nrriitn Krnngtlicnl litrirw, July, 1875. 
Lundiin. Kvo., pp. 425-44K. 

Our Widowed Queen a Prize Poem. Privately 
printed. IMtKJ. Toronto. 

PHI -4to., pp. 0. 
rc-l.iL'i.'ini-ni in Modern Theology. 

An". r,,//,,i, Monthly, December, 1S9(I. Toronto. 
IVopliiiH of <!reat liritain. Montreal, 1SHO. 

svo., IIP- 211. 
Perfect Katheror the Perfect Itook. 

Nun. /.in Afirru'tin Adiln**, Queen's University, 
KinKi-tim, IS'.fl. 
I'lTMiiuil Revelation. 

/'r../,i/i-/i'i/i Culliaf Jiiurnnl, Noreinbcr, 1890. 
Montreal. 8vo. , p . 4SMI4. 

Pharaoh (.f the Kxodus Identified in the Myth of 
Adonis. 

rw/i/m J.wrnnl. May, 1871, Toronto. Reprint. 
Phili-tincH. 

Uritifli <ind f'onifin Eranaelicnl Kevitic, July, 1877. 
London. 8vo., pp. 477-511. 
Primitive History of the lonians. 

Can'iilian Journal, August, December. 1875. To- 
ronto. Reprint. 8vo., pp. 59. 
Proposed Heading of the Davenport Tablets. 
American Antiganrian, October. 1882, Chicaco. 
Scholasticism in Modern Theology. 

k,i-r College Monthly, December, 1889, Toronto. 
ftvo., pp. 61-67. 

Shepherd Kings of Egypt. 

Canadian Journal, April and August, 1874, Toronto. 
Reprint- 8vo., pp. 112, 
Siberian Inscriptions. 

Trantariioni rnnadian Initttttte, No. 4. 1892, To- 
ronto. 8vo., pp. 261-283. 






ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



21 



Campbell, The Kev. John. Continued. 

Some Important Principles of Comparative Gram- 
mar as Exemplified in American Aboriginal 
Languages. 

Canada Educational Month/I/, March, 1879. Toronto. 
8ro., pp. 144-149. 

Some Laws of Phonetic Change in the Khitan 
Languages. 

ProcetdiitffH Canadian In*1itnle. Vol. I.. Fascic. 4, 
1881. Toronto. 8vo. , pp 282-2fH>. 

Some Old Testament Mistranslations. 

The Theologuc, January, lf)f'2. Halifax. Hvo., pp. 
43-48. 

Spanish Discovery and Conquest in America. 
Montreal, 1882. 
8vo- pp. 20. 
Talks About Books. 

Pretbyteriim Colleo? Journal, pHfsim, 1888-93. 
Montreal. 

The Three Foundations. 

Canada I'rnbtfcrian Cliurcli Pulpit. Second Series. 
Toronto; James Campbell A Son, 1873. 8vo., pp. 245- 
266. 

Traditions of the People of Mexico and IVru 
Identified with the Mythology of the Old 
World. 

ComptHK-rrndu* 1/11 Contirfs International itrx Aiini-i- 
canitlet. Tome 1,1875. Nancy. Hvo., pp. .'U8-.V6. 

Translation of the Oldest Celtic Document Ex- 
tant, and of its Etrusian Comparison. 

Tranmctioni Celtic .S'ociW;/, Montreal, 1HS7. 8vo. 
pp. 159-229. 

Unity of the Human Hace from an American 
Standpoint. 

Brttixh and r'oreifjn EvanifHral Iteri< H-, J:tnu:iry, 
1880. 8vo., pp. 74-001. 

The American Indian : Who ami Whence? 
The Ciinudiini Vuaaztue, February, 18H4. 

The Great Election. Montreal : l.ovell. isitl. 

Protest Against the Judgment of the Presbytery 
of Montreal, and Appeal to the Synod of Mont- 
real and Ottawa. Toronto, May, ISiM. 

Campbell, William Wilfrid. 

Lake Lyrics and other Poems. St. John, X.I5. : 
J. & A. Macmillan, 188!). 
12mo., pp. 160. 

The Dread Voyage. Toronto : William Hriggs, 
1893. 

12mo., pp. 190. 

Ahmet. 

Canadian Magazine, 1894. 

Casgrain, Abbe H. R. 

Legendes Canadiennes. Quebec, 1861. 
in 12, pp. 425. 

D^couverte du Tombeau de Champlain. Par MM. 
les Abbes Laverdiere et Casgrain. Quebec, 1886. 
(Avec des cartes, etc.) 

8vo.,pp. 13. 

Vie des Saints. Ottawa, 1867. 
4to., pp. 1867. 



< ;i -lii-jiin. Abbe H. R Continued. 

Notice biographi(|ue d'Octave Cremazie. 
8vo.,pp. 94. 

Au commencement des (Kuvres completes de O 
Cremazie, pnbliees sons le patronage de Tin 
stitut Canadien de Quebec. Montreal : Brail 
chemin et flls, 1882. 

Legendes et Varietes. Montreal : Heaiichcmin & 
Valois, 1884. 

1 vol.,8vo., |>|i. 580. 

Biographies Canadiennes. Montreal : Beam-lie 
min & Valois, lux. 7 ;. 
1 vol., 8vo., pp. 54L'. 

Histoire de la Venerable Mere Marie dr Tin, -Mi- 
nation. Montreal : Ueaiichemin & tils, Is-nj. 

1 vol., 8vo., pp. .W. Premiere cd., Quebec, IM'.I. 
8vo., pp. 4i',7. 

I.r iiii'iiu-. traduit en allernand. Uep-tislinr^ 

New York, et Cincinnati. 1S7L'. 

1 vol.,12ino., pp. HWi. 
Ilistoii-c de nintel-Dieu de (^iiebi-c. M.,ntri-,-il 

Beauchemin & liU. |ss-<. 

1 Vol., HVO., p|i. . r >!l>. 

l"n Pelerinage an Pays d'Evangelinc. QuebiM- : 
L. J. Demers et Krere, LSSS. 

1 vol.,8vo.. pp. r.44. 

OuvrnRe couronn^ pur 1'Acad^inic frimrui.ac. 
Montcalm et I.cvis. Quebec : I.. .1. Drniers \- 
Krere, Is'.U. 

1! vol..8v(>., pp. S72 it 484. 

Dan* ] .! ('nnciflci-fi'ftncniHi Qin'hft- : 

Coup d'u-il snr 1'Acadic avant la ili-pcrsinn ,),. ] ;l 

colonie francaise. Tome i., isss, p. III. 
Eclaircissements snr la question acadienne. Iliiil. 

P. mi. 

Montcalm peint par Ini-meme, d'apn-s d,.-, ],i,- ,-, 
iiKMliles. Tome ![., IMS! I. ]>. :tl:i. 

I hi H x Irs MriniiliTs '!>' /it Sucirli' rui/uli /In (;, niiilu .- 

Notre passe litteraire et nos deux historiens. 
Tome i., Sec. 1, 1882. 

Les (juarante dernieres annees : I,e Canada ilepuis 
1'union de 1841, par John Charles Dent. Klnde 
critiipie. Tome n., sec. I, 188-1. 

Biographic de Gerin-Lajoie. Kragmeni. Tome 
in., Sec. 1, 18 4. 

Un Pelerinage au Pays d'Evangeline. Tome iv., 
Sec. 1, 188fi. 

Les Acadicns apres leur dispersion. Tome v., 
Sec. 1, 1887. 

Eclaircissements sur la question acadienne. Tome 
VI., Sec. 1, 1888. 

Montcalm peint par lui-meme, d'apres des, pieces 
inedites. Tome vn.. Sec. 1, 1889. 

Une Seconde Acadie (He Saint-Jean, He du Prince 
Edouard sous le regime francais). Quebec : 
Demers et Fre,res, 1894. 
1 vol.. in 8vo. 



22 



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ltmo..pp.98. 

KxainplcH nf tin- Application of Trigonometry to 
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! . |.|>. :>'-. 
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\.... M . I 1 - 
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II.. \'ol. I., pp. L'TI Mi. 

Ni-w 'Irili. Kites from Canadian Itocks. (Illus 
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\.-\\ species ( ,f Asaphn.s. SiTies II., \' () | ]v 
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Xe H|MM-ii-H of AKclncriiiiles. Series II., Vol. v., 
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Atomic Constitution and Crystalline Form as 
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All outline of the Geology of Ontario. Series II., 
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On the Ix-diii(f Ceoloxioal Areas of Canada. 

Series. II., Vol. XV., pp. 1H.22, 1(2-121. 
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and on the ancient extension of the Lake 

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.'!. 



Chapman, Edward J. Continued. 

On the Geology of Belleville and vicinity. (Illus- 
trated.) Series II., Vol. v., pp. 41-4a 

On the occurrence of Copper Ore in the Island 
of Grand Manan. (Illustrated.) Series II., 
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On Wolfram froniChieMsliiiid.LakeCouchiching. 
Series II., Vol. I., pp. m 

On the Klaprothite or Lazulite of North Caro- 
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On the Position of Lievrite in the Mineral Series. 
Series II., Vol. VH, 42-7. 

On the occurrence on Allanile or Orthite in Cana- 
dian Rocks. Series II., Vol. IX., pp. 103-5- 

()n some minerals from I,nke Superior. 
Scries II., Vol. x., pp. 4(1(1-11. 

On the analysis of some Canadian Minerals. 
Series II., Vol. XII., pp. 205-H, XIII. 507-U. 

On some Hlow-l'ipe Reactions. Series II., Vol. 
xv., pp. 24SI.TW. 

On the Analysis of some Iron Ores and Ankerites 
from Londonderry, X.S. Series II., Vol. xv., 
pp. 414-10. 

On the I'rohahle Nature of Protichnites. Series 
II.. Vol. xv., pp. 180-1)0. 

Note on the Function of Salt in Sea- Water. 
Scries II.. Vol. xv., pp. ftSt-31. 

Note on a Melt of Auriferous Country in the 
Township of Marmora. Series II., Vol. xili., 

pp. :cti>-:u. 

On the occurrence of the (ienus Cryptoceras in 
Silurian Hocks. Scries I., Vol. n., pp. 204-8. 

Note on Slelliform Crystals. (Illustrated.) 
Scries II., Vol. vi., pp. 10. 

Note on the object of the Salt Condition of the 
Sea. Scries I., Vol. III., pp. 180-7, 227-11. 

Note on Phosphorus in Iron Wire. Series II., 
Vol. IX., pp. 1701. 

On the Silver Locations of Thunder Hay. (Illus- 
trated.) Series II., Vol. XII., pp. 218-20. 

Contributions to Blow-Pipe Analysis. (Illus- 
t rated.) Series II., Vol. X., pp. 339-55. 

A Table for calculating the Weight and Yield per 
RunniiiK Fathom of Mineral Veins. Series II., 
Vol. xii., 478-79. 

Habits of a Small Snake in Captivity. Series II.. 
Vol. xili., 551-50. 

Note on the Cause of Tides. Series II., Vol. XIV., 
pp. 2711-80. 

In Ilir Tninsaetionx of I/if Koyal Society of Canada: 

Note on Molecular Contraction in Natural Sul- 

phids. Vol. i., Sec. 3, 1882. 
Note on Spcetroscopic Scales. Vol. I., Sec. 4, 1883. 

On the Classification of Crinoids. Vol. I., Sec. 4, 

1882. 
On some deposits of Titanifcrous Iron Ore in the 

Counties of Hall bur ton and Hastings, Out. Vol. 

II., Sec. 4, 1884. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



Chapman, ICilward J. Continual. 

On Mimetism in Inorganic Nature. Vol, n., 
Sec. 4, 1884. 

On some Iron Ores of Central Ontario. Vol. in., 
Sec. 3, 1885. 

On the Wallbridge Hematite Mine, as illustrating 
the stock-formed mode of occurrence in certain 
ore deposits. Vol. in., Sec. 4, 1885. 

On the Colouring Matter of Black Tourmalines. 
Vol. iv., Sec. 3, 1886. 

On a New Classification of Trilobites. Vol. vn.. 
Sec. 4, 1889. 

Notes on some Unexplained Anomalies in the 
Flame Reactions of certain Minerals and Chem- 
ical Bodies. Vol. vn., Sec. 3, 1880. 

On the Mexican Type in the Crystallization of the 

Topaz. Vol. x., sec. 3, 1892. 

On the Corals and Coralliform Types of Paheozoic 
Strata. Vol. xi., Sec. 4, 181)3. 

For early papers of this author see Trantnctionxuf 
Rlial Society <>f London, PKHowfhieal Mayiizint 1 , 
Annal* of Natural Science, and Chan teal News. 

Clark, The Kevereiul William. 

The Redeemer : a Series of Sermons on the Person 
and Work of our Lord Jesus Christ. London : 
Bell & Daldy, 1863. 

8vo., pp. 215. 

The Comforter: Sermons on the Holy Ghost. 
London : Rivingtons, 1864. 
8vo., pp. 160. 

The Four Temperaments, and Occasional Ser- 
mons. London : Hodges, 1874. 
Crown 8vo., pp. 174 

The Sin of Man and the Love of God. Sermons 
on St. Luke xv. London : Wells & Gardner, 1870. 

Sm. or. 8vo., pp. 219. 

Hefele's History of the Councils. Vol. I. Trans- 
lated and edited. Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark. 
8vo.,pp. 500. 

Witnesses to Christ. Baldwin Lectures (1887) in 
the University of Michigan. Chicago : McClurg, 
1888. 

Crown 8vo., pp. 300. 

Savonarola : His Life and Times. Chicago : 
McClurg, 1892. 

Crown 8vo.,pp 352. 

Cuoq, 1'Abbe J. A. 

N. O. Ancien missionnaire. Etudes philologiques 
sur qnelques langues sauvages de I'Amerique. 
Montreal : J. Lovell, 1866. 

8vn., pp 160. 

Jugement errone^ de M. Ernest Renan sur les 
langues sauvages. 2eme edition. Montreal : J. 
Lovell, I860. 

8vo., pp. 113. 

Lexique de la langue iroquoise. Montreal : J. 
Chapleau (1882). 

8vo., pp. 216, et avec additament, pp 238. 

Lexique de la langue algonquine. Montreal : J. 
Chapleau, 1886. 
8ro., pp. xii. 418. 



Cuoq, I'Abbe .1. A. Continued. 

Grammaire de la langue algonqnin. 

Tomes ix. ct x. dca Mim >>? de la Sne ! ttt Wiuali- 
du Camilla, 1891 et 1892. 
Anotc-kekon. 

Tome xi. des lUtiuoim dr In Ku-iflt Itoualr du 
Canada. 1893. 

David, I,. <>. 

Portraits et Biographies. Montreal : Reaiicliemin 
& Valois. 

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Les Piitriotesde 1837 1SI{8. Montreal: K. Scnecal 
& Fils. 

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Feu [>. .]. O. Chauveau. 

Dans l.e* .W/..ir. ./. In SociJtt i:,,,,,,lr x'u '',/. 
Tome ix., Sec. 1,1*1. 

.Mt'sCoiiteiiiporaiiis. Montreal : E. Senecal & Fil.s, 
1804. 

8vo., pp. 2S5. 

Dawson, Very Kevcrend .Knrus Mrllnu ell. 

The Temporal Sovereignty of the 1'ojic. Ottaua 
and London, KUL'.. Isdii. 

<vo..|,|>. .'7. The first bciok printed ;ind piililishi'd 
in Ottawa. 

St. Vincent de Paul: a liiographv. Londun, 

1863. 

Svo., pp. 71. 
St'N'cn Letters togrtlirr \\itli a Lcrttm- on tin- 

Colonies of (Ireat Hritain. ()tta\\a, 1S7II. 
An Essay on the Poets of Canada. Ottaua, ISTli. 
The late Hon. Thomas D'Aivy MeGee. M.I'. : a 

Funeral Oral inn. Ottawa. I.s7(i. 

Pins IX. and His Time. London, Can., ami Lon- 
don. Enn., 1SSO. 

Svn.. ]ip. 4-10. 

The Northwest Territories and British Columbia. 
Ottaua. 1S8I. 
Svo., pp. 218. 
Canada and its Resources. 

Greater Rritnin, Ix>ndun, Ellp. 

The Catholics of Scotland. London. Can., and 
London, Eng., 18!K). 
Svo. , pp. 876. 

Translations. 

The Parish Priest and his Parishioners. London. 
1846. 

Letters of the same author on the Spanish In- 
quisition. London, 1818, 61 New Bond St. 

Count Joseph de Maistre's celebrated work on 
the Pope. London, Eng., IKV), 61 New Bond St. 

Philosophical work, "Soirees de St. Petersbourg," 
by the same. London, Eng., 1851. 

Poems. 

Massacre of Oszmiana, a poem in blank verse. 

Glasgow, 1844. 

Solitude. Ottawa, 1870, 5 pp. 
Royalty at Ottawa. Ottawa " Times," May 3, 

1866. 



24 



HI HL I (>< ill A PHY OF THK 



I i.i -.11. Very IU> I:IH-:I Mt-1). Continued. 
I'll.- 12th of July .u Ottawa, 1MB. 
ViHion of Hums at Lliu-luilen. Ottawa, 1S70, p. 12. 
II .ml. ii.lin.-ni of SondcrliorK. Ottawn. Ixil. 
The lull' lx.nl Klein. Klr^i.-ic. Ottuwii, l.sr.l. 
St. Andrew's Day at Ottawa. 1HH. 
KpUtle in verne to 11 friend descriptive of Canada. 

Ottawa, 1*7(1, pp. IS. 
('nlniuiloii.s news from Hllssia, Lsi.'.. 
Welcome Hi in. T. D'Arcy Mi-Gee, Minister of 

\Krirultiire. I" Ottawa, 1S|!7. 
I .mi. nt fur the lit. Hev. .1. Gilli*. An rlcuiac 

IMH-III. Ott;i.l. IxH. pp. II. 

Tin- List Defender i if Jerusalem. Ottawa. ISsJ. 

Hi. ll.-roi .f Verehcres. Ottawa. 1NS2. 

\.-n..l>Ki.O.ni-i-ii of Palmyra. Ills pp.,Svo. Ottawa, 
I SKI'. 

|)..niiiii'.ii ll.iy. Otlaa. issri. 

C.ir.i. tiu-ns Oil. -in a, I.S.SI!. 

Mi!' .Ini.iiKl M.ir_-.uvl. Ottawa. Issii. 

I'.- ll :l'-- I In- ('i-llli-liiir\ ..f O'('iilllli-ll. 

Id-ail al .1 iliniirr fcivi'iiontlir iK-ca.si(in, the II<m. 
.I.ilin (ir,,i,i,..|. M.I'., in tin- chair. 

I - I > HIM I ..iiiilanm*. 
Hi Ir.i-. 

M.ll.,1' Ma'. I 

I'- lltll. Iloll'lllll- II.V'H . 

!><.. i:< . . Vu.un Hi. num. 

I . V"'"'. i;ia-,H(iw. 1KC.. 
I i (Ju-.t 1'ii.li-. HMIIII. 
l'i-. . turn I 'ustiiN. ll\ inn. 
A u.ti.it M ira^. 1 1 \ inn. 
I;. \ i II. in..-.-. ll\ inn. 

/,. llrlf:,,;!'* Mmjn-inr. Ton.iiio. 
I In- I'n-MTViil iiii f our Korvst.s, Ilrccinlu-r. IsTii. 
Tin- I'.ipit.il of I'linaila. Illii-tiali-d. Mai-c-li, 1.-77. 
I'r. . rinlinn of tin- Hiillalo. Ot-tiiln-i-. I--77. 
Tin- Ili-roini-cif Vi-n lu-n-s. A pm-tn. lli-cnnlicr 
|HT7. 

l''ili-i> in Thrltiil.ll//iin-ii 1'nii-rrxitii. 

Mil. I MK iv. 

Asxx iatioii of the Mi-Donalds. A |'(H-NI. 
The lU-tti-r AKI-. A I'oi-iii. 
Thi- Star of Ih-thlehi-in. A 1'ooin. 
Thyrn<laf{a. A 1'ix-in. 

Villo Marie. A I'oem. Hen>\ l*fore the Koval 
Society at the Montreal meeting 

VOI.I-MK v. 

llrlter than I'lalo. A Poem. 
IKiinlniis Hi-nit Me. A 1'nalm. 
.lerusal.-m ; the old and the new. 
Burn*. K.-riiiiii .-!,, , , O f the I'oct 
Hurn: HUTrmveln. 



I i.i -an. Very Ilov. 1 :m-.i- McD. Continued. 
France Considered. 
It Still Moves. 
Burns Kurt her Considered. 
Royul hunl. i inline and the Quigrich. 

VOLUME VI. 

To the Children of Saint Clare. A Poem. 

Fame's Favourites. A Poem. 

The Martyr of Mount Athos. A Poem. 

A liYlir; Burns and Bishop Geddes. 

Attempted .lust ilieat inn. 

The Communion of Saints. 

Count Joseph de Maistre. 

l-Miu-aticm Beyond the Grave. 

Kxc-avatin^ the Heathen. 

(irowth of Keli^ion in Scotland. 

After the Vietory. 

Count .1. lie Maistre'H work, "Soirees de St. 

1'eterslmurjj," reviewed. 
Saint Andrew. 

VOI.fMK VII. 

Kin^ltobert Bruce. A Poem. 

Alpiii(|iiin 1'nrk. 

Ivliication in the Province of Ontario. 

The (ieor^ian Bay. 

Kintyre to (ileiiKarry. 

.May Afriea lie Civilized I 

The Pope in the Second Century. 

I llraiiKintanism and Modern Civilization. 

Pope Hi Mini-ill-. 

l>ausnn, (ii'm-^e >f. 

On l-'oraminifera from the Gulf and River St. 
I.awrenee. 

C'iniiiliiin Xniurnliui, June, 187n, Mnntreal. 8o., 
lip. 172-181). 

(Al*o -.-I'ur.it.-lv, pp. 1-8.) 

Also in .\nmil, and Magazinr nf Naltirnl Hittart, 
Fubrunry, 1S71, 8vo , pp. 83-90. 

The l.ijrnite Formations of the West. 

Ciminlinn Natural ul, April. IH7J, Montreal. 8ro., 
l>p 241-2S2. 

(Also reiuirately, with the next.) 

-Vote on the Occurrence of Foraminifcra, Cocco- 
liths, etc., in the Cretaceous Rorks of Manilolia. 
Canailinn .\niur,i/i,i, April, 1871, Montreal, 8o., 
pp. 252-ai7. 
(Also M-paratcly, with the foregoing.) 

The Fluctuations of the American Lakes and the 
Development of Sun Spots. 

Nature, April, 1874. London. 4to., pp. S04-fi06. 
Alo in C,,n.,,l,nn Naturalul, Norember, 1874, Mont- 
real, 8vo., pp. 310-S'7. 

Report on the Tertiary Lignite Formal inn in the 
Vicinity of the Forty-ninth Parallel. (British 
North American Boundary Commission.) Mont- 
real, 1874. 

8ro., pp. 1-81. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



23 



Dawson, George M. Continued. 

Report on the Geology and Resources of the Re- 
gion in the Vicinity of the Forty-ninth Parallel. 
(British North American Boundary Commis- 
sion.) Montreal : Dawson Bros., 1875. 

STO..PP. 1.-XI.-1-S87. 
On some Canadian Species of Spongilla'. 

Canadian Natural at, September. 1375, Montreal. 
8ro., pp. 1-5. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

On the Superficial Geology of the Central Region 
of North America. 

Quarterly Journal Geological Society. November, 
1875, London. 8vo., pp. 603-623. 
( \ l.-n separately, same pagination ) 

Notes on the Locust Invasion of 1874 in Manitoba 
and the Northwest Territories. 

Canadian Naturalist, 1878. Montreal. 870., pp. 11J- 
134. 
(Also separately, pp. 1-16.) 

Note on some of the more recent Changes in Level 
of the Coast of British Columbia and adjacent 
regions. 

Canadian Ifatttmliat, April, 1ST", Montreal. 8vo., 
pp. 241-248. 
(Also separately, pp. 1-8.) 

Notes on the Appearance and Migrations of the 
Locust in Manitoba and the Northwest Ter- 
ritories. Summer of 1875. 

Canadian Ifaturaliat, April, 1877. Svo., pp. 207-226. 
(Also separately, pp. 1-20.) 

Meso/oic Volcanic Rocks of British Columbia and 
Chili. Relation of Volcanic and Mctuinorphic 
Rocks. 

Geological Magazine, July, 1877, London. 8vo., 
pp. 314-317. 
(Also separately, pp. 1-4.) 

Report on Explorations in British Columbia. 

Report of Progreni, Geological Survey ot Canada, 
1875-76, Montreal, 1877. 8vo., pp. 233-280. 

Note on Agriculture and Stock-Raising and ex- 
tent of Cultivable Land in British Columbia. 
(Appendix S.) 

Rejmrt of Sttrviit, Canadian Pui-itic ]{ttilwtiij t 
Ottawa, 1877. 8vo., 240-153. 

On the Superficial Geology of British Columbia. 
Quarterly Journal Geolof/ical Society, February, 
1878, London. 8vo., pp. 89-123.) 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Travelling Notes on the Surface Geology of the 
Pacific Coast. 

fiiiui'/i'iH Xaturalist, February, 1878, Montreal. 
8vo.,pp. 389-399. 

(Also separately, pp. 1-11.) 
Notes on the Locust in the Northwest in 1876. 

Canadian Naturalist, April, 1878. Montreal. 8vo., 
pp. 411-417. 

(Also separately, pp. 1-7 ) 

Erratics at High Levels in Northwestern Amer- 
ica. Barriers to a Great Ice Sheet. 

Geological Magazine, May, 1878, London. 8vo., pp. 
209-212. 

Report of Explorations in British Columbia, 
chiefly in the Basins of the Blackwater, Salmon 
and Ne hacco Rivers and on Francois Lake. 

Report of Progrem, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1876-77, Montreal, 1878. 8vo., pp. 17-94. 



l);i wsoii, George M. Continued. 

Report on a Reconnaissance of Ixicch River and 
Vicinity. 

Report of Progrem, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1376-77, Montreal, 1878. 8vo., pp. 95-102. 
General Note on the Mines and Minerals of Eco- 
nomic Value of British Columbia, with a list of 
localities. 

Rrfttrt of ProgreM, Geological Survey of Cunadit, 
1876-77, Montreal, 1878. 8vo., pp. 103-145. 
(AI.Ho separately, same pagination.) 

On a New Species of Loftusia from British Col- 
umbia. 

Quarterly Jnui-nul Geftoirical .SVciV'y, February, 
187fl. London. Svo., pp. 6<J-75. 

(Also separately, same pagination.) 
Notes on the Glaciation of British Columbia. 

Canadian .\atin -alitt, March, 1879, Montreal. Bv., 
IP.W-39. 

(Also separately, pp. 1 8.) 

Sketch of t lie Past and Present Condition of the 
Indians of Canada. 

Canadian Xatnmliit. July, 187'.', Montreal. S V(1 . , 
pp. 129-159. 
(Also separately, pp. 1 31.) 

Note on the Economic Minerals and Mines 
of British Columbia. First List of Loca'itic*. in 
the Province of British Columbia, known to 
yield Gold. Coal, Iron, Silver. Copper and other 
Minerals of economic value. (Appendix R. i 

Jl'jtrn-t tin Slirvfl/*, f'timnli'Ul I''tfiti>: /(uiltfitt, 
Ottnwa,lS77. Svo., pp. 218-245. 

Memorandum on the Queen Charlotte Islands. 
British Columbia. (Appendix No. !i. i 

Ri-ivirt f'aiiiirlian l'a<-i_tic Jtnilimii, Ottawa, lt-8'i. 
8vo , pp. 1H9-U3. 

Preliminary Report on the Physical anil Geolo- 
gical Features of the Southern Portion of the 
Interior of British Columbia. 

]{tl*>rt of Progt-tsn. Geological Survey uf Canada, 
1877-78, Montreal, 187". 8v.., pp. In-ls7ii. 

Notes on the Distribution of Some of the More 
Important Trees of British Columbia, 

Canadian Xaturnliti, August, 18HI, Montreal. 8vo., 
pp. 321-331. 

(Also, separately. PP. 1-11.) 

Reprinted as an Appendix to Report on an Explora- 
tion from Fort Simpson, etc. Itiirtrt <>f 1'rngr* M, (Jeo- 
losical Survey of Canada, 1870-81*. 

Report on the Climate and Agricultural Value. 
General Geological Features and Minerals of 
Economic Importance of part of the Northern 
Portion of British Columbia and of the Peace 
River Country. (Appendix 7.) . 

Report Canadian Pacific Railiran, 1880, Ottawa. 
8vo., pp. 107-131. 

Report on the Queen Charlotte Islands. With 
Appendices A to G. 

Report of Progreu, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1878-79, Montreal, 1880. 8vo., ;p. lB-23B. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Note on the Geology of the Peace River Region. 

Canadian Katuralitt, April, 1881, Montreal. 8vo., 
pp. 20-22. 

Also in American Journal of Science, My, 1881. 
New HaTen. 8vo., pp. 391-391. 



26 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Oawiion. Gforge M. Continufd, 

Additional Oliservations on the Superficial Geo- 
logy of British Columbia and Adjacent Regions. 

(Joarlrrl* Journal Oeolitgiral A'oeiWy, May, 1*81, 
London. 8r.>.. pp. 272-2SS. 

(AlfOKparafely, urn* pagination.) 
Sketch of the Geology of British Columbia. 

Grolivitol Magazine. April and .My, 1831, London. 
ro..pp. 156-1' 2. 214 227. 

CAbowpUBtelyi pp. 1-19.) 

Hr|>ort on mi Kxploration from Fort Simpson, on 
the Pacific Coast, to Kdmonton. on the Sa*- 
katchewan, embracinK a portion of the north- 
ern |iart of British Columbia and the Peace 
Itivrr Country. 

ll'i*.n ,:( rr-^rrt,. (Jeolngical Surrey of Canada, 
IT'.t-8a Montreal, 1S8I. HVO., pp. lii-;77 B . 
Til.- llaid.-is. 

//il'/wr'. M:,,J, -.,,. V'.l. M.V., Ausu.1t, NS2. \ ew 

Vork.M-i... pp. 4'l-4'. 

l>."..Tipliv,- \oi.. (;,.,.,,,! s,.,-tion from th.. 
l.inr. nlian A\U i,, il,,. \{,,,-k\ Mount ,i,,s north 
.f ill.- I'.iih |'.n-.-|l],.|. 

' ' ' ' ' I'annd,,. Vol I Sec 

MI....M i.|i 



Note, on Ilir Mo,-.. Important Coal seam* of the 

v ' '.March, |s, M.,,,tre.,l. <>. 

ii i 

*" ' 'II till I I i.,s-,i i,f till' ],', | vX Mnuill'lilis I 

Briti-h (,,111,1,1,1.1 

' " ' " ' l: " - V ' "V" ',,,/ V.il I s.. 

> i i IH-II'.. 

mi. i-.iKiii.'iiiuii ) 

Pr.-1imin.-iM U..|,rt ||,,. (;,.,,|,,^ v , lf ,,. , ((pu 
tiv.-r |{, -,.,. Northwest Territory, 
I referfiic.- I., il,,. c,, a | |),.,,,, si| ^ 

ruar>. ls-| Ottawa, s,-,,., p ,,. .'i|"" 
.^Uvjn. A. H. C Des,-ripti,. Sketch of the 
i.-al Geography and Geology ,if the Doinin- 
""i "f Cm,,,,!,,. Montreal. lss|. 



.. pp. i :,5. 



and 



II.- Indian Triln-s of Britisl, Columbia!" w'ith'a 
map llliwlratlng diMribmioi,. Montreal |wq 

*"., pp. i-ni. 

Montrvnl Printing and Pulilil|. 
-o..|.p. 1 21. 

),, the Micro,copic Structure of certain Boulder 
the Organisms contain.-.! in them. 



rheD,,, l ,i, li ,, nof ( . (innd ^ (I , art thuspn , iiu . (lin 

HTimn (;*&,! /{ f ,il, r ,, v tiutll . 
Applelon & <*.. N>- York. J,,,,e' IHH5 
r..pp.5l4j. 

(AlwM^rai.lr. MB 



Dawaon, Oporjfe M. Continued. 

Report on the Region in the Vicinity of Bow and 
Belly Rivers, N.W.T. 

Krport of Prognm, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1882-84. Montreal, 1885. 8vo. pp. lc-169c. 

On the Superficial Deposits and Glaciation of 
the District in the vicinity of the Bow and 
Belly Rivers. (Reprinted from the Report 
of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada 



8ro.,pp. 1-14. 

On Certain Borings in Manitoba and the North- 
west Territory. 

Traiuactimt Koi/at Socirtv of Canada. Vol. IV., Sec. 
4, 1886. 4to., pp. 85-99. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

I'relim'nary Report on the Physical and Geologi- 
cal Features of that portion of the Rocky Moun- 
tains liet ween Latitudes 49' and 51" 3ff. 

Annual Wf/wrl.Ueological Surveyor Canada. (N.S.) 
Vol.1. Montreal. 1S86. 8o., pp. ln-169i). 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

On the Canadian Rocky Mountains, etc. 

C'iniiilinn llecord i,f Srirnrt, April, 1887, Montreal. 
8vo , pp. 285-300. 
(Also separately, pp. 1-16.) 

Noli' on the Occurrence of Jade in British Colum- 
bia, and its Employment by the Native*. With 
extracts from a paper of Prof. Meyer. 

(\in,,,li,,n ll,c,,rd ../ Science, April, 1857, Montreal. 
8 ., pp. 361 37S. 
( Alsn separately, pp. 1-15.) 

Notes and Observations on the Kwakiool People 
of Vancouver island. 

Triinmctinitt Itnyul Nncirty of fnnaila. Vol. IV , SC 

2, 18S7. 4to , pp. 1-36. 
(Also separately, same pigination.) 

Report on a Geological Kxamination of the North- 
ern Part of Vancouver Island nnd Adjacent 
Coasts. 

Antmnl Itrinrt, Geological Survey of Canada. (N.S.) 
Vol.ii. Montreal, 1587. 8vo , pp. 1B-129B 
(Alo separately, same pagination ) 

Notes to acconi)mny a Geological Map of the 
Northern Part of the Dominion of Canada cast 
of the Rocky Mountains. 

Annual It, port, Geological Survey of Canada. (N. 8.) 
Vol. n. Montreal, 18S7. 8vo., pp. U-C2R. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Recent Observations on the Glaciation of British 
Columbia and Adjacent Regions. 

Oenlogical Magazine, August, 1888, London. 8vo., 
pp. 347-350. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Report on an Exploration in the Yukon District. 
N. W.T.. and adjacent Northern Portion of Ilrit 
ish Columbia. 

Annual Repnrt, Geological Survey of Canada. (N.S ) 
Vol.in. Montreal, 18S8. 8vo.,pp. lB-277n. 

(Also separately, same pagination.) 
Notes on the Indian Tribes of the Yukon District 
and adjacent Northern Portion of British 
uinbia. (Reprinted from the . I n,,in,l ft, /,,->. 
Geological Survey of Canada, 18H7.) 
8vo,, pp. 1-2). 



ROYAL SOCIETY OK CANADA 



27 



DHWHOII, George SI. Continued. 

The Mineral Wealth of British Columbia with 
annotated list of localities of Minerals of 
Economic Value. 

Anmiitl Report, Geological Survey of Canada. 
(N. S.) Vol. in. 8vo.,pp. ln-163n. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Glaciation of High Points in the Southern In- 
terior of British Columbia, 

Geological Magazine, August, 1889, London. 8vo. , 
pp. 350-352. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

On the Earlier Cretaceous Rocks of the North- 
western Portion of the Dominion of Canada. 

American Journal of Science, August, 1889, New 
Haven. 870., pp, 120-127. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Notes on the Ore deposit of the Treadwell Mine, 
Alaska. 

American Oeologint, August, 1859, Minneapolis, 
8ro., pp. 84-93. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Notes on the Cretaceous of the British Colum- 
bian region. The Xanaimo Group. 

American Journal of Science, March, 1S90, New 
Haven. 8vo., pp. 180-183. 

(Also separately, same pagination.) 
On some of the Larger Unexplored Regions of 
Canada. 

Ottawa Naturalist, May, 1890, Ottawn. 8vo., pp. 
29-40. 

(Also separately, pp. 1-12.) 

Also printed in Appendix to Pike's Barren Ground 
of Northern Canada, 1892. London : Maetnillan <t 
Co. 8vo., pp. 277-289. 

On the Glaciation of the Northern part of the 
Cordillera, with an attempt to correlate the 
events of the Glacial Period in the Cordillera 
and Great Plains. 

American Gcologint, September, 1890, Minneapolis. 
8vo., pp. 153-162. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

On the later Physiographical Geology of the 
Rocky Mountain Region in Canada, with spe- 
cial reference to Changes in Elevation and the 
history of the Glacial Period. 

Transaction* Royal Society of Canada. Vol. vnr, 
See. 4. 1890. 4to., pp. 3-74. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Report on a portion of the West Kootanie Dis- 
trict. British Columbia. 

Annual Report, Geological Survey of Canada. 
(N. S.) Vol. iv. MontreaU890. Svo., pp. ln-66n. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Note on the Geological Structure of the Selkirk 
Range. 

Bulletin Geological Society of America. February, 
1891, Rochester. 8vo., pp. Wi-176. 

(Also separately, same pagination.) 
Notes on the Shuswap People of British 
Columbia. 

Trantactioni Royal Society of Canada. Vol. ix., 
See. 2. 4to.,pp. 3-44. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

and Alex. Sutherland. Geography of the British 
Colonies. London : Macmillan & Co., 1892. 
8vo., pp. i-xiu., 1-330. 



UawHun, George M. Continued. 

and Baden Powell, Sir G. Report of the British 
Bchring Sea Commissioners, London, Govern- 
ment, June, 1802. 
pp. i-vii., 1-241. 

Notes on the Geology of Middleton Island, 
Alaska. 

Bulletin Geological Society of America. Vol. iv., 
1892, Rochester. 8vo.. pp. 427-431. 

Mineral Wealth of British Columbia. 

Procei-dinrit of the Royal Colonial Imtitutr. Vol. 
xxiv., 1893. 8vo.,|.p. 238-284. 

Geographical and Geological Sketch of Canada 
with Notes on Minerals, Climate, Immigration 
and Native Races. 

Baedeker's Itnminion of Caun<ln Hand Iionk f 
Leipsic, 1H94. 12mo., pp. XXIII-XLVIII. 
Notes on the Occurrence of Mammoth Remains in 
the Yukon District of Canada and in Alaska. 

Quarterly J'turniil Geological Society, February. 
1891. London, 8vo., |. p. l-'.i. 

(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Geological Notes on some of the Coasts and 
Islands of Behring Sea and vicinity. 

Bulletin Geol'igii-al Sociity of Ann r'n-ii, February, 
1891. Rochester, 8vo., pp. 117-Hr,. 
(Also separately, same pagination.) 

Ihiwson, Sir !. W. 

Spruit's of Mi'riitnt'R in Nova Scotia. 

Kdinl.argl, I'l, 'l.:,,,l< i.-nl Journal. (Illustrated.) 1811. 
A Geological Excursion in Prince Edward Island. 

Hazard'* Ha^tt,. 1812. 

The Lower Carboniferous Formation of Nova 
Scotia. 

Jounirt! Geological Soeit h/f Lowlnn. (Section?.) 1843 . 
The Newer Coal Formation of the Eastern Part 
of Nova Scotia. 

Ibid. (Map and Sections.) 1844. 
Fossils from the Coal Formation of Nova Srotiu. 

Ibul. (Illustrated.) 1845. 

Report on the Coal Fields of Carribou Cove and 
River Inhabitants. 

Journal* of Xovn Scotia Istiiilatnre, 181*}. 
The Reproduction of Forests Destroyed by Fire. 

Edinburgh Philoxopliical Journal, 1847. 
The Boulder Formation of Nova Scotia. 

I'mceedinoi Rm/al Society of Edinburgh. 1847. 
The Mode of Occurrence of Gypsum in Nova 
Scotia. 

Ibid, 1847. 
The New Red Sandstone of Nova Scotia. 

Journal Geological Society of London. (Map and 
Sections.) 1847. 
The Colouring Matter of Red Sandstones. 

76W.1847. 
The Gypsum of Plaister Cove, Cape Breton. 

Ibid., 1847. 

Hand-book of the Geography and Natural His- 
tory of Nova Scotia. (Map.) Pictou and Edin- 
burgh, 1848, and 3rd edition, 1852. 
Metamorphic and Metalliferous Rocks of Eastern 
Nova Scotia. 

Journal Geological Society of London. (Map and 
Sections.) 1848. 



28 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TUB 



s.m. Sir J. W. -Continual. 
The Mode of Occurrence of Erect Calamites near 
Piciuii. Nova Scotia. 

./..urn.il (lr:l;t>e"l Snriitg / lunjun, 1848. 

Additional Notes on the Ked Sandstone of Nova 
Scotia. 

/6i<*.. 1849. 

i;. n i. u n- of n Reptile .in.l I .am I Shell in an Krect 
Tree in the Carlioniferous of Nova Scotia. 
1 1. veil. P.iwsi.n. \Vyman and Owen.) 

1','t. (Illustrated.) !-'. 
The . \llx-rl Mine, New Brunswick. 

/bi,l. lll.i-ln.lfd.) 1862. 

The Slnieture of the Albion Mines Coal-Meld. 
tPnwson anil 1'iiole.l 

Mu/,lB&2. 
,'irirnlilir .1 f/rinilt u re in A'oiv; Srutia. Halifax. 

IVii and enlarged edit inn 1X.T7. 
X.itin- nf tin- Discovery of Raphctes planiccps. 
1 1 i.i -mi and Ov.cn. i 

/'.i i.. 1 '!. 
The Coal Measures of tin- Smitli .logins. 

li. ui. (Figures and Sections.) IV>3. 
Modern Submerged Kore.st at h'orl Lawrence. 

ll.i.i. iSr.-tluli.) K>4. 

.[,,!, /i, in <i"*lii'/i/. 1st edition. ls.V> ; now ill Ith 
edition. l-' 1 !. iIlliistmtioiiH aiul Map i 

Tin' I'os-ils kn PUII as Sternlieivia. 

(,.,,J,.iri .Viifnm/Mf. (Illustrated.) 1S57. 
I'li-i-t ''i-in- l-'ossils nf Moiitival and vicinity. 

(Wi.o'.i.i .V.n..r.,/,w. (llluniratcj.) IV.7. And 
uMui'iiial [UI^TS ill pub-f-iuent volumes. 

I i-./i.i.-/. or Stinlii-s of Ih,. Narrative of tlieCr,' 

ation in ( ieiir-is. .Montreal. 1S">7. 
Tin- ( 'opper iH-arin^ 1 leponii s of Maiinanse, Lake 
Sn|M-rior. 

r.m.,./i,iri .Y.if,,r.i/i(. 1- .7. 

The I.Mi r t'arlxniiferoiis Coal Measuri-R of Hrit 
i>li Nortli America. 

.I'iunwl'.i tinjttvicnl Sixirlu. Illlliatrutrd.) IsX 
The Vejjelalili- Si rucllire* ill Coal. 

/(,,./. (Illiidniwl. ) KJ'I. 

The Tnliicoloiis Worms of the fiiilf of St. Law- 
rence. 

rn/i</Ki>t .\niurala< I Illustrated ) 1&V.'. 
|-'ossil I'luntM fmin the Devonian of Canada. 

/',i./. Illluilratcdj I*'.'. 

A Terrestrial Mollnxk. a Millipede, and new Hep 
tiles from the Coiil Formation of Nova Scotia. 

Ju*r*al Orolotical Societ*. ' Illu-trItd.) Ig'V. 
A Ne* KiisNil Kern. 

/'-../., l<)6fl. 

The Silurian and Devonian lioc'ksof Nova Scotia 
and their l-'o-sil-. (Dawson and Hall.) 
''aiMK/wm .Viifurndw. (I II unruled. I 1WO. 
Arctic and Alpine I'lant.s and their Ue 
History. 



Ailditlonal Hcpiilian Keniains from the Coal of 
Nova Scotia. 

Javntal OtJntieal Saeirtt. (IllimraUd ) 1881. 
Carpollto and Erect SiKillaria. 
IUJ. (Illutnud) IMI. 



1 1.1 s., n. 8ir J. W. Continued. 

Preliminary Notice of the Pre-Carboniferous Flora 
of New Brunswick, Maine and Kastrn Canada. 

<:,H,,,i;,,n.\iiiur<,liit. (Illustrated.) 1861. 
The Recent Discoveries of Gold in Nova Scotia. 

Kid., 1861. 

The Flora of the Devonian Period in North 
America. 

Journal a folovical Society. (Illustrated.) 1861. 
Farther Observations on Devonian Plants from 
Maine. Gaspe and New York. 

ll,i,l. (Illustrated.) 1862. 

A New Species of Dendrerpeton and on Dermal 
Coverings of Fossil Batrachiang. 

Ibid. (Illustrated.) 1862. 

Footprints of a Reptile from the Carboniferous of 
Cape Breton. 

Canadian ffaluralul. (Illustrated.) 1863. 
Synopsis of the Carboniferous Flora of Nova 
Scotia. 

Ibid., 1863. 
Fossils of the Genus Rusophyeus (Rusichnites). 

Ibid (Illustrated.) 1861. 
The Air-breathers of the Coal Period. 

li.i,l. (Plates.) 1833. And issued as a separate 
volume. 

Agriculture for Schools, Montreal, 1864. 
Koxoon Caimdense. (Logan, Dawson, Hunt and 

Carpenter.) 

lk',,1. (Plates.) 1865. 
The Conditions of Accumulation of Coal, and the 

Coal Flora of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 

Journal (leolngical S"C\flu. (Pliltes.) 1867. 

Notes on Laurent ian Fossils. (Dawson and Car- 
penter.) 

/bid., 1867. 

A New Land Snail from the Carboniferous. 
(Dawson and P. P. Carpenter.) 

Ibiil., 1868. 
Structure of Calamites and Calamodendron. 

Ibid.. 1870. 

Heport on the Geology of Prince Edward Island. 
(Map and Plates.) (Daw.-on and Harrington.) 
Montreal, 1H71. 
Ha nil-book of Canadian Zoology. Montreal, 

1X71. 

Keport on the Flora of the Upper Silurian and 
Devonian of Canada. 

Oevloaical Xunry o/ Canada. (Plate*.) 1871. 
Report on the Flora of the Lower Carboniferous 
and Millstone Grit of Canada. 

/'./ (Plates.) 1872. 
A'o/fs on the Post '-pliocene of Canada. 

Republished from Papers in the Canadian ffaluralul. 
(Plates. Cuts awl Maps.) Montreal, 1872. 

Footprints of Sauropus unguifer. 

London Geoloffica/ Uagazint. (Illustrated.) Vol. ix. 
1872. 
The Story of the Earth and Man. (Illustrated.) 

London, 1872. 

Impressions and Footprints of Animals on Car- 
boniferous Rocks. 

American Journal of ticienrr. (Illustrated.) 1873. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



29 



Dawson, Sir J. W. Continued. 

Slgillaria, Catamites and Lepidodendron. 

Journal Geological Society, 1873. 

Relation of the Upper Coal Measures of Nova 
Scotia to the Permian. 

Ibid. (Sections.) 1874. 

Nature and ttie Bible. New York, 1K75. 
Life's Dawn on Earth. A summary of facts as 
to Eozoon. (Map and Illustrations.) London 
1875. 

Phosphates of the Laurentian Rocks. 

Journal Geological Society. 1875. 

On the Occurrence of Eozoon Canadcnse at Cote 
St. Pierre. 

Ibid. (Illustrated.) 1876. 
New Carboniferous Batrachians. 

A merican Journal of Science, 1876. 
The Origin of the World. London and New- 
York, 1878. 

Carboniferous Fishes from New Brunswick. 

Canadian Naturali st. (Illustrated.) 1378. 
Canadian Earthquakes. 

Ibid.. 1878, and subsequent years. 
Phoca Grcenlandica from Pleistocene. 

Ibid., 1878. 
New Facts Relating to Eozoon. 

76id.,1878. 

Supplement to Acadian Geology. (Illustrated.) 

London, 1879. 
Devonian Plants of Scotland. 

Transaction* Edinburgh Geological Society, 1879. 
Fossils Injected with Silicates and Forms of 
Stromatopora?. 

Journal Geological Sciet it- (Plates.) 1879- 
Recent Controversies Respecting Eozoon. 

Canadian Naturalist, 1879. 
Mobius on Eozoon Canadense. 

American Journal of Science. 1879. 
Remarks on Recent Papers on the Geology of 
Nova Scotia. 

Canadian Naturalist, 1379. 

Geological Relations and Fossils of the Silurian 
Iron Ores of Nova Scotia. 

Ibid., 1880. 
Fossil Men, and their American Analogues. 

(Illustrated.) London, 1880. 

Revision of the Land Snails of the Pahi'ozoic 
Period. 

American Journal of Science. (Illustrated.) 1880. 
New Erian Plants. 

Journal Geological Society. (Illustrated.) 1881. 

The Chain of Life in Geological Time. (Illus- 
trated.) London, 1881. 

Results of Recent Explorations of Erect Trees 
containing Reptilian Remains in the Coal For- 
mation of Nova Scotia. 

Trnnmctiom Royal Society of London. (Plates) 1882. 
Second Report on Fossil Plants of the Upper 
Silurian and Erian of Canada. 

Geological Survey of Canada. (Plates.) 1882. 
Cretaceous and Tertiary Floras of British Col- 
umbia. 

Transaction* Royal Societyof Canada. (Plates.) 1882. 



li.. W-..MI. Sir J. W. Continued. 

New Fossils from the Lower Carboniferous of 
Nova Scotia. 

Memoirs Peter KeJpith Museum, 1883. 
Unsolved Problems in Geology. Presidential 

Address. 

American Asttociatwn for Advancement of Science, 
Minneapolis, 1883. 

Geology of the Canadian Northwest. 

Journal (leoloftical Society, 1X83. 

Relations of Geological Work in Canada and tin- 
Old World. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada, 1881. 
Resume of Pleistocene Geology of Canada. 

London Geological M<to<izine, 1SS1. 
Meso/oic Floras of the Hocky Mountain Region. 

Transaction* li"unl Society of Caimdn, IHS/i. 
Address on Canadian and Scottish Geology. 

Traniartion* Kdinlairah treolnyii-nl Society, 18S5. 

Fossils Collected by Mr. Main in Prim-.- Kdward 
Island. 

Canadian Naturalist, (lllustr.iteil.) ISS5. 
Papers on Geology of Egypt and Palestine. 

London Geological Magazine. (Sectinns.) ]*V). 
Points in which American Geological Srience is 
Indehte 1 to Canada. 

Addrew to Section IV. Itjiinl S',,-i,h, ,' Canada, 1-vi. 
Fossil Plants of the I.aramie. 

Transactions Royal Societvof Canada. (Plates.) IvM 
The Geological History of the North Atlantic. 
Presidential Address. 

Hi-iliili Association, Biriningluiln, 1SSIJ. 
Hhizocarps in the Upper Krian Formal ion. 

Transaction* I'liicago Acx: /,./;/. i Illustrated.) 1887. 
Fossil Woods of the Cretaceous and I.araniie. 

Transactions Royal Society of <'>iii<i<l<i , 1887. 

Tin 1 (li'oloairal Jlixfiiry uf I'liuit*. (Illustrated. i 
London and New York, 1SSS. 

New Facts Relating to Eozoon. 

Geological Magazine, 18H. 

Specimens of Eozoon Canadense in the Peter 
Redpath Museum. 

Memoir* Peter Redpath Muurtnu, 1SS8." 

Eozoic and Pala-ozoic Rocks of the Atlantic Const 
of Canada, in comparison with those of Western 
Europe and the Interior of America. 
Journal of Geological Society. 1838. 

Modern Science in Bible Lands. (Map and Illus- 
trations.) London and New York, 1888. 
Hand-book of Canadian fieology. (Maps and 

Illustrations.) Montreal, 1889. 
New Cambro - Silurian Sponges from Little 
Metis. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada. (Plates.) 
1889. 

Fossil Plants from the Laramie of Mackenzie and 
Bow Rivers. 

Ibid. (Plates.) 1889. 
New Plants from the Erian and Carboniferous. 

Memoirs Peter Redpath Huteum, 1890. 



Contains reference to various minor notes and papers not 
in this list. 



30 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



-.M. Sir J. W. Continued. 

Burrow* and Trucks of Invertebrate Animals in 
1'nlifozoir Hocks. 

Journal Or-Jogicul Xocirttl. 1990. 

Minimi Ideas of Evolution. I/ondon, 1HIX). 

Tertiary IMnntH of Siiiiilkiiiueen River. 

7Vtiit*"C'w>H R'vnl \oci>/|/ of Canada. (I'Utos.) 
1W>. 

I>. Tl.lllT]H-toll Aradi.llltlMI 1111(1 Il\ lolllllllll- I.M-lli. 

;.../. ,nV.i/ V ( i(/.i:,V. (IlluntrnUd.) ]*.'!. 
r'o-il I'lants fnini the C'.-irhniiifenuis of New- 
foundland. 

llnll.lin lle>,lugieiilS>xi-tii,,fAmrru-a. (Illultrillnl ) 
1*1. 

Noil's on Tive> Cultivated on the (irounds of 
Mi-liill rniviTMty. 

l'.i.,.|./,.ni It-c-'r.l ,.' >,;,,,<', lffl'1. 

Plrist i K-rnt* Plant* of Canada. (Dawnon and IVn- 

IllllltlW.I 

7Vililirri'..>ii A::iTii-,,n ',' n/',gi,-,il .V.,, i'. (,/. (Illu.1- 
Intel K'J. 

I'.irk.i rli-. ij.jiMi-. i IVnhallou and Dauxon.i 
TV.I.I. ..... ,,/. ivij. 

I li, It. -l.it i n .if K.u-U Cretan-mi* l-'lora- in Canada 

I lilt.-d Si lit--.. 

I titrated.) !<:. 

N- i : ' u-fiiiii I'!, ml- from \'aiic'in vrr l-land. 
/'., i . !-.:. 

ni /,,/, ; //,, ,svi. IK-, ../ //,, /;,//,. 

clllii-ti MI. -d.r I,,, n, Ion an. I \i- Vm-k. lw.i:t. 

/Vi. /.. I./. inCnnniln. illlnstrated.l Montn-al, 
I -'I. 

// \l. .!,,,., /'/,/,, ,,/ ( /,,,; ,,,/ ///.</,,;. 

It'll":-.:,. 7'r.irf .<.,.(,., !,,,[,. l. ini ]S4|. 

(Mil K. , ..i.l of Canadian Karl li.|iiaki-. 

/:. . - ..... . ii|. 

I'li-liiniiinn N..I.' ..n l!i-i-,-nl I li-. -ovi-i i,-~ of Kossil 
Hiilrni liians. 
/',/.. b'.ij. 

\nti- mi I li.-i;. -HUH NaiadilcsiDauson and \Vlieel- 
lon Hindi. 

./ .ur,,.,l llr..l,, a ; r .,l .\.. r ;.t u , JS'.I). 

({\iNJnnof liivalvc Mnlliisks ,,f 1 1,,. Coal Komia- 
lion of Xuva Si-dtia. 

''m . /,.i . l!,r-.r:l ;f Seiner. \W4. 



II.IM..IM. Sainiii-l K. 

Tin- Itur l,d.i> of Mod, -i-n Clieinistry. 
liazrtt,. Montreal. 1*74. 

I'rof. T>niUII\ li..|fa~t Aildn-w.. 

Ibid.. 1ST4. 
Churrli and State in Quel)ec. 

Caxndv,* M',nil,lg, Toronto, 1876. 
Colonial CopjrriKht. 

Oatriit, Montreal. 1675. 
Sir Arthur Helps, Life and Work* of 

Hid.. 1H74 

The Geological Surrey, Ctilitvnr 

IhiJ.. 1*75. 

fmtmUnt Kducation in Quebec 
Hid.. !:. 

IUtioi.nl.- of the Ridndale Judgment 
/ML. 1K77. 



I >.i \\ -i>n. Samuel E. Continued. 

Prerogatives of the Crown. A Series of Papers 
on the Quebec (Letellier) Crisin. 

Sptctator, Montreal, 1878. 
The Chemistry of CookinR. 

Witnrn. Montreal! 1878. 
Specific Duties on Books. 

American Publuhert' Weekly. 1880. 
Montreal in the Days of James McGiil. 

Gazelle, Montreal, 1882. 

Old Time* in Montreal 1763 to 1830. With illus- 
trations of old buildings. 

Star, Montreal, Carnival Number, 1885. 
The Jesuits' Estates. Three papers. 

Gazette, Montreal, 1888. 

The Parliament Buildings of Ciiiada from the 
Conquest to Confederation. With illustrations. 

Star, Montreal, Carnival Number, 1886. 
Christmas in Canada. 

/AW., Montreal, Christmas Number, 1888. 

The English Minority in Quebec. A series of 
seven papers on the Parish Law of Lower Can- 
ada. 

The \r,ik, Toronto, 1890. 
The Chase Copyright Bill 
Xnlian, New York, 1890. 

Problems of (ireater Britain. Three papers on 
Sir Charles Dilke's Injok. 
The. Week, Toronto, 189U. 
The Constitutional Question. 

llnziiti, Montreal, 1873. 

Sclent IMII. A paper read before the Athenwum 
Club of Montreal. 

. i ' fi.nl' i Munihlii, Toronto, December, 1877. 
Nineteenth Century Progress. A paper read be- 
fore the Athena-urn Club of Montreal. 

AV,r fJumiaum Monthly, Montreal. January, 1878. 
I 'raver and Modern Science. 

I'nnmlian MtmlMy, Toronto, December, 1875. 
The Massacre of the Cedars. An inquiry into the 
question of the employment of Indians during 
the Revolutionary War; a chapter of local his- 
tory in 177tf-7 on the frontier from the Cedars to 
St. Anne's. 

Ibid., April, 1874. 

Champlain. A Poem. Montreal, 1800. 
12mo., pp. 8. 

Republished in the Ottawa Onl, 1892. 
Report on the relative positions of Bishop and 
Rector in Christ-Church, as Cathedral and Par- 
ish Church, under the Laws of England and 
Canada. Montreal, 1875. 
8ro., pp. 100. 

Copyright in Books. An inquiry into its origin 
and an account of the present state of the Law 
in Canada. Montreal, 1882. 
8ro.,pp. 40. 

Episcopal Elections : Ancient and Modern. Mont 
real, 1877. 
8vo.,pp. 64. 

Yea or Nay. The Railway Crisis in Montreal in 
1872. 

The Montreal Board of Trade. A Commercial 
History , f the City from 1842 to 1892, with 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



31 



Dawsoii, Samuel E. Continued. 

tables of the statistics of trade for fifty years. 
Montreal, 1802. 

Old Colonial Currencies. An inquiry into the 
origin of the Par of Exchange. 

Canadian Monlhlu, Toronto, April, 1872. 

Canadian Antiquarian, Montreal, July, 1872. 

Banker's Magazine, New York, February, 1874. 

The Argument for Bi-metallism. 

The Week, Toronto, February 3, 1893. 
8vo., pp. 6. 

Handbook for the City of Montreal, prepared for 
the Meeting of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science at Montreal in 
1882. Montreal, 1882. 

12mo., pp.167. 

Handbook for the Dominion of Canada, prepared 
for the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science at i's meeting in Montreal in 
1884. Montreal, 1884. 
12mo ,pp xn. + 335. 

A Study ; with Critical and Explanatory Notes 
of Lord Tennyson's poem, The Prinrtsx. 1st 
ed., Montreal, 18S2. 2ndcd., with a letter from 
Lord Tennyson, Montreal, 1884. 
1-ino.. 2nd ed., pp. \\- + 120. 

Dentaoii, George T. 

The National Defences: or observations on the 
best defensive force f<>r Canada. Toronto, 18til. 

8vo., pp. 32. 

Canada : Is she Prepared for War : or a few re- 
marks on the State of her Defences. liy a 
Native Canadian. Toronto, 18(>1. 

Svo , pp. 21. 

A Review of the Militia Policy of the Present 
Administration. By Junius, jr. Hamilton, 
1863. 

8vo., pp. 15. 

Manual of Outpost Duties. Toronto: Kollo & 
Adam, 1866. 

12mo .pp. 61. 

The Fenian Raid at Fort Erie. Toronto : Hollo 
& Adam. I860. 

8vo.,pp. 92. 
Cavalry Charges at Sedan. 

Canadian Monthly, January, 1872. 

A Visit to General Robert E. Lee. 
Ibid, March, 1872. 

Modern Cavalry. London : Bos worth, 18(i8. In 
German, Munich, 1869. In Russian, St. Peters- 
burg, 1872. In Hungarian, Buda-Pesth, 1881. 

A History of Cavalry. (Awarded the Emperor of 
Russia's First Prize). London : Macmlllan & 
Co., 1877. Berlin, 1879. 

DeCelles, Alfred I >. 

Persecutions et reparations. 

Revue Canadienne, Montreal, 1831. 
Une paroisse Canadienne au dix-septieme siecle. 

/iid.,1882. 
Notre avenir. 

Le Canada Franma, Quebec, 1887. 
Oscar Dunn. Biographic. 

Memoire* de latiocittt royale du Canada. Tome IT., 
See. I., 1886. 



DeCelles, Alfred D. -Continued. 

La crise du regime parlementaire. Montreal. 
Imprimerie generale. 
8vo.,pp. 34. 

A la Conquete de la libertc en France et an 
Canada. 

M/moirei tie la SociM rui/nl'- dn C'tmuia. Torae 
ix.. Sec. I., 189(1. 

L'honorable Juge Roiitliier. Biographic. 

Lei In, a, mil du .hur, Ottawa, 1890. 
Sir Alexandre Lacoste. 
IIAd., Montreal, 1891. 

L'honorable S. R. Molson, C.P. Biographic. 

Il,iil., Montreal, 1891. 

Devillc, K. 

Kxamples of Astronomic and Geodetic C.ilciila- 
tions for the use of Land Snrvcvors. (Quebec, 
1878. 

Photographic Surveying, including tin- clcnicnls 
of Descriptive Geometry ami I Vrspe.-t i\ ... 
Ottawa, 188!). 

In I In Ti-iiiixin-tiiinxiif llu- Hoi/til .</, 1 1/,, i ('a mi 1 1 a : 
Stir la mesure des distances tcrrcsircs par des 
observations astronomiqucs. Tome i., See .; 
I8KJ. 

Dn ehoix d'nnc projection pour la carte iln 
Canada. Tome iv.. Sec. It, Issii. 

Determination of Time l>y Transits across tin' 
vertical of Polaris. \'ol. \ [., Sec. It, Isss. 

I, ever topographique des Montagues lioclieiiscs. 
execute par la photographic. Tome XL, See. :;, 
1K93. 

Diomie, X.-K. 

Le Tombeau de Champlain. Quebec: Bronsscaii. 
1880. 

12mo., pp. 32. 

Les Cercles agricoles dans la Province de (Jnchec. 
Quebec : Brousscan, 1881. 
12mo., pp. (16. 

Etats-Unis, Manitoba et Nord-onest. Notes tie 

voyage. Quebec : Brousseau. 18S2. 
16mo., pp. 184. 

Fete natioiiale des Canadiens-Fninciiis a \Viml 
sor. Out. Quebec : Brousseau, 18Xt. 

16rao., pp 152. 

Historique de 1'eglise de Notre-Dame des Vic- 
toires -Deuxieme centenaire. Quebec: lirons 
seau, 1888. 

liimo., pp. 88. 
Des figures oublieesde notre histoire. 

Rfrue Canadienne, pp. 382 A 392. 
Jacques Cartier. Quebec : Brousseau, 1881). 

12mo., pp. 350. 
Les Lieutenant-Gouverneurs de Gaspe. 

Retue Canadirnne, 1889, pp. 100 a 112. 
Le mal de terre. 

Ibid,, f p. 105 a 215. 
Miscou. Hommes de mer et homines de Dieu. 

Canada- Francait, 1889. Tome in., pp. 413 -i 448, et 
514 a 532. 
La traite des pelleteries sous Champlain. 

Ibid., 1890-91. Tomes in., IV., pp. 556-572, et 675-692 
5-26. 



32 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



1 1 ion in-. V-K. Continued. 

Ix* Seminaire lie Xolre Dame des Ange.s. Mont- 

mil. \>W. 
Sro.. pp 38. 

I.- plus grand de.s S<iiiri'>ii,>i-. 

!;, i:,,,,!,,,,,. H91. pp. 577- .i7. 
!.<> In, lions en K ranee. 

/'.I/ . pp. All '*. 

Kranrais et Sauvages. 
IkiJ.. pp. 7UV719. 

I .a Xnnvi-lle France l)e t 'artier a ( 'li.iinpl.iin. 
Quebec : Darv.-aii, IHlll. 

"VII . pp. 4"! 

Saimii-l i '|i.iMi|il.iin : Sii vie et sos .ruvrcs. ler 
* .ilium-. I^IH-IN-I- : Cute. IS 1 ,)', 
K VD , i-p. \vnl . 4.'*' 

(' I'. 1'itiiK -li.iuil. fi>iu|iitciir elii Culli-go ilc Saint,-- 
\nni-. TniiiHlationdo scNrcsti-s iiiortcls. Que- 

IM-I Itmilssi- in. I -VI. 
l-ll ii.. i i ! '.'. 

Klmli in hiMilngpim*. I.,. f,,it .lar.,iies C.-iriirr i-i 

I i I'- ' .' II- -i MIIIH-. M.III! I-IM!. lsi.il. 
vo.. pp 34. 

1. 1 in. .mi. iii- id- r.u-ti's -mis I,- r.-niine francais-. 

. / . 1- ' :. |.|,. :;i ;ci, 7j ..|. 

' .! i:.nli--.,ii. 

-'' ' f,, n . . i. Tiunc 

1 I "inr mi., >.-> ]. 1- 'I. 

\ ! il- I I . I'.iiiii Imnl. |,i,.|,.. iiii,si,,nii.iir.. 1-1 
(.iinlali-iir .lu C,, !!,._.. ,|,. Siiinli' Ainu- ill. la I',,. 
i' : Hmu-si-.m. |-M|. 

"> ..||. - :.. (I I. 
Illlpul-. \. I 

Kl '-"" '"- " fi; ii.'lriral ()|,lii-x Kill K 'M..M. 1.SH< 

"v.... |, 

.linii..r \l-i-l.ra. Kindlon. |s>i'. 

> .1 
l'imi-1-.ily Mairii iilalion in Oni.ui,,. 

K-ln-aii-.ivil M,mhl a . T..r..nt... Iicceml>cr. ls^. 

S>nlli.-lir (Ji-iMiii-lry nf llu- iiiiint. lint-, ami cin-i.- 

in III.- plan.-, I...M.I.III : Mariiiillan &; ('., IKS.) 

.. . |.|. :".<t. 

I'rin. i|.l,. s ,,f Kli-ini-ntary Alurlira. Xi-w V,,rk : 
Miiriiiillmi & Co.. l.sci. 

"I., , pp 306. 

SynilM-lir S,,li,| i; e .,ni.(ry. X.-- V,,,k : Ma, mil 
Ian A: Co.. Drrernlier, ixn. 
"vo.. pp. 

In IH, Trniunrli., ni< / , hr H,,y,,l Soricly of Can,,,!,, . 
On the mean* of makiiiK a Hi.ler.-al clock K|IOW 
mean time. Vol. i.. Sec. :i, ISK1. 

Klemenlary meww of expanding the functions 

> . tin. a. o. , tn. H. Vol. vn. Sec. 3, 1889. 

Development O f general Bernoulllan number an 

rombinMorial .determinant. Vol. vn.. Sec. 

3, IFMU. 

On the Kraphlc projection of Occulutlon* and 

tUfttm. Vol. vn.. Sec. 3, IMMO. 
On the u of a .jrmbollc form of Demolvre's 
orem. V ol. l\.. Sec. 3, IHB1. 



Ml-. R. \\ 

/ii the Reports of the Geological Survey of Canada ; 
On Operations in Boring for Coal at Newcastle 
Creek, N.H. 1H72, pp. 231-297. 

On Boring Operations at Newcastle Creek N B 
1H74 75, pp. 00-85. 

On Iron Ore Deposits of Ca le on County N B 
1874-75, pp. 1)7-104. 

On Boring Operations in Northwest Territories 
1H75 7, pp. 282-291. 

On the Lower Carboniferous Belt of Albert and 
Westmoreland Counties, N.B., including the 
" Albert Shales." 1H70-77, pp. 351-461. 

On the Pre-Silurian Rocks of Albert, King's and 
St. John counties, N.B. 1877-78, pp. M3 D . 

On the Geology of Southern New Brunswick, in 
Charlotte, Sunbury, Queens, St. John and Al- 
bert counties, 1H7H-71), pp. l-26i>. 

On the Ceology of Xorthern New Brunswick 

l*7!l SO, pp. l-47n. 

On the Ceology of Northern and Eastern Xew 
Brunswick and North Sid of Bay des Chaleurs. 

1MSU-HI, pp. I-24D. 

On the Ceology of the (iasp Peninsula. 1881-82 
pp. l-:t2nn. 

On the (a-ology of (iaspe and Prince Edward 
Island. 1SS2-S3, pp. l-:i4K. 

On the Ceologv of Eastern Alln-rt and Westmore- 
land counties, N.B., and of portion of Cumber- 
land and Colchester counties, N.S. 1885, pp. 
I 71 K. 

On the Geology of the Eastern Townships of 
Quebec, counties of Coinpton, Stanstead, 
Beauce, Hichinond and Wolfe. 1880, pp. 1-70J. 

On the Geology of Megan tic, Beauce, Dorchester, 
I-evis, Bellechasse and Montmaxny. 1887-88, 
pp. 1-120K. 

On the .Mineral Resources of the Province of Que- 

bec 1HHSKII, pp. MatK. 

A History of New Brunswick (Jcology-. Govern- 
ment I'rintrng Oftlcv. 
HVO.. pp. 1^54. 

Xote.s on the Geological Relations and Mode of 
Occurrence of some of the more Economic Min- 
erals of Eastern Quebec*. 

Ottami finlumlut. Vol. in., 18811. pp. 45-67. 
Geological Progress in Canada. 
Ibid., Vol. iii.,lS89, pp. 119-145. 

AsU-stos : Its History, Mode of Occurrence and 
I'ses. 

Ibid., Vol. iv., March, 1891, pp. 201-225. 
The Work of the Geological Survey of Canada. 

Ibid., Vol v., January, 1892, pp. 161-179. 
The Stratigraphy of the Quebec Group. 

Itul/.tin (;,..!,, a i<-,,l Socitty of America, 1890, pp. 
458-467. 

The Geology of Quebec, south of the St. Law- 
rence. 

Tninmctioiu Kami Nocittv of Cannd'i. Vol. ix.. 
Se. 4, 1891, pp. 1U&-126. 

The Mining Industries of the Province of Quebec. 
Trantaetiotu tntlilute American Mining Enginem, 
1U89, pp. 316-381. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



33 



Ells, R. W. Continued. 

The Origin and Mode of Occurrence of the 
Phosphate Deposits of the Ottawa Valley. 

Canadian Mining Review, February, 1893. 
The Laurentian of the Ottawa District. 

Bulletin o/ the Geological Society of America, 1893. 
The Peat Deposits of America. 

Canailian Mining Reritw, April, 1893. 

The Geology of the Proposed Tunnel under 
Northumberland Straits, N.B. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada, Vol. XI., 
Seo. 4,1893. 

Mica Deposits in the Lnurentian of the Ottawa 
District. 

Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, April, 
1894. 

Recent Sedementary Formations on the Bay of 
Fundy Coast, N.S. 

Transactions Nova Scotiim Inttitute of Science, 
Halifax, N.S. Sec. 2, Vol. i. 

The Potsdam and Calciferous Formations of Que- 
bec and Eastern Ontario. 

Traniactiont Royal Society of Canada, Vol. XII., 
Seo. 4,1891. 

Fabre, Hector. 

Esquisse biographiqne sur Chevalier de Lorimicr. 

Montreal, pp. 15. 
Ecrivains Canadiens, 1'Abbe Casgrain. 

Revue Canadicnne, Montreal, 1865. 
Le Cceur et 1'Esprit. 
76i<i.,1865. 

Ecrivains Canadiens, N. Bourassa. 

TiiW.,1866. 
Canadian Literature. 

Transaetiotm Literary and Historical Sorietii of 
Quebec, 1860. 

Chroniques. Quebec : A. Marcotte, 187C). 
Conference sur le Canada faite a la Societe des 

Etudes Maritimes Coloniales, le 24 mars 1884. 

Paris, meme annee. 

Conference sur le Pacifique Canadien, faite devant 
la Societe. de Geographic Commereiale de Paris, 
le 20 mai 1884. Paris, memc annee. 

Fleming, Sand ford. 

Railway Inventions. A Xew Mode of Propulsion. 

The Preen, Toronto, 1817. 

Route for the Grand Trunk Railway, via Peter- 
boro'. 

Ibid., Toronto, 1851. 

Valley of the Nottawasaga. 

Canadian Journal, Vol. i., Toronto, 1852. 
4to., pp. I. 

The Editor's Shanty. 

Afaclear'f Magazine, September, Toronto, 1853, pp. 6. 
Railway Termini! and Pleasure Grounds, Toronto. 

Canadian Journal, 1853. 

4to ,pp. 3. 

Toronto Harbour : Its Formation and Preserva- 
tion. 

Ibid.,Vol. n.,1853, pp. 10. 

The Preservation and Improvement of Toronto 
Harbour. 

76irf.,Vol. III. ,1854, pp. 15. 



Mi- in in:;, Sanillord Continued. 

New Compound or Continuous Rail. 

Canadian Journal, New Series, pp. 8. 
The Geological Survey and Sir William Logan. 

JIM., 1856, pp. 7. 

Valley of the Saugeen and Northwest Railway. 
Toronto, 1857. 

8vo., pp. 87. 

Lecture on a Railway to the Pacific through Brit- 
ish Territory. Port Hope, 1858. 

The f'reui, pp. 10. 
The Davenport (iravel Ridge. 

Canadian Journal, 1861, pp. 8. 

Construction of a Railway from Canada to (lie 
Pacific "The Overland Route." Cheweti & 
Co., Toronto, 18f>2. I'p. 3s. 

A Great Territorial Road to British Columbia. 
Quebec, 1863. 
8vo , pp. 57. 

The Oil \Vells of Eniiiskillen. 

( 'itnttilimi ./rjnrii'tf, 18Gi, pp. 4. 

A National Railway from Quebec to Halifax. 
Toronto, 1 still. 

The Intercolonial Railway. Heport on Prelimin- 
ary Explorations. Quebec: (',. H. Dcsbarats, 
ISlio, pp. UHh 

The Short Ocean Passage. 

l.'liiij Engiwtr' Ili-nort '</18<i5 (I.C.R.), pp. 8. 
The Opening of the Pictou Railway. Halifax. 

IStiT, pp. 28. 
Intercolonial liailway. Letter to the Premier on 

the System of Construction. Ottawa, 1SIBI, 

pp. 111. 

Short Service for Sunday. Canada Pacific Mail- 
way. Ottawa, 1S71. pp. 7. 

Canadian Pacific Railway. Iteport and Explora- 
tory Survey. Ottawa, 1*72. 
8vo. , pp. 80. 

Canadian Pacific Railway. Loss of Lives on Kx- 

plorations. Ottawa, 1873. pp. Id. 

Canadian Pacific Railway. Practical Suggestions, 

Ottawa, 1874, pp. 5<). 
Canadian Pacific Railway. Report on Surveys 

and Explorations, Ottawa, 1871, pp. USti. 

Canadian Pacific Railway. General Instructions 

to Engineering Stall'. Ottawa, 1875, pp. :tl>. 
North Shore Railway. Report on Difficulties 

between Engineer and Contractor, 1S7">, pp. 27. 
Canadian Pacific Railway. Reply to Governor 

Morris. Route of Railway west of Keewatin. 

pp. 53. 
Newfoundland Railway. Report on Surveys. 

St. John's, 1876, pp. 147. 
Memoir on Uniform non-local Time. London, 

1876, pp. 37. 
The Intercolonial. A Historical Sketch, 1832- 

1876, Montreal. Dawson Bros., 1876, pp. 268. 
Canadian Pacific Railway. Reports on Surveys 

and Preliminary Operations. Ottawa. 1877. 

pp. 431. 
Short Sunday Service for Travellers. Montreal : 

Dawson Bros., 1877, pp. 124. 



7 



34 



Firming. Sanclfbrd. Continued. 

Canada and it.- undeveloped interior. 

fructfdinf of Ratal Colonial Intitule, London, 
UTS, pp. K. 

Canadian Pacific Kail way. Report on Location 
and Harbours in the Pacific. Ottawa, 1878. 
pp. li'l. 
Temp* Terrv.stre. 1'iiris, 1K78. 

8ro. pp. .15 

North Shorv Railway. Report on Route Maski 
minge to Montreal, 1H78, pp. li. 

Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Rrj>ri:,f /V^rr... Ottawa, 1*79, pp. 142. 
I'hrinin ile Ker Canadicn du 1'iiciltiiiie. 1877- 
l*7l>. Mont mil. 

Svo . pp. IVK. 

Time Reckoning. 

7V.inlcli">i ('iin-i./i'iin /nititulr. Toronto, 187!>, 
PP. 51 
S.-lrrtion "if ii IVinir Meridian. 

li,'l.. Toronto. ls7'.i.|,p 111. 
Daily I'rayr- for Hu\\ liousi'liold*. Montreiil : 

D.iU~.)II Up!-. l.-7'.l, pp. Til. 

i '.iii.tdi.in I'aciiic Kail \\ ay. Mciiio. for I'arlia 

in. -lit. Ottawa, IKS I, pp. 17. 
Canadian I'aciiir Kailway. Report mi Con-Inn- 

ti..ii. liitaua. IvU. pp. :t7:!. 
i .in.t'lian Pacific Railway. Karr\\ i-ll Addrr->s to 

St. ill'. Ottaua, issii. pp. 7. 
I'h.inr.-Mor's Inaugural Addre-s. Quern's I'ni 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Fleming, Sandft>rd. Continued. 



</IK*H'J CoilfQ* .I'jttrniit 
4to , |l 10. 

Cniforiu Standard Tinir. 

Amrrvn* *-*irlv t'iril Enutnf. r,, '. Montreal Convun- 
!"1. pp. >\. 

Adoption of a I'riini- Mcridinn. 

Tli' !*lrrn,ilu,nal <';ngrrn, Venice. Italy, 1881, 

pp 1'"'- 
Coamopolitan Scheme for Reckoning Time. 

r''in*'ir(iM A inrri'ciia Mrtritnltigicnl Sucirtv. New 

York.lMI.M> 10. 

Standard Time for t'niu-d State.s, Canada and 
Mexico. 

Amrririix S'^ifli/ CinV Egin"n. Xew York, 18S1 

PP M. 
Chancellor'- Addrexs. Queen's 1'nlversily. 

(/un'l C'Mrfe .Iwrnal. Vol. IX., 18*2. 

A Cable Acnma the Paciflc. (Pamphlet.) London 

i* pp. ii. 

Standard Time. 

American S<firl v Ciril gnainfrr,. Wuhinfton 
ConTcntion, 1H92. 

Canadian I'arilli liailway. Review of the Report 
and dm. liiM.,1, of Royal CommiNHion. Ottawa 
1HR. 

Ixrtt.-r on Standard Time. 

Amrritnm .Voeittt f,,r A:ir.,,, e . ,,.,,,1 / Science, 
MoolrMl.lK!. pp. 121. 
Standard Time for the World. 

TV fanntiomal Standard Clrlnd, Ohio. 18M. 
PP- < 
Time Reform and a Prime Meridian. 

Amm^tn M*,nlntieat .Vorirt,. JJ, W York, 1883. 
pp . 



Second Installation Address as Chancellor of 
Queen's University. 

Queen'* Colleoe Journal, 1883. 4to., pp. 7. 
Standard Time at the St. Paul Convention. 

TVniMacti'oiu .Imiric'in Society of Civil E\gineert, 

1883, pp. 7. 

Uniform Standard Time. 

H,: I., New York. 1884, pp. 11. 

The Prime Meridian Question. 

Intenintionnl Standard, Cleveland, Ohio, 1884. 
|.p. 8. 

Kngland and Canada. Old to New Westminster. 

Montreal : Dawson Bros., 1884, pp. 449. 
Standard Time at the Buffalo Convention. 

Ti-niimetiuiu American Socuta of Civil Enpinttri, 

1884, pp. 7. 

Chancellor's Report on Confederating Universi- 
ties. 

Quern'* I'liirrnity Endoirment AlKjcintitin, 1885, 
pp. 5. 

The Time Reform Movement. 

rnicl'on Amerienn Society of Cinil Eitginetrt, 
Xew York. 1S84, pp. 11. 

A Prime Meridian and Time zero at the Inter- 
national Prime Meridian Conference, Washing- 
ton, 18K4, pp. 12. 

Chancellor's Address. Queen's University. 

^nt-cn't Collfffc Juin-nftl, 1885, pp. 14. 
I'niversal Time Reckoning. 

Trinuactiont Canadian fiutitule, Toronto, 1885. 
pp. 101. 
I'niform Standard Time. 

Tran>acti'tn* American Society of Civil Knginein, 
New York. 1885, pp.4. 

The new Time Reckoning. 

Smithmnian Report, 186, WashinRton, D.C., pp. 22. 
Third Installation Address as Chancellor of 
Queen's University. 

1,11,,, ,i\ Colletie Journal, 1886, 4to., pp. 4. 
Proposed Telegraph between Australia, Canada 
and Great Britain. London, 1886, pp. 28. 

I'ime Reckoning for the 20th Century. 

Trantmctiont Royal Society of Canada, VoK IV., 
Sec. 3, 1886. 4to., pp. 13. 
The Canadian Route to the East. 

Remark* at the Colonial Confertnce, London, 1887, 
pp. 2). 

Telegraph to Australia and India via Canada. 

Speech at Colonial Conference, London, 18S7, pp. 15. 
Benefactors and Benefactions. Address at 
Queen's University. 

Queen's College Journal, 1838. 

Treatise on Time for the Use of Schools. Ottawa, 
1888, pp. 20. 

Presidential Address, Royal Society of Canada. 

Tratunctiont Royal Society of Canada, Vol. vii-,1889. 
H....PP 11. 

Expeditions to the Pacific. 

Ibid., Vol. vii.. See -2, 1889. 4to.,pp. 53. 
A Problem in Political Science. 

H.id., Vol. vn , Bee. 3, 1889, pp.8. 
Fourth Installation Address as Chancellor of 
Queen's University. 

OK***'. Collrpt Journal, 1889. 4to., pp. 2. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



38 



Fleming, Sandford. Continued. 

Chancellor's Address at Semi-centennial Jubilee 
of Queen's University. 

Queen's College Journal, (Jubilee No.), 1889. 4to., 
pp. 3. 

Presidential Address, Sect. HI., Royal Society, 

1800. The Unit Measure of Time. Pp. 3. 
The Waterways of Canada. 

Proceeding! of the International Congress Inland 
Navigation, Manchester, Eng., 1890. 4to ,pp. 8. 

Cable Service. England to Australia. Letter to 
Fellow-Colonists. London, 1890. 
I t.i.. pp. 4. 

Our Old-Fogy Methods of Reckoning Time. 
Engineering, May, 1891, pp. 15, 

A Universal Prime Meridian, and Time Zero. 

Report II. M. S., Department of Science and Art. 
London, 1891, pp. 1". 

Nomenclature in Time-Reckoning. 

Transaction* Royal Society of' (!<tndu, Vol. ix., 
Sec. 3, 1891. 

lln , pp. 7. 

Fixing of a Standard of Time. 

Sessional Paixn, Ottawa, 1891, pp. 36. 

Parliamentary vs. Party Government. 

Queen's College Journal, 18!M, pp. 16. 
Reforms in Time-Reckoning. 

Transaction* Canndinn Jnxtilnti', Toronto, ISiH, 
pp. 15. 

Electoral Representation. 

/6i<i.,Toronto, 1892,pp. 17. 

Address on Fifth Installation as Chancellor of 
Queen's University. 

Queen' College Journal, 1892. 

A System of Direct Telegraphic Communication 
Throughout the Empire. 

Letterto Sir John Lublock, Chairman of Associated 
Chambers of Commerce, London, 1892, pp. 12. 
The Rectification of Parliament. 

Transactions Canadian Institute, Toronto, 1892, pp. 
173. 

Address at the opening of the Medical Faculty, 
Queen's University, Kingston, 1892. 

Queen's College Journal, Vol. XX. 
Ocean Steam Xavigation. 

Transaction* Canadian Institute, Toronto, 1892, 
pp. 10. 

Early Steamboats. 

Ibid., 1892, pp. 4. 
Postage Stamps and Colour Blindness. 

Ibid., 1892, pp. 2. 

A Memorable Epoch in Canadian History. 

Ibid., 1893. 
Historical Pictures. 

Ibid., 1893. 

A Change in the Astronomical Day. 

Transactions Astronomical and Physical Societv, 
Toronto, 1893. 

Memorandum on the Pacific Cable, addressed to 
Australian Governments, 1893. 
4to., pp. 8. 

The Mission to Australia. Papers relating to 
Pacific Cable. 

Canadian Blue-Book, 1894, pp. 53. 



Fleming, Sandford . Continued. 

Unification of the Astronomical, Civil and Nauti- 
cal Days. 

Transaction' Canadian Institute and Astronomical 
Societies, 1891, pp. 9. 

The Pacific Cable. Statement for the Colonial 
Conference. Ottawa, 1894. 
Ito., pp. 12. 

Fletcher, James. 

In the Reports of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario : 

An Outline Sketch of the Canadian HuprcHtidic. 
1878, pp. 40-84. 



bii-idic Diggers. 1879, pp. 0.->-71. 
Nature. Printed Butterflies (Canadian Entu 
mologist, xii., l-:t). 1879, pp. 88-89. 

On the Chief Benefits Derived by Farmers anil 
Horticulturists from a Knowledge of Knto- 
mology. 1880. pp. 57-08. 

Necrophori Burying Beetles, isxi, pp. 7<i-7;j. 

Homoptera The Harvest Flies and their Allies. 
1882, pp. 09-83. 

Collecting in early Winter. 1XK!. pp. :tl :t 
N'otes on Worms. 188;), 08-71!. 

Theda Niphon (Canadian KntiniKilixjixt. xvi.. 

|)|). 92-94). 1881. pp. 34-3H. 
Tlie Larch Saw-lly. 1881, pp. 72-77. 
The Hessian Fly, 1880. pp. 4:i-4o. 
Annual Presidential Address. 1888, pp. :M:t. 
A Trip to N'epigon. 1888, pp. "4 .88. 
The Wheat-Midge. 1888, pp. 88-91. 

Winter Collecting (Canadian Enttnnolouixt. \\\., 

pp. 15-17). 188!), pi>. :il-:i2. 
The Apple-tree Tent Caterpillar (Canaillan /."- 

toinologist, xv., pp. 74-70). 188!), 32-34. 
Cut-Worms (Canadian Enloinoloijixt, xxi., pp. 

117-120). 1889, pp. 34 HO. 
The Imported Currant Saw-fly (Canailian Ento- 

mologist, XXI., pp. 150-152). 1889, pp. 3H-38. 
The Tiger Swallow-tail (Canadian Entonui 

logist, xxi., pp. 201-204). 188!), pp. 38-40. 
The Mediterranean Flour Moth (Canadian Ento- 

mologist, XXII., pp. 41-44). 1889, pp. 95-101. 
Fuller's Rose-beetle. 1890, pp. 62-64. 
Review of Miss Ormerod's Manual of Injurious 

Insects. 1890, p. 101-105. 
Annual Address as President of the Association 

of Economic Entomologists. 1891, pp. 36-44. 
The Northern Mole-cricket. 1891, pp. 87-90. 
The Horn-fly. 1892, pp. 49-53. 
Clothes Moths. 1892, pp. 53-58. 
Notes on Killing, Preserving and Relaxing In- 

sects (Canadian Entomologist, xxiv., pp. 14-16). 

1892, pp. 59-60. 

Injurious Insects of 1892. 1893, pp. 8-13. 
Notes on some of the more Important Entomolo- 

gical Exhibits at the Chicago Exhibition. 1893, 

pp. 61-64. 



36 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Fletcher, Jme*. Continutd. 
In the Canadian Entomolitgist (London, On/.) : 
The Calosomas. 1HHO, pp. 32-35. 
Notes on the Ireparatory Stages of Cart f race- 

phalti* Mandan. 1KHII, pp. 113 118. 
The Northern Mole cricket. lfJ, pp. 23-25. 
In Ihf Transaction* uf the Oltatra Fielil-Xalnral- 
1st*' Club : 

Inaugural Address as President. 187W, I., pp. 12-22; 
livu, ii., pp. 8-21 ; 1K81, in., pp. 11 -It); 1882, iv.,pp. 
11-21. 

Flora Ottawaensi*. 1S71, I., pp. 48-111. 
In Ihrllttntra \alumliMt ifHtaira, Unt.t: 

Short Instructions for Collectors Away from 

Home. in.. ISHSI. pp. s-li. 
Educational Value of Botanic Gardens, v., 

IWl-tt!, pp. lUVli:i. 

Kail \V.-I. worm. vi.. Issi-J 1M. pp. To 71. 
l-'lura Otlawaeusis, 2nd Edition (not yet coin. 

plelei. pp. 1 I**. 

ilif lt,'i,',,l "f I/a lioiiiiniin, Knliniti.iliiiii.tl fur ISitl. 
pp. I 7. 

II,. Itiji'.i-l "I II,. l><i,n in in, I Knloiiioluilixt fr\AK. 

pp. 1 .v,. 

In tin .\,i,iiinl It'i/iiirt "I'lli: //'/'< i-iini ii/nl /'iirill.l : 
Itepori ..f tin- Kntoinoloni-i ami Botani-t. 1SS7, 
pp. .- II; K-v. p|i. 1777; IxMi, pp. M'.V; 1MK>, 
pp. l.V) 3C, : l-'.H. pp. l:r_'jo: Is'.f.', pp. 1111(57; 
!-'. pp. l.-)7 I'.Cf. 
In InSift Lit', i \\'it -A iiiyl'iti . I'. .**. i : 

I'relimiiuiry Noli* UJHUI I 'I, inmtlms Mi in xi it i i. 1 1.. 

1-WSI. pp. l.'i lii. 

/ I/,, f-'n, m-,-'.i .lit,;,, -lit, i l.nnilnn. Onl.i : 
The Clover root H.in-r. l.v.i], p. :i-7. 
Article- on Injiirioii- In-i-ct- i|. XI. i. Is 1 .!^. pp. 
1^. >. 117. I'.ix. ^11. :iii-. :IH, :i."i. I:RI. I7'.i : IHitl, 
pp. lo. .111. 

Cloih.-s Moil,-.. ls;i:;. p. l |;i. 
I1...-S \Vln-al turn toChr ; ls!(l. p. HIT. 
(Jranary Wi-evils. \#M, p. li'l. 
lnjiirioii- Insecl-. IX'I, p. 1.V7. 

tn " I n.tfrnrtiimft tit Canmlutn I'ucitic Itnitiray 
Lnitil KJ-IIIII i nrrn" i H'l/uii/x;/. .Mint.), 1,'niii. : 

Botanical Collections, pp. 2-1-27. 
In Tltr .\vr'- W'rnf Fit rmt't' I \\' i it n i pey ) : 

Collecting Ifot.niii-al Specimen-. 1HSI2, p. l!i. 
In l/tr ItfjHirln of Uroluffiiiil Surrry uf Caniiiln : 
I Jt of Diurnal Ix-piiloptcrn of Yukon District. 
Northern British Columbia and Mackcn/ic 
Hiver. 1WK7. pp. 22U-231H. 

I ..MM. . dr. P. 

M. I^on Huliert, docteur en medecine, Heminn- 
rLst et pri-tre de St -Sulpicc. Notice bioxraphl- 
que. ParJM : .Iulen Vic, l(f7M, 
12mo.,p|i. ii. 315. 

!.* Ktudes nat iin-lle- et la Bible (Naturfoi-Hchung 
nnd Blbel, von Dr. Carl Guttler). 

Ami* ilr* Qwad'/.M Sriniifuivn. Pri et Bruiellen. 
lr rticl. 'too* TIL, arril 1H90, Imo., pp. 5S2-M8; 
2*OM wtieU. low rill., joiltot WO, 8mo.. pp. 233-259. 



Fovillr, de. P. Continued. 

Leg Jours de la Semaine et les (Euvres de la 
Creation. 

Revue da QueHioni Seientijquet, tome XI., Janvier 
1882. 8mo.,pp. S5-84. 
La Bible et la Science. 

Ibid., ler article, tome xn., octobre 1882, 6mo.,pp. 
504-531; 2cmc article, tome xnt., Janvier 1883, 8mo., 
pp. 118-160. 

Encore les Jours de la Creation. 

ll.iil., tome iv., arril 1884. 8mn. , 380-426. 
Dos Antlitz der Grde von Eduard Suess die 
Sintfluth. 

I'-i'l., tome xv., avril 1881. 8mo.. pp. W4-605. 
Du Role de la Faculte des Arts. 

Ctinudii Franrait, Quebec, tome I-, Janvier 1888. 
8mo., 79-91. 

L' Astronomic et la Vie de 1'Humanite. 

/'../., ler article, 1. 1., juillet 1883, 3mo., pp. 343-379 ; 
2i>mo article, t. H., juillet 1886, 8mo., pp. 404-432. 



Fowlt-r, 

A plea for the Study of Natural History. 

Sttwart'i Qnnrlerlv, vol. 4, No. 1, April, 1870, St. 
John, N.B. 
Svo., pp. 11. 

Arctic Plants Growing in New Brunswick, with 
notes on their Distribution. 

Tninmctinn* Rnval Sucitlu i,f Canada, vol. V., 
sco. 4, 1887. 

Frechette, I. .mi-.. 

En Vers. 

Mes Loisirs. Quebec : Leger Brousseau, 1H(I3. 
8vo., pp. 2*(l. 

l,a \'oix d'un exile. Premiere annee, 1800; sec- 
onde annee. l^W. s.l.n.d. 

Tele Mele. Montreal : Lovell, 1K77. 

12mo., pp. 274. 

l.es Kleurs Boreales. Les Oiseaux de Neige, 
Poi-sies couronnees par I'Academie Krancaise. 
Quebec, 1KSII. 

2me edition. Pris : K. Rouveyre, Km. Terquem, 1881, 
12mo., pp. 261. 
Sine cuition, 18S6, Quebec, l.'in.i.. pp. 378. 

I,a Lenende d'un Peuple. Paris: Librairie Illus- 
tree, 1HX7. 

8vo.,pp. 317. 

I,es l-'euilles Volantes. Montreal : GranKer & 
Freres, 1HSI1. 
12rao.,pp.221. 

En I'row : 

I.ettres a Basile. Quebec : Hector Fabre, 1H71. 

8vo.,pp. 81. 

Originaux et detraques. Montreal : Louis Pate- 
naude, 18W). 

12mo.,pp. 360. 

Lettre.s a M. 1'abbe Baillairge. .Mont real, 1869. 
Imprimerie Desaulnien- Svo.. pp. 91. 

Traducdon* : 
Une rencontre fortuite (W. D. Howells). 

Itinif de M',ntr(at,tQ\. in. and IV. 1879-80. 
Une rencontre, roman de Deux Touri&tes aur le 
Saint-Laurent, Quebec et le Saguenay (W. D. 
llowell.-i. Montreal, 1893. 
Svo. 



Frechette, Ijouis. Continued. 

Aux temps des vieux Creoles (S. W. Cable). 

ffouvellet Soirfet canadiennes, vol. 3, 1881. Le 
Canada-Franco if, de Janvier a Ootobre, 1890. 

Drames: 

Fdlix Poutr6: drame historique en 4 actes. 
Montreal, 1862, 1871. 

16mo., pp.59. 

Papineau : drame historique canndien en 4 actes. 
Montreal : Chapleau & Lavigne, 1880. 

16mo., pp. 100. 

Le retour de 1'Exile, drame en 5 actes. Montreal: 
Chapleau & Lavigne. 

Itiino. , pp.72. 

Dans les Memoires de la Socitte royale du Canada : 
Vive la France (poesie). Tome i., sec. 1, 1882. 
Notre histoire a la memoire de F. X. Garneau 

(poesie). Tome i., sec. 1, 1883. 
Au bord de la Creuse. Tome n., sec. 1, 1884. 
Les premieres pages de notre histoire. Tome in., 

sec. 1, 1885. 

Le pionnier. Tome iv., sec. 1, 1880. 
Sainte-Anne d'Auray et ses environs. Tome vi., 

sec. 1, 1888. 

Chez Victor Hugo. Tome vin., sec. 1, 1890. 
Reponse a M. David. Tome ix., sec. 1, 1891. 
L'Espagne. Tome n., sec. 1, 1884. 
Trois Episodes de la Conquete ; i. Fors 1'hon- 
neur; n. Les dernieres Cartouches; in. Le 
drapeau fantome. Tome n., sec. 1, 1884. 

Montreal , La Patrie, 1884. 12mo. , pp. 12. 
Dans le Canada-Fran<;ais, Quebec : 

Sainte-Anne d'Auray et ses Environs, vol. i., 1H8H, 

p. 445. 

Barbe-Bleue, vol. in., 18SX), p. :. 
The Royal Chateaux of the Loire. 

Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. LXXXIII., 1891, 
pp. 84-98. 

Gilpiii, I :.. Jr. 

The Groupings of the Pictou Coal Seams. 

Transaction* Nova Scotia Institute of Natural 
Science, March 10, 1873. 

Sketch of the Carboniferous of St. George's Bay, 
Nfld. 

Hid., December 4, 1873. 
The Pictou Coal Field. 

Transaction* North of England Institute of Mining 
Engineers, 1873. 

Notes on the Coal Measures of Western New- 
foundland. 

Ibid., 1874. 
The Submarine Coal of Cape Breton. 

Ibid., 1876. 
The Iron Ore Deposits of Nova Scotia. 

Ihid., 1877. 

The Southern Synclinal of the Pictou Coal Field. 
Transactions Nova Scotia Institute of Natural 
Science, March, 1875. 

Notes on Specimens of Iron Ore from Pictou 
County for the Philadelphia Exhibition. 
Ibid., February 14, 1876. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 

Gilpin, E., Jr. Continued. 



37 



Notes on Recent Discoveries of Copper Ore in 
Nova Scotia. 

Transaction* Geobiffical Society Journal, London, 

1877. 

On the Preliminary Training for Civil and Mining 
Engineers. 

Transactions Nona Scotia Institute <if Natural 
Science, February 11, 1878. 
The Limonites and Limestones of Pictou County. 

Ibid., February 10. 1879. 
Notes and Analyses of Nova Scotia Pit Waters. 

Transaction* North of England Inttitutt of Mining 
Engineer*, 1879. 

The Gypsum of Nova Scotia. 

Ibid., 1880. 

The Northern Outcrop of the Cumberland Coal 
Field. 

Transactions Nora Scotia Imtitute of Natural 
Science, 1880. 

The Trap Minerals of Nova Scotia. 

/iiW.,March7.18Sl. 
Canadian Coals their Composition and I'M-S. 

Trantactiont North of Kngtand Institute of Mining 
Engineer,m\. 
The Occurrence of Lievrite in Nova Scotia. 

Transactions Nona Scotia Institute of Natural 
Science, 1S8I. 
The Minerals of Nova Scotia. 

Report to Government n/ .\ora Si-otia, 1882. 
An Analysis of a Pictou Coal Seam. 

Transaction* Nova Xcotia /nutitntf of Natural 

Science, April 9, 1S83. 
Note on tlie UeBert Coal Field, Nova Scotia. 

Ibid., November 12, 1883. 

The Foldings of the Carboniferous Strata in t In- 
Maritime Provinces. 

Trannactloni /tonal Societu of Canada, vol. I., Sec. 
4, WS3. 
Notes on the Manganese Ores of Nova Scotia. 

Ibid., 1884. 
The Mines and Mineral Lands of Nova Scotia. 

Reportto Govern mtnt of Nova Scotia, 1884. 
Note on the Manganese Ore of Loch Lomond, 
Cape Breton. 

Trannactiom Nona Scotia Inititutr of Natural ffit- 
torv, 1884. 

Halotrichite from Glace Bay, Cape Breton. 

Ibid., 1885. 
The Iron Ores of Pictou County. 

Transaction* American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers, 1885. 
The Gold Fields of Nova Scotia. 

Ibid., 1886. 

Note on the Limestones of East River, Pictou 
County. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada, vol. IV., 
Sec. 4, 1886. 
The Carboniferous of Cape Breton. Part I. 

Trantaction* Nova Scotia Inttitute of Natural 
Science, 1896. 
The Carboniferous of Cape Breton. Part II. 

Ibid., 1887. 

The Faults and Foldings of the Pictou Coal Field. 
Transactions Royal Society of Canada, vol. V-, So. 
4,1887. 



38 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OP THE 



Ullpln, K.. Jr.-Con/inuf. 

The GeolOKlcal Relations of the Principal Nova 
Minerals. 

Trannirlinnt America* httitute of Milting En- 
pnr. 1887- 

The Distinctive Features of the Nova Scotia Coal 
Field*. 

Tr-i*trti"*i Brititn Attoeialivn, Montreal, 1884. 
It.-sults of Post Experience In Gold-mining in 
Nova Scotia. 

AM- 
Coal mining in Xova Scot in. 

Tr-iafaeli'i" Cnnadinn Surfeit / Cirif Emfi- 
,wr..l88. 
The Geology of Cnpe Hreton Islnnd. 

!> rlrrly ./..ur.i../ ../ ikr f!r,,l,igir,tt Sri'>V, Nvrm- 

r*r. 1XM. 
Niili-s mi XovaSrotia Hold Veins. 

Tr-ianeli lt-n-1 *-ri-tii ' <'.,/. veil. M., 

Sec.*, IVVS. 
Tin- CarlionifiToiis "f Cape Hreton. 

TV.i'if'riV"" .V.r.i >'...(,.. lull, lul- uf \iitilfil 
.<,<'. 1"VW. 

Tin- MiiuT.ils nf lln CarlKiniferons iii Cape I in- 1 1 H i. 

M../.. :- '. 
I,,-., logical Writings of Itcv. III. lie \nian. 

/ I .. vol. VII., |,:irt I, I" '. 

Notes nil ><iiin- K\ plusi, nis in \<i\a Sriilia Ci>al 
Mines 

/ '.. i"!. . li.. l^irt 4. Ky. 

I I,, |l.-\.iiiiaii i if l';i|M- Htvl.,11. 

/(.;./.. iw. 

I'll,- Inni I If.-- nf Nd\,i S'-iliii. 

/ ,'fit-in S'.fi'tv "' <'-ril l-'ninnt'Tt, 

Tin- Silurian <>f Cap llr. Inn. 

/ ..,.', .V.r., >,(,., l,,,l,t:,l, .,f .\.ilui;il 

- , .:--. 

Tin- 1 s- of Safr Kxplonivew iii ('oal .Mint's. 
1'arl I. 

Tr:i rfi'..m I'. i,,, ,,/,:, >,,,(),/' i",ri'/ Kuaiunn, 

ISM. 
Thi- (ii'iiliijtical |{fl:ttii>!i of Nova Scutia Iron Ore . 

Tr;n"fti.:,i, .V..r.i \>..d'.i Mining Institute, I8H2. 

Tin- I sf of Safr K\ijlosivrs in Coal Mini's. 
Purl M. 

TfiH"ieti"iit t'-t ii'i'lt'i it Sort'tynf f'iril EtigiHfrrtt 

ia. 

Noto on nn Occurrence of /inc ftnd Manganosn* 
On- in Nova Scotia. 

7V.in.irli..m .V-r.1 .S'rod'ri Mining Inititutr, 1893. 

Nova Scotia its Kconoinir Minerals. 

K'tfiH I; Ittr f};r,n,mrxl <,/ .\,,rn Sn,tia, 1S93. 

Annual Heport* on the Progress of the Mines 
and Mineral Development of Xova Scotia to 
the Government of Nova Scotia. Years 1879 
to 1HM. 

Note on the Sydney Coal Field. 

8r 2. Vol. 1.18U-1WI. 
Mineral Development of Xova Scotia. 

/MrrniW /..o.rK/' Mining Enfinttn' Annual 
M~ii.f. 1M. 

Rxpkwionii in Nora Scotia Coal Mined. 
Hid. 



Goodwin, W. L,. 

On the Nature of Solution . Part I. On the Solu- 
bility of Chlorine In Water and in Aqueous 
Solutions of Soluble Chlorides. 

Trantactioni Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
i., Part HI. 4to, pp. 597-618. 

and G. Carr Robinson. On Some New Bases of 
the Leucoline Series. 

Kid., Vol. xxix., 1879. 4to, pp. 285-279. 
Ueber d ie Natur der Loesungen. Berlin. 

Berichte der Dnttehtn Chem. Oewlbok, 1882. 

The Nature of Solution. 

Keport an Sfcrttam of Committee of the British 

Atiocintion, 18SS. 

and Plamsay. Tilden, and Marshall. Report of 
Committee appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tittntinp; certnin Physical Constants of Solution. 
Hrfuirl* nf the Brititli AtfcinlioH fur the Adrance- 
meitl<>fHrieuce,\W6. London. 8vo, pp. 207-213. 
and Ramsay. Tilden, and Marshall. Third Report. 
/6i'i/.,1887 biiiil.ui. 8vo., pp. 48-55 

Invaporation. 

CiniiHliini litcurd nf Scieiicr, vol. n, No 4, Octo- 
ber, 1S86. 

Invaporation. 

/I. ill., vol. ii., No. 8, October, 1S87. 

'l'i'xi-l>o()k of t'licmistry. Toronto: The Copp- 
Clark Co., 1H7. 

KVH..PP. 416. 
" Ilin^pd " Trees. 

<'nHii<li<iu lleconl of Xcieure, October, 18S8. 
Tin! Hi^h School Curriculum in Science. 

C'.nii'/.< Educ,,li,,,,,<l Mnnthlv, March, 1891. 
The Water Supply of the City of Kingston. 

i"i>ii,ir//,in ltm,nl .,/ Science. April, 1892. 
Notes on an old Indian Kncampment. 

MiW.,. January, 1893. 
K'l'i l.iiniin.' Hog in Westmoreland Co., N.B. 

//./.. April, 1893. 

(Communicate<l by.) On a Highly NickeliferoUH 
I'yrite. 

ll,id., April, 1893. 

Chemical Laws. Toronto: The Copp-Clark Co., 
1S03. 

Svo , pp. 37. 

I.. -- III! Mill,- \ll-ll~ll 

Vie de M' de Laval, premier eveque de Quebec 
et a|iot i-e du Canada. Quebec : L. 3, Demers & 
Frere, 1H0. 

2 volr., Svo. , pp. 1375- 

I.i- Vi'in'i-aiilr Francois de l.,u al. Sn vie et sea 
vertus. Quebec : L. J. Demers & Frere, 1890. 

12mo., pp. 84. 

Leu Normands au Canada. Jean Bourdon. Ev- 
reux, Imprimerie de 1'Eure, 1892. 

8vo., pp. 31. 

Les Normands au Canada. Jean Nicolet. Erreux : 
Imprimerie de 1'Eure, 1893. 

*v .. pp. 56. 

Les Normands au Canada. Jean Le Sueur, 
ancien curt de Salnt-Sanveur de Thury, pre- 
mier ]u-et n- seculier du Canada. Evreuz : Im- 
primerie de 1'Eure, 1894. 
8ro.,pp. 52. 






ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



39 



Oosselin, Abbe Augusts. Continued. 

Jubite Sacerdotal de S. E. le Cardinal Tasche- 
reau : Noces d'Or de la Societe Saint-Jean-Bap- 
tiste. Quebec : Leger Brousseau, 1892. 

Roy. Svo., pp. -iH. A vec ua portrait da cardinal. 
Un HistoricnCanadien Oublie, le Docteur Jacques 
Labrie. 

Mfni'ii'i-ii ili-lii SuciM ruvale dit Camilla, tome XL, 
Sec. 1, 1893. 

Dans Le Canada-Franc,ais, Quebec ; 

Role politique de M* 1 de Laval. Tome i., 1888, 

pp. 43. 
La Basilique de Saint-F.tienne a Jerusalem. 

Tome H., 1889, p. 608. 
Just de Breteniercs. Un martyr au XIXe siecle. 

Tome HI., 1890, pp. 52, 200. 
Dans Ln Revue Canadienne, Montreal : 

Augustin Cochin. Tome xn., 1K75, pp. 22. 
Jacques Cartier. Tome xxix., 1893, pp. 8. 
Dans La Revue Catholiqite de Normandie, Evreux: 
Le mouvement catholique en Canada. Tome i., 

1892, pp. 16. 
Le mouvement catholique aux Etats-Unis. Tome 

iv., 1894, pp. 12. 

Grunt, George M. 

New Year Sermons. Halifax : James Bowes & 
Sons, 1865, 1866. 

Sermon to the Synod of Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island. Halifax : James Bowes & Sons, 
1866. 

"Reformers of the Nineteenth Century," A Lec- 
ture. Halifax : James Bowes & Sons, 1867. 
" Ocean to Ocean," orSandford Fleming's Expedi- 
tion Across Canada in 1872. Toronto : James 
Campbell & Son ; England : Sampson, Low, 
Marston, Low & Searle, 1873. 
" Picturesque Canada," written in part by the 

Editor. Toronto : Belden Bros., 1882. 
" Our Five Foreign Missions." Kingston: Printed 
by the British Whig, 1887. 

Advantages of Imperial Federation. The Case for 
Canada, Nos. 1 and 2. Published by Edward 
Arnold, 18 Warwick Sq., Paternoster Row, Lon- 
don, E.C., 1889, 1891. 

Sermons in " Sunday Afternoon Addresses." The 
Publishing Committee of Queen's University 
Students, 1891-2-3-4. 

"Current Events." 

Queen's Quarterly, July and October, 1893, January, 
July and October, 1894, and January, 1995. 
Christianity and Modern Thought. 

Canadian Monthly, Toronto, December, 1875. 
The Late Hon. Joseph Howe. Parts I. to iv. 

li.nl.. May to August, 1875. 
Education and Co-Education. 

JtoK-Belford's Canadian Monthly, November, 1879 . 
The Dominion of Canada. Parts I. to iv. 

Seriimer't Munthla, May to August, 188'). 
The British Association at Montreal. 

The Contemporary Review, August, 1851. 



Grant, George M. Continued. 

Progress and Poverty. 

The Pratytcria* It.rirw (Quarterly), April, 1888. 
The New Empire. 

Wntmiiuter Review, October, 1891. 
Our National Objects and Aims. Published in 
" Maple Leaves " by the National Club. To- 
ronto : R. G. McLean, 18UO-01. 
The Birth of a Sister Dominion, Vice Presidential 
Address to the Royal Society of Canada, 1890. 
TrnnBaclionH Royal Socii-ty nf Canada, vol. VIII., 
pp. xx. -xxiv. 

Presidential Address to the Royal Society of 
Canada, 1891. 

Ibid., vol. ix. pp. XXXIH.-2. 

Presbyterian Reunion and Reformation Princi- 
ples. 

Queen' i Quarterly, January, 18'Jl. 
Xew Zealand. 

IL,ii-l,er't, Magazine, AuBUrt, 18'Jl. 

The Religions of the World in Relation to Chris- 
tianity. London : Adam & Charles Black ; 
Toronto : William IJriggs, 1MU. 

Grunt, Sir James A. 

In the Medical i'hruiiicli', Montn-nl : 

Punctured Wound, anterior lobe of Brain, ls.~)ii. 
Compound Comminuted Frarture of Femur and 

Ligature Femoral Artery, lsY7. 
Punctural Wound of Pleura; Pleuritic Effusion; 

Iodine Injection. 
Carcinoma Medullare, ISo't. 
Notes of Cases of Poisoning, 1859. 
Twins with Single Placenta, 1859. 
In the British Medical Journal : 
Notes of Surgical Cases. 1860. 
Unique Anchylosis of Knee Joint, forward at a 

right angle, 1861. 
Tetanus and Poisoning by Strychnine Contrasted, 

1861. 
Obstruction of the Bowels, Appendix Concretion, 

1861. 

Notes of Surgical Cases, 1862. 
Treatment of Rheumatism by Boletus Laricis Ca- 

nadensis, 1862. 

Notes of Obstetrical Cases, 1862. 
In the Medical Times and Gazette, London : 
Treatment of Skin Diseases, 1863. 
Disease termed "Black Leg," as observed amongst 

Ottawa Lumbermen, 1864. 
Excision of the Knee Joint, 1865. 
Tetanus treated by Acupuncturation. 
In the Canada Medical Journal, Montreal : 
Puerperal Mania, 1865. 
Protracted Uterine Gestation, 1865. 
Dermoid Cyst of the Ovary, 1879. 
Cancer of the Breast in its relation to Paget's Dis- 
ease of the Breast, 1882. 
Aneurism of the Thoracic Aorta, 1885. 
Urethral Structure and Perineal Section, 1886. 



4O 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Grant, Sir Jmc* A. Continued. 

Elevation of the Pelvis as a means of relieving 

Vomiting of Pregnancy, 1801. 
In the Canatla Lancet : 

Retrospect of the Year 1876. 

Addrew* delivered before the Bathurst and 

Rideau Medical Association, 1X76, 1877, 1878 

and 18711. 
<.>mn.i-tic- of the Brain- Canadian Medical 

Association, I'M), 
ru-rine Fibrous Polypus, 1881. 
Aphasia or Alnlin, 1S81. 
Address on Medicine -Medlco-Chlrurglcal So 

ciety, Ottawa, IKS. 1 ). 
Kpiilemir Zymotic Diseases of Animal.-, and how 

they an- communicated t<> man. 
Superficial Geology of the \"nlley of the Ottawa 

ami I he Waketielil Cave. 

I',,, ,.,,/,., ,\.,t,,r:ll,'t, 18(W. 

I'rcsidcntial Address to theCanada Medical Asso- 
ciation. St. .lolm. N.H.. August (i. 1X7H. 

Cy-tidian I.ife. 

/ .,!<( ... Off.oi-.i FitM-XiiiuntlUS I'M, Janu- 
ary. US". 
On n S|"-i-irnfii ..f i he Inferior Maxilla of I'lioca 

i n H-iil.iii.li. a. 

/ i ' ''.inn,!,,, vol. i., See. 

4. 1--:. 

('In-) ncSioke-s |{<>-pi rat ion anil fit-mil Calculus 

('.inid.i Vi-'li. ;il A --ui-ia! ion. Hamilton, Scp- 

t.-inlM-r. lv>7. 
Int rodu. t"r> I.i-ctuiv, McGill 1 'ni\ er-it v. N'ovem 

IT. 17. 
IN ri I'rethral (Vlluliti- and I'retlinil Fistula-- 

t'.iii.i.l.i Mediral A--oeiation. Toronto. Septem 

U-r. 1 .*!. 
Adilre before Queen's I'niversity on Medical 

Kducatioii. October II. \*.tl. 
liare Formx of Gotlf and Rheumatism. Address 

in New York City. October 11. 1NSH, In-fore the 

State of New York Medical Association. 

M.IIIM I >|..M-II;II..I 'I In.-. I 

Klo^e funelire de M. I.ucien Turcotte. 

Annvnrr d, ITairfr-il^ /xirn/, 1871-6. |i. 02 
( Irai-on fiinelin' de Son Exrelli-n<-e 1'honorable 
H. K. Canni. |>niuono't- ii_ses funeraillcs. di'-c-. 
l*7ll, a l.i Ka-ili.pie de Quebec. 

Jiiunntv i/u tnitp*. 

Notice blographiqne sur M. .lames (ienrgc Colston 
et M. I'ablie Ovide Kninet. 

Aomwiirr 4r rl'uirrnil/ Isiral, 1S77-78, |i. . 

Dinc<>urs d'ouverture des Coum a Quebec, le 8 
octobre 1H77. Quebec : A. C6W et Cie. 

Sro.. p. 9.1877. 

Omixon funebre de Pie IX.. prononcee <lan la 
Hiwilli<|ue de Quebec le 14 fevrier 1H78. 

Ammtuiin Je I' Urn ifmiU /xiruf, 1878-Tt, p. 67, 

Tranxlatinn des restes de Mgr. de I.-ival a la 
fhapellc du Seininain- de QueU c. Quebec : A. 
C6U et Cie. 



1 1 .1 IIH-I. Monsignor Thomas R.f'ontinutd. 

Discours prononce a 1'inauguration de la Faculti 
de Droit de 1'Universit^ Laval a Montreal, le ler 
octobre 1878. Montreal : J. Chapleau et Fils. 
1878. 

8vo., p. 6. 

Discours a 1'occasion de la collation du grade de 
Docteur a Lord DufTerin. 

AiiHunirt dt I'Unieenitt Laval. 1879-80, p. 62 

Dixcours a 1'ouverture des Cours de I'Universitd 
Laval a Montreal, le ler octobre 1879. Mont- 
real : Chapleau et Lavigne, 1880. 

Svo., p. 1. 

Questions sur la Succursale de 1'Univerbit* Laval 
A Montreal. Quebec : A. Cold et Cie. 

Svo., it pages, 1891. 

Plaidoyers de MM. Hamel et Lacoste devant le 
Comite des bills prives en faveur de 1'Univer- 
site Laval, les 20, 21, 27 et 28 mai 1881. Quebec : 
A. Cote et Cie. 

8vo., 138 paiM, 1881. 

Discours a roccasion de la demonstration solen- 
nelle faite a 1'Universite Laval contre hi spolia- 
t ion des biens de la Propajjandc, le 30 avril 1884. 
Queliec : P.-G. Delisle, 1884. 

8vo., pp. 'Jet 56. 

Li- premier Cardinal Canadian. Quebec : A. C6W 
et Cie. IKSii. 

svu , 31.12 pages. 

Discours d'ouverture des Cours 11 Quebec et a 
Montreal. IfWo. 

AunwiimlcCi'iiitieniH Luviil, 1886-87. p. 57. 
Oraison funebre de M r Dominique li u inc. pre- 
mier Kveque de Chicoutimi, prononcee IB ler 
fevrier 1XKS dans la e ithedrale de Chicoutimi. 

/'ruillr dStnchte liu Vrngrtii du SitgutniiVt 1^88. 
Demonstration en faveur du pouvoir temporeldu 
Pape, it ITniversiU- l.av.-il. le 28 avril 1889. 
Discours d'introduction. Quel>ec : A. C6W et 
Cie, 1KSU. 

8ro., pp. 7, 39. 

Klojje funebre de M" C.-E. I^cgar^, prononce a 
ses funerailles, le 25 Janvier 1800. 

XiiNiioirr dt VVnireniU l.nml, 181)1-92, p. 106. 
Notice sur M*' Mc'-thot. 
ll,id., 1892-93. p. 41. 

Notice sur Joseph -Charles Tachd. 
Ibid., 1804-96. p. S6. 

Harrington, Iti-rnard J. 

Catalogue des Mineraux du Canada, avec Notes, 
Descriptives et Explicntives, Londres: Eyre et 
Spottisw-oo e, 1878. 

Thii volume wu prepurrd to accompany the (ieul.i- 
gical Collections sent by the Geological Survey of 
Canada to the Paris Exposition of 1878, and contains 
series of Articles on the Economic Minerals of 
Canada. 

Life of Sir William I.OLMII, Kt., First Director of 
the Geological Survey of Canada. Montreal : 
I i.i -on Bros., and London : Sampson, Low & 
Co., 1883. 

8 ro. pp. 432. 

In the Reports of the (ieoloyical Survey of Canada : 
The Coals of the West Coast, 1872-71 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



41 



Harrington, Bernard J .Continued. 

On Samples of Brick-clay from Fort Garry, 
1872-73. 

Notes on the Iron Ores of Canada and their De- 
velopment, 1873-74. 

Notes on a Few Canadian Minerals and Rocks, 
1874-75. 

Notes on Miscellaneous Rocks and Minerals, 
1876-77. 

On the Minerals of some of the Apatite-bearing 
Veins of Ottawa County, P.Q., with notes on 
Miscellaneous Rocks and Minerals, 1877-78. 

In (he Canadian Naturalist, ri'z. : 

Notes on the Botany of a Portion of the Counties 
of Hastings and Addington. N. S., vol. v., 
April, 1871, Montreal. 

Notes on Dawsonite, a new Larbonatc. X. S., 

vol. vn., November, 187 J, Montreal. 
Sir William Edmund Logan. (Obituary.) X. S., 
vol. VIII., 1875, Montreal. 

Alao in American Journal nf .S'ciV/tf-c and Art*, vol. 
xi., February, 1S76, New Haven. 

Notes on a Few Dykes cutting Laurentian Hooks, 
more especially with reference to their micro- 
scopic structure. N. S., vol. VIH., December, 
1K77, Montreal. 

Notes on a Few Canadian Rocks and Minerals. 
N. S., vol. ix., December, 187!), Montreal. 

Notes on Chrome Garnet, Pyrrhotite and Titan- 
iferous Iron Ore. N. S., vol. ix., May, 1KSO, 
Montreal. 

Note on the Composition of Dawsonite. N. S., 
vol. x., December, 1881, Montreal. 

In the Canadian Record of Science, viz. : 

Note on a Specimen of Lake Iron Ore from Lac la 
Tortue, P.Q. Vol. in., January, 1888, Montreal. 

On Gothite, Serpentine, Garnet and other Cana- 
dian Minerals. Vol. IV., April, 18!K), Montreal. 

On Canadian Spessartite and Mountain Cork. Vol. 
iv., October, 1890, Montreal. 

The Composition of Limestones and Dolomites 
from a number of Geological Horizons in Can- 
ada. Vol. vi., January, 1891, Montreal. 

In the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada : 

On some Minerals New to Canada. Vol. i., Sec. 
3, 1883. 

On some Canadian Minerals. Vol. iv., See. 4, 
1886. 

On the Sap of the Ash -leaved Maple (Negundo 

aceroides). Vol. v., Sec. 3, 1887. 
Notes on Specimens of Nephrite from British 

Columbia. Vol. VIH., Sec. 3, 1890. 

In the American Journal of Science and Arts, &c.: 
On the Composition and Mode of Occurrence of 
the Pyrrhotite from Elizabethtown, Ontario. 

American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol- XI., 
May, 1876, New Haven. 

The Grantham Iron Works, Drummondville, P.Q. 
Canadian Magazine of Science and the Industrial 
Arm, June, 1883, Montreal. 



Harrington, Bernard J .Continued. 

On the so-called Amber of Cedar Lake. 

American Journal of .Science and Art*. Vol. XL1I , 
Oct., 1891, New Haven. 
The Beaver Creek Meteorite. 

Nature, Aug. 31st, 1893, London. 

Harrington, W. Hague. 

A Cheap Entomological Cabinet. 

Canadian Entomologist, Nov., 1878, Vol. x , pp. 217 
218. 

Tenth Annual Report of the Entomological Society 
of Ontario, 1871), p. 25 (Reprint.) 
On the Elateridit- or Click-Beetles. 
ll>id., 187(1, pp. 77, 84. 

Rhyncophora Weevils. 

Eleventh Annual llcportofthc Enlomologii-al Sorietu 
nf Ontario, 18*), pp. 49, 57. 

Entomology for Beginners. Some Wood-Haters. 

Canadian Entomologist, May, IS*), Vol. XII , |>i 
95, Ml. 

Entomology for Begi'inery. Some Fnngi-E:iters, 
IkiiL. Dec., 1880, Vol. xn., pp. 2>H, L'i>:. 

Tirtlfth Annual llroort of t,\r Entoiuoloui'-nl 

Sod'-tv of Ontario, 1881, pp. 22, 21. (Keprinl ) 
Graphite of the Ottawa Valley. 

Ot'aicn Fii-ld-Xaturaliit*' f/,,1, Tra imarlions, Xc,. 

1, 1880, pp. 22, 25 

On Some Insects Captured during Our Excur- 
sions. 

Ibil., No. 1, 1880, pp. 11, 47. 
Field Notes, l.HSI. 

Canadian Entomologist, Jan., 1SS2, Vol. XIV., pp. 

7, 9. 

Tin-lflh Annual H'ltorl of the Kntomologiral 
Xoriety of Ontario, ISS1, pp. 25, 2li. (Kcprint-) 
On Some Coleoptera Injurious to Our I'incs. 

Ottawa FUld-Naturali*!,' I'lnl, Trii nnni-tionl, NCI. 

2, 1881, pp. 28, 33. 

Entomology for Beginners. Long-stings. 

Canadian Entomologist, .Mjiy, ls^2. \'ul, \iv., pj. 
81. 81. 

T/lirtreilth Animal It-port of I/,. Entomological 
Socirtu of Ontario, 18S2, pp 2li, 2) (Iteprint.) 

Notes on the Occurrence of some Species of 1'ro 
ceridie. 

t'ottodioit Entomal.iyi*', December, 1HS2, vul. \ir., 
pp. 224, 2i8. 

House-Flies. 

Thirteenth Annual lleliort of the Kntamological 
iSucietg of Ontario, 1882, pp. 38, 44. 
Chrysomelidie Leaf- Feeders. 
Ibid., 1882, pp. 53. 62. 

Coleoptera Attacking Man. (Correspondence.) 

The Canadian Entomologist, March, 1883, vol. xv., 
pp. 59,60. 

Coleoptera of 1882, and Stiidulation of (Kcanthus. 
(Correspondence.) 

Ibid., April, 1883, vol. xv., pp. 79, 80 

Variations in Markings of Cicindela sex-guttata. 

Ibid., December, 1883, vol. xv., p. 236. 
A New Foe to the Maple (Xiphydria albicornis), 

Fourteenth Annual Report of the Entomological So- 
cietv of Ontario, 1883, pp. 40, 42. 

Injurious Insects Affecting the Hickory. 
Ibid., 1883, pp. 42, 52. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Harrington, W. Hague. Continued, 

Causes of Rarity in Some Species of Insect*. 

'.i. i./i'.m Nporrtm'iKl <irf .V.ifiimi'iW, April, 1883, 
vol. III..PP 22i, 226. 
Additions to Canadian Lints of Coleoptent. 

('.,.,,(,. E*lomoloffiil, 1881, vol. XVI.. pp. 44. 47, 
(March): pp 70. 78, (April); pp. 96. 98. (Maj ) : pp. 
117. lit. (June). 

Entomology for Beginners. Notes of a June 
Ramble. 

Ibid.. Juno, 18*4. Vol. xvi.. pp. 101, 10S. 

ft 'If Hill Annual K'parl ../ the Entomological \..- 

rirtt ' Ontario, 1881, pp. 30, 31. (Reprint). 
Saw-tlii-.s TenthredlnldH 1 . 

lli,l.. law, pp. 61-72. 
List of Ottawa Coleoptera. 

(Htalfl t'irl'l-\'ltui'llilt*' ('lull Transaction*. NO. 

v., 18*4, pp. 7. IS. 
XylorycteH sntyrus. (Correspondence.) 

l", ilinn Knt:jm<d'>oiit. March, ItMS, veil. XVIl., 

,, ',<. 
Hymrnoptera Arulrata Ants, Wasps and Hees. 

Mij-lerntk Annual It-It,, rt nf ihr Entomologirnl .""- 
eirtv of On/an... |SS, pp 48, 51. 

Art 1 C'urciiliei I-arva- Llgllivorous I 

/;,.',. in. .iVin'r.i Ant-rir i. April, 1K85. vul. I., pp. 

It, I 1 '. 

Nutrs on ntir Sa\\ (lies and Horn-lnil.s. 

Olf.uru f'i'l'l-.\attiralt*l*' t'tult Trttnnafti"Hn, Net. 
iv . IH>, i,|.. J4I.'.'4T. 

Notr on I >ryMin Sayi. 

<'.i.i. i./, .in Knti:t,,i:li:a,<t, Frbruar)', 1K '* fi , vol. xviii., 

Triithri-ilfi ilfltii, Pn>\. 

/'.n/. , February. lHi\, vol. xvni., pp. :i2, 33. 

Nuto mi lYntlirrdinidii-, 1HM.">. 

/'.i./., Kebrmry, 1W>, rnl. XVIII..PP. 38,40. 
Note-, on Xiphyilria Alhic rnis. 

/'.../.. March, IWI, veil. xvni.. pp. 4 P >, 46. 
IiiM-cts Infe-xtinj.- Maple 1'rccn. 

.VrrmrrmlA .4ieiin.i/ Hf"* " f In' Knt'.iai.tnfliciil 
>'.-firfi/ ..(' Onl.iri':. ISMl. pp. , 23. 

I'ri-sidi'iit's Inaugural Aildri'.sN. 

Oll;ir'i FiM-Xatnrnliiti' Cluli Tru nlnrli,,nt, No. 
VII., llVti;, pp. 4 . 30.1. 

Ory^-uH Snyi. 

' ''int/eYid PI An'" i'i"/..(7if , MHV, 1887. veil. XIX., pp. 

11. M, 

Hint- on ('olIoctiiiK llrinenoptera. 

/'.!/. June. IxfC, rol. six., pp. 115,116. 

f.'ifltlrtntn Anxu-tl Rrp-,rl of In' Kulomulugic'tl 

S-cutt ../ lti,iri.., 17, pp. 43, 44. (Reprint.) 
The Nuptials of Tlialesxa. 

''.i.i./i,in t:ni-.,,,..!.. a ,.i. Ni.vember, 1S87, TO!, xix.. 
Pp. 3uR, 200. 

Kittttrrnlk Annual ttl*,rl .,/ lar Knt'imnl,,gir<il 

.SWi'rtH /' O-tinri.,, 1887. pp. 25, 27. ( Reprint ). 
Further Observations on Ory.s.tus Savi. 

Camaiii.i, K,,t.,,:.l.. a ;*. Urcrmhrr, 1887, vol. xix., 
PP. 23. 240. 

Note on Flour and (irain IVetleH. 

Miami Kalurnlitt, 1K7-88. ral I., pp. 133. 134. 

New Specie* of Canadian TcnitiredinidH-. 

Canadian t*l.,m<,l,*i, Mir. 18S9. rol. XXI., pp. 
95. . 

nliaiiiarulip.-nnis, Ualdrman. 

/Wrf, Aonnit. 1W. rol. xii.. pp. 141, 145. 



Harrington, W. Hague. Continued. 
Insects Infeating Willows. 

Tir'ntirtk Annual Report of Ike Enlvmulgieal 
Society of Ontario, 1889, pp. 41, 55. 

Harpiphorux maculatus, Norton. 

In tret Life, January and February, 1890, vol. n , pp. 
227, 228. 

TVnt liiveliiiid.-i- Collected at Uttaxra, 1889. 

t',in:nlt>iti Entomoloffttt, February, 189^, vol. xxn., 
pp. 23, 25. 

The Corn Saw-fly. 

Ibid., April, 1890, vol. xxil., p. 40. 
Two Interesting MonstrosltKs. 

Ibid. , June, 1890, vol. xxu., p. 124. 
On the Lists of Coleoptera published by the 
Geological Survey of Canada, 1842-1888. 

Ibid., 1890. vol. xxil.. pp 135, 140, (July): pp. 135. 160. 
(August): pp 184, ll, (September.) 
Hymenoptera Parnsitica. 

Tmnly-fnl Annual Krporl of tke'Enlomologital So- 
cietv ".f On'ario, I8!K), pp. 6, 73. 

Notes on a Few Canadian Rhyncophcra. 

Panaifft'an ffntomo/oft'ttt, February, 1891, TO|. xcill., 

pp. 21,27. 

Platynns New to Canada. 

/Intl., May. 1891, vol. xxill., p. 115. 
Canadian Hhyncophora. 

Mi./., May, 1891, vol. xxni., p. 114. 
Twe> New Species of Canadian Pimplinff 1 . 

Hid.. June, 1891, vol. xxin., pp. 132 135. 
Note on Amblyopone pallipes, Hald. 

laid.. Juce, 1891, vol. xxill., pp. 138. 139. 
Notes on .Japanese Insects. 

Ttrtntu *rf<md Annual Rrjxirt o/ the Entomological 
S,,rirlv of Ontario, 1891, pp. 9 ', 95. 

Notes of Travel in Japan. 

Ottawa Jiaturaliti, February, 1892, vol. v.. pp. 181, 
19). 

The Japanese (Mass-rope Sponge. 

Ibid., February, 18>>2, vol. v., pp. 191, 192. 
The Microscope in Entomology. 

Iblil., March, 1H92, vol. v., pp. 206, 208. 
Additional Note on Amblyopone pallipes, Hald. 

fanintian Enlnntnlti*l. Murrh, 1892, VOl. XXIT., 
p. 78. 

Canadian Hymenoptera. No. 1. 

Ibid., April, 1W2, vol. xxiv. pp. 98, 99. 
Two Distinguished Settlers. 

Ibid., May, 1892, vol. XXIT., p. 112. 
The AhU 1 Provancher. (Obituary.) 

Ibid., May, 189-.'. vol. xxiv., pp. 130, 181. 

Tteetitjt'third Annual Report of thf Entomological 
Xociety of Ontario, 18s2, p. 88. (KeprinU 
A New Ischalia from Vancouver Island. 

Canadian Entomnlogitt. May, 1892, vol. XXIT.. 
p. 132. 

Fauna Ottawaensis Hemiptera. 

Ottatoa JVaturaliil,iane, 1892, vol. vi., pp. 25, 32. 
Entomology. (Notea on Ottawa insects.) 

Ibid.. September, 1892, rol. vi , pp. 81,86. 
List of Coleoptera collected in 1883-K4 by Mr. T. C. 
Weston on, and in the vicinity of, the Cypress 
Hills, N.W.T. 

Ibid., January. 1893. vol. vi.. p. 149. 
Entomology. (Notes on Ottawa insects.) 

/*irf.. January, 1SS3, vol. vi , pp. ISO, 151. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



43 



Harrington. W. Hague. Continued. 
Canadian Hymenoptera. No. 2. 

Canadian Entomologist, February, 1898, vol. \\v., 
PP. 29, 32. 

Entomology. (Notes on Ottawa insects.) 

Ottawa Naturalist, February, 1893, vol. vi. , pp. 
168. 170. 

A Glacial Epoch. 

Ibid., February, 1893, vol. VI., pp. 170. 171. 
Canadian Hymenoptera. No. 3. 

Canadian Entomologist, Marob, 1393, vol. \\\ ., pp. 
57.64. 

Entomology. (Notes on Ottawa insects.) 

Ottawa Naturalist. July, 1W, vol. VII., p. 68. 
Entomology. (Notes on Ottawa insects.) 

Ibid., September, 1893, vol. vn., pp. S7, 98. 
Fauna Ottawaensis Hymenoptera Phytophaga. 

Ibid., November, 1893, vol. TIL, pp. 117, 128. 
Annual Address of the President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. 

Tioentv-Jourth Annual Report of the Entomological 
Society of Ontario, 1893. pp. 17, 31. 

Additional Notes on Japanese Insects. 

/6irf.,1893, pp.50, 53. 
Canadian Uroceridae. 

Transactions of the Royitl Society of Canada, vol. 
XL, Sec. 4, 1893. 

Hymenoptera Phytophaga. 

Ottawa Jfuturaliit, January, 1804, vol. vn., pp. 162, 
163. 

An Entomological Trip to Copper Cliff, Onf. 

Canadian Entomologist, January, 1891, vol. xxvi.i 
pp. 9, 16. 

Monograph of the North American Proctotrypida?, 
by William H. Ashmead. (Review.) 

Ibid., January, 1S94, vol. xxvi., pp. 28, 30. 
Entomology. (Cui-ydalis cornutus.) 

Ottawa Natural in, February and March, 1891, vol. 
VH., p. 175. 

A Teratological Trio. 

Cana'tian Entomologist, March, 1894, vol. xxvi., 
p. 86. 

Fauna Ottawaensis Hemiptcra. 

Ottawa Naturalist.July, 1891, vol. vin., pp 68, l>7. 
Canadian Hymenoptera. No. 4. 

Canadian Entomologist, July, 1894, vol. xxvi., pp. 
193, 196. 

Entomological Notes. (IHaphe moment femor- 
ata.) 

Ottawa Naturalist, Angast, 18M, vol. vm., p. 80. 

Canadian Hymenoptera. No. 5. 

Canadian Entomologist, Auguet, 1894, vol. xxvi., 
pp. 20J, 214. 
Canadian Hymenoptera. No. 6. 

Ibid., September, 1894, vol. xxvi., pp. 245, 250. 

Harvey, Moses. 

The Characteristics of the Present Age. A Lec- 
ture. Edinburgh, 1851. 

Thoughts on the Poetry and Literature of the 
Bible. St. John's, Nfld., 1852. 

The Testimony of Ninevah to the Veracity of the 
Bible. St. John's, Nfld., 1854. 
8vo.,pp. 33. 



Harvey, Moses. Continued. 

Lectures on the Harmony of Science and Revela- 
tion. Halifax : Barnes, 1850. 
Svo., pp. lOi. 

Lectures on Egypt and its Monuments as Illus- 
trative of Scripture. St. John's, 1857. 
8vo., pp. 95. 

Lectures, Literary and Biographical. Edinburgh : 
Elliot, 1864. 

8vo., pp. 512. 
Christian Hymnology. 

Seven Papers in The Home and Foreign Record 
of the Lower Provinces, 1869. 

Cormack's Journey Across Newfoundland. 

Edited by Rev. M. Harvey, 1873. 
Across Newfoundland with the Governor. St. 
John's, Nfld., 1879. 

8vo.,pp. 130. 

Newfoundland, the Oldest British Colony. Lon- 
don : Chapman & Hall, 1883. 
8vo., pp. 489. 

Text Book of Newfoundland History, for the Use 
of Schools and Academies Glasgow : Collins & 
Sons (2nd eel.), 181)0. 
l-'mo., pp. 188. 

Where are We, and Whither Tending? London : 
Trubner & Co. ; Boston : Whittle, !*>. 
8vo., pp 210. 

Four Articles in the Enryrlojiii'iliii liritannifti 
(new edition), on Newfoundland, Labrador, St. 
John's, and The Seal Fisheries of the World. 

Three Articles in Johnstone'H t'nicrrtuil Cyrlo- 
pii'dirt, viz. : Newfoundland, Labrador, St. 
John's. 

List of Magazine Articles in Sfi'irttrt'n Quarterly 
and The Mnritimr Monthly Magazines, from 
WiS) 75, as follows : Three Articles on New- 
foundland ; A Geological Discovery in New- 
foundland : A Trip to the Old Land; Burns's 
Natal Day; Columbus; Thoughts, Facts and 
Fancies; Man. the Worker; Human Pro- 
gress Is it Real? Pompeii (two articles) ; The 
Bd'othics-the Aborigines of Newfoundland: 
The Castaways of (lull Island ; George Fox, 
the First of the Quakers; Northward, Ho ! The 
Devil Fish in Newfoundland Waters; The 
Shortest Route between Europe and America ; 
The Polaris Expedition (two articles); Two 
Thousand Miles on an ice-floe; Chronicles of 
Punch Bowl (two articles) ; The Seal Hunters 
of Newfoundland ; The Catacombs of Rome ; 
Livingstone. 

The Artificial Propagation of Marine Food Fishes 
and Edible Crustaceans. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada, Vol. X-, 
Sec. 4, 1S92. 

Reports of the Fisheries Commission of New- 
foundland, 1888-92. 
The Great Auk. 
Article on Newfoundland. 

Baedeker's Dominion of Canada Handbook. 
Leipsic, 1894. 

Newfoundland as it is in 1894. A Handbook and 
Tourists'Guide. With coloured map. St. John's, 
Nfld.: J. W. Withers, Queen's Printer, 1894. 
12mo.,pp. 298. 



44 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Harrpy, Arthur. 

Year Hook for British North Amerira, 1H07, and 
for Canada, 1SBS and 180H. Montreal : Gazette 
office. 

Tin- Grain Trade of the Ijike Regions. 

7V.ii-icli.,n Litrrurv nuil Hift'irical Uneirly i,f 
V*,t*r. IMS. 

Miscellaneous Statistics of Canada. 
<}:,r*ri,mr*l Hit* /(...,<., 1865-1870. 

The Reciprocity Treaty, First Prize Essay. Que- 
bec : Hunter. Hose & Co., IHtM. 

Valuator.' Tallies for the use of Building So- 
cieties. Toronto : Hunter, Rose & Co., 1K73. 

The appearance and decline of malarious disease 
in the valley of the Grand Kiver. Hamilton 
Association, l*v*s. 

''inin/i'.iii J'.urnnl, January. Wt>. 
The Census of ( '.ui.iil.i. 

>'< /...., V'.nlkly, 11-13. 

I lie discovery of Lake Superior. 

.l/'ilM :iV "I" Amrrirtin //i(.,r|/, June. 18& r i, 

Ch.iiiiplain's Kndeiivoiir to reach Hudson Hay by 

the Ottawa in M'.I.I. 
/ /., March, Isv;. 
I he Cruel I'lanl i I'll ij.iin ntlnm nlhrtut). Natural 

Histi>r\ Society. Toronto (Hiologicul section, 

I '.tn:i.li;in lust it utei. 

/ ,:..., rt,,., t , I'.,,,. ,.!,., /,,n'lMlr. IWJSI. 

Outlines of the Geology of .Northwest Lake 
Superior. 

/ / . \pril. lv.i. 

I.'Klnt .le la Population d'Origine Knincai.se du 
Camilla. 

'...,i.f.-/;. .../i,./,, f..H t r), d, I'luL.i,,,,;, it,, ,,, 
.M"iit|*.|irr ipraurr . 

Celtic, Roman . 1M . I Creek Types, still existent in 
France, with notes ,, t | R . Lannui- d'Oc. 

Tr.,,,..,tl,..,,, (',,.,,/,,,,, /,:,!, tulr, 1WH-K1. 

lione Caves. 

/&../.. (icioker, lY'l. 
The Knterprise of Christopher Columlms. 

/ Ain-nr,,,, H;,i,,r U . Jniiunry unJ 
Ki'brujir)-. 1*'2. 

The Pythagorean I'hilosophy. 

Tr.lnvictf.iu A#r-.,,..,,,,,-.il ,, n d I'll,, .:::, I Sodfll/ l,( 
r..r.,,.(,,,lS.i. 

The Height of an Auroral Arch. 
thiJ., W.O. 

The Antarctic Regions of the Earth and of Mars 

Iki-i.. 18M. 
A Physical Catastrophe to America. 

l'n*ndin* H.ifitin,, April, 18l. 

Hmjr, <j,. l\ 

Life ami Work of Profesor C. Fred. Hartt. 

A'.ihpv,/ U>-t..n, ,SW.'rt /V^,,/,,^. 1882, St. 
Jobn, N. B. 

New Brunswick Flora, chiefly of the River St. 
John and its Trlhutarle*. 

ft,*. JWMW 1.8U John. N. B. 
The Botany of Northern New Brunswick. 
' ati>.* /or 



Hay, Oeo. U. Continued. 

Marine Alga* of New Brunswick. 

Tniniiii-ti:,ii, Kiival Nncieln of Canada, vol. V 
sec. 4., 1887. 

History of Botany in New Brunswick. 

ftiU.vol. x.. MC. 4, 1892. 
Ideal School Discipline, and How to Secure it. 

Proceeding* Dnmiaion Educational Attoeiation, 
Montreal, 18V2. 

Various papers on Education and Natural Science. 
Rokuational Review, volt, r-vu., St. John, N. B. 

HolTiiiaiin, G. < In i-i i.m. 

The Eucalypts of Australia (on the essential oils, 
kino and manna, etc., obtained therefrom, and 
suitability of the bark of certain species of the 
same for paper-making), with an appendix on 
the essential oils of certain species of the genus 
Melalenca, and other indigenous Victorian 
plants. A paper read before the Montreal Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, February (i, 1873. Mitchell 
and Wilson, Montreal. 18711. 

8vo.. p. ,, 2 plates. 

In the Report* of the Geological Surrey of Canada : 
Chemical Contributions to the Geology of Canada, 
Report of Progress, 1874-75, pp. 313319; ibid., 
1*75-7(1, PP. 419-432; Will., 1878-7&, pp. 1-25H ; 
ibid., 187U-80, pp. 1-21H ; Will., 1880-81-82, pp. 
1-ltSn ; ibul., 1HH2-83-84, pp. pp. M0MM. Annual 
Reports (Xew Series) vol. I., 1885, pp. 1-29M ; 
ibul., vol. ii., 1886, pp. 1-42T ; i6if/., vol. in., 
18S7-8H, pp. 1-58-r; ibitl., vol. iv., 1888-89, pp. 
1-II8K ; ibiil., vol. V., 188U-90 91, pp. 1-72R. 

( )n Canadian Graphite, Report of Progress, 1870-77, 
pp. 4HO-512. 

On Canadian Apatite, Report of Progress, 1377-78, 
pp. 1-1 In. 

On the Coals and Lignites of the Northwest 
Territory, Re|x>rt of Progress, 1882-83-84, pp. 
1 -4-lM. 

Catalogue of Section 1 of the Museum of the 
Geological Survey of Canada. Embracing the 
systematic collection of minerals, and the col- 
lections of economic minerals and rocks and 
specimens illustrative of structural geology. 
Ottawa : S. E. Dawson, Queen's Printer, 1893. 

8vo., pp. 256, with folding plan of room. 
In the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada : 
On a specimen of Canadian Native Platinum. 
Vol. v., sec. 3, 1887. 

On the Hygroscopicity of Certain Canadian Fossil 

Fuels. Vol. vii., sec. 3, 1889. 
Annotated List of the Minerals occurring in 

Canada. Vol. vii., sec. 3, 1889. 
On a peculiar form of Metallic Iron found on St. 

Joseph's Island, Lake Huron, Ontario. Vol. 

VIII., sec. 3, 1890. 

Hale, Horatio. 

United State Exploring Expedition during the 
Years 1838 to 1842, under the command of 
Charles Wllkes, U. S. N. Vol. VII. Ethno- 
graphy and Philology. Philadelphia : Lea & 
Blanchard, 1846. 

4to., pp. 678. 

The author wu philolocitt to the expedition. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



43 



Hale, Horatio. Continued. 

Hiawatha and the Iroquois Confederation. A 
paper read at the annual meeting of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science 
in August, 1881, under the title of " A Law- 
giver of the Stone Age." 

Proceeding* of the American Association. 1881. 
Reprinted in pamphlet form. The Salem Press, 1881. 
8o. pp. 20. 

Indian Migrations as Evidenced by Language. 
Read at the Montreal meeting of the American 
Association in August, 1882. 

The American Antiquarian for January and April, 
1883. 

Reprinted in pamphlet, Chicago: Jameson & Morse, 
8vo., pp. 27. 

The Tutelo Tribe and Language. 

Reprinted in pamphlet from the Proceeding* n/ihe 
American Pkilotopkical Society, Philadelphia, Murch, 
1883. 8vo., pp. 47. 

The Iroquois Book of Rites. With an introduc- 
tion on the history, customs and language of 
the Huron-Iroquois nations. 

Volume No. 2 of Biinton's Library of Aboriginal 
American Literature. Philadelphia, D. G. Brinton, 
1883. 8vo.,pp.226. 

On Some Doubtful or Intermediate Articulations. 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland, February, 1885. 8vo., pp. 12. 
Chief George H. M. Johnson Onwanonsyshon : 
His Life and Work among the Six Nations. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

Magazine of American Hiotorn, February, 1880. 
8vo., pp. 12. 

Report on the Blackfoot Tribes. Prepared for the 
British Association for the Advancement of 
Science as the First Report of a Committee on 
the Northwestern Tribes of Canada. 
Proceeding* of the Attociation for 1885. 
Reprinted in Nature, and (with some omissions) in 
the Popular Science Monthly for June, 1886. 8\-o 
PP. 12. 

The Iroquois Sacrifice of the White Dog. 

American Antiquarian for January, 1885. 8vo., p. 6. 
The Origin of Wampum. A paper read at the 
Montreal meeting of the British Association in 
1884. 

Popular Science Monthly for January, 1886, under 
the title of "The Origin of Primitive Money." 8vo., 
PP. 11. 

The Origin of Languages and the Antiquity of 
Speaking Man. An address delivered before 
the Section of Anthropology of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 
August, 1886. 

Proceedings of the Association of 1886, and in pam- 
phlet, Cambridge, Mass. : John Wilson Jt Son, 1886. 
870., pp. 47. 

Language as a Political Force. 

Andover Review for August, 1886. 8vo., pp. 11. 
Notes by the Editor of the Third Report of the 
British Association on the Northwestern Tribes 
of Canada. 

Proceeding* of the Association for 1837* 8vo., pp. 4. 
Notes by the Editor of the Fourth Report of the 
above Committee. 

laid., 1888. 8vo., pp. 3. 



Hale, Horatio. Continued. 

Huron Folk-lore. No. 1. Cosmogonic Myths. 
The Good and Evil Minds. 

Journal of American Folk-lore for October and De- 
cember. 1888. 

An International Language. 

Prrtce.edina* of the American Auociation for the 
Advancement of Science, 1888. 8vo., po. 5. 

The Development of Language. A paper read be- 
fore the Canadian Institute, Toronto, April, IKS*. 
Proceeding* of the Canadian Institute, and reprinted 
in pamphlet by the Copp-Clark Co., Toronto, 18S8. 
8vo., pp. 45. 

Race and Language. Read at the annual meet 
ing of the American Association in 18K7, under 
the title of " The True Basis of Ethnology." 
Pojmlar Science M'/ntttfi/, January, 1SS8. 

The Aryans in Science and History. Head at tin- 
annual meeting of the American Association in 
1888, 

Had., March, 1SSP. 8vo., pp. 13. 

Remarks on North American Ethnology: intro- 
ductory to the Fifth Report of the Commit tee 
of the British Association on the North western 
Tribes of Canada. 

Vro<-e?duvn <>fth> A*<:i'i'ii,u for 1889. 8vo., |>p. ">. 

Huron Folk-lore. No. The Story of Tijaiha. 
the Sorcerer. 

Journal of Ainrrirnii Folk-lore, October and lie 
ceinber.188!). 8vo., pp. 0. 

An International Idiom : A Manual of the Oregon 
Trade-language or Chinook Jargon. London : 
Whittaker&Co., lKi. 
I'Jmo., pp. f>3. 

Was America IVopled from Polynesia? A Study 
in Comparative Philology. 

Proceed i lift* of the International ConyrrHS ot'Aiiieri- 

canitt*, Berlin, October, 1S88. 

Reprinted in pamphlet, Berlin : H.C. Hermann, l+.hi 
8vo., pp. 15. 

" Above" and " Below " : A Mythological Disease 
of Language. 

Journal of American Folk-lore, July and Septem- 
ber, 1890. 8vo., pp. 13. 

Remarks on the Ethnology of British Columbia: 
Introductory to the Fifth Report of the Com- 
mittee of the British Association on the North- 
western Tribes of Canada. 

Proceedings of the Association, K90. 8vo., pp in. 

Huron Folk-lore. No. 3. The Legend of the 
Thunderers. 

Journal of American Folk-lore, October and Decem- 
ber, 1891. 8vo., pp. 6. 

Language as a Test of Mental Capacity; being an 
attempt to demonstrate the True Basis of An- 
thropology. 

Pamphlet reprinted from the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Canada, vol. n. . Sc. 2, 1891. 

Republished in the Journal of the An'hropological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland for May, 189.'. 

Also (under the title of ' Man and Language ") in 
the American Antiquarian for January, March, May 
and July, 1893. 
4to., pp. 36. 



46 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF T1IK 



Half. Homllo. (\>ntinurd. 

Remarks on Linguistic Ethnah>g7 : Introductory 
to the Kiuhth Report of the Committee of the 
llriii-h AHsociation on the Northwestern Tribes 
of America. 

/V.***iie <>f tk' AtKtlnliun for 1892. (ro., pp. 5. 

The K l.i 1 1 i.it )> Nation. 

Sn.icr fur January 1,S, and 15, 189?. 

Tin- Knl I of Hochclaua : A Study of Popular 
Tradition. A (taper prepared for the Interna- 
tional Congress of Anthn>|>oloy, held at the 
" World's r,,luinl>i:ui Kxposition," at Chicago, 
in l.-aci. 

J/.-WI..I *"/' fAr (VtiffrrM, ChicHX" : The Schulte Putt- 
IlKUtnir Co.. did in the Journal i,f America* t'ntlt-1'irr 
fur March.IgM.pl>. I*. 

An International Scientific Catalogue and Con- 
Itrv.v.. 

.V. ,.,,r, fur March. IS '.'.. 

.1. ill ll*i ill . \ll-\.lllll<T. 

Ill III- Trinit'li-tinnx n_f tin linljill ."viriY/l/ III' ClI lllllld: 

Symmetrical Investigation of the Curvature of 
Surface-.. \'ol. i.. SIT. :t, l.ss;;. 

IJf|.nri "ii tin- Preparation* at Monlreiil for Ob 
erviiii: tin- Traii*it of Venn* of December ti, 
I--.. \'..l. i.. S.T. ::, K-ci. 

l'r.--iil,-iiii:il Addrc** in DieThiril Section of the 

>" ii-ty. \'.,l. in., Sec-. ::. lss.1. 
Tulal ()li.si-rvalioii> in ('minilian \Vati-rs. Itn'il. 
( )|| tin- -.1111.- -illiji-rl. \'ol. '. III.. Si-c. :i, 1S1KI. 
N. -utitn'-. us,- of tli.- Slit ami I..-U-- in forming a 

I'm, S|H-ctriiin. Vol. i\.. SIT. II, is-il. 
On tin- in-i-.l of a "Coast Sur\t-\ " fur tin- Doiniii- 

i'.n of Cunaila. Vol. XI.. SIT. It. Isle). 



On tin- tlnpurtum-e of Tiilal OliservatioiiM in the 
I iulf of St. l.aw ri-nre anil on t he At lantir Coast 
of I h.- Doiniiiion. Is^l. 

AI-Mi M\ r.-|Hirl> as Chairman of a Committee 
iip|Miinicil li\ I he Asocial ion to promote Tiilal 
Oli-ervation> in Canada, issito 1S1IO inclusive. 

/ it i rrr.ttty of' .Mi dill .\<lrlrr.**n : 
Scii-nce ami Keli^ioii. IKTii. 

The Kniullyof Art-, tin- heart of a I'divei-Mly. 
|JJ. 

A I'm 



r'H Vacation. l.*?rj. 



K.-1-f.-r. T. r. 



K. ;.,i:- an Dr. i- ..i, KnfcinetT \\Yllnnd Canal, 
1M" 1KJ.V ftmnl of Works. 

l:- l-,n. an Chief KiiKineer on Ottawa River 
Work-.. 1H45 1H4M. Hoard of Work.s. 

I'hilimophy of KailwayH. Montreal, 1H4, Jno. 
LorriL 

TO., pp. 40. 

Canmla of Canada. (I>ri. Kay.) Toronto, 1850 
Lorell. 

TO..P. Ill 



Keefter, T. C. Continued. 

Report on Tenmcouata Route for Railway and 
Canal, 1850. Board of Works. 

Report on Improvement of the Rapids, River St. 
Lawrence. Board of Works. 

Report on Canadian Commerce and Transporta- 
tion, for Andrews's first Report on Reciprocity 
between Canada a'nd the United States, 1860. 

Report on Kingston and Toronto Section Grand 
Trunk Railway, 1851. 

Report on Montreal and Kingston Section Grand 

Trunk Railway, 1851. 
Report on Montreal Water Works, 1852. 

Report on Canadian Commerce, etc., for Andrewg's 
second Report on Reciprocity between Canada 
and the United States, 1852. 

Report on Victoria Bridge across the St. Lawrence 
at Montreal, ia53. 

Lecture delivered before Mechanics Institute on 
" Montreal," 1853. 

Report on St. Lawrence and Ottawa Grand Junc- 
tion Railway, 1853. 

Report on Toronto Water Works, as Referee, 
1854. 

Lecture before Mechanics' Institute, Montreal, 
on "The Ottawa," 1H54. 

Report on Hamilton Water Work.s, 1855. 
Report on Dredging in Lake St. Peter and Har- 
Ixnir of Montreal, as Harbour Engineer, 1855. 

Report on Halifax Water Works. 

Report on Water Supply for the City of Toronto, 

lS. r >7. 

Report on Harbour, St. John, N.B., 1H(10. 

Report on Water Work.s, Quebec, I860. 

Report on Harbour, Richibucto, N.B. 

Report on Water Work.s, Dartmouth, N.S. 

Report on Water Works, Ottawa, 18. 

Ten letters in favour of " all rail " versus " water 
stretches" for the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
1SH1MH70. 

Report on Water Works, London, Ont. 

Rc|>ort on Water Works, St. Catharines, Ont. 

1 1 am I book for Canadian Commission, Paris Ex- 
hibition, 1S7H. 

Report as Executive Commissioner for Paris Ex- 
hibition of 1878-1879. 

Report as Chairman Flood Commission, Mon- 
treal, 1880-88. 

Address as President Canadian Society Civil 

Engineers, Montreal, 1887. 
Address as President American Society Civil 

Engineers, Milwaukee, 1888. 

Paper on Canadian Waterways to the Atlantic, 
read before World's Water Commerce Congruns 
at Chicago, 1803. 
The Canals of Canada. 

Tmnwcli-int Royal Socittv of Canada, Vol. IX., 
See. 3, 1SB3. 



EOYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



47 



l\ m--f"r 'I. William. 

History, Structure and Statistics of Plank Roads 
in the United States and Canada. Phila- 
delphia, 1852. 

Lame 8ro., pp. 28. 

Impressions of the West and South During a 
Six Weeks' Holiday. Toronto, 1858. 

8vo.,pp. 83. 

The Victoria Bridge. Description; opening; pas- 
gage of first train, 24th November, 1859. 

Toronto Leader, December 1, 1859. 

Death of Alexander Mackenzie Ross, Engineer 
Victoria Bridge. 

Ibid., August 27, 1862. 

Reprinted in TV-unmet ion* of Civil Engineer! <>/ 
Canada, 1892. p. 23. 

Britanno-Ronmn Epigraphy. A review of Bri- 
tanno-Roman Inscriptions, with critical notes 
by the Rev. John McCaul, LL.D., Toronto. 

/6irf.,1863. 
The Late Stewart Derbi.shire. 

Ibid., April 2, 1883. 

The Geological Survey of Canada, Review of 
Sir William Logan's report of progress from 
its commencement to 1883. 

Ibid., 1863. 

Canadian Geology. Review of Dr. Chapman's 
"Popular and Practical Exposition of the 
Mineralogy and Geology of Canada." 

Ibid., 1864. 

The New Poems of Charles Mackay. Review of 
" Studies from the Antique." 

Ibid., 1864. 

The Canadian Canals. Their history and cost, 
with an inquiry into the policy necessary to 
advance the well-being of the province. To- 
ronto, 1865. 

8vo.,pp. 191. 
A Trip to Fort William. 

Toronto Leader, August 7, 1865. 
The Late Henry John Raymond, of New York. 

Montreal Neim, 1869. 

The Canadian Canals. A series of Articles, Xos. 
I. to IX. 

Canadian Monetary Times, May to August, 1869. 

The True History of Lady Byron's Life. A re- 
view of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

Montreal Newt, I860. 

Edward, Duke of Kent. A review of the life, by 
Dr. Anderson, Quebec. 

Toronto Lender, June 2, 1871. 

Report of St. Lawrence and Ottawa Railway 
Extension to Pembroke. Examination from 
Hull to Pembroke and Deep River, 1872. 

8vo. 

The Great West of the Dominion. Review of 
narrative by Rev. Geo. M. Grant of Mr. Sand- 
ford Fleming's expedition through Canada to 
the Pacific Ocean in 1872. 

Montreal Gazette, 1872. 

A Canadian Political Coin. A monograph. Ot- 
tawa, 1874, pp. 24. 
The Early Days of Three Rivers. 

Ront-Belford Canadian Monthly and National 
Review, Toronto, November, 1880. Vol. v., pp. 449 480. 



, William. Continued. 
John Johnston, of Sault Saint Mary. A passage 
of Canadian History. 

Ritte-Btlford Canadian Monthly and Notional 
Review, July, 1891. Vol. vu., pp. 1-8. 

The Saguenay and Lake Saint John. 

Ibid., September, 1881. 
Mr. Kingsford and Sir H. I-angevin, C.B. The 

case considered, with official correspondence. 

A memoir for the historian of the future. 

Toronto, 1882, pp. 45. 
The Late Erasmus Holmes Marshall, of Kulliili . 

Montreal Herald, July 22, 1864. 
Canadian Arehii-ology. An essay. Montreal: W. 

Dnsdale&Co., 188B. 

Small 8vo., |>p. 11S. 

Gustavus W. \Vicksteed, Q.C., on his retirement 
from the House of Commons. 

Oitatra Citizn i, February 12, IS87. 

Rome ill Canada. Review of work of Mr. Charles 
Lindsey, of Toronto. 

Toronto JJW.Mny 18,18*1. 

Translation of Address of the Abbe .!.('. K. La- 
tlamnie, M.A , D.I)., Professor of Laval 1'ni 
versify. Vice-President of the Roval Society nf 
Canada. Delivered at a public meeting of the 
Society held at the Queen's Hall, Montreal. 
Wednesday, May 27. I*!* 1 . Toronto and Mont- 
real, 18i)l. 

8vo..pp. 20. 

The Moral and Social Organization of Kdncatii n. 
Review of translation of Prof. (I. I). Ferguson, 
Queen's University. Kingston. 

The WA-,Turmilo. 18SM. 

Louis Joseph Papineau. Review of lintrhurr 
of M. de Celles. 

Witnem, March 1,1992 

The Early liibliography of the Province of 
Ontario, Dominion of Canada, with other in- 
formation. A Supplemental Chapter of Cana- 
dian Arclwology. Toronto: Rowsell & Hutchi- 
son; Montreal : E. Picken, IS! 12. 

Small STO., pp. 140. 
The Late Mr. Murdo Mclver, 

Montr, alll-rala. July, 1893. 

Sir Daniel Wilson. In Memoriam. 

TrillUHietioiln Royal Socirtv nf Canada, Vlil. X!., 

Sec. 2, 1893. 

For the various Reports furnished to the Gov- 
ernment, and for the services of Dr. Kingsford 
as Engineer in charge of Harlmurs in the Pro- 
vinces of Ontario and Quebec, until he left the 
department in 1880, between the years 1847 and 
1880, see Special Report of Public H'orte, 
1890, p. 23. 

The History of Canada. Vol. i., from 1608 to 
1682; Vol. II., 1679-1725; Vol. III., 17261756; 
Vol. iv., 1756-1763 ; Vol. v., 1763-1775 ; Vol. vi., 
1776-1779; Vol.vn., 1779-1807. 

8vo., Vol. i., pp. an. + 48S; Vol. n., pp. ii. + 564 ; 
Vol. in.. PP- viii. + 578; Vol. IV., pp. xiv. + 581: 
Vol. v., PP. xvi. + 492; Vol. vi., PP- *ii- x-">23; Vol. 
vii.. pp. xix. +5P6. Vol. in. iv. v. vi. and vu. with 
muff- Two volumes to complete the work. 




48 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OFTHK 



KM l. . \\ llh.ilil. 

Counter Manlle.sto to the Annexat ionist* of 
Montreal. 

Publiihed in pamphlet form by the Government of 
Canada. Niagara. aMi October. 1819. 
W. Kirby and J. B. Plumb, The Broadside and 
Welland KlectorttCompanion. (Political Squibs). 
Niagara, June 15th, INK*. 

The I'. K. A Tale of I'pper Canada. A Poem in 
Xll. Cnntos. Niagara : W. Kirby, 1R~>0. 

12mo . pp. 174. 
Mi-s Kye's Kminrant Children. London, England. 

ltinrrll,,r. May, 1S73. 

Acadia. Toronto : .1. Briggs, July, 1878. 
The I'nilcd Empire Loyalists. 

''iri'ii/i'iu Mrtl.i.i/,,/ MnQinine, Toronto. April and 
.May. ISM. 

The Golden Dog. A legend of Quelicc, New York 
and Montreal. Lovcl, Adam, Wesson S: Co., 
1-77. 

>-..... pp. hT>i. 

I..- Chien .i'or. 

1'irm-h Tranlatinn <il nlmve by I'amphili- I.c Mny. 
M .'t,tr(-al : Iniprimrric de I'Ktendard. IStl. 
Memoirs of Servos Family. Toronto: \V. llii^rgs, 

ISM. 
( '.in.i'i ian lil \ N. 

I'ulilifhi-d rparaloly in Pamphlet form 
\ Sci-nml Kdiliini in KM. Hv., i'p. I7. r >, Wi>ll:iinl.iin|. 

Tin- >p.u !" -. Niagara. llreemlier, IsTli. 
]), MI| S.-.i 1!"-. -. Tori)nii> : \V. Hri^'s, Is7.s. 
Tin- Hiingrx Year. Toronto : \V. Hri.irgs, l*7'.l. 
St.. in, Cn-i-k. Toi-iinto : \\'. Hrii_'n-. l^ 1 - 
Qii"-"-n's Hiittiitiiy anil Spina Christ i. Tuixnilo, 

1{.,~,- B. Iford C.... issl. 
Tin- li.-IU of Kirli\ \Viskr and Tin- Lord's Supper 

in tin- \VililiTni". Toronto, Hosc-Belford Co., 

1S.--J. 

Tin- llarvi-t Moon. Toronto, Hose- Hclford Co., 

l-i-0. 

I'linliiir. A.I). ITitl. Nia^arii : \V. Kirby, 1HH7. 
Bn-hv Hun. A. 11., ITi'ki. Niagara : \V. Kirliy, \X<i. 
Aildri' . C. K. Loyalist (Vntcnninl nt Niagara, 

Anniist lllli. I ss|. Toronto: Itosc I'ulili.shing 

Co.. IS85. 

MMI in -ml K ill ion Of Canadian Iilyls, I-'.'l. 

Mrmoir of Hon. .1. II. I'lninl) in RepreHentatlve 
Canadi.uiH. Toronto: Hose Pnblisliing Co., 1KHO. 

Monody on the Sirkness and Ket in-incut of His 
Kxrrllcnry l/ml Mi-lcalf from the (loveriiinent 
of Canada, No\ i-inlxT. lH4o. 

Ninfim TAron ,Vfc, 3lt December, 1845. 

The Wn-c-kof the Hungarian, HJth February, IHtH). 

.Vi'iff-rr'r M'lil. 

Stuarf- Itai.l An Incident In the Siege of Rich- 
mond. 12th June, 1H02. 

tfiatnra Mail. IWi. 
Titlr* of I'liMuthril Snnnet*, riz: 
The Wax Wing. 

On The Jubilee of Her Majesty's Kelgn. 
Sp a- -T I i ranife. 
Winter Rone* on the Children's Faces. 



Kirby, William. Continued. 

Portrait of Mrs. Hope Sewell, Quebec. 

A Night Vision. Vidi Coelum Apertum. 

On a Child of Two Summers. 

On Her Majesty's Prox-idcntial Escape from 

Assassination, March 2nd, 1882. 
To James M. LeMoine, Quebec. 
On General Gordon's Death. 
Et Arborum folia, sic dies nostri. 
" For the Hairs of your Head are all Numbered." 

On the Visit of the Marquis of Lome to the North- 
west. 

On the Departure of His Excellency The Marquis 
of Lome and the Princess Louise, October 27th, 

1883. 

Montmoreucy. 

On a photograph, Mrs. M. LeMoine, Quebec. 

HriH'k's Seat. 

Lundy's Lane. 

National Song, Canadians Forever, 1867. 

l..i M.i OMIM-. Mgr. .1. C. K. 

Age de la chute Montniorency. 

Aanuairc ilf I'lnflilut Cnniiditn, No 5, 18 "8. 
Elements de Mineralogie et de Geologic. Edite 
par M. I'.-G. Delisle, 1881. 

Le Canada d'autrefois. Es<|uisse geolcgique. 
Annunirt de I'fntlilut Cnnailien, No. 9, 1882. 

Note sur la geologic du lac St-Jean. 

MfiiKiirmilrlit Socitlt riivtle. Tome i.,Sec. 4, 1883. 
Note sur les depots auriferes de la Beauce. 

Ili'ut., Tome n., Sec. 4, 1884. 
Note sur un gisement d'emeraude au Saguenay. 

/',../., Tome n., Sec. 4, 1881. 
Elements dc Mineralogie, de Geologic ct de I tot a- 

ni(|ue. Edite. par.I.-A. Lunglais. 1885. 
Le Saguenay. Essai de geographic physique. 

Hullelin <! la. SociM tie Gioaraphie dr Quibtc, 
Tome I., 1885. 

Note sur les contacts des formations paleozoi'ques 
et arclieennes de la Province de Quebec. 

Mfmnim <le la SocitH r<>u>ile. Tome iv.. Sec. 4, 1886. 
Michel Sarra/in. Sa biographic, sea travaux 
scientitlqucs. 

/'././., Tome v., So. 4. 1887. 
Le goz nature! de la Province de Quel)ec. 

/'-/-/., Tom* vi , Sec. 4, 18*8. 
Travail sur les cours dits d'extension universitaire. 

. ll,iil., Tume ix.. Sec. 4, 1891. 
Etude sur le Dr T.-S. Hunt. 

IIM. , Tome x. , pp. \ LVII.-I II. 

Keproduite avec additioni dans I'Annuairc de I' Uni- 
verriit Laval. No. 36. 

Metallurgie electrique. 

Canada-Francait, Tome I. 
Chroniques scientiflques. 

Ibid , Tomes II., III. et IV. 

La poesie chez les planter. Dans le volume inti- 
tule: A la memoire de A. Lusignan. Mont- 
r.-al : Desaulniers et LeManc, 1802. 
Notions -nr I'elect rieite et le magn^tisme. Que- 
bec : A. Cot.- et Cle, 1803. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



49 



I,. i cl. i in in.'. Mgr. J. C. K. Continued. 
L'Eboulis de St-Alban. 
Canadian Engineer. 

De plug, un grand nombre d'articles soientifiques 
publics a diverse." reprises dans lea journaux quoti- 
diens- 

I. a M -mi, George. 

On the Arracacha of Brazil. With letter from 
M. Decaisne of Paris. 

Proceeding* Dundee Natunilitt*' Amociation, 1848. 
On the Occurrence of Mimulus luteus in Forfar- 
shire. 

Phvtulogiit, Vol. II , p. 389, 1846. 

Stray Thoughts on Botanical I !a i n liles and Visits, 
suggested by Mr. Hewett Cottrell Watson's re- 
marks on the usefulness of a Periodical devoted 
to British Botany. 

Ibid., Vol. II., pp. 417-419, 1816. 
Note on Mimulus lutens. 

/ii'rf.,Vol. n.. p. 460, 1846. 

On the Occurrence of Pyrola rotundifolia, Al- 
chemilla alpina, and Viola lutea }, on Sidlaw 
Hills, Forfarshire. 

Ibid.,Vo\. n., p. 578, 1816. 
On a Monstrosity of Cardamiiie pratcnsis. 

Ibid., Vol. ii., p. 379, 1816. 

Occurrence of a New Variety of Silene inflata in 
Fifeshire. 

Ibid., Vol. n.,p.. r 89, 1846. 
A New Locality in Scotland for Ruscus aculeatus. 

Ibid., Vol. ii , p. 683, 1816. 

On Viola odorata, and its occurrence in Fifeshire. 
Ibid., Vol. n., p. 863, 1846. 

On a White-flowered Variety of Epilobium mon- 
tanum. 

Ibid., Vol. n., p. 8'23, 1846. 
On Silybum Marianum. 

Ibid., Vol. ii., p. 416, 1846. 
On Salvia verbenaca, Linn. 

Ibid.,Vo\. n., p. 416, 1846. 

* Notes on Viola odorata and its occurrence in 

Fifeshire, etc. 

Ibid., Vol. n., pp. 863, 1846. 

Notice of a Black Swan (Cygnusniger) shot in the 
Valley of Eden, Fife, in 1846. 

Zoologist, 1847. 

List of the Rarer Flowering Plants observed dur- 
ing a residence in Fifeshire in 1846-47. 
Phl/tologitt, Vol. in., pp. 1 136, 1818. 

* Notes on the Periods of Flowering of Wild 

Plants. 

Ibid., Vol. in., pp. 2JI2-293, 1848. 

* Remarks on the Naturalization of Plants in 

Britain. 

Ibid., Vol. in., pp. 292-293, 184?. 

* Remarks on the Naturalization of Plants in 

Britain. 

76'W., Vol. in., pp. 294-299, 1818. 

* On the occurrence of Euphorbia salicifolia as a 

naturalized plant in Forfarshire. 
Ibid., Vol. in., pp. 344-345, 1848. 

* Titles marked with an asterisk () are included in the (Lon- 
don) Rot/al Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papen, Vol. HI., pp 
895-896, published in 1869. 



lui sun, George. Continued. 

Observations on the Floral Changes of the Pre- 
sent Day in relation to Past Changes of the 
Earth's Flora. Presidential Address to the 
Geological Society of Edinburgh, 17th April 
1851. 

Ihf Naturalitt (London), Vol. i. pp. 75 81. 

Note on the effects of Cultivation upon Plantago 
lanceolata /. spha-rostachya (W. & G. of Huh. 
Manual.) 

Ilnifrti/'t Botanical Gazctt-, Vol. I , pp. 35-3fi, 114!). 

The Royal Water-Lily of South America (Victoria 
regia) and the Water-Lilies of our own I.-ind. 
Edinburgh : Hogg, 1811). Pp. |m. coloured 
plates. 

On Plants collected on Wamlsworth Common in 
1HT)1 (new either to England or to the London 
district), Melilotus parvillora, Seorpiiirus suli 
villosus, Trifolium ochroleiicum, Anacharis al- 
sinastruni (Udora Canadensis), etc. 

Pmreilino* Botnnii-ai ,S'.-i>(// / K,li,,l,nrgh, lx.il. 

On the occurren'-c of " Cinchonaccous Clauds" in 
Galiacea', and on the relations of Ilial Order to 
Cinehonacea'. 

Annuls t,f .\nliirnl l/iitorii, \'u\, XIV., pp. llil-ltiS, 
plllti', ISM. 

Transaction* of Botanical Society of Kilinonrgli, Vul. 
v., pp. 3-10, plate n. 

* On the Stipular Glands of Hubiacea*. 

Ilritiutt AwH-iitlion lieprt, 1S54, Part II , p. '.'9. 

* On Rotation in the Cells of I'hmts. 

Journal <>j' Microscopical .^'' ienct 1 , Vol. II., pp. 54- 
"o, 1851. Ke?uin(; in Bnglixh (^<-l"i>:"lia. Natural 
History Diviyiun, V'l. i.. "Cyclnsi^.'' 

* Report on the Musci and Desmidea- oolleeted 

during the trip of the Edinburgh t'niver-ity 
Botanical Class to Falkland and the Lomond 
Hills, Fife, June, 1H.V5. 

Proceedings Botanical Society nf Edinburgh, 18o5, 
pp. 75-31. 

On Species of Bryuni. viz., ]!. calophyllum, Mar 
rattii, Warneum, and on Didymodon. 
llnd, 1851), pp. 2-3. 

* On the Microscopical Structure of the Victoria 

Regia, Lindl. 

Proceeding! Botanical Sot'ifti/ of Edinburgh, 1&')5, 
pp. ll'J-121. Also .lomnal nf Mirroicopical Scimc'-, 
Vol. iv., pp. 163-165, 1S58. 

On Orthotrichum phyllanthum. Brachythecium 
micropus and B. glacialis. 

Proceedingn Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 18.56 
p. 33. 

* Remarks on Dust Showers, with notice of a 

shower of mud that occurred at Corfu on 21st 
March, 1857. 

fbid.,Vol v., pp. 179-181, 1858. (A translation in 
modern Qreek printed at Corfu, 1858.) 
On the Application of Botany to Ornamental Art 
(with special reference to examples in wood- 
carving). 

Ibid., Vol. v., pp. 177-179, 1857. 

Remarks on Certain Glandular Structures in 
Plants (controverting Dr. Carpenter's view as 
to absence of true secretion in plants, and point- 
ing out homology of secreting cells with epider- 
mal cells). 

Ibid,, Vol. v., pp 212-214, 1857. 



80 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



, George. Continued. 
On Diatomacert- of Breeraar (with Dr. K. K. 
Greville and I'p.f. .1. llutton Balfour). 
/./.. Vol. v.. pp. 45 54, 1857. 

Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Society of 
fCdinburxh, (with Preface by Prof. .1. D. Forbes, 
secretary!. Edinburgh : Printed for the So- 
ciety, 1S57. 

Notice of the Occurrence of Hypnum rugtilosum, 
Web. et Molir, on Demyat, Ochils. 

Tramarti'ini B-itanicnl jioeirty .,/ EdMurgh, Vol. 

Vl.,p. , 1857. 

British Agriculture, illustrated by the actual 
account* of the tenant of n Midlothian farm, 
for n series of years, abstracted so ns to show 
expense of cultivation of, and revenue or loss 
from, every crop. etc. Edinburgh : Kdmoiiston 
& Douglas. ls,\s. 

Tin- British Mosses, illustrated by the Nature 
print iii).- I'riM e s. 

(When i In printing of thin work was noarlj com- 
pleted, in the- year 1*SH. in jjsuc mm prevented by 
the -U.I.I.TI .lenlh "f n member of the publi$hinK Grin 
that II.MJ i-.juire'i the eupyrinht. 'tnii conM'queiilty 
tin- I, milt b.i* nut been puMi-liril.J 

Note MM Crypli.ea i D.ili uni:i i I^iinyana. M on) ague. 

Transact /;..,. ,,-al >'..,'. (// .,:' E'linburuh, Vol. 

vi , p. :m, !'.. 

Kein. irk> mi tin- Distrjlmti,,,, ,,f I'lants in the 
\Mrili.-rn States. Cimaila, and the Hudson's 
Has (<iin|ian\'s TiTi-itories. 
/''.. Vul. vi. p. 41, 18M. 

Not i c of tin- Produce of the Olive Crop in the 
Island of Corfu during the past season (Is."i7i. 
Ibid , V.il. vi., p. 42, Iv>. 

Notice f 1'lants collected in the Isle of Skye by 
Drs. Smith and (iilchrist. 
/'.i./.. Vol. vi., p. 44. 185s. 

On Mollugo Cerviana. 

lt.H., Vul. \i..p. 45, 1858. 

Remarks on Lepan anatifera, Linn. 

Anit.il, .,/ .VtmW //iih.ry, Vol. II., pp. 172 175, 1<?8. 

Kurt her Observations on Dust Showers. 

rnnuarfMu H.jlaaw.,1 .\,ri,t v ,.( KilMurgh , V..I 

v.. pp. 2U5-7. 1858. 

List () f I'lants found at TayjKirt, Fife, in Septem- 
ber, ISMi. 

/k<it.. Vol. vi., pp. 217-218. 

Notice of a few Plants collected In the vicinity of 
Stirling (Scotland). 

ftirf., Vol. TI., pp. 73-74. 1858. 

Id-marks on M. Montagtie'n specimen of Cryphiea 
Ijiinynna, Mont. 

/Ml.. Vol. .. p 117. 1858. 

Hemarks on the Microscopical Structure of Cot- 
ton Fibre with reference to Mr. Gilbert .1. 
French's proposed improvements In Spinning. 
/Wrf., VoL TI.. pt> 8-14, 1857. 

Contribution, to Micracopical Analysis No 1 
Tobacco. 

/M., Vol. TI., pp. 2V. 1K7. 



I ..i " - MI . George. Continued. 

* Contributions to Microscopical Analysis No. -. 

Gelastrus scandens, Linn., with Remarks on 
the Colouring Matters of Plants. 

Tranwction* Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol> 
VI., pp. 382-SaS, 1860. 

Al*o in Edinburgh ffew Philosophical Journal, Vol. 
XII., pp. 52-58, I860. 

Bailey's Circular; Monthly Treatises on the Field 
Crops of Britain. Edinburgh, 1857-68. 

* On Macadamia, Muller, a new genus of Pro- 

teaceae. 

Traiuactioiu Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
VI., pp. 36-37, 1858. 

Address at opening of Agricultural Exhibition in 
Crystal Palace. Kingston, September, 1859. 

Canadian Agriculturist, 1859. 

On a New Dye (resembling cochineal) obtained 
from the black spruce Aphis. 

Annal, n/thr Botanical Society of Canada, 1860. 
On Rnplmnus caudatus, description with figure. 

/f'.rti.-utiuriit, New York, 1880. 

' On the Structure and Development of Botry- 
ilium granulatum. 

Traiimiclitin* Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
vi.. pp. 424-4H1. plate xn. 

fi'nr 1'hiliifnphifol Journnl, Edinburgh, Vol. xn., 
PP. 2i-213. HOO. 
On Aphis A Venn-. 

Canadian ffaturulut. Vol. VII., pp. 24-277, 18C2. 

* Some account of I'lants collected in the Counties 

of Leeds and Grenville, Upper Canada, in July, 
1H02. 

Tran<tfli<,nt Botanical Xncitty of Edinburgh, Vol. 
vll., pp. 4B8-470, 186t. 

Edinburgh ffrif Philosophical Journnl, Vol. XVII., 
pp. 197-208, I8fi3. 

' Note on Leinania variegata, Agardh. 

Transacti'ini Itotnnical Society of Edinfrurgh. Vol. 
vii., pp. 521-524, 1863. 

KilinliiiroH fi'tf Philosophic?! Journal, Vol. XVII., 
pp. M-31, 1863. 

* Synopsis of the Canadian Species of Kojuisetum. 

Transactions Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
vii., pp. 558-564, 1863. 

Botanical Science Record of Progress. 

Canadian Naturalist. New Series, Vol. I., Article 1., 
1864. 

Diatomaceir of the District of Braemar, (with 
Prof. .1. H. Balfour and Dr. R. K. Greville). 

1\ <ni',i, ti',,ii Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
v., pp. 45-54. 

On the Applications o{ Botany to Ornamental 
Art. 

/</., Vol. v..p. 177. 

Notice of the Occurrence of Hypnum rugulosum, 
Web. et Mohr, on Demyat, Ochils. 

/4irf.,Vol.vi.,p.28. 
Note on Crypha?A(Djltonia) Lamyana, Montagne. 

/'.../., Vol. TI., p. 80. 
Synopsis of the Canadian Species of Equiaetum. 

ll,i'l.. Vol. TIL, pp. 55S-564. 

Remarks on some Fibrous Plants of Canada, with 
I-etters from Lord Lyons and Lord Monck in 
reference to the use of the Silk-cotton of Ascle- 
pias In spinning. 

Ibid., Vol. Til., pp. S75-378. 



EOYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



81 



, George. Continued. 

* Synopsis of Canadian Ferns and Filicoid Plants. 
Transactions Botanical Society / Edinburgh, Vol. 
Till., pp. 20-50, 1864. Also in Edinburgh New Philoso- 
phical Journal, New Series, Vol nx., pp. 102-116 and 
pp. 273-291. Reprinted in Canadian Naturalist, New 
Series, Vol. i., pp. 262-380. 

Notice of the Occurrence of Woodsia alpina 
(hyperborea) in Gasp6, Canada East. 

Transactions Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
VIII., p. 106, 1864. 

Remarks on Myrica cerifera, or Candleberry 
Myrtle. 

Ibid., Vol. VIII., pp. 1C8-10J, 1864. 

Note on the Leaves [trifoliate] of Ulex Europu'us, 
(Whin). 

Ibid., Vol. VIII., p. 109, 1864. 

Translation of Paper by M. J. Personne on the 
Chemical and Natural History of Lupuline, 
with Introductory Note. 

Ibid., Vol. vin., pp. 131-144, Plate IT., 1864. 
On the Flora of Canada : a Synopsis of all the 
Flowering Plants and Ferns observed in Can- 
. ada, with habitats in detail. (Abstract ; the 
List [in bound volume] not printed.) 

Transactions Nova Scotian Institute ff Natural 
Science, Vol. I., Part n.. pp. 75-77, 1864. 
Notice of the Occurrence of Heather at St. Ann's 
Bay, Cape Breton Island. 

Ibid., Vol. I., Part m , pp. 30-35, 1861. 
Note [additional] on Lemania variegata of Agardli. 

Ibid., Vol. I., Part in., pp. 35-38, 1861. 
On Calluna vulgaris. 

Transaction* Botanical Society of Edinburoh.Val- 
vii!., pp. 324-327,1865. 

On some Recent Improvements in the Amalga- 
mation Process forExtractingGold from Quartz. 
Transactions Nora Scutian Institute of Natural 
Science, Vol. i. Part iv.. pp. 71-70 1866. 

Chemical News, 1866. 

Notes of Analyses of Gold Coins of Columbia, 
New Grenada, Chili, and Bolivia. With some 
account of the operations of gold-mining in 
Nova Scotia, Dominion of Canada. 

Chemical JVeiM, Vol. xvi., pp. 145- , 1867. 
On Trichina spiralis in the Human Body and 
Ttenia "pectinata in the Porcupine. 

Transactions Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science, Vol. II., Part I., p. 48, 1867. 
Monograph of Ranunculacese of the Dominion of 
Canada, and adjacent parts of British America. 
Ibid., Vol. II., Part iv., pp. 17-51, 1869. Reprinted in 
Canadian Naturalist, New Series, Vol. iv., pp. 407-411. 
On the Laminariacere of the Dominion of Canada 
and adjacent parts of British America. 

Transactions Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science, Vol. II., Part IV-, pp. 109-111, 1870. Reprinted 
in Canadian Naturatitt, N. 8., Vol. v., pp. 99-101. 

Description of the Canadian Species of Myosotis, 
with Notes on other Plants of the Natural Order 
Borraginaceas. 

Canadian Naturalist, New Series, Vol. iv., Art. 27. 
On the Botany of the Dominion of Canada and 
adjacent parts of British America, Ranuncu- 
laceee. 

Trannu'tions Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Vol. 
z., pp. 345-348, 1870. 



Liawson, George. Continued. 

Monograph of Ericaceae of the Dominion of Can- 
ada and adjacent parts of British America. 

Transactions Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science, Vol. in., p. 74, 1871. 

On the Geographical Range of the Species and 
Varieties of Canadian Rubi over the Continents 
of America, Asia and Europe, as indicating 
Possible Regions of Primitive Distribution. 

Ibid., Vol. m., |.p. 361-366, 1874. Also Transactions 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. xll.,pp. 111-113, 
1874. 

Chemical Relations of Heat. 

Tr-insactions Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Sci, Vol. III., pp. 486-438, 1874. Also in Chemical 

NelVH, Vol. XXXI. 

Botanical Descriptions accompanying^ Mrs. Miller's 
Drawings of the Wild Flowers of Nova Scotia, 
2nd and 3rd Series. London : L. Reeve & Co. 
Notes on some Nova Scotian Plants : Calluna 
vulgaris, Sarothiunnus Scoparius, Rhodixlen- 
dron maximum. 

Transaction* Norn Sfotian Institute nf Natural 
Science, Vol. iv., pp. 167-17!f, 1876. 

The Journal of Agriculture, Nova Scotia, Vol. I., 
March, IStiS, to March. 1H72, p. 728. Vol. n., 
April, 1872, to February, 1877. 
Report on Cattle Pastures and Well, Pond, and 
Brook Waters of Pictou County, (in connection 
with Dr. McEachnui's investigation of disease 
in Cattle). 

Sessional Paper* r,f Dominion Parliament. Re- 
printed in Annual Kriwrt of Secretary for Aoricul- 
tun' / ,\wu \'c"ti't. 

Introduction to Professor How's Paper on the 
EasD Indian Herbarium of King's College, 
Windsor, N.S. 

Transaction* Nova Scotian Intitutc of Natural 
Science, Vol. 17., pp. 36D-379, 1878. 

On Diatomaceous Deposits in the Lakes of tin- 
Halifax Water Works. 
IbitL.Vol v., p. 114, 1879. 

Report, with Analyses, on the Water Supply of 
the City of Halifax. 

Annual Keport of Halifax Corporation, 1879. 

On the British American species of the genus 
Viola. 

JVwuaeftoM Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 
XIV. , pp. 64-66, 1830. Also Hot. Centrnlblatt, 1880. 

On Native Species of Viola of Nova Scotia. 

Transactions Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science, Vol. v., p. 115, 1880. 

Notice of New and Rare Plants. 

Ibid., Vol. v|.,p.6S. 1883. 
On the Northern Limit of Wild Grape Vines. 

Ibid., Vol. ii., pp. 101-109, 1884. 
Revision of the Canadian Ranunculacea*. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada, Vol. n., Sec- 
tion 4, 1SS I, pp. 15-90. 

On the Canadian species of the genus Melilotus. 
Transactions Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science, Vol. vi., pp. 180-190, 1885. 

Remarks on the Flora of the Northern Shores of 
America; With tabulated observations made 
by Mr. F. F. Paine on the seasonal development 



82 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



I<mwM>n. Grorsr. Continued. 

of plant* nt Cape Prince of Wales, Hudson 
Strait, during the growing season of 18H8. 

TVauorttoM Ratal .Voeirly of Camilla. Vol. v.. See. 
4. 1SS7. pp. 207-212. 

Vice President's Address to the Royal Society of 
Canada. May 25th, 18S7. 

Ibid.. Vol. v., 1887, pp. nil-rxv 

President's Address to Royal Society of Canada, 

May 2rd, 1HXH. 

Mi-/., Vol. vi., 1S88. pp. i\ ii xxi. 
On the first principles of Chemistry and the sys- 

tem of Chemical Nomenclature; an Introduc- 

tion to Tanner's First Principles of Agriculture. 

Halifax : A. *: \V. Mackinlay. 1MH7. 
Tin- KITH Flora of Canada. Halifax : A. 4 \V. 

Mackinlay. 
On the < '.m. nil. m Species of Picea. 

<',i>..i /I'm ltre,,r,luf Nririier, I* 1 *!*. 

On the Nyinphifaccic. Part I.. Structure of Vic 
i,'ii.t K'V'M. l.iinil. I'. in ii.. Nomenclature of 
Nymph. eai-e.e. Part III.. Synopsis of Species. 

TV ...... ir/i.,,1. /f.,j,,if .S',,,-,,11/ ,,f C-innil-l Vol. VI., 

Section I. lv>. |.|.. '.'7-12\ 
N.'le-. fur ,t Flora of Nuva Scot in. 

Tra,:-,i,t,-:n. .V-.r.i >'<:., /mn Inilitiit, it Nulurn 

r. New Serie*. Vol. i., pp. M-lIn, 18S>1. 
On the Pivs.-iit Slate of Botany in Canada. 

7V.iuiir/i .,n. /.',,,,i( .S - .,n'./., ../ ('mm. /a, \'i>\. II., 
Seotion 4. IX'l.pp. 17- 2" i. 

N'< >\ a S ot ia l!<-;.'i-.trr i if Thoroughbred Cat tic, in- 
cl tilling Hulls. ( 'ows ami Heifers of the following 
lin-.-ils : Sh<irt Horn, Devon. Ayrshire, Polled 
Audits, Jersey, Iliil-irin. (iiiernsey, Hereford, 
(iiilloa\. l're|iared ami pulilished by author 
it> of the liovi-riiinent of NovaScolia. Hiilifiix : 
yueen's Printer, IMii 

Annual ReportN of the Secretary fur Agricultural 
<i( Nova Srutia. From 1SIM t<i 1M. Halifax : 
Queen's Printer. 

Crop Report > of Nova Scotia. From 1KHS to IKill. 
Halifax : (Queen's Printer. 

(The alxive lint doe. not include anonym<m> articlf." 
in review ami other periodicals, cyolopH-dia?, etc.) 

I . M.i\ I,. I'.iin |ilnli 

l.'epn-uve inoiivellei. l.r Journal lie (Jtti'ltec, 

nov. IrtM. 

Kn-nais |HM-iii ( iics. ym-U-c : (1. E. Uesharats, \>H\n. 
Hvo., pp. 32". 

EvaiiK<-line (tnuluction). Queliec : P.-G. Dclisle, 
1K70. 

12mo., pp. 200. 

Poemcn couronnes. yuebcc : P.-U. Delisle, 1H70. 
12mo., pp. 231 

Ix* " N'eiiKt-ancejt" (poemc). Quebec : C. Darveau, 
1K75. 

8ro., pp. 323. 

t* Pelerin de Sainle Anne (roman). Quebec : C. 
Darveau, 1K77. 

2rol..l2mo..pp. 6M. 
Quelquen poeten Illettres de Lotbiniere. 

la Smt dt Hontrtal. IS77. 

So.,pp.lO. 

Pic-ounac le nuiudil (roman). Quebec: C. Dar- 



z rat. UIM.. pp. an. 



I 11 .n . L,. Paiiiphile. Continued. 

Une perle, (poesies). Quebec : C. Darveau, 1979. 

1 -.'11111., pp. 232. 

Fables canadiennes. Quebec: C. Darveau, 1881. 

I'Jino., pp. 851. 
Petits |i..emes. Quebec : C. Darveau, 1883. 

12nio., pp. 264. 

Le chien d'or (traduction), (roman). Montreal : 
L'Etendard, 1884. 

2 vo|.,8vo., pp.777. 

L'afTaire Sougraine (roman). Quebec : C. Dar- 
veau, 1884. 

12mo., pp. 458. 

Tonkouron, (edition corrigee de " Les Ven- 
geances"). Quebec: C. Darveau, 1888. 

12mo., pp. 295. 

Kouge et bleu (comedies). Quebec: C. Darveau, 
1891. 

12mo., pp- 28S. 

Fables (edition corrigee). Quebec : C. Darveau, 
1H91. 

llmo., pp. 287. 

I tuna lex Mfmoirea lie la Socit'tf royale du Canada : 
Le liien i>our le mal. Tome I., Sec. 1, 1882. 
I.es derniers serout les premiers. Hommage a 
Son Honneur Hodrigue Masson, lieutenant- 
gouverneur de la province deQuebec. Tome III., 
Sec. 1, 1H85. 

Hosanmi. Tome v., Sec. 1, 1887. 
Pur droit chcmin. Tome vi., Sec. 1, 1888. 
Les Soutl'runtK. Tome VI., Sec. 1, 188H. 
Agar et Ismael. Tome X., Sec. 1, 1892. 

I.. -. i. ili. . \.i|>iili-iin. 

Sabre et Scalpel. Roman. Montreal : 1872. 
Altmni. Hiographie. Quebec : 1874. 
A mes Enfants. Quebec : 1875. 
Echos de Quebec. Quebec : 1877. 
Notre Constitution et nos Institutions. Mont- 
real : 1K7H. 

I.e.s perce-neige premieres. Poesies. Quebec : 

1H86. 

Dnnx leu Me moire* tie la Soc-irtr royale du Canada : 
La province de Quebec et la langue francaise. 

Tome ii., Sec. 1, 1884. 

Les Races Indigenes de PAnidrlque devant 1'his- 
toire. Ibid. 

La Race Francaise en Amerique. Tome in., Sec. 
1, 1885. 

Autrefols et Maintenant. Ibid. 
L'Anatomie des Mots. Ibid. 
La Cloche. Tome v., 1887. 
La langue que nous parlous. //.//. 
Realistes et Decadents. Tome \ in.. Sec. I, 1890. 
La Femme dans la Societe moderne. Ibid. 
Dans le Canada-franfait, Qufbec: 

Le realisme en lltterature. Tome I., 1888, p. 143. 
La legende d'un peuple. Par Louis Frechette. 
Ibid., p. 304. 

Pelerinage au pays de PEvangeline. Par 1'abbe 
H.-R. Casgrain. Ibid., p. 317. 









ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



53 



Ijegemlre, Napoleon. Continued. 

Le poete. Poesie. Tome ti., 1889, p. 213. 

Noel. Poesie. Tome in., 1890, p. 6. 

Annibal. Nouvelle Canadicnne. Ibid., pp. 138, 

288, 408, 572. 
Revue etrangere. Ibid., pp. 350, 478, 399, 723. 

LeMoine, James MacPhersoti. 

L'Omithologie du Canada. Quebec : Le Cana- 
dien, 1860.1861. 

2vol.,12mo.,pp: 400. 

Etude sur Sir Walter Scott, comme poete, rom- 
ancier, historien. 

Opinion Publique. Montreal, 1862, pp. 51. 
Navigateurs Arctiques : Franklin, McClure, 
Kane, McCHntock. 

Journal de Quebec, 1863, pp. 40. 
Les Pecheries du Canada. 

Le Canadien, Quebec, 1863, pp. 150, 
Tableau Synoptique de 1'Ornithologie du Canada, 
1864. 

PP.8. 
Memoire de Montcalm vengee. 

Le Canadien, Quebec, 1865, pp. 100. 

L' Album Canadien, Quebec, 1871. 

pp. 126. 

L' Album du Touriste. Quebec : A. Cote et Cie, 
1872. 

pp.384. 
Notes historiques sur les rues de Quebec. 

Le Canctdien, Quebec, 1875. 

Coup-d'oeil general sur 1'Ornithologie de 1'Ame- 
rique du Nord. Etude lue devant 1'Institut 
Canadien & Quebec. 

Annuaire de V Inttitut, 1875. 

Etude sur le chant des oiseaux, leurs mu'urs, 
leurs migrations. 

Opinion Publiriue, Montreal, 1876. 
Grand Tableau synoptique des oiseaux du Canada 

i\ 1'usage des ecoles, 1877. 
Notes sur 1'Archeologie ; 1'histoire du Canada. 

Revue Canadienne, Montreal. .VoiWes Canadiennes, 
Quebec, 1862. 

Dans les Mrmoires de la Societe royale du Canada : 
Nos Historiens Modernes Bibaud, Garneau, Fer- 

land, Faillon. Tome I., Sec. 1, pp. 12, 1882. 
Les Archives du Canada. Tome r., Sec. 1, pp. 6, 

1883. 
Les Aborigenes du Canada ; leurs rites mortu- 

aires. Tome n., Sec. 1, pp. 22, 1884. 
Les Pages Sombres de 1'Histoire. Tome iv., Sec. 1, 

pp. 13, 1886. 

The last Decade of French Rule at Quebec. Vol. 
ii., Sec. 2, pp. 10, 1888. 

Le general Sir Frederick Haldimand & Quebec, 
(1778-84). 1889. 

Parallele historique entre le comte de la Galison- 
niere (1748-49), et le comte de Dufferin (1872-78). 
Tome vn., Sec. 1, pp. 18, 1889. 

Le general Murray, le premier gouverneur An- 
glais, a Quebec. Tome vin., Sec. 1, pp. 18, 1890. 



I .!>! ni in-, James MacPherson. Continued. 

Etude Ethnographique des elements qui consti- 
tuent la population de la province de Quebec. 
Tome x., Sec. 1, pp. 12, 1892. 
L' Administration de Lord Elgin, pp. 10, 1893. 
Legendary Lore of the Lower St. Lawrence. 
Quebec : Geo. T. Cary, 1862. 
12mo.,pp. 34. 

Maple Leaves History, Arclwology, 1st series. 
Quebec : Hunter, Rose & Co., 1863. 
8vo., pp. 104. 

Maple Leaves History, Archeology, 2nd series. 
Quebec : Hunter, Rose & Co., 1S. 
8vo., 224. 

Maple Leaves History, Archsrology, 3rd series. 
Quebec: Hunter, Rose & Co., INio. 
8vo., pp. 137. 

The Tourist's Note Book, 1st edition. Quebec : 
Middleton & Dawson, 1H70. 
I'.'mo., pp. 12S. 

Jottings from Canadian History, 1S71. 

Stewart'* Quarterly Maua^.iri> t St. John, N.B. 
The Sword of Brigadier-General R. Montgomery. 
Quebec : Middleton & Dawson, 1*7(1. 

12mo., pp. 3d. 
Trifles from my Portfolio, IsT^. 

Dominion Monthly, Montreal. 

Quebec Past and Present. Quebec : A. Cote et 
Cie, ISTli. 

8vo., pp. 4'Vx 

The Tourist's Note Book, 2nd edition. Quebec: 
F. X. Gamut ct Cie. 1S7C>. 
pp. (id. 

The Chronicles of the St. Lawrence. Montreal: 
.1. W. Lovell. Dawson Bros., !*"(>. 
8vo., pp. 38n. 

The Scot in New France. Inaugural address to 
Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, 1879. 
pp. 42. 

Glimpses of Quebec (1749-59). Inaugural address 
to Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, 1880. 

8vo , pp. 42. 

Edinburg, Rouen, York. Inaugural address to 
Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, 1881. 

pp. 58. 

Picturesque Quebec. A Cyclopedia of Canadian 
History. Montreal : Dawson Bros., ItWii. 

8vo., pp. 535. 

Brighton, the Queen of the English Watering 
Places. Scarborough, the Northern Empress of 
the Seaside. Versailles, the Lion Mount of 
Waterloo. Inaugural address to Literary and 
Historical Society of Quebec, 1882. 

pp. 11. 

Our Wild Flowers. Quebec : Morning Chronicle, 
1885. 

12mo., pp. 34. 

The Tourist's Note Book, 3rd edition. Quebec : 
C. Darveau, 1887. 

12mo. pp. 60- 

Canadian Heroines, Madame de Champlain, 
Madame de la Tour, Mile de Vercheres. Ad- 
dress read before the Canadian Club, in New 
York. Nap. Thompson &. Co., 1887. 
Canadian Leaves, pp. 27. 



84 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



I . M..IM. Jmei Mrl'her*on. Continued. 

The Tourist's Note Book, 4th edition. Quebec : 
C. Darveau, lt*W. 
PP. 68. 

Maple leaves, 5th series. L. P. Demers & Co., 

The Tourist's Note Book, 5th edition. Quebec : 
('. Darveau. l.-Wl. 
PP. I"*'. 

The Sword of Brigadier-General Richard Mont 
ginnery. Jnd edition. Qucliec : Daily Telegraph. 
INtl. 

12m. >. pp. M. 

The Birds of Quebec. A popular lecture, deliver 
ed U-fure the Natural History Society, at Mont- 
real. 1-V1. 

" The I.in.l vv.- Live In." Address, as Chairman 
of the Citi/cn's Committee, at Quebec, to I're 
sideiit and nieiii!n-rs nf American Forestry 
AssiH-ialion. Is'.il. 
Pi'- I- 

I.iitiiliiti, Jalnes. 

l In Triline.ir l '.. urdiiiales. 

il. May. 1-71. pp. tii-r.1. 
lln tin- St.-ibilitv .if Floating llodics. 

/ I., \ nun, !-7l. p. I.VP. 
N.I!.- on St.itii s. 

/ '.. |.->.ruirv. 1-7:. pp. l^;l i'H. May, H7.'i. pp. 

l..'i:i l.il.l.--. H\ Clii-rri ni.tii anil I.ouiloii. To 

ronlo. 1 S T^{. 

Algebra. I'.irt I. Toronto. 1-7.1. 
N..II-S ,,,, .M.-i-li.mii-s. 

' '1.1.1 . i.i.i J.iurnal. Mnrfll. H7'">. pp. 't'll-'i.'iS. 

Algebra for Beginners. Toronto: Copp. Clark & 
<'o.. KI;. 

Note on Ventilation. 

/'.v(/,'oi ./'inrnn/. January. 1-7H, p. C^ft. 
Notes on Relative Moiion. 

Killer's K.|iiatio:is of Motion. 

/'.i./.. IMl.i.p. ''.-'.*>- 
Notes on Relative Motion. 

.-tn.Tir.oi ./., until! / Malk'mnlict, Vol. III., pp. 

li.-om.-trii al MetliiHls chielly in the Theory of 
Thick Lenses. 

l\wrtii*oi r.iiK-i./i'oi /iffi'/i//'. March, 18-A pp 
7-18. 

(ieom.-trii al Mrthoils in the Theory of Refraction 
al one or more Spherical Surfaces. 

Notes on Mathematical Physics. 

Tmnartvmf lt"V'*l &*rirty of Canada* Vol. VII., 
8M. 3. \tH>, pp. 7-9. 

A National Standard of Pitch. 
MW.. pp. 11-12. 



M... i .,!,. John A. 

Kntclish Crammar for the une of Schools. Hali- 
fax : A. * \V. Markinl IT. 174. 
H-O..PP. 175 



MacCabe, John A. Continued. 

Practical LesMonB in English. (Canadian Edi- 
tion. Toronto : Gage & Co., 1883. 

i -in... . pp. 260. 

Hints for I^kiiKuage Lessons and Plans for Gram- 
mar Lessons. Boston : Ginn & Co., 1802. 
12mo., pp. 60. 

Mitfoun, John. 

On the Physical Character of the East Riding of 
Northumberland County, Out., with a list of 
plants found therein. 

Annal* of Kingston Botanical Society, 1863. 
Catalogue of Carices collected in the vicinity of 
Belleville, Out. 

Canadian Ifaturalitt, Vol. lit. (2nd Scries). 18'"6, 
pp. 56-66. 

Report on the Botany of the Canadian Interior 
from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean. 

llrpnrt, Cmailinn Pacific //oV/wo)/, 1874, pp. 66-99. 

Cirogrnphiral and Topographical Notes on the 
Lower Peace nnd Athabasca rivers. 

H'-li'irt, Grnlntieal Surrtv nf Canada, 18T6, pp. 87-96. 

Report on the Botanical Features of the Country 

from Victoria, Vancouver Island, to Carlton 

House on the Saskatchewan, by the Fraser 

and Peace rivers to Lake Athabasca. 

Ihiil., 1S78. pp. 110-233. 

Synopsis of the Flora of the St. Lawrence Valley 
and (ireat 1-akes, with descriptions of the rarer 
plants. 

Cnii.ii/mii ,/iMirnal, Vol. XV., 1876, pp. 51-66; 161- 
176: 349-:il; 429-135; 546-556. 

Sketch of that portion of Canada between Lake 
Superior and the Rocky Mountains, with special 
reference to its agricultural capabilities. 

lt<IXirt, Cnnmlinn Pacific Railway, 1877. 

Catalogue of the Pha-nogamous and Cryptogamus 
Plants of the Dominion of Canada. Belleville, 
(tut., 1X7*, pp. 52. 

Notes on the Physical Phenomena of Manitoba 
and the North-West Territories. 

Canailian Juurnul (3rd Serier), 1879, Vol. I , pp. 
151-160. 

List of Plants collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson on 
Queen Charlotte Islands. 

Jieporl, firalntirnl Surrey of Canada, 1878-71*, pp. 
21S-232. 

List of Plant* collected by Dr. Robert Bell around 
the shores of Hudson Bay and along the 
Churchill and Nelson rivers in 1H77 and 1H7. 
/AiW., 1878-79. pp. 53-60. 

Extract from a Report of Exploration in the 
Northwest Territories. 

Report of Department of Interior (Part I.), 1880, 
pp. 8-40. 

General Remarks on the Land, Wood and Water 
of the Northwest Territories from the 102nd to 
115th meridian and between the 51st and 53rd 
parallels of latitude. 

Report, Canadian Pacific Railicaii, 1880, pp. 215-249. 
List of Plants collected in the Northern Part of 
British Columbia and the Peace River Country 
by Dr. G. M. Dawson in 1879. 

Report. Oeoloaicai .S'urwii af Canada, 1879-80. pp. 
B143-B147. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



38 



Macoun, John. Continued. 

List of Plants collected north of Lake Winnipeg 
by Dr. R. Bell in 1880, with notes on their dis- 
tribution. 

Ibid., 1.878-80, pp. C59-C69. 

Report of an Exploration of the Country on the 
Western Slopes of Duck and Porcupine moun- 
tains and on the Swan and Red Deer rivers. 

Report, Department of Interior (Part I.), 1831, pp. 
67-88. 

Catalogue of the Plants collected by Dr. R. Bell 
along the Michipicoten River and in the .south- 
ern part of the basin of Moose River. 

Report, Geological Survey of Canada, 1880-81-82, 
pp. C17.C29. 

Manitoba and the Great Northwest. Guelph, 
Ont, : World Publishing Co., 1882. 

8vo., pp. 687. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part i. Poly- 
petalse. 

Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, 

1883, pp. 19i 

Notes on the Distribution of Northern, Southern 
and Saline Plants in Canada. 

Transaction* Royal Socii-ty of Canada, Vol. r., Sec- 
4, 1882, pp. 45-49. 

On the Flora of the Gaspe Peninsula. 
Ibid., Vol. i., Sec. 4, !dS3, pp. 127-137. 
Notes on Canadian Polypetalir. 

Ibid., Vol. i., Sec. 4, 1883, ,, p . 151-157. 
Catalogue of the Plants collected by Dr. li. Bell 
on the Coasts of Labrador, Hudson Strait and 
Bay. 

Report, Geological Survey of Canada, 188li-84, pp. 
DD38-DD47. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part n. Gamo- 
petalae. 

Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, 

1884, pp. 193-394. 

and T. W. Burgess. Canadian Filidnise. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada, Vol. II., Sec. 
4, 1884, pp. 163-227. 

List of Plants collected by Dr. Robert Hell in 
Newfoundland in 1885. 

Report Geological Survey of Canada, 1885, pp. DD21- 
DD25. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part HI. Ape- 
tate. 

Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, 
1886, pp. 394-623. 

List of Plants obtained by Dr. G. M. Dawson on 
Vancouver Island and adjacent coasts in 1885. 
Report Geological Survey of Canada, 1886, pp. B115- 
B121. 

List of Plants collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson in 
the Yukon District and adjacent northern por- 
tion of British Columbia in 1887. 

Ibid., 1887-88, pp. B215-B229. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part iv. Endo- 
gens. 

Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, 
1888, p. 1-248. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part v. Acrogens. 
Ibid., H88. pp. 249-428. Geological and Natural 
History of Canada. 



Macoun, John. Continued. 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Partvi. Musci. 

Ibid., 1892, pp. 295 Geological and Natural Hit- 
tor y of Canada. 

Notes on the flora of the Niagara Peninsula and 
shores of Lake Erie. 

Journal and f'roceediniin of th< Hamilton Atiocia- 
tion. Number ix., 1812-93. pp. 78-87. 
The Forests of Canada and their distribution with 
notes on the more interesting species. 

Transaction* Itojtal Society "f Canada, Vol. xn.. 
Sec. II. 

Mac<'oll, I:\\;IM. 

Clarsaeh iium Beann ; or, Poems anil Son^> in 
daelic. Glasgow: Hlarkie & Sons, IKis. 
12mo., pp. 2W. 

The Mountain Minstrel ; or, Poems and Songs in 
English. Glasgow : Blarkic & Sons, ItW. 

12mo- pp. 250. Has h:id six editions. 
Poems and Songs. Chielly written in Canada. 
Toronto : G. M. Hose : Co., l.ssJf. 
I2mn., pp. llkJ. 

Another Canadian edition, which hears the imprint 
of Tin- Itriti*!, U'/n'r; office, Kingston, Ont., 1H88, has a 
Biographical Sketch of the poet, by A. Mackenzie. 
F.S.A., Scotland. iL'tuo., pp. 2.'L'. 

Muct'a rlan<>, Ttiuiuas. 

On the I'rimitive Formations in Norway and 
Canada. 

I'liniidian Xinrali*t.\\. vn., .Montreal, 1862, Pp. 
1, 113 and 101. 

On the Extraction of Cobalt Oxide. 

II,!,!., Vol. vil., Montreal, 1S62, p. I'.U. 
On the various Theoretical Views regarding the 
Origin of the Primitive Formations. From the 
German of Naumann. 

Ibid., Vol. vii., Montreal, 1862. p. 251. 
Contributions to the History of the Acton Copper 
Mine. 

Ibid., Vol. vii., Montreal, 1862, p. 447. 
On a new Method of Preparing Chlorine, etc. 

Ibul., Vol. viii., Montreal, 1863, p. 39. 
On the Origin of Eruptive and Primary Rocks. 

Il,id.. Vol. vin., Montreal, 1H63, pp. 295, 323 and 4o7. 
On the Extraction of Copper from its Ores in the 
Humid Way. 

Ibid., Vol. n., new series, Montreal. 1865, pp. ii!9-241. 
Geological Sketch of the Neighbourhood of Rossie, 
N.Y. 

Ibid., Vol. II., new series, Montreal, 1865, p. 257. 
Geological Report on Hastings County. 

Report of Progress of Geological Survey of Canada, 
from If 63 to 1886, Ottawa, 1866, p. 91. 

Geological Report on Lake Superior. 

Ibid-, from 1863 to 1866, Ottawa, 1866, p. 115, 

On the Rocks and Auriferous Beds of Portage 
Lake, Michigan. 

Canadian Naturalist, Vol. VIII., new series, Mont- 
real, 186J, p. 1. 

On the Geological Formations of Lake Superior. 
Ibid., Vol. in., new series. Montreal, 1868, pp. 177-244 
On the Extraction of Copper from its Ores in the 
Humid Way. 

Ibid., Vol. in., new series, Montreal, 1868, p. 457. 



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Mut-nirlane, Thomas. Continued. 

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Canadian .V<i/i//.i. Vol. iv., new series, Montreal, 
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On the Origin and Classification of Original or 
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Ibid.. Vol. v.,new series, 1870, pp. 47. 159-304 ; also 
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MacGregor, J. G. Continued. 

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On the Density and Thermal Expansion of Solu- 
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A Table of the Cubical Expansion of Solids. Vol. 
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On the Density of Weak Aqueous Solutions of 
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In the Tran/tactiotis of the NovaScotian Institute of 
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Current between Amalgamated Zinc Electrodes 
and Solutions of Zinc Sulphate. 1883. 

On the Relative Bulk of certain Aqueous Solu- 
tions and their Constituent Water, 1886. 

On the measurement of Temperature and Time. 
1887. 

On Carnot's Cycle in Thermodynamics. 1889. 

On the Relative Bulk of Aqueous Solutions of 
certain Hydroxides, Vol., vii., p. 368. 

On a Noteworthy Case of the Occurrence of Ice in 
non-Crystalline Columns, Vol. vin., p. 377. 

On some Lecture Experiments Illustrating Prop- 
erties of Saline Solutions. Series 2, Vol. I., p. 71. 

On the Graphical Treatment of the Inertia of the 

Connectlng-Rod. Series 2, Vol. I., p. 193. 
In the Philosophical Magazine, London, viz. : 

Contact Action and the Conservation of Energy. 
February, 1893. 

On the Hypotheses of Dynamics. September, 

1893. 
Pamphlets. 

Technical Education at Home and Abroad. Hal- 
ifax, N.S., 1882. 

Address at the opening of the Twenty-Sixth Ses- 
sion of the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science. Halifax, N.S., 1888. 

Address at the opening of the Twenty-Seventh 
Session of the Nora Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science. Halifax, N.S., 1890. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



MacGrcgor, J. G. Continued. 

Calculus Dodging and other Educational Sins. 

St. John, N.B. 1800. 
Book. 

An Elementary Treatise on Kinematics and Dyn- 
amics. London and New York : Macmillan & Co. 
Crown, STO. pp. xvi+512, 1887. 

Mair, Charles. 

Frogs and their Kin. 

Britith American Magazine, Toronto, 1863. 

Twelvetrecs : a Tale of the Ottawa. 

Montreal Trantaripl, 1861. 
Dreamland and other Poems. Ottawa, 1868. 

Crown 8vo. 
The New Canada. 

Canadian HOHI hi 11, Toronto, 1875. 
Tecumseh. A Drama. Toronto and London, 1886, 

Crown 8vo., pp. 205. 

The Ottawa Shiners. 

Thr Vfrrk, Toronto, August, 1893. 
The American Bison. 

Transaction* Royal Society of Canada, Vol. vni., 
Sec. 2, 1890. 

MacKuy, A. H. 

Elementary Mathematics ; Method of Teaching. 
Nova Scotia Educational Convention Keport, 1874, 
pp. 16-28. 
A Course of Study for the Schools of Xova Scotia. 

Ibid., W80. 

Science Gossip for Beginners. A serial of twenty- 
two articles. 

Standard, Pictou, 1880. 
Botany of Disease. (Four thousand words.) 

Ibid, 18SO. 

The Pictou Academy : an historical sketch. (Seven 
thousand words.) 

Herald. Halifax, 1881. 
Lichens of Nova Scotia. 

Nova Scotinn fnitititte of Science, Vol. V., Part III-, 
1881,pp.299-B07. 

Successors of the Ghosts, Goblins, Ghouls, rl nl. 
(Five thousand words.) 
Herald, Halifax. 1883. 

Silicious Organic Remains in the Lacustrine De- 
posits of Nova Scotia. 

Report British Aataciation, pp. 742-783, 1S84. 
Among the Cryptogams. A monthly serial. 

Acadian Science Monthly, 1883-84. 
Vampire Plants and Strange Gardening. (Three 
thousand words.) 

Standard, Pictou, 1885. 

Organic Silicious Remains in the Lakes of Nova 
Scotia. 

Canadian Record of Science, Vol. I., No. 4, Mont- 
real, 1885, pp. 236-244. 
Nova Scotia Fresh-water Sponges. 

Neva Scolian Institute of Science, Vol. vi.. Part m., 
1885, pp. 233-240. 
Mammalia of Nova Scotia : a Synopsis. 

Academy, Vol. I., Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, Pictou, 1885. 
Spelling Reform. 

Nova Scotia Educational Convention Report, 1885, 
pp. 16-28. 



MacKuy, A. H. Continued. 

Future of Our Education. (Two thousand words.) 

Herald, Halifax, 1886. 

New Fresh-water Sponges from Nova Scotia and 
Newfoundland. 

Canadian Record of Science, Vol. H., No. 1, Mont- 
real, 1886, pp. 19-22. 

Meteor of 15th September, 1887. 

Kdueationol Iterieir, St. John, 1887. 

Among the Water Nymphs ; a Popular View o f 
our Uiatomaccie. 

//. -raid, Halifax, 1S87. 

Algic of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, (Con 
jointly with (Jeo. I". Hay.) 

TranmcltnHH Royal Sor'utjl of dlu'ld-i, Vul. V.. Sec. 

4, 1KH7, pp. 167-174. 

Among the Constellations. Illustrated Serial on 
Uranography. 

Kdllditioaal l:-ri'.,r,\',,]f. I. -II ., Si . John, 1KS7-1SV.I 

Ferndale School. Illustrated Serial on t he N'ai ural 
History of Eastern Canada for Schools. 

laid., VoK i. -iv., St. John, ISS7-9I. 
Miscellaneous Educational and Scientific Articles. 

/iirf., St. John, 1887-1889. 

The Fresh-water Sponges of ('ana<la ami New- 
foundland. 

Traimai'lioiix lli'lial Xoft'ilil of I'annda, Vol. VII., 

Sec. 4. 1W. 

Pictou Island; with geological map of its eii- 
vironment . 

.Y'/'-'l H,-otiiin Ill-llllll, i,f Sci' in; , 2lj.l Series, Vol. I., 

Purl 1, Halifax, IX'.U, pri.7r.-s:>. 

Annual Re])orts on the Public- Schools of Nova 
Scotia. (1) Of 1811], pp. til ; cl> of Is'.cJ. ji].. sil; 
<:!> of 18!, pp. (. 

Conspectus of Education in Nova Scotia; for tin- 
World's Columbian Exposition. Halifax, ls!i:>. 
pp. 18. 

.Journal of Education. Halifax. Ill April. !>!. 
jip. lIKi; (-2} October, lS!t:i, p)>. Kill; iliiAiiril, 
181M ; ]>p. .VJ. 

The True Scope and Function of the High School. 
The Dominion Educational Amiciatiun Itiiioti, I K ''-. 
PP. 6:i-(17. 

Explosive Gas Generated within the Hot Water 
I'ipes of House Heating Apparatus. 

Norn Xrutian Imtittttr of .VuViicc, -nil Series Vol. 
i., Parts, 18U3, pp. S74-377. 

Natural History Observations made at several 
stations in Nova Scotia during the year ISit. 
Ibid., 2nd Series, Vol. I., Part 3, 18U3, pp. 378-379. 

Mart-hand, Felix G. 

Fatenville. Comedie en un acte et en prose. 

La Rente Canadienne Montreal, septembre 1869. 
Erreur n'est pas compte. Vaudeville en deux 
actes et en prose. Montreal : Duvernay Freren. 
1872. 

Un bonheur en attire un autre. Comedie en un 
acte et en vers. Montreal : Gazette, 1884. 

Memoirrtde la Socittr rot/ale du Canada. Tome I., 
Sec- 2, 1883. 

Lcs Faux Brillants. Comedie en cinq actes et en 
vers. Montreal : L'Etendard, 1885. 



B8 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Man-hand. Felix G. Continued. 

Lex Travel* du Slecle. 

lltmoim df la Soctiii rafale du Canada, Tome II. 
8*e.l, MM. 
I/Aigle et la Marmotte. 

Mi./., Tome in., Sec. 1, 1885. 
Nos Gros Chagrins ct nos Petits Malheurs. 

/>,/.. Tome rill.. See. 1, 1889. 

Manuel ft FornuilHire General ct Complet du 
Notarial HP la Province de Quebec. Conteniint : 
I". l.'histoire <ln Notarial ; 2", son organisation 
ilnns la Province dc Quebec : 3, un traite mir 
la reponnabillle civile des Notaires ; 4", un 
fiirmulairc Francais- Anglai* den actes do.s No- 
laires. Montreal: A. Periard, 1X12. 

M ., I Mil I I ', .)l,M'|h. 

Kinneois ill' Micmillc. K 'in. HI llisii>i-ii|iie. lrri> 
edition, IVm-lx'c : l.e(-cr Hnnis.senu, IX7II. liemc. 

'1 1:1. in. MI mi 1 1-. 1 1 Iti-.iiirliemiii X \~aliiiH, I-N-V!. 

liim. . l-|.. 44". 

l.'liiti-nilttnt Hi^'it. Human llist.,rii|Ue. Mont 
ri'.-il : IM-.,. l)i>s),iirats, |.s'7;>. 

!.< ' In -i.iln-r dr Mnriuu-. Roman llisti,rii|Ue 
.Mnntreal: lien. Desbar.-iU. IX7:t. 

l.i I-'I.IIH i-i- 'In Ki-lH'lli'. Itnnian llist<irii|iie. 

/..i /i'-iii. I'linu'li'-na-. Monlri'-il, 1874. 
Hi-rii-i-l Somcnii-s. Qiii-U-r : Darveau. 1MN1. 

rjini... i'i'. _'-. 

/A//IS !, s M, ,,,,,,,< -. -/, /// .^urit'fi rinftili tin Cfiiuidn : 
I in- I'ri 'inrtiH'lr 'lans I'arN. Impressions i-t Son- 

M-nir^. Tomr II., SIT. I. IS^I. 
I.t- Dt-rnii-r llmili'l. NnuvclU- llist<irii|nr. Tunic 

III.. S.T. I. 1-V-Cl. 

Tn>i- niiiis a l.iinilri-s. Smivi-nirs de I'Kxposition 
Col.iniiili- J-'raK'ncnts. Tinnc \ll., Sec. 1. 1SHS. 
Anssj, I,- Canada Krancais. \'o|. n.. 1KM). |i. 111. 

>lultli<-H, iiforw I-'. 

Impressions of Culia. 

'.i>i.i.ii.r-i Xniurtili'i, Vol. TIL, Nu. 1 and 2, 1<C'>2, 
Montreal. ro.. pp. H'-:(4 and pp. 76-8.*>. 
Obnervations on the (icolo^y of St. .John County, 
New Hninwick. 

<\inn>liaH lYnfi'rrf/i'ff nnt{ (trul'umt. Vol. VIII., 
A unit. 1363. Montreal. Hro.. pp. 241-2KO. 
On the Azoic ami Palirozoic Hoi-ks of Suuthern 
New Krunswiek. 

<J*,,rt,rl v J<mmal .,/ ike t}r.,l-wir,,l Socitlt, 1865, 

Ixmdon. 8ro., |.|.. 421-434. 

CupriferoiiH RiK-k- of Southern New Hrunswick 
Nolci on the (ieolotfy of Charlotte County 
Ihinsinane Coal. 

Okfrrraliaiu <m tilt Geology nf Noulhrr* ffrif Brunr 
H-t, }*. Frederieton, N.B. Royal 8o., pp. 149-U8. 
In conjunction with Prof. L. W. Hailey. Prelim- 
inary Keport on the (Jeology of Suthern New 
Hninxwick. 

K'v.rt of Progrrm. Oeoloicical Survey of Canada, 
1870-71. Ottawa, I8T2. Royal 8vo., pp. 13-140. 
On the Surface Ceology of Sontheni New Bruns- 
wick. 

Cnadiam tiatwK*. Vol. iu. No. 8, 1871, Mont- 
nL Sro.. pp 4J4-4A4. 



Matthew, George F. Continued. 

In conjunction with Prof. L. W. Bailey. Report 
on the Carboniferous System of New Brun- 
wick. 

Report of Pnarra, Geological Surrey of Canada, 
1872 3, Montreal, 1873. Royal 8vo., pp. 180-237. 
Sur les Mollusques de la Formation Post-Plelo- 
cene de 1'Acadie. 

SoeiM Maloeologvitu de Belgique, Aiutalet, Tome 
IX., 1874, Bruxellen. Svo., pp. 1)1, 1 plate. 

On the Mollusca of the Post-Pleiocene Formation 
in Ac ,nli,i. 

i''HHi'ti,in ffnluralitl, Vol. MIL. No. 2, 1874, Mont- 
real. 8vo., pp. 101-117. 

In conjunction with Prof. L. W. Bailey. Sum- 
mary Report of Geological Observations in New 
Brunswick. 

Krport "f Pruartn, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1874-5, Ottawn , 187fi. Royal 8ro., pp. 84-89. 

In conjunction with Prof. L. W. Bailey and Mr. 
H. \V. Klls. Report of Geological Observations 
in Southern New Hrunswick. 

Ihiil.. 1875-6, Ottawa. 1877. Royal 8ro., pp. 3(8 368. 
Report on the Geology of Charlotte County. 

IhiJ., 1876-77, Ottawa, 1878. Royal Svo. pp. 321-3JO. 
Report on the Upper Silurian and Kingston Series 
of Southern New Brunswick. Also, Report on 
the Su|)erlirinl Geology of Southern .\ew Bruns- 
wick. 

Mi./., 1877-7K, Montreal, 1879. lloyal 8vo., pp. l-6i 
anil pp. 1-36KE. 

Tidal Krosion in the Bay of Fnndy. 

r.m.irftnn Nuturalut, Vol. ix.. No. 6, Auguit, 1880, 
Montreal. 8vo.. p>. 368-373. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group. 
No. I. The Paradoxides. 

Trtnuiictvitu lival Socielv of Caiuidn- Vol. I , Sec. 
4, I Ml. Montreal. 4to- , pp. 271-279, 2 plates. 
Lacustrine Formation of Torryburn Valley. 

Natural Iliitum Socielv of Netf Bruiumiclc, Bulletin 
n., 188:1, St. John, N.B. 8vo., pp. 3-20. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group 
continued. On the Conocoryphea, etc. 

7V'iii".ri/,ii lii,f,nl Society of Canada. Vol. it.. 
Sec. 4, 1884, Montreal. 4tn., pp. 99-124, 1 plate- 
Discoveries at a Village of the Stone Age at Boca- 
bee. 

Natural Hutory Society of Netc Brunttcick, Bulletin 
in., 1884, St. John, N.B. 8ro., pp. 6 29. 

The Geological Age of the Acadian Fauna. 

Geological Hagauine, N. 8. in., Vol. I., October, 1881, 
London, Hi:. 870., pp. 470-472. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group. 
No. in. Descriptions of New Genera and 
Species. 

TniH'i'riiiiat Royal .Society of Canada, Vol. III., 
See. 4, 1885, Montreal. 4to., pp. 29-84, 3 plates. 
Note on the Genus Stenotheca. 

Oeoli-fical Magazine, N. 8., Vol. II., September, 
1885. London, O.B. Siro., pp. 423 426. 

Recent Discoveries in the St. John Group. 

Natural Hilton/ Society .,/ Netr Unintirick, Bulletin 
IT.. IKK.-,, St. John, N.B 8ro., PP. 97-102. 

The Structural Features of Discena Acadica 

H.-II-U , of the St. John Group. 

Canadian Record of Science, N. 8.. Vol. II., No. 1, 
January. 188), Montreal. 8ro., pp. 9-11. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



59 



Matthew, George P. Continued. 

Synopsis of the Fauna of Division 1 of the St. 
John Group, etc. 

,\"t>"'nl History Society of New Brunsicick, Bulletin 
\ .. 1886, St. John, X.U. 8vo., pp. 25-31. 

On the Cambrian Faunas of Cape Breton and 
Newfoundland. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada. Vol. IV., 
So. 4, 1886, Montreal. 4to., pp. 147-157, 14 figures. 
Discovery of a Pteraspidian Fish in the Silurian 
Rocks of New Brunswick. 

Canadian Record of Science, Vol. II., No. 4, Octo- 
ber, 1886, Montreal. 8vo.,pp. 2. 

Additional Note on a Pteraspidian Fish found in 
New Brunswick. 

Ibid., December, 1S86, Montreal. 8vo., pp. 4. 
A Preliminary Notice of a N T ew Genus of Silurian 
Fishes. 

Natural History Society of New Bmnsioick, Bulletin 
vi., 1887, St. John, N.B. 8vo., pp. 69-73. 
Minerals of New Brunswick. 

Board of Education Report, 1887, Fredericton. 
8vo., pp. 14. 
Sur le Developpement des Premiers Trilobites. 

Societt royale Mnlacoloaique de Ilelgique. Tome 
xxm.,1888. Bruxelles,1889. 8vo., pp. 14, 10 figures. 

The Great Acadian Paradoxides. Also, On the 
Kin of Paradoxides (Olenellus?), Kjerulfi. 

American Journal of Science, '^td Series, Vol. xxxin., 
No. 197, May, 1887. New Haven. 8vo., pp. 380-3J2 
1 figure. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group. 
No. iv., Part I. Description of a New Species 
of Paradoxides. Part n. The Smaller Trilo- 
bites with Eyes. 

Transucfions Royal Societyof Canada. Vol. v., Sec. 
4, 1S8, Montreal. 4to., pp. 115-16, 3 plates. 
On the Classification of the Cambrian Rocks in 
Acadia. 

Canadian Record of Science, Vol. in , No. 2, April, 
1888, Montreal. 8vo., pp. 71-81 and pp. 303-315. 
On Some Remarkable Organisms of the Silurian 
and Devonian Rocks of Southern New Bruns- 
wick. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada. Vol- VI., 
See. 4, 1889, Montreal. 4to., pp. 49-62, 1 plate. 
Second Note on Stenotheca. 

Oeological Magazine, N. S. III., Vol. VI.. May, 1889, 
London. 8vo., pp. 210-211. 

On the Occurrence of Leptoplastus in Acadian 
Cambrian Rocks. 

Canadian Record of Science, October, 1889, Mont- 
real. 8vo., pp. 485-489. 

How is the Cambrian Divided? A Plea for the 
Classification of Sailer and Hicks. 

American Geologist, September, 1889, Minneapolis. 
8vo., pp. 138-148. 

On Cambrian Organisms in Acadia. 

Tranmctions Roval Society of Canada- Vol. vii , 
See. 4, 1890, Montreal. 4to., pp. 135-163, 5 plates, 
3 cuts. 

Sketch of the Life of Professor Charles Frederick 
Hartt. 

Natural History Society of fiew Brunswick, Bulletin 
., 1S90, St. John, N.B. 8vo.. pp. 1-24, 1 plate. 
Eozoon and other Low Organisms in Laurentian 
Rocks at St. John, N.B. 
Hid, pp. 36-41, 3 cuK 



Matthew, George F. Continued. 

On the Occurrence of Sponges in Laurentian 
Rocks at St. John, N.B, 

Ibid., pp. 42-45. 

On Some Causes which have Influenced the 
Spread of the Cambrian Faunas. 

Canadian Record of Science, January, 1891, Mont- 
real. 8vo., pp. 255-269. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group. 
No. v. 

Transaction* Royal Society of Canada. Vol. VIII., 
Sec. 4, 1891, Montreal, 4to., pp. 123-169, 6 plates, 
3 cuts. 

President's Annual Address. On Pahi'ozoic In- 
sects, etc. 

Natural Hist'irif Society "f New Brunswick, Bulletin 
ix., 1891. St. John, N.B. 8vo., pp. 25-35, 

On a New Horizon in the St. John Group. 

Canadian Record of Science, October, 1891, Mont- 
real. 8vo., pp. 339-343. 

Notes on Cambrian Faunas. 1. The Taconic 
Fauna of Kiumons compared with the Cam 
brian Horizons of the St. John Group. 

American (reoli'ftiat, November, 1891, Mimie;i|.nli;-, 
8vo., pp. 287-291. 

Note on Lcptoplastus. 

Canadian Record of Science, December, 1891, Munt- 
real. 8vo., pp. 4iU-4t>2. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. .John Group. 
No. vi. 

Transactions Royal Smutty <if t'untidn. \ul, ix.. 
Sec. 4. 1892, Montreal. 4to., pp. 33-65, 2 plates. 

Discoveries at a Village of the Stone Age at Boca- 
bee. [Republication.] 

Natural History Sofirtji, Bulletin x., 1S92., St. John. 
N.B. 8vo., pp. 5-29. 1 plate, 2 cut.'. 

Protolenus, a New Genus of Cumbrian Trilobites. 
/6tW.,8vo.. pp. 31-37. 

List of Fossils found in the Cambrian Rocks in 
and near St. John. 

Ibid. 8vo., pp. xi. -xxii. 

Trematobolus, an Articulate Hrachiopod of tin- 
Inarticulate Order. 

Canadian Record of Science, January, 1893, Mont- 
real. 8vo., pp. 270-279. 

On the Diffusion and Sequence of the Cambrian 
Faunas. 

Transaction* Royal Society of Canada. Vol. x. , 
Sec. 4. 1893, Ottawa. 4to., pp. 3-16, 2 cuts. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group. 
No. vn. 

Ibid. 4to., pp. 95-109, 1 plate. 

The Climate of Aeadia in the Earliest Times. 

Natural History Society of Neio Brunsicick, Bulletin 
xi., 1893, St. John, N.B. 8vo., pp. 1-18, 2 outs. 

Swedish Cambrian-Silurian Hyolithida> and Con 
ulariidie, by G. Holm. Review of this memoir. 
Canadian Record of Science, July, 1893, Montreal. 
8ro., pp. 433-440. 

Illustrations of the Fauna of the St. John Group. 
No. vin. 

Transactions Royal Society of Canada. Vol. XL, 
Sec. 4, 1894, Montreal. 4to., pp. 85-129, 2 plate*, 1 oat. 



60 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



MUN, 

An examination of some controverted point* of 
the Physiology of the Voice, especially the Reg- 
iment of the Sinking Voice and the Falsetto. 
Journal of l'kvti"l'vv, Cambridg-e, England. Vol. 

IV. 

Some observations on the Influence of the Vagus 
and Accelerator nerves of the Heart of the Sea- 
Turtle. 

Ibid., Vol. v. 

The secretion of Oxalic Acid ill the Dog under n 
Mtrying diet, la modification of " l'cl>er die 
AUHschcidung iler Oxalsaure durch den llurn "( 

/but.. Vol. v. 

Tin' Iiinervatiiin of the heart of the Slider Terra- 
pin (PHeudemys Kugosal. 

//.I'./.. V..I. M. 

Tin- Heart cif the- Fish i-oiiip,ii-<>d with that of 
MenoliraiH hus. with S]>ccial Reference to Itcllex 
Iiiliilntic.il mid Inde|>cndciit Cardiac Khvlhtn. 
ll.il. , V..I vn 

Note* on the I'rine of tin- Tortoise with Special 
Iti-fiTen. e In 1 "rir Ac-id anil I 'rea. 

/'' / . V..1. Ml. 

\ I'liv -i..|.i_-ii id basis of an Improved Cardiac 
Pathology. 

.//. r../ li,,..r,l. New V,,rk. October, 1W. 

In. \, id. 0,1 Its Mediral Relations; (lit A 

K.-lial.I. M- 1 hod of (Quantitative Estimation. 

-W "" V. . ... l'liila.|.-l|.liia. June. 1S85. 
On I In- l'h\iology of the Heart of the Alligator. 
.l;ur,uil ,,r .l/,.i<.,,,,j/ ./ /'liviiolouv, Edinburgh, 
inj. 

I In- lili > t Inn and In nervation of the Heart of the 

Sea Turtle 

/'.. /., V..1- \M. 

l'li>-ioloi;> of tin- Heart c ,f the Snake. 
ll-i'l.. Vol. \\ll. 

Tin- (audition of the Heart heat and other Pro 
lih'ins in I'ardiar l'h\ siolo^v . 

r,,,,.i,/,, M,,H.;,l a ,,,l Suruir.tl .loiirnnl, Montreal, 
January. 1HH7. 
Inllueiii , of the -Nervous System on Cell Life. 

M. :li.;il . l,,umul. New York, Iieceinber, imw. 
The HI... .d and lilotul- vessels in Health and 
Disease. 

Mi-/.. September, IWii, 
Hetention and Ix>s.s of Hair. 

rVi n ,i,/u, R Itftonl of Sciavr , Montreal, July, 1S87. 
Life in the Hahaina.s. 
Hiil., April. I'M?. 

Study of a Small and Isolated Community in the 
Bahama Islands. 

A.n.r,r., XaturaHa, Philadel|,bin. Vol. xxi.. Octo- 
ber, 1-W. 

Comparative I'sycholojcy : Il Objects and Prob- 
lems. 

Popular .SeiV.^ M,^klu, New York. March. 187. 
Iteply to CrfticUm of the above. 
.SVinMP, May, 14*7 . 

The llabiu and Intelligence of Squirrels. 

Tmuaaiam. K:*il Sacwtt >/ Canada. Vol. v.. 
See. 4. 1M7. 

Colll|*nitive INyelmlogy. 

Jomnal (3M.mr.Kier Ufdiritu, January. 1988. 



Mills. Wesley. Continued. 

The Psychic develoyment of young animals and 
its physical correlation. 

Tnauactiniu Koval Society of Canada, Vol. XI., Sec. 
4,1891. 

Translation of Professor Hoppe Seyler's Address 
at the Celebration of the Opening of the Insti- 
tute for Physiological Chemistry (Ueber die 
Entwickclung der Physiologischen Chemle und 
ihre Dedentung fur die Medicin). 
Medical Journal, New York, 1W5. 

Snake Poison from a Chemico-Physiological point 
of view. 

Juurnulof Comparative Medicine and Surgery, Phil- 
adelphia, Vol. vui. 

Elasticity as a Conservative Force in the Animal 

Organism. 

Ibid. 
Heport of a Ca.sc of Poisoning from the Local 

Application of Ergotin. 

ltritinh Mfdit-al Journal, London. 

Some mistakes to be avoided in Dealing with the 
Diseases of the Nose and Throat. 

Canadian Jmirnal nf Medical Science, Toronto. 
Heport of a Case of Congenital Ectopia of the 
Alidoininal Organs. 

Ibid. 
Two Cases of Malignant Disease of the Stomach. 

Ibid. 
The Voice in Diagnosis and Prognosis. 

Canada tfntical and Murffievl Journal, Montreal, 
May, 1SS2. 

Fatality in Typhoid Fever. 

/'m/., January. 18*1. 
Chronic Pyccinia following I'rethral Dilatation. 

Ibid., May, 1880. 
Clinical Notes on Atropine Poisoning. 

/'.../., AuKiut, 1880. 

Obstetrics of the Hamilton City Hospital for Two 
Years. 

Ibid., October. 1880. 
On a Case of Thrombosis of the Left Ventricle. 

Iliid., February, 1887. 
Tonsillotorny and Uvulotomy. 

Ibid., March, 1883. 

Innervation of the Heart of the Slider Terrapin 
(Medical Aspects). 

Ibid., December, 1885. 

Physiological and Pathological Reversion. 

Ibid., April, 1888. 
Surgical Puncture of the Heart. 

Mrdical fftuj,, Philadelphia, July, 1887. 

A Case of Extreme Enlargement of the Tonsils 
causing Urgent Symptoms. 

Archive* of Larynffotofft/. 

Case of Lightning Shock with Recovery, with 
Drs. Hull, -i and Paige. 

Medical Neat, Philadelphia, Auciut, 1888, 
Valedictory Address to Graduate Class in Medi- 
cine of McC.lll University. 

Medical Journal, Montreal, 1889. 

Address delivered under the Auspices of the 
Associated Alumni Society of the University of 
New Brunswick. Frederlcton, 1HB2. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



61 



Mills, Wesley. Continued. 

Articles in Buck's Handbook of the Medical 
Sciences, on Digestion, the Digestive Secretions, 
etc. 
Hibernation and Allied States in Animals. 

Transaction! Royal Society of Canada. Vol. X. 
Sec. 4, 1892. 
Natural or Scientific Method in Education. 

Popular Science Monthly, New York, November, 
1892. 

The Action of Certain Drugs and Poisons on the 
Heart of the Fish . 

Canadian Medical and Surgical Journal, Montreal, 
Mar h, 1886. 

Haemodynamics and Blood Pressure. 

Ibid., 1887. 

Clinical and Pathological Notes from a Breeding 
Station. 

Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery, 
Philadelphia, July, 1889. 

The Blood and Blood-forming Organs. 

Canadian Medical and SurfficalJburnalt Montreal, 
December, 1886. 

Ueber die Ausscheidung der Oxalsauru durch den 
Earn. 

Virchuw'* Archive!, Berlin, 1885. 

Alterations of the Myocardium (G. Fantoni). 
Translation by Dr. Joseph Workman with notes 
by Dr. Wesley Mills. 

Medical Journal, Montreal, June, 1889. 
Heredity in Relation to Education. 

Transactions Ontario Educational Afunciation 
Toronto: and Popular Science Monthly, New York, 
1894. 

Books : 

Outlines of Lectures on Physiology (as delivered 
in McGill University). Montreal : W. Drysdale 
& Co., 1880. 

A Text-book of Animal Physiology. New York : 
D. Appleton&Co., 1889. 
Large 8vo., 700 pp. 

A Text-book of Comparative Physiology. New- 
York : D. Appleton & Co., 1890. 
Small 8vo., pp. 630. 

How to keep a Dog in the City. New York : 
Wm. R. Jenkins. Toronto: H. B. Donovan, 
1891. 

The Dog in Health and in Disease. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co., 1892. 

Murray, George. 

Verses and Versions. Contents : How Canada 
was saved ; Grace Connell ; Willie the Miner ; 
The Madonna's Isle ; The Neapolitans to Mozart, 
etc. Montreal : Foster Brown & Co., 1891. 
12mo., pp. vm. -f 403. 

Murray, J. Clark. 

Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy : an Exposi- 
tion and Criticism. 

Canadian Journal, Toronto, January and Septem- 
ber and December, 1867. 

Outline of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy. 
A Text-book for Students. Boston : Gould & 
Lincoln, 1870. 

Crown Svo., pp. 257. 



Murray, J. Clark. Continued. 

The Higher Education of Women. An address 
at the opening of Queen's College at Kings- 
ton, 1871. 

Pamphlet, pp. 17. 

The Ballads and Songs of Scotland, in view of 
their influence on the Character of the People. 
London : Mac.Millan & Co., 1871. 

Crown 8vo., pp. 205. 
Atomism and Theism. 

Canadian Monthly, Toronto, January, 1875. 
The Study of Political Philosophy. The annual 
University Lecture in McGill College, Mont- 
real, 1877. 

Pamphlet, pp. 1H. 
Dreams. 

New Dominion Monihlii, Montreal, June, 1S77. 
The First Ten Years of the Canadian Dominion. 

Dritith Quarterly Ilrc'ieie, April, 1878. 
The Scottish Philosophy. 

Mai-Milluit'n Maaazinr, London, December, 1S7S. 
Memoir of David .Murray, late Provost of Paisley : 
with sketches of local history in his time. 
Paisley: Alexander Gardner, lsnl. 

Crown 8vo., pp. 148. 
.Solomon Maiinon. 

Briiiuli Viturirrli/ Hi >;., London, July, 1885. 

A Handbook of Psychology. London: Alexander 
Gardner, isso. 

2nd ed.,1888; 3rd ed., 1890, 
Crown 8vo., pp. 435. 

Sir William Hamilton. 

Saottiuli ]ti-ri<.', Paisley, Lond- n and New York, 
July, 1886. 
The Revived Study of Berkeley. 

MacMillaii't Alntfnziiii , London, July, 18S7. 
Solomon Maimon : an Autobiography. Trans- 
lated from the German. London : Alexander 
Gardner, 188!). 

Crown 8vo., pp. 307. 
Christian Ethics. 

PrtttlirteriiiH Colfeue Journal, Montreal, March, 1S89. 
The Blind Deaf-mute, Helen Keller. 

Scottish fierieir, Paisley, London and New York, 
October, 1890. 

The Education of the Will. 

Educational Kerieic, New York, June, 1891. 
An Introduction to Ethics. Boston : De Wolfe, 
Fiske & Co., 1891. 

Crown 8vo., pp. 407. 
A Summer School of Philosophy. 

Scottish Rtvieic, Paisley, London and New York, 
January, 1892. 

Christian and Unchristian Agnosticism. Sunday 
Afternoon Address in Queen's College, Kings- 
ton, April, 189^. 

Psychology in Medicine. 

Medical Journal, Montreal, June, 1892. 

An Ancient Pessimist. 

Philosophical Revieiv, January, 1893. 

The Faculty of Cramming: its Psychological 
Analysis and Practical Value. 

Educational Review;, New York, April. 1893. 



62 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



M in i.i.i . J. Clark. Continued. 

The Poetry of the Columbian Celebration. 

/V*>rfi'a CoUrgt Juurnai Montreal. December, 
:- . 

Philosophy and Industrial Life. A Paper read 
at the Philosophical Congress in Chicago, Aug- 
ust. l-.i.i. 

Tli' Mm,*, Chiowo, 1894. 

O'Krlen. Most llevereml i TIM- I in-. 

Philosophy of the Bible Vindicated. Charlotte- 
town : Hit-inner Bros., 187(1. 

Sro., pp. 2U. 

Mater Admirabilis. Montreal : I). & J. Sadlier 
A: Co.. issi. 
: 24. 

After Weary Years. Baltimore : John Murphy 

Jt Co.. IS.S.",. 

no., pp. 4.11. 

Saint Agnes. Virgin and Martyr. Halifax Print 
ing Company, ls*7. 

Ulnn . pp. W'. 
Aminta. A Modern Life Drama. New York : I). 

Ap|ilel,ill & Co.. ISiKP. 

Memoirs of Ill-lit Kevereinl rCdniund Burke, 
Mi-hop of /i..n. lirst Vicar Apostolic uf Nova 

Sc.iti.i. Ottawa: Thohnrn & ('<>.. 1SU4. 
Cr,,wn *v... ).|i. u. t 1 M. iliu-f rutr,l. 

1 II Jin in/ilil* t Infill : 

Daniel O'Connell. A Lecture-. Charlottetown. 

K.irh Stages "t Cliri-t ianity in Kn^laud. Chiir- 

lottetown. ll. 

Pastoral Letters. Halifax. Isx! ^1 .s."i -stJ.s7.KM.sj), 
I-'. m ;i| irj 1C1-H4. 

The True Chun b. 

\r. .l:,l,i, T'treniiili, January 16, ISWi. 

The Hierarchy of tbc- Church. Printed with 
Heron!- of the Silver Jubilee Celebration of 
Bishops Mclntyic and Rogers. Charlottetown: 
John ( 'ooinbs. 

The Prerogatives of the Roman I 'on till'. 

ll'ilif-if llrr.i W.January 2. 1888. 

Funeral Oration at the "Month's Mind" of late 
Bishop Mclntyre. 

Ksti miner, Charlotlct'.wn, June 5, 1S91. 
The liesnrrection of the Dead. 

Halifax H'r.,1,1, April It, |S2. 
The Duties and ReBponalbllltles of the Episcopate. 

TV r.J.. ,.,. f(. JohnV, N8d.. June 25. 1892. 

I' in- i -..M. H-v. (.. ..ru.-. 

A Brief Sketch of the Life and Labours of the 
Rev. John Keir. D.D., S.T.P. Reprinted from 
f'hrixtitni /nutnirtor. Pirtou, X.S. : E. M. 
McDonald. KV.i. 
TO., pp. 4X 

The Present Truth. A Synod Sermon. Pictou, 
X.S.. 18SO. 

TO 

Memoir of the Rev. James MacGregor, D.D., Mis- 
sionry of the Associate Synod of Scotland to 
Pictou, X.S., with notices of the colonization 



Patterson, Rev. George. Continued. 

of the Lower Provinces of British North Amer- 
ica, and of the social and religious condition of 
the early settlers. Philadelphia : J. M. Wil- 
son ; Halifax : A. & W. McKinlay, 1850. 
l.iii.i., pp. 548. 

Memoirs of Revds.S. F. Johnston and J. W. Math- 
eson, and Mm. Mary J. Matheson, with selections 
from their diaries and correspondence, and 
notices of the New Hebrides, their inhabitants, 
and missionary work among them. Philadel- 
phia : William S. Martien. Pictou, N.S.: James 
Patterson, 1864. 
12mo., pp. ~t>\ 

The Doctrine of the Trinity underlying the Reve- 
lation of Redemption. Edinburgh : Oliphant & 
Co., 1870. 

12mo., pp. 244. 

Prize Essay on the History of the County of 
Pictou, 1874. 

In manuscript in Library of King'g College, Wind- 
sor, N.S. 

History of the County of Pictou. Montreal : Daw- 
son Brothers, 1877. 

Nffo., Pp. 471. 
Jepht hah's Vow. 

llritiih n ad Foreign Evnntelical Rtview, London, 
187,1. 8vo., pp. 709-738. 

Canadian Northwest and Manitoba College. 
Edinburgh, 187H. 
8vo., pp. 16. 

Canadian Northwest and the Gospel. 

Itrititli ntui Fitreion Evanffctical Review, London, 
1879. 8vo., pp. 7(,9 718. 

Missionary life among the Cannibals, being the life 
of the Rev. John (ieddie, 1J.D., first missionary 
to the New Hebrides, with a history of the Nova 
Scotia Presbyterian Mission on that group. 
Toronto: James Campbell & Sou; Montreal: 
W. Drysdale & Co., 1882. 
I2mo.,pp. 512. 

The Teaching of Our Lord regarding the Sabbath 
and its Bearing on Christian Work. 

Pretbi/terinn Rnirtc, No. 13, 1883, New York. 8vo., 
PP. 1-19. 

The Heathen World : its need of the goupel and 
the church's obliglation to supply it. Toronto : 
Wm. Briggs, 1884. 
12ino.. pp. 293. 

The Plague of Mice In Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island. 

Canadian Record uf Scienet. 8vo. , pp. 472-480. 

Hon. Samuel Vetch, first English Governor of 
Nova Scotia. 

CoUeetiatu ufNova .S'eofiYi Hiitorical fioeittf, Hali- 
fax, 1885. 8vo, pp. 1-SS. 

Stone Age of Nova Scotia, as illustrated by a Col- 
lection of Relics pn-eiited to Dalhousie College. 
Tratuactimu of ffova Scolian hititut* of Natural 
Seiner, Vol. vin., 1888-89. 8ro., pp. ZU-2S2. 

Sketch of the Life and Labours of the Rev John 
Campbell. New Glasgow, VS. : S. M. McKen- 
zle, 1880. 

STO., pp. 37. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



63 



Patterson, Rev. George. Continued. 
The Magdalene Islands. 

Transaction* of jVotJa Scotian Institute of Natural 
Science, 1890-1. 8vo., 81-57. 

The Portuguese on the Northeast Coast of Amer- 
ica, and the first European Attempt at Colon- 
ization there. A lost chapter in American his- 
tory. 

Transaction! Roi/at Society nf Canada. Vol. vlll., 
Seo. 2, 1890, pp. 127-173. 
The Beothiks, or Red Indians of Newfoundland. 

Ibid., Vol. ix.. Sec. 2, 1891, pp. 123-171. 
Beothik Vocabularies, with a few Notes on a 
Paper on the Beothiks in the Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Canada for 1891. 

Ibid., Vol. x.,Sec. 2, 1892. pp. 19-32. 
Sir William Alexander and the Scottish Attempt 
to Colonize Acadia. 

Ibid., pp. 79-107. 

The First Theological Hall in the British Colonies. 
Thtoloffue, Vol. in , Nos. 1 and 2. 1891-92. 8vo , 
pp 1-7,33-4(1. 

The French Protestant Emigrations to Xova 
Scotia. A prize essay, 1893. 

In manuscript in Library of King's College, Wind- 
sor, N.S. 
Sable Island, its history and phenomena. 

Transaction* of the Royal Societyof Canada, Vol. xu. 
Seo. 2, 1891, pp. 1-49. 

Penhallow, I). P. 

Note on Circidiphyllum Japonicum. 

Gardener's Monthly, November, 1879- 
Fabrication of Aino Cloth. 

American naturalist, 1680, p. 553. 
The Manufacture of Miso by the Japanese. 

Kama* City Revietr, November, 1881, p. 437. 
Note on a few of the Useful Plants of Northern 
Japan. 

American Naturalist, February, 1891, p. 110. 
Phenomena of Growth in Plants. 

Proceedings American Association for Advancement 
of Science, 1881 41882. 
The Temperature of Trees. 

Proceeding* Boston Society Natural History, Vol. 
xxi., 1881. 
Yellows in Peach Trees. 

Proceedings Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1882. 
Report on Meteorology. 

Hovghton farm. Series I., No. 1 
Soil Temperature. 

Ibid. Series I., No. 2. 

Yellows in Peaches. 

Houahton farm. Series ill.. No. 2. 

The Normal Condition of Vegetable Structure 
with reference to Cell Contents. 
Ibid. Series m., No. 1. 

Peach Yellows. 

Cultivator and Country Gentleman, August 30, 1883. 

Note on Peach Curl. 
Ibid. 

Note on Disease of Plants. 

Proceedings American Association for Advancement 
of Science, 1882 & 1883. 



Penhallow, . P. Continued. 

Review, Lawes, Gilbert & Masters. Experiments 
on Mixed Herbage of Permanent Meadows. 
Botanical Results. 

American Journal of Science, \\vi-, 396. 
Effects of Sulphur on Plants. 

Cultivator and Country Gentleman, November 15, p. 
920. 
Peach Yellows. 

(Quarterly Report of flauuvhatna Hoard of Agricul- 
ture, 1883, p. 66. 

Report on the Experimental Orchard at Houghton 
Farm. 

Houghton t'ni m. Series MI., No. 3. 
Peach Yellows. 

Itiid. Appendix 3. 
Meteorology. 

II, ill. Scries i., No. 3. 

Soil Temperature. 

II, id. Series i., Nn. 4. 
Relation of Root and Leaf Areas in Corn. 

Prof f eedingn American Awtociation for Advancement 

of Sri I ncc, Ivv!. 

Notes on the Trees und Shrubs of Nort hern .Jaj.'an. 

Transactions Montreal Horticultural Soriety, 1&S3. 

Some Peculiarities of I'lant Crovilh. 

\ct'< -iii-i', ni., 354. 
Diseases of Plants. 

Popular Si- ir nee Monthly, xxv.. .'585. 
Relations of Natural Science to a Medical Course. 

Montreal tiazrtte, Octobers, 1881. 
Plants in their Relation to Disease. 

Proceedings Kansas Horticultural Sn'-iitjt, 1 S M. 
Botanic Gardens. 

Tenth Annual ltf]v,rt Montreal Horticultural Society, 
18S5. 
Plants in their Relation to Disease. 

Manachumtts Stale Board, of Agriculture, 1885. 
Plants in their Relation to Disease. 

Transactions American Horticultural S',-'i't!/, W>, 
p. 167. 

The Relation of the Annual Rings of E.xogens to 
Age. 

Canadian Record of Science, I., p. 162. 

Distribution of the Reserve Material of Plants in 
Relation to Disease. 
ll,id., i., 193. 

Traditions of the Ainu of Northern Japan. 
/6irf.,i.,193. 

First Annual Report of the Montreal Botanic 
Gardens, Montreal, 1885. 

Movements of Tendrils in Cucurhita maxima and 
pepo. 

American Journal of Science, XXXI. , 45-57, 100-114, 178- 
189. 

Origin and Final Settlenientof the Ainu in Japan. 
Canadian Record of Science, II., 11. 

Variation of Water in Trees and Shrubs. 

Ibid., ii-t 105. Also in American Naturalitt, April, 
1886, p. 425. 

Physical Characteristics of the Ainu. 
Canadian Record of Science, II., 119. 



64 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THK 



l*rnhall<>w, D. P. Continued. 

Mechanism of Movement in Cucurbita, Vitis and 
Robin la. 

Trantmelioni Kuual Society of C:,n<i.l.i. Vol. iv.. 
Si i. : . 

Additional Notes on Tendrils of Cucurbitace>. 
Canadian llrtord of Science, II., 241. 

Soil Temperature. 

Agricultural Science, I., 75. 

A He view of Canadian Botany from the First 
Settlement ut New France to the 19th Century. 
Traiunclinn* Royal Society nf Canada. Vol. V., 
SM.4,1SX7. 

The Hearing of Hears and the Worship of Yoshil- 
sune by the Ainu of Yeso. 

r.lHO/l'IH Krn,rd of Srience, II,, 481. 

Tin' Ainu. A Iteview. 

H.ia., ii.. UH. 
Not-.-- mi Shcpherdia Canadensis, 

//.i./.. in. ,3*1. 
Note- on Neniatophyton and a Laminated Fossil. 

7""itij'i'7i" (( fi-'Uttt >"< i<ty nf <\ti'i>l'i. Vol. VI., 
St.- 4. Iws. 
Tin- F ..... I ..f Plants. 

i li.in It, mnlnf Scirurr. III., 331. 

Notes ,m Krian riant-. 

/'.,./., n.,'21'2. 
( ir,i\ 's Sciciit ilk' Papers. A lievicw. 

/',!./., II!., '"">. 

Text ItiHik cm Hulan\. A Review. 



I'lei-t'ieene Flora of Camida. 

'! i;.,.l., a i,;il \.,nWi/.,;'.4m,nV,i, I., .111-334. 

A \f\\ Hitanieal I.alM>ratoi \ . 

''ni'i'/i-m l!-..,r.l :.' .\ci-ifi . 1\.,KS. 

Note on a I Ye u liar (iruw th in lilaek Walnut. 

li;.l.. iv., 2 . 
Soil Teiii|H-ratnre. 

/'.i./.. i\ ,!.'.>. 

Ski-tell of the Life of Clmrle- (iibli. 

/A/./., i\ . Kf. 
I.i-t of Hotanieal (lardens of the World. 

Annul. ..r //.,rticii/inr, , New York. !>>!), p. J17 : 1H01, 
p. 311: 18.-*, |i. 1W. 

The Hotanieal Collector'.- (iuide. Montreal: 1H1M, 

II'IMIH.. p. li'p. 

Description of New Species of Fossil Plants in 
l'a|K-r by Sir .1. \V. Dawson on Fossil Plants 
from the Similkameen Valley, etc. 

Tr.in.... f,.,,i. H"V"l Snrirtu nf Cunndn. Vol. VIII , 

Stc. 4. 1- '. 

NotoM on the Flora of Carolina, P. Q. 
Cnxndiiim Rmml nf Scirner, IV., 432. 

Notes on the Flora of St. Helen's Island, Mon- 
treal. 

/hid., iv., 3<B. 

Note- on Specimen* of Koxsil Woods from the 
Erian (Devonian) of New York nd Kentucky. 
/'..<., IT.. 242. 

The Botany of Montreal. In Hand-Hook for the 
Itoyal Society of Canada, Montreal Meeting, 
1HU1. 

12ao.. p. 121. 



Pcnhallow, D. P. Continued. 

Notes on Post Glacial Plants from Illinois. 

Trnrunctvxu Royal Society of Canada, Vol. IX., 
Sec. 4,1891. 

Parka decipiens. 
Ibid. 

Additional Notes on Devonian Plants of Scot- 
land. 

Canadian Kecorrl of Science, v., i. 

A New Species of Larix from the luterglacial of 
Manitoba. 

American Qcolnguf, w., 6, 368. 
Epitaphal Inscriptions. 

Journal American Fulk-lore. Society, v.,305. 

A Preliminary Examination of So-Called Cannel 

Coal from the Kootnnie of British Columbia, 

Ami-rican Geologist, X.,331. 

Notes on Krian (Devonian) Plants from New York 
and Pennsylvania. 

Proceedinfff United ,Slnte National Afuwum, xvi., 

1115. 

Notes on N'emotophyton crassum. 
IhuL, xvi., 115. 

l > iii--iin. Adolphe. 

Mouvement de la Population Fran^aise dans les 
Cantons de 1'Est. 

U Canada Prancai*, Quebec, Vol. I., 1888, p. 193. 
Chants Caimdiens. Quebec : P. G. Delisle, 1HM). 
Heures Perdues. Quebec : A. Cote ct Cie, 18W. 

12ino., pp. 254. 

Keailo, John 

Has contributed to the following periodicals, 
newspapers, and collections of poems : 

Montreal Literary Mngnzine (1856). 

Montreal Gatelte (1S50-1894). 

(1856-70, rarious contributions including poetry ; 
1870-94, editorial article- and book reviewi). 

British American Magazine (1863-1861). 

/}etcnrl' Selection! from Canadian Poetn (1864). 

Steicarf, Quarterly (1868-1S70) 

Jlliutrated Canattian Neat, (1869-1880). 

UMin Uniremitv Magazine (1870-i71). 

r<iim</inn Monthly (1872-1878). 

Helfonl't Monthlv Magazine (1876-1878.) 

Ho,e-Bel/ord't Canadian Monthly (1878-1882). 

The. Week (1884-1881). 

Canadian Kecord of Science (1891). 

t'opular Science Monthlv (1888). 

Magazine of American Hiftoru (1883-1890). 

/dominion llllutrated (1888-1892). 

Anmlia (1892-1893). 

Memorial Biographici of the New England Hiitorio 
Oencalogical Society. Vol. v. (1894). 

Canadian Birthdav Book (1887). 

Songiofthe Great Dominion (1889). 

Younger Poet* of America (1890). 

Poemt of Placet. Edited by II. W. Longfellow : 
Vol. v. (Ireland.) Two poemi, " Deveniih " and 
" Killynoogan," by John Keade. 

Prophecy of Merlin and other Poemi, Montreal, 1870. 

Of contributions to the foregoing volumes or 
periodicals (poetry excepted), the following 
treat of subjects wholly or largely Canadian : 

Our Canadian Village. 

liritiih American Magazine, February, March and 
April, 1864. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



63 



Reade, John. Continued. 

British Canada in the Last Century. 

Dominion Monthly, August} September and October, 
U73, and reproduced in "Picturesque Quebec," by 
J. M. LeMoine, Ksq. 

The History in Canadian Geographical Names. 

New Dominion Monthly, June, 1873. 
Canadian Literature. Introductory Lecture of 

Society of Canadian Literature. 
Opportunities for the Study of Folk-lore in Can- 
ada. 
Histories of Canada. 

Canadiana, January, February and March, 1888. 
The Early Interpreters. 

Canadiunn. 
The Intermingling of Races. 

Popular Science Monthly, January, 1883. 
Thomas D'Arcy McGee, the Poet. 
Sir L. H. LaFontaine, Hart. 

In the Transactions of the Royal tiocirty of C'anmlu : 

Language and Conquest. A C intribution to the 

History of Civilization. Vol. i., Sec. 2, is,s2-s:i. 

The Making of Canada. The Literary Faculty of 

the Native Races of America. Vol. n., Sec. 

2, 1884. 

The Half-breed. Vita Sine Literis. Vol. in., 
Sec. 2, 1885. 

Some Wabanaki Songs. Vol. v., Sec. 2, 1887. 
Aboriginal American Poetry. Ibid. 
The Basques in North America. Vol. vi., See. 
2, 1888. 

Roberts, Charles G. I). 

Orion, and other Poems. Philadelphia : J. li. 
Lippincott & Co., 1880. 

Sq. 12mo., pp. 114. 

In Divers Tones. Boston : I). Lathrop & Co. ; 
Montreal : Dawson Bros., 1887. 

12mo., pp. 134. 

Poems of Wild Life. An Anthology. London : 
Walter Scott; Toronto: W. J. Gage & Co., 1888. 

16mo., pp. 238. 

The Canadians of Old. Translated from the 
French of de Gaspe. New York : I). Appleton 
& Co. ; Toronto : Hart & Riddell, 1800. 
The Canadian Guide-book. Part I. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co., 1891. 

12mo.,pp. 270. 

Ave : an Ode for the Shelley Centenary. Toronto: 
Williamson Book Co., 1892. 

Sq. 8vo.,pp. 27. 

Songs of the Common Day ; and Ave. London 
and New York : Longmans, Green & Co. ; To- 
ronto : William Briggs, 1893. 
12mo., pp. 126. 

Routhier, A. B. 

Causeries du Dimanche (Critical Essays). Mont- 
real : Beauchemin et Valois, 1871. 
12ino., pp. 306. 

Portraits et pastels litteraires. In 32o. Brousseau 
Freres, 1872. 



Routhier, A. B Continued. 

A Travers 1'Europe. 2 volg. Quebec : A.-M. De- 
lisle, 1882-83. 

8ro.,pp. 412-408. 

En Canot. Quebec : O. Frechette, 1881. 
16mo., pp. 230. 

LesEchos. (Poenies.) Quebec : A.-M. Delisle, 1883. 
I -inn., pp. 312. 

Lettre d'un Volontaire du ''"< Voltigeurs Campe 
a Calgary. 

lUfmnirn ile la KuciM roualr du Canada. Tome 
ill.. Sec. 1, 18S5. 

A Travers 1'Kspagne. Quebec : A. Cote, IHKD. 
8v<i , pp. 406. 

Les Grands Drames. Montreal : Hcauchrinin ct 
Fils, 1890. 

12mo. . pp. 450. 

Discours a un concert dc charite domic par Ma- 
dame Alliani. 

]2uio. A. Coif & Cie, IS'.iO. 

Conferences et Di.scours. Montreal: Braiic liemin 

et Fils, IS'.Ki. 

8vo., M,. 417. 
Le Comtc dc Paris a Quebec. Inl roilucl ion el 

disconrs. Quebec : C. Darveau, 18111. 

I)e Quebec a Victoria. Quebec: L.-.I. Deiners. ls!i:t. 
8vo., pp. 3I>0. 

Christophe Colonib Discours. Dans Les Fetes 
Colombiennes, In Ho. Quebec : Leger limns 
seau, !):(. 

Dans Le ('(nutt/fr Francaix, Qtn'h<'c: 

Introduction an /{I'/irrtoiri' XiiHunnl. 1" vol. 

Montreal : .1. M. Valois et Cie, 1S1I3. 
Chroniiiue de Paris. Vol. i., 1X.SS. p. l.-ii;. 
La Question Romaine. fliii/., p. -_ s . 
Les Fetes Jubilaires a Home. Ib'ul., p. ~1~\. 

Assemblee Generale rtes Caiholi(jues de ]' ranee. 
!/>!(/., p. 171. 

En Carriole. Vol. n., 1SS9, p. 214. 

Les Grands Drames. Vol. in., 1890, p. 277. 

L'honorable P.-.I.-O. Cliauveau. Idiil., \i. I! Id. 

Roy, .Joseph- 1 OdiiH ind. 

Le Premier Colon de Levis, Guillauinc Couture. 
Levis : Mercier et Cie, 1KKI. 

16mo., PP. 192. 

MonseigneurDeziel. Sa Vie, ses (Euvres. Levis: 
Mercier et Cie, 1885. 

12mo.,pp. 182. 

L'ordre dc Malte en Amerique. Quebec : A. Cote 
et Cie, 1888. 

12mo., pp. 68. 

Voyage au Pays de Tadoussac. Quebec : A. Cote 
et Cie, 1889. 

8vo., pp. 231. 
De Quelques Coutumes Notariales. 

/." Revue Canadienne, Livraiflons de mars, avril et 
HIM i 1889. 

Du Notarial et des Notaires au Canada avant IfifiS. 
Le Canada fYanfait, 1889, pp. 448, 595 : 1890, p. 707. 
La Justice Seigneuriale de Notre-Dame des Anges. 
La Kerne Canadienne, octobre 1890. 



66 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



I : . Joncph-Kdniond. Continued. 

Claude Bermen de la Mart ini.-rv. Lf\ i-. 1*1. 

12mo., pp. 100. 

I..-MIVS rlu P. F.-X. Duplessls, de la Compagnie de 
Jesus; accompagnees d'une notice biographiqne 
et d'annotations. Levis: Mercier et Cle, Ifftfci. 

STO., pp I.-LXXXV., 1-803, i -xxx 
Scene d'Hiver. 

If Canada /Va.r-tiw, Vol. III.. IWO.p. 229. 

NotcM nut le Greffe et le.s Greftiers de Quebec. 
/'!.. p. 707. 

lloYHl. .l.'-f I'll. 

I ji \ it- rlc Sir I.niiis-ll. I .afonlaine, 

l,:i H'rr r.imiiVmi.-, Montreal. 1S7. 
CiiiiHiderHtions Hur 1'uniim tederale den provinces 
anglaises de ]'Amrri<|iir (111 Nunl. 

M,,/.. i.;. 

!.< i ' ipit .mi-- M.i i lit- . 

/.. .V/i"ir / I'l X ii'lt n,J/.llV r/n fluid'/'!. Tome 
M.. Src. 1. ISM. 
I.. ( '.-in, ill. i : lifpiilili<|Uf r>u Criloiiir. Montreal : K. 

>i-llv;il i-t I-'iU. IW.H. 

III.- -witne iii Kn^'li-h, Montreal : K. Seiieeal et r'ils, 

l-.'l. 

Ul.i. ..pp. I"'). 

^.1 I II I - M .r II I 1. < . I ,1111 In I ill 1 . 

A l.i l!niii:inli-. Ciinti- el liVrit-.. I.i-s Hlessiires 
ill- l:i \'ii-. 1 in- Hi-toire de tousles jours. Mon- 
tn-al: Di'M-riiav l-'i-rres et Dansereaii, 1><7I. 

1 \"1-, in-l s j. *n*, [i. \ i - -IT. 

I)i' (^UI-|.,T ,t .Mi'xico. Souvriiirs rlr VoyiiK''. 'I' 1 
liariiixiin. ilr- t'linilint cl rlr Eiivouaca. Mon- 
In-.il: l)iivi'riiii\ I-'i-r-ir-s r-i DaiiM-iviiii. 1K74. 

'J \ "I., in IS .if-u, pp. ii30 et 271. 

i hd^f^ i-i Autn-s. Ciinfi-ri'iirrs. cluiics, fi'ftK" 
infill*. Muni n-iil : DuviTiiny Kri-res i't Dan.sr- 
n- in. 1-TI. 

1 ml., iii-1^ jriiuy. p. '-'I. 

A In Vrillcc. Montreal : Duvcrnay Krere.s et 
DniiHcreau. 

1 vnl., in-ls jfguF. Ouvraffe accept^ par le uiiniti- 
tre I" l':n-iriii'ti"ii pul>li<iuc rle la province deQurbcc. 

I)i- Trilrord a Babord. Troia C'roi.siercs daiiH le 
(iiilfr Saint l.aiin-iii. Montreal: Duvernny 
Kn-re* el DaiiMTe.iii. 1>T7. 

1 nil., in 12mo.,pp. I- 
Cour. de Tactique. Qu<'l)ec, 18J. 
1 TO|.. pp. llii. 

I.'Knncnii ! rKnncmi ! Ktude sur 1'organiMition 
mililairr <lu Canada. Quelter, INi^. 
1 TO)., pp. 3R. 

Deux aim au Mexiijne, avec une notice par M. 
Co<|iiille, n-ilartt'iir du Journal Le Afunrle de 
Paris. Quebec : C. Darveau, 1H78. 

1 TO!.. 7 U , in-lS. pp. 2Z2. 

Promenadex dans le Golfe Saint I jiurent. Leu lies, 
Quebec: C. Darveau, 1H7B. 

1 Tol.. In H, pp. 207. ATC preface par M. Marmicr, 
drA--rli'-mirfrnriM., 1 Tol.,7fd . illunlrrr. 
Pri.iii.-nndi-. dans le Colfe Saint-Laurent. La Gas- 
pile. Montreal : Seneca) et Kiln. 

1 TO., in-To , 7 . illuitriV. dtuxiem* Mitirri. C. 
t>i-i t.u. 18M). 1 TO|., ISmo., pp. 2*. 



Saint-Maurice, Faucher de. Continued. 

En Route. Sept Jours dans les Provinces marl- 
times. Quebec : ( V,i . et Cle, 1888. 
1 vol., in IL'mo , pp. 279. 

A la Veillee, contcs et r^cits. 
Joies et Tristesses de la Mer. 1 vol., Montreal : 
Cadieux et Dironie, 1888. 

1 Tol.,8TO.,pp- 1888. 

Loin du pays, Souvenirs d'Europe, d'Afrlque et 
d'Amerique. Quebec : C6te et Cle, 1888. 

2 TO!>.I in 8vo., pp. (0. v + 411 ; (u). 655 + in. 
I/Abbe Laverdiere. Etude biographlque avec 

portrait. 

1 vol., t.l.n d., in 12mo., pp. 9. 

Relation dc cc qui s'e8t pass^ lors des foullles 
faites par ordre du gouvrrnement dans une 
II.-M i if dcs fondations du college de.s Jt-suites de 
yu<-l)t'c, prvred^e de certaines observations 
accompagndei d'un plan par le capitaine Devllle 
et d'une photographic. Quebec : C. Darveau, 1H79. 

1 vol. in-fol., pp. 48. 

La I'nivince dc Quebec et le Canudu au troisii'me 
Congres international de Geographic a Vcnise, 
1SS1. Levi.s : Mercier et Cie, 182. 

In-8To-, pp. <3. 

Notice sur.lcan Vau(|iielin, de Dieppe, Lieutenant 
ile Vaisseau (1727-17tM). 
1 vol. 

AU.-M dans les Mfmoin-n tit- la XociVf/ roi/niV du 
Camilla, Tome, ill-, Sec. 1, 1885. 

Le- Canadiens-Franrjais aux Etats-Unis. Seance 
ilc rassemlilee legislative de Quebec, du 2H mars 
1KKJ. 

1 vol. 

Notes pour servir a la construction du chemin de 
fer projcte, le " Quebec Oriental." 
1 vol. 

Discours d'lnaiiguration ; a la premiere seance de 
la premiere section de la litterature fran9aise de 
la Sociotc royale du Canada. 

Minviim ilt la Sucittt r,,,/.J. ././ Canada, Tome I., 
See. 1. 1882. 

I/Element Et ranger dans les Ktats I'nis. 

ll,\d.. Tome m.. Sec. 1,1*15. 

Procedures parlementaires : recueil des decisions 
des Presidents de I'Assembtee Legislative de 
Qu^liec, 1H68-1885. Montreal : Imprlmerie Gen6- 
rale, 1885. 

1 vol.,(cr. 8vo.,pp. 783. 

\Ai Canada et les Canadiens-Fiancais pendant la 
guerre Franco-Prussicnne, Quebec: A. C6W et 
Cie, 1888. 

1 vol., 8vo.,pp. 86. 

Notes sur la formation du Franco-Normand et de 
1'Anglo Saxon, Montreal : Eusebe Senecal et 
Fils, 1H92. 

1 vol., in-18 pp. V>. 

Maximilien, voyigeur, ecrivaln, critique d'art, 
poete, iiniriii, observateur, phllosophc, biblio- 
phile et chretien. 

Mtmoira ile la SociM rotate du Cmida. Tome 
VII., Sec. 1,1889. 






EOYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



67 



Saint-Maurice, Faucher tie. Continued. 

Notes pour servir 4 1'histoire de 1'Empereur Maxi- 
milian d'apres ses oeuvres, les recits ducapitaine 
d'artillerie Albeit Hans, du medecin particulier 
de S. M., le docteur Basch et des temoins 
oculaires de ('execution. Quebec : Cdte et Cie 
1889. 

1 vol. in 8vo., pp. 229. Aveo un portrait de 1'Em- 
pereur. 

Notes pour servir a 1'histoire du General Richard 
Montgomery. Montreal : E. Senecal et Fils 
1893. 

18 vo., pp. 98. 

Mfmoires de la Socittf royale ilu Canada. Tome 
IX., Sec. 1,1890. 

L' Admiral Byng devant ses Juges et devant 1'His- 
toire. 

Ibid., Tome xi. Sec. 1, 1S93. Aussi dans un vol., 
illustre'. 

Les Etats de Jersey et la Langue franfaise, Ex- 
emple offert au Manitoba et au Nord-Ouest, 
Montreal : E. Senecal et Fils, IHtti. 
1vol., in-12mo., pp. 82. 

Sanmlers, William. 

Insects Injurious to Fruits. Philadelphia : Lip- 
pincott & Co., 1883. 

8vo., pp. 436, with 440 wood cuts. 2nd ed., 1392. 
In the Transactions of Royal Society of Canada, i-iz. : 
On the Importance of Economizing and Pre- 
serving our Forests. Vol. i., pp. 35-37. 
On the Introduction and Dissemination of Nox- 
ious Insects. Vol. i., pp. 77 79. 

On the Influence of Sex on Hybrids among Fruits. 
Vol. i., pp. 123-125. 

Notes on the Occurrence of Certain Butterflies in 
Canada. Vol. II., pp. 233-235. 

Catalogue of Canadian Butterflies, with notes on 
their distribution. Vol. in., pp. 85-106. 

Observations on Early-ripening Cereals. Vol. vi 
pp. 73-76. 

The Yield of Spring Wheat, Barley and Oats 
Grown as Single Plants. Vol. vn., pp. 109-112. 
In the Canadian Journal, viz. : 

On the Occurrence of Vanessa Ccenia in Canada 
West. 1861, pp. 498-500. 

List of Plants Collected Chiefly in the Neighbour- 
hood of London, Ont. 1863, pp. 219-238. 

Synopsis of Canadian Arctiada?. 1863 pp. 349-377. 
In the Canadian Entomologist, viz.: 

Entomological Notes. Descriptions of Eggs and 
Larva- of Canadian Butterflies. 1868, pp. 36 ; 
1869, 53-57, 65-67, 73-77. 

Notes of a Trip to the Saguenay. 1868, pp. 11-13. 

Description of the Larva of Callimorpha Lecontei. 

1868, pp. 20. 

On the Larva of Pyrameis Huntera. 1869, pp. 
105-106. 

Notes on Alaria Florida. 1869, pp. 6-7. 

Notes and Experiments on Nematus ventricosus. 

1869, pp. 13-17. 

On a New Grape-seed Insect, Isosoma vitis. 
1869, pp. 25-27. 



Sauiidcrs, William. Continued. 

Notes on Hadena xylinoides. 1869, pp. 33.34. 
On the Larva of Thecla inorata. 1870, pp. 61-64. 
On the Larva of some Lepidoptera. 1870. pp. 74-76. 
An Insect Friend, Anna placidum. 1X70 i 
93-94. 

Hints on Describing Caterpillars. 1K70, p. 94. 
Entomological Gleaning*. 1K70, pp. 111-113 126- 
129, 146-149. 

Notes on the Larva of Ophiusa bistriaria 1X70 
p. 130. 

On the Plum Curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar 
1*70, pp. 137-139. 

On Neonympha eurytris. 1H70, pp. 139-142. 

On the Larva of Diphthera deridens. 1x70 pp 
145-146. 

Hints to Fruit-growers. 1*71 pp l-'-lt >-, >-, 
6<i-70, 149-155. 

Entomological Gleanings. 17I, pp. i ( ir>. 

On the Larva of the P.-ach-borer, .Kg.-riaexitiosa 
1H7!, pp. 14-15. 

Notes on Lepidopti-rous Larv f i-. 1x71 im 3T, :(7 
225227. 

Report on the Colorado Potato Hi-i-tle Is7l , 
41-51. 

On the Egg and Young Larva of Alaria Florida 
1H71. p. 7t>. 

On the Larva of Prioryda annataria. 1*71 ,, 
130-131. 

On the Swarming of Danais archippus. 1X71, pp. 
156-157. 

On the Larva of Halesidota macnlata. 1X71. p. ixti. 
On the Larva of Agrotis dcpressus. 1X71. p. 1113. 

On the Larva of Hypi-retis alienaria. 1X71 np 
209-210. 

Notes on the Larva of Acronyc-ta occidentals 

1872, pp. 49-52. 

Notes on Argynnis cybele. 1X72, pp. 121-12H. 
Hints to Fruit-growers. 1872, pp. 133-136. 
Blistering Beetles. 1872, p. 139. 

On the Eggs and Young Larva- of Melita-a Har- 

risii. 1872, pp. 161-163. 
Osmia Canadensis. 1X72, pp. 237-238. 
On Danais archippus. 1873, pp. 48. 
On the Larva of Plusia halluca. 187:), pp. 10 11. 
The Isabella Tiger moth, Spilosoma Isabella. 

1873, pp. 75-77. 

The Grape-vine Plume-moth, Oxyptilus perisceli- 
dactylus. 1873, pp. 99 100. 

On the Raspberry Saw-fly, Selandria rubi. 1873, 
pp. 101-103. 

On the Bacon Beetle, Dermestes lardarius. 1873 
pp. 171-172. 

Notes on the Larva of Cosmia orina. 1873, p. 206. 
On Colias philodice. 1873, pp. 221-223. 

On the Tiger Swallow-tail Butterfly, Papilio tur- 
nus. 1874, pp. 2-5. 

On Amphipyra pyramidoides. 1874, pp. 27-28. 
On the Larva of Boarmia larvaria. 1874, pp. 32 33. 



68 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Saunilcrtt. William. Continued. 

On Llmenitis dislppus. 1874, pp. 48-49. 

V .t.- on the Larva and Pupa of Saperda moesta. 

l-TI. pp. Hl-ttJ. 
On the Gooseberry Saw-fly, Nematus vcntricosus. 

1X74, pp. 101 104. 
On the Currant Geometer, Ellupia ribcaria. 1874, 

pp. lit- l:m. 
The Spotted Pelidnota, Pelidnota punctata. 1874, 

pp. 141 142. 
On the Ijtrva of Catocala ultronia. 1K74, pp. 

147 14U. 
Tin' Mexican Honey Ant, Myrmecocystus Mexi- 

i-anu.s. is7.~i, pp. 12-14. 
On Kiidryns grata. If7fl, pp. 41 II. 
On tin- llellgraimnite Kly, Corydalis cornulus. 

l*7:i. pp. C.l (!7. 

On Deiopeia liella. Is7.~>, pp. 8,1 ,s|l. 
On Drasleria erirhtea. IsT.V I>|>. 115-117. 
I.Ul iif Nriinipti-ra. collected chiefly in the neigh- 

I.M|I]|,..M| llf l.llll.lllll, Olll. 1'T'l. [l|l. I'll' I. '> I. 

Nut.-- on l'alo<-aliis. Is7tl. pp. 7J 7">. 

On III.- l.nna Mulh, Artias IIIM.I. l.-<77. p. :tt. 

On 1 i.-ii. pliil i < haiiKriuTii anil I), lincata. 1S77, 

I>P. i:ti;7. 

Tin- KirrM Tent t 'atcrpillar. Clisiocampu sylva- 

tini. 1-77. pp. l.V* l.Vi. 
Noi.-> mi tin- Larva of Lyc.i'iia Sc'uddvri. 1S7S, 

pp. 1 1 l.V 
ObhervationM on thr I-^K H f Clisiocainpa sylva 

(H.i .tn-i ( '. A IIHTM un.i. 1- S 7^, pp. -I 2^t. 
Tin- A( heiniiii Sphinx. I'liilanipfhis aclii'inon. 

I-"", pp. mi n. 

Tin- Alil>ot Sphinx. Tliyn-us AhUilii. 1X7S. pp. 

l:m i:il. 

N..I.-S on a Winter Holiday. 1*7*. pp. 21 _'l. 
Tin- (nild-inith Keetle. Cotalpa lanincra. 1S7'.). 

pp. Jl i. 
Inseet I'uwder. 1S7'.I. pp. II IM. 

Knioiiiiiluuy for Hfxinn>r>. No. 1, 1K7!I, jip. ^21- 
'S\. No. ^, I.SMI. pp. Ili. No. :t, Irwi), pp. ai-57. 
On Two Mit.-s. 1*1), pp. afi-aw. 
Tin- Indian Cetonia, Kuryoniia Inda. 1(W1, pp. 1-i 

The Satellite Sphinx, Phllampeluasatellltla. 1HH1, 
pp. 41 W. 

The Ix-Kxed Mapli- ImriT. /Kgeria a'eriii. 1HH1, 
pp. IU 70. 

Tlic Kyed Klator. AlauxoculatuH. 1SS1, pp. 117-1111. 
On Notodonta ronrinna. 1HN1, pp. i:M-140. 
The Sou t hern Calilnge Butterfly, Pieris protodice. 
1WC, pp. 12. 

The I'olyphemun Moth, Telea polyphemuB. 1HK2, 

pp. II l.V 
The leopard Moth, Ecpantheria srHUmiit. 1882, 

pp. ll:i II.V 

The Grape Phylloxera, Phylloxera vaUtri. 
1W2, pp. 121 I2X. 

On thr Mouth of the Larva of Chryopa. 1882, 
pp. 170-177. 



MuunilprH, William. Continued. 

The Grape-berry Moth, Lobcsia botrana. 1882, 
pp. 178-180. 

The Poplar Dagger-moth, Acronycta lepuscullna. 
1882, pp. 221-223. 

The Apple Leaf-crumpler, Phycita nebulo. 1883, 

pp. 12. 
The Melon Moth, Eudioptis hyalinatA. 1883, pp. 

50-57. 
The Apple-tree Aphia, Aphis mall. 1883, pp. 

96-97. 
The Promethea Moth, Callosamia promethea. 

1H83, pp. 2-'il-233. 
On Smerinthus exfvcatus and S. myops. 1884, 

pp. 911. 

Notes on a Trip to Point Pelee. 1884, pp. 50-53. 
On I'nh inaria innuinerabilis. 1884, pp, 141-143. 

DeHcriptiim of the Larva of Agrotis decolorata. 

1HST>, p. 32. 

In Annual lirportu of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario, r/;. : 

Insects Injurious to the Grape. 1870, pp. 3053; 

1S71, pp. 17-21. 
Insects Injurious to the Currant and Gooseberry. 

1K71, pp. 27-44. 

Insects Injurious to the Grape. 1872, pp. 10-14. 
Insects Injurious to the Strawberry. 1872, pp. 
IT. 2ti. 

On Sonic Innoxious Insects. 1872, pp. 51-58. 
Insects Injurious to the Ilaspberry. 1873, pp. 7-17. 
Insects Injurious to the Strawberry. 1873, pp. 

18-19. 

On Some Innoxious Insects. 1K73, pp. 20-25. 
Entomological Notes for 1873. 1874, pp. 17-21. 
On Some of Our Common Insects. 1874, pp. 22-28. 
On Some Injurious Insects. 1874, pp. 43-53. 
On Canker Worms. 1875, pp. 25-28. 
Notes of the Year. 1875, pp. 29-35. 
On Some Common Insects. 1875, pp. 36-42. 
Annual Address of President. 1876, pp. 6-10, 
On Some Common IiiHect.s. 1876, pp. 35-38. 
Notes of the Year. 1870, pp. 30-40. 
Annual Address of President. 1877, pp. 4-6. 
Aphides or Plant Lice. 1877, pp. 31-30. 
Annual Address of President. 1878, pp. 4-8. 
Notes of the Year. 1878, pp. 28-35. 
On Papilio cresphontes. 1878, pp. 60-61. 
Annual Address of President. 1879, pp. 4-9. 
The Pea Weevil. 1879, pp. 63-85. 
Notes on Various InsecU. 1879, pp. 71-77. 
Annual Address of President. 1880, pp. 5-9. 
The Common Woolly Bear, Spilsoma virginica. 

1880, pp. 21-22. 
On Some Rare InsecU Captured in Ontario In 

1880. 1880, pp. 38-42. 
On Mite*. 1880, pp. 60-75. 
Annual Address of President. 1881, pp. 5-9. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



69 



Saumlers, William. Continued. 

Insects Injurious to Clover. 1881, pp. 37-48. 
Annual Address of President. 1882, pp. 7-12. 
Notes of the Year. 1882, pp. 62-89. 
Annual Address of President. 1883, pp. 8-13. 
Insects Injurious to the White Pine. 1883, pp 
52-50. 

Annual Address of President. 1884, pp. 15-20. 
Annual Address of President. 1885, pp. 4-9. 
The Raspberry Saw-fly, Selandria rubi. 1885, 
pp. 14-15. 

Entomological Exhibits at New Orleans Exposi- 
tion. 1885, pp. 18-19. 

Annual Address of President. 1880, pp. 6-8. 
In Reports of Fruit-growers' Association of the Pro- 
vince of Ontario, viz. : 
On the Plum Curculio. 1870, pp. 50-55. 
Essay on the Raspberry, Blackberry, Strawberry 

and Currant. 1870, pp. 50-64. 
Fruits and Fruit-culture. 1871, pp. 71-83. 
Experiments in Hybridizing. 1872, pp. 48-59. 
On the Cultivation of the Plum. 1873, pp. 30 :io. 
Report on the Muskoka District. 1877. pp. 39-40. 

On Ten Native Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 
1879, pp. 17-20. 

On Some Deciduous Trees and Shrubs desirable 
for More Extended Cultivation, 1880, pp. 32-35. 
Annual Address of President. 1883, pp. 9-14. 
Annual Address of President. 1884, pp. 12- H). 
Apples as Food for Stock. 188-1. p. 109. 
Annual Address of President. 1885, pp. 132-138. 
Annual Address of President. 1880, pp. 4-9. 

On Fruit Production in Different Parts of the 
Dominion. 1888, pp. 77-81. 

In Transactions of the Fruit-gromrs' Association 
of Nova Scotia, viz. : 

On Progress in Fruit Culture. 1889, pp. 81-90. 
The Life History of an Apple-tree : what an 

orchard takes from the soil, and how this may 

be restored. 1894, pp. 23-34. 
In the Canadian Horticulturist, viz. : 

On the Ceeropia Moth, Attacus cecropia. 1878, 

pp. 8-11, 28-31. 

The Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar. 
1878, pp. 72-74. 

The Grape-vine Flea-beetle, Haltica chalybea. 

1878, pp. 92-94. 

The Green Grape-vine Sphinx, Darapsa myron. 

1879, pp. 37-40. 

Recollections of a Journey South. 1879, pp. 70-74, 
109-112, 149-181 ; 1880, pp. 4-7. 

The Codling Moth, Carpocapsa pomonella. 1881, 
80-83. 

On the Maple-tree Borer, ^Egeria acerni. 1883, pp. 
176-177. 

In the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical 
Associaton, -viz. : 

On the Compound Decoction of Sarsaparilla. 
1867, pp. 330-341. 



s.i ii in i. -I-,, William. Continued. 

On the Relative Value of the Rhizoma and Ra- 
dial Fibres of Podophyllum peltatum in the 
Manufacture of Podophyllin. 1867, p. 379. 

On the Preparation of the so-called Oil of Stillin- 
gia. 1868, pp. 4(10-403. 

On Some Medicinal Plants of Canadian Growth 
1870, pp. 182 187. 

On Extracturn Cannabis Indini-. 1K72, pp. 220-221. 

On the Insect Enemiesof Drugs. 1X73, pp. 024 029. 

Notes on Perfumery. 1870, pp. 490-50."). 

Notes on Cantharides. 187fi, pp. 505. 

Report on the Chinese Exhibit of Materia Medica 

at the Centennial Exhibition. 187(1, pp. 743.701. 
On Eau de Cologne. 1877, pp. 4IX-42O. 
On Cream of Tartar as Supplied to the Public of 

Ontario. 1877, pp. 458-401. 

Annual Address of President. 1878, pp. 841-852. 
On Sachet Powders. 1878, pp. 70:-771. 
On the Preparation of Decoctions and Infusions 

from Fluid Extracts. 1879, pp. 711)71."). 

On the Germination of Seeds of Medicinal Plants. 
18X2, pp. 505-.">8.">. 

In publications Of the />//<//, ,\tl Fannx. viz.: 
Report on Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
mental Farm Stations. 1-Ybruarv 7, 1880. 

8vo., pp. 111. 

Bulletin on the Experimental Farms of the Do- 
minion of Canada. 1880, pp. 11. 

Bulletin No. 1. Seed-testing and Treatment of 
Forest Tree Seeds. February. 1X87, pp. X. 

Hulk-tin No. 2. On Tests of Grain. Field Crops, 
Fruits, etc. December, 1XX7, pp. 11. 

Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 
mental Farms 1887, pp. 3-7. 

Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 
mental Farms. 1888, pp. 5-^7. 

Bulletin No. I. On Early Ripening Varieties of 
Wheat. March, 1889, pp. 28. 

Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 
mental Farms. 1889, pp. 5-41. 

Bulletin No. (i. Barley. January 7, 1890, pp. 5. 

Bulletin No. 7. Two-rowed Barley. April 1890 
pp. 13. 

Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 
mental Farms. 18SIO, pp. 5-53. 

Bulletin No. 8. Results of the Early and Late 
Seeding of Barley, Oats and Spring Wheat. 
January 7, 1891, pp. 11. 

Bulletin No. 9. Results of the Growth of Two- 
rowed Barley from Seed Imported by the Gov- 
ernment of Canada. February 7, 1891, pp. 34. 

Bulletin No. 12. Indian Corn, or Maize, as a 
Fodder-plant. June, 1891, pp. 15. 

Bulletin No. 13. On Progress of Work of the 
Experimental Farms. June, 1891, pp. 16. 

Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 
mental Farms. 1891, pp. 5-62. 

Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 
mental Farms. 1892, pp. 5-54. 



70 



BIBLIOGHAPHY OF THE 



SaumlfTK. William. Continued. 

Bulletin No. IX. Ladoga Wheat. February 7, 

IXiH, pp. II. 
Report of the Director. Annual Report Experi- 

mental Farms. IXltt, pp. 3-W. 
Experimental Farm Notes, Xo. 1. The Germin- 

al ing Power of Grain Grown in Canada during 

1H. February, 1XHI, pp. ti. 
liiilletin No. 'JO. TiilH-reulosis. Saunders and 

KnlNTtson, Febniary, 1HIM, pp. 311. 

In /'nirrritinfix "/ thr Six-iffy for the I'romotion of 
AffrirttllHrnt Scirnrf. nc. : 
Nod's on Wheats Grown as Single 1'liintsat the 

Experimental Farm. Ottawa. IXS1I, pp. SMIl. 
Animal Address .,f President. l^U, ]ip. 2tl-2l. 

nil,,-,- /,',-/, .., -/- 

Id-ports on Adultrralion of Food a> Public An 

ahst for Windsor Division. ISM ISHI. lX.sfi.lSSI!. 
Itfpoi-t on thr Progress of the Work in thi-('.-ina 

ih. in S.i ti ...... f iln> World's Coluiiiliian K.xposi 

iion. Itci emlier. isiy, pp. ->. 
HI-IKIII on the Proiliirt ion and Maimfact ore iif 

Ili-i-t Siu-ar. Prepared lor I In- Canadian Gov- 

ernnn tit. IVIiriiar\ 7. 1 S V_'. |p. 17. 

S< hull/. Mis II ....... ir .liihn. 

ltol.lll> of the (11,1 liiver Trail .11:. I It.'ll Hivcr 

Settlement. 

Trnn- ..rfL.u. /(.,r.i,i,. .1' \... ,'. hi ,' I'niviit'i, KillK- 

-' il , 1V.1. 

( 'henu-li \ of tin- \inios|>lieiv ami Prevailing 
III,, ..,s,.s ,,f lied KIM r Settlement. 

l,,.ti',,l, ' /:../,. rt 1 , /. /. IKI-.2. 

\ di's! riplion of a joiirni'j from St. Paul to Forl 
liairv iluiin^ the simix Massacre in Minnesota 
ami llakota. \*', 

AilviK-acv of ( 'mi f i -i If rat ion of Canadian Pro\ inccs 
ami tin- inclusion of I In- jin-at Fertile Hell, 1H(H. 

l-!t idi-nce IH fon- l!ailn>ad Committee of I'nited 
States Senate on the vast rexoiirce.s of Hupert's 

1..U..I. Is.... 

()|M-niiiK of a Pri-historic Mound. 1S71 and lK7. r >. 

in HrfMtrtit nf /irlifitrM ti/ I/uti8f of Commons in lAlt- 
rilri/ ,,f I'n rl in infill. IK71 ISHi, r/c : 

S|M-ecbes in House of Commons on Indian Policy, 
Preservation of Buffalo. Syntcin of Surveys, 
Forest and Prairie Fires, Waterways of the 
Northwest. Itnilrnad Communication. Survey 
and l.i-htinu' of Ijike \Vinnipe({, First Red 
Hiver Relx-llion. Dawson Route, C. I'. R., re 
ourr'.s of tlie Northwest, preservat ion of sea 
animals of Hudson s Hay, Aretic resean'h. 
Loyally to the Empire, Unity of the Colonies. 
the Isotherms as atfcct inKaKricultural pOH-sibili- 
t ii-s.and the rcsoun-es of British Columbia. 

S|-.-. hes in Senate on Manitolia and Northwest 
HubjecU. 

Report upon FreMrratlon of National Food Pro- 
duct* and Re.otii. ,-s of the Great Mackenzie 



1-ater I'hanes of Indian Question. 



Schultz, His Honour John. Continued. 
Development of Resources. 

Means of Communication and Protection of Cana- 
dian Fisheries in Arctic Waters. 

la Senate Journal* and Debated, 1882-1888. 
Fostering of Loyalty and Patriotism among the 
children of our Common Schools. Dominion 
Day, 1892. 

In Pamphlet. 

A Forgotten Northern Fortress. 

Tramacliom of Oulorieal Society of Manitoba, 1863. 
The old " Crow Wing Trail." 

Ibid., 1893. 

Some very old Inhabitants. Speech on unveiling 
the monument commemorative of the Battle of 
Seven Oaks. 
Ibid., 1893. 
The Innuit.s of our Arctic Coast. 

Triinmiciiiini t,f the Riiyal Society of Canada, Vol. 
xi., Sec. 2, 1894. 

Srlwyn, Alfred K.f. 

On the Ceology of the Gold-fields of Victoria. 
(In a letter to Professor A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S., 
and F.G.S.) 

(Jiuu-terlv .li,urni,l Geiilnffiral Society, Vol. xrv'., p. 
51'i The author was at that time Ueologist to the 
Cnlmiy of Victoria. 

Report to Sir II. Darkly on permanence of auri- 
ferous veins in Victoria, Australia, in reply to 
Sir Roderick Murchison. Victoria Parl. P. 
Xo. 7.1, 12th July, 1H58. 

Note on the Geology of Victoria. (In a letter 
dated Geological Survey Office, Melbourne, 14th 
February, l& r >0, to Sir R. I. Murchison, F.H.S., 
F.G.S., itc.) 

(Jiiiirtrrlii.lnurnal (it:,tottical .S'cirtl/,Vol.,XVI., p. 144. 

On the Geology and Mineralogy of Mount Alex- 
ander and the Adjacent Country, lying between 
the Rivers Loddon and Campaspe. 
Ibid.. Vol. x.. p. 299. 

Uy .1. Beete Jukes and A. R C. Selwyn. Sketch 
of the Structure of the country extending from 
Cader Idris to Moel Slaboc! in Xorth Wales. 
Ibid., Vol., iv., p. 300. 

Numerous Geological Maps and Reports on the 
Geology of Victoria, Australia, from 1852 to 1889, 
published in the Colony. 

Various Notes on the Physical Geography, Geology 
and Mineralogy of Victoria, Australia. 1881 and 
1800. 

The Stratigraphy of the " Quebec Group " and the 
older Crystalline Rocks of Canada. 
Canadian Nuturalwt, Vol., IX. , 1879. 

Compendium of Geography and Travel : The 
Dominion of Canada and North America, New- 
foundland, London : Stanford, 1883. 

The Quebec Group in Geology. 

Transaction* Royal Xoeietvqf Canada, Vol. I. Sec. 
4,1882. 

The Geology of Lake Superior. 
Ibid., 1883. 

Descriptive Sketch of the Physical Geography and 
Geology of the Dominion of Canada, to accom- 
pany a new Geological Map. Montreal, 1884. 



EOYAL SOCIETY OP CANADA 



71 



Selwyn, Alfred R. C. Continued. 

Introductory or Summary Reports in the volumes 
of the Reports of Progress of the Geological 
Survey of Cmada from 1809 when he took 
the place of Sir William Logan, as Director of 
the Survey. See vols., from 1809-1893. Special 
Reports in the Reports of Progress as follows : 

On the Gold-fields of Quebec and Nova Scotia, 
1870-71. 

On a Geological Reconnaissance from Lake Sup- 
erior to Fort Garry, 1872-73. 

Upon the Acadia Iro:-. Ore deposits of London- 
derry, Colchester Co., in Nova Scotia, 1772-73. 

Observations in the Northwest Territory, from 
Fort Garry 1 1 Rocky Mountain House, 1873-71. 

On Exploration in British Columbia, 187, r j-7(i. 

Observations on the Stratigraphy of the Quebe? 
Group, 1877-78. 

On Boring Operations in the Souris River Valley. 
187980. 

On the Geological Nomenclature and the Colour- 
ing and Notation of Geological Maps, 1880-S2. 

On the Geology of the Southeastern portion of the 
Province of Quebec, 1K80 h'2 

Stewart (Jeorjjo. 

Thomas D'Arcy McGee. 

July,186S. St. John, N,B. ,SV< .(' (Jwtrtrrlu. This 
magazine was founded and edited by the author from 
April, 1867, to January, 1875: 5 vols. printed. Ho also 
published and edited The. Stump Collerton' Monthly 
Gazette, St. John, N.B , June 1, 1865, to June 1,18(17, 
inclusive; 2 vols. 

Halloween, 

Ibid., October, 1888, St. John, N.B. 
Charles Sangsterand his Poetry. 

Ibid., October. 1869, St. John, N.B. 
Who is Enylla Allyne t 

Ibid., April, 1870, St. John, N.B. 
E. L. Davenport, as Sir Giles Overreach. 

Ibid., April, 1870, St. John, N.B. 
Storm-stayed and the story which grew out of it, 

Ibid., October, 1870, St. John, N.B. 
Alexandre Davy Dumas. 

Ibid., January, 1871, St. John, N.B. 
Old and New Newspapers. 

Ibid., January, 1871, St. John, N.B. 
- John Reade's Prophecy of Merlin. 

Ibid., January, 1871, St. John, N.B. 
Dialect Poets ; Bret Harte and John Hay. 

Ibid., April, 1871, St. John, N.B. 
Zozimus. 

Appleton's Journal, New York. 
Madame La Tour. 

Ibid., New York. 
Ballads of the Scaffold. 

Canadian Monthly, Toronto, July, 1876. 
Thomas Carlyle. 

BelforfCt Magazine, Deo , 1876, Toronto. 
Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

Ibid., January, 1871, Toronto. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Ibid., February, 1877, Toronto. 



Stewart, Ueorge Continued. 
James Russell Lowell. 

Btlford'i Magazine, April, 1877, Toronto. 
Henry W. Longfellow. 

Ibid., June, 1877, Toronto. 
John C. Whit tier. 

Ibid., October, 1877, Toronto. 
William Cullen Bryant. 

Ibid-, November, 1877, Toronto. 

How Five Little Midgets spent Christmas Eve. 

Ibid., January, 187H, Toronto. 

The Story of t!i<> Great Fin- in St. John, N.B. 
Toronto: Belfor.l Bros., 1877. 

8vo., pp. 292, with um|i and :il plates. 

Canada under the Administration of the Karl of 
DnU'erin. Toronto: Roxe-Belford ]'uhli*hing('o., 

1878. 

Kvo., pp. 7iKI, portrait. 

Evenings in the Library. Toronto: Bel ford Bros., 
1878. 

Svn , pp. 254. 

//; tin- ( '(t ittrf/ift n I'tirtrttif < !ti llrfi/, Toronto. IssO- 
81, edited by .1. C. DrnI : Sir S. L. Tilley. Sir 
A. (i. Archibald, lion. T. A. 1!. Lailamnn-, Hon. 
K. 1C. Caron, lion. I-:. B. < 'handler. Hon. Sir John 
C. Allan. Bishop Medley, lion. C'. E. IS. De 
BouchiTvillc, Hon. II. (.'. .loly, Mgr. Francois- 
Xavier l.aval Montinorenev, Hon. Sir .1. .1. ( '. 
Abbott, lion. Sir William Young. Hon. Timothy 
Warren Anglin. 

K. W. Emerson, Alcod the Concord Mvstie, 
Thomas Carlyle, Thoreaii t hr Hermit of \Valden, 
II. W. Longfellow. 

Traiuiictifnx /.il'i-iiru aiul IIi*tori;il .SVi'-ty /' 
Qiiehfc 

James I)e Mille. 

.VoiirrililN Prrionn'l* ttu l''iiin,ln . Edited liy the 
Count of Premio Real, Quebec, 1880. 
The Beggar's Operation. 

Ibid., Quebec, 1880. 
Longfellow in Canada. 

Litrraru \\urld, Boston, Mas?. 18.S1. 
Frontenac's Will. 

A/dporoi'' oi Ameriftn Hixtory, New York, June, 
1883, p. 465. 

Various Biographies, Twenty-five in Number, in 
Vols. iv., v., vi. 

Appleton's ClK'lopedia of American Bi'tfralifi//, Xew 
York. 

A Fatal New Year's Eve, being an account of 
Brig. -(Jen. Richard Montgomery's Sword. 
Unit, Toronto, December 22, 1883. 

Frontcnac and His times. 

Winner'* Narrative and Critical Hvttory of America, 
Vol. iv., pp. 41, with 7 plates and autographs, 1884. 

Sources of Early Canadian History. 

Trantactiono Royal Society of C'tnada, Vol. III. 
Sec. 2, 1895. 

Life and Times of Longfellow. 

Scottish Review, London. Paisley and New York, No. 
15, July, 1886, pp. 101-126. 

Literature in Canada. 

Canadian Learnt, Canadian Club of New York, 
edited by Ueorge M. Fairchild, jr., 1887. 



72 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Htrwart. (}s>rgr. Continual. 

Emerson the Thinker. 

.v..i w* Krnrir. London. Painley ml New York, No. 
12. April. IS-**, pp. IB8-3U7. 
Nova Soot la and New Brunswick. 

</. /"jxrifi'i Aridiimini. th edition. Vol. xvn. 
Prince Kdxvanl Inland. 

/ti./.. Vol. xu. 
Quelx-c Province anil Quebec City. 

Ibid.. Vol. xx. 

SiitiniH. William Gilmore. 
II., I.. Vol. \t n. 

St .Mm. New Brunswick. 

Mi./.. Vol. \\i. 
Three Hiver*. 

Mi./ . Vi.l. xxm. 
Fifty Years of French Ciiniidian Authorship. 

Tk. r,-,iie, Halifax, N.S.. June 18. 1*7. 
I .* t (rr> ill i 'anaila. 

Tk, II'.. t-. Tori.nlo, June K lsS7. 
Siimr Frrnrli Canadian Honks. 

/'.i./.. Tiironl'i. March, ls*v 
A New Canadian INn'1. 

M,./.. T..rnt. "i-lolHT II. I 1 **- 
I'niiiiincnl I'aiia.liuns. No. 10. Sir Samuel I.eon- 

.,1.1 Tllley. 

/',,./.. T'lr-'iil". January -V.. Is--. 
The Fisheries Treaty. A Canadian Viexx-. 

.V-I0.I ;i'n' "/ Attirrir-m Hi'tm-jj, New York, May, 
K*. 

An Idxl "f II"K l.-ine. 

.\,,iur.l.,ti .\iahi. Tnriinto. bereinl>er, 1W. 
.li>ttim;- liy the Way. 

Tk' HV.I-, Toronto, November H, 1S8S. 
Kli/.alK'lh Stuart I'lielps and Her Fir>t Suei'ess. 
(>il Ii.Kik. 

M.I/ . T..P.IIIII, March 1, I'sii. 
Fn'iirh Canailiiin lt<>ok^. 

Tk' f'anatli'tn Kit^viiriiphfr t Hamilton, November, 
is*. 

A Half fiir^iillen Singer. 

Tr,miti I'nirtr'iiv Ittri.ir, Toronto. December, 188'. 
The Present CuMilitiiiii of Historical Studies in 
Canada. 

Annual I'ujrri i,f tkr Ainiriran Hi'tnricnl A'lficitl- 
li-.n. 1W9. 

/'*/.. 1W.IO. 

lk,,t.. 1491. 

Clmpter " Fn'iieh Canadianisins," in " SlanR, Jar- 
Ron and Cant," edited l>y Charles G. Leland. 
Ix.ndon : Whiltaker& Co.. JUKI. 

2 rob. 
Literary Conditions in Canada. 

TV /*/.,. .,./r,,i. New York, Mrch 6, 1890. 
Some Canadian Writer* 

M,./.. New York. Much 13, 10. 
Literature in French Canada. 

ff^r KmalamH llafa'inf. Bonton. September, 1890. 
A Montmoreney Adx-enture. 

lt:mimi.m lUiuiralrH, Montreal, February 18, 1890. 
The Writing .,f W. H. H. Murray. 

/fr'/of . MoHiUi. New York, March, 18S1. 
Oliver Wendell liolmea. 

?* Ama, BoMoa, Vol. IT.. No. n., July, 1881. np 
1S-1II. 



Stewart, George. Continued. 

St .le m-Hapt isle. 

The Independent, New York, June 25, 1891. 
James Russell Lowell. 

The Arena, Boston, Vol. iv. No. v., October. 1891. 
pp. 513-529. 

John Greenleaf Whittier. 

MM/.. Boston, Vol. T., No. i., December, 1891, pp. 
36-49. 

The Yellow Boy's Room. 

Tli. Independent. New York, December, 24, 1A91. 

The Legend of Crying Cove. 

/'.' Independent, New York, February. 18, 1892. 

Fiction in the Court Room. 

The Week, Toronto, March 11, 1892. 

A Breakfast at Lord Houghton's. 

Th> Like Maomine, Toronto, October, 1892. 

Some Famous Parrot*. 

Prngremi. St. John, N.B., March 12, 1892. 

The Quebec Crisis. 

The Sjtraker, Ixmdon, March 5, 1892. 

The Magdalen Islands. 

The Pilot, Boston, April 9. 1892. 

John Gilmary Shea. 

lifimiii'i'in flliutrated, Montreal, Mar, 1892. 

The History of a Magazine. 

/'../., Montreal, August, 1892. 
Sir Daniel Wilson. 

Hiiil-, Montreal, November, 1892. 
C'anada's Destiny. 

The Speaker, London, December 24, 1892. 
Quebec City and Province. 

Chamber'* Eneveloptedia, Vol. VIII., 18?2. 
Sir S. L, Tilley, K.C.M.G. 

Mm of Ike Day, eaited by Louis H. Tach^, Mon- 
treal, 1892. 
Dr. John George Bourinot, C.M.G. 

Ibid., Montreal, 1893. 
Hon. A. G. Blair. 

Ibid., Montreal, K.fl. 
Sir Joseph Hickson. 

Ibid., Montreal, 1893. 
Hon. William Stevens Fielding. 

I i.i !., Montreal, 1893. 
Alfred, Ixjrd Tennyson. 

Tli, Conmopolitnn, New York, December, 1892. 
Songs of the French Canadian Children. 

Dominion flltutrateJ, Montreal, February, 1893. 
The Canadian Question. 

Tli- North American Jtrrinr, New York, March, 1893. 

Canada at the World's Fair. 
Ibid., New York, May. 1893. 

The First Steamer to Cross the Atlantic. 

ChanAert' i Journal, Edinburgh, Scotland, June 17, 
1893. 

Essays from Reviews. Dawson & Co., 1st Series, 
Quebec, 1K92. 
IBmo., 171 pp. 

Essays from Reviews. Quebec : Dawson& Co., 2nd 
Series, 1893. 

lmo., pp. ISO. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



73 



Suite, Benjamin. 

/ >n us Les Nouvelles Soirees Canaditnn.es, Montreal: 

KiSet, Vainqueur de la Chaudiere-Noire. 1887, 

p. 530. 
Beauharoois, le Gouverneur et I'lntendant de la 

Nouvelle-France. 1888, p. 49. 
Bertbelot de Beaucourt. 1888, p. 201. 
Andre de Leigne. 1888, p. 289. 
Rigaud de Vaudreuil. 1888, p. 145. 
Dans La Revue de Montreal, viz. : 

L'Acadie, 1004-1710. 1878, pp. 129, 189, 253. 
Dans La Minerve, Montreal, viz. : 
Toronto. 9 octobre 1880. 
Lachine. 13 avril 1893. 
Le Colonel de Longueuil. 13 aoiit 1891. 
Les Miliciens de 1812. 23 avril 18K7. 
Samuel Champlain. 11 et 22 iiout ct 1 septenilire 

1891. 

La Kainille Duvernay. 9 septembre, 188(i. 
L'Annee 1784 en Canada- 25 octobre 1881. 
II y a Cent Ans. 9 septembre 1881. 
Etienne Parent. 23 decembre 1874. 
Provencher. 3 Janvier, 1885. 
De 1792 a 1817 en Canada. 28 novembre 1893. 
La Musique. 23 fevrier 1891. 
Les poeles. 8 fevrier 1894. 
Le Conseil Prive. 11 avril 1894. 
Ottawa avant 1820. 14 avril 1894. 
Origine de la Societe Royale. 23 mai 18114. 
Dans La Patrie, Montreal, viz. : 
Auld Lang Syne. 7 Janvier 1892. 
Le Dr. Badelart. 18 Janvier 1892. 
Dans Le Monde, Montreal, viz. : 

Le Petit-Poisson. 24 decembre 1888. 
Les Acadiens. 12 et 17 juin 1889. 
Le notaire Adhemar. 16 novembre 1889. 
Origines de Napoleon I. 14 mars 1891. 
Le chevalier d'Eon. 21 fevrier 1891. 
Jeanne D'Arc. 11 avril 1891. 
Dans L'Opinion Publique, Montreal, viz : 

L'lle de Jersey. 4 octobre 1877. 
Dans Le Monde Illustrf, Montreal, viz : 

Bataille de la Thames, 1813. 28 juin 1890. 
Histoire du sucre d'erable. 4 juin 1892. 
La famille Des Bergeres et le Fort Niagara. 14 et 
28 Janvier, 11, 25 fevrier, 10, 24 mars, 7, 21 avril, 
1888. 

1808, 30 decembre 1893, 6 Janvier 1894. 
Dans Le Canada, Ottawa, viz : 
Kettle Island. 24 octobre 1892. 
VoyageursetHommesdeCages. 6decembre 1892. 
Napoleon I., et ses detracteurs. 2 avril 1888. 
Les Pierres qui chantent. 24 fevrier 1882. 
Nicolas Gatineau et la riviere Gatineau. 17 sep- 
tembre 1892. 



Suite, Benjamin. Continued. 
L'lle de Sable, 30 mai 1802. 
Le premier Carneati en Canada. HI avril 181(3. 

Le due de Bassano, 19, 20, 21 deeeinbre 1KK7 ; 4, 5, 
9, 11, 12 Janvier 1888. 

Les Rochclais ct le Canada. :il aofit 1893. 
In The Antit/uft rift n, Montreal, viz. : 

The Rronxc ('aniiiin. 187:>. p. 22. 

Early Press in Canada. 1875, p IH. 

Chagouamigon, Lake Superior. 187.~>, p. 1IHI. 

Van-lines de la Verendrie. 1870, p. 1 31 1. 

A Lust Niagara. 1*77, p. 2"i. 

Canadian Clock-makers of Former Days. |8so. p. 
11. 

Three Rivers in 10O3. 1S8O, p. 02. 

.lean Nicole'. 188(1, p. l.",7. 

The Klying Camp of llilll. issii. p. 1.>O. 

On Centenarians. 1881, p. Id"). 

Tin' Thirty Men i.f Itoherval. 1^1. p. I7'.i. 

Voyaj^eurs and IrtM|iioin in KM'. Is'.i'J. p. lul. 

La liaie de Kcnle in llili'.l. IMIJ. ]i. 101. 

Let I res de nnlih-s.se dc I)'. \monrs. IS'.IL'. p. I:,:;. 

Cataranmi in H>70. 1S!I:1, p. :,. 

Le Premier Fort Kronti-nai 1 . 1893. p. 70. 
J)rntx l.u lii'fuf Cfiiiftdirnne, Montreal, ri:.. : 

Le (leboiseineiit <\f not re pays. 1ST>,\ pp. 827. IX'ii 

p. 113. 

Le imm clcs Trois-Hiviere^. iMiil. p. iltl. 
Le Canada en Knrope. 1873, pp. 1!, 279. 311. 
Sir (!e >. Kt. Cartier. 1^7:(, p. I2.">. 
Le llaultiers de Varcnnes. 187:i. ]>p. 781, SI9. 93.~>. 
Le Cap a 1'Arbre pres Lotbinicre. 1871. )). li'7. 
Pierre Bisaillon en Peiinsylvanie an X VII' 1 siecie. 

1874, I). 824. 

Le Mas Saint-Maurice. 187."). p. 1:13. 
La chanson de Moore. 187.">. p. 580. 
Le camp volant de HH9. 1.^1. p. i:>9. 
Decouverte dn Mismssipi. 1881, p. 385. 
La tenure Seigneuriale. 1882, pp. 137. 1 19. 
Origine de la famille Poutrincourt. 188-. p. t!21. 
L'ancienne noblesse dn Canada. 1885, pp. 298,311. 

:6, 486, 5-18. 
Un voyage a la Nouvelle-France en 1731. 1886, p. 

15. 
La Pomme de Terre en Canada avant 1780. 189;*. 

p. 84. 

Daniel Greysolon Dnluth. 18!)3, p. 480, 540. 
La Pomme de Terre. 1893, p. 84. 
La Jeunesse de Jeanne D'Arc. 1894, p. 305. 
Une recompense honnete. 1894, p. 19. 
Dans les Meiiwire* de to Societf royale du Canada : 

Les Interpretes du temps de Champlain. 

Tome I , See. 1,1882, i>. 47. 
Premiers Seigneurs du Canada. 

Jbid., I., Sec. 1.1S8', p. 131. 



10 



74 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Hultr. B-nJniln. Continued. 

Poulrincourt en Acadie. 

I ><., ii.. SM. 1. 1881. P. 31. 
I., i ...If.- >.,ini Ijinrcnt. IflOO 1825. 

/6trf .IT.. Sec. 1,1886, p. 7. 
I Golfe Saint Laurent. 1H25-1832. 

Ibid,, vii.. Sc. 1.1W, p. 29 
Prrtrndues origlnes des Canadien*. 

lt.,,1 ., Sec. 1. !;. f. 13. 

l.i famille ill- Callieres. 

/fci.1.. vni.. See. 1, 1890. p. 91 
Henry <( Alphonse de Tontv. 

/f..t/.. xi..Scc. 1.18SS, p. X 
lit Thr l'ili:rn, nttnini, rij. : 

Tin- name f I IK- Ottawa, December 18, 18ttt. 
How the Ottawa arm- to IM- Kiver Ottawa. 

l>r<-i-iiil-r 1. 1*. 

llalllr nt I.T-. Chat>. |)IT.-IM|T:), ISJt). 
.Iran Nirolrt in WisciuiMn. 1IKH :(">. 

U , /i. ... H'i.,/ii.i. .\'/,if. //i'<rri<W fturiflv I'mcrnl- 

,..,!.. Mil. .M. IHI-l'M; IX ,1,1? ; V ., 4!. 'J2. 'M. 372. 

I..". I juirenlienneM, en \t-rs. Montreal: MUM-IK' 

.-riit-r.-il. I-Tii. 

I'CI J-m.... |i|.. J'<. 

llitiiirf ilf- Trnis Kivicn-s. 1' IjvraiMin, Mont- 
rt-.il : KnsflM- Sfiit-ral, I. "Til. (Vttf luiiolinrc 
I'lijlira-^f lr~ ainiivs l.ttl liSfT. 
I', ^ro., |.(.. !'->( v< c ciirlcfl. 

K\|M'ilitinii militairr ilt- MaiiitoKa. Is7n. Mont- 
r.-.il ; Ku^flic Sfin-ral, Is!)]. 

-: . |.|.. ' ll . 

M. l.in_-i - il'llisitiin- et ilf I.itti-ralurr. Ottawa: 
.l..~.-|.h Hurt-ail, I^TU. 

l-'iii"., p|>. Sim. 
I.t Coin flu 1-Vii. yiiftit-c : liliniiliarl t-t Cic. l^f77. 

K'mo., pp. 21". 

C"hronic)uo Tritliivii-nnp. Montreal : Conipnunif 
d'Imprimerie Caiiailii-iiiif. IsTlt. CV travail 
rmivrt- Ics inn, .-- HVtT Irtwi. 
'('o.. Pp. 2f7. 

I.I-K Chants NouM'aiix. fii vrs. Ottawa: Iniprim 
rrif ilu Ciiiinilii, l.SHII. 
16m<>., pp. i*. 

I.i 1'iH-BJf Kranrai-t- HU Canada. Inipriuicrio <lu 

I'mirrirr iif Saint llyncinthc, INX1. 
Alliiini ill- I'ilisioin- ile.s Trois-Kivien-s. Textos 
ropifiix. Atiniu-H KEM-I72I. Montreal : (it-o. 
K. Hr~l.ai.ils. 1SH1. 

14 x 19 poucef , 11 crte, 2 pluche; d'autocrnphea. 
Iliitoire dc- Canadiens Kranvais. Montreal : 
Wilson et C'le. 1*<2-H4. 

1 roll., 4to., pp. 160 cbacan, vcc 125 portrait*. 
crte et ruen. 

Situation de la Untrue Francaiw au Canada. 

Montreal : IM Minerve, 1HK5. 
HUtoire de Saint Krancol* du Lac. Montreal: 

IniprlmiTie de L'Klrndartl, 18HB. 
*ro., pp. im. 

I* I'ayn den tiranils Ijws, IflttJ a 1000. 

1* Cm*4n-r r ,,i,r.,,,, Qu^bM, 1S89-18HO. 

d'HIntolre da Canada. Montreal : Graniter 
1*1. 
.. pp. 7t 



Snlto, Benjamin. Continued. 

Causons du Pays et de la Colonisation. Mont- 
real : Granger Freres, 1801. 

Vim)., pp. 250. 
Lower Canada during 1810-14. 

Trnnraclioiw o/ tke Canadian Military /tulilnle, 
Toronto, 1891-92. 

De Machiche aux Trois-Rivieres avant 1760. Un 
cbapitre special a la tin du volume intitule, : 
" Histoire de la Paroisse d' Yamachiche." Trois- 
Rivieres: P. V. Ayotte, 1892. 
L'Emploi du Temps. 

/. Manitoba, 20 septembre 1893. 
Jeanne d'Arc Militaire. 

Courricr du Canada, 16 avril 1894. 

TUHNO, JoHcph. 

La Vallee de I'Outaouais. 1873. 
Les Canadiens de 1'Ouest. Montreal : Cle d'lm- 
primorie Canadienne, 1878. 

2 voln., 8vo., pp. (i.) xxux. -|- 384; (n.) 413, 
I'n I'arallele Lord Beaconsfleld et Sir John 
Mac(!onnld. 180. 

Le :tS" Kauteuil ou Souvenirs Parlemcntaires. 
Montreal : E. Senecal et Fils, 1891. 

8vo., pp. 299. Avec portraiU de MM. Mouuean, 
Ma8>i>n, Koyal etOirouard. 

Voltaire, Madame de Pompadour et Quelques 
Arpent.s de Neige. 

Dam le Mrmnirn dt Iti Socidf royale d* Canada. 
Tiiinox., Sec. 1,1892. 

Disrours ili; Sir Georges Cartier, baronnet. Ac- 
compagneH de notices. Montreal : Eusebe 
Senecal et Fils, 1893. 

(Jr. 8vo. t pp. xii. + 817. Avec un portrait et fae 
simile d'une lettre de Sir O.-E. Cartier. 



y, Mr. Cyprlen. 

Relation du Voyage de 1'Abbe J.-B.-Z. Bolduc 
autour de I'Ani^rique du Sud. 

A'"/'jx>rr. mr let Minion* du Dioctte de Qtttbte, 
juin 184.1. 

Ilcpertolrc du Clcrg^ Canadien depuis la fonda- 
tion de la Nouvelle-Francc jusqu'a nos Jours. 
QuelH-c : C. Darveau, 1N08. 
8vo., pp. 321 + xx. 

Episode, voyage en France, Belgique, Prusse, 
Allemagne et Italic : Conference. 

Le Courrier d'Ollnita. 16mo , pp. 20 1870. 

Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families Canadien- 
nesdepuiK la Fondation de la Colonie jusqu'a 
nosJours. 1" Vol. Montreal : Eusebe Senecal, 
1K7M890. 

4to., pp. 624. 

R^gistres de 1'Etat des Personnes: Conference. 
Le Fovtr J>,n,,ftti<juf, Ottawa. Kmo., pp. 19. 1878. 

Monselgneur de I'Auberiviere, 5 1 ""* Ev^ue de 
Quelc, 1739-40. Documents Annotes. Mont- 
real : Euel>e Senecal, 1885. 

12mo., pp. 169. 

Repertoire Gem-rale du Clerge Canadien par 
Ordre Chronologique. 2 edition. Montreal: 
E. Senecal, 1898. 
8ro.,pp. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



73 



Tanguay, Mgr. Cyprlen. Continued. 
Families Canadienneg. 

Dans les Mimuim de la SociM royale ilu Canada, 
See. I., 1882. 

Etude MI r les Noms. 
fbid., See. 1, 1883. 
Etude Mir la Famille De Catalogue. 

Ibid.. Sec. 1.1884. 

A Travers les Re'gistres. 1 vol., pp. 276 + VIH., 
Montreal : Cadieux & Derome, 1886. 

Ibid., Sec. 1. 18S5. 
Les Quatre Ages de la Vie, Etude : Conference a 

I'lnstitut-Canadien, 1879. 

Etude. Les Aveugles et les Sourds Muets : Con- 
1881, a 1'Institut. 



Verreau, 1'Abbe. 

Invasion du Canada. Collection de Memoiies 
Recueillis et Annotes. Montreal: EusebeSe^- 
cal, 1870-73. 

2 volumes, petit 8vo., pp. d.) 240 ; ( n ) 393. 
Ces deux volumes onmprennent: Le M^moire de 
Sanguinet, ou Le Tlinoin Oculaire ; Le Me'inoira de 
Ktideaux: Des Extraits du Mmoire dn M. Bcrthe- 
lot; LeMe'moirede M. de Lorimier (Mes Services); 
Lettres Ecrites pendant 1'Invasion Aui^ricaine. Us 
devaient 6tre suivis d'un volume de Not*-* qui n'a pas 
M publi^. 

Report of Proceedings connected with Canadian 
Archives in Europe. 

In Report of Minister v.f Agriculture, No. 40, Ses- 
sional Papers of 1875. In English and French, pp. 64. 
Suppression des Relations ile la Nouvelle-France. 

La Revue de Montreal, Montreal, Vol. 1, 1877. 
Quelques Notes sur des Grosilliers et Radisson. 

Journal de 1'Inst ruction Publique, Vol. 1, Montreal, 
1881. 

Dans les Me moires de la Societe Historiqu? de Mon- 

treal, viz. : 
Annotations a 1'Histoire de Montreal par Dollier 

de Casson, 1868. 
Annotations au Voyage de MM. Dollier et Galinee, 

1875. 
Introduction et Annotations aux Veritables 

motifs des Messieurs et Dames de la Societe de 

N.D. de Montreal, 1880. 

Dans le Journal de I'lnstruction Publique, viz. .- 

Le Vieux Chateau ou 1'Ancien Hotel des Gouver- 
neurs a Montreal, 1857. 

Le Pere Lafilau et le Gen-seng, 1858. 

Les deux abbes de F^nelon, 1864. 

Livres et Bibliotheques, 1868. 
Dans les Memoires de la Societe royale du Canada : 

Les commencements de 1'Eglise du Canada. 

Tome n., Sec. 1,1884. 
Des commencements de Montreal. 

Jbid., v., See. 1. 1887. 

Jacques-Cartier, Questions de Calendrier Civil et 
Ecclesiastique. 

Ibid., Tin.. See. 1,1890. 

Jacques-Cartier, Questions de droit politique, de 
legislation, et d'usages maritimes. 

Ibid., ix., See. 1,1891. 



Watson, John. 

Empiricism and Common Logic. 

Journal of Speculative Philotopkv, January, 1878, 
St. Louis. 8vo,, pp. 17-36. 

Kant's Reply to Hume. 

Ibid., April, 1876. St. LouU. 8vo., pp. 113-134. 
Science and Religion. 

Canadian Monthly, May, 1876, Toronto. 8o.. pp. 
384-397. 

Hedonism and Utilitarianism. 

Journal of Speculative Philmmpliv, July, 1^76, St. 
Louis. 8vo., pp. 271-290. 

Darwinism and Morality. 

Canadian Monthly, October, 1376, Toronto. 8vo., 
pp. 319-320. 

The Relativity of Knowledge. 

Journal tif Xpn-itlative 1'hiloiophy, January, H77, 
St. Louis. 8vo., pp. 19-4S. 

The Ethical Aspect of Darwinism. 

Canadian M/mthli/, June, 1H77, To.-onto. Svo., pp. 
638-644. 

Professor Tyndall's "Materialism." 

Ibid. , March, H7S, Toronto. 8vo., pp. 2S2-28S. 
The World as Force. 

Journal of SlKculatiix Pltilomiilil/, April, 1878, and 
April, 1879. St Louis. 8vo., pp. 114-137, 151-179. 

A Phase of .Modern Thought. 

Canadian M'tnihly, November, 1879, Toronto. 8vo. 
pp. 457-472. 

Kant and his English C'ritics: n C'ompiirison of 
Critical and Empirical Philosophy. Glasgow : 
James Maclehose ; New York : Macmillan & 
Co., 1881. 

8vo., pp. 402. 

Schelling'a Transcendentul Idealism : a Critical 
Exposition. Chicago: S. (.'. Griggs & Co., 1882. 

12mo.,pp. 251. 

The Philosophy of Kan!, as contained in ex- 
tracts from his own writings. Glasgow: James 
Maclehose & Sons; New York : Maumilian & 
Co., 1888; New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1892. 

8vo., pp. 356. 
The Critical Philosophy and Idealism. 

PhiltMophical Krrinc, January, 18/2, Boston. Svo-, 
pp. 9-23. 

The Middle Ages and the Reformation. 

Queen'* (Juai-terlu, July, 1S93, Kincston. 8vo., pp. 
4-11. 
Metaphysics and Psychology. 

Pkihsiivhical Hniew, September, 1893, Boston. 8vo., 
pp. 513-528. 

Whiteaves, J. K. 

On the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca inhabit- 
ing the neighbourhood of Oxford. 

Traniactioni AhmoUan Society, Oxford, 1857. Svo.i 
pp. 18. 

On the Invertebrate Fauna of the Lower Oolites 
of Oxfordshire. 

Report IlritM Attociation for ike Advancement of 
Science, 1860. Svo., pp. 4. 

On the Palaeontology of the Coralline Oolites of 
the neighbourhood of Oxford. 

Aiinal* and Maaaiine of .\atural Hiitom, London, 
August, 1861. 8vo., pp. 142-147, and 1 plate. 



76 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



YYhltravrm J. H.-Cen/imif. 

On the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of Ix>wer 
Canada. Paris I.-ll. 

Camadia* .V.iinm/i* on./ Orotovul. Vol. Till.. Series 
1, ISM. STO., pp. 50-65 nd 98-107, with 12 woodcuts. 
Transatlantic Sketches. 1. On the Little Miami 
Kiver, \Vayne.sville, Warren County, Ohio. 
Z.*Ai. London. Vol. xxi.. 188J, pp. 8419-8424. 
On the Fos.-jlii of Ihe Trenton Limestone of the 
l-l.ui'l t>( Montreal. 

c,ni>i./iiiit .Yciium/i,! mi'/ r;,.,(..,/,.r. Vol. ii.. New 
Sric. 1WS Svo.. pp. 312-314. 
On the Marine Mollusea of Kastern Canada. 

/*.W.. Vol. iv., N.-w Series. 1*W. Sfo., pp. 48-57. 
On some results iilitaineil liy dredging i" Gasps' 
aii'l 'ill Murray Hay. 

/'.,./ , Vol. \\., New SericK, 1KW. Svo., |.p. 3M-S.>4. 
Not.-- "ii -"'tit' ('ana.liati Hirds, 

/'.,/., V..I. v.. New Series, H7. Ivo . pp. 103 and 
S'W-lMl. 

1;. |..iii <>n .1 .|i-,-|i -.-.'i Dn-ilgiiii; Kxpediticm to the 
l.nlf ..f Si. I..-IH renc-e. 

/.''7-.'f ' tli' l>'l*trlt<irnl ft .World. 'IHil Ftahr-rit , 
ll[-aw.i, 1*71. I.:ir>- HL... pp. 12. 

l:--|>ii mi ,i -.-. .UK! il.-i-p -r:i Dredging Kxpcdilion 
i.i tin ( ,u If i if >i. l..iu rence, il Ii some remarks 
i Hi i In- Marine l-'i-heries nf tin- I'mvini-e of <Vu<- 

IMM-. 

1 iw:i. I-".'. Lar.-r vi>., pp '.".'. 
l>.'.-|. -.-a liiv.L-ino; in id,- Cuir .,( St. I.aui-i-iii-i-. 

i ' .<!,< .\,ihir,,l,.l .,,,/ (,'. >./..,,:. \'<>l. M. . New 
"-ITIP^ 1-^rj. s ^'.,i'i-. - r i! .V;4. 

S.,li-s .rn a cli-.-|i -ea I ln-ili;iii-_' K\petlit ii>n round 
tin- Nl.ind "( Anlieii~ti. in Ihe (liilf (if Si. I,aw- 
i > t 

( , .(. .,,/ .,. i I .V, iur.il //,.(.. ru. Vol. \., 

Si-r.'-- 4, 1^7^, |,p. .Ml-'"'*. Koiirinli-.l, wi:h /"nine 

ilt.-r.il iot.- it. -I i. Union-, in t|i.- I'.in'i, linn .\<iluriiH't 

.,,,,1 ','. ..t.vi'i. Vol. Ml., New S.-ricH, IS7.'., pp ml-lt*) 

|{i-|Mirt on .l.-.-p --i-a Dn-d^iliK ( )p.-rat ions in the 

I in If . if St. Lawrence, x\ it Ii nut.-s nn tin- present 

unilit inn "f th- Mariii.- l-'ixh.-i-i.-s mill Oyster- 
U-.U uf part of that region. 

It'ifrt Itrpnrlmfut .l/'/ru./- dm/ t'i*l,i ri< *, Otiawn, 
1-7X I.irre Hvo , pp. L".'. 

' in ri-.-ent .l.-ep sea Dred^in^r Oppnit i.ins in the 
liulf .f St. La\\ ren.-e. 

.4...TI.1M .I'.'ir.i'il ',f S'iriirr .1 ;./ Art*, Vnl. VII., 

Sri.- ., pp. .'ln-ilit. Mr.-li. H74. 

Notrs on some Cretaeeous Fonsils eollec-leil hy 
Mr. .lames Hi.-hiiriKon at Vam-ouver and the 
adjacent Islands. 

lt--ii;r< i.i l'r--grnt, <ieul<i<-.il Surrey nf Caniuln, 
lor 1-7 174. Montreal. H7I largt Hvo., pp. 2X)-2W, 
with one plate. 

On a rolled ion of Himalayan turds n-cently pre- 
eiitl to the Natural History Society hy Major 
C. K. HulKer. 

I'awnJia* .V.ilfcr.i/i'* an./ </<..//v>i<, Vol. Til., New 
Seria, !S75. STO . pp. 391 -4O8 

Xot^ on Ihe Marine PUherlen, and part i. -nl ail > 

on the OyKtvr-hedH of Ihe Gulf of St. I^awrence. 

Ibid.. Vol. TIL, New S.rie., W75. Hro.. pp. SM-349. 

( MxiloKii-nl Survey of Canada. Meaozoic FowdU, 
Vol. i.. Fart i. On acme Invertebrata from the 

'.ml Iwarinu rockH of the Queen Charlotte 
inland*, collected by Mr. Jamen Hichard.son in 



W hit eaves, J. P. Continued. 

172. Montreal, 1876. Large 8vo., pp. 92, with 
10 plates and 9 woodcuts. 

Critical notes on Fossils collected by A. R. C. 
s.-l wyn and Prof. Macoun in the valleys of the 
Peace, Athabasca and Clearwater rivers. 

fttU.Rep. Progr. 1875-76. Montreal, 1877. pp.96- 106. 
On the Fossils of the Missinaibl and Moose rivers 
collected by Dr. R. Bell in 1875. 

Ibid., 1875-76. Montreal. 1877. pp. 316-329. 
Obituary Notice of Elkanah Billings, F.G.S., 
Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of Can- 
ada. 

< Wn/i'.m .\iiturnli-t and Oeoloaut, Vol. vin., New 
Series, Montreal, 1877. 8vo., pp. 251-2-)!. 
Preliminary Report on some supposed Jurassic 
Fossils collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson in the 
Coast Range of British Columbia. 

/,'; f of Prvortn, Qeologioal Surrey of Canada, 
1876-77. Montreal, 1878. Urge 8vo., pp. 150-159. 
On some Marine Invertebrate from the West 
Coast of America. (Being a critical list of 
about 12o species from the Strait of Georgia, 
Hurrard Inlet, etc., with description of a new 
Alcyonarinn l>y Prof. A. E. Verrill, and of a 
supposed new Lamellibranchiate Bivalve by the 
writer.) 

Caiuitliiin tfaturali*t anil Qrulugvit, Vol. vm., Series 
'2, Montreal, 1878. 8vo., pp. 461-171. 

On some Primordial Fossils from Southeastern 
Newfoundland. (With description of one new 
species.) 

Amfriran Jounml of .VciVnre, September, 187S. STO., 
pp. 224-226. 

Ceological Surveyof Canada. Mesozoic Fossils, 
Vol. i., Part 2. On the Fossils of the Cretaceous 
rocks of Vancouver and adjacent islands in 
the Strait of Georgia. Montreal, 1871). 

I. iri;i- 8vo., pp. US, and 10 platen. 

Provisional list of the Fossils collected by Dr. R 
Hell in 1H77, between the Ixmg Portage of the 
Missinaibi River and York Factory. 

H'jfit nf /'i-t-ffmi. Qeological Surrey of Canada, 
1877-78. Montreal. 1879. pp. 5anJ6c. 

On some Marine Invertebrate from the Queen 
Charlotte Islands. Contains a list of 100 species, 
with descriptions of three new starfishes by 
Prof. A. E. Verrill, and of two new species of 
mollusca by the author. 

/An/., 1878-79. Montreal, 1880. Large STO., pp. 
19UB-205H. 

On some remarkable Fossil Fishes from the 
I'pper Devonian rocks at Scaumenac Bay, P.Q. 

Am'rifiia .liiurii'il of ,s'.-i. II.T tnnl Aril, June, 1881, 
and reprinted in the Annul* anil M'tgaiinr nf Jfiitttml 
Hvrtiirv (London, England), August, 1881. STO., pp. 
169-162. 

On some Remarkable Fossil Fishes from the De- 
vonian rocks of Scaumenac Bay, with descrip- 
tions of a new genus and three new species. 

t'lUHutinu tiaturaliil and Oeolufitl, Vol. z., New 
Series, Montreal, 1881. STO., pp. 27-35- 
Description of a New Species of Psammodus from 
the Carboniferous rocks of the Island of Cape 
Breton. 

//,;./., Vol. x., New Series, Montreal, 1881. STO., 
pp.86. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



77 



Whiteaves, J. P. Continued. 

On some Fossil Fishes, Crustacea and Mollusca 
from the Devonian rocks of Campbellton, N.B., 
with descriptions of five new species. 

/''. Vol. x., New Series, Montreal, 1881. 8ro., 
pp. 93-101. 

List of Fossils collected by Dr. It. Bell in Mani- 
toba during the season of 1880. 

Report of Progress, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1879-80. Large 8vo., pp. 57c-58c. 

On the Lower Cretaceous rocks of British Co- 
lumbia. 

Transactions Royal XociV/j/ of Canada. Vol. I. 
Sec. 4, 1842. 4to., pp. 81-86, with 3 woodcuts. 

On some supposed Annelid tracks from the 
Gaspe Sandstones. 

Ibid., Vol. I., Sec. 4, 1882. 4to, pp. lt.9-111, with 2 
platen- 
Note on the occurrence of Siphonotreta Scotica 
Davidson, in the Utica formation near Ottawa. 
American Journal of Science unit Arts, October, 1882. 
8vo., pp. 278-279. 

On a Recent Species of Heteropora from the Strait 
of Juan de Fuea. 

/bill., October, 1882. 8vo., pp. 27H-280. 
Recent Discoveries of Fossil Fishes in the De- 
vonian rocks of Canada. Rend before the 
Geological and Biological Sec ion of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science 
at the Montreal meeting in issii. 

American Naturalist, February, IS<1 l.arKt- 8vn., 
pp. 158-164. 

Geological Survey of Canada. Paleozoic Fossils, 
Vol. III., Part 1. On some new, imperfectly 
characterized or previously unrecorded Species 
of Fossils from the Guelph formation of On- 
tario. Montreal, 1884. 

Large 8vo. pp. 43, with S plates .-mil 4 woodcuts. 
Geological Survey of Canada. Mesozoic Fossils. 
Vol. I., Part 3. On the Fossils of the Coal 
bearing deposits of the Queen Charlotte Islands 
collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson in 1S78. Mont- 
real, 1884. 

Large 8vo., pp. 72, with 12 plates. 

Note on a Decapod Crustacean from the Upper 
Cretaceousof High wood River, Alberta, N.W.T. 
Transact ions Royal Society of Canutnth Vol. it., Sec 
4, 1884. 4to., pp. 237-238. 

Description of a New Species of Ammonite from 
the Cretaceous rocks of Fort St. John, on the 
Peace River. 

Ibid., Vol. ii., Sec. 4, 1884. 4to., pp. 2.39-240. 

Note on the Possible Age of some of the Mesozoic 
rocks of the Queen Charlotte Islands and Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

American Journal of Science and Art*, June, 18S5. 
8vo., pp. 444-419. 

List of Marine Invertebrates from Hudson's 
Strait, collected by Dr. R. Bell in 1884. 

Report of Progrest, Geological Survey of Canada, 
1882-S-4. Montreal, 1885. Large Svo., pp. 58 60oD. 
Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology, Vol. 
I., Part I. (1) Report on the Invertebrata of 
the Laramie and Cretaceous rocks of the 
Vicinity of the Bow and Belly rivers and adja- 
cent localities in the Northwest Territory. 
Ibid., 1SSO. Large Svo., pp. 89, and 11 plates. 



Whitcavea, J. F. Continued. 

Colonial and Indian Exhibition. Catalogue of 
Canadian Pinnipedia, Cetacea, Fishes and Mar 
ine Invertebrata exhibited by the Department 
of Fisheries of the Dominion Government. 
Ottawa, 188fi. 
8vo., pp. 42. 

Illustrations of the fossil fishes of the Devonian 
rocks of Canada. Part I. 

Trantactivnt lioval Society of Canada, Vol. iv., 
Sec. 4, 1886, 4to., pp. 101-110, with 5 plates. 

On-some Marine Invertebrata. dredged or other- 
wise collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson in 1K85, on 
the coast of P.nn-h Columbia; with it supple- 
mentary list of a few land and fresh watersheds, 
lislies, birds, etc., from the same region. 

II, id.. Vol. iv., Sec. 4, 1SS6, 4lo., pp. 2X, with 4 wood- 
cut*. 

Notes on some Mesozoic fossils from various 
localities on the coast of British Columbia, for 
the most part collected by Dr. (I. M. Dawson in 
the summer of lHXf>. 

Annual Itriioi I , Geological Survey of Canada, N. S., 
Vol. ii., Montreal, 1SS7. Large Kvo., pp. 108n 1 1 In. 
On some fossils from the CretaceoiiHand Laramie 
rocks of tin- Saskatchewan and its tributaries, 
collected li\ Mr. .1. I!. Tyrrell ia ls<> and issi;. 

//,/./., Vol. II., Montn-.il. M7. LarKt.' 8vu.. pp, l.YiK- 
MJK. 

Illustrations of the fossil lislies of the Devonian 
rocks of Canada. Part '1. 

T,nu*,ictio,,< /tonal So,'!, t u ,,f f',,,,a,la. Vol. vi, 
Sec. 4, 1SSS. 4lo.. pp. 77 '.!. with 'i plalcs. 

Geological Survey of ('anela. Contributions to 
Canadian Paleontology. \'ol. i.. 1'ari u. il.'i 
On some fossils from the Hamilton format ion of 
Ontario, with a list of (lie species al present 
known from that formation and piovincr ; (ill 
The fossils of the Triassie rocks of lint Mi 
Columbia ; and (I) On some Cretaceous fossils 
from liritish Columbia, the Northwest Terri 
tories and Manitoba. 

Montreal, 18S9. Large Svo , pp. 105, with 15 plates 

Descriptions of eight new species of fossils from 
the Cambro Silurian rocks of Manitoba. 

Triiutiietinun llo/ial Sor',,1!/ of t',nia,la. Vol. VII., 
Sec. 4, 1889. 4to , up. 7.i-M, and li plates. 

Descriptions of some new orpreviously unrecorded 
s]>ecies of fossils from the Devonian rocks of 
Manitoba. 

Mi./., Vol. VIM., See. 4.1S90. 4to., ],p. 9!-lln, with 
7 plates. 

Geological Survey of Canada. Contributions to 
Canadian Pala-ontology, Vol. I., Part in. The 
fossils of the Devonian rocks of the Mackenzie 
River basin. Montreal, 1891. 
Large 8vo.,pp 58, with 6 plate?. 

Descriptions of four new species of fossils from 
the Silurian rocks of the soutli-eastern portion 
of the District of Saskatchewan. 

Canadian Record of Science, VoL iv., Montreal, 
April, 1891. 8vo., pp. 293-303, with one plate . 

Description of a new species of Panenka from the 
Corniferous Limestone of Ontario. 

Ibid., Vol. iv., Montreal, October, 1891. 8ro., pp. 
401-104, with 1 plate. 



78 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Whllrave*. J. P.- -Continued. 

Note on the occurrence of Paucispiral Oporcula of 
(,'a.stempodn in theCuelph formation of Ontario. 
(\UiaJian li.f.nl of .SViracr, Vol. iv., Montreal, 
October, 181*1. 8ro.. pp 404-407. 

The Ort hare-rat ida- of the Trenton Limestone of 
Manitoba. 

7V,i... </,.. CM Knual S.,cirtv / Canada , Vol. ix., 
Sec. 4.1$>1. 4to., pp 77-90, with 7 platen. 
IteHcription of a new gerins and species of I'hyllo 
riri<l Crustacea from the Middle Cambrian of 
Mount Stfphen. H.C. 

('.,. i. /,..,i Hrr*,r,l I./" Scirarr, Vol. v.i Montreal 
Octuher, lf.""J. svo., pp. Uk'i -318. 

(>'colc>Kical Survey of Canada. Contributions to 
C.ui.i'luui Pal.eoiitoloi/y. \'ol. I., Part iv. The 
fossils of tin- l>evuiiiau rocks of tlie islands, 
shores or iniiiii-diatr vicinity of Lakes Manitoba 
an 1 \Viiinipcncisis. Ottawa. lS!rJ. 
Ijirito "i. ... pp }'*'. with l.'ipuii-- 

Notes on the \iiinioniiesofthe Cretaceous rocks 

f t lit- disi rh I of A ( halcasca, \villi descriptions 

>f f'Hi i ne\\ sjir< ies. 

T tftcl 1' f: it \.,, ,^,/ ' t',tn,fli V"l \., 

S.-C I. l-'i. 1 It.... |.p 111-r.il. with I plates 
Notes ..ii i IK- 1 1 as i e n i| .. la of the Trenton Lime 
stone 'I Manitolia. with a description of one 

lle\\ sJM'i-ies. 

v, V..I. i.. Mc.nlrciil, 

Aprl.l- 1 ' Hvcc., pp. :!17 ;.^. with L' u.KMjotltH. 

llescrijition^ of t\\( neu species of AnilllOlliteS 

Ironi the I let. ii euii* rocks of theQiieen Char 

lotle Klallil-. 

i./i.in //. . . / ... y,-,. .,,-., llel,.l,cr. 1 "'.':'., V..I. \l., 

PI-. Ill It*), with one full p:tKC |.late. 

I li ' 'i et a. e. ,us >\ vt ern in Canada. 1 1 'resident ial 
.\ddn in Sec-lion IV. i 

"-I I .1 : .,, (.,,/.,. Vol M., 

S.-1-. I. pp. 

The recent diseo\ ei > of lar^e I' ni(i like shells in 
the Coal measures at I lie South .loj^nins, .VS. 

/' I.I.. Vicl. \i., Sec. 4, pp. 21-J4. with one full puge 
plUr. 

Notes on some .Marine- Invert elirata from the' 
coast of Itritish Cccluinliia. 

IHI.,,r,, .\,,l,,r;/:,l. 1'f.-., 1^ vl. V..I. VII , pp. 133 :>7, 

with four fitturet. 

\VUIiaiiiMin, Itev. .1.110. s. 

The Inland Seas of North America and the Nat 
iiral and IndiiHtriiil I'mxliii-tions of Canada. 
Kingston : .l,,hn I Miff, IsM. 

8ro. , pp. 7H. 

< >l,sen .,1 ions at Kingston on t he Transit of Venus. 
/ tk, r.op..u.|,'.,ci. i.fik, K'JlKtl &xieli/ ../ Caiuula, 
Vel. i.. See J. ISO. 

Wlthrow. W. II. 

C.ita. oml.s of Rome, and their testimony relative 
lo Primitive Christianity. London : Uodder & 
SK.UKht.in. New York : Hunt * Eaton. 

12tno.. cloth, pp MO. 
Hintorr of Canada, BoHton and Toronto. 

"TO., pp. 700 mounted. 
Our Own Country. Toronto. 

.. pp. tu. 3tO IlliuumlUxu. 



Witlirow, W. H Continued. 

A Canadian in Europe. Toronto: Hunter, Rose & 
Co. 

Ii' iii" . . cloth . Copiously illustrated . 
Valeria ; The Martyr of the Catacombs, Toronto, 
London and New York. 

I'.'iiio., oliith- Illustrated. 
Barbara Heck. Toronto and London. 

1-nici., cloth. 

Neville Trueman, the Pioneer Preacher. A tale 
of the War of 1812. Toronto and London. 

12mo. , cloth. 

The King's Messenger ; or, Lawrence Temple's 
Probation. Toronto, London and New York. 
i -in... , cloth. 

The Romance of Missions. Toronto. 
12uio., cloth. 

Worthies of early Methodism. Toronto. 

l.'mo., cloth. 

Men Worth Knowing; or, Heroes of Christian 
Chivalry. 

Mf. i th<id\*t Mui/ttziite, 1881. 
Missionary Heroes. 
/6iU, 1882. 

Wright, It. It.-inis.-M . 

Systematic Position of the Spongiadae. 

CiiiKidinH Journal, 1877, pp. 14. 
i ..ui iii HI I ions to American Helminthology. 

/Vot<Wni|/ Cantiilian limtitute, N.S., Vol. I., 1879, 
pp. 1-24, 2pluUe. 

Notes on American Parasitic Copepoda. 

Ibi.l., Vol. I., 188-.' pp. 243-354, 2 platei. 
(Ju IJemodex Phylloiiies. 

l.:,i: cit.. 18X3, pp. 27J-2S1, 2 plate* 
Trematode Parasites in American CrayUsh. 

/!..,..'.... A'alurnliil. 1884, p. 429-30- 
< in the Organ of .lacobson in Ophidia. 

y.',nl:, a lKher Amtiuer, Vol. VII., 1881, p. 112. 
On the Skin and Cutaneous Sense-Organs of 
Amiurus. 

I':. ::,,,!,.,, I- I ' , I , I I I U I f , Ill-lttllll, N .8 , Vol. II., 1(984, 

On the Nervous System and Sense-Organs of 
Amiurus. 

/....-. ei/., 1SS4, pp. 352-386, 3 plates. 
On a Parasit :c- Copepod of the Clam. 

.1 ,.,. , ,,;, ffnturaliil, 1885, pp. 118-124, 1 plate. 
On a Free Swimming Sporocyst. 

!.,< cit., p. 310. 

On the llyonuindibuiar Clefts and Pseudobranchs 
of Lvpidosteus and Amia. 

Journal Atmliimv and Phvrivlogv, Vol. XIX., 1886, 
pp. 476-499, 1 plte. 

On the Skull and Auditory organ of the Siluroid 
Hypophthalnius. 

Tsaniacliuiti Kovml Society of Canada, Vol. ill., See, 
4,1885. pp. llW-118, 3 pktet. 
Introduction to Structure of Vertebrata. 

//. Standard Natural Butorv, Boston : 8. E. Cuctino 
A Co., 1885, Vol. m., pp. 1-52. Imp. 8ro. 

Account of M one .t i-emi-s and Marsupials. 

/6cJ., Vol.. v., pp. 11-45. 
Of Ungulata. 

Ibid., Vol. T., pp. 283-352. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA 



79 



Wright, K. Ramsay. Continued. 
Of Primates. 

In Standard Natural Hiitoru, Vol. v., pp. 430-528. 

In conjunction with Dr. A. B. Macallum. Sphy- 
ranura. A contribution to American Helmin- 
thology. 

Jaurnul of Morphology, Boston, 1887, Vol. I., pp. 
1-48, 1 plate. 



, K. KaniHay. Continued. 
An Introduction to Zoology for the use of High- 
schools. Toronto : Copp, Clark A Co., IHflB. 

12m... , pp. 314, with 194 fig. 
Pathogenic Sporozon. 

Canadian /V<i r-li I inner, Toronto, January, 189(1. 
Preliminary Heporl on the Ki.sh and Ki.sheries of 
Ontario. 

In /ffjtort of Oittitri'f l\nh ttnri (/rune Com million, 
Toronto, 1H!I2, printed by order of Legiclative Afsembly, 
PP. 421-475, with 13 fig?., text and 35 plate?. 






SOCIETE ROYALE DU CANADA 



MEMOIRES 



iSKCTION 1 

LITTfiRATURE FRANCAISK, TMSTOIRK, A UGH fiOL<><! I K, KTC. 



ANNEE 1894 



SECTION I, 1894. [ 3 ] MBMOIRES S. R. CANADA. 



I. Le Fondatenr tie la Presentation. (Ogileiiftbnry} : Uahhe l r ic<jn<-t. 

(1784-1760) 

Par M. L'AUBE AUGUSTE GOSSELIN, LL. I). 

<Lu le i iniii IKllli 

Parmi taut d'ecclesiastiqucs ((iii, sous la domination francaise au Canada, suivnt allier 
a un grand zele pour la gloiiv de Dion et les travaiix do lour miiiisti'-re un devourment 
sans homes pour lo bien do la patrie, je n'eii connais pas qui aiont niontiv plus d'attaelieinent 
au service du roi et do la France quo le digue sulpirien doiit le nom est en tote do cette 
notice. L'ahbo Picquet etait , vraimoiit de la race des Feiiolon, des Vignal, des d'Urto, des 
Dollier dc Casson, des IJelmont. Sa devise, durant toiite sa earriere, soluble avoir etc : 
Tout pour Uiou et la patrie ! " 11 aiirait souhaite, disait-il dans line de ses lettres, pouvoir 
etendre 1'ompire de Jesus-Christ et du roi, ses bons mattres, jusqu'aux extromitos du 
monde." "Je serai trop beiireux, oerivaif-il encore, si mos potits travaiix peuvent con- 
tribucr en quelque chose au bien de la religion et du service du roi. Ce sont la toiites nies 
vues et mes desirs, et les sentiments dans lesqucls je veux vivro et niourir." ' 

Tons les gouverneurs qui so sueeederent de son temps au Canada rendirent honima^e a 
son devouement et ;\ son merite. ' Cot eeclesiastique est part'aitement desinteresse, ocrivait 
un jour M. de la Galissoniere au ministre ; et il omploie line jiartie do son revenii pour 
I'ex4cution de son projet (la fondation de la Presentation)." 1 Et M. "Duqucsne : 11 a servi 
la religion et 1'Etat, disait-il, avoc un succos incroyable, pendant pros do trente annees ; et 
il s'est acquis une grande reputation par les beaux etablissements qu'il a formes pour le roi, 
au Canada." 4 MM. de la Jonquiere et Vaudreuil faisaient do la memo maniero 1'ologo de 
cet homme de bien. 

La grande 03iivre, 1'oeuvre par excellence de M. Picquet, cc fut d'assurer ;\ la Franco le 
concours des nations sauvages, dans la lutte de notre aucienne mere patrie contre 1'Anglu- 
terre pour la possession de rAmorique du Nord, le concours, surtout, on du moins la 
neutralite des Iroquois, qui, malhcureusement, s'etaient toujours montres si hostiles au 
Canada. On comprend 1'importance de cette oeuvre pour la France, dans les vingt-cinq 
dernieres annees surtout qui precedercnt le denouement fatal, sur les plaines d' Abraham, de 
ce grand drame ou tant d'interets majeurs etaient en jeu. M. Picquet reussit au deli de 
toute esperance. 

1 Lettre du 2 fvrier 1752, cit^e par M. Parkman, dans Montcalm and Wolfe, tome 11, page 417. 
J Lettre inedite a M. de la Galissonniere, 4 aout 1749. Archives de 1'archevech^ de Quebec. 
3 Lettre in&lite 4 M. Rouille, 18 octobre 1747. Archives de I'archevcb6 de Quebec. 
* Lettres Idifiantes, 1783, tome xxvi, page 55. 



4 L'ABBfi AUGUSTE GOSSEL1N 

II avail un talent incroyable pour attirer les sauvages, pour les mettre sous sa main, 
pour les tloniiner, pour lea civiliser. A part les Agniers, (lout il avait fait son deuil, et qui, 
Diiivant sou expression, " n'etaient plus regardes que coiume des Anglais," il gagna toutes 
les iiatioiin iroquoises a la raiise do la France, sans compter les autres peuples sauvages, 
dout il sut conserver et inaintonir 1'ainitii'. L;i victoire do la Monongahe'la, qui a rendu 
iiniin>rtel le intiu do M. dc Beaujeu, tut due rii grande partie au coueours des sauvages. Au 
siege du (>rt William-Henry, M. de Montcalm avait sous ses ordres pres de mille sauvagcs, 
appartfiiant a qiiarantr ct une trilms ditferentes. 1 

(Yt illust re general appelail M. Picquct " le patriarehe des Cinq-Nations." L'intendant 
I|oc.|iiart lui avail domic lc titre d'" apntrc des Iroquois." M. Duquesne, parlaut de 1'aliln' 
Pic.piet. di-ait qii'i'i lui sciil il valait plus c|iic dix regiments" 2 pour la cause de la France. 
Le- Anirlai- ciix-nieiiies. i|iii lc prcnaiciit ]iur un jesuite, rcconnaissaient et redoutaieut sa 
I. iivr ft -a puis.-ain-f d'artiun snr les sauvjigi-s : " Lc jt'suitc de 1'ouest, disaient-ils, a 
di'-tai-ln- cli' IMIIIS tuiiii's les Xaiinns, et les a inises dans les intercts des Fran^ais." s 

l''.~! >iirtniii par la tiuidatinn de la mission et du fort de la Presentation que M. 
I'ii-qui-i ri'uit a di'-taelier les Ini(|Unis de la cause de 1' Angleterre, et ;\ les attacher a la 
Fraih c. l.a I'lvscntation ('tail dcstiiu'e a neiitraliser autant que possible les effets dosastreux 
cau~'-~ au ripimncivc des |-'rain;ais avec les sauvages par I'etahlissement du fort Oswego sur 
le- Imrd- ilu lac Krii- : ( >-\V('ir". cc point noir. jnvsage tie la tenipete (pii ulluit eclater, et 
lialavei- le- l-'rain.-ai- iion .ciilenieiit de la I'i'gioii des grands lacs, inais des vallees du 
Saint-Laurent, de 1 '( lino i-t du Mi--is-i|ii. 

Avaiit ile [larler du lort tie la I'lvseiitatioii. disons un mot de 1'origine de M. Picquet, et 
de -e- premiers travaiix an Canada. 

#*# 

Francois I'ii i|iiet ' uaquit a Hourg en Hresse, pi-ovince de Hourgogne, diocese de Lyon, 
eceinlire 17us. raniice nieiiie i|iie iiiourut a liuehcc M" de Laval, le premier eveque 
du Canada. II etait le coinpat riote et 1'ami ilu cclehre astronome Lalande,' avec lequel, de 
retour ile .-e- mi-r-ioiis. il aimait a s'entretenir de ee qu'il avait fait pour le service de la 
France, de 1'aiitre cot.' des niers. de Tespoir ,|u'il avait longtemps garde de voir les Framjais 
se niaiiitcnir en Am.'rique. et de la perte irreparalile qii'avait f'aite la France en perdant le 
Canada/' 

il reciit des I'cnfanci' une education soignee, et tit de fortes etudes. Les lettrcs et les 
ineinoires <|ii il a laiss.'s teinoignent de la culture de son esprit et de ses connaissances 
pratiques. 

Naturellemeiit gai. ainiant le jilaisir, il etait aussi doiu- d'une grande piete, et manifesta 
cle bonne heurc sa v..<-atin a I'.'tat ecclesiaHtique. On assure qu'a 17 ans il prechait deja 

' Monlralm and Wolfe, tome I, page 485. 
* The C'unipiracy nf t'ontiar, tome I, page 6<>. 
1 Lrltrrt tdijianht, pajjo 50. 

4 II signait /Vr/i*f, et non paa Kgwt, comme <;crit M. Parkman. Voir le Regislre de la Presentation, con- 
err/- ux arcliiven paroisaiales d'Oka. 

4 On mootre a Boor* en Bressc, a I'^glise de Brou, un cadran solaire fait par Lalande, souvenir du grand 
Mlronome A u vilte naUle. 

Cert d'pn SM conversationi avec 1'ablx! Pic< 1U et et sea souvenirs personnels, que Lalande ecrivit plus tard 
la notice bio^raphique de son ami, inrfree dans UM Ultra tdifianla et curieue, et ciKSe souvent dans ctte 6tude. 



L'ABBti PICQUET 5 

dans les e'glises de sa ville natalc. A 20 ans, il obtint de 1'autorite ecclesiastique la permis- 
sion de precher dans toutes les paroisses de la Brcsse et de la Franche-Comte. 1 

II tit sa theologie a Paris, et entra dans la societe de Saint-Sulpice. Hes superieurs, 
connaissant ses dispositions heurenses et precoeespour la vie de missionnaire, lui proposerent 
de 1'envoyer au Canada; il aceepta avec joie. II fut ordonne le 10 avril 1734, ft partit 
presque aussitot pour rAmeriquc. II arriva au Canada le 6 juillet, et t'ut accueilli avec bien- 
veillanee par ses confreres de Saint-Sulpicc a Montreal. II avait 25 ans. 



Montreal, a cette epoque, n'etait pas encore, taut s'en taut, cette immense et magnifiqiic 
ville commerciale quo nous admirons. C'ctait mi long et etroit assemblage de inaisons en 
bois ou en pierre, a un seul ou deux etagcs ; au-dessus de ccs inaisons sYlcvaient les tours ilu 
se'minaire, les clochers de trois eglises, les iniirs de quatre convents, avei: les arbres dc Iciirs 
vastes jardins. On apercevait de loin, a I'extremite cst de la ville, un liant rempart en terre, 
couronne par uno redoute snr laquclle etaient inontes quelques canons. Toiite la ville rtait 
entouree d'un tos.se pro fond, et cl'un mur en pierre avec bastions, capable de la protegcr con t re 
les attaques des sauvages, mais nulleincnt de resistor a la niitraille. 

"Cette ville, (lit un ecrivain de I'epoqiic, n'a |iroiireincnt quc deux grandes nics lungues. 
La maison des sulpiciens et celle des jesuitos occupeiit cbacuue un tres grand terrain. II 
y a aussi le convent des reeollets, celni des liospitalieres, et celni des sn'iirs de la C'ongrc- 
gation." 2 

La population de Montreal etait de 4,210 anus, en 17:W, et de S,:',12 en 17liD. ! 

Voici ce que Knox ecrivait dans son journal, sur le coni[itc des habitants de Mnntn'al : 

"Us sont vifs et enjoues, dit-il, et beaucoup pins recbercbes dans leur toilette et Iciirs 
parures, que ceux de Quebec ; il semble exister line certaine emulation a ce snjet cut re les 
habitants des deux villes. A voir le grand nombre de robes de sole, d'habits brodes, de tetes 
poudrees de tout age ct des deux sexes, que Ton rencontre dans la rue, dn matin an soir, un 
etranger serait porte ;\ croire que Montreal n'c'st habite que par des gens de grandes et inde- 
pendantes fortunes." 4 

Quant aux mneurs du Canada, en general, a cette epoque, voici ce qu'eerivait en 1730 
la sceur Duples-sis ; on salt que cette religieuse n'etait nullement portee a 1'exageration ; il 
suffit d'aillenrs de parcourir les documents de 1'epoqne, les documents cpiscopanx, en parti- 
cnlier, pour s'assurer de 1'exactitude de sa description : 

" Nous somines, dit-elle, dans un pays qni devient plus dnr que jamais ; nous n'y voyons 
rien qui puisse plaire ; on n'y parle que de misere, de mauvaisc foi, de calomnies, de procfes, 
dc divisions. Tout le moiule se plaint, et personne ne remedie a rien. .Te crois (pic Dieii 
ch&tie cette colonie pour les crimes qui s'y commettent, et les bons souffrent avec les mediants, 
les uus pour s'epurer, les autres pour faire penitence." 

Elle ajoutait, en 1733 : 

" Nous sommes dans un siecle ou je crains tout, car la corruption est a son comble ; nous 

1 feUrei idifiantes, p. 3. 

2 Mtmoires sur let affaires du Canada de 1 749 A 1 760. 

' Note de M. I'abb4 P. Rousseau, du s<5minaire de Saint-Sulpica, & 1'auteur. 
* Kiwi's Historical Journal, t ii, p. 455. 



6 L'ABBtf AUGUSTE GOSSKLIN 

VOVOH8 ties chose* pitovables ; on nous en niaiule de semblables. . . La charite* est refroidie, et 
il reste bien peu de foi dans le nionde." 

Le clerge du Canada avait evidemment beaueoup a t'aire ; mais il fut a la hauteur de sa 
tncho. L'auteur, deja cite, des Memoires sur les Aftaires du Canada ne rend justice ni a M r 
de I'onthriand, ni aux jesuites, ni aux rocollets, lii aux sulpiciens de Npoque ; il n'y a quo 
lo soininairo et le on re tie Quebec, M. Resche, qu'il traite avec bienveillance. Voici ce qu'il 
dit des nulpicieiiH : 

Lo srininairo de Saint-Sulpice, liaut et puissant, se regardait comrae le souverain et 
1'arbitrc du pavs : on no pouvait ni agir, ni rien t'aire a Montreal que conformement Pleura 
idres : eeiisours <lu public. ils t'oivaiont los particuliers ;\ leur ouvrir leurs maisons, pour y 
v.>ir or i|u"il- v t'aisairnt ; la nomination des cures de 1'ile qu'ils avaient leur rendait leurs 
va--aux -omul-. avor Irsijiicls ils a>;issaiont i'ii niaTtn-s. T^es generaux tremblaient sous eux, 
ri-ilniitaiii I'-ur >T'''lit en France, ilont ils 1'aisaicnt usage dans les occasions." 

!, co pa^airf. " di'-pit ilu inaiivais esprit qui I'aninie, il resulte clairement que les sul- 
pii-ii'ii- avainit lii-aiii-iiiiji <lr /Mr rt il'antui-iti-, rt i|ifils jouissaient a Montreal d'une grande 
inllih-ii'-r : i'o in- pmivait rtcr i|ii'au ln'in'-lirc drs bonnes nxiMirs et jiour le bien de la colonie. 

II- avairiii la rliar^r imn seiileinen) dr la villc, mais de toute 1'ile dc Montreal ; leur 
iiiini-ii-ri- I'-lait arlil'. lalmririix. 

l,.ii--'|iir I'aKli,' riri|iirt arpiva an Canada, rn ]~:\4. lo venerable M. de Belmont n'etait 
|.lu-. II 'tail iiiiirt lr -- 111 -ii \~'-'>.. a r.-iu'r dr s? ans. rt avait oto reinplaee ooiume superieur 
ilu -.'iniiiaii-i- 'lr Mmitival par M. Nnrmaiit do Ki'railnii. " M. de Bolinont gouverna pendant 
pin- do i ivnie an-, dii M.dr Latniir. aveo nn /Moot line sagesse qui le tirent cstimer de 



M. I'irijiioi doinoiii-a oiin| ans a Mmit r/-al. travaillant on oonnnun avec ses confreres du 
-.'niiiiairr a la do.-rrtr dr la villr rt dos paroisses oiivironnantes ; puis on 1739 il fut envoy<5 
par M- -iipi'-rinir- a unr ini->inii phi- m rappnrt avor ses gouts et les heureuses dispositions 
ijiir la J'rnvidriire lui avail di'partios. 



11 y avait au ^ud do Montreal, do I'antro onto du fleuve, une inagnifique mission de sau- 
vugus doinioilios ot sodontairos : la mission do Caughnawaga. On y compta jusqu'^ trois 
eentH guerrierH iroipiois. Kilo etait sous la direction dos pores jesuites. II y avait un fort, 
line oglir-e, ot un magasin on les sauvages pouvaient se procurer tous les objets dont ils 
avaienl bosnin. sans otro obliges d'allor a Montreal. Les missionnaires tenaient en effet a ce 
que lours neophytes allassont lo moins souvont possible a la ville, ou ils avaient trop facile- 
nient 1* occasion ile so procurer do l'eau-de-vie, ce ]>oisoii funeste qui leur <5tait si dommageable. 
On tit beauconp do bruit, dans le temps, au sujet de ce magasin, que tenaient les demoiselles 
Dettulntera, sous protexte (ju'ellos faisaient un commerce de contrcbande avec les Ilollandais 
<!' Albany, auxquels, disait-on, elles revendaient le castor qu'elles traitaient avec les sau- 
vge*. a Le ehosea allerent si loin que M. de la Jonquiere, gouverneur du Canada, crut 

1 Lrtlrtt de la R. X. Hant-Andrl Reynard Dupleuu de Sainle-IIeleiH, publi<5es par M. 1'abbS Verrean dans la 
Rrnu tnnttdinint. L xji. 

1 Mtmowtt mtr la tv dt M. de LooaL 

M'mltalm and Wolfe. Mt moire* tur let Affaira du Canada, 



L'ABBti PICQUET 7 

devoir faire fermer ce magasin et passer en France les demoiselles Desanlniers, ainsi quo le 
P. Tournois, qui e"tait alors directeur <le la mission. 1 

De 1'autre cote de Montreal, au Sault-au-Recollet, se trouvait une autre mission de sau- 
vages sedentaires ; il y avait en 1716, cent cinquante gucrriers iroqnois, algonquins et 
hurons. Cette mission, eommencee en 1696, 2 appartenait aux sulpieiens. Le scminaire 
de Montreal y avait fait construire une belle eglise en pierrc. 3 

En 1714, les snlpiciens demanderent & lacour de France, par I'entremise de M. L'Kebns- 
sier, superieur de Paris, qne la mission tut transported ait lae des Helix-Montagues : et il 
fut convenu, en eft'et, " qu'il etait necessaire pour le bien de 1'ile de Montreal, et la mettre 
a convert des insultes des autres sauvages, en eas de guerre, dc placer ccttc mission a 1'cii- 
droit demande." 4 

Le gouverncur, M. de Vandrenil, et rintendant l?egon signc-rent le 17 octobce 1717, en 
faveur des sulpiciens, 1'acte de concession du terrain du lac des Deiix-Monta^nes ; cette con- 
cession tut confirmee par le roi le 27 avril 171S, e( eiiregistrec an Coiiscil siipc'rieur de (Quebec 
le 2 octobre 1710. 

La mission du Sault-au-Recollet fut close en 17L'l, et transtrn'e alor> an lac <!<> |)cii\- 
Montagnes. Les sulpiciens se haterent d'y organiser tout ce (jui etail mVcssaiiv pour I'ii^tal- 
lation de leurs neophytes. On y eonstrnisit mi fort et une c^Tise en pierce. 1 

C'est k cette mission du lac des Deux-Montagnes i|iie M. I'icijiiet I'ut en\d\i' en 17:',!i. 
II y resta dix ans. 

Ceux qui out visjte le lac des Deux-Montagnes n'ont pu s'empeclier d'ailniirer cet 
endroit enchanteur, cette belle nappe d'eau, sillonnc'e par les vaisseaux qui deseendent on 
remontent 1'Ottawa, ce superbe etablisseinent d'Oka, 1 ' 1 graeieusemenl assis au pied de collines 
verdoyantes, et derriere ees collines 7 les deux mont agues, bien gacnies de bois sains et 
toufFus, qui out donne leur nom au lae et a, toitte la contcee avoisinante : sue le somnict 
d'une de ces montagncs, sc dessine un jietit groupe d'ermitages, dont I'l'datante blandicuc 
rayonne sur la sombre verdure de la tbcet ; le touriste, en les apereevaiit de loin, se rappelle 
involontairement le eelebre pelerinage de In, Mudninin <lc.l S'</.vxo, a la fete du lac Majeiir : 

1 M. Duquesne, successeur de M. de la Jonquiure, ecrivit plus tard au ministre jwur lui demander de renvoyor 
a la mission du Sault-Saint-Louis le P. Tournois qni 1'avait si bien dirigde- (Rapporl sur l>.i archire* du Canada, 
1887, p. clxv.) 

J Note de M. 1'abbt' 1 Cuoq, prfitre de Saint-Snlpice, et membre de la Socicte royale, il 1'autcur. 

3 "II y possfide encore un domaiue." (Ibid.). 

4 Arr^t du Conseil de marine sur le changement proposo pour la mission du Paiilt-au-Kccollet, Ml mars 1710, 
Archives do 1'archeve'uhe' de Quebec. 

6 Le fort otait sur la pointe qui s'avan^e dans le lac, il Pendroit oik sVlcve la maison des messieurs de Saint- 
Sulpice : une partie des mure a ote conservtfe dans la construction do cette maison. II etait de forme (juailran- 
gulaire, et renfermait une partie de ce qui est anjourd'hui le jardin. Une nouvelle ('glise a remplati' 1'ancienne 
qui est devenue la proie des flammes en 1877 : elle est de style roman. 

6 Le nom d'Oka a et6 donne il la mission du lac par M. I'abb6 Mercier, lorsqu'il en etait le directeur, en 18<J7, 
Oka est un mot sauvage, qui veut dire poisson dore. 

7 Ces collines, formees de sable aride, et minees sourdement par 1'action de 1'eau qui descend des montagnes, 
nienagaient, il y a quelques ann^es, de se dt'sagreger, et le sable envahissait d^ji le village, lorsque M. 1'abW 
Lefebvre, le cur6 actuel d'Oka, proposa 4 ses confreres de Saint-Sulpice nn moyen d'arre'ter le fleau, Le si'tninairo 
de Montreal souscrivit g6n<jreusement 4 sa proposition. Dans 1'espace de quelques semaines, plus de cinquante 
mille arbres, pins, cedres et epinettes, furent plant^s sur ces coteaux sablonneux ; puis, entre les rangees d'arbres 
bien align<5es, on sema & profusion de la graine de mil et de trefle. Le sol, d^sormais proteg^ centre le vent et 
consolide par les racines des arbres, se couvrit bientot d'un gazon vigonreux. Les collines autrefois dlnmiees sont 
maintenant revalues d'une riche verdure; et tout danger de desagregation a disparu. Jamais 1'ancien adage ne 
s'est mieux v6rifi6 : Omne IvJit punctum qui miscuit utile duld. 



8 L'ABBtf AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 

ce sent lea chapelles du Calvaire, 1 qui doivent leur existence a M. Picquet ; t<5moins vivants 
do *a foi, do sa religion, dc sa piete, elles perpcStuent le souvenir de son nom et proclament 
bien hnut BOM zele eelainS pour la civilisation des sauvages. 

Pour le hut que Ton voulait atteindre, former une mission de sauvages sedentaires, et y 
attirer le plus do sauvages possible, afin do les Christian iser, on ne pouvait choisir un lieu 
plus favorable quo le lac des Pcux-Montagnes, car il so trouvo preeminent sur le chemin que 
Muvaiont les Algonquin*. Ics Nipissiugs et les Hurons lorsqu'ils descendaient pour la traite a 
Montreal on a Quebec. M. 1'iequct les guettait an passage, les attirait a lui, les engageait a 
re-ter plusieurs scmaines a la mission, et lour onseignait les verites de la religion. II ne se 
passait pas d'annee qu'il nVn baptisat t rente on quarante. 

I! .ettntvait aiissi de les faire renonccr a leur vie errante et vagabonde. II rdussit a en 
tixer un irrand nomUv. et leur apprit a cultivcr la terre. 

I! attiraaii-M heaiio.up d' Iro,,uois ; <le sorte (|ii'il cut hientftt a Oka quatrc petits villages 
1.- -auvaire- dillerents. II lit entourer ces villages de fortes palissades de efcdre, qu'il flanqua 
,1,. red..ute.< : sotis la protivtion dii fort de la mission, les neophytes de M. Picquet purent se 
livr.-r a la nilturr <lc h-urs t.-rn-s sans avoir a crain<lre les attaques de leurs ennemis. 

(in 11,' -uui-ait dire, rcrit l'ablM ; Cuot|, tout lc bien (|u'il tit au lac des Deux-Montagnea 

.lurant I.- -lix ami.'.'- i|ii'il v fut missionnairi'. II .'-lei-trisait les sauvages par sa parole de 

par -a vi-rvr |nii'-tiqui'. ft I'oii cliantc encore les canti(jiH's qu'il a composes." 

I'm- If- -anvaL'f- qui tV,'(Hfiitaiciit la mission du lar des Deux-Montagiies, M. Picquet 

,'laii an .-.iiirant de t.nit ,-, .|iii se |,a-sait nieine dans les rndroits les plus reeulert de la Colo- 

nir. II fnt de. premier-;, dit halande, a pn'voir la giu-rre qui s'alluma entre les Anglais et 

le. KraiM-ai. vers 174-2.... Ses r-anvages faisaicnt tons les detaeliements (m'il leur demandait. 

||..'iaient . .ntiniielleineiit .iir le> frontii'-res pour ''pier tons les monvements des ennemis." 

M. I'i.-quei e..niiai.-ait ainsi !<. :iL r i-enients ties Anglais, et en pn'venait le gouverneur, qui 

., i. -nait alr. r-ur se. irardi-s. 

I .a pri-e de Liiuirlmiirir en 174."i jela la consternation dans le Canada. On eraignait 
beaiici.up .pie les Anglais, protitaiit tie leur victoire, ne se rendisseut jusqu'a Quebec. On 
craitrnait snrtout ijiu- les salivates, se rangeaut eoinim- d'habitude du cote du plus fort, ne BC 
tmiriiassent i-uiitn- la France et ne iissont (pielque niauvais coup. " M. Picquet, dit Lalande, 
repondit de eette partie." II siit nous garder 1'amitie des sauvages, memc des Iroquois. 

I^i giu-rre, rependant, eoiitinuait entre 1'Angleterre et la France. La flotte du due 
d' Anville. destinee a reprendre Louisbourg, avait ete detruite. M. de la Jonquibrc, nomm4 
goiiverm-ur du Canada, venait d'etre fait prisonnicr par les Anglais; et M. de la Galis- 
soniere etait nomme, a sa place, administrateur de la colonie. 

Dans 1'i-te <le 1747, M. Picquet descendit a Quebec avec soixante guerriers iroquoia. II 
voulait les mot t re en rapport avec le nouveau gouverneur, M. de la Galissoniere, croyant 
aans doute que rien n'etait plus propre ;\ attachcr ces sauvages a la France, que de leur faire 

1 II y en a wpt, main on ne voit de loin que lea trois dernicres : lesquatre autres sont perJues dans la fortt 
le Ionic >lu clifiniii qui conduit au somniet de la montagne. Ce sont de petiu ermitages de forme qnadrangulaire, 
en nnQinrwrio blancliie i la chaux. M. Pinjuet avait fait faire en Europe sept tableaux reprt'sentant autant de 
wvn de la Paasion, et en avait placr un dans cliacune de ces chapelles. Mais couinie cea toiles, d'un grand 
prix, M deV-rioraient, on lei a traiuiport^es dans 1'eglise du village et reniplac&s par d'autres peintureH non moins 
projiri* i axciter la pi-'-t'- populaire. Tou* Ira ana, durant la saiaon de IVi.'-, mais surtont le jour de 1' Exaltation At 
la aainte Croix, de milliera de pnnonneo font le pelerinage du Calvaire, au lac des Deux-Montagnea : il y a pour 
ce plerinage one indulgence pl^-nirre que M. Picquet lui-meme obtint du souverain pontife. 



L'ABBti PICIJUKT 9 

oonnattre cet homme distingue, cc savant remarqnable, cc milituirc intrepide qu'ellc noun 
avait envoye. Sa demarche tut couronnee d'nn grand twcces. LCS Iroqiiois fureiit eiichan- 
tes de 1'accueil qui leur tut fait a Quebec ; ilsjurerent tidelite a la France ; et lorsque plus 
tard Us retournerent dans leur pays il.s nous recruterent bon nombre d'allies. 

A Quebec, M. Picquet ne s'appliqua pas seulcment a taire de ces Iroqiiois dcs amis 
dcvoues a la France, il travailla aussi a en taire de IKMIS chretieiis, et emplova a les evangc- 
liser tout le temps qu'il demeura avec eux. Mais laissons purler ici MM. de la (ialissoniere 
et Hocquart ; leur lettre an ministre de la marine ne fait pas nioins leur clogc quc celui dc 
1'abbe Picquet : 

"II est a propos, monseigneur, ([tie vous soycz infornic i|iic, pendant le loin; scjoiir qiie 
les deputes des Cinq-Nations out fait a. Quebec, M. 1'abbc I'icquct. inissionnaire du lac- dcs 
Deux-Montagnes, a profile des dispositions ou il les a trouvi's d\-iiibrasser lc cbristianisnic. 
en leur faisant reguli^rement, et chaque jour, dans la cbapellc Saint-I{oc-b. dcs iiistnic-tinns 
publiques, suivies d'une prierc, a la portce de cette espccc de catc'cbunic'iics. 11 v a lien d'T-trc 
surpris d'une pareille assiduite de la part de ces sauvages ; (|iioii|ii'ils sn'icnt c-apablcs d'un.' 
grande dissimulation, quelques-nns donnent lien ilc- croirc <jii'il v anrail dc la sinc-c'riti' dans 
leur conduite. Vous verrez i)ar lenrs paroles iointes a noire join-nal. iiu'ellc- narait smitc-mic 

11'' .' [ 

1'avenir nous le fera connaitre encore inieux. 

" Le sieur Picquet prepare 1'ouvrage dcpuis longtemps avec licaiic-c>u]p d'aclrcssc et dc 
zele. II a dans le village dcs Cinq-Nations quelques-uns dc-s sauvagcs dn lac-, dc-s plus sages. 
ct qui lui sont affidcs, dont il sc serf pour gagncr Ics autn-s. N"ous 1'avons eiieouragt' 1 ;'t 
suivre ce qu'il a commence, ct il sc fiatte du succes. 

" Cet eeclesiastique est parfaitcinent desinteresse, et emploie une partic de smi rcvcnu 
pour 1'execution dc son projet. Cl'cst dc nous-memes qnc nuns vous [iroposons, monseigneur, 
de demander pour lui ;\ Sa Majestc une pension snr Ics l)enetieesde (i a 800 livres ; il n'en 
pent taire qu'un bon usage et quc pour une tin tres eonvonable.'' 



II est evident que 1'abbe Picquet, duraiit son si'joiir a (iiit'bcc, avait tail unc- exi-dli'iilc 
impression ;\ M. de la Qalissonifere. De son cote, le gouverneur avait dulaisser clans 1'esprir 
du digue sulpicien line haute idee dc scs talents ct dc ses capac-itc's administratives. 

En arrivant au Canada, M. de la Qalissonierc vit tout dcsuitcle coti' I'aible de la c-olonie. 
La France pretendait, et avec raison, a la possession de tout le tcrritoire amerieain nu'elle 
avait decouvert. Etait-ce en vain que les Champlain, les Xicolct, Ics .lolliet ct les Murqwette, 
les Cavelier de La Salle, ct tout recemment (174:5) Ics Varcnnes <!* la Verandrye avaient 
parcouru ce vastc territoire, au prix de fatigues ct de dangers iucroyables, avec une ardeur 
et une iutrepidite qui nous etonnent, ct qui n'exciterent pas nioins 1'admiration dc leurs 
contemporains que, dc nos jours, Ics courses de Stanley et de Livingstone a travers 
1'Afriquc n'ont excite la u6tre? 

La France pretendait avoir droit a tout lc territoire qui s'eteudait depuis les Alleghanys 
jusqu'aux montagnes Kochcuses. Oui ; mais elle avait oublie de prendre effieacement pos- 
session de ce vaste domaiue. Qucls etablissements avait-clle, par exemple, dans la grande 
vallee de 1'Ohio ou Belle-Riviere? 

1 Lettre in6dite de MM. de la Galissoniere et Hocquart au ministre, 18 octobre 1747. Archives de 1'arche- 
Quebec. 

Sec. I, 1894. 2. 



1O L'ABBti AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 

Et voili quo les Anglais, qui avaient laisse" no* hardis cWcouvreurs arpenter les regions 
de roueet, ot etaient rentes tranquillemeiit sur les bonds de 1'Atlantique, commenyaient 
& sortir de'lour etroite demeure, et a deverser le trop plcin de leur population de 1'autro cot,' 

do la chaine de Alleghanys ! 

M. do la Ualissoniere uurait voiilu quo la France envoyfit immediatement des colons en 
grand iiomhrv, an moins uno di/.aine de niillo, dans la vallee de 1'Ohio, et que Ton se hat at 
d'y cc.nstruiro qiiolquos forts, commc on tut ol.ligo do le f'aire quelques annees plus tard sous 
It- coup do la grande neceiwite. 

Kn attondant. il tit co .|u'il |.nt par Ini-nir-ino, ot ohargoa M. (Jeloron de Blainville, 1 a la 
I,'-!,- d'un dftaoliomoiit do Kranoais ot do sauvagos, d'allor prondro possession de cette valloc, 
,-n v plantant do distance on distanoo des plagues do metal sur losquelle etaient graveos los 
pretentious de la Kram-o. Lo I', do I'.onnooanips aoooinpagna 1'oxpodition, et tint, a 1'occa- 
M,,II do i-o \Mvairo. mi journal tivs intorossant / dont jo mo jiropose de rendre compte a une 
initro r.'union do la Sooirto royalo. 1/oxpodition out lion on 174!. 

M. I'i.-iiiift. ilc .-on <oti'. pn>]io>a a M. do la < ialissonioro d'allor fonder, :\ rembouoliuro 
d.- la rivi;-iv Soii.'kat.-i. 1 un .'talir^soinont i|iii put t'airo oontropoids ;\ Oswogo. Les Anglais 
avainit pn.tit.'- dn trait/- dTtreoht, qiii doolarait los lro.|iiois dos Cinq-Nations sujeta de la 
<!rand"l!ivt:iLrni-. pour 'talilir -ur la rivo >ud du hn- Krir oo iort, ((iii otait une menace pcr- 
p.'-nii-llri-oiiin- !- Fran. ai-. " La rmito. dil Lalando, ipio 1'alilio IMoipiot avait vu j>rondro aux 
-auvairi- ( aux parti- oniioinis ipio los Anglais onvoyaiont sur nous, lui tit ohoisir un poste 
ijiii put a 1'avonir intorooptor !> passage dos Anglais. 

I,.- iroiiv.-riioiir ot It- iiiinistro do la niarino oiitroront tout ;\ fait dans les vnes de M. 
1'ifijUfi. ft avoi- lc oonsciitriMont do sos supi'riours ecclesiastiqucB il fut cliarge dc 1'entre- 
priso. 

*** 

M. l'i.i|iift ('-tait allf a Soiu'katsi dans raiitoiuno do 1748: il avait pris eonnaissanoe du 
lion, ft i-nidif los avantagos rpi'il oHVait pour lo luit <[ii'il avait on vue. II y retourna de 
lionin- lii-uro. an (irintomps do 174!, ot t'onda sa mission. ' 

1 .lean-liaptiote Oloron ile Itlainville. I/e r^cit desou voyaye est intitul^ : " Journal de la campagne que moi 
< t'loron, i li.'valicr ile 1'unlre royal et inilitnire do Saint- Ixjuis, commandant n d^tachemont envoy6 dans la Bel!e- 
Hivirre par IOH ordre* de M. le marquis de la (ialmsonK're, commandant gi-nt'ral de loute la Nouvelle-France et 
Paynde la Ixminiane, tr." De retotir do son voyage, il se rondit an Detroit, dont il avait Gti nomme commandant 
1 .mi...- prt'iV-dent*. (Mimicalm anil \\~nlfr, t. i, p- "(i). Kn 1750 et 1751, on le trouve commandant au fort de la 
I'rfaenlation. ( Kegiglre de la I'r^aentalion)- II etait mari? a S.isanne Plot de L'Angloiserie. Sa fille Ixiuise- 
Siiiaiuie ('iKjusa, le '. nov. 10-">1, M. de Rigauville. Dans 1'acto de manage, M. Picquet 6crit : " V'u la permixsion 
a-oonl# par M. le marquis de la Joni|ini-re,gouverneur general du Canada, au sieur de Higauville, enseigne d'in- 
f.int-ric, tils de feu Niculaa-Blaige do Kigituville, capitaine, et de feue Dame Marie-Francuiae Pachot, de go 
marier i la I'n'-tenlatiun aver Demoiselle l.iiui-t-Snsaiin<. ( V-luruii de Blainville, fille de sieur Jean-Baptista dloron 
le Itlainville, lieutenant d'infanterie, cdmtnandant au fort ile la Presentation, et de Dame Susanne Piot de L'An- 
Kloiserie " 

* Relation du voyage de la Belle-Kivu-re fait en 174!) sous lex ordres de M. de Celoron. 

1 Appeli'o maintenant O-wi'gatrliie. 

1 l premier juin 1749, romrae il appert par cette inscription latine, qui se lit en U'te du Hegistre de la Pre- 
entation: 

" In nomine Domini Dei omnipolentis, in-lividuic Trinitatis, ad propagationem divini imperii Domini Nostri 
Jem Chriiti, SanctiMimir- ipsins S|>onsir Eci-lesitc, necnon regni Ludovici decimi quinti KegU dilectissiml Christia- 
nimimi ; ad aalotem barbareram Ameriwr gentium, anno i Christo nato inillesimo septingenteaimo quadragesimo 
nooo, prim* die jonii : Oammo Pontiflce Benedicto decimo quarto ; Quebecensi episcopo Henrko-Marift de Pont- 



L'ABBti PICQUET n 

II lui donna le nom de la Presentation, en I'honneur, sans doute, du jour ou, chaque 
annee, les pretres de Saint-Sulpice ronouvcllent solcnnellcmont leurs promesses clericales, 
" ct ce choix fut approuve de ses superieurs." ' 

Voici en quels termes il rcndait compte, 1'annee snivantc, ;\ M. do la Galissoniere, do 
son voyage, de ses travaux a la Presentation, de ses esperanccs, do la situation de son 
e"tablissement. On remarquera les propositions qu'il faisait au gouvernenr pour I'amelio- 
ration de la navigation dans les rapides du Saint-Laurent : ces propositions ne sont pas d'un 
homme ordinaire, et denotent un esprit pratique : 

" Voici en substance, monsieur, ce que j'ai deja en I'lionm-nr de vous ecrire dans 
plusieurs lettres successivement, que M. de Beaudicourt '-' m'a (lit ([tic vous n'aviex jias replies. 

" Je partis de Montreal, conimc vous le savez, le !> niai, Men cliarnie, en m'eloijrnant, 
quelque stoVcien que je sois, de ne plus entendre les niauvais raisonncnicnts que eertaines 
personnes faisaient centre inon entreprise. 

" Je passai par le lac des Deux-Montagnes pour y prendre ma eliapelle et mes hardes, 
et j'y appris que les gens du Sault-Saint-Louis n'avaient eu pour objet dans 1'alarnie qu'ils 
donnerent ce printernps, que de m'einpecber de suiviv ma route. Je ne crois pas. (|iioi qii'on 
puisse dire, que personne lour ait inspire cette maim-uvre : les sauvages sont assex coquins, 
e*tourdis ou betes, pour fa ire de leur tete de pareilles affaires, coinnie cela s'est vn pi-ndant 
la guerre. 

" Je ne parlerai point des niauvais raisonnements que des envoves sauva^es de Ladiine 
vinrent faire aux Iroqnois des Oinq-Xations qui etaient an lac, ce qui les a eniptVbes de 
monter avec moi, ni des motifs de erainte (pie les Francais et sauvages voulaient Jeter dans 



briand ; totius Nova; Franche Gubernatore DD. de la Jonquiero ; et, ipso absnnte, jussti regis duce <ronerali ejusdem 
Colonise tempore be'li DD. de la GalissonniSre ; ot rei judiciaria', oivilis disciplinrr et n-i n-mri;i pncfecto DD. 
Bigot; sub tntett Beatiss : ma; Dfii genitricis Mari;o Virginia, Beatorum Archanjieloriini Mirhaelis, Gabrielis et 
Raphaelis, Angeloruraqne C'ustodum, Keatorum Joannis Baptists et Joseph, Sanctorum apostolorum Petri. I'auli 
et Joannis Evangelistic ac San^ti Francisci Saleeii, nov:n habitation! vulgo diotoe a barbaris So^gatsi et a Gallis La 
Presentation initiadedit Franciscus Picquet, presbyter." 

Cette inscription latine est premlee d'une note qui est comme le titre du Reuistre : 

" Registre oft sont Merits les BaptOmes et les Sepultures de la mission d(: la Pn'-sentation, cotS parapbe et com- 
mence a Otre mis en usage par moy pri'tre soussignc, missionnaire des sauvagos, qni ay concu le projet de ce 
nouvel etablissement, 1'ay mis au jour, forme et aflermi autant qu'il a ete en mon pouvoir, malgn' les contradic- 
tions presque generales defl principaux habitants de la colonie, surtoutde certains interprotes des commissaires de 
Montreal, gouvernsurs et des autres officiers des tronppes, et des rnissionnaires de diffcrentes missions, mais pro- 
t4g6 par M. le comte de la Galis?oniere, commandant general du Canada, et M. Bigot, intendant, Fan mil sept 
cent quarante-neuf, pour la plus grande gloire de Dieu et le salut des sauvages. (Signe) Franrois Picquet, pretre." 

Le premier acte du Registre est du 9 Janvier 1750 ; le dernier, du 23 jnillet 1760. II y a, en tout, 409 baptcmes 
et 56 manages. 

A partir du 10 nov. 1759, lee sepultures se font " dans la grande ile des Galops nommee 1'lle Picquet" 

Dans ses dlfferents actes, M. Picquet se nomme " missionnaire de Saint-Sulpice, charge du nouvel etablisse- 
ment de la Presentation " ; ou bien, " missionnaire des sauvages et des Francais au nouvel etablissement de la 
Presentation que nous avons forme ";ou "preire de Saint-Sulpice, missionnaire des sauvages ot des Francais au 
nouvel etablissement de la Presentation que nous avons forme et dont nous sommes charge pour le Roy " ; ou 
encore, "pretre de Saint-Sulpice, missionnaire du Roy! qui avons eiabli cette mission, charge pour le Roy de ce 
nouvel etablissement, et superieur de la dite mission nommee La Presentation " ; ou enfin " missionnaire du Roy, 
prtre de Saint-Sulpice, superieur de la mission de Soegatsi." 

1 Note de M. 1'abbe Cuoq, a 1'auteur. 

J " M. Drouet de Beaudicourt, lieutenant d'infanterie et commandant audit posto (de la Presentation)." 
(Registre de la Presentation, acte du 9 Janvier 1750). Celoron de Blainville le remplaca comme commandant de 
la Presentation ; et M. de La Periere succeda a Celoron. (Ibid., acte du 7 oct 1753.) 



12 L'ABBtf AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 

mon (wur pour me faire reliicher. M. cle la Morandiere vous en aura deja suffisamment 

in forme. 

" Je me mis done en man-he pour monter les rapides avec vingt-cinq Francais et quatre 
sauvages, et j'arrivai henreusement le 30 du inois de mai au lieu de ma destination, h, la 
riviere tie la Presentation, que les sauvagcs nomment dans leur langue Soe"gatsi. 

II ne .-'est rien passe, dans tout mon voyage, qui soit digne de votre attention. .I'ai 
seiilcment examine attentiveiiient la nature des rapides de la riviere du fort Frontenac,' si 
imp .rtante aiix Francais, snrtoiit pour nous conserve!- la possession du lac Ontario, sur lequel 
K-- Anglais out des veiix d'une eoiiciipiscenee extreme. 

".I'ai reeoiinu, monsieur, i|ii'il ne serait pas bicn difficile de rendre cette riviere pins 
pratieal'lc .|ii'.-lle n'e-t, et qii'nn homme eiitendn, avec six hons travailleurs, pourrait dans 
uii i-i'- oti-r an ni"in- les dangers d'v perir, qiii s'y t ron vent dans plusieurs endroits, pour les 
dateaiix du roi et les caliotr- des voyagcurs. 

|.- principaiix rapides ><>nt les Cascades, le Troii, le Buisson, le Coteau-des-Cedres et 
!- C.'-dn-. !< ('"teaii-du-hac, les M ille-Kocbc:-, le Monlinet, le Long-Sault, le Rapide plat 
,-t I.- Cal'.p-: 1.- in.'iii-danirereiix >ont la 1 'ointe-au-I )ial)le, celle a Colas, et cellea Cardinal, 
Tantiv- peiite- pi.inlo ;'i pen pivs de la nature de celle-ci. 

he- |.lu- a eraindri- pour la vie des caiiotiers et la perte des canots sont le Trou, qu'il 
-.rail ai-'- d.- r.'iidn- prati.-ahle en I'aisant un clieinin le long de terrc. le roeher etant f'endii 
i ii plu-'h-iir- endroits. et n'v ayant pre-ipie (pie des grosses pierres (pie Ton pourrait faire 
I'.iiiInT dan- le tnnd du iron sous la eliute d'eaii ipii pourrait ainsi s'aplanir ; 

I..- l!ui--nii. ni'i I on a d.-ja tail un canal dans le roc, mais qu'il serait neeessaire de creu- 
-er i-ii. ..], un pied, atin ipi'on \ puissc passer dans les eaiix basses, ce qiii paraltrait facile, k 
i-au-e cjiii- le r.H-lier -.- pent lever par lianes en liien des endroits, et qiie le passage n'est pas 



he Cott-aii-du-hae. <,u n'eeniment le liateaii de M. de Joncaire a peri, et un jeune 
Iniiiiiiie. h'mi jieiit ai>cinciit pratiijiier un passage entre la terre et leu chutes, et former un 
i lieiinn juscjif uii-dcssiis de- lies a dix on doii/.e arpents jilus haut que le Coteau, pour eviter 
1'i-ndroit ipii i--t preciseinciit aii-dessus des chutes, et par on il fant nec-essairement passer avec 
le- bateaux mi les gramls canots des vovageiirs ; et si par malheur Ton y fait la moindre 
maiiirnvre. 1 on e-t perdu sans rcssoiirec. 

he hong-Saiilt a ses dangers, et il est facile d'y remedier en pratiquant un chemin le 
long de la cote; pour line demi-journee (pie j'y ai fait travailler mes hommes en y passant, 
tons ceiix qui y out monte cette aniiee 1'ont trouve fort praticable. 

"Tons ces rapides sont coninie le sepulere <les voyageurs. 

" Ix-s an t res, iiioins considerables, penvent hien s'adoucir en pratiquant dcs chemins ]c 
long ile la cote, et en coupant avec soin tons les arbres qui les emharrassent. 

" Un homme judicieux, entendu, et appliqu4 a cette oeuvre, trouvera infailliblement le 
nioyon <1e rendre praticable eette riviere, occasionnera ainsi l'5tablissement des terres magni- 
fiqiui (pie Ton y x'oit de tons cdtes, soit dans les ties, soit dans les cdtes du nord et du sud. 

" Et ufin <|iie K- roi ne cree pas un nouveau fond pour cette depense, il n'est point de 
boargeois de nmots qui ne donnat a su part unc pistole, chac^ue engage un ecu, et chaqiic 
biitenu du cent une pistole, ce <pii ferait, suivant une Mtip]mtation, la somme de mille ecus, ce 
qui ferait leu gages des travailleurx. Le roi pourrait donner cent pistoles h I'entrepreneur, 

' II nlle aiiui U |rtic du 8inl-Laurcnt (jui va de Montreal au fort Frontenac (Kingston). 



L'ABBti PICyUET 13 

et cent'francs par chaquc rapide qu'il aurait rcndu praticable, sur le temoignage den voya- 
geurs, aprks la visitc faite par UH ingenieur, on le roi pourrait retenir la Komme dont noun 
venous de parler, et donnerait plus ou moins & 1'entrepreneur pour cliaque rapide suivant 
qu'ils scraient plus ou moins diffieiles ;\ raccommoder ; et 1' entrepreneur ae fournirait dctout, 
excepte les outils et la poudrc necessaire. 

"II ne serait pas difficile de trouver des gens capable* d'uuetelle entreprise. dont 1'objet 
me paraitrait d'une tres grande consequence pour le pays, .le ne t'ais (|iic tom-ber, en pas- 
sant, cette matiere ; les bornes quo je doi.s me preset-ire dans cette lettn- ne me pernicttent 
pas d'en faire un im'moire. 

" J'ai aussi examine, taut, ee printemps que rautmnne dernier, la nature des terres. i|in 
me paraissent les plus belles dit Canada; et je pense que dans la suite, si mi les eiiltive. bien- 
t6t elles seront les greniers de la eolonie. 1 II y a des liuis de cbeiie en cmantite, et des arbres 
d'une grosseur et d'une hauteur prodigieuses. .le croirais que dans les titres de concession 
il scrait necessairc pour les eonserver, que le roi se reservat non seuleinent les elif-ncs. inais 
qu'il defendtt a tout proprietaire d'en eouper aueun sans permission." l>ans lesarpeiits de 
terre quej'ai fait defricber, j'y ai reserve deja des cliencssufHsaminent pour batir une barque 
sur le bord du bassin. Je les t'ais tons eonserver, dans la pensce que I'mi dcmnerait peiit-etre 
bien de 1'argent dans la suite pour les avoir. 

" J'arrivai done le 80 niai, aver un eba.rpeiitii'r et 1111 inai;on. les se\ils <|iii i-taient a Lfauvs. 
et tous les autres a I'entreprise, a soixante francs par arpcnt. suivant les mareln'-s de M. le ( '<>m- 
missaire, de sortc que j'ai eu une peine inerovable pour determiner ees travaillctirs a aider 
les ouvriers ii y b/itir. Je suia vemi a bout des Canadiens ; inais les soldats ni'oni tnujours 
contamment soutenu qu'ils nc voulaient travaillcr qn'a. abattre du bois, suivant le prix de 
M. le Commissaire ; ee qui fait queje ne suis ]ias eneore logi'. :; 

"J'ai d'abord fait faire un hangar pour inettre en surete les eilets dont je suis eliarifi- : 
et je fais actuellement construire une [letite inaison, qiii I'orniera un bastion. La tenvur ijiii 
s'etait jetee panni mes gens m'a oblige de faire un petit fort de pieux deboiit, qiii me revint 
a 388 livres, pour les rassurer en attendant, et que j'ai paye de inon ardent, pour les enirauvr 
k travailler, les voyant dans le dessein de s'en retourner. 

" Je compte etre encore tin mois assez miserablemcnt logi' clans niacabane d'econ es, qiie 
les sauvages des Cinq-Nations m'ont heureusement faite pendant leiir sejour dans ee poste, 
qu'ils out trouve de leur gout. Les inieux inti'iitionnes pour y venir demcurer m'ont ilit 
qu'ils allaient mettre ordre a lenrs petites affaires ebex, eux, e'est-a-dire, eultiver li-ur ble 
d'Inde, le recueillir, vendre une partie de ee qu'ils ne pourront pas apporter, et qu'ils se ren- 
dront, une partie 1'automne, d'autres pendant le cours de 1'biver, et le plus grand nombre le 
printemps procbain. 



1 Tout le monde n'c5tait pas d'accord la-dessue : " Au dire de 1'abbt' Picquet le terroir est excellent ; mais il ne 
nous a pas paru tel : on y voit presque autant de sapins que de bois francs." (Relation de voyage du P. de 
BonnScamps ) 

2 On faisait toujours la reserve des bois de chne dans les anciennes concessions de seigneuries : " Ledit sienr 
conservera les bois de chenes qui se trouvent sur la terre qu'il se sera re'servee pour faire son principal raanoir; 
mcjme il fera la reserve desdits chdnes dans l'<5tendue des concessions particulieres faites ou a faire a sea tenan- 
ciers " ( Pttct* et Documents relatifs A la Tenure seigneuriale. ) 

3 Voici ce que le P. de Bonm'camps c5crivait, a la date du 25 juin: "Nous allames di'barquer c-hez 1'abbe 

Picquet Nous le trouvames Iogc5 sous des 6corces au milieu d'un abatis de pres de 40 arpents. Le fort qu'il 

fait construire est un carr<5 de 70 pieds sur chaque face. II est place i 1'embouchure d'une riviere qu'il a nomme 

de la Presentation et il la base d'uno petite pointe basse et mart-cageuse " (Relation de voyage du P. de 

Bonnc5canips.) 



, 4 L'ABBfi AUGUSTB GOSSELIN 

"Je leur ai rvpomlu a ce sujet qu'ils n'ignoraient pas qu'il fallait, pour tre bons chre- 
tiens, 1 qu'ils renoncassent s\ I'ivrognerie, et qu'ils s'eprouvassent la-dessus avant que de 
venir .lomourer duns ce nouvean village, on du moins qu'ils prissent la resolution non seule- 
ment do n'y point apportor do boisson onivrante, mais encore de ne pas souffrir qu'on en 
apportat jamais, quo cola los intoressait. innniment et leurs femmes et leurs enfants ; 2 que 
los ebrotions doivont vivro avce leurs femmes legi times jusqu'a la mort de Pun d'eux ; 
pi'ils dovaiont pour le present ivrleobir sur cos doux articles avant que de se ranger dans ce 
nouvel otablis*emcnt ; <|iio j'avais ivsolu do no roeevoir quo oeux qui seraient dans ces sonti- 
II- me ivpoiidiront tort raisonnablomont la-dessus, et quelques-uns en particulier me 
vim-fin trouvfi- pendant la unit, poiit-etrc />r<>/>><~r Mflnni Jttdceornm, 1 et m'assurerent qu'ils 
avaifiit d.'-ja ivllf.-bi >nr cos articles; qii'ils vonlaiont absolument, quoi qu'il leur en dut 
fonter. ft iv ;m nombre do mos enfants. 

-.I'ai toiijonr-. pens,'- quo eetto mission sera une dos plus nombreuses du pays. Mais ce 
IK- -.MM qn'ave.- If tfinp-. un pen df patience, une grando formete, assaisonnee d'une douceur 
fxtivnif. dc- m.'-nau'enientf. intinis pour re ml re los sanvagos capables de s'attaeher a la religion, 
.t d'.'-tiv utilf- a la folonie. cc <pie nous avons lieu d'csporor, avoo Paide du Seigneur. 

Cf-t A von-, mon-ifiir. <|iif la religion et lo pays auront oternellement cette obligation. 

.I'ai tail ivioimifr an lac df- I )o ux-Montagnes bnit a nonf apostats qui m'etaient 
\fiin- iroiiver. ft j'fii ai aiiv-i ivnvo\v on/.f an Sanlt-Saint-Louis. Deux de mes proselytes 
int pi!- parti avec M. df (VIoi-oii. avec proiuosso do no le point abamlonner d'un seul pas. 
I'm- lian.lf df iriifi-rier.- du Sault-Saint-Loiiis, qui vont anx ( 'berokees, m'ont enleve lesjeunes 
t'finiiif- !< co- deux i-anvaiTfs. et il no me reste quo la vieille, qui a pros de cent ans, et son 
pftit-lil-. :iiT'' - d'oiiviron dix ans. ijiie j'instrnis. 

.I',- -ji .'!. ffttf antomne. avoir riionneiir de vous di'-tailler toutes ecs choses un peu plus 
an l"iti. r . -i N'ou- jutfc/. a pi-opo- ijiie je doM-omlo; ot j'aiirai soin, ebacjue annee, de vous faire 

! d.'-tail df- |irogri-! ilo ff liollVel I't ablisx- Ilie II t. 

II nif re.-te a avoir I'lionm-nr, monsioiir, de vous donner maintenant une idee de la 
-ituationdu lien on je me -ni> plaee.-' ot des avantagos que la religion etla colonie en peuvent 
un jour rftirer, >i Ton y t'ait un etablissement solide. 

La rivi.'-n- do la I 'ivso ntation ost a la cote du slid, ;\ uno lieuc et demie plus bas que 
1'anfifii I'talilisseinont do La (Jalettc. 1 qni otait a la cote du nord, et au-dessus de tous les 
rapidc- : KIHI iMiibouobure forme un bassin admirable qui pour rait contemn quarante et cin- 
imante barques ai-'-im-nt : il pent avoir t rente-six a trente-sept arpents de circonferenee. 
I/on y tnnive pivsqiio jiartout trois brasses, souvent trois brasses et demie et quatre brasses 
d'ean : le moins, e'est deux brasses ot demie. II est situe de facon qu'il n'est prcsque point 
do vont qiii puisse on empeeber Pentroe; la riviere coule presque toujours au nord-est quart 
do nord. 

" .Te me suis place snr le cdte ouest du bassin, vis-a-vis le milieu, et les bateaux charges 
vieunent jnsqn'a terro. C'c eAte est fort bas, un pays uni, et la pointe s'avance fort agreable- 
ment dann lo large. 4 

1 Jean, TII, 13. 

' M. r.rkm m dit : " I'ic.jnet had chosen his site with great skill." (ifontcalm and Wolfe, t I, p. 56.) 

1 Konile' ver 1H82, i 1'endroit ou est anjonrd'hui PrescotL 

' L'aiiUinr ilw Wmnim rur la A/aim du Canada maltraile fort 1'abW Picquet, et ridiculise IV-tablissement du 
fort <le la Presentation : " L'endroit, dit-il, qn'il choisit pour son ^tahlissement annon$ait son peu de g^nie, et fit 
nomroer par d/-riion le fort qni y fut bAti : la folie Picquet " ; ce qui ne 1'empeche pas de donner (p. 13) un magni- 
Aqne plan do fort de la Prtaentation. 



L'ABBti PICQUBT 13 

" La traversee n'a guere qu'un quart tie lieue au phis, et tous les canots qui tnontent et 
descendent ne sauraient passer ailleurs. 

" La vue en est extremement etendue, et elle n'est point bornee du cdtc d'en liaut. Un 
fort sur cette pointe serait imprenable, a cause qu'il serait impossible d'en fa ire les approches, 
et que rien ne le commanderait. J'ai dcja fait nettoyer tous ces endroits, ce qui rend cet 
e"tablisseinent dee plus agreables. 

" Le c5te" de Test est plus eleve, et va, par une peiite douce, en amphitheatre. On v pour- 
rait dans la suite bStir avantageusement une belle ville. 1 Mais sa jiointe ne s'avance pas si 
loin dans le large de la riviere, et la vue en est bien nioins etcndue.ct fort agivable en meinc 
temps. M. de Lery m'a promis en passant qu'il vous enverrait un ]>lan de tout ccla. 

" Je ne sais pas encore a quel degre de latitude je me trouve ; les astronomes J 411! <mt 
passe ici avee M. deSabrevois et M. de Celeron avaient laisse leurs instnnnents a Icurcanot, 
do 1'autre c&te de la riviere; niais ils ni'ont promis qu'a leur retour ils me donneraient cette 
satisfaction. 3 

" La riviere de la Presentation est cgalcment belle et navigable jusqn'a sa naissance, 
qu'elle prend j\ la hauteur des terres dans un lac i|iii est tort beau, et i|iie les Sativaires 
appellent Massaouapi. Ce lac touehe presqite aux Agnicrs. et a Corlar. et aux habitations 
voisines des Anglais. 

" Une autre riviere asscz jolie tombe dedans, un pen phis has c|iie ee lae, et vient du 
c&te des villages des Cinq-Xations. .NF.de Meaudicourt, qui a ete, suivant son estime et 
celle de ses gens, jusqu'A, trente lieues dans eette riviere avee un eanot de six places, vous 
rendra compte lui-meme de ses decouvertes. 

" Ce qui vient naturellement A la pensee est que les Anglais el les Iroijiiois des('ini|- 
Xations peuvent egalement descendre sur nous, en temps de guerre, par cette riviere, dmit 
les Anglais neanmoins n'ont aueune veritable eonnaissancc ; et si par malbeur |iciiir nous ils 
avaient pris possession de cette riviere plutot <|iie de celle de Cbouaguen.' ils nous auraient 
entierement bouche le passage de la riviere du fort Froiitenae, et ils auraient pu secnurir 
leur fort bien plus aisement que celui de Chouaguen. Je n'en dis pas davantage, qin>i(jui' 
je pense que M. de Beaudicourt vous remettra lui-meme ma lettre: etvoiis.de ]n'in'trer 
aisement, monsieur, tout le reste. 

" Voici main ten ant ([uelques avantages queje croiraisque la n-ligiun et le pays poiirront 
retirer de mon nouvel etablissement : 

" Prcmierement, je suis a trente-cimi lieues de Montreal, vingt-cinq du fort Froiitenae, 
et pres de trente-trois de Chouaguen, distance suftisante pour eloigner les sanvages des 
desordres que la proximite des forts et des villes cause ordinairement parmi eux ; 

" Deuxiemement, les missionnaires seront ;\ porteederecevoir les intideles qui voiidront 
se convertir, taut par le lac Ontario, que par les rivieres de M. le comte, celle du fort Fron- 



1 En eflet, c'est 4 cet endroit que s'^lt-ve aujourd'hui la belle et florissante ville d'Ogdei sburg. " II y a i 
annoes, dit M. Tass^, on a rt'ussi, en d^molisaant les murailles, &, trouver la pierre angulaire des batisses du fort. 
Elle portait 1'inscriplion suivante: In nomine f Dei Omnipolentig Huic habitationi initia dedit Frar,t. Picqiiel, 1749." 
(Revue canadienne, t. vn.) 

2 II ne nomine pas le P. de Bonne'camps ; mais c'est lui qui, en sa qualiU; de professeur d'hydrographie au 
college de Quebec, accompagnait M. de Blainville dans son expedition. 

' " Le fort de la Presentation, dit Lalande, est eitu< ft 302 40' de longitude, et a 44 50' de latitude." (Leltres 
Idifiantts.) 

* Nona ilonnt' 1 & Osw^go par les Fraujais. 



16 L'ABBtf AUCUISTK GOSSKLIN 

tenac et colic <le la ProWntiition : facilite qui pourrabeauconp eontribuer & la conversion des 
sanvages, on soulageant lour pa reuse naturelle ; 

" TroiMoiiieincnt, rabondanee qui sera longtemps dans ce lieu, soit par la cbasse on par 
la pecbc, nc rontribtiera pas pen a les attirer. D'aillenrs, je veux les accoutnnier a clever 
los vaelics, des cochons et des ponlets, atin qu'ils s'attachent de plus en plus i 1'endroit par 
les douceurs qn'ils v anront, avant iei al>oiidainiiient eo qui est necessaire pour clever ces 
animal) x : prairies, glands et f'olles avoines. 

I'ar rapport an serviee dn roi, il in'est venn dans la pensec : 

1 (Jin- M M. ! ir/'iieral et M. I'intendant rcglaient quo les bateaux qui portent les 
etlets des pastes s'arretassent iei. la drpcnse dn transport de ces effets deviendrait bien 
jiioiii-coM-idT:ible. L'<>n tronvcrait aisrinciit des lioinines pour ainener iei les bateaux, et a une 
t'oi- inrillcnr inarrbr. a \~> et ^(Hivres. an lien de 4") et 50 livres qne Ton donne actuellemcnt, 

.,.,,. .,,,. 1 aiirun vent in- les einpr-eberait ile nionti-r les rapides ni de les deseendre, et 

iin'rii hull i'tiir- an pins iU t'eraient le voyage, an lieu (jifils sont a jiresent quelquefbtf 
iii-.iu'.'i troi- -'niaiiii'- : J lc- liar<|iies dont les patrons et les matelote sont entretenus 
p.irt.Taieiit ''- I'tl'i-ts dans lc~ postes ci liivenieraient aisi'inent et sans aueun risque dans le 
li.iin df .-1'ite ri\ -ii'i-i'. L'on v ponrrail cncoiv const rnire noli settlement les banpies, mais 
an--i tun- l<- liatcanx. a nm- t'oi> inoins >]<. t'rais qn'a Mont real et a, (inebee, a cause de la 
iiiianliti- '! di' la proxiniil'- di-s IIMJS (pn sonl propres a ees sortes de constructions. 

!>.- pin-. Ir- liatcai:x in' >eraient pas plus tot deehargen des I'ffets, (jne Ton }iourrait les 
ivIianriT !< plain-he- ct dr inadriers et d'antres liois nt'-eessaires pour le bien dn service, et 
qui -.mi .-.11111111111-. !< siippnsc ijiie I'oii t'era nn inonlin a seie sur le bord dn bassin, ou il 
-. truiivf nn i-ndroit des pins t'avorables. et ayant dansces cantons des pinieres inepnisables ; 
i|<- -ii-ti- 'pii- le- plain-lies ct les inadriers ne re\'iendraient pas an roi a don/.e et quinx.e 
trail. -. tandis ijn'il les arli.'-te soiivent tin et Hd francs et ineine da vantage, eoinnie dans ces 

di-mii'-iv- alilices. 

-2 -Ic in- crois pas c|iic nmis dnssions iijiprebender aiu-nne incursion, ni de la part des 
Anitlais par Clionairncn. ni de celle des Iroqnois par la riviere de la Presentation, parce 
qn'il- in- pciivcnt pas>er par can qne sons le canon d'nn fort (pii serait place sur le bout 
dr la lonirur poiute ; et il serait aise d'assrinliler iei nne arinee jtour aller a ChouagUdD ou 
aillenrs oil les Anglais vondraient s't'-talilir, sans qii'ils en cussent eonnaissance. II serait 
enrorr fariU- di- coiipt-r dieiiiin a tons K-s partis salivates (pii entreraient dans la colonie, 
an prrinirr avis, ni les allant attendre dans les endroits oil Ton sait qu'ils doivent nt'cessai- 
reinent jiassi-r. 

:\ Le sieiir de La Force, ' conducteur des bateaux du roi, s'ofFre a former tons les 
ans rent cajciix dc bois de construction iei, et de les eondnire jus(pi'a Quebec pour le ineine 
prix (pie le roi donne anx antres entrepreneurs. 

" Knfin, nn etablisseincnt solide sur le bassin de la riviere de la Presentation nous 
assiircra nun settlement la possession du lac Ontario, t'era la siirete des forts Frontenac et 
Xiagani. niais occasionnera encore des voyages desormais tonjours saufs de crainte dans la 
riviere dc Micbillimakiimc, ct epargncra plus de 50,000 livres au roi par an, des qn'il y aura 
do* habitants en 6tat de fourmr lea postes: il en cotite maintenant pour le seul transport 
pltM cle 33,000 livres. 

" L iew La Force, garde dea magaains du toy dans ce poste ide la Presentation)." II etait mati^- 4 Marie- 
Lmgoerre. (Regislre de la Pr&entalion.) 



L'ABBfi PICQUET !7 

" Je ne suis entr4 dans ce ddtail que parcc que je sais combien vous profitez avanta- 
gcusoment des moindrcs connaissances pour le bien, trop heurenx si mcs reflexions ct mcs 
petits travaux peuvent contribucr en quelque cbose au bien de la religion et du service du 
roi. Oe sont li toutes raes vues et mes d&irs, et les sentiments dans lesquels jc venx vivre 
et mourir. 

" M. de Beaudiconrt, dont la visite m'a ete fort agreable et bien avantagetise, pent 
siippleer de vive voix ;\ ce qui pourrait manqtier a mcs reflexions." ' 



Loreque cette lettre arriva a Quebec, M. de la Galissoniere, ammd die .'tait adrcssce, 
venait de quitter le pays. La paix d' Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), qni nous rendit Louisl>ounr et 
le Cap-Breton, rendit aussi la liberte a M. de la .Fonqiiiere, qiii vint. dans I'aiitomnc de 
1749, prendre possession de son gouvernemcnt du Canada. 

M. de la Galissoniere devint un des eommissaires nonmies pom- n'trliT la <|iic>tion -i 
importante et si epineuse des limites entre la Xoiivdle-France (Acadic ft Canada) ft la 
Nouvelle-Angleterre. 

L'abbe Picquet, prive desormais de ce protectenr edaiiv et intelligent, n' 
pas avec moins de courage son o-uvre de la Presentation. II reriit d'aillenrs 
autres gouverneurs qui se succederent dans la colonic. 

Rien ne pent arreter sou activite - et son /Me. Ses premieres const ructions deviemieiit 
un jour la proie des flammes, par le fait de qiidqnes incendiaires airuiers. Mais Kientot 
la mission sort de ses cendres, dit M. I'arkman, et au bout d'une annee on deux on v voit 
un fort en palissades flanque de bastions, line cbapdle, un magasin, un bandar, line 
etable, des fours, une scierie, de vastes cbamps de ble et de Icirmncs, et trois villa-res 
d'Iroquois, avec quarante-neuf eabanes d'ecorces, pouvanf ]<>irer cbaciine trois on ijiiatre 
families. ... Le gouverneur du Canada envoie uuc escoiiade de soldats putir irarder le tort. 
et cinq pieces de canon." 3 

" On estimait, dit Lalande, les travaux de M. I'icijiiet a :!0 on 4<l.<HHI livres: 
faits pour 3,485 livres, mais il y mettait autant d'intdligence que d'economic 
les ouvriers, et 1'on travaillait depuis trois beures du matin jusqif a neiit' beiires 

Les Iroquois, et parmi eux les meilleures families, accourent en grand m 
fixer ;\ la mission, attires par la beaute du lieu, par la fertilite du sol, j>ar rabondance de la 
chasse et de la peche qu'il y a dans tons les environs, attires surtotit par W lions prm-cdes 
tin missionnaire qui n'a qu'une cbose en vue : en fa ire de bons chretiens et des amis de la 
France. 

M 1 * de Pontbriand * voulut, en 1752, voir de ses propres yeux les merveilles qu'on lui 
racontait de la mission de la Presentation. II s'y rendit le 25 mai, et n'en repartit que le 
30. II etait accompagne de MM. Normant ct de Montgolfier, pretres de Saint-Sulpiee, et 

1 Lettre in^dite de M. Picquet a M. de la Galissoniere, 4 aout 1749. (Archives de I'arrhevOcli^ de Quebec, 
Documents de Paris, Eglise du Canada.) 

2 " II 6tait, dit 1'abW Cuoq, d'une activitC- dt'vorante." (Mtm;ires de la SociM royale du Canada, t. xi.) 

3 ifontcalm and Wolfe, t. I., p. 66. 

4 Los sauvages avaient donne a ce bon ovOque un nom qui signifie " II nous conaole " ; ce qui montre com bien 
ils avaient su appr^cier les grandes quality's de son cceur. Le nom qu'ils avaient donn a M. Picquet signifie: " II 
porte la parole." 

Sec. I., 1S94. 3. 




18 L'ABBti AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 

de eon secretaire, M. Briand. 1 Le T. Isidore Marsolet, recollet, probablement missionnaire 
au fort Frontenao, vint aussi les rejoindre. 1 

L'eveque et oes assistants passerent les cinq cm six jonrs de la visite a instruire les sau- 
vages et & leur administrer les sacrements. 11s se tinrent a 1'ceuvre du matin au soir. 3 M 1 * 
dt- I'ontbriand baptisa lui-meme un bon nombre <le sauvages, fit plusieurs mariages, et con- 
firnia cent vingt personnes. 

Kn qiiittant la Presentation, il laissa dans le registre la note suivante : 

Nuns avons dfsiiriif pour titnlaire de lYglise de la mission la Sainte-Trinite", parceque 

e tut If j.-ur df rfttf Ifte < ( iif M. 1'if.nu-t dit la premiere messe, soils une tentc, et que c'est 

ff jour (:!!' mai) qiif nous avons tini notre visite, et baptise et continue ceux qui n'avaient , pu 

IV-tp. l.-s jours ppVfdfiits. Fait. arpV If meme jour 21> de may 1752. (Signe) f H. M., 

i'v. df (Jiifbec." 

La minimi df la 1'ivsf ntation avail coiiune dependanees La (lalette, Souekatsi, et 1'Ile 
aiix (Jalop-: mi f.unpta jus.|ii'a trois mille lro.|uois dans cette petite eolonie. 

A tin de inaintfiiir 1'ordi-f parmi ciix. M. I'icqiift y organisa un veritable gouvernement : 
II .'-talilit. dit Lalandf. un fonscil df doiix.f ancicns ; il rboisit les plus aecredites uhez lea 
CiiMi-Naiion-. ft !<> nifiia ;'i Montival, on ils pivtfrent sernient de fidelite au roi, entre les 
mains di- M. ! marquis I)uc|iifsiif, au irrand etonnemeiit de toiite la eolonie, oil pcrsonne 
n'aurait ><~>'- r-|"'rrr un jiareil eVfiiement. 

L'al>ltf l'if"|Uft aimait a frappfr. df If nips en tfinjis, I'lmagination de ses sauvages, 
irrands i-iit'ants cles liuis, par qiiflqiic soleiinite un jieu extraordinaire. Ayant nn jour eon- 
\vrii au i-liri>tiani.-nif ffiit Irocjunis d'Onondaga, la eapitale des Cinq-Nations, il les revet 
df niairniliqiifs lialiil-. l>rodi'> d'or ft d'arn'f lit. Ics eninifiie avec lui a Montreal, et les 
pi-i'-i'iitf au L'oiivf nifiir. <jui les rfi;oit avff lu-aiifoup de lionte et les eliarge de presents." De 
tcl- profi'di'-s fiaifiit liifii proprcs a Ics gagiu-r a la France. 



1 Ilg (Haient tons Bretons, ext-epti'- M. de Montgolfier. 

: M. de I-a I'-'-rirre ^-Uit u\n commandant dn fort de la Presentation, oil 1'on trouve aussi, i cette date, les 
noins dn lieutenant 1-e Boryne, de MM. de l.a Come et La Chanvignerie, et de Charles Cottin, "chirurgien de ce 
posto." (Regiitre de U I'n'sentation.) 

1 Archive- d'Oka, I{e>!'' t ' r e de la I'r^sentation. 

' On conserve au lac des Iteiix-Montagneg nn prei-ienx souvenir de la visite de M* 7 de Pontbriand a la mis- 
sii.n de la Presentation : uno bannu-re, en i'ti .in- de eoie, faite par les Dames de la Congregation, sous la direction 
de M. Pirquet, et snr la()uelle ae lit 1'ingcription suivante : 

"Itan Optimo Maximo, ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Anno M.DCC.LII., die mail XXIX., Summi Pontifice 
Bene>lii-to XIV , Rejfe I.udovii-o XV., ]>rorege 1)1). ite Longuoil, Supremo Senatore DD. Bi^ot, Ct>ramissario DD. 
Varin, priraeiitibua I). Normant, Vicario general! et uperiore Seminarii Montis-Kegalis, Dl). Urland, canonico 
Quetieornsi, Monlgolfier, (iucn, Pirquet, primo missionis hujiis pnrdicatore, supradicti seminarii presbyteris, D. 
de La IVruTe, gubernatore ; auspice Deipara, ad majorem Dei gloriam, Henricus-Maria Dubreil de Pontbriand 
VI Kpiscopus Quebecensis centum viginti ex quinque nationibus vnl>r.> Iioquois baptiaavit, chrismate salutis 
ruiiiiiinavit ; in cojus rei testimonium apposuit sigillum, dtditqtie hoc vexillum unicmis Gallos inter et Nationes 
olemnioribu* felis in ecclreiA exponendnm. Nomine rrgis teetis D. eque* De La Come, interpres D. de La C'hau- 
vigoerie." 

Ctte inscription et entouree d'une gtiirlande qui represente 1'alliance conclue entre la France et les diflerenlee 
tribua inxjooiies. 

La baoniere poite lea armes de M" de Pontbriand. 

1 Dans 1'acte de bapU'me de I ierre AkouentagueK 1 , en date du 27 avril 1700, M. Picquet <"crit: ' Ay bapt'se 
Pierre AkooenUguei^, &%< de 47 ans, ancien chef considCre 1 dans les Cinq-Natious, dont M. le marquis de Vau- 
dreuil, gouverneur ti'-n- ral du Canada, a bien voulu otre le parrain ; mais, en son absence, que le sieur C harles 
Teg^tojoent, Tun dn dovzt StnaUvri df Sotgala, a tenn snr les fonts baptismaux au nom et a la placi de mon dit 
leur le marquis de Vaodreoil " (Hegiatre de la Pn'n-ntation. ) 

Journal of Conrad Writer, cite par M. Parkman dans Montcalm and Wolfe, 1. 1, p. 60. 



L'ABBti PIC^UET 19 

Le 8ucc.es qui avait couronne' en si pcu de temps rentreprise de M. Picquet a la Pre"seu- 
tation depassait toute attcnte. Aussi le bon missionnaire ecrivait-il on 1752 avec une satis- 
faction bien legitimc : " C'est un grand miracle que malgre 1'envie, lea contradictions, 
t'oppoaition presque generate de tons les villages sauvages, j'aie forme en moins de trois ans 
unc des plus florissantes missions du Canada. Je me trouvedone dans 1'occasion de pouvoir 
etendre 1'empire de Jesus-Christ et du roi, mes bons mattres, jusqu'aux cxtremites de ce 
nouveau monde, et de plus faire, avec quelques secours que vousme procurerez, que la France 
et PAngleterre ne pourraient faire avec plusieurs millions et toutes leurs troupes." ' 



L'annde precedente (1751), M. Picquet avait fait unc excursion sur le lac Ontario, dans 
le but de recruter dcs neophytes pour sa mission. II ecrivit le recit de son vovairc ; c'est un 
document interessant, qui nous fait, pour ainsi dire, accompagner le missionnairc dans sa 
course autour de ce lac si convoke alors par I'Angleterrc. 8 

Le canot monto par 1'abbe Picquet etai1 conduit par six Canadiens; un autre ranot le 
suivait, moHtc* par cinq sauvages. 

Apres avoir franchi les Mille-Iles, on arriva au fort Krontenac, on s'eleve aiijourd'hui la 
ville de Kingston. C'eta'it autrefois le rendez-vous dc heaucoup de sauvages ; i! n'v en avait. 
presque plus, parce que le fort. Oswego avait. pour eux hien plus d'attrait. 

A la bale de Quinte, N[. Picquet visita avec intt'ret I'umplaeemcnl dc rancicnne mission 
que MM. de Fenelon et Trouve y avaient etahlie.' " L'endroit. dit-il, est charmant, mais le 
terrain n'est pas bon." 

On se rendit ensuite a une tie voisine, on M. I'icipiet rei;ut la \'isite de raumonier du 
fort Frontenac, du commis du magaaiu et de plusicura autres personnes de la garnison. 
" Mes chasseurs, dit-il, m'avaient procure le moycu de leur donner un excellent ri'gal. Xous 
bumes, de tout cceur, a la sante des autorites civiles et ecrlesiastiqiii's, an bruit de notro 
mousqueteric, qui reussit parfaitement et rejouit lieaucoup les insulaires." II y avait, en 
eft'et, un certain n ombre de sauvages qui habi talent cette ile ; M. Picquet leur donna un 
festiu,les instruisit des verites de la foi,et tinit par les decider a se retirer a la Presentation. 

Nos excursionnistes cotoyerent durant huit jours la rive nord du lac Ontario et 
arriverent le 26 juin t\ un fort nouvellement construit, aiupiel on avait donne le nom du 
ministre de la marine du temps, M. Rouille. C'est ;\ cet endroit que s'eteud aujoiird'hui la 
florissante ville de Toronto. 

Le fort Rouille avait ete construit en 1749 par M. de Portneuf, pour y attirer les sau- 
vages du nord et les dissuader d'aller a Oswego, ou les Anglais les captaient par 1'appat de 
magnifiques marcbandises, qu'ils leur donnaient en echange de leurs pelleteries. Aussi 
avait-on approvisionne avec soin le fort Rouille : " Le vin, dit M. Picquet, est ici de la meil- 
leure qualite ; il ne manque rien dans ce fort ; tout y est abondant, beau et bon." 

Une tribu de Mississagues vint le supplier d'avoir pitie d'eux et de leur temoigner les 
memes bont38 qu'il avait pour les Iroquois, a qui il procurait des missionnaires. " Au lieu 

1 Lettre & MM. de la Jonquicre et Bigot, 8 tev. 1752, citee par M. Parkman dans Montcalm and Wolfe, t il, 
p. 417. 

* Journal qui peut aervir de m^moire et de relation uu voyage que j'ai fait sur le lac Ontario pour attirer au 
nonvel 6tablisseinent de la Presentation les sauvages iroquois des Cinq-Nations. 

3 Voir Vie de M*> r de Laval, par I'abb4 Auguste Gosselin, t I, p. 542. 



2O L'ABBfi AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 

tie nous Iratir une eglise, disaicnt-ils. on n'a place aupres de nous qu'un cabaret d'eau-de-vie.- 
<> vous a traites suivant vos gouts, lour repondit sechement le missionnaire ; vous n'avoz 
jttinais cu do /Mo pour la religion ; ati contraire votre couduite y a toujours (Ste" oppose.-, 
taudis niio los Iroquois toinoignent un veritable amour pour le christianisme." II se sentait 
n.'anmoius port.'- a les invitor a se rcndrc a sa mission de la Presentation; " mais .-01111110 il 
'avail pas .I'm-dros pour cola, .lit Lihm.lc, il .'vita line (.his longue explication." 

Li- '! iii'm. il <'tait a N'iaL'ara. <>u il t'ut acciicilli aveo joie par le commandant du fort, 
raiimopicret ! i-oiiuuis du magasin. " eo triiimvirat, .lit M. Parkman, qui gouvernait l.-s 
po-te- avail.-,'- de r.mest. ,-t y repr,'-s-ntait trois prineipos vitaux, la guerre, la religion et le 

rulllllioivo. 

rv-tait ! i,>iii-il.- la Saint-l'ien-e. M. Piei|iiet .lit la iiiesso : puis, apron s'ctrc repose 1 une 
j.,nrii.'i-. > mil -u m:in-lie p,.ur r.'-talilissement <|iie Ton v.-nait do fonder au portage de la 
e.iiaraet'-. lie-tin.'-, .-iiime llouille, a empeclu-r l.-s saiivages d'aller ;\ Oswego. 

\rri\e au\ .Inil,'- Niairara. par nu |.-> i|iiatre plus grands la.-s du Canada se dechanr.'iit 
,laii- !- la>- Uniari". M. l'i>-i|ii.-t .->t t ransporti'- d'admiration. " Cette cascade, dit-il, est aussi 
i,r,,,li"i.-u-i- par -a lianieiir. <( la ,|iianlili'- d'.-aii <|iii y tonilie, (jiie par la diversito doses 

,.|,,it,.. ,,ui -.Hi an i In-.- dc -i\ princiiiales. si'-par.'-os par une petite tie .jui en lairtHC trois 

;ill ,,,,,.] , i u-,,1, an -nd : i-ll.- l'"iit -nt iv .-ll.-s une synn'-t rie ivguliere et un ert'et etoiinant." 

\| ,|, .lutn-aire >e ii"ii\aii aux .-liut.->. av.-.- un nuinlire considerable de Tsonnontouans. 
(",'iaii un |-'raiii-ai- in.ui'- a um- >an vair'-. <-. <|ui jniiissait d'un grand credit aupres des sau- 
II I,'., i-i, n ,,iil,li,'- ili- ,-c ,|iii pmivait m'etre '! (|in-l.[iie se.-ours pour le but de inon 
\.. ,.,_.. . lit \l. l'i,-i|ii,'i. <-i il >'<-! riiinluil ronime nu grand serviteur do Dieu et du roi." 

Li- T-,, nn, nil, man- linivnl .-.niseil av.-<- M. de .lon.-aire. I'lusieurs se d.'ciderent awuivre 
imiii,'-di.ii-m--iii I'aUi,'- l'i,',|iii-t : iranii-.-s, en plus grand noinliro, lui proinirent d'aller le 
iv|in,|iv liii-ni-'ii a la I'lvs.-ntalioii : "Nmis u'avons ri.-n de plus .-lier .pie nos entimtw, lui 
iliivni -il- : i-li I'ii-n. i-n \\<-\ d,'ii/.i- ipn- imiis v.ms donnoiis eonime otages, avoe 1'assnrance 

.I'a.-, -uliiplir avanl Inllglelllps in it re prnmesse. 

\'.,- -aiivat:- <-t 1<- 'r-,iniiMiit,Mian- .-onnaissant votre termete dans vo resolutions, lui 
dii a -MI ("Mr M. de .Iniieain-. et saehant .pie vous avex dessein de passer par Cbouaguen, 
ni',>nt pi-i.'- in-taininent ile V.HIS engag.-r a n'eii rien faire. Us sont informefl dos inauva'mes 
dir-p,,-iti,,n- de- Anglais. <jui vous ivgardent eoninie le plus redontable enueiui de lour colonie. 
II- -,,nt hieii ili-ptiM-s a se fain- taill.-r en pieces plutAt .pie de soutt'rir qu'il vous arrive le 
nii'indiv mal : niai-t<Mit .-.-la ii'aboiitirait a rien.et vos enfants, les sauvages, VOUH perdraient. 
l',,iir iii.ii. ajniita M. do Joii.-aire. je vous conjure on inon partieulior de n'y point passer." 

M. 1'ic.piei prmnit d<- suivr.- son avis; puis il so remit en marebe, avec sa reeruo de neo- 
pliytes. pour r.-toiiriier a Niagara. 

Son voyage t'ut une veritable marebe trioinpbalo : " 1'artout ou nous passions, dit-il, 
devaut un campemciit ou un wigwam, les sauvages nous saluaientpar des decbargesdemoiis- 
quetorie, el cola arrivail si souvent ijue jecroyais <(uetous los arl>res lelong du cliemin ,'taient 
.-barges de poudre. T^trs((iu> nous arrivames au fort, M. deBecanconr nous recutavec graude 

iioiiic et salve do canon, eo qui flatta infininient nics sauvages." 

Le londeiiiain. M. I'i.-quet reunit pour la premiere fois ses Tsonnontouans dans la cha- 



1 Mnntmlm and tt'<Jfr, t. I, p. 70. 

' M. Cluhert <le Joncaire, ('labli parnii le* sauvages dea Cinq-Nations, les attirait aux Frai)<;ais, tan.iis que 
Jo)ni>n, fix/- ^galement chez les Irtx|uom, travaillait de son <-6U' pour lea gagner a la cause de 1'Angleterre. 



L'ABBfi PICQUET 21 

x 

pdlc (In fort, leur fit fairc quelqnes prieres, lour adressa la parole, puis lour donna quelques 

presents. 

II fa ut eiisuite partir definitivement pour retourner j\ la Presentation. on il a laisse mi 
troupcau sans pasteur. Le 6 juillot, il s'embarque, suivi d'uno nombrcuse nottillc decanots. 
Le 1-2, il arrive a reiiibouchure de la riviere Genesee, et admire longtcmps Ics cascades, a 
I'ciidroit ou s'eleve aujourd'hui la ville de Rochester. J,e 14, il est a Sodns-Hav, et il exprimc 
fortement le desir d'y voir eonstruire 1111 tort par les Fram;ais ; mais, ajoute-t-il, il vaiidrait 
encore bien niieux detruire Oswego, et ne jainais laisscr les Anglais le reeonstruirc." 

Le 10, il arrive en face de ee poste si rcdotite. II a proniis a M. de Joncaire ct a scs 
sauvages de n'y pas descendre, et il tient parole; mais il s'en approche aiitant (pie possible, 
afin dc mieux le reconnaitre. " II est. commando, dit-il, prescpie de tons les cotes. ct l'on pent 
aisement en temps de guerre en fa ire les approches. I)eiix batteries. clia<-nne dc trois canons 
de douxe, seraient plus (pie sultisantes pour le ivdiiire en ceiidres. Ce poste. aji>ute-t-il. mms 
est prejudiciable, non seulement paive ipi'il di'trnit not re commerce. mais surtmit paree iju'il 
met les Anglais en communication avec nos salivates de loin et de proclic." 

D'Oswegt), M. J'ic([iiet travi-rsa tout droit an Ibrt Ki'onteiiac. on il vmilait ari-eter dc 
nouveau. Trois drapeaux y etaient arbon's en son boiinciir. -lamais n'ceptioii. dii-il. ne 
fut plus solennelle. IA'S Xii)issings et les Algompiins. ipii s'en allaient en ^nerre ave.- M. 
de BelStre, se mirent en baie de lenr propre niniivemeiit. ct nous saluci'cnt par phloems 
deebarges de mousqueterie et par des cris dc joic sans tin. I>e tons DOS caiiots d'ecnivc. nn 
repondit. de la nieme maniere. M. de \'ercbcrcs et M. de La Valtrie firent en mcmc temps 
tirer les canons du fort; et mes sauvages, transport cs dejoic de I'lionncur ipi'ils rcccvaieiit. 
fiusaient eux-momes nn feu continue!, ct poiissaient des cris et, des acclamations (pii ri'-jouis- 
saient tout le nionde." 

" Les commandants et les officiers, dit Lalande, vinrcnt recevoir noti-e mi^siniinaire >nr 
le rivage. 11 ne fut pas plus tot debanpie ipu- tons les Algoiupiins et les \i|iissings du Lac 
vinrent 1'embrasser en lui disant ([u'ils avaient appris (pie les Anglais 1'avaient arivti', et 
que si cette nouvelle s'etait confirmee, il les aurait bientot \MIS le d('l>arrasser." 

Le bon missionnaire tit line nombreuse recrue de [irtwolvtcs an fort Krontciiac. |iuis 
poursuivit son voyage a la mission de la Presentation, on il rentra vers le ^0 juillet. et " t'nt 
10911, dit Lalande, avec cette affection, eette ti-ndresse (pie des enfants pourraient I'prouvcr 
en recouvrant un pere (^u'ils auraient perdu.'' 



Ce nc fnt pas sans une grande douleur de part et d'autre (pie M. I'icipiet si 1 decida, 
deux ans plus tard, en 1753, :\ quitter encore une fois ses enfants bien-aiim's, pour nn voyage 
en Franco qu'il avait resolu d'entreprendre pour le bien de la eolonie.' II voulait rend re 
compte ;\ la Cour de ses travaux, solliciter des seeours pour son etablissement et amener 
avee lui quelques missionnaires. 

Avant de partir, il reunit les sauvages de la mission, et lour proposa de lui donner pour 
compagnons de voyage trois des plus considerables d'cntre eux. Son but etait d'en faire, 

1 II partit dans le mois de juillet, et fut remplac6 durant queUjues mois par M. Etesson ; puis, i 1'autonnne, M. 
Ddpdret, cure de Sainte-Anne du Bout-de-1'Ile, fut envoytf comme missiounaire a la Presentation A la place de M. 
Picquet: son premier acte est du 7 octobre. On ne retrouve la signature de M. Picqnet que le ISjuin 1755. 
(Registre de la Presentation.) 



22 L'ABBti AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 

pour uiiisi dire, des otages, dc maniere a assurer la paix, durant son absence, a la Pre"sen- 
tation, par la crainte qu'auraient lea sauvages de ne pas voir revenir leurs compatriotes, s'ils 
so rondaient coupablos de quelqiies desordres. II voulait aussi, par la vue de ces sauvages, 
iiiU-iviwor los Francais It 1'u'uvre de leur civilisation. II voulait surtout attacber de plus en 
phis les Iroqiiois a la cause do la Franco, persuade qu'ils seraient enchante's de 1'accueil qui 
scrait fait la-has a lours compatriotes. 

On lui accorda volontiers los trois sauvages qu'il demandait, et il s'embarqua avec eux 
ct lion iioiuhrc d'autrcs passagors sur Y Al<j<>n<iin, un vaisseau construit a Quebec meme. 1 

!,<- Mitivaircs ilu Canada tirent sensation a Paris. M. Picquet sollicita et obtint pour 
nix uno audience a la COUP. " lls fiirent roi;us, (lit Lalandc, avec tant d'agrement et de 
lii.-nvrillanec. >|ii'ils in- ccssaient do ropetcr: " II serait a soubaitor que nos Nations con- 
nu nit an-.-i li'u-n <|iie nous le oaracterc et la hontc dos Francais : elles n'auraient bientot 
iin'iin nii'nie rii'iir c-t des iutiTets eDinniuns avec la France. 

Ihirant r-'in M'j.mr a I'aris. M. rici|iiet roinlit plus d'un service au Canada. A la 
..illiritatiiHi 'In mini-ire dc la marine, M. Kuiiille, il ecrivit quelques nionioirort, dans losc^iiels 
il i,r,ip.i-aii -li-- IIMVCH-. de mnserver a la France cette colonic. Cos ineinoircs oorroboraient 
,,.u\ di- M. ilc la . Jali-siniii'-re. ce prntectcnr et cet ami iju'il out tant de plaisir a retrouvor 
i-ii Fraii'-i-. 

II tii an i. 'lii I.ahinde. ses uliscrv at ions sur les liostilit.es que certains esprits inquiets, 
iiii|irudi'iit- i-t linmilloiis oci-asiniinaient dans le Canada." Jlolas ! pouvait-il trop insister 
-in- -iiji-t di'-lii-ai '.' N"rst-il |ias vrai ijuc la desunion, K's inuuvaisos m<Eiirs en baut lieu, 
rain-'iir I'tln'-in'- du ]ilai>ir. et >urtont I'ii^iDtage, tirent un grand nud il la colonie canadienne, 
dan- li- d.-rnii'Tcs aniu'-rs de lit domination f'rauriiise ''. (.\\\\ no regretta, aussi, le peu de 
ri>ntiaiii-<- '|iir I'oii moiitrii >o\ivent aux milices caiiiidieunes, ot I'liostilito gourde qui existait 
chin- i-ll.-- i-t l-s i-/-Lriiiu-nt- vciins directi-nient do Franco? 

('limn' ton- ]r.- linninies de valeiir. M. 1'ieqiiet iivait dos oniioinis, on plutdt des envieux. 
I..- prinri|i:d i-ninniis du mini-ti-re dc la marine, M. do Laporte, jaloux de I'impression qu'il 
l'ai>ait a In ('our et a la ville, "lui tit di't'onso do continucr it inontrer ses sauvages, et le 
n'-diii-it nn'-nif. dit Lalandc. a se justitier dc 1'itvoir fait." Le bon inissionnairc se consola de 
cos petitcs inisoros par los oncouragoinonts iju'il rccut a maintes reprises du ministre et du 
nii liii-nii'-iiii-. Ses travail x au Canada ctaient apprecios, ot on 1'engageait & leur donner 
i-iir.m- plu^ d'essor. Lors(|u'il jirit conge do Sa Majeste, Elle lui fit une gratification de 
mille I'M-US.-' Mais sait-on co ([iii tit le plus do plaisir a 1'abbo. Picquet? Ce fut le present que 
lui tit Louis XV. d'unc hihliothetjuc, d'un grand nombre de livres qu'il lui donna pour 
i banner ses loisirs an Canada: don vraiinont royal, ot qui faisait le plus grand honneur & 
celni a qni il etiiit contere, puiscpi'on le supposait capable de 1'apprecier. M. Picquet 
aiinait. on oflot, ot appreciait los livres ; 51 savait qu'on ne peut avoir de meilleurs amis, et 
quo deltrtant <lini, nn impediuntforis, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur.* 

M. Pictpiot quitta la France avec ses trois sauvages a la fin d'avril 1754, et revint au 
Canada, oininoiiaiit avec lui nouf jounes confreres, dont deux, MM. Magon de Terlaie et 
Delagarde, lui furont donnos comme assistants pour sa mission de la Presentation. 

1 Rapport HUT In Archive* du Canada, 1887, p. ci.xin. 

' Loan XV 1-ii donna *Dwi, pour ML mission, une statue de la Vierge, en argent ma wif, mesurant environ deux 
pieds ile hanlenr. Kile eat aujourd'hui dans la aacristie de 1'dgliae d'Oka. 
' fro Arrhid potto. 



L'ABBti PICQTJET. 23 

*** 

La paix d'Aix-la-Chapelle n'avait qu'assoupi, suivant Fexpression de M. de la Galis- 
soniere, la jalousie des Anglais en Europe, mais cette jalousie eclatait dans tonte sa force 
en Amerique. 1 Une compagnie s'etait formee dans la Virginie pour prendre possession des 
terres de la vallee de 1'Ohio. M. Picquet croyait si pen an niaintien, ou plutot a lYxistem-c 
memo d'une paix serieuse entre la Nouvelle-Angleterre et lc Canada, (ju'il proposait des 
1752 au gouverneur la formation d'un parti de guerre compose de 3,NOO saiivasres, pour 
allcr chasser les Anglais do la vallee de 1'Oliio, et combat t re les sauvages i(iii leur etaicnt 
allies, a- savoir les Miamis et les Cherokces. 2 

On ne donna pas suite ;\ son projet, sans doute par un respect exrcssil'dcs traiti's. Mais 
1'apfltre des Iroquois continua avee jilus de /Me qiie jamais a entretenir ee peiiple dans 
1'amitie de la France, ;\ auginenter et a fortifier sa mission de la I "resentation : et ]<>rsc|ii Yn 1 7.")4, 
les hostility's eclaterent entre les Anglais et les Fram;ais, dans la valliY de l'( HI'K.. avant in.'mr 
que la guerre de Sept ans ne tut ddclaree en Kurope, ses sauvages ne I'nreiit pas le> dcrniiT> 
a se rendre sur le theatre des dvenements et contribuerent hcaueoiip a la Iirillante vidoiiv 
de M. de Viliers au fort Xeeessite. Le vaimpietir rentra en trimuplie an furl I)iii|iiesne. i|iii 
venait d'etre construit. "Aiiciin pavillun anglais, dit Nf. I'arkiiian, ue tlottait [iln> di'-<>r- 
mais au dela des Alleghanys." ' 

Mais voila que le 8 juin 1755, 1'amiral Boscawen, avee une eseadre de i|iiai(>r/.e \-aican\ 
de guerre, rencontre sur les banes de Terreneuve deux navires IVan<;ais. et s'en einpare. sans 
combat, au mepris du droit des nations. 1'resquc en nienie temps, des eursaires anglais 
enl^vent plus de trois cents batiments de eommerci 1 qni navigiient sur la 1'oi des traiti's. Kn 
meme temps aussi, le 10 juin, 1'armee du general Uraddoek se met en maivlie pour t'randiir 
les Alleghanys. Le signal de la guerre est donne parto\it : et Louis XV se decide a envover 
des troupes au Canada. 

Braddock s'avance sur le fort Duqnesne, ([iii s'eleve a 1'endroit on la riviere Alli'tflianv 
et la Monongahela sejoignent pour former 1'Ohio. Mais M. de Contrecieiir est la. avec, ses 
in trepides lieutenants deBeaujeu, Dumas et Ligneris. 

On connait les incidents de la fameuse victoire de la Monongahela, a laijiielle M de 
Beaujeu a attache son nom. Cette victoire tut due en grande partic au concours des >au- 
vages; 4 et il est certain que la plupart de ees sauvages etaient la a la demande. et pour ainsi 
dire sous les ordres de 1'abbe Pic(piet. M. Duqnesne lui avait recommaiide d'envcyt-r le 
plus qu'il lui serait possible de detachements sauvages a 1'encontre du general Uraddoek, et 
le missionnaire avait mi? un zele incroyable a obeir aux volontea du gouverneur. Cet 
evenement (la defaite de Braddock), on le dut principalement, dit Lalande, aux soins que se 
donna M. Picquet pour 1'execution des ordres de M. Duquesne dans cette expedition. L'as- 
sii ranee qu'il donna ;\ ses sauvagcs qu'ils vaincraient 1'ennemi, echauffa tellement leur imagi- 
nation, qu'ils croyaient dans le combat voir le missionnaire a. leur tete les encourager et leur 
promettre la victoire, quoiqu'il flit eloigne d'eux de pres de cent cinquantc lieues. C'etait 
14, ajoute Lalande, une de leurs superstitions dontil avait bien de la peine ;\les fairerevenir." 

On le voit, M. Picquet n'e'tait present que de eceur ;V la Monongahela ; mais il assista de 
sa personne, comme aum&nier de ses sauvages, 4 plusieurs de nos expeditions contre les 

1 Hiitoire du Canada, par Garneau, t. i, p. 198. 
* itontcalm and Wolfe, t n, p. 417. 

3 Ibid, 1. 1, p. 161. 

4 " The Indians won the victory," dit M. Parkmaii. ( Montcalm and Wolfe, 1. 1, p. 223.) 



24 L'ABBti AUGUSTS GOSSELIN 

\nglais. II accompagna M. Marin qui commandait tin detachement envoyd par le gonvcr- 
m-ur vers Sanwto. " On briila le tort, (lit Lalande, lea (Stablissements do Lydius, plusieurs 
monlins a scie, les planches, lea madriers et antres bois de construction, lea amas do vivrw, 
les provisions. le troupeaux snr pri-s de quinze Hones (Habitation, et 1'on fit cent quarnntc- 

ciiu| prwonniera . 

A la prise d'Osw-.'iro pi>r Montcalin, M. Picqiiet etait la, nvec nn detachcmcnt de 250 
sauva.'.-s. Les forts ayant etc coiiipletcment rases, il s'avance an milieu lies mines, etplante 
tin.- irrande rroix snr la.piclle est gravce cette inscription : In hoc siijno vinctint ; et tout pivs 
, m p.. lean, aux armes ilc la France, avcc cette antrc inscription: Man i bus date lilia plev'i*. 

II v avail, .online je 1'ai d,-ja "lit, an su-ge dn fort William-Henry, prbs de millc >;iu- 
va"es. ,-lir.'-li.'iis et intidMes. appurtenant a .|iiarante et nnc trilius ditterentes. Les Iroquois 
,1.- la IV.'-. -illation, dn lae .!.* 1 )en x-Monta.i.'iies et de Caiiirlinawa.ija y etaient largcincnt 
r,-pr.'-''iit'-s. et ae,',,nipairi"'-s ].ar lenr niis<ioiinaire. M. 1'ieqnct. L'abbe Matlievet, un autre 
-iilpi.-i.'ii. y .'-Mil au--i. e.,iniiie aninonier de.- Xipissin.u's, et le P. Ronliand. coininc aninonier 
,|.- .\l' -naki-. t'es tn>i.- pivires as>istaient an grand eonscil dcs sanvagcs, tenu, sons la prc- 
sidrn.-e de M' oil. -aim. pn-dn .-amp de |{igand. snr les liords dn lac (Jeorge, la veille dn 
-i.'..',.. On v v..vait an--i !- ci(li<-ieiv eanadiens, anx.|iiels Montcalni avait confie le commande- 
ni. -Hi d- -;iiiva-:.-> : *le l.ravc et liardi Saint-Lne de La Conic: 1'intivpide Marin; Charles 
LniL'lad.'. '|iii avail .(iiitt.' -a f.-innie r-anvage-se a MiehiHiniakinac pour se joindre i\ scs 

,.,, ln]p;1 ,_ M .Tannes ; Niv.-rville. Langis. La I'lante. H.-rtel, Longueuil, llerbin, Lorimicr, 

Sabn-v.-i-. Fl.-iirinioi't. tmi- familiers. de|nii> lenr ciifancc, avcc les bois et les sanvages. 

Apr-- I'- eon-eil. lr- pivi re< pass.'-rent le reste de la joiirnec ii ciitcudreles confessions 
d. -- -aiivair-- '-lir-'l iens. Lr- >anvaL r ' > s pavens snspendireiit a nn potean nn vieil habit et line 
paiiv di- iaiiil>i'-r>- -<.iiiin.' Irilmt an inanitoii. Cela cinbarrassa, parait-il, les trois pretre> 
.iiii VMiilainit din- la iin--e. IU ne -avaieiit ]>as s'ils devaient celebrcr en jiresence de <> 
-a.-riti'-.' tail an d.'in'ii. et .ciiiiiiinnic|ii.''rent lenr doiite a Montcalni : u Micnx vant dire la 
in.---.' ili- la -Hi-it- ijiif di- ne pa- la dire dn tout," repondit le easnistc militaire. 

Sain'-Liii- tb- La Ci>rne. dm it je viens de meiit ionncr le noin, avait nn talent tout particu- 
lii-r p.. nr -.'iiiinander le- >anvai_ r es. An sii'-ge dn fort William-Henry, on I'appelait le general 
di- -.nivair.--. II .'tail <-n IT.'.'.i a la Presentation, pendant (pie les Anglais s'avancaicnt a la 
t'ni- il.- lY-t. dn -nd <-t d<- run.-! v.-rs 1.- e.-ntre de la colonic, Tcnscrrant dans un rcseau incx- 
tri.-abli-. II lut charge d'allcr a la rencontre de Ilaldimand, qui tentait de relever Oswcgo, 
et de Prid.-anx, ijiii vmilait attaipi.-r Niagara: et il niarcba a la tctc d'un detachement deniillc 
hi'innn->. Framais. Canadiens et sanvages. L'abbe Picqnet etait de la partie. 

La petite ariin'-e fait bieiitot son apparition an milieu des souches, de bnissons, dcs 
tr.nies d'arbres renvers.'s qui ciitonrcnt le camp d'Oswcgo. M. Picqtiet eommande alors a 
<;< braves soldats de se met t re a gciioux, lour domic solennellemcnt la benediction, pnis, leur 
adressant chaleureuscment la parole, leur recommande de ne pas fairc qnartier aux ennemil 
dc la patric. 

Ilaldimand cst pris par surprise. Bon nombre de scs soldats sont disperses dans la foret, 
oceujH-H ;\ couper tin bois pour relever le fort. Ceux de La Come en profitcnt, et font f. n dc 
toutes parts; la partie menace d'etre rude pour les Anglais. Malhcnrenseineiit, quclipies 
Canadiens. je ne sais a qnclle occasion, prennont 1'alarme, et courent a leiirs bateaux, rcnver- 
xatit a tern- M. Pieqiiet sur leur passage. M. Picquct se releve, plaisante ccs homines 
effun'-s, reint-t tout le motule n 1'ordre, puis le detachement va se poster d.-rrii-re nne rang.'c 
d'arbres, et Ton fait feu de nouveau sur 1'ennemi. 



L'ABBti PICQUKT 28 

Lc combat (lure deux heures avec un acharnoment incroyable. Les Francais le repren- 
neut le lendemain matin, bieu decides a ne pas reeuler. Mais Ilaldiinaud voyant qu'il ue 
pent venir a bout do leur courage, fait apporter ses eanons et les-cbarge ;\ rnitraille. Les 
soldats de La Come se sauvent alors vers leurs embarcations et disparuissent, apres avoir perdu 
tivnte tues et blesses, y compris deux officiers et La Corne lui-inemc, qui a rc<;u iiuc blcssure 
dans la cuisse. 

Ce fait d'armcs, auquel 1'abbe Picquet prit une part si active. Cut un dcs derniers ravons 
de la gloire militaire fram;aise en Anierique. 



Le sort de la Nouvelle-France est a jainais scellc : toute rAmt'riqiic du Xonl est main- 
tenant aux Anglais. Les course's apostoliquea de nos missionnaires, Ics explorations de nos 
bardie deeouvreurs, les travaux de uos hommes d'Etat et de nos iruerriers. tout cela cst a 
jainais perdu pour la France, et le vieil adage Sir n /m// /<;///* est unc I'ois de plus veritie. 
Quebec a capitule. De Montreal, M. de \'ainlreuil in'gocie encore avec les sauva^v^ pai- !< 
moycn de 1'abbe I'ieqiiet ;' mais le gt'iK'-ral Andierst, avec son arnii'e d'( )>\\-i'o-, ,. ,,,. tarde pas 
k s'emparer de tout le Canada. 

M. I'icquet tient bou a la Presentation jusqti'i'i la tin : le deniier acte si<fih'- par lui dan- 
le Registre de la mission t'st du 10 mai ITiiH. Mais eiitin il taut partir. car il ne pent sc 
resoudre ;\ prefer senuent de tidelite a une puiHsanee euneiuie de son pays.-' 

"II ne se decida a partir, dit Lalande, ijue de I'avis et ilu cciii^entenieiit du ^I'-in'ral. ile 
1'eveque ' et de rinteudant, t't lorsqu'il vit qiie tout etait di'sespi'n'. atin dene pas tomber 
entre les mains des Anglais." 

Le general Amberst s' in forme de lui. et apprenant ([ii'il est parti: ".I'di .-uis tacli,', 
dit-il ; cot abbe n'aurait jias etc moins lidcle an roi d'Angleterre, s'il lui avail une t'oi- preti' 
serment de tidelite, ([ii'il ne I'a ete au roi de France': nous lui aurioiis domn' toutenoifc 
confiance, et nous aurions gagne la sienue." 

Tons les Anglais ne peusaieut pas comme le general Andierst : un grand nombreavaient 
mis a prix la tete de M. Picquet. On raconte ijiie les sauvages se saisireiit un jour d'un 
officier anglais qui etait dans ces dispositions, c't 1'amenant a M. Picc|iiet. ils se mireiit a 
danser autour de lui avec letirs casse-tetes, attendant dc leur vem're missionnaire le signal de 
la decapitation. Celui-ci ue leur repondit (ju'en t'aisant grace a sou ennenii. 

On sait que M. de Levis ne se soumit ([ii'a eontrecu-ur a la capitulation de Montreal par 
M. de Vaudreuil ; il protesta surtout centre la clause (mi obligeait les soldats fran^aisamettre 
bas les armes et a ne plus servir durant la presente guerre. "II otfrait a M. de Vaudreuil 
de se retirer avee ses troupes sur 1'ile Sainte-IIelene ; il avait menu- I'esperauce, si la France 
ne pouvait rester maitresse du Canada, qu'on pourrait engager un grand nombre dc C'ana- 
dicns de remonter par les lacs jusqu'aux Illinois, et d'aller se fixer a la Louisiane. II se 
soumit cependant ^ la volonte de M. de Vaudreuil, et acceptales conditions qui furent impo- 
sees aux autres." ' 

1 Lettrea Mifiante.?, p. 47. 

2 M. Delagarde resta qtielques semaines de phis a la Presentation. Le dernier acte du Registre est signe par 
lui : il est du 23 juillet 1760. 

' M* 1 de Pontbriand 6tait alors a Montreal, oil il'mourut le 8 juin 1760 
1 Hiftoire du Canada, par Ferlaud, 1. 11, p. 605. 

Sec. I, 1894. 4. 



26 



AUGUSTE GOSSELIN 



M. Picquct n'h&ita pas a executer, pour sa part, la resolution concue par M. do Levis. 
Au lieu tie s'en retourner en France par la voie ordinaire, ou il lui aurait fallu rcncontrer Ics 
fnncmis do sa patrie, il prit le chemin des grands lacs, des Illinois et. de la Louisiane. 

" II espcrait, dans cette retraite, dit Lalande, eiuinener avee lui les grenadiers de chaque 
tmtnilliin, pour sauver ainsi les drapeaux et I'lioniieur de lour corps ; niais il n'en fut pas le 
maitre. II tut oblige de se contenter de vingt-cinq Francis qni I'accompagn&rent juequ'i 
la I/>uisiane. 11 avait avec lui deux petits detachements de sauvages, dont Tun le preeedait 
de quclqiics lieucs, et 1'autre raccompagnait, et ils ctaient releves successiveraent par de 
parciU dctaclieiiients. a niesiire t|u'il troiivait dittcrentes nations, Celle qui le quittait le 
reincttait a line autre nati.in. en le reconmiandant coinme un pere. Partout on Ini faisait 
des receptions admirahles ; partoiit il troiivait les sauvages dans les meilleures dispositions, 
el reeevait Iciir- | >n >t e-t a! 'n ms de /.Me et d'at taelieinent inviolable envers le roi." 

II v a .|tiel.|iie elinse tie vraiiueiit grand dans eette retraite<|iiasi trioinpliale d'un vaineu, 
par un elieiiiin dmit la longueur et la dilh'cultc etIVaient notiv imagination, avec des demons- 
t rat i. Hi- admiralilo de -vinpathie de la part de ees paiivres sauvages ijui dcvaient an bon mis- 
.-iiiiinaire ee ijii'lU avaient de ineilleiir. la tni et la civilisation. 

M. Pi. ( |iiet di-nieiira viniri-deiix inois a la N'ouvelle-Orleana, ou il s'employa ;\ pacifier 
1,- e-prits, et a raiueiier la enneorde ,|iii avail '>ti' graveinent compromise par eertaines diffi- 

cult.-- -iirvclillc- elitre le 1^1 ill N'el'liell r et les habitants. 



I >c return- i-ii France. M. |'ici|iiet v recut tonics les marques de respect et de considera- 
tion aiiX'inelle- lui doiinaient droit !<> ininienses services <(if il avait rcndnsa 1'eglise et ;\ son 
pa\ -. l.c- j. r 'iiiverneiirs, les g.-in'ranx. les ntliciers ijiii 1'avaietit connu an Canada ne cessaient 
de 1.. ner ..( \crtu-. ses irav:'.nx et sun nn'rite. M. Dnqnesne rendait hoinniagc a son grand 
il.-int.'-n--eiucnt : "11 s'e>t ivndii. disail-il. d'autant plus digue de notre reconnaissance, 
ijii il a mieiix aimer retoiiriier an Canada et eontinner ses services, ([tie de vivre dans sa 
|.atri<- et reciicillir I'heritaire de ses parents, qui 1'ont deshtirite, coinine nous 1'avons appris, 
p'inr n'avuir pas v.uiln restcr en France, il y a dix ans. lorsijn'il y vint accompagiie de trois 
sauvages." 

M. de Vaudivuil se plaisait a vanter ses talents pour gagner 1'esprit des sauvages, ses 
resources dans les nioiiieuts critiques, et sou activite pour tout ce (pii pouvait promouvoir 
les int.'-rets de 1'Ktat et de la religion. M. de Bougainville disait que son credit aupres des 
nations sauvages avait cte de la plus grande utilite pour les affaires militaires et politiques 
dn Canada. M. de Levis. (pii avait toujours admire ses travaux, son zi)le, son desinteres- 
seinent. ne cessait d'exciter son ambition et de 1'engager ;\ iaire quelques demarches pour 
arriver a une haute ]>osition, a 1'cpiscopat, par exemple, dont il le savait eminemment digne. 

Jamais il n'y vmiltit consentir. Ce grand homme (jui, comme nous venons de 1'ap- 
prendre de M. Duquesne, avait prefere perdre ses heritages de t'amille plutot que de renoncer 
il ses a-uvn-s en Anierique, qui avait ete oblige, pour payer ses depenscs de voyage, lors de 
son retour en France, de vendre les livres que le roi lui avait donnes en 1754, qui avait 
tnujoun* sacrifie en fiivcur de aes missions les petits honoraires qu'il recevait, n'ignorait pas 
qn'nn a toujours plus de vrai bunheur ;\ faire le bien dans des positions humbles et inode-tes 
que sur Iw grands theatres. En arrivant en France, il se mit a la disposition de 1'arche- 

1 Lftlrn t-KJIanlif, p. 66. 



L'ABBtf PICQUET 27 

vequc de Paris, qui 1'employa au saint ministere dans plusieurs endroits de son diocese. II 
denieura asscz longtemps au mont Valerien. 

L'Assemble'e generate du clerge de France, en 1765, lui oft'rit une gratification de 1,200 
livres, en reconnaissance des services qu'il avail rendus au Canada: cello de 1770 en tit 
autiint. II accepta avec reconnaissance, remerciant du fond du ccrur la divine providence 
de lui procurer ainsi le moyen de realiser un vd'ii qu'il avait to rim' depuis longtemps. 

Tout jeune, il avait desire d'aller i Rome ; inais les citvoustauces 1'eii avaient ompecbe. 
En 1777, il entreprit lc> voyage. La ronoimneo de ses vertus, de ses travaiix et de son 
merite 1'avait precede dans la Ville Eternolle. II fut re<;u par le soiiverain poutife avec 
unc bienveillance toute speciale, conime un missionnaire qui avait reiidu de irrands services 
a 1'eglise et a son pays. Le Saint-Pere, qui goiivernait alors realise, t'tait I'illustiv Pie VI. 
de la grande famille des Brasclii, cet hoinnu> de eu>ur et de <o'nie dunt les int'ortiiiies out 
immortalise la memoire. II ne se contenta pas de vaines paroles de louange,i, dc ti'lieitations, 
d' encouragement a 1'adresse de M. Picqnet : il insista ]icmr lui t'aire acce]pter une <rratiliration 
de 5,000 livrcs, sous pretexte de lui defray cr ses depenses de vovaire. 

On tit des efforts iuutiles pour reteiiir a Rome M. I'icqiiet; il reviut en Miv-se, son 
pays natal, et y apporta des rcliques, qu'il expo.-.a a la veneration des HiK-les dans 1'i'irlise 
collegiale de Bourg, dont il avait et/' fait diaiioine honoraire. 

Quelque temps apres, il se ivndit a ('limy, jioiir y visiter uu iieveii (|ii'il estimait 
beaucoup. Le desir de voir la grande al>l>aye <|iii a illustn' 1 ect endmii excitait ausr-i sa 
curiosite. 

II alia ensuite die/, sa sceur a Verjon, ou il avait a iv'^ler i|iiel(|Ues affain-s : et e'est l;i 
qu'il fut attaqiu'. successivemcut d'un rliume ojiiniatre, d'une liemorratjie et d'unc espiVe 
d'hydropisie qui le conduisirent en pen de temps aux portes du toinKeau. 11 moiirut le !."> 
juillet 1781 dans la soixante-douzieme aniu'e dc son age. 



" M. Picquet etait d'une taille avantageuse et imposante, ecrit Lalande. son ami. qui 
1'avait si bieu connu : il avait une physioiiomie ouverte et engageante ; il t'tait d'une 
humeur gaie. Malgre 1'austerite de ses mn-urs, il ne respirail (jiic la gaii'te ; il f'aisait ties 
conversions au son des instruments ; il etait theologien, orateur, poete : il cbantait et eom- 
posait des cantiques, soit en fram;ais, soit en iroquois, avec lesqucls il rccivait et iuteressait 
les sauvages. II etait enfant avec les uus, lu'ros avec les autrcs. Son indnstrie memc en 
mecanique le f'aisait quelquefois admirer des sauvages. Kniin, il savait employer tons les 
moyens propres a attirer des proselytes, et ;Y se les attacher : aussi, eut-il tout le succes 
qu'on pouvait attendre de son Industrie, de ses talents et de son zele." 

" Une pbysionomie ouverte et engageante," voili\ bien, on effet, ce que Ton remarque 
dans le portrait de M. Picquet, suspendu dans une des salles de la maison des messieurs de 
Saint-Sulpice, au lac des Deux-Montagnes. Mais cc qui frappe le plus, cependant, dans ces 
yeux vifs et pe'tillants, dans ces levres un pen dedaigneuses, dans tous ces traits, en general, 
c'est la determination : M. Picquet etait vraiment un bomme decide. II tend la main vere 
un objet, sa mission de Souekatsi, sans doute, et semble nous dire : " Voila ce que j'ai reussi 
^ faire,'malgre les contradictions presque generales des habitants de cette colonie." 



28 



I/AHBti AtKJUSTK GO8SHLIN I/ABB* PICQUKT 



NOTES ADDITION NELLIE. 

I'. 9, ligne 13"". Cette chapello Saint Koch est indiquee sar le plan de Quebec de 1720, par M. Chaussegros 
de Ury, ingenieur du roi. Kile etait situee i I'est de la rue Saint-Rocli actuelle, a peu priis A deux arpents au 
nord-oiiMt dn palais de 1'intendant. (Note de M. 1'abbe Rlieaume, du seminaire de Quebec, & 1'auteur.) 

Elle avail et.' r /nstruite, paralt-il, A 1'oceasion d'une epidemic. I8 recollets y faisaient quelquefoia 1'oflice. 

11 y avail aussi, dans le palais dc 1'inlendant, une cbapelle intorietire, ou le Chapitre de Quebec tHait tenu 
d'onvoyer un <le pretres, tons los dimaurlios, pour dire la messe. On appelait cet eccltteiaatique le Chapelain 
In Palais. (Docnments de Paris, Kglise du Canada-) I-es ehanoines songeaient, parait-il, a faire acquitter leur 
obligation pr nn riVollct ; inais cela nV-tait pas du gniH do 1'intendant Hocquart, qui e>rit au ministre le 23 oct. 
I7;;o : " I'n rbaiioine dc lY-gligp de (Jm'bec ni'a insinue cpie lo Cliapilre est duns le dessein de faire acquitter par 
un nVollpt la iniwM qim kxlit Chapitro et t^nu de faire dire au Palais par un des clianoines II convient <nie 
! < 'liapitrr r ..... pliss:- un si |>ctile nlilicatioii eu i'^ar.1 au don de inille ecus quo Sa MajesttS leur a fait. Le tempa 
d- !.i ni.-K-M- i>st a in-iifliiMiivK dn matin, M j'ui atlontion, ajouto 1'intendant, dangles mauvais tem| do 1'hiver, 
iri-nvnyi-r inn' r.iiinli- ;'i IVirli'niadtiiiuti .|tii vumt au Palais [XMir y dire la mc.sse." (Kajijiorl fur lex arrhirti </u 
''.,. ii /.i, IvsT.I 



P. II, \\fi\i- >n . M. l;..iii'lii-r iln I .a Pi'rii-rc rtait le. Ills do IViiNpi^ne liouclier de La Pe>iere qui prit part, 
piusieiirn ;inin-~ fi-iiiiUlioinin is caiui'liens, outro autres, MM. de Li IVrade, Dugue de Hoisbrillant, Des 
Cliiiuf'.iirs 1-1 I'.ii'in ille ;\ la fainuuse ex]*Mlition du M. d'llierville, il Terrenenve, dans 1'liiver de 169(>-97 : " I>e 27 
d,'- III'TI', le s nir de I .a l'i rii r t -, ranadicn, onwM^ne, forl bravo Immmo, va avec dix homines tl travers los bois an 
i-.iji Sain:- 1 r in.. ,i- .lui. nit de Saint -.lean par tern 1 de six lieues ... I-e I$n, le sieur de I. a Periero est de retour dn 
caji S.tinl-1 raiii.-ois, ui'i II a fait trei/.e prisonniera ...... " (./uurnn/ de Heaiuloin.) 



P. U, in;iie 1 . Proliablemenl M. Hubert do la MorandiC-rr, " SOUS-ingenieur i Montreal," auquel M. de 1 
i ..i' "..in- r,- |..irai^ait |> >rt.T interet, et dniit il est question dans deux lettres du gouverneur au ministre, en date 
du I" el dn '-'" " ' "'' 'i'e I . !>. ' e M. de la MorandiC-re eerivait liii-nii'ino au ministre le 4 octobre 1750 pour deman- 
der .le i'avan. ement, da'.aiit sa letlrn du fort de la 1're.sentatiun. (Rii/itturt fur Icnarchirex du Canada, 1S87.) 



. Ci-loron et lo P. do PxiiiiiiVanipK, revenant de lour voyage a la Belle-Hiviere, arritiirent a 
ri'tal>li!<M-iiii>nl d M. Piequet, et le tn.uv.'nint ineendie : " Kn cliemin, nous fimes lialte cbez I'abb6 Pioqiiet, qui 
eUii ['iir Inrs (7 MOV. 17^.') a Montreal. Nous trouvAmes son fort i moiti*'' brill^ par les Iro(iuois, envoyes, dit-on, 
;'i o-t ellet par ! Anglais. A I'nn ile angles du fort, il a fait const mi re une petite redoute dans le gout de celln du 
fort Sainl-.Iean. l.'inevndio 1'avait I'-pargneo." (Krlntinn du P. de Bonn^oamps ) " .le passai & I'etablissement 
de M. Pictmet.. S > fort avail ete brille depuis son depart pour le Montreal, par des sauvages, quo Ton jnge 
avoir et.' eiivoy.'s par li-s Ang'ais 'le Cliouaguon. Uno grange pleine de foin a et<i bru!6a aiissi, et 1'ospuce de 
redoute .(a mi iiaii.H 1'angle, d'un bastion a et<'- Hau roe, quoique le feu y ait <5t<5 mis il plusieura reprises. II n'y 
vait quc iroig bomiuc* a la ganle de ee fort, clout Tun a eu le bras emporte par un fusil qni lui a creve dans les 
mains i-n tirant mir i-eux qni un-ttuient le feu " (Journal de Celoron.) 



SECTION I, 1894. [ 29 ] MEMOIRES S. It. CANADA. 



II. C/ioiiarf ff I}((tl!*xnii. 



Pin- lo docteur X.-E. I)KXXK. 



c'- lc it ni.-ii l.-Mi.) 



Personne ne saurait contostcr anx Anglais I'lionm-nr d'avoir, Ics premiers, portc' Inirs 
pas dans les parages do la baie d'lludson. Dos 1'aimee llilO, lo oapitaino Ilcnrv Hudson, 
qui s'etait mis 4 1'emploi d'une compagnic de negoeiants tornn-c m viir de la di'eonverti' 
d'une route aux Indes oricntales, eiitrait dans la haic a la(|iirlK' il donna son num. en vi>itait 
la c6te occidentale et y passait tout 1'hiver. Le printoiups suivant, llmlMHi. tralii pai 1 
plusieurs do sos gons. y mourait do inisoro avoc son tils ot sopt liniiinics dc son ('nuipaLff. - 

En 1012, Thomas Button, gcntilhomme an sorvioo du pi-inoc llciu-i, partail sin- driix 
vaissoaux pour un voyago do dix-lmif uiois. II ontra dans la liaio d'Hudsnii i-t di'coii\-rit !< 
pays qiril uoiinua Cary- S wan' s- Nest ot Hopes-Checked.* Ktant ponssi'- par urn- viidonlo 
tempetc, il entra, lo 15 aofit, dans uno criipio (|u"d a|i[iola I'ort-Xol>oii. <lu noin du niattrodo 
sou navire. Button hivorna dans oo lion sauvago, i-t no ivtnurna on An^lotorro <|iic I'aiini'-i- 
suivaute. 

Jusque-la Ics Franijais n'avaiont i'ait ancnno ti'ntativo si'r'u-nso d'oxploration dans los 
regions arctiques. Eu 1541, Joan Alfonso, lo Saintongoais, piloto do Roberval, abaiidoiniauf 
la tlottille de Jacques Cartior, vors lo dotroit do Bollo-Ilo, tonta do s'olovi-r aussi loin i[iu> 
possible dans la direction du polo nord, inais il no paratt [>as avoir dopasso lo finquaiite- 
deuxiemc degro de latitude boroalo. 

Du temps de Champlain, Ton savait a (iuoboc (pie dos Kuroiioons avaiont naviguo dans 
la baie d'Hudsou. Cbanqdain 1'avait appris do 1'uii dos interprotes do la coinpagnie dos 
marc-hands aupres dc la nation algoiKpiino. Ktant a I'aris. durant 1'hivor do Iiil2, il ron- 
coutra cet interprete, uomme Nicolas du Vignan, qui lui tit nno longiio histoiro touchant 
1'apparition d'uu vaisseau dans la iner du Xord. II oxhiha memo aux yonx dc Champlain 
une carte dctaillee de ce pays inconnu et inexplore. Lc tbudateur do Quebec voulut s'y 
rondre, 1'ete suivaut, mais il renoi^a a sou projet a la suite dcs discours decourageants dc 
Tessouat, capitaine des Algonquiiis de File des Allumettes. Comme tons les Europcens de 
cette epoque, Champlain s'imaginait pouvoir arrivcr en Chine par un canal ou detroit reliant 
los deux oceans. Ce detroit suppose portait le nom de iner du Xord, la mer du Sud corres- 
pondant a 1' ocean Pacin'que. 

1 Continu^ du volume prc6dent, xi, 1893. 

2 Voir Purchas, filgrimf,"m, et Asher, Henry Hudson, pp. 93, 98, 136 et 139. L'ann&s pr&xdente, en 1609, 
Hudson Stall entr6 dans la riviere qui porte encore son nom, et a 1'embouchure de laquelle est situee la ville de 
New-York. 

' A 60 40' lat. n. 



30 



N.-E. DIONNK 



Eii 1657, Jean Bourdon partait de Quebec pour la baie d'Hudson, et si Ton en croit La 
1'otherie, il penetrait jusqu'au fond de la baie, et "liait commerce avec les sauvages de ce 
quartior." Tout nous porte acroire pourtantque Bourdon ne depassa point le cinquante- 
i-iiiqiiieine dc-rre. Du rente la ltcltii> do 1658 est categorique sur ce fait, 2 Parti de Qiu'ber 
Ir -2 dc niai, 1 Bourdon y rotournait le 11 d'aont 1 suivant. Or, il n'cst gnere possible de faire 
line parcillc toiirneo en trois inois seuloincnt. 

Kn l!t;i. les salivates du nord vinront a Quebec demandcr au gonverneur, le viconite 
I' Arirni-on. de leiir donncr un inissioiiiiairc pour lour precher 1'Evangile, et ils oftrircnt do 
ttaliiiurr Imr- p.-lleierics avcc les Franrais qui iraieiit ehez eux. Le gouverneur leur envoya 
1. - p.'-iv- Claude liablon <! (Jabriel 1 )ruillettos, Jesuit os, M. de la Valliere, gentilhomnie 
ipirmaii'l. I >nii- < iuvoii," (Suillaunic Couture 7 ct Francois IVlletier." Au lieu de prendre 
la vie ilu iroll'e rt de loiiL'cr les cotes du Labrador, comine 1'avait fait Jean Bourdon, ils 
i.-iuoiiti'-i-i m li Sau r uriiav par Tadmii-sar et ( 'liiroiitinii, travorseront lo lac Saint-Jean, et se 
rmdirriii ain-i par le- lac.- et les rivii'-rcs jusqu'au lac Xekouba, qui ost a mi-chemin entre la 

.rilu,|-,,ii ri I'mtn''!- ilu Sa^ueiiay. ' 1'artio do Quebec le 11 mai, '" 1'expedition fut de 
rrii'iir li ill juillri ;" rllr avait etc relardee trois si'iuaiiH's a Tailoussac. 

I. - -au\ai_ r '-- dr la baie d'IIii<Un revinn-nt a (Quebec en 1(563, et nollicitorcnt encore 
line i'. .i- I.- ^"iivrriiriir, '|iii i-iait Ir baron d'Avaii^'iir, di- leur onvoyer den Fraiu/ais. Guil- 
launir t'oiiiiire arn-pta d's alli'r par le- trrrr- avi-i- rinij lioiiinies, et il y alia eft'octiveinent. 
l.i il prit po-- inn i|r- Irnv- I'll \' plalitalil line rfoix. " II lllit ell tolTO, ail pied d'uil gl'OS 
ail'i' . ! - ;n nr - ilu roi. irravi'i-- ^ur du niivrc, onveloppeeH ontro deux plaques do plonib, 

' ! lie I'ei op r p. II' de.OUS." '"' 

i 1 1 pri-r di- po--er..-iim ollirirllr Coii t ure ay an t agi i'ii vertu du jiouvoir (jui lui avait 
i'ii' armrdi- an 1 1 "i ii dr la l - 'ranrr par Ir Li'oii \ i-riu'iir ilu Canada devait, dans 1' esprit de ce 
liaut toiirtionnaii'i 1 , rqiiivaloir a un titro do nupn'matie indisciitablo. La Franco, du reste, 
pouvait la rrvriidi'|iirr drpiii- le jour oi'i Henri I Y avait. en 1">98, octroye a Tro'ilus du 
\1. -^oiiet. -'n ur de la IJorlir. la liriitrnaiicc ^ein'raK- "du ('anada, Ilocbolaga, Terrencuve, 
Labrador. rivi''-rr dr la (Irandr Hair de Xorcinbi-gue et terros adjacenton desditen provinces 
i i ii\i''rr-." l>rpui- loi>. la France sY-tait tmijoiirs cniisidercc comine jiroprictaire de 



1 K.v-'iupvillii ill- la 1'otlierip, Ilinlniri- d, I'Amfrirjue trplfntrwiuil?, \, p. 141. 

" I.e 11 (aoui) parut l.i l>ari|iie ile M. Bourdon, leqiiel estaut descondu sur le Knunl Fleuve du cosW- du Nord, 
Mtfiia jiit-jin'8 an ' dvri'." Hilalion de I(>.">8. p. 9. 

" M. Bourdon leva I'uncru de tiui-ber pour lo voyage du Nord." Journal del Jhuitei, 1057, p. 209. 
1 Aout 11. -'A dix h. -lines du soir, urriva devant Qui'beo M. B mrdon de son voyage du Nord." Ibidem, 1657, 
p. '.'IS. 

' Mirliel I>'ntMif, Bieur de la Vallii-re ct de ISeaubiissin. 

' I>onis iiiyon eUit fil de Jean < iiiyon. Ne en Ki3'_', il mourut en 1685. 

; ( V-K-hro interpK-te et compannon du |K-re Joguwi. Mourut en 1702. 

I'l'lli-tii-r Ipouna rn proniivres noises Porotliee la Sauvagesse, qui mourut le 13 avril 1061. 

' Nekouba t'tait a environ (|uarante-cinq lieups du lac Saint-Jean, et a cent lieues de Tadooasac. Latitude de 
Nekouba: 49' yf, longitude: * 10'. " Lieu c^'li'bre, dit la Relation de 1662 (p. 17), a cauie d'une foire qui s'y 
" tient tous leg an." 

" L* 11 mai, parlirent jour la mistion de St-Fran v ois-Xavier aux Kilistinons, le P. Claude Dablon et le P. 
" Gabriel Druilleltea." Journal dn Jlmitet, 1661 . p. 296. La Potherie ne donne pas le nom du pre Druillettea 
dans lite den vnyaKOiira. 

" I* 1T7 juillet retonmtirent ceux qui estoient alles on pretendoient aller A la mer du Nord ou aux Kiristinons." 
Journal Htt Jituiltt, 10(il, p. 300. 
" R d* la 1'. itl.erie, i, p. 142. 

" litres patentee du lieutenant general da Canada et autrea Pays, pour le sieur de la Roche, du 12' Janvier 

, - 



CHOUART ET RADISSON 31 

ces immenses regions que les Anglais no firent que visitor dans I'intcrvalk-, sans y fonder 
d'etablissements stables. 

Le contrat portant reconiiaissanc'e des articles accordes par Louis XIII, en date du 4 
mai 1627, donnait i\ la compagnie des Cent-Associes, "entoute propriete, justice et sci- 
" gncuric, le Fort et Habitation do Quebec, avec tout ledit pays <le la Nouvelle-Franco, dite 
" Canada, tout le long dcs c&tes, depuis la Floride <jue les Kois prcdcccssoiirs de Sa Majostc 
" ont fait habiter, en longeant les. cotes de la mer jnsqnes an ('civic Aivti<|iie pour latitude, 
" et de longitude depuis File de Terrciienvc, tirant a 1'ouest jusipies an grand lac de la Mer 
" Douce et an dela, etc., etc." 

Le traite de Saint-Gertnain-en-Laye, du -it mars lii-'!2, restituait a la France \\\< !>> 
lienx occnpes par les snjets de la Grande-Bretagne, e'cst-a-diiv. 1'Acadie et la N'ouvelle- 
France qui comprenait le Sagnenay, le Labrador et les terres adjaeentes. telles ipie decrites 
dans les articles du 4 mai 1027, <|iii n'avaient souleve auciine protestation de la part <le la 
couronne britannique. 

L'edit de creation dela Compagnie des [tides occidentales, du mois de mai Iilii4.ini 
accordait la liberte du commerce dans le Canada, 1'ile de Terreneuve et les autre- lies du 
nord, etc. 

Done, en 1668, quand les Anglais vinrent arliorer leur drapeau sur les rives de la bale 
d'lludson, ils agissaient contrairement ;\ nn traite (|iii n'avait pas subi de revocation. Les 
sauvages, dn reste, reconnaissaient volontiers la snpreinatie !'ram;aise. et lors<|ii'en liJTn. 
Simon-Fraiu;ois Daumont, sieiir de Saint-Lu>son, alia au Saiilt-Sainte-Marie dans le but de 
negocier line convention avec les sauvages de 1'ouest et dn nord. pivs de vingt nation^. v 
compris les Cristinos, repondireiit a 1'invitation, cl s'engagerent par nn paete >oleiinel a 
accepter la domination de la France. 

Devons-nous admettre que la dcconvertc d'un pays <|ii'mie prise de possi-ssion ne suit 
pas de pros, ne constitue }>as nn titre de propriete ? l>u temps de la reine Klix.alietli, 
vers 1'annee 1580, rAngleterre s'effor^a de faire agree r cot to admission emume priueipe de 
droit public, lorsqu'elle resista aux pretentious des Espagnols, qui se disaient les rois de la 
mer, en vertu d'un privilege accorde par le souverain pontil'e. N'oici ce i|iic' dit Camden a 
ce sujet ; " De meme qne la reine Elizabeth ne reconnaissait pas le titre donm'- par I'l'vecjue 
" de Rome aux Espagnols, de meme elle ne leur rcconnaissait de titres <pie pour les lieiix 
" dont ils etaient en possession ; car, n'ayant aborde (pie ci et la le long des cotes, et 
" donne des noms a quelques rivieres on caps, tontes choses d'aucune portee, ils ne pouvaient 
" s'en reclamer pour faire agreer lours titres de propriete, excepte dans les endroitn ipi'ils 
u habitaient et qn'ils n'avaient pas eesse d'habiter." 

Les pretendus titres de Cabot et d'lludson tombent par la meme, car ce qui est juste 
centre 1'Espagne en faveur de 1'Angleterre, doit 1'etre egalement contre cette denuere on 
favour de la France et des autres puissances enropeenncs. La colonisation immediate on 
1'habitation persistante faisant defaut, il s'en suit que rAngleterre, en 1668, ne pouvait pas 
s'attribuer la souverainete des terres arctiques, ' pas plus qu'clle no pouvait interposer son 
autorite sur les sauvages de la Nouvelle-France. Ceux-ci, habitues qu'ils etaient <\ vivre ;\ 
c6te des Frai^ais et a trafiquer avec eux, se portaient plntot vers les postes du Saint-Laurent 

1 Camden, Rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum Annaler, regnanle Elizabeth. I^syden, 1639, p. 328. 
1 O'Callaghan, History of New Nelherland, ii, pp. 343 et 344. 



32 N.-E. DIONNR 

que vers hi riviere Hudson. Kxeeptons toutefoia la grande confederation iroquoisc, <|ui 
nympathisait avee les Anglais de la Nouvelle-Angleterre. 

Kn alhint a hi Imie d'lludson, les Anglais pouvaient bien y faire la traitc sans etre 
moh-st.'-s par personue, inais ils faisaient uuivre d'empi&tement Du reate ila connaissaient si 
pen lc pavs. qii'ils n 'y seraient pas alles sans lo concoura do Chouart, Ic soul capable de lea y 
eomluiri'. 

Mais repreiions le til de notre reeit. 

!,, .V. ii.tii'-l-. '|ui portait Choiiart et ses esperanees (U- fortune, s'eleva juaqu'a la hauteur 
.In -nixanti- ct i|uin/ii'-medegre, dans la haie de Baffin, et <U- la, doublant le cap Diggs, 1 eiitra 
dan- la l>aie d'Hud-mi. et s'y cnt'.>n;a, en ira.irnant K- sud jusqu'jl 1'entree d'nne riviere que 
]- -auvair<'~ avairnt liapti>i'e du imni dr N'eiiiiskau/ et que les nouveaux venua appeli-rnit 
rivi.'-r.- IJupi-rt. ni -mivi nir du prinri- anglais. Ils rapeivurent, le ^9 septembre, et yjetercnt 
l'an.-r.- a di-ux Ki'a-M- H dnnir d'cau. he !' diVi-nil>re. on tut suqtris par les glaces, et Ton 
pa--a I'liivi-r dan> i-i-t i-ndi'oit. in- Mirtant du navire ((lie jnuir aller chercher du bois aur line 
pi-titi- i!i- i_ r aniii- d- peiipliers dt- maigre \TIIIH-. 

( ',. n. t'ui i|ii'au |ii-inti'in|i~ i|Ui- lr vais<raii ]>ut s'uehapper de sa prison de glace, et que 
I--- Anirlai- tii-i-iii i-.iiniai>-ain-i' avn- K-s sauvages, grace a ('intervention de Chouart. Cea 
-auvai.'!-- .'-tai.-ut li'- ( 'ri~t iii"-. h-- Mon<nunis t-t an t res nations <[iii trafiquaient depuis 
plu-ii-ur> ainii-<-> avi-i- 1. - Knm<;ai- du Canada. !-cs Cristinos deiueiiraient sur la pointe 
in-i-idi-iitali- .|ui r.irnii- I'l-ntriM 1 di- la ri\ii-n- .Vt-iniskau. 

Mlii- dii .|Ui- " 1-1 tut m .T ii-ni]is i'l dans ci-t endl'oil i|in- s'i'talilit la premiere eolonie 
- aiiL r lai-i-. ijiii \ i-.iii-.| rui-ii mi ]ii-tii tori dr |iii'i-re, aiiqiiel It- eapitainc (lillain donna le noni 
.1.- t'. ift ( liarl.--." 

N..II- n'l-n i-.iiniai>Min- )>a- da\'antagi- sur i-rttr premiere e.xpt'dition de Chouart il la 
l.ai.- d'Hud-.n. 

I >an- l"mti-i-\ alii-. Iladi nil. di-iiit-uri'- Imii ten' nial gr/- en Angleterri 1 , n'i'tait pas reate 
ina. -tit'. Si--; ai-i-niiitaiu-es avn- >ir Knln-rt Carr et le prince Rupert, et son allianee avec la 
tilli- di -ir . I. din l\i-rtk.' alliain-r i|iii senilile n-iuoiiter a rette dpoque," lui perinirent d'inte- 
r<---i-r ;'i -'- pi-njet- il'i'tablissiMiit'iit plu>ieiirs |iersiuinages niarqiiants de Londres. II fit taut 
i -i I'ii-ii. i|u'il i-i-usr.it a coiistitiier en assoriation des eapitalistes entreprenants, dana le 
d<- eiii il'i-xplniier le- riehesses du pavs qu'IIudson avait decoiivert. ('ette eoinpagnie tut 
aiitnriM-i- par de- l.-ttrer. patentes du mi. dati'-es du '2 inai IliTO." La eharte debutait ainai : 

('iiiiiie imtre i-her e.iiisiii le priin-e Rupert, etc.. a entrepris ;\ ses depena, et avee dea 
" t'rai.- eniir-idi'-raliles. uin- expedition pour la baie d'Hudson, an nord-ouest de 1'Am^rique, 
" pour la di'-eoiiverte d'un uouvaii passage dans la nu-r du Sud, et de quelquc nouveaii 



anjounl'liui rap XVolfenliiittel. 

1 (Vile rivii-re appelie !!! JVrmuiatu/ptou, proud sa source an lac Nemi.skau. ' Cette riviere est furt \io\\f, 
linonii noin <lan la K.lntion <le \(>T2. .\\r est lur^ presqne <le demi-linne et plus en divers endroits, mais elle 
n>t pi l.inn pr.>rn.l<> ; elle vient <lu gmi-est, et hVteml au nord-ouest environ qnatre-vingUi lieiie ; elle e-<t fort 

rapid* *t wtracoiiptfe de dix-hnit s*nto \*> flux et le reflux entrent quutre lienes dann cette rivitire 

Non avoM IruaxY- .jne IVinlMniohure ost au rin<|iiantu-int! degr^ d'^l^vation." 

1 Ellw, Voyngt dt la Bayt dt Hudioii, i, 107. OMmixon, Brituh Empire, ed. 1741, i, 544. 

' Ce Kertk Cuit le degnendant de 1'un dn trois freres Kcrtk qui forcdrent Champlain do capituler, en 1029. 

* M. B. Suite dit : "I.Ydilnnr du manuscrit de Kadisson met en note, que ce dernier aViait marie en 1050. NOUB 
online* convaincn do contrair. D'ailleuw lea notes de IV-diteur en question gont souvent incorrectes" Le 
Canada- Franco*, novemhro 1SOO, p. 7(6, a 1'article intitule : Le pay, d,i grandi lac* au XVII' litcle. 

La compagnie s'mtilulait: " The Qorrrnor and Company of A'ltentuTeri of England, trading into lludton'* Bay." 



CHOUART ET RADISSON 33 

" commerce en fourrures, mine'raux on autres marchandiscs importantes, et que ces entre- 
" prises ont dej;\ produit des de"couvertes suffisantes pour encourager les participants a pour- 
" suivre leurs desseins, dont il y a apparence qu'il pourra revenir des avantages considerables 
" a Nous et & nos Royaumes, etc., etc." 

Pour ces raisons le roi accordait au prince Rupert et a ses associes,' le commerce et le 
territoirc de la baie d'lludson, comme privilege exclusif, a la seule condition de relever du 
chateau de Greenwich, dans le comte de Kent, avec une redevanee de deux elans et de 
deux castors noirs par an. 

Le premier fonds de la compagnie monta seulement a 10, ">00 sterling, on environ 
240,000 francs. Sir John Kertk souscrivit 300 pour sa part. Le comite de direction se 
composait de sept membres, etle prince Rupert, principal actionnaire. t'ut nomine troiivenicur 
de la nouvelle compagnie. 

La creation de ce monopole en faveur d'un petit groiipe dc favoris du roi. dcvait 
soulever une opposition terrible, qui dura pivs de deux cents ans. jusqii'a ce que les droit- 
et privileges de la compagnie furent am'antis par un arbitrage et mi acliat ri'^ulicr. 

Les motifs invoques contre les pretendus privileges de la compairnic se tirent de qiiativ 
chefs principaux : 1' la charte du 2 mai Ki70 ne t'ut pas ratitice par lc roi: 2' la eouroinif 
n'avait pas le droit d'accorder le monopole du commerce a des favoris : -'! la compairii' 
jamais rempli 1'iin des huts de sa formation, (pii ctaif la deconvertc d'un passage 
atteindre la mer du Sud ; 4" une partie au moins des territoires reclaim's par la conq 
avait ete donnee, en 1598, par le roi de France au marquis de la Roche. 

En 1847, parut pour la premiere tbis mi document dont le goiivernement anglai- 
semble jusque-la meconuaitre 1'existeuce. II Cut trouvc par liasard dans les Roles dc la 
chancellerie. 1 ' 1 Ce document etait la continuation douin'e. en lii'.H). a la cliarte dc lt',7o. 
La compagnie avait alors demande la ratification de ses privileges, parce qii'ellf avait compris 
que la gratification royale, en dehors de 1'autorite du parlcincnt, serait insuflisaiitc a so I'm-. 
Le parlement la con firm a dans tons ses droits antericurs. inais seulement pour une pcriode 
de sept annees, et la compagnie ne s'occupa plus de la chose a I'expiration de cc ternic. 

L'annee qui vit naitre la compagnie de la baie d'lludson, Jean Talon, alors intcndant 
de la Nbuvelle-France, ecrivait a Colbert une lettre qui laissu perccr son inquietude au >ujct 
des agissements des Anglais dans la baie ; " Yous pouvex, Monscigncur. disait-il. connaitrc 
" par le memoire que je donne au roi, qu'il y a des aventuriers CMI campagne qui vont a la 
" decouverte des pays inconnus, et a la recherche des choses qui peuvent ft re utiles a sou 

" Etat. A mesure que j'aurai quelque avis, j'en ferai partir d'autres 1'ar le retoiir 

" des Algonqnins qui hivernerent cette annee a Tadoussac, j'apprends (pi'on a vu deux 
" vaisseaux europeens qui cabanent (c'est le tcrme des sauvages) assex prcs de la baie 
" d'Hudson. Apre.s avoir bien repasse sur toutes les nations qui peuvent avoir perce jusipi'a 
" ce lieu bien nord, je ne puis rabattre que sur I'anglaisc qui, sous la conduite d'un nomine 
" DesGrozeliers, autrefois habitant du Canada, a pu prendre la resolution de tenter cette 
" navigation de soi fort inconnue et pas moins dangereuse " 

1 Parmi les societaires nous trouvons les noms suivants : le due d'York, le due d'Alhermarle, le marquis de 
Craven, lord Arlington, lord Ashley, sir John North, sir James Hayes, sir William Young. " Les premiers pro- 
prietaires furent: le prince Rupert, sir James Hayes, M. William Young, M. Gerard Weymans, M. Richard 
Cradock, M. John Letton, Christopher Wren, Esq., M. Nicholas Hay ward." Old mixon, Britith Empire, i, p. 645. 

' Ellis, op. tit., p. 108. 

3 Britith Document*, Accounts and Papers, vol. xxxv, p. 95. 

Lettre de Talon A Colbert, du 10 novembre 1670. 

Sec. I., 1S94. 5. 



34 N.-E. DIONNE 

Talon ponvait no dire aasez bion renseign<$ surl'expiMlition anglaise de 1668-69, conduite 
par Chonart. Mais il ignorait <|iie, dans le temps mome oil il communiquait sos infor- 
mations a Colbert, les Anglais avaiont. do nouvciiu penotnS dans la bale d' Hudson, guides 
eetto tois par les doux beaux-frcros. Kn ett'et. lo oapitaino Gillam y 4tait retourne pour tin 
denxioine voyage, on 1659, disent les mis, ' ot on 1H70, suivant les autres. II est certain 
tontefois <ino Clionart ot Radisson s'y rondiront on 1070. * Trois vaisseaux priront part j\ 
IVxpcdition. I'no tois rendu, I'eipiipago so divisa on doux gronpes : 1'un se fixa an fort 
Charles, ft I'antro sur Ics Kurds do la riviere Moose ou riviere a 1'Orignal. Radisson fit, 
a ee vovairo. "no coiirtc exploration do la rivioro Xolson, appolee riviere Bourbon 'par 
le- Frati'-ais ft /'.(.. <//V//"'o'/<'</""" ' par h-s saiivagos. 

Cc I'm durant riiiver de lti71-7J ijiie le jesnite Cliarlos Albanol ontroprit, dn oot(' do 
t^iii'lio.-. do - ivndiv a la nior dii N'ord par la voio dn Sagnonay, a travorw cette region <|iio 
(inillaiiino Coiitui'o avail parooiirno <|iioli|iios aiinoos auparavant. I 'art is do Tadonssao le 
J'J d'aout 1'lTl. lo iniioiiiiiiii-o ot sos donx coinpagnons de route, I )onis do Saint-Simon et 
I'lin do- til- do Coiitmv. i-taioiit |iai'\ cnus 1111 ]ion an-dola du lao Saint-Joan, apros (piin/.o 
j.iiir- dc na\ iiraiion ontroinoli'o do portagos. lorsijn'ils I'nrotit av-rtis par dos Mistassins qne 
diu\ na\ii-i-- I'taii-nt ain-ri'.- dans la liaio d' 1 1 iid.-on. ot (jiio dos lilaiios y t'aisaiont la traito 
a \i. 1.- hiili.-n-. Craiiriiant c|ti'oii no lui -n-oiiat dos ennuis, lo pon- Albaiiel onvoya anssit6t 
:'i (hi. 'In , \ ijii.'i'ir do- pa.-r-epcirt-. atin d'otro on I'oylo Icirxpi'il so pivsenterait a oos otrangors. 
I,.-- on\ u\ .'- prii'i-nt t i-i >i- -i ii lain i ^ a s'ni-qiiittcr <lo lour commission. Quand ils revinrent, le 
]o il',., i,,l.r.\ il ''tail di'ja trop tard IHPUP ooiitinuor lo voyage. On 1'ajonrna an printomps. 

l,o pivmier join- do jnin ItiTi!. le poiit di'taoheinont do Fnm<;ais, aiupu-l s'etaient joints 
-oi/.i' -anvatre-. i|iiittait \ata>oliogamiou sur trois oanois. Lo -X jnin, los oxploratonrs avaiont 
tiTinin.'- li-ur I'niguo ociiir-i'. et ils aporoovaiont, ee jour-la, dans uno petite rivioro <jni se 
d-'oli.u L'' 1 dan- la rivii-re N'"iui-kau. un lieu do dix on douxo tonnoanx avoo tons sos agres, 
et pMi-tatii le pavilion anglai> et la voile latino. '' I'n pen plus loin ils renoontroront donx 
raliaiie- ile -auvairos et la niais.in dos Anglais, qiii I'tait di'serto. Kntin ils apor<;nrent la baic 
dllnd-i>n. dont il- no -o la-soront pas do euntt inplor les lieautes ot 1'ampleur. Kvidoinnioiit 
1.- Anglai.-. '|iii avaiont liivorm- en partio an tort do la rivioro Rupert, avaiont o.vacno la 
place puiir retoiiriior dans lour pavs. 

l,c pi-re Alliauol s'cii rctoiirna an milieu des sions, ;\ Quebec, oil il fit un rajiport ciroons- 
talieie do sun voyage. 6 

Le pi re Cliarlovoix. rap]iortaut ootte expedition, eorit : " Lo T, Albanol fit en plnsieiirs 
einlroits des actes do prise de possession, suivant los ordros qu'il en avait, les signa avec le 
t-ieiir ile St-Sinn.n. et les tit anssi signer par los obofsdo dix ou don/.e nations sauvages." 7 

Clioiiiirt soluble etro retourne soul a la baio d'lludson, en 1673. Dans le journal do 
Tliomas (Jorst. secretaire do Cliarlos llaily. gouverneur de Port-Nelson, Ton constate quo, le 
3 avril HJ74, los principaux personnages de I'exp^dition, an nombre desquels se trouvait le 



1 Ynynytt of Prlrr t'jpnt Kndiuxni, Introduction, p. 17. 
1 /fciV/rm. Oldmixnn, Itritith Kmpirr, p. 551. 

1 Une lettrc, attribiu i l.'hooarl, dit qn'il changea de son nhef le nom de la rivifire Nelson en celui de riviire 
Kourhoo. 

4 Ce mot iirnifie Ueioente d< llrtngers. 

1 Mali.,* de 1672, p. :.". 

IbUtm. 

' Oiarteroix, Hittoirt dr ta XawtUe-Franei; liv. i. 



CHOUART ET RAPISSON 38 

" capitainc Groseilliers," deciderent d'envoyer quelques-uns d'entre eux a la riviere Moose, 
pour y acheter des pellcteries. 1 Lc niC'ine journal mentionne I'arrivee au fort Charles ou 
Rupert d'un miesionnaire jesuite, no de parents anglais, et portuur d'une lettre de M. de 
Frontenac a Charles Baily, dans laquelle le gouverneur de la Nouvelle-France expriinait le 
dcsir de voir lo jesuite traite avee tons les egards dus a sa qualite. Le missiomiaire eom- 
muniqua aussi a Chouart une lettre de sa faniille, vemlnt de Trois-Rivieres. 

Le depart des Anglais pour Londres cut lieu lo 22 de septembre, lejoiir ni( A> !iie qui vit 
arriver a la pointe Comfort le navire du eapitaine Gillam, le Prlm-c-Jinjiert, ([iii portait a son 
hord William Lyddal, le nouveau gouverneur de Port-Xelson. - 

Chouart retrouva Radisaon a Londres, et. mdcontents de la inanii're dont la eoinpagnie 
les avait traites, ils resolurent d'accepter les o it res avantageuses de Colliert, et tuns deux 
passercnt en France. 



La Mere de PIncarnation ecrivant a son tils,' 1 le 27 ;u>ut 1(170, lui disail : " A sun ivtmir 
" en AngU'terre, des Groseillers a rcru vingl inille eeus de recompense du r<>i (|iii l'a I'nit 
" chevalier de la Jarretiere,' que 1'on dit etre une dignite fort honorable ; et 1'mi ;i fait une 
" gazette en Angleterre pour loner ec't aventuricr l'ram;ais." 

Chouart n' avait pas encore, <\ ccttc date, reueontiv' 1 les dillienltes <|ui I'assaillirent pins 
tard, lesquelleg devaient aiuener nne rnjitnix' avec la eoinpagnie de la l>aie d' Hudson. Sa 
qualite de Fraiu;ais devait neeessaireinent lui attirer do.scnvieiix, et une tuis (pi'il eiit enseigne 
aux Anglais le eliemin de la liaie, eeiix-ei pouvaieut se passer ]ilus lacileinent de ses services. 
Toutef'ois il est assex etrange de eonstater avee quelle iiidittV'renee ('liniiar! el Kudisson 
quitterent leurs aneiens allies, (|iiand on salt que le premier reriit les Imnneiirs de la ehe- 
valerie, et 1'autre la main d'une anglaise apjiartenant a une tamille de haute distinetiun. I>e 
graves raisons les induisireut sans doute a Itriser des liens aussi ]iiiissants. 

Quoi qu'il en soit, Chouart et Radissou se rendirent a I'aris an mois d'octoln-e I(i74. 
Colbert leur tit un excellent aceueil, et il s'engagea a tenir les pnunesses i|u'il leiir avait 
faites de les degrever de tontes dettes, et d'obtenir du roi leiii- ]iardon pour les t'antes de leur 
vie passee, enfin de leur payer coiuptant (juatre cents louis d't.r. Le tout sans prejudice 
d'un emploi lucratit'. Tout vint a point, a 1'exeeption de 1'emploi, qne C'olliert liesitait 
encore a leur accorder, a cause de Radisson, dont le manage eonstituait une mauvaise note 
aux yeux du ministre. 1'robablement en vue de se debarrasser de leurs obsessions, Colbert 
leur conseilla de se rcndre a Quebec, et de s'y entendre' avee le gouverneur touchant leur 
sort futur. Ils y allerent done, mais trouverent toutes K's avenues t'ermees, taut a raison de 
la jalousie des marchands que par I'inditterence de M. dc Frontenae, qui subissait 1'influence 
do son milieu. 

Radisson se separa de son beau-frere, pour retourner en France. Chouart demeura 
dans sa famille, a Trois-Rivieres, attendant des jours meilleurs. Rendu en France, Radisson 
prit du service dans la marine, sous Jean, due d'Estrees, vice-amiral de France, qui venait 



1 Oldmixon, i, 552. 

2 Journal de Gorst, cit6 pat Oldmixon, i, 554 et feq. 
s Lettre 84 e , p. 619. 

4 Ordre de chevalerie institue par Edouard III, en 1349. II ne conaptait q'ie 25 membres, non compris le aouve- 
rain, les princes du sang et les princes Strangers. Les chevaliers portent, entre autres insignes, une jarretiOre bleue 
4 la jambe gauche ; la reine la porte au bras. Bouillet, Dktionnairc d'histoire et de gtographie. 






36 N.-K- I>IOXNK 

de recevoir 1'ordre d'aller dans les mere d'Amerique avec une escadre de six vaisseaux et 
trois frogates pour v fa ire la lutte eontre 1'escadre du vice-amiral hollandais Binkes. Arrive 
en Ameriquo, en decembre 1676, d'Estrees debuta par reprendre Pile de Cayenne ' dont les 
Hollandais s'ctaicnt cmpaivs. A mois de fevrier de Pannee snivante, il cingla vers 1'ile de. 
Taba-ro/ dans le port de laqnelle so tronvait embossee 1'escadre de Binkes. Durant le combat 
iini s'oiisnivit. le fen so communiqna an vaisseau amiral, et d'Estrees dut la vie a un nomine 
Border et a nn matolot. Co no fnt qu'a la tin de decembre 1677, que le vice-amiral francais 
i.nt -Ymparer do Tabasro. Apres ce premier succes il voulnt enlever aux Hollandais Pile do 
Cnni'-ao. la dorni-iv qu'ils possedassent <lans los Antilles, mais son opiniatrete et son inex- 
perience maritime anieiiorent une eatastropbe epouvantable. Les dix-sept vaisseaux qui 
fiirmaieiit -on c-eadre tonelieivnt pendant la unit, an mois do mai 1678, snr les rocbers des 
ile-d'A\e-. I'n -ciil vais-cau. 11110 (Into do charge, deux lirnlots et PhApital de 1'armee 
.'cliapp.'-rciit an nanlVaLTe. II- serviroiit a reciieiUir los equipages, avec 1'aide du celebre 
tliliu-tii-r Cramiiioiii. '|iii -urvini fort a propos. Radisson nous dit qu'il aborda a Brest, de 

t * \ ' ' 

Apri-- avoir - 'join-in' i|iicl.|iie temps on France, 011 la eour lui accorda, snr la recom- 
iiiaiidatin dc .lean if K-i ivc-.' une gratification do cent lonis d'or, il obtint la permission 
d'aller \oir -a feinme <-n An^letorre ot do Timelier en France, s'il y avait possibilite. II arriva 
a I. '!idr.'-. li I jiiillet lt;7;i. ei il en ropai'tit an commencement de septembre, apres avoir 
\ainiinent -ollicite de .-on l>eau-peiv. .-ii- .lolm Kertk. la favour d'amener sa feinme avec lui. 
l"ot;iit DM inallieiir -|ui I'm une des cause'- do >a disgrace. II en ressentit le contre-coup a 
-a pi-i-niii'i-e ontresiie a\cc Ic mar<|iiis do Soignolay, ' qui lui reproelia son trop grand attache- 
meiit a 1 Aii'_ r l"!ci re. Colbert Ini tint a pen pros le ineine langage, et il le renvova anpres de 
Itelliti/.ani. agent d'affaires du ininistre. Cclui-ei lui tit part des intentions de son maitre. 
l.c p.irti le pin- -aircpoin' Itadis-on I'tait. d'apres Colhort, de s'entendre avec M. de la 
Clionayo, ni'-gociaiil do (^ni'bec, alm-s on promenade a 1'aris. 

I.'cii! i'c\ no jii-'ipo-i'-e out lion outre les deux Canadieiis, suivant le desir formule par 
Colbi-ri. II Ini eonvenu outre oiixijiie Kadisr-on irait d'abord a Londres pour engager sa 
leiiinic a pa--or en l-'rance. et >'y ciujuerir dos agissenicnts de la compagnie de la baie 
d'Hiid-iui. II eoimit aii--itot a Londros. Tout lui oeboua, et il n'ent pas meme la conso- 
lati.in do voir ;i.-oopter .-o- services par ses aiicieiis proteetenrs. Rebate, Radisson retonrna 
a 1'ari-. et n y troiivant pas M. do la Clietiayo," deja parti ponrle Canada, il tit ses adieux a 
Colliert. oinprnnta qiiclqiio argent des josuites, et conrut s'embarquer a la Rochelle sur un 
vaisseau <pii t'aisait voile pour Quebec. 

' \f Hollandais ne la gardt-rent qu'un an. 

1 TabRo eat une des Antilles anglaises. De IWWia 1781, elle appartint absolument aux Anglais et aux Hol- 
landais. 

1 \''>i/<i,j, i of P. E. Rodvton, pp. 251 et 252. 

1 Jean d'Kstrta fut nomm^, en 1681, niar.'<-lial de France. II e'tait le premier marin frangais qui ait 616 revfitn 
de cette digoit/-. Nomm6 chevalier du Saint-Ksprit et vice-roi d'Am^rique, litre, du reste, purement lionorifique, 
il fat entin charge du gouren.emeDt .le la Bretagne. 

J.-B Colbert, marquis de Seignelay, fils atn<i du prand Colbert, remplaca son pre au ministfire de la marine, 
en 176. II moarut en IG'.iO, i l'4ge de 39 an*. 

'harlw Anliort, nieur de la Chenajre, commis g^n^ral de la Compagnie des Indes occidentales, ('tail n en 1030, 
A M mort, arriv'-e en 1702, il laisM une nombreuse posUSrit^. Mari^ trois fois, il eut de ces diverses 
onioos 17 onfanU; pluaieun de ses Biles furent religieuaes. 



CHOUART ET RADISSON 37 

Radisson arriva a Quebec, le 25 scptembre 1681. Chouart uc s'etait pan abnente du pays 
depuis le depart de son beau-frere, six ans auparavant. II n'etait plus jeune il avait attuint 
ses soixante ans mais le retourde son ancien compagnon d'aventurea lui fit retrouvcrlcgout 
de sa vie d'autrefois, et il n'hesita pas un instant a ott'rir ses services a M. de la Cbcnave. 
Celui-ci etait un marchand a 1'aise, et il pouvait risquer ties capitaux dans une entrcprise 
qui pouvait avoir une issue heureuse. Le commerce des fourrures a]*]iortait sotivent de <TOS 
benefices. Tout dependait de eeux qui s'y livraient ; s'ils avaient le talent de s'attirer la 
confiance des sauvages, s'ils parlaient leur langue, les chances leur t'taienf beaiicoup phis 
favorables. Chouart avait une longue experience jointe a une habilcte Imrs liirne. ("c'-tait 
un honime spirituel ; " il fait I'homine d'esprit, ecrivait la Merc dc 1'Incarnntion, eoniine 
en eft'et il en a beaucoup." ' De son cote, Radisson etait 1'activite en peisonne, et les scrn- 
pules ne derangeaint pas ses plans. Connaissant son sauvage connne pas un. il pmivait lenir 
tete, par la ruse et la fourberie, an plus ingenienx des Iroquois. 

Tons deux reussirent a persuader M. de la Clieiiayc <|if il y avait des pi-ntits a ri'ali>er 
dans le trafie avec les Cristinos. II leur pn>niit un vaisseau. pmn 1 le printeinps suivant. l,e 
plan etait fju'ils se rendraient immodiatemont a IVive sur le vaisseau en parlance dn xi\- 
verneur de 1'Acadie, qu'ils y passeraient 1'hiver pour prendre ensuite la route (!< la l>aie 
d'lludson. Frontenac leur accorda trois excellent^ compa t u:nons. dans la persoimr dc .Iran- 
Baptiste Chouart, lils de Medard - et neveu de Radisson, 1'icrre Alleiiiainl, pilot, rxp.'i-i- 
mente, et Jean-Baptistc Qodefroy, bon iuterprete. 

Radisson partit le 4 novembre avec scs trois honiiucs, laissaut a Quebec son beaii-l'ivre. 
qui devait le rejoindre an moment dn depart de I Vive, a la cloture de 1'liivcr. I^c \ai>-eau 
promis par Aubertde la Chenaye arriva an lieu et an temps dits, et Clioiiart vint a <<>i\ tour 
sur une barque de trente tonneaux, avee quin/.e homines d'equipage. 

Tout etant pret, les deux petits navires- cinglerent de 1'erci', le lljnillet lii^^. l,c 
voyage ne se tit pas sans quelque desagrement. Ce t'ut d'abord 1'equipagc <|iii. a tout instant. 
mena^ait de se mutiner, et <pie Ton ne n'nssit a pacifier qu'a turce dc pro messes et d'at lent ions. 
et pnis les glaces entravaient la marclu 1 des vaisseaux. Radisson arriva le premier pivs de 
la c6te oecidentale de la bale d'llndson, le -li aout. apres six semaines de navigation. 

Le 7 septembre, Chouart rejoignait son beau-frere, et tons deux entrereni dans une 
riviere appelee Kakionakiixi par les Indiens. :i 11 leur fallnt s'avancer jnsqu'a line profondeur 
de quinze milles avant de rencontrer un etidroit propicc ponrymettrc leur tlottillc en sfirete. 
et pour y construire une habitation a proximite. Laissons Chonart a eette bcsogne. ct 
suivons 1'autre travers les bois, ;\ la recherche des sauvages. 

Radisson, son neveu et un autre Fram;ais, s'etant done mis en marche, remonterent la 
rivifere sur un parcours de quarante lienes, sans en rencontrer un seul. Le hnitiemc jour, 

1 Lettre 84 e , p. 649. 

2 Jean-Bapliste 6la.it 1'aine des enfants issus du mariage de M6durd Chouart avec Marguerite Kadi^8on. Us 
eurent, en outre, quatre filles : Marie-Anne, n<5e en 1054 ; Marguerite, n6e en 1657, moite 4 7 ans ; Marie-Antoinette, 
nee en 1601, mariee en 1C79 4 Jem Jalot et en secondas noces i J.-B. Bouchard ; Marie- Jeanne, nee en 1662. Jean 
Jalot <5tait surnoram6 des Groseilliers comme son beau-pere. II 6tait chirurgien et residait i Kepentigny. En 
1690, Jalot fut tu6 par les Iroquois, avec plusieure autres, au bout de Pile de Montreal. 

3 La Potherie 1'appelle Penechiouetchiou, et les Francais lui donnaient le nom de Sainte-TV-rtae. J^i^mie la 
nomme Pinatiouelchicouen, ce qui signifle riviOre rapide. D'apres Radisson, Kaklovtikina veut dire, les voili qui 
viennent Cette riviere fut baptise sous le nora de Hayes par les Anglais, en memoire de Pun des directeure de la 
Compagnie de la baie d'Hudson. Elle est situte il 57 30' lat n., et n'est 8e"parede la riviere Nelson ou Bourbon A 
son embouchure que par tine bande <$troite de terre. 



38 N.-K. PIOXNE 

an moment on ils se reposaient sur un ilot, ils apercurent un Indien a la pourauite cl'un 
carilion. Hadisson s'etant avance pour lui adresser la parole, il se sauva dans la profondeut 
dii bois. Lo leiidemain on vit a la pointo de File nenf canots qui se dirigeaient vers eux. 
Kadissou apostropha les suuvages dans lenr langne, et parvint aussi a se rapprocher d'enx, 
ct a sYn Cairo dos amis, an moyen de eadeaux. Cette premiere rencontre leur valnt troia 
cbarsres do canot do pelleteries. 

(Y iin'-ino jour, H soptembrc, 1 Velio do la to ret retentit du bruit des canons, an grand 
otoniionioiit dos oxploratoiirs (|iii so croyaicnt souls dans ccs lieux lointains. Radisson courut 
dans la direeiiiiii d'ou semblait vonir cot etrange tonnerre, et il n'apereut d'abord qn'nne 
t.-nt.' -ur iino ilodo la riviere K>ninirinn(/nir,([\i\ ooiilo a environ trois licues de la Kakiouakinn. 
M:ii- il in- tanla pas a remarqner nno polito bande do blancs, dont Fun, parlant ;\ dos 
aiivairo-. pi-iiiini)i;ait dos mots t|ii'il lisait dans un livre. Radisson. qui se trouvait avec son 
,--.-.>rt.- di- 1'aiitiv out i- do la riviere, lour adrossa la parole on sauvago d'abord, puis en 
IraiH-ai-. I. a r-'-p 1 >iiso >o taisant alioinlro, il i-oprit on langne anglaise. Cette fois, il fut 
.iiipri-. >-t 1'- iM'iivoaux vi-nus di'olaroroiil i|ii'ils vonaiont do la Xouvelle-Angleterre, sans 
d.-l.'-ira'i"ii "Iti'-ii-llo. I/ i-liot' do la liamlo t'tait Benjamin (lillam, rtls de Zacbary Gillani, 
I'an'-ii-ii '-ai'iiaiiM' dii .Y"n>''''-/'. Hadissmi. ipii oiinnaissait lo tils aussi bien que le pere, le salua 
avi-o la plus irrand' 1 |"ilit<-s>o. mais il s'oii lint la. (\-pondant il crut devoir ajouter qu'il 
l.-r.i'u inii-u\ di- >'on ri-tnin-iioi 1 ;'i l>'iiMi, vu quo la contrebande n'otait pas pins pennise h la 
liair d'Hiid-'iii i|iio -iir !'- cote- ilu Nfiissaobusetts. Kt puis tons deux se separorent sans 
pin- ili- i-i-ri'iiiuiiio. 

lladiini roiimiila la rivii-ro Kumilrii niijinr jusi|u'a trois liouos plus liailt. Quolle lie flit 
|.a- -a -!Mp.'-t'ai-iii>ii i-n aprivi-vant mi naviro i|iii s'avau<;ait toutes voiles dcbors ! II fit 
alluiiHT un iri-M- t'.'ii atin dr .-ignaliT sa pn>oiioo. Lo oapitaine s'oni[irossa de jeter Fancre, et 
i-ii\i'\a un i-aimi a ti-ri-i-. Six linmmos saiitoront sur lo rivago. I'arini eux se trouvait M. 
Hridgt-r. ouvoyi- par la oninpagnio. ot. ooinriili-noo ouriouse, le capitaine du vaisseau anglais 
'tail /a.-liarv < lillam on por-muio. l/ont n-vno Cut ooiirtoiso do part ot d'autre, mais pas tres 
amioali-. Ka'li--on li-ur dit i|ii'il avail pris pussossiuu du pays an nom de la France, et qu'il 
avail a i-/. d'homim-- ot do oamms pmir oliassor tons los Anglais, qn'ils fnssent de Londres 
u ilr 15. i-i. in. l'ui> il li-nr raooiita millo liistoiros de son invention sur la force de son 
arm.-.-, ^ur -*\\ lorl laisso a la oliargo do C'liouart ; il tit briller a lours yeux tout Favantage 
qu'il -anrait tin-rdo >on alliaiu-o avoo los sauvages do la baie. Bret', il reussit par ses exage- 
rations a on impnsor an noiivoan gonverneiir do 1'ort-Xolsoii. 

IVndaiit oo tomps. los Anglais do Boston se tortiiiaient au lieu ou Radisson les avait 
roiioontr.'s. Coqiie voyant avec crainte, il rosolut de se rendre matt re dcleur poste, maisplutot 
par la ruso qii'a main arinoo. Son premier plan d'attaque fut d'amener le jeune Gillam au fort 
fram,-ais ot do I'y rotenir sous divers pretextes pour Fempecher de communiquer avec son 
IK? re ot Bridger. C'est oe <|u'il tit prosfjuc sans aucune difficulte. Puis en Fabsence du 
mail re, il alia attaqner le fort des Bostonnais, et s'en empara sans coup ferir. Un Ecossais, 
qui avait refuse de se livrer, eourut avertir Bridger de la conduite de Radisson. Mais, 
foluw-i reniln pins audacieux jiar la peur d'une surprise, n'attendit pas qu'on vint le eoramer 
!> delivrer le jeune Gillam et sa troupe. Proliant avec lui une douzaine de bons hommes, 
il coiimt mis a FAnglais de Londres, desarma F equipage en un tour de main, et revint 
vietorienx aupres de s<m bean-frJ-re anxieux. 

L' Anglais et FAmurirain n'etaient plus leurs maitres, et la France rentrait dans ses 
dmitM, en fauant reconnaTtrc son autoritc aupres de ces intrua. 






CHOUART ET RADISSON 39 

Le restc de 1'hiver ne hit plus qn'une longue succession do mulheurs pour les equipages 
de Gillam, pere et fils. Quatre de leurs hommes moururent de faim, en courant les bois. 
Deux s'empoisonnerent par accident; un autre sc cassa un bras. Bridger, de HUH cflte, 
charmait ses nombreux loisirs en caressant la dive bouteille. ' Quand le printemps arriva, 
la debacle brisa le navire de Zachary Gillam. Touches de cos malhcnrs inintcrrompus, les 
Francais s'offrirent a lui preparer une grande barque pour sou retour. Bridircr ne vonlnt 
pas conrir les risques de la mer sur une aussi frele ombarcation, et il prcfera pn-ndre passage 
sur le vaisseau fraii9ais. Quant a Gillam, fila, il etait entendn qu'il suivrait les antres a 
Quebec, dans son propre navire, quo les Fran<;ais lui avaient eontisi|in'. 

Le depart de la baie d'lliulson cut lieu le 27 jnillet. IFnit Fram;ais v rcsterent. sous la 
conduite de Jean-Baptiste Chouart, a tin de former une eolonie stable. La flottillo arriva a 
Quebec :\ la fin d'octobre, nousans avoir eprottve de longs retards de navigation. Le l-Ybvre 
de la Barre, qui etait alors gouvernenr de la Nouvello-France, tit restituer an jeune <!illaiu 
son vaisseau, tout en lui conseillant de ne plus remettre les pied< a la baie d' I ImUon. lii-id^er 
partit avec Gillam pour se rendre a IJoston. et de Boston en An^leterre.- 

L'acte de clemcnee du gouvernenr de la N'oiivelle-France a l'i'<;ard du jeune (iillam. I'm 
blame a la cour. M. dc Seiguelay lui eerivait le 10 avril suivant : 

" On no saurait s'imaginer ce quo vons ave/. pivtcndu, lorsijiie. de votre autorite, san.- 
" appeler I'Intendant, et sans porter 1'atlaire an Conseil soiiverain. vons ave/. tail reiidre an 
" nommc Guillin, dc Boston, un batinient pris par les noninii's liadisson et Des^roselier-i. et 
" en verite, vons dcvez eviter (pie ces sortes de [irofi'duron dans lesijiielles il n'y a point d,. 
" raisons paraisscnt devant les yeux de Sa Nfajeste. Vous ave/ menu' fait en <> la une <-ho-e 
" dont les Anglais sanront bien se prevaloir, puisijiie vons ave/. tail rendre. en vertu de 
" votre ordonnance, un vaisseau qui, dans la re<>'lc'. devait etrc regarle commc un forban. 
" n'ayant point de commission. Et les Anglais ne inanipieront pas de dire (pie voiis avex 
" si bien reconnu quo ce vaisseau etait muni des expeditious in'i-essaires. ipie vons l'ave/. 
"fait rendre an proprietaire, et pretendront par ce moycn fa ire connaitre (pi'ils out pris 
" une possession legitime de la riviere de Xelson. avant (pie Icsdits Hadissoii et Desgroseliers 
" y eussent etc, ce qui serait tres prejndiciablc a la eolonie." 

Cette lettre severe avait sans doute etc inspiree jiar Cbonart et Kadisson. ipii s'i'taient 
transportes en France, a 1'automne qui vit leur retour de la baie d'lludson. Kn arrivant a 
la Rocbelle, ils avaient appris la mort de Colbert, a la deraande diii|Uel ils avaient entrepris 
ce voyage. Ils etaient ;\ Paris eu Janvier 1684. Lord Preston y remplissait alors les tbnetions 
d'ambassadeur delegue par 1'Angleterre, et il avait porte plaintc contre ia conduite des 
Frangais dans la baie d'lludson. Appelcs a se justitier, les deux beaux-treres s'en aeimit- 
terent victorieusement. "Loin d'avoir ete bhune, ecrit Radisson, je pnis dire, sans me flatter, 
" que je re9iis uue complete approbation. Je ne dis pas quo j'aie merite des elogcs, mais je 
" me suis eftbrce, dans tout ce que j'ai fait, d'agir en honncte bomme." 

1 II paraitrait que tous les eens de Bridger et de Gillam auraient p6ri de misere et de faim, s'ils n'eusseat 6t6 
proteges par Radipson. Du reste ils solliciterent Radisson de venir & leur secours. 

2 Radisson ecrit qu'il se separa en bons termes d'avec Bridger. " Je lui donnai Pa'wuranee, dit-il, que je portals 
un grand inttTet aux Anglais, que j'6tais dispose a serviret le roi d'Angleterre et la nation anglaise, avec tout 
le zele dont j'avais fait preuve 4 1'^gard de la France." 

3 Collection de documents relatifs a 1'histoire de la Nouvelle-France, i, p. 324 et 325. New York colonial MSS., 
vol. ix, p. 221. 

Voyages de Radisson, p. 314. 



4O N.-E. DIONNB 

Obouart presetita uu ministre un Memoire pour justifier sa oonduitc. II y dit qu'il 
n'avait fait que remplir son devoir commefidele Franfais, et quc les preventions des Anglais 

ctaient absurdes. ' 

Dans le mrnie temps, Radisson, revenant sur le passe, faisait adrcsscr des suppliques 
p,,nr sr tain- indcmniser dos pertes qu'il avait snbies du temps qu'il servait dans la marine 
fram-aisr. CYst dans rnne de res suppliques, signees par le marquis dc Bellerocbe, ([ii'il 
nuns appn-nd <iue sa feininc sY-tait sauvee de 1'Angleterre, apres avoir abjure le prote- 

lanti>iiie. ' 

|,,.rd I're.-tnn m- parv'mt point a fa ire punir les deux Francais, maia il obtint du roi sou 
airreinent |... in- un pact.' par Irqiirl les deux rouronncs s'engageaient ine faire aucun rtablis- 
-eliieiit a la l>aie d'l Indson. 1 

I,,. jr.Hivrrnriir ilu Canada rssaya dYxpliqiier sa conduite ;\ 1'cgard du capitainc Gillam. 
S ; , l..ttr.' an mini-in-. en date dn 14 n.ivemlire K1S4. amrme que Radisson u'avait pas le droit 
de -Yiiipaivr dn navire l...-lonnair-. '' Cette lettre n'ent pas le resultat que sou auteur en 
;iiiendait. , ;H- <.n .-.nistate .|iie. d.'s Tann-'e snivante, le roi, ei-rivant j\ M. de Denonville, 
-iii-i-.--.i-nr de M. il.- la ISanv. n'pi'-te i|u'il " tallait oliserver <|iie ee batiment, no ponvant etre 
.-..n-id.'-!-.'- .|iie r.niinie niie jiHse liieii mi mal t'aite, e'etait an Conseil souverain de la juger." 4 

I,,., ,-),,, - ,.|| rc-t.'-rent la, et 1 "ii n'eiiteiidit ]ilns parler de I'att'aire Gillam. 



M,', -..Hi. -Hi- d<- la e.niiluiti- des Anglais a lenr egard, nos deux Fraucais ne le fureiit pas 
ni..in- .(Hand il- -e virent >i inaltrait.'s par les KraiK.-ais, aprf-s leiir derniere et recente expe- 
diti..n. I tan- > - r.'-i-its de vovages. l{adissn:i epruuve le besoiu d'expliquer sa conduite, 
.in.- 1"H <--t ti-nti- a premiere \ ne de taxer d'int'onrtequeiice. Ki> ett'et, si Ton reprend les 
.'v.-n.-ineiii- d'tin peii |ilu> liant. nun> voynns les denx beaux-freres quitter lenr patrie pour 
.- mettre an -.-r\ iee di- 1' Anirleterre. Itix ans se passent, et les voil;\ retournes i\ leurs 
pr.-mi'-i-e- aiiimir-. travaillant puur lenr jiatrie, 1'nn commeofficier de marine, et 1'autre en sa 
i|ti:diti- di- linn eiii.veii I'raiHais. Neiit' annees plus tard, voila que 1'un d'eux abandonnc de 
iiiiiivi-a'i la Kranee j..iiir 1'Angleterre. 

Comment .-xpliqiier les tergiversations de ees deux bommes ? Etaieut-ils le jouet du 
eapri.-e. on M- laiaieiit-ils entramer par ramour du hu-re ? Eeoutons comment Radisson 
plaid.- -a eaiiM- : " .le me s.-ns. dit-il, dans robligation de me defendre de 1'accusation d'ineon- 
Maiier. pa ree qiie j'ai voyage, eii ll!82, eontre les interets des Anglais, et 1'annee suivante, 
miitrr e.-nx de> Kraiirais ( il drvait, eette anuee-la, retouruer :\ la baie d'Hudson et y 
- arbnrvr ledrapean de 1'Angleterre). Si je ne donnais un apercu exact de ce que j'ai fait, Ton 
jMiiirraii aver raison me taxer d'inronsequenre. Mais plusieurs personncs d'une grande 
" pniliiti'-rt d'mie liaiite reputation, out appreci^ ce que mon beau-frfere, M. Chouart des Groseil- 
" Hers, rt moi-meme avons fait, an eouix de nos voyages, pour les messieurs concerm's dans le 
" cutninerce des peanx de castors a la baie d'Hudson, et les causes du mecontentemeiit qui 
" nous tit abandonner 1'Angleterre pour la France. Je n'ai aucune raison de croire (pn- j<- 
" inerite d'etre accuse de legrrete. et d'inconstance a cause des emplois que j'ai acceptes, bien 



1 CoUfrtion de document*, etc.. pp. 314, 315 et 310. 

' Undrm. p. 319. 

' Lettre do roi A M. de la liarr.-, du 10 avril 1G64. 

I^ttre et instroctiona du roi A M. de Denonville. Collection de document*, etc., i, p. 337. 



OHOUART ET RADISSON 41 

" qu'ils fussent contraircs aux inte'rets <le ladite compagnie, car il cat aasez connu quc mon 
" frere et raoi avons fait de notre mieux, ayant tous deux expose nos vies et agi comme des 
4> homines d'honneur et de courage pour 1'avantage et le profit de ladite compagnic, depuis 
" 1'aimee 1665 jusqu'a 1'annee 1674. 

" Mais, voyant que nos conseils etaient negliges et rejetds, pour d'autrea qui tendaieiit 
" directenicnt a la mine du commerce des castors, et que nous etions consider.'-* comnie des 
" etres inutiles, digues d'aucuu encouragement on recompense, nous avons eutin pris la ivsol- 
" ution, hieu ;\ contre-coeur, de retourner en France ; car il est notoirc (pie j'ai plus d'ineli- 
" nation pour 1'interet de 1'Angleterre, etant marie a Londres a une personne d'honoralilc 
" famille, dont 1'alliauce m'a engage plus fortement encore a prendrc les inti'ivts de eette 
" nation. De plus, tons mes amis connaissent mon affection pour ma lemmc, et coml>ien de t'ois 
" je leur ai declare la peine que j'eprouvais de niYn voir separe. 

" J'espere que 1'expose de ces considerations jettera 1111 jour plus favorable >ur ma con- 
" duite, et me justifiera de ce que Ton a dit de moi dans le hut de me rendre odicux aupi-rs 
" des Anglais." ' 

Tel est le plaidoyer justificatif de Radisson. Lr vi-ai motit'dc st-s agisscmcnis, tantot 
dans un sens tantAt dans 1'autre, est assex ditHcile a saisir. Sfiilcmcnt il est facile de peivevoir 
sea predilections pour rAugleterre. (iui pourrait rcxciiser de eette e^peee de tralii-mn. ~an~ 
invoquer ses liens de famille ? II n'i'tait pmirtaut [>as aussi trattre ipTou le pourrait emiiv. 
Chouart et son beau-frcre etiiicnt, c'ii realite, des homnies de valeur. Korts de leur haliilete 
dans les m'gociations avee les sauvages, ils pouvaieul se mont rei- plu< exi^-eauts (|iie le .-imple 
uavigatcur marchant dans des seiitiers hallus, on le viilit'aire eommis de traile ineapalile de 
totter de ruse et d'astuce avee 1'Indieu pertide. ()n ne dml pa< perdri 1 de vne. a 1'i'poijiie \\ 
nous sommcs de leur carrierc, ([ifils avaient, par uue experience de (rente annees. aeipii^ nne 
certaine renomnu'e parmi les sauvages de la Nouvelle-France. IJons e.xploratcurs, maniant 
le francais, 1'anglais, le huron, 1'iroquois et 1'algonquin, ils jiouvaienl se la ire comprendrc 
partout. Leur concours etait done d'nne valenr inappreciable. N'i la I'' ranee ui r.\n<rleierre 
Be semblerent comprendrc 1'importance de leur contier la conduite des expeditious dans t'es 
contrees boreales, immenses par 1'etendue, dangcreuses a traversei-. et ]ieu propi-cs a des 
etablissements permanent^. Faire du commerce dans ces conditions, avee des peuplades 
non civilisees. c'etait, pour des Europeens, vouloir courir a la mine. Voila <|iii expli<pie 
pourquoi les voyages des Anglais on des Fram;ais laisses ;\ leur seuk' initiative t'ui'ent d'abonl 
si pen fructueux. Si Colbert et son tils, le marquis de Seiguelay, parureut fain- quclquc cas 
de ces deux Canadiens descendants de Francais, e'est qu'ils ne subirent pa? riufluence des 
marchands de Quebec. Apres a la curt5e, comme tons ccux cmi aspirent a s'enrichir promp- 
tement, ceux-ci voyaient dans ces deux homines des adversaircs redoutablea <pi'il importait 
de reduire & 1'impuissance. 

Les Anglais comprirent, quoique tard, de quellc taille etaient ces deux Fraucais, 
lorsqu'ils eurent pris connaissance de ce qu'ils avaient fait pour les marchands du Canada, 
en 1683 et 1684. Aussi ne doit-on pas etre surpris de la tactique de lord Preston, epuisant 
tous les moyens pour les ramener au service de son pays. Tout ce qu'ils pcuvent desirer il 
le leur promet, taut de la part de Sa Majeste que de la Compagnie de la baie d'Hudson et du 
gouvernement anglais. Ses promesses sont sanctionnees par sir "William Young et sir 
James Hayes, tous deux membres de la compagnie. Attire de leur c6te par des hommes 

1 Voyages de Radisson, pp. 249, 250 et 251. 

Sec. I, 1894. 6. 



42 N.-E. DIONNE 

aussi influents par leurs noms quo par leurs fortunes, entraine par un penchant particuli.-r 
qu'il ne pout dissimuler, Radisson en a vitu pris son parti. Mais il lui faut cachcr son Jen, 
,-ar il vM encore 1'liftte dc la France, et 4111 sait, s'il est decouvert, si on no I'dnpei-hera pas 
de retoun.er a Lundres. Alors il feinilra la fidelite a sa patrie, il ncceptera meme ile comhiire 
a la Imie deux vaiss.-aiix fram;ais. Kt pendant que rappnreillage est en marche, il qnittc le 
ol qiii 1'a vu nail re. il traverse la Mam-he eoniine un evade de prison, et court s' engager a 
s.-s an.-icns mail res. (V sont la les dernieres pages de la vie du Radisson framjais. Desormais 
il -era .-iti-yeii anglais. il s'int.'-ressera aux cntrcprises de sa patrie d'adoption, et il ira enlever 
,lu t.-rl Nel-iui le drapt-au lVan<;ais qu'il y avail plant.- rannee preeedente, pour mettre a sa 
jila<-<- r'-t.-iidanl l)ritanni(|iie. 



M>n 



V.ii.'i .l';il.i-d 1.- ]ir.'iri-aniiii.-iiiit- Kadiss.ni eiil.-ndait suivre. En allant ;\ labaie d'Hudson, 
i! y r.-ii.-..ntr.-rait s.ui n.-v.-ii d.-> ( !r.>s. illicit, il lui pi-rsuaderait ([u'il a tout ;\ gagner en 
livraiit -- p.-ll-t'-r'n-- a la <-ciin]iairni.-. ( ".-sl-a-ilire .|u'il 1'aehi-terait avee ses inarehandiscs. 
nn.v.-niiaiii inn- MMiinie << pinparai i v.-niciit iniiiiine. ct liii-nir-iiH' aurait i>our sa part les deux- 
lii T- ili- 1 ."> a ^II.IIIHI |.r;ui\ilr i-a-t i >i- ' | n i avaioil dnrtr.- riiiniagasini'es diirant 1'hiver au 
!..i t ill- la rivii-i'i' Nrl-mi. 

l.':inin tin nl se til ~i vil<-. i|u'arrivi' a l.oiidi'.-s all rniimieiioenient de inai, RadlBBOn 
put i-ii |.;mir \.r- li !"> 1'niir .-i-n irraml vnyag.-. l.i 1 17. tmis vaisseanx qiiittaieut la rade 
.I,- tirav.-.-ud. 1,'iin. ai'iK-l-'- 1<- //"/V"/- lii'lurn. .'lait smis 1.- (oiniiiandeiiH-iit de Raduson. 
1.. traji-i nr till inari|in'- iraiii-iiii iiii-idi-nt tai-ln-iix. 1 'arvi-mi a vingt lieues de I'ort-Xelson, 
i[iii I'laii la liiuiii- du viiva^i-. IJadir-MHi i-prmiva inn- IrlU- ainliition d'arriver le premier, qu'il 
aliandmina sun navire. et juvnant avi-r lui si-pt liuns liuinines, il eunrnt en ehaloupc vers le 
li-ii -i ili-ii-'-. (jiiaraiit.-lmii ln-nri-> >ufliri'iit punr atteindrc le poste on Radisson esperait 
i-,-\,.'n- -.in in-vi-ii. -in. HI ap.-n-i-\'iiir ijiii-li|iii- part des niar<|Ues qiii, d'apres line convention 

t M-rvir a lui indiqiirr sa n-lraitr. Mais il t'ut liien surpris, a son 
in<- di- dnix navires, dunt I'IIM. ciiiiiniaiidi'- par le eapitaine Outlaw, 
fai-ail parti.- d.- la pi-tit.- oi-adn- anglais.- i-t avail pris K-s di-vants, et 1'autre etait line fregalr 
i|iii avail liiv.-rii.- a I'.in-N.-Uun. KM.- ]>rtait le guiiverneur John Abraham, Hiiccesseur 
. miiiiii- irl. d- .luliu IJridg.-r. ' Tmis eiir-.-niliU- d.'-eid.-rent <|iie Radisson irait ;\ la recherche 
il.- MIII n.-v.-ii. av.-r I.- .-apitain.- <!a/..-r .-I un anglais avant qiiel.pie teintiire de la langtie 
train;ai.-.-. Kn i-uiit.- mi apprit qiir Cliuiiart avait aliaiidimiii' le tort .'-rige par son pere 
I'ann.'-i- pn'-.-.'-'li'iit.-. pmir ranip.-r sur inn- ile au-dessus dos rap'xles de la riviere Hayes. 

P.-* >aiivag-s r-'iitl'rir.-nt lii.-ntut a eux. Kadissuii n'eiit <ju's\ lenr t'aire certains sigm-r- a 
i-ux M-iiU i-uniprehensililes, i|ii'ils i-ntrereiit en conversation avec lui, et a'approchant sans 
inuiitr.-r d<- rniinte, il put leur tenir le propos suivant. S'adressant au chef, il lui dit : "J'ai 
fait la paix avec les Anglais pour I'amour de vous tons. Eux et inoi dorenavant ne feruiis 
" plus iju'un. Kinhrasse ce eapitaine et moi aus-i. coninie gage de paix. Get hoinnu- est ton 
" nonvcaii frere, cuinine Clionart, inon ne veil, est ton tils. Va tout de suite vers ce dernii-r 
" lui jMirter la nuiivelle, et dis-lni de venir me voir ici meme, itendant qne les sauvages 
" a la compagnie irunt m'attendre a 1'embouchure de la riviere." 1 



1 Le premier Bonvornear an^l.ii <le Port- Nelson avait i-U- Charles Baily, de 1070 a 1673. See suc-cessnurs fnrent 
William l.y.Mal (1674), John Nixon (l(>74-]ia.), John Bridger (lt>82-83), John Abraham (1683-84), et Thomas 

BLI tta*i*_i 



Phipl (16H.M. 

Rdion, | 



CHOUART KT RADISSON 43 

Le sauvage s'empressa de courir informer le jeune Chouart do la venue de son oncle, et 
de la nfMivclle position qu'il occupait au milieu des Anglais. Le lendemain, Chouart arrivait 
en compagnie de trois Frangais et des sauvages de la veille. L'entrevue se fit dans rancicn 
fort frangais. Pendant quo ehacun s'amusait h discourir, Radissou prit son nevcn a part et 
lui i>arla a peu prfcs dans ces termes : " Tu te rappelles sans doute d'avoir entendu racontcr a 
" ton pere les peines et les fatigues qu'il dut endurer lorequ'il etait a 1'emploi dc la France. 
" II t'a aussi raconte quo la recompense que nous avions raison d'esperer d'elle, a tourne 
" en la plus noire ingratitude, aussi bien <le la part de la com- que de celle de la compagnie, 
" et qu'ayaut etc forges de chercher du service aillenrs, nous avons etc ac.-ueillis a l.ras ouverts 
" par les Anglais. 

"Tuconnais en outre les motifs qui out force ton pere et inoi a quitter 1' An^lrtcrrc 
" apres treize annees de service. Le besoin de vivre, le rel'iisde justice .me nous avou- cssuvc. 
" out donne lieu a notre rupture et a 1'etablissement que noiisavuns fait ici. pour la c.>n>cr- 
" vation duquel je t'ai laissc 1'annee dcrniere, lorsqiie je suis parti |iour la France, .\faistu 
"ignores sans doute, que le prince qui rcgne en Angleterre ' a desavoue les proccdes de la 
" compagnie a notre egard, et qu'il cst rauteiir de notre ivtmir aiix Anglais. .I'ai lai~>.' ton 
" pere a Loud res, plus heureux que nous, car son existence v est assutve, et dmvnavant il 
" pourra vivre dans la securite. Moi je suis veini t'appivndre que nous somnics niaintenant 
" sujets anglais, aimant mieux vivre sous le sept re d'uu mi clement et an >ervice d'un peuple 
" d'honneur que d'acccpter les ofi'res <|iie nous a t'aites le roi de France par rintenn.'diaire de 
" ses ministres, pour que nous travaillions indircctcment a sa propre tcloire. 

"J'ai regu 1'ordre, avant de quitter Londres, de prendre soin de toi. et de t'oNiuyr a 
" obeir a la loi anglaise. Tu es jeune et en .'tat de travailler avee I'm it a ta I'.trtuiie 
" personnelle. Si tu te decides a suivre m.m inclinatioii vers 1' An^leterre, je ne t'aband.m- 
" nerai point. Tu recevras le meme traitenu-nt que nioi. Je ferai en sorte que tu sois 

" satisfait, au detriment meme de mes interets -le t'aime, car nous sommes de ni-ine 

" sang. Je te sais courageux et resolu ; preiids vite ton parti, et prouve-nioi. par ta repiniM'. 
" que tu es digue des bontes du prince que je sers. Mais n'onblie point, avant tout. Irs 
" injures que les Fraucais out inHigees a celui qui t'a donne la vie, et que tu es en nion 
" pouvoir." 

Le jeune Chouart pouvait diffieilement resister si 1111 tel discours. Kntraine par les si'iiti- 
ments de loyaute a sa famille et a son pays, inoins peut-etre que par la crainte de ne pouvoir 
resister a des gens beaucoup plus puissants quo lui, il declara sur le champ a sou oncle qu'il 
etait pret a se soumettre, mais a la condition <pie Ton prendrait s.)in de sa mere, restee seule 
en Canada. 

Les sauvages, beaucoup plus attaches aux Francais qu'aux Anglais, se montrerent un pen 
plus difficilcs & convaincre. Us pretendirent que I'un des capitaines les avail trompes en 
leur assurant que Medard Chouart n'existait plus et que Radissou etait prisonnier de 
1'Augleterre. D'autres pretextferent leur pauvrete, disant que les Anglais etaient mesqnins 
dans leurs transactions. Ajoutons a cela difterentes gaueheries dont ces derniers s'etaient 
rendus coupables plut6t par ignorance que par defaut de jugement, et Ton comprendra 

1 Le roi d'Angleterre 4 cette 6poque etait Charles II ; il avail succ&te & son pc-re Charles I, en 1660, apix-8 les 
onze uiincVs d'interregne qui avaient suivi la mort de son pr&l^cesseur. C*e8t a Charles II que la Socie'tt 1 royale de 
Londres doit sa creation (1660). 

2 Voyages de Radisson, pp. 327 et 328. 



44 N.-E. DIONNE 

plus ailment pourquoi les Indiens tideles au joune Chouart se firent prier avant de donm-r 
leur allegeanee a 1'Angleterre. Radisson mit toute sa science a profit pour lertr faire 
entendre raison; il demanda dcs presents mix chefs, an lieu de leur en oftYir c'otait la 
continue; il tit appol h K-nr amitio, vieille de trente ans ; il leur alloua dix coutcaux pour 
mic peaii df castor, .-t mi fusil pour doii/.o. Le prix couraut ne depassait pas generalomeiit 
la inoitie .!< .-cite allonaiieo. Radisson put, a 1'aido de tons cos moyens, les concilier et les 
ainener anx Ainrlais. Los salivates >'on rctournoront contents et promirent de trafiquer 
>nii- pen avee Iciirs amis do fraiche date. 

!.. ji-niir il-- (Jro-eilliers lit a Uadisson le rccit des evSneraent qui s'ctaient passiV 
d.-p.ii- ranii'-e pive.'-deiitc dans le pays dcs ('ristinus. Ku voici lu resume succinct. 

I. - Fran -.ii- vmaii'iit ill- parlir dc la liaii-. lorsipic ilcs vaisseanx y firent leur apparition. 
I'n-.jii.- an ii.'ii nr\ inrciit an I'ori !'rain;ais i|natorx.c sauvajjes de la riviere Severn; 1 ils 
vrnai.'iit trati'piT l.-nr> p.-ll.-t rri,-. An inoincnt on ils allaient . t'ranehir la portc du fort, 1'un 
.I'l-nx. '|iii I'arai-ait .'!!. I.- rlirf dr la liainlr, sc jcta snr dcs Groscillieiv, et essaya de lui 
p|..nir'T >"n p-'n. r nanl ilan.- la |>itrinr. Crlui-ci cut lc temps ct 1'adresrte de paror lu coup, et 
,. m ji ,111- la ili'li-iiMVi-. Ti'iiLiins tic rettc sivnr, Ics KraiK;ais arrivereiit :\ la rescousse <U' 
li-nr <-.iiiiinaii'laiii. i-i I'ori-i-i-riit rdtc li-nnpc d'assa>sius a di'po>cr lours arines. Sonimes eusuite 
.1.- -'i'X|ilii|niT. il- av. mi-rent i|iie !<- Anirlais leiir avaient promis de riches presents, e'ils 
i-xii-rminaii-nt ton- le- Fram;ai- jn-ipran ilernier. Les saiivagos, amis de des Groseilliers, 
a\ant en eniiiiai" anee <le eel atteiilat. n'-solnreiit tie le vt-iifjer a sou insu. Leur chef pour- 
-ni\it le -anvaire '|ni avail tailli tm-r le m-veii ile Iladisson, et 1'ayant force j\ se battre, il 
Ini leinlil le i-rane iTun i-.iiip ile haehe. 

Si ile- ( ir.i-eilli.-rs ent eonserve la inoinilre raiu-nne eontiv les Anglais, il avait une belle 
o.-ea-ioii iraiui-nier eontiv enx les saiivages, et ile leur rendre la position insoutenable. Mais 
-mi natnrel paeitiijiie Ini ota t.nite iili'e de repn'sailles, et il s'ett'or(;a d'ajiaiser les nations qui 
i'-iaii-iit attaeln'i-- a -a fortniie. Lni-ineine. \m[\\- t'nir les reiieoutres dangereuses, se. retira snr 
nne ile n't il -e foi-iitia ile >on inienx. Les Anglais n'oserent pas 1'attaquer, rnais ils sou- 
ilo\i''i-i-m dc iiiHivi-au le- >anvaiTes pour I'assassiiH'r. L'un d'eiix tira un jour sur un cbasseur 
I'raneai.- et le Ide a irriev einent a 1'i'panle. 

Taut de pertidie^ el de crimes etaient propres ;\ provocpier un souU^vement gein'-ral 
parmi le- T-aiivages. ("est en eil'et ee i|iii arriva. II so liguerent dans un but .conimun, qui 
/tail la de-iriii-iiun emnpli'-te de tons les Anglais do la bale d'Hudson, et ils auraicnt execut^ 
It-ur >inistre projet, si des ( iroseilliors no les out pacifies, en leur disant d'attendre son pi-re 
et -<iii mu-lc. pour agir pins sureinent et avec jilus d'efficacite. 

An priiitemps, dcs (irosoilliers re;ut la visite do qiiatre cents Assiniboines, dont le chef 
|Hn-tail sur >a poitrine une niedaille que le gouvernour de la Nouvello-France lui avait 
ilonin'-e. eii gage d'ainitie pour lui ot sa tribu. Ce chef avait bien conuu Radisson ; iln i-taieiit 
deseeniliiH ensemble a Quebec, apres avoir quitte le lac des Assinipoils. Ils anraient voulu 
w jeter ur les Anglais pour les exterminer tons. Eux auesi consentirent ;\ attendrc 
le retuur de Radisson ; mais, voyant (ju'il n'arrivait pas, ils se mirent tout de meme en route 
vers le |Kste des Anglais, ;\ 1'embonchare de la riviere Nelson, bien d^termin^s d'y mettre lo 
feu. I'ar bonheur les Anglais furent avertis a temps du danger qui les menacait, et ils 

1 If per* Charlevciiz et la Poiherie 1'appellent Nieusavanne. LM Franjaia lui avaient d'abord donn le nom 
de rivii-re <!* 8intc-Haile*, et les Anglais celtii A'lringlau. Le nom de Severn eat une reminiscence d'Angleterre 
oft eziite nne rivit-re ainai appelfe. 



CHOUART ET JIADISSON 45 

coururent se cacher dans les bois. Plusieurs fois deji des Groseilliers avait tente de re"tablir 
la paix entre les sauvages et leurs adversaires, mais toujours saus resultat. Radisson arriva 
entin, et, comine nous 1'avons vu, il reussit ;\ tranquilliser les sauvages ct a les t'aire coimentir 
a tratiquer avcc leurs ennemis de la veille. 

Cette besogne terminee, Radisson n'eut riende plus presse que de proceder a I'inventairc 
dee pelleteries entassdes pardon neveu dans le tort frangais, duraut 1'hiver precedent. II v 
trouva 239 paqucts renfermant 12,000 pcaux de castor, et des marchandises qui, par IV-chan-rc, 
ponvaieiit en rapporter encore 7,000 on 8,000. C'etait, pour lui, unc fortune en perspective, 
an prix que se vendait le castor a Londres. II. donna anssitot 1'ordiv dc lain- porter 
068 richesses sur les navires qui devaient les transporter i-n Anglt.-tcrre. L;i IM-SO^HC niar- 
cha rondenient, ear Radisson, tout tier d'unc i-oiKjuett 1 dont il s'attrilmait Ic nit'-ritc, avail 
liatf de donner la-bas des preuvi-s <U- son lialiilctr. Mais avant qiic dc partir. il cut unc 
dcmifere ent revue avee les sauvages, dont le diet' (''tail un vicilliird ti-cs vciieiv panni les >icnr-. 
Ce veteran de la baie lui tint a jieu pres cc langage : 

" Tete de Pore-Epic e'etait le noin imlicn de Radisson ton co-nr cst lion, et lu as en 
" du courage pour avoir lie auntie aver les Anglais paramour puiir nous. Xniis .-mimics 
" venus a toi, vieux et jeunes, temmes, tilles et ent'ants, pour tc rcincicicr et tc rcetinnaltre 
" comme notre pere. Nous desirous ctre tcs ent'ants, ct adopter ton nevcu ijue tu ainies taut 
" pour not re tils, atin de te donner line marque inetf'aeable ill- 1'obligation (|iic nous avon.- 
" pour toi." ; 

Ce discours sentimental fut suivi de plusieurs autrcs dans lesipicls cc-; Indicns rccon- 
naissants epancherent leurs eccurs dans cclui dc leiir vicil ami Radisson. Cclui-ci leiir tit scs 
adieux, 11011 sans etre touche d'une dcmonstratinn qui prouvait leiir urande svinpalhic pour 
les Fran^ais. 

II ne restait plus qu'a terminer le chargement des vaisseaux. (V t'ut 1'aiiairc de IMIC!- 
quesjours. Radisson comptait les heures, tant il etait joyciix dc s'cii retourner avcc >a 
fortune. Une bien grande deception 1'attendait. ]A' gouvenn'iir, de sou propre inouvenient, 
sans le consulter, 'Jonna 1'ordre a tons les Fram;ais, sans en exccpter un seiil, dc s'einbarquer 
avec Radisson. Ce tut comme un coup de tbudre sur la tctc dc ct' dernier, et pen ne 
s'en fallut qu'il ne so querellat sericusement avec le haut representant de la compaguie. 
"Comment, lui dit-il, emmener mon neveu, mais j'ai re<;u instruction de sir Jaiiu-s Hayes de 
" le laisser ici, pour des raisons (pie vous dcvriex ctre le premier a comprendre. Comment 
" reussirez-vous, sans lui, h negocier avec les Indiens?" John Abraham se montra inflexible, 
et il fallut bien se soumettre ;\ son arret. Ce personnage, an dire de Radisson, detestait les 
Francais. II aurait pu ajouter qu'il les craignait encore davantage. Le jeune Chouart n'eut 
pas meme la permission de retourner a son fort pour y chercher des hardes et des papiers de 
consequence. 

L'escadre mit A, la voile le 4 scptembre, et le 23 octobrc elle arrivait aux Dunes, d'ou 
Radisson se transports ;\ cheval jusqu'il Londres. Leleudemain de son arrivee, sir William 
Young le preseutait au roi, qui ecouta avec attention le recit de ses exploits. Quelques 
jours plus tard, il comparaissait devant le comite de la compagnie, et lui faisait uu rapport 
circonstancie de son voyage. II faut croire qu'il ne fut pas heureux dans son expose, car au 
lieu de recevoir Papprobation qu'il attendant, il cut & subir un deni de justice. " On etait 
" jaloux, dit-il, parce que j'avais obtenu 1'insigne honneur d'etre presente au roi et a Son 
" Altesse royale." 

1 Voyages de Radisson, p. 351. 



46 N.-K. DIONNE 

En depit do tons so* motifs tie plaintes, Radisson n'en persista pas moins i demeurer en 
Anglctorre, avee son beau-frere. Quant an jeuiie des Groseilliers, il essaya par deux fois de 
HO saiivcr en France, inais il tut arrete ;\ chaque fois. II se ddcida alors d'4crire a 
M. tie Dononvillc, lui disant qu'il ri'tournerait au Canada aussitdt qu'il pourrait s'tSchapper. 
Son plan consistait a accoinpagner Radisson a Port-Nelson, au premier voyage qu'il y ferait. 
et ! la il si- rcndrait a Quebec par les torros.' 

I,.- jroiivernciir ocrivit anssitotcn France et domanda a la cour la permission de promettre 
ciniiiiantc pi>toles a ceux qui se saisir.iient de Radisson et le conduiraient a Quebec. 2 Lo 
niini-tiv ivpondit atHrniativeinent. Mais au niois de mars 1687, Ton n'avait pas encore 
appr.'heiide Kadi:-.-n. conmio il appert par une lettro du roi ;\ M. de Denonville: " Le mal, 
ilit-il. Mile le iic'iiinn'- Kadissun a I'ait a la colonie et celui qu'il serait capable de faire, >'il 
n-iaii plu- l<iiii:trMip-i panni les Anglais, doit ol>lis;er les sieurs de Denonville et de 
t 'liainpi-'iiv ilf t'airr tmn IT qii'ils poiirront en cas ([ii'on no puisse se saisir de lui, pour le 
laiiv I'.-vi-iiir. rt i'iir IT! I'tl'rt. Sa Maji-sti'- lui pcnnet de eonvenir avec lui aux conditions 
ijii'il r-l iiin-ra a pT'iju'r-. 

Ka'li--"ii i-i'i'iiinia a la liaii' il 'Hudson, inais il n'y fit pas tin long si-jour. L'annee moiiie 
i'ii Aiiirli'ti'iTi' avcc r-a pai-otillc. U-s Kranrais, conduits par de la Martinie-re, 1 
m'i-Ni'Uiiii IHIIM- s'i'ii cinparcr. La MartiniJ-re n'y put reussir, ses forces etant 
i's ;'i i-i-llfs drs Anglais, inais en ivvmant il prit une quaiche anglaise qui se 



l-'.n Iii^'J. ! rli.-valiri- ilr Tnivi'-. i-apitaiiic d'int'aiiterie, s'y rendit par terre avec Sainte- 
II. l.-ii.-. .riln-rvilli' ri Marii-iiiirt ' > plnsiciirs aiitn-s Fraiu/ais, (piatre-vingt-deux en tout, y 
. .,in|.!-i- I. |"-iv Svlvii-. mi--iiiiiiiaii'' i i'''siiitf. " IN partirent de Montreal au mois d'aoflt 1686, 
ra.'niite la I '. it IHT'II-. I raini'-n-nt el purti'-reiit .-ur le ilns leu rs eanots avec leiire vivres une bonne 
partie ilu I'ln-inin dan- le lmi. ui'i ils trouvereiit les rivieres tjui avaient charrie. Cptte 
mar. -In- dura jni|iie^ au vingt de juin, iieeoiupagiit'e de lieaucoup de fatigues, et il fallaitetre 
( 'an.idii-n puiir iip|ii>rter le- incoininodites d 'une si longue traverse." 

NII- valeiireiix ('anadien> >'eniparereiit du fort Monsipi, qui etait au fond de la bale 
{'>\ 17' lat. n.). piiis du tui't Rupert, et eiitiu dn fort Kicliichoiian, defendu par Henry 
Sei'jeant. aloi> ^iiuvenieiir pniir la coinpagnie anglaise. (!o dernier tut force de capituler, le 
JiJjuillet. Le I'hevalier dc Troyr.-, partit pour Montreal le 10 du mois suivant, no laissant 
aux Anirlai- ipie la pussession ilu fort Xelson, dont d'Iberville s'empara en 1690. Les Anglais 
ivdcvinrent maltn-s de leiirs aiieiens forts, en 1(J!3. D'Iberville les en delogea de nouveau, 
ramiiT suivante. et y installa la Foret r comine gouverneur du fort Nelson. La Foret dutse 
remlre en llilMi, tailte de vivres. 

Ce fut aiii!>i une succession ininterrompue de Inttes sanglantes entrc la France et 1'Angle- 
terre, jnsipi'a ce que la France tinit, au traite d'Utrecht, en 1713, par renoncer ^ HCS 
dr>its sin- eette vaste region (jui, depuis vingt-cinq ans, avait etc le theatre des plus glorieux 
exploits ponr les urines fnincaises. 



1 Lettre de M. de Denonville, du mois de man 1U85. 

1 Undrm. 

1 LeUre da roi i M. de Denonville. 

' r-rni-n de U Martinivre. 

' CeUieat le* troiH fK res I/eMoyne : Jacques (27 ans), Pierre (25 ans) et Paul (23 ans). 

1 I.* Potherie, i, pp. 147 et 14-. 

' Fnu>9U <1 la Fortt, gouverneur et propri^Uire du fort SaintrLouis aui Illinois. 



CIIOUART ET RADISSON 47 

*** 

Nous rations encore line tbis la presence do Radisson dans les oaux do la grande 
baie. Voici dans quelles circonstances. Le capitaine Berger, canadien-francais, avait quitte lc 1 ~> 
juillet 1685, I'etablissement situe k quatre lieues du poste des Anglais, a la riviere Nelson 
lorsqu'en revenant a Quebec, il fit la rencontre d'un vaisseau arme do dix 011 don/.e canons of 
commando par le capitaine Oslar. Co navire, ({iii arborait le pavilion anglais, .portait le 
gouverneur Bridger, le memo que Radisson avait emmen4 a Quebec avee les deux (iillain, 
pere et tils. Au cours d'une conversation quo Bergor out avec le eapitaine ( >>lar. il apprit 
que Radisson et son neveu, Jean-Baptiste des Groseilliers, dtaient rondns an tort do Sainte- 
Therese, et avaient 1'intention d'y hiverncr. 1 

Cbarlevoix nous apprend qu'cn 1689, M. d'Iborville et son fiviv Maricourt, ivvcnant de 
la baie d'lludson, rencontrerent sur lour route un naviro anglais ou etait (Mioiiart. tils, "(|ui 
" n'avait pu encore se tirer des mains des Anglais dopnis la surin-ise <lu tort Xelson." 

Le meme historion (lit tjiu 1 "Chouart(le ills) est inort en Canada, et lladisson en 
" Angleterre." 3 II aurait pu ajouter que Medard Clmuart tinit se- join's a con' de son l, c . :t ii- 
f'rere, car nous ne trouvons sa trace inille part en Canada. Le D'n'linnimii'i' </.-'// 'uinijiiiii, \\,- 
fait :\ lour sujet d'autre mention quo eelle dont il a ete ijiiestion an delmt de ce travail. 

L'unc des tilles de Chouart, Marie-Antoinette, devenue veuve- de .lean .lalot. <-liii-iiri:ieii. 
de Repentigny, epousa Joan Bouchard. Cinq entants sortirent de ce manage, dont 1'iin. 
Jean-Baptisto, se maria en 1734, et alia n'sider a Deschambanlt. .lalot et IJoudiard [lortaient 
le nom de des Groseilliers. 

L'on se rappelle quc Fraiu;oise Radisson, la plus jeune xenr de I'iefre-Kspi-it. avail 
Spouse Claude Volant de Saint-Claude, citoyen honorable dc Trois-Riviorcs. Ktiennc, Iciir 
tils, prit le nom dc Radisson. II tut seigneur des Ties et liattnres situoes an liant du lac 
Saint- Pierre. Frontenaclui tit cette concession on consideration do services mi lit ai res. I-'tienne 
Volant-Radisson tigurait dans los cadres do I'armee canadionne comine colonel des troupes de 
la milice botirgeoise. 

La descendance des families Chouart et Radisson s'est jierpi'tin'-e par les temmes, et 
encore ne fut-elle pas considerable. L'epouse do Chouart vocut a Trois-Rivieres, dans un 
etat voisin de la pauvreto. En Ii564, ({uand an retour do son voyage dans 1'onest. ChouaiM 
allait demander dcsmoyens d'existence aux Anglais de Boston, le Conseil Miuverain nbligeait 
M. de la Ferte de fournir a la feiume du mari absent " vingt-cinq livros de lard pour 1'aider 
" a vivre." 

La France pardonna aux deux transfugos. En 1075, le roi signait en leiir favour des 
lettres de grace qui ne furcnt enterinees qu'en 1683. II etait troptard pourqu'Hs profitassont 
du privilege qui leur etait accorde par ces memos lottres ]>atcntes, de pocher le marstuiin et 
le loup-marin dans les eaux du fleuve Saint-Laurent. Ce tut pour eux la dorniero favour 
de la fortune ; il etait statue" que Chouart et Radisson iraient tinir lours jours sur une 
terre etrangere, loin de leur famille, loin du pays natal et plus loin encore du Canada, 
leur patrie d'adoption. Leurs dernieres pensees devaient sans doute se tourner vers notre pays, 
ou presque tous les coins de terre portaient encore 1'empreinte de leurs pas errants. On dit 

1 New York Colonial Documents, vol. ix. 

2 Hittoire de la NouveUe- France, liv. xii. 

3 Ibidem-, Hv. x. 



48 



N.-E. DIONNE CHOUART KT RADISSON 



quo le* control's qui donnent a 1'hommc de faciles moissons, ne fixent point son coeur coimne 
cellos OH il doit luttor ct souttrir. Le labourenr enchame sa pensee a la terre qu'il deYriche 
nvec pcinc, 1'artisnii a I'crnvre qui exige de lui un courageux travail. Ces deux Frau^uis 
avaicnt suM do tluros I'prouvos dans notro pays, eprcuvcs dn c6te de 1'fime aussi bien qnc du 
i-Ato ilu corps. On ne traverse pan chagrins on donleurs sans en sortir le coeur bronze on 
lirise. I'aine uhvreo on Ranctifiee. Kux, quelque tbrtement trempes qu'ils fussent, ils durent 
s'apen-evoir (((I'lls avaieiit gas pi lie leur vie a la reeherehe do la fortune, ou, si Ton vent, du 
linln-iir. Car. pour beaneoup de gens, bonheur et fortune font tout un. Ne comprireut-ili 
point ijiic i-c cjii'il y a pour Thornine de plus sage et de meilleur, c'est de chercher la joie du 
cu-iir ilan> ili- \ rairs afl'eetions, la paix <le ranie dans 1'accompliBaemeQt de son devoir, et 
il aiiiii-r r-a patrie ''. 

\'\-<-- dr ni'iiirir. la ci'l'-lire Madame d'Houdetot, se tournant vers nn ties philosopher qui 
avaieiit eontribin' a di'-truire en i-llc le sentiment religieux. lui dit ; " Rendez-moi xnon Dieu 
(Hi- vein- ni'avi-x. i-nli-vi'. A pri'sriit j'en ai besoin." Hadisson, sur son lit de inort, cut pu 
adresser aux Amrlai- ijiii ravaii-ni tail abandonner hi France pour toujours, une apostrophe 
au--i diMiloiireiiseiitenl I'-loqueiite ; et leur ilire : " Rendex.-inoi nia patrie que vous m'avez 
ciilt-vt'i'. A present j'-n ai ln-.-oin." 






SECTION I, 1894. [ 49 J MEMOIRBS 8. R. CANADA. 



III. Lv Socialisms nnjc EtatH- Unix >-t en Canada. 



Pur M. JOSEPH ROYAL. 



(Lu le L'liniai 18'J4.) 



Lorsqu'on sedemandesi le socialisme existe en Anieriquc, les noius dc (Jnesnav. Uoiisscau. 
Proudhon, LaSalle, Marx et Allcmane surgissent aussitot devant les venx, ct involontaiivnient 
dans 1'esprit passe la vision dc tout un code et range de reorganisation dc la societc. ("cst la 
physiocratie, c'cst le cesarisme, e'est la commune, c'est Kaiian-hie. Xon, cctte sortc <!< socia- 
lisme n'a pas encore pris pied en Canada ; mais est-ce a dire c|tie I'atmosphere suit abso- 
lument exempte d'erreurs en niatiere t'eono]iii([iie et sociale? (^uelcjiics pln'iinineiics tivs 
aathentiques ne sont-ils pas la preuve d'un certain travail social i[iii si- fait sur la lisii'-re an 
moins des classes populaires? Ignorant on ret'iisant olistini'inent dc voir an-dessn< cl't-nx la 
solution dii probl&me qui les tourmente, lea socialiatcs europeens out tend' de transplanter 
leurs formules dans les democraties dii nonveau inonde : ils se sont abuses : acroiitiinn's a 
semer leurs blasphemes dans des consciences sans Dicn et des peiiples sans liherd'. ils se sunt 
trouves dopayses tout-a-coup par taut do liberte et de religion a la t'ois. C'cst alors (jirils out 
forcement rajeuni leurs formules et modi tie. leur tactii[iie. 1'as on trcs pen de discii.-sions 
theoriques ; quo leur importe en eft'et la syntliese qui trouble les eervelles quand ils out la 
pratique qui leur livre les individus ? 

Voila pourquoi cette question, opportune en tout temps, semble cnqirnntcr nnc exccp- 
tionnelle gravite aux tentatives anarcbistes taites en ce moment sur divers points dc 1'ancicn 
nionde. Le moment est venu, croyons-nous, de montrer la parentc cntre tout ce i|iii de pri-s 
ou de loin proeede des idees socialistes : pour cela, il taut non seiilement des principes. mai> 
de 1'observation. Ce sera notre proeede. Nous allons constater les sources de nos craintcs ; 
puis, nous examinerons les maximes plus ou moins adoucies du socialisme americain, or 
qui cherelie a s'introduire en Canada; enlin, nous en montrerons 1'injustice et les tnncstes 
consequences, sans omettre de faire connattre comment., juscju'ici, la question sociale s'est 
trouv6e resolue tout naturellement dans la province de Quebec. 

*** 

Qu'il se rencontre dans les villes populeuses du Canada des individus aigris par la misere 
ou par 1'envie, qu'il y ait de ces pauvres desesperes parce qu'ils ont tons les vices des riches, 
des revoltes par nature, des sans religion, des declasses par le vice ou par la paresse, des gens 
en uu mot murs pour le pire socialisme, la chose est assurement probable. Mais, on nous 
accordera de dire que c'est le petit nombre, quo c'est 1'exception, et que les lois de police 
suffisent a proteger la propriete contre leurs entreprises. 

Aux yeux de plusieurs le danger se presente sous une forme beaucoup plus attrayante 

Sea I 1894. 7. 



JOSEPH ROYAL LE SOCIALISMR 

et d'apparence inoffensive ; il vicnt dc 1'importance et clu caractere des socie'te's ouvrieres qui 
ont traverse la frontiere pour venir s'implanter pnrmi nous. Ce sont des unions ouvrieres, 
des associations de secours, des confreries d'artisans dont 1'objet parait Stre irreproehable en 
soi : inais leur origine est e"trangi>rc, et c'est la une tres grave objection. Ellessont amcricaincs 
de texture et d'esprit. Refractaires a tout ce <iui eboque leur caractere, elles absorbent ou 
s'imposcnt : il n'v a pas de milieu. Klles reinvent geueralement leur direction supreme d'un 
(\niseil central dont le< membrcs sont americains : par consequent, elles ne sont ni fran- 
caises. ni anglaises, ni eaiiadiennes. Kt si on en montre quelques-unes qui sont religicuses en 
partie : >ui. dies le sont. inais eoiuine eela se passe aux Etats-Unis, ce qui est tres different de 
la mani'Te dmit ccs mcmcs dmses se pratiquent en Canada. C'est peut-etre matiere de gout, 
niai~ noii- avouons not re regret dc voir autant de ceremonies ma9onniques se pratiquer dans 
iHimhrc ile ees associations. Le veritable esprit eatbolique et eanadien est antipathique a la 
loirc. an sisrne. ;ui mot de jiasse. et a tout cct appareil faux et inutile qui est essentiellement 
americain. 

Kt eiisuite. Mippos*' le eas ou cdaterait entre les diverges societes affiliees un con flit d'in- 
t.'-ret- "ii iro|.inions. il est incontestable qiie la question serait deterec aux grands Centres 
aiU'Ti'Miti-. dont la di'ei>ion serait finale et sans appel. Cette byj>otbese s'est dejj\ realis^e 
plus'iem-' t'"i- : et. autant i|U'il est possible ile pereer le mystere de ees organisations, on a VU 
la balance peiidier tin cote des ind'-ivts anierieains. Kn voici un exemple. 

11 v a .|iicl.|Uc~ ann'-es. le ( iraml-l 'miseil de ri T nion des con dne.teurs dc ebemin de fer 
-i.-ir.-ant aux Mtat I 'nis. apres exaiuen ilu eas des interesses, proclama la greve de tons les 
c.iiiducteuis du I'aciliijue-Canadien. Les uns apres les autres les trains s'arreterent a 1'est et 
a l'.nic~t de Wmnipi'ir. et rimmense n'seaii 411! fait communiquer le Canada d'un oc^an 4 
1'autr.' t'ut -uliitciacut coiipi- en deux. Tout tut comme fige sur place, trafie, voyageurs, malles ; 

et 1 mmefce du pays en t'ut ebranle. La lutte entra bientfit dans sa periode d'intensitt5. II 

i-tait raUomiable de penser ijiie les negociationa du cflte des conducteurs canadiens seraient 
coiifii'-es a leiirs propres delegues ; il n'en t'ut pas ainsi. Le lendemain de la greve, on vit 
arriver a U'innipeg deux on trois chefs du Grand-Conseil central amerieain, eux-memes 
employes sup/Tieiirs de elieinins ile fer, qui veuaieut s'emparer de ladirection du mouvement. 
i >r, tout le monde sail qiie le Paeifique-Canadien fait aux cbemins de fer de nos voisins une 
concurrence transcontinentale dt's plus actives, et que les cornpagnies amerieaines ne reculent 
devant aiicun nioyen pour entraverou paralyser leur terrible rivaledu Canada. Qu'arriva-t-il ? 
!,e- pourparlers entre les chefs de la greve et les autorites du Pacifique n'eurent d'abord 
aueun rei-ultat : les eboses se mirent ;\ trainer en longueur, et bientdt la crise se fit sentir 
partout. On etait an printemps, epoque du reveil des affaires et d'une grande activite dans le 
transport iles immigrants et des raarebandises. Un journal de Winnipeg se fit un beau matin 
I'l-cbo des inurniures, et, a mots converts, accusa la direction des gr^vistes de temporiser a 
dessein atin de Jeter sur les voies ferrees amerieaines le trafie qui ne pouvait attendre. Les 
direeteurs se defendirent ; mais quel ne fut pas 1'etonneraent quand on vit la rapidite avec 
laquelle les negoeiations furent tout a coup reprises et terminees ! Evidemment la d^noncia- 
tion uvuit prod ti it son ettet, et les chefs americains, en voyant leur jeu demasque, comprirent 
qu'il valait mieiix pour eux de s'en aller. 

On 1 voit, cette greve, 1'une des plus serieusea qui aient jamais eu lieu dans le pays, fut 
wir le |njiiit de causer un tort irreparable au Pacifi<|uc-Canadien en fournissant aux ligues 
ri vales de Etats-Unis lea moyens et 1'occasion de s'emparer de son trafie. 



AUX tiTATS-UNIS ET EN CAN' ADA. 51 

Ceux qui aiment leur pays ont done bien raison de redouter cette autoriti* que nous per- 
mettonsaux Ame"ricain8 de venir exercer chez nous, autorite abaolue et irrespon sable, autorite 
susceptible de devenir a un moment donne", nous venons de le voir, niineuse pour lew interets 
canadiens. Et puis, il y a dans cette dependanee acceptee un oubli de dignite nationale et un 
e'le'ment de danger public qui ne font honneur ni a not-re fierte ni a notre sagacitc. 

Nous croyons les ouvriers du Canada assez intelligentH et assez eelaires pour regler leurs 
affaires sans avoir a se mettre a la remorquedes Unions americaines. S'ils craignent d'etre en 
temps de greve incommodes par les ouvriers des pays limitropbes, e.st-ce qu'ils n'ont pas dans 
le parlement un pouvoir qui les protegerait avec toute I'emVai'iti- desirable ''. (V <|iii se fait 
dans la republique voisine pourrait a cet ogard leur servir d'exemple. 

Car, enh'n, il est impossible de ne pas voir que c'est surtout pour empecber la concur- 
rence de 1'ouvrier canadien que 1'ouvrier amcricain a pousse ses unions a si- tain- iutcrna- 
tionales. C'est son interet propre qui 1'y a porte. II a pris les inoycns de rester maitre chex. 
lui, ou il ne souffre ni le journalier cbinois, ni le travailleur canadien. 

L'ouvrier americain,d'ordinaire bien pave n'emigre pas ; il meprisc la Chine et dedaiirne 
le Canada, mais il redonte 1'arrivee de leiirs travailleiirs. Aussi. avec quelle ailivsse il e>t 
parvenu a s'en debarrasser ! Tout d'abord il a fait rendiv line loi par le eonirivs i|iii autorise 
le douanier a termer sans facon 1'entree du pays a (|iiiconi|Ue y arrive pour travailler 
apres avoir ete embaucbe aillenrs. 1 Knsuite, sous pivtexte de philantropie et de L-OII- 
fraternite, il a reussi a jetej adroitement le filet de ses associations sur le Canada, et a forcer 
I'ouvrier canadien ainsi embrigade a subir ses decisions et a refuser d'aller lui t'aire concur- 
rence chez lui. 

L'etude serieuse des choses nous a eonvaincu ijue ces relations internationalcs des 
societes americaines n'ont guere abouti a aineliorer la condition du salurii' canadien. Klles 
ne se seraient pas etablies que la question aurait ete toute aussi avanc.'-e, avec cette difference 
toutetbis que nos soeietes ouvrieres auraient ete nationales an lieu d'etre di']iendantes de 
1'etranger. 

D'un autre e6t5, les tendances et 1'aetion des associations anit'ricainc>> sont neeessairenient 
le reflet de 1'etat social des Etats-Unis, leipn-1 ditfere essentielleineiit du notre. Sans etre aussi 
malade que la plupart des pays d'Europe, le peuplc ainerieain est loin d'etre saiu de corps et 
d'esprit. Le materialisme 1'envaliit . cliaque jour davantage ; les inillionnaires s'y inultiplient 
rapidement ; le pauperisme s'y developpe dans une egale proportion, et les crises industrielles 
aidees des plus monstrueux monopoles semblcnt y t'aire de la grevc 1'etat chroniquc ties 
classes travaillantes. II ne se passe pas de semaine que la presse n'aniioiue des agitations 
ouvrieres les plus graves dansquelque partie de 1'immense territoire. La politique n'einpeebe 
rien ; elle est au contraire, du moins en apparence, du c6te des masses. Entendez-la (k'noncer 
Paccumulation des ricbesses, applaudir tons les tribune qui parleront de la royaute du salaiiv, 
de I'affranchissement du travail et des odieuses tyrannies du capital. Ace torrent materialiste 
qui grossit sans cesse, la religion seule pourrait opposer une digue salutaire : mais, Findifle- 

1 Voici ce que nous lisions dans un journal de Montreal le lendemain de la lecture du present travail & la 
Soci&6 royale : "On mande de Buffalo a la date du 24 mai : Le gouverneur a sign4 une loi qui declare coupable 
" d'un d^lit toute municipality ou ville, ou entrepreneur executant des travaux public-, qui emploiera pour ce8 
" dits travaux d'autree personnes que des citoyens des Etats-Unis. Otte loi frappe non settlement des milliera 
" de Polonais, de Hongrois et d'ltaliens, mai va priver un grand nombre de Canadieiu d'ouvrage. L loi a 
" presque en secret & la legislature et sans opposition."- (Note de 1'auteur.) 



32 JOSKPH ROYAL LK SOOIALISMK 

rentisme regne en maitre dans les ames; ct ce n'cst pas dans les generations forme'ea a lY- 
americaine qu'on pent s'attendre do voir coinmencer jamais la reforme morale. Or, point do 
reforme sociale sans reforme morale. 

Le Canada n'est separe des Ktats-Unis que par une ligne tout a fait imaginaire. Les 
relations intellectuelles ontro les deux pays no sont pas moins frequentes ui moins libres que 
Irs rapports indnstriels et conunerciaux. Tel on tel progres, telle oU telle amelioration, telle 
mi I. -Ho idee i|tii so manifeste dans 1'iin est le plus aouvent note"e avec soin et etndiec 
dans I'autrc. Si une tbeorie sociale revolt de nos voisins un accueil favorable de 1'ouvrier, on 
prut "-(re sur i|u'cllo ne tardera pas, sous une forme oil sous une autre, a faire son apparition 
fti ('anada. Lcs unions uiivriercs et antres soeietes dn memo genre, clout nous parlous plus 
liaiit. s<.nt la toiites pn'-tes a en faire la propagation et le disseminement. Or, parmi les ques- 
tion- ,|ii<' ]. so.-ialisnie a n'-ussi ji faire agiter dans 1'armee dea travailleure americains, il en 
ot plu-ii'iir- (|iii ne sont cjiic I'applieation de priiu-ipes que Ton se garde bien d'enoncer 
.\pM--.i'iiiciit. I'crsoniie nc vent etre socialiste ; mais les eliefs s'y prennent de fa9on ace 
"(tit- It- travailleiir airissc coinine tel sans le savoir. Quelle eat done la doctrine de ce socialiame ; 
ijiifllf-. ~-i\>\ Ics projiositions i|iii fonnent sasynthese, pour que son r61e soil si mauvais et aon 
ai-iii'ii -i fuiifstf ': C'cst CT ijiif nous allmis inuintenant examiner. 

**# 

Suivant Ic- >o.'ialistf>. If travail est la source ile la rieliesse' et de la civilisation ; par 
ftn-fi|iifiit. If travaillfiir a If droit d'exiger 1'anif lioration de sa condition dans la proportion 
df ra.-croi.-sfineiit df la ridifsse. Kt.si If travail n'a en realite pour resultat qued'accumuler 
i-fttf ri.-ln---.i- >laii~ lf> mains df qtielques-uns, il y a la une preuve maiiifcste de rorganiaation 
di'-lf'-tiifiif df la >oci'ti'. C'cst If plus petit nomltre qui jouit ; e'eat le plus grand nombre 
>|iii >oiitlVf : il taut rfiiVfi'MT la proportion, et faire que la soutfrance soit 1'apanage du petit 
iioiul.iv. ft If bifii-ftrc cflui dn )ilus grand nombre. Dans ee but, abregeons, diaent-ils, les 
bfiirrs du travail, i-levons K-s salaircs, ft abolissons la concurrence. 

Tcllf t dans sa partie essentielle la doctrine de la reforme sociale sur la propriete, le 
travail, ft >ur !<> pretendiirt droits de 1'auteur de la ricbesse. 

Nous iimi> bornerona aujourd'liui a detinir le travail et a examiner la nature de ses 
droits et de >> devoirs. 

*** 

Kt iral)i-d, qn'est-ce <jue le travail ; qu'est-ee que la propriete? 

I/iine des erreurs les plus repandues detinit le travail eomme etant la somme de temps 
et de labeur donnes par un ouvrier moyennant un salaire eonvenu. D'apres cette notion, un 
travailleur est <-elui-la seulement qui, avee ou sans apprentissage, appartient a quelqu'un des 
divers i-orps de metiers, dont les plus en vue dans lea villes, sont ceux des menuiaiers, ehar- 
pentiera, macon*, taillenrs de pierre, cordonniera, typographes, peintrea, etc., auxquela il con- 
vient dejoindre les employes des manufactures. Sans doute, toua cea individus appartiennent 
a la grande annee du travail : mais il- ne sont pas les seula, et s'il y en a d'autres, pourquoi 
It* ex el u re ? 

Le chef d'atelier est un ouvrier; 1'entrepreneur est le plua aouvent un ancien ouvrier; le 
cultivuteur qui engage des journaliera pour 1'aider dana ses travaux eat auaai un ouvrier; le 
commit! cat un travailleur; pareillement le marcliand, 1'architecte, 1'arpenteur et le marin. 



AUX &TATS-UNIS ET EN CANADA. 53 

Klargissons la sphere : qui oserait refuser de compter comme ouvriers ou travailleurs le fonc- 
tionnaire public, le militaire, 1'homme de profession, le juge, le pretre? Que le salaire Hoit 
paye a la journee ou a la piece, qu'il prenne le nom d'honoraire ou de traitement, il n'en 
reste pas moins analogue a celui que le macon retire une fois sa journee finie. La difference 
entre tous ces hoinmes consiste le plus souvent dans 1'habit, et generalement dans une 
remuneration qui s'eleve par degre"s a mesure que le travail physique exige tin plus grand 
effort de 1'intelligence. C'est la hierarchic sociale qui s'etablit en ccrclcs conccntriques ct ijiii 
oftre le spectacle de 1'unite dans la diversite. 

II n'est done pas vrai de dire que le travail soit simplement ct uniqucmcnt le louage dc 
son labeurque fait 1'ouvrierou lejournalier pour enrichir celui qui I'cinploie. Cette definition 
est imparfaite parce qu'elle ne vise qu'une espece de travail, elle est t'atisse paive qu'elle 
erige en regie generate une exception on une condition incidente, elle est inexacte pan-e 
qu'elle meYonnait la realite des choses. C'est au inoyen de cette insidieuse definition que le 
socialisme arrive a partager en deux classes toute la societe htimaine, d'un cote I'nuvrier, de 
1'autre le capitalists, qu'il preche la croisade du travail contre le capital, ct s'attaqtic a la 
propriete. 

Qu'est-ce que le travail ? 

Le travail estlemoyen universe! employe par 1'homme pour subveniraux besoins dc sa vie. 

Personne n'echappe a cette ordonnance supreme ; il n'y a de difference (pie dans lYspecc. 
Tel pourvoiera a son entretien par la chasse, tel autre par la pcche, celui-ci par lYlcvaife des 
troupeaux, celui-la par la culture des champs, d'autivs par le louagc de leur temps ct dc leur 
labeur : Facio lit des ; do ut fades. 

C'est aussi par le travail que gagncnt leur vie le commis, lYmploye, le negociant. riiomme 
de bureau, le soldat, 1'ecrivain, I'.artiste, le savant et le ministrc de la religion. Qifun liuimuc 
volontairement s'abstienne dc travaillcr, et il se condamne a souff'rir la peiue terrible portiY 
par la loi inexorable du travail ; il mourra de faim. 

Les economistes distinguent outre le travail qui est productifet le travail qui ne Test 
pas: cette distinction nous parait vaine. Tout travail produit tin n'sultat, parce ipic la 
matiere maniee par 1'homme subit sous son effort une transformation quelconqiic. II est 
possible que le resultat soit plus ou moins f'ructueux, et que sa valetir differe ; mais si t'aible 
que soit 1'eftbrt de 1'homme agissant sur la matiere inerte qtii Itii a etc soumise par Ic (Yea- 
teur, cet effort ne peut pas etre improductif. 

La richesse publique, sur laquelle les economistes out ecrit taut de volumes, n'est pas 
autre chose que 1'abondance avec laquelle 1'homme satistait aux besoins de sa vie physique 
et immaterielle. Le surplus constituc la richesse; ce qui nous permet dc dire dans un certain 
sens avec Adam Smith que plus considerable est le travail plus grande est la richesse. Le 
travail ne commence a la produire qu'au moment ou pouvant s'arreter il continue son activite, 
aiguillonne par le desir sans cesse renaissant de faire mieux, de faire plus grand, de faire en 
plus grande quantite, de faire plus beau, de se rapprocher de plus pres du type ideal resplen- 
dissant dans I'&me humaine. 

De la, deux especes de richesse publique, 1'une toute materielle, 1'autre toute morale et 
intellectuelle. 

Le travail doune naissance a la propriete ; il en est la source, la sanction et la recom- 
pense. Aussi, la propriete est-elle un droit nature!. 

L'homme, en operant sur la matiere se 1'incorpore pour ainsi dire ; il lui communique 



34 JOSEPH ROYAL LE SOCIALISME 

une forme qui vient tie lui-meme ; il 1'anime de son labeur et la transforme a son usage ; il se 
1'assimile. L'homme donne son nom a sa propriete", c'est-a-dire a la matiere brute ou animee 
qui a t'te toucbee, modifiee ou transtbrmee par son travail. Et si un jour il re9ut de Dieu 
1'ordro de donner par son travail un nom a toutes les creatures, il ne les appela pas de son 
nom a lui, mais il les qualitia suivant lours aptitudes, rendant ainsi hommage au PropritStaire 
Createur de toutes choses visibles et invisibles. 

II v a deux espeees de proprie'te', celle qui reside dans le fruit du travail destined a la 
satisfaction immediate des besoins de la vie ile I'hoinme, tels que la nourriture, 1'abri, le 
vctemcnt et les oiitils ile son travail : c'est la propriete naturelle. L'autre espece consiste 
dans riii-cumulation des moyeiis employes par rhominu pour subvenir aux besoins de sa vie. 
('Y~t << genre de propriete i|ii'on appcllc comniunement le capital. Toutes deux sont <$gale- 
ni. 'tit produites j>;tr le travail ; mais tandis que I'une consiste dans 1'acquisition et la possession 
ile ee '|iii e-t n'Ve-saire |ioiir 1'entretieii de la vie du travailleur, 1'autre en s'accumulant pro- 
iluit ee <|ui sera niVes-aire. non pas seiileinent a la vie du producteur, mais encore a la vie de 
eeiix i|iii vieiidroiit a|>n\- lui, sennit sieiis et porteront son nom. 

I,.- droit ile riionmie aux fruits de son travail, a son capital, est tellement clair et indis- 
eiitaMe ijiir la liii positive de toils les temps lui reconnatt un prolongement dYxistence 
penilaiit le.jiiel. ijnoicjiie inort. il continue de parler et de vivre par son testament. 

I'lu- on se raj.pro.-lie dn ln-reeaii (les soc'n'tes, pins il est rare de vpir 1'homme dtSpasser 
une i-ertaiiie nie-mv de snraliondance de nioyeiis. 1'eii de ricbes et point de pauvres. C'est 
.n descendant le .-ours des ;"iL r es dans I'histoire de riinmanite, que Ton apercoit, avec le rfegne 
.In pa-rani-me. ecs .'nornies aecnmiilationw de ri oh esses, de luxe et de jouissances, a cdt4 de 
reelavaire. .|ui t'nt a la t'ois la di'^radation du travail, la negation de la propriete et 1'abolition 
de la I'amille. 

Seule. de ton- le- ]ieu|ile> aiirien-, la nation juive ott'rit durant tout le cours de son 
exi-teiire le -.peetaele il'iine satre et heiireiise eifalitc de fortunes. L'equilibre y etait roraen4 
toii- !.- ciiH|iiante ans par I'eflet de la loi jnliilaire. Dieu avait ordonne qu'& chaque demi- 
irele I.- veinleiir ren t ri'i'ai t en |iosses>ion (le ses liiensqu'il avait vendus, et que la plupart des 
dette- conira.-t.'es seraient remises et etfaeees. De cette fa^on, 1' accumulation des richesses se 
tr.nivait pn'-veiiiie, 1'eselavaire adonci et le hieii-etre plus egalement reparti et assure". 

C.-s prescriptions si sages de la loi inosa'njne out disparu ; mais la doctrine chr^tienne 
l.-iir a siieci'di', sans cesser de eonservcr le secret de repandre la tiSlicite dans toutes les classes 
de la Mici.'-te somnisc a se^ enseignements. 

*** 

dependant, le travail ne Be borne pas ;\ donner naissance a la propri4t4, il produit encore 
le salaire i|tii est son equivalent. 

IA- travailleur, dit le socialisme, a le droit, aprfes avoir regu le prix de son labeur, 
d'exiger de partager avec celui qui 1'emploie les benefices retires de son travail. N4anmoins, 
vninnie ee partagc pourrait susciter beaueoup de difficult^ dans la pratique, 1'ouvrier, a titre 
de compensation, se eontente de reclamer une diminution des heures de sa journ^e, une 
augmentation de salaire et 1'abolition de la concurrence. 

CY^t sur 1'existence de ce pretendu droit que s'appuient aujourd'hui tous ceux qui, 
exagerant k dessein les profits du capitaliste, s'adressent a 1'Etat pour lui demander son 
intervention toute-puissante et d'amelliorer la condition d'une classe aux de"pens des autres. 



AUX tiTATS-UNIS ET EN CANADA. 55 

II serait assez facile de prouver par des statistiques que le bien-etre du travailleur subit 
generalement le contre-coup du developpement et de 1'activite du capital ; cette demons- 
tration serait inutile en ce moment. Qu'il suffise d'aflirmer ce que pcrsonne ne pent nier, a 
savoir que le salaire est en general le double de ce qu'il etait il y a trente ans. L'ouvrier, 
mieux paytS, se donne plus de jouissances qu'autrefois sans travailler davantage, et sa 
situation mate'rielle et intellectuelle a progressed d'une maniere sensible. Xoiis atHrnions en 
meme temps que ce resultat est du au jeu des interetsdu patron et de ('employe, a lYlastieitc 
des besoins et de leur satisfaction, ad'exercice legitime et opportun d'une prcssion raisonnable 
sur le capitaliste par 1'asssociation des travailleurs: nous ret'usons absolunient d'y apercevoir 
la moindre consequence d'un droit. 

Qu'est-ce en effet que le salaire; quelles sont les lois qui president a sa fixation : et si le 
salaire donne naissance ;\ quelque droit, quel est ce droit 'i 

Le salaire est la retribution du travail loue librement par le travailleur a eelui <|iii en a 
besoin. C'est done un contrat commutatif en vertu duqiiel cba(|iie partie reroit lYquivalent 
de ce qu'elle donne: or, le salaire etant 1'un de ces equivalents, il sYnsuit que le maitre est 
quitte en justice ot en droit des lors (pi'il 1'a paye. Le salarie, de son cote, n'a plus rien 
a reclamer ; le contrat prend fin par 1'acquittement des obligations reciprocpies des deux 
parties. Le seul droit que possede le salarie, une t'ois son labeur tini. cYst d'exiger son salaire. 
seul fruit pour lui et seule cause determinante de sa convention. 

ReconnaTtre un droit ultorieur provenant de ce contrat a 1'insii des parties serait done 
changer les termes d'egalite dc la convention, et attribucr a I'une des ]iarties une part d<- 
propriete dans un accroissement de richesse qui ne lui appartient a aucun litre. /i'i> r/v.vr// 
domino. Pour retablir la justice il faudrait que le travailleur tut egalement teiiu respon- 
sable des pertes que pourrait essuyer le maitre dans Sexploitation : inais alors le contrat 
changerait de nature, et au lieu du contrat de louage on aurait le contrat de s< M -icte. 
Or, ni le maitre ni 1'ouvrier n'ont 1'intention de former une societe lorsque 1'un des deux 
loue son salaire a 1'autre et lorsque celui-ci y consent ; tons deux contractent librement. et 
aucune autorite n'a le droit d'intervenir, exeepte* pour faire respecter la justice (jui pourrait 
etre violee. Si deux individus, usant de leur droit naturel pour former une convention. 
etaient exposes a. voir le gouvernement meconnattre leur volonte expresse et s'interposer 
pour en fixer la nature, on serait la justice, ou serait la libertc liumaine, ou serait la societe 
elle-meme ? 

Personne n'ignore que le desir, chez le salarie, de tirer tout le profit possible de son tra- 
vail, 1'a porte a. se syndiquer, ce qui a donne naissance aux societes co-operatives ; nous 
savons egalement que souvent un patron s'associera partiellement son engage afin de Pinte- 
resser davantage au succes de son entreprise : rien de plus legitime ni de plus raisonnable. 
Chacun dans ces difterents cas donne au travail une signification acceptee des deux parties 
contractantes, et Pinteret particulier sert de motif a Pacquiescement mutuel. 

Le socialisme ignore sciemment et volontairement 1'intention qu'ont cue le maitre et 
Pengage ; il nie a chacun le droit de rechercher son interet propre, parce qu'il nie le droit de 
propriety source de cet interet. C'est pourquoi, foulant aux pieds la liberte de Pindividu, il 
s'adresse a PEtat pour faire imposer de force la reconnaissances et les obligations de ses 
monstrueuses maximes. 

Dans la conception politique de Pe"conomie socialiste, le gouvernement est investi de 
tous les droits possibles, droit religieux, droit de la famille, droit de propriete, droit d'asso- 



36 JOSEPH ROYAL LE SOCIALISME 

oiation. (Test un organisme doiie* d'une vie et d'une fin particulieres, dans lequel les 
oitovons disparaissent pour t'uire place a de simples unites individuelles qui naissont, agissent 
et meiiront suivant ce qu'il en a dtk-ide". Est-il besoin de faire ressortir tout ce qu'a d'avilis- 
Hiint pour la raison et la liberte humaines cettc formule Bociale qui est la negation absoluc de 
l>icii. do la tin do la moat ion, de la destinee de I'liomme et de 1'objet de la socie'te'? 

Tour avoir lo travail do quelqu'un, le premier devoir auquel est astreint le mattre c'est 
MHO lo salario puisse gagner sa vie. Do mcme, le patron refusera de louer du travail si c'est 
an detriment do sa propriote. L'hypothese d'une entreprise prospere ne donnant pas de 
profits a son proprictairc ost nil non-sons et line absurdite. II est possible que, par suite 
d'uiio concurrence aiiormalo ou do nmrto saison. un maitre so decide a louer du travail qu'il 
nc poiirra paver ipf en pronant sur son oapital : mais oette mesure sera ne'cessairement provi- 
-oire et eoiiditionnollo. << sera uno cspecc d'avanco. Vienne la reprise des affaires, et le 
] at mil -i- iviiil>oiir-cra : sinoii ce sera I'epuisement do son capital, c'est-a-dire la liquidation et 
la IwnqUcroutc. 

I,'li\ potli.'--e d'une imliistrie no donnant pas an salario de qiioi vivre est egalement une 
aiioinalir '! nn n<>ii-~ens. 11 e^t nne eortaino liinito minium que le salaire ne pent depasser 
-.an- .pie le -alar'n'- tnnive plus avanlagetix ilo so croiser los bras et de cesser son travail : cette 
i-.iiii|ition prui ~r pri'seniei- 1 1 iic'li | iiet'ois, jiiais e'ost uno exception, et sa duroe est necessairc- 
nieii! pa--air-'-i'e. |/oiivrier devra ebaiigor do metier on d'occupation, ot an bout de quelque 
teinp il tinira jiar troiiver en ecliangc <le son travail lo salairo (ju'il lui taut pour vivre. 

lies olt.-orvatii nis qtii pn'cedont il nous est done permis do conolure que le salaire, pour 
t'tiv .'pi-ie. tldjt cl'aliorrl eorrospoixlro aux liesoins du travaillour. II devra en second lieu, etre 
d-'-tenniin- il'iine inanieiv jri'ih'ralo par la condition du marcbo, jiar la somrne et la qualite de 
1'oiivraL'e livi-e. ("est eette eoiisiil<'-ration (jiii a porto lo Congres des jurisconsultes d'Angers 
ti-nii en IS'.MI. ;\ iloniier la il-'-tinition suivanto : ' Lo juste salaire est celui qui est conforme 
"a 1'appri'i -iation eommiiiio. <MI (Vanl a la nature du travail, au temps et au lieu." 

Voiei d'un aut re cod' coiiiinent s'exprinie sur cotto mC'ino (question le souverain pontit'o, 
X. S. 1'. le pape |,I'MIII XIII. le plus grand ami (ju'aiont ou los ouvriors, dans son immortelle 

encycljijiie l\i i'ili/i IHH'II fit 111 : 

' Travaillor c'est exercer son activito dans lo but de so procurer ce qui est requis pour 

les (livers licsoiii:- ile la vie. mais surtout jioiir 1'entretien de la vie elle-meme. Le travail 
e^t per-oiuiel pareo ijiie cette activite ost inborente a colui qui 1'oxerce, qu'elle est sa pro- 
pri.'-t.- ot nu'il 1'a rcciie pour son utilitt'- : il ost nocessaire, parce que Pbomme a besoin du 
" truit d<- son travail pour .so eonservor son existence, et qu'il doit la conserver pour obcir ;\ 

la loi naturclle. D'oii il suit <|iio 1'ouvrior a le pouvoir de restreindre a son gr5 le taux de 
" son salairo ; d'ou il suit encore que 1'ouvrier, oblige de pourvoir a sa vie, a le droit de ee 
" procurer les moyens n5cessaires a eette fin par le prix ou le produit qu'il retire de son tra- 
' vail. Quelle est la consequence de ces deux propositions, c'est que le salaire ne doit pas v'tre 
" intuffitani ,\ faire virre Fouvrier sobre et honntte. Que si, contraint par la ndcessit^ ou pouss4 
" par la erainte d'un mal plus grand, il accepte des conditions dures qui lui sont imposeea 
" par celui qui fait 1'offre du travail, il subit alors une violence centre laquelle proteate la 

Main de peur qu'en pareil cas et d'autres analogues, 1'Etat n'intervienne inop- 
" portun?ment, vu surtout la varie'te' des circoustances de temps et de lieux, il est pre"fe>able 
" qu en principo la solution soit r^servee aux corporations ouvrieres par exemple, ou memo. 
" n la cauae 1'exige, qu'on ait recours a 1'appui et a 1'aide de I'Etat." 




AUX fiTATS-UNIS ET EN CANADA. 87 

Pre*tendre que le salaire du travailleur doit otre subordonne a wen besoms et tion a son 
travail, defini comme nous 1'avons fait, est une erreur soutenue par certains chefs socialistes. 
Kilo ne resiste pas aun6 discussion taut soit pen serieuse ; elle rosnlte d'uneetrange contusion 
de la justice et de la charite. En ett'et, la justice est satisfaite lorsque sont accomplies les con- 
ditions du contrat du louage du travail ; ce n'est qu'alors, et alors settlement que la diarit/- 
pent et doit s'exercer. 

" Que la charite, suivant le langage de 1'illustre M" Kreppel, victim- aehever IV-nvre 
" de la justice, qu'elle ticnne compte des besoins de 1'ouvTicr pour mettre a son service Ics 
" ressources dont elle dispose, e'est un devoir qni, a 1'oecasion, pent devenir tout aussi impe- 
" rieux qu'un devoir de justice." 

C'est & la eharite que nous devons tons les hospices, asilcs, hopitaux, creches, insti tut ions 
d'aveugles et de sourds-muets qui se rencontrent dans Ics grandcs villcs dc la pmviiirc dc 
Quebec. C'est pour 1'ouvrier, e' est pour le pauvro, c'cst pour la vicillcssc, r'cst ]mur tunics 
les inlirmites dont la pauvre liumanite est affligee et <[ui sc rcm-untrciit surtuut <lans Ics 
classes travaillantes, que ces refuges out etc fondes, (pi'ils sun) cntfctcniis ct ((ii'ils prus- 
perent. 

Cependant, gardons-nons bien d'oublier qnc si la charite est un devoir, die ne eivc JKIS 
cependant chez le pauvre un droit correlatif; et que si !e salaire est insutHsaut a garantir le 
travailleur contre la maladie, les accidents et les dioinages des niortes-saisuns, cctlc sitiiiition 
ne lui donne aucuu droit contre le matt re qui lone son travail. Kile ei-i'e senlenient pour ] 
patron et pour le riche le devoir de venir an secours de lenrs t'rcres dans le nialheiir. devoir 
que la religion se charge de faire remplir par sun admirable conception de la charite. 

D'ailleurs, quelle ne serait pas la difficult/- de fixer le salaire suivant les hesoins de 
chacun ! Qui se chargerait de determiner ees besoins (jni varicnt suivant rage, suivant qne 
le travailleur est marie on non, suivant le nombre des entants, suivant le cours des lovers, le 
cout de la vie, de Phabillement, des taxes ;\ payer, et millc autres accidents de lieu uu de 
condition? Est-ce qu'il n'arrive pas quelquefois ([lie le travail d'un ouvrier expert ct indus- 
trieux est plus profitable ;\ un patron que celui d'un autre dont les hesoins scront cepen- 
dant beaucoup plus considerables que eeux du premier? Ou serait la justice si ces deux 
ouvriers etaient salaries suivant leurs besoins et non pas suivant la somme et la qualite de 
1'ouvrage fait ? 

La valeur du travail s'apprecie d'apres les cireonstances, sous 1'influence de 1'ofFre et de 
la demande. L'habilete individuelle du travailleur, 1'epoque du travail, la nature de 1'ouvrage 
sont autant d'elements qui concourent h. en fixer le prix. Ce prix varie suivant les metiers 
ou les industries. Si done tant de conditions diverses entrent dans sa fixation, comment une 
legislature pourrait-elle entreprendre de remplacer cette elasticite naturelle des cireonstances 
par Pinflexible rigidite de ses dispositions statutaires? Xon, 1'Etat, c'est-a-dirc 1' ensemble 
des pouvoirs publics, ne saurait sans injustice intervenir pour determiner lui-meme en matiere 
privee les termes de n'importe quelle convention expresse ou tacite. Vous lui demandez 
aujourd'hui de fixer un minimum de salaire ; qui vous cmpechera demain de le sommer 
d'avoir i regler de la meme maniere le prix du pain, le prix du the, le prix des meubles, le 
prix du loyer, en un mot le prix de toutes les necessites de la vie ? 

Loin de nous la pensee que le travailleur n'a pas, comme tout autre membredela societe, 
le droit de s'attendre a la protection de la legislature de son pays. Cette protection lui est 
meme due tout particulierement & cause de son humble condition et de sa faiblesse. Mais 

Sec. ), 1894. 8. 



38 JOSKPH ROYAL LB SOCIALISMK 

iiu'il premie garde (jue cettc protection qu'il recherche dans la loi ne soit pour 1'Etat le pre"- 
texte <le le paralyser par une aollicitude on tree. 

Kn Canada, rautorite civile n'a pas atteudu les injonetions du socialisms pour faire son 
devoir envers le travailleur. C'est ainsi. par exemple, qu'afin de proteger 1'ouvrier centre 
I'aviditc. la malhonnctete ou I'liiexperience <le son patron, toutes les legislatures proviiu-iales 
out pass.'- des lois pour garantir le salaire en lui doiinant le caractere de creance privilcgice. 
DC niriiie. les legislatures out pour la plupart reglemente les relations des maitres et des 
-erviteiirs, le travail des teinmcs ct des ent'aiits dans les usines, 1'observance du dimanche et 

ilf-. tries religicUSPS, etc. etc. 

NOII- M'Uiiiies coiivainrii i|iie e'est le devoir des autorites eiviles de preter leur concoiirr-. 
suivant la prudeiite expression de Leon Xlll.ehaquc t'ois (ju'il s'agit d'ameliorer la condition 
du travail et de 1'oiivrier : niais 1'initiative doit venir premierement de celui-ci. Par le droit 
de -'a--"cicr lilireiuent. le t ra vail leu r ranadien possede eminemment le pouvoir d'augmenter 
-in liieii-etre, et nos statuts font loi <jii'il ii 'y a pas manque. 11 a luultiplie antour de lui les 
..i-ii'-t--- de liienfaisaiiee inutiielle. d'assiiraiiee on de protection afin de suppleer a 1'insufK- 
r-ain-e de son salaire. ("estavee son epargnc (ju'il opere et non pas avec 1'argent d'autrui. 
(in -;tit i|ii' le travailleur ne eraint rien taut ijiie la inaladie ou I'aecident (pii, tout i coup, 
I'oMiiTi' ,i ili '--iTii-r 1'atelier en le chaiitier ]poiir le eloiier a sa niaisou pendant des jours et des 
r-einaine-. C'e~t la ini-'Ti' ijiii I'attend ou les dettes : e'est la pauvrete en tout cas. Or, cette 
terril'l"' '\-eiitualiti- -> trouve en partie eonjuree par des societes ilu genre de 1' Alliance natio- 
i;alr, di- la Soei.'-t.'- <les Ani-an> eanadieiis et de ITnion Saint-Joseph de Montreal. Tontcs les 
\illi-- de la province de t^ui'liec eomptent mi certain nombre d'affiliations ou de succursales de 
ce- di\.T- tvpi-. Urtrani^'es religieuseliient, ces socii'-ti's sauvent de 1'indigence et du besoin 
pour mi ti-inp' plus mi nioin- long 1'oiivrier nialade ou blesse, et 'ii cas de inert, donnent k la 
vriiveoii aiix orphelinsune eertaine sonnne d'argent atin desubveniraux premieres necessites. 
Ce principr a re<;ii encore une plus large application dans ^organisation d'une soei5te de date 
ri'lativeineiil a~-c/. ri'-'-ente. la f 'lit/mil'' Mutual Hi'in'1'iilent Association fondue aux Ktats-Unis. 
C.-tte soeii '(.' adniet eoinnie iiiemlire tout individii vivant par son travail, qu'il soit journulier 
ou nii'deein. et pos^i'-de uii caractere religieiix tres prononce. Tels sont les resultats de 1'ini- 
tiative partieiilit'-re. et voila ce ijiie pent faire la liberte d'association pour 1'amelioration de la 
condition du travailleur. sans avoir liesoin de recourir aux dangereux et faux enseignements 
du soeialisnie amerieain ou europeen. 

Le ineine raisonneinent s'ap]ili(jue a la question de la reduction des heures de travail. 

*** 

Kn Canada cette joiirnee est generalenient de dix heures. La boutique, 1'atelier, la 
fabriqae ouvreiit leurs portes a la fourmilliere des travailleurs a sept heures du matin ; sus- 
l-n-i--ii du travail pour diner de midi ;\ une heure ; 4 six heures, 1'ouvragc cesse et 1'ouvrier 
rentre che/. lui. Dans leu bureaux et les magasins, la journee de travail est en general de 
huit heures. lxt< employes publics et lea commis de banque ne sont tenus qu'a un travail 
quotidian de ept heures, sauf le saniedi ou il n'est (jue de quatre heures seulement. Les 
pretreH, Iwjoornalutes, le ministrc d'Etat et le magistral sont souveut occupes jour et unit, 
A la eaiupagiir. le 1 1 avail dun champs est plus exigeant, et la journee se compte souvent d'une 
toil,. ;, 1'antrv. 



rai- 

8011 



AUX tiTATS-UNIS KT EN CANADA. 8y 

Endoctrine's par les socialistes americains ou Strangers, quelques zele"s parlent de 
s'adresser aux legislatures pour faire fixer un maximum de la joumee ouvriere. En Angle- 
terre, le parti soeialiste demande en outre que la loi oblige le patron ou 1'entrepreueur a 
payer le meme salaire qu'auparavant, c'est-a-dire a payer pour une journee de huit heures le 
meme prix qu'il donnait pour un travail de dix lieu res. 

II semble que 1'enonciation d'une telle proposition suffit pour en montrer toute la de 
son et 1'impossibilite pratique. Qu'un ouvrier robuste, industrieux, habile stipule avec 
patron qu'il lui donnera uu travail regulier tie dix et meme de onze heures pourvu que le 
salaire soit convenable, ou est le mill ? En vertu de quel droit voudrie/.-vous empecher 
1'homme libre d'exercer son activite dans les limites justes et raisonnables? An nom de 
quel principe la loi pourrait-elle intervenir? Si, an contraire, un truvuillant t'ail.le, lache, 
mediocre, trouve la journee de dix heures trop longue pour sa capacite, serait-il juste que 
son collegue plus fort et plus capable doive en souffrir? 

D'un autre cflte, le patron dans ses entreprises, rindustriel dans sa tabrique, si- guide 
ordinairement pour fixer le salaire d'apres la marge de profits que le emit de son outilla-je et 
de la matiere premiere lui fait esperor sur la rente on sou contrat. Suppose/, crn'mie loi suit 
portee ayant pour objet de regler le maximum de la joumee de travail a hint heures, qu'arri- 
vera-t-il? De deux choses I'uno ; ou 1'usine, la lioutiqiie et leehantier diminuernnt les salaires 
dans une mesure eorrespondante, ou ils suspendront tout travail. Or, si I'oiivrier dans les 
villes suffit a se procurer les moyens de vivre et d'elever sa tamille aver un salaire, disons, 
de deux piastres et demie par jour, comment pourra-t-il se tirer d'attaire avec ciii([iiante rents 
de moins, soit une reduction de trois piastres sur le salaire de la semaine? (pliant an patron 
ou & rindustriel pour qui le temps est geiieralemeut un eleim-nt tres ini[iortaiit ilans la livrai- 
son ou 1' expedition de 1'article t'abrique ou di^ 1'ouvrage enti'e^n-is, cette diminution obliifatnire 
de la journee de travail le ruiuera du eou[>, ou entravera d'une maniere tres grave ses op.'ra- 
tions futures. D'ailleurs, ces mesures de socialisme legal peuvent. jusqu'a un certain point, 
avoir une application plus ou moins t'uneste dans les pays temperes : eomnient eoiirir le risque 
enorme de les essayeren Canada ou les hivers imposeiit ;\ 1'ouvrier des ehomai^esde plusieiirs 
mois, et ou la saison de travail en plein air est si courte'.' 

Dans tons les cas, autant il est injuste et dangereux d'autoriser I'Etat a eiitruprendre 
d'aineliorer soi-disant la condition du salarie en fixant le maximum de ht journee ouvriere 
a huit heures, autant il est legitime et a propos d'abandonner la solution de la question an 
patron et a I'eugage. L'un et 1'autre y sont egalement quoique difteremmcnt interesses. 

#*# 

Cependant, investir brutalement la legislature du droit d'ingerence dans le contrat de 
louage du travail ne suffit pas encore a la theorie soeialiste ; elle se revolte en outre contre la 
loi de 1'offre et de la demande et en reclame ['abolition. Cette loi, dit-elle, cree la concurrence 
entre patrons, entre industriels, entre maitres, entre ouvriers, enleve a la matiere produite 
son prix normal, et determine une fluctuation incessante dans les prix de vente et dans 
ceux du travail. Done, la concurrence est 1'ennemie du salarie : done il faut Pabolir. 

Si cette loi e"tait, en effet, 1'ceuvre d'une legislature quelconque, son abrogation serait 
peut-etre chose relativement aisee. Mais cette loi est comme celle de la gravite decouverte 
par Newton ; elle n'est rien autre chose que Pexpression d'un fait e"conomique universel, 
constant, irresistible qui de tout temps a regi les rapports d'utilite des homines eutre eux. 



6O JOSEPH ROYAL LE SOCIALISME 

L'oftre eat le desir exprime' par un individu de se procurer une certaine chose en 
1'eehangeant con t re une autre d'espece difterente qu'il possede; la demande est le d&sir 
exprime par tin individu de coder une chose qu'il possede en Pe'changeant contre une 
an t re d'cspoce difterente. Cette definition peut se returner en deux mots : j'offre ; je dcmande. 
D'oii la regie suivante : la valour d'un article d'utilit^ est en raison inverse de 1'ofFre et en 
rai-on directe de la demande. 

Korecr et ohtenir la commando par le IMS prix extreme et la qualite" de ses produits, tel 
est le prineipe auqitcl obeit rindustriol de tous les temps et de tous les pays. II compte sur 
eette autre In! de 1'ordre physique non moinsevidente, non inoins universelle que la premiere 
i-t que le> Anirlais appellent the Kiirrinil <>j the fittest, la survivance dn mieux organist. Or, 
le mieiix organise dcs pniducteurs sera celui qui achetera avec le moins possible de capital la 
inatioro promii-re dcstinee a etiv transformco par le travail ; et s'il a reiissi par sa froide 
babilete a ne paver ee tnivail <|iie le inoins possible, eu egard an volume et a la qualite, il 
aura atteint la principalecoiidition p(ur rendrc son industrio remunerante et yfairede I'argent, 
-uivaiii la i-cniiiiiiiiie cxpn^-ioii. Mais n'allons pas cmire que ce patron, si bien <5quippepour 
-ur\ i\ re aux mines i|iii >e inultiplieiit antmir de lui, s'inuiiohilisera dans son premier succes. 
1 >'aiitr>--. iniit anssi liien nr^aiiisi-s. |)nissiiininciit aides par le credit, cette autre richessc 
1, ;i-.,',- uhi.|iiiiiK nt >ui' la \'ertii n'elle on su pposee de celui qui s'cn sort, pousseront la con- 

riirn-niM' ei re pin- loin. Us t'eront la (iroiliietioii en grand, cc qui leur perrnettra d'abaisser 

ilavatita-.''- le prix ile 1'artiele, et >\c n'alisiT ilans un di'liit enorine une marge de profits qui 
-.rait ioiit-a-tait in~ntli--aiite a taire vivre la petite indnstrie. La concurrence arrivee k cette 
liiniie alioutit latali-nient a deux n'siiltats, I'lin cjiii est la concentration du capital attire par 
le di\ i'li-inle. 1'antre ijui e^t I'l'talilissenient d'un nionopole tout-puissant eleve Hiir les dtk-om- 

lil'i- ile- ll-ilie- rivales c|ll'elle a i let I'll it es. 

Ce n'e-t pa> tout : <'e n'e-t |>as eneoi'e asse/. Avee le devclopponieiit immense qu'a pris 
rimlii-trie dans le nionde entier, la concurrence, toiijours insatiable, a pris dee proportions 
ill- plus en [ilus gigaiitesques ; die a imagine 1'assoeiation dsins un jiieme pays de toutes les 
industries similairi's. Comliinant ensemble un systeme nnii'urme de productions et de ventc, 
ees a.-.MM-iatioii> scint deveinies inait resses absnlues du marclie ; dies out realise la formule 
?-iipri"nie: red inn- a un seiil 1'ort're, oliliger tons a la domando. Tels sont les combines de 
notre tcmp!>. inunstrueuses conceptions dans lesquelles le travail bumain est impitoyablement 
avili, mal traite et mal pay', que ce travail serve a tournir la matiere premiere ou qu'il soit 
employe a la eonvertir en article de vente. 

Dans do telles conditions, la concurrence disparatt, la concurrence n'existe plus. Nous 
n'en apercevons que 1'alms dans des monopoles dont 1'Etat est oblige* de s'occuper, afin de 
prot : ger U- droit du t'aible et faire respecter la justice. Get abus est contre nature, et ce n'est 
pa etre soeialiste que <le demander aux parlements d'intervenir. Mais c'est 1'etre fonciere- 
ment que de vouloir faire decreter par 1'Etat cette chose absurde et irr^alisable, a savoir que 
tout homme oft'rant ou demandant une commodite" sera puni, et que tout individu offrant ou 
demandant du travail sera poursuivi judiciairement. 

II n'y a pas a se le caclier, 1'unique objet dusocialisme dans tout ceci est d'empecher 1'ou- 
vrier d'entrer lui-meme en concurrence avec ses semblables. De cette maniere, disent les 
adeptes, nous Atona tout pretexte an maitre, au patron, a 1'entrepreneur de toucher au salaire, 
et nooa aaaurons la situation du travailleur. 

Personne ne doute un instant que 1'employ^ ue prendrait pas tous les moyens de 



AUX ETATS-UNIS ET EN CANADA. 61 

faire augmenter ses gages s'il n'cn e"tait pas empeche par la concurrence qui le guette avec la 
vigilance la plus implacable. II sait qu'a la porte de 1'atelier, de 1'usine on du chantier se 
tiennent d'autres ouvriers qui n'attendent qu'un signe du patron ou du bourgeois pour venir 
prendre sa place, et cette frayeur le rend sage. Que cette surabondance d'oft're de travail 
cesse, et sur-le-champ le salaire s'eleve, grossit, commando jusqu'a ce que rindustriel pressure 
et e'puise ferme ses portes et eteigne ses t'eux plutot que de se ruiner. C'est 1'histoire de la 
poule qui pondait des csufs d'or. 

Et puis, quo devient avec ce systeme de cahne plat absolu, universal, la situation du tra- 
vailleur sans ouvrage? II dcvra se resigner a mourir de faini ; et alors on se demande ou est 
la justice dans un systeme qui forcerait le nnutre ;\ garder a son emploi un oiivrier inhal)ile, 
paresseux, sans initiative, quand son interet lui coinmande de le rcinplacer par un aiitre plus 
actif, plus adroit, plus devoue? 

Cette proposition socialiste est done t'ausse, inhumaine, tyranniquc, et d'ailleurs alisolu- 
ment impraticable. Elle detruit la liherte et Finitiative, res deux principes du veritable 
progres materiel. 

Ainsi done, impuissaut a conccvoir la veritable organisation du travail, de la propriete, 
de la richesse et de la concurrence, le socialisnic, nous venous de le voir. reste egalement sans 
id4e pratique quand il entreprend d'ameliorer la condition du travailleur. Impossible d'cn 
arriver a une autre conclusion. Cle n'est pas en seniant ladettanee et la hame eiitre les classes 
de la societe ([ii'on peut faire plus ln'iireuse la vie ilu salarii' ou augmenter sun hien-eire. 
Le secret ce n'est pas le soeialisme cpii le possede ; on le sail bien en Canada. C'est vers la 
doctrine cbretienne qu'il taut tourner les regards : e'est la settlement i|iiese troiive la vi'ritalile 
solution du grand probleme de Famelioratiou de la condition des classes oii\ rieres. 1'mir 
nous cette conclusion deeoule naturellemenl des t'aits (|tii se passent die/ nos voisins et cjiie 
nous venous de constater. Nous avons essave dans cette courte I'tmU' ile troiiver 1'iili'e i|iii 
s'agite et se cache sous ces mouvements du travail <|iii n'ont rien d'incolii'rent ni d'illogiqiK 1 , 
et il nous a ete t'aeile de saisir le lien (|iii les eiicliaine les uns aux antres eoinme la cause 
a 1'effet. Dicu merci, nous no connaissons pas eneoi-e en Canada les inqtiietanteH agitations 
qui, sous le nom d'individualisme et de eollectivismo, meiient un pays tout droit aux abimes 
de 1'anarchie ; mais nous no sommes pas pour cela exemptes du devoir d'aider a ameliorer 
le sort des classes ouvrieres, ni surtout de 1'obligatiou de lesmettre en garde contreles entre- 
prises funestes et hypocrites du soeialisme americain. 



SECTION I, 1894. [ 63 ] MEMOIRES 8. R. CANADA. 

IV. Le baron de Lnhonlan 

Par J.-EDMOND ROY 

(l,u le 25 mai 1893) 

AVANT-PROPOS 

Louis-Annand do LOTH d'Arce, mieux connn suns le nom de baron de Lahontan. est 1111 
otticier fran^ais qui a servi uu Canada de lt>8;$ a 1(!!>3. Qnclqnes annees aprcs son rctoiir en 
Europe (1703), il publia un rec.it do sc-s voyages qui tit hcaucoup de limit duns le temps. On 
peutjuger de la vogue qu'eut cut ouvragc, puisqu'il en t'ut donne plus dc doiix.c editions t'ran- 
9aises en rnoins d'uu demi-siecle (1703 a 1741), sans comptcr qu'il tut traduit en anglais, en 
hollandais, en allemand, ot quo les grands recueils de voyages compiles en France mi en 
Angleterre en contiennent de volumineiix extraits. 

Ecrit en un style un pen dnr mais portant Failure liadine et egrillarde. rmivraife de 
Lahontan penetra dans des couches ou n'avaient ]ui se rendre des livres un pen mystiijiics. 
comme leu relations des missionnaires, on des in-folios comme cenx de Oharlevoix. CY-tait la 
premiere tbis qu'un voyageur sortait dc la voie commune, ahordait la discussion de toiites 
ehoses et marchait sans lisiere. Les chercheurs, les gens si'rieux avaient In I)ncreux. I^escar- 
bot ou Champlain. Lahontan s'adressa an pulilic leger et moqnoiir du commencement du 
xvin" siecle. Quelques-uns, comme Parkman, jngent meme iju'il devanca les pamjilili'taires 
de ce temps. Lahontan t'ut hi et contrihua peut-etre pins (|iie liien des autenrs graves et 
savants a f'aire connaitre le Canada. Dans le oours de son ouvrage, il regne nne pointe de 
malice, un air t'rondeur, un ton de persiflage qui dnrent jilaire a l'e]ioque. 

Lahontan, qui fut jiendant dix ans un militaire mediocre, qui passa obscur an Canada, 
conquit tout i coup par sa plume une renommee pt>ur ainsi dire europeenne. Les princes de 
Hanovre lui donnerent leur t'aveur, et il vecnt dans 1'intimite du grand Leilmitz. C'est ainsi 
qu'un pauvre cadet de Gascogne, qui n'avait que la cape et 1'epee, (jui avait maiupie sii vie a 
vingt-sept ans, qui' se croyait un homme perdu et ruine apres avoir deserte le drapeau et t'ui 
sa patrie, s'acquit la reputation d'un grand voyageur. Le hasard a voulu <|iie ceux qui oi'cu- 
paient alors les premiers emplois, ou qui gagnerent a la France par leurs immortels travaux 
plus des trois-quarts du continent americain, fusseut pendant un temps ignores ou engloutis 
dans le plus miserable oubli, et qu'un officier du plus maigre merite se couvrit de leur inan- 
teau glorieux. 

L'importance que Ton a donnee pendant tout le xvnr si^cle a 1'ouvrage de Lahontan, 
celle que lui donnent encore certains ecrivains contemporains en le citant de temps & autre, 
Justine cette etude. II importe que Ton connaisse plus intimement un homme qui a porte" des 
jugements tres severes sur nos origines, qui a popularise en Europe 1'idee que les colonies 
franqaises furent des lieux de deportation, et qui, d'un coaur leger,. a voulu infliger un 
stigmate honteux a toute une race. 

II y a peu d'ecrivains qui ait eu une carriere aussi accidentee que le baron de Lahontan. Son 
histoire ressemble i un veritable roman. Parti du Beam a 1'age de dix-sept ans pour venir an 
Canada comme simple volontaire dans les troupes de la marine, il habite tour a tour Quebec, 



Q4 J.-KPMOND ROY 

Montreal, le detroit, Michillimakinae. II assist*- ;\ deux campagnes sans trouver a s'y illnstivr. 
Commandant de garnison, il abandonne l&chement son poste pour He faire voyageur iso!6 dans 
les regions lointaines du Minnesota. Commensal du gouvenieur Frontenac, on le retrouvc 
lieutenant de roi dans les brumes de Terreneuve, d'ou il s'enfuit sur unc miserable barque de 
pechcur qui le jette sur les cotes du Portugal. Refugic en Hollands, il tk-rit, eontre sa patrie 
-t cciix ile sa rare, des pamplilets reni]>lis de h'el, se donue liypocriternent la gloire de deeoii- 
vertes imaginaires, devient Kami des princes et rangers et. d'un savant comnie Leibnitz, qui le 
prcnd pour tin lioiunie serienx. 

I'.mr rccMiistituer la vie de eet lnuumc el range, il nous a fallu nous faire nomade connne 
lui. et pui-er an x sou ives les plus di verses, depuis Saint-Paul de Minnesota jusque dans les 
Imiirir.- iirn.>r.'-> de la Ilidlande, eonsulter tour a tour les archives de Quebec, de Pluisanee, de 
I'au. il.- Havninie. de Paris, les ireoijraplies. les liislorieiis, les pliilosophes, les ininisteres de 
la LTMITIV. de la marine, des atl'aifes etrangeres, de la justice et de la police, paree <}iie Lalion- 
lan a I'll- nii'li- mi pen ;'i Imiies ces ad in inist rat ii >i is. 

(in ,,,nr,iit i|iie lnrsc|iie U's elements d'informution son! repandus dans des depots aiissi 
\a-ii'-. dan- }<- Imnls si inultiplii's. et c|ii'il taut les interroger a distance sur de simples con- 
j.-.-tiii,~. r'e.-l t'airr -niiveiit le iiii'-tier d'uii liuiiinie i(iii ploiigerait dans la mer pour y chcrcher 
iiin' ri-rtaiiii- c-ni|uille parnn tuiites les an I re.-. 

N'.iil- i|i-\n|i drs reinereielilelits >illei-res a lulls eelIX (|lli out bion Volllll 11OUS pretCF It'UF 

enih-niirs liiciivcillanl dans rette taehe ardue et soiivent in grate. 

N'.iii- ne -aiirinn- niililier les M-rvii'es de M. de l>ut'au de Maluquer, juge a Sarlat, auteur 
\' .\fm l '/ lli'':irn. ijiii iiniis a t'oiirni sur la t'ainille de Laliontan des renseignernents si 
I'l-'-i-ii-ux. M. Paul Labroiiebe. arehiviste du departement dea Basses- Pyrenees, qui a bieii 
\'iulu nn'ttrr a mitre disposition ses exeellente^ relations de t'ainille, M. le cure Bacque, qui a 
r. mil.- la |iii i''iv drs arelii\'cs de Ldnuitan. pour y decouvrir les traces de son ancien 
paroi ii-n. M ' ('oii--eyon. proprii'taire de 1'aneienne inaison de justice des barona de Lahon- 
tan. et '|iii iimis a dmine sur la liaronnie les plus intt'ressants details, la Societe de Borda qui 
a tail U'S plus lollaliles cH'orts pour nous el re lltile. 



LA CMMMI NK UK LAHONTAN, DANS I,ES BASSES-PVKKNKES. L'ABBAYE DE NOTRE-DAME D'ABET. 

AxriENS SEIONEl'KS DK IjAHOXTAX. PORTRAIT DES JjAHDNTAXAIS DE8SINE PAR L'lLLUSTRE 

MoNTAiiiXE. ISAAC DE LOM D'ARCE. LES TRAVAUX QU'IL ENTREPREND. 

Le train qui inene de Bayonne a Lourdes stoppe k Puyoo, petit bourg ignore du depar- 
tment d*t Basses-Pyrenees, mais centre de ralliement considerable pour les chemins de fer, 
j.ui-qu'il met en communication avee Bordeaux et Tours la plus grande partie de 1'ancien 
IW-am. 

A ;> kilometres de Pnyoo, an fond d'une plaine bordee de coteaux verdoyants, dout 
le gracieuses ondidations font contraste avec le plat pays des Landes et les escarpements 
al-rupt- de< in.- nt- pyreneens, dort le paisible village de Lahontan avec Ba population de 1,200 
habitants. 

La commune de Lahontan a eu jadis ses jours de splendeur, et scs habitants aiment a en 
le souvenir. 



LE BARON DE LAHONTAN 68 

Au xni* sifecle, un paysan y d^uouvrait au milieu d'une solitude couverte de ronces et 
de broussailles une statue en hois de la Vierge Marie. En ces temps de fervour et de foi 
vivace, une pareille trouvaille fut eonsideree comme miracle, et la statue devint bientdt I'objet 
d'une grande veneration dans toute la contree. Elle fut invoquee sous le nom de Notre-Damc 
d'Abet, et on e"leva ensonhonneur un magnitique sanvtuaire. Les muines d'un abbaye voisin, 
les benedictins de Sordes, en eurent la garde pieuse. 

Des frontieres d'Espagne, des pays basques, des rives de 1'oeean, et des landes sterilcs 
accouraient de nomhreux pMerins. La legende et la tradition locale disent quTrbain IF, le 
pape des Croisades, Saint-Bernard, d'illustres templiers, le pape Clement V, sc plurent a 
venir gainer la vierge miraculeuse dans ces lieux benis. 

M Kt Charles-Anguste Lecjuien de la Neuville, dernier t'vcque de l>ax, dioei'-se d'ou 
Labontan dependait alors, contirma de son autorite, a la tin dn xvin" sieele. le n'eit des 
merveilles qui s'operaient an sanctuaire de Xotre-Dame d'Abet. Cet antique pMeriiiar<- suli- 
siste encore, mais 1'eglise qui abrita si longtcmps la statue veiien'e est toute en mines. Ses 
murailles decrepites, noircies par le temps, sY-levent commc une sentinelle perdue aux bords 
du gave de Pan. Dcpuis quelques annecs, des Ames pit-uses et cbaritabU-s travaillent a la 
restaurcr. ' 

A droite et ;\ gaucbe du vieiix sanctuaire, gisent d'anciennes t'ondations d'une iri'cisseur 

demesuree et d'une solidite a toute e[)reuve. On emit y voir les restcs de c(Hi>tmi-ti(in> n- 

mencees sous la domination romaine, mais les traditions sont obscures, et les Validities out 
aneanti toutes traces liistori<nies de ces temps n-cules. 

Situe sur les coniins du Beam et dc- l';uicienne (iuyenne. Labontan dut pendant plus de 
deux sifccles et demi subir lejoug anglais. La ebroniijue rapporte qiu- li-s Mt'arnais et les I'.as- 
ques, voulant reconquerir la liberte de leur patrie. trouverent plus d'une t'ois rt-tuge derrit-n- 
les epaisses murailles de Xotre-Dame d'Abet. 

Un des anciens seigneurs de Labontan, le baron de Ce-s-Caupenne, qui appartenait a une 
maison illustre de la Cbalosse, etait tres attacbe a la tamille royale d'Angleterre. On dit 
meme qu'il lui pretait de 1'argent. Mais les vassaiix de i'e banquier de bant ton lui prou- 
verent (pi'ils ne gontaient guere ses sentiments britanniques. - 

Montaigne partagea avec Caupenne 1'lionneur d'avoir les Lubontanais pour vassaiix. 
L'illustre ecrivain prit la peine d'en rappeler le souvenir dans une page 1'ort originale de ses 
Essais. 



1 Notice fur IK PMerinagc dc Notre- Dame d'Abet, d J-alxmtan, dinette de Hai/onm: 

'' Les chroniqueurs rapportent quo vers la fete de la Purification, en 1254, Gaston de I'.earn eut la hanliesse de 
vouloir g'introduire a Bayonne, mais qne, repousse par los Anglais, il vint chercher un refuse sous les murs d'Abet. 

Le 6 avril 1299, Edouard 1", roi d'Angleterre, ('crivait au niaire de ISayonne pour leprier ile faire conduin- a la 
tour de Londres Jean Deville, son fils Pierre-Olivier Deville, Jean de Sancerre, Jean Odoual, Michel Arbide et 
Aim6 de Cantines, seigneur de Saint-Paul. Us avaient pris une part active a la conspiration qui avail pour but 
de delivrer Bayonne de la puissance anglaise. Mais ces courageux conspirateurs, qui voulaient reconqui'rir la 
libert^ de leur patrie, vinrent chercher un refuge dans 1'abbaye d'Abet 

On dit que sur 1'ancienne cloche de 1'eglise d'Abet, on lisait, en caracteres gotliiques, cette inscription eu latin . 
Le roi Edouard 1", tainte Marie, priez pour nom Jeeus de Nazareth. 

En 1569, le protestant Montgomery, fleau des eglises et des lieux saints, se jeta sur IVglise d'Abet et le bonrg 
de Lahontan. Le combat fut acharne, mais les Lahontanais, qui tous avaient pris les armes, sortirent vainqueure, 
et se rrudirent a 1'eghse d'Abet pour remercier Dieu et y deposer les " bant-res de rouge sandal " prises & 1'ennemi 
et qui signifiaient : Mori sans remede et mortelle guerre en tous lieux. 

Un membre de la famille des barons de Caupenne, Garcias Amand de Caupenne, fut eveqiie de Dax 
(1307-1324). 

Sec. I., 1894. 9. 



J.-EDMOND ROY 

" I^> baron do Caupenne en Chalosse et moy, avons en commun le droict de patronage 
d'un boncfice qui est do grande estendue, au pied do nos montagnes, qui se nommo Lahontan. 
I! out do* habitants de ee ooing, ce qu'on dit do oeux do la vallee d Angrongne : ils avaiont 
uno vio i\ part, les talons, les vostemonts ot les nm>nrs :\ part ; regiset gouvernes par certaines 
indices ot coustnmcs partioulioros re.;iicsdo pore on tils ausquelles ils s'obligeoient, sans aultrc 
oontrainoto quo do la reverence do lour usage. Co potit ostat s'estoit continue do tonte 
ancicnncte on nno condition si heurcuso. qn'aulcun jugo voisin n'avoit este en peine de s'in- 
tornn-r do leur affaire : anlcnn advocat employe a lour donner advis, ni estranger appelle ponr 
e-tcindiv Iciirs <|norollos. ot n'avoit-on jamais von anlomi do oe destroict a Tansinftnc ; ils 
luvoient le- alliances et le commerce do I'anltre inondo ponr n'alterer la pnret<5 de lenr 
police : jn-.|iie-i a co, comme ils n'citeiit. quo Tun d'ontro onlx, de la memoire de leurs pcres, 
;i\;ini r.-'ime e-poinoonnee d'niie noble ambition, alia s'advisor. ponr mettre son nom en credit 
et iv-piiiatioii de t'aire 1'iin de ses ent'ants maistro Jean on maistro Pierre, ct 1'ayant faict 
in-trnire a .'-crire en c|iiel.me ville voisine. le rendit entin mi beau notaire de village. Cettuy 
, \ lev. -mi irraii'l. e"niniein;a a di'ilaigiier leurs aneiennos constumos, et a lenr mettre en teste 
l ;i i,,,m|,,. I, - r.-irioii- de deea : le ]iremier ile ses comperes a (pii on oscorna nne ch6vre, il Ini 
-,-illa d'en demauder rai>on aiix juires royanx d'antonr do l.\; ot do cottny oi a un antre, 
iu-c|in- ;\ oo i|ii'il CUM tout aba>tardi. A la -uite ile cette corruption, ils disent qn'il y en sur- 
\vint incontinent unautre piro consoipionoo, par le moyen d'nn modocin qui il print en vie 
d',-iiu-er uiie de leiii> till.-, et do s' liabit nor )iarmi eulx. (Yttuy oi commencea a leur 
apprciidn- premii-reinent le nom> des tiebvros. des rlionmos ot dos apostumea, la situation du 
cii-ur. ilu t'ove et ilc- i i it i >t i us. 1 1 ii i estoit ii lie science jusi jiios lors tros oloignoe do lour COgnois- 
anc-e: et. aii lieu de Tail de c|iioy ils avoieiit apprins a cbassor tontos sortes de inaulx ponr 
aspros et extreme^ rm'ils t'eii-seiit. il b-s acconstnma. pour uno toux on un niorfondement, a 
|irendre !- mixtion> e-t raii^'n'-res. et commencea a t'aire traticfjno non do lenr sante Heulemcnt, 
mai- au--i cle leur mort. Ils jiuvnt i|iie. dejiuis lors seulemont, ils out apporoou qne le serein 
leur appi'-antir ait la tcr-tc. ijiie le boiro. avant cliauld. apportoit nuisance, et quo les vents de 
I'antomnc er-toient plus jrriets quo ceulx du jirintemps ; quo, depuis 1'usage dc cette medecine 
\\- -e ti-ouveiit accablex d'nno b'gi>n do maladies inaccoustuinoos, ot qu'ils apporoeoivent un 
geip'ral doschet en leur aiicieiine vignour, ot lours vies do, moitio raccourcies." ' 

Sur sou lit do mort, Montaigne songoait encore a sos hons et na'ifs vassaux. Maia cette 
tbis ce n'etait plus pour s'en nioijuer do si agroable iiu;on. II fit don a leur eglise d'Abet du 
"droit d'aiguillon." qui consistait dans lo prolovement de la valour du treizieme des agneaux 
qui naitraiont dans la commune. 

Montaigne disparu, son benefice passa a Philibert Arcbambaud Dussault de Poylvault. 
C'et MMift oe chevalier ohatolain quo Lahontan fut erig4 en baron nie. 2 



iif de Montaigne, Edition Harhette 1883, t II, cli. xxxvn, pp. 110 et 111. 
' Aftede mariage de I'liilibert Arrhamltaml du San It de I'oylvaut: 
" \>- --p;ii Hinr jour dn iiinis d'apvril mil six ceim oinquante cincq, je, prestre et curi' de Lahontan, sonl 

a <\n\ Rppartiondra, ay eRpnim^ en face de noetre mere -:iirtc ('glise du present lieu, par ordonance et dis- 
panne il'illiiiitriiwiiiie et reverend iiwi me .larqnes Iicsdans, C-ve8(|ue Dax, cstant au present lieu, avoir espouse 
meMiro IliihU-rt An-hambaut du Saiit, chevalier, seigneur et baron du Poey, du present lieu etautres plasses, 
d'avec <lanioiwlle Marie I>aret, native de I'm is et habitant i IJagescq, presans lea soulz signls et moy. 

i8i|m/-) Ihisanlt de l' ( , >lvult ; Marie Daret; P. Daret, pi-re, present ;d- Hinx.oncle, present; Villemaran, 
rotisin, prrtent; K. I Viminii|iie, preWnt ; Martian, present ; Yego A lard, present; de Beglieder, jiigc, present. - 
Irlibr* one Mconde rouppie. 8oiiBrr." ( Arrliivca communales de Ijiliontan, Etat Civil, 1651-R65.) 



LK BARON BE LAHONTAN 67 

Le deuxieme baron <le Lahontan tut Isaac de Lom d'Arce. 

Isaac de Lom d'Arce appartemiit k une famille bien coniiue du Beam. II etait apparente 
par les dc Braigelonne h. la fameuse maison d'Artagnan qui a joue un si grand riMe pendant 
les troubles religieux de la France. ' Les Lom etaient uux-memes seigneurs de Laba.stide. 
Apres avoir servi avec distinction dans les armees du roi en qualite d'ingenieur, Loin 
d'Arce avait d'abord acquis la terre d'Esleicb, situee en face de la baronnie dc Lahontan, sur 
la rive droite du gave de Pan. II rendit alors aux populations du midi dc la France des ser- 
vices considerables en umcliorant la navigation des gaves pvreneeiis. 

Le gave de Pan, nourri des glaciers et des neiges eternelles des pics qui separent la 
France de 1'Espagne, passe a Lahontan. 11 a roule jusquc la comme un torrent, inais en tra- 
versant cette plaine heureuse, il calme sos ondes ecumantes, pour pivndrc les allures plus 
paisibles d'une honnete riviere, jusqu'a ce qu'il se jette au golt'c de (Jascognc. Tel il est 
aujourd'hui, mais au temps on vivait Lom d'Arce, il etait impossible d'en exploiter le 
cours. Trois siecles auparavant, Edouard II, roi d'Angleterre, pris d'uu beau /.Me pour ses 
sujets de Beam, voulant faciliter la navigation et le flottagc, avait ordonm' renlevcincnt des 
sables de 1'Adour, ainsi que celui de quelques obstacles sur legave de 1'au. II prit dans son 
ordonnance pour point de depart 1'abbaye d'Abct. 

Lom d'Arce voulut renouveller des travanx du menie genre, mais plus en grand. II 
ne desirait rien moins que de rend re le gave navigable depuis Bavomie jusqu'a Pan (ItvJO). 

Pour cela il tallait faire sauter les rochers qui obstruaient la navigation, aplunir les 
rapidcs, detourner le cours de centaines de ruisseaux qui pourraient gror-sir les gaves d'. \dour 
et d'Oleron, affluents du Pan, crcuser et elargir des rivieres. 



1 Par ses deux branches, les Monthic et les Montesquiou. 

Les ecrivains du Canada et des Etats-Unis ont tollement dt-figun' le noni patronymique du baron <le Lahontan 
que je crois utile d'en rt'tablir la veritable orthojiraphe. Jo dois ces notes aux patientes recherches de M. IHifan de 
Maluquer, 1'auteur de 1" Armorial de Jiearn, et celui qui connait le mieux les aneiennes families des provinces pyrr- 
neennes. II est incontestable que. le nom patronymiqne de la famille du baron de Laliontan rtait '/ Lom, (juoi(|uo 
ce nom soit ecrit tK-s liciblement du Loin dans les arrets du conseil du roi de I'epoque. 11 existe encore i Nay, une 
famille de Lom, et dans les environs de Lembeye une fainile de Lom-Sorbo. Mais il n'y a pas en Beam do locality 
du nom d'Arce. On ne trouve dans le Diclionnaire den Pastes qu'un village de ce nom, eitut- dans la commune de 
Vendensies, dans 1'Aube. Laliontan est un nom de terre et un nom patronymique. II y a en France la commune 
de Lahontan, dans les Bashes-Pyrenees, canton de Salies. II y a anssi la commune de Hontaux (dt'-partement des 
Landes). 

Les mots Lahontan et Lafontan sont absolument synonymes. (Paul Raymond, Dictionnaire topographique de> 
Batset-Pyrhiles, page 90.) II existe &. Pau une famille Lafontan. On ecrivait indiffcreminent autrefois Laltontang 
Lafontan, Lahontan. Ce mot signiflfl un pays de funtainen. 

John Gilmary Shea, dans sa traduction de Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nowelle- France, ecrit: Armand Louis de 
Delondarce de la Hontan, baron de la Ilontan et Herleche. 11 faut lire Lom d'Arce, baron de Lahontan et HOB- 
leche (maintenant Esleich). 

Un mot sur les armes d'Isaac de Lom d'Arce. 

On voit dans sa correspondance avec le corps de ville de Bayonne qu'il s'est servi des sceaux suivanU: 1 ecu 
a la bande cbargee de trois sangliers ou porcs-4pics, timbr^ d'un heaume de profll a lambrequins, surmonte' d'un san- 
glier au nature! (lettre du 12 octobre 1659) ; 2 ecu portant le nom d'Arce en lettres entrelacees, surmont<5 d'un 
tortil de baron (lettre du 12 octobre 1661). 

Lahontan, qui se trouve dans le canton de Salies, fait partie d'une region ou Ton trouve assez commnne'ment 
des sangliers. On organise meme, de temps en temps, des battues, ces animaux faisant beauconp de ravages dans 
la plaine. Rien de surprenant si, a raison de cette particularite, le baron de Laliontan a fait figurer des sangliers 
dans ses armes. 

1 En 1313. Archives de Gascogne, citeea par M me Cousseyon. 



68 



J.-EDMOND ROY 



Tn jour (1648) les habitants de Bayonne <5tonn& virent aborder devant leur ville trois 
bateaux, qui vcnaient de plus de 22 lieues dans I'interieur des terres. C'tStait Lorn 
d'Aree qui les envoyait. Cela ne s'etait jamais vu et frappa tout le monde d'e'tonnement. On 
en ecrivit a Paris et les gazettes en parlerent. Les e"chevins de Bayonne assembles donnerent 
aux mariniers qui avaient conduit les bateaux une gratification de 20 livres. 

(V travail gigantesqiie, conronne de succes, et que Ton avait cru jusque-la impossible 
aj.porta a Bayonne 1'abondanee. Son port difficile d'acces, enfoui sous les sables que char- 
rovaient les -raves, en fut grossi a tel point qif un vaisseau de cinquante canons y put entrer 
ave<- plus de facilite que ne le pouvait fa ire auparavant une fregate de dix. On put des lore 
open-r la desccntc des mats et des vcrgues des Pyrenees, par les gaves creuse's par Lorn 

d'Aree. 

On compivndra encore mieiix rimportance de ces travaux, si Ton songe qu' auparavant, 
les navires du plus faible tonnage echouaient dans le port de Bayonne. 

("est en li;:!0qiic Lorn d'Aree avait commence eette gigantesque entreprise. II prit 
dix-buit ans a la mener a bonne tin. II cut a bitter tout le temps centre 1'opinion et les 
ditliciiltc- i|ii'on lui siiscitait de toiites parts. Atin de rendre la navigation libre il avait du 
romp re le- na e- de- pfflieiirs. detruire les ccluses des moulins, deposseder des proprie% 
tairi--. (in lui su-cita mille proees on les officiers provinciaiix favorisaient les particuliers 
contre If liardi novatfiir. Loin d'Atvc etait oblige d'interrompre ses travaux afin de 
ri'-pondre ;'i ces -ommations. On alia meine jusqu'a deroher lesoutils de ses onvriers. II fallut 
I'inif rveiiiion diivtc ilu parleincnt atin de rendre le passage des rivieres libres. En 1648, le 
mi aceorda a Lm d'Acrc, pour lui et ses beritiers a pcrpe tuite, le monopole de la navi- 
gation ft du transport des maivhandiscs sur le gave qu'il avait rendu navigable. Malgre" ce 
privil.'-tre roval. L<>m d'Aree cut cm-ore a subir toiites espeees d'empechements et de con- 
tradictions. Au bout de dix annees. le teincraire navigateiir, fatigue de bitter seul contre les 
caprice- du turrent ft 1'inertic des riverains, diit renoncer 11 ses hardis projets. II y avait 

d.'-pcli-e plus df l.'id.lllll) livres. 

Pour recompense!- Lorn d'An-e des services qu'il avait rendus, dans les armies, et 1'indem- 
niser dc;- d.'-penses eiionnes i|ii'il avait faites atin de rendre les gaves navigables, le roi lui 
accorda nne peiisiun de 8,000 livres par an, pendant douze ans, a prendre sur les droits de la 
communi- de Bayonne (liJ.~>8). Kn lt!(J4, Loin d'Aree etait nomine reTormateur general du 
doinaine de Bi'-arn et eonseiller honoraire au parleinent de Xavarre. Quelques annees aupara- 
vant. il avait et- fait chevalier de 1'ordre de Saint-Michel, puis re<;u bourgeois de la ville de 
Bayonne. (V dernier titrc, fort recherche ;\ 1'epoqne, etait bien dn a celui qui avait fait de 
Buvnnnc nne cite maritime. ' 



1 Voir Appeodioe. I*\lctt reltititvt & ramltiuration de la navigation du gam de Pau. Un arrtt de la ville port* 
<iu nul no norm regii lxntrg,oit dt graft de Bayonne s'il n' part pour 3,000 livres au moins dans un vaisseau de 
fabrique franaie <lu port de 100 tnnneaux et au-dessus. (Archives rotmnunales de Bayonne, BB. 2; 1009-1781.) 

15 decembre 1004 : 

Provision* de 1'un des oll'nvs de rt'rormateur du domaiue de B<-arn et de 1'offlce de eonseillor au parlement de 
Navarre, en fnveiir d'Isaac du Ix)m, sieur d'Arce. (Archives des Basses-Pyrenees, B., 3974.) 

Ixjays, par la grace de Dien, roy de France et de Navarre, a tons ceux qui ces presentes lettres verront, aalut. 
S^avoir faiaoDR qoe ponr le bon rapport qui nous a este fait de la personne de nostre bien ana^ Isaac dn I^om, sienr 
d'An-e, rt de ses sens, snffisance, Inyatitl, pmd'homie, experience et bonne diligence, et nous confians sur la [sa] 
fid/'lit/- et aflertion a nostre service, dont nous avons une satisfaction particuliere, Ponr ces causes et autres con- 
siderations, a ce noun m<mvans, nous luy avons donn.- et ottroy^, donnons et ottroyons, par cea presentes, 1'un des 



LE BARON DK LAHONTAN 69 

II 

FAMILLE D'!SAAC DE LOM D'ARCE. XAISSANCE uu BARON DE LAHONTAN. SON PERE EST RUINK. 

DiiMftLES AVEC LES CREANCIERS DE SA SUCCESSION. DEPART DU BARON POUR I/AMERHjUE. 

Le baron Isaac de Lorn d'Arce, marie ;V Paris le 8 fevrier Iti48 ' avec Jeanne (rut'-riii, 
n'avait pas eu d'enfant de ce manage. Reste vent' le 10 juilk-t l(Jt!-'5, 2 il epousa quclques 
aiinees apres Jeanne-Francoise Le Fascheux de Couttes, la so-nr d'un abbe bicn coimu a In 
cour. C'est de ce second mariage que naquit a Lahontan, le !i juin Kiljlj, Loiiis-Ariiiand de 
Lorn d'Arce, le sujet dc cette etude. ! 

II etait ecrit que le t'utur oflicier devait jouer de malbeiir des son entree dans la vie. 
Baptise une premiere fois dans la ehapelle du chateau, on s'aper<;ut, tniis ans apres la r.'iv- 
monie, que certaines formalites essentielles au sacreinent avaient ete oinises on ditti-ives pour 
faire un chretien du jeunc baron. II t'allut renmivcler le haptemc a Pan, le 1f> juillet Ititiit. 
Le gouverneur du pays de Beam, Annand de ('-iranunont, cointe de (Juiebe, et sa sn-ur 
Francoise de Grammont, marquise de Lous, porterent I'ent'ant sur les londs baptismaux. ' 



deux offices de refformateurs do nostre domaine de Beam, et d'autant quo les dits offices do refformateur out 
acccoustumo d'estre exerces par cy devant par des conseillers de nostre cour, cornmo il somblerait estro requis pour 
avoir le droit d'entree et de voix deliberative en icelle, Nous, a cause do la confiance partic'ilu'ro que nous avons 
audit d'Arce et en son experience au fait de nostre domaine, 1'avons rr(-i'- ot orc'ons, par ces mosmes pn'^entes, 
nostre conseiller en ladite Cour adactumde pouvoir exercer ledit office de refforuiateur qn'exergoit cy devant M' . . .. 
de Laugar, dernier paisible possesseur d'iceluy, vacquant a present par sondit di'ci-s, [)our ledit office avoir, tenir 
et dosrenavant exercer et rapporter en la Grand Clinmhre dudit parloment des affaires contestfes concernant 
a nostredit domaine, avoir voix deliberative, oppiner et juaor conjointement avec les autres ofliciers, conseillors 
en icelle es affaires de nostre domaine seulenie.nt, et aux honneurs, authorites, prerogatives, preeminences, 
privileges, franchises, libertes, gages, droit*, revenus et esmolnmens, au dit office appartenans, tels et semblables 
que les avoit, jouissoit ou pouvoit jouir ledit decede de Langar, tant tju'il nous plairra. Si donnons en mandement 
a nos amez et feaux conseillers les gens tenant nostre Cour de parlement de Navarre, sceant a Pan que lour estant 
appareu des bonne vie, mosurs, conversation et religion catholique, apostholique et rnmaine, aye (ic) requis par 
nos ordonnances dndit Loun, sieur d'Arce, et de luy pris et receu le serment en tel cas roquis etsans s'assubjectir a 
aucun fxaini-n stir le droit et la loy ny sur autre matiere que nostre dit domaine a, dont nous le dispensons par cos 
presentes, ils le mettent et inslituent ou fassent mettre et instituer en procuration (ric) [en possession] dudit office 
le faisant jouir d'iceluy, ensemble du rapport des affaires contestecs concernant nostre domaine, avoir voix delibe- 
rative, oppiner et juger avec les autres officiers, conseillers de la dile Grand Chambre, et desdits honneurs, autho- 
s, prerogatives, preeminences, franchises, liberty's, gages, droits, revenus et esmolnmens susdits, plainement et 



1 Date du central de mariage. 






iage 

2 " Le 10 juillet 1663, madame d'Arce est decedeeet ensevelie en la ehapelle du present lieu par moy Soustraz." 
(Archives communales de Lahontan. Etat civil, 1651-166(1, f 12.) 

3 Lahontan est situ6 sur les confins du dpartement des Landes. C'est sans doute pour ce motif que tons les 
dictionnaires et les encyclopedies disent que le baron de Lahontan naqnit aux environs de Mont-de-Marsan, chef- 
lieu du departement des Landes, vers 16(16. Cf. Larousse, Michaud, American Encyclopedia. 

4 Extrait des registres de 1'etat civil de Pan (GG. 2, f 128.) 

" Le neufvieme de juin mil six cents soixente six nasquit et receut 1'eau du sacrement de baptesme en la 
paroisse de Labontan, Louis Armand de Lorn d'Arce, fils legitime de messire Isaac de Lorn d'Arce, seigneur et 
baron de Labontan et Esleix.et de dame Franchise de Coute, son espouse. Et le quinzieme de juillet mil six cents 
soixente neuf ce mesme enfant a est6 present^ dans 1'eglise St-Martiu de la ville de Pau aux ceremonies obmises* 
a son baptesme, par haut et puissant seigneur messire Armand de Gramont, comte de Guiclie et gouverneur pour 
sa Majeste dans le pays de Beam, son parrain, et par dame Fransoise de Gramont, marquise de Lons, tenant la 
place de haute et puissante madame la cointesse de Guiche, sa marraine. Cos sainctes ceremonies ont est^ sup- 

plees, 1'an et jour que dessus, par moy, 

(Signe 1 :) LAJOURNADB, cur^ de Pan." 

On a &srit, post^rieurement Jl la redaction de I'acte, dtffirtt* au-dessus du mot obmim. 



7Q J.-EDMOND EOY 

Jusqti'en 1663, le baron Isaac de Lorn d'Arce avait habits' le plus ordiuairement Paris, 
ou il logeait dans I'enolos du Temple. II s'y <5tait employ^ au service de ses compatriotes du 
Bourn, et lu ville de Bayonne, dont il ^tait un des bourgeois citoyens, cut plus d'une fois 
I'occattion d'user de son influence pour defendre les privileges que les anciennes chartes 
royales lui avaient octroyes. ' 

paiiiblement, et a luy ol'ir et entendre de tone ceux, ainsy qu'il appartiendra, es choses concernant ledit office, a 
condition qn'aprC-s son dcccs. les dita ofliciere (rir) de refformateurs no pourront estre possedes que par un des con- 
seillers dudit parl-ment ; inaiidons, en oultre, an receveur dfcs deniers et fisc dan* uostredit pays de Beam, qu'il 
ayt 4 payer, doresenavant, par chascnn an, andit de Lorn, lesdits gages etdroits, a commencer du jour en datte 
dw preaontes, rappiirtant lesquelles ou coppies d'ieelles, deuement collationnees, pour une fois settlement, avec 
quittance dii'lit de Loin, sur ce sufiizante. Nous voulons lesdits gages et tout ce qu'il aura est6 pay<5 par ledit rece- 
vpur entre pass.' et alluucen la des pen re doses comptes deduitet rabant (m'c) [rabattu] de la recepte d'iceux par nos 
ainivs et t'l-aux les fi-iis de nos cumptea en Beam, auxquels mandons ainsy le faire sans difficult^. Cartelest nostre 
plaisir. I'.n tcHinoinn de qnoy, nous avons fait niettro nostre seel a cesdites presentes. Donned a Paris, le quinzicme 
jour <le ilecembre, 1'an do grace mil six cons soixante -quatre et <lo nostre reigne le vingt-deuxieme. 

Oollationng, 

(Sign.':) BORDEU. 

9 decembre ItiliT : 

Arn'-t du parlcment de Navarre onlonnant I'enregistreiuent des provisions de 1'office de reformation du 
domaino dc I'.t'arii, olitenmvi juir Mu Isaac do Lorn, siour d'Arce, et donnant acte de sa prestation de sertnent et de 
sun inptallntiuii t-n laditu cliaivi. (Arfliives des r.aases-l'yri'ntes, B., 3974.) 

Vi-ii p:.r la ' 'ur. Ins i-liambrcs assemblees: les lottres de provision d'un des offices de refformateure du 
domain^ en faveur de M' i.saai- de Lorn, sieurd'Arco, donnees a Paris, le quinzit'ine jour de decembre 1604, 8ignees 
lyoiiin et pli:s bas, par le m\, .In Ciuenegaud, avec le grand sceau de cire jaune; requete dudit d'Arce aux fins 
d'estre ri-cu audit <iil'n-e; a[i|><iintem(Mit jxirtant ijne lo procnrour general du roy dira ; conclusions par luy baillees, 
par lesquolkw il recjuiort <tre ordonne (jue les dims provisions seront publiees a 1'audiance et demeureront huict 
j..ur?i an greH'c, stiivant le reiglement, jwur rocevoir tontes oppositions, s'il y en a; acte de la publication desdites 
lottres, fait<! a 1'auiliance ; arrest jHirtant (ju'elles demeureront an greffe buictaine; certitHcatdu greffierque lesdites 
Ittttreg pateiik-s unt ileiueure au gretl'e |>endant ladite huictaine, sans qn'il y ayt est6 form6 aucune opposition; 
antre requete du .suppliant a inesiiies tins ijue la precedante ; conclusions du procureur general, requerant qu'il suit 
pr< -. i. a 1'euiiue'e de vie et in. i-u r< dudit suppliant ; ladite emjuete faite par le sieur de Oebats, conseiller et com- 
misHaire a ce deputtr ; autru re.jiieie a inesmes tins que la premiere; conclusion!) sur icelle dudit procureur gene- 
ral, par WjuellvK il consent a la recoption du suppliant; et le tout veu ; dit a estt'- que la Cour a ordonn<5 et ordonne 
que lewliuw lettres seront registree s es regiotres d'icelle pour jouir ledit d'Arce de 1'effect et utilitr d'icelle, suivant 
leur furme ei teneur, en preatant le serment en tel cas requis. Prononc6 au parlement de Navarre, seant a Pau, les 
cbanibre.s asfemblefs, le neufvieme descembre mil six cens soixante-sept. 

Et peu apres, ledit d'Arce estant mande en la chambre du Conseil, les deux bureaux assembles, et examint'- 
sur le fait du domain?, a preste' le serment en tel cas requis et accoustuml et a este install^ par le sieur de Sorberio, 
doyen des x>nseillers d'icelle, au bureau, en la place qu'ont accoustum de tenir les conseillers de la Cour, quand 
ila rapportant. De quoy a est<; maniK- le present acte. 

' I'aris, 1'.! decembre lti(Ki: Lettre relative aux affaires de la ville de Bayonne, adressee aux ^chevins par M. 
de Oieverry : " Je suis aese* persuade que M r d'Arce est honneste homme, mais 1'amitie que nous avons 
enxemble, ne iu'empesclie pas de ognoistre qu'il est de Bear et qu'il est Intlresse' autant que moy ...... " (Archives 

iiimmunales de Bayonnei CC. 852, n 05.) 

Paris, 12 octobre Kifil : Lettre de M. d'Arce au corps de ville : au sujet d'un differend entre la ville et le 
man'clial de Gramont, snr le serment devant les coinmis de la continue; qu'on lui envoie des me 1 moires ; il est 
boaryeoi" de Bayonne; il tftchera d'arranger cette affaire. Sceati plaqu6 sur cette lettre: " 6cu portant le nom 
A' Am (?) en lettres entrelacees, snrmonte d'un tortil de baron." (Archives communales de Bayonne, CC. 852, 



Paris, 14 aeptembre WA: lettre de M. Martenot, favocat au Conseil] : rend compte d'un entretien de M. 
d'Arce avec M. Bechameil, cecrelaire du Conseil, relatif a Taflfaire de la coutume. (Archives communales de 
KayoniM), CC. 863, n* 81.) 

Park, 29 Mptembre 1064 : Lettre de M. d'Arce a MM. les echevins et jurats et conseil de la ville de Bayonne : 
il t'orcupe de I'aflkire de la coutume, dont il Mt fort chagrin. (Archives communales de Bayonne, CC. 863, n 82.) 



LB BARON DE LAIIONTAN 71 

Lorsqu'il f'ut nomme,en 1664, conseiller an parlement dePau et re'formateur dii domaine 
des eaux et forets de Beam, Lorn d'Arce dut ne'cessairement abandoiincr la eapitalc pour 
venir exercer ses emplois en province. II possedait deja sur les bords du gave de I'au dont 
il avait dompte le cours la terre seigneuriale d'Esleieh. II ajouta ace domaine la ban.nnie 
de Lahontan, qui etait situ^e en face sur la rive opposee. C'est la quo, devcnu viciix, Loni 
d'Arce voulait terminer ses jours. 

Une serieuse consideration 1'engageait encore a ecbangcr le taste de la cour contrc le 
train d'un gentilhomme campagnard vivant an milieu dc ses vassaiix. 

Tour rend re les gaves de son pays navigables, lc baron avail depcnse des soinm.-* 
enormes. II n'avait pas su eviter 1'ecueil dans leqtiel les grands sentiments jettent soiivent 
des hommes de mediocre fortune, et son avenir et celui ilc sa famille s'en trouvaient serieiise- 
ment engage pour le bien public. 

Du temps dc son premier manage avee Jeanne (iuerin, alors ijii'il etait deja avaitee en 
age et sans posterite, le baron avait fait don a la ville de Mavonne a tit re via. r iT d'une summe 
de 30,000 Hvres. Profitant de cc que Mayonne Ini avait toiijours nuil servi ses inteivN il 
reclama ce constitut, afin de se liberer de ses creaneiers les plus eiinuvcux. et de paver ! 
prix d'achat de Lahontan. Mais le capital de la rente bayonnaise n'avait pa- sufli a eomMer 
le gouffre, et les emprunts ruineux s'etaient sueeedes a courte .'elu'anee. ' 

C'est ainsi que s'ecoula tristement la vieillesse d'un liomme ampiel le Meant avait le- 
plus grandes obligations. 

Le 4 novembre 1674, on ensevelissait dans la eliapelle du cbatcau <le Lalt<mtan, Isaa.' de 
Lorn d'Arce. La mort etait venu le prendre a 1'agc dc> (mat re-vin^ts ans. a temps pmir (tu'il 
ne vit point la mine compile de sa maison.- 



1 Voir 1'appendice. Pitee n. Finances et dtmflh financier* du pcre <lu baron de l.aliontun, de Hi.'iS a Ui.s:'.. Les 
malheure de famille ont influ6 d'une fa^on si notable sur lo caractC're de celui dont nous ('tudions la vie, qti'il snuMe 
utile de recueillir tous les documents qui peuvent s'y appliquer. II est important de connaitre le point d'ou 
Labontan est parti. 

2 " Le 4 C dudit mois de novembre 1074, est deced6 monsieur d'Arce, seigneur et baron do Lahontan, iif(- de 
quatre vingtz ans ou environ et est ensevely dans la chapelle du present lieu, par inoy, Isigm' :) de (ioeytes, 
benoit; Soustrar." (Archives communales de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1(>()8 4 1680, f 39.) 

La chapelle de la baronnie, distincte de 1'^glise de la paroisse, se nommait "de Sainte-Mapdeleine." Kile for- 
mait partie du chdteaii et servait aux baptemes et aux sepultures des vassaux marquants. C'ette chapelle dovint 
dans la suite "^glise paroissiale," et sur son emplacement on a bati 1'oglise actuelle de Lahontan. (Lottre do M. le 
curt Bacqu6 a 1'auteur.) 

De 1666 a 1674, Lorn d'Arce avait presque continuellement v<jcu sur ses terrep, ainsi que les actes suivanfs 
en font foi : 

" Le 10 juin 1666 a est^ baptist Isaac de Lamaison, fils d'Arnaut de Lamaison, juge, et de damoi?elle [Marie] 
de Lestrade; parrin : Monsieur le baron de Lahontan, et marrine.. .. (Sign^:) Soustrar." (Archives commu- 
nales de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1652-1668.) 

" Le 21 d^cembre 1667, & est6 baptist Isaac de Laule, fils de Bernat de Laule et de Jeanne de , de la 

parroisse de Habas ; parrin: Isaac d'Arce, baron, et marrine : madame sa fern me, par moy, (signg:) Soustrar." 
(Archives communales de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1652-1668.) 

" Le mesme jour (21 d<Jcembre 1667) et heure, a est<> baptise Isaac de Comme, fils d'Arnaud de Comme et 
Isab^ d'Arribot ; parrin: Isaac d'Arce, baron de Lahontan, et marrine : madame sa femme, par moy, (sign* 5 ) 
Soustrar." (Archives communales de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1652-1668). 

" Le trente uni^me de juillet 1670, Henriette de Dupin, fille legitime de de la paroisse de Misson, 

a receu les ceremonies du bapleme dans la paroisse de Laffontang (ric), sous le bon plaisir de M. le cuitf de Misson 

qui 1'a baptise'e dans sa paroisse, le ; parrein, Jean Holland de Saint Mesmin, escuyer, commissaire 

g^n^ral des poudres et salpedres (sic) de France et departemens de Guyenne et Languedoc et directeur ggne'ral de 



72 J.-KPMOND ROY 

Le chatelain octogenaire laissait sa famille plongee dans d'innombrables proces. Trois 
a n ft apres wi inort, on 1677, la Imronnie etait saisie et, pour comble de malheur, une niece de sa 
premiere femmc veuait revendiquer, an noin des heritiers de Jeanne Guerin, part du capital 
prete jadis a la ville de Bayonne. Ce dernier proces devait durer plus d'un siecle. ' 

Louis Annand de Loin d'Arce etait age de hu.it ans i\ la inort de son pere. 2 C'est au 
milieu de discussions des lioinmes ile loi, apres ;\ la euree, que s'ecoulerent sea premieres 
annees. Knt'ant, il assista aux horreurs des ventes de justice; il vit son pere desoli' ; il 
I'onmit pour lui et pour les siens la detresse et la misere ; il fut temoin journalier des 
aniroisses d'une mi'-rc. dcsirciisc de sauver du naut'rage les debris de sa fortune. De telles 
'). relives diirent avoir uue prolonde inHnence sur sou esprit et sur sa nuinicre de juger des 
homines et ili-s rhoses. II ilevait garde r toute sa vie une haine implacable centre les gens de 
tinaiu-i- i-t li-s papiers Minim's. 



la fiiraine <le (in venue rl Lan^ueiloc ft dirncteiir jrt'm'ral de la foraine de Cayenne, patantes de Languedoc, cous- 
tumes do Bayonneot droit de fret, tenant la place de Monsieur Henri A guesseaux, president au Grand Conseil, 
comni'iwiin- dt'putr [Mir IVNtVnt inn lies ord res de Sa Majestf en (iiiyenne; ft marreine, dame Francoise de Coutes, 
liiiroiu <><!< la Hi. litany i-t Ksleix. au catorhisme settlement et non PAH an snorement, par moy, soubsignl, soubs 
lc Uui plnUir iU> inon8ii-ur ile Soustrar, cun' de la Hontantt. (Sign6:) Esrlaux (?) cur<> de I.abatut et vicaire 
flirt-in.'' (Anhivi-s rnniiuuna'es iln I.aliontan, Ktat civil, lGli8-l(>80, f 1(1.) 

" !. 1^ ft-brier I 1 '"-, a I'.-u' ImptiM'-f une lilie quo 1'rancoisa du C'asson, sa^e femme, a dit estre fille de Jean 
I.arreillet et Maryueritte de Relbeder, airssy que ledit sieur de Larreillet me 1'a luy mesme con8rm6 ; parrin, 
Monsieur Mtre Joan (Jermuin Millet, cominis a la recepte des tallies de IVloction df s Lannes ; et marrinne, 
JttMinu l-'raniMise dt- Cmisto, espouse ile monsieur d'Arco, baron do Laliontan, laquelle fille est nomm^e, an pre- 
sant baptesme Jeanne Kranooise de Larreillet, lesquels parrin et marrine et ledit sieur de Larreillet sont souls 
nifnt, avpi 1 moy, re quo n'a fiiirt ladiie saj-'e fomme pour no scavoir." (Archives comraunales de Lahontan, Etat 
civil, Kiti-v-liisi, f H.) 

1 Vnir a rajiix-ndiiv, la piece n concernant li-s dt'-mrli's financiers d'laaac do Lorn d'Arce. 

: I>u maria^e d'lsaac de I/om d'Arco avec Jeanne I'rancoise 1^ Fascheux de Coutte paraissent 6tre n^s trois 
enfants : 1 Louih-Aruiami de I.om d'Arco, ! juin l(i<i(i ; '1 Une fille di'ci'dee a Lalu ntan, a 1'Age de six mois on 
environ, le IS juin lii"'.* ; 'X 1 Marie-Krancoise tie Loin d'Arco, baptis/'e a Lahontan, le 1!< decembre 1669, qui epouca, 
vm)t In 'Z'' juin ItiW, M. de Sallns. 

"Le 19 decembre 1809, a est(S baptist'-r Marie Fran;oise, de messire d'Jsaacq (xtr) de Lou d'Arce, baron de 

I.ahontan, et ile dame Franchise de Costte, ('c) son espouse ; parrin du Campt [David du Camp], conseiller 

en la Chainbrc de Com plea du parlement de Navarre, et marrine, Marie Fransoisc de Coste, damoyselle, par moy, 
(Signal) I', de < ioej tes, benoit ; Soustrar." (Archives cominunnles de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1668-1680, f 7.) 

" I ineenio jour, inois et au que dessno, (l"i juin Id?-), est d6cedee une fille de Mesire Izaacq de Lorn d' Art-he, 
seigneur et baron de Lahontan et fJtloix, agi'e de six ans on environ et est ensovelie dans la chapelle du present 
lieu, par moy, (Kigni- :) Sxmstrar ; de Goeytes, l>enoit." (Archives communales de Lahontan, Etat civil, KiC8-1680, 

r ia) 

On trouve encore aux memes archives 1'acte de bapU'-me qui suit: 

" I/e 24 aoust ItittS, je, mestre Guilhem Arnaut de Soustrar, pnHre et cur6 de Lahontan, certifie avoir, ce jour- 
d'huy, baptist- Louis de Ix>ui d'Arce, tils de messire Isaac de Lorn d'Arce, seigneur baron de Lahontan et Esleii, 
cooaeiller du roy au parluuient ile Navarre et general reformatur du domaine de Sa Majesl<5 en Bear, et de dame 
Kraocoise de Coutte, son espouse; parrin, Annan Louis de Braielonne, et raarrine, dame Ague Galan de Hraige- 
lonne, tenu a leur place par M' Jacques Commis, docteuren me lecine, et damoiselle Louise de Huber. 

(Sign/-:) Soutrr;-de Betlocq, present; de Bordenave, tmoin; de Goeytes, benoit ; de Betlocq, present." 
(Archives communatee de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1608-1680, f 2.) 

C'et enfant eat evidemment le nn'-me que Ixmis Armand de Lorn d'Arce, L6 en 1666, et dont le bapteme fut 
reooavelle i 1'au en 16*>9. 

Isaac de Lom d'Arce eut encore un enfant nature! qui fut baptise A Lahontan le 25 fevrier 1674. 

" Le 28' dodit rnois de jeanvier 1674, a estc baptisse Jean, fils uaturel d'Izacq de Lom d'Arche, baion de 
Labontan, comme il nj'a el6 attest)'- et confirme par le raport de Marie de Poydebasque, mere sage, aux portes de 
1'ecliM, I'ayaot interrogee surce faict d'en dire la veriteen sa consience; parrin, Jean de Miremonde, et marine. 



LE BARON DE LAHONTAN 73 

A peine sorti de I'erifauce, le jeune baron vonlut embrasser la carriere des armes, et sa 
faniille lui obtint line lieutenance au regiment de Bourbon. ' 

La terre natale n'avait plus pour Arinand de Loin d'Arce que d'amers souvenirs. 
Comment lui, pauvre cadet de Gascogne, ne possedant plus que la cape et I'epee, i>uviiit-il 
vivre desormais dans ces licux ou son pore avait tenu un jour le premier rang? Les revers 
1'avaient brutalement assailli a 1'entree de la vie, il lui t'allait chercher ;\ re fa ire une fortune 
nouvelle. Dans 1'espoir d'obtenir un avancement plus rapide, il se tit bientot verser dans U-s 
gardes de la marine. 

Le jeune baron de Lahontan n'etait pas sans avoir entendu parler sun vent de rAnieriqiie. 
Un des allies de sa famille, Claude Bragelonne, surintendant et commissaire general iles 
vivres et des camps et armies de France, avait forme aiitrefois partie de la eompagnic des 
Cent-Associes de la Nouvelle-France. C'est du pays de I'x'arn, de la ville d'< Huron, presqiic 
voisine de la baronnie de Lahontan, que quelques vingt ans auparavant etait parti le baron 
de Saint-Castin. On avait du se raeonter bien souvent a la veillee, comment ce IV-arnai-. qui 
s' etait embarque a ITige de quin/.e ans, simple lieutenant, avait tini par cpouser une prinee.-v-e 
indienne, puis etait devenu eomme le veritable rui de la puissaiitc et belli(|Ueuse nation des 
Micmaes. 

Plus d'une fois, Isaac de Lorn d'Arce avait du eonduire sun tils a me dans ee port de 
Bayonne agrandi par ses suins. II y avait vu se balancer les barques des bardis pecheurs de 
baleines, il s't3tait rencontre sur les qiiais avec les equi[iatres. retuui 1 des baucs de Terre-N'eiive. 
N'etait-ce point a Bayonne et au ]>ays de Labour qiie les arniatenrs recrntaieiit les nieilleuis 
matelots pour la peehe ;\ la niorue'; 1 Son imagination d'ent'ant avait du sVpreiidiv au n'eit de 
ces lointains et perillenx voyages. 

Le petit pays ou Labor.tan etait ne tout-he aux contins du I'x'arn et des pavs basques. 
Or, il n'y a pas de provinces en France qui aient antant donne a I't'-niigration quc cette 
region. Encore aujourd'bui on y signale le meme exotic. 

" Les jeunes hommes, dit Elisee Reclus. faciles a entrainer par ranioiir ties aventiires 
lointaines, qui est ehez eux instinct de race et qui tit tie leurs ancetres de si banlis pecheurs 
de baleines, ne craignent pas de s'expatrier et de s'enfuir en Amerique, mr-me sans espoir de 
retour. Ces gens, a leur tour, entrainent apres eux des parents et ties amis. C'est ainsi qm- 
le iiouveau monde, au Venezuela, au Chili, contient maintenant plus de Basques francais, 
emigres ou tils d'emigres que n'en contient la France elle-meme. Dans les Pyrenees bastpies, 

.... de Bonebaig, en presence de Guillaume de Goeytes, benoit, sign^ avec moy, (Sign^ :) Soustrar, curt." 
(Archives communalm de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1668-1680, f 33.) 

Madamo veuve de Lorn d'Arce demeurait encore dans la baronnie en 16X1. 

" Le 3 e octobre 1680, a est^ baptist Arnault Francois de Palete, tils legitime de Moyse Palette et de M argue ritte 
de Puyo, conjoints. A est^ parrin Mr M" Arnault de Lamaison, juge de la baronnie de Lahontan, et mareine 
noble Francoise le Fascheu de Couttes, dame dudit Lihontan, par rnoy, (sigo^:) Carrtre, curt 1 de Lahontan." 
(Archives communales de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1668-1680, f 2.) 

' Le onzieme du mois de juin 1681, a eet6 baptisee Jeanne Francoise de Camiade, fllle legitime de Uratian de 
Camiade et de Quitterie de Landemadine, conjointfl. A est6 parrin : M r Arnault de Lamaison, juge de LahonUn, 
etniatreine, dame Jeanne Francoise de Coutte le Fas-cheux, baronne de Lahontan, bien que leurs en fans avent 
tenu laditte fille sur les fons bapatismaux (tic.) en leur absence, par Monsieur deThil, cure 1 de Belloc." (Archives 
communales de Lahontan, Etat civil, 1680-1689, f 3.) 

FranQoise de Coute, veuve de messire Isaac de Lorn d'Arce, baron de Lahontan, signait : de Cuute (( du 18 
aout 1677). (Archives communales de Bayonne, CC. 818, n 7.) 

1 Lettre de M. Paul Labrouche, archiviste du de"parteuient dt-s Basses-Pyroneea, en la possession de 1'auteur. 

Sec. I., 1894. 10. 



74 



J.-KDMOND ROY 



il nVst pw rare do voir do* eliamps abandoning par le proprietaire, meme avant les re"coltes. 
D'uiMfiin*, les Bearnais voisins du pays basque, iiotamment aux environs dea campagnes 
d'Oloron ft des vallees d'Aspe et do Baretous, ne sont pas moins ardents que les Basques a 

quitter lour patrio." 

Suivant los instincts do sa race, ot un pou par desesperance et par gout des aventures, le 
hiroii do Lahontan rcsolut done do sYmbarqiior pour 1'Amoriquo. II laissait, sans regrets 
roimiic sans reinords, le Loan pays <lo Franoo. ronon<;ant des lors, ainsi qu'il nous 1'approiid 
Ini-ineiiic. a tnuto snrte d'attaehement do patrio. 

III 

\KKIVKK U C\\U>\. C\MI'\i;\i:s DK 1'!*4 KT 1 W7. VlK UK 15ARXISON. CANTONXKMKNT 

II\N.- 1.1:- \II.I.M.KS. 

|),-i.iii -Hi arrivc't- an Canada. u il i'-!ait Venn roliillftOOr Iccorate do Frontenac, le gon- 
\, -in. ni l.rt'.-liv ! ili- la I Jarn- ne ee.aii d'l'eriro a la eunr pour Ini doinaudor des troupes. 
C.i an. i. -n ma-ri-init, di>nt |nv.-c|iie tiinii- la vie s'l'^Iait pusseo dans los piirleiiionts do province, 
in- r.'-vait pin- ijiie la L'lnire ile- anno depuis i|iio. iinnniio an gouvorneniont do Cayenne, il y 
a\aii i-einp'.rt,'- c|iiel.|iies siieees inilitaire>. II s'etait mis en toto do pulvorisor los trihus con- 
iV-d.'-rees ili-> lr."|ii(ii-. eiineinis presciiie M-i-iilaires des Franeais otahlis au Canada, conime il 
avail tail jadi- des Anirlais. 1 I'unr oxeeutor sin imiji't, lo holliqiieux gouvornour deinaiulait 
Imii i-eiits liiiiniiie> ; la emir lui envn\a trois oonipagnica do marine. 

I'anni li- jemies ntlieiers i|i:i aeeonipagnaieiit lit rooruo nouvelle so trouvait Louis- 
AnnaiMl ile Lmii iTArre.' La saison de li!:5 i-tiiit doja avanooo lorsque les vuisscaux partiroiit 
ill- la Knelielle. 1 1- itrri vi'-ren t eii rude do (iuehoo le 8 novoiiihro. La terre etait couverte 
de in-i-re. et il tai-ait nn t'ri-id a inmirir.' 1 II no tallait |>lns songer pour ootte annoe a la guerre 
.-mitre le- ln.,|iiui-. Le gnuveruoiir niarqiia les quartiors (les trois eompagnies dans les 



1 Gtoyr-iphi, I'tiirrrmllf hi AV'iiir., II, p. !I4. 

I-eltrt- ilu SI Janvier HilM, i'-d. de 1704, p. L'(i ). 

I.'arte de vonte et I'adjmliration par d^cret de la terre de I^ationtan, dont le jeune offlcier portait le nora, adju- 
dii-atinn faile le 4 direnihre 1(>S4, sur Cliarles Carpentier, bourgeois de Paris, curateur cr(-(> a la succession vacant* 
da sieur ISMC de Lorn d'Arre et d'Esleich, tlmolRnent trop certainement qu'Armand de LahonUn, son 61s d'un 
se<-..nil mariatre avec Kran^oise le Kascheiix de Couttes, avail pris, en venant dans la colonie une resolution d^sea- 
p#p'. (Not* dc M. Marv'ry.i 

1 II faut attaqner U Iroqnoia, t'-crivait-il, ou abandonner le pays Je pdrirai a la t^te des troupes on je 

rAluirai rot ennemi. .le leu pulvi'-riserai <omme j'ai fait des Anglais a Cayenne ( Lettre de M. de la Barre 

ortobre 1GS2 mai K1H3.) Monsieur de la Barre fit partir, nu printemps de I'annee Ki83, un petit bastiment pour la 
Kranre, rommandi'- par le sieur Laparenne, par leqnel il demandait 4 la cotir un nombre de troupes. A remarquer 
<ju'il n'y en avail po : nt an Canada. (Mtmuiret no- le Canada. Collection de manutcrits de la Nouvelle- France, 
I. I, p. 552.) 

Charlevoix dit que Labontitn vint an Canada comme simple soldat, mais nous prt'-fSrons suivre la version de 

(preface de IV-dilion de I73R) qui dit que Lalmntan i't:it dans les gardes de la marine. Ceci g'accorde 
avec le* cnulnmea de |V-po<|ne. Les tils de famille, dans 1'espoir d'obtenir des avanrements rapidex, pormu- 
tmirnl leurs btivets de lieutenant dans l'arm<'-e do terre pour des lettres de gardes de la marine. 

I. poor fit 'qoipper le vaiaseati la Trmjttlr, commandi' |r le sieur Pingo, sur leqtiel on rait trois eompagnies 
detoklntade rini|uante-<leux liommrs clinrune. IJB vaisseau partit de la rade de la Kocbe le, le 29 du tnois 

t. et arriva devant Quebec le 7 novenibre. ( A/anu*Ttf de la Nmnelle-trnncr, I 552.) 
Voir la prBmu-re li'ttre de I>abontan. 



LB BARON DE LAHONTAN 75 

villages des environs de Quebec, a Beaupre, Beauport et Saint-Jean. Le sort donna au jeune 
chatelain bearnais un. billet de logement chez des colons de la seigneurie de Beaupre. II 
aurait pu se croire chez lui dans ce coin de pays. En ett'et, les anciens pecheurs basques 
avaient donne a cette partie de la colonie le nom de Biscaye, et ils appolaient Pyrenees la 
chame de montagnes qui la separe des regions du nord. 1 La seigneurie do Beaupre etait 
alors, comme aujourd'hui, une des plus belles ct des plus riches campagncs du Canada. 
Lahontan garda le meilleur souvenir de 1'hospitalite qu'il y re<;ut. C'ust de 1'une des tonnes 
de Beaupre, par un jour clair et serein d'hiver, qu'assis dovant une largo chcminoe on flaiu- 
baient d'enormes buches, il ocrivait a un do ses vieux parents cos lignos <|ui respirent le 
contentement et le bien aiso : - "Les paysans vivont iei. sans mentir, plus comnindonient 
qu'une infinite de gentilhoinines en F ranee, Quand je dis paysans, je me tmnipe. il t'aut dire 
habitants, car ce litre de paysans n'est pas plus ro<;u ici qu'en Kspagnc, soil paree c|ifils ne 
payent ni sel ni taille, qu'ils out la liberto do la ohasse et de la peehe, ou qu'cntin lour vie 
ais^e les met en parallele avee, les nobles. Tout le nionde y est bien loir,' ct bien ineuble. ( )n 
y fait des feux prodigienx pour se garantir du t'mid." 

Le printeinps vonii, le jeune otticier, apros avoir visite I'ile (['Orleans. Qn.'bee et les trois 
villages indiensdeLoretto, de Sillory et du saut do laCliaudiero, reinoiita le tleuve Saint-Lau- 
rentjusqu'a Montreal, ou il arriva avee son dctaeheineiit dans la prenm-re seniaine du niois 
dejuin 1684. C'est la quo devaiout se rounir les troupes destiin'-es a I'cxpi'ilitioii qiie nn'tlitait 
depuis tantflt deux ans le gouvornour la I Jarre. 1 Mais ! bellic|iieux i-oinmaiidant i|iii 
n'avait cease dans sa corrcapondance do proclamor eonti'e 1'Inxjuois un l>iLmln est fiirt/mi/n 
bien accentue, une to is le temps venu (]<. nu'ttro ses pi-ojets a exeeution, seutit son xele ~r 
ralentir. Pendant qu'il entamait d'un eott- des negociations <U- paixavee Irs Iro<[iiois. il t'aisait 
entrevoir le gouverneur anglais pour lui demander de les nnutriser, puis connnaiidait aux 
coureurs de bois do venir se joindre a lui sous les niiirs du tort de Fronteiiae. Ses lenteiirs et 
ses temporisations tirent quo les troupes ne pnront partir do Montn'-al i|u'au niois de juin. 
Apres avoir franchi les rapides (pii eoupent le Saint-Laurent on eet ondroit, a travers niille 
peines et fatigues, tantot en canots d'ecorce, tantot on bateaux plats, le plus souvont a pied, 
dans 1'eau jusqu'a la ceinture, faisant portage sous des forets viergos int'eetoos <le inousti(|iies, 
les troupes arriverent entin sous les retranchements palissades du fort (11 juillet). On avail 
mis vingt jours a faire le trajet. II tallut attendre 1'arrivee de M. do la Uarre, (|iii n'out lieu 
qu'an milieu d'aout. L'armee traversa le lac et sc rendit :\ la riviere Famine, a 1'ontree du 
pays des Iroquois. Le commandant s'aper^ut alors qu'il n'etait point on etat d'attaquer 
1'ennemi. Les troupes avaient campe pendant plus d'un niois dans un endioit marecageux, 
et presque tons les soldats etaient pris d'une h'evre maligne, mal etrange qui en tit perir jilus 



1 Voir la carte de Cbamplain, p. 422 de ses (Euvres, volume II, edition Laverdiere. 

* Lahontan avait alors dix-sept ans. Dans la preface des Dialogue* (p. ii. &1. 1704), il dit qu'il avail de quinze 
& seize ans lorsqu'il passa au Canada- Mais il eet facile de verifier par son acte de naissance. Le baron de Saint- 
Castin, son compatriote d'Oloron, avait quinze ans lorsqu'il passa avee le regiment de Carignan. 

3 Quelle difference entre ce portrait du paysan du Canada en 1683 et celni que trat de la Bruyre du paysan 
' frangais & la mme 6poque! Voir aussi Taine, la France Conttmporaine, volume premier, au chapilre le People. 

Le spectacle de la mis^re de 1'un et de Pabondance de 1'autre devait frapper virement 1'esprit d'un obeervateur. 
Le paysan canadien tait d6j4 un citoyen, celui de Trance n'^tait encore qu'nn ilote. 

4 Comparer les lettres iv, v et vi de Lahontan fur cette expedition avee le memoire publit? dans la Collection 
des manufcrits de la Nouvelle-Prance, I-pp- 552-553. 



76 



J.-EDMOND ROY 



dc quatre-vingts. II fallut retraiter sans avoir frappe" coup. Pour cacher sa faiblesse, la 
Barre tit un siniulacre <lc paix avec la Grande-Gueule, chef de guerre d rennemi. 

Cot to eainpagne infructueuse n'etait pas de nature a contenter un homme du caractere 
do Lahontan. Le bruit courait sous le manteau que M. de la Barre s'e'tait servi de cette 
oxitodition pour favoriser ot oouvrir la nuirche de plusieurs canots pleins de castors qu'il avait 
fait tratiquor oho/, los sauvages des law, ot 1'aigrcur du Bearnais n'en fit qu'auginonter. 
XY-tait-oo [.as uiio honto quo do fairo la guerre pour quelques marchands? 1 

!>, rotoiir a Montreal, au oommenoemont dc novenibre, Lahontan y passa 1'hiver a 
in, -nor la vie ennuyeuse do garnison. II on profit a pour accompagner dans les bois un parti 
,!, cliasseurs alironc|uin> ot approndro la languo dos aborigines. Au printomps, on le trouve 
eaiit-mno a Cliainhlv. C'otait alors 1'habitude de disperser leu troupes dans les seigneuries 
pour \ passer la saison dos neigcs. An inois do septembre 1685, Lahontan recut 1'ordre de 
-. rondiv :'i lioiiehervillo. II ih-vait doiuoiiror dans oes nouvoaux quartiers jusqu'au mois de 
jiiin M-<7. 1'ondant res trois longiies annees, lo jouno boinnic employs son temps, Pete a la 
p.Vhf. 1'liivor a oha-ser I'o ritual on lo carilxni dans los forets du nord oil sur les rivieros du 
la. I'liaiiijilain. II pivt'i'-rait om-oro la solitudo dos bois on lo calme do la campagne a la vie 
Mm- l'"ii in. -nail a Montn'al. I/i, an inoins, il ponvait Cairo a. sa t'antaisie, tandis qu'a la ville 
i.ii ini'iiait rondi'inriit la di-riiiliiic panni los troupes cantonnees. II le fallait bion. II ne 
inaininait pa~. m ftl'ct. parini res Mildats do la inarino, do nombreux fils de famille que les 
pan-Mi- ciiviivaicnt an (Canada ponr i-alinrr un ]>on la fonguo do leur jeunesse. On pent s'en 
,-,nivaiiii-!v i-ii pan-cniraiii la corn-spoiidaiioo dos goiivornoiirs ot dos intend ante. Aussi les 
pri'in- tcnaifiit-ilr- la main a fairo obsorvor rigourousement los ordonnances dans toutes les 
ivlation- -o.-ialr>. Labontaii s'on plaint ainoroinoiit a idnsionrs reprises dans sa correspon- 



ilaiioo. 



tin no sanrait v t'airo. dit-il, anoiino partio d*' plaisir, ni joiior, ni voir les dames, que le 
run' n'eti -..it int'nriin'. ot no li- prooho piil)li(|Uoinoiit on ohaire. Son zele indiscret vajosqu'4 
imiiiiiior 1> L r on~. ot >'il r.'t'n.-o la ooiiiiiiunioii aux foinmos dos nobles pour un simple fontange 
do .-milonr-. jiiiTo/. du reste. Voiis no sanrio/. oroiro ;\ quel point s'etond 1'autorite de ces 
M-ignoiirs ord.'-siastiinios. .I'avoiio (ju'lls sont ridioulos on lour maniere d'agir, ils cxconnnu- 
niont tons los inasijiios, ot nioino ils aooouront aux lioux oil il s'en trouve pour les dt5mas- 
ot los aooaldor d'injnros ; ils voillont plus soignousoinont a la conduitc dcs filles et dos 



' !> act-iuations (jno Laliontan |irte a ce sujet dans 868 lettres sont parfaitement corroborees par ti 
r..nt<-iii|..r.iiii8. L'inteiulant de Meiiles (lettre de 16H4) accuse M. de la Barre d'avoir di'cid''- ceth) guerre dans son 
cabinet avnr six den principaux marchands de la colonie. Ils lui ont fait comprendre que leurs marchandi^es 
allaionl rtrn pilli'-es et qu'il falluit (jue le |uple fdt appeli'- a d^fendre leurs inten'ts. On accunait ans-i la Barre 
d'avoir envoy*'- dex polleterios a Altiany sous prtexte de communications oflicielles avec le gouverneur de New- 
York. Nicolas I'ermt penxe cximme de Meules. " Tout cola, dit-il, est pour favoriaer son commerce et celui de sot 
ami*. (Mlmrrirrf ur la mu-uri, coutumet e t religion det tauvaga, cb. xi.) Le sulpicien Belmont dit que 1'avarice 

de marchandr fut la cause de cotte campagne Chose curieuse, Lahontan, si severe pour la Barre, qu'il 

ccuae de faire la traite clandestine des pelleteries, accusation qu'il porte du reste contre Perrot, gouverneur de 
Montreal, centre le gouvemenr de Trois-Rivieree et tous les gens en place, montre une certaine bienveillance 
pour l'intndant de Meulrs. soupconn^ du mi' me mal. " Je veux croire, dit-il, qn'il ait pu faire qnelqne commerce 
convert; cependant, il n'a fait de tort a personne, au contraire, il a procur^ du pain a mille pauvres gens qui 
erkient morte de faim MDS son secours." 

Pour en flnir avec 1'ezpMition de 1084, disons que dans un role den troupes au fort Frontenac pour cette annee, 
(l*ant-Nm York Document*, IX, p. 236). le nom de Lahontan n'apparalt pas panni ceux des officiers. f'e silence 
'xpliqne par le fait qu'il nVtait alois que garde de la marine. 



LE BARON DE LAHONTAN 77 

femmes que les peres et les maris. Us orient apres les gens qui ne font pas lours devotion,* 
tous les mois, obligeant a PSques toutes sortes de personnes de porter den billets ;\ lenrs con- 
fesseurs. Us defendent et font bruler tous les livres qui ne traitent pas de devotion... Us ne 
se contentent pas d'etudier les actions des gens, ils veulent encore tbuiller dans leurs penst'es. 
Jugez, aprks cela, monsieur, 1'agrement qu'on pent avoir ici." ' 

Ce zele des pretres devait etre fort emmyeux, en effet, i>our des officiers <>u des soldats 
de'soeuvres menant la vie de gariiison,m:iisqui pent blfimercea anciens pasteurs d'avoirvoiilu 
conserver parmi nos ancetres cette rigidite des mccurs qui fait les races fortes et vaillantes? 

Dans ses quartiers de Boucherville, Lahontan vivait done en paix. La, an inoins, il 
n'avait que 1'emportenient zele d'un simple p ret re a essiiyer en eas de lial. de jeii et dc test in. 

Au mois de juin 1687, alors qu'il etait eampe a 1'tle Sainte-Ilelene, il recut des lettres du 
bureau de M. Seignelay, qui lui apprenaient que le gouverneur de la eolonie avait ordre de le 
laisser passer en France pour y vaquer a ses affaires de t'amille. Ses jiarents lui ecrivaicut en 
meme temps qu'ils avaient en bien de la peine a obtenir ee conge, et (|H'entiii. le \>\\\^- lot il 
pourrait se trouver a Paris, le meilleur ee serait. Mais, helas ! on etait a la veille d'une 
nouvelle campagne contre les Iroquois. Peja, M. de Denonville, gouverneur qui avait suc- 
cede a M. de la Barre, etait en inarcbe pour Montreal. I'n soldat ne pouvait aiiiM aban- 
donner le drapeau. II fallait se mettre en route bon gre mal irri'. Lahontan aeeompairiia 
done I'expeditiou qui cut lieu alors. Cette campagne de l(iX7 tut beaueoup plus irlorieiise 
quecellea laquelle il avait pris part trois ainu'es an para van t. F.es Inxjiiois I u rent di- fails, leurs 
villages saccages, leurs recoltes detruites. L'arnn'e triomphantc s'avain-a ensuite ju<([ii'a 
Niagara, oil elle construisit uu fort. Le :il juillet, M. de Deuouville pivnait solennellenieiil 
possession de toute cette contree an noin de la France. - 

IV. 

LAHONTAN COMMANDE UN DETACHEMKNT AT FORT SAIXT-.IHSEIMI, srn I.K UHTHHIT in i.\c KKIK 

(1687-1688). 

Le 6 juin 1686, le marquis de Pcnonville ecrivait a M. de la Dnrantaye, commandant 
des postes de 1'ouest, qu'il etait absolument necessaire pour le service dn roi et de la colonie, 
qu'il retint aupr&s de lui le plus de Francais qu'il pourrait, an detroit du lac Kr'n' et an por- 
tage de Toronto. Le meme jour, il ecrivait a, Greysoloii du Lutb pour lui donner ordre 



1 Vol. I, p. CO, 6d. de 1704. 

2 Extrait du volume IX des Archives du Canada, dposes au ministtre des colonies i Paris. 

PRISE DE POSSESSION DB NIAGARA PAR M. DK DKNONVILLE, HI JUIU.BT 1(187. 

rso. 

Jacques Ren6 de Brisay, chevalier, seigneur, marquis de Denonville, et autres lieux, gouverneur et lieutenant 
gn<>ral pour le Roi en toute 1't-tendne du Canada et pays de la Nouvelle-Krance. 

Aujourd'hui, jour dernier juillet et an 1687, en presence d'Hector, chevalier de Callieres, goaverneur de Mont- 
rial an dit pays, et commandant le camp sous ses ordres, et de Philippe de Rigaud, chevalier de Vaudrenil, 
commandant les troupes du roi, tant campus avec toute I'arm^e au poste de Niagara, au retour de la marche que 
nous avons faite aux villages iroquols, Sonnontoiians, d^clarons 4 tous qu'il appartiendra 6tre venus au campde 
Niagara situg au sud du lac Ontario & 1'ouest des Sonnontoiians 25 lieues au-dessug, dans un angle de terre 4 Test 
de 1'embouchure de la rivifire du m^me nom qui est la d^charge du lac d'Eri venant des lacs Huron, Illinois, 
Grand lac Supe>ieur et de plusieurs autres au-dessus dud. Grand Lac, pour et au nom du Roi rit<?rer de nonvran la 
prise de possession dud. poste de Niagara, plu&ieurs etablissementa y ayant 6t^ fails ci-devant depuis plusieurs 
annexes par ordre du Roi et nommement par M. de La Salle, ayant passS plusieurs ann^es IL 2 lieues au-dessus du 
Grand Saut de Niagara, et ou il fit batir une barque qui a navigug plnsienrs anm'-cs dans les laca Eri^, Huron et 
des Illinois dont on voit encore les chantiers, en outre led. S, de La Salle ayant Stabli des logements avec des 



78 J.-EDMOND ROY 

d'aller e"tablir un fort au de"troit du lac Erie" avec cinquante hommes, et d'y nommer un 
commandant. II lui expliquait que le lieu ou il 1'envoyait e*tait d'une consequence d'autant 
plus grande qu'il devait mettre le Canada en relation avec les Illinois. On pourra par ce 
mown eouvrir let* allies et leur donner un asile, contenir les Iroquois ou leur donner la 
oluisso. (V pout i- est tres important, et il y taudra un homme entendu. ' 

Prcsqtie i\ nii-chemin entrela Kaministiquia, dernier poste de 1'extreme ouest alors connu, 
i-t le tort do Frontenac, premiere etape sur les mers interieures, se trouve une e"troite riviere 
ijui unit It- lac Huron au lac- Krie. O'est a la tote de cette riviere, en un endroit propice 
d'oii il pouvait commander tout le pays environnant, quo du Luth vint, dans 1'ete de 1686, 
'lover a la hate qiielqiios retrenchements aiixqiiels il donna le nom de fort Saint-Joseph. 1 
II v iiniiiina I'liiiiiuaiulant intorimairo Legardeur do Beauvais, offieier des troupes, qui s'e'tait 
ai-<|ui> i|iioli(iio reputation parnii los ctmrctirs do hois. 

M. do l>oiiniivillo toiiait licauooup a oo nmivoau poste. Au moment oil il preparait sa 
man-lie- omitiv lo* Inii|Uuis. il ocrivait : 

II M-ra tiv> a prupos epic n<>s Canudienti maintiennent le poste que le sieur du Luth a 
rot ranchc au dot roil lu la<- Krio. De cette maniere nos coureurs de boie pourraient prendre 
.-.- i-h.-miii pniir \oiiir do Mirliillimakiiiar. par lo lac Krio, a Niagara. (Lett re du 11 novemhre 
1'i^'i.) 

l,i- tiirt di- Saiiit-.l<iso|ili. <lan~ la pi-nsi-o dos cxploratoiirs, otait destine a-continuer la 
liirin- ili- pn.-ti - .icti'-s sur ronturio. Tout on commandant les sentiers de guerre de 1'Iro- 
I|IM'I^ vors I'miost. il di-vail sorvir do trait-d'union ontro Micliillimakinac, Saint-Louis des 

ii.- i-t Miintri'al. ("ost ainr-i i|in- I'OM reprenait ajiros couples audacieux projets de la Salle. 



i anil. Niagara en 1'an Hiiis, lesqiiels lotroments fnrent briilos il y 12 ant par les Sonnontoiiang, ce qui eat 
un lien suji'tn ile mt'-contentement avoc plusieurs autres qui nous out ni'-cessit^ de leur Cairo la guerre. Et comme 
nous avona cru ijuo tandis (jui- la guerre durorait len lonemeuts que nous avons jug6 a propos de remettre eur pied 
ne potirrairnt pas demnurer -n siireti' si nous n'y poiirvoyong pas, nous avons r^solu d'y contruire un fort dans 
lo<|iiel nous aviing mis KVi hoinmns <les troii|x?s <lu roi, pour y tenir ^arnisdi, sous le cotnmandement du 8' de 
Troves, undes aai-icns capitaines dea troupas de S. M. avec le nonibrod'offlciers n^cessaires pourcommaoder lead, 
goldats. 

I* prt'isent a I'ti- passi' en notro presence et de M. Gaillard, commissaire de la part du roi, a la suite de 1'armee 
et sulxl' li'-gin- de M. de CharnpiKny, intendant du Canada, lequel acts nous avons sign6 de notre nom et scell<; du 
scuau de nrg armes et fait signer par MM. de C'allieres et Vaudreuil et par M. Gaillard, et contresign^' par 
notre sticrt'laire. 

Et ont sit?n6 : J. Hem'- de Brisay, M. de Denonville, Le chevalier de Callierea, Chevalier de Vaudreuil, Gaillard 
ft plug has, par Monaeigneur Tophlin. 

Collationn^- a 1'oritiinal demeurt en mes mains par moi, conseiller secretaire du roi et greffier dn Conseil 
Souverain a Qu^-lc sousaign^. 

Sign^- : Peuvret, avec paraphe. 

i 'illatioiini' a Quebec, ce 12 novembre 1713. 

8ign6: VAVDBKUIL XT BBGOIC. 

1 tea lettres sent pnbli^es dana Margry, t. V, pp. 23, 24, 25. 

1 LahonUn, I, 109; Charlevoix, I, 512; Ferland, II, 159. On trouve parfois ce fort appeld Toncharontion 
dana les anciens manuacrits. Ceat la corruption du mot iroquoia Techarouskiou, sous lequel le lac Erig 4tait connu 
parmi lea peupladeg dee C'inq-Nationa. Ce fort Saint-Joaeph n'eat pas marqu*' sur la carte de Genest II y a eu 
aoaai un fort Saint-Joaeph au fond du lac Michigan, an pays des Poutouatami*. Le fort Saint-Joseph dont nous 
parlona ici ae tronvait prvs de 1'endroit ou eat maintenant le fort Gratiot, a la tete du detroit. 

" Greyaolon du Lulh eatabliahed a post at the head of the ntraight, or very near the present fort Gratiot," dit 
M. Jamw V. Campbell dana sea CHttlinet of the Political History of Michigan (1876). 

Ce fat le premier poate l-Ubli en cet endroit. 



LE BARON DB LAHONTAN 79 

Et quela homines commamlaient ces postes perclus ? A Saint-Louis, Henri de Tonty et la Forest, 
les anciens lieutenants du de"couvreur du Mississippi, chez les Nadouessioux, Nicolas Perrot, 
du Luth an saut Sainte-Marie, et M. de la Durantaye, eoniinandant pour le roi au pays des 
Ontaouais, Miamis, Pouteouataniis et Sioux. 

Le 7 juin 1687, la Durantaye venait sur les bords de la riviere Saint-Denis, a trois 
lieues des lacs Erie et Huron, au sud du detroit, et la, au noin du roi, en presence des chefs 
du pays, il nHterait la prise de possession de ces terres, et il ordonnait qu'il fut fait plusieiirs 
logements pour 1'etablissement des Francais et des sauvages, Choiianons et Miamis, depuis 
longtemps proprietaires du detroit. ' 

A van*, d'entrer en campagne eontre les Iroquois, le marquis de Denonville avait charge 
du Luth, Tonty, la Durantaye, Nicolas Perrot, et les traitants les plus cousiden's parmi les 
sauvages de 1'ouest, de parcourir les vastes contrees habitecs par les Miamis, les Illinois, les 
Outaouais et les Pouteouatamis, et de reunir uutant de guerriers qu'ils le pourraicnt pour 
se joindre a son expedition. A cette armee de confcderes il t'allait 1111 point de ralliement et 
c'est le nouveau poste du detroit, au fort Saint-Joseph, qni avail etc clioisi. l>e la, on s'otait 
rendu a la rencontre de M. de Denonville. 

La campagne terminee. il s'etait agi de clioisir 1111 commandant pour le poste Saint-Joseph, 
considere comme 1'un des anneaux les plus important* de la eliamc des postes jefi'-s vers 
1'ouest. Lahontan fut nomine. C'etait pour lui un grand honneur et un avaiieement conside- 
rable. Mais on conceit sa surprise lorsqu'il se vit appele a se rendrc au loud des lacs, au 
bout du monde, au lieu d'aller a Paris, ou des affaires pressantes rattendaient. \'<>il;'i a 
quoi lui avait servi d'apprendre les langues saiivages. Denonville 1'assura (|u'il manderait 
i\ la cour les raisons qui 1'obligeaient a le retenir au Canada, malgre le conge qii'il avait 
ordre de lui donner. Un autre aurait ambitionue de servir dans ees circonstances, mais 
Lahontan ue songeait alors qu'a son chateau sur les bords du gave de Pan, qu'une nieiite 
acharnee de creanciers etait en train de devorer. 



1 NOUVELLE PRISE DE POSSESSION DES TERRES DES ENVIRONS DU DETROIT DU I.AC KmE ET HlT.OX PAR LE 

S r DE LA DURANTAYB. 

F 20(>, vol. IX, Archives du Canada, A Paris. 

Olivier Morel, Ecuyer, Seigneur de la Durantaye, commandant pour le ri au pays des Outauax, Miamis, 
Poutouannis, Sioux, et autres nations, sous les ordres de M. le marquis de Denonville, Gouverneur general de la 
Nouvelle-France. 

Aujourd'hui, septieme jour de juin 1687, en presence du R. P. Angeleran, sup^rieur des missions des Ontaouasd 
Michilimachinac, de S tt -Marie du Sault des Miamis, des Illinois, de la baie des Puans et des Sioux, de M. de la 
Forest, ci-devant commandant au fort de S'-Louis aux Illinois, de M. de Lisle, notre lieutenant, et de M. de 
Beauvais, notre lieutenant du fort de S'-Joseph au detroit des lacs Huron et EriC'. 

D^clarons atous qu'il appartiendra 6tre venus sur le bord de la riviere S'-Denis, situee 4 3 lieues du lac Eri<"' 
dans le detroit dead, lacs Erie 1 et Huron au sud dudit detroit et plus bas 4 1'entree du lac Eri au nord, pour et au 
nom du roi reit^rer la prise de possession desd. postes faite par M. de la Salle pour la facility des voyages qu'il 

fit et fit faire par la barque de Niagara a Missilimaquina es-annees auxquvls dits postes nous aurions fait planter 

de nouveau un poteau avec les armes du roi, pour matquer la reiteration de possession, et ordonn plusieurs 
logements 4tre fails pour l'4tablissement des Francais et Sauvages Chouanons et Miamii de longtemps pro- 
pri^taires desdits pays du Detroit et lac Eri^, desquels ils se seraient retires pendant quelque temps pour leur 
grande utility. Le present acte pass6 en notre presence, sign6 de notre main et du R. P. Angeleran de la C ie de 
Jesus, et de MM. de la Forest, de l'I!e, de Beauvais; ainsi sign^ al'original Angeleran, j^suite, de la Durantaye, 
le Gardeur de Beauvais, et F. de La Forest Collationn6 4 1'original demeure' en mes mains par moi, secretaire 
dn roi et greffier en chef au Conseil Souverain de Quebec, soussigne 1 . 
Signe : Peuvret, avec paraphe. 

Collationn^ a Quebec, ce 12 novembre 1712. 

Signd: VAtJDREUiL KT BEGON. 



8O J.-EDMOND ROY 

IA- 2 aofit 1687, le nouveau lieutenant partait pour sa destination en compagnie de la 
Durantaye, tlu Luth et Tonty, avec les sauvages et les voyageurs de 1'ouest. On envoyait 
an fort Saint-.Ioseph un liomme par compagnie, et Lahontan commandait le dtStachement. ' 

Le marquis tie Denonville, en choisissant Liihontan pour commander a ce poste de 
contianco, n'eiit pas la main houreusc. LYsprit in<iuiet et tourmente du B&irnais nY^tait 
point fait jnr s'assujettir an role (rune sontinelle patiente, ent'erm^e derriere une palissade 
df inauvais pieiix, en compagnie de quelqties soldate ignorante et besogneux. 

Le pays qiii s'etend du lac Huron an lac Erie et quo haignont lea eaux de la Saint-Claire 
a toiijoiirs eto oonsidere par les ocrivains aneiens comine le plus bel endroit de la Nouvelle- 
Krancc. ' On 1'appelle encore auj'Uird'litii lo jardin du Canada. Le fort Saint-Joseph s'^levuit 
daii> 1'un ilc-s -ites les plus ciieliaiiteiirs de ccttc merveillouse contree. Lahontan, qui aimait 
le- beaux spectacles de la nature, en tut d'ahord ravi. * II etait arrive ;\ son poste de com- 
niaiiil:int a la ini-septeiulire (14 septeinhro 1687), et, a cette ejiocpie de 1'annee, le climat , tie 
i-ctti- ri"_ r 'i"ii <-! di'-liciciix. (' i-iait la saisdii dcs fruits et <lcs vendanges. Les arhres plovaient 
..in- lr |"piil~ ill- la iimi-sun. Les prairies etaient couvertes d'une vegetation luxnriante. 
I,.-- eaux ilu di'-trnit. lini|iiili'> cuninic le eristal <le roche, fournissaient le poisson en abon- 
danee ei il n'v a\'ait pa- de pares plus giboyeiix <|iie les lies, seniees coninie autant dc 
enrlieille- ile \'erdiire. eii lace iiieiue ilu fort. I >u Lutli et Toiitv s'etait'iit reposes pendant 
ijiii-l'|Ue- jours des fatigues de hi eampagiic dans cet oasis. Cha<|Ue soir, apres les longues 
jiiiini''e- pa i'-e- :'i la dia>se mi a la peclie, ils avaient raconte ;\ la lueur du bivouac- lours 
i \. in -i. .n- aveiitureiises an milieu des luintaines pciipliidcs, h, travers des pays inconnus, puis, 
mi i"iir. il- I'taieiii partis, anieiiant avec eiix la troiijie legere(les chasseurs, et descoureurs de 
\-o\-. I,'lii\er I'tait venti avec- ses pluic-s inaiissades. La solitude s'etait faite dans ce uuin- 
|ceiiic-nt iiairni-re si aiiiinc'. I "his de ehasse ni peclie. La riviere charroyait des gla9ons 
I'lmrines poiisses par le- vagues ei i iron rdies du lac Huron. L'ennui, le lonrd ennui deseendit 
alc.r- -ur la petite garnison do Saint-Joseph, la convrant commed'un linceul. Les jours sesuc- 
c c-clc'-feht iiiniiiitcMies et tristcs. Seiiles. parfois, ((iiel(pies troupes nomades desauvages aftaint^s 
taisiii-nt le ur apparition aiix pnrtes du fort. Mais ces visiteurs de passage, helas ! ne venaient 
cpie pour ineiidier une miserable pitatu-e a une garnisoii dejj^ reduite 4 la ration la plus 
riirc >M reuse. Laboiitan, avec sou imprcvoyap.ee ordinaire, avait employe tout I'automne dans 
des exi-ui-sicins tantaisistcs sans soiiger au long hivernement qu'il avait a passer dans ce 
poste. 

Du Lutli. avant son depart, lui avait laisse la recolte du ble d'Inde que ses coureurs de 
bois avaient seme le printemps precedent aiix alentours du fort. Sans cela, il serait mort de 
faim avec ses soldats. T'n jesuite, le 1*. Aveneau, etait venu au commencement de 1'hiver 
s'enfermer avec la petite garnison. II nYut pas de peine h, lui precher 1'abstinenee des 
viandes jiendant le carcme. Sa doueeur inalterable et son invincible patience faisaient 
oontrepoids a 1'ardeur et au sang bouillant du commandant. 

1 Mi'-moire pul)li("- dans la Collection de manvrcntt dr la Nourrlle-Francr, tome I, p. 562. 

Voir la lettre du 2 a.ut Ki87 de LalionUn. 

Dana s-<n journal, ions la date du 2 iiofit, le chevalier de Baugy, aide de camp de Denonville, dit : " Trouvant 
i propo* de faire garcler le fort 'in'il a fait faire au dctroit par le eieur Duhault, il (Denonville) y envoya un 
hninme pour compagnie et Ini dit au major d'envoyer quel()uea lions chasseurs pour les entretenir pendant 1'hiver." 
Le iioin de Lahontan n'est pas mentionnt'-, mais IV-ditcur a mal lu le manoBcrit. Cette publication est malheureu- 
ement remplie de fautes d'impreasion. 

1 Charlevoiz, III, 256. 

' Voir M xiv lettre, p. Kti, I. 



LE BARON DE LAHONTAN 81 

, 

Quuiul viurent les premiers soleils d'avril, Lahontan, n'y tenant plus, partit en canot 
pour se rendre a Michillimakinac. II avait pretexte, pour faire ce voyage, le grand danger 
ou sa garnison etait de perir par la famine, cc qui ne 1'empecha pas d'etre trois mois a non 
voyage. De Miehillimakinac, il poussa une pointe jusqu'au saut Sainte-Marie, et le premier 
juillet il revenait enfin a son poste. Quarantc gucrriers du saut Sainte-Marie etaient partis en 
meme temps quo lui pour faire la maraude du c6te des Iroquois. Sans s'inquieter plus de 
ses soldats auxquels il jeta quelques sacs de fariue an passage, il continua a suivre ses 
maraudeurs dans une excursion qui se tormina sans gloire comme sans sncces. (Test an 
retour de cette expedition qu'il apprit qne le postc de Niagara, on (oniniandait M. de Troves, 
etait abandonne, que la plus grande partie de la garnison y etait morte ilu scorlmt. 1 Anssi, 
sans attendre d'etre relevo, et croyant avoir deja les Iroquois a ses trousscs, il brulait son 
fort (27 aoiit 1688) et gagnait prdcipitamment Miehilimakinae avec toute sa garnison. Voila 
a quel pietre" soldat Denonville avait contie le soin de garde r le poste si important ilu detroit. 

On comprend le desenehantement et la melaneolie <|iie doit eprouver un liomine de 
bonne famille, habitue a bien vivre, mine apres avoir gout/- la fortune, lorsqu'il se voit lianni 
aux coufins de la terre, parmi des tribns sauvages, an milieu des Brands bois, oblige 
d'echanger lea splendours du chateau des aneetres pour une miserable butte d'ecoree, et de 
vivre an milieu des traiteurs et des soldats. Mais Lahontan. (|iii se trouvait dans cette 
position, aimaitla vie des bois. S'il eutsecoue sa torpcur, si. an lieu de pcrdre son teni|is en 
vains regrets, il se tut mis a I'cBUvre avec toute la vignenr de la jeunes^e, ijuel bel avenir il 
eut pn se creer. A son fort du detroit, il anrait pu ramener les Outaouas, les Sakis, 
les Ilnrons, sur ces terres d'ou les Irotjnois les avaient cbasses, il y avait plus de einquante 
ans, vers lesextremites du laeSuperienr, ;i 500 lieues an nord, dans 1111 i>ays sterile et afl'reiix. 
An lieu de Michillimakinac, il anrait pu lenr ott'rir les terres tertiles dud'troit. Us seraient 
rentres an foyer de leurs peres, et lui se serait fait leur MoYse. 

Douze ou treize ans apres (1701), Lamothe-Cadillac, re[irenant la pensee de la Salle. 
fondait sur ces memes rivages le fort Pontchartrain, qui est devenu la grande ville de Di'tmit. 
On se plait, (lit M. Margry, a recbereher 1'origine des grandes cites comme a remonter a la 
source des grands Heuves. La, ou aujourd'bui se sont installes des milliers d'habitants qui 
en attendent d'atitres, ees pionniers venaient confisquer jxnir la France ces immensites. Us 
annongaient 1'approche de la nation comme des vapeurs mobiles precedent 1'arrivee du jour. 

Avec quel enthousiasme Lamothe-Cadillac decrit ces lieux on il est venu planter sa 
tente d'explorateur ! 

"Ses rives, dit-il, sont autant de vastes prairies, dont la fratcheur de ees belles eaux 
tient 1'herbe toujonrs verdoyante. Ces memes prairies sont bordees }>ar de longues et larges 
allees de frnitiers, qui n'ont jamais senti la main soignense du jardinier vigilant, et ces jeunes 
et anciens frnitiers, sous le poids de la quantite de leurs fruits, mollissent et courbent lenrs 
branches vers la terre feconde qui les a produits. C'est dans cette terre si fertile que la vigne 
ambitieuse, qui n'a pas encore pleure sous le couteau du laborieux vigneron, se fait un toit 
e"pais avec ses larges feuilles et ses grappes pesantes sur la tete de celui qu'elle accole et que 
souvent elle ^touffe pour trop 1'embrasser. C'est sous ces vastes allees, ou Ton voit assemble 



1 Le 6 juillet 1688, le marquis de Denonville avait crit, en effet, au commandant de Niagara, d'abandonner ce 
poste, ordre que celui-ci avait ex6cut6 le 15 septembre. Le marquis alloguait la difficult*? de soutenir des postes 
i'-loi;_'n.'s environn^a de bois. Les geus n'y pouvaient s'6carter plus loin que la demi-port^e de fusil sans courir le 
risque d'etre assassin^s par quelque sauvage cach6 derriere un arbre. 

Sec. I., 1894. 1 1. 



82 J.-EDMOND ROY 

par centaines lo timide cerf bondissant pour y ramasser avec empressement les pommes et les 
prunes dont la terre cat pavec ; c'est la que la dinde soigneuse rappelle et conduit sa nora- 
hreuse couvec pour y vendanger le raisin ; c'est la que viennent leurs males, pour y remplir 
leur fale largo et gloutonne. Les faisans dores, la caille, la perdrix, la Wcasse, la tourterelle 
utmndaiite, fourmillent dans le hois et couvrent les campagnes entrecoupe-es et rompues par 
bouquets de bois tie haute futayc, qui font une charm ante perspective, laquelle settle pent 
adoiu-ir les tristes ennuis tie la solitude. (Vest la que la main de 1'impitoyable faucheur n'u 
janiais rase 1'herlie snet-ulente, dont s'cngraissent les hocufs lame's d'une grandeur et d'une 
grosseur cxcessives. 

I,cs Ix.is sont de dix stirtes : dn noyer. du chene blane, du rouge, du frene batard, du 
sapin 'U bois blanc et du cotonnicr ; inais cos memes arbres sont droits eomme des flechcs, 
sans mends ft quasi sans branches <|iif par le liaut bout et d'une grosseur prodigieuse ; c'est 
df la qiif 1'aiifle coiirairciix reirarde lixeinent le soleil, voyant Jl sea pieds de quoi satisfairc 
sa main tiereineitt arinee. 

l,r pi>ir.Min v t-st niiiirri ft liaigin'- par line can vive et eristalline, et . sa grande abondance 
iif I.- rend pas nioins di'lififiix. Les eygnes sont en si grand nombre, qu'on prendrait pour 
des Ivs les J..H.-S. dans lfs.|iifls ils sunt entiisses. I/oie l>abillarde, le canard, la sareellc et 
I'mitardf \ sun! si fiiinninns, <|Uc jf nc venx, jiour en convaincre, qne me servir de 1'expres- 
K'UIII d'un sauvage. A qui je demandiii, avant d'y arriver, s'il y avait Inen dn gibier : 'II y 

en a taut, dit-il, ijifils nc sc ramrcnt qne pour laisser passer le canot." 

I'fiit-nn i-riii-f qu'iinf terre sur lai|Uelle la nature a distribue tout avec, taut d'ordre 
sai-ln- n-t'nscr a la main dn laliunrc ur, enrienx tie ses feeondes entrailles. le retour qu'il s'en 
siTa pn>p-' : '.' " 

Laiinithi-Cadillaf attt-ndait son avfiiir du Canada ; il snt prevoir 1'importance que pren- 

Irait nn jniir ee pnste dn ib'-t rnit . si sauvage et si desert alors. Lahontan ne songeait qu'a 
uiif flu'M- : rattrapfr la tiirtune i|iii Ini I'ehappait en Franee. Le noni de Larnothe-Cad iliac 
a irrandi avcc !> tcnijis. niaisi|ni sc sunvient. (pii eonnait a Fort-Uratiot, bati sur les mines du 
lrt Saint-. li'Sfpli. df cflui i|iii y commandait il y a deux siecles ? ' 

V. 

VoYAliK A I,A RIVIKRK LoNGUE (1688-1689). 

A part son insouciance ft sa mobilite tie caraetere, il y avait uneautre raison qui poussait 
Lahontan a abantlonner son itste tie Saint-Joseph. Avant tie partirtle Niagara, 1'annee prt5c4- 
dfiite. il avait appris de France que ses affaires pecuniaires allaient de mal en pis. Lou 
cn-iineiers inexorable^ de son pere ne eessaient de reclamer devant les tribunaux les Homines 
qui leuretaient tines. A son passage a Micbillimakinae, en mai, une lettre re^ue de 1'un de 
net* amis Ini aniiont;ait la perte infaillible de tous ses biens. II pretend que par insensibilStt? 
on par force d'esprit eettc nouvelle ne Tavait nullement touche, mais cette fausse philosophie 
ne 1'avait pas empeche d'ecrire an ministre de Seignelay une lettre fort pressante lui deman- 
dant iiiritamment son retour et a protection centre Parme'e de cr^anciers voraces qui le voulaient 
dejiouiller quand il t-tait au bout du monde, incapable de se defendre. II lui rappelait les 

1 II avail batta le Ixiimon, un autre prit le li 



LR BARON I)R LAIIONTAN 83 

services quo son pere avait rendus autrefois au roi dans le pays de Bearn, les grand* travaux 
qu'il avait entrcpris pour la navigation du Pan anx depens de sa fortune. ' 

A son arrivee a Michillimakinac, apres la destruction du fort Saint-Joseph, Lahontan y 
trouva M. de la Durantaye qui venait d'etre nomine conunandant den coureurs de hois. * 
Celui-ci lui apprit 1'heureuse nouvelle que le marquis de Denonville le rappelait a Quebec. 
Mais, helas ! les guides manquaient pour entreprendre un aussi long voyage. Tons les 
sauvages etaient disperses dans les bois, h. la diasse. Conunent so ivsmulre ;t frandiir ime 
aussi grande distance, par dcs rivieres inconnues, avec des s<ildats inexpcriinentes pour In 
plupart ? II fallut bien so resigner a attendre a la saison prodiaine, an printemps, quand 
descend raient ;\ Montreal les coureurs de bois avee leur.s pelleteries. L'anden ctunniandant 
ne voulait pas se morfondre a faire la vie de poste a Michillimakinac. Depuis longtemps 
de-jail nourrissait un projet qui souriait a son esprit d'aventnrier. Les cotireiirs de bois lui 
avaient parle bien souvent du pays mysterieiix de l'< hiest. Tontv lui avait decrit les 
merveilleuses contrees qu'arrosent le Wisconsin et 1'Oliio. I'urrot et du Lutli avaient. ciix 
aussi, racoute plus d'une fois avec quels delices ils s'cnfoncaient diaque hiver dans les soli- 
tudes de 1'occident. 

Au printemps de 1688, Lahontan se trouvait a Michillimakinac, quand Irs mallieiireux 
compagnons de la Salic, I'illustrc explorateur, y etaient arrives, apres avoir paivouru a pied 
1'immense distance qui separe le golt'e du Mexique des grands lacs. 1 (Ys voyageursy avaient 
raconte que la Salle, reste a 1'embouchure du Mississipi, leur avait command/' dc prendre 
cette route pour porter des depeches an roi. Malgri'- Iciirs ri'ticencfs, on soup^onnait dt-ja 
que le grand decouvrenr etait tonibe vietime dc son courage. 1 Que dire? Qm- jiciiscr? II 
n'en fall ait pas plus pour enflammer 1'imagination nu'ridionalc dc Lahontan. N'oir des pays 
nouveaux, descendre le cours du grand flcuve, rencontrer pcut-ctrc la Salic, (^uc d'aventuivs 
a la fois ! Acquerir la gloire d'uu decouvreur, trapper un grand coup, rentrer en France 
avec ces lauriers. Toutes les portes nes'ouvriraient-elles pas dcvant lui. 

Lahontan, qui etait sans ressourcc, venait heureusement de reeevoir sa solde et celle de 
ses soldats, en marchandises. Au lieu de retourner aussitflt au Canada et tie vcndre a jerte 
pour realiser, il aurait peut-etre le temps de refaire sa fortune par un simple voyage. Taut 
d'autres s'enrichissaient en un tour de main. S'il ne faisait pas fortune, il pourrait sans 
doute s'attirer une gloire qui le menerait surement en bonne voie. Tellesfurent les reflexions 
que dut se faire Lahontan lorsqu'il se vit condamne a passer un nouvel hiver dans les postes 
de Pouest. 

II n'eut pas de peine a persuader a ses soldats qn'il etait de leur avantage de 1'accompa- 
gner. II fallait quelqu'un qui connut la langue du pays qn'il allait traverser. II mit dans ses 
interets cinq sauvages de la tribu des Outaouais, et fit ses preparatifs de depart. 

Jusqu'a present, ainsi que le lecteur a pu en juger, nous avons constamment appnye 



1 Lettre du 26 mai 1688, dat^e de Michillimakinac, 1. 1, p. 119. 

2 Juchereau de Saint- Denis commanda en effet ft Michillimakinac, de 1687 & 1688, en 1'absence de la Durantaye. 

3 Lahontan, Voyages, t I, p- 114. 

Le frgre du voyageur, Cavelier, son neveu, le pilote Joutel, le P. r^collet Anastase, nn sauvage et quelques 
Francais, arriverent en effet il Michillimalcinac le 10 mai 1688 (Relation de Joutd, dans Margry, 111,513). Ils y 
restrent mai et juin et partirent le 20 de ce mois. 

* " Mais nous soupconnons ici, dit Lahontan, qu'il doit etre mort, puisqu'il n'est pas venu lui-m^me." II avait 
6t6 tu6, en effet, par ses proprea gens le 19 mars 1687. 



84 J.-EDMOND ROY 

notre re*cit sur des pieces et des documents complement Strangers aux relations monies quo 
Lahontan a laissees de sa vie et do ses voyages. Ici commence, dans la carriere du baron 
bearnais, un episode dontla ve'rite a ete vivement contested par la plupart des historiens : 
c\irt le voyage a la riviere Longue. Ann de ne point briser 1'enchainement des faits, nous 
allons suivre de point en point le journal que Lahontan a fait de cette expedition, nous 
reservant de t'etudier quand nous parlerons du livre de 1'auteur. 

Le 24 septeinbre 1688, six canots, pesamment charges, laissaient la grkve silenciense de 
Miehillimakinae. Seuls, les pecheurs de poissons blancs, levels avant 1'aube pour raccom- 
inoder leurs tilets, les virent s'avam-er lentement :\ la file indienne sur les eaux tranquilles de 
la liuie. puis disparaitre derriere la langue de terre qui separe le lac Huron de celui des 
Illinois.' Ni les oth'eiers de la petite garnison, ni les mission naires n'e-taient descendus au 
rivatre pour les saluer an depart, ainsi qiic eela se faisait d'habitude. C'etait la flotille orga- 
nisee par Lali"iitan. Le vent i|iii soutttait du nord In mena heureusement en quatre jours a 

1'elil r.'-f lie la liaie de> 1 'ollteoliatamis. - 

Le '2'.'. les vovatfeurs atteijrnaifiit le fond de la bale, et se reposaient trois on quatre 
jours a la inisMon tlorissante que les pen-s jesiiites y avaient etablie. Rec,us en grande 
e.-n'-iiioiiie par les Sakis, sauvages de ees eon trees, ils se remirent en route le 4 octobre 
par la riviere aux Ueiianls dont ils t'ranehirent les rapides, puis arrete.rent de nouveau pour 
prendre laiiirue an villaire des Kikapous. Apres avoir traverse le territoire babite par les 
Mal'iinine-. Lahontan et ses eonipagiions plantaient leurs tentes le 13 au matin en face 
ilu fort di - ( hitatramis.' II s'airissait d'obtenir du cbef de cette tribu des guides pour continuer 
rexpeditii.ii. les i-inq sauvages Outaouais qui 1'avaient aeeompagnee jusque-la ignorant la 
r'.ute i|iii re-tait a pareourir. C'l'-tait <lu reste la loi eonunune parnii les tribus indicnnes, que 
p. .iir tranrliir line rivii'-n-. -il t'allait payer tribut c't demander un laissez-passer au chef de la 
nati'.n prineipale cjiii vivait sur ses Lords. Apres d'ussex longs pourparlers et une distribu- 
ti..n de pn'-ents faite a propos, le ehef des ( hitagamis donnait au voyageur dix guerriers bien 
versi'-s dan- la lanirue des Kokoros. peiiplade de la riviere Longue, alliee des Outagamis depuis 
t.mtAt vingt ans. Le lit oetolnv, I'expedition atteignait la tote du Wisconsin, fleuve sauvage 
i-t d'sert. roiilant ses eaux bourbeuses et sales sur un lit de limon, entre une chaine de 
enteaii.x esear|.i's. Se laissant alter au eourant, la petite Hottille apercevait enfin, le 23 octobre 
au r-'.ir. pn'-s d'uii niois apres son depart, les rives du Mississipi, bordees de prairies et de bois 
de haute futaie. On se eabana dans 1'iine des ties du grand fleuve, qui se trouve vis-a-vis 
reinboiiehure du Wiseonsin. Le leiideinaiii, refoulant les conrants, les canots remontaient 
le Mississipi, et se tnmvaient, le 2 novembre, a 1'entree de la rivifere Longue, celle qui devait k 
jainais rendre le noiu de Lahontan faineux. Ici, nos voyageurs allaient vers rinoonnu. 
L' embouchure de la riviere Longue est remplie de jonc, et ses eaux y sont si cahnes que 1'on 
ilirait d'un lae, rapporte Lahontan. C'est ce qui lui avait fait donner par les aborigines le 
ii-i in ile rii'ieri- nittrlf. Ix- 8 novembre, Lahontan, qui avait suivi le cours de cette riviere, 
e <le eoteaux et de prairies, rencontrait un premier campement de sauvages. II 4tait 



1 (/horizon de Michillimakinar est si beau, dit Lamothe-Cadillac, que du port on pent voir les canots d'aussi 
loin qoe la vue la phm fine peut joindre. 

' La baie Verte (Green-Bay) ancienne baie des Puants. Le 8 mai 1689, avait lieu la prise de 

il cette baie par les autoriW-s fran^aioes. (Cf. Collection Harmetie.) 
' LM Folles-Avoinps. 
LwKenarda, 



LE BARON DE LAHONTAN 88 

habite par les Eokoros, peuple civil et doux, distribue' en douze villages, et qui potivait inettre 
vingt mille guerriers en oanipagne. II clemeura au milieu de cette nation jusqu'au 21. Le 27, 
an bout de 60 lieues de navigation, il arrivait chez les P^ssanapes. La capitate, OH village- 
principal de cette nation, ou habitait le grand chef, se trouvait a 50 lieues plus loin, 
sur le bord d'uu lac. Lahontan y arriva le 3 decembre. CYtuit une grande confederation 
que celle des Essanapes. Ces bons sauvages croyaient i\ la m^terapsycose, et suivairnt ainsi, 
sans le savoir, les doctrines de Pythagore. Leur chef ne sortait jamais sans etre porte par six 
esclaves, et Ton jetait alors sur son ehemin, des feuilles d'arbre et des Hours. (V siiperbe 
potentat apprit au baron que beaucoup plus loin, dans I'interieur, vivait tin peuple compose 
d'honnetes gens, qui lui etait allie depuis uu quart dcsiecle. Tl lui offrit trois cents lionnues pour 
1'escorter, s'il desiraits'y rendre. Les Qnacsitares c'etait le nom de cc peiiplc avaient pour 
adversaires acharnes une nation inquiete, turbulente, belliqueiise, fort nombreiii-e, puisquYlle 
pouvait armor vingt mille guerriers. On les appelait les Mozemleks. CYst pour se d.'t'eiidn- 
coutre les Mozemleks que les Essanapes et les Gnacsitares sYtaient lies d'amitie depuis si long- 
temps. Le 19 decembre, apres quinze nouvelles jounu'es de navigation, le baron ln'arnais 
mettait pied il terre au milieu des ties ou les (Inacsitares taisaient d'ordinaire leiirs n'sidein-es. 
Ceux-ci le prirent ainsi que sea compagnons de voyage, pour deH Ks]paguols. ()n voulut menie 
lui faire un mauvais parti. Des eoureurs t'ui'ent envoyes jusqu'ii Hit lieues ilans les rt'ifioi^ du 
sud ; ils en ramenercnt des experts, qui declare/rent 4111' res ('trangers, i|iii I'taieiit vcnus 
s'asseoir a leurs foyers, n'etaient point de 1'Kstraiuadure ni des Asturies. Les Kspagimls. 
a ce que racontc Lahontan, habitaient a SO tayous, e'est-a-dire a i'4it lieues de la. et etaient 
fort craints de tous les aborigenes de ces contrees. Chez les Gnaesitares. le liaron vit plusieiirs 
prisonniers de la nation des Mozemleks, et il se plait a nous dire comment ils avaieiit le 
teint basane, la barbe touft'ne et une longue eheveluri 1 . 

Les Gnaesitares lui traeerent sur une peau de Ixeut' une carte int'ornie du pays des 
Mozemleks. Ce pays etait situe sur les bords d'une riviere qui prenait sa source dans les 
montagnes d'ou sort la riviere Longue. De ees hautes montagiies, larges de plus de li 
lieues, la riviere de Mozemlek sc dirigeait vers 1'ouest, et, apres une course de l.">0 lieues. se 
d^chargeait dans un grand lac d'eau salee, de 300 lieues de circuit. Autour de ce lac. on pouvait 
voir plus de cent villages. A 1'embouchure de cette riviere s'elevaicnt dix villes avec des 
murailles de pierre. La puissante nation des Mozemleks ciiltivait les arts, et la mecanique 
fleurissait parmi eux. On y fabriquait des etotfes et des baches de ciiivre. L'n des esclaves 
mozemleks portait & son cou une medaille de cuivre, que Lahontan dit avoir fait fondre, a 
son retour, par 1'arquebusier de M. Tonty, au fort Saint-Louis des Illinois. 

Les Gnacsitares parlerent encore tl Lahontan d'un grand peuple voisin des Mozemleks, et 
qu'ils appelaient les Tahuglauks. Ces Tahuglauks portaient la barbe, etaient coiffes d'un 
bonnet pointu, secouvraient d'une longue robe qui lour descendait ;\ mi-jambe, et chaussaient 
une large bottine, dont ils relevaient la jambiere jusqu'au genou. Tous ees peoples pasaaient 
I'^te b. la chasse des breufs sauvages. 

Faute d'interpretes. Lahontan ne put tirer plusde lumieres sur ces nations nouvelles, et 
c'est en vain qu'il essaya de persuader & quelques Mozemleks de le suivre au Canada. 

Le degel etant survenu, Lahontan dut retourner sur ses pas. Le 26 Janvier 1689, il 
quittait le pays des Gnacsitares, apres avoir fait planter chez ces derniers, un poteau aux 
armes de France, que ses soldats appelereut la borne de Lahontan. 

Le 2 mars, 1' expedition atteignait le Mississipi, qu'elle descendit jusqu'a la Wabash ou 



86 



J.-KDMOND ROY 



Ohio. IA- 9 avril, Lnhontan etait a 1'cmbouchure de la riviere des Illinois. II rcvint par lo 
lae Michigan a Mu-hilliinukinui-, on il abordaitle 22 mai 1689. II y apprit par M. Pierre do 
Kopontitrny. |U, do Quebec, etait monto jusque-la sur les glaces, que le gouverneur Dcm.n- 
ville veiiait do eonoluro 11110 paix generale avcc les Iroquois. 

VI 

DKI-AKT I.K LAII-.XTAX I.K Mn IIILLIMAKINAC (S .iriN K.89). Ii. SE REND A QUEBEC. ARRIVEE 
I.K M. I.K KKOSTKXAI-. gi'i VIKXT KKMPI.ACKR I,K MARQUIS DE DENONVILLE. LA GUERRE EST 

UK, I.MIKK.- I.K HUMS "I'.l.ltiK 1>K DKMKl'RER I.AXS LA COLONIE. HlVER DE 1690. SlEGE 

I.K tjrKHKi- IMK I'mrs. LAII'>NTAN KST CIIAIKSK D'ALLKR ANNONCER ALA CODR LA DELI- 

\ i: \V I. I.K I. A Cnl.o XIK. Il. KST XO.MXIK CA1MTA1XK (1(501). FAIT CHEVALIER DE SAINT- 

I.A/.AKK. S"X HKT'.l It A Ql ' KHKi'. 1 'R'.TKii K I'AK FKONTKXAC. M (tENEVIEVE DAMOUR8 

i i 1.1: i: \KI.X I'.KAKV AIS. 

].. juin It'.**!'. l.;ili..iil;ui .(iiittait Michilliiiiakinac. on coinpagnio de dnuzc sauvages 
,1, la nati..ii i|.-s < >ut;i"iiai-. A pivs a v.>ir rfinnnti'- le emirs do la riviere des Francjais, travers^ 
!. la. Nipi^-ini: ' .li'-.-.-ndu 1'niitanuais. il arrivait a Mnntival, le 9 juillot. Kn f'ranchissant 
1.- rai.ili- .In -ant Saint- 1-' .ui-. -i HI caimi .-liavira. tin doses rainciirs fut onglouti dans les 
!l..t-. .-i lui-iiii'-ini- i-i'it tniiiv.'- line inort .-rrtaine ilans cotte tra^iqiie avonturo, si le chevalier 
.1,- Van.lr.'iiil ii" so tut truiiv.'- a ]...int ^u^ U- rivairo, ].<>ur le sauver. Quinzc ans auparavant, 
.l,,llii.|. i-'-\.-nant di- -on vi.vaiTe di- di'-roiivorto vors Mississipi, avait failli perir an memo 
riidrnit. 11 \ avail perdu tmitc- le-iK.tes prises pendant son expedition. Plus honreux que 
-..i, devaneier. Lalmntan n'eiit a d.'plrrr <|iie la j.erte de quolqucs ballots do pelloteries. 

I.. L r "U\ -i -i -neiir 1 >eiion\ ille r-e t rmivait alors a Montreal. Le baron profits de cctte bonne 
auKaiii'-. p.nir aller lui t'aii'i K i-.'.-it de >es aveiitures. A). res s'etre repose quolques jours de 
-. - t'.ii'iL'ue-. il pi-it le elieinin de (ju.'l.e.-. oil il so troiivait ;\ la fin de septcmbre. Pendant 
qtfil t'-iait riieurr aiix s..iii-ee-- de larivii'-ro des Outaouais, Lahontau avait fait la rencontre 
d'uu c.th'.icr de la .-olonic. M. de Sainte-lleleno, qui lui avait appris la chute de.Iacques I", la 
t'uite en K ranee du roi drtrniie. et la resolution do Louis XIV do faire la guerre & 1'Angle- 
ten-e. II avait MI aussi qiir M. do Kroiitoiiae otait appele pour la deuxieme fois au gouver- 
neineiit du Canada. II attendait done avoo anxiete 1'arrivoe des navires dc France. Depuis 
tantAt uii an. il etait du resto sans nou voiles do sa famillo, ot il avait hate d'aller mettre ordre 
a sos affaires. ' 

M. do Frontonao arriva a Queboo lo 15 octobre au soir. Le navire qui 1'amenait appor- 
tait a Lahontan uno lottro do 1'un do sos j.aronts. qui lui confirmait la nouvelle que ea 
huroimio avait 'to vonduo par autorito de justice. 2 

1 I^ttre xvn. 

1 Iji terre <le Ijil.ontan fut a<ijug^e, le 4 itfcembre 1084, sur Charles Carpentier, bourgeois de Paris, curateur 
crtt i la nQcremion vacante du sieur Isaac de Ix>m d'Arce et d'Esleich. (Margry-) Elle avait '(( saisie & la 
reqnrte de Claude Ix>ys, conHeiller-secn'taire du roi. C fut noble Charles de Casamajor d'Orion. qualifi6 lifitr de 
Lahnntan et alM iTOrian dans un acte du 7 octobre 1685, qui se porta adjudicataire. Louis de Lorn d'Arce Malt 
alora a Canada, maia le jcune offlcier contesta pendant plus de cinq ans cette vente judiciaire. Ceet ce qu'il 
appert d'ooo lenience rendue le 30 fleptembre 1'W'J. (Lettre de M. Dufaii de Maluquer da 4 octobre 1890-) Comma 
on le voit, U* archives rowery^ aux d('\*>\x de France, conflrment le n'cit que Lahontan nous donne. 

Un mot snr lei Caaamajor. 

AuMikM aprc* son acquiaition, Charles de Casamajor, abb d'Orion, sVtablit & Lahontan. (Lettre da curt 



LE BARON DE LAHONTAN 87 

Que faire? Ne pouvait-il pas prouver qu'il dtait au service aux extrcmitos du mondo 
lorsqu'on le depouillait de son bien? En remboursant I'acquereur do la sommc qu'il avait 
versee, ne pourrait-il pas reprendre possession du chateau de ses peres ? Mais, bolas ! les 
finances du baron etaient dans un etat deplorable, et quand il se serait domic le inal de vivre 
un siecle encore, ses maigrcs appointementa n'anraient janiais pu suffir a satisfairo ses eroan- 
ciers insatiables. Le baron demand a tout de 11101110 la permission de s'ombarqtier pour 
essayer d'aller sauver quelques debris du muit'rage. Depuis deux ans ses parents lui avaient 
obtenu un conge, M. de Denonville 1'avait garde mulgiv lui, il etait l>ien juste qu'on lui 
donnat aujourd'hui quelque repos. Frontenac ne pensa pas de memo. II avait besom de 
tout son monde, dans la periode critique que la colonie allait traversor, ot Lalimitan dul so 
resigner ;\ continuer le metier des armes. Touclio. do sos malbeurs, lo goiiverneur lui ntirit 
sa bourse et sa table, et a. tin do no point le laisser perir d'cnnui dans la vie monotone do 



Bacqu.) II avait pous<5 Marie ile Blair. Kn efft, le l!l Janvier 1 i!)3, noble < 'harles ile Casatnajor, seigneur et harou 
de J.ahontan et abb<i d'Orion, aseistait au central de mariage do noble Samuel do Blair, seigneur et baron de 1'mni- 
rez et Castelsarrazin, son beau-frere, avec demoiselle Frangoi.se do Lapnyade. (Archives des Bassi-.s-Pyn'-nees, 
nouvelles acquisitions, Notaires d'Orthez.) 

' Le onzieme septembre 1692, naquit, de U'-gitime mariajre, demoiselle Anne Charlotte dc t 'asomajor d'Orion, 
de noble Charles de Casamajor d'Orion, baron de Labontan, et de dame Mario de Blair, haronne de Lahontan, 
laquelle a receu les ceremonies du buptrme, le denxiC-mo octobro 1(59-. Ses parrin ot marine furont noble Arnatid, 
de Blair, conseiller an parlement de Navarre, et demoiselle Charlotte de Bulstinsc L'>elsunce], lesijucls out .si(;iii'. 

" (3ign<5 '. ) A. Blair ; Casemajor d'Orion; do BeLsnnco ; (iaray." (Archives communale- dn Lahontan, Ktat 
civil, 1692, f 8.) 

" Le 29 aoust 1694, deceda et flit inhutm'e demoiselle Anno Charlotte de Casamaior d'Orion de Lahontan, 
aagtfe de vingt et trois imis en presence do Jean de Goeytes et Bernard de Laur. 

(Sign6 : ) de Goeytes ; de Laur ; Garay." (Archives comrnunales de Lahontan, Ktat civil, li>lll, f '>.) 

" Le 9 e dudit mois audit an foctobro 11)94], doceda messire Charles do Casamajor d'Orion, baron dc l.ahnnt.-in, 
aag^ de 42 nns, et :nhum^ le lendemain, en presence do Jean de (ioeytes et Bernard dn l.aur. 

(Signe : ) de Goeytes ; de Laur ; Garay." (Archives commtinalea de Lahontan, Etat civil, ln'.M, f 5.) 

Sous les marches de 1'autel de Saint-Joseph, dans la nof occidentalo de IV^lise de Lahontan, se tronve nne 
pierre tombale, recouverte par P-uitel juscni'au milieu d'un ^cnsson creux, (jui devait portor primitivement des 
armoiries, etqui a dfl t'tre degrade par le martoau des demolisseurs en 1793. 

On lit sur cette pierre : 



AXNE-CHARI.OTTB, SA FII.LG, DK 
CKBES LK 24 AOVST ET 11 OCTOBRH Ki94. 

Lea premieres lignes de 1'inscription, qui relataient le nom du personnage onseveli en cot endroitsonteffacees ; 
mais les lignes inferieures sont parfaitement conserveee et trCs lisibles. Les dates des 24 aout et 11 octohre 1694, 
sanvdes de la destruction, sont celles de la mort de Messire Charles de Casamajor d'Orion, baron de Lahontan, 
dec&le' 4 quarante-deux ans, et de sa fillo, dec<":dee & 1'age de vingt-trois mois, et dont nous avons reproduit plus 
hant les actes de deces et de sepulture. 

Voici les armes des Casamajor d'Orion : e'cartele' : 1 et 4 & deux vaches passantes, 2 et 3 il une salamandre ; 
tirabrdd'une couronne de comte; supports: deux lions. (Paul Raymond, Sceaux conterrl* aux archives dtpartc- 
mentale? den Bagien-Pyrtnten, n 208.) Marie de Blair, veuve de Charles de Casamajor d'Orion, dame de Lahontan 
fit enregistrer ses armes dans 1' Armorial de Dax, en 1696 : d'argent, & un chevron de gueules accompagne de trois 
annelets de m6me, deux en chef et un en pointe. (Rente de Biarn, Navarre et Landes, 1884, tome II, p. 110.) 

Les representants de cette famille porterent quelquefois le surnom d'Orion (Archives des Bawes-Py ranees, 
E. 1213), jamais celui de Lahontan (Lettre de M. Dufau de Malnquer). Marie-Charlotte, nee le 11 septembre 1692, 
morte le 29 aout 1694, gtait fille unique. Son pere lasuivitdansla tombe le 9 octobre, et Marie do Blair, baronne 
de Lahontan, mourut a son tour, laissaut ses droits a son frere Samuel de Blair. 



88 J.-EDMOND ROY 

Quebec, il I'amcnn avec lui dans un voyage qu'il fit a Montreal presqu'aussitftt apres son 
arrivee dans la colonie. 1 Lahontan passa 1'hiver mulade a Quebec. 8 An printemps de 1690, 
Frontenac voulutrenvoyernegoeierla paix avec lestribus iroquoises, mais le baron, priSferant 
conserver la douce oisiveteque lui donnait sa convalescence, demanda qu'un autre fut charge 
.le eette perilleusc mission. Bien lui en prit. Lc chevalier d'Aux fut choisi. Les sauvages 
des Cinq-Cantons le re.;urcnt :\ coups de baton, puis 1'amenerent prisonnier, pieds et poings 
lies, a Host. n. IVndant que le pauvre ainbassadeur me.ditait ;\ son aise dans les donjons 
anirlais. sur la favcur <|iic lui avait. value 1'amitie du soldat bearnais, celui-ci voyageait en 
jov.-iise coiiipairnie avcc If gouvcniciir. II sc rendit i\ Montreal au mois de juin sur le 
brisrantin du i. r "uvernenicnt, ct .oniiuanda pendant ([iiolque temps diverees escouades de 
sc.lilats d--tim'-es a siditenir Irs inoissoniieurs an tort Roland et a la prairie de la Madeleine. 3 
LVt,' r-V-tait pass.'- ass.-x trauquillement ;\ snrveiller U-s frontieres de 1'ouest, lorsqu'au com- 
ni.-nr, -in. 'lit (l'..ri,.l.rr. un comTHT dc (iut'lii-c viut en touto hate annoncer au gouverneiir 
.ju'uiK' llnttr aiiirlai<e rfiiniiitait le lleuve Saint-Laurent. Lahontan suivit Frontenac dans la 
ai.ital.-. '! ;i"i-tu a rattaqiie intViictiiciise <jue tit alors 1'aniiral Phipps. Frontenac repoussa 
I'.-iiin-iiii.ft -i- .-(.inliiisit en hems avee line poiijnec d'honuiies resolus. mal proteges, dans une 
vill.- niiverte. l.ien qiie la saisiin tut deja tres avaneee, le general victorieux voulnt annoncer 
aii-it'"-t a la <-"iir les r/'siiltats de eette glorieune journec. II choisit Lahontan pour etre le 

linrtelir de I'ette bidlllC IKIUVelle. 

1'arii de (^in'-liee le ]>> niiveiiilire 1(!!M), sur lii Fli'iii--<1<;-M<ii, Lahontan arrivait & la 
K. ..I,,. 11, !. 1J Janvier IH'.'I. ajin's une traverse.- ties plus dangereuses, sur un fleuve qui 
i-liari-ci\'aii df~ irlai.-iiiis I'lionues. a travel's un ocean convert des flottes euneinies. Lahontan 
.-..iniai^-ait s t -s elassii|iies : il n'ignorait pas que le s.'nat roinain couronnait de lauriers les 
iruen-'n-rs ijiii venaieiit lui aiiimncer une victoire. Pour incttre le comble & sa joie, Frontenac 
lui avail duniii'-. pour M. de S.-igiielav. une lettre partienliere, qui contenait les chosesles plus 
avaiitaifeiises jmiir lui. II in- duiitait d.uic pins de su bonne fortune en mettant le pied sur 
ee -"1 de Kranee, .|u"il avail qiiitte depuis tantAt sept ans, simple garde de marine, a moitie 
ruin,'- et .-ans av.-nir. Il.'las ! en entrant au port, on lui apprit la mort de M. de Seignelay, 
r.-lui auquel ili'tait partieiiliercincnt recommande. " C'est assnrement, ecrivait-il alors, le 
plus trraud mallieur qui ]iuvait arriver a la marine de France, aux colonies des deux 
Ain.'-riques, et a nmi en particulier, puisqiie la lettre (pie M. de Frontenac lui ecrivait en ma 
faveiir. in'est inutile jiar sa mort." ' 

Le mallieureux oflieier se rendit cependant a Versailles, pour y delivrer ses depeches a 
M. de Piiiiteliartrain, et lui fa ire un bout de cour. Le ministre ecouta sa triste odyssde. 
Mais que lui faisait si lui le sort de ee petit baron de Beam, dont les biens dtaient saisis et 
qui avait mill.- proees a vider? " Vous voulcz laisser le service, lui dit-il assez froidement, 
HUT un ton ennuye, cela est impossible. Vous aurez tout le temps de vaquer a vos aftain-s, 
juwqu'aux derniers vaisseaux en destination de Quebec, oil il vous faut absolument retour- 

1 Ittra XVIH. 

1 Vnyagtn de Lebeao, preface. 

' Lettre xiz. 

4 Lettre \x. M. de Seignelay, fils du grand Colbert, mourut en effet le 10 novembre 1690. La lettre 
partirnli.-re <|iie le gouvernenr de KronUnac 6crivit an ministre pour lui recommander Lahontan, et qni ne put 
Ini -'tr<- remiie, expliqne le silence des docamenU