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Mr. Greenwood htis ipr.rod no pnlns Lo gnthor, vortfy, 

tnU Mri'iinue his facts, find his book is so trood th«t we regret 
iinf <omp4llod only to hint at its excellencies." 



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idwttWMttt* 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES, 

By THOMAS GREENWOOD, F.R.G.S. 



PRESS NOTICES OF THE TWO FORME ft EDITIONS, 

Co«'i "Pfri'y /W«*.— H Anyone wanting till the lafornutiuii ou thoM) hoads will flad 
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*t**U\1o*.— **Tki« to a uieiul, a» will u inlereaUng book. We hope that it may do 
Bowl BTvloe IE promoting |hj BOfVEWBb* 1 

Jtmtm. — "Thojte vim wittb to loaro ttomtthing of thU M0V4MQI niay do «o in thi* 
volume." 

Pa/'y #»u.«.— " If uny ablo nmn in wont of u rolaiion will take thin >v»oh in hi. hand 
Mill Irml a Public library movuinviLt iu London, ho iu*y perform a looting |iuUiv 

Athwiw-m — " K . 1 11 .r infnrtQiiMmt, utid .n-iiit.ii by thane tDt«rerto4 in 

the rabjeot." 

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bbl Uttold tUm of oiu «v"Lwi<'Iij1 liu.-i*turv plaoad within eaay roach of BUV fa MM*, 
not fpmd i few -hillings in n wiser way tlmn by nbUiniri? iherewiUi xi 
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lloaon the Rubjrv.t nf fabln- Uibrarb s. lurnnpmiVd by some uxcucdlOKlV pn*i. i l(t , «1 
hinteaa |»»v Ui Ml t-j v.,i aV 

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A masterly tpittuna, botA hiatorioaJ and pnotfcatiof tb& whole Aubjcct." 

VamnlMlfp Oi-tnJIun. " Contains a ruv of infonnatinn." 

£ c *o. -" Tho work brtalo* with Utforination, and u written in attractive style.' • 
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u»tfpy*l Mmwrv, — " Thin la a volume whtrh cannot fail to be read with much 
inlorust." 

ff/uitmt*/ i««rfo* #w«.— " We hnv-' •■- niv.il. Mr. (.imhi.m-umI l..r bringing Niyerhi i 
» largo woes of arterial*." 

#c»>a«!/t^*«,r«M« Cfcw)oi«.-"We know no hook that within the tnrni' orapuM 
urtfKUiItt no clear and fun-ibis u record of what our public libr*riw ha*e •elilrm'l 
m thia." 

o/*m.— "Mr, orcenwood hits our best wltbt* In the atUwpt to popularuf ffm 
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Moitlnglfim 0\ienil-in.~ " We o»n reoomrnerirl the book." 

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uwpool 0§rcvw.— ' A volume which ennuot fall to be rwwl with muob interest " 

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Ami -tf alt Bt t toiler*— Some, C<rnri*rnial. and Cvtvuial 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES 



A HISTORY OF THE MOVEMENT AND 
A MANUAL FOR THE 

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF 
RATE-SUPPORTED LIBRARIES. 



THOMAS GREENWOOD, F.R.G.S., 

AUTHOR OF 

" Museums and Art Galleries," "Eminent Naturalists," etc., 

vivmi ■ or THE Lit* 111 • ■"-;' . . I IO!4 OF THF. VN'ITBP « X< .:;..". 



THIRD EDITION, ENTIRELY RE-WRITTEN. 



S bonbon: 

SXMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, k CO., Limited. 



1890. 



6 U£* t *L<Z 




\- 

NOV 26 1890 



CUsGd fW>-t 



Extract from ft Letter by the Duchku of Rotlakr in " The Times";— 

" Sir,— I find it difficult to reply to inquiries as to establishing Public 
Libraries in towns, and would suggest that Mr. Thomas Greenwood'B 
book on the subject should be consulted. If this work could be circu- 
lated among ratepayers in towns where ii is desired to adopt the Public 
Libraries Acts, the movement would be much encouraged. — Yours faith- 
fully, Janbtta Rdtlakd." 




The Right Hoh. W. E. Gladstone. M.P., as**.— 

" I am sensible of the importance of the subject, and I cannot doubt 
that your volume will win, as well aa draw, a great degree of public 
attention." 



The late Loan Iddesleioh. 

"lam glad to hear that you are interesting yourself in the promotion 
of Public Libraries, and heartily wish you success." 



The Right Hon. A. J. Mu.vdblla, M.P. 

'* Your work will do good service to a good cause. No town should be 
without a Publlo Library, and your book will assist greatly in the pro- 
motion of these valuable institutions." 



Pbops&sob T. H. Hoxlbt. 
1 1 have found your book on Publio Libraries full of useful information.' 



Sfris Sbnril <&bition is macribcb 

(without permission) 

to the ever-extending army of voluntary workers in the 

PUBLIC LIBRARY MOVEMENT, 

WHOSE ENTHUSIASM AND EARNEST PURPOSE IN THE CAUSR 

HAVE PLACED THE MOVEMENT IN THE POSITION 

WHICH IT NOW OCCUPIES. 

IF, BY INCREASED EFFORT AND AN ENHANCED PUBLIC INTEREST, 

THE NUMBER OF ADOPTIONS OF THE ACTS 

CAN BE RAISED FROM TWO HUNDRED TO FOUR HUNDRED 

DURING THE NEXT TEN YEARS, 

WHEN THB 

JUBILEE OF THE EWUT ACT 

WILL BE CELEBRATED, 
A MOST DESIRABLE END WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED. 



/ 



m J 



i m 



PREFACE. 



|IIE Public Library movement bac boon piogn 
splendid rate Fbnry«aw n#o, when ttie ton edition of 
Ibifl work w it s published, only 133 plurc* hud ndopied 
the Public LiU'.mc.V AOt«. Now, as this third edition 
cln&ft& for press, a total of 2f)ft WtOptlOnil of the Acts ha* 
boon rflftCtlfld. SowntY-Iiw iidopln^ «>f Lin* Arts in foCTTOOn 

i • IlKtV 1)0 ('i-TI-id.TpJ ,1 Vi'l> N.iti.s- 

iv record. Bo mind havu been the advance and expansion of 
ta whole questii n thit the present edition forms in entirety new 

I : I, I] the BKll I'Tl. 

The discontinuance ol the word " Free,* as applied to rata- 
supports Public LibruriMH m wlviied, The use of the word 
* ; fr*«" attached to these libraries rather stamps them as I 

la nature trf charitable msbitutlon*. In no itutM are thfij m, 

nore ncourat* u wall on bho mow dignified doeJgnnUox i- 

i Public Libraries. 

Tha ir ii it i i m* r of Amoctatfofin tor the promotion of various oftjaoti 

very l»rg<». Real ol these appeal to t »n« public for subscription* 

itenaneG of d paid *uiff and t<» meet the expenses of u 

Thorn w n nton R» the promotion of flu 

i i^rary movement, and there is notn single paid somal 

»r the advocacy of the movement The whole of the wort I 

bci uf workers in ^e cause is ever extend* 

I hi ! illy 0!IC I' )l* Tllf #Hh1 rif II;, entile 

• the . Mi-nr-: in ■: u of Lt» many friends has placed 
position which it now occupies. thanks are 

tn flu' I'ivvs for the publicity which has been given 
the operation* o! Ihvne institutions. 



XII 



I'tlKI'V K. 



Thnt excellent hotly, the Library Association, i* doing much 
to create a spirit oi' emulation among Ubraii;ius. Quite n new 
life lias of lute been infused into it, and its work is destined to 
pormcoto every section oi library operations. Many members of 
ihis Association have rendered valuable aid to the movement* 

The present volume has exceeded the limits which it was 
at first intended it should reach. This has boon necessitated by 
the abundance of material with whie.h 1 ban- had t<> deal. 
Further, the movement has passed the Rubicon, and whatever 
ooJJ there may bO t(ff future im*6 of tine work, they will be in 
different form from this edition. Keeping this fact in view 
I have thought that the historian of the movement, writing a 
hundred peon hence, when the entire country will be uoney- 
oorabed with Public Libraries, will see in what position these in- 
Mitutions stood in the last decade of the present century. 

There has been much generous benevolence- towards Public 
Libraries. Mr. and .Mrs. Andrew Onrnrgie, and others, have ren- 
dered especially useful aid to thla movement In their liberal gifts 

towardx rate-supported libraries. The advocacy of the CiospeJ 
«i Wealth, and the help which those possessing the means 
and the will can bestow upon these institutions, have been 
recognized by many. Still we ELK not satisfied, and I would plead 
for increased hi anility towards Public Libraries. Other objects 

whieli appeal to the generous rich are, no doubt, useful, but I 

BU bold onOUgb to chum that the greutcst g I ><f tin* greatest 

mimbcr in perpetuity cannot bo better secured thau by Public 
Libraries. These institutions are the property of the people. 
and will l»e administered by the people through all time to 
conic. 

The wannest encouragement lias beeu extended to me in my 
wirk. Ubr&riftaJ in all parts of the country have shown me great 
Kindness. Every facility has been nHurdcd mc, and my thank.* 
Bte* lue, and are gratefully rendered, to all who have in person or by 
letter given me information and suggestion*. Mr. J. Potter 
Hrisooe, the popular borough librarian d! Nottingham, has been 

BBOOgfl bo revise the proofs, and .Mi. l'oublcdnv, i 
librarian of the Murylehone Library, has compiled the index, it 
is notorious that librarians differ widely in their views respect- 
ing library odxoiiiZBtffib&San j sad us my own experience us a 
librarian wsfi gained many years ago* i have thought It best 
to I'laee the two chapters dealing with "The Formation >\ 
Public Libraries" and " Library Administration " in the hands of 
■a experienced librarian. I am. •.hcivioiv, indebted to Mr. 



pbrpacb. xiii 

James D. Brown, the chief librarian of the Clerkenwell Public 
Library, for writing these chapters. 

It is not creditable to us as a nation that we should be almost 
alone among the leading Great Powers in not having a fully 
responsible Department of Public Instruction. Ultimately, when 
a Minister is accredited to such department, his office will 
naturally be the headquarters of Public Libraries and kindred 
institutions. When that time arrives it is to be hoped the 
Government will see their way to giving small annual grants to 
Public Libraries under the Acts in rural districts, where 
the rate is insufficient for maintenance. One of the pressing 
needs of the day is the establishment of Public Libraries in the 
thousands of English villages, the majority of which are at 
present but indifferently supplied with books. 

The result of my labour— which has not been by any means 
light, but one which has been a labour of love — is now in the 
hands of the public. I have sought to construct a quarry to 
which friends of the movement might go for their facts and 
information ; and in anticipation of inquiries, I may in advance 
say that my book is for the freest and fullest use of all who 
seek to further the cause. The expansion of the work of Public 
Libraries, and the promotion of the movement, are the ends I 
have had and still have in view. For these ends my services 
are always at the disposal of those who desire to have them. 



SO, Loembif Park, 

8TOKI NtWIHOTOM, 

LOSDOK, N. 
Ju'y, 1890. 



CONTENTS. 



C HA ITER L 



iM'HOIH'CKnN 



CHAPTKK IV, 

i I "m::. OP PDHM<< LlDltAIltF.s 



•V. 

1 



HUITEU II. 
it Pi ici 01 Pi m.h LlBUtna is oiiii Xatiosai. Liyy. >' 

CHAPTER III. 

[B PlRA FGK PrBLlC LlBRAUIEA |7 



n 



CHAPTER V. 
Eabi,t Ppomg LimiARim 40 

CHAPTER VI. 
Pavmno or the Ewakt Hilt, of 1H50 40 



CHAPTER VH, 

I'nt Pa • t'i in.' LlfiTtARV imDRR fRR *.<"! 



fM 



chapter vm. 

BOW ro nicrMH AK"lfT the AlK>mON 0» TUB ACTS 70 



XVI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

PAGE 

Public Libraries in the Northern Counties 83 

CHAPTER X. 
Public Libraries in the Midland Counties 142 

CHAPTER XL 

Public Libraries in the Eastern Counties 194 

CHAPTER XII. 
Public Libraries in the Western Counties 208 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Public Libraries in Scotland 222 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Public Libraries in Ireland 2&3 

CHAPTER XV. 

Public Libraries in Wales 261 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Critical Examination of the Work of Public Libraries ... 270 

CHAPTER XVII. 

The Future of Public Libraries, and what remains to be 

Accomplished 275 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Public Libraries in London 287 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Public Libraries in Villages >■ 328 

CHAPTER XX. 

The Public Libraries Acts and the Legal Aspects of the 

Question 336 

CHAPTER XXI. 

PPBLJC JjIBBARY FUKW, BUILDINGS, *C. ., 848 



CONTENTS. XVII 

CHAPTER XXII. 

PAGE 

The Formation ok Public Libraries 359 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Public .Library Administration 373 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Board Schools as Branch Public Libraries ... 380 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Public Libraries in America and Canada 390 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
The Public Libraries of Australasia 411 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
Public Libraries and Technical Education 420 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Public Library Lectures axd Science and Art Classes ... 426 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
The British Museum Library and its Work 435 

CHAPTER XXX. 
Object Lessons in Public Libraries 444 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
The Sunday Opening of Public Libraries 469 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Mechanics' Institutes, Workmen's Clubs, and their Relation 

to Public Libraries 471 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
Public Library Committees and Commissioners 479 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
Statistics of Puhlic Libraries 498 



xriii CONTENTS. 

APPENDICES. 

PAGE 

I. SUGGESTITE PARAGRAPHS FOR CIRCULARS, HANDBILLS, *C. 611 

II. Public Libraries' Acts — 

Public Libraries* Act, 1855 530 

Public Libraries' Amendment Act (England and 

Scotland), 1866 536 

Public Libraries' Act (1855) Amendment Act, 1871... 587 

Public Libraries' Amendment Act, 1877 538 

Malicious Injuries to Property Act (1861) (Eng- 
land and Ireland) 539 

Public Libraries' Act, 1884 689 

Public Libraries' Acts Amendment Act, 1887 .. 641 

Public Libraries' Consolidation (Scotland) Act, 1887 643 

Public Libraries' Acts Amendment Act, 1889 ... 655. 

Technical Instruction Act, 1889 556 

III. Forms for Calling Public Meetings, Notice of Poll, 

Voting Papers, &c 559 

IV. Rules and Regulations Suitable fur Public Libraries, 

Form for Guarantor, ,4c. 567 



INDEX 575 






LIST OF ILJXSTKATIONS. 



I'\i:i' 



EUftftU Public Library, Muxsta, a.xd Ant (jallkky, 

PEBBTOT VrontUpitM 

! '" '-IMIUE OP THE FlftST PACE OF THE ORIGINAL PUBCBA'iK 

Hook, CaeruAM Library . W 

Oi [EL Window ik Readiko-room, Chetham Library 48 

Thk LATl William Ewart, M.P 60 

!ii.AiK»uii.\ Public Liuhai.y ... ho 

BoOTLB PUBUC LlBRAJlY AND MUSEUM „, 98 

IkioTLK Polio Library, Ground Pla>- 04 

DM Public Library, Ground Plan 07 

f.i.i.i.v MumuVal Ofmcek and PUBLIC Library I OS 

Newcastle Public Library and Kbm-bboom 122 

T«r. tATR J. Brother-ton, M.P 131 

Wim> Kkmiom Library . 188 

:M>UAM Rkvkbkm:jc LlBBABY . . ... lfil 

Derby Public Library Attn tfUBBffM Ml 

WwrcoTE* Public LmAftY, Lbicbbtkr 173 

OlLUTlUP PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEWARK, GROUND FlOOR PLAN ... 174 

GlLMTRAP PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEWARK 175 

KoTTIMlflAK CENTRAL PUBLIC LlBRAlUBU 101 

Wi5«roRD Public Libbabt ... 186 

WiN-iroRD Public Library, Ground Plaj 187 

Irawica Public Library, Mukevm, and Srimm of art 

RfcAinv Pueuu Library, Ground Plan 205 

y Public Library am» Scuoomop Apt and8cience B1 i 

.:Li:i Memorial Humecm and Purmo Library ... 2li* 

rTiwt*c i Library sis 

Alloa I'lbll Library ... .. ... 227 

1 hi.n Library, Mt-aia-m ami Abt Uallrry 230 



XX 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Mr. Andrew Carnegie 

Edinburgh Public Library, Elbvation 

Edinburgh Public Library, Reference Library Floor 

Belfast Public Library ... 

Swansea Public Library, Art Gallery, and School ok 

Westminster New Public Library 

St. Martin-in-the-Fields Public Library 

Chelsea Public Library, Ground Floor 

Library Ladder and Drawer ok Card Catalogue Case 

Clapham Public Library 

Clapham Public Library, Ground Floor 

Clerkenwell Public Library, Ground Floor 

Clerkrnwrll Public Library, First Floor 

Village Library, Bebinoton 

Plan of a Circular Reading-room 

Standard Bookcase with Shelves on Both Sides 

Wall Bookcase with Ledged Base 

Library Indicators 

Newspaper Stand 

Periodical Rack 

Metal Book-holders 

Pamphlet-box 

New Public Library, Boston, U.S.A. 

Concord Public Library ... 

Public Library, Northampton, Mass. 

Toronto Public Library 

Sydney Public Library 

Plan of Reading-room, British Museum... 

Reading-room, British Museum 

The James Keckitt Public Library, Hull 



Art 



PAGE 

232 
236 
237 
256 
266 
... 294 
... 300 
... 303 
... 806 
... 808 
... 309 
... 813 
... 314 
... 335 
... 856 
... 360 
... 861 
863—365 
... 866 
... 367 
... 367 
... 868 
... 401 
... 403 
... 404 
... 410 
... 416 
... 488 
... 487 
... 451 



NOTE. 
While in the press, the number of adoptions of the Acts hma reached 90S. This 
makes an increase of 76 adoptions of the Acts in fonr yearn instead of 70, as r fated on 
pafel. 
' Lawisham (London) adopted the Acta by a majority of 773, on June 26, 1890. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 




una r 

& 

the 1 

m u 
at 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

m.-iy with safety bo Mid thai (here [s no modeni move- 
ment which has matte Bach rapid pTOgTOU as has the 
Puttie Library Movement. Only a very few years* ago 
the leadcra of public instruction hnd to l.irncnt that 
i few districts had availed Ihemserrea of ttu PttbHe 
Act*, and voluntarily taxed themselves for the rapport 
ol an institution, which should be th ■ anson p* party of the 
people, and the home of the productions of fchagrcal mm* Is of pQflt 
and present jtorindft. In 18.9 the number of Public Libraries wnd 
only eighty-eevon, being the total far the forty years from the 
tossed in 1839, or an average oi tvo dint net a per 
no. After nn intervnl of thirty-six yems from tin |u --ii.J «.■! 
tha Evrart Act of \>^o, only 183 districts hud enrolled themselves 

Vao " th*' nimble penJDJ ." but now the total mnnbor stiunln 

i at JO, making an addition of no fewer than seventy i:i 
( -vi -. ii i- indicates that we have reached a rung of the 
r in our national life when these institutions are fast bfl- 

Knntng 1 1 he looked npon as on Inseparable corollary of Che 
d Schools, i'ui that without, them no district pan be oon- 
■ •'I us complete until it has <i mnldim/ imjcnbed as a Pu >.k- 
Utann 

PcMlmlBtie writer* are fond at times of a^urim? us flint th- 
I ivlnjc study of books Ih a thing of ibe pusr., that the hustily- 
wrltten mlnmns of the newspaper, with Its list of murders, 
burgnirlc*, rntlwav undents, price-fights, and its police reports, 
riK. n i!n* pmce of literature in the estimation ol the people. 
The fuel* hard \ ••• -n (o wnir-int ihix assertion. Itorough ;. 

mtm inloptiiiK tlie Public. I J n>rurie»' Acta, purchasing, 
.ii;.' from l);r benevolent, sets of valuable books, and 
■ in ;it lie disposal of the inhabitants of such local 
which tiit- political economists ■ E t generation 
B < persistently, that the unly business of a luunici* 

1 




Pt'OMC MHIIAItini 5 . 



polity was to pave the street*, 1<n-i|< .tftorlho lighting and watering, 
und maintain public order, never took ;\ firm hold <>f th« people ( 
;m«I today dial: idea is openly scouted bj tii" majority. The | 
in-: <>i the Efflomentary Eanoation a si hi 1870 vu a pro • . motion 
of the belief that the cultivation of the minds of the people was 
a mott"i- ol public interest, n was soon felt thai the mi 
cullivutiou with which the community was concerned couhl l >( 
logically be confined to the training afforded by the elementary. 
[■■.inner facilities were needed, and *n the Pubac 
Lttwary "'time to be regarded as a legit i oat pfl 1 i I the raa- 
ohiaery of the municipality. Thanks to the cnlighteimieu'. <>! 
individuals, and the generous help ot public-spirited men and 
WOinen, the movement for establishing theso centres of Unow- 
ledge li n k wy rapidly developed dining recent years: end it will 
Boon l»o looked upon as a disgrace to any district t<> he without 
its Puttie Library. 

But htill. unt\vUlisi;iii(linjr (1 Iinnge which lias come over 

public opinion with regard to thene itisiiiutions, there \- 
motuj :iin of work to be done, and our urnee! into ull in towns 
.mil rural districts who care for the welfare of the community 
among which they dwell* to agitate and discuss the iulvlsah 
as to the formation of bhaae Institutions where the* an a i 

il n. :ii l.v oatablie had <'.< ri_'\meii an-. miniHtors <>l all dcnomiui- 
Mojis. nunutters of political clubs, debating and literary nuclei i 
.on I friends uf the people of every shadoof opinioUj this is o ijuo- 
tion fur you. Those with well-filled boolwhchea of their own 
ran and ought the more readily to sympathize with those wh< are 

. - I-, -iird, .ii-i Miould exert themselves to place within the 
reach oi ail a Public Library which shall be as free to [ ten M 
the highways upon which they walk, 
Tlic tnek oi advocating and defending those institutions U 
Miir.-,- lighter with each succeeding your, for there is now I 
aoneeneua oi opinion that the Public Librae ban bastftutJ 
ononcatlonable utility, and it may be affirmed that the triflii a 
addition which it mokes to the rates fa infinitely more than repaid 
by the advantages which the ratepayers reap from these in 
none, The next generation will bole book with astonishment at 
the prolonged opposition, coming sometimes from sources tat 
least exported, with winch the proposal to found those librarian 
dab been met a certain centres usually regarded as enlig itenad 
Bngtiebittea. have long been accustomed to pride bhemselvotf 

on the Itatfl of -iMli/atioii Which Hum "ti^bt little ixbiiH ! hi- 

reached. But, if wo take us a criterion Sit number oi Public 
Libraries existing in each country, the comparison la woefully 
agamsl »is. The European country which possesses the largest 
number of Public TJhrari) . strange to Ray, Gastrin a countn 

up. i. which it has in some quarters bean the custom i b witn 

:i sort of half-pltyhig eye, in iustria there are no fever t Iron ■». i 
rubiic Libraries, containing 0^70,000 voliunea, wfchout reckoning 
nape and nuuati£erlpts---a total vhlcli ooxoea oui ai h* volumes 
per too nf the popuw lou, Prance powosaee 000 Public i ibra 



ivrnnn ttton 



;>. 



»ontafnfaifl YJSBHflQO volume* und 135,000 munuBcript*, or IS 

volumee pet 100 of the inhabitants; Italy ranking nasi with 

108 Ubrnnes, 1,848,000 volumes and 380^000 manuscript, or L6 

volume* per h«n '"> Germany the Public T.u>mrirn ininiiter.w, 

10,000 volume* and 58,000 manuscripts, or li 

rolnmee per 100 tftfia population, ftreul Britafn possnmoK only 

200 Public Ubnir i itabli lied under the Acta, the volume* 

numbering between 3/XXX000 and i .< > * KOOO, and a largo number 

•Mjj.'iii-is ' it e " 145 libraries ts Russia, with 962,000 

volume* and -I,«kk) manuscripts, or n fraction orei one volume 

i»> 100 i' Bona. It it noteworthy thai in Bavaria alone the 

Public Ubnui - number L60»-with 1,866,000 volnmea and 24,000 

oscnpte 

Reviewing i ic pi ncipal !: i trie* separately, the largest 

in i i the irorldisth.it nl Paris, which contain'* upwards 

000,000 minted books ami Ii^'mhw* miiniiwripK Hetween 

rial 1 .!■ rar.i ii - Petersburg and the British Museum 

bore u sol orcaoc. in the Britlnh Museum there 

are about 1,400.000 volume*. The Uoynl Librury of Munich 

has i otning ever 000,000, but this Included 5 >0,000 

I iiri:,. ii;< Koyal Libraryat Berlin contain* 700,000 volun 

bponhagon 510,000; the Library at I >i - 

W; tin? Library at Vienna I00,000j the i Diversity Library 

ny wofXX). The Vatican Library at Rem* 

I30,U0U trtuted books, and commenced in 1378. Liu 

Paris is one of the very oldest in ICurope, 

tnded in ISfoU ;and the I Diversity Library at Pro 

. beci founded the name year One el the earliest 

,.tl ilnr. ti< work! ever l:i':irtl of w:ix that l'»»rnie*l 

ie PtolemlM i: Egypt The tar-famed library of Lutx* 
in.i.,1 ■ work "i several rnonurclis md no greoJ was the 

veneration of Hie i ■■ ■ ir it that they looked on it almost 

■ -.-(I j tin" no 'ar w U nscribe over its jmi'tala tin se word6 : 

nnmiflhmeni nl the soul." Tit** em!* of the earth ware 

raseai i rich Its shelves, und, at* was the custom of the 

ttrnea, the would be pi siseasore were :i •{ Lou particular how they 

mine by their Uterarj treasures) li is related thai one of the 

ilmiilliU'ly refused In frupplj the l'n nim --., rit-ken 

lain aith corn until tliej furnished Ikih with .■■■. 

which he coveted. Fanca thi Queen de 

:• |i rafacTilH' I" tin AI'.-insioTi llmi.-r Kr-lirl' 1 'nrn 1 u-ilenf* 

it) I ,:!ln'i - , ■ i Mill up to Hi r M. ;■■ ■ v tin- [iriYjit* pypf re 

i ml VVhittingtoii '. < H the large librw \t* En Mm- 

Pub i i . brar.i i omes next to tin I tan 

' volumes (including the duplicates in 

;.-h.- ). The Harvard I . i ■ collection a i ics < • 1 1 with 

■ ." m. rii.- National I i irary, however, i P the United 

I to urpu nil, for it i« I o nl iiti, when oom 

Kno, mo volume, i i i nice: »ll, Micni :.i'< in the ['nil I 
v.<" hi.rariofl, of which luiK 150 are Public 
«\? now andentand the term in thu eountry. 







inarms*. 



and Franoo again nre far ahead ores in pi i'i! of number. 
although in the net mil use mini * «•) the ln>ilcs < iron! Urltoin will 

bold n- "''II --I mi mj i ■ ha eonntriL \< i. 

The nnnririiiitx distance ROBBSs hi behind the times in tin; 

matter «'» providing for the EnteUeotaal wants ■ >! I it people is 

rvMont from the fact tint i!ie ti r At public roadlng-TOOO) in tin- 
M wooi te Empire v.!- »pened only lately in the ettj ol 
Petersburg The room u oonneeted with a good horary. 

V.li:rl: OOOlD3 ll;)y ( > |lp(»n POntril UltOf I by AiUli** pilhl:.- -. ; .lilt I •. 1 

efttsena. Admittance Is rroe.and permission is given Bo borrow 
- r»»r reading at home. The new Institution 1* namod after 
Pushkin, the novelist But thai the oundatiou of the Pushkin 
Public Library ban no BigntflcaDce as Indicating b change 
police on [Ik- pari of the Russian uithuritie* towards literature 
and the prow, Is evident from the hei thai bho Government has 
Issiicd an order forbidding the editors <>i newspapers In RuMfaa 
Poland to receive foreign exchanges! 
Aj one wanders about among the cast libraries En which some 
English famlHea keep under lock and key many rare 
editions 01 Famous books, worth their veiifhi iugi>M, Die iviirrtinn 
is inevitable that valuable as are these collections, they are aol 
put to the beet use within Che range of posalbtiSty. Bound Eaull 
lensly, and shut up in elaborately curved oak bookcoaea thai i •• 
seldom opened, inncfcssible saw I ■ . a lavonr .1 few, and 00 

idiis n rn-at rarity, thoy bco mo little mor< than i xpa 
:r iclcs of furniture. Books, tike coins, arc only performing th< Lr 
right Eunction whoa they arc in circulation. Boarded up, the 
i become onrj so much metal, and the books only •><> muoJl 
paper nnd leather. In a Public Library, books bo#in t<> live 
nii't'idT the people, arid tn cisort no influence forgood upon tl 

OKI j< ffonileinon of Kngland, who arc said to "live at hoi u 
case, is this not worth remembering? There are meant shelves 
ol Public Libraries throughout the country waiting t<> be 
ailed. Let theee gaping fihelves appeal r<> youl By pla 
your treasures upon fcnom a now lease of life would be mm 
cooks you have prized, and it is irapomhle to say where, along the 
Una &t the generations to follow, 'hey would cease to gratify and 
enlighten, 

To the possessors of wealth an even more urgent appeal i» 
made, For all thr large-hearted generosity which has *! i 
the lafil flaw years Rowetl out inwards these Institutions nil the 
Mends of this movement are grateful. Bui the high-water mark 

-■ - to Public libraries has not yet, it is sincere^ 
1*» nopert, been reached. There am thousands r>f Bng 
Scotch, Welsh, and Irish villages, and very many towns which 
an absolutely devoid of any serious- eflbrt tu meet uku demand for 
hooka to read Will the wealthy not make St possible Tim- one or 
other ol these rtaccf b sherish the mcraorj ol the aid given I 
tocH iblish ;i library In their raids! : En wliat manner nan the 
opulent, bettei employ their richee than thisf A Public Lib 
wii i it* books Uvea foi rer,end this way of jicrpol nunc 



i\ntom rno.v 



a 



.it, 



ilum 



my lie eiiiiMieiltlnl [>0 ihe ih'-ll, :iinl HO bORtOwSlIfl UD yviiini- 

unborn ,i prlcelesi ilcjad i--. There we 1. mdi lua ui su i 

u iii,i-.! !i md merchants who have in their power Ihe 

tnc;i v. 'i i |fte of books secure perpetual 

blessing, and there will be seen to future years, ft ia hoped, much 

ted giving tea Pubh't Library purposes, [therm the way 

• ' nwnrV. l-i. ■ I I... I ililu "i< l|' I- ,-li.v. .] uiHin 

it i ibrarioe benefit all clossoc wil i >ul 

the taint o oharlcj attaching to thorn, Wealth can confer 

aiitrthan bj being bestowed upoa those 

utkme, M i ituble j?iftu pauperize, notwil 

him ji.m hi ;.. ii of the donor, Nol flOthow- 

. ■. Iu'h oxordi '■•! in Ms n y. Etm tendency oi tho gift ta bo 

te,toopon out in the mtndaof on incalculable number ofpooplo 

Bdfl avemi ■ pleasuri b. I lenora- 

■ -v t? . MH>ni..]'\ of the man whogtve* libraries 

iftor tho donor has go in- gift 

uvomtilishw g !. and cannot full into abuse as some schools and 

n«r Institutions oavedoi e, IT* system oi p >pubtf control keeps 
em rtoalthj and i igoroos. Would I 'i ii there v, ere more bequests 
nstitntionai What run confer more universal good 
Public Library or Museum? Ob thai the phllnnthro 

he i:.-li w mM flow OUt int. re ;ii ri,i« direction ! It :i 

be pei i lit in! n those who ire Into iiiing to clistfn mtiu] them- 
hw in 1 1 iraj it In to mi ke the gjfl enndftlonnl on the town 
dj trie thePublti Uhrarletf Acts for la maintenance. 

1 1- -.- •; ■ .ii ii ii <t lie laid upen tins, because this course oi 

■M.iii i linn;- rln- lilvTMrv in IMM'pelllitj iiiiiirr I !ir ;hIiii ini.H- 

ii M .ii (i the elected suthorUfcti oi tlie people. Tliis Is infinite^ 

: li da 04! to 1 1 ustecs and their succct 

be flral luflaji which frightens the inbulritante, and ii' this 

m be bridgedbj i noble gift being made to a town U 

i , Vw place* would give n negative repl> to 

urc to caatanv reflections upon othcg 

iri constantly laying tneir appeals before the 

■■!, i>ni ii ■- legitimate to point ou1 that iu connection 

. i iiu(ion> liic -lit in it- ent ret) wuul I <o towi rd i 

i.i ibjcct intended Uy the donor. There is no expensive 

rictf, collectors, mid other* hi pay mil n|' it, ami the 

i Ii: pjH'n I" i>< my, would then go tor tlie purpose 

d. Down i" ;i •• last >onny tho public would roa| the 

I hi', id i.D imp turc,wcll worth while 

mind Th< extension of Public Librari©* cannot, 

ii ii i II ih<- I'Vdloiil rnuki' up their i lind? tt.: .i. or 

■ road, i ■! Rifts of thi« nature made k iowi 
. i -I cuu '"' aid in i the ' 

■ ■. I < ■■ r\: ,: -: r .rl calmly BUd - 1 ■] ■: - fl 01141 8 |V I Ircidnig I he 

i : -. n i't viiMn.i iii- tin--. ito j ction in the 

this work. 
fhe follow ng nob l« s| mz w from u now poem, written [vy l»r. 

I. Inii.-H ( I.i -h hi'iito t)\t* i.|»tii;i -. ot a VuUVV 



6 PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

Library at Boston, U.S.A., will be welcomed by our own library 
builders and supporters :— 

" Can freedom breathe if ignorance reign? 

Shall commerce thrive where anarchs rule ? 
Will faith her half-fledged brood retain 
If darkening counsels cloud the school ! 

Let in the light ! From every age 
Some gleams of garnered wisdom pour, 

And fixed on thought's electric page, 
Wait all their radiance to restore. 

Let in the light ! In diamond mine 

Their gems invite the hand that delves ; 
So learning's treasured jewels shine, 

Ranged on the alcove's ordered shelves. 
From history's scroll the splendour streams, 

From science leaps the living ray ; 
Flashed from the poet's glowing dreams 

The opal fires of fancy play. 
Let in the light 1 These windowed walls 

Shall brook no shadowing colonnades ; 
But day shall flood the silent halls 

Till o'er yon hills the sunset fades. 
Behind the ever-open gate 

No pike shall fence a crumbling throne, 
No lackeys cringo, no courtiers wait — 

This palace is the people's owu ! " 




CHAPTER II. 

THE PLACE OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN OTJR 
NATIONAL LIFE. 

iHERK is no more marked characteristic; of our national 
life than the growing self-dependence of the people, which 
has been the outcome of municipal corporations. Where 
these corporations are the strongest and most vigorous, 
there must we look for the highest sense of the duties 
of citizenship and the most self-reliant populations. It is again 
in these municipalities, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liver- 
pool, Leeds, and Nottingham, that the most has been done for 
the education of the people, in the way of Board Schools, 
Public Libraries, and Museums. The same municipalities have 
the best street lighting and street cleansing arrangements, and 
the police force are under the most perfect control. Surely this 
fact should dispel the fear that the energies of the poor in the way 
of self-help may be relaxed, and the rich become apathetic to 
their higher duties, by the spread of Public Libraries and kindred 
institutions, supported out of the same funds as are the local 
police and the street lighting and cleansing. 
It may be asked, What is a corporation ? There are various 



M.ACB f>7 PUBIJC UBBAJUB6 IN 01711 NATIONAL UPB, 






kindc, >«ut we I K DOTO 00 LOCTBOd With tbfl OOTpOTDtiOB U it bodv 

politic elected by Hie people, and re*| • - -i •!»> to them. The word 

Eg used ts equivalent I i in< orpori ed joint-stock oontpasiWj where 

ilwtti'iii'i.1 the citizen* are ahan jholoere and in banded together 

irocornmoB pnrposoj that purpose i».'inv the o lurao i veal of the 

• ntiiv too*] .'.i!ii!iiur.ity. 

1 1" one Kal principle which surrounds corporation* la tihni 

i od '.. [| ;,i p p i :i life Thej may well have been in 

come laws designated immortal, :iith<n :m- ease* their 

have run ..hi v i Mr n definite numbei o! ».■■<•■;. i nit during 

. ■ ',,11 nl';"iniyil1, Hli'J r l 'Mini llil ': D I \\ 'I I 1 1 Bl 1 1 II |- 

all ii ■ ■ -i:i:ii memlwrs are withdrawn, Foi they are 

nurd T i_v -ili'iv-,:: i *. i-<n por.-il iott ha8, fU fart hccii 

* to identity throughout 

nil tfic i Ti-iiMiums i hanging d( .Ik pan-;. Men come and ;:■>. lets 

ul r.uli . ■iH'iit are punned and bee >me often a dead letter, to swell 

ii -ii iilaiiy eumbroufl Muff already on the 

MaUlto ! k, I ii : Ifl C H ("'! il:< D Itvea OH, III many ol'imr 

i ■ ions all the mo i i - ere elected reptv- 

■ ii .i.;i i riii Mia first granted have gone over bo 

i ity, i»ui ( i i • ■ : life ia ool i jved . p .<. 

. Mm* I.. consolidated and added strength. This la the 

■ ><>n why no nrirntc enterprise i i DosRiorj lofoi Public 

tion what tlif . nrpnr.il ici - n • I * *. ;m«l ( i \ 

•ii Hits rent « the. plea oi : [Siblic Libraries, Muaeuina, 

which hIihII 1»i the property <'i' the ciUzena, 
. mi i r ■'. .- !-.-• i \>\ their wwn electa cprcaontatives, and torn 
im intcfrml part ol then local life. 

Iln tern "ratepayer " is o designation altogether i-rumpcd 

name citicen would he jui 

! Iiottor and more aoproprititi' -. 'Putc <suu scarcely he 

:<'«Nlng mattor 1 1 importance at the present time than 

I,-- i undK ol the ] pic a high sense of the 

izeiifthiji 
It )- t I healthy eh irae.teristic "I public life In thin 

the rntd«t ol controversies which go down to 
A our outiontd existence, our ttotesmen "i : .\\ j, 
■> n - -:i r. I.*! hv their i? n ■ i i n n ran ol light and leading, 
i rahjecta o general and non-political Lateral 
tvrHIrd ;it i i im..-: !, respectful henringnnd attention irnaaoma 
I'vi.liMii ii niiuij.' ]i:ii lifr>, anil men of cn;»pe 

mntterH for the gjpne b a goofl. Around 

tntlonn could loenl ttu- lienor gather than MuHoumft 

There Im too much Hontimental pntrtotiam. 

ititter nlaiiil lovo of country, and far Loo little of 

ii^i'i; Vutioiinl patriotism in an excellent thing, 

... alwi o i<tral patrlot.tMtii and no inatitutfoni are more H 

!• CUltlTUtA the latter i|liaUt>} Ilia n rinse The ^tatc lt;i,s inn iIihic 
Im :• ; i ■ jilr that it i- called uiton t •> do when it has 

orklio i-''. ,i liiiiiiti'- asylum, a pidicenuu., .u«l 
■ tliare In llw comwiou hangi i m 



- 



PCULIC I.IH6ARIIS. 



Wli ( y. D-a.i . mIuhiUI our pnupfr life bo •*<> heavy :i I;iv ml the 

,.v and rich ■ \Yii> (a if. not made more ral Supporting 
either 11 i"i ii labour 01 ithei ways? Not that its being broi 
law competition with the labour out ol its doors Is advocated, 

tnil rarely ii. the raising of food, ;uid in Uie waking of their uwi 

oiottdnffi there \t ample scope for such i»r"ni'iuv hiiour, Ob ye 

people, with &U youi wealth ;-u*i boasted • > i>miuoa 

, tioa long U tolsaationffl mate of money and force i<» $ru 

on, and the country idly look on, content with an occasional futue 

protect I 

'\'\-.r higher life "I '•"' fiii-Miji lui» received tciu liiiu- iith-ntiou, 
&od the lower and baser life .Hem.-* to have absorbed til the 
■ . apathy and sure ■ I the authorities, Hut we have i iuch< 

i of b* btor days, and oon do municipttUty or I « >** = > I rovenung 
bodj will be conetdored oompletc unless 11 has under to sdminietra- 
I .< i ii library nnd it museum, us well us a workhouse, a pr 
md the preservers ol' luw ami order. It iafor the provision for 
this higher national life that ilii* plea Is made, and upon mouiei- 
polftioa is earnestly urged the ram of riving toe fuUoai and bent 
attention to this quoaaoo. The fact hhould beomphosiaod that 
Che inuiiw'ipriiir.y can do for the people in the way ot libraries ;in.| 

niii:-i'uin> v-n! t'junint ix^sihly In' doim hy private enterpriMi 

it may bo unhesitatingly asserted that in fullest nnrf iim am 
iv..ii..hi.'':ii moaagi moot and boal value for nnm-v riw^-.i, the 
existing rate-enipported librariea arc Ear in advance of the private 
hutituoons of this nature. 

It U some forty yours since Carlyle ssUi'ii tin' question, " Why 
la there not a BoaJesty*s Hbrary in everj countj townf there 1st 
U i jesty** gaol and gsllowa in every one : " and it is as long 
the Public i i 'i-ru's' \r( wea passed, and yet the lack of Uorariea 
Ik HtlU one of die most startling deflolencies in tiuw inlaid* u e 
have riven the people evergreatei and greater political power, 
imt they have shown no Inclination to benefit themselves by 
means of books or other means of culture. "Wo must now 
educate, our masters," said Mr. Lowe when the Reform Bill 
uf 1807 was passed, lie was quite right, for "our masters" 
were hy no means quick to educate themselves, and the num- 
ber i'i Public Librariea which thc\ consented to establish lor 
three years after lf*C7 was about ten. Then came Mr. Foroter'a 
Education Set.; that was not permissive, and yiv.it thing* 
were expeoted of it. Hon that everybody was to he taught 
bis letters, everybody would surely wani books to read use. 
What, indeed, would be the good of loachin^ pe^pli t» 
at all unless the* wciv also to have a supply ol good bool i 
ion might as wcU teach a man the use of We icniiv and fork sod 
then not give bim any meat, fublio Libraries would ho the 
natural and legitimate outcome of compulsory education. So 
it was <*oTiii«ie-i:iy expected) but the expectations h w* ouij to en 

' iiltill.- I, ns ;i |m ruHiil of [ho pf06«ut \oli:nir IU0 ■ 

II, a affect ol education upon crnnohas been a subject much 
diaCUBSOd by sociul reformers, It nuv lv awumed that there in a 



r;i.r- umaAaiBS r .*; orn NATIONAL i.iri:. 







J Nil 



relation between th< t wo thiri^, although it i« not ptrawble to ascer- 
tain the precise ratio in whion orimo diminishes with On >pread 
at education. R may, howev r be maintained thai the bioi 

power raises the mine ol the people above the tonipta- 
whian lead to crime, mid that, 080 rule, menial and morul 
atpengtb ire likely to advance together. Toe ease if - ; 

rd education not merely as :• process by which 

Icnowb .,.; ■ - imparted, but u s nystara of careful training iu 

which the subject iB surrounded by guiding, ret . and 

uplift og influence*, when the environment w the indiviaual im 

:o bring out its best characteristics and to cheek 

ihnan nod paasion. The effed oj raeh si 

i ,■. !i i n the best ■■■■' a i ion Is n led edui itioi nus be 

(^ |»i'.h'<! r.i 1 1 -ri' itest when ir is employed towards the ehQdren 

ftf il.nf alamaf (►iii'ini- who iln no! nr r:imior |.» rl'ru-m fa 

parental duties f is well lent wn tfutf there exists .1 degraded 

umn from which the criminal olniti > ormatnnbly recruited. 

e retail it) wen m the reci rde of Hie poHce-ouurts, ■ 

Qvictlon nfter conviction i* recorded against tin- taoio person. 

11 i> therefore .1 problem of the greatest social Importance to 

:.:in Iww ii.t the higher and better influences 01 education 

can be brought to hear upon these children, and it U ia possible 

•;i'.;iil of miser j, to bar the g&tea of crime, and, 

, , "throw hut ajai the portals to ;i decent life. 

Suci d Question aa this has long formed an interesting subject 

1 mongsl moral nnd social philoso- 

On the one aide* we are told that the influence of heredity 

al U be overcoxae, that the criminal is bom, and not 

l that, however well intended, each efforts nt m< ral 
doomed to di.-tfppwntim-nt. ' »n the Dthcr Bide, the 
atom that, whatever muy bo the tend 10 

> 1 village, theiv Is miruVicut olastieitv and 

adaptability in the moral nature of humanitv to enable us to 

is ii 1 ffeetuollyif euro in taken that ull tin. 1 surroundings 

of tic 1 are properly and judiciously selected 

1 1 mother Hfteerj or twenty years, when some raUliorift more 

.»'ii have pened tUrougfi the Board Schools, and Public 

1: « t other similar institutions have hoon established 

mi, then we shall tecum* a cultivated people. 

In irwt*- nr similar words, half hopeful, liulf regretful, the 

jenmn-up generation summarize their estimate of popular culturo. 

.1 School i< the star 1 * steer by; the Board School beg 

olviltaation. There In humility in the oonffi 

Rut whfln Young Knglanrl Is, doubtless, a line promising fellow, 

1 he also miid for his senior.-. If the question 

\n rinrtldfrwl slowly, II Is found that whal bheotiull generation 

[1 l' thl ; word in It* ordinary aceepta- 

iii|>ii-hi. 11 4clf-iiisti'uexloii bir themselves in .mm 

of modern Micieiv as tin* pruKiebs which 

are snaking, more or lew* under compulsion. Tlie 

inctvn " ■' htori'H of literature, brought about 



10 PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

by the establishment of Public Libraries, is, therefore, one of the 
indications which help to show us the tendency of the educa- 
tional movement of the present day. That tendency is strongly 
towards the equality which means the placing of the same 
opportunities of knowledge within the reach of all. The Univer- 
sity Extension movement, with its gatherings of students at the 
great shrines of knowledge, is a striking illustration of the 
tendency. Rut that extension has rested upon voluntary work, 
and the devotion of the students themselves to the branches of 
knowledge taught by the " extra-university " professors. The 
Public Library movement, however, represents the determination 
of the community to offer special facilities for the cultivation of 
the mind at the expense of the community itself. The readiness 
of the people to second and support that determination shows 
how great has been the growth of the feeling, not only among 
individuals, but among the public at large. The educational 
welfare of the multitude has at length become a matter of 
importance to us all. There has been a revolution in public 
opinion as to the true functions of Public Libraries. For a time 
they may be said to have had only a slight relation to the 
life of the community, hut the authorities are now ready to 
acknowledge that success or failure is to be measured by the 
extent to which they come in contact with and shape for good 
Hie mental life of the nation, 

The subject of local taxation is inseparably a part of this large 
question. The present system under which, in England and 
Wales, the first incidence of local taxation (with some slight 
exceptions) falls on the occupier and not on the owner of lands 
and tenements, is unjust: such owners ought in equity to 
bear at least a moiety of those charges. The system under 
which country mansions are rated is unfair. The owners of 
ground rents in towns are liable to no part of those charges the 
outlay of which is essential in order that the property may possess 
any marketable value whatever. This is a matter which lies 
closer to the roots of our national life than the public are 
generally aware of. It is to some large readjustment of the present 
inequalities of local taxation that we must look in the imme- 
diate future for a much larger impetus to be given to the 
movement for the formation of these libraries than has yet been 
known. 

A very interesting study is afforded by comparing the gross 
rates levied in towns in various parts of the country. A glance 
at the following list will probably produce a series of surprises 
to many readers : — 

Total Rates. 
s. d. s. d. 



Accrington . . . . 4 2 

Ashton-under-Lyne . . 4 6 

Barrow-in-Furness . . 3 10 

Blackburn 4 8 



Blackpool 4 2 

Bolton 4 10 

Bradford 5 5 

Brighton 4 8 



FLAcr or rriu.rc mukaiuks i\ oi k .v.vhi.in.\[. iii'i.. 



11 



«. d, 

•i«t«.l r, 1 1 j 

Burton m Trent ■", ] 

lev !J|| 

. . 1 - 



lift 

■ i i 



4 5) 

;; LO 



6 



Darlington "i 

■ *bary . . . . 6 3 

tesheiHl . .. .. B i 

i 3 

II ii. I 

[pftwl 5 



In 
. oft 



"i II 
i 9 

a 
a 
o 

g m 

ii i 

5 B 

.-. |l) 



Makkoi .. .. 
Manchester 
Middlcsboi &uah 

Xewcantlt.'-uii-l"^ ao 

Northampton 

Norwich 

D .... 

I'lviu.-uth .. .. 
Preston 

Rochdfllo .. .. 
Shofflold .. .. 
Southport . . 
Sunderland 
sr. Helens 

Swa.iiSO:i 

Wakefield 

Wijrin 

\\ r-liciuli 

\\ ilverhamptmi 

\>vu . . 
ftrmouth , . .. 



r. d. 

: :; 



5 3 

6 4 

■'. 3 



8 l"« 




■ 

l B 

•I l 

7 

. 

., s 

S (I 

7 '> 

4 -J\ 

.. |0" 



;■■ i rates include the rote* for poor, countj 

- «i j - 1 1 , watch, 8cl ool Hoard, l*ubHe Librwy, both, 
r and an hi eH ujMiti the year* !>-.->-:', The 
ortioi '• i i "r from the ^roew rental variea bo much 

wintry llml il in impotiaible i* 4 (five particulars 

ire h ■!■.■ -r, in cifi proi icling the boi I oompanaon. 

it ot these thi total Quznbor having rate-eupported Public 

i/tt oven. Thotovn«no1 po&aestring th«ee useful 

i' i|ii(»ti?il:iri U'rrin^tirii, I turn Icy, Uurtnn, 

Urn ithu i . If mUli rsliold, Hull, Lancaster, 

. Muldon, v\ akcflold, "'a i*heaeh md n urk. 

ono great Deed ol the age, and ii is one which cannot be too 

!. - the app< ''it i i-ii! without delay of n 

■i Public tnftimction After many contradianoxw of 

»nn nature the country has teen the appointment of ii 

knrtcultum ind so thorn •* room for large hope 

icm -icw ptjhiii' official, with or without ftwattnto* 

r. Mil !>♦• :i Mtnlflter whose department shall have under 

• ii nf our national education, Public 

ttrnirfoi. MiiM'im. ichulnil schools. Tin- name official 

tilble Tor our rial oi I I III 
rum, .South Ki'iiMiiuiuii, unci their 
Nh. i mill elsewhere. This in i Mibjccl 
iutoi'CTl» iu " ii national life, d id ii 
I :. forn i ii-; pub] i ipinioi v il! only take 
roruualj u-c rua.v -<»<n l>c wilkin unv\;v,A>V- 



[a 



I'l IW.ir 1.I".HARIE& 



distance d c ug appointed u Blmialcr uf Public Lnatrucl 
Iu thie rospoot "iir Mvn Ooverntncnl ori <h-Lri:«<' rni i> behind 
otliei I lovernnn i.i; -. Even the Liftlmn Oovnnimeni hu. In Imod 
!!;.■ |in'|).'ir itu 1 ■ tn-nl irnpury into I 10 l*ubhr 1,11 n 

• ■I liiily. Tin- vuliu <'i the governmental report* upon the 
libraries of the 1 nitedStatee la ful \ rocoffnixod bj ul who take 
an tutored Is tit.- worfc »\ libraries. V\li«n we ooropari ttu 
little which haa boon d >ne to this country, with what has t»e ■ 1 Q 
tin-- n-speet dou<> i-v tin«( format] md 1 uted States Governments, 

Hi.;- 01 1 i[rtn-. ■ 1- -.i.i j QgaJnel UK There in before US :tt tlie 

present moment the w hole of 1 iia Hluo B k>Icn and parlta 1 1 ut; rj 
returns referring to Public 1 ilhrarlcx which li tve been prow 

1»i thfl I'.i'lllsli 1 1 mi so i<l I.IHH..I-. li will \>o inliri's! in.-. h 

d mi 1 "ii,< 1 in riic order in which they have been Issued 
First :iiid foremost are the reports from the neli« ;i Mmni ■ 
on Public libraries Issued In IMfl and IHfltt Kach <>f these 
in ;i rolumc iii between ;>'*> unci 4<x> pngtw of oliihnrnn 

I i siirs. mid il vldenoe before the *eleel uumittei appointed 

in 1848 00 the best means of extending the eHtabllKhmenl oj 
libraries Creelji open bo the public. Judging from the coal • »f 
other select committees and commissions, the net cos! to ilu- 
oountrj of bbdti oomraittee could uol have been less than some. 
thousands of pounds. These two IJlue Books constitute our noi 
national owe lamb In publications of real value dealing wiUi 
Public Libraries. Then follox Dhc othoi returns, which can be 
dismissed in a sentence. In IH-VJ there was a return o1 Publii 
Libraries, some of which had adopted the Kworl Act of 1850, 
Tlli* return conslflta of nine pntro. Then, i:i 1866, there w 1 
further return, and as matters were growing ;i little tins re 

a total •■ hi in 11 pnffes. In 1857 the Ilouse of Commons added ;> 
further inatalmonl ft mx pages, the extent of on utl :rh m 
it turn. Our IcgieJatore kindly took a rest after no Juhoriousn 
task, and for twelve years there wasno official document ie 
respecting these institutions. Hkv then gave us a return oJ 
libraries und muflcuma aetuully reaching twenty-nine pn#03. 
There was then e further leap to 1875, when we navo u further 

II 1 hiiKiit <>i thirty-one pngee. Those iu charge of this rctui*n 
nmsi h:i\o I noi mipi'Uii;. t >r all thi'iiuffh il there 1e the tonn " free 

l-il'n.n.". A--I- ;i <l ■ ■ i-_ ■■! . I. > 1 \\ hirh lia'I nut apprurod in lli<' 

AeU thttnielvi - ind the ueo of such u phru»e ought never to hove 
been allowed to creep into tin* parliamentary doeumenl In l**78 
thi ra appeared the iniiiiii-st '»i' the«e reiuruM'. Tins is a Hluo Book 
i i a tutica totalling up t«» ninety-one pages. So exhuuvtc* 
Parhanient beeome after *<> extraordmary an effort that nothing 
appeared between a abort return ol \R7~/ and n return of isho 
purchased For :i penny, and it let bowi left t<> private indrvlduala, 
ou1 of » pure dealre to Rsrva the conunonwenlth, to supply the 
deficiency, and bo <l< wlul ihould have been done >y Oov< 
inrii! long Bgo. it in perhaps too bad to expose the naied teas ol 
ml i'l tnia extent, but 11 \» onlv a relterailoD ol :< lev simple 
and pertinent rueU wnicli wake* up John Hull to the floods ol 




HJlCK W miiii-- i.['ii{.\i:ii> r\ Ota IUTIOJM& i.ikk. 

K.-ri\ nH'ir>.s i.-iik i ephen'a, and how small a portion <>( 

wtial i. lone there touches the rttaliof im national I to. 
not furtbej statistical returns for "which It ia neceeaary to plead. 
Mliii Iidb now been lone. Bui m the making «»f a department 
in the State where PubKc Libraiiea mid Mueeums will find a 
cvutre and a head. I urther, the moot preeafajg educational need 
Lvanccd tn that of State aid for (In- formation nod 
mnintenan A FubHo libraries i vfllagi — b imortion which 
i* man fully diet uttaed in a mcccodiiur chapter, 

most r • «--<i> :.p\ which is riven to thcee request* tot 

ii.| to national aatitution* la, Where ia the monej to com< 

ii -in f< r the inirponc? That, auroly, with the raaoureoa vrM< b U< 

ut lia- (1 i] i Uuturmountal le difficulty* If it were o 

% iidditiooal poiisionSj the matter would t]«»ul>tl<*Hn 

he olvcd In :i prompt way. Ae o commentary on the orj oi on 

checmt -r. there maybe quoted tho following two or throe 

olicnt 1'nctn i ■■: i "in clerk recently died at Ventnor. 

in tii i'i i ■ i VI Igh , who waa :i contemporary in official 

Chariot '..Miii' and John Stuart Mill. Thai in itself is 

bio ovent to chronicle. II ■ ■ -j ■- . -i:»l point in his 

com* i*i that he retired from tho public service under medical 

certificate of unfitness in Ift35,and that during fifty-four years he 

draw a pension tn the Chancery Court, a aide clerli was retired 

loageol thl wnpeuKionol £1,381; and & sworn clerlL 

olutm nto had aveni ced Etywu a year,wn« juMixmneii nil 

>:.li »' 1. '».".:; :i ;:r: i : RJ II 1 1 ut -t< !■• rlrl'k H :,-;_• r I 'it fid E I £40 :i J 06 "' 

vci ty-nino The Accotmtftnt-Oenaral took £4,900 
rl :i hnmhle door-keeper grit t'iMWi year In the Office 
we find tho wrveyor reuring in 1*75, ifter seven-end- 
a-hnif years' service, with a pensioner £800- and the Clerk of 
tin' i ■ went on* t< Iraw carifl i year rrom the revenues of 

ir country The mosl uutragcou-i example, however. of "ra- 
tion" is afforded hj tlie ease * the Rev. Tli"niasTliurlow, 
nephew ol Lord Chancellor Thurlow, who waa " Patentee ol 
and Keeper and Clerk of the Hanaper." These 
u*ee were abolished when he wm forty-three, and he waa 
[Tie ocnaions (aacompepsaf oi \ amounting in the nggtegate to 
1.7 1"> .t \ > ir. which pensions hecontinu I to draw for |. »rt v pears, 
i this nature are not scarce in the English service, 
racn '.sill i Aerate with indifference this waeti 
it in difficult to eay. It would be too much 
tot the ■ "■ rnment, wliiohever party in in power, to 
.. thi 'v\ir\ perpetually, with ilirir i<!r;i* .>r I'iuV 

■' l ■ at the moneys already expend) 
i nee, litcrutnrc, und art, and are ton dispi 

;. |grant tn the HrlMsh BlUKtmm, tho South 
■ii. :iTt- othci national institutions. We eon 
■ to I'Ktnbliitli I ipportmentaJ Register of 
itiuv, *ueh w the Keeper or the Pub le R >cordi ha 
In ..-ir i yoi i!ic lii.am. t:u/cs 4»1 mch, or a Bimilar por> 
i*ord Mid means of mtorrfimmimicfttion between wii 



14 POTJIJO LIBBAKIB8. 

scattered libraries and librarians need only be mentioned to be 
appreciated. Nor is it wise in this connection to forget that 
Public Libraries abroad frequently possess unique treasures which 
are not in any of our collections — Wittemberg; Berne, Basle, and 
Vienna containing, especially, rarities of considerable literary 
importance. 

England must take care not to be left behind the Chinese in 
the matter of Public Libraries. A Public Library has been 
established in Canton city. Speaking officially of the inaugura- 
tion oE this institution, the Viceroy of the province declares " how 
important it is to the good government of the country that 
educational projects should be promoted, so that the people may 
gain the benefits of good learning." With the Public Library is 
connected a large printing establishment for the production of 
" good and useful books, whereby the present and the past may 
be compared, help obtained in the path of rectitude, and morals 
and manners strengthened." The Viceroy himself, with certain 
benevolent associations and trade guilds, have subscribed a sum 
equivalent to £11,000 for the maintenance of this institution, and 
the interest of this, and annual subscriptions promised, will yield 
an annual income of £2,000. 

The Japanese arc even going beyond this. The Government of 
that progressive country has sent over Mr. J. Tanaka as a special 
commissioner to spend two years in this country, the Lnited 
States, and some parts of the Continent, to study the Public 
Library system. This accomplished gentleman left England on 
his return to Japan in December, 1881), and in several confer- 
ences which the present writer had with him prior to his depar- 
ture, lie gave an outline of the plan he will suggest to his Govern- 
ment for establishing Public Libraries throughout Japan. As 
chief librarian of the national library at Tokio, his library 
experience is not by any means slight. The permissive feature, 
which forms so essential a part of our library work in England, is 
to be entirely absent in Japan, and municipalities and other 
governing bodies are to have the power of establishing Public 
Libraries, and the maintenance of them, without any restrictions 
as to the amount, is to come out of the general local taxation. It 
will thus be seen from this and other facts that as a nation we 
must indeed be up and doing. 

The place of Public Libraries in our national life is of so great 
importance that it cannot be over-estimated. The growing popu- 
larity of these institutions proves this unmistakably. One of 
many examples which could be named is that at one of the London 
Public libraries vary recently established under the Acts, a most 
unusual and encouraging scene was witnessed. The buildings had 
been closed for a week for the ordinary purpose of cleaning and 
arranging, so that readers had been deprived of their privileges 
for that short period. "When the day of reopening arrived the 
doors were surrounded by an eager crowd. This happened in 
Lambeth, and at West Norwood the road was blocked by an 
expectant throng of three or four hundred people long before the 



FP 



15 




y wn- ipttDOd I I dAJ long the people same puuring in 
pooK£,andat nightfall no fewer tniu l,l48i >lumesnod 

taken .»i,t :il»ni( (..iu--:"i rh ol the windy sl.n-k the lending 

iv posBOBMB tl the othei Public Library, Almost :a the 

i b end • !| i" pariah, similar ttcenet were witnessed, and 

the number of books distributed there in the day was i.ciou. 

The*? act* are aa good b testimonial in favour of Public Libraries 

ili! well lie ooocetred. CHtb ft man the run of a I 
Hbrnn a rl I ■«■«■ hire fa m the anxJoua reflection Mint the money 
1 i . be i even ho little, might be more profitably spent 
-ivv tare ind tie to open on all Bides to refining uiflnances, numv 
them mui due to literature Iteelf Should In- want lt>he wul 
:■!■ -I'll: i ■ I lence n d public reading-room, and be 
emulate the courtesy which oils the wheels of <\<-i\ argon- 
: p.-, is made of tin* Puritanical argument 
.iif .. Literature keeps a maaawaj from the pot-haiiee. 

Tin- bane of luxury lies not in moderate indulgence, hut in excess* 
Ith. and mental energy mat be wroruzfblrj frittered 
away in ream' rg u well i - in tippling. Tiut a temperate fratifloe 
t|oi oi one pi " r strongest >1 all checks to axceeairc 

lulgcoce In nether. The natural faculties ol the mind I I 
in whnlcaomc ro rcution in the Public Library. They 
ti in Die uotivi w.-ilv of life, i iatoroouwc with active mind*; 
alii udo and Ea idle company they rofc And from a >• 
, !, where ibey may £ain hcultl. and vigour fur those 
ii:iii\ of the poorer eUiHKoe, who may in no disrespectful 
oi ■ be called children a intellect, are debarred bv (oak of 
can*. ' iewthe matter from a point whence only its nor- 

■ : tort an ru. 'Mi i:-; t istbli , t moll nay i" ; laid for 
\iHic l.ibrai I a ghoul the entire country. 
1 iplc who proteat very loudlj against what in not quite 
aveanratcly oollea "free Kluoation" in elementary schools, seem 
1 1 •! that, under the PubUc Libraries Acta, sorae- 
thaatr ■• ''iv 1 neh Uka free education ia being provided not only 
1 lid r en oi : li<- poorer elasse#, but for the aona and daugh- 
ter* of the middle classes, and all cloaaea, bo far n* they choose t<. 
read or borrow the thotiaanda of priueatinrnil wih-v* pi need at 
The P iblio l Ibrary is the university of the work- 
lluf 1 university is not'ror every man "its true value 

ap| m .'<: \\\ rh.-.' whose pnninuN tniin'uuy fits them to 

It* lulvaiiUurea Books are tml\ valuable to those who 
•a N 1 rnad 1 1 : 1 in, :imi libraries are only valuable to those 
« to use them. NevortlmlcMi, the growth of the 
l>nwy ayattttn In al leant a proof of the gradual Invnlop- 
cUeotual iutereate throughout the Indai- 
ii \. This ia an advantage in every way. Il i* 
iai the Industrial competition througnoul the 
lafly becoming more and more; competition ol mtelll- 
.-.-. U Ea certain that if w< caunothold oui uwuin this corn- 

petiUOU, ■■■ - 11 Mirri- It .'. (1 i ■> ■ I 1 1 • hc-ii.i illtftt of 

" d<\ liue !-■: »w lccig< Ib powci , and in the loup r ■ , 1 







WBLir fJIIRARIi:S. 






the <>n1_v power thai prevails. Dm it la as wall no! <> Pori 
tin- recogni ion ->i tin- power ihui dwells in knowledge oaJ 
knowledge is n good in iUelf unci contains titti-fiction* w 
Itself Intellectual pureuil »i evi d such aa raon burners 

br) can oompaan, often carry within themselves their own 
best fruits to the pursuer. In the present condition of 
we can noneofnsafF< (elect the material profit thai reside* 

in knowledge and In bhc cultivation of the intelligence; bid 
Itaowiodgc.likc virtue, is (tfl iwn truo reward, and the plerisurw 
of a cultivated inteiliffcncc aroeo pure and an unalloyed that eves 
if no profit ensued from them they arc worthy "i pniwufl (of 
their own sake alone, it :?■ clear that as a nation we areonihi 

right road to educational oxoolle and have become, If wo 

pal .n:\ trust in arithmetic and appearances, a nation of learned 
and teaming people. From the swaddling clothes ol Crltk 
Druldlsm, the yonBhfuJ habiliment* of Saxon Paganism, ami the 
corduroys of raodueval barbarism and ignorance, we b.n 
to the inJi woll-mftdo garments (mentally) ol noionc«, an 
general ukpIuI knowledge. EplctetuB said that you win "4a 
ti i< greatest service to Che State if you should raise uoi thi 

rOOfS Ol till? ImUIXl'.S, lillt tllO BTMIh Ol lht> iMli/.'"!-. ; I »P 

bettor that groat aonut should dwell In small houses rather 
than fop nit"!i slaves ro burrow in great palaces." Sip John 
Ilersehcl ottered a similar truth whpn he said thai "there 
tag want too much lost sight- of in our estimation of the pi 
ttons of Mi** humbler r.hsses, though It is one »»f the i 
hUfifnantly craving ill* ill) our wants, and in arr-unlly the Impelling 
power which, in tin- viist iimjority of eiiM-s, urges men into rle* 

iiml crime — it i* the waul of amusement." Like the Indulgence 
of Ul other appel Ites, It onlj requires to be kept within due bo 
:iinl turned iipmi iniii.M'i'iit (»!• toneflcial objects, to become a spring 
ofhappineflB; but gratified to a certain moderate extenl it must 
be, in the case of every man. if wi« desire him to be either e 
uhcful. active, or contented member ol society. II is llicrci 
niiillfr i * I" M'iy uie.it consequence, that those who on- at their 
case in this world should look about for means of harm 
gratification to the industrious and weU-diapoeed classes, who an 

Srepared to prise highly every accession of true cnjqvmcnt, 
t' :ill tin- amusements which con possibly be imnfpm-ii far ;i 
1kh.I-u -iking: man after hia daily toik or in H i intervale, thcro to 
nothing like reading an entertaining book, it calls for no bodily 
exertion, of which he has had enough or boo much. U roUevca hfs 
home ol it:* dulncea and sunioness, which, in nine eases out of ten. 
is wlmi drives him to the ale-house, ro his own ruin and to thai ol 
hie family. Supposing him to have been fortunate En the choice 

of his l)o*(.k, mi«l to have iilighti'<t ejmti one nal'v good, wl 
Bouroe of domestic enjoyment it laid open! Jlemayren<i it aloud, 
or get faze wife to read it,orhii sldest boy or girl, or pass it round 
From hand to hand. A feeling of oommon Interest and i>i<*mcurc 
[g excited. Nothing unites people like companionship [b Intel 

lectuaj ©njoyroe it. t\ doe* more, it gives them tfeli-rcs]>oet ( lhal 



THR PI .FA FOB TTIiLIf I.TBKABiEfi. 



II 



eornei rirtuc. it we would generate ;i taete for 

v< nust begin bypleerfng. Give a man thta taste, and 
tiw means san I - rdlj fail ol roaklngnlm a 

iiMppv i i. in You place .inn in jonfcact vitli the beet society 
in DTp-n period of history, wuii the risoBt, the wittiest, with 
|Hc tender veeUund the pureal dbaraotera who Imvt? 

tied humanity. Il is Uardlyppes We bu the character ehould 
l« a higher aau better tone. Then ta ;: gentle, bul perfectly 
lc cocr< ioi »ii of reading, wel d c ed 01 ei the 

hoick inter, which ib nut the leas cfTcnLual 

•canec i leeaail ly, 

ae truth winch tt appears i <.i- -. again 

! is bo tihe im.i ol the people i- 'lir.Tiirtcof the ilui :(■.-. 
bilifcice of citisenanip, and it maj be maintained 
ii [SldHi Libraries and Huecu i -. whft their ooncamitanta of 
ndixur-roo n , lecto ■<■■ , and all the other departmente which are 
?* beta tk* Institutions, />ar e.rccflenc* t wMch ::v« 010*1 

the i v ilego ol cil .;■■ □ tbip. Am! % i in 
nncdi&b future the place of IVblio Libraries in out naUona] 
ii- wiH ■ ■■ lore linniv established Thee* progrcs- 

reiatftii ■■' noJ Ufa find 'u echo in tho language of 

mv, ii ■ 

" N»w omtstona taioh new delta 

Time luttkos anolonl good uncouth ; 

Tlmy meat onward still, ami ontui . 

Who vroiila kocjt ftltrctftt of Truth," 




CHAITKK ill. 



THE PLEA FOR PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

s ^ question purely wcial tad free from the influences 
..I party politic* or religious prejudices, the Public 
Library movement lias rap! ortance 

m ii i <.. : m'm!-. however, hai h g for their ot>J< 1 1 I he 

nod of rh« commonwealth, appear i ■ 1 1 < • ■ promoters 

mi.] were i not thai the loading 

... i il reforms onnics. ^ n rule, : i- 'i- i men ox 

t'tei'iuinuUon and intduuntcd perseverance, many n 

■ mi .1 ! ..■ allov "i M dii hi atural deal h lung bel i ■>- tl 

■] the Rubicon. The proocwi of rdu eating the public on =« 

ml. mi!.. I Lime run] patimii t; and opposition, 

img .is it treiJuenUy doen from unexpected Koureee, milieus the 

>rk at tin i ti'l very utluuua. Nm( q few preening 1 

■ ■ ij-e i1ik>iikhI I" Mil! in 1 1 1 1« -j- delaj l-v the Educa- 

i ! ifii oi' t U'.'ni v \ i',u: too ate, and 

i w'Iul'Ii liaa had. on Una account, bo 

i Public Libraries. Considering that the 

illy those in the large i nercial 

provinces, have ao fully and conclutwclj justified 



18 PUBIJC LTBBABIES. 

their existence, the wonder is that we have not now from four to 
five hundred, instead of the comparatively insignificant number 
of two hundred. Truly this is a meagre number to meet 
the book-hunger of a reading people, and is not by any means 
creditable to the enlightened and practical character which we 
Britishers claim to possess; and in the provision of books for 
free-lending we have been left so far behind by the United States, 
France, Germany, and our Australian colonies, that the nation 
may well ask itself a few serious questions respecting the cost, 
uses, and operations of these institutions, and seek especially to 
solve the problem of their extension. The purpose of this chapter 
is to endeavour to reply to some of the arguments usually advanced 
against Public Libraries. The first and foremost reason is that 
the British taxpayer objects on principle to any increase in his 
rates. All that the Act permits is one penny in the pound per 
year on the rateable value, and no possible manipulation on the 
part of the authorities can make it more than this very small 
sum. There is somehow a chronic objection to rates, and there 
are not a few people who think we ought to be able to live any- 
where without the troublesome quarterly visits of the ubiquitous 
rate-collector. The author of " More Worlds than One " does not 
enlighten us how the supposed inhabitants of those regions get 
on about the rates, or, what would be still more interesting 
to us, whether they have Public Libraries. What the comforts 
and conditions of life would be if there were no rates, the good 
people who object to them do not stop to inquire. It is this 
penny in the pound per year which forms the gons asinorum of 
their extension, and yet nothing could be simpler and more just 
to all classes of citizens than this vital principle of the entire 
question. 

The language used against this additional penny on the rates 
by the false economists on the one hand, and those who object 
to all progress on the other hand, who, as a rule, are the chief 
opponents to the movement, is invariably so strong that it tells 
perceptibly upon the ratepayers, and effort after effort is fre- 
quently defeated, until eventually the question is settled by sheer 
force of moral suasion. We have rates for police, lighting, paving, 
cleansing, improvements, and the support of the poor, and a 
rate for the mental health of a town is just as necessary as 
any of these. Public Libraries are no longer a luxury, for the 
march of education has made them absolute necessities. They 
are, in the truest sense, educational institutions, and as such are 
as deserving of support out of the rates as are the Board schools. 
They provide facilities for the continuing of study after school- 
days are over, and, more than any other institution, they are the 
best link between leaving school and adult citizenship. 

The statement has gone forth that in Ixmdon alone, out of the 
80,000 boys and girls who leave our elementary schools yearly, 
a minority only continue their education at evening classes; 
and this may to a large extent be attributed to the lack of 
Public Libraries ; for there is clear evidence of a very important 



the plsa rem pfbuc ioniart?. 



tfl 



■i .1 young people in the large towns: ooatinufng their edu- 
ol riic Public LftrarJet. Even <•■ the icon of 

• Nlitnmnl penny to the rates. ;i town OUUlOt nink. « -w 
Invest n.i'iii fbr Its citizens than f>> bitihl. stock, arid mronmin i 

irary and ii would Iw lmpossnile to name any outlay sq 
hfn which |n*u(incfs so ranch far-reaching utility as this 

CBoajr. I'Ik' benefll du1 of themton for the poor, police, Drainage, 
Kbti< ■ . ul bfl EJiel 1 hi' tlir penny library 

'* direct and personal. It is within the reach of all adult* 
est* Public Libraries exist, to derive n lamefll so {{real 

I that, ii the} bad to paj fbr it at the currenl rote ol subscription 
es, would ■ oat 'hem ten or twenty Limes aa much. The 
ion of the infinitely little could not be better exemplified 
ui the penny library rate, for in some bownt tt means an 
annua] incomeot ovc* !: 10,000. Cnfortunately, in lone *■ ,l1 '" 
of life and human nature are what fchej are, it will 
notb ■ without rates. But rate economist* usually 

af the aimiij.: end, for the} resent and oppose oducati mm 
- and meekly pay the nollce, gaol, and workhouse rates with- 
oy Enquiry u« to whetner there might not bo Home saving in 
those <llreotione. England ie the only country with anelab i i 
in,:. ml whether the labour oi those In ourwerk- 
nooaoseouM doI be made mora remunerative, and so reduce Ois 
r»ten for their maintenance, Es a question which must sooner or 
.!•• to Hn i 'out. when rhie huppy time arriveSj there 
will then be more tospend for libraries andmuseui is U present 
:!■■ rata expenditure in chiefly for the In pr< rtdent, the criminal. 
■ i -di. tr luluesomi citisten, and the peaceable and 
respectaiile eitixcil i* left to take care of bimselff whereas the 

tad as the public become educated 

I (U 'i 'I Vast ntiliU i>i Public 1,iU*j !■:(.•* Mic\ uill dcniMlwl 

•■ii . !!. v wed enemies everywhei i Public Ubrarfes nre 

it i* acknowledged on all bands ; tint their 

■■ ■.!.! »f the workhouse and gaol, with 

for Management. How long will thrifty 
nrl Irti'iii/rnr rff.lxci - continue tn he gorerned hy this powerfni 
ingp themselves ugufnsl pxery movement 
or it* obji-i't the tnic iutcroKts of Piti£f»nin1p ' 

In the previous chapter there are Home utatfrttlcs of t-heerosa 

■liim.A H ■ \\ m - "Mm" plftiVH rnitl'l of CiUIN-C liaVQ ln'i'ii 

■ e. suflhw I'm' isvseai purposes, mil there mi \ lie 

i' .ii I .ij/li nixl oilier towns i"i p 1. 1' thin 

1 or the lime I" discuss, Striking an average 1 , 

ipeai Ilia) onj luwu with its groaa rates no! 

■ i. in llic iiiiiiil, con .ilVm-1 Ii iiui ■ ii;it< I v »ct :l> 

ii lopt the FubhV Libraries Acts, and it' all the 

lii oui try pot ut present piw* - i ig ils/aries do bhis. 
: mi [in reasc iu i •■^■ , t as n i 

■ ■ ■ 
adopted the Libraries' Acts which 
ring ef a penny in it* rates and loawny 



It i i i< [.i:;u.wm.^ 



will ii - Publfi i bran rherc le t >< >i an atom d urool 
m.« re 'a ;i sinjclc one . hut i h • dcn< e thai » 

ho would lilco to extend thoir opcmti< n and 
■ • nil i« " illi a higher i 

i, M r.n V (: ■ UOl I 3 my r»c: R (I H tl I I WtiOII ■!. t* 

in tin- i;i:i|"nl v m1 CMC Mi. tl.i COO ally pold it- in >u Mm 

■ ■ 

A companion argument to Use one Domed toj thai they m 

I ■ : . j- ■ . i [al In itioni ,and as bui I ■■' 31 not ; "' usei by i he u I ■ 

people, and the rich pay tor supplying hot ki to the working 
cIohmb. Thin is an amusing argument to nil wht u'c 1 LmlUai 
wild Hi.- working of Public Libraries, The designation •>( 
"Free Ufcraiie* Is highly objectionable, and II to inoeroVj 
to bo hoped that librarians and n mm Itecs will 
drop the use ol the word, and simply coil their Institution! 
Cm .( I.- Libraries i:i \ m< n.-:i no i'nt lie i bi ■< ) i • u lowed o 
04 called "tree"* unless supported entirely i\ private munhV 
rence. LUirnrtea, nducatlon, trade, und land nover can he ab- 
-< ?i t i-i v free The nrgumeni just mimed Ik only heard when an 
effort it iK'in;r made to adopt the Vet* W ! rarelj licni It in 
towns where tnej exist, In Birmingham, the oceupatli 
borrowers reach a Uital of 200, and II would tie dlfllcJ 
mention uny occupation <•! prufewlon which i> nut Included. 
Other Iuwun can show u like Reueral use of their Public 
Libimieo, proving beyond a duubl thai all classes avail l/hein- 
BBlreB i -I out raj oi other of their tnalitiee. Public Ubrarita an 

00 mure p;:j<ichial thaillU'C the l't>H<l> ;iud LtlC Mli'i-l gag l.n.ii 

the oltlEcn who refused to use n library because tl w as * m. ( 
" parochial " slmuld be the first to move in having the lamp 
abolished from the street or road in which he dwells. l\y utni r', 
again, Bhey arc classed with free soup kitchens and free v 
tuba in public washhousoA. lint this is an unfair and Inaccu 
analogy. Inhere is no doubt thai tin term '• freezes applied to 
(hi e libraries ha* «lc cit< number of people from uring 

i'i tin* libraries on. the RToundthat they objected lo participate 
in any of tho bencfite of B oharitoblo institution. 

" Twey are not m unmixed Rood." mya another. WoU, is there 
anything in bhiB mortal lit'e which is ulieolutclyun uiimixed g 
bat tiwrr - eo much srpod mixed up with thomi thai a 
which refuses to adopt tho Acts U depriving itself A an lm 
Uon, tho influence ot which could not fail to be for the best 
interests of the district in which it i* situated. Workhouses 

aot an unmixed good, because they induce hrittli 
while they provide sheltei* for the unrortunate and uitbjyonJ 
The twlice are not an unmixed good, for they are BometUQes 
fonad treacherous, and lose their heads in a mob. Die high- 
wjiys 'iro n-ir an m mix "l yon«i, i«»cause they are used by pc 
ii:iv tng mJawfoJ purposes in view, All sanitary provlsioi 
not an unmixed yood, hecinis*' iho drainage Hows iw: y to the 
TJuunes ox othor place, where u mi k&s the aurrounding district 
unhealtiby and eanjet uestiferouH smells, ^' l t nil these th 



I'l -..■;•■ mi to i inn intra 



L'l 



ed lb food ind haneflefii . are mpportod «<i!t of the 

■r«--.. "iii the rigid eeonoml h y ■ > I ought ba bo: bul the 



a 

i 



State, OH ri'iiri--.. iil. <. by llii* |m\il : I 111 |i -n I v, li;is no rt;- ' 
Ih'Vii'h! Il • •!■ iirrt>.-»ilii'.-« nf <ti iii. mi I imi, :unl provide bonks ;nnl 

■ 01 ta whir)i ahull !«■ us free m ill" highways Tin* 
onmJ . argui letil ahould, if oirrJcd out, kmd (how who 

advance h i« abeuiin fruiu merrfajR*, from inoat kind'-, a food, 

M*l linn dlmort r-.riAl liin- vliu-li :h|i|s lu |l|r ci i| n:\irl Mid 

liatijihics* of life. 

rryiug this argument Further, thai these institution* arc 

isl i ' ■- ci bc< au ■■ ■ be 81 ate lb tsxw i ted bo do 

what i ■■ ■ i • should do fi i theniacNoe, in n little pamphlel 
leeued i'.v the Lfl>erty and Propcrt) Defence J.coguc, there are 
iven under the heu'd of " 8o< ml si i it St. Stephen'*, I0M rod 
BS7>" wbal this body of rentleraen are pleased to •_ .HI the 
Social wti* Veto and Bills, R70 to 1867 ' Inthia they include- all 
i ho I'Mui- it .. :. ,vt find I'.iiu, Public Libraries and Musoumn Art. , 
the Technical Education Bills, and :i bout of others. This League 
haafot Eteobjert State-help, and haa been, formed 

for the purpose oi reflating ovor-l©#iHlution, for maintaining 
roodom m •< ntract, and foi advocating Indiviaualisn asoppo ad 
ill wo, irrespective o1 |>urty politics. 
II ic inflnen <u u1 Mr. I lerbert Spencer on r 1 1 ■■ thoughi of the atfa 
in ufiii:iH!:ii::ii>!', and bin poUtioal philosophy is permeatinjr tne 
ffcrtc i fwardfl reforms which on nil $Xaw are looked upon ic 
nocoaxary; the difference resting only in the degree with which 
Able md necessary ihnruje, in order to adjust a 
w-i i theivxjalrementaol the time. Mr.IIerberl 

8ies<M t considers it htghh doalral le thai mnseozni and literature 
rmld boprorfdetf for the public in a wnj acceselDta :•> them, 
lit, hf tunes, when we l**gta to hw on the public Khouldera the 
>i what Ihej say la not vital tait merely destrubla, where is 
• > itop ■ And he- further rhargftfl ns with Itoing 
: in State Socialism to bring about social amel oration 
by force. Every thought hi I mind which ins rend Mr. ilei-hrr! 
desire to do him jus lice eon m;ii<v1v fall la nave 
m'i -,i inn -i. mental stimulus n al to feel oneaeli dl l< i d | 
om ii ii . Htcr, raol wi much in the gi-nci'al pilnciplea hud down la 
btiou of a particuuti principle to a particular depurt- 
tK .1 the 3tttte, ie not an j-j.p eable [losiUon. 
Ii i- ! t|ii nlhle n"i to feel the force of ):i^ statements in 
nun« Slavery,' in "The Man rww« Tin- Stale," and 
till mnch that be snyf* nlmut tin- si.:ic monopoly in letter 
. id. and telephone s, many arc in lull bco rd, 
such from diff< rina; Protu I im 
" I he rii.uj, made, the chanejes in pro ■•■ , 
i»l the ehanfci'.i urged wi'A earn an noi - 1I3 towarda State m nei 
nd an 1 dwellin>rs, uid rn i ' ol communication, till to 
.;■ . i by Stafc affcnto, Imt townrda State 
i| : ii Induj Iric , :li<- |>rlv»t.< forio.s <t winch, dl 
.il mnr« id .. iti[H>titiuii with I be State, whi 



:i"ii am) 
i'Ul til 
rVn ... 



22 ii m. i. iiiui.m; 

rerythlna, forii tvn . . >i \< in- 11. i-, svii more iad 

«hr :iW:l\ ; ju.-t M i'i:iii\ \ ..luiitiiry -•{ hftVl ni p 

Boar Vim ■ > will he >rought about the dcairod id 

the Sorialurts, Bui 11103 it nol Ik» reiuwnably su*kod, v\ 

the action ol the State be tlmJtod to whai is noeeasory t'> the 

■ niv <it :i li:l!|nh, :l!l'l MgttUy eSOlUded :'r>'in 

minUtenitoitobufaorUfo! what Divine right hai pn 
nodemainU th'tuiil i'V*T Ih« mule upon i tor the latter pur] 
m.i v. n mej noi wetwe the organised forces o1 hocommunitj 
[•> <Im :h:ii which ii Is desirable In the mtorests o1 Hie whoM 
community fan it be done - Vo school of thought 00m 

llebmeul nit! maintenance ol the British Museum Ub w 
and Hi.- National Gallery out ol national taxation: why. then 

slmilhl il In* c:i :!.•■ I - State Socialism " far ft local i-omn |U ui\\ '.. 

suppori Its tiwn museum or Public Ml rury om of us local \. 
\ , to the uucHtlons of Suite ownership of l;ni<l mul riwclll 
Hit- Inst f. ;, i.-hl- i 1((l ijifiil ;i> I'M-iiiplilU'il in llio Sluts 

Oildtff II' COUl I'll 'if 1 !|f KrilrsiaMiial a in I ( 'li.n :l \ ('1111111 

hue with regard i<> Ihe second muni there ic not much danger ol 
ih<- - ate beoomuig 1 1 1 •■ landlords ol huge industrial dwel 
Stall 1 usurpation, as - ;* i ."i existing insane of communication 
;ill in- rfeej i-. receiving considerable check a1 the preaenl 
i. thai i Imu nn Impetus, m lodged by tbc dismissal of wot 
from the dbokwdfl and Nothing factories, and tlic 
tendency of public opinion to prerent the State from intei-fcring 
with particular industries. 
Does not the line of demarcation lie hero? That the State 

cttnnni ■ winp< r<- with private enterprise when it comet to liie 

building ol slxins, making rifles, guns, or clothing. The 
advantages arising chiefly from costly ond inefficient roan 
ntoni, wuhout an Individual pockot to euffor from depreciation n 
stock and plant) U becoming neutoly recognised, When 
Stale line nought to come into competition with Industrie ioI an* 
UiikI it bus egregiously Cailcd in < very department, Thl 
unwise and impolitic State Socialism which cannot be too 

(•lie unllv Ki'otcllCil. 

Bui iii all educational matters and affairs ralatingto tho pubUi 
b and safety, il this be State Social ib m for the munici] 
to taka thaee under tt» oontroli it haw been an inestimable boon 
in the people, and ^ diminution of the first category ol ■ 
Socialism, and an i nlargaraent ol ttie second class may wall be 

ndvoeuU-d. Mr. i I. il ,<>i't spencer has tj- »i a^ci'teil :»ny\v'ti"iv il::i( 

tii*.- I'Miu'.iiinii \.'i oi |gyi has lot worked most beneficially tor 
thi good of the oountry, although it may haw caused the 
appearanoc "i a tew voluntary sahoola. The mr.-i deadnens ol 
1 1 1 : 1 1 j \ of the viiiuninvy NohoolM so closed was universally Rpparenf 
IliarecognlMoTi by the two leading political partlealn the Sti tethal 
unwise and In poti Ic Stati Soulausin i^ a noBalbHIty i nil i ■ 

it wiiii-ii we should be on blw alert Is a ><nffleionl hnfegunrd 
for out naUonal welfare I he mi* I lef lies, not in tlie tendimey 

Of the Stab) bo do In the future what tin- iumplp Mi.miIi) <Im r. ii 



TUB 

tfamoNlTOft, tml t*».it op :.. 1889 thi i oplc ir*r< i ad ii ■ ■ 

tiling For them ■•• . bul bud t < . ■ 
r lawt wore pa* d contrary i < I 
The i h logod cld*flcfl| up i" hnl tftnA, placed upci 
■ 
ehanctcr that the ruii politieoJ history up tofbattbn 

ooo of thesaddoti >■ thai we hare in 

agt .-f UUantare Ths foe 9 ■■ bi 

nation, ■<■> lit., too much St b nn Fa 1 

ag the unjnsl State 3od 

1 i iphatl<'all> ■! mouncpfl thai tin 
:.iiiniiii>tiT Justice, and i 

he eitlzeu, 1 iul r ' il eoi teal 
providing hlna vitl 1 oojic^maii, u worlchouft&, l kmatl c asylum, 

;i ni'UMTi'rr. S r.-u .if I:iliip-|»iix1)». and :i h&ngm*D TTl* iiu.ii.ii 
tli:il ):i ■ 1 1 *: Iftlftfl i'tii'|iiir:itu us, :iml nation* .n'r OTganlEftd fief 

■ 1 ; 1 m |) NtsniiM '" an n retle of 

■ . 1 ■ mei 1 1 ■• 1 I- rloda. The indlvldu ■ ire us 

ttml urtvau? entwprlse w I «*ai nrntah I 1 commnxilti a tli 

»li:U>-\ -■ • civ iii/nr; ■im! eillKibll 1 irnrr-. it nrn!>. I Imlil 

■' l 1 II II I fllNl lIuIV Of llir SlUtO, J- r\r|ii|.!tli'-'l 1" I 

■■■ In horltj . ■■ mold lx u m ik< ■ I - Etwens, i 

ii -.I .]> do 13 <• ..« adina; every opportunity for eullgattin- 
1 1 yeiirral advaucerueu 

Library and recreation rwma for wurlcin 
u-Cl e*tcr Hi Mir. -ii .;..!' October, I-- eatone 

l.ri ;!n wars i..v. man l«- i I his guard against anothai 
diiitfrr. We live ill | liinr wlit-ii there is a disposition tO ll.iiil. 

t > 1 •-■ Government ough.1 U do this and that, and tlial ili«' 

... 'Ml (Hiylit |o <!n rvrrvMilli.!:. Thru u'imIi llir 

■ 1 «om ouj iii i" iiw, I have no doubt, [u former perlodathc 
rernmcml have neglected much, and poaaibly oven 

•riKtliititr. i'.ni I '1 n . ilunjc* ' mi tin: otln'i ftide. 

Into il I nch the mail 

for himself, It w !l nflicl upon him ^renter mischief 
all the benefit* ho will have r oeivod or u'l the .uivm 

uMi . Pin 01 »i the whole lliiny ik p tltnl 

Otf-rolfODCO, tin :.|iiiit if in:r :iinl p"iimir manly 

hi the mind* of the people, ii 
11 roll moo, 1 1 • Icai ■ 
• 11 wealthier people raUioi than upon himself , be 

; riado ' It U in 

thai tho I'u! Ii< 1. bran movoincm will 
Ico hondw ly. In 1 1 1 < ■ manyuAoa of tnese in 

■ i. ti.i.-iM ■.■ :,■ ii i noil r« ■! er»i ■ nd al d*p< i 

iVtio: i me vrai referring N " ''■<- who has 

CCOO faal^ III" ]NIIV iii'rl|i'i-h;:.l U J !li-|[- 

m ■ r n« ., , m il Pul 1 i i 

VlliM" n|MMi \nii' . ' i! Id- Ul .-il.-i' fl II RUOl i |mmImI 

in . r .1. *a-ti wiiii -..mil' really rood boi K and in a ta% 





■ 






/ 



-.-» 






;■• rteiJ out of m wi i k- wj i 

into brigh i . i- hare m 

End ( i holr] 
n;f :tml .ln»i«s. I'.uf tin i Ivnii [li^'L 1 
r stop noroj is la a i mnuv an onjoymont, bul I pur uo3 
llv it oonstituteij u riberul education. There 
aeediiov mow pan lonlarly, to give to the peoph 
further education. It i* n Iblv «ad to wo thufti 

■ ■ lu.'itii'ii 'ii> imu'h h:i'. i'V', •■■■■• ii m 'ii' Board k&iooI* hu<1< 

llftll education w il U tin- i-n liny «>l ih.n- -:. 1 1. ■ l 

■ • . Hi.' DAA1 ii ) '1 OUT |>i'»"-rii! ftCl I D 'A G 

pounds r mi i ' w i h ■ '-ii i ■ ' Ion ol wi wy mo il i neee 
nhoo nhlli r< i . and thei wo dam them thn mcni ■ 
aoii i Inl in tfiolr life when 

il.ly iln -,, TO TOOh i^ llii-sr i i'ul It l.iltr.'uv DTOV* 
pli»:lMtlit luuilr 1. 1 :nl llli"' t«i tholr >r<icK ..'■ k i (Vi Irtln, :i:i<l . 

it" It to ii farther point The unninwnr ill I'nnlit 

being . ii in mired good referred to |iwl now lie* referrnce crh 
,i be a ■ i tlleratun which In mipponcd i<* be Ii 

ilrtii:iii(l, \i/„, Iiclii.ll ill thai I'm- n : 1 1 1| i"-r, .. I] |)fl | u . *\ i !. • -.1 n>| |<r 

for loafer*, in aani [hi u ni he. bwuc.n of flcttou show a per 
OOptlblti decrease, whilst 1 1 .«■ tocrouae In tin Imucs tif 
On science, history, travels, and 

1 1 : i j - 1 , . ■ c J . T; Ki- ~v-\m;:.v|| 1 --.i|; Tvt.' 10 :il eXtUnple, H'-P' Mr 

Issue foi the las 1 Com years ol works of Action isaa follows: 

|sh;.[, w-yCfy- i -i,< i : ,. 01 M ■ IfiBOWSS; mid In the 

library year ending March :'•"-. *69, the percentage - ml; I 

Th.jsr. .rj.u i. V.I .. ill \y I..' -iH]. »so.l I< ■ ■■ ;jT«- 1 th-- l.trj-- .;>•";. 'in 

nice i. iii» issue* ol l W>t literature, anould boar ir mind that 

liixik-s ol I ■hi: 1'-. riplinii ..i. •c;ul\ri\ rj| u«tl y, ;<ml tl'uil lit 

w-ak may be issued to three or four different bormwi i • durin < 
tin.- time that another book, which requires more oar* I i! n-.i. 
i.- kept by one roadcr Uid tin expenditure upon the i or] 

n, a* compared with other book*, fa iy n\ means to pn 
: I" ill. lassos. Even if the ntatenui;( were :i'ii>- 

my hut nuvels aro road— and it i^- :i1.:i'1ui«-In • • -I ■ i i/uth 
.i i'. 06 Said that n people euRacod La reading i >v La miffht be 
Cnfiaitolj woreo amplQyod, for the cholcoal works ol bh 

■ ire pri ndod 03 tno PabKo Lil rnrie* nol the o mmon and 
todeeent t bc people appear t" think aria the only 

Boveli to be 1 1 -i »t 1 PubUa Librarj Fiction - a orenerii pli 
like wealth, l>.it oareftil eupervteSoa is exercieod by mom 
Boittoefl reapa able fee the work ag »l i'ublie Ubmrlea, that 
qaeatlonoble proda Eons under this bead arc excluded. The b 
many ol v&es naanv liiiriirianain thni thp tendency Sn the 1 ktte "i 
readers In iip warilfl ralhnr tfinn downwards and thai paapli 

bj boino inveterate noveJ-roadftw usnallj drift 1 '• reading 
taore profll ibfe ind Instructive book*, it nhould be n 1 icrnb 
index flotlon are daeaed Hie works "f many wrlten 
circulation of whose novels Ighl still be wfaeVj [ii^orantetl ;»i he 
■• ' ■• !' ■.. 1 • non purse . tot bhej sre one 1 he mnsl 



FU 09 ..■ i ■ i.tli i w;ll>- 



26 



am 



skilful nud the no*! •.» it»ub live moral and intellect ■! ■! 

idttoal >W| end th*y snpply n 1 1 ted recrea ii c ol the ttlghacl value 

■ .in i ii nil j r n.- nutation ol the circulation <»i Hctton Ei 

dealt with d little mow hilly in another chaptar 

a question often Mked i«, •■ u ii v should the rich provid e 

rii-tc- fov iin pocrf " :ix ifl also Mi.' feliow^oueetlon, ■ Why 

ihOnlli WO OdUOAtfl n! her people'* child ll'li .- '" The sii n j »|i> 

r to IicpIIi Is, Mini ttlfl BflfHty nf tins rnmmonWflAltn 
id thai if il. jk not done there will bo infinitely 
to pay in repressive organizations The people of i 

[and. ' '»lir Sl:;lrs,' .in l (n'lliriilV li:i\i -nii'i : .11 y i'fl t ■ ■- = ■ I cd lliiii- 

en, .i I thej u • the rnosi intelligenl and thrift toft 

it the world, lucre ia no choice about the educating of 

other people's children. Nnfc only has it bo !*• done, bul It 

to -I i il In educated com uonwealth menus law-abld ou 

•ii. en. .ipI these in., iii .. j " ■ ' i • i' - strung", ju«t, and upright, mid 

cranliries nourish the best and truest interests of the country. 

Vo in- i ,\ and clieene-varine. economy in educational matters 

>lu and li;ii a-.s. without effecting i uy (rood vrhihri large and 

educational measures have always proved the 

wirw*t course. In □ most interesting article En the "Lei 

Mr, F M. 1 fob i ■-'. <>'i Public Librariee r based on the 

i'h'-i ■■-; in.ii ol this hook, he calls attention r<> "the iv.-iiii ■■ of 

mates many people againal the 'now ' system, 

which, it is Boidj orcrrulofl and subordinate private ri#hti< to the 

henoflt of the multitude, and heavily taxes the fow for tho advan- 

•.vIm'I in»r i.i.'.v and thriftless o? not We shnll 

in- i' deal "i thit tooling expressed in different ways 

ia thu at are t no< . For the | i i mention it. In 

i in inn- opinion ii very decided intluenee against the 
nenl n\ I'uhlii LibrnrioK. I'o give an instanee, our (food 
:i\k, ' Why should 1 pay a sovereign a year I >r 
IJlelt, and and thou wivei and children, to read 

iy-bcoks r simply leeanxe Tom, Dick, and Elm ry al tnenranii tpal 
itemor rhe amount of their rate will be bul sixpence 
perhap* nothing : v-r rhoy will g»r all ths benefit, for I 
onka I enro for n home Why should I he ruled and 
*i by hew for their advantage P It l?c poopertztng the 
'iiiiirn i- ji -i and reasonable; but we wouM 
n ii, thai I ifl increasing municipal and political 
people i> Inevitable, and that, as an economical 
■. ii pays a community to tax taalf pro raw tor the 
r\ [":!>< elevating and ciluuating Influence in 
Bducatl "i sl< i v will noi make pwple irood and i>eace- 
. but ltd tendency nnd effect are hi this direction, A 
famotiwi<aIt-h mii^t necessarily »c imposed of all clean 

. ■ rory rich U> the terj poor ; and it is an EnerhV 

are thai the Intercut* of all shall ^< - so intermixed 

Is a mutual dependence one un the other forthecoia- 

safetT, and Immeduite advantaged and wrl h th -v may 

. ■ \. -A 'in- •_!■■ ■>' x i i hai " man lire th not tohinv 



t«U?e 






*J 



i 




self aloni .' i- Ihi onj ■ 1 1 iplc and 
oaxnnionwcalth. 1 1 i * t ! i oal "i the principli 

when ill i-itij ' ■'- "' i ic ■ ■ mmon 

OoaoTi d ft ■ u panporumtioa a* r.m ■■ 
befeta roro nation, oamrmw ty.< c an individual to aim at 

rid bfl v. -i. ol Public LthrarUui tint :■ i taU:i! : 

Lnjfunol tho pooplo. It i* better for Midon to * 

yofi^if hoiirotod aJ BSOO, than a larger ram on nil qi * far 

■tail of extra policemen and Kaolora, 

beooznng aow n ■•■ an axiom thai i ■• looati 

ncroaaca crlni** <ii.i m; in-;, and politician) ol oil ahod 
opinion make um ed In i nertion 10 repeatedly tlial it 
•aem irj i ■ itippori il with figure* SI i 

ag iii\ and uninterwttn£ thai to inlltet an avals i -ho ol I nom up 
thagonaraJ road - aiy Ijotp nndnol perhaps convince. SMI 

thert irao tow flguro in Lin* section which should bo studied wl 
oara bj hD who dellghl In the uplUting ol the people and th 
spread oJ Intelllj nee, In Itftts the numlier ol ■ < •• taraoi 

ni;i.i, imi what ore • •.'■•< inrtietahle offences wan 14,000; 
In ISCSC 11 had fallen to 10,000: In K76 i i 7,0(H); in IW81 totf ; 000; 
and in LB86too\100. \nd this though the population hud 
from 19,000,000 to 2r ( 000 ; 000,» Hi il i i\cTii i *rlme was leas than 
half what it waa, thnngh the number of children wna our i 
larger. Ttn* orison iri ntla&l are ncaredy lew Natlafaetorj The 

tffl n iiuImt d1 pcTW»M hi piiwtfi was, In 187*, 1,000; I 
IwiU'ij'*); n 1882, 18,000; \u 1884,17,000: In 188(1, l.1«ACJf) 
r i -■ ■- i^JOO Indeed, uup prison population in mululj rwn i 
from those wlw cmim i read, < Mil id i <> i,tx « i jhtmimih cimiih 
to prison, no leaa Hum ltK),000 worv uneducated, and »nl> ).< 
wi'if able to road and wnU: well. The Mulr uf jumpe 
depends, no doubt, frreully on the tftati" of trude uud u«ricu 
Qui while, a* we know, tlit'y have laltrrly Imn aulifcci In 
fluctuation*, pitiipri'iMii lu* nI.-.<> MeadiM de :n ad wnlrfli |« due, 
to a ff rent extent, to our better education, leading 1 ' i thrll 

and more power ol adaptation to ch*cuin»tonc« Elowwer tb| 
naybi a l870thc paupers were KW5 In ovon l»00 'Bora 

J'ears fcne number had rathci increased than diminished. I i 
d Gallon to 83 per 1,000. and in 1880 LI « I, 00. il . 

loweel ■" "oonl c Bineo tno introduction "1" il i pool I ..\. 
\\ :th tii< -. fn n<l ■ . '..■■ beCoro iia, It mav well tie doi 
whether Public Litn u i really cor.l the 
It maj bo said that they actually save more thai thopei 
Doae ool thie help to i • >-■ - ^ w 

bast fit in iviiuj Lh ) of il* admiufaimtfoii hyma :ii 

SroTiiaon for aducational purposes ? I-ooU<n l( hroadly and I 
us fuel Khoald enn-i' [owns, where they do aot< on 

aatAbUflb these arlma-radiiolug inatiUittoni 

The dj tl "i il nead is !.h i we 1m? i •■: ilac^d nl any illaaihin I 
in tin* neclMuooVneelt n >■>■ of competition with the Gcrmoiw and 
Ajnerioana, wUeh has become Lncvltable, aa th 



ffB HI II * FOll IM i i' l.inEiBIK- 



:'7 






iiiii'.n i<"- i.rucr: iiv i! the midfil el these nation* has ■-•iv-n E-be 
people an adv ml iga which him been Inciting En Rnglian Ufi 

will take* us years U) overtake the drawbacks, on tins account. 

which have fnerlutblj Bcenied NatlonnJ sentiment alone should 

Ura i and lnr*^ rnral district where a Pnblio Library 

im no) .1 Iran j racist, to at race set about the adoption nf Ebe 

Some friends kiv tlul books are bo aheap, a whole library run 

mi he )>u elixsed fcu*B Irw JhT i £$. SoiUS Iniukf cvrlninly lire 

clioap, especially ropvtnt* of vni-. when Hit- copvrighl has 

expired, bullet u» nek, in all seriousness, whetlioc the nation'* 

Erhongei has been mul when 6wo or three publishinsj houses 

•,, ...ii pete* I with each othci in vomiting out cheap reprints by 

rttoadf Publn Libraries may contain these, bill Lbey also 

tin joraetlunK nfinitelj nori rahutble. flowl as minn o 

ii. minded the nation an no more feed solelj 

» thorn tiiini the appetite cau be BHtinflcd with spoofte caki - 
■ . i : i have xiM against the ahonl ut' rhcn|i n nrml:i 
not known. But ii is sale t" aver that when he atotea that 
•Hit tm >i' these •Jays it i jolleetion of books," he 

Id ool i' ••• threepera v andsixpoiRQ iditton 

fha t:ti-i "i books being aheap doa loI 

■r:i'.* bring those which anyone may desire to read within 

■ reaaD Do the large subscription libraries lind a tin inution 

dun* crambo? of borrowers because book* are cheap? Their 

■ proves that they do not ; and the wune truth applies 

borrowers from Public Libraries, foi he t:"-t rein an- thai the 

nmbor osiug them where thoy arc established is rapidly mercus- 

iini itul, notwithstanding some book* being cheap, tossy 

<-:ir. Amidst the- cln:.peniim' process, which hits 

ii- 1 1 t ii.- been goin jen in almost nil classoael commodil as, 
lea have maintained until recently a ^mgiiliirly hij/h price. 
ire has nnl adapted flnel! tu the democratic tendency of 

■ irM; and [I the nen racy has anfTerad in consequence, 

Itejatiin U i ha I ran injuriously affected by the narrowness nf 

he i rorkcl Hie i hi . peuing- of good IxKiks is it vital point now 

u:;i ir.-i'iiiini is the posaewriuu "f the masses, Fur the 

i.iIim <;o»ntry n, read; anil the only 

mi h u ; ■ fthai b presented to them for their anrascraeiil 

iiient to its logical sequence cry, 

people w no waul to tea* buy their own books * reading, 

; excellent tiiini:. but lei the render p.iv f< i i: 

:lf, nfttctul -I wkino lie atepavci's to bear the expense. 1 * 

i .mi ..i vii w, it would ""i be ufficull 

c. r. very Bhort-Hiichtcd policy. 

■!hfl •■!• « : Ii"it. t.<". |i.< I.L1\ lo« i:_!ll m.:i i- : !:'-■• 1 1 iSlllUt iuMh 

where uttomptn have \--vu amdc t" c^l,ibh,sh them, ia that they 
wcul' ption libraries and the 1 trade, 

UHtiUitii'li . iirli ;i:-. iiicel in i:r.,' 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 I e... It iillty 

!■- illiuind. v- Hi i'.-.- m'I ti ■ ■ i ■ , thai tliia is 



■-'" 



prm.ip i.mp.AnrFR. 



not the case, and tn support of this statist! could be quote 
big tint the shares la sulwerlption Ibmi'le* lud gone up n 
than down where public Libraries have l*en esmbliahedj ind 

the teat) n_\ Hi* booknallcrs In most largii towns ih thai the sale 

i.r IhhiWs \s "not •luii i isin'il hv the nroxlmll v nf thrac Itlu 
I'll*- existence of the Public library hia iiertul nly nol i tletamtrri 
effect upon tie Bale of booluv li enables many a man to read 
books which he could nol afford to purchruto, and which would 
ih. ■!•!■ fn ir not be bought even II the library were not En existence. 

it enables him to rend u 1 1* before purcluutiiijr it* ho tluri ho 

way judge whethei I will be worl u hi* while lu add it io his o*wn 
private collection. The fact 1a that thore nerer wai i tSmi when 
vi man) books -•! oil sort* were m demand n* iu'c i >" \><> 
by tit-- public. It iv u- doubted whether the compul 
cToeing ox .iii the ctrculatiujz ;it.<i other libraries En l\v kins 
doto leoojd make on oppr • ■ i bio difference En the wile <>t Is* . 

general public. In February, 1886, a public meeting of t\w 
bur ge ss es "I* Harrogate waa held to consider the ouostion of 
adopting' the Libraries' \< is. The motion in its favour was carried 
with only throe dissentients. Ad alderman Btated that be b 1 1 
been oi communication with four of the booksel lei's of Harrogate, 
ill of whom had circulating libraries. One was present :»t the 
meeting bo support the adoption oi tin Acts, two were indi fferenl . 
whilatne fonrtn said he should be delighted to pay his share u 
the library rota, and if anything was required (or its initiation Hi 
would \)c glad to rubscrlbe ftvs pounds. 

There are n great many subscription libraries whose v, 
■ n teas than 200 vols,, and tfiej do :t thriving; business on 
per week per Tolnmo, or in nomc cases Id. per day. The elasn <ii 
books is often the veriest r 'ash ever issued from the printing 
Drafts, and must have been bought ar so much a ton. These 
trade* are not Injured, and Ihe seller of lamps has just as much 
reason tn complain when an enterprising company socks to light 
bis town with gas, its ;i hooksdlor or propriet ir of i mirMci h 
library hue against a town's library being pstablished, Pu 
Lilnarif- iMiui-iiib.T li;d»il> "i" reading, and no trade benefits so 
much from tnis as the booksellers, Some. lMHikxelWs hit mnong 
the best friends of the Public Library movement . 

In mrnnj phu » there i* a pardonable fear that a Publii lil i 
would be bherulnof the mechanics' or kindred institutions. All 
wUm knov* anything of these instltutiiniH would l>«- prepared i i 
acknowledge that in time* peat they have done n most ruim treble 
work, but it may very eerimisly be doubted whether bhey are 
e< i.:l be the aoeds ol the day. ITieyare too exclusive in dnv 
i:i< tor, being proprietary institutions. They i re, . _ in, too oostyj 
to thi ave age working num. for there arc iV« d! them w 
ih, subscription i* loss than 5s. per year, and ;i working tnnn 
would need to be rated at 660 a year to paj thfc amount b 

rot • ■ oi I oven in thsoa a i I a E at table valne, there Is batter 

value in a Public Library than In the mechanics'. Hie libra ta 
in many roechai ■■ i til are poverty itself. New literature 






mv i>K uV priii.:*' i.ini*. .\ R.IK.S. 



30 




is run-.] 'i i-i 1 1 -\ lu absence, and to not ;> few towns they are 

lungufsiilng :inii gradually dying foi want of fund* They luck 

the one ribs principle which keeps Public Libroriea bcnltoynnd 

■us. inasmuch ,i- they are not subject to the control of the 

popular rote, md are, moreover, too much umlcr tin? adiuinis- 

i ration of clique* tn some towns thc> exist side by aids with 

Public i-iiniii n*v muI ihr twin institutions are in no sense an- 

I'h other. In other plnoea bfo committee of 

management hat* well and wisoh offered to band ovai their 

institution at a *ublic Ul rary.if the town will adopt the Aeta, 

Thla has bee i followed with uc most ntutoetcrj resvltB, mid 

i worthy dI being Imitated in other towns. Certainly no 

,,..!,■ ■. ■ i . ihi: i uon mittet son reasouably expect a town to 

adopting tl».' A.ih si nijily because their Institution might 



CHAPTER IV 
THB USBB OP PUBLIC LIBRARIEB. 

|I1K bbqb of Public Libraries are beccnilug so rnanifcel 
on .ill bands that it would appear almost a work of 
nipereroKSliun t\> enumerate pome nf theft many UWS. 

Let any one not accustomed to these Institutions go i<> 
Manchester, Liverpool, Dirnalnghanj, Bristol, Leeds, 
tinguain, Newcastle, and other towns, and see for himself 
what t!i. v i ■ . ii to the Enhabitante in those towns. It ia not 
aainpi' that Lbc citizens have the privilege oJ borrowing books, 
fely avail themselves of it, out if they wish for uoionna- 
-ubject, the first step tliey ndopt is to go to the 
reference department «>f the Public Library. Books on uny 
\i -t can be ubtainod there, where there ia absolute quiet, so 
Iboae de tartraonts become public studios, whore the book- 
vena m v revel to bis heart's content, and hero may coma the 
ftahhath-eehoni teacher to prepare the better For his orhoroluss, 
aadt<> consul i boobs otherwise beyond reach, Here the mechanic, 
* to improve himsell in the technique of his trade, can read 
mindt have soldo! it. Here, too, you may find the 
tetcrof the < ;ii«fw?I desirous of making the acquaintance of the 
l»t**t erftfcs ancl scholars, or to learn the most pcnmit iIi'vow-ik-i 
of travellers and the < pinions i f iiie erudite students. STet again 
n these hiirarfi"* die hiinily doctor, bonl on con. 
g the mo mthoritios on the netiling art, the literary 

nan in search <tf data tihs student mid the rx«oy-writer upon the 
Mini- i t: ik! the schoolboy or schoolgirl to sas maps or gnzet- 
iKKM innn be w& direetorlefi — in fact, repn 
« find their wot liitlicrinBeareh of much-needed 
i i ni nrlirrwise so i :im!.v arcessflile, 
If ilna ill-- newsroom " 111, in all probability, be full of 

adult visitors, diligently perusing tin.' pupers, uiayaaiiii'M, nr honks 






PUBLIC LIBSAJUBA 



These Itbrsrii ire ''run of light, and *. d. t.ut 

to for poadfng, find, un ni I t/, 

this in <>t bonofll '■' the community, and nidi rooJ itfi \\y n i]u 
roprottinj.' nrr In* rougher sad bi e pan ox human 

■ p-«?, rhi* wru-'i*. v iim formerly held > he p 
ix w.>n aware how flea wive* ana ehtidren cotw for books, and 
i ike ' "• i'*>(|Uobc, " I'Icnac pii'lc ma ,1 nice I I take 

homo m Interesting bonk, mv husband (o* father, m ti.< 

i i (v bfl ICfl] NOp!l lnrni'- ll:r ri.-niii" :itnl read It to ui tin- 

■ »i onVlnIl*rii does no! extend to by far J he greater rnnj 
mi fbrarlan* and aasiKtimtK, for, taken a* n u«iy, u *wn 

• i i -it'll' to rind n more murtiMiin body ol men m i 

among public officials, They are Invariably willing i. help the 

iv.ulrr* :ind rMHTOWPI'H ftftd til 1 1 li IllSftl it i> Of iiiKhOin-. l'i, : 

not merely the. attendants who givn oul and toko In the booli 
tint Uusy are the vocal key to tne . Liinli»<.r'n*^. .luliiur with rheir 
nations ;n.'l knowledge in tin.' ^oiircli lor Imhjkm un a par- 
ticular subject. Noi afevi ol them, Again, look upon thtirofnYo 
I i, a nubile Instructor 
It isaoid of Wordsworth thai a stranger having ou one 
tfoa asked to see his study, (lie maid ttaid: "This is mnsteir's 
room, but he studies ra n>< fields." The agricultural labour©] 
Learns tgreai deal In the fields, i\> know* much more than we 
give him erodii for, only it is Beld-learning, not book-learning— 
nnd none the worst for liar. Hut th< m lo who works i i 
or a manufactory haa a much more monotonous existences 
is confined, perhnp*, '" h ""' i't'oeos*. 01 even « mo part of u pic 
from Tears end to year's end He acquires, no doubt, ,i %kiil 
litMr .-li'ii .i the miraculous, but on the other hand vcrj 
row. If he is not liimMolf to become a mere animated 

ii -.t generally obtain, :ui< l in .-tun- im.s.-h he can only oi> 
i i. u. ■■. :-.iry variety and interest fivi • tin- mi of books Th 
hnppilv now some tendency to shorten the hours of labour, and, 
what its less sutisfhotory, "there are time* when work is Mack. 
Itut the hours of Leisure el ■ uld q >t be hours ol idleness; !< . 
i>. one ..I toe greatest Massing*, idleness one ol 
•i pees one is the source ol h ppiness. Che other i miaen. 
Suppose :i ix-Hjr iiiiin bus tor a few days no workj whftft ifl 
be fo do? Ilowis he to employ bin tnnof H need no loi 

i wli.-r.' there i« !i Public .Libmry h" uewK-rooiu to which 

he etui resort. It is not luting advocated here that tl 
IbroriOE should be the common resort of those win wish o 

idle away then- tmu\ nnd receive i puRsmg half-hour 

meat, it Is said Mint ttiia ervil afflicts -* 1 1 Public Libra 
to i less OT greater degree; but the statement fthonlfl « 
with u. vr-i-y frsat degree of nantion and qualiAcatfon Some 
havo gono so far as to aay tlml it i-; undoubted that the Public 
Library everywhere Is Largely patronized by the reapoctablfl 
loafer He bbb no dub, esu cannot take u> 
he dr iw a o the Public Libraiy, poesesfles himself i f i ei i 
nt rliuliv a iini-i-1 comfort uhlt •. lie a*k» fur n b( 






inr r»K or pi nr.rr uniuwRS. 



■ i 



ail ! CDdesVOUTt I >iim. H 1 1 ii' effort '*ih1h in 

implctc physical and mental prostration, he oamioi help It 

Now, w< hare I" dcenrc U prevenl the Public Librarj from 

ministering lo the amusement of the public, On the contrary, 

.-. • iiould be sorn i it did no I, We luiu 1 i aetRutioua 

[j niiiM'nMiiy:" class, which inci cs o h sorl of 

leave no room for the healthy develop* 

of tl - in i .-!■.■ or entertainment By all means 

the I'ui in- Library provide the public witti nowepadperaj 

novels, end othej Hghi reading Hut the li^ht readers onghl not 

stand in the way of the solid once, us thei do in ■ num- 

r of pl.i-- i. Tl:. iiilnre of an attempt in Liverpool and 

i i. i j nra i he wo clasoi I ■ - b en emewhat 

i 'i'i.:il'lr. Tin* I'l.ii Li'IitJ'M. 1 '! V;i - In ;<<( .-i.~-.i-] ' - :i '• nl ii'lm I 

00m." 1 and it foiled. A hotter plan would be to give w« fUk 

i tho first elaim to tin* available accommodation. 

i who ie merely skipping through a QOVeJ 

i > ■ • 1 1 - s (ptfl way for the reader wh< lc 'ead some wort 

ii<] literature. Monj booke now ii tho lending department 

! be transferred to the referonee deportment, and the 

:• ronni it iln- thrirv -h <nU| In- [iren'mntuiUy given to 
t^ ivi'i'MUT reader*. .\" mercy should be shown to the 
leopei's. When :i "i eep s il ietiraa of him r<» 

Dome, .mo mulct nwnn "i I-- 1 - li:»i'i»> nmrtalfl t»i whom tlio 
: early nhnnber is denied, ind tills is unquestionably 
and In being exercised with greater strictness every »ue> 
• ;c y» k uv. In not a few referent' rending rooma even tin* 
writing of letters is strictly forbidden, and any attempt in 
Is immediately stopped by tho caretaker or news- 
i tupertntendenr. This official, usually in i distinotfve ooaC| 
ii toome an mdiapenKoble jierson in the newwooraa, where 
endaooe to rery large and his prcsenre certainly tends tn 

i.il immfoi't. 

Thodtr itah reform should taknia indicated bvthe tianraa 

aili ol the evil Ui which reference hufljUBl been mode. 

item ie a development of the mechanics' 

:*'illitt'N mil i-f.ii !iit '-rouiii.^ n[ Ulirr ' I'l VH. Il * st*o|ir and pi'Ul- 

ea have never been dearly defined. Its central ;deH is tliat 

y man nh< uld be able to have any book for the asking — thai 

"f obtaining whole-some reading shall be as indopon- 

lu tucket as are the lighting of tl o street! 

d tho d The t tii ' I i .-..■ Lihn i ; 

eourw, n ii. i : i nci one n ighl a* w< II U Ik of tree drains. 

i has developed without the limitations which 

» ihc ine, organisation, and discrimination 

in.'""-. Tlmt ;: ihr <ii:rin of the evil. Iln' remedy is clearly 

■ [imitations, The indiscriminate 

1 pro\-isnon of soat and desk accommodation, 

nau^t prfre j>lu-: tyatem under which workers are dietin- 

ind the foiTuer given the first consideration. 

But oven granting thai there in a modicum of tmth In (bese 







. 



ondeeirabU usee ©i Publics Ubrarie that the 

ioad reasonable use ol Itiblic ft iiictr midmg 

Mini n*'\V*-rtHiMlH, |A ; I III .An--. .1 W 1 1 .lN'Vi'1 :ihil- 

pointed out 'I'll'- tendon y i* iiKtinrtly upward, mid a no* 

SOtttl WtlO l Mv s;mii t-T- ! I., .HI.' i,1 ihi'Si- |il-i,',.. n , . i.' . 

t}gn l.> |i>ol lllftl llic [ii.-nr [MiWPfMM ■ Which 

pIvSMlir* :.nd H'llr :'i' i: i s :.T !ou 11: hi- Ifffl .ri«l ' 

i«) raliM then accordingly. The KTilrlt of fnel 

:«>iii. for precisely similar wu» could be ixrinted nut m 

r\i'.'triir in r-liiirclii'- ;.n<( • - 1 1 : t ; » • v EVBL (In* vt-rv WOM '»! t ho 
nil u in ' ■ : Win ■ ■ - u '-liini:i- iMiliul (pet li:i:ii 

what iiirv peruse, .mil the chances lie in thu probability ol their 
petting aomething of an opposite charm-tci'. I'm >lie l.il i 
N>i*k to realise IvnnysoaB words 

"To ti\»i'tt ni#h fhmijflil and UDttbfo ui'*, 
Anil oonr tu'ns s s, and a desire of fame, 
Ami fori of troth, mnl all tlmL mako a mmi." 

\ nry targe nninbera <>f the eoinjiiunlty are engaged from 
in . i ; i v in a simple struggle for existence, am their tti 

I'lllly Jirriipii-il With Mil' t-M-rs .'iim: w HITiO ul il;i.il\ lltr WlltTl 
ViflltiuB Hi" I iMn' LI brill ii'i :nnl n , ;i«liiij.'-l'imlilN ill tilt! •■ . m ni f, 

sod do imi want books which "ill continue the same tra n o 
thought in which they have been engaged daring the daj 11 -.. 
naturally went jomethiag which will lift them into s different 

Mplivu- :i i":'- -Mii-i, ,;i<l excite L In- r iiu.i final inn ;iml in; 

Ilium 

When I'ni'lit Libraries were Aral catahlishcd, it waa gi e 
feared, u bu *en already mentioned, that they would militate 
.1 the in'ukBcllirur trade and Mutt Ibia worthy Lai 

h nlr-iiin WOald BttfltSfi On Ulfl rnntiMi-y. tin- v. | y ippoOltC haa 

I't 1 1. the ca* . At one ol tlie annual coaxerences <:' the Library 
Association, tho uloning day ol the session was marked by tin- 
reading <»i" tv paper <>i more than professional or technical n- 
(ri'.-:«i, iii< jubjecl discussed in it being'' l'ui 1;> l.ibr.u-;. t-h. .< 
bookseller'! poinl ol view." [t was argued, when Pul )-< Li 
were first institute I, that thoj w oukl have the effect of injuring 
aolo of books, People, it was urged, would £•> to the lib] 
what they wanted, metoad <»f buying it as heretofore! And there 
v.iih i cei'tuui uiddunt of plausibility iu tho suggestion. Moat 
f'lT.M.uts, it might i>o s\mpoaed, would bo eatiRnod with pern 
tin* volumes m Whioh tney were interebted, and would bo happy 
to to relieved ol the necessity ol acquiring them for tin 
An<l to ;> certain extent chat In the case. No doubt the i 
iin.'.-ii ui Public Libraries has iieenof great advantage to many 
who formerJ^ \v< ed to expend large sums in book- hi. a Ing. 

NeverthvLesa t the bookseller who oddressc tie librarian 
•t the result. Of hix experience that I'iIiIm; Lilrani 
increased than decreased the tr;id>Mii wh h'li hi. i- tonoarued 
U ttie reason dirnenlt to diseover. Granted thfit th <• ire I 
who yre (dad bo rend without buying, there are probably Hffl 
who are led to bus what they ren«i. or are led, by n 



' i i I': OI (I hU< T Iltll.MClJ,-. 



dcaare to buy. A .young moo who borrow ;i Pottle Ltbrerj 

book, find* it| i>rr>ini», -■ attraetlvOj fehar In- brem hs anxious to 
obtain :i '"I'.v of it. Hi-- ta not Battened with reading, he wishes to 
bom. That, one can wen 1 believCj rery frequently happens. 
v:i«i • ben, of . Dureo, thoro can bo do nueenca boat the muqocv (<> 
(bra .•' utile library r»i one's own is, i: ;i genera way, fostered l>y 
tho reeding vrhJeii the libraries supply. A taste Cor book] n 
■mlercd, ami then come* the feeling that it would be nfrnfltlTlt 
to have soiue of cue's nvn. And il Public t4hropi« did no more 
Hkwi luspift this feeling, they would Hat* a enffleie&t reusoo for 
Ing. 
in nemo districts the proportionate issue t<> each inhabitant 
im over fan? bookN per year of tin* entire population ol the 
. -rut in ivirii actual iMirrovOT over twenty volumea per year. 
This feet not onh jnstifle* the existence of cbe libraries in Enow 
town*, hut shonln N . »ery powerful argument to other districts 
a • rtnldnd them. 
Pttiftswor w . .Stanley Jevons said truly, that "The main rafaM 

<Tttn> of Public T il>! .1: :r.'i. M imlrei], of pnblie. museum?-. ir: 

gallrrlc*, parks, halls, public docks, and man) ol 10 kinds of 

■ works, is the enormous increase ul utility which is thereby 

lired Un the coram unity nt a trifling" coat. If a beautiful 

picture be 1 ung in the iliniog-room ol a private house, a dust, 

mrhaps, be gajsed at 03 a few guests a score ©1 two of times ld 

ill-- ft utilii.s 1.-. 1 ft en that of niimstermu 10 the 

do of it- owner. Ifil be bung in the National Gallery 

it will be enjoyed by hundreds of thousands <«t' peraona, whose 

jelano:*. if need hereby be said, do not tend to wear out the canvas- 

■ principle applies to hooka m common ownership. 11 1 

man pcnmui a library of -.1 few thousand volume*, by far the 

. ri it* them must li' 1 for years uatouahod upon the 

: helvi - ; ho eaonot poaaibry use raoro than :i Frnct1< n of il .. whole 

Hut a I ive or ten thonsand volumes iponcd 

■ tin population "l * town may be used h thousand tJi icsoa 

triking eas< of what 1 propose to call th« principle 

firm t,f utility. :i |»i*it»-i|»lc which hen at the baxi ■ \ 

. 1 the mod important processes of political econ< 

iding the division "I labour," 

■! whioli oare» for its citizens will estoblisl d Public 

1 \ , and take care of it with just us much interest :is ii mil 

utt.-ii iter, drain*, and gas of the town. If il isneee* 

forth* hi dth <ii the inhabitants thai they have pure water, perfect 

.. good gas, surely It In the more necemtary Ibat they 

neejthj pmvlslnn for the mind, and no institution* which 

iean provided In any pari of the country wi thorough!; 

bile Lihwta 

- the Mian lie endeavoui to carry oul the 

j.l. Uml every town ought i< have a library cuntaluliig 

1* tho town has inliahltnnta. Such .1 lili;n\ 

l*ft-«]i»'- .0 •■ Hk- cent it «>f the intellectual life oJ the town, 

aod 1 1 moralfl and uiauuere of the entire community, 

3 



HI PUBLIC LIBBABIBS. 

And more : its influence stretches out into the whole country, 
wherever its readers may chance to go ; and its importance is not 
for a moment to be compared with the entire sum of the mercan- 
tile and manufacturing interests by which it is surrounded. A 
town with a library can be distinguished easily from one which 
lacks any such collection of books ; and those parts of the country 
in which town libraries abound are the parts which are most 
influential in every department of intellectual and even material 
labour. " Let those," says a recent writer, " who pride themselves 
upon their devotion to the so-called practical, reflect that the 
advantages of a library are no longer of a purely literary 
character, and are becoming less and less so ; that the ' arts and 
mysteries' of manufacture are no longer taught by word of 
mouth alone to indentured apprentices, but that the 'master 
workmen ' of the nineteenth century speak through books to all ; 
and that in proportion as our workmen become intelligent and 
skilful does their labour increase in value to themselves and to the 
State." These are weighty words. 

It may be a cause for wonder that any private person should 
make such a bad investment, pecuniary and literary, as to buy an 
expensive encyclopedia. In the first place, unless the person be 
a universal student, and life is too short for that, he pays for a far 
greater proportion of what he never will or can read, than of 
information that he cares for and can assimilate and utilize. He 
must be rich or extravagant who can afford to pay for a pound's 
worth of tablecloth to accompany a half-pennyworth of bread. 
In the second place, such rapid advances arc nowadays made in 
nearly every department of science, that most of the articles on 
that subject will l>e superseded and out of date, even if not 
incorrect, before the publication of any single edition is completed. 
Public Libraries are the most suitable purchasers and owners of 
encyclopaedias, for the sake of giving their readers the opportunity 
of reference to such works. But to the private individual the 
possession of such a great expensive work is as a white 
elephant. 

As one of the uses of Public Libraries, it may be noticed with 
pleasure that juvenile reading is becoming elevated. The decrease 
of illustrated books, for use in the reference library, is at some 
libraries very marked. When this department was made 
accessible to young readers, the books in greatest favour with 
them were those containing illustrations, but in many cases they 
did little more than turn over the leaves and glance at the pic- 
tures, one reader l>eing thus able to take out several volumes during 
a single visit. This custom, if not a very intellectual one, had at 
least the negative merit of keeping these young people off the 
streets, and out of possible mischief; but it has resulted, as it was 
hoped it would, in the positive virtue of enabling them to acquire 
the habit of reading. Large numbers of these young lads now 
regularly ask for books in various branches of literature, and 
fipend a whole evening reading one, instead of merely turning 
oyer the leaves of several volumes. This shows that the libraries 




Illl I 



:\r, 



ar 



are bi a for Bduu ii-«i.i to di ttnguiahed 

win 

Sit 1 thoro -i <■ <•<> \ fcvo 

i 'iii-li. Libraries in tt* i ounl pj nernl 

' I j.l.i. | ■ ; .i : i in' Q| I.V.- 

'Hi ■ pi; ■■ i VVi \ Hhd '..'■■'■■ 
m in' II 0, it pi- Hcutinjt RctioQi 

n . [In itrated books - t travel, and other* 

i I; s ur and it v .. ,,_■,. in twotro 

. : tin . . !■• ok*. T!.v. -- 1 1 1 1 ; * 1 < - 

irrty ■■■■■■ I the vary coram I though! asdatten 

vh* aj that i ubUc I 

m p , i deserving of the m ad 

'Ih-H WO J' 

\\ ii:i. -! m Idnoi bowvnon Hifftftl I nrinevrg-rooms 

■! •. :im toill t , 1\ 

run • '■■ i '' :i " Btil ■ v hile going 

irii . >i . h* 'ii ml !•;■, the pi . -mi: n HU P hue i« - d 

.pin. :. IhtpYnj ol iIk'm 

; I i in:, ii .". u.r w, i qnfriaji ti< 

I J'DUnK l"l:. i • I 'HU <i tin- nov 

;. the liiMrM and i ike i hem ij> o read. 1 1 1 1 

\U', ! llli Ii' l. in: Ur ll< :i | n 1 " ' V .'nr -;i V ■ M <■ th&l 

cm | iiil ' 'lit never u be in. iii- ii.*- mean* of 

i ■ I;. i mp : llll or 

or vrlii liould tiHYe ttiu "i>i"'i-in , j these 

• in- In* - I ; 'iinrl in' ll'ii |>i'i|u::,i ; Li, A'cul mm I lii.s ■ >1 >jee> 
the other * ii' >v which \>, thai i In- -irkU mid mi it i- 

U Iwl Hill .j,' 1 In- • III" I ' l.:lik "I ' ttlOM .' I.viinl 1 1_> 

u i|uite iveenl v«'in-. hnve had I hefi 

ll IS UOM !: D I ll I »l Ii Jiy •!' it I 'C Vrholl -"I I" OTCjOT 

■ ' ■■ i . i lui'liriiii; I'" i' 1 •IllIllUIlH V 

- -ii Milil be proi Ided 

1 :"' 
I ■ ■ . . : • ■ . . . 

■ ; ! iy i io4' -.I'll i lor •' a t ' ■ 

!'.nt ii ma ■ be ■ reh .i .1 thai voi y cortlj I I... i r I rft-rtl 

.■ni« spirit would not Lie In place 

to Bill* " Sol ii' I il "ii (hf tinOEOII 

i ■ »ch Ci Uld I -mi. . V\ ill, I . I 

, I . . ' <?ull y t foi : ppeari I en nruwuo thi I 

ould thetw i ■ i i ■ uded : md then 
ti Intel- nl (rnvcl. I."- thorn.) 
Bad i- I natli p o l m <-h:n-i. ':■.-', pi . . rri 

ippmnehod I'oa i iue.li il i Ito laid mi the 

Dmt in the majority ol in nee* the Public Library ■ the 

dioii [or ni ■ <'■-'■ cl * i-i '^ i hu large :i 

i<r <>i tin- >i<i and nv&luaMo documents aro now rotting 

■ - 1 ti v i i ii! u nitty holoe il it a i 

| now who Ii'ivc In • r: ■; l f | i.- i- imr. !h 

i i .' i i v frii imI i f iii»' prew 



ri BUI umam. 

writ i " tlm ustuf) ol .< county, and travelled over tli<- entin 

ji .inn to ■ lie old rceoi a • U 03 tin -■ 

most Inaccessible ilocc . rat-eaten tnd mildewed, 'm arnosi 

tppcal I;- in. i'! t. ! I.r.iii inn to 'lav. tllQ6C doCOIQCnta SCOTi 

mi, II' thov need aloanha torinc coramuni tattoo should 

i.. made v. ih dir uutbontfoe at the British Museum. Bvery 
bclphas boon clvoo, 11 many raw* in fchi direction I . 

<r 11 . 1 no ol ih<' attendant spent In the wi rlc. 
Ko I'ui he Library can now fcn ooaaidercd impletc until i\ 
pcrfbol .-. collection ol local Wfitorfen and literature 

; I I Pi ii-nlv .:!i'l 0001011 Will afford. TImM' :il I | L Q Jn g I I.I 1 M . 

tfanonoster, Nottingham, Plymouth, and Kewcuetlo, ura ■■■. 
eaUent, and it may lie confidently hoped thai nl theex institu- 
tions Wfll witli!:i 'lie DOXl Ivchtv V*".tVH p0AS@68 SUCtl ;i r,.\\.< ■ ,,m 

How i:it tin no libraries aw Justified in (ponding thoir mi 

in ni.i hi. ! ram collections "i tx i tree works 

in ih. r whii-ii iiiu-.i in- led to the Individual retjnireraenti 
resources of *Terj I ba 

i in r there U II iratuw which has become 

Indispensable and Invaluable, and thai l» n collection >t boatus 
i"' rfng iinon rho itaple Industries ol the (own or dlatrlel bi 
which the library Is situated, This la a multei t tal to the future 
welfare of libraries, and ii should noi lur nocpsHuo to restrict this 
i ollccMo i lo woi u ■ in tin* English language. Some tew of those 
Public '.i I'.iiit-. arc Dlrvudj Lhc mnttl complete Kturelumffc 
i i tor these colleulroiu at technological books, and others 
will Minn ln'^ni in iiiakc ;i *t|avial fculuru of Una department . 

There arc other uses which could be enumerated. Files of 
local and leading London pnpei • arc kept. Here buki are maps, 
oh arts, and other special matters, and il Ih impossible bo deny 
that these are ;i great public convenient'' Some libraries upon 
the docre of their aowa-roome at B.Dt) a.m., in ordor to specially 
accommodate thai : who wish to have the vei y earliest opportunity 
-•I i insulting the advertuiementa of situations vacant in the tu 

iy at tunes bee oppressing eight to e< many 
eager to d<> this, i>nt it m1i<>u1<I he a cuusc for local ^ttlHfactiun 
that tho uncmployod can at once x<> and mako aoquojnti ■ 
the wants of too labour market 

ijeuboanl tovrnfi And ;> demand for the shipping papers) sad 
wisely plaofi these in positions whoro they tu*o most accessible 
Iimc will be of tan seen hard headed captaina and horny nandod 
sailors Looking ever each ►thor'a shoulder otthelast sopy ol the 
shipping paper. Eiere too oomes the oaptoin'e wi& whan tlmt 
woriiiv ifi awaj on the mighty deep, to see if her Imsband's Ktup 
has been spoken or rignaUod These are bul straws :<> ahovi the 
univt'i'siii appreeintion in which thcue eitixens' reading-roomi are 
bold. 

Tin.' question i>i the supply of Government papers and other 
offldal papers to Public 1 JbrarSas Isol the higheal Lmportane i 

in August, i ■ - i, ' dc lutatlon watted upon tin* !:it<* i ord Cddoo- 
lelglt mi i lis official rastdenoe in Downiag-etreet. The ultimate 



THB I'gBS OF JTBI.IC I.IBU.UU1CS. 



a; 




result ol the interview isam ttdied in a letter ol fins lamented 

statesman, ol v vembar 13, - -■•■ in which lie said i "I have cartv 
fully considered the ouesticai brought before rae by thftdeputa- 

- to the poaritrintyol freograi taol i ■> xemmont publications 

I'ulilK' Libraries I st;iUM it Hie linn* the 

oltfactlons which r saw to such b proposal, and on further oon- 
si.iri-jiij "i r i-t>ni:i ;i. i i - !■■ opinion, r.i.t i am glad to gag 

- been able tomato i i i ngfl nent which, hy apprftcinhly 
reducing the coat to Public Libraries ol pan 

UonSi mi). I trust, be oj considerable advantage. A oonfracl fa 

about to lie made, undi r wl [eh one contractor » 111 undertake the 

Bale ol all the tJovernmeni publications published try (he Sto- 

i li-in-i \ Office; ind i i3 to oc a oondibJoE ol the contract thai 

the w ■ ta uf Public Libraries are to be allowed n 

leas) -' per cent, discount iroiu the price* t>l* the publications as 

• Stattooei y ' ufive." 

Tin.** Important matter has been fortha tdvaneed, for on 

Februan .••. 1897, tl i I hanceHo o bhe Bxchequei said thai 

his u r had promised to submit a vote to tin- House to 

ll(»M..r Ui decide whether .i glfl *houId Ix*. made of 

■ • t«i l*nhli< Libraries. ITe would mbmtt ■ 

vote* lo the House t or thie purpose, i h oto Parliamei 

, only, ci aboul C16, he thought that the inoounl mfffhi 

! m- i ii cctinomtcM In the Stationery Office and n rconc- 

. the «■■--■ ol distributing Parliamentary rmpora. Ilithorto 

■■ imy thorn, : u<l wjili few oxa ptiani their 

m has i»'''i i ■■' Members of I'arliament, the 

in the oud folding their way to the paper makers as wi i te 

taper, it ti i '.-:r conab i to hope that their distribution to the 
*UbUo Libraries ol the kin<fil«»m will sivuiv !<r them ;i wider 
iMri i ■ < than hue hitherto been possible, and be fallow ■■! 

thoughtful perusal and even study ot" their contents. 
i . letter reserved from the Troasury on December 8, I88tt, 
dc i" the ■ ebate in the Hi i"' "i I'ommniw on 
Mav u ui Mm year, when the vote for the Stationery Office was 
! ^mi.-mhii It w;ik ti.i, Khitcil thai i!:t amiiij^inenf made 
n still holds good, ondei which applications oi this 
r act within the prov rion <>i '-UK) 'i . ae by Parliament, 
on mart contain .' list o1 the papers which the 
tit nhtntii, iiii«1 k1ioii1<1 1 ■* - :i(!<!rc-M-i! fi Mii« Con- 
El M.'n Hl.atliifici \ < fffli'i', SUtl'ry'js (Julo, l/uiilitii, S.\\ . 

Lo«e win. frorn tune to tlmn finv fcnalen to non»ult 

e offlultJ documents know their real value. Those who 

ormation iU>-\ viulxxlj do wo under an entire 

. i nm Miinr. ii ..-. meat dew rnble that 

rei Khuiild lit* diNpelli' I. Tli - i-nii hest be 
e ' i paper? in the Public Libraries, and thus 

rjringiniE toem within tfie roach of all in search ol reliable i iforma- 
..' i)n'*'ifil -ui jeetfl in •• w hii ii the reader o thi it ndcnl 
m»/ be ln<ju/rii 
Tlu' nii)»plyi"^ of r.iti-nt Office ip ^vkcsttoo Cfl 



38 PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

burning interest to librarians and coraraittees. At present these 
arc very costly, and fill up a vast amount of space, that it is in 
many libraries becoming a very serious question, indeed, as to 
whether they will he able to continue obtaining them as' they 
have hitherto done. The condition of affairs in this respect at 
Newcastle-nu-Tyne is so thoroughly indicative of what is being 
felt at other places, and what lias been done there summarizes 
the position of atTairs so thoroughly, that there can be no better 
plan adopted than by stating what steps have been taken at 
those places. A suit-committee of the Library committee was 
formed to report on the supply of Patent Office publications. 
This committee reported in September, 1889, that they had 
received from the Patent Office a letter informing them that, as 
the l>ound volumes of specifications of patents could not be got> 
ready earlier than eighteen months after the publication of the? 
separate specifications, the Board of Trade had decided, with a* 
view to the distribution of the specifications at the time of publi- 
cation, to discontinue the distribution of these volumes, and, in 
lieu of them, to issue a packet of specifications every week, on the 
understanding that the library receiving them would undertake 
to biud them up at the end of every eighteen months. This letter 
was referred to the chairman of the Hooks and House Committee 
and the Chief Librarian/Alt*. Ilaggerston, who, after considering 
the subject, presented the following report to the committee : — 

"We have gone carefully into the points raised in the letter of Mr. J. Lowry 
Whittlp, of the Patent Ottice, dated July 24th, 1889, and report as follows:— 

The speciticstion* of patent* are now received in bound volumes from righteen 
to nineteen month* after the date of publication. 

t Tin- arrangemfiit which the Patent Office now propose will give us the specifica- 
tions in parti M so<n ss published, which is some threo weeks after the acceptance 
of the completed specification. A specification may be completed at the date of 
application for provisional protection, or at any time within fifteen months after-* 
wards. 

The Patent Office authorities undertake to make good any copies of specif! a- 
tions which may be abstracted, lost, or damaged prior to the binding of the 
volumes. 

The proposed change will involve our appointing a London agent to collect the 
specifications wetkly, and to dispatch the same to Newcastle. If this be necessary. 
Messrs. H. &»thcran A: Co. have offered to act for us at an annual charge of 
£1 Is. Od. 

_ We shall need 150 cardboard boxes for storing and administering the speciflca- 
tiuna prior to their being bound. The boxes will cost 2s. 6d. each, altogether 
£18 10s. Od. 

It will be necessary to bind from 90 to 100 volumes of specif! cations annualjy. 
The estimated cost of each, in half linen buckram guuded, will be about 3s. 6d,, 
or an anuual cost of from £15 15s. Od. to £17 10s. Od. 

The total estimate of preliminary cost will, therefore, be £20 5s. Od., and the 
estimated annual cost £20 Is. Od. 

The grant of patent specifications was made to the Corporation of Newcastle 
We have not been able to ascertain the date, but we are informed that they were 
deposited by the Corporation with the Literary and Philosophical Socieiy not less 
than 40 years ago- The Corporation paid the Literary and Philosophical Society 
the cost of binding and of carriage. In eight years -from 1850 to 1867 — the 
amount thus paid tor binding was £232 lGs. 4d. 

In 1882 the Literary and Philosophical Society required the room which the 

Kit'..- Lit. specifications occupied, and tnev were transferred to the Public Library ; 
at they did not become the property of the Public library, as they had not been 
the property of the Newcastle Corporation. The Government maintained the 
right of withdrawing the grant at any time, and recalling tho volumes. 

Whilst it is right and fining that books such as theBe which the Corporation 
receive from Government for the benefit of the entire community should And mom 



thr raw <\v prm.rc mukaiiiks. 



::<> 



rili inl tl.i.uu . || i- i,. : liyht th.it the I'lihlu Ijl.r.ry choulil ln» rliainivl 
with cxrxni—-* for tlitia which a j>ri*»t« library wae not cburgxd wjlu whi-u if tool 
lhan, 
■(>,. y n'. not i>oriU" wtii.-ti th<> FNiMI. I ilirniT-9 Ounmillo* would b» li(e«ly to 

Sif I ?onttoo 'li'". not ji (Tide t)icm. V7« him- uobed fcbat (ho 
<v m<*1] th. in 'iiii.y (.1.1 open rn n'fAn.iiwe hy any pi'rwtii whr> 

Onto! »'l ainnea Tiicv in iii Um Palme I .ibrary *■» « .. at n 1 1 

Ow • - 1 1 1 • i . not oaly of tfewfwUe and mlr'ibourbuuJ, hm ol lb.: fftMh of 0m 

i Th* naanal pUmmi to NwwvuUo whore complato ««t« of 

i 1 ■■ ■ ■■ "ii- • •■' i ■■ ■ on* iii.- .: iu* Edinburgh oi Q1aw>» in i_1j •. ■ ■» " l ■ , 
'■ ^luichrKtrr in Lbe WfSt nnd l/»d* in the faatR. 
'iliur* u Hit i ... i . wlij ;•....„,.., of lb* PllbUo Libitir; ilmiibl bo 

EiurdcunJ wiUi uy ptyxauita fur Uum *pcrillni'.imi*: but. on Kba attur hand, 

tboj' •hull "J Bot b*<M be*ft HtjUUvJ '-i n lb.- im\ i i' >'i ill- >luf fo(f llw* |i« 

y«tr». Tbcy huvo »imply ait**! fur ihv Bonveuwoo of Ibfl QuipufMHB in tlio 

K' ■ > :■ i" f'-f- ili ■ '■ l"«lj 'i nil mil I--.I . .■-!.■. i 

.' body will •■ thi .,iuu*AJidproprlctr i»f rtcUnowlcag-inirtU re«p(iu»ihllity. 
j iiujjorUul ufic. In 1801, DO vMluines of putent <\ 
tioni wwo jmbh ).• " . : tht^eoontaJiwd «b<mt fiOaepuvUnwoini 

I . ^iT, '.-1 VuluiUfa »Bt publi>U'-(l. KiM't'lf It'Ulbkl ol 4,700 

1 voltimr*. MKh containm; annul 100 vpoctflMtinni, nr a 
total of &|000; and in I' 7.91 ">lum<e, c*eb conUtain^- about JftO rppdnVntion*, 
or o tMt« ol i 1 tout bv iccd Mini. tbi»i»* art n>or< - i...r, :nv uv\r- .\* 

many -tK«illon!lon* puMi«li«l now Minn there wnr* thirty yean* niro. 

■ ' ■■ •' I i" calico! ipon Iu defray 

tin witou i( 'I - foi ?n«a» patent. RnooifioatiuiM ; l>i!t wo imwt ronenbor 

ofUi }■<> i' i" cily no tlio raetnipoUe of 

ti,. dktrlrt II in.ni'v.T. tin .-iiuiinweof tb* l*ub!lf Ul-riry. whlih nn? alrouly »o 
t*t*rrv, ti" i" ii *-.«■-'. r . . i i,\ ii^ p.vin.nit- wo nam lowolionoJ, '\\< Qaowml 

i' *JII I'.m . ■ ,■, i. to ■nuniiii-. nhotbet i 1 ^ iMiilit<Huo«n»liiK 

i,'i «i"'ii '■■ i'ii.'i' < 'i'i. ■ pi.i-.'i-.' 1 1 .■ i .., i. i>ii i- of Paloute 

.1.. . ■• kitii- • ■■.■] .'',.,, iii,- •;...,- . ,i tlir- Tbaidof Iniili, aad Itwillprofiablj 
' Ui* >i"it]''.'itinni» in mty otbvr lumi limn ^hnt waleb H turn 

W ii -i.niit tiiuti tlin • ■ • a obuabl W opoootl wlih 

d i Ui ■ i rlalubow farlt aw bu luduoud lo ntub i. .In. Uml, n 
r ■-. .1 will iii'iiliMi.i- (In i 'nipitrnt dm hi- ulln'i- |«v-M'ii who DUU! 

i-i > f"i md li'i.v fin ». i i". -..1 ii- Wj .i, In . it to undortafci 

t'n UndlQi iii M mm I" 1 thnl f ii 35* could n"t lw done wtfhiul '•••(< 

■ ■I ■-• tho l.i'..- ! •■ ■ 'I'.Mu'.it.H..- I'Kjilta wttfob arr 

ii I'hUiiI initJimi ' mi' in iniml, und Hi. rtmuiubuvd 

that tin ui '!•• jmUmU tJic«o«lwi, rnrtU tbs'- the oblool M 

:i. u to 'iiiouia^i 1 tf ■•> taking out of p. it cut*, and mv txi 

flii- t mi na*< fntinbrtl, Miiwl tliiiT it. wihiM only he 

■ \pon«. of thn*. vbloa in praotiaalu th« bo<t advortiaomont of the 
raUutt'UUv. v ' I.. I'uttint OUkt il*elf.' 

lActi ! u nidi an enormous annual revenue that 
:iit .in tinrti -:i iblo rcquofit to make on bolutll" <.■!' those 
be ' i"' Lvgularty suppJiod vith Mil* "l'atunU* 
»L(J - ,.. ottic ii lorn i'i-".'.' From all wtp 

on and pamphlota oomo from jmblishcrfl, author*, 

d pabUc bodiM, die ubi g received from the Lords Oom- 

Uer Vi[.'j) * Troiwury — i ulondiu'B of State fapers, 

,-.. i ;iji.:iii: volu i hroniolec and Memorials of wa&I 

rcland during the Middle a j;--. sixty volumes; and 

of the Uc« ord ' iommlssiona, ' Sec., m ■ 

.ii' v-.iiM- ui viiirh w.i- .:,::/ >^ od, The u.-.-nis-). pal 

ml iiilv- an*] pamphlPts uid the Condon nnrl 

• «lii the Niiiu*. The VmoricAii Rnronu of Education, 

im»l other .-:in;.i- cm Llie other ride <»| the 

i i works to Public Llbrarle&tD 

■ 



.;.; 




I KAPTER V. 
EARLY PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

HE Idngi "i ..hi v...*. «1m La theft 1 taj ration 

I Iim-, wciN nnl tlott In n ■ i ■■ 

the popu i : ■■■■ n.i fi> m the idle political (hi 
in book*. Hie plMKurca trt which nil 

might enjoy throng] Hie channel of a On iry warn i 
e - m, and I 

nfdlit, mil. :ilft>" -! lit-:- i InvV nl lilir.ifnv t'n;i! m.h!i- Mir 

i. oman Rropcror* reckon mwiu*crtpti uminigNt the moat valued 
ol i ii.ii- Kpoflti of v., ii'. or to ivsijiniiii- them even mow highlj 
In i yesaela ul gold. All the literary trcuaurce ( uu 

i i< < ■ i were sure to Dud their wa> to i;» ■. Julius 

■ •! in open in the I'.Hii:. the magnificent library 
M i (.'ii villi Ii bad i m ■■■ii . li I • !'■■! iu< opulence ol Luoullu 
which Plularoli spenla in the higheat term*. The daggei 

; . .1 ij Iijm com ■ project In the bud. Hut 

the i .:. ■ who followed were i 

t I'uUi' Mbrarii . and even eallei th 

Biter ttieir own tuun< •■ in o m >'!■ r of i 

riaved no thirty Lliul would add to the 
then? i i . - 1 - 1 1 - y hobbica. than, wc rend ol marble ftnarn, 
cow red « nil j . and Rhclv m >f ebony «»r * i 

JiiKt aa man of i I ilor period thought nothing too qoh U to bind 
or uruuiaenl the baoke I <■> is the plutocrat . t to-4aj 

will layluli in- sold ft* Eroolj on yardu ol well bound I 
for which he muiv c iroa no mi interne 

.■a,/ oft uvr< which hat soil him thousands Still, the 

i m the earlleal tfrnefl the (treat men of I 
imvmiM;. urnod thfir attention Jtwl to the collection of books 
unauocrtpl . uid next to taking care that the people ufaouhfl 
i :. n free aooeae r <> them 

in tIk- ■ id okl days" When Kino John wan trying co Imp tse 

lih nroowhai tnrbnlom aul [i ■ ■■ . and, indeed, fmr 

two or three decadiw iftimrwdn, IfhmrtoM hardly existed. The 

wing m b viiiumr ww k lerioua concern a thoficduya, 
heavy « i^ i'mi- pini'T ur ihe bond required far the ksu One 
: ami of the llbrai*} ol thi AUtoi nf OroylandL 
Dujulphui i ■ :.-. i he " i idirnj o hooks, u 

the entailer without picturce at tin larger with piotti ■ . 
brbfidden ui ; iiy than that of ••■■ 

poesCblv he b >• »< ret p ininbiocnl I 
■■■i. i re i arc and precloui thing • « .tii the 
■ i i id rich, and Public LibrarieBwer< ote j anknowndni 
rfod 
The i >rpue< forieti, Oambridjrj ■■ w n tab sting 

feature of thai i oh en, Uthoual moel ol the Ighl 

■ i ■ idgo are fri ; ;>hc 



ZAkLV prnuc rrnn.utirs. 



41 



allows U those who visit h&t t she, too. hat aav BMnd ptoses 
whither not ill may penetrate, 9uoh, for the mo&t part, m 
bar libraries. Perhaps thli ronservatism is an inheritance from 
medium times, when books too often proved ;in irrcsUtiMe 
temptation, and gave rive to much grave shine anil seandnl, 

Hotfero ' iinl l.'i'c :nmi :i like r.'] ti'mich. Soil ilmv 

have been either pn | 1i«-t i ■ irwighl into futurity, or conBoioiisneas 

of tha | • 1 1 .'liiloc.* of bin cantamparaiiafly whlen led Archbishop 

Parker U iwm (lie stringent rulea under which Ins Utiran Is held 

by Corp uh Clu'lstl His tnl ma) connection with tlifa coilega, of 

which in- i'-ii. Mftste in IM4, to suitably marked by tin* 

beq ■!. ■■-: of lie ip'cfttcrt of all bis treasures, some little account 

turns In* Imposed >»u their ilsc maybe of Lntereet 

Two pernios mist ul\v;n\ in- present before any volume urn be 

consulted one Mi sterol Fellow of the CoUegd the other Fellow 

cholar. Should longei u» "t 1 the \>vok* he necessary, they 

red !-• one ol the Fellows 1 room*, not more than 

lime, and after due registration. Beyond the College 

uual never av. A system of duplicate keya to 

affords security that the* U>u* he olwi-j wil, 

i-i'i will i- vi-i.^ that if six folio or an equivalent 

tier volumes be lost, the entire collection, together 

with tli«- plate he also bequeathed, shall pass to Coins, Should 

ip ("en l !»c ;i- Me t -\ more, il travels to Trinity Rail; u 

. lilso low. md \\liiit con aina returns to I i rpus. For smaller 

in ihesoi Bust arc imposed, do doufrf heavier in the 

A : \> !■. , thai they cent now. Once nyearthe Uaaten 

tiui : -i (I Trfn ty Hall, t igothor with two Scholars of CorpaSi 

■iviti'd to vorifj Hi'.- list, tho two former receiving 3s.4d and 

tho two latter la each; and subsequently thoy are cntortunod at 

the College. Uut no volume has yei disappeared alneo 

nde nearly SW) years ajro. While looking 

nt Die casof oni i- com ndod ot the old joke «>t Edmund Burke**, 

■who remarket i, m seeing Borne Locked presiea "i books, that it 

**rn bided him ol " i «ke on the Human CTadcrstunding. n 

ii. i : T-:t ■ ■■ w:tfl original I j a room hnflt over the old chapel. 

pulled down m I«24, the hooks wei^ temporarily 

■ 1 in ,i private apartment until the completion of the new 

'7. when they were transferred to their present 

5u1>N<t|ueiitly ( n few uf the most intereHtine were 

■<\i\s cAMvtdown the centre of the room, The lllirary 

is* s ane : ■ ■ . Itli bookcase* of carved oak, and n nandaorns 

i m i lhe west end Ncjmmt<w Aivlihinhop Parker'* 

IriHU the oilier hook*. Ileum made at Lhe time of lhe 

4imjlnt -ii ill ill luumiM cries by Henry VIII, il contain?*. ii 1 * 

atetil be expected, i large i rtlon of oecleslastical paper*. 

report ol the Bodleian Library, 18*2-8", which the 

• 'iied. -.hows that the Lumber of volumes on the 

in f;ir k1h»i-( hi liiilf i million, Keforriug to the 

"Me* \. it ..- 'Jin! th.it until his death, iu 

never slackened hie munificence, a&d 



lv 



■ ki.i. LinlURrRS. 



i! iiihi\ I ( i j * -in ]•. ■r:ir v donors, the Moans ami Chupte 

Kxcter and Windsor wore W Ilium Herbert 

ni Pembroke, 8lr Kenelm Dishy snd VrchhlHhoji l*aud roll 

v. iiii moot extensive and splendid Iwnefn lorn n MS 

i; i. :hhI Oliver Cromwell rami eollne.tlon* uf WSft., ■» ilcli sitll 

i»c.i] heir an i i ■ The lUuKtriouN Seidell bequeathed 

-^ ,1 x x > MSS. and printed rutaiutst. And in tin 

Thorn aa b iatoplier Lord Halloa, :nul 'Juii 

rrlchr [4fi| M* < i !lrrl io.i- Marshall &D fjp T. Harlow (on 

nit! i; bnu an), collections >l MSS, and printed book? 

fttnee (]>'• '« \< nteenth .oiitiii \ there haw been othe ■ bi oeinotSona 
■ ■ ■ i . 11 tern inriHir-nt, wuj iii<- Library -.- also entitled i<> ;i 
,■<,■>> of 'I'll booh Issued In the United I under the 

i lopyi jghl A-!. 
In the minster of Wimborne, Dorset, which i* A I QCrttbl 
cture, believed h hav« i>««). Rret erected botwcoi the 
"06 ind ! ,; . nd fco which wd |olned i monastery, there 
I'lih. Llhrnn ittnched that wnn rounded by the donor, 
Reverend VVuliorn Stone, a B8& Wiraborno who u (dace ot 
ini|»>!i;iiue' in Siivh timrM, und most hutlorftuiB dots Ebb i «H- 
dot ion to ili< Roman i, who nmdo it one "i Ihelr military -i Ltionj , 
for as finch we Bra find it mentioned. The old minster was 
Innlly founded by Cuthlw Lighter nj Kcudrediin the 

year " il a century and u hall latvr,St* Kthelred, fifth J*jqr of 
nil Efingland, who was" mortally wounded i j « contticl with t 
Dunes, wnv. hurled hero, The king must havo boon wo 
acquainted with tho ehnroh and monostery, for it wo 

iiWIi n- |U''-! In- was l'iiri<"l w II in il ■ portals. ThO l':i 

destroyed bg Br* tho elioreh nnd mumi Hie tenth CO 

ii.rv, and bo effort was ii i le t > restore them tfll IU43, wh 
la! ward founded n college >i secular canons on tin* snore 
rntna The present minster was founded altout the middle 
tho eleven b oonturi snd was not oomplsted till that or tho 
fifteenth, on thai it,.' rhnrch nonslsta of varlomi rlntee. l\ 
through -.1 'inal: door in the restrj of this Inter style uf 
ii-i'iii e, which i-i ;i most Interesting ehiuuber. that ■ lui *1 
obtained bj h turrel stair of the Periiemlimilar |M*rind, ii il"' 
T'nMti' Library, [t Ih eerialnlv not uncommon i « > llni 
■lor,' inn., attached to churches of impoi'tniice, but the peen 
l;:iii\ ii. Wfmhorne is that i its one ol the very curlieel iji up 
to popularize knowledge, and gave to the townspeople of Whn- 
bomD the unspeakable sift in ai tuse wheu booss wer* 
and expeiiaivti the riyht to I U knowledge I 

far llii^ bona w,i- u]>|M'eeiiitcd \y the tfood Colkl 
WlmUtrneol Hint dn> ia i."t known, hut we find tha 

b, born in Wimborue in I6W, aeod u- risH the 
.: i n i b |ili'ii.sni'r read i u'oo *i* of the 949 i 
ii h i conti in> The room la mmll, I i I th< libri rj i 
i ; d fed, ' id round the cota of uoeh shell rune un Er ■ i ro*L to 

which Ifl ibtnchied oil the |(i1 "' I ft cho n, so that it t- 

eai i -.- 1 in lihc dnys ol Ui< donor thi re were Him c vUn h 






IMfti.Y i'i r.ii ' i.iiumiik* 



I.". 



i 



■id (V-jmtI In) III iitli rciiilii 'iii'linriil . I I II ■ \<»\s :;iv ..n 'i.icil 

In loCKM, mi I lull, to rrinl t-oiiii 'i i.iM;. it u ;-. i i-i «■:■■, n t t(l ii 

■toed beneath the I b « inted, M in) tri the chain* ore oroken, 
i-u ti ti proeexved. "IT i ■ - boukaare of gteal rata ami 

r in tuuscripl bean t<he date 

C< III] ' i.-.tlllil fill tl.r 1 11*1 i iii'Iii'il > I | I) ;:■■ I j \\liu 

■ i.l-.. Then I: i 'i autifull j b< i ad 1 1 pj 

I-. l.i ■ lii'.li-, in Miii'k It U< i . <I.il< « ". ■". in milt lio; n.ls, 

',\ ili.r lUilcijjir* ' Mihtorj of he ^ -n-M", 

Ixo ■ W:il m I'olyglol llfblc, wi i-lt'lr, dated 1657. The 

• i fourvol moa. in uctoti lartjruagcfl, and the Not 

■ □ i i Kii \ tiomi i i fivi lunguagc*, and n L cicon in 

, ■ h* i ' ,. i , l! .. ii.-it, 1 <u;'j. 

TbtbAnicn of rnbUe Ubi lie nppenrf te-d&ta tn EDgla&dal 

i tec fourteenth century. Monks, from a< i 5oi ma, 

■i io -' htw ii"" i ea1 I ! i ill time I otwoo 

• > : and wlml . ■ onnbic loiibt there DSU 

I thOtr " I'i'L l<- tin : l-< ill winch llir\ livv-l, 

i i , i . ■ , . i ■ • . . : • «rjj] rvo i ■ ■ them a bl gratitude 

■ -I:-. 1 1" y • a wn - I the [fenerations 

iihiii \ bingtilar iwh 'i-ii.ui hnt bee le r<» the 

■ oin inure i Nil In- i.ii.nr!. h iv n or I 
land than there nro at tbo pi ■■■■ il ttmo. Thie Is 

an tn : oly to ill lit to all niutfontj t<» 

too pi iu not- retrogression fhere in much to he laid 5n 

i i lion Tins pinivm the irre:il n I for llu- 

i n nf I ■ill Id 1,11 i::rn-\ 'ill ovor the I nlti-rl 

i tin 11 i.- thnl rinrtag the Pi'otnAtoratr 

i i romwell. 1'ublio I lbniricrc were nvtahlfahed, and ii in 

-..!-. f>i Hifx piihllr-Kplrfted Bngllsl nun thai 

In- ehmih), ni i-hai Hirlj dale rmvi i.v./.i ■ ■ •■! Llial Hie trueel 

■ tin' [ifupli- vn ■ Mic ii-puUiic- ol k»Mcn 

■ to a w.fj rnpurUiul period, no loss In i';n i. than 

■ ii burnii km u& lu vrlucl vrw actually the flrsG Public 

Cm i uit] T a- ■■ i iiu lira rhie(l.v bel* »e i Uriab I iuuI 

Mi JmIih Tn; .i i, cliii-l lilti nriiiti <>f llir Hi \%UA 

up I n 1 i i i.-ii.v nf Brintol, uml hiw 

illt-i • act* v ill irn t -*Kill. lit! s;iy-. I 1 slioukl I'f 

iiborotl i i mr prtvHMii invutul illuinina-tion wu« of no 

ii ki I'll i |ji ii I'ioiii tin- aywi k 1 1) il 

lointered thorlt ol old, It wae poasdblo thai 

!■ ■ ■ i ■ *a1 the diBsolution o ■ 
na> liare pertahed whirli, had iIhv l>eea ^; - ■ r-**l, would haw 
: monk or frla • v d . as eta -■, 
mm i man of in1 evi n ol gci iun. N itwifch 

i.-.l i-rcjudio il hi mcoiks und seeulnr elerff^ 

i i'V 111 '_;lil I'H'k luick v " It' ''Ii I hi-;. 

■ ■•iiik i viih oi'lin^i of ihaoldulnoft or vrhai thOT 
bad dani! bin tho (vinnnonwi-riltli ol letter^, il iu»l l»v ori 
■radvctioii*. ol IoukI i \ Dm prewwul on irkn >l the 

Hu r<' was »n : nt'lonl library Uiai oaee 



i4 



pirn lic !Jun.\iiiBN 



tii.uriRhcd in Bristol, for which thcrj claimed the distinction of 
being the flnri library aooettiMa Eo the puMic. His purpose 
in ibov 1 1 * : ■ t Bristol mighl claim toe honour «>1 b*Tfug 
dad n Pnblic Library tn her midst two eemni 
than the liii- of L3iotbam*i Library, and alao thai n a 
Public Liiirury wpK pwtuhiHhoii in umtol in ir.:::. or forty yeaa 

ouatothai nl Manchester Cloaeti the Exel nge B 
i^ ;i el urch, which, judging from The Italian campanile-, n 
bays baoD built la an lual century, though the windov 
Mr aartli attle against the streets wouk indicate > date sf 
baok ai the fifteenth eentury. An examination of the Ente 

luiwi'vrr, would diaCOVCI I hut 1084866 iim>l Ii.im- been RUnjr 

within ita precincts as early :ls the twelfth century This 
. pniiim-ni., nr upper room, which extended the length of die 
iihvi', served up tin rotinjji.' md library of n Inileni.u >l .im- 

monastics, to whom was committed the custody of the cMe 
. rchlvoSi and whose office 11 was to- keep a register of local mid 



{■ -vents nnd acta. This body were termed Ualendiii*, and 
,v u re-eatabliahnienl oi the ordinances, in 1464. by John, Btohop 
nl Worcester, it woe instructed that the prior should consto 
n Idc "i the bona of the kalendars, and take custody -•! i 
certain library, nowlj erected, at the Bishop's - n tin 

saint house; so that every festival day by which, of course « 

thej :". i ill daws which were not V-n. .w | w< hours fa 

nine, and (oi twt hours after, froc access should he grunt* i 
oil willing l>» ••nh-r. I'n the sake of instruction, the prior under* 
taking to oxploin difficult pnaaagot oi Holy Scripture, to tin 
hcht of hi« knowledge, and to give a public lecture in tl • Ubi i j 
every week* Leal through nrefligenet' tin hooka should be lost 
or oJionatod, it wai ordered that throe catalogues of thorn should 
he ic - • i ■ t *. one to remain with the Dean of Antiquarian Canons, 
another with the Mayor for the time being, and the third with 
the prior himself. The Hiahnp also ordered thai mai ever? 

Soar there should he » duo collating of all the books, with the 
nvontoriea «'i' catalogues, by the dean, prior, mid nnotlni 
appointed by tba Mayor, between the feast of St. Michael &nd 
Au8aJnta; nrjdU it anould happen that some book, through the 
sot ol the prior, ahould be carried out ol the horary, ud 
stolen, the prior was to restore rho hook to the library , under ( 
penalty o1 40a. above its true value; nnd if he could not rai 
it again, lli'-ii he was to pay the value of the book and IOr., 
besides 90s. to the Mayor, and the reet ror the benefit cd tha 
library, lie ventured, therefoiv, to conclude tlmt :im curly a* 
1464 B reference library WOM instituted in Bristol." Thi« Ik the 
i. nil .ii-jrunH'iii nhi.'li Mr. Taylor brlrigw forward, fn farther 

Kiippurl ho <i'-il :i ;'i'w -i.uiill -. i -it !•• (in* " \lhcn;euin." ill 

i-ri]ii. of a document, hitherto unpublished, that waa oui forty 

{i'.n> before the Due old library yet existing in Manrhrslrr w:e* 
punded. A similar iuailtatlon book Its rise in Bristol, and 
i tunded bj Robert Redwood iu 1C16", and Mr. Taylor cxplal is 
tint ihii tin- iiuii.v, spoken "i £n the deed of 616— was rebuilt 



kari.v pctoi.i" i.nmAnxra. 



16 



in 1740. The library has had cos fin odd existence) and in 1896 

B under the opcr:iii«ni Of Hie Act. There is, however, now, 
mother claimant in tl,e Held Mr Charles Welch, the librarian 

a • h ildhal] Library, says I i l( f^ondon had n Public Lfibn rj 
nearly two hundred yours before tin* Bristol Library of 1612 was 
I landed There VU B Public t,ihr:iry founded l>y the htnimw 

Richard Whtotingtou and William Bury, certainly as early as 
This library nifferod from an illustrious book thief] ax, 
rtftngto Stow, the Protector Somerset borrowed bhe hooka, 
probabrj In I '■■'' . ad forgot to return them 

it would require a second rolurae and an antiquary Co enter 
mitiiiii'i % int. i the merit* of these three claimants as to which 

WW (he Ant l'liMir Lib:', in "|>eii lice (.if charge to the public 

The Chatham Library is unique in the history o£ Ubraries, tnd 

when Due Steps into il on 1 ill i!tr !'im \I;r rhoirr thoroughfare 

la which i t situated, ii vrould only require ;i fewi pooplo dre&eed 

la i j i. - ca* tunic of the period moving about, to imagine oneself 

it leaal three centuries. Within Bight of the two largest 

railwav m.iIimi>. in Manchester, and under iho shade of the 

.•..(ii. •led church, there la, atVi p<i.»inn rlu-miLdi ih« gateway 

quadrangle, almoAl as much quiet an it' one wen 

■in the madding crowd und the busy haunts 

of man. The buildim? datee bock to I 191, and was, no doubt, 

. . ■ i"i* inoiia.she ■ uir: i i> «'H, JllC 00llc#C WU.S creeled UJ>OU rocky 

d ivcrlcji king Lhc oonfluonca of the Irk mid the IrweMj 

h\ Thomas NVost, Baron dc la Warr. in the tunc of Henry VI. 

The hit*? had previously boon occupied by an old manor house 

vn um the Barons Hall, whose antiquity even then was un 

iwn quantity Anyhow, it had r*>r centuries boon the resi- 

c ol tiio *' Lords of Manchester." The generous Baron handed 

-l .Hi v..r to the warden mid w-llows of the collegiate body, 

in whose can it remained until 1647 Not being a monastery 

■ ■. tin- ttnrii, if si meliow escaped tin: predatory 
i] Henry Vlll. it fortunately survived the dissolution 

of tit-- in. ■' ■ was left to his successor, Edward VI., to 

iWve the wor«hipfnl ?oininmiity, which he appears to huve 

oVm* with roach riinriiii'dii i -- The hoy king "conveyed'* Che 

■ than Karl of Derby. Then followed the troublous 

battle nf the people agalnBt i harles I . and the 

. . i i ..-I! • ! i i*i .di the RtunlevK. During the Common- 

•\i the main part, of the pri-mixe* » .is a,sn] :is a prfMUi. 

ri.. util ■■'.iiiehr-.i • worthy, Humphrey Chatham, bow cornea 

niHiii the -rt IK-. Horn in 1680, he had, during the latter years 

life, mniuluined .tnd educated twenty -two poor boys. In 

IG63 I the wu of »eveuCy-two. and left £7£00for the 

t|Mi-. . : an cMate, the profit* of which were to be devoted to 

ico ol fort j boys. In 100/3 a charter wits grunted 

■ Ainjr the twenty-four feofces an incorporate 
luivc ir ■ on .lime then on IhcseH-olectivc process, 

edmii . and at the present time there are 100 

hool or hospital who ore fed, clothed, and educated 



s ; 



14 



>' iii.m Upii.ibif:*. 






CJ -•!-• 



Ui 



c*».. r af>./v 



.■>»»«» 



. ., 






f^ff/- 
















<7 
or 

*J 



« M 



ft 






;MlM pi iilk LliiHAl 



4: 



1 



in th'* EnititutiOD. A 1 ii'ihor bequeet of B 1,000 mu devoted to 

b lm of n librarvi and a sum of X'l',100 vu* allotted frou 

ii.il i-:;i;iir for tho Nciinironionl ■ 1 iituble buildiuj? in 

whu-li i- 1 Miti Hi.' \>i<\- ;u...i [in' irntkb. Tho truatoos aalocted 

d 1 illctf . "I B flil I ( ' f - > t< ■ I. ]" — ■-' i"ii in I''"'- I. Mi« ■ 

pin- 1 •• 1 made iii August, 1B55, but tha whole ad 

>.-in«':ithc(i van not expended until Qear tha eloae of the 

. wlion tho "ongiaiod ul 1,450 volumes. \' 

nambw bad IncroAsod to -i.i-vi in 1713 ncluding bturteon onum- 

«?npt*. At tha proMnl Lima the aumber of volumei in th ■■ 

linn 18 Ii;,IKMl,ol whirl ..■-,vr:il 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 !--_'. 1 -t _. n_- MSS 01 JXl ■■•■•*lni|^ 

IntorM and \:ii io Lbout ono-hal( oJ the tooks&re ol raodarci 

iii.- library i- espei in iv strong in work* on ircnno- 

logy, history, theology ■■ i county histories, urn the eJ irt» <»i 

H.tlVH i;iv« in * i i.i ; II ■.■!:!• ' Ii.- !■'■•- i .1 ■'"•)■; ,! 

: -in-pi. -ff- ol hTcrntnre Hare are to Be found 

Limn* Iti I 'it i urn wl I • nri inl Chn r\ .i!tv for 

mailer ;nnl Icj* linpca' iml wuola 
Mr ■■nt iv one lniir paniphlet tn the •■, in i,- 

■ ;. Winch IH fe l>Wl I it I : \r l.'loii <■• I [■• i I , n p | I 'In'. !i:i)ll. 

■ he ! tin [hi n mlj .i rtiorl time ago from .1 1 1 

A pcnCC ii i Ulg a iiiliiili-'i .] |..i i.i... 

! 10 >k hop. in t tbi r !-■ U 1 signature • 1 II irn 
Cliettauu, li" proof Llittl Hie library uae been >poued Ui i'i<- 
■ niah ftlnre lifijfl lies clued) in tho <>.•'. original uur- 
ilnujo ti Kik, .1 1 leaiuulc >■! t '■■ flosi ung ■ ol which 1.1 irivan. Eroi 1 
n !■» iln- pi esent * iic tin n >rd« of the pun ' 

■ ■■.!-.. .tin 1 writlci 11 a clear 1 1 1 •> the various lib 

\ r i-.i i i.-L.-ri j -i mI the lii-l frfl line* . n 
"i 1 parci ll ol I'i'dIm-. fur yi mWii k< 1 ilb u iesol 
■ U 1 . ts .irt ii Uowin.fi 1 Pol, I . Eta i ivod 
rona Mr. John LSI eburj thi 2< y ol ^uffi l6ofi, ^tun ttni < pi 
- r. r, Vqufnath Simin oniu conical < 'nj.-i \ I 
.. ArUtotclifi dpi.. V ii .',U . --. . iuttiii tl . 1 otcno In 

. . m:.' "I Epi : 0] 

m 11 C^uo 1 ii i>u1 ''f. lo • Xt., I"-. ; Uvor ■ ■ dia (dh i 1 1 

n hroaii « ']>:i . Vol. 1', el lOfi." Onh 
1 day consult the bool .1 tho ibr iry, but 
:. g« imd tl ■■ m 11 '" '"" ' ' 
. i- or i*xeui'*uonwt« oonwlder thai thw 1" 1 
1 .:. morn 11 iritil iJi<*\ h:i\» s«'<-n tii.- ihothiutt Obrary. 
1 : "i to our in the winter montha and 
\ itannff 1 ie Hiiinnier Bui the library d< 1 

hi'lfcr l.i't" lliitti In Uv lived :i-( :i llli'l't' -liou pl:nv. -.i-il 

lilHt rho hurry :iml rmw for wcnlrh, 11 p»od pui'Mnn • 1 

■■ |ni ilir will italr/r the i.n-t tlint rli-y have in tfcfl 

hran "i iiti'ir '■ 'i;. old bnlldlnffti ol oowdderable irehoao 

ad the homo of literatim* "f 'in- 1 i-i writer, in. I 

eh iifi:«ui tnu hiM-ti M'rnpiiliiu.sl\ cxcliidod. 

... a'Iiciv 1 he n itiuiure.i "I tlic lilmi rei h 

alaoedai iludent, ii u very panirThwi fa tin- 






4H 



!.I*ft\RIK9. 



KOokintf mi Hi till" HH1V* . i , -. . I; -ii "II. '.I, 

..n i lii'in hang :i mini !«•■.■ . I | . ifl ri || • , l M i p w orl Ii,-. 

iii- >l ttlOSfi portrait* i- :t verll i ilf (hilnnhnraugtl, S- m\ in 

ohii room on mm iif the high-back ehatra ot Charles 11 ■ 

and with nil the other furniture of the -::nm- [wrio<i. 

require ;■ great atreton of the Imagination to pepeoplti the oU 

rliiMiilirr i\i:h tllOM who nnixr hOTO tro<! It* flftOT ri'TiTUrfe* apo. 

In this vrry room there probably walkwlSIr \\ iilrn- Rntatgh, i m 

vu entertained there by Dr. Dee. one Is tempted to 

thU quaint old place mrrounded by Its lore ol Itteratun < u ' 

archaeology, but *"*• nitixl I'lirlH-ii' 




OIUKI. WINDOW IN BBAWNO-ItOOM. 

Without desiring to enter minutely into the i ueetton of which 

raill.v wnA the Jirst, il dues appear that, so In us Bristol md 
ttanchostcr arc concerned, the former place in the older found* 
tion and Muncheftter the older building. Furthermore, the Latter 
place presents the unique fact of a&WiiitciTiipred inon! of iw 
since lU5o it: the aiiiim looui^ ;in<] tl:e «june building. 

A matter of afanoet equal intercut to the foregoing in the 
discovery u year or two ago by Mr. II. T. TulUurd, the librarian 



THB *A*StXG CV TUT RWxftT SIM. OF iKVl. 



HI 



<»i iiu' 1 Wjgai I i i tract saned in 1690 bearing 

i tie. 'An 'Jvoi-I i.-y for Founding and .Main: 
itlUKka in i'Vitv PfeTOCh throughout this Kingdom." Thf 
author of this n hm been identified ns the Rev. J rimes 

kwood, iiini-.it i o Mint'), mi that I'm- " kingdom i vi .- ■-■-•• .i i.. 

is tin.. Rcotland ■ 'i forcible language iin- 

' pniir.-. nut the great tMefulnew of rmrochf&l libraries, 
ideal before ** the curea o1 din fumilj 
of tin- suaira >!" <■ i , - i : : doa nk uphio uind l-but lu 

mn nor heart hi aludv," ThiH N itaplt-al ffe then urge* 

nblish aenl of .i Ubran In 

. ib. Mr. Kul ■* 1 proposed that after :i stiitubli place 

had been provided and placed under the superintendence or the 

mid send i > it .ill Ids private bo 
jmd be |Mi'i fa them \ ,:i. annual tax on (he Enconae of the 
parish. This.;] ttb sinffnlar in the liffht of to-dftr. The 

jrcneral ox] tin vaa to :»<_• met by the Levyine of one month a 

method wluVli would, in Mr. 

Kirk v. ilon, have realized GT^OOOSc- ta oi L'o.owsterling 

i i mrn he expected t ■ be mor than nutfieicnt for the 

port) md lie therefore proposed thai Ihe surplus 

I in r»undii -■ intionul printing office-, which 

voald "oiled bj n Committee ol tin- ( .' vn.-m 1 a.-m-mIiU. 

I'll-, Founding ind iromoting ■ Bibliothocke in oiorv paroefl 

kingdom, < rnlfd, "ik u-.th ii.voK«iry uud 

■ |< nnUu*>on ■ inn lumo ii'Ohlt', our intvM'nM md our duty." 

So In I i» [in.- old pamphlet, copies of w hich ore not to be 

q the Hntiflh Museum or the Bodleian, thai it M 

reproduce Mid wiU be found amnm? the ippfiuh ■ ■■■ 

lln whole matter \> that, though nearby 

i pawed nlnee the pamphlet was written, 

■ -Kin.. -I ..1 the w rii lot i he . i nntry by which 

i'k author WW i antnmted hue nol yet Infected moro 

m.u small poreeiit.ng« of bin countrymen 



CHA'ITKK VI, 



THE PAS8INQ OF THE EWART BILL OP 1850 




■ ■ been rmule to llir vnhmiinom 

report of the Select r«iinmittee on Public Ubrartfw 

i Lb, l&l&lt wa* ordered that ifielectOotn- 

i iiih-i i "■ ijn- : :i <-<i .)-i 'in- beat mean* "i < litem 
i <-.-.i.ii>lj.%liiin i:t of libraries freely uimwj li be public, 
especially in Inrffc ta^m* in flreat Britain and hi-Lrn-.. The 
crar "v due to the exertion ■ >! 

Llmlbertun, who. u vnrimin intervale i .- ■ l&M), 
had bren tjriUttin.; the qa o ol Common* On 

the 23rd of the aan,-. month the Committee n-a.s appointed, and 
eoncbtcd of -Mr. Ewi rt. Vim on, Mr. Disraeli, Sir 

4 



fiO 



PUBLIC LIBJUBXBS* 



ii i . .' Vorawr, M ;.«"; Lrti rle. \\t. Banbury. Mi .George Vlexa 
Huiuhnji. Ait Brothorton, Mr. MUnw, Tne Lord Cdvocate, Mi. 
burn, Mr. Thlokneaws Mr* Mackinnon, M.-. Kershaw, nod 

Mr ( '.ii«I\vi'!I, ill of Vhoni Q&TI passed OV6T to the majority. The 

1 1 1 -*: ini'i-tlnH il i it:-. Committee *m on March 30» 1S40. Three 
mooting* vorr hold in April, eight in May, and tow in 
making in all in thai year sixteen meeting*. Mr. Ewurl 

J resent, aid took m i chair a1 all the meetings except one. Mr. 
trothcrton wu absent from only one. Sir Qarry Vomejr and 
Mi. Monckton Milncs wore regular attendants tt these com- 
naitto Mr Mora i was present at two of the meetings. The 
report o IftlO wa uod in July o! thai year, and consists of 
■ i- pages. The evidence ol fcidward Edwards ws 
and owupios thirty-six pages, Ho was also exnmnu ■■! at a UtOI 
date, hie evidence aga n extending to about the sama length. lie 
rnrniflbed o number ol maps ol hie own compilation, showing 
the distribution ol libraries in the loading countries ol tne work! 
The report presented to the House ol Commons bj tin. 
Committee provides very g"orl reading even nt this ■ :> 
date, They begin by referring to toe inquiries made in 
Parliament during the years immediately preceding the 
appolntman) ol i Committee, These Inquiries referred more 
partn.'ubriy to the formation "i' unseams, art tmlleries, si 
wi*h :ih kcIhhiIx of design, a* k meant* of enlightening the country. 
Right, in the very foreground of th\* report there itandi the 
•.shun that Then' were not nt that time wanting those who 
held thai mioh Institutions, however NuceoKsfnlly pstnbl 
in one Foreign nations, would not be appreciated, and might be 
bused In OUT own. Old prejudices in Kngland die hard, said the 
name objection Lh son ana again even yet made in Home quartern 
The Committee then shoot thcii rig gun. Thev state trial >•>'• 

withstanding '.he fact that the hVitiish Museum, tin- gallery at 

Hamptoa Court, and the National Gallery had been thrown open 
i< Hi-- peopli a wi - generally admitted that ao abuse bus marked 
tho change, but that mucl: iM iiuii ;: I enjoj nent md uuch popular 
eiirttenmeat have distinguished it. The heavy shot of the gun 
liet lien', 'l'\u-y soy one improvement, however, yet remains to 
be accomplished, hitherto (in 1849) slaiosl untried in thin oounl i \. 
and tli;:t fa tho establishment of Pui LU I J »rai lea freely aoci BelbTe 
to alt the people. It was a humiliating confession for tlicm bo 
make thai each librar i s : i vd long exietcd on the Continent, and 
iho.v wore further compelled to own that if could not be doi 
i haithoir existence had been pregnant with advantage k> liters 
and to the general character 01 the countries in which they I ftd 
been founded, No one can deny that it was n just oompoi 
Eoi tho Oommittoe to make when they said thai il might with 
«(|ual fairneafl be inferred that our own literal ire .1 well a on 
own people being denied the benefit M such institution must 1 w 
fftionatolj Buffered. They <irove thi> In mo by-iiiymg that 

they had learned that more than half a century t»ei f 1840 the tit*'-! 
etep taken tn as English writer wastoconsu t a Foreign Pal ii' 1 









THH TAtSSX:; 08 I'M I, EVAM DILI 09 i960, 



6] 



n .1 



oi i i. Mil..,! ,.i hia studies, and that *o such auxiliary 

rioeol British intellect. They referred to Gibbon. 

who complained that in his time the greatesl city in the work) 

was d iol isefu) iiiRtirn Ion, i Public Library; nod 

■• II . ». nl.-r \\ i i 1i:mI li in IitI : ;lcrn I- 1 I nvi! ;inv |:ityi» I i«l«>n.' 1 1 

abject, whs pediired to theneeessity of purchas] ig foi hit) private 
numerous and valuable collection »f hoolei which mnM form 
the basin of his work." They quote* number of similar cases 
tw lawfulness of tlio Foreign Libraries i** largelj brought out, 

id :tll.<i;.'i-lliri' the I'SpOTl i)f Ihft minimi .1 *-■■ tfl 'oirW:il : ■ t n 3 

> •■■ ; i ti vi u -! ■_■_■<• -u . nnaw. Hie j point out that the principal 

■ ttagc* offered bj Foreign Libraries consist in their Dumber, 

it. I- acuessil llity, and La il»' fact that the booka were 

allowed on libera] ye-l - 1 Reionl ly protective conditions '«» circulate 

! the walla "i the library. 

ii fa Doneci isarj to go further into the details of the Com- 

ittee*a report \ digest oi the evidence of Edward Edwards 

uuld be iatcre9tiu£, i ut Che exigencies of the present book pre- 

beinffdonc, Asked what had been thi result of opening 

Motion I Gallery and Hampton Court Pulnee, he unhesitat- 

mgly Buid thai largt aumbere oi peopla had been withdrawn 

: mi .i .in cincntn oi :ui ui.iutrlli.vi ml mikI t-t'lru of :iti injurious 

haractcr, bo such amusements as are rational and improving; and 

calculi tH t« icaefit thorn in very many waja. lie was asked 

•uffbl that Libraries woolc have the iosai effect, and 
jlied thai oven in a greater dey tve ii iln-v wwv made^neraOjj 
ible, 'lliin » where Edwards's warm-hearted onthUHKi-iii 
tfiovcd itself. Th'- immense and almost daily extension of 

ton bad even at that early date begun to show itself, and be 

viu imked if tin* policy nl" creating PuMie hi brut ies vrntj not 'lily 

coming o J more importance no replied tothla that he thought 

ii Recounts, Vnd thai "not only from the growth 

d making the uetnal existing provision of tfbrariee more 

and more inadequate, but also from the fact that the increase In 

r.iiim-i '.on <:i liookft makes It still more difficult for ppiwms, 

■ who have considerable prfvnte resources, to keep puce 

vitb what ts produced both here and abroad. Therefore, thai as 

mare difficult for many persons adequately to purchase 

, ii is .Mill iniiiv impiH taut that they should be proi Ided in 

,l.r:,Hrs." 

Questions about tin; provision of l£1>rarJes in manufacturing and 
ncrclal towua were then put to him, and be said that this 
vaw daily beoumiuu a question of Increasing importance. Asked 
w\vaI attempt* had riccii made t»' supply libraries in largi towns, 

led 1 i ii tli.it "ill', lomt attempts of an imperfect 

i ide b> In in elnmics' institution*. lb produced 

a liato some of thi libraries In Lancashire and Cheshire tovnui 

but brota the fluctuation loturcol the resources oi those aotitu- 

oi permanency in Uicm,suob librariea often 

Ivtt but .i bhort timi . and wort tin n »*1 sold 

r the report A 16 •' , . i h< .«•( < n imMish.-d 



IM» 






N»»UC l.!TinJ.UlES- 



• 1 extendi! to 01 er 100 pn 
i . oc »ligh( ■ U for i ii In the constitution 3 t i • 

i \.im littee i ' • firti i ■•> ■ ■ l M'uvh, i-.".M 

Hi .if: Ith, i .1!'. ::!!■! 'I vi i ] thfl ■■ ' in- i .will', 

and then ftdloarood In ardor to grretlmc t ir thepi 

iuon "i ci tain orelgn papers 'elating U I mtinental 
Libraries ') l u- \ ifterwaTdf motonJimn itn and 
fag was on June nth, mafc seven meeting*. Mr FCwart 

• | . . v ftjll ..I i'Vim\ IOC "i I h ' ! Ml I ■ <'<l .'■- 

man. Mi r Ion attended five ol lh< sittings, and the i 

. ; M;\ DIaraeU does noi appear a • hai o£ been present at one 
of the seven The Awl witnos* again examined was Mr. Rdward 
Edws . I >■ i osl Irnportan ol that 

i ltd before the I "oi imittei . lie ol hi r gej tli u ■• i who ■ ivc 
ace were Mr. Robert Leiuui chiel clerk >l the State Paper 
Office, Sir llci i\ Kills, principal librarian of the British Museum, 
Mi Nni'.iiio Pan j../... keeper of fche printed books si tin 
m ii.-. e un,and Mr. * '. It NS eld, Librarian to the lto;ral Soi ii I v. Thi 
« rr .,; . tnoet vaxied and comprehensive char- 
iivrv i rancl ol the library world was dcnll with, and the 
[ion* wen framed with n view of bringing out the moal t 
worthy and useful In ormatioi N'aturaUyo very large number 
, T the quoeti w ■ doi I with the Brit I h Mi houui, Mr, Pauiazi was 
aake< whether he thought that the interests ni the public b an 
Intellectual point of view would warrant the cxponso incurred bj 
Hi. i extension of the reading-roomi >f the British Museum He 
thought that d< ney w raid, but idded that o bottei 

3 I . |u provide D6V liln'iincw IW yi'iioriil iv-k. -? i , . | i i fo all 

corner ii>! to roerard the librar} ol the British Museum 6e a 
library for the higher elass oi Btudents, rather l"i 

. th i: «i erudite i udy, and 80 to meet both requirementa. Ac 

:i librarj foi the euro of man of letters, the regulations w d b I 

i . tout obtain at the British Museum are good in in ae 

i probably it could be devised : but I tat.in addition to thai 

.: needed another provision ol i different kirn 

■-. t i i.il iv:i.(< PB • :i pTOTtfliOTI of nliti':if i lUftl I l.nu'ir ■ . Which WOUld 

I'.-rr.imlv I'Miiic umli*r regulations fit' a different kind from those 
oh arc found quite sufficient for the uses ol the British 
Slu both i J irtw, 

Tin 1 whole of tne evidence In this direction was, thai in 
London, libraries wore required in all directions, and 
ili.it (In British Museum Library could posslhlj supply the I 
uew Lunduu wasaiuplj erroneous. Questions were sent to 

the Public Libraries on the I untlne it, Greece, Rusaia, and i 
countries, and Hit repliei are printed in the languages of those 
countries. The whale of thi two Blue Book? n. _* be su 
as follows; The Committee Iwlieved I ml then ww muel 

of otliei i'v whit ii h a 

miglu profll and i\ wi would 

i n pulse ■ i to 

oatin the subject ^hich (in boonei '.'. ; in to nionypcrti 



.ii I I ■ ip TKB aV Mir DILI &B I 360. 



.',:: 




the 



oountr^ further, that Mi country Ee BlflJ greatly in 

at of Ii) .-. '•■ ■-.'!■■ to trio p ilic, and would derlvo 

at benefit txcxa bfieiz ovtablishtnent There Ei nreob En tho 

•r :ni- ! ft their. WOfk, thai W* unv 'I'I'ly to our- 

lapse ol tortj years, although we have made 

oat '-• I programs, and the \aas ten Iocs not now by am means 

in going throngb the ondonco ox air. S, 
u*da n [a nr |h, n!b e not to fe tn pulsnt tn ol i tnaa ;i o 
tin book needi of tho time, aad tho keen prophetic splrti 
touting him In nil ha ■ : did far the enlarging -»i tin- 

ork of Public Libraries, Sufficient honour t - \a\ ir rl I D 

■I to Ms work on behalf of these Institutions, and the vn-v 

t>i. Hint should now be done Is tithers monograph ol his Itfe 

ura, v.i tten by ah d i » man as Mr. W. E A- \xon or a 

or bust placed :n the M;n 1 1 ester P iblii Etafcrenec I brary. 

■ fleeyon l "I ■ •_- 7th February j 1886- and van ■■ 

the must oaraoel and enthusiastic wurkvra whtaij this uiuvei 

imii known. !!■ wai ■ ginallyan assistant in the printed 

□ u-traent of tha British Museum, When the Mancceafcer 

[braxies were in couro ot 'ormatiou, In worked Tory 

ctioa wttl them, and there is noifoubl that 

■. iili-i tii"M -■'.■ • ■:* t" hirt wiili; ku"^l''<|'jL of books 

anil the ability displayed during his nix yeara' managementi 
ii.- netircmeni From ihc Borvioo of tin Manchester Public 
■ Commute ■, be published loveral b ■ >ks on libri rica and 
etr roan tho m mi nuptu'tii i: Ih-il^- his " Free Town 

i," arid ■ Mom •:!'- ■■; Libraries." He was alao the author 
lew ol the British Museum," n " I. fa ol 
and i i ; i\ ■: . •■• works, and wuh granted ;« ■ ' > ^"- 1 Li I 
■ ■!'. and never v. u.- a pensft n bettor 
rod, for tibrorie ind librarian*! owe liiiu :i debt of gratitude 
. uei er hi |i ibl i« peoiollj when it - considered thai )ii« 

I i ; ears While :it work :it tho J- ; '' 

111 Lo i per BMW per am urn. lie was i 
hi* des . n m., and 

on I ,i i »:--i .-f i ■-. late iaeK to l$3 when he was twenty- 
Mr was seventy-four at the tlrai ol his death. 
n oi the i wan Rill -»f ISO trehua been 
pntly *■■■■ e Da, and the question seemt qok 

i- ih :i -,•■•■ i n j I i I it ho many mi ve- 
i !■ do in i and w hioii hi vi yone i i he k*crj core 

Ifc have had tlirtr hrurJnnlngR In the mf-etinff 
trt^i'. ■■■■. ;.in". ir aore men In a hltle ujiper room. HuS 

i with the luti-C'on I w L itfue. ;uid Jtuiay beiwudtohavfl 

il la." M : ■ i ii'-. i :| ill" I,- I", v. I eh i fa \\ t<iiiiril 
"A), ■ lie [Hrviuu> v ■! I 'mi ■ l i-|'i ,ll -1 i 

' iho Ewurl Itill In one of the ela oi bhc then 

. ihi lio.viil Vh m I" lor li I ituUon 

were, on o wintt r'a morning In 1W4, warming bhem« 

the ' -i >wing '^t «>f doora. Thcac two 

ids were the htl- Mr.<ioua'. Jiu-K^.d. th- lii.in»r, m - ■- i- tary • f 




.-,1 



I'l lll.fi IhlUllll.v 






the -.I'lnhii, ii-ni the other waa Mr ■ ■ <-• '> - ■. Wall to, then the 
ter of that school, no* lliu keeper of i \c Vrl noUectl 
South Keoirtngl m M woma. Wi . u Ic on uri ■ ■■ 1 v>. Wall to to 
prepare .1 tapei m the rah* of museums in the province! 
means of Improving public taste. Mr Wallis, however, hn 
1 1 .'i be (Mi i;i "Jw uu) w i* 1 in- proper person i<> prepare h paper, 
:nin-.!i jia vi i-.n K u IHJJ7 li<" had prepared for ami read 
heater M- urn--.' Institution two papers i >eh of 

Design," in which DC 1» id ld\ t* &t< d Bomotliuue very lik< in. 

■ uie i lor h idi i tic a< I he frfcndlj contention end 
Jackson andcrtakin a to prcpi re n paper, en condition t i ■ t hi 

t\... .i,--.-i..t. .:;■ i oi Mi (VaUifl, m-I help in its discussion. 'Hie 

r< -nit wi\ • ;i ;.'i|»(T mi "'Hi • ii ^i ioi ; i proving public 

it was r«ii<i til .1 cnnTorAoatono held In th< 

In^tituii.iti on u.ith November^ 1*11. II* paper, and il it 

[on which followed, i art Mi V i ti . »* il id o m i 
torest thai i*. woe proposed t<> bold -■> public meeting 'or tht 
Further consideration ol the anbject. This mooting ww held b 
tin- thcutiv uf the M.'iiieheitef Athenaeum, cm 80th November, 
iHu.tli.' Into Mr. Rid tr<l Dobden, M P., taking tile ohair. Th* 
papet was -jgnin read by special reuuest, and il i tiibjed di - ■ 

rii-! h. at recorded in tho Vtanoneater newspapers. Una 

1 ' ■ rm*nl - Mr. Josi-pli Ill'otl 4-i-t* »n. M.I*. I'll' vil[. i'. 

seemed deeply interest** l . u tva* Mr Cobden. in the tna tea and 
ufter tin' meeting Mr. Brotherton pmpoaed '<> Mr Jackson and Mr 
\\ ottiBthat thoy should furnish him with the materials for drafting 
a bill to empower eorparatlons and tho governing i< dies i 
ton us to csinbli&li mnsenins, and mpporl them, a* discwesed, by a 

Sunny rata, Mr. Brotherton undertaking r<» lay the matter b 
r v'\ in lam Ewart, M.P. for Liverpool, who had heencli 
the < lommittea "i 1836, which recommended the establiahniem ol 
schools of design. This suggestion wan carried out, and on the 
';h of Karen, 1846*, Sir Ewart moved in the House of Con n 
for Leave to bring in :i bill to enable corporations to establish and 
maintain museums or arl. An interesting debate followed, 
amongst the speakers were 3ii Robert Peel (then Premier), Mr. 
Joseph flume, Mr. Drotherton, and Lord John Manners ; Mr. 

i unciudiiig tin. 1 delrnLe by ulvuealn y ->i ndio opei ing. whirl i 

did not help the- proposal. The result wasbhe"Ac1 fw encourage 
ing the cetabllflhrnent oi moeenrnfl in large towns," Owing to a> 
variety of circnmafcancce— not the least difficult of which wi p 
oondiaona on which rurporations could cofcabliah such muncuui.-s. 
and support them by a halfpenny instead of a penny rot'.*— the 
\ct was practieally u dcud lettrr but in the se^nion ol I860 Mr. 
Kwart « iiirird m\ amended Aet, by repealing that of 18-15, 

B\mz powers enabling town oounrile to establish Publt 
Ebrariee md museums. 

Mr. WaJUG i« o wry modoet man, but wo aro glu-.l thai ht luv* 
onnbled us to clear up the point ob to how ratc-aupportod l*nlli. 

Ubrariet came to I tablishod. In a Jotter re> I w weobi 

affo, no says r.tun bifl ofloioJ wort hai I □ moro with the *•:■ 



TUJC PAtttlltA OF THE KWART BILT. OP 1850. 



Wi 



rtoB of museums than villi lihrnrirK. but he has ner** r losi his 
Interest in the latter, and baa alvays begged book* or money !<• 

lm\ Itirm ,\ 1 « nc vii lie ! L&g ;1 i;id :i cluiiri' of doing 00. lie \\:is 

late enough some livr or ':x jmis ago to got n friend to 
■■ ire CflO vrortl od I i- kn to one of the London libraries, 

Bfl ■, l h utli efforts fare h concrete form to :ui idea which was 

widely prevalent lathe public mind. The diTTu&ion of education 

- n'l' the beginning of fcne century Imd been groat, and b rapfdly- 

loexeaaintg class had begun to Seel the necessity of providing 

i- i'mi carrying la a n. ter developinfinl the i dnoation which 

bad boon oonfemra on the poor in the aatfcmal schools, By co> 

opci iii*'- 1 effort the necessary books could be readily placed at 

;d of those who were too poor to big thorn top Wh n> 

■erres. Hence the suggestion i rate-supported libraries. But 

ii limitatlca which it was then thought useful to impo c i i 

ably, to prevent the ratepayer from spcndinfi ii 

Iclcsaiy tor lua own advantage; were strm^mt, .md not i 



The expenditun whb to bo limited to n halfpenny 

in the pound on th< 'ateable value <>i the property in ttio 

borough <>r dlrtriot odopttnfl the Aot, .mil ivm of thib uoi ;i 

;, was to lw spent on Looks. There might ho ;i library, 

but it shoulo oontals no books bought :it the public cost. It was 

philanthropists would come forward, and at their own 

rges " till the empty shelves, lloub 

n tamed philanthropist was as rampant in those- <i;iy- :is now, 

but hi* mnpnthiei did nor run in this direction. The books 

wcw not fortlicomirur, find l*urlianient had again to b£ appealed 

id i in result that in 1666 the Let, whiehte uptothenreaent 

:!,■ principal enabling Act, wag passed. 

The wo] U "i th< late Mr. Willi im Ewarl in connection with this 

Hill was i"i bj any meatus light, rind the struggle he bad to 

passing i his Bill provides one ot the many examples 

often i!n' House tif Commrmfl Imw opposed aisAMiras 

to which, after they have ? *- •*• 'i passed, it. has given no 

■tinted praise tor the beneficial results i<< the nation non- 

terred tu the Acts. vTlien Mr Ewarl proposed thnl British 

limn:. Iiuuld be empowered to build libraries, as well as 

ri mmi ii||'i\ l';in .mil w ;ih-i, iii: i.l hi levy a local rate 

fbrbringui] I ki Into the druwtng-rooni of the wealthiest, the 

Clour of !li« tradesman, or the kitchen ol the working nan, he 
n sll rcfornaerc have foundi thai hia onJ> p r oe p eel "l* 
. 1 1 .-ini'iii wi h iiir huhjfet. The record 
Uj Hansard of thi debate on the question is very inter eating, If 
not profitn I I ■. rending. The appearance of the "talking shop.'' 
as Carl vU- irreverently called it, on the second reading of the Bill 
i.ii i( was iropoacd to create for the first timeia England 
BaniMuniil Fnlilli Tuiiiiiinii mi hat etrildng. The House 

was not bv any nioanrt a full one, but the benches were well 
occupied by those who bad previously oxpraeaed themselvea 
agait Had there bean ionic trumpery personal 

In: m.'ulo, find i "'<(!■ expected, every seat 



SH 



■ . 



would li «■ ■• boon occupied, but booaun this feeding ol toi 
tolllgeuee i tion w • ' ' 

IlliMnliiTH liiitfi'iv.l irvor tlK'll' till I. I. |>l; ■ ■ 

VOLCaal roii.stltiK'iirii-y Mnv \v:it.'h wry «■!.«.. ]•. I in 

of their men «n <\ di viriOM, and it Is well for tho ontlonthW 

I IM WW i',-:it ^l;i:i ■ Tn lllI'M k'trU to HOll 

road • ii ] tin' i ml roading tin- crucial tfagr ni nil 

Uld I*- 1110*1 ' I tTKWC Will) tlKlfc pUl'l I '1 !ln- • ■ 

hnvr join iver i» iii" majority, :1m* pith of he ehl€ i- 
nude ":i March 13, 1880, t* hare elveD. 

M. Swart, In moving the second mutiny, nth] iii.r Ho* simple 

: <»! u w.i- t< ■-.' ive [xiwer to town councils to 

Kiii;ill rule Cur be eetalriiehiueul uf Public Libraries mil 

BUU6UOU to ill ti!i;nii-j|.:i; ( < « \\ 1 1 > . An Aii Called tin; Miim'uiii 

wm paaacxl f our vcoj y,eu tiling town council 

li.'Un:-. i |MiuuUitii'ii vi lo.ooo inhabitants and npworda. ! i lovj . 
o -t.iUish museum* of science i"l arl for tin beaefj 

ol' llo; |"il)|ic. imii all Mini tllfl preeOUt Hill proposed waa lo 

i-xtrin! tin- |»t'i:nipk- •}{ tin- Mu^.iiiu*' .\<t to the C*d»1 

• ii PubUi Uoraxiee alao. In asking th-* II luso to adop 

ore» he> woe booked I j the acting uf inoxg ■ E the towns of 
ilh country $ and eirioo he tied introduced it, he hod re© ire* 
coaununlcouone from .-■• >raJ large tow ad and Iro- 

i ill. who wore deairouE of having tho Hill extended to both m 
those countries. Afterwards 

Colonel Bfbthorp Uld he would bo hsppy to contribato his mite toward* 
providing libraries and tniuonnu aril jn'j - - t r * t i :-* :w the hnnabfor 

rlsts in Ergo towns; hot he thought thst, howsvsr nxcellsnt food for the 
mind uiit'lit bo. food lor the body huh what wo* now most wanted lu: 
the paopfa 11' -lid not tik'-- [fading at all. and Vic hated it >% h 
Oxford : 1ml !io cunM dot «co how one iialfp^Miny in the pound would be 
•nou^h fcneiisilil" i ,mi ./.mm-ila t . carry into all'cct thw UnmaBM pOWMI 
iiii<y ware '" have by 'hU Bill. Ho ftdt that tlii* F-iill would tanruss* tbl 
taxation of the people in times when It was not si all necessary, and, 
therefore, be moved that the Bill ho icad a second time that i i 
mouths. 

Mr, Hrolln-rtou wns nurpri*od tit r.h ■ up > ■ tion to tho Hi. I. In 
the Brat place, the measure was entirely permissive : and ■ooondlyj 
flic rate w u In iited to one halfpenny in the pound. 

The moony could, he poiatod out, only bi: applied t*> the en- 
of, or paying rent for a building for holding o Public Library or 
Museum. No power was grvou to layout the fuu-Js iu the purohosa of 
books, apficiuoenu, or pictures ; al ti .-. u.ir ii.n m dpru-nd on t 
voluntary uimtrihnclone ot the inhabit anta. In the popufoiis boroil^ 
ol the country ibis vaa u vary propsj uiouun. In bmlford \im 

dQi acting »■■* the rayceeeniativos uf all thu ratope ecm 

forward with eloejri y to provUe i bnttduig for a Fuufio Library »nd 
miw private ailu of tbe inhabitants had alr#«ily »took«d 

"iirn to a ao&aldftrabfi tent, and there had boon voluntary cm 
done made of batmen fi.ooo and u.ooo volumea to Uia library (wMftl 



ran vjjxxxo cv tu kw.ut mm. or I860. 



■v 



: 



wan attended by hundred? ttw.ty iii^iit) iti U«k than SU HUkntJUL B$ 
oootandwl that iIik Kill would provide th« rhnapwt noli™ that could 
ixjuibl) be establish" d, tad what was the use of alucatiou for the 

SB i!-v WON enabled to conault valuable works which they 
nnwlvra t'oald not pWOhlMl It wua tho duty of the Ho ilk to 
promoto all Ibat had a tendency to btitig the higliar and the humbler. 
claw tngollif»r ; but this eould not. hi< dopo unlaw the jwonh* hail lln» 
aaahitanco of those above tlicxii. 

Mr Hi nml Cit-nwanU Me. I'.p-nial OAbOVM) SAld hi* OhJ&ftl i<m 

the Bui Mated on a vary narrow and limn. -.i ground Than 
poi tinned : 



If it had proposed to flivo powor to towu couiiciIh on an npnlindi.m 
7KM IB ' 91 I two thirds or thru« -fourth* of tho inhabitantx of 



S 



my 
a t'two, to be allowed tin* principle «tf tho l'ill, to tax the general body 

of ihr ratepayers for the establishment of libraries ami miueunw, ho 

would not. havy bad *o uittch objection to thin lueaMim. Dul In; (omul 

fault with it boeSBIM it would enable any town council desirous ol 

rviryiii'< "»'i r tho v.l'Wj ol any Mull Section "I tb»» inli'i ■itont^, to l.ix 

" opener*) body of ratopoyer* for an institution that might soon dogoim- 

> political slab, for which onto n few nf* those who wert* 

noiuptdled to contribute Hm Ita support hod auy sympathy. Had the 

BUI ho a res ly permianrBi aa it was alhj'.od, ho would not have apposed 

--'lotiio town councila with imperative power?, oinJ. 

cwfori'. If VKKlU •nijtpart tho Amomlrnont, 

Lord John Manners now tho Uuho <»f fotthiiiri)piiid, a* far ■..> 

root print iplo of the BUI was concerned, no one was more 

o support i rbau himself, for his expenonoeoi towns led 

■ j wish that hi every town, not only museums but Public 

Libraries were catabl - 1 • • . Qt the «um<? tunc the public did eionf 



pu 01 
Co it 




witn great Buspiolon my measure that tended t<> increase tru 
local taxation, Uo admitted thai tho Bill would not 
upon the landed gentry, but it would impose an additioiiftl 
•s upon the agricultural labourers, 

Mr. urtiouohcre llsiliei nf the present member for Northampton) said 

. to tide. the same view OS tic number for Moutroso, It 

uhl hi: most useful if in ovary good-sisod town a woll-oompoKed library 

btahliuh'-il to whir! .d! t »• inhabitant* Imd froo ivi^.sa. H«* W*J 

nion that it was of much grent^r importance that thfrc *»lionl»l l»ea 

■!', than a flood Enuaeum. Noth tig, h» believed, could \k mora 

1 - ' . i -.r thaL thoN liluiiiira would he fillod with novrlx 
ao.l th« worst •Le«criptioii of litornturo, or that they would be mow 

r*-"*y-tA«'i'* of nemiiaparf WI« ihould rooh distrust besBtortaE&ed of th«* 
4l«r?rcTion of thp town oounaus, who, he oouceiTed, oonld h* aa 
erusud with the iiauu^etuent of this as of other matters placed un i 

Tha <| ticxt.Li.rii w.-ia of u'oiisiileral'hi iinnurtsuco, and OOO Efl 
ii all cla«ii« #0W iDtafOSted ; and be ■ onft^scd b« did not think i!:r i 
Ubramv could h*ad to tho«o oonsoaucn< a -ca which sotno hou. goDtl 
•too oppoaod tho inoavuro, sppasrsd '.<< apprehend. 

Mr • id hia objootlon tii tha Kill was, that it gavo the town 

il i he potfnu "t taxation without •con«ont. Moreover, then waa 
liko a falsn pretence in the Bill, for nl though tlm duu 



rato w« ssfid I • inly •> halfponny in tho pound, ho observed, b] hi 
ihird v'UiiH-, It w.v onacUxl, thai loi tbj larohaso oi land.it ihaD i« 






lawful far the town conned, from time to time, with the approval of the 
'fni-tiiv, In In now BWMJ at bltM 

Mi, John Ilriyllt «iid theft) Wit* mdflatly ETttt a*'* ■inl.ini < ■•! 1m |h 

side* of tho House with regard to tho nhj. i. .if the Bill, and lie hoped, 
therolbro. that tho Hout* wriukl Dot, on account of certain ofejaol 
which might Iw removed, rofueo to rend it a moo i I tun*. The n 
far th« Uctrtntftj rfOambri to ttfca an untMy ifronaouavisw 

Of llir li.ili;.. mi- i i ■ , whiili Wft| only iiminiri] to apply m the DOJldtng 
and fmriiihinjz of tl- the W>fc.i brinj; *nimlied by vuluulaiv 

coutributiomt. Thore uixut W a ]ar^>> of oplaiou bofoi 

nup could ho taken. The town coanaQi would not borrow £6,000 ti> 
bofU aKbhirj nnlM thoy mi ^ii.-ih-i r ! » -. t 1 1 1 . - wealthbr inhabitant* 
would tarnish booftSi H« would '«< wbamod of lilnu*lf snd t h«* Home ti 

ho BUpiKjfu-d that it wouM ho uet'ownry to oar a word iu favour of tUc 
■ ol tho Hill. II* (Mi. Bright) woa qtriu rare that notMni would 
bond m >i' i.» th" proHrvfttioo of order than tho diffusion of the n 
fttoount of liicolliy-'ii'.-«>, nid the prevalence -i tho m< I compute, and 
OpCB iliiriisxion iinongMt all clsfflM, Ho WOllliI glM nfo support t> the 
itecoud reading. 

Mr. ItoandvLl Palmer, umv Lord Selborne, expressed b dauM 
bhftt they were all ukiwI .i- i.. r.lio principle ol brtffl BQL He 
admitted 

That it would be desirable to liavu good Public Libraries 10 nil towns ; 

it Unit was not trm principle of this Hill. T)ir principle of this Mil n u 
ta.vntion without the consent of the persona tone nixed. Accord tn* In 

LUr Oliootptfl of Lh" llOO, intruder for Mnii-ln sin. tills Idll win. 

totally inetlicitnt for , til the purposes for which it wm to bointrcdi 
for the hoo. gentleman eaid, that by pawing it they did no more than 
enable town conned i to erect the buildings and to purchase furniture. 
Why, unit's?- rhf'V wr-? ii'wfN.M ol libraries and museums, what n.hm 
eOQQoU would be justified in Meeting building* iu anticipation fbir 
cliniilablo [lereoiiM would afterward* prawn t them with books and 
curiofiiticA ' It was ovident that the Dill was intended for ult 
objects, by which power* would bo priven for the jiui'chat** of book*, ami, 
perhaps, «>■> !m U- liifm^-up of loot are rooms. H« lioj 
fTOnld coii&idur wnll befnr* they applied to institutions of this ml Qi . 

jH-im'iploB of uuhliv manafivioauU wk] coinpuliiory riling iuoload o 
voluntaiy rt "'* ivlf-oupportiug principle, which he coiiMdorod to U- Lho 
life and ecae ii co nod tlio couso of the utility of race Lnotltutloal, Chi 
thoeo groumln bo should uortahnly dMda againot it. 

BIT, T'jiliiH'i' fXpi'rssi'd vvlmt. wuh I'Viili'iill) !n- fouling of :i IHMB« 

Mik-iiiLuV jhuuIa'I' of membtra, that tho time hud not thru boon 
reached when the principle! "i popular control could b€ 
latrotluoed i:ii" aiatwra ol Dhhj kixia How B»r this rniatnirt 

WBB im^ruuinlf'O h&fl hem vhovo hy fteuItA 

Sir It. JI. Iiifflis, and other mombore, opposed the oc< 
rending. 

Mi E« UTt, is reply, tftid that the lnttcrhon. pent lei too ■<■ 
to forget that this vraa merely u pcrminwivc Hill. Kovoald 
now u( tlmi lnl« hour go liitt Ml tho objection*! which had ! 
QVged Sgfiinst it, liul would only soy that oxiwtinn- iii»i-:» -i. ^ hod 

be#o fomuHi i>n tin* Musi-urns A.-t, on tho principle* of ffhidi ) i 



Tiir tam ;■• '" ras KWiitr mi.ii ow 1850 



69 



lyca. 118 | noon. 101 ; majority, IT. 
i >ji A[M'il 1 0th the Bill passed tnrougb I oi 



earned tin.- present Dill. He would give in. 1 * careful con- 
. ition i" .ill those objections, and endeavour, if pomible, to 
moot tl. in, and render bftc Bui more popular. 

I After .Mi- M'im v., -■! 0. Grey, and Sir Lav had addreeeed the 
ilivi niton, the result being tor tho second 

■■ 




Committee, with eortein 
[I nasi be confessed thai the House looked bored with the 

■<■:. Tin' nni nliiid- pvopoxd > .of. ire thorn was limited to 
<■ tearing "i -H'- and the erecting or adapting of bail 

ror Public 3, and The provision from time to timed the 

ol maintenance in means of :t library rate; and it wa« 

oly d permisclvo measure, leaving every town to decide for 

itsielf. The provision "t books was Co te :» matter tot future 

'itlnti I.i.nl.irv :i( llii' !lUl'*fitl0T n*. :t IVKt.'d lii'falv rli.» 

House i .' ::!ni':i]l> Wonders That io .vho[ilo :i n.n-niv •'imlii 

have i i ppositlon. in later stage* the -mull measure 

..i practicability which the B0] cani lined was, by the persistent 
►orients, lessened in Committee Wheni! was 
•i ii ir ird (rem i ho i 'in ii mil irr ii had yei another 1 1 tal to pass, slid 
. i it wenl 1 1 hi my i. :i dozen ili*oussionn and six formal *ii\ l- 
beforc the opposition ncosed I IMmntely, when it reached 
Hie Lords, i i ihe ireoJtol EtwtherecUtw'y clumber b« It said, it was 
k] withuul Any uppoaltiou whatever, and, in fact, whal «;<* 
KiiU i:i the u 1 1 Led irhauiber was rather on the aide of furtfi 
i.in hi hindering the neosure. Ii ruusl be admitted, however, 
i.i i i- landed proprlei ra they would not have to pay the t,ix. 
When :t received Hie BeyulaBsent on August Utfi, 18G0.its chief 
dtoti.-; ae follow;— 

I. r« wn count ii- were pern itted, I they thought it well to do 
oo, to put i«. iln-ii burgewen thi itiestion — " Will yon linvc n 
. ..' for providing a l'i -lii Library/ and to i<"li 
■ i thai in ition. Tin proi>o*i i was, I i w :\ \ iin '• d o i 
in mi nf no) less than lO,(K)f) within the municipal Iin 
i the event of the ratepayers leading thai >| testion in tin. 
itiv._'. t i *- • :-ui. bo levied vas limit. 1 1 u< n halfpemrj ; " Q i 
|K»ii"i'i "t the rateabl* prop< rty, 

[fa pro* n-'i ol any mte no IovumI whs :o he applied (I) t< 
-.1 of ha MiiiL"-, together with contingent 
expense*, if any, I >rthe • te; (2) to current charges of mm 
nee, 
i. i . ■ i a. re I i ' emp wi red to borro* i to toy on 

of any citv or borough which «liall hnvo 
ad-M 
Other legislation followed, ns will be seen on referenee ;• Che 

which the various -Vols will be Found. 
ir ; tag t.i unto that tho late Lord Hatherley (Lord 

or) then Nfr W P Wood tool* the Hveltesl tnteroHl In 
ami «ir«* i nUtancc i<- Mr W Rwart, ni the possli 

udii.i ■: i l.ilino'U*"' \v\ ol IWifi l.di-il Hatherley whs h 



tbi 




i Ion trinfc noi --; tlio W ■ - .. p i! »iio Lllirorin , flro a 

ad ;-! \t I <>f the Act, m l&W, by tho»e pariah/-;, until h. 







. 








i in uni ■<->•• 

Xhfl tsto W ii! i.i i M Bwart, lived to ioc omc wry h 
IV the eatcamo oi his work. Re died m ISUU 



nan ii 



ii ■ m\ . of rin: BWAftT uii i 01 IWW. 



fil 



r«n ImmortnlUi i i-i marble, who ill I fai • -■ foi iit»» public weaJ 
than has been aeeoTDnWabed Ih tin- Public Libraries' Acts, which 
■,: i r a? c. tic . . loctatad with bin Dome. lit.' mu the second 
non d the la i- Mr EvarLmerehaab, rf Liverpool, near which dtj 
he vu bora m 179& The Bwnrtc are as >ld Ki kcudbrlght 

i; nil.; . daUl fl ImcK lln-n i.t [070 

I Ii- r;u u • !i. . pd nt Kton, where he had .nuong 

fellows l'r. Puaoy, Mr. Dcniean, i peat Speaker A the 

..) Commons, Dr. TVowi r, Bishop of Gibraltar, 

i lundunderry, and othei *. Prom Et< 1 be 

•. , n i : I h, Oxford, and took his U..V degree In IfiJl, 

:i!i.l hi 1827 lie waa culled to the l»tir. After leaving Oxford ho 

irn in Italy, Germany, and France for the purpose 

; ol ii i bo fiou i 1 rioa He not only 

I i very Lccompliehed linguist, bul hia fcron ! i 

lira ii, librunofl I i op -\ \> I ho 

I;.;, i ',■• : ■ )i, I lOttlM I 1 1 |l ! I ;. i: ;i i nl :i - !ir;J i|-ti \ ■ i>r| 
tin .i ■ I ies and lov. ih .t- wo! endowed in 

hiU !.'•■;. In ■'■ le entered Purhurnent for tho wnee 
i-i ..i Bl«torringU>y and voted or the first 
i . it toi Liverpool i nd lat< r Eor 

iov pvp i in hum i toted with roe Dumfries 

, which ■'.■:: xnx fn m I--I1 f«> lMttft. In the 

M ! .'I I :- i ■ i r - -. * : Ml'. !''u:i'l\ ii:ri,r rijtjii'ni'i'il VCl'V ■■- 

. in ihe report a r.f ihr Parlii men I ir_\ debate* na i xpenker, 

ii -■ i >ii tlra n w iirii he was in onvanCM 

in. i nn i' Hurh a*! the augar duties, J'oi Free 

ir, i'l id I KM tor the Repeal u the Oorn l.;i\vs. 
i ■'.-.- which have gone to (he very roots of 
i] w i i"i-l .I -i n- • . lit ulvtay* exhibited .i laudable zeal *»n 
lie iHipuluiiuu uJ i) ir lar^H and 
tdvui'iitcd the opening' of public museums and 
:. |h M'.H \?h of M-oi k- of ;ui, it-- free from 
p" - < tie. lie also was among the nrsl to 
me of tli"- v h i ■■■ Ktcadj perseverance 
iii bills for the L'stuhlwhment of schools of 
l m;iIioh i:- very apt t<> forg< t the west blessings 
■ rue* I h -in »omc of the nmall and apparently 
■ raed l>y the House of Commons, but the 
■■■ Ilium 'i'.- ;M ever he kept green faj tho 

"seollonl portrait or him appears 
In tho middle of 1887, Mr Gladstone, h) 
j ■ Pal i.' Lil i iry, paid n high tribute to hi:, me ■■ 

h;il Sir Jehu iJlndetono, t ic father of \Lr. 
m:iti ■ ; i i>f ! i • hither o1 William Kwort, 

■ rriend'8 »on &a Chriatian names 

tiis ov.ti *on, wl ■■ isticgniflhed. WiUiani 

Piter monument than that ol ins noma 

: i.-i in ii.,' name ->t L*ngland'fl greateat living 
11 nkmg nt Swansea, snie] i 

the -niy it»y of my political life, mid the iiauto 



id 



es 



i-i i 



«n« «l>om I know w*ll from my l-oyhood apn-*Td-, MS 
William Ewait, who putctl iho Pnt- I 

lory and whoso »omo» I look back tv.it tha g 

ML Thru- iv SO (lotlhl thai Mr. BWAtt, liy I 

[led u[wn ii., h-i ui i 

Ho *.'-■ fa r hi t.l.i- 

I i «- t - ■ :...(!..: I'uMii lufiiv.pi'i- at a very oarly (1«t> , mi 1 hi 

ffhOZ I'll' I holier cT>1i<irc 

hifaettfi RuntlUf tow ill— -ha wu fa thai 

I'.i:l 'ny .|» pre llit'ir lim-mif A|i;nr * 
mul Nfl it* '■ '• ftliiili w/i- ii 

v. !m'!i ■••' ■ ;■ !• '-ived by bin in tiki fa «!:■' .n. . Ioor twfarc otn n irni 
f ft ■ wUld tin 1 majority wot*-) rorh»pi n< ■! m >1 ' ■■ tr«t 

it »v ii - r •'■ i i-t -<f a bonevoltnt mind, md ih< ■ 
-■..:]■.-■ Hum <»f lrw jiiil.viin-iiT. Notwithstanding ituJi i)!myhi i 
Mr. Bwart laboured Ktwwiib ■" ,! " l '-" •' lll,i "■" ,!l1 • no* lw »m 
db b. . i -I' i. ■ tbo aooeptn 

f'Ui'poac ho-i 

Mi. Bwiu i vu tor thi 
twin* Hie 1828 and 1868, when lie resiffned In Una 

DtirghSi li.'ivii :; rcpn-M nt<'«l llirni h-i &W 

The prote&t wTtter fai ; " i d rom Miw Ewi pi 

■ i ottoni 'i : u i uie bu vith I" 
ion pi oti : : i ■ 1 1 : of their lati father to mi I i 
ic in the conntry, 




I TTATTKR VII. 
THE FIRST PUBLIC LIBRAKY UNDER THE ACT. 

[|HK influence ->i Mtnchaalei on con i »• -j- ■<-, politics, and 

edOOfttlOD UU 01 ■■* "'''ii ' r ■.'.-r-t'i' fane, and . 

cn-ivi-t in/ rrcdifi of MuiH-ltcsIcr be i' - :i n ) thai i 

i tie Aral I twn bo will Itmil nl the i nUi.- Mbrunc 
ol 1660, l '"ii mo] i i ■■ ni.i;. ran nnMy i»- nn 
Pad iml the author of Lltfi work,! ni Uvm i i thnl iltstrtrt, looks 
buck in.' i . ii u limr when, iw n Ins] i - 

teens, in* iwed i to old CwtJii Geld Library i - i born ■ 
honour to Unnchcste oi what uric lin* iloni 1 for the arii 
im. iu of luxowledgi and noeia] progress in it-* •. 
Harrington tiud Mi jcuto and tloferciici Libntrj from 
i: : iportod Mufteum from 19 1 1, ande* 

h an Actol ....... 

Lihriii v. and Mn- 
it . Ewurl VI . bul ' m loiijri il • i n»dii «-i ■ ■ 
: to the Acl hi i ndinir and '■ 

■7- 

TJi Mt kin : ill pep >'-i ■ i 

Tiirv wttt then issued rw 1 1 .. veck ( cli 

and Satl ; ,: ■; . fh> op nin ■ r-n n 







run mm !■< mi' i.inrunv cm lr thh ah. 



BS 




t; place on the afternoon and even ngof Thursday, -■< |»i« i iber 
i - , ', and to iiu- issui - 1 - of Sal arday the 1th the fullest pro nm- 
»xj is given bo the report* of the two meeting*. Gach ■•[ the 
LnebeeCor papers devoted about a column bo ;i Leader "'i the 

| i-vciii uliirh had i.-ik.-n pUkCS in lln'.ii- miilrit. To the 

ternoon im-ri ii:.</ snmeebrjil iTilurnns are devoted, ami bha report 

i>i riir Bvenin z meeting extends to between fiva and six mtumn*. 

Nothing could belter demonstrate ihe signifleaiiec of tlu* eveul 

■ estimation of the Maoeheeter press than this fur, ami 

in thai 'in" to the present the "Manchester Guardian/' 

Examiner and Times " and * Courier " lmu- uever nv.s'il in vm- 

bile libraries their earnest and consistent advoeaoy. Tin- to ia 

tlit editorial* is hopeful and Uioyont throughout, and iu 

ruaiug cwefollj iin- entire fifteen column* *>i newspaper matter 

issible not to be struck with th< inspiring tone which 

lixed the procee'liug-A. Tin- " M.iu. heat r Guardian " in ita 

itorial, remarked that "Sir John IVtter tun I hits < u.hIjuIm-., 

i ih. foundation o* the Public Library, softreery need bobeoon- 

ilntvd on the brilliant ceremony which bus crowned their 

boon, it bhey Ecel towards the nnaoeni institution as towards 

irnotur.ii "tT> r rin^ Mn-y i : i i s i have some satisfaction in rcflcet- 

:i more successful christening never ushered into bhe 

odd n favourite of fortuno. No good tuns was absent from 

fcntal boardj nor, we firmly trust ana believo* did anv 

t genius alip in uninvited to mar 1 1 * ** destiny whian 

many powerc Elad contributed to reader perfeot. In our age 

i:itiv few undertakings have been laimched under more 

t or \:iri«.l :mspi.'4'K.' Then then- lirilovi later cum tho 
i Qoce '.i rds, bo pregnant with hope and foresight : " To 
hot ratal fields ol mental end moral elevation, Indrvubud and 
avenue was opened for our teeming population <m that 
v never, ars trust, to be shut to the poorest of our fellow- 
bo long as BCaneheKUT ho» an existencv nrnl .1 name." 
years &he doors have been open to t* i-* very 
ml through nil time to come, as far as obi can be 
ojmanly certain, fcliey will remain an open portal for the long 
. i ^.-n.- ■ itlona in mllow. 
La the time approached ror the opening ceremony the interest 
Khe uiijcri increased, subscriptions were multiplied, and 
morons were the ipphcations for tickets, \ more brlllianl and 

l.i'lli- -iu.il ,i.-.M'!]ilil;ii',« was seldom seen tliuii thai Which filled 

tv nook and cranny of the reference room of the Oampfteld 
pliers the meetings were held. The lending library m 

: id Hour was 'p«-iuM.i il> ;i ictvption room, At a quarter 
■en .i.tn. the principal gncnts came upon the platfoi u, 
; with loud applause, Op the chairman's 
i; i ;u i Mayor of Manchester, the Bi&ac i i 
Bufwci Lytton, Bart., M.P..R. Monckton 
:i,r [afterwards Lord Houghton), w, Makepeace 
lv, .John Hright. M.l'.. ''harlca fought, James I'lossley, 
■ 1 M. Robs, To the left of the ehairmun were— the Earl of 



<-.! 



PUBLH JBttAJU 9 



Shafted | ., , > I,,,. |. ;,-i ,i w ,1,.,. Dickon^ Sir I 

Stepl Jo*eph Hrotherton, M.P .1 x Turner, tteavurex oJ tho 

i'i.m.- 1 ibri ■■■ Kttnd Sir K \ mttago and Diomafl ftudty IV 

whole* of thoBC hiiVe nOW pMWfMl "ViM- tO the n :ijonlv, 0U1 UM 

movement whose birth the* were celebrating 1* dootUM 

tti\ i-l. i|»i- Iltr rlililr PiMintPy liV llic ':i;i • il:. 

mitnfl QtuDM round. 

The entire ri iry oJ tin-so two meatlngn in »-» full of tnteres 
bears retelling au well thai the Indulgence of (in- m ho 

asked r the detail* seem wearisome "Hie chairman Aral 
:: raporl of the hlstorj if tho Institution, Thto occop etl 1 

"I miju .1 1 \ |»c i 1 ill- ■ 1 •: ivpuitv h. I h ■ Ml 1 

a rata 1 ■ wat ■■' I on fool for Lite (BtabHshincnl of 1 Ub 
r.ui ,1- ii wan Hie eepecfaJ objeel ol the pr tera u< proYfoc 

inr.ui> for thO Hint,:! ciillinr .in<i Him i! CleVHtioil Of UlC lU'llSMi- 
.llnl V, 'rk|n-M|il.-. \\!:.- ; . .] )li|)(H hllll .111 rli.-iiir 

such a ooaununity .■- Manchester, it was hud dowi , 

in. 1 l;il bSBSfl Of th< ■- ■Ih-iim- 1 1Ii:i( \i (llOOld include B FTC* l.mtliuj; 

Library, &n Institution up to that time without example In 
count! v. In rapport of thin ohject twenty-nix t< iw leuaen mjI- 
Beribed. either for thcmecl tea or for thi tr respective Arms, the man 
of C100 each. 

Tho baUdinp :it Campfield hod oarly boon pointe 1 1 I .. well 
ndnptod to the oonton plated purpose. It had originally been built 
by thi w rking eloasoA with om outlay exceeding £ft,000, 1 mi 1 
iln then existing elretunstoneoii tho 1 ntcroated worowilliD 
dispose of it for £1,^00, SirOewol Motdoy owned n ehiel 
itpnn it of tH Us. por annum, winch wax estimated bo be worth 
twenty-four yoara purehaae, or about £$£00. That gentleman! 
on being informed o1 the purpose to which it was intondi 
devote the building, expressed his cordial approval, and m 
that he should value toe eluef I'pnr at twenty yeare' 
£1,826, and should fni'tli^r t«>'-iit'\ Mi'- goodwill to the |>r<>jei I by 
reterning one-half *"ii ihn piivoi ■ ■"■■! -- ■ ••<! tniHituxn tottu 
fond. In January, Iftfil, the first appeal was made to tho pub! ■ 

iii-h|ht iht i: itu I mppOrt, I':nlii'iil:tiv ;,\ to lln' timnuWnn *.! the 

Mhrary t\u-n follow. Tho spcocli of the chairman, Sir John Potter, 

Aral after the recital of the partleuUrR by tho ■•■ 
Thp mayor, Robert Barnes, who won* hi* ennui and badge ,i! 
ffflcf. followed 
Tiic Earl of Bhaftesburj - Rh€ good eart— eaidt— 

In riirinp to propose tea Ant rwoltition, I mojl defend rnyaoir tg 
Ilio iiPCiliftblf charge, that, an a stTBiiger. ui'l 1:1.- uTinci'ti'd will; y>ii ■ 
1 i \. I prctouna (.'> obirude myaelf upon Lie notloe of this niotHin^r. 1 \ 1 
R-ftoiution whicli I ain called upon to ruovn, cxprcaars : " That tluo 
in« witiifssoj with gre*t Natisfaotion thu oponing o«romonial of the ' 
dierter l'nhjio Liltrar)*, and durinti to axpTQSl '- mtire coolidoui^ tba 
1 ■ 1 1 1 ■ ■ tttetion will eifcrt gcrnt ami lantin^ ^nod to tho coraoinnlty fbt 
KOtH'iiilioiir. lui-uiiu'." Thoru will !»■ .1 • <ii lnjull v in ubuiniii^ jnnr cor- 
curreiice to this resolution, aud tliere "ill lio iu IiitJ« cliOlculty in allowing 
to the hy atandera and the world tho largo and local Vncl'ts that will 



ri I, [. -:ih;auv rvi>KR THI'. ACT, &J 

loin ihii iiiftiuiidOB Hut we muat go further than local benefits ; 
and elluw me to observe that in thane day* of punmit of exiuteweut, in 
th«M day* »f novel projects end restless inqu&y, En these day* of soonler- 
atnl prdj'n\Hs, vrnsn time And space MSfil alrruwr. BCtlnOt }'"" ar* preparing 
hereby an antidote to mischief* thai un^ld likowiae Arise, ami hetting en 
\(, may be imitated ; audio laving down a principle of uni reran! 
application, yon assert that the true cud of com moron ia to make the 
sMMoitiiM or the oouutry mbaement *o it* civilization, and then ite 

--.tinti subservient to the tofial and moral amelioration of tlip whole 
family of mm. N«ik, *ir win, m ttlBSG days will presume to ntifetlnn the 

! rowing mporUnoa -i uu man of commerce ami industry* Thsj lo 
, ■> before, limine for a fcime, and then become absorbed in the grritt 
maw of proprietors. Thoy now stand apart, upon a aoparato and lude- 

tptident. r.naie, and claim lo be beard as e<iua1 to the boat in patriotism, 
i principle, and In Intellectual power. Our institutions — Ood beprniaed I 
— <nn we!! bear this demand. . . . You have founded this great And 

florSoui institution, large, liberal, and cosmopolite ; and fiom my heart, 
vvt. iiiiy fjod prosper it to the pnrjioao to which it woa intended ; and 
In tho pursuit of wealth, and in the duties of rommoree, in tbo 
virtue, and in tin- rjD«£nUDfBO0 of ©very sound and gi'oat 
"iay you, I any, thereby sanctify the pr>sw*sion nnd enjoyment 

m ridies, ;ind iiniv yon enjoy fur yourselves, and transmit to those 

who ii hfttt you, lb', ciri/.i ii&iiiu of a crowning city. "w!m« 

merchant* are princoa, ami whoso traffickers arc the honourable of the 
rarrb,' Ih.-refot'-. urn hmrtlolt ntisfootioOi I propose, the rotolution 
I have bad the honour to rend to you. 

Brtvard Bulwer 1-yttoDj m.r, spoko u follows:— 

In rieuruf to second the proposition WfilOb ha* been platwl before you in 

•uoh eloquent ami touching tonus, 1 am reminded that there wu once a 

i^int, who, having raised himself to a rank in tho eyes of 

rfi) Iwyond thai i*f oixl i nary princes, desired ulso to luise the whole 

<law which liu ennobled in the scale of intellectual nobility, and wan the 

first to institute libraries for the people in the rural districts of Scotland 

That peaeant wai Robert Hums tho poet, and when I Look around this 

noble- hall and this Urge assembly ; whan I know that behind me Arc ( !•>• 

aonl rffaattOM that come from the palaces of your kings : when 1 see that 

q tnej i* one of our most reverend dignitaries uf the church ; wheu I 

■c* be] he rflpros«rilativcs of aome of the loftiest houses of our 

aristocracy ; and when 1 look upon cither aide and know that you bavo 

present alto the representativec of the orders of literature aud art ; and 

win n fan me nrul sen an array that I eon few* awes and dazzles 

m men '.run k!1, composed of those woo Are never absent where $;ima1 ia 

b> V done. I own I do wish thuL Burue could have foreseen what msnl- 

loence you hare pven to bin idea, . . . But, ^uUomon, education does 

net ceeeo when wo leave aohool ; education rightly considered is tho work 

of a life, and libraries aro the aohool hnoka of grnwn up num. 1 wr« 

touohed when the other day I wa* taken by Sir Elkanah 

;nil niusaum at Tcel Park, which. 1 believe, 

owe*** much to Mr. Brotbertou ue this library owes to Sir John Totter. 

I km moved «nd affected when 1 saw *<» many inteUigflAt young facce 

teeit OTtr bookl with each ear neat attention ; and when I felt, what 

Mn> old RnglLth KOltemont <^f tho alc- 
h«»* and il 

*» 






:■• ni.i MSB 



ran nunc Chariot Dtckefil ;— 

1 have kcu so uiui)' references made in newspaper*, in pajliamcnury 
detains aod elsewhere to the "Menoheoter School, that ! have loaf had 
a con«idcrahln anxiaty to know what that phra.uo tnight mean, ana whaL 
the " MmOOhvtat BobOOl " Blight bn. My natm-el curiosity on this head 
lia* not b*U diminished l»y Efac wry contradictory acr-mint* I have 
ii" ivni rt*|wctiiiR that same " school ; " some great authorities a* i 
rue tust it was a verj good uuc, »ouit thai iL was a reiy had one . 
tint it was very broad and comprehensive, some that it w« very narrow 
tail limited ; some that it was all .-ant, ami some that it wee all OOl 
>•■..<-. ln<lio» and gentlemen, I have solved this ditrioulty br finding ben 
today that The " UaofihMtST School " is ft great, free an lino 1, hunt on 
, i mug iimLruuliciD to On- poorest healths. It is thU great frc* school 
in v King the humblest workman to come in ami he Us student ; this great 
five school, most munificently endowed by voluntary subscription in aii 
incredibly short space of time — starting upon its glorious career with 
20,000 volumes of books— knowing no sect, no party, no distinction— 

knowing hilt the public Want Anu thfl ftflbllo good. Henceforth thi« 

boUdlng shall represent to ui« the ' Manchester School/ 1 *nd I pray to 

][r;i\L'ij, DOnOTor, thai imiuy great towns and cities, and many high 
authorities may go to school a little in the Manchester seuiiiiarv, and profit 
by * iw: Dobla lesson that it teaches. . . , I hove long boon, in my sphere, 
a leal on 8 advocate for the diflimoii of knowledge among all elaseea and 
conditions of men ; heesuse 1 do believe, with ill the strength and talA : 
with which I am capable of bojicvirtg anything, Hint the more a man 
known, the more humbly and with a more faithful spirit he cornet* back 
to the Fountain uf all knowledge, and takes to his heart tlio great sacred 
prtceDt, " On earth peace, goodwill towards men I" 

Willuiin DtnkepeOG6 Thackeray stakl:— 

Sun will see that in seconding this resolution, iny trouble need hut b* 
hiuaII. Of oouree, amongat the many tanitary aud social reforms which 
t.very men in tor sated in the public welfare ui now anxious to push forward, 
the great ntfaSOTeof books will not he neglected ; and w^looV to thos« 
rut much an wo look to air. <*r to lijjln. «r m witter. If hook.- do motho. 
cheer, and console; if hooks do enlighten, enliven, and fortify ; n' 
<\d make Rom w bearable to UB, or touch us to forgot or to endure it . if 
they do nrente in us harm lea* tears or happy laughter, if thoy do I 

t . pa in da that peace and that feeling of goodwill of which Mr. L)i 
spoke, ,ind whirr anybody who hs<i read his tH>oks must have felt ha« 
mtiu from them surely we will not grudge these estimable bl easing! to 
the poorest uf our friends, but will try with all our might to dia 
lit. k ..heap but precious benefits over all, Of educated niochoiii 
course, it is not my bufiinetfi to speak, or ovoi my wish to protend to bo an 
LnitrUOtOT. Those who know the educated mechanics of this vast I ■ 
this empire, srn aware that thoy am in the hahit of debating the greatest 
literary and political tiueslioiis iimoiigst themselves; that they 
leisure li> lluiiK, and talent to -pink, much yrentui than Ihat of man WnC 
BOflnctlnua an obliged to Appeal for a moment before von. Thfj ha\« 
thoir poets and thoir I'iiilo.n-pli.r-. The character of their education fa 
vary much ehanged from that of oue hundred years ago, whon, if jrou 
remember, HofSlth Npresented the evil mechanic as occupiml with 
riundi- :. mid the good mechanic as luring arrived at the reading of the 
stoarj ttf the good apprentice, who wi> iiuide Lord Mayor of London. The 



trr rum prit:.. r.rmtAnv iamsr vhv act. 



.17 



inTiiVi nt our ilty liavt goi tl> n r ( arlyli bo raid, their TMolcensc* on 

half, ami their Bttlweri by thofl aide. It i* only to tin I ri 

(g -Iiot the resolution which wo luvn l*:ioi.- U 

4ji|ilirM, I am nurc that JCO Wul UM all your endeavours to tm»ot the 

purpoaee for which it woe- intended, and to carry the •■ontontn of your 

noble volume* into tba eottftflet, garret*, and eellan I am awai'i', 

Sim h men. that in so vast n collection, the sort of work* which I am In 
e habit of writing can occupy but a very soinll space. I know that qui 
uotvIs ar«: bat whal w.: may call tart* for the people. Ilicto/y ia bread, 
aiiil science ii bread, and historical and epiritua) truth form that upon 
eh li'v must 1"--<I. But, a* one knows, that whoa evory fresh book 
i« written, * n«* deain springs op for better and better reading. I fee] 
rhot your attempt to improve and iterate the condition of the 
working eluaica of the ■••'iiiimimlY will bt cruwucd with sucee*.-.. 

1 I'" lessor of Modern History at Cambridge, 

rnoredi "Thai In the It for< i ct Library this meeting hail* with 

iboxc i. provision fur the vrante ol the scholar and 

i i.k-ni »r vwry clam, and in most branches aJ liu-minn-, 

i e, i ul art . and records its firm expectation thut, hy a con* 

mace "I liberal aid, this department ot the institution will 

ri ■ i ]■!"< ii ictual information and improvement." 

In tin oourft '( hft speech, Sir Jamas sold; 

K*VV« are liriug at a time wlim it in not permitted to any uisn tn with- 
Id tbe littlf which it may br in his rawer lo contribute tomttdfl the 
mih -iRiit ■«( such oigoetfl a** tliiM, l'hteo mighty discoveries them- 
juigit inventions, these gigantic revolutions, tlieao uuhenrd-ot miffrt- 
tbGM heaving* of tli* 1 lower strata of human society-— the increasing 
p-Af«r of the popular voice, —all tliunu tiling testify that we have reached 
lonipliaumeiitofthe prophoov of the time when ' : man shall run to and 
(Vc, ami Knowltdgo be increased." We are, therefore, approaching a gnat 
I and catastrophe of human ahTaira. To approach Buob n orieU and 
tropho in the right spirit, it behove* us all to do oar bttVL S*OT 
. donti your best . you ' avo erected thm temple el knowledge in the 
of a multitude whom now, ts we havo heard, we regard with con*. 
i-i-i ■■ mi in. Kin. bul tfhoai altered circa instances might cause u« to 
vita othorand difforant feelings. The future, however, bio thr 
boLi» of Him who niloa us all ; on? businaaa is with the present hour, 
in I - ■ ■ '.-at duty. 

i: hi p< ^ >nokton Milnes, U.P., said he remembered, not with- 
tamo, U iv* many "i the elans to whioh ho belonged poueSB 
noii^rniri' vni i*<*|K>a1l friea ol ttookaof which hardly a vohrme avax 

n< od ii'diii tin 1 nholvea " lint let me," he wont on to say, 

ilato yon on having n population which can rend the 

, ,: s . . 1 1 hurt* gutlnM-«'d, let mo congrntuhite you Ilial llio 

lrpoars ot t i ■ library uro noi Umltad i*> y^' own Ubdralil^, 

i|n\ rc;irli ut oner with :» tnimpot-voico the inroll'i- 

. ,-.,: ..1 III.' (MKtH'm «tf till* [H'U[ll«' ul MMIH'lu'sI'T " 

i i ii Bright, M. ' . whs ii Ium heHi vein, as will In* Keen :-^ 

TIk labia* if V Aot wu a very iuaiiieiviit and inuomplnt. niouwirn. Ho 

v»s in ViLi-Uament at the time, and wiw the dilKcnltlex which Mr. Kwart 

o»d Ur. BfOt barton, the nAreuta of the mewnre, Imd to pass it through 

rTeoav It way an extraordinary fact that the opnosit\oi\ cahw 






OH PT»M. IIHRARIIS 

almost ontrrely fr-un that «■!• "f ***** Hetet which was oompoard of 
(-..uiiiiv jpmtumen.a groat portion of them, no doubt, having had *n 
■'iliK-Aiion At on* of our tern* l imi\. Those jpmUeiunn oppeiiedthe 

lateen l thai Uion ncr* certain tra mUftol 

the corporation included corUin j+jrirultural districts, and thai ii would 
BOt 1 1 d [■dVltom c» * proper thine to *dd to tho " burden* on land " by 

I Lhl Hill. Ho wa* »uro that no class, whether connects 
agrbaltOfl «r with inniiuf»<'tnrw, could iHtptUB with mioh an UMtru- 
■ ■ ■ - ■ ■ ■ iin ritbiii r.ihreiy aflbrded w Uu people; end thai 11 

would bo hot tar for tho country if eTery manufacturing *ui<l agricultural 
iabuurc.*. every manufacturing ■ nT'itol'ot, and every farniar, «wm well read 
and uuouetot) in til Uu branehoa which were accumibl* in this library 
IK.ptiUiMu of Manchester. 

Qharloi Knight, who «iid ao ranch In tho prorfc bag crl cheap 
literature for tho people, moved, "That 

Matjdl of thifl inr.1i!i:i. r i >i i ■ -■ * 1 v ■!<• .in- that the c\nruplc 

now given nuiy bo fed lowed by tho establishment of tlmuftx 
UbrtUTM in fin- populous cities ana towns of the United B 
Then later IB he soid: — 

HfiSt ■.imori'ly mi it (n be prayed lh*t this example might bo followed ; 
but ho p.. i I - 1 nr.t refrain from -viirc«iting Mb conviction that tho timo was 
not fai distant wbcu it wuuU no aaiversally (61 lowed, anil when the 
populous cities and townn of thfa kingdom would rival (hi- siatefn! 
BXample. . • - Out of thin library tlicro must, grow aO UteaUgeaoc 
that would go forth throughout tlie country to exilian tea *nd to r« 
lor it Was perfectly clear that, amongst tho groat body of won who worked 
mi the factories, tit ore lunar, bo men who wore anxious t» enlttvato xomr 
pertlpular punttlt, In which limy might uue day attain to — "^ntflfta, 

A few other speakers followed, and a working re 
I 'umimgham, hoped thai Mr. John Bright would see there through 
tills "halfpenny luit4-.li" referring m the limit of n rralfr* 
pate in the Ewarl Bill, ami which was afterwards removed by the 
Bill of L60JI 

Thette were? the leading speeches at the afternoon meeting. At 
the more public meeting in the evening, the Earl of Sbaftaflhiin 
a^rain SpQaO, ami SO »li<l Mr. Thackeray, and an Incident occurred 

in connection with the speech of the able and pore-minded 
author just named which should nol be allowed to be forgo 
reflecting a* it does the greatest credit upon the seustl ivi 

p itn. ii.mii of | is writer of * Vanity Fair " and " Esmond " 
IhoK- whn lutM .iMtl his speech at the y.-Mii-nu^ earlier In the 
tlnv cannot fail to have been struck with the tone vi dignity 
and the- earnest hope! dnosfl which pervaded it. In the ?\- 
the vista of popular libraries being c*taMishod all a fcli 
D nantry and the educational and elevating influences n 
weald necessarily flow from the extension of tin. movement, ■ nrei 
oame Mr. ThaokeT y, and he olnuptly Bat down in the umldle of 
,ui inc'impleiod ^onN'm-e, much U> tho eurpriae of the audience, 
who cheered him when tlie words he was uttering came I 
sudden atop. After learning of the incident, mv respect for the 
memory of this genial and good mon was greatly enhanced. It 



TH» riBST I'l KIIC i.JM«AHY I SI>ICR r II K l< 1. 



,;i 







doi Hie lack of words lootracb m M Hbci oo the Mglily- 

:» -rasitivf man, on the opening out of this dc^ 
m.:.. in Kngland'a educational history, The Manchester papem 
make no mention of this incident. And not only Ibaokeraj 
all who lift ui» Lln'ir voice En publlo, nave al boi io period ol i lu-ir 
■ ■■■ to be grateful U the kindly charity of the Freae, 

Lt..i'..iuy hi : i* i li::. on Mi- inauguration uf Public Libraries 

i red also in "The Times," ft Athena-urn," " Illustrated 

.<>n News," and other papers; but at a distance of bhirty- 

eijtht yean we have yet to ttei En] j real ted thcee tnetftatfonj 

.- pari of om national tnstatutloiie. One of the pnpera 

just named made use of the following language, and were it not 

very ecrtuin that it was in 1863 when it waa flret pril tod, we 

,i i ir disponed to rub our eyes and sci* if it was ■ - »l tfday 

when jt actually appeared* Ihe writer aye : — " In an age when 

Public Libraricfl hare become necessary, wboi the love uf hooka 

is daily spreading wider and wider in Moiety, tlio li i 

is 16 much i legitimate business as unv other* It, 

Ic'it, il- '• 'Hie;; ;i • i < - ('oil, wlit-llur, ills! e;t<l <»1 l/iiijI" | Fl'00 

brary to borrow, the wonrintf man and the cottager, u wall 

'! j ivr |»>rlioiN "i the middle-classes, would not purchase 

, if justice were in this respect done to their producers, 

nth an international copyright, and untaxed paper asd advwtJee- 

menu, the literary j/euiua of this age would Bad itt money 

rewardfoom the public oi its- own md other States. I wouM 

eeeeo. to a great extent, to bo indwrtreeaand in difficultly md 
I t>e as well paid by the sale of its commodities as the ruanu- 
c&n •>: Manchester in the production and sale <>i thelra 
Rxpi •: molca d< not suit the multitude of readers. Books 

must be made cheap ere they can be made accessible to the 

• the wnrlcship. Ky n":l menus ler our towns and dtfeti 

have riirii- Public Libraries \ but, at the same time, let eahave Rree 
i ore Tin- two objects are an far from being I leompatttile, 
tlint the eeoond In reality includes all cha advantages of the flint, 
villi many others of Its own The ' million ' require cheap books 
us well as cheap bread. If they cannot gut cheap good hooka 
i'i'' >\ ill have cheap bad ones " 

itioo of the Public Ubrary Movement, graced 
a* it washy the presence and active aid of several of the 

■ i liora of Llie day. whose reputatR'U* ^iiiii lustre 

il dj i uioh so the years rece h . wae an event to "huh 

i) well ook back Upon that occasion the readers and 

Mukcr5 o! books »trii) l t.i -t- to face, Manchester, the city id 

nameroua industries and well-dlstr touted wealth, declared witb 

H.v appreciated the uses and I i igaof 

■ U , and desired U extend thorn i>. nil classes of her 

peopl- . edged literatu o to be ^ powei in Qn 

' lovernmcnt then practically denied 
■ .wl( 1^. . 
Bifr. Vlexander Ireland, a Muuchcttcr worthy " ! I »< Brsi water, 
a tdciutilc literacy i"lc, ic-of the very few .nil living 




7«! 



i ' Rl i' 'T OB A RIP* 



■ ofcan lotivo pan hi the prom crw movement, and 

fratutatcd, aol only on the purl he than t K)k 

-n ii loi II ■ ■ i i public usefulness. \nothi -man who 

! i- h| :ll || Al "■! i l>'\ WOOtJ, .1.!'.. 

wild imii remwobwn the maeUrn? Ft (h inmoeslbl' for i M»n. 

(■hearer man in !**- 1 i\iin tYnii ■_»■ >inir ImeU, In meatiny, n 
premise* In wlneli II:. ii inci'llii).' w.i:. Iii'l.l i hnflill im. 

toolbar mm, hut vbdeh deserves « tablet placedup aenrd 

it* history n-> Hi" onuUe of i new nuoiu] mi cement wluch will yet 
spread Kelt orer U e entire length and breadth of the land 

ll'iw much wo owi 10 of theao appaj 

tmportonl hoi ""■ "1 reform, which buve, through much 
difficulty, been pieced 021 Hie Statute-book, will never, perhap*, 
1* fully recognized, hue so Tar a* this movement la concerned, we 
woaU scatter a handful of lowers over the graves of Ewarl, 
Potter, DrothertoD, Edwards, Shaftesbury, 1S1 ighl . 1 liokena. 
Thackeray, and Lyttou ; and ae the movement gains nev Life* euia 
in fas: enveloping the entire country, we would thus call to miud 
the 1 eraory of those who struck this uew vein in tV nation'i 
;u id gave the Drat Impetus to a cause h Might with blesatnjE for bh« 
1 ommon weal. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

HOW TO BRING ABOUT THE ADOPTION OP 

THE AOTB. 

JT is ;i healthy and liappy eharacteristi ■ "I public life in Ibis 
country that, in the midst (if political controversies whli b 
gu down to the very roots ui our national exjsten© 
unity, our Btutesim-n (if nil partus .ire looked upon as 11 < -u 
of light and leading whose views on subject* "I" general 
ami aon-politlcal interest are entitled at all times to reevoclful 
bearing and attention. Aa .1 people we light »toutXi and 
vigorously when political issues are at stake . but even while the 
battle ragefl mow fiercely we are always ready U lay down tie 
weapons of political warfare and to listen paticnl j ai rt ped 
1 ui It ■•> men who have earned the right to speak with authorH 
tuples \>i common social interest. This is a trait in our natj 
charactor which cannot be too highly valued, and we may well be 
proud of it. Life, and especially public life, would son '< 1 
worth having l tnorcwere no questions or movement** uffc 
the oomxn m weal of the people in whfel those <>f nil b1 
ol political and religious opinion could stand together, and wodi 
shoulder to shoulder for the achieving erf agrvex purpose Ear the 

g i al the whole local community Tin.- characteristic u\ \ 

will, fffoatost loive wlien it i- lu^u-iit in ;li<- teat tA movement* 
tike tli- '!i<- now '...Mil*- it.lv.t.-at.'il. Th-iv is 111 l-.iot. 11- effort lor 

ii- public g t which eonld be commenced in any distri 

capable oi effectually welding the eyrapathie* and sotlvltl 
• holding "ii ■ -; ui politics and religion ai the 1 



HOW FQ IMilNr. ABOUT THK AI'Ol'TION Of 7)1 K ■. < i 




»• .1 



fl<M ami Fit Kviry town mid every rural district ought to 

bi Public Library ud reading-room ; and Instead ofe paltry 
D odd "i these msbTtutrona In forty pears time, the number 

h ■ next ten Years should be more than doubled 

i.i-i ii be said with Borrow however, thai In scans teae* Etui 

.vriiifiii hmheon lefaated not i \ the indifference of the majority 

tin 1 people bur Ire the utrenuoua opposition of those possessing 

elKftflod l>ookshelTOB ol Ihdr own, and to whom the pentrj rate 

rilt) i 16 ii -i'i'\ Mi.- nu'i-i'sl trinV. In nn( a \<<* tW8tS fliM'gvlilcn 

id other leaders tn i* *« ■= » 1 opinion have so damned tlia movement 

.! i.l i i praise, if bhej have ant kepi altogethei eUooJ from I , 
i;ii failure has attended Hie efforts nude. Conridering those 

- md the ye iri ol Igftatlon which have been ncawsary in 

me towns, 16 is of vital naceasifcy that the subject should be 
•-■n nj> onl\ by those prepared <<> meet with bitter opposition, 
tit to vigorous^ maintain their riewa, The British ratepayer 
rci s often a tough customer. The sent ol" sensitiTCJieSJi is the 
brous p< i k< i. and in every district h<' ha.-, tin- impression that 
. J, and tl <■ Ic.i-st hint of any iiu'i'.'a.se in that direc- 
tion brings paterfamilias up In arms directly T« make haste 
alowlj should, therefore, bo the motto of ill friends oi bbemcTo- 
m\ The more the question i-* di.seiuwe-i, the more friendfl the 
ement gains ; so that the Fullest publicity should l-« courted 
irkod. In one year there haYe boon twelve refusals 
t- i adopt the Acts, and this i.-« a fact patent enough to prove tliat 
the adoption of the Acts i* oot easily brought aboub. 

Bel re paosfcng to the more important section of this chapter 

there i* a matter of vital interest to this movement to whii'h ii 

will be here opportune to direct attention. The present writer 

mo Orel i" launeh, severtu years ago, the suggestion that the 

-o to (iceide thisqucstion should beabolishod, and many 

<tr- have been von over to this view of the aubject. All are 

agreed that the various Aets as they stand are a conglomeration 

vl jihrawes, ^onrn&iun worse confounded. Bven lawyen them- 

wivi>fc t\>> not understand them, or interpret them in dlffereni 

. as has been the case in some noted instances. The ground 

for the bringing forward ol n Consolidation 

i ;ii.:i which librarians anil the frk'inl>- >i thiK inovi.'!ii*.Mit. -.hall 

rived For the present, counsels arc somewhat divided and 

ir:iifiiT\ f.»r ;: in r ml fi:ll tiis.nwmon 

whole subjeel This quest Ion Is more fully discussed imder 

i ipter -.n the l.i'yul \spectK, 

The more, iiowevci-. that tin present writer nonsWera the 

Hon ol the Pi pnlnr Vote the more is he convinced that the 

■mem will never miike the; progress which it ought to do until 

i el operation is altered, md the power ii» adopt the 

[il.icxl wiih i in- " <\ "i r,;7 hndy. This is, of course, tile one 

ptvoi :i|hui which iiu- whole movement, as Ii Is at present 

i ■■ . !■ li til i i* imii! ]»rrlia|M whiclM'onfenis the novo- 

UCUl mon hfl I il in llhninjin>. Jinluiuy roni the fnrty yt i 

rienei! ul lie popular vote It eaunot be wild to have hem u* 



.:' pt-SLic unaABUB. 

ooaeful na the tout friends vt theflrrt BUI hoped would 
auto. In many districts where tho adoption hi then 

hiifr boon mi appnllinjr amount of apntny and indifference, and the 
question haft been ultrmatelj carried by 5ie fow H ho have advocated 

dm m im -ii ■'. Bnoeethey have l qoi bled to gather iromi I them. 

Proqas il I3 not one m ton ot the ntannws naa voted v hoi 

method hi* been bj votU ESQ oases when* it hU 

been settled by statutory meeting there baa been, an even worso 

effdeoeo of ton want of foteresi [n the movement b 

town in England, within ttiol isr yenr <i 

a!1 told fiifty souls, carried rh-* adoption of tho Public Lib] 

Act*. And when this dead level of EheBtatflb >;, meeting hasbe*Ti 

reached H ■ wrelj time to abolish either this raei thatcd 

voting papers for eetr.Hng the question. 

Those who are not friendly to this innrement will at on» 
tliat this hick of local interest is a proof the people do not want 
ii" ml- libraries. But Uiia is not so, arid repeatedly the vi 
who have shown the mosl iiidi lave been he 

their Public Library when i( boa been opened. The c&usi 
deeper down than the absence, in some quarters, of a desire for 
libraries. Our local imtiuiial life m ■ ! the sewnc uf citizenship . k 

nidy fust beginning ro take root, and on many aides when 
(pieetlon comae up for self lemon there i^ a much 
versal interest in thesuccesa of the efforts than 
been before^ 

lHit the time has arrived when tho accredited repreaental h 
tbfl peoplei the local governing body, ought be safely left t> 

charge of Ehia q lestioo. Through them their conebituenu) would 
still have a voice in the decision. Surely if these rcj re 
may he trusted in the expenditure of larger sumo and the j> 
to impose Infinitely greater inor* aee© in the rates than the fo 
penny, they mil; lit be 1 runted withlhi* imcetiou, which is 
so close to the welfare of the ontire ilistriot. Tli*. pop 
Can he resorted to on so tow questions that to make it 
totter to Public Libraries eeeina unwise, unnecessary, and . n 
pohtie. This argument ie strengthened by the fact ot the I 
meal Instruction Act of J88U giving the power to tho rover 
authority to levy a rate not exceeding a penny in the pou 
DOt first obtaining the consent of the people. 

A* already stated, the constituents would still bavs S I 
through their representatives. And there is no fear 
Councils, Local Boards, an< >ther governing bodies would rtu 

rjge body throughout the jountry to ea 
Mo- lets within themselves, Representatives are too aim] 
jii-ousinj^ tin? Miitagnnlam of their constituent.* by the imi 1 
an extra penny on the rules to do any such thing. They know full 

well that out <>r doors every vote they give ror the Increase of 
looal taxation brings upon them OMoojuy and misrepresent! 
r.ai the Doin Is thai the elected representatives ol 1) 1 [wopl 
in educational mat iu« especially be trusted, mji< boiuentaJ 

ii'lvjucciiMiii of tic people narelMonj md iiiggardly cconnm] 



HOW 7.. RUtXU *nnl I II. r I . II uoY OP TUF. ACTS. 



::; 



ii.ns n v. i - h ihrv can beexerdsed. Kxtra- 
axpeodrture ire Dot suggested, and ir should 
ill ays be seen that the people get L r »>"<l value for the public □ i 
neai latin ■ i u In > ther direction*. 8tlll our economical 



irisncias have began al the « n ■ ind when tUv ire inpllAd 
education*] mutters. Tin- em ig u .1 turned ujh n the Mgbtfo] 




E 

coBt vrhi< . drink, and self-made poTertj Infltal upon ur» 

mould have long before thin Lppreoiable savina in those 

'i ^' there Would now bu mure to upend nu educational 

One vi thr elitof objectiona again pnhu I itoll the ooat 

of tsAouu the poll. This mean* k KM LB (UBtrlcCB an outlay of 

rvernl Qnudreo pounds, In tact, where vomit pupi-ra .u< 

reared and collected bi band alniu&t the whule • t the machinery 

at a i nun f-.il election has to lie Pet iu operation. It 

eafc to say that iu many <Iistricta the local public money which 

ii'.,.vi'C<l \zi taking tlic wfte would so ■« totj Long waj tow 

atocUi",* b ii'i n'v. It i- possible that returning officer:* will 

Oppoj roy with the popular vote because the question of 

few in not by any mesne u anmll oik. Hut tlic ratflpayen whose 

i pay those foes should consider whsthi I 

Hcpandlturs in taking a ] >pular rotoi rei llj aom i wry 

Another cbiection is that in the taking of the popular vote the 

ibh'oana ind >ther raise Eriends of the people have it in bholr 

defeat th< movement ir*w >ftei this attempt at populax 

ittafha* bean Strang! I oe & Co it U lamentable to 

. ■ oonsidai This proline rJaeaoi society seonm to mi-- and 

utmost every department of our national and local life 

directly or indirectly. There in u cnu-,tui t drum upon public 

o pay the depredaf ions upon society created by the ravages 

trade- And when an attempt it* made to promote 

i ratio*, museum*, education generally \>-.iyV -. mid other advnn- 

for the people, up Bl irt the publicans and block the way 

bam i o! i r Thai there i re ionae respectable rnernbi hi 

trade ifl acfcnow lodged . but :t Is sufficiently clear how often 
this I'll I c Library movement ha« been defeated solely by the 
eflt. r-ullem to cause nil thoughtful people to seriously 

notneder the fuel or tlmt this trndc is in our nut ion Ml life. 

ii" i'|r,'(iiMiM;r. road making, pOOT bu>. :in<l 

po4ii< . there l* no popular voting The local \t< lerntng bo*h has 

.il with Lhcse and other affairs Whj should the 

line ue any lonvi'i 1 di-avMi ttt Public Libraries mid museums? The 

William Ewartcuuldgel his BUI through the (louse 

erf the pennisaivy clause. 81111 from the 

■m, tu the present there has been a 

sufficient test of tlje popular vote, and we should, as a nation, 

hare now groim beyond that ftlage. 

■in . hi im::! are | ■ th< '-""'i of il" wholt district, and 

tion •■ it, the powor cai with safety be entrusted to 

lecti .1 i-> popular m t*-. Thcac i usted 

k a: the question from every standpi int. The mere i.i- 1 of 



it her 




:» 



JVfcUC I.UI1UKCIS. 



Its being i i uii i teal qneBtSonal the polls would be ;i dial 
i.. i! i moromei t, for then the constftocueles would hear kj i 
..m. m one 14c &ad or he other tli uld be m\ ell< 

b about the rubject. rh< popular vote would thtw ren 
it i* only changing ii* field "I a> tion Thia ia n ii.ii ;< r which may 
irged apoo the attention of all who &k ui interval u 
mea i. Tito aaiu would be y \ t. There would be :■ 
m i •■> -.. I c .-.. '■■>■«*, and ii better way ol i cnrto4nin# tbo tool 
wish of the people; and t)io mftuenccj t present brought t> 
bear in opposing tho adoption of the Act* would b< minimised 
i- hi aoaoontratcd in one partirular direction, l"h*rc w< uld u 

In- :iii top itUi in thl RUSDbor Of ftdOpMo&A Ol tli«' Art- . Ofl it 

■ down tho ground t" coror. 
Hut tin* i pro i'<-rtivo, and wo bsvc bo deal with the Act* as 
tho? stand oJ Qua oat [April, 1800), and these otearly defino that 
until they are repealed, the popular vote, either m 
meeting ■»■ by means o! voting papers, shall boadi-p'i i 
loquontly similar methods which nave produced -■■■■■—- m the 
past arc ealoulated to ignin linvc tbo Bame effect lnr-t md 
raremosl n th< very front rank <>i influence* Likely t<i aid 
in i iy district desirous of starting the movement m that <•* the 

Press' The Fourth E»tatrlr:is ln-i'iiinc ^nirivat a I ir i J iglish 

life, tlmt my public effort which leaves oul La the cold, or pre- 
fcendfl to '!•» -". the local newspapers, in almost sure, from the 
very first, to be doomed to failure. And if propi iatnr* mil wl 
i it newsaupertt can l«* made friends of the cause, an«1 U* prevailed 
upon r > treat the matter vigorously in their columns, the efforts 
toward* the adoption of the Acts cnnnol fall t»> be nltlm 
Knccenfnl. 

i Tho hall might, in the first Instance, he set rolling by sonic 
promlneni resident In a letter to the local press, showing the 
wide usefulness i»i Puhllc Libraries to all classes, and the de- 
sirability of ndcmttng the Art in Hint town nr district. The 
\s ritaraf such ;i letter »hould give some particulars of w!i;it these 
IliatitutionG have 'lone and are doing in oilier district*. He 

should go into figures, uiving the rateable value of the bownj 
v.iiii i li«- penny in the puuud would produce, and 
conld be done in the way of estuhllshiuir, stocking, 
taining a lihrurj with th< grow oxuounl It would be idi 
ii such a Letter to combat the idea iliat the rich nrovidi 
booka forthi poor -that the town i* doing for in what 

thC3 should '!" for themselves, \i/... provide I « tfc 

booka. U'lH.iMiit opponents everywhere dub these institute 

< ^i'1-ufiive luxuries in n town. Tlicv an* nothing ot bhe kind. 

The argument to the effect that if n. -own provides water, jrns, 
,i! .1 lowers for its catopayors, why ahould it not provide I 
..! (1 ii sding-rooTua, ahonld be riduolly handled. 

One IcttOl would thus lead to others, and th ■ Bubji i I ■'., i lil ) a 
pi-f'minontl> \entUntod ox i>"il* sides, Promoters masl 
In In." !"W ihwl there it an iinnit'uso union il ol non ense 
about Public Ubraries, and tlmt it lecms to be thouxfhl that 



tv. 0111X0 AEVX-T TUB AfKtPTrn^ OV TUT 



75 



Imt:iUm' UmUti ;ilv u gOOd tliilljj, LilLl.-l <»!**_■ tlnvy HliollM It 

provided !..r n.T!ii:ij\ Su.-h will, as ;i parallel inference, any that 
■ brc id id 'i -.-■ i i. ■ iorefoTi it should bo given without work. 
Other -* i' ■■ -i ■ hi are sure t. i»> made— such ts, u in jual si 
reasonable to provide fret boots a* Public Libraries, free every- 
thing, m fact, as books (or loud og to all adult eituena, withoui 
! ■: or hindrance Ifco conclusion will be drawn that if these 
tutionu are provided for the citizens it tends to destroy the 
moral fibre of a raan,and dulls the sense of BelMndepenoenee. 
Elaborate irgnroenra will he advanced that Lh intone, Stephen- 
b nodi "i other noble Englishmen achieved success 
withmit the aid oi Public l.iiirtri- -. !*.)p«>'s ..it-quoted words, 
bat which are neither wisp nor renaonable — 

"A little teaming ie a da&nroUfl thiu^; 
Drink Jct'ji or tast* i»>t dm Pterin) spring! 

Tlir-ro inatlow draught* intoxicate tbs beaut, 

And drinking largely solars us Again" — 

will ho served up and do duty in a variety of ways. Other* 

WiU (aythol till such measure i- lli« I'i l.|i.> LiLrnri'V \<l~ .or.' 

•inii>i; i in*- q! i TOtection— devices for compelling inori to 

maintain :i channel of supply which \x supposed to be beneficial 

|0 the enmmmrirv, but which confessedly cannot stand alone. 

• tonus "faddists," "fanatics," and tin real are sure to bo 

d, especially by anonymous letter writers, lor it is n dgnifloant 

:■ iim. more than one in twenty*ftve letters in the 

public press ■ <'•■ inst Public Libraries which gives trie name of the 

writer In discussing mis question, as with Si others, it should he 

well borne In mind that bpore u no reason to bo ashamed of an 

ast opinion, no mntter whether it is for or against ;i particular 

movement Every question admit* "i reuaombly different views 

■■• taker of it, and rJie one immediately under consideration i* 

no exception tu the rule. Lctier* such at those Indicated, and 

replies tannot fail to bring our the editor in his column* with 

loader**, mid i Hie Kubjccl kooii yrowa Into :i burning cniestioa 

the district. Every letter against the movcincnl should be 

answered fcq one in favour. 

Tin- morn JxtraoriiInai\> a*wriiuji* will lie made respecting 

heir cost, management, etc. A lung chapter 

• I be tillc-. with a selection culled from various sources. One 

• r travel* -.:;(<'. . .i i< -i i— sume "facts" against Public 

.: .ii :>i > would have a ucw excuse when they 

i i p:t nut in the- evening. Instead of the excuse being a 

■ ,. ii irould be ■* To ' hange my buok at the library ." 

■• Please t want ,i l k for my balp '<• piujf kiYA/" was B request, 

aav- ctuallv made to s librarian ai b Public Library. 

v lliix Yi-rv ehiidish argument thai I)k books borrowed 

■ source would be badly used, is one "I many Mich 

d i£uinnl them. In uthcr ooaeB onponente wQlbe stronff 

*, prorinp (to I i that the libraries wil 

living nnkn an<l outlay, which may bring the 

..[ parten i i ie vevg* »J ul olutc banki*uptcy in other 



76 



I ill AMI 



cumiu'aik w.n be quoted whore, bi h n|wcb bou&l Lwji 

Vet. they have obtained pel i 
it should bo remembered Unit in these nan 
bri iu b D partea hua been the moan -.mum. 

Second iu influence fur iIk uiwetueul tire i.-Iervjmeii 
imii-H'i ■» 1.1 r Hi bers, and di 

n bo havi mill. thin fcllow-Uiwi 

|j these could easily introduce the subject In ■ sen 
speech, or address. Some capital lecture* on the subject have 
been tfiien by c-leiyynvn am uini8tere, and b 

i ii Instance* the .successful iS4U« ■ <'■■■■<■ :u< rn n-m l».i - i i. 

owing to the spirited championing of it 
tofmentU] classes of the community Notices from the pnlpi 
the Sunday prior to (he vote being* token, referring bo PuMic 
i ■- 1 1 >mv ! po< i 1 1 1 v helpful, 

I ■Mm;.- ii K-n:, literary and debating societies, oil- 
can and do render very good aid. 

It is astouisliing how mum' friends of education there arc when 
such a movement as tliit it OOt gOf&gi And the v«»h:iiinrjr help of 

nil these should he at once enlisted. When the subject ho 
forward for a time, a provisional committee should he Pol 
a man of definite qualities for light and leading elected as chair- 
man. Mi trim In«'!i.!-: <>i tin- cause will have no jealousy against 
BOZOd gentleman talcing a very prominent lead in the matter i 
hut it i» only one of strong individuality who can do this., end 
others ihoulJ rally round. Such work is. of course, all 
and a pood leader wiJl take care that these voluntary worker* 
are well organised into sections fur various district*.* School- 
rnnmt, a* a rule, will In? willingly lout for the purpose of 
meeting*. Speakers at these meetings would do w^ll not to 
burden their audience with too many statistic.*; but 
speeches, to the point, would do much more good. 

Street moat be laid sil through the agftAtiot thai more than 
on* penny in the pound per year for maintenance cannot be 
levied. This is the one vital point or the entire cjUARMrm u d 
this argument cannot be driven home too firmly. An olahorat* 
preliminary scheme nhould be avoided. A library committee 
appointed oo the carrying of I are never bound bg 

m-Iiimmi' put. forward liy the provisinuid nn un:i a, 

If friend* *-■ f the movement have visited Pnl lie I 
country nil the letter, as they will from thes< derive Insp ration 
Much lielp must not, at first, be expected from alderm m md 
town council lore, or members of load boards under the oil 

Thc-^e gentlemen kuuw only tuu well the seuaitl 
inn consUtucnta respecting the rates, and a prominence on U B 
part of man? of them in a movement for an extra rate, however 
slight, might moan the loss of a seat in the council or board. 
Tin local members o* Parliament again sometimes IkuM 
from the movement, for reasons best known to thcmAorree. 

Bo careful that every step token is legal. Enemies to 
wfll be 'v.i on the watch for Wpfcoles a 






i H«\«. \liui | in, ilirtfrfUJ. I] 1HK ACTS. 



( mill where I biuer opponent refused to pay the 
rate when levied, his plea being [hat & rucetinp had decided 

mist rhr idoption <'\ thr A<(.> A- It Yaft ft tOSt 0000 hs W80 

•cmrnoned in the County Court, and of course lost, a* he had 
mistaken a mectine of the opponents as the statutory meeting 
defined by the Acta. Sometimes town clerks, when perhaps 
tin ir ie peXBOOaJ fechne; in tV matter, ;\tc rolDCtftfiC to gtvo 
»u winch would keep promoters within the .shirt 
line* of the Aet*; hut in other cases they srive tho freest utul 
follcet odvico, and so render ndruiroblc help, Wherever possible 
■ local solicitor should bo asked to «crv • on the provisional 

■ 

As it i& impossible to carry on any propaganda without some 

For and snot, a small preliminary fund is indispensable, and 
nendsof the moremenl in i ly with subscriptions for 

A distribution of literature is the chief expense, 
and the outlay for this depends, of course, upon the site of tli<- 
»wn. Local printers nre the best from whom to get leaflets, 
is odj prefereno* being given to the publishers of the 
■i m ipett which support the movement. Kepnnt« pi 
Ct#rs and other matter are given at the end of this book, and 
from &M typo standing, after nppenring in the local press, 
for n number to he strui k off will he found B practical plan. 
in ■ npansea for taking the poll come out of the rates, hut. for 
clings for the purpose of advocating the adoption of 
vets, and literature, a subscription fund among the promoters 
will ho neoeflBoiy. 

It ix I:rnrx8*ihlt* tu (like too gre;it i'itc l>> ko*p (tic ipiexifrin 

■teolately froo froni political Was, and wborewr practicable Dip 

leader* of the two chief political parties should be induced to 

i prominent part in the movement. Life would not be 

worth Irving if there were no platform where all could meet 

her and work for Ihe cojumon (food, and no other public 

welding lotf ether : ^ 11 thoroughly those of :ill Guides of 

kniM Ami political opinion as this. It does not, a* a rule, 

ftUffnr well fur the movement when it is brought forward and 

advocated chiefly by those who are open to tho charge of being 

attitude of shopkeepers i>* always a vital factor in the 
movement, and they are. of course, a class largely interested when 
on ic* reuse in the local rates is contemplated. Every effort should 
: . o conciliate them and to win them over to the schc e 
• 4 Public Library buildings always improves the 
property, and in some towns tradesmen advertise their 
business ns being within so mciny door.- of the Public 
The«< inslitutiunsin<*uloati hylhcii in flu one* EempOr&te 
IttMts end thrift, and as the massi s upend less in drink they will 
have more to spend with the boa I odesmen. Many -tliopkeepere 
render moot valuable service by advocating the claims of these 
uutita 
Drawing-room meetings for the purpose of explaining the usee 





i iiihAtirs*. 



to-do tire 

bio PI &< . ■!'].■ who \m ! :. 

take tho trouble Co inform tl 

irho " light bfl : 

o thu type 

■ i, ifl I-, ite 'j are tw ■' u pNpeclalh 
n i ip people wo difficult t i reach bj other m 

Opni I HIS ClftMOd : — 

i. ri I©, who do not too v 

■ d ben 1 1 o other 1 1 
ii !(.-.■ who <tv bonks are so cheap nowadays CbeJ no a 

nr<-il lie v. Ittim I 

ill. Tho nncra Ion— Mid fchwa 

these. 
FV. The burdened (?) ratepayer, who object* in prl 

:ill r:tli;- :mi! I:im'v 

v. Tin- publicans md their nunwoui votarfo*. 

\ i. ill.- working oloase*, who ver) often arc noi |tn 
.iu,.> X; in i ■: oi Publii Llbmi 

VII. Tlie foil;* who doul ("ii' for books, and I'm, to 
oilier |ti n ill* should poor creatures, what a Life i o lead ' 

vm Tin- nbsulutclv indiJTcrcnt, who care icivenwn 

ii. i iii.illri h0X (fOOd [tfl ■•l-j'.-i I-- — 1 ' M '!;:« DinpS," QUI 

ii b .tl them, 
FX Those who say thai Public Libraries, oft ri 

:• pi Irate benevolence in this • Bred ton, 
^. Shareholder* i xuhscrlption libraries, who feai thai tl 

■ ■■'in ut «ill L |" ■ As a rnutUT 

nf fiut. Public CJbrariee do nothing of tho kind. Tal 
town In ii a rth ol England, for Enetauce Short b w» r« "tier* 
in tho circulating library of that town, in 1870, al -•>. n&d 
command over £"20. In some movements thin I mi 

mistaken ooneideration Cor existing circulating IJ and 

,i- be made too wid< ly known ihnt wl i n Libraries 

uMr established, & far from injuring »th 
they bad alvaj ■ ■■ i ad i abrj benefited them. 

I nnd other institutes are very frcquonti 

errtxl o It max ■■ tod that the oc vital dinoren 

1 1 r i ifto lames d< iIodI LAo instil • I 

hi.! 1'iiMic Ubrarto that the latter iro aubjaot t.> p»] 
ii pol, and tho former ure not Thia onanrofl I'or them a it- 
mi.i i ■ ■ idll Ion, i »r thel 

it. Librarian i' responsible tolds committee, who ire In IB 

tanstble to h* to* ri muni II or lor il honrd md i ■ 
have in i'iuii.' periodical I'liviimi \i. . \ 

Instil nit-, being pr< pi I Ions, n e aoi unhjed b9 

lor control and idmlnfotnUon, and If the saw uf (ail 

.!., i dUCati iDfll OS 'I ivnl: I 0l 'hi- «l;.v is i 



urn 




HOW TO BRING ABOl'T THK ADOPTION OF THK ACTS. 79 

into, it will be found that the absence of this popular control 
largely accounts for it. Mechanics' institutes have done in the 
past a magnificent work, but they are scarcely in touch with the 
edaoational needs of the day. These institutions, in some instances, 
wo **ld form a good nucleus for a Public Library, by the taking 
over f the building and books at a fair valuation price j or, what 
i 8 better still, for the committee of management of the mechanics' 
institute to offer to hand over the institution if the town will 
^o i>t the Public Libraries Acts, and turn the mechanics' institute 
uito^ a Public Library. National and local pride should save these 
institutes from becoming mere clubs and lounges, and there 
is £*. reasonable fear that many of them already possess this 
character. 

T>ie provisional committee may be urged not to prematurely 
P*s*i forward the taking of the vote. The cause has been lost 
10 xnany towns through doing this. The ground must be well 
cleajed before this is done, and test votes can be taken at the 

Kvious public meetings on such a question as — Those hold up 
ds who wish to see a Public Library established in this 
to/Mrn? 

. Then following vigorous discussion, and the period appearing 
n I>e for the test, a requisition signed by ten ratepayers to the 
ma^or. or local authority, requesting him to issue voting papers 
°** call a public meeting to decide whether the Act shall l>e 
^lopted in that town. (See Appendix for this form.) 

-A poster announcing this town's meeting will then be issued, 
ai *<i so the town will experience an event fraught with important 
consequences upon its present and future generations. 

The mayor or chairman of governing authority will, of course, 
preside, and the town clerk will commence by reading the notice 
convening the meeting. Speeches in favour of the step, and 
perhaps one or two against, will be made, and then will come 
the formal proposition by some prominent ratepayer, and this 
**11 be seconded, and then a show of hands decides the book fate 
°* the town for weal or woe. 

Ifa simple majority of those present at this town's meeting 
Qeeide in favour the vote is sufficient. 

Some years ago a meeting was held at Stockport to consider 
j** e advisability of establishing a Public Library. It was 
P^Ufestly hostile to the proposal until a young man rose, and, 
JJ an impassioned speech, exhorted the citizens present to go to 
Hle U' children's bedsides and say, "Oh, my little children, I have 
? Urs ed you with the blight of ignorance, with all the power that 
jj at my disposal." Although hyperbolical in tone, it is not 
Grange that such a taunt should have struck home. The Act was 
^pted. 

. A show of hands is not final, although, to ordinary persons, that 
* the distinct meaning of the Act. But there is another Act of 
*«liament which steps in and enables a citizen, by a right of 
common law, to demand a poll. This may be done in such an 
■tte^ular way that it can be ruled out of order, or the request 






I.IKMJLHIKX 






a perwm ma rumpctnit to (Sum 5BCt a «t«p 

of the . sea, be 



< on 

ou the port 

unwise ami uiiwfe. Mid would mih leail to Icgnl :.-iii f ; 

raised which a feud It is im. 

. demand • »i> 

■ btlc< I i.\ ;i « *■• 1 1 card la - '•' Bog r, 9l U I I bw, BeUmal 
Greu when it was ruled thit the light to detufl 

poll is a uecewary ■ if ol electa 

Thn :.'.•■..■■ i action Re 

Wimbledon Local Hoard wiu tried. Tl wiu» ibat'&uj 

quali6ed person present nt a meeting conv 
niav, after a show of baud*, demand a poll. 

Iliv pei ling :i poll should be asked up to the 

platform, and must there *ign « do name and 

nddroM. Ho mnel also bring with him a witness to bis aurri i 
Thii action may bring an cony and cheap notorioty where tlie 

•bow ol i ad i . fi ' i ■ f the o;.pnnoni demands 

tbo purpOAO OJ lr|>:itum tlu- iimviMhvut. The docui 

placed In tho : :md no will go down Bo I le local 

[WKtiTity 1 h"->n .- 1 ■ -ill : ■ rne. 

\i ■ Mill. ' h.'iv ism he mi amendment to the 

motion The answer Lrn nr"!i;iy." The power 

of demanding a poll la the utihatitute for an amOBdlQCnl Eo the 
mbatandre mottoi In the chapter on legal aspects reference 
It made to the ton whoso shoulder* should lull the 

of iiif poll where ii ii demanded. 

If in :iiv, .iy-. w -f :iiul Aftf* In I n«:i.r f 1 It" iijipniiciiK tO bit 

rnimly, Tact, skill, and nomteav in handling tl 
hare often won over tlioac* vhonnvc gone to the u «■ 
v uii the ffxsd Intenftfon of opposing the wheims 

Tfie iik*' nf VOtlBg papers Is the Imit i«.r miic] more xntisfnctnry 

method These can be dollverod by pollcexneo Send on 
papers by poet is permitted by the Root«h Act, hut ci 
resorted Yit in Enfflatwl ut this date [April, 1890). '• Herr 
are— move taxes I" Bald by the posliueu as they handed la 
pipers, lost Olaeffow tho adoption of the Act, and the oitl 
hail It.: pa] bo wic tunc of several hundred pound* for the 
gratuitous remarks ol those industrious members ol the Civil 
Service. The cost of taking the vote by papers La defrayed out »-f 
the fatrfi, \ Town Council or a Local Board bave the power, 
nf course; of deciding within themselves which of fcbc Ln ■ 
methods shall be adopted for ascertaining the views of the i 
payers. 

Sometimes the number of spoiled papers in very oonatden 
:ui<i \u- tsauc of a httic alii jii ng plain instructions e> day or ts i 
before the polling takes place is advisable. "' STee" or " X'V name 
and address i 'f v spayer. and, if 1- >r eho ro deetree, a tote that 
the rate shall m I exceed owe hing mdor a penny, i» all tho 
writing permitted Anything beyond this nullities the 
Some exceedingly goocf friends want to aa/t on their 
papers thnt they are m favour uf Khose Lihmriefi, but 









t vote, 
coting 
l they 



I THK AD01-TIi»>- ■!• Ill I. ACTS. 



S| 



2 



are not in providing novel? It tlic public IVpentt, Of 

novel Wftdlng, ai)«l they cannot resist making the fact known on 
'heir papers. Booh n vote would, of course, be toefc others 
agam wish to oukke ivmurlcR of Homo other nature; and too 
much slrC88, in mam- pta£Q8j CMmOt he hud upon the nooewsil v of 
^iviTit: l: tfiapU answer, " Yes/' and their name and add] 

Th<. qnoeuan oj who are quuliiied to vote has for years been a 
very vexed one, but wus settled y the Croydon cose, to which 

^eference itt made :u another ohaptCl That deautioo hn* now 
isde it clour thai ecoupleri .1^ well ;i^ crvnen have votes. 
In not o few eases, the most determined opposition was offered 
to the adoption ol the Act. nnt l dort&g the formation of the library 
the nv ^.t gloomy (orohfHlinys uml proguoatiiNttious of I'm Inn.' won' 
indulged fa. After, however, the library had been in WtftV three 
or tour month*, there was not one in u hundred of the opponents 
but what had been won over, many of them having the honesty 
to confess their ■ -cnvi-ision. and W aetalOwledge flafct they bad 
not lh* slightest idea that a Public Library was such a splendid 
and enjoyable institution. 
The following gives the main features of the various Acts: — 

1. Any town, parish, district, Of union GfpartiheBj is empowered 
the Public libraries' Acte, 18W— 1689, to levy •< rate ocri 

tceediug one penny in the pound for the establishment and 
lafatennnec "i bulldlngb, with the requisite appliances, suitable 
ir "Publii! Libraries, Public Museums aaid Schools for Science, 
,rt (islleriea, and Schools for Art, or for any out* or more of those 
jjecL*" 1 17 St 48 Vict. i". 37)i provided that a majority of more 
.1 -!t;iir ,A tin- i^topayera vote iu favour id' mloptimg the 
dm of the Acta. 

2. The preliminary steps to be taken with a view to the adoption 
tin Lot an these 1 — 

(a.) In Mrsn \jeAh 13 1 lie Act iei puree that the mayor 

abaTJ onvone j public meeting on the request of tlie town 
council, or on the request in writing of any ten resident 
ratepayers , 

(6.) In ThSTBicxs within the limits of any Improvement Act, 
the district board ia to convene u meeting upon the 
requisition in writing of at least ten resident ratepayers , 

(a) In pARteiLKH, the overseers of tho poor, on the written 
requisition of ten resident ratepayers, are to convene a 
meeting to determine whether the Act shall be adopted. 

(A) The proeoribi'd local authority is empowered, under the -10 & 
-11 Vict. c. 51, to ascertain the opinions ol the majority ol 
the ratepayers, either by public meeting or by the issue of 
a voting paper to each ratepayer. 

3. Ten clear days" notice of the time, place, and object of the 
meeting must be given by affixing the same on or near the 
door *»f every church and chapel, and at least seven days' notta* 

I by advertisement in a newspaper published or e\FOtita&nB> to V\\<\ 
borough, dirtrh't. arpmisti 
L. 



89 



pubmo t.rutinrvA. 



i. i with the meeting i 

tar the A< iro chargeabU 

■pon the borough fun bedefrayi ,, ^*«7, 

by ii Mipnrato rate ipcclally leried for lb 
to exceed ana i>eiuiy in the jwuiid. 

f>. Where b i>"i li demanded lhe .Would be open— 

lc,tho i-;to vote rneygo and rooui ^ _n . i. itfcheplaoei 

duly announced. 

6\ If the Ac.tr* be adapted the organization for carTyin^ 
provi-Hiunn into operation is as follows :- 

(/?.) in Beaocon "1^ management, regulation, and oe 
ofl librarian and n unctinw, *chool* 1..:' telencti i ad art, shali 
be retted "I and exercnted by the council, 0* by such 

(•MinrniniH' :tn Ml** n unnl 1:1:1 v appoint, and th< 

of the ivmimlttoe are no; required ■" !»• 'n.?nit>or* 

eouneil. 

(6.) In DtsTBtcTe, The board op trustees noti 

of the Improvement Act. ov a committee app 
them; also local boards under the Local ^ ivornment 

(c.) In 1'AmsHEs. Not less than three nor more than 
commissioners, to be appointed by the vestry, are 
stituled a body o irporatr I'orMw purpose* <>f tin- ' 
the name nf "The Commissioners for Public Llbri 
and Muscume for the Parish of i:i the Count- 

of- 
7. The council, txninl, mugiMmttvt, »r rmnmiKeMnan are 
empowered to borrow raonej at interest, m tin 
mortgage <>r bond of the liorough fund?*, or genera! ill 
rate, or of the rate levied under the Act; and the proi 
1 1 bne Companies Clauses, and the Lauds Clause* Con 
Aate. ]84o> an Incorporated with the Public Libraries" Act, 

Thr imendmcot Act of 1864 (47 & 48 Vict. c. 37) empower* 
wiy anil lorltj .icting under the- Public Libraries' Acta to accept a 
grant from the Committee of. Council on Education towards UN 
purchase of sites or the provision of premises or furniture fi 
schools of Balance ox art. 

y. VVlmn two or more neighbouring parishes nombin. 1 fof 1KB 
purpose" of th*- \et, eacl) pariah to to appoint not more thaa three 

COinniiHHioinir^ ami t!ii_' rtimmissionefh lYn l-lie .M'\rtal parishes ar# 
to form one body corporate, and to act together in the exeoutfoB 
of the Act. The expenses of carrying the Act into operation ars 
to lie borne by the parishes in such proportions aa they may 
mutually upprove. 

A simple majority of those polling, whether by statutory meet- 
tng or poll, is sulllcieut to decide the question. 

Where the movement is eueceastul, official announcement 
■hould be made in the usual BOOTCes. The following will give 
an idea-.— 



LI giVC 



CM m. BOABD OF HEALTH.— DISTRICT Of 
PUBLIC LIBBARIE8 ACTS, Lflfifl TO 1889 
: toe is hereby given, that a I'oll of the Kntepayere of tho 
District of tim Local Board of Health has been duly 

taken, as by law required] 00 (hi- following Resolution, proposed 
xi a Public Meeting of ratepayers ot the said district, held m 

Ith* Town Hall, , on the day 

of , viz.- 

■ That tbll meeting hereby resolved and determines that 
the provisions or the Pablfo Libraries' Act*, 1866 to 1889, 
ehalt h<- :n!n[ ■!.■(! ."<>i 'ttad W it i -it I hi;. District. 
And wfaioh Re* lutioi .on being put to the meeting, was duly 
passed, whereupon B POLL was demanded; and that the rttOU 
t.( bo •' iV.ll ■ m I'i'll' ■«> ■ 

It - 'i the Resolution 
\ ote* Lgalitfl the Rasolntton 
Majority of Votes in Favour . 
And I hereby doolaM fchfl anid Resolution to be duly puaacd 
and adoptedj sad hereby, u required b$ aw, pubttali a oopy 

'I .i reef. 

Hated this day ot 

Qhalnnanaf tbaaald Looal Board of Health, 

will In: seen (hat this applies to ri ease where a poll was 

but only thia form, as being one of the mod 

I. need be given. 

aiuountof ratiniidatioa which goes on when the rote on this 

09 I being taken is at limes perfectly amazing, In the 

autumn of 1868, when the vote wna being taken in Hull, it was 

stated before the 9trpcndinrv thnt bhere were whole streets where 

oppori' i dneed w w absent Behennei) to rote against 

the Acts, and themselves aided to fill up the votiug papers. A 

charge of forgery was instituted, and the case was brought homo 

to tho party. It Ee o pity that the Corrupt Practices Act does 

ily hi tho taking ol this vote. 




" 



CHAPTKR IX. 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN THE NORTHERN 

COUNTIES, 



> 9 7 in m the iioithiTii and midland counties that wo hnvo to 
look tor the best development of tho Public Library move 
mont up to the present time. The spirit of emulation is, 
hovevar, abroad, and in another ten years the metropolis 

aadaomeo the western counties wiU, there ia reaeoc I • 
thin*, liavi- mada so much progress that tbfij ^til b& w. uM to 
wnrywsV with thorn ot bo north ant] midland*. Ba!t\ , t'*a* » 




-I 



1 1 III. I- I II. ■ 



in. in it i ol Bagaind tint tii remenl first enti 

it ih lioro l l hftVt m- ■ ! .-- 1- 1. !_. [ v- . ■ i . . 1 1. : 'i ". ..rkhaa 

twcn oarriod on "'Hi i he loot the n 

jr.'.i^ra|ilin-i :uv l..'i."tM'iiiiH to K[>ll1 it]- tin loi'tV COUAtiOB of 

England differently t » the arrangement in the old r b i It 
!,,, pvoBonl purposes and In order to adjust tho length - 

GUapUr* l!ii> (Ul ikiti of m . counties Is not oil a Ifcb the 

I"".!:-. l!i. t.-ouuties here dealt wifj 

NcTtoumborland, iJuriuun, Yorkshire, Cumberland. Westmore- 
land, and lytnoashlre, ">.l iu wns ere named alphabetically 

when it li iiiou^hi i eoessero n c;iii attention to the work, u 
hiiM in't-ii iih'i'fuiv -t i .•.! Mint Mii' time does not appear tn ha\ ._ ;...•: 
amvnil wlii'ii liihlic Libraries ought to he made the sulv. 
aniparing orltioiam. The real national Interest in these institu- 
tion* Is an yei onlj a few years old, and whilst the largest and 
nf the libraries are doing a work which will bear the ■ 
examination, there we others which have to struggle with 
difficulties kbd surroundings wlildi hamper and harass I 
work These hindrances may arise From rarious causes Bui H 
beooiuos Increasingly evident that the touo of the work ci 
uhicnj from the librarian unless hi* hand* an tied bj a ca] I 
committees It i*> not a pleasant statement to make, but nererthe- 
les» a Iruo one, thai eoiuu Librarians are so very unbusinesslike to 
their iin'tlmii.-. iii.it the wonder would be if the tfbraric* onde 
tlii-ir charge vrcrt* particularly eucceasfttl. These cases 
ever.not numerous, and are becoming less so. It not unfrcqm 
happens that, even in libraries where bhe mamureiuent is not quite 

«h;tt il should '>'■, Mi" use made of the WiiMing and the I 

grows by leap* and hounds, so that even in spite ol adverse 
i iivmuotnnoea the work is successful. It in u truth which cannot 
!■■ too often reiterated, thai the same qualities which fro to n 
a mat: sneoeesful In ether walks of life Invariably prodv 
lihrarinn whose work possesses spirit and energy. The rank* 
of librarians Who are deeply in touch with the purposes and 

C legibilities of their work are being constantly enlargM) ;md so 
m n* thia it bo there need bo no fear as to tne future o/l these 
institutions. 

It wo*! of course, impossible to mention more than a limited 
bumber. Some wfiL perhaps, argue that the work of many 
Publie Libraries differs so little that it was unneeess:<i 
mention more than a hunted number of representative libraries. 
But the main Objeet in view is the promotion of the movement., 
:md to bring as many side lights to bear upon it as post 
in districts where it ia sought to adopt the Aers the work of 
libraries in similar steed towns and districts to the pi ire 
the movement is in progress is quoted, and li is with :i li 
to aid these that 80 ninny places have been named in these 
chapters, There is the farther desire to prevent »» m 
librarians from being disappointed at their own place 
unnientioned. Nearly all th** places where the A< te have of late 
rears beta adopted ire named in tbt present txud ubavta i Imme- 







rrm yonrjrEnN- corxriw, 




following fcut all arc, in any case, in the tables of aUtiMiea 
end. 

AeirroN-vxDBn-L\Nr. 

I be library hero has for some time been struggling to carry on 
an increasing work in rooms which are not at all adequate to it.% 
requirements, The committer, howOYOr. flow sec an end to their 
trouble* cu tliis account, for on April 10, 1890, a letter whm read 
/. liie Town Council meeting from the trustees of the late Mi. 
rge H".r: nhottom, offering the gift of £10,000 for the erection 
1 ublio Library and T. el :.;r.il School for the town. A«hton 
1000 bo able to rejoice in n Urge and specialty deigned 
Iding. 



Rurnslcvhastbe durtinffuishod honour of being the fii'M English 
town to aclopt the Ante in 1800. Some years ago the QUOftftoa was 
flrtt mooteu by .Mr, Alexander Pot arson, the editor of the 
•'Barn*] >■'. Chronicle/ and there was then a very arrong feeling 
againd ii Public LU-rnry in certain (juartorn. In January law, 
When the question came forward, it was entirely the other way, 
nod at th* town's meeting there was absolute unanimity. A 
publie bsl vn - erected in die town some yearn ago, and this was 
*to unsuccessful that Che company came ro imrikruptey, and the 
hall, offices, and some other effect! became a white elephant to 
the creditors. After various <oigge*itions hnd been udvnneed as 
.<■ the use* to which Che ball might be put, the whole titotik of 
-..iii. Ingfl ram* no i he hammer, and vaa purchased by Mr nmrlea 
Harvnv. J.P., who with most commendable public spirit Offered 
the httll to the town fbr the purpose of a Public Library, making the 
\xwt> pr.'Vivi rhnt rhp Acisaliould lie adopted. Tills gift represents 
omal money value of nol lose than from £10,000 to fel&OOD. 
i the local paper to which reference Iihm been 
rnadr appropriately remarked, at the time the question was in 
progress, that a Public Library "in of necessity an educational 
i much more comprehensive sense of the term than any 
•■ library can 1 • , r.i tuhil c-if by either tttCtarlsO 
son the one band, or political influences tin the other; 
:hc hambleet visitor to its reading-room will, while there, 
• IT on a footing of equality with its most aristocratic 
- The clubs will continue to go on doing their own work 
in their own way, but the Public Library will do something which 
thcr, however fully equipped, cannot do — place the best literature 
of the present and bygone times within trie reach of all sections 
v, md that free of charge .so far as the readers 
:\re individually concerned. In not a few the taste for 
dfafl vill hnve to be created; in others it will simply need to 
■ •[ ; while many Mill for the first time in their fives hove 
iviletfo of familiarizing thcmsolvee with the writings of our 
i — those works whiotl take rank as our British 
e for rending, coupled with the means for \U 
.cannot ssfef without cxercisma o W'r»efte\<\\ vrA\\e\\oi> 





Nfl 



pmrio htuijuu**. 






mi. I I i!.':il riN-nl-.ul Hii'. x i-'.'i:. . - L ».|r {VWbMHOnt 

UTO :■: plVsi-iil .-Mior::ii!. u II i <■ t|.\ i-I- : . i if null . 

mc not m ■ studeni 

the result will I* thr ruisi ... 

of flic community jreueiully. Th< n hope il :■ 

ffau dej will >!' lleeM peal ■ Ma Public Library work. 

mil in which thR •■. I.nlr H QOfttlQD W6B | .1 "». | 1 up and I'.i 

this. Very hi . '. tonntioni toward* tJ 

an. and, immediatelj the 
wcrt 1 [oh tad 

been -ii by the owner in trurt until the Act* wen adopted, were 

handed over to the town, The committee of management i 
mechanic*' Institute dectdod hat the books in the circulating and 
n : >-■■« -i:r. ■ iii.r.n-M- m! nil i:ii| ■ ■:_;.. uucoudit ionally to 
.•rporationforthc purpose of tho Public Library. Here is an 
eamupl- which may well Ik- followed by the committee 
chatties' institute*. 

IUiui 'W-i.v-I'i rsbss, A.Nr rwcarwtiui'. 
I'll*- now Town Mull in Whiah the library a* BltMte 1* a Ivand- 

sorae Woe* "t 1. millings. It wflfl opened In .ini\, 1887, bj the 
Etfarqni'- "V linrtiii'/t.in riic I'uiilio Library Is the youngeei el 
n unjoins! IneUtnttoofl * > < BafTDW 
Ttii> subject \\ i- firm mentioned Reveral yeere ago, but, public 
(ipmiitii pot being iraffldantly ripe, the rjneetion died out, tt 
wm not until I8SI (tint [he Public I llimrlw' Acts wer« 
pj resolution of n public meeting. A temporary building wm 
mi truce erected, to be ueed until the library found u permai 
home In the ae* Town Hall. fclr. John Frowrte, of the Live 

I'ublk' l_.it .<.-, appointed, _md still iijntiniie*. librarian, 

i.:- .- oi suitable books, numbering 5,000 rolumes, were aele 
The opening ceremony took place in the autumn t.-i' I88£ Foods 

wen subscribed I'm- inuring a natural history and scientific 

niti-.i'uni. It. \wr. S'jiju t'uiui'! Mutt Hit building which had 

been erected waa too email for the number of personi deefrouB 
.-f waiting bhenuielvca of ite privileges, and the room intended 
for iniiMciiin pii'-p'wr» wim fitted up noun additional newsroom, 
while i farthei sum waa expended on bho purchase of l»colcs. 
I i- in that time t'tr ward success was assured, and :t te . 
to otnto tliii Mi<' publie demands on the institution have 

f-i-iw by year \ »w there arc M.iMO volumes in the Ubmry; the 
avcDile Motion la Bfcrong, and the average issue is about tajrhty .*ux 
Ear- day. Tlio arorago daily issue haa grown fron -ISM. 

vcr £4& waa received in tinea for detention during the | 
Soma members of town councils Badly need to use the booli 
their Publto Ubrary more than appears to be the ease, and this 

: especially \>> Barrow. A ateouaston took place ba 
loimoll in July. 1889, on a recommendation Irom tb 
eon rtee ai t»» n proponed Lnoreece In the Librariana kiUtv 

trom £'b".(i u> l'i;."., The statement was made rliat Line out A 

■»-ii "ii the library ooiuuiiblee who voted against the jM^powd 






rt BI.IC I.HlKAlCi. '< n r. ■ ■ ■!, Mil,.-. 



^7 






increase □ I lo the librarv. The moral here is that only 

irith Public Library worktiiould be 

electa! on Ornamental n -n r,t 

members arc not wanted on these committer*. One memWi 

. riim ;-. rti " ,i rented for the peatuioui eta ■ " 

"i"ii-- ircrh si B lonblod Itself since the library 

opened, and inthotnblccd fcho occupations of the-.!-' 
borru 1 '. accountants, chcnriet6, clergymen and 

■ ','in i !■!,:. -r,T- : i-« ax i . ■ :.-// veil 

. hinelc trod** in The towi. ..- aurvprefroutod 
amone the borrow on . pray, nre the " penurioun 

elan 

I 'ii-ui wood owes its library to the generosii y of the late Si Q 

m whodiod n November, 1&S9. In August, 18*7, the Acts 

were itutory meeting, and in December of the same 

lie I-. -i-iv c-room was »penedL Hie library followed hi the 

p .(i iftfltf. During some montiis r.he attendanee sJ the 

bn high n» 4,441 Papers and magazines 

to tin- number o1 sixty-fire nre taken, the librarian^ report IB 

pithy \t Ihi end o 1888 the question d4 Sunday opening came 

1 1 1> The donor was distinct!) In favour of that step, for ha aald— 

red i an iraeni agsJBoi opening sindlar placafl <"i 

mdajH toj t :. tnnj prevent people from attending oburoh or 

I* t '!»!-. , I would oay that Lhe peoi^le will go where they 

■ i i traded and EjdI rested Let the clergy then make their 

■■ and please the people. With good 

. short sermons, and good elocution, they would fill u i i 

of worship— at any rate, better than they now do." The 

by Sir. Fielden was erected by the late 

inin VVhitM ..ill t>i educational purposes On it* coming 

ffket it was purchased by Mr. Ffclden and handed o*rei 

l her eoac of donors malting; their rffu to UTCepaoalblc 

i continuous The late Mr. Wbitvarth 

■i «■ cd LCfttlon whirii stands out among ill the 

ronispieuous work which hue bean done in this direction, But the 

Of the building in question for the purpose intended 

be satisfactorily guaranteed bv anv clauses in local 

; ■ "ii.*- building belnff the nroporly oil use 

people that this can be assuriM. Guts ot this nature should 

oKuv --I "it condition bhal thepeople will take upon 

the muhitenunee of tho institution, and this can only 

■ adoption it the Acts. Mr. Samuel Kielden has 

*o recently joined the majority that tin- folio winp, neuu-n<'o rron 

Fie) den. who declared the huilding opan, 

h* phici'ii <n record She urnd— "When Mr Fiefdi 

thts Institute to th*> town neither he imv 1 ltful Die 

: would he consuli'ivi! worth) of so pi. Mir :i 

lis Fie guve rt with pleasure, ind thought than 
ad ' i the matter, My husband, however, amongst 
■Me,' 'iwii ridtleH, and (me ot 
,.<■ i mm a hi'iu- o.> be thanked lor :m\j n\ V\* QjQCA 




rrnu<" umuai 



MtlonSt ii'- .•ay* thai it i. either] [reorbladutj l 

:li'in. and iliit in the one case no thanks arc ilr-< rvtd, InttH 
other none arc required. ITii* in why I repreM 
Hi- ie afraid thai I to morn tl offered to MiB ,tm 

he oannol wand butter. Ira I In moderation; i I 

nerer \ ■- dovolopod a iftotc for dry broad. .... I thank 
i . ri" period oi Ufa marc exposed to torn pcetf one to 01 1 
or mom 1 pen <■ nJruenoefl fortfooa than th n thstHO 

up 1 twenta out, The restraints of lohool ■■ ■■ exist, Ibi 

i, .hi ; .. m-li'i 1 1 <l.-nee is atronff, and parental OOQ 

extent relaxed, whilst on aU rioae, to say the loast, qoafttkffi 

amnaements and companions present themselves to our yoxme 

people, and the deatre rat improvement, the lessons of the teacher, 

mid tlii.< counaels of tlio parent, nre, alnw, too of!. 11 f or g o tK 

oagloetad. Chen how truly valuable— nay, how IndJS] 

in sueli an Institution M youre, where your lom and davtfkts • 

may nwemble imderktndlyooTirTOl ( 1n well-lighted 1 

rooms, to listen to lectures, and to Join in any branch ol :•.-: 1 

for which they may have developed 1 taste in their school davt. 

The rite pmi u.'i - roughly £IS& but BO Eat the worU U begbnml 

m-.-ii Several Liberal gifts tor the pnrrhnse or honk-; have flowed 

in. 

Bl Ni.l l.\ (1 QBJCR), 

The question has been forward at .Dingle}- for some time, and 
the example of Bamsloy wa» found to be eontagione, fox on 
February 14, 1890, th< Acta were unanimously adopied. Heic 
ii. committee and members of the mechanics' institute acted 
w ittbily Ai offer of Mr. Alfred Sharp's of £1,000 for books 
a 1 Ik- Arts were adopted lubricated the matter very materially. 
It required rh»- consent of uiue-tcnthe of the members of the 
meohanloa' Institute before they could hand over the build 
It is satisfactory to note that 1M0 voted in l'avuur of 1 m 
OTOt the institute and only ten against. The mooting dec 
very unanimously in favour of the adoption, and no poll was 
demanded. 

DblCKPOOL am> SODTHKOtti 

These two Lancashire seaside watering-places are veil served 
by their libraries. Ttlnrkpool shows a steady inoreaec in its 
lending department, The number feoned during; the year va* 
\'<,\~~ ogainsl 1^,074 for the previous year. Borrowers to tin- 
D 1 iii' r ft l,tsJ now avail themselves of the library. II w 
a proportion of one in every fourteen of the population. The 
attention of readers is being directed to works or travel, if 
■cieuce, and art. Only £66 was spent in new hook*, w 
LS n small amount considering that the rate produces t> 
November to DCereh arc the busy months, as ai other pinec* 
'Vhe library in m charge of Bliss Eteson and two lady assistants. 

■\t Bauthport there are 18,235 volumes, and tns turn 
Of these la shown ai 9QJB3Q fop home reading and 24JJG 
use in the reading-room. This shows u deereeae tn twth 



pmr.ir i.mnATrncR in tjttc vnnrHnav .tii 



Bfl 



departments OVM thfi previous year. hut. it is largely nccounted 
far i'.v !)■ rule n:i<ir ii February, I88B, that no book be 
exchanged within three days, iu unlet to check rnrebwi rci 
Among the non-members of the conucil on the committer ihr 
name of Mr. Alexander Ircium • i » j - ■ j ; t r*. Tic haa ever been 
an earnest friend of populftj education. In January, 1N*9, (lie 
nan reference department « u thrown open, Among the rules 

is one to the effect that a penny shall he pai<l for each 

turned down. 'Hie iudcx-cataloguee quo: supplement are l»»tli 
wel] uronffodand w.-il printed, and reflect credit upon th..- Librarian) 
M: Newman. BirfcdaJe bi .< neighbour mg district o1 Bouthpotti 
and ;t is snid that a oonfiiderablc number of the residents hate 
been accustomed bo •-*<> into Southport almost daily to two the 
readiog-room, and 80HM ot the Birkdulc people thought thru the 
Umc Sod come when they should ha/ro u hbrurv ox their ova 
EKeOUBsiODS U to amalgamating the two district*) have tftkenplflCC, 
but not hint.' hoe y C< heeo donOi In .Murch, 1S90, the township was 

it|;ienr«N'.| wiih | Oopy ol ft requteilioa signed byeome thirty or 
otty i -■-■iis, :iU ol whom, except three or four, belonged to one 

Dftl party, Others not bein^ i ; I oh-tii. Thi- m it-.- ; ". .. ... 

court;. ious i '•! ■■ I rwnBmeotmgWBBsummonedbythec] lr 

man of the i.ni . I Board in the usual QUBdsepf snd was held in the 
l Hall. Thriv were five persons present at Kp.ro., which num- 
ber afterwards rose to twelve, and. when the mooting WUfl fullest, 
The promoters did not jmt nt m nppenrnnoe 
In fn- it Iml to adjourn. Thia was ilonc for 'i 

ri night am! on the night, fixed, the adjourned meeting was held. 

The township hud, meinwhile, Iteen largely placarded with a new 

lam i't bi i- to elghl the ttmefor commencing the meeting, 

irere twenty bo thirty persons present, and at no tfnie more 

'linn forty Tin' ohairmai took the Chair punctually 

i iked rou id, and remarked that the meeting could 

<>NslUly be regarded u n representative one ; upon which :i 

uyer proposed thai it he adjourned tine rfir. This was 

dad and earned unanimously, and the business was over at 

w pant eight it It Immaterial who were responsible 

: DOfli ' . but it would be for better to leave the movement 

•lone tlian to play with it iu this way. 

Bucnuw. 
Th© stre< t En which the building illustrated on p, ooi* Mtuatcd 
■ :ih \y .-jill.-d Lihr..t-N Htrcet. In 18fi3 the Libraries' Act 
wa* adopted, althouach the Act waa not carried into effect until 
1963, Since 1S71 the library and mueeuni hare been in a 
*ueted building. It is a handsome mtone-built and 
i with Rcutptured panel« in the medireval Gothic 
it a cost, including the internal fittings, of about 
«>. On the ground floor are the reference ;unl tending 
Ki iding-roora, &e. The libraries oonUJa 

u|'' . '-' vi.'hune**: of these 17,4-15 are 'm ttve teAewiefc 

department, anrf 16,077 in rlw lending department. 'Wo, trostfbw 



90 



niU<" lXBBA»f«*. 



tft\ am purchased !art year was 79-1, at mi uremic co« of 
5s. 7;d. per volume S] 
tlir i-otlon maim - rurlng. In II 

;in ii. i bo In ■ i '•■ eon inlti d, sad ' n tin 

ifi,7Ua during thft last year. Tin- 
depot iter l7,<mo rolnmw The mui o ih* 

HNMH- 1'H mprlHM tflPfC rnnli>. nrr: 

wlinli- nl |hs*nr*S Boor fhe Souti Ftnora contains a itiiflcelb- 
i- collection of etlinog raphic i iuJpci • n collection of pel ■ ■■ 
Foreign annuals, shells, &c., utypoi 

nf notes; tin' Western Room, exa nples • I" mar-Me : 
i »i :i -.1 « -i- < •: (i fair collection or British birds; srtil 




pi tii.n ijni -> it . 



"■>"- rth Room, which forms ttie picture gallery, zoatalnA | 

fiaiueil •■■ ivm^b. jtul |iluik*ri'Hphs, and the Kensington 
Collection. There is also a collection of local and i 
logical specimens, iunn'v;ii-. fitCi Mr D. Geddee, who bad i 
librarian and curator for some years, »Led verv raddenj 

i.'i-t.tlier hurt. He wos .m em -■-.lU-otor for the mil 

and had served the town well. Mr. R. Ash ton now occupies tin 
position. 

130E,T0N. 

BoHon was one of the first of tu« twelve places to adopt tin 
koto, and hut recently i^uu>«i it* thirty ixth report. In 
central library and tinw iruuches it boast* of (M.ik.h vols 
•:».■ half the nunii-'i' i»'ipji i!i iiw parent Instil ition I 
tin- reference Horary fa strong^t, and there ere tl locaal 

figures snowing the issue for the year in the reference at 



lepart- 



p mi r.n»n.\niKs is rar. y^nntatx cor.\Tir.*. 



!>i 






rolumoe, tod hi tlir Icii'Jiuw section of 40,89? 

reltUDCO. This however, must be somewhat discounted, p 

magazines, given En the reference returns, tell up ;<■ SI I I 

.- :ni-i;ii;*-<i :it the FMtou Vuli]).' Ijhrary about the 

ubecriptioo library of any in connection iriBo the* 

rato-euppnrtod institutions. The number of subscribers i* 886, 

/ml th- 1 ..*. • in !hi depnt'tni":)! is ubout £0ft The 

[■iibli'' Li "•■• -: lV«d IflAl TWff l«S0 v ■■[n:i .hi-. Hi'- 

v, the value of which i- ui\-.Mi a* tliOO. Tin* 

ittee in the report are content to express themselves in 

-nve wonN— ;iiw hit Hi br Gleet report v bien baacomeunder 

itfeort notice. The other part* ol the report ax* lull and 

interests «t. There li mention o1 the generous offor of Mr. J. 

P. Thomassoii. nf Mora Hall for » library and museum, and the 

■ .■ rW*:ihv<- im . Thr-Kc pi-.- i ]-.,'- -ti'o biMiijc uttered for 

tat puroosee named, cil/mu having been borrowed tor the 

the central lending library is badly housed, but die 

branch bulli -i anally tlie oik* i:i fflgji Street, ire well 

for the work This was erected ai a cost of about £3000 

■I 000 K|uare yards of land presented by Mr John 

m a., J F, \ separate entrance it provided froni ; in- 

level fur the bow 1 readine-room ; both entrances being 

thoroughly controlled from the librarian's private office, which 

also aupvrvise* the lending library HodUAWapapn rB&ding-rOOIDi 

■i ftooi Ei i large reading-room, aud nl^o a ljiiies" rc.id- 

■[Pin ited by globed *.-i'reii, louelher \\>l i j xn.ill 

:"i itudi i 1 - basement contains a 

capocioas roadin TO caretaker's apartmuii-, heating 

ckuu!" . d addition to the main staircase there ia ppvtded 

a U&ht iron staircase in connection with the librarian's office, tins 
-rial staircase giving convenient access to nil the depart- 
ment* of the building. Tin*. style is Gothic, plainly treated, and 
the mater ... ornamental barter 

' hi in thoroughly well lighted, windows being 

placed on all the four sides. 

The gift* t" the library have been most encouraging. One, at 
tbo Mm eel and other valuable literature should lead 

i.'iMturo iu other town t » p. mid do 
cwise. The presentation consisted of the books, pamphlets, 
per*, prints, and engravings of the late Blr. Holuen, who did 
■ i ..:i u - adoption of the Aet6 in \<>:'<, -m<l vh,» 
for some yean on the committee. These oontribtttions 
lnchulo on llhimiuated manuscript found in an old Piediuontese 
BBooaw*-; 1 ;. i" "i. i re ury, and the first copy of the work 

print" ... si nncient town In Gennany.at o period 

:ini\s(it-i work The manuscript, 

tci llent «i.iteor preservation is pntttled" Fllstorlfl 

Sotoolaatlcn." and consist* of ,i commentary on the various hook* 

of the Bible from Qeneaiato the \etsof the kpoatlea. M we* 

v PetruM, ijean nf Tp.v. who anmH'eri V\\e 
CociiMti'i id iti'vtMinr) from liix having read or <\evo\vr »■".'. ^*<< 




*-' 



rcnur i. ma a ant*. 



tii iit> i la Hi I \> "-ir 1188 The coinpcattuin of 

the work m in wctraordhiBrj one, for h la tmth dogmatic and 
blatorlc&l, mixed ■ « i • ■■• Ith ot«*rratfona on al 

t! which ol Plato, Joaephua 

Dthon ore virtiti w* uutborituM, Fron no doubt, 

tii oxtendlre popularity wua derived, and for three «« 
uj* io.iV.rd ij«.!i .ix .in -. .,-, , ( k of positive theology It 

•.».:-> piinir-.; n* U73, wd a French translation 

from thi I-.--- .it-- u; I !'>.'». 'I'-, t h i i wine author has been 
attributed mother fiiii-n-. !*>nk, cn(u!cd " Mcr • '-- Hisluirev" 

R illl rt IIIMlVi.il I- \S I'll .:i'p||iill ri.-M-J [S tVl.'d ll'i 

wa.« ftuiini i^ i scribe, whose 11.11 in- is given, in the year l.TOiJ, 
Mr. Holdcn had the manuhoript bound in boards almost 
ainiile with the original. N" place- is so suitable for the 
m ■ i ■ ■ v. i for public UM of ttv BO Old 

opCDsncntu on the dtlacn H >rc they will be seen mm! 

■ aUttcdfOnd uomc caretaka ol thorn, Instead of beimral.< 

I awuy in «ld cnplxxird^ and drowere, where thov can only bo 
gnxod mi now and agon '■;. the owner andhi* »urni liat< friend* 
>.. PubHc l ii'ciry should :;'" without m ft a of this nature. Mr 
Jaracu K. Write is the librarian, and there is no doubt aV» 
loUdly good work iieing done. Reference El made fag anotj h 

far to the storm which raged around tfc« propoee- Bsndag 
opard i". hut, notwithstanding the influential rneGTrnj?, ana :-. 
nentfition respecting the advisability of throwing the newu-rooni 
open -II Sundays, trie doors of the building ore still kept closed 

hat day. 

BOOTES. 

Foil t population i ffiorae 60,000 Boot < ■ axoaadt&a^ vrfSl off in 
Ua Public. Library and Muaeuin building:, but the supply of inmk* 

rnii Bcarccl 



■•'\ i"- ■ ::.l ,t< h-i.ch ,i M'jiii.i.'i: .i.^Uii-. Th:* Mlillil> 

.it imiI.v 6,710, and many Ubrnriea with a fifth "f the revenue 
from i r ereu more. 11 mad '• teifcL 

howarer, 1 hat Booth? haa md ite twin inatiluMone o!" llbrej > wd 

tQM tin I'm « huh : . .mil thN \> nut -it most pl.i- - 

eaay thins: to aacompliah aatiafaotorilr out of n penny rc.tr for the 
two laatitattojiai llie building i* adiuli ncd,aa will be 

Baas Crona nba enjim%ini! ihown -n the opiMiaite page 

Tlnrrc i.n -tiu- rXi-i'Ili-u! frnlurr i»l itic DooUe W01 k, and bhtt l-« 
The cnlli.it v -:.■.< i toll by the local proat. Etoh the comiuittco 
i CjM.M ■ i, .ii- al 1. .,-1 '<>mc of them, for hen- at hand 

ui ,\ column and ■ i f mattoi rol Trinfl; to t to mcatin^f of 

thai bodj tn Octobc . i-- 1 '. it would be all tbo bettor for library 
work fonoraHj if coromtttea would have their ohlef m-'etingB 
roportod There i n the report jual referred !<> v well m 
word "f praJat for the llorarton and i urai ■>-. Mr, John .). ( I 
i'i conjunction with tin- deputy town dork of Uootle, gained 
Iho ten irainoii i rod by Hr. )im \ i 

i rn >h.' Li n Rill, 

A ground flow plia 1 1 iii- I olid ng ■ ^.u ...i p*o> 







ni i i inn \.n. ■ i . iii son nans 1 1 



it:; 



Tbc cirfultti' • f InJ issued by th« librarian Es full of 

i id in I tarn akled tuftterially to popularix* 1 

iiiM-uiii. Within the compass or oight jmgCN llioro is nn 




pjxtorac of vhat is going on in each department. There ta a 
uplendid lectuxe-hal] in the building and or tiiia goodie \h xnata 
tmtMtgfjoui MtoA winter. In order to encourage ayi&emaitltaVantt 



M 



PI l:l l ' I.IJllltMK*. 



reading the committee have arranged ■■ ■ 

I'niverMty to k*i«p iii<> tt< ■ : ByTlabueeB in stock , and rot 

nnly this, tut thn books reoommendAfj liave been < bta! 




library. The liixl development of Bootlfl I in* own to OMII 

itndeoMT room. Dr. Btrlt aai been for wmeyeaii ohniraian of 
umroittee, and for Che ?-:«K* ■ >r Public i Ibra •; rortt generally 
it i my l>e wished that ovary eoinrniiteo bad na PGthnsleal 
chairman a^ he hai proved. 

BllAM'OIlP, 

Tin- wink at Bradford baa rapidly daveloped, and ^ compariaon 
between the flint and toe nineteenth report Khonld be enough bo 
ronviTL the most rigid opponent. Willi a limited Income, 
have constantly enlarged the scope Of lln'i. operation*, until now 

Mi-'v hate, in adoa pi u. the oentraj library, eight 

The Ohi«J library has alao in connection with fl in m u useuin. 

There is a general consensus of opinion that na 

agency it is entitled to rank among the grandest local ini 

appealing a > the intellcctaal aenaea throughout one 

its deportments. Supplied with the best literature of i he day, the 

library and rcadlofi-cooro department* offer inducements to im- 






IC LlBRARCtia IX TUB ■•'"! ' " UN CorrfTIEP, 



M 



id 



prorcment, whi« :i. u - mfciafactory t-> uM. arc in the highest 

rio^roc appreciated by IhOSO for win.:-:*' I>< tulii li- . drl, 

Lhoadditi »o oi the art gallarj an<l muscun anvefuroj tedfl 

n . an Uy matructnv, U'-M*" -. "fi'lving a want 

.; was Long iolt is Bradford. 
The last report suites that m ooneequeii* '»i the a using of the 

.■i>nrr;tl jir< n ■ ■ i I _: .In- Cyl'ly pfllXOl tin: \i;lii- 1« <r j^wl nitf :ind 

otaJ Dumber ol issues and visit* io the control 
depot* t me ir i what reduced, but, with the exception Ol thfl 

,- Elbe dail, . ■ ■ i- nig ifi- ii 1 1 :n vnv j cevfom 
year Thi d : !• •-■ call attention to the taadequaci ol the 

hinds ii thoiX disposal for enrrvini/ <>n the work innirr tliolr 

charge. The demand for brunch [ftirarlea continues, bur it is only 
1 ,v ;ri increase *<i unite thai these can be eetabl shed I hi we i ■ 
and tear of tlie volumes in tfie landing librari* - is niao rery fjfreat, 
owing to thi targe increase in lite circulation, ami iim* the money 

Intenaod fur Uio purchi m books i« mainly absorbed In 

replaoiuu houi-ouI stock. This i» a eerious drawbui-K. Nit lens 
than t 'U i i I* alieorbcd from the rate which yteldfl 

: rent, rates, and insurance, The markets committee 
of the i orj a« landlords of tlie pn i - ■. a id charge 

an ex- n[. Tliie is not only unfair, but crinplflB seriously 

the committee to fchelr work, flu library again bac to pay 
.ii! rate*, there is room for readjustment in these two depart 1 ' 
men; oS Totto Council should remove part, at leaat. 

( burdens, Tin ten figures here given will show the 
cxpM work during mm last five yeare. Of total Waits 

mid :: .in-.-, tofc^thci 1 there have been 1686, 1,676,480; 1886, 
i ,061,706; 188d ( 3,115,874 ; 1886, 9,«X>^02. Mr. 
Butler WOC ind < hiof librarian, and in on 

compiiHiii'ii public servant 

OutHSBOfl *xu Uvea Dahwbk. 
i Utheroe library has had ton years' existence. It i& a case 
<•( living on * 12U nnd doing an increasiiiK work on that income. 
It i* open for tWO riijrht.** a week, and lh.'jivi'r:tp-i<i«*ne is a 1 1.1 

indfl waa left then twelve months ago, sad tMfl 

i wlndzaU for aew books. The magazines ara in large 

demand foi homo reading. What is being done at nilheroe with 

hi done At other places. TheprcsRinp-nccfl 

;it Darweo '"i i nai premises d which to Btore tno Fnoreastng 

.t if book* belonging i »the Public Library has long been 

wU-dtfotl. 1 nv " ■ ;i coiiiiiiilici- appointed 

U< i iatlt'iji;-jioH"d "ii tlieiiKi'l'-'iruiiiv of UiepreMMit 

dali >u, They ulnted that e^ery squai'e yard of space w«s 

vt'utilation the place wa« so deficient thai 

great ting done to the books, and that " the whole of 

irmngemenU a! at building are, in fact, of a mnke- 

; character,' 1 and thej concluded with the 

word* We ■<'■■■ in abort satUAed from our inapcel oa I the 

ahiary that the tjueetion of procui'iup another building for it* 



Bfl 



PI ill. If 4JIRAB1M 



A 



*■«-<- i- 



v nxuno tic i i> .in unrein ■ 

■ tfl !■< I-"'. ■ ■:• liOJf With :! ' S:ikt tli.l. repOTl fl .1 , d 

up the oil* 1 1 « i *ni n>nipliiiii>-< 'been int 

book* an- conatAa 1\ accumulating and the number of borrowers 
i.tinually incrcasim:. LT nothing has been -I'-iie. A 

BOhcnr I'.v v. l iich I ;i<-;i<imii hcl brarj will I 

in tii-- I v. i Council he been nrra igod, and it is hoped that 
the JOngcstt D referred fa I I PC '•'•ill eoon moot with a eolution, 
^specially a* u row suitable Bite is nvniluWc The local pnpere 
help the work con aVmbly b) publishing lists of tho new 
as they are added to the tmrary, Readers are advised to rut our 
these ae they appear, and place them at tho end of their eata! 
This plan is dwarfing ■ i being oopiod by ether libraries Itit 
this publicity perhaps more than anything etee which enables 
.mssioners to announce that tho Library .-<■ :ipj.in..i. 

by the local public than lit any other peri ■■! ol Its OXiBtai 
The Darwen people claim thai for fcbe size of the library and the 

Ol thC town ll:itu i )■-. ttie 'bftSt Public L:1m: iv nitlx \ COW 

Lancashire. This m:n in.- a little open to question batttierai 
point greatty In favour ol the managers, and that ta tho aroonni 

spent in new booksoaofa yea?. 

lURLINGTOy. 

The old adage ol its l>eiug unwise to look into the inoulh of a 

jrirt-liwiso, <!(! ^ nil apply !«' Public L:bnH-ir.s which hirve bwii 

>}•■• -jitt ui ,i generous ■ ititou, Every one of tin uions 

which t. wt^ its ui iKixi to aueh u i»ource may be looked »1 m 
a.*- desired, and without exception there is reason to think thi 
will bear the most minute examination. The Edward Vci 
Library at Darlington ha* been opon four years, and nU 
every book in the lending department has been, on fchcavei 
dosens of times in circulation, not a single one m now am i 
for ; and this epeaks well For the readers Hie Inhabitant* make 
the greatest possible use of the institution, :ta will I i 
the loot that 84,6*31 books have been taken out for honn 
This out ol a total of 10,66-1 in the londing deportment, in ehi 
of the present Librarian, Mr, Everett, shows a capital record, the 
daily average being 333 volumes. Tho jnvcnilo section c4 ih< 
library has been particularly -successful. The actual number of 
readers' tickets now in use is l',4U3, Tho gross number of volume* 
now in the library Is 1 1.390 No fewer than 960 people as a dm ! v 
average visit the reading-rooms. From the time of its estab- 
lishment down to now the library has boon managed with an 
ability that has brought the institution to a state of high efficiency. 
»m1 ml enabled it to perform a work of magnitude in the town. 
C-tradiiftlly the people beeoni" io used to privileges <»f this 
that they take them as a matter ol coiu'se, and perhaps seldom 
pause to consider how enormous are the advantages said how 
valuable from a monetary point of view 
The subject of a Public Library had been for a rnnsiderable 
! mooted hi Partington. In 1870 * vote of the rat*g>av*i 



ous 






nOIIC LIBRA MBS I.T THE VORTIIKKX C0l^7IKK, 



K 



showed ft prcj»onderftDce against it of those who chose to r< 

i i rote*. The late Edward Tease took great interest m the 
question, and in ever \\ I RtionfJ Bitten in his 

nuthv toWSj And ldr bj BBS WlU tl<),t)00 I'm- n PnMic l.ihrurv, orn 
BtnfcAfcf Objeofc, M BOB trustees might think fit. Sir Joseph Pease, 
one of the fanutCA offered, through the Darlington Town Council, 
to build and furnish n Public Library, and also to giro a site 
for the MAH Is i •tnftntf poetics) in the town, if the in- 
l;'«i»ii:i!iu adujiied trie PubMo LibMZJa' Aats, a coaBWer:ii>i.> 
majority declared for the Acts. The style of architecture is 
ice, and is very Btrilung. The west elevation line a 




r;norvr» PLAN 07 oAJlLINGTOtt PLTtLin tJBKABV. 



frontage of about JOB foot, and the north elevation of about 92 
feet* the Wain entrance is at the junction of these two cJcV&tfons. 
mid is made conspicuous by a handsome gable, which cuts olT uml 
thus dertroys too Berority of a right angle, tins object being 
further attained by !l well-proportioned porch. On the Uoystono 
©1 the areli is displayed the head of Minerva, and above it the 
iili tta right olaw upon on open volume. Entering by tl.is 
iiorch, we pass through swing doors, glazed with stained glasfi, 

into a handnon: .'ul-pluuned veytiDOje, and from Iha&oQ icAo 

whdt Bony be termed the public lobby, which gvveA Sirae*, &&««* 
Co the mUnta jvanis comprising the building, The ge&e\n\ vvVaeA, 






> 



I1*»UC IjmL&KtBS. 



hero is Tory u<»*\- The inrge urea of marble mowic parenient.iu 

the centre of which stand/m white marble bust oil lltb late douor 

00 ft Mack marble pedestal, over which is cast a soft, mellow, Ami 

. Ugfal from the- Uuyo octagon;* ' filing h^rht, hl.r«i in 

painted gloss, on which aro skilfully repi cred subject*. 

in ra arc. J-uiUling, engincej'tog, navig.. 

tad music. The lending library measures about." : 

I -it Thift in udmirably lighted from the roof, which is partly 

open timbered, and from the 6ie-be;uuK of which are suspended 

fi.iu v designed double gas pondonts. T 
t|e*tk in immediately in front of tho centre, and by u a ful 
■•■' • i-rcmont of guiss-panellcd doors the librarian or his nssl 
U oTin >■ < <' to see I'vcry person who outers Dol only tho lobby, but 
those going Into the )*r;i'liiiL'-p)..:nH ;md tho reference library. 
KinminpT BOUth from one side of the librarian's desk to a lengfh 
Cd l". Set, 11 'i liom the oth^r m«1 > >■•] his desk running east tor 
about \'Z feet, »r»' the luUOOtOra for 84,000 volumes. The 
r.«iii:imdi«r nt The fundi ire in thin i'mniii immkixN nf specially 
designed hookcaiuw, &c, cnpable of holding 83,000 volume*. 
Thow are arranged so as to utilize the floor space to tho greatest 
advantage. The general rendin^-nwn.n llnojipiirtm^nt. mea 
fit feet by 28 feet . OOd Is Otherwise well proportioned nnd admirably 
treated ::.- ivgard* iis Nlructural ami artistic detail*. It h*J l ii-r'y 
line oored ceding springing from a moulded cornice and fmiohed 
frioxn; from the cornice spring moulded wad enriched ribs, which 
divide the nore Into panel* and extend along the horizontal p 
of the Dotting, dlrldui^ It also into large luiih-Ik or lights, which 
arc filled in with stained and painted glass subjects, illustrating 
hicraturo, munle, painting, (sculpture, astronomy, and ehern 
The upper parts of the windows in thin room are aleo filled in 
with painted glass illustrating different foliage ; thisiainta 
lu ubviai*' tin- necessity of Minds, The whole of the fn_ii.it uj 
the reading rooms hoi been apeoially designed. The url 
h [hting i" accomplished by two six-b^ia pendants from the 
ceiling, doable bracket* to each newspaper stand, ami a separate 
brocket fcc each table. The reference library measures •;■. 
by l'!> (cot. it lu* a good front north light, aleo a top 
Ja treated structurally and artificially in tho same manner ai the 

\il reading room, kit the style "of furnishing is different. It 
consists of I « i glazed bitokcoeoR, eueh It! feet long and capable of 
holding 3,000 vorames i two reading tables, U feet lone by 3 
■I acttoi wide; and n number of ebon's >f Ihi 
those in the geneml rcuding-room. The ladies' roadii 
on tho right on entering the public lobby, and is well lighted 1 v 
two large windows, Tho furnituro consists chiefly of two I 
tally designed boolfcanqe. to hold the various magazines, and 

bio >'i containing 130 volumes; a tablo H foot long 
a Eaa . and • J tal ■■ with movable back padi*. Th > room la artifi 
llghtcl l>y a double pcndantintheoi.iitrt.uf the room, ui i .x-.iding 
■Icots from tho chimney breast, In the same position on the 
ii'trih at iIiIk i-iiimi occupies on the we*t,tfeav« ar a commit ree 



rvnuc :j*nAnn» jv ntr. vcumiins' coi-nties. 



!•!» 



room. Liberal rifl turn Bowed In i be UbflBH Hw rrnvit 
recent of ti ■ •- 'u.vn tlio SurteOB b<M|uofl1 ol 376 rolun 

some of them of -irclueologieal and historical value. In the 
reference department there is a unique collection c4 hooks 
dealing with the eartj history 01 the Society ol Friends. Darling- 
ton form- itabh home lor these works, for the Friends 

throughout the district are numerous and most influential. The 
ha building was about C&fJQO Intending donors of 
i!;. Darlinston building with safety Mr 
<;. i; BoSkins, Kil.J B,A . was the iU'ehHoet. A jjruimd phm of 
the building is shown. 

Dkktos. 

The adoption was qulekh and quietly settled in this celebrated 
ttrtei m Way, Iter, by public meeting The 
r mannfnd irew took up the question m ;i wry spirited manner. 
il praise i>> due to them tor taking the lead. The BABeaaiaent of 
jtit of the works Stands al £100 or £150. and this OBlj means 8b. 
13*. lor the year, Mi. Lees Broadbent, the chairman of the 
• !. ii moving the resolution foi the adoption, said truly 
ttli- erection ol a Public Library, vrhilsb beneflUng the few. 
uM certainly U > ereat beoofit to the many, tod he beni 1 1 d that 
i providing suitable classes the manufacturers of that district 
del ive equal advantage. Twelve months— noi by say mci 3| 
unr ea s on m bin - —were absorbed in obtaining subamptions 
d in ■ successful bazaar for (I » r using ol 

and no [i ■ i i a than £686 waa realised. Plans wore 
cited, and now a large and handsome build- 
ing tal &< E i/.ibcthan style line been erected in the middle of 
Denton. The structure ie of brick with Mono facing, nnd it* 
pictui' bice mark :t <>ut from tho buildingQarotuid The 

Liit..Tu.r con with tiic ornate exterior. Thfl rooms are 

large, lotty r well lighted, and furniahed solidly and Ofltofully. 
Entortng from » lorgi hall, d reading-room 39 feet by -21 feet is on 
the left. V'xti*. ii. lent big u i . with a reading roots I ■■■ i.-oye. 
On the Brat floor are lecture-rooma which can be converted i ito 
as, a laboratory fur twelve students, and a balance-room. 
, ■ classes for which 1 1 lis provision has been made are an 

reature. J1 tteniieal elaaaea are certain to be of 

sehnicfll ralus t<> the workers in the staple trade ol the 

Inr! I Sclll MlclllK (UVOlVOd ;ill CXpOntUtUM Of IH nil y 

10. AVTn iii nif m in. in I tlcti tin- ti'iwiKliip hai I popula* 

.: . 1,000, i:. will he neon thai >e than ordinary 

i ■ .-I itiown by the people within the district, The 

rei itnivwualn -vj<i"inii.T, I (Wtt, nnd In giving a history 

i ineulsn Denton, Mr. Thomas Woolfenden, who Bated 

i |i ihl ii i Unite Ui the time and att< ntion 

"■i'ii ;• ren to the mutter by the prm siornl committee. 

il number of \oluiiieft is ulioul 1/rtXi, nnd the lit nary baa 

<red "i i '><m <i usefulness. There arc M5VCW\ -uvwuuwV 

■/;///■'■ ".it--hi;ir tie MteeeH* i .V U\C \\Umvy \tt 



HOI 




II.O 



prauc unmaina. 



Denton, anil It Is sure to exercise a wholesome effect qua 
place*. 

Thin Im thf iitii* i'«c litmli which VrtrknhlM luw provided to U» 

adoption "f the Act* bel ween January, 1887, and Qm end nf law. 
A public mooting derided the question la May of 1897. The 

triwtww of the Mechonira' Institute acted lu u very v. 
maimer. A promise of from 4,000 to 5.000 volumes was mad 
them, nil) several gentlemen who had Iwon leatu 

In Iraepliuj: the Mechanics' Institute from suing to pieco* took an 
part m tho movement for the adoption ol tho Act*, ( toe iri 
thcftpcakcni at. the statutory meeting said that when the 
* tin.' iota was list proposed, some years ago, he opposed fl 

tio thought I id) « mid ho ahio to make the Meelui 
i nt i- ;i i i . hut he now found out that it could not be done. Tbo 
i; v r WbitD3r.M.A.. dear, put the issue very clearly before the 
meet Ug a*h< I lio said that in Dowsbury they ought to hare s 
I' iMm; Library «o as to *nvc to those who Uvea is the town i 
Opportunity to consult works that were beyond their private 
B to purchnae, und to advance the education and inteuagexu I 
• >i their Important town. About £1,000 was raised it : 
iini« in Doocrabor last a temporary room was opened b 
Old v\ boobrrighl 9ohool, Wellington Street, by the Mayor, Ifai 
premlsefl bare at tfiuall oo*l been rendered puitable for temporary 
use by 111'-' library conimiitoo. The newsroom is commodious 
ami well lighted, hid Mm xpacc fur the injury m insufficient, and 
ii will ho tM'*'4-K4;»-v for tho committee to provide new • luartors as 
early a* ponaiblc. The Library contains about 7,300 volume'-. 

do Up Ol the libraries of the Mechanics' and Parish Church 

|n..(Uu!. j. p :t 1 11 1 Dip hiirary wlneli )\:\..\ I tei-«n c<I:i hllHhcd ■>' ;l local 

Inn tor iiinr mplaytt. The Mechanics' Institute and the 

trios were presented to tho town, and the library ol thoCl 
Institute wai purchased by the members ol tho Corporation tor 

' m.iitai b E £40. * Suitable premises will be erected 01 

rim trite of tin- uhi Meehanlos' [ftstttnte, 



DONCABTBB- 

I h DCOatcr rejoices In a new building opened on Ji 
The new quartern are the outcome of n Jubilee movement, and tin 
niniu'.v i"i' i' ' *■■»»>» I wu* subscribed bv the publfi II- former 
history of (In- library may bo told in a row worde. The nuclei 
the iiin i , wasth< books which formerly belonged to th< 
Kjriptton Library and the Mechanics' Institute, bat when Mi. 

Ivoraotorn of tho movement proposed on June 15, 1868, •• That tip 
tanHe Libraries' Acts be adopted," thev could not hare i * ■ ■ 
*.vh:ii e handsome and commodious building w>ui<l bo tho utcorai 
ol tin- propoi . i Ion, or what an i-\iei ■ ih.u of u 

twenty years After be placed at the service of the people 
DoBOSStor The promoters took up their alwrlo !n the huildh 
flttW* t)u f church which was built tot the Grammar S< 



Flfll.lL LlBltAKLfc* IS SHU N»KTtfKRN i.Ol MIF.S, 



101 



■nd it would probably hare had to serve thai ptupott for many 
jrenrs to come, but for the fact that the citizens of this town, 
b "iiitnou with those of other town*, desired to mark in a 
IMTHMtitnt (n.tuuei the Jubilee w.u -\ >\ :ndeed :!i-it bctte-i 
nr< ' I -li was not needed ; the 7,000 Ixtoks which formed the 

nucleus of the library had doubled themselves, and the number of 
Tota ; >K-<I inane year had nearly trebled itself The most 

Important part of a man's education is thai which be (rives h£a> 
.1. and it i» in that reepect that on institution like the Public 
Library it* of priceless value. The works of oerv age ami < 
greatest intellect* ..f all time ttro freely ;>! • '■ »1 the 

lode il In ''K'O library ore e«>>tl_v it:- yeU»p:edtaa, State 

papers, works of art, gazetteers, <iictionariee, and all that in 

QOCds for thai higher education which is no 

essential to his i •,'"■, ii" information is needed as epeolaJ or 

.<' ■ ■ rasa subjects, there <>t reference :n abundi nee, wallet 

in the lending department will be found most of the best literature 
of the day. Altogether the Library contains Jo,47U volumes. 

Ill . - nii.iw that the library is thoroughly appreciated, and 
^ter may claim the credit or being a reading town In 
1670, the ftrat year <>( the library's existence, 10,688 works vera 
leaned; m 1878, 10,262; and to 1889 the tesuaa reached 84,1 
fhe committee have been constantly adding to theft" store of 
book*, mil', during the last tan yean hare a in average exp udad 
£80 1 in* i .i ye.tr upon the purchase of new works of a 
dard diameter. 
The school nf art. on theflntl lloor, in approoclied by a stone alair- 
',:imii ■, . : ■ -i mii* elementary itrawiug J i , aai and modelling rooms, 
ize, tlie Itrst-nainod being specially noticeable Cor Iti 
general suitability; likewise o master's room and ladlea' 
etiriag renins, All the halls, corridor*, &e\, have 

Orei aud l> p " filing-, ehiiMiicypiee.-., &e , 'i;i\r Uvn >nade 

s]»Ti.i! ir— .: — M ; and the building generally is niuet appropriate 
i i both in plan and appearance, externally and 

internally, and reflect* the greatest credit on the building 
lie. The architect ie Mi*. Henry A. Cheers, whoee 
i ii s\. - .m. i .• '.-I ii niit.in. competition "»it of some -sixty 
design* submitted. The ceremony of opening was worthy of 

Kiwn. There it* annually reeeired from outside borrowers 
17 or X'lb in BUbecnpUona. Tlio laet report nhuw* a 
I "!:r in Favour of the hhrary committee. Mr. \\ . 
Dinm* 1» the: librarian. It was proposed to spend £3,300 
the bnildingj and after allowing for a donation from the 
Department toward* the school of art, the 
rtooK to make themselves responsible for the 
»ncc and Art Department promised a eubscrip- 
I ' to bo exclusively expended upon that particular 

■ t.l 'iu- l.udd:ng. :tnd \h>'' hhvarv eon unit toe-, HlXfOQJ Bhftl t'" 
: ; im 1*1 My nhonUl fall upon the Corporation, ottered to tafea.^ 
mg and fnrmshing the library, w\\\c.Vi fcwj\£\\v A 
oabor/r GWO The i wilding is in the Tudor wtj\o ot vwcVaVectoce, 






•dhenawc to It* perKi, 
<* thai *-hr*»hr 

aad ample fcfelt 



fl ■!—■ a> u<-Tmt 



ItttEfenrjai 




3 a t*tt wstabCe and oxnpict tcifcfinr. 
otto* wetter** visit thrrr •>• 

* ** l?*** "* ***• «Ww«^ the rt*lbg 
crowded, there was a verj 
■hot the whole ic iaiii u i. TSi -.uoftawd 

•, IS*S. From that ttm« down to th.- middle ol 
»S.I»I ndmmw* rave* been km*, uhI oat of (bit L ; 
oedjr h*r* t»#a lost. The t armorer if 

T ok u> « th* mcb# in :h* on* yvwr in the t*o departments h*» 
beet «*V« vomanes. fat the jureade taction *V*tt i 
a*d th^ i* a departmewi to m-h»efa *pee*al at:«?ntkm fegi'*-"- ^»* 
b*aWaia;i»-4m«WTj4an^e.i»»hlKK«^h:h.n. 
more «pwr*. On th- gT**t*d Icht tbereorv imrj, 

the roajiaxia* ami reference nadmg-focm, and the 
roeat and ladW roam. In tho mi.*tt*> . e IwOdter. t * 4 

aloaed for three week* f.;*dc«uf»ta)aB^ret*tYarion. Tho opeeaf- 
aac* now i* decaae>l 
is decidedly hapfij <*» w mate four 
and the ffeBtlesneti** re*dinjr-r«w»m have been eel 
jproen and ervaro, whlfcr In : ! .no rrrain* an. 

tho prevailing tones fhe wall* of the fct*hva&* I 
a ttalmon tint, and whea hronght ii 
decoration^ pon t the ,■:( . 

whoir i* highH |ilcatfiruj l« Ihr eyi' Ol 

the st-i-Tirc and ail rlasw* the uia ha* received a colour* 

4 :i very pale ahartecrf green, varied with dark tutu on. nwl 
te lecture-mom oppudte tlip decoration in n haniMtij wtth 
tin' general {Ann, although of not unite mi elaborate a rhn 
Iimiip-.'. trl.v on to reopening (lie institution was patron ; 

QfOVlb '»f viKilnrs, rvidmlU uanJOUB to IU&k« "j> for 1* — < t 

It ni;iy be taken 'or granted that the bright and chee 
-,i t ii* whole 1 nted for the quid bnsincxt-IOos njy 

; boul the place. There is no doubt that visitors to ihcao ] 
: ,i, ■!•'■< iv fniluci ced bv their surroundin;;*. a U-'vA.x ;md( I 
appearance cannot fail to produce a dewcanoui tn keeping xtHt 
it. ' kuaahead Tuny well be taken us a model foTaamall 

.: v Interna] Bjraugunionts are concerned. Mr. ! 
Mi.- librarian. The Sanaa) opening of the r< --m i% 

,-!, 1 1 mnitv ae l"" penona using it durtofij tht honxj it 
rot Ive o dock una aix till nine o'clock, Tin can 
o Uvtion the ppemisca, ia able toexexdae all the supervision 

which requisite 

Uauuooatb. 

J),: i] inland wuU'innvi-v' ■ 



PITH If! UBSt4U*S XS THR N-OBTHEHX COVSTIK. IU3 

Tory few years ago. With a stock of 3,998 volumes they succeeded 

in last year having a turnover of 80,19fi volumes. Not only tins, 

but flu- library premises have been crowded every day, and n 

want w:i.s tor wmiii- lin i' 1'i'li. for increased nminimndntion, 

which haa now bean met. in the course of a tewYears wosiia.il no 
douhi -• . i Harrogate i suitable building specially erected for the 
rapidly extending "work of this institution. Mr. C. F. Harrison is 
the librarian. 

• rTrNDLBY. 

Ii wm i gaffe prediction iii ili.» last issue of this work that 
1 1 imilcY would bring its useful Library under the Acts, This they 
did on May t>, 1887, by public mooting. The building, specially 

» erected, is a very suitable one Tor the work. 
Tin- donor of me building, the late Mr. Levtaod, J.r., passed 
awn in IS88, but he has commemorated his mime by means 
of the Public Library and a park in a way which will never be 

• effaced. The aphorism that Knglund's greatness is due to the 
nobility of her eone has been repeatedly proved. And, to apply 
the. simile in :i restrictive seueo, it is as true that tl < mooiUnonu 
of a town's greatness are duo to the liberality and largc-hcuricdn i: 
of her citizens. There la iuany a town in England at the present 
■ nn.' wIiobo inhabitants remember gratefully the beneficent -gifts 
me of the citizens who, gifted with remarkable foresight, 
left donations Cor the building and the working of institu- 
whieh have been the turning-point in the career "of the town. 
Tins park and reeve rift □ groundi i re situate about two miles from 
tlie centre ol rlmdley f an2 cover nn area of about twelve statute 
ol land. They are fitted up with a gymnasium, bowling 
green, cricket and football grounds, walks, &c. The library ana 
museum meftuated in Market Street Fhc building oontains,on 
the ground floor, the lending library and newsroom, ol feet by 
iM Mil, w i'li cloak-rooms and lavatories adjolnunr, and a stone 
i siaa which leads to the committee-room on the first. floor, 

^v Ifl teat, with oriel window nt the end; and the rcfer- 
llbrttryand museum, of similar dimensions to the library 
below. The work has been executed from the plans and under 
be direction of Mr. Thomas vVorthington, and Mr. John 
Elgood, architects, of Manchester. 
The legatee, Mr. X. Eckeroley, expressed the wish that the Acts 
M be a ! opted, as the local board could not maintain the library 
without ihi* bciny done. The building is in every way suited for 
its work, and haa before it a useful career. The rule produces £90. 

I 



Lbsdb, 



The people of LccdH arc naturally very proud of their Public 
ry work. With n record of nearly twenty yearn behind 
them tney may proudly turn to the vast extension of the Public 
Library system in Loads, and to the imqunetlonablc progress 
which the work baa made, as proof of the, fe&VroAta *^aM& 
cm thaw meutntiom by the citizens. Leecle uot Voa aX to 



104 



iTiiTURrra. 



quarters a op-lend id collection of works, H ir-rcnco deport- 

ment llwre is of auch i *■!■. d 01 Be ■ ■"■npri'hpnmve nature, 

lhar ir i- not oalj l loura of pride to Leeds bal to the 
if Yorkshire. Tin.- niiiii; tin iln- List Off litirnrka 

throughout the country for the extent (if iix reference *. . 
The mimlier of volume is 10,801, iumI ilnrinj? tfu Invt library 
vear the number ur issues iu tliis dopaiiitu i i were . „_:. h I The 
'.»■ xr as Kilo,' I'm (h open. Sunn- 14,108 works m 

tin orb ■odiolenaeKweri' aiiiAultcti. i i miscellaneous li »i 

and magazince the number was 38,090, and the next Lt 

ii for directories, dl heraldry, &c . the number I 

;_'. Ai'tis.iM* i'i-|»i ivm Tit tlio Iai ' 

milted the works in this department, and profcMioDjol men rank 
about the next lancet. Yorkshire ladies are uoually uU> 



their own among uk ■ pari of the country, bad 

II,.;, do -l >t rcpiv.senl ;i Ur^r p-vpm-li .u <<l lh«.:.e who made Use 

<l the reference departmeofc. Tha proportion fox than was only 



1-39 of each 100 volumes ; and nliopkccpere show nn a 

EorccotoffOi IVrhnj-B the main reason why Lgo of 

i.i\ neitort 1 1 talc Beotion ■ the numb r 'frttep* 

v, liich I hey hove l" 'lniih hefure rcn< I 

nlng the handsome pilo of municipal buildings when: the 

housed, it is most uafortunnto that both the l< 

. rtmente arc ikied and it la an even praatw caloi ■■■■ 
the goner:ii nevKr(H>m U ao far away from the library, havti 

< iiti'iiw'i-, i:nl in a different part ot the bulldlift 8 ime 
bOQJ MUst surety have been .it fault in the mapping out ol toe 
original plans, and the views of the commit i 
appear i" h-ivo bean overridden in the Town <.'"unril,or to great a 
ko could Dot have been made. 
Tho estimated cost ot 1 these municipal hulldmgN va* to have 
lieen £75,000, but through some breach of contraband extra 

reached tiftmately £!:'jm**'. in xo hirjje an exneru 
la greatly to he deplored that the Horary port ion nhonld ha . e 
aacriflcen to the otner parts of The banning, aa ha* unmiesrionahl y 
l*«n the owe. The work in the parent institution at Leeds, pjew 
and developed in an old, adapted building, most inconvw 
In every way, and badly lighted and ventiliited : and 
n;itiir:iiiy have been expected that some marked advance would 
have been made m the miivenient arrangement of the new 
ijuurter.-*. That the new premises arc of course better in cverj 
way than Ilie old In admit Led on all hands, but thepresaiiiy ffal 
the library have certainly not met with the careful coll 
fmrn the Town Council which should have been the case. I 

JKirs to come, when the Beit move becomes necessnrv, it li to be 
apod that the library, with its twin institution of artfcalltry. will 
have a building: ^neoinJiy const rudetl for their ever - 
rc«.(iiiivnienta. Psram by thai tone the Nitrate Kin*, who hae 
done mi much in providing parks for Loc<U ( will sechw way to do 
for T-ervfa whatOameyic nafl done for Rtlnharffh, AUoghairy 
and I*itt*burgh. 



PI-RMr lii'i; iPtRK rx THE MOHTHEHV COCTfTIBB, 



]r,r, 



The lending litirnry of tlie parent building represents a fttrong 
ahin*. Hie total t*sue reached 884,647 volumes for the year, or 
i imragre of 1/2A7 per flay. Fiction, pi etry, am ilram.i i-- 'j >-■*-_ 
if lun/cxt jui.i1, us is Ihe vase, at all libraries; but history, 
ngraphy, travels, science, and art represent a vory reapo ct&lne 
laL 




B»tV« 



vcuacniade of the Board Sobook in Leeds is the 

i lias brought their work moat under the public 

■ town of Leeds covers a wide area, probably the largest 

country. It was early seen, in connection with the Public 

', that if that institution was to be ot advantage to the 

of the ratepayer*, and not fliropl v to a section, it should 

over the town. This has been done to tho tsalwstA cA 

r - brunches, each with a toirly vel\-aclc*AeA ewwk 



1 1 



fCBUC rTBJtlBTBS. 



of book*, and alJ oi them in populous n*ighhourhr»->d<. 
rcvnlt of thm arnmaromwit is that n is only <->n r*ro occasion 
reader* in the districts so provided need to visit the main 
a: • wisdom ol opening no i 

broncho* fus boon seriously que«tioned, ami It nifty 

■ ■, as i« said Id the chapter dcaliny With tlv use of I 
80000I1 aa T'lii.H.- libraries, thai M la to (>o hoped ol tar 
towns win not emulate the ••sample of Leeds, wnh rcgar 
the number cM fftools in a town used In thia way The 

aim c»f having a library within only n very tew roin 
iIk* i!iH<r til i-viT.v iMnisohnldor in Li*d»iK no :"i DJUnixei 
It pro on of work In large given oenl ■ 

no extent as ii.i- been achieved is other towns, with 
bruotcd branch huililinjr-.. N^enl ol Luebnu 
in Leetfii have bad to be closed through lack <>i rcaders.a&4h 
e«1 iiil.v appears a case or tiaving t*><> much of a good thing, 
These various brand Lending libraries issued in the year Sfi 
volumes, and the total numbej of bosTowera' cards issued waj 
0,827, Some of these branches are dolnfi an excellent work. 'IV 
one at Sheepacar had 190,490 viaitfl tu it in the last year, and a 
daily avri.iL'i of 187 books issued inthelondina; departmeat The 
branch os :.t Not Wortiey and TlnuMei ran* next with a very 
large turnover and a use of the rcading-roome which mm 

tfina to the librarian and committee^ The Town Oo 
i'-i"'ir-!i..r I'nr rhc ifn'trc nuiuhci* of those branches, but u 
don I ■•(lin.ir oi them Mr. James l'atee, tho librarian, hai had 
t" (Id. With the numerous branches nndor his oontrol ho has, 
cour Foundhifl] andi foil, but %\ :tl. i J i ■ - ii i 1 « ■ t hH< istiint 

thotriivadsol'tho. work liavo been kcy>t well in hund.ando thoroujfl 

oversight has 1'tvn kept over these numerous branches Bu 
Vatee baa twice visited America to boo some oi the librari' 
that CM i i.iiy.n.i with almost a lifetime behind linn oj lil 
work ho has acquired u very varied experience. The ostu) 

o the travelling ibrariee 'n Leeds Sa largely lue to him. 
These contain about ioo volumes each ot* pood and instructive 
literature, and they pass around among the children cd the 
School*. Thlfl t net hod which should be largely copied 

fit her districts. Books of travel are the lavoiutfieey and all fietioi 
Ui exclnd *<i. 
The Leeds report is packed with statistics, and ns g oul 

touched Me lllghvwatcr mark in this direction. The whole worl 
aceoinplishi'il every year w. very risinu'liw, >i:<l It would be 

im|Mtwihie for n.ii this educations] machinery w be In a 
operation without yielding more or less of beneficial reanros 



LtVXBMOL 

1 Ine "i the kings oi Pablio Library work has gone over i 
majority ioc ma Issue ol the previous edition or thia w 
-mi' ramei A.Uanaon Pioton was for the bed part of fori\ 
earnest an : it friend of the movement, Foi tl 



FCTOUC UB&AHIBS EN THE KORTHBR.n COUNTIES. 



107 



i>i i:n; period he had presided over toe deliberations of the 

library committee with very gTent credit to himself, find certainly 

with advantage to the whole of the Liverpool community. He 

M" inn of his death i which took place in Jul.y, 1880, 

!•: -In \ - win- yean old, but, despite lit; udviilH-cd ii^-r, av.i. »fl 
as ever both in public and private matters to the Lest. II 

bcfc'on life ae n poor boy with litt K- or no IttcaUoXL und by dint 
■in'»nl'-< i-: wnrlt r;iiHorl him noil to I'" ;" ; llfcMteei of the 

i:_kI o dtoti igi La hod scholar. Ho was masft p of two 
langun^rrj-,and partly nogoointed With three thou-, besides being 
m minority on antiquarian, pbiloa* phi( al, and social queal ■■ 
So v u) the author of wie ** Moi i >rial«of I iverpooV'a wot* displays 
inn "■<■:" i |'-i .i. -.UK research, which is now a standard book. The 
well-known Picton Reading-room, adjoining the Public Library, 

[led after Sir lai - Picton, m acknowledgment of hi* long 

i j.'iii i lUnir-i .in behalf "i 1 1" spread of Public i Fbrariea and 

rton among the people, He waa one <»t the most easily 

understood of men. lie had live pli tily and simply among his 

follow ■ II Kens His industry was tremendous ; it run Into every 

di p:ii 1 1 i ■ ii o] hia life Ilia reading was vast and voracious ; hn 

u'lw iii the an pi fait loii and attacking of languages <raa 

1. Tlie Aral occasion on which he presided over 

i tnmittee was on Juno 39th, 1862, and tin* hub 

. .ii wan "ii July Ulh. only aome four days before hietdeathi 

iTim i> u i \[\n- ami uin-v.iupli-d in (In- 1 1 1 .-^ I ■ - 1 _v of tllO 

•iii- 1.- Library movement, Tim whole library community felt the 

ogi i Poi hoi lag i b one of its leading lights the late .Sir Jam ■ 

* Ilia life was long, happy, and useful, beyond the ordinary 

(xmr*c, itnd it wa* hi* «<«*! fortune to he able to .show to Che 

/i how a young roan, by cultivating the talents with 

h he ha* been endowed, andby perseverance and upright 

ict, may rise to u position of great eminence, aud also how 

im us itmn tuny ki-i-i> i innric in touch with younger gonenuMose, 

and t bv .'i just appreciation <>i tin.- progress wnfah Ik oi ex g< lag on 

nrounii ns. bring the fruits of hut life's labours to the highest 

ri] p. rleetioDi l le was a mber of the Corporation from 
ad took an active interest in nil the affaire of the Town 
Council; but it was as chairman of the library and museums 
with in* ripe experience and warm and sympathetic 
with the reading needs of the people, that bia public 
uf\s w:r- ino-c :iji|i;nvtit. In the l'ublie Library roll of 
ceupy a first plnee. With nil who knew Iiiin 

v ui 1, for long years I me, be green, and the record 

of a lot career in the service of his feDowmen to 

Imjrn muted In the >rpool jieople, and in the 

large and special reading-room bearing his nam* 1 . " The Pleton" 
cut it i livl, is r Tucli frequented ronni in toe 

i Hi" buildings forming the central library. The en 

Irihuie to Ii m and tn Mm work. TTr never 
: i' hair's-hrouttl) In hta devotion tn \uh YAw.wy A.w'w-. 
i i was ever Awn and buoyant, arid Vie wsMSdaA xrtSfc 




1(* 



PTBI.IC UnaAEIES. 



keen interest the bc^inniriK*. formatfcffij und powth of 
Library work in Liverpool 

Tin' lato 8tr W llluun Brown, the muzdAc ml donor to Liverpool 
oi'thr l Ml I -■ Library and Museum Mnlding> in W ilham Jtrowu 
Street, eouM not Iiutc perpetuated liie name in n IB" 1 " 
priato wnv. These, with the an Gallery, mo, wtthou 
lin- i pile ol liulldlnoi it>r tins p the whole I 

km.< nd if wo except the Btate-eidcd Lnctltn 

Bunding in the ];u- ■ ro in the elty ol Liverpool and 

elevated from the rtreel below, they h«ve contributed 
- n for i Iverpool a moat Important place for The mnjnity nnri 
architaetnraJ beauty of lr* public hmMrmra in 1N0, when 
the question dI totmdinjgn Public Library was first fn< 
propose] ini't with cordial support, but Mime oppoai' 

afterwards the Council obtained the Art -i Parliament 
authorizing thorn to levy a library and museum rate of not 
exceeding Id. in the |miuih1, mid in the panic year, 18.V 
library was opened i:> bnike Sired. Tlie following year kiw the 

eh!ilM:>l Mli-nl Ol the m:I1l mil ROUttl |CD( ■ :- : the 

[Irown Liii.iM ran opened In 1860; the Walker Ait Qattea 
1877. end the Pioton Reading-Boom in 1679. Whilst, howi 
these buildim.™, thus gradually erected, form a -splendid irr> 
Institution! toetihiua to n-gard Un- education ami b>r :i I, ll.e 
pn i io rate oul "i wnich they have to be maintained ha* 
1652 remained the same. There haa been no corresponding 
i .uni cd re* in- est and in tbia respect Liverpool differ* from 
I of fch< other large towns, wine the rateable ralne 

i M'd jm> much. 
The une made of these handsome buildingn is unmiatolie 
The thirty-seventh repi rt was mode public on J!. 

1K!M), The cot ii ii iM. lee note 111; it Hie )>:i rli:< ltu t; btl'V pOWeTUObfc 

n* ur nig the last soaaton now enabled them to admmistorthG Library 
and Muttoum Act of IMS to the ftilloet extent, and frees it Prom 
ninny moot points wm*oh heretofore presented themselves^ noto- 
i»iy mo, that » doubt h:i- heei dispelled ss t«> the lending libr 
terming a part of the corpus of the main library in William 
% '*n street. The exigencies Of Liverpool trnde and eommeroc 

i srlng necessitated the migration of n urn sad Industrial sec- 
tion ot tiie eomi&nnlty to a residential neighbourhood 
from the eentre of the city, it was deemed desirable in thei 
terest to extend the area or the district libraries, resulting' in the 
eraetton >f one In the township and war d ot west Derby Tim 
extern to which district lihrarfea may ultimately lie established 
will trreatly depend upon the financial resources of the committee, 
and upon that question the dictum of the ratepayers most MViner 
in- later be pronounced. ThN question of branches has for 
time been b sore one En Liverpool, and many columns <>t* I is 
I-", i press have been devoted to If either o the form of leti 
report* of discussions of the committee, or leading articles, .Mr. 
Oowell, the well-known chief librarian, has advanced the 
vk-\y thnt it nnuhl U« better Lobui\dupagveu\.e«aVva\\\N«n.rswU*i 



PmilC ITBSUftJKS tS TBR H-'"«rJIRRX rY»rvTXR*- 



1W 



ttH 



live books for nteen C by Eho working men whleh 
Dot Obtain for themselves, rather than fritter away 

librarfo* Tlii* hie* 



le: 

s 



the fc#rjnote "i tin* work Ed Liverpool, inn t in not. r.lmr 
Uiai it ha* been ritogsthei nwc wtf rl. Ttw rtntlatfes ol the rater- 
eucv librarv >liuw iluii Ifcerehs* sued during the paal paw 

■ Compared with the i«*ut» of the previous ti 

:i-;t.srol 17.019 rolUIDCS 'i M M- .lrc|t.-:i.Sf 'i:i- ■■ 

proportionate in the several lAascsof literature \nU which 
books are divided, except I-otin ami Greek classic*, winch ethJMl 
crass* of i The volumes added during the year 

cr 2,404, The effect ol good arid bad trade upon employ- 
ment is always Apparent in the work of the library by the deci 
or increase of tnc books issued to those frequenting the re.*l- 
: :hc prrscut improve tnont in tn ■!<* i- ; <> doubt the 
direct cause of the diminution <t books issued both this year i ltd 
last ; and the books borrowed from the lending libraries also show 
a decrease to the extent of ii',106 volumes, due no doubt to the 
Airae cause. Tfae&nmborof books referred i<>. which have been 
classified, by no moans represent the whole or the wotft ol One 
hbrnrj. The issues of «Minrti»Hy, month!y,and weekly periodical, 
which are placed in the 1'icton reading-room, are estimated at 

■ periodicals are nil of a scientific or literary olinr- 
Jn the Brown reading-room, whore the literature lamed 

la of a more reeroative and popular kind, the various periodical!* 

lent, in addition to the volumes of prose fiction, volumes of the 

•ated papers included in the table, numlter 1 1 .'.U'W To this 

046 directories lad 17,18* volomsa of 

its. A. section ol this room forms the newspaper deparrmont, 

in-! various countings of the readers hero present at ons time 

gtvaat average of not less than 7<X> i*»rday,or lM».7ln iliirui^ 

ling figures combined make a total of i0O|dN 

liook* and periodicals issued during the past year, and this apart 

norraous number ol persona who coma tooonsultor rend 

(H the 444,649 volumes issued from the refer- 

ibntry prose fletlon appears to have been the class of lilrr.i- 

aosl :;i i smand, 171 ,097 volumes having been applied for. 

i aud Greek rhixsirN v.uuiv ;it the other end oC the list with 

'i.i;; -,i l-mic3. The totnl number >i works , ..i.t.ioi- \ m ilie lil-Mn 

wmts to 94,749. 

iiic total Dumber iA \ tames lent from the north and south 

dtnfi .■.-''.' I' whirh !'»•"-, le'o w.-i.- iwued li (-in 

i ranch and Ift&,841 from the south branch. At neither 

W0H >■■ lost. The Volume,-- ;nl<ird or lent to hull 

counted to 300 The total attendance" at the branch 

< during the evening only, tuid held in 

rooms, were 116,915, being made up as follows i Ohnta- 

(lev Utnul, :u>,r,:\*> ; Wellington Koad, 

■ ad. 17,833; LowraU 14.S80. A 0% 

was opened onJanunrr 30th, 1800. This « rtuifasfc^eTTw^ 

room ami library combined tfc&tuaft ^jet Veen 



no 



prune rntKAsite. 



cotaUlishedinthocity, As to the need for the now Is here 

con bo no question, In the thirty-aix years which ha\ 

og i] thd north ana ttouth londin« i 
ii 1 1 i>v,ii up n the outlyln i ixuti) of Kveri 
an artisan poimliitii'n "t ii-.'iii ,0,000 to hnt,(HKi pa i [o, t i wh< m, 
t-v reason of duttanee, those libraries arc of prooacally u<» I „■• 

Ac :'.'"'! Ikik king ,v, '« " i'" 1 " .."ti-i-l l.v the lun-nn • •«. ■nn ittee, mid 

doubtless hid luees resourced k.<»i>t pace with tl 

mandi an 1 1 thorn the present provision might have been ■ 
sooner. As it is the new library come* just when Q 
most needed rhe • >at has been aboui £3,000. It occupies on 

■ :' 100 wuaw yards, and >mpriseat reading-room w 
by -"-' (set. It ts of one storey only, and flu feet square. Fh€ 
greater portion >i Che ntorior is ocenpied by the library and 
reading-mum, a work root xnp- 

ported itv pillars Around the walls on two sides are place 
bookcases. On the other sides and in the bays of tin- window 
are the newspaper stand*, whilst tho floor space is oceupli 
tables for readers o1 hooks. Triere is u'comraodiition altogether 
for about a hundred people, The library is also provided v 
room for the assfe an s. a librarian's room, and 1 1 ominlttee-rc 
and has been fitted throughout willi tin: latest Iruprovemi 
About 7,000 volumes have been provided, and within three month* 
after the opening' 2,307 borrowers' cards had teen Issued Tin- 
question of decentralizing the chief library is occupying c Hb 
sidcrable attention, not only from the committee, but ;n the 
jgeaeraHyi and the development of tills step will be watohei . 
interest. Probably as one means of carrying this work oul the 
fivn evening reading-rooms, open from Lo 9.00, will tilth: 
a- ume a more permanent form. 

afanoHWTMa, 

Taking an all-round survey it inns I c said til it Mauri:, •!■ - lm* 
never taken a back seat to any town or cdfcy in I he wor d 
Public Librarv work, and probably never will This, pet 
appears s rather bold assertion, hut it is one base I upon what 
Manchester has done, 2a still doing, and Is prepared to do 
vitality and energizing force throughout the entire v. 
conspicuous that the statement jnst nude is more than justified 

So eagoHy desirous have the Ineinlx of thix mo\<iiH'!it DO* 

having a roller aeeounl «>f tho rise and progress • <! the Pi bh'4 
i irarle i this ity that the need toi a littla nandho ■: 
a descriptive and hiKtoriiMi Kiccrvh . . e ii i( ? . ■ it.wn apparent 

\n«l to mrrt this demand for information a panvohle! ol aixtj 

pages wns written by tl hid lihrarian, Mr unai'Ics VV Sum m, 

and the deputy chief librarian, Mr. VV. R. Credlund, and \m 
in in*.*. The aide work of Mr W K. A. Axon on "Tho \ 
(theater Libraries," published some years agi bj Messrs i 
He/wood vV Bona, lad prepared the way for this atioitor 
which brought the subject down to date. Tho rcadej 
knows thai the Manchester Public Library was the firvt 




JTHLIC LIBRASIBfi t* THE NOHTEEKM COUNTIER. 



Ill 



iblished under the Ewart-Brotherton Act of 1H50, and, 

ITiOOBW *hown, DBAbldiatety thftdf the pasting Oi Hie Act 

Stops were taken Top the adoption of the Arte and the u n m mn 

of a library. The steady progress of the work from the beginning 

down to the present date is n record which Manchester men look 

npon et™nfl of the many to which Manchester 

\y and justly lays atafra 

in tiit? looonnt given Id another chapter of fctw opening of the 

flr«t. Public Library under the Act of 1830, a nnrahor of names 

an* mentioned; but there kk others In tlie Manchester roll 

of honour who have done much bo help on Hie popularizing of 

■ Institutions In tliai city. Firel and 'orexnost among tneea 

i> Ml'. C'liilMi-illiir Tl.ii'i v Kiwwm, J.P. This "rMli'Uiail i\:ix [JQPQ 

at BCinohostei near the close ul 1820. After l; brief svlwol 
life, and before be had attained lu'et eleventh year, he found 
".vmeut in the shop of a well-known liookwller and 
printer in Market Street At the termination of lua apprentice- 
10 remained for five years as managcx, ood then, in cou- 
junction with a fellow-workman, beyan business. In 1853 ilirv 
quired tlie praniseswheTe their apprenticeship had beenpnesea. 
Be, the real education of the subject of tola 
bogs n with the jeara of active work. The desire for km w- 
odgc found further encouragement and outlet fit the evening 
■ of the Mechanics' Institution. Here he took an active part 
thi >M8 of the Mutual Improvement Bociety, ana on 

in i '.nt (4 his majority ho woe elected a member of the 
rd of directors. Amongst nis many services to the instit n~ t« n 
•! the least was the prominent part he took in the establishment 
v classes for girls and women. Mr. itawson hue been eon- 
eerneii :ii n- government of the McehnnicK' Institution aincc the 
i:-ii. i-'ivr yearc ago it wan transformed into, a toahnloaJ 
"I. and he was elected chairman of the council, lie is also 
s mi'jnbtr of the Whitworth Committee, appointed by the 
laaYatfVY o3 the Sir Joseph Whitworth to mkkwi in their greut 
Knemo for the establishment of the Whitworth Institute <>t' Ait 
&n<l Industry in Manchester. ]n 1860 Mr. Uawson was eleete<l 
' i> < 'iifjtive of Cheethum Ward in the Manchester City 
»nd, with the exception of a, slight interval, retained 
■unnveiloD until 18W>, when ill-health compelled bis realgna- 
I - tub ' • ; ■■■ in 1S57, of Sunday bnnri.< in the public parka 
itarlan bigotry, and an Ineffectual 
him at the poll. As chairman, in IKCX, of the 
Libraries' Committee, he was mainly responsible for 
'" Uullcy i>t c*tabllAhmg branch lending libraries In the 
I'ipuloiis district* nf the city. In 1884 he waa solicited 
o of Kxehatige Wind to become again a 
■ante fur municipal honours, and waa returned i\y a 
Hi- resumed Ida position on the libraries 
which In- \> the deputy chuirmun, and in this 
red iiiu.-.i valuable service lo the worV. ol 
r Ut-niricM, A* ciudrmtux of tin committer, AWe.nn.ui s \ '' - 



112 



prBLXO UBiARrn. 



Smith ha* done n work for theae i»*ii atSonfl worthy of high 
praise. There >TJ»er riamw which could b< mention 

were ! 000688811 tOdOBOSl till |'ivsp-nl i mm: unit, <rf lino.- WQ0 

by their enthoRiasm and lut>our helped to 

[ Institutions. Butttlaonlj rendering a weD-menl i 

ti» viy thiil in uo pldi'f 1m* iv- work been more ttbl) and uurcos- 

ilUly t I !>• l-» ■;.: [»i i-v:, lli:i!L ;m M.turlir.-,|cr, FnnTillii' 

■<r\ biitnol Uk* Idea to the inesmi ti nc the entire local • 
ham riven the wtigtit of their vast influence and adv-> 

il the Fublie Libraries and the rnnvoment ttcuera-lry. Daren 
lies, as much 00 in anything else, the proud position 
Mancht^tn Kbrariea now hold in the library wo: . 

The roll of chief librarians is not by any means witln.ui mi- if ■■• 
Edward Edward* was the Bat. sad held the position for six Tean. 
followed ]u>lv<-t't Wilson SitiiliH, lu-othcr to tin; genial di 
: _■ saroc name. In 1884 Dr. Crcntodoro woe appointed to ihis 
tilHoe, which ho held until his dcutli in 1379, after fiftoen jcars of 
mithlul service. Hi* R-uecrxwor iv,i- Mr L'. W -Sutton, who hod 
been for some yeni-v in the service »t tho committee, and 
wtfll holds tho some office, lie is deservedly esteemed V; 
committee, the public, whose servant he is, and hie brother pro- 
fessionals. In hi* hand*, nd vih Mr, t.Vedland as lus able 
deputy, the work to receiving all the force which can eomo from 
practical experience and sustained enthusiasm. The present 
writer remember* well old Ur. Orestadoro when, on a lad, 
li<- -.-,:■«. : i ivii.i*T sit t ii> old L-amptieid Library. The reputation 
ot the old doctor will ever he associated with the prepar 
ot a memorable eataka.'"'-' Issued in 18ftJ. It consisted ot two 

parts, the Brst being « list of authors* names in alpha!* 
order, anonymous works being placed under thou- subject! 
the second an index of subjects. His lihrury work is 
known in the dtefirtet, lie wmh rather b recluse so fiat asothi 
HbrarfasB were concerned; but one gentleman who holds 
hijrh post as chief libnrlun In n large northern town, nnd wh< 
catalogue It* one whldi lus received unlversnl admiration, t< 
how as a young man he sent some MS. copy of hia first imtaJogna 
tn Dr. CJreatadoro and sought a personal interview with l um 
the DQoal k i i 1 1 i i v u;iv the old doctor looked through hie abeel 
made a low suggestions, .md chatted pleasantly with the chh 
librarian in embryo. 
Tlie first yearn working of the Manchester FubUe Lil 
,.' 3, showed liiat 01,080 volumes were used by readers Ei 
iritTi.-iu-.- department, while 77.2.1:. 1 «eu- i»ui:owed Prom the 

[ng department, making a total of 1JW,812. Tin* i i 
li rrary jonfcoined at the end of the first yaw 18,104 rolumee, nnd 
the lending department 7,195, Thus it may be said hai 
L'o.tXK) volumes proi Ided were issued Ave timer* over, 

of 1851 #ave the total number of the inhabitants of tho 
as 808,3*2. Making every allowance for women, children, and 
adults m\:iMo l..> iv number, prohahly between 50,000 

and fiO.OUU persona, WOW I Mill remain, who Toight i n dirndl v have 



pmuv LnraAanes in ran yowntvav couimw. 



113 



beta expected tu have availed themselves of the privileges pro- 
vided for them. Leas than one-half of the rising generation of 
1851 WM therefore recetvtDg the instruction necessary to fit. it for 

it tie of life, and of coarse the proportion for the previous 
■ii 1 1 would be less still. TbB nee ol the libraries has in 
TateT years increased out of sill proportion to the men growth 
of the population, and this Increase is largely accounted for by 
the strenuous educational work which has been earned on since 
the passing of the Elementary \rt n( 1870. Since that time the 
proportion ei children not apparently receiving education has 
steadily decreased. Id making a comparison between the past 
and pit* sent work of the library, Mi'. Crcdlaud iwinted out, in a 

e delivered name time ago, that the results of these enhanced 
educational eflorte might naturally be expected to show tliein- 
aelvee iu the increased OM of institutions having for their object 

ilorgenient and extension of adult education, and it is 

EstuV ul that the figures showing the working of the 

rarles undoubtedly point to this conclusion. Between 1852 and 
1370 the libraries received their fullest development. The patent 
ioc i - amptield gradually increased in popularity, and 
demands began to be roado for the establishment of branches 
in other parte of the city. Accordingly, in 1357, two brunch 
Ubrari* b were opened. These were followed by the. establishment 
Uvoscy Street branch in I860, and of the branch In 
Raeholmc Road in I8B8 ; thus, before tho end of 1870, the whole 
of tho present library aystom had boon brought into existence, 
with the exception ol the Chootham branch, which was opened 
in lf?7:?, and the reading-rooms at Bradford unci Ilurpmb. v, 
I in 1*37, and t ho roading-room in Hyde ltoad opened 
m 1988. J- pom i -70 to the present time trie efforts of tho 
LibraricfiComniitteehave been confined principally to the improve- 
ment and extension of tho bnildmgs and privileges already 
provided. By the opening of the Cheethara branch in 18712 tho 
ohoin ot libraries encircling the city was completed, and it 
was not until 188(5, when the out-townships ol Bradford and 
Harpttrhey were added, thai any necessity was felt for more 

Et In impowiblo within the compass of a few pages to follow 

op the steady progress of the Manchester work. Thiring the 

but twelve months the number of readers and borrowers »t the 

various libraries and roadJng^roomfl (i.e., the nuniber of visits 

have made) reached an aggregate of nearly franr millions 

8), being over 70,000 in excess of the previous 

ye.ir. The numlter of homes used for home rending and tor 

iieniKil in the reading-rooms hue been 1,649,711. The increase 

aj Uiist the previous twelve months, la 12,867. 

Hm ii - volumes used in all the libraries won l,7no, 

Of the volumes issued to re;ulers at tho libraries, 330,068 wore 

b the reference library, o07,96-l iu the reixdm^-T <y 
attached to the ' t r TT0 in the Bradford, Rar^jweVvwj, 

mad Bjda flaed lvadlug-rvwub. For home reading, l\\e uacatiaBC 

ft 



114 



PraiJC tJBR.VHTBS, 



for the year was 740,949. Out of these only 10 are missing. Oi 
Sunday*, 5,843 volumes have been used by i,!^i adult readers h 
tin: general rcadinjr*roorafl .:i tin- branch Libraries ; 18*619 volumes 
hare boon used by 13,428 reader i in il r • •■ 'imeh reading-room*. 
In the boys' room 115,245 have been issued. At the rofon 
Library ii.ojm rolumoa have been issued, the average being -'•- 

eu*:l Siui<ti>, .iL'iiiii-; -Jlti in the prcv ions year. Tin- | i 
vendors of magazines and newspapers al ndsvfl 

haa been over 160,000 The total number of vi»its pai-i ■ 
libroaiv mid roading-rooraa on Sundays baa boen 

■ ..■.._<■ ol *».•■' " eocl Sunday. In the boys' h arc 

i pan ererr evening, 136,408 volumes have been used, being on 
increase oi Li r 668. Ihe number of volumes in the fi 
oov l >7i947. The number in the re i ranoe Library is 00 
the eli branch, libraries 104,842, and in the three reading i 
•:. - 12 volumes. 1'he addition to the stock is 5,WS0 vol ID 
number oi' persons holding hmTiwrs' tickets is ll.Si;.':, muI .in 
the yew they have made 703,79ft applications for books, show big 
that each borrower has boon supplied with books, on an average, 
seventeen times in the twelve months. The chi •: additions to Hie 
i.-t irenoe library have been two valuj ble collections, ■ m 
comprising l.olo work* on shorthand writing, and the other S 
volumes i 1 various editions of the writings nr Dr. Thomas lniLiei\ 
mirl u! inioks relating to him, and tn ntl er anthon ol the same 
i me Amongst the additions to the lending libraries, special 
attention maybe called to a selection of ttfty volumes oi 
the Braille type for the useof the blind. There are besides ft 
br amah about 180 embossed books iu the Hoot type. The 
In the direction of providing books for the blind were takes 
1868, when the committee were asked to buy a number ol b< 
printed with the types invented by Mj'. Moon. About I 
it was estimated thai their were about 300 blind people in 
around Manchester, most ol' whom were ol the poor* r i 
unable bo purchase the books, which were ueceasarilj 
price Since that year addition-, han '"■■•n made to the liltr 
;;iul there is now a goodly list of book* .i hipte-1 for the usi 
those who cannot sec. The books deal with all kinds of nub 
from the '''Sinner'-* Friend," liturgy ol the Church of Emgland, 
to " Anecdotes oi Two Dogs." 

Tlio committee express a regret that the limited rose 
their disposal prevent the extension of branch 
public reading-rooms, which arc now b< nig demanded in nil 
suburban districts. They trust, however, that the council will 
enable them to take the nooosBary measures for gtvi 
i!i> resolution of the council passed unanimously oil December 
31st) 1887j with regard bo obtaining Par i imontary powers for 
removal of the restriction of the rate to bo expended foi 
purposes. The total number ol borrowers whose mimes w< 
then enrolled at the six lending Libraries was 12.604, 
29,035 lived within the eitv of M I L3,56U ol 

lonvrmTG resided beyond the city bousu 




ithi.ii! Miiiiuii&f; ix mi: nojithkiin ciumik 



1I.> 



wh 



i ; isquaition od allowing non-residents within the borough to 

v.- boo).* h:r- ill-en rat her ;i hum inn; >ne la Mafloheater, m U 

other places. The ratepayers oi flajiehesterw*re astounded 

(hat one-third Of the numbi-mr ni<mbei'*ot their hbiaiiOl 

resident raembamanG 1 thai sue] persona havo the use o] 
lea five oi onsf. There ha* been a natural Icpling that 
■ i not under any obligation to grant ilia use <>i the librae 
to persona noi renmanl within the City boundary Thohye- 
palate that non-elertora can have tin use » the libraries 
their i I mining I he applimlion-l'unii sufiied by person on the 
t nuxiiotpa i -i. I'll Uittl surely qui only mean ooDpStaatoru living 
v u in the I'i'.v boundary The matter In a rery Important oni 
ool enjy lor ahncliefftei but (or other places. In several targe 
■ ■■ where forrnerh nuu-reMileuLs were allowed to borrow, the 
gnivikfj : a teen butcn away, and reasonably so in the present 
writers opinion. It is ecwueb tab* to axpeol thai residents aad 

i iyi s should I'l-nviiii* books free "I expense to iIium- wluj do 

Dot contribute to the support ol the libraries. Furthermore, us 
lonjf as these large centres give unlimited facilities for non- 
resident© to borrow, the inducement to adopt tbc Acts in the 
rarios ctein which they reside id miuiniaed. In one or 

two "i [the district* around Manchester, governed by L«>»-ol 
Doar«K the question of adopting the Acts bus liocu under 
deration, but owing; to the liberality of Manchester in 
reading free the Act Jtifl remain unadopted. 
ac districts may soon hocomo incorporated in 
Q«ter, and bo the difficulty will, bo far as those placet, arc 
concerned, quickly disappear. 

Mnnehoetcr boa thus owvy reason to be proud <>f its Public 

Library n one proof of thosatlsffiotion thai is felt ie the 

continued demand for its oxtonsion. The lending cituens of this 

-....• citvlong ago recognised t hut the elementary education 

given in Board Schools :* not the end for which thai education la 

The Hiii of clemeutary education is to provide every 

mom bar ol the community with the capacity for :i<-»|umng know- 

and cultivating the mind, it La clear thai this capacity 

cannot Ne exercised unless the melius of nhtainin;! ;nnw lodge out 

•ctnal enjoyment Is accessible in the letan hum* of those 

raona who nave -<> empkvj tholr days in aiming' n living. 

upported ml o1 the rates are ii nly means by 

tab thiaean he provided Their eostisatrlfle compared with 
sty may save by I io comtuquenl ■ mpruvernent; In the 
members, and from wlaxi ii will gain as the result 
'in re universal intellectual effort 

UnmLainoxovaB. 

The Public Library and readiinj-rouni form part of the hand- 

inir pih- ii mi:nii'ipal buildings situated in the main street, The 

nni J* on the ground flooi a" tin Udldiug, and the lending 

n are on the second AWr. Che pteSesn 

r, 186"; mit.althougU thb\u30tatf \a 



II* 



unn*a:E5. 



now bctfc i houn d, the drain mi the 
change hnn been cxccmivc. The income bas been crip| 
heavy rent charged by the Co moil f"r the new Public Library in 
tho municipal biiilcltiura (£150 a year} And other •' i a rjrett incidental 
thereto, having repaid to the Council quite one-third of il - 
(mint made to than. In confluence of this the oomn 
i inly been able to Spend 2k, IOJci. jwr pound of their income upon 
i,,!- , -i ■ in***. 7«. l'»»«i ni icirold labrtstion Added to thir. there 
liuve been diffl&Utiea in other directions, and th*,- iv 
report is not inspiring. Tho result of a specie 
miD-Gomniitteeshowstiiutn I urge dcnciein \ ol 9&5 volume* lion been 
loun<I f of winch twenty-seven wore bwks belonging to the refer 
department, whilst there area rnnsideruhlc nam hero! pUDpl 
Itluu Flocks etc, iii the cellar "in a condition that rol 
utmos* dtftgntee on those who have hud eh urge Of thfflU " I 
OS W6M pnotiOAlly useless for the work of audit until 

I ■ -i i; -.tIi "1. :i-,il Iliri',- in tin pnnMbllity ft 

*.rantial proportion of the 908 volumes missing from the < • 
library being recovered. \ considerable number ol tho boo 
the unary are quite beyond repair and unfit for circulation, and 
the' committee cannot replace tfiem for want of fUnda. The 
committee appointed to Enquire into the matter dealt to del 
tit how this defldency might be partly accounted for. such as lite 
substitution of one-volume copies when replacing three-volume 
novels, and said it was also probable that tfir mnnbtir worn oul 
and withdrawn wan largely in e.ve*s of die reported nam 
The committee had only to look at the enormous olrculttttan, 
exceeding 1,100,000 issues in seventeen years, to be assure 
the wear and u the lending library would account I 

much larger deduction than the librarian had made, The >u!»- 
committec regretted to mey that the number of ins tain n the* h.ul 
met with of groat carelessness m working the h . and 

of negligence in allowing book* Co remain in the h<uu>- 
borrowers f«»r hcvci.i1 mmitlw, i>r<o -«i vi r\ -lradythatsonir pi rtloB 

of the deficiency was due to thost muses. Ana they were entirely 
ut i low to understand how it was tlmt O* erimpk course of <:ount- 
intr all the books on the shelves at tho sir. h taking in I 
1888, when the library was closed for the purpose, nnd t 
DO Longer any wont of space, qh mi^rht have been alleged in the 
old pfemiB68j wae n '>t resorted to, and tho deficiency ii 
not. have ui-iaco oltogethcj - he hit I yew's -f >ck ti b 

thereby discovered, and reported to tho committee. It : 
of the duty of one who seeks to record the work being done by 
these institutions to simply piofa >ul the parte suitable to support 
th«» main nr^nmont tor the extension ot thuxo libraries, \ I 
li;l hlstorli n must take facts as they present themselves, and 
confusion worse confounded nt Middlesboroutfli will serve a pood 
purpose if it makes other librarians end committees exercise greater 
oote Bie rooke upon which both may be stranded rm new 
indicated, and wine men will take a lesson fi'om it. i fpponentl 
Ol Mi--- in ■-( it utiens should hesitate Oefote xAiev \wut then* finger. 



pvulic iJ»n-iWRe is rein NnirniiuiN counties. 



117 



To say that cho work at Middlcshorough had l toon a failure would 
bo untrue and a libel on the library and town. A new lease of life. 
has commenced. In October, l«^tf. out of 111 applications (in it 
-i. Wv. Baker Hiidsoi m accountant rmm Ke<iear, wai 
ti'iitu. There Is a Urge collection of natural h. 
specimens which would form an excellent nucleus of a museum, bat 
these are :tt present housed uutof sight in rooms of the municipal 

building. A largo piece of vacant ground is nnlv divided from 
ilcipal buildings by a street, and It would be gratifying 
..ok from the present roomu ot the library on to a museum 
building erected upon this spare piece of ground ; or, lietter still, 
perhaps the twin institutions under one roof. The matter hits 
M?an3 Ufata bees under dfaouaston, Tlw temporary museum bat 
hopn fitted np, and wns opened to the public in March, 18W0, 

Bit* library nil good friends In Messrs. Hell Brothers, and the 
il ore baa la u ^Ic'ims of promise. 



MlDIUlTON. 



A statutory meeting was held iu 1887, at which a poll ma 

'llic ir.sult was a majority of nearly thrc»* to one in 

i the adoption. Iu March, 1989, the new building woa 

i'rofeseor Boyd Dawklns. The committer, in their in- 

I toting architects, trave the key-note as to stylo 

by eyVKWting o sixteenth century style oi' architecture, n rusl i<" 

i : n.i i i . and the vestibule is oarriodupto a con- 

w<1ctj height as a town- ,n- turret, which forms the principal 

external feature. On tho ground iloor there two largo rooms — 

the one to the front being used as a reading-room, and that at the 

back as u lending library, Tin; upper floor is of similar h\z*\ 

andlaeo arranged that it can bo used as one room, or that hall 

o\<r tho reading-room may bo divided into three olass-roorne by 

moans of sliding partitions'. A spacious staircase with stone step's 

to floors, and this ib lighted by a large mullioned 

■ v. tilled with tinted glass of geometrical pattern*,. Tho 

floors are all ftroprooi, and the upper are carried on iron 

joists resting on rolled iron girders. 'Die principal rooms have 

-'law in the lower parts ot the window*, una tinted gliiss in 

ppei The subdivision of the total area into rooms of van 

- quite discreuoii-.n'.-. uud on iu< varied Iroro time to Unions 

ces may suggest ; and this elasticity in plan had great 

vetglit with the committee when considering the competitive 

design*, Tin' hi n n-y began with 3,223 volumes. SwfflcJeni Mih- 

SCTiptVms were given to erect the building, and asMinVlletoii had 

anljr just, before the adoption of the Acts been incorporated, It 

was looked umn as a very happy omen that the library should 

be established so early In IU corporate life, 

MlLLOM AND I'KNRtTtt 

The oouuti'y is watclung with considerable interest what cao.be 
done in this movement in small di&tricta ;ux<\ w\Ui a nv\\ \y\i 

Iff/fain Ims u population of about r n*\. -w<\ /■ 






118 



KTBUO iiwiiiw 



li.WJ Both plioes are :n Cumberland* una ut present these witli 
:• -haven and *\ orkfn^onaretheonbi whew 

ihe \ . ■ t ■ .n idop* -i Hi*' •( leeti n 

I id in On Etl« library w» 

apefttd rif i u ahnosl i^od in mining, 

and for the l**nefit »»i tTic** more partfeularly a newsroom hail 
beea opened al i el !»"■ sbowl two miles ftam Mfllom ftw 

E.ilnccK CSSOj which Is much better than Penrith I 
-in with t,ooo volume*. It i* particularly tost 

Milium should show i good example erf what ran be don.- 
district where the chief population u ity rnnnosl 

toft Some S39 Iwrrower* urn the library, arid the -"-v. 

pupilliil. Thry -iiv ulli'Will|f till? privileges Ol the | 

persons nrH residing hi the Board's district by a psvmmu 

v;i|i-nl tc wlial the penny rate wmiM be. 

IVuritli library lui- Iktu "pen •miu: ■ 1^--' The ijuainl "1*1 boQd< 
in^in which ii & situated wai from I853tc 1883 a working . 
ruidhiL'-i ""in, ,:iiit i lie library of the Mechanics' Enatil ateeamaalw 
ultimately U> thli library. A jrood proportion of the books are 
repre sen ted in the 6,500 volumes of the library, and are nut of a 
class writable for generil circulation, There we seme, hoi 
hIu h might be useful in large town libraries if n system of ex- 
ohsngOCCUld be adopted an with museum spednu dot- 

I \i- bhe library, and the averi m sixty-five pet 

The rate produce** Llflo,nn<l P. ' ■ ■-! ~ l = is M-mri-i*; mi actual ratac of 
it which it scarcely measured by double that sum, The foUowing 
irnatfee expenditure in i ■ — ahtishmcii chi 

855 10a. 4d.; newspapero and pcriodi< ills, E36 10s. 7d , • 
books and rebindinjr, £42 Ik. ad.; interest on loan and C5rci 
M total £134 6 3d. 635 new rohnnea were added 
the year. Thorc ia a Mnull museum. The museum 8] < cimoa 
wore the uift ot Admiral Wnnhope, and are of n ve 
Character. These are nt one aide of the lnr£c room - I which I he 
building chiefly consists, with one or two smaller to* i ti md : 
attached for the librarian. Ot daily papers taken Hum 
thirteen, twenty-two weolclic«, and twenty-one monthlies in 
1894 there was a bazaar Tn aid of the funds of the library, and 
itv.-r £400 were rawed, the interest of which is spent upon 
books Sorely u partol the principal would not be ware 

it Kpcnt f of library piu'poses. There arc several hundred en] 
In the librnry which came from Profeswor P. W. Newman, li 
a friend of Dr. Nicholson in the district. The workisgro'v 
and the museum i* capable nf being' made more Rttrai fclve i m fi 
salary of £36\ sad house, coal, and gaa, the town is being ran 
served by Kr, Stuart, who wan connected with the building 
ftjr mow year* before the \ets wt»re adopted. "Hie present writer 
has a vary tender regard for the welfare of these libraries 
"'ii'.Mi'iiii i small run'. Mnt iiynn enhanced Interest on the 
pari 5l the Penrith m pie, and another bazaar for the pur] 
nf raising funds to place another store} on the bunding, Pel 
woititl 1'vsfin agntn soresh, 




rror.rc libraries in thk southern corNnss. 119 

DB MD >• ** TOPi lli.vni. 

There is oo •;< ui the Pul lie Library movement in-iug u 

real infection, I ■treotly libraries become eatabtiahed in one centre, 

- . 1 1 : t- 1 ■ .Liv! i-it-t - BftOil g I 'n-ir utility :ind 9UQC6M, UK DOt lODg before 

they wish to possess tljc •:iiik i facilities. 4mong the uumarcnui 
districts ground u meheater goremei bj loci I boards which tiara 
adojU'wi tin- \ck aw the two named ftbOYe. Bfoss Side did so In 
1887 The population in 1^000, una tin- rateable value cro.mn. 
uiilch will produce £42."> a year, so IliHt the prosper:-.. whfOl once 
the library does gel Enl m ip< ration, Bliould be hopeful A techi [col 

» difficulty ins arisen, Permiseion to borrow for the purpose o 
l.mldiiiiV whs .IfSH'i-i!, Mid !ln- LOCal f Imrnmiriil tDSpeCtOT ■'*'' 
down to nreattgate wnsol opinion that the poll whichdeclded 
(di the adoption of the Ads was not takcm in accordance with the 
decUlon in the Croydon case of lust autumn. As this decision 

» given many months alter the adoption of .in- Acts in Mom 
uting of tJie inspector to difficult lo understand. There 
has consequently not pel been mi) progress made towards Ihe 
ii -.i ins ol ;t Public Library* ana toe inhabitant* must con- 
to use t! i Manchester libraries as they have hitherto 
ae, 

Newton Heath decided in 1887 that a pafce-eupported library 
Mioukl be looked upon ils an essential part of the civic machinery 
The -' i - ■ ie woe part ol a larger one including baths. These we 
La course <>* crectton, and it ie expected that the Hoard will be 
; with the erection of the library and reading- 
Thc i iluntnry subeoript^ou towards the Library have 
been generous. 

U F| H WoOT,TOS (VKAIt IJVRRPOOI,). 

'flic Acts were adopted here on February 17th, 1890. The 
mooting was held in the Mcchanica* Institution, There was a 
and tlic chair was occupied by the chairman 
>i the Local Board. The Ttcv. Q, Beaumont stated that in 1882 a 
Puttie Library was fori icd )■ fthc township, and rested ii the trus- 
tees of the Mcehonice' institution, on the trndcMtandin g that it' 
at any rutin, time the Public Libraries* Aete were adopted the 
I library should bo transferred to tin- Public 
l. ihrary. Th\* amount ot' money npent on the hooks orifdnnlK was 
£238. \ tetter was received from ill'. W. L). Jamee, tho do 
WoOltOU Village I tub, i ffering to provide ii room in the club for 
Tin- use tA the library Tree of cost to the ratepayers, an offer 
which was very warmly ren-ivi-d, It w;ik then ivsolvod, on the 
ion ol i ie fctev, 0. A. spoonor, seconded by Mr, Holbrook 
'i adopt the Public Libraries* Acts. The memorial was 
>i\ ]\y ins rate-paycm, which was not an insignificant pvo- 

E-n of n populate -ii oi 1,641. 
Nelson. 
Mi- in another of the smaller places in Lancashire whero 
rramenl guJck^ took root, and resulted in \Vv«i aAo\\Vsb 




ISO HEHJO r-rnjiARiES 

tin- Aotl. Tn March or lsM» the vote- w.i- taken A tot a 
4,<W papers were sent our, and there was a majority of 490 tn 

i:iv ■ of ill.- bbI hbUshment of h library under the condltt i 

the Public Libraries' Acta, iii December tomporanr ro« 
)' rj n.illy opened by Mr. Ecnvd, wlm expri'HHrd tin- mpr lis 
youth oi the town would put to .i noble dm that library and 
erery other opportunity offered lit them, and show in llm coming 
generation toafcrTelaOE contained an iusUucted, orderly. inU'lleetual, 
aadmorA) population. Alluding to the ■ which stood 

in the way of realizing: the ideal he had pointed <>ut, the Wp* 
said he was disposed to regard u the moot serious the prom* 
oj tin- country it-self, the rery munificence with which in this age 
tl.rv had liccii endowed with ll io means of living comfbrl 
lives and enjoying themselves. History shewed them h lut 
wherever there had been a groat nation which had fallen tVuin 
it* hit'!; position, the cause had been its internal decay. A roan 
could not look around tho country at the present time and c 
tho great changes for good that lie might have witnessed without 
rejoicing, but he would also hive apprehensions thnt those th 
(luniselvcs might seduao thorn, might weaken their fibre and 
moral strength and character, and that they might be drawn 
tho easiness of life and a continual desire tor amusements, which 
would prevent them using their advantages with success, 
greatest difficulty they would have to contend with in that institu- 
tion was the subordination of so-cullod pleasure which would be 
placed boXort* their young ix.Miple, and which would lead them 
astray, and root out and destroy all intellectual seat and cap i 
It is very satisfactory to note that there has been some very 
generous giving in connection with this library. One anonymous 
donor gave £600. 

N r. V C AST1,B-PF0N-T?WB. 

This large northern metropolis was twenty yearn considering the 
adoption «T the Public Libraries' Acts, This was hrought about 
D 1874, but it was not until 1880 that the lending library was 
opened In 1882 the newsroom was ready for the public, and 
in 1884 the reference library was first throwu open to readers. 
It is unriwt'Ksyry to outer now into the ran urn of delay either in 
ihr adoption ol the Aci.s or the opening of the libraries, for du 
i. in 1 eight years' work that the library con now record, wrutava 
liikewuuuuess ou the part of the citizens had been present m the 
pnst, has been wiped out by the spirited work which is beinfl i 
and by the ever-exlciidinjj use which the pcnple 

Ubran The last report-, ratified by the Town Coun 
October, 1W89, is n partioulaily encouraging document. This 
report states that not one single volume or pamphlet is mi 
every individual item in the stock book.- being accoui u 
either as (1) upon the shelves, (2) in the hands of borrower*. Dot 
baYrag been returned according to rule, (0) in the handset tho 
hinder* ad patterns, or to bind, or laid aside preparatory to their 
being despatched to the binders, and {-i) withdrawn from 



FTOUC LtB3LASXX8 IS THE SOBJlLtRS COUNTIES. 



121 



tion by order of the committee, imperfect, or so -worn and dilapi- 
dated as to require replacement by new copies. The total stock 
of volumes in nil depurtmrnts im June 20, 188U, was as follows;— 
■i doo library Ordinary stock, 24,407 ; patent office publica- 
tions, 3,751); Thomlii iry, 4,803— total, 32,648. Lending 
section, 29,323f juvenile section, 2^75— total, 
81,007: grand total. 6I,&I5 volumes. The issued during the year 
ended Juno .'.', i *-', w. ro as follows: — Koforenco library. 33,484 ; 
leading library, 256,54(1 total, 29-1,983 volumes. The total issues 
i . Li _r : r . - 1 rafaronoe libraries from the dates <»t tlivir ii?h|hu*- 
tivo openi:i-,'* vw... September 13, 1880, and August 20,18*1 
havo amoiii . l7oy K :>:! : flumes, and during the same period 
only twenty-two volumes have been ln-t. (he cash vuluo of the 
p-two polamec being £2 16s. 7J., wiule (taring the *&me 
01,870 7s. 8d. has been received from readers tor Raft 
incurred by the undue detention of books, op sums received as 
damage* tnroTJfiJi the loss, or injury done by borrowers to, books 
lent tothsm Oaring the year 1,030 volumes have been bound 
or rebound tor the reference department (including 70S for The 

riintnlmsori Library), and during the same period l.lril have ] n 

*o dealt with for the lending library, making a total of 'J.Im 
... inn) \ ::t kOOfltof £174 I0s*» being an average of Ik. 74d. per 

■C-fH wiIuino have been replaced in rim lending lib 

during flic year, the old copSca havh g 1 eon round fji be so worn 

nr imperfect a* to necessitate thalr replacement by new or sound 

.nond-hand copies, aud of this number forty-aix have been paid 

fur by borrowers or their guarantors, at a cost of £0 12s. 8d. As 

lo tlie oompleteneflfl and comprehensiveness of the reference 

ui.au interesting fact may be mentioned. When the 

British Asset Eati n iraa in Newcastle last year, the chairman of 

ograpliical Section, Sir Francis de VViaton, sent for ninety* 

i booka for reference out of the library, and he got ninety- 

oi tl em. lie stated himself to the librarian that be Cud 

li.it oul of London, if in London, he could have got 

fiiii'-iv-thret- out of ninety-seven boohs which ho might want. 

ays that the n< waroom wa> up i, a total 

of fit* *itcd it, giving a daily average of J ,963, Tho 

[g inr.juvcniently Nnalt conmdcrinK the crowds who use it, 

• it Is Imperfectly ventilated, some who would use it were 

the ai^ more inviting are prevented from doing so horn 

the «uuw> stated. < ta Sundays this room is open from two to nine 

.. .1 36,08*3 per as visited it on that duy. This lor tho 

ae BnndajB on which it wan open gives on avoragoof 707. H 

ia not unlikely thai the defect in the newsroom will be remedied 

before very long. 

Ill* juvi-nilo library ma very strong feature in the Xeweastle 
VOlle. liming the year 38.584 volumes have been issued. This 
i^ on mcrww'of 18,182 on the previous year ind, let this fact be 
marked, the returns show that the entire stoek of books available 
for the reading of the juvenile borrowers under fourteen. \jeac& eft 
. ia boon turned over sixteen times during the 5 ear. «<HoAt« 



I 



rmi.ir iiroumw. 



motion to the ptweut time t he ieeue 
ha* b«M :.i"»m 500,000 ^^: i «"v, &] ■ 
lent, tfararooci di 

i:unoJ of r 

oaetle paj>e ■ ■• 1 1 ■■■ v l'.tni Society " wiiii i Uo 

■nrliVt • ■- -::i •■■ |) 




ir 'I history, Iruvi Is, and b -i »ry I 

luvvmie iip.u'v The books are w»ll cared I 

rule wo not k«p1 boyond the I me all< wed I lav*) 

■iinnd 

ff»r wi . ■« |nw d biography, Momentary 

' . : -11.1 ii M'lt'i'rl Tlh* '.'IlK-l \M 



prRLIP UB1URIR* IV TUB N07lTHEn\ mrSTTBfi. 



193 






= 



1:1 

u 



the gratifying Increase in -he issue of books in the general lending 
department fnr N>mp resiling, and it. must lie acknowlcdg' ■• : 

: JTI oiinpi. vni l:i..h , lli:il, :w minpHivd will) the gross 
.1 -liiiMMUIidii rtf Hi H'V rent, hns lnUen phre in the issue 

nf works >i pure Action. Hie presnmptlon is, irom what has 
occurred in Neweaatle nml other efties* that Lho reading of mem 
fiction often impels peX8OH0 of capacity to liigher kiuds of 
i Lb -i' i etl \ng, therefore! i<> V»e able to boast bliat,afl 
I- th i-Mii- ol works of flotion.Ncwcnatle-upon-Tyne baa the 
lowest percentage ol [Hants u compared with its aggregate Irauo, 
and (i tpared witto other Public Libraries Uo* average in 

thrnt Eb 39£7, i "»■•'> h in that «-ity, whilst during the 

tarn* period flu lowest ol -lie other libraries is 69*94) and thr 
highest --O-01. 

.■>«> innh f<r the work of the library', which has gone forjrii>£ 
aloes; at a trejnend >ue ratoi Hie success of fcho library is due, 
to no small extent, to bhc librarian, Mr. W. J. Hnjjrffereton, and an 
efficient staff of oAMsifmts. After seventeen yoara 1 Ifbrarj work. 
ho lion become one of the moot efficient men in the profession. 
i :c aware thi ( m^v have a good publie servant, an<\ 
i J i ; iii i -'i.i'.iiiiL'lv. A few months ago his salary was raised 
ir -in eSRG to fiJKXi per annum. Will other committei i 

aTcnraofitlv, Nottingham, Birmingham, Muncheater, and 

•"I- .i'- ( . l mi 1 1 _c :in- (mining Boh e for librarians, ana tin.' 

ha' one from t ho' two fiFSt-named nureerfi 

theii mark in library work in many parte or London and 

'ill'V- 

Newcastle, in preparing a report for the 
;i, (iiv.-i ■ nxloetion of the electric light into the 

It is prop sed to two Incandescent lamps, 
Newcastle catalogue i* known as a splendid example of 
ibllography. and open 1 t'n- reputa^«n of the librarian stands 

, that at the Uitfpodes the system 
i |i. I It is on i i ■ iini, 'x aynieni, hnt very fnil entries 
author, tltla subject, and numerous cross references. There 
nn- al*o In i: mtnenoTiH from contents of serial publications. 

H -. that It shows at it glnnce and 

i moment everything In the library on any uriven Hiibjeer, 

,l! ihsl to in the library bj any particular author, editor, or 

liltc the crow references ire so full and simple 

tltnt tlic work heroines ;i readable and iiiitruetive literary 

Where there baa been a joint authorship this is not 

only csj nul y noted, but each given in alphabetical eei.|ueuer, ho 

:■ oslng the men <n\ retains only one of the writer*, both 

▼ill in a moment be discovered by this excellent index. Not 

bu1 while the nom tic plume of an author is given, the 

petaoi the writer in revealed. This latter runy ilinost be 

oomfdereda work of ■"Hi" vex '^afcioii.for if an author prefers to 

hide his Identity under Borne meaningless uom <fr p/ume, librarians 

should, na a rule, take him or her at their Word, an«\ ndt troche 

tmc. 



1-JI 



pcnuc MBIIAPX1CS. 



Tho first bequest lias jutt come tu tii. .ami 

Bf there is sonic little interest attaching to this, i few ; 
will not bo out of plow. This oM Public, tt Towns, Library 
was i» ■■'|-i. Lthsd to the people ol Newc -h.- by the Rei & 
Thomliiiflonj Ki>., to Kit, and was open tree to tb undei 

Q6Xt* n ijuaiut and curious n unlit ions. After the i 
however, it soon foil Into" disuse, chiefly caused by the eari 
oj the Authorities; and after many vicissitude*, U 
trans! erred, by order ol the Charity Oommi ■ < ■ 

o the i-ustoriy of the Public Librurioi I anmittee, Tn« 

i Icn m. their transfer were round to be m n very dilapidated 

condition, sad the City Council voted, out of their su 
hum of B8O0 i" prcn ids dots shelving for and to rcblnd the bo 
in IA29 it wan estimated thai there were etween 9,000 
10,000 volumes. The actual tmmber received il tin- r. ojtfnr 
only -1,300. mid llu* number has since readied . i L\ :i few book* 
having cilice been traced, Tl is to be regretted thai a ceutury 
mid i half "1 ecclesiastical and official blundering and ne 
has eventuated In losing one-hull of Uu.- ui.ijue library, wtd tu 
lc» or more permanently damaging the remainder; 
eaa be done to repair the past is now rapidly being dune. am 
hoped, in tin- murse ol, -; y. tw • year*, tlmt the collection will bfl 
OUOQ mure available fur public reicrence. Tlic Thondiu»on library 

■ specially rich in seventeenth century folio o itt I 
Fothera in the theological controversies of the period, including 
the disputatious ou baptism, papists, the Solemn L< 
i WfiKir.t, -i*il kindred BuhjeetH. It also contains ;> fcw rare 
ill early-printed books, such as a first edition of flak 
■ \ pjngea? a Tyndnlee Biblo, Poynaon'a bookc called th 
"Royal, 1 ' "Mirrour for Magistrates for Cilice" &a 

There lias also been recently another iMNpu^t, which take 

form of a library of between 800 and 1,000 vuhmira "I ni" and 

valuable books uealing chiefly with the antiquities, nrehwoloiry, M 

iy of India and our other Asiatic dominions. 1 ' ■ 

aealolLy rich in complete sets of the journals and :<>ns of 

the Koyal Asiatic Societies of Bengal and Bombay, an cxJiuiiHtivo 

!i>s of departmental reports, together with memoirs o! the IDOfil 

eminent Anglo-Indians, military and political. The citv 

Newcastle is Indebted Cor this valuable bequest to the hit 

Mr. n. r A. Buehannan Ridded, who was foraeonsfderahU'Titu^ 

t!ic lkmgnl .Service, am ■ )a memlierof tho Legislative Counc 
oJ India, The local publishers present copies ol all the hooka 
they puhlifth Tt may al- » f»e nienrmnod that. ;lic i-ol 
I rcrifupr published In the four urn-Miem emnitiea roadie* 
books and 1,000 pamphlets. The date of the earliest of th 
h L630, 

Kven Chose who were the most active opponent* ol the 
i>i iIk Arts now aee the folly of their action, and arc among the be 
i! ends u! tin -si- iiiMilut.ione. Tin- work in Newcastle has 03 
warm supportcrawrnong the leading local men, hut there 
oono more §0 than Alderman Henry w. Newum. the ehmViuan o 



o 



runi-ic unriATiirs i* ran tronTOunv corsriEp. 



125 



the PubHo Libraries' Committer, who, through the long v.- 

. n d nciv through the eight years' work, has takvn '!»■■ 
DBOft lively interest in the institution. It was his father. Dr. 
N< « ton, who, in 1851, fir*t broug ht the question of a Public 
Library forward, and although defeated on Berera] oeeflfiiolis, the 

•:.-.•!, i i-hued with tit' 1 ^mim; .-pint, saw it hmught hi u siuvessful 



As fa 

t .1... . 



>0RTH SHJTH.PS, 



The library was opened in 1870 with about 12,000 volumes. 

* (:it back, cowever, a* IcVSft* there was some talk uf a. Publlo 

Library, when even thus e;irl> in thehistury uf tin: movement the 

town clerk proposed Ui.it the site of the new Mechanics' Iiistituh: 

should be conveyed to the Corporation as trustees for the 

i!*er». One of the committee eutfKestcd thai such an 

arran would facilitate the formation of a Public Library 

,it some future period. The town cleric replied, " That were a 

consummation moBt devoutly to be desired." That idea was never 

lost Bight ill by the committee of the Mechanics' Institute, and in 

-r.-i - w.-ir tc.l-<-n in thi* direction. Let it he recorded 

with satisfaction that the then committee cheerfully invited 

their membera to unrrendor n building which had cost nearly 

£3,000, and about 6,000 volumes of books, to the free enjoyment 

..f tii*- whole community, Without a dissentient foSce the top- 

r wa«» made, and the members of the Mechanics* Institution 

deserve no little credit for their prompt and cordial response to 

the mayors invitation. Will committees of other Mechanics' 

ntions please note? It wus no effete institution which thoy 

• r, for the Tynemouth Institution was known as ft very 

sful one. but the managers had long recognized the 

i and greater possibilities of bucccj-b if it was under the 

P&blic Libraries' Acts, and in July, 18*38, the Acts were adopted 

nt i statutory meeting) The stej> has boon more thun justified 

irk since accomplished. The number of volumes is now 

..and there is an average daily issue of 6fi9. This is certainly 

creditable, in the income and expenditure account £219 16s. 4d. 

U set down as heiiu? the balance in troasuret 1 * liands. This is 

providing the library receives the entire amount. 

Thnrv is a Book club managed at the library, to which there are 

121 subscribers at hnlf-a-guinea a year. The revenue from 

i t . - to biry new books, and these come ultimately to the 

public Library, a» also d'l the monthly and imarterly msgaxtnes 

[ -n by the i>ook club. The reading-room and 

lad ng department ore in a spacious room, with n gallery 

running round three sides. The whole building greatly needs 

redecorating. 

OLDHAM. 

"Hil* thriving manufacturing town rejoices In a special Act, 
: which the Library, Museum, and Schools of Science and 
Art .ii (i-'l. Allh nub the rate is m limited, <m\^*2*\. \u tt» 

pound is levied ttad this affords another lnstuu«e ttwfc wwmV- 



iac 



HUBUC UllUAHIKS 



r.-.<\ be ii dated with regsn) to the expenditure tea 

lu*titiKii'ii>. Tin- olttweg "i tins special Act re 

Iibrnry an- iiHercatiiig, &ndurtM|ii..u..l. It wo* pate • l on .!■".. 

1865. Thu throe Kctlona referring to theet iastitutii u- are ". 

If II and a.'., ;mi| ll «■ !■■■ in.- > ' i in -ui ;nr is fcikrWB : 

The furpomlloa Iruia CUD? to time ma? ftpproprtAte inj- Ijuwi« v*rte<t tn 

tl .i 1 ■, v [wocoattl pnnruuw or tuku ut n Kent any Land 

IViiMiniTB, mid utjori iiny IauiI* r>u opyiuprinU'd, purchased, or Utk*a, *rool wij 

i/» aurtnhle foT Piihlir Uhninc* or UwwmmH, or both, m I 
/or Brimc* and Art, or cither of Iham, tnd upiily, lake down, alter, and exbn6 
•07 BnlMinfi for mcJi inirpoww, unci rebuild, ropnlr, und irtipruTc thu lAifl' 
rewpeclirelr, and At up, furoi«h, find mipply thu umo rapeatrrcly with *1 
mmlAlL- rilUug*. Furtuturv, *u0 Omfyolcueea 

The OnnorBl Munaowitmt, Itetjiilntion »nd Control of moh Iihrari**. »n4 
Miwuiiii, and Bchool* lot Bcicuco trad Art, oliaU be reeled iu and axerr-Iied It; 
inn Cuur.ril, nr such ('ummlltee as the Council tlilolr fit froi Una '" 

appoint (the Maobcrn or norue of tin- Mcintcra whereof acol not, if tie Go 
k» think tit, be Merobci* of the rouncfi), who may from time to Orne parch** 
ud provide the nocfMiiy Fuel, Lighting, nod other xitnilur Matter*, B00I&, 

Nowqu.pciw, Map* ia4 t?pw'i <• "' F* i' ■"'•■ •!•' Art i'i tiu U« of the TJbrsi! 

cr M.iim*um or N"hnol, ind cum' ilir num to te hound or repAiivd when 
■MaNCT. M. -l 1 nj-.j..i?ii -tftlnri^'l iHll.-^m «md Servant*, aod dimuH the mcu, 
uid muke Rules and P-tinilHtJoun for Die itafety and tuevl the T.ihmncs AOl 
Muwuibh mid 8eliool«, «od for thv ubiiiaaSoB 01 tni Pobli-:. 

Tit? Lmdj and BuildUiKB »u apinijiii.a'.d, puchaetd, or t-»Vcn. «ud oaf other 
Real or PerwmJil Property waiiteo^vr prwntod to or purohmwa for »ny «url. 
Library *nd Museum or fcohool, «hftll ho v<«t*d in the Corporation. 

The entire institution is doing u solidly useful work. "With a 
total of 30,yi:»s volumes, there is an average dnilv issue cK 
volumes. A bfttWT Heloctorl library it would b€ niffifult to tind. 
Fiction .viancis at 50 per cent of the issue Hie antire building 
h&lfl lirlghT. and prcpoKseaRin^ aspect, and will benv nnnp:i 
wi;h any institution of strniim' Rise not only in rne Pnlted 
Kingdom, but In any part of the world. The work is tinder the 
able control of Mr. Tliomu W Hand. liming the winter, 
leotnrea are delivered In Hw building, and the«e have lar 
i-unti iintiiMi bo direct the attention ol the public to the wt 

PnnMv>. 

Honpy Preston ! With it* handnorae new buiKiiui;,ih 
coniplytic-n, the fultu'o library and rauoeuiu work of the town are 
well a.MMiuv.l Two liri>thfv.s i»r Mir Iciral profewion had ajnawed 
ft IViiiiitic oi BOme ^85,O0Ci. Tlua tins um-ste<l in the natuea of 
four truntcca witli discretionary power. These trustee* 
the lost of the twoeurviTiogbrol htsri), Mr. Edmund Robert Hi 
to eootfider the odvi&abilityi»r lihing n ^r»od portion el tin amoi I i 
i : the purposes ol :i Public i-ii rary. M tseum, and Art (<u11ctt. 
T'm:-. in l-riof, to the early history of the munificent beonc 
C105,000 tor orootJng and funitenlng this building, fli« 
brotherB had shown no marked iatoreet in tl" 1 welfare of r 1 1- ■ 
1 own, and the pa Mi.- spirit ol thu trusteee in directing the aUen- 
tlo 1 if the surviving testator to this channel should not be 
looked. TheBito,valuedat£:*J 1 (.K.«.i, was jranted by the 
Since i> loinineaoeaiant oJ the binlding, another wi..iiiiiv r 
toolaZL itr Richard NewihaiBj has baqneathed to U« towi 
tmo collection ol t»U i-uintjiij-. wi t-?r-eolour di'awin.:- ui,. , 






pi 'Bi.tr MniiAUtK'- rv ntF \<>UTiiRn\ roi 



t:>7 



I 



v»Inri] : i opwardAOl £30,000, Thi» i-oili-ciioM will form part ol R 

:i!!< tv At (in- museum, The next large bequest is one ol 

2100,000 to the Harris Orphanage, which to to provide tor the 

maintenance ami education of upwards ol eightvjyiildron ol both 
Tii- building in also nearly flnishea The trustee.-, ori- 
Kinally granted £40,000 b* an endowment for the Harris Institutes 
* School 'I H'T it :u"t?, art, hrit'urt\ ;iml technical education, mul 
h.n s . i'-l, made a I'li1Imt tT;iiil i»l' f;lO,000 fur tin.' hiiildimi aui 

furnishing of a tcoluiioal school, to be called the Victoria Jubfleo 

i ■;.! 3ohooL i' i s Corporation have obtained power:-, lu £runt 

troxth £10,000! and a sum of money not to exceed £10|00Q for 

ame PWpoeOi T i ■ roaidu i <-i the bequest was disposed ol' as 

follow.-- . — CBjOOO foi church huiidmtf una improvement* .l'3,000 

or ochi>laiflhi|>.-* .j1 the grammas 1 school} and £2,000 for charibabli 

and religious pur|)oees, 

S-ene ■■:< .-.]■:■» -v.-n ;-c:ir- nvlmi, al -.h.-.i-h('t-l in the erection of the 

building, bi cud i.v ■ I rte o ognltndc that is not too Long! 

ulth'ti invc been many impatjent erica nd to vhen it is bo be 

■1. But there must be wisdom in having the work card nil) 

d well .;<)>!', with ample time for il- building to thoroughly 

'j'lnH i- q oonsidering too nature of the cod 

Eioh are by and bj to be housed in it. The building strikes 

toaturo lor library und museum purposes 

farad this country is concerned, as will be seen on reference to 

ongraving forming the bYonliBpieoe. The designs were pre- 

ared by a townsman, AmI->:-h ;\i; J;t.mes Iiibb.it. wi > was eoin- 

featianed by tho Harris trustees to visit several buildings of a 

Uar ■■• in this country and on the Continent, the result 

Is visit and report bein^ that lie was appointed the aroWtect 

to prepare tl i Lies i#ns. Too building is of tfio Greek Ionic order, 

and has tour dial act I 'outages, being completely Isolated rrnm 

the building* an mtvl it. The principal elevation Is on the nrcal 

fie, overlooking the market-place, and almost At rtghi angles 

ih the ""I'll ;r., ago oi the To wn HaH The height ol" Hie 

in riii- parapet and (lie apexed the portico is 80 feet. 

d the extreme hoi/'hi in the tup Hi" ihe central lantern, 112 

& The i i consists of six massive fluted oolunins, with 

U it Is surmounted by an overhanging cornice, and 

npanuuu Is filled in with a group or figures representing 

HUrroimiled Ji v liirral arc, si ictice, -tad the art*. Tile fit.i.l- 

130 fact The liases of roe columns t>\ the portico and Its 
level are about lo feet above the Blreet level, and the ea- 

* to tin lit Idiug is tinder the portico by flights of itope on 
tbono thsidea. Liwnedlately under the I rmpanumof 

the portico Is tin* c&rred ascription ta large charactcrgj — "To 

Litcr.i' are,fi i co, aj -1 Ai i. ' foe i asters eh ration •<■ I \B b I 

aces Li-uiwwU-r Koad, n line lliui'oityl.t'are ilnxit tif* led En 

out of Cljiuvh Street, the principal street in the 

town. Jt is uniform in length witl the SCarket riaco (itmtupc. 

The not th and i.-rjr.- are each 170 feet Is len.jrttwKnA 

will face twx> now streets, each SO reel In width, vAi : a\v ate 






m 



pt-nne i.inn.uur?. 



h.-lHJ I ■. I -M i •'■'«: -im i.CMIOOuSly Willi thQ IMMw 1; 

building* 

T\w ooUecttOfl "l models connected with the industrial arts will 
ho placed on the grmmri-llnnr portion L with 

the object of brining them under theds niton 

passing to and from the lending department and rhi» arti 
reading-room and newsroom. The nuwrntxiiii on thn south *■!.!.■, 
:md thercadimr-rnom on the north side, are each 2fl ft ■•" 
one of the Irnding libraries IsfiO feet square, and the ottusr -" 
by 29 feet. The central hall i*<'i r*>»>t .si|ii:jir,:unl hrontlmu 
the staircase, on all the floors, being lighted bj the lai ti rti 
ilinh'lv uvi'i* s central well. The principal flooi contain] 
onet Bbrajrlea on each wide of trie central hall. They an 
30 feet in width, and 120 feet in length. Tlie centra] hall portion d 
the principal floor will be set apart as a mitte in i I casta acid re 

tiroauctlona from n e antique. Tlie whole ol the upper Boor «ill 
ii- ileviilcd to mibi mi and fine art purpose*. The museum 
jralleries ore arranged round three sides of thi ■■ Qtrnl hall and 
staircase, one side being devoted to the fine arte, the '-orrea pond- 
ing side to natural hStoryand physics, and the remaining 
bei ween theec to the depnrtment of general archeology, cor .*. 
and the finer kinds of industrial art, and illustrations ot ethnology. 

Tlie building appears well adapted for the purposes for wl 
it is intended, and tl la opinion may be adhi red to notwifahataaut- 
hUE the fact llmt sMinc -Vracrican visitors have been disposed t<> 
criticise, sunu'vlni severely, both the proportions of the bui 
and th( general orrangementa of the various departments. I onl 
the internal fitting arc in place, it \* premature to spenlc so 

Sositivcly on this poiat, as one or two Unerfoan librarians hare 
one. A deooVSpnon of the decorative sculptures alone 

WOT pages, and this would he out of place here. Tlie 
librarian, Mr. \\ . S. HramweU, and his staff, have been quietly 
pursuing their wort for some time with ;i view bo ti'" tnuisforcnoe 
of the work, at -'» date which must now be getting nearer, to the 
new home. Mr. ISramwcll is a master ol details, and this faculty 
will booi Immense use to him when the work of removal and 
reorgnnlntloz] begins. The present home "i the Library i* in u 
large room of the iitwn Hall — a building designed i»y Sir ( ; : 
Bootl During 18SB, the library and news-room was closed tot 
seventy-two days, owing to the prevalence of small-pox In the 
town, ao flint year must not he taken ;i* :i criterion of their work 
Mr. Bramweira tograralto displayed itself ai this ttro< Ii 

I'niistrni'Hnn of a book disinfector, mentioned on anol 
Tlie reopening of the library had a great flea] h do fn n -storing 
the confidence of the town that tha epidemic had spent its strength. 
Ont of a total number of lfi,R87 volumes, the turnover Aandi it 
I08XS& That is, tin- stock circulated six-and-a-half times 
flaring the year. A mong the l i,ooo borrowers, there bi 
.i.ii j oj telegraph toyaasd policemen; but Urn hbi i 
nut only popular with these, but all classes. 






wm.ir uwtAniK* r\ nm warn iw cot ■■ 129 

RO HI u.r.. 
■("■ration BVOT DlghtOOl \r:ir.. : r 1 1 1 1 I m H 

now 11,317 vow no*. Fhe hwtitnl as I p] n dated to a I Iff] 
dtgri is - I ■ "it the incidence ol 'tho 

■ ■. -111(1 there in-..' ii;ci\ ^ lie none whUe tin library] used 
■o 4-jct*nwv*ly u It ID now. Tho crush onS:i:m.l:i;. m>..| 

notwithat ■ P oneon Co-oper: ■ ■ !.:i rarj 

in tbftiown Hi' 1 11 amber* wers counted for the wecli Bn< 
mil , r—'i, and 1 1 was a%oertained thai S,SW i at- 1 1 
!■.■!. ■!'■■ ofl I !■• ladles' room, and 686 1 h< boj ■•' 

i-y, mnldna I ■ >■ one week ol I.47B Tlilfl unrober, 

. \ i- ar i • w oul •■ i '■ ■■ • visit . i, Mi.- i. 

I ■nmixf ill t i ■ ; en l'lii- ivil. vi'.-IiIk £957, I 'if ol bhil • 

haornod !n Intprrvit mi mn'iri"!- lour .-. rtsilrfi w inml, 

: income tmx. &e. Thlw In :i hmj bimfon, and nal orally 

In* expenditure for new hunk.-.' The mm building for 

i. thta expenditure wuh made, wns mmipleted In ISM I ram 

Tin- Ihm-" llbrar) i.i.'.'i i ii'iiiiin'f* were i*suetl during the year, Tbi* 

depart m en 1 .ii Rochdale. The percentage ol 

(V tion M h.'-'li, ,1.1 I tlip. i'. r;ill:i i ■ nrju i--iti,\ e. niMdi-riuK tl»u 

rclnle< perutin i e usually looked upon .11 .1 sort of hard- 

J |h-..j. .1 . in v% ! .'in he* liij-pv- -\ .•; -;,n «-r " lala would uot 

.-niii.-iriiUv solid. rBtill wenxusl nope foi better days all along 

tment, and there 1* everj prospect thnt tho 

I decline rtlwrtlv. li.ip-« iiupi I'cejitihly, and 

isaeeof orien<v, hUtoryi and the more solid intellectual t i 

idily up, The cross n ; ad subcttrfai ma En Hie 

! umcroua Mr. George Hanson is the librarian, 

Roman 

The Aotc ww idoptod al a meeting of the burgooBcfl bold as 

tho 18th day ol fcbruor) . IW*#. and "n the mIj "I i >ctob< r, 

n Hl;nl IVAJ made v Hi .1 .-I ick of ftDOUl WOO TOlB A.| lit 1- air. 
rr< m yci 1 te year, until in May, I8K>I, all tlionludf h nm 
been ng point of the Kbw 

.lit quartern was reached during tin- next autumn 

ul uniii. :ii m which period to the end of 1887, oontinuoui 

plaeo, until they had dwindled to an 

p day Meanwhile the dtlBenlHoi besetting 

■11... ni ielr efforts to obtain more suitable premises 

L'ir.'.l. ami, in eonju union v, th till baths committee, 

i in! I ding harl u-ru ernetnd, the upper storey * »r which was 

nad tn the library The refrwrnrivrooni is ronvonfsnt 1 1 > the 

n while the Interior of the general iTadmgyroam— a 

, in in. -in 1- mil in the view >>(' Mr. John RIdal, the 
n The flour 1- minimised of wood blor.ks, and )inM the 

. ul Two kinds of reudfag- 
i provided, namely, flat and uluplny ; and to Uv.\v 
lai m, Lin room oei pari foi ncwqiapc^ataftaaottt&X&VraXta 
luuuoV 'jecn pl&axl . There ' vw.vWwj- 

w 





\tt 



1 1 iti.i. i.iun.taii:$. 



roam A tataro of tho *b omsisthe neoUem 

played in tho election "t the ittmi and maatelnto ii ar* 

artiitio, :t ti. I i.-Kt-.i v r.) tho good work KotlM 
hi whoa the oooojIoii roqntraa rha general tunning armnge- 
monts'areoa tho hoi water system. an i 

,i ,,t the whole ■ ind thi parch i 

jmyj books has been defrayed without making a apfleiair:di 
the raiei. Iln IUB0 net* led, 1:800, has aceuinulntert through the 
. nir riiri" n»i having nought volumes in years gone by Thort 
n ,... -;.,(.!•. ■!■ i-:»p:uMiv "i oo,in«> hnnkv Work began in The DOS 

b lildtngm Karen, Ifiw, Mid the average laity issue has re&olted 

\ short while ago there was sonu* frietiun hutwrm tin' 

oomroJttee and tho lovra Council, and this latter bod* retaliated 

. il Alerting any "( the nM nit'li.bers i;vmi ill'- nt'wYuimiilMre. 

S\t kbioi 

Then' in ;i uioee link between the Museum which 
s ni.ii-ti print tu the Act o1 l *io and the pawriog of th< Kv m i Act, 
Peel Park, so called In honour of Sir Robert Pool, 4 ike 

nights -I Manchester, and formerly, before pa 'Ik 
museums wore *«> plentiful s* Ihej uom are, excursi 
miles round tfanchcstci uid Balford did not coroddcr thai bin 
[eked-ofl the main "tent of all unless Ihcy had vnd ed 

Park .nM tin* Mu- iin Tin- hiiiidtHinic pile <•' WiiMin^ )\>n 

Che Public Museum and Library arc moat beautffull.i ituatod on 

.t i,u ■■■• ■ •.'phuh! ^landing much higher than the root of the 

park. Tli m if thus \<r\ picturco<(UC It li Eo facl donl i- 

in! whether) Public Lit irary and Museum in any port of the eon 
ini.r*' |»lfi»-cuii surrounding* than the pro up ..t build 
:,,i mi i-' the p iron! Institution hi Balford, Thr p; rl« 
to tin' people of Manchofltor and jalford :-i h.i your - I • 

tin fourth i 1 it in used as a playground and erickot ground, 

and there are large lopnrntc gymnas For men, hoyi, wo 
and girls. Tho museum and library were originated in leMOby the 
i. i . ft L&ngworthy, who was then mayor, and the lob 

Hrothnrtoii, M.I'. The first purl of Un- l|i»r:irv. tlio ■ 

department, was opened with 7,000 vol*., on January Bth, ttfftO.ond 
no room of the museum in the following June. Then 

•. ..i.iii i^.\ i v wing, containing a reading-room, ■■■ 

i, and :< picture gallery. In IKf>i n lending Ibrarj 

■i Thj*M years afterwards mouth wing wan added, and n 
I8&1 :i new portiVd v it built, and ut u tut ■ •-- dote, the! tngv 
Wlna; won aaded N itwlthntai *o various extei 

whole forma s ron attractive group - ►■ butldfr. 

in i-; 1 .'. Major John Plant, F.O.S, was appointed llorarfffl 
onratorj and hold* the sarnr appointment nt the present d 
OTiU long service of forty years at the emu library givca Major 
iiii the seniority among public librarians Re in m oinar 
reapectflvery fortunate, for, amidst his professional brothreo, he 

• uiiiv one who can afTunJ to keep a yachl tfajor Flaw has 
written Ute ?e£ter-prwM fur ;i beanUfu^ i»«iW o" lUlvty-rtve p 



I 



!l if,., i I iHHJIltl&S IS IBK KUHIHJtRN COl \ II 1- - 



131 



Im-li 



abtiahed i>v the li' 1 



,IIH1 IMUMMIII. r '1 III i CI', 

he library and muttetan 
In this li .. En ■ in book there are .< eeriee oi photO- 
1 r :!.i i •_■ ■ . ad ■'. I uc ■ In the pai It iraos •. I hi 
beaut] 
fu] < nc o\ the late Jo* i»li 
Dn>th< i Eoi ,3d 'V »i 
the Publft i ib ■■• • iovi 

,-i:l Owe M i IUCJ] . 

I othci man lie died 

1 ■ M 
ported iwiq 1 1 !",-■<■ the 

Old boiioll 

i to be 
on. Tin- statue id 'I 
mzc, and Eg ■'!■ ft blgh. 

it ik :ipjir.>|>i'i:ilrl- 

aced new the entrance 

the park, il I 

■ it',1 r i Mi,' 
(hi on i -i.ic ill tho 
.1 urn ionic v ii i 
Icon I'V Mr. Broil ertou, 

. , h i:i tin- Il,i!i-f 

Caramons "Mj pichw 

timihI DOl :n Mil ftXTtftttOf 

my |h»v,i >-iuus hut in the fewness nl my w mis." The Lord ftishop 
• >i Manchester, :ii the taanguratiun of the ittatue, alluded to Mr. 
Brotherton** devotion to the causa of education espeeiaUy in the 

lir.ivnliinr of piibliV imiisciiiii*, li .H';iriiv% i;ul paTKG 08 pt&GBfl Ol 

re people, iliat the hours gained /rem lalwur migbl 
■ nelf-instruotion, Belf-intproTement, and wholeaonus 
I ihy, and aiuelEoral iiig pursuits. The Manchester Vcgntiirion 
:. _■. hat kiuillj leul the portrait 

U is with ii" desire i i diamuut tin' excel Irnl wmU duufl for Uie 
tnovexoen liam Ewnrt that the a totem en < Is made of aii 

.!. .t eoi greater, place which Joseph Brotherton occ 
Uc Erased moel fully aJ lie advantages which in course of tfa&o 
Mir i" the public fn in an extension of thcae institutions, 
alfai l Museum and Library may largely clain to bo Hi'-* 
n from which ail the root him grown, .lorn-ph 1 >i < >ttif-r1 <•;! 
ornmtiou which ia ciulxxii'cd in tin n ports of tho 
i. and altogether rendered a eerrioe to 
hould never be forgotten. Moiichj tor 
intftitutioiif l>j i linjf, the Aral lo i \-.u- 

)r*r>- and availing iteolJ ul tho Act ol two bui thepJoo ol 
: i| final objecl i son In reference libran 
:\ important. The borough Is laturoUv 
ol what it has -lone for the movement, and wqU \V 




IS* 



prm-ic in»*Ant*«. 



1UT 






Thoro ore fow preJiminnriM about tit" Bhofflold report. .V 
a few brief paragraph by the ■ ■Iminnan it daahes ut once in ' ' 
record of the work. This at ohleflj devoted bo Bgurei ■>•*' [J 
ibr. operations fo I year, tun 

1 in- work : i -I - --•'.'. i»neit\ - 
in-! it- to i! branches stands thui ■ 
93,124, o: HIH-. dail; Lorpo . 

itafdc i '. BO, vrarj); HighfleM, 1 1 .- i • 'i '' '■ 
itterc acq daily, it if* cheering to ■ 

from the report tnat n sutMsammittee nave nnder coneidera£io0 ; ' 
scheme tor provldi j iceornmodation for the nnmeri » r/s 

■eiders who frequent the central library Tin* need dm nf* 1 

d Itself for a least twenti years and the question t»as 
■oiunierod urn! been shafted sgara and sgah during that Mme. 
There In Bcnronty another Uuw* town which nan tocondnoi Its worl 
In its central library under such ndtvr*** conditions u n 
Sheffield. Year after )rear the banding becomes more congested 
1 1 1 mere ract of only an average ol 149 volumes lx tilted 

per day iu the reference department in •> town of close upon 
800,000, ahow* tli ii there is something "rotten intto i Tien 

mark," and there i* clear proof Unit :t li»-'r> in Ui<- <livu<il' \ \\ 
moon niodatiou provided for Hie work in Lire parei t in 
Is it safe to hupc thai he deliberations of llii» sub-cojiuuittee \\\\\ 
Lead to a ae* building being erected* H is checrhuj U 

plana have been drawn fur an additional ttuttding to md 

lentreJ En its work, Out of ite nimble penny Sheffield 
B <niir.li l.t'inry, four strong and licnllhy l-i-ynrlies, and i 
rnftgnincont innaenm. There is use an art gallery vi 
would do credit t--> any town to support, bul bbu ia not unp- 

forted out ft' IV I'iilr. *\>uM ■■ -< n.'ulc unvwhrrc '■ 

urthorP Tin- museum and art gallery oughl unquestionably! ■ 
ii.iw q . i paratc rate for them. They are an ornament t<< i ho town 
and arc of large and hhmv:i.7iiiu: uruluhu- rin frmirr:- <1 the 
to hlcoly did not contemplate that u would aver be 
i tod Ic do as moot in many Uivmas it I in 'wi<-< <>n pli - 1 1 - - ■ I . Hut 
the time is now within moasuronhlo distance when Shi field will, 
i ;, an I i proveroonl \ftt, idjusi this matter for Itself, and p I 
extra i'.«ii:i> )>i thr museum and art galloTj, the town b 

SejBS rates l* ranch bcl'^v rlio r;(t>> i » n numl« i "i 
B ^ote have been idopted With its Firth C illeoeund 
Boaril Ufa Of which any town In the kingdom mlgl t I Q proi 4. 
mrolv in this liU'ary department of its educational work She 
Willi-' ake i back seal. The very mention of an cxito p 

tends to prodnoi i breeae in job artors, but is i ruh It it 

found to "-■ in limited circles, composed of peojile who would 

BT oeorv.nn?. 1 tla- i*.Mitiy ainl -| " n. muto <m poUeemfin 

Thepenn lerl wns enough when there 

w-.is only the centi'sl and one or two brunch I 

die tbi ' ! "m u D ai thi t town ^>> \a 



i 






PI :u.H MKftLItfRft I* T1IR VOR Ti 



l.-W 



hungry for additional food in the shiipe of new I < • ! ■ "i- 
the ubrarta and addition* i irthe museum that, at the parent's 

■i- \h oo&y if fche same ra&e as ii was shirty-four vaa 
ai»i>. wtua tots were adopted, some of those cLtildren 

sritfl tic. i sfasff mart nwc c esarily go short In cur depftrtmeol m 
another, [lien ii;is. i/i' course, boon an luorease In the mloable 
vnltu , ''in ttiisisnol pominenaurate with the additional outlay. 

Tli* i Ill* ii mi branch litw u •■■ in 3heJQald ud the 

buildings u, which that work is carried on (sol tie most excellent 

description. The town, in the operations of Its branches, fully 

niakco up Cor the defects of the central library aa a building. 

The fow branches together i^&uiii^ an average of 1, lot* volumes 

pei d v respectable totnl, which pore than retrieves the 

I i o ^licfneld. The branch buildi igs are models of cou- 

Tcnicnci tad genera] arrangement. Well situated, as each li In 

Its thriving suburb, there is no wonder that they should be well 

popular, with the people. Mr. Thomas Efarjrt is the ohieJ 

idxnJxuatrater, 

Soith Shiklus, 

3Tiq most uotowortbj event ol recent date line boon tho issue 

" a new catalogue, the first sine.' !<::. i he oumbor of volumes 

1 1 1 * * lending departracB was then beiow S.000, .,m< - now 

'itii "»,!>/<» in the reference department. make8 a 

i til ■ ■ t;.r < "'. rolumea (Jpecitii ii-r> .1 1 k- -uituhie tor the. 

:.is in the science ana art classes bio displayed, and it la 

t<> note that 1,000 volumes, out of the l\iMM volun ei 

Well were consulted, were Issued during last year '•> these 

nudi i in These - lasseM are particularly *trong al South Shields 

nut the wiirK "ci'iiii-. :iii ] n|i«iri;ii.i port of rh:ir <>t Hi-- hlir.iry. 

i- lending deportment has an fnorease ol 663 readers otot 
'•ns year. The total issue in this section was Hrt ( W2 
ifumes tin proportion of pure Action being 51*47 per cent 
j Tour yoni'R not a atnglo book has been lost The number 
>f vlwi ru to he newsroom is yearlv ineiv.i- 1.". and, notwlth- 
arntions.the room In often Inconveniently crowded, 
11 d tlu sitting uucununodttUuti for all Llmae who attend. 

ii U provided with twenty-three daily, sixty-live wocklj 
and periodicals:, forty-seven monthly magazines, journaJs, 
rveiii\-iive uf the foicgi i ig m • presented- Tho 
moftcuiu, in the same building, attracts .1 large aim bi r of 1 bttora, 
more especially strangers who have been staying in the owl 
:. the Bumtuer suusuUi 
• 1. 1 "> K 1 ■ . the present hecietan and librarian, wan 

tiry for the district union of Mechanics' Institutee, and il< 
li ig of which he lias now charge waa the old Mechi 
ii. L.ecl iri a ■ it ven during l.lic winter months, tod 
I ion 1 onsideiable 1 ■•■> eaut I rom lie rent oi the 

more the 1 pays for the interest and redemption of 
The report conniat<i of four pages, und yet covers the 
1 tin: work, lln loeul prcee is tavjvmvVaM to 



■ :i 



Ull-IPIK 



noties th. operation a formnrij 

grther thf wnrk ll hefl 'h;. ud pTOgNI 

SrAunvxi 

I h. o I M vrn* I!.. 

tUlOr, 111 October IHMrt In Mr \!.,rk hVlll^m, l 

■ t i- 1 ii pp<ivWAT»al i 
viu formed Tin- work .i th£ coiamtttexi wan performed * 
.in uJralrablc maimer, ami In the earl) iu» t * 

meeting dec! ired n favour ol ilto rn ijori £" 

A i.-ili !■ i i wan rlemamlccl, whlrh riMiiltcd in hid ■ 
■m i I i. :1 • iiiavt s i inn; 11.. upmed i I'nlill 

eatabllahod in some of the rooine - 1 the Town flail. 
. ii ii conl tlned tome 7, <■■. > * .-.-h :..-■ 

works »i (lotion. 340 ellglous book*, TWO historical works. 

On <• M p •"■• In i u< In- "I k „ ii. ,-, fi'O Oil lit* Kit ill/, i. . _ - 

. n i Mil- Lftei kl Mr. . ::;mi on biography, an< 
newspaper i' w tag-room la provided, the opinion '■< ing held tfast 
ilu various piilltf cat ana other clubs net'vi.lo I.u ^<-l\ for the : >ubli< 
ll;. rc i ■. bowcvoi , i i ooi i Cog 1 1 ■•- 
iri.lr.' ooku o reference and other worka Tho nu; 

the course • I R h " ■ i '■''. Iwell lip n t hi idvnotac 

UoA&l mii. I nil 'wlflOj 01 Public l.il'i'.ifi .* ', ami OXplV wed lh< hcpC 

ih.M i he Qi w Inul Itutton would prov< i g i <i<- to the youn .. t hel] 
to thi in' 1 fears, uiul n LMinfort to the old nnn fcebl< 

ll. moved i i ■• i of thanki* to the gentlemen who had render o*! 
i ti : ii< i.il aid U ii" lormatioi ol the library Among 

. | iv i ■ ■ > r ■ ■ ■ » i won Mr. T, n SMolxithum, MVP, 

i i .-;ii:mi, and m. ■■ .i Summer*, each el whom gave E500 

i. Knot! win auvc ( .'l ( >». ilboul 1,750 I lu per week n 

ttelDoi Lai iod, and the library in Blinking flown lab olid work 
Mr, Thomas Aldrod is the Ubr&rfan, 

•'I I f nature sugge Uwl I ■ tin work h<»ro is th. 

iiici.i o i rending c b, andertho conduetorahip of i 

man, The olnaies ore free unci open to oil, rhc gcwrarno&l >1 

ii. i ioi la mi similar lines to mnr.us improvement stocletieii 

i in cow* oonaUtnol an openmg lecture hy aomo omuaenl tn 

..ii thQ \' • I ii»- ol books; followed on other night! 

M ■ ii.!' :i rrin. i.i ol' ilii* work nr works of o pertain utrthor, 

iKowln | iii" itvle, merits language, &e., and u pubu'i d 

InllnWM, 

St. i 

B1 Helena, u a towu, would uot be deecribod ae a benu 
plane. Tlw chemical and Erun-wurk,-* in Ihr 

■■liMii- in Mimm'I uri'liHiTlun- lit. in holdl) ii.wrrUn 

[nil in ii ■ Ifbinu-j « irk there hna been an extrnord 

frowth. The Mbrnn wan 1 I ander the St. fleletih 

tnnroTi mi ol \- 1 ii I "- ( " ; bnl wne bo t until 1 -"" ] 

utock of books and ■ n the attendances al thv ttwUa 







KDUC U3ftAVtK£ IX TUG X"HT1II 



:.... 



tlUT* iliiulili-d fli.'iiihi'H'i's !n WVl'tl years Munii. 

rfeaWtothe tvn-liog-room marc t71iM8, Thastomcol books 
th* central Icndmg department is I S.176 volumes: reference 
H s/>a-,. ;m.i tl s Button branch i.u:; »tots 17,014 Tno 
number of hook* lmrrovred from the eent-ra] Leading department 
during the 307 days on -v% l ■ i « -t books were lent oui wa* i 

Sainst ftl..'^ showing an mere/we of 3,001, and :i daily m R 
SIM. The week-dAj attendance during the year van 227,8m, 
» again. st £4f\<30&, ind u daily HUeiiduuce of 742.3. The ilirrcuw 
io doubt uvfngto the unproved stale of Lrade, irhleli \gn " 3 
aJTecte the etleauhuice al all da' IibrarSee In the inanufoclariitji 
districts. Tin- Sunday attendance ha-dincrcased from 10,147 l is; 
to 18, <'>."K iui inoreuae uf 3,482, the arerage per Sunday 
beta 

From a persona] kaowledi oi disti ind h >m Drew 

repo 'mi that thi members o( the Tovn Council ana tiic 

■ l-hii miitci' ) :im- :>i time.-, it it ;i litUe oat <-i jolnl wftfi 
each other. I '"":- some yoara tho council baa crop are 1 to think 
that the a rnmiUec v.-.-n jpendf&gniare mono) tJuui vaadeeLrablei 
It « o ui. i iImm.ni ftcorn advfeaJble that Instead ol batfcna these 
diflbrem ea amittee and the council, tl« latter 

Iihould do« Edc what tlic library ought reasonably to coat the 
town so mneh in tho pound per annum. Whili undei tb< 
i.llly :i I'CMlV run In' ]i.-VJi'<J, St. Jlclrtl.--, Willi Ufi apOOia] \rt, WIIM 
not sgx iiiything like that sum on It? library. SUlOO thru 

the expenditure ii-i* hecu decidedly increased, hut it in Mill under 
:i •■« iiny There is no Bpeoiol rest riet ion ;ti the borough as t<> the 
i ui to be spent on (lie library. It would be will that the 
eounofl should deefda what the maximum amount spent on the 
library should i>e f and, having come t<> this dotielonj the Librflrj 
< '"tnmittee might reasonably he allowed an almost absolute veto- 
es to BOW the money should be spent Mr. Alfred Lancaster Es 
the librarian 






S'tfH'hl'KKl 



!>..-\ :ir<! progressive town Is rather unfortunately placed 
Ir has .in excellent museum in a large public [Kirk; Sal FM 
Public Library la .not try any means ;is wall placed mm could ha 
desired Its quartera arc tn an old market hall, and on Fridays 
and Saturdays the ground Boor underneath the library and 

ih used for tin- nale of rliceae, gecae, and oilier commo- 

The building thus .em:- a tltiuhli'-hairrllcd piumosc li 

ding food for the brain and the stomach. This duplicate 

. in wever, bad for both Die library and its viaitorsj for 

j !.. defective ventilation the smells ureal times [nauffcralile. 

of the able librarian (Mr, .1. D. Ruckland) and 

hi» o^.r.t.uitT can scarcely fail to be Rcrionrf) Impaired. Che 

Acta were ndopted in 1MG0, but for the maintenance >l tin* 

inuaetuii, md i wasnol until 1875 that the Public Library rru 

d. I'ndcr the ynvit djiiicui! i<^ >\ im-ii die work encounters 

<■> fbcb'uJdinjr.tliclw !■ -.\< w .u.; 



i-i di.Ii LiritAiUIM. 



and roforcni osectii i i. ruble, 

mode tor ncdy those dvfeolsli) mprovotlventihi ion. he i 

:ii'i ';il'('lil JfcJO ]»•■!■ i!:i_S. :.ml :i!l tj .;el : in' :-< !;i, ._' 

Dl dopfl 1 tiM-iiI i u : ll .v. I I 

has now hoon oponod, and which i* another p 

il ommittoe novo made judieiooi purohaaetf of acientin. 

technical books, The committee entertain the bom 

ookport may meet win :i p,cu ■ .-u- i «. i.. tactoi' audi bj 
in townaol fur Lea* importnnce presented loble 
pablti literature Shall such wappes remain unheeded? A* a 
hi -in ifeeturtng (own, Stockport oeouplea a poaiti< d oJ 
it* imiiisii'.r- art .1- ii imen i - iflinxnoal planes and ahaU U be 
»ald that Stockpeii laekii ivhal Northwichj Newark, i 
• \\ in.-.' i gei . roi - di i or, who. i. i 
tin* iimik anil rcrnii'i '-rinmi Lei:- of Ihk town, will perpetuate 
hi* name by building a new home for the Puh]l< I I 
Stockport iii- nol .< tea puhltc-apirttecl ritizma, and th< ■ 
may Ve Iwpnl. -uine pmtspret of 1 1 1 ; . hclnj iioram^lahad 
filoO in paid mil nf Uiu rate for \lm pen! uf the pres* > t lib 

and I'iii- l : 1 1 - • - :n:«l l;iM'> L J I. Tilt? fir*! ih'in i- i< ■- crshur, . . 

liiii il i> [mid l«i the Oorporatiou ; luu) Hh* areoiM Mem i 

thai ua mi. ii ) libraries we exempt from ill local rate 

surely he remitted. The Uilm tn»l ipcnt ia t 

rnlUoe should we that they have Lhla l*Uauce,and ho ii does 

not go bach Into he general horougti fund, These ha] 

connection with Public Libraries require watching, 

pennj should bo In all cases received and expended i i the 

library and ita twin institution when tin 'c is one. E i. It ii to 

be hoped, there will be another pennj allowed Cor museum pnr« 
pose The >um of t'lt'i was spent "i new book* Ti. 
capitid, and in ii ■ _'l ,: '■< i v .'Uiu i..- :->i i |" : ij ■".' »,.";":;, Stock- 

port compere* in this respect very favourably with other! 
The sincere tope may be expressed that an inep i real 

will be shown In this institution. Public Libraries art boa 
as needful aa fresh air and good water. The town has r*pl 
new bathe, n magnificent technical school, a museum, to vhieb 
the visitorf raaahed Laal year the total of !J© f 3K> durint: the week 
daje, and 14,672 on Sundays. Shall it go crying aloud tor a\ mw 
library for an Indefinite period? 

WansHavBR 

The Am; report haa just been Issued Tha h irarj La ill 
Mechanics' Institute, which was gencrouif y offered to the ]■■ 
if they would adopt the Public I Ibraries lets I he - Bom of the 
local pren tn helping to bring; about rho daalred change 
lamwledged, aa indeed theyonghi tube im Fohmarj 
the vote wns taken, and allowed 1,382 for the adopt 
Ants and r^t against, No time was losl hi In ipni n \\a c«f a 
liiir: i Ian, and the work of organization 'oinuiciicei Oi aa 
!-;-• irn" iiiii\ wasonened bj the Archblsliop oJ Vork wb< 
tin- .- I cm i on a ■! <■■ ening uf the u[)enh ■ ivered iutoi 



[•I I JO MlUlAMfiA IN Tttli NoIi'JH JiJtV C(ti:rriB8. 



137 



ddrettn -. which did much Ui cmphaaiac in the public mind 
!ii<' s-sini ii tin- institution as un edaoaiiona] Eorots and no u 

i: • ].: 'I rational toi < ill ion. \l ,.- advised lli. 1:1 1- mw their Pnl lir 

Library for amusement. Him wanted amusement, and ha hi 
t h i ■ v would get tt uttbat building rather than by keeping a iimnlL 
book m'li roui 'i "'I i orners in which they calcuiuted the odds on a 

v •■ j _ -_■ 1 1 thi'V OaVBt -a>.v ari<; pW lobly ihy< r wouM B8f In 

their Public library they hail u place 01 wholesome recreation, 

Kid ;' place which would visit them with neither remorse nor 

lica.hiclic-, uttorwanK 

l.i-:iir Wai j.\.:. by in i h-.m, > - nr i ,J lh<< l.-i.-al « I'm-i-nimen: 

d in Febr larj 1882 to borrow EiSrotostnicturalattarfttdoDi 
matees wished to malca i: £500, but tha injector suggested 

tlia i.i -".I"- -.inn in order thai the Hbrarj mighl have h better start 

*' Tln'xr lil.t-ini's." he ftald, " :n'i' Vi«ry useful YOU WSJll \ 'fry | i I | 

r.-'rii'iicr hooka ■un! yon want honks for the people to rata iwaj 

vail i ii nn." and no tha Eflfirtwas banxiwed. repayable wltri rnteresi 

m iIm. Thnnapulurltj ■imih.i bythclfbrarj inafully 

equalled Mi.- :iMiic.i|>:tii iqh "i i - if n-nds Since the opening 1.-170 

borrowers [cket* have Iteei Issued. The total Dumber of tl ■ 

now in farce m | v 078. The auinbei ol nc^ borrowers steadily 

With the twofold objeci of extending the ueefulneasol 

the library and augmenting it* revenue^ tin committee, whet 

1 1 linn:', the kvmiI ii mr.N, provided dial uon-ratcpeyerfi rcetdenl 

A* bul within twenty miles of the Whitehaven improvcmcnl 

district, mighl borrcru l»ookfl ":t payment ol an annual robaoiin- 

lion od 6e Tlii-; privilege baa been used to a limited extent The 

DsaucBamci !'•'• opening amounl to 11,440 rolwnea. The ie 

:t i<:.n from fiction liavi reached the large and satisfactory total <>i 

10,471). 1 !n reading-room baa from the tiisi been larueiv U ' S,M ' 

byallck 1 *.ily strengthening it* hold upon the class 

lowhom the faeilitice \i oflere, no teas than thoea of tho library, 

_■: ■ .1: . Immhi. ]'!:■ I .ill-hourly conntinira madefrora time 

, tahei bo baata for <-4i.iination, would give at lea I 

i- id. average weekly attendance. Th< order and quid 

•■■•• prevailed in the room ire worthy of aotOi it 

insj»« , «'t i'"' ol the catalogue shows that the selection od books has 

Imtmi 111:11!'' v .Hi cum The works in tha historical .section are 

j oomprehenaive, and mob as art suitable Cor general 

na; a< well as for Hie Btudent. Some 343 volume* ware 

..ri rroro tin Kvoord Office, and are worth alioul C130, Ur 

A'lUon, who has talcon a worm interest in the movement 

all through, u the honorary secretary, and Mr. Simpson, the 

Ubtnr 

a 1 teelteni remrd '«■ ^ive ol every departinenl ot 

■I- w.i'i. 1..1 11. |iu|iui:iunii ni fi^OOO ii has the respectable 

nl t,4,illi» viiliinii'M exiMiiMve ol uaiupiili'is. Tlie additions 

ii-.( nn m M.n rrariinl 1,019 volumes. Tli«' boba\ 

wl £}4.4W,nnil in addition to t\iia aura ^nefcaic* 






tJttKAKnm. 



atA boM« to U* ralw of £675 have- 
the laic Jowiph Ta*V»r 

the bulk ol lii« c»r 
Nit unfortunately, owing to *oaic n the wfll 

whole of what the dVoKn 

• l**n r*i ol iL'.f 

Tin* M7\« !in nnou rany proof* why intend 

shonM make then - Pnhlfe TJhn 

and not giv* :\ pj- >rtunltj for port hnmou 

and c ii wrif-mc ■ ry. \i othei 

'.-.! thu latter plni Mr Thomni Taylor, who rtfll tnkfiflB 
warm Interest in Hie work of the IHirury purchaarOtlii 
i i! i . r:i itifn ir School In flu* emit ronl tho town, ami tnjfll Dpfjiil 
the [iii'sj-ni l:hr»u So rapidly linn tt* work r 

■i iii i -;- th.ii nlrcndy thi! newsroom and th< 
y need m ■ - ii -.i« •■!. urid n spare piece ul ground In Uii 
(if the building will In* probabh hood uwd for thin |iui 

llir official iijN»f|lllg ii October, 1-77 .. ■ 

I ..ii i -nahlrr people never do .1 m thing l>) halve*, 
an odd re* crteuted to Mr. I'uylor. Tliih add re 

with the following sentence; " We accept your gifl with m 
reelings "f pleasure find reaixmaibilityi >Vc 

powerful i:ir.m- i»i aiding the groat forward i 

(An ; pi i :o iii our midnt, and wr hope that li 

i ■• and lanting pleasure t<> yourself. The Public Libra id ol 
rln- round y are dent m d to till i lri;rh place in national edu 
indwi toK< thb Public I jbraryuan precious tru*t confided b a 

promoting the mural .mti material progress of an pt 
Mir lopftfulni i I h wordd ha.-, been mon tl ■ ■ , and 
in the immediate future the library is destined to fill n mtill raor 
i iportftlioe puv i 
\r thing* token into conaidc.rati >n, the reference library i 

i: MTanaeroonl md the selection of i Ice, the finest In the 

eounlry of any town of its siase : ami - 

kOpuLation of Wigon might well be proud ol that depart- 
ment. Wo arc rapidly reaching tho day whon In no n 
Ub 'arj will tho rotfi rooco section tnk< i second place, bnl wi 
oonnidcrod of primary importance. The the book* in 

i md it« organization we very largely tho wor! 
o iiir librarian; Mr, n Tonnyaon I'olkord, who baa brought I to 
culture and practical library experience to boor upon hni work in 
v OOmmcndable to aim. ami which has done much to giro 
fit Mv the place it now occupies among these 
Inntltutionj \ sketch nf the reference room on the Brw 
hi ihowr in iii. fuvon pi nyii p plotnro, and w the m« hand 
room in tJio bn I ding Pnc room nccupie.i the *nmc area ru flw 
lending Ubran and rending-room helaw, and ine Is struck on 
«m i i . i.. ii u b b !' i resenablanwi 1 1 Home »f I ho oli 
■ i.'> 
iv pi to the pt rahcufl ot thn hooka from the \Mniuir«l 



in 







i'in: NoitniKJts o.oi «n« . 



130 



piallsft in ttv mrloiM dAportniPhtx tii '. invrledgo w«ro uked to 
paw up lists of riif boel hooka in each of them. In &tbtt divifton 
I <*aiv wa« tnknn to fndoda only hooka of high mcrfi it 
would hare been n source of rogrel 11 Uin cnfailofftic <<f -;., j ■■ , , 
collection had not been bo Formed ostoentitteSttoB oil Uog up 




I »'i ii the librarian and his cui uuittoe wci c cans] i<» 

i'i ! rtif <■; tnlojRie cif tlic iU/XX) hooka n the refci 

! t \ v, hen fini I . <|, tiiio "I I'm mm. -( ounpl t< a -1 

■ I itn kind which has y i been published ii will 

cr nlxmt 80,000 entries, and ta being pu%NWnft& 



no 



pi -»uc ueiuvni. 



£1. Mr <; l ' v\ iinn eorau: 

ha* written and rroMwhed i verj < 

the method i ipo i •-'iio ha* tm 

•f. prtncrpal heading, the authara name, or, it 

ici.ii ig word in Hi' 1 Mil'*, e ich work h i^ ' i 

\\ tun praot < ahlc i ho Mithor'a i 

i|c:tlli '::..!■ l-'i'h HiVPH I". i.-!i Wcil'k ;1JiI»mi- 
II. ill lic:nllMt/« ol UtlC I'l-l il.iv.. IM'l 11. : 

i. in ,\ Ith whtd 

i.i i i i one, ii - 'ii'M'H 1 - 
i i I. eon . In i nurtri i i j biographic*, 

iHniil. Nl|||l4'Mt(l.S lilt I.Mi'M.H lltU'.I.I"> IpplMI 



177 cloneh printed pages. 



The .• LI :i B uccuntee .1 book 



I ■ | | ■;. o| [KM'lRiHJ 

.; i;- I . i i . .• imuH ('Mil I 

■len and, i M ■ • ipparcntlj ii ■ onl i R igl &1 w rl 

n i k i ■■ i - ii,.. lupoi iii in dust ] y. lull.' atnl ■ .. . . -... i >n • 
to l-'i ad bound in cloth, » \i i\ book or paper mention ' 

hli I it i ■■iit'Tcd l»'lti "in-1 iln- D&DJC of \'i<: aiUlh »l' and nmf 

the norm oi be eubiccl ■ 1 fu i nva , havi been m 

divided In order to |»fin ; the work catalogued, when . anoV^j 

iln-'- trv, h ., i, or ithcr locality of which it titntrt. vV< 

. i rebtina to -■•-.. I, although uol -in.-iu ... ; 

have I w< ullynoted, Article** relating i- th< folk-Ion m . 

tin i , m rk tn atlna el the IoamIa, & ol tin i 

rxteaeuri ..:>!■ or cur/iona i k.' cc i 

•■villi the subject, aw Included, Collateral branch - ,: 

. lenee Important t" the. mining inn rest hare beej iasei led, mh'^ 

.... r i ri laJ i ■■ to r< ll< f t in -^""~ ( : 

r. ■ :i ciSHti i •■ ; !■■- w Iffan tin i !■ :it ?atuc rl i i iod i ol 
mining booh . tvhfoh con nt aUtimcaba consul i I, can >t bo over 

oititnatc . Ttu? other ■ | ml ratal ■ nu Lhii departim i I 

the eatnlogue of w i>! on bonkn, the Mi 

■ u.< Ol laV LlOOKft. I'll'' 111'.- 1 li::iil 1 iv . : 

04 what should hi lone in other i> ems. M . i ■'■ I . ir i hi 
played oonedderabk industry ui collecting the publication* of Ui 
[i en] proaeei and ull boolc pamphlet* and manuKeripti h 
tonnectloB, no matter how remote wll i tin own Ph - catalogue 
... twi t»s must have come an .i aurp 

the town •;■ * inl n i nl « i om proliahlj i 

ii n! b iui h ■ oollti i '"-' i 

in Other tOW im Vhnulil ,'-U" lit - pl:ri llli ir 

. ;i:u.]ih- Pis kiiik rhc n\,]\ mi.ii.- l.iSrary 
i it r*-t ■ whirh i;:> :t Lord upon It is thnt ;ii V 
ItH honorary or hurgc tentative* hnn Hip Ftlghi 

Eari il i r iv ford, LI I ■ in thin miw rnc ij> 

[nvoribed Some nl the en ■*■« i in :i nn 1 vrn '••■■ ■--. and 

.livj.i.iv niih-ii reaoarch riu lattei atatenient tan ilao be 
aboul the *:ii.iii.Mu- ui' law UkiU.s Tii.- whole ol theae wjn 

i ataloglUB should ti*nd :.» fivatc .1 1 u*e »>f thl> Inoj 






Eepsrtment of Hm Pnblie Library, if the town I 
ury surroundings— for \hc pri'scmvi.t ••••:t\ uiiu 
«'i>i mngnatUM piny rox its Isnmty — Wignn has in ftn 

library Bii oasis which cannot I i too highly appreciated 

ii. in no al repori eon atafl 11 1 welcome feature of the librarian^ 

r&POrtj "'t'V'cr l" live p:i»r> The TOpOPtH of lulliliiiU.ri'x jut ill way* 

=i .-» .-_»! 1 1 >ii- inn i. ,i rule no our can speak so mihoritaiivi'iy 
npan tins working <>i the library us Uu ruau In charge, and the 
■rreator prominence ol librarians reports in these annual pulilini- 
Bcnui if u'i.-» desirable. In ihr leading di-partim-m the jrrona 

JMHiir* were tH,4.'l0. Til* nCWSrOom JS TCrj popular, Sfl ii deserve*) 
l<> !».*. Tlir .-inula;, .n iii." bin i\* for the year reached H.9G& 

"!'Im- ten faaa Sunday opening of the raadinrooaui on been 
cm uu^ualhn.i [a tin* general reaaiDff-room there 

or*- ibonl i" ( volumes for reading and reference The public 
are : » 1 1 * wed to help themselves to the bcoka, which arc i^pon 
)|.:-;i ihehree. lii'i' 1 i- .i notice hung up thn! no hookn nro 
be takei oul ol the room. No BupervieSca la required beyond 
.jin- i!..- booke early every rooming. In. twelve yean sb 
-K been taken :iway. For sonic yoaM voluntary 

I a halfpenny in addition to the penny has been paid In D 
itin bcr "f ratepayers, as the le^^ penny waft onaafticlencior 
y extending work. Last year a Koeeiiil lorn] 

£ivoe the power to levy a rate ol twoponeo ntho 

uuhI. Lectures uivo been given during the lent &V9 yean b 

mm ■ ti-»n with the library, and these lire beaomingmoxe and more 

ihir with each vi.. ■< eecnng winter, rhe local ores give oapttal 

ip. A* new and inpoi-t-jiii l io<>ks u re added in the reference 

pftrtnient, short noted written by the librarian, epitomizing the 

mtcntA, ore publiehed. It is impossible to pass on from this 

lort ■ketch without heinu; more Ihan ever r<aivineod that the- 

. u vVigan ix a live institution, pregnant withuaefulnaSBto 

bi entire town, The necessity -.1 r museum for the borough ia 

1 w 1 eiwwd, and under the now local Act this will no 

>niit 10 m 1 me n reality 

VVOWCIVO'ION. 

in MnvMiin Ift39, the sanction of the burgesses wiw obtained 

the adoption of the \>- - The example of Whitehaven wan 

in. ' ii be Infectious. The Towu Council ae a body tools ;t 

Lead In the matter, and this, aided by the stop taken by 

it •■ <\ ih" M 1 inics' Institute, greutly facilitated 

:: ['In i ommiUo; had pa.wnl 1 n sol itlOE to ih< offc ll thai 

!■• 1 witli approval the proposal loeaeruise the powers 

nu 1 1 H- Town Cou 1 ! hj rarloua statutes for the estttb- 

i;i in the "it", 1*1] of .1 Public Library, and thai U the 

> now "■ • Lipicd by the canunittee be required for such 

v, 1! - v. ou -i 1 '..■ ili 1 uch .1* wiw in then 

. ■ .iiiv.-n ■, i.t nf the Mcehanln Institute premises by 
■ Town Council u other committee* ol me&uafifio 1 

d, 9 id ..i similar re*oto,\\au. Kx 



PCD UC UBBAUIK-S IS TUT v« iftrnrT? \ CCM 'in 



111 







tho -tntutory meeting < I preaent, with only w 

lot tiin adoption, ind no poll von demanded, rbi 

produce abonl C'J/iO fier annum h KehM 

Wl'l'l' ill ill'. i 'iv:-v tin- tilt" .iri|tlll« lill'llt <l( till" XT 

the pnrpoRN i i > puhlli library <»n the Sundii 
prior !<■ thi' |" 'II ; ii t'jut'llrnl <M»riih<ri w:w preached by the U 
. i-r ".in i i nl he borouich uu Ihe usee uf Public 1 
the purt tlieee in* to i"' : lei m< 




CHAPTER X. 

PUBTjTC IjIBRABIBB in the midland count™ 

•ubuq LatfUBiw ■■'-■ eparaelj scattered U ■■ th^ 

Mi*il:i*i*i i'"iii«ti.--. Italy throi intiw ■ t< without at 

no "i thou! inatitutioE i. these boll ntJ ukd, 
i ,. Bin 1 1 mil inn<lon > counties i 

to tboae in the North, \Vo*1 infl s.n didhmd* am 
Leicester, Nottingham Iierhy, Chaster, Stafford, i 
Worcester Shr-op* lire Hereford, Hertford, » h 
Bedford, uid ( mbrlugc Five ol liese counties t <hh 

i' le~*upporte<] Library -«» thai (he work yel to lie doi • 

fHdely Vnsrrihtili'il. 

Vi.VMsVliAM, NaNTWIOJI, ATTD MlDDl.ltWtiTIT. 

Theac Uiree Cheshire town« folhwAd each oilier very ci 
in the adoption of ii"- Arts. Nantwlch wn i. 

:iini then followed \ trincharn. Thin wiw tiroiiarii nboul by it 

•liMit and sharp sjritulioii In September. I**N the \ 
showed i aajorfty of 73n\u favour of he adoption, The w 
of i in- arrangement* for Ihu taking ui ho poll w irecarrli ■ n by 
Mr ,1. fttnkoc, clerk of the Uieul Uonrd, v i ■ nfllelo n man 
mcnl nl' ii work no full of technical and lejral difficulties 

bhI uatiaTaetiuu. Acting under the advice of the -> ■( i 
in in- Board* occupiers of property aawewed to the general district 
rate were looked upon as being entitled to rote on (ho library 
tton wLi-iliti tin- rates *ere unid by the landlord ui tcnani 

fivwyhooael i « bus enabled U exercise thi pi 

vi 1 1 mil- In the, Tiiinr.i 1 1 ol this very impoi'i anl question. 

i ii.. u . ■ . ■ too tin Croydon dec ofon, w hfch ' uall) dijj ■ 
ui' 1 1 1 :■ point. Foi w >poi the library s ill rely 

opoo •■ ram "i 6900 per annum fn tu the trustees of •"!.■ M i 

Liml < li.irit v, whit Ii « rah ]•■>., i ■■• ' mi! 

unanimously dccid«] should bo applied to the maintenance of a 
I'uhi i Library. Hy the order ol the f:harlty CtoruiuieHionera 

i'p'n ft tin s the I aid i ol the C luril ) . th< mono ■ ■ be. ■ m i 

it ie ub3oliil« ly Erm , so thi 
Publii Llbr - ■ atenayort tan at lu 

b«aontofth< Incomo. Uoaide thio, tin l.lbrurv C'onan 
bu i Iron "/ ■< d fcho Local Board to lu© cxtcutoS ftttf v«f am 



n uu<- rJMfcalBPJH I D >UUm OOOVTCMi u:: 

Another important fact which must DOl bo lost ftfghl of la Ilmt 
iliv- directors ol the Literary Institute, who i • D library of 

3,000 volutin , ■■! -.* j.tm «!: ui- li.-sv!- mm. m, at id ;\ luru'» hall, en pal I 
«-f accommodating "00 persons, bosidos convouioiH cli 
ox pre will mgnaiH ;<» band wop t.» tin; bowa the whole 

of their undertaking, providn a irrangomonba are m ■ i« ■ tor eon 
tinning th< eduoatioj i i s w lot connected therewith, Tho halt 
n1 | »i-> -- ■■ i - yields an locome of KI50 peryear, which m.^'hl also 
Tie made available \»r the supp -rt <«f tho library. As :i sample of 
the gross misstatements frequently made about existing libraries 
a local public man said that, although ostensibly tho Manchester 
• i i u'arv had an Enoome oi only :; penny Is the pound, 
thoy really cost tivepence in the pound. A snider and ta ve 

inaccurate assertion ebOttf those EnstltUtlO&fl Wl - never muilc. 

it required only a post or two to show the ubsuniitv of the 

■.i-x.'iii.'i:!. f of tirrpi'iii-i- In 'hr ]niiitii! in M:nu 1 |i >st .•!• would pro- 
ilui-< :in : n I ■■ f EflOJ O i .i year— n sum which COUld 001 pOSJiWy 

be upesii on Uio existing libraries In Manchester IWfl ■ men 

ti.incd n* an tlluniraLlon uf the stuteincnLs for which frionrta of 
the raavemenl must be prepared. Ail through the disouaatana 

■ .- n •■■ in" iin- adoption uf td" Acts, the sdYlanbMtv of an 

i.ljoiiiiur ji.iti<li (Bowdon) WJtll idcii Uc j| J II I I'H'.il 8 also :idnj>l "." 

' |i* \.i i,i I ,iin.t.;..iin.illii^ with /Vltriiich.iiu, WAS Ui pi in view 

.tin] reference?* were fr**i|uciitl> made towards thin desirable and. 

i takeu witli a view of handing over the Literary 

itution for tin purpurea of a Public Library. 

II e advptSoD nl N'uiitwich w;» in AiiKitM, 1**7, by public 

meeting. Not ' single hand woe held up againsl the propusi- 

tptions flowed in Tory freely, and 61.000 WM 

quickly promised. Thin enabled them to erect a building, The 

lilinin fi well and mbetentially built, but ia not, from cnttcrai] 

mince*, citenrave nor very ornamental, If it is, however, 

Ailed with all the hoolcn it is capable of holding, not many ten 

than WOO cun bo shelved therein, its utility and real rahie will 

l» an tfir.it t-ii, foundera ould reaeonsbf> hop< loi undei ..n 

M, i .i ■>. ■■■>. Vnd. i • i< tho reading i'oom, If bhert ia any fear 

*i all, II iii" r v II bo Pound even boo largo for all the papers 

that they can afford I i lupply regularly in December, [6 

won op n i bj Mr. Brumicr, » \\, who contributed lai 

toWurOH Uix firat coal Mr llnma-r mid Uhti had nlm Im-.-h 

■ .Ii-mii • oi Public Librarios. Ho hoped tho County Qoi 
r&cnt Hill would i" imendod to provide for the araatiozi 

. villajjo, lie was convinced alargonnmbor 
i. ..-I (in uooountol 'ii- ■!> "'H'ool' any dulyconirtitutrtl 

|j ir.-riVO llH'lll. 

ii, a district with a population juht over 5^)00, 
: quietly adopted as in the other two places 
named. Thai nothing euccoedn like nueeesii ik true, and in the 
Pulbbc i.ihratv movement as n other departraenu ol life A 
ntewtinn < Id in the oarlj pari 1 1 i-^». M waa OQ\nAAd 'v\xv 

tbat Mi'M.v-'iv;; wnain a naueft better rj aacnA.^M arfaX 



: 




144 



ur.R^Mr.v 



Hi. ,M nu:iy olhci ton n . ii.- i had no land to 
tmlldln erect. In addition to having: o capital Imil 

thej had ;i balance left from the Jubilee fund o! toraoi 
1388, besides which lliov bnd the promise of some very 
im ! ..-■-! < i i ' - r i ; Im Ing EIOO front Mr, Brurun r, 
and '.■.' .1 year for l m Mr. Mono, x*io 

tad m my ethej "i Hon ■ . i o thnt presently 
thej vronld bo as riehp ownparutivoiy, as tin- Soli Cm 
I to i"i ':'' Am lota wn m n • I and seconded. 

llrnim. r, M.I'., lUppOTtod the motion. Ill the OOllfeS 

peoen no ioJo Choi through tho land-heuru-l public ..pint <.,f 
mI'i.i-. tins lud :t very fitting homo for their 
library, and ho did bo1 think thoy could pcoaioly ninka . better 
aeornerof ^ * i .- ■ t hall than l< aft in it a LfbrarrfoT 

the lihabltantn, To hlsmmd there wna nothing so cheap aa ■ 
Public Library, lor In Mich a place a working-man could foj 6d, 
i 1 1 ■■.?■. >r i penny In tin- pound, procure for his household- and 
.n.n-, particularly for it* children a *orfeja oi weekly ■■■ 
troni oiii- end ox the yo u? ••• another. 

WroN M ■• ■■ r 

Iho vast borough of Birmingham has l>een making municipal 

|or> Ul Ita Utile nultflilMtnr Asli»n. :'iicl Iris uicd to Induce 

[ da io become merged in greater Birmingham, IJut Kstarj 

tlurulnea with thunk*, fur Ulev havu long seen Hint all the outlying 
words i if Ririulughuiu have had t<> five wav tc the huge »c 
for ha Improvement of the centre of the town, and so tha 
suburban warda mnal wait. Aston Is wise in ita day and 

i.i'ioii. and iiit'uiiill.v feels thnt it is strung enough to 
tlnuc running alone Ami certainly, *> far oa the library la 

:. \*|oi ha* hiTii ln-itri nerved l'.\ itself b> bel 
*opar i I tti 'i would probahlj i had 

iom< * i t njro been annexed to ttirminghara. The i 
of -\\ il hinl'.'il iTi th< Load Hoard offices, md i 

in-.- • i-' ■•!' -if.nlj und useful work ' bono, The 

■ i - 1 Tin; additions 

to tTM) books last year, especially in the tending dcjMiti 

ent in tmalUY.and nearly every taste Iml-een kept in * 

ii ;i' Vmon iks in all other 

manu! injr good the 

- ul wriftriight).) hcfcr* thai of th(* previous year. The news 

room and refer sre eomfortablc and attractive roumx. 

Ttierv Ii a go :-fnl Mirnwaniinff*, with a \ \ 

visqve art potter) hen- **-\ there. The furniture wa* 
to MBit the Moms, :»■ ntly pfa>- 

n. II:.' »**t pcasabto enapofad ia 

jno-Je c4 tl»e sPttoo, sihl on aduutaoool nxim fee reference ban 

■••ly Imxhi »V J , >l \ *trip of oar4 i» dMi 'sorrowers 

... a».l .« th* I he valient 

f.^turva of tlir Hm penary efas.- 

an- "*eW eucn|Mied the boorA Scfcrate e5oM b^ the 






PUBLIC UBTUttfgS IX THE VIMJ.VD COtNTIBS. 



U6 



library ik Died for Lectures during the winter, ami the library 
lecture* hsiVf :i].i !c \>r«n i|tiito a local reputation The hvttiri'K 

( :i Ugh-olees character. Mr. Robert K Dent, author <>i 

■■ < Ad and New Hiniiimriviin." the genial l in-anim. i m dona much 
to develop this seodos ot si i*- Aston work. 

Bumbo. 

The comity of Bedford has begun to establish its Public 
Librarfe*. It was appropriate that the county town should lead 
:ln- aav, and lhi.s il. did <u August, t8£ l .», by public lueetj tg. 

T)u' Mayor, In explaining Lne object of the said that 

El had been advertised in the legal way. flor some time net a 

uood number of people had been anxiou* that a imi*cuin should 

be established in Bedford, and he himself though! it absolutely 

ju order to compete Trith the educational institutions Lq 

iwn. In addition to that it was known that the ArohlBO- 

! Society had a greal many tiling which it was desirable 

to have in .1 mU&CtUQ, und the Society wished theSQ thiugs to bo 

I'll -im.K of some responsible body ; and, seeing thai 

the i t i [-« rnt ion vm a l»dy whose continued existence WM <n- 

Luii, it appeared to him that the Corporation should become 

■•linn* "i the artieleh imw in p^sai'Mumi of the Archaeological 

..■.'i:n,\ ni'iieloB which weronowplacodinprivato lihi'iii-i>' . 

b> pei'AunK who were anxious to hand over tbo treasures thoy 

C"\v.od tu some rcMpuiifiiblo body, who won Id hold them fan t | • 
!ii of the donors and of the public generally. Fooling ho V 
important the matter was, h* made LnqofiSee, and found thai Itr i 

ioitablo r is for i SMiseui i could i>e had at tlio BcdJord Kooni* 

n of something! like fit) a year, 'thinking that the timo 
bad arrived tor* thern to take some initial step in the matter, he 
brought it before the Council, but was 1**1*1 thai it would be imprac- 
ticable i' r any pu >lic n oney to be .spent in thin waj unless they 
availed : " ■ ■■••■'■ w as of tno Pnblic Libraries' Aeta. Feolingtben the 
Imtwttt poq oi having a Museum and n Public Library In the town. 

which should be * ocnti E education and have b beneficial 

influence, ",,1 ;i,-r feeling it was n matter that should ; »c brought 
before the ratepayers, he had taken the liberty of oalMna i i 

PLnfffftJid he trusted they would ahow their apm*eaffttion oi 
>• endeavours that were being made to benefit the town by 
ailing themselves of rite Public Libraries' iota. Thi* was dom- 
ariv, and Bedford Is getting Its museum Into shape and 
ii tlien esiabltsh its library. 
BxurroN, BmantKY Hiu, amt> Dudmby. 

It la becoming a fortunate tlii_ny m the history of (he Public 

Library movement thai m town or populous dist^ct governed by a 

ii h< i traaidered tobt con pleb without a Public Library. 

Iston date* ii- adopl on from L872i Ita number oi volumes 

| \rg . and it should to loi &er be poftsihla to lay to the 

the large employers of labour in the district Hint the 

rv ia l>> them -> Bomcwnot neglected institution Ww ^otV 



1« 



F'IMMjr I.TFIltlUlM 



1 1 w troon i 
the plgI that o& o 1 1 1 ici'hoiu visit tlie variout fcpartracnl ■ 
day, The number of borrower* 5.78(1 to extraordinary 

KNirini". thai I ""«' -tie uiiU 0,-J)0 books, ami \.'i;ii :iiv . 

Among 23,000 people \ \ fow twenty guinea gfftn for nea to 
fruni the liir«t» Arms in the dtataicl would tand to plftM 'in 
Itfarar/ on a macdi better footing. Tl urd i cIUm 

;:ill i i lu'iiviU U) ». I'"' - OQl Of a rata "I" Z\ l&l " 

i'7 1 i* < !•• v ■ »! ril in i:n- i i-|i.t i men I if iIk- loan. ('nti>M'i|iii i tl | 

HIiimi'.mi iliss I'nx !m* to In iWnl with i *ftli m ol t&pM 

week. Bflaton wnuto a refresher in the shape ol 

_r 1 1 1 -s . and il la to be hoped thul ii will not sol nig » itboul Lneoi 

\i i io doea Brfei lei II II f< r during if- I waive 
ihr i'imiiim. u oi £10 iii- becsn contributed by a aaptnc 
publii toward* Ite librai \. This iHadiBgracc which rarolj the 
; i >. i 1 bhi district will ti<« longer allow to exiat * Dm 
dation of 19,000 Ea n Btraffgliner ooci > ■ i t ti< r reading 
proclivities oannol certainly be mot by I.eWJ volume* : ' 
two n) -ii 1 ■ .i weal* w ion the lending [ilirai , w ipi u un ■ 

r< Lent. Our tendercat sympathy .■■ ou I >r thi 
Ubroriea ibrugglinff with .» very irnitou inc i 

• «'l:t | DOOpIl ;in«l liltinl' Iritlll ll, ,t» ;i]i|)r;ir:: i 

.i! Briorloj HIU, iho difficulties of the work aro incrci & Two 

ro ■ < i aJ ttod □ the Town Hall buildingn for tho wurk, :md 

year lb paid I" the Local Board for rent, hooting, ad 
■•I.- Mn. i-.. vvn the ■-•■',• I.' < i " ■ lill allow u ■ thai 

; ,. I, f H snhaa i ed Latere I in lie Pubtie i.h-. ■ 

ii-y hIiowh a bettor state ot tiling, hut aero they luvro 
io tlii i ■ "i io thing; on .i larger i nolo on | 
roi on ably expected Chero «raa an inter <■• i wi<ei 

Hie adoption ol the VotaamlUn ipening of thi liui i ■ LTiorc 
are two small branches, and the groati use ■ >! the chiol and tw 
ofl ioo ■ pery considerable, liaro again the paucity of jrifta 
edit iblc to n ti v :i like Uudlcy. it i ■ pai 
t tow *et the presenl Karl of Dudley to take too load BJftd 
»pnre ftorne trifle rroin his abtindnni means, which are la 
}-y \]a- people of the district 

I iim i:n IK.\K 

There b v tal u ii the work hi Bl 'keuhead, • - [1 1 to 

be after an existence of i ilrty-threo yearn. Birkenhead used 
he a botJ ii' Iti'i; hton for 1 4v«rpoo1, hut the opening ol n ■ U 
Tiiiiiui and other drawlaiokw are said to have lofi tho 
t| i ir what n waa. Bui al all eveutw the library is holdlnj 

0Wn v f0Ttb< •■■ <■■■■ i--ur IV I .■ n- u;|.- Uh,7ll.'t '<i! ii'unr iiMfHriR, 

and IO6\410 f"i pefBronce. TJie work lias grown .>ii'-i.Hl> micd 
j : ii m ii iIm- Dpi ,.,-. in :>*rii7 the liooka uwucd ii: thi two 
i !•■ mrtmcmtM were - ; .''i ; . and from tha tliej utve grown to i 
aqu.r Ulioni oli ansa a year. Thi» i» Itto real argumenl 

d I <\ >ui "i Public Libranea The nv: >>\' i\ < 
,/'ri ■ ••/. /: i J BO ■ii!iK | )i'ou:u ^u^u\n\ i\ \ \\U>. -w\, 







, 



I*(.~BUC LIBRAMBS IS THE NIDLASH rut STIKO. 



117 



no looming ; but for *olid frrowth they j.m> I"' wry i-nlie.illy 

examined. 'Hie report ol the librarian, .Mr. \\ "illi&in May, is 

altogether a wry hopeful one, and porhrij" '<• (ho committee the 

• aheeri&g fcta Is that they nave been enabled to pay off 

another £800 Of thi debt on the hmldmjr, and yet they lmvo 
a balance of nearly £300 in favour ol the 1 1 i lmltteo. It a to be 
hoped that they will set- they got it. for the^e balances to the 

ol the working of PflMtc Libraries were never intended to 
go hack into general borough fluids. Mr. May Ifl *i UbrsrU D 
with ideas. His renewal .sliii, vhicli is given among the apjiir.- 

seeras t-» hare set the ball rolling in this direction on this 

•le QlC AUantli Tin 1 ii:un!-;iMh nf new additions to the shelves 

cap : ^ii For three-halfpettce there is one of twenty-four pages, 
i |g :i little naodel ol its land, Birkenhead is a frreat 

eering district, and - ic pages in this hand-list are devoted 

t> the wunCHOO engineering and mechanical arts. This ha* led 
to an increased demand for boofcs on these MihjerLs. The 
Birkenhead committee and then librarian believe bi the virtue ol 
printer** ink. Thus haveieauod a four-page circular ol informs 
n.-ii . oni ei aine lh ® librarv. With one or nro trifling alterations 

kr * u« a-. ;i1ni ^ivni aiming the ivppendioeSj and other libraries will 
iio well t" ndopl e atratfii plan. the idea fa Mr. Magfe 
B&tMXfVQSAH 
To ahv one unactraaintcd with the L^bhoLibrarieaoftheoonntrr, 
a vifiit t-» the Bnrmuigbarn ftiblio Libraries Es s libera] education ( 

■ . thou- l:i-h!li:ir :t visit t«.i tin >e m>tilid] >iis m tin- rapftaJ OX 

i w aidumote ie a source of inspiration. The Ihrming-hain Publie 
Libraries and the name «f Mr J. i>. Mullinsare inseparable, :m<l 
it is only B matter of sample justice that the man who has dono 

a* much for this movement as any other individual niun, 

idd have that work fully and universally reengnized. Mr. 

Mniim- i* one of the most modest ■ >! men, and ha* a drend 

Against the chtal talrin notes; but his professional brethren are 

hsposed to let him off so easily. It Is not a settled Question 

it to whether the large Bonstituwicy which he serves, o otn- 

hose servant he is, or his brother librarians esteem him 

the highest, i ertafn it is that, during some thirty yens, few 

fare* have been more f;iniiii;ir to literarj Birmingham, and to 

rhrwe who take an Interest En Publlo Library work, than that of 

rhlef librarian to the Birmingham Corporation. He embodies 

within himself the very essence ol tpriet force aialuarnot artb iiy 

1 1 v at wurk, with spectacles on nose and skull -i:itp on head, 

he Is the centre and controller or a vast orjRiiiixatioii. the oon> 

[ileiit;. and details of which are known unly i<> i hose behind the 

Vlr. Muffins is not s Bh-mmghom man hj birth, this 

I.- taken place in London. Ilia first beginning in 

lilcsry work ww - . when he wan chosen librarian from one 

led and twenty-aix candidates for the old Birmingham 

ry -i subscription institution whicl has a very mleTcft'lVns, 

hiircrV. but Into which tins ,.. not the place to euwr. ttere\w 




14* 



PCBUC UBBAtIB?. 



remained »ereu yw*, ami in inuft lw no* clioem chief libra 

( )f !li»- iy l.l i.- I I i 11 ir . Ii. In - new IitV Mr. M i. Miuljr 

i i :i ii 1:1 the i'uht place. Ilia knowledge of I 
experience In oai meat, 

were of jrreat value. Il<- bad little to learn, and hod on! 
.-an- v out in* rien on d i ■■ ir scale. His greatest merit l" blM 

..i.i cnloroaoopiti power. Xo detail it too cotnpl 
too minute to be dealt with in eome practical way. Be- 
lie U remarkable for life rx.1 rem* sadunil inn oonrtoey and pi! 
coolness. 
The ninvly business management of eo lar^c a library und 
rou;. branches IB most extensive, us nil fibl 

; the hours of dut\ >i the parioue officers are put in a tabular 
term, and their attendance* are similarly recorded, rhe 
men', of salaries, vanes, and account* are all roe 

Llent order, duly checked and certified in business 
years in a large subscription library, and his 
two years io Public Libraries, haw afforded ham i larger «i 
enoe than Ealta U) the Lot ot ra •-: men in hi* own profeecaoo. 
KUUttlti book, now out of print, and published some y caro aflo> 
entitled H »es Libraries and newsrooms," has been ft capital 
pioncv»r Farther than tills, Mr Mulllns has, by li 
and ;i.|vieo t.a niiii'i' towns when 'in i ilng their HbrartasL often 
hr.ii i»r moot valuable service. For a long time he h:i^ i*<ii 
i -ii'iiily shattered In health, and while still maintaining hU »M 
ehi-orfnlneas and vigour. It Im> been [intent that advaneing years 
have meant the low of some of his old ehislielty and buoys 
But there- are still Ml fur hint, il i* erea.iy tu he hoped, many 

years of work tor Birmingham sod the library movement He 
is B bom librarian, and his whole heart and soul have BV0T 
in Iub work. In the growing popularity and extending useful' 
new of the Institutions under his care lie has always taken 
the most lively interest The wish may be expressed thai . In 
course of a few yean, when that restored health tor whiuh all bin 
friend* hupc for Mm iunv come, he will have time and OppOT- 
tunj ■ *, tot writing b book on library administration. Few bus 
better qualified to undertake such a work. Mr. ITuHm- 
vf whom llii min^li.ini i* pnnid, ami his professional brethren 

have an equal pride in him. Acting as the mouthpiece of the 
Kafrtsj ii>i the rone beino\it may be said that they wovld grre 
Mm three times three and musical honours, and t - ease 

it would be a very genuine display of the unirereul e 
which ho fa held Among them* 
Tli'* ai r-cxtondlnfi work at Uimiingham is tin bcel of aU 

Col the utility of the libraries. This could i ■•( 
n bettor evidence than >■ ulT"rde«l I y the decision of the 

Town Council in August, 1689, with a unanimity worthy oi thcrn, 
to i ■"! iIiivmii'M' branches, On nnly question woe as to -w 
the hranehen should be placed, foi nil the out] 
are claiming to novo them established m their midst, 
who has visited either of the * I U'mingham til 






ii iii.;i UlUIAUlKfe iv |8K >III>I..*M> COU STIRS. 



149 



: Oonetltution BilLGoeta Green, or Deritend, who lma 

■JGfln the crowds of quiet and orderly renders in the rooma, and 

::.- .i Ixtrrowera at the counters, could nol come amur 

without feeling thai thcao taatitutloni arc douuru valuable and 

trnportai I - ■ I work. The use of such libraries and ruocftnff- 

;-. i .in . ... p. ti.i. largely upofl the l.i'-ility of access. The w<-rkm;m 
;illcr hi- «l;iv'- l< i riuiiMT travel (wo or three inih'.s to a lv.wUnflf- 

room, nor tend hte child the ionic distance to fetch a tool l" be 
it ii a. All ratepayers bare i< contribute to il«' ooel 

ofttica i'l^'il .ri«»ns. and ull nhoiihl na far OB pOBBlble have emud 

opportaoitioa ol enjoying their adrantugea. li ia nropoaeq to 
epend between C15/)00 and £10,000, and the branencfl will be 

doted withoul delay. One of thceo will be ereetod a1 the 
oornor >t Spring; Hill und Eokniold street, from the deatesns oi 

•a, m iii-mii and Uharnberlam The prindp ii Feature wfl] he a 

I«ilt\ :i.u<l 'VL'11-liL'l.t-.'il hnll, servLUg; Ih>(1i l'nr :h'\vhmoiii ;ind landing 

library. The tome department will be aeoomrnodated in ;> ffaUerj 
on tha Brat-floor level, and approached by a atouweaa either from 
the reacBng^rooiD ot the veettbule. There will alao bo a librarian's 
room and a lavatory, Ttie entrance will i>e at the oorner of the two 
ncpaata, and the bulldinga will have exterior elevations designed 

I In inooorn Gothic, nnd constructed ol red bt'tckwith torra-ootta 
nga A small circular ventilation turret alao forma pari ol 
the iIl'-.'mi. The plniisi for tho Unjrard Street library alao Bhowa 
am rhmuon i brick nnd terra-cotta, daafgncH In tine Renais- 
sance style, it if. treated very roeeaaafnJIy, axtd baa a good deal 
of i-nrietiiiient of an etl'eefhv character. The moat sinking 
feature la m semi-detached tower :it the angle, which is to ba 
fitted with ;i clock; and bhe mala room wffl be Halted by b 
. Endows Tin.- architect* have dealt eery skilfully 
v.tl. .t [ueee ol Uitd of Somewhat diftleull lorni, innl (he building 
improve the appearance oJ the locality. 
As bo many misconceptions have, from time to lime, orlaeo and 
been placed before the public it will bona well to state what lathe 
hut with regard bo Llio rate. Ia one town where the 
movement was in progn i. Yemeni went i'mili that the 

I rate waa threepence in the pound. 1'iitii rerj recently 
from Bh« prawn I date, the rale haa been but one penny, but by 
of the ratepayer* power was obtained by meani of a 
. |/rovcment Act to rajae it if accessary. Tbii wae 
! r ted by the demand for new hraueheB. The limit of 
. of the Ewart pennj will not provide for an unlimited 
numbered brancboe, = > ^« * l it [a to meet the needs of these new 
broncho i tJon of another i>< nny hi - bi ba found occca- 

In ikrmintrharn. There is no town where the Horary rate* 
i more shoenully poid than in thin large midland centre of 
li. « uiui. here ia a remarkable record of rapid growth 
and • - I" 1861 the library epraug into life with B 

• ee lection of rather more than fljfioo booka. in four 
yaara the number of books had eonBldcral>l> move tl\w\ cm\\\V\<-A, 

and they were H-rrov '>d by over MiO.OOO moVv*. V^k" 




fT**. 



1 



Ml >mcr was made. f«r the refrxrnt-e hl*rarv wa* _ 
W » cn» » rt h< n 4 |fl,IKtwlM»J thcrotuxm^ la :!.. l.-r»drar 
library were aaereaaed fratn m*drr thirteen to irre? t * nity-iT* 
tho s rawl Year by rear the tree which had been, in it.-v t-ct*io, a 
eoanparath.- cram «4 aaaat a i d i Ltd , waxed .. 
Uat end of 1*T7 the rrfrrracr library contained 4 ; » mkI 

the lea-hxg library «| f fiflR. a total of86/»7 Tomn* h do 

leas than «W,0» reader* made uae, f. *■ recreation ■-: inM 
TVs: eaano the cttaastrosB fire, in wbuh Uir reoan 
rear 1*7K vara Uat <»■ that January morning ia 
Birmingham aria d to be atandiag in o kind ol 
while it* goodly r*)amo* were 1«W to .uric*. 

great a* wa* the dimeter, it acrrcd a lavful 
energy and prnroptitaoV with wh;. 
to ratriava it* lea* are a memory which mar be lauuk- ■ i 
prvfe to auceoodlag reneration*. sad, at * . . . Itotfri 

from the sacred aOic* ha*, •tarll ■ i 

■ueccfMor. \ ear t>y year trw 111 ran 

r the aoowMstlori of valuable and tutoreatloef 
fcatnry appr^-cued by an i 

oa the reference hhrarv eontaaih Uj 
the !rt»dmg llhrary 5i»,K*»— a total ol* IK 
number of the irtcek ahen the Are mrageil th 

The average lumber of rfelc* eaeh 
Kbrarie* uw ft uttng-roi am may h 
than llf.OCm — a very revpectaU 

rn fart thai thousands of in. the rear 

:ir thnmgh reading the mtvoi IwimMiu i 
i iiinlM>ni of papers lo be (ootid in (he newsroom h;<i 
ntoc otefatfc any morning It is moat DM 
men *r»i Hfruficlit — rn lews bill lo Hie jiliertl 

p ■ Mil. -II, 

Tin- rofervnee department ia « tery 

Birmingham work, the catalogue ■ •! which will 
I'fiiiuileteit, ;i vui of top-stone to Mr. Mullins'a reputation. Th 
■ ia has many details of special interest, uml affords furth 
BJJUnpK' "i Hi" >i nniliin> of tlir plan in) whicli it is compiled, 
i,i tin- ! im! i i ■ -. .1 «il usefulness of tin? work n> .i " finding index 
In tin- in hundred thousand volumes which the Ultra 

son i "ii.ii.r-, and whicli are couatantly uteres, i th 

munlfiocat donation fund, viuVli h 

the purchase of high-cls^s bonks, Id.- form - f tin- catalogue ia 
practically alphabetical w ;i list of author*' name*. But out) 

iniportanl beading* the principal l>ouk.< an 
licit ii duriflea catalogue for I general x 

Tin- - ipcrlosoo of yean hi shown tint not onjj rot the refen 
ni the Htudcnt. iiut for fch« prompt delivery to i 'wok 

or ijojiijtlili-i, ti'< ' - pniwd ' • I »« - i i . mark J 

m|ilo< f Hi" del iil of the work :t may be mentione ! il .. 
I- rcii ' ii.hI'-i.im Mi-irll.i'iv,'" in ten nunrio vuIuiucb, ia fal 
1 "ii cloven pofcai tne oou i nU of oaeh voltuni b i 



r ia 




pr i IS TUB MIPLAXT' 00 n 161 

tibedi thus enabling roadere uid students to look up 

IiiaiiV l-:ir<\ ,:;■!, !-.:■■ .i BOglOCt&d pQSBphlll , whOSC M StGftOQ U 

little known, bv wbow content* ■ n historically valuable, and 

ofton hiphiv interesting. Ei m unall a subjeol of 'Hate" Id 

reproeontcdbj mm pamphlets i while "Heraldry" has more than 

two and ooetljworkft, Under" History," the pri iolpftl 




hirmi vim \m FiKFJcnxKOR t ma un. 

mi general history ire classified, each country hoinff 

■ nwn pi'i.i] . • idiujr, to which 

i • wnolri naturally ln%l 

i linu'3 al Uii nitiigham i& noted tar and wide. 
-■ k---l with ■■ b in English, aart VQ -.A\ 
. ivIui«7j thfphtya have I D :i; 0&\&t&&, TtoS tafttt 






l.VJ 



PTT5IJC LtB2AAlK9. 



Dumber of Kngllari e liti inBOT selections ie l'.okj, and of separate 

.■■■us 811 j Bhe* 1 Ina." naakflup SjDOfi rolumee. i )-t .- 

urc r iniplrtr edtl inn ; in I'olish, Russian, Hungarian, and Spanish : 

. Portuguese, Finnish, Qroatfan. Frisian . Roumanian, 

ii • -i.. i enuah i kraJne, ;nui WaUachtan i t" i' are omXy sop 

1 1; i tarraan editions and selections there are no f.-vwr than 
B31 volumes, and the other fihaJccxpeariun literature in «. 
numbers feD rahtmes. France has uuly one-fourth nf the number 
ni editions sad iB|amtopublip»tionfi Tin test news with n 
t<> tiiis sivti.n i was the offer last year of the collection ol Sh 
MH-arlrtii raril lea b> the exec u lots el (lie laic Hidliw ell-Phillfpp* foi 
£7,000, Opinion « tat vary much divided on tlit wJadom or Other- 
wise i t ill |.r'<i'"- ■■.••I step. The "Daily Pust" dimmed up .n . 

iwwerfullj : ' ■ ■ tenants agsSnsI the purchase in bhe fulluwimr 
sentence; 'W« enapbsticaJJyconteud boat the matter [a a u ki 

■ i i'l not ■> -n'.v mean* of a local character. The ratepayers 

m( tin would haw do adequate return for tluii outlay. 

Thr-v -would pimply be Pftyuuz for a treasure in which a fen 
scholars anc 1 students woulcTdolight, Hie 3h ikoapoarlaai collection 
In "in Pwl 111 limii'v at present lies useless. The early <-• lit inn* 
.i ad i thcr highly-rained treasures ulike unasked for and nopta 
The artisans of Birmingham have no time to pore orer old fcrpc 
and manuscripts thoy eannol understand. Thoj derive tittle 
pleasure fron i icroVj Razing at book-bocks i pon which a fancj 
price lire* boon net by bibliographers." Aldcrimm Johnson, the 
ih i 11111:1 oJ the Library Comrartteo, ind who ia one of the 
friends which Public Library work ever had, ohampioncd the 
osuee <>» the other Hide 

Tha catalogue, of the Shakespeare Library will ever be 
opiu 1 Sir. M illins. It not only catalogued what ha 

hud on the ahelvee, but what he wanted to possess — 111 foot, m*u« 
■1 ( ;ii ilogueol all Chan known ;o exist it gave the titles 

n.' works tlaeainad under English and foreign, and under 
the handbag of each play the title and date and siae of 1 
editions, thus forming a literary as well is a library 
ol Shakespeare Rim catalogue was a labour of \< 
as a Ubrannn lu no way required ao elaborate and learned u 
work, it waa the outcome ol ins own knowledge that no 
work had been done, and of hi* own i«Tiortr> : n«i I'dusti-;. 
It should be done. 

The iv;"rivnrr lilir.iry n\:(.s lii'^L iiju-iinl 1, ! -miiii]:i.\ in 

order to -how the work being done on this day by thin depart 
the tnbln which follows Is very Instructive. ' Altogether the use 
nnule of the librarv on the Sunday is moat encouraging. Bet ween 
Are and s i\ honored orderly readers visit the reference library 
mi (ha d:iv oi' the week which, as much as any due, should i*e 
devou d I 1 Intellectual pursuiK rhcir demand i>. in the ma 
ol cases, for hooka ol an instructive ctinruotcr, and wh< 
»:t_\ thai m the quiel reading of .1 N»ok within ton four nraJh 
ol 1 Public Libran on thai dayiss violate t Ihc banctih ui 






•t :: ' I.MH-4U1K* IN rHK MnH.ANI 



m 



VOM'MKS IflSUBD 08 Si \iiAY8 IU'RING 1**3- 






Junuitv 
F*>hr iiaVv 

Marsh ' 

A |'»i I 
Mag 

July 
3cj»U'iiil'fi 

IJacviriber 






> ■ 
42 

a". 
r, 
n 

88 

23 
'■ 30 



v'.u 
7 HI 

■ 
in 

20 9 
IM 

20tt 
:i- 
MS 
190 

4S1 



Totals ...03.394 5.H21 21!) 



It? a 



501 

aso 

437 
3d 
18fi 
180 
275 
197 
338 
BBS 



132 
1SS 
135 
134 

74 
B7 
43 

5a 
in 

70 



203 131 

296 130 



3,677,1,207 



142 

81 

100 

262 

133 

01 

L6S 

131 

164 

SO 

231 

187 



1,8)0 



1,839 
1,411 

1,640 

1,502 

825 

734 

l,0ift 

5flN 

1,180 
l.MU 
1,272 
1,268 



I4,f>12 



140 

111 

113 

133 

SS 

68 

61 

41 

8(1 

w 

77 
I2y 



1,284 



3,678 73E> 
2,824"" 

3,004 
1,660 
1,428 
2,110 
1.310 

a,«7a 

2.S80 

2, Ml 

2 ESS 



29,024 



700 
20 
001 
IK' 
3G7 
42* 
329 
474 
571 
63G 
506 

548 



The number ol -rises of misconduct ou the part at assistants 
is rery small, a year or two ago the authorities of the Birming- 
ham central libraries discovered that aboat three hundred boo& 
io, been stolen fipora the reference department. 'Hie thefts 
vm'it carried on in a systematic maimer rjp twelve nnimiis, imr. 
rhi'v urn- iitii discovered until a junior assistant disappeared. 
VnM iil tin* hooks missing were duplicates of expensive editions 
of Slr.ik>*H|iH;ii'e ( and ralnttble tomes Oil history an<1 travel. The 

duplicates were not stamped, as were those fliNt in the library, 

sum there ww ooUiing to render ttoem unsaleable. Ore* two 

hundred id tin- bonk"* were discovered at second-hand b<>.>k- 

ops in the town. The assistant was in leceipt of sixteen 

sJuIliL^t. u week as wages. lie produced.it appears, when selling 

books, a letter purporting to be written by his mother, who 

she wim selling her husband'* stuck Tho stamping of 

hook and regular and (systematic stock-takings should be 

the rule at every library. 

It is frnpossfble not to feel that Iiirmiugham is certainly a model 

i [In matter <>f Ux>k*. The annual report of it* Libraries 

aet proves this in every way Bfr. John Morlcy. in his 

on the atttdy of lOn^linli Htcrafcnrc, said thai u,- &Rtjt*0b 

*-nt ..I -i ., ! ui KiigHfih libraries is td'oul "V> yw «v\\«o\ >X>« 



I 



i:a 



PI BUI MI;r.i.*irK 



whole Rot at IMrmli i • porcrml ige vela la abort hall 

.Mr. Morley'* eathnate. I :i! fv real and ra Com I 

which one naturally irrlvi . mil I llw h'mmwI ra <• \ ■ ■ 

in:iim;iini'ti nii; i he proper is will bo Ed another haJ 

« ii . oan predfd r 

Boron urn Cm ■ >■ atiw d 

'lln-.M- ore tho onl) two placca In Dcrbyahirc, In addition to 
Derbj . whii h have » far enfranchised thi The beaut Ifu] 

watering-place of Buxton haa done ;redlt bo iteelf in ita library 
raorement. n ■ w 10V * J i-«t 1 1 ■ 

oloa and bracing u could poasiulybe dceired tfo 
mental air boa bocomonnprcffnotoa witho people's collection <>i 

l.lrnitiirc. and the 1 ckor* and pleusui ra who go 

EromaJ parted tho country willhavo b chccrfi I -.room 

bo which thej con resort The pil in which the 

Public Lfbrnrj Ic housed ia wall situated, una fo m -, In 
a landmark for tho whole dwtrict. In plai i inn accommodation 
for tho niuiiii'ijtui offices iiiv loaders 61 tin tbrary movement 

■ i that they .-..uiil not do bettor than adopt the AoJ 
providoflooomn ooftti © in tho Town Hall. Ami tin- ].-■<..(>.< showed 
their aeose by not requiring much persuasion. For an out! 
some t'l 1,000 the people nave n handsome Town Hull. [fee 
reading rooB d tin library ic I i feet by -' feet, and Uwre it 

a Hfiuiili'i- pocini. At tin- cm.: -.>r (it* u i- iho i< 

library. The building waa opened in Juno. Y$8U by the tfarqui o 

ogton. Well might he say, in declaring the ib 
thai an admirable policy hod been pursued in Buxton in rrulbng 
pTOViwca for the wantu of all ola - - : ie prosperity ol 
(own depended very much on the support ol the rich and a ill to 
• ic, inn that had nor led the uithortties a neglect tho othei 
classes, who naecsiarfly increased in numbera irt E the increasing 
osperity «-i the place. He was very glad Indeed they bad 
heir way r<> (he adoption of those wr\ uaatal Acta the Public 

tries' \i-i.s. ;i id i: waa a happy idea when the town nooried 
additional publi< hall logs, to include a place for the llbmrv lis 
hoped] would Iks n source of improvement mid recreation for 
the people of all classes, File lending library began with over 
2,000 m.i arnes, and was opened In NovemlKir last. The wori ol 
leading went on briskly, and lias gone on increngiug since. '■■ 

kttractlan con a watering-place provide for its rialtorn tlum 
a reading-room well supplied with papers mid periodicals ? Tin- 
Vabariug-placc* arc rapidly ret'o^r'/iny il i- Carl, mid wo are 

: rueasun ble distance of Uie time when no bland oi 
board watering-place will be considered complete withou 
rate-supported reference library, reading-rooms for tin visitors, 
and ilie lending library for tin n -id' 1 i i, I uoh places 

!;;i\< within a ;ompArotrrelj ahoii time of eacl otlici doptcd the 
Ar 1 .. Dustoi i:.- caaon to be proud oi having done no. 81 
aeinl '■; -t ill. i,. . ni r..':ir,i ..ppf-ar t i Gave been a ' 

iiiuil.lyniftled about the I'litaloifao. ('ntal^yoeodo not 



grow 



■ • i Tfl»Amv* i% riu vrrKS 






m&liM*tnn\j r m<\ mature like fungi. Somo Hbn i thej 

■ li.! \n.»:ber proof is nffonl^l at Buxton of whnt has boi 
Kn ■ ■ '. theec Ibi *r. - gel tni oper 
they orK'niiraye gifts, Than i* &1 once :' t^esponalble bodbi t" take 
charge -. Buxton has aaver hitherto had :■ public local 

museum. Antiquaries and arcIiaMo^riM^ haw pflnged m:m% 

interesting relint, and added their Anils t..» dbtant DoBecttoaa 
ficologiafc* have punned Iheli iutcrextui;; researches, but with* 
out giving any 1 *'--!■ interest to sermon* Ej si oes H has often 

arked tl s;it the natural science* have row devote 
Buxton, niui the (net is eoaroelp ont for wonderment whan we 

i irian collection open foi the 

i and old. and wtwrebg ecthunaani iu ihe 

pursuit oi science mfghl be ruuhed iu receptive minds Gross 

ish hankering Em utility alone, hovi 

destroyed many interesting relics, and there b, therefore, the 

>^r<n' wfaj juefc as inftj yet be cacued should be 

ill :; |>kfv .1 RnfCtJ far publir :iiMpci'tit>:» Willim 

■ iir. It in |»i-i'IiV.h|iiio Ii;i.- rot -en, ,. . 

ijrcut impetus, and tin town evident!) pose* ica one nntiqu 
in tin: person of Mr. William llfllett, who has intelligently and 
thoroughly oxamined the old DeopDalo Cnvo.ou(] now offers to 

ihstOWB the ValuoUo 'Cnultd uf lln<r urns' Inbiair, :iii.i flu-:. 

are to !><■ pla rod in cone* in the ncwBroora. The librarian receive?] 
I' 10 .i ;• RV B I -Hilary. 

Chi Arnold la rathci reeling the ptneh of having to mulct 
bricks without -dims- Ont pi n rate wbaoh >niv brings in £100 

:iro making the von beat use which can poesfbh be 
oi this sum. Toe iibrorlnu has to he content with &$&, which 
i . Looked upon as a princely income, but lie to devoted to 
rhe shoe pinches in the repayment cd :« loan, th< 

ii sinking fond of which « unu to £64, The expenditure 

for newspupcrtf an*l periodicals renohofl £30, and rho bookshelves 
»e content with their present furnishinga. Now, Je 
;i Brampton ind colliery proprietors "t \\ In 
ton l *th all this useful little Inattention starve In your raids* ? The 
tntnl bontc of vohimea during the past year was .V2,7ffi for tin- 
6 for the subscription library, and 75<) for the 
roferenoe library The rinwrified summary oi rho year's 
from the lending Library la Interesting, aa showing the kind of 
ii] food cliuAeii by tins Ihktuwcis. l*Vlion lumil* tin- Mm 
21^815 roluraea having burn lamed. Of works of a theolQgtaal 

8 hflosupfliica], and educational uliaraoter 304 vulumeH were lent, 
nl/ fourteen voluinea in law, politics, oomnjeroe, &Cj were 
aaaueil Vi ratelsj hletoryi &r., proved Boxnewhal more 
. .«* ^012 books lu those departracotn were borrewodi 
iencc, llteruturc, 558 volumes were l»ued, natural hiflt< I \ 
-"fcJ6,i ■ •" ' ' 371 -. juvenile 768 s and rniaoellaaeouB(l|S81. 
tbow for au institution whiob duea uol claim 
. irrong. Wwj haTi recently btrodueed the ayatoni <>f 
allowing onteidoro i itow hy paying a maD suXac^ i 



].W 



I'l'ULir unit AJUtS. 



These bOTrowm must, of course, be guaranteed bj .1 rntepi 
Prior to adopting tills plan in December last, ihej hod dvci 
applicant! for booka from outside the borough limits. The 
income from these nilncriptfonfl will be a useful contribution 
towards the In sreel on the building. 11 c legality •'" alii 

outsiders to borrow >u j*i nt >! .1 Mibsoription wh? : m.-m 1 

In Chcsterfiold, M it has been elsewhere. As stated in another 
chapter tli- rendering of Lho Acta is :u-nn..i this inno- 

vation, but each Individual place musl ronU,i stottlo the question for 
It .< If Uy the adoption of the plan it is no loss to themfc pa 
bmt in the contrary, a benefit, and it cdionld be permitted bg thi 

I AMblEIUGK. 

In jjieseuting' thi'ir tliii'iv-ftmrth annual report to the Council 
or the borough, the committee ol the Cambridge Public Ubrarj 
aav tliev have lathrfaction m recording the continued moo. 
the institution. Thej bJjh it making the library as cfttelcnl as 
po8KiM«'. 10 as to meet the educational want of all olaeaea ol 
oon nranity, In furtherance 01 this object, tho librarian, Mr 
John l*inlc, addressed it rtroiiRir to nil head masterannd nitsi i 
of pnbllc and private school* In the borongh, calling their atien- 
ti..n to the man* valuable works »f reference in tlie library, ad 
lorlcttfno, :niv suggestions, or lists of hooka, that wnald he oi i 
vice to themselves or senior scholars In their achools. Is .< 
result, a number of educational works have been purchased bj 
the committee. Two further courses of lecture* and cuwkcs wwru 

f'ivon in connection with the Cambridge ITnlveralta Extension 
(Oetares, and the library committee provided duplicate copies 
of all tho t^tt-booka required These proved of much service i" 
iho siiulents, js was grocefullv acknowledged by the wcretarj 
TIk additions made to the libraries during the year comprised 
l,£'fl volumes; of these 1,001 were added to the central Ulnar;. 
and 904 volumes to the Barnwell branch. The 1 brariesuuK com- 
prise 35,966 rolumee, The issue ol booka won again In exeat* ol 

that an any previous year, being 104,908 iig.-iins! I' >: .' 

The reading-room continues to afctrw t a large number of rem 
A* mcntioni'd un another pape there isan open reference lib 
at Cambridge, Visitors to the library ore much struck wtl 
largo number of books in tli<* irnding-rootn, which a« :. 
; iblc to all persons entering it. Constant demanda for 
reference books as dictionaries and encyclopaedias, led firel I 
and then to others being shelved it the reading-room, no thai the 
readers could help themsclvca, and so satisfactory did thlsrao 
prove that other works wore added from time to time. Tho 0OXD- 
moncement war made in the yeor 1858, when n copy ol '<V. ' t • • 
"Dictionary "was placed in thr roadintf-rmm, ami nt tho end 
the number of volumo had increased to 822. Sow 
number 1853, and thoy are largely and carefully used Pour 
volnruex were itolen during the past year. bu1 they were i 
rain,', in 1991 trMjj estajbnabed b ne* role to the affect thai the 



PI BU<* I.IHIUUIK* 19 TUK MII'I^Mi C01 MIH< 



Ifi? 



srifc "i i.l:il«l dI any burgon who rcelden witti him beyond the 

Iirccinets ol the borough nhiU be etititlod to bono* From the 
ihr.'i . . .- •! in BUohcttS SUCA bUTgWA (SgllS the following di-.-I.r.: ■ 

I : <-■! hi : !■ h: ion to the > turner ; — 

i declare thfir my resides with rae at 

Bnrgaftrt name In full occupation 

Rued the day of Ifl fly order of 

the Library Cuuuull i» i . 



' AIU.TON AND UlttKZUM. TonKAHD. 

Ibeee two Nottinghamshire districts, both under the control of 
LooeJ Boards, are snuking down to their work. Carlton, with its 
h,(vk) inlmhitonts and n rate producing only about IC50, was rather 
proud of having done, in the adoption oC the Aote, what Hull had 
•d to do. The l.ooo volumes with which they began were 
classified and catalogued by Mr. J Potter Briscoe, of the Notting- 
ham Libraries, aa were also the nooks ui lluckniill Tork.ird .Mr 
Briscoe has 1:1 (hi* way. like Home other lihrm-iunx, been an active 
missionary lor the movement. The opening ceremony took place 
IB October L88R Thfi building which was handed over ou the 
adoption of tin* \<-tswn« formerly used ns tha Local Board offices 
■nana a temperance twll The >nij itruaturaJ alteration aeoec- 

wefi the throwing of two rooms Into one, and the work was 
carried out, together with the furnishing of the room and the 
purchasing of some hooks, at a cost of £40. Alderman (j ripper, 
of Nottingham, jierformed the ojiening ceremony, lie observed 
that rhev were taking ;ui inrporuint step In the history of the 
viluHrc, which he hoped would have good results in the future 
Theysoughi to place before the people books of an entertaining, 

ting, .mi, instructive character. That library was part of the 
gnat educational wave that was sweeping over (lie country. lie 
believed thai education was opening the minds of the people. The 

rj was in their Tillage an illustration of the way iu which 
one step led io aooUiei He looked upon it as i aeceaaary uouse- 
iiuciice of the good schools they had in the village. What ffafl 

i^eof teaching children to read unless they provided Hunt 
villi the means of turning their knowledge to account P If they 
wished their children bo retain their knowledge, it was absolutely 
that they should find some way of gratifying thou 
tft«te for reading- He hoped they would supply, U I 
pomihlc, books of a healthy description, which were likely to 
Improve bhc foractcr, lie had no objection whatever to fiction, 
led i wa* of a healthy kind, but many novchj now published 
aticmld not be road. 

Huoknoll Torkurd, where the tomb of Byron is, there in a 
capital in w building, presented to the town by Messrs. J. E. Kllis, 
ALP., and II. B. Paget) two of the proprietors of th': Kuoknau 
]')>■■ hi.ilding is well situated, and is built in the 
Renaissance style of architecture, from the designs of Mx. K.^5. 
Bromley, ul Nottingham, UoonmBte of a library naving^toNvsvot* 



1.7* 



PCB14C IJBIUatftS. 



lor I.'.""' SkIiiiiic-.. n ii| cii| \ U i- .m , ,» 1 u' ■ - - 

room, u reference i kin#-i mm, _« : i « 1 .; 

The Ubrarj ti placed in the cent] -I the buJldln 
thai Uu Ubnuian Iim Nii|iorW«c|u!i over ' wry rotun. Die ■ 

r I ■ (0 !»vt bj 52 :■'.(, anil tli< : 

feet. Thcoponingccremony ofthc !. ri»i(OL- library wan ■ 

■■■''. i y<: i ■ ;■!(■"• ilc < « 1 1 1 o r jmrtrt < 1 the library had heen < ■>< nco\ 
Mr. -i. c. EUIa, M.i>., nan =• 1 1 Ihrotyrh Ifarovrn a pood deal 
.Hid [fttarofti nit.) iin work of the library, lie might well my nt 

"i i the oponlng mcoHrura that thaj hud aaweanlried . > 

» i ■< i all mrui and eond now i I men, differing in rcl 

political HKltf el'", :i:i.l llilHtiminiU'lil V,Ti' lint . V, nil in i| ;i! .il! !■ 

inn <>f Tin- community The rate will produce aboul tljft. 

He p II) lllllllL.' tin* ^IX'lV- tl.r l.i-i-n .liTM'C'l ll'.ui .1 

■ouroefl 1 he e immil '<■•■ ol the old mechanic* 1 institute* h i 
Dented fine library with 888 rotumea of their beei hooka. T 

ro-oper.itlve >orici\ foi v.nv yrtn'i'tiii*, m tn] :i lni'/:uir lir*M \ c 

months ago Kam aim aided In the nm IfrcoMon. i nrlto 

rTuaknall are typical cave* where p Rovermiicnt granl ol <:■'>< 
I k :i year would prove of material help, and would in* mon 
«rii and legitimately spent. 

* 'OVTCNTIIY. 

During the m'ilI y years' working here .■ total ol 81,163 lw i. 
has heen acquired, which Poi 12,111 people is ctedltublo. The 

1 1 N ir> 1 m: liiin-' was erected and pi evented by Udcrmnn ' hilaan. 
This gentlemen w now having a new refer < ^ 
the original building*, and in addition I" thin uboul L:.'.inx> ..,. 
been given, The estimated coat of the extension i* i'C.rxw, The 

i w buttding occupies the racant land at the back of tin- librai •., 
and the style of architecture is in harmony with tru 
structure It ia Intended tliut the present entrance ahall be 

i erred tor 0" - twerp of (he readinfr-room only, which to i 

i tcnte and purponoa will be separate from the Hbw 
and a oovt antraneo, of noble pi'oportiona, Is provided for Ehi 
library on tho north ride, in the centre of the block. The i 
bole openainte t lar&o waiting-hall 30 feel by 98 reetiuad tin . 
leads Into ■■■ new r-eferenee library 64 fool by 58 Foot Tht books 
- | laced >< and tho room, and some <•:' them in palleriea ol he 
rddofl, the galleries and roof being supp 

Vraplo lighl li admitted by top li^hd* and thirteen windows. 
it ta propoaed U tarnish the room •« ith tweh ■ ml I x and all the 
Sttingswill l*'.' of the moat modern and approved doelina. Other 
parU Of Ihfl additions include a conreniently situated lihr:- 
n i in, :i book itoro, .^''. The present reference library will be 
nbaoTbed in the lendlnff department, va well aa Hie Public 
Librorv thero i-; managed rrj r.he same ataff a subscription library 
(rpon thi lasi report It appoar* that this nook club azpoi 
ooarrj EOO In iw»ks and magaxines during the year! 
circnrntinn for I time among the rnemberN, the bookaare nil added 
to the Pab "v i>y purcbfii* n i ne-e&tf^ rf the jutiliahec] 



I 



It l ■ i.iO I.IQRAILIB6 IN TUB Mr Or. AX p COCXriKS. 



159 



EC. The Iftsue in the lurt library year Wttfl B 1,401, which glVQi 
books ["I head of the population On Buster Monday tin* 
1 1 1 •!•:« i- \, '\:i"|n-i to tin pubilo, but this la oot put forward una 
plan to copy, out rather &o oppoeito, Coventry nil] have reason 
to be proud oi ifp lihrary buildings now that" this exton 
* emplSted, 
I' UlUfilUN A.M» Ol.IHU l!V 
The Town flail, Pnbttn i library, and publlo offices o1 Darlaaton 
foam ona block oi hutidtru'x. win.-h «.-v <>:>-• i<«ii in October, 
The building* are \rarj handaoroe nod ion pact, and 
Mand out prominently ta the town. The [town Ifnll is nn- 
mbtedly ftie largest In the district, it being "n 1 feet long, 
i Side, ind SB feel fl Inches hlah to Che wall plate, bne 
ii :i,r middle of Hie roof being 84 feet, ll was 
i i.i-lii l < v some Unit n too iMWtly anil elaOOTate rtmotUTA hud 

i recta I. but i bi wrtl Co prepare for future growth an wall 

i present needs. The entire coat waa £6,000, of which nearly 

i i i- > liinii.ai; v enbecrlbedi A little temporary difllcuUy 

ha i*\|'i i !<■ li-rd. I'm this lui« liwn met by the generous act on 

1 Mr. James Slater, the chairman <i the Local Board. He 

ti muted ihal he was prepared to furnish and provide the 

(n;ii i;ii-, ilir tl.'iil> .ni'i weekly :* »i N|, * t « the monthly periodicals, 

areU aa other conl hutloiv. .>- !>»_■ a.** the present d<?M «;i« 

Ining "a this pari 1 1 the pub] ( buildings. Tin- reading i 

InrjQ readrng-deaRti, ■ .* y ».ii >1< -<i • S i .-^j - 1 . « >- 1 -■ i«,i • 
. M -ported "ii single ttandarda with foot rails, At bn top 
t bare [» a moulded rpao which la to tear the name of each i 
Txiprr, and an ornamental can lag oi brcn d oak, with Itahl scroll 
Ul hoT thoy arc pretty and substantial desks, 
re made from pitcVpinc and brown oak. 

• is held i December laat in the Town Hall, und this 

*«i taken it], i . .;■:>! v by the ladies nl fchi town und 

* fl.al the Incubus of the < ■ hi A tIJiOOcould 

Ik* v. py j, combined effort, and at the elo i I to haai 

, jOO waa in all received, so that the library hua ni 

■ i m M career w It] every proer* 1 1 ol ■ Be* \ 

rii.' KetB vera adopted tn Uldoun in July, ins**. Tha move- 

■ i, infoetio i-. and ■ In' i nl the .Veto or 

m library in a near town at once causes the 

t.mt-. nl" lowna not similarly favoured t-> lock around 

win they should not havo one ol tlw v 

itituttons oi their own. The question was deeSdod 

■ting, nnd tin* requisition was signed liy 174 

u< Kuhjeei -I n Itiblio Library had h i 

ted in Oldbury several times previously, and the j>reat 

to operation l ief i e I been 
Paelin \ thai tlw» rateable value of the town wna so small that 
lormt raJsoi i penny rate would not be Buffldenl 

oorer the cxpeaaeB, Sovt thai dlf&eultj hufl been CNexustDA, 
nap ■ ' 'A 1 ' 1 - 



]m;i 



WWAG LIURABIRS. 



township huii boomed very considerably, the obs In&an ot 
the opening meeting said be felt satisfied that the penny rut* 
would bring In na Inoomc aufficienl to meel the expenaee of 

n library ani reading-room The (JUOetiOD wu* brought f<>v- 

ward iimro particularly in connection with another 
for QTOOtmg pubUc buildings and public oflcos for the town. 
It was felt that the most economical way of putting the Act . 
into operation would be to join it with the scheme for public 
building*! as >' could be done at a ie«& ooat. Iba resolution vu 
carried unanimously. Mr. A. M. Chance, n member o4 a In m m 
Oldhury who are very large employer* of Inborn, n. moving ;i 
Vote «i thankft to the chairman, remarked th.it ho eoul< 

reooUeot $&$ meeting i" I Kdbnry where there was men abc 

iii.ttmiiity a* there was upon that occasion. The things vluHi 
caused Uldbury to be a bye word among their neighbours had now 

SiuaeeH :iway. und thoee people who spoke disparngimrly >i < H-tbury 
nrgof to rean to the fact ttiaJ they had no educational "ate In the 

low II 

1'hMlY. 

it. Is alwaya i ptaasnre to turn Into the handnorae blocfe r»f 

buildings forming the Derby Public Library and Museum There 
in no public institution in Derby that can compare inonj waj with 
the Public Library and Museum, which, ut the cost ul a fortune, 
was presented to the town by its lulu representative, Mr. Mh h.i.-l 
Thomas floss. H was essentially a gift to the working; ohutaea. 
and i* a more genuine mechanics' (neUtute Hum the sota 
I'ht.Tblislaneut *nich arises In immediate Juxtaposition thereto, 
which jb ti mechanics 1 institute replete with everything but the 
mechanic* themselves. Hue has only to watch the stream of 
working-men visitors to the lending, the reading, and therefor- 
nice departments of the libnn y, autl l"> the nuiseuin, to ObeeTTC 
the extent to which the majmificent generosity of the milHonai] e 
brewer i* taken advantage of by bis whilom ■"iiMUucmv There 
is one matter of regret about the reading-rooms, and that is, that 
among *dl the costly fittings, the ornamental 1TOD screens, the 
(uned glass, the oriel windows, and the polished granite, the 
light is defective. Half the rooms are in a state of perpetual 
Kloom, and, unless the reader have the nocturnal light of the owl 
or the bat, it is almost impossible to decipher print, The name 
fault should be avoided in the many now buildings HO* being 

erected. At Derby it does, unfortunately, detract from thai 
cheerful aspect which the rooms otherwise have. Thin onl^? 
applies to the duytimo, for in the evening when the gas is 
might there is brightness everywhere. ' toe of the most notable 
features in the Derby work is the enormous number of boy 
..ml who B Sqaontthe library. The place literally swarms with 
_- pooplc, and on each visit which the present writer hnsmndo 
to the library there has been among these perfect order and 
silence, Mr William Crowther, the librarian end curator with 
Mr, C, Courtney u ehlef assistant, are regular boys' men, and are 



i't Mil M:i:tADlUa IS TUIl M;i-i TIF-6. 161 

i.-nlv in i..n..h with theirvi»itow,Kivinu'ov<'i v :'n<-il.ry for rending 
» the future men and women at Derby, 

TIm: eighteenth rCpOTt departs, mm.' wisely, Imm t)io usually 

fliATViityprd ran of nidi publications. It lends »tT nlni<>bt:ii hum to 
.**.'iV that ■■ tfaoro IB nothing -[;- riling to chronicle respecting the last 
year's history of the lit cmry and museum. The institution stands 
as high 08 over in public estimation, and its efflalepoy in all its 

1 ii.'v hag been tiuJy maintained. A larger sum «.i tnODeytban 
i has been spent by the Iwok committee, no fever than I ,*i 17 




nnving been purchased. Of these 798 are replace* 
&W are entirely new. To the vigilant care and 

of the hook I'MiiiMiiti'- ilu; general hitch 

charterer ut the library." The lihr.-iriuu's report give* the stock, 
whh-h Hands nt 14,&3<3 in the lending; section, and 6,625 in the 
department. In the two sections the issues for thoyear 
•rere 1 -i 7 .7 r -> This sbovs u alight decrease, but it is Accounted 
l'm.IluiI elimination oi' the three-volume novels, ami, &fl 
iud additional cause, the librarian is of opinion thut the boolw ire 
Vej* longer tlion formerly a*d changes are lea* frwvwnfc, T Y*v», 



162 



IJUIIAIIIE'S. 



hs ihiiik:-, point* to more thorough and [on desultory reading. 

Dnrhiguut year there hare been 1,00 J non borron 

than l.ooo books wore beepoken at the coil d one potmj par 

I i , i post-eerd being sent to the borrower when th< book 1a (a. 

Tin.* poet-aard simply Informs the borrower thai "the boo! 
(giving title) it QOW in, and will be retained in you until t<> 
morrow evening. 1 'lease produce this cord when you make 
appheutiou for the book." This plan la In operation at other 
libraries and i* well worth extending atul further, The 
iiin-iiiLiri places on record in the report his sense of the high 
servies which In rendered by the entire newspaper press of Derby, 
and thankfully acknowledges Its hearty co-operntion in all that 
tend! to the Welfare Of Hn' institution. Will other librarians 

EVmsi* c.opy thin jiiiiM^rMpli - Newspaper men are liuimin enough 
< iv for a worn of thanks tor the aid they vender in popularising 
these book-homes of the people. 

HaNT>8WOJ. i H 
A> little reference has been uiude to the im,nir, of the LOCS] 

GoternnienS official where a loan i* deeired, it will be oppor- 
n. i. to here mention the case ol Bandewortl] Hub will serve 
in show fehe method of procedure, and the opposition which 
har» hi bboea to be mot, On February 25, i^jo, en inquiry 

was held by Colonel Henry board, ft.E., on behalf of the LoCM 

Government Hoard, into the application of tin Local Board foi 
powers to borrow t2,000fortn< purpose ol extending the Publii 
Library There was s large attendance of ratepayers, md b 
strong party opposed the granting of the application. Th< 
olerk to the "Local Hoard opened the case for the Library Com- 
mittee, TT*" soid the Public Libraries' Art- wore adopted in I ■ ro, 
and Troiu that date ap to the proeant the movement had been 
most popular in the district. Evidence of the public Inter 
taken in the Battel agisted m the met that upwards OJ £800 

labsoTihed towards the Libran when it was lr I opened. The 

lending library was opened in May, \SHO, with 6,1U0 hooka. 
there were D.ias in this department, while they had :< refai 
library of 1,888, making a total d 10,468 volumes. In I £82 thev 
Lntroduoed n musical aepartmenJ into the library. Sandaworta 

being the ftWt to adopt the plan Of a. I'ublii Library of music. 
At the present time they have all the standard works in the 
musical library, md they add b> them yearly. In the 
year there were 41 ,672 issues of books made, xrhife lost year there 
were rti,??A r.i:.! :is m;iny :>^ »»<m> issues have been made in one 
day, Iti 188fi the committee organized a series of lei -t 
during the winter months, all of which were well-attended, 
and have been continued up bo tin- preaent. In 1886 the 
dance averaged 800 per day, ;>t»*i the Insufflolencrv of the 

iii-citintiiiHliitinn i-i tin n':nli iil'-i * N it) I VOUld he Understood WllCB ll 

ia stated thai the room was only thirty-one feel by twenty Eeei 
Since then the average attendance bad Inc re ased considerably 
Witli regard to the shelves fox the books, tliej had i • more room, 



m ill l i.iUKAAlBS IK THE MNiUVI" COUtrttBQ. 



m 




,uid iii"i" were 3^900 boote unsoerved* Che newsTooni was also 

too SltiaU t.*r the in. 1 wnptporx, It would be submit lo<l that tho 
large a&tiemhlyroom in the buildings should i.h? uaedaa a reading- 
room, hi the original plans it was Included U B reading-room. 
An objection to tbii was that it van npeti [fee, nd consequently 
not on the same level as the present library Someol theoppo- 

oentAol Che scheme ohjoeted to the extension upon thegi nds 

of alevAtiOQ. The architect, from whoso plans the buildings 

were erected said (hut the Hev.iiimi would not suffer, nnd i> 

-; !hc Idim. it £2,000 were borrowed at sj per rent., both 

fijpfl] and inteivsl. mnM In- ivpnid in fiTty yearn at the rate of 

1 ftn. 2d per annum, it was proposed to make a new room 
*. -four feet by thirty feet aaa general reading-room, and in 
.n!i in i iin new plana also provided foi ;i ladiofr room, and a 
i -i ii ii in which students could use book» out of the reference 
library. The rector of nandswm-ih pre^rim-d a petition signed 
h\ 85a mtepa yera (n opposition to the scheme, ri i * ■ prim t* 

vr\i ra'iirlv OPpOSed to the whoinr.aiid t I 1 1 V ! .-| 'finl fr)£ OfSOlflTgU 

;i sum for ilint purpose. They oonssderod thai the arge room 
urs could l>e altered at a small coat, and used for the purposed 
of a reading-room. Dr. Randallj tin- rector, who led tins oppo- 
sition, said he considered Ihc proposed expenditure altogether 
i ii 1 1 « - csaary. At the same time he believed that the member* ol 
i i 1 1 . i Board were desirous of promoting the wolfon •! the 
parish • He believed that thoy wore ill-advised in intending thin 
KTcat outlay. This fityXW would faafo t* I ,ii "*( > bo repay it m Mt^ 

a, it was "K'l the extension of the library thai ho nnd those 

who were with him .<jtiH.-4.xL Thcv protested against the Loon] 
making the extension while they had pl<' i' y . .!>.». m at their 
■il which oould be utilised for toe purpose at a cost oi about 

Dae large i m •<:> used foi all sort* of purposes outside 

'.iirac;, h: ttors, d I i be denied the right of the Local Board to use 
purpose than as o library. The Local Board had 

gouty - :' work to di by attending to the state of the road* uid «o 
rtb. The Inspector But, Dr, Randali. you oould i ol spend the 
Lte on the roads. Dr. Kandall : Hut 1 want to know 
where the extru ea pendrture wi I >ome from. The chairman of 
Highways Committee said the >xten&ion was i public 
There were over 80,000 people in the parish] and the 
>ec was rapidly Increasing. Permission to borrow the amount 
wa* grnntr" I. 

Hereford ani> Ijromxnstcr. 

Herefordshire contributes two towns to the gross number of 

mas. The Hertford Library is now iu ita eighteenth year. 

i »tfce are given in the report, but in place of Liu usual 

then . i" given some intereating particulars about the 

museum and the lecture work in connection «ii;i the library. 

Over £00 volumes were added last year to the lending library, 

making the number 9,447. These, with 3,511 in the reference 

o, bring the number to I2 } Q58 lor a pov^UUoiv o\ Va^i* 




151 



— til .1 r- UHHiRir* 



\e \<mi tho lumen writ- .::*. ni The Income fan \tv 
i I 1 .1 i'i i ■ i- •. continued I i ■ time \ -a. ... ut U< ■ 

pub k incatxngt in the rmiaeui i liaa be« □ di ■ ■ 

tumbled Hi" committee bo proi de icme new -■.•■■ _ .« no 

altogether I-rll-'i- ..p]ir;il;tH<T In llir lilll:-'inii OctlUU Phi 

ii'. department hoi up to the dote of the Iwl ceporl been ujjen 
unly mi t a ■■•■■ dnys in th ■ mvi k, but the growtn A the 
* it necessary to open ;i on each weekday. Do 

iigilation for thv adoption of the tctSlO llOUCOdtei 8 D30 ' BXtrn- 

. nil i i; v -t:it-'.iH'iit WOl in, Mr 'V U »li I J 01 '1 il '' • H\ EC 

i Beoi ili.it "lie know that in n neigl bonrins • itv, Rcrefi i< I, wherea 
gentlemjui of extremi i >i CG,00 

iih -l" Hi retard :il.i<> Htiliwnliin>r a Urge umount, ii 
oUninod whal might be termed n Public Library. Bat wnal 
tho result! That, after taxing the eitueni one pomw in 
pound, fchea mm nol in u position to carry on their Pi 
i, bn i ) i '"' > i ■ ' ''"ii t -. ■ o al vi rian ■ • w th 

wonders how anyoi uld make such a gev [01 Du 

peed in ■-- ioa coming from tench p source, and I 
lock of or^ranizuti'm, coal (Jlouoturter Mse? failure • ■! 
tinn oi Bhe AoU The incident served to show thai 

\iu'in.us tppnsitlon in-v from those who Rhoulri b< 

pnolic opinion instead ol olng draggedtai the toll «>i the move 

iin -lit. aethfi ex-mayor ol i H ster will sure 5 i.^ i 1 ha iiv»«<i a 

tow yean longer 

Leon mater afford i useful example of n recent ndopl 
considerable lUflletiHiea, Mr. Ilankln, Mi', offered «:i.'»»i 01 
condition of the let* ■ ■. ■■■ i ipfcod ThU uhrfcated hew 
. uid tiotwkliKtnndfng the beer trtule opposition l»d ■ 
brewer, the fiirreN or protrresH Mere ton i 

nfjr puwi'i'H rwrywhiM'o a* well as In Leominster Mr j. it 
[Xiwdhig rtkllfully organized f.hc provisional committee He 
aided In this work b\ the ex-mayor, \l Irnn.-ni lifted (,•■. ,... 
and probe Is due l<» tniBhody far the dogged nrrcriKtaTirj which 
;.c<i Thevute waelnkcu uttheeudofSepteml er, i--v, 
and proved Miccesnful in wearing a nine) Iriumpfiaul mujo 

od a total of 1.2(H) voters 1.07H returned llu-ii p. |m::-, :i> .1 (In* 
■hows the wid< tntereal which had been created. Then 
only 198 ?otee against the adoption, A leafli 1 givii g the e 1 
for 1 E*ubU< Library fei hhe b wn byw me leading Local men did 
cxcolloitl crvii-f. A [jronisncni LceuMcman from Hereford n 
that the Public Library in that tovn had bee 1 1 .: 1 
The rate «ill produce about £S00, lA-omin&ter, in its adopt ii 
the v ttt i;i bo plucky a way, will have ite « ffeci up< 1 tin .1: 

iv.urii ; t< w 1 '■- .ulfi.-iriil 'un. I :„■ ' i> ( ;n .-uUceteil U 

tiittco iu dooidimr upon u site. It Is vcrj 
■ ■ thai iiir bifcternosH of the tpposition - dying iwai 
there ie n ^o iopo I dot tre 1 ■ w< irk tog 1 1 - ■• : ■ 

oxporfoncpd nl h 1 a< 
with rujyard to the" rating of an out-ptu-iah. which forme part 
Leominitfr, but ttue ta IflMly ic be latisfaetorily setUod 



Public libraries in the midland counties. 166 

Hertford and Watford. 



r^-^rtford occupies a rather singular position. The Acts were 
S?T*ted in 1866, the town being 



^^T>ted in 1866, "the town being about .the first small borough to 
™^^ advantage of the then new legislation. But for twenty-nine 
CSJ*"" the Act, although " adopted, as the Hertfordians pleasantry 
^**X5ed it, was a dead letter. In 1884 the intrinsic value of the 
♦2?" was triflin &' Dut in 188 ? some 9,000 volumes were got to- 
R**a6T f including some of the very best books in the language. 
~* these 5,000 were contributed by a local institution that had 
j*^:n forming a library since 1832, and during the three years 
^"fc-^een the periods named above an altogether new life was 
P^I^rienced, mainly owing to the enthusiasm of the librarian, Mr. 
*^"*ie8t LawTence, who, it appears from the returns, is rewarded 
^ifcli the princely stipend of £30 a year ! In the Jubilee year it 
J 3 ^ thought that the best way to celebrate the event would be to 
oaild a library and school of art. This was done, and there is now 
for use a new building, but which might have been better 
designed. For a population of 8,000 there are now 11,000 books, 
MKi so the point has been reached of having more than a book per 
tw ?^ °^ ^ e popu^fcion. Many of the committee, notwithstanding 
this, naturally feel that their book-buying is a long way from being 
^raplete. The gross return from the rate is £124. The ltt. 
**on, a. J. Balfour, M.P., opened the new building, and made an 
ex .g€Uent speech. 

-_*or public utility the Watford Library has a capital record. 

j«G institution was built by public subscription nearly twenty 

Jf*** ag - There are fewer books than at Hertford, but the turn- 

ft j er is good, and fiction is kept down to the respectable figure of 

.. Per cent, of the issues. The Watford Public Library is a 

l * n ctly educational institution, and to so important an extent 

J~* its work grown that it has been found necessary to enlarge 

Co ■ °* * ne room8 » am * a student's room is now contemplated. 

»- Q **iderable attention is being given by the librarian, Mr. John 

^}*°lrnan, and his committee to the organizing and developing of 

~- e r <sference section, in which there are now some 2,440 books. 

jj e committee wisely recognize that though the circulating sec- 

dem ie now mo8t P°P ular ' tne credit of the library and of the town 

"^aiids that the other section just referred to should be properly 

(P^ged and accommodated. For years a charge was made in 

.. r lending library to the borrowers, but about two years ago 

JJJ 8 . charge, which an impartial critic must be compelled to 

S1 &nate as illegal, was wisely discontinued, and the forward 

° oy e me nt of issuing the books free of charge resulted in almost 

. P**ce quadrupling the number of borrowers and the number 

' b ooks issued. For the 6,797 books in the lending section there 

r~_ly717 borrowers. In appealing for gifts of books in the 

JS° UB departments of literature the committee need not 

P^logize for asking for copies of the ever popular novel, and all 

2J lovers of the best English fiction will agree with them in 

wyifcg that the novelist is the accepted teacher of the nineteenth. 



It* 



II i;n- LlBBJUilE'. 



century. A private 6ulit.cnption room has been m operation for 
dome ti 11 !■_ . tor winch there s b charge - f I0& per yeur, Mit v. 
.)■( in-: that owing to the advantages offered i'.v the poli 
efabf >! (In? tOWO tblfl i» now hcing conducted at r I06& 

in the educational sections the bcJ ool oi an ifl strong, and the 
day and night alBaes arc well attended, in > school ol music if 
perhaps uiiKuvpnased for Itesltfl md vigour byanypuW 
m the ootmtw. Tbs Income in tin* department for 01 1 tear 
E888, bill the expense* ware of course heavy The school of 
literature 1- popular, nod in tins department the Vm\ 
Kx tension l/M'inres ami classes continue to be wall supported. 
Not content wllii ill Chess various avenues of work, tire com- 
mittee have considered whether it. wan practical to launch con 

GtaUStfon or nii/lti scIumIn .'mil reereatlvi rl:i»..rs. In I »< n nU-r 

iii.- [/km] Board discussed whether the town should not 
avail liienwelvefl of the opportunity afforded by the Technical 
Instruction Act. They unanimously uaini bo tin. conclusion thai 
Bomettung should be done at tin close of the financial year wltft 
regard bo this Act, To Qlustiratc how the town das grown It ruav 
be mentioned that in 1^71 the penny rate produced 680, and 

.-•.•-■ '-.:i'.. The last report breathes altogether 1 
spirit of work, With a local press which supports them, ;i rem 
nun rr who have peal interest in the « ork ( and ;> Local Board ever 
r:i«iv in support them, the wonder would !«■ it it were uther- 
wtse llieec t«" hudicfi aet largely uu the principle in 
educiiiliiiiMl matter* the supply often has in these thin.L.-. in , m 
the demand in v.. ad of waiting for it. 



Him cjjbv 4Nd Loroufioaoirafl 

These hro places with Leicester ar< the total nun bar dJ 1 &o] 
iu Leicestershire np to dale. Hinckley drew into line as a 
.>.-i ol Jubilee movement On May 8, 1888, Use building was 
opened by thai warm friend of this movement, the Duehei 
Rutland. A special building 1tqs been erected by Messrs. Atirin 
. .;( < . ■ ( 'i CljGOO, En memory ol their brother, Mr. Arthur 
Atkins, who for many years had taken n warm interest in nil that 
concerned ttinck oy. The Ecclesiastical Commissi* n< ra. who 
bobetho most aWquitoUB of all ground landlords, .solaapioc** 1 1 

and dv fciVSU, and the furniture and HttingH were bougie 6 

general Bubscrintion hud. \ local patriot bequeathed &S0Q for 
books, &-• altogether Hinokley holds up its head and feels proud of 

its Tui lb' 1 iin.i ■,, ; nd 1- i-.iig tt well. The architect u v 

idnh«, nt J. ( 1 -. 1 . ■ ud it i.- B pretty BtrUCttl i I TO 

,i flemish : re] itectmr. Tlmm^hout there is ncutnesi and tat 
it. library provides another of the ik»« rapid ^ neiva*inu 
or of building erected at a cost of rrom klfibo to £8,000, 
haes are the sort of placaa which ail fnnuiH ni" tin- n 
wish i in\ srow -i plentiful that n may be dtfRcnll to 
r.mnt rhrni Mil. rhe Ductless ol Rutland always I 
write* alxmt tho^c institution*, in a was <*ftv\<?a Naaa to 



pi urn uun.UUE6 is rue uiiu^vno cnvwrsn&. 



167 



Rood of sunshine 



d»\. H 



jllM htvr 






*> 4 noon or sunsoine on ;i spring aav. j< * is yw iit><- 

liBtiBgnifihod lady t»< bi 3 ho she fi 1 1 the pea or boa should 

like to hare 11 readuig-mnii in every village with which the is in 

anv way connected, bo it lurgp or -email. \\ «>uld that the mime 

mrtl animated enow < >i rim repragaatatives of our btgftM 
inn lUies! Umekley is in a rather singular position. The Acta btWe 
been adopted, hut for live years a "committee hare guaranteed 

I that it shrill Etbl be I burden to the town, and have ninde them- 
salves rceponalble for IBs maintenance daring that dine There 
ware toOCU TflBflOM wtn this wa.v pmcti. -able and easily adjusted, 
but it is not a plan widen should be copied. The catalogue hu 
in i: n page <fe voted to fine ■ I I • *or Uuskm's many pithy 
■sayings about book* and reading. 
i.un.'i borough I1.1-. for Its population of 90.000, hooka t.o the 
number of rt,000. The rate produces £2fl0, and the library knaps 
1 to notion down t- U per cent, of the Issues. Books and binding 
Bfltnorh 650. Only recently the Major hid offered » collection 
• j]' geological speeirueu& for the library, and thaB is an example of 

I 1 >w l )n- 1 Ul'loUHOf ;: ■iiMM-i.iiii-iHiirs In )»e «'NtH.hlbthi*d in miinivl ion 

with ;: Public Library, The ratio of borrowers nnw about one in 

'<ii..nid the ratio ol atsueoi huuta tuthu populutiou is J'61. An 

ocotiiprfouig member of the committee calculated that had Hie 

lurchaeed thu book* they have bad out during ihe year 

would nave cosl about £#,0U0> whereae, after deducting the 

the rending-room, the. eoM lu ihe. rairpuuT* bar. been 

Qnclor ti*>. This foot Illustrates the gain which accrues to the 

'<• %\- 11 !>v co-uporation. The local pre>.> *uppprM the library well. 

tfoin Hiai Loughborough is Incorporated the irork wilt occupy an 

'' Vf "»Mii"p' Liuportanl position than it beta done in the past. A 
■t'tlccrei twelve months ago an intelligent working man wrote 
1,1 t he author from Loughborough. He commenced by stating 
,! '= it they were then governed by a Local Board, and the library 
toarj 1 ndttoe (composed in September, 1888, of members of the Board 
: ' ' i ratepayers) hod dceide-d bhat none bub direct ratepayer* vote 
11 Qpible 1 > ftign giuuuutec forms for borrowers. This new regula- 
tion » wne rather a hardship on the working men, whohnd been good 
W *-» * id.-- ol the library and hod contributed £60 towurds ite first 
MS t. The men felt, and hit nnturulry, that an they were on the 
and mtitled to rote for toe members of the Local 
Brjaww and Board ol tiuardians, they wore ratepayers although 
1 pounded. Many ot these direct ratepayers wero 
i t- (he establishment nf the library, and bo ihe men relt 
Indignity of going about asking for guarantors The line i& a 
fas one, and it is onlj mentioned now ss a. guide to other 
no) to run aground on this little sandbank. To ■•>■ on the 
liurgess roll should he quite sufficient for any guar anXofj and is 
eitl :M Loughborough, it is always besl to take the 
public int^i confidence iu library work, and to have confidence is 

I'll.- If nl; Hie losses of the Public Libraries throughout tho 
I Ki L'dnm and Irelaml were added together W wow\A muVe 

Itovttrtwj trf&e \'ot only should the signatatte o\ •*• VAxtsyw 



18* pruLrc LXWM 

be good enough tor I jimi-ini »P, Ml the production Of bb 

) itr ">•< '<M|'l )"■ - i'l;< i.-nt t<i rntitlf the owner to l*ecnnn« u 

borrower, the catalogue compiled by Mr. Maori, the 11 

very neatly printed ; and it contains a number nf local adv. 
raenr*. 

KlIiTHmMINSTEIl. 

Kidderminster am! Worcester are the only two towns in Wor- 
ii sbii ■»■ which have up to dale adopted the icta Roih pine** 

lia\e i ■ - . f _ ■ tliebcuiimiug of their libraries had 1 nun jm: (heii wnrl 

under considers fig dnuvdraatage. KidderminBterhue now entered 

OD it-, ninth year, and the unhealthy condition of Hi (-room, 

and Lhegreai rn*Bcomfort caused to frequenter- of the horary by tl 
inadequate KpaoOfl naturally hiudov the development of the world 

Buttln- pTOtSlM i'l bottci tiling ir-ah M'ly- ;i->t .m; it.- -.li.uhiv, n tin 
foreground, and an offer was mode in October. [889, 1 1 m 
nious donor, to contribute a large aura towards buildiug a nc" 
library tor the borough. The need of euch o building has l-i 
been felt, and ft site has been preserved adjoining the schools 
art nnd science, which, when the new library ia erected, will form 

lOmplete block of buildings for Boienoo, liten;tmv.a-nl art. There 
baBivOOj been another drawback Tho amount roooivod Sr 

POTTO OOQPOll M £340] and the actual amount to which th< \ are 
entitled ia £300. Surely this is strange, nnd in thin respect 
Kidderminster hue furcc Kirailar to tsomo othor plaeoBi The 
committers of Public LAbrariee Bvcxywhore ibnuM ecc to II 

Hint where (he penny in levied, they have thtj ml. UllOUnJ 

credited to thorn, and thai tin \ use it. it is nianuToaUt ml nr i> 

the Itbriii'v work chat u penny should I"' rawed for Hie hhrarj 
and th:it institution get only part of tlio amount realized. A 
penny, the whole penny and nettung but the penny, should *«t«fi 

committee**, and there should be no balance permitted to go bael 

into the borough general fund. Tlie gross sum raided n.i .; . 
course, have to bear itM Hhure of the eost of collection ol the rate. 
Oil question "t : ^enarate bunking no eon lit (or Iltblie 

has been dealt with In the chapter addressed to coram 
OOaamiflMionerSj nnd this is a matter wliieh may be urged h >dqs 
upon thene governing hod i.--. 

For ■ population of 36/100 Kidderminster has 4,68} roh 
Tlie members of the Town Council can at once see what the 
difference of £fi0, which has gone into the general borough 
fund, has meant to the library. The shelves have been »r .:■ 
■ad further than this, the spirit, of the Art of Parliament 
has been violated The entire Issue of books Cor the .year ha* 
been 40,140. The 1,790 volumes of fiction have Ix^eu turned cnrei 
86>811 tames Some of bhem must certainly lie well thombed 
Kfadermlnster lia*JU>t e.uiiinleted itsuppi , eiiti.. , e*h.p in it* library 
work, sad it ir. huped that the Town Council will now rally 
i tlie oommlttee and Mr. Fenny, the librarian, so that within 
another, two years there anaybeanew home and a vastly enhmond 
i 



public ubbabibs in thb midland counties. 169 

Leamington. 

^jnaington present* another case where the summary of the 
m °?h y ant ^ ' ne annua ^ meeting of the committee are reported 
in SJ* 1 press. It is satisfactory to note that the daily attendance 
at the libraries and reading-rooms is becoming larger year by 
V&2 ^^id last year reached the astonishing daily average of over 
UKN persons. This gives the enormous total of 280,000 persons 
frequenting the libraries during the year on the 280 days which it 
was op e „ ( Thjg immense attendance ought to show how neces- 
^^ *t is to provide adequate accommodation. The public at 
present suffer great inconvenience for want of light, air, and 
space it, an departments of the library. The reading-rooms are 
Jw 8r *»all, and are for such numbers quite inadequately ventilated. 
ine premises upon which the business of the lending library is 
J^^tl on are too small, and occasion great inconvenience to the 
Py^^ing public. The room in which the reference library is 
situated is scarcely large enough at present, and there is insuf- 
ficient shelving accommodation, and no room to erect more. It 
? n ^°* 1 be long before better provision for all these departments 
rauat y^g seriously considered by the Town Council, and when it is, 
™ e hope may be expressed that they will see fit to provide a 
P****&Bjient home in which very ample space shall be allotted, 
^S^ther with abundance of light and air. £100 was spent last 
J™JJ for books. The average cost of the books for the lending 
™?*on was 2s. 7£d. per volume ; but for the reference library 
jlJSf expensive books of reference were bought, and the cost per 
rj°« reached 12s. Mr. D. B. Grant is the librarian, and in 
' u 8ust last he had to report a singular but most unusual 
th Ctlrrence * history of Stratford-on-Avon was abstracted from 
^ reference room on the Saturday, and was returned, in just as 
„ysterious a way as the purloining had taken place, on the 

ofJ55S' T° e8e case8 are M rare that tnis is about tne ° nl y case 

. *ts land throughout the country which has recently occurred. 
£■■ *own councillor eulogized the last year's work by saying that 
, 8 Peak upon the advantages of the Public Library, would be an 
ca *?* P 8 ™*; the lily white or to gild refined gold. Town 
^uculors in other districts might be frequently a little less 
^Paring in their adjectives when the work of the local library is 
^aer discussion. 

Lbbk. 

.Leek has acted wisely, and given the fullest scope of usefulness 
•j* j* Nicholson Institute by adopting the Acts. This they did 
J November, 1887, at an enthusiastic statutory meeting, without 
. v oice of dissent. The requisition was signed by the Vicar of 
*?*K a Congregational minister, the Wesleyan superintendent, a 
2P*fl Catholic priest, several other Nonconformist ministers, 
■J** those representing the various sections of politics. This is 
2*?8y as it should be. A difficulty had arisen as to what should 
"* done with the Mechanics' Institute, and well might one of 









the local paper* t*j thn 

thoec uoD**nfrancM»ed institution- political ^ 

[i - v. a in bring lias und ?r the i. 
Sic loleui [aslil uie * * .1 

lid i riff, I'm id*tockingil \\ itn I ksnnd Frarla "Cr* « ,t 

art. The donor >ublic» aYfa 

b nil . 11. 1 I i:-n:ihn! f:: il mxl ittit l«Mi H ^-_ , 

i the founder n. ..-:•■ ctl the openraj ^ \v 
onj. He '.-.I.! •* i li.r, • lea fwn what ic io to Btruggie hoc m 
life: I hare knovn what pr:\ ..,,_- .... 

: ::,'i ■ i * ; n. f 1 ..n : :>i no - 

Otll'.M-Il. 9 Bui t 

>>iit od tl i ta i ponoMod J oonld not aflord Boxm - 

ofa L'lf.o." Prior to the adoption of the Act* sorr- 
difficult ic ©n as bo Lhfi obtaining ■ f loan* Eton Suuhbm '. 

Isi'iiMiiirturi. The* 1 will ■■» Iii iiml Io 
■ml 1.' the Act*, and w 111 nil Ira 

affect hnd rotxha 
tho .'■ ' - ■■ 

for ii ■■ foui 1 • t v. ere !>,•■ ,.i h.. 1 1 for 

irm ol poai ■ \ ope b the Town 1 Jou . i«l 

1 1. 1 other loads!* od public opinion foi .1 1 *T1- 

r,iiiy in a leu reflected the highest credit upon tl.#*i"i 

Tho spiril which porviuSed the whole ><t the ricgutitttioxM w 
1 I lent iwd RI8.3 well be mplflri Fn otln 1 1 
1 ■■■ .■■-, ini a Ic jiT«m by private 1 dun 
■ 11 1 dor the \otn. \r 1 1 ■ •- Ntatnt< j n •• d ■ ■-. '' ■**. 

sri the 'v-;nh rion — •• rijnt nurHiinm u I n 'nl 1 
n«.|ui\ii him, and iii' 1 public notice which ban been irfvcn fw 
nurpo&p; ii la tin- opinion of Lhta iiuwtlnjE thai l)i< Pnbl _1 *^ 

I il 1 .1: K: l I '■'>'}, ullv'lil hi lie. kill) till' Srtllic l> lir i'l 

tor the dtatrk'l governed tiy Die l>ck Imp rove mi "■**" 

M 'v -.1 He! vet onded by large employers ol nbour. and auuu 

i\\ sevural working 1 ieui iu wi uder that il alu 

been cari'ied n ii b 11 ifioj 1 hew*. Mr, Joelius 

close of the meeting, Hummed up the whale >> ttattna 

1 ih- tav« 1 had done thai onon . elre^ 

■ « \. 1 ill-- Institute Sol enlj h& ratcpajreie 
. aifi - .1 ■ •■. .11 Im n.-iir mi then ■ I 

ho hail noi ■> ■■■' 2? 

ih.ii !!• i.i inly are *titl lur^o impporter« "I the in t 

l'}[r 1 ■i.ii.l as 18 of b lingl.Y approprial 

,.,..1,1 ,A d< l?nl I; 1 - 1 < ■! 1 ,i:. ii ' v ". nd 

\\ il i nn . ■ii.tr.-t., • t I . ■ 

islated m producing in artutlc building, with exoeJI 

it*. ^ 

'I'll.- work 1.1 mpllslied bj i"< rapid*^ 

.;. \\ id. a total n al 1. • * 




PrS&I'-' l.IBftJOUBS IN THE MIDLAND COUSTiaS. 



171 



UDail turnover Qf nearly 08/XX3 VOlUttW, A series of lectures 
were gfiven last winter, some by townsmen j ami m tin- winter 

Of 1x88-89 a series of six Oxford" Extension Lectures on " Repri - 

Mutative Englishmen/* mid ft furihrr series ln^t winter on 
"English Novelists." llv- late Wi likm Hftl was librarian for 
[ret four years 01 ttu I to of the Institute, and had won 
friends in the profession and in the town He received the. 
Appointment <■! chief librarian :ii Croydon about the middle of 
1MK9, but ho was scarcely able to enter folly upon his duties, as 
ri«* died 'ii D a □ bar laal Be was raooeeded at Leek hy Mr. 
"M oLeod. 

Lnicaerun. 

Alter a trying experience extending over some .years, the 

tb ;»* Library Sere seems to be again in the full enjoyment 

>f renewed public popularity. Tin- central ttbrarv has Lte 

purten In i building irliich is well situated, but which from 

Uttw points of view ia not well suited for a Public Library 

■ fcWg and mportanl town like Leicester, li is an adapted 

ug, and, tik'.- muM altered hufldiuga, II can never meet 

h requirements of an evcr-widenine; sphere of work. 

is such a progressive town that in oair^e of a few 
. reasonable hope it will have aa a chit f library 

t« building worthy of the town :in<l of the work beSUg dOUK 

■ ! my m « bi udlngx hi r< been erected of late year* in the 
Immediate neighbourhood <>t the library tot business purposes 

<t the modest structure tiaodne a library and reading-room falls 
>":«eii.r flat in comparison with them. A public building which 
*-'»« »ni>i bfl indi aJ rvc »f the intollectuaJ life of tbe town, ou^ht not 
bo • ■.' placed in tin ihade bypreiufeee devoted bo ooramoroJal por- 

Si taaeaa. The newsroom andlondiug dopartmenl are on the ground 
■■« »r,:mo the reference room it on the Brat floor, For the lending 
<l»*l»:i,-tniont the books arc oil Blocked on wall shelving, and this 
to :t height <»f tw.'iity to twenty -four foot! This absorbs u 
i ount of labour and time in finding the books, aa well -jh 
ively dangerous to the assistants who have to raee up 
■<\\>l down the ladders tor the books. There can be no wonder 
in! a leriouj accident should have occurred u few month* ago. 
•tiei 'ii» i tdder fel while an assistant was upon is, and who 

rired that he had to be taken to the hospital The ladder in 

.in iek mother assistant on the baad,caraamg * raw serious 

it U almost erirninat to place the shelving so high as this 

JQ any Public Library Thn hook* r«r«> iVslroyed BOOSO by thr 

'^at inn! \iii:i!.i; :il moil phoi'i , :iml Only thnsr WhO h:tvc hfid tO 

the work know what it means to go up ov*n fifteen or sixteen 
h ii room where the gnN jets are all lighted, and which 1b full 

)]»!«•. Some h thr I >t.-r i.nvmwors have rushed into print 

( jOniplaiued of the delay in l>eing wi-viM. L s (l f :(r ;)S tin- writer 
J^ud aee at the time of hi-* visit there w«* m> imnM-Hoiniiiir delay, 
ich had been I locasattiere could benowcmAec wotf&ss&Mi 
'■"' noigtjt (him which tame of the books towl to b« cft(Wa«£. 



la 



I7i! 



PT-RM"- I.TKBABnW. 



Mr ( \ Klrkby, WhO wax rlnrf assistant \) Bedfl I'lihli- 

i Jbrary, was igmolnted *" = i *• f librarian at Ejefceeior aboul rwi 

pear* ago. I Is has do 10 i -it to restore \t tb 

position ii should ocoapy, and i<> bring its work Into 
touch with the people, fiie committco. in their last report, my 
thai ;i bhurough tu uniusUon <<l the l>ooka li 
<'<n> i ii ban been observable □ the apirll In 

which the stall hate n rfoi i ed thi du A . uu i lauj 

expenditure has, In conacqucncc, been incurred in hi 
renewing books* but the result is teen in larger hubs am 

ised pi W The creation of .1 i ivi 

i .i.- - ; 1 1. ii.- 1 v, .-ii 71 j lo-.i-pitii' Mir .-ninl:> tret.' '-"in interference 
bj tin yonngtT readere, nnoT in living tin young n more* 
and ai !-..•: i . « selection from boow exclusively provided foi Uirm. 
for which a Special catalogue hoe been issued at i 

. :..- ■ .„ m ntai . ou chi age ■ ' •■'<< led bo gi i r r order 
m iiu administration of the library. 

In Hi* central loading department the is- 
vi I tines, 1^8,801, againsl 110,688, shoving an increase ni 
vallum »• 11" nun I., i .)' works Kssuod ifl 14*880! against (U.Ttti 
work* last year Thi Bhow tmincreas in bo number >f wori 
! iv, i- 1 . AJ1 olnasos, with tho oxcoption o! tnl oellaaeouB 

literature, nnrked impivvcmont, 'I In- !:ulm .1 nrrOfiSC 

in in the juYon |c class, the issues bcin^ !>,>'IH rulumc 

lost year. The number uf borrowers, wl ither rone 

voucher i or ■ •" I- out now i i efi 'luring tin 

1,0] i I;ihI year fth iwinp an inoroiu-o "I */tf Thin w the lm 

numhoi nl I irowora since lHr& Tho total tumbor oi 

entitled fr tako out booka m 4,701 Tho improvement In populoi 

i i u tuu enabled tho committee U reji 1 i nomc book-. ^ 

lost theft attractiveness The teem I > «hoe 1 1 ■ t - 

an laoroaaad demaud for booka ol a serious and Ins 

hut llctiuii '-till fonnn ihotit uni'-tturdof the total. Tho « 

do m ' '(.".ire to o with this demvii. 

i elves |u»tl led In i -'•■■■'King a r 
popular taste, bnl thej eud< ■ to exclude wh nornl 

t(l et.< i -n i :•■ *- ; ■: :.!: UlSl - h..ulUlY 

and Instructive. In the reieronco section the tasuaern mluirjee 
mn been year, showing a decrees 

l^SSi v.Onnic*. decn i inlj ippamii as the mmiix-r of 

year— aa 

his two hranchoa. nrol i » "twn«il is 

Muni Public library ^nxiW 

i'T Of lh# 

I'laii t«» jctven, wai 
iilale liar 
.iii<i 

t!*P ncixWHKirli. 
h aa can hunlU (ail loanwl tho all 
the mtmiratkm ut *\>zU>r> to ihv \.v*Vt'.>. 



PI-TU.rc l.ntBARTKS in tick \um.A\ri ror^TTFS 



L73 






with white itene dresataga, md oter die main mn-nnep is a low 

p m.i spire tn planning the various rooms, oars haa bean 

i-.t M i<i tnak( j .'in-ill i--i^i% acoeasllnY, economically managed, and 

bundantl) lighted The principal entrance is through a saal Ibn a, 

which given naoufci U i inMnfnua hall, oul & wnfoh opona, I 

the doorway, the landing depart mem, with the nawarooni nu i he 

fi. ;i tadlea* room to the right, and die librarians room or refer* 

oa ■ i»ii i nn:'_ the lauding library. Those rooinaata 

\iilnJ from .h<- n(! Iij j!:i » partitions, and -• twanged thai 







WWTCOTttS mkaM'ii )*i lO.n: UBRABV, WttCHarMR, 

i n have supervision over them all, v hi Isl 
■'■an tmpoc >nyunc to i mi. r or leave the building 

•ttfiftUt pjuutfflg lii:* liti. i 1 Sight, Tin- newsroom it V) Icr-I long 

foot wide. It hon a lofty open ceiling. i» splendidly lighted, 

ed in ii manner which gives it a moet ehecrlu] and airy 

|.;i ■ --r .;>h ;ii-t in-.i»p?-I round the wulle, nna 

v Hi rackx in thu middle for Periodicals uj» 

nQeci the room. Hie circulating librniy is En thfl wrote*. 

^"ltcwtftj we provided for upwards of 6,000 ta>oke,auA*.Vw>v\V> 



174 



PI H1.P I.lbKARSU, 



j,i>»i hare already L>een either puuliiiMrd ►-; the committee 
ids, TIk- other rooms are amiably furuhdn-i 
Qg Ea 'v. noons of bat Wftler, the ventilation ha* 
il.irlv attended to, Mid Ihoft \$ oven onvenicucc and 

oocoromod i, 01 rlsitor* 'i be c ml "i the building vras about 
68,000, and for fittings C400. Doth the Westcoteo branch II 
and boo oatsJofnu may bo token so excellent models foi 

libraries. The Ubruriau ; ia- placed a few pots ibout 

il . rooms, snd Chose gfoc a proposeeeaing finish. The work being 
dose iU Leicester >i >i its tvo branches is thoroogM n i-'-'H 

Mav-i'! srj>, 

Tho question las been soosidered here for three ycj 
statutory meeting on March fll, I- "•. -■! led the ijueKtloii wit) 
acclamation, and no pull was demanded. The probable injur* 
which might rcsull Ui <!>•_- Mechanics' IiinI UiU* * 
di.-M'iis.-*ed, 1ml it i,-. deserving of note thai II"' incmbci 
Institution, .ii .i li'«ly. would not oppose the | 
do what tliey could lo carry il throuttli Bucxcasfullj A 

mendablc local ipirii displayed itwlf. :-•> ak 
■ I. i -!■■ M had Htoml still long enou h. and il nt Lhi* « i 
those questions, the tarrying through oi whirl would \> 
il r\ verc in tl,« Parefronl t» prog • 

Nrwakk. 

The (iil-.tr:ip Library is very beautifully KiMialcd n 11 
gardens, with the ruins of Ihc old castle Vorminp; :i ,„u ,i t M ,< 

ground t* • rlu» lili 
Hid "touii I- 1 In . | 

■i ; .•- ! :n-1. til 
i| . 

nUcd «iti j ti 

liii- nuclei 

ihileO by ■ ardin 

Wulhey in . 

Jaiue» (. i i UJOi 
?ay to 

ii Lake i ■ 
the English 
Sir (then Mr.) Wfl 

Inm GUafcrap bui 
handsome, library, nnd 

■ idoired U ran an 

■ nioin which pi- 
£00 8 3 -ii'. 

The 

proridcil ii on 
thmr, and • ui iiat8 of 

■ oe, and ladies 1 roftdinff-roora UbrartssVa 

roi ii, &o. Tin.' public entrance is in tho centre ol the 
tnwivda Castle Uatc, and gives access to a well-lighted hail. 




GHQUMB 



PL AM 






rrnur unRAiur.* :n ivr mii-i.am- C or* TIM. 



J 75 



■ >-n . h . i and iii«- Ijbrarj are placed lie ibrary indicator 
.in i the borrowers* counter, with the rcadSna btheriifhi 

xa<\ left, in arranging the ■overa! rootofl care Um been i 
ihtit each ib wall Ugh ted, and no placed .1- 1< be «.: il> upi rvined 

bythi librarian i Mr. Kill: i_rN_v, formerly one of the ruuristaj 

the \«>iriiiL,'l;r,ni Library Tin- BUmbei of VOJumafl i- *, H30. The 




.■ii.-iflAp public LiiiitAU), nhwahk. 



0ft o i tin- building in every way reflects the highest credit upon 

donor it would, no doubt, ho gratifying to tin- 2,000 

borrower*— m which, "i eourae, additionB will be made to sea 

.1 books grow siomlily to at leusl [0,000. So 

besot ; i :i 1 building should be the home ot u good ttook at 

tM l|U 



r 



11 I 1. 1« IIDRARIIIS. 



Etamta move ilowfr In tlic Newcastle d1 the Midlands 
September I tWU, the lota were adopted, and* the Pablio 

l.ihriry tltB IK>t Vi't lie. mi riiiiijtli'li'il, :il!lnni;rii the building* 1T0 
nnw pPOgPftfl '-iii'.' .MjiiiMy, Mid protmbh will be nprn t,i (lie 

public during I860. (Trio Rename which nad to in* <? .-:i i aril 
11 large nil'', ruid this, ocj doubt, accounts for ii e neomlng delay. 
It BoxuprltMS Bouaoll 'liamber, assembly rooms, school of Art, 
Pabhe Library, am readuTtt-rooms An offer o( £1,000 towardi 
Chess public buildings gave Hie movement a start -«< <■ yoanago, 
mil oiin-i suras have been promised nt latci dutes, When com- 
pleted, the town will have ;i very hundsoine pile cif build 
The Ubr.ii.v depart meat will comprise library proper, or I 
stores, -4 ft. by to ft., divided into $ ft. Icugihs by open Iron 
raUeriei round Ibc walla, connected h ron stall 

thus dispensing entirely tritfa [adders. The reference, reading) 
and general newsrooms are each 88 ft, by 80 ft., tippivoched by 

.in .(ii pie corridor, and with 1 1 1 « - 1 1 ,-,<■>.-.: m HwSB 

gkmd - i o divided I'.v loft) glared screens, which denote at all 
- the extent ot the apartments in this connection, nl 
affording facility- for ov< raiffhl . Ther< is ;i rapacious ba* 
for iiio storage ol useful bat seldom studied literature, an 
other rr(|iuiviiii:u!.-i are fully provided for, The architecto arc 
Messrs, I igden & Son, Look, and othom 

NOIITJIXMCTON. 

rbte progressiva manufacturing town, which adopted I 

in ih7»., u»ny :i,iiu uiitffm hi available for library as 

museum purposes On the building cri I ia uutdaaroe noa 
hull, the olu headquarters of this ancient municipality wot) 
i i ned Into :i Public Library and Museum in 1888 ii wu rWidi 

tO liinl.l :in Midilldii, :r:nl in Septi i.ituT ul lh:il yc:ir Mr I 1 1, 

Codllngton, of the TSwiionnl (natftnte of Civil RnginaerA, held an 
inquiry, an behalf of tin* Local Government Board, Into the 
appUcatiou of the Northampton Town Council far powers to 
borrow, oo behalf of Qie i iuboooj Dommibtee, £600 for currying 
uut the extension necessary to make additional acmmmod; 
tor the lending and reference libraries. After the town clert 
bad read the notice announcing the inquiry, it wan stilted thai 
the tender for the work was £580, and it was estimated thai 
furnishing of the building and the architect's coiumissian ooold 
not be less than £'100, which gave a total of £686. Toward* thai 
they had £130 available, which left a balance of £80G roqn 
They applied for power to borrow £500, to be repaid, principal 
and interest, daring a period oJ twantj roarsi It waa oanlaf&od 
fiiii..r- 1 matter ox form, the application irasfoi i nret Co bo w ow 
for a term extending over sixty years, but it was undoraUtod that 
the application should be for twenty years, bo as to make the 
repayment no burden upon the current expenses of the institu- 
tion, /ce amount of the annual repayment for twenty 



r.TSAIUE& IN Till? MIDLAND COUNTIES. 



177 




would be £88 I ■ . Bd li i Oommu^ner suggested that thirty 

year* would bo a reasonable Utdi. In answer to hie inguiriett, it 

was suggested thai the ratable value of tiie borough on the 

its <>i ti !<■ borough Pi*! »■, upon wbi i the loon was to be ohar&edj 

li:.",,->. 'i'li'.' borough debt, oxolnaiva oi the water under 

which wus rovrocented by feBI/Xlu} was £QQfl&7. .Mr. 

igtau inepectod 1 1 ■ . - pit i, and nta visited thoeput Ear the 

ill permission to borrow was granted, 

.M-. i.ii unouni wj »bta aed p >m the Looal Cloverwoeni Board. 

IIh' oonMalttoe tewed, i i Jtmo, 14*88, ft statement through the 

hi wbieh ire il important feature* at interest in the 

Kdition -" E 'in- qoMtfon. i 'i''> • tel c I thai the r ■- 
: . penny *ate >« about £720 a year* Then follows the 
Information thai ii-> havenodonbi thm it was the intention ol 
the framers ot tho Pnhlic libraries \<-t thai thia penzn rate 

ice rate, and that the Bite, building*, 

rthi I'liiii! Library should be provided by the municipal 

itrtliorltfea In aupnori or this cm) ilon, the PbUcnrfa g towns b ive 

Ivwi attei for the Public Library - Liverpool, Nottingham, Swan- 

'.i Cnrdfrl ' Wolvarham >ton Derby, mul S'liiihuorf The 

Corporation of Here ord made ntribuUon "f £1,600 towards 

!<• coal ir their buDdlnga \ i • lardlfl, in addition to the site, t ho 
Corporation lun e awumed tin cost if i reel i g Hie building with* 
miry rate. At Swansea also, in addition 
to giving the sitr. the Corporation hare granted from Was ordtnary 
yearly kuih bowanb paying the Interest on flu* 
:il Ira-rowed fur the erectinu uf the bunding. The Corpora- 
tion ol ~\\ lu in all* 'i tve granted £000 for printing the reference 
library oatalutfui Tlieeu are only a few instances of who! hae 
done In othei towon, Tna library committee, then ford, i'i'Ii 

:rMi:.il\i\- |lll r |lJ [lifted ID .i:-ki<t _! I'm|' flU'tlll'l' ftflp llulil ll|f 

ci committee of the Town Council. The membere ol 1 1 it* 

ci in i ivei very favours! ly dispoa d - do I tiio, but, 

■ tf o'uik. had i" I"* guided by their legal advisor, il • town cleric. 

uini,;iii'i i ' «■< l lii- ruling by some very eminent 

.iinimi iiic .. tha ii N iruiampton, at oni i tte, whatever mi > be 

. other town*, they could not have anything from the 

borough fund* over and above tho penny library rate, fox fcbc 

Eon bhal they have no rents of Dvopertj . or pronto, or any in* 
il what in honna to be need for the reduction 
.. still, feeling that although the ruling of thr town 
k in. iv' n strictly according to tho letter ol the ta.w f ycl U la 
according to the spirit of th< Acl th< committee relied 
upon the ueaietuiice ol i w-townemen to help them out 

of bbfl Lifficultv, rem nhoriug that thia difficult-/ Ea uaneed 
<-, ii h fa ■( thai In Northampton they had not onVj to provide 

.ibi m ii'l ivh ding-mom I ■ -\>\- in:. line ^rontfl 

•nil] art Bohooltt, but alao have had h ps*j 
for the building "> Guildhall Komi, ill" convcreion of which, 
fromaF''' '"■' ' auaaum, e*w.- coei £3.500. Thia entail 

■ mi i ittor- :i henry annual chavae ot acsn^ V:"*^- 



]:■ 



PUBLIC LlBItA&I£& 



ih.i- taking »waj more than ono-thlrd ■ »!' tlw U to! 

[>urpOftu of i '.iv ir: foi and lTiuintAiuiti^r in i«r« ■ j ir, hail 

which irr i : n ulutely !'■ ■ ■ i ■ ! I ■ LVrpuration aa the 

awn u i II, 'in police station, or lay othei public bitflduijc, Thi* 
■ .iii\ i ftv, , thcw th -mi; ol E I7U I nil of il Is i • tin i 
fratd .''.-■■ I ■■ o mniut.-iin the libr irj . . mi 

help the adeno nod art echoola for a town of 60,000 inhabitant*, 
thej haw the mroon*c«nraoi B4S0. If it had n* or thi 

' «• 1 1. -i. q trw gentlemen who interest thcmaeJvci in the work, 
thi: comraitl c ffoi Id hi I fiavi l«eu uble to struggle 01 .1 ;ll 

1 -I to 1 yean, from >'•''• ! ,; . thi total u ml meal hi 

buying books "wua C00,bBl thanks to the foratfcoughl ol 01 1 01 
two members ol tho committee, the giti ol tho late Mr. Cho 1 
Markhana ha* boon now rrnnt.toiTed Ut the honetSl ■ <£ tho library, 
litis grroB £50por annum to purchase boolca, Injt tin 

•UMltlit'h'Ilt Mil I. 

[tv difficulties in Northampton AreUluatratJvi ofthediffloi 
w hio!) are heiniE BxporioB.oed elaov in- 1 < , and hone* 1 fv 
going rather fturj Into thorn. [tiflnotunrcaaonnblo h oxped 
town 00 tncila and other governing In >■»>- should, without taxing 
fchepenny rato.do more inthopro\i(li igol ril •■ ind >uildin#i than 
\i w |.r, »oni iii.< . ■ >o. Tinx is ;i matter ol serious importance 1 ■ 
the iniiiiv ■ 1 I'ii Mi.- I.i »r;irv work, and one to whielnnui 
will i.:i\c to iiwi.ti in tho future considerable attenti 

-iiiii o1 adapting building**, except in vori ■ t ci m 
ih shown in what has resulted ul Northampton. I'h • 
.in: bow better suited than ml ire for the ibrarj and museun . 
inii it i* safe to pro 1 ,; that the town will require within ton 
year»« entirely new building Kpeciallj erected for the pur] 
\r th- |n'..-.'iii rate ol proflpeM m (he work ol these invtlti ti mi 
..-. placing the novitabu? nl a later date than a II | r.i »bij -■ 
austaftied by events There is life and exrxu 
use made 01 the 1 brory and museum, una i hold ichema and 
public Bpirlt, encouraged iy ■ few generous ll'ta, would bai ■ 
anftblad the eonnoil and committee in arect premtM&a which would 
have met all the requirement* for thanoxj twenty years 
ielei fcfon oi l>ooka Is adn irnble. I » 

a ed many old book* wen* weeded nut "y Mi T J '■ 
cultured Ijrtrurlun, and 11 larjfe ruimlKT "i hook* >( mo< 
literature took Mwlr place. 

LltH'arlana often make Intereatltm < [aco^erle* when on b 1 
in 1 iin^ cxpediiiinis, and manylmllvidiiHl liltrai * lave M*neftted 
!i_v the acute Right and practtcii ncpcrl(*nnc nl the Hbrarln 
knowing tlw value ofiildrKioka and immphlcb*. \\ .1 i«.i. 
1 \ ir i- i» 1 tgu Sir. QuarlU'li purchatted a tra 
by ilif committee of the Northampton Public library. Tha 
(Ir-LiTipiiui wfw fflvcn :i- follows:- "Ilamor (Raphe) \ 
It. turso nl Ihc J*i'c»en( Itatuta ul Virginia, and the Sim 
of thi ■ then till the 18th of Jiun Ifll 1 . 1 ■- 

1 Lation J be lerera] Enjlleh 1 >v. n< ■ tnd fori 
Clu-istenlug oJ Powh ughtei aud Uer tiarriavc wli 



[I MBItABJES IN 'UK MIl>I,AM' rot'X TIK*. 



irs 



- 

: 

! 



Snylishfnan. Ilf.-bd fine and pcrfecl copy, rexj ran -in. 4 to 
l,Miii. John Ifoata tor William Welby 1616/ This tract was 
found l>y Mr. (leowpe between iIm pages "t another boolc. AM 
will I* :n the description above, it was ol little lota 

irthamr'ton. and the committee are to be congratulated on 
receiving ao bandaomc :i dihii ns L'ft.'*. KK (V>rit, wlm-h was n pent 

v, books. 

library Lots ten fb existence bohind it, and the 

• ind museum grow in favour each luoceedtng year with 

old and young Here the issue of Rotten bi dafiSoaig and has 

touched sixty pw •••■lit \i the same time the higher classes of 

Iterators nlmt* a i increase The number a( borrowers, ;:, i:»:i, nut 

t :i populi tfon of 14,50ft, is good. \n Interomting tinlf-psgs 

f.i the report fa devoted to n BlnterneJil ol ihc number of Omen 

thai (-ri;i: works l iu v > - been Issued tdnce tlie ojpening ol the 

bran to the middle uf i ww i'. ^s a sliailar itejn of Uitormatloa 

no] 'ivfu in many reports, the issue of these cine-volume 

tuk.s i'i well known literature foi three yean to qootedr— 

Unold "Misti Esmya,"*: Waited "Hated HutorrofSal 
Demo,' - | K. Bsokott, "Bnildw'i Priw Book," B| Kpurgeonfl "flop. 
m >!iv p J- Hsadol'o " Ueaafah/' 18; B. Srnniiaoad, " NoiumJ Law tn 

Ithfi Sniritml World, ' 22 i Fronde^ » Oceana," "<. ; Shakeonpare'a Work*, 
B7 : rrocior* "Other Worldj thnu Oum." 26: Smiles' "Dutv." 31; 
>'. Word, • PsoiphleU ou Salt," S3; Rev. J. 0. Wood, "Natural 
," 36; *'•■ R. BCina, 'Poems and Ballotl*," Stf ; Maun lay 'a 
Hi .-".iv of England," 36 j Darwin's " Deeoctil of Man," M i MeCarthya 
'• Hutoiy of Oui ■ a i- 1 Seatou'i l ltar£n< Bogutoorina" i r > j 

* ic I .!«■ i-iui Farrar, " Life of Christ, " 19 : C. Pannal. '■ Modern Pftetieni 
l.'.iiti.i - 'History of Krod&liaui, ' 55; " LoD}_'f?lIow's 
Poetical Works, " .'>7 Lord TViinyfion, " Fauna,'' &*> ; Violet Hugo, 
" Ni'ti« Damo," 67 *, Beethoven's "Sonatas," 7s ; Gilbert and Sullivan's 
; <_• . \V. M. Thackeray, "Vanity Fair. lOf. : C. K n^il.y. 

N' WutwardHo, '124; Lord Ifltton, •' La«t of tho Batons," 127 ;0. Ktiot, 
Tho Soil Uuseuin i- unique, and there arc in it numerous 
ol salt from Vraerica, India , and other places. Tha 
of £30 i yeai is derived from the rent of shops adjoining 
ibrary, am th whole of thin with an additional sum goes for 
. . The libran md museum have boon founded find are 
klr J T Uruimer, iLP,, who defrayed tho entire ooat 
tic building 

NctTIINOHAM. 

rheri u in oft i I •:?.*■ iliai he vater is not mfaaed until the woll 
in . .Ii'\ \inl tin* [wnpli* i if Nnttdijthani UHVsr sestowl i»» iiiIhh 
h'ir renlral llnur^ -<> mueli ■■•■- during the time I *asclo 

ccteand usettlejijenl in the building, H WW 
I i dour the lil 1. 1 1 j to the publi during ejgbtasii 
i.«:r,lr.. and turn il ovei to th< mildei 1 1 ; - ■ re rtm, iti i I 
SUtaiil vrumvur. In linvniu'v. \>-vv > 'aa\A \\xn\ 




160 



I'l : i.i' i H-.IIAILIRK 



prior to a meeting of tin B( Leonard t*own Ooun U, i 
tentative of one <>f the warda utartod Lite report that the 
Sot! ogham end l 3erkenwel] Libraries had boon oloeed by the 

ffilhOl ttW "■'|'!i-- Hi' ^.tt I I»_tii:i 11 whe Wafl t< bring the 

■ [on forward n [rod to the pros- r to know it this wei 

OT not TUl h only one uunplc of the ninny mothoda ad 
by thoBo who oppose the Acts. No statement about the** Enal - 
rations sould nave been further Erona the truth, n hi no imueunl 
tinny to bear 1:1 >"iii]ig!uuii thai the people would rather be 
without tho port office tli;ii diapenao witn their Public Lii < 
for m bo town Ei Uw work healthier :m<l tih.iv vigorous. 

There van grout- rejoicing when *«ii New Year a clay, 1800) the 
building was ignis thrown open to the puhUC| and the re openiiij 
ceremony was c4 :i very pioi ■ cter. 80 many 111 

ad muses i! bullcUngi arc being erected in different ports o1 the 
country thai .■ few perticelaTB of "Jk* mUhap nt Nottingham i 

.■.i-. -i ^niim r.l ul;;il i» Mm<l m othetVpllCCi VbOUt fiP 

years since Uw Itown Council received an offer from an bogbj^ 
moil- donor ei -i »,000 if they would put up bnildtnas for 
educational nurpoNON, It was astern lined by the Town Council 

to •jpcnrt t"4(),(KX) tit putting up the buUdlDgU. KIcvcn firms 

«pTit in tenders for the erection of the Imildmge. Nine were 
Local oontrsctors Two tenders were from firms not associated 
\M-h Nottingham, and one wan from Swansea. The ii>«f.Ht 
tender amounted to £41,500, and the highest was £51 920, \ 
- m mi of £10,000 would, of cowae, make all the difference 
between good materia] and bad material, and property paid 
Inhour :in«l poorly paid labour In 1*77 the plane were sent in, 
and the appointed builder, whose estimate was the lowest, 
proceeded intil June. IH81, when the UuJldings were supposed 
to be completed, and were opened by Uw Duke of Albany i" 
June 11 fchnl (rear. Thej hod good ground fur believing that t\\c\ 
were in poBseseSon of n substantial imWIiu:,'. i»m u inriic: cut. 
after two years had expired* thai there were very grave signs of 
decay and defect (u the buildings, and before L6S5 the committee 

ii thi ( orpoi it 11 d appointed 1 special committee to tnqaire into 
th " def< ' its "i the buildings. Thai committee aaked 1 1 ««_- ran ayor 
to look Into the rna&fc r and n porl upon wliatdefei tahe oheerved. 
lie g 1 ie very startling stafcen eutetseeing that the bufldinffi 

had been completed only two yearei En one of hia paragrapni 
in-. :mmiI, "Oorftcls in liltrjin .ind museum, Signs of fra 
were rodble En the plaster and brickwork under the corbi 
the north and oouth and* o( thi recess in the pnblii Kbraryand 
muiieun . . ad tb< >orto 8 showed thai they were by some means 
being tilted orwavd,and the whole *upormcunibcn( weigh 

trough) on bo Liu toei of the corbels, thnH caoafna nracturnto 
the wnlW' '" another place he raid,'* A departure 1 

[flcabion waa mad' i'i tit nenrl} nil the mm 

on the bcl, us oing three leet .sis inches, a* wpci . 

range* from two feel tbur behes to two foot ten inohee. 11 Thr 
committee vrlm had charge vl that huilchng found that, m-h 



1 

i 



llir 



rrnur i.nuuniKN r- in.: \if>i.:\\< rovsvzw* 



[81 



i on ng i us people wilh literature they liad i<> servo bricks 
and mortar, ana for ;» long time thoj osrpcndod fchoif resource, 

M for 00 tVy pofttfblj "tare, in remedying tlu^e 'tclWts until .it 

; .i thoy went to the lown Counml and suited that thofcuHdicg 
\vii-. in sucb d dangerous condition that they could no Longer 

■m apple Willi ir, At thfl time (h;tl (ho building Wtt olOSWl it wn* 




Stiwly unsafe. Tin* trains acratm Hit- iviling, whicli was kuji- 

i hold up the floor :ii>mr, wore rotton, and it they had 

at lo inj wry uu luurh lunger tue pnof would l*ave fallen Id 

and iiir walls gone out, oud they would have Jiad uu enormous 

ir iii< v iiuil put a few thousands dmfcc too *Owfc 

i-iui.l i t/we it wnattvitUu] fchny would n,Wi ! toWOT 



f l~-' 



ri iii. i* in: \h\ i ■ 



Lhediagraoe thcj had incurred bj patting n]» a lnnMuii 

kri'l. ,u.«: .1)-" cloning tni p . •■ lor eighteen montha. and n 

flu |n-m|i|< ■ U rrOI 1 till ion III ^ m| :h«- i;.- 

1 on 1 ) - moral la thai I \\t lowc* u 1 dci I - uol bj • 

Id be token ;•> ace that 1 1 pari of the v 1 
Alderman Barber, who all fctar twenty-two rear*' 

histor.v "f tip.* library work inNottintfluKOjhaa bcCl 
..i thew iuHtitatioiie, look port in tin n ■■'■•:.■■• ceremony, and 
called attention to the old \rtinana Ubrarj o1 the town 

icd tin- auclouj of the flrat Public Library. Thi 
6,000 volumoa belonging to this otd library wore transferred c 
Ante being adopted 

The educational work being 'inn ed on hj tin- Nottingham 
Librarta 11 of no Aid and real n nature that itmnychall 

(■■II wild the work ol any other town ol a corr mpond . 
K.tli in 1 1 1 i - - country mid in America Vol n i ■ v -id regard t i 

the library, bn I in other domirtmontK, XottSnghuiii is rapidly 
becoming oaoot the mosl attractive odueattona] tentn 
ontiro country, i Diversity Coltego, the name ^iven to tin 
group <>t buildings 1-. (or "it- various '.rimni/.atkms, the hri 
gam in nil the public building! whioli tfottinffiuun antaina. 
Here under one fool are the ibjrarlee, natural Malory museum, 
literary mid scientific doae-room*. and the technical 
■.-iiii laboratories and Lecture theatre*, whin- m > ■ 1 ■ 1 - 1 
adjoining ore the trado schools, whi re engineering:, earpcntoi 
and oilier : 'I-- can bo learned. In do town fa the country 
the esse at the duties md privileged I cl Ixeaibip 1 
ate v felt than a the capita ol the lace trade, and tb 
;> owing to the Important place whtcri I'nlveralty Coll 
wuh ita rael ramifications of work occupies n the municipal 
in- ol the people, Nottingham may well Ik* proud of these 
InitJtattoni and ol the unrraran] Entcrcal whJcl the eltlxen* ahov 
m them, 11 Is impossible to vUdt the central librarx or nnvol 

the branches and not reel convinced that M nrfr* wi r 

pregnanl with far-reaching utility if Nottingham originally 

mlSROd W w:iv in the itlons run! erection ol the (ml a I Irifj 11 has 

not m ns wonc, The town In fortunate In having on 1- tai 
IfbrarUn 11 man whohultlm distinctly prominent place m the 

Irrofesrfon Uthough atUl a comparatively young man. M" 1 
■otter Brfaooe has had some twenty-three yearn' exi»ei 
library wortc, and haa thrown licarl ami wool Into dr\ .- 
and popularulna the llbrerlei and reading-room*. In Mm the 
N'ottfnghnrn public oh well aa the committer have .1 1. 
Korru 1 . 

So many application* tor a record ■ 1 Hie work I e art 

reaching 1 ( * vi here the Vet* hai e n< 

adopted ha there lion been foi - . ■ .. 

for placing In envelope*, a brief epitome of the world 1 ■ il the 
central library and Ita branches \ copj of Lhii card u ■■ 
tho^nexl page. 




ES i> thb 3UI>lamj ronrnr.*. 



183 



i Leading Til.i-i.i. ft ml. Btonreod Bb ■!■ ModtrHjDM . ■:■. i»..i. 

','.-., . Bto*l !."■!■ '>■ nail] S »•£• (aVMH, *** vol* 

i il . ■ i » ■ . tttoudanc, ?.5SI. 
i in |j< uvamgu M'.tcndi niv, ! T 
Mbinry, -ili'tlx ipftui BO i i n>l . l>tlly 

... i- ii... loi 

ifaag Aoom, S< nil Ettntt fhiabitoti. Stool MB vqw. I»«.ily *w»g<" 

:■ WUUW, •!.'.'. 

.... ilulm I L'liily u-.i-ir"' '"it.«ii....n *, 189. 

U«1*. .'i"" 1 • -•!«. L'.iilv »%ei'*go ieaue- | I 

kwWj). ias row 

liriiuui^c noon, M.iy'i.-M Oi it*. Btuclt :..*.". w... Duly avtug* lmi(3> t DA < 

■ -. i.'t. 
1! ii'.inir llwm, tium* Agun (Mjfl I •■•<!•. Dally ftVOMlgt • U 

iviuur all QilnEK . ■'<» 
la Ufamiy, C3iahr>a Btnet, N<m- BaafoH Btock, MM fob tHflj 
. ,. . ■ 

- ! ... (h ■ .' I , [> ' \VlMg1> Jltl*ll(|tl1IH', .111*. 

iDe Uoom.Uoutl M">ii, HHIV..U, Ijuily uvcrofc 

- :;._ .l*'i ii'l il)«t' In. 
lUcJinff Bow l " — Slotik. SOD vob Dully »vorjg» In u 

i ■ ■•■ ill '" m •"'■■"- 

ItAuUnj; If'ttm-. Willitiitrbbji Ktreet, 1 .niton. Daily innrivgi' Janet, M mil 

ll*Uy »Ttr»JT n't. i.ilnri.-i . I 

r^niHnc IJhmry, WfUonfhlry street, Luilon.— Stock, I,7ftflvola, tinilynviviw 

UHK«. 12.'l KM 

it-nllm.' Bwiu. Onifl Stn-'t, Kywiu Qi*cn, --.., ..<, rob, Dully uvcmiro 
l«ll<*. ™ *<»!* I ■tily HWrMjH i.C mlmr.' KM. 

Bcfcroj Library, Mriogtoa Stock* 870 rob* 
. \AX\ 
Auric §1 hnota i m • -■ a SB, LAN) . . ... .A.'i,»n vole 

Annual iaruc* about 160,000 vol*. 

i.'nllvavcmsclMuca ........ ...... ibcnt UNO ••■-. 

Annual » natulan..' at [.ihiuria* »l»<] Roadino Itooms 9,000,000 

I til. u I'-inltiicen Bbuul •..' .- ( 

Rf«g h i ii(i < - ... . ... . "I i 

Tin- i'inMi(M> I i.i.i;v h excellent ii. cverj watf. Hers there 
about :i.'i(H) book*., all corefulfy selected to null the ratidiv- 
<>\ the juvenile*, located in very eomi uleiri quarters in the 

Tiiniiv r, lehiul rooiiirt.elo.sr-' rr> (lie rcnlr.il mulitulioii. 

Tb.lt Cbi'arj wan foiimlcil ii 1882 Cliruii^h the IU>eralIlj ol llic 

IpV, M.V. Itfl pOnltlOB A Lfl "i ijiini ly Oil OUC, 

I'm th<- i xi ni| Le has tiince been fouoved In more or lc*8 detw Ui 
:-«u-. pBjtfl "i the kingdom, since th< reodina of a fapci ! >.\ 
Brie a " Lil raries for the ^'<u^nL^";^l bho Library Aia 

ion tn. .tin.: ul I'lvinoiith. Thl8 Ilu.iry fa OMU IV«<n: four 1 ■• 

■ ivhen the prcsei I writer arrived there shortly 

fop mih ■•■ !.«■ !"immI i Ik' liSi ;u i.tn ui lady) l>efliegc<] bj 

a nam I- • of i or< r boj ind pirla, who, with clean faces and clam 

quwificaiTons upon), werebenl on seoorlng 

■ ii' i" I'M-! al pleasure, Ooh two books in 
i.i . re allowed to I i di'cn f wj thai they maj ao| -■ 

1 1 neglect Ii < h« h »mc ■ torn . - even i- the 'niiiii.nitn 
njcc, and the children proudly designate it as "our libr 

■ Iren raafee ubc of this library, Bone interesting 
ire hutif; ui Hie walls, The pooir) catalogu ol the 
cbil'Ir- i lni.li.pj library mni a*oII bo CaUoo at n ffuidi For 
uilier : in^ajuvonili aeetion. 'rin- reteraooQ til ■ 

Ssta pnbUshod .it a penny up to &YcpcilC& ere? >%.■■•■ 



184 



Pt'TtUr I.TB&ABIXS 



^ iii i lists iihould ie Section 1>, which y veu tine nti-r** 

Bare cm toetology i the reference library •■■ particularly eorni 
Tin 1 subjects are elasaed i uler r itnmem*, education ei 

mil <« il< mi i:i 1 ftffftlrS, jurihpruili'iuv ::>i'l l:i\v, ;> ■', i|.ir:il irniin.n 
:iint lit ..iiu-t , politics, nubile henllh, hoitI I mo vera CM iOd 

(general), and HtBtfMtUi. in Hi'* isutrloi oi tbi book* erring 

IM ;i complete Hynopls of Llic HUbjeats (if ill*' a 

irirea. Music and the special literature to Liu Mini, nasi Lue 

S'o U*4 Collection »r« lf|Wrl * i. till.- in which Lite \< 1 1 in- IlitUI I .;hr:if, 

ii ■• ku -■ -i tin :i v strong, in the Ponnei wrllon the Kottfngham 

Collection comprises JfiO volumes, of which more thn i 

tffl iHiMimtly in llie hands of borruwers. These 

booke •' music consist of anthems, ballads, rajnifis, glees, luaetfm, 

operas, songs, ind symphonies, uwl an noi nf m 

rhui i ■■.!■] Tin' Xi'i ii.l.1i;i in CflllCCtlOn, Which AW < ..irl'iilU 

Penned, n - chieflj mane up "i Booscys and Novello'i • ■■ 
editions, and Home nf tin* v-nhlo-ation^ . I ..i.-n. r. i '1 . 
I'l.n li *Msder. Tin--'* booke of music were obi i ced En 

' is civ ipset form, Before circulation, ber carefnJ con- 

aide-ration, i Im-v were newly liound in ii style peon ■ Ita • < 

to mu.'i' . ..ml iicinp half-hound in hog-akin, arc mad* M 
liiMiny ,i- .iinl ii-j. I'jtu mnki' them. The Nottingham Collccticn 
of LOO Tolumoe cost, including aubtrtantia binding, about £90, 01 
ii. average of la.6d per volume- This collection may i»<- taken 
as a basis to other collections. In trdcr to Facilitate the forma- 
tion at such, (in- names of publishers iwr indicated In the I 
mustc In the aocond aupplorocnti n catalogue of tho Nottingham 
lc Central Lending Library. Tim Inrge town is well supplied 
n tl. public roadinflT-rooTOft 

ih'* potterj towns hare auitc t cluster of libraries. Longtoi 
I., hi last, the only oue of tho pottery towns whloh hat 

J el reached the educational level of :i Public Library. I5w«lsm, 
[onlay, Stoke, and CunAtal Ulliavo their Institution*, the Brat 

oanaod pi I ■ i ling the way by its adoption of the \jsU in liWS. 

Tii- working potters are politicians and renders, and n sight pi 

ttu BursleS i bx m ra tl raniag la instructive:. 

vi Hanley n I8w there was an attempt to carry th* lets, bul 
ih. people gave :> rery emphatic •"No," and the (russtton lay 
dormant until ISR2. In the following year a manor I tanrtnj 
:. ) »i lignnturen vb i presented to the m ay i requi ate 

t public meeting to aiseusti the question of the tulopi o 

1 1 . was nni the atatutory meet ng. or this did doi i »lli * 
ii ti : ii Hi.- middle '>r 188J "Sr-.n^y eenoci n Ruhacrimtom 
nromfaed In advanco, and by an nvarwiielrning majority n I iwm 
ti . qn cation wa« nattlod. Ancfforl was soon nftarwnrdx 
to urrnngo with the triniUvK rmtl committee nl the mei mini 
tnstiti tlon :iii'l govern or h ol the w irking mea readlng-roi 
lbs two <• the U irary and readtn s-r«om fu Pact, r<»r tl ■ 
mycfi <i tile same to the library eom\n\VK/>e V\w 






n mi 

.mi fen 
■■I 
an wo* 



I'l RUI I4WURI«H 1\ V! V. -MIlH.AMi COINTIKS. 



w 



MinVtoiii for the I Ime I" pivvriii rim :io uppmndi >n ;it mTiinp*- 

innii. and N noon becann necwmry to incur :i considerable 
expenditure in adapting the old borough offices 1.0 tho purpose* 

of a !ii ran . which wut* found ah < \i tvin.-h ^'^ i ~ one; 

kcoonimoualion has been provided tore leiufiu^r department, a 

H'ltTi'Mtv rci.|iii^-n>i>i]i ( ;iii] ;; -- 1 1: 1 1 1 T:nliruj-nH.illl IttW Ih-i-ii *i-I 
.'p:ii| faf l.olirn, while I'Iiimmuji - i!m ruftdc 01 : I limtiii, In 

April, 1687, the building was opena b) Bar] Granville, There 

»r«- iiu ■ h ." visitors tie .i 'li.!> average to the nevwoom. In 
connection Mid he ecieace claMea the ten ohemioa laboratory 
ii.i- been eompletolj fitted without encroaching on Hie penny 
rut«, ao< i. ia now the u.-t appointed room of the land In 
the . chemical ■ i.i--..-. ;;t the Institution hi 

i i ■ k ;i- Mind, '..i jitii-. niii'j- m-i'ii' tion in chemistry, 

it Eb Btteduu - 1 (hi I thirty itudente on vrorb in it at the sanu 
time ami M n lent* on awoimnodati d in all togi s, from elementary 
fce honours. in u i llhrar) an decidedly going, op. Mr. 

W« A. 1.i;.!.m' H tl i. lii i.irijin. 

,608 i >V , A which 1,686 niv for rcfe* 

'"- For leel year in the lending section "tob835, With 

cnnll stock and only •■• moderate rate the turnover is com- 
U i:;i i ■.-. Mr. a. .1. Coddle Ih the librarian. 
The foundation-stone of tho TungtaJl porraoncnt building 
laid m May, I860. Oil library and rondiug-room two upon llio 
firroirad Hoop oJ tin boa tawnoffieea in the principal from. The 
Bol^ col "i arl rooms are on the next floor, and the seionco class 
r i -m- .ii the top llarisj) the prettenl year the buildings ore 
lomploted and open to 1 1 ■ • - public. 

i.i . ions Atro IVxarBvoxo (Ornwnnui). 

Ftuncarn vonthi Brut ol tho group of Hmall townsm Cheshire 

» i ■ > «). adopted the Act*. IWa they did seven years ago, and 

co maple had proved contagious, leoingthat mix places very 

'i ICuncorn hove within the Inst tvo yenrs followed suit. 

1 '' u '..ini-.- : ii. i i :i ii. -i,ii i it i.:i\< t»acii had six adoptions of the lets 

diartng the last tnrw y< <■■., «o both counties have contributed 

. i .r.- t<i tho pronroMi ol Mir i inwmenr. II e subscrtptloilfl 

from inin-iT'.i.i.' ! ■ only reach 12*., so tiiis is; not an important 

II people nuteidi the nron of the rate really wish Co 

wnii iiu'inHchrs hi the library they would d*i bo te B larger 

ol thai thfa PIoMon In i*opreflent«d by :i third ol the Moejc. 

\oo ftp n:-c the pi lpp well. 

r< i i.- adnpttcm ol the Vrtx through n* :i lahtlcu 

ol i or (ti'K[il.* lo iheiuRriYi'K. N " i'i"' |i.i|ti-s wwu adopted, 

i i-i'.i.;Mi\. T'u.' local bpiril ever the 

■, I'lit.liiiMfjiHtJr, mill tho IntorrHl cvolted wan con- 

WliiKfonl m:ik«* iim li\iup oui of Hilt, and i ha* 

• little i.Miinr. In it> local lii'o. Tho mamifaoturerj" 

whom the rate i.ill-- hcavical .mum up well. Mr. T. T. 

iI.P., I ■ 1 1 i/ifl (hen ■ i iUut 'jSUv, am' 

"i i/V m. ml t i edo B/iori "J 1 .i thouAoad oovitiAi uuli ■ 



166 



uraimim 



irew enal <!*•<! t.> otieii • ■» DoeemUr 1 i. 
free of 

' ■ ■ 

•liiiractor Willi : 

1- j: tl ! ■•■ :lli -!«!■ ) or 

■ 

f.»|:< i <I:tl lr, April. I -*V . ' li-- I VTCTi «\>>\'r-\. find b 

»one<l Uu-ir nev 
.,■ |.iMi.-. I'Ijc |"<pvlii'ii; l- 10,011, and ilie rato h 
■ -.■..!.- ..i phu'fH - H h Hi unit t."i i iDii 

|>. | |, If, :n,.; | :iN whirl) WOUlCl pTOdUO 1 1 r - 1 1 ne :r. ir Win- 

I'lii'v. .h-tii.i- oould not do i ■* r t « - :■ lhan take tiio VViuaford ptai 
Mid build i :.■ si I n'> i 




w INHKOlLti ri BMC L1BJC mv. 

The rool at tin 1 irorti htu been divided into Ihn 
two ou Bide ouqh being drawn toe i i to turrei Caehion with ;> 

!i n:tl tMiiip, wllilh! Ill*- iiiiiiT OB-fl lfl thrOWJI Im.-kw iunv. 

tO :i-.V: ! 1 1 : i . - 1 he IVi! idgO I llW, \HttU I doOf 

i- :. \ tfltlhulo some mi. w ido w ill iiinor *u ing door, i 
■ i i ,-.i . . ,,i ■ ■■ hedrtd and I tasted ■ - -■ - Phi 

t .».■.. n. i vestibule u* it were, mm which are i strum 

room and to the aide rooms for the librarian iu 

njM »f>m L'Iimm Rid* ri i-. are .ilium ifift l v 

dy tv ...'■■ v ndom hi 

(foor mi room >■ < inilarl 

main hufldhijf \* •> nmiw 3 vrhibn 

f/|£l /. , .. .. :lw i ■,. 



.■I 111,11 i i ,i. i. i i -. ■ , i. mil i.aM' ui .i r.9 



187 



i). Thti i.i'i.ii i i:i> counter [a along the Iefl hand aide, and 
tiding iic.irK I In lull length . i ilir luiilihiii . ilf I ■ "U pji • 
! i 'I'll ti u i'm-, .in, i I i,r, it g accominodj lion for »oun thousnndH 
oi bootai On the opposite side ol the ctHiru ie the new6p»i> 

the papers — tho reading tables hew 
ttie bndi ■ i i|i< 1 ; i 1 . I !.- h-lit ii tlic l.iyliiin i- iloi w d from 
mi. wbi< Ii run- alone tho full extenl cl fcru poof of lh< main 
•;,:■, ii> lij-iif- having ornanx a I irchi . i i d i>< tap ■ 
■■ h ■ lift ii -i>. The tannic n hj iv. h :, | ■ pa hi. tl icreci 

rt cd bj maroon, « inl.-i th< iri ■«• \ an ;i i fed rooJ boohm 
arc Mn). is k-M, rtninoa and I The tic rod* Acroi the 

building add '<< Eh< appearand of tho roof rather than defend 

■ni of ii i 1 1 1 i i I < ■ ■ ■ i'" 81ft. by 

1 7 i with i -■■• i wv vt\tr\\ncp Tliii room ton* boon built apeciallv 




IBll MIV 

>\ the art cIom i adcatn, there being fom mii light gn&tightfl in 
it. llic (loo 1 1 i (■■Ihiui are composed of wooden brick* w w 
duo the 1 1 i - to i i ini nuni, and torn whole baildfn 

pitch-piac lojr»j : -" thai if BuLeddei ihooJd 

unfort d iti way to this port ion ol the il ial ■■• i. h cm 

bo a ill uli yi iili. 

\n . ..ii\ itatonicnt vn msi Ic diivina tho mtcat, t- 

;li> m- win. .1 ■'-■■I Ii- |mi|1 ni the Btcktutorj 

vourublc to tin udovtion. Then the mow r sue] 
it,' powor ■ ■...:;■ dono i w .v wil h in can 

Thill ;VT I > mo . I:< i III ) ( : \<\r h> t',i\ 
Lllll. in 111"' i"v-A tf L\lW\\V 

■ laj i n tl mi ■ ■ onn where. 



IW 



pi our tinn-mir*. 



ontafda tiio district are allowed to borrow- for a subecrtpi Ion 
per year for each pea-son. 

>A1.I 1 ; 1 .NT.AR MaXCHJBSTBB. 

Tin-, little Kiilmrt-iKj i '|i.<kIihv inwo-itiip uifh l> &O0U i>ooplO 
. . 1 llii- ijii.'sT.ioii of i'vi:ili!iKliini; i ml fr4lTpp i .-. r.i I r ff iry OJ 

public' meeting on February ih ( [890, The Rev W Edward 
i di ick, the \ tear of Sale, vigorously ub oatad he adoption 
of the \' ( i- He pointed oul thai the population d tho< 

is rijiiill # y in •■■cnMiitr ■ rhnl the proportion nf tin 1 ]MH)iiI:iMon who 

read Eb also Rowing; ""' thai as long as men ana women ire 
content i«> raoiaiJi Ed :i condition of ignorance It i* well 
fiopotosi i' Lttempl to rai»te their moral and social eondlrJon 
Tlie taste for knowledge. Information, Inquiry, thought— in 
one word, fur light — In a UiKtc which those having the 
of 1 in- common! t> :d heart muni do all iu their power i" 

I'toh-i .i-iil iMilli\ ilr. .-\ jiniilii- riHulill^-roott) in :m Ultold b009 

iu tlic rtoiKioy ri;iss— ;i place, that u, where iiu'\ can read 
the daily papers, tbcbettl magazines, and whore, free of i-uM, in 
ta evening when the day's worlc b over they etui inform them- 
wlves of the current rnoreoiento of thought and life, and where, 
free from the temptations tm tdeot to some other places of public 
resort, then can pan many a pleasant hour in the hnproveiueni ol 
their misas. There is no more encouraging feature >\ 
than the evidently widespread desire to continue the 
educution after leaving echool. The hearty welcome given to the 
"Natioiud rXome Bending Union," and Hie rapid success with 
which It h 1- me! .lull;, attests the truth of what If ■ i<v 
Public Library provides the meani and opportunity for thii satf- 
culture. It rnnnahea a wide choice of il»'- beat titcran 

1 ntifie woi'lcn, hnth of ihe prewiit and of the past Promises I I 

tin* extent of 6864 were made, on condition thai the Acta were 
adopted. Dl this .-in n 1 3ir William Ounliffc Brooks, M.r, 

firomiHoci k'JfAK and a jdot of load for o site was offered bj W r 
5. W. Jovnaon and his brother. This adjoins the Local 
office «, and bo will be rery central. Every facility waaglvi 1 
the demanding ol n i»'ll, but no one availed I I tl 

offer. 

SiacEwanuRY, 

v.'sbury hofi not made much noise with Its library. T 
references 1 1 It in the local press are not numerous, The i 
were adopted to 188a, and the library was opened in |m*5, The 
huildtoffj which comprises library and mum-um, H admirably 
adaptea lor the purpose. The sum of £2,000 was ibtamod on 
l»:in lroin tho i i-^t';, . ind this i% rather a burden upon the rata 
whiel produces £476. Kor & population ol UB,4?8 the number ol 
bcoVsfi noal , reaching ordj 0,796. rheaversgedi i 

I borrcra »r 10 1 s 300 volumes. A glanee at tlie rein rua anu 

partiadarMffiyon in chli volume will show that there are towns 

uTer neon 1 vhle.riha.ve ^\arger ^octecA w^,v.g,anda 












I 



n DUi i iuu.wmi 1 J mi. Mil: a-.i . 01 JSTtU . '-" 

v. i v n.tuii forger turnover. The difficulty of maintaining two 
i library one 1 d museum, on ■•> penny rata i- 1 penecfcly 

i'li':ir, mid ft permj for «Wlh ahoaU bo permitted vi.-i-f there am 

u n ioetltutiona Cfaemnwuxn is in the mind-* <'t honoraryonrntor i, 
In take ii VGBy active interest in it8 work. It is visited daily \ \ 
large number <>l" people. Thi> i* the only instance in the county 
■ M,>. ; rloptiori of 1 1 n.i Arte tlin.- far, and it would he •■' i.'orJn^LT :m«! 

loourajrmg tosee it in ©very way u an cceai. Shrewsbury has such 
a good record behind it oi earnest municipal life, that tho lack of 
public interest En He library and museum in thcKoeduoutional days 
mould ""i be eontinned in mob :» wealthy town Qicre bUou d be 
Mini 1 1 \- about clearing ofl the remaining <i«-i»i , and so hit tin 
fncubu* from iif rate, n annum won" for nan vigour being 
infused into the work, when it i* seen thai within three months 

ind up to id i ■■ February, 1890, <>i Che debt <>i £2,000 

ii much a* £1,600 had been promised in donations, and the 

Iroiulae* <-i annua] mihscrfptions reached fist). Many methods 
:i i- iirrii adopted for augmenting this fund, bui few of them 
,i ■ boon more pleoatng than thai employed by Mrs. '•. B. 
l.iov.i I'm-. 1h\ eoncelved the Idea "i giving n eoneerl In 
Buppori ol the iHirury, and so oblj wan the Idea oarrled oul 

*l :ii i Eanh1 inable aufffeuee Ailed the Eflirowabury Music HaU, and 
wcTf rnini i ned with vocal and instrumental music of the mod 
cnarml on disaoiiptlon. The proceeds of tliia eoueeri produced 
ibonl toO. Willi more hooka and the use of the whole inuume, 
i!r present turnover shown very clearly what could he done. 
Viie 4.571 volumes in the lending department were lent out ten 
he 'ii m Eseaefi in Ui&t section being 17,044. Tin* 
can wis i iiteritiUy aid the work in Shrewsbury, mid 

; i: I - i mid .ii once be secured. An enhanced public i.ii CTWl 

auld be aire to Inflow . 

SMBERWXCCi 

!j.i. ■ ■: ewhere there ia i - vy tor more space for tbo branah 

adiif ■ i" 1 present nuartere are an many occasions 

-i Dnrlnj theyei '•- volumes have been bought, at 

.mi averagi Goetoffla 3d. pel boot II. vpori reem-dH that four 

i i . were lost. One went amissing under exceptional eireum- 

" l i" man to wh<un il w : \< lent havtag accidentally fallen 

t.i the .'Mind daring n dense fog. The oomnal I iriderately 

detcrrn nod not toenforee replaeeinent in IhiNease." ii Ib t>> t»c 
omed that 1 1 1 ■ - pom man managed in get out olive, If the boolc 

i : recovered. The utlin ihr-i- !k mica were poid 1'or by 

i- borrowers. Tin's serves to llluntmte the erxnd hook^lcaafilng 

. oat in al i mat* ratabHaliinenta. Tlie rujxirt given a Iwl m 

bookti added during the year. Ttiia i-. m improvement on 

■ i imi-I'm: in he numlier of HtatiM i<-> usually give i to annual 
Mtiiiw iik w .iii ;N riiirriiin.uv ;inti two branch rem in ■ 
t> [ionny rate, The sixpenny 
inn:. Lc dvci -' ( ".' nugee, and ih bound in *till 

u ■ in IIiiAlcrn'A in" 1 R. \. \^r«\Wa\wuY* AV- 






tec 



I'i"Hl I' r.IDftAKlBS- 



cateloKtu i>i ■■) - i I- 1 1 til ■ i.i i« . :>ini Mr. B&ilujr, Ihi lil>m n, into 

ujErutulati d upon 11 . aot onlv tor the ijw 111 j >l thi 
bat E n ii" "in ibex oi c w ni i 

W AI.HAI.I.. 

WhImiI! h fortunate The profit* on the local (pwwrrrki! 

property "I bfaa Corporation, paj Mu'ir Sc1i<k»1 BobiO rate. Ifn 

town k comparative^ IWtfly taxed, and the people are wilUn 
pin more than the penny rate ft»j their Public Library, hul ill 

1H-H i\ iImv muat remain until they girt thcii Local [mpr ivpmenl 
nil passed. There in >ue branch (ibran bul more hinnclio 

d, and under tin pruwsnl income tlicj < Lnnol U- provided 
One of the local newspapers ecentlj put tin in tt« plthfl) 
ami there la reason u LblnV that ti expressed the riewa 
ii-i\ large numbci »i the people. The paragraph in uiw 
rtntcd .— 1:> express rcatrictiozu of tfti statute the Pabll I al 
■ ..iniiutt. i can tuki no more out of the borough rate foi Public 
Librart purposes than iL d the C per annum, Thiaha 
0eemen li im mi arbitrary, an Enjurfoue, and on an 
i: mi ■ i.i aa prelaws then is no restriction put upon 
tin- council in i! • matter of il ordinary > xpenditure for purposes 
Minotioncd by law, excepting the expcnditnn incurred for the 
rpeoift oh i d - • E lb< hioh'r i.ii raric ■ lei Ltmaylx I ial 1 1. . 

Hid nnvf;i|.nr WCTC t'rii\ fOftt QffO, looked UpOU UkIuxui •• 

|>e hiUri: iii moderation. But booki nod new paper i ■ i 

i i ;, ui cm <.:.i!;. life, and i librar an holes n mu u h 

position hi public estimation than i taitehor or n cook, boj 

• cm ling i. Ii Erjtimuti and honourable Rnl an m aj ha 
rolntcft to looa] luxation the peopli un 
nxc I n Iw ii" Impoj m M- »im « irfiont, then i m ■ i u on wlv 
imitation to the ponding tower of a Public Library committee, 

■ o Ctovn Council for Public Library pnri , houK note 

There ' consensus of opinion in Walitalfthat ii" inotltuti 
the town ib o J greater benefit to the public than the li 

room, and thai benefit is inoal mi^ii) unci unobtrui 
!■■ i:i I •■)■!( <i und sua quietly enjoyed, r ■ - is proved t\v the fact thai 
;.(»n borrowcra, on< ibout J.OtKi poopli vi I tb> 
Hbrariei uxd bo* It will i ■ 

rii -I friends <i this movement ' • digest thai tot no ■ 

-.mumIci- Hiniir iin.'i' or four mi: io ild I * u 

:i branch to be c tablwhcd in their midst. Tho librarian, Mr 
Alfred 3Iorgan t sendan copy of the i '. roll printed 

an<l in clou type 

\\ i i TSABUBV. 

W i ■■!!.■ :i'iuv v, hated . mi ti d 

With i i ■ - ,: <i on ol orj . ! i,000 I he i ■ i irnitti c irr d ■ il i 

bi ' •■• h'i o ''.it.' which brfnu i i" : ' '. ^'J". 

l!uv. 0] : hOW li-' l>00n .1: i I ' i I.- i.u:-<- .ill : i|tli(iiH ■ ., 

'i'T dui'iTin th< In \ hofw I t 



PTTlI.Tr r.TTmtniB* IX rilW Mlhuvn < v,i NTTFA 



101 



.tni; | ;») h b [he very success of these libraries 

uii; tnslcvs It dlfllcull >• keep pace «iiii the InoreaalnK 

i|i-|ii:M;i|.s lll.lllr lijmti , \,r '. . I is . In- Ii'i:i i.il :u:il t III' Hhfih i'.s 

which Iibvc i" Iwh* tho brunt hi the poverty ilia ■ in his 

and il her in tho loss of new bookM which would 

otherwise Lvxnu i<> theur Ai SVednesbury, ihe librarian, Mr, 

Thomas Stanley, has tab ly begun a subscription library. Forty 

ii icra ham joined a( a guii i i year, md the 

1 «■ '• « U - wtD, aftei twelve months' use, come to the rublfi Library. 

The tlbran forms u pari of .1 prottj block of buildi igs 1 oraprising 

una library. Those wore opene to B78 With 9,007 

rolwnee tho turnover readied "COTS volumes. Thv committee 

1 for gifts 1 1 books, especially those that bear upon the 

u 11i.1l pursuit* "i (Ik: neighbourhood, and topographical 

works reJatans. to the town of Wcdneeburyacd tht isi.h k Country 

generally. The repeal • bin ■<<■•:<■• md art 1 nam shows thai 

■ 1 of 103 ttudent* eighty-seven irere examined, who took, four 

juo n ■ [tIkcs, 11 1 1 council prist e, fourteoa tirat-claea ecrtifi«atc«, 

b id 1 1 ■ itj -three Mseondn 1 iah cortdrlcatcfl, 

WOLl UUtASKROXi 

in 01 <■<••■ .-' da] movement, WoWerhampton exhibit* s detox 

■ i; t . Lcoop abreast > 1 iii" times. \ rooaonablo hope may 

pre sod thai !.■■"■. i. many yean have passed the townwlD 

handsome 1 new building adapted i" the growing requiro- 

' the library ITiocaB upon the newsrooms Is especially 

1.' and frequently there iv. not » vacant chair. The reading 

il»|i-' woi'O : •■'•i;il.\ dOflig LOd I \ Mr. John l\llii<t, llir CQUrtOOUfl 

1 ■ 1 on« ibrar on. Those or 1 abi u1 -■ fee long, with 
tnd "ii those is the periodical in a fixed poei- 
>n i.v moam oJ brass rod running down tne middle of the 
bUcntlon, and nrev* uting the reader from removing ii \ *:i!jje 
he cop of the tnl Le hai painted 01 H the name of 
\c tenodica This fepa be whole room orderly, and the 
J g tables n led by readers from end to 
id '■ ■ ■ ■ trig This part eular form ol 1 ible d< eano doubt 

[he reader from hitting from paper to paper, but i« 
perhaps: little Trying where the sipjhi is nol particular^ g iod 
■ -1 iii.tn.:ii] nev borrowere the ages were distributed 
u follow* i r< 1 1 fourteen to twenty, W6; Prom twenty- 
one to fifty, -Ji.">: over fifty, 37 1 age* nol given, R*. Three 
1 iod red '.1 : !•'•.«' new hnmiwers were mMianfos ind ari ■ 
Two special features of the work .it Wolvcvharnpton are the 
irt.in-> and ilii'i". .-ii ; i' rlssscs. Thrllhrary has w>- ! <■■ iMhllshed 
b« position w n nantn il e fnlnircthioatlonal work. Its olansos 
1 contlnuutiou srlmol. and Die eomjnvfienMlve aliaraotiar of 
nentlonal pitarnunme ol ^ach winter tuts well earned rotr i ( . 

ie liner till l'i ( : |'I> ■'• '.'lil'i >-'<■. A iIku; .li( I' t'MUt fl'dlll 

\ c Plowden, M.I'.. and one ol ei-V) rom thcli Mayor, 

in Jnarpli .1mim->. aiileil (<> e.sUblitsIi l ehon ■ *' « >.■■.'.' il ■. . 

wtitoh in- been iv*«/J i/-.c'/. A metnllurglra\ V-i\hivMhyn Vhtvtsw \o 



193 



ii iii.n: i idiiaici i'.! 




rds whiuh tin -iiiii .i <; ..mi in ... [j , , i,,.,.,, 

? remised i'v :> local jentleuia i I ' ■ i i I thai iin- 

lyunotl will nndur too i""-. ■ ■■■ i>l too Technical Instruction \<t, 

I --!'. m:iL< a I ii'h'.h.! | |fl a pftHl I' 9 B 'd tl Q > IV d lOO tUld fl 

kOOl ■!■■.;. . which WOUld 061 

practical and beneficial bcsrSag upon the trade* d 

district rheee evening ■ * J :t- - « - grow in populaxifcj «uii each 

j u inter, and En ■ *■■ npli hi a i of i verj 

faction diameter. More than ordmarv Interest :)- shown in the 
operation* of thin Peoploi College, oniefly owlnn, to fth 

interest ovin I by the ibrori d mil bin committee In their 

extension 

h \ti.;:i-.. last ho rubers el the Public Lie all 

and archaeological departr: dean ixaursloi to Laploy, 1 

pi waul ido In brakes through sylvon Manary.rlou In i''»iiugo, 
.mil rnddj wil i the I - ; i I •;•< >l uitumn, brought the part} to I 
destination. 1 he Ural \< he el urel . 

til the hmrl.Tii:!i ri'iiltir.v The party WiiS r*OUduot«d th; ■■ 
it bj tin 1 CI t B i I I '■" '■< talli DJ H.. 

■ tnd history, : ' -1 also mcI II died tho ■ | or ol 

t! i ctn pel . written upon parchment. and "liifinjr from » d 1688 
Other places u Interest were visited, and the taken on 

iin lawn of the vlea-ra^e Vfler ti*a a i>h|»w upon tho M flora ol 
the Mldlanria" wan rend to th# part) rhe paper was I 

with Home fifty s]KTinitM)'; id plant*, nml gsvvr Bl lOCOUnl Ol the 

principal Howertow plant* or crypto rl An* ir da; plan 

phsnerogain*, mel within tlie matrlcl <>i theMWlanoa \ ten 
weeks aftcrwardt the members ol the clasMsi In mi 

ppUed mechanics, and steam, ar np&nied bj their 

teacher, visited the piirapl i i an fines of the Mines Drain 

inera al Bradley lboul Rfty students avalta lalree 

( f he privilege gr.uit<--l 

The Siiiunhiy < wrum- i^ikvi^ in connection v.th hhfl I b 

are becoming ijuite an Institution, \ uotniunl < li: i ir :m 

admission, and Infill tho vocal tuiil instrumental music I 

of i 1 1 1 t-r l ■ order Sia hundred in i u uvenuie attendance a-i I 

The series of Qilchrfal Bciencc lecture* have been verj NucceMrful 

during tti** past winter. Lord vVrwth»lcy, In prerfdlDfl M 

te iturebj Profeaso M . ll.-<m the Life :i ■ 

hi hope* he would !"■ permitted, as an outaider.te n 

moment in (in- Public Library oi 

wa died « tl at ich interesl bhegrcal nroKrcec and development 

which that Institution I A mode, awl he ventured l< 



tn 



think Che 



audience present would, ii appealed to, by 

m tji i .: I pTi In h* '■ stimon) as to U - mln. w.n. li ihc 
. .^.1 ftrona it, n ■ hon flit the < the Lihrar i 

ased their claim tipon Uiclr in'atiludc fur idwi \Syiujt tiinn- 

>i-lv.-.\ witl i in important educational trcate - . tad afforded 

through the course of lectures now in profireaa. 

X-' wonder that the work i Wolrerhampton ihould liarc 

caught hold of the people, percolating us it does into their 



nmi.TO MHUAKEKS IV THK MIM^Mt rOlWHRS 



19? 



cnt 






and rdiic.-iiiinin! life to so large an evt-iit. 'I'lu* Improvement 
Bfll about which there was so much discussion in Wolver- 
haiiipiuii. ami of which such a handle wan made hi aoma towns 
■gidxwt the adoption of tiie Public Libraries" Acts, referred chiefly 
bo tin Municipal School of Art, oiul Art nailery. Pictui'i'N t.> tiie 
raluiQ of 620,000 were bequeathed bo Lhe town, and it was to 
provide * suitable buUdiogfor these that an additional rate \*:i* 
iiMiinl necessary. A pcnu> is ntill levied f»»r library purposed, and 
an extra halfpenny, under the Improvement Act, for the art 
gallery. Unfortunately there are many who object to uU rates ou 
prtncipJ ■. and who. when a library rate is proposed, pour out the 
rials oi their wratn upon the proposal, and frequently tlie most 
untruthful statements on made by these Opponent*. 

YVoactssnsit. 

Tlic work horo has long; boon erlbbod, cabined, and coufiw sd 
lhe present rooms are much too small, and great difficulty in 
experienced in ttorlngUie books. But after much discussion'nnd 
rery sarefuj consideration of plans the oonamittoc are about bo 
sreet a building to accommodate the library, museum, nrt gallery, 
and achools of art and Science. The whole of these institutions 
will Im» under the control and management of the l'uhlio Library 
ooxnmittee, and antroorted under the Libraries and technical 
I Qstrnetfon Ants. There can bo no doubt that such a combination 
dueational institutions win be of the greatest poaaible benefit 

tha «'Uy. and the Town Council of Worcester have acted wisely 
[] deciding to curry out such a scheme. The librarian, Mr. Samuel 
siiiMli, has been, with hi* cintiiiniioi', engaged in forming n 

collection of Worcestershire hooks and pamphlets Mr. W, A. 
Cotton has greatly assisted them In this work to presenting to 

e Library 71 volumes nnd L4/J pamphlets, either written by 

Worcestershire authors, printed In the county, or relating to 
w nreeatershfre. Some of riiese date back to 1882. Collector* of 
literature En oilier districts might well follow the e sample 
Mr Cotton. The number of local pamphlets ami hooks in 
' wis all over the country must be considerable, and the 

fid of these to the nearest Public Lftrarj during the lifetime of 
in- owner, could soareelj dispose of them in a more useful or 
ppropriatc *wi\. lit Worcester there are 23,000 books for a popu- 
lation it la.om. Tliis is good, and still better that fiction stands at 
■ i cent, oftheissuec For the year the total issue was 79,000, 
. gives about lj books to every inhabitant. On one day 
.( September, 1,373 people visited the newsroom, library, and 
muM-nni. These institutions have many pood and earnest friends 
in the L count il, and among; those there stand out promin- 

. nth Mr, It. W. Btans, F.S.A., of the Worcester Poreeliiin 
. . and M:'. I. Corbott. The latter gentleman, speaking 
laid that twenty-five years ago, when scarcely more than 

i v, Ik made up hie mind that sonm day or other. If blUnaB 

effort could achievs :t, there should bo a Public Library in 
Worcester. There wore several defeats, and it wra^ol>a&VC£vgft 



ii hi.i- nisnAaiB*. 



Lett were adopted Wetoeeier in iu^ev home, whicl 

wOl »i)on Im-c <• .1 n.ih(\ in ln'icks ami in-i\ Ear, has a brigh 

ul future before it, and it* present Sy600 borrowei j vil] then 
soon swell into u very muoli larger numl« r« 




CHAPTEK XI. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN THE EASTERN COUNTIES. 

IIK work is <I<'v«.'l(»|ii r\ slowly in the Eastern 

< Viuiiik'H. Lincoln hoe Dot :i ein&lti one in the entire 

county. Norfolk has two i » n.v. Suffolk ono, Ease* Irwo, 
The other counties, Included in these briel notices under 
this chapter i»' the sake ef simplification! ore E 

K< til, SUftSeX, ll:ini|)-li:rr, find IJvrkuhiiv. In k.-i I .i;n! Sun . 

■ liar, the movement make* but very slow progress, and 
ih a mountain ol work to be done before then counties are v eg 
over Co the movemem 

TUiekim. Bssjjt), 

Barlring, with it« population of 12,000, boa the distinguished 
honour "t being the are! place u Esses to adopl the A. I ■.. At 
tlio end ol 1888, by o majority ol four to one and by means of 
voting papers, the question won settled. There w* ro manj tuvnoet 
workers) and coo gre i\ success in securing the nd< ption wo - ow ine 
to the excellent organisation, Messrs. W. Beavcra. PP. \V. 
ci.Miny, .1.1*., i j.- . •■■■■■ JaokBon, and Mr. Mi boh i torso tiled theh 
forces w I . and thfl town was divided into district* and acti 
<-:imv;i-. ad. Hence the reaeon why more than tho arorege nn 

ut i':ite]vvy.?rs v.ti'il. In .March, LtWO, I :■ mporoi'V rei OCI ■_ 

com! >ri:ihi\ fitted up :mri furnished, wa« opened. and baa boon 

Open M nil Week «l:ivs Iimiu ten a.m. to elevi'u :r nL-M. i 

iii\ • now Homo 887 in the lending section, which was opened En 

Muv last, \\iih an ii me "i C275 there is every proapool of :» 

useful work. < oleheeto? and Chelmsford wfl] now novo to set 

Ihiur Imim' i i nrder.iir rlii-v u ill !«• left hi'hlnd in this riwiveiiient. 

in both places the question has been cHsaossed. 

Bubstvouk 
a iplendtf owprniiniton brought about the adoption ol the Let* 
herein therolddlOQl laal year Mr 1 1 W. Williams, with asti 
aonnnlttoe, had no Intention of permitting r.he question to r« 

.,i meeting* and arousing public Interest. A little legal 

dlUiciitiy W iftfl pri »r Ii llir rvrm Ig of I 111 1 NtUl I'nh 

iiir i totofthe public notice ualu'ug the meeting wiw an Inttma 
Hon thai compound householders were not entitled to i 
thta woa the question npon which the last movornenl In Bren ford 
f vi I mm:', came a ffrlef, on eminent Queen's Counsel was consulted, 
who said dial the Loon] Boards advisor was wrong in bis & o 
; "i ol the law. Tlie learned gcutlemai: \ a . 



pruur irnnsniK* tv thr ttarterv ronsTTFS. 



1P6 






engaged m a e*ise of g BlffliuU nature two years ago, in which the 
authorities of n resti-y «»f the City of Loudon refused to receive the 
rot* of b tenant te the. cfty i ecauee ie compounded with his land- 
lord for lite rates. Despite the (act thai bne opinions of eminent 
him supported (he action of the authorities, the Court of 
Queen 1 * Bench held Ghat a man waa entitled i<> a voir if he mM 
rates, whether directly Ot through his landlord. Ah reported in 
another chapter, eminent legal authority laid it down that com- 
pounders could not rote, and in many places the question lias been 
on tliia one point. The I Iri ydon case solved the difficulty in 
Brentford, and the town rink -•! (hat place eeut the following 
letter;- "Town Tlnll, Croydon, June 11, 1889 — hi reply Io your 

letter of this date, the case of the AttoPney-QeoexaJ v the 

i and Corporation of Croydon is to be found in the Law 
Reports. The decision <-f Mr. Justice Stirling does not ner.es- 
aarilv : pp \ '•-> :» place which i- mil :i mm iripnl borough, but I 
should think it quite likely that when the attention of "< 
!<• -.-:.! adviser of Tour Board is called to tho case, he might modify 

opinion winch, in the abaance of the case, he might hnvo 

formed. ITooifl faithfully, M KuSOBOOOH, Town Clerk." 
When QueenAa Counsel and the lesser lights of the legal peo- 
li'.ion give diametrically opposite opinions ordinary mortals 
may be expected to lincf Boxna difficulty in interpreting these 
l>:i'lly VOfdfld Acts. 
lne Arts ware oantfod with enthusiasm, and in January, JW*), 

ii pening ivreiuony took place. Tho conversazione tor I his 

pleating Object was in every wny successful. Mr. James Jligkind, 
M.r., performed tho ceremony. M:<ny Liberal gilts of money and 
books flowed in, and the library il now Id fall operation 

UniQHTON. 

Brighton hafla local id dating back to I860, enabMnff them to 
h \ \ :i rate for I brary and other purposes. This was amended by 
another Act In 1876. The Pavilion rate, in which the library and 
museum nre situated, is id., and this produces about tJ ,.".!(). 
Pot sewn! .\i;u>. ;i I n-;il xturro has waged about the Public 
i ,ibrary The reference dopai l ment wan opened i'i 187S, and some 
of iln more active spirit* of the Town Council and among the 
residents have ever since that time been agitating for a [ending 
section. Thin, however, did not become an established foot until 
but October. * '< i unns upon columns of matter have m eared in 
tin- ticii! pre v. respecting the library, and the reports »f several of 
the dl Kmsaana in tho Town Council as to whether there should be 
►lending library oc npy as much as four columns of cIomIt printed 
I type It li dountful whether another town, except perhaps 
a id comply such an example of two opposite con- 
tending foi'oca vigorously fighting the mutter out to the bittO] 
i ii. celebrated watering-place, which boars the name 
M ii'o. But the principle was worth fighting for, 
e Is due to those members of the Town Council v^aa 
championed in so ablo a manner the cause oi the YCO&nfe aftcjAwk. 



196 



PCBI.IC LIDRARIE9. 



of tfao Brighton people. An argument very frequently M 
forward at watering piaoee, whore it ifl sougl ■■ the A. te, 

is that u Public Library weal the private Bubecriptloo 

lihmricK UliS Statement was ndnuKvd in r.righrnn, and in n |-i\ 

bo it Mr. W. J. .Smith, the ha keeJlot >i North Street, sna a 

memhor of tho library cummin. •■■, nn\,\ : "I hnvc --nt down a 

contribution d! L,900 votanec bo the library! Bnd if it i« once 
started tod placed under propei ■• ■ _ -in. i.t i shall do what I 

en for tho library in ttM future. But the primi i\ i bjeot musl 
not bo lost sight of: that is, tho provision of literature, ir we 
cannot dispense honks in e huildmg which wo should like, wo 
must do wwb what aoeonunodatSon we can get. Tin- nun ol £3,000 
would purchase lfl,UX) volume*, reckoning thorn at !&. 6 
volume, Thia, with the books we have, would form n wr\ 
serviceable library." 

"Mi- D B Friend, the well-known librarian and txM.ikRellor.ot 
\\'i ntern Road, is another member «»i tho trade whose duly 
avocations do not narrow his opinions on a subject where tin- 
benefit of others besides himself is concerned. " ' h course there 
fire BJie BQbacribers in private tftuarles." he unid, "who would 
take advantage of the opportunity to gel their books for nothing", 
when i i ■■> i'i afford to pay for them not of their own parse, 
Rut, I don 1 ! :iuiiri|>.i.u' thai the establishment nfu Public Trending 
Library would have any disastrous eituuls on private enterprise 
I am decidedly in favour of (be movement myself. \\ hat traders 
Lost hi one way they gain in another, The tierustd of hooks leads 
to adealra lot Lhe& aeo^alaitioa, and this desire once implanted 
in oat often eliminated, It Brows by what it feeds on." On 
September L2, 1*73, the building waa opened to the public by 
tbe Major as ;i library, picture gallery, and museum. The back- 
boni of ii"" coHectioo was 3/XIO volumes of tho ISbran of tin Roy. 
II, V. Elliott, presented by hih Hiirvivmg sun, and ",000 rolun t< B 
of the library of the lloyal I-it -m;t r* and SrientihV Institution, 
presented by tin- pvopri^rary. In the sixteen years wrrtco 
elapsed stoee the opening many donations have bea mode, 
both large and small, and of very different value. From the 
dny ol nvenintr till October ln*t, mm nlro;u.lv Muted, tl in libmry 

was cxehiHiv.'l\ a reference library, not as containing only booVfl 
rtf reference properly so-called, but from the fool thai the public 

Wore privileged to read the books only in tho library room* and 
not to take them away to read at home. Within mere r.-.-i nt 
vol db it was widely felt that this indiscriminate restriction of 
books to the library rooms mu prejudicial to the ii 
bott library and readers. It was not only inconvenient to 
numerous habitual readers, but it deterred n largo nimbi i i 
wo ild-be readers, who would have h«on pud in take books a* in 
to rea) si i oiq*i from malting use ol! the library *1 all; nnd ft 
lao fell bj those who wi re Loquainted with tho oonteati Dd 
toe library and the wants ol modern readers, thai i the i 
eaec library wore to be transformed Inl ■ n tending library with 
/'/i nroBpeot of succetw, it would U* uecmtarj |.« i i 'hose 



PIULK; UIIRADII-h IN TUU EASTBUN' COTWIES, 



197 



oontonts, i i uabh udeod &i hoy wore, a lar^c supply of modern 

literature, and itpeeinUy w 1 1 1 ■ tctSan, m which the library 

of the past was sadly deficient . for a library which trusts entirely 

I i | . -i ■ I dOH ■»! iODfl :m<l 18 not . ri'i"i*n:torl la i Kyteinafie pUTOhftU 

di bookfl Dp to flute, necessarily stagnatus. During the last 
three years more than one lending library scheme, involving 
either import ml standard alteration* in the profienl tunes or 
:in entirely new bonding, baa been suggested, discussed, and 
Hie I silent ami iii.jmI ntaWtloua of these scheme* roe 
tha Jubilee Schrane of 1887. Tha Mayor of that year asked 

tin* Brighton public for £10,000 or the erection <»! : 

m. -I .»riil building, and tlie nirnHhing it with hooka; hut 

in answer to the appeal onlyaboul £3,400 was subscribed, It 

whs none the IfiSH I'dr. by the Jubilee committee that it would be 

(i pity Co law the opportunity of pn riding the nucleus of i Public 
Lending Library In the town, and the Mayor sent to each sub- 
scriber a letter asking whether the MibHcriber was willing that 
his sabscrfpLion should, under the circumstancea, be applied bo 
tin- purchase of suitable Liuuk.s and bo providing littiuga for their 

reception in son I the present premised. The remit of the 

ofayoife letter and »»( serine subsequent negotiaftkoie of a Jubilee 

sulM-oininittCf 1 wa,i This, 1 h?it I ho cummiHcc w; ..*• ennhlrrl to hand 

to the Town Council about £1400 to defray the cost of 

.■- ,. i l the i i i- hiiEM oi i ooks. This sum did not include Mr. 

I I li,n k*B subscription of Ci.000, iuasmuch as he had indepen- 
dently and previously, at the end of October, 1688) oenununioated 

to tfle liht-iu-y ■■ -mtii itt.--- hi- intention (if applying bjs -iiiKseription 
to the purchase ol books, n id his desire that the committee should 
at once make out bata OS books to purchase. The library com- 
mittee upfioiuted a sub-committee of selection, composed of Mr. 
VV". J. South. Mr, F W Madden. librarian, and II. J. Mathews, 
and the work ol the fonnation ol the lending Ilbrais wn.* started. 
The total number of books hi the Brighton I'libhe Librutv U 
< tit these, \7fiU ore in the Victoria lending library. The 
whole o the old library, comprising; forty cases, woe examined 
book by hook. Books which belong properly to the referenoe 
ere removod to that department : a load ol useless books 
was eliminated and transferred to the rooms upstairs: and the 
• and review*, numbering 1,500 volumes, which WBW 
chiefly In the "ooms, were brought together and placed in the lend- 
ing binary The ntimboroi book* In the refers i ■<• library is 13,244, 
The few month* which have pawed KJnee the lending library 
waBOpuUed have iimro Minn justified the prophecies ul tfiOse who 
havetaki n iij theijnoHtinn. About 420 nook* ar^ distributed each 
day, .irxi he i for borne reading. The number of actual 

■ 4-(>rs iimik' the lending section in 2.87J Brighton baa now 
.; Itself hi line, and hue commenced its true Public Ubran 
: i-iv he vfuh'.i wiri confidence thai a few years v. fi 
wUflrr to UluNtrste to tliM gentlemen whoopposed thoscnenie that 
• > 1 1 m ■ » weiv noting prejudicially to the real weNiaafcdl 
■ 



!"- 



Kl'UUC L.IBHA1L1KV 



f-ASTBIlDiritY, I'oLKBSTOSK, AXD .SnTtN&nOtTlNK. 

iii library nl Cantab uv dates back to 1835, but II ma not 

until I&> thnt it was taken over by the '. irporatiOD. I: 

museum ami library combined] and hence the reason why the 
coiuiiii: i' » have not boonnbloto provide the ieto< w Hi more 
Hi hi ."v'tU) volume*, I'll*- -iii In issue aliout ]oo, and I 
advancing. In the early part of lost year an offer ■ m ret 
from an old Canterbury resident, l>r. Ik-uncy, of M< 3 

for thy I'oblio Ubrary.and t» i&clttdi 
a working-men's institute. In March, 1S8U, when the quo 

discussed in tho Town Council, it was determined tlmt a 
[otter should bo sent to it, Beaney tniggesUna; that, oj | 
no need f<>r iin.iriicr institute n» C&nter bury, the oily would be 
ii ii benefited, and hie namo brought into permanent conn 
v iii tho place ol nil birth, it ho would awe thorn .< turn ! 
ii i i. The entire loiter Best to Melbourne Is a piece of the coolcal 
presumption that ffe think i>:*h been ever known In o 
w th Kucii a proposal, a distinct offer wn« mado for one thing 
i tl be done. and this offer Is treated Indifferently, nnd sonn-thi 
quite another character is pat before the gentleman mnktai 
, and the offer b now withdrawn, i - I deserved to '«• mere 
D old mi :» -ii ii m i» charge thai tho cathedral cltle* are, in 
municipal And educational luntitntionii, far behind other towna, 
ami thnc ia much truth in the statement. Canterbury, in it* 
action oTor 1 1 ■. i ^ offer •<> build u Public Library a* s new l 
Cor tlie BXlattng our. iiluMrutcn this point very clearly. TV nd- 
dent will serve ;im u mwI'iiI lnwM>n to other places, when then 
offer to build them j new Public Library, to accent ii. ux 
spoil the in tt_*m jul: donor'i mind by foolishly suggesting soine- 
trting different The Corporation evidently thought tfiat b 

ling for their nobli nerves was of inJlmi'-u mo simj 
than a suitable dwelling tor books and museum objecta, There 
should bea little library education infused into the mm 
' .' ; ■ • 11-1117 ' '"i i"'i >ition, and if tin • < > N-m t>ri< -- .it the cathedra 
-will Idndlytake this matter in hand they will accomplish b 
necessary and us* ml work. 

Folkestone rejoices in .i new building, which was opened bj 
6li Edward SVotkin, M.P.. In Ipril, 1688, Lie remnrkod, In the 
course of his nddn -. thai when Lord Jolm Hussell introduced 
what was called tin Mnincipul Corporations' A.-r ii was ould that 
ii would Ixi inefficient, and thai tho managcroonl ofevcrybod 
everybody ■ rdinal »i<<! radical mistake, He (Sir Edward ) 

thought, however, that they eould look Ml round the municipal 
boroughs of England without Basing, except in on>- »u- iw< mhy. 

they, as human bsiogn, « '- i ■ i sonu ti i <•■- rnako mistake* i i 
noent monuments of Bueh popular institutions as th»- i : o the' 
wore oponiag thai day. win would have thought ii po 
fifty yeai o that an effort ol u :•■ kind would have been 

uised by a body oJ '.own councillors sleeted by the pee 
G the Vablic lAbmj uud \luseum tlie sum 






PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN THE EASTERN COUNTIES. 199 

£6 >SO0 was borrowed by the Town Council in 1888 at £3 16s. per 

cex *t. This loan has to be repaid in thirty years by means of 

****xual instalments. The penny rate produces £641 13s. id. The 

'^oixnt required annually to meet the interest on, and the repay- 

™* e ot of, the £6,600 borrowed is £364 lis. 4d. There therefore 

. e ?**a.in8 annually only about £117 to defray the cost of main- 

^* ,r **i»g the building, providing newspapers and periodicals, and 

P v *5" c ™ 8m 8; books for the library. The committee, however, 

utV esaw ^ n ' 8 ^fl^'ty* an< * from the first recognized the almost 

SSr?** topoaeiWlity of maintaining the town institutions of library 

*■»?*■* museum on the one rate; and, under these circumstances, 

r*»*? "Town Council have sanctioned the collection of a voluntary 

a*h*^ °* an0 ' ner penny i 11 the pound. The building is a great 

a Z fcl *action to Folkestone, and will be well used by visitors as well 

2P Residents. Every watering place might do many worse things 

-j?**** imitate Folkestone, which is ahead of Margate, Ramsgate, 

0"Ver, Deal, and Hastings. The gross issue last year was 26,197 

Plumes, and a large number of new tickets have been issued 

*J*J* the new library was opened. 

-, q'-^ 16 Acta were adopted in Sittingbourne in the latter part of 

^^V, and in October last year the library was opened. The yield 

'^rn the rate is £103, and they begin well with 5,000 volumes for 

J^.OOO people. A neighbouring township of Milton was invited, 

^'ier the Act of 1887, to join with them, but resolved to wait 

jj**"til they could have a similar institution of their own. It will 

P® remembered that, by this Amendment Act of 1887, the public 

^?«a.rd8 have the power to establish and maintain lending libraries 

. ^tiliout providing a separate building. One of the local papers, 

J* referring to the opening of the library at Sittingbourne, has 

a*^"<i| us a somewhat new argument. The writer prophesies 

j ^t the Public Library will be a great power for good in the 

£k ^n. It will provide a fund of pleasure for all who use 

£_" It is to be commended, says the paragraph, on "physical 

J£* "well as intellectual grounds. Medical experts tell us that the 

r J^^in requires light and exercise, and that the state of the mind 

l^~^cts on the state of the body ; hence it follows that that which 

(^^nefits the mind must also improve the bodily health. To the 

t J-lier reasons in favour of the institution of the library, wo may 

^*Jerefore add the argument that it is a sanitary measure of the 

*"*ghest order." A library on sanitary grounds is capital. 

Great Yarmouth. 

A three years' experience of their Public Library has made 
the Yarmouth people regret that they did not avail them- 
selves of the advantages of such an institution at an earlier date, 
uie new part of the premises, opened in January, 1889, pro- 
vides additional accommodation and was erected at a total cost, 
including fittings and furniture, of about £2,400. These new 
quarters are very conveniently arranged and are well lighted, 
warmed and ventilated. A new reading-room 60 feet by 25 feet, 
has been provided, affording extra accommodation for 100 adult 



000 



PUBLIC I.IBRAIUKS 



renders and shelf-room for 4 ,< x K J more hunks. The lending 
department is also utilised as a readtag-rooin fop boyaand Rtru 
between the ages of twelve and sixteen. The people Aetna 
U v ihm. no oilier library iu the kingdom enjoys the use of *o 
picturesque and delightful ■ building— to those of an artistic ami 
aiit-ujuariantuate — as that of Great Yarmouth. TheoldTolhouse.in- 
telligeiiily restored, is nmoM Inspiring place in which tc read, Bail 

early in tin- thirteenth century, it liar- served as uoUDCiWohflDlbei 

m ip since, save in Later yean when it did duty aa a law court 
The ancient hold, ox gaol, of great strength, lie** beneath, ■ 
daily visited as one of the moat interesting Sights in the town. 
The del "'toiV prison lies just beyond, and both are now dlftWflA 
The principal entrance to the hull, when? the library]* established, 

ies hy an open external staircase, which with its covering of quaint 
old timbering leadefroin the street rot he first floor. This oXTfl 
mentis all but unique in En^landj although ii Is apparent by bb 
»tttdy of other ancient buildings that it was of corn men -« ■ ■ n- 
in X trnian and somewhat later times. The fine 1ml! wit i [1 

wainscoting and Steal timbered* pointed roof, and its rath&fl 
wiadowSj ii huttfsnedas ;i reading-roorni butthoal&nosl grotesque 

old civic chair el ill stands in its place, together with man} a i 

i'iirji'(-ity of I hyjrnne a.u'(\ 

The official opening "'" ,,,1R extension at oneo orootcd nu 
immediate increase in tihe number of borrowers and In Um 
atUii'I:iiH'" :it the reading-rooms. In fact, so heavy was the droll 
upon the resources «»f the library thai the permanent stall 
glad ol the help of five townsmen, who, in the evening gave their 
a^sistanee. In one year there have been added 7,084 volinr.i-.-, 

more than haU the number being giits. The total ozboofca la now 
10,017, and the issue last year wax 110,438 volumes ia the len 

departments. This 1s almost phenomenal considering that the 
pjipnl.it ion is only 60,000, giving over two hooks to every inhabit- 
ant in thai year Klghty per cent, of the rending was fiction, but 
the v i n outti people have not taken fright at tow, tor they seen 
to be believers in Tennyson's saying that 



1 . . . . truth in elosc«t void* Oiall 
Wlien Truth embodied in a tale 
Shall entur iu at lowly dootS. M 



fail. 



The librarian, Mr. Garter, who tame from the Manchester 
Library, and the committee have devoted special attention tu 
securing of books relating to the town anil county. H all 

miller:- vmmiM do ( In,--, y.> -.u^yeslcd n aiiotber place, UlQ would 

rendei a national ai well ae a local service. England Ii .i i -o 
country, and there is scarcely a towu or a village in it— witli hue 
exception, perhaps* of some of the recently founded centres of 

of industry—which cannot boost of being the birfcbplw 
Individual or the seem- of some event which entitles it to share d 
the heritage oi the ages, The volumes issued bj tii* Historical 
Manuscript* 0ommioaion ( and the annual rep rtsol the Depatj 
keeper ottlto Public Itecords ahooAdbc caxcttuiy scanned bj 



1'tttLiC MbBAIliK rfl . -V^ikio i'» MIW, 



201 



lo< 

bo 



Ibmrloas, who would frequently find En than compilation* rofer- 
enceajto matters of antiquarian interest which have escaped the 
attention '.-von of the most painstaking local historians, ,v gmid 
[ocal library, in addition bo works of archftolorfcalj historic, and 
rapiii interest., should atao contain u colln'tani of the bast 
lUoatrative m the local flora, fauna, geology, agriculture. 
an<l meteorology. 

^The .juvenile deportment bids fair i<> "kvoiiic very popular BO 
r na the reading-room and lending department arc concerned. 
-T w i lis, w.n'4.it ■-, unci the watering-places on 
le South Coast should observe what is boing done ut Yurraouth . 
1 



IPSWICH. 



The adoption of the Acts hoiv took pktoe early in the history of 
tin- movement, for it dales i- far baeJc as insy ; but tin- library was 

BOtOpOOad QB til \pril, 1 -■->-. Tluve separ 1 1 •■ reports are aubmittod 

■».> the .'oiumittoe, dealing severally with the museum, lending 

library, and schools of BcSflc* and art. With the first ol those 

ij i^ it naaaaavrj bo deal ai preseut, iieyond s:t\m,o thai th.> 

onfng attendance ;.t tho mnsouna, which Is n particularly good 

«»ne has greatly increased during tho past winter. During the last 

library your 1.000 volumes wow added, by purchase 761, and by 

none, B59. These pnrohssefl had bean chiefly made from a 

fund «|n'ciali\ rained for the purpose. As rhe demand for books 

far Axeaedea Mie Mippiv, and .»- \<> funds wore iiniilable from 

ordinary sources, the committee had ondeaToured to raise £200 i 

Seatf for three years tor Hie purpose i xelusfrely of purchasing new 
aoks, Their uroeaJ was generously reepondei i<>, fnany gentle- 
iiu-ii promising £B per annum for three years. The number of 
volumei noa iu the library is 4,071, and thenumbei of readers 
f), so thai there arc nol two kioIc* for each reader, Some 
of t he hooka have bean issued Bfty times during the year. Oil m 
ige twenty-five require rubimliug or repairing everj month. 
in Jinn.-, i-\-n, the annibei i>n^nk> issued «iw(«ii) yo.'i. in June, 

ie 1 i'.'.wj. The l.iw>t number issued ia Hig 

oonth wjis En M.mii. 1689, when the books borrowed were 

v C.000. The total number of iswea for tin year va« 4-J,oJ4. 

inunittec express their regret that the demand For novels 

•i largely in r\n->- of other and more useful literature, hut 

ilK deluded all worki* of fiction, which, in their 

neat, woul< nave u teudency to demoralise the minds of 

n order to Increase the attractions and usefulness ol 

M irary, the committee purchase all the new books they doom 

C "tillable oi. rtoon tun they arc published. A catalogue of the vulu- 
ii i. ol books in the reference library has recently been 
mated. 
WO then was n parochial library in Ipswn-h, of 
es. chioily theolntfieal in thou- character. Many 
low valuable as being; first edition* ol oX)\orvreM 
'•• books, Topcgruphicul and ontiquniian books &ko.Uww& 




ice:. I |i:ijh<) - : \\-\\ \,., | Mil *gt\ * -mi. rl from 

'. hop " 11 

ring :r: 

' ■ 






prsuc uBiuftxu ix tiik easiksx corsmna. 



joy 



i: I? easy, hi remarked, to conceive esses where It 
ould be hard to «aot a peoalty . bnl sue! sxtrean ion tagencics 
bile Libraries ihoutd riak, which after all would bo b very 
t srHing oost without abasing their power and Becking bo mnka 

l**;iIliT.< mil'iiii* And UncqUIU llGtwixt nm :i atid man, Til*' taltfk ot 

' "1 >t!iini]iL' gUi Html. ■!■:. i- ■■■;illv not i hurdi-n.iuiiio one, in. <l il would 

i bromo ease wliero uuyone desiring to doc* Bio ;i !■■ i- 

r-* »wv oouid not n i 1 1 i ha requisite requirementa m this dire 

! — 1 1 ill fir time ih fart approaching when the production ot a rain 

onazon to oil the privilege* of a Public 

I -Ibrary, sad guarantor! will be the exception una ool the rule. 

'1*1 il- three departments are atrong: and healthy, nnd the work 

»*,!. together Hi tpawleh \a » -nnd biittrowH ot the Public Library 

i »■» <.vr>iii 'ii( in 'ho Kctfltern Count ios 






Nonwi -ii. 



\ rovnamar! wrum^r from Nurwirh *a\s ihui he ran ivmh ial>or 

til,- cfanewhea the Norwich Library seemed the At haunt of ghoala 

• ■ ■ "! -hi m i. Hut now, lie Bays, the place to seething with tlfi, and 

^vcry i ■!.■ , .'.'ii:n;r \. ■: .! ; ie people of Norwich, are learning more 

* ojh te appreciate their valtw ifc iMioknrio Till** in a well-earned 

I, for on the evening or the present writer'}* visit the 

fill .i peopi In every department. A little wh b 

**f<<i the eoTiunrUee net Khemaelves Urn t;isk of obtaining wnne 

"SOo i for the juvenile department. This the) accom- 

(U ii September, 1880, the work of distributing the 

■I I fa among the eJernontarj ncltools of the citycom- 

i! Tin* riuinlw of books purehaaed amounted tu jliout 

JO . II i j ! ted »ilh a snevial regard to their 

tircnoHB and intcrcii for isehool children iu the udvan I 
"*irnla;'i-. The ■ loicest work* «>f [in- world's authors are re- 
ed ii the rut itiifrne of the library— the modern mil Un- 
bare alike been laid under contribution. The 

"'"' i. v books aupposed to enforce some sickly attenuated 

'Tens hare boon rijrorouely banished, Works of action at* Ifl 

k| *"<»»! | ice, history, and travels are not by n iv 

ireacnti d. 11 • selection U an admirable one, 

?**<! itn power of meeting the must likely demanda upon it may 

ed by the fad that il include* no fewer than twent) 

' 4 m * if « i .I'M.- Lord r'auntlorov.' The work whioh tho uompara- 

II outlft} * l! i • mill tic Public Library to perform will 

: 'i the fact thai the hooka which are Iteinur put 

list ion are sufficient to mamtum l"»r oaeh »iehool n in'-'i 

' *l ■ five year*, and I hat during that period uviiry 

jilmve thr l'niirlh atandurd will hnv< an ipjurtumty of 

pi-i'iudienlry o frenh volume for peruanl. liy tlw exptro- 

*-»0 ol i '-in drei ■ I any eehnol in and above the 

mi i ! ^'-iii have pansed out <>i the Bchool, and a new 

;v n In \. iii'.rii. rhereforc, the library nas sVik\ 

wcJi adththmn u* oeeuaion muj rcopfttt- TO* 



204 



wi*lh; i.im?AR.n;,s. 



axraogements made Cor the dradatloi] of the boofcsj and Par tin 

safe return, liave baan carefoUj thought out and am of the mo 

complete character, The head teacher of andi school hi <<' i 



tli 



■ i tl 






miiiiin 

the contents of eoufa box an enolow tl with each consignment, and 
issue books ;ht provided. Per flu- purpose of forwarding Crum 
iltr library to the different schools foui boxes have I (ecu pi 01 i<I<M, 
two foi tbe use •■ the. Board Schools, I 03 the Itoai 

ami fri 1 Em Ihenoe of the Voluntary Bclioola,pruvidod bj 1) 
library committee The books are apportioned to each <i 
ruent -»i' u srin-i./i a<-ti«ii:i- to the average attendance 01 |" 
scholars in the fourth standard and upwards. About Km vol urn 
or 10 an retained in hand to moetany unexpected demand which 
may arise for aroatar aappUee, It in pleaeuu; t» h. or from M 

QOOfgfl Kn^t.r, (in- liln'iirian, tlmt )t in found these jmcuilc books 
arc lurffi:l> used to nromofo regular attendance, bj issuing thctn 
on days wln-n formerly the children least attended." Kurrln-r tlnm 
thia, t-hoy allow childron to take booke, or to ohoost boos when 
taken, hy the number el attendance* made. Thin u- ;» work wlu< I' 
should extend to other libraries. Norwich i& about the 
library known to tha writer where they are bold enough to co 
b spade n spade. The room I v the gentler sea 1- deesatnotod tli 
" .-. , oxen'c rooffli* 1 ■•not why xlmnid it not bo* Only we are 
fright iniiv punctilious oyer those frequently meaningfeai phti 
Kth-ii as " Ladies " and " gentlemen. Tin.- plain Saxon ' man ' 
"women" is rnflnitoly better. New departures, especially II tli 
Bra gocdand deferring of imitation, an* helpful. \ x*.m«-««u i ■ .1 m 
minister, the Rev II li. Snell, has beea on ng 9 - ice <\ pfa 
talk* a Tew months ago ii was on "What people read. Lit 
called attention to the fact that " it was n coincidei w thai on Om 
very week df this plain talk about reading, the annual report <»i 
the Norwich Public Library should have iwen published. It 
Tint n large library, tin* lending department only conslttlxig 
Il'.ihhi roromaa; butaomehow or othoi the rtghi uptrl 
into the library, and 11 real effort Is made to put u taUy a) foe 
service cnMta members, mid it cannot fail to effect great educa- 
tional good In the community." Will other preachers plei -< 
iiiis method of taking occasional opportui life* of referring to 
tin- elevating power i>i Public Libraries? NorwlcJ) lnul 
Corporation Ihil j:i 1 1 ■ *_- House of Commons during last 
■ clause or two "I which affected the library. The Ishuhi a 
books In Dxeditably large. Ten yearn age bighty-*is u da) uram 
issued. Kow it has reached 349 in the leuduitf section alone. 
Norwich baa .1 barge subscription library, well Managed az 

efficient^ officered, it dates back u> 1784, and oontaim 

30,000 Yolumea, The iacomc reaches £700 from nubecriptfi 
alone. Other towns where the Acts have not yel lieini ado 
owing, perhapSi to the fears ut the existing sulwt rlpti< 11 librnrk 
should note the fact that the Norfolk and N n'wirii 1 
he.'/ltliier th.irj :( ovi.-r wtio, 



-I. 




■ f 1 



IM BLIO LIIlK-Um:* t-V THR RASTMiN i'OI M'IKS. 



■J06 



I\i:aihnu. 

Tin- nuiv idoptioi in Berkshire up to the present la Hie one 
;ii the counts town, and so good an oxarapfo i* being sel \<y 
(touting that tin- wonder is the lnrjrrr towns of tlio county 

iiwly LnlciMi up tin* i|UfFtLion. Tin- adoption wits In 

unl tiie library wavupcuiud in 1882, Tin- ritdbof the AjbocJ&> 

■ i i'- : .v loWll uC Inisc-iiiL ;iimI m -■<•< : tAlU6 En 1880 will iihUiwI).)' 
.;:ll !'■•! Ill .1 i . I -i li-l.lMr .till" i : 1 1 "I .it! eill H.TI tO 1 1 if 1 i I'l ,.i ) .UmI 

miiM-um, and tin' members wlw nttend the mcetingM vil: hftV* 

ty of visiting n compaol Had tety useful twin 

I atlon, Mr. W I Palmer hoe long boon .n •■ann-xt friend of 

moTi ■ Tho librorj md masonm arc honeed In i fwa 

bandaomc block of muniiipal huilcHugn, towards the erection of 

uin.ii Mr. Palmer contributed about £25,000. Aground plan b 

phown in the nkefah Mow of the library wbicli la well mid 







i;iMU NI. I'UX, UK\l'IS'(.i IH lll.H IIMIMItY. 



i onn in- : ily planned. One i f the main features of the work i* 
tho juvcniK - - ■ t i ■ - 1 . and it i« one t<> whaaa tli<' able librarian, 
"l . W Q. Qroonhough, the librarian and snyorintendent of the 
orl Mm. * in j, Ium riven his special attention. Tin* won opened in 
.■■. , I "'.i, mid was set in motion by u timojj rtfl of CI 00 
from the M rvor, Mr, <; W i'nh>i< r. There are aow 8,137 \ alan 
un«l it i held En a room of the vfoarego, llio library is open from 

f* .ii t i phi in [!.<■ evening, and on tho data of the lasi returns 

rnodo there were . i' ; i borrowers, ol whu*h WUfaro boys and 

i _-iri: The daily average in I no, In five month* 20,000 

vst . lormwcd n this department, and aU were aoeounted 

.1 i ! <<• Btockl iking, The Reading School Board have granted 

A rooma ut two of their Bohoote as evening readin*- 

The rooms are open on weekdays from six UVV teu o'&WlV, 



206 



r.rntiARivs. 



And about *ixty -laity, weekly, and monthly porlodii 
l>uvci* ;■»'-' proviih-i.l. 1'i.r a pnymcnt of S&. Si I v." 

nts nro ponnittc I to borrow, and of these there ore a! 
ISO, Two thousund visitors u. day is a very - i ttonduncc 

at the library ood novHToom, Tin. - rMfaizu 

the museum, Thore is no d<>ubt uh.nn Ucadini.' trettiiu; 
sjiluc- of its library, : 1 1.- 1 it is to ho hoped that Xrwbui-v. where 
the question has boon forward for diBOUBliODf and ofhox tuwna, 
will quickly B66 their wfty i'lc:tr 1 1 adopt th6 late The c 
naittofl hairs adopted ftlootrlolty for lighting, and the are an 
incandescent lamps art used for the library and roading-r-oi 

South am nox 
Southampton i> proud to be able to isaue its first report. 
i- -• ^atisfaotorv that it servos to prove the libraries hflTfl root 
great want, and would have ' t*-* 1 n established years ago bui tor i 
Bigoted opposition. The Acts wars adopted on Jane 13. i 
:• in 1 the library was open Ad in January, 1*89, nt a town'*. 

Ti Bgantastnon was well planned, ind many voluntary woi 

placed their shoulder to the wheel. The fcfayorgave the to 
the meeting in an earnest speech, In wl toh hs referred t»» t 
question before them being an educational o&oj and Is any mov 

mrnt for I he :ul\ Jilirtrnieiit nf knowledge, and the i rpruwrm 

the -.(Tnh'tiori of fellow-creatures every one should be fnteram 
The Bpe«oh of the proposer, ao army ^urgeun-jreiieral.wuheuriir 

::iifl to I he point, He said that the nineteenth renhiry hud NO (• 

advanced tiwu it was rather an awkward thing for hi;a or aqyo 
*>1*h to speak on such a subject ns the adi f kii< wleu 

pi which Bacon said, " It alone doth clear the mind of all pertu 
nation." There were some people <>f whom it might he said th.i 
they could find sermons in stones, books in running brooks, 

I i in everything, but probably such persona were only ii ll 

proportion of about one to every 20,000 of the population, and ti 
1 i ■.-.[ in search of knowledge had to po to books for it. lie hi 
found in the limit of their own language nmi Literature that ther 

waa a ma^ninVcully rieh Hold of knowledge whirh in suoh 

library as they proposed would bo accessible at all b i 
at fchctr bidding to sSng bo them on every subject within toe coi 
past if human experience, in thought* that breathed and wor 
that burned, and suitable for over} varying mood • f thi 
They had also in their literature historians to toll them 
hiHt-iry, and biographers to tell of the great mo* who h ■' 
their mark on hwruturo, science, and commerce The/ had nlno 
IrnwIliT-i h> ii'll ol their adventures mdbtntit Ian. Ik, :ind men of 
Bcfonce addressing them as to how thoy had extortad nature 
Beerets for tha benefits of mankind. The seconder, among oth 
advantages paid that i'nblio Libraries created a feeling S 
fellowship among all classes, and in times oi distress ■•■ 
n BJWommon thing to see men out of work wait-tng oi 
puhlfe newsroom for fcho doors to be opened, so that 1 
get an early look a: the advertisement* in the morning "papers. 







MD] 1:1 Hi TUB KASTRUN OOl'STTOS. 



m 



(t WW Mt bl any moans a far-fetched argtUbQDt to say that when 
iiu ipolity hud dono right to those Suffering from w:mt of 

work, ti ■ p was a fooling of brother! I botwoon nan and man, 

mi boao oul >t' employment felt that they wore not left out In 

bat that there was a plu<T wioro th<-\* could go for 

information . Thin i-; do small matter, The proposition wan 

carried wii an, only about aaosea bands 

d up against it. I'he astonishment of local amateur 

laments a few years ago was quite universal, but the ardour 

: reg rd to there keeins b bavi cooled down, The one thou 

existing at Southampton rendered good service when the agtta- 

tSofl w*8 in progress, The proposal was moved, seconded, and 

dieonaMd, with the ultimata remit that In i rail house there 

■ ■ ds^entfents wheu the question was put to the 

vote, towns do) treated ass party question, and why should U 

vi the opening of this Public Library, Sir. W. R. Darwtn, 

:i ion (>:' t in- famous naturalist, recalled b snytng of his father's 

thai u wa* wondarful wrmt reading a man could du if ha only 

■ cd i dl i u i r a day to It, Eat It all deluded upon his 

i dol f. ::iiii that he believed any man who had 

read hall ai lioui a cum regularly, at tie end ol b year or two 

have read extensively on :uiy eulijeet. There aienow Homo 

md the demand for these reaches an average in" flflO 

a«la,v. Mr. O, T. Hopwood* tin- librarian and secretary, naturally 

:<i - * iii ihelTcs tt the ttbran better idled. An appeal 

i.nlr for gifts oi money and book?*, aw! in iln> (JiMir was a 

good response. Mr. J. Pussm «•.■■■■ Kdw.m.l-. -,^o a thousand volumes, 

naked the librarian to indicate win kind oi -^ dts were 

most vmntedj or most in demand. This is a kind of gift whicli 

• . . ,—. i !i.- hr.ii i ■ uliltri ;»ii ,mk! ciimiuithv. "Will nthn plca.S) 

councillor offered to lend ££00 free of interest for 

i t mthfl in order that bo< In naighfc be purchased. Mias 

Gordon, th< end Cfcrdon. has presented the 

whole o4 hii library. The British Museum would like to have 

A ■ 'o wo an Lppropriatonetis n the hooks reman 
i,t Boutharn >toa, un*l the host homi for thorn vim the PofaUfl 

rh< huv i <'•:■: i '■ i in looking out for a 

for ;i narmananl library, which it is hoped irfl] soon be 

oroctod.aj tno temporary promi Iroady congested with the 

anon al tho work. there ire <• iiio out) visitom daily. 

\i ikly organized and in operation, and tho 

Irendy iisaliaed what a useful institution they have 

. . ttdat. 

ruu had, since 18112, the noble Hartley Institution. 

'.i'Ii Hie Hire mi which ir «tnnds,C08t UpWOTdi OJ 

ml iMimprUi'H tin 1 lulluwiiitf drparlinautt ■' 'n-fidvti [Qg 

library, reference lilmirj ividing-room, museum, the art gaUerTj 

tacrtu hull, icionce m<l engineering (including the 

• ltd physics laboraturipa, &c.), atihool of art. depnrt- 

i literaturv, evenl \.- classes, and the reading-room 

of tt»*f Snuthnmrjtou Chamber uf Comuiereo Uk votVVw \>«»itv 



9QH 



I'lTiur iiimAnn:*. 



real and useful. Hut it was for main Llml tin- Hartley 

Institution could not supply oil the wants ol n Publio Library under 
the rates. The educational departments are very strong, and in 
i'vitv w;iy possible tbe Public Library is doing all it can t.> help 
and appwmeni the work at the Hartley. Tin* landing depart- 
ment provided books for the use of the students at the institution 
ut the science and other •'Iiihbw. The subscription to the library 

and reading-room ik half-a-gninea a yvu-, but OB I declaration 

i - ,■■ i un!i' : ii : r i. the income of the Intending subscriber la u&der 
£200 per annum, fas in let off by paying the reduced rate of 6ft, 8d. 
annually. The council have latterly adopted the plan of allowing 
the tahabftanti <>f the borough to become free borro we rs from 
tin' library anon presenting a guarantee form, duly signed, 
according to the peg ilations. it is noteworthy mat tneoounefl 
of the Hartley Inst itution aided the adoption of the Acts moat 
miili rially. mid it la a pleasure to record the (net. The Hartley 
Institution in well known to the present writer, ami there In tha 
oamesl wish thai it may have before it years of anch useful work 
aa it baa aceoroplishaa in the past. In these progreeBlve days 
there need be none hut the must irieudly rivalrj and emulation 
among these institutions of simitar aims and works. Onh there 
- ii: Ihe conviction, which becomes deeper tuid deeper, thai foi 
far-reaching utility, and value for money, there IS none whi( 
compare srfth the rate*supported institutions. 




CHA1TEK XII. 

PUBLIC LIBBARIES IN THE WESTERN COUNTIEl 

| HE old adage, that " Westward the course oi i mpire I 
its way," is not. yet fully exemplified, ^ o far aa this 
movement te concerned. Dorsetshire ia still without b 
U ^jJai" single adoption oi the Acts. Cornwall and Somerset have 
only one each, and Iievon is content with two. Gloucester- Im. 

\ u ,:,<:-< imly ui run. 

Bbistol. 

The present writer nww en tern the Bristol Public l.ihrarn 
without being slunk wilh iln- cosmopolitan eharnctor of tl 
frequenters of tlu xiewaroonaa and libraries, An active hnsinaaj 

nriii. drsii'ou.s of Mfiinfl Some of ihe lining ucwspujierii, « ill \mS a 

dose nroxlmity to tlie boys who frequent the room, and who 
diirt themselves in a very orderly manner. Near to them ngnln 
will he some ladies quietly perusing the papers, and mo Lliro 
hiii ihe ii nans there is au ail' *»t public utilii v, which is commend 
Bide to the city of Brintul. The history oi the Public i II 
movement hi this lurge centre of the west is deeply intern 
In a local pamphlet, dated NovcinlxT, 1871, cntilled "The i 
the Etor" Doing :i Letter from sixteen working men ol Uriitol 
the fii.\ir<:n aldermen "1 the city, there in named A* 0&e o£ six 






PUBLIC UnitARlBS IN- TUB WBBTMIN OOUKTnW. 



'209 



prrMUB.tf rcjuircnu'riU the acenmnnxlutin 
and newsroom. " We Efeoold bOglad. u fl 



I Public Library 
any the petitioners, " to 
i„ Jala to sit in onr own room and road b bx1 out ol anintereeting 
boolt lo fur wive* nnd families, or t" gel one ol the children to 

rood to ii-.. 9ucfc u I < woaW keep our boys Eroxa idling at 

v learn b > end ol in i -•*« i n* » and wfcjKed- 

hc«b,ju"mI would, maybe, prevent many "i them from going to the 

j.uliii M-. .md to the had. We wish our 

*lii].Irrii \. °s you do yours, ;> mi hlimild ho glad for them 

ii deal more> and to make t better use ol what they 

u vi' haw dene, ku thai if thev have got the :• I »jlif v they" 

i my qo1 all of thorn always iv>in;iin poor. Ignorant working: 
man. Nov hy the nowspiipiM- . •vmiiitR, we find that Bristol is. 
Car behind buob towns as Cardiff, \« m > irt, and Hereford in t] is 
matter, to aty nothingof Liverpool Manchester-and BftYnrngbaitt, 
which were little villages, we are told, when Rrtfitol merchants 

■ lirorj ni»l Us tor the una of their poor fellow- 

me fit; ''i in. mi. though we work for our bread, we do Dot 

believe In fgnor&DOt am mn ■.Inn «r (In in bad air in* in dirty 

MklnH, sit wo ask that Brfctul may in- placed under the Ptbnc 
Libraries Act." This request oi Bristol working men pxoctfcaltj 
i poll offe • i-\ he adoption in l*7*iof the Libraries' Aets in Bristol, 
tin 1 present ehi Lrman. Sir Joeej i; n Westuu, bains preaMenl of 
the public meeting which sanctioned the local application of the 
sm,-r thai time the iM'iK h.is mur ii'i-nm .iii'iiji, nail .t> 
Bristol dates its earliest Public Library t" ltd.'!, the city, eof.u 14 
tbe ad ifll work acconspualied by the centra] Library and its fire 
1 truncl 1 h .r< concer&e !■ ie determined to mors than hold its own. 
Tin- building* coTupriainp the central library are quite historic, 

1 ii< I t .r 1 I ii. I .in runt 1. 1 this old struct mv il i> a pleasure t<i turn 

to a burton of th< Briat* 1 Library by the lutv Charles Tovey, 
published in 1855 Inlt worthy Brleloliao died En I6881 after 
icctnjl the fifth ■»' the branches tpencd. Ria Interest In the 
movement never llaggod, and [••rig' before the adoption of the 
Acts, and down to tho timed hie 31 1 th. he never «*euaed to take 
mi Entereel Id the work Ot the libraries. Mr. Tovey was us a 
propliei 1 1 ii.- wildor&OM, foi tils little book 01 1666 woe 

red v. Hi :in .ijntiliv nut l>y :in\ meant) creditable to such a 

city oa Briatol. Ue say** " the citizens could aol be LrouBodfrom 

100 I" the advantage* ivxulting hrom PubHc 

.;:.'-. : 1 i-l mj hook remained unsold." He wms; before bia 

. and tlie n-orld will never »\-ertake its indebfc di M6 to the 

men who an in idvunoe .i their ncc and generation. Chiotty 

:irion the Town Cotitn-il n s;.;: iipponilo* :' wi I- 

;■ in innnire into hho Hiihfecf and negotiale with the 

1-uis ann oecnpanth of tin* Htizen*" building, culled the City 
y, and now n*ed ;i« iln» I'cninil lihrnry. Thirty-five i"o 
: go Ml' Tun v v\:im told thai, hr floufd do oothtng with 
inn. Their habits and uiannere, he was eon- 
aMeratcly i«ld, wore formed, tmd they would not Uft» WWAe. 
irteM and muaetzms it* they were established. The ovV lA ^ w 



•21 < I 



PITRLK LIBRARIES. 



Baffle tuna those n high authority, ami when a rornpamon [| 
mods wltli tin* objections raised la Hmtoi to Ifittflio the yum ass 

iii" j pis ara no* making of liicir UbrarfsSj t.ia> gain i'i the 

lilgtory of the movement is at once apparent, a inure powerful 

B|)peBJ lOT H city or town In adopt tfu> Act;; ual lake under it-. 
municipal wUg 11 library building wue never penned. The v.l.oi.- 
pamphlet I n*i*;i'.h'*s :t sph it of curliest pUTpOOO, and when Hrlstol 

#eb» it'* dot contra! library) .1 conenjnooation devoutly to ha 

wished, the committee will aeo that there ie placed i:i ii :t btisl <>i 
Charles Tovoy, and. if possible, some room or section »r the 
library bearing (he name of tlii* warm frieud of Public i.ibi 
and their work. Ii i.i needles* l" remind the reader that in IfiOfl 
i" i-.v, rin- movement was a mere bantling; but even then some 
eleven i< was had adopted the Acts, and most of the libraries 
were then in operation, 

The old building of which Mr. Tovcy writes so eloquently, and 
known as Gas eto Ubra*y,naa, as alreadj st btod, a quaint luotory, 
There is no dount that HriMol dates its earliest Public Library 
from 1€18, Mid the present central library is in promises] part 

of which came down tcotD thnt date, Additions have. 0] 0OQVSO1 

ijoon made at rations timoB] and it ha* now somowhoJ toe 
character of n rabbit warren. Hut, with its old oak stain 
boO&COSea. and a marvolloiiBly lino old carved mantel, it It 1 build- 
ing m winch the orchj&ologuit would linger; and when the time 
somes Eor a new boms Cor the central Library, it in 1.. he hoped 
that something will bo done to preserve this old huildingasa 
library. Perhaps as a separate juvenUe library and reading- 
POOm, and. say, a patents lihrory, it would Inn • it.- I . ;-t mid tne.-t 
appropriate use. 

But we oars Bean that Mr. Covey bad to agitata for nearly a 
quarter ol a oenlury before be saw the Acts i dopted, snd now 

. '..>ih in Bristol who knows anything of the working of the 
llbrarlei is asking why were the citizen- bo toohab as "to shut 
thomseive* off from so real a boon for so many years-' Other 
towns, especially tfis majn towns 01 the West of England, may 
well look closrl y mid seriously at The long fttrngftle in 1: 
and put the <i 1 "" ' "■ ! ' ■ '" wii.-thrr ii is worth while their 
mittinjr the sains mistake. Taunton and Gloucester may take 
heart and gather strength trow the experience ol the carats] of 

pest 
ii* operations >i the Libraries i* of 1 very solid nature 
of the branches is well situated In 11 thickly-populated suburb, 
and 11 Is noteworthy thai each of these onshoota from ths 

parent hIchi has Mirpa-xM <l in iIn operations the work Ol the 

centra! library. Very full statements ol their working 
sent periodically to the local press by the *hle c\ly librarian, 
Mr. Ji I.11 T.uior. who haa done u\\i<]. U develop those Institu- 
tions in Bristol. The last annual report shows the wi 
up to December dl, iw, and Is worth Mooting: — 



PUBLIC LIBBAftlKS IN THE WESTERN COUNTIES. 



Ubntrlci. 



^antral 

§*. Philip's ... 

gorth District 

gedUnd ... 
**«twells ... 



ToUIb 



21,235 
83,587 
48,187 
32,826 
14.578 
17,832 



218,185 



41,633 
59,123 
74,085 
57,770 
129,369 
54,438 

416,418 



210,300 
306,000 
202,700' 
256,225 
416,400 
160,650 

1,552,275 



fj 



670 

881 
1,049 

539 
1,760 

524 

5,423 



£63 19 

65 9 

76 15 

40 1 

145 10 



59 10 11J 
£451 6 4& 



The following are the classes of books issued for home 
heading:— 



Libraries 



Central 
St. Philip's 
1J. District.. 
Bed minster. . 
Kedland .. 
Hotwells .. 



769 

629 
1,039 

433 
1,760 

506 



ToUls ...'5,126 



3,020 
3,570 
6,376 
8,314 
7,038 
3,321 



31,639 



*5 



7,947 
15,642 
13,102 

9,518 
20,278 
13,728 



80,215 



24,709 
32,641 
47,550 
36,659 
84,161 
30,961 

256,681 



2,115 
2,316 
1,889 
850 
4,915 
1,853 



13,938 



II 

1 2 



1,135 
1,753 
1,008 
358 
2,406 
1,161 



7,821 



1,938 
2,572 
3,121 
1,638 
8,821 
2,908 54,438 



41,633 
59,123 
74,085 
57,770 
129,369 



20,998 



416,418 



The average number of visitors to all departments is about 
7,727 a day, and the average daily issue of books in the six 
libraries is 2,151 volumes. Nearly 19,000 of the population are 
actual borrowers at the present time. Fiction stands at a very 
respectable level, being, in fact, much below the average. The 
aggregate issue for the year was 634,603 volumes, which is over 
three books per head of the population for the twelve months. 

The first of the branches which was opened, the one in St. 
Phillips, has long ago outgrown in its work the accommodation 
provided, and the people in that district would like to see a new 
and commodious building ; but the claims of St. Phillips are not 
so great as is better provision for a central library, convenient for 
city men and others who pay a large proportion of the expenses 
incurred in relation to the Act, but have neither reading-room nor 
library suitable for the centre of the city. At the central libiary 



J] J 



WBI.IC I. H i:\r..:.<. 



there arc a oonsxderaM number ••( fuveoile books wined) are lent 

QUf lo boy* !o read ill :i lo.nit by thrn»rl\»_:- Vnjom - -pi :rji| nf 

whether ooyi really care for mm* an advantage u thta m i : 
mode i convert by looking in at the room on nlmoat any week- 
day f\t nnig. Tin- boys are orderly, and require i tl le 

Mii|ici'visiiiii. They quietly go on wirli their iva.ilin;* ami iln.* 

from n class of bookfl which nave bean idectod wftli greal osra 
and discrimination. 

The Redlands bnmoli i* the best of the branch buildings. 
The cos) ol tin* ground and structure wait £8,000. The dral 
in.- 1 west in the lending section at Redlandaoi boj ol the branched 

Some fcwenfcy-five young ludicB find employment at the various 
Public Libraries, and give the utmost satisfaction. Mr. Tfiylor h 
a great believer in (he humanUlnjj power ol the gunUer -» 1 to 
ii'i.iv work, and he Is no doubt right. Tin- salaries paid rarj 
from \'2». to 31& per week, according to the position, 

One very important feature of the work at Qriatol 1 1 thai at the 
centra] library e wi of each wecMy, monthly, and ojaarterly h 
tl bound up and kept for reference. The more popular 1 
arc retained also at the branch libraries. But in caoh ■•■ the ill 
duplicate numbers are utilised by being dissected and 
olasstfied tow distinct volumes under names of authors or eubj 
that the special contents ol Home torty or fifty numbcrt Of 
v« hmcK of periodicals can lie consulted in eueh single V" 
thus treated. Anout a thousand volunieshavc beei wruadc ut>, 
the content* of eaah of which i* entered in the catuloan 
library. Mr. Taylor is the first to have adopted this man, and it 
is one which has been of much service to his readers. fhc 1 riumoi 

rover a lar^e vnririy ol' RiihjceU, and are in much request. QOO 

inay ! "' taki 1 as a sample of the* re&t. iii the cat:dn<j-n<» it appear* 

1 raw " Evolution," and the article* on the subject I'min review* 
and magazines bound up in tibJlSvo vol. arc as folio ws^— 

liiuwin's 'riie"iie.i — " Wr.stmiuster Keviiiw." Dtmwuigiii — " Unitarian 
Review." Deweotof Man— "(Quarterly Review." ^iiatrefagwuh tin- Ha- 
maa Species— "Catholic World." Human Rewmddaneca to Lower Life — 
" L'jiigiuau'a." Our Origin as a Spociea — " Ibid." Danvini*au ami Kvolu 
n.--n of Man (Dr. M*Teh), Philosophy of Kvolntion— "Quarter); 
Straggle of &hmcu--''IuUI. M Pl>sicnlandR«Iig[uU8Kiiowloilg-« —"Ibid." 
Kolitiiuli and Science — " Ibid." Deeoueration— AdiUhw Wilaoii. Fis'i to 
Reptile — "CoTiihill." Animal Development— A. Wileon. My Coa»in the 
QoiiUs— "Tinaloy," Oerm Theory — "Nineteenth Century. ' Origin of 
Speeina and l~?nera — "Ibid," BvoltltiOB V. SOOislism— " National Re 
view." Nature ami Thought— G. J. Romanes. Man's Piatt u N 
— " Nineteenth Century." Animals and Haute-— " Contemporary Ru- 
view." Furra and Colours of Living Creature*— *' Ibid." Relation 1 
Darwinism to other Branches of Soienoo — " Longman'i." Roforo llioli 

11 Ninotconth Canturv." Evolution and Ethioa "National Bo view, 11 
Theory of Huri'dity— " iVnitttiaporary R«view." lli-rwhtury Oon ; 
" I'li.l. " Bvolatfon and Ri.'Dgion — "IhiJ." Xatural SolecttM 
Natural Theology — " Coiitciiiiwrary Review." Evolution of : 
T. H. IIuxlcv. Darwinism and Religion — "Maomillau"-- ' Bvolutiofti 
Ethics, mnd Religion— " Church ^uartorly Review." 






PI i. n i ICKADlca i\ iui '.Mill:-. eo ■ u 



1'Ki 






Tin' inTtT.'si :hhI v:ilu».' attaclltOg to iln-vi- VOlQAlOC '"llu* essay 

uriNT. iiri.nvp, preacher, author, and general reader isincalou- 
lablo, and iitf plan Rheum be extended to every Pnblie "Library 
in this i;nw centres* n the publishers nnd printers ol mngaKmea 
nod rei awn would make the articles separate one from another, 
in their publications, mutilation r»f context would be avoided 

(_'hri.ti:nham. 

TWb in i;i;'iii inland waterintr-place [a u town iii i nvied En 

us pui lie Library. The nov ba Idlng, opened in April, L889, Es 

the result ol .1 1- »*-;« I effort to commemorate the Mij yean 

ttatkn bas. The library is one of the finest building* tin: 

lows of DheUenhain possesses, and being' spacious and commo- 

- \> exactly the place for t Qourishiug Public Library, and 

schools of science nnd art. The Architecture Sa In the Italian 

Mvle, iiito which has been imported by the architects a consider- 

mi.i. ■ general detail Ed the Blizabtthan style. The 

building is I M feci in :< ogth, and the height from the basement 

t*» the parapet is iti feet. In the centre rises ffh*t may be 
described as pubic, unci below is un arch terminating in plain 
pilasters. Beneath too arch Efl th« portico with thrccfine entrances 
■operated by Ionic coin ana, and surmounted by a balustrade of 

1. which in the future it is hoped to place some statues. 

* >ti the extreme right of the front ol tho building is i\ handsome 

!■ WhiOh y-r\tjs to L,nvi-;i fi: m.kIi ti it 00 the OJM Bide, while on 

t lio left hum: ifl a pinnacle which nerves a eimilnr purpose on tho 

othw ~Kle. inside tho promises, the whole of the ground floor, 

^ ifh the exception of the entrances to the schools of science and 

-; devoted to the library. There is a fine vestibule with »'ou- 

\-.<rni<i:-'<:h Of )m:i n y kind;-, :im.t furnished witli OlOOk, barometer, 

- » i id 'uist:. of Shakespeare and Milton. Passing through awing 
« loora, conn imrieiitfon is obtained with the ret'ei-enee library, the 
landing library, md the newspaper and periodical room, the 
! ...r whfeh is :i most spacious room, and admirably adapted 
i o the purpose, for which It Is Intended, The library departments 

• nv also well nutted to the requirements of such rooms, nnd axe 
wreJl Lighted and ventilated. Xear the reference library la the 

. room, ;imi] pner oftlie basement !h intended lo be set 

■aside foi the use of the caretaker, and for the reception anil 

;.■. ,ii i <;ii>i tin- iew books. With regard to the science and 

;iit Boboola then ai e entrances in the tower, and (tie 

nAairenaei lead to i Boor on which are cloak rooms and other 

,.i( schools contain roui claan rooms which are 

■ iii('i .i bed by a corridor, while the school ot science contains n 

pnyaicnJ aboratory, a lecture room, a chemical preparation room, 

I'H'l a chcmicaJ laboratory, all of which arc tilled with tin latest 

: this class of .study and for the convenience of 

fireeeptora and students. The entire cost of tho new buildings, 
about £16,300, and to meet this there in a 
total lie loan, of £10,000 and Hunisfrom various .-:..m-e. ts 

I to. Sd.j or a deficit of £1,712 odd. \\\ W ^v>tY ^^s 



•Ill 



l'l m i. r.rnrttnrRs-E. 



tattled out locally, the architect being Mr \v it Knfght. n itaj 
BQoat BpproprlotA to uk Str Bftchaa] Hicks-Beach. Uort., H.P., to 
perform the ceremony of opening. In declaring me tihrary open 
Sir Nfichncl «jn.v** ;m it*M 'orh rin the ivlvnntofies of PuW1( ' Jorarae. 

Th086 blSfiltllHOMj he lAld. Wi»I*C In Kml'I:i!hI <Mnn>:ir:i! i\ . Is i 

recent outgrowth of our moclprn ftfvffiz&tion. .mi tins bmi was ..i,. 




with regard to which, ho thought, wv might take some little 
shame to ourselves. It was an axiom amongst us that orcr] chlW 
ought to bo taught to read* But what were the children to i 
Were they never, oe they we* upj to road anything except 
Which ww iiupruvinf to too mina ! Hedldnol «■<■ rhj [n thi* 
op any other matter they should expect the poorer > hate 

different tastes to themselves. On tlw contrary, he should 



t 



PUBLIC LXBBABIB8 IN THB VBBTBBN COUNTIBS. 215 

*H an undoubted fact that the hardest-worked men and women, 

W their labour physical or mental, were those who stood most in 

"wd of mental recreation. And what mental recreation could the 

Poorer classes have ? What were they tempted to have ? Look 

a *the floods of vicious and socialistic literature, unhappily now 

to cheap in our country, which they might be tempted to poison 

weir minds with if something better and purer were not offered 1 

"teni in its place,. Working men had now more leisure than 

WQerly, and that was another reason why an effort should be 

raa <3e to elevate and refine their tastes, so that that leisure might 

J devoted to something better than the gross sensual indulgences 

■ the working classes of former generations. If they wished 

P Co t>le to become good men and good citizens, they must think 

n °t only of their serious pursuits but of their pleasures as well ; 

an ^*» to his mind, great as the good might l>c which was to be 

S^ixied from the solid and improving literature found in Public 

Lioi-aries, there was also a good quite as great to be gained in the 

m °i*al and intellectual recreation found in the writings of the best 

**V el -writers of all the ages of English literature. 

. The paying off of the debt is at present rather a tax on the 

tocome, but the ratable value being large it is not as great a 

hl *rden as it would be in some towns. In providing themselves 

**th a handsome structure for their rapidly extending work, the 

^neltenham people have acted wisely, They have the finest 

J **olic Library of any inland or seaboard watering place, and this 

18 a. fact of which they may be reasonably very proud. The total 

fruiter of books is now about 1 6,600 for their f),119 borrower*. 

^>s is a large percentage of the population, and the class of 

**>oks read will compare favourably with any library in the 

?°uthern or Midland counties. Fiction stands low. ( >ther watcr- 

in S"-places like Malvern, Tunbridge Wells and Scarborough should 

2|* the fact that some 1,200 residents and visitors use the institu- 

JJon daily. With an existence still short of six years the library 

j*^ a .y veil be satisfied with the position it occupies, and its popu- 

SP^y is not a little owing to the librarian, Mr. William Jones, 

*>o received his training at Leeds. Gifts have flowed in, and 

n °Dg the official bodies from whom they have received books 

of *»k^ e '^^fcees °f the British Museum, the Lords Commissioners 

. the Treasury, and the Delegates of the Clarendon Press. There 

gj also been a gift of 1,300 volumes, on Fish and Fish Culture, 

OIQ jy r jYancie Day, who spent some years in India as a Govcrn- 

„ p Q t official. Outsiders are permitted to borrow on payment of 

th billing subscription. The report in Cheltenham is that 

-^y would rather be without the post-office than without their 

*T>blic Library. 

Exeter. 
Exeter has a beautiful building, as will be seen from the 
**ompanying sketch. But the library has to take a back place 
10 the museum and schools of science and art. 

The charge on the rate for this building is £225, which greatly 
impoverishes the work, and in few places is an extra penny for 




VTOMC 14BHAKIK* IN THE WK«Tttl:\ i-ors'TIE*. 



217 



museum purposes more needed than in Exeter There are I 4,800 

i.tiiiiiH-M, i)ni ;in- 1 bin v Issue of LAfl books out of this number, snd 

population 1« nn exceedingly poor show. There arc 1.C30 

' roweri Exeter boaataof n rather pi»werrnl literary «aocicty. 

wiiii : 11 in.- true "i ova r £ 400 a year The number of member* la 
-«i?, and they ii:t> ■ a library containing » maaa of old-faahioned 
and obsolete books which miiy ourabei the ahefasa. ir the mem- 
bers nf this society would throw their Intereat and euthusii-.ui 
tutu the w<nk of (he Public Library, they would jM ;■ belter 
return tor toe money iii'-y now spend lutuei] declining society 
1 1_> RO-opemtinA; v* it K Hie library committee they would i- 
themeclvea nod what should be u strong publu: institution. 

Vl WPORT (MON.). 

Nt irpor i.i m»w hud seven ycars'lifo in ite now buildings. These 

\wi. taooetol about ■ Cv', ">»>•>. It El doe ':;n.--l IBS t'vr 

rtj to of English i: malfleonoo, and has a frontage, on one side, of M 
foot, and on another of LQ8 foot. On the ground fla r, a reading 
ki i di w pupej room, 58 feel by 86 feci and 30 feet high, is 

(centre of the block, Ughted entirely trow the roof, 
'in- room hiu> placed on the loft, 90 feet wide and Attending 
nearly itn whole length, the lending Horary, designed with shelves 
to aoeonuin dale 5.000 volumes, nnd with the side next the reading 
room Qtted wilh xiii Iltiu- sashes, malting it accessible on this aide 
to borrovers. The aouthsldi ol thin room extendi to the lone, 
from wWch light is obtained The curator's rooms are placed on 
. right "i the main entrance, ind eompriae Hvirig- 
cu wbili 'ii tnc left of rbe entrance comes first a committee* 
hi i feet, occupying th* eorner. Between thfaand 
1 he end of tho lending Iflwary la the reference library, 2C feat by 
ilettng, with former butldinga retained, tne whole of 
tin 1 ground Moor accommodation, The first floor coven the whole 
am of tiie rooms below, except the newsroom, Tin* Boor te 
devoted entirely to the accora nodation of the science and art 
in-, ni which Mru so unwigt*], communicating with 
other, i-; to l)i! throw ii open as ii gallery of art on special 
ii ii'ijii red There & on the second floor a large uaet 

->'"i modelling ru and a suite of ro s tor the curator, The 

ontranoeifl Ranked with red puli.-.hvd ^nin^ti.- eoliuuiiN, tinted and 

Ided. On the left-hand corner if placed a circular turret, 

'""ir.|im tin top, sad covered with lead, which aesEstfl externally 

• sharactor of the building 

l tic total number of books Is not vet large for a population of 

" M h 10, being only 16,18a Borrowers t«. the number of 8,600 oho 

'/!•*>;,. 'Die run upim fk'ti' down, and other class* ol 

****iu<ire an going Up, and the use of the v i'« -r--:»vi- Ubrnry ir. 

iv on the There is a strong j ivonllc section i t 

J js « Literature to the extent of 1,100 volumes. Newjport, En 

'" l > torn • i h Miunv other towne, jp extending its bounds] toe, and 

i in tlio IWoiigli There will in I'nturo 

it- JJ850 at present jftftdfiA tefl \\\^ 



■ 



318 



I'lHJJ I.IUHAUIRS 



rate. Other luwus bag liNjiiiug iii tin* extension of I ovotwii 

ln»uiif]arivf> lli likely to Bid them lin.uii'iiillv. At the turn uf the 

nev branch library and reading room for the FUlfwenlh 
dietricl wbi opened For many yearn it. ha* been om of i do leaa- 
bng aspirations of the district to posses* a branch library vorthj 

the iii QC; and the resident? . ie now place-J in pi m ■ I of a 

building which i< in every way creditable to all oonoor n od 

lhrrc-nt<»rryrd Imil.iiu^ nOS fri »nt:i».-- <»1 ;; I lVci, imd ;ihul* Oil 

fomple Strootf the thoroughfare In which the Sailors Homo and 




tfBWrOAT POTJLIO UliIl.WIY. 

TiiMtitutr i.nvf lUrn local h.ii station. The roof line ie broken bya 
central pedi nont,the tympanum <>f which ia enriched by earring, 
and the panel below is charged by the appropriate motto. ■• Kno* 
l- dp In power." The front ierod briekj with Bath Btcmoaroeelnea. 
On antenna; the building the raoffaxino aadeheee room, -.n 03 
l ir ,, i. soon and on the opposite ride of the entrance is 
■ n itaker'woom, no placed thai he maj command the entire 
building. The main stairway nexl adjoins, Leading to 
rooms which will probably bo ultimately used for science and art 
purposes. Then, in the rear of the building, ii utoated tbfl 
general rcfldine-i-ooin. it m ample in every respect, being 16ft. 



rt*Bii M ■ \i ir» in me wbtc&bn <A>esr«!a. 



219 



bv 83ft , .i:i'l lighted by windows at the side, and fay a large l*;iy 
,n tin- end. The Mayer htus expressed bio intention to provide a 
iUrin'ed-gluat wind* w, and other gentlemen are inclined bo follow 

. ■ | i roue example. The tutnleoal, inrhnlinn nitirjus, wm- about 

1,800, Mr. Janice Matthews hue boon librarian tor ovcrfourtcon 

The museum and school ol art and Boienoc are dcpnrt- 

■ii. -lit-, the work of win.'h, like Unit <>t the library, i* rapidly 

extending. 

Plymouth. 

l! i;j always a pleasure to taken peep into the work at Plymouth. 

With a live librarian, en earnest committee) and a constituency 

who bsurv how tc ttflfl their Public Library, it could indeed scarcely 

be otherwise In Inguat, 1878, the Horary waa li rat opened. 

and autee that time Ltnaa grows rteadlhr iii public favour and 

neefvineaB. The work la boused tatheoldCruildbfill, and thirteen 

this t'U I ling .ii- tvererl Thu purpose fairly well; hut 

ra rementa of The library have long since outgrown the 

tj nf the hailding. \t thepreaenl it "emu ;iius nearly 30,000 

9 i an cs, in ill hranehee of literature, and not only so, hut the 

ding-mom « arc rreu.ueui.ly rrowded to innuivenienee, ami the 

rk ii.-i- inin parried on iniW considerable difficulties. Another 
jectloo to the building la Unit it .ibuts on one of the noisiest 
ui i-i % of the town, and the squalid appear* toeol the -*n "round- 
added to the dmgiues* of the building itself, render it 
getber en undesirable place foi a PuuUc Library iu a town 
Plymouth, Pot tlic ered.il of the town itself, and for the 
1:- sake of those who ierve,aad arc Bcrvedatthe library, 
state ot thu--. «;ili- i<i* - ;m iv nin,.-,iv. Mr. "\V. U.K. AY right, 
borougt librarian — a good, deaignatiou, by the way, whirb 
jat fall into general we ho* long kepi before hie coruniittee 
Med toi ji new library building, and some of his townsmen 
C kind enough to any that, like the boy in the soap advertisement, 
<i'Y<\ (ill he gets it. A e there is some corporation 
y m the i larkct, some leaaiblc plan for securing the 
cling a building may be within measurable distance. The 
report covers a period of fifteen months, nn alteration in the 
t« of publication of the report necessitated by the recent .change 
ti m <ji Plymouth, ae acounty borough under the Loot] 
"'•n.iLu.'ot Act, Tho femes in the lending department and 
nation of books in the reference room comprise, during the 
naraod, an aggregate of 251,739. or a daily avenge of 7 ltt. 
lgorea en themselves ax^ sufficient -to enow that there in plenty 
vork toi hfl library atauT, and that tho desire of the public for 
Dg of ail Icinda keeps up steadily. The report of the librarian 
[G8 oul "' thirty-two, and Mr. W right has mmh 
'. i*yi -i ■!!" and instructive character. Perhaps the 
**t- Interesting par ul rlie re|aa't U where he gives, [particulars 
*o«s conditions nnder which about 1,000 volumes hnri Icon Benl 
^^* OB perpetual loan to deven of the Board Sehoola of the town ■ 
in continuation of that report he stated thai the new 

°PtU7ture bad given thorough n.ilisl'aelion He \v&\\ sAh'y\va\a\yv 



-****» 



■ *ll 



\ run Mm-. 



whole od the • i la hi which these branch libraries warn p 

and Found tin* boola b anffbrmly good condition— -verj few taunt 
injr. and the privilege highly appreciated bj ildrra tn 

::.n j i".ri\ case the teachers I ■ >iv :■ warminterem In iho matter, 
and ware doing tiii'ir oUnosl to preserve the hooka in good ortici 
;niil to encourage the children i<> in- punctual Eii Elielr mum. as 
well He careful la their nee. Vft© careto! observation aud oou< 
saltation with all the head teachers tie was "f opinion thai the 
experiment had proved n.- -i -u rejrful, and that its extension 
would prove a boon t" the town. Mr. Wright ia one of the 
pionoora in tii:> nee of Board Schools foi library PunioeoBi end 
Hi-.- | iii if Icatincd to he univorsalh developed da 
m Mediate future. The Plymouth School Board ma 
l>orto<1 tin Hii^-soRtionp, and the mcu&crn ;irc to I"' concTBti 
(tn the waulta, so far, ol their effort* Both it! the I oyui ad girls' 
schooln substantial ttookcancehavc been provided, nod the librarian 
Iiiih prepared n tial t I i - i Bp dn [y suited to children "i aohool 

IgC, lii < vlii. h t!i(Ti« in no n-itsoii to d<ml>l will |>q • rfi*ely road 
by the y»n:i'j 1'Mj.!- .n whoso intciv-siM tl i- new dopartun 

boon made. 0a certain days of the week the children, both 
and girls, hare the privflogo of hiking homo d l»ok each tram 
the library, and when (these have boon rend :m nxehaTiiro of hook* 
talcaa place between the different Softools, mo thai the children 
nve always having some new and fresh, with which to interest 
t nornaelvea Mid odd to their stores ol knowledge. Con 
observed in the ohotec ol books, the object being to comWafl 

iiettrnelmn with aninxemi'nt, unil the System la DOl to I" 1 Confined 

to ii e Board Schools alone, but will be 9 malrj it rhs service ol 
I'lininntury BohoolH in the town. II is" anticipated thai 
graal advantages will accrue to the cause o1 education, .is a 
perusal of the books provided for the children pan *< nrcely I 
prove ' valuable adjunct to the instruction elven In the schools 
during the day. It Is auggcaW that In further extension i I 
movement ovunlng readjn^ruoiiis should be started it tome of 
Hie Board Schools, ■where working men might have the opportu 
uiiv ol' K|H'iiiiiim ;i profitable hour or two in read asj Ll e daiU 
oowsnapers and magazines thai could easflj be provided tor eucn 
it purpooe, 

Mr. Wright i* an enthusiast over luml literature, imd is IlimseM 
un antiquary of no mean quality. He lias lately written 
published -i work on "The Blue Friars," which gives .-t vwi 
latefeating aketoh ol the saying's and doinge of i little 
fraternity who gave themselves this designation, He baa tbua 
added ^ new chapter in the hi tory ol old Plymouth Ed bifl 
resort ho atatos that the extent ol Devonshin and Co 

lihTiUUre 1H MO great, and its ramifies! I'. 'Ii:- *t e\te»tM\r Il.it .i 

muoh more liberal BUpply is needed. The ml • yields about 

Cl^OOQi and the library nnd all its ramifleations »f worl 
threepence per head par year forth* sntirc population, Lnwhal 

other >v; iy could '.he Plymouth people or any peojde ■.< \ 
[hiiiiy wovth -I Niieh escollenl valuer 









l-llilli l.lflllARIRfl IV I'llt- U K<1'KIiN miIVTIKv 



•_':?! 



&1AUUU ir.. 

< m May A, I8d0,a meeting o( the etttaens of Salisbury, oonrenad 

1 iv ri ■< p n-til in r» , \\:i> In 11 :il I in* i loimcll 1 fuitsr, for 0)6 purpose of 

i'r.t!"ii|ci;l,;: tl< . .■ ! I i:. 1 1 illity of EUlOptJUg Mir FUDlJC 1 &\ " LI l6 ■ 

Ant* iii the - 1; v. He Mayor oreaided, and there was n large 
attendance. Tin* Major explained the object of Khe meeting at 
soma leujrth,uud also tha steps that would be taken if a poll wans 
duinauded< He said he J ■ -i* 1 beard something alioui nolil iceia this 
er, bill it seemed to him that politics had nothing whatever 
tu do u iih it. If it was an advantage In hn\r a Public Library, 
ih.it idvnutuge would I* shared by al aarUesi Lb wan entirely 
a question foi the atepayore to dot idc weather they would go bo 
i hi expense or not of establishing .1 library. A poll wasdemaj 

irUI betaken on June :'.•■ date subsequent to fchbportioa 
. 1 the present work going bopreee. It la to be Hoped that Salis- 
bury a .11 do [teoU credit. 

Tnuno. 

nw whole county oi Cornwall hu# only one ratc-aupported 

: ) ind tin- cathadral Oity of Truro may hoist ita lihmry 

1 indard an 1 call upon tho towns in the couuty to sat their houao 

in order, Hie library was established in tho beginning of 188ft 

coato! fitting up the room-; was C36. Fhe nucleus of tha 

l i \ book« was presented bj Mr. Norton, who took leading 

.Mi in the foundation ol the institution. About 000 volumes 

sure purchased, nt a cost of C$), out of the fundi it: the committee's 

osaJj uad upwards •( 1,-hmi volumes ware presented. The 

1 ite I eost of magazines and newspapers to tho readinjr-room 

: 1- y«w la £23 (Oa,, and many are presented. The rent ol 

tha present room* is £2fi per annum, and the accommodation baa 

idy become utterly inadequate to the requirements. The 

iv in £30 per annum, for which the service* of a 

11" iiMiriT my srr.iuvil. The i-ohI • *l" roitl, gns, and cleun- 

- per annum ; printing, stationery, and pontage, £6; and 

"finding, repairs of iviulvs, furniture, «c., another Eft mi*, 

r '*vi^hi v . is now the Truro Library exists on £-|ifi a year. Tha 

'' Oh dime with their l>000 books is not by any means alight. 

■ *-. Pi w more Edwards, the proprietor of th« Umdcn * Echo," 

: ig the last year or two Ixxm showing bis Interest in 

*a 1 lie Lib ary work, \moi.- some thousands ol books which ha 

Baaa | (f -, -,i, , ; r 1 v.n i ms Public Libraries were 960 rolumea to tho 

*~» ire Lil in y. These included seta oi good stan bird Literature. 

J ■ '«- lilit.u \ in t!,i-. l 'ornish city Ima lia-l a struggle during ita first 

;'* •"« 1 ' Oornishmen arctoo ejcatlorera oi progress 

•jot ii Laaguii h for lack ol support. 

the curly part ol 1887, an effort made to get the 

tti-d in Peiuonce. 'Hie difficulty winch lc*l to the 

'j on tlic pari of the ratepayers to accede to the proposal, 

iprobnbilil} uf boing able to rnaintuiu alibmryonan 

iictirueof t'f.jO. ft't-iizancc hoa a. PubUo Library, but not under 

Here there are Hf'XXl volume*. Some time, perba^, 

*<• »ban have this n raoJ Public Library, It wou\d\in\e a^tv^ 



222 ratii i i"n \i. 1 1 - 

^li'»i.->uiin: iritcc! upon the movement in Cornwall i i 1m i ■ 

town VDIlld I 'la.-., itself in tts 

WmwoR :i r i i y ■■ uii 
Tlio PdbVo Libraries' Aetc wotq unanimously adopted 00014 time 
ul'<< 1 ■■. M 1 etimr. An ample central »lto he* been pur- 

ahasea nt a cost of U500, partly by subscription and partly by rote. 

It wiw intended Mint Iho rato kIiouM be allt wed to aoournnlntCj 
an li> form n Ixmd for (he oreetiou of aHiiratriebiMUnn;, bill it \\ 
afterwards dift»'^< i"'«l that the amount ot rote ovied da ring 
year must l«> <»x ponded within thai period, and the sobexrieioi 
accumulation had to (^abandoned This h w caused considerabJ 

Tin- Tows ComraiMionerfl have recently covenanted with th* 
lord of the manor to rent on perpetual lease his lute ri*mden«.'< 
" rtteOxove' estate! ompristna; it mansion beautifully - 
In about eight acres of finely wooded grounds -the whole boi 
Intended as a parti for tree public use— and .*i portion ot thi 
mansion \» to tie devoted to the purposes of a Public Library 
it is hoped thai the neeeaaary structural alterations will '»■ 
plefied, and 1 newsroorn ami library commenced early in tht 
eozntug year. 

CHAPTER XT II. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN SCOTLAND. 

|HK operation or the Public Libraries' Act <>i I860 wa» 
extended to Scotland and Ireland a lew years afterwards, 
but the power of assessment by it ana the subsequent 
Lata was so limited as to Karaer its provisions uracil 1 
r:ii]y -imperative for small towna inles 1 arom 

benefactor came forward and prcaented to the community .1 sui 
hntldmjr. equipped hi whole or In part with n mffleiei ey «t 

BUbaeqoeni lPgf*):>Mnn has modthVil ll 1 ■ mdir.ions iimler whit * 
the Arts may be adopted, and also the procedure. The ruoai 
important amending let* art! thai »f [BOA, applicable to Ifoffland 
and Bootlttiul, and tfiut of 1877, applicable to England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. The law, as it applies to Scotland, b««a na wll 
\rt of lw.r, ill*- previous statutes of I8o4an<J Iflflfl having bei 
by ii repealed. Bj the Consolidation Act of 1887 the Act 
1897 La f884j bo faraa thev relate !<■ Scotland, are repealed. 
this Act, anon the requisition in writing: ot ten or more to 
holders in m\ burgh or pariah, the chief magistrate ol 
burgh, or "i the case of ;i pariah, the sheriff .4 In- com 
which such parish or the greater part of the area 
situated, shall ascertain tin opi none ol the householders d 
burgh or parish as bo th< 1 loption of this Act in the manner >ct 
6 ri 1 in Schedule* A. or D., which will lie found in the i\ 
provided that where in any burgh the nui ibci 1] hou 
exceeds three thousan< trie obi E mo 1 ■ hall adopt 
,.-■... . .lur. , by way ol vi tin ■ paper 101 forth In gi 
w any »ilirr . - 1 >r ii :-l'all Im iptlonal to the ch - 1 n 




PCHMC LIBRABIES IN SCOTLAND. 



928 



hoxifj, as tho Cftfio may bo. to adopt such procedure faf w;ty 



ol 



the procedure b v y 



»f puhla 



tone, 



roting papoi 
forth in Seneautc B. When the Acts have once boon rejected in 
any place, two whole yean most elapse before the proposal to 
adopt them i?aq be renewed. 

In U burgh the initiative rests either with the magistrate* and 
OOUncfl or with any ten uousehouldars, either oi which I todies 
iniy present to theehiet or the uanlof mafrtstTeW e rex uiaitton 
in wiciiiL', asking Mm to ascertain the opinion of the ratepayers 
on the question whether the Public Libraries' tots shall ba 
adopted in the burgh, n rests with the acting tibial magistrate 
ately to determine whether the opinion of the ratepayers 

"hall In- ;iwvr;:i 1 1 led lit Jl public, meeting called dip ill*-- purpose, 

ir bi n Issue ii a voting paper to each ratepayer. 

of the eighl largest towns In 8ooUaad— Edinburgh , Qtasgaw, 
Dundee, Aberdeen, Greenock, Paisley, Leilli. and Perth — only 
four fa n e! adopted the Public libraries' Acts. Twenty towns 
have now adopted these Acts, and it isinatrootive bo observe when 
the chief Impetus came. Between 1*<>1 and 18<K>, ouly one Utwu; 
i ii! to 1870, three: 1671 to 1880, five; 1881 to 1686, four; 1885 to 
1690, seven. Thk ia a rei \ creditablo record, and bonsle Bootlaad 
u\a\ well hold up her head ami he proud of the part hIic has taken 
in ilii.- morement. True, there is the Bad case of Glasgow; hut 
. thin the recent failures to curry the moremc i < n con- 
fined to two, Elgin and Falkirk, But far a long* time Scotland has 
been better off for small libraries than any other part of the 
Doited Kingdom. Ia travelling from time to time north *d tin 
Tweed, the author has been omaxod at the number of llbrarieft, 
»p1cTS duba, literary and scientific institutes, bo that there is 
f gramdfor Baying that Scotland has held has own A cynu 
•, that there ia a great deal of banian nature in the rate- 
payers of tho Scottish towns. 1'oH a northern town on the 
ir Library inicstion on the simple merits of tho case, ;md 11 
i;i |y KiicroKsl'iiI, lint ltd gome generous citizen present 
a library l<> the town, or offer to do ho on condition that the 
Acts he adopted, and it it* surprising how 

upecdilyondunnnimouKiv the mov enl becomes an aooompliahed 

fact. D&I this is only :i prool th.*it Scotchmen know how t<» 
appreciate a practical gut for the benefit oi the yew mi com- 
ity Li stated elsewhere the history of the Public Library 
ament in Scotland Is u history of Mr \ndrew Curuegies 
graemu< jrifts t<» Hickc institution*. 

Moat oi the Saotch Public Libraries otoss their hmMfnjr* for 
Ing, and to give ft holiday to the utarf, from two o'clock on 
i v in the week. This is done at i'n-.l y, Dundee, and other 
pianos. 

l: would be a good I ilng tbi the Scotch Public Librarians to 
form -i -uiotll association among themselves, as the Mersey and 
Midland districts have done. There arc raanj points oi 
I library son iiny which could be discussed in <\\vu-u\\\\ 

way :.■ ■'■'<' gittht'iini-H. 



2-J4 



rum if: u»icari»>. 



The rojecU E bae Lota in Aberdeen vu ;t matter <•[ ooaaldei 

■ii'i« surprise, considering thai the refusal came In fee face of the 
-ill but certain prospect that a suitable building to\ a Public 
Library would bo provided rent free, that prelimin u 
tioiiR to the amounl ol W,000 would be forthcoming, and that l£n 
steel ci'tiu- Mechanics' Institute Library, numbering a mttt 
12,000 volumes, would become public property. In spitr m 
advantages, the citizens of Aberdeen, in public mooting a 
rejected the Acts in 1873. The meeting was attended by more 
than i BOO persons j bat of these litth m ire than one tl 

purl m the vote, whi.-h wn*- taken I ■_> ineuufc >t' -igncd paper*. 

ii u irunben worn tor adopting tbo Acta, 184 5 aguinnt, . 
nmji Hty ugainst, 8M1 Tin? result wee generally attributed to the 
opposition <>' Hk- proprietors of small house*, and of the iho] 
k*v|KTh. who objected to the burden of an additional rate. But 
among the leading hard-headed Bjririta ol the Granite ''it 
matter was not BEefy to reak here-, and at the end of 1*83, ©n it* 
|?6M>pa1infl generally known that the members of the 3d ■■ 
fnstitul urn wore disposed to hand over their build. ibrary 

to the town, provided the dtteens adopted the Public Lil 1 
Icta. a 'I'-ii'nT bnpetiu was given to bhepublla feeling in favour 
ol em Btcp Thus strengthened, thfn feeling found articulate 
sxpreflglos at a meeting convened at the Instance or a rororn 
rejit'euciiiMtiv.' of the Mechanics Institute and the Traded 
Connoll, and the practical raaull whs the presentation I 

s in! lime of a requisition tn the chief magistrate of the nity. 

in cocnplianee with this requisition the Provost convened and 
presided al a meeting of householders, held mi March 85, 1884 
On ihis oocBfilon, the adoption of the Arte was moved 
seconded in preacnoe of a large assembly. A poll being again 
demanded unl lakcn, 1 v. j:- ;ni loinn-ctj thai ol' 1,1'/) (juallflci 

householders present a1 the meeting, 891 rotod for 1 in- proposal, 
.1 in I -'04 against it. The Tublie Libraries Act* were a*vurtfj 
declared to be duly adopted. The first duty. 1 the . mimntt'T « .'- 
to enter into coaimimication with the directors 01 (he M< oh 1 
Institute on the subject of theh proposed gift Mi 

. >n, it wo* aiTangcd that the Mechanics' Institute 

building in Market Street, together with the library ther. .. M .i 

its furnishingB, should be transferred to the town for behoof ol 
the Public Gofafft subject to certain reserved dene, amount- 
ing to about U'^oOO. Viiothei thina h 1 t 1!' no \v»s 1 ■ make an 

[nation of the whole of the volumes belonging to the 
Mechanic*' Institute with the view of Gauging able 

requirements ->t the Public Library, flu- ami boing to raise the 
... i: In Hi"-' meantime to about 15,000 volumes. Of the I'/hi 
examined, as many as 3.107 were found to be so aorl 
imperfect from various causes that they had to be c-ntirei 
a»de. With regard to the remainder it was evident that time 
:<utt money would require to be uwge-Vj expended before they 









rirnMf.' LnniAaiEfi in- scoti.avi>. 



225 



could bo mode available for public use. In view of these facte, as 
well as of (hi- desirability of enabling tho citizens to onjoy the 
privilege of tho lending library as early as possible, it was 
concluded that the best course to pursue would be to concentrate 
ivory effort on thr w.-rlt of organizing and onta-t »l ishla^ tlM latter. 
The number ol volumes thus obtained VM 8,237, ol which 5,370 
passed through the bookbinders' hands, and were repaired or re- 
bound at an average cost of t*d. per volume. A* soon as access 
could be got to the large hall, on its being vacated by the school 
of art. niic-huU" of it wttfl adapted as a reading-room, the other 
baB being reserved for thfl OM of the b*inling department. The 
former was opened in August, and the jmpularity of this part 
of the library in well shown by the ever-increasing number of 
en tl tat wrong the room from day to day. The KMFtUMSDt b 
ufii-lighted and comfortably furnished, and, as indicated, w 
largnly frequented, particularly in the evenings. 

Starting with Koine I.VXJ0 volumes, it wan calculated that Urn 

raiders would number iimut fi/100. As a matter of fool they are 

more than double that figure, which cJeaxty demanstmtei thai the 

i'L'cs of the library are fully recognized and tiikeu advantage 

li_\ i he community. Every endeavour has been made to 

-t.se the slock as expeditiously as possible, in order to meet 

tin's increasing demand. It may lie of interest to mention that 

the standard of reading li WDMrkflWy high, tho amount (, f fiction 

read being, relatively, compered with other libraries throughout 

the coaatry. rery low; and this is all the more observable from 

the fact that under tho heading of fiction is included all juvenile 

books and all puetieul works. These rooms, with a reading-room 

nil the opposite side of tho etreet, have, from the time the Acts 

were placed in operation down to the present, been in use. There 

ore no wall cases i all the books are arranged in double-faced 

caws which stand in the middle of the floor, and are mounted on 

heavy castors, Each cuse hold** on au average about 800 volumes. 

The work of arranging and cataloguing the books by Mr. A. W. 

Itoberfoon, M,V, the librarian, gave the utmost satisfaction, and 

Uw catalogue ha* been greatly in demand. It may here ho noted 

I fiat the fines for detention of books amount daily to ub much as 

[Ofti but probably thifl mi v ill be reduced when the people arc 

l "*'i< r acq minted with tho working of tho library. Jn future :i 

id to bo affixed to each book, so as to give the readers an 

MX'rt'Uiity oi marking tor themselves the date when the book is 

uo -i tho ibrorv, But the committee were early satisfied that 

•■ul«hnir in Markel Street, however it might be. made hi rueel 

' Dook pressing oeeds of the Library, was not, and could not 

my -atlsfaction lie, adapted as a place of permanent oeeupa- 

5J*j * ti«i bad under their oonsiileratioo the propriety of selling 

ling and of obtaining a suitable site elsewhere on whit fi 

I' r«et >nt ipoeialbj designed for the purposes of the library. 
nil Inquiry, and having regard especially to considera- 
'"»>» of oast arid convenience of position, the committee arrV\p.&v3i 
1 i rjdDfoa thnt <*/ nU the w'tes proposed one on t\\a eaattiiAe til 



4 ' . 



\ft 



2iM 



PUBLIC tlBF-lMB*. 



Union Terrace combined the most advantages, and won vol! 
muled f<»r *uch ■* building A great point has been gained by the 
miiwcription of fnnda nearly sufficient to provide new Library 
buildings without trenching on the ordinary revenue of the 
Institution; and the tost report issued at the end of :i i \. n 
«hows that the revenue ha* hoeu found sufficient not only to meet 
the OOM "f neintenaooe, but to provide BDf a considerable expan- 
nl on of the library. The re<meat for fnnda for the new building 
tins met with an exceedingly good response, Mr. OUDtgfi 
tributes I' I, Odd, r* ml the Town Council n siiinilar mini. The 
committee are able to state that the stoeV td ihe library Inw boon 
ed from \9fi94 roLumes to 28,389"- un Increased Dotaatiuui 
2,tt02 volumes. The demoud on the part of renders fur 
again shows a substantial increase, the number nf rob im i 
Ixurowed during the year having risen from L'M.ttfo to i* li 
Out of thi* tarn trwrtttra only lour books are for the present 
beyond ilie reach of the committee, riiu borrower- having left 
town and given no clue to their present abode* A\ howfirer, 
they may fbt take heart of grace and supplv Hell CODJMlGXl, H li, 
[X-'rhaps, too early to abandon all hope of recovery, EHpcdaUy 
when it li oonmered that during eighteen axontbi, when tin: 
total issue reached 340,431, no single volume hOfl hern lost. 
Whet do the Inverness people say to thai (octf 

'Hie Aberdeen report always affords interesting rending, ami k 
convenientlv divided nndcr bonding* epitomizing in a pltrn 

the work of the library 

ArutmiR, 
To Airdrie belongs the credit ot having been th m Es 

Scotland to adopt the Public Lihror os 1 Ad 
by the nil i)ttt liiiaiiimous voice of the rotepay 
u. started, in temporary and inadequate proiniftt . within 
months of the resolution being adopted. The growth of the 
library has been Blow, owing to its limited income from the nit.-, 
which is «ml.v CU5 B year. Vet it is doing C»od work. 
!i_>w a lending library of 8,000 volumes. The total mini- 
books taken out during Ihmii win L8.7«2, of which 10 190 WOW 
Action. 

A- LOJ 

A very interesting ceremony took place in December, 1868, Then 
bbe building, which comprises n public hull and tfhrary. vm 
formally lianded ->ver l« tin* burgh con nussioncra bj the • 
Mr. John Thompson l'nton. The preparation ol pi; ■ 
t ione f »i- l he new hall ho vine been entruAted to Mr ^V 
It. A., London. Gothic in style, tlio bull, which hn boei 
sandstone from Polraniae Quarry, pri uicly 

appearance. Th* extreme length ot the building is 8 
extreme length of the front portion in s: It , while Qui 
breadth of the main portion, which oonriatB entirety of 
tiu- }mll f in .vi it. The lieighl ol the rronl portion 
the ground line to the rl^g* la w iv, vWto the cv 



I'tBLlC UBJIAKIE* IS BCOTLAKD. 



227 



height of the hall from tbo ground line i<> the ridge in 
40 it. The central block of the front portion projwit l'ulh s t\ 
beyond the general Una of frontage. The upper pari <>f the 
frontage, being broken tiff with piawtaret projects from the wnll 
Lad terminates in moulded corbels; white that »>( the centra 
<< rmraatcs in bu ornamental gable top. Tin* main entrant ■>• In 
b»y a moflnifioent doorway, placed in the centre of \hr block, 
.■_■ Morehill, which te 12 ft. wide, and hut* a vean handsome 

noiiii-eiivuUir to\). Being three IV.-! uliove tin It-vi-l"! rhr ro.t>lw;i\ , 

the • ■ trance door is reached by means »f a High* of rtcpei I ul 
the Hi n i- ".' I:.- hall being alrnoat on a level with the roadway, 
the area Eb peached by a aWontof aeveral steps, mtornollv the 
haUpreac in nepect of great i»r;i(it/an4ohaateneae,nnd pcrhnpe 




.it haafew, if an) efvalfl in the count r v. EVoni 

to ceiling the builainfl rnoasuroe 36 it., the hull |>n»|**er being 

95 it. i-i length and 19 ft brond. starting from tho main entranoo 

door tin*)-'' la, irai ol all, a richlyHOiuunentaJ vestibule, and .i 

handsome stuiroaxe U'u<litijj to tl h < irallutK^ ;iml i'»<niis iiitovi;*, (>m 

Hither aidnol thomnin entrance Mumv luv 1ml jun.i clunk-mimiM, 

rotlrln ■-!'. era », an tin itortes. The hull t* also fitted with rtde 

rice, with laj*ge and commodious platform. On the 

Aral ioor, In the ftwit block, are situated rendtng-room, library, 

nil! reference library. Thr hookfftWN are affixed to the waifs, 

and nrn rani tied fron (salleries. (m tin- second floor aceommoda- 

ti«.n I-, provided for an nrt school, which includes masters room, 

elementary room P model room, in: Indeed, the whole of the 

i j loor Mill be (1 1' votwl mure or low to the purposes of an 

iehool, Tin' hull in lighted hy fourteen windows an each 

the only roof light* being those for Ktnvcce«c&. \\ \w 



nnUiXo uddahie^ 



extreme north end bar* is an ornamental rentOatctt 
rising: bo I height of 86ft ton bbe ground, which will 
iv.W mm iiilaii- the hall and carry the smoke from the heating 
apparatus. The internal dccorution of the building is of a 
riiiiMtrate chm'iK't-T, Tiu anteaiicc tall and staircase .'■'• ela- 
borately finished in faience work, the arched tow befog paint i 
in colours which harmooisc. A maea.ro organ (ulso the gift it 
tin.* ildiiov of the hull) ban boon constructed u the organ chamber. 
Tlie library, towards tho equipment of which Mr. Patau con- 
tributed t; l ,<hh>, contains over 7 ,000 volumes. The reading public 
Ol Alloa will find tho library one of the uveatest boons imaguuble, 
\\sfi\ kind oi book is lonrid upon itx shelves, from those contain- 
in- Sght and cnt<rt;it»iiiiLr literature i" books winch require :i 
deal <>f etudy and deep thinking before their full content 
mastered, Hooks for boys :md girls have also a prominent place, 
and will do much to eradicate In anal district tak "penny dread- 
ful style of Tciuiinir, whtoh i* bo much sough! after ta 
fOtfflg people of the present day. The library committee a iv to 
« congratulated on their choice of books, and the librarian also 
for the compilation of the o&talQgue 

The library w;ih opened oo February LI, I6B9 with 7JSOQ 
volumes. The catalogue compiled on the dictionary plan <>1 
authors, subjects, titles, and crowt-rrfemiees, is, as s cats 
in I. iwin,'/ this method. ;i model of what a catalogue should he. 
Where & small library of 7.000 to 8,000 volumes is being formed 
the selcel loo of books made for Alloa may with every couflduncfi 
1m? followed. Mr. Simpson is Ihr hlnm-ian, 






Bbbohdt, 

The little town of Brechin received, some months ago. an offer 
ol 65,000 for Public Library purposes. A iivin of Gdinburghi 
.solicitors, who are acting for the unknown donor, offered on behalf 
of their client that £3,000 of the £5, 000 be applied to the pur- 
chase of n site and tin- erection uf the necessary huildingn, the 
money to be paid when the site and plans ore agreed on, the 
balance ol t'i'.ooOtobe paid only after the building fa tartu 1 
with at least 6,000 volwnex paid for by the inhuVitr.r. 
Panda to be raised by them by subscription or otherwise, the 

liabiuee of £tf,000 to he invested ns arrange .1, and the in« 

thai t applied m purchasing now books, &c., from ton. to tfme, 

In meeting the oosi "i the upkeep oi the house, insure 
leaving only the management ana the other necessary exp 
h» be raised bj taxation under the Public Libraries' Ad 

The assessment rate produce* tboot i" 105 a year. At a pobKi 
moating for the consideration of the question n hunker trot i . i i 
enough to assert that a public gymnasium and ■ v, i 
where the young men might go and smoke their p . | plo$ 

at dominoes, and the young women go and kntl stockings, weri 
i lore required In Rrcenln tiuui n Public Library 

'/'/(.- iwv (cere adopted in tUeeartypart of leWX lu Han ol the 



Pl-DMC LIDBATltES IS SCOTl.KXP. 



22H 






:;ini<' you 8 spado] meeting of the Town Council WftB hold. Lord 

(Ml Mitchell, who presided, said the object for which the 

meeting had been called wan to afford an opportunity for the 

PllbUa Library Committee to moot with the Town Council lad 

r »: i v - ■ :t ciifcronoe on fin- siil-jivl Ot carrying out the Aelx Whifih 

had now been adopted. The oonmittee having accordingly met 
conference wiih the OouncU, discuaied the KtepM which ft wan 
pedient to take Barly itepfl will be taken respecting a site 

<1 ItuiMinj.' 

DLUll_MiTO.\'. 




The Acts were adopted in 1881, The usefulness of Public. 
l.iiuvuir* in .vniiiU places such ;\* tV.- imu*t necessarily remain 
hampered so long as there is no aid from o\ her source*, The oon> 
arittee are looking 1 forward to better time* for this library. Lx 
alx>ut twelve months the library will be much better housed in 
tin- now institute in eourec of erection to the memory of the late 
till am Doony, shipbuilder. The hmldinir. (s expected to coel 
ut £6,000, and will be two storeys high. The library, vcading- 
omittce room, &c», will occupy the whole of the ground 
r, while in the upper portion of the building there wfl] boa 
creation room, billiard room, cord room, Sec., with caretaker's 
>• in '.'Innvh street hns hocn purchased 
al a cost of £'1,700. The library expect* to enjoy un immunity 

i""io rent i fl ■!■ rem >val, and this will place ii in a good position. 
or tlie erection oi the building have been raised by 
bl <■ lubecription, 

Dl'MiKK. 

From whichever point of view the work in bonnie Dundee Ii 
red it comes out well. Tlie group of institutions shown in the 
r»i nfi represent* la fact the present liijrhwuter mark of Public 
..i (I Mum'-uii] progress in Scotland, unci Dundee may be 

,-< i. 'ed Willi tin- bcM iimI in wnt pruui > eMi\e iu England. I'Voiii 

■ [oat the* buildings have cost over l'oO.UOO, and DOi i 

ou ol tliM respectable Mini has i-orne oui • f the porketa of 

yevn. The first origin ol these institutions dates back 

13, when Dundee, in common with other parts of the United 

ooii was looking around und considering what woe the 

meet suitable monument to perpetuate the memory of Prince 

MberL The citizens ol Dundee, with that practical character 

Vhloh hai always distinguished them, decided that their moim- 

iuld not be merely monumental brass or sculptured 

marble, but an institute specially devoted to the furtherance of 

the objects which for many yearn had inleruHtad IVineo Albert, 

md which ho had done not a little to promote. Tim Wftfl the 

bftthof the Albert Institute, und the pile of buildings will ever 

wnain, not only as a monument to mm whose name it bear*, 

foresight and wisdom of the Dundee people other 

munis had beon active, at a time contemporaneous with this but 

lto independent ol it, to see if it were not possible Xo C£«X Xto 



230 



II Iil.U UUHAtllBS 



J'ulil;. I.ilirn :<,' \,i> .i-luplrtl. 'IV loolutnm •<• iulnpt tli • 
n:i.-i i;iKi-n in Ink), ami it li I" the credit of Dundee t Hut it va* 
taken unnnimoiwly, and that n preliminary cxponao* fund of 
Cl.000 wa* at ■•" ■ Ih'<1, Tin mji\ ; ive been iln--. I 

iv, 1 . I lie l.i.l I'ttal Hi ' UU'i'l In -III i(>- w.i - then In fi 

of orooaoo, and thai provision bod boen made in itr. titlc-deodn 
for accommodating a PublicLibrnry within it* walls \ sple 
site wo* given by the magistrals I at * nominal prtoa, on condition 
that room should as proridod in it tar the Pan-lie i.ii>r:men, 
nut ...-I. in and art giilleries. 

The late Sir u. Gilbert Beottj K.A., waa entrusted witJi the 
work of datigvJng * suitable xiuniniv, mi! :n 1807 the wholo of 
the buildings won completed, and the first use no which they 




iirwnwB pitoi.ic: i.rniiAnv, MVSBVM AJTO \\i\ 

wi'iv placed was for the meeting** of the Brilisl ki allon, 

which visited Dundee thai yeur. Tin- reft 

libraries were opened In l*Hi, and in l-C.'t a lai 

for iimuK'UMi and art galleries, was era led. So rapidlj has tie 

Work deVCl<>pr*l m'iii'i' lli.it ( li in- tlt.it li. 

dalioi wlutely essential, and it wne thought HttniK tin 

new galleries projected ia thi Jubilee year, thnuld be called the 
Victoria Gallorles, VcrTffenerous hare been the gifts o4 the 
loncHng citizen* ol Dnndee. b 1803 Mr. Kcillrr ciimc forward 
n i.u an ofier of tea thousand guineas, and during Unit yc*r,aud 
since, a no lees sum than £35,000 lit* teen awed to tree Use 
Institute from dahc. and •<> build the hoy « '■ - <■ 1 he i 






PtmUO LHOUMRS 3N SCOTLAND. 



231 



form a magnificent pile, with enhanced beauty and Utility. 
Efficiency in every department appears to be the order of the day. 
Mr. John Muelanehfan fills the triple capacity of librarian, 
cunitor, and searetfLrv ol the Dundee An I. uioii 

UlC entire work of the Albert Institute, and Victoria Gallons. 
now comprises reference library, lending library, subscription 
lihrury (one guinea per annum). mUBGXXa of natural history, 
oitiottj art, bi d fine art gaUeriee, annua] One art exhibition 
of works by llTtng .irt.faui,and the Dundee Art Union. During tin* 
iir-i qui rtef Ol [890,64,143 volumes were issued in the lending de- 
i ent, and |ii,sn»J volumes in the ivferanob 'J*he Increase 0V6P 
1 Ik« rorrpHponding ipvirr.i'i- <>\' tlir prennus \imi' U -l,4*-'0 volume* 

Pi .\pkkmm.nk. i 

To die rich, to "cui up veil," to devote u large fortune made 
rji a r i lib i : lion ol oilier people's work and business ability to 
nuudlng a family of healthy rooU—t I »*>»'.' arc the pet ambitious 
: nicM men who hate " made their, pile." Om.* bvllliani excep- 
on, howorer, ia the Scottish-American millionaire, Mr. Andrew 
Ogle. At a Glasgow meeting, he and his wife were col- 
lated on the great good they had done in assisting to 
Public Libraries. Then said Mr, Carnegie, with the 
resolution glowing in hie cyea, "Ms wife and 1 are 
nined that we will not die nchl" And it i& a very 
thing, not only for Scotland hut other places, that 
rnefl i w Pc have come to -< worthy a d< i talon, 

rnegic Public Library at Dunfermline was the Brat rift of 
n. h Mi. Carnegie made. In December, 1870, shortly 
tor hi" magzunconl gifl oi bathe to the town, Mr. Oarnegu 
r> L-'w-r £.i.Q00 (afterwards increased 
,000 to i >und o library, provided the town adopted the 
Pu ■!). ubrariec Act*. These Acts having heon adopted at n 
ting held for the purpose on February Jl f 1880. Mr. 
several gautlemon with the preliminary 
arrangement}), and afterwards a committee of numagottieol 
Lppointod m accordance with the Acts. Un July '17, Ihki, 
the memorial Stone Via laid bj Mr, Carnegie's mother, and u 
i bra to iii • event ( in August ."'. iKs:i, Hk- 
Iruetfrni formally opened by the Earl of Roeebery, toe 

number nf volume* m the library licfng then 11,925. 

The building w Domestic Tudor in style, ami presents a front to 

hvuHin'ct... Tiic Mihm Street pari is devoted to a general hip I 

ladle*' reeling-rooms on the ground floor, and a lending library on 

tin' upper Aoor. Tl lis front measures $'J ft. in length and 1s twn 

Igh, with range* of Hquare-hcnded windows. The 

tipol entrance is near to the corner of thin front, which at lhi« 
pofol la treated ho :i* t ■ > uive the appearance of a square tower, 
: itorey higher than tJie rest of the building, The 
slightly projects, the head d' thcentraucclieiugn Nome* 
what 1 oted arch, deeply received, and supported at the sides 

"k-r columns with moulded baaea ana nvnan aaao, csxvea. 






232 



PUBLIC UBOABIPH, 



capitals. The FOOflftMd portion of the troll i< tilled m with CATV4 
foliage, &0 . and DD the outer member* arc tin* words "Cnrnegi 
Fruft Library." Tim door-WM IB finished stove asapahlw. 
i : i ri I'll stone flnial. In I he third Mmvy of iln> part of Hip hiiXIdDXg 
la the imoVing-rooin, having oriel windows in the two angles, 
looking to l>oth Rtreots. 'Hie St. M»r^;irrt Street front is of uracil 
the same style as the oilier, and extends to 70 ft. This jMirt of 
the ill-sign i imtuiiiH, on the ground floor, a dwelling house for tliu 



TC1 

ftgM 




MR. AXDRKW CABNKOIR. 

librarian, and a large recreation-room above. The front ia divided 
by string-courses, which form hood* tu the windows n* in part of 
too north front, and in the centre in an octagonal tower rising to 
a height of 68 ft., and covered by a slated spire with an ehtl 
iron fixmd carrying the cardinal point*. The upper windows in 
the (southern port of thie front air Imihhcd with iruhlcto and 
/fear-d*-te ornaments. The whole of t«*tl 1 i i nits of 



' 



rrnuc Linn amiss :n 8Cotlasp. 



233 



the structure is built of stone conrsere. The interior arriinirenu 1 it - 
ha¥G hccn voU planned, Btld OO&Sist of a library-room measuring 
67 it. 3 jus. l>v fle ft, G ma ; nrrLMtion-rooro, 26 ft. *J inn. by 26 ft. 
rt in*.: gentlemen*, reading room, m :t. :: ins. t.y 85 t't.'c inn. ; 
indies' reading'-room, SS ft. ins. by I* it, 10 Ina ; emoking-r«<»in. 
88 ii bj 16 ft ; :wni ;i beeper** lu>u*o, containing throe room* ;md 
kitchen with other necessary conveniences. The oeiUngfl Of the 
reading-rooms are 15 ft. : i :ns. in height, and the library ha* an 
ojien timber rod with laminated i»eam under the principal*, and 

Og on atone brackets. The centre of this OttUtDfl i« S« ft. 6 tan 

from the floor. The entrance hnll and corridors are laid with 
nqnnre!! of marble concrete, and aspatfouj atons stair ascends from 
the halL On the landtag of the first flight of this stair is li.- 
entrance to the recreation-room, and :i flight higher i* rbat to the 
library. The number of volumes in charge of Mr IVclili^, r.he 
i it r-iri.t ii. la now 13,fi0ft. Mr. Cftmegfe lias several times since fine 

buildup wan opened shown his Interest in It by gift* of money. 
A i;uod sig"ii was (he large number of orderly youths and iMtys fa 
i ha newsroom at tha Mme ■>!' the writer'a v mi 

A portrait i* given uf Mr. Carnegie, who is netting so worthy 
no example to other successful men of business. May he hare 
many imitators! 

EltlNBTTtOH. 

■* Auld Reekie' 1 has now its Public library, after the third time 
of asking, and the entire library world will attentively watch the 
bejtfnninp and progress of the work in modern Athens. There is 
timi Hi rr was in iMinburgh n small Horary open 
to tin atUenflfta m.Is as l&K), and the fact isoi bibliographical 
interest It is unnecessary now to do more than glance at the 
.hi. inn history of the two previous attempts to adopt the Acta 
The movement of IflBH touh practical shape at o mooting of 
'- held do Piovombcr ID. IBW7. The attendance was small, 
but it was ■•'-■rtainly inflncntiaj, and the spooking waa admirable. 
i: . Lord Justice-General was in the chair. She resolution*, the 
.■I in- 1 al which approved of the proposal "as a means <>i promoting 
'-iiliffhtenment, recreation, and general benefit of the com- 
munity,' w are ■ pported by *orae of the leading cituem*. It is 
worth imtinw that, one of the most ertnu»*t promoter* of the 
si-hi-iue was Mr. 1. .1 Jloyd. who, aa Lord Provost of the city 

thtrtecDi years afterwards, did his utmost to induce the citizens bo 
adopt the propo sal which wan then rejected. The meeting re- 
ceived unanimously tO present a requisition to tl" 1 Lord Provost. 
in terms of the Act, asking nlm to convene 8 public meeting of 
householders to deride the question. Opposition to the movement 

wss at once organized, and was carried on with greai vigour, 

I'lii.'iiv by ii e Bni plceepers of Princes 1 Street and other lead Dfl 

i res. 

Tin- statutory meeting was held on May IK iw, and the 

vasa crowded and excited one. The Lord Provost was 

chair, but it i an scarcely be said that henreiaAet^tcn &a 



2W 



r-rnu: r,raiiA.riiD- 



I 
I 



meeting defied nil restraint, and gave itself up to most a dm red 
disorder. It wat i vfd< nt from the Bxet that tl e oppoi enl of tlw 
[iin\.-ii)L- 1: had tikni possession ot the hall in force. A 
discreditable mooting' hon rarely been hold in Kdinburqh. U hen 
the names ol the Ice ing rotmiKitii'niKlR worn rend mil by .Mr 
Warwick, iiw Town (.'lerfc, they were received, tbe report 
"with Wsatogj hooting, and groans.' Thai was the I 
which the mooting conducted itseU throughout. The ohjoctore 
made littio use of argument i their strength lay in qaeiwlung al] 

argument Willi lidwiuig :md groaning, In 1 '-' or fair difteussiOU 

th. re was none; and probably it would hove been thrown away 

Oflfluch an niulicnco The resolution in favour of adopting the 

A.cts was moved by Mr William T.wld In an earn - i, and 

seconded by Mr, w. u Ehtulr. When ; in- vote was taken, toe 
1 1 -ill; Showed I .lOti against the proposal nnd only 71 in favour. 

An interval of thirteen yearn passed before another attenanl 
wan made, and to the interval ilio law had been altered, to the 
I'll feel Hint the vole might be taken by a poll of the whole 

Of ralepa vers, : ml i.il tui't.- \ Of thOHC ftho WOTO able l<> attend :r 

public noeting, The electorate hud .dsu ben -mlcd, 

none boSnoludea rery laree proportion* of those whom the Acta 
were designed bo benefit Moreover, mai j . rgi towns in England 
had in tlic meantime taken advantage of the Act*, i.m bheee 
grounds the promoters «>i the movcroeol were hopeful of suoces*, 

S public iincot.iij; «'l -ili/ ,-. nabl. [■• ilie proji'i-t wiw held 

on January 16, Lo81. Hie reouiaitiou having 1>een presented to 
;h. Lord Provi -i on 3 unary L6| 1881, ii was reserved bo inkc a 
plebiscite of the ratepayers. Voting papers, in the shape o | 
cards. Mere issued to the ratepayers, taking the "Vee" ami 
"No papers which wore duly signed us the test of the opinion 
o ii i mi payers, thia vote showed o clear majority of e\Oe*fl 
;i-t the proposal to adopt the Art , and tho re a LI wae,o 

eouiv.e, it«I>i|itfd aai-H.tih-lnr.ivc. There tliomattei' vented in I 
The Miird ;imi final attempt wnn >r"i_;lu ibout :n the autumn 

i--'i bj tin' i.iiniii. -i-nt offer ol bEi Andrew Carnegie o 
£80,000 on condition that tho city adopted the Public Libraries 

I i I paw i- < ' tho adrtitioiiiil moimy required fur maintaining 

the library Tiu» enthusiasm with whleh the la*t attempt war 
oondaoted i"i unaa to wipe of! rim stigma <<) apotln vhlcd 
ittended the two previous efforts. All classes Joined togethe 

in pi'iimottng the movement, nnrl bo Koeiirfng for thn or 

- ilendid i gift. The main \o\ ••, however, eame from Dhe 

" SriitMiii:in " rin.l teVBt -.in.c I h,- K,W:ili. \r\ nf I860 WIS JHldSed 

hfla Mil' re been many newi™per articles so Tuingoet end so ii 
w ribten, arglng upon the rlttxemi the advisal lllty of adoptu 
Acts, ;i^ wero printed n thto welUknown -nyrtcli paper. Colucn 

nf ntrtfiri wen 'ivrM ili'-.n -|| nr<- tin- work in varinliK ]t;ir!* Of IN 

country, and Miese were aceon hanled with rorceful leaders, wide 
masl have aided mosl matoriaif) In ed lea <■•>•_ pun] i upon 

i(ir>.ti'ia. II was also a noticeable t.i i tl.l r-iune who Ii.mI 

/•ecu figorom appoomtB In the two previous Ltlempta, txn 






pimr.ir una Antra tv scott-ast. 






LhaSr aid, and worked heartily with the promoters if was stated 
thai i ii- 008I ol a plebiscite of Edinburgh would be £600, and 

fn>i (here mill' doubt* u> hi ;li.' wif-dum u|' deciding 

the question by ;i town's meeting^ it irai ulthnatei) settled to 

adopt this method, W( tin- nppoM'iiui » Ml of BO trffluig tmd in- 

>iir:iiii. trader, Tin* meeting wae called fur Octoboi 20, 

' 0, and will remain us hisl n*ie in the annals of Edinburgh. S» 
Thomas Ohurki r.,iii.. the Lord Provost, presided, and it wan 
estimated that some ifiQQ people must hove been present. The 
Erie, of wnicli the meeting waa the outcome, 

brief and to the point, tic Raid; "I should Uke i" d j 

pari m .K.<. ntj to the numerous attractions of the superb metro- 
polis < f my unlive hind. If its citizens were 1 now <f opinion that 
:i PttbtiC I,il»i'i»rv WouM hr r.f '»rc:d good to the * it.V, as I ln'lir\ ■• 

men tactitutiona arc wherever established, and wore they t»> 
cdopt the proviaioiii <>i the Library Act which provide Ear 

(iroper mail Eonuuco, it would give mo ureal pleasure toproBext 
in magistrates and town council with (550,000 ror such a 
into spoooho vara made. One gentleman, referring 
i" ihc large percentage «>t' novels taken out ot Public Libraries, 
n marked that no did uot see why e poor aaafB hi" should be one 
srhlt duller than Ma by depriving hire o! that he fihouJd not Like 
U bo deprived ol himself —a volume of Walter Seottj or Woltens, 
b? ..i rtu •!': Moreover, he bod noticed thai people who 
learn perhaps the iabli oi rending onlj through :"' Interest In 
romances ii\- mi! i.\ iiv:n team unfit they rnusi have lomethlnn 
deeper and mnrp solid to sntfrif) them. It. is the wnv in which 
if though) are opened to the reader. 
The Lord Provoai put the qnestlon t" the irole, colling upon 
those 'ii favour <>i the amraclrnent to stand up next. This call wan 
• Iimi i< h\ alioui twenty I u all, moat of whom quickly re 
mimed ill- i sonic contusion, caused by the outburst ol 

ler with which Lhej wore greeted. The unnl Provost then 
(■ailed Hjxni i in.- i»uuuorler& of the motion, am! immediately tin 
iiac n a body, wavjiurkabs and utieita, and cheeriuy mottl 
i nthuaiaal icnlly. A cablegram woe forthwith Rent to the gencrouc 

■ i noun* ii.:; i!i»- .i i tost unaniiu m-. ..ilopiion »\ Hie Act. 

la briefly the history of the three occasion* when the rot< 

on this oucstion was taken i Edin nu'cli, The purpose wfll be 

Buncd i:' it ihoutd stimulate the rrfesdn in other districts where 

bos l"'i n unsuocceafn] to bjo oa until they 

uitiun.iri ;,■ carry tht adoption of tin.' \ 

The denign for o mitahle building was thrown open topubUc 
uompf I the one Bent in l>y Mr. Washinfpton Browne was 

■ i I in- plans oi thifl were tuihjocted to some modificotfone 
■ tor a • : ■ , euel i furtl i v • tnsiderntion on the pt ii- ot the 

nrehitoel and eemmittoa joemed '<' render dostrable. 
On July 10, 1887, the foundntion-etone was laid unid great 
"I popular approval. The day selected for the 
■■..ii. I.:. ;. . and this enabled the ■ uioa itrni i - i 
inizo and i u tnu^nfficout proectrtnon. !Ss k Qt9i 



L\T. 



PI I H MDRAniF.?. 



Ian! the Wone, and in doing - , " said thai thai wu the fifth Public 
Library which he hod been permitted to found, find he could 
wi«h for himself no happier lot than thnt he might be permitted 
to add in6nitel % v to ihr number ere his race was run, and In- In' 

down to reel open the bosom of bis mother-earth. 

The total height of the Structure to the top of the laiiu-in, 
moaHurin^ from George IV, Bridge* is 118 ft Entering 
Cowgrile, the lirwt floor it* occupied by the bMfcmg and electric 
lighting apparatus and genera stores, engineer's workshop, house* 




.-. ml 



■ i i \ vriitv 09 I'l.ivm itnw PI inn linnviiv. 

Sec. On tin' second floor are workehoue for bho e tail, bookbinding, 

repairing ri»»in.\ ami Muter* tui N<l.- previous to their I 

catalogued. On the next floor, which is the faafi below the lew 
ol George IV. Bridge, fa the newsroom, 90 ft. by 79 ft., with ,i 
ceiling -'"» fcluch It !a of cruciform shape, with shortened anna* 

iiTi.l ili< ■■:! •!- "I ciii'li nf the anna Wing filled with large windows, 
abundance oi ligbl from four sides is thereby obtained. Iht 
BOO] above io carried on u aeries oi pillnja, which form IC HSplefa 

.•"/wire in the rci; tic of the room, oi '12 Ct. These pillars huvc aa 



prni.ir cmmniKsi »x mott.sxt*. 



•SW 






ooro. and are encased in tarra-ootta, and a dado 1°. ft. high, of 
ootonred t j : !■-. i. carried rotnad the walls d i terlej oJ ornam< ntal 
panels rate aiumn - tiio walls of tiii- room, wolon Bathe meal 
Frequented of any, nlwuy* haying a cleanly aapeet the i-«>ihngor 
the newsroom u deeply panelled sad (hushed with ornamental 

Ideate? work The landing Library <i the Qeorge n Bridge 
sveljlsTS I teaSnlnrauti totheroom bohrs Hand 

tiii* reference Library above it being smaller in eoiit.ei|uenee of :v 
leave deduction being necesaary to provide Fox bhe onireiiec hull, 
which i* -i* fi. by 17 ft., with a 23 it. ceiling. The appearanee of 
the lending library, ao far an tha is affected liy fine columns 
carrying the Oooi above, i* much the same na thai of the new*» 
ruiJin. In thi.t iMM*. however, Mil* ruiMsing material [a oJ wuod. 
Tin' pubUotsouiitartakBsthcMhnpeol threcsldeeofu panillrioyin 
— tlw area between the 
unes Doug-M ft, by 30ft. 
It gives about 110 ft of 
length for the display of 
indicator* and the rrrms- 
j;< tioii of the public busi- 
nc»». Tlie shelving is 
arranged on the wall, ua 
also ;'f> right 3itglca to 

it, in oaeaa 7 ft apart 
a p&wage botog loft be- 
tween tlie counter and 
the end ut the hook caeca 
for the aooonunodati >n 
.'i the attendant*, In 
the lending library there 
will be accommodation 
I ■ .i n *i | , imi:. ■ ■ me 

book t'i <:\-'l'v live nf the 

population being consi- 
dered a proper average: 
; n.i provision la m tde 
forthe addition el a hook 

BtorO :it tlir Bortll-WeaC corner capable Of holding nn nddllional 
>.'»**» volumes. Tlie raftarance lihrnry on the top flnt is a very 
haadaonii- ap: I'lnii'iu. llu« MO ft. hy 72 ft. dimensions being hOfe 

resumed latere are three deep alcoves on each skid, to the ends 
ei which an- the windows on which tha hull depend*, to i con- 
siderable extent, for it* light. The hook.-* mv arranged En three 
■i ipaUerlea, which are approached b v elreohir slaire al the 
four :« ii ^N"- 1 if the hull. Over tlie uraidiug there la a moulded and 
iiaiirlif i lrr.e with fluml nmunicntetloii Eu i In* panels, and dee 

relopGtl from ;ln> Is tin- ilruiu ol Ihe doine-thapcd roof. Tm*B 

drum riaea rcrtlcallj bo u height of 7 ft. In., and Is broken Dpljy 
pflaatcra a to i v riea ol • ircular and wctanffular panolei m which 
■ioUoea»dci Icoe, or artistic symbol* will be introduced ltacVn>yiav& 
icu >pc rcoftht tU nut are thcrttjbOf U\i;\Wn\\v» ta Wv 




PUN HF REFERENCE LBR&S* 
FLOOR 



Ki'iNBtTtioit i-i at.ic :.:nn\RY. 



28* 



in nM' Mtuunus. 



« troamfereoc , tod tbea ega a iroi uiaeof 

U LfbD am « biota rises from theoantroof thadoxne, Tin * paces 
between the riba are panelled, but it is yet a moot point whether 
they will bo used for lighting purposes or whether a r « l Light v J] 
onlj hi? gives by tin* lantern ©1 *'"- dome. The heigbl from the 
Boot t<> tlie apei of tho dome is ir ft. 6 iu., anil the bail altogether 
im one which present* greut possibilities for decora; m- 
Shelving Will be provided for 75.0U0 volumes, and that mar be ln- 
■ i. ■ t- .« I. when the rerjuiremenuot the library demand it. by 8 9*000 
mini- I h'- entrance. Imli ih hncd thivHur.huiit with poinding :ivhl:ir, 
imd lighted with leaded glass window* n tinted coloora I 
inlonnadJng of double pilasters gives variety to tho wnftla, win ■ 
nt either end n set of doable aohnEnu Bonn flu opening en the one 
in 1 1 hi tiir grand BtaJHWttj and on the other (ai 1 1 u< bouUi 
to i he public smir lending down to the newsroom. The heating 
is affected by muni af miied .si cum pipes plumed in ra.i 

whle.h also piny aii important pact in c-oimeeLun: with the vcntil.i- 
I ion of the liui'-Iin,'.'. Frrsli .iir Ls Uikrn llinni; li I'mm 

n.i outside, but before ii i? admitted to the different rooms ii w 01 

be oondojued through the r;idialoi> ami vanned l\ contact With 

Hi. hoi i'i|"'. For oarrring v* >y the vitiated an n powcrfa 
exhaust shaft will w constructed, into which tho spent sic from the 

rari >us departments of tiie IjidKhuir will [iti.ss II .is si Kill i* curried 

from basement to roof, over the latter of which it riace In the 
shbpc of .in ornamental tower-like structure. By thia - 
estimated that the entire air in the building; will be changed {our 
of five times an hour, Larjpc firoplaooa have also bean introduced 
into the chief apartments, the Hues of which will be utilized foi 
vi-utilaiim; puipoM^. An umtallation of the electric light hat 
been fatrodnccainto the building The plant is in duplicate, there 
being two euginoe, two honors, and tour dynamos t>l ial b the 
t'\-i Tit of any ovaakdc wn I bore may bo 1 1 oatinotion of the right. 
Complete provision hn/* meanwhile been made for carrying 
pipes through every )>oi'timi of the hnilding, hut ii i« not into 
that tioy fitting* shall be xuppluxl m tliu uu.'iuitiiiio. On the soul Ii 
east angle, with an enj ranee to the Cowgate, is a stair raaa tor the 
dm ol the utofE, having in the centre ii hoisl for ■■■ -i ig ls I 

tag i let to the various Boors. lioouis for the members of the 

open ofl i "■ staircase Sir. H, Morrison baa boon 
appointed the chief librartrm, and the building will ba opened 
about the middle of 1600, 

Ant only Kdm burgh, bnl the whole of S 

time been discussing thofutnrA of rtn Idvneataa' Uhrarj 
library has long haon the Scottish counterpart ol tin- Hiiri*h 

Wuiienrri, l.ilce thai valuable iusliiuimn. it Ik til 

hi. i.iry lore, aid, like II nlnu, nijoyn the priillege ol |s* 

copy of averv book [aihlWied In the I lilted Kiogdom Ii i»ne 

nii|Mr;;itil p;tr: icnl.i: , :1 gh, till* AflVOTl .■• Ihr 

British Museum It tanoiu publu institution. There Ik 
farther difference; ihat bhe r.tv aud eipi im ol hoi 
mnfatmmng the mtletlion have uoi been \»\d uu Uio publii \>un>v. 



PpBLTO IJBRAMBS IV SrftTt.AXn. 



030 



hut have fallen open the l'Vn.ry of IdvnoatM. Pahtoble to Sent- 
I ■ni.i f ondoubtedh ba8bean,DQt fur thai advantage bhenatSoD 
baa simply lo bhank the Faculty, whOi if it ehoaeea angen e roua b 
courfie iw right to close the libran to the lay oonsultaxit is 
n matter of fact, it is n fear t b:it, tho closing of the Inal itntlon may 
ultimately become nroeenrY, that baa ocoatilaned, In the first, 
place, the action ol the. I-Miuhnru'h Town Council, ami in the 
second pUev, of bbt 3ootcli newspaper press generaUy* Tin* 
i<'Mie beyond the Tweed is to see it become tli< aofciunal 
. of Scotland. Ami in tin-, vji w many on thifi ride liio 
bonier heartily loin. Such a collection of books should not bo 

OpQB EO the pOJbhl ■'-: niiiitii <>. i.tvM Imt of riirht. IT Scotland 
ron »ei'iir«- uti omiiial ui'.uit I'm- tin. maintenance "I Lhifi tibr rj, 
id .n-tli.it it i* thrnwn open to the public, there wili be room 
lor congratulation. 

VoIIPAB A Oil TTxWIi I. 

I'' r a snaull library Forfar is doin>r fairly well, in throe uqdJ b i 
iiu Increase of over WOtoIuDIW teenown in its issue, It in also 
worthy o1 ait* that whenem owvdoor labour is -topped i'i- 
issues nt once go up. The library at Hawick recta mh eta i I 
lii^h :n Use world, for U i< at tho top Of the municipal i : : 
It is rather a Ktilt climb lo get np to the lending department, inii 
i.).- Hawich Btooldng weavers do not seem to mmd that, for they 
■ :i- Library. 

(iALARiriRIi. 

i bi Jubilee w 18 & small windfall for this town, tin- reputation 
of which rcsta on Scotch tweeds, and its close proximity to 
sford. Some £1,800 was rained as a Jubilee fund, and what 
better war could there bo of spending this than on an extension 
Of in.? Public Library, proviamg a bow readmp-room and an 
WrtynrfflB Of the tenamfl library? Tho new reading-room has a 
' i ■ ! ft., equal to 1,582 square feet. Its main 
Nature is n very large arched wimtr.w 'ii the end of the wall, 

which, rlong with tight* on each aide of the roof, Roods the room 

tight. The wall*, up to :i height of ■*> ft above the floor, 

are meed with glaxed tties, disposed in :i good and ohaate pattern, 

and topped by a heavy cornice. The celling is of n great height, 

and dependent from ii are four Wenhaiu gas-tights I?ie public 

h to i tin room in \iy h lobby oil, wide, which has been 

i off two rides of the original Horary room. Title lobby, both 

D .v.ihs nail cutting, is lined with wood painted ;md varuishitl. 

iiu- library room haa been greatly altered. Forraei'h it wa* 
I u Hi|ii;nv. of which two Hides were occupied m \> book- 
shelves, and tin- floor-ajiHce w;m used ai .; reading room. Bui to 
8ft wide lohtrj from the staircase !<» tin new reading- 
room it ww neoeaaary to put up new walls for tho library proper 

tai diatanM inward from the original walla, This bee 
tmctetl tin sice of J io room on two aides. fa the intodioi awn 
■ the back tvnll, or the one bo^mA.\^\\\«Tta£tofr 



*m 



pmr.tr i.ibbaiuks 



room, 30 ft. But tins dinunuiioii of wulJ BpftOfl (Off books 
(MS been m«. iv t in) compensated by flic new arrangement, and 
by the erection on the floor of the 1 thru ry room of ri v-* si;uid:mls 

tat books. These are tine gift, of nn anonymous contributor. 
Booh of toe standards is 10ft In height and ; j to in width, 
:nnl :m eoctl onirics eighteen shelve;, this is equal to ISO lineal 
feet of vail RHce loft, in height far books. Tlw lineal wall 
spaee, when tne library was closed, was rt<5 ft. Now, along 
wiiii til-* standards, 11 is 200 ft., so that, while the orbffual room 
was somewhat overcrowded with 0,000 volumes, the library I 

hnprm '<[ condition will give LCcoiumodBtion for about 11,000 

rolumes, The assessment yields about £226, ol which £00 goes 
for rcudiiux-ruom literature ami from £30 to £40 Cor hooka. The 
work Lb decidedly growing. An Interesting ceremony took ptsoc 

at Hie icupcuuu; in i M.-. ember last. The building .'[.nub well un 
an eminence, and the view from its windows over the tfelrotc 
valley and hills is TOO picturesque. Within the shade of those 
hilts Adam Smith lived and wrote his " Wealth of Nations," 

frRANURMIM'TH. 

Another of Mr. Carnegie's lifts helped to living about iho 
adoption of the Acts here. An oilor ...I tfOOO quickly awdatcd 
to decide the mutter, and on October ], iVUS, the memorial 
atone was laid. A temporary building was opened until tho now 
structure was ready for the public. Grangemouth is somewhat 

£roud of the tact that a raodost seaport town of lead than 6.00C 
ihabltants should, with practical unanimity, have adopted tin 
Public Libraries' Acts, when other towns und cities of greater 
pretensions have hesitated to do so. It in a matter to be placed 
to Ufl credit. The mauner in which the promoters of the Bobotne 
curried it oat Supplies a worthy and inst.ru. -rive example to other 
communities Whose reading facilities are as yet undeveloped. 

The i posaJ tor the adoption of the Act originated among the 

■commissioners of the town, who chose the mods of public 
meeting for obtaining the necessary approval of the ratepayers 
The meeting Look place in the Town lhll. and was presided 
ovw l>,y Sheriff Wilson, the proposal for the adoption of the Acts 
being warmly supported by th« chief magistrate, Mr. Efugb 
Mac. ph arson, and otluai leading townsmen, Coming hefon 
public for too first time, little surprise need have been Cell had 

tir.mtfcmoulh.iike oilier places which need not be named, n | i 

the proposal U was, lnnvi^n-, nl'i.-r voine discussion approved 

by a substantia] majoril ?, und held ;** the manner in wtuuh the 
townspeople elected to celebrate the Jubilee. The building now 
eomplett land occupied ie of two storeys, designed bv Mi black, 

architect, Falkirk, in ;> pleasing style which resembles most the 

Italian order of architecture. The luwei part of the rn»utoge 

ts plain, and contain. 4 * the two doors, uuc at *ch ride of the 

niildinai which rive entrance U» it.whiU be! sveen them ore three 

mndowe, iwo giving light to the reading-room, and one 

■'/.'. ■'.'/, 000. '\":u: upper pftTt t>\ iVw. \ -"'V ...■■• L% hi'/hl> 









MTBUC LIBRARIES Itf SCOTLAND. 



241 



ihiii.i1, chief features iu the dftfaQfl being four lur^e tlueiMmartcr 

columns, two at each cud of the storey, while stone baluBtrading 

W introduced at tho baee of rhr rohunuN, and the top is 

lini^Iir-" aviI. .'.i i-nluhlatinv having the wurds " Virtoria Public 

blbraty," above which is a stone balustrade in front of roof, and 
finning the summit of the frontage to the building. There la 
dear spaa all round the Bitot and this ground wffl be laid ouf 

ornament illy. On Hie -'piiuii! HOOT if i-' libmry, y3 ft. by S9 ft. 

ft, and librarian's apartment* al book of building. The stair 
10 spacious and very handsome. On the second Boor there 

ia an art roc ii, •_•■„' II. by Itfl't.; rcading-rooBBitt ft. I»y 99 ft, \ lodice' 
n :i'luiL--vi>oiii ( 17 ft. liy 18 ft. ; and •■oniruittoo room, 

At tilt* opening ceremony of the temporary promisee, air, 
Carno| i ring to a little episode in bus history while a boy 

in ilie any oi AJiagbony, said he would not take a fortune or 
give ■ fortune to a Boy any mow than he would leave thai boy u 
There \vys nothing in the world so grand a legacy ai 
hono*t poverty, lie next told of n Colonel Anderson who had 
lent Mini and other boys, from wool to week, Volumes from ins 
private library That man, continued Mr- Carnegie, would have 
ai monumeni & the Pnblio Library, that he was building in Alle- 
ghany, because be hod opened up to him the mteUecftaui wealth 

■ • world, lie learned from the book* what he could not 
Imc learned elxewhcri*: niwl mi del they wonder (hat, when lie li;ul 

wealth, the noblest use to which he could put that wealth was in 

lmit.-u.ing Colonel Anderson and establishing Public. UbrorieeP 

Tlie first lessons he learned, the sentiment* that were graven on 

ills hoartj were tboaa dial came from the bmui Into the heart. 

mii that '" put an enemy into his mourn was to 

v his brains, and he had never entered a bar-roorn. 

ion learned the grand sentiment, "To ihine ovDBell 

lie," ;md .t uiu/st billow aa night did day. *' Thou can'st DOl 

Ne to any man." Another leBson he learned waa that 

lu > man can be cheated out of a reasonable success in life uulem 

bimeeif. 

Already about one-sixth of the entire pomilaiim are enrolled 

** ttcrrowers at the library. The coat of the building with fur- 

ug reached £3*189, and on going OTer it, the present writer 

**ae» surprised that so handsome and substantial a structure could 

built :<>i so reasonable an outlay. This was the total cost — 

j being for the building, arid JJ107 for furnishing and 

;. A* a library for villages ami small U wns the building 

Ofongcinouth would form on ox client Model, 

I.NVKUMf&a. 

\ Las J when « i toueh Inverness, we touch a perj sore place in 
Public Library movement, is there an Bnjtieli 
* I *>'\' which di 1 not announce in the autumn "I l->v that Iho 
.-. i'n .. io laiirarrand Museum wore to be closed.* News- 
hank the gods of the Court) estate toon em 
' ^*" and insignificant -tool: up tho matter, au<l powtcd ftvc I 

1% 



243 



rrBLICJ LIBRARIES 



of ecorn at thj» " glaring " failure of the Public Library -y-tcm. 
Softly Meads, Dot bo tan ' In August of the year jusl named the 
library committee appointed to inquire into the position and 
finances of the library, reported thai 811 volumes were iniadng, 
and tli.it the overdraft on the batik, which in I #83 only amounted 
to £98ti amounted to £7:2$, In addition to this sum, there «/h 
the authorized debt secured by mortgage upon tlie library. It 
VfM obvious, the committee stated, that the eyaten, • i manage- 
ment which necessitated the incurring of nn increasing load cd 
debt every year dui'I cmntj Go nn end. The Srst charge upon ite* 
revenue* Should be reduction uf its debt, and It seemed DO tt 
impossible to reduce the present debt and at the wiroe time carry 
on the library as it fia now carried on unless Borne hddition was 
made to its resources. In view of the state of tlie library fluids, the 
snh-cninioiNoe saw im course open but the closing Ol lb- km*! iriy- 
room department and maintaining the library for a time as n 
lending library, to be open for a few hours every week, until (ho 
debt wan paid off. Tms is now being done. Rut better II 
Knight have been expected Of Inverness, with iis Ji'»,lKK> inhabit 

and Its tided chief magistrate, it i* noi credltahle to the 
Highlands that everything uf an intellectual churact.iT ha 

go .i-begging tor patronage, while amateur concerte and the like 
nourish perennially In every countryside. The library coram 
runst surely have been Dttpping when they have permitted HI 
and more roiUDM to 00 BJenlBg. 

Kirkwall. 

In this far northern district the Acts were adopted ho March, 
1890, by means of voting papers. The voting was U folio* 
Qui of the h)3 napei** which were issued, there were *J{>| tnr 

1 1 to adoption, and only -i> against Five papers were roti 
n* spoiled. \t this rate of rapid i>rogress Scotland «iii soon 
he honeycombed with Public libraries. 

1 '.IIS LEY. 

Uthongfa Paisley cannot claim the distinction of being ttsl to 
adopt the Free Libfafioa' Act, having to give precedence to 
Lirarii and Dundee, the enterprising spitii - I its inhabitants und 
the naimifioence of Its merchant princes did not allow tiiera to 
>o let! vovy far bchfnd Simulated by .in offer by Sir L'eter 
Out*, then plain Mr. ■'oats, and who died in the spring of 
isuo, to provide :« suitable building, the rati p ■ 
Che Actv by an overwhelming majority on March 38, I*tf7 ? 
with the result that a substantial edifice deAigneil to 
aceomtnodatlon Tor both u miiKoum anil n library n 
ni High Streetj and opened in June, 1871. Rifts ol antimaitae* 
t'ni curiosltiefi poured into the museum In abundance, and its 
possessions soon hreurne suniricnllji cvii'ii-sive and valuable to 
make a va\'y lutetcslJiig displ.iy. The nucleus of the b'tulfiiuc 
/fbr.in wm formed oj ribaui 7 .TV* volumes, presented '-•. the 






PfBMC UBBAHIE3 f.t HCOTbASP. 



243 









on of th< Paisley Library, which vu founded to 1603, 
and to this L48] volumes were added nt the opening, making 

o total of '.M'lM volumes, which number liu* hecn augmented fr nn 

time to ti 1 1 .m d theloncUngdcpartmanl new contains about S0.000 
rojuxnea. Tl: ■ formation of the reference libra \s \\a* luidertukrn 
by the local phUooophlcol society, the members of which obtained 
•nbscriptione to the amount ol £1,61:?, which, after furnishing, 

wl them, with the aid of tho library they already poest — i. 
to place in u 6,087 volumes, Although a sum is annually rotao 
i.\ th< society for the purchase of books, the reference library has 

riot increased very rapidly, and does not yet ex> I :<.<m volumes, 

rhii department was originally on the same floor u £he lending 
11 mm ■<- ;-.i reading-room, but tome years ago the space all i 
to H was found to be rasufficientj and Blr Peter Conty again OS I e 

rd,and nod in iddition built on the higher ground behind. 

exehudvely de-voted to the reference department In all 

I w.-r | :n n ...I hftre v \i! Icsfc than CiO.OOO tOWfll'tlfi ttic hhrrny 

and museum, This is one of the cosiest reference reading-rouui'* 
In rho whole of tlie north ol England or in Scotland, and nIiouM 
be the paradise oj the Rtudent There is one peculiarity of the 

work :ii Pawlrv. and thai in.-nt QeWSpapeTfl :nv taken. The line \B 

drawn al weeklies, of which seven are taken ; <>r monthlies there 
are thirty-nine ; andoi quarterlies three. The library reading-room 
i studious appearance, Ituf thin does mi deter ths working 

dittos from lining it, for, on the morning of the writer's visit, a 
Barry In corduroys sat at the same table as a young miss who had 
apparently ooraa to consult some booi before going to school. 
Tueentire huJldlngaare convenient^ designed, The rooms ami 
i pen out of each other in a way providing convenience and 
effect. There is a splendid lecture hall, and all through the 
mater lectures -ire Liven, which frequently cause reference to 
be nia-!' to rhi-. books by thow who attend the various courses. 

\ curious nml Interesting lind was made some time ago. A 
tm ■■ of bundles of manuscript were found in a barrel, 
and presented to the I*ublic Library on condition that they should 
Mm Inspection the bundles turned out to be the 
crl >:.■• of the "llihhothmi Britanniesi, ' by Hubert Watts. 
resided in Paisley at the tiau the work was being 
ben. The l«u Thomas Coats had them hound in sixty- 
eight volumes and placed in the reference Hbrajy. A wry 
ml i jo M* woi . presented by -iv Potor (.'oats is Audub 

la al Vmcrlon." consisting ol four volumoo of llfe-fllzc 

coloured illustrations, nnd five volumes of ornithological litem - 

. the whole raluod at ±'I60, These books, being very 

■ ■ . are kept in kpoeially made eases i it. I>y '2\ ft,, with sliding 

• i.ki'- on which tho books are placed. An interesting ivhe 

i i':. men! >k of the P ■ le y for the Reformation oi 

. - i. i i a- hiinidatiiui in 1757 tn rlie final meeting ol l>7i . 
Tin* was the year of opening the Coats U >rary, bo evidently 
■Id Society for the Reformation ot (Paisley) Manner! 
tho work and objects ol their socievy mv^tJvX N 



244 



LIBTUniK*. 




In-.l t-. tlir Public l,ibi'-nv Other towns where 

these old societlei tor the Reformation of Hansen Sadat, 
where there is not u tibrani under Qu Acta, pleaee act 
scooanl ol (ho rapid BjrowtB of Paisley'.- p..j»ui:ii on mro the 
Pubho Libran wi rounded tin uaou v p ahaod by riirasnesimcnt 
inercoacxffroirj aboal £600 in 1871 toeJmoel u.ihm. it, 1886, 
sad i' ia ntill goin^np. Mr. Morris fonng i *!.. bnufen IM 
curator. 

Pi KBHB * Pi 

Tin- matter wns raised hew bj sever*] reportew ol the 
Dawapapera writing to Sir. Carncgli to ask hta aid He eaibled 
back to aag that he a ri believer in helping (hose who help 

themselves, and ttun] if Peterhead adopted the Vcta he would far 
i in-iii monetary ;i ii. Tiii.'- eel the ball rolling, although prior to 
i te action 'I mo reporters othei • tad I n some inonrtia beenol 
opinion that the tune bad arrived when the kcie should '*.■ 
adopted. In January of 1890 the plcM taken. There 

were 1,673 ©lector* an the roH of iheoe l ,350 answered " ice/ and 

"(1 ■ Ni»." tfunir :Ki-| wnv al/.M-nl nr ilr;i«l, aii.l ■!_' w < rv neuuil, 

Si:i.Kinic. 

thia town haa the diatlnctJorj of bcinjr. fcb plane ol 

Mango Bark and Sir w alter Seoti it haa the further <ini motion 
of having I louoty prison Into a Public I n raf) . am In thin 

. r the spir i of era t nation eannoi be carrli d to far i 
:i:h i mi ol ih.h«. Mr T Craig-Brown offered the buildings I 
bad undergone alterationi with the vlow of making the pi 
available av i public Library and reading-room, caro having 

-. . preserve as far a* possible the 
features of tie architecture* In aKerinj tin prison \> a Public 
Library and reading-room care lias been taken to leave untouched 
It* original architectural features, the only alteration an the out- 
hkIc wall being die at Mil ion of an oriel windoit with corbelled Iwro 
and root Thai window commands line views of the raBey of 
Ettrick. Hie interior wae orlginallv filled »\i Ii Dhroe storeya d 
arched ci ■u> c 'Ml rut ted <>; stone and brick. The upper Boo 

Imvii roiouvetl with the exception ol a portion at the wcAteni 

inible, which haa been retained to form a jnillery overlooking the 
reading-roora, Tbi | bllery will havi an artistic appeal 
[testing on three ground arches, it wflj be idornod tn Eronl with 
moulding**, cornices, and panela, and will ban n hand tome baloe- 
trade, the reading-room, which la on thi leeond Boor, wfl] be 
lofty, symmetrical, and Ex every wa$ w table for the pui 
Nhicb.i1 was designed. Tbt normd Boor, which ■■- meaoJ ■ 
need as the library proper, line boon treated In i raiou 
original mo i icr By removing the* dirirdonoJ vails ■ ■!' the cclla 
id effecting other alterations, this lower part <>i th< haa 

corn a U d i"i" ;i ■■ ■ i s ol crypt, will 
a're pilfan, ii will afford firoprool nocoi n 
ihoBMwh ot volumes, for which rcaaon \t\\B* hce-n choaen Jt i« 



u auras iv t.-oTLAxri. 



245 



anticipated that, until th.- BpftCt It entirety occupied by the baok»t 
forming the lending i. a in .■ |>»ri ■. i t.\-\ \->' imed >* :< ivbr- 
i.miiv library and ;vriting>rooro. The rooma previously asad 

■■ by the prison omctala hnve been converted Into house- 
aceommo- delibr iian Wieej ice *twocatbe 1 i i m- . . 

snd EttrioH [VrrHca in ocmpiod by n narrow lawn or shruhbary. 

IB I li.r!. ..r,-i -■ ':i[:- ni:iy U- phim! . mi ti : n:i ml ! tig !i I M'.'Ult I t'l tl 

..I ha hill* and river. Mr Crntg-llrown stipulated In his 
offer that the "nblli Libra vt£ Acts should be adopted, or, if they 
wren m»i sueoesaft] In carrying the Vim, tin- Provost Bhonld».on 

Iu'IimIC of Mir I(i\\:i, tiiidti t :iKc l<i iii:i i nl:ii: i Mn- il>r;t;'y for IWO 

In Octubcj ol the ycai nam I u statutory meeting was 
in-ill. raid a i unanimous w lsIi that the Provost, who presided, auid 

that tilers watt no occasion 10 ininil tl r vi-lei. To Mr. Andrew 

Laatfi hi i ■■ ,; R -■ - 1 1 . j j ■ i - worthy, was entrusted Mo- duty oi de- 
claring theii Public Library upen to tho public, The honour was 
» r'.l deserved, and the dot | was jrracefulfy dlaeha-rgcd at the end 
<<f Maj bat year, hi the aftoni'"iii of the same day the freedom 
of the burgh was conferred upon Mr. Lang, and hi acoordafloc 
will the nn. nut old Scotch ciihtum, he was asked to "lick the 
." and so was initiated into a "aoutcr 11 of Selkirk. The rate 
prepuces about X'OO a year. 






TaKVRS (AjBBItWBKNMilltl- ;. 

Taive* is a purely rural pariMi. The only village i* the Kirk- 
town, with about 160 Inhabitants, it. h the onlj rural pariah thai 
bw a Mbrary under the Acts. Au old pariah ncliuohiuuiter K-ft u 
fern I; ■ "unds and his book* (-• the pariah. A hall wan 

built with Dhe money, and the boos* formed bhe nucIoaBofn 
v. An attempt was made to keep up the library by lectures 
und by kvyin£ n small luhscrrptioin. Tins was done for about 
seven spars, but the income fin m bbeei sourcea became gradually 
leat. Soapo of those interested then bethought them ol the 
Public Libraries' Acts, but doubts were expressed us to their 
applicability t. rural district.*. The opponents insisted on thin 
point thai too Acts were merely intended for town*, a- they had 
no procedci I of a rural parish adopting them. In replr,the Acta 
VSN quoted, and the promoters bravely said that Mkv would 
Gedent. In this way acrersl meetings were held to 
ditfCUKK the roai left m<l t was agreed to take the vote by votwg- 

Siapsrs :n tbo legal way Some time before this, tho" existing 
v committee issued tu every ratepayer :i printed oironlar 
oxptaining the state ol mattera, u well as showing tin.- incJdonee 
■ $ the rats I flfl population of the parish is about 2,400, and they 
i :i little over i;jn i year, For this purpose, and to make 
■ i :r\inff, they limited the rue to two-fifths o( a peicn 
lint when f ha Tots was taken tho adoption of the Acta wan carried 
ore iIkiii nix to one. Tho actual number* were 176 for, 
i sat— the whole number of ratepayer be&an tiocnO Wtt 
m m I'i'rembev, ItfKi, 11 the aruownt \t',ut\\^\ \o.TCO.ftw 



•J !•: 



PtmUC T.mttA&ISS. 



(who are atmoei the sots ratepayers in won ^ di-in.. 

pared), H will lw? found that they pay quite OB WUCh SB Olastei 
wiih the name Income do in towns. Km* example i pay. 

nn/ t-'v m i iif pent, lias iiis Income reckoned si £ioo per nn 

Sm.-Ii i farmer pay< five shilling .if library r;ir*\ A person 
wiih ilw s:i:tic incoivu' in .Vbenleen, wlii'ii tlif full ifil.rt U taken, 
does not pay nearly BO uuieh of ji library rata Some have 

donbted the practicability of Public Libraries in rural districts, 
mid the ground ol objection it. that they could not be 
managed economically to aoob plaee& This b quite a mistake 
They can be managed more economically than to larj i 
Por instance, in the to* :i of Aberdeen there ie just one-fourth ol 
the income available fbr pure library purposes, viz., for hooks ad 
binding, the remaining three-fourths being required Ear working 
expenses; in sonje large towns the working expenses ai u 
in jeven-eightlis of the Income, in the tase of Torres, the working 
expenses never exceed one-fourth of our income. So the argu- 
ment outs the other way. The Acts were adopted in Tarvea about 
the same time as in the city of Aberdeen. Tarred having the 
priority of a few months, If efficiency may be estimated by the 
rotative supply of books, they can compare favourably on tins 
bond. In Aberdeen they hare about one volume to ever) 
dI* the population. In Turves they hove four vohnuoe to every ti\ e 
df their population. Two adjoining parlsl cs have bi an th alt i 
following their example. In the parish of Meldrum the vote 
taken two or throe yean ago, but the adoption was 1< : 
votes. Another parish elope to Turves is contemplating taldng 
the vote. Here they have u ibrury, but like tli*' one whien existed 

ui Tarvee, they And if very dilltenli to keep i- ap on Eta pr» 
rooting. Me. George Argo, M.A., farmer, b:i- taken n warm 
Interna :n tho welfare of the Torres library. As othor dial 
in Scotland possessing small libraries may be anxious to 
these a new loose of life bv bringing them under tho i 
in.v address i- given should further ion l>e desired, 

It is, Braeside of Tolquhon, Oldmoldrnm, Aberdeen, 






TsUBBOi 

The Thurso Library, after a considerable number of ; 
work, seams as fresh and vigorous as ever. This no doubt arises 
from the periodic additions of fresh literature, which from 
time to time the committee have been enabled t' 1 add to the 

literary bQl o Cure <> course, In each a small eei i aa tho 

Thurso Library , with imeircuroaeribedlncomej the© mmitteeare 
handf rapped by the want of funds : but in this case it i* 
to report that many Mends from time to time have given of tnotr 
abundance, and the*, in n great degree, helped those who, b 
case, have been endeavouring Co help themselves To outsiders it 
Is a continual marvel how aPubtto Library in any form or with 
•"'I mooegfi can be & rrled on with an Income of £40; but * 
ri/'tt rim Thxmo one manages to »t tf \\\v\\M\\\\v'\ve-\\:\e^ a 



PrBUO LIBTtABIBS IX RCOTLA.VH. 



317 



OOflj years on this Blender income, the wonder is increased. It 
in conducted perhaps on as rigid lines as any that affect the most 
ruekrented crofter in the county, iluaigh Micro is no elaim for a 
n-y commission to adjust economic, arrangements. The £40 
ik utilized to the best advantage, and toeauso it is not n squeez- 
able quantity matters must remain til) a wider area be found in 
which to tax, or better itiii a Government grant, tor the support 
t if* this much-valued institution 



Wick. 

The extreme north of Scotland is not going to be left out in the 
<-ul«I. Thurso adopted the Acts fa 1678 Wick followed a, long 

win behind, foi thai event t-jiue about in 1886, w lien it was 
cd unanimouely, This i> an instance of the Aets being 
adopted in the midst of a nc«t of conflicting authorities. There 
they had the Wick Town Council, the Pultcueytown ComtuiH- 
aioaars, the local tnthoritics, and the parochial board !<> wto over. 
Ooxxtribnfcione in ensh and books quickly flowed in, and within a 
ihort time three local librariea were handed over. It wna 
opened in November, HW, by Sheriff Thorns, the largest con- 
tor 1 1 the library. Ho pory neatly ex] reesed tho end und 
purpose Of the building when he said "Completeness in a library 
. he perfection of humanity are two things that will never be 
attained while the world remains as it is. So long as Micro 06 
to think and a press to print their thought*, books will 
multiply; M*d there i* :i blank in the shelves of the largest Ubrary 
under toe sun until the latest best book is placed upon them. 
Dm Wick Library i^ u yet like the small stoue of tlie prophets 
vision, und as there will be no miraculous attaimpejit to magm- 
' -. Kii.'h human efforts as are possible will have to be need to 
tiro its gradually iiu'iviumg growth, ao that it shall l>o slowly 
Bg towards that completeness and perfection which will 
DerertaetaH « always ;m indefinite distance bevoiul Itt reaoh." 
Fo refer ■ »> the Wick Public Library and not. no refer to Mr 
William Todd would lie an unpardonable omission. Wick owes 
it- Public Library, not to Its own wishes and enterprise, but ro the 
rhless zeal, the unswerving faith, nm! 'lie untiring and 
almost unauleii efforts of Mr. Todd. The Public Library in to a 
■ extern Ins sob- creation, and for what it is and further 
promises to be he is entitled to the cliief credit. No movement 
r\er had it sturdier champion than Scotland law had ia William 
Todd for (he extension of its libraries. The parish of Wick runs 
sixteen miles by six, and they purpose serving the extreme limit* 
\-\ fortnightly boxes which an* eiinii-d t,- and fru by the mail 
coachoft They have a library for the blind, and a fine museum. 
The total number of books issued during a representative month 
was 2»66S, or' wliu-.h l,H»i> were works of fiction, thus ghriQg a pcr- 
• n'l'i'i.: ">t •"■ lor thi* cla.-ta <>1 Ltei/alurr. Tin ilaih u\eiut'i' of 
I over 103, and there can be no doubt that th-c V&fror? 



£4g 



£11 LIC LIBRARIES, 



I Hlier places whore the question of the adoption of the Acti in 

now iu pruyress m 1 ' i! <■ t'oiluwini* . — 

Arbboai -ii 
Arbroath disputes with Kdinburgh and Glasgow the dUtin 
"i having twice rejected t li -• proposui u» nd»pi the : 
The Brsl rejection took place in 1878. It was preceded Mid led 
up to by effort^ to gel ft robecriptSon library, which bad existed 
in the town for raany years, popularized by n roduetion - t Its 
rates. These efforts tailed, km NMO it waa proposed to obtain 
m. consent ''i the ratepayers to too town's being placed under 
the Libraries? Aota The proposal wae supported by the lea> 
manufacturers, hut the opposition wis strong and well organised, 
ssd at the puolia meeting catted for the consideration el flu 
nneetlon the opponents of a library rate were triumphant a in mi 
ftj too waf trabgeribed by the lending citizens (or Cne purpose el 
Increasing the itocfa or the .subscription library, ana toe snn 
serfpfcion wan lowered froan naif a guinea lo half u crown. 1 1 i 
iuce.eee.oi which the sohezne at firsi gave promise w>w of short 
duration, aa has frequently boon the oaae to ofliei towns. Die 
number of subscribers fell rapidly, and in 1879, alter the experf- 
uicnl hod lasted four years, the memberr n ■ ■ ■ \ •■•'. i ■• ippe.d once 
an it hi I tie r:uep;iyn>. The promoters o£ Uie movement fell 

warranted En repeating Efts appeal* because In he oieanti oe the 
Act i'i l*rr had allowed retina by signed papers, it was nooom- 

paniedf moreover, by 1 1 ic offer of udraniairc.t which "nr m>i 
forthcoming iii 187a. The whole collection of book,* hi lb* 
SnbsoriptSon library, reaching 14,000 volumes, wa* to b< I 
(erred to the rate-supported inetitotion, along with thi remainder, 
d1 i lie sum of £l,KX> referred to above. But the citizen.-* of Arbroath 
wore indifferent to thcec advantages, und hardened the 
against the appeals made to them by men on wh.au tin 
burden of the rate would have fallen They : to be 

guided by agitators who told them that, in spite of the won I " 
the A.'f, the rate could not Btop at one penny on the pa md, and 
WOuId certainly be much more than that in \rl roatii. The i 
woe that, when the vote wa>* taken there wi ■-.- ,i;:;i' ruicp yi I 
against the Acts, and only iwis in their favour- -majority again it, 

806. I t;it was in 1H7U ; and we are not aware tl t. 

time, the people oi Arbroath have Khowu any signs rt repentance 

Eluin and Faljukk. 
trnong the failmrK to adopt the Acts are KU?m and Falkirk. 
Early laat year a public meeting was held, an* the matter was 

iliMiisse i m.s to whether another attempt should not \tf ms ■ 
adopt the A em in IvIl-ii \ local bookseller who tool* 

pad in the raovemem referred to the pr< m ma Lflure, bin 
thai there was nothing o i 'Ighum I hern from trying agan . 
try ai?uiu they pluckily didittFehruai-y, Im:i,:iikI w 
/ui Tlir* rotmg atooa, ooea 419 ; aye* ;Vt2 : majority agxlriht. *7 
Out of a constituency of 1,318 over »EO voted. Through no I 



■ nr.ii' ■ rua ii n-:-; rv srori.vvn. 



249 



of Mr. Carnegie's, an offer of £600 for books from liiin. i»n condi- 
tion of 11. *■ Acta being adopted, came juai after i-iic poll hud i n 

Another vi*ui tiiusL elapTC before the vote can be again 

taken, but Elgin will no doubt Ems Hum added to the li»t. 

The attempt :n K'lllurU would appear I" bare been u liLtK' 

premature, a* it came at a tfine when increased local taxation for 
other purposes am contemplated, By die munificence "i 1 Mr. 
Etobcrt Dollar, of Maruurtte, Michigan, U.8.A., a native of the 
town of Falkirk, the burirh has been placed in possession of a 
library of considerable isnienfiioaB for the free use of the in- 
habitaute. Two pears have elapsed since Mr. Dollar intimated 
hia desire to present hii native town with such on institution. 
i a the Young Men's Christian .Association, he handed over 
■ bo be administered by them En thai direction, 
Tin- foung \]m'' Christian Association reserved, on the failure to 
Garry the Acts, to assume the responsibility <f cunying on the 
libl i\ ■. :iii'l. with thic object in view, n (subscription was set on 
tool \< fund.- r<> exiiugiuah i debt Of £600 whi»'h 

ro tod on tinir Institute En Newmarket Street, o ml bo enabla ihora 
to dispense with the annual income derivod from letting the 
jfrouna tloor as business promises, the intention being to devote 
the space to the library. indue course tibia object wea secured) 
mi<| :i -mall committee were entrusted will, the Uiruishing ol the 
i _v. Under their direction a collection of over o.UOU volumes 
has lieen brought together, lie i - ■ I -• :uv pko'e.-l m :in up 
BMBBt on the street ftoot of the institute. In rionour of the donor, 

Che library has been named the Do-Bar Free I Ibrary The tfbnunr 
to open every evening (Sunday excepted), from six till ten o'clock 

:ui.l hunk* loaned mif for :i f<"-rt m »*"*ifc at u. time. The OOimnltta 
to be able to carry nn the work with an annual income of 
vm). bat as the <i^<- of the library will be free tins sum will require 
in be made ap I \ roluntary subscription, The committee of 

gan cut mnststs of ten members of Che association, and ten 

lemon representing the public, mid in future It is proposed to 

till up viieiiii'-ii's a (a Lb committee i>y the rote of ra iaenben of 

■ UUni - annually. 

ft i.\ s.ne to predict that Falkirk will on the next occasion adopl 

the Acta, whei the period stipulated by bins Acta '.lull have 

expired. 

i liaeooYi 

"Fallen is Carthage - Tin- »bm-i oi deviation hnujca over the 

defeated, and the unquiet spectre of Public Libraries has been laid 

for a time. Tnrei j <^,\eo we stood alone amid the proas 

In cm n, o the proposal to adopt bhe Aotjandthe pro- 

i defeated b> i mi Utantial majority At this trtrao it was 

ii to oppose, in the interests of heavy-burdened 

,thc Public Lib rhua wrote tbe editor of a 

kvery Influential Qlnaei ■ . ei tag paper, ou April J", 1888, the- day 
theroeulr. ol il.. pi tneoJtewa made known. In no town or 
ia the entire i nited Kingdon and Ireland ban the orgonmtitan 
ttrongor nnd mmv cfJiuprehcasivc, and \\\c ^«x\\«l V»iftX«c 



ago 



I' 11 1.IC LfBBABJXS. 



marshalled than in Glasgow, and yet in no place has the result 
been more crushing and disheartening. Every point of detail had 
l>een rao»t earel ill) studied, the ground ao<l plan of operations 
exceedingly well mapped our, a vast rcpiment of friend* and 
Workers putting a band to the wheel, with all the rigour Which 
characterize* a Scot with :m eye tn the main chance — which 
i,! opened to thla eaee to be for the good o Mm eomxDunSty. But 
(. aegow again refused by a large majority, to adopt the PubUc 
Libraries* \<t- The rejection was more emphatic than It was 
throe yean prior to tlmt time. The number that took pnrt In the. 
voting wee mod smaller, and the majority against Hit propoanJ 
oonafderabty more heavy Those who took the trouble to vote 
ngaloAt adopttna ilia Acts were 7,(xio fewer than in 1888, and yet 
oxoeeoed tin* number ot those who deatred to lee GHaegow 
enjoying, like other large cities, the advantages uf a Public 
Library, in l lie proportion of about five lo tlu*ee. The Hgurus 
appcarol In make il i dear that, the movement i* waking the 

reverae of headway, ami that the interest taken by the ratepayers 

in tin- subject ib dwindling:. 
The actual inuuKi.M'o were — 

EOT the adoption of the Art . . I ::.".< > 

tgadnei .. 83M? 

M.-V-ritv against the Act .. .. fi,437 

The total number "'I pout cards sent out was S8.8S6, but oi these 
(j,C'2"j papers were returned, on account of the parties not being 
found One of the moat .striking features about these figures i< 
the aniiMinl of wKtilTercnco manifested upon the question. Nut 
half the people who received papers took the trouble to till them 
up. The neutral people outnumbered the voters lor and ugninat 
pui together! 
The Rffll attempt towards the adoption of the Acta was 
i it ■>! n 87 i, the prime mover on that occasion being Mr, 
J, ClOland Knnis win I. with many others, hus remuinod a firm and 
oonaiatent friend of the movement down to tliu present time. 
I'imih 1874 to April, 1 H80, the supporters were quietly at work 
aduoatitag the people. 'Hie decision was to be by statutory moot- 
in jr. the voting power being at lhat time limited to those residing 
within the l*arltamcnt:it y iMiiistitueney Notwithstanding thfi 
the meeting was swamped with non-voters, and there VU 
altogether a lively time._ \t tin* close B rote was taken, giving 
the resul( of— agu&Btj l .779: for, 993: majority against, 78o. 

For sigh I yean little was heard <>t' the Public Library move- 
ii i t t.but early in 1884 some ninety gentlemen convened a me 

of citizens favourable to tin adoption of the Public Libraries' act*. 

to consider the propriety of forming •> society for promoting the 
object in vew The signature* m the document oonveoing tfata 
meeting included the whole of the city members of Parliament 

and tbe member fur the L'nivLM'Mty, ten members of the Glasgow 
'/"a/i (.'uiincil, and many utlier iniliiiniiial citizens. The moe 
was ftfl/d and a constitution s\umu\\.eA\,\\ut,out of deferenc 









ptmuc r.rnnAiup.9 iy $c<m.\Xi>, 



25! 



the opinion of some present who were sanguine enough to suppose 

eu duous campaign wan doI required! the idea of a formal 

iation was abandoned, and the mooting thereupon resolved 

; into n genera! committee (or the purpose of promoting the 

adoption of the Acta An executive vu thereafter appointed, 

who mot fortnightly and devoted themselves to the education of 

, bj the publication and free distribution, of Btal 

'ii ants, tracts, and leaflet*), explanatory of the objects and operation 

A •!'. ilc>\. Iiowever, found (he work to bo nuioh more 

■.iti'-.iim firm was at tiis! tMiiLi'inpIaUnl. They hod to contend 

again*! ignorance and annthy, and soon recognized the* fact, that 

without extended ward and district organization it was hopeless 

to make an Impression upon bo vast a community. Funds wore 

given freely to tile fullest extent asked, am!, in addition t<> the 

Inned pnhlieatfon and distribution of literature, they org** 

n];trl central and district meetings, which were addressed by 

Iriidim/ citizens and local gentlemen. They aim set on foot a 

I o\ ward organization which wa* mosi micocwful in o&Utag 

forth iini ufiiaatlc ind earnest work on the port ot the various 
w:\u\ committees, Following: an enthusiastic public meeting a 
requisition was presented to the Lord Provost, which, instead of 
the statutory ten najuw appended to it. contained no fewer than 

i . 300 names. In the meantime Ihe Association laid, with the aid 

::. one of ili'- repreeeotetivoeof (•la. s K ,, w, promoted 

and placed ipoo the statute book the Scotch Aroendmenl Act of 

lull, while tin* Ai: permitted a plebiscite in Lien ot'a public 

meeting it did nut provide any machinery for the taking of a 

plebiscite, The Lord IVovost decided, after taking loyal advice, 

- • each householder a circular enclosing a poei 

I to tin. Lord lYuvur.!, which, after heme; filled up in tin- 

; il!ir»urttive or negative, should be aigncd and pofltod by the voter 

1" el curd is given below j 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES (SCOTLAND) ACTS. 



VOTI NG PAPER. 



As to whether the Public Libraries 
Acts should be adopted by the Burgh of 
Glasgow I vote ^.^ 



Ratepayer's Name. 



On (he Official Oard Sign here. 



A* there ww uol much sign of opposition the yvotnotet* Wfc 



'.?.*>•? I't'Ki.ir' UUUAlMi 

confldenJ o success, but when Hie poet card votes were counted 
the result stood, was 8^,766, and noes 29, 
Nothing daunted tbc old committee re themselves, and 

i: Ma vh. i -'i... .inn- before the local publii • the Glasgow Public 
Libraries' Association, OC this bv&f Mr Kii-ii ml I'.mwii has long 
acted as the houcrao lecwtary. The unoertaintlei and omissions 
of Bbfl Scotch Acta were felt to be a grave hindrance to the 
progress of the movement, and Mr. Ilrown was asked to frame an 
\nu'iHlmenl Bill. The bill thus dr&YQ up was in May. 1680, 

dated amon« the Scotch members, and iu t!i*r Session ol 
ii was introduced into Parliament by Mr. J i ..,-!!, DO*,, 

one of the vice-president iotion. 'Hie bill pa 

i 'iw on cVwatnber l ,; . 1887, and ie now the ruling statute 
for Boofiuuid J' wiB bo found amouj? the Appendices '•■ 
worlc. The main ehongo effected by thiw Act was to ffivc to all 
householders, xunlo or femule, and alnu to all citizens paying rates 
£10 <<i rental, and residing; within seven miles ot any pari 
of tho city, a voico in tho Question of the adoption of the -Vote. 

lbs result ot the plebiscite has been alrondy 8tau-<i, and -u faos 
ul tho fact that there wo* a powerful incentive I Ola wow to 
adopt tin- AotS by liequests to thy value of over £130,000, « 
would come under the administration of the Town I onnojJ Com- 
mitteo immediately the Acta were adopted, there wa* utter 
lailure. The large amount named la made up a£ follows:— 

Mitchell He.-jut*t £66,006 L0 S 

Bal ie Bequest 36, 00 16 8 

Stirling Bequest (maludfng Glasgow \ 1TfVl , n ,, 
iblic Library) .. J 1-,UJ ° u 

Moir Bequest 11/160 B 9 

Logon Bequest 600 9 a 

£131,806 B II 

The value of these handsome gift* is serious); impaired by many 
drawbacks, wllluh would lw removed when once Uiey come under 
bos Public Libraries' Acta, uh will he seen vu reference to the 
chapter on ( fojeut Lessons, 

The cost of a plebiscite in Glasgow is about £600, mo thai on 
em i occasion it is not by any means an uexn pej ding;. 

On February "i. 1690, ;i meeting of the Genera] Council of 
the Oisegow Public Libraries* Association was held. Dr 

the cJiiiu uuw, -:ii I tlul duriuy llie hvo vmh since I'll- \i 
cite was taken the association had done little except ko 
uu eye on public opinion, and trying to dire< f t as wt 
o told They had also had the Biuibition, and tho disposal oi bfau 
Burplns had created ■• considerable nmounl of inquiry 
endowments in the city available for certain parposcn. I 
been tliut a grout art ir.dlory should be bull iu the Wert 

l.iul. where the nrt troueures should bo brought Mr. 11, En 
tho secretary, ask) that the prop<»sal of the Lord l*rovo«1 eon- 
tfinpiatoil a mnJdmp: in the Vvest End, and the |U 

deration MM whether fchftl >vv» a ^awca\ta aito foi sucfa ■ 









PUBLIC LIBRARIES IK IBF.11M'. 



1'W 



linildmy; and whether, J an ;irl ijallei"\ were to be erected ttl all. 
there snould mil .. - » 1 1 ► . i . • • 1 wilh ii i Public Library— at all 
events the oentraj premises ol ;i Public Library and Museum — bo 
Mint, us in other hrer HticN they would have the three combined, 
a.s n.iiiirmi i i-.t'd in the Public Libraries* Acta. Another scheme 
was that of having the c entrul building in George Square or 01 1 I6T 
central situation. There might also be district libraries, and 
Rentlemen mi/nl begot wlio would found these, conditional on 
txaDg adopted to revenue purposes. An csacutial to the 
DC out of such .i scheme was that the Public Librai icV A< t* 
should be a-i. pi. -.1. The)' had been twice defeated on this matter, 
but he frosted that thfl rit&BODS would 8»on repair the error, mid 

£i:n- fehetueeWee on a level with the other large otttfefi of the 
iojn Ue bad been informed that the cost of the land ft&d 
Dg for n district Library was about £6,000 or i'7,000. 
Stovkhayrm. 

No practical rtep bas ae yet been taken to regard to the Public 

Libr&nes 1 Acts. It hoe oniv been spoken ol bj bbe Debatma; 

! v, or Good Templars, who have put themselves in oohudqzlI 

cation" with Mr. L'artiogie, and they have bis reply. YVath whaJ 

local matters there an* now on hmd tin- PTOVOet lluuks it will 

sometime before the - inject can ha taken up, 

There are in Scotland a very large number oi iustltationi called 

" I'uKio Libraries' 1 Which are really subscript ion libraries. To 
give anythi'iif h ■nvin-Muflve hat ol these would OOOupy too 

much Space, "6ut particulars Of n few maybe given. .Ayr has a 
].n .Ik ld>:irv wirli m income f< r hist year Ol i"_'H">, with :m 

expenditure of £170. 01 this £90 were paid For lecturers' fees 

Rntherglen, a suburb i i CHesgow ; Knock) ndo, nearEtgin; Smeil- 

i Etelsoj ibid*.! i".i«ni, VVJHliaw, i mi nl ii Mill ; tfewAberdour, 

in.-; Bridge uf Ulan, ami Inverurie, ;<ll posseaa their 

He" Libraries. Keith has one with over 9K) members 

ncomc i.s about £120 u year. Kilmarnock baa a library, which 

l.iiniN to lie the largest of its kind in Scotland] but it, has tn 

erdse the greatest economy Lo make It Belf-supportinff, and It 

reaches thai point. Many of these institunona and others 

tcil tliioughout Scotland would form an excellent, nuc 

ng themsulTes iuto Public Libraries in iho full beune ol 

t: icnu, uud securine; the inb>pt ifu "I the Acts. 




CI I AFTER XIV. 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN IRELAND. 
\1E general awakening with regard m l'i I n\arli 

has ipreod to Ireland, and the Bnxe U rapid j approach- 
ing when t. * ► * ■ t tarest in thene institutions in the 
eoun n wfll >o i Iteen and universal sail Is In 
part of the United Kingdom. TWs is as it should 
-i education and social progress ^S\\ t*?$ta& 



:,-] 



PLTTLIC LIBSAHIBE- 



ili i -tich ffl the ease, no matter to what party they belong 
It bus been the present writer** privilege to travel rrpentedly 
ironi ivnl in I'tnl i)f Ireland, and the raSnt and desire lo ham 
every Bdacatlosn] advantage in their midst which t* to he found 
dii the Opposite sideoi the Uriah Sbb to their own, is permeating nil 
classes of the community. The grmt drawback is that, so many 
towns and district in Ireland hare a rotable value Insufficient, 
with n penny rate, to stock and maintain a Public Library. Tlii** 
will prevent foi h I me nay wide extension nf these intuitu Hi ion; but 
Mirciy some moaetarj nd from Mends of the country among all 

.shinies uf opinion will be obtained. A lilt in starting a libra 
the Act* arc uduptcd, would bo to many mi Iriali town it windfall. 
If those wh«> hare the Enu ia * rest* of the country si heart] 

are able to render ii^iMiunT, will remember llu.v, and do wh&l 
they can, thej will rendei a useful service t*j a part of the r> 
where it ia greatly needed. 

Irish newspapers have from time to time expressed a desire 
to have some authentic information En regard to the working 
of Public Libraries in Ireland. Unfortunately, do formal rc| 
i r i»abii«hed except at Belfast) and the tact is the m ff ■ bo 
l">c regretted, since, if they were anti , the operation of the 

Aote under which they are oonstatuted would bo likely 
salutary extension. TOcre i.- no reason whv weekly or monthly 
returns should not he pnt before tlio public, snowing, ns In fchs 
uf other public institutions of the kind, the number of readers in 
oomparofivo tables, mid mieh extenisionH a*- may be provided 
in the way of literary opportunity. TiuB is n matter worthy 
of careful attention, for unfortunately the particulars at dii | 
ore aoi to any moans ns full ns could be wished. In ovary v ty 
one would like to see the Irish Public Libraries drawn into 
touch with those on tola side Hie I tunnel, mid whatever tends 

ill thifl direction w:II j>err«»na a enry im^mi-ml md 

service, 

UKLFABT. 

Hn> people of the city of Mel fast, twgan to get the Impression 
that they never would see their Public Library in oc • rap 

lacl In June. IK^'i, the council wre memorial) /.<-d in I 

i>i the establishment of a PuhlJe Library, -md they deternitoed 
to take steps to ascertain the views of the uteitayaro i 
whether they desired tlie adoption of the Public Lifirarie.s' 
Voting papers were accordingly issued, and remitted In 
rotes for the adoption of the Ads. mid 1,425 ugulnst. No i 
was, however, taken until 1884, and it was then resolved Lo make 
the contract for the building lenninable in lH8h\ The builder 
are nol to blame IW the delay; the waul uf isympnt-h ( > i 
Ihe member* o] the Corporation was the eh a I rlein -n 
about the unreasonable delay. Loading articli b uud 
encc in nbuadaace appeared b t ie local pavers about 
but i; woo nol until October 13, I&8S, th it tut unci 
took j'Imv, which was pertormeA toj| ttw Ura-Mctmui I 






prune lhirameb rs ranr-iNn. 



'255 



Marguls of Londonderry It was a Tar tTy from tins to 1861 
when a deputation, headed by Mr. William Gray and others, 
brought the matter Orst before the Corporation Thin body wry 
ably look up the mailer, ami have not allowed their interest to 
dt d i <\ notwithstanding the long delay, and the manydfaappnint- 
miMiU which they have experienced. 

Bw appointing of » librarian landed the committee in a perfect 
sea oi ontioiara and strong language. In the early part >>f jflcw 
they had this task in hand, and they hud no reason to com plain 
uf any luck of candidates. The Ii'hI of applicants contained 10U 
- ol ixn'^ims, ranging in age from 34 to 48 years. They er.na- 
from all parts -A the funrkiniidum*. The nceupatiousof the appli- 
cants were varied, and the qualifications relied upon to secure 
tin: appointment wore of a still more miscellaneous character. 
There were graduate* of Oxford, niu^ow, Aberdeen, London, 
and the University of Ireland, There was 3 modioaJ doctor, a 
dispenser at a hmaiie asylum, a confectioner, the son of a news- 
paper correspondent, several schoolmasters, a retired head con- 
etable, a eontraetor, a nueaionary, a factory managorj a draper's 
assistant, an auctioneer, several authors ana translator*, a oQptain, 
n colour-sergeant, a eornoral, and n canteen steward. One can- 
didate bad travelled in Europe and America, and Wflfl accustomed 
tit the ru.uiageroent of men, and as those nre more difficult to 
manage than book*, he apparently bad DO doubt of Jus 81100888 ID 
any position where either the writers Of readers of I>ooks arc 
concerned. Another was a railway and steamboat clerk, whose 
command of facilities of locomotion may have helped him, lor he 
stated that he had visited the principal librnriex in the United 
Kingdom, and was acquainted with their management In theory 
and practice Another gentleman rejoiced in the varied expert- 
aneei appertaining to a graduate, sin tidjutant, a parnuutar, 
b chief constable, and an utRumnea secretary. A solicitor laid 
stress upon the fact that he had been nveyearaln Africa, one of 
the must juvenile of the applicant* was the younger son of an 
M.U. An ml venturous spirit who wrote from Ycadon evidently 
had but fague ideas of the philological nod social aspects of the 
North ill' Ireland. He slated that he *' could not apeak the real 
language; hut if correct! v Informed, the people to gonara] 
m Im-iui>i spejk * i Lit wr it-ji : i jii-ii- ' broken English, 1 that he can 
understand." As there 1m one thing at home that he could under- 
stand; it would have been a pity bo transplant him. Amoujc Boob 
l choice (election of would-be librarian* the committee wlseh 
and well determined to appoinl a man of experience (u Public 
Ubrvj work, and the choice fell on Mr, G. II. Elliott, of the 
fJnteshead Public Library. Then there hurst on the heads ,.f it < 
committee a most terrific storm for having gone to England for 

;i public librarian A public indignation mcc-tim; was held, at 

i two reverend doctors, and many others, made speeches 
that it iei hoped lon£ before this they have i vrnncn. A 
deputation wuited on the Town Council to inctnsma&ztt Vkw 

mi', uil.v ol their proceeding, The Tvi>vv\ ^'.wwieft vo.VN.toV 



PTTI1LTC LIBDaMB*. 



[he appointment, and any other course would havo been 
unconstitutional. 

Now ilio worli ia in full operation, ami everything huibfair to go 
Qlou^fiiuuuthiv and hut iHi'nct.n'iiv. 

The huiUHiitf, which cost about A':?0,000, in u 1017 handsome 
structure, u« will bo gathered Erosi tha now 1 u ma d entrance 
opens into a wide corridor, tin: opposite end oi which terxninatee 
.■; tho rear of the building. To tho right of Uua Lob lorn 

n .-.it 11 used as the lending department To the left of fee mom 
corridor is tho reading-room, which ''an be entered from t 
afreet hy a eepttttta door o4j0w£ofl the main entrance. The first 
iiooi' is reached >>y a broad sumo and ■caw . and here tin* refei 



un 




sairAsr pmi 



1 brearv le located. There fa one grand central apartment, ligl tod 
rrora che top by :r beautirally cnrVod dome, through the k\hb» of 
which n flood Jt 1 1.-' 1 it penotratoe to every nook and corner oJ th< 
roonii To the loft of the doorway leading into this portion 

odSfl •■■ ■' ■ nail been Fitted np forth avi ■; ih< 

who wish to »■ uoro secluded while heir hoot 

after knowledge than thej possibly could >cm bbi apart 

in 1 ll'"-. ■ «g gentlemui eiui retire with tho books whl 
hoe selected 1 1 unable him tu complete liis 
exception oi a tew others similarly li 

1 itonte ind purposes n his own private library, Another flight 
of steps brin the other floor, which is divided 



• i.TDrtAiuEf-. is im:i.AVi., 



2«7 



. .n.-l.iia-; :i am riini and the other .111 ;ut {OttOy It Efl 

;i(li!,tho roost perfect hunting, ventilating, and: anitary 

amui- arc boon made thrtnurliMiit the entire lai.l.itng. 

inane the ladies been Forgotten, for a special r a hubeon 

provided for them in eonnection with Hie reference library 

■.. Dartmei t. 

the reporl of the ftret years work has been published, and 

bowi :i very oacoursmng state ol things. Some 8,50(1 readen 1 

wore iasaed daring the year, und the «iie of 5,7tfl 

•i].'- 1 lllKli-;itrv hftW \\-]-k'-s|.JVlli! is the )-|'i'l'.>l III tl.e 

There ore ld.000 volumes in the lending library, and the 

~ i • w jiv.Mi .v* fifW. which appears nn evtra- 
■■ v large nu i er Trie rate yields £?.foo m present 
AfltmtBeim Lb dq course "i formal ion. The Beirixr press have 
given i ren p ibUdtj to the work 

Oounuxna. 
Ihi tots w ire rioptcd her ' In L861 ,bul bliey have not yel been 
.open Won The pemxy rate would yield only an Income 

»i I'M), :nnl ('iilri-.iiiic IV.-N Ui:U il. nuiiinl StATt « ill BO limited B 

aim. a email urant would lubricate and make the carrying Into 

rftl b w i4iee of the c Itlaccna, expressed nine years ugu imw, 

■* !'"'"'"iii.\. i. i- v '■ ; i. i...[ vi'i "i Mi'.- ere ol these grants 

i reality, is there nut some friend uf Ireland who will 

■ epaiasd Ml the breach P 

Ooox 
Tin- '"'ii.iir Libraries' Acta wore adopted In Cork many years ago, 
I in aid of the local School ol An. In 18*3 the Ael 
■ aended in INij, s< ec to include music, was further adopted, 

and the Corporation has since then l n allocating the proceeds 

jimn\ rite Ui the purposes of science, art, and music, for 

school* have been provided, partly bv the adaptation to 

purposes of the old Royal Cork Institution, now (he nro- 

>J tin Corporation, but mainly by substantial additions 

>v the late Mr. AV. II. Crawford, of ( oric, to the 

providing ,i Public Library little or nothing has ye) 

The rate yields only about £<iOG a year. 

Ddbcbk 

1 '"' i nnstanccs of Dublin arc a little peculiar. On December 

*83, the Municipal council nanW a libraries committee to 

Car 0' ' the recommendations of a special committee on 

JJj- nbjeet of establishing and maintaining general llbraridft 

"'ervDrtrt upon which this ailggp^tion was ivisod wln nne wl.ich 

'l out that while the City ol i in Mm pesaesaed some valuable 

i ctiona, the fadlitlea for reading for the general public 

n>i ineient, being limited to the libraries in the eastern Aide 

' J -H' -ry li wan recommended that in the west of the eitv, in 

Facilities existed, two general libraries should he 

IMird and maintained at nn annual cunt, of 1: 1 ,000, which 

i d be allocated from the borough fund, So ttafe ^\V\W 

draft if* peanyifi not levied, which would produco t&croX 

U 



m 



n nil. MUnABIES. 



£2,600, the two Public Libraries are rate Bunpcrted In I tet< tx i . 
1S84, these two Itbfatiea, situated in Cape! Street and Thomas 
Street, were opened, at which the members oi t in- Library Aaso* 
cialion of tin' I'niUxl Kin^dmii were present, The acquisition 
of those j.vi mUo* wu-h approved by the Treasury I should 

be noted in pawing thai flic Pnbllt Librm-ie* a<t irclnul) 
of 1855 WW; on Was iiti".i:iiivc of Sir. R Dwycr Gray, adopted 
by the people- of Dublin in March, 1877, una 1 was also, owin^ 
to his exertions, shortly afterwards so amended a* to giro 
powers to local authoritu-s En InAs&d ibnil&r k< rhoao enjoyed 
in Enjrluud, sueli as the power of horrowinff the 0044600X7 
capital for buildings, fittings and books, ana the power of 
forming committees which might m port consist of persons not 
members of the council, No BtepB W6f6 taken under ""' Actio 
Dublin until last year. This delay may be attributed I 
piiKsui^ m IH77 of the Dublin Science and Art Museum \»-i. 
Which transferred to Ml- inipemi i wn-erninent the I.U:u\ - 1 the 

Royaj Dublin society at T>jn«ter Souse] with power to - 
in Dublin a National Library sud Musoiun. 

A very interesting 1 ceremony took place in October 1881 v 
the Lorn Mayor declared the building open. Hi- remarked tn ins 
Mp«wh that the Itbrarfea were Intended for every [Haas. Tho 
bumble workman and tlw .son ot \)\>- wealthy merchs 
chose, oonld irtt Hide by rids while Improving their ratndu hj I 10 
study of the best authors of all i ps Slnne then, Bin wort 
gone steadily along. Primed reports have not been Issued 
1887, bnt u large number of staUBtlca in monnactipi hat* 
supplied by the courteous and able librarian, Mi Patriek Gn 
Jtoew were, dnring 1889, no fewei than 238,7ft risltsto lii 
iug and newsroom In Oapel Street library, or an aver ige of about 
1,000 a day. The retunip i' <v the lending and reference depart- 
ments for 18BH and 18S9 came out exceedingly well. The Aral 
three and the last three months of the year are u i Hading 

raontha in Dublin, In January, lyfl©, the number of books lent 
Cot home readme wiu* 9,968, and for the whole year the total 
was 58,046. In the reference library, 10^80 volumes were 
during the year. The largest issue woeof illustrated works, and 
next to this class fiction is the mosl largely repress nUxL & ience 
and art were consulted to the extent of 815 volumes. Tin* Was 
.i r cry fair turnover for 3,067 volumes. The cirrulation al the 
ThuniD« Street liin-ary ie not so large as at Oapel Btrect n aha 
city fathers could sec their way to levy the Cull rate, bhey would 
ihcii have an income which would enable them to build mon 
ooDTOsient and eonunodioue njrc i ieca, and bo pjive Dublin n better 
opportunity of doing greater justice to itself in its Public Library 
wdffki 

The now liinldingy of the rrci-n.-e and url dens Hi ad of 

the Crieb national library in Kildare Stro . are now all bul ready 

for opening, and probably before this edition is u»uod the 

wojij' -•> 'detrfftrtnfl' the bn [d£n{B9onea will hove taken piaoe I at 

JjvJau'J the event will bo one ot Ww \nyV:A an^QRaaoe, and, 



prar.rc i.tphajcifjc ix ibei.avh 



L'. r jy 



n» ulJ cla««e* of Hi-' euiiimtiuity will agree, ir is one that moxt 
fitly should bo associated with s BpedaJ ceremony, worthy ol no 
occasion no signal nn.l remarkibfA. Tha stSTicturea grace the 
noble nreo upon whlcl i) • v stand In the heart of the <-'ny. md 
w Qwl i fresh b i a uty to Its rapidly growiiur architectural munii- 
ments They will hs the property and the pride of every 
iiMzwi. The National Library has long since exceeded tiu> 
limit* o1 accommodation thai Lelnatar House affords, and now 
ranla ui collection equal, H' not superior* to that poB*eHAcd by 
rii, great* r centres o1 population In England. The museum 
niii ii.so be a boon. Ii> objects have a national stump, and ii 
srfl] be admitted that in no part of the world will there lie bund 
.in institution to -ompare with it, an illustrative of Irish art, 
history, and archaeology. 

i»i mux, 
This town has the *Us iortiuu oi bc'mu the that iu Ireland to 
adopt the Aot«. This was done in lft»y, irnrucdiut J aftei the 
extension of these A. is to Ireland. The stock at present is 9,000 
volumes, and although (ho income from the rate is verj wnall, 
more or leas arc added to the >t*«-li annually, a penny per week 
subscription u charged for 1" uc reading to help out the rate. A 
amnli grant would Dl once remove this necessity, which is at the 

name time an innovation. 

Lnomiox. 

In May, 1880, a motion was ujotjted to she Eosra Council 

■.«■ effect in the <-ity ti bha I'nMie Libraries 1 Act*, unit 

to provide B rate tuwuras the working of Same, villi o 

tion of it to be subsidised for the benefit of the school of 

art, und a strong oommlttee wai appointed to oawy out the 

ary airangeraonte. En September of the same yeas the 

i referred a1 a council meeting; to the tcrnw of the tide 

uiulcr which (he Athemoum had been held, pointing out thai the 

lcoec under whJoh the committee had taken the place from the 

i lorporai Ion, ftt a noniinril rent, hud been non-oxiah i t for o nuni 

. and that no representation was given to the Council, 

wordanoe with the original deed. He further pointed out 

that ths objects i'n' which the eomnnttee bad been formed i<> 

u hieiuivM and promote* schoola of an and soienee— had bean 

i- Aenettllj Abandoned Die \ orporntlon were now endeavos 

to avnll i ftemselvc* nf the Libraries 1 Acla.and had set aside n son 

OOUl Of tllM rail's I'm* 1.1 in purpose: ImT. it u i ...■■- 

Ihey should clenrly umleratanrl what wa« thftlr positloi 
inU ths present oecupirrs of the Athemcmn, to mi- 

ad they were quite willing to enter InUi my ami i ternent 
i h i in- place could be utilised for the benefit of bho< itfoens 

lj :i ".:r;il Opening !■ 'I 1 KUttll UI) itisl itntimi III l.il I -'■■ 

nd :u the commercial an<1 artisan eliuv*o« En particular I 
•Ai'l he an hnmenne advantage. The rate produces £340 a 
year. A nucleus to a library is found in She eu\W\W\ cfl 
nearly ^(XX) vuluuii-sat thv Athenaeum, winch i& thfj memttft] *A 






•»*Hi 



iTni.ir i.ihrakif-. 



the city. Th« .Mayor ftOtteipftted that "'.■ project WOUld l«' U 
frreat R 10006*9 m'Liiuenek as it has been in other CatSe*, and 
there to not n»' ilighteat doubt that Bach win he the case. 8ei 
Influential citltens and gentlemen cnnnaetad with Umerlcli rum 

warmly t&JfOO up the Idea, 801*1 hy-nml-hye We Bhftll BOOT ■ 
UmoncJf i'i the lull .Mijimiu'iit Ol :t .-:t i-/.i«iim v Institution In May, 

1890, :> deputation waited upon the Corporation to urge the ftdvt*- 

nhillry of nt onec pi tefng (hi \i tH ii Operation. 
liAnrarsas and Ratboaa. 
This [< ;i township ad]oftl!ng Dublin, ami r 1 1 ** Libraries' lets 

1 ecu d operation since lew. Tin registered attendance for 
[flSfl was n.ifw, and the number of borrower* tor home reading 

wns (MX). There are _MKK) volumes in the library. Only :i half- 
penny rale is levied for its maintenance, And litis yields L.'WK) h 
year. The supply ol' newspapers and books is not large, but there 
is a useful work in store for the Rathmlnes library. If it seta 
other township* neat Dublin todctciiuine Unit they also will have 
uiie ut' these mslituliujiN :i good end will be served. 

Si.n 10, 
There was great difficulty in iroltfna the people I" adopt the 
a.-i* in Sligo Had it not been for the deep totereel whid tJ e 
iii< Alderman MeDonough displayed in the subject the Acts 
would oarer hare bees adopted \ww. tie waa at considerable 
cxpe&ae and loss ol time in Mc-cnriiu; the mean* of having tin- 
library opened niah-r the Libraries' Vctfl It is m>w tDttoh appre- 
ciated by the public, ami as Boon n* the Corporation are aoU to 

a>siM it a little better the library will flourish, jml be 
touch usefulness to BUgO* Here is u can© where heavy taXOf alt 
already imposed, and where, if tho Government could by any 
mesne be indueed toae9iat,n would very much help in forward 
tl . movement. Those who know tho town well wy thai II i* b 
laei thai the Slip> library has done more to comitcrael crime, 
particularly drum; inaesa, tban any other influence The number 
of voiumesia i.too. a pooztj la the Town Hall Is allowed foi 
(mi up to the present books are sol Lent for home reading. The 
reading-room is open on Sundays from •! to 7 p.m. .Mr. David 
Sauitry is the librarian. 



Dovolab (Isms of Man). 
Tho Douglas Library la the only ratemupported library ander i be 
Aets up to ditto in this tight little island. The let* were adopted 
and tho library opened in I860, II occupies the first flooi 
shops in it central pari ol thia thriving watoruig-ptace. The isio 

i.i Han las favourite resort for Lancashire and Yorkshire i plo, 

nail as the denisena of these counties know how to use a puullc 
library the reading-room is greatly appreciated l«v the vfclttira 
With .t total of 6,000 volumes there is » turnover of about Ml' per 
, mhI there are some 2.4U0 aetunl borrowers, The 9< 
book* la probably as good as would be found am 



I'L'BLIC tJBRABlES IN WALES. 



y«i 



tty where, fill tastes having boon consulted. AS new toolo Mtt 
added Mr •' de Maine Browne, the ooarteous librarian, intimates 
tlii'iu in the public press, with some notes of his own as to the 
vulne ot the IkioIcn lor reading 1 purposes. Kamiey, Castletown, 
:in»! Peel should not be long holt re they adopt the Arts. Fof 
iiicii- nu ii pleasure and advancement tbi« should be done, hut. as 
!h-c reason there ti no doubt t&nt rtsltow to wateritig-piaers 
• In largely use public reading-rooms, ami in not a lew cases .select 
pleasure resorts where this advantage Is afforded. St thai U an 
investment the adoption of the Act* should he attempted imme- 
diatelj ; n f\->-\y inland and seaboard wateJing-place not at 

pir.st'lil possesMiiy Ihexe iiihttUil ions 




CHAPTKR XV. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN WALES. 

W.L.VNT little Wales, considering that there an mi 
many large towns in the Principality, does not come 
out :u:h"s8 in its Public J library work. The total 

i;iiii ii-r Of a40pti071§ Of I he Vets :- eight- Wide* and 

Scotland had a national system »>i i-iim-nt dm u.ny in lore 
in England we had reached the same stage, and the people of 

both ••iiuntrles have lor generation! been known :is earliest and 
Pti [er friends oi educal ional and soeiFil progress \s will be seen 
:ii Mie eml of this chapter, the movement la spreading in quite 
a number of places i-i \\ ales, and in course ui a 1 an few years 
tfac Dumber ol adoptions will bo more like eighteen than night 
In no j mi t ol the united Kingdom would :i Mnall novenmirni. 
grant be more acceptable and useful than in Wales. The penny 
p-it" in ilie small districts is not auffldeut to stock and maitilain a 
Public Library. Wales should agitate this question ot s state sub- 
, and urge the point upon its parliamentary rcpresentatiYaa 

,\ r.KWVHrwvTir and BAN60B. 

in the ormer place they eon only boast of 3,640 volnroeSj bu\ 
as the population is only double &e number it is, in comparison 

vith some libraries, a fair proportion. Hie rate yields A'loo a 
year. 

Bangor adopted (in* Acta in 1871. The library U open on 

Wednesday* and Saturdays only, From 10 to 19 cm. and from " 

tn B pjn The number >1 eoluraes is less than Abarjstwyth, for 

there ore only 1,ftO() lor 10,000 people. No wonder with so poor 

I Dumber the average issue snoutd only be Sfi iM-mkn. Surely 

some Loudon or Colonial WelKhiona will remedy this defect, noi 

ii Rancor but at oilier places in Wales. The rMnclpall^j 

acfted gift* foi it* Public Libraries \ 'nnV -.\tm\eA grftasj 

ri be mom cnvmirnging. 



268 



T'UTUl^ MHHARTR& 



1 1 If ln.'ii- i.intiiiir tin- Webb tow n* thai «i' .'i ■■■ I lie lx",l r\ .i!ii|> V 
ol \v!l i ( . i* being dooe. The wui k :i; tlie present lnuliirlil in ill ft 

ital 'i u.ih.-iiiirii. lor .ii ''Mi-iisinii ol tneouildings has long bean 
ueeeaeary and hua now been decided upon. The quauuon of 
altering tlie present building, op erection a new bolldinn; and 
banding over the present one entlrelj for auueuna and science 
rt purpose*, bus IW tome i oneuiernble thine been -i burning 
ani in w& l-.wr* depeitaient of tlie Public Library worfi 
bu outerows the BpaooilhaeatdiapoeaLiwidUiereiB no i 
foe wonder thai the ami eal tendency of ooiuioa, to te the 

library committee and town com • i., MmuM lm\e K-<*u lor ;i 

: og. An adnnrable and moet convenient ti i waa available 
adjoining the existing building. This forma part of one side of a 
.»iii.ir. -, tJl6 filiation and diape of wnich an Well -niiiili 
i handsome building being erected. In July, 1880. th* Local 
< ha voroment Board gave permission to borrow £10,000. v 
this cxtoneion is corapl ited Cardiff will hare its Public Library 
housed in t|uarter& well qualified to moot ita growing n< 

The town woe* the Bret to adopt Qui Ante, wnon fron 1669 dew D 
to the tort report tha progress hoe been stoady and i 
factory. T i ■ two itj -seventh report shows how avery noetic 
the institution has been largely need during u*, '"if. the 

crowded itnte ol every department prevents urn 

development, although muoh iB roquirea to snpplv th« i <i* of 

to largo emd cr< w an ci town. At the bogitimno ol tho \ mr tlie 
ooo au tee olXered nuns of fso to tho district!* of Koath.l nthnya. 
Canton, tho Docks, and Grongetown, for I mt ol 

ich rooding-ra >ms,on corn 1 1 ion that a comroittee wai fined 
in each district 1 work them,and, it necessary, sin-mli 
ffani bj i ivste snbaoriptwna Tho districts >i Raath and 

Cothnya have availed themaolvea «>t ti \a offer, and iu< utful 

i wHrooma hove been established In these districts Theci 
ending library wae open 302 days, and the reference Ibrary on 

aw «i t\ -c during the year. Tne number of i ks Issued from the 

Lend n 1 -'' library waa ISA nurabar tor the previous 

being 126,618, or an Increase foi the year of S,1P4, The anmber 

C TCRiKter :-".;fii. Tlu* nililir Ioiih to the 

library amount to S,704 volumes, oi which i,;tfi volumes have 
been placed In the reference library, and 2,31a volumes in 
landtag 1 brary. The donations were 308 volumes and pampbleta; 
theremainder of thenddJtiona, viz., 2,396 volumes^ were pun I 
In order to make the public better acquainted with recent 
added to the lending department un< ■■■■ toi leeue, an 

Migeumiis ; i r.nii.'Liiiriii ha* \xw adopted. A boai I i- hmuj En 
the library, on which i re placed ticket* tntaining bias nut In n-. title. 
:imi uitiiiiirr <•! uuch books lb 1 lav) l)eenadded durhag th* preTkme 

three trtha Ii i borrower winhce t" obtain vmt ol theae p lM 

the card and bande it to an jwm'-hh , who, when b 
found t!ir book, putfl the ticket in a box. The entry la thne 
■<i ihmi the notice bouidi lo \>e wj\» s " ■** it1, boofc i> 









rVBLlC LIllBAaiEa IN WAUs 



sea 



n itornod, end BO on until the book has taaun circulation thro* 
vin i; it ie altogether removed to moke way for more 
recent additions to the stock. 

The question of branches has boon a burning one in Cardiff. 
The borough coven :* large area, w\ mhiim .>i the suburban 
districts are very thickly populated. One el the local newspapers 
printed a eerie* of art'ieie* going minutely and taBy into the 
subject "i thoeei tral institution mmatsbn acta libraries-, and much 
-mil for both side*. It was pointed out r.h:it ii • brand) 
; . library as well as reading-room was opened In one 
district i is other suburbs would naturally cry oat to toe similarly 
erved. The matter of means entered, or course, fully to the dis- 
Gumion. The muds available are something under fiis.ooo a year. 
'i\u> penny rat* produces more than tin*, iwt. a ants has w be 
deducted from it towards the repayment of the loan. Of fins 
sum the ordinary current charges of the institution, includinjz 
museum ami art gallery, take up liy Tar I he greater pari 
Imleed, when we place :i rery moderate sum ttnide for tin 1 jnir- 
ehaae in nea hooke for the library, and a still mora moderate 
one for the purchase oj Decerwarj articles for the museum* the la* 
come la whollj swallowed up. For boom yean past, Indeed, 
a i .jriiii.\ ti-oin the first start until rerj recently, Uiey were con- 

tinuwlly la'lir w.il'-r. hut tiling .w- l''j n^ (>- look more 

promising for the future. It wan ivii timi, t«» em-t hruuehes 
trould cripple the central institntion, and \mm-Iv the decision has 
Iitii .ii i nvil at t<> uvuid so undesirable a result, in another part 
.-1 tin- w>rk tli. question of branch libra tea has been dwelt npoa, 
i . aatural that outlying districts which see the utility oJ Chess 
Institutions should wiali to sec ''in 1 of them placed in their midst, 
i i:t the ability to maintain one good central library and it number 
Ol I -ranches, inn perfect state of efficiency, out oi the nimble penny 
ahouldbe looked tally in the face, At present Cardiff does not quite 
hoo its way through these difficulties as to branches, Itoath, a 
1 1, contributes some i'-KK» towaadt the penny rate, 
and olnimfl mora than a small grant towards its mtdiug-rooro. 

The | . :-'ipj , i tin- l '"uveal lnatructiim Act of laaj, yea* gave 
<'.»MKi.lr. ::!»!<■ ,;i(i-;;h'(ion in ( ardifl", and Cpnokly after l"h • 

place i on the statue ImmiI; a committee was formed. TheeiCeet of 
thu Act will be to relieve the library committee from the ni 

i maintain i l H- ^oionce ami ait seho-uV livm the Public 

Llcrorj rate Cos committee eeta illshed these Bcboole in the 
: -i- -. and they have steadil) risen in public estimation up to 
iresent tunc. .Many of the students now occupy important 

Ions, in consequcm : the instruction m<i encouragement 

ed The coma Ittee fools that its effort i • supply tech 
Instruction, which haa been siicv^esafully carried on for a « pun I 
a centnr; is now justified by the passing of this let, and hopea 

tlint under the aew o..iidinnn« tlio sclu-oN will enter upOl ffl 
ided rjereer uf usefulness It is hoped thai < 1 1 ■ - Sooth 

i'! MnTitnuitth^hire College Will pvoiide aee«\\H\\\nCi 

hnieal hcIhhi]& 



2M 



prm.i"; unmnn;.-v 



Tl 10 work in tho reference library hi of a very solid and uaeful 

tiaiure. During- 1888-39 1 1 n ■ total issue WO* 13,217, mil of ■ 

total or 13,824 volumes and pamphlet*, Thta is -i section co 
which the able librarian and HCorctJU'j of the other Institutions, 
Mr. JoIim Balllnger, glvtfH bis careful attention. Mr. BaliingerVi 
administration of the library l>a^ contributed luryely to 
develop it* w<>rk. flistorv, biography, and travel represent 
tin- Largest issue In tho reference library. There, i <• In the 
reference room four of the prettiest and mtwt appropriate 
stained windows which can be found En any Public Library. They 
Were presented byMr. Jamte Ware. Theyrepresenl respectively 

poetry, fiction, travel, and history. For the first-named bhesul j • 

a Milton dictating "Forachflc Loei ■ to hie daughter. TTw 
portrait* are nl S<-ott, Uulei^h, and GibbOBi A set of nimilar 
windows in every Pttbfio Library In the country would l>e a 
decided ptiin. 

The Public Library committee have u separate banking no'ixiiit 
— a step which should bo taken by most conuattteea. The 
catalo^uoMiirc very carefully pi' [i.ii.vl For n penny tho borrowers 
In the juvenile HocUon— which in largely need have b twenty-four 
page catalogue of hooks selected with grout discretion, and a 
sixteen-page supplementary catalogue IS sold tor :» halfpenny. A 
ug/m catalogue of the reference department ho men recently 
going through the press. A local printrafl firm underfoot the 
enttra responsibility of nrodueiDfl it, having the pm liege cd taking 
advertisements Cor i*. 11m catnioquc molls for 6d.. ana copies are 

paid for pttri tdieally to th<> printers us sold. Pie cost of prll 

catalogue? ia so grew thai flic plan is deserving of being eoptait 

There are separate catalogues ol the book* en music, bj d books 

for the Wind. A glance at ihe lrtttor shows that rifty-hv*« 

volume*, in the Braille character, are at the dispone! of those to 
whom Kitriii i« denied. Printed In Moons tyj»e there ore nbonl 
IfiO volumes, whilst, seven are printed hi ordinary Reman embossed 
type. The different hooks of the Bible can 1m* had In oiiher 
Moon's type or in the Braille character, mid In the KeJectton ol 
other work* on the list care seems to have been taken to secure 

only rhuse nl' an elevating and enri-i-.'aii in;: character Altogether 

the work at Cardiff to in a healthy state andu Itha growing r&tetiie 
developments ol the future will no douht be more marked then 
during the post, in seven years the yield ol the n to h is nearly 
doubled iteuf. Whatacnpifcal thing it would have been for th« 
Public Library movement if tins could be said of till towns of 
equal sisss to Cardiff, 

(XuutAimnr. 

Tin Act- v, i iv adopted here in 1*87. Only a Irndinjt library 
up tn tlw prudent btcjj established, and in .this there u ■ 
volumes. Through the exertions of Aldcrmun Lewis, who inil 
the movement during hid mayoralty, n eomrni ' its and linnd 
buUdiag was erected by public subsorjptioa nud batidi 
the adoption of th< Art-. Tin. rati COO. ai one of the 



PimMC LI1UHK1KS l\ H Mi B. 



96A 



meetings for the promotion of Hie Acta Rome good apeectii g were 
made. A clergyman who mode a strong appeal for the adoption 

suid . " I do not cure for a penny rate, but I do cure very much for 
a Public Library for Carnarvon ; and let mo u*ll yon \vIiv--wIkh 
a young fad in Liverpool, a Public Library kepi too from Ifce 
theatre, ii».- public-houae, bhn singinfl saloon, the gairibUng hell. 
A Public Library supplied me with food for the mind — made me 
* reader, a thinker, a public man— a. preacher of flod'a Gospel. 
I "" _ o n debt I can never repay to that Public Library, and rli.it i* 
why J Lin: her6 tonight. 1 ' thou- are many others who could 
render a similar testimony. 

OSVBSEBT. 

The ouestion has l>cen several tiraes mentioned in Oswowtry, 
and on May 19, 1890, the adoption of the Aets WBfl unaniraously 
eanled ll ;i lown'e mooting. It is very cheering to be able to 
record tWs in the present ealtioo. Th& friends ot education in 
Oswestry have for several yearn had their i*y*s on the establishing 
ni i Public Library The loco) proas rendered excellent aid. Hie 
Bei ,1. ,i. Poynter iTirl others look part in the proceedings \ 

I:mm town libr:iry. which 1 1 : i .- been under the control Of trustees, 

vmii novt u* handed over to the Town Council, ami provision for 
honsing it will 1* made Uy the OounoH i» the now municipal 

buildings about to be creeled. 

Swan: HA. 

The Act* were adopted here in I870i Some boll spirit* i few 

years ago urged upon ti>« Towa Council the need or new and 

more commodious buildings for the Public Library and Art 

iv The scheme wns a large one. The building, of which a 

rlew ft erven, is an exoeodingly handeomc onO|Ond was erected 

wt ill" e-_'<MKK) iii a control par! of the town, rVmii the designs 

■ >t \h. Ilnltom, <A Dcwsbury. This was opened by Mr . Olodstonc 
in 1087, Owing to the henry drain upon the rate r<> pay the 
interest on the Toon of 4'l^ooT, too small u balance was left to 
keep the twin inetitutione in s state 4 efficiency! A temporary 
Rnani ial difficulty presented itself, and *ome papers took up the 
null- r i- ii" rt spelt ruin for the Public Library and disgrace i" 
the town. More gloomy prognoaticntions were never in 
theae institutions, but allnav* l>een doomed not t-> be realized- 
The enemies of the movement made great capital out of the 
Bujrooeed Failure at Swaajen. 

the history ol the library movement in Swansea is inti- 
imh.'Iv connected with the name of Mr. G. B. Brook, the late onair- 

in:ri , f the lihr.irv 1 -oa;iniU0C, who laboured :OWk"Illoll>!y for 

ii i ■ i - 1 > years for the adoption of rho Public Libraries' Acta by the 
borough, and, ,w«UMiod by Sir John Jones Jenkins and others who 
.nice Ailed the office of mayor of the borough, was aoeeeofl 
ol only In this preliminary step, but In rabaequentty advanc- 
ing tbe movemenl to Its latter and oomplete Btage— that at \w«- 
:t huliitalion for /he iristffutEuii which *\\unluY Vje ^NivriSn^ 




:V iSSMA H III.K UllUAUk, AJLI (J A.LMUU . AM' I H-<. '.!>' AM. 



long n - (1^- old institution, contained 

■-..-., .u.c hundred* of rare [ximphlcts. The oollcotii 
La [in- department* oi poetry, the lite rnturo of the drain, 
and biography, ami Wolsh netary and topography. Thou there 
ia in connoowon wilb th« Inntiuitiun the llowfand Willimii*' 
Reference Library, Full el rare works in Welah literature tad 
theoloffTi lK^idw a general reference library <>t ;< mis o ploo 
cbarac 
With pi ■_■.■! I tbc building taaitf, tne ardiitoet'i own 



PCBLIC UBBAIIIKS IK WALE*. 



*>7 



Bcrtption, as being most 8iioviii*'t, in given. Tin- extreme leugth ol 
the front of tho building shown fn the sketch is lflu ft., :m<i the 
extreme depth, to the Duck of the circular reading-mom, 9] ft. 
The front portion is four storeys in height, and the iwk portion 
throe storeys, with rite exception of the olrcular peading-room, 
which is one storey only Tho style of architecture adopted ih 
ii. iii. in classic, tin- Front being divided by projecting bayi .-it 
either end. and finished with pavilion roofs. Ylw roam entrance 
is in the centre of the Dioade, and the interior in reaohad through 
. vestibule 17 fl wide, witfo an Inner hall of tho suns width. 
Both these are laid witb ;i mosaic flooring 1 1 a beautiful Bora] 
u. Tiie groiuid floor is devutcd solely to the purposes ol d 
Pubuc Library. Right and left of the Inner boll is a oorxldor 8 ft. 
wide running the extreme length of the building', and comtnuni- 
i .ilhiir with the «1 <de ■ ■!' i i ■ iomius ou the BTOUSd floor, On the 
right of the inner hall it- the newsroom, 01 ft. long and %l ft. vide, 
and to the left of the inner hall la the nia^azine-rooui, -<) ft. !>v 
39 ft. Adjoining this room are the' librarians prirabe rooms and 

COMraitteo-roome At the rear of the inner hull is tin- rcadhig- 

.■'II and reference library, which ).*• circular in shape, and 56 ft. 

Id diameter. It Iihs a domed top, with outer and Lnncj lights, 

whit h i ■ 26" ft. high in the centre. The presses and Bhclving for 

book* arc arranged round trV walls, and divided into alcoves 

* centre. Tho room in capable •»!' Mormg S'>,000 

volumes, arranged in two height*, with light cast-iron 

•■n.: un i iv are i id for nccesfl. The gallery is opprouchod 

hv geometrical stairs, Some <»f the prossei are fated up with 

loov I'll rollers for the Larger and more valuable works, 

rllindi are u ud in all ciihos to protect the hooks, rhe rending 

re a Tanged in tho centre ol tho room, nnd si t he entrom e 

ik u cutulogue <lebk. All tho wood fittings urt "I American 

ie<t The mgiiia» recesses ol the room are 

i and used am apartment* for tin* attendants. Un elthei 

aids ol the circular room is n room measuring 10 tt. long tty !R it 

One :■ wed as the lending library, and is fitted up In t 

sfeailsr iniifawr to the reference library, with the addition of ;i 

aook-< ttter or wrrower* with Indicators and the usual 

.'-•ements for borrowing nnd returning ' Icn This room 

r oas book spaces for nl ii nil l'o.ih*) vnl rne* The second ilnor 
appropr Sted to the Use of the science and :n-r department, Ii 

►reached hyaseparate Ataircase nr the QOrto-wesI and of 
the hnildlng, and com prises elementary roomSj painttSMoaniB, 
modelling-rooms, a large antique room, and u rassters room. 
[base form the art department The remaining rooms are 
for the M'iruce department, and ooxunat of ;< tool I a- 
rootOj ''i:i>oi-i-oom, and laboratory, and balance-room. The art 
kcUod Is fitted up throughout with desks and diagram boards. 
aud the antique room is furuialicd wiili drawing tables nnd 
curtains, with pedestals ior casts. The third floor is arranged aa 
AH art and picture gallery, and is lighted by top \\fcW- V\ \W. 
rawmLUlcliidn^ (In <-,/r;(ioi\-., are rn suite.. '\\\m v*v!\ t»\toK& \wt 



96A 



(I lil ]i I MIllAUiKv, 



pictures Is about \2fl0& it & sepoiiMtt staircase is provided fox 
Hits floor ai the south-went up of fcfie building. There is 
uTt,unl\ nothing to equal this puler) Ed Hie Wed oi ESngiandor 
Bon h \Vate. 

The reference departmeal lathe strongest part of tin workal 
Swiuiw-'-u. line there an- ^1,801 volumes, with an avenge dally 
Jotac of 34;i volumes. Eo the lending section 53,794 rolames were 
ioeucd during the year. Swanaea rejoice* (?) in <\ committee of 
twenty-four members of the Town Council nod fourteen members 
from outside the council. The attendance of these thirty-eight 
ffO&tlemen i~ i^iven in the report in tabulated form — apian which 
is adopted in so exceptionally lev reports. The figuren nrc 
inwtnu-tive, and illustrate very forcibly mo absurdity °f having 
l m gc coiDJoJttces. Of the thirteen monthlv mid special mcctnign, 
Pour "ii,\ ft»oBD out rids the council attended twelve, and one from 
the council attended ten of the meetings. Eight members of 
the council did not appear ut any of them, Pour shoved up 

oner, ami Others two, throe, i>r timr Li raw. From outride (hr 

council the btorIIobI number of attendances vraj tbroa. This was 
In one case only, and tb< atheft vers presenl ai from seven t«> 
eleven of tins meetings! There is evidently something wrong 
about these oounoil members of the committee] some three-fourths 
<'i them might be very reasonably relieved of serving;. So large 
■ eoramittoo is, in 003 ease, uttorfy unnecessary, and theexperiance 
at Swansea 1^ proving this to be so, The prospect in swn 
ror tin- Public Library work at brlghte] than if has been for 
timr, Mini Ms Future will he watched with considpr.'ihls Interest. 

Mr S K II ipvmi \x the iilii'Mi'ian funl -ceivhiry. Under a Local 

[mprovemeni /Let n slightly Increaoed rate Is levied, aid this 
removes the congestion which has been experienced. 

Whi.« mi.. 

Welshpool bos, and i*. doing itself credit. In September, I w, 
;i public meeting oC the inhabitante was held in consider n pro- 
posal to adopt the Public Libraries' Arts. Theft wystodClub, 
of which Lord Powys was the president, hod offered bo transfer 
their library and museum, the mosi valuable in the Priuoipi 
lo the town as a free gift upon condition (hat the Public Libra 
Acts were adopted. The Town Council undertook to limit the 
to id. in bhe pound. Lord Powis warmly supported the 
proposal, which was, however, --! -i -i ■- 1 by the residents in 
outlying agricultural parts of the borough, and was defeated. A 
l«)ll wri.s demanded. On rhi" bring taken 11 few w< < l. ! 1 < r, and 

1 t< 1 there bad been time to bring the question prominently I .. 
the public, the majority in favour was 201. lit the foUowine; 
N'ovember the annual meeting was held. Mr. MorriBC Jcnee. 

to whode service- the institution was BO greatly indebted, and 

who for 1 weal v one pears bad not boon absent onoe st the minimi 

meeting of the institution) hod moat actively supported the pro 

■'/' banding eve* the Institution te the town. Mr. J. 1; 

Juorrltfj the Mayor 01 thai year, u*o tttws in ttw *«atgM cd bis 



I'IHM<' I lim.uni'..- iv VAT.RS 



20» 



inlVi'-i ■■•■ At the cudol lrtus.aud after one year's working uuder 
(the enlarged scope, the increasing amount of BUOcetni which has 
attended rlie .>)>< -i msr r>l* the institution to (lie publk can be I>ohL 

juil^fi.1 by the mini l>er of bookfl Issued and readers' ttoketa sold 
(luring th-' period of nearly live months— from Jum: 1 to October 22, 
and this was greatly in excess of any preTloua Tear. The rem ling*- 
room fa wen attended, and is supplied with newspaper* and 
naijfafffrftpi The nroseuni has bfl m netted by a large number of 

S'i':.uii.'.. A eoiiMilerable sum viw ubtuined from ;i fund raised 
aring the year for defraying the- cost of fitting: up the library. 
Tlie towns and villages in the? Principality will receive, it may he 
v I ihedf quite an aeoaeslon bo the Qomber of adoptions el the oota 
from institutes, eueh as the one at Welshpool, being handed OYW 
for the free use of the people for ever. 

WaexHAjr. 
Wrexham adopted the Acts in 18711, but after twelve year*' 
existence the number el volumes reaches only &361 for 11,000 
people, ir was nor mnl lajst year that a lending department was 
established, the hunks being bought out of £-100, the nun received 
out ut the rational Eisteddfod. The £180 which the rate yields 
In heavily (axed by b rent of £40 a year repaid to the Corporation 
for the use of the mums in the (xuildhall. This ought not to be 
An odd £5 or £10 at the luoat.ua an acknowledgment) would be 
ample, Two ladies oJ title are on the committee^ \t would he 
: viii^lu nci' Hit- work al Wrexham making more rapid pro- 
gress. So many town* in Wales are inquiring: about the Public 
Libraries' Acts that they want all the encouragement they can 
get from existing successful libraries, 



Bareitectwefft and Llandudno have made .itu-nipi- to carry 
the Acta, but without success. The vote was taken in tbe former 
place in 1868. in Llandudno the vote was taken in 1889, bub the 
whole attempt was htill-born. The steps taken to bring; the matter 
before 1 ie people do nul appear to have been uumerouB, 
The ftttei dance at the statutory meeting w m very small, and ihe 
taking of the rote wa> ;mMp<med. At a later date twelve voted 
for the Act* and twenty against. A poll was demanded, and the 
of this showed "1 against ami iSi.v. in fnvnur. An institution 
wirh ;i library worth altogethei about £:.',0<X> would have been 
banded over on the adoption of the Acta. With some organization, 
Llandudno should easily now adopt the Acts, but it is unwise to 
bring the cmi"»tion forward anywhere in a ball-hearted way. 

Tli. following arc the places in Wales where the question has 
less w more to the front of late, [neoreral of these districts 
the veto will probably he taken before long- 

In 1KK7 the question wee mooted in Aberdare and 1 "iir. 1 1 _. :« 1 1, 
hut fell through in each town from hwk uf support. In Mitreli 
if the ;Ih ^ii'ijci-t was also introduced in ('arnairthen. 

towni should bave their Public Library. V.Yja\\:'*\v-v. 
lias a library bul not under the Acta. It in&y naeAft cbSswd* 



m 



pnu.ic l.IBRARII^. 



i hiring, and tin* (»«t should Bet an cxumple to Llandudno. 
Merthyr Tvdvii hoi; heard something aboul b proposed odop ]• D 
of the Acts, but nothing has vot como of i' In Mountain 
u vote was taken some four years ntco, hut the reAUll wa* OH 

bSTOaroblo. Binodthes thi [rfeetion tnui been rnontdonod 4 

EUDMBj but nothing Itiithci- has been clone. Other place » are 
BhOBada \ lUejr, isfcr&dj I'onartb, and IVt«irky. 

Wales requires a little spirited eneonrsgenient, «*iNiit by 
or b>wnfl like Carmarthen, Llandudno, and other places ad* 
themselves t^ thi» list.. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

CRITICAL EXAMINATION OP THE 
PUBTjIC XjIBRABLBB. 



WORK OP 



|ROM scmio point* of view it would nppcar that Public 
* Librarian tiflbd suddenly emerged out of the long clothe* 

PJM of [\h< nursery int. tin- full li_<ln if public BJ&BOi 

j^g) t&inly thil would bo gathered from the Aoodrgal 
criticism which have been within a yoar or two b 
upon them. And tiu-v have some out of the ordeal remarkably 

well, and there run f»e no doubt thai in nearly nil the p 

Where they have been established the ratepayer have very 
inexpensive tnatttutfona. Pnblio Libraries will challemre oom* 

inn-oil with Board Schools, and all other puhlie ''Mjn-mliiuri- i.ut 
of whieh the people get Twenty shillings worth of real ralW 
for every pound Sterling invested, it nil other public money 
were equally woManem* woahould haw lose rates to pay, and it 
would ht; better far the penplp nil round Tim amusing |ort i* 
that an attack on the expenditure for ttrcct clcansm 

police, :ni<l DffSem '« a iiinlliT of r:i renee, und the 

o) ■ , f w • inn ii.i. .vii res round this nimble penny or the School 

Board rate. We bta b nation of small eoonomfHOi, and meekly 
swallow the huge camel of extravagance 

I'uiilic Libraries do aol shirt erltlnlam, snd, like all other 
experimental national efforts thoj inuei l>ear with a good deal ol 
tin* r'niiiiinxiiiy n will do the InsUtu [uni ■ » i: nt bul on the 
contrary will bring the more publicity to iholi ipers 
clusi' Hands sod rasa lo take aides. 

One thing the crilfcs should bear in mind in making cono- 

I orisons In the working of Public Llbrj oarueu^ any tu" 

iave axaotty the precise method ol tabulatlo . and mora 

unifonnit.y in this rCflpeot would be .-crept. tUe, tail lo dial we 

shall come all in (rood time. A ayetem i-. not built up In a da>, 
whether it be a Bolai : ■ library system. There are fea 

bofwnaexaeth >n all-turns with regard tothi people and u- 
needs 0* ireraal trnitd <■ i ;uv to be 

everywhere, but there are some local idiosyncratic-- which 
for something. The present viiieY.uVAvouKU accuatomed u» move 



i RTTIfAI. HXAMIXATIOV OF THEIR TVfiliK. 



871 



ihi.ir rhe country from evrremp north to extreme south, haw 
not-few 1 Miih piirlirnhirly vvhwi .-»■"" about the libraries ol tin- 
wnmiryduiing the taet fo« ro< otxw Home libraries class Nt^'Thpr 
Bctloa, poetry, and the drama. Some are open longer hours than 

mIIicis. -r linvtt mOfC branches. Some Ic-liei Hinv-Yoliiiiir ri.ivi'ls 
;il a iinii' and count each Volume in the returns, while again ih.v 
may lend for seven or fourteen <l;trh. The condition of the 
lowd jjn.ltisi rir*. nearly nlnay* materially affoote the returuB of (he 
ttbrarrfor that period. These fnstitutiuiip an- in IVI MTvin^** 
useful barometers of the state of trade in uianydisirici*. Etei ■ al 
towns have finer, more centrally situated prenrisea than the rest ; 
whilst in some cases then* i> rimyr*tio]i, attributable t" an 
mi workable committee and chairman who have been placed in 
their present position for political purposes, ami who abominate 
the ribUo Library and all ita works, Thi* a no pun, bat sooei 
fact, and were it not for the force of public opinion against 
them bnoy wo j hi throw every possible obstacle tn bhe way of 
the library's work. As it is, they starve the shelve* and bully 
the librarian. These arc u!l factors which produce their effect 
■ad while the spirit of emulation among Ubrarloa ihonld be 
eBoouraMdj the plan of roaldng comparisons In favour of on© ot 
muiv ana against others is n method whirl) should be PWeivt I 

MSSj t/rtuto Hnti/*. 

Th«' following towns tuv taken u* illustrative of the rest, and w 
being van i' iniv scattered through the (wnjxtrv. The figures 
glvon are for twelve mouths, but no4 always for the same Uwelve 
months, They are placed in the order ol population, adull and 

iwniic;— 



■1 ... 

rnyliixui 

Htnfhflatar 
Loetta 

i 

Mitel 

KiiUiiiplitin ,., 

Utto-on-Tyae 

tafc««r*r , . 

Rfrkflnhcnd ,. 

frftftou 

Xonrkli 

Wolverhampton .. 

tenth 

Ule 

igtoa 



p 

linn, IftSl 



662,426 
400,757 
841,5 tfl 
£00,124 

2(H ,503 

181 ■ ■■■ 

. ■ 
I 

10U000 

104,000 

87,813 

. . 

lis. BOO 
80. : 04 



No. of 
i ■. idem Vol*. Iti 

Tickoio iu, Sto«:h. 
in- 



S.Sf.f. 

ao,ooo 

11,803 
• 

10,608 
13,664 

11,06ft 
! . 51 
5,310. 
7.-100 
1,660 
2,000 
g,48S 

. 
3,000 



140,426 
L62,S01 

r 97,943 
161,749 

91.490 

74,181 

u-i.OUB 

;;•■ itt 

42.ru> 
iu,oi;> 

30.390 
26,883 

■i'J.Oil 

35,011 



Total 
Vi-ur''. 

[■mi 



Turn, fwrlirwl 

ovor. of Pop v 

lilt int. 



820,076 

i 849 ; i! 
s<v: om 

803.171 

,.■.1 60B 
1&0.000 

1 

203,116 

B 1,082 
96,102 

■ 

r ,<w 



5-9 

r.-; 

S'll 
5-0 

-1-6 

:-•., 

7'0 
!'| 

t;-4 

80 

I-: 
2-Q 

'-■■ 
• ■ 

-. Q 



!■'■ 
2-3 

4 -a 

2 fl 
1 IS 

■7 
.' 1 
■■ (i 
f! 

D 

i-o 

.:■! 
S'fi 



• Library ffioafd for a year and a half, 1S&&-^ . 



S72 



•rm 1 1' MBKARIBS, 



There \h :\ marked disparity among some of these BgUXBS us 
will be seen. Wolverhampton haa a little higher population than 

1,'uelnlale. mil w\ I In.' latter plaee Ii.ih three limex a* man> more 
bOTTO Vent' Ottldfl in 1186 j while Plymouth, which i> .vlmut tin; EMWD0 

in population, standi between the two: nn-l Darlington, with hull' 
the population, lu- half as many again m Wolverhampton, and 
not ipiite *»> many as Plymouth. The foregoing applies to the 
number of horrmveiv cards in ueopfind in this the disparity may 
be accounted for by the method of renewing the tickets, 

\ -linilai' dis|>anty attixoheci to the numher of volumes for the 
slxo of imputation. Leeds has, roughly, one hook for every tiro 
people, while Bristol fc not quite so well off. Manchester 2s even 

i o£| ;hn.n Leeds, white PrestOD fttS only 0Q0 DOOlt ftjr 6V0TJ 
four t«> live of the population. 

The aume marked irregularity En the figure* may he noticed in 
the other columns. 

The total cost ef the libraries iii thcho sixteen towns last 
WAS £69,5 18, for a gross population ot '!,(»'"/.- 1- on tho basis oi the 
last census. This works out to a fraction less than IJd. per head, 
adult and juvenile, of tlie oOXabi&Ad lmpulation of these si' 
towns for the maintenance of they-' obrarfes and their bran 
last year. And what had the people in return P 

I. In considering t he erwt of Puhlie Lihruries.it «hmiM in fairness 
tw» reineuiltercd that rho I'xpeiuliniro meinred is not exclusively 
spent in providing honk* r.> rend at home. Tin' cost referred I 
include* the provision of an mvitino :md itgreenMe place to read 
in. Instead of the more expensive and less military places whtoh 
have atjaortoed so rnnch ot the time and money of the working 
and other nlniHTin 

3. Than, besides books for baking away, there it associated 
with the Public Library i reference Uhrary, :i Newsroom, rtr, 
containing the hest newspapers and periodical* to he found hi 
this Important branch oi literature, much of which must hccrm* 
aldered an very solid reading. 

.3. There are. in addition, al many of these places Uvlurea, 

science and aft clasaow, museuma, and art galleries. 

This simple fact alone is worth volumes of statistics as bo the 
i lasses of literature read by the [leople, and a host of other details 
iu figures. Friends of this movement may fasten opponent* to 

this simple Fact, a.ud challenge them to produce another deiW ; 
ment of onr national expenditure where there is for eonniuli pel 
head of the population bo much far-reaching utility nnd 
actual value for puhlie money .-[iciit, 

Beforepasstngon.it is worth whUe calling attention to the 
wide difference in the ratable vnluc of these varlou* 
according to the population. The penny tor Birkenhead produces 
£600 per year more than in Preston, and yet the popuintii 

larger in Preston l»y 30,01 X). Norwich with o population of S\ 
producer only n little more than Rochdale W it!i I0|00Q iGBS An I 
ether example.*- might bo multiplied. 



' nun ai. j-;.\.\M:mnoy »>" thrih work 



878 



Taking 1 a few towna smallm- tShftD 
following table is instructive :— 



those already pivwi the 

TWRT.vk 







9X01 B Of 


\in\THX 


ZOW9C. 


I'ill'l J.VUON. 


BOOKS* 


I88CB8, 


4rton 


' o.(KX> 


11, rW 


'Hi.XH 


Ashtou-undcr-Lyne 


, . ■57.027 


11,980 


70..W 


BariOW-in-Fui 1 


.. r.0,01 x) 


14$40 


i'3,y^ 


Cambridge 


.. 40.4 1 A - 


36,9ee 


82,463 


Cheltcuhnro 


4ft07S 


I-Vjoo 


L:m,oi6 






i;;.J7;J 


52,418 


Dudley ... 


.. 4&S53 


8,300 


62,400 


ttacaleafleld 


.. 37. -.14 


16*49? 


4fl,7L**2 


.\rwport (Mini.) 
NortnampUiu . . 


. . 86,882 


1&186 


77,668 


. . 62,000 


wm 


:>'.' ,'•'.':■ 


Kotherhmu 


.. 86,000 


0.HS7 


58^09 


Shrewsbury 


.. Bfctffi 


6,799 


47,044 


SOOUl Shield* 


.. 63,876 


17,703 


0K881 


Southport 


10,000 


HI.K85 


03,804 


Stookport 


. . 50,653 


10,89! 


«.::.-:■_■ ; 


worth . . 


83,000 


10,833 


88,640 


WaiTinytnn 


4K.1M' 


sagoo 


1*>.71<>. 


W est Broniwieh 


M ■ 


l^l'til 


65,416 



Uorv again there are aaoinalfea. While oootown reqpjrefl three 

books per head of ii& population, other lawns are satisfied with 

lew lludi one. Take the average of the towns Miroiurjh whan 

tie «' are Public Librariea, it h about WW book and a-lmlf tu each 

Ih'isiim in Om area they cover. Moreover, ti it* reading fa done — 
7 per cent, bj the independent and professional duwon ; 44 per 
cent. 1>,>' tmdeame&i students, *huj,t assistants, and clerics i ami 
89 pec cent, by mechanic* ami labourers. It vouUl be eaay to 
examine Ubrarj statistics to ottaitc length i buti after dning 
deeply among them for some considerable Mme, the present 
writer has come to the p on ol u aton, thai for tin purposes of com" 
paring town with town, or groups of towns together, there are 
»o many differencce i tabulating and in other dlrectiona, net 
already Indicated, that the plan requires adopting with caution, 
loyond the broad linen ol work no two libraries are alike, and 
hence the difficult v of comparison. These arc bobs which ihonld 
■ n- K, j i very distinctly in mind, and comparative tables should not 

li;i\<- ;n; ( v .special wiUh 1 utrnelied U» 1 1 il-ijj. Had liiide in D&S year 

mi m certain trades will ut once affect the returns, and good trad* 
leaven lc*« time tor reading. A soriea of loot urea on special 
subjects will even afifeot fehe retnraSj and aa the weather f like 
rhemtoaffij isal the bottom ol a good main LhingBjthe stub* of the 
elements uhouki not i»e loft out <.-f consideration. A wol season 
^ ill keep people indcorBto read, oraesdbhain to the reference 
library, and a dry season nunds the people to tin- Ereah air. 
Returns may go op or g<*dowu, and all the explanation! which 
OOiild be great one way or flic other might not abaolxxVviYv) tttncft 
rrotaiu. n t& well to have statistics to ne w\vav ^a«\\ \o^a^ "^ 




L'7l 



prBLIC LrBItAllIES. 



dOSUg indi\'!iht:tlly. our COjEsir emnparianng must be guarded 

against, and Mils fad especially should be kept in mind b,* 
newspaper writes. In course or time there will he uniformity 
In statistic*; but at present that i« a much more riinVuit matter 
ihnn it would tppear, as bsfow into can he done severaJ radios] 
OOflOgflfl in library administration will have to be made. 

it m around the head of the Luuee t »r Action thai the storm 
nigra wiili the greatest funr. When this varies Cram M) to 60 per 
oent, as it does, it shows the wide latitude which exists, oul 
here again there most be caution, Some libraries bnj no nan 
three-volume novels. Others enter them in the returns as mree* 
volumes, and nut aw uue work, fiv that the *0 percentage ram 
i i i ;uised in thin wuy, and being lent for only seven, instead of 
fourteen days. It in admitted tlmt the percentage ol Beaten is 
i i -■_■ ■ in .vnnr i-.wr.s, ;«.ud th.Li the amount spout in new books baa 
been too lavishly spent on novels, but there is ample room fa the 
conviction that we have reached the high-water mark ■ lin-n 
circulation) It le on absolute (not that the proportion of job" I 
Literature is steadily on the increase. It is again worth, rcniem- 
l» ! ingthet all magazines and periodicals are invariably clawed as 
light reading, and these include papers liko the "EngincM*." 
* ; Buildor," n Eiigli»H M<.-oh;>nii\" nuJ many other*. If the fairest 
1 1 1 taificotlon was made, Scott would be cussed with history i i 
I '-Lone and Thaekeroy as moral philosophy. "Ye 
Night Thoughts" and " I': i»<;i^.' Lost' have hon melud ■• I .; 
fiction in soiiie libraries. "Under (Janves/ 1 a book setting 
evoagonstu work in i tent, has gone in 'lie same category^ ad 

tinni roue other instances OOttld DC quoted. Kvorybody 0X00 pt the 
ft i lest prig reads some works of Hot ion at some tini< - >r . thor, 
the time has passed when novel reading need be defended, seeing 

that bl*hnpv,:ix wi-11 Bt pUbllC8BJI mid BtnneVS lti-iii r;i I ly. all plead 

guilty to the practice The mistake lie* in the individual p 
doing too much of it, and so weakening his taste tor the BJOM 
lolid WOtki, Che beet ot OOC English novelist* may be reel. 
amongst the chief henafactora of mankind, and nothing basooa- 
rrihtiteil ho much to lighten the tedium of daily lite a* romance 
Novelist* claim that theirs k the most important, branch "i 
literature, considered as a factor in the education sad in 
incut of toe masses, and tbej have some ground for the statement 
Public Libraries will pass through the stage ofcil Ichun which 
they have now entered □ the eyea ul many of the public, sad 
they will come oat of the ordeal none the worse for (he pi< 
The essential fact remains that these institutions, if pro] 
managed, may bring advantage* ' ' " ,r bigueel order wlttim the 

reach of wen tin- | rest classes ol the community, Nowa 

wr :t!I proieffl to be anxious about the education o the n.i 
the people. Bub real education can only be begun in i Icmentarj 
schoola If the children of the working classes arc I 
educated tiny must do something more than pass the four 
rftr dxth standard; 'hey must learn, o* they stow to manhood 
Bad vromanhood, to take an unafiectc d interest in things of the 






TOE PtTCTlB OP PCBLIC UBD-AJtrBS, BTO. 



L'76 



mind, and to carry on their studios not merely tov iho sake of 
material profit, hut because they find fointeHeonm] lift the soaree 
dt one of their deepest and purest pleasures. If this ideal Ei to 1 < 
attained, there must be libraries where even one will be able to 
find tho kind of books he or she may want. It is HometimoR said 
that there is too great a " ran " upon novels, but the reading of good 

(novels should be encouraged rather thun discouraged, and there i* 
not the slightest tear that people who delight m me host writings 
of this natiu'c will confine their attention to fiction, 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES, AND 
WHAT REMAINS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED. 







HE future historian writing upon the present decade will 
In- ,■ i»injn-lli.'d to take. inU> account the part which Public 
Libraries are taking in the education of Che people* 
And It is safe bo prophet that .n the rate or progreee 
which is being made, the historian dealing with the 
Bret part of the twentieth century will acknowledge these citijscius* 
institutions ;i:» iH'cii]iytfig a very Brat place in the nations life. 
Although much good was accomplished during the first twenty 
years after EwarYs Act, the real impetus caruo with the passing 
of the Element;in' Education \<-t of 1870, and (li< next hound 
forward will be when Free Education, aou withta measurable dis- 
i.u:. 0| bocomofl the main pivot upon which our national hyuteni of 
education raste. When that desirable lime is reached, the 
position of Public Libraries and Museums will he as olenrly 
defined in the notion's shaft ae the pn^ms nud policemen are 
in day. Fi'on. present indications the land Booms to be in the 
foflity that both political parties will struggle with each 
other which ib to place upon tho statute l>x»k the abolishing of 
DtBOe En the 90h00l6 Of the people. It is now u plank in the pro- 
i. iiiiTjOi-1 the two great sections,and when tho decks are elenffl I 
for :t"tion, and the means by which the comparatively small sum 
now contributed in the form of Behoolrjpenoe &) tn be raised, then 
will come the tizac fox tbaqwsttonof State aid tc Public libraries 
to bo alao discussed. It leneeomlng a well-known fact that the 
COOR wir.ch are no* paid represent only a amnll pr op orttofl of 
the amount which the teaching costs. Atu\ not only so, bat the 
(atanee tit these fees is a oontfnual hindrance to the working of 
e \n ol 1870. The effect of the fee In to keep out of the Board 
hoolafihoiLRfljids of children who ought to bain them; and the 
ttampl to i nforce ltn payment lucreaaea the odium which almost 

nlv :il(i'nds upon compulsion The iviiitLtiiiL' i if fee* in 
u o» proved inability to pay thera is demoralizing in ils 
"act, and a waste < I Unaonthaport of the officials and teachers. 
ip annua granl ol £20,000 for elementary education, wUw\\ -%■&>» 
menecd in !•■ i. awn ' \ L vpe nnAtaunfta. \n sv\\s\V 



iii^H 



I i in twca i half i, nil !i u 

I a thil I ■ d '■;• eioeo 

■:mt qU*rt 

I;. 1 .-.- niilli- : I I !i n BUm, 1 I •' 

rat grunted froo 

itea. 

II ,w fM . nli:.'nc.>.! in. v. ,:il !:■>.: H..-I n : I! till lOOBl 

not vol I m - r » 

i.u: fo 'i ( parpen • tmpenoJ u an d tc local 

• I- belter plan lb* pr i ml >\ five 

■■ 

till- rrsl ll llll I I Hl'd K. : • It <j-i Hill ll'HAMl, Tlli'll will ll 

iiu- !■<■. i reign of power trl Public Mhrnrlea. 1 1 . \ nrtll I 

|il U3C,U 111- | li LVfl iiivrr yet ileni . i i I In rllll 

bhe Gounlrj. And for thai wurk lliej art i". 

« tiicli in li tabic (»> the iudii rdunl in&lii a 

liltl to 111'" »■•: k r- UOW f«j 11 t i:- onr h l£V u I. olr, 1 1 j:- ui 

1TC !tl rUgfl i:i:. I I m.'l • ■ nil' v !urli 

to keep I he w If from tin door: tb 
for ri in i \>\t\\ nf ' 

Thoi ■ (Bent 

in for thoic inntitutions of the runic and flic. It i . 

one perpetual attempt *>• (pet ;i quart into ■> pi 
I'.ui oven i tolr future ta nol by urv a i 
have rrii-ii to make out, and anyone looking a! tnab record 

< inch* cannot fail to conclude that the Uc I 
mad? of ovcryti 

it ik otoar thai second onlj In u»i><>i't;i!ir.- 
rnonteJ food in the catobli those Public Llbinu 

thonood for wrac means .1 utilizing the books whi 

Bveri Mio h:i" probably he irJ oi 
Log ladies wno undertake to qamd a certain 
each day In the perusal of :i literary classic Hi 
gronpii of people are i very general wymptom ■ I i waul all] 
nt some direction, wrnn* ■"'*> ice rad *u| 

(.' tiic ri o?ta which on many are w ■ i . n i : ■ 

Won. According to llaeon, " aome hoolo 

t(. he swallowed, and moiw few to hn chewed 

Then? is no section of the work i I 

more careful attention will have o be directed than tixlK. 

need of I brai j luaer-poat* ■ h n ■ 

nf the liiiiiUH-- llir i'-.i ll iiik for one seeking some 
aa to what to rt;.'l Ib to attend the eluaaei <\ 
or i< enter ae u studi i i foi 
,nt i ode to " ''"in i;< n her i ItC] natii i ie pot 

rin tiiMin- Reading Circles i ' don, .i ■ i nca Pu n 

ecJaUy designed to supply the want. II if 
; ,n of 'in- studiee "i any -i i ill jjro i;- o 

i . :;■.•!( :i [a intended l< 
the members ol the the |>ci*unal mfl 

men, who havo etudiod the special -uhjcot, t«» trsl tlu- v. . 






THE FITTI'RR OP PUBLIC J.IBRABIR8, ETC. 277 

and issue certificates of proficiency, and finally to arrange for 
summer gatherings of members of various circles similar to the 
recent meeting of university extension students at Oxford. At 
present there is no doubt that many busy men go to the Public 
Library as a distraction from the cares of life, and as a pleasant 
set-off to the toils and troubles of the day. The choice is not be- 
tween this and nothing, but between this and something worse ; 
between harmless amusement to the mind or fancy and the more 
gross pleasures which will come in and take up the time tor which 
no other occupation has been found. A Public Library may be 
started with higher aims and may serve higher ends, but it will 
be of most use to its neighbourhood by being so furnished as to 
meet all tastes. Works of fiction, and travellers' tales — not 
always to be distinguished from fiction, and so much the more 
attractive on that account — will always form a great part of a 
well-stocked Public Library. The purpose of its founders may 
be to instruct and not only to amuse ; but if they are to do either 
effectively they must be satisfied to do both, and must not look 
too curiously into the proportions between the two results, for 
they will probably be disappointed if they do. 

At a Public Library the great body of readers are not particular 
on the score of what is called originality, provided they find the 
style pleasant and the interest sustained. It is to be feared that 
most of us read less in order to improve our minds than to occupy 
our leisure hours. " Happy is it," said Goethe on one occasion, 
" that we do not know who those are for whom we write." There 
is certainly one class of writers who seem to know very well the 
class for whom they write, and those are the producers of the 
gutter literature of which there is always such a prolific stock. 
With very many thousands of school children, all that has yet 
been placed within their reach is the "penny dreadful," the 
character of which does not improve one iota as time advances. 
To follow Dr. Johnson's plan of taking a walk down Fleet Street 
would reveal to any observant person, if he would take in his 
perambulations the courts and alleys surrounding that street, 
what an enormous trade is done in this class of literature. This 
would be driven home in his mind by seeing this filthy stuff 
being devoured by scores of printers' boys during the dinner hour, 
usually spent in the streets. It is in combating the influence of this 
class of literature that the future of our Public Libraries will be 
very largely occupied. The mountains of gutter rubbish issued 
from the press is so great that its influences for evil have scarcely 
yet been universally realized. Useful as Public Libraries are, 
they have as yet only touched the fringe of the working popula- 
tion. It is the poor student who has chiefly gained by the publi- 
cation, now fortunately increasing at a rapid rate, of cheap 
editions of standard authors. This most deserving class of per- 
sons has too long been forced to regard the books urgently needed 
for further study much as the ragged urchin regards the tempt- 
ing dainties in the confectioner's window — as treasures beyond 
his reach. Who knows what the loss to science or literatoft x&t~ 



UTS 



•■ ■"HI T< l.IBTI VHIR' ■ 



ncd hflVfl I oea owing to the practical scarcity of booksr What 
with Public Libraries inn] 'heap cIukmics, hotter times are coining 
forth* poor i-.ln.lcni. bat the retormtitiou needs lo go nm.'!i lui 

i tier Itw U ■ »or i nd the tens of thou i 

chlMri n require catering tor, and that has as yot only I wen very 
indifferently dona in the future od Public Libraries the juvenile 
section bene that will receive u maon attention us any part of 
the work, This has been ftlreacry done at soma ol our feeding 
libraries, tut the real work in this direction has only juKt t* 
If the *■ m»nny dreadful ' li ever to be supplanted, it "must i 

hooks 01 iv Minii" mk! ftwrffcfug character, Wirt 1 Ol Which tli'i' 

Interest la bo simple thai an untutored Intellecl oau grasp It with- 

nut rlfml. W'r li:i\f (11 iilni';ili inn' mush-ex, :n:il wl)il*> DOt 

fearing detnoi THry, our beat, truest, and wisest policy is lo con- 
tent, e«iiicaie.;ind guide the people. Misery, viae, and crinw them 
must always be, but education and Public Libraries bare already 
done much to flimfrrfA them, and wfll do wiill more la tlie future. 
Bcarceh secondary to the planting of one uf theee libraries Ed 
every dbuiet where una dooa not already exist, and sustaining it 
w.th efficiency, the most perplexing problem with regard to 
future ol these institution- baa reference botfaeeupplyof fiction. 
Many Ibrary cenznjttees and others, who take ;»'> interest in the 
» m k uf these place*, have been miuh i ten iae i »u mind of late 
with regard to this ijueetion— Should novel* be provided . i ell, 
and if so to what extent P Some years ago a report of the B 
Public Library laid it down, as a rale, that "it i* 00 part of the 
duly of a municipality t»> raise: laxi-a tW flu- i. nm.se on-m -I th<: 

c< ople aniens the amusement Is tolerably sure to be conduct <- | i 
the higher ends of good citizenship. The sole relation of a Public 
Library to the general interest is as a supplement to the school 
Hyst'-iv seen Instrumentality of higher instruction bo all classes of 
the people." There [a iuiK , titruthinthi3 ) hutitmav i inl | ' r!l - lll,1 i' 1 > 
be *aid thut a Public Library, supported out of the general Kmtt 
to which all contribute, 000 not fulfilled its functions until it ha-* 
sought to the fullest, extent Of its meant fco moot the reasonable 
ahunui of all clauses. The phrase "reasonable claim*" la 
advisedly, for certainly there does not come under this head : b I 
supplying of the bonny novels or books of a vicious character. 
Some of the greatest geniuses which the world ha* ever known 
i v. devoted then? talents to the production of works ol nnaginu- 
tltiu, and there nro lessons to be learnt from these which cmum 
fall to have their influence upon life and character. Then 
again below these a real store of excellent world ol i - Hon which 
iif wholeeomdari(i pure, but. winch iu'ver claimed to rank aroonffthe 
ehissie works of the imagination But below these two 
classes there is a sea of trash and rubbish which ought never to 
be fonnd on the shelves of Public Libraries, and (• me 
librarians and committee* comparatively little ol ll Is found The 
preseni writer claims do position as i censor, bul titer war 
i in m cii i I ii p number of catalogues found not » rdngl< 
ffhrsuy Pinrtog in ;is catalogue the wotnx ol iwo ci tfit< 



I 



run rrTniB of prone* i-ituiarikr, etc. 



279 



Continental writers whose productions arc notoriously vicious in 
taste and demoralizing in tendency. Further than bhia, there never 

v.ir. :i him- iii the history of Public Librar-ieM when 00- much 06X0 

van exercised in the eoloction ot boobs fid at the present time, This 
uugurs well f or tho future o J Public Libraries, and it ia the writer^ 
lirni conviction that the question i« one which trill very I I 
take ctnv of itsoii ii due discretion in the seleotSeti Of book* u 
exercised. PubUo Libraries have a cosmopolitan constituency for 
which to outer, and their supplies must bfl Of n cosmopolitan 
character. h< greatest good of the greatest Eumbot should be 
in this, :ik in other departments of h>, an elm Kept distinctly in 
view. The inveterate and insatiable hunter and reader of the 
latest three-volume novci.no matter ol which sex the borrower 
m ty Ih>. [s beginning (<■ be more sad mori cBw - oraged. Tho di«- 
oontrnn&noe ol Public Libraries pnroha&iiig these has been almost 
universal, and will soon become entirely go. As pointed nut hi 
Mother section of this work, Miesc three-volume .sets are nearly 
the most expensive Da keen going of i ny hooks in n library. The 
binding to which (he work i* Issued is of ttoe flimKieat, and * 
ii ix necessary to have them re-bound the cost Is treble whai has 
to be paid for a single-vuhuue novel, Ami, moreover, the best 
writers la the world oJ fiction now publish their taluks in mi g]e 
volume*. Library space Is too valuable, or should he at Least, to 
And shelf room forthreevoloinesste,&ud the Library which occupies 

oi ■ and inflate! it* rel urns with tihera i* rather to be pitied 
tfotwUlvstendioa oil these admissions, a may be Mill held that 
there w a class of fiction which is elevating and educating iu its 
character, and there iano reason why the reading of this should 

bcouraged Sir John ticrsc-heil, in an address which as 
delivered In the Windsor and Eton Public Library (winch i.- n< i 
under the Acts), said: "The novel in its best form I regard us 
one of the moat powerful engines of civilization ever invented." 
The writers of ' i 10m BirJohn Sarsoheil mentioned were 

rentes, Goldsmith, iM^worthj sad Scott \ and since their bhne 

have hod Dickens, Thackeray . Ge< rgc Eliot, and Charlotte 
And if that were true" of novel* of which Sir John 

Uerschell epoke, it must) A/brrwrt.be truer now, it the splendid 
character -<\ tho Botion of the last lmli'-c< mturj be considered. It 
i« this fiction, so healthy in its character. with which we havo 
t i fonn snd train our youth Into a teste foi rei (Una But It is 
essential to go i step nuttier Fiction is not ; '" , »'' ty an an 

meat. 11 is, for the lives of a. great many of our | 

nacoasary OOUnterpOiaa ha the monotony ol mere mechanical 
employment. They want their imagination nuleke&ed, and the 

ilornnd monotony ol their daily fives glorified we may even 
dm thai word by fiction, such as thai of Scott sad the 
writers who have been named. Ouec create the passion for rend- 
ing, and :t will not) it cannot, oanfrao ItscM to reading for amuse- 
men) only. Many opinions could be given >i\h>n novel reading, 
tun Hie;, have been bo well and universally reported i^i the i 

. ■ ■ i < i«tsary 1(j iln more th-.m juv-\, rvVr Vu\\w.tows*i 



■»-, , 



i-i d . i.iniiAiirRs. 



Hi. general consensus of opinion shown that, like fill other f 

in life, there is a tisc and an abase ofitj BBC too frequently fane 

tatter rather than the tomtit is the Jtate of flii tge, 

in the Pnblio Library of tho future the reference department 
will Im lu.ilit.'d upon as tho chief -ic-tian of tho work ol I 
places. By this it is not mount that they will become solely the 
repositories of soazee books, but where works ol a valuable nature, 
too ©xpenaive tn be uuivliosod hyordmury mortals, witt 1 find :t plaoe, 
This is tho most expensive part of Public Library wt ik to main- 
tain, as the books are among the moat expensive published, Jtut 
Chat Is all the more reason v/hy every Iowa and every extensive 
piiiags i lentra should have one place in us midst where books on 
every conceivable subject can be consulted with equal facility by 
young people and adults of both sexes 

Uo are now just beginning tho last Mi year* which will 
oomplete the Jubilee ol Bib Swart Ad of 1850 The total nun 

Of adoptions up to the date of the i.s.siie nl ihis edition is ovi»r 
200. The large number of adoptions within Tour years is a 
Vl .j.y rri*iitify(nK rate of progress. Bat Instead "( mi avenue ol 
toy urteen -I year, w'iy should we nol have, during the next ten 
yr.irs.Mi leasl twenty, with a sound opinion thai twenty-five or 
thirl j should be the number ': This will give u?> oe n goal, whan 
the [ubflee > reached En UKXi, a grand total ol 400 odopdons 
oi' the Ante; and really, considering the rate ;tt which the whole 
UUffltum is advancing, and Hit* Impetus which is being yiv&u to 
educational movement ^cnrrally, it \> not too much t* » Ml this 

number before ns and work steadily with that object In view. 
So, t lends of the moremenl everywhere, please buckle on your 
armour, and let there be a long pull and a strong pull mid n pull 
altogether, and this desirable end will he accomplished. Ills 
ground is, in many irii mtry, cleared and ready tie be 

Occupied; but m other counties there arc difficulties still in Mo- 
way which will make the tusk a very laborious ond arduous one. 
Again, however, there OOmee bhc OOnsolaMon that the movement 

depends, in ovary detail of ita work, upon roluntarv effort 
I [orein lies its chief success, for only those, as i rulo, banc up the 
question who have the nccescury grit to carry the natter to a 
naeesaful isaue. Friends and comrades everywhere, who are 
Interested in this raoveuMB^it is a grand euo.se tor which w< in 
working, The object is no less than the common good of the 
whole people. The charity which begins at home us here true la 
the fullest and most comprehensive sense. Every man and woman 
who places a shoulder to the wheel to establish a Public Library, 
and to pur it In BUOOeesfnl operation, help- to start tho i Ipp i i 
B work which will never cease as long ay time la§t«: but which 
will ever become wider and wider as the generation* to come 
develop and extend the work- Here ;* a magnificent rlsl I 

I lor thoxe «eeking a mission. It is not, o work for eivtt- 
izing the desert planes ot the earth, bin one for the filling I 
the desert, places at home with that whteh can alone In this life 
give tho most solid and Lasting enjoyment. The plenaur - 



THF. FPTVWS Or PUBLIC MPHAHIK5, HIT. 



S81 



live we fchoae of the mind, ami the em Ironing ol the lieart ami 
mind with the wisdom of the grani intellect* of bite earth should 
be the aim of all, It is the supply of libraries in nil directions 
wiii.-h I'lvnif die demand. This is om il the mast convincing 
proote of the utility of those Institutions, aid ii Efl i vita] factor 
in the movement. 
Wi i! remains to bo nocompHshod is vast, and as widely wat- 

loivd ,i-i ;nv |ln> OOUntl'e« and -iliii ok of tllO whole United Kingdom 

and iivUukI. To do Justice to this part ol the hwfe would require 
each county being ufoeusHed woparately iii full, but linn would 

r.Hjuiiv ii -ji'.'.-.ihI or third vliruo. tti fcnglund tho county towns 
oi dii> following I'lHiniii's are still without J*ubhc Libraries, and 
m immy comos without any attempt ever having been made to 
adopt tne Acts: — Durham, York, Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
Lancaster, lcutkuui, Gloucester, Buoka. Huntingdon, Lincoln, 
Surrey, Sussex, Wflts, Doreeti Somerset, and Cornwall, 
This t« a lut whirh teifa up to a larger number than the oounty 

towns whii'h have adopted the .Vers. 

Taking the great trunk railway Usee ol the ootm try as one 
of She orttoria which oould be named; seeing that tnoy pans 
through tin' iiiomi populous towns, the nakedness of the land 
becomes terrtbh apparent After u oarefnl xmdy of tin- maps of 
each Kepantte large trunk line, it is dear that ftfty, sixty, n 
hundred, and in some obbba a hundred and ill'tv miles of dig 
country are traversed by 1 lie railways, and there is nul ihc 
hliybli-Ht vi'^tiyi "it ( Publie Library. This i* U.-plunible, 

Lmong the places where attempts have been made to adopt 

:! i Vj >, bui without ^uccew, the following may in- given. H 
is to be hoped that Home of these are again ready for S trial. 
Some places named have not previously aUi-inptrd. but the 
movement is ripening for bringing to the vote, 

Rath dm several times considered the Question. A small 
reading-room and library wore kept open by a former parlia- 
mentary representative, but closed on his ceasing: to represent 

tin; (■"'it.-tiuiouov. itriti-r a *tnall library than tone •< alLtml 
are \ Bew boota and newspapers among ao many f Bath 
should not longer log liehind. 

IJmirpAMi at present is dependent on Southport for its books. 
In Maivb, 1880, a meeting; wee sailed bo consider the advisability 
or otherwise of adopts g the Acts, When the chairman of the 

II. i tl Hoard took the choir there wore only thirty present, and he 
: l od whether it wart wise to ao on. Tho meeting wn« adjourned 
Mtu 4ic Try again) Birkdafe-j and educate your loeej pnhlk 
■ >n, 
i: atOH Latimrh, noar Kettering, w a village with a population 
..t toflOO, and a ratable value of B8,000,and would like bo have 
u Public Library. \v hat a boon i small Government ^mut would 
be 1 1 ra I w iifi mi Income of EflO, the dUBonlties are tmrreeB) knv 
abh -treat. 
CoLCHwrrRn.— Then* was a distinct leaning for a V\\\A\o \ Sen 
a* a movcmeni m \B8? t hut then were tor. rnauy RtibMOAl vU w* 



:•!'.. M I MIUAK1KS. 



Held, ud tola, with other plan?., went bo the wall. A town of so 
great importance in the Eestern Counties should not be behind 
two entail places in the country where the A^ta have been ud< pb d, 
Many leading men in the district arc in He favour, Cold 
i> ,suon likely to try again. 

i ...i.xn took a vote upon the matter in April of last .year, and 
failed to carry the Acta upon B demand fox o poll. Tin* vol 
a Utile too hurriedly taken, and with a better attempt t< >docnJ • 
the constituency a bettor result would probably come about. 
Now the statutory twelve months have intervened, try ugain, 
Culnc, and follow Nelson. 

I rvnn,ru.\H had a MuggeHtiuii boforo it twelve months ago 
that the market building should be nequuvd, and turned into 

l'ublu- Lihrnn in 1 Mumuui. Some obstacles are in the vtt J 

therein Likelihood that the visitor* who winter tl this delfgbt- 

fill place will lU'go lh< adoption of the AcCk Ktnmgly upon Ix 
town. Cheltenham tindv tho library a decided boon lut it-. 
visitors, end those -who frequent Eastbourne would find a Pontic 
Library b einailai ttdvantafle. 

Evm'.i rii, init at b i> little Devon waterln#-]» > acej wans n 
library and reading-rooms. Many persons appear anxious that 
the attempt should be rnade f whlul othnrapomf at the absolute 
uiiinv win. i baa speedily OTBcteJceo every rentuw [n that 
direction which naaneea hitherto made. But one Important 
t:ii-t litis ben forgotten Tliere has been no Institution nf the 
kind which lias been absolutely free. The admission foes lmi 
been low, but current coin of the realm has had bo be parted with 
before n glance at a paper could he obtained. 

i uamra&tH near Boston, Introduced the subjecl aoiue twi 
three yeara ago,bul nothing was done, There ire several i 
of oon«deral3e huh in the district, and a large 9 irking cum 

qIj m.-nt 

Buablbs has several luneahad the matter before .t. but Share 
la nf.*.! di' a provisfonaJ con mittoe tu take the uuosl ion id 
.iin.i ur-jni/.i-. Hit- presence ol the Mechanics 1 Institution La the 
principal argument against the establishment of a Publh Library, 
ami had this institution not met the want of a cheap resoj I Cor 
connuitiTig' hook and newspaper literature, a Public Liorarj 

likelihood have been established \< ngago, Vhe Mechanics' 
Institution of Burnley is a strcngthencr of all that is good m tin- 
town. It la the popular resort of the reading _ public, and oa a 
democratic institution it has no enoniio*, Any Public 
EJurolcy ought to be a some way associated with the Mech \ 
Institution. Mny such a desirable com animation soon be brought 
about. 

Qxovonsx&l tools the vote in March, L887 Pin I the 

promoters of ;< Public Library wore outvoted, notwithstand m 
that 1,<WK) parsons ha<l aiprncd the requisition to the \l >\<<i 
the preliminary meeting. l'or adopting the Acts, VJ6: 

Hje nwij v 'v igalnsl the ad »pt oi oi the lew was i,: 
27)0it» oan bo uo doubt that the d« '"aus&d l^ 






J r .». — *- 



iiC*"" -ATI— .t_* . ... 



BUS '"" " "Is- "■_.•■::. I "a "*? -r • rf*-r ~i- . • "* : — - 

i?XCT T^rr*- :>*"" ". - '. • '. ■- """.-12 -"• ~ lz "•* *"■: 
jj$>jir*Vjt -.-riT'T^.-r : -. . - ■— * _ 2i :- r_ . .:* -*:. ;■ ::■•. 
ttojEvr^nr*?: "/flj"c5? . — .:.- ;..:.-_ , i_..— -.:_:- -„*- 

L£*n£? n ^I-tf:-*-.- -v.. .,t~': 2.*- -_ -. .- "--. -: tz -■-; r.r.'! 

excit:.** -• : ::-" v >■•— -•'•'-■"- -t:--:-.-:' ^i- > >. % i*rv 

Ek*> v '■? i.i. v-- : -•;*.:.- ■ ::,- v.- - <;■ ■; . -j*-^, ■£».. 
l^&e&t-fct ii.--:-.::-. ■: " '•.•* v. ... *■_.**-..- 

I -' J '•* ''•:-.■'•" ":a* :. ■" *-f' "■•' - :.*:ir iiVCC.*-I * zitt »..•:% 

demsi' -" i y • ''■■ ' :: ~* &<}""* v *-'* "■^vru-i -^xn_i.*.x.i".. .--. 



28-1 



v\ Tit.rr unnAiuic-. 



Una, K.vdc, BhaokUn. and VentorhaYoalso discussed the subject] 
but th« liti U' island fill! stands where it did is this movement, and 
lias not one i.-;tc->in»p, u i tc<l liU\iry. lly-and-byc, no doubt, the 
good people of the island will come to see that Public Libraries 

OH BO useful us fashionable yacht clubft 

Ut«BwoaTs< In -Mmvii, 1690, tho Heston and bloworth Local 
Board affirmed tho principle of a rfttc-eupportcd Library; 
ratable value is set forth as £ m.thi in Hestcro and t: >._i:: in 
Ulcworth. making h total of B120#SS» On this basis b penny rate 
would produce about fi'wt. Una is, Df course, a vcrj modest aura 
to distribute ovei three townships, if ut there nro some ap 
advantage* Islowortb has the Public Hull Library, respectably 
stocked with beds, but needing ;i n oca fuller supply than the 
existing funds can give. Honnslou till recently possessed :t 
nanption library at the Town Hell, but laclc of enterprise on 
the part ofl bhe owners caused il tone discontinued, There are, 
however, two church libraries which circulate pretty freely through 
the town, and Boston has nleo u pnbft mstSttuaon. it will M 
seen, therefore, that Che encouragement of reading In the district, 

if cramped in vnviniiK ways, ins n .1 Iv-mi wholly Irist tight o! 

TliN siren weight to the argument for the Public Library 8ol> 
scriptfon and church libraries were very well In their da) The} 
met a nee^l which emild be supplied then in no other way, Hut 
wiili the creation d! the larger, more popular, ami more t'omiirc- 

licnNi'vr in.sl.inlioiiii, their work attained u r.unvr :uid individual 

perfection which has gratified nobody more than their promoter* 
these districts will, no donbt, be noon added to the list, 

Kksuai., with ItsSl/KX) people, is still out il the hunt, hi ISS7 
the question was well to the front. The " Kendal Mereur) " tiai 
ably advocated the adoption of the Acts. Surely Kendal will not 
lake, a bock seat to AVorkingtou and Whitehaven. The bOH D has 
always displayed a oomoienuabie public spirit, Why should this 

nut he the ease in this movement r 

Lwgh is another Ijancuslrire town which has touched the 
question, but has not yet seriously taken up the matter. With i 

very large poptilutinu, and numerous eottOD mills, collieries, and 
machine works in the district, and a large ratable value, Leigh 
should be one of the fiwt towns to now place itnelf in line. 

Lonoto.v. — A Public Library i« greatly wanted here, and tho 
pi. .-I.(ii linn hi'cii Mcvuml linn's niunti'd, Thi.s is ilir noli' whirh 
hu» been recently Hummed in the borough. To an OUtsidd 
a matter of renf eurpriso that a town which posses**** so much 
public spirit, nod which ha* in several important matters \tt pped 
m adToaes of its neighbours to the Lotteries, should In thJ one 
rasped b* - i ,»rreatly behind tho time*. (Jf the larger to* 
the Potteries tad :t might also he said in this part of North 
'-'tLttbirdehire), Longton is the only town which has not adopted 
the Acts. 

Lowasrora, — The lute Sir Morton Pel i was een oloaslj 
soci*t&i \\i\h Chic thnving watering-place. S<i much so, in fact, 
that the Haver has deaersi ed \\\\w .■> ■■ ' - cmxetf 






IBB i-'i-rrm: OS itau" i.nii.utn;s, HTO. 



986* 



s 



lector, and the founder of ite prosperity." A few months ago a 
frefi-ottendod mooting wok hold to consider the deairabDity of 

porpotuating his memory by the erection of a mutable memorial 
id the U Wn. A Pablifl l.ihr:iry l<> In* known by In* niimi» h;^ mot 

with very warm aapport, end the scheme is being well and favour- 
ably considered, 'itie sympathies ot Sir Morton wore ever with 
the people, and ii" better n - matin] than thw could be established. 

\i(\v:-.; P', i I ;rps :<}.— The <|Ui'Ktw>n wns bfOOght forward BftTlj 

during 1889, bui bafl been allowed to slide. This town, of oral 
Mn thonsjind people, Lrvently needs provision tar its hook-needs, 

and the anbject wili.it is to be hoped, soon again come before 
the people It should hi* the first town in Berkshire to adopt the 
Vctn after Reading, 

pBTBRBonoi an has ones or twice had the subject introduced in 
The town. The Young MorfB I -hristinri Association hns expired, 
and 11 wbg ttuggeftted (hat ii Public Library won Use beal bhfngto 
lake its place. And so it is. Try it, Peterborough* and see if such 

ift UOt the r:\yr, Tin: old rathcdrul Iuwjls do iml so far sllUlO par- 

lii'ularly well in tlu's mi ventonl . A Rood frlendh lead is wanted, 
Uawuarsh wa,« again, thus lu#t January, thinking about the 

question* Many of the jicoplc here use the Uotlierham Public 

Library. Out why (should QOt Rawmareb he independent, and 

h.iv 1 its ..ah institution r 

roHHBoran (Tlyuocth).— A movement in the direction was 

adc a abort time ago, and a committee of the board called 

gethcr, but the preaanl iim«- is ">nadorcd inopportune, in con- 

. oce of certain financial bni'dona which have bean incurred 

l»v Hi'- bownahip. The matter is therefore poHtponed. 



Tai trroir. — The county of Somerset docs not yet possess a single 
lop tie 
work in hand on the occasion of a further attempt \o carry tb< 



adoption of the Acts. A ^fronjj committee totiti the preliminary 






K<A m the beginning of I8B8. Aided by the " County Ctantte, 
mil other l<»nl papers, they did their beet to educate the local 
public. But the fa tow with sadly n^mi'i rhem. Probably the 
Baoat nprearioUH statutory meeting which ho* been held for a tOfitf 

ii took place at tnunton in Jamiary, two years ago. On a poll 

being taken there was a majority against the adoption of fM7. 
Tin* number of abstentions was large, but it was satisfactory to 
UOt" that B?« years previously, when the vole was taken, the 
ninnher against was marly treble whal it was on the last occasion. 

tfnscranmous opponents had frightened the poorer people Into 
the belief thai their rants would Be raised by toe adoption of the 
Libraries' Vets to hucJi a fabuloua amount that they would be 
unable to pay them, and tin* warkhaiuaa would be the only place, 
at refuge irnm the library rate. Thai such uigumeuta were used 

ivns evident from the unseemly demonstration thai took place a' 

the public meeting, and one can hsrdty be surprised thai these 
deluded ratepayers did vote against the movement. Tile cfppoei- 
Hon had been vrell organized and well convatssed, ami on polling 
ire *as taken that very few of them neglected to record 
sir voir (in the other liana, the promoters tfeoweA conaVoftra^ft 



SN 



PUBUO LlDBAltlEfi. 



indifference in the mutter. ••)■ trusted too RlUOft m the BOB 
sense of the rotOTS. Tiiinitnn \m|| he BOOH ready (or atoll. ■ 

t.i ti--n]»i . whei m o. hoped ft bitter result will be aeon. 

ToK<ii-Av.— Lu the anrtrtcl at St. Maw Church there has I i 

carried on for more than a year. by the aid of voluntary 
BCriptioOfi, B Public Lending Library Though nn a small *e:de. 

ir. has bees rn 10b appreciated, and the committee have beffi 
Agitation with a view of adopting 1 the Public Libraries' tcts 
There is opposition, hut. they hope to succeed, smd there hi <r\ 

probability of their doing so. 
Toro*SHAMfMiDDiJ8Kt)refti6ed che lutein December last, b 

Iheie whs :i lil.lle limine hash- in lniit^itig tho mailer ;n a v >le. 
The apathy both for uud against the Acta was great Now tin- 
question has made nnch a distinct advance tie \ is v Y no d<nil> 
he adopted at the end of the current year. 

avkvmoci-k. — In Apcfli 1*90, the vote was bakes bete and lost 
There was, itn orfcunatelj, no lerious attempt made to educate tin 
people upon the natter. 

Wrinirreroa feoueoJ the suburbs of Manchester, and some 
flu: leadci> •>)' local pubtic opinion donot we why they should be 
dependent on Hsranester lot theli supply of books. And quite 
right too. Ai'i'i i>, >nd so inany other suburbs of Gobtonopotis, 
purely the time for \Viilihi</ton to enfranchise itself has now been 
reached. 

York.— in no town or city has the movement had more sai 
friends thnii in York, and yet it has been terribly unsuoees rful, 
At'rer a prelim mmy e.niiiuiitoe had earned on an notive en □ 
the statutory meeting wan called for August, 1887. Subflcriptions 
to the extent of WjOTOwew promised, and o largo and suitable 
building e.inid have been acquired on most advantageous tonus. 

Kxcollont BpoeahOfl were made in favour of the motion, and 
throughout there was a high-class tone. Tho opposition was well 
aued,flld carte imni YeTY intlnnntial [UftTteTft The resolu 

tiun ws$ lost by a large majority, a poll was detnanded, an 

this being taken the mSjj Hlty against stood at 817, r< 
years previously, when the poll was taken, trie number against 
«tood muoh higher \\tin a population of nearly 7Q,000, and n 

city noted for it* mleliii/enro, the result *vu- - ■ . - i \ ■. i . lj. if ■<! .... 
the friends of I he i : : hut the defenl was liken with % 

good graco, and the time Is now wlthn mOSfiuroHfl di<iance, when 

the deotston will be reverft d If the clergy nnd others wl i 
iu forming 1oon3 opinion! while ready to raeord their rote Fn 
ur, will contribute their active support, and work instead of 

Ig a merely nominal allegiance, sui mm will be as 

Sooner or later York \< sun- in he added lo the list, and thei 
are evidence* that it. will be su»iicr rather Ihan later 'Hie e >unl 
town of the hn'.'iMi oounQ In the country should A be 

die rear In this question 
Theque.'-iiori tuabeen broariitfurwardlnthe following, among 

1 i overs! of I In tnwi - named -* t i nn. 

Xkpi bu been made to carry the Ai 



1 

i 



pi'titc rmRAniBS xv lopji-os. 



■>: 



msforri ffranthoni, Ituddersfleld, Hull, JloTwicb (Lane), 

ni. Ilkeston, Kettering: Ltneohh Luton Honk 

Brelton, Newton Abbot, Penzance, Pocxhlngton, Rugby, ftugelev, 

Sutton Coldfleld, Stonebridge, Tunbrtdge "Wells, Tylaeetey (Line.), 

Windermere, York, &e. 




CHAPTER XVIII. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN LONDON. 

(HE barometer of the Public Library moTpmo t Li 
evidently located in London. In no part of the t'nited 
Kingdom has the progress been so rapid, and fche 
developmcnl bo universal a* in the Metropolis, For 

thirty-nix years the I;n'-v provincial towns bad br.cn 
pointing the fll _' t ;it London, and consoling fchemeolvee t!mt in 
this movement, at least, they were not ue the sluggish folks in the 
Metropolis, London might, they said, bo the hub of tho uni\ • 
80 far us wealth, size, and tDftpOTtttna Wftfl concerned, bat in the 
Public library movement, tho capital was apparently content to 
i very hack seat. Londoners who had drifted up from BOnX 
of the lar#? provincial centres, and who hud been accustomed to 

u -.. Hie li>>rane« hi -|>*> tnwnK tliry had loll, wen 1 often >>tiing lo 

the quick when reminded in their old haunts of the dearth of 
Public U warieain London. Place a iter place in the Metropolis 
had, up to 1886, tried to carry the AlStftj ami had met with failure 
to utterly disheartening that the movement seemed to have lost 
ll] ttfl n-H'ueU. t T p r.n the end Crf 1WM3 only tWC partShSfl within 
ilir noMinpolitan area had adopted the Acts. The number at the 
tfms of writing; (June. IHflO), is nineteen out of the sixty-seven 
paxiaheain which the metropolis b divided In addition to this, 
m;my London parishes lfmbh have '"it. .yet adopted thi> A.ete 
given some thought and attention to tho ciuestion. 
It lias been to the present writer a source of inspiration to 
compare the tatters bearing upon this question received by him, 
prior to 1880, and those to hand since that time. The tone of 
iIiom ul b few year* agn wa> in B0DM caSCS Unit ot ullcr hopeleSB- 

Tiic MM-ea of ignorance, apathy, and the utter imliil'erence 
oi the average Londoner to anything outside bla wry limited 
circle constituted obstacles BO great, lhat lo attack these seemed 
b i tost like a forlorn hope. But the vorJi ol the Board Schools 

itl in the iiKniilinir Irt/en gcing steadily I'orw.ird. Aii rsli'iisum 
uf tin- n;i ;■!.> i\ locomotion which had enabled many Londoners 
to see provincial libraries, and especially the increasing power of 
the newspaper prete, had been SO thoroughly preparing the eofl, 
tliiit when t ! i c movement did once take root itu growth wot* rapid, 
don, so far as these institutions are conc-ernea. is 
like a giant Oliver iv 1st unking for more. On all sides then 

mcy and hopefulness, and those who have stood bj !'• 
movement all through feel that tho battle has been worth 
1 us helped to place thene UU.Vv- o& w\£ev 



•JHH 



PUBLIC I.rBRAniF.S 



B footing thai nothing i-an now retard their extension und 
ikwlnpmont The number of tho*o came*! trienda who, through 
evil nnd good report, have for b long period heon like prophet* 
rrying in thewfloerna6g,la large; and now that success Is assured, 
ibi' mgheet praise wh..-li OftD S (JonneotfoD wim the movement be 
bestcroredj Ji due nnre»orvedly to those who have in the various 
parishes held aloft the torch of educational advancement. They 
ric witnessing the remit of ihrir hihours. mid is something w 
which bo be proud i" have borne ;i part Iq e uanae winch 
has brought flevattog :niMK-rnr- r and solid Instruction Into 
thousand! of live* find homes. 

The pariah • *r Bt, Margaret and St. John, Westminster, to lie 

i w i l.iMinu iTedii. wah the first to adopt the Act*. This it did m 

. and no further adoption took place until 1883, when 

YY;uidsworlh followed A lapN 1 ol" tnrnt v-w* i;n vcar> iTpr»'scnt* 

.-. i,n cry. and during that period there "ww ranch quiet sowing oi 
seed, tt hieh was of unquestionable benefit when the break did 
come in 1RW. At iho end of that yean Lambeth and PuJham 

followed mcli other (prickly with unmistakable VOrCiicle, and gate 
OS the turning of the tide which will ultimately lead on to thi* 
fortune of nearly cvovy parish in London adopting the A. is. Tlic 

(ffOffreaa baa been ™ rapid and solid that it now requires but 
into f ores bo help it onwardH, and a few mow yean will .^ce the* 
circle (airly complete. In the two former editions .'- r ' tin* hook, a 
chapter on the hondon Public Librara '-va inly practicable 
by K"oinff outside the metropolitan area for examples. The 
extreme suburban dietrictB, fuoh as Richmond. Kingston, Twiek- 
enham, VSTmbledon, and Baling had takes bno Lead, and had 
adopted the Arts, These places, in order to lu-lp oat the 
arithnietie and so prevent the barrenness of the land bona being 
too apparent, were included arnong the London Public Libraries. 
jfo* H Is no longer Deeesaary to do this. Credit is due to the 
pis i -en named for having been in the very front rank to more in 
tbo matter, and their example had a most useful influence. 

wiiji". nowever, there w mueh Bo ■ ■ ind satisfaction 

to the friend* oi this mOTonsentL there is stCU much to bo d 
:ui<l it u destraole that all who have the iniestion at heart Should 
do wind they can to ronse the districts where the A« la h LVU BOt 

yet been adopted vVc stiii nompare badly in point of ninnber 
with Paris end Berlin. The statement Is made, on the authority 
of Professor Paloczy , thai there are in Berlin twenty-flve Publfc 

Libraries, with more than 100,000 volumes i\mh. I'hi.s Live? .1 

proportion of over two volumes per head of aeeeaal de in- future 
for every man, woman, and child in the Prussian capital There 
Is not! ilng corrjwpoiniini! bo this n London or Parisi Ttx Library 
oi tin- liritisii fffuseom oontalni shout 2,000,000 volume*, trhe 
■mimi National Library in Paris over thai number; hut 1 in- 
Forracr. though Coirly accessible, i^ not so in the sen* thai n 
Public Library b; while at the latter the facilities Cor ooncmltation 
snd reference, even when the neceasor) credentials are obtained 
bjr the uppUcaat, are \ • ■ in rtteta lory, The German* bare 



rriiuc MBnaarx* is i.onijov. 



g«P 



loUf «':i.i"V • ! ■ li ■■ n -]-i (ill mil nl U-in_: '!.!■ mo*| " Mtrkidl " people 

in i. .! it \> )lca*aal to know thai even amid their 

present devotion ti - miiit.iii m they ore not disposed to lost this 
reputation. 

Paris is equally well ofl m Public Libraries. There are bo the 
French capita] some oigbtj popular librar uted area 

various parts of the city. Many of these are 
nnd arc located in the town hulls or in schools, and are Mpl 
by rnunieipal funds. Xbe more [QtelUcenf of former scholars of 
primary Bohoelfi oouatitnte their due! readers, <>f tbo 

i named there are nbout fifty-eight municipal libraries. 
Seven di-trictsor arrondis^niu*at* possess twooi I :>-n, <i !: i I have 
three, and five four. Thi« mo«r populous districts hare the largest 
iber. The cttyapenda yearly c 1,1-0 ri 13,000 francs] in pur- 
-.iks and in binding. Tneaaiarieaaw£8>8o0a jear, 
ITat }$47 the number of books consulted ..n the preo 1- ■■.-■ > 1 ken 
home to read is given as 1,094,000; in 1686 it w.-f- ;d»«tv.. 
Millions; but I 1889 there seem* to have been n decline in the 
number The establishment of these libraries hoi been rerj 
rapt odei the Empire they da not lean bo have ntietea 
Between 1871 paid i>r* ^i number <rf libraries vera established, 
hut it was not until the later date ;unl rhe years imniedl 

pring, that the municipal aalfaarjttes itatermined to plant 
libraries in rhe rnriinia district.**. 

Parts nml Berlin have tiiua taleeu the lead, bat neither En the 

tot.ll numlter of these Institutions, nor in point ol the 11 ■ rn; 
of them by the public, .shall we, after n short ti.trrval, be 
behind thes* ritie*, We need ask I'm nni\ very limited g] 

id ere shall be 1 <U' t dn>w :i better md more extended use of 
th* Public Libraries than is the ease in Paris, II .< . bfsrlea in 
London are diieflyson Eo course of ereotion.bul wc rftall not 
require to add di«" r turns of elghtr libraries together t«» reach a 
total hi' two million Issues in the yeai foi referenoi and tend ns 

\Y<; 1 • -■! 1 :■ ■.'»«■ of great tiring 111 Public l,!ir;u;\ work In 

LoodoDi ->nd all arreoTB will be quickly orcrtalccn; and, if we 
ttrt not sreatrj mistaken, both Pans and Berlin will he W1 very 

nnifli in thi real Qi n« h : » ip ol U ■ as ta*l lot do< 1 b< 

ra appear to dcYclop, nnd it mny he eraveli doubted 

in- tl.t-ie i> the Mnie universal interest in those inMiiin 
ov been awakened in London. 

The vnst lift which wai given U the ra inlelpnl 'iiv of London 
in the passing of the LcwftTGoTftrMnejit .Vet, and Ihi tra 

1 1 a a 1 -\ Council, cannot bo orer-catimated< Thi 
Dttar absence <>( intoresl i" looa] affairs Ifl London up bo iin- 
1^ of that iiiciiHiiro was tha despair ol all reformers, Now, 
while there is >-'>ii 1 mountain o1 apathy and Indifference to 
nae, there ii a spirit ol incjuiryand mtenr.r m ih.f work id' 
the Oovntg Ooonefl En the weeurinjr of open vpaeoSfand ths 
administration of th<? public parks, the Ponntv C 1 inefl hava dun.- 

rtofi Those who eapttoualy critic a aevotk 

• . 1 1 . ■ 1 1 have reaily not gone mimiUrt v : 

Ve 



i"*: 



pcwr.ic i.inttAiar-s 



they would reeogawe that out of the pen or talk there hue been 
a solid residuum »I niefuJ work which is quietly revblutioxiixlng 
London municipal life. The most pressing need which im now 
i'.»it ai ror tiif formation of districl noondle, ami thou will begin 
the real municipal Wo qE the Motropoua. Such :i bill m now 
within i. UM- 1 ":('■:.■ <ii ■dunce, unci whon it is placed upon the 
statute book it will mean tin extinction ■>; the veatriM 

m,i Loud I" vestries have b**en the butt of i\<i} revtler, So 
many metaphorical brickbats have been thrown fit there that it 
i- Lraposslblfi for noree of them not to bare had a vaHd (mdreasoc^ 
able cause for such castigatlon. But the Intelligence of the 
i is&rymen, and the quality ol the work accomplished, has taken 

i step forward n maybe said with truth mat, as governing 
bodies, they have caught the spirit of the - lay, and are determined 
to lift their administration into a position winch will prevent 
them dying the ignominious death of the Metropolitan Board of 
Worta when their end eomea they Been to have determined 

i: i the branaforenco <>( powei shall he done with d:v 
iind a 1'ottwinuMue.sti thai Local public spirit in these hitter daj 
baa not Buffered Ln their hands. The Formation of the dis ri ■■: 

council* la perhupfi yet several yearn di*Uuit. li nhtmld be 

urged upon the menabote of the reoGriea in parishes where (he 

Aute have not vet been adopted (m yi\ e thin ijitentiuii of Public 

Libraries their serious and earnest conAideration. The restrict 
impiify the whole process of adoption by then* action, and in 

ao movement for the well-being of then* nejghbourh 1 could 

bhey bore usefully devote bhoir remaining daw bhan to thin of 
Public U variet it would bcwell If we could see one-half ■ 
the remaining forty-eight nietropoli an parishes adopting tin- 
Acta before the diafrii t councils are launched. This ouqht to }>c 
pOBBJblei nnd it ccrtuinly L8 most desirable. The district i ouncilfl 
wfl havetotata H )i" liorarioeos Uie.v find thona l and indlvidua] 
parishes arc likely, in many instances, to be bettor served ■ 

inirtoioncrs elected bj their own vestry deciding the pre 
liimiiarie^ of where tin 1 library or librorioa i << to be en 
[This if i matter el serious Impcrtaaoei and if the attention 
the members on tiio vestries can bo secured, and action t< a 

the putting in iipiMMlion of the \cts bo decided upon. :in r\<Tll.-:ir 
purpooowill mvf heoii tinned. A very earnest appeal El made 
to thorn to move i" this matter al once, and io Bee thai the library 
needn ol their Immediate <i strict are net. 

I i | limited few of the London vestries there ha* bean the 
ie ii" iofll i o-operation In thia question: but in othe 
ol obataele hoa been placed in the wnyoi gaining the adoption; 

or, where this has t n vermeil, everv niist-nde 

I ii raised to thwart th<* wishes of the majority, This Rpirit of 

Itfon is clearly declining, nnd thnt it may speedily disappear 
. levoutly to I" 1 wished. 
Hriw much Mill remains to be done is shown by the fit'lowing 

A;/./,-.— 



■ rC l.IBHAfllE* [V IONIAN. 






Summary of a Return maitr \\)ih Ajuit, 1889, to the I£tni*c of 
Cbmmows fly t/ir Lrtcal Go94mmati J>'-<i,tf, showing the ratu m 
the pound, the f/upulafioH, (tu'i the ratable value of the m i ■■■' 

G-it- /,'- of the Metropolis, Tim qoioqueiHiial valuation <>\ I860 
EUI Bomwh&t altered tint* Uil K\ hut il ih<- Lime ■ >!' gQJDfij to 
Tunc, 1800) the Parliamentary return pfivim? the amount 
'i i-6 of caeh parish Vflfl not published. The 
amount given as the yield from tho rate is approximate, and 
may vary from tho aottt&J amount 



{!'•■ ■ .«■'•/«■ >' ■' Milk a* 

k»vr f/. r './ Uu .Ufr.) 



st Mary, Strand . . 

St. Junes. W i'-nnniKri't 

•si. Mai'tm-iii-lIn'-FirliK 

>t Saviour, Southwark. 
St. Georgfe, Hanover 8q. 

in 

si rimmiii, Southwark. 
Si Olavo, .Nailliwiirk . . 

St. Clement Danea 
■si Margaret and St. / 
John, wentrainater \ 

I(<i>'M*lydowu 

" igton . . .. . . 

'enoinffton 

31 John, tapping .. 

Etofac 

St. Paul, Coven t Garden 
St, reiievo-M .. . . 

•Stoke Kevington 

Morylchi-ne 

Ratcliffe 

•chmi Ch. P Southwark 

"( '; niii w well 

Sboroditch 

ILuupBtcud 

"Stivuf ham 

st, <; ge-Jn-tmvEast, 

*( ll'Is.'lL 

•BftttoTBen 

llnekney ... 

EiolDon i ■ .VM.h'fw ,v i 
■v.'-i le-Mrtyr > \ 
K ul brook .. 
'Waadsworlh .. .. 



|BH7 



i see 



1687 



I6«) 



183G 



1KS0 

1887 
l>-*7 



1883 



lis 



sal 

in 1 



as 



1,989 
29,94] 

17, '.us 

I L99fl 
89,573 

mi 

l\247 

10,260 

59,983 

L02B 
07,218 
163,151 

2,225 

16,008 

2,919 

-.';;<;-.- 

83,761 

154,910 

16,107 

16,663 

186,5 '' 

126,591 

45,452 

21,611 

17,167 

88,128 

l07,2tf*J 

I '■■■-' =- 1 

stsjsri 



E 

: ■: I . .< > 

222,168 

1,743,30* 

1.618,866 

I 1,962 
102,407 

I7H.O.M 

74Q096 

TBytOl 

1,276,024 

1,846,64? 

B&979 

117,387 

91,794 

1,007,663 

184,062 

1,431,719 

65,06:2 

103,17ft 

1,018,461 

042,640 

076,699 

. 
isl.i-s. 

HIJJ.72S 

.:!,;.,- 

937,526 



St| 

a ins 

§13 



Mb! 



- • 

:. IC 

a in 

a ii 

a m 
• 4 

4 V 

4 2 

l 

4 n 



3 



1 i 

4 8 

i e 

! Id 

I Hi 

i 104 

I II 

I 11 

h 





1 

s 



-. .. 






^ ^ 



e 

106 

■ 

I ^53 
926 

..■v.;: 
B.74B 

m 

m 

70s 

3,060 

814 
5ilS 

7,(Hi 

237 

!-<;» 

382 

70(i 

271 
129 

;._t.: 

i.-'M 
2,567 



.' ' PTBt.tO T.TBRAAXX3. 


Pimi. 5 




( 7*» P«n>Aei wM «i* a* • 


■3 

«1 




- - j j»2 


; ? ; 




£ 


i e 


MInmnicnmith .. .. 188? 


( ::^» 


-|:M,-.":-! 


5 i I'.nl., 


Deptfbrd [S fcwil) .. 


76,753 




B i 


1 ,888 




■:•;■ .<;'.*!' 


i.i-:i,*'flfi 




8,151 


Bio . 
an -v ' kmi) i 


46,382 


. »7« 6 o 




•Wliit*ehapi.'l .. .. 1SP9 i 90,709 176,325 5 6 






l .i::l 


•i;.'nn"!fi:-.'V .. .. lK-7 Wi,tV>2 ' Jim,:"*; -"' tt 


l,ft*4 


'Kothorhitiio .. .. lm? 35,02* n*-..:: ■> i fl 


KU 


I»c[iH. r<l (N. Si 'iiclri-") 




./m| 62,620 o 6 




Foplu 


, , 


55,077 


806,145 S • - 




•ClaphRm ISS 

\\ oolvlcn 


:;..;>.' 


2fiO,20G 6 6| 


. i* ! 


;«,!,.-. 


I43J0OO e J 


-,.1 


Christ Cn . V. Inr s t|il. | 

(otherwutt Spilfliw > 




00 




5 7 




•Pntnej left 




7i 


■ 


•ciri'kniu'.'ii lph; 


59/17(3 


.', B 


i 456 


Mil. Knri (Old Town) 


. , 


lofi/na 


5 8 


,-,;;! 


N.'\vin:'t.t!i (Surra | 


. . 


107^400 I-' ,.'..- 


5 a 




sniiv.Mi inn .. .. 




:j,hnu 77,159 


6 h 




Plumstead 




.:.;.,(( 113,172 


e e 


HIT 


Mlnorlu 




-I 111 




.-. e 


.1 






S,7ft4 


131,980 
57,063 


fi 9 
5 9 








SI <iro,i:«'-lh,-M;u! K , | 

Sottthworic . i ( 




067655 


WjAOfl 


o 10 




i.< wttiaam . . 






468,767 


5 10 


l£8S 






.-,.01,- 


.."J H3 


f> 11 


li-7 








..■;'> a 








i KW 1 


400,985 6 3 


1,070 


st. Sepulchre (Ilolbarn) 


; 


70 8 - 


i;s 


Lee 




l 1,1.".--. 
10,675 


:t0.s:w i; ■_> 




Mil.- Bnd (New CoVB) 




■:■ 






1^580 


-.•.vj.-jir. 8 ■ 


1,050 








M-TGO a 1 


208 






. 


224,465 8 1 


<»::\ 


1 t fee, 1 ':u ' ■': '■'-■ 


«6,840 


203,7 i" 


I. — : 




:V'i" 


a i .'. •■ 




AnaJjnb; LBOO, one; 1883, one; 1885,two; 1887, tea 


one ; Lo69i three; L9B0 (up to June), one ; total, nineteen. 


h? /; 7*.'t.' iverage of ihe rate* li\t\i* VtaCcoojftUA, exolusffe of 


Uie iXty, in fa 2$d m the pound. 





prill IP MHInniRS IB LOYDOS. 



293 



Thf pnriKhcvi tire mentioned in (lit- order in which they have 
adopted the Acte. As most of thttll are only just beginning 
iin'jr wnvk, feif BtaUsttoa have beet quoted. Within b year or 

two : separate volume will In- mv.p.sKary to ivcord the Work Of 
the London Libraries. 

Wkktminktkh. 1856. 

Tin.- parishes of 9t tfargarel and 8t John, Westminster, moved 
in the matter immediately after the passing of the 1865 Act, Mr. 
W. ptoo Wood, after wards Lord Knthexlfly, took no active part 
pi the formation of the library, and acted as a commissioner until 
Ms death, E£o gave considerable i:d k gel the bin through 
the two Bouses oi Parliament. Then •■ * i n Sniggle to 

secure the adoption of the Acts, and the public meeting called to 
decide the question was a case of confusion worse confounded. 

Thlfl oaiJ C * isfly understood, for ev< n in.. 1. Inter than May 11', 

ltv3ti, the date on which WofitBuaster aettlcd the matter, statutory 
meetings railed to decide the question were scenes of rowdyium 
and rascality let loose. Westminster hua been vara modest over 
being the feat metropolitan parish to carry the Acta, but now 
that the turn of the ado bos oorno, oo stinted praSes should be 
given to the place which, first in this largo city, lined aloft the 
Public Library banner, Thin is no light honour, and is one which 
redounds great)} to the iredit of the parish lying under the ■ 
ibadow "i bis two Houses of Parliament ana tSgtaiKTfl prido — 
the mcomj»erulile Ahboy, 
Tin* library had its origin in the local one rounded In 1840, 

'•idled the Westminster Literary, S< wk hiKti- 

luiion. The history oi the Westminster institution Is not unlike 
that of the ftirkbeck Inxtitntiuii. It began with a view Chiefly to 
the improremonl oi the working classes, with whlcl Westminster 
waa densely populated before the middle of the prewnt century. 
B srtlng with the co-operation of AH classes, who gave Bubscrip* 

rtolift ii :::i'i.'V :• rid t\ uti :i 1 1 1 MA I it 1 mi iVfl , IiM tl I H \VB?$ pre; llftSS v •< t< 

n i n lr Smith Street and an assembly room in Vincent. 

Square. Tl stablfahmeitt of reKdlng-roomB, class-room*, and 

lecture-room followed. These wens 'maintained partly by volnn* 
i-!i_\ teachers and lecturers, and groat Barrios wai rendered to the 
working classes, Co* whom it wuHi-hirfly eNiuhtished. Pruwieiiu 
was liefure it, imd further efforts were made, resulting in mi 
abandonment of the forma premises and securing a double house 
at the south-east corner of the then Sreat Smith Street, adjoining 
i was ;» piece of ruraul ground curable "f Hie erection 
thereon it ii liuyc kvlui e-rwuln with i-Uw-iueiii.s under it. 

There is some appropriateness m the fact that now, when so 
many new libraries are in course of construction or contemplated] 
vVeetmtnstcf should just be beginning <<• build a new home 
for Its bead-qua so .-.ill by-arnvbys hare something to 

show instead of the inconvenient and overcrowded preraJ 
whore they have lieen for no i On Au^wv 3&A3B&. 

Mr. John ThornhiJI HarriBon, O.B., Lttal ttc/T«rW0S»fc WuNtc* 



294 



revue LiPBAKrra. 



inBueotofi loldan nouiry ^ to a proposed scheme to erect new 
public baths and wnan-bouees, md n Public Library attached, on 
.u steaded site in Groat Smith Street. A good lool of local 
interest was taken in tin* inqinv, ceprciolly n* the Rutopuyon*' 

1'wi. . tion A s.«.riatioii \\<r the united puristic* decided T" oppose 

ii;< scheme, ii n- 1 sued notices throughout the parish to that 
efleot. I : mrge attendance of ratcpuycre. The removal 

of the library, it wins alleged, had become imperative, on account 
of tli* Church House Committee berSoA expressed :i deefre to 
terminate the present oaee and occupy the premises thcrasolvoa. 
..:. r.'.j urod lor the purposes ol the library Is 6,000 square 
toot, rod is sddition 800 square feet, which ii i^ proposed to 

throw hltO the roadway, thus utfectm^ :i public improvement, the 
thoroughfare at present being narrow and dangerous The baths 
:iri'l wash-houses were the first erected under the Act.s -im- tv.rty- 




BATHS 



WBSTMINSTEn SEW PITL1C l,tUUAUY. 



Ore years ago, and had bee me, i ^cording to a rej>ort submitted to 
the Vestry,* dilapidated :>< to be unfit for the preeent require- 
ment.-, ol the inhabitants. The Ecclesiastical Commies 
expressed their willingness to dispose of certain land un< I pr< 
to the Vestry at a lower price than they would to B pri 
Individual, as it was for public institutions. It in impos ill lo her* 
to refrain from expressing u. wish thai the Kceiosiafltical U'ora- 
Uisalonerfl OOUld see rlicr v;iy to give eitest Cor merely nonuiuil 
ronu for tin' purpose of building libraries upon them, She 
Commissioners are tho ffreal ground landlords <>f London \ 
large proportion "i the I i ids tdrn i [stored by them are puhllo 
funds, ana there ire no Institutions so thoroughly public mthntr 
i-h.ir.i.-n r i ■- Public Libraries, and tin* rift td d site, or 
events - i i edui! Ion of llf$y oi seven y-llTfi pet cent from the 
market mfuoj wuujd bring h great uuouni of preMfyre to th 



he 



PI-BLtO LIHttAIUE* IN LONHOW. 



295 



ComtnissionerSj :ui«i tnej would be adopting n commendable act 
in uppiymg public moneys to public uses siii.-h u iimi Indicated. 

\ii Sevan i tii.' new baft fag is lihown. The Frontage la 

savarely plain, ill that is Deeeesltaied by the street not being 
adapted Pops large and showy building. Utility has been oare- 
fnlly kepi i" rtew by the architect, Mr* K, .T Smith, and nil thn 
rooms for library pnrpoBBS will be on the ground floor. The first 
Boor will be occonled by the Living rooms of the librarian, Mr. 
Henry E. Poole, who ham been al vs wlmiuaU r for some ten y an*. 
A DGLSfcani stream <>f people goes d and oni <>i the library and 
r.M liuui-ii't ru, and i. to iwj satisfactory to note thai the bettcjp- 
alau \VfhiininsLcr people are beginning largely to use the library. 
ii:" expenditure for the library portion of the new building will 
be about 212,000. During 188&-90 the number ol books issued 
to borrowers was 108*868 There are nvw 22,3£7 books in ibc 
u'lirurie*. unl Lin- tUiil\ jttemJjni-f averages 1,850. 

Wanmvobvb. L88& 

The library wan opened two years after the adoption of the 
Art-, and has axbiblted o rapid development En ita work. Its 
Bucuess is owing largely to a fooul grand old muni Dr« Longsl n. 
who worked vigorously for the adoption of tin Act*, and has all 
through boon a good supporter vt cbo inatitntion, both UnanoJaUy 
and m other ways, with ailvorod boil mad the weight of »vor 

j yours, lie still possoeece imnicnsv energy . ind When en 1 is 

irite topic if education for working man, in* voice rings out 
ue loud and oloar ;ih it did fifty years iigOi Baa uni orttouue aide 
hi the Waodflv »rti srorfc is that to the Bret instance a building 
should have been token for the purpoea d adapting it :i*:i Public 
Library. This is not very centrally situated, and affords another 
of the many example- thai idaptod laulduigM are rarely ever 

itsful when viewed from the standpoint <>i convenience and 
utility. VVitrau & comparatively limited tons liter opening it 
v :iv booo that an addition was necessary, and Dr. Losgstaff, i I U 
own expense, bulll a now wing for i rcading-roorn, bearing the 
ol rh ,. ranerabli donor A.1 thi end ol lew the same 
■ -. : tleini n promised i.' give £2,000 towards the debt *'i doul Le 

thai mm on the building, on c Utlonthai the balai vos raised 

by a given ii:ito Wandsworth b likely to see this burden Ii to 

'ill then have the full use of the rate, which produces about 
<;:. Mr Cecil T Davis, the librarian, has charge ol 10,822 
volumes, the prfiwait stock of the library . and til these titers Is an 
annua] turnover of some alne w ten times. There are frmmentty 
»* ninny ;i.n I.NX) reader* vit*'n the lil-rarv i'i .i .sirij/lo day. The 
local press give good publicity to the ^ rid 

Kvluah Dncnnn u, 1866. 

1'ulhuiti led the way .timni^ i he London parishee, preceding 
Lambeth bya ten days. Cntcrost centred in tnolargci ludbettor 
known peiish. but II is arcatlj Co th< credit -,'t FuJham thai it 
honld aavct ikon w fforthj dload. Tbcuvv»\vY05r&\.ve»*Aa^\rafc3ya 



■2Ut 



[TOM'' LIBPARrRS. 



generalled, and the votes in favour were nearly three to one Oti 
October ■-'<», 1888, n»- dot building, erected -^ •■» oei of 68,000, 
was opened by the Bienop <»f London. 

The new iiuiidi u i> on iIh- lu.iui i-uinl to Putney and Richmond, 
in the r.iilK' <>! Full mm. Mr. J. <i. Hull was the architect, mid 
*» Mr. Charles Wall, of Chelsea, the buisleT. The reading-ruuin is 
70 u. Iong,3(rTt wide, and in height 22 ft. The celling was 
beautifully decorated by a firm of [tauan artiets. Ju the front of 
the building are the lending and reference libraries, the ladies' 
reading-room, and the commi&sjoiiera'rtiran, an bhe first Boor . the 
remainder beinjj nn-iipi.-d i-.y Mi ii r- in-, tin- mi.- liu-.-in. n. 
The number of volume* Is not yet large for a population of r~,<XH), 
being under 6,000, bat this in defect with which the commissioners 
are uedvlv coping) seeing tin 3 Spent nearly C'UOO in one year on 
booke, Thr ieeuce reach tbout KXj per day, bo thatftbe itodb fa 
turned over every fourteen days. The Fulbnroitce arc ovtdcnJ i.v i 
reading people, and moan to get then* full pennyworth out ul i he 
libmrVi lad for thftt decision they are not to bo bluined. No 

fewer than q thousand people visit the varum* depnvtineni: daii.v 
Xhifl m by no meane mi mdifforon' record for *o short n ttnad 
Somo importanl Bitorationa owe become necessary, and the 
iibrarj wul be doted tor b tune in the middle of law. 

l>AMuimi. Deckmoeh, lt*b(i. 
Tiic success of the Lambeth Public Libraries has exceeded the 
nosi sanguine expectations. The struggle to saenre the adoption 

nl i he Art* was rviTcilili^lv arduous, and i.olhing bill the 

Indomitable energy and determination of tin- promoter* carried 
Kh© question through. Lambeth covers so vast an ami thai fchla 
presented a serious obstacle, and made IB difficult i<> place before 
iii** ratepayers » scheme which would win Hie- sympathy and 
approval of the majority ol die people. The promoter*, however! 
wen* brave men. and after the queHtiof j having beau low on twn 
previous occasions, El wax, on tho third lime of asking, carried 
through bo a satisfactory ieetie Within reasonable time, il ei 
ii c adoptioa oi the Acts, commlsslonere were appui.i:ed, with the 
Hon. and Rev. Canon Pelham, the rector of the pariah, as chairman , 
and who all through has taken the warmest awl meet earned i. 

tCWSt in the development of tin wort The i.-i»mmi*aiont:rs early 

called to their aid emoetesperi need librarian In Mr. i . J Bur- 
K»vue, i»f the Newcartlc-on-Tync tnd Darlington Public Libraries^ 
who has done himself great credit in hi-, administration. 

Lambeth has been exceptionally fort mm tc in gifts, ami the 
record of thorn will pc rbaj'.' -.-nxtv n. little licart-burm*n£ to 

!iATJahce> A.1 the prceent time over £50,000 hae been fflvcn for 
ihrary buildings nnd sites, and about 6,000 v.. Hi mee, Tin: nwe 
than justifies the stub meat repeatedly made in U i i , that 

the generous riving for Horary purposes if wisely reserved by the 
don era tor raTe-aupportod Ubrari* . where the •• in the bosl and 
:n ■.; *eeuro prosper t oi thoti gift having thewideataad fulled I 
4ad rrharo the continuity in d '"d. 



I'l I Ml' I.I11KA1UIW IS I/iNUO.N. 



297 



1 1 July, 1808, the tli'M of tin? libraries was opened <n West 

Norwood, by the ICurl of Xorllihrook. The elevation presents B 
very attractive appearance, and it has been erected ••n a afte 
given by Mr. K. SettteJold Tin- front i* fr»«*rd with red brick* 
relieved with etose ami terra-cotta, tin* avohca and other porta 
Lrinff of gauged work. The root's are tiled. The pilastcrft over 
the iKiin entrance have busts of men eminent in literature — 
all the other earring being ambtomatric of the 00a for which the 
building u' erected. 10 the basement are lavatories, a Uu'i-m; Iviok- 
atore, Virfltii.T chamber, jcc. f and over the front portion is a 
librarians houc. The fitting have all been specially donigacd 
by tin architect, ;>nd the book-flholYOfi aw adjustabn itoanj sise 

book. Every book in the library ih yhowu on the (.'otirivave 
indicator, which id on the counter. The floors are of wood tnookflj 
unci the ventilation, wftnmng, and Ughttng. have been carefully 

ooneldered. Thearchiteel is Mr. s. 1:. j. Mmth. a i: LB a. There 
i- :i i'i rferenae room JO ft. by S3 ft,, ami a periodical and nev snap a? 
and reading-room of a similar 9310, both top lighted ; in addition 
r winch there is a Iodic*' reading-room and u boos dcparl 
for Leading 1 library Capable "i holding Kt,000 books. The general 

<}■]• <A llh- work :> I'leiiiNii, :tit<: -uiim what Miiiilar tu building 

which one tees in Bruges, Ghent, and Other Belgian towns. The 
architect selected this style on account of Uh plcttnTO^ueness and 

adaptability In the MtO — Oil Si hill. 

A most i-iimuraglng phenomenon waa wirnewed at this library 
in AngUSS, 1889. The huildiiigH had been dosed for a week for the 
ordinary purpose of (.'leaning and arranging, so that renders bad 
been depr ved of their privileges for thai ahort period When the 
day of re-opeaing arrived the doors wen 1 snmumdi'd by "> eager 
crowd. \r West Norwood the road was Mocked hyan expectant 
throng hi three or four hundred people, loug before tin- library 
m ipenod. All *\uy tons the people came in to burrow books, 
and at nightfall no (ewer Euan 1.148 volumes bad been laken out, 
about Oue-ftfth of the whole stock the lending' library possesses. 

in Do wmbei of the same yean there was opened the Tate Public 

Library} erected In South Lambeth Koad, the site for winch was 

purchased for £1,160 by Mr. Henry Tate, who also defray- d the 

)t the building, which amounted to £4,800. It ie very appru- 

1 that one iH on Lai beth libraries should be placed En the 

.. Lambeth Rood 1 'lu.se to the spot where the late Library 

. ..4,1 Jolm Tradcacant, fiunlciier to L'lmrle.i i. ( established 

I the first museums ever formed in England. The collection 

«r enriw^itie:- [nnm-d by the Lambeth gardener paeeed Into the 

1 ■>; Bliae Ashm tie, and ultimately thJa collection developed 

into the Aaihrnoleaa Mascara, the pride of Oxford. At the opt 

1 this Tate Library a letter was «^ *t *- 1 from the donor, who 

■\:i- oaftblc I" he >v .n! i( the eeivnumy, in which ho iviVm-d 

I ii. greet ised which existed lor a library at Brixton, and that 
the land and the building* would cost some £1(^000. IK offered 
to provide h 11 thai tan LI the remaining bulf was prorltted 
within three >r four montlip. trom t\\uV tmw. 



386 



piihi.k: i.jniUEtJM. 



in November, i*H!>, the third of i in- Public Libraries a/as opened 
l)_v Lord Roeebery, Thih bolldhifi ta situated la Lower Kenning* 
tou Lane, ami lias been erected man bho designs ol Mr. S. K. J. 
Smith. Tin? whole cost of the building sad u&e (about £10,000) 
li> I>cen defrayed by Miw J. Darning Smith, who i» related t * > 
Mi Edwin Laurence* one of the Lamta fch Library coxnro f swloacre, 
The front of the building is faced with red Fereham brioka 
and Portland stone, with granite columns to the porch and lead 
glazing* hi windows, several of the architectural features being 
in terra-cot ta« with izrec:i slides to roof, ami tiraberwork in upper 

EoiIkmi ut tower. Tin- Inwmeut oontajnc a large book - 
eating chamber and coal 001101*6. On the ground ^ oor are ^ nc 
reading and other rooms. There uro magazine und reference 
rooms of similar size, each having: hatches for inspection in direct 
communication with the central library, bo that the librarian baa 
full control over these rooms. There it- .ileo the lending depart- 
ment, 31 ft, by 55 ft., with a borrower's lobby cosnmnnioatrng 
with the main corridor, whltA ia aread* d and with glazed bit. 
and fa 8 it. wide throughout, Therein olaoa women** reading 
room, i -J it. by 28 ft., f»minuriioatingdiroctly with loading Library . 
The public rooms have brick &unage in the interior. In the front 
part oi the building are the librarian* apartments and oonun 

n-mii Tin' liook . ;e-e littjlnge ;,,.,. ;n WKjttois woodland WUl 

eoooramodate yj^OOO volume* 

A further gift followed of a library BOW vorv noon to 04 

opened, the pin oi Mr. Minet, which if referred to under 
Camberwell. This will he under the joint control of Luruboth 
and * lexnberwaH 

The use of ;dl the*e lilnimeb, ever shiee they were OpSnod, tUtt 

grown roo.1 rapidly, and it ih doubtful whether another pariah 
in London receives ho many tangible benefits oat "i i hnltnennj 
rats \t< Lambeth. This Is all that the promoters of the neheme 
in IBSQ mked for and all tin \ vers permitted to upend Tin* 
very success of the Lambeth movement brought Rucn ;»n InAnv 
of gifts thai ll « u patent feci ;iil win. hake an interest in Mm move* 
ment ibat the halfpenny rate would he Insufltelent to maintain 
Uie libraries being erected :<i ;< rate ho rapid uidyel graJ ifylng to 
the autumn of 1889 there was an offer ul £15,000 frum Mr. John 
Noble, of Heoley-on-Thainesj foi a greatly needed central library, 
und there was attached le ii i a lac condition, that the ratepayer* 
won W sanction the full penny rate for themainienaii iof thia 
LLsuuinsroua branches. The issue was placed very clearly before 
Hie people, and "< DecexoDOij L889, the poll wa> taken, but w> 
ijonto '. i"- It waa rejected. Tin.- dcdsloii vae tt» be 
deplored on many grounds. In the Oral place, the Ubrarica 

unlike Mflne other [nH><<*U, i- •ne h-r whieh v i visible mid tangible 

equivalent is secured, and the urcreasa En the Lamboth 
would have been - asti bad the proposal been carried Too many 
ratepayers, rendered bus ifo-ousby tin. extravnganco of the public 
bods r >.■■>• u to forgot the Euet that the 

ia t/<r pound £0 tht uhuoat allowed bv the \<i.- .1 Ltolianienl 



1'1'BLIC LrUflAiURS IN LON OO*. 



299 



regulating the establishment una* support of Public Libraries. In 
ihiK way, t may be. the Lambeth majority regarded the prop sal 

fur tlio* hnilpt'uuy LidiUtiuu to tlit* ran OS only u forerunner <>] 

future attempts at further tocreaaei. It should, however, be 
borne in mind that libraries cannot be kept up efficiently, even 
when built by private- munificence, Without sufficient funds. It 
i* :i grading spirit thai accepts lands and buildings, and then 
hesitates to maintain thexe institutions in a fitting manner. It 
was to ensure that the proposed central library should not be 
starved for want of funds. th;it the gifts wens made conditional 
on the ratepayers" approval of the penny rate, lb is noteworthy 
iivit. in the districts where 'in* libraries nave been already placed 
there was a solid vote iu favour of iiu.- penny XWa is decided 1 3 
instructive, and when the question comes forward again at the 
end of the present year it is to I >e hoped that a different result 
will Ije seen. Lambeth has done .ho well up to ihe present that 
llift-r jh too much wood sense in the parish to spoil the ship for 
the proverhiiii hii'iK'i" 1 ' 1 "1 teP< Hothzugeen everrob the parish 
of having, with Fulham, been the first^ to give Kilt new impulse 
whkh came to tile movement in London. Every one of the fifteen 
other parishes which has since that time adopted the Act* owes 
something ol its iinc.ceHsfuJ movement to the noble example set 

by Lambeth, it may be again said thai tin- best educator in 
Favour of Public Ubraries is ■ successful rate-eupported tartifcu- 
lion in the near neighbourhood, where the pcop|< ran for them- 
selves see the use mode of al) the department I whieh il pTd Idee, 
T.;.i:ii>eth bid* fair t«> be a Public. Library school tor London, and 
it is essential that the school shall be well equipped, in order to 
set an example worth following. It can only do this by taxing 
itwlf to tho full penny in order to avail iteeli of this very liana- 
Home olt'er of hi to anil building, and in addition to this to have 
two as three other branches ereered in varioia purl:- of tho parish, 
it ii incumbent upon those who know the pleasures of books tuul 
reading to perform their enure of educating the people upon the 
pressing needs of this additional halfpenny I thousand people 
viMt daily the three libraries and nevaroonw which here been 
opened at the date of writing. When there in a central library 
and two or three more brunches opened it. fa not Improbable that, 
when iiiev gel ni thorough working order, no Sewer than 10,000 

C»ple will visit the libraries avevy day. Already the number of 
rowers using rhe three institutions is over 10,600, and there 
is no reason why, under the bright prospects in store for the 
perish, this number should not roach 30,000 actual current 
rwers a> tiling themselves <»t the advantages of the library. 
'I'Iii- following scene took place at the Norwood Public Library: 
—Enter wonder! ig ratepayer: " Anything to paj ! " Attend. i i i 
"No, this Ian Public Library, to which entrance la free." Rater 
payer (>n amazement): Good gracious 1 tad can you read these 
hooks tor Nothing f ' Attendant: " \Ufornothtng.*' Ratepayer: 
■ \m; to think l was fool enough to vote against the libraries'. 
Why, I don't believe hall the people wuocrp^owA ftw Y&stexHa* 



eoo 



' AIUW. 



had nn;r idea what t iiocurt/ T 

parishes wh< lai 

■ 
!i..ii v.!i ; i pPOfing rii< m ivcni 

■ ii . sad Q -ioada * . 

idi i -«•, who 

r.rnl !! oUjfhl :nnl |ft])0 IT ■ ■■ the Dl ■ < I 

old frfrndfl "it tin- in |r .' 

1 . Kiii'm:!, ono Dg parish, 

iind mniiy other*. hiw through ill tho ) m the time the 

lOd 81 radfu t to il 

motto --I all v> b 

I..tinl>cth ! " Tin* ;>invh n <:\ ■ • . 4Bw 

mcodubU t x\i 

rJUl ■ ' "ho » i 

vnh run'vi arable fi i.'i-pwt. 

M- M-MtTINIX TlU'.-riUl-I- I 

I ■ i |iH A Ufl PTJ i|*W^ 

i ! W7. Til ' pcill v 
w*aa .in evident on the purl oltl 




! queattou, thai & pariah - aaj historical Dwuci&iuua 

rtionld nol •;<' le*a than Fulhuiu *ml I .1 thrtii, wliicJi had 

CaI ri. the I'l.-I 1 teTi 5 lc 
Wi .; mid ■ he BID I Ql 1 . 

MM)) nnd I acj i:i ratable raft*} is Atvil 

. rdfi. A !< 1 ooni «.i 1 >\*'m I a i iOJ g \ 






PTTU.TC i.mn,\Rir.s IN wsimx. 



301 






January, lNW\ rwn yaus after the adoption of the Acts, The 
attendance luie boon conBidcrnl.il'* at tins temporary room. On 
March 18, 18(H), the Prince of Wales laid the foundution- 
Ktntu- lit tin- ru;w municipal bufidttngSj Sod (fas memorial "i"i)0 of 

the di w horary and reading rooms. 

The library portion of tau handsome pile of buildings ie shown 
in the sketch on p. 300. The building will consist of four storeys. 
\ ii ill i >n-..- ii i-n i , which will contain too lending library : :i. ground 
il ■.••»!' room, 60 ft. long by 10 ft. wide, which will he the reading- 
room ; the next tioor will be devoted to a large library of works of 
reference, rooms for the private peril' udy of Biioh books, 

offices, ud s booM-rooTDi And the top floor it w be fitted asi 
residence for the librarian Twelve months will be occupied in 
completing the building. The cost oi the library building will bo 
about £'/,ooa Mr. rbomae klasoo la the librarian, and is un 
earnest worker in tin- morenienfc, 

1 1 vrmnsEA. March, 188". 
Within three years after the adoption of the Acts, rhe Battersea 
people 886 then. 1 new centra] Library completed, and duly opened 
in too public, in 1893 a committee eras formed, with Mr, George 
Harris as honorary secretary, for the purpose ut promoting the 
adoplion of lie AiIn, and in a quiet way (his committee rendered 
I service, by bringing the iwealioii before the constituency. 
\\\w\r imi leading to the Immediate adoption <>f Che .\ii.\ 
there is ao doubt iimi ii contributed towards twri desirable 
result in iyd7, when, out of a large poll, <t very BBt&aractory 

i majority declared in favour of the adoption of the Acts. The 
commissioners lost no time in apitointuig a good practical 
man u i ttbrartan, and in July they selected, out of a large 
number of candidate*, Mr. Lawrence lukatcr, who had been for 
BUbi years librarian of the South Shields Pabli* Lihrary, The 
■ of the OommUMixmers was for a central library and two 
branches, £n October, 1888, toe first of those branches was 
1. Prior to thi&, a temiwrary reading-room had been 
opened, and was much appreciated. At the Lainnuu* Hall five 
rooms were rented by the oommitfaionorBj and about 1,600 books, 
wiiii ffhiohthe branaJi woe opened, collected fi i rarions sources* 
Xhs • i-in-iiiMii, on thai occasion. 8 roll Imown. local man, said that 
:iy oomd not understand how ;t was that London was so 
much behind tin* provinces in the matter of Pttbtic Libraries and 
other forward movements! while nhe provinces were in turn far 
more backward than America, Cannon, and Australia, where 
almost every \ ittngo or hamlet hod, if not a library, a reading- 
room. He regarded the l'ublie Libraries law tkelngestabUshadj 
aj not only us< ful ae ihv i - Instruction, but as affording mean i 
ut recreation, ac people who have been working hard all day, 
might be more benefited by reading something light and enter* 
ng, than hy perusing more Hoholarlj ihSB branch b 

being axceadftign well uaed< The number of rohRosA Li a&wasfc 

I ir Khurl ,n l.,im mrl ■>:>• .!■ .- 'v 'i..M\.- >■- .'\..v^^w\'^ 



:-VL' 



PDBUC |,[01lAi:»f.S, 



the .;.r;i actual borrowerb using the brauofa library. In January, 
1869, permission wiih given to borrow for the purpose of building 
and stocking. This was followed in May of the same year, by flw 
Laying nf the foundation-stone. On sfa?< b 1!*, 1890, this building 
was opened by Mr. .V. J. Mumlelhi, M.I 1 . The centra] library bat 
been erected from the designs of Mr. E. W. Mountford. There 
are on the ground floor a newsroom, magazine room, and lending 
library, and i>n the floor.-* above ji large handftome reference library 
tad book stoves. The two reading rooms will aoeomraodato SOO 
persons, and the reference library 100, making n total of :«K> 
readers for whom provision is made, and the lending library i.-> 
equal to the wonts of 5,000 borrow era Tim total coat of the 
building and bite ib about 1*10,000, which sola \v.\x burn 

other with £2,000 for the Lurline Hardens rnifldtag, noffl In 
course of erection, and £3,000 for books, making a total debt of 
BlijOOO, The total number of volume* with wfiioh (in. tlbranr 
Opened WW lfl/iCO, Of wbieh 10,1 IS arc io the leuding and 6,435 in 
the referenoe library. The newsroom has 1,031 tt. super., Q .«■ 

_;izine-room «90 ft. super., and the reference library 1,900 ft. 
mi jut. "t iinor Kpuee, iiie Meoominodatiorj ifl equal to 150,000 to 
1*00,1 tfX) hooks, and 60 there is room in the library for growth. The 
style is Renaissance, hut so designed that the building does not 
contrast in too marked i degree witb the houses around the 
library. BatterecR ha* thus now fairly begun its work, and means 
to hold its own in the library world of London. 

Pctnsy. Mahoh, 1887. 
Putney early caught tin* Public Library fever, and declared in 

favour Of the adoption of tin* Acts by 1,004 a-jHliist /i72. The 
temporary nHHiiH were opened iu March of the following year 
Since then the number of volumes baa been steadily advancing, 
and i> now about 6,000. The f i rat twelve months* use of the 
referenoe and nagaxuM room was very encouraging, Between 

forty and iifty uiayaziue* and periodical.-* are taken, nnd in the 
ncwM'ouin there are about sixty newspapers and periodicals. 
Tin- vferege daily number of visitors to nil departments roaches 
about 750. Mr. ('. F. Tw coney, the librarian, issued hi.* 
cobalogoe in August, 1889, The gift* hare been ove* 9,000 
volumes and about j£l!00 in cash. 

Coklsra. May, 1867. 

The provisional committee who conducted the contest meant to 
viTi. In no London parish was the issue placed better or more 
dearly before the constituency than in Uneleea. Looking baek 
upon the literature distributed md the abls advocacy itfrea by 
bfio ff Weel London Pwes u and other local papors, it would naVB 
been strange had BUOQeaa not attended efforta so well planned 
and so rigorous. Politicians of the fighting type Oram boi h sides 
Mo i on the committee, and rendered excellent service rho 
roquMtbm va'i .■.u. r i;eil l>\ 1 ail Cadogan, Lord Monkoj-vi-ll, the 
Bjgbl Htm, JoSm MrTL\v/M.P.,ttieROT.G«r , aVV tAnn^lta < 



T'CBUC JJHIlAltlR* IN 1.0KJ>*~iX. 



:aw 






i>l Ih" p-M'wii. .nhi ntliiTi. and the majority in favour WW 1,01*1, 
• tar ill :i \nrx» poll The number Of DlanJc and unsigned papers 

mu ratlu if targe, bul tftifi oould aoareaty have boon from a (lex o1 

instructions, »fl the friends of the movvmmt is^uM a fapnrd 
areolar, wwrinff the way plain. Mr. B. \\ Radon, Mr J 
Oorloraa and Hie Rev. F. Uelton, rendered excellent service. 
There were some talttel dlffieultfee over the eoUeetlon of the rate, 

which led bo the Amendment Hill oT 1889 being brought forward 




oheuska pvauc uhuaxly, cjiiound floor. 

id fcfterwftrfa pa-ssed. Thih Act clearly lays down thai I he 
I» tin v library rate cannot be Charged WOT the poundage for 
collection. 

A temporary newsroom * a opened En November, 1S8L in fchc 
Vi-Mir\ i hill, .in. I booln were allowed for reference . bat bo JcJictin? 

rucnl i 'i th< central library will be opeuQOi >\\\U\ v\\c 
butidina U completed. The foundation *Ume o! Wvc ^ttoaayaax 




an 



PTBtjr LXBBABIRK. 



building was laid by th©C«»unu^ duJogan, in February. [800. The 
ling is in Mhnrcan Hoad, King's lioad, C'licbea. The entrance 
in through u handsome atone portico* supported by four coluiuna, 
ieaJn h Ida corridor, out of wnien there will u . i inm. ,■-. 

to tho prtctdpel dopaxtmenta on the ground floor via., a general 
roadlng-room for 330 reader*, a boys' reading-room, n Iodic:/ 
ivipliii:<-r""in. und n lending library with shelving for 80,000 
volume* Some modification with regard t > the indie** nnd 
boye'rooQM will probably be mode. A wide staii : i.-n.i 

up to the inference library on the 6rtt floor, where vh 
accommodation for 60,000 volume*, and a reading- room, de^ipnod 
for a oni.'f «riiily, fur eighty reader*. Tin- front i.|i'v: 

red bncVi with white none drowtngs, in tho stvle of English 
KanaiwKPiea known aa Queen Vime -. for which Chelsea enjoya i 
reputation. The designer and arrhiteel is .Mr. J. M. Brydon, who 
was iIbo toe deelguer of the now Town Sail, Chelae*, iho con- 
tractors jbeing Moa»ts. Hoilowny Brother*. The total re 

climated at about £10,000. The freehold Bite, valued at £2,C00, 

nor wiih the adjoining piece of land upon which in to he 
inn [I the Sooth-Went Polytechnic, was tin* jrift Of Earl Cndogan 
to tin- people of (In 1 district. Tlir Kiirl bus also Miown bin interest 
in itit- libriu'N tn i.i further fiU't of £360 fur technical literature. 
Sir Charles Dillce, one of the Com mhel oner*, has. given fifiOO 
nid a numljer of valuable book*, while Ltidv Lindsay and kfl 

Councillor Gh \v. Osborn have Bach given suras of money. 

About four mile* from the boundary of the parleli in an out- 
lying dlatelct known w KonwJ Town.and here a branch library 
naa been erected and vaa opened in January, 1k(k>, it \* under 
the charge of Mr. Preeoa> irao( nine from the Barrow-in-Furnoai 
Library. Ou the ground floor are (he newarooine, and a reference 
room, and the lending department fa on the Brat floor The 
elevation is very utrikinff, and the future ■ f the library I 
bright and promising aa can n I II be. Here there ore about 0.000 
volumes which is a #oo<I beginning tor ci small library. As a 
London brooch library. KennoJ Towi has aomo Foafcoroa worth 
noting;. The flite coit £3/XX) ; ond the boat has been mode 
that wub powdble. Where it is a choice of placing either the 
lending department or the newsroom on the ground floor, and the 
ofther mi (in- iir,-t Boor there can be no two iiuaetiona t hat toe 
in v .mhimiii should be there as at kenwdTown. 

The attendance of r^-me r,<v\ i day ut the tenipnmry roading- 
room in the Veetrv i (.-ill, te an earnest of what will be i 
tho now building fi completed. The chief librarian! Mr. J, Henry 
(.lumii, who was for many years at the Liverpool Public Lti 
has Ins time well occupied in buying and cataloguing b 
Chelsea mentis to have a good round number ol volume* on the 
ahalvea by the time the doors of the new building ore thx 
opon t.o the public, and in thin decision the} are acting wiaeljr, The 
i:«\ p Relten baa rendered oaeful aervlce to the moveme 
I Qjidon i>v vhdtmo; various part* <>r the Nfetropolia^nnd expl i 
point* gad giving lugoeetiona to other \.\w-.w\ Cotnmiat 









PITBLtG UBRAUTKS Iff I.ONOOV. 



305 






KRN*iwrn\. Jink, 1**7 

There should be indelibly inaurllied on Hie records of tin- Public 
Library movement in London the nam* of Hr. James Hay wood, 
FJLS. VVhon in l^n be opened hi* Public Library at Sotting 
11:11, the GfaSldbflDi ttritish Muwuu, and Westminster Libraries 
were the only Librarian open fin- to Uw public m London. In 
I87H tin* ratepayers of Kensington refused tu adopt tbe Acts, 
Mr. Ilcvwood and those who favoured the movement resolved to 
wait till the ratepayers w i< better infrrnied. The Hotting Hill 
Library was kept up by Mr. llevwood ; u hie own expense, and in 
J'etM'tobcr, 18S6, a ucw movement fox the adoption of the Acts 
was set on foot, and probably one of the most influential ud 
representative committees that has ever been sot together in 
K ending ton worked until, in June, Ou Acts were adopted by a 
largo majority. Tho opposition at the loot woe very stroiur, but 
having been practically without loaders could not do the harm 
that was Intended JVlfiv llerbert Jones, who for fourteen years 
bad been the Lfbr&rianat Mr, Haywood's iiin-;iry,:iri-.-«ri a* honorary 
secretory of the provisional committer, and Dad boon ai wnrlc 
■ lov nvnlti*. II" h:i'I *'.-ured the idhesion of ovory 

leading man, oi by showing tho itrengtfa "i the ■■■• i mirteo, 
dot srred waverew from joining the otbwauta He collected £1,300 
towards the librai1oa ; octeluaivc of ttr. Hay wood's gift. What vu 

moat to be feared was the apathy of the ratepayers ind thocxampla 
of i'addintfton, the next parish, Mr. JoceS was an admirable 

organizer, utd the success of the movemflDi was largely owing 
to hih cratfrfng efforts. The appointment of this gentleman is 
rfbrarlan o1 ths new Public Library was r> most arwropriftts one, 
and there is ovary reason t-> think- thai ha wffl do nunself and the 
locaJ public, whose Bervant he to, great credit by Ms administra- 
tion, In January. t88e\Mr Hi-ywond'n library, \idned nr fiflOO, 
was rormalVp handed over. A committee was formed bo consider 
tha deairahJlity oi acknowledging in some suitable wa$ 1 lis gift, 
nnduhuM. of liiniKcir w;i.s decided upon. This is ;m 'admirable 
Ukeneas ol Mr. llevwood, and ha* been placet! in the Vestry Hail, 
which now forms one of the libraries. The VeHlry null win 
declared open la December ]--». by H.IMI. tin- Uarobioness ••[ 
I ,ii j no, ;il a very interest! uy eerciuoiiy. 

The first rejpurL presents .m cneninM^iii^ statement of what has 
been done up b-tdstcuml Kensington bidarair bo get out of its half" 
penny rate dot year! which produce* £9,^0,ari excellent example of 
the multiplication ol the infinitely little, the selection of books is 
admirable. Every taste has been carefully considered, and ultimately 
the reference department of the central library will be a strong 
feature of their work. The commissioners reel fchej Kensington 
has a n-pi.tiitnm '<■ maintain. With South Kensington Kfaaoum 
and (bo Rational History Museum situated in tin pariah, it is felt 

that in library work Kensington must in course of time occupy a 
prominent place The two branches end Ihc central library arc 
DOW getting fairly under way «irh their work. The number of 
visitors daily to the various libraries and aowarooma is swg \axvyt. 



MTHITfi IIHKVIJH'- I . , ;u 



;m7 



it pravente the borrower from taking out the drawer entirety. 

\ 1 1< 1 1 1 Hi- contrivance u ;i litiie im*s imme ' ntain nl oda 

and the movable types (or dating the indicator book*, find 

at llir other him! i lead [tendl. Ml. .Junes im c\ idrntly :i in in « \\ b 

many ttbraij Ideas. 

CLAMIAM. .Irt,v, 1JW7. 

i I ipliani wisely decided nob to open temporary rot no, !»m oa 

there iraaa prospect of being- able toniuneduftolyiacnxaaitCa 

for building purposes tin good folks of daphain had to Doaaaaa 

on b M i aticnce, and wail until Miey bad a novr building to 

ouU then own. This was not until October 31, 1889, oa -which 

data II WBfl Opened bO H ■ public The whole matter was 

BoTtngin the jpring ol 1897 by the munificent offer ol £2,000 

towards I budding it the A.N wnr adopted This aflat oamc 
from iui anonymou/i individual, nnd to-day the name obecuritv 
am-round* the gift thai Ivw prevailed from the first. Only OD0 ol 
tin- commie ■::< ] < ra la i « ar ■ w lotbifl anotij mouc friend tOi Bo whom 
Chvphain i> in' I j »it"i. \\ uiii'i iimr I'vci^ pariabin London hadaueh 

i Iriend. The adoption of the A< ts at * Japliaia VU Carried vrftl 

IB very largo majority, and In dm- eoiirxi the .'run i n v er<- 
ippi'in:*'.!, wliu went .pik'Hy mid elhViently i-> wmk. I lie mte 
con £1,100, and vrhon this * d decided upon the commissioners 
did not iwuo advertisement 1 * for designs bat Invited as arch! 
- in.L' -mil in nuder n niotto. The 
m • tmianionan arrlveiiat wat that the plans of 
Mi E B P in* i ware most suited to f.heir pum te, and 
w.vr aocordtnglv Choaan. Adv<»rtiwiiuMir« In' renders lot tin' 
erection ol Dai inUdfng were subsequently issued, and n local 
tirm v.tis aucoaaslnl. The tender vrai £o^6fi Tin- . . 
externally composed of red brick, with box-ground Bath at 
draaalngB, the ground ima occupied being tOfifl bv flOfl The 
elevation* are vary nluealnr, althouffh til m particular >tyie, and 
thehberal introduction of hay-window* adds oonaidenil ly to the 
ire ue m I effect The Eront Eaclna tin- common has an aaienalvo 

lon-rimil lnjumlcd !>y uniami'utjil imn i . 1 1 1 1 u ; ; - .snniiouiiliny a 
aopllUI ami intei>pii>L'd with i'imii!ii*iit.il red hncl [>lrrs. A 

moaazc pavc<l pathway lead* to ;< pair of maasrra polished 
mahogany and plate-glaM doorai throujrb which <* spa* 
roetlbule of an oolong ihepe-ii cached Thia b alao paved hi 

moaofe and lighted by a hnndcionic lamp. Anotl i r pair i I 

in;; diM.rv l^ad to tin* « utraoofl hall, frnin irhlch I iSl b 

the targe room above. This entrance ball baas irood block ii ">r, 
■<u.i is v.-, taatefullv decorated. From the entrance haU the 
int. » what la called the borrower*' lobby. on the 
back and right-hand nidea of winch i* ranged a Bubntuntinl 
counter in polidlicd mahogany, m ith asec(nola toak,ftnii deal Dm 
over which booke *ill bo issued: and this counter i* aunooustod 
by aa badHoator. Cnii bonovan lobtobalae aatad with wood 

bio '■ i r iticinUy b'ghted With A \\«x^\~- 

;in.| thia l. ) ii. nod -a, Sa ^n^ 



308 



prix i ■ libraries. 



■ feature <») the institution, the issuing room or lending 
library, wtth aecoaunodatloa for some 27,000 volumes. Thu 
receives Etd light from above by throe oblong lanterns, while all 
around the walla are s3 • Jlvee, Bod u the centre ire Bpadoua book* 
ceaea, ni:ii!\ ni which are awaiting die bnrdana with which, do 
doubt, many genen in Sodom will lade them, under the dire* 
.i! i in- Orel librarian, Mr. .1. Beed Welch, who brought bo the poal 
all ihe various qnallflcatiarui gained fe) :i l >u% uoe in the 

DOfCll of England* From the linrruwt'i^' lu!)liy 1 wti Ijii-jr HWlDg 

doors open into the newsroom, devoted to tfie reading <>f the 
newspapers and perlcx [i i . Thi,-. la the largesi room La the 
!• i Ming, being 67ifc. by 87 i'i.. and oooapJes the jreateei space in 




the building on thegrovnt Boor, and will comfortably hold ovei 

150 persona i he light, in the dry ti , te derived from a 

window to the front, nnd tw< bays, and one othci atom 

I'Ih dOOul*:itjunb id rills i in arc tvpknl of DlOUt ol tliij oM.m... 

The ceilings and walls are coloured crcam-whitc, with n ej 
coloured dado surmounts i by MoncU ornamenta The Boor ii 
covered wltl linoleum to leaden tho sound ol footsteps, and 1 the 
tables, chairs, and news-etandc are ol polished oak. Artificial 
9 riven by twelve Wenhnni IfyihK und u •■ in mgoi 
i rentuutkm sru both ample in qanniH\ ; ndra idem in churn ■!• r 
This portion, and alao the resl of the i eateri by i . 

■ <" ftppU Ml l! 






I'l lii.li- I IKR.VB1K? l\ i.'iM'ii',. 



fXJfl 



At tlic ivar < -f the newsroom, and lighted to two bay 
twe from Orlando Road, md one window frora the back, le 

I.. reference library. This is approached through the newan i 

bj i: i! mm- <>i - > [ag . i ..--:■-.:>; i < i ,i]h,i commuoii ateedireetty with the 
i^Miin^-wom by means of ft c&dina Bash, through which books 
will be suppled for ret'ormce. Tlie decoration* arc similar t" 
Mm* iiewMfunTi, nnd artificial light la supplied bjfonr Wenhaw 
tempo. Behind the .. rain#-room in a commodious office for fchc 
lihrarinn.a binding room, a file-room, lavafc trios* &C- The staircase 
in 11 ic ciiti-iin.'.' liiill air- il \ m.-nti nu'd. i- nui>.>ive — ut Portland 

i MXOj v -ith ornamental iron rnilingsnnd polished mahojzntry wood- 
work. From a spacious landing: an entrance is obtained through 

irgo swing doors to a noble room 46 ft. by S I ft whioh extends 
MM the onaro front of the premises, suitable for ;i lootoro-room 





CI..U-UAM PVBT.IC LTUSUaV. OROL'Vli )<■■ i 

i other purpose*, Th< decorations ore .similar to those in the rest 

the rooms. ' ml paten) mtflau>r* .nv med in thia ease, while 

in powerful lumjifi afford a beautiful light Ample acoommoda- 

on w provided for the librarian* and -y suite of rooms extends over 

binder p"- Eon of the premises, with a sepu te entrance. 

ff a bUudin£ «»!' tlic dimensions i tin i i i.'lnphaffl it 

• i wa/cely"bc possible to put up a better planned or move 
able building. There aro a number of metropolitan pariahos 
where the mi brings En about £1,000 * yew, isal C lauhom, and 
the vi«ry h'.'Kt pi:ifi which . an be adopted will i «' to follow i lose!) 
the plans for the ground and upper floors »( thiaMbran Tfce 
total e di u B4,000» and another £l/)O0 wars 

■pent upon » Curaiture, It te a building whlcl refloats 

t he higni ii erudti upon all r.onoerned, and ninpham la reaaonahV 
■ I 1 : i p ad of Its library, and > mafclnpj a usq q1 lflt.'N*\Ajfe N»e»» 




310 



I'l I'l I' I.I 1H \HII> 



maidftWe, The total number of roluriii'K ;.h Hixmi 1,000, :in«i 
taking b .;. i>'<-. ■] v- pek since [to opening the issues -t ind as follow 
[crone ireet ■ Thealogy.phllosophy, anrteei leeiuutical history, 40; 
history and biography. In.". . ir.iv-in .md topography, 73: arte and 
1 Bti, 93 : poetic and the drama, 49| prceo fiction, L017; mis- 
cellaneous Literature, •■*-■• tarenfle * >rks, 310. Total, 1,808 
l):i:U ;iseiagy uunie of volume*. 373. The total numbtl td 
borrowers i8 rapidly going up to -i ,000. There is every appear- 
ance that Claphazu will more than hold its own in this move- 
ment. 

The aim roissioners have all through acted with zeal. During 
the progress of the build r.il public meetings wore held, 

tor ;he purpose of placing before the people a rioumi of what 
m being (few by&e oommisaloneraj and of raising additional 
funds Cot the purchaaa of books, The Rev. '.'. r. Greene, tlio 

Rov. >'y. FtorCBter, the [lev. J. Chuimoeo Rogers, and Mr. 11< im 
Bolcroigjdid excellent work in awakening public interest in the 

library. 

Beuwonikhbv. OiToiiBB, 1687. 

The majority in luvour <>!' tin. Lett wan more than two to one. 
The chieJ era it of I fte movement and its muweas wai dna \» Dr. 
George Cooper, ol Bouthwark Parle Rood, who, with Mr C3i 
1 1 hrer ud other triends was untiring in lu« efforts. Skilful tuetie* 
throughout were shown, especially tn the distribution ol ■ weii- 
compiled i -uvular giving in ji tornc form a few landing tact - :i oopji 
ol d .li.li wflfl Ii-i'i at '-very house in fhe partnh on the day befon 
thi poll was taken. This circular bore the name of many !< 
residents of all shades of political and religious opinion fn 
parish there are two loeaJ governing bodies En addition to the 
vestry there is a body » :iUo*l the govern")*' mid ilirecO.ii>' u >anl 
which is [lit. 1 rating authority of the parish. The vestiv icsuhcd 
to liik - ,i |" I "i ill- parish, acting mi tin- mlvh'r of their clerk, 
who maintained thai Lhe vestry, and not the governors' ami dl 
reel ire 1 board, wag ii*- proper authority. But while arrangements 
were being made the governors' and directors Issued the usual 
notice to the effect that they would take the toll, and according)) 
thi* was done. The vestry were duly informed ol ftria by the 
clerk to the Eovernora and directors, with a view to the n 
proceedins with the appointment <>f bhe lib] irj eon missi 
But that body, acting upon the advice of bheh la* clerk, tOOS 
objection to the governors and directors h 
under the Vctvand further raised tin- 'ideation as to whether the 
Aci i lid ii< t tv- 1 -lire :\ n ; jnritj of bhc whole of the ratepayers ol 
the pnrinh, and not merely a majority of thoee who ucl 
the trouble to fill up and return the voting papers. The 
thoreupoi d< > ided to submit these two points to < ounscl, and the 
opinion if Mr. Lumlev Smith) Q t_ .. wai obtained On the first 
point ho said he considered the governors and directors were 
the authority within the meaning i if the V<t. On i 

be mcbxad to the view that a majority oi those ictuaUy 






PUBLIC IJlOlAJirKS TN LON'W'V 



Sll 



voting*, and nor an ahsotatfl majority ol the raterjayera , was nil 
thni the Act required 

Ti was somewhat unfortunate tor (he movement that (here 
should have boon this Saeeo in Its earl y stages a mass of Matter 
Hfw :it hand referring to the difficnltieSj bnl aa these muv be now 
retagnted to the archives of unolanl history, nothing more need be 
wlu. The election of a new realty In June, 1889, fadllmted 
matters n-nhiderablv, and ihcy Forthwith proceeded In elect 

iwnmlMinnftM. 

At the Town Hall, Spa Road, Bcnnondaey, in May, 1890, 1 ialoool 
Hasted held an Inquiry on behalf of Hie Loral I tovcrnment Board, 
consequent upon it proposal of the library commissioners t" 
borrow .1 sum ol t'H.iHHi for the purpose of building and furnish- 
a library. Mr. Harrison, the clerk to the commissioners, 
>rmed Colonel Darted that a site, which had been partly given 
by the vestry, hud been chosen contiguous to the Town Hall. 
'li»c coat ol thai portion which would have to be bouitbt up would 
amount, for the purchase of all intercuts, to £3,006. The buildiofl 
would cost some £'4,000, nnd the balance of the loan of £8,000 
would be spent in furniture and hooka. The population of 
Bermondsej wan 68,000, and the rwtftble value of the parish 

£l01,o3fl. A penny rub- Would produce £1,460, Colonel Hosted 

pointed out that the eommissionori bad left themselves a roij 
email margin Eor furnishing the library , and, after BomcdiseuKKi-ui. 
it was resolved toayptv for £10,000 toeteud of 68,000, There wa 

no opposition from the rotejmi t- 

HOTHXIIHITHE. NOVEMBER, 1887. 

Rotherhitiie has been rather long m putting rh<* Acts in op 
tiou. The majority in favour of the Acts woe 7**0, and the cot oi 
the poll wu B96 LOs. toJuly, L880 { &1 Che mooting oi tho London 

County Council, the Ananec committee reported thai they had 

i torsd the application of th< i inaniisaioners I »r Public 

ties and museums for ftothernithe for in advance o ' £3,000 

Tin* iMunmisnioners hn<l agreed t > purchase a freehold aU< 
nawi, and to expend £':.VJ0O in the ere.ti.ii <.| .i hl.rarv. a a. I f '■!'■ 

tor i Kings '"'l furniture which they proposed sht ol I bo repaid in 
fifty, thirty, and twelve years respectively The corns ittes there- 
foro recommended that, auhjeoi to all necessary consents l>e£np, 
furnished to the satisfaction n n • solicitor, the appllcatioi 
the Commissioners for Public Librarian and M isenmc for the 
|i»rfMii of Rotherhitiie for fl !<>:"i of £3/100, to defray (tie cost of 

pnrrl::i i i*f ;m<l civ.'iintj and lilting ups bTlfldrcg tohsUSfld 

as i Public Library, be grant* l . 

This building la now m xrarae of erection. A Ubrarlun haw 
been appointed, and so there In a prospect that the parish will 
aoon be In line s Ith Its work 

on May 20, 1890, at the meeting rf the \ eetrj ■ statement was 
•iii i \ <■ to the appointment I /. the Lfbrnn Co an .-.-.:« nemo J 

a librarian, which was to H Bool thai after the candidates' list 

had bei □ i tin inuted bo that *ii oah ti m-.eu<«'- onSb *>\ »\araa\^ 



:J12 



pi-Bur mbrahie-;. 



iimi p nn 1 l\mu mission or kcciuviI the insertion "ii the list of one wbc 
had not been finally seleetedj and who was aubMquently sleeted 
to rill the pott This led to th<* formal resignation of M< 
Smith, tin ■ Srunrt, who now naked the Veatty to accept 

ihcir resignations. A vestryraau moved tout the resignations be 
aooepted Hi* did so wiiii great regret, but raw no cftfter couxse 
open. This vu seconded, Mid a long discussion ensued. 

ttWKUVWBl.I.. I>JSrKtfKttn a I *K". 

wiiat one pariah refused another parish gs nedj and bo the 
ClerkfiBweJ] people wen* disposed to use the oM proverb about 

ii^ being an ill wind tl»;it Mows noimdy - i ' Mr i: \i 

Qolborn offered Islington .1 uil'L ol some 6000 if the Acta WSXS 
adopted, and on ite refusal to do so he transferred his offc 
Clcrkenwell, which ultimately took the form of £'-!l(X) in cash and 
fver i.i.nHi volume*. This excellent offer, with aa additions 
- 1 C600 from Captain Ponton, M.P-, practically brought about the 

adoption Of thd Aflta, aided by the efforts of u :tlnm,'j mil earnest 
Ci nmiittee, who act themselves the task of educating the con- 
BtHuonoy, The majority in favour Wflfl 321 , timl it was worthy of 
note that thin wiu- in n parish where the rates were twoshflhnge in 
l he pound higher than in Islington. Tin* movement tor the 
adoption of tho Acts in this parish was inaugurated by Mr. 
\\ in. Kobeon, who secured tho co-operation of u majority oi the 
v oh try on u proposal to celebrate the Jnbilvo by the establishment 
ol a J'uhlio Library. Only two public meetings were held m 
ClorkenweLJ, for the opposition hud determined that these should 
bo made so noisy, that tho frionda of the movement would per- 
haps become tired of their work. After this, active canvassing 
WAS adopted on a larger seule than previously, directed princi- 
pally ta Mf -'• Johnson and Mr. w. Rofcson, oofl among Die 
commissioners. They enlisted the aid of the clergy, ministers, 
representative working men, club representatives, teachers, &o. 
iy the whole of the parish was canvassed by volunteer*, 
ministers were asked- to aonotmoe to their congregations on the 
Sunday prior, the fner that the ]«>11 would be taken next day, 
leaving ft to theh Judgment as to whether they enlarged on the 
theme or not. 

Some litigation followed th*» taking of the poll, and On June i 1. 
188*, Mr. Justice Field and Mr. Justtae Wills wore engaged In the 
Queen's Bench Dh Isfon with the case of the Queen v, Morris and 
others, which earns before their lardahipfl in the form of s mol km 
by way of ouo warranto, culling upon the corniuissloners appointed 
under the rublic Libraries' Act for the parish of St. James and 
John, ClerkenweU, to show cause why they should cod 

lu uet.lt Willi; .i.-M-ittvl Hint ihc jjull v, Inch v, ;i,> liken to decide 

whether the Act should he adopted in Clerkeuwvll was invalid, 
by reason of voting papers not being delivered t< some ratepayers, 
and of their not being collected, and of betas improperly oeall 
with. Qn the other haud,il was *aid the poll suhstiuitiaU) 1 
pfeacnted tin; icvlmn of tlic parish. \w\yvw«^^^*.™ ■ 



w -m.il* ubtmuihs ix i.ovnow 



313 



papers vera taBued* of which i.riH wen- ninnini n r:iv>nir i»f the 
library, and 1,030 against It There vers l/KBSfl|icilled papers, oi 
which 880 were blank. Mr. .it'll', Q-G, and Mi stokes appeared 
tor Hit; opponents of the Rbrary, whue Mr. Chinnell, Q.C., and 
Mi- Spokes represented Die* cotiniiinMioiicrK, In support of Hie 
cute for a y«a warranto, II was contended that tho faces sot oul [a 
the affidavits were sufficient to show thai bhc opinion of the ratc- 
payera luul not been properly ascertained, and tli.it before this 
new rate was imposed tot ever upon the parish, the parish should 
another opportunity oi expressing Its sense upon theeub- 

ject. Mr. Justice Field, to giving |udguieut, .vuM the fiti't ques- 
tion raised, whether the commissioncre vera the proscribed local 
authorities for carrying out the provisions uf the Public Libraries' 
Acta, hut tlmt being a very complicated and dilllcnlt qUOetiOBj M T> 




CLSKKBXWJBLl. Pl'BLlC LIBRAiO . SJCOVKS i umik. 

.leii had very properly consented, in the interesl d Bhe pail las, t<> 
alien it bo pass la the present ease lad therefore the osjg 

SiestianB remaining were auto i.i i Le in vSticfa the sonaeox 
I parish hud been taken. In tin- ca.se n tluvt 

voting pa pern were not Bent to each ratepayer, that Ihev \ ■ 

Sropswy eoUecled.and thai e scrutiny wae n fused; ana chat even 
uom coiiditiotis bad bees properly complied with, the result 
had not boon properly aeeortasnec. llis lordehki then reviewed 
the facts of theoase,aad said thut uxioiu i be w$t always t<> 
si • i :■ p u iv of election, he could act some to the oenelosloo thai 
than vas 003 improper ox unfair dealing on the pari of tha 

promoton of tih< Public Library in tin 11 I iec 1'liore v 
substantial majority of ratepayers in favour Qt tita yv \<*c&,VC<A 
there VBS ftOtnUJgtG show that the election \\tv\ fcWft WBWS^Ka 



314 



PUBLIC LIBRAE IK*. 



than fairly arul ln-.iiminthh conducted Mi'. Justice Wills con- 
curred, Linil the rule was accordingly discharged. 

Thi* settled 'lie litigation fn* tin time hcing, and on Noi 
Iit :' >, !>>>.!> |trcmitictt were opened in Tyo* 

Those hare been well n»c<l, ami will, jiu doubt, continue to bo 
weO patronised until the completion of the new building nuw En 
course of erection. The foundation-stone of tfcit permanent 
building WBS laid on March 8. 1990, on a site given by the 
Skinners 1 Gompany< The boiKnOfl ifl being erected from the 
designs of Messrs Karalako&MortinoorbyMoBBre. J. McCorn 
& .Sony, mid is estimated to cost about Utf.oou. It is situated 
within the most thickly-populated part of the pariah At Che 
laying oi the stone, the Rev i fit Rose, m.a., the chairman 
of tin? roiimiixsioni'rM, Bflid that somebody hatl complained that 




OI.RBKSNWBLL PTBLIO LIUItAHA*, FIBfiT I'l.ooir. 

the number of \olumea oi' poetry taken out I'rom the Library was 
v iv Miuill, and raised a laugh by saying tliul, whoever hud made 
thai statement, if they would gu dial lire in Clerkcnwel) it is 

Kububle they would have aome ol the poetrj cruahed out of 
em. The work is in charge of the energetic libra 
James D. Crown, and the organizing of the library lui> 
exceedingly well carried out, 

TIaxmbs8nith. December, 1887. 

It ia cheering to look back upon the attempt to get the 
:niopi-."i in tins parnsh ol 100,000, The" West London Observer "■ 
and other papers threw open their columns for b full discussion of 
the subject A.pjrovSstonal committee, with an axco)lenl h 1 1 

fiivrvTaiy in Mi*. H P. l\dw-ir.U, was l..nm«il,:iml The whols jmrlRri 

war mage a wars tl what iram going torwaid Man? iimuwunU 



\ 



PI UI.IC UBHAH1KS \y I.'iN!»>\. 



315 



til leaflets were distributed, nud when the vote was taken the 

in.ijr ■rit i y in favour o! I lie m 'lu'iiio u .:> inm v I 1.1,1 I «itr ah lar^c a* 

the minority a opposition. During the time the question was [a 

wrogrew refeirncrs were m;i.i. |-.i the hcuw iu Et&TQnseoiirl Park. 
Flammersniith, being suitable tor a library, ami, after an Interval 
of a little over two yours, this has become an accomplished fcu :t. 
Th. time between wu* absorbed in tbe acquinibion of tlie park by 

the London County ('<iai.il jis u park for the jx'oph: for ever. 

They then (jfovc the commissioners the use of the house as alibrary 
aud rendin#-room at a nominal rent, and on March If', 1800, tbe 
Library n n ideolan dopei by BfrJohn Lubbock, Ml'., who has bud 
o im.iY tiinr n ii i i m direction of late. The lino uUi mansion where 
the ili:);. ifl housed has (juite an interesting local history. Tho 
original munmon in the park seems to have dated book to about 
the fourteenth century. This is not I lie place to enter into 
il- riOiiattudee Sbioe then, bttt it lias fallen to a happy uud satis- 
factory use at last. In August, 1889, several rooms were opened 
a« reading-rooms, and have from the first been used by the public 
in a way to gratify the hearts of all who have taken an interest in 

iir n..viaina:t. Bar San I Martinis the Ubrarian. The chairman 

of the cornnriflsfoners is the Rev, J. it. Snowden, and among the 
♦ rare Mr. R. P, Ld wards and Dr. (rood. Tho prospect* ol thi 
Unary are decidedly bright 

SouTnwAiiii (Cumsr Umritcu). Fjumwaay, 1888k 
Tills Is one of the smallest parishes, mid the majority III favour 
of thr adoption was 234, In April of 1888 the commissioners 
were appointed, and on October i. 1889, the Bbrary and reading- 
room were opened al the Albert Institute, Charles Street, Black- 
Wart Road. The library rate, however, only produce*, about IMOOu 
.year, and this was ml her a Miiall amount to commence operations 
willi, seeing that premises had to be found and n slock of books 
Secured. Tlie eoimui**i(>ner* fouud some difficulty in getting 
suitable premises, the i-iuesiioLi of cost presenting a ureal obstacle. 
Ultimately the trustees of the Albert Institute, which is an 
institution intended for working men, offered a portion of the 
i>iiii<ViiL' and (he lower portion of the premises bos been obtained 
for the purposes of the library at a rental of £oO i year. There 
is a well-lighted reading-room, which is furnielied "with current 
literature, including the doily itnpers and principal magazines. 
kbotrt -.-">'> volumes >f varied literature conetHulfl the Dhrary. 
Tho issue is at present small. 

('AMBBUWEI.L. .lAVHARV. 1889. 

Tlie question was introduced here by tho offer oi Mr. Gcorjrc 
Lively, made in Marcl . 1888, ofo site and a new building in the 
Old Kent Road Thirteen years previously a vote was taken in 
9 well, .1 i 1 the question was answered ir; the negative by a 
considerable majority. In January. 1S8S>, when the matter OMBe 
again forward! the j>"ii resulted So I L407 rato^avete YQtfa&tfft Q&fl 
proposal, and 4,357 against. In artditKi Km -\ v- v:\tov\yi w we 



sie 



rrnr.K unn mmi-. 



question, the retcpoj ■ 101 oted for the ad tj.tion of the Actt 
vert naked t<> state whether they favoured a mto [cried a? W. * 
-si., or Id., "i- <i in the v, with the result that 909 voted for the 
M. rate, 1,7*3 rortbs fcd, rate L4Sfov the ,m rate, and 9,g«7 tor 
too Id rata ho latter <;"ne outturn luring the opponents of the 

proposal i»; ".-l." I'll- 1 "South London rivv^ ' ,]],( it | siTvitrn 

En bringing about the adoption <»i the Acts In i amherwell > It 
has done in other districts. Tn Novembpr, i -:*!■«, the advertlRprnwil 

appeared in the usual ■iomv.vs lor i librarian. There wcro over 

.**»() applications, and among th>'m one from a member of die 
Camlierwell Vestrjr. Some of the t»'*t known ami moat 
experienced librarians in tin* count?} responded to the adverttao- 
merit, and out uf then the commissionere sent for fourteen. 
After the intervlewe had token place the company were 
regaled with ten while the cominJsBioncra were.it wut thought, 
uioking their riinii-r, in due course the company were 
politely informed thai a gentleman had l»een appointed. 
The choice bad fallen on one of their own number, a veetry- 
num. whose name appears as a member of the vestry in toe 
report of the prooeeain&a of that body at their meeting on 
January 22, 1890, several weeks after bo had received the 
appointment. The library movement is young in London, and it 
is most essential that every library should begin its work well. 
In the organizing of n new Public Library anywhere, practical 
training and axperSenoe ore necessary, and due Ifl particularly 
true of the London libraries' 

Lambeth and Camberwcll have combined in the working of the 
Miiiet Library, the gift of Mr. W. Minor, wliuh st.cidn on the 
coufincs of the two parishes. An agreement has been entered 
into between the coiuniieerionerfi of 'ho two parlehee, the chief 
features of which agreement ore that the library ia to be used by 
the ratepayers of both the parishes of CamberweU and Lambeth, 
and that it is to be under the control of a joint committee, hall' to 
be sleeted I j the oommUsionera of Lambeth} and the other half 
by the commissioners of Camberwell. A separate hanking 
account is to |>e kept in the name ot the eommittee. Mr. 
Courtney is the librarian. 

At the time al writing 1 , this library, the Camborwell aen 
i:lnji\ n old Ken. Itoad aud the library at Myall's Field*, :nv 
in course of erection Tempi miry rooms have been take 
High Street, Peelchara atr. Foskctt is the chlel librarian, 



STftEATHAM. PECBMDKtt, 1689. 

London parishes are very much like the scotch burgh*. K a 

id ntfi'v is made toward* liui'din^' ;uid ln»r.);s, Iheiv u un 

Iculty about adopting Uie Acts, Mr. Henry late, of Liver] I 

Streatham, who has bees one of the princerj givers to Public 
Library aud other purposes, offered to erect, al aoonl ol £6,000 i 
butidwgfora Public Library, and on tl i era being; 

yy/ifthrr (Jiry won- willing to incur l\\e w*\ o\ UWduWUttUtM 



PI B1 1 I.IBH MiUBS I < U 0TH0H 



317 



windy asid "ye*" wii'i alacritj— thai i*, !\v two ti> one, Mr. Tote 
Kresat tin- [«i|. .a sin- a i no < ^mmon, and Ms handsomo residence 
Command* :. line riew ol the Surrey hills, even as far no Epeora 
Downs. He ie rich andbenevoka^anddititribateBhisbanefaG^ianB 

with wi-i'l-'in. tnd in the m***t wnistciitntion* muuncr. The inM 

that a rii h Londoner thinks «>f is to make a toncfoction in 

In', ufoti i o to tin.- public. Mr. 'I'll-- In surrounded at Strv&thmii 

by merchant princes who have n good deal to loam from the eea 6 1 

od - ' ''- Me p lUanttu 1 >py of then' popular QSJgBtbOUg. VOKJ 

Mr. Toto raado It a condition ->i hje gift that the Acts 
.In i,I 1 bo adopted for mm n ten one e. 

The now hhniry 1ms been commenced. The style of the 
building rt t'ioek, and the whole ot the facing u to he Portland 
hi mil', the most prominent feature being a large cupola (covered 
v.fl. soppor and supported on an arcade) over the main entrance. 
The Soon of till the public rooms are to be of wood '■locks. 
and the walls planter 6fl sod deeorated. end the coved ceilings In 
fibrous plaster. The lYmtmctnrs tor the building and nttlngfl are 

Ueurs, Hiirgt. & Hill, and th >st (excluslv site) will in* 

abort tiflSS, 

U'lnifi ii u-ix. DBOUCBHHj I 9SB 

Well done, Wbitccrtapell A short, earnest ud splendid agita- 
tion, followed bj ■ success as distinol as ii was eneoitablo to all 
concerned. 'Pie totes h Pai »ur were 8,558, and the votes againsl 

wtrii.- 't-'i'. Tin l!»-v. s. A. Beraetfc, B. A,, ono of the wannest sad 
raait deroted friends the people ever bad anywhere) ticked the 
public for £<5,000 toward* the formation of the library. pr< \iding 
1 1 u- Acta were adopted There viwa jyooxl response, and tin-. 
doubt, helped the movement most materially. The main strength, 
however, came from n system ifcic onDvass ol the greater portion 
of the parish. Thte was dona before the Noting papers had been 
distributed, and ngain during the dny on which they wore 
iictiiilly in the houses of the voters. Nearly u hundred men and 

i on were working hard on that day to eeoure n Bntisfnetory 

|p«ll,:iiid :l ua> greatly ovsiny to il ■ i !i ■■ - .■ vohml try 

workers that the jn.il was*., biry. Hi*.- elfeeN i.f -\>tematW and 
vigorous eauvass were never better illustrated in the entire 

I history of the movement than in Whiteehapslj and to offfuninlnff 
this work Toynbee Elall rendered :i valuable servf ce roe little 
parnphle! specialty addressed t - . working men hy Mr. s. Hales, 
thoubmrios "i the Toynbes Students' Library, pc4nt£na out the 
apodal arihty of those Institutions t<> working men contributed, no 
doubt, to the encouraging result of the poll. There ire bo many 
misconception* about Public Libraries thai a hnufte-to-honM 
canvass, where these Institutions are uuknown, and in u large 
parish j isvnv advisable i ►Wool lone can I* answered as advanced, 
and altojteUn i I lie plan tends 1 1 1 loar the six and to excite nubile 
Interest in a way which leads grcatfy to the mot ess of the bora j 
i he i once established. The commissioners were Immediately 
appomte I, and hare bei u uble to report ptogcea«. \\ a a \\> ■ 






31* 



rt'BUO LIUBAniK-- 



to commend the notion oi the Whitochapcd Veatay, some time 

fTior to the poll a sjii'i-.tiiiin It tee of tlif vestry li:ul Iwmmi formed 
cr the purpose of inqoMng and reporting upon the adoption <»i 
the Acts in the parish. \eting :is :t l*>dy the vest ry h:nl rendered 
every facility, and if the vestries oi n<> forty-seven purishes Bti i 
to enrol will follow the DhUl Of the WWtechapel Vestry W8 $haU 
sfion see London with ft network of Pnhlfc Libraries. Plans are 
being decided upon tor* building In the High Street Tin- Rer. 
Dun ftrentorex, B.D. rloar of St. Paul's, Dock Street, ;i memb r 
of the Wrdteehapel District Board of Works, has offer ed to the 
Library Commissioners hiaci>Uection of relics, fossils, curios, works 
uf art, &c.j if it £■ intended i«» have in connection with the lihrarj 
a luusemn or art class. He hue been collecting Ms mnaeuro rot 
lifty years, und his exhibits would make a good beginning. 

Storu XiiwiMJToy. Fburoajiy, 1*!X>, 

This was die first parish to London wnich adopted the Ann in 
and b.v fcbc Marnier in which tin: [Jiupusul v.a* taken up and 
carried through did itself infinite credit. The statutory mei 
was largely attended, ami in every way was representative m 
.ill classes sod sections oi the local coxninunibyi Only a few 
hands were held m> against the proposal thai fcbe Acts be 

adopted, Uld DO pell vn« demanded. The Rev. ,1. f'art:rirl 
lLubinAon ami others rendered excellent ncmce in preparing the 
way r«.»r the movement, r.mj'.ii; to j head, The commissioners 
! wer< Mr. Joseph Beck, L.CCL Mr. J. 0. Collins. BIr. 
William Eve, .Mr. rhomos Greenwood, Mr. J. J. ftttnte, Sir E, 

A. EgagG. Mr. John Bamson, Mr. Matthew Shaw, and the Rot. 

Prebendary Shelford, rector, who was olectcd chairmen. Theac 
are all keen]} in boucn with the purpose and usee of b Public 

Library. The eonamisdoneri are in the early stages of 
ouatng plana, bn1 win be able to render on account of 
. ii'\- r aTdsl i[> when the Ume- comes. 



The GtmaoXUaL Pcblic Library. 
The handsome and well-furnished reading , -iiN>in of the Guildhall 
Librarj Ifl »i hive of readers and students Erom the time ii is 
opened in Hie nipnniiLr iinl-il ft p.m., the hour Of rlnslnjr. The 
total Dumber >■ relumes in now about 70,000, am I as <i reference 
library 1ft stands in London second to the British Museum, All 
libraries hare a history from the (act tint they are the %n » h "i 

('ears, and never ceiwe to grow ; bat the history of sonae Libraries 
s esceptionalry interesting', and that is the case « Ub 
library, Xh< first mention of << 11 trary al the Chaildhall « is con- 
tained in the records of the Corporation ►! Ihi year 1436, w ten 

ihc ni:r.i.i_-i.' in <>t Kieiiard v7hitttagton*s library and the 

bo tding erected for it waa placed in the hands of the executors 
oi William Bury. Whittington's executor, John Carpenter, 
moc clerk, '■»il foondei oi the ■ >1 London School, 
st/ppnrffti tin- *ii -r ii i ■, and i<. mi lihrari t i it, the 

books to tx: cfaainod u ttic library, ^ nna^Vj wA ft '• 



PUBLIC MBRAIIIBR IS E^KBOtf. 



310 



collection ri.'mLLtiift, iuv, according to SUiw, iii tho reign of 
Edward VL t the iVotector Somerset took away the book* with a 

?romise to restore them shortly, but they wore never returned. 
his act Of rnparjty pn-ihnhly happened m 1669. VI ;i volume or 
i v. ta s catalogue it Known t« be preserved, but there is yet room 
for hope that sonic may i>»* discovered in the MS. stores of some 
other library. from [660 i" 183J do steps were taken to re- 
i.hsh She Ubiety. Bui to tne latter year Uie Court of CcHiimon 
i louHOil unanimously referred it t«* a npoeial committee to consider 
a* to providing a library, and tho rooms oi Hip Irish Society were 
adapted with : tin ■ object, 6500 wns voted for the outfit, and £200 
annually for the maintenance. En L6S8 il 8 library was opened* 
with Loo^ works in 1,700 volumes In 1840 ii became necessary 

to make extensive addition* to Ihc premises In 1855 a meeting 

wns convened at. the Mansion House, the Lord Mayor presiding, 
but the proposition to establish a Public Library wan rejected by 
the citizens. In !--■"' ', Imwi-vi-r, l-n j tiln'jrv was thrown Open to 

readers by ticket, and members of the Corporation wen-, permitted 

to borrow books tur home reading. In the year 1*0}) the Common 
Council carried a. motion for the erection or a new library .-mil 
museum, at a- COSt of t'2'»,OfK), and iu 1872 the new building wae 
publicly opened. In the old library not morn than twenty 
renders could be accommodated at a time. The new building 
will accommodate L 60 readers. The number of readers *1 once 
rose from l-MJlfl iu 1888 to 173,660 in 1874, the first complete year 
nf (lie new library. At the present time the number of Yti I op 

to the roxloui doparta bee some 100/300 a year. All 

th.it is required lor the privilege of using the library i« the 
signing of a book on entering atr. Charles Welch is Ens obiei 

li'M'ii'um, and hut-. Iwon on the staff of the library mil- 1- ;i, 
graduating through the various stages until he ha* reached thfl 
highest post of all. The one pressing need in tho city is tor a 
lending library, a more commodious general Fea4inff*ronm. nnd 
better qnarteni for the museum. There is an especial want of a 

1 boys' reading-room, and Mr. Welch and nil «tatt" would be glad 
to see such a room established, Ths anniber of clarion, office and 
warahouse boys who would make use of a lending library, wore 
one established, is legion. Is there no city man of wealth who 
will tat £36,000 to £60,000 BeoUM fame nnd immortality by 
ottering to hnild pre mines for these Sections Of the (liiilithiiii 
work? ii the street* ol the sacred square mile are not paved 
with gold, there arc ur least a large number of men WTifl to 
bnmneas premise* along those streets have deeply lined their 
pockct.H with gold, to whom such a sum as Ilia! nai icd would 
be but trivial. A special Act could aaefly be obtained Ear the Clter, 
and a farthing rale for the year wotdd provide Income enough 
foi maintenance, 
The Paibkt Office Ljbbajiy. 
; 



ting of about 100,000 \olame*,\t\\.Ve"V # ««M«CTk>. 
Office buildings, Southampton Building, * A.av\*, ^ *■- -i 



00 



HTBLXC IJBKABIT^. 






n<i 'i- ii fn to h'- I- i'-i:«-. •••■<:,•, ( . , th< bettei ipprocMed Ibe 
: i infined exctaftivoly Ii 

BnglM) ainHiM ••■:■■! en! !■■ ..'.i". r Lntcdwrfch patent*, hut there 

WOtOnc ili"» ■■tui'J" "i vwIuiiki deahn# with crcry departni' I 

■ \> n< i I Hi'- 1 HIiimtv i* strong i 

cmii'I vulniiii'i <■! ill'" l'-:irn<-<l i'H-lctie TOigTU 

n': l!v :i !llil*.ri'Vi I tool uw:i\ iiIh! SpCCiltl litcrOt'. 

ii h ii grant boon to the public. A further eoetuju ol thfl 
work "i thii useful library la the providing of a large selection of 
trade ond gIb&i Journal ol English, Unorican, and Continental 
Soother! brarj in England, except the Britwh Museum, 
tin* »o ffood i collection oi tli"^- uvlinical publications, and < 
■ ■in-.. Si i ■ .i«' | o 'i "in i»y :i very large number of person 
i ii. :n;i i. imii or too library \b divided Into eight alcoves, as 

ogemcnl "i the books in claases In these alcoves \h cx«vll«*nt. 

m the mMdlfi of tha al sen <• 18 n table far the use .. r m [or . with 

pem* and Ink. There areaJeon i-onsfdei'aUe number ol smaller 

roama. Tin* readoi help* hhnaclfto ili>- book*, tnkiny rin>m down 

.i' \iiii,.iii<l retaining them lo their place* when he htm done with 

them. Tbl&ifl the kUftralfan plan loi reference libraries, and bo 

Earna be Patent Office Lfbraxy fo concerned Ifeanpeara to work 

well. 1 1 ■« Iflfl (| 'v i ■ rotkintaincd north From the onormoue revenne 

ol the i' ■ • n ' ifteei and for the purohaflt • i i u Teal publications 

there ht a email annual grant from Parliament, But in add it ion to 

debited to the Stationery Office which 

\ belong to bnii librtw. The Patentfl Department ii one 

i which Hit UntMi |uiMif know little W far aa BppUei to H» 

ITio annual statement of [taocoouatt fe not seen few 

wunj outidde those Lnamodtatohf interested. The hii.u-, and 

mi ire nothing more than »'"'i reasonably be expected ol 

« iih in.- targe Muds at their disposal The mum-, 

ipen n 'in 10 it to to p.nx The attendant en moat 

ear cw ee,000 people need the I braxi 

about •'» haj '-"' ilaltlng it in the evening. 

M"\ BBCKNT8 i\ PEOGRE8S. 
Daprvonn. 
Deptfunl refused to wlopt tht Lota la 1880; but the poll was by 

Ih'ii w,*i> new. Al'uiit rwi-i 

i to the 

Kell w ' i1 pi mm.., in a i.-v 

I 

■ '■■ • pariah, for the ■ 

art not nc« Ii 
large town* and, by antvenu 

. 
ug>wi i u •« ,:-v ,;■(!,, a iKi^ribouriotf parish, wew 

«r\-.| then , four 

n.aiKl thcreeu 
HiiMrmpr '"i^^wit.liiilr. iv^ncl 






r-rniiU i.iuitAiinv> in r.ONonrv. 









that the people of Wandsworth know In v, toappreci ate a library P 
And are Mi«- pCOple of Oeptfnrd mo vci> tiillt-ivul >' We rln-ni'uiv 
appeal to you to record your vote in favour, so that we ma y 
realize the name advantage." The poll was against the adoption ; 
but, as the question now stands on a much higher level than was 
the case in 1886, Dcptford, it ffl hoped, will try n^niu, The move- 
ment ha6 many earnest friends in the neighbourhood. 

Hamiweai>, 
The question is earning forward in this largo parish, and the 
vote wfll be t:iki?n r.'i'y shortly. There are over fjOOO ratepayers, 
Many earnest Ertenda of the movement reside In the riiatviot, end 

it la to be hoped that these will Bet about educating the lOCOJ 
public upon The subject before the vore is taken. 

Hoi.no hn. 
The political club* QD both isides have introduced the *ubject, 
and are tftking steps for bringing it to the front. It is to be 
hoped that in every way the political element will be kept out. 
The fact cannot bo too prominently kept in view that in this 
question neither polities HOT 0M6ds are known. Holbom means 
to havo ita Public Library. 

Ipi.ingtok. 
Islington, with DTOr a million and B half population, has mndo 
Jfvcrnl attempts to earrj the Act*, luil ha* not yet Nuccfloded. 
The last movement was in April. 1667. Outol 88,006 r.depjyei-s 
who were called upon to exprex* :m i»pn ion, -".: , .' l - only voted. 
Of the*r, 10,152 voted fur the adoptiou of the Acts, and (5,776 
against it. Those agamat did not Conn uite-half of the total 
uumlter of ptraotis with a vote, being really i\O50 less thun a 
moiety of the ratepayers Thus, while the advocates of the 
Hbrary had the satisuwtion oi knowing that their opponenlB did 
nut number a majority of the ratepayers, they had to Lament that 
only 10,162 of those who aro certainly not against them, and arc 
presumably their friends, took the trouble to record a vote. It 
cannot be denied that much of fcbSe apathy was due to the fact 
that very little effort was made to enlighten the ratepayers 00 
the subject at iaane. To carry n measure such Bfl Public Library 
requires Bomething mure than the more pr08< ntatlon of Q rOqtUai- 

i r ■ >:i to the ororeeew. Xhete should have bean an active oaavana, 

I'in.'i there was not, and those who had taken an interest in fin* 
matter saw at'torwurds tho mistake which had booamada. The 

aueatioa in again cnung forward Ofld there 18 OVnty probability 
i:.t when iii. bason are again published there will baa happy 
Mir::igu I'ltwoen tin* vast pariah and the Public J.ibrary movo- 

i-lmgiMii i^ maJdngap its mind thai it will not bfl left 
hind in toll book race. 

Lbu. 
In February, 18Q0>tfae ijtweticn woe introduced ia the vestry 1 1 
la pariah. Tlio ratable value i.i not large, but would he enough. 




3*J 



ITllUC LIIiBAftlBS. 



forpresont purports, Some earnest friemlu arc gathering together, 
and noon there will bfl nn efTort to carry the Ari 
Lkwisham. 
The iimi!<T \e again ooniing ite&dfh forward In Lcwisham. 

i ri h li:i.. u ^cmkI ratable value, whi.-h will enable them t. 

plant isq ■ utrnl library and do something for the outlying 
pari* he*. A committee Iiuk been formed at the time of writing, 
■nd Lcwiftham will soon bo added to the lint. 
Nbwingioit. 
a poU wan taken in February, 1888, with the result that a 
majority of 713 were againxt the adoption. Over one-third 
abstained from voting— flu result, it (k to bo feared, of it little 
undue haste in bringing thn matter tn an Easuej and an serious 
afeep h^lng taken t.o ediica.tr the people upon the subject, it; 
agnin, Xewingtnn, and next lime with :i fatter result. The one 
i feature about the movement was that the majority en" the 
member* were in favour of the movement. 

St. Gkouoes, fUxovnn SQUABS. 

On acveral occasions during the latter part of 1888 and I 

the question lias been discussed in the vestry, but it was then 

thought th.it the- time VM not opportune. In the early part of 

1890 the subject waa again mentioned, and soon there is even 

prospect that one of the wealthiest partaker* i:i all Luiidon will 

settie t):o question in i.isinii of the adoption. An influential 
meeting was held in May. 1890, for rite promotion of the 
menfri 

E I . PaN( JtAfl. 

Xenr tin- large tiM-miiii of Buaton and Bti Paocras a huge notice 
board oaed to announce Ihe fact that a larye piece <•( /mund 
in rin Enaton Road was the site for a PaWic Library. >.< h . 

however, the oolite luw been withdrawn, aud the lite uaed 
forothei purposes. There waa Founded in 1X77 a small library 
in tfae Camden Hull within the pariah, and this has been Mip- 

Crtcd from that time by voluntary contributions. The pariah 
3 a population of close upon A quarto? of ft million, When the 
movement waa in progress in 1887-t- a strong committee worked 
1 igOTCUfily to educate the people hy mcanB of ward meet inn* nnd 
a distribution of litem ture. The eohemo wae for two central 
libraries bo he established, with n number of smaller branches. 
Libera! BObSOriptiOM were promised, and pood work waa done, 
bttl St. runeraa naa not yet adopted the Acta. The old committee 
orroa an excellent nuctaru for again renewing the campaign, and 
it is to be hoped that ttdawtl] beat an early date si Paaorae 
cannot afford r « be left i>etiin<l in this movement. The oheme 
for large Potytoohnice to be establis h ed in varioui i 
London has retarded the Public Library movement in St ('Micros, 
(tut the one vital difference betwuiMi tin* prno'K.wj l-'oly'oehnies 
ij aw ii.. ■;. ire rounded and Public libraries is, that :in« : 
are DSdai popular control, and the former nre not. A halfpenny 






I'l ii. ir i. ii IU1MJW l> I.ONHON. 



323 






rait- in St. l'amius will solu- tin- ilifBcultv in a manner that the 
echniCH will iiput l« able toaceompbsh. 

TOPLAB. 

The proposal is corning forward here, and there is ev.ry 

froMjH'.-i oJ .success. Meetings '" v '< '*' held in tlio middle W 
Ma 

Woolwich and Pi.tnusTnAn. 

The*e two adjoining parishes have several times discussed the 
question, and in April, 1**7, took the vote. In Woolwich 4*779 
papers were delivered, and of these 2,310 voted against the Acts, 

:onl K:V. in r;ivniir of lln adoption. ['himsfead wa.s almost as 

emphatic In Its "No/* and tins is largely to be Attributed Do the 

landlords threatening if the poll was carried fib raise the rente of 
their tenanta This is another of theevils of landlords paying the 
rates instead of the tenant, in May, J £90, a further attempt 
was made to cany the adoption ul' the Acta, The majority 
against the proposal was 5flfl. More requiros bo be dune tu 
educate the local public upuii the question. 

The following are outside the metropolitan area; — 

ObBHWICS, M Alien, IKttO. 

The heft r educator Of public opinion on Thisi'jneAtTon Is to hove 
one or more Public Libraries in the near neighnonrhood an objeet- 
lemoru. This was the rase at Ohtawick, end on March to, 1*90, a 
public meethag of the ratepayers win lieW at the Vestry Hnll, 
Turnhain Qreen, in order tc determine whether the Act* should 
be adopted for the urban sanitary district of Chiewick, Tlie 
chairman of the Loral Board mended over jl large attendance, 
I >i . I <urdun Hogg proposed, and Alderman 13. Hardy seconded, a 
motion in favour of the adoption of the Ad*, which, on being put 
the meeting wa* carried, only live voting against it. One of 
atientv demanded a poll, which ft is estimated will coat 
The poll took place one week afterwards, with a result of 
six to one in favour. The poll waa not a large one. 

Oaoxoozf. 

At the end of 188fi a poll wafl token, and tho majority against 
was seventy-three. This was sufficient reason why a further 
:;tt.-mpt should have been made in fiforeml or, 11^8. The litiga- 
tion whieh ensued, respecting compound houn-lndilyra baring 
permitted Bo vote, has been retorred to in another chapter. 
\M necessarily caused some delay, and it was unfortunate that 
following this, there should have been a farther delay, owing to 
the Qlnen and anbeequent deatk oi Mr. Sail, che librarian Now, 
heweWi matters aw ussnnring something like form, and the 
building was opened without ceremony on March 31,1660. The 
movement t» v Hw adaption of tin* Arts was well and spiritedly 
eondnetad. The leaden wore well aided bj the chut VwaX 

p.'IK 





papa 



394 



.i\niKs 



Eauto 
The library here is now housed in now quartore, On December 

Ifi, 188h tho Prince ni \\ oloi openod the now public bufldingi 

nln.'li tne library forms part. The library, in ttit- east wing, in 
approuched by a single doorway similar to the double doofw i 
ii;. ma i> entrance. On the around door are the reference library, 
»K rc. by 291 ft, ; the lending: deportment, 39 ft. by 28 ft. ; and at 
thfl north end the reading-room. 31' ft. by i'<5 It. Tho whole of the 
area covered by these departments is ]ialf-h:i*emnnt*ij With two 
large class-room* Mr tin.* science and art department, the eeutre 
. devoted to the library, with a. lilt to the lending; aepartmenl 

Tor some five or siv yeirw the work had been miried en in 

premises boob 'omul in be inadequate to its requirement* 1 1 u 
number nf volumes Is 6,939 in the lending department, and UK) 
for reference. The turnover tor (lie year was 113,387 volumes, 
giving n daily average of MS volume* for the 247 days on « 
Ejie l.brary was open. The attendance .i the reading-room in Ehc 
old pran&ee averaged 100 per day Now, in the better roome, 
it is (joo. which to a stffnlncanl increase. Mi. TTioinas Bonner 
ia the librarian, und hu& just received it well-merited increase Jn 
his salary. 

ItlClIHOM*. 

This library trae founded to 1*81, and baa done and hi doing a 
capital wui\i. At tlic il.itr of the last report there were 10,030 
volumes, and these had bees Uwued in the twelve montha 106,966 
times, and yet out of this large turnover not a volume waa lost. 
An excellent feature ol thfl work i* »>,*1IH volume* in the reference 
section, welch, for s small library, ia rcry creditable- the amount 
derived from fines is over 1*70 n pear. The rate only produ 
moderate income, and about seventy persons pay u shilling 
monthly 3ub9oripiion,aplan which Mr. frank Pacy, the librarian, 
has organised 

bTHATPoan. 

Stratford, nr West Ham, thought that it had settled he 
mieatton i»y Hbatutory meeting lit I«ft7 ; hut there was, it In stated 
some Raw in the railing- of the meeting, and »u an rurntwl effort 
Is now being made < * « place bheiinestloD on a firmer Footing than 
wae the case three yooraago, Trie Ratepayers' Association hera\ 
.!> in manj i ther London ourlshee, is doing n most useful woHi ta 
educating the public mind upon the cruetstum. Kltcrc 

appearance that Mm ■■■■.-. in assured, 

TvflCh K.N 11A.M. 

Twickenham being; the place - E Alexander Pope the committee 
of the Public library, und the librarian, Mr. Afaynard, havi t 
tanda ■ taolleh a Pope Library, In I8& iiin.-woaa 

Pope Commemoration Festival, and thin tod to providing 

funds for thifl purpose, 'the hwiml-- number »f vol-une* lent to 

borrower from the lending deportment was tw.-ntv-Movoi 
Vtuloh ffiw* a book u fortnight to each ticket holder. 




hLUUi; UIHLA1UKS IN LONDON. 



W IMBLRDON. 



I'n m (lie iwrnurl nniii.il repniT ir U evident thai when Mr John 
Lubbock prophesied jit the opening eeremony, about two yeftffi 
ago, that he was certain the Wirablcdoniflns were thirsting for 
such ;ui Institution, ii" wns not far wrong. The total number of 
visits of readers has been l44/)99, a daily average of 4(U. The 
number of magazinee, periodicals, ami newspaper* hijppiied in Uie 

reiiiliiix'-iouni is 184, and Hit- total number ■ >T TOnUnea in the 
cdci library [a 1,502. The number ui" burrow eis' ticket-* 
issued in connection wtth the Lending library was '2.U7, an 
i or the rear of 304, and the total issue oi books or 

W_asM/)!Kl, .nUU.v ■an.-u-e pf $M SI] X, EL R&bUvt fc 

DHSCOOESBFUL ATTEMPTS, 

Actov. 
In March and April, 1887, an attti i|»t wan mode, to CftTTJ fchfl 

The poll was harried forward, and onwlstuj so. The i»<ll 
'in April of the year named showed a decided majority 
against the Acts. One of the opponents i ftde much of ---'■-- 
■ i "f his own, that Acton would find a good soup kitchen a 
/r ■.! .. r attraction than a Public Library Another speaker n>1 ;» 
public meeting for the discussion of the question made much of 
thofaot that between lB59*ad L881 is Manchester the oxpendi- 
ture of the libraries bad grown from i"l,3GfJ to 1*10,000. Tin- 
ning was manifestly unfair. In the Bret instance it was ctnlj 
)i pi iiny rate in 1852 and 1881, and instead of having at tin Bml 
date one library there wore in 1881 a verjmucfa larger cuffiher, 
Evidently more light on tho question i» required at Acton, and 
the three years which have intervened »inee the last attempt 
xiKc.iid ;ni ka Eha nuestloa again ripe. 

TOTI'BWHAM. 

Iln* ijucAtiou beguu to be seriously diseuwed here In October, 
1699. Early in Decemijer of Lbs soma yew a statutory nice 
wa* called. The show of hands was nT favour, but on "a poll the 
Question was lost, Tottenham greatly needs a Public Lib 
' !'! reading-rooms, and will* before very long, be &U10D£ the 
places possessing these institutiuus. 



: 



Tns Chajh i v OoMamWro'OTBa ahi> Piblio IjHbakijss. 

A Her some yeare of careful consideration the Chnrity Com- 

nUseJonera published tho draft of their scheme for tho appueal 1 1 

and management of the tnn<U and property of the City it London 

Parochial Charities. This scheme first o&tne before tho public ba 

September, 18*1', and must have t-een invatly li ing to aU 

whi have taken vt\ active mteresl m the VuAO.v V&sceargxfi 

t i: ; /,:vj. not a single rate<eunpar\Qd utorcr^ w ^rnsftawatoj^ 
o be bonded or hWpod out of iV ml fcon&a «& ©a* WW* -'■ 



326 



PL3LIC IJHKAiill-,s, 



til l!:. ' ' ■t:!ihii>;.h:i:t-i>. Mt . i ■ - ■ i '_•. 1 iU> an' .1 (wvermuent *1«- 
l»artmeuL engaged in suh:ii»i»leriog public money, they have 
aid only En charitable institution*, and prefer to pauperise, 
SO Ear Be book* are e.xieei'ued. rather than to stimulate self- 
ln [Jp. The whole scheme of the Commissioners displays pro- 
I. and diotrttit of the principle of popular control, and in thin 
there seeius to lie the whole key of the situation. It is 
intpoeeible bo so minutely into the wbotc details of their plan, 
cmbi-ucluir Bj it does (inancial aid to City churches where tl 10 
congregation usually reaches four and a small boy. A sum of 
£80,000 ia to go in founding "Free" Libraries in connection with 
the c-h.-iriti--^ (."'longing to St. Botolph, Bi.shopbL.-o.to, and St Q U 
Cripplogato. Tho central body appointed by the Beolosiastioai 
Commissioners and other nominee: are to pay out of the income 
of tho central or general fund an annual payment bo tho Bishopsgate 
"l-'rce" Library of CSjOOO; to specified rolytechnioa, £19,eWj to 
other specified institutions and evening dosses, £700; and to other 
Polytechnics or institutions, £5.000. A bidder scheme, or more 
Impracticable way of helping Public Libraries, was never launched. 
Ihe OommiBsionew waan their hands of oven thing which cannot 
be controlled from Whitehall. Surely the day has passed wliun 
the people need to have their honks and ncwstiapeiN placed before 
them by means of charity. Fifty yean ago each n plan would 
have done g»od; hut now, when people havu luaraed nowwlselj 
riir aggregate of the penny in the ]>nun(l can he .spent In well- 
planned and weH-flfled buildings, of which Micy and their farnilfM 
ran make the fullest uae, .mil m which they contribute their quota 
towards maintenance, they have ceased to cure rorthetnstftm i ■ 

which ;» kindly chnrity provide** Hie misappropriation Of Old 

educational endowmente u a crying Hluunotoue asa nation. The 
evils and abuser- which mm surround these old endowments arc 
traceable to the absence of popular control by the elected repre- 
sentatives of the people. The perpetuation of such a rotten system 
by ^l Government, depart&uuu oughl aereg to nave been contem- 
plated. When these proposed libraries reach the brick-aud- 
mortar stage, and get in actual working order, it will serve as n 
most useful lesson of contrast with tho rate-supported libraries 
under popular conrro 1 . The charity ^tatnp will, unlc«> we ireatl^ 
misread the spirit and tendency of the age, paralyze the 
Or pplcgntc ana Biehopagatc Libraries. 

Notes fok Commissioned^. 

When tho commissioners are appointed one of tholr Brat di 

will bfl that of selecting a soul. Designs cun readily ' btuined 

from tome of the leading stationers. Si preeepl f »r the rate will 
he panted by the veetry oahsae it bean the official seal of 1 1 ■ * - 
ooraimaaloDon. H is cnatozaarj to mop tfo wtal m o bos 
fastened hv two locks. The cliairman and one of tho 
miadonars baTa each one of the two keys of one lo Ic, and i 
///'• reiuafofng connuiBiionere nave* v»v ot the other I iok Tw 
''"'' oonBoquoatiy to 1 1 praojofc^rtMSa \m otan w avewse- 



ITBLIC LIBRARIES IN LOM'ON. 



327 






One of the first steps of the commissioners should lie to divide 
themselves into nui>-eommittec-s, comprising ;> bcoi committee, 
a finance committee, and a building committee. Tin- trans- 
actions of these ^ulwommitteea have of course to l>o reported ml 
ratified by the whole body, 

There has Ik'Oij a tendency in the rertmoiiie.s *>r luyinj: inunda- 
tion stones of Borne of the London Public hihi-aries, t< pred-de 
the well and truly laying ot the *t >r>.- hy a religion* aarvit p. Thia 
is very good, but when that service is exclusively ec'lesinstienl and 
that Of ft Efigfc Ohnreh character, including a choir to gfw the 
MSpanflOB, t would flOOTO that this is carrying the matter a little too 
tar. By all moans let there be a religious service, but m that case 
a Nonconformist minister should be asked to take ]>art in it. Tine 
Pttblie Library is not u branch of the Church, even Although thu 
rector of the palish may occupy the posit i'<n <t <'hairmau oi the 
i.-omrni«uoners. The library is supported by all classes, and for 
use ot nil classes, and" every attempt to give a creed or a 
cast to it* proceedings or work is a wrong committed 
against The movement. 
The question of opejitag temporary premises during the erection 
ii permanent building is one which uperhapH more auutefy Celt 
lAindon than in tin* provinces. Where there U ;i prosped of 
rftig a building erected and open wtthin twelve or eighteen 
months From the time the Arts arc- adopted, it certainly does not 
serin necessary to open temporary premises, so long of course as 
there is some place where the books enn be iimuiinlntod. ami Hie 

work uf cataloguing and general preparation be in prugeeMi 
Temporary premises are rarefy ever satisfactory, and they 

frequently prevent that invnttge and §clat which attach to it 

mw andvpcciaUy erected tiuQaing. The furnituro, moreovtar, of 
temporary rooms it not often suited to the permanent structure) 

and lacks freshness when the time comes for removal. The 
expense again absorbed In the maintenance of temporary 
premlsefl ii considerable, and the advantages to the public are 
not luiiiiiiensurate with the expense. If the local public see that 
thi commissioners ar< actrre m securing a site, and the building 
■ ti-;n!i j in ii 1:1 si- of erection, there in every inducement to po* 
thctr souls m patience and await the opening of a new building 

with B growing int. rent. Temporary building have very often 
a contrary effect bo whetting the rcudiinf apj* 1 tos »»f the people. 
in some pariflhec the poetries bore 1 b wi 1 onsid&tablc obetoch - 
In tho way i>t the commissioners performing thedr work. With 
i'i to loans, the inquiry of the Local Government Board should 
beeuffieionl without it* being ncooasary to Am obtain the sanction 
i.i the vestrj for permission to borrow, The Brat granting 
0] the precept for n < pate should make it unneow »rj to 1 pply 
t-yeiirly ur annualrv for the sanctiontaff of the rate, in theae 
two matters the vcatrlos, a* the Act- at present exist, nave too 
uucb powai These Mid tnanj other section* oi '■'•■ a*** *«^\ 
require readjusting when the District Cou&fitt -v \*ma»v 



:•■:'- 



PL-ULIO LlBllAltlBb 




CUAi'TKR XIX. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN VILLAGES. 

Hi: i i<~.«.'k needs of our ICnglish villages were never greater 
than at the present time Much has ^^-^ told of Late 
AbOUt the making of village life brighter and more 
totereatrng, En order that the people may lie induced to 
remain In the rural diBtriats,and so stem to some i 
the tide nf renniii;'/:iiinri which lias during pi«'i i »ii yean flowed h«i 
riqiiiiiy Into the towns. The whole snl • j * * « * i lies closer to the roots 
of nur national well-being than is generally thought The parson 
and the nqalrc have, between them, done much to choke village 
life, and ttow existence til many rural districts i9, for the rank 
and file of humanity. ?SPy dull and uniuli'm*Ling. Human 
nature rebels against remaining in the vtcinitj oi boredom 
!ci!i.'ii ili.ii! i i I'u helped, and hence one of the reason* wh> 
no many of our country folk take the first chance of remov- 
ing into lowns, 11 it were not for the ever-extending nun bei 
of organizations, mi tuutociittion fin* the encouragement of 
vdlage life might bo started, and would accomplish good. 
Imt a few earnest men with a given object in Tiew and 
nothing to gain could in course of time «!<"> itv-c as u u< li good. 
The multiplication <>f U-oks and reading-roomii will, on all hands, 
be looked upon as among the focilifcicti which would help to moke 
village life brighter. This is a reading age, and yet out of all the 
hundreds and thouwindn ot English vTllagcB 1 ic number of those 
who have adopted the Public Libraries Arte could nrnmM i. 

QOttntcd < in the tiuyoi'H of niiu tiand. M:tnv :uv til.rugglirig with 
village clubs and rcoding-roomB, but the saddest reeding oi 
reports whieh the prcsonl writer has had for years has boon the 

annu h .1 dto oooounteoi some of those village reading 

rooms, A laXM percentage • >! tliesi- institutions s< -n\ tu 

mature to lull and useful Ii to. Of village museums supported 
out oi the ratoi there is woroely one. And yet .t cannot be 
suidthat many villages would not welcome in their midst librarit u 
:itift museums as tree to them as their highways, an' supported 
in the same "'ay, if the step were practicable. The small 
<>t the penny rate for maintenance present- 1 <■■ in ur- 

mountable barrier ut present, and (!)■' politician who will lalve 
tlio problem of how r.n at<i >y fiovemment giant villages to 
maintain totudoJpal hbrinlee and museums will rank wtob the 
ftwarts, Cobdena. nnd RiightM as a public benefactor. 

while towns all over the country, and numerous inetropoU 
districts, have adopted the Libraries' Acts during the last few 
yei re, the villages are being left stranded high and drj on Um 
beaeh En this movement Cromuo rault of their own. Thcgroun- 
iag of two ot more villages togevAw. in], and 

potmtbte hv hro small recent tafia ot y-.u'Wawuv^-avvvn^ ragets 
tttit tfiiih'uhv Noarly every rMVii';mutt.\\\\v»**-mv\A\u>fc\tw<ntari 



01 Mi.ll* I I MtAHIKM l\ V): ..\ .1 









1 



h crippled fur want ol CJoranunexil aid. lluudieds of ullages 
arc absolute 1 j without any facilities for book borrowing, except 
from the libraries ol Sinnity whind*. ai-vi Mir buoki in th.-i- ai'c 
usually of 10 unsuitable a ohaXBCter for general reading that it 
would lie well it many of them were placed in ;i dark cupboard 
and charitably forgotten. Could not some of the thriving villages 
.1 tin- Nori horn and Midland Counties tako the lend in prov-diiur 
municipal libraries and reading-rooms, and show what can be 
done in villages by these rate-supported matitatfOBBf More 
than this i*<i00 to £3,000 would erect a building" for a library 
end BtOCk :l With books. A gift aui-h ftS thlB E0 BOOK ViUsgV 
on condition thaj the PaWia libraries' Acts arc adopted, would 
give a new leaeo of brighter life to that district, and perliajps in 
do better way could tho donor secure the greatest good oi tho 

I number. 
Much hfll >'.■') done in rural districts in the supplying of books 
by workmen* clubs, but the extension ol tho franchise to counties: 
cannot fad to vastly extend tho rending of books in the count ry. 

■Ad this lrn'l'ivi-M'd Ct i.l;iii.: SOU 00 '\ "■ !'li-l : .l.'tj n:r.'l\ ! .;.' :i I '.I Mir 

Ubrarj. Much inrcresiing information is given in the Uncheasol 
Kut lands ■• Reading and Recreatioii I loom* ami 1'uhlu Uhraries," 
ami " Kncourngtn/x Exf> •<■ ■ nrt - n I'ublic JahvariOK K< admg iml 
Recreation Rooms," :|s '" wiuu has been, and la still teing done 
in tin- providing of village libraries and re^llng»rooma How to 
make irv pleasant In the oonntpy i* a problem of tar greater 
Importance than ta apparent on the race of u. This drifting 
;iw;iv Into tho neareal large It w i, or. worse still, the metropolis, 
to swell tit'* millions here of thecoma "i both sexes, to fr night 
with much 'h:ii is qo1 conducive to the best welfare of the aatfon 
it will be :' wrrj day for dear old England when bhc bonjelv 
rirtoea <»t iis people, the simplicity in methods of lmng and In 
personal uablte, beeonie weeieneu and made lean prominent by 
tin 'ii;ii iuuting influences of life in the large towns 

'l'li<- need for the establishment of Publli Librarlea Ei rural 
districts is a vital one, and the memb • - of Local Boards, 01 i fcher 
aatlK>riUea will confer a permanent beoefll on the district in 
which iin-i reside, if thai will discuss and bring to ;< snece rful 
issue this question. Lifo In the country baa Ins compensations as 
well as its drawbacks. Rents and i b are low, but while thin la 
an advantage to the residents, it present* BO ol^tacle, for the 
i rains of most tillages is ool by any mc«w large, so 

that a penny :n the pound would not produce sufficient t< ->l • ---K 
and maintain n library. 

wini-.t brieke cannot be made without itsuw. libraries oaonoi 

i. i ■-.<■( and supported without the wherewithal which every 

Tho ratable value of an average-vized Kngtisn 

village ox ■ . the ndnsuuKtraooa <>: i LooaJ 

'. • .nun *_: :.fHMi to £5,000 The itnaltersum would W 

from :' iioiiny »;i" iu.< . and the larger anacAuM SWft \ffle. 8a ,v.w^\v 
:ii be el once seen qpin this how Lmeoec&Ae tt wcjc&& V« Wi «» 
tush >'i tin- v-.m o. tarnishing and mum' i \3tat»X3« 



330 



irnue Linnxnncs. 



In the majority of English villages the gross rates do not reach 
Sa.6d.ia the pound— another evWcnl advantage over town life, 

considering thai 9 me towns hnve gross rateR reaching double (his 

KI1MI 

The rum I Voter earnestly desireA to know how things ON 
moving in the world. He is not the passive sheep, blindly 
following u pot-house demagogue, Home think Mm. Let him 
have books, newspapers, and magazines to Inform himself, and 
depend upon ir I'n'y will lie used, and used well Ca.pt. Verney 
MP., whose father sai on &he Public Libraries' Committee of 
Inquiry ill 184SWJ0, wrote a (short tune yyu to one of the London 
daily papers to point out that the Public Libraries' Acta were 
available to the smallest country villa fro. He added to his letter 
1 1 ii.s significant sentence : "To nave £ s village o Public Library 
belonging to the people Lheruselw-n, and managed by do section, 

but by duly elected representative's ir. in itself .111 education 

usually frowned on by the squire, bu'. utterly abhorred by the 
1 Arson" The truth is? a sad one, but it fa nevertheless ;« fact Jn 
nil parte of ;hr country regret has been expressed that there 
seems so little prospect of mrel districts having fchcec peoples 
librnrlea placed in their midst, unci those who are most ritrcnu- 
ously opposed to it are the twi classes Jnat named. It ik im- 
i itblc not bo feel a fcmj^ <rf boitow that this fthonld have sab* 
rented, but it i.s d matter so serious thai it demands attention. 
Ah lonpf ah these two most influent ml men as 11 rule in the parisll 
not themselves resolutely against those rate-supported llbi 
what can the people do bu) quietly submit* lost :t should 

Hornr diiTrrourr in llio iimioUjiI of OUStom given (0 :i local trades 

man, 01 some other species ■ »:' refined persecution with which 
village in (,:'M ti ■•- --■• 11 jo pecul iarly famQiar!' 

Bat we have no hope for any wide extension in the number ol 
ininptiojiH of tho Pubua Libraries' Acts i:i the eiilagea, until then 
is some prospect ot a small grant from the State say from £10 to 
£36 n year, according to the needs and work done by the indi- 
vidual library. When our administrators have done was 
money m aaeiesfl Steves and reckless extravagance nil round, ane 
can give a few mere thousands for educational purposes, u 1 a wi 
may look forward to such d subsidiary grant to village lib 
established under the \'i. properly administered by the local 
mittioritii"j, and doing n useful work. A few pensions, rarerj 
ever earned the less; 8 tea elerbs working from nine to ftvi 
o'clock iiistcnd nf ten to four— and who knows how many holi- 
days : less national waste, and these few thousands would he 
randy Is the Exchequer Cor auoh a purpose an this. Oh! miphty 
John Bull, how long will you quietly suffer your substance to In 1 
traatedj and youi resources frittered away bj the vastarraj 1 
offlcemongeTs, who thrive and fatten 1 1< the lalxmr of 1 in- po< 
The national patience irith extravagance in high plocos In slmplj 
aiuudag, Here is a sample of such expenditure, and it I 
oocceaui^ £0 preface it by statuig tiroi wViviwxcv Ctoveninii ■ 
m poww-j the same rate nl ex\asmUtxsx^ a^** -v> 



FFMJC I-mnATtlES TN VTLTjAGBe. 



881 



There may be promises of economy but it is more show th an 
airythina else, oe instanced hy the House ol Lords {rotting down Ha 

expenditure last year by the dismissal ol one or two inm-Kei'vunts. 
The report of Sir >\ illiam Dunbar, tho Comptroller and Auditor- 
Uencral, upon the Navy Appropriation Accounts for 1886*86 eon- 
teina some surprixini: briorjuation els to the way in wiuch the Vote 
'1 Credit was spent. Tho Vote was granted on April *27, IS8& to 
pay tor the withdrawal of the British Imves !rom tin* Soudan, 
and to prepare for a war with Kussia, winch then Beamed immi- 
nent. The Vote whs [or eleven millions, three of them for the navy, 
and eight for the army. It is with the navy appropriation alone 
that Sir William Dunbar now deals. He remarks mm. contrary 
to rule, no estimate was framed when the Vote was granted ; and 
he expcexHOK tho opinion thai had there been any real, even 
imperfect, attempt to frame a scheme nf proposed expenditure, 
en Bn might not have been avoided, but the causes oi it would 
have been apparent, and the investigations oi a select committee 
rendered unnecessary The tendency. Mr W'rlliam Dim bar says, 
w:ik " in Consider the Voir nl" Credit ion much in rheliybt Ofa sum 

placed at their disposal by Parttameni to meet anj expenditure 

unprovided for in the ordinary VotCB. The expenditure out nf 
the Vote of Credit to aconfliderable extent represents, jn*rliaph un- 
avoidably, a dead loss to the public. Ships have I wen taken up at 
a groat coat and never Qaed.anc' lbs cable tor the Baltic, manu- 
factured ^i acoel of £118,000, never lof I the contractor* 1 premleee, 
and waft resold i«.» libera fen 690,000.° This i* oojy quoted a« our 
of many examples which might lie given for the purpose of doing 
a little, if possible, to set thoughtful men mquiruig into these 

i:i iltei.s. 

But surely if thcOovenuueui can afford to spend such gigantic 
sums oa thia, there ia some hope that hv-and-bye the turn will 
COmc round for Public Libraries, and the tew thousands of pounds 
u year will not be wanting. We are spending, not without a 
certain grudging, five and half millions of money on the better 
education and culture of our people. IIow OflMCfl ( thai the 
great natioaal endowments for this purpose still remain bo largely 
in private or sectarian control ? Altogether the expenditure for 
i-'iiM utional purposea is about eleven ntilluona, and no villugc 
J.hrmy under the Aetfl gets a single penny of this sum, which [a 
BOt hy any means large lor the purpuHi"* hr which it is expend- -1. 

Kequeel ih<j;ivi]«-'.-ilv Diad6 Gorsifn for village libraries, Tradc*- 

men in towns, business men in cities, do something for tine v.llages 

where you were born and reared! Arrange to supply certain 

daily or weekly papers or magazines, or to give an annua! ni I ecrip- 

rion. In n'spnrme to a letter in one of the rehgi one periodieaJs, 

the author received nimierou* parcel* "I* blinks :ind ii ij:izines for 

■■• hi varies, and these it has been his pleasure to distribute 

ICCfl when they will be used and appreciated. More pnivels 

mi nr purpose will he .irtvpt.tMe Sntno of the tivmt 

sucoMMfnl men nf bnelnesa ol the oreasnft tag ^nsce Vwittt a»ft. 
received their edacatfon in country school*. tS\« <Wff^ ^n** 




882 



pi I i.i. I Mil' \ l: 1 t S, 



the&e do ^<>:i:(<thmg in providing literature for the districts with 
which they were once associated ? 
Reference has been made to what is being done by the various 

unions of ruechauicR' niKtitatOR 11 r li<> wr.y of y-illngp lending 

libraries; but It i* hoped that something may he done Id the 

large number of villages in the Southern, Midland and Eastern 
Counties, which have nol yet been touched by these unions. 
Whore U the generous man who will give 6,000 or 10,UU) volumes 
of Hit* wmivalent in value for the purpose? 

AVin k fin-ri'x clubs have done much to bring pleasure Id to the 
somewhat didl and niouulunuus life in many an English village, 
li.l it is to lie fearad that some of these uIuLk* degena ate EnUl 
facl ions, and have not in any large number of instances 
accomplished the good reasonably expected of them. The 
■jeoretol il ii> lit-.v in their irnspanslbilit v except toftcommi toe; 
whereas, if they were administered by the elected authorities 
of that district, .1 healthier existence could not fail to be 
ftuanantood Hn-m, They cannot) however, as workmen's clubs, 
& under tie rates, but as Public Librarie* bhcj could cons into 
this category. M.my of these clubs, again, wuiild form an ex- 
cellent nucleus En fcM coining "enfranchised " a* Public Libraries, 

ttBed SB thflJT BOW STO l>>' their present nu'inhcr*, and 

by euch n §Mp draw .1 longer eonetifcnoncy. Even >viui._ this 
chapter in being written a letter arrives from one of such vi.l tggj 
greatly needing its Iocs 1 Institute turned into a Public Library. It 
is illustrative of many similar Oasee, and ie cones ineotlv qt 
'ii ..' writer says," PPe two not progressing, 'n 1 aotle w days only 
3,000 inhabitants j nod wo ore protty much In the power, ol one 
man, Lord . who appears to take but little interest as to 

' how hi« brethren Lire.' Jn Hie present state ol the district WO 
oannot see bow PobUe Libraries sen be applied to places oJ the 
BLh of ours, and it is the opinion ol the lord, the clergy, mn . Uu 
richer inhabitants that the poor are host ignorant. It may be 

piiwihK* Ni milliner :i I'nhl • I ,ibr:n*y with & WOrlcmOU's Olttb, but 

say the rate produces about Cflo, this will ant pnj nil etpeuses f < »r 

:i liiiililitiL'. ilr\(i-.! to that purpose, hut, it' the [U'oepod Ol I 
workmen' 1 ; club be Mlded bo 11 enough might be got log 

tor rent, Bra light*, and Dttendm Only two waya scran to 

m «•. first, as you tuggM in your booh thai the Go vernrcanl (or 
CounQ C(uni;-ib should hulisidi/.c >mnI1 towns, or thai a large 
rate be allowed iti towns with under fi,(KX> inhiiintaiits." 

Here is another letter from a village in the North o1 England s— 

"Citizens in large towns may well feel proud ol their privileges at 

this winter season of the your, One of theuioM ehnnning places Iu 

the country district .u summer is our village. Its lieauties taonol 

be tuld for iiiuitimdr, but the reverse is the order of things i" 

winter. We ore ultnosl buried oUre in darkness und wHtai 

flaanieafci Here v< have no li^lii ol any kind, uu art gallery, ne 

I'u ■iu Library, no lecture rooms, tw duvjYw tv&U,no entertain a 

unfiling wherewith to upend t\w lung c«c i ■* ttw 

monotony of the situation. Our eox» kbA •v.xnvW-v*- vra v-'w . 




ri'BUr UZRAXfEB vt ruu,st». 



so 









sjjcnd their time as test they nay. N >rimhs*auriiaaj wr arr «4y 
thirteen mile* from a hinnJy exalted city, aid vlut»c tin- great 
■iicnaon cirihwr eut* a» in twain, still »f an? vet whhuu: the 
other derel ree*. HoadVeds nf tripper* Iwicr arvand ua 

in mimraer, hut turn aide in the bleak day* of winter, and Umo 
wo begin to feel as tboojgh we had no link ia the social ehain, 
and no share ia the great Inman heart of cintization. Oar sires 
tjOTfl endured this state *f t bias?* for aearly half a century, vhUst 
the world has been naornas; on ; bat surely we, their woo*, caonot 
Kpeotod in these days of adranccd thonjrht and life to lire <ra 
Uidi i the same rifime. Where in oar lord of the manor, so 
odvoi idlavrefornaacMtotlstraocUlsvl^aetof Sarerybe 

will corn*? to the resene, and make aooac pronsioa foe the rs*rnlra- 
ments of the diBtriet whieh he owna for miles round! Eren w« 
jk.hh' -.-an: to reap in worn* ra<-a«r* the mtoUectoaJ and 

[ advantage* which fediow tn the crate of this ninetaenih 
century.' The desire to share tn the "octal and intaUavtoal 
t'lvantages of the century is perfectly natural. If a nUegc should 
possess "ansae snub*, Lngtormi Mfhv*."»*ttlthur u so kkelyto 
make him speak and open the road to glory a* a rtitage horary. 

The grouping of village* together for labile 1 J henry | aetata 
should be practleanle. Two or more sacn district* acting tcsrethrr, 
And pacing lac nmc hste,oould each have fcn thetrmfftaa bleary 
:iiirl peadfng-roaro, -lit- Ifhrarj nran certain nigrstanf the w nek, and 
the news-room :ng— the wh<i!e under the rhnrge of one 

librarian « utter plan, which has not >*i nana 

rirrird Into effect ;in> w 'mtv. .« (<<r 1 affiliate tlnriiiselvea 

io the nenrenl hires ' Library, by levytna; 

: lie penny rate ana drawing Ihrlr auppfir* >< its the parent lihi 
.mil these distributed from some centra] depot. It would m 

?'le bj thii rrjcuns to hare a constant change of books ia 
In* Dutij Lag dfatriata. 
Beiereacfl baa been made dec ucsstLlnna 

Mclboui ■in.- send* out tta Health ol knowledge and psananre I 

{hbourhood; and mere seeme no reason 
why t hi Publii Ubrnries iAtfaeprandr^tnwiiBnf Kn*rlaiKlsh";M 

ool tend out their monthly i heeta --i I h mall towns and 

rulajro* thcrn, to be issued and looked after by the sehoolmnater 
orMifiesueh responsible person — the -ehoolhoiiBc bcin# twed at 
. ton, oft n rcadinjr-roorn, and the wholi carnml on nl i vory 
small coet, snob as might ho mot by ■ small rots Prom the rates. 

In Hi Northern Countioi where tbo co-operative morement hai 

akon men deep root, n large number od thoaa socMiM hart 

lending liLiraricB, and a mofft excellenl work h being <U>ne by 

Chean. A certain portion <' their profits tesel aside far odaca* 

lout] pnrpodw, and this ia spent for book*, or in papera farttu 

riowaroom. ttesidontetn the Southern and Western I ooncfeB haw 

little conception of the pood whi-di i-; bein^ :KVi>nipl|dMd DJ I 

■ n with oo-operative Roctetsan. 

in no I*;"-' of the ■ ountrj the barrier* between tlu rarioni 

■. ol ftoetot] more marked than in u»- Tliere u 




*M 



I'l 10 I ' IJBIIAJ1IM.M. 



.still ihc curUe/lnfl andscrupiug u> the vilhiL- ■ clergyman or the 
.squire, or the blankets and aoup are curtailed or dropped 
altogether. These taalituttons, win rover ulreudy rMjiUixlir.i m 
villd^i'.s. ;m- iloiuu iukh- (<> ln^nk down these class barriers than 
in visible on tli'.- surface- The village newsroom Ik commnn 
jjround, where squire, unraon, and vill.rjei can i]| meet* and the 
more they meet together the better will they understand 
other. Class prejudices exist because there has been no oppor* 
tmiily "I getting ni tin- opinion* of often "(her, and so .11 1 1\ i : i ■• ai 
.i mutual onderatondiafr, 

Thi* number of villages ornmull towns with fl population uxtdei 
6>000 which have already adopted the Act* la rery small, 
Tarvee, ^berdeeashire (the work of which is described la the 
chapter dealing with the Scotch libraries), Kuckaall Torkard, 

Caul ton, iiikI Milium, mny be named. 

Uriel' inonlion -n;.v D6 nui.lc of B few OU1 of many CAl Cfl wh) ).■ 

viihip' Ubtaiiee in la operation, but vrhieti arc no1 under the 

A.etB. At Petworth in Sussex they have an institute with a con- 
siderable membership 1 ho librarian, Mr. Thomas Seward, 
publishes a little print which lie has eetahlighcd to advocate 
adult education by the meant Ol libraries, reading-rooms, 
rauseura8, classes, picture galleries, and tu circulate extracts from 
tii.j works of the best authors. 
Two years ago a little vill ige library was formed at l.ongforgun, 

1 1 u I ii. i dec [be library baa m It aboui sou volumes, t >: 

od '•.■; vohunM ol Romance, Mythology, History, Biography, itn I 
Travel) 84 POluraes of Literature (flWy*, Poetry, History ol 
Literature); 19 vmIhiik's of \rt. Morals, ami Mlseellaneoui 
volumes ol Physical Seienee (Astronomy, ('heimstry, Phy 
00 volumes <>i Zoology, Botany, Oology, and tgrlculturo, 
library If designed prmoijwHy for the uw of the older school <-!ui- 
dran and of the younger ad ilte. and care was taken to have only 
tin- host of IhkiUk, ami these hooks, ho far as possible, represent) 
i»f ihe best writers. Examination of the detsiil* of the class of 
books read discloses one or two striking fuels. In thn first depart- 
rneni surh books OB 8tOTiea from Homer, Roman autiqultfe.s, mid 
history generally are not much read. In these day* of plough" 

.uices uiid land reform there lias been but one issue of one or 
nra little books on political economy ; in the midst ol the 
agricultural depression and competition., though the book-- 
elementary, there baa aol been one reference \<> a text-book of 
■In Miistry, and there baa been hut one to the principles of 
agriculture. It is, however, gratifying to obaerve that no many 
of the lighter, racy book* "I srienco have been taken out, tn< 
doubt the taste for closer study will grow. The Bchoolmaau 
the village undertook the management of the library, and th- 
of a microscope u iv a fl ruse both in the school and by um cj 

of name; r. Tl at 1 1" the i ke, bookcase, "tump, mi. n ;.*-. - f «-, 

ftxuwaeabottt £60, The: uec fo one year were 1,012 volomca, 

axfflaeiv »of thoes Lamed for nse duringscbool hours. It i 

(hut thU U ran ho* been a sucecea. lAxe success point;- to the 



PUBLIC LIBn ABIE.*: IN VILLAGES. 



33fi 



mortO tlmt the wealthy in anydistricthnve aflaviredly an easy VSgi 
ot giving: great pleasure and conferring a great boon, or that a 
small community itself might with moderate effort and little 
outlay open a lasting spring of joy and good. 

The free village library at Bottingtou, near Birkenhead, ia doing 
a very useful little work. Etoww its origin bo tho fate Joseph 
Mayor, who gave to tho Liverpool Public Museum and Art Gallery 
hie famed eolleotion of art and antiquities valued at £30,000. Jn 
18H6 he opened a library for the free use of his neighbours in 
Bobinpton, where ho resided. In 1870 Mr. Mayor bought an old 
farm-house with five and a-half aeres of ground. By additions 





\ I ■ \QR LIBRARY, BKBINGTON. 

and alterations he made thin building iuto a bandsomo nnd 
commodious library. Iho character of tho building will bo seen 

the ikafeofa aooro. 

re ore in it 10,410 volumes, and the iaane reaohea 360 par 
Jt It open an Uondj yaw Friday evenings I -o n to B 

ock, and on Wcd-i .sd;iv iv >m [to I pan. The Iwue for elevati 
months during 1880, January to November nelusire, was IH,93G 
volumoH Hm to ware B23 borr war* daring W88 vi preaenl t i m- 
library i-.- In a tn nt lti< i state i wing to the deatn of tne founder, 

Mr. M:i>er, the donor ot the library, kept It entirely ftL^ftCWft 



J.WtiES. 



earpei - up i» the date of his leath to I880»and i.y hta will it 

was then rested En bfae handsel four trustee**, who, on behall of 

(he lihrnry, Ac, ware also made residuary Icgati - Owing to 

difficulty in the disposal of Mr Mayer's estate there has do1 v.-i 

ix-rn ;in\ ^uiterucnt of account* presented by tin- executors* aad 

luentlj the trustees are nnable to do more than [net keep the 

librury .afloat Since his death no new lxwks have been purchased 

"id uly '!' <t < i i "i binding. The isaue is rather fulling off 

ownaff to the lack of modern books, A large new worka for bhe 

manufacture of son; joj been opened, and employs 1,000 

h poopl I; is hoped that i is enterprising proprietors of 

i porta wflleec fchcii w.iy to aid this excellent village iastt 

a to be made into n rab supported library. 

There ia no better example w the duncurtiee which lis In tbs 

.; adopting ths Acts En rlUsges than the cone ol m<.hU 

Bretton, near BanuUey. n tn 1 1 population at the last census of 

Under 3,000, lOOSth rn prs, and tln'si' working mnn rook up :h.> 

tfon itthoeudaf 687. the rote was taken In Janunr} 
iii rating papers were issued to direct mtepoyem oulj. The 

i i were n ■ ■ to see the Vcl * adopts , and b building- 

Id the centre of tin- village origlnallj ei*ected ta subscription tor 

odacaAional purpose u<<:>\ is a. library and reading-room. U ■ \ 
■'.. It. aoverer, before the vote was taken that there would be lilll'c 

prospeel ol winning the adoption. The " persons assessed to and 
paying the improvement rate* only an.-, however, specified to lbs 
\ri, as being entitled to rote, and it was hold in this cose, though 
a different interpretation or the hni has been given elsewhere 
and was upheld on appeal, that the restriction excluded ail irho 
pay their rates in their rent. 

lids rendering of this clause In the Act w is ^ peculiar hardship 
a; Monk Bretton, and the cote wcnl dend rgnin*t the proniu 

Here, BA at many other places, two e£thc Iiicf oppuiicnt? ni the 

aovenseni were pvbliaazu who r* * ■- 1 mid fatten on the minora 1 
eamingSj and wl o are too prejudiced to sec a ad Peel the importance 
nnd necessity of education rraong working men. Monk Bretton, 
it is to be hoped, will yet have its Public Library, 

When tnol ran ji ousoilsarc wpplomcnted by the formation 
<>' District Councils it mar be reasonably expected that thej wffl 
turn their attention fc this very important matter. 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE PTTBLIC LIBRARIES ACTS AND THE LEGAL 
ASPECTS OF THE QUESTION. 

II KKE ia a general consensus ol opinion, both unonji iu 
legal profession und outside its sacred circle, that the 
I'ii- re I ibranci' V-N ai'" vvy b; illy Iruwi To a non- 
Legs] mind, the phraseology of all Acts o Parlian 
little more than a bewildering maze ol wmtis li:< 
discussions and alterations when the Bill is in Committee 




THE ACTS iKH THE LEGAL -kSPECTM OF THIS QCBSTION. 



337 






ords and sentences is (bfl anvse W* fcbJll uncertainly, nnd as 
as we have such a preponderance of gentlemen of the 
ogai persuasion in the House the same stats ol tilings will 
cue to exist, .short nfi the Public Libraries' Acts caropaHu 
lively are. ami simple :ik on* would naturally expect statute 
law* referring to Public ribrarien tobe,i1 has required on fewer 
i h in sixteen Aetsol Parliament for our legislators to express (heir 
meaning. Iftc need for one Consolidation and Amendment \d 
to ram .■in 1 tliern from this slovenly state wan never more felt than 
.h tin 1 present time. The amonm of patchwork legislation which 

foes mi :it si. Stephen"** is very puszllng to an ordinary mind. 
i is Impoefflble not to beamazetlal some of these Public Libraries 1 
\ iiiriHlini'iit Acta. If the representatives at Westminster had 
been pla^in^ at legislation aoma of Diese Acta could not possibly 
he more vague tluu ib the case. In one or two cases the TUll has 

I nrr rend ,i third time ,il o 0.U1., nnd SO thiTi' LB just exartly V hnl 
linahl he oxpeet'*«l, n ni.ts.s ..| Mi|«shod ,t ji 1 un Ulin il>- wording, 

anon which scarcely two people reading them through would 
place the Bafus interpretation. TiM Scotch Consolidation Act is 
dearer, and perhaps the best worded, 

Iu February *>\ Ismi a conference of i:ommiseionew from 
several of tho metropolitan parishes which hove adopted the Acts 
wis held at I 'hi ■■irti-.u. Tin.', opjoot of tht conference was to discuss 

I I u- bearing of certain portions of the Late, and to see how hir 
some difficulties which hud orison In the working of the Acts 
could bfi wot. Tho collection of the rate, about which there had 
boon son: trouble in Chelsea, was one ol the main imesticms 
set down for consideration. The resolutions arrived ur on thJfi 
point ffeTO te theellVet that the library rate i should he collected 

Bit of the poor rate j that it should be levied, if practicable, 
in twt moit&esj that it should be collected by the usiml rating 
authority, and that the pastry should have no power to regulate 
ii . i mount after the decision of the ratepayers- ; and That thfl oOfit 
o1 collecting the library rate should be barns bg the poor rate. 
Other matters were also considered, U will be seen that one or 
two oi the resolutions have been met by the Amendment Hill 
nf 1889, which was brought forward ami passed for the purtu Be 
oi relieving Chelsea o( the difficulty in which they found then - 
selves hv the action of the vestry 

in ApVii, tssfl, a third edition of " A Digest of the Law relating 
to Public Libraries and Museum*., and Litsrary and Scientific 

I Institutions/ 1 by M r. Oeorse F. Chambers, Barrister-at-Lnw, was 
published It was natural to think thai I fl the issue Di this work 
at least the tough places would be made plain, but even the 






k'iml author would seem to have given ii up as •> tsul j"h. for 
iici.- [a scarcely a single disputed point widen he dears on, and 

matters iuc very much as they v»>-ie. A small sea-of li t i^.i; i< >n 

has been passed thxou£b*a&d counsel never before wen bo much 
consulted upon the rendering o! these Acts, as they have hero 

g the last two years Further than this, diametrically 
oppos'M iplaiona have been given on disputable "wcuVe. ^v^a. 



'*** PFBLIO LIBRARIES. 

"nm.i.l ..'illwrity ,,„ Pnhji,- I.ihi'niV liuttri*, Sfr, W, F A. 4 
K'H»i <»» lui us to Nj.y that (I).- niuht useful lliMikT Would be Hh- 
:il ■>( Tin- I'nhlic Libraries' Acta from 1S50 up to the pn-s.-nt 

time He holds that these Act: do not give any power 
not pre-exist in the case of the Municipality of London 
thirteenth a Dtnjry. nud Manchester and Bristol ill the seventeenth 

hlished without any ivtereii.'O 
whatever bo ivirhament. Ann m fat bb ho know?, there we 
Kfcitut*.' which took away that power ftOVC thr oorporotioi 
mnnldpft] rathoritioi of this eonjatay. 'Hun would seem a sweep- 
ing- n.-ri-.i >i~ dealing with the matter, but it has mad 
recommend it. Tin* protest writer quite concurs in the si m 
gentleman's view when he says thai "there is not the BlijfJ 
fear that, any Town Conn- <l <»"' I,ocbJ Board would ruin the 
pay ers bj .» i pendituro upon booke and libraries ir. 

[he tnterenta i I Ihc real una higher education oi the people ii win 
;i dale which those who wdohed well to thla country might wifely 
mil.'' Certainly the time has arrived when the permissive and 
local option dement may safely be abolished. It wao oomewhal 

rear tted that tin- clauses referring to Public LibrarieB 
kindied institutions ahouldhave been expunged from the Local 
Government Bill, for it in to those munuging bodies thet t! ■•: 
power must ultimately come. 

Whatever ii contemplated, however, it m _- 

1 : I Public Library legislation will now be left nlooe until all 
i ol Lom of the friends- of this movement have had on opportunity 
of expressing their opinions, and of dincu£«ing any proposed 
solidation Hill which mny be hroujrlu fonvovd, Tiiih i> vitul Tlic 
iraate source through which t ho Bill should filter is fti 
Library Association ; but in any case th© clauses should be most 
thoroughly sifted, and only united action on the matter be 
counter! am 1 ": Ti- MaoAUster Prize Bill ol Mr. J. .1 Ogle, 
and Mr. hwargue in n beginning, and in some clauses will form 
an excellent ground-w. >tu- 

This 1-- i'V"-| t-r-livi', nml thr most that rim be dune with regard 
to the Act* sis they Stand ism Rummsrize the lending litlgu 
which has takenplaes and to note the nouneer* opinion where 

available. 

In September, W7, Mr. Bradlaugh,M 7., asked in Che Moum* 
of Coromons, whether, under tin- Public Llorarles* Vet, 18M 
Warrington Library and Museum Committee wen- {ustlOed In 
requiring and receiving subscriptions from persons borrowing 
oooVb from Che Warrington Public Library, which library w* 
nip torted from the rales; and whether the library committee 
were [egnUj juetUled in according privilege! to eubecrioen 
in reh|HTi i.r Hi.- loan of book* from that Library, which 
privilegfts were not accorded to ratepayers who did not pay 
npectal ■ iptiona. To this the Attorney-General replied: 
" There in no authority under the Public Libroncs' Act of 1H&G for 
□CtlOB between person* who siirw^nlw and 

■/> whi.j ih. not. in \wy ovMon the Act docs not contem- 



IHfc ACTS AMD I'll', i.koai, AHPS013 "K rKB <;' RSTIOH 



H3D 



plate the loan of books out of the library, and I Lliiuk it doubtful 
whether such loan is legal. Asauiuiug, however, tiial under 
Section 21, rule* could be made permitting the loan of Ihx&s, it 
would, in ray opinion, be competent I'm the committee to reojujrs 
a reasonable deposit to ensure their aafa return." 

»In January, 1668, the Berroondaey Vestry had under discussion 
the opinion of counsel u bo tin- Legality of the poll of the porisn 
with reference to the adoption of the Public Libraries' Acts. The 
poll wiip taken upon a requisition served upon the overseers con- 
nected with a l»"|y known nn the governors and directors, and 
resulted in a lm'gc majority of those voting declaring in favour of 
adopting; the Arts. Tno vestry were duly informed by the clerk 
to the governors nnd directors with a view to the vestry pro- 
oeeding with the appointment of the* library eommiBeionefet but. 

■/upon the ii'lvico of their low <'lepk, tTiey took objection to 
the governors and director* l'Cing the authority under the Act, 
and further raised the question Ofl to whether the Acta did not 
ivi|im'c ft majority of the whole «>t the ratepayers ol the pariah, 
hi 1 not merely a majority of those who actually rook the croubU 
to fill up and return the voting papers. The veatry decided Co 

submit thrso two point* to counsel, nnd the opinion ■ >!' Mr. 
Limilcy Smith, Q.C-, waft obtained, QD Mm firat poult In* Bald he 
considered the governors and director* were the authority within 
the meaning of tha Act, On the second point, ha boHaea to the 
view that a majority of those actually voting, and mil an absolute 
majority of the ratepigrem, vu all that the Ad required; but in 

roiM'hitlmg his olmciMilionK, lie ihv.w attention tn llir 704 voting 
I»iper* yivt-n in the clcikV ivl mm ua undelivered, aud to 1,099 
voting pupers returned as not collected, aud poiuted out that if. 
the go w mua and directors hud failed to do their duly aw 
indicated by these figures, that might very well vitiate the pro- 
ccedings, Mis advice was thai as tuorc wm a doubt a« to what 
majority thePuhlic Libraries Vmendmeut Act, 1877, required, and 
as the lion-delivery and non-coll<ction of papers required explan- 
ation, it would be better and safer for the vcetry not to act, but to 
have all the points decided <">n aa application hy any person 
interested for a mandamus to them to appoint coramiwtionorB 
for carrying the Libraries' Acts in'.n c^rmtioii. Thin hn> 

r.-tn.K'd considerable delay in putting the Arts in operation in 
Btn&ondft ; . 

In February, 1888, the ijuestion unto who BOB rote for the adl 
tiOn of tile lei s was raised at Tun bridge Well*, and ti.e following 

tht Opinion given by Mr. Glen, in roferonoL' to compound ho 
ho!.l< i . si ing on the library question : — 
'•Inasmuch a« the Public' Library Assessment wnuM be levied. 
M Public Libraries 1 Acts were adoptee , by means of a tJenoral 
•i Rite within the Ttmbridge Wells Improvement lei 
: let : and voting papers are only to be issued under tha Poblii 
I ihrarie* Amendment Act, 1S77, sect. l,to each ttiue^aqw — \*. t 
Mi-h inhnhifin- would have tnpny the Free \ ■■ - MWfc* 

n. t .% T am ot opinion that the occnpleta ot naB&&t«uWB* Ba *v ft 




310 



i riti.v i imi.wnr.A. 



respect of which the owner* are rated under Motion I'll oj tin 
Public Health Act, 1875, would not be entitled to vote. 

" i cdei BeetionsU ol (toe Public Health v.--. lB7o r theowneraof 
small tenements are rated 'instead of* the occupiers, and u.m-i ■■■ •. 
although the occupiers may indirectly pay the rate-, there in im 
liability ft* between them and the Oommisalonera i< pay the rate* .- 
:md r am. therefore, o£ oplnloc that they cannot be said to be 

prlHnti- win would llflTC tO pay the FtOO Library 8*Sck-.imciiI in 

tin- event of the Act being adopted within the meaning <>t Bacttcm 
B of the Public Libraries' Amendment Art, 18T7 — w, Cuwnxno- 
u\M Guw,— Mareh 1, i*«*. H 

\- Mr Olan vafl ii can time tin- standing counsel for the 
Local Government Board the opinion is of weight. This opinion 
ha*, however, been upset by the Croydon deuieura, 

A question arose iii Augunt, 1666, in Liverpool, an to Hie legal 

Kwom of the library committee. Uthough custom appear* I i 
vc Miuctioned it, and up to .t recent period noeerioofl (rueetiou 
mi* been raised ou the subject, ii baa been open to doubt whether 
the city lending libraries and reading-rooms wt re aetttatioaa, as 
each, 'li-'t came within tin- meaning of the words eetablislwnent 
nnd maintenance of a Public Library " ba contained in the pro- 
visions of the Liver|xx>l Library and Museum Aet, 1832. The 
Town Clerk, on being appealed to ate meeting of the (.'it v 0ounc51 
for his opinion ae to the construction of the law, cautiouel? 
intimated that the matter was open to grave doubt. The hi i. ry, 
museum, and arts committee have, therefore, thought it prudent 
to take steps to luivo their position more clearly defined, and at u 
mooting it waa resolved "That in tin- opinion cl this committee it 
i desirable to obtain an amendment to the Livorpool Library and 
Museum Act 1862, to the following effect, namely: Unit the 
eetabUemneni and maintenance of lending lihrurie*and reading- 
rooms witlmi The eitv of Liverpool ahull he deemed in be within 
the meaning of the establishment and maintenance of a Public 
Library under the Liverpool Library tad Museum Act, 1862, and 
all the provisions oi that lot shall apply accordingly. Step-- ba 
this direction have been taken, In the curly part o! May, 1880, 
when the Livernool Corporation Bill was under dfSCDSSiotl, .Mr 

pope uJd in reference to section S, which referred to ftihlia 

Librarian, the objections of the LftenHrovermm ni IV> ird iipp 
to lie directed t<> the power of borrowing The effect of this 
elmiHf would he in enable tlie Corporation to borrow, Enaecurd inns 
with the provisions of the Act of 1862, for the purpose ■■! lending 
libraries and reading-rooms. The Iwianl thought, it right to draw 
the attention of bhe ooujiuittce i" the unsatisfactory provisions 
contained In that Act with reaped to borrowing and reuaj 
ol lonna, and euggeated that the proviftioiw of the A bul (eo&wlth 

regard to the borrowing and rcp:i;. ncntol aildbcrcpi 

■ :;.i fresh powers aori In «■ ■ •' ■ ■ i.< ti ■ ---. 1 1 m-eut leuiMatiu 
*nh*tittit)-<\ What the promoters pr< p< scd » order & naeel 
v, .(■- Hut, without vc-Ruactrou txwi powers, there 
a /o-'i tec that if any moneys wcxe HxJworo^A— Vb£2 '•w ' ,v '' 






TltR AC1T3 ASP THE I.ROA!. ISTBOTfi OF TUT. QfHSTins. 



that they would require- t-» borrow at. the present moment such 
money* abotdd be repaid within forty years from llic date of 
bow v. mm. it wai not clear in the Act of 18G9 whether the 
power to borrow money for l*ubho Libraries included lending 
Libraries OlK rendimr-momK, and tin* Hill proponed Hint thin 
doubtful point should lx* cleared up. The committee fixed the 
period of repayment at thirty years, ami agreed that the ClAUSa 

si amended stand port "i 1 1 10 Bffl. 

The * l.-rlci-iiw.-ll Oafle In, witb the Croydon e:o<o, the most im- 
portant u liicli has occurred Hie noil was taken in December, 1S87. 
rii are were S, 324 ratepayers, nini 7JS8 was the total runnier of 
voting papers issued. i*ait of those 4,64ft were collected, arid when 
[In \ were I'uimtt'd there were 1,&"1 in favour nf the raloption of 
ii t \.i, |,$fio against, while the spoiled papers amounted do i,"-'". 

hi)nn'il:;iTf)y after the- poll was taken Neverul members of the 
ve.siry questioned Its legality ;md look action in the marls. 

Oil February 13, 1888, the question came forward in He Queen's 
:h Divisiou, before Baron Iluddlestoij and Mr Justice 
Marristy, Tin- application wm on the part of ratepayers of St. 
James V and St. jonxrik Olerkenwell, to jo-i rid of a vote 1>,\ moans 
of voting paper* • »!' r;ii» j>;iycre to adopt the Public Libraries' Acl, 
on the ground of alleged irregularities in the mode in which the 
voting papers win i-.Mii-d and collected, and the votes of rate- 
payers taken. 

Th< i j»iiri?!i itself, eonsisting of the two districts or words of St. 
.i. ues'e :ml St. JonrVe, with an outlying district of afnsweU llHi, 
several miles off- contains a populotion of about 70,<x>o, nud th< re 
wore al iln lad asacaBment (April, 1886) h,.'1im nnftesfnncntH or 
laed ratepayers. Jt appeared from the affidavits on the part 
of the upplicantH, certain ratopevors, that the vestry clerk issu ■■! 
Onh r"|9sS voting paper©] of. wfafoh only 4,848 were collooted. on 
which tin.- vestry clerk declared the refill :<> iv i,un tor the adop- 
U mol the v -. 1.660 igainsl it, end 1,036 voting papers "spoilt : 
inn tii is was oontroTertod, and on scrutiny being demanded and 
refused, thin application was made, and tho effect of like arfidavitw 
troM to ahow mat there were suon irregularities in the way in 
which the voting P*P*M were sent out and collected that it teas 
wholly uneertt n v« hai was realty the result of tho voting* it was 
Stated, for instan e thai no voting papers were oont to the rate- 
payemol the outlying district oi Hnawnu Hfl^who.ttwaasnggeated, 

would lw* likolv to vote njrtiinsr. the adoption of the Acts, us they 

won* too Ear oft to benefit by it- Moreover it was suggested thai 
the miTKiviN were tho " prsserthed local authorities" to conduct 

the voting. Tt w i-. stated in the affidavits tlul the voting papers 

had not been properly collected . thai Home which were marked 
"No" were nol reckoned* V'poa these grounds Mr. Jelf, Q.C, 

(willi Mr. P S, Stokes), luovod OD the purl of MYCTSJ PStCW 

RN :t ii.ii/ foi ;i 'j/ii: intiHinf', to question the election, and in the 
result ho obtained o rule calling on the commissioners appoint 
show cause wh> .i writ <»f pm warranto should not issue command- 
hem to uov bj **hal authority the^ eaterciw iV;-: cAki 



•M'2 



■Mil re- 



oooniafMlcfDOM uthIpv trie Public Lftnwlei ketsfortht pariah mi 
St. Junius riiui St. John, ClarltcaweU, upon the grounds (I) that 
the vestry and gaanHaiif or sovernoni <>i the poor were doI the 
prescribed local authority for foe said parish for aacertalnlE 
opinion of the majority of tlio ratepayers of the parish under i) e 
Public UbmrieW Arts; (-J) thai ;i rating paper was not Issued to 
each ratepayer as required by the Acta; (3) that the wtingpanen 
hvtued were not property oouaoM : ( h thai a Berating of the votes 
had been refuse! though lawfully demand* d . (5) thai even ii" Che 
propei authority acted, and tins voting papers were properh issued 

Bad OOllected tins result was not properly ;wivi-i;niifil within tin.' 
ii ■ .mine of the Acts, Their lordships granted a rule rtitt. 

On Say L5. L888, t,he matter came again forward* and was 
i .inotl. Than in Jane the (vacation w. - trguod out at 
lenffthyaad the report occupies some six cclunina >\ newapapei 
" r. The case wee heard before Mr. Justice Field and Mi. 
Justice Willi ftfl to whether lie torim i ruling of nUe nbi should 
not ho ravened. Mr. Justice Field, in giving judy-menl, laid 
it was objected that voting papers were not Bent to each 
ratepayer; that they wan not property collected; and that 
n Bcrutlcj was refused; anil that even ii those tonditfoaa 
hud been property complied with, the result had not been 
properly ascertained in the inclining of the Acts. Anxious D 
wus always to secure purity ut election, tie could not eO&M to 
toe omeluaion that there waa any improper or unfair dealing on 
the pait ot the promoter* ol the I'ublie Library in tbiS InBtanoOi 
There was a substantial majority of ratepayers in favour ot the 
project, and there was nothing to show that the election hod 
otherwise than I'airly nud honourably conducted. Mr. Ji 
"Wills concurred. The rule was accordingly discharged. 

It vrfU be seen that one or two doubtful points are cleared up 
by this oaae, 

rt waa held by the Judge that raters who declared for u library 
subject to the limitation of the rate to one half-penny ure com 

ed to the penny rate If flu majority have agreed to the hi 
fl#ure. The efleot of this decision nm\ l)e to diminish the number 
of favourable votes in Ihe first category, but it is imly rurht tint 
i'ir italci conditions of the appeal Sliould be understood, it ha-* 
also hem clearly Laid down rliat Uie actual voters hind Hie whole 
parish ur iliMrii-t, whatever pro purthm they inaj l»eai to the whole 
number of ratepayers. 

The costs of this litigation were very heavy, and fell upon the 
parish. It was largely Hie result of oik- representative w ho had 
i H majority against him. 

In one Lancashire district, in December, 1888, counsel*! opinion 
waa obtained on the levying of the rate, and Dr. PankhuraC 
K»ve it ae his opinion that the Local Botu'd had full power bo 
levi huch rut*", and i.el nil |«mrr t ,i:i V limr afl.-r tin adoption 
of the Acts. 

On April 0, lftSD, the oelebrat.d Croydon cane came before 
Mr. Justice Stirling. Thin wan the attorney -General v.Mn 










THE ACTS ANTi THB 1.10 A L. ASPECTS OF THR l|IKNTlr>\. &S 

&c, of Croydon, and the quid luioud au important! guertkm as to 
the application of the l'ublic libraries' Act* in the borough of 
CmytliMi, H w.t.s a motion b.Y the Attoriu-y-deneral at tin* 1'rlntion 
of tVO inhabitants oud ratepayers of the borough for an injuuetion 
to restrain the defendant* from carry iny into effect the Public 
Libraries' Acts on the ground that a poll taken by the defendant* 
for the purpose of ascertaining tin- opinion of the majority of the. 
ratctmye.r* of the borough ns to the adoption of the A -tb vun 
invalid. In October, 1888, upon service upon the defendant* of a 
requestinwritinKbytoiirar^iuiycrN.pni-suanltnlhc. i Ni 1 >1 ir Lil ntuToe* 

Amendment Aoi, I896| calling upon thorn to ascertain the opinion 

Hi the majority oi tin- ratepayers of the borough as to the adop- 
of the Public Libraries' Aete, the defendant** i&uied voting 
s to the oooupiors of premises in the borough, and the 
r of the poll BO taken, as declared l>y the innyor, Wftfl that 
the Acta had been adopted, and resolutions were according u 
paayed by the Town t'ouneil to curry the Acta into effect lno 
plaintiffs contended that the voting papers were ta properij 
inxui'c, iDBunuoli as, iuvordiny to theroolio Libraries' Amend- 
ment Act, 1877. in eases where the owners of premises were 
rated Instead of the oeeupierH, the voting" papers KhouM have been 
iMsiied t« the owners ok the persons actually paying the rates, and 
ni»i fn the mrupiiTx. For 1 1 1 •- defendants it w:tHn>iiti'niled, iu the 
first place, that the ileclnratfon of the mayor ns to the result of 
The poll was conclusive, and, secondly, that according to tllfl true 
construction of the Acts the persons entitled to rota were those 
who in reality tore the burden of tlie rates — that was to nay. 
the occupiers — inasmuch an whore the rale wa* actually pan! by 
the owner ii «;ih charged again* L the occupier in the unapt oi 
additionaJ rent Tiie. queatSon involved the consideration o4 u 
gri-ut number o! cornplie;ited Acla of Parliament, and at tin 
OOnduatoa Ol the argument a hi* LordMrip reserved his judgiucnl 
Jttdfiment was given on April 10, lft$9, and as it is important, 
.i considerable portion 3a qnoced, condensed from "Tin- Times 
report. 

Mr. Ju»tJt» StUUnf mod it itppttLm] tliut lh« ljnmwli wjuMii«nrpomn><l in Mawh, 
JSW. The burotug)) <ind p»n-li HW 1 1'iiimniuMM, A rwaisihon wan a short timv 
*gu matte by certain ratepayers Of ttie borouifli, nddiewea ta the mayor, r&iulrintf 
Itlni to «wji>rttio Cbo opinion of the wtepuyo** m to wliethw ><r nut Um Lihr»ri«'« 
Ait» tlioaM l* adopted. Accoidiiitfly. the inny<»r i'mumI totiim paper* bo the rnto- 
■ nd wh«-n Uimo ipnTPOtllfti'trd Un- iviili ftppflftNd Co !«• tlint the™ wr* «,iHS 
>ot*H in favdui' of I be aduptiou of tl.» Aotn, .»nd -1,796 ag&iiut it, givine a majority of 
1.74(1 Id ffivoiir tjf «n<h adoption, Upoji that the major and corporation had acted, 
and Unit nation wn* brought tu restrain them (mm prooi>c^irtg further in tlto mattor. 
Jt appon/i'd tliut tin; MjUiitf pupem liii'l bwi luxtictl to tbv occupiere upuu iht* rutc- 

twtk, flltlnuyi fsn ihlni 1 lii«1 i- d»' Itj '-In? I'roydOB V*Htry, datnd thi> JWth of 

Wovoinber, IH0I», directing thnt the owners of all mtable hereditamonta to which »cctiou 
.'> ad 1 <>l :)>•' Poor HkVi AuMMnont uid Cxillecuon a * -■ itionawl wiUitn the 

SiirMh «hould ho i«to«j U) flio poor m'j.' initeni of tlio oocnplon, and it *i« edited 
I'll ' iJji* nwneit Iir4 bwru fumlnhcd wtlb voliriK paper* innl«o<l ol Ihv 
th»n would hnvn }>>oii a diir<'inrtci<i In tht» coiiititiioncy of about M.O'Hl. mid tint ilm 

••in ii "( tin- trrvuua whoso oplJiluno uo^li 1 • tlw \ '- '■■ Kivc hwu wcri«i awl hoj 

not he*n oMoi'rt.Liiwil ri.aT qiHWtjoo dfp'-'udpd upon t-bc omiHtruoUoTi of tht'VuTloun 
l'ublio Libiwno*' Act*. »i»d in pnrtioular two Ant o( 1^T7. Thv Aot of lrtW> provided for 

ttM B ul')i-l»'. i ..I riiMk> I.e....... - in '! ilirforvm jIomm il (IfatrtoU r:i.. A.-t ot 

lVir. wiii »moin!<-<l by «tn Art <»f IW'if!. wlin'li i!i«! rn ■! Uter U\* MwiAut tes\t\tA-v«v^\i--*V 
adoi't Oit' Aol, but uuulv vsiinliuiio iu Llic mudu ot uixiYuitt V. ovi\,— V»< v^xwoc^^^- 



:M4 



PI I.I W I.ir.KAlilK,-, 



tb* mod" of providing- for fcV prpenaoof esMOfdnfftb* Ai-to. Th^n at«cfOQ 

vi< led thai uanHliet adjniiitog a bonmgb, dMrut, <ir i»n>h niiyht unite m adopttaif. 

tho Art- Thvi*? wus aootlivr Apt In 1 •*"-" I , wbn'h enuhlvd Im-t' hoard- t . put ' ' 
principal Aot iiit<< cxecutiuu. Thai was iJiv 1**1. Act pusm! prim - to the Act. of 1917 
wtii.li tt would b# oaoowary to cooaMar In detail. It Appeared. fru?n. tit ■ 

fut.i alaMOa *«f public Authorities which woro entitled I J >i«i the Lfbnvioi' A*r* 

|ii iminiripul boroughs in 1 ho cnM Of which th« ronstttiicnry to iletermti' 
■ iin'tiiiiu "i u.luptiini ooarfoteo 1 -if tho b\u , go*eo« . ;-j) dutriot.* a&dor Lo ii la\ 
nii-iiL Act*. Ok countHut-ucy bt-iut; Uin i«wn* aswwcd to unci tuyliur thi' (JDpRmsma&t 
ratna; |Jt) hwnl hoard*. fh£ M&al iln.'in-j- bofog tbn peraona paying the general dl*TTli-I 
rate; and £4] parish^, 1 hr determining constituency being the pernnu rated to *bc 

EOT. I'mlPi t)ie«t- circumitaQM* tbo Act of IH77 wu pawed. It war* obvioui That 
? preamble w*a not framed with very gnat aarc It omitted to mention the ■■ 
lM6fl f«ir England, That, huwevrr, win nuL now iiuiitrlul, fur by another AM pitnfcd 

Inll*!7ftwiu doolarod that the Ac:. Of 1M77 ibmiM ham •fleet U if the Art or 1SU 

Lad been therein recited. But beyond that the langiiHg* 1 wn* uot very preebe ax 

rate. For UiffUiDce. it Mpoke of the "opinion of tin; ratepayers," a» It la erury 

cnac tbo ratepayer* wuro tho pereons entitled to attend the mooting, whurtua that wan 

..: i.i. .■..,--■ in mm i. ...... i !..-f. >ig\ » -: . i-ini .1 . t-hfbuiseawa.il 

aula* not eo-^xteariva with the ratepayer*. Then by the Act iteolf it wna provided 
(tCvUou 1) <>bnt a lornl authority h»vin« pom-r I" nd'ipt !)»• A' t- mijtlil «-.'i «u. i).._ 
nj nw:v,\* of thi 1 tnajority nf Kbfl ratTHyira «tbpr Uy Oie prntrrihwl pnXAU tfifrtiny or 

l.y :];. i-i.. ol . v.Hnp ]i'i[.. t (., <.,.i, iiin-j.»;.'. nl\A '.in - i'. ■■ |in- I'l • ...I.'. I- km '.ti.I 

nirutlLy Uicreof; mid wcti'iu -i mil ha fomnvi*:— *' "Katcnuyor "bull miaji ■ 
uih!il>i;»iir whn u-nnH ltMV<> topny tha Publfa Library a oM a M nenl in Vi, ni ofth< k ' 
l-i-Uiff adopted." Ii wua ouotmded Umt thi- object irf tbe AH «"« n"^ I 
ODMUta^nr)'. bat .implj to pn •\ii|.-' n hn'ti-r mo<l»> of RsoprUtninff the onintnti a| Cfce 
'. ' '• i -, •mi hi? L>ird»hip waa aalicd to n-ud ih>.- A- 1 u i( *nliuu C U<1 noi DM 
iimerwd or did wit apply to thia particular raw, 'Hie arunrnpiit hRd 
wi'i^ht, hut after giving iviry ooOAlOcratiuD to the matter it inWHtn to bis Ii-.uMiip 
thai lo adopt it would bo to Btnihi Uio liuiguug" of tl«- Aot too muoh , he, tun 
•«me ryt rha iwneluKinn Him- h lofkt DO* t» ba a» fad. hut thut ttfi-tiiwi 1 ought to b* 
read at fottowl I " By thf iasor of a voting pnpoi to e-nwy inhabitant who woiUd 
1 ■ piiy the I'uMio Idhnin* n s UMnMal m vvutil ol tho Act being sdoptcd." fn 
other wdrdo, hia Lorlihip wae m I i to • •;■ l-"T. (I. LwUutun DM tn*'i\ly 

provided a new niudt? OT liseerUlulu;r tin: oiJtuluu of thf (MiiMlliuwy, ami had not 

Cnjvidi'il > ni-** imulo nf udoptin^ lb.. \-t us a "vliulu Tin. .|iit)«|.itiri Hull aiVnu>, wlirt 
i a borough would have to pay the Public Library aoaeaair.cuL in tbo (v. al -»i 
ti. mi; ii<1i.ph-i| ' Tli'--t-itnN' wlnrh r^-gnlufrfl th» li>\ynng (it tho bnroUgb r*h« • 
Kunicipof Corpnratioua Ait, iwi. Mis LortUhip then load acotiotts Hfi, 140, an-i I ■'.' 
tlie liui ul wblcb. In- paid, was very mnttriid. It provided tlnit vii..r- 
a pamli mak«g, under aootiuu 1 of the Poor Rate Ajeevment and Collecti.in Aot, 1MU, 
an urdfi to the effect that tbc .jwutn Uute<ad of Die uoeupier* of »uch rulahb* 

... >iiiitrof*nta an thni-i'iii ii»'iiMn)ti4l nlnlH<(k roW*d to flit* poot^ H ■ MOl 

ovtvy euoh urdor rdiull bo dovmvd to npply to and inelvde rating 1 to the borough rata 
with tho ^oroe indd'-ot'-. t-ondltloiis. poweri. ldibilltie^. iind i 

rnto «ere x poor-rate. In ordur to ap^ir^inatc that. it. wuu n<*iui«ary to tarn to tho A«t 
.»( i^iw, n l.i. 1. provide.] in wUou i^ thai ywutut iiiurbi airreti lo pay llit' rule »ud be 
allowid n iwmTmwirm. anil wwtlon 4 provide<l that veatrh* might onler ihn owner to 
br rated inntead of tbc occupier ; and action 7 wnans follows :--*' K\cry paynn-iit of 
a rate by the oocuplor, niitwit.bstaudirii; the amount thereof, may he deducted Iron 
hie rent m boroio provided, and evfry pojment of a rate by the owot, wbotbar bfl 
la MiiiMilf rated lu-tetol of (In- .<■ <iM>|.r, oi baa &ktv<. v*li)i rlnw. luae) <>• wiUi Uxr 
overaeera to pay nurli rnta. and notwilh<<(nndlTig any allowance or deduction wfattfl 
tbc o'rraeCTo are vuipowercd bo main.' from the rale, ohall be deemed h parni 
the full rate by the ooooptor for tho purpose nf any niiAlifluiUon or franchise which. 
M rngnni* raUsgi tlaptadi upon (ho ptiymeot of too poor-rato*' Tit*'" uvi 
dliiMted tbo ocvr*t^]^ In niatdog out tfie rule U) in-crttho anmea of all oocaij 
tbe rato-l>oolf, and pn^adttd Omt the onitwaiou of an oocupiw'a nara» »di "■ 
■1 : |>i i v t- liiiu nf nuy t|uaUlb*«tlou*o.l fianelii"'- ilcpnaliup opon ratfafc Tlici. I. 
provisions hi tlw »siih QflVot WCT1 I »iiUliw"l in nn Art .if Ifflff [4% Vlflt., C 10). wlilth 
WSI tu bo t^ootrtrncd n« odu with tLe ,\.ot of Irti)I» Now thoao ] i < < ' mfcnJod 

<iaxvful t-'onahltratiou. '11 im Act of 1MB provided in the dret plat* that Iruprovm -nt 
rati-. w*iv t.. lw iiiil^..iHii vith thi> pror-rati, nn»l th«l .jocNplcni nora nor t.i h# 
deprived of any (jualilWstiiuu oi fraitold«<; depending upmi mtJiig. Tin' I^ncudatutt 

I.I ni>' "ivp , nl" ii ii fn|ju< qualifloalVin It oould QOl hav* m^aot 

thdt thi»iO who Wfio iinqualiBcd in Muh^tanC'C eitoull he •|imlttk-d i 

1 1 .s.t^iutd clear Chnl Ibuev Bi'cUotiB were Inuadvd on iho rcriiRliltiun by U 
fhiif rati- wu. .i.w. |... id by tbo oecopJi* . and tbe provbtlODa of tho Act nmoiint»d 
to th/a, thmi w]i«ire nitm wt^e In subiiU.iLc* paid by Um o< .upici Iha4 abould olau bt 
rtwmm ta tortn payru«iit by hira wltbouBh \t w»a iaaA» 'Vi "tYa. V^aWl nf thn oari.'r 






L. Ik 



TBI! ACTft ANTi THE r.RC.AL A&PKCTS "I 1 rill-: (Jl I.: n:i\. 



34.'i 






Boforn putinp with tlmt one other poiut ought- to be iti'Miht'Dwl vi*., nft<> whether 
tin n'tfhi |d vole vu 11 'lunliflratioii depvrnlmi* on thj ituvuicul of UlB |MK>r-r.iti;. Th** 
•)uolitlr*tii^n ir. IheLibioriw" Aj-'tTwloowd M 'Vu-iy inln.b*UaI who w««iM bftVI U 
p*y Llic oAKCuriiuut Ui crcnt of Ihu Act Ix-iiitf ndupteiL" It \»n* ouly hyiHttbetiml 
OOt n/i ai'hml ptiym»HU, ftfirl >n "J-rmth w < Ivw tW J W al hiwhill " {'* 1, K." 1". 
Q.H., 4221 Mr. Justice Mellor said thea© section* oiifiht to bo utiiistiucd in a libeml 
spirit. The question then wan. what whs the rneuninir tf wriitm K i Two ulb-iniUivr 

Intorpr-tatioim wep? ftubmitted 6> th«- Poort, For tho plaintiff* it. wait cantonlcd thiit 
il BWinl " UlDM vlin would be Wall} liable tu pay " ; wliOv the ih , l'"ii(liiiil.:< argued 
that It Tn*ant , . | "t,hiw*« who In renlit.y would have to b*ar th>> btUwH ri UU MM-" 
The scctiou fairly admitted of thut coa-truction. In tho Unit place It urn* expre&iod 

in popular lunyuatre— " who wnulrt ten bo p'i>." CD Che dttft pi 1- I ■ ■I'l-thip 

coiud not eon tout tho Lctrixluhiro bud any other objoct than that tho determination 

of th» ijjetttlt'D -hniili] n-.si w It.1i tin.- whtiju 'in. rutv would IHU m fubttaaw. 

That wnt tbo omutnioUafi whfdi waned MBian.Ua 11* (riving full effect to tho Anta. 
I- abg MYfl effect to 1 1 . -_ word ' InliabtteiM " Id wetion 3. The owner of lucid was not 
necessarily *n inhabitant of tho (Ustrlct m which it ma sluuite, while it wiw onlv in 
oxKtpti'ionl gaavs that ua owupint was not un inhubiUol. J'or those rawoue hie 
Loruatiip Uitiinrht thut the toUd£ pant-re wi'ie pioperlj Issued, and (III motion roust 

h l Btfawd. 'v-'li c.if, 

It will be seen tl mt This iy it vtduahk* decision on the Acts. Ah 
the judge pointed out that tile right to vote belonged to "every 
inhabitant, who would have to pay the assessment m the erenl ol 
tlie Act being adopted," and hew that those wovdfl . li * l &ol mean 
merely "those who would be legally liable to pay " so as to 
restrict the right to vote to the owners where they were rated 
pursuant to the Croydon Vestry order of 1660, hut must be- eon* 
strued as referring to " iho&e who in h -nl.i \ wmild imve 1 1 ► beat 1 
the burden of the rate*/ viz., the occupier, on whom the 
burden would full presumably in the shape uf loeroBAed rent. 

fn the Amendment BUI of 1887 one object Is to encourage bhfl 
formation of leading libraries in villages, where the ratable 
value if- so small that the highest rata authorized by the PubUc 
ldlHBrle&' ArU— namely, uuc ptuny in 11 if pound— WODld bo 
iu3uflli:ieut to meet the expense vi ereeting t, building, or even of 
renting n room for a regular " Public Library." The st'iieme, how- 
ever, ia also applicable to towns and other districts as well ;in to 
*. lagee, Thus a town is enabled i" try the expeiiruenl of a 
! -:i img library hoforc incfu'riog greuu-i niMt. Th<- arrarigemenl 
i-. thatalendinff library may be" established by a library iiiuhmity 
without a aepurntf bnilding befog pXDrlded for containing it, and 
nay >e placed under (he care and superintendence of buc£ person 
as the authority think (it, and iu u building or room aeithci 
appropriated for the purposes of the Libraries' Acts nor pnrchnfi I 
I ■ n ;<:d by tho authority. 

in the inotrcpoliH the extenatoa of Public Ubrari ee has b 
much shocked by reason of the area prescribed heinir the |«rifh. 
Wfulonotneof tfi< iBirganetropolfianparishc const h tcasuiteblo 

. i':i. .i feeling hnsprevniled in roiiio of the huh I Hrenofi ■'>;»* it' 

b I'uhiK" Library were established there the inhabftanta <>f netol 
bounng parishes would praotioally share m the tmjoyment ofioe 

benofttb, though the whole expense wouUl fail "ii the I'titep! vers 

of th" mil',- idual parishi For tartooa Bdmhustratlve purposes 

•I ii parfshes are alreadt jroupedin district ln»ar<ls,and it nas been 
ktl that the uifoptioa of Public LtbrftV\9A^taQWl" , a6T«s^ 
encouruged by i^nuitting the area ad<»\>t.eflL lo "toej eV0t\w •&» 




•Mi 



FIBI-K MIUIAUIKS. 



I'iiriMi or the district an umy L>p preferred. Ao.onlingh. the 
principal Act of 1855 is jiiuditiedso ;i« to enable the district luurd 
ot works as well ai the pariah bo establish a Public Library. 
Tin* ftxpeaoo is to be defrayed oul of the fund at the dispo* 
the district board Special provision Is made for exempting 

a HV.uy rite m^tr-'politiii: [or -!:< - '.vlncli have ;ilv< ;i«lv esul'lUh-M 
:i Public Library OX may hrn Jaffa? <1<> SO, the power* of parishes 

io establish a library being kept alive. 

New regulations ore node with regard to tin erowtag t>f 
money by a library authority, and the powers and duties of the 
Treasury with rcpird b> Kimcti-nimg loans, &«-., tuv transf 
ttvuu tin- IVeosuy to the Board of Trade 

in the Amendment Act *»i lS80o useful amendment has 

effeotedi Hitherto the expoiiNcp ■ ■! ■■;itliii£ iml !i.Mn<: t 1 ! ■ 

Lug of the ratepayers to decide whether the Public Libraries' 

\ - Mlifill he adopted or nut, and the expenses ol carrying those 

Aotfl OltO axocution In onv parish, have been pnal "out ul :i rate 
to ho nmdc and recovered in like manner as a poor rate." Mow, 
those expenses arc to be ]>ai«i out **i :i rate to tx« raised with and 
as part of tlu» poor rate. Hitherto ©vary person occupying lands 
noed u arable, meadow, or posture jroiuw only, or on woodlan* -. 
or market a^raens, or nuwerj grounds, das been rated In reaped 
of the aatne in the proportion *it' one-third nan nnly at the full 
net annual value ilvivnf i< -p< >< -\i\ <\\ ■ nos such a person will be 
entitled to an allowance of two-third* of the sum >isacsm-<1 upon 
him in respect, of such lands for such expense*. More servlceftMfl 
still is the provision now made for securing u Joint library for 
seronO [wirishes. It is now to be lawful for the commissioners 
appointed under (tie icte for :mv two or more adjoining parishes, 
wiiii tnsconseni of the vestries ol such parishes from time to 
time bo agree to share, in such proportions and foi suoli period as 
may he determined by fch< agreement, the cost of the purchase, 
erection* repair, and maintenance of any library building situate 
in one of BQob parleb.ee, and also the cost of the purchase of 1 1 
periodicals, and newspaper-* foi such library, and all i tbei 
penses connected with the same; and the inhabitants ol both or 
all the parishes, 00 the case may be, will be entitled to use the 

library 80 long a* the agreement shall continue in force. Km 
sued agreement ma> provide that upon ;t> t< n cuniion ,i 
meat shall he made of the Interests of the several ■ omi ii inei 
in the library, building, books, and other property to whii b th< ] 
have contributed, and as to the mode hi which such ad 
shall be reached Further than this, poundagi fur ■■■ 
the library rate is now quite illegal. 

among i tlicr :ioiui- to bo discussed :n the framing of a Con- 
solidation Bill will be the following:— 

fite necessity ol making H absolute law, and not a matter o 
local bvooTj to have Public Libraries exempt from Iocs 

IlllfU'Vnil t;lV.lt:ul 

T/iat tliv l;nv of Mortmain siha\V uol a^V^ \n PubUe 1 brnj 



THE ACTS AXI. THR T.RGAJ. ASPECTS OF THE QrKBTTON. 347 

Hint the rite bo allowed on bh(? grMB, SU)d not tin the ratable, 
vii I no. 

Thai nil public documents shall be presented free of nil cost. 

Tiiut British Museum duplloatee juni South Kensington leans 
u- only to rate-eupportied Lrorariefl and Museums. 

r.iki'n.LT the power out of the hands of the ratepayers for the 
u<l(>i»t ion of the Acts, und transferring it bo the governing body. 
Hie citizens would still have a voice through their repros 
Xhia would often save the expense of n poll, and there would be 
oilier gains, 

That loans be for b period of sixty Instead of thirty years, 

That loans be permitted fur luokB, work* of art, ana objects for 
tnuseums, bb weD as for nites, buildings nod fittings, 

Wi© power to enforce tfce rata imniediateiv after tin- adoption 

of the Act*. 

That osurutteea Miall be permitted to make mu h ■ ■ 1 1 ■- ■•■., foi 
renewals of borrowers' owdsi w .. as th< y deem necessary. There 
ia S doubt whether, SB bhe euOtfl ftN corded, such chai'Kc* arc 
legal. 

Olau&e* trivin^f facilities to rural districts to affiliate with the 
nearest town for the supply of ixx>ks and general library work. 

Til.- ]HL.nit:i:mn^ of tin i':itv Lit ft jn*iuiy for Public Librorie* an 

at present, and a further penny for tnusourob ami art ^allcne 



Tfie present writer cherished the hope that the your 1*00 
would pass without fcnj legislation affecting Public Libraries 
being brought lute Parliament vVSfcb 3 deefreihowever, to assist 

in cleariugup one Off two doubtful points, Sir John Lubbock, M .['.. 
has brought in a short Hill which proposes to substitute the 
county anil borough electorate, as established by former v ts, 
lor the electorate of ratepayers ia whom the power uf adopt- 
ing the Libraries* Aote i*' now vested. The BUI aloe pro- 
vides that, where the district Tor which the adoption <>! tin 
Acts is proposed contains u population of 6.0UU or more, the 
opinion of the voters Eb to be taken to voting papers alone. The 
option that was given by the Aei of 1871 of proceeding either bj 

viiti Iff paper.- or by public meeting would thus be confined t<> 
districts having u population of less than J>,000. Another pro- 
vision of the Bill is that the spools] conulUun which may be 
adopted may be etcher thai the maadmun rate Is ol I to exceed :t 

1i>i1I'1h-iiu;, or three f;n t!iiip-r^ — i Im-m OX&Ct Minis being the only 

onei that may be specified. And iubaequentlj either of these 
limitations might be removed, or the lower one raised to the 
higher. It ia also proposed that the opinion of the majority of 
those who vote ahull prevail, and not that a majority of the 
constituency shall be aecceserj . M'mnw.T, whcsD queetloM arc 
put by rating paper* both as to Lhc adoption -if t!u Acta und also 

us to limitation or Etna rate, the voter ia ambled to give a valid 
vote upon either or upou both of these questions. Thus he may 
rote "No" is to aha adoption of the An... sod "Yea" aavi 
limiting the rate i*> one-halfpenu3 ELeflwreti Vsu- 



34f 



PITILIC LrnitAIillS 



until. n-ity are forbidden to put any question m to the limitation 
Of the rate In tlio voting paper or to the public mating, unless 
arjinitf (pi»»sTionon that point ta raised bythereouiainaolrti 
1 1: iii ■ i r.'tjuinuL' Kt.'j.- to in- taken for ascertaining the opinion 
of the electors, A final proposal is to extend section 3 of last 
year i Let, bo as to enable library oral aorrtiei not only t<» oomhino 

for 'I'*' pnr*lKHt'* <>t :)w A'Ts, lmt :iUi» t" mvhiI tlnMnwlv.-:, i;.on 

barms to be agreed npan,of the benefits ol libraries mi Intniuce 1 
of funds under the control of the Charity OommiMlonew 



CHAPTER XXI. 
PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNDS. BUIIiDINGe, 6co. 

^F the vote is in nvronr of adopting the Arts the work of tbc 

provisional committee is at on end, no fat' as then? Iminc 
<li;itr work i- .■■ i .. < mod, iinil the Town Council, or othej 
governing body, will forthwith elect a library i omniitt 
£o who.se i.miv the movement will i.)c entrusted) 11 in van 
essential that the members of this eonu littes should be men ot 
close sympathy with the movement, and who are willing to lake 
upon themselves the labour, whieh is not by any means light, "i 
the formation of a library. One 01* two of these gentlemen Should 
he deputed to vit.it ibe Public Libraries in some of the large 
centres, and so gain a practical insight into their working and 
management. Every librarian worth the name will only be loo 
glad to answer truest ions and to show mu I. visitors ovrr tbc 
premises under his control Fi is very essential that there should 
be on iii' committee -i van fair percentage of burgen*ea, Vol 
many reasons this is wise, la most, towns there are .1 numb ■ cA 
shrewd, fn rawing men of tan retiring ;i disposition t" 100k 
municipal honours, who would on a library committee be 1 
decided acquisition. They ar* not responsible to mnstf taenia, a* 
in bhe representatives on the Council, and no look 1 
matters from a different standpoint Moat i» w in ire no* 
adopting the plan ol having burgesses on thin committee, a;n.i 
some towns have even gone to the extent of having five-^dxlufl ol 
the number elected (roni outside, 

The queaUqn of funds is, of course, the nll-hnportnnl 010, and 
if the provisional committee have succeeded in securing ;; hand- 
some Set of promises of donations, on condition thai 1 1 1« - \» t-* be 
ado ied nil th<' better, and this will be fonnd an immenae level 
In ranging bhe ratepayers to a satisfactory dei [slon. Proi 
for such a fund a* this become infectious, nnd, either in the 
of so much cash or so many books, they aid moat oi 
lubricating the movement, The names "I" those wlw [rive books 
aud money go down to posterity in the history of the ' 
tin- nunu-:. -ii Mil. I U* published in the first report. Th- 
scarcely another object which could be named win. b m pow« 
fitttv appeals to the bon< v ri< in 1 of all bo< tions