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Quarterly Journal 

of the") 

University of North Dakota^ 




The Quarterly Journal 


The University Of North Dakota 


NO. I. OCTOBER. 1919 


Luther E. Birdzell 3 



Samuel Torgerson 17 



Howard E. Simpson 23 


N. C. Young 41 


Frank J. Bruno 47 


F. R. Smyth 57 


Orin G. Libby 61 


M. Beatrice Johnstone 81 


Vernon P. Squires 84 



Wesley R. Johnson 93 


William H. Greenleaf 121 



Hazel B. Nielson 128 


==^r^==^= No. 2. JANUARY. 1920 . 



Mabel Randolph 147 

1. Introduction 147 

2. In Mcmoriam 155 

3. Members of the Faculty 193 

4. Women Students 197 

5. Alumni 202 

6. Former Students 228 

7. Undergraduates 244 

8. Student's Army Training Corps 279 

9. High School Students 282 

10. Summaries 288 


F. B. Taylor 289 


1. Squaw Point: Arland D. Weeks. 

J. W. Todd 290 

2. The Exceptional Child: Maximillian P- E. Grosz- 

J. W. Todd 290 

3. On the Firing Line in Education: A. J. Ladd. 

H. G. Lull 291 


:No. 3. APRIL, 1920= 



Frank L. McVey 302 



Melvin a. Brannon 314 


A. HoYT Taylor 320 



James Ernest Boyle 329 


Wallace Nelson Stearns 33^ 


George Milton Janes 347 




= No. 4. JULY. 1920 rzn 


Karl R. Stolz 371 


Joseph Kennedy 385 


Wallace Nelson Stearns 396 



Lauriz Vold 401 


William E. Stephenson 415 


TO 1640 

Beatrice Olson , 422 


Frederick D. Smith 436 


I- The Monroe Doctrine and the Great War: 

A. B. Hall. O. G. Libby 444 

2. The Outbound Road: Arnold Mulder. 

A. J. Ladd _ _ 445 


nm M»t nnwmii iae.> 


THE Quarterly Journal is a periodical main- 
tained by the University of North Dakota; Its 
primary function is to represent the varied activities of the 
several colleges and departments of the University and 
thus act as a medium of exchange between the University 
and the learned world outside. Its columns are open, 
however, to other than University people, especially when 
they bring contributions which are the fruitage of scientific 
research, literary investigation, or other form of construc- 
tive thought. Price one dollar a year, thirty cents the 
single number. 

All communications should be addrest. 

The Quarterly Journal, 

University, North Dakota 

Editor's Bulletin Board 

THIS number of the Quarterly Journal tells in 
a modest way something of North Dakota's contri- 
bution in the winning of the great war. It was originally 
planned to include in the same issue the service list of the 
University, but that has been found to be impracticable. 
It may be looked for, however, relatively complete, in the 
January number. It will contain the names and details 
of service of all University people — some 1200 in num- 
ber — having part in the work. These will be grouped as 
facult)^ alumni, former students, undergraduates, and 
students of the high school. In addition there will be 
found half-tone photographs, with fuller notice of service, 
of the thirty-three who gave their lives for the cause. 

The Quarterly Journal 


The University of North Dakota 



Luther E. Birdzell 3 


Samuel Torgerson 17 



Howard E. Simpson 23 


N. C. Young 41 


Frank J. Bruno 47 


F. R. Smyth 57 


Orin G. Libby 61 


M. Beatrice Johnstone 81 


Vernon P. Squires 84 



Wesley R. Johnson 93 


William H. Greenleaf 121 



Hazel B. Nielson 128 


A. J. LADD, 

Managing Editor Assistants 

THC Mat niiwmii lae.. 

The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 10 OCTOBER, 1919 Number 1 

North Dakota's Contribution of Men 

Luther E. Birdzell, 

Justice State Supreme Court of North Dakota 
Chairman District Board 

THE experiences of the recent war disprove the charge often 
made that democracy is InefiFicient, for, despite the frequency 
of newspaper headlines calling attention to various matters in con- 
nection with the war that might be thought to make appropriate 
subjects for congressional investigation, the fact remains that this 
nation raised, equipt, and transported beyond the seas the greatest 
fighting machine that had ever been organized and put forth in a 
similar period of time. The basic factor of this machine was, of 
course, the men that comprised its personnel, and the efficiency of 
the government in organizing the man power is perhaps the most 
conspicuous success of the entire war. In this country no difficulty 
was encountered in obtaining the necessary number of men for the 
various branches of the service. Tho traditionally a peace-loving 
people and trained to regard large military organizations in times 
of peace as a menace to our free institutions, we did not labor under 
the disadvantages encountered by the British government on account 
of similar traditions. Being without a large standing army, the 
British attempted to recruit the necessary military forces by voluntary 
enlistment; whereas, in this country, the obligation of every citizen 
to take his place in the vast organization into which the man power 
of the nation was being welded was recognized from the beginning. 
Toward the end of the war there were, even, indications that men 
would soon be assigned their places in the industrial as well as in 
the military ranks. 

The ease with which our army was raised was due more to the 
successful op)eration of the selective service system than to any other 
one cause, but the fact that the selective service system could operate 
so successfully in a democratic republic is one which, prior to the 
war, would not have found ready acceptance. The selective service 
system was, however, demonstrated to be in accord with the prevail- 

Copyrieht 1919, University of North Dakota 

4 The Quarterly Journal 

ing sentiment of the people. It was accepted as being wholly consis- 
tent with the ideas of equality before the law and equality of rights 
and obligations attaching to citizenship in our republic. It was 
found that this conception, in time of national peril, could be best 
carried out and applied by imposing upon everyone, regardless of his 
circumstances, the duty to serve where he could best contribute to 
the national defense. 

At the beginning of the war our national military strength was 
comparatively insignificant. We had a regular army consisting of 
approximately 120,000 men.^ The National Guard which was early 
amalgamated with the regular army was comprised of the organized 
militia of the several states. After recruiting up to vv^ar strength 
the National Guard in August, 191 7, numbered in all approximately 
433,000 officers and men. These forces naturally formed the nucleus 
for the larger organization that was soon to be built up. 

In considering North Dakota's contribution in men, it must be 
understood in the beginning that it is impossible to determine at this 
time (June ist, 1919) the exact number to be properly credited to 
this state. Also that it is jet too early to attempt to state, with the 
proper degree of accuracy, either the extent of the participation of 
various units made up wholly or in part of North Dakota troops or 
the casualties sustained by them in actual fighting. 

The first troops to be called into active service from this state 
were those comprising the Second Battalion of the North Dakota 
National Guard. The Second Battalion consisted of Companies A 
(Bismarck), F (Mandan), H (Jamestown), K (Dickinson), and a 
detachment of 7 men and one sergeant from the Hospital Corps 
(Lisbon). These were called into service on March 25, 191 7, and 
placed under the immediate command of Major Dana Wright, of 
Jamestown, with headquarters in Bismarck. Detachments of this 
battalion guarded the Northern Pacific Railroad bridge over the 
Missouri River, the bridges and yards of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road at Jamestown, the highline bridge at Valley City, and the Great 
Northern and Northern Pacific bridges at Fargo. 

On July I, 191 7, this battalion was relieved of guard duty and 
mobilized at Ft. Lincoln, near Bismarck. It was soon recruited to 
full strength and trained for overseas service. During the same 
period the remaining companies of the First North Dakota were 
drilling at their respective armories, having been called into the 

iReport of the Secretary of War for 1918, page 9, gives the total 
strength of the army on August 1, 1917, as 551,000. Report of the Acting 
Chief of the Militia Bureau for 1918, page 12, gives total strength of 
National Guard organizations as of August 5, 1917, included in the armed 
strength', 432,927, the difference being 119.073 (Regulars). 

North Dakota's Contribution of Men 

service of the United States by presidential proclamation on July 3rd. 
These units were held at their home stations until September 29th, 
191 7, when the regiment, under the command of Colonel John H. 
Fraine, entrained for Camp Greene, North Carolina. At the time 
of entrainment the regiment consisted of 51 officers and 2057 men. 
Prior to the mobilization at the concentration camp, Field Hospital 
No. I, under the command of Major Thomas C. Patterson, was 
entrained at Lisbon (August 16, 191 7) for Camp Cody, Deming, 
New Mexico, where, upon arrival, it became Field Hospital No- 136 
of the 34th division. This unit consisted of six officers and 70 men. 
The officers in command of the First Regiment, its battalions 
and companies, are as follows: 

*Lt. Colonel 

*Co. "A" 

Co. "B" 

Co. "C" 

Co. "D" 

Co. "E" 

Co. "F' 
*Co. "G" 

Co. "H" 

Co. "I" 

Co. "K" 

Co. "L" 

Co. "M" 
*Headquarters Co. 

Supply Co. 

Machine Gun Co. 

Sanitary Detach. 

John H. Fraine 
G. C. Grafton 
Frank Henry 
Dana Wright 
B. C. Boyd 

J. W. Murphy 
R. F. E. Colley 
J. G. Ofstedahl 
Otto F. Gross 
Harry R. Evans 
Robert Wilson 
D. S. Ritchie 
J. D. Gray 
Thomas J. Thomsen 
Clarence N. Barker 
Henry F. Halvorson 
Oscar G. Holm 
T. S. Henry 
M. H. Sprague 
L- L. Eckman 
Major Charles E. Hunt 


Valley City 







Valley City 





Grand Forks 

Valley City 


Grand Forks 

Valley City 

*Spanish-American War Veterans 

The officers in command of Field Hospital No. i were as 
follows : 
Major Thomas C. Patterson Lisbon 

Captain Neil McLean Kenmare 

There were a number of men in the state who had seen service 
in the National Guard but who had ceased to be actively connected 
with the organization. Some of these had served in the Spanish- 

6 The Quarterly Journal 

American war, in the Philippines, and on the Mexican Border. Tho 
no longer connected with a military organization, their zeal to be of 
service prompted them to suggest the organization of another regi- 
ment. Accordingly, on June 30, 191 7, Governor Frazier authorized 
the organization of the Second Regiment. The regiment was placed 
under the command of Colonel Frank White, of Valley City, who 
had rendered distinguisht service in the Philippines, and former 
Adjutant General Thomas H. Tharalson, also a veteran of the 
Philippines, was commissioned Lieut. Colonel. Other former guards- 
men who were also commissioned with this regiment were Majors 
Edward C. Gearey, Jr., Charles F. Mudgett, and James H. Hanley. 
In mentioning the officers of this regiment it is scarcely necessary to 
say that military fitness was the only consideration entering into their 
appointment. (In the roster of official personnel given below it will 
be seen that there are included even more veterans of the Spanish- 
American war than in the First Regiment.) Just fourteen days 
after the organization of the regiment was authorized, Adjutant 
General G. A. praser telegraphed the War Department that the 
regiment was ready for inspection and muster into the service. At 
that time the regiment consisted of 47 officers and 1622 men. These 
were entrained for Camp Greene, North Carolina, on October i, 
191 7. The officers in command of the Second Regiment, its battalions 
and companies, were as follows: 

* Colonel 

Frank White 

Valley City 

*Lt. Colonel 

T. H. Tharalson 



Charles F. Mudgett 

Valley City 


James M. Hanley 



Edward C. Gearey, 



Co. "A" 

Millard C. Lawson 


Co. "B" 

Charles L. Wheeler 

New Rockford 

Co. "C" 

Charles L. Rouse 


*Co. "D" 

Thomas Lonnevik 

Devils Lake 

*Co. "E" 

Frank F. Ross 


Co. 'T" 

Ernest S. Hill, (Lieut. 

commanding "F" 



Co. "G" 

John W. Grant 


Co. "H" 

George Crawford 


*Co. "I" 

A. B. Welch 


Co. "K" 

Harry E. Thomas 


Co. "L" 

Bert Weston (ist Lieut. 

commanding company) 


North Dakota's Contribution of Men 

Co. "M" 

Machine Gun Co. 

*Headquarters Co. 
*Supply Co. 
Sanitary Detach. 


Charles I. Cook Beach 

Fred J. Flury, (ist Lieut. Dickinson 

commanding company) 

Henry T. Murphy Bismarck 

John W. Rock Hillsboro 

Major F. R. Wheelon Minot 
Quartermaster Corps 

Paul R. Tharalson Bismarck 

Harold Sorenson Fargo 

Warren A. Stickley Bismarck 

Earle R. Sarles Hillsboro 
*Spanish-American War Veterans. 

Owing to the policy early inaugurated by the War Department 
the previously existing organizations could not long retain their 
identity. Upon the re-organization of the National Guard at Camp 
Greene, the First North Dakota Infantry became the 164th Infantry 
of the 41st Division (Sunset), and the Second North Dakota Infantry 
was assigned as follows: 
Second Regiment Infantry 

2 Officers Hdqrs. Co. Hdqts. 8ist Inf. Brigade 41st Div. 

2 Officers ' 148th Mch. Gun. Bn. 41st Div. 

Company "H" I47th Mch. Gun Bn. 41st Div. 

Companies A, B, C, D and 

Machine Gun Company 164th Infantry 

Company "E" 
Part Headquarters Co. 
Part Headquarters Co. 

1 1 6th Trench Mortar Co. 

1 1 6th Engineers 

1 1 6th Headquarters and 

Military Police 
1 1 6th Ammunition Train 

41st Div. 

41st Div. 
41st Div. 

41st Div. 
41st Div. 

Supply Company 
Companies F, G, I, K, L and 

M ii6th Sanitary Train 41st Div. 

Field Hospital Co- No. I 109th Sanitary Train 34th Div. 

Both regiments were accompanied by splendid regimental bands. 
The First Regimental band, under the direction of W. Walter 
McDonald, of Lisbon, served as the 164th Infantry Band, and the 
Second Regimental, under the direction of Harold Bachman, of 
Fargo, was assigned to the 11 6th Engineers. 

The 41st Division was designated as a replacement division. As 
a result of this designation, the various units comprising it became 
more widely scattered and, as a further result, the men comprising 
the First and Second North Dakota regiments saw much more 
active fighting than would otherwise have been the case. They 
participated in the battles of Cantigny and Soissons, as well as the 

8 The Quarterly Journal 

battles of the Toul Sector, Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, and the 
Argonne Forest, which represent the high tide of American partici- 
pation. The mere mention of these battles will at once bring to 
mind impressions of decisive and hotly contested theaters of war, 
where the issue turned on the never failing initiative and valor of the 
American soldier. 

As heretofore indicated, it is not possible at this time to report 
the casualties sustained, due to the loss of organizational identity and 
to the further fact that after the re-organization at Camp Greene, 
orders were issued preventing reports to State Headquarters, with 
the result that all subsequent reports were made directly to the War 
Department, From these reports it will be possible in the future to 
compile the service data in detail. 

At the beginning of the war. North Dakota also supplied a fully 
equipt Red Cross Hospital Unit, under the command of Dr. E. P. 
Quain, of Bismarck, who was commissioned with the rank of Major 
by the War Department. In addition to the complement of nurses 
comprising this unit were Captains J. O. Arneson, of Bismarck, A. 
Natchway, Dickinson, George A. Carpenter, Fargo, and John 
Halgren, Bismarck. This unit was stationed, during the active period 
of concentration, at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, and later assigned to 
overseas duty, where Major Quain was promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant Colonel. He is still in active service at Fort Snelling. It 
is a matter of regret that we have not, at the present time, complete 
data covering the participation of the members of the medical and 
dental professions. The many physicians, surgeons, and dentists who 
entered the service, with the exception of those commissioned in the 
Hospital Unit referred to, were separately assigned to duty as they 
were called. As a consequence they did not become identified with 
a distinctly North Dakota unit. 

The lack of an identifying state unit also renders it impossible 
to record properly at this time the participation of the rather numerous 
body of young men in the state who flockt to the Officers' Training 
Camps and were commissioned with the rank of Captain, and First 
and Second Lieutenant. Many of these men, as is generally known, 
came from the ranks of the student body and alumni of our educa- 
tional institutions. The writer of this article well remembers being 
called upon to preside at a session of the Supreme Court for the 
purpose of admitting to the bar successful candidates, when the former 
class of approximately thirty had shrunk to two, and these were 
regrettin^their failure to pass the physical examination that would 
have admitted them into the army. 

North Dakota's Contribution of Men 9 

An adequate idea of the University's contribution cannot be 
obtained short of the detailed service records of its former students 
and alumni. The efforts that the institution is now putting forth 
to secure these records are highly commendable and the results may 
be lookt forward to with the assurance that the value of its training 
will be reflected in a new direction. A new chapter will be added 
to its history and its traditions enriched by a record of patriotic 
service that it has not formerly been its privilege to render in like 

In North Dakota, as elsewhere thruout the nation, the great 
majority entering the service became identified with the National 
Army, the Marine Corps, and the Regular Army. In active service 
these men were assigned to so many different units that the place of 
origin was entirely lost sight of. We know, however, that North 
Dakota has done its full share in every branch. From April 2, 191 7, 
to October 31, 191 8, there was a total increment to the armed 
forces of the United States of 4,134,743.^ Of this number 2,666,867 
or 66.1%, were inducted into the National Army thru the selective 
service system; 877,458, or 21.75%, represent voluntary enlistments 
in the Army; 437,527, or 10.84%, represent enlistments in the Navy; 
and 52,891, or 1.30%, enlistments in the Marine Corps. Of this 
total increment, North Dakota supplied 27,253, distributed as 
follows: 18,595 in the National Army, 6,611 in the Regular Army, 
1,838 in the Navy, and 209 in the Marine Corps. This does not 
represent the total of North Dakota's contribution to the armed 
forces, for it does not take into account those who had enlisted prior 
to April 2, 19 1 7, and who were at that time in the Federal service. 
Adjutant General Fraser states that the total number in active 
service from North Dakota approximates 30,000, and his estimate 
seems well supported by data on file in his office. 

At the beginning of this article it was intimated that the 

selective service system was responsible for the comparative ease with 

which our vast army was recruited and organized. It will be seen that 

this statement is substantiated by the fact that 66.1% of the total 

increment was directly obtained from this source. The importance 

of this method of recruiting, viewed from whatever standpoint, can 

not be over-estimated. The following, taken from the 1918 report 

of the Secretary of War, gives his estimate of the worth of the 

system : 

"The selective draft has proved its worth. It has been accepted 
as a governmental principle throughout the length and breadth of 

2Appendix Table 79-A. Second Report, Provost Marshal General, page 

lO The Quarterly Journal 

the United States. That this is true is in no small measure due to 
the work of these local and district boards, and to the untiring 
activity of the registration and examination officials in the various 
states. Had the Army been placed under the necessity of creating a 
new set of salaried Federal officials to handle the draft, w-e should 
not have a force of over two million men on European soil today. 
The draft secured a large army, in record time, without unjust dis- 
crimination, or destruction of industry; and it gained the respect and 
support of the American people. For all of this the state and local 
workers who with wholehearted enthusiasm carried the heavy burden 
must receive a large share of credit," 

Under this system in North Dakota it will be recalled that 
18,595 rnen were inducted into the National Army and a considera- 
tion of our contribution would necessarily be incomplete without some 
description of the method according to which so many of our men 
were assigned to military service. 

At the head of the system in this state, at the State Head- 
quarters, was Adjutant General G. A. Fraser, a veteran of the 
Spanish-American War. In the capacity of chief draft executive he 
was commissioned captain, U. S. Inf. R. C. The work of original 
registration was efficiently handled by Mr. Charles Liessman. In 
handling the various details of office routine, ]\lr. R. D. Hoskins, 
for more than twenty-five years clerk of the Supreme Court, rendered 
most efficient assistance, as did also Mrs. Helen Clemens in charge of 
the delinquency department ; while the work of physical examinations 
was ably supervised by Captain V. H. Stickney, Medical Aide to the 
Governor. The efficient service of each of the persons named is 
reflected in the relative sup)eriority of the draft administration in this 
state in the respective fields indicated, as will be later seen. 

Aside from the State Headquarters, our selective service organi- 
zation consisted of one district board, fifty-three local boards, a 
similar number of government appeal agents, thirteen medical 
advisory boards and legal advisory boards co-operating with the local 
boards. The district board consisted of five members, as follows: 
Dr. E. M. Darrow, Physician and Surgeon, J. N. Hagan, (Secre- 
tary) Farmer, Secretary of Agriculture and Labor for North Dakota, 
J. H. Solstad, Mechanic, W. L, Richards, Banker and Stock 
Raiser, and the writer, who served as chairman of the board. In the 
summer of 191 8 there were also appointed three advisers to the 
district board, who co-operated with the board in determining 
questions relating to the agricultural and industrial needs. Members 
of this board were authorized to file claims for deferment of regis- 
trants who had not themselves seen fit to file claims. The advisers 
were Samuel Torgerson, Banker, Grand Forks, Walter Reid, 

North Dakota's Contribution of Men 1 1 

Farmer, Amenia, and W. P. Macomber, Mine Operator, Wilton. 
During the brief period of their service they rendered material 
assistance to the board by their hearty co-operation during a most 
active period. Each local board consisted of three members, tw^o of 
whom were usually the sheriff and county auditor, the third member 
being a physician. 

Every step leading up to the actual induction into service was 
taken in this state at the proper time, and as a consequence North 
Dakota was enabled to meet every demand of the War Department 
in connection with the draft. Our first registration, June 5, 191 7. 
was accomplisht as scheduled, the organization of local and district 
boards followed in regular succession and when the first call came 
to supply 1582 men on September 5, 191 7, the preliminary work of 
physical examination and selection was promptly completed. The 
necessary number of men was ready for entrainment at the appointed 
time, and this experience was repeated with every call. 

The total registration in North Dakota was 160,292, divided 
as follows: June 5th, 1917, 67,238 (registrants 21 to 30 inclusive) ; 
June 5th and August 24th, 19 18, 6,103 (registrants who had become 
21 years of age since the last registration date) ; and September 12th, 
19 1 8 (registrants 18 to 21 and 32 to 45 years, inclusive), 86,951. 

During the period of its operation, there were two distinct 
methods employed in administering the law. The first method, 
which was in operation from May to December, 191 7, was that of 
calling from the list of registrants according to order numbers a 
sufficient number to supply the current quota of men — the quota 
having been levied according to the anticipated need and ability to 
assimilate. The men called were first examined and if found 
physically qualified were given a definite period of time within which 
to file claims for discharge. The claims were filed with the local or 
district boards, depending upon whether or not they embraced matters 
falling within the original jurisdiction of the one or the other. The 
complete records, with notation of any local board action, were filed 
with the district board and a docket made showing the status of every 
man called. Under this system the registrant was either discharged, 
subject to the power of the boards to revoke the discharge, or he was 
held for service. 

The second method, which came into use in December, 191 7, and 
which prevailed until the close of the war, was the questionnaire 
method. Under it every registrant was required to fill out a ques- 
tionnaire and to make such claims therein for classification as were 
appropriate to his case or as suited his inclination. He would then 


The Quarterly Journal 

be classified in regular order by the local and district boards, being 
placed in such class or classes as, in the judgment of the boards, would 
reflect his comparative usefulness to the army or to a necessary agri- 
cultural or industrial enterprise, the degree of dependency of others 
upon him for support, the character of his liability for service 
depending upon alienage, religious belief, etc. As men were rendered 
subject to military service they were classified with regard to their 
physical capacity. Thus, there was made a veritable Domesday Book 
of the nation's man power. 

The following table of comparison, compiled from the report of 
the Provost Marshal General, is a fair indication of the character 
of the work done in this state by the various boards : 

Table of Comparison 
June 5, 1917 to October i, 1918 



Percent Physic- 
ally Qualified 



<a p, 

Q 2 



Percent Physic- 
ally Rejected at 

Pet Man 

1917 1918 

United States . 
Highest state . 
Lowest state . . 
North Dakota . 













$ 7.59 




$ 7.90 




*This figure is incorrect, due to compilation being made from 
an early report. The correct statement would show approximately 
1 per cent. 

The marked variation in the cost per man in North Dakota in 
1918 as compared with 191 7 is due to the extraordinary amount of 
work involved in classifying all registrants, — a work which was 
practically completed in this state when the armistice was signed, — 
and to changes in regulations looking toward greater uniformity of 
cost among the various states. 

A feature of the foregoing table which merits attention is the 
high percentage of physically qualified registrants in North Dakota, 
accompanied by a low percentage of rejections at camp. North 
Dakota had fewer rejections at camp than any other state. Yet she 
maintained an average of physically qualified registrants which was 
more than 7 per cent above the national average. This fact speaks 
well for the physical development of the young men reared on our 
wholesome prairies. Some of the states showing a high average of 
physically qualified men in the local classifications, also show a 
comparatively high average of rejections at camp ; but in the instance 
of North Dakota this is not true as shown by the table. 

North Dakota's Contribution of Men 13 

In 191 7, to supply the anticipated quota of men, the local boards 
called for physical examination 19,696 men. Out of the total number 
called, approximately 75 per cent were found to be physically fit. Of 
this number 7,760 filed claims requiring the action of local boards, 
3,381 filed claims with the district board for discharge upon agricul- 
tural and industrial grounds and 1,311 appealed to the district board 
from decisions of local boards. 

The greatest difficulty, which at first confronted all the boards, 
was the lack of definite information concerning the various registrants, 
without which their claims could not be properly considered. This 
difficulty was early anticipated and steps taken to procure exact in- 
formation concerning every registrant filing a claim. It is believed 
that the information thus obtained, largely thru the co-operation of 
the registrants themselves, was the greatest single contributing factor 
to the successful working of the law in North Dakota. Of the first 
group of 3,381 agricultural and industrial claims decided by the 
district board in 191 7, more than one-fourth were appealed to the 
President, all the information being forwarded with each case ap- 
pealed. There were but few instances in which the previous decisions 
were reversed. 

Beginning in January, 191 8, the boards entered upon the task 
of classifying all registrants under the questionnaire method. Before 
the work was completed there were 160,292 registrants under the 
jurisdiction of the boards, and in classifying this number the District 
Board considered 35,815 claims in addition to the 4,692 considered 
during 1917.'^ A fair percentage of these cases were considered more 

3The classifications made by the District Board in 1918 

1. Cases appealed from classification of Local boards: 







I • 1 II 1 III IV 1 

858 1 779 1 70 29S 1 


♦Note: The classifications in the appealed cases preceding Class V 
generally reflect degrees of dependency of others upon the registrant, 
while in Class V are placed those who. on account of alienage, official 
position, or physical, mental or moral unfitness, are considered as practi- 
cally excluded "from all liability for service. 

2. Industrial and agricultural classification, coming under the 

original jurisdiction of th'« District Board: ^^ 



Filed I I 
33,738 11,32 

8289 I 1058 J B901 | 39 | 64 | 78861 18 


Class II-C: Necessary skilled farm labor. 

Class II-D: Necessary skilled industrial labor. 

Class III-J: Necessary assistant manager, agricultural enterprise. 

Class III-K: Highly specialized mechanical expert in industrial 

Class III-L: Assistant manager necessary industrial enterprise. 

Class IV-C: Sole manager of agricultural enterprise. 

Class IV-D: Necessary sole manager of necessary industrial enter- 


The Quarterly Journal 

than once in order that the ultimate classification might justly reflect 
any change in status or conform to newly acquired information con- 
cerning the registrant. 

After the signing of the armistice, much work yet remained to 
be done, both by the boards and by the state headquarters. This 
work was completed in record time in this state, our headquarters 
being the first to report the completion of the work and the closing 
of the records. Too much credit cannot be given the local boards of 
this state for the excellent administration of the selective service law, 
for the contact of these boards with the registrants was more direct 
than that of any other agency, and they had a greater primary respon- 
sibility. They have well earned the compliment paid them in a 
condensed report of the Adjutant General and chief draft executive 
of this state, wherein he said: 

"This condensed report by its briefness cannot give well-earned 
credit to the men who so ably aided in the creation of such an army- 
building machine as is unknown in world history. Their work can 
never be measured in the everyday values of exchange ; they have 
worked patiently and patriotically through trying ordeals and the 
result of their work now more than ever stands as a monument to 
their toil, and as everlasting proof that a democracy can raise, organize 
and equip an army willing and able to fight to sustain the ideals and 
institutions upon which this nation was founded." 

It is believed that the foregoing outline will suffice to indicate 

the magnitude of the task imposed upon those whose duty it was to 
administer the selective service law; and that it will also convey an 
idea of the degree of efficiency with which the work was handled 
in this state.* 

When the history of our participation in the world war is 
written, no single feature will stand out more prominently than the 
successful operation of the selective service system, for when it is 
remembered that our last experience with a so-called conscription 
law" resulted in actually drafting into the Union army less than 

4At the close of the war, the classification of the North Dakota 
registrants was summarized as follows: 


Class of 
June. 1917 

Class of 
June. 1918 
(inc. Aue. 



of September 



Aires 19 
to 36. inc 

Afes n 
to 45. inc. 

Aee 18 























Grand Total 







North Dakota's Contribution of Men 1$ 

50,000^ men, (as compared with 2,666,867 under the 191 7 law) 
and that the act was so unpopular in various sections of the country 
as to precipitate riots, it will be realized that a great step forward has 
been taken. The chief points of superiority of the 19 17 law over 
that of 1863 are the administrative features and the more democratic 
application of the later law. It applied directly and equally to all 
regardless of circumstances — substitution being impossible. 

During the war much was heard of the lack of a sympathetic 
support of the government on the part of those who were Americans 
by adoption. Insofar as sentiment of this character might be expected 
from populations of immediate foreign antecedents, with their atten- 
dant traditions, it might have been expected in North Dakota, for our 
comparatively young state has been settled largely by peoples coming 
from Europe in search of homes and economic opportunity. Our 
fertile prairies have welcomed them more cordially even than have 
the industrial centers and the old settled communities. The census 
of 1 9 10 shows that, while the proportion of the foreign born to the 
total population in the United States was 16.3%, in North Dakota 
the percentage was 27.1%; while of our native born population 
43.5% are of foreign or mixt parentage. In 29 of the 49 counties 
the proportion of the foreign born white population exceeded one- 
fourth, while in no county was the proportion of the native white 
population of foreign or mixt parentage less than one-fourth. Thus 
has North Dakota been a "melting pot" or a laboratory for American- 
izing foreign peoples to a degree that is scarcely surpast by any other 
state- In this she succeeded, for before the war her people had be- 
come accustomed to the free air of democracy and had developt an 
appreciation of the most valuable traditions of the republic. So the 
fact of a high percentage of population of foreign origin did not 
prevent her from performing her duty. It is believed that it would 
be difficult to find any place in the Union where the contribution of 
man-power to the armed forces of the nation was sent forth with less 
friction and with a greater sense of pride in doing all that was 
necessary to be done to uphold the honor and to vindicate the ideals 
of the nation. 

But we must not assume from this that it is unnecessary to take 
stock of our Americanism, for we can indeed profit, in common with 
every other community, by the counsel of Judge Amidon, who, in 
addressing a prisoner, said : 

"There must be an interpretation anew of the oath of allegiance. 

5255,373 men are credited as conscripted. This includes those who 
paid commutation in lieu of service, and deserters. Second Report, 
Provost Marshal General, December 21, 1918, page 377. 

1 6 Quarterly Journal 

It has been in the past nothing but a formula of words. From this 
time on it must be translated into living characters incarnate in the 
life of every foreigner who has his dwelling place in our midst. If 
the}' have been cherishing foreign history, foreign ideals, foreign 
loyalty, it must be stopped, and they must begin at once, all over 
again, to cherish American thought, American history, American 
ideals. That means something that is to be done in your daily life. 
It does not mean simply that you will not take up arms against the 
United States. It goes deeper far than that. It means that you will 
live for the United States, and that you will cherish and grow 
American souls inside of you." 

The counsel should be extended. It should be given universal 
application. The men of North Dakota fought to preserve American 
ideals, and every citizen of whatever origin should, by act and deed, 
manifest anew the spirit of allegiance to those high principles that 
give character to the soul of America. 

North Dakota's Contribution Thru 
the Liberty Loan 

Samuel Torgerson, 
Cashier Northwestern National Bank, Grand Forks, North Dakota 

TOWARDS the winning of the war our state of North Dakota 
has contributed liberally both of men and money. On account 
of the large foreign element in its population there was some fear 
exprest that our state would not do its share, but subsequent events 
proved such fears unfounded- 

Our state contributed money for the war in several ways. One 
of these was thru the five issues of Liberty Loans, the last one being 
also called the Victory Loan. It is my privilege to relate how North 
Dakota responded to the appeals of the government for funds by the 
sale of its obligations. 

Soon after we entered the war it was determined that a part of 
the expenses must be met by the issue of government bonds offered 
as a popular subscription to all the people. In order to reach the 
people an agency had to be created thru which the sale of the govern- 
ment securities could be made. The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. 
McAdoo, appointed a committee consisting of himself, the Assistant 
Secretary, Mr. Russell C. Leffingwell, and Mr. L. B. Franklin, 
Vice President of the Guaranty Trust Co. of New York, for the 
purpose of making allotments of the different loan issues among the 
Federal Reserve Districts. The allotments to each district were 
based primarily on the banking resources, altho the general financial 
condition was also taken into consideration. On this basis it was 
determined that the allotments to the Ninth Federal Reserve District, 
consisting of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, 
Montana, fifteen counties of Michigan, and twenty-six counties of 
Wisconsin, should be three and one-half per cent of its banking 
resources. The Governor of each Federal Reserve District was then 
called upon to appoint a chairman to take charge of the sale of each 
bond issue, and as such chairman for the ninth district, Mr- Arthur 
R. Rogers of Minneapolis was appointed. He in turn appointed 
chairmen for each state, and as such chairman for North Dakota, 
ex-Governor L. B. Hanna was appointed, who served during the 
campaigns of the first two Liberty Loans when he resigned to enter 
Red Cross work in France. He was succeeded by Hon. Wesley C. 
McDowell of Marion, who has had charge of the work in the state 

1 8 Quarterly Journal 

during the remaining campaigns. The state chairman appointed 
sub-chairmen in each county of the state, and as such chairman of 
Grand Forks County Mr. E. J. Lander has served during the entire 

The allotments to the different states in our Federal Reserve 
District were made by the chairman, Mr. Rogers, in conjunction with 
the Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank, Mr. Theo. Wold. They 
also made the allotments to the different counties of the state, taking 
into consideration the local crop conditions- Thus on account of crop 
failures in certain parts of our state the allotments for these sections 
were reduced and the amounts of such reductions were spread over 
other parts of the district. 

The First Liberty Loan issue was for two billion dollars. The 
bonds were dated June 15th, 191 7, bearing interest at 314 per cent due 
in thirty years and tax exempt. The allotment to North Dakota was 
$1,500,000 and the actual subscription was $2,867,700, being nearly 
one hundred per cent over-subscription. The sale of the bonds of the 
first issue was handled mainly thru the banks. In most cases the 
amount allotted to a county was distributed to the banks on some 
equitable basis and they disposed of them to their customers or carried 
them themselves. 

The Second Liberty Loan issue was for three billion dollars, 
dated November 15th, 191 7, due in twenty-five years and bearing 
interest at four per cent but only partially tax exempt. North 
Dakota's allotment of this issue was $6,000,000 and the total amount 
subscribed was $9,660,650. For the sale of these bonds a much more 
elaborate and extensive campaign was inaugurated. For the first 
campaign the State Chairman appointed an Executive Committee, 
consisting of himself, E. I. Weiser, T. L. Beiseker, A. L Hunter, and 
C. R- Green with W. J. Morrish as secretary. The state was divided 
into five districts, but with no special chairman for each district. In 
the second and subsequent campaigns it was divided into fourteen 
districts with a chairman for each district. The counties of Grand 
Forks, Nelson, and Traill comprised one district of which A. I. 
Hunter was chairman, who worked in conjunction with the chairman 
of each county. The county chairman divided his county into districts 
with a sub-chairman for each district, and committees were appointed 
for each political sub-division of the county. As already stated, the 
Ninth District Chairman, Mr. Rogers, made the allotments to the 
different counties ; the county chairman, in consultation with his sub- 
chairmen, made allotments to the different districts in the county and 
these in turn made allotments to the different sub-divisions of the 

North Dakota's Contribution Thru the Liberty Loans 19 

district. Local committees were then appointed for each township, 
village or city whose task it was to raise the quota assigned to them. 
These committees had lists made of every individual in the territory 
covered with an estimate of the amount each was expected to subscribe. 

In order to arouse interest and enthusiasm in the campaign, 
as well as to impress upon the public the importance and necessity 
of standing by the government during the critical time, public meet- 
ings were held. In the larger places men of national reputation filled 
the largest auditoriums, but in every village hall and country school 
house meetings were held, addrest mostly by local people and all 
well attended, showing that the people were keenly alive to the prob- 
lems confronting the nation. A company of Four-Minute men was 
organized in every city and village and a representative of these would 
appear every night at the movie shows, or other places of entertain- 
ment, and on Sundays in the different churches to plead for the cause 
of liberty and patriotism. 

The committees appointed to solicit subscriptions from indi- 
viduals found very little trouble in procuring the quotas assigned to 
them. It was sometimes necessary to enter into arguments with 
people to convince them that their abilities had not been over-estimated 
but in most cases argument was all that was necessary to produce the 
desired result. As far as has come to my notice no drastic mesures, 
such as has been reported from other states, were resorted to to induce 
men to do their duty- On the other hand many surprising subscrip- 
tions were made. In the first drive a German farmer in the western 
part of the state, who was not known to be wealthy, came forward 
with one of the largest subscriptions for that issue. In one of the 
country districts lived a small farmer whose surroundings did not 
indicate anything but poverty. In one of the first drives he had been 
alloted $50, and in the next campaign the committee felt that he 
had probably done all that could be expected of him and left it to 
his own judgment to subscribe what he could afford. To the 
committee's surprise he signed up for $5,000, and went into the 
house to fetch the actual cash in payment of his subscription. At 
another place the committee approached a threshing crew without 
any expectation of getting much out of it. When one of the workmen 
was approached he at once told them to put his name down for 
$5,000 and produced a savings book on a bank in a large city as a 
guarantee of his good faith. Such incidents as these more than com- 
pensate for the few cases reported where the committee failed to get 
the amounts set against the names on their lists. 

One of the by-products of the Liberty Loan campaigns has 

20 Quarterly Journal 

been the formation of thrift habits. To meet the subscriptions that 
had to be made some savings in other directions had to be made. 
The formation of habits of saving has enabled people not only to buy 
enormous amounts of Liberty Bonds, contribute liberally to Red 
Cross and other war work, but also to increase their savings in banks 
at the same time. From the year 191 4 to the year 1918 the per 
capita bank savings in North Dakota increast from $34.64 to $131.55 
and for the whole ninth district, during the same period, the per 
capita bank savings have increast over one hundred ten per cent. 

The Third Liberty Loan issue was also for three billion, dated 
May 9th, 19 1 8, due in ten years, bearing interest at 4lA per cent 
and partially tax exempt. North Dakota's allotment was $6,500,000 
and the actual amount subscribed in the state was $12,158,750. 

The Fourth Liberty Loan was for the enormous amount of six 
billion dollars and North Dakota's allotment was nineteen million. 
The reason for this large allotment for North Dakota at this time 
was that this issue was dated October 24th, 191 8, immediately after 
the harvesting of a large crop. North Dakota had been favored in 
the former drives by reason of the crop failure in the state, but in 
spite of this handicap the state had made such a good showing that 
a larger percentage quota had been allotted to it at this time. The 
over-subscription was not so large as in the former drives, but it 
amounted to nearlv three million, the actual subscription being 
$21,657,450. As an additional spur to create an interest among the 
people in this drive a train of relics passed thru the state, stopping at 
the principal places to allow the people to inspect it. Here were 
exhibited all kinds of weapons, fire-arms, and protective armor used 
by the soldiers and taken from the enemy. Accompanying this were 
speakers who made strong appeals to the crowds that visited this train. 

The Fifth Liberty Loan, also called the Victory Loan, was issued 
for four and one-half billion and North Dakota's allotment was 
$18,500,000, and the amount subscribed in the state was $19,131,450. 

In the Second Liberty Loan drive the following were the District 
and County Chairmen: 

C. R. Green, District Chairman; Pembina county, F. A. Argue; 
Cavalier county, Archie Sillers; Walsh county, Karl J. Farup. 

A. I. Hunter, District Chairman; Grand Forks county, E. J- 
Lander; Nelson county, J. P. Lamb; Traill county, M. L. Elken. 

E. J. Weiser, District Chairman; Cass county, P. W. Clemens; 
Steele county, M. B. Cassell; Ransom county, R. S. Adams; Rich- 
land county, W- F. Eckes. 

W. C. McDowell, District Chairman; La Moure county, 

North Dakota's Contribution Thru the Liberty Loans 21 

F. P. Bennett; Dickey county, east half, T. F. Marshall; Dickey 
county, west half, D. E. Geer; Sargent county, N. L. Cabanne; 
Mcintosh county, Paul L. Kretschmar. 

A. B. DeNault, District Chairman; Barnes county, J. J. Early; 
Griggs county, Oscar Greenland; Foster county, G. S. Newberry; 
Stutsman county, James Buchanan. 

T. L. Beiseker, District Chairman; Sheridan county, J. A. Beck 
and J. E. Davis; Eddy county, Harry C. Sexton; Wells county, 
H. H. Phillips and H- Ingwaldson. 

C. H. Doyon, District Chairman; Ramsey county, Joseph M. 
Kelly; Benson county, M. H. Storey; Pierce county, Richard E. 

Harry Lord, District Chairman; Towner county, F. C. Rother; 
Rolette county, A. O. Graham; Bottineau county, W. T. Munn. 

M. R. Porter, District Chairman; Ward county, R. E. Barron; 
Divide county, C. J. Clark; Reville county, J. C. Peters; Burke 
county, R. H. Farmer; McHenry county, H. H- Bergh. 

W. S. Davidson, District Chairman; Williams county, L. C. 
Wingate; Mountraill county, B. W. Taylor; McKenzie county, 
J. L. McRay. 

J. L. Bell, District Chairman ; Burleigh county, H. P. Goddard ; 
McLean county, August E. Johnson; Logan county, F. B. Heath; 
Kidder county, John F- Robinson; Emmons county, G. A. Lenhart. 

J- H. Newton, District Chairman; Oliver county, F. C. Wick; 
Mercer county, P. S. Chaffee; Morton county, W. A. Lanterman; 
Grant county, H. Hallenberg; Sioux county, P. J. Jacobson. 

W. L. Richards, District Chairman ; Golden Valley county, 
Thomas E- Hayward; Billings county, A. O. Christenson; Stark 
county, L. R. Baird ; Dunn county, A. B. Curry. 

J. E. Phelan, District Chairman ; Slope county, C. P. Allison ; 
Bowman county, R. J. List; Hettinger county, George J. Helming; 
Adams county, Frank Rhoda. 

The chairmen for the remaining drives were substantially the 
same as above. The principal change was the promotion of W- C. 
McDowell from district chairman to state chairman, and the appoint- 
ment of F. P. Bennett to take his place as district chairman and that 
of W. H. Hutchinson to take his place as county chairman. 


Quarterly Journal 



























































The Work of the Welfare 

Howard E. Simpson, 
Professor of Geographic Geology, University of North Dakota 

THE World War undoubtedly called forth the greatest concen- 
tration of human effort in the history of mankind. It is prob- 
able also that a greater proportion of the effort was devoted to the up- 
holding of the morale of the men engaged than in any previous war. 
Owing to the distance from the immediate conflict, and the vast re- 
sources in reserve as well as the spirit of our people, the United States 
engaged very largely in this phase of the work not only with the 
American troops, but with those of all of her allies and even the 
enemy prisoners of war. The effect of this work in the winning of 
the war may perhaps be best appreciated if one recalls Napoleon's 
statement that "morale is to the other facts in war as three to one." 
Many factors contributed to the remarkable morale of the American 
troops overseas, and not the least of these was the work of the several 
welfare organizations which were invited by the United States Gov- 
ernment to supplement the provisions of the War and Navy Depart- 
ments and the work of the Red Cross in providing for the comfort 
and welfare of the men in the military and naval service of the 
United States. 

Effort is here made to review the service of each of these auxiliary 
organizations and to present briefly the contribution made by the 
people of North Dakota thru the agency of each of those later grouped 
together in the United War Work Campaign- The organizations 
thus included are the Young Men's Christian Association, Young 
Women's Christian Association, Knights of Columbus, Jewish Wel- 
fare Board, Salvation Army, War Camp Community Service, and 
the American Library Association. 

No attempt has been made to trace the work of any organizations 
thru the reconstruction period, for we are perhaps still in its beginning. 
The lists of those entering the service of the several organizations 
are probably incomplete and possibly inaccurate. The time which 
has elapsed since the signing of the armistice is insufficient for the 
compiling of correct rolls of this kind of service. Individual mention 
is made only for regular full time service; the names of those who 
served voluntarily at home would make a volume. Tho this service 
was equally necessary and in some cases equally sacrificial, their 

24 Quarterly Journal 

reward must be found largely in the satisfaction within their own 
hearts of service well performed. 

The Young Men's Christian Association 

On the day the break came with Germany, Dr. John R. Mott, 
General Secretary of the International Committee of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, tendered to President Wilson the support 
and service of the Y. M. C. A. President Wilson in response issued 
the following Executive Order: 

"The Young Men's Christian Association has, in the present 
emergency, as under similar circumstances in the past, tendered its 
services for the benefit of enlisted men in both arms of the service. 
This organization is prepared by experience, approved methods, and 
assured resources, to serve especially the troops in camp and field. 
It seems best for the interest of the service that it shall continue as 
a voluntary civilian organization; however, the results obtained are 
so beneficial and bear such a direct relation to efficiency, inasmuch as 
the association provision contributes to the happiness, content, and 
morale of the personnel, that in order to unify the civilian betterment 
activities in the Army, and to further the work of the organization 
that has demonstrated its ability to render a service desired by both 
officers and men, official recognition is hereby given the Young Men's 
Christian Association as a valuable adjunct and asset to the service. 
Officers are enjoined to render the fullest practicable assistance and 
co-operation in the maintenance and extention of the association, both 
at permanent posts and stations and in camp and field. To this end 
attention of officers is called to the precedent and policy already 

The Y. M. C. A. volunteered for service and assumed the 
the responsibility because of its knowledge of young men, its long 
experience with the army and navy in times of peace, and especially 
because of the successful experience with our troops on the Mexican 
Border. The movement was swiftly and surely put into action. A 
National War Work Council composed of leading citizens, was 
organized to direct the association program among enlisted men. 
Hundreds of large buildings were erected for use of the troops 
wherever they were at home and overseas. These were centers of 
friendliness, providing physical education and social and religious 
activities. Men were recruited from the ranks of business and 
professional life to supplement the insufficient number of experienced 

The Work of the Welfare Organizations 25 

Association officers available. Many of America's best religious 
leaders served without pay and at great personal sacrifice. 

Soon after the American Expeditionary Force had reached 
France and the Red Triangle vi^ork had been establisht among our 
troops, a call came from the French Government to send over 500 
thoroly capable American secretaries and provide the Y. M. C. A. 
service for the 4,000,000 troops of the French Army. General 
Pershing approved the action v^^ith the statement, "The greatest 
service that America can immediately render France is to extend the 
Y. M. C. A. work to the entire French army." Similar invitations 
came from the military authorities of Italy, and of Russia, and from 
Great Britain came the request for the co-operation with the British 
Y. M. C. A., which had already establisht the Association program 
among the troops of our allies in Egypt, East Africa, Palestine, 
Mesopotamia, and India. 

With all of these demands for the many millions of men under 
arms, the other millions of men and boys in prisoner-of-war camps 
thruout the warring countries were not forgotten. The work among 
these unfortunate men began in all warring countries early in the 
war by the students of America and, financed by the Students' Friend- 
ship War Fund, was carried on thruout the entire war. One Ameri- 
can secretary was even permitted to remain within the German lines 
to direct the work for the allied prisoners of war in that county and 

Greatest of all, however, was the service of the Y. M. C. A. to 
the American troops at home and abroad in affording them whole- 
some recreation, opportunity for study, religious guidance, substitutes 
for home life, and other manifold luxuries, comforts, and necessities. 
This program was carried out in nearly 1000 Association huts, or 
commodious buildings in the home camps and in 1965 huts and build- 
ings in France, not to mention the other thousands of temporary 
buildings and dugouts which were placed even in the communication 
trenches at the front. This work required the services of over ii,000 
secretaries and assistants of whom as many as 7,000 were overseas 
at one time. These huts became the soldiers' church, a church 
for all, his college, his club, and his home. Athletics under the 
direction of the world's noted athletes were provided to the men 
in the service. Equipment was f urnisht free including base balls, alone 
in numbers far exceeding a million- The Y. M. C. A. gave the 
soldiers millions of sheets of letter paper and envelopes every month. 
Other millions of books, and magazines were purchased for the troops 
and 42 camp papers, having a weekly circulation of 700,000, were 

26 Quarterly Journal 

publisht. Two hundred and seventy-five thousand soldiers remitted 
$16,000,000 in good money to the home folks thru "Y" secretaries 
without charge for service. The Y. M. C. A. undertook the respon- 
sibility of establishing an educational system for the A. E. F. at a 
time when it was impracticable for the army to do so, engaging six 
hundred of the ablest educators of America and providing two million 
text books and educational pamphlets. 

An important part of the Y. M. C. A. work overseas was given 
to the post exchange and canteen service. The Y- M. C. A. secre- 
taries became the accredited store keepers of the American Expedition- 
ary Forces at the request of the Commander in Chief in order that 
every soldier engaged therein should be releast for training and fight- 
ing. This constituted a branch of work separate and distinct from 
the many other activities of the Association and was necessarily 
conducted under Army Regulations. Sales, made at Quartermaster's 
prices, totalled approximately $40,000,000 in the eleven months. The 
deficit sustained in this branch alone totalled two million dollars. An 
idea of the magnitude of this gigantic merchandising system may be 
gained thru the knowledge that each canteen in France was expected 
to carry a list of more than 300 items including food, clothing, and 
toilet articles, many of the necessary materials being manufactured by 
the Association factories in France. Supplies were distributed free 
to men going into and coming out of combat. 

North Dakota's service thru the Y. M. C. A. began with the 
contributions of the University and colleges to the Students' Friend- 
ship War Fund in 191 6. This was spent for the relief of the prisoners 
of war and the $2,846.35 sent from the State was paid as follows: 

University of North Dakota $1,080.00 

Fargo College 704-50 

North Dakota Agricultural College 629.85 

Jamestown College 432-00 

The following year, 191 7, the original quota asked for the 
Y. M. C. A. Campaign for the Army and Navy was $125,000. The 
people of the State raised about $185,000, thus oversubscribing the 
quota about 50 per cent, besides giving liberally to other welfare 
agencies. In this campaign the amounts paid in by the colleges and 
credited again to the Students' Friendship War Fund was as follows: 

Aaker's Business College, Fargo $ 36.00 

Fargo College, Fargo 59I-00 

Jamestown College, Jamestown 236.00 

North Dakota Agricultural College, Fargo 1,154.97 

State Normal and Industrial School, EUendale 300.00 

State Normal School, Mayville 306.84 

The JVork of the Welfare Organizations 


State Normal School, Minot 229.25 

State Normal School, Valley City 1,500.00 

State Science School, Wahpeton 234.50 

University of North Dakota, Grand Forks 2,743.91 

' $7,332.47 
Over one hundred men and several women entered the war 
service of the Y. M. C. A. from North Dakota. Most of the men 
went as secretaries, a few as auto drivers, while the women were 
employed chiefly in the canteen service. The quota for the state for 
secretarial work, after the beginning of the year 191 8, was ten men 
a month and this quota was more than filled. 

Y. M. C. A. War Workers From North Dakota 
Name Address Remarks 

Seymour D. Anderson 12 15 University Ave., 

Grand Forks Home Camp 

James I. Asher Minot Overseas 

Dennis E. Blake Lisbon Overseas 

Harold H. Bond Amidon Overseas 

Russel J. Boyd Hannah Home Camp 

Lester Briggle Linton Overseas 

Paul M. Brown Hettinger Overseas 

A. W. Brown Fargo Home Camp 

Wm. B. Brownlee Fargo In Service 

Howard F. Butterfield Mayville Overseas 

Norman Brighton Fargo Home Camp 

Henry R. Brush 607 Walnut St., 

Grand Fork In Service 

Ira M. Capper Baldwin Overseas 

Charles M. Christiansen Drake Overseas 

George W. Cochrane Bismarck Overseas 

Howard Cotton Tarbore Overseas 

Loren B. Curtis Lisbon Home Camp 

Alfred S. Dale Rugby Home Camp 

Arthur B. Dale Y. M. C. A., Fargo Overseas 

Frank E. EUickson Regent Overseas 

Charles C. Elliott Revere Overseas 

Sigrud Berkhard Erickson Cooperstown Home Camp 

Alex R. Evans Allendale Home Camp 

Eugene B. Fairbanks Alexander Overseas 

John C. Field Williston Overseas 

Samuel Graham Eraser Towner Home Camp 

Alfred D. Frazier Watford City Overseas 

Wallace H. Frederick Fargo Overseas 

William W. Fuller 11 15 7th St. So., Fargo Overseas 

Ralph T. Fulton Towner Overseas 

Julius J. Gitts Noonan Overseas 

Melville A. Goldsmith 331 gth Ave. So., Fargo Home Camp 

Winfield J. Goodall Sanish Overseas 


Quarterly Journal 

Loran E. Goodwin 
Roslyn J. Hanson 
Wm. R. Hill 
Thomas T. Hiner 
Bruce E. Jackson 
Swain S. Johnson 
Ralph Wright Keller 
Herbert C. Kinney 
Phillip A. LflFleur 
LaRoy A. Lippitt 
Willard C, Lyon 
Orlando E. McCracken 
J. H. McMonagle 
Victor A. Major 
Norman Malcolm 
Oscar M. Mehus 
Elmon G. Miller 
Harvey J, Moore 
Job Moore 
James H. Nason 
Noah Panger 
Geo. C. Pratt 
William C. Rew 
Bradford H. Robbins 
J. L. Robertson 

Albert E. Rowan 
Elmer C. Rudolph 
Alfred L. Schafer 
Dudley C. Schnabel 
Fred C. Spalding 
Wallace N. Stearns 
Benj. F. Stump, Jr. 
John A. Taylor 
Harold Page Thomson 
Harry H. Tuttle 
Wm. L. Upshaw 
Donald F. Wanner 
Earl Ward 
Horace Ward 
Walter K. William 
Harold E. Winslow 
Clarence E. Wolsted 

1205 Second Ave. So., Fargo Overseas 




618 2nd St., Bismarck 



Grand Forks 



Valley City 

1 127 9th Ave. So., Fargo 






Grand Forks 


Home Camp 

Home Camp 



Home Camp 

Home Camp 






Home Camp 

Home Camp 


Home Camp 

Home Camp 

Home Camp 

Home Camp 

401 So. 6th St., Grand Forks Overseas 


Grand Forks 


603 loth St., Fargo 

Jamestown College, 

Box 64, Jamestown 
Grand Forks 
Valley City 


Home Camp 



Home Camp 
Home Camp 

Home Camp 
Home Camp 


Home Camp 

Home Camp 

Grand Forks 

417 Mills Ave., Fargo 

3 Dakota Blk., Grand Forks Overseas 

Jamestown Home Camp 

617 2nd Ave., Jamestown Home Camp 




Grand Forks 

Agricultural College, 

Valley City 


Home Camp 

Eugene Woodhams 

Women Workers for Y. M. C. A. From North Dakota 


Grace M. Axtell 
Harriet L. Hunt 
Delia Linwell 


North wood 



The Work of the Welfare Organizations 29 

Anne Aurelia McGlinch Minto Overseas 

Hazel B. Neilson Valley City Overseas 

Christine M, Pollock Fargo Overseas 

Blanche True Fargo College, Fargo Overseas 

The Young Women's Christian Association 

Some fifty years ago a few good women of London fitted up a 
house in Fitzroy Square as a home where the nurses going out to the 
Crimea with Florence Nightingale, might have a place to bed and 
board and to prepare for sailing, and here later some of them returned 
war weary, sick, and homeless. It is not surprising that with such 
a beginning, the Young Women's Christian Association should in 
this great war be called by the Government to serve the women of 
the war in the same but in a vastly greater way than it has been 
serving the women who have needed it in all parts of the world for 
over fifty years. 

The first official acknowledgement of the need for such a service 
for women of the war carae from the commanding officer of the 
Plattsburg training camp in a request to national headquarters of 
the Y. W. C. A. in April, 191 7, that something be done for the 
women and girls at camp, the wives, mothers, sisters, and sweethearts 
who came to visit husbands, sons, brothers, and lovers. Two weeks 
later the first hostess house was opened at Plattsburg- 

The real war work of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion began as the result of a request from the War Department 
Commissions on Training Camp Activities to supply leaders for 
girls in the vicinity of the training camps. The War Work Council 
appointed to answer this call opened Girl's Club and Recreation 
Centers to make men in uniform welcome to home-like social events. 
The Hostess House establisht in every large camp, was the answer 
of the Y. W. C. A. to the further request of the War Department 
for houses where women friends who visited soldiers in these camps 
could be entertained and where "a bit of home within the camp" 
for the off hours of the men and the visiting days of mothers, friends, 
and babies. Special aid was given in their own tongues to foreign 
born who helpt in loyal service their adopted country. 

War Service Centers were establisht in the industrial canton- 
ments of the United States Government to keep the girls fit to do 
their work in providing war order supplies for the armies overseas. 
Emergency housing was planned at the request of the Government 
and wherever girls were called to work the Y. W. C. A. assured 
them adequate housing and necessary recreation. At the request of 
the French Government social and recreational work was carried on 

30 Quarterly Journal 

for the women munition workers of France, many of whom were 
refugees, and many of the little refugee children were fed and com- 
forted until a temporary home or orphanage could be provided. 

One of the finest bits of service rendered by the Y. W. C. A. dur- 
ing the war was that rendered the Red Cross nurses of the American 
hospitals in France, Nurses' huts were built and furnisht at practi- 
cally all of the base hospitals where the nurses, tired, worn, and even 
nervously shattered from the strain and horror of their work, came 
for rest, refreshment, and even recreation. No service better displays 
the adherence of the Young Women's Christian Association to the 
traditions of its origin than this service for nurses repeated after 
fifty years. 

In Paris the Hotel Petrograd served as a hostess house and as a 
hotel for American women workers in France. At Tours a hotel 
was establisht as a home for the women's telephone unit of the U. S. 
Signal Corps, and wherever telephone girls were sent the Y. W. C. A. 
was there to care for them. 

Work similar to that for French women was carried on in Club 
Centers in the larger cities of Russia, where as one Blue Triangle 
secretary wrote, "It's like living on the screen of a melodrama." 
Another picturesque piece of work was the financing of the Polish 
Gray Samaritians organized to fit themselves in and for Poland and 
to serve upon completion of their training wherever needed. 

The younger girls of America were not forgotten, for many 
thousands were enrolled in the Patriotic League to help win the war 
thru social service and thru maintaining the highest standards of 
patriotism for themselves and others. Thus was the Y. W- C. A. 
"Serving at Our Country's Call," for wherever the women and girls 
went to meet the new demands of war the Y. W. C. A. set the Blue 
Triangle in their midst. 

In the work of Y. W. C. A., the women of North Dakota, 
particularly those of the cities of Fargo and Grand Forks, where 
there are well organized local associations, had an important part. 
In Grand Forks a Hostess' House was establisht in Corwin Hall of 
Wesley College, opposite the University campus, for the benefit of 
the women friends of the members of the Students' Army Training 
Corps at the University. Social work to help keep up the morale of 
the womanhood of the city was carried on and co-operation with all 
other welfare organizations in a community program. Excellent 
work was done by the Business Girls' Club and other Y. W. C- A. 
workers in preparing surgical dressings and other sewing for the Red 

The Work of the Welfare Organizations 31 

A group of the University Y. W. C. A. girls cared for the 
mothers and sisters of the sick soldiers in Macnie Hall, the woman's 
dormitory on the campus, during the epidemic of influenza and assisted 
the University Commons in preparing proper food for the convales- 

In Fargo the Y. W. C. A. assisted in entertaining the members 
of the S. A. T. C. at the Agricultural College and provided the 
meeting place for the soldiers and their out-of-town friends and 
relatives- Constant use was made of the Y. W. C. A. quarters for 
Red Cross work of every kind, classes were early organized in first 
aid and home nursing and the Business Girl's and Women's Clubs 
did exceptionally well in collecting and utilizing old leather in the 
making of aviation jackets for the Red Cross, During the first 
campaign of the Y. W. C. A. for war work Fargo raised $2000. 

The College section of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tions shared with that of the Y. M, C. A. in the raising of the Friend- 
ship Fund for Prisoners of War in 19 16 and the general joint 
Christian Association campaign in 19 17. The local associations at 
the State University at Grand Forks, Agricultural College and Fargo 
College at Fargo, Jamestown College at Jamestown, State Normal 
Schools at Valley City, Mayville, Minot, and the State Normal 
Industrial School at Ellendale all contributed. In fact because of 
the absence in service of so many of the men from all the institutions 
in 191 7 the funds came quite largely from the young women who 
made many sacrifices to raise them. 

North Dakota Women in Y. W. C. A. War Work 

Name Address Remarks 

Elsie Rohde Grand Forks Home Camps 

Frances Cathro Bottineau Home Camps 

Helena Hufifaker 607 Broadway, Fargo Home Camps 

The National Catholic War Council 
The Knights of Columbus is a fraternal benefit society of 
Catholics organized and operated in North America. It was 
especially active thruout the United States in men's work for the 
welfare of the soldiers and sailors during the great war, carrying on 
its work under the direction of the National Catholic War Council. 
The Knights of Columbus aimed to provide social, recreational, 
and educational facilities for all men in the service of our country and 
to assist the spiritual welfare of those who desired it. They aided in 
maintaining the morale of the troops both in this country and with 
the American Expeditionary Force overseas at the highest possible 

32 Quarterly Journal 

plane, and their facilities were open to men of all creeds without 
distinction- Secretaries were sent into the field with the injunction to 
serve the men with the colors as they would serve their own sons and 
brothers. The service rendered was well bestowed and greatly 
appreciated. In addition to this they ordered shipt large quantities 
of "soldier comforts" and supplies including cigarets, candy, gum, and 
stationery. The value of the work to all of the men, but especially 
to the Catholic fighting men, was acknowledged by our Government 
and those of France and Italy, whose armies shared in the work. 

The extent of this work of the Knights of Columbus is suggested 
by the fact that in their work at home they had in operation 294 camp 
buildings and 27 tents, and employed 674 secretaries. Overseas they 
maintained 250 places (nearly 175 in France) in France, Belgium, 
Italy, Germany, and Great Britain and employed nearly one thousand 
seventy-five secretaries, mechanics, movie operators, etc., many of 
whom were voluntary workers. The amount expended in overseas 
work was $9,550,082, and for home work in the United States, 

The Knights of Columbus was one of the most active organiza- 
tions in North Dakota in the welfare work. Prior to the United 
War Work Campaign in 19 18 the K. of C. councils in this state 
contributed $45,000 to the War Camp Fund; $2,000 to the Red 
Cross; purchased $500 worth of Smileage books; and invested from 
their reserve $18,000 in Liberty Bonds and $1500 in War Savings 
Stamps. This, of course, does not include donations or investments 
by individual members, of which no record is obtainable. 

The Knights maintained a K. of C. hut on the campus of the 
State Agricultural College at Fargo for the use of the members of 
the Student Army Training Corps located there. Two resident 
secretaries in charge contributed largely to the comfort of the boys in 
training, especially during the epidemic of influenza- Plans were 
completed, too, for the erection of a hut at the State University at 
Grand Forks when the armistice was signed. 

Napoleon LeFleur of Minot and John T. Curry of Jamestown 
went overseas as secretaries, and Miss Helen J. Sullivan of Langdon, 
as a service club manager. 

The Jewish Welfare Board 

It was the chief purpose of the Jewish Welfare Board to be with 
the Jewish soldiers and sailors everywhere and to aid them, to cheer 
them, and to serve them loyally and helpfully and thru them their 
country and ideals for which it stands. In doing this it also supplied 


The Work of the Welfare Organizations 33 

their religious needs, permitting them to enjoy their religious observ- 
ances in the same manner as they would have celebrated them at home. 
Thru this Board the houses and synagogues of the cantonment towns 
were thrown open to the men of the Khaki and Blue. The B'nai 
B'rith Branch erected homes in all of the leading camps and these 
were frequented by large numbers of men every day, and without 
regard to ,reed they were all welcome. Rabbis and welfare men 
wearing the Star of David were sent overseas with comfort and cheer 
for thousands of boys, and sustained the morale of the Jewish fighting 

The work of the Jewish Welfare Board in North Dakota was 
limited prior to the United War Work Campaign to the sending of 
about $300 from the people of the state direct to the Board. A 
remarkable work has however done on behalf of the Jewish War 
Relief Fund for which nearly $100,000 was raised in the state during 
the four years of the war. This work began with a shipment of flour 
to Palestine in the fall of 19 14 and progrest as the needs for relief in 
the war-stricken countries of Eastern Europe became greater. About 
$50,000 was raised in 19 18 for the Relief Fund. 

The Salvation Army 

The Salvation Army sought to be universally helpful to the boys 
in the cantonments and in France, by bringing to them the atmos- 
phere of the American home. Its field corps of which seventy-five 
per cent were women, traveled wherever possible with the army, 
occupying dugouts, improvised huts, and even the open fields in order 
to minister to the needs of the men at all times of the day and night. 

Personal service of the home type was the feature of the Salva- 
tion Army work, and steaming hot coffee, fresh baked pies, and 
doughnuts were frequently served under fire. Home was thus 
brought to mind by "the kind that mother used to make." The 
personal service was also extended to the mending of tattered uni- 
forms, assistance in hospitals and first aid on the battle field- In the 
Salvation Army hut there was always music and good cheer, old songs 
and hymns were sung and religious services carried on of the Salvation 
Army type, familiar the world round. When the armistice was signed 
there were 57 men and 69 women in overseas work. 

North Dakota having largely a rural population has not an 
extensive organization of the Salvation Army, yet, considering the 
number of members, excellent service was rendered. $16,772.57 
was contributed to the Salvation Army drive of 191 8. The Home 

34 Quarterly Journal 

Service League co-operated with the Red Cross in serving, making 
surgical dressings, and many other ways. 

Several officers entered the field service and went overseas to 
serve the soldiers. Captain Helga Ramsey of Grand Forks was over- 
seas fifteen months and passed with the Army of Occupation into 
Germany. Commandant and Mrs. J. W. Hale of Jamestown spent 
two years in France, and Captain and Mrs. Harry M. Rhoda, of 
Dickinson, were also overseas and when the armistice was signed 
went with the American Army into Germany. 

The War Camp Community Service 

"The Red Circle of Hospitality, surrounding a clean soldiery 
encampt upon a blue field of honor" is the heraldic way of describing 
the emblem of the War Camp Community Service and the share of 
the welfare work allotcd to it by the Commission of Training Camp 
Activities. This Commission, appointed by Secretaries Baker of 
War, and Daniels, of the Navy, and popularly known as the Fosdick 
Commission, after its chairman, the Rev. Raymond B. Fosdick, re- 
quested the Playground and Recreation Association of America to 
assume responsibility for the work of stimulating and aiding com- 
munities in the neighborhood of training camps to develop and 
organize their social and recreational resources in such a way as to be 
of the greatest possible value to the officers and soldiers in the camps- 
In addition the Recreation Association was assigned the duty of 
supplementing these resources where after consultation with local 
agencies it seemed to be necessary or desirable. 

The agency of the War Camp Community Service was sociolog- 
ical, rather than religious. In its approach to the problem of service 
it was between and among the soldiers and the civilian population, 
especially in the camp centers. In or near to every railroad, or inter- 
urban station, in every camp, training school or barracks, town or city, 
and in town or cities thru which soldiers and their friends pass, 
Travelers Aid Workers, operating with and for the War Camp 
Community Service, answered every variety of questions that the 
traveler might ask, and helpt soldiers and their visiting friends to get 
into touch with one another. Their information booths were helpful 
in many an embarrassing situation. Standard Soldier Clubs essential 
to the comfort and convenience of the soldier on leave were main- 
tained by the W. C. C. S. in all important cities and furnisht 
temporary home comforts to thousands of boys in khaki and blue every 
week. Hostesses distributed tickets for entertainments in homes, 
clubs, churches, and lodges and many entertainments were arranged 

The Work of the Welfare Organizations 35 

by the women of the communities in the club houses. TUey invited 
the soldiers on leave to come in from the street. In this service 
thousands of men and women in camp cities and as volunteer workers 
gave loyal support to the Government in its effort to build up thru 
community hospitality a morale which was not broken down. 

A survey of Grand Forks was made by a representative of 
W. C. C. S. in September, 1918- Recommendations were made for 
work in connection with the S. A. T. C. unit at the State Univer- 
sity. Since the men were kept at the University during the week and 
adequate recreational facilities were provided on the campus by the 
Y. M. C. A., the W. C. C. S- work in Grand Forks consisted of pro- 
viding hospitality and entertainment in town on Saturday afternoons 
and evenings, and on Sundays. For this purpose the Y. M. C. A. 
building was given over to the Service to be operated as a Soldier's 
Club on Saturday and Sunday of each week. A splendid spirit of 
co-operation and hospitality on the part of the citizens of Grand 
Forks was reported. All work was greatly handicapt by the epidemic 
of influenza which overtook the town and University in November 
and made strict quarantine regulations necessary. W. C- C. S. 
workt in co-operation with the Red Cross in meeting this emergency. 
Practical nurses were recruited and sent to the S. A. T. C. hospital. 
Home-cooked dainties were provided, and convalescents were taken on 
rides. With the demobilization of the S. A. T. C. in December, 
W. C. C. S- work in Grand Forks was closed. 

A survey of Fargo, North Dakota, was made by a representative 
of W. C. C. S. in October, 191 8, and work was undertaken in 
connection with the S. A. T. C. at Fargo College and the Agricul- 
tural College. Hospitality and entertainment were provided for the 
men on Saturday afternoons and evenings and on Sundays, the only 
time when they were free to come to town. The facilities of the 
Y. M. C. A. building were available for this purpose. Thru the 
kindness of the Commercial Club, W. C. C. S. headquarters were 
installed in the Commercial Club rooms. Churches, societies, and 
fraternal orders of the city were openly hospitable towards students 
and could not do too much for them. The work was brought to a 
stand-still by the influenza epidemic in November, and the organiza- 
tion co-operated with the Red Cross in doing all that was possible to 
meet the emergency. W. C. C. S. work in Fargo closed in December 
when the S. A. T. C. was demobilized. 

In November, 191 8, a survey was made of Jamestown, North 
Dakota, relative to W. C. C. S. work in connection with the S. A. 
T. C. at Jamestown College. It was found, however, that the college 

36 Quarterly Journal 

activities provided for the leisure time of the men and W. C. C. S- was 
not organized in the town. 

Those who entered the War Camp Community Service from 
North Dakota during the war period are Mr. William W. Norton, 
Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Music of the 
University of North Dakota, who entered W. C. C. S. as organizer 
of community singing on December 26, 191 8. His field of work 
was St. Paul, Minnesota, where he was engaged as song leader. Mrs. 
Pearl Blough of Grand Forks, served as Director of Girls' Work 
in the suburban district of Chicago. Miss Mabel Davies, also of 
Grand Forks, assisted Mrs. Blough, being in charge of the girls' work 
in several suburbs- Miss Mabel J. Treat of Spiritwood was recrea- 
tional director in the Girls' Division in Minneapolis from August, 
19 1 8. Miss Ethel Chase Christie of Grafton, was the director of 
Girls' Work in Portland, Oregon. Miss Gertrude W. Dewine of 
Minot, was director of Girls' Work in Mercedes, Loredo, Corpus 
Christi, and Brownsville, Texas. 

The American Library Association 
The ideal aim of the Library War Service of the American 
Library Association was the supplying of every man of the fighting 
force with exactly the reading matter he wanted and needed, wherever 
he was and whenever he wanted it. With the funds subscribed for 
this purpose scores of library buildings were built in cantonment 
camps, forts, and hospitals, and hundreds of branch libraries were 
opened in Y. M. C. A. and K. of C. huts and Y. W. C. A. Hostess 
houses both in this country and overseas; thousands of books, maga- 
zines, and newspapers were purchast and millions of gift books placed 
in service. Libraries were in charge of trained librarians and many 
of the libraries furnisht material for intensive reference work for 
men to study in advance, as well as recreational reading- Equipment, 
service, supplies, and transportation were all necessary for this work. 
Concerning North Dakota's contribution, the Divisional Director 
wrote the State Director, "North Dakota has certainly done its share, 
and I should think you would be very proud of it." The first cam- 
paign was conducted in September, 191 7, thru libraries and county 
chairmen of Federated Clubs to raise money for books for soldiers. 
North Dakota is credited with $5,928.28, and while no special effort 
was made to collect reading matter, 5,341 books and 12,942 magazines 
were sent thru the Library Commission from numerous towns in the 
state to various camps. 

In the spring of 191 8 a campaign for books was made thruout 

The Work of the Welfare Organizations 37 

the state. The Minot Public Library was in charge of the book 
collection. Librarians, superintendents of schools, and club women 
directed the work. Gift books were received from 146 towns. Nearly 
40,000 books were gathered into the collection centers at Grand 
Forks, Jamestown, Mayville, Minot, Valley City, Wahpeton, and 
Williston, where they were prepared for circulation and shipt in this 
country to camps and to embarkation ports for shipment overseas. 
Camp Dodge, the training center for North Dakota men, was the 
chief recipient in this country. The Minot librarian reports, "The 
interest and enthusiasm of librarians, teachers and club women in 
helping to carry on this work has been most inspiring." The librarians 
of the collecting points each readily and willingly accomplisht the 
task of sorting and making ready thousands of volumes. The general 
expense of this campaign — about $50 — was borne by the Minot 
Public Library. 

Besides the work mentioned the libraries of Grand Forks and 
Fargo have done much in collecting books and magazines for the men 
of the Students' Army Training Corps located at the State University 
and Agricultural College. 

The Food Administration Publicity Campaign among North 
Dakota libraries was conducted by the Fargo Public Library, in 
co-operation with the Agricultural College which had in charge the 
food administration for the state. Letters, leaflets, and posters 
• distributed thru this agency and conspicuously displayed in the 
libraries played an important part in educating public opinion to 
conformity with the food regulations- 
School children of the state prepared 598 scrap books of happy 
stories and bright pictures for hospital use. The variety and beauty of 
these books furnisht reading and recreation for many convalescents 
in the hospitals in France. 

North Dakota People in Library War Service 

Nelle A. Olson, Librarian of the State Normal School at May- 
ville, North Dakota, served as Hospital Librarian at Fort Bayard, 
Camp Cody, New Mexico. 

Haldora Peterson, Stenographer of the State Library Commis- 
sion, Pembina, North Dakota, served as Clerk with headquarters at 
Washington, D. C. 

A. D. Keator, Librarian of the State University at Grand Forks, 
North Dakota, served as Assistant and Acting Librarian at Camp 
Humphreys, Virginia. 

38 Quarterly Journal 

The United War Work Campaign 

That the people might be relieved from an unnecessary number 
of campaigns for patriotic funds the United States Government thru 
the War and Navy Department Gammissions on Training Camp 
Activities advised a joint campaign of the seven welfare organizations, 
other than the Red Cross, working with the army and navy at home 
and overseas. The organizations thus included were those recognized 
by President Wilson when he said, "The Young Men's Christian 
Association, The Young Women's Christian Association, The Na- 
tional Catholic War Council, The Jewish Welfare Board, The War 
Camp Community Service, The American Library Association, and 
The Salvation Army are the accepted instrumentalities through which 
the men in the camps are to be assisted in many essential matters of 
recreation and morals." 

It was believed that this arrangement would make a greater 
appeal to the public and to the organizations themselves than could 
possibly be obtained by the independent approach of any one of these 
organizations. The combination would develop larger interest and 
better results, with less expense and effort than could be accomplisht 
by the seven organizations conducting separate campaigns. As 
exprest by Doctor John R. Mott, "this great campaign will give us 
a chance to show that the men and women at home are capable of 
rising to the same heights of splendid co-operation as their representa- 
tives 'over there.' If they can struggle and die together to make 
forever secure our liberties, we can plan and work together to get 
the money needed to save them." 

A National Joint Executive Committee composed of five mem- 
bers of each of the participating organizations was organized with 
headquarters at New York City and represented them in the set-up 
and conduct of the campaign. Inasmuch as the Young Men's 
Christian Association and Young Women's Christian Association had 
already effected a strong organization, nationally, in the six military 
departments in forty-eight states and to a large extent in districts, 
counties, and cities, it was apparent that the most practicable method 
of prefecting a united campaign organization would be for the other 
organization to "gear in" their campaign organizations with the 
already existing Campaign Committees of the Y. M. C. A. and 
Y. W. C. A. and form joint committees. This principle of precedure 
was unanimously adopted and carried out by the National Joint 
Executive Committee. There resulted a mutual campaign in which 

The Work of the Welfare Organizations 39 

the strength of each was exerted for the good of all and all expenses 
of the campaign were paid on a pro rata basis. 

The resulting United War Work Campaign was set for the 
week of November 11, 191 8. The original amount sought was 
$170,500,000, but before the campaign was launched, a 50 per cent 
over-subscription was asked for. 

The original quota in the United States of $170,500,00 was 
divided as follows: 

National War Work Council of the Y. M. C. A ...$100,000,000 

War Work Council of the Y. W- C. A .-. 15,000,000 

National Catholic War Council, K. of C 30,000,000 

Jewish Welfare Board 3,500,000 

The War Camp Community Service 15,000,000 

The American Library Association 3,500,000 

Salvation Army 3,500,000 

North Dakota's original quota was $675,000. The state was 
divided into twelve districts, each with a director, and each county 
was organized under a director. The quotas were so arranged that 
the eastern portion of the state carried quite properly the heavy end 
of the load. The spirit of co-operation between the various organiza- 
tions, coupled with the fine work of all district and most county 
directors, put the campaign over in spite of the fact that on the very 
day the campaign was to begin the armistice was signed, the prevalence 
of influenza and weather conditions over the state were just as bad 
as possible. Every county but one made an excellent showing. This 
county, owing to lack of organization due to influenza, failed to 
respond as was expected. Ransom county, all things considered, was 
the banner county, in the total amount of money subscribed. The 
state far exceeded the allotment. The total money paid in May ist, 
1919, was $887,232.31, of which $7,747-93 was paid in by students 
of the eight colleges. The state made a remarkable showing in col- 
lections, practically every dollar being collected that was subscribed. 

The amounts paid in by counties were as follows: 

Pembina County .... $29,263-12 Traill County 37,757-30 

Walsh County 37,548.46 Cass County 102,412.35 

Grand Forks Steele County 10,605.60 

County 55,226.59 Richland County.... 49,646.55 

Nelson County .... 33,461.50 Ransom County.... 36,808.63 

Cavalier County .. 24,526.11 Sargent County 21,510.00 

Ramsey County.... 33,255.35 Dickey County 19,293-85 

Benson County 15,008.82 Barnes County 34,970.87 

Towner County.... 15,098.39 Griggs County 16,207.50 

Rolette County .... 7,132.87 Stutsman County.... 37,374.85 


Quarterly Journal 

Eddy County 1,000.50 

Wells County 8,224.00 

LaMoure County.. 20,231.60 

Foster County 13,501.00 

Burleigh County.... 20,923.91 

McLean County.... 17,514.73 

Sheridan County.... 3,141.85 

Kidder County 8,905.39 

Emmons County.... 9,251.50 

Logan County 5,617.25 

Mcintosh County.. 3,628.75 

McHenry County.. 13,258.85 

Pierce County 3,867,51 

Bottineau County.. 7,460-95 

Ward County 24,186.93 

Renville County.... 5,812.95 

Burke County 6,564.75 

Divide County 5,712.85 

Williams County.... 12,147.54 

The contributions of the state of North Dakota to the winning 
of the war made thru the welfare organizations was characteristic 
of the spirit of her prairie-loving people. In view of the fact that 
this is a young agricultural state with widely distributed rural 
population the gifts thus presented represent the highest ideals of 
humanity and loyalty. 

Mountrail County.. 6,537.48 

McKenzie County.. 4,760.32 

Morton County 13,226.25 

Grant County 6,910.56 

Sioux County 1,918.77 

Oliver County 2,824.65 

Mercer County 1,074.73 

Stark County 10,748.73 

Dunn County 7,204.55 

Golden Valley 

County 2,579.00 

Hettinger County.. 5,999-70 

Bowman County.... 4,818.93 

Adams County 4,593.84 

Slope County 3,560.77 

Billings County 2,412.51 

Total $887,232.31 

The Work of the Red Cross 

N. C. Young, 
State Director for North Dakota 

A CHAIRMAN of one of the North Dakota chapters in an 
appeal to the people of his county for support and by way 
of explanation of the work and mission of the Red Cross stated that 
it was "applied Christianity" or "Christianity in action." 

It would be difficult to find a more apt explanation. If we 
will take this definition and then consider the extension of Christ- 
ian principles which has taken place thru the church and out- 
side of it and in governments and outside of governments, we 
will understand how naturally the treaty of Geneva, which gave 
to the world the Red Cross, came into existence. The representatives 
of eleven European nations met in Geneva, Switzerland, and on 
August 22nd, 1864, agreed upon the treaty of Geneva establishing 
the Red Cross. In their preliminary recital prefixt to the treaty 
they stated that they were "equally animated with the desire to 
soften, as much as depends on them, the evils of warfare, to suppress 
its useless hardships and improve the fate of wounded soldiers on 
the field of battle * * * " 

The treaty with its amendments will be found in 22 U. S. 
Statutes at Large, pages 940-951. The original ten articles are as 
follows : 

"Article I. Ambulances and military hospitals shall be acknowl- 
edged to be neuter, and, as such, shall be protected and respected by 
belligerents so long as any sick or wounded may be therein. 

Such neutrality shall cease if the ambulances or hospitals should 
be held by a military force. 

Article II. Persons employed in hospitals and ambulances, com- 
prising the staff for superintendence, medical service, administration, 
transport of wounded, as well as chaplains, shall participate in the 
benefit of neutrality, whilst so employed, and so long as there remain 
any wounded to bring in or to succor. 

Article III. The persons designated in the preceding article 
may, even after occupation by the enemy, continue to fulfill their 
duties in the hospital or ambulance which they serve, or may with- 
draw in order to rejoin the corps to which they belong. 

Under such circumstances, when these persons shall cease from 
their functions, they shall be delivered by the occupying army to the 
outposts of the enemy. 

Article IV. As the equipment of military hospitals remains 

42 Quarterly Journal 

subject to the laws of war, persons attached to such hospitals canr.ot, 
in withdrawing, carry away any articles but such as are their private 

Under the same circumstances an ambulance shall, on the con- 
trary, retain its equipment. 

Article V. Inhabitants of the country who may bring help to 
the wounded shall be respected, and shall remain free. The gererals 
of the belligerent powers shall make it their care to inform the 
inhabitants of the appeal addressed to their humanity, and of the 
neutrality which will be the consequence of it. 

Any wounded man entertained and taken care of in a house 
shall be considered as a protection thereto. Any inhabitant who shall 
have entertained wounded men in his house shall be exempted from 
the quartering of troops, as well as from a part of the contributions 
of war which may be imposed. 

Article VI. Wounded or sick soldiers shall be entertained and 
taken care of, to whatever nation they may belong. 

Commanders-in-chief shall have the power to deliver immediately 
to the outposts of the enemy, soldiers who have been wounded in an 
engagement, when circumstances permit this to be done, and wuth 
the consent of both parties. 

Those who are recognized, after their wounds are healed, as 
incapable of serving, shall be sent back to their country. 

The others may also be sent back, on condition of not again 
bearing arms during the continuance of the war. 

Evacuations, together with the persons under whose direction 
they take place, shall be protected by an absolute neutrality. 

Article VII. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted 
for hospitals, ambulances and evacuations. It must, on every 
occasion, be accompanied by the national flag. An arm-badge 
(brassard) shall also be allowed for individuals neutralized, but the 
delivery thereof shall be left to military authority. 

The flag and the arm-badge shall bear a red cross on a white 

Article VIII. The details of execution of the present convention 
shall be regulated by the commanders-in-chief of belligerent armies, 
according to the instructions of their respective governments, and in 
conformity with the general principles laid down in this convention. 

Article IX. The high contracting powers have agreed to com- 
municate the present convention to those governments which have 
not found it convenient to send plenipotentiaries to the International 

The Work of the Red Cross 43 

Conference at Geneva, with an invitation to accede thereto ; the 
protocol is for that purpose left open. 

Article X. The present convention shall be ratified, and the 
ratifications shall be exchanged at Berne, in four months, or sooner, 
if possible." 

It was left to each nation to establish its own method of carrying 
out the provisions of the treaty. 

Forty-three other nations had joined the original signers of the 
treaty, when we approved the treaty and all civilized nations have 
since ratified it 

The United States ratified the treaty and proclamation and 
ratification thereof was made by President Arthur on July 26, 1882. 

The American Red Cross as now organized exists under the 
authority of an Act of Congress of the United States passed January 
5, 1905, Chapter 23, 7. U. S. Compiled Statutes of 1916, Sec. 7697 
to Sec. 7706. This act creates the National Red Cross organization, 
and declares that its purpose is to carry into effect the treaty of 
Geneva, and further: 

"To act in matters of voluntary relief and in accord with the 
military and naval authorities as a medium of communication between 
the people of the United States of America and their Army and Navy, 
and to act in such matters between similar national societies of other 
governments and the people and the Army and Navy of the United 
government. * * * 

"And to continue and carry on a system of national and inter- 
national relief in time of peace and apply the same in mitigating the 
sufferings caused by pestilence, famine, fire, floods, and other great 
national calamities, and to devise and carry on measures for preventing 
the same." 

It makes the governing body of the National organization consist 
of a committee of eighteen members. It requires reports to be made to 
the War Department and to Congress, and provides for the auditing 
of its finances. The President of the United States is its president. 

Upon our entrance into the war, the President, as a part of the 
war program, mobilized the American Red Cross as the humanitarian 
branch of the government and placed it on a war basis. Up to that 
time all of its activities had been centered at or directed from 
Washington. The organization then existing was wholly inadequate 
to meet war conditions and to provide adequate machinery for our 
one hundred million people. A war council of five members, selected 
from the most experienced executives available, was formed with 
supreme authority thruout the United States and abroad. The United 

44 Quarterly Journal 

States was divided into thirteen divisions for administrative purposes. 
Each group of states constituting a division was placed in charge of 
a division manager with a staff of assistants. These managers were 
held responsible for all Red Cross activities in the states included in 
their division. They also constituted an advisory body for the war 
council. The division managers like the members of the war council 
were chosen upon the basis of their executive ability. They were 
held responsible for the organization of the states in their division. 
As a rule, the organization of these states was assigned to a state 
director who was held responsible for the organization of his state. 

North Dakota was placed in the Northern Division along with 
South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota, with division headquarters 
at Minneapolis. North Dakota was organized on a state basis in the 
month of July, 191 7. Prior to that time a number of chapters had 
been organized and considerable interest existed in a number of 
counties. The state organization placed the state upon a county unit 
basis. Each county constitutes a chapter which bears the name of the 
county, with headquarters at the county seat. Uniform by-laws were 
prepared and adopted by each chapter. Just one test was applied in 
the organization work and that was loyalty, competency and willing- 
ness to sacrifice and serve. The officers of the chapters consisted of a 
chairman, vice-chairman, treasurer and secretary. The executive 
committee consisted of five members. Each chapter was made 
responsible for all Red Cross activities within its county. To secure 
efficiency in financial accounting, a banker was selected in each county 
for treasurer. The chapters cstablisht as many branches in their 
county as were necessary for effective service. All of the fifty-three 
counties of the state were organized upon this basis. State head- 
quarters were maintained at Fargo from July i, 191 7, until February 
I, 1 9 19. State headquarters handled no funds; all remittances by the 
chapters were made to division headquarters. 

Members of the national war council, all division managers, and 
all state directors and all chapter officers, without exception, served 
without compensation. So far as they were able, members of the 
foreign commission paid their own expenses. 

It is not possible in this article to go into the war service rendered 
by the American Red Cross as a national organization. It is proper, 
however, to state that the generous, united, and voluntary response 
of the American people to the call for money, service, and member- 
ship furnisht the world with indubitable proof that our country was 
united. This fact had great weight in satisfying Germany that her 
program of world dominion was lost. 

The tVork of the Red Cross 45 

The readers of this article are more interested in what North 
Dakota did. The record is a most flattering one. Here it is: 

There were but few chapters before the state organization was 
put in. Notwithstanding the fact that there was no state-wide cam- 
paign and no allotment and no state organization, the state made a 
volunteer contribution to the first national war fund of $139,287.28. 
The state campaign for the second war fund produced $631,552.90, or 
a total state contribution to the two war fund campaigns of 
$770,840.18. In addition to the two war fund contributions the official 
audit of June 30, 191 8, shows that the state raised the following sums 
in addition to the above war funds up to that date: 

Dues and fees, $242,896.17; donations, auctions, etc., $755,- 
075.44, making a total sum of money collected by the fifty-three 
chapters of North Dakota up to June 30, 19 18, but including both 
Red Cross war funds, $1,768,811.79. 

The work accomplisht by the women of the state was perhaps 
more important than the money raised by the chapters. Division 
headquarters divided the state into four parts and placed a woman's 
field secretary in charge of each district for administrative purposes 
whose duty it was to supervise and correlate the work of the women 
of their districts. The report of the chapters of June 30, 19 18, shows 
that up to that date they had paid out for material for women's work, 
$542,863.83. The division records show that on December ist, 1918, 
there had been delivered and checked into division headquarters by 
North Dakota chapters Red Cross supplies made up by the women of 
our State of a factory value of $1,024,218.80. These consisted of 
791,312 hospital garments and knitted goods of the factory value of 
$869,295.51 ; 49,503 refugee garments of the factory value 
$73)916.36; 1,492,695 pieces of surgical dressings of the factory value 
of $81,006.93, or a grand total of 2,333,510 articles, of the factory 
value of $1,024,218.80. 

In the matter of membership the State made a similar record- 
On July I, 191 7, when the state organization was put in, the total 
membership of the state was only 10,000. At the close of the 
Christmas roll-call December 31, 191 7, there were 166,151 members. 
On December 31, 191 8, at the close of the second Christmas roll-call 
we had approximately 200,000 adult members and in addition, 
95,609 junior members and at that time the fifty-three chapters had 
a total of 703 branches. 

Eight North Dakota men and seven North Dakota women 
entered the Red Cross overseas service. Wherever possible, they 

46 Quarterly Journal 

served without salary or expenses, and in no case was their allowance 
more than enough to cover the bare necessities of life. 

One hundred forty-eight North Dakota nurses were assigned 
oversea service or in the Army cantonments when the armistice was 

The expense of maintaining the state headquarters for the 
eighteen months it was open, which were audited and paid by the 
division headquarters, was $8,366.09. This covered only actual cash 
expenses such as rent, heat, light, express, postage, telephone, tele- 
graph, stationery, printing, etc. 

The war record of the American Red Cross is gratifying. The 
national organization made two calls for war funds. It made two calls 
for membership. The American people answered in money and mem- 
bership in excess of the amount and number called for. 

North Dakota exceeded its allotment in both membership cam- 
paigns and also its allotment for the war fund, and stood very near 
the h'-ad of the list of states in all campaigns. Every count'' in the 
state exceeded all allotments made by state headquarters. 

There is much to give hope and courage in this record, for let it 
be remembered that the Red Cross is built on the voluntary service 
and sacrifice of its members, and further, that it was the generous 
sj^mpathy of the American people, aided by American genius for 
organization, which made its war work so successful. 

Home Service Work of the Red Cross 

Frank J. Bruno, 

Director, Civilian Relief, Northern Division, American Red Cross 

WHEN the United States entered the war the American Red 
Cross was prepared to protect soldiers' families because of the 
careful attention it had paid in the previous two years to the method 
used by England and Canada in meeting their similar responsibilities. 
The policy of the Red Cross with regard to the soldiers' families was 
further strengthened thru its being formulated by those who had had 
experience in other forms of social service. When the war came the 
American Red Cross was, therefore, able to use with critical appre- 
ciation the methods developed by other nations in their handling of 
family problems. 

America's attack upon this problem presented two essential 
differences from that of England or Canada. In the first place, the 
efforts of those two countries were directed primarily to supplement- 
ing income and the task was considered to be merely one of securing 
for families a sum which would insure their support. 

The second distinction is not so easy to make. On the one hand 
it seems as if our plan had been the more democratic. We emphasized 
the importance of universal membership in the Red Cross, and its 
policies in each community were determined by committees whose 
appointments were subject to public criticism. The foundation of the 
protective work for soldiers' families in England and Canada was 
nothing like so broad and a great deal more of the air of patron and 
patroness pervaded it. On the other hand, those countries seemed to 
use people in the family work with more democratic freedom than 
we did. Our insistence was upon the specialist worker, one who knew 
his job and who, whether as paid worker or volunteer, could handle 
the intricate problems which arose. This, of course, is merely a phase 
of the general problem of utilizing specialists in a democracy. 

The promise made by the Red Cross to every soldier was to 
make good, so far as resources of intelligence and money were avail- 
able, any lack which the families suffered on account of the absence 
of their men in military or naval service. 

One element in this promise, money, has never been lacking. 
In wholly unexpected ways and in unprecedented amounts the people 
of North Dakota, in common with all the rest of the country, supplied 
the Red Cross with all the money it needed. With the rest of this 
promise the remainder of the paper will be taken up. 

48 Quarterly Journal 

As described in the previous paper, the organization of the state 
for Red Cross was pushed rapidly in the summer of 191 7, and by the 
end of the year was virtually completed. Organization for Home 
Service could not be attempted so rapidly as the objective was not 
concrete. The first eiiForts were made in September and October, 
191 7, and consisted in visits to cities of five thousand population and 
over, all of which promptly organized Home Service Sections which 
have since rem-^ined in existence. 

Family problems v-^hich were discovered thru talks with the men 
in camps began to be called to the attention of national officials and 
they, in turn, were compelled to call upon the local chapters to 
handle them. In this way extensive correspondence regarding family 
welfare began to arise and because of this many chapters which have 
never been visited organized Home Service Sections, to take care of 
such work. 

Some desultory efforts were made to organize Home Service 
Sections by correspondence where they had not been created in response 
to inquiries about families. In the spring of 1918, however, a special 
field representative for North Dakota was secured and for four months 
she visited in the state and completed its organization. Unfortunately, 
at the close of this time other work forced her to give up the organizing 
job and North Dakota has been, since October, 191 8, without any 
field representative. 

In the Red Cross scheme of organization, Home Service respon- 
sibility is assumed by a section of the committee on Civilian Relief. 
This latter committee, however, had as its only previous function 
responsibility for disaster relief and was active in but few chapters. 
Gradually, therefore, Home Service has supplanted both in name 
and in organization the older Civilian Relief committee. The Home 
Service Committee under this condition is one of the working com- 
mittees of the Red Cross chapter. The other committees are produc- 
tion, finance, nursing, junior membership, publicity, and military 
relief. These committees are appointed by the chairman of the 
chapter in consultation with the Executive Committee and report 
regularly to the Executive Committee. 

The Home Service Committee is responsible for placing in each 
of the chapters' branches a Home Service organization or representa- 
tive. When such an organization is completed the entire county is 
covered by a netvvork of Red Cross organization fitted to reach every 
family within its territorial limits. 

So far as I know, the Red Cross and the Woman's Committee, 
Council of Defense, alone attempted this 100 per cent organization 

Home Service Work of the Red Cross 49 

of the country and it had never been accomplisht before. Its value 
in securing co-operation from every household in the country was 
dramatically illustrated many times during the progress of the war. 
For Home Service its significance consisted of the ability it afforded 
to keep open the lines of communication between the soldier at the 
front and his family, no matter in what part of the country his family 
lived. By this universal organization the need of the soldier at the 
front could be directly communicated to the family at home and the 
family's co-operation secured ; or the worry of the soldier at the front 
could be promptly allayed by the Red Cross line of communication 
which was able to get from the family in the remote country district 
information directly to the soldier. 

The task of Home Service consists of two parts: Information 
and Social Service. The first of these required the services of people 
who were intelligent and willing to learn how to get the facts which 
they had to give out; the second required skill of the sort which is 
secured only by special training, or by unusual ability coupled with 
wide experience. 

Of the two tasks, information service has been the better done. 
It would not be just to say that Red Cross Home Service had suc- 
cessfully and completely served all communities thruout North 
Dakota. Some did splendid work. Others, thru lack of imagination 
or failure to appoint the right person, did perfunctory work. Suc- 
cess was wholly dependent upon the local person in charge. If he 
were resourceful, if he had good publicity sense, if he had an office 
where people always could find him or his assistants, if he kept him- 
self posted on the stream of information which flowed in increasing 
volume to his chapter, then the soldiers before they left, and their 
families after they had gone, turned to his office in increasing num- 
bers. If the Home Service representative lackt any of these qualities, 
the poorer quality of the service rendered was reflected in the lessened 
demand for it on the part of the community. 

Information service covered four general subjects: Enlistment 
and service, special laws, communication, and demobilization. The 
object and limits of this paper do not permit a discussion of these 
separately. I do wish, however, to indicate in outline what they 
meant and how a good Home Service Section served its community. 

E7ilhtment : Full information was in the hands of all Home 
Service Sections with regard to the provisions of the selective service 
act, the historical and ethical background of the war, the meaning and 
obligation of military service. When, therefore, an anxious mother or 
hesitating boy could not get from the army representative what he 

50 Quarterly Journal 

wanted on these subjects, a live Red Cross representative was able 
to furnish it. Before every boy left home, the Red Cross representa- 
tive had a chance to see him, individually or in group, explaining Avhat 
the Red Cross was prepared to do for him and his family and answer- 
ing any question on which he wished information. 

Special Laws: In the War Risk Insurance Law and the Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Bill the Federal Government threw 
around soldiers and their families as well-considered protective legis- 
lation as any country has ever devised. The laws, however, were 
complicated. Also, being laws, they were subject to repeated inter- 
pretations. These, again, were not always consistent. Occasionally a 
latter would reverse an earlier ruling. In addition, the War Risk 
Law necessitated the creation of a huge administration in Washing- 
ton, under what were physically insurmountable conditions. The 
Red Cross therefore was called on not only to interpret but to make 
good the failure of the Bureau of War Risk Law to function. Until 
the signing of the armistice, probably the greater part of the work 
of the Home Service Sections all over this country had to do with 
tracing delayed, or incorrect, allotments and allowances. 

In North Dakota, to meet the possibilities of the Civil Rights 
Bill, each chapter appointed an attorney to act as counsel for families 
of enlisted men. These lawyers held themselves ready to appear 
in behalf of relatives of soldiers who were defendents in any suit. 
This phase of work did not develop so largely as that connected with 
the War Risk Law, probably because the majority of the boys who 
went left no debts. 

In addition to these laws. Congress passed many acts governing 
the obligations and privileges of our enlisted men, and about these 
the Home Service Sections were able to give prompt and authorita- 
tive information. The same generalization can be made concerning 
army regulations such as those governing furlough, discharge, and 

Communication: The removal of enlisted men to camps in 
this country and overseas, created problems of communication which 
the Red Cross National organization was admirably fitted to handle. 
The Home Service section in each chapter in North Dakota was the 
local representative of this national and international communication 
system. When casualty lists began to appear, this service jumpt im- 
mediately into great demand. But it was not unnecessary even with 
men in camps in our own country. The international aspect of this 
service was not so satisfactory as it was hoped it might be. The ex- 
planation is complicated, resting back upon the organization of army, 

Home Service Work of the Red Cross 51 

operation of censor, and the rapid shift of wounded men from hospi- 
tal to hospital. Fortunately, our boys were in no general retreat, 
so that no large groups became lost. 

Demobilization : Information requested regarding demobiliza- 
tion varied widely. Parents wished to know how to get their sons' dis- 
charge. Soldiers became stranded and wished to know how to get 
home. Wounded men were unacquainted with the compensa- 
tion and educational provisions of the Federal laws. Considerable 
haziness surrounded the whole subject of insurance and so on thru 
a long catagory of perplexing situations. This last aspect of informa- 
tion service appeals strongly to the men of the chapters, and in each 
chapter there is appointed a vocational aid whose primary duty it 
is to assist the injured soldier to select his training wisely, but who 
is also expected to initiate or cooperate in community plans for wel- 
coming and securing employment for the returned soldier, both the 
injured and the uninjured, and to enable him to take advantage of 
any special privilege such as the bonus. Just at the present time 
this phase of Red Cross work is overshadowing all others. 

North Dakota has no serious unemployment problem nor con- 
dition of threatening social or economic unrest. The tasks set before 
the vocational aids of this state have, therefore, been simple and 
obvious ones. 

Social Service to Soldiers Families: It is in this responsibility 
that the policy of the American Red Cross differed most widely 
from the policy of other nations in their attitude toward families of 
enlisted men. Incidentally, in no other country did the Red Cross 
assume any such responsibility. The Canadian Patriotic Fund in 
Canada and in Great Britain a similar organization assumed this 
phase of war work. In both these countries, however, governmental 
provisions for the families of enlisted men was inadequate. These 
societies, therefore, limited their activities necessarily to a large ex- 
tent to the very important and colossal task of raising enough money to 
make good to such families deficits in governmental allowances, and 
to administer them in such a way as to be both just and wise to the 
families of varying sizes and needs. In this country such a plan was 
not necessary on account of the selective service act and the War 
Risk Insurance. While in other countries the entire energies of the 
patriotic societies were absorbed in furnishing these supplementary 
allowances, in this country, Red Cross Home Service was not pri- 
marily concerned with the giving of assistance, but set its hand de- 
finitely to protect the family from such weakening influences as the 
withdrawal of an adult male member of the family might create. 

52 Quarterly Journal 

It is not so easy to tabulate the problems tackled by the Home 
Service Section in their social service function as the informational 
tasks. The following, however, is given as a suggestive outline: 

Matters of property: 
Decreased income 
Delay of allotment and allowance 
Death or illness of the breadwinner at home. 

Matters of health : 

Occurence of disease or death 



Occurence of mental trouble, especially as aggravated by 

worry, disloyalty, or fear. 

Matters of habits: 

Family and sex irregularities 

Recreational needs 

Alcoholic excesses 

Matters of employment: 

Vocational guidance of the adolescent boy and girl 

Protection of women and children from unwise working 

Unemployment of any member of family at home. 

Matters of education : 

Maintaining children in school as long as possible 
Providing scholarships for the specially gifted children 
Teaching the ignorant parent or parents the English lan- 
guage and rudiments of citizenship. 

Miscellaneous Matters: 

Character strengthening 

Improving home standards 

Reviving religious ties. 
The first interest of the untrained Home Service worker in 
such a program is in matters of property or income. Since North 
Dakota is new and comparatively well to do, the usual feeling of 
Red Cross officials toward social service is that "there are no poor 
in this country; we do not need this sort of work". If the war had 
lasted longer, and if class II and III men had been called, there 
might have been actual widespread need for supplementing income 
even in the families of our enlisted men. But for the most part — 

Home Service Work of the Red Cross 53 

and recognizing some real exceptions — it remained true that the need 
for assistance in North Dakota has remained small. 

The returned soldier has, however, brought out a new angle. 
Sometimes he is stranded in a strange city. In such instances, if 
work cannot at once be gotten for him, money must be spent on him. 
Many times even with work abundant, some money must be spent 
in getting him started. More money has been distributed by Red 
Cross in North Dakota since the armistice than in the seventeen pre- 
ceding months. 

The rest of the program of social service does not differ funda- 
mentally from social service among non-military families. The war 
created some problems of its own — particularly problems in family 
relationships. But its heaviest pressure was brought to bear upon 
families which had previously shown some weakness, or who were 
near the breaking line before the war started. The mother who 
had workt hard all her life broke down when her son and his income 
were removed, altho it had seemed that the income did not play so 
important a part in the family budget. The wayward older girl found 
her head turned by the uniform; or the headstrong boy broke family 
restraint when the strong hand of the elder brother was removed. 
Children in families living near the edge of dependence tended to go 
to work before they should. So one could go thru the whole series of 
social maladjustments and failures. 

But such problems had always existed in these communities. 
The fact that they occurred in soldiers' families did not thereby create 
ability to handle them in communities which had hitherto failed. 
Neither did it create the vision to see the problems when before they 
had not been recognized. The immediate challenge set before the 
Red Cross was to find local leadership which would see these difficul- 
ties and was equal to meet them. Partially to secure such a result 
there were created Institutes for training in Home Service work. 
There was only one in the Northern Division, at the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota. To these Institutes chapters were invited to send 
the people who were to have the responsibility for Home Service. 
It was considered so important that the General Manager of the Red 
Cross specially authorized chapters to use their funds to pay the 
expenses of such students. 

In North Dakota there were none who took advantage of the 
opening until the first part of 1919. This was probably due to the 
feeling that the real work was in the informational service, as well 
as to the absorbtion of most of the available personnel in the production 
service of the Red Cross. Few of the chapters had any people to spare 

54 Quarterly Journal 

for the six weeks' course ; the demand for hospital material was insis- 
tent; and furthermore production, money raising, and organization 
were tangible accomplishments whose results could be mesured, and 
whose conditions could be outlined in concrete detail. Naturally those 
activities of the Red Cross seized the imagination of the chapter 
ofEicials first. There was even a tendency to look upon the social serv- 
ice part of the Home Service as a "frill" of the theorists, necessary 
enough perhaps in the large cities, but not needed by the country 
districts which had gotten along well without it so far, and expect- 
ed to continue to do so during the war. 

Gradually, however, as actual family problems have been dis- 
covered and workt out — sometimes by local Red Cross workers 
themselves in their chapter activities, sometimes referred to them by 
the Camp Service people, a real appreciation of interfering con- 
structively in family relations has been gained by the chapters. Oc- 
cassionally, a man or woman has been placed in charge of Home 
Service who took naturally to case work, and some of the pieces of 
family work done by them would be a credit to the trained specialist. 
These, however, have been the exception. A gradual growth of appre- 
ciation of the problems and the methods for their solution has been 
the usual experience. 

The return of the soldier has, however, put a new aspect on 
social case work. The older family problems did not present any 
dramatic approach; the weakness was there before the war; it was 
accepted by family and community alike as inevitable. The returned 
soldier was a new phenomenon. The problems he presented were as 
clear as the noon day sun. He might be out of work ; he might be 
injured; he might be left without money; he might be taken sick; or 
— most romantic of all — he might be "shell shocked". There was 
also the fear that he might be attracted to the more radical social 
and economic groups if left without assistance in getting back to 
a self dependent position. To meet these concrete and different 
situations, the Red Cross had no difficulty in rallying the intelligence 
and interest of the communities. They cooperated with the Federal 
Emploj-ment Bureau in getting jobs; with the Board for Vocational 
Education in securing vocational education for the injured soldier; 
with the Bureau of War Risk in getting back allotments, compensa- 
tion or medical care; they organized their communities into welcome 
home programs ; in fact, everything which has been suggested or which 
their own brains have devised they have been eager to do for the boys 
back from the front. 

Along with this sudden interest in a mild sort of social service 

Home Service Work of the Red Cross 55 

there has been aroused an interest and some appreciation of the 
main problems which soldiers or any other group may present. Home 
Service Sections are returning to some extent to the real family prob- 
lems and trying in the light of the needs of the returned soldier 
to find means for their solution. 

In reviewing what the Red Cross has been able to do thru its 
Home Service Sections in the State of North Dakota, the following 
general items of tangible progress should be noted : 

1. The entire state has been covered with a network of com- 
munication which is able to carry messages to and from soldier's 
homes and to spread information rapidly thruout the state. 

2. There has been created the machinery for handling the 
more obvious problems arising out of war conditions in families in 
the chapter towns. Potentially it has extended to the branches, but 
actually very few branches have undertaken any of this work. Each 
chapter has its council and vocational aid for their specialized ser- 
vice. Most chapters have tackled in good earnest fashion the pro- 
blems called to their attention by the Red Cross representatives at 

3. The attitude toward money assistance has been curious. It 
might have been expected that the war appeal and the inexperience 
of chapter officials in the handling of relief would have led to ex- 
travagance. On the contrary, the general rule has been that Home 
Service workers have been more stringently careful of their trust 
funds than was necessary. With wider experience and fuller under- 
standing of their responsibilites have usually gone greater generosity 
combined with wiser safeguards. 

4. North Dakota is a rural state. It had practically no social 
agencies, nor experienced social workers before the war. As in most 
communities made up of small towns and open country, there had been 
no experience in definitely directed efforts to render to the disadvan- 
taged some of the services owed them by society. There was even a 
strong distrust of the whole movement for the social betterment and 
equalization of opportunities. This distrust was not universal. The 
ordinary attitude was one which denied the existence of inequalities 
or one which believed such inequalities were fated and unchangeable. 
The belief that the poor are always poor and the shiftless always 
shiftless and the insane become so thru some mysterious and un- 
changeable law is as old as human society. 

The whole job, therefore, had to be learned. On the side of 
information, the organization which has placed at the disposition of 
soldiers' families the latest and most accurate information avail- 

56 Quarterly Journal 

able on all subjects connected with military services, no state in the 
Northern Division has done better than North Dakota. In the 
field of social service the progress has been encouraging. People have 
been found who have the combination of humanitarian enthusiasm 
and the scientific spirit and who are leading their communities to a 
juster appreciation of the unprivileged groups. One of the evidences 
that this phase of the work has taken root is the desire on the part 
of the many Home Service Sections to continue their work after the 
war emergency is over and to extend to families uneffected by the 
war the same services of advice and organized neighborliness for the 
correction of the chronic maladjustments and ills of their com- 

The Work of North Dakota's 
Physicians and Nurses 

Dr. F. R. Smyth, 

Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
State Council National Defense 

"Take up our quarrel with the foe, 

To you from falling hands we throw the Torch — 

Be yours to hold it high, 

If ye break faith with us who die. 

We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 

In Flanders Fields." 

As eagerly as the clans in the highlands of Scotland responded 
to the message of war scattered thru the glens and moors by the 
flaming cross, did the members of the healing guilds take up the 
torch thrown to them from the falling hands of the heroes who 
sleep, "On Flanders Fields." Fit it was that the call should come 
from a member of the profession dedicated to the saving of life, 
who hesitated not to give his own that freedom and justice should 
live. What greater heritage can any physician leave than the memory 
that he kept the faith that Dr. John McCrae demanded? What 
nurse will not consider it a life-long honor to be able to say that she 
followed in the footsteps of the martyred heroine, Edith Cavell? 

With the knowledge that they were going to face a foe by 
whom not only were the conventions of civilized warfare unheeded 
but who boasted that the bombing of hospitals, the torpedoing of 
hospital ships, and the killing of/ doctors and nurses were more 
efficient methods of war than meeting the enemy in open battle, the 
doctors and nurses of North Dakota responded nobly to the first 
call for service. 

Years may elapse before the history can be given in detail of the 
numbers and the services rendered by those who, rejoicing in the 
opportunity, dedicated themselves to the service of their country. 
In the "Honor Roll" of the Journal of the American Medical 
Association, North Dakota was credited with one hundred physicians 
commissioned in the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army, on June ist, 
191 8. Before the armistice thic number was more than doubled so 
that it is safe to say that 33 per cent — or one in three — of all the 
physicians in the state were in service in the Army or Navy. 

In April, 191 8, it was reported that 20 per cent of the registered 

58 Quarterly Journal 

nurses in the state were in active service, which was two per cent 
higher than in any other state. 

The number of physicians and nurses who saw foreign service 
is not yet available, as the clerical force in the Surgeon General's 
office has been cut down and other important work has had to take 
precedence over preparing statistics of the medical service- 
When the time comes that the records and achievements of the 
physicians and nurses of the Great War can be written, it is certain 
that North Dakota will have reason to be proud of the devotion to 
duty, the indifference to personal danger, and the self sacrifice of her 

It is characteristic of the men and women who freely rendered 
patriotic service, often at great personal sacrifice and without hope 
of reward, that on their return they make light of the hard work, 
suffering, harrowing sights and dangers, thru which they passed. 
They return to their wonted places and duties in civil life and seek 
no recognition on the strength of their military service. 

That the training they received in the Army will be invaluable 
to many, cannot be gainsaid and the people of their communities will 
reap the benefit. This is particularly true of preventive medicine as 
on no branch of medical science was more stress laid than on 

It is a tribute to the skill and efficiency of the medical depart- 
ment of the Army that altho the battle death rate of the American 
Expeditionary Force, 57 per thousand, per year, was the highest in 
American history, the disease death rate, 17 per thousand, per year, 
was the lowest of any of the wars in which the United States has 
engaged. The disease death rate (North) in the civil war was 65 
per thousand, per year. In the Spanish-American war it was 26 per 
thousand, per year. 

General March, in a report issued in February, 1919, said that 
but for the influenza epidemic the disease death rate would have 
been cut in half. 

The exact number of medical men in service who were killed or 
died of wounds is not yet known, but, shortly after the armistice, 
the list in the Surgeon General's office showed that over seventy 
were killed or died in a short period from wounds. In addition 
there must have been hundreds of doctors and nurses who gave their 
lives in the service of their country, dying of disease. 

The casualty list of the North Dakota contingent was fortunately 
light but at least one nurse is known to have made the supreme 

North Dakota's Physicians and Nurses 59 

sacrifice, and when the exact toll is made known there will be gold 
stars on the Honor Banner of both physicians and nurses. 

In addition to the men in the Army and Navy, a large number 
of physicians were engaged in active and indispensible work in the 
state. One hundred and fifty-three physicians, either as local exam- 
iners or members of advisory boards, examined 25,000 men, under 
the selective service act, and so well was this work done that only 
6.38 per cent were rejected at the training camps- The average of 
rejections for all the states was 8. 10 per cent. 

Few states were so well organized as North Dakota to establish 
compulsory service of physicians, if it had become necessary. Besides 
the State Medical Committee, appointed by and under the control 
of the Council of National Defense, in each local Medical Society 
there was an Advisory Committee. In each county there was a 
County Representative, appointed by the State Medical Committee. 

Reports were prepared for the Surgeon General of the Army, 
showing the area and population of each county in the state with 
the number of physicians and the proportion to the population. 
Every physician in the state was also listed, according to age, physical 
condition, dependents, and institutional or community needs. A few 
— very few — who would not reply to requests for information, or 
claimed exemption on frivolous grounds, may have thought that they 
fooled the committees but they themselves were living in a fool's 
paradise, and if the war had lasted a few mofiiths longer would have 
been rounded up by the draft officials. They may be able to convince 
the people of the communities in which they live that they were loyal 
and patriotic, but the men who left all that was dear to them and 
risked their lives for their country will have no delusions about the 
patriotism of such men. 

Age, sex, physical disability, dependents nor professional appx)int- 
ments were no hindrances to members of the medical profession in 
rendering help to the Government during the war. For those 
ineligible for active service the Volunteer Medical Service Corps was 
establisht and to this Corps 218 physicians in North Dakota belonged. 
Every member signed a pledge to take up any medical or sanitary 
duty to which he should be assigned and, if the demand for physicians 
made it necessary, to apply for a commission in active service when 
requested. No excuse was left for physicians not doing their part 
in the great struggle. 

Truly has Col. Victor C. Vaughan said: "The time will come 

6o Quarterly Journal 

when there will be only two grades of men in this country, not only | 

in our profession but elsewhere — the men who went and the men I 

who stayed at home, and, whatever it has cost financially or otherwise, " 

the men who went will have the consciousness of having done their 
duty and will be the winners in the long run-" 

The Work of the Institutions of 
Higher Education 

Grin G. Libby, 

(Professor of History, University of North Dakota) 
Chairman, University War Committee 

Tfrom the University and the Agricultural College, include, as 
HE institutions of higher education in North Dakota, aside 
usually rated, Fargo College, located at Fargo, Jamestown College, 
located at Jamestown, the School of Science, at Wahpeton, the 
School of Forestry, at Bottineau, and the normal schools located at 
Valley City, Mayville, Minot, Ellendale, and a new one just starting, 
at Dickinson. In seeking information for this study these were 
communicated with and urged to give details of all war activities. 
Nearly all responded. From the replies received and from other 
sources it is known that they were, without exception loyal to the 
core during the entire period of the war. They all participated with 
zeal in the various efforts put forth to meet the situation. In the 
many drives for money, for books, or for other needed material, 
they all took part and responded with intelligence and generosity. 
In the work of the Red Cross and in the care of influenza patients 
they all workt so eagerly and so faithfully as almost to seem to have 
been vying with one another. Their various contributions of men 
for the battle front, of material things, or of other forms of service 
differed only in quantity, and that difference is easily explained by 
the size and age of the respective institutions. It will not be neces- 
sary, therefore, to relate in detail the work of each. As one reads 
the description of the movements at the University, he may know 
that approximately the same things were being done at the other 
institutions and in the same spirit- 

The Agricultural College, however, owing to the technical 
character of its work, was able to render, in addition to the forms 
of service common to all, very valuable assistance in specific lines. 
It is an agricultural college, and thus is in close touch with the agri- 
cultural interests of the state. In several ways this enabled the 
institution to be of special service: (a) President Wilson, in select- 
ing the members of his Commission for fixing the price of wheat 
during the war, chose one of its faculty, (b) The College Experi- 
ment Station and Extension Department combined to encourage the 
production of food, and were able, to a considerable extent, to stimu- 

62 Quarterly Journal 

late crop production and increase the area of land in farm crops, as 
well as to encourage and increase production of farm products, pork, 
and poultr)^ (c) Thru their active agents in the field they encour- 
aged the conservation of food and the utilization of food products 
to a greater extent than formerly thru various methods devised for 
their preparation, utilization, and preservation, (d) The Federal 
Food Administrator was a member of the faculty and served thruout 
the period of the war, and the government at Washington frequently 
called members of the faculty into conference on matters of impor- 
tance. The Agricultural College also carried on extensive work with 
both sections of the Students Army Training Corps. 

It should be said, also, that Jamestown College and Fargo 
College, in addition to the lines of work common to all the institu- 
tions, changed their regular schedules and rearranged their work so 
as to care for small units of the S. A. T. C, college section. 

State University 

The University war history began three days before the decla- 
ration of war. At a special council meeting called April 3, 191 7, 
President McVey announced that voluntary military training had 
begun at the University and that a regularly commissioned officer 
would be secured as soon as possible. By vote of the Council the 
University campus and plant were offered to the Federal Government 
as a training station. It was decided, also, that in all cases of 
students who entered United States military service a full semester's 
credit be given in such courses as were being pursued satisfactorily. 
The reality of war came directly to the institution when the Univer- 
sity radio station was dismantled on April 20, by orders from the 
Department of Navy- 

On the 27th of April, 45 per cent of the men were enrolled in 
the eight weeks' course in military training under the direction of 
F. L. Thompson, physical director. This purely elective course 
included two hours a week of lectures on hygiene by Dean French 
of the College of Medicine. The women of the University had at 
the same time already organized for Red Cross work thru the 
Women's League with its membership of 400 students and lOO 
faculty women. 

President McVey was by this time actively engaged in mobiliz- 
ing the University for war. Thru the newly organized Bureau of 
Public Information all data was compiled as to the special training 
of the faculty, alumni, and student body which would make them 
available for various forms of service to the Government. Early 


The Institutions of Higher Education 63 

in May President Wilson called for a joint conference at Washing- 
ton of the National Council for Defense and the National Associa- 
tion of State University President. President McVey attended this 
conference with plans and suggestions for the mobilization of his 
institution for war work. 

By the i8th of May 139 students had left the University; 39 
of them had entered military service and the remainder had taken 
up various forms of farm work in conformity with the suggestion of 
the Government. The University Council met this emergency by 
making provision for excusing without loss of credits all students 
who left for this service. 

June 5 was celebrated as National Registration Day by students 
and faculty who marched in a civic parade to Central Park. Here 
patriotic addresses were made. President McVey delivering the 
principal address. 

The fall term opened with an enrollment of 1 1 per cent less 
than the previous year. The law school showed the most markt 
decrease, and the entire senior class was much depleted in numbers. 
On October 15 President McVey's resignation was accepted and 
Dean Babcock was chosen by the regents as acting president. The 
University section of the state Red Cross was organized October 1 1 
under the direction of Mrs- Joseph Kennedy. Captain McVey, the 
new University Commandant, began organizaing the freshmen and 
sophomores for compulsory military drill and was soon able to an- 
nounce the non-commissioned officers for the two companies of the 
freshmen and the one company of sophomores. Early in November, 
191 7, Professor H. R. Brush, chairman of the Committee on Educa- 
tion of the State Counsel of Defense, began organizing classes in 
radio, telephony, and telegraphy for later service in the United 
States Signal Corps. In co-operation with local telegraphers he 
succeeded in starting the work at Devils Lake, Minot, Williston, 
Dickinson, Bismarck, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Fargo, and Grand 
Forks. On November 5 classes in radio-telegraphy were begun in 
the Department of Physics under Professor B. J. Spence. During 
this month the campaign was launched for funds to support the 
fatherless children of France, and on November 19, the first Y. M. 
C. A. war drive netted the sum of $2,743.91. 

On February 22, a service flag with 281 stars was presented to 
the University with appropriate ceremonies. A surgical dressings 
station was establisht at the University and quarters were found for 
it at the Commons. The University Library took part in the first 
A. L- A. book drive from the i8th to the 23rd of March. Many of 

64 Quarterly Journal 

the faculty were filling lecture dates during the second semester, 
assisting in local drives for Red Cross funds. On April 6 the faculty 
and student body took part in a Win-the-War parade, and in the 
patriotic celebration immediately following at the city auditorium. 

The newly elected president, Thomas F. Kane, was chosen by 
the regents January 24, 191 8, and assumed his duties immediately 
after Easter. Following a suggestion made at the closing meeting 
of the University Club for that year, on May 3, President Kane 
appointed a War Committee of five members of the Council (after- 
ward increast to six) to serve as a medium of communication between 
the Federal Government and the faculty and student body, and to 
act on all special war demands and in special emergencies. The adop- 
tion of a more aggressive war policy on the part of our Government 
and the rapid development of new plans for mobilizing the' resources 
of the nation gave to the War Committee an unusual opportunity 
for service. The first work undertaken was the adjustment of the 
Home Economics courses to the recommendations of the Government, 
especially along the lines of food conservation and production. Next 
came a special demand after commencement for Summer Session 
courses in Nursing and Home Economics. This was met by secur- 
ing the added teaching force needed and by making the new courses 
known to those who would be glad to take them. During examina- 
tion week, at the request of the Federal Department of Labor, the 
Committee made a special canvass of the students, and 200 were 
enrolled for such work during the summer as they might be called 
upon to perform. A letter of greeting was prepared by the Com- 
mittee and sent out from the President's Office to the students and 
alumni in service, and their attention was directed to the University 
collection of photographic and other records of their part in the war. 
Early in July the Federal Government assigned the University a 
detail of fourteen students and two members of the faculty to receive 
special military instruction for sixty days beginning August I, at 
Fort Sheridan, Illinois. The general purpose of this training camp 
was to prepare officers for the S. A. T. C- units to be establisht at 
the various colleges and universities of the country. The committee 
found that the selection of these student representatives was made 
difficult by the late arrival of the notice when most of the students 
were on vacation. Professor H. A. Doak of the English Depart- 
ment was the sole faculty representative but the full student contin- 
gent was selected as follows: 

Sam K. Fisher, Devils Lake R. C. M. Kraabel, Hope 

Gjems Eraser, Grafton E. J. McGrath, Grand Forks 

The Institutions of Higher Education 65 

Min Hin Li, University John J. Kelly, Grand Forks 

G- E. Moultrie, Valley City C. E. Schweitzer, Cavalier 

Ralph E. Pray, Valley City Rudolph C. Steidl, Fingal 

Kenneth Graves, Grand Forks Ralph J. Stewart, Drayton 

George H. Haynes, University T. M. Rygh, Cavalier 

The War Committee drafted and printed a circular letter 
addrest to graduates of high schools, urging them to continue their 
education by attending the University and pointing out the specific 
courses in which they might specially prepare for war service. The 
appointment of a state War History Commission was recommended 
to Governor Frazier, who later appointed as members of the com- 
mission O. G. Libby, Grand Forks, Chairman, Mrs. Chas. F. 
Amidon, Fargo, and Curator M- R. Gilmore of the State Historical 
Society, Bismarck. At its headquarters in the Library the War 
Committee is still collecting war posters, books and pamphlets, 
photographs and letters, and data necessary for the making up of 
the individual war record of every student or member of the alumni 
or faculty. 

The vocational work at the University in the N. A. T. C. units 

began July i, 191 8, and is described later. Mobilization of all 

colleges and universities for war service was decided on by the 

Federal Government and was made the subject of three national 
conferences with the heads of institutions and other faculty repre- 
sentatives. For the Middle West the conference was held at Fort 
Sheridan, Illinois, August 31 and September i. At this conference 
the University was represented by President Kane and the Chairman 
of the War Committee. At the conference the presiding officer 
was Colonel (now Brigadier General) R. J. Rees, Chairman of the 
Committee on Education and Special Training. Other heads of 
committees and numerous army officers took part in the discussions 
that continued thruout the conference. The drastic requirements of 
the Government were cheerfully acceded to by the representatives in 
session. The reorganization of college curriculua on the quarter 
basis and the making of special provisions for the accommodation of 
the S. A- T. C. units fully occupied the officers of all educational 
institutions during September. At our own institution the N. A. T. 
C. units had already been assigned ample quarters in the Gymnasium 
where by means of ingeniously constructed balconies sleeping space 
was found for all. The S. A. T. C. unit was accommodated in Davis 
Hall and Budge Hall, while the Phi Delta Theta house on the Uni- 
versity campus was requisitioned as permanent military headquarters. 
Other plans for the extension of the work and provision for additional 

66 Quarterly Journal 

dormitory space were tentatively proposed but were not developt 
owing to the short time the new schedule was in actual operation. 
A new $30,000 drill hall was authorized by the Board of Regents 
and will be ready for use during the present college year. Besides 
the University and the Agricultural College, two other institutions 
in North Dakota accommodated S. A. T- C. units, Fargo College 
and Jamestown College. 

In the rearrangement of courses of study to fit into the military 
requirements of the Government, only those courses were retained 
that had a direct bearing on the training of officers and technical 
experts. English, Law, Physics, Chemistry, French, German, and 
Spanish were retained as well as courses in the Colleges of Medicine 
and Engineering. A special War Issues Course was provided which 
was given by the departments of Geology, History, Philosophy, 
Political Economy, and Sociology. In actual practise it was found 
to be exceedingly difficult to provide study facilities in the barracks 
and to fit the academic work into the rigid requirements of military 
drill and camp duty. The experiment lasted but six weeks, the 
epidemic and the armistice combined to cut short the life of the 
S. A. T. C. unit. At best no one was satisfied and the reports of 
the inspectors of the various portions of the academic work now on 
file at Washington may be- consulted as to the opinions of those who 
saw the experiment in a number of institutions. 

The work of the S. A. T. C- unit had hardly begun when the 
student body was overtaken by an epidemic of influenza which caused 
suspension of all classes by quarantine October 8, and finally of all 
but the most necessary of camp duties. Following the establishment 
of the quarantine in Grand Forks as well as at the University the 
street cars were stopt at Hamline avenue and guards were stationed 
at every University entrance for the control of traffic and the exclu- 
sion of the public from the University campus. On the thirteenth of 
October, Sunday, a large number of the students reported as sick 
of the influenza at the base hospital establisht in the Phi Delta Theta 
house and at the emergency hospital on the third floor of Budge Hall. 
The number of patients increast so fast that by the following Tues- 
day the military headquarters were removed to Davis Hall and all 
the students rooming in this dormitory were transferred elsewhere 
as rapidly as possible. By the end of the week pneumonia began to 
develop among the patients and the University found itself in the 
grip of the worst epidemic in its history. Lieutenant Jesse H. 
Mcintosh was camp physician during the existence of the S. A. T. C. 
unit. During the epidemic he was assisted by Dr. James Grassick, 

The Institutions of Higher Education 67 

University physician, who had his headquarters at Budge hall. The 
women patients at the University were cared for, principally, at a 
temporary hospital in a nearby cottage- Dr. H. E. French, Dean 
of the University School of Medicine, had charge of all these cases and 
was able to deal so successfully with the epidemic that he lost none 
of his patients. 

Lack of adequate hospital facilities on the University campus 
led to undesirable overcrowding, and since no provision for this 
contingency had been made in advance the most fatal consequences 
followed. The largest number of patients was cared for in Budge 
Hall, and that the mortality there did not run higher is due solely 
to the professional skill and untiring devotion of the head nurse, Miss 
Mae McCullough. Immediately on being placed in charge of the 
nurses at this hospital, near the close of the first week of the epidemic, 
she introduced every device that her long experience had shown her 
to be useful in such emergencies. The hospital record of every 
patient was kept at his bedside accessible to the nurses and doctors. 
Every patient had abundance of fresh air, but screens were placed 
over the windows so as to avoid dangerous draughts. The cots 
were raised oa specially made blocks so as to render the care 
of the patients easier for the attendents. A diet kitchen was 
installed where proper food could be prepared under the most 
.favorable circumstances. Relays of Grand Forks women, chosen 
from those most able to assist her, workt day and night under her 
directions to save the worst cases and to prevent further develop- 
ment of the most dangerous phase of the epidemic. The citizens of 
Grand Forks responded to every call for help. The day and night 
shifts at Budge Hall were conveyed to and from their homes in autos 
even during the worst weather. Meals were brought out every night 
to those who went on duty in the evening. When the head nurse 
called for volunteer doctors from the city to serve at the hospital 
during the night, at which time the regular physicians were not on 
duty, there was no lack of response. The services of the Red Cross 
were placed at the service of the University by its representative, 
Mr. C. C- Gowran, while the chairman of the University War 
Committee, acting as his volunteer assistant, helpt to discover the 
needs of every one and to fill them promptly. With all the care that 
could have been lavisht upon them, the patients would have fared 
badly but for the medical supplies and other material daily brought 
from the Red Cross headquarters at Grand Forks. Within the 
S. A. T. C. unit itself the medical students gave freely of their utmost 
as nurses' aides while the details of militarv orderlies did their work 

68 Quarterly Journal 

loyally under the most trying circumstances. The remarkable 
severity of the epidemic in every part of the country makes the record 
of its ravages of special interest. How a number of other institutions 
met and combatted the scourge is given in brief at the close of this 
sketch. Appended to these summaries is a table of the statistics for 
each institution that furnisht the facts. 

Near the close of the epidemic the War Committee sent the fol- 
lowing communication to the President: 

"In view of the severity of the recent epidemic and the constant 
danger of a renewal of its ravages, in view of the trust reposed in us 
by the parents of the students in attendance at the University and 
for the purpose of more fully utilizing the service of the medical 
men of Grand Forks City and County, it is recommended by the 
University War Committee : 

"i. That a joint medical committee be formed by voluntary as- 
sociation for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
special problems arising from the spread of the epidemic at 
the University S. A. T. C- camp, this committee to consist 
of the medical army officer of the camp, the Dean of the 
University School of Medicine, the Grand Forks County 
Health Officer, the City Health Officer, and the chairman 
of the Commercial Club Health committee. 
"2. While, from the military situation, it is recognized that the 
function of this committee must be purely advisory, it is 
strongly urged that the committee, acting for the whole state 
constituency of the University, consider every phase of the 
public health situation connected with the S. A. T. C. camp 
life, and to that end it is suggested that the committee be 
subject to call by any one of its members." 
As events turned out, there was no renewal of the epidemic but 
it was felt that there was now a well-digested plan on file so that any 
future emergency might not again find us wholly unprepared. 

S. A. T. C. class work w^as gradually resumed during the first 
week in November. The general quarantine on the city and Uni- 
versity was not removed, however, and the outside student body did 
not return for work- As only six weeks remained of the first quarter, 
the class work was altered so as to cover, as far as possible, the courses 
for the entire quarter. The signing of the armistice on November 
1 1 and the subsequent order for demobilization put an end to the 
S. A. T. C. organization and opened the way for a resumption of 
regular University work. During the early weeks of December and 
especially in the short vacation beginning December 21, there inter- 


The Institutions of Higher Education 69 

vened a period of considerable uncertainty and confusion. In antici- 
pation of these conditions the War Committee drew up the following 
letter which, on their recommendation, was sent out from the Presi- 
dent's Office to the parents of all students: 

"Now that the war is over, a number of our S. A. T. C. 
students are inclined to give way to a feeling of discouragement. In 
their discouragement quite a number are even thinking of throwing 
up all their university work. They seem to feel that this quarter's 
work has been lost, utterly failing to appreciate that their being 
here and under training was serving their country just as faithfully 
and as effectively as though they were on foreign soil. They were 
here because the Government assigned them here. Furthermore, the 
fact that there were mobilized, as army units at our colleges and 
universities, thousands of our best young men in intensive training 
for war work and from whom 30,000 officers were to be selected by 
July I, was certainly a tremendous factor in hastening the collapse 
of the Central Powers- Our S. A. T. C. students are entitled to 
feel and should feel that they have played their part just as fully 
as those who were so fortunate as to be called to service overseas. 

"A recent canvass of the S. A. T. C. classes indicates the degree 
of this discouragement in that many, especially of the freshmen, are 
not planning to return to the University after the close of this 
quarter. While we appreciate the handicaps under which they have 
labored the past few weeks, the illness of so many of the students, 
the enforced closing down of the work for a considerable period, to- 
gether with the interference of the military duties with the regular 
academic work — all of which has undoubtedly been very discouraging 
— yet we feel that this should not prevent their getting the most pos- 
sible out of the remaining two-thirds of the college year. With the 
passing of the influenza, and of the required military duties, the 
students will have time and opportunity to devote themselves to their 
university work. 

"The University expects to be back to very near, if not quite, 
normal conditions this next quarter. First: It is hoped that several, 
or possibly all, of the fraternity houses may be released from requisi- 
tion and again given over to the fraternities. Second : The gym- 
nasium will again be available for athletics and all departments of 
athletics will resume normal activities." 

The demobilizing of our S. A. T. C. unit took place December 
21-24, 191 8, under Captain Mark L. Calder, Commandant. The 
previous commandants had been Captain Seymour R. Wells, July i 
to October 2, (then transferred to Camp Funston, Kansas), Lieu- 

70 Quarterly Journal 

tenant Lee R. Gaynor, Jr., October 2-27, Lieutenant Charles J. 
Sweeney, the immediate predecessor of Captain Calder. The official 
S. A. T. C. paper The Camp Barrage, ran thru seven issues from 
November 8 to December 20, 191 8, with E. J. McGrath as editor- 

The University Council decided to continue on the quarter basis 
only for the remainder of the year and to give to all seniors a full 
year's credit for work done during the second and third quarters. 
On February 20, 191 9, the Council provided for the establishment 
of a unit of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps at the University 
by adopting the report of a special committee providing for military 
training for freshmen and sophomores. This action was taken to 
meet the Government requirements for military training at colleges 
and universities where such training corps are establisht. On April 
24, by the adoption of a joint committee report from faculty, alumni, 
and students, the council approved the erection on the campus of a 
Memorial Auditorium as a testimonial of respect and gratitude to 
those of our number who have lost their lives in war service- 

At the last meeting of the Council for the year provision was 
made for accrediting toward graduation the service of all students 
in the army and navy. 

During the past year there have been attending classes at the 
University two young women from France, sent to this country by 
their government. Our University, in conformity with a very gen- 
eral action by our colleges and universities, made provision for these 
representatives from France as a part of a general plan for reciprocal 
exchange of college students. These young women, Marie Bentegeat 
and Madeleine M. Letessier, will remain with us for their second 

As already stated, the vocational work at the University of 
North Dakota, in the N. A. T. C, began on July i, 19 18, with the 
arrival of the first detachment- It continued until November i, tho, 
owing to the prevalence of the influenza, many of the men did not 
leave until later. The State Agricultural College, located at Fargo, 
also had units of the N. A. T. C. Inasmuch as the work done in 
the two places was practically the same, a description of that done at 
the University will suffice for both. The following brief account is 
taken, much abridged, from the report to the Government made by 
the Institutional Director, Dr. E. J. Babcock. 

The courses in vocational training were given to auto-mechanics, 
blacksmiths, carpenters, concrete workers, miners and drill runners, 

The Institution of Higher Education 71 

and radio-operators. The total number of men trained in each of 
these courses was as follows: 

Auto-Mechanics 95 

Blacksmiths 40 

Carpenters 42 

Concrete Workers 40 

Miners and Drill Runners 51 

Radio-Operators 92 

Organization of Instruction 

The teachers employed were largely selected from the engineer- 
ing staff of the University. All but three or four were college gradu- 
ates and those who were not were men of technical and practical 
training in their respective lines. About one-third were men who 
had received the doctor's degree and who had had thoro training and 
a wide and successful experience as teachers in technical and scientific 
subjects. In the selection of instructors an effort was made to secure 
those who were not only well trained, but who were especially well 
qualified by experience to give thoro training in a practical way and 
in an intensive manner. 

The materials and equipment utilized in the various courses 
were in general those used in the instructional work in the engineering 
college of the institution, but in each subject additional equipment or 
special equipment was required in order to provide for the numbers 
in the different courses and for the peculiar needs of the army train- 
ing in this work. In selecting the equipment to be placed in 
the hands of the soldier-students, an effort was always made to pro- 
vide, in the main, such working facilities as would be most likely to be 
available in actual military field service, and the student was taught 
constantly to use his ingenuity in devising methods of utilizing the 
implements at his command so as to accomplish the greatest variety 
of work- 

The necessity of meeting emergencies and of overcoming 
difficulties without elaborate equipment was constantly kept before 
the student in vocational army training. Even in the selection of 
special equipment required as, for example, in the instruction of 
mining, portable, and, as far as possible, simple equipment was utilized 
such as gasoline engines, portable compressors, small hoists, etc., and 
with such equipment special training could be taken in rapidity of 
moving, setting up and getting into successful operation, under vary- 
ing conditions, of the necessary machinery or equipment correspond- 
ing as nearly as could be to the exigencies of army action. 

The instructional work involved the two general divisions of 

72 Quarterly Journal 

organization and supervision. In a general way the instruction 
proper was groupt as follows: The first general division embraced 
vlass instruction — (a) outlines of work, based upon the progressive 
unit plan; (b) simple lectures and explanations, covering only so 
much as is necessary for a clear understanding of the specific work 
in hand and the most rapid and accurate way of securing the results; 
(c) questions by instructor for the purpose of determining the mental 
grasp of the student and the clearness and accuracy of his knowledge 
of the subject and methods of procedure; (d) questions by students 
largely to afford an opportunity to give the student quick and clear 
relief from misunderstandings and wrong methods of procedure. 

The second general division of instruction embraced shop work 
and field practise. The relative amount of time given to these two 
divisions of the work necessarily varied in different courses and at 
different times in each case, but a large portion of the time of 
instruction was given to practical shop and field applications. This 
phase of the work became, for the most part, individual altho in some 
subjects the men could work to advantage in groups. In the shop 
and field work special attention was given (a) to the proper use of 
tools and equipment and (b) to methods of work, especially for the 
purpose of securing the best results with reference to efficiency, speed, 
•<ind emergency adaptation. 

The methods used for developing initiative and resourcefulness 
were varied and, as far as possible, such as to look into the direction 
of handling emergency conditions that might be expected in active 
army service. As soon as the men became familiar with their tools 
and the general methods of procedure, we began to charge them with 
definite jobs either in groups or individually and to hold them 
responsible for the character of the work and results obtained and 
for conservation of time and material, together with the highest 
degree of efficiency. A constant effort was made to teach alertness 
in grasping a situation and overcoming difficulties promptly and 
efficiently and with such simple and improvised facilities as one in 
service would naturally have at hand. 

In lectures and in ship and field instruction, emergency cases 
were frequently thrown upon the students and they were required, 
not only to devise suitable methods for overcoming the difficulties, 
but were generally required to put them into actual practise. Usually 
this work was of an individual nature. Sometimes it fell to small 
groups, depending upon the character of the problem, but in all 
cases was handled about as it would be in actual field service. Train- 
ing in this line was begun by simpler problems early in the work of 

The Institutions of Higher Education 73 

all courses. These problems were made gradually more difficult and 
complicated as the course progrest- 

Our experience here in the work in vocational army training has 
been highly satisfactory and I believe clearly demonstrates the practi- 
cability of short, intensive training. The men who entered came with 
the idea of being trained as rapidly as possible for a rather definite 
service. They were at once impreit with the urgent need of the 
Government along these lines and with ideals of loyalty and service, 
all of which resulted in greatly stimulating them to utilize their time 
to the very best advantage. 

The courses were short, it is true, but even the short courses 
of eight weeks were decidedly successful and demonstrate what 
can be done, not only in times of war, but to a considerable degree, 
under normal conditions, when young men are training for a definite 
purpose with a clear vision of its importance and with earnestness and 
devotion to duty and mastery of the task before them. 

Maturity, previous education, past experience, and natural 
ability, were all modifying conditions and important factors in the 
character of the work and the results obtained in the vocational train- 
ing. In the assignment of the men to the various courses all of these 
factors were given, insofar as time would permit, careful and personal 
consideration in an endeavor to place the man into the line of work 
which he would be most successful. The instructor was askt to keep 
each student's qualifications, experiences, and special ability in mind 
so as to lay out his work to permit of the most rapid and successful 
progress- There is no doubt that these qualifications greatly helped 
some of the men to intensify in this type of training, and I am 
inclined to think that this was on the whole more beneficial for these 
army purposes than simple scholastic training would have been. 

Whatever may have been the results of military training and 
discipline in connection with the college section of army training, 
there is no question as to their working together satisfactorily in the 
vocational section. The responsibilities and functions of the voca- 
tional instructional section were carefully organized under the insti- 
tutional director so that there was no encroachment of the military 
upon the educational, nor vice versa. All matters of mutual interest 
were considered directly by the commanding officer and the institu- 
tional director. 

The vocational methods of instruction and control harmonized 
well with military training and discipline and the schedule of hours 
of duty for each was clearly defined and easily maintained. It was a 
matter of common observation among the instructors that precision 

74 Quarterly Journal 

and other methods of military training carried over into the vocational 
work and it was likewise a common observation and comment of the 
military officers that nearly, if not fully, as rapid progress was made 
in the time allotted for military training of the vocational section 
as usually is in army training where the whole time is devoted to 
military training. In other words, the vocational education served 
as a change, a stimulus, and a recreation in connection with military 
training and indicated that a change of occupation would serve these 
purposes as well as entire relaxation. 

The supervision for the vocational section supplied by the Com- 
mittee on Education and Special Training was pre-eminently satis- 
factory. The District Director (Dean Potter) seemed to have very 
clearly in mind the objects to be attained, the difficulties to be met, 
and the proper methods of handling the situation. His assistance in 
planning the work, in the organization, in the instruction, and in a 
variety of problems connected with the administration was very help- 
ful and highly appreciated. 

Among the first things presented to the men who entered the 
training and among the things which were constantly kept before them 
were those with reference to correct ideas of the causes of the war, 
the bearing the final outcome would have upon the rights of nations 
and of individuals, and the future security of the things most sacred 
and most essential to individual and national life and happiness, and 
along with this were also presented right ideas of individual life and 

The efifect of vocational army training on the institution was 
manifest among the instructional force of University students. Many 
phases of the work were new upon the University campus and the 
rapidity with which readjustments were made in the equipment and 
work of the engineering department and the rate of progress which 
the men made in this vocational work, as well as in their military 
training, was a matter of universal comment and appreciation not 
only by people connected with the institution, but also by citizens who 
had an opportunity to see something of the work being accomplisht. 

Our experience with this work was so highly satisfactory and 
demonstrated so clearly the practicability of many desirable features 
that before the work closed I concluded to introduce, gradually and 
in a modified way, several of the fundamental ideas in connection with 
certain specific subjects in our engineering courses. 

The effect of the vocational training was noticed by the men 
themselves and highly appreciated. Many of the men who had no 
college training but who were mature and who had considerable ex- 

The Institution of Higher Education 75 

perience in life, exprest to me personally, before going from the camp 
into service, their high appreciation of the privileges and opportunities 
of this training given by the Government and the value that it had 
been to them ; and many of them also exprest a sincere hope that after 
the war they might be able to obtain more such training, better 
preparation for industrial life, and a broader education- Already 
several of thes men have returned to the University and are beginning 
industrial and engineering courses. 

To those who have been watching and carefully studying this 
great experiment in the rapid training of men in vocational lines to 
meet the emergency war needs of the Government, there have been 
presented many valuable ideas, not a few of which are well worthy 
of adopting either in whole or in part in connection with various 
phases of our educational ideals and methods of training. This has 
served, as it were, as a great educational experimental laboratory 
course in which many new methods and ideas have been tested out 
and in which the results achieved have been remarkably successful; 
and it is sincerely hoped that the lessons which we have learned in 
methods, ideals, and educational efficiency, will be quickly and 
vigorously applied to our technical and industrial training. 

We are beginning to realize more fully the enormous advantages 
to be derived from a training which gives a knowledge of the laws 
of nature and a skill and power capable of mastering the difficulties 
and real problems of daily life. Our universities and colleges should 
more and more inculcate the ideals of real service and should be actu- 
ated by a sincere desire to serve the people in every way possible, not 
only in aiding the investigation and development of our resources and 
our industrial, civic, and social problems, but also by training young 
people so that they will be well fitted to fill important places in life 
with credit to themselves and the industry or profession in which they 
are engaged, and who will have sufficiently broad and high views to 
become active, useful, and noble members of society. 

To show contrasts and for general information, the following 
brief summaries are given. They are made from answers received to 
questionnaires sent. They show how the various institutions repre- 
sented handled the epidemic situation. These summaries should be 
read and the contrasts noted in connection with the statistical table 
that follows. 

Beloit College 

Three weeks' interruption. Hospital accommodations were pro- 
vided by the use of one dormitory and a room in the gymnasium. No 
medical aid was used beyond that regularly provided for the S. A. 

76 Quarterly Journal 

T. C. Faculty co-operation was confined to one dean and the com- 
mittee in charge of the War Aims Course. 

Carleton College 

Studies were interrupted from November 11 to December I2- 
The hospital facilities were supplied by taking over the men's dormi- 
tory as an emergency hospital. No medical aid was used outside of 
the two army physicians, but they were aided by five nurses. The 
local Red Cross co-operated with a committee of the facultj' in caring 
for the sick. 

DePauw University 

Classes interrupted from October 10 to November 4. Both the 
college infirmaries and Indianapolis hospitals were used. A provisional 
hospital was establisht in one of the dormitories. The two army 
physicians were aided by four outside physicians, two professional 
nurses, and many volunteer Red Cross nurses. Red Cross aid was 
effective also in many other ways. 

Hamline University 

The epidemic caused no interruption of classes. The medical 
work was done by an outside physician, a trained nurse, and S. A. 
T. C. orderlies. 

Harvard University 

No interruption of classes during epidemic. The University 
hospital was supplemented by the use of two dormitories as detention 
hospitals. The regular hospital staff of from two to four physicians 
was aided by twelve senior medical students and several Red Cross 


Lafayette College 

No interruption of college work. The camp hospital and the 
college hospital both used. The army physician Avas aided by two 
outside physicians and several graduate and local nurses. The Red 
Cross found nurses and the faculty co-operated generally. 

Lake Forest 

Only two days' interruption of classes. The college hospital Avas 
supplemented by the use of the President's house as a well equipt 
detention hospital. The medical work was done by the regular army 
physician and a trained nurse. 

Miami University 

No interruption of class work. The women students were sent 
home and an emergency hospital was establisht in one of the dormi- 
tories- The army physician was aided by some twenty-five nurses. 
The Red Cross assisted in procuring nurses and the faculty co-oper- 
ated generally. 

North Dakota Agricultural College 

Most of class work interrupted from October 8 to November 
I. Three large general hospitals and two smaller private ones in 

The Institutions of Higher Education 77 

Fargo in use, also Music Building, Ceres Hall, three fraternity houses, 
and large hospital tents. Forty-two nurses, mostly from St. Johns and 
St. Lukes hospitals but including volunteer nurses and others from 
Fargo. Camp physicians, five, with college physician and one special- 
ist. Home Economics had entire charge of diet and general hospital 
cookery, and their graduates from the outside helpt in various ways. 
Library open four hours each day outside of regular hours for con- 
valescents and those exposed to the epidemic. Red Cross co-operated 
in supplying face masks and bedding. 

University of Arizona 

Classes interrupted from October 21 to January 2. Emergency 
hospitals were establisht in the gymnasium and in several rooms in 
the agricultural building. The medical men were two regular army 
physicians and six from the outside. They were assisted by two 
professional nurses and volunteers from the faculty and studenty 
body. The Red Cross furnisht hospital supplies. 

University of Chicago 

No interruption of classes- Two fraternity houses and two 
dormitories used as emergency hospitals. The regular University 
physician and the army physician were aided by five other doctors, 
giving part of their time. Six Red Cross nurses and two hired by 
the University aided in the hospitals. 

University of Idaho 

No interruption of classes but non-S. A. T. C. students lost from 
three to five weeks from quarantine. Two city hospitals, an emer- 
gency S. A. T. C. hospital, a fraternity house, the Elks Club house 

used as a convalescent hospital and two churches and one college 
building used as isolation hospitals. Four trained nurses and twenty 
volunteers from faculty, town women, and the student body, one 
military physician and seven from the outside. The Red Cross 
supplied food for invalids and hospital supplies of every kind. One 
member of faculty chairman of county Red Cross- Advisory com- 
mittee to President met frequently and there were special faculty 

University of Illinois 

Three months' serious interruption of classes. The University 
hospital was supplemented by the use of one of the University recita- 
tion halls, two dormitories, and a fraternity house. Four hundred 
patients accommodated at one time. Eighty-five nurses were assembled 
from all parts of the state. One army physician and eight from the 
outside. Faculty and local chapters of Red Cross furnisht supplies 
of every sort. Epidemic handled by a closely organized faculty 
group, "the war department neither helped nor hindered." 

University of Indiana 
Two weeks' interruption of classes and all public gatherings for- 
bidden for three months. Emergency hospitals on the campus. 

78 Quarterly Journal 

Trained and volunteer nurses from two to twenty-five Four camp 
physicians and ten from the outside. Red Cross of considerable aid. 
Committee on Student Health represented the faculty. 

University of Kansas 

Six weeks' interruption of class work. Medical faculty and 

advanced students made the temporary barracks into efficient hos- 
pitals. Few trained nurses but an abundance of volunteers from 
student body from Lawrence. Six army physicians and five from the 
outside. Red Cross worked day and night furnishing supplies of every 
kind. Department of Home Economics had charge of food supplies. 
Chancellor placed a director and two assistants in charge and heads 
of departments were selected by director for aid as needed. 

University of Kentucky 

Six weeks' interruption of classes. Gymnasium and one dormi- 
tory converted into hospitals. Trained nurses, mostly volunteer, 

numbered twenty-five. Two camp physicians and one from the 
outside. Red Cross local chapter co-operated closely in caring for 
the sick. 

University of Minnesota 

The epidemic caused only one week of interruption. Hospital 
service at Ft. SnelHng and two hospitals on the campus. The staff 
of twelve military physicians and nurses at the three hospitals supplied 
all medical aid. Red Cross gave excellent co-operation and individual 

members of the faculty offered their services. 

University of Montana 

Classes interrupted from October 7 to January I, 19 19. Two 
local hospitals, St. Patrick's and the Northern Pacific Railway, later 
an S. A. T. C. hospital accommodated the large number of patients 
cared for temporarily in the barracks. Volunteer nurses from 
S. A. T. C- unit were later replaced by Red Cross and volunteer 
women nurses. One army physician and one outside for one week. 
Red Cross very efficient in finding nurses and doctors and in supply- 
ing bedding and other materials. The faculty committee on Health 
took an active part in caring for the sick students, and the dean of 
men and other members of the faculty visited the patients and kept 
their parents informed. 

J University of Nebraska 

Three weeks' interruption of classes. Emergency hospitals were 
created by using three residences, two University buildings, and some 
rooms in other buildings. Nurses were supplied partly by the Red 
Cross and partly by volunteers from Lincoln; there were also the 
medical orderlies and military details. Three military physicians and 
one outside, besides a good deal of volunteer aid. The faculty all 

The Institution of Higher Education 79 

took an active part in assisting in the hospitals, and the alumni 
co-operated vigorously. 

University of North Carolina 

Demoralization for three weeks but no actual closing. Univer- 
sity infirmary was supplemented by the use of six fraternity houses. 
Seven trained nurses were assisted by 30 second year medical students 
and orderlies from the S. A. T- C. unit. The three army physicians 
co-operated with the S. A. T. C. committee of the faculty. 

University of Oklahoma 

No interruption of classes. Two hospitals, one of them the 
special S. A. T. C. hospital. Army physician and local doctor assisted 
by five city physicians in severe cases. Faculty made canvass of city 
for supplies and for medical help and assisted in the hospitals where 
needed. Red Cross furnisht S. A. T. C. with sweaters, etc. 

University of South Dakota 

Three weeks' interruption. Besides the local hospital, four 
private residences were used as emergency hospitals. One camp 
physician was assited by a very active Red Cross society. 

University of Utah 

Classes interrupted from October 15 to November 20. All 
patients were taken directly to Ft. Douglas hospital and were com- 
pletely under military authority thereafter. The physicians and 
nurses were wholly of the hospital staff. Practically every member 
of the faculty aided in the care of the patients directly or indirectly 
and the Red Cross co-operated. 

University of Washington 

Two weeks' interruption. Two dormitories used as hospitals. 
Nurses, wholly volunteer, from ten to twenty from the city- The 
faculty and the S. A. T. C. unit aided the two camp physicians. 
Faculty War Emergency Committee of twenty appointed a com- 
mittee of three to take actual charge of relief. The alumni assisted 
the Red Cross in supplying cots and blankets. 

University of Wisconsin 

No actual interruption of classes. Two city hospitals and Uni- 
versity infirmary supplemented by emergency hospital at the quarters 
of the University Club. Two army physicians, five full time contract 
phj'sicians, and six on half time. Graduate nurse and five health 
aides. Faculty represented by an advisory committee consisting of 
the Executive Committee of Medical School. Resident alumni 
offered their homes for care of convalescents. Red Cross furnisht 
nurses, prepared food, cquipt temporary hospitals, secured transporta- 
tion, and furnisht supplies. 

Vanderbilt University 

Three weeks' interruption of classes. Emergency hospital on 
campus. Volunteer nurses largely, only three or four trained nurses 


Quarterly Journal 

available with three army physicians- The women of the faculty 
were especially helpful and the Red Cross aid was invaluable. 

Yale University 

No interruption of regular class work. New Haven hospital 

was supplemented by emergency hospitals establisht in tu'o fraternity 
houses. Approximately thirty volunteer trained nurses and twenty 
untrained assisted the three outside physicians. Red Cross supplied 

Statistical Table 





w U, 

fa u 










De Pauw 



Lafayette College 

Lake Forest 

Miami University 

North Dakota Agricultural Col 

University of Arizona 

University of Chicago 

University of Idaho 

University of Illinois 

University of Indiana 

University of Kansas 

University of Kentucky 

University of Louisiana 

University of Minnesota 

University of Michigan 

University of Montana 

University of Nebraska 

University of North Carolina. . 
University of North Dakota . . . 

University of Ohio 

University of Oklahoma ...... 

University of South Dakota . . . 

University of Utah 

University of Washington . . . . 

University of Wisconsin 

Vanderbilt University 

Yale University 

Totals and averages . . . 
*Approximate figures. 






































36890-36974 141001 38.2 3521 2.5 











































The Public Schools and the War 

M. Beatrice Johnstone, 

County Superintendent of Schools of Grand Forks County and 
President of the Alumni Association of the University 
of North Dakota 

THE children of the North Dakota schools have met the test of 
the war. No record of war activities can ever be complete with- 
out full mention of the spirit and the work of the thousands of child- 
ren who so sincerely responded to the Nation's call. There is no love 
without service, and from the eager, enthusiastic, untiring service 
they rendered we cannot fail to see the great love that prompted it. 

Nor can we forget the guiding hands of the teachers who so 
readily developt in the minds of the children an understanding of 
the war and the sacrifice and good will needed to carry on effective 
work. This has meant hours of extra labor, willingly and cheerfully 
given, the expenditure of time and energy in planning programs, 
pageants, plays, and projects of all kinds — the mobilization of all 
school children into a great service army. 

Thru it all there has been no lowering of standards in schools, 
but rather, boys and girls have felt the necessity of studying hard to 
lay foundations for future work. No one can mesure the services 
of the children in the past or tell what effect it will have on the 
citizens of tomorrow. Neither is it possible to give a complete story 
of what has been accomplisht materially, nor even an accurate re- 
port of the amounts of money earned. 

The work of the Junior Red Cross, for instance, has been so 
varied, so far reaching, and withal so personal, that exact and definite 
information cannot be given. There has poured into the treasury for 
membership fees alone thirty thousand, seven hundred fifty dollars 
and ninety-four cents ($30750.94), this being paid by the ninety- 
five thousand, six hundred nine children who proudly claim mem- 
bership in this organization. Two thousand, one hundred twenty-five 
schools became factories and business institutions. Fingers that were 
small and clumsy patiently knitted socks, sweaters, wristlets, and 
helmets — three thousand three hundred fifty-seven garments in all. 
Students of domestic art made thousands of surgical dressings, num- 
berless layettes for the suffering babes, hospital garments to the num- 
ber of forty thousand, eight hundred, and a thousand pairs of work 
mittens. The busy hum of the manual training rooms produced one 
hundred twenty-five articles of furniture, twenty-two dozen splints, 

82 Quarterly Journal 

knitting needles, and framed Junior Red Cross certificates. Children 
of all ages helpt make seven hundred sixty-nine scrap books for con- 
valescent hospital wards. Socials, bazaars, and salvage sales were 
frequent occurrences, adding large sums to the treasury and develop- 
ing in children resourcefulness, pride, patience, and responsibility. In 
the fire-stricken districts of Minnesota six hundred thirty-eight child- 
ren were made happy with Christmas boxes from North Dakota, 

In industrial club work an army of thirteen thousand children 
answered the Nation's call for food saving. They became the own- 
ers of sheep and chickens which lived chiefly on waste materials and 
added to the income of the state, four thousand dollars ($4000) and 
ten thousand dollars ($10,000) respectively. The corn raised pro- 
duced eight thousand dollars ($8,000). Six thousand children's war 
gardens were planted and cared for, producing a supply of vegetables 
worth sixteen thousand dollars ($16,000). Potatoes proved to be 
another popular source of profit, the children of the state producing 
a supply valued at fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000). 

To care for and utilize these vegetables, canning clubs sprang up 
in every neighborhood until the great storehouse of North Dakota 
held one hundred thousand extra quarts. Patience, energ>', initiative, 
and thrift, wide in their benefit, developt and grew strong. 

Into the hearts of the children there came to dwell a great spirit 
of devotion and self-sacrifice which cannot fail to cast a kindly glow 
on their futures. No one who has helpt to feed and clothe the suffer- 
ing Belgians can feel that his duty to others ends with the war. The 
children who have adopted French orphans and who have exchanged 
greetings and letters with these brothers across the seas will not think 
lightly of their promise to help plant the fields of the future and to 
rebuild the homes they have loved. 

"That which fate has taken, that will love restore, 
(Trust us when we tell you that our word is true.) 
The lights of home shall beckon within an open door, 
Oh, weary ones, turn back again, the board is spread for you." 

When the United War Work Campaign came on, Victory boys 
and girls pledged over fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) toward 
the cause, practically all of this to be earned by personal effort. 
Schools, parents, and pupils united their efforts in the purchasing of 
Liberty Bonds of all loans so that now three hundred fifty thousand 
($350,000) worth of bonds is held in the names of the North Dakota 
children. The smallest child in the humblest home possesses his Thrift 
Card which he carefully plans and proudly fills. Small earnings 
have been saved and treats sacrificed so that the children have bought 

The Public Schools and the War 83 

over one hundred fifty thousand ($150,000) worth of War Savings 
Stamps. Strength, personal independence, and the thrill that promotes 
prosperity w^ill be theirs, ultimately bringing to America that univer- 
sal independence and efficiency which is indispensable. 

The class-room instruction which children have been given on 
war topics has been varied and far-reaching. Lessons in loyalty, duty, 
thrift, conservation, co-operation, military organization, war geogra- 
phy, government and the principles of democracy, are among those 
which have been set forth. 

Local, state, and government publications have been drawn on 
for materials The National Bureau of Education in its semi- 
monthly magazines. School Service and School Life has furnisht 
abundant and excellent topics for consideration. These papers were 
sent free of charge to all teachers and proved to be very valuable. 
Current Events is found in almost every school and is used for 
language, history, and general lessons. Food problems have invaded 
arithmetic classes, gardens and industrial work have motivated both 
mathematics and language, war maps and war topics have given a 
close and vital touch to geography and history. 

Superintendent Arthur Deamer of Fargo prepared a patriotic 
outline which has been widely used for school study. Military organ- 
ization, causes of the war, social and political conditions, and move- 
ments for peace, are some of the more important topics dwelt upon. 
The work is usually presented orally with the help of such magazines 
as the Literary Digest, Review of Reviezvs, National Geographic 
Magazine, and Leslie's Weekly. The Extension Department of the 
Agricultural College and the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture have issued hundreds of helpful pamphlets, with plans and 
suggestions for all the industrial work. 

In fact the war has brought the whole world to the school 
room, and to the children it has given an invaluable interest in world 
affairs. We can see that the schools are beginning to discard use- 
less and impractical work and give more attention to current topics 
and to sound economics. 

The children of today are carrying to their homes and to the 

next generation the gospel of thrift, service, and brotherhood. They 

helpt to win the war, materially, morally, and spiritually. The 

results of the work they have done, Frederick George Scott has 

beautifully described in his poem "To France": 

"What for all time will the harvest be. Sister? 
What will spring up from the seed that is sown? 
Freedom and peace and goodwill among Nations, 
Love that will bind us with love all our own." 

Various Secondary War Activities 

of the State 

Vernon P. Squires, 
Professor of English, University of North Dakota 

IT IS a generally admitted fact that the winning of the war was 
not due entirely to the victories on the battle lines. Nor would 
the supplemental work of the main auxiliary agencies have been so 
effective had it not been for various secondary activities in which the 
plain people of our country interested themselves and in which they 
displayed an energy and a fidelity which can never be accurately 
described and which will probably never be fully appreciated. These 
workers wore no uniform; they carried no banners and made no 
parades; but all the while they were a constant and telling force in 
the patriotic cause. Like the steady pressure of the atmosphere of 
which we are hardly conscious, but which is nevertheless one of the 
most potent forces in the world, these minor agencies kept up their 
quiet work insistently and devotedly, and with results that when 
totalled proved a surprise to themselves and the government. Yet the 
results can not be accurately totalled. In such matters it is impossible 
to secure adequate statistics. There are too many of these nameless 
acts of loyalty to tabulate. They defy figures. In the brief account 
that follows, it is therefore not to be expected that absolute accuracy 
has been secured. They are only partial reports, mere indications 
of activities which were being carried on in every public gathering, 
every school house, every club, and every home. 

The State Council of Defense 

The North Dakota State Council of Defense was organized at 
Bismarck May 28, 191 7, at a meeting called for that purpose by 
Governor Frazier. Thirty members were originally appointed and 
Dr. V. H. Stickney of Dickinson was made chairman. The executive 
committee which had the larger share of the responsibility consisted, 
in addition to the governor and the chairman, of Dorr H. Carroll, 
vice-chairman, F. O. Helstrom, secretary, and Dean E. J. Babcock, 
Professors C. B. Waldron and H. R. Brush, Dr. H. M. Wheeler, 
Mrs. Mary D. Weible, and Messrs W. R. Kellogg and C. F. Dupuis. 
Various committees were organized and active work along several 
lines immediately began. 

The first difficulty that faced the council was the lack of funds. 
Five hundred dollars for immediate expenses was allowed by the 

Secondary War Activities 85 

Emergency Board, and forty-five hundred dollars raised on a note 

personally endorst by members of the executive committee. The 

council was still without any legal authority but the people responded 
loyally to its recommendations and a good deal was accomplisht from 
the very beginning. Subsidiary organizations were made in each 
county by appointing the County Auditor in each case as chairman of 
a committee including, besides himself, the County Commissioners and 
the County Superintendent of Schools, who also served as secretary 
of the committee. 

When the legislature convened in January, 191 7, a law establish- 
ing the Council of Defense on a somewhat different basis, providing 
funds, and giving legal authority, was passed. By this act the gover- 
nor himself was made chairman of the council. The council assisted 
materially in carrying on various activities elsewhere discust in this 
number of the Quarterly Journal. Besides these it pusht the publicity 
work of the government by the use of moving pictures and various 
publications, and undertook a variety of special tasks. For example, 
it enacted a regulatory order providing that any farmer who could 
show that there were in his neighborhood idle tillable lands, which 
he could use for crop production could secure from the Council of 
Defense a permit "to enter upon the same and make them productive 
for the year 191 8 for raising flax and for 19 1 9 for raising wheat, 
providing he would carefully farm the same and had the ability so to 
do, and providing further that proper compensation be given to the 
owner of the land for its use." It is estimated that three hundred 
thousand acres of land were in this way added to the productive 
acreage of the state. 

Another function of the council was to protect, in their absence, 
the property of soldiers and sailors and their dependents. But it is 
impossible to enumerate all the activities of the council in the way of 
conservation, protection, publicity, and general co-operation. As 
already said, they are referred to in various other articles. 

Food Production and Conservation 
As one of the great agricultural states of the Union, North 
Dakota was lookt to at once, on the outbreak of war, to furnish an 
increast supply of food stuffs. To meet this demand the farmers 
sought everjr^vhere to increase the cultivated acreage. The result was 
that the amount of land under cultivation was increast from 
13,200,000 acres in 19 16 to 14,085,000 acres in 191 7 and to 15,- 
417,000 acres in 191 8. The wheat production increast from 
39,000,000 bushels in 1916 to 56,000,000 in 191 7 and to 83,000,000 

86 Quarterly Journal 

in 191 8. The other grains were also produced in larger quantities, the 
production of rye in 19 18 being over three times that of 19 16. 

This increase was, of course, due in part to favorable weather 
conditions; but no small part was due to the patriotic endeavors and 
foresight of our people. For instance, the legislature by enacting at 
a special session called by the governor a Seed and Feed Act made 
it possible for farmers who had suffered from crop failure in 191 7 
to secure seed and feed to carry them thru the season, thus assisting 
materially in the increast production of 191 8. Again, young men 
were excused from the state educational institutions and given "war 
credit," if they devoted themselves to agricultural work. The dates 
of opening and closing the high schools were changed to allow men 
and boys to work in the fields. In nearly every town and city the 
business men were organized in the harvest season to go out in groups 
to assist in gathering the crops, making up in large mesure for the 
labor shortage caused by the war. 

There was, of course, here, as elsewhere, a greatly increast 
interest in gardening. School gardens were cultivated as never before, 
and in all the towns and cities vacant lots were utilized for the raising 
of vegetables. Altho it is not possible to give accurate figures in 
regard to these matters, it is safe to say that the "war gardens" of 
191 7 and 1 91 8 produced far more vegetables than were ever grown 
in the state before. 

Simultaneously with this increase in production, instruction in 
the canning and drying of vegetables was given in schools and at 
various gatherings thruout the state. The Agricultural College thru 
its Extension Department was especially active and helpful in the 
work and housewives everywhere canned and dried as never before. 
Women's clubs had special demonstrations of war dishes and it 
became almost as fashionable to be frugal as it has previously been 
to be extravagant. 

The general oversight of this work was assigned to President 
E. F. Ladd of the Agricultural College by whom able assistants were 
appointed in each county. Under Dr. Ladd's direction the govern- 
ment rules in regard to food conservation were widely publisht and 
explained and a sharp lookout kept for violators of the law. But 
violators proved to be very infrequent, for in carrying out the govern- 
ment regulations in regard to meats, sugar, wheat flour, and the other 
listed products, the butchers and grocers of North Dakota cheerfully 
co-operated. Of course in all this there is nothing distinctive. The 

Secondary War Activities 87 

same sacrifices were made in every state. The facts are merely 
mentioned here that they may not be entirely forgotten. 

Fuel Conservation 

An equally interesting and important work of conservation from 
the point of view of our state and one which is likely to produce even 
more permanent effects was that of the conservation of coal. North 
Dakota has a cold climate and requires vast quantities of fuel. The 
eastern part of the state, at least, has long been dependent upon 
supplies of eastern coal. It was known, of course, that in the western 
counties there were rich beds of lignite ; but people in the Red River 
Valley had never thought seriously of lignite as a practical fuel. In 
fact, they were prejudist against its use. But with the outbreak of 
the war and the consequent fuel shortage due to the needs of the 
government and the greatly increast exportation of eastern coal, a 
situation arose which called for immediate action. This was under- 
taken in the summer of 191 7 by Dean E. J. Babcock of the School 
of Mines, chairman of the Committee on Fuel, Mining, and Engi- 
neering under the State Council of Defense. 

Dean Babcock has long been a student of the various problems 
pertaining to lignite and by reason of his expert knowledge of its 
mining and use was able to be very helpful in increasing both the 
supply and the demand. He at once got in touch with the operators 
of the lignite mines urging a larger production. Thoroly convinced, 
as he was, of the feasibility of using lignite in our state far more 
extensively than heretofore, he began by correspondence, by news- 
paper articles and by circulars to set forth its advantages, to explain 
the necessary methods of storage and burning, and to urge its 
increast use. Simultaneously he corresponded with coal dealers to 
secure information in regard to supply and demand and to preach 
the gospel of burning North Dakota coal. As a result of this propa- 
ganda the production and use of lignite coal were increast during the 
first year by over thirty per cent. Hundreds of people who had never 
used lignite before became acquainted with it and found it an 
economical and convenient fuel. They will continue to use it. Thus 
there will be a permanent gain to the industrial life of our state. 

In the fall of 191 7 the Federal Fuel Administration was estab- 
lisht with the appointment of Captain I. P. Baker of Bismarck as 
State Administrator, with an advisory committee on which Dean 
Babcock served. This new organization carried on effectively the 
\vork already begun and having more funds and larger powers at its 
disposal was able to do more effective work. In the attempt to induce 
consumers to substitute lignite for anthracite, the Administration 

88 Quarterly Journal 

publisht various pamphlets and bulletins, distributed slides to all the 
moving-picture theaters in the state, co-operated with the operators in 
advertising North Dakota coal, and compelled retail dealers to handle 
lignite in order to secure a share of the available anthracite. 

To protect the public a scale of maximum prices at the mine was 
promulgated, and transportation rates were also adjusted. During 
the summer of 191 8 a special effort was made to keep the mines open 
and thus to accumulate a supply for the coming winter. This effort 
was so successful that, in spite of the well-known fact that lignite does 
not keep well in storage, the mines were run all summer at seventy-five 
per cent of their maximum capacity or at double the rate of produc- 
tion attained during the preceding year. 

It will never be possible to state just how much anthracite and 
bituminous coal was saved by these efforts, but it is evident that great 
quantities were thus releast for necessary use elsewhere. Two things, 
at least, are plain: One is that the increase in the production and use 
of our native coal prevented much suffering which must otherwise 
have occurred among our people during the winters of 191 7-19 18 
and 191 8-1 919. The other is that by acquainting North Dakotans 
with the facts in regard to their own coal, a permanent advantage was 
gained for the mining industry of the state. 

The Work of the Four-Minute Men 

The 'Tour-Minute Men" idea was peculiarly American. Be- 
fore an ordinary speaker would get fairly under way, one of these 
rapid-fire talkers would have finisht his remarks and sat down. 
Everything must be terse and to the point. They represented the 
light artillery of speech. Our state was well organized for this 
work. The following account slightly condenst from the govern- 
ment report tells the story clearly and consisely: 

"The North Dakota Four-Minute Men organization was born 
in July, 191 7, at which time Mr. John P. Hardy, of Fargo, was 
appointed state director, with full power to 'hire and fire.' Believing 
at that time the only towns possessing motion-picture theaters should 
be organized, a list of 130 motion-picture towns was obtained, and 
within four months all these towns were organized. Meantime Mr. 
Hardy had been compelled to resign from the work, and Mr. H. H. 
Wooledge, of Fargo, was appointed state director in September, 191 7, 
which office he has continued to fill until the present time. 

"Mr. Wooledge speedily realized that the large number of 
towns in North Dakota without motion-picture theaters offered a 
larger and even more important field for the work than those upon 
the list previously obtained. He immediately set to work and organ- 

Secondary War Activities 89 

ized these as speedily as possible, earning the proud distinction of 
being the first state director in the Union to succeed in organizing 
every town of a thousand population within his state. He issued 
instructions to his local chairmen to operate through schools, churches, 
lodge meetings, auction sales, and among the threshing crews, and in 
one instance where the use of the only church in town was denied to 
the Four-Minute Men, made arrangements through his local chair- 
man for a talk each week in the village pool hall. 

"On December 24, 19 18, North Dakota had 305 organized 
Four-Minute Men units, of which 84 per cent were working with 
very high efficiency. 

"The state director of North Dakota has asked us to particularly 
recognize in this short summary the fact that he could not have 
directed his state effectively without the free and volunteered assist- 
ance of the Misses Inga and Alvina Nordhaug, who handled all 
correspondence, mimeographing, reports, etc., without compensation. 

"Also any report on the work done in North Dakota would be 
incomplete which failed to mention the splendid services of the travel- 
ing representatives of the state director's office, Mr. Edgar L. Richter 
and Mr. Gilbert W. Funk, who freely gave of their time and money 
in organizing the work in the various towns of North Dakota by 
personal visitation. The success of these two loyal Four-Minute 
Men in North Dakota was made the subject matter of a recommenda- 
tion from national headquarters to the directors of several states 
facing like problems, and the plans adopted by Director Wooledge 
for handling and directing the work of these traveling representatives 
were passed on and resulted in increased efficiency in quite a number 
of states." 

As a result of this faithful work our state rankt ninth in the 
efficiency record of the whole country. The chairmen enrolled 
numbered 195, the speakers, 588. Eighty certificates for special honor 
were awarded to theaters in sixty-five towns. Besides assisting in 
all the "drives," the Four-Minute men engaged in a special campaign 
for glasses for the navy which resulted in securing several hundred. 
In regard to this matter Chairman Wooledge writes: I have no 
actual count of the number our state produced ; but Assistant 
Secretary of the navy, Roosevelt, calculated that 23,852 out of 
36,696 glasses received up to May i, 191 8, were the results of the 
efforts of the Four-Minute Men. Of these an unexpectedly large 
number came from North Dakota. 

The Support of French Orphans 
A very interesting phase of relief work which was carried on in 

90 Quarterly Journal 

the state during the war period was that of caring for the fatherless 
children of France. This work was done in co-operation with the 
general American committee, whose headquarters are in New York 
and with the French committee of which Marshal Joifre is president. 
The work seems to have begun in North Dakota by the organization 
of a committee in Grand Forks in November, 191 7. Mrs. Charles 
M. Cooley was the efficient chairman of this committee, and Mrs. 
A. G. Leonard, its secretary. Thru the active endeavors of these two 
ladies various individuals and organizations agreed to "adopt" one 
or more French orphans, and contribute $36.50 to the support of 
each, this being the amount suggested by the French committee. From 
Grand Forks the work spread to other towns and other counties in 
this section of the state. Minot and Bathgate are two communities 
which deserve special mention for their activity. The Masonic Order 
became interested in the movement and took hold of it in the big 
way characteristic of that order. Within a year four hundred and 
ninety children were thus provided for thru the initiative of the Grand 
Forks committee. 

Meanwhile a similar movement had been started at Dickinson 
and about seventy-five children provided for. The center of the 
work in the southern and western portions of the state was, however, 
for some reason, transferred to Bismarck, where Mrs. U. O. Ramstad 
was the chairman and Mrs. Worth Lumly the secretary. Five hun- 
dred and seventy-five children are now being provided for thru 
this committee. In Grand Forks the work has also been continued 
thru the present year. Most of those contributing last have renewed 
their support and others have joined in the movement so that at the 
present time over six hundred children are now cared for under the 
auspices of the Grand Forks committee. It is known that many 
citizens of our state have contributed directly to the New York 
committee, but it is impossible to say how many have done so. What 
is clear is that about thirteen hundred fatherless French children are 
at present being provided for by the generosity of good people of our 
state. In a recent letter to the Grand Forks committee, Mrs. W. S. 
Brewster, chairman of the Chicago general committee, who has 
recently returned from a tour of inspection of this work in France, 
writes: "I am delighted with the splendid work you have been 
doing. I wish all our committees would help us as you do." 

Thrift Stamps 

The idea of "Thrift Stamps" was one of the happiest ideas 
evolved by the United States Treasury officials. It not only gave 
small investors, including children, a chance to contribute to the 

Secondary War Activities 91 

support of the government, but, what is perhaps equally important, it 
encouraged habits of economy and saving. North Dakota took hold 
of this plan with enthusiasm. The schools promoted the idea in 
every way possible. News agents on the trains sold stamps; 
merchants askt their customers to take them in change; boy scouts 
and postmen vended them from house to house. As a result, the 
sale in 191 8 in this state amounted to $7,504,800. The chairman of 
the State Committee having the work in charge was Mr. Hollister 
of Fargo. 

Public Library Commission 

In order to keep the morale of our troops in camps and canton- 
ments it was early realized that means of entertainment must be 
provided for their leisure hours. One of the many activities designed 
to meet this need was that of collecting and purchasing books for 
camp libraries. The state of North Dakota was not delinquent in 
this work. The Secretary of the Library Commission, Mrs. Minnie 
C. Budlong, was state director of this movement. Co-operating with 
her were the various libraries of the state. Various women's clubs 
also assisted loyally. According to Mrs. Budlong's report about six 
thousand dollars in cash was raised in the state for this purpose and 
over thirty-three thousand books were collected and forwarded. 
Worthy of special mention was the preparation of 598 scrap-books 
especially prepared with bright pictures and cheerful contents for 
hospital use. 

In connection with this work it is fitting that special mention 
should be made of the splendid work done by the various women's 
clubs of the state. But it was not the library work only that was 
aided by them. For the most part they abandoned the regular 
programs planned for the year and devoted their meetings to war 
work. Trained by their club experience to join in co-operative 
endeavors, they showed great ability in organizing for Red Cross 
work, Liberty Loan campaigns, and the various "drives" for patriotic 
purposes. It is estimated by the Historian of the State Federation 
that not less than twenty-five per cent of all members of women's 
clubs served as chairmen or members of the special committees 
appointed for special work in the communities of the state. 

In Conclusion 

Thus in the secondary activities as well as in the larger, in the 
home as well as on the farm, in the shop, in store or bank or school, 

92 Quarterly Journal 

or church, the people of our state workt together loyally and enthusi- 
astically for the great cause. Few indeed were thr disloyal or the 
unwilling. As long as the war lasted personal converuence or pleasure 
or profit was subordinated to the great work at hand. So it was all 
over our country; but in no known activity, great ot small, did our 
state of North Dakota fail to do its full par*- 

Wai Experiences of a University 
Student as a Doughboy * 

Wesley R. Johnson 

IN a chiunological account of this kind that covers a period of 
twenty months, only little more than mere mention can be given 
to each occurrence. Incidents will be slighted ; pictures and descrip- 
tions will b'- Sare and incomplete; explanations will be brief and 
pointed; nevertheless, the occurrences will be presented in as correct 
and honest a manner as the memory will permit. Everything said 
will not be infallible, by any means; at any rate, the story will be 
true to the v-^wpoint of the infantryman. Some events have been 
forgotten; otners have been dimmed by the frequent following 
disasters, or by our desire to forget; certain other occurrences, how- 
ever, have n»s*de such vivid impressions that they will never be for- 
gotten. Not much will be mentioned of the monotonous drills and 
maneuvers; iior of the long merciless hikes with little food and poor 
living conditions — these things are a self-evident and oftentimes a 
necessary and unavoidable condition incident to warfare. 

SuMMAR\ OF Movements Until the Breakup of Company M 

The beginning of my military career was on the seventeenth of 
August, 1 91 7) when I became a member of the well-known Company 
M, First North Dakota Infantry. During the stay of our unit in 
Grand Forks, preparatory to leaving for camp, we had a few guards, 
a few inspections, light drill during which poker occupied a good 
part, and a few maneuvers — enough to make us believe the military 
life was one of health and one of benefit. Finally, after several false 
rumors, our true orders to entrain came- With a certain expectancy 
we packed our squad boxes and waited anxiously for the time to 
march to the train. When the time arrived we were surprised to see 
so many people at our departure. We took our leave amid some 

*Mr. Johnson, the writer of this modest, but unusually interesting, 
sketch, had, just prior to his enlistment, completed his sophomore year in 
the University of North Dakota. At the time of enlistment he was under 
age and under weight, being 17 years old, and, tho 70 inches tall, weighing 
but 126 pounds, the last four of that, even, registering a recent heavy 
draft of water. Thru somebody's mistake, tho. the weight was entered as 
138 pounds, and that being so near the 140 required for one of his height, 
he was allowed to pass. The fates thus seem to have been as successful 
in hiding his physical shortcomings from the recruiting officers as later 
on his body from the deadly aim of the Huns. In spite of all his harrow- 
ing experiences, his hardships, and his deprivations, however, he returns 
full of brightness and cheer, rejoicing that he has had such an opportunitv 
of service, mesuring full six feet in height, and weighing 156 pounds with 
no useless increment of water. 

94 Quarterly Journal 

confusion and considerable sadness; nevertheless, we held our spirits 
high in expectation of what was ahead. 

After five days' travel by train, we arrived in Camp Greene, 
North Carolina, not far from Charlotte. Here our drills were harder 
and longer. We soon learned the nature of K- P. and guard. During 
our stay at this camp epidemics of one kind or another broke out 
and, at times, caused many squads to be quarantined or put into the 
hospitals. After a three weeks' stay at the main camp, we made 
a two weeks' trip to the rifle range, where we spent altogether about 
two hours of target practise. The surroundings of this rifle range, 
outside of the dampness, were very agreeable, and many of us made 
excursions into the woods for fruit or nuts. Upon return to our 
regular camp we drilled with a little more intensity, until one day 
we were ordered to entrain, for what place we were not told. 

Our destination, we learned, was Camp Mills, near New York, 
which we reached on an icy morning in November. We erected tents 
and made ourselves as comfortable as possible until stoves should 
arrive. During our stay we drilled spasmodically, partly because of 
the weather, and partly because equipment for overseas was being 
issued. At this camp, also, epidemics broke out, and caused many 
men to be put into hospitals. One incident, especially, stands out by 
which we characterized the condition of this camp. It was one cool 
morning, after an all night's rain, that we awoke to find a foot of 
water over all our section of the camp. That meant that all our 
clothes were soaked or had floated away. Our Thanksgiving dinner 
in Brooklyn, however, stands out in bright contrast. 

From Camp Mills, we went by ferry and train to Camp 
Merritt, near Tenefly, New Jersey. Here we were given the rest 
of our overseas equipment, and in three or four days were ready 
for departure. Before leaving, unfortunately, a few more of our 
men were left in the hospital. 

On the fifteenth of December, 1917, we boarded the Leviathan 
at Hoboken, New Jersey, and left early the next morning for an 
unknown port- No events of importance occurred on the ship, altho 
rumors of submarines were common and a few shots were fired, 
supposedly in target practise. We spent most of our time eating, 
sleeping, and playing games. 

On Christmas morning w^e arrived in the dismal port of Liver- 
pool, a real Christmas present to the Allies. In the evening we took 
a train for Winchester, and from the train marched several miles to 
Camp Winalls Down. Here we waited and waited for three weeks, 
doing almost nothing. On account of the cold, drilling was at times 

A University Student as Doughboy 95 

almost impossible. The main preventatives, however, were the 
epidemics of measles, small pox, and scarlet fever. No one was 
allowed to leave his barrack. The medical attention was not very 
good at this time. When we were finally obliged to move, forty 
men quarantined for scarlet fever were left behind. During the 
early part of our stay at Camp Winalls Down several of us had the 
opportunity of visiting the old cathedral and the seat of an earlier 
English government at Winchester. 

On a day in the middle of January we were taken by train to 
Southampton and that same night crossed the channel in a cattle- 
boat. Over one-half of the men were seasick, and were dismissing 
their meals on every side below deck. There was not a light on the 
ship. Pans and pails were constantly falling off the walls and rolling 
back and forth as the ship rocked and pitched. Nobody could see 
what was happening. It was a night more like a nightmare than a 
reality- A wave that would suddenly hit the bow at a certain angle 
almost made us believe that a torpedo had struck the ship a glancing 
blow. The boat road like a barrel on the water. 

In the morning we landed at leHavre without any mishap. From 
the ship we were taken to a camp out on a marsh. Twelve men were 
assigned to each conical tent, in which there was really room for 
only six. We lived fairly uncomfortably there for about two weeks. 
During these two weeks it rained every day ; in fact, we never saw the 
sun while at this camp. When we left, forty more men, quarantined 
for mumps, were left behind. By this time, not a large percentage 
remained out of the original two hundred fifty. 

From Havre we rode for three days on train to a place by the 
name of LeCourtine. We took up our abode near this place in large 
stone barracks, formerly occupied by the Russian detachment sent 
to France, with altogether about a hundred men in our company. It 
was here that the so-called tradegy of the breaking up of the remnant 
of the company occurred. It was just before we left this place that 
one of our officers told us that if we believed any of the delightful 
fancies of justice and equality and democracy, we should get them 
out of our system, because over here they did not exist. Seventy-nine 
of the men of the company were by order from general headquarters 
(G. H. Q.) picked out to go to the first division. We, of the seventy- 
nine, packed up our equipment, slung it, and started down the stairs 
for assembly. On our way down we were surprised to find our 
friends and our officers who were to be left behind, in such an un- 
canny sadness that we v/ere puzzled and annoyed. We took our 

96 Quarterly Journal 

leave as best we could, and boarded the box-cars waiting for us on a '\ 

On a Toul Sector 

final training at givraval 

After a two days' ride with cramped limbs we detrained at a 
place called Menaucourt, not far from Bar-le-duc. The men of 
our former company were marched to second batallion headquarters, 
Twenty-sixth Infantry, and divided into four sections, each section to 
a different company. Twenty-nine of us were transferred to Com- 
pany F. These men of North Dakota constituted the first replace- 
ment to the First Division. In our new position we adjusted our- 
selves as soon as possible; and, within a week, were drilling in all 
the maneuvers of the company. We practised all day in maneuvers 
and exercises, and, oftentimes, we trained a great deal at night. Every 
movement or formation possible was taught us and drilled into us; 
every art of trench warfare was demonstrated to us and practised 
by us. Aside from the monotony of drill, inspections, guards, etc., 
there is one incident in this billeted area which is worthy of mention. 
It was an accident. One man in the company in front of ours was 
obliged to carry a heavier sack of hand and rifle grenades than his 
fellows, and was not allowed to set them down or fall out before 
he reached the top of the hill, on which we were to maneuver- When 
he arrived at the top, exhausted, he dropt the sack. A second later we 
say a bright flash and a cloud of white smoke, and then a heavy 
detonation. Immediately after the explosion men ran in confusion 
back and forth, shouting and moaning in a gruesome manner. Several 
men of his platoon were killed, and all the rest in the unit wounded 
except four. The maneuver was postponed. It was the first time 
we had seen the agencies of warfare at work. 


After a month or more of drill as part of a reserve brigade at 
Givraval, we were taken in trucks on the second of March to the 
trenches. It began to snow early in the morning and it kept up until 
just before we unloaded late in the afternoon. We got off the trucks 
in the woods on account of observation balloons and aeroplanes, and 
waited for nightfall. After dark we slung our packs and marched 
to Raulecourt to billets. Here we heard barrage fire for the first time, 
other than the dull rumbling we had heard from Verdun in the 
training camp at a distance of ninety kilometers. 

Two days later we moved up before daylight to the front lines 


A University Student as Doughboy 97 

thru fog and snow and mud by road and communication trenches. 
It was for a time at least, a^ dismal, cold, and monotonous life in the 
trenches and in the dugouts. In four days, when the snow had 
disappeared, conditions improved, altho mud knee-deep persisted in 
the trenches. We were on a quiet sector; and aside from a few 
stray shells, or barrages that were not directed on us, living was 
tolerable enough. Many excursions out into No-Man's-Land were 
conducted. Patrol work was most common- In all the trips made 
only one man was killed. 

After eight days in the front line, we dropt back to Cornieville, 
living again in billets, the less dignified term being barns. From 
this place we went each day ten kilometers to work stretching barbed 
wire back of and thru a woods, returning ten kilometers again in the 
evening to our billets. Sickness was quite common at this place. At 
one time one hundred twenty of the company went on sick call. 
Replacements were here added to the company for the third time. 

We then went to the second line at Bouconville. From this 
place we went every night to stretch barbed wire, to dig trenches, or 
to engage in maneuvers. By some series of agreements shelling and 
countershelling of towns in this sector was ruled out. As a result, 
quietness prevailed. 

Defensive Action and Trench Warfare Near Cantigny 
going toward cantigny 

At the end of nearly a month on the Toul sector we were taken 
out and put on a ten-mile truck trlin that took us to a barrack camp 
near Toul. After a couple days, we were loaded into box-cars and 
started off in a southerly direction, whither we expected to go to a 
rest camp for good clothes and amusement, and to wear off the effect 
of the weathering we had endured. We passed thru Paris, but then 
the train took us north again for a few miles and sidetracked us on 
the outskirts. Then commenced a series of long, tedious hikes with 
full packs over a semi-hilly country. We were on our way thus for 
nearly a month, drilling at every stop of more than a day. Toward 
the end of the month, artillery fire became prominent, and airplanes 
commenced activity- 


We arrived finally at the town of Mory, not far from Mont- 
didier and Cantigny and took up billets. This sector, already taken 
over by the first brigade of our division, had before been occupied by 
English troops who, in their hasty retreat, left everything in the hands 

98 Quarterly Journal 

of the Germans, This sector was one of extreme artillery fire. From 
this town of Mory, we went out every day toward the front to cut 
brush, to dig trenches, and to help build and widen the roads. When 
we first saw our officers fall flat at the scream of a shell coming 
toward us, we laughed and thought it great fun ; but, of course, we 
soon forgot that. 

One evening, as we were going to the front to take up our 
position in the third line, and were just outside of Mehnil, the German 
artillery began to pound the road we were on with six-inch shells. 
Their observation had undoubtedly, even by the twilight, discovered 
trafific on the white road. When the shells began to drop like 
enormous empty earthen jars, the French artillery wagons were so 
much speeded up that it seemed as if a panic would ensue. Many 
of the soldiers took refuge from the flying pieces in the ditches and 
others in the fields. The columns were broken, but because the 
shelling stopt suddenly, all was again straightened. We soon passed 
the line of the spiteful seventy- five's and entered dugouts on the side 
of a road without further trouble. From this time on, one shelling 
followed another until we soon lost count of the number and the 
circumstances. The first night that we went for "chow" and our 
daily issue of one quart of water, we were heavily shelled. Much of 
the food was lost or spilled. We had to lie down in the open for 
protection. One of our dugouts we found on our return caved in. 
And barely had we reached our position and begun to serve the food 
than we were shelled again- Three more times our squad went for 
food from that place and were shelled each time. Then there were 
the work details every night out in No-Man's land. Going to and 
from work in the dark, we were almost sure to be shelled going one 
way. We had to avoid the roads ; but, even then, we were not secure. 
The Germans had very bright, long-burning star-shells and, by these, 
could observe any movement. One time a searchlight dropt its rays 
right across our path while we were in movement. In less than half 
a minute a barrage was poured on us. We sought shelter in shell 
holes, cut-outs, behind stumps, or by lying down in the open. The 
work of digging trenches in No-Man's-Land was also quite a strain. 
Every morning and evening we stood-to in the third-line trenches. 
We held this position fourteen days. 


From this position in the third line, we were transferred to a 
position in a dense woods. Here, at first, we spent a great deal of 
time carrying elephant iron and digging deep dugouts for the officers. 

A University Student as Doughboy 99 

being several times on duty for twenty-four hours at a time. Many 
times we were worried by shrapnel and huge high explosive fragments 
crashing thru the trees — some pieces of steel which resembled machin- 
ery in size and mechanism. It was in this woods, also, that wt 
experienced our first gas attack. At three o'clock one morning we 
were awakened and told to be on the alert for gas- Already we could 
hear the gas shells dropping like the pop or crack of a rifle to our rear. 
In a few minutes whififs of gas drifted to us, and, suddenly, as if in a 
wave, it became almost overpowering. We put on our masks with- 
out daring to risk another breath. If it were pitch dark before in 
these dense woods, it became doubly so with the gas masks. It was 
as cloudy as it could be and there was no evidence of a moon. We 
started of? as by instinct for the road out in the open. In crossing 
a narrow bridge before reaching the road, many men fell down into 
the ditch, because they could not see where they were going. When 
we arrived finally out on the white road, outside the woods, we 
were led to the right flank at a snail's pace, when the gas shells were 
raining on the road and crashing in the trees. By following the road, 
we again entered the woods and, after considerable time, found a spot 
where shell fire was not so terrific. We wore the gas masks con- 
tinuously for three hours, altho we had thought before that our 
heads would break with pain after wearing them one hour. During 
the gas attack, shrapnel and high explosive shells also played an 
important part. We remained in this position for two weeks. 


At the end of this time we were led at night by a guide on a 
circuitous route under spasmodic artillery fire to front-line positions 
in another woods. The first two or three days all was quiet in our 
sector, in spite of the fact that we had been placed here to cut off the 
inevitable counter-attacks after the battle of Cantigny. The Germans 
had no idea where we wefe. But peace did not usually last long on 
a sector of this kind- In the first place, a German patrol came upon 
our sector late one night. To be sure, everyone, without thinking, 
began to fire at a terrific rate, the automatics adding to the din. Some 
experimented with hand grenades, and others with rifle grenades. 
The queer part of it was that no one of our company had seen any- 
thing, because the patrol had run into trouble a few yards to our 
right. A day or so after this event we experienced something which 
was not only disagreeable but almost demoralizing. We were shelled 
by our own artillery. The shells dropt with accuracy in methodical 
"one, two, three, four . . .; one, two, three, four . . ." 

lOO Quarterly Journal 

crashes. We crouched low in the shallow trenches to avoid catching 
the shells, and to miss the hot buzzing steel fragments flying about in 
the air, or we sought shelter outside the trenches. In speaking later 
to one of the artillerymen about the shelling, he told me that the 
battery knew that they were firing into our trenches, but that they 
had to follow orders from their superiors. A day after this event, we 
were again shelled by our own artillery. We dared not send up 
rockets to indicate that the barrage was falling short, because that 
might call for a German barrage. After eight days in this position 
we were taken out and placed in another front-line position in the 


This ntw front line position was worse than the other. Every 
night that we went for "chow" or water, the German artillery would 
open up with a roll and drop the so-called "G. I- buckets" of high 
explosive and gas with great accuracy, especially in one deep ravine, 
thru which we had to pass. Many casualties occurred in that place. 
The rations were by trail three miles to the rear. Sometimes, when 
we returned, we found that some of our cubby holes had been caved 
in by barrages on the line of trenches. Our main worry, however, 
was the detail work every night in No-Man's-Land. If the Germans 
were not using their artillery or their machine guns, they were send- 
ing up star-shells that would burn for many minutes, during which 
time we dared not move. The star-shells were so numerous and so 
brilliant at times that the work of digging trenches or stretching 
barbed wire progrest slowly or not at all. Movement back to the 
front line each morning on this account was almost impossible. 
Several times, also, barrages were laid down on our shallow trenches 
near the German lines. Oftentimes the shells landed right on the 
parapet or just behind the trench, covering us with dirt and jarring 
every bone in our bodies- One night, especially, Fritz dropt an 
unusually large number of shells together with gas. We lay in the 
bottom of the trench with gas masks on for three hours and a half. 
We had been given up for lost or as sacrificed, and preparations at 
the rear were made for holding of? a strong attack. Fortunately, our 
artillery had replied with a terrific volume and had cut off any plans 
the Germans may have had. Toward morning, we moved back to 
the front line under intermittent fire with our gas masks on. At the 
end of the allotted eight days, we were quite well exhausted, in spite 
of the fact that the casualties had not been heavy. 

A University Student as Doughboy lOi 


Our next position was in the second line in a woods, alongside 
the machine guns. In this place we were constantly tormented with 
shrapnel and flying iron, but by keeping low we fared well, except 
when the fire at times became extreme. 

From the second line we were taken back to the town of Mehnil. 
At this place we were well fed, were not much drilled, and were given 
good clothes. In spite of the fact that we were still in danger of 
shell fire and bombing we enjoyed ourselves as well as one could 
except in the army. 

After a couple weeks in town, we were again taken up to trenches 
in a heavily wooded area. By keeping well covered in the daytime, 
we were troubled very little with artillery, but we endured some 
bombing. During this period many raids were proposed and carried 
out. Toward the last, a large scale operation for our batallion to 
clear out a well-defended woods was prepared, but dropt at the last 
minute on arrival of relief by the French, on July loth. 

The Battle of Soissons 

the mysterious movements 

Upon relief we hiked quite steadily for three or four days, and 
then were carried in trucks for thirty-six hours to a small town not 
far from Senlis- Immediately upon arrival, we were set to work 
preparing for inspections and intensive drills. In the evening of the 
next day, trucks arrived at the village and we were again taken thru 
an unknown country. In the afternoon of the next day we were 
cheered by the French people as we passed thru every town, but we 
did not understand them. During the night we passed thru deserted 
villages and cities, keeping to the southeast. The chilliness of the 
night and the weird surroundings put us in a humor to believe that 
something was wrong. The latter part of the night we slept in spite 
of cramps, jars, and sudden stops. In the morning, after crossing a 
railroad, we were unloaded and concentrated in the heaviest and 
largest forest I have ever seen. Still, we had no idea what it all 
meant. We did, however, begin to see light, when we were ordered 
to make up light packs and to leave most of our equipment and 
blankets in squad rolls. At nightfall, we were given our first meal of 
the day and a lunch of two sandwiches for the following day. After 
the meal we began marching, marching all night thru woods and 
ravines, under high bridges, on winding roads and trails, uphill and 
downhill, thru brush and swamp. During this time, bombing planes 

102 Quarterly Journal 

of the Germans were almost constantly hovering over us, hoping tc 
catch some movement and then to release a bomb. Two times that 
night a series of bombs screamed down toward us, but each time we 
lay flat and motionless for a long period, until the planes passed 
away- Our camping place of the day was heavily bombed shortly 
after our departure. During the night tanks began lumbering along. 
Toward morning we came to a semi-open space within the line of 
balloons, but because enemy observation was quite possible, we re- 
entered the woods to our right and bivouaced. 


At nightfall of the seventeenth of July we again began our 
march to the front, having had nothing to eat that day but the two 
sandwiches. At first all went well, but, to be sure, it could not be 
for long. First, the tanks came along, pushing us out to the ditch. 
Then it began to rain, and rare tho it is, it lightened and thundered. 
It finally became so dark that it was impossible to see the person ahead, 
except when the lightning flashed. For a time we left the road, and 
moved over theoretical paths thru the mud. Once more we came 
upon the road, but it was not so quiet as before. There were columns 
and columns of men, each company in single or double file; there 
were tanks; there were carts and wagons and trucks and wrecked 
traffic — all almost a complete and hopeless tangle. All was con- 
fusion ; it was a frightful mixup. The tanks were attracting artillery 
fire ; the columns of men of our company were being broken and 
oftentimes lost ; big holes made by large caliber cannons or bombs 
were scattered over our paths or our roads; stone buildings had been 
strewn as debris everywhere so as to confuse and jumble and break 
the columns. Artillery fire, also, coming suddenly upon us would 
disperse some and hold back the others. We passed over hills, thru 
deep gullies, over ruined roadways, thru desolate and torn-up towns, 
into woods for kilometers at a time, where the darkness already of a 
pitchy texture, became intense. We followed each other by sound or 
by touch. How we arrived at our destination in time I do not know; 
even at that we had only ten minutes to spare. 


At about four thirty on the morning of the eighteenth, shortly 
after we had been placed in position, the German artillery dropt a 
barrage on our trench in No-Man's-Land- It did not take us more 
than a minute before we knew that things were going pretty badly 
for us. We were crowding the bottoms of the trenches. The return 

A University Student as Doughboy 103 

of the barrages was again having its effect. Suddenly, after three 
minutes, we perceived an all-illuminating flash to our rear, and then 
a tremendous thunder. Like magic, within thirty seconds, almost 
every German gun was silent, and we were relieved from our 
embarrassing position. Within two minutes we were going over the 
top for the first time in the first line of the first wave. We had 
scarcely gone fifty yards in the fog before we came to a trench cramful 
of Germans. They had intended to attack us, for they had already 
been on the offensive for three days, but we had beat them to it. All 
of them came out of the trench unarmed with hands up, and were 
driven back to our rear in long columns as prisoners of war. After a 
time we came under light machine gun fire, which could not last long, 
considering the moral effect of seemingly endless lines extending to 
either flank, and tens of lines, one behind the other, not to mention 
the columns behind them. Trench upon trench we passed thereafter, 
most of them full of men whom we took as prisoners. Everywhere 
ahead of us we could see Germans running and falling at the scream 
of a shell. It was in a way comical. The Prussian Guard shock 
troops had been demoralized ; they had been surprised. All morning 
long our barrage rolled on with such an awful din that it was like 
silence, for other sound did not exist. We met no resistance whatever 
from the infantry. Our airplanes flew above us like swarms of 
birds or gnats- We felt quite secure, until we came into direct fire 
from a few stray cannons. We could almost see the German artillery 
on a hill before us; we would hear the report of a gun, and a crash 
in front of us, as a shell exploded, simultaneously. We lay down 
in a wheatfield and when the violence had diminished, we slept be- 
tween the crashes. Early in the afternoon we took up a position on 
a parallel with the captured German seventy-seven millimeter guns. 
Our battalion had then been dropt back to the support. 

During the afternoon we procured water from a deep ravine 
below us, and looked into the German artillery dugouts. We found 
some questionable black bread and later, a little can of butter. We 
did not hesitate long, however, because we were ravenous. Later on, 
we set up a captured German machine gun in a seventy-seven milli- 
meter gun pit, and some of the men fired at the enemy airplanes, 
which now and then swarmed over our lines. The activity of our 
airplanes was declining. At night, as a result of our actions in the 
daytime, a German bombing plane came over, and put our hearts in 
our throats, while it distributed bombs to terrorize those of us who 
were at the machine gun. 

I04 Quarterly Journal 


We were awakened at about six o'clock in the morning by a 
barrage in front of our position. Our artillery replied, but in a 
weaker and jerkier manner than the day before. In a few more 
minutes we went over the top ; we cut thru the barrage and suffered 
not more than ten casualties. Before long, however, we came under 
withering machine gun fire from guns in a wheatfield ahead. Men 
fell right and left as they were wounded or killed by the bullets. The 
two lines in front of us, which had before been four lines, hesitated, 
melted away, and disappeared ; and, again, as on the first day, we 
became a part of the first line- The bullets, seemingly, came faster 
and faster; sometimes we hesitated and almost stopt, but for some 
reason we kept on. The machine guns were making terrible gaps; 
the clicking seemed fiercer. The two lines of our platoon merged 
and kept on, until, within thirty yards of the machine gun nest, the 
gunners jumped out of their pits with hands up. Perhaps half of the 
men of our platoon reached this position. After disposing of these 
machine gunners, we soon found as we advanced that there were 
many other guns tearing gaps in our lines. When we had gone fifty 
yards more the clicking became intense, and the "whish" and sing of 
the bullets as they rained around us and among us became deadlier. 
By common agreement, we all dropt into some machine gun pits on the 
Paris-Soissons road. Here for the most part we kept our heads down. 
Nevertheless, the sergeant next to me on the right, and the corporal 
who took his place, were killed instantly, when they put their heads 
above the pit; and a man on my left died in a couple hours from 
four wounds received while attempting to use his automatic. Bullets 
crashed everywhere above us in the line of trees along the road ; 
oftentimes they would come on a level with the top of the pits. After 
a couple such examples of instant death, we kept our heads down, 
altho we expected a counter attack as soon as the German artillery 
could find our range. 

We remained in this position all morning and part of the afteri 
noon, thinking that the attack had failed completely, and waiting 
anxious hours that seemed centuries for the deadly counter-attack"; 
that never came. Our barrage had quickly rolled out of sight and 
ceas^cd. Over came the German airplanes in -jiwarms — in droves. 
Our airplanes were nowhere to be seen. Som? came as low a., a 
hundred feet, touching the treetops to take a look at us; others fired 
tracer bullets at us; some directed "G. I- cans" from the artillery 
upon us. Altogether it was a miserable day. We ate a little hardtack 


A University Student as Doughboy 1 05 

and corned beef from our scanty reserve rations, expecting that it was 
our last meal on this earth. Finally, the few of us who were left out 
of the platoon of our company were attached to the Twenty-eighth 
Infantry, because there was a gap of two hundred yards to our left. 

Late in the afternoon our artillery opened up rather unsteadily 
upon the German positions. In a couple more minutes a major gave 
us the order to go over the top. When first going over, that inevitable 
clicking commenced again, but this time it was intermittent and 
irregular, and it appeared to be taking no victims. After we had been 
going ten minutes in a thin-line formation, we came upon a nest of 
eight machine guns. The gunners had evidently been under our 
artillery preparation until we came close to them, so that the resistance 
was poor. There were so many Germans coming out of holes every- 
wheie that we could not undertake to kill them all. From this place 
we kept on until we came to a heavy thicket. Again the clicking 
of machine guns became terrific, so as almost to crack the eardrums. 
When we found, tho, that our lines were intact and that there was no 
singing of bullets, we concluded that the fire was not directed on us. 
Just within the woods was a steep-sided valley. By jumping down 
and sliding down as well as possible and by holding to what vegetation 
we could, we came to the bottom and soon again emerged into the 
open. As soon as we came into the clearing a murderous fire was 
turned on us- The men, again, fell on either side rapidly. It soon 
became necessary that the two lines merge into one, because gaps of 
twelve and fifteen paces between men were numerous. The cause of 
our casualties was flank fire from the hill above us on the right. But 
the machine-gun bullets tore up and down the newly formed straight 
line, ripping it virtually to shreds. There was no line to connect with 
ours on the right or left, and there was no line behind us. We came 
to a stone wall, and sought shelter close to it, but the fire continued 
to claim many victims. A corporal of the same company as myself 
and I crawled thru a hole in the wall made previously by a heavy 
artillery shell and again sought shelter close to the wall in the bushes. 
Altho we were side by side, and I on the side of the machine gun, the 
bullets passed me and wounded him two or three times. He died in a 
few hours. It was an awful place. There were men strewn all over 
the field and inside the fence; and the machine gun kept hammering 
away to claim a few stray men as victims. The line we had main- 
tained without leadership up to this time passed out of existence. So 
far as I can remember, I was the only man not killed or wounded. 
Many of the wounded men were wanting help and water. When 
the machine gun ceased firing, I would creep or make a dash thru 

lo6 Quarterly Journal 

the low bushes for a deep shell hole, in which there was abundance 
of water, to fill a canteen or two. After that, I opened up the first-aid 
packets and bound up a good many wounds, keeping low for a half 
hour until the machine gun was pulled out. This activity kept me 
busy for several hours. In about an hour after we had arrived at this 
place, another line came up from behind and took up a position one 
hundred yards ahead on a hill- When darkness came I lay doAvn on 
my shelter half, in which I later found nine holes, and slept intermit- 
tently, getting water for someone when called, or awakened by the 
jar and rattle of a heavy shell in the valley. No medical attention 


Toward morning, I took one of the men who could walk with 
assistance back to the Paris road. After finding a friend, I again 
started for the front to see if I could find anyone of my company in 
the jumbled up formations. Not knowing where they could be, my 
friend and I joined a machine-gun company. The first day we spent 
under constant nerve-racking fire from trench mortars, which were 
directed by an enemy observation balloon on our left flank. The 
following day we advanced a short distance again, but six-inch shells 
fell regularly on or near our positions all day long, making life 
wretched. When we went for food or water, the artillery would 
open up on us with shrapnel- The fifth day on this front there were 
almost no movements; we camouflaged our positions and permitted 
no traffic. As a result, aside from shrapnel ahead and anxiety for a 
counter-attack we passed the day well. At night we were relieved 
by Scotchmen. 


We marched back thru the stench of hundreds or thousands of 
decaying human bodies and assembled on the Paris-Soissons road com- 
pany by company. We marched back into a dense forest and camped 
amid the rain and mud. There we found that our Company F of the 
Twenty-sixth Infantry had thirty-five men left out of two hundred 
thirty who had gone into battle; there was one officer left in the 
battalion; our captain, our major, and our colonel had been kdled. 
It seemed to us as if, except for a few stray men, the regiment were 

On a Sector Near Point a Mousson 

On the evening of the twenty-fourth we were taken back in 
trucks to a small town back of the lines. We had been there only a 

A Ufiiversity Student as Doughboy 107 

few days when we were ordered to pack up what little we had, for 
our blanket rolls had been rifled during the drive. After a hike of 
thirty kilometers we were loaded on a train of box-cars and taken 
via Paris to near Toul. Once more we hiked for several days to 
relieve Morrocan troops on a sector near Pont a Mousson. This 
quiet sector we held between two and three weeks, having little to 
worry about other than anti-aircraft "duds", and bombing planes that 
did us no harm. 

The St. Mihiel Drive 

in training 

When relieved we were taken by trucks back to a small town by 
the name of le St. Remy, where we received replacement after replace- 
ment until we soon had 260 men. Here we trained and trained, 
mostly for the benefit of the new men. I was here given charge of a 
squad of men- The company went every day on maneuvers over 
fields and thru thorny and seemingly impenetrable woods; we were 
trained to ford streams; we were shown how to attack machine guns 
by rushes, etc. We knew almost at the start what it all meant. 


One night we commenced hiking amid the rain on dismal roads, 
bivouacking in the daytime in woods. We were constantly being 
issued ammunition, flares, and grenades. Night after night, twelve 
hours or thereabouts at a time, we would plunge along with full pack 
over queer roads, thru woods, over hills, into deserted towns, sleep- 
ing but little in the daytime. There was everywhere evidence of the 
approaching events. The roads were becoming choked with trucks, 
with tanks, with men, men, men. The nights were dark, because it 
rained continually. At times, it was so dark that we could only go 
ahead in the mud and rain thru a woods by talking to each other or 
by holding the end of each other's gun. During the ten minute 
rests each hour we would sit down on our helmets in the slimy roads 
and sleep. Night after night, night after night, we kept up the tire- 
some process, apparently gaining little distance. Toward the last, 
the trucks became thicker, the tanks more numerous, the wagon trains 
more prominent. Much traffic had been thrown into the ditches on 
account of the constant rains. The columns began to be mixt and cut 
ofif by the traffic, and oftentimes hopelessly jumbled. Finally, one 
night we came to a camping place in a woods that was really a jungle 
because of its density. There must have been several hundred thous- 
and troops in this woods thru which we had been marching all night 

io8 Quarterly Journal 

and still were far from the margin. Had the enemy known it, he 
could perhaps have leveled the woods in a couple days by artillery fire. 
In this forest we remained in pup tents for two weeks amid a constant 
downpour of rain. The days and nights passed tediously because of 
the constant details, the eternal checking up of equipment of the 
squads, the lack of good food, and the unhealthful weather. There 
was every kind of equipment available except raincoats. 


On the night of the eleventh of September we began hiking 
again. It was raining as per schedule. At first all went well as we 
traveled a narrow gauge railroad track and later, a deserted road. 
After that we cut across fields, thru barbed wire fences, thru woods, 
deserted towns, and towns crowded with traffic, into trenches and out 
of them. We passed thru Beaumont and Seichprey. At Beaumont 
our company was for about the tenth time crowded off the road, but 
this time split and scattered by the traffic. After a long wait, then 
double-timing, then standing still, we proceeded over an intermittently 
shelled road in plain view of the Germans- had it not been for the 
rain. The enemy was sending up bright star-shells one after another 
as tho he wished to detect some movement- When we arrived at 
Seichprey we entered a dark building which we mistook for a billet, 
and then stept into a communication trench. Altho we followed 
as best we could, we would, nevertheless, many times step off a duck- 
board and go knee-deep into the mud, carefully pull out the leg and 
go on again. But the pace at length became too great for those 
behind. The squad behind mine could not keep up and wandered 
into a side trench and was lost. Unknowingly, the guide at the head 
kept up the race. We kept on in the trench until it passed out into 
a ravine. Just barely had we stept out into this open space than the 
German artillery opened up on us with shrapnel. Most of us left, 
trying to cross a plank in a hurry, fell fortunately into a ditch, where 
we remained until the shelling was over. We then proceeded at a 
terrific pace for three hundred yards, until it was discovered that 
almost the entire company had been left behind somewhere in the 
communication trench. Two hours or more we stood out in the rain 
while we waited for the rest of the company to be collected. When, 
finally, most of the men had been found, we proceeded. We entered 
another communication trench, which had no duckboards. The 
water was everywhere at least knee-deep, and at places it came up to 
cur thighs. After nearly an hour we crawled up on the sticky 
parapet, and went forward thru barbed wire entanglements, cutting 


A University Student as Doughboy 109 

our way as we went. But soon it was discovered that we were not 
in the right position. We wandered around here and there a bit, 
and then went back thru the same muddy trench and up another. 
The trenches were not only wet and muddy, but were crossed and 
recrossed by barbed wire entanglements above to cut our faces and 
wires of all sorts below to catch our feet to trip us- When we felt 
as near exhausted as we thought we could be, we emerged once more 
from the trench and advanced a few hundred feet out into the open 
on a grassy area, fell out, and slept for a half hour in spite of the 
drizzle and terrific cannonading. 


At the end of the half-hour sleep, we shifted our position slightly, 
and began our advance over the top in a heavy fog. Almost immedi- 
ately we came under fire from one-pounders, which disconcerted us 
somewhat, altho they did us no harm. Barely had we passed the area 
of their shelling, when we were fired upon by the seventy-seven's. 
Their fire, however, was irregular and, to a large extent, guesswork 
Chance tho it was, one shell fell in one of our columns and eight men 
were laid out of the fight. We then passed for a few minutes into 
direct fire of their artillery. For the space of two hours thereafter 
we passed over trenches, shell craters, thru entanglements, according 
to schedule. We forded two streams, one of them three and a half 
feet deep. After fording the last stream we came under an intermit- 
tent machine-gun fire, which tore up some of the equipment while we 
lay on the ground. For a few hours again all was quiet. Our com- 
pany again took up the advance as front wave, while the artillery shot 
a twelve-inch shell barrage ahead of us. The only other event in the 
afternoon of importance was fire from a church steeple fortified with 
machine guns. After a dozen hesitations, as usual, we dug in behind 
a woods. It was on an icy evening, and we had no shelter except our 


Barely had I arranged the guard for the squad, and lain down 
in the newly dug trench than we receired orders to go over the top 
again. Tired tho we were, we determined to go as far as we could. 
We formed in Long columns for entering the woods before us. At first 
we had a moon to go by, as we wandered back and forth thru the 
heavy growth of trees and brush and thorns. When the moon set, 
however, seemingly every vestige of light disappeared, and wc 
stumbled along, cutting ourselves on the thorns, hitting our heads on 
low branches, stumbling in the dense underbrush, wondering where 

no Quarterly Journal 

the man in front could be. At every stop of a minute or over we 
would stoop on our guns and sleep, until we felt a falling sensation; 
we would stumble on again, if the man ahead had moved. One 
man ahead of us, who fell asleep thus, did not awake, and the column 
of our company was broken; we did not reach our objective that 
night, but lay down and slept, tho shivering, till morning. 

In the morning we kept up our advance thru the woods for three 
hours before we came into the open. The stops were numerous, and 
we slept at every halt. Everj^where there was evidence of a hasty 
retreat by the Germans. Early in the afternoon we arrived in posi- 
tion near Hattenchattel, having covered almost two-thirds of the 
distance across the St. Mihiel salient. 


In the evening our "chow-carts" came up to our positions for the 
first time and served us a fairly heavy meal. One of the articles of 
food issued was some gravy with a peculiar taste. Many of us hesi- 
tated to eat it, but most of the men, because they were very hungry, 
ate it without taking note that it had an off-taste. Afer dark we 
were taken back to the margin of the large woods, from which we 
had in the morning emerged. We were settled quite well ; and, be- 
cause of German overcoats we had appropriated, were quite comfort- 
able. About midnight, when I awoke, I heard a great deal of noise- 
It sounded as if the whole company were seasick. As soon as the 
captain ascertained what was happening, the part of the company 
that could walk was led out of the woods, while the others were 
carried, to a former German field hospital. About one-half of the 
company went immediately on sick report for ptomaine poisoning. 
Later, a number corresponding to one-fourth of the company's 
strength was transferred back to base hospitals. For two days the 
remainder of us staj'ed in the field hospital to recuperate. 


The next night we were there Fritzie sent over some compli- 
ments — nine-inch howitzer shells. The shells were apparently not 
aimed at us but, because of their size, no one seemed to realize that. 
The first shell came down like the moan, then shriek of an aeroplane 
bomb. Almost everyone left all he had and made for the open doors 
without hesitation — a most foolish thing to do, had it been an air- 
plane bomb, for it was a moonlight night. Everyone seemed to forget 
that he was sick or at least indisposed. We were led to a place of¥ 
to the left, where we who had organized dug in for the period of the 
shelling. We were sleeping in the field station at night when the 

A University Student as Doughboy 1 1 1 

nine-inch shells began falling for the second time. At the count of 
one, when the first shell struck, everyone sat up and rubbed his eyes; 
when the second one landed a half minute later, everyone had on his 
equipment; at the count of three, everyone was at the door; at the 
fourth jar, everyone was running or at least double-timing for the 
positions to the left. The third and last visitation of heavy shells, 
tho productive of rapid movement, was not so alarming. 

From the German field hospital we were marched almost at a 
double-time for three hours to some artillery billets, formerly occu- 
pied by the enemy- At this place for over a week we marked time 
on the paths of the woods, ate, and slept. Many times we sought 
shelter in protective trenches because of enemy bombing planes. 

The Argonne Drive 
preparations for another campaign 
After the period of a week we were marched for five nights to 
the left flank over camouflaged roads, by ammunition dumps, thru 
shell-torn towns and woods. During spare hours at night we practised 
maneuvers in tangled and thorny woods. On the fifth night we were 
loaded on trucks. After several hours of traveling we discovered that 
instead of artillery fire diminishing, it was becoming louder. That 
meant that we did not go to the rear. We rode on the trucks for 
twenty-four hours. At the end of that time we unloaded and hiked 
many kilometers to a woods. As a division we took over the position 
of reserve. Night after night, for almost two weeks thereafter, we 
hiked from evening to early morning. During the day our time was 
constantly occupied by checking up equipment, by marking time on 
the paths of the woods, or by responding to the numberless call-to- 
arms. It was a dreary region thru w^hich we passed on our weari- 
some hikes. Every town and city was as forlorn and deserted and 
ghost-like as a graveyard. The woods were overgrown with thorns 
or at times shattered. At length, when we came alongside the eight- 
inch guns, our division became a unit in the support- To arrive to 
position of support we had to hike several extra hours on the last few 
nights. This meant that we did not often reach our bivouac position 
until an hour after daylight. Oftentimes we were on the road for 
twelve and fourteen hours; frequently, we were hindered by traffic; 
and at other times, orders were confused. Our supplies, especially the 
rations, came seldom and in small quantities. 


Toward morning, when we reached the line of eight-inch guns, 
we began searching for a camping place. We hiked after that for 

112 Quarterly Journal 

two hours thru mud and barbed wire entanglements and brambles to 
a lonely broken-down woods. Here we rolled up in our blankets 
and shelter halves, and slept. At the end of two hours we were 
awakened by a downpour of rain. We soon found that we had been 
sleeping in pools of water which we had warmed by our bodies. A 
few minutes later we were ordered to roll up our wet equipment. 
After performing this, we built fires for the first time on this drive to 
keep off the chill ; we took chances on the lack of enemy observation. 
We sat or lay by the fires during the slow drizzle for an hour, dozing 
now and then or awakening when the fire became low. Following 
this we put out the fires and began marching across the open fields. 
It was daytime; we were evidently throwing caution to the winds. 
At the end of an hour, we found our rolling kitchens behind a screen 
of camouflage. We were issued a fair meal- Afterwards, we con- 
tinued our hike during the day over country, the like of which we 
had never before seen. There were cannons and cannons stuck in 
the muddy and slimy roads ; there were tanks trying to climb slippery 
hills or to ford streams; there were shcll-torm area which presented 
in appearance nothing but a series of omelets or pits; there were 
trenches ten feet deep ruined by shell-fire; there were entanglements 
hundreds of yards in depth; there were slimy roads a hundred feet 
wide made by troops in their march to the front; there were a few 
bricks left in places where towns had previously flourished ; there were 
piles of several hundred dead Americans ; there were, a little further 
on, a couple dozen dead Germans — all this was enough to make us 
believe again that we had very little chance of coming out alive. All 
day long we traveled over a territory like that described. 


At nightfall, we stopt temporarily on a hill to practise forma- 
tions we would probably make use of in the coming battle. After 
that, those of us who could by some trick procure water, did so- It 
seemed that only the tall me«, who could with their long arms thrust 
their canteens higher to the men issuing water from a couple of 
scattered water wagons, could procure water for the men of their 
squads. I was fortunate in being so constituted. 

A short time after dark we again commenced our travels to the 
front in double file. At first our road led by an area shelled by artil- 
lery. The shells, tho, were four duds out of five ; and, consequently, 
were quite ineffective. Later on, we were troubled with traffic. 
We climbed many a dismal hill, and descended into as many a foggy 
and dreary valley. We slept at every halt. A couple of hours after 

// University Student ax Doughboy 113 

midnight we passed several cannons mired in the mud, as we were 
descending into an exceptionally deep valley. Artillery fire was 
being directed on an area near by, but we were at first rather too 
sleepy to notice much about it. We then passed thru a white-walled 
deserted and half-wrecked town ; and, as we continued, the artillery 
fire became more prominent. As we marched deeper into the valley, 
it became darker and darker until we could see almost nothing by 
the time we had reached the outskirts of the town. We now heard 
the shells distinctly, coming over with moans and screams, crashing 
to earth with a tremendous jar, or landing with a pop or crack like 
that of a rifle. It was evidently high explosives mixt with gas, but 
apparently the shells were not directed on us. But suddenly, as if a 
wave of something struck us, we realized that the gas had drifted 
upon us. The smell was like that of a wash day, combined with a 
sickening weed and poppy odor- The gas was evidently chlorine. 
We put on our masks hurriedly, almost believing it too late. If it 
were dark before, it became impenetrable with the masks. Each man 
grabbed the person ahead of him, and double-timed up the hill in 
front. Several companies were mixt ; many men were lost for a time ; 
many more fell into ditches; others could not find the bridge. 

The remainder of the night we marched and stopt — marched 
and stopt — marched again. We would double-time a couple of 
hundred yards, lie down and sleep fifteen minutes, get up and double- 
time again. So it was the entire time. Traffic was evidently too 
dense up front. Many times we came into gas areas in our journeys 
up and down the hills, but unless the gas was strong we were allowed 
to sleep. Toward morning we arrived near a position, but the officers 
of the battalion disputed whether to allow the men to dig in in 
one place or a few feet further on. It turned out that we were not 
fully entrenched until an hour after sunrise. Shortly after, German 
airplanes came over in large numbers to look over the situation. 
German sausages were performing a similar mission. A little grass 
strewn over our newly thrown-up dirt did much to camouflage our 
position. In fact, during the time we were there, by keeping in our 
holes in the daytime, we suffered only occasionally from artillery fire. 
Our only real worry while in these trenches was to keep low when 
the artillery shelled the road one hundred yards ahead with shrapnel- 
Every night, tho, we went on ration details, thru areas many times 
shelled with heavy high-explosive and gas shells. We were always 
glad to get back to our holes with our heavy loads. Five days we re- 
mained in this position, because our artillery could not get up thru 
the mud. 

114 Quarterly Journal 


About two o'clock one morning, twelve batteries of our heavy 

artillery opened up to shell the German rear. The German artillery 

replied with as great a volume, mostly in gas shells. At half-past 
four the remainder of our artillery opened up with barrages of gas, 
smoke, high-explosive, shrapnel, liquid fire, etc. ; but the enemy 
seemed to do equally well. In fifteen minutes our battalion went 
over the top as support battalion in long columns, separated from 
each other by long interv^als. It was still very dark, and exceedingly 
fogg\'; we followed each other by white panels, which were stuck 
on the back of every pack. Almost immediately we came under 
heavy artillery fire. Several times during the first hour, shells fell 
in groups of our company, taking away each time six to eight men. 
On many occasions jagged iron fragments, from as far as three hund- 
red yards, flew thru the air to take each time a victim from our 
columns. Almost continuously for two hours we had to have the 
nose-clips and mouth-pieces of our gas masks in position on our faces 
because of the gas, high-explosive fumes, and smoke shot by our own 
artillery, not to mention the retaliation of the Germans upon us. 

The battalion in front of us was stopt ; and, of course, we stopt 
also. The German artillery continued to pound our positions with 
shells, and their machine guns, with singing bullets. About a dozen 
tanks loomed out of the fog from behind us and started over for the 
German lines- They reached the top of the slight slope a hundred 
yards in front of us, and were blown up by anti-tank gun fire of the 
enemy — not a tank survived. Several times during the day other 
light tanks came up to suffer the same fate. The battalion before us 
tried to take the stronghold, which was a fortified rectangular woods, 
by a front-on attack, but were mercilessly mowed down by machine- 
gun fire until in the afternoon only a remnant of worn-out men re- 

Then came our turn to become a part of the assault battalion. 
Our captain requested permission to attack in a different manner 
from the flank. When this was secured, we were ordered to make a 
dash over a level open area to a hollow. Before Fritz could realize 
what was coming off we had made the dash across the open, and the 
fusilade of singing and squeaking bullets did not follow until we were 
safely located in the hollow. We. waited here tAventy minutes, until 
we thought the machine gunners had forgotten. The next dash took 
us over another open area down to the edge of an almost vertically- 
walled valley. We marched along the edge of this around the hill 

A University Student as Doughboy 115 

out of sight, and descended into another valley. This second valley 
we crossed under artillery fire, suffering several casualties- When we 
reached the opposite side, we hid ourselves in the bushes against the 
the steep bank until opportunity could be offered to complete the ma- 
neuver. The artillery fire of the Germans was evidently retaliatory 
to our barraging of the rectangular woods, and was intended to cut 
off our attack. As soon as the firing diminished, we came from our 
hiding and marched in no formation whatever to the left, keeping 
under cover of the valley and the shrubbery. The captain in plain 
words told us that we had to take the stronghold at all costs. Keep- 
ing just as low as we could, we crawled one by one thru a gap in a 
thick line of trees up a five-foot embankment and took up a thin-line 
formation flat on the ground- At a signal from the captain we 
charged up the hill toward a corner of the woods as fast as we could 
with our heavy packs. The barrage which had preceded and the 
suddenness of our attack caused the most of the Germans to take 
flight. By taking the first two machine guns on the corner, the rest 
was easy. Our company crossed the woods and flanked twenty ma- 
chine guns. The companies behind us flanked twenty other guns on 
the side where we had made the assault. Nevertheless, everything 
did not go well. The men, of the new replacements especially, had 
the idea that the woods was choked with Germans; they began firing 
their rifles at the least noise. The same was true of the companies 
behind us. As a natural result, we lost at least a dozen men. To 
shout at the men who were shooting made it all the worse. When 
we had finally accomplisht our job, we emerged again from the 
woods, and continued the advance. No sooner had we begun than 
we heard that infernal clicking. We dropt flat on the ground, and 
lay there for thirty minutes — until darkness came over us. The 
machine guns quit firing, and we dropt back thirty yards to dig in. 


In the morning, altho well rested, we did not advance; we were 
leap-frogged by the third battalion. We remained in this position 
for five days- We camouflaged ourselves quite well, and did not 
have artillery fire directed on us, in spite of the fact that German 
planes came over in large numbers at low heights to look over the 
prospects, while our planes were nowhere to be seen. But situated 
a6 we were, we were not immune. A large area to the left flank 
was shelled alternately with mustard gas and high explosive; unfor- 
tunately, the wind came almost constantly from the left, bearing 
much gas with it. Consequently, a good many gas cases resulted. 

Il6 Quarterly Journal 

One platoon lost all except one man from gas ; the others suffered 
losses varying from one-third to two-thirds. One platoon was re- 
duced to twenty-three men from gas and previous misfortunes, before 
I was given charge of it as acting platoon sergeant; and, before we 
advanced again, only thirteen men remained. Night and day we 
were on guard against the mustard gas, but masks were no protec- 
tion against it. The damp and rainy weather aided the gas in further- 
ing the casualties. It was here that I had a slight touch of the 
mustard gas. Many nights I had charge of large details going to 
the battalions in front; and, as sergeant of the guard, I had to make 
several visits to see that the guards were awake. Exhausted tho the 
men often were, I never found a man asleep, for I always made con- 
siderable noise. 


Early one frosty, foggy morning we rolled up our half-frozen 
equipment, and began our march to the front. Altho we came under 
some artillery fire ourselves, we saw much evidence of previous 
destructiveness from the mangled bodies by the road. Aside from 
anxiety, we reached our proposed jump-off position in a narrow 
woods without trouble at seven thirty o'clock. It was far past day- 
break, but the fog remained heavy. At about eight twenty, our 
barrage opened up, but a German barrage opened up also as retalia- 
tion upon the woods we were in- The crashes in the trees became 
terrific and deafening, as barraging in a woods always becomes. At 
every crash a huge tree would come tumbling down almost upon us. 
We moved back, but the barrage and line of falling trees followed 
us. It soon became evident that we would before long, be crowded 
back to the other edge. That meant that we had to cut thru the 
artillery fire. We accomplisht that with good fortune, and emerged 
in attack formation as front wave. We continued our advance in 
the valley beneath with slight opposition, and climbed out of the 
high, steep-sided depression. On the level tract above the valley was 
a forest. After an advance of twenty minutes we took up the position 
of first objective, and waited for the time of our next advance. In 
the meantime, the German trench mortars came into action, felling 
the trees, wounding and killing several of our men with flying iron, 
and putting everyone in anxiety-. Altho we shifted our position many 
times, it did no good. 


In a couple of hours we continued our advance under constant 
shelling, going several hours thru the forest, digging in finally on a 

J University Student as Doughboy 117 

hillside. Scarcely, however, had we dug in than we were ordered to 
go forward once more. This time we advanced in a semi-forested 
region, keeping as low as we could alongside the bushes. Careful 
tho we were, we were detected by machine gun "suicide gangs" on 
our left flank and rear and subjected to a withering fire. Notwith- 
standing that we advanced by rushes, small groups at a time, the men 
fell on our right and left, front and behind, rapidly- It seemed al- 
most as if no one could survive. Our captain led us in the rushes, 
that took u? around the side of a hill which capt the one we were on, 
to safety from fire and to position on the other side. There were 
only thirteen of us of the company to reach this position. 


In the morning, when there were still only the thirteen in the 
company we were ordered to go over the top again. Fortunately, 
within a few minutes, thirty men came from the rear to our assist- 
ance. All that day we went forward, doing patrol work, looking for 
the enemy. But we had accomplisht our purpose before this ; we had 
driven the enemy to the level lowlands; and he was at that time re- 
treating as' fast as possible to other strong positions far off. At night 
we dug in, but were constantly bothered with German snipers still 
in the woods. Next day we changed our position ; and, late that 
night, were relieved. There were altogether forty-five men left out of 
the company of two hundred and fifty, when we had gone in. 


After relief we were well exhausted ; but still we were compelled 
to march day after day. Many days we covered twenty miles with 
our packs in our march to the rear for rest. Much equipment was 
left by the roadside. Guards with fixt bayonets were stationed along 
the column to keep the men from falling out, exhausted and weak 
tho they might be from service at the front, poor food, and little, and 
bad water. Men stuck it out when their faces exprest a groan all 
day long. We were indignant that bayonets were ordered but were 
helpless before military tyranny- 

The Argonne-Meuse Campaign 
gloomy days 
When nearly two w^eeks of hiking were completed, we arrived 
at the town of Resson, near Bar-le-duc, where we received a month's 
pay and a couple of days' rest. When we had been there four days, 
orders came in to prepare for offensive action within seven days. 
Within a few hours replacements began to come. Tired tho we were. 

n8 Quarterly Journal 

and suffering, almost collapsing, from the effects of poor food and 
water, we were obliged to train the new men all day long in drills 
and maneuvers. Everyone, from colonel down, was in the utmost 
gloom. The few of us who had come back saw no prospect for the 
future. We did not believe that we had any more chances of com- 
ing back. We doubted everything. 


In a week and a half our orders for departure came. This was 
about November first. At the next town we were given trucks and 
taken toward the front. After being unloaded we were given, as a 
division, the position of reserve. Again, as before, the ceaseless and 
merciless hiking began. We not only hiked in following up, but we 
moved to the left flank and also forward to overtake and relieve a 
division in the support. But we could not, as shock troops, remain 
long, in the rear. We again marched extra hours each night to the 
flank and forward to take up the position of shock division and com- 
bat battalion- 
One night, after a restless day, we marched toward our position 
under spasmodic shelling over muddy roads. At every rest of a few 
minutes we slept. Two hours before daylight we arrived almost in 
position, and slept an hour in spite of the rain. After shifting our 
position, then back and forth, we went over the top at six o'clock in 
the morning without a protective artillery barrage. Our captain 
told us he believed it would be a second Soissons, but that we should 
make the best of it. Fortunately, however, such was not the case. 
We met no resistance in our sector. Intended machine gun nests, tho 
camouflaged, had been deserted. We advanced until early in the 
afternoon, when we dug in not far from a canal and a road. Within 
an hour, German artillery from across the Meuse came into action 
and permitted us no sleep that day. In the evening, we were assem- 
bled and marched two hours to our rolling kitchen, where we received 
a good meal. We were ready to pitch pup tents after that, but the 
Major sorrowfully told us that we had a hike of thirty-five kilometers 
that night to cut off the Germans near Sedan, and that he meant to 
get there if he were the only one. He told us to discard the full 
packs we had been carrying, and to take only the bare necessities for 
warfare. We began hiking, but it was not long before men, falling 
asleep beside the roadside, became like so many stones, did not awaken 
or could not be awakened, and were left behind. We hiked all night, 
sleeping heavily at every rest, sleeping in fact as we marched until 
we became dizzily aware that we were losing our balance ; we would 

A University Student as Doughboy iig 

then make a desperate effort to keep awake, but the call for sleep 
dimmed the determination so that the effort lasted but a minute be- 
fore another effort had to be made. The conjestion of traffic be- 
cause of blown-up bridges caused us much inconvenience, for it made 
many halts and much double-timing necessary. We marched by 
spasms on the road till ten o'clock the next morning- We had 
covered forty kilometers, because of a circuitous route made by ruined 
bridges. After that we would march slowly an hour and sleep a half 
hour. By evening, when we at last took up our position on the re- 
verse side of a hill, we had covered eight to ten more kilometers. We 
had lived that day on cabbages we could get from the fields. No 
sooner, however, had we reached our position than we were ordered 
to move again, hiking back six kilometers to a French town. We 
were crowded into barns, which gave evidence that pigs had been 
tramping around, and slept fourteen hours without a let-up. We 
had been relieved by the French, who had wished to enter Sedan, 
altho we knew nothing of it. We had no hopes of being relieved. 

The Armistice 
The next day, November tenth, we started on our hikes to the 
rear. On the eleventh we heard that an armistice had been signed, 
but we did not believe it ; it sounded non-sensical ; and should it have 
been signed, we could not understand how^ it would affect us. Never- 
theless, we built fires in the woods that night to keep warm, and were 
not bothered with bombing planes, altho fires by thousands were vis- 
ible up and down the valley occupied by the division. Thereafter, we 
built fires in the woods every night, until in December we were given 
blankets and billets. Some day people, who visit the northern woods 
of France, where we built fires, will exclaim at the supposed barba- 
rism of the Germans. A couple of weeks after the armistice, we 
realized full well that the German people should have been absolute- 
ly crushed, so as to have obliterated their hair-brained insolence. 
Nevertheless, we were glad it was signed, because we knew we had 
reached our limit, and that a collapse was near. 


When we had hiked several days to the rear, we were recalled 
and started in the opposite direction. We were given long hikes to 
begin with- The only reason we could decipher was to apply Dar- 
win's theory of the survival of the fittest. Two or three dozen men of 
our company fell out ; they were taken to the rear and never returned. 
Most of us hung on because we expected something better on ahead. 
From France we passed into Lorraine; from Lorraine into Luxem- 

120 Quarterly Journal 

burg; from Luxemburg, into Germany. Many men hiked all day 
long with shoes almost non-existant ; men hobbled along with broken 
arches; other limped with expressions of pain written in their faces 
before they had commenced the hike in the morning. We marched 
at attention thru every farming town to conceal that we were walk- 
ing skeletons. We lived on the cabbage and turnip fields of Luxem- 
burg. Our trip took us down the Moselle to near Zell; across the 
highland to Boppard ; thence to Coblenz ; then to Montabaur ; and 
afterwards, to our station at Nentershausen. 

Three weeks after arrival in our occupational position in Ger- 
many, we received at the least, four months' pay; several, pay for 
twelve months. Shortly after arrival, target practise, squad and 
company drill, maneuvers, and bayonet exercises were resuscitated and 
administered. Each day passed monotonously the same as the next 
or the one before. Conditions of living thereafter improved con- 
stantly. The military system came again into great prominence. To 
us as doughboys it seemed a system based on Prussian military 


One day early in March I was called into the orderly room and 
asked if I wanted an army discharge. Surprised tho I was, feeling 
as if I were sinking thru the floor or sleeping, I admitted that I 
would take one, because such things were not very plentiful in the 
First Division- Within two days I had the order to be deported to 
the States. In two hours after I saw the order, everyone in the com- 
pany was asking me how I managed it, and what I was going to do 
when I got back. I certainly was glad to go home, even tho leaving 
my bed in Germany, but I felt sorry for all the men I was leaving 
behind, who had been in active service for so many months, and who 
had still much to endure in the Army of Occupation. 

In two days or three I was at St. Aignan, France, but I stayed 
there two weeks before I became a part of an organized company of 
G. H. Q. casuals. At Brest, we of Casual Company 2937 spent an- 
other two weeks at one pretense or another ; and still another two 
weeks were spent on the U, S. S. "Seattle", before we saw the Statue 
of Liberty on Easter Sunday. For us it was a true Easter; it was a 
liberation ; it was a return to a civilized life. Five days later wc 
were discharged at Camp Mills. In sixty hours I was at home. 

An Alumnus of the University Who 
Did Not Get Across 

William H. Greenleaf* 
Secretary Alumni Association, University of North Dakota 

BY way of paraphrase, "Twere better to have sat and fought than 
never to have fought at all-" In the minds of many red-blooded 
people, the failure to "get across" in the Great War is humiliating. 
Disappointing it undoubtedly was. Yet with a courage inspired by 
the editor's invitation, humiliation and chagrin must be put in the 
background and even a "pen-pusher" from the "battle of Camp 
Dodge" must lend his word to the voluminous history of the war, 
a history we all help to write a word at a time. Perhaps the "pen- 
pusher" can bury a personal sense of dissatisfaction in the thought 
that even in the writing of the war's history there is a small contri- 
bution to be made to the battle front that crushed Prussianism in its 
German form and that still faces Prussianism in a thousand other 

Overcome by this opportunity to write an autobiography, I 
hasten to announce myself as the caste of characters in the drama 
herein set forth. Perhaps it would be truer for me to say that I 
am the stage on which the players work ; or may I announce myself 
as now the players, now the stage? A mystery this may appear. 
Yet, if the prolog fails to explain it, we trust the epilog will make it 
clear. It would be well also to state the fact that no high heroics 
appear in this bit of narrative, no guns, no airplanes, no torpedoes, 
no rescues, no death traps, no charge upon the position of the Ger- 
man emperor- Without headlines, without foot-notes, I set down a 
brief story as it comes to me, fully conscious that it will be subject 
to change as the years go by. 

On my arrival in camp at a time when I was recovering from 
a serious illness, I Avas considerably deprest for the time being by 
the Goddess of Liberty who appeared, must I confess it, in a garb 
that was somewhat dishabille. I had been brought up to think well 
of democracy, and my first impression of the army was most irritat- 

*Mr. Greenleaf graduated from the University of North Dakota with 
the class of 1911. The next two years were spent in the Harvard Univer- 
sity Law School. He was then recalled to his Alma Mater and for three 
years served in various capacities — in extension work, as Publicity Agent. 
as Alumni Secretary, and as Registrar. In the fall of 1917, he accepted 
an urgent call from the State of Maine to serve as State Director of the 
Division of Public Health Education. This position he held until his 
entrance into the army. 

122 Quarterly Journal 

ing to my sensibilities as it brought me a strange picture of the 
material democracy has to build on. The irritation was no doubt 
primarily due to ill health at that time. But as the impression will 
stay with me for life, and as this must of necessity be a true story, 
I admit the irritation. I leapt at once into a rather intimate associa- 
tion with Thomas and Richard and Harold, which was by no means 
regretted. I was even glad to be thrown headlong into a human 
maelstrom which was gradually subduing itself into a military cosmos 
with a great reason for being. But I soon discovered that besides 
Tom and Dick and Harry, there were Ole and Ned and Percy, 
too, all intimate partners of mine. I breakfasted with college men. 
I luncht with ex-convicts. I supt with the "wild man from Borneo." 
I killed flies in the dining room with gentlemen. I washed floors 
with lawyers, I marched with one-legged men, who, like myself, 
were in Limited Service, and who, like the rest of the Limited 
Service men, lookt out upon an unending military career of "innocu- 
ous desuetude" to use Cleveland's famous phrase. I loaned money 
to gentlemen who were quite accustomed to borrowing money, and 
I loaned but once. I was quite prepared to be "bossed" and at times 
walkt upon for my edification. This, I knew had its moral value, 
if I would but find it- I was, however, for a long time unable to 
detect any moral value in the inane, profane, incomparable conversa- 
tion that made day lurid and night hideous those first few weeks 
in the army. Nor was I able to detect a value in the method of 
men in argument who settled the problems of the universe wholly 
on the basis of prejudice and ignorance. I had not been prepared for 
such an extensive display of the weaknesses of the human mind as 
paraded itself with pride during those early days of service. I came 
near, far nearer than I ever came before, and I hope nearer than I 
will ever come again to the view that after all democracy is a hope- 
less proposition. I marvelled in those days that we had survived as a 
nation and a race. The great object of the war, the reason for our 
being in the army, the great spirit of the game were almost lost in 
the melee of human errors that confronted a soldier wherever he 

Yet, the spirit of the game was not quite lost. With the return 
to health came the discovery of friends. With that discovery came 
another, that there were all kinds of good fellows with a rough 
exterior who had the diamond quality underneath. Thru that dis- 
covery came back a little of the faith in democracy I had had before. 
Then came the renewed realization that we were fighting autocracy 
and Prussianism, fighting it wherever it was found in America, in 


An AluTfinus Who Did Not Get Across 123 

Europe, in our own minds. We were out to "lick the kaiser," too, 
incidentally. The war, the army, the day's work itself, took on a 
new color in the light of the new realization. Whatever we were 
good for, was America's to use as she saw fit. The game was on 
again and spirits ran a little higher. 

I had been in the army about three weeks. One afternoon I 
was called to the Orderly Room and told to "ditch" the straw from 
my tick, pack my "junk" and get ready to move- I tried to learn 
where I was going, whether to Siberia or to Constantinople, but the 
sergeant kept a silence about the matter which seemed to me to be 
almost as ungrammatical as his customary utterance. I was placed 
in charge of a corporal who had a good heart, a well-meaning head, 
and perhaps the homeliest face it has been my sorrow to gaze upon. 
I like him now, tho, for he helpt me to carry part of my luggage. 
We started out, I knew not where. I soon saw that he didn't know 
either. I began to suspect that the sergeant had kept a discreet 
silence because he didn't know. I shall never learn I suppose whether 
anyone knew. I ventured the remark to my corporal commander that 
"we didn't know where we were going but we were on our way." 
He replied with a show of spirit I had never suspected, that I would 
find out soon enough where I was going. I immediately assumed 
that I was to be jailed for military crime, but marvelled that the 
guard-house was so remote from all points in the camp. After con- 
siderable meandering we went to one place, which I was told was 
my destination. But nobody wanted us there. Nobody had ever 
heard of us and I am sure by the tone of the remarks made, that 
nobody was at all eager to hear of us. So my corporal commander 
paused thoughtfully to read his written instructions again, (he found 
that he had my destination address on a sort of bill of lading) and 
we started out once more across the camp. We went to a place that 
I think we had passed several times and this was to be our destination ; 
it proved to be only temporary, however, as nobody there had any 
work for us. I began to suspect that my corporal intended to escape 
and to take me with him and simply couldn't find the way out of 
camp. Finally, I ventured the suggestion that a lieutenant down at 
the Trade Test had talked to me once about trade test work- It 
occurred to me, I said, that I might have a "call" to that line of 
work. The commander thought not, but he had a kind heart and 
he called at the Trade Test office. I was at home. I was duly 
installed in a barracks where I spent the night. I was told in the 
morning to get out and lose no time about it as I was in the wrong 
place. I was again installed in a barracks. One Norwegian and one 

124 Quarterly Journal 

Irishman shook hands with me and said they were glad to see me. 
I cannot just remember whether 1 kissed them like a Frenchman or 
not. This I do know; Home rule for Ireland was certain from that 
moment on, and the League of Nations was sure of success, at least 
in my limited world. 

The work of the Trade Test section of the Camp Personnel 
Detachment included the task of securing information relative to the 
skill and ability of men in the various trades. Oral tests, picture 
tests, performance tests were carried on. These examinations, in- 
effective in some respects, did, on the whole, determine quite accurately 
the mesure of a man's fitness for various lines of work. Part of the 
time I served as an oral tester, part of the time as a performance 
tester. Quite ignorant myself of the mechanical contrivances involved 
in the tests and quite innocent of all knowledge of carpentering, auto 
repair work, etc., I was yet able to do the trade testing work thru 
the detailed directions furnisht by the government. There was 
nothing complicated about the work. Indeed, so much a matter of 
routine did it become that it was difficult to feel satisfied with any 
accomplishment in that field- Difficult, too, was it to feel that we 
were soldiers. There was always talk of adding another star to our 
service flag whenever one of our men was transferred to a unit of 
the "real army." When our brothers were starting out on the "Long, 
Long Trail" that lead to France, it was hard to think that we were 
serving Uncle Sam. When we listened to the truck-loads of soldiers 
whirling by to the station singing the words of the popular song, 
there were moments of sober thought, sober because our lot was the 
lot of the stay-at-home, sober too, because we knew that for many 
of our acquaintances in the trucks the trail was indeed to be long, 
far longer than the trail to France. 

The trade test work was developing rapidly and the army 
machinery was in rapid motion when the great attack of the influenza 
epidemic arrived. There is no need to dwell on the scenes of that 
fearful period. We all put on our masks for protection from the 
"flu." Of course we took them off when we ate and on some other 
occasions when we were thrown together. But theoretically we were 
maskt, and surely the germs, if they had a sense of humor (there were 
many indications they did have) must have smiled. We looked very 
safe. Of course pure air was out of the question and it was a bit 
difficult to breathe. But we were confident that at least the biggest 
of the germs must have hard work to wriggle through the "mosquito 
netting" we wore on our faces. Some of the medical men wore 
masks nearly all the time. Others wore them when the Major was 

An Alumnus Who Did Not Get Across 125 

around. Some of the best maskt men became the sickest. Some 
who defied the germs grew fat. The military community was of 
course too terrified and too grieved to smile- But a real wide-awake, 
up-to-date germ must have giggled. Let me not imply, however, 
that the medical profession, the nurses, and every man on duty did 
not do a wonderful piece of work. Taking everything into account, 
the service rendered was of the best possible. Men were dying by 
dozens and by hundreds. Ambulances were racing thru the streets. 
Stretchers were to be seen on every hand. The morgue was crowded 
to the limit. The hospital could not take care of all the sick. Panic 
was in the air. If men ever needed their brothers' help, they needed 
it then. That help was given. Thanks to the nurses and to the 
medical profession a glorious record of human service and self- 
sacrifice was made. When the panic and the pestilence had passed 
and the quarantine was raised, there were many soldiers gone, many 
an acquaintance had disappeared from his usual place, but the pall 
had lifted and the life of the soldier was normal once more. 

It was during the last days of the epidemic that there was talk of 
peace. Extra editions of the Des Moines papers came out every few 
hours. My own barracks was near the colored quarters. Darkies 
were shrieking periodically: "The war is over;" "the war is on again;" 
"Let's go home;" "Let's stay here." One man packt his trunk three 
times to leav.e for sunny Tennessee. Poor "nigger," I hope he's back 
home by this time. When peace did come, he found that demobiliza- 
tion involved a longer wait at the ticket office than he had anticipated. 
The soldier's inherited right to "kick" and to complain was never 
quite forgotten at Camp Dodge even in its palmiest days, but after 
the armistice was signed that right developt into a veritable Magna 
Charta. "We want to go home", was the universal cry. But wc 
didn't go home. We stayed "put", many of us doing little work in 
many instances, but nevertheless "put." "Show me another war, boys, 
and I takes a baby carriage full of exemption claims and starts on 
foot for Cape Horn," said one Irishman, as loyal a soldier as could 
be found. Day in and day out was the incessant question, "When 
are we going home?" Some answered the men: "Two j'^ears." Some 
said : "Three months." The mesmerism of defeated longings and 
the dread of continued discipline sometimes seemed to create a pall 
as heavy as the "flu" had brought. Every now and then some lucky 
chap was toucht on the shoulder and told that he might go home, 
might be free, that he was just a plain ordinary every day civilian 
again, that he might go and lose himself in the crowd once more. 
A smile so broad, so genuine, lighted up the face of every "lucky" 

126 * Quarterly Journal 

chap, that it seemed to be an everlasting answer to the man who 
feared that America might fall prey to the false god of militarism. 
With those men casting votes, America would never become a 
nation of soldiers without a worthy cause for battle. 

No word about military experiences in the camps of this country 
would be at all adequate without a mention of the good time that 
soldiers had in the adjoining cities and in the camps under the guid- 
ing hand of the various welfare agencies. Such organizations as the 
Y- M. C. A., the Salvation Army, the Knights of Columbus, the 
Lutheran Brotherhood, the Christian Science Welfare committee, 
the Jewish Welfare Board all added greatly to the pleasures and the 
comforts of the men and made less disagreeable those phases of army 
life which in the nature of things must necessarily be unpleasant. 
There was no need for any man to mope or mourn over his lot. 
Red-blooded activity which always drives away "the blues" was 
always possible even for those who knew they were never to get across 
the sea. Parties, dinners, and all the round of social pleasures were 
provided for the men who would accept these opportunities. 

Curbing the desire to recount other incidents, many more of 
which would be necessary to give any connected story of camp life, 
and remembering the fact that any recitation of incidents in the 
United States must appear unimportant in the light of narratives of 
overseas service, we come in conclusion to the question: "What, after 
all, was the experience in toto, what did it do for us, what does it 
now mean to us?" No doubt it is too soon to answer this question 
properly. Yet some answer has probably been attempted by every 
man who wore the uniform. 

In trying to summarize the effect of the entire experience in a 
word, one might recall the impression, described before, of a great 
giant, asleep for many years, waking into sudden action. With joints 
stiff, muscles out of control, the giant gradually, thru inefficiency 
after inefficiency, gained control of himself and finally stood or was 
ready to stand at the fulfillment of his purpose. Unfortunate it is 
that the individual soldier in the ranks must be so often conscious 
of the stepping stones, the inefficiencies which hurt, that he loses 
sight of the goal, becomes more or less lost in a maze of incompre- 
hensible regulations and red tape which speak to him eloquently of 
only one thing, the fact that he is no longer free. Yet, is the impres- 
sion of the giant the fundamental one? Is that the lasting picture? 
To my notion, the thought of America, the composite of the world's 
best ideals, the promise of the world's future, forces itself into the 
consciousness of the soldier, yes, forces itself there in spite of the 


An Alumnus Who Did Not Get Across 127 

apparent harshness and personal domination that seem to mark much 
of the disciplinary experience. Greater than the seeming which 
marks the outward experience of the soldier, yes, so great that the 
seeming cannot cover it up, is the real experience of the soldier who 
in spite of himself and his environment feels he is something of an 
instrument, however inadequate, in the furtherance of the best he 
knows. Speaking for one lone soldier in a very large army, I can 
say that that soldier went thru his commonplace experience in the 
war, now and then too conscious of the forces that were playing on 
him and on his fellows, and now and then recognizing his own right 
to act and to serve, a right far above the power of military control 
to deny. Speaking still for one lone soldier, one great result of the 
military experience is the consciousness of tendencies in the American 
mind that it will be well to watch and to recognize if we hope for 
the future that Destiny has promised us. Eager always that the war 
be fought to a successful conclusion no matter how long it should 
take, this soldier finds himself more positively American that ever 
before. One of the greatest, perhaps the outstanding, result of the 
whole military experience is the firm, and I hope the unshakeable, 
faith that while we dream dreams of human brotherhood and plan 
for a federation of the world, our greatest gift, our greatest oppor- 
tunity, our greatest duty to the world is found in the task that will 
hold America, as one great individual nation, true to her goal. When 
all the unpleasant experiences of army life shall have passed from 
memory, when the pleasures shall have been forgotten, when the 
mental struggles shall no longer find a place in thought, there will 
come to mind because of the military experience a more genuine 
pride, a greater faith, more hope, more charity and, perhaps above 
all, more sense of responsibility in the utterance of the words, "I am 
an American". 

Experiences of a University Woman 

"Over There" ' 

Hazel B. Nielson* 

A YEAR AGO at this time we were wondering when the great 
war would cease. Then the people everywhere in this grand 
United States of America were doing their utmost to put more vim 
into the drives and war organizations in order that "our boys" might 
come home. While the boj's "Over There", what of them? The 
mere mention of the Argonne or St. Mihiel instantly produces the 
picture of the undaunted doughboy as he plunged forward never 
stopping until the eleventh hour of the eleventh day. But after the 
armistice, what? Only one word could satisfy our lads in khaki — 
"America". That meant "HOME". They wanted to get back to 
the "Land of Cotton," or "Out Where the West Begins." Not only 
were our doughboys anxious to get home, but many men engaged in 
welfare work felt obliged to return to their work in the United 
States. Consequently the women appeared in the places they vacated. 
The story of the work of the women during the war has been 
told by the "boys", by the Red Cross and other magazines- They 
have told of how the nurses workt day and night to alleviate the 
suffering, using every effort to keep up the courage of the boys. One 
of our own North Dakota nurses took entire charge of two wards, 
serving fifty men in each. They have told of how the dietitians 
supplied the very best food possible in these hospitals, and of how the 
workers in the canteens of the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., and K. of C. 
were serving hot chocolate to the boj's in the advanced sections, were 
serving the wounded in the hospitals, or were supplying entertain- 
ment for the men in the S. O. S., and as near the front line as trans- 
portation could be secured. The work of the Salvation Army lassies 
making doughnuts for the throngs of passing soldiers is too vivid a 
picture ever to be forgotten. Then the women of the Y. W. C. A- 
must not be overlookt, for tho this organization did not work directly 
with the soldier, the part played by them in the war zone was an 
important factor. The Y. W. C. A. workt either with the French 
women workers, furnishing them with comforts in the foyers and 
establishing recreational centers for the French factory girls who 

•Miss Nielson, the writer of tliis sketch, graduated from the Univer- 
sity in 1911. She has taught with success the most of the time since — five 
years in the high school at Valley City and two years in that of Fargo. 
Her home is in Valley City. She is now engaged in institute work in 
various counties of the state. 

A University Woman in the War Zone 129 

knew nothing of play and country recreation, or they served the 
American women connected with the work for the Army. Any of 
us who have been "overseas" appreciates the work of the Y. W. C. A., 
managing hotels in Paris strictly on an American system for American 
girls and providing hostess houses in the devastated areas or port 
towns. Theirs is a story of an organization composed entirely of 
women serving women, while the other welfare organizations were 
made up of men and women workers. 

When the armistice came, indeed double the number of women 
was needed to take care of the huts for our army. During the last 
days of the fighting there had been thousands of our men who had 
advanced so rapidly that they rarely had met with a representative 
of the welfare organizations, regardless of the great efforts made by 
these groups. Fighting ceast and the reaction came. Now the 
American boy needed amusement. He had finisht the big part of 
his task, so America "tout de suite" for him. To keep the boys still 
smiling till they sailed for home was the situation. Various plans 
were made by the army and the National War Work Council to 
meet the problems during the period of demobilization. Two plans 
arose in which the women could do their bit, first to extend the leave 
areas, and second to allow our men to attend the British and French 
Universities, which had opened their doors to our A. E. F. It was 
my privilege to watch the workings and be a part of both of these 

Miss Delia Linwell of Northwood, North Dakota, a former 
University of North Dakota student, and I were chosen to represent 
North Dakota in the General Federation of Women's Clubs Over- 
seas unit. The General Federation organized a War Victory 
Commission, choosing two girls from each state for their unit, which 
was financed by donations from the clubs of every state. The original 
plan of the Commission was to open Furlough Houses, but General 
Pershing ordered that all the work in the recreation centers in France 
should be conducted under the management of the Y. M. C. A. This 
Federation unit was to work with soldiers, and accordingly came 
under the direction of the Y- M. C. A. 

Before going overseas the Y. M. C. A. conducted a Conference 
for their workers in New York at Barnard College. It was a 
strenuous week, for no one knew until the last hour of the conference 
whether she had been accepted. This meant watch your step con- 
tinually. There were French classes, gymnasium training, singing, 
and lectures by returned soldiers from the American, British, French, 
and Italian armies, and talks by prominent women workers from 

I30 Quarterly Journal 

"overseas," as Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt Jr., w^ho served our boys 
for seventeen months and started the first leave area, and Mrs. 
Burnett-Smith, an experienced war worker of London. One of the 
chief benefits of this Conference was the friendship formed with the 
girls in attendance. We sang: 

"We have joined from almost every corner 
Of this great big, grand old U. S. A., 
And we're now one happy, snappy unit 
Of Uncle Sammy's Y. M- C. A." 

This typified the spirit of our meetings. We were able many 
times "overseas" to tell a chap from Texas or Idaho, "at our Con- 
ference I knew Miss from your state." A happy meeting 

was always the result. 

When the anxiety of the Conference was over and the calm 
approached, joy beyond works, for Miss Linwell and I, with fifty-four 
"Y" girls, sailed the following day for "over there." Tho we came 
from this inland state of the "Dakotas", the terror of the sea had 
no fears for us. After a most enjoyable voyage of nine days we 
landed at Liverpool, where we met eighty "Y" girls who had reacht 
there the previous day. We had been told our party would leave 
directly for London, and thence across the Channel to France, but 
due to lack of hotel accomodations in London, which was crowded 
with men on leaves, our group remained in Liverpool, awaiting sail- 
ing for Brest. 

During this period we had an opportunity to see Liverpool and 
historic Chester, with its Roman walls, gates, and magnificent 
cathedrals. In Lincoln Lodge, the American "Y" of Liverpool, we 
met many Americans clad in the Canadian uniform, having fought 
with that contingent since the beginning of the war. Some had just 
arrived from France and the battle fronts, and we were the first 
American women they had seen for five years. They wanted to 
talk of nothing but America first and last. 

When our party left for Brest, thirty of the girls, victims of 
the "flu", were left behind in the American Army hospital at Knotty 
Ash Camp, four miles from Liverpool. I was one of the thirty. 
Never before did the Stars and Stripes look so good to us as when they 
hung from the beam in the hospital ward. We were thankful we 
were among our own nurses and doctors- They were the best ever. 
Upon release from the hospital, London was our next "objective." 
Reporting there, our "flu" party was again divided and sent to various 
parts of southern England for a recuperating period. 

Torquay, in sunny Devonshire, was my lot, in company with a 

A University Woman in the War Zone 13 1 

young lady from Texas. Never in the history of this picturesque 
and interesting city had appeared American girls in uniform. We 
called ourselves the original "Y" pilgrims of Torquay. We thought 
for once in our lives we were either the center of attraction, or 
were monstrous curiosities. People gazed at us, and then gazed 
some more. They attached us to every organization and nation 
possible. One day we heard a clerk ask a "shop" keeper, "Do they 
speak English?" 

Torquay, the famous watering place of southern England, is a 
beautiful city, like Rome, situated on seven hills, which rise from 
Tor Bay, one of the numerous bays of the English Channel. The 
view of the blue and green waters of the Channel, the red cliffs, and 
the hills covered with flowers, ivy hedges, trees, and row upon row 
of English homes is beyond my description. Is it any wonder that 
Elizabeth Browning found inspiration for her well known letters, 
as did Charles Kingsley for Westward Ho and Hypatia, in this 
beautiful land of Devon? Besides being renowned for its beauty 
Torquay claims distinction from an historical standpoint. The battle 
of the Spanish Armada was fought along its shores. Devonshire was 
the home of Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, the Gilberts, 
and Davis, the well known explorers in our early history. Like all 
Americans "overseas" we saw as much of this historic country as 
possible, visiting Compton Castle, where, as legend relates. Sir Walter 
Raleigh smoked his first pipeful of tobacco, and also spending some 
time in Plymouth. Here we had to place our feet upon the stone 
marking the spot from which our Pilgrim fathers set sail. After 
giving thanks to the Pilgrims for sailing the ocean blue and recalling 
all Thanksgiving dinners with delight, we had the privilege of seeing 
the War Spite, the pride of the English Navy, sail out of the harbor. 
Great were the cheers for the War Spite was the hero in the Battle 
of Jutland, when the entire German fleet opened fire upon her- 
Plymouth also had other attractions for us, as it was a naval base for 
five hundred American "gobs." It was America, first, last, and 
always with us. But even so, we found the English very cordial 
and their country most beautiful, with the narrow Devonshire lanes 
and its small plots of earth surrounded by green hedges. We were 
loathe to leave this sunny spot, but after drinking in its beauty, 
absorbing its history, and imbibing its literature, we were called 
back to London. 

A certain amount of red tape is always required when moving 
from one country to another in the time of armies, hence during our 
delay we just had to continue our lessons in English history and 
literature. The Parliament buildings, Westminster Abbey, the Old 

132 Quarterly Journal 

Curiosity Shop, Cheshire Cheese, the homes of Samuel Johnson and 
Oliver Goldsmith, and the Tower of London, all called forth many 
recollections of the time spent in the English and History class rooms 
of "Old Main" with Dean Squires and Dr. Libby. 

Bidding farewell to "Merrie England" at Southampton we 
boarded the boat for LeHavre, our first glimpse of France. Boarding 
one of the French trains, fortunately not "8 Chevaux and 40 
Hommes", we journej^ed on to "Gay Paree," glad indeed to reach 
our next "objective". The "Battle of Paris" at this time was not 
of long duration, for my order was to proceed to Bordeaux. From 
there the Regional Directrice assigned me to Toulouse. 

Toulouse, a city of 300,000, is situated in southern France, 
between Bordeaux and the Mediterranean Sea. A splendid uni- 
versity is located there, at which 1500 of our oiificers and enlisted 
men were enrolled. It was my pleasure to work in the canteen which 
served these men. They had come from almost all divisions of the 
A. E. F,, from the Army of Occupation, Advanced Section, S. O. S., 
Marines, Ordnance, clerical work, and everything, and now were 
doing specialized work in the ten faculties of the University. It was 
an American Army College in a French atmosphere. Soon many 
organizations arose, consisting of college, state, divisional and 
fraternal circles. Then appeared a college paper, Qu'Est-Ce Que 
C'Est, the first A. E, F. student publication, an English paper but 
printed by French compositors. "Some task", as the editors can 
testify. The editorial stafif, composed of men from the Philadelphia 
Ledger, Cleveland Plaindealer, and Harpers, were not to be daunted 
by such petty troubles, and put out a weekly publication which would 
do credit to any college. Its ability was demonstrated in the editor- 
ials. Its popularity was shown by a circulation list of 23,000. Its 
success was attained when 14,000 francs were cleared over expenses. 
This amount started the American Library for the University of 
Toulouse. Athletics was another activity in which this A. E- F. 
University gained distinction. Championship teams in basketball 
and baseball were developt. Track and tennis were also popular. 
Still another activity appeared in a Franco-American club, organized 
to secure Franco-American co-operation and a knowledge of the 
French language and people. Club rooms were maintained, where 
the inhabitants of Toulouse were received and exchanged ideas with 
the American students. 

The canteen at Toulouse served as a touch of American life 
for these students in a foreign land. Five American girls and three 
American men were there to serve these splendid men, who had 

A University Woman in the War Zone 1 33 

sacrificed all for us. Coffee, chocolate, lemonade, ice tea, sometimes 
doughnuts and ice cream, but always sandwiches, had to be on hand. 
Sandwiches, "beaucoup" of them, over a thousand, were made daily. 
Then "good old American picnics" up the river were frequently 
enjoyed by the "boys." Movies and theatrical troops furnisht amuse- 
ment in the evenings. Dancing in the canteen and the club rooms 
was always a source of joy to the men. The passing thru Toulouse 
of any American girls on leave to Nice or Biarritz was a signal for 
a dance. For, why not? Didn't we have one of the best orchestras, 
"Whizz Jazz Bangers" that could be found? "I'll say we did!" 

During the later part of the University session I was in the 
canteen library, checking in and out the books of the A. L- A. The 
good done by this branch of the "Overseas Units" was immesurable. 
The library was constantly filled with the boys reading the ever 
popular Saturday Evening Post and books on banking, business, and 
accounting. The latter outclast the demand of any other type of 
books. Perhaps the boys are believers in preparedness. 

An opportunity was afforded the boys for making week-end 
trips, sometimes accompanying the baseball teams, or visiting some 
of the beauty spots of southern France, Luchon, Pau, Lourdes, 
Carcassonne, and Biarritz, the renowned leave areas of this section. 
These are only a few of the twenty-six leave areas scattered from St. 
Malo to Biarritz, from Nice to the Rhine. Between six hundred and 
seven hundred girls w^ere stationed in these scattered leave areas, 
ready to entertain the boys, talk with them, walk with them, shop 
with them, sing with them, and dance with them. Every week from 
three thousand to six thousand men of the A. E. F. went into each 
leave area to enjoy that well earned rest. Were the girls glad to 
see them, and were they glad to see the American girls? If people 
could ever hear them say, "You're the first American girl I have 
talked to for seventeen months," or "you're the first American girl 
I have danced with for a year," then understanding would be theirs. 
We forgot we were individuals, but remembered only that we were 
American girls there to do "our bit." You might find us picnicing 
with the boys in the leave areas, serving chocolate or making sand- 
wiches in the canteen, supplying doughnuts to the troops entraining, 
entertaining the boys in a play or vaudeville, driving a rolling canteen, 
giving out chocolate and doughnuts to the men in the camps, and, 
oh yes, dancing in between times. We all did that- Sometimes 
there would be fifteen girls as partners for six thousand men. What 
a scramble for partners when the whistle blew. One unit of eighteen 
girls, called the Flying Squadron, went from camp to camp dancing 

134 Quarterly Journal 

in the afternoon and evening with the boys, who rarely saw an 
American girl. 

When my work in Toulouse was completed I was reassigned in 
Paris to the Bureau of Historical Research of the "Y". It was my 
work to collect, arrange, and compile data of work carried on by the 
"Y" in the regions of Bordeaux and La Rochelle. This necessitated 
some time being spent in and around Bordeaux. When the offices 
of the day were closed it often meant a dance in the evening, either 
in the city of Bordeaux, or at one of the numerous camps in the area. 
Bordeaux, the second largest city in France, was the center of a 
large area, and the "Mecca" for all Americans in this district. Here 
again as in many visits to the devastated regions, I had an opportunity 
to see the wonderful accomplishments of our army. We were all 
proud to be Americans, and to have the privilege of working with 
our wonderful A. E. F., the best ever in our estimation. Regardless 
where our men had been placed they "put over" their "job" in the 
quickest and best manner. We were thrilled with pride again and 
again when we saw the feats that they had accomplisht and heard of 
their valor. They never told you themselves, for they are too modest 
for that- But after hearing of their experiences and seeing the 
devastated region, we all say with the deepest of feelings, "Hats off 
to the boys of the A. E. F." 

Replying to the ever-present question, "Where are you from in 
U. S. A.?", I was always glad to say, "from the West." I met many 
Western men who replied, "You're the first girl from the West 
we've seen." I was glad to say I was from North Dakota, for con- 
tinually I was meeting men who had workt with or under our Dakota 
men, and nothing but the highest praise was ever given. While 
"fighting the battle of Paris" for two months I met North Dakota 
men and some University friends. Those were happy reunions. 
Fortunately some of the U. N. D. girls had get-together meetings. 
Edith Veitch of Grand Forks, of the Red Cross, Helen Sullivan 
of Langdon, of the National Catholic War Council, and I talked 
North Dakota and the University fast and furious at our gathering 
in Paris. The last day in France I dined with Miss Sullivan and 
Miss Delia Linwell- I left the girls in "Gay Paree", Miss Sullivan 
in charge of the Etoile Service Club for soldiers and sailors, and 
Miss Linwell studying in theatrical work. 

Many have wondered how the war would change the boj^s. I 
think that is well answered in a poem which appeared in the Mother's 
Day number of Q'Est-Ce Que C'Est at Toulouse. The following 
poem was written by a sergeant of the Second Division, who had 

A University fVornati in the War Zone 135 

been thru everything and had come out with four service chevrons, 
two wound stripes, a croix de guerre, and D. S. C. to his credit. 

Mother O' Me 

You're wond'ring, I know, little Mother o' me, 
As you dream there day by day, 
If your lad is the lad that he used to be — 
The lad that you sent away. 

You're asking, I know, little Mother o' me. 
As you sit in your easy chair, 
"How much did he learn of brutality — 
What sights did he see 'Out There'?" 

You're wond'ring, I know, little Mother o' me, 
What part of your boy is your own? 
"What things did he learn in his agony? — 
His soul — has it shrunken, or grown?" 

Let your heart be at rest little Mother o' me, 
God worked it all out in his plan, 
And the lad whom you gave to Humanity, 
Is coming back home — a Man! 

University Notes 

Faculty Changes PROMOTIONS 

Mr. William R. Brackett, Instructor in Physics: 

To be Assistant Professor of Physics. 
Mr. H. Foster Jones, Instructor in English ; 

To be Assistant Professor of English. 
Dr. Henry E. Haxo, Assistant Professor of Spanish; 

To be Associate Professor of Spanish. (This was in accordance 
with the terms of his engagement. ) 
Miss Nell Martindale, Instructor in Physical Education for Women ; 

To be Assistant Professor of Physical Education. 
Mr. Vernon E. Sayre, Instructor in Manual Arts; 

To be Assistant Professor of Manual Arts. 
Professor Howard E. Simpson, Associate Professor of Physiography; 

To be Professor of Geographic Geology. 


Dr. Henry R. Brush, Head of Department of Romance Languages. 

Mr. William E. Budge, Assistant in Mining Research. 

Dr. Fred Smith, Instructor in Classical Languages. 

Professor John Adams Taylor, Assistant Professor of English. 


Mr. Lyle M. Bittinger, University Registrar and Assistant High 
School Examiner, July, 191 7, to July i, 191 9, resigned to become 
Principal of the Grand Prairie Seminary, a preparatory school 
for boys, at Onarga, Illinois. 

Mr. William R. Brackett, Instructor in Physics since 191 7, recently 
promoted to assistant professorship, resigned in July to accept a 
position in the Agricultural College of Kansas. 

Mr. Harry E. Caldwell, Instructor in Physical Education and 
Director of Athletics. 

Professor Calvin H. Crouch, Head of the Department of Mechanical 
Engineering, who has been on leave of absence since May, 19 18, 
resigned to accept an appointment in the East. 

Mr. Irving Garwood, Instructor in English. 

Professor E. C. Griess, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Drawing, 
who was granted a leave of absence June, 191 8, resigned to con- 
tinue his work in the Bureau of Standards in Washington, D. C, 
where he has been engaged for the past year in special work 
necessitated by war conditions. 

Miss Julia Hatz, Instructor in Home Economics, found it necessary 
to resign on account of poor health. 

University Notes 137 

Miss Blanche Hedrick, Assistant Librarian, 191 3 to 19 19, resigned 
to become Librarian of the College of Agriculture, University of 

Dr. George M. Janes, Assistant Professor of Economics and Political 
Science, 191 7 to 191 9, resigned to accept a position as Professor 
of Economics in Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, 

Miss Almira Jewett, Assistant Professor of Art and Design, resigned 
to accept the position of Supervisor of Drawing in the East 
High School, Cincinnati, Ohio. Professor Jewett had been at 
the head of the Department for eight years. During that time 
she raised it from a mere handful of high school students to one 
of the largest and most popular in the University. 

Miss Marie Jorgensen, University Nurse. 

Dr. Charles Edwin King, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, 
and Professor of Ph5^siology, 191 3 to 1919, resigned to accept a 
position at a considerable increase in salary, in the Medical 
School at the University of Alabama. 

Miss Johanna Londergan, Instructor in Mathematics. 

Professor W. W. Norton, Associate Professor of Music, Director of 
Musical Organizations. Professor Norton had been at the head 
of the Department since 191 1, and during that time had suc- 
ceeded in making it one of the most prominent in the University. 
He resigned to accept a more lucrative position in public school 
music in Minneapolis. 

Mrs. W. C. Perry, Matron of Budge Hall. 

Miss Fannie E. Putcamp, Instructor in German and Latin, Uni- 
versity High School, 191 6 to 19 19. 

Miss Mabel Randolph, for nine years the very efficient private 
secretary to the President of the University, resigned to accept 
a position in Washington, D. C, as private secretary to Dean 
George F. Wells, now on leave-of-absence and acting as Assist- 
andt Admiralt}' Counsel for the United States Shipping Board. 


Mrs. R. H. Arnold, of Chicago, Illinois, has been appointed Instruc- 
tor in the Department of Home Economics. Mrs. Arnold is a 
graduate of two colleges. Smith and Simmons. She has had 
several years' experience in teaching in the lines of Home Econ- 
omics and has just returned from service abroad with the Smith 
College Relief Unit and American Red Cross in France. 

W. H. Bair has been appointed Instructor in Physics. Mr. Bair 
received the B. S. degree from Ohio Northern University and 

138 Quarterly Journal 

the M. S. degree from the University of Illinois. He has been 
a member of the faculty of the University of Illinois, of the 
Kansas Agricultural College, and of the University of California. 

John W. Ballard, a graduate of New York University, School of 
Commerce, has been appointed Instructor in Accounting, De- 
partment of Economics. He gained his teaching experience in 
the high schools of New York City, and during the war was 
an instructor in the A. E. F, University at Baume, France. 

F. W. Bentley, of Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been appointed 
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Drawing and Descriptive 
Geometry in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. 
Professor Bentley comes to us from the University of Minnesota 
where he has been doing this line of work for three years. He 
is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin, Mechanical 
Engineering course. His time since graduation has been 
divided between teaching and engineering. 

J. H. Bond, of Washington, D. C, has been appointed Assistant 
Professor of Economics. Dr. Band received the A. B. and A. M. 
Degrees from the University of Oregon and the Ph. D. Degree 
from the University of Wisconsin. He has been a member of 
the faculty of the University of Idaho and of Simpson College, 
being connected in both institutions with the Department of 
Economics and Sociology. He has served as statistician in the 
U. S. War Department and as special agent and expert in the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics at Washington. 

A. D. Bush, Professor of Ph3^siology and Pharmacology, comes to us 
from the University of Missouri. Dr. Bush received the B. S. 
Degree from Tufts College; M. D. Degree from Emory Uni- 
versity, and took a Post Graduate Course in Surgery at Harvard. 
He has had a wide experience in both teaching and general 
practise, and has written a number of scientific books and papers, 

Richard F. Castner has been appointed Instructor in Shop Work. 
Mr. Castner is a graduate of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenn. He has been a member of the faculty of that University, 
but had recently been engaged as superintendent of a large in- 
dustrial plant in Denver, Colorado. 

Erwin O. Christensen has been appointed Head of the Department 
of Art and Design. Professor Christensen has taken courses in 
Chicago Art Institute, Armour Institute, and Modern Art School 
of Boston, and received the B. S. Degree of Architecture from the 
University of Illinois. He has been a nember of the faculty in 
the College of Fine Arts at Ohio University and was engaged 



University Notes 139 

for summer work at the University of Wisconsin, which engage- 
ment he could not fulfill on account of military service, 

B. J. Clawson has been appointed Professor of Pathology. Dr. Claw- 
son is a graduate of the University of Kansas, Rush Medical 
College, and has a Ph. D. Degree from the University of 
Chicago. He has been a member of the faculty of the University 
of Kansas, Oklahoma Agricultural College, and the University 
of Chicago, 

Miss Ida M, Cravath, of Whitewater, Wisconsin, has been appointed 
Instructor in the Department of Art and Design. Miss 
Cravath is a graduate of the State Normal School, Whitewater, 
Wisconsin, and of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y, She has taken 
courses in the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of 
Chicago. She has had a wide teaching experience in public 
school, normal school, and college work. 

Paul J. Davis has been appointed Assistant Professor of Physical 
Education and Director of Athletics. Coach Davis received 
the LL. B. Degree from Dickinson College. He began his coach- 
ing career in 1908 as head football coach at Dickinson College. 
From 1909 to 19 14 he was head coach at Oklahoma A. & M, 
College, and in the fall of 191 5 he came to the North Dakota 
Agricultural College where he was coach and athletic idrector 
for three years. 

Miss Christian R. Dick has been appointed Assistant Librarian. 
Miss Dick received the A. B. Degree from Doane College and 
was an honor student in the State Library School, Albany, N, 
Y,, 1915-16. She was librarian in Doane College, 1912-1915; 
did special practise work in the Reference Department of the 
Brooklyn Public Library in 191 6, and has been chief cataloger 
in the Carnegie Free Library of Alleghany, Pennsylvania, since 

L. P. Dove has been appointed Instructor in Geology. Mr. Dove 
received the B. A. Degree from Simpson College and the M. A. 
Degree from the University of Chicago. He has been a member 
of the faculty. Department of Geology, of Northwestern 
University; oil geologist in Wyoming and Colorado, and has 
spent some time in the employ of the U, S, Bureau of Mines and 
State Geological Survey of Indiana and North Dakota. 

Ernest F. Peterson has been appointed Instructor in the Department 
of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. Mr. Peterson is a 

140 Quarterly Journal 

graduate of the University of Colorado, After taking an 
apprenticeship course with the Westinghouse Electrical and 
Manufacturing Co., he was recommended for an engineering 
position with the Commonwealth Edison Co., which position he 
held until he went into military service. 

R. L. Rhoads, of Boise, Idaho, has been appwintcd Acting Head of 
the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Professor Rhoads 
has been recently mustered out as an officer in the 301st Bat- 
talion, Tank Corps on combat service in France. He graduated 
in Mechanical Engineering at the Pennsylvania State College, 
at which college he has received the B. S. and M. E. Degrees. 
He has been a member of the faculty of Purdue and Lehigh 
Universities. In commercial work he has had five years' 
experience as mechanical engineer in power plant testing, opera- 
tion and maintenance with the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. 

Miss Else C. Rhode, of Grand Forks, has been appointed Manager 
of the University Commons. Miss Rhode is a graduate of the 
University of North Dakota. She has had experience as teacher 
of Home Economics and was cafeteria director for the War 
Council of the National Y. W. C, A. for one year. From 
February to September, 1919, she was Home Demonstration 
Agent in North Dakota for the N. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Ben F. Rowland has been appointed Instructor in Chemistry. Mr. 
Rowland is a graduate of the University of Colorado, where he 
received the B. S. Degree. He has been a member of the faculty 
of Colorado for two years and a Junior Chemist in the Bureau 
of Chemistry, Washington, D. C. 

Merle Storr, of Grand Haven, Michigan, has been appointed Science 
Instructor in the University High School. Mr. Storr is a gradu- 
ate of Olivet College, specializing in Mathematics and Science, 
and has taught in the high schools of Grand Haven, Michigan. 

Miss Josephine Swenson, of St. Paul, Minnesota, has been appointed 
University Nurse. Miss Swenson received her training in the 
University of Minnesota Nurses' Training School, St. Baiyiabas 
Hospital, City Hospital Nurses' Training School, Minneapolis, 
and the Chautauqua School of Nursing Correspondence School. 
She has had several years of teaching experience and was sent 
out as an emergency nurse in the burned district of Minnesota. 

J. W. Taylor, of Linden, Wisconsin, has been appointed Assistant 
Professor of European History. Professor Taylor is a graduate 
of the University of Wisconsin and has done post graduate work 
in the University of Chicago. He has had a wide experience 

University Notes 141 

in teaching in high schools and has been a member of the Iowa 
State Teachers College. 

H. H. Tuttle, of Grand Forks, has been appointed Registrar. Mr. 
Tuttle received his training in Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, Ohio, and Association College of Chicago. 

J. A. Wiley, of Hadley, Missouri, has been appointed Assistant 
Professor of Education. Professor Wiley has received the B. S. 
and A. M. Degrees from the University of Missouri and has 
attended two summer sessions at Columbia University. He has 
had seven years' experience in public school work and has been 
a member of the faculty of the State Teachers' College at War- 
rensburg, Missouri. 

Albert H. Yoder, of Whitewater, Wisconsin, has been appointed 
Director of the University Extension Division. Professor Yoder 
is a graduate of the State Normal School, Madison, South 
Dakota, and of Indiana University. He was a Fellow in Peda- 
gogy, Clark University, 1893-4, took a course in Psychology, 
University of Chicago, 1895-6, and a special course in Pediatrics, 
N. W. University Medical School, Chicago, 1896. He has been 
a member of the faculty of the University of Indiana, University 
of Washington, and New York School of Philanthropy. He 
has been Superintendent of Schools in Madison, S. D., and in 
Tacoma, Washington. He was at one time President of 
Vincennes University and later of the State Normal at White- 
water, Wisconsin. 

Miss Pearl Young of Jamestown, North Dakota, has been appointed 
Instructor in Physics. Miss Young is a graduate of last year's 
class of the University of North Dakota. She is a Phi Beta 
Kappa student and was awarded an assistantship at the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota for the coming year, which she gave up to 
carry on the work here. For the past year and a half she has 
been an assistant in the elementary laboratory. 

Friends in On the evening of November 4, a pleasant U. 

Washington ]sj; j) reunion was held in Washington, D. C, 

when the sojourners there from North Dakota met at the home of 
Dean and Mrs. George F. Wells, in Chevy Chase. 

The honor guest of the occasion was Dr. Frank L. McVey, 
now President of the University of Kentucky, who was in Washing- 
ton attending a meeting of the National Research Council. 

Twenty-five or thirty representatives of the University of North 
Dakota are now living and working in Washington, continuing, 

142 Quarterly Journal 

either temporarily or permanently, relations establisht during the 
war period, and a goodly number of these were present. The Wash- 
ington group includes the following: 

Dea nand Mrs. George F. Wells. Dean Wells, who is on 
leave-of-absence from the University, holds the position of Assistant 
Admiralty Counsel for the United States Shipping Board, having 
accepted this appointment when the work of the War Labor Board, 
with which he was connected during the last week of the war, came 
to a close. 

Professor and Mrs. R. W. Cooley. Professor Cooley is a mem- 
ber of the legal stafiF of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, in the 
division of allotment and allowances. 

Dr. and Mrs. A. H. Taylor. As Commander, United States 
Naval Reserve Flying Corps, Dr. Taylor is the officer in charge of 
the Naval Air Craft Radio Laboratory, which is located at the Naval 
Air Station at Anacostia, D. C. 

Former Dean Robert L. Henry, Jr., of the Law School and 
family. Thruout the war he as Instructor in various camps, and is 
now in the Judge Advocate General's ofiEice with the rank of Major. 

Dr. and Mrs. E. B. Stephenson. Dr. Stephenson is now Expert 
Research Aide for the United S'tates Engineering Corps, and is in 
charge of investigations in camouflage and related lines of work in 
connection with sound ranging. 

Professor and Mrs. E. C. Griess. Professor Griess asked for, 
and obtained, a year's leave of absence to do war work in Washington. 
At the conclusion of the year he tendered his resignation from the 
University and continued his work at Washington. He and Mrs. 
Griess are both in government service. 

Miss Mabel Randolph is private secretary to Dean George F. 

Mrs. G. St. J. Perrott and her daughters, Dorothy and Phillis. 
Mrs. Perrott is engaged in work in the War Industries Division of 
the Council of National Defense ; Miss Perrott has a position in the 
United States Public Health Service, and Miss Phillis is attending 

Mrs. Charles H. Holman, better known as Genevieve Turner, is 
director of the Girls' Club and Recreation Work under the War 
Camp Community Service of the U. S. War Department. 

Miss Helen Alexander is with the Federal Trade Commission, 
Miss Virgila Stephens with the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Miss 
Inez Serumgard in the Ordnance Division of the War Department, 

University Notes 1 43 

and the Misses Genevieve and Muriel O'Keefe hold position in the 
Bureau of Standards. 

Miss Anita Conte, sister of Professor Conte of Wesley College. 
During the war Miss Conte was foreign hostess in a number of camps 
under the War Work Council of the Y. W. C. A., and is now 
continuing her work as Italian Interpreter among the patients in the 
Walter Reed Hospital in Washington and the Staten Island Hospital 
in Brooklyn. 

Adolph Banik, Richard Brooke, and Paul Shorb are all con- 
tinuing their law studies in the George Washington University, the 
latter two at the same time holding positions with prominent law 
firms of the city. Deane Brooke is continuing his medical course at 
George Washington University, and William L. Johns is connected 
with the Bureau of Markets. 

Among the alumni who have lived for some time in Washing- 
ton are Dr. Cora Smith Eaton King, a successful practising physician 
and an active member of the Women's Suffrage Association, Henry 
Hinds of the U. S'. Geological Survey, Randall Larson, with the 
Federal Trade Commission, Rolla C. Currie of the Bureau of 
Entomology, Walter C. Matscheck, with the U. S. Food Administra- 
tion, Raymond Richards, with the W. S. S. S., James A. St. Amoure, 
U. S. Auditing Department, H. E. Tuiift, with the Bureau of Mines, 
and Emma C. Crans of the class of 1896. John M. Hancock for 
many years paymaster for the United States Navy, recently resigned 
to engage in a commercial undertaking in Chicago. 



THE Quarterly Journal is a periodical maintained by 
the University of North Dakota . Its primary function 
is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges and 
departments of the University and thus act as a medium of 
ex'change between the University and the learned world out- 
side. Its columns are open, however, to other than University 
people, especially when they bring contributions which are the 
fruitage of scientific research, literary investigation, or other 
form of constructive thought. Price one dollar a year, thirty 
cents the single copy. 

All communications should be add rest. 

The Quarterly Journal, 

University, North Dakota 

Editor's Bulletin Board 

' I ""HE next issue of the Quarterly Journal, that for 
-■- April, 1920, will be unique. The articles will be con- 
tributed by former prominent members of the faculty of the 
University of North Dakota — men whose successful work 
here had attracted attention to such an extent that they were 
called from us into larger fields. Readers of the Quarterly 
Journal will be pleased to greet these writers again and to get 
their reactions to their new experiences. The list of contribu- 
tors, with positions held here and approximate topics to be dis- 
cust, is given below: 

Frank L. McVey President of the University 

The University President 

Melvin A. Brannon Dean of the College of Arts 

The College President 

Andrew A. Bruce Dean of the College of Law 

The Lecture Room vs. the Political Field 

A. Hoyt Taylor Professor of Physics 

A Scientist in the Clouds 
Frederick H. Koch Professor of Dramatic Literature 

The New Drama in the Old Southland 

James E. Boyle 

Professor of Economics and Political Science 
Solving the Problems of the New Field 

7. Wallace N. Stearns Assistant Professor of History 

A University Man in Y. M. C. A. War Work 

8. John J. Pettijohn Director of the Extension Division 

Educational Extension 


The Quarterly Journal 


The University of North Dakota 









Mabel Randolph 147 

Introduction 147 

In Memoriam 155 

Members of the Faculty 193 

Women Students 197 

Alumni 202 

Former Students 228 

Undergraduates 244 

Student's Army Training Corps 279 

High School Students 282 



11. MEiN OF AMERICA (Poem) 
F. B. Taylor 



1. Squaw Point: Arland D. Weeks. 

J. W. Todd 290 

2. The Exceptional Child: Maximillian P. E. Grosz- 

J. W. Todd 290 

3. On the Firing Line in Education: A. J. Ladd. 

H. G. Lull 291 



A. J. LADD, 

Managing Editor 



The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 10 JANUARY, 1920 Number 2 


Service List of the University 
of North Dakota 

Mabel Randolph, 
Formerly Secretary to the President of the University 


America's entrance into the world war found the University of 
North Dakota, as it did the Nation itself, unprepared for the great 
emergency. Wholly occupied in educating the young men and women 
of the state for citizenship in a nation at peace, it had forgotten the 
arts of war, and the spirit of militarism found little place in its 
traditions. Military training had not for many years been a part of 
the curriculum; the Government had withdrawn its equipment of 
arms at the time of the Philippine War and had never replaced it; 
and the colors of the University Cadet Corps of earlier years lay 
tattered and dust-covered in the garret of "Old Main." 

When the great crisis came, however, and the stress of the world 
conflict swept even our quiet prairie campus, faculty and students 
alike turned from their accustomed tasks with instant, fine response 
in spirit and action. Nothing was then of moment save the one 
great task, and there was no faltering in the loyalty with which the 
sons and daughters of North Dakota gave themselves to it. 

As early as the fall of 191 6, a spirit of restlessness and appre- 
hension pervaded the college life. In place of the usual many-sided 
interests and light-hearted talk of happy college days, there was 
earnest discussion of the issues of the mighty conflict overseas, which 
every day seemed to be bringing nearer home. Influenced somewhat, 
possibly, by the widespread agitation for national preparedness, the 
University Council took action looking toward the re-establishment 
of a department of military training, and efforts were made to secure 
a Commandant. All this slumbering patriotism flamed into action 
with the declaration of war on April 6, 191 7. Voluntary squads of 
students were at once organized for military drill, several members 
of the faculty acting as officers and instructors. Among those who 
rendered this first significant service were Professor F. L. Thompson, 

Copyright, 1920. University of North Dakota 

148 The Quarterly Journal 

Dr. G. A. Abbott, Dr. E. B. Stephenson, and Mr. S'tephen A. Park. 
Mass meetings were held at which an effort was made to guide the 
enthusiasm of the students and to give them information about the 
various branches of service and methods of entering them. As soon 
as the Government's program of preparation became known, many 
eagerly sought admission to the newly establisht training camps ; even 
to members of the faculty the call seemed imperative. At first one 
by one, and then in groups of three and four, the students withdrew 
to enlist in military service or to take up the no less patriotic task 
of work on the farms, while the daily dwindling classes brought the 
situation keenly home to those who remained. By Commencement, 
191 7, three members of the faculty and 166 students had found their 
way to camp or farm. 

The first effort to mobilize the University's human resources for 
war service was made in the spring of 191 7, in connection with the 
work of the Intercollegiate Intelligence Bureau, organized by the 
national Bureau of Education, for the purpose of placing at the dis- 
posal of the Government the services of the educated men of the 
country. Under this plan a special Adjutant was appointed for each 
educational institution, who was to direct the circularizing of the 
faculty, alumni, and undergraduates, in order to ascertain their 
individual qualifications and availability for special lines of service. 
The first Adjutant appointed for the University of North Dakota 
was Dr. E. B. Stephenson, who carried on the investigation until the 
time of his own enlistment. He was succeeded by Mr. William H. 
Greenleaf, then University Registrar and Alumni Secretary, whose 
work was interrupted by his early withdrawal from the state. No 
definite statistics were tabulated, therefore, as a result of this census. 

The complex organization of modern warfare and its allied 
welfare and educational work gave opportunity for many types of 
service, the chief agencies for which may be indicated: 

The United States Army 

with its twelve branches 
The United States Navy 
The Marine Corps 
The Red Cross Nursing Service 
The Red Cross Canteen Service 
The War Camp Community Service of the War 

Tlie Welfare and Educational Work of the Y. M. C. A. 
The Y. W. C. A. and the Fraternal Organizations 
Government and Allied Scientific Work 
Allied Agricultural Work 
Allied Government and Scientific Work 


The Service List 149 

Official-Civilian Work in Local Communities 
Local Red Cross Work 
It has been said that this was a college-man's war, and among 

the many-sided relations supporting this statement, that of the 

colleges to the training-camps is noteworthy. 

Under the provisions of the National Defense Act of June, 19 16, 

there was establisht the "Officers' Training Corps," the purpose 

being to meet the need for trained officers. The membership of this 

Corps was made up of properly qualified civilians, and the training 

was designed to prepare for the twelve branches of the Army, viz: 

1. Adjutant General's Corps 

2. Inspector General's Corps 

3. Judge Advocate General's Corps 

4. Quartermaster Corps 

5. Medical Department 

a. Medical Corps 

b. Dental Corps 

c. Veterinary Corps 

6. Engineers' Corps 

7. Ordnance Corps 

8. Signal Corps 

a. Aviation Section 

9. Field Artillery Corps 

11. Coast Artillery Corps 

12. Infantry Corps. 

Similarly, under the Act of August 29, 191 6, there were created 

the National Naval Volunteers and the U. S. Naval Reserve Force, 

later amalgamated into one organization, for the purpose of intensive 

training, at the regular naval stations, to meet in part the need for 

efficient personnel for the LTnited States Navy, created by the war 

After war was actually declared, however, and the Government 

was faced with the necessity for the rapid increase of its military 

forces, it was proposed to establish, for the Army, in addition to the 

"Reserve Officers' Corps", a series of "Officers' Training Camps". 

The country was divided into thirteen geographical areas, in which 

were located ten single and three double camps, sixteen in all, for 

the training of candidates for commissions. These camps were located 

as follows: 

Plattsburg Barracks, New York (2) 

Madison Barracks, New York 

Fort Niagara, New York 

Fort Meyer, Virginia 

Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia 

Fort McPherson, Georgia 

Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana (2) 

150 The Quarterly Journal 

Fort Sheridan, Illinois (2) 
Fort Logan H. Root, Arkansas 
Fort Snelling, Minnesota 
Fort Riley, Kansas 
Leon Springs, Texas 

The Presidio of San Francisco, California 
The first series of camps opened on May 15, 191 7, and among 

the candidates, who were admitted only on recommendation and 
examination, a good proportion were college men. They were given 
a three-months' preliminary training to determine their special 
qualifications for the various arms of the service. Each camp was 
limited to 2500, with a minimum age limit of twenty years and nine 

Likewise the need for increased facilities for the training of 
recruits for the Navy was met by an almost incredible expansion of 
the four regular Naval Training Stations, located at 

Great Lakes, Illinois 
Newport, Rhode Island 

Naval Operating Base, Hampdon Roads, Virginia 
San Francisco, California, 
and by the establishment of a new training camp in each of the sixteen 

naval districts. The supply of officers for the Marine Corps was 
usually secured by promotion from the ranks, but to meet the unpre- 
cedented demand of this war, a special Marine Officers' Training 
Camp was establisht early in 191 8 at Quantico, Virginia, where can- 
didates were given a three months* intensive course. A similar course 
was given at the Marine Training Stations at Paris Island, S. C, 
at Guantanamo, Cuba, and at Pearl Harbor, Hawaiian Islands. 

It was to these various newly establisht camps that the first 
volunteers for the Army, the Nav}^ and the Marine Corps found 
their way. 

For the Army a second series of camps, designated the "Second 
Officers' Training Camp," was organized in August, 1917, designed 
especially for mature men, and the application of college and under- 
graduates was discouraged. 

A third series was opened in December, 191 7, and the designation 

changed to that of "Officers' Training School". Only graduates 

and undergraduates of educational institutions offering military 

training prior to the war were admitted as the quota of the colleges. 

To the fourth series, the Second Officers' Training School, the 
admission of candidates from the colleges was limited to the alumni 

and members of the 191 8 graduating classes of certain selected insti- 
tutions. This was the last series of training camps in which a definite 
quota was assigned the colleges. 

The Service List 151 

In June, 19 18, an entirely new series of schools, known as the 
"Central Officers' Training Schools", was inaugurated, and continued 
in operation until the end of the war. 

Meanwhile, at the University, the voluntary work in military 
drill begun by the students in the Spring semester, 191 7, was con- 
tinued the following fall thru the establishment of a regular course 
of instruction in military history and tactics under Colonel Charles 
H. McVey as Commandant. Altho the work was compulsory for 
freshmen and sophomores, carrying a credit of one and three-fourths 
per semester, there was little need for enforcement. One company 
of sophomores and two companies of freshmen were organized. Each 
student volunarily purchased sufficient uniform* to give the squads 
a creditable appearance, and v/ooden guns were furnisht by the 
University. When Colonel McVey resigned in May, for overseas 
duty with the Y. M. C. A., the drill was continued under the rank- 
ing student officer, Harold A. Noble. 

When, early in the summer of 1918, the call came for the 
University's quota of applicants for the sixty days' intensive course 
for Reserve Officers, at Fort Sheridan, which was part of the Govern- 
ment's preparation for carrying out the new plan for a Students' 
Army Training Corps, fourteen students and one member of the 
faculty were recommended for this training. They were: 
From the Faculty — Professor Henry A. Doak 

From the Student body — 

Fisher, Sam K. McGrath, Edward J. 

Fraser, Gjems Moultrie, G. Earle 

Graves, A. Kenneth Pray, Ralph E. 

Haynes, George H. Rygh, T. Milton 

Kelly, John J. Schweitzer, Clarence E. 

Kraabei, Rolfe C. Steidl, Rudolph C. 

Li, Min Hin Stewart, Ralph J. 

At the close of the course. Professor Doak was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant and returned to the University of North Dakota as Per- 
sonnel Adjutant for the S. A. T. C. unit, while Sam Fisher, Kenneth 
Graves, George Haynes, Rolfe Kraabei, Edward McGrath, and 
Clarence Schweitzer returned as non-commissioned officers, Ralph 
Stewart also returned to the University and, tho not accepted in the 
S. A. T. C, because of physical disability, workt with the boys thru- 
out without pay. The others received commissions as Second Lieuten- 
ant and were assigned to various institutions as follows : Gjems Fraser, 
University of Alabama; John Kelly, University of Minnesota; Min 

*The prescribed uniform for such' a corps is: campaign iiat, green 
hat cord, flannel shirt, khaki trousers, and canvas puttees. 

152 The Quarterly Journal 

Hin Li, University of Kansas; Earle Moultrie, Ohio State Univer- 
sity; Ralph Pray, School for Auto Mechanics, Kansas City; Milton 
Rygh, Indianapolis School of Commerce, Indianapolis, Indiana, and 
Rudolph Steidl, as Personnel Adjutant to St, Thomas College. The 
officers of the post included two other former University students, 
First Lieutenant Harry E. South, in command of Company A, and 
First Lieutenant Clarence D. Kelly, Adjutant, while Mr. Seymour 
Anderson also returned from Camp Cody, New Mexico, as Y. M. 
C. A. Secretary. 

Early in August the Committee on Education and Special 
Training of the War Department announced its plan for the Students' 
Army Training Corps. The University at once adjusted itself to this 
new program, and the campus became a military camp. The gym- 
nasium and the residence halls became army barracks, the University 
Commons a great mess hall, and the fraternity chapter houses officers' 
quarters and hospitals, while the curriculum was reorganized to meet 
the particular needs of this training. 

October i, 191 8, will long be memorable in the colleges and 
universities of the country as "Induction Day" for the Students' 
Army Training Corps. The organization was formally inaugurated 
at the University of North Dakota at eleven o'clock on the morning 
of that day, with public exercises on the campus north of Merrifield 
Hall. In unison with the students of five hundred other colleges, 
the members of this latest branch of the United States Army were 
inducted into the service of the nation, pledging their "allegiance to 
the flag and to the republic for which it stands ; one nation, indivisible, 
with liberty and justice for all". It w^as an inspiring scene, and 
the first of many which in the coming weeks were to enrich, and also 
sadden, college associations. To speak of but one: Who could wit- 
ness unmoved, or ever forget, the nightly "Retreat", — the silvery 
buglecall at sunset, the long column of silent, khaki-clad figures, 
the notes of the national anthem, and the slowly lowered colors. Day 
after day, for many weeks, it carried its message home — to the soldier 
who had part in it and to those who lookt on. 

The University of North Dakota was authorized to train a 
unit of three hi?ndred men. The number enrolled in the collegiate 
section was 270, of whom 81 were upper classmen and 189 new 
students. Twelve of these were transferred to other camps during 
the period, and seven died in the influenza epidemic. Enlistment 
was purely voluntary, but students over eighteen years of age were 
encouraged to enlist, and of the total college registration of men, only 
ninety did not do so. 


The Service List 1 53 

Altho never called to active service, and for only a brief period 
in training, the members of this corps were as truly enlisted in the 
army of the United States as any soldier who crost the seas, and it cost 
some of them as great a sacrifice. It is fitting, therefore, that their 
names should be included in the University's Honor Roll. They will 
be found in the appropriate place among the "undergraduates," tho 
grouped by themselves following the main list. 

For two and a half months this interesting military and educa- 
tional experiment was carried on, with more or less success, altho 
seriously interrupted by the epidemic. It was terminated by the 
-signing of the armistice, and demobilization began on December first. 

On Founders' Day, 19 18, the University Service Flag, presented 

l)y members of the faculty and student body, was unfurled, with 

-simple dedicatory exercises. Some three * hundred stars told their 

•story of enthusiastic devotion and courage and sacrifice. To-day the 

■number has been more than trebled, and in the heart of the beautiful 

emblem there are thirty-three gold stars in memory of those who have 

-given their all for "the eternal right" and passed into "the shadow that 

we call death." The flag has been hung in the University Commons, 

'where students and faculty come and go, where alumni meet in 

reunion, where visitors find the heart of the University, a constant 

memorial to those who have gone, a heritage and inspiration to those 

who come after, — an emblem "whose mighty significance is nothing 

less than this: 

"So night is godhead to our dust, 

So near is God to man, 

When duty whispers low, 'Thou must'. 

The youth replies, 'I can'."* 

The Class of igi8 presented as their class gift a memorial in the 
^orm of a table on which is inscribed the names represented by 
these stars. This, too, has been placed in the great dining room in 
the Commons. The record there was complete at the time the gift 
was made, but it will require another tablet to tell the whole story, 
.and it is hoped that some future class will undertake this. Both the 
Service Flag and the tablet have been put into the custody of the 
University War Committee by whom they will be kept up-to-date and 

Very soon after the first exodus from the University began it 
•was realized that a record of the war service of University men and 
women would be of great interest in days to come, and such a record 
•was undertaken. The compilation has been attended with much 

♦Dedicatory address. 

154 The Quarterly Journal 

difficulty, however, since the information was hard to secure and 
often very incomplete when received. The record now publisht is 
based on personal replies to a questionnaire sent to every alumnus, 
former student, and undergraduate, supplemented, in cases where no 
reply was received, by verbal and printed reports which are believed 
to be in the main correct. It is presented with hesitancy, because of 
its inevitable shortcomings, but in the belief that it will be welcomed 
as the only record now available of the personal service of these 
hundreds of men and women, which collectively represents this phase 
of the University's participation in the Great Crusade. 


Key to abbreviations used: 

A.E.P. American Expeditionary Forces 

B.E.F. British Expeditionary Forces 

C.E.F. Canadian Expeditionary Forces 

O.T.S. Officers' Training School 

C.O.T.S. Central Officers' Training School 

S.M.A. School of Military Aeronautics 

S'.O.S. Service of Supply 

Q.M.C. Quartermaster Corps 

C.A.C. Coast Artillery Corps 

F.A.C. Field Artillery Corps 

T.C. Tank Corps 

M.G. Machine Gun 

A.S. Air Service 

Inf. Infantry 

Det. Detachment 

R.C. Reserve Corps 

M.R.C. Medical Reserve Corps 

E.R.C. Engineering Reserve Corps 

S.A.T.C. Students' Army Training Corps 

Military Honors: 

Croix de Guerre (French) 

Croix de Guerre (Belgian) 

Distinguished Service Order (British) 

Distinguished Service Cross (American) 

Congressional Medal of Honor (American) 

Military Medal 

Military Cross 

Bar to Military Cross 

2nd Bar to Military Cross 

Air Force Cross 

In Memoriam 


The Honor Roll — Ik Memoriam 

Dulce est pro patria mori 

Soph US Goodman Arm an 

Sophus Goodman Arman, Grafton, North Dakota, graduated 
from the Grafton High School June, 191 7. In the fall of 1918 he 
entered the University of North Dakota, becoming a member of the 
S. A. T. C, collegiate section. Speaking of him. Superintendent 
Murphy, of the Grafton city schools, saj's: "Sophus was thoroly 
patriotic, and ambitious to improve himself while preparing for 
service. The idea of the S. A. T. C. appealed to him strongly be- 
cause of the educational opportunities it offered along with the military 
preparation." But his career, both academic and military, was un- 
fortunately cut short. The influenza, then raging in camp, claimed 
him as an early victim. This was followed by pneumonia and he died 
on October 27, only a few months past twenty years of age. He was 
the youngest of three brothers to enter the service, the two older boys 
serving at the time in the trenches in France. 


The Quarterly Journal 

Walter Pennington Belyea 

Walter Pennington Belyea, Bottineau, North Dakota. Gradu- 
ated from the Bottineau High School in June. 19 13, and entered the 
University in September of that year. He graduated from the College 
of Liberal Arts with the class of 191 7, receiving Phi Beta Kappa 
honors, and the following semester entered the medical school for 
the two years' course, expecting to complete his medical work at 
Johns Hopkins University. During his college course he maintained 

a high rank as a student and was active in many lines of college 
work, being a member of the Alpha Lamba Rho fraternity, and an 
earnest worker in the Young Men's Christian Association and the 
oratorical and debating organizations, 

Mr. Belyea was disqualified for military service by a serious 
lameness, but applied for admission to the Students' Army Training 
Corps at the University, altho he could be accepted for only limited 
service. On the outbreak of the epidemic of Spanish Influenza he 
volunteered his ser\ ices as a nurse to care for the members of his 
company who were ill, and gave them without reservation. While 

In Menioriam 


in this self-forgetful service, he contracted the disease, which developt 
into pneumonia from which he died on October 27th. 

Probably the death of no student in the history of the University 
has caused more universal sorrow than that of Walter Belyea. His 
sterling character, superior ability, and unfailing kindliness and 
curtesy won him friends among all who knew him. "Greater love 
hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." 

George Ray Brannox 

George Ray Brannon, Lowell, Indiana. The son of W. P. 
Brannon of Dickinson, North Dakota, and nephew of President 
M. A. Brannon, of Beloit College, for many years a member of the 
faculty of the University of North Dakota. He entered the Uni- 
versity in 1905, completing his undergraduate work and graduating 
from the College of Arts in 191 1. He continued his training at 
the University of Illinois, and in igis was graduated with honors 
from the technical and professional work in the College of Agricul- 
ture, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Science. Here he strest 
the study of soils, bacteria, animal breeding, and other subjects par- 
ticularly pertinent to the intensive production of foods. This thoro 


The Ounrterh Journal 

academic preparation was supplemented by practical field work, so 
that he entered the service of his country a well-equipt man, particu- 
larly for work in the great and pressing field of food production. He 
enlisted at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on May 14, 191 8, as a private in 
the Navy, and was assigned to Company "C", 7th Regiment, 7th 
Naval Radio Service, stationed at Great Lakes, Illinois. During the 
intensive military training period here the scientific field again had 
particular attractions. This had led to his enrollment in the radio 
section, where, notwithstanding the severe handicaps of military regu- 
lations, rapid progress was made in mastering the technic of his work. 
He had just reached the conclusion of the training required at the 
Great Lakes Station and was on the eve of being transferred to the 
training school at Harvard University when he w\is stricken with 
the most malignant form of influenza, which proved fatal within 
thirty-six hours. He died at the Base Hospital, September 15, 1918. 
Thus passed on an alumnus of the University of North Dakota who 
was eager to know the truth in that complex field of science known 
as Agriculture, one concerned \^ith the use of science in the conser- 
vation and in the multiplication of resources which might be used for 
the betterment instead of the destruction of his fellow-men. 

John Bridges 


In Menioriam 159 

John Bridges, Detroit, Minnesota. Graduated from the Valley- 
City High School in 1913, and entered the University of North 
Dakota the same fall. After the outbreak of the great war, he 
watched its progress with intense interest, and when in May, 1915, 
the Lusitania was sunk, his patriotism was thoroly aroused and he 
stood ready to respond to the call of his country which he felt sure 
would come. Growing impatient with the delay of America in 
entering the war, he went to Winnipeg on the 24th of August, 191 5, 
and enlisted in the Canadian Highlanders. As a member of B. 
Co., 43rd Bn., B. E. F., he sailed for overseas duty on Dec. 14, 191 5. 
His battalion was sent to the front almost at once, on February i, 
1916. He volunteered to serve as company stretcher-bearer, and did 
heroic work, especially during the big battle at Ypres, June 2 to 13, 
when for a time he was the only stretcher-bearer in the company left 
in action. In the second battle, when only about a mile and a 
half from Ypres, he was wounded by an enemy bomb, on August 
14, 19 1 6, while running forward to assist a wounded comrade, and 
died two days later. Of the original 1260 men of the 43 Bn., who 
went into line, only 69 men and one officer returned. 

A comrade, writing of his death, says that the circumstances 
were typical of his whole army life, for he was "always doing his 
duty, regardless of danger to himself. How many times the expres- 
sion, 'Good old Bridges' has gone up, when on the call for 'Stretcher- 
bearer,' John has started down the trench, medical bag in hand. He 
was always a true friend and comrade, and in his quiet way one of 
the most useful men in the company." 

He is buried in a quiet little cemetery ten miles behind the firing 
line in Belgium, the Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery at Poperinghe, 
and a wooden cross with the above facts inscribed thereon marks the 


The Quarterly Journal 

Garfield Jerome Brye 

Garfield Jerome Brye, Grafton, North Dakota, graduated from 
the Grafton High School, class of 191 7. He tried to enlist in the 
spring of 1917, but being somewhat delicate was unable to pass the 
physical examination. In the early fall of 19 18 he entered the collegi- 
ate section of the S. A. T. C, at the University of North Dakota, but 
early succumbed to pneumonia following an attack of the influenza 
and died on October 2.^. Mr. Murphy, his school superintendent, 
speaks of him as "naturally generous and affable in temperament, 
talented along musical lines." His death was particularly sad since 
he was but a little past 19 years of age and the only son of a widowed 

In Meinoriani 


Jacob William Busch 

Jacob William Busch, McArthur, North Dakota, graduated 
from the Pembina, North Dakota, High School in 1915, at the early 
age of 16. In the fall of 191 8 he entered the University of North 
Dakota and was inducted into the S. A. T. C. But the terrible 
influenza, followed closely by pneumonia, made him an easy victim 
and he died on November 4, only nineteen years of age. 

1 62 

The Quarterly Journal 

Quartermaster Edward F. Chase 

Edward F. Chase, Jamestown, North Dakota. Was a student 
in the Model High School of the University in igio-igii. He 
enlisted on July 15, 1918, at Minneapolis, Alinn., for service in the 
Hydroplane Division of the United States Navy. He was assigned 
for training to the Dunwwody Institute in Minneapolis, and the 
excellence of his work was recognized in his promotion from the 
rank of private to that of Quartermaster, second class. He had just 
about completed this special course of preparation when he contracted 
the influenza and pneumonia, and died on October 7, 191 8 at 

In Memoriam 



Lieutenant James Lester Cole 

James Lester Cole, Kenmare, North Dakota. Mr. Cole 
entered the University from the Shattuck Military Academy in 
October, 19 12, and graduated in June, 191 6, with the B. A. degree. 
On August 27, 1 91 7, he enlisted for the Second Officers' Training 
Camp at Ft. Snelling, Minn., and was assigned to Co. M., 41st Inf., 
loth Div., stationed (a) at Fort Crook, Neb., Dec- 15, 191 7, to 
June 4, 191 8, (b) at Camp Funston, Kansas, from June, 19 18, until 
his death on December 12, after an illness of only six days. He had 
received his commission as Second Lieutenant and the Division was 
ready to entrain for the embarkation camp in October, when the 
epidemic of influenza closed the camp. It was ready a second time 
when the armistice was signed. While still in camp, awaiting dis- 
charge, he fell a victim to the epidemic. 


The Quarterly Journal 

Lieutenant William LaFayette Cowper 

William LaFa\'ette Cowper, Michigan, North Dakota. Entered 
the University from the Grand Porks High School in 1890 and 
graduated in 1894 ^^'ith the degree of Bachelor of Science, He con- 
tinued his studies at the University of Minnesota, and received his 
M. D. degree from that institution. He then took up his professional 
work, and became a practising physician in Lakota, Michigan, and 
Grand Forks, N. D., being at one time a partner of Dr. H. H. Healy- 
In June, 191 7, Dr. Cowper enlisted in the Medical Reserve Corps, 
Transport Division, and on September 20th received his commission 
as First Lieutenant, being stationed at Hoboken, N. J. The following 
March he was honorably discharged, but re-enlisted in May, 191 8, 
and was assigned as Surgeon on the U. S. S. "Celtic", being later 
transferred to the "Olympia." An attack of pneumonia confined him 
for some time in Liverpo(;l, England, where he died on March 
9, 1919- 

In ulcinoridni 


Frank Peter Dostert 

Frank Peter Dostert, Larimore, North Dakota, graduated from 
the Larimore High School with the class of 191 7. He entered the 
University of North Dakota th fall of 191 8, being at once inducted 
into the S*. A. T. C. Here he served faithfully and well till attackt 
by the influenza. This was followed by the dread pneumonia which 
proved fatal on October 28. 

1 66 

The Quarterly Journal 

Lieutenant Ralph Dryden 

Ralph Dryden, Drayton, North Dakota. Entered the Univer- 
sity in 1Q15, and was a sophomore in the College of Engineering 
when he left his work to enlist in the First Officers' Training Camp 
at Ft. Snelling, Minn. He entered the Infantry Corps, but shortly 
before graduation was transferred to the Aviation Section of the 
Signal Corps. He sailed for England in August, 1917, and was in 
active service from that time. After a short stay in England he was 
ordered to France, and later to Italy, where he received his commis- 
sion as First Lieutenant. In August, 191 8, his work was transferred 
from Italy to France, and for a time he was stationed at Vichy, 
France. His last letter was dated from Tours, France, where he 
had been for some time, and in it he tells of being about to assist in 
the testing of some German airplanes. It is believed, therefore, that 
he was killed while engaged in testing these planes, at some time 
subsequent to December 20, 1918. 

In Aleiiiorhim 


Magill Theofield Ellison 

Magill T. Ellison, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Graduated 
fro mthe University High School in 191 7. During the same year, 
however, he did one semester's work in the University of North 
Dakota in the combined Arts-Medical course. He enlisted in the 
summer of 1917 and was sent to Camp Dodge. While there he 
contracted pneumonia and died in the early autumn. His death is 
believed to be the first in service among the University men. 

1 68 

The Quarterly Journal 

Clarence G. Evixgsox 

Clarence Evingson, Kindred, North Dakota. Graduated from 
the Model High School of the University of North Dakota in 191 5, 
having also carried, during the year, work in the University proper. 
February 13, 191 8, he enlisted in the army, in the Aviation Section of 
the Signal Corps. He was at once sent to camp at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, but almost immediately transferred to Camp Devon, Mas- 
sachusetts. He was there taken with diphtheria, and died on Febru- 
ary 26, only thirteen days after he enlisted- 

/// Meiuor'uitn 


Captain Addison Bentley Falconer 

Addison Bentley Falconer, Bismarck, North Dakota. Mr. 
Falconer graduated from the Bismarck High School in 1907, attended 
the University of Wisconsin for two years, and entered the University 
of North Dakota with advanced standing in 19 10, remaining two 
years. He was registered in the Civil F^ngineering course. After 
leaving the University, he followed his profession of Civil Engineer, 
until war was declared. He enlisted on August 26, 191 7, for 
the second R. O. T. C. at Ft. Snelling, Minn. He was trans- 
ferred twenty days later to Fortress Monroe, Va., and from 
there to Ft. Crockett, Texas. While at this latter camp he was 
acting Artillery Engineer of the Coast Defenses at Galveston, Texas. 
At the end of the three months' course he was commissioned First 
Lieutenant, and the following September was promoted to a captaincy, 
"being attached to Hdqts. Co., 3rd Bn., 75th Art., C. A. C. A month 
later he embarked for overseas service, sailing in the U. S. S. 
"Siboney." The second day out he was taken sick with a severe 
attack of the influenza, which had developt into pneumonia by the 
time the vessel reached France on October 17. He was transferred 


T lie Quarterly Journal 

to Base Hospital 65, at Brest, where he died on October 29, only- 
twelve days after he landed. He was buried with military honors in 
the new American cemetery at Kerhoun, his being the first grave in 
the officers' row- This cemetery adjoins the beautiful old French 
one, and is set on a hillside, looking out over the harbor to America, 
the homeland of so many sleeping there. The grave is marked by a 
high white cross, and the kindly French women cover it often with 

Even in his short period of service Captain Falconer had proved 
himself an efficient ofi'icer and won the high commendation of his- 

Edgar A. Fisher 

Edgar A. Fisher. Graduated from the Mining Engineering" 
course in igi^. After leaving the University he was associated with 
the Consolidated Mining Company at Ray, Arizona. The date of 

In Mc III rid in I 7 1 

his enlistment is not known, but at the time of his death, on July i, 
1918, he was serving with Co. M. of the jSth Infantry, in the Chateau 
Thierry region, as First Lieutenant in ccmmand of an Intelligence 
Section. His commanding officer tells the story of that night in the 
following words, taken from a letter to the family: 

"Your son was killed on the spot where a few days later the 
Hun drive on Paris was stopped by the .^rd Division, on the Marne 
River about 1 1 kilometers due east of Chateau Thierry. The Huns 
held the north bank of the river and the heights beyond. We were 
holding the south bank. During the month of June it had been 
necessary that our commanders should have certain information in 
reference to the enemy, his strength, probable intentions, etc. T.'here 
was only one method by which this information could be obtained, 
to send patrols across the river to bring back prisoners. The Huns 
were endeavoring to do the same as we. Your son was in command 
of one of these patrols. They crossed the river at night, and when 
they reached the northern shore they encountered a patrol of the 
enemy. The night was frightfully dark. Just what occurred, no 
one knows. We understand that just as they reached the other side 
two machine guns opened fire and Fisher was heard to tell his men to 
take to the water- Later his body was found several miles down the 
river. On the 15th day of July the Huns attempted to cross the 
river on almost the spot where your son met his death, but they failed 
to make their footing good and retired to the northern bank, after they 
had left 5000 dead along the front of the 3rd Division, of which the 
38th Infantry was a part; and the death of your son, as well as many 
other good and true men who have died on the Marne, was avenged. 
You can rest assured that your son met his death like a brave soldier. 
The proof of this is that he was selected for the night patrol, which re- 
quires the coolest heads and the bravest men. In battle one has the 
feel of the touch of his comrade's elbow, but on the night patrol one 
is away out in the darkness, fighting the great unknown, the awful 
darkness, the barbed wire, shell holes and a hidden enemy on ground 
which he does not know." 


The Quarterly Journal 

Paul James Gates 

Paul James Gates, Garrison, North Dakota. Graduating from 
his town high school in 1917, he entered the University of North 
Dakota in the fall of igi8. An older brother was already in the 
trenches in France, and Paul was eager to follow. But he was also 
desirous of continuing his education. In the S. A. T. C. he saw an 
opportunity of doing both so readily joined. But the influenza cut 
short his hopes in both lines. He died on October 22, yielding his 
life for his country as truly as tho killed in battle on foreign soil. 

In M emoriarn 



Lyle Richmond Helmkay 

Lyle Richmond Helmkay, Rugby, North Dakota. Graduated 
from the Grand Forks High School in June, 191 4, and entered the 
University in October, completing the Civil Engineering course and 
receiving the B. S. degree in igi8. He was prominent in athletics 
during his entire University course and captain of the football team 
in 191 7-1 9 1 8. Upon graduation he at once enlisted in the Engineer- 
ing Reserve Corps, and was ordered to continue his training at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology until called into active service. 
Before the work of the Institute opened in the fall, however, he was 
stricken with the influenza which, developing into pneumonia, caused 
his death in October, at Chicago, Illinois. 


The Quarterly Journal 


George A. Hill 

George A. Hill, Ardock, North Dakota. A student in the Uni- 
versity High School in 1910-11. He enlisted on June 3, 1918, with 
the eager enthusiasm of a hoy, in the United States Navy, for service 
in the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps. He was assigned to the 
training station at Seattle, Washington- There he contracted 
pneumonia and died on October 12, 191 8. 

Philip Edward Joos 

Philip Edward Joos, Jamestown, North Dakota, graduated from 
the Jamestown High School June, 1910. Three years later he entered 
the College of Law of the University of North Dakota, remaining 
one year. He enlisted shortly after the United States entered the 
War, was early sent across, and saw much service. In July, 191 8, 
following prolonged trench service, he was sent to a base hospital 
for treatment for Diphtheria. This, he wrote home, was the first rest 
he had had since going across. Recovering, he was placed in a re- 
placement camp and hoped to rejoin his old Company. This he did 


/// MciiKir'uuii 


Corporal Philip Edward Joos 

as told in a letter of a comrade: "We were in the great Argonne 
Drive. Philip, after being dismissed from the Hospital, learned of 
his Company's whereabouts and that they were going into battle and 
hurried and caught us the first day out. I had merely time to shake 
hands with him and hear him say how glad he was to get back with 
the Company for the big 'blowout'. The next time I saw him (four 
days later) was on Sunday, the 29th of September. We had taken 
a certain wood from the Germans and they were trying to Hank us 
by counter attacks. It was necessary to meet them out in the open. 
Concealed machine guns took heavy toll on our ranks. Philip was 
hit in the stomach and was sitting up when another bullet struck 
him in some vital spot." 

Another comrade in the experiences of the same fatal day writes 
that about 20 minutes before he fell, Philip had asked him to write 
his parents should anything happen to him. They were only a few 
feet apart when he was hit. The friend tried to take him back to 
first aid, but it was too late. And the friend, himself, was wounded 
only a few minutes later. 


The Quarterly Journal 

The Captain of the Company, Raymond W. Cater, says, in a 
letter telling of his death : "Corporal Joos has been with this company 
since the middle of May and was highly respected by all who knew 
him. He was an excellent soldier and was alwa^'s ready and willing 
to do any task that was given him. Such valuable men as he it is 
very hard to part with, but we have not the say when we shall leave 
this world." 

In letters home Corporal Joos gave appreciative testimony to 
the good work of both Y. M. C. A. and the Red Cross. He lies 
buried in an American cemetary about 20 miles northwest of Verdun, 
buried "with all militarv honors." 



Sydney Edgar Kraabel 

Sydney Edgar Kraabel, Hope, North Dakota, graduated from 
the high school of his native town in 191 8 and entered the Universitj' 
of North Dakota the same fall in the collegiate section of the S. A. 
T. C. But he was a soldier-student only a very short time, since the 
dread influenza and pneumonia early seized him! He died on October 
19, only eighteen years of age. What a pity! 

In Memoriam 


Emmons V. Linwell 

Emmons V. Linwell, Northwood, N. D. Mr. Linwell took 
the first two years of his preparatory work in the Northwood High 
School and later attended the Polytechnic High School of Los Angeles, 
California. In the fall of 1909 he entered the Model High School 
of the University of North Dakota, remaining one semester. He 
was twin brother of Miss Delia Linwell, also a student at the Uni- 
versity, and a younger brother of Wendell H. Linwell, who graduated 
from the College of Law in 1909. Mr. Linwell was stationed at 
Camp Dodge in the early summer, where he suffered an attack of 
pneumonia. Just recovering from that he was stricken with appen- 
dicitis, which caused his death in October. 


The Onartcrly Journal 

Lieutenant Grant Andrew McDonald 

Grant Andrew MacDonald, Grafton, North Dakota. Entered 
the University from the Grafton High School in 191 2, taking up a 
mechanical engineering course. He was conscientious and earnest in 
his college work and popular with his fellows, a member of the 
Delta Sigma fraternity. As a member of Company C, ist N. D. 
Infantry, he went with that organization to the Mexican border, 
serving as Quartermaster Sergeant until the regiment was mustered 
out. When his company was again called into service in July, 191 7, 
he responded, and was recommended for the first Officers' Training 
Camp at Ft. Snelling. At the close of the course he was commissioned 
a Second Lieutenant in the National Army, and assigned to Co. H., 
349th Infantry, made up of Illinois men, and trained with that organ- 
ization at Camp Dodge. While acting temporarily as scoring officer 
on the rifle range, in place of his captain. Lieutenant McDonald was 
fatally injured and died within a few hours. He had greatly desired 
active service, the opportunity to be in the thick of the fray, and when 
a few days before the accident, orders came for his regiment to prepare 
for foreign service, he was overjoyed. He had been recommended for 
promotion to a first lieutenancy for conscientious and faithful service 
and marked ability as an officer. 

l/i Mcnioriaiii i 79 

Ray C. Pinkham 

Ray C. Pinkham, Fargo, North Dakota. Graduated from the 
University Law School with the class of 1912. While at the Uni- 
versity Mr. Pinkham was a strong student and very popular with his 
fellows — a member of the Phi Delta Phi and Alpha Kappa Zeta 
fraternities. Upon completing his law studies, he went to Kildeer, 
Dunn County, North Dakota, and began his practise. Here he re- 
mained five years — till the United States entered the War. Impati- 
ent for service, he enlisted on September 18, 191 7, at Beach, North 
Dakota, with Co. M of the 2nd N. D. Regiment. From here he was 
shortly sent to Camp Greene, N. C, where he was in training until 
December when, with Co. M, 164th Inf., he was ordered to France. 
From unfortunate but unavoidable exposure he contracted a severe 
cold which soon developt into tuberculosis and he was ordered to bed 
just one month after his arrival in France. For five months he lay 
in a Base Hospital at Blois, France, and from there was invalided 
home in July, 191 8. From July till November he was kept at a 
Sanitorium at Otisville, New York, and then sent to a military 
hospital at Denver, Colorado. Here he died on June 12, 1919. 


The Quarterly Journal 

SoREx Johnson Rasmussen 

S- John Rasmussen, Minot, North Dakota. A student at the 
University in 191 5-1 91 6. On November 15, 191 7 he enlisted as a 
private in the Regular Army, and was assigned to Company B, 4th 
Regiment, Infantry Corps, stationed at Newport News, Va. His 
regiment sailed for France in April, 191 8, and was sent almost 
immediately to the front. In a severe engagement at Chateau 
Thierry on July 24, 19 18. his company was reduced from 250 to 82. 
and he himself fell with his comrades. Three daj's before, on July 
21, he had captured two Prussian guards two miles away from the 
American line, and for this it was said he was to be decorated, but 
before the recommendation could be made, so rapidly were events 
moving, all the officers of his company were killed in the above 

In Alcmoriam 


Lyle Barnes Rich 

Lyle Barnes Rich, Willow City, North Dakota. Graduated 
from the Willow City High School in 1910. Entered the University 
of North Dakota in the following fall and graduated in 19 14 with 
the B. A. degree and the Certificate in Medicine. He entered the 
Johns Hopkins Medical school in the fall of 191 5, where he remain- 
ed two years as a student, cutting his work short, when in May, 1917, 
he enlisted for overseas service with the Johns Hopkins Medical 
unit. This unit went to France with the first contingent under Gen- 
eral Pershing. His work there was in the laboratory of Base Hospital 
No. 18, the first Base Hospital in France under American adminis- 
tration. In December, 1917, he contracted typhoid fever and died 
on December 11. In June, 191 8, the Johns Hopkins Medical School 
conferred upon him, posthuniously, the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

Miss Minnie Nyberg, who went from the University of North 
Dakota for Red Cross service overseas, was attacht to a hospital unit 
stationed very near the front. She writes that on one of her walks 
thru the country she found herself within "a most beautiful cemetery," 

I 82 

The Ouarterlx JouDial 

and there on the hillside in one of the loveliest spots in France, she 
found the grave of Lyle Rich, one of the first North Dakota boys to 
lose his life there- A simple stone, placed by the Johns Hopkins 
unit, markt his resting place. The flag upon the grave had become 
badly torn but she replaced it with her own small silk one, and beside 
it laid fresh flowers. 


Colonel Fred E. Smith 

Fred E. Smith, last stationed at Fort Slocum, New York, was 
one of the early graduates of the University, receiving the B. S. degree 
in 1894. He came of a military family, his father. Col. Eliphaz 
Smith, having been a Colonel in the Civil War. During his college 
days he was much interested in military training at the University 
and served as first lieutenant of one of the cadet companies under 
Lieutenant Charles S. Farnsworth, now Major General Farns- 
worth. commanding one of the divisions of the American Expedition- 

In MeiiKiridiii 1 83 

ary Force in France. At the time of his graduation he ranked as 
Cadet Captain and was recommended to the War Department as 
one of the two best military students of the year. 

Upon the outbreak, of the Spanish-American War, young Smith 
volunteered and served with distinction in the Philippines. At the 
close of the war he was r^uddenly summoned to Manila and, upon 
but a single day's notice, took his examination for entrance into the 
Regular Army. fie was commissioned as First Lieutenant and 
joined the Third Infantry. During the years that followed, he rose 
gradually in rank until he became a Lieutenant Colonel. It is prob- 
able that this is the highest military rank attained by any alumnus of 
the University of North Dakota. He arrived in France on May 14, 
1918; his regiment, consisting largely of New York troops, went to 
the front on July 17, and for the next two months was in the thick 
of the fight. 

The story of Col. Smith's heroism is given in the citation in 
divisional orders of February 2, 19 19. signed by Major Gen. Robert 
Alexander, 77th Division, as follows: 

"Lieut. Col. Fred E. Smith, 308th Infantry (deceased), until 
he was killed in the forest of Argonne on September 28, 191 8: This 
olificer served with his regiment in each of its most severe engage- 
ments and by his splendid heroism and personal courage under fire 
was of the highest inspiration to the officers and men of his command. 
Whether in command of the regiment or second in command, he 
was to be found usuallv in the most forward position, directing his 
operations personally. When in charge of operations in the outpost 
zone on the Vesle river, near Ville Savoye, from August 21 to August 
25, 1918, Lieut. Col. Smith frequently proceeded along the lines, 
exposing himself fearlessly under the heaviest shell fire. His devotion 
to his men showed extraordinary heroism, he himself refusing to take 
cover while he pointed out advantageous shelter for others. He 
aided in the evacuation of the wounded under shellfire. 

"When rations were scarce and the forwarding of supplies ex- 
tremely difficult, he cooked portions of food for those most in need 
and carried it to their funkholes. While pushing the militarv situa- 
tion to the utmost, he always had time for some deed of thoughtful- 
ness which kindled new enthusiasm in officers and men subjected day 
and night to terrific bombardment from enemy high explosives and 
gas shells. His post of command was a refuge for the wounded and 
exhausted, while he himself remained without cover under fire, direct- 
ing his operations on the fore slope of a hill under enemy observations. 

"On the morning of September 29, 191 8, in the Argonne, south- 
west of Binarville, Lieut. Col. Smith revealed in going to his death 
the same absolute disregard of personal danger which had endeared 
him to officers and men in his regiment. Communications from the 
forward regimental P. C. to the battalion leading the advance had 
been interrupted, temporarily, by the infiltration of small parties of the 
enemy armed with machine guns. This officer insisted upon leading, 

184 The Quarterly Journal 

personally, a party of two other officers and ten enlisted men sent 
forward to re-establish runner posts. The guide became confused, 
the party strayed to the left flaank and beyond the outposts of the 
troops in support and suddenly came under fire from a group of 
German machine guns only fifty yards away. Lieut. Col. Smith 
shouted to the other members of the party to take cover. Disregard- 
ing his own danger, he pulled his pistol and opened fire on the 
German gun crew. 

"He fell severely wounded in the side, but bravely regained his 
footing and continued to fire on the enemy until most of the men of 
his party were out of danger. He then refused first aid treatment, 
made his way in plain view of the enemy to a spot where he obtained 
several hand grenades and returned to his former position, all the 
while under terrific machine gun fire. Wounded again, mortally, he 
fell just as he was attempting to find the exact location of the nearest 
machine gun nest preparatory to attacking it with hand grenades." 

Col. Smith lost his life in the attempt to get to the rescue of 
the famous "Lost Battalion," commanded by his friend and fellow 
officer, Maj. Charles W. Whittlesey. Maj. Whittlesey was promoted, 
in the field, to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, filling the place made 
vacant by the death of Col. Smith. ALij. Whittlesey writes to Mrs. 
Fred E. Smith, "Colonel Smith's life with our regiment, his courage 
and kindliness, are a verv proud memory to me, and it makes the 
sacrifice of this man seem finer because I knew the spirit that moved 
him." Another fellow officer, Lieut. Arthur jVlcKeogh, who served 
as adjutant to ALij. Whittlesey in the "Lost Batallion," in an appre- 
ciation of Col. Smith, write, "When the news of his death sped thru 
that muddy, bloody Argonne, the boche had gained a victory in 
morale the broadspread influence of which he could never have 
appreciated. But by the same stroke, the boche had so intensified 
the hatred of his opponent that whereas there was one cross above 
the revered grave of Col. Smith, the crosses that rose above boche 
heads were legion." 

The citation was prepared b}- Cnpt. Edwin Newell Lewis, who 
was at that time First Lieutenant, 308th Infantry, and had served as 
Col. Smith's adjutant. In a personal letter to Mrs. Smith, Capt. 
Lewis writes, "On the afternoon of October 2nd as I was hobbling 
back to the rear, almost too exhausted to travel. I found a little group 
of officers and men with heads bared, standing in the yard of a ruined 
church at La Harazee, the battered ghost of a town where we had 
jumped off a few days before. I wobbled a bit, to be sure, but 
nevertheless, I, too, removed my mud-stained helmet and the tears 
streamed down my face as the Padre read the simple soldierly com- 
mittal service at the grave of Lieut. Colonel Fred E. Smith." 

The United States Congress, in recognition of Col. Smith's 
valor, as described in the abo\e citation, awarded him posthumously 
the Congressional Medal of Honor, "for conspicuous gallantry and 
intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy 

In Memoriam 185 

near Binarville, France, Sept. 28, 1918." This medal is the highest 
recognition his country can give, there having been at this time only 
67 medals of honor awarded in this war, while, in the same period, 
over 4,000 distinguished service crosses had been awarded. 

France has since then sent two medals to Col. Smith's widow. 
The first was the bronze Croix de Guerre, with one palm, meaning 
a citation, in which they describe him as "Off icier d'un courage at 
(tun devouement admirables." ("an officer of admirable courage and 
devotion"). Later came the beautiful Legion of Honor Medal, of 
solid gold with green and white enamel, corresponding to our 
Congressional Medal of Honor. And just recently another honor 
has been conferred — the Masonic Medal, awarded by his lodge. 
Colonel Smith had become a Mason in igi8 when in military service 
with the North Dakota troops in the Philippines. 

These medals are the most priceless possession of his widow, who 
was Miss Clara Ripley, of Minneapolis, and of their 13 year old 
daughter, Kathryn, and of their adopted son, Walter Newkirk Smith, 
8 years old, who was the child of Fred's youngest brother, Clinton. 
Walter was left an orphan when both parents ment their death in 
climbing Mt. St. Helens, Washington. Col. Smith's family now" 
make their home at 646 60th St., N. E., Portland, Oregon. 

While all these honors and tokens of appreciation are highly 
valued by the friends who are left, they but illy take the place of the 
loyal son, the devoted husband, and the loving brother. And Colonel 
Smith's country mourns his untimely death, surely because it appreci- 
ates his noble service of more than twenty years — but shall we not 
say even more because it is thereby deprived of a greater service which 
he would have been able to render in the years to come had his life 
been spared? 

Two of Col. Smith's brothers, Clinton B. Smith and Dr. 
Myron W. Smith, a sister. Dr. Cora Smith King, and two cousins, 
Mary B. Crans and Emma Crans, are also graduates of the Univer- 
sity of North Dakota. An older brother, William Barnes Smith, 
was a student of the University of North Dakota, leaving before 
graduation to go into business, and is the only one of the family re- 
maining in North Dakota, being located at Devils Lake. The mother, 
Mrs. Emma Barnes Smith, who formerly made her home with Col. 
Fred Smith's family, now resides in Washington, D. C. 


The Quarterly Journal 

Lieutenant Lester Mills Smith 

Lester Mills Smith, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mr. Smith 
entered the University from the Grand Forks High School in 
September, igio- He graduated from the Arts-Law course in June, 
1914. During his college course he made an excellent record in de- 
bating and oratory, winning a place as Intercollegiate Debater and as 
State Orator in the International Oratorical Contest. He was also 
a member of the honorary society of Delta Sigma Rho. On the com- 
pletion of his University course Mr. Smith entered the practise of 
law at Crosby, North Dakota, where he remained for three years, 
until his draft call on September 18, 191 7. 

He was first assigned to the Officers' Training School at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. Completing the work there, he was commissioned 
First Lieutenant, Btt'y. B., 338th F. A., immediately sent to France 
and placed in an artillery school at Saumur. From there he was sent 
into the front lines, and had been in action but ten days when he met 
his death. This occurred on Wednesday, October 2nd, during the 

hi Memoriam 


third day of the hard-fought hattle in the Argonne Forest. Lieuten- 
ant Smith, with a companion, was inspecting an abandoned dugout 
and was seriously wounded by a high explosive shell that struck 
close bv. He died while being removed to a hospital. 

Corporal Arthur B. Stewart 

Arthur B. Stewart, Minot, North Dakota- Attended the Uni- 
versity in 1 91 2-1 3 and the first semseter of 191 3-1 4. He enlisted at 
Minot, N. D., and was assigned to Camp Dodge, Iowa, Regimental 
Headquarters, 350th Inf., 88th Division; was made Corporal and 
went with his company to Hericourt, France. Here he contracted 
bronchial pneumonia, resulting from Spanish Influenza, and died 
October 15, 191 8. He is buried in the American Military Cemetery 
at Hericourt. 

1 88 

The OiKirtcrly Journal 

Fred Ellery Taylor 

Fred Ellery Taylor, Jamestown, North Dakota. Graduated 
from the Jamestown High School in 1907, and entered the Univer- 
sity of North Dakota in the fall of 1910, receiving the degree of 
B. S. in Electrical Engineering in 191 4. In January, 191 8, he 
became night superintendent in a munitions factory in Springfield, 
Illinois. About the middle of March, while cn-zaged in his work, he 
breathed poisonous fumes, and never recovered from the effects. He 
died on March 25- 

In Menioriain 


Leete G. Van Syckle 

Leete G. Van Syckle, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mr. Van 
Syckle entered the University High School from the Northwestern 
Military Academy in September, 1909, and was a student in that 
school for several semesters, from 1909 to 191 3. In answer to the 
draft, he went, on September 3rd, 191 8, with a contingent to Camp 
Grant, Rockford, Illinois. On September 30th, he was transferred to 
Camp Hancock, Georgia. He was taken almost immediately with 
the dread influenza and died on October 5th. Mr. Van Syckle was 
quiet and reserved, very much of a gentleman. He had an artistic 
temperament, was a musician of promise, and in touch with all the 
finer things of life. Tho large in stature, he was never rugged, and 
fell an easy victim to the dread disease. 


The Quarterly Journal 

Fred Calvix Wagner 

Fred C. Wagner, Rolla. North Dakota. Was for two years a 
student at the University, in 1914-1916, making a splendid record, 
as he had also during his high school course at Rolla, X. D. In May, 
19 1 7, at the age of nineteen he enlisted as an expert rifleman in the 
Marine Corps. He was first assigned to 150th Company, ist Ma- 
chine Gun Replacement BatalHon, and with them went overseas. He 
was later transferred to the 73rd Co., 6th Reg. U. S. Marines. On the 
morning of July 18, 19 18, his company went into action, taking part 
in the Chateau-Thierry drive. They followed the 5th Marines, who 
were leading the attack. On the following morning the 6th Marines 
took the lead before Vierzy. The battle-ground was a wheat field, 
almost level, and offered no protection from the enemy observation 
or fire. They reached their objective, but their gun was hit by a 
German shell which killed most of the gun crew. Disregarding his 
own danger, Mr. Wagner volunteered to help in carrying the 
wounded into Vierzy, where the first aid station was located, and 
in this merciful service he met his own death. 

Ill Metnoriam 


Hiram Orrn Wiper 

Hiram Orrn Wiper, Enderlin, North Dakota, g;raduated from 
his home high school in June, 191 8. and entered the University of 
North Dakota, a few months later, a member of the Students' Army 
Training Corps. Superintendent Sweetland, of the city schools, 
saj's of him: "Eager to enroll and get into the service thru the train- 
ing corps; strongly of the belief that America was in the right." But 
his eagerness availed him naught. Tho strong and rugged, he was 
not able to cope with both influenza and pneumonia and fell a victim 
on October 25. The above photograph is an enlargement of a kodak 
picture of the joung man as one of the basketball group, the only 
picture the parents had. Hiram had been impatiently awaiting the 
coming of his uniform that he might have an "appropriate" picture 
taken to send home. But the khaki did not come in time. 


The Quarterly Journal 

Lauren Paul Wirkus 


Lauren Paul Wirkus, Minto, North Dakota, graduated from the 
Minto High School in 1913 and entered the University in the fall of 
1914, in the College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, with 
18 high school units and a fine scholarship record. Owing to poor 
health, however, he was obliged to leave before the close of the year. 
He enlisted for service at Grand Forks. North Dakota, on October 
21, 191 7, and was at once sent to Jefferson Barracks, but later trans- 
ferred to Fort Leavenworth and still later sent overseas. He served 
as a Private in Company '"C", 5th Field Batallion, Signal Corps. 
He was cited for bravery in the famous Chateau Thierry engagement 
in July, 1018, and killed in action on October 10 of the same year. 


Faculty Members 193 

Members of the Faculty 

Anderson, Seymour E., Assistant in the School of Mines. Camp 
'Secretary, National War Work Council of Y. M. C. A. Stationed 
.(i) Camp Cody, N. Mex., (2) S. A. T. C. Post, University of 
North Dakota. 

Ballard, John W., Instructor in Accounting, Department of 
Economics. Enlisted September 5, 191 7, at Rochester, N. Y., only 
a few weeks after being added to the faculty of the University. Sent 
at once to Camp Dix, Wrightstown, New Jersey, where he was kept 
till sent overseas on May 17, 191 8. He was in training in France till 
August 5, when he was sent to the front and kept there continuously, 
with only ten days' intermission, till the armistice was signed. He 
served on the Toul sector, in the St. Mihiel drive, and on the Meuse- 
Argonne. He rose from the ranks, without the aid of an officers' 
training school, from Private to Second Lieutenant, Adjutant Gren- 
eral's Section. After the armistice, Mr. Ballard served for three 
months on the faculty of the American Expeditionary Force Univer- 
sity at Beaune, lecturing on Business Organization to a class of 1452 
•men. He was discharged on July 12, 1919. Now at the University. 

Brush, Henry R., Professor of Romance Languages, Educational 
Recruiting Secretary, Central Military Department, National War 
Work Council of Y. M. C. A. of the United States. Served during 
year 1918-19. Returned to his duties at the University. 

Budge, William E., Research Assistant in School of Mines. 
Enlisted, March 3, 191 8, as Private, Fourth Officers' Traini^ng Camp, 
Fort Monroe, Va. Second Lieutenant, 3rd C. A. C, U S. A. In- 
structor in Heavy Artillery School, Angers, France. Returned to his 
duties at the University. 

Bullock, Lillian E., Manager of the University Commons, 1914- 
19 1 8. Red Cross Canteen Service, at Newport News, Virginia. 

Campbell, Robert D., Lecturer in School of Medicine. Captain, 
Medical Corps, U. S. A. Assigned (i) Base Hospital, Camp 
Grant, Illinois, (2) Base Hospital Unit 79, Fort Des Moines; (3) 
A. E. F., France. Promoted to rank of Major. Returned to his 
practise in Grand Forks. Resumed duties at the University. 

Cooley, Mrs. John B., Acting Secretary Extension Division. 
Welfare Work, National War Work Council, Y. W. C. A. (See 
page 197). 

Cooley, Roger W., Professor of Law. Assistant Counsel, 
Bureau of War Risk Insurance, Washington, D. C. 

Cox, John W., Director, State Public Health Laboratory. 
Captain, Medical Corps; U. S. Public Health Service, Washington, 
D. C. 

Crouch, Calvin H., Professor of Mechanical Engineering. War 
Construction Work, with Deane Steam Pump Co., Holyoke, Mass. 

Dean, Alfred, Lecturer in School of Medicine. Enlisted, 191 8, 
at Grand Forks, N. D. First Lieutenant, IVL C, U. S. A. Assigned 

194 The Quarterly Journal 

to Base Hospital at Ft. Sam Houston, Texas. Discharged Jan. 22^ 
19 1 9, at Ft. Sam Houston. Returned to his practise in Grand 
Forks. Resumed duties at the University. 

Doak, Henry A., Assistant Professor of English. Entered R. 
O. T. C, Ft. Sheridan, Illinois, July 18, 1918; commissioned Second 
Lieutenant, October ist, and detailed as Personnel Adjutant at the 
S. A. T. C. Post, University of North Dakota. Resumed his duties 
at the University. 

Farnsworth, Charles S., Commandant, U. N. D., Cadet Corps, 
1894-1898, as First Lieutenant, 19th Inf., U. S'. A. At the outbreak 
of the recent war he was commissioned Major General and placed 
in command of the 37th Division of the A. E. F., France. For the 
fine service of this Division in the seige of Ghent, General Farns- 
worth was decorated by King Albert of Belgium on his recent visit 
to America. 

Fodness, Mabel, Field Investigator, State Public Health Labor- 
atory. Red Cross Nursing Service. Assigned ( i ) Base Hospital, 
Camp Fremont, Cal., (2) Belgium Relief Work, A. M. R., France. 

Ford, Burton C, Formerly Bacteriologist, State Public Health 
Laboratory. Private, Hospital Corps, U. S. A., Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Greenleaf, William H., Field Organizer of Extension Division, 
1914-15. Registrar and Secretary of Bureau of Public Information, 
1915-17- Rejected for enlistment, but later accepted for limited 
service. First Class Private, Ordnance Corps, U. S. A. Assigned to 
ofFice of Personnel Adjutant and Trade Test Department at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. Discharged April, 19 19, at Camp Dodge. Later in 
charge of Post, War Camp Community Service at Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, and Grand Forks, North Dakota. Now an instructor in the 
University and Secretary of the State Alumni Association of the 
University of North Dakota. (See this periodical, Volume X, No. i, 
October, 1919, pp. 121-127, "An Alumnus of the University Who 
did not get Across." 

Hanford, Wesley W., Bacteriologist, State Public Health Labor- 
atory. Private, M. C, U. S. A., Jefferson Barracks, Mo. 

Healy, Henry H., Lecturer in School of Medicine. Captain 
Medical Corps, U. S'. A. Assigned ( i ) Base Hospital 52, Camp- 
Gordon, Ga., (2) Base Hospital 15, Chaumont, France. Promoted 
to rank of Major. Since discharged on April 25, 1918, has accepted 
a commission as Major in M. R. C. in charge of Vocational Aid 
Branch of the Red Cross Home Service work in Grand Forks. 
Resumed practise in Grand Forks and duties at the University. 

Keator, Alfred D., Librarian. In the American Library Associ- 
ation War Service, stationed at Camp Humphreys, Virginia, during 
June, July, and August, 191 8. 

McCoy, A. E., Formerly Bacteriologist, State Public Health 
Laboratory. Private, M. C, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

McVey, Charles H., Instructor in Military Science and Tactics^ 
Major of Infantry, U. S. A. Resigned, May, 191 8, to engage in 
Educational Service, National War Work Council, Y. M. C. A. 

Faculty Members 195 

Mercer, L. V., Instructor in Shop Work, College of Engineer- 
ing. Private, Ordnance Corps, U. S. A. Government Inspector of 
Small Arms and Munitions, S'covill Manufacturing Company, Water- 
bury, Conn. 

Nyberg, Minnie E., University Nurse. Red Cross Nursing 
Service, Base Hospital 26, A. E. F., France. This hospital unit 
was cited for conspicuous bravery in service. 

Olson, George E., Instructor in Commercial Subjects. Private, 
Ordnance Corps, U. S. A. Ordnance Supply School, Camp Jack- 
son, S. C. 

Park, Stephen A., Instructor in Economics and Political Science. 
Captain of Infantry, O. R. C, Ft. Dodge, low^a. 

Richardson, George E., Instructor in Bacteriology and Path- 
ology. Private, M. C, U. S. A. Base Hospital, Camp Dodge, la. 

Shriver, Ellsworth H., Instructor in School of Mines. Second 
Lieutenant, E. C, U. S. A., Camp Meade, Md. 

Smith, Frederick, Instructor in Classical Languages. Private 
O. C, U. S. A., Co. C, Ordnance Supply School, University of 
Chicago, Camp Hancock, Ga,, A. E. F., France, Mehren-sur-Yeore, 
Ordnance Supply Camp. Served thirteen months as correspondence 
interpreter, and after the armistice was with the American School 
Detachment in the University of Montpelier in southern France. 
Later was one of twenty-five successful candidates out of several 
thousand to receive a Carnegie fellowship for advanced study in a 
French university. This honor is awarded only to graduate students 
who saw service with the American Expeditionary Forces. Resumed 
duties at the University. 

Stearns, Wallace N., Instructor and Assistant Professor of 
History, 1909-12. Educational Service, National War Work Council 
of Y. M. C. A. 

Stephenson, Edward B., Assistant Professor of Physics. Captain, 
E. R. C, in charge of Sound Ranging Personnel, Bureau of Stan- 
dards, Washington, D. C. Instructor in Sound Ranging, Camp 
Humphreys, Va. 

Taylor, A. Hoyt., Professor of Physics. Lieutenant, Naval 
Reserve Corps ; Commanding Officer in Naval Radio. Assigned ( i ) 
Great Lakes, Illinois, (2) Belmar, N. J., (3) Norfolk, Va. 
In charge of radio service on the Atlantic Coast. Promoted to rank 
of Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. Navy. Recently promoted to rank 
of Commander. Stationed at Washington, D. C. 

Taylor, John Adams, Assistant Professor of English. Engaged 
in educational service under the auspices of the National War Work 
Council of the Y. M. C. A. Educational Director of Camp Is-sur- 
Tille, France, for ten months, and for tvvo months a member of the 
faculty, English Department, of the American Expeditionary Force 
University, being Lecturer and Supervisor in Army Post Schools. 
Discharged, August 6, 1919. He has now resumed his duties at the 

196 The Quarterly Journal 

Terrell, Harry E., Secretary University Y. M. C. A. Enlisted 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, December 8, 191 7. Chauffeur rating Air 
Service, 207th Aero Squadron. Stationed ( i ) Barrow Field, Texas, 
to September 18, 191 8, (2) Call Field, Texas, to January 12, 1919. 
Clerical work. Discharged at Camp Dodge, Io\ya, January 29, 1919. 
Now at the University, 

Trimble, Harry C, Assistant Professor of Chemistry. Was 
drafted for Chemical Warfare Service, and detailed on furlough for 
special instructional work with S. A. T. C, University of North 

Wells, George F., Professor of Law and Dean of Law School. 
Assistant Secretary, War Labor Board, Washington, D. C. Assist- 
ant Counsel, U. S. Shipping Board, and Emergency Fleet Co-opera- 
tion, Washington, D. C. Still in service, on leave-of-absence, 

Witherstine, W. H., Lecturer in School of Medicine. First 
Lieutenant, M. C. Assigned to United States General Reconstruc- 
tion Hospital No. i, Williamsbridge, N. Y. Returned to his practise 
in Grand Forks and resumed duties at the University. 



University Women 197 

University Women in War Service 
Alumni, Former Studen'*s, and Undergraduates 

Bollom, Mrs. C. E., (Josephine Hamel), Hardis, Montana. 
B. A. 1909. Canteen service, at Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash. 

Cathro, Frances Lorene, Bottineau, North Dakota. B. A. 1917. 
Miss Cathro entered King's County Hospital, New York, in July, 
19 1 8, for training as a Red Cross Dietitian, expecting to be sent 
overseas. Slie spent five months in this preparation, but the signing 
of the armistice made it unnecessary that she be sent across. On 
December ist she was sent to Camp Sevier, Greenville, S. C, where 
she served in charge of a Hostess House cafeteria for four months. 
This was a large work there being 45,000 men in camp. From here 
she was transferred to Camp Dodge for an even larger work and 
remained there till discharged on July 22, 19 19- 

Cooley, Mrs. John B., (Ethel Halcrow), Grand Forks, North 
Dakota. B. A. 1914. Acting Secretary of the Extension Division, 
University of North Dakota. During 191 7-1 8, while awaiting re- 
lease from her University duties so as to engage in war work, Mrs. 
Cooley w^as active in all the Red Cross and other welfare drives 
taking place at the University and Grand Forks. As soon as released 
she entered the Y. M. C. A. war work as public entertainer, dramatic 
reader, and was sent to Camp Dodge working in the hospitals during 
the day time and at public entertainments in the evenings. From 
there she was transferred to Camp Custer, near Battle Creek, 
Michigan. She began her work at Camp Custer on December 17, 
191 8, and continued it for about three months. Not only did she 
herself serve as public entertainer but directed the dramatic activities 
of the large camp. With her assistance ambitious programs were put 
on at the camp and in the city of Battle Creek thus raising large 
sums of money for recreational features of the camp. Here she also 
workt with the Community Church located at Augusta, about a 
mile from Camp, a large undenominational institution planned to 
meet the needs of the huge camp. In all Mrs. Cooley was in the 
service about twelve months. 

Davies, Mabel S., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 191 8. 
Club organizer, Girls' Patriotic Service League, War Camp Com- 
munity Service. This organization is a governmental agency, and a 
branch of the War and Navy Department Commissions on Training 
Camp Activities. The work falls into two divisions, the departmental 
and territorial. Miss Davies' work was in the territorial division, and 
covered the suburban communities of Glencoe, Winnetka, and Wil- 
mette, near Chicago, and special mention is made of her success in 
organizing girls' dramatic clubs. 

Gibson, Olive Irene, Saint Thomas, North Dakota. A 4, SS, 
191 7. Entered the service on September 25, 191 8 at Miles City, 
Montana, as Dietitian in the Medical Corps. Stationed at Van- 
couver Barracks, Washington, and at Fort Douglass, Utah, Not 

198 The Quarterly Journal 

formally discharged, but released on furlough. Now teaching at 
Donnybrook, North Dakota. 

Hamilton, Helen M., Grand Forks, North Dakota- LL. B. 
1905. Field Secretary, Northern Division, Amer. Red Cross Society. 
In active Red Cross service since April 19 17. 

Healy, Gertrude, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B . A. 191 7. 
Reconstruction Aide, Physiotherapy Division, American Red Cross 
Service. Took summer course in Reconstruction Work at Reed 
College, Portland, Oregon, summer of 191 8. Appointed to overseas 
duty in October, and immediately reported at New York. But sailing 
orders were delayed and the armistice was signed after which no 
Reconstruction Aides were sent across. Assigned to duty in the 
United States. First stationed at Camp Upton, New York, later 
transferred to the Staten Island General Hospital, Brooklyn, New 
York. Still in Service. 

Heaton, Mrs. Emily C, (Emily C. Covert), Billings, Montana. 
Entered service April 2, 19 18, at Billings as Army Nurse and left 
at once for Lakewood, N. J., to join Base Hospital No. 26, popularly 
known as the Mayo Unit. On June 3d, sailing orders were received 
and the passage to France via Liverpool was made without incident. 
Stationed at Base Hospital Center Allerey, Soane et Loire, Mrs. 
Heaton was Assistant Chief Nurse in Base Hospital 26 from July, 
19 1 8, till the latter part of January, 19 19. This hospital was at first 
organized as a Red Cross Base Hospital, but was later taken over 
by the Army. Sailed from Brest in February. Discharged April 
16, 1919. 

Holman, Mrs. Charles, (Genevieve Turner), Washington, 
D. C. A 4, 1911-12. Director of Recreational Activities, War 
Camp Community Service, Washington, D. C. 

Hughes, Elizabeth A., Java, South Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Took 
Red Cross Training Course, and on completion registered in Chicago 
for Nursing Service. 

Kirk, Ida B., Niagara, North Dakota. B. A. 1907. Secretary 
of Niagara Red Cross Auxiliary. Later engaged in Government war 
work at Washington, D. C. 

Lampert, Margaret, Chicago, Illinois. B. A. 1913. Registered 
in December, 191 7, for front-line ambulance driving; rejected on ac- 
count of sex. Filled vacancy caused by draft in the office. General 
Red Cross work. 

Linwell, Delia, Northwood, North Dakota. A i, 1909-10. 
Dramatic Director, War Camp Community Service, U. S. War 
Department, directing the work of a group of selected players from 
New York City who went from camp to camp, playing in the camp 
theaters, the audiences frequently numbering from 2000 to 2500 
soldiers. Later was appointed one of the two delegates from North 
Dakota of the General Federation of Women's Clubs to carry on 
recreational and welfare work in the furlough houses in France. 
Under the National War Work Council of Y. M. C. A., $2,000,000 

University Women 199 

was raised by the Federation for the purpose of sending these workers 
to France. Five women were assigned to each furlough house, one 
acting as hostess, one as director of entertainment, and the remaining 
three as general reconstruction workers, 

Luros, Mrs. L. L., (Gretchen Oeschger), Detroit, Michigan. 
B. A. 191 3. Engaged in research work for the United States Gov- 
ernment, at Detroit, Mich. 

McGlinch, Anne, Minto, North Dakota. Miss McGlinch was 
a student in the Universitj^ for several j'^ears, completing her work 
in 1 901. She was accepted by the Y. M. C. A., Middle Western 
Section, at Chicago, 111., September, 191 8, for canteen service over- 
seas. At first she was stationed at Alencon, France, with the 37th 
Division of which Major-General Farnsworth, formerly Commandant 
of the U. N. D. Cadet Corps, was in command. When that Division 
was transferred, she was assigned to the 91st Division and later sent 
into Germany. Here she was assigned to assist in a ''Y" Hut at or 
near Coblenz where the First Battalion of the Fifth Marines was 
stationed. Discharged, August 15, 191 9, at New York. 

Nielson, Hazel Belle, Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
One of two representatives of the North Dakota Branch of the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs assigned for Recreation Work 
under the National War Work Council of the Y. M. C. A. Sailed 
from New York for France, January, 1919. These young women, 
two from each state, were assigned to the two large receiving sta- 
tions organized in southern France, the purpose being to provide for 
the American soldiers there on leave a welcome and recreation thru 
a representative from their own home state. (See this periodical. 
Volume X, No. i, October, 1919, pp. 128-135, "Experiences of a 
University Woman 'Over There'." 

Noltimier, Mildred M., Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 
1 91 6. Assistant Secretary of the Barnes County Chapter of the 
American Red Cross, the work including civilian relief and all other 
branches of Red Cross work in the county. 

Rohde, Else Caroline, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1916. July 7, 1 91 8, accepted for service by the National War Work 
Council of the Y. M. C. A. Reported at once to Washington, D. C, 
and was immediately sent to Charleston, S. C, in charge of the 
cafeteria in the Community House, provided by Mrs. Rockefeller for 
the confort and convenience of girls in government employ. About 
the middle of September she was transferred to Camp Wadsworth, 
Spartenburg, S. C., in charge of the Hostess House cafeteria, located 
at that place. From there she was later transferred to similar work 
in the Air Service Depot at Camp Morrison, Va. An attack of in- 
fluenza secured her release and sent her home early in January, 1919- 
Sand, Sarah S., Emerado, North Dakota. R. N.^igiS- Volun- 
teered April 20, 191 7, with the Bismarck Surgical Section No. i, 
American Red Cross, later merged with Base Hospital No. 60, which 
mobilized for overseas service at Camp Jackson, S. C, in April, 191 8. 
This . Hospital Unit was transferred in September to Bazoilles, 

200 The Quarterly Journal 

France, a village in the Meuse valley, ten miles from Neufchateau, 
and by October was ready for service, at a time when the drive was 
heaviest and wounded soldiers by the hundreds arrived daily. Re- 
mained at this hospital until the Unit was mustered out. 

Serumgard, Inez M., Devils Lake, North Dakota. B. A. 1915. 
Since March, 191 8, engaged in allied war work, in the Ordnance 
Division, U. S". War Department, Washington, D. C. 

Spillane, Harriet, Balfour, North Dakota. B. A. 191 4. 
Enlisted in New York in the spring of 191 8, as Dietitian under the 
American Red Cross, and also with the National War Work Council 
of the Y. W. C. A. Served as Dietitian at the Kingston Avenue 
Hospital, where many of the patients were soldiers and sailors; was 
Dietitian at the Hostess House at Camp Bowie, until assigned to 
Base Hospital No. 60, which unit mobilized on September 27, 191 8, 
at Camp Jackson, S. C, and on reaching France was stationed at 

Sullivan, Helen J., Langdon, North Dakota. B. A. 1906. 
Entered service April, 19 19, under the auspices of the National 
Catholic War Council. She was manager of the Etoile Service Club 
at Paris, ministering to the needs of soldiers and sailors. She was 
still in service the last heard. 

Ueland, Alice M., Roseburg, Oregon. B. A. 1910, M. A. 

191 8. Reconstruction Aide, Physiotherapy Division, American Red 
Cross Service. Took summer course in Reconstruction Work at 
Reed College, Portland, Oregon, summer of 19 18. Appointed to 
overseas duty in October, and immediately reported at New York. 
But sailing orders were delayed, and the armistice was signed, after 
which no Reconstruction Aides were sent across. Assigned instead to 
duty in the United States. First stationed at Denver, Colorado, in 
Reconstruction Hospital No. i ; later transferred to Fort Sheridan, 
Illinois, for similar work in a hospital given over largely to the care 
of nerve patients. 

Veitch, Edith J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. Ed 3, A 3, 1916- 
17. Enlisted in fall of 191 8 as Nurses' Aid and Refugee worker 
under the American Red Cross, and sailed from New York early in 
November. When she reached Paris the need for aids had been 
filled, and with the signing of the armistice the refugee work was 
taken over by the government. She was therefore transferred to 
the canteen service and sent to Toul, France. In appreciation of her 
work there, she was named honorary captain of Company H, 56th 
U. S. Infantry, a part of the Army of Occupation, and known as 
one of the most famous infantry organizations in the entire A. E. F., 
composed entirely of men of the Regular Army, who have been in 
the worst battles on the western front. The liiost of her work, 
however, was done with the Second Army. Discharged Aug. 17, 

1919, New York. 

Wright, Minnie C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 1898. 
Enlisted in May, 191 7, as Nurse with the Johns Hopkins Medical 
Unit, which went to France with the First Contingent, under General 

University Women 20 1 

Pershing. With this Unit was assigned to Base Hospital i8, the first 
Base Hospital in France under American Administration. 

In addition to the above individual records, the following 
summary indicates the patriotic service, in part, of the women of the 
University in their local communities: 


General Red Cross work and Food Conservation and Production 8i 
Official organization and instructional work under the Red 
Cross, U. S. Food Administration, and other lines of allied 

patriotic work i6 

Four-Minute Women and other patriotic speaking 5 


202 The Quarterly Journal 


Anderson, Lawrence J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1913. Called in the second draft. Private, M- C, U. S. A. Assigned 
to Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Anderson, Peter, Minnewaukan, North Dakota. B. A. 1908. 
Member, Ex. Com., Co. Chap., Amer. Red Cross. Treasurer, local 
Red Cross branch. Member Co- Com., Thrift Stamp sale. Local 
Manager Army Y. M. C. A. Fund Campaign. 

Anderson, Seward Cuyler, Fargo, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 
Enlisted May 26, 191 7 at Valley City, N. D. Stationed (i) Camp 
Greene, N. C, (2) Camp Mills, L. I. Second Lieutenant Co. G., 
164th Inf., 41st Div., A. E. F. France. Sailed from Camp Merritt 
for overseas service Dec. 11, 1917, in the "Leviathan" on its first 
trip as U. S. transport; served eight months with Depot Div. (form- 
erly the 41st) of First Army Corps, establishing S. O. S. for A. E. F. 
at Chattilion sur Seine ; took course for non-commissioned officers at 
La Valbrune, was promoted to first class Private, Corporal, Sergeant, 
Battalion Sergeant-major and received certificate of eligibility for 
commission, which he later received. After signing of the armistice 
was recommended for short course at the University of London. 

Anderson, Seymour E., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1913. See page 193. 

Arnegaard, Ole, Hillsboro, North Dakota. B. A. 1896. 
Treasurer Traill Co. Chap., Amer. Red Cross. Treasurer, Trail 
Co. Army Y. M. C. A. Fund Campaign- 

Aronson, Axel T., Kalispell, Montana. LL. B. 1916. Mem- 
ber of Legal Advisory Board. 

Auger, Berchmans, Grangerville, Idaho. LL. B. 1904. Sec- 
retary Co. Council of Defense (Idaho Co., Idaho), Permanent 
member of Legal Advisory Board. Fuel Administrator, Camas 
Prairie Line, Grangerville, Idaho. 

Austinson, Theodore C, Crosby, North Dakota. LL. B. 1904. 

Clerk, local Draft Board. 

Bach, C- B., Minot, North Dakota. LL. B. 1904. Member 
Local Com., Liberty Loan Campaign. Member Local Com., Red 
Cross Campaign. Member Local Com., Army Y. M. C. A. Fund 

Bacon, William C, Great Falls, Montana. B. A. 1913- Enlisted 
September 11, 1917, at Great Falls, Mont. Private Q. M. C. 
Balloon Div., U. S. A. Assigned to Fort Omaha, Nebr. 

*In this service list students are groupt as Alumni, Former Students, 
Undergraduates, Members of the S. A. T. C, and High School Students. 
Among Alumni are found all who had taken degrees from the institution 
prior to 1917, the year when the United States entered the war; among 
Former Students are found all whose connection with the University had 
ceased before the fall of 1916, but who had not taken degrees; and among 
Undergrraduates are found all who entered the war as such, that is, those 
whose period of study was interrupted by the service; this, of course, 
would include all who registered in the University during the years 1916-17, 
1917-18, and 1918-19, and within those years entered the service. 

Alumni 203 

Baldwin, John- G., Poplar, Montana. B. A. 1900. Enlisted 
December 15, 191 7, at Great Falls, Montana. Private first class, 
H. Co., 31st Inf., R. A. Assigned to Ft. Wm. McKinley, P. I. 
Jan. 5, 1918. Trans, to A- E. F. Siberia, Aug. 22, 1918, landing at 
Vladivostok. Engaged in military duty in the coast provinces. 

Bangs, Philip R., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. S. 191 3, 
J. D. 1 91 5. Enlisted March 30, 19 18, at Grand Forks, North Da- 
kota. Private (Scout), Intel. Sec. Co. F, 2nd Bn., 138th Inf., 35th 
Div., U. S. A. Served in St. Mihiel and in Argonne-Meuse offen- 
sives. Wounded in Argonne Forest battle, Sept. 27, 191 8, by H. E. 
S. Discharged March 28, 1919 at Camp Mills, L. I. 

Barnes, Paul M., Glen UUin, North Dakota. C. E. 191 1. 
Enlisted Sept- 21, 191 7, at Glen UUin, N. D. Private Co. A, 29th 
Engineers, A. E. F. France. Promoted to First Sergeant. 

Bates, David Proyer, Larimore. North Dakota. LL. B. 1907. 
Enlisted June, 191 7, at Larimore, N. D. Candidate, O. T. C, Ft- 
Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, i68th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. 
F. France. 

Bennett, Charles B., Aneta, North Dakota. E. E. 19 13. Elec- 
trical Inspector, Navy Department (Civil Service). Rejected for 
both enlistment and draft on account of defective vision. 

Besse, J. R., Spencer, Iowa. B. A. 1905. Enlisted as Cadet in 
Coast Guard Academy, Baltimore, Md., June 5, 1906. Assigned as 
instructor at U. S. Naval Training Camp, San Pedro, Cal., with 
rank of lieutenant junior grade. Promoted to Lieutenant-Com- 
mander, U. S. S. "Explorer", Bremerton, Wash. 

Bitzing, H. R., Mandan, North Dakota. LL. B. 1905. Enlisted 
at Camp Cody, New Mexico, Aug- 27, 191 7. Assigned to Judge 
Advocate General's office with rank as Major. Transferred to 
A. E. F., France and promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. Was successive- 
ly (i) Division Judge Advocate, 34th Div.; (2) First Assistant 
Judge Advocate of 2nd Army; (3) Division Judge Advocate, ist 
Div., with headquarters at Montabam, Germany. 

Bjerken, Frederick N., Red Wing, Minnesota. B. A. 1913. 
Enlisted at Red Wing, Minn., Aug. i, 1917. First Lieutenant, M- 
C, U. S. A. Stationed (i) Ft. Riley, Kans., (2) Camp Pike, Ark., 
(3) Camp Dix, N. Y., (4) Base Hospital 22, A. E. F. France. 
Commissioned Captain in command of 348th Ambulance Co. 

Bliss, Jay W., Bismarck, North Dakota. E. M. 1908. Enlisted 
Sept. 23, 1918. Assigned to Co. 2, E. O. T. S., Camp A. A. Hum- 
phreys, Va., and commissioned First Lieutenant Eng'rs, U. S. A. 
Discharged and commissioned First Lieutenant U. S. Eng'rs. Res. 

Boise, Charles W., Jamestown, North Dakota. E. M. 1908. 
Enlisted, Eng'rs Res. Corps, U. S. A. 

Boise, David W., Hurley, New Mexico- E. M. 1906. Chair- 
man "Four Minute Men", Hurley, N. Mex. Chairman, Community 
Council of Defense. Chairman, Legal Advisory Board. Local 

204 The Quarterly Journal 

Federal Enrolling Agent. Chairman, three Liberty Loan campaigns. 
Chairman, United War Fund Campaign. Chairman, Red Cross 
War Fund Campaign. 

Bradley, H. C, Bismarck, North Dakota. LL. B. 1908. 
Voluntary induction, Nov. 4, 19 18, Bismarck, N- D. Assigned to 
F. A. C, C. O. T. S., Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Ky. 
Discharged Dec. 7, 1918, at Camp Zachary Taylor. 

Brannon, George Ray, Dickinson, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
(See page 157). 

Brockhoff, Frederick J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1913. Enlisted May, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Candidate, 
O. T. C, Ft. Sheridan, 111. Commissioned Second Lieutenant and 
assigned to Camp Grant, 111. Promoted to First Lieutenant, Co. K. 
334th Inf., 86th Div. Transferred to A. E. F. France, Sept. 8, 

Brownlee, Clarence P., Amidon, North Dakota. LL. B- 191 1. 
Government Appeal Agent, Hope County, N. D. 

Budge, Ernest J-, Kansas City, Missouri. C. E. 1913. Enlisted 
October 9, 191 8, Grand Forks, N. D. Private, 304th C. T. C. 
Camp Colt, Gettysburg, Pa. Transferred, 303 Tank Corps, A. E. F. 
Langres, France. Discharged, March, 1919. 

Budge, William E-, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E. M. 191 1. 
Enlisted, Mar. 3, 1918, Grand Forks, N. D., as Private, Fourth 
Officers' Training Camp, Fortress Monroe, Virginia. Second Lieu- 
tenant, 3rd C. A. C, U. S. A. Instructor in Heavy Artillery School, 
Angers, France. Discharged Feb., 1919; now an instructor, Univer- 
sity of North Dakota. 

Burke, Thomas H., Hardin, Montana. LL- B. 1908. Enlisted 
October 26, 1918, at Hardin, Montana. Private, i6th Obs. Btt'y-, 
F. A. O. T. S., Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Ky. Discharged 
December 23, 191 8. Chairman, Big Horn County War Savings 
Stamp Committee. 

Burling, Edwin, Detroit, Minnesota. B. A. 1912- Enlisted 
July 12, 1 91 8, for Chaplain's Training School, Camp Zachary 
Taylor, Louisville, Ky. First Lieutenant and Chaplain, 47th C. A. 
C. Transferred to 6th San. Tr., 53rd Inf., 6th Div., U. S. A. 
Reached France October 26, 1918; stationed at Moitron, Cote d'orr. 

Burns, Frank, STieldon, North Dakota. E. E. 1916. Enlisted 
August, 191 7. Private, Radio Div., Signal Corps, U. S. A. Sta- 
tioned at Duluth, Minn. 

Burtness, Olger B., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B., 

1907. President, Grand Forks Stars and Stripes League- Member, 
Bd. of Dir., Grand Forks Chap. Amer. Red Cross. 

Cameron, J. Steward, New Rockford, North Dakota. LL. B. 

1908. Enlisted July, 191 7, at New Rockford, N. D. First Lieu- 
tenant, 164th Inf., U. S. A-, A. E. F. France. 

Campbell, Thomas D., Los Angeles, California. B. A. 1904. 
Appointed, under the Dept- of the Interior, as Chairman of an 

Alumni 205 

Agricultural Commission to introduce American methods and ma- 
chinery in France and Algeria, a plan which was later changed for 
the development of Indian wheat lands in the U. S. Contract was 
made for the development of 200,000 acres of wheat land as a war 
mesure, for the production of wheat to be turned over to the Food 
Administration. The project was financed by Mr. J. P. Morgan, 
by whom a fund of two million dollars was underwritten. Since 
June, 1918, with the use of engines and high school boys, 40,000 acres 
have been prepared and seeded in the Indian Reservations in Montana 
and it is expected within three years to increase this to 200,000. 

Carney, E. C, Williston, North Dakota. LL. B. 1904. Presi- 
dent, Williston Chapter American Red Cross. Four-Minute Man. 

Carr, Andy M., Minot, North Dakota. B. A. 191 3. Enlisted, 
June, 191 8, at Chicago, 111- First Lieutenant, M. R. C, U. S. A., 
A. E. F. France. 

Challoner, George T., Putnam, Connecticut. E. E. 191 1. First 
Lieutenant, 3rd Inf., Connecticut Home Guards. Trained drafted 
men as radio operators. 

Chase, Murrey Chapman, Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1910- Chairman, Four-Minute Men. 

Christianson, Ole, Crookston, Minnesota. B. S. in C. E. 191 5. 
Enlisted at Crookston, Minn. Private, Hdqts. Co., 53 Inf., U. S. A., 

A. E. F. France. 

Christie, Howard C, Kawende, Manitoba, Canada, E. E. 1910. 
Enlisted and served with Can. E. Force. 

Coghlan, Michael J., St. John, North Dakota. LL. B. 1903. 
Enlisted Feb. 191 6, at Calgary, Canada, in the American Battalion 
of the Canadian Forces. Private, I. C. V. H. France, 

Colborn, George O., Grand Forks, North Dakota, LL, B. 
1909. Director of Thrift Stamp Sale in schools of Grand Forks 

Cole, James Lester, Kenmare, North Dakota. B. A. 19 16. 
(See page 163). 

Comfort, Arthur B-, Spokane, Washington. B. A. 1906. Four- 
Minute Man. 

Conmy, E. T., Fargo, North Dakota. LL. B. 1909. Four- 
Minute Man. Member, Legal Advisory Board for Cass County. 
Organized local chapter American Red Cross. 

Conmy, John P., Pembina, North Dakota. B. A. 1906, LL. 

B. 1907. Enlisted July 23, 191 8, at Fort Logan, Colorado. Hq. 
Co., 331st Battalion, 306th Brigade, Tank Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., 
France. Stationed (i) Camp Colt, Pa., (2) Langres, France, (3) 
Vargennes, France. Private — promoted to Sergeant; Reserve Com- 
mission as Captain, J. A. G. D., efFective in discharge. Discharged 
at Camp Meade, Md., March 28, 1919. 

2o6 The Quarterly Journal 

Connolly, Louis H., Mandan, North Dakota- LL. B. 1905. 
Four-Minute Man. 

Connor, Clyde C, Stanfield, Oregon. B. S. 191 5. Enlisted, 
Aug. 31, 191 7 at Cleveland, Ohio. Apprentice Seaman, Transp. 
Ser, U. S. N. Promoted (i) Seaman 2|c; (2) Quartermaster 3|c; 
(3) Ensign. Assigned to (i) U- S. S. "Indiana:" (2) U. S. S. 

Coulter, John Lee, Morgantown, West Virginia. B. A. 191 4. 
Enlisted, October, 191 8, at Washington, D. C. Major, Production 
Staff, Air Service, U- S. A. Prior to accepting military rank, served 
in civilian capacity with the Exports Council, the Food Administra- 
tion, the War Industries Board, and in the War Department. Was 
honorably discharged Dec. 7, 191 8, to accept appointment with Army 
Overseas Educational Commission for service in France. From this 
mission he has recently returned. The nature of the service and the 
estimation in which it is being regarded in France are gathered from 
an honor conferred on Dr. Coulter about the middle of November. 
At a public meeting held in Chicago, Professor Rochat, a member of 
the French High Commission, in the name of the Government of 
France, conferred upon him the decoration of "Chevalier du Merite 
Agricole," "in recognition of service performed by way of assisting and 
advising in the reconstruction work in the agricultural districts of 

Cowper, William L., Michigan City, North Dakota. B. S. 
1894. (See page 164). 

Crewe, Percy S., Mohall, North Dakota. LL. B. 1904. Mem- 
ber, Legal Advisory Board. 

Crombie, W. Ransom, Cavalier, North Dakota. E. M. 1913. 
Enlisted, Eng'r. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. 

Crothers, Asa R. E,, Spokane, Washington, LL. B. 1907. 
Member, Legal Advisory Board. 

Currie, RoUa P., Washington, D. C B. A. 1893- Member of 
Sanitary Corps, Washington, D. C. Member, Home Defense League, 
District of Columbia. 

Dahl, Thorwald I., Grafton, North Dakota. B. A. 19 13. 
Enlisted July 19, 1918, Philadelphia, Pa., Yoeman i|c, U. S. N., 
Washington, D. C. Chairman, Walsh County Fuel Administration- 
Assoc. Member Legal Advisory Board. 

Daugherty, Thomas G., Powers Lake, North Dakota. LL. B. 

191 3. Chairman, Four-Minute Men. Member, Legal Advisory 

Dawson, Claude L-, Sentinel Butte, North Dakota. LL, B. 

1914. Enlisted Nov. 17, 1917, 2nd O. T. C, Fort Omaha, Nebr., 
Cadet, Balloon Div., Signal Corps, U. S, A. 

Dean, Arthur C, Reynolds, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5- 
Enlisted, May 7, 1917 at Reynolds, N. D. Lieutenant, Medical 
Department, U. S- N. Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Receiving Ship, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alumni 207 

Dempsey, J. W., Lansing, Iowa. LL. B. 1910. Four-Minute 
Man ; Explosives Licensing Agent ; Director Local Chapter Ameri- 
can Red Cross; Member Legal Advisory Board. 

Devaney, Henry J., Cambridge, Idaho. LL. B. 1905. Secretary, 
Local Defense League; Secretary, Local Chapter American Red 

Devaney, Thomas, Langdon, North Dakota. B- A. 1901. Four- 
Minute Man; Member Executive Committee, American Defense 
League; County Fuel Administrator; Member, Legal Advisory 

Diesem, H. R, S., LaMoure, North Dakota. B. A. 1910. 
Four-Minute Man. Known to have been in service but no record. 

Dolve, Nels O-, Velva, North Dakota. LL. B. 1907. Chief 
Clerk, Local Draft Board. 

Douglas, J. Frank, Seattle, Washington. B. A. 1896. Enlisted, 
October, 191 8, Seattle, Wash. Major, Q. M. D., U. S. A. Depot 
Quartermaster, Senttlc, Wash., Nov. 5, 1918 to April i, 1919. Chair- 
man, Red Cross Membership Campaign, Seattle, resulting in 135,000 
members. Discharged, April i, 1919. 

Douglas, James H., Seattle, Washington. B. A. 1900. Entered 
Legal Branch, Cantonment Div., U. S. A. Aug. 16, 19 17. Transf. 
Feb. 15, 1 91 8 to office of Director of U. S- Government Explosive 
Plants, as Administrative Assistant. Commissioned Major Ord. 
Dept., U. S. A., Oct. 28, 19 1 8. Discharged Washington, D. C, 
Dec. 31, 1918. 

DuBois, Charles F., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 191 3. 
Enlisted, June, 191 7, at Detroit, Mich. First Lieutenant, Co. A., 
Bn. 7, M. R. C, U. S. A., Camp Greenleaf, Ga. Stationed also 
at Camp Humphreys, Va., and Camp Crane, Pa. Assigned to U. 
S- A. General Hospital No. 36, Detroit, Mich. 

Dufify, F. Clj'de, Minnewaukan, North Dakota. LL. B. 19 12. 
Chairman, Finance Com., Co. Chapter, Amer. Red Cross. Chairman, 
Soldiers' Library fund. Member Legal Advisory Board. 

Duggan, Fred S., Spokane, Washington. LL. B. 1903. 
Member, Local Draft Board, which handled 4754 registered men 
and was the clearing board for Gonzaga University Student Officers' 
Training Camp- This board is under the Selective Service Section 
of the War Department. 

Duvall, Virgil H., Aledo, Illinois. B. A. 191 5. Enlisted, Jan. 
10, igi8, at Aledo, 111. Private, Ordnance Corps, U. S. A. As- 
signed (i) University of Chicago, (2) Camp Jackson, S. C, (3) 
Camp Hancock, Ga., (4) Washington, D. C, (5) Camp DuPont, 
Va. Commissioned Second Lieutenant, October i, 191 8. Discharged 
Jan. 20, 191 9, at Pamman, Va. 

Eastman, Dan V., Johnston, North Dakota. LL. B. 1913. 
Enlisted, Oct. 18, 191 7, at Johnstown, N. D. Private, 84th Aero 
Squadron, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A., Kelly Field, Texas- 

Elken, Clarence L., Mayville, North Dakota. LL. B. 1913. 

2o8 The Quarterly Journal 

Enlisted, April i, 1918, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Private, Co. 12, 
3rd Bn., 163 Depot Brigade, Camp Dodge, la. First Sergeant, Inf. 
Corps, C. O. T- S., Camp Grant, 111. Discharged Camp Grant, 
111. Dec. 4, 1918. 

Engesather, Henry E., Petersburg, North Dakota. B. A. 19 16. 
Enlisted, Dec. 8, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Corporal, 
(Musician), Band Det., Q. M. C, U. S. A., Camp Meigs, D. C. 
Discharged Mar. 12, 19 19, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Feetham, Lawrence R., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B., 
191 4. Enlisted spring of 191 8 at Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. Private 
F. A. C, O. T. S. Second Lieutenant, F. A. C., U'. S- A. ' 

Ferguson, Frederick, Drayton, North Dakota. B. A. 19 16. 
Enlisted, Oct. 19 17, at Drayton, N. D- Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 
Fisher. Edgar A., Ray, Arizona. M. E. 1913. (See page 170). 
Fisher, Lawrence F., Dickinson, North Dakota- B. A. 191 1. 
Enlisted, July 28, 1918, at Dickinson, N, D. First Lieutenant, M. 
C, U. S. A. Stationed (i) Camp Greenleaf, Ga., (2) Camp John- 
son, Fla., (3) Ft. Barrancas, Fla. Discharged, Jan. 23, 1919, at 
Ft. Barrancas, Fla. Prior to enlistment served as Physical Examiner 
for Co. Draft Board- 
Fitch, Harry Norton, Aberdeen, South Dakota. B. A. 191 5. 
Enlisted, March 16, 191 8, Minneapolis, Minn. Private, Psych. Co. 
No. I, Med. Corps, Camp Greenleaf, Ga. Private, Psychological 
Board, Camp Gordon, Ga. Second Lieutenant, (Clinical Psycholo- 
gist), Camp McClellan, Ala. Student, Trade Tests School, Camp 
Greenleaf, Ga. Head of Psychological and Survey Section, Educ. 
Service, U. S. A., Gen. Hosp. No. 10, Boston, Mass. 

Flannagan, Joseph J., Towner, North Dakota. B. A. 1901. 
Recruiting Agent for Officers' Training Camps. 

Flett, Charles M., Hamilton, North Dakota. E. M. 191 1. 
Enlisted, Av. Sec, Signal Corps, U. S. A. Captain, Av. Sec, Balloon 
Div., Air Service, U. S- A., A. E. F., France. Awarded the Croix 
de Guerre for bravery in a fight with German air machines, during 
which his balloon was shot to the ground. Thru the courage of 
Captain Flett all records and valuable instruments were saved. 

Flint, Howard R., Bismarck, North Dakota. E. E- 1916. 
Enlisted Sept. 24, 191 7, at Bismarck, N. D. First Lieutenant, Co. 
F, 1 1 6th Eng'rs, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Foote, S. Ralph, Choteau, Montana. LL- B. 191 3. Enlisted 
Aug. 26, 19 1 8, Choteau, Mont. Private, Co. L 75th Inf., 13th 
Div., U. S. A., Camp Lewis, Wash. Corporal, Nov. 8, 191 8. 
Recommended for O, T. C. at Camp Kearney, Nov- 15, 191 8. 

Francis, Ernest A., Williston, N. D. LL. B. 1916. Member, 
Legal Advisory Board. Member, Loyalty League. 

Francis, D. Robert, Waterbury, Connecticut. B. A. 1909. 
Production Engineer for Company making machinery for the Navy 
entirely. No other concern in the country made anything that could 
take its place- 

Alumni 209 

Frazier, Lynn J., Bismarck, North Dakota. B. A. 1901. Gover- 
nor of North Dakota during war period. 

Frebel, Fred B., Coteau, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 4. Enlisted, 
Dec. 10, 191 8, Coteau, N. D. Private, 85th Co. U. S. Marines, 
Paris Island, S. C. 

Gies, Victor, Winnipeg, Man-, Canada. LL, B. 191 5. Enlisted 

Spring, 19 1 8, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. First Lieutenant, Co. K., 

809th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Eleven months' overseas 

Gilby, Roy F., Detroit, Michigan. B. S. in M. E. 1914. Called 
in the draft but assigned to production work with a Machine company 
making army trucks. 

Gilroy, William T., New Castle, Indiana. B. A. 19 10. En- 
listed, (date not known). Private, Av. Sec, Air Sen, U. S. A- 
Stationed at Greencastle, Ind. 

Gjelsness, Rudolph H., Reynolds, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 
Enlisted, Dec. 3, 191 7, at Urbana, 111. Private, 5th Co., 3rd Reg. 
Air Service Mechanics, Kelly Field, Texas- Corporal, Hdqts. Enlist- 
ed Staff, A. E. F., University, Beaune, France. Instructor in Library 
Department. Discharged, April, 1919, in France, but remained 
overseas with the A. L. A., in Paris and Coblenz, until September. 

Glaspell, Cyril J., Grafton, North Dakota. B. A. 1913- 
Enlisted, May 16, 191 7, at Chicago, 111. First Lieutenant, M. C. 
U. S. A. Captain, M- C. 2nd Div., U. S. A., attached to B. E. F., 
and assigned to Gen. Hosp. 18, at Camiers, France. Twenty-one 
■months overseas service in France and Belgium. A witness of the first 
casualty in the American forces, Sept. 4, 191 7. Discharged May 15, 
19 1 9, at Camp Grant, 111. 

Graham, F. J., EUendale, North Dakota. LL. B. 1906. Chair- 
man, Co- Chap., Amer. Red Cross, Chairman, Committee on 4th 
and 5th Liberty Loan Campaigns. 

Graham, John C, Richey, Montana. B. A. 191 3. Enlisted, 
April 30, 191 8, at Glendive, Mont. Supply Sergeant, 30th Co., 
^th Bn., 1 66th Depot Brigade, Stationed at Camp Lewis, Wash, 
Discharged Dec. 21, 191 8. 

Graham, Milton P., Carrington, North Dakota. B. A- 191 3. 
Enlisted, Aug, 4, 191 7, at Minot, N. D. First Lieutenant, M. C, 
U. S. A. Assigned to i6ist Amb. Co., ist Corps San. Tr., A. E- F., 
France. Joined the American Army in France Dec. 31, 191 7 ; served 
in front line area June 6, 19 18 to Nov. ii, 19 18, with thirteen differ- 
■ent organizations and on all fronts from Vosges mountains to 

Graham, Robert W., Buffalo, New York. E. E. 1913- Enlisted 
Nov. 25, 191 7, at Minot, N. D. Lieutenant Jr. Gr,, U. S. N. R. F. 
Assigned as Electrical Officer on U. S. Battleship "Arizona", which 
was one of President Wilson's escort into France and led the fleet in 
the New York harbor, Dec- 26, 19 18. 

210 The Quarterly Journal 

Greenleaf, William H., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A, 
191 1. (See page 194.) 

Gunderson, Ole S., Christine, North Dakota. LL. B. 1907. 
Chairman, Four-Minute Men. Member, Local Advisory Board. 

Halcrow, Ethel E., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 19 14. 
(See page 197, Cooley, Mrs. John B.) 

Hamel, Josephine L., Hardis, Montana. B. A. 191 9. (See page 
197, Bollom,"Mrs. C. E.) 

Hamilton, Helen M., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1905. (See page 198.) 

Halls, Carl B., Webster, North Dakota. LL. B- 1909. 
Four-Minute Man. 

Hancock, Elmer Russell, Emerado, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 

Enlisted, April 7, 191 7, at Chicago, 111. First Lieutenant, M. C. 
U. S. N. Assistant Surgeon, U. S. S. "Aroostock." 

Hancock, Ernest W., Minot, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5. 
Enlisted, May 15, 19 18, at Chicago, 111. Captain, M. C, Canadian 
Army. Stationed (i) London, Ont., Can., (2) with C. E- F,^ 
London, England. 

Hancock, John M., Washington, D. C. B. A. 1903. Enlisted 
June 6, 1904, Washington, D. C. Commissioned (i) Ensign, Pay 
Corps, U. S. N., (2) Lieutenant Commander, (3) Commander (Jan- 
II, 1918). In charge of all purchases for the Navy since Oct., 1914. 
Member of Price-fixing committee during the war. Commander 
Hancock has recently severed his connection with the Navy, tempor- 
arily, at any rate, and is now engaged in business in Chicago. 

Harris, John G., Williston, North Dakota. B. A. 1914. 
Enlisted at Williston, N. D. Sergeant, Inf. Corps, Regular Army. 

Harris, W. W., Goodrich, North Dakota. LL. B. 1913. Local 
Com., War Savings Stamp Sale. Member, Legal Advisory Board. 
Chairman, Committee, Y. M. C. A. Fund Campaign. (Helped raise 
over $400 in town with a population of 500 German people). 

Haugen, Martin O., Grand Forks, North Dakota. L.L- B. 
1908. Member, Legal Advisory Board. Assistant Local Draft 

Hawver, Otto R., Saco, Montana. LL. B. 1907. Assistant, Legal 
Advisory Board. Recruiting for Public Service Reserve. 

Healj'-, Ralph, Juneau, Alaska. E. M. 1911. Treasurer County- 
Chap- Amer. Red Cross. Chairman, Publicity Bureau. Chairman, 
Four-Minute Men. 

Heising, Raymond A., East Orange, New Jersey, E. E. 191 2. 
Enlisted, Spring 191 7, at East Orange, N. J. Private E. R. C, 
U. S. N. A-Ssigned to radio research and production for both Army 
and Nav}% in the shops of the Western Electrical Company, East 
Orange, N. J. 

Alumni 211 

Hemp, Albert B., Wimbledon, N. D, LL- B. 191 3. Enlisted 
Feb. 15, 19 1 8, Wimbledon, N. D. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. 
S. A. Captain, County Chapter, American Red Cross. 

Herigstad, Omor B., Minot, North Dakota. LL. B. 1909. 
Chairman, Legal Advisory Board. Government Appeal Agent. 
Four-Minute Man. 

Hermann, Thorhallur, Winnipeg, Man., Can. C. E. 1913. 
Enlisted in 191 5, at Winnipeg, Man. Private, Canadian Eng'rs., 
C. E. F. 

Hesketh, Thomas, Rolla, North Dakota- B. A. 19 15. Enlisted 
July, 191 7 at Rolla, N. D. First Lieutenant, Co. L, 164th Inf., 
41st Div., A. E. F., France. 

Hilborn, Ernest C, Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 1905. 
Chairman, County Y. M. C. A. War Fund Campaign. Chairman, 
Co. United War Work Campaign. Member State Personnel Com- 
mittee, Y. M. C. A. 

Hinds, Henry, Washington, D. C. B. A. 1906. Assigned as 
member of the U. S. Geological Survey to allied scientific work: 
(a) Research on war minerals, (b) Search for new petroleum fields 
in jungles of Panama and Costa Rica- 

Hofto, Jacob Arnold, Des Moines, Iowa. M. A. 1914- Enlisted 
Aug. 27, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Army Candidate, 2nd R. O. 
T. C. First Lieutenant, Inf. Res. Corps, U. S. A., Nov. 27, 191 7. 
Transferred to Camp Dodge, la., and attached (i) i6^rd Depot 
Brig., (2) "I" Co., 349th Inf., 88th Div., (3) Hdqts. Co., 349th 
Inf. On det. ser., as student in Inf. Sch. of Arms, Ft. Sill, Okl., 
April-May, 1918, as instructor May-July, igi8. Returned to Camp 
Dodge and attached to "D" Co., 350th Inf., for transportation over- 
seas. Arrived Cherbourg, France, August 29, and rejoined 349th Inf. 
Sept. I. On spec, duty, Div. Hdqts-, 88th Div., on Toul front, 
Haute-Alsace Sector and Meuse-Argonne offensive. Senior instruc- 
tor in Div. Sch. of Arms, Nov. 14-24, 191 8, and had charge of all 
schools in the division after the armistice until disbandment. Com- 
missioned Captain of Infantry, U. S. A., Feb. 25, 1919- Di; charged 
June, 1919. 

Holmes, William S., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
191 5. Enlisted, May 15, 191 7, Ft. Snelling, Minn- Army Candi- 
date R. O. T. C. First Lieutenant, Q. M. C, Depot Brigade, 
U. S. A., New York, N. Y. 

Holt, Grover J., Blabon, North Dakota. B. S. in M. E. 191 6. 
Enlisted Dec. 10, 1917, Jeliferson Barracks, Mo. Assigned (i) Co. 
"A", 5th Eng'rs. R. A., Corpus Christie, Texas, (2) 4th E. T. R. 
Camp Humphreys, Va. (3) 11 6th Eng'rs., U. S. A., Camp Lee, Va. 
Second Lieutenant, 11 6th Eng'rs. Train. A. E. F., France. Dis- 
charged April I, 1919, Camp Dix, N. J. 

Horner, Herbert F., Fargo, North Dakota. J. D. 191 5. Four- 
Minute Man. 

212 The Quarterly Journal 

Houska, Charles H., Bisbee, North Dakota. LL. B- 1905. 
Chairman, Four-Minute Men, 

Howland, Garth A., Fargo, North Dakota. B. A. 191 2. 
Enh'sted Feb. 6, 19 18, Ft. Riley, Kans. Private, M. O. T. C, Ft. 
Riley, Social Service visitor in hospitals. 

Hunt, Charles E., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 1912. 
Commissioned Captain, Med. Dept., ist N. D. Inf. (164th Inf. 
U. S. A.) at Bismarck, N. D., Dec, 1916, by Gov. Hanna. 
Commissioned Major, Med. Dept., 1st N. D. Inf., June 25, 1917 
by Gov. Frazier. Assigned (i) Ft. Lincoln, Neb., (2) Camp 
Greene, (3) Camp Mills, (4) A. E. F-, France. Attached to Field 
Hospital 162, San. Tr. 116, 41st Div., U. S. A. Discharged June, 
19 1 8, in France. Was first physician from North Dakota to enter 
active service in present war. 

Husband, William C, Harlowtown, Montana. LL. B. 1907. 
County Chairman, Legal Advisory Board. County Chairman, 
Y. M. C. A. War Fund Campaign. 

Hutchinson, W. H., LaMoure, North Dakota. B. A- 1905. 
County Chairman, War Work Council. County Chairman, Liberty 
Loan Campaign. 

Hydle, Lars L., Grand Porks, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. Chair- 
man, County Chap. Junior Red Cross. Four-Minute Man. 

Ingram, Joseph A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. E- M. 191 1. 
Enlisted, Spring of 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Candidate, E. O. 
T. C, Camp Humphrey, Va. Second Lieutenant, E. R. C, U. S. A. 

Jackson, Rev. Bruce E., Williston, North Dakota. B. A. 1906. 
Enlisted, Sept. 20, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la., for w^ar work under 
the National War Work Council of the Y. M. C. A. Assigned to 
American Y. M. C. A., Paris, France. Began overseas service March 
I, 1918. 

Jackson, Leroy F., Pullman, Washington. B. A. 1902. 
Enlisted May 13, 1917, ist O. T. C. at Presidio of California. 
First Lieutenant C. A. C. (N. A.) U. S. A. Assigned to 63rd 
C. A. C, U. S. A. Ft. Worden, Wash. Discharged Feb. 4, 1918. 
Appointed Educ. Sec'y., Army Y. M. C. A. 

Jahr, Simon, Wilton, North Dakota. B. A. 1897. Member 
of the Home Guard. 

Jennings, George M-, Missoula, Montana. B. A. 1903. 
Member of Medical Advisory Board for Western Montana. 

Johnson, Albert J., DeLamere, North Dakota. B. A. 1914. 
Rejected for enlistment in the Med. Corps. Enlisted Mar. 14, 
191 8, as Apprentice Seaman, N. R. F., U. S". N. 

Johnson, Edward S., Solen, North Dakota. LL. B. 1908. 
Government Appeal Agent. Member Legal Advisory Board. Co. 
Enrolling Agent, U. S. Public Reserve. Director, Local Chap. 
Amer. Red Cross. 

Johnson. John B., New York, N. Y. M. S. 19 14. Assigned 

Alumni 21 S 

to special research work for the Signal Corps, U. S. A., in the shops 
of the Western Electric Company, New York City. 

Johnson, Richard W., Dickinson, North Dakota. B. S. in M. E. 
1915. Called in the draft Sept. 18, 1917. Private, Co. G, 302 Inf., 
Camp Lewis, Wash. 

Johnson, Sveinbjorn, Grand Forks, North Dakota. M. A. 1906. 
LL. B. 1913. Four-Minute Man. 

Johnson, Thomas, Minneapolis, Minnesota. B. A. 1908. 
Rejected for enlistment in the Marine Corps, U. S. N. 

Johnson, Thomas G. Kildeer, North Dakota. B. A. 1909. 
LL. B. 1910. Enlisted Sept. 12, 1918. Candidate C. O. T. S., Camp 
Pike, Ark. Private Co. 4, 3rd Bn., Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Discharged 
Dec. 8, 191 8, at Camp Uike, Ark. Chairman, Local Y. M. C. A. 
War Work Campaign. 

Johnson, Viggo H., Cheyenne Falls, Colorado. LL. B- 1906. 
County Director, Thrift Stamp Sale. County Director, Liberty 
Loan Campaign. Member, Local Exemption Board. 

Jorgenson, John A., Jamestown, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 2. 
Associate Member, Legal Advisory Board- Director, District Liberty 
Loan Campaign. 

Kamplin, Rheinhart J., Crosby, North Dakota. B. A. 1914. 
Four-Minute Man. Chairman Y. M, C. A. War Work Campaign. 
Known to have been called in the draft, but have no record. 

Kelly, Clarence D., Hillsboro, North Dakota. LL. B. 1916- 
Enlisted July 9, 1916. Sergeant Co. L., ist N. D. Inf.; in service 
on Texas border. First Lieutenant Co. F, 41st Inf. U. S. A. As- 
signed (i) Ft- Wayne, Mich., (2) Ft. Brady, Mich. Adjutant and 
Instructor S. A. T. C, Ft. Sheridan, 111. and University, N. D. 
Appointed Professor of Military Science and Tactics, R. O. T. C, 
Cretin High School, St. Paul, Minn. 

Kelsch, Clemens F., Mandan, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5. 
Enlisted April 20, 1918, at Mandan, N. D. First Sergeant Co. A., 
313th Eng'rs, 88th Div., Camp Dodge, la. Transferred ( i ) to Co. 
10, Inf. Corps, (2) Mounted Troops of 19th Mil. Police, 19th Div., 
Camp Dodge, la. Served also on spec, duty for two months in Per- 
sonnel office of 5th Tr. Group. 

Kennedy, James P., Miles City, Montana- C. E. 191 2. Enlisted 
July, 191 8. Candidate, E. O. T. S., Camp Humphreys, Va. First 
Lieutenant, Eng'rs, U. S. A. Ordered overseas and ready at em- 
barkation port, when armistice was signed. Was one of the student 
officers at Camp Humphreys who constructed a military bridge and 
swung it into place across a river in exactly fourteen minutes and 
fiftj'-three seconds, a record achievement in the construction of 
such bridges. 

Kennedy, Laurence E., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B, 
1916. Enlisted at Grand Forks, August, 191 8, and sent to Jefferson 
Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri, but was rejected on physical grounds. 

Kirk, Ida B., Niagara, North Dakota. B. A. 1907. (See p. 198.) 

214 The Quarterly Journal 

Kishpaugh, Arthur W., East Orange, New Jersey. E. E. 1912- 
Assigned for special research in the development of wireless apparatus 
for the government in the shops of the Western Electric Company. 

Kishpaugh, Hampton M., Courtland, Calif. M. A. 191 1. 
Enlisted but rejected for military service. Member of the Home 

Kleveland, Henry E., Thor, Iowa. B. A- 191 6. Called in the 
draft and assigned to Ft. Snelling, Minn. Rejected after two 
months' training. 

Kneeshaw, R. Stanley, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1913. Enlisted Spring of 1917. First Lieutenant, M. C, U. S. A- 
Captain, M. C, A. E. F., France. Commissioned Major, M. C, 
U. S. A. 

Knudson, Ingwald L., Harlowton, Montana. LL. B. 1907. 
Four-Minute Man. Member Ex. Com., Local Chap. Amer. Red 

Lampert, Margaret E., Elgin, Nebraska. B. A. 1913. (See 
page 198.) 

Larson, F. H., Phoenix, Arizona. LL. B. 1905. Member 
Legal Advisory Board. 

Larson, Randell J., Washington, D. C. B, A. 1913. Enlisted, 
May I, 191 7, at Washington, D. C. Private. Cavalry, D. C. Sta- 
tioned, (i) 34 F. A., Camp McClellan, Ala., (2) Fort Meyer, Va., 
(3) Camp Lee, Va., (4) Camp Jackson, S. C, (5) Fort Sill, Okla. 
Promotions: (i) Second Lieutenant, Cavalry, R. C, Aug. 15, 1917, 
(2) Second Lieutenant, F. A. M., Dec. 15, 1917, (3) First Lieuten- 
ant, F. A. M., July I, 1918, (4) Captain, F. A. M., U. S. A., Oct. 
I, 19 1 8. Discharged, Jan. 17, 191 9, at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. 

Learn, James M., Parshall, North Dakota. B. A. 1908. Four- 
Minute Man. Member, Fin. Com., Local Chap. Amer. Red Cross. 

Leenhouts, William J., Lawrenceville, Illinois. M. S. 1914. 
Enlisted as candidate for a commission under Civil Service, at 
Washington, D. C-, April 29, 191 8. Second Lieutenant, Lub. Dept., 
Supply Sec, Aern. Div., Air Service, U. S. A. Assigned to Payne 
Aviation Field, West Point, Miss. Promoted from Oil Chemist and 
Oil Reclamation Expert to Lubr. Eng'r and head of Lubrication 
Dept. As result of Civil Service examination, received degree of 
"Aeronautical Mechanical Engineer." 

Leonard, Frank A., Crosby, North Dakota. LL. B. 1908. 
Enlisted July, 191 8 at Crosby, N- D. Candidate I. O. T. C, Camp 
Pike, Ark. Discharged Nov. 14, 19 18, after nine days of service. 
Chairman, Four-Minute Men. Member Crosby Home Guard. 

Leverson, Oliver, Hazen, North Dakota. LL. B. 1905. 
Permanent Member Legal Advisory Board. Member of Home 

Lindstrom, Albert L., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
191 5. Enlisted Aug. 27, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Army Can- 
didate, 2nd O. T. C. Second Lieutenant, 59th F, A. C, U. S. A- 

Alumni 215 

Stationed (i) Camp Lewis, Wash., (2) Ft. Ethan Allen, Vt., (3) 
Ft. Sill, Okl., (4) Camp Jackson, S. C. 

Lovell, Harry B., Beach, North Dakota- M. E. 1910. 
Enlisted June, 191 7 at Beach, N. D. Candidate, Marine O. T. C, 
Quantico, Va. Lieutenant, Mar. Det. on board U. S. S. "St. Louis", 
stationed in Cuban waters. 

Lynn, Harry C, Linton, North Dakota. LL. B- 1910. Called 
in the draft Nov. 27, 191 7. Private, Hdqts. Troop, 88th Div., 
U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

McClintock, George D., Rugby, North Dakota. LL- B. 1916. 
Enlisted Aug. 27, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate O. T. C. 
First Lieutenant, Co. H., 351st Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F- Eleven 
months oversease service. Discharged June 6, 19 19 at Camp Lee, 

McCurdy, Fred E., Bismarck, North Dakota. LL. B. 1907. 
Government Appeal Agent. Chairman Legal Advisory Board- 

McCutchan, Vernon L., Dickinson, North Dakota. B. S. in 
M. E. 191 6. Enlisted June 10, 191 8, at Paris Island, S. C. Private, 
153rd Co., U. S. Mar. Gunnery Sergeant, ist Co., Aviation Cadets. 
Discharged Jan. 27, 1919, at Philadelphia, Pa. 

McFadden, J. Earl, Neche, North Dakota. J. D. 191 5. 
Enlisted Aug., 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. First Lieutenant, Inf. 
Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

McHafifie, Orval L-, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 
Enlisted 1918, at Chicago, 111. Private, M .R. C, U. S. A. 

McGuire, D. Cleary, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E. E. 1913. 
Enlisted Aug. 191 7. Chief Machinists' Mate, U. S- N. Promoted 
(i) C. M. M. to Ensign; (2) Ensign to Lieutenant Jr. Gr., (3) 
Lieutenant Jr. Gr. to Lieutenant. Assigned to U. S. S. "Oklahoma." 

Mcllraith, Edward J-, Minneapolis, Minnesota. LL. B. 1914. 
Four-Minute Man. County Food Administrator. 

McKay, Cecil A., Williston, North Dakota. B. A. 1914. 
Enlisted April, 191 7 at Eugene, Oregon. Apprentice Seaman, U. S. 
N. Stationed at ( i ) Bremerton, Wash., (2) Annapolis, Md., for 
three months' training. Promoted (i) to Ensign, (2) Lieutenant 
Jr. Gr- Assigned to U. S. S. "Florida." In European waters in the 
war zone for fourteen months and witnest the surrender of the Ger- 
man fleet. 

McLean, John A., Grafton, North Dakota. E. M. 1905. 
Enlisted Oct., 1918, at Las Vegas, N. Mex. Captain, 428th Eng'rs., 
U. S. A. Assigned (i) Camp Cody, N. Mex., (2) Camp A. A. 
Humphreys, Va. Discharged March, 19 19, at Camp Humphreys. 

McLean, Hugh A„ Hannah, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 
Enlisted Feb. 27, 191 8, at Chicago, 111. Private, M. R. C, U. S". A. 
Inducted into S. A. T. C, Chicago, Oct. 23, 191 8. Assigned to 
Sceleth Emergency Hospital, Chicago, 111. 

MacDonald, Alexander C, Fingal, North Dakota. B. A. 191 2. 
Enlisted Aug., 19 17, at Fingal, N. D. First Lieutenant, M. R. C, 
U. S. A. Assigned (i) Ft. Riley, Kan., (2) A. E. F., France. 

2i6 The Quarterly Journal 

Seven months overseas service. Discharged Jan. 24, 191 9, at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

MacDougall, Andrew S-, Westhope, North Dakota. B. A. 
1916. Enlisted Oct. 24, 1917, at Chicago, 111. Private, M. R. C, 
U. S. A. Stationed (i) Rush Med. College, Chicago, (2) Murray 
Hospital, Butte, Mont. 

Macnie, John S., Minneapolis, Minnesota. B. A. 1893. En- 
listed April, 191 7, and assigned to the University of Minnesota Hos- 
pital Unit. Entered active service April 2, 191 8, at Ft. Riley, Kan. 
Chief of Ear, Eye, Nose, and Throat Service, U. S. A., Hospital 41, 
Fox Hills, Staten Island, N. Y. An attack of Acute Appendicitis 
and operation in June, 1918, prevented active service until Jan., 
1919. Given rank of Captain on enlistment and later promoted to 
Major, Reserve Corps. Discharged May 21, 1919. 

Marcley, Walter J., Minneapolis, Minnesota. B. S- 1891. 
Enlisted Feb., 191 8, with the American Red Cross Commission, for 
tuberculosis relief work in France and Switzerland. After working 
for nine months among the refugees and soldiers' families in various 
parts of France, Dr. Marcley went, on Nov. i, 19 18, to Switzerland 
as Chief Physician in charge of the medical work among the refugees, 
with special reference to tuberculosis. The refugees represent some 
five or six nationalities, Russians, Serbians, Roumanians, and others 
of the allies, many of whom find themselves ill and in need. It is 
difficult to estimate the great value of this service. 

Marquette, John J., Columbus, Ohio. LL. B. 1907- Enlisted 
at Columbus, Ohio. Captain, Av. Sec, Signal Corps, U. S. A., 
Assigned for special duty in the U. S. School of Military Aeronautics 
at Columbus, Ohio. 

Martineau, Joseph L., St. Paul, Minnesota. B. A. 191 1. 
Enlisted 191 8 at St. Paul, Minn. Second Lieutenant, M. C, 
U. S. A. Assigned to Field Hospital No. 35, Camp Cody, New 

Martineau, Laureat L., St. John, North Dakota. LL. B. 1905. 
Four-Minute Man- Local Food Administrator. Local Explosives 
Licensor. Permanent Member Legal Advisory Board. Chairman, 
Local Chap., Amer. Red Cross. Chairman, Campaign Com. 2nd, 
3rd and 4th Liberty Loans. 

Matscheck, Walter C, Washington, D. C. B. A. 1912. 
Member of the Staff of the United States Food Administration, 
Washington, D. C. 

Meagher, James R., Velva, North Dakota- LL. B. 1908. 
Local Inspector and Reporter, U. S. Bureau of War Risk 

Miller, James M., Westfield, Illinois. LL. B. 1908. Enlisted 
July 12, 191 7 at Billings, Mont- Private Co. K., 14th Inf., U. S. A., 
Camp Lewis, Wash. Discharged June 13, 191 9, at Camp Grant, 

Moberg, Erick G., University, North Dakota. B. S. 191 6. M. S. 

Alumni 217 

1917. Enlisted Dec. 11, 1917, at Berkeley, California. Corporal, 20th 
Company, 20th Engineers. Stationed ( i ) Fort McDowell, San 

Francisco; (2) Washington, D. C. ; (3) Blois, France. Sixteen 
months overseas service. Discharged at San Francisco, June 11, 1919. 

Montgomery, John A., University, North Dakota. B- A. igio. 
Enlisted Jan., 191 8. Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Montgomery, Robert H., Boston, Massachusetts. B. A. 1909. 
Member Legal Advisory Board. 

Moore, Harry S'., Lisbon, North Dakota. B. S. in M. E. 191 5. 
Enlisted July 30th, 191 6, at Lisbon, N. D. Second Lieutenant, Eng. 
Corps., U. S. A. Camp Humphreys, Va. 

Moore, John H., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5. 
Enlisted July, 191 7 at Chicago, 111- First Lieutenant, M. C, 
M. O. R. C, Camp Riley, Kan. Captain, M. C, U. S. A. Assigned 
(i) Camp Riley, Kan. (2) Ft. Oglethorpe, Ark., (3) Ft. Sheridan, 
111., (4) Base Hospital 89, A. E- F., France, Served as Adjutant in 
B. H. 89 Mesves Center, the largest hospital center in the A. E. F. 
Also directed band and choir for benefit of the patients. 

Morrison, Andrew E., Minneapolis, Minnesota. B. A. 1900. 
Registered for draft, 191 7, Minneapolis, Minn. Assigned to War 
Production work, in a factory which operated twenty-three hours per 
day thruout the war, making ordnance parts, tractors, etc. 

Moses, John, Hazen, North Dakota. B. A. 1914. J. D. 1915. 
Four-Minute Men. Chairman, Co. Com. on Civil and Mil. Relief. 
Chairman, Four-Minute Men. Chairman, Co. Com. on Civil and Mil. 
Relief. Volunteered for ist and 2nd O. T. C, but physically dis- 

Movius, Herbert J., Edgeley, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Second Lieutenant, M- R. C, U. S. A. 

Mulready, John J., Fargo, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 5. 
Four-Minute Man. Member, Legal Advisory Board. 

Murphy, Robert B,, Grafton, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 
Four-Minute Man. Secretary, Co. Chap. Amer. Red Cross. 

Nelson, Alfred O., Dunn Center, North Dakota- LL. B. 1909. 
Four-Minute Man. Member Legal Advisory Board. Member 
Co. Efficiency Com. 

Nelson, Norris H., Munich, North Dakota. B. A. 1909. 
Sec'y. Local Chap. Amer. Red Cross. Chairman Four-Minute Men. 
Chairman Smileage Book Campaign. 

Nestos, Drr Peter A., Minot, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
Secretary, Medical Advisory Board. Chairman, Co. First Aid Board. 

Nestos, Reginald A., Minot, North Dakota. LL. B. 1904. 
Four-Minute Man. Member Liberty Loan Campaign Com. Or- 
ganizer Local Chapter American Red Cross. Chairman, Local Y. 
M. C. A. War Work Campaign. 

Netcher, Arthur L-, Fessenden, North Dakota. LL. B. 1910. 
Member Legal Advisory Board. Four-Minute Man. 

21 8 The Quarterly J our rial 

Nielson, Hazel B., Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
(See page 199.) 

Noltimier, Mildred M., Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 
19 1 6. (See page 199.) 

O'Connor, J. F. T., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1908. Volunteered service to the government in any capacity. Rec- 
ommended for commission as Major in Judge Advocate General's 
office. Collected subscriptions for Red Cross amounting to $1000. 
Made many addresses on "The Great War." 

O'Connor, William V-, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1896. Served in Liberty Loan Campaigns. 

Oeschger, Gretchen H., Detroit, Michigan. B. A. 191 3. (See 
page 199, Luros, Mrs. L. L.) 

Oftedal, Axel, Fargo, North Dakota. 191 1. Private, M. R. 
C, U. S. A. 

Oftedal, Sverre, Fargo, North Dakota. B. A. 1909. Enlisted 
Aug. 27, 191 8, at Fargo, N. D. Captain, M. C, U. S. A., (in 
active service)- Discharged Dec. 21, 191 8. 

Owen, Owen Tudor, Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1916. Enlisted 191 7 at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant, Inf., Corps, 
U. S. A., Camp Custer, Mich- 

Padden, W. H., Courtney, North Dakota. LL. B. 1906. 
Assoc. Member Legal Advisory Board. Member Com. on Liberty 
Loan Campaigns. Treas. Local Chap- Amer. Red Cross. 

Page, Franklin, Hamilton, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 5. 
Assoc. Member Legal Advisory Board. 

Palmer, Archie J., Halliday, North Dakota. LL, B. 1914. 
Enlisted Sept. 12, 19 18. Candidate, C- O. T. S., Camp Pike, Ark. 
Private, Co. 5, 3rd Bn., U. S. A. Discharged Dec. 8, 1918, at Camp 
Pike, Ark. 

Patmore, Lewis Graham, Drayton, North Dakota. A. B. 191 5. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, M. C. U. S. A. Assigned to 162nd Amb. 
Co., 1 1 6th S'an. Tr., A. E. F., France. 

Paulson, Paul M., Fessenden, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 5. 
Enlisted Jan. 21, 1918, Minot, N. D. Second Lieutenant, Co. C, 
383rd Inf., 96th Div. U. S. A. Stationed Camp Wadsworth, S. C, 
and Camp Gordon, Ga. Discharged Camp Wadsworth, Dec. 17, 

Paxman, Dalton G-, Hamilton, North Dakota. M. S. 191 5. 
Enlisted Dec. 19, 191 7, Baltimore, Md. Private Co. E, S. A. T. 
C, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Discharged, Balti- 
more, Md., Dec. 10, 1918. 

Perrott, George St. J., Washington, D. C. M. A. 191 5. Mr. 
Perrott entered the government service in July, 191 7, as a civilian 
in the employ of the United States Bureau of Mines at Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, for the purpose of developing a gas mask for the army. 
Here experiments were made on the proper kind of absorbent to put 
in the gas mask in order to protect our soldiers overseas from the 

Alumni 219 

chlorine, mustard, and other deadly gases which the Germans used 
in warfare. Experiments were made with gas masks under actual 
war conditions, those engaged in the experiments being exposed to 
the gases in the same way as the soldiers in action. The next spring he 
enlisted, was given rank as First Lieutenant, and placed in the Chemi- 
cal Warfare Service, Research Division. He was transferred to the 
American Experimental Station at Washington, D. C, and placed 
in charge of the Gas Mask Fabric Research Unit. This Unit developt 
means of protecting the soldiers against the poison gas in a very 
effective way. A fabric was developt for protecting the hands and 
body of the soldier from the effects of mustard gas. In the course 
of developing the fabric for the mask all men in the laboratory made 
actual tests on themselves as to the efficiency of the fabric in protec- 
tion against mustard gas. A chemical method for detecting the 
presence of mustard gas in the field was also developt here. This 
was necessary due to the fact that mustard gas cannot be detected by 
the senses, and the soldiers were often badly burned internally by 
breathing the gas for long periods without knowing they were in it. 
Mr. Perrott was subsequently assigned to the work of develop- 
ing a mask for protection against poisonous smokes, and supervised 
the large-scale production of a protective fabric for keeping dugouts 
free from smoke and gas. He was to have gone to France in the 
middle of November, 191 8, to supervise the construction of dugouts 
there, but the armistice was signed just before the time of his 

Perry, Monta M., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 191 3. 
Enlisted Dec. 11, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Fireman, U. S- N. 
Assigned to Naval Training Sta., Great Lakes, 111. Second Pharma- 
cist's Mate, Hospital Corps, Naval Hospital, New London, Conn. 
Discharged August 25, 1919, at Minneapolis, Minn. 

Peterson, Charles F., Fargo, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 5. 
Four-Minute Man. 

Pinkham, Ray, Fargo, North Dakota. LL. B. 1912. (See p. 179.) 
Pippy, William, Balfour, North Dakota. B. A. 1907. M. A. 
1908. Chaplain, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. 

Porter, Edward F., EUendale, North Dakota. B. A. 1913. 
Enlisted November, 191 7. Lieutenant, Co. N-, 5th P. O. B., Cavalry 
Corps, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. 

Quirke, Terrence T., Minneapolis, Minnesota. E M. 1912, 
M. S. 191 3. Engaged in allied scientific work for the Canadian 
government, prospecting for war minerals. 

Ray, Walter J., Medora, North Dakota. LL. B. 1912. 
Member U. S. Public Service Reserve. County Enrollment Agent. 

Read, Ernest K., East Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. E. E- 1913. 
Enlisted Jan. 23, 1916, Pittsburgh, Pa. Assigned to Radio Sec, S'ig. 
Corps, N. G., U. S. and Pa. Discharged to continue work with 
Westinghouse E. & M. which supplied $60,000,000 of material and 
apparatus to government industries. Also conducted research work 
in developing design and test signal apparatus for U. S. Government 

220 The Quarterly Journal 

and Allies in Laboratories of Westinghouse E. & M. Co-, New York. 

Read, Harry, East Orange, New Jersey. M. S. 1916. 
Assigned to special research work for the U. S. Government on 
systems of communication, in the shops of the Western Electric Co., 
New York City. 
(See page 181.) 

Richards, Raymond, Kansas Cit}', Missouri. E. M. 1906. 
Member of Staff of U. S. Fuel Administration at St. Louis, Mo. 
Member of staff of W. S. S". S., at Washington, D. C. 

Richards, Wilson C, Dickinson, North Dakota. B. A. 1916. 
Enlisted Jan. 28, 191 8. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

Richardson, George E., Conway, Massachusetts. B. A. 191 6. 
Drafted Oct. 29, 1918. Private i|c, M. C, U. S. A., assigned to 
Base Hospital, Camp Dodge, la. 

Robertson, Clarence L., Hebron, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
Enlisted Aug. 8, 191 8, Mandan, N. D. Assigned 3rd Co. N. C. O. 
S'ch., Camp MacArthur, Texas. First Sergeant, Co. G, 387th 
Inf., U. S. A. Discharged Dec. 4, 19 18, Camp Cody, N. M. 

Robertson, Clarence W., Park River, North Dakota. B. A. 
191 1. Enlisted May, 1917, Chicago, 111. Member of Chicago Med. 
Unit No. 12. First Lieutenant, M. C, U. S. A. Assigned to Gen. 
Hosp. No. 18, A. E. F., France. 

Robinson, Harris, Washburn, North Dakota. B. S. in M. E. 
191 4. Enlisted July 22, 191 8, Washburn, N. D. Private, Co. 5, E. 
O. T. S., Camp Humphreys, Va. Assigned to ( i ) 40th Co., loth Bn. 
1 60th Depot Brig., Camp Custer, Mich., (2) Hdq. Troop 14th Div. 
Camp Custer, Mich., (3) Eng. Rep. Camp, Camp Humphreys. 
Discharged Nov. 27, 191 8, Camp Humphreys, Va. 

Rockne, Ludvig M., Mohall, North Dakota. A. B. 1904. 
Chairman, Co. Com. Y. M. C. A. War Work Campaign. 

Rhode, Else C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 19 1 6. (See 
page 199.) 

Ruud, Magnus B., Alexandria, Minnesota. B. A. 1907. 
Member Med. Adv. Board. 

Ryan, Paul J., Argyle, Minnesota. LL. B. 1916. Enlisted, 
Dec. 12, 191 7, St. Paul, Minn. Private, 97th Co., 6th Reg. U. S. 
Marines, A. E. F., France. Served on Verdun Sector, was gassed 
June 6, 191 8, at Chateau-Thierry, and wounded at Soissons July 19, 
1918. Discharged May 27, 1919, at Quantico, Va. 

Rystad, O. H., Landa, North Dakota. B. A. 1904. Member, 
Vol. Med. Res. Corps. Chairman, Co. Def. League. Assistant 
Medical Examiner. 

Sagen, George A,, Northwood, North Dakota. B. A. 191 3. 
Enlisted Sept. 27, 191 7, Minneapolis, Minn. Second Lieutenant, 
334th F. A. Corps., U. S. A. Assigned (i) Ft. Sill, Okla., (2) 
Camp Dodge, la., (3) Camp Pike, Ark., (4) Camp Zachary 



Taylor, Ky., (5) Camp Jackson, S. C. Discharged Dec. 15, 1918, 
Ft. Sill, Okla. 

S'amsom, Christian J., Wynyard, Saskatchewan, Canada. LL. 
B. 1910. Enlisted, January 17, 1916. at Winnipeg, Canada. Private, 
Inf. A. Company, 43rd Cameron Highlanders. Served in France, 
191 7. Decorated with one Gold Bar — Good Conduct Medal. 
Wounded at the battle of Passendaele, and later discharged as being 
incapacitated for further war service. Discharged, October 8, 191 8, 
at Winnipeg, Canada. 

Sand, Sara S., Emerado, North Dakota. R. N. 1915. (See page 

Sathre, P. O., Finley, North Dakota. LL. B. 1910. Member 
Legal Adv. Bd. Government Appeal Agent. 

Schlosser, Walter L., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1913. LL. B. 1915. Enlisted May 11, 1917. Private, O. T. C, at 
Ft. Snelling, Minn. Promoted; (i) Second Lieutenant, Aug. 15, 
1917; (2) First Lieutenant, Dec. 31, 1917. Co. M., 350th Inf., 88th 
Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Discharged, June 21, 1919, at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Selby, Albert E., Spokane, Washington. B. A. 1908. County 
Food Administrator. 

Serumgard, Inez M., Devils Lake, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5. 
(See page 200.) 

Shafer, George F., Shafer, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 2. Chair- 
man, Legal Adv. Board. 

Sheets, Albert E. Jr., Lakota, North Dakota. LL. B. 1916. 
Enlisted May 9, 191 8 at Lakota, N. D. Candidate O. T. C, Camp 
McArthur, Texas. Corporal, Co. G, 62nd Inf., U. S. A. Stationed 
(i) Camp Logan, (2) Camp Fremont. Discharged Nov. 26, 191 8, 
at Waco, Texas. 

Shubeck, Franz E., Ashley, North Dakota. LL. B. 1907. 
Chairman, Co. Chap. Amer. Red Cross. 

Skulason, Bardi G., Portland, Oregon. B. A. 1895, Four- 
Minute Man. Enlisted in Q. M. C., U. S. A., and stationed at Ft. 
Lawton, Ore. Organized the Oceanic Ship Company of Portland, 

Skulason, Skuli G., Thompson Falls, Montana. LL. B. 1903. 
Four-Minute Man. 

Smith, Andrew G., Wildinsburg, Pennsylvania. B. S. 1914. 
Enlisted Jan. 24, 1916. Private, Co. S., 103rd F. S. Bn. (radio), 
U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Hancock, Ga. Previous to enlistment, 
member Penna. Nat. Gd., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Smith, Fred E., Portland, Oregon. B. S. 1894. (See page 182.) 
Smith, George, Hoople, North Dakota. Private, M. R. C, 

:u. s. A. 

Smith, Lester M., Crosby, North Dakota. LL. B, 1914. 
(See page 186.) 

Smith, Myron W., Red Wing, Minnesota. B. S. 1890. 

222 The Quarterly Journal 

Member of the Medical Advisory Board for Red Wing, Minnesota, 
during the first eight months of 191 8. This Board passed on the 
applications from several adjacent counties in Minnesota. 

Dr. Smith enlisted in the Army on May 18, 19 18, and was 
commissioned Captain in the Medical Corps June 11, 1918. He 
entered the service on August 23, 19 18 ,and was ordered to Base 
Hospital at Camp Custer, Battle Creek, Michigan, where he remained 
until he was mustered out. May i, 191 9. During the service at Camp 
Custer, Captain Smith was assigned to various details. At first he 
was member of the Examining Board and in charge of the Ear, Nose, 
and Throat Service, but when the influenza epidemic broke out he 
was loaned to the Medical Service for the time being and then re- 
tained in the Medical Section. Following four weeks of service on 
the Examining Board, he was, for three weeks. Medical Consultant 
in a unit of 900 beds of influenza cases. Following this, he was 
made Ward Surgeon in the Empyema Ward (the ward having cases 
of absess in the chest cavity). Here he served only one day, when 
he was promoted to be Assistant Chief of the Medical Service and 
Consultant of Empyemas, which position he held for two weeks. He 
was then made Supervisor of Clinical Records and Consultant on 
Chest Fluids, in which capacity he served for the remainder of his time 
at Camp Custer. As superintendent of Records, in addition to his 
other duties. Captain Smith, in one single month, signed his initials 
20,000 times on "Form 52", covering the record of every man who 
was ill. He organized the Board of Review for the discharge of 
Overseas men, and was President of the Board from its inception until 
he left. After he was mustered out. Captain Smith resumed his 
private practise at Red Wing, Minn., where he is also attending 
physician in the Boys' Training School. 

Snell, Frank T., Santa Rita, New Mexico. E. M. 1909. Four- 
Minute Man. Member, Red Cross Membership Com. 

Sonderal, Jacob, Hettinger, North Dakota. B. A. 1898. 
Government Appeal Agent. 

South, Harry E., Scobey, Montana. B. A. 1914. Enlisted 
June 26, 19 1 7 at Fargo, N. D. Candidate O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, 
Minn. First Lieutenant, Co. I, 36th Inf., U. S. A. Assigned (i) 
S. A. T. C. Camp, Ft. Sheridan, 111., (2) S. A. T. C. Post, Univer- 
sity of North Dakota. Previous to enlistment was member of ist 
Reg. N. D. Nat. Gds., which became Co. B, 164th Inf., U. S. A. 

Spillane, Harriet E., Grafton, North Dakota. B. A. 191 4. (See 
page 199.) 

Sprague, Vernon H., Grafton, North Dakota. B. S. in C. E. 
1916. Enlisted July 13, 1916, at Grafton, N. D. Second Lieutenant, 
Supply Co., 164th Inf., U. S. A. (previously ist Reg. N. D. Nat. 
Gds.) Stationed (i) Camp Greene, S. C, (2) Camp Mills, L. I., 
(3) Camp Merritt, N. J. 

Stambaugh, Lynn U., Hazen, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 3. 
Called in the draft Sept. 4, 191 7. Sergeant, Btt'y I, 338th F. A. 
Camp Dodge, la. 

Alumni 223 

Stee, Clarence O., Peru, South America. M. E. 191 1. Enlisted, 
Eng'rs. Qirps, U. S. A. 

Stevenson, Frank W., Red Lake Falls, Minnesota. B. A. 191 6. 
Called in the draft Aug. 11, 191 7. Rejected as phj^sically disqualified. 

S'toos, Frank A., Edgeley, North Dakota. B. S. in E. E. 1916. 
Assigned to allied scientific work for the U. S. Government in Test- 
ing Department of the General Electric Co., at Schenectady, N. Y. 

Stoudt, Karl H., Minot, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 3. Enlisted 
July I, 191 7. Member of N. D. Nat. Gd. Sergeant Intel. Dept., 
Hdqts. Co., 164th Inf., 41st Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Strom, Otto C, Hillsboro, North Dakota. B. A. 1906. 
Enlisted Aug. 27, 191 7 at Hillsboro, N. D. Candidate O. T. C, 
Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., Camp 
Lewis, Wash. 

Stuart, Thaddeus S'., Crosby, North Dakota. LL. B. 1910. 
Enlisted 191 7. Private F. A. C, U. S. A. Discharged at Ft. 
Snelling, Minn. 

Sullivan, Helen J., Langdon, North Dakota. B. A. 1906. 
(See page 200.) 

Swenseid, Ralph E., Sanish, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 5. 
Chairman, Four-Minute Men. 

Swenson, Hjalmer W., Brocket, North Dakota. LL. B. 1914. 
Chairman Local Aux. Amer. Red Cross. Chairman, Four-Minute 
Men. Chairman Local Red Cross Fund Campaign. 

Swiggum, Edwin A., Grafton, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 6. 
Enlisted April 19, 19 18, Minneapolis, Minn., as Seaman 2/c. 
Promoted to Gunner's Mate 3/c, U. S. N. Stationed at Glin Burney, 
Md. Discharged Dec. 21, 191 8, Baltimore, Md. 

Talcott, Porter T., Bismarck, North Dakota. B. A. 19 16. 
Enlisted Aug. 28, 191 7, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate 2nd R. O. 
T. C. Second Lieutenant, Btt'y. F, loth F. A., 3rd Div., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. 

Taylor, Fred Ellery, Jamestown, North Dakota. B. S. in E. E. 
1914. (See page 188.) 

Taylor, Glenn O., Medford, North Dakota. B. A. 1908. 
Four-Minute Man. Member Legal Advisory Board. Member 
Com. on Liberty Loan Campaign. 

Tellner, Louis J., Jamestown, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 6. 
Enlisted Aug. 28, 191 7 at Ft. Lincoln, N. D. Corporal, 164th Inf., 
U. S. A., (Co. H 1st Inf. N. D. Nat. Gd.) Stationed (i) Ft. 
Lincoln, N. D., (2) Camp Greene, N. C, (3) Camp Mills, L. I., 
(4) Camp Merritt, N. J. Went overseas with 41st Div. (Sunset) 
Dec. 15, 1917; returned with same division, landing at New York 
Feb. 26, 1919. 

Templeton, Francis H., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1916. Called in the draft, Sept. 22, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. 
Sergeant, F. S. C, U. S. A. Twelve months service on the front 

224 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

lines with the First American Army. Discharged June, 1918, at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Thollehaug, O. K., Sisseton, South Dakota. B. A. 1912. Was 
Superintendent of a school which during the war collected $700 
Red Cross memberships and $80 for a War Library. 

Thompson, Arthur R., Piseic, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5. 
Agent for sale of W. S. S. Organizer of Junior Red Cross and 
Thrift Societies. 

Thompson, Burke E., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL. B. 
1910. Enlisted at Grand Forks, N. D.. First Lieutenant, Btty. 
"A", 128th F. A., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Served in battles of 
St. Mihiel, Argonne Forest and Verdun. 

Thompson, H. B., Milnor, North Dakota. LL. B. 1904. 
Assoc. Member, Legal Adv. Board. 

Thompson, Harold P., Fargo, North Dakota. LL. B. 1914. 
Four-Minute Man. 

Thoreson, Thorstein H., Dunn Center, North Dakota. LL. B. 

1 91 6. Vice Chairman, Co. Chap. Amer. Red Cross. County 
Chairman, Junior Red Cross. Local Chairman, Liberty Loan 

Tingelstad, Sophus B., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1913. Inducted at Devils Lake, North Dakota, August 8, 1918. 
Private, Sergeant, Inf., limited service. Stationed at Camp Mc- 
Arthur, Texas. Discharged at Camp Dodge, Iowa, December 23, 

Tollefson, Axel M., Esmond, North Dakota. M. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted at Minnewaukan, N. D., May 24, 191 8. Private, Co. K., 
34th Eng'rs. Stationed at Gievres, France. Promoted to Corporal, 
Feb. I, 1919. Discharged July 16, 191 9, at Camp Mills. 

Tompkins, Charles R., Oberon, North Dakota. B. A. 1914. 
Second Lieutenant, M. C, U. S. A. 

Torgeson, Theodore A., Estevan, Sask., Canada. B. A. 19 10. 
Chairman Liberty Loan Campaign Com. for Southeastern Saskatche- 

Torgerson, William R., Ann Arbor, Michigan. LL. B. 191 3. 
Enlisted, June 26, 19 18, at Detroit, Michigan. Private, Medical 
Enlisted Reserve Corps. Daily expecting call when the armistice 
was signed. Discharged, January 23, 1919, at Chicago, Illinois. 

Torvend, C. S., Steele, North Dakota. B. A. 1910. M. A. 

191 7. Four-Minute Man. 

Totten, Edward P., Bowman, North Dakota. LL. B. 1905. 
Government Appeal Agent. Member Legal Adv. Board. 

Trageton, O. O., Northwood, North Dakota. B. A. 191 1. 
Chairman Four-Minute Men. Chairman Red Cross Auxiliary. 

Traynor, Fred J., Devils Lake, North Dakota. B. A. 1903. 
First Chairman, Local Telegraphic School, U. S". Signal Corps- 

Alumni 225 

Four-Minute Man. Director, State Campaign, K. C. War Camp 
Fund. Deputy for Smileage Book Campaign. 

Traynor, Mack V., Devils Lake, North Dakota. J. D. 1916. 
Enlisted Aug. 23, 1917, Ft. Snelling, Minn. O. T. C. First Lieu- 
tenant, 355th Inf., 89th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed 
(i) Camp Funston, Kan., (2) Camp Mills, N. Y. At Camp Fun- 
ston was on Major's staff as Bn. Adj. and also served as Judge 
Advocate. Was in command of his company with rank only of First 
Lieutenant, but recommended for captaincy. Was in actual fighting 
service from Aug', i, to Nov. 7, 19 18. and took part in the battles of 
St. Mihiel, Argonne Forest and the Meuse. Was wounded on 
Nov. 7, 1918 by H. E. S. 

Treleaven, Earle M., Hannah, North Dakota. B. A. 191 6. 
Enlisted Nov. 17, 191 7- Private 51st Co., Q. M. C, U. S. A. 
Assigned to Camp Joseph E. Johnson, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Tufte, Engrebret T., Northwood, North Dakota. M. A. 191 1. 
Enlisted Sept. 13, 191 8. Trained in Army Lab. S'ch. at Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Conn, and at Camp Crain, AUentown, Pa. 
First Lieutenant, M. C, U. S. A. Assigned to San. Corps, Deb. 
Hospital No. i, Ellis Island, N. Y. 

Twing, Sidney H., Minto, North Dakota. B. A. 19 14. 
Enlisted May, 191 7, at Salt Lake City, Utah. Private, Co. C, 12th 
Inf. (R. A.) Stationed (i) Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., (2) Camp 
Fremont, Cal. Corporal, Co. C, 31st Inf., U. S. A. A. E. F., Siberia. 

Ueland, Alice M., Roseburg, Oregon. B. A. 19 10. M. A. 
191 8. (See page 200.) 

Ulsrud, J. H., Towner, North Dakota. LL. B. 1910. Govern- 
ment Appeal Agent. Chairman Legal Advisory Board. 

Van Ornum, Harry H., Forman, North Dakota. E. E. 1913- 
Enlisted for Naval Training Station at Annapolis, Md. Lieutenant, 
U. S. N. Assigned as Electrical Officer to U. S. S'. "Nevada." 

Vick, Henry G., Cavalier, North Dakota. B. A. 1893. Gov- 
ernment Appeal Agent. Member Legal Advisory Board. Member, 
Locan Com., Liberty Loan Campaign. Member, County Com., 
Y. M. C. A. War Work Campaign. 

Vinje, Arne, Steele, North Dakota. LL. B. 1913. Govern- 
ment Appeal Agent. Chairman Legal Advisory Board. 

Vobayda, Ludwig C, Lawton, North Dakota. LL. B. 1916. 
Enlisted Aug., 191 7, at Hillsboro, N. D. Reg. Sup. Sergeant, S. C. 
Replacement Depot, Q. M. C. Second Lieutenant, 11 6th Engineers, 
A. E. F., France. Reached France with first 120,000 troops, Dec. 

4, 1917. 

Walker, Joseph D., Wvckhoff, Minnesota. B. A. 1906. Enlisted 
1917. Private, M. C, U.S. A. 

Wardwell, Fred, Pembina, North Dakota. B. S. in C. E. 19 16. 
Enlisted Dec. 14, 191 7. Private Co. K, 23rd Eng'rs, Highway Div., 
U. S. A. Camp Laurel, Md. A. E. F., France. 

Weber, Joseph J., New York City. B. A. 1916. M .A. 1917- 

226 The Quarterly Journal 

Drafted, 191 7. Candidate, O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second 
Lieutenant, Intel. Sec, Q. M. C, U. S. A. Stationed (i) Camp 
Dodge, Iowa, (2) Camp Pike, Ark. 

Webster, Horace G., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 191 5^ 
LL. B. 191 7. Enlisted, Oct. 18, 1917, at Grand Forks, N. D. 
Private, .Hospital Corps, U. S. N. Stationed ( i ) Naval Tr. Sta., 
Great Lakes, 111., (2) Municipal Pier, Chicago, 111., (3) Pelham 
Bay, N. J. Discharged Auxiliary Reserve, New York, Feb. 28, 1919. 

Wells, Theodore B., Grand Forks, North Dakota. C. E. 1912. 
Enlisted Sept. 18, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Assigned to Co. B., 
313th Eng'rs. Master Engineer, Co. D, 307th Eng'rs, 82nd Div., 
U. S'. A., A. E .F., France. Stationed (i) in Toul Sector, near 
Lironville, (2) at Pont-a-Mousson (below Metz) on Lorraine Sec- 
tor ; and took part in the St. Mihiel drive and in the fighting on the 
Argonne front. Following the armistice, attended the Engineer 
Candidates' School at Langres, France, and received certificate of 
graduation Jan. i, 19 19. Was also recommended by the Army 
Educational Commission for a three months' special course in Archi- 
tecture at the Sorbonne University in Paris. 

Wcnzel, Richard E., Rugby, North Dakota. B. A.. LL. B. 1909. 
Permanent member Legal Advisory Board. County Chairman, 
Liberty Loan Campaign. Four-Minute Man. Over half of entire 
time during 191 7 and 19 18 given voluntarily to patriotic work. 
Responded to 94 requests from 150 communities for patriotic ad- 

Whelan, Thomas E., St. Thomas, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 6. 
Called in the draft, July, 191 8 at St. Thomas, N. D. Candidate 
O, T. S., Camp Grant, 111. 

Whitcomb, Arthur J., Fessenden, North Dakota. B. S. in E. E. 
1916. Enlisted, Dec. 12, 1917, at Chicago, 111. Second Lieutenant 
Btt'y. F, 60th H. A., C. A. C, U. S. N. Assigned ( i ) Fortress Mon- 
roe, Va., (2) Ft. Worden, Wash., for Puget Sound Coast Defense (as 
Artillery Engineer). Received three months' training in the En- 
listed Specialists' School at Fortress Monroe, graduating as Electri- 
cian Sergeant, and then spent three months in O. T. C, from which 
he was commissioned Second Lieutenant. Discharged Dec. 10, 191 8. 

White, Harold F., Portland, North Dakota. B. A. 1910. 
Enlisted May 15, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate O. T. S, 
First Lieutenant, 102nd F. A. C, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Served 
on Soissons front and in Toul Sector. Was returned to the United 
States as instructor, assigned to F. A. Brigade Firing Center, Ft. 
Sill, Okl. Discharged Dec. 4, 191 8 at Camp Jackson, S. C. 

Wineman, Ansel G., Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL, B. 
1910. Served on the Mexican border in 1916 as Captain, Co. M. N. 
N. Nat. Gd. Enlisted Oct. 30, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. First 
Lieutenant 2nd F. A. C. (R. A.) U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Assigned 
(i) Phil. Isl.. (2) Camp Fremont, Cal., (3) Ft. Sill, Okl., (4) 
Camp Jackson, S. C, (5) West Point, Ky. Ordered overseas but 
taken sick during the trip and returned to the embarkation hospitaL 

Alumni 227 

Wolff, Herman T., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. S. in C. E. 
1916. Enlisted Jan. 24, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Cadet, Av. Sec, 
Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Av. Tr. Sch., Field, Berkeley, Cal. 

Woods, Donald Kendrick, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
191 1. Enlisted Aug. 11, 191 7, at Great Falls, Mont. First Lieu- 
tenant, M. C, U. S. A. Assigned to Field Hospital No. 20, 6th San. 
Tr., 6th Div., A. E, F., France. Commissioned Captain, M. C. 
April 1 6th, 191 8. Was in active service on the Vosges Sector and 
in the Argonne offensive. Discharged May 11, 1919, at Camp Dix, 
N. Y. 

Woods, John Dakota, Detroit, Mich. B. A. 1908. Enlisted 
fall of 191 7, at Detroit, Mich. Private, 40th Squadron, Av. Sec, 
Sig. Corps, U. S'. Air Service. Stationed at Selfridge Aviation Field, 
Mt. Clemens, Mich. 

Wright, Charles, Minneapolis, Minnesota. LL. B. 1903. 
Member Legal Advisory Board. 

Wright, Minnie C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 1898. 
(See page 200.) 

Ytrehus, Oscar B., Staples, Minnesota. B. A. 191 5. Enlisted 
April 26, 1 91 8. Private Co. L, 360th Inf., 90th Div., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. Participated in the St. Mihiel offensive. Eleven 
months overseas' service. 

Zipoy, Frank L, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. B. A. 191 5. 
Enlisted May 5, 191 7, at Ironwood, Mich. Candidate, O. T. S., Ft. 
Sheridan, 111. First Lieutenant, 353rd Inf., 89th Div., U. S. A. 
Bayonet instructor at Camp Funstan, Kan. Participated in the St. 
Mihiel offensive and the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Was slightly 
wounded in the St. Mihiel battle. Was w^ith the Army of Occupa- 
tion in Germany for six months. 

Zipoy, Michael W., Little Falls, Minnesota. B. A. 1913. 
Captain, America First League. Treasurer Junior Red Cross Chapter. 

228 The Quarterly Journal 

Former Students* 

Baalson, George A., Brooten, Minnesota. SS. igi6. Enlisted, 
May 1 8, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Radio Electrician 3/c, U, S. 
N. Assigned: (i) Receiving Ship, Boston; (2) Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. Promoted: E. R. 2/c, Dec. 9, 191 8; Ensign, Jan. 
22, 19 1 9. Engaged in Radio Research in connection with the Ham- 
mond Radio System and the Hammond Wireless Torpedo. 

Bacon, F. Hume, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Q. M. C, U. S. A. Assigned to Finance 
Dept. of Aircraft Production Div,, at the Goodyear Plant, Akron, 

Bacon, Jerry Myron, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 3-1 4. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. First Lieutenant, 84th 
Squad. Royal British Flying Corps. Instructor in Aviation and Aerial 
Gunnery at Ft. Worth, Texas, at Armour Heights, Toronto, Canada, 
at Camp Leaside, and other camps. Left Toronto for England, 
August 15, 191 8. Stationed at ThieuUies, Belgium, and was in active 
service on the Cambrai-Arras Sector, where he was successful in 
bringing dov.n four German planes. The 84th Squad, holds first 
place among the squadrons in France, having a record of 369 Ger- 
man planes and balloons to its credit. Discharged at Dover, 

Baker, Clinton D., Forman, North Dakota. 1910-1911. 
Enlisted April 26, 1917, at Aberdeen, S. D. Sergeant (Musician), 
Hdqts. Co., 51st F. A., U. S. A. Stationed at Ft. Sill, Okl. 

Bakke, John E., Portland, NortH Dakota. SS. 1916. Enlisted, 
July 20, 191 7, at Williston, N. D. Private, 164th Inf., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., England. Co. E, ist N. D. Nat. Gd. On detached service 
in Winchester, England. Discharged Jan. i, 1919, at Camp Dodge, 

Baldwin, Jeffrey M., Oberon, North Dakota. SS. 191 4. En- 
listed, 191 8. Second Lieutenant, M. R. C, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Ft. Riley, Kan. 

Bale, Kirk George, Cogswell, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, April 13, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Hospital Apprentice 
2/c, U. S. N., assigned to Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, 111. 
Pharmacist's Mate, i/c, U. S. S. "Delaware" of the Atlantic Fleet. 
The "Delaware" with the "New York", "Wyoming," and "Florida" 
formed the Sixth Battle Squadron, with the British Grand Fleet, 
with Admiral Hugh Rodman of New York as Squadron Commander, 
and while with this Squadron the "Delaware" saw some very active 
duty in the North Sea, having the honor of firing the first shot at an 
enemy submarine in those waters. STie was in the first three miles of 
battle front during the raid at Ostend and Zebruges, 

•It will be remembered that Former Students are those whose con- 
nection with the University had ceased before the fall of 1916, but had 
not taken degrees. 

Former Students 229 

Ball, Stephen Thomas, St. Thomas, North Dakota. 1910-1911. 
Enlisted, Aug, 27, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Corporal, Mob. 
Vet. Sec, Med. Dept., 13th Div., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Lewis, Wash. Discharged Feb. 25, 191 8, at Camp Lewis, Wash. 

Barker, Byron H., Rock Lake, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
Enlisted, July 11, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Radio Electrician 
i/c, Av. S'ec, Sig. Corps, U. S. N. Stationed at Key West, Florida. 

Barnes, Howard H., Ellendale, North Dakota. 1911-1912. 
Enlisted, July, 191 7, at Fargo, N. D. Corporal, Co. H, 164th Inf., 
Corps, U. S. A. Overseas service with the Army of Replacement. 
Discharged, March 11, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Beede, Ralph G., Rolla, North Dakota. 1915-1916. Enlisted, 
April, 191 8 at McClusky, N. D. Private i/c. Second Co., Oahu 
H. A., R. A. Stationed at Fort Kamehameha, H, T. 

Bell, William G., Pioneer, Oregon. 1899-1900. Enlisted, 
191 7, at Winnipeg, Canada. First Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, Can. 
Ex. Forces. Overseas service in Germany. 

Boeing, John K., Minto, North Dakota. 191 3-1 4. Enlisted, 191 7. 
Private, Q. M. C, U. S. A. 

Brathovde, James C, Reynolds, North Dakota. 1899-1900. 
Enlisted, May 29, 191 7, at Wabeno, Wis. Private, Co. H., 4th 
Inf., Wis. N. G. Stationed at Camp Douglass, Wis. Transferred 
into Federal service Aug. 5, 191 7. Sergeant, Hdqts. Trains and 
Mil. Police. Sent to France unassigned, arriving there Feb, 23, 19 18. 
Assigned to Co, H, 128th Inf., 32nd Div., April i, 19 18. Transf. 
to B. Co., 107th Mil. Pol., 32nd Div., May i, 191 8. Transf. to A. 
Co., 1st Army Mil. Pol., Nov. i, 1918. Transf. to 279th Mil. Pol. 
Co. S. O. S., Feb. 8, 1919. 

Brecka, Frank V., Prague, Bohemia. 1914-1915. Enlisted, 
191 7. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Bridges, John, Detroit, Minn. 1913-1914. (See page 158,) 
Brown, Ernest A., Thompson, North Dakota. 1909-1910. 
Enlisted, Dec. 15, 19 17, at Salt Lake City, Utah. Pay Clerk 
(Warrant Officer), U. S. N. Stationed at U. S. Naval Training 
Station, San Diego, Cal. 

Budlong, Lester G., Alexandria, Va, 191 2-19 13. Enlisted, 
June 5, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, Med. Dept. Station- 
ed: (i) Fort Riley, Kan., (2) Camp Funston, Kan., (3) Camp Lee, 
Va., (4) Camp Humphreys, Va. Specialized in Army Mess Man- 
agement. Promoted to Sergeant, Med. Dept. Discharged, Jan. 15, 
19 1 9, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Campbell, Lloyd K., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 3-1 91 4. 
Enlisted, Nov. 28, 191 7, at Fort Omaha, Nebraska. Private, i/c, 
Av. Sec, Sig, Corps, U. S', A. Second Lieutenant, Air Service 
(Aeronautics), after completing the following training: ( i ) Ground 
School Course as Flying Cadet, at Cornell University, (2) Primary 
Flying Course at Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, Fla., (3) Advanced 
Flying Course at Post Field, Ft. Sill, Okl., (4) Advanced Flying 

230 The Quarterly Journal 

at Aerial Gunnery School, Taliaferro Field, Hicks, Texas. Served 
as Pilot Instructor in Aerial Gunnery, at Taliaferro Field, Texas. 
Discharged Jan. i8, 1919, at Taliaferro Field, Texas. 

Carley, Earl T., Amenia, North Dakota. 1911-1912. Enlisted 
July 24, 191 8. Corporal, 45th Co., 12th Bn., i6oth Dep. Brig. 
U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Custer, Mich. Discharged at Camp 
Custer, Nov. 25, 191 8. 

Carter, James W., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1914-1915. 
Enlisted, March 6, igi8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private. Stationed 
at: (i) Fort Logan, Cal., (2) Fort Caswell, N. C, (3) Camp 
Eustice, Va., (4) Camp Stuart, Va. Four months overseas service 
in southern France. Discharged March 12, 19 19, at Camp Dodge, 

Chadwick, Samuel W., Kenmare, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
Enlisted 191 8. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Chidlaw, Lester S., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1915-1916, 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D., Private, 3rd Co., ist M. G. 
Bn., 1st Div. U. S. A., A. E. F. France. Served at the front and was 
seriously gassed July 21, 19 18. 

Churchill, George Everett, Casselton, North Dakota. 19 10- 
191 1. Enlisted, Feb. 7, 1918, at Fargo, N, D. Second Lieutenant, 
Mil. Aern. (ground work). Air Service, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal. Served as First Assistant Supervis- 
ing Engineer, 5th District, June to Nov., 1918; and as Chief 
Engineer, East Field, Dec. 1918. Discharged Dec. 31, 1918, at 
Rockwell Field, California. 

Collins, Ray Michael, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted, December 12, 1917, Grand Forks, N. D. Private, 633rd 
Aero Supply Squadron, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas. 

Conwaj^ Mark S., Zamboango, P. I. 1911-1912, Enlisted 
April 13, 19 1 7, at San Diego, California. U. S. N. Landsman. 
Radio land stations and submariner. Stationed at Cavite, P. I., 
Promoted to Electrician i/c. Discharged Feb. 18, 1919, at Sub. 
Base, Cavite, P. I. 

Costello, Patrick H., Sauk "Center, Minnesota. 191 5-19 16. 
Enlisted May 28, 1918, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Private i/c 
(Dispensary Assistant), Perm. Med. Det., Medical Dept., U. S, A. 
Stationed at Ft. Riley, Kans. Discharged Dec. 13, 191 8, at Ft. 
Riley, Kan. 

Covert, Emily C, Billings, Montana. 1912-13. (See page 198, 
Heaton, Mrs. Emily C.) 

Craig, Raymond W., Lisbon, North Dakota. 1909-10. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Co. 2, O. T. S., Ft. Snelling, Minn. 

Cunningham, Aiken C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1908- 
1909. Enlisted Feb. 25, 1918, at Seattle, Wash. Corporal, 44th 
Service Co., Land Div., Sig. Corps, U. S". A., A. E. F. France. 
Stationed at Gievres, France. 

Former Students 231 

'Curtis, Walter G., Lisbon, North Dakota. 1909-19 10. Enlisted 
Aug. 22, 19 1 8, at Camp Pike, Ark. Candidate, C. O. T. S. Private, 
5th Co. 2nd Bn., U. S. A. Discharged Nov. 27, 1918, at Camp 
Pike, Ark. 

Dahl, Arthur William, Dwight, North Dakota. 19 14-15. 
Enlisted Feb. 9, 19 18, at Wahpeton, N. D. Second Lieutenant, 
Mil. Aern., Air Ser., U. S. A. Assigned for training to Sch. of Mil. 
Aem. at Mass. Inst, of Tech., Cambridge, Mas. Feb. 13, 191 8 to 
May 25, 1918. Stationed at Call Field, Wichita Fall, Texas. Dis- 
charged Jan. II, 1 919, at Call Field. 

Danuser, Walter Scott, Jamestown, North Dakota. 1914-1915. 
Enlisted May 24, 191 8, at Jamestown, N. D. Sergeant, 129th 
Spruce Squadron, S. P. D., B. A. P. Stationed at Vancouver Bar- 
racks, Wash., and Timber, Ore. 

Dean, Alfred, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1 908-1 909. 
Enlisted, July 18, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. First Lieutenant, 
M. C, U. S. A. Assigned ( i ) Base Hospital, Ft. Sam Houston, 
Texas, (2) U. S. Army Hospital, Austin, Texas. Discharged Jan. 
22, 19 1 9, at Ft. Sam Houston. 

Derby, Alvin L., Bathgate, North Dakota. 1911-1912. 
Enlisted at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Candidate, O. T. S. Second 
Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Dresser, William Ernest, New Rockford, North Dakota. 191 1- 
1912. Enlisted Nov. 17, 191 7, at Paris Island, S. C. Sergeant, Co. 
F, 2nd Bn., 13th Reg. U. S. Marines. Stationed (i) Paris Island, 
S. C, (2) O. T. C. Quantico, Va., (3) S't. Nazaire, France. Sailed 
for overseas service Sept. 13, 1918. 

Dunlap, Hugh R., Michigan, North Dakota. 1914-1915. 
Enlisted, May i, 1917, at Norfolk, Va. Electrician 3/c, U .S. 
Navy. Assigned to U. S. S. "Rhode Island." 

Edwards, Charles P., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 3-14. 
Enlisted Aug. 8, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. M. M. i/c, Research 
Dept., Submarine Base, 2nd Nav. Dist., New London, Conn. Dis- 
charged from active service Dec. 23, 191 8, but remained in Nav. Res. 

Eielson, Carl B., Hatton, North Dakota. 191 5-16. Enlisted 
Jan. 17, 1918, at Ft. Omaha, Nebr. Second Lieutenant, Mil. Aern., 
Air Ser., U. S. A. Assigned ( i ) Sch. of Mil. Aern., Berkeley, Cal., 
(2) Mather Field, Sacramento, Cal., (3) March Field, Riverside, 
Cal. Discharged March 4, at March Field. 

Enerson, Palmer H., Valley City, North Dakota. 1909-1910. 
Enlisted, Aug. 14, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Sergeant i/c, 
637th Aero Supply Squadron. Stationed at Colembey Les Belles, 
France. Discharged May 15, 1919, at Mitchell Field, L. I. 

Engstrom, George, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1914-1915. 
Enlisted, Oct., 191 7. Yoeman 2/c, U. S. N. R. F. Assigned (1) 
Naval Tr. Sta., Great Lakes, 111., (2) Radio Sch., Harvard Uni- 

232 The Quarterly Journal 

Erickson, Edward C, Orr, North Dakota, igii-1912. Enlisted, 
191 7. Private, F. A. C, U. S. A. Stationed at Ft. Stevens, Oregon. 

Evans, R. Mercer, Grafton, N. D. First Lieutenant, Dental 
Corps, Med. Dept., U. S. A. Stationed ( i ) S. A. T. C. Post, Uni- 
versity, N. D., {2) Camp Dodge, la. 

Falconer, Addison Bentley, Bismarck, North Dakota. 191 1- 
1912. (See page 169.) 

Fawcett, Roscoe, Portland, Oregon. 1905-6. First Lieutenant, 
U. S. Air Service, A. E. F., France. Flying in Chessington, Surrey, 
England. Fell from his plane, but was uninjured, altho pilot was 

Fee, Francis Henrj'. Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted Mar. 30, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant Major, 
Inf. Corps, 2nd Bn., Hdqts. Det., 163rd Dep. Brig., U. S. A. 
Stationed at Camp Dodge, la. Discharged Dec. 4, 191 8 at Camp 
Dodge, la. 

Feir, Earl E., Wood Lake, Minnesota. SS. 19 14. Enlisted 
May 10, 191 8, at Schafer, N. D. Private, Co. L, 62nd Inf., 15th 
Brig., 8th Div., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Fremont, Cal. 
Discharged Camp Dodge, la. 

Fjeldstad, Gustav A., Wells, Minnesota. 1908-9. Enlisted, 
Sept. 19, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Second Lieutenant, Btt'y. D., 
gth F. A., U. S. A. Stationed at Ft. Sill, Okl. 

Fosmark, William M., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1909-10. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Eng'r. Corps, U. S. 
A., A. E. F., France. 

Eraser, Oliver M. Jr., Grafton, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
Enlisted at Rolla, N. D., Sergeant, Co. G, nth Bn., C. I. O. T. S., 
Camp McArthur, Waco, Texas. Discharged Dec. 20, 1918, at 
Camp McArthur. 

Gilby, Alton C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
Enlisted March 30, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private i/c, San. 
Det., 138th Inf., 35th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. In active 
field service in the Flanders, Vosges, Argonne, Metz, and Verdun 
Sectors. The Detachment was cited in General Orders for its serv- 
ice in the Argonne drive. 

Goodall, W. J., Sanish, North Daota. 1 905-1 906. Enlisted, 
May, 19 1 8. Y. M. C. A. Ambulance Corps. Stationed at Grenoble, 

Goodman, Donald F., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5- 
1916. Enlisted, May 7, 1918, at Philadelphia, Pa. U. S. N. On 
Coast Patrol till August. Transferred to O. M. S., University of 
Pennsylvania. Commissioned Ensign March 17, 1919. Discharged. 

Goodman, Paul A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1913-1914. 
Enlisted April 9, 191 7, Grand Forks, N. D. in Machine Gun Co. 
Transferred May 12, 191 7, to O. T. C. at Fort Snelling. "Second 
Lieutenant, 351st M. G. Co., 88th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F. Served 

Former Students 233 

in front lines in the Verdun Sector. Regimental Athletic Officer and 
Assistant Divisional Athletic Officer and for two months was in 
charge of the athletic teams of the 88th Div. Was one of the ten 
men of his division who won the scholarships offered at the close of 
hostilities by French and English universities to the younger officers 
of the American divisions. Selected the University of London 
February 26, 191 8. Discharged July 21, 191 9 at Camp Mills, 
New York. 

Gunderson, John, Halstad, Minnesota. 1910-1911. Exempt 
from military service in order to carry on agricultural production. 

Halvorson, Hassel, Northwood, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Northwood, North Dakota. Private (Musician), 
U. S. N. 

Hamilton, Hastings Henry, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1894- 
5. Enlisted Dec. 5, 1914, in the North Dakota Nat. Gd. Private, 
Co. D., 1st N. D. volunteers, serving in the Philippines. First 
Lieutenant and Bn. Adjt., 3rd Bn., N. D. Inf., 41st Division U. S. 
A., A. E. F., serving in France, Jan. 191 8, to Feb. 1919. Discharged 
Mar. 3, 1919, at Camp Dix, N. J. 

Hanson, Arthur Guy, Hatton, North Dakota, 1914-1915. 
Enlisted July 27, 191 7, at Hillsboro, N. D. Private, 2nd Inf., N. D. 
Nat. Gd. Private, ii6th Eng'rs Train, U. S. A. Assigned to Eng. 
Tr. Sch. at Langres, France, and then transferred as Private, 2nd 
Bn., 29th Eng'r., engaged in sound and flash ranging. Corporal, Co. 
C, 74th Eng'rs., A. E. F. France. Discharged Mar. 21, 1919, at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Haroldson, Julius, Park River, North Dakota. Enlisted, 19 1 7- 
Private, Hdqts. Co., 332nd H. F. A., U. S. A. 

Harper, Frederick W., Enderlin, North Dakota. 1912-13. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Enderlin, N. D. First Lieutenant, D. C, Med. 
Dept., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Funston, Kans. 

Haugen, Ingvald, Honeyford, North Dakota, 1915-1916. 
Enlisted, Aug. 14, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Tr. Det., 
Agri. Coll., Fargo, N. D. Private, Btty. D, nth Reg., F. A. Rep. 
Det., Camp Jackson, S. C. Private, Hdqts. Sup. Co., I2th Reg., 
F. A. Rep. Det., U. S. A., Camp Jackson. Discharged, Feb. 14, 
1919, at Camp Jackson. 

Hazen, Ronald McK., Larimore, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Larimore, N. D. Private, Av. Sec, Sig Corps, 
U. S. A., A. E. F. France. 

Heffernan, John, Williston, North Dakota. 1908-9. Private, 
Eng'r Corps, U. S. A. 

Herigstad, Henry, Cooperstown, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Inducted Sept. 9, 191 8, at Cooperstown, N. D. Corporal, Co. D., 
Group 2, M. G., Tr. Det., U. S. A., Camp Hancock, Ga. Dis- 
charged Feb. 12, 19 1 9, at Camp Hancock. 

Hoff, Lars, Noble, Minnesota. 1904-5. Agricultural produc- 
tion service. 

234 The Quarterly Journal 

Hofstead, John A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, June 20, 1916, at Grand Forks, N. D. Corporal, Co. M, 
164th Inf. Hdqts. Det. U. S. A., A. E. F. France. Stationed at 
Camp Pontanezen, Brest, France. Recommended bj^ Amer. Educ. 
Com'n. for short course at the University of Aix, at Marseilles, 

Holkestad, Harold M., Glen Ullin, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, July 14, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Apprentice Seaman, 
U. S. N. Stationed at Barracks I, nth Reg., Pelham Bay, N. J. 
Transferred to Naval Radio Service, and promoted to Assistant In- 
structor, Advanced Radio work. Assigned to U. S. S". "Agamemnon". 
Discharged Aug. 30, 1919, at Minneapolis, Minn. 

Holmes, Ray Q., Devils Lake, North Dakota. 1914-15. Enlisted 
191 7. Apprentice Seaman, U. S. N. Assigned to U. S. S. "Perkins." 

Holmes, Theodore B., Spokane, Washington. 1912-13. Enlisted 
19 1 7, at Spokane, Wash. Private, M. C, U. S. A. Sergeant, Dept. 
of Chief Surgeon, M. C, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. Twelve months 
overseas service. 

Hutchinson, R. C, LaMoure, North Dakota. 1912-1913. 
Enlisted, June, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Second Lieutenant, 
Co. G, 352nd Inf., U. S'. A. Stationed at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Jacobson, Ray A., Churchs Ferry, North Dakota, 191 3- 191 4. 
Enlisted, Oct. 15, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. First Sergeant, 
Co. B, 7th Eng'rs., U. S. A., A. E. F. France. Was in active service 
in the Vosges Mountains. Returned to United States, July 31, 19 18, 
and detailed as military instructor at Camp Humphreys, Va. Dis- 
charged Dec. 29, 191 8, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Jennings, G. Elmer, Minneapolis, Minn. 1915-1916. Enlisted, 
May 15, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling. Minn. Candidate, R. O. T. C. First 
Lieutenant, 348th F. A., 91st Div., 8th Tv. Hq., and M. P., U. S. 
A. Stationed at Camp Lewis, Wash., and Camp Fremont, Cal. 
Ordered overseas from Camp Mills, N. Y., Oct. 24, 19 18, but 
recalled from transport Nov. 8th, Discharged Jan. 6, 1919, at Camp 
Lee, Va. . 

Johnson, George McLean, Grandin, North Dakota. A i, 1912- 
1913. Enlisted Sept. 13, 191 7. Corporal and Sergeant before 
armistice and Second Lieutenant after. Co. i, 164th Inf., 41st Div. 
U. S. A., A. E. F. France, Stationed at Camp Greene and at Camp 
Mills. Eighteen months in overseas service, for three months at 
General Headquarters, Adjutant General's Office, Discharged July 
2, 1 9 19, at Camp Greene, Now a student at the Unicersity, 

Johnson, Henry Olaf, Fordville, North Dakota, 19 12-19 13. 
Registered at Canton, S, D, Draft call twice postponed by the 
Influenza epidemic. Cancelled Nov. 12, 1918. 

Jones, Marshall D., Lisbon, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Lisbon, N. D. Captain, Co. 8, 338 M. G. Bn., 
U. S'. A. Stationed at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Former Students 235 

Joos, Philip E., Jamestown, North Dakota. 19 13- 191 4, (See 
page 175.) 

Joranby, Cyrus, S., Grafton, North Dakota. 1915-16. Enlisted 
May 9, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Yoeman 2/c, U. S. N. Assign- 
ed to U. S. S. "Smith," stationed at Brest, France, for 16 months in 
convoy service. Received from Rear Admiral S'ims a letter of com- 
mendation for share in rescue of the 300 survivors of the U. S. S. 
"President Lincoln," torpedoed when 900 miles from shore. The 
"Smith" was the only one of a convoy of 48 that caught the "Presi- 
dent Lincoln's" S. O. S. He also shared in the rescue of the 850 
survivors of the U. S'. S. "Covington" and in the salvage of the U. 
S. S. "Westbridge," loaded with flour and torpedoed 350 miles out. 
Discharged June 30, 19 19. Now a student at the University. 

Kernkamp, Ralph F., Valley City, North Dakota. 1912-13. 
Enlisted at Valley City, in the N. D. Natl Gds. on March 15, 191 5. 
Called into service June 19, 1916, and mustered out Feb. 14, 191 7. 
Called into Federal service July 15, 191 7, as member of Co. G, 
164th Inf., 41st Div, Stationed (i) Camp Greene, N. C, (2) Camp 
Mills, N. Y., (3) A. E. F., France. Enlisted as Private. Promo- 
tions: (i) Corporal, (2) First Sergeant, (3) Second Lieutenant. 
Served as Instructor, A. I. S. S., from July 18, 1918, to Oct. 20, 
1918. Trans, to 42nd Div. Casual from Nov. i, 1918, till date of 
discharge. Discharged Feb. 11, 1919, at Camp Dix, N. J. 

Koehn, George L., Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 1912-1913. Enlisted, 
191 7. Captain, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. 

Lee, Clarence E., Walhalla, North Dakota. Enlisted, Aug. 
25, 1917* at Fargo, N. D. Lieutenant (Expert Rifleman), ist Prov. 
Brig., U. S. Marine Corps. Stationed at Port au Prince, Haiti. Served 
as drill instructor at Paris Island, S. C. 

Lindland, Thomas, S'ykeston, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted 
Dec. 12, 191 7, at Sykeston, N. D. Sergeant, 879th Aero Repair 
Squadron, U. S. A. Stationed at Montgomery, Ala. Discharged 
Jan. 30, 1919, at Montgomery, Ala. 

Linwell, Delia, Northwood, North Dakota. 1909-10, (See 
page 198.) 

Locklin, Clarence David, Jr., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 2 
1912-13. Enlisted, July 27, 1917 at Grand Forks, North N. D. 
Sergeant, Co. M., 164th Reg., Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Lommen, Sidney N., Crookston, Minnesota. 1915-16. Enlisted 
May 9, 1918, at Fargo, N. D. Private i/c, Co. B, 23rd M. G. Bn., 
8th Div., U. S. A. Stationed at (i) Camp Fremont, Cal, (2) Camp 
Lee, Va., (3) Camp Mills, L. I. Discharged January, 1919. 

Lord, Vine David, Cando, North Dakota. 1913-14. Enlisted 
May 29, 1917, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, Q. M. 
C, U. &'. A. Stationed (1) Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Ind., (2) Camp 
Greene, N. C. Discharged Jan. 18, 1919, at Washington, D. C. 
Lucksinger, William, Cleveland, North Dakota. 1914-15. Private, 
Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

236 rhe Quarterly Journal 

Luros, Floyd Theodore, Crary, North Dakota, 1914-15. 
Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Lycan, Wilbur S., Bemidji, Minnesota. 1914-1915. Enlisted, 
April 6, 19 1 7, at Bemidji, Minn. Ensign, Pay Corps, U. S. N. R. F. 
Assigned to U. S. S. "Iowa". Discharged at Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lynch, Francis L., Lidgervvood, North Dakota. 1910-11. 
Enlisted, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, 259th Aero Squadron, Air 
Service, U. S. A. Stationed with A. E, F. in England. Discharged 
Dec. 20, 191 8, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Lynch, Matthew Hoyt, Lidgerwood, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Enlisted May 14, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate O. T. S. 
First Lieutenant, 368th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Served also 
with 351st Inf., 162nd Inf., 365th Inf. Went overseas Sept. 1918, and 
into front line trenches Nov. i, 191 8. Discharged Mar. 7, 191 9, at 
Camp Meade, Md. 

McBride, William Scott, Cavalier, North Dakota. 191 5-1 6. 
Enlisted July 30, 191 8, at Cavalier, N. D. Private, loth Co., C. A. 
C, U. S. A. Stationed at Ft. Wetherill, Narragansett Bay, R. I. 

McCanna, David T., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1911-12. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

McClintock, Philips B., Rugby, North Dakota. 1911-12. 
Enlisted Oct. 7, 191 7, at Rugby, N. D. Second Lieutenant, Q. M. 
C, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. Stationed ( i ) Camp Lewis, Wash., 
(2) Chateau du Loir, France. Discharged, Jan. 4, 19 19, at New 
York City. 

McClintock, F. Ernest, Rugby, North Dakota. 1904-05. 
Enlisted, 19 17, at Rugby, N. D. Captain, M. G. Co.. Inf. Corps, 
U. S'. A., A. E. F. P'rance. Awarded the American Distinguished 
Service Cross (D. S. C.) and the French Croix de Guerre, together 
with an official citation for defending a Belgian village. The citation 
is as follows: 

"On the second day of May, 19 18, at Quaderaard, Belgium, 
after making a reconnaisance of that city under heavy bombardment, 
he placed his machine gun in such a way that he could keep the 
bridge of that city under efficient fire." 

McClintock, James G., Rugby, North Dakota. 1904-5. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Rugby, N. D. First Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, 
U. S. A. 

McConnell, Paul H., Churchs Ferry, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Co. D, 313th Eng'rs, U. S. A. Stationed 
at Camp Dodge, la. 

McDonald, Grant A., Grafton, North Dakota. 191 3-1 4. (See 
page 178.) 

McGlinch, Anne, Minto, North Dakota. 1 900-01. (See page 

Mclver, Claude J., Bemidji, Minnesota. 1913-14. Private, 
Eng'r. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. 

Former Studefits 237 

McLaughlin, Harry H., Grand Forks, North Dakota, 191 5" 
16. Enlisted, 1917. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. 

Mann, S. Willard, Annandale, Minnesota. 1914-15. Enlisted, 
June II, 1917, at St. Paul, Minn. Private, Co. E, i6th Reg., 
Engineers (Ry.) U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Mares, Robert M., Wheatland, North Dakota. 1911-12. 
Enlisted, May 9, 1918, at Fargo, N. D. Private, l/c. Co. A, 24th 
M. G. Bn., 8th Div. (R. A.) U. S. A. Stationed (i) Camp Fre- 
mont, Cal., (2) Camp Mills, L. I., (3) Camp Lee, Va. 

Marsh, William T., Minot, North Dakota. 191 1-12. Enlisted, 
Aug. 14, 191 8, at Minot, N. D. Corporal, Co. B, 164th Inf., U. 
S. A., (ist N. D. Inf.), A. E. F., France. Served as stenographer 
(i) in Statistical Dept., 164th Inf., (2) Hdqts. Serv. Bn., Army 
Schools, Langres, France. Discharged Mar. 5, 1919, at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Matthevv^s, Paul C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, 19 17. Private, Hosp. Corps, U. S. A., stationed at Cnmp 
McPherson, Ga. Corporal, Base Hospital 13, A. E. F., France. 
Returned to America on S. S. "Wilhelmina", April 5, 1919. 

Matthie, James H., Inkster, North Dakota. 1909-10. Enlisted, 
July, 191 5, at Prince George, Alberta, Can. Private, Co. B, 8th 
Platoon, Eng'rs Corps, ist Canadian Pioneers, C. E. F. Stationed 
(i) Vancouver, B. C, Can., (2) Baraffle, Par Houdain, Pasde 
Calais, France. 

Mattson, Roger S., New Rockford, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Enlisted, Oct. 30, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, Co. 3, Reg. 
2. (Minnesota), M. C, U. S. A. Stationed at Minneapolis, Minn. 
Discharged Dec. 15, 191 8, at Minneapolis. 

Meade, R. G. Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Balloon Corps, Air 
Service, U. S. A. 

Menke, Thomas, Dickinson, North Dakota. 191 5-16. Enlisted, 
191 7. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

Metcalf, Frederick, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. 1912-13. 
Enlisted, Dec. 4, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Yoeman i/c, U. S. 
N. Assigned to U. S. S. "McKeever" (Mine Sweeper). Stationed 
at Section Base, Cape May, N. J. 

Merry, Lyall Bell, Dickinson, North Dakota. 1913-14. En- 
listed, June 19, 1 91 6, at Dickinson, N. D. Private, Co. K, 1st N. 
D. Nat. Gd. Sergeant, Co. K, 164th Inf., U. S. A. Stationed (i) 
Mercedes, Tex., (2) Ft. Snelling, Minn., (3) Ft. Missoula, Mont., 
(4) Ft. Lincoln, N. D., (5) Camp Greene, N. C, (6) Camp Mills, 
N. Y., (7) Camp Merritt, N. J. Graduated from Army Candidate 
School, France, with rank of Second Lieutenant. First Lieutenant, 
ii6th Supply Train, U. S. A., A. E. F. France. Landed in England 
Dec. 24, 191 7; in France Jan. i, 191 8. Stationed (i) La Courtine 
and Chatillion sur Seine, (2) Langres, Only actual engagement 
was in Saint Mihiel Sector, S^pt. 1-20, 19 18. Fourteen months over- 
seas service. Discharged Feb. 19 19, at Camp Dix, N. J. 

238 The Quarterly Journal 

Miller, Arthur S., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted, Dec, 8, 191 7, at St. Paul, Minn. Corporal, Co. D, 7th 
U. S". Eng'rs, 5th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Sailed for 
France, Mar. 6, 191 8, and was in the midst of active fighting for 
several months. 

Special citation was made of the 5th Division Headquarters "for 
brilliant, unflinching, and uncomplaining tenacity of purpose, in spite 
of fatigue and shortage of rations, being wet from swimming the 
Meuse river and wading the swamp. No division could have done 
more, and every member of the command should be proud to belong 
to it, brilliantly ending its record in the greatest war the world has 
known, under almost constant fire for twenty-seven days out of the 
thirty in the St. Mihiel drive." 

At the time hostilities ceased the 7th Engineers were engaged in 
bridge building in the vicinity of Sedan, and after the armistice were 
assigned with the 5th Division of the Third Army of Occupation to 

Miller, Herbert William, LaMoure, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted Aug. 10, 191 7, at Ft. Omaha, Nebr. Second Lieutenant, 
(Pilot), 2nd Pursuit Group, 49th Aero Squadron, U. S. Air Service, 
A. E. F. France. Fourteen months overseas service. Discharged 
Feb. 14, 1 919, at Garden City, N. Y. 

Montgomery, Lester A., Minot, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted, 19 17, at Salt Lake City, Utah. Apprentice Seaman, Naval 
Training Station, San Francisco, Cal. Seaman i/c, U. S. N. As- 
signed (i) U. S. S. "Mayrant" (destroyer), (2) U. S. S. "Okla- 
homa" (superdread). Stationed off cost of England and Ireland, 
Discharged Jan. 24, 1919, at New York City. 

Moore, Max Mills, Lisbon, North Dakota, 191 5-16. Enlisted 
at Lisbon, N. D, Private, ist Inf., N, D, Nat, Gd, Private, 
(Musician), Co. H, 164th Inf., 41st Div., U. S. A., A. E, F. France, 
Assistant Band Leader, Tst Regimental Band. 

Mullen, Michael John, Crary, North Dakota. 19 14-15, 
Enlisted, June 24, 191 8, at Devils Lake, N. D. Corporal, Hdqts. 
Co., 337th F. A., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at Camp 
Dodge, la. and St. Lobes, France, Discharged Jan, 31, 1919, at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa, 

Nelson, David T., Mayville, North Dakota. 1908-9. Enlisted 
May 14, 191 7, at Ft, Snelling, Minn, First Lieutenant, F. A., Mil. 
Intell. Div., Gen. Staff, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at 
Washington, D. C, and Paris, France. On duty since Dec. 6, 1918, 
with the American Commission to Negotiate Peace. 

Nelson, Elmer O., Hatton, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted, 
191 8. Private, Av. S'ec, Sig. Corps, U, S, A, 

Nelson, Fred T,, Grafton, North Dakota. 191 5-16. Enlisted, 
June 16, 1916, at Grafton, N. D. Private (later Mess Sergeant), 
Co. C, 1st N. D, Nat, Gd. Regimental Supply Sergeant, Co. C, 
164th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. This Supply Company was 

Former Students 239 

given "honorable mention" for efficiency by General Pershing. Dis- 
charged, Jan. 2, 191 9. 

Nicholson, Lawrence I., Crary, North Dakota. 191 5-16, 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Devils Lake, N. D. Private, L O. T. S., Camp 
McArthur, Texas. Discharged, Dec, 1918, at Camp McArthur, 

O'Connor, George James, St. Thomas, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted June 24, 191 8, at Cavalier, N. D. Private, Hdqts. Co., 337th 
F. A., 88th Div., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Dodge, la. Discharged, 
Dec. 12, 1918, at Camp Dodge, la, 

Olson, Berto, Buxton, North Dakota. 1910-11. Called into 
service at Hillsboro, North Dakota, July 15, 1917. First Lieutenant, 
164th Inf., Co. L, ii6th Supply Train, U. S'. A,, A. E. F., France. 
In France, stationed at (i) Chatillon sur Seine, (2) Langres, (3) 
St. Aignan. Promoted to Captain, Nov. 6, 191 8. Discharged, Sept. 
3, 1 919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Olson, George W., Stanley, North Dakota. 1914-15. Enlisted, 
191 7. First Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Opdahl, Carl H. Marion, North Dakota. 1908-09. Physically 
disqualified for military service ,altho later placed in 4th class. Chair- 
man, County W. S. S. drive, and had charge of half of township in 
United War Work Campaign. Farmed 720 acres of land, raising 
9000 bushels of grain. 

Page, Cyril Dyke, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1915-1916. 
A member of the Machine Gun Company since December 2, 191 5, 
Mr. Page was inducted into the Federal service July 15, 191 7 at 
Grand Forks. He was then Second Lieutenant but was promoted 
to First Lieutenant on October 21, 191 7, a couple of months prior 
tx) being sent overseas. Stationed, in this country, ( i ) Camp Greene, 
N. C, (2) Camp Mills, N. Y., and (3) Camp Merritt, N. J., and 
overseas at (i) Gondrecourt, (2) Langres, and (3) Vosges, all in 
France. For some time he acted as Instructor in the Army Candidate 
School; served as "Observer" with the 35th Division, and later with 
the First Army, and in this capacity took part in the Center Vosges 
Sector and Meuse-Argonne campaigns. Promoted to Captain on 
November 9, 191 8. only two days before the Armistice. After this 
he was sent to the A. E. F. University at Beaune, France, in command 
of a Mechanical Service Company. Twenty months overseas service. 
Discharged on July 22, 1919, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, N. Y. 

Pardee, Artland L., Russell, Pennsylvania. 191 3-14. Four- 
Minute Man. 

Patterson, William, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted, Aug. 26, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Corporal, Co. K., 
75th Inf., 13th Div., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Lewis, American 
Lake, Wash. Discharged Feb. 6, 19 19, at Camp Lewis. 

Payne, Donovan A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Enlisted, Oct. 22, 191 7, at Chicago, 111. Private i/c, Flying Cadet, 
Av. Sec, Air Service, U. S. A. Stationed at Ellington Field, Hous- 

240 The Quarterly Journal 

ton, Texas. Second Lieutenant, A. S. A., Casual Det., B. M. A. 
Discharged Dec. 16, 1918, at Air Ser. Depot, Garden City, N. Y. 

Pearson, Oscar Peander, Hampden, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Voluntarily inducted May 4, 191 8, at Psych. Tr. Sch., Camp Green- 
leaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga. Corporal, Psych. Div., Med. Dept., 
U. S. A. Stationed: (i) for training, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., (2) 
for practical work, Phych. Det., Camp Jackson, S. C, (3) for Re- 
construction Service, U. S. Gen. Hosp. No. 10, Boston, Mass. Was 
recommended for first lieutenancy, but commission did not get thru 
before signing of armistice. 

Pease, Harold T., 1903-04. Enlisted, 1917. Captain, 316th 
Trench Mortar Btty., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Lewis, American 
Lake, Wash. 

Pfeifle, Emil C, Anamoose, North Dakota. 1915-16. Enlisted, 
June 23, 1918, at Towner, N. D. Corporal, Co. D, Dev. Bn. i, 
Inf. Corps, U. S'. A. Stationed at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Discharged, 
Dec. 13, 19 1 8, at Camp Dodge. 

Pinkham, Sherman F., Fargo, North Dakota. 19 13-14. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Quigley, Walter E., East Grand Forks, Minnesota. 1911-12. 
Enlisted, Oct. 7, 191 8, at Lincoln, Nebr. Candidate, O. T. C, 
Camp IMcArthur, Waco, Texas. Due to mix-up in transferring 
records, failed to reach camp before signing of armistice. Discharged 
Nov. 15, 19 1 8, at Camp McArthur, Texas. 

Radke, W. Lynn, New Rockford, North Dakota. 1 912-13. 
Enlisted, May, 1917, at New Rockford, N, D. First Lieutenant, 
(Dental Surgeon), D. C, 41st Inf., U. S. A. Stationed (i) Camp 
Funston, Kan., (2) Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. 

Rasmussen, S. John, Minot, North Dakota. 191 5-16. (See 
page 180.) 

Randolph, Thomas Beverly, Alexander, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted, Mar. 3, 19 15. Private, Co. E, N. D. Nat. Gd. Sergeant, 
Co. E, 164th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Fourteen months 
overseas service. Discharged Mar. 11, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Read, George S., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1914-15. Called 
in the draft June 14, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private. Voc. 
Tr. Det., Agri. Coll., Fargo, N. D. Candidate, O. T. S., Camp 
Hancock, Ga. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Discharged 
Nov. 25, 191 8, at Camp Hancock, Ga. 

Robertson, George Maurice, Willow City, North Dakota, 191 2- 
13. Enlisted, May 15, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate, 
1st O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. First Lieutenant, Troop L, 15th | 
Cavalry (R. A.), U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at Bayonne, 

Russell, Roy W., Calgary, Canada. 1912-13. Candidate, O. 
T. C, Camp Custer, Mich. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 
Stationed at Camp Custer, Mich. 

Sanford, Ray L., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1907-08. Enlisted 
August 15, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minnesota. Second Lieutenant, 

Former Students 241 

Y. A, First Trench Mortar Batt'y. First Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., 
France. Promoted to First Lieutenant, F. A., Sept. 5, 191 8. San- 
ford was on active duty with the First Division from the time they 
entered the trenches, Jan. 20, 1918 to Jan. 13, 1919, when they 
were a part of the Army of Occupation in Germany. Discharged 
May 6, 19 19, at Camp Upton, N. Y. 

Scouton, Harry E., Inlcster, North Dakota. 1914-15. Enlisted 
May 9, 191 7, at Chicago, 111. Private, Aero Div., Air Service, U. 
S. A. Second Lieutenant, A. S. A., U. S'. A., R. M. A. Stationed 
(i) Kelly Freld, (2) Payne Field, (3) Garden City, L. L, (4) San 
Antonio, Tex., (5) West Point, Miss. Discharged Jan. 11, 19 19. at 
Rockwell Field, San Diego, Cal. 

Seese, Edward R., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 3-14. 
Enlisted, Nov., 191 7, at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. Candidate, O. T. 
C, Ft. Leavenworth. First Lieutenant, 76th F. A., U. S. A. As- 
signed to i8th \J. S. Cav., and sailed April 24, 1918; went into active 
■service July 5, on the Marne front, and was in the Chatteau Thierry, 
St. Mihiel, and Argonne Forest engagements. Was slightly gassed 
at St. Mihiel. Was with the Third Ariny of Occupation in Ger- 
many, stationed at Andernoch, in the Rhine country. Following the 
armistice, was selected by the Army Educational Commission, as one 
of two officers from his regiment, for a short courst at the University 
of Poitiers, France. 

Serumgard, Arthur Kirker, Devils Lake, North Dakota. 191 3- 
14. Enlisted, Tulv 6, 191 7, at Bismarck, N. D. Candidate, O. T. 
S., Ft. STieridan, 111., (Sergeant, Co. L, N. D. Nat. Gd.) Second 
Lieutenant, Co. L, 164th., Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Sailed 
Dec, 191 7, on the "Leviathan," reaching England Dec. 24, 191 7. 
Was assigned for special training in Stokes-Mortor to Aignan-sur 
Noyer, remaining there until transferred to the i6th U. S. Regulars. 
With this company, he took part in the St. Mihiel drive, in the storm- 
ing of Mount Sec, and the operations in the Argonne forest. He was 
in command of the unit that took the village of Fleville, where he 
"was severely gassed and burned ; was also wounded by shrapnel at 
St. Mihiel. On coming out of the hospital in Dec, 19 18, was assign- 
ed as instructor in the Thrid Army Specialty School, near Langres, 
Prance, and from there was transferred to the 3rd A. S. S., at Clem- 
ancy, France. 

Sheils, Chester A., Lakota, North Dakota. 1915-16. Enlisted, 
191 8. Private, Eng'rs Corps, U. S. A. 

Smallwood, James F., Minot, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted, 
Oct. 14, 1 91 7, at Minot, N, D. Private, Av. Dept., Spruce Produc- 
tion Div., U. S. A. Stationed at Vancouver Barracks, Wash. Dis- 
charged Oct. 23, 191 8. Chairman, Canteen Service, Minot Chap. 
Amer. Red Cross. 

Smith, Peter James, Walhalla, North Dakota. 191 1-12. Applied 
for enlistment Apr. 17, 191 7, but rejected on account of height. 
Applied Apr., 1918, and accepted, pending re-opening of Av. Sec of 
Signal Corps, which the armistice prevented. 

242 The Quarterly Journal 

Solstad, J. H., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1898-99. Member 
of District Selective Service Board. 

Sbule, George A., Towner, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted, 
Dec. 14, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks. Sergeant i/c, U. S. A., A. E. 
F., France. Stationed successively at Camps Jackson and Hancock, 
and overseas at Intermediate Ordnance Depot No. 4. Discharged 
July 27, 191 9, at Camp Dodge. Now a student at the University. 

Sprake, Tyler W.. Casselton, North Dakota. 1915-16. Enlisted, 

July 21, 1917, at Valley City, N. D. Corporal, Co. C, 164th Inf., 

U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Discharged, March 11, 1919, at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Stephenson, Gordon S., Emerado, North Dakota. 1912-13. 
Enlisted, Sept. 22, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Color Sergeant, 
Hdqts. Co., 352nd Inf., 88th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Dis- 
charged June 17, 19 19, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Stewart, Arthur B., Minot, North Dakota. 1913-14. (See 
page 187.) 

S'tomner, Alvin G., Mayville, North Dakota. 1914-15. Enlisted 
May, 191 7, at Fort Snelling, Minn. Candidate, O. T. C. Second 
Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., Camp Dodge, Iowa. First Lieu- 
tenant, Co. I, 804th Pioneer Inf. Corps, U. S. A. A. E. F., France. 

Soules, James A., Dickinson, North Dakota. 1914-15, Enlisted, 
191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Thordarson, Thordar W., Edinburg, North Dakota. 191 3-1 4. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, A. R. C, U. S. A., Ft. Snelling, Minn. 

Thorgrimsen, Gudmund G., Grand Forks, North Dakota, SS. 
1 91 6. Enlisted, Jan. 7, 19 18, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private 
(musician), U. &'. N. Assigned to U. S. S. "Utah" which was on 
foreign duty, convoying troop transports. Was one of the convoy 
escorting President Wilson to the harbor at Brest. Discharged Dec. 
26, 1 91 8, at New York City. 

Triplett, Edward Daniel, Sutherland, Iowa. 191 5-16. Enlisted, 
Sept. 13, 1917, at Sioux City, Iowa. Private i/c, 23rd Amb. Co., 
Med. bept., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed ( i ) Ft. Olge- 
thorpe, Ga., (2) Prov. Hosp. No. i, Bazoilles, France. 

Tubbs, McKinley Douglas, Hunter, North Dakota. 191 4-1 5. 
Enlisted, April 30, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Second Lieutenant, 
Btty. A, 47th Reg. F. A., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Kearny, Cal. 
Discharged Feb. 21, 1919, at Camp Kearny. 

Turner, Genevieve, Washington, D. C. 1911-12. (See page 
1 98, Holman, Mrs. Charles.) 

Urness, John N., Portland, North Dakota. B. A. Luther 
College, 191 5. Graduate student. University of North Dakota, 
Summer Sessions of 191 5 and 1916. Enlisted August 27, 1917, at 
Devils Lake, N. D. Second Lieutenant, 4th Co., C. A. C. Assigned 
to Pudget Sound Coast Defense, Ft. Worden, Wash. Discharged, 
Jan. 8, 1 91 9, at Fort Rosecrans, Cal. 

Former Students 243 

Wagner, Fred C, Rolla, North Dakota. 191 5-16. (See 
page 190.) 

Wallace, Russell, Drayton, North Dakota. 191 5-16. Enlisted 
191 7, at Minot, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Camp Custer, Mich. 

Walton, Irwin Elroy, Bantry, North Dakota. 1914-1915. 
I Enlisted, Feb. 26, 191 8, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Private, Av. 
Sec, Signal Corps, R. A. Musician Hdqts, Co., 11 2th H. F. A., 
29th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Weatherwax, Lester, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 19^)8-09. 
Known to have been in the service, but details not available. 

Webster, Ivan, Lisbon, North Dakota. 19 15-16. Enlisted, 
August, 191 7. Private, 164th Inf., 41st Div.. A. E. F., France. 
Previous to enlistment was member of 1st N. D. Nat. Gd. 

Welo, Arthur Edward, Velva, North Dakota. 1910-11. 
Enlisted June 30, 1918, at Towner, N. D. Sent at once to the 
University of North Dakota as member of its first Unit of the N. 
A. T. C. At the conclusion of the eight weeks' training he was 
retained as instructor for the second detachment. Later, sent to Camp 
Pike, Ark, as Candidate, I. O. T. C. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, 
U. S. A. Discharged, Dec. 6, 19 18, at Camp Pike, Ark. 

Whitney. Bert J., Bruce, Wisconsin. 19 13-14. Enlisted, Sept. 
20, 191 7, at Hastings, Minn. Private, Co. E, 313th Eng'rs., U. S. 
A., Camp Dodge, Iowa. Corporal, Co. E, 11 6th Engrs., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. Stationed at Angers, France. (Supply Train and 
Band of 11 6th Engrs. were furnisht by the 2nd N. D. Inf.) Dis- 
charged, March 11, 1919, at Camp Grant, 111. 

Wirkus, Lauren Paul, Minto, North Dakota. 1914-15. (See 
page 192.) 

Wonnenberg, Raymond H., Jamestown, North Dakota. 1909- 
1910. Enlisted Feb. 8, 191 7, at Tacoma, Wash. Private (Bugler), 
lOth Co., Washington C. A. C, Ft. Flagler, Wash. Candidate, 4th 
O. T. C, Fort Monroe, Va. Second Lieutenant, C. A. C, U. S. A., 
(June 26, 1917). Detailed as Assistant to Second Coast Defense 
Artillery Engineer, Coast Defenses of San Francisco, Cal. Discharged 
Dec. 12, 191 8, at Ft. Winfield Scott, Cal. Re-commissioned second 
Lieutenant, Officers' Reserve, Div. of Coast Artillery, Feb. 27, 191 8. 

Ylvisaker, Herman Ludwig, Fargo, North Dakota. Grad. 
Student, SS 1916. Enlisted May 14, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn, 
Seaman 2/c, Officers' Material School, U. S. N. R. Stationed at 
(i) Municipal Pier, Chicago, (2) Pelham Bay, N. J., (3) New 
York City. Ensign, U, S. N. R. Released from active duty March 
II, 19 1 9, at New York City. 

244 The Quarterly Journal 


Aas, Oliver, Samuel, Valley City, North Dakota. A 3, 1918-19. 
Private, S. A. T. C, University of North Dakota, 19 18. Candidate, 
O. T. S., Camp Grant, 111. Recommended for the transfer on ac- 
count of excellence of military and educational work. Transferred 
October 31, 1918. 

Abrahamsen, Abraham B., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 3, 
191 7-1 8. Enlisted, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Private, M. 
C, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Assigned to Base Hospital 131. 
Twelve months overseas service. Discharged at Camy Upton. 

Allen, Frank Taft, Lisbon, North Dakota. M Sp, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, May 12, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Private, Motor 
Transport Corps, U. S. A. Stationed (i) Ft. Sam Houston, (2) 
Detroit, Mich., (3) Ft. Benning, Ga. Promoted: Second Lieutenant, 
Aug. 15, 191 7; First Lieutenant, July 25, 191 8; Captain, Oct. 25, 
191 8. Remaining in Regular Army. 

Amberson, Henry R., Bismarck, North Dakota. M 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Bismarck, N, D. Private, M. C, U. S". A. 

Amberson, Julius, Bismarck, North Dakota. EM 2, 1 916-17. 

Enlisted, 1918, at Bismarck, N. D. Seaman i/c. Radio Div., Sig. 

Ser., U. S. N. Chief wireless operator on one of the U. S. Sub- 

Amlie, Thomas, Binford. North Dakota. A 2, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, Nov. 5, 191 8 at Fargo, N. D. Private, Co. B, Agr. Coll., 
Tr, Det., Fargo, N. D. Discharged, Dec. 10, 191 8, at Fargo, N. D. 

Arestad, Elmer A., Cooperstown, North Dakota. A i, 19 16-17. 
Placed in Class 2 for the draft, but not called. Rendered service in 
agricultural production. 

Arman, Sophus G., Grafton, North Dakota. A i, 1918-19. (See 
page 155.) 

Arnold, W. Bruce, Stanley, North Dakota. L 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, March 27, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Located at Camp 
Dodge and Camp Grant, in the O. T. C. at the latter. Discharged, 
December 8, 191 8, at Camp Grant. Now a student at the University. 

Baglien, Orlin, Hillsboro, North Dakota. A I, 1917-1918. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Apprentice Seaman, U. S. N. 

Baker, Roscoe B., Grand Forks, North Dakota. L i, 1916-1917. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Apprentice Seaman, U. S. 
N. Assigned to U. S'. S. "Reina Mercedes", stationed at Annapolis, 

•It will be remembered that xrndergTadnates Include all whose periods 
of study were interrupted by entering the service. The year given is, in 
each case, the last of University attendance prior to entrance. Several 
whose courses of study were nearly completed at the time of enlistment 
were granted their degrees, in absentia, at the following Commencement. 
Several others have returned since their discharge, compelted their work, 
and received their degrees. All such are now alumni of the institution 
but, not being so at time of war service, are not so Hated here. 

Undergraduates 245 

Banik, Adolph T., East Grand Forks, Minnesota. L i, 19 16- 
191 7. Enlisted, May 29, 1917, at Minneapolis, Minn., as Landsman 
Yoeman, U. S. N. Assigned to Naval Training Stations, ( i ) Great 
Lakes, 111., (2) Boston, Mass., (3) Miami, Fla., (4) Pensacola, 
Fla. Promoted: Yoeman 3/c, Yoeman 2/c. Ch. QM., Naval 
Aviator, Ensign. Discharged at Pensacola, Fla. 

Banish, William J., Larimore, North Dakota. SS. Sp. 1917. 
Enlisted, August, 191 7. Candidate, O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. 
Second Lieutenant. Co. C, 349th Inf., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Pike, Ark. 

Barnes, Harold L., Grand Forks, North Dakota. M i, 19 16- 
1917. Enlisted, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. First Lieutenant, Av. 
Sec, Signal Corps, U. S'. A. Pilot, Av. Mech. Tr. Sch., St. Paul, 

Bass, George W., Grand Forks, North Dakota. Ed. 3-A 3, 
1916-1917. Enlisted May 11, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant 
Art. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed successively at Fort Logan, Camp 
Fremont, and Camp Mills. While at Camp Fremont, Mr. Bass 
passed the examination for the Field Artillery O. T. C, at Camp 
Taylor, but was ordered to Camp Mills for embarkation instead. He 
was then recommended for his commission from the ranks but the 
embarkation order prevented. He sailed from New York on the 
"President Grant", but when only three days out a wireless message, 
telling of the signing of the armistice, turned them back. Landing 
at Norfolk, Va., Mr. Bass was discharged at Camp Lee on December 
20, 19 1 8. Now a student at the University. 

Bateman, Clarence V., Livingston, Montana. A 2, 1917-1918. 
Called in draft, Sept. 5, 19 1 8, at Livingston, Mont. Private, 56th 
Co., 14th Batty., 1 66th Dep. Brig., U. S. A., Camp Lewis, Wash. 
Transf. to Co. 11, Col. C. A. C, Ft. Stevens, Ore. Transf. to Co. 
H. Training Sch., Fortress Monroe, Va. Discharged, Dec. 2, 1918, 
at Fortress Monroe, Va. 

Batten, P. Jay, Williston, North Dakota. E 3, SS', 1917. 
Enlisted Sept. 6, 191 7, at Williston, N. D. Candidate, E. O. T. C. 
Camp Lee, Va. Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Eng'rs. He was 
transferred from Camp Lee, Va., to Camp Glenburnie, Md., and 
placed with the 6oist Engineers with whom he crossed to France. 
He was then transferred to the 2nd Engineers with which group he 
served for more than 18 months. He served at St. Mihiel, Mont. 
Blanc, in the Meuse-Argonne campaign, and at St. Etienne a Arnes. 
He was with the army of Occupation from December 14, 191 8, till 
September 15, 1919, the latter part of the time with the Inter-Allied 
Railway Commission stationed at Coblenz, Germany, and having 
supervision of all German railroads. He was awarded the Croix de 
Guerre by General Headquarters French Army of the East for 
bravery in action in combat duty at St. Etienne a Arnes. The citation 
reads as follows: 

"From the 8th to the loth of October, 191 8, in command 
of a section, Lieutenant Batten showed great bravery and quali- 

246 The Quarterly Journal 

ties of command by keeping his position at St. Etienne a Arnes. 
He kept the contact with the unit on his right, whose line con- 
stantly changed, under a very violent artillery fire, which 
permitted him to reach his objective with few losses and in a 
very short time." 

Bell, Alexander W., Minot, North Dakota. M 2, 1918-1919. 
Inducted into the S. A. T. C. at the University of North Dakota, 
October, 191 8. Transferred to O. T. C, Camp Grant, 111. Re- 
turned to the University of North Dakota, Nov. 27 on detacht 
service to assist in the demobilization of the S. A. T. C. Transferred 
back to the S'. A. T. C. for discharge, December 21, 19 18. 

Belyea, Walter P., Bottineau, North Dakota. M i, 191 7-1 8. 
(See page 155.) 

Benner, Robert Lee, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. 
Corps, U. S. N. Assigned for training to the Naval Avitation Sta- 
tion, Seattle, Wash. Discharged, November, 191 8, at Chicago, 111. 

Berg, Anton Ludwig, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A Sp. 191 7- 
18. Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, U. S. N. 
Assigned to Naval Tr. Sta., at Great Lakes, 111. Discharged Nov., 

Berg, E. Arthur, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, U. S. N. Assigned 
to Naval Tr. Sta., at Great Lakes, III. Discharged Nov., 191 8. 

Berg, Stanley Hjalmar, Rolette, North Dakota. M i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 19 17, at Rolette, N. D. Med. Corps., stationed at Sub- 
marine Base, New London, Conn. 

Bertelson, Morton Kimball, Kenmare, North Dakota. A i 
19 1 6-1 7. Enlisted, May 28, 191 7, at Lisbon, N. D. Private, M. G. 
Co., Med. Dept., U. S. A. Stationed ( i ) Camp Cody, New Mex., 
(2) Camp Dix, N. J. Discharged Dec. 19, 191 8, at Camp Dix. N. J. 

Bervin, Ernest T., Lakota, North Dakota. A i, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, 1918, at Lakota, N. D. Seaman 3/c, U. S. N. 

Bjorgo, Laurence, Thompson, North Dakota. A 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted Aug. 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Radio Sec, 
Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Assigned to Tr. Det. at Agri. Coll., Fargo, N. 
D. One of a select corps of sixty specially trained radio op)erators 
called from the various camps of the country for special emergency 
service at Pittsburgh. 

Blenkner, Edwin A., Bowbells, North Dakota. L 2, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, Sept. 19, 191 7, at Miles City, Mont. Candidate, 3rd O. T. 
S., Camp Lewis, Wash. Second Lieutenant, Co. K, 75th Inf., 13th 
Div., U. S'. A. Served also with 91st, 37th and 80th Div'ns. Sta- 
tioned at Camp Lewis, Wash. 

Bondelid, Oscar Anton, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 
1916-17. Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, ist N. 
D. Nat. Gd. Second Lieutenant, Co. M, 164th Inf., 41st Div., 
U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Undergraduates 247 

Booker, Eugene Ryan, Pembina, North Dakota. E i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Pembina, N. D. Private, Radio Sec, Sig. Corps, 
U. S. N. Assigned to Radio Post, Naval Tr. Sta., Alpina, Mich. 

Boyce, William Lester, Kenmare, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted May 12, 191 7, Ft. Snelling, Minn., R. O- T. C. First 
Lieutenant, 351st Infantry, U. S. A. Ft. Sheridan, 111. Nine 
months overseas service. 

Boyd, Joseph, Libertyville, Indiana. A 3, T916-17. Enlisted, 
May 12, 191 7. Candidate, R. O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second 
Lieutenant, Inf. R. C, U. S. A., Camp Dodge, Iowa. First Lieu- 
tenant, Co. I, 351st Inf., N. A., A, E. F., France. Stationed at 
Hondelaincourt, France. 

Brady, Edward W., East Grand Forks, Minnesota. A i, 191 6- 
17. Enlisted, 191 7, at East Grand Forks, Minn. Private, Q. M. C, 
U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Served as Army Field Clerk. 

Brenner, Walter W., Dickinson, North Dakota. E i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, ist N. D. Nat. Gd. Sergeant, Co. K, 164th 
Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Brett, Oswald F., Park River, North Dakota. Ed 3-A 3, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, Sept. 22, 191 7, at Grafton, N. D. Private, Hdqts. 
Co., 352nd Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Dispatcher, Motor- 
cycle Corps. Stationed at Bonne, France. 

Bridston, Joseph Benjamin, Dutton, Montana. Ed 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 19 18, at Dutton, Mont. Seaman 3/c, U. S. N. Assigned 
to the Tr. Sta., at Navy Yards, Puget Sound, Wash. 

Bridston, Selmer, Grand Forks, North Dakota. M 2, 191 7-18. 
Volunteered, Jan. 8, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant-Major, 
Av. Sec, Med. Dept., U. S. A. Assigned (i) Av. Rep. Depot, 
Dallas, Texas; (2) Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. 

Brodie, George D., Dickinson, North Dakota. A i, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, July 21, 191 8, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 19th Co., C. O. 
T. C, Camp Lee, Va. Rank on enlistment. Private; later promoted 
to Second Lieutenant. Discharged November 30, 191 8, at Camp 
Lee, Va. 

Brooke, Deane F., Valley City, North Dakota. M 4, 19 17-18. 
Enlisted, Jan. 8, 191 8, at East Grand Forks, Minn. Corporal, Co. 
B, Med. Det., M. C, U. S. A. Stationed at the Walter Reed 
Hospital, Washington, D. C. Discharged, Sept. i, 191 9, at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Brooke, Richard N., Cando, North Dakota. A 4, 1916-17. 
Inducted May 3, 191 8, at Baltimore, Md. Private, Co. H, 5th 
Engr. Tr. Regt., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp A. A. Humphreys, 
Va. Discharged, Jan. 11, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Brown, Harold, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, 2nd Det., Av. 
Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Greenville, S, C. 

Brubaker, Henry J., Kenmare, North Dakota. EE 3, 1916-17. 

248 The Quarterly Journal 

Enlisted, May 14, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. First Lieutenant. 
139th Pursuit Squadron, Air Ser., U. S. A. Fourteen months over- 
seas service. Took preliminary flying training at the French Aviation 
camp at Chateauroux. Saw service on the St. Mihiel and Argonne 
fronts from Aug. 30, 191 8, until Dec. 23, 1918. Discharged April 
23, 1919, at Garden City, N. Y. 

Brye, Garfield, Grafton, North Dakota. A 1, 191 8-19. (See 
page 160.) 

Bublitz, William F., Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 1917. 
Enlisted Aug. 191 7, for O. T. C., Ft. Snelling, Minn. 

Burtchett, Floyd F., Granville, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted for the S. A. T. C. at the University of North Dakota on 
October 5, 191 8. Transferred on October 25, to the Coast Artillery, 
O. T. C, of the C. A. S., Company "K", Fortress Monroe, Virginia. 
Discharged on Dec. 4, 19 18. Now a student in the University. 

Busch, Jacob W., McArthur, North Dakota. A i, 1918-19. 
(See page 161.) 

Cady, Dewey, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. First Lieutenant, Inf. 
Corps, U. S. A. 

Capes, John, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. A 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Apprentice Seaman, U. S. 
N. Assigned to Naval Tr. Sta., at Great Lakes, III. 

Carlson, Arthur B., Minot, North Dakota. L. S'p. 1916-17. 
Enlisted, Sept.. 191 7, at Minot, N. D. Candidate, 2nd O. T. C, 
Ft. Snelling, Minn. First Lieutenant, Co. H, 339th Inf., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., Russia. 

Carlson, Edwin L., Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 1917. 
Enlisted, Feb. 26, 191 8, Great Lakes, 111. Chief Electrician, Radio 
Dept., 7th Reg. U. S. N. R. F. Instructor, Radio Service, Naval 
Training Station, Great Lakes, 111. Released May 16, 191 9, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Carter, William, Bowbells, North Dakota. B. A. 1918. En- 
listed Jan. 8, 191 8, East Grand Forks, Minn. Private, Med. Res. 
Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Discharged Dec- 11, 1918, at Chicago, 111. 

Cassell, James T., Hope, North Dakota. CE 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, Nov. 3, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Recruit, M. G. 
Corps, M. G. Tr. Center, 4th Group, Camp Hancock, Ga. Promoted, 
(i) Private i/c, (2) Sergeant, (3) Second Lieutenant. Discharged, 
Dec. 20, 191 8, at Camp Hancock, Ga. 

Cathro, Frances L., Bottineau, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
(See page 197). 

Chidlaw, Carrol Hughes, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 3, 
1916-17. Enlisted May 12, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second 
Lieutenant, R. M. A., Aer. Div., Air Service, U. S. A. Assigned 
for training to the Ground School at Ohio State University, Colum- 

Undergraduates 249 

bus, O., Camp Dick, Dallas, Texas, and Kelly Field, Texas. Also 
served as Instructor at Kelly Field, and took bombing course for pilots 
at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. Discharged Feb. 11, IQIQ) at 
Ellington Field. 

Clark, John E., Kenmare, North Dakota. A 4, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted, April 26, 1917, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, Av. Sec, 
Signal Corps, U. S. A. Second Lieutenant, Air Service, U. S. A. 
Served seven months in France, and took part in the Argonne Forest 
battle. Discharged March 19, 1919, at Garden City, L. I. 

Clark, William J. B., Valley City, North Dakota. L i, 19 16- 
17. Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Ft. Mcintosh, Texas. 

Clynch, Alfred John, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. 19 16- 

191 7. Enlisted May 29, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Yeoman i/c. 
U. S. N, Stationed at Naval Training Sta., Great Lakes, 111., and 
at Base 17, North Sea. Spent nine and one-half months in the North 
Sea, aboard the U. S. S. "Canonicus," laying the Northern Nine 
Barrage from Orkney Islands to Bergen, Norway. 

Cobb, Leonard A., Grafton, North Dakota. B. S. in M. E., 

1918. Enlisted, July 12, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Assigned to 
Co. I, E. O. T. S., Camp A. A. Humphreys, Va. Commissioned 
Second Lieutenant of Eng'rs., U. S. A. Discharged Jan. 11, 1919, at 
Camp Humphreys. 

Collins, Harold J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Co. 130, nth Reg., 
Mob. Art., U. S. Marine Corps. Stationed at Quantico, Va. 

Como, John F., St. John, North Dakota. B. A. 191 8. Enlisted 
June, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S'. A. 
Assigned (i) Camp Lee, Va., (2) Camp Custer, Mich., (3) C- O- 
T. S. at Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Ky. 

Coon, Ernest D., Grand Forks, North Dakota. SS. 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, U. S. N. Assigned 
to Company 41, Camp Decatur, Naval Tr. Sta., Great Lakes, 111. 

CosgrifiF, James Arthur, Chicago, Illinois. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
Jan. 14, 191 8, at Chicago, 111. Private, M, R. C, U. S. A. Assigned 
Oct. 1 91 8 to Med- Sec, S. A. T. C. at Northwestern University, 
Evanston, 111. 

Cottam, Henry Edward, LaMoure, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted May 12, 191 7, ist O. T. C, at Ft. Snelling, Minn., First 
Lieutenant M. G. Co., 40th Inf., U- S. A. Camp Custer, Mich. 
Captain, Co. C, 42nd M. G. Bn. Camp Custer, Mich. 

Cowan, John A., Devils Lake, North Dakota. L Sp. 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 19 18, at Devils Lake, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A- 
Stationed at Camp Dodge, la. 

Crabtree, Benjamin F., Ellendale, North Dakota. L Sp. 1916- 
17. Enlisted, July 3, 1917, at Ellendale, N. D. Sergeant, 162 Amb. 
Co., M. C, 41st Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., Germany. Stationed with 
the 3rd Army Corps at Ehrenbreitstein, Germany. 

250 The Quarterly Journal 

Cram, Clifford H., Maxbass, North Dakota. E i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Critchfield, Henry McLain, Kenmare, North Dakota. M 2, 
1916-17. Enlisted, 1917- Private, U. S. N. 

Crossley, Alfred, Belleville, New Jersey, E Sp i, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted May 21, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Radio Gunner, 
U. S. N. R. F, Assigned to Radio Div., Bureau of Steam Engineer- 
ing, Navy Department. Stationed (i) Great Lakes, 111., (2) Hamp- 
ton Roads, Va., (3) Submarine Base, New London, Conn., (4) 
Washington, D. C. Promoted (i) Ensign, (2) Lieutenant, in 
charge of radio research work, U. S. N. At Great Lakes, 111., was 
associated with Lieutenant Commander Taylor in developing the 
Underground and Underwater Radio System; installed first under- 
ground radio stations at Great Lakes, 111., Hampton Roads, Va., 
and directed installation of same system at New Orleans, La. Astoria, 
Ore., San Diego, Cal., Cavite, P. I., and Key West, Fla. Also con- 
structed Distant Control Radio Station for Navy High Powered 
Stations at Washington, D. C. Discharged, Oct., 1919, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Dale, Lloyd B., Valley City, North Dakota. B. S". in C. E. 191 7. 
Enlisted, Jan. 25, 1918, Omaha, Nebr. Flying Cadet i|c. Air Serv- 
ice, U. S. A. Graduated from School of Mil. Aer. at Berkeley, CaL, 
and was in training as Pilot at Marsh Field, Cal., when armistice 
was signed. Discharged, Nov. 28, 191 8. 

Danforth, Russell E., Grand Rapids, Michigan. A 3, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. 
A., A. E. F., France. Recommended by the Army Educ. Com'n. 
for special four months' course in the Sorbonne University, Paris. 
Now a student in Michigan University. 

Darling, Harlan Duane, Bottineau, North Dakota. M. 2, 191 7- 
18. Enlisted, 191 8. Private (Musician). U. S. N. 

Davies, Mabel S., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 1918. 
(See page 197.) 

Dawson, James S., Rockford, Iowa. C. E. 19 17. Called in 
draft at Minot, N. D-, and assigned to Camp Dodge, la. Private 
Co. A, 313 Eng'rs, 88th Div. A. E. F., France. Promoted: (i) 
Cook, (2) Mess Sergeant, (3) First Sergeant. 

DeLancey, Thomas, Valley City, North Dakota. E i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Valley City, N. D. Sergeant, Anti-Aircraft Div., 
F. A. C, U. S. A. 

DeLong, Howard Alexander, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 
3, 1917-18. Drafted, Sept. 5, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. 
Private, Camouflage Unit, Replacement Corps, 40th U. S. Engineers, 
A. E. F., France. Three months overseas service. Discharged 
February 14, 1919 at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Now a student at the 

Dickerson, Clifford R., Roachdale, Indiana. SS. 1917- Enlisted, 
June 15, 1918, at Fargo, N. D. (Tr. Det., Agr. Coll.) Private i/c, 

Undergraduates 251 

Co. A, 4th Tr. Bn., Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Meade, 
Md. Discharged, Jan. 27, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Ditmanson, Peter Olaf, Webster, South Dakota. Ed 4-A 4, 
191 7-18. Enlisted, Dec. 12, 1917, at Minneapolis, Minn. Musician 
2/c, 4th Reg. Band, U. S. N. Stationed at Naval Tr. S'ta., Great 
Lake, 111. Discharged Jan. 19, 19 19, at Great Lakes, 111. 

Divers, Roy, Tioga, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Four- 
Minute Man. Organizer of Junior Red Cross Chapter. 

Dodge, Lee Edgar, Inkster, North Dakota. EM Sp, 191 6-1 7. 
Drafted, 1918. Private, Co. M., 352nd Inf., U. S. A. Stationed 
at Camp Dodge, la. 

Doering, Raymond E., Goodrich, North Dakota. M 2, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, September 18, 1917, at McClusky, North Dakota. 
He was at Camp Dodge till sent overseas May 18, 191 8. Served 
with the 327th Field Hospital, 82d Division. Discharged May 15, 
1919, at Camp Dix, N. J. Now a student in the University. 

Dostert, Frank P., Larimore, North Dakota. A i, 191 8-19. 
(See page 165.) 

Dow, Edward Parsons, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E i, 
1916-17. Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Av. Sec, 
Sig. Service, U. S. N. Assigned for training to Nav. Av. Sta., Seattle, 
Wash. Discharged, Nov., 19 18, at Chicago, 111. 

Downey, Romanus James, Devils Lake, North Dakota. L i, 
1916-17. Enlisted, June 30, 1917, at Devils Lake, N. D. Sergeant. 
Hdqts. Co., 164th Inf., 41st Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Served 
as Company Clerk for Captain John W. Clark. 

Drowley, George H., Sarles, North Dakota. A 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, July 26, 1917, at Langdon, N. D. Private, ist Inf., N. 
D. Nat. Gd. Corporal, Hdqts. Co., 164th Inf., 41st Div., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. Discharged, Mar. 11, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Dryden, Ralph, Drayton, North Dakota. CE 2, 1916-17. 
(See page 166.) 

Duggan, Frank James, Grand Forks, North Dakota. M i, 1616- 
17. Enlisted, July 20, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant, Co. 
M., 164th Inf., 41st Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Commissioned 
Second Lieutenant at close of a five weeks' course in O. T. S. in 
France. Attended the Army University at Beaune, France. 

Eickhof, Herman Butler, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E 3, 
1918-19. Enlisted, Oct. 2, 1918, at University, N. D. Private, 
S. A. T. C, University of North Dakota. On Nov. 13th was trans- 
ferred to Camp Grant, Illinois, to Infantry Central Officer training 
School, Was transferred back to U. N. D. on November 20th and 
there discharged December 16, 191 8. 

Eiland, Albin G., Park River, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted Sept. 4, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D., for limited service. 
Private, Co. G-, 5th Training Regiment, Camp Grant, 111. Dis- 
charged, Camp Grant, 111., Nov. 30, 191 8. 

252 The Quarterly Journal 

Einarson, Karl Einer, Hensel, North Dakota. A 3, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, 139th Inf., 35th 
Div., U. S. A., A. E. P., France. Saw intense fighting on the West 
front and several times went "over the top." Wounded by M. G. 
bullet in advance near Luneville, France, and invalided back to U. 
S. Discharged at Camp Dodge, la. 

Ellingson, Minor, Sharon, North Dakota. L i, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S'. A. 

Ellison, Magill T., Grand Forks, North Dakota. M i, 1916- 
17. (See page 167.) 

Ellison, William P., Huff, North Dakota. L 2, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, Aug. 27, 1917, at Ft. Lincoln, N. D, Candidate, 2nd 
O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, Co. I, 356th Inf., 
89th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Went into front line trenches 
Aug. 4, 191 8. Was wounded and gassed in action, Oct. 6, 191 8, 
during heavy bombardment near Joulny, in the St. Mihiel Sector, 
which lasted more than eight hours. Recommended for first lieu- 
tenancy. Discharged June 23, 19 19, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. 

Elmslie, William G., Devils Lake, North Dakota. LL. B. 19 17. 
Enlisted, June, 1917, at Devils Lake, N. D. Sergeant, Ii6th Eng'rs. 
U. S. A., Camp Greene, N. C- Transferred to A. E. F., France. 
Discharged April i, 19 19. 

Engh, Helmer Arthur, Moorhead, Minnesota. M. S. 191 7. 
Enlisted, Dec, 191 7, at Moorhead, Minn. Private, M. R. C, 
U. S. A. 

Fingarson, George E., Hillsboro, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted, May 15, 191 7, at Hillsboro, N. D. Second Lieutenant 
(provisional) Inf. Corps, U. S. A., Stationed at Ft. Crook, Nebr. 

Fisher, Gordon Rufus, Cavalier, North Dakota. E i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, U. S. N. 

Fisher, Sam K., Devils Lake, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Mr. Fisher was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University 
of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the 
call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course of 
intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. From this 
training he returned as a non-commissioned officer to the S. A. T. C. 
at the University. Discharged at the University, December, 191 8. 
Now a student at the University. 

Flaton, Amon Peter, Edinburg, North Dakota. B. A. 191 8. 
Enlisted. Jan. 18, 1918, Chicago, 111. Private M. R. C, U. S'. A. 
Stationed at Cincinnati General Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio. Dis- 
charged January 4, 191 9. 

Fleck, Joseph Paul, Richardton, North Dakota. L 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, May 24, 191 8, at Dickinson, N. D. Sergeant, Co. L, 
363rd Inf., 91st Div., U. S". A. Stationed at Camp Lewis, Wash, 
Discharged June 8, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Forbes, Arnold Chase, Wahpeton, North Dakota. L 2, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, 191 1, as Bugler, Co. I, ist Inf., N, D. Nat. Gd. and 

Undergraduates 253 

served on Mexican border. Re-enlisted, May, 191 7. Candidate, ist 
O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, M. G. Co. (3 
months), Reg. Sig. Platoon (8 months), 350th Inf., 88th Div., U. S. 
A., A. E. F., France. Saw active service in front line trenches last 
six weeks of the war, three with the 88th Div., and three with the 
77th Div., taking part in the Argonne-Meuse offensives. Was com- 
mended in Division Orders for the thoro way he took over his sector 
in his signal work with his platoon. Promoted to First Lieutenant 
and appointed Personal Aid to Brigadier General Harrison J. Price 
of the 77th Division. 

Foss, H. Marcus, Hatton, North Dakota. B. S. in E. E. 191 8. 
Enlisted, April 8, 191 8, East Grand Forks, Minn. Private, Co. i, 
2nd. Eng'rs. Tr. Reg., Camp Humphreys, Va-, Transferred to 
Sound Ranging Detachment, Chicamuxen, Md. 

Foster, Edgar Eugene, Milnor, North Dakota. E i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, May i, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant, Co. M, 
nth Inf., U. S. A. Stationed (i) at Camp Forest, Chickamaugua 
Park, (2) with the A. E. F., France. Oct. 20, 19 18, wounded in 
action while leading his platoon, in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. 
Discharged at Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

Fox, Lloyd H., Surrey, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted, 
June 14, 1918, Minot, N. D. Private, Training Det. N. D, Agr. 
Coll., Fargo, N. D. Acting First Serg. O. T. C, Camp Grant, 111. 
Discharged Dec. 4, 19 18 at Camp Grant, 111. 

Fraine, John R., Grafton, North Dakota. CE 2, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted in ist N. D. Nat. Gd., July i, 1910. Re-enlisted July i, 
1913, and July i, 1916. Served on Mexican Border, June, 1916, to 
Feb., 191 7. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, N. G., Dec. 7, 1916. 
First Lieutenant, 164th Inf., U. S. A., Oct. 20, 1917. Captain of 
Inf., U. S'. A., A. E. F. France, Nov. 7, 1918. Served as Instructor 
in 1st Corps Schools, 3rd Corps Schools, and as Commanding Officer 
of the 2 ist Prov. Reg., A. E. F. University. 

Eraser, Gjems, Grafton, North Dakota. A 3, 191 7-1 8. Mr. 
Eraser was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University of 
North Dakota, in the early summer of 1918, to respond to the call 
of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course of in- 
tensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. At the close 
of the period he received a commission as Second Lieutenant and was 
assigned to the University of Alabama to work with the S. A. T. C. 
Discharged, December, 191 8. Now a student at the University. 

Gamble, William A., Larimore, North Dakota. A 3, Ed. 3, 
191 7-1 8. Enlisted, March, 19 18, at Ellendale, North Dakota. 
Corporal. Company D, 137th N. D. Inf., Reg. 35th Division, U. S. 
A., A. E. F., France. Served in the battles: Argonne Forest, St. 
Mihiel, Verdun, Gerardimer, and Wesserling. After the armistice 
he was assigned to one of the French universities for several months as 
student. Discharged, Camp Dodge, Iowa, August 5, 1919. 

Gass, Edwin John, Larimore, North Dakota. A 2, I9i6-I7' 
Enlisted, Mar. 10, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant, 8i6th 

254 The Quarterly Journal 

Aero Squadron, Air Service Det., U. S. A. Stationed at Detroit, 
Mich. Candidate, I. C. O. T. S., Camp Grant, 111. Discharged at 
Camp Grant, 111. 

Gates, Paul J., Garrison, North Dakota. A i, 1918-19. (See 
page 172.) 

Gemmell, Robert, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. S. in M. E. 
191 7. Called in draft, Sept., 1918 at Grand Forks, N. D. Private Co. 
A., 113th Eng'rs., U. S. A., Camp Dodge, Iowa. Served with 
A. E. F. in France, and when hostilities closed was recommended by 
the Army Educ. Com., for short course in University of Edinburgh. 

Getts, George William Jr., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A i, 
1917-18. Enlisted, Oct. i, 1918, in S. A. T. C, University of 
Minnesota. Transferred to Marine Officers' Training Camp, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Selected as one of thirty for special training 
on the Rifle Range at Paris Island, S. C. Corporal, U. S. Marine 
Corps. Discharged, December, 19 18. 

Gibson, Olive Irene, Saint Thomas, North Dakota. A 4, Ed. 

4, SS. 1917. (See page 197.) 

Giese, Edward Bernard, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. M 2, 
1917-18. Enlisted, July, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, 
M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Goldstein, Morris B., New Haven, Connecticut. SS. 191 7-18. 
Enlisted as Sergeant, Co. M., ist N. D. Nat. Gd. (1917). Second 
Lieutenant, 164th Inf., 33rd Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Was 
honor graduate from an Officers' Training School in France, with 
the high average of 94, in a class of 1000. Stationed with the Ameri- 
can Army of Occupation at Fels, Luxembourg. 

Grandson, Elmer J., St. Thomas, North Dakota. A. i, 1917- 
18. Enlisted, Aug. 31, 19 18, at Cavalier, North Dakota. Entered 
the Voc. Sec, S. A. T. C, University of North Dakota, 2nd Det. 
Later transferred to Camp Grant as Candidate, I. C. O. T. S. 
Discharged at Camp Grant, Nov. 31, 191 8. Now a student at the 

Graves, Alva Kenneth, Grand Forks, North Dakota. E i, 191 7- 
18. Mr. Graves was one of the fourteen students chosen by the 
University of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond 
to the call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day 
course of intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. 
From this training he returned as a non-commissioned officer to the 

5. A, T- C. at the University. Discharged at the University, Dec, 

Green, Daniel Ray, Cavalier, North Dakota. L 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, May 7, 191 7, at East Grand Forks, Minn. Sergeant, 30th 
Aero Squadron, Air Service, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Sent to 
France in August, 191 7. 

Green, James L., Rosser, Manitoba, Canada. B. S. in E. E. 1918 
Enlisted April 17, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Eng. 
Corps, U. S. A. Transf. to Co. 6, E. O. T. S., Camp Humphreys, 
Va. Discharged Nov. 27, 191 8. 

Undergraduates 255 

Greffenius, Albert Frank, Ripon, Wisconsin. L Sp., 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 1918. Mess Sergeant, 331st F. A. C, U. S. A., Camp 
Grant, III. 

Griffith, Dick, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, U. S'. N. Assigned to Nav. Tr. Sta., Great 
Lakes, 111. 

Grinnell, John Earl, Tolley, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 1 91 8. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Grove, George A., Fisher, Minnesota. E i, 1916-17. Enlisted, 
July 30, 191 8, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Chauffer i/c, Co. D, 
421st Tel. Bn., Sig. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Discharged 
Feb. 10, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Gurr, Benjamin, B., Rolette, North Dakota. A i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

Hanley, William Joseph, Hope, North Dakota. A i, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 1918. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Hanna, Warren L., Valley City, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted Oct. 11, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn. Acting Bn. Serg. 
Major, Hdqts. Co., S. A- T. C, University of Minnesota. Dis- 
charged Dec. 20, 191 8. 

Hansen, Fred Arthur, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 19 16-19 17. 
Enlisted, April 16, 1918, at Gary, Ind. Sergeant i/c, Co. D., 309th 
Eng'rs. 84th Div., U. S. A. A. E. F., France. In charge of the 
electrical work in Base Hospitals 8 and 69 in France. 

Hanson, John Thomas, Veblen, South Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, Jan. 3, 191 8, at Camp Grant, 111. Candidate, I. O. T. C. 
Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., June i, 191 8. First Lieu- 
tenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France, Sept. 8, 1918. 
Stationed at the American Embarkation Camp, LeMans, France. In 
France 10 mos. Discharged July 30, 191 9, Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Hanson, Kaffon, Edinburg, North Dakota. A i, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

Hanson, Verdine O., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A i, 1917- 
18. Enlisted, January, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Recruit, Av. 
Sec, Sig Corps, Regular Army. Unassigned. Attacht 23rd Recruit- 
ing Co., Gen. Service. Infantry. Stationed at Jefferson Barracks, 
St. Louis, Mo. Discharged June 17, 191 8. 

Harrison, Edward Jenning, Michigan, North Dakota. EE 2, 
1916-17. Enlisted May 29, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Quarter- 
master Mechanic i/c, Co. 1102, Naval Aviation, U. S. N. Stationed 
at Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Va. Took part in Naval 
Air Parade over New York City in December, 191 8. Approximate 
distance covered when in flight, 3700 miles; highest altitude, 7300 ft. 
Discharged, Jan. 8, 191 9, at Hampton Roads, Va. 

Haynes, George H., Lisbon, North Dakota. M 3, 1917-18. 
Mr. Haynes was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University 
of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the 

256 The Quarterly Journal 

call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course 
of intesive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. From 
this training he returned as a non-commissioned officer to the S. A. 
T. C. at the University. Discharged at the University, December, 

Healy, Gertrude, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 1917. 
(See page 198.) 

Helmkay, Lyle R., Rugby, North Dakota. E 4, 191 7-18. (See 
page 173.) 

Heyerdahl, Carl, Walum, North Dakota. A i, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, U. S. N. 

Hicks, Fred T., Neche, North Dakota. E 3, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, Sept. 22, 191 7, at Neche, N. D. Stationed at Camp Dodge 
and Camp Mills. Corporal, Co. C, 313th F. Sig. Bn., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. Service in France from the last of May till the 
close. In battle and Center Sector, Haute-Alsace. Discharged. June 

II, 19 1 9. Now a student at the University. 

Higgins, Milton Kenner, Banks, North Dakota. L i, 1016-17. 
Withdrew from the University April 13, 191 7, to carry on agricul- 
tural production, being physically disqualified for military service. 
Registered for the draft on Aug. 12, 191 8, passed physical examina- 
tion, and was called for entrainment to Camp Winfield Scott, Cal., 
on Oct. 21, and on Nov. 1 1, but orders were revoked, first on account 
of the influenza epidemic, and then by the signing of the armistice. 

Hjalmarson, Magnus, Cavalier, North Dakota. B. S'. in C. E. 
1918. Enlisted April 17, 1918 at Grand Forks, N. D. Seaman 2|c, N. 
A. R., U. S. N. Promoted: (i) Chief Petty Officer, (2) Warrant 
Machinist, (3) Ensign. Assigned to U. S. Transport "Texas," 
Jan. 6, 1919 to June 5, 1919- Discharged June 5, 1919. 

Hjortland, Arthur L., Grand Forks, North Dakota. Ed 3, A. 
3, 1916-17. Responded to the draft Aug., 191 7, at Grand Forks. 
Med. Corps, stationed at Sub. Base, New London, Conn. Recom- 
mended, Sept., 1918, by Division Commander for O. T. S., Prince- 
ton, N. J. 

Hoffman, Chester L., Grand Forks, North Dakota. C. E. 
191 7. Enlisted Dec. 8, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D, Private, Co. 
M., 23rd Eng'rs, U. S. A., Camp Laurel, Md. 

Hofto, Jalmar M., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 3, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, ept., 1918, at L^niversity, N. D. Private, Voc. Tr. Det., 
U. S. A., University, N. D. Candidate, I. O. T. S., Camp Grant, 

Hostetter, Harold Clinton, Grafton, North Dakota, A i, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, 191 7, at Grafton, N. D. Apprentice Seaman, U. S. 
N. Assigned to Co. G., Camp Ross, Naval Tr. Sta., Great Lakes, 

III. Transferred to League Island Navy Yards, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hoverson, Clarence T., Beach, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 7- 
Enlisted Aug. 191 7, R. O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. First Lieu- 
tenant, Btt'y A., loth F. A. C. 3rd Div. Participated in the second 

Undergraduates 257 

battle of the Marne, the Marne-Champagne defensive, the Cham- 
pagne-Aisne offensive, the St. Mihiel drive, the Meuse-Argonne 
drive. Was twice wounded by high explosive shell and also gassed. 
Is the only officer left in his battery who went into action, starting at 
Chateau Thierry. Has been recommended for a D. S'. C. After 
the armistice Lieutenant Hoverson was located at Kruffts, Germany. 
Hunter, William John, Bottineau, North Dakota. A i, igi?" 
18. Enlisted, June 2, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Served as sec- 
ond class Seaman, Quartermaster second class, and Submarine 
Listener on U. S. S. Destroyer McDermot. Discharged at Boston, 
Mass., Dec. 13, 1918. 

Hughes, Elizabeth A., Java, South Dakota. B. A. 191 7. (See 
page 198.) 

Huston, Howard R., Deering, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted May 14, 191 7, at Ft. Sheridan, 111. Army Candidate, 
O. T. C. Second Lieutenant, 40th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France- 
Was reported killed in action but this report was later corrected. 
Was both severely wounded and gassed. Was cited by General 
Pershing for exceptional bravery. Since the armistice has been 
appointed business manager of the London Bureau of the League of 

Ihrig, Harry Karl, Oshkosh, Wisconsin. A 3, 1917-18. Enlisted, 
May 2, 191 8, at Oshkosh, Wis. in Chemistry Warfare Service, Gas 
Defense Division. Served at Long Island City, N. Y., as research 
worker on Gas Defense problems. Was in Divisional Gas U. C. O., 
Gas Officers' School, Candidate for Commission. Was discharged at 
Long Island City, N. Y. 

Irwin, Dalton B. D., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 3, 1916- 
17. Inducted Aug. 27, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private i/c, 
Co. I, 75th Inf., 25th Brig., 13th Div., U. S. A., Camp Lewis, 
Wash. Candidate, I. C. O. T. S., Camp Grant, 111. Discharged 
Dec. 12, 191 8, at Camp Grant, 111. 

Isaacs, Willard Leslie, Buchanan, North Dakota. A i, 19 16-17. 
Cadet, U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. 

Iverson, Peter J., Lakota, North Dakota- M. A. 191 7. County 
Food Administrator. County Chairman, United War Work Cam- 

Jennison, John C, Williston, North Dakota. L 2, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Second Lieutenant, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A., 
A, E. F., France. 

Jensen, August F., (Jepson Frithief), Westby, Montana. M i, 
191 7-1 8. Enlisted, April 29, 191 8, at Crosby, N. D. Corporal, Co. 
G, 350th Inf., 88th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Sailed for 
France Aug. 16, and went into trenches October 13, but shortly after 
a severe attack of pneumonia sent him to hospital for many weeks. 
Discharged Feb. 20, 191 9. Now a student at the University. 

Johns, W- L., Hettinger, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Special 
investigator in the Bureau of Markets, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

258 The Quarterly Journal 

Johnson, B. Melvin, Minot, North Dakota. A 3, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 1917, at Minot, N. D. Candidate, O. T. C, Ft. Crook, 
Neb. Prov. Second Lieutenant, 41st Inf., U. S. A. Stationed also 
at Camp Funston, Kan. 

Johnson, Carrol P., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 191 6-1 7, 
Enlisted in the ist N. D. Inf., Nat. Gd., Feb. 2, 1916. Assigned to 
Co. M, 164th Inf., 41st Div. Called into Federal service Aug. 5, 
1916, and server' -^ the Mexican border at Mercedes, Tex., till 
Feb. 25, 1917. Ansvvv,red call of the World War, April 6, 1917, and 
saw continuous service till October 27, 1919. Stationed: U. S. A., 
(i) Grand Forks, N. D., (2) Camp Greene, N. C, (3) Camp 
Mills, N. Y., (4) Camp Merritt, N. Y.; Europe, (i) Winchester, 
Eng., (2) Langres, France, (3) Rome, Ital)^, (4) Brest, France. 
Promotions: (i) Private to Corporal, July 19, 191 6, (2) Corporal 
to Sergeant, May 15, 19 17, (3) Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, May 
I, 1919. Awarded Piave Ribbon per Letter of Italian Mission, 
Rome, dated May 6, 1919. Attended Army Specialists' School and 
Candidates' School, Langres, France, Returned to U. S. A. on Ship 
"Siboney" arriving at Hoboken, Oct. 20, 1919. Discharged at 
which time Mr. Johnson expects to be accepted into the Regular 
Army, Chemical Division. 

Johnson, Percy Lloyd, New Rockford, North. Dakota. A 2, 
1916-17. Enlisted, July 5, 1917, at New Rockford, N. D. Private, 
1st Inf., N. D. Nat. Gd. Private, Hdqts. Co., 164th Inf., 41st Div., 
U. S. A., Camp Mills, N. Y. Sergeant, Hdqts. Troops, 6th Army 
Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Johnson, Wesley R., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 19 16- 
17. Enlisted Aug. 17, 1917, at Grand Forks, N. D., at the age of 17. 
probably the youngest of the University men to enter the war. 
Private, Co. M, ist Inf., N. D. Nat. Gd". Corporal Co. F, 26th Inf., 
1st Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. During sixteen months of 
overseas service nearly nine v.^ere spent in the front line trenches. 
Served in the campaigns of defense near Toul, on the Montdidier- 
Noyon sector, of Cantigny, of Soissons, of St. Mihiel, and in two 
engagements of the Meuse-Argonne campaign. Saw his company 
broken up in one battle so that of the entire company only 35 remain- 
ed unharmed, while in another battle the same company, refilled, lost 
eighty per cent of its men. At Argonne, the company, on orders, 
flanked a rectangular forest in which were hidden innumerable ma- 
chine guns, of which they captured 26 and held the point until rein- 
forcements came. For bravery in action the regiment to which this 
company belonged was cited seven times by General Pershing. (See 
this periodical, Vol. X, No. i, October, 1919, pp. 93-120, for Mr. 
Johnson's brief recital of his war experiences — "War Experiences 
of a University Student as a Doughboy.") 

Johnston, John Wesley Jr., LaMoure, North Dakota. B. A. 
191 7. Known to be in service, but no record furnisht. 

Johnstone, Robert Henry, Emerado, North Dakota. M I, 
191 7-1 8. Entered service April 29, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. 
Private (Runner), Co. G, 357th Inf., 90th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., 

Undergraduates 259 

France. Promoted to Corporal, and sent to the Army University at 
Beaune, France, after the armistice. Was in the midst of strenuous 
fighting on the front line near Villard Des Dun and St. Dizier for 
the last three weeks of the war, the 90th Division being stationed 
there under General Henry T. Allen. Later was with the Army of 
Occupation on the Rhine. 

Johnston, Victor A., Inkster, North Dakota. A i, 191 7-1 8. 
Entered military service, 19 18. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Jorgenson, Joseph, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A i, 1916- 
17. Enlisted June i, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Corporal, Aero. 
Div., Air Service U. S. A. Stationed (i) St. Louis, Mo., (2) Kelly 
Field, San Antonio, Texas., (3) Av. Mech. Tr. Sch., St. Paul, Minn., 
(4) Rich Field, Waco, Texas. 

Kelly, James R., Larimore, North Dakota. A i, 1 916- 17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Co. D., 352nd Inf., 
U. S. A. 

Kelly, John J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Mr. Kelly was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University 
of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the 
call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course of 
intensive training for ofFicers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. At the close 
of the period he received a commission as Second Lieutenant and 
was assigned to the University of Minnesota to work with the S. 
A. T. C. Discharged, December, 19 18. 

Kelly, Milton G., Devils Lake, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, April 29, 1918, at Devils Lake, N. D. Corporal, Co. E, 
313th Eng'rs, 88th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Ketter, Edward Alphonsus, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. A 
I, 191 7-18. Enlisted, October 12, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn. 
Private, U. S. Marine Corps. Stationed at Paris Island, S. C, Dis- 
charged, February 28, 1919, at Paris Island. Now a student at the 

Knox, Erving D., Antler, North Dakota. A i, 191 7-18. En- 
listed, 191 8. Private, U. S. N. 

Knudson, Clarence, Bismarck, North Dakota. A 3, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted, May 15, 191 7, at Fargo, N. D. Candidate, I. O. T. C, 
Ft. S'neUing, Minn. Discharged Aug. 15, 191 7, and re-enlisted in 
Av. Sec, Sig. Corps. Discharged July, 1918, and re-cnlisted in Inf. 
Corps, July 23, at Camp Custer, Mich. First Sergeant, Hdqts. Co., 
77th Inf., U. S. A. Discharged Jan. 25, 1919, at Camp Custer, 

Knuepfer, Herman C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. A. 
1917. Enlisted May 12, 1917, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Army Can- 
didate, R. O. T. C. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., May 12-Aug. 15, 
1917; Private, Av. Sec-, Air Service, U. S. A. Stationed (i) Austin, 
Tex., (2) San Diego, Cal., (3) March Field, Riverside, Cal. Dis- 
charged Dec. 12, 1918, at March Field, Cal. 

Kraabel, Rolfe C. M., Hope, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 

26o The Quarterly Journal 

Mr, Kraabel was one of the fourteen students chosen by the Univer- 
sity of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the 
call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course 
of intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. From 
this training he returned as a non-commissioned officer to the S. A. T. 
C. at the University. Discharged at the University, December, 
191 8. Now a student at the University. 

Kraabel, Sidney E., Hope, North Dakota. A i, 1918-19. (See 
page 176.) 

Kraabel. Torger Oswald, Clifford, North Dakota. L I, 1916- 
17. Called in draft, at Clifford, N. D. Private, Co. i, 3=;2nd Inf., 
U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Kulsrud, Carl J., Austin, Minnesota. B. A. 191 8. Enlisted 
April 29, 1 91 8 at Grand Forks, N. D. Private Co. L, 350th Inf., 
Camp Dodge. Iowa. Transferred to 6th Batt'y. 2nd F. A. C, 
C. O. T. S.. Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. Discharged Dec. 12, 1918, 
at Camp Zachary Taylor. 

Laemmle, John J., Ashley, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted March 28: 1918, at Camp Dodge. In the 163rd Depot 
Brigade, 4th R. O. T. C, at Camp Dodge. Commissioned Second 
Lieutenant, Inf. on Aug. 26, 191 8. and assigned to the 809th Pioneer 
Infantry. Embarked for France September 13, 191 8. After the 
armistice was engaged in embarkation services at St. Nazaire, France, 
till July 30, 1919. at Camp Dodge as First Lieutenant, O. R. C. 
Now a student at the University. 

Lavin, James B., Hatton, North Dakota. EH, 191 7-1 8, 
Enlisted April 30, 191 8 at Minneapolis, Minn. Seaman 2|c, N. A. 
R., U. S. N. Chief Machinist's Mate, Co. 3, Reg. 6, Steam Engr. 
School, U. S. Naval Tr. Sta. Pelham Bay, N. Y. (This is an Officers' 
Tr- School). 

Leith, John Douglas. Larimore, North Dakota. A 3. IQ18-19. 
Inducted into the S". A. T. C. at the University of North Dakota 
October 2, 191 8. Transferred, on October 25, to the Coast Artillery, 
O. T. C. at Fortress Monroe, Va. Given reserve commission as 
Second Lieutenant in the Officers' Reserve, Coast Artillery. Released 
from active service January 31, 1919. Now a student in the Uni- 

Li, Min Hin, Honolulu, Hawaii. M 2, 191 7-1 8. Mr. Li was 
one of the fourteen students chosen by the University of North Da- 
kota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the call of the Gov- 
ernment for college men to take a sixty-day course of intensive train- 
ing for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. At the close of the period 
he received a commission as Second Lieutenant and was assigned to 
the University of Kansas to work with the S. A. T. C. Discharged, 

Liebeler, Wilbert Ashton, Langdon, North Dakota. A Sp. 
1917-18. Enlisted, 1918, at Langdon. N. D. Private, ist Inf., 
N. D. Nat. Gd. Private, Inf., Sunset Div.. U. S. A., A. E. F., 
France. Fourteen months overseas service. 

Undergraduates 261 

Lillibridge, Harold D,, Dickinson, North Dakota. Private, 
U. S. A., Camp Hospital No. i, A. E. F., France. Graduated from 
the Dickinson High School June, 1915, soon making application for 
University entrance as a pre-Medical student. On December 6, 
191 5, Mr. Lillibridge had enlisted in the State National Guard for 
three years' service, in Co. K, ist N. D. Inf. When the Mexican 
trouble arose, the next spring, he was sent to Texas, July 26, 1916, 
and served there until January 23rd of the next year. He was re- 
leased from Federal Service February 16, 191 7, but was returned at 
once to the State National Guard. On March 26, 191 7, his com- 
pany was again sworn into Federal service for an additional three- 
year reserve period and at once sent to Missoula, Montana, for guard 
duty against possible I. W. W. disturbances. Soon relieved, however, 
by the Montana National Guard, the company was returned to North 
Dakota and stationed at Fort Lincoln, Bismarck. Here they were 
put into active training in preparation for overseas service. On 
September 28, 191 7, they entrained, and were located successively 
at Camp Greene, where their training was continued, and at Camps 
Mills and Merritt, until December 14th when they embarked on the 
"Vaterland." This was the maiden trip, under American direction, 
of the famous German passenger steamer, and she was obliged to 
said without convoy. The trip was full of risk but yet accomplisht 
without loss. The landing was made at Liverpool, but LeHavre 
was soon reacht. Ere long the regiment was split up and used for 
replacements, losing its identity. Mr. Lillibridge served with the 
Med. Dept. of the 164th Inf., (being made a Sergeant on April 28, 
191 8), until July, 191 8, at which time it lost its identity as a Med. 
Dept. and became Camp Hospital No. i, located at Gondrecourt. 
With this he served till May 2, 1919, when he was transferred to 
Camp Hospital No. 8. On June 10 he sailed from Brest, and on the 
29th was discharged at Camp Dodge. Now a student at the Uni- 

Lillo, Waldemar E., Lengby, Minnesota. B. A. 19 18. Enlisted 
April 29, 1918, at Camp Dodge, la- Private Co. D, 357th Inf., 
90th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F. Wounded in the S't. Mihiel drive 
Discharged April 11, 19 19 at Camp Dodge, la. 

Lindem, Martin C, Fisher, Minn. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted Jan. 
3, 1918, at Chicago, III Private M. R. C, U. S. A. 
December, 191 8. Now a student at the University. 

Lium, Elder Leonard, Christine, North Dakota. CE 2, 191 7- 
18. Enlisted, Jan. 12, 191 8, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Private, 
Av. Sec, Air Ser., U. S. A. Stationed (i) Overland Tr. Sch., St. 
Paul, Minn., (2) Mather Field, Cal., (3) Call Field, Texas. 
Second Lieutenant, A. S. A., U. S'. A., Nov. 6, 1918. Discharged 
Jan. 4, 1919, at Call Field, Texas. 

Loe, Denzill J., Northwood, North Dakota. M 3, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Northwood, N. D. Private, U. S. N. Assigned 
to Naval Tr. Sta., Newport News, Va. 

Loughin, Charles A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. L i, 191 6- 
17. Enlisted, May, 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate, L O. 

262 The Quarterly Journal 

T. C, Second Lieutenant, 26th Inf., 1st Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., 
France. Went to France in Sept., 191 7, with the first contingent 
from the O. T. C. at Ft. Snelling; was in active service a year and 
seven months, and twice wounded. After partial recovery from sec- 
ond injury was transferred to the R. R. of C. Service. S. O. S., 
stationed at Ligny, France. Received citation "for conspicuous bravery 
in action in the trenches." Now recuperating at Fort Sheridan, 111. 

Lowe, Robert A., Kenmare, North Dakota. LL- B. 191 7. 
Enlisted March 29, 191 8, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Private, Co. C, 
139th Inf., U, S. A., A. E. F. Stationed in the Vosges sector, the 
Arras sector and the Argonne sector. Wounded in the battle of the 
Argonne Forest, Sept. 29, 191 8, and at first reported killed in action. 
Discharged Feb. 14, 191 9 at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Lundberg, George, Fairdale, North Dakota. A 3, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted May 27, 1918, at Fairdale, N. D. Corporal, U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. Stationed successively at Camp Lewis, Fort 
Benjamin Harrison, and Camp Upton. Overseas, stationed for six 
months at Bordeaux as clerk in the office of Depot Engineer, Base 
Section No. 2. After the armistice was sent as a student to the 
University of London where he remained about five months. Dis- 
charged August I, 1919, at Camp Mills. Now a student at the 

Lundy, John S., Inkster, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
Jan. 3, 191 8, at Chicago, 111. Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Lurton, Douglas Elsworth, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. L 
I, 191 7-1 8. Enlisted April 3, 191 8, at Fort Logan, Col. Private, 
Med. Dept., U. S. A. Assigned to the Post Hospital, Ft. Benjamin 
Harrison, Ind. Honorably discharged. May 16, 191 8, for slight 
physical disability. Re-enlisted, Oct. 1, 191 8 at Albuquerque, N. 
Mex. Private, S. A. T. C, University of New Mexico. 

Lurton, Malcom B., East Grand Forks, Minnesota. L i, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Reg. Army, 
stationed at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Sergeant i/c, Amb. Co., 276, 
19th Div., Med. Dept., U. S. A. Stationed (i) Ft. Riley, Kan., 
(2) Camp Dodge, Iowa. Served also as army field clerk in office 
of Camp Surgeon after the armistice. Was one of group of 200 
soldiers from Camp Dodge, la., assigned to help in the harvesting 
of the crop of 1918. Discharged at Camp Dodge, la. 

Lynch, Cecil John, Lakota, North Dakota. L 3, 191 8-19. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Cadet, U. S. N., assigned 
to Ensign School, Municipal Pier, Chicago. 111. Transferred to 
Av. S'ec, and assigned to Mass. Institute of Tech., Cambridge, Mass. 
Placed on inactive duty list. 

McCarthy, Donald J., Grafton, North Dakota. A i, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, U. S. N. Assigned to Naval Tr. Sta., 
Great Lakes, 111. 

McClellan, Russell B., Hope, North Dakota. E i, 19 17-18. 
Enlisted April 18, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private Coast 

Undergraduates 263 

Artillery Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Three months overseas 
service. Discharged December 23, 19 19. 

McDermott, Edward Henry, Cooperstown, North Dakota. 
L I, 1916-17. Enlisted, May 15, 1917, at East Grand Forks, Minn. 
Candidate, 2nd R. O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Promotions: 
Corporal, Sergeant, Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant. Graduated 
from 1 2th Divisional Schools with grade of "Instructor" in Auto- 
matic Arms and Physical and Bayonet Training. First Lieutenant, 
H Co., 36th Inf., U. S. A. Stationed (i) Ft. Snelling, Minn., (2) 
Camp Devons, Mass., (3) Cambridge, Mass. Discharged Feb. 3, 
1919, at Cambridge, Mass. 

McDermott, George D-, Rugby, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 7. 
Enlisted Aug. 191 7, at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate 2nd O. T. S. 
Private Co. 8, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

McDermott, Willard, Cooperstown, North Dakota. A i, 1917- 
18. Enlisted, 1918. Private, C. A. C, U. S. A. 

McGavin, Ray K., Fordville, North Dakota. ME 2, 1916-17. 
Drafted, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Ft. 
Riley, Kan. 

McGlenn, Harlan W., Minnewaukan, North Dakota. A Sp. 
1916-17. Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps., U. S. A. 

McGrath, Edwin J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A. i, 191 7-1 8. 
Mr. McGrath was one of the fourteen students chosen by the 
University of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond 
to the call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day 
course of intensive training for officers at Fort STieridan, Illinois. 
From this training he returned as a non-commissioned officer to the 
S. A. T. C. at the University. Discharged at the University, Dec, 
19 1 8. Now a student at the University. 

Mcintosh, Wilfred, Bottineau, North Dakota. A i, 1917-18. 
Known to have been in service but no record received. 

McKay, Douglas C, Pembina, North Dakota. E 4, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Pembina, N. D. Second Lieutenant, 346th M. G. 
Bn. Stationed at Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash. 

McLees, Raymond W., Sanborn, North Dakota. SS. 191 7. 
Enlisted Sept. 4, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Private, National Army. 
Corporal, Co. I, 352nd Inf., U. S. A. (Feb. 26, 1918). Transferred 
to Co. L, 139th Inf., 35th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Reached 
France May 11, 191 8. Saw active service on four sectors, — the Alas- 
tian, St. Mihiel, Argonne, and Verdun. Was slightly gassed during 
Argonne action. The Division was assembling for a drive on Metz 
when the armistice was signed. 

McPhee, Frank W., Westhope, North Dakota. M 2, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 

MacDonald, Douglas G., Grand Forks, North Dakota. L i, 
1917-18. Entered the service June 24, 1918, at Grand Forks. Private, 
Inf. U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Grant, Iowa. Served for one 

264 The Quarterly Journal 

month in Hdqts. Co., 337th Field Artillery, then transferred to the 
Naturalization Department and from there to the First Training 
Group, 163rd Depot Brigade. Later promoted to Corporal. Dis- 
charged IVIarch 7, 1919, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Mann, Fred P. Jr., Devils Lake, North Dakota. A 3, 1916- 

17. Enlisted, April, 191 7, at Ft. S'nelling, Minn. Candidate, O. T. 
S. First Lieutenant, Co. B, 339th M. G. Bn., 88th Div., U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. 

Manning, Gervase J., Dickinson, North Dakota. L i, 1916-17. 
Private, M. G. Co., 164th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Manning, James A., Antler, North Dakota. A i, 1916-17- 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

Marmon, Morgan L., West Point, Montana. M Sp 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Lewis, American Lake, Wash. 

Martin, Neal D., Hamilton, North Dakota. M i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Cavalier, N. D. First Sergeant, Co. B., 298 Aero 
Squadron. Air Ser., U. S. A. Stationed at Pittsburgh, Pa. Dis- 
charged Jan. 17, 19 1 9, at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mayfield, Esom B., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A i, S'S. 
191 7. Enlisted, 1917, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Co. M, N. D. 
Nat. Gd. Sergeant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Metzger, Herbert A., Williston, North Dakota. LL. B. 19 17. 
Enlisted May, 191 7, at Williston, N. D. Candidate O. T. C, Ft. 
Snelling, Minn. First Lieutenant, M- G. Co., 351st Inf., U. S. A., 
Camp Dodge, la. 

Midkiff. Henry Franklin, Chicago, Illinois. A i, 191 7-1 8. 
Secretary, American Y. M. C. A., Archangel, Russia. Sailed from 
New York, January, 1919, stayed six weeks in England, and reached 
Archangel the last Sunday in March. Stationed in one of the out- 
lying log villages, recently evacuated by the Bolsheviks. 

Miller, Leslie Vernon, Minot, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Custer, Mich. 

Millov, Frank J., Omemee, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted fall of 191 7. Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Mix, Muriel Melrun, Lidgerwood, North Dakota. EE 3, 191 7" 

18. Enlisted, Dec. 3, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Apprentice 
Seaman, U. S. N. Assigned to U. S. S. "Mississippi." Shortly after 
enlistment joined the Armed Guards of the U. S. N., a group of 
men specially trained to handle the guns on merchantment and con- 
voys. Received two gold chevrons for this duty, and also the 
Naval "E". 

Moore, Cuthbert S-, Lisbon, North Dakota. LL. B. 1917. 
Enlisted July 30, 191 6, at Lisbon, N. D. (ist N. D. N. G.). 
Sergeant, 164th Inf., U. S. A. Discharged Mar. 14, 1919, at Camp 
Dodge, la. 

Undergraduates 265 

Moore, Leon H., Edgeley, North Dakota. E. E. 19 18. Enlisted 
April 30, 1918 at Minneapolis, Minn. Seaman 2|c, U. S. N- 
Assigned to U. S. S. "Carola," Naval Base No. 7, Brest, France. 

Morrison, William Hunter, Crystal, North Dakota. L 1, 191 7- 
18. Enlisted, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, 
U. S. A. 

Moultrie, Gerard E., Valley City, North Dakota. CE 2, 191 7- 
18. Mr. Moultrie was one of the fourteen students chosen by the 
University of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond 
to the call of the Government for college men t otake a sixty-day 
course of intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. 
At the close of the period he received a commission as Second Lieu- 
tenant and was assigned to the Ohio State University to work with 
the S'. A. T. C. Discharged, December, 191 8. Now a student 
at the University. 

Murphy, Henry R., Minot, North Dakota, A 4, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, May 15, 191 7, at Minot, N. D. Candidate, O. T. S., Ft. 
Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, Co. D, 339th M. G. Bn., 88th 
Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Murphy, James R., Bordulac, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 7. 
Enlisted May, 191 7. Candidate, ist O. T. C, Ft- Snelling, Minn. 
First Lieutenant, Co. M., 351st Inf., 88th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., 
France. Eleven months overseas service. Battalion Intelligence 
Officer- Member of General Courts-Martial. 

Musjerd, Iver O., Osnabrock, North Dakota. B, A. 191 7. 
Known to have been in service but no record at hand. 

Nelson, Ernest O., Hillsboro, North Dakota. A i, 19 17-18. 
Enlisted, December 15, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks. Private, Av. 
Sec, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Sent to Camp Hancock, Jan., 
1918. Transferred, Mar., 1918, to Co. B., 103d Ammunition Train, 
28th Division. Arrived in Southampton, England, May 31st, 

19 1 8, and Le Havre, France, June 6th, 191 8. Was at the front 
from the last of June until Armistice. Took part in Chateau Thierry, 
Fifth German Offensive, Advance on Orcq and Vesle, Meuse- 
Argonne Offensive, Thiacourt Sector. Left St. Nazaire April 24, 

1919, arrived at Philadelphia May 7, 1919. Discharged at Camp 
Dodge May 20, 19 19. Now a student at the University. 

Nelson, Walter L., East Grand Forks, Minnesota, L. Sp 19 16- 
17. Enlisted Nov. 21, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sergeant, 
i/c. Pursuit Group, 158th Aero Squadron, U. S. Air Service. Sta- 
tioned near Lincoln, England, and at 3rd A. T. C, Issondun, France. 

Nevin, John B., Bathgate, North Dakota. L 3, 191 8-19. 
Known to have been in service, but details not at hand. 

Nichols, Lester C, Heaton, North Dakota. E i, 1917-18, 
Enlisted, Aug. 28, 1918, at Fessenden, N. D. Private, Co. H., 3rd 
Bn., Chemical Warfare Service, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. The work 
of this arsenal was in connection with the manufacture and placing 
in shells, grenades, etc., of poisonous gases. Worked especially in 

266 The Quarterly Journal 

the mustard oil (gas) department. Discharged Jan. 2, 19 19, at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Nilles, Herbert G., Fargo, North Dakota. LL. B. 191 7. 
Enlisted Feb., 191 8, Fargo, N. D. Sergeant, Ord. Corps, U- S. A., 
A. E. F., France. 

Nollman, Roy, Grafton, North Dakota. LL. B. 19 17. Enlisted 
July 22, 1918, Grafton, N. D. Corporal, 42nd Co., i6oth Depot 
Brig., U. S. A. Assigned to Camp Custer, Mich., trans. 15th Tr. 

Btt'y. F. A. O. T. S. Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. Discharged, Camp 
Zachary Taylor, Ky., Nov. 27, 191 8. 

Nomland, Rueben, Thompson, North Dakota. M i, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, Jan. 12, 191 8 at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Private in Fourth 
Balloon Co., 3rd Army Corps of First Army. Took part in Aine- 
Marne and Meuse-Argonne offensives. Served thirteen months in 
France. Discharged May 15, 19 19. 

Nuss, Morris N., Neenah, Wisconsin. L 2, 1916-17. Enlisted, 
1918. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. 

Nyhus, Lloyd Hillman, Edmore, North Dakota. A S'p 191 8-19. 
Enlisted, 1918. Private, U. S. N. 

O'Connor, Archie B., St. Thomas, North Dakota. 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, Oct., 19 18, S. A. T. C, University of North Dakota. 
Recommended for transfer to C. O. T. S., Camp Grant, 111. Dis- 
charged at Camp Grant, 111. 

O'Connor, Clarence Daniel, St. Thomas, North Dakota. Ed 2, 
19 1 6-1 7. Enlisted fall of 191 7. 

O'Gorman, Charles Edward, Grand Forks, North Dakota. M 
2, 19 1 7-1 8. Enlisted, 191 8. Private, U. S. N. 

Olson, Alvin Byron, Bemidji, Minnesota. E i, 1916-17. 
Called into service April 4, 19 17. Private, 5th Div., Minneota 
Naval Militia. Seaman 2/c, U. S. Naval Reserve Force. Musician 
i/c, U. S. N. R, F., assigned to U. S. S'. "Kansas". This vessel did 
convoy duty during the war, convoying many thousand soldiers 
without losing a man, and shared in the honor and prize money for 
capturing the first German submarine mother-ship off Atlantic coast. 
May 26, 191 8. Alvin B. Olson and E. J. Simons were first students 
to leave the University for war service, April 4, 191 7. 

Olson, Melvin A., Hansboro, North Dakota. Ed 2, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, Aug. 31, 191 8, at Cando, N. D. Private, Radio Div.. Air 
Ser., U. S. A. (unassigned). Stationed (i) Penn Field, Austin, 
Texas, (2) with Voc. Tr. Det., at University of North Dakota 
(Sept. and Oct., 1918). 

Oppegard, Goodwin J., Mcintosh, Minnesota. LL. B. 191 7. 
Enlisted May 16, 191 7, Grand Forks, N. D. Candidate, ist O. T. 
C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, Co. M., 349th Inf-, 
88th Div. First Lieutenant, 163rd Depot Brig. (Personnel Dept.) 
Assigned as Com. Officer, Co. K., 807th Pioneer Inf. for transporta- 
tion overseas. Captain, Inf. Corps, Hdqts- Staff, A. E. F., in com- 
mand of 6000 troops. Eleven months overseas service. 

Undergraduates . 267 

Oppen, Elmer A., Berwick, North Dakota. EE Sp. 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, U. S. N. 

Owen, Henry G., Grand Forks, North Dakota. L Sp, 1916-17. 

Page, John A., Hamilton, North Dakota. M 2, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, June 24, 191 8, at Cavalier, N. D. Corporal, Hdqts. Co., 
337th F. A., U. S'. A., A. E. F., France. Five months overseas 

Palmer, Louis A., Halliday, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
Nov. 10, 191 7. Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Papermaster, George, Grand Forks, North Dakota. LL- B. 
191 7. Enlisted Mar. 29, 191 8, Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant, M. 
C, U. S. A. Assigned to Office of Ch. Surg. Hdq. S. O. S., Camp 
McArthur, Texas. A. E. F., Tours, France- 

Patterson, Ellwood L., Wahpeton, North Dakota. B. A. 1918. 
Enlisted May 11, 1917. Candidate ist O- T. C, Ft. Snelling, 
Minn. First Lieutenant, Hdqts. Co., 56th M. G. Bn., 19th Div., 
U. S. A. Discharged, Feb. 6, 19 19. 

Pederson, Henry G., Grafton, North Dakota. CE 2, 191 7-18. 
Recommended for enlistment at Grand Forks early in May — enlist- 
ment completed at Newport, R. L, May 13, 1918. Enlisted as 
Landsman Electrician General and soon promoted to second class. 
Material Section. He was soon transferred to the "Comanche" and 
made one trip across, returning to New York. He was again trans- 
ferred, October 24, 191 8, this time to Naval Aviation and sent to 
Charleston, S. C, where he passed a test examination, receiving the 
rank of Second Class Quartermaster in Aviation, U. S. N. R. Av. 
The armistice coming soon he never qualified. Released November 
24, 191 8. Now a student at the University. 

Perry, Ralph W., Surre3% North Dakota. E 3-A 3, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, April 10, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Seaman 3/c, 
U. S'. N., stationed at Nav. Tr. Sta., Great Lakes, 111. Musician 
(Naval Band), assigned to U. S. Transport "Rijndam." Made six 
trips on this Transport. Discharged August 12, 1919. 

Peterson, Harry Rudolph, Bisbee, North Dakota. A i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Petterson, Melvin L., Maj^ille, North Dakota. B. A. 1918. 
Enlisted, June, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N- D. Private, C. A. C, 
U. S. A. Stationed at (i) Ft. Stevens, Ore., (2) Fortress Mon- 
roe, Va. 

Phillips, Guy, Oakland City, Indiana. A 3, 1916-17. Enlisted, 
April 29, 191 8, at Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. Sergeant, M. C, U. 
S. A. Assigned to Base Hospital 140, Camp Johnston, Fla. Dis- 
charged Dec. 23, 19 1 8, at Camp Taylor, Ky. 

Plank, Howard A., St. Paul, Minnesota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
Oct. 8, 191 7 at St. Louis, Mo. Private M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Plank, Paul James, Minneapolis, Minnesota. A i, 1916-17. 

268 The Quarterly Journal 

Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Royal Aviation Corps, Canadian Army. 
Honorably discharged as physically deficient. 

Polk, Harry E., Willow City, North Dakota. B. A. 1917. 
Called in the draft June, 191 8. Sergeant, (Band Master), Co. 18, 
5th Bn., 163rd Dep. Brig., Camp Dodge, la. Following the arm- 
istice, the band made a four months "Victory Tour" thru states of 
the Central West. 

Porter, Amyas Leigh, Ellendale, North Dakota. CE 2, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, 191 7. Private, Royal Aviation Corps, Canadian 

Pray, Ralph E., Valley City, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-18. 
Mr. Prey was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University 
of North Dakota, in the early summer of 1918, to respond to the 
call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course 
of intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. At the 
close of the period he received a commission as Second Lieutenant 
and was assigned to the School for Auto Mechanics, Kansas Cit\', 
Missouri, to work with the S. A. T. C. Discharged, December, 19 18. 

Putnam, Frank L., Carrington, North Dakota. A 3, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 6, at Bismarck, N. D. Private, 1st Inf., N. D. Nat. 
Gd., serving on Mexican border. First Sergeant, 164th Inf., 41st 
Div., U. S'. A., A. E. F., France. Assigned to Camp Hospital No. 
I, Med. Dept., stationed at Gondrecourt, France. 

Putnam, Hugh R., Carrington, North Dakota. B. A. 19 17. 
Member of 2nd N. D. Nat, Guard, serving on Mexican border. 
Enlisted Aug. 191 7, at Bismarck, N. D. First Sergeant 162nd 
Field Hospital, San. Tr. 116, A. E. F. Germany. 

Ratzlaff, Carl J., Valley City, North Dakota. E i, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted, 19 17, Private, 2nd Inf., N. D. Nat. Gd. Sergeant, Inf. 
Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Read, Roland R., Grand Forks, North Dakota. B. S. 19 17. 
Called in the draft at Stratford, Conn. Private, Ord. Dept., U. S. A. 
Detailed as Oil Chemist in munitions plant at Stratford, Conn., 
for the period of the war. 

Reid, Rodney E., Detroit, Minnesota. A Sp. 1916-17. Enlisted, 
19 1 8. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Kelly 
Field, San Antonio, Texas. 

Reilly. Lloyd V., Milton, North Dakota. L i, 1916-17. En- 
listed, May 14, 191 7, at East Grand Forks, Minn. Volunteer Priv- 
ate, K. Troop, 1st U. S. Cavalry, stationed at Fort D. A. Russell, 
Wy. Candidate, 2nd O. T. S., Fort Snelling. Minn. Second Lieu- 
tenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., (Nov. 27, 1917). Served in several 
southern camps, and had charge of training and transportation of 
troops. Promoted to First Lieutenant, U. S. Inf., Oct. 25, 191 8, 
and had been ordered to sail for overseas service when the armistice 
was signed. Received unsolicited appointment as First Lieutenant 
in the Cavalrv Reserves. Discharged December 7, 1918, at Camp 
Dix, N. J. 

Undergraduates 269 

Reimers, Fernando, F., Carrington, North Dakota. E i, 1916- 

17. Enlisted, October, 191 8, at Nevada, Iowa, Private, S. A. T. C, 
Iowa State College, Ames, loAva. Discharged, Dec. 17, 19 18, at 
Ames, Iowa, 

Richards, Frank, Dickinson, North Dakota, A i, 191 7-1 8. 

Enlisted, June, 191 8, Private, F. A. C, U, S, A,, A. E. F., France. 

Richards, Mansell, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7" 

18. Drafted, March 30, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N, D, Second 
Lieutenant, F. A., U. S'. A. Discharged, Dec. 4, 1918, at Camp 
Zachary Taylor, Ky. 

Richter, Waldemar, Fargo, North Dakota, B. A. 1917- 
Enlisted Feb. 5. 191 8. Private, M. R. C, U. S, A. Stationed at 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Rilejs Charles Allen, Bottineau, North Dakota, M i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, U. S. N. 

Ronan, Roy Anthony, Manvel, North Dakota. M 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Btt'y E, 69th Art,, 
C, A, C, U, S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at Pussigum, France. 

Roche, Roy Johnson, Drayton, North Dakota. M i, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted, April 6, 1918, at Grafton, N. D. Private, Co. C, 164th 
Inf., U. S. A. Transferred to E Co., i8th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., 
France. Wounded by H, E, S., in front line trenches, in January, 
1918. Discharged Mar. 11, 1919, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Roy, Ralph, St. Hilaire, Minnesota. A 3, 1916-17. Enlisted, 
Sept. 20, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Sergeant Hdqts. Co., 352nd 
Inf., U, S. A. S'tationed at Ft. Robinson, Neb., and Rock Island 
Arsenal, 111, Discharged Jan. 14, 1919, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 
Now a student at the University. 

Ruble, Martin A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 4-L I, 
1917-18. Enlisted, April 29, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D, Private, 
315th Field Signal Battalion, 90th Division, U. S. A., A. E. F,, 
France, Camp Dodge, Camp Travis, Camp Mills, Overseas in 
July. At the St. Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse fronts, and in the Army 
of Occupation till May 21, 1919. Discharged June 21 at Camp 

Rumrich, Adolph S., Fargo, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted Jan. 30, 1918, at St. Louis, Mo. Private, M, R, C, U. S, A. 

Rygh, T. Milton, Cavalier, North Dakota. A i, 191 7-1 8. 
Mr. Rygh was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University 
of North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the 
call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course 
of intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. At 
the close of the period he received a commission as Second Lieutenant 
and was assigned to the Indianapolis School of Commerce, to work 
with the S, A, T, C, Indianapolis, Indiana, Discharged, December 
26, 191 8, at Northwestern College, 111, 

Sandvik, Otto, Crosby, North Dakota. A 3, 19 17-18. Enlist- 
ed, February 11, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Av. Sec, 

270 The Quarterly Journal 

Signal Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Sent to Fort Omaha and 
for six weeks attended the Balloon school, receiving training in Army 
Meteorological work; then transferred to Fort Wood, N. Y., where 
he took further training in Meteorological work for two months. 
Sent overseas June 11. He spent one month in training for Pilot 
Balloon work, and had six weeks at the front in the Saint Mihiel 
and Lorraine Sectors, doing Meteorological work, and three weeks 
experimental work, with a staff officer, on Propaganda Balloons. 
Made a Corporal on October 3, for special service. Was returned 
to England about the loth of October as Instructor in Meteorology 
in connection with the Air Service. Now a student at the University. 

Sarles, Duane York, Hillsboro, North Dakota. L 2, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Hillsboro, N. D. Captain, Co. i., 352nd Reg. 
Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Schiess, Martin E., Ypsilanti, North Dakota. B. S. in C. E. igi8. 
Enlisted March 9, 191 8, Ft. WoVden, Wash. Corporal Btt'y. B, 
C. A. C, U. S. A. With A. E. F., France Oct. 5, 1918 to March 
8, 1919. Discharged March 19, 1919, Camp Dodge, la. 

Schlosser, Arthur Gerald, Grand Forks, North Dakota. ME 3, 
191 6-1 7. Enlisted, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Second Lieuten- 
ant, 350th Inf., 88th Div. (Clover Leaf Div'n.), U. S'. A., A. E. F., 

Schmidt, Peter, Enloe, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Second 
Lieutenant, Inf., U. S. A. Stationed (i) Camp Pike, Ark., (2) 
Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. 

Schnabel, Dudley C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. A 4, 
191 7-1 8. Enlisted, May 3, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Chief Q. 
M., (Aviation), Co. 30, U. S. Naval Av. Det., Key West, Fla. 
Assigned (i) Mass. Inst. Tech., Boston, Mass., (2) Naval Air 
Station, Key West, Fla. Discharged, Dec, 19 18. 

Schultz, Harry L., Minnewaukan, North Dakota. A 4, L i, 
1916-17. Enlisted, 1917. Private, U. S. N. 

Schweitzer, Clarence E., Cavalier, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Mr. Schweitzer was one of the fourteen students chosen by the 
University of North Dakota, in the early summer of 19 18, to respond 
to the call of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day 
course of intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. 
From this training he returned as a non-commissioned officer to the 
S. A. T. C. at the University. Discharged at the University, Decem- 
ber, 1918. 

Scott, Cecil, Adroch, North Dakota. E 2, 1917-18. Enlisted, 
April 10, 1918, at Minneapolis. Private, U. S. N. Sent to the 
Great Lakes Naval Station. Transferred, October 15, to the Uni- 
versity of North Dakota for engineering study. Released from active 
service January 2, 1919. Now a student at the University. 

Scott, McDonald W., Heaton, North Dakota. E i, 191 7-1 8- 
Enlisted May 14, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Ensign, U. S. N. 
Stationed at Great Lakes Naval Station, Municipal Pier, N. Y., 

JJjidergraduates 271 

and Baltimore, on board "Juniata" in Coastwise Service from Balti- 
more to Savannah and Jacksonville. N. A. R. S., at Pelham Bay, 
N. Y. For two months on duty in New York Harbor in charge of 
turning ships back to owners. Discharged May 27, 1919. Now a 
student at the University. 

Seed, Lindon, Minot, North Dakota. B. A. 1918. Enlisted 
Oct. 2, 19 1 8, Chicago, 111. Private C. O. R., Can. Army, Exhibition 
Camp, Toronto, Can. Discharged, Nov. 20, 19 18, Toronto, Can. 

Seibel, John J., Harvey, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
July, 191 7. Private, M. R. C, U. S. A. 

Seymour, Lloyd H., Tower City, North Dakota. M 2, 19 16- 
17. Enlisted, May 6, 191 8, at Fargo, North Dakota. Corporal, 
M. S. T. 413 Q. M. Corps, Motor Truck Co., 434, U. S. A., A. 
E. F. Stationed with ist Army of Occupation at Moyen, Germany. 
Eight months' oversease service. 

Shaft, Arthur Blaine, Minot, North Dakota. B. A. 1917. 
Enlisted Mar., 191 7, Washington, D. C. Ensign, Paymaster Corps, 
U. S'. N. Promoted to Lieutenant and Assistant Paymaster, assigned 
to U. S. S. "Wheeling." 

Shellenberger, Rolfe, Minnewaukan, North Dakota. A 4, 
1917-18. Enlisted, Apr. 15, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn. Seaman 
2/c. U. S. N. R. Promoted (i) M. M. 2lc, (2) C. M. M., (3) 
Mach., (4) Ensign. Assigned to (i) U. S. S. "K. G. Luckenback," 
(2) U. S. S. "Pjikembang." Detached Oct. 20, 191 8, for engineer- 
ing duty only. 

Sherman, Benjamin Franklin, Hysham, Montana. A 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Private, ist Balloon Squadron, Sig. Corps, \J. S. A. 
Stationed at St. Sill, Okl. 

Sliorb, Paul, Surrey, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
June 27, 191 7 at Duluth, Minn. Candidate 2nd O. T. C, Ft. 
S'nelling, Minn. Second Lieutenant, Co. F., 2nd Inf., U. S. A. 
Assigned (i) Gloucester City, N. J., guarding interned Germans. 
(2) Frankfort Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa., guarding Government 
ammunition factory, (3) Ft. Jay, N. J. Served as Judge Advocate 
in special Courts Martial. Promoted to First Lieutenant Aug. 23, 
19 1 8. Discharged Feb. 14, 19 19 at Ft. Jay, N. J. 

Shunk, William Fred, Anselm, North Dakota. M i, 1 916-17. 
Drafted, 19 18. Private, Co. D., 318th Engineers (Lappers), U. S. 
A., A. E. F., France. 

Simons, Edwin Jaggard, Bemidji, Minnesota. M i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted April 11, 1917, at Bemidji, Minn. Ensign, U. S. N. R. F., 
Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. Assigned to U. S. S. "Kansas." 

Sinclair, James H., Kenmare, North Dakota. A i, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, at Minneapolis, Minn., on July 10, 1918. Private, U. S. 
N. Discharged, July 20, 19 19, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Skretting, Aimer, Valley City, North Dakota. E 3, 1916-17. 
Enlisted July 16, 191 7, at Valley City, N. D., in the 2nd N. D. 
Inf. Nat. Gd. Stationed successively at Camp Green, Camp Mills, 

272 The Quarterly Journal 

and Camp Merritt. Sergeant Major, 148th Machine Gun Battalion, 
stationed at Base Section No. 4, LeHavre, France, from January 
23, 191 8, till February 22, 19 19. Later served with new Supply 
Base at Rotterdam, Holland, from the first to the nineteenth of 
March and at Antwerp, Belgium, from March 20 to July 23, 1919. 
Promoted on May 29, 191 8 to Second Lieutenant. Discharged, 
Aug. 4, 19 19, at Washington as Second Lieutenant. Trans. Corps. 
Now a student in the University. 

Slater, Clarence Sheldon, Esmond, North Dakota. 19 17-18. 
Enlisted Oct. i, 191 8, at Fargo, N. D. Private, S. A. T. C, Fargo 
College, Fargo, N. D. Discharged Dec. 13, 19 18, at Fargo, N. D. 

Smeby, Justin G., Oberon, North Dakota. EM i, 19 17-18. 
Enlisted, April 10, 191 8, at Minneapolis. Never called, never sent 
to camp. Recently joined the Merchant Marine. 

Smith, Frank C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. L i, 1916-17. 
Drafted June 24, 191 8, at Grand Forks. Private, Inf. U. S. A., 
A. E. F., France. Stationed ( i ) Camp Dodge, Iowa, then sent to 
Quebec, Can. for embarkation; (2) Belford, France. Ordered to 
the front just in time to see a part of the closing battle. Discharged 
June 24, 1919, at Camp Grant, Illinois. 

Snowfield, Johannes, Hannah, North Dakota. LL. B. 19 17. 
Enlisted June, 191 7. Sergeant Co. E, 8th Am. Tr., F. A. C, 
U. S. A. 

• Sorbo, Harold Reitman, Thompson, North Dakota. A 2, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, July 5, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Musician i/c. 
DunWoody Naval Band, Dunwoody Institute, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Discharged Feb. 24, 19 19, at Minneapolis, Minn. 

Soule, William D., Towner, North Dakota. B. S. in C. E. 1918. 
Enlisted summer of 1918. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., Ft. 
Worden, Wash. 

Stedman, Chester B., Sheyenne, North Dakota. L 2, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, June 13, 19 18, at Fargo, N. D. Private, Voc, Tr. Det., 
N. D. Agricultural College, Fargo, N. D. Musician 2/c, 138th 
F. A. Band, Hdqts. Co., 38th Div., 63rd Brig., U. S. A., A. E. F., 
Stationed at Camp Shelby, Miss., Camp Upton, L. I., Camp Mills, 
N. J., Camp Taylor, Ky., England and France. Discharged Jan. 11, 
19 1 9, at Camp Taylor, Ky. 

Stee, Ernest Clifford, Dazey, North Dakota. E i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, April 15, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn. Seaman i/c. 
Guard Co., nth Reg., U, S. N. Stationed at Great Lakes, III. 
Released at Great Lakes, 111., on Feb. i, 1919. 

Steidl, Rudolph C, Fingal, North Dakota. A 2, 191 7-1 8. Mr. 
Steidl was one of the fourteen students chosen by the University of 
North Dakota, in the early summer of 191 8, to respond to the call 
of the Government for college men to take a sixty-day course of in- 
tensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. At the close 
of the period he received a commission as Second Lieutenant and was 

Undergraduates 273 

assigned to St. Thomas College as Personnel Adjutant in the S. A. 
T. C. Discharged, December, 19 18. Now a student at the Uni- 

Steining, Henry C, Felton, Minnesota. LL. B. 191 7. Called 
in the draft Dec. 14, 191 7. Private, 35th Co., 2d Reg., C. A. C, 
U. S. N. Stationed at Presidio of San Francisco, Cal. Transf. to 
Btt'y. D., 62nd C. A. C, A. E. F., France. 

Stevenson, James E., Crosby, North Dakota. A 4, 1916- 

17. Enlisted, May 15, 191 7. Candidate, R. O. T. C, Camp Dodge, 
la. Second Lieutenant, Co. B., 339th M. G. Bn., U. S. A. 

Stewart, Ralph J., Drayton, North Dakota. A 2, 19 17-18. 
Mr. Stewart was one of the fourteen students chosen by the Univer- 
sity of North Dakota, in the early summer of 19 18, to respond to the 
call of the government for college men to take a sixty-day course of 
intensive training for officers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. In this 
training Mr. Stewart's work was thoroly satisfactory, but because of 
slight physical disability he was not accepted in the S". A. T. C. He re- 
turned to the Univerity of North Dakota, however, and took the 
regular work, hoping to be accepted later should the need arise. 

Strand, Steen, University, North Dakota. E 4, 191 7-18. 
Drafted, March, 19 18. Candidate, Art. O. T. C, Camp Zachary 
Taylor, Ky. Second Lieutenant, F. A. C, U. S. A. Transferred 
to S. A. T. C, University of North Dakota. 

Sullivan, Joseph Edward, Mandan, North Dakota. A Sp, 1917- 

18. Enlisted, 1918. Private, Inf. Corps., U. S. A. 

Sussex, Frank H., Hope, North Dakota. ME 4, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, May 8, 19 18, at Minneapolis. Private, U. S. N. Sent 
at once to Great Lakes Naval Station. Transferred, October 15, to 
the University of North Dakota for engineering study. Released 
irom active service January 2, 1919. Now at Hope, North Dakota. 

Taubert, Max G., Casselton, North Dakota, L 2, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted Jan. 16, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Cadet, Aviation 
Tr. Sch., Berkeley, Cal. Second Lieutenant, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, 
U. S. A. Stationed at March Field, Riverside, Cal. 

Taylor, Fay L., Towner, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. Enlisted 
July, 191 7. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 

Taylor, Smith, Towner, North Dakota. A 3, Ed. 3, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Candidate, 2nd R. O. T. C, Ft. Snelling, Minn. 
Second Lieutenant, Co. K, 45th Inf., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Teel, Charles Edmond, Bellingham, Washington. M 2, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, 191 7. Second Lieutenant, 2nd Inf., N. D. Nat. Gd. 

Tendick, Lloyd B., Fargo, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Called in the draft Sept. 22, 191 7, at Fargo, N. D. Private, Co. 
C, 348th Inf., U. S. A. Camp Pike, Ark. 

Thompson, Milton N., Rolla, North Dakota. A 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Second Lieutenant, 2nd Inf., N. D. Nat. Gd. 

274 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

Thompson, Vernon C, Pembina, North Dakota. EE 2, 191 6- 

17. Enlisted, June 25, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Chief Machin- 
ist's Mate, Transport Service, U. S. Naval Reserves. Assigned to ( i ) 
U. S. S. "Arkansas", (2) U. S. S. "Munsomo". Last named vessel 
was an Army Supply ship, plying between America, France, and 
England. Twelve months service on these vessels. Discharged Dec. 

18, 191 8, at Pelham Bay, N. Y. 

Thomson, Ralph George, Cavalier, North Dakota. A Sp. 1916- 

17. Enlisted, May 11, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Printer i/c, 
U. S. N. Stationed at Naval Base, Newport, R. I. Discharged 
Jan. 31, 1919, at Newport, R. I. 

Thorndal, Otto Nelson, Kenmare, North Dakota. Ed 2, 191 7" 

18. Enlisted, July 22, 1918, at Minot, N. D. Private, Hdqts. Co., 
14th Field Brigade, 40 F. A., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Custer, 
Mich. Discharged Feb. 7, 191 9, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Thrams, Everett A., Bismarck, North Dakota. A i, 1917-18. 
Enlisted, Dec. 12, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Pharmacist's Mate 
3/c, Hospital Corps, U. S. N. Stationed at Naval Hospital, League 
Island, Penna. Enlistment does not expire until December 12, 1921. 

Tinnes, Lloyd A. Childs, Hunter, North Dakota. L 2, 19 1 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, May 27, 19 18, at Camp Funston, Kan. Private, 314th 
Field Signal Bn., U. S. A. Discharged June 4, 19 18, at Camp 
Funston, Kan., eight days after enlistment because of slight physical 
disability not detected at first. 

Torrey, Gordon H., Drayton, North Dakota. A i, SS 1917. 
Enlisted, September 22, 191 7, at Cavalier, N. D. Private, Co. K., 
352nd Inf., U. S. A. First Lieutenant, Co. I. 347th Inf. (unas- 
signed), U. S. A. Stationed at ( i ) Camp Dodge. la., (2) Camp 
Pike, Ark., (3) Camp Dix, N. J. Discharged Dec. 27, 191 8, at 
Camp Dix, N. J. 

Torrison, Alfred T., Fisher, Minnesota. A 4-Ed. 4, 1916-17- 
Enlisted, May, 191 7 at Ft. Snelling, Minn. Candidate, O. T. C. 
Second Lieutenant, Co. I, i66th Inf., Rainbow Div., A. E. P., 
France. Served on Intell. Sec. of General StafiF of the First, Second 
and Third Field Armies in France. Was wounded in the Fismes 
conflicts. Received a citation for bravery after the battle of the 
Marne. Discharged May 12, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Tureck, Max, Anamoose, North Dakota. Ed. 2, 19 16-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Private, Co. K, 163rd Depot 
Brigade, U. S. A. Discharged at Fort Porter Hospital, New York. 

Ueland, Alf, Cooperstown, North Dakota. ME 2, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, April 10, 1918, at Minneapolis. Private, U. S. N. At 
once sent to Great Lakes Naval Station. Transferred, October 15, 
to the University of North Dakota for engineering study. Released 
from active service January 2, 19 19. Now a student at the Univer- 

Vaaler, Paul, Grand Forks, North Dakota. M i, 191 7-18. 
Voluntarilv inducted, Dec. 9, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Serg- 

Undergraduates 275 

eant i/c, Q. M. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at 
Camp Meigs, D. C, and at Jainsville, France. 

Vance, Samuel M., Amenia, North Dakota. E i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, April 20, 191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Mechanic, 40th 
Btty. 4th Art. Sec, C. A. C, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed 
(i) Camp Eustis, Va., (2) Camp Constitution with Co. 10 o fthe 
Coast Defenses of Portsmouth, N. H., (3) at Fort de Montlignon, 
France (16 mi. northeast of Paris), and (4) at Brest, France. Dis- 
charged Feb. I, 1919, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Veitch, Edith J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. Ed 3, A 3, 1916- 

17. (See page 200.) 

Vikan, Donald F., Grand Forks, North Dakota. EE 2, 191 7- 

18. Known to have been in service, but no record received. 

Vikan, Walter L., Bottineau, North Dakota. A i, 19 17-18. 
Known to have been in service but no record received. 

Vobayda, Latimer Kay, Lawton, North Dakota. L i, 191 6- 17. 
Enlisted, May 29, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, U. S. N. 
R. F. Stationed at Boston, Mass. Released from active service 
Dec. 21, 191 8, at Boston, Mass. 

Voight, Donald F., Grand Forks, North Dakota. EE 2, 191 7- 
18. Enlisted May 7, 191 8, at JefiFerson Barracks, Mo. Sergeant, 
Btty. E, 50th Art., C. A. C, U. S'. A. Stationed at Fort Totten, 
N. Y., and with A. E. F., France. Discharged Feb. 27, 19 19, at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Vorachek, Frank L., Conway, North Dakota. L 3, igi6- 
-17. Enlisted, May, 191 7. Candidate, O. T. S., Ft. Snelling, Minn. 
Cadet, Av. T. C, Berkeley, Cal. Second Lieutenant, Av. Div., Air 
Service, U. S. A. Stationed at Ebert's Field, Lonoke, Ark. 

Walker, Johnstone, Sleepy Eye, Minnesota. A 3, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, June 25, 1918, at New Ulm, Minn. Corporal, Co. D, 353rd 
Inf., 89th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., Germany. Saw active service 
for forty-two days on the Meuse-Argonne front. The 89th Div., as 
part of the Army of Occupation, Stationed in Germany after the 
armistice. Discharged, 191 9. Now a student at the University. 

Ward well, Robert Hayes, Seattle, Washington. A i, 1916- 
17. Enlisted, June 28, 1917, at Minneapolis,. Minn. Radio Elec- 
trician 2/c, Radio Corps, U. S. N. Stationed on the U. S. S. 
"Broad Arrow", and also for four months on the Battleship U. S. 
S. "Wisconsin." First named ship was in a submarine attack, in 
which the submarine was sunk before it had time to launch a torpedo. 

Ward well, Theodore M., Pembina, North Dakota. B. S. in 
C. E. 191 7. Enlisted Dec, 191 7. Pricatc, Co. D, 23rd M. G. Bn., 
Camp Fremont, Cal. 

Watkins, A Moore, Antler, North Dakota. L i, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, 191 7. Cadet, Naval Tr. Sta., San Diego, Cal. 

Watt, William Doyle, Larimore, North Dakota. A 2, 1917- 

276 The Quarterly Journal 

18. Enlisted, Oct. i, 191 8, at University, N. D. Private, S'. A. T. 
C, University, N. D. Candidate, O. T. C, Camp Grant, 111. One 
of five selected for further military training on account of excellence 
of their work. 

Wehe, Roy, Lakota, North Dakota. A 4, 1917-18. Enlisted, 
April 15, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn. Seaman 2/c, U. S. N. A. R. 
F. Stationed at New York, when in port. Promotions: (i) M. M. 
2/c, (2) C. M. M., (3) W. M., (4) Ensign. Made one trip on the 
U. S. S. "Moccasin", which carried over supplies and brought back 
troops. (The U. S. N. A. R. had charge of the transportation of all 
troops and supplies to Europe). Enlisted for four years. At pres- 
ent awaiting new assignment. 

Weiss, Fred Harold, Fargo, North Dakota. A 3, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, October 4, 19 18, at University, N. D. Private, S. A, T. 
C, University of North Dakota. Candidate, O. T. C, Camp Grant, 
111. One of the five selected for further military training on account 
of excellent work. Discharged at Camp Grant, 111. 

Weitzel, H. Irving, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Ed 3, A 3, 
1916-17. Enlisted, July 23, 1917, at Great Lakes, 111. Electrician 
2/c, (R. O.) U. S. N. R. F. Instructor in Radio School, Great 
Lakes. Stationed at Naval Radio Station, Duluth, Minn. Served 
for three and a half months as Radio Electrician on the U, S'. S. 
"Isla de Luzon." Released from active duty March 8, 1919, at 
Great Lakes, 111. Now a student at the University. 

Wells, Kenneth M., Grand Forks, North Dakota. L 2, 1916- 
17. Voluntarily inducted 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, 
Co. M., 352nd Inf. U. S. A. Camp Dodge, Iowa, Dec. 7, to Nov. 
22, 191 7. Transferred to Av. Sec. Sig. Corps, and sent to Kelly Field, 
San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 23, 191 7. Assigned to 134th Aero Squad- 
ron, which was changed to the 653rd on Feb. i, and later to the 335th 
Aero Service Squadron. Entrained from Morrison, Va. for Hemp- 
stead, L. I., on July 17, 1918, and embarked Aug. 8, 1918, on U. S. S. 
"Empress of Russia", reaching Liverpool, England, Aug. 20, and from 
there sent to Flower Down, Winchester, Eng. Assigned to the 
Chattis Hill Aerodrome at Stockbridge, Hants. Following the armis- 
tice, the squadron re-assembled at Knotty Ash, Liverpool, and on 
Nov. 28, 19 1 8, embarked for New York on the U. S. S. "Ascanius". 
Discharged at Camp Dodge, Iowa, Jan. i, 191 9. 

Wcstergaard, Peter C, Buffalo, North Dakota. EE 3, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, May 8, 191 8, at Minneapolis. Private, U. S'. N. Sent at 
once to Great Lakes Naval Station. Transferred, October 15, to 
the University of North Dakota for engineering study. Released 
from active service January 2, 191 9. Graduated from the Univer- 
sity, June, 1 9 19. Now in Pennsylvania Avith the General Electrical 

Weston, Eli A., Valley City, North Dakota. A I, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Cadet, Naval Training School, Pclham Bay, N. J. 

Weston, Roy Allen, Valley City, North Dakota. A 3, 191 7-18. 

Undergraduates 277 

Enlisted at Valley City on March 19, 19 18. Private and Corporal 
in 235th Aero Squadron Air Service, Kelly Field, Texas. Discharged 
November 27, 19 18, at Camp McArthur. 

Whipple, Clinton A., Lisbon, North Dakota. L 2, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted at Lisbon, N. D. Private, Sig. Corps. Co. E, 407th Tele- 
graph Battalion. Stationed at Bordeau, France. Promoted to i/c 
private. Discharged May 8, 1919, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Whipple, Neal Dow, Puyallup, Washington. A i, 19 17-18. 
Enlisted, 19 18. Private, LF. S. N. 

White, Edwin Lee, Valley City, North Dakota. A 3, 191 6-1 7. 
Enlisted, 191 7. U. S. N. Assigned to U. S. S. "Delaware." 

Whitson, Walter Baldwin, St. Thomas, North Dakota. L 2, 
191 6-1 7. Enlisted Dec. 10. 191 7, at East Grand Forks, Minn. 
Designation and location: (i) i8th Co., Dep. Brig., Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Mo., (2) 22nd Co., i6oth Dep. Brig., Camp Custer, Mich., 
(3) 269th Aero Squad., Geratner Field, La., (4) Squad. E., Gerat- 
ner Field, La. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Transferred 
to Air Service and promoted successively to Corporal, Sergeant, 
Sergeant i/c, and Master Signal Electrician. Had 200 hours of 
flying time, most of which was spent in testing planes and picking up 
wrecked planes. Discharged Dec. 17, 191 8, at Central M. G. O. 
T. S., Camp Hancock. Augusta, Ga. 

Williams, Arthur E., Rolla, North Dakota. B. A. 191 7. 
Enlisted May 15, 191 7, at Fargo, N. D. Private, Co. A, 2nd Regt. 
Eng'rs., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Took part in the second battle 
of the Marne. Wounded July i, 19 18, at Veaux, near Chateau 
Thierry. Shared in company citations and decorations of the First 
Army Corps. Discharged Jan. 2, 191 9, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Wilson, Leo E., Washburn, North Dakota, M 2, 1916-17. 
Enlisted, Aug. 31, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Air 
Service, U. S. A. Assigned to School of Radio Operators at Austin, 
Texas. Was Cornet Soloist of Radio Band. Discharged Jan. 31, 
1918, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Wiper, Hiram O., Sheldon, North Dakota. A i, 1918-19. 
(See page 191.) 

Witter, Lloyd D., Valley City, North Dakota. 1916-17, 
Enlisted June 3, 191 7, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Sergeant, Q. M. 
C, U. S. A. Qualified as Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, C. O. T. C, 
Camp Gordon, Ga. Assigned (i) Ft. Sam Houston, Texas, (2) 
Hot Springs, Ark., (3) Camp Gordon, Ga. Discharged Nov. 30, 
19 1 8, at Camp Gordon, Ga. 

Wolfe, Floyd E., Lake Cicott, Indiana. Ed 3, A 3, 1917-18. 
Responded to the draft September 5, 1918. Stationed at Camp 
Grant, 111. Discharged January 31, 191 9. Now a student at the 

Woolsey, George, Hankinson, North Dakota. B. A. 19 18. 
Exempted from draft and detailed as Chemist at the University of 

278 The Quarterly Journal J 

California, to take charge of two laboratory sections of the S. A. T. 
C. Unit at that University. 

Wylie, Harold H,, Bowesmont, North Dakota. A 3, 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 1917, at Grand Forks, N. D. Ensign, Air Service, U, S. 
N. Stationed at Pensacola, Fla. 

Zeyher, Theodore M., Lake Elmo, Minnesota. Ed. 3, A 3, 
1917-18. Enlisted, July 22, 1918, at Wahpeton, N. D. Private, 
Co, C, Bn. I, 1 60th Depot Brigade, U. S. A. Stationed at Camp 
Custer, Mich. Discharged March 19, 1919. Now a student at 
the University. 

Zipoy, Stephen, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. A i, 191 7-1 8. 
Enlisted, Oct. 12, 19 18, at Minneapolis, Minn, Private, Co. 12, 
1st Reg., S. A. T. C, University of Minnesota. Discharged Dec. 
18, 1918, at Minneapolis, Minn. 

Students' Army Training Corps 


Members of the Students' Army Training Corps^ 

Commandant: Captain Seymour L. Wells; succeeded by Lieutenant 
Lee R. Gaynor; succeeded by Lieutenant Charles H. Sweeney; 
succeeded by Captain Mark L. Calder. 

Company B and Company C* 

Aas, Oliver Samuel 
Abelein, Guy Ellis 
Anderson, Arnold Lincoln 
Anderson, Herbert Kervin 
Anderson, Thomas Augustine 
Anderson, Theodore Carlton 
Andrus, Ferron Lewis 
Arman, Sophus Goodman 

Bakken, Barney 
Bass, Louis Lentz 
Begg, Boyd Milne 
Beiswanger, Gordon Julius 
Bekkedahl, Donovan Faide 
Bell, Alexander Windel 
Benson, Leland John 
Benson, Oscar Benedict 
Berg, Monroe Henry Orlando 
Berner, Vernon Theodore 
Berthold, Theodore Aloysius 
Betagole, Samuel Leon 
Borsheim, William Byron 
Bottolfson, Edwin Olia 
Bowen, Fred Herbert 
Brown, Lawrence Edward 
Brye, Garfield Jerome 
Brynjolfson, Gunnar Walter 
Buchanan, John Freeborn 
Buchanan, John Gerald 
Buck, Russell Allan 
Buckingham, Tracey Willis 
Bundlie, Dewey Gerhard 
Burgess, Emory Chandler 
Burtchett, Floyd Franklin 
Busch, Jacob William 
Butler, Edward William 
Byfield, Ned Allyn 

Canfield, Allen Charles 

Carr, Francis Dewie 
Cecka, Henry Alexander 
Chambers, William Harry 
Childerhose, Elmer Thompson 
Chisholm, Jack Sutherland 
Christensen, Clarence Leif 
Christianson, James Howard 
Churchill, Roy Earl 
Chute, Ernest Elsworth 
Clifford, Stewart Hilton 
Cochrane, Cleland D. 
Condie, John Eraser 
Cook, John Nicholas 
Craig, Reginald McKay 
Crawford, Franzo Hazlett 
Crothers, Robert Scanlan 
Cruden, Roland Raymond 

Daily, Eugene Franklin 
Dale, Edgar 

Danielson, Clifford Theodore 
Diehl, Lester Stuart 
Dostert, Frank Peter 
DuBois, Paul Walter 
Duff, Edwin Roy 
Dunbar, Benjamin Leslie 
Dunnell, William Harold 

Eddy, Robert Curtis 
Eickhof, Herman Butler 
Engel, Ernest William 

Ferguson, Harold Huston 
Fisher, Sam Kendall 
Fisher, Willard Guy 
Flesche, Edwin Thomas 
Florence, Oscar Arthur 
Fowler, Everest Bruce 
Freschett, Maurice William 
Froats, Charles Wesley 

♦Company A was the Vocational Section in training- at the same time, 
["heir names do not appear since they were not in any way University 
'^Students. They were merely at the University, sent there by the Govern- 
ment for special vocational training. There were two detachments, the 
first, numbering 156, in training- during July and August, and the second, 
numbering 203, in training during September and October. For a descrip- 
tion of the training they received, see this periodical, Vol. X, No. 3, 
October, 1919, pp. 61-80, "The Institutions of Higher Education". 


The Quarterly Journal 

Gallagher, Leonard Wilfred 
Gates, Paul James 
Gessner, Maurice Frank 
Getchell, Theodore Charles 
Graham, Kenneth Donald 
Graves, Alva Kenneth 
Greenberg, Jacob 
Greengard, David 
Grinager, J. Wilmann 
Grinde, Simon A. 
Guon, Woolf Bear 

Haagensen, Cushman Davis 
Hagen, William Ira 
Haig, Clifford Atchison 
Haig, Clinton Mcintosh 
Halls, Allen Grant 
Hamilton, Willard Nicholas 
Hannesson, Hannes Arelius 
Hanson, Chester Abraham 
Hanson, Hjalmer Denius 
Hanson, Lawrence Alvin 
Harstad, Casper 
Haskin, Clinton Arlie 
Haynes, George H. 
Hebeisen, Milton Boyce 
Heising, ^Iph Leo 
Hess, Melville Milton 
Hildre, Peter Carl 
Hockley, George Leonard 
Hogg, Harold Henry 
Hogoboom, Ronald Gilbert 
Holler, Carl August Fritz 
Holmes, Morris Pratt 
Holt, William Martin 
Holz, Walter Edwin 
Horr, Neal Lincoln 
Hoskins, James Howard 
Howard, Robert Earl 
Hunter, Kenneth Robert 
Huset, John Oscar 

Isaacs, Robert Edward 

Jenkins, George William 
Jessen, Sophus 

Johnson, Clarence Augustinus 
Johnson, Edwin Gilbert 
Jones, Clarence Raymond 
Jones, Harold Parry 
Josewski, Raymond Julian 
Joslyn, Everett Curran 

Kadell, Harold William 
Kadlec, Anton Laurence 
Kalbfleisch, Henry George 
Keefe, William Henry 
Kelley, Orel Leo. 
Kelly, James Richard 
Kjos, Clarence Eugene 
Knapp, Clifford Dickinson 
Knutson, Harry Christian 
Koehnlein, Albert August 
Kopald, Alfred 
Kraabel, Rolfe Clarence 
Kraabel, Sydney Edgar 

Lambie, John W. 
Langton, Joseph Warren 
Larson, Elmer 
Lauth, Joseph Louis 
Lee, Albert Christian 
Lee, Lloyd Henry 
Lefor, Jack William 
Leick, Dean Stanford 
Leifur, Conrad William 
Leith, John Douglas 
Levitt, Vivian Russell 
Lima, David Olson 
Linfoot, Laurence Franklin 
Lippman, Orlin Alfred 
Lubins, Lynn Julius 
Lunde, William Oscar 
Lyle, Thomas Dardis 

McCulloch, William C. 
McCullough, David John 
McDonald, Harold Bruce 
McDougall, William Allen 
McGrath, Edwin John 
McKenzie, Allan Frazer 
McKinnon, Angus Acheson 
McKnight, Norman Mathew 
McLeod, James Nelson 
Mackenroth, Dolphin R. - 
Mackenroth, Lloyd AUonsious 
Martin, Philip Richard 
Mathison, Ralph Frank N. 
Millar, Andrew 
Minar, Cushman K. Davis 
Moe, Harry Milton 
Moen, William Lawton 
Moore, Oliver Merritt 
Morse, Ralph Wilson 

Students' Army Training Corps 


Myrah, Vincent August 
Myrand, Lloyd Arnold Herbert 

Noble, Harold Aker 
Norgaard, Adolph Paul 

Olmsted, Rudolph Francis 
Olson, Charles G. 
Opperud, Henry 

Paletz, Samuel EUias 
Parson, Lester R. 
Patmore, Howard Wesley 
Pederson, Harold Theodore 
Perrin, Herbert Leo 
Peterson, Lawrence Orpheus 
Peterson, Ansel Clarence 
Peterson, William Clinton 
Phelps, Herbert Bruno 
Phelps, John Franklin 
Phillips, Roy Austin 

Quackenbush, Richmond Vliet 
Quigley, Edwin Harris 

Raymond, Rene 
Redmond, Thomas Patrick 
Reed, Schuyler J. 
Reidy, John Gerald 
Reilly, Ray Phillip 
Reite, Alf Warren 
Reiten, Conhard Serinus 
Reiten, Konantz S'elmer 
Remmen, Edmund T. 
Reuben, Philip 
Richardson, Albert Cameron 
Robbins, Clarence Edward 
Roberts, Ernest Leroy 
Rohde, Ralph William 
Rudiselle, Theodore Edward 
Ryan, Dewey 
Rykken, Felix Christian 

Sad, John Jr. 
Sampson, Clarence Arthur 
Sauer, Royal Louis 
Scharf, Edward Leroy 
Schlaberg, Warren Leidman 
Schlosser, Lloyd Ruben 
Schweitzer, Clarence Elliot 
Scott, Cecil 

Scroggs, Benjamin Harvey 
Seefeldt, Harvey Ewald 
Shaft, Harold Dewitt 
Silseth, Ellsworth Origines 

Skorpen, Joseph Martin 
Smeby, Justin Garfield 
S'meltzer, Merrill 
Smith, Charles Eugene 
Sproul, Lester Tope 
Stanton, William Wallace 
Strand, Steen 
Sundeen, Melvin 
Sussex, Frank H. 
Swanson, Joel Cameron 
Sweeney, Leo Patrick A. 
Swanson, Charles A. L. 
Swenson, Melvin Kasper 

Taber, Russell James 
Taylor, Leland Stanford 
Thomson, Lloyd Clifford 
Thoreen, Richard Carl 
Thoreson, Edwin Theodor 
Thorwaldson, Sidney T. 
Thorwaldson, William H. 
Tinnes, Herbert Childs 
Tinnes, Vernon Childs 
Triplett, Clyde Carrol 
Tunnell, Fred Ellis 

Ueland, Alf 

Vaaler, Albin Bernhardt 
Vierhus, Frank Carroll 

Wahlberg, John Arvid 
Waldren, George Richard 
Wasrud, Alton Leroy 
Watt, Willkm Doyle 
Waxwik, Oscar 
Webster, Morris N. 
Weiss, Fred Harold 
V/estergaard, Peter Christian 
Whelan, Louis Kenefic 
White, Millard D. 
White, Percival Francis 
Wick, Rudolph 
Widmeyer, David Lloyd 
Widmeyer, Lionel John 
Wilcox, Ernest Harold 
Wilkinson, Charles Arnold 
Wiper, Hiram Orrn 
Wishek, John Henry Jr. 
Witmer, Robert Bonner 
Woods, Earl Atwater 
Wyttenbach, Frank Edward 

Young, Raymond John 

282 • The Quarterly Journal 

Students of the University High School* 

Babcock, Loren Cool, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1911-12. 
Enlisted, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, 7th Anti-Aircraft 
Bn., C. A. C, U. S". N. Stationed at Ft. Monroe, Va., Newport 
News, Va., Bordeaux, and Brest, France, Assisted in the construc- 
tion of the debarkation camp at Brest, and was there when President 
Wilson and his party arrived. 

Bailey, Norman S., Inkster, North Dakota. 191 3-1 4. Enlisted, 
Dec. II, 191 7, at Grand Fbrks, N. D. Flying Cadet, Av. Sec, 
Sign. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Park Field, Memphis, Tenn. 

Bakke, Oscar H., East Grand Forks, Minnesota. 1907-08. 
Enlisted, April 26, 191 8, at Glasgow, Mont. Sergeant, Hdqts. Det., 
nth Bn. U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Lewis, American Lake, 
Wash. Discharged Feb. 15, 19 19, at Camp Lewis, Washington. 

Barnes, Ransom E., Grand Forks, North Dakota. G 191 5. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Candidate, ist O. T. C, 
Ft. Snelling, Minn. First Lieutenant, Ord. Corps, U. S'. A. Sta- 
tioned at Camp Funston, Kan. Discharged at Camp Funston, Kan. 

Bemis, Harry G., Inkster, North Dakota. G 1916. Enlisted, 
Mar. 22, 191 8, at Minneapolis, Minn. Yeoman 3/c, U. S. N. 
Assigned to U. S. S. "Virginia." Discharged Jan. 20, 1919, Great 
Lakes, 111. 

Brown, Leon, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 19 16-17. Enlisted 
191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. 
F., France. While in action on one of the front lines was severely 
injured by shell shock which affected the heart, a type of "hidden 
wound" so often suffered in this war. 

Buckingham, Frank, Grand Forks, North Dakota. G 191 6. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Hed. Dept., U. S. N. 
S. N. 

Buckley, Earl T., East Grand Forks, Minnesota. G 191 6. 
Enlisted, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Co. B., 4th Reg. 
U. S. Marines, A. E. F., France. Was a member of the U. S. Naval 
Battery which operated the long range guns. Eight months overseas 
service. Discharged at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cabbage, Wiseman Leroy, Hazelton, North Dakota. G 1917. 
Enlisted, Aug. 13, 191 7, at Bismarck, N. D. Private, Co. I, 2nd 
Inf., N. D. Nat. Gd. Private, Amb. Co., 161, San. Tr. 116, 41st 
Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at Camp Green, (Oct. 
I, 191 7), Camp Mills (Oct. 26, 1917), from whence sailed for 
France, arriving Dec. 27, 19 17. Transferred to Amb. Co. 2,1st 
Div., A. E. F. Later with Army of Occupation. 

Carter, LeRoy, Grand Forks, North Dakota. G. 191 6. Enlist- 

*This list is confined to those who did not later become regular Univ- 
sity students altho in some cases a small amount of University work 
was done. A 'G" followed by a date, indicates graduation at the time 
indicated; otherwise, dates indicate last year of attendance. 

High School Students 283 

ed at Grand Forks, N. D., Sept. 5, 19 18. Private, Inf. Corps, 
U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Grant, 111. Discharged December 20, 
191 8, at Camp Grant. 

Chase, Edward F., Jamestown, North Dakota. 1910-11. (See 
page 162.) 

Cole, Chester, Grand Forks, North Dakota. G 19 17. Enlisted 
1 91 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. 
A. Instructor in Aerial Gunnery in Training Schools ( i ) at Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y., (2) at the University of Texas, Austin, 
Tex. Discharged at Austin, Texas. 

Corcoran, John C, Ardoch, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted, 
May 28, 191 8, at Butte, Mont. Private i/c, Co. D, 126th Inf., 
U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at Camp Kearny, Cal. Took 
part in the Meuse-Argonne offensive Sept. 26 to Nov. 1 1, 191 8. Was 
with the Army of Occupation in Germany, Dec. i, 191 8, to Apr. 
20, 1919. Discharged May 25, 1919, at Fort D. A. Russel, Wym. 

DeRemer, Samuel T., Los Angeles, California. 1911-12. 
Enlisted, October 16, 1917, at Berkeley, California, where he was a 
student in the State University — Junior class. He joined the Univer- 
sity of California Unit of the U. S. Ambulance Corps for service 
with the French Army. But at AUantown, Pa., on Nov. 6, he was 
transferred to the University of Pennsylvania Unit, and with that 
Unit served in the French Army for nearly eighteen months. He saw 
strenuous service in several campaigns among them being St. Mihiel 
and the Meuse-Argonne. Discharged at Camp Dix, June 14, 19 19. 
Now an architect in Grand Forks, North Dakota. 

Ellingson, Wilford L., Knox, North Dakota. G 191 6. Enlisted 
June 13, 191 8, at Minnewaukan, N. D. Sent to the Agricultural 
College at Fargo, North Dakota, in the first detachment of vocational 
workers — wireless section. At the completion of the eight weeks' 
work, he was sent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and there trans- 
ferred to Co. A, Fourth Training Battalion, Signal Corps. Later 
transferred to Camp Meade, Maryland, and from there to Camp 
Dodge for discharge. Promoted to ist Class Private and on the 
eve of further promotion when the armistice was signed. Discharged 
at Camp Dodge, January 18, 19 19. Now a student in the University. 

Erickson, Arthur S., Reynolds, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted, August 15, 191 8, at Hillsboro, N. D. Corporal, Co. C, 
221 Field Sign. Bn., Sig. Corps, U. S A. Stationed at Camp Alfred 
Vail, N. J. Discharged Dec. 31, 19 18 at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 

Evingson, Clarence G., Kindred, North Dakota. G 191 5. 
(See page 168.) 

Fogle, Fred, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1908-09. Enlisted, 

191 7, at Washington, D. C. Captain. Q. M. C , Med. Dept., U. 
S. A. Stationed at Camp Oglethorpe, Ga, Later commissioned 
Major and assigned to a newly formed division in Texas. 

Hale, Chester, Grand Forks, North Dakota. G 1909. Enlisted, 

191 8, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, M. G. Co., 164th Inf., U. 
S. A , A. E. F., France. 

284 The Quarterly Journal 

Haugan, Cyrus, Grand Forks, North Dakota. G 191 7. Enlisted, 
May 5, 191 7, at Grand Forks, N. D. Ph. M. 3c, U. S". N. Stationed 
at Minneapolis, and at Great Lakes Naval Station; later assigned 
to the U. S. S. "New Hampshire," used as a convoy ship during the 
war and as a transport ship after the armistice. Discharged June, 
19 1 9, at Minneapolis. Now a student at the University. 

Heil, Theodore, Cleveland, North Dakota. 1909-10. Enlisted 
at Cleveland, Ohio. Private, 138th Inf., U. S. A. 

Heth, Peter, Thompson, North Dakota. 191 7-1 8. Sent to 
Camp Custer, Mich., July 22, 191 8. Promoted from Private to 
Sergeant in September. Transferred to Camp Dodge, Iowa, Jan. 
24, and discharged on Jan. 28, 1919. Now a student in the Uni- 
versity High School. 

Hill, George A., Ardoch, North Dakota. 1910-11. (See 
page 174.) 

Hoff, Bernard A., Abercrombie, North Dakota. G 1912. 
Enlisted, June 17, 191 8, at Wahpeton, North Dakota. Private, 
Inf. Co. 20, 163rd Dep. Brig. Stationed at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 
Transferred, September 26, 1918, to Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., 
Hdqts. Co., then, later, to Btty. B, 4th Reg. F. A. R. D. At Camp 
Dodge, supervised the work of ten teachers working with 200 illit- 
erates, foreign and American born ; also directed Community Singing 
among same. Discharged December 20, 19 18, at Camp Taylor, Ky. 

Holmes, Arthur Curtis, Inkster. North Dakota. 19 16-17. 
Enlisted, Mar, 23, 19 18, at Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Med. 
Corps, U. S. A,, A. E. F., France, Attached to Evacuation Hospital 
No. 9, Third Army Corps. Stationed (i) Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 
(2) Fort Bayard, N, M., (3) Camp Merritt, N. J., (4) with A. 
E. F,, France, (5) with Army of Occupation, Coblenz, Germany. 

Host, Sidney C, Leeds, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted, 

1 91 7. Candidate, O. T. C. Second Lieutenant, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. 
Ireland, Claude E., Verndale, Minnesota. 191 5-1 6. Enlisted, 

1 91 8. U. S. N. Assigned to Naval Tr. Sta., Great Lakes, 111. 

Iverson, John T., Grand Forks, North Dakota. G 191 6. 
Entered the service October 16, 191 7, at Grand Forks. Radio Armed 
Guard, U. S. N, Stationed ( i ) Great Lakes Naval Station, Great 
Lakes, 111., (2) Harvard University Radio School, Assigned (i) 
U. S, S, "Nantucket," (2) "Norfolk". Promoted to (i) 3/c. Petty 
Officer-Radio Operator, (2) 2/c Petty Officer-Radio Operator. Not 
yet discharged, but released as Reserve on inactive duty, 

Josund, Marshall G., Cathay, North Dakota. G 191 7. 
Enlisted May 22, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Sergeant, 46th Co., 
163rd Depot Brigade, U. S'. A. Stationed at (i) Camp Dodge, la., 
(2) Camp Grant, 111. Discharged Nov. 30, 191 8, at Camp Grant, 

Kelly, Roscoe C, Dilworth. Minnesota. 1916-17, Enlisted 
May 19, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minn. Gunner's Mate, 2/c, U. S. 
N. Assigned to U, S. S. "Virginia", Made two convoy trips and 

High School Students 285 

five transport trips with this vessel, which during the war cruised 
the eastern coast of the United States and served as convoy to France, 
and since the armistice has been a transport ship. 

Kelsey, Chester, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 2-1 3. 
Sergeant, Co. M, 135th Inf., U. S. A. In transport service, sta- 
tioned at Coblenz, Luxembourg, and Kaiser, Germany, with the 
American Army of Occupation. Discharged Aug. 6, 19 19, Fort 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Kolars, Paul Matthew, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. 191 7-18. 
Enlisted Nov. 17, 191 7, at Minneapolis, Minnesota, as 2nd class 
Seaman and was advanced to Yoeman i/c, U. S. N. Assigned to 
U. S. Naval Forces operating in European waters (Destroyer Flotil- 
las). Stationed at (i) Base 6, U. S. Naval Training Barracks, 
Queenstown, Ireland, (2) Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, 
111., (3) Charlestown Naval Yard, Charlestown, S". C, (4) R. S. 
Philadelphia, (5) U. S. S. "Northern Pacific", (6) U. S. S. "Eten" 
Discharged July 18, 1919, at Minneapolis, Minn. 

Linwell, Emmons V., Northwood, North Dakota. 1909-10. 
(See page 178.) 

McGillivray, Frederick, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Enlisted, Jan. 19, 191 8, at East Grand Forks, N. D. Private, Av. 
Sec. Signal Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. 

Mark, Theodore Hanus, McVille, North Dakota. 1913-14. 
Enlisted May 24, 1918, at Lakota, N. D. Corporal, Co. A., 34th 
Engrs., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed at Oeivres, Loire et 
Cher, France. 

Olafson, Peter, Edinburg, North Dakota. 1914-15. Enlisted 
Nov. 5, 191 8, at Cavalier, N. D. Private, Inf. Corps, Tr. Det., 
N. D. Agri. Coll., Fargo, N. D. Discharged Dec. 11, 1918, at 
Fargo, N. D. 

Pederson, Gunnar, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, Oct. 16, 1918, at Northfield, Minn. Private, S'. A. T. C. 
Unit, at St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn. Discharged Dec. 10, 
1918, at Northfield, Minn. 

Pingrey, Hazen B., Wheelock, North Dakota. 1914-15. 
Enlisted, July 5, 19 17, at Minneapolis, Minn. Private, Hospital 
Corps, U. S, Marines. Stationed at (i) Goat Island, Cal., (2) 
Portsmouth, N. H., (3) Quantico, Va., (4) Fort Lyons, Las 
Animas, Colo. 

Putcamp, William J., Carbondale, Illinois. G 191 7. Enlisted 
May 8, 191 7, at Chicago, Illinois. Corporal, 83rd Co., 6th Reg., 
U. S. Marines, A. E. F., France. Was in the following drives: 
Chateau Thierry, June i-July 16, 1918; Soissons, July 17-23, 1918; 
St. Mihiel, Sept. 11-14, 1918; Argonne, Nov. i-ii, 1918. Slightly 
wounded at Chateau Thierry, and gassed and burned at St. Mihiel, 
after which was in hospital for more than a month. With the Army 
of Occupation at Leutesdorf am Rhine, Germany. 

Rasmuaeen, Carl M., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 2-1 3. 

286 The Quarterly Journal 

Enlisted, 1918. Private, Inf. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at Fort 
Snelling, Minn. 

Roble, Melvin, Manfred, North Dakota. G 1918. Enlisted, 
October 8, 191 8, at Fargo, N. D. Private, S. A. T. C, Fargo 
College, Fargo, N. D. Discharged Dec. 13, 191 8, at Fargo. 

Rumreich, Frank G.. Pisek, North Dakota. G 191 6. Enlisted, 
Sept. 22, 191 7, at Camp Dodge, la. Corporal, Hdqts. Co., 352nd 
Inf., 88th Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed (i) Camp 
Dodge, la., (2) Bonnet, Dept. of the Meuse, France. 

Schroeder, Eugene J., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 7-18. 
Entered the service March 30, 191 8, at Grand Forks. Private, 
Hdqts. Troop, 3rd Army Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Served 
at Chateau Thierrj^ Meaux, Fortefontaine, and other places. Dis- 
charged at Plattsburg, N. Y., Jan. 21, 1919. 

Schwam, Louis A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1916-17. 
Entered service January 17, 191 8, at JefFerson Barracks. Mo, 
Private, U. S. A., 276 th Aero Squadron, Air Service. Stationed ( i ) 
Camp Sevier, S. C, (2) Jackson, S. C. Discharged at Camp Bragg, 
N. C, May 6th, 191 9. 

Smith, E. C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1910-11. Enlisted 
June 6, 1916. Private, M. G. Co., ist N. D. Nat. Gd. Company 
Mechanic, 164th Inf., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Overseas service 
since January 15, 1 91 7. Stationed with the army of Occupation at 
Coblenz, Germany. 

Smith, Thomas, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 7-18. 
Enlisted, 191 8. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas. Sent to France but reached there 
just as the armistice was signed. Discharged. 

Soper, Vernon L., Loma, North Dakota. 1914-15. Enlisted 
Jan. 22, 1916, at Minneapolis, Minn Pharmacist's Mate 2/c, 
Hospital Corps, U. S. N. Stationed (i) Newport. R. I., (2) 
Norfolk, Va., (3) Las Animas, Colo. Discharged at Naval Hospital, 
Las Animas, Colo. 

S'tansbury, Howard W., Pickert, North Dakota. G 191 2. 
Enlisted July 22, 1918, at Sherbrook, N. D. Sergeant, Btty. D. 41st 
F. A., 14th Div., U. S. A. Stationed at Camp Custer, Mich. Dis- 
charged Feb. 7, 1 9 19, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Stoddard, Alpha C, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted Feb. 2, 1917. Private, Co. M. 164th Inf., 41st Div. Sta- 
tioned at (i) Camp Greene, (2) Camp Merritt, (3) A. E. F., 
France. Promoted to Corporal. Discharged June 25, 1919, at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. 

Tornborn, Stanley, Northwood, North Dakota. G 1916. En- 
listed, 191 7. Private, Av. Sec, Sig. Corps, U. S. A. Stationed at 
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas. 

Van S'yckle, Leete G., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 1913-14- 
(See page 189.) 

High School Students 287 

Westacott, Floyd A., Grand Forks, North Dakota. 191 5-16. 
Enlisted, Mar. 8, 1918, at Grand Forks, N. D. Sergeant, 94th 
Balloon Co., Air Service Aeronautics, U. S. A. Instructor in Motor- 
cycle riding and repairs, with Chauffeur's rating. Discharged Jan. 
24, 1919, at Camp Dodge, la. 

Whitfield, William, Oakes, North Dakota. 191 5-16. Enlisted, 

191 7. Private, Supply Co. E., Ord. Corps, U. S. A., A. E. F., 

Wild, Raymond E., Osnabrook, North Dakota. G 19 16. 
Enlisted, Sept. 21, 191 7, at Langdon, N. D. Private i/c, 307th Field 
Sig. Bn., Co. C, 82nd Div., U. S. A., A. E. F., France. Stationed 
(i) Camp Dodge, la., (2) Camp Gordon, Ga. The 82nd Div. held 
the Sagny and Marbache sectors and participated in the St. Mihiel 
and Argonne drives. 

Withers, John Wilson, Minot, North Dakota. 1916-17. 
Enlisted, Nov. 9, 19 18, Fargo, N. D. Private, Co. C, S'. A. T. C, 
Agricultural College, Fargo, N. D. Discharged Nov. 28, 191 8, at 
Fargo, N. D. 

Zipoy, John, East Grand Forks, Minnesota. 1909-10. Enlisted, 

1 91 8, at East Grand Forks, Minn. 

288 The Quarterly Journal 


In Memoriam 33 

Members of the Faculty 35 

Women Students: 

In Regulated Service 25 

In Allied Service, (names not given) 102 127 

Alumni : 

In Armv Service 184 

In Allied Service 128 312 

Former Students 166 

Undergraduates 348 

Students' Army Training Corps 270 

High School Students 53 

Deduct for names counted more than once 74 



Altmni 9 

Former Students 8 

Undergraduates 11 

Former High School Students 5 33 

In France: 

In Action 7 

In Hospital 4 

By Accident _ i I2 

Im England „ I 

In the United States: 

In Hospital 19 

By Accident i 20 33 


Corporal ■.... 48 Captain 23 

Sergeant ._ 63 Major 7 

Second Lieutenant 91 Colonel 2 

First Lieutenant 75 Commander i 

*Thla list does not Include members of the Faculty. Promotions ar« 
■ot counted In the K>taU — each officer being counted but once, yet given 
Ms hlgrhest ratine:. 

Mm of Ammra 


Men of America, speeding to war, 

Thru death-haunted waters to perils afar, 

Sons of a land never trod by a king. 

From hearts that are swelling, your valor we sing. 

Fruit of the races that dared the unknown, 

Their courage as well as their blood still your own; 

Reapers of harvests their sturdy hands sowed. 
You now are repaying the debt we have owed. 

Bred upon freedom's expansive domains. 

By height of their mountains and reach of their plains 

Fashioned for greatness of soul and of deed, 

In fearless j^oung manhood you meet the world's need. 

All that the Old World bestowed thru your sires, 
And all that the New by its vigor inspires. 
Under the flag that in freedom had birth, 
You pledge for democracy's spread round the earth. 

Men of high source to great purpose decreed, 
On mission heroic we bid you God speed ; 
Loving you, trusting j^ou, bravest and best, 
We send you forth proudly at honor's behest. 

F, B. Taylor 
Dean of Jamestown College, 
Jamestown, North Dakota 

(Jamestown College Bookstore, Jamestown, N. D. Copyright, 1918) 

Book Reviews 

Squaw Point: Arland D. Weeks, Professor of Education, North 
Dakota State Agricultural College. Henry Holt and Company, 
New York, 1919. 238 pages. Price $1.50. 

A good story for the young boy just entering adolescence. 
Appropriately, its settings are in the primitive out-of-doors — in the 
hills, on the lakes, in the woods — and its situations are full of healthy 
action. Explorations of the hills, lakes and woods and adventures 
with the squirrel and raccoon are the major centers of action. 

The characters — a country boy and a city boy — are good normal 
types. From the country boy the city boy learns the attractions and 
some of the mysteries of Nature with the result that his caharacter is 
transformed. A mysterious hermit, who is in fact a crude philosopher, 
motivates the young reader's curiosity and incidentally raises the plane 
of his thought. 

There is little blood and thunder in the story; the boys perform 
no astounding feats ; in their boyish naturalness, even mediocrity, they 
remain interesting to the end. It is noteworthy that the present 
reviewer tried the experiment of having a ten-year-old girl read the 
story with very satisfactory results. 

John W. Todd 
Department of Psychology, 
University of North Dakota 

The Exceptional Child: Maximillian P. E. Groszmann^ 
Educational Director of the National Association for the Study 
and Education of Exceptional Children. Charles Scribners' 
Sons, New York, 1917. xxiv -{- 764 pages. Price $2.50 net. 

In 1900, Dr. Groszmann founded a school for exceptionally fit 
and unfit children at Comenius Grove, Virginia. Later he moved 
the school to New York City, and since 1904 has conducted it at 
Plainfield, New Jersey. In 1905 the school was taken over by the 
National Association for the Study and Education of Exceptional 
Children. Over three hundred exceptionally fit and unfit children 
have received training peculiar to each at Plainfield, Avhile numerous 
others have been examined in San Francisco, New York, Washing- 
ton, Milwaukee, and Newark, New Jersey. From the data of this 
first-hand contact with exceptional children. Dr. Groszmann issues 
the book under review. On the whole, the book is a contribution to 
the literature dealing with supernormal and subnormal children and 
is unique in throwing much emphasis on the training of supernormal 
children. The treatment of standard tests is notheworthy. 

The present reviewer gathers from the text that its author believes 
the current principles of heredity will not account for even the ma- 
jority of cases of feeble-mindedness and that the Binet-Simon scale, 
or any more or less mechanical scale, "in placing a certain mental 
manifestation in a definite place of quantitative value" is misleading 
and dangerous. The author seems to give undue weight to prenatal 
and postnatal malnutrition, birth traumatisms, and the like, as posi- 
tive causes of feeblemindedness. It appears that feeblemindedness is 
very rarely accidental. Developmental arrest could hardly be referable 

Book Reviews 291 

to birth shocks and the like. In the matter of the use of the standard 
tests, the author well urges — what all well-trained clinicians practise 
— the supplementation of the scales with judgment and wider obser- 
vation than the restricted tests permit. Binet, the father of mental 
tests, taught this; others in large numbers have reiterated it, so that 
the author's attack on the rigid application of the Binet tests and 
their revisions is merely an expatiation of the obvious. However, this 
pointing out the obvious may serve to warn the young enthusiast 
against using the tests before he has made a thoro study of scientific 
psychology, experimental methods, and the various types of mentality. 

Taken altogether, the book is a good book, but one that, in the 
hand of students, would require frequent evaluation. For example 
the "recapitulation" and "culture epoch" theories, now practically 
defunct, are used to account for certain normal and subnormal im- 
pulses and mental conditions that are in other ways less mysteriously 
accounted for. 

A good bibliography, an interesting medical symposium, and an 
analysis of an exceptionally intelligent child constitute an extended 
appendix to the text. Among the contributors to the medical sym- 
posium are Drs. Abraham Jacobi, C. Ward Crampton, Ira S. Wile, 
Professor Thomas D. Wood, and Dr. E. E. Southard. 

John W. Todd 
Department of Psychology, 
University of North Dakota 

On the Firing Line in Education: A. J. Ladd, Professor of 
Education, University of North Dakota. Richard G. Badger — 
The Gorham Press — Boston, Massachusetts, 1919. 264 pp. 
Price, $1.75. 

"On the Firing Line in Education," recently publisht by Richard 
G. Badger, Boston, is an inspiring little book of educational addresses 
by Dr. A. J. Ladd, Professor of Education in the University of 
North Dakota. While each chapter is a complete unit of thought in 
itself, all chapters, with the possible exception of the last (Chapter 
X), appropriately fall under the title of the book. Dr. Ladd has 
succeeded in clothing very sound and progressive thoughts in popular 
language. If more manuscripts Avere given the test of public audience 
before publication their readers would greatly profit. In these days 
of educational mesurements and statistical formulations, extremely 
valuable in present educational advancement, it is refreshing, never- 
theless, to read a book occasionally which is intended to interest and 
stir those outside of the profession as well as those within. 

There is always a great need, and especially just now, of getting 
our leading ixleals of education over to laymen, for without their 
criticism and support educational progress is definitely restricted. 
The "Common School Revival," which took place during the second 
quarter of the nineteenth century, was essentially a laymen's move- 
ment. The serious problems of industry and social betterment have 
stirred the imagination of the people as treated in novels, magazines, 
newspaper articles, plays, scenarios, and popular lectures. The fact 
that public school teachers receive smaller pay than bakers, hod- 

292 The Quarterly Journal 

carriers, carpenters, plumbers, glaziers, compositers, machine tenders 
(printing), blacksmiths, structural iron workers, inside wiremen, 
bricklayers, lathers, and machinists would seem to indicate that edu- 
cation is greatly in need of these popularizing agencies. Those who 
are willing to pioneer in the service of popularizing education ought 
not to be dubbed indiscriminately as educational fakers by those who 
prefer to develop scales and mesures of educational technic. 

Not only is Dr. Ladd's book strong in its appeal to laymen, but, 
also, to the progressive members of the teaching profession. He has 
handled his subjects critically yet hopefully and sympathetically. In 
the introductory chapter he maintains that the schools have not been 
discredited by the war. While the war has brought to light a number 
of weaknesses, it has, on the other hand, vindicated the fundamental 
principles and practises of American education. In this connection 
he argues that educational weaknesses are due to the shortcomings 
of society rather than to those of the profession. If he means that the 
weaknesses of education are due to society rather than to the leaders 
in educational theory and practise then his position is certainly un- 
debatablc. If, however, he means to include in the profession all who 
are engaged in school work the distinction made is a doubtful one. 
Ultimately, of course, society is responsible for all of its institutional 
services. Basing my opinion upon fifteen years of experience in train- 
ing teachers I am not at all sure that on the whole society is getting 
more than it deserves from the teaching profession. Tabulations of 
teachers' salaries show what miserably poor service society is getting 
in education rather than that the great mass of teachers are under 
paid. What society should realize is the tremendous need for higher 
standards in the beginning stages of teaching. The average teacher 
of very inadequate preparation probably receives too much salary 
for the service rendered while the well-prepared teacher receives al- 
together too small a salarj^ The fact that teaching is used as a 
stepping stone to other professions shows ( i ) that teaching in its 
beginning stages afifords "easy money" and quick returns for a very 
small outlay, (2) that teaching standards in the beginning stages 
are much lower than the beginning standards of other professions, 
and (3) that the rewards for thoro preparation and excellent ability 
are smaller for teaching than for other professions. 

The author points out that the ideal and practises of general 
education in America are essential in meeting national emergencies 
and are basic in developing all specialized phases of training. 

In his chapter which bears the title of the book the author lays 
down the strategic principles and points of attack which must be used 
to win the educational campaigns of the future. In this connection 
he discusses the problems of social betterment, child study, physical 
education, educational surveys, vocational guidance, and the part 
played by the educational psychologist. All of these fields of educa- 
tional activities have been greatly stimulated by the needs revealed 
in the processes of waging war. 

In the chapter on "The Relation of the State University to the 
High Schools of the State" the author has taken the situation in 
North Dakota as typical of other states. He shows how the policy 
of give and take, of liberal reciprocity, between the high schools and 

Book Reviews 293 

the State University is giving the former a chance to develop their 
instruction in accordance with their own purposes and without be- 
coming any the less effective preparatory institutions. He further 
discusses the training of high school teachers in the State University, 
showing the part taken by the School of Education, and points out 
the deficiencies of students enrolled in the College of Arts who come 
to the School of Education for their professional work. This method 
of preparation he contends is quite unsatisfactory, due in part to the 
difference in aims and in part to lack of articulation between the 
College of Arts courses and those of the School of Education. 

The reviewer wishes to raise the question whether this difficulty 
can be wholly removed. If, as the author implies, all students pre- 
paring for high-school teaching should matriculate in the School of 
Education, then why should not all students who wish to prepare for 
law, medicine, engineering, etc., matriculate in the corresponding 
schools and colleges? If so, what would become of the College of 
Arts? Sliould there be any such college whose instruction is domi- 
nated by other professional aims? In his introductory chapter the 
author seems to say that there should be. If the opposite point of 
view is held, however, then the University would become merely an 
aggregation of professional schools and colleges. If this horn of the 
dilemma were chosen, then the Normal Schools might have a chance 
to train high-school teachers, but this function of the Normal School 
is denied by the author in a later chapter. 

The author's discussion of university teaching especially in the 
freshman year is a classic. Incidently it might be observed that better 
teaching of freshmen is more liable to be found in Normal Schools. 
"Nuf sed" until we cansider his chapter on Teachers' Colleges. 

His chapter on "The Eye Problem in the Schools" is every word 
true and well developed. This chapter should be circularized, 
"bulletinized," and filmed until all people understand it and, under- 
standing, act in line with its directions. 

The chapter entitled "The Home, the Church, and the School", 
shows the interlocking functions of these three institutions. Each 
institution is best fitted to emphasize one side of the child's develop- 
ment ; the home, the physical ; the school, the intellectual ; the church, 
the moral and the spiritual. Each institution, however, must train 
the child in all three of these ways for they cannot be separated in 
practise. The chapter is suggestive in recommending ways of co- 

The danger of being satisfied with the existing status of the 
public schools is discust in Chapter VII. Improvement, mainly in 
lines of physical training and medical inspection, is recommended. 

The chapter on "Lx)cal Winter Sports" shows the needs for 
outdoor play for adults as well as for children. 

In his chapter on the "Function of Teachers' College," among 
other matters the author takes the position that the Normal Schools 
should not attempt to train high school teachers because they have 
a sufficiently large problem to solve in training elementary school 
teachers. As regards the majority of Normal Schools, as they now 
exist, he is probably right. On the other hand, there are some Normal 
Schools giving four years of training above the high schools which 

294 The Quarterly Journal 

are undoubtedly doing as effective work in training high school 
teachers as the best State Universities. Those same institutions are, 
also, leading institutions in training elementary school teachers. It 
would be difficult to show how a large Normal School could not 
train two classes of teachers as effectively as a State University can 
train high school teachers, engineers (several varieties), lawyers, 
doctors (two or three varieties), pharmacists, foresters, etc. As a 
matter of fact, these strong Normal Schools are solving many prob- 
lems of articulation between the elementary school and the high 
school in a perfectly practical way on their own campuses by 
developing elementary schools, junior and senior high schools as 
laboratories of observation and practise. The academic instruction 
in these institutions and academic requirements of the course of 
study are quite as strong as those found in the State University. As 
a matter of fact, it seems to the reviewer that the Normal School has 
fewer difficulties to overcome in training high school teachers than 
has the State University. 

The closing chapter deals with "Credit for Quality in Secondary 
and Higher Education." The author opposses credit for quality. 
Since this chapter was written (1909) many more high schools, 
colleges, and universities have introduced some form of the system 
of offering credit for quality of work done. Judging by its growth 
there would seem to be some merit in the plan. The reviewer, how- 
ever, has no definite conviction on the matter. The question of 
artificial versus real incentives is an exceedingly difficult problem 
because of the difficulty of separating the two kinds. The so-called 
artificial incentives represent social recognitions and in this respect 
they are very real incentives. 

The writer has discovered that he has omitted comment on the 
chapter entitled "Noblesse Oblige." This is a splendid chapter 
delivering a very dignified and impressive message on the privileges 
and duties of leadership to an audience of University students. 

All in all the book has very much to recommend it to students 
of education and to laymen. The author's style is pleasing, forceful, 
and direct. I am referring my advanced classes in education to this 

H. G. Lull 
Director of Teacher Training, 
Kansas State Normal School 
Emporia, Kansas 

University Notes 

The Service This issue of the Quarterly Journal is practically 
List given over to the University's Service List. A word 

of explanation will not be out of place. While every effort has been 
made to have the list complete and accurate, it is well known to the 
compilers that, at this date, it can be neither fully complete nor, in 
every one of the more than a thousand cases, absolutely accurate 
And this is easily understood by anyone at all conversant with the 
details of such work. Copies of a questionnaire were sent to all 
who had ever had student connection with the University. But there 
are thousands of these, and they are scattered far and wide. Small 
wonder that many were not heard from, tho the latest known ad- 
dresses were used. In man}'^ cases, too, the information given was 
insufficient or indefinite. This applies, among other things, to the 
form of entry into the service — whether thru draft or enlistment. It 
is due, in many cases, it has been learned later, to modesty, as when 
reporting promotions, decorations, or other forms of distinction. In 
some cases, the latest information at hand was sent in before the close 
of the war. New names and added information about others are 
even now^ continually drifting in. But the data here given is correct 
in the main, and is doubtless as full and as reliable as could be expected 
at this time. It should not be longer withheld for the sake of a few 
additions and corrections. At the same time, the University will 
appreciate corrections and added information from any source. 

The Enrollment The attendance at the University is very satis- 
factory. Every one expected that we should 
make up the was losses and thus get back to pre-war conditions, but 
no one planned so fine an increase. The following figures tell a 
pleasant story of the situation on December 19, just prior to the 
recent holiday vacation. The full attendance during the first semester 
of 19 16- 1 7, just prior to our entering the war, was 891. 


College of Arts 227 

School of Education 21 

College of Engineering 139 

School of Law 32 

School of Medicine 86 

Graduate Department 8 

University High School 63 


Freshmen 207 

Sophomores 127 

Juniors 79 

Seniors 62 

Graduate 8 

Special Ceramics 

High School 63 





























576 512 1088 

296 The Quarterly Journal 

Faculty Chan^^es RESIGNATIONS 

Albert J. Becker, Professor of Applied Mathe- 
matics and Mechanical Drawing, has resigned (resignation took 
efifect January i, 1920) to accept a lucrative and flattering business 
offer in his old home town of Evansville, Indiana. Dr. Becker has 
been with the University since the fall of 1904, coming as Instructor 
in Mechanical Engineering. In 1906 he was advanced to the rank 
of Assistant Professor and the next year received added promotion 
to full professorship, as stated. The year 1 914-15 he was away on 
leave-of-absence, studying at the University of Illinois from which 
he received the Ph. D. degree in 191 5. He has served the University 
faithfully and efficiently, and his loss will be keenly felt. But the 
larger renumerations of the business world are being very tempting 
to many in the teaching profession. 

Else C. Rohde, Manager of the University Commons since 
September, 191 9, has resigned to accept a teaching position in the 
new Junior High School of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Resigna- 
tion took effect January i, 1920. 


Albert E. Brown, Major of Infantry, United States Regular 
Army, has been appointed to the professorship of Military Science 
and Tactics, in charge of the work of the R. O. T. C. Major Brown 
received his preliminary education in the schools of Charleston, South 
Carolina, graduating from the Charleston High School in 1908. 
Success in a competitive examination gave him appointment to the 
United States Military Academy at West Point from which he 
graduated in 191 2. Since then he has served continuously in different 
parts of the United States, in Mexico, and overseas. On leaving 
West Point, Mr. Brown was commissioned Second Lieutenant and 
served thus for four years. His other promotions — First Lieutenant, 
Captain, and Major — followed in rather quick success, only about a 
year apart in each case. Major Brown served overseas from April, 
1 91 8, till February, 19 19, and on his return was ordered to Kansas 
City, Missouri, as Assistant District Inspector, District No. 9, 
R. O. T. C. In April, 191 9, he was transferred to the University 
of North Dakota and m.ade Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 
The University considers itself very fortunate in the appointment. 

W. C. Dalzell, of Palo Alto, California, has been appointed 
Assistant Professor of Law and is to assume his duties with the 
beginning of the second semester. Professor Dalzell received the 
B. A. and J. D. degrees from Leland Stanford Junior University. He 
has practised law in Oklahoma and California, and has taught one 
year in the Law School of Leland Stanford University. 

Wilbur L. Snow, Sergeant, Infantry, United States Regular 
Army, Assistant to the Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 
Sergeant Snow enlisted in the Regular Army in 1908, at Portland, 
Oregon, and has served continuously since that time, six years of the 
time in the Hawaiian Islands. On his return, June 20, 1918, he was 
sent to Camp Lewis and there trained with the Thirteenth Division 

University Notes 297 

until January I, 19 1 9. While there he attended the schools of 
Musketry, Automatic Rifle, and Hand Grenades. In May, 191 9, 
he was transferred to the Infantry, unassigned, and later sent to the 
University of North Dakota to assist Major Brown with the 
R. O. T. C. 

Miss Caroline Steele, of Berlin, North Dakota, has been ap- 
pointed Bacteriologist in the Public Health Laboratories. Miss 
Steele received the B. S. degree from Valparaiso University in 191 7 
and has taken post-graduate work in Bacteriology' at the University 
of Chicago. She did research work for Dr. Norton and Dr. Jordan 
in the University of Chicago for seven and one-half months, was 
bacteriologist at Michael Reese Hospital at Chicago for three months, 
and assistant bacteriologist in the Department of Public Health at 
Springfield for four months. 

Miss Helen Swope, of Seattle, Washington, has been appointed 
Manager of the University Commons. Miss Swope is a graduate 
of the Home Economics Department of the University of Washing- 
ton and in that department had special training in connection with 
their Commons. She has had three and half years' high school and 
public school experience in teaching Home Economics and in super- 
vising the school lunchroom. She had a year and a half of experience 
as dietitian in the Tacoma General Hospital and in the United States 
Army General Hospital at Camp Lewis, Washington. 

Ernest H. Wilcox, B. A., (University of North Dakota, 1919), 
Instructor in Music, in charge of the Department, 191 9-20. Mr. 
Wilcox has been a student at the University of North Dakota for 
several years, at the same time serving as an assistant in its Depart- 
ment of Music under Professor W. W. Norton, He also assisted 
in the Conservatory of Music of Wesley College at the same time. 
Mr. Wilcox has also had successful teaching experience in the Con- 
servatory of Music of Cornell College, Iowa, and in the public schools 
of Iowa. He has held season engagements with two orchestras and 
three bands of national repute. A year ago, when Professor Norton 
was granted leave of absence, Mr. Wilcox Avas placed in charge of 
the Avork for the remainder of the year. He gave such excellent 
satisfaction that, upon Professor Norton's resignation, he was made 
Acting Head of the Department. 


Erwin O. Christensen has been appointed Plead of the Depart- 
ment of Art and Design with the rank of Assistant Professor. 
Professor Christensen has taken courses in Chicago Art Institute, 
Armour Institute, and Modern Art School of Boston, and received 
the B. S. degree of Architecture from the University of Illinois, 
and M. Arch, from Harvard University . He has been a member of 
the faculty in the College of Fine Arts at Ohio State University and 
was engaged for summer work at the University of Wisconsin, which 
engagement he could not fulfill on account of military service. 

298 The Quarterly Journal 

The Salary People of North Dakota, as of other sections 

Increase of the country, are having experience with the 

ever-increasing cost of living. While this touches all classes of people, 
it is here, as elsewhere, especially hard on salaried people, and of 
these teachers are hardest hit. This is to be expected, perhaps, since 
the employer of teachers is that indefinite character called "the 
public". And the public, made up of everybody and yet being nobody 
in particular, is hard to get at, ever conservative, slow to move. 
Under these circumstances many are leaving the profession, attracted 
by business openings that pay a living wage. Others, more closely 
wedded to their work, remain hoping that lack of appreciation is only 
temporary and that relief will soon come. Some communities in the 
State are meeting tlie situation fairly Mell, others are niggardly. The 
situation is acute. At the University and at the other State institu- 
tions, matters were becoming serious. Some of the men had accepted 
positions in other lines of work and others were planning to do so 
soon. So that the Board of Administration, having direct supervision 
and even salary control of all the higher education institutions of 
the State, has been facing an exceedingly difficult situation. In the 
midst of an intensely critical political situation where every act of the 
Administration is sharply scrutinized by a merciless opposition ; with 
many supporters of the Admini--,tration, even, unsympathetic because 
not clearly understanding the situation; with funds low and an un- 
comfortable deficit in sight — a deficit that will have to be explained 
and justified before a hard-headed and practical legislature a year 
hence — in such a situation the Board of Administration wrestled 
with the problem. It thought the matter thru and decided that 
there was but one thing to do. That decided, ways and means would 
have to be found. A fair-minded people would not repudiate such 
action. So the Board reasoned, and so it acted. 

In regard to the University, two things were done: in the first 
place, the salary maxima of the various grades of teachers were 
advanced $500 each, so that now the salaries range as follows: 

Instructors from $1,500 to $2,000 

Assistant Professors " $2,000 " $2,500 

Associate Professors " $2,500 " $3,000 

Professors " $3,000 " $3,500 

Deans " $3, 500 " $4,000 

and, in the second place, each holder of a teaching position was given 
an increase of $500 a year beginning with January i, 1920, save where 
such an increase would exceed the maximum and save in the cases of 
recent employes the most of whom had been called on approximately 
the new schedule. In cases where this latter was not wholly true, 
each was raised at least to the minimum. 

This increase — an increase of from ten to thirty-five per cent, 
depending upon the rank- — while not at all commensurate with the 
added burdens that these people are having to carry, is a great relief; 
it shows a fine spirit on the part of the Board, and is all that any 
reasonable person could ask under the circumstances. As to the 
other State institutions, while details differ slightly, the same generous 
treatment was accorded. 

University Notes 299 

The Teachers' A local branch of the American Federation of 

Union Teachers has been organized at the University, 

a charter received, and affiliation with the American Federation of 
Labor effected. While this is in no sense of the word the result of 
faculty action (the matter has never come before the faculty as a 
body for consideration — having been workt up quietly and individu- 
ally), it is true that a majority of the teaching staff have joined. The 
object of the organization, thus far seen, has been to secure an increase 
in salaries. To that end the Union took over a movement already 
initiated and a committee authorized by the Council for that purpose. 
Members of the committee were sent to interview the Board of 
Administration at that time wrestling with the problem. To what 
extent the Union should be credited with the outcome mentioned in 
a previous note is problematical. Still, the Board needed no coercion. 
It appreciated the situation, admitted its responsibility, and doubtless 
acted voluntarily, willingly, and fearlessly. 

The Reconstruc- Under the auspices of the University, an un- 
tion Program usually interesting series of meetings was held 
during the closing week of October last. It was planned by the 
War Committee of the University, and financed by the State Board 
of Administration and public-spirited citizens of Grand Forks. It 
was called a program of reconstruction since it emanated from a 
recognition of the changed conditions following the war and offered 
constructive suggestions for meeting the same. The program of the 
first day fittingly took the form of a memorial service for the thirt}'^- 
three students of the University who had lost their lives in the 
service. During the second and third days the speakers devoted their 
time to discussing the various phases of social, economic, and political 
reform that are especially pressing at the present time. 

The memorial service began with the regular Convocation hour 
on Thursday. October 23, at which time President John H. Finley, 
of the University of New York, spoke on his experiences as a Red 
Cross Commissioner in France and Palestine during war times. In 
the evening formal memorial exercises were conducted by the 
Reverend Jonathan Watson of Grand Forks. Colonel J. H. Fraine 
of Grafton spoke briefly of the services of the American army in 
France and of the loyalty and self-sacrifice of those who were being 
trained at the various camps in the United States. Major C. W. 
Gordon, "Ralph Connor," of Winnipeg, spoke at length on the 
spiritual aspects of the great war and of the moral gains that have 
accrued to all those states and countries that fought to preserve our 

The reconstruction program proper began on Friday with a dis- 
cussion of the Boy Scout Movement, presented bv F. H. Zeller of 
Minneapolis, who spoke both at the University and in Grand Forks. 
Pv.everend E. N. Schunk of Minneapolis, sent from Red Cross head- 
quarters for the purpose, presented the Red Cross peace program. 
In the afternoon and evening two sessions were held in the city audi- 
torium, Dorr H. Carroll, of Minot, presiding. In the afternoon 
Lieutenant Colonel William Grassie of Winnipeg discust the Soldiers' 

300 Quarterly Journal 

Land Settlement in Canada, telling what the Canadian Government 
had done in giving Federal aid to the soldiers and their families. As 
head of the Commission, he dwelt at length on the ways and means 
of utilizing the government aid and how far it had proved effective in 
assisting these men in establishing themselves in productive business. 
George F. Chipman, editor of the Grain Growers' Guide of Winni- 
peg, spoke at both sessions. In the afternoon he presented the subject 
of political development of the Canadian farmers, showing why 
political organization had been resorted to in order to secure the 
adoption of certain large policies of the utmost value to all of Canada. 
In the evening the subject discust was the industrial program of the 
organized farmers of Western Canada. As editor of a paper with a 
subscription list of 70,000, Mr. Chapman presented the views of a 
constituancy fairly representative of Western Canada. 

On the last day of the conference, Governor Lynn J. Frazier 
presided at both sessions. S. S. Cook, as a representative of the Ninth 
Federal Reserve Bank at Minneapolis, explained the workings of the 
Federal Reserve system. A. E. Smith, of the Executive Labor 
Council of Minnesota, discust at considerable length the newly 
adopted labor program for his State. He laid especial stress on 
public education as a training for citizenship and on the ballot as a 
more effective means of reform than the strike. Peter Wright, the 
well-known English labor leader, was scheduled to speak but was 
prevented by pressing engagements from leaving Winnipeg. Judge 
Mathers of the Court of the King's Bench in Winnipeg was also 
unable to present his subject, the Courts and the Law. 

The evening session on Saturday was devoted largely to a discus- 
sion of the problem of railway ownership and control by Glenn E. 
Plumb, author of the well-known "Plumb plan." He summarized 
the whole question in the following statements: (a) Railroads are 
over-capitalized, hence freight and passenger rates are exorbitant, 
wages inadequate, and service unsatisfactory; (b) The railroads 
should be purchased by the government for the actual amount invested 
to afford public service as determined judicially; (c) Management of 
the railroads in the hands of trained officials and employes; (d) 
Capital to receive a fair and fixt return on the money actually invested 
in railroad property and the savings effected by economy and efficiency 
to be divided equally between the public and the operating organi- 

Outside of some little peevish criticism by a small group of 
irreconcilable reactionaries, the program was well received and much 
appreciated. It illustrates most forcibly what can be done in the way 
of university leadership in the field of full and free discussion of vital 
public questions. 


Editor's Bulletin Board 

As intimated on the January Bulletin Board, 
this number of the Quarterly Journal is 
quite unusual — all the articles being from former 
members of our staff and well-remembered contrib- 
utors to the Quarterly Journal who have left 
us for larger or, at least, different, fields. Readers 
are glad to greet them again as they now speak 
from out their new experiences. The only dis- 
appointment that any of the readers are likely to 
feel is in not finding all the old friends who had 
been listed. But their disappointment is no keener 
than is our own in not being able to present them 

The ne.xt number, the last of Volume X, will 
present studies from a large field, loosely called the 
mental and moral sciences. Among the studies 
well worthy of use are the following: College 
Preparation and Success in Life, by Professor 
Lauriz Void of the University School of Law; The 
Song of Songs, dramatized and edited by Dr. Karl 
R. Stolz of Wesley College; The Countryside of 
Brittany, by Dr. Wallace N. Stearns; The Morris 
Dance in Drama, by Miss Beatrice Olson, Secre- 
tary of our Extension Division ; Mr. Wilbur's 
Macaronics, by Dr. Frederick D. Smith of the 
Department of Classical Languages; and O. Henry 
Themes, by Professor Henry A. Doak of the 
Department of English. These are all strong 
studies and well prepared. Readers have a treat in 
store for them. 

The Quarterly Journal 


The University of North Dakota 



Frank L. McVey 302 


Melvin a. Brannon 314 


A. HoYT Taylor 320 



James Ernest Boyle 329 


Wallace Nelson Stearns 336 


George Milton Janes 347 


1. The Social Problem: Charles A. Ellwood. 

J. M. Gillette 354 

2. Plant Products and Chemical Fertilizers: S. 

Hoare Collins. G. A. Abbott 355 

3. The Whole Truth About Alcohol: George 

Elliot Flint. H. E. French 357 

4. Inorganic Chemistry Synonyms: Elton R. 
Darling. G. A. Abbott 358 

5. Laboratory Directions and Study Questions 
in Inorganic Chemistry: Alexander Silver- 
man and Adelbert W. Harvey. G. A. Abbott.. 359 

6. The Book of the Damned : Charles Fort. 

H. R. Brush 360 


A. J. LADD, 

Managing Editor Assistants 

The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 10 APRIL, 1920 Number 3 

The Office of University President 

Frank L. McVey, 
President of the University of Kentucky 

THIS paper is written, according to the instructions of the 
editor, from the viewpoint of the present rather than from 
the guesses about the future. It is confined to a present day consider- 
ation of the presidential office and will endeavor to discuss, in what 
must necessarily be a brief form, some of the more conspicuous 
elements of the problem. In doing this the paper is sure to emphasize 
certain phases that may be regarded by some as unimportant, 
minimized by others, and regarded as wholly untouched by the rest 
as subjects that should be included. While the writing of the paper 
proceeded, the end seemed far away in the multitude of subjects that 
should have been added to the list for discussion, but the very limits 
of type and space have crowded them out. 

Evolution of the Office 
Starting with the small college in which the duties of president 
in the modern sense were nominal, the office has developt into one 
of power, influence, and enormous responsibilities. As it now exists, 
the office of university president represents an evolution which in 
time will be modified by the democratizing of government in faculty 
and student body. Neither one of these is ready in most universities 
to undertake the larger responsibilities of the government of univer- 
sity affairs. A number of years ago a well known university president 
said: "The office of president has become an impossibility." In 
enlarging his remark he went on to say that the demands, details, 
and requirements were so great that no one man could fill them. 
Such an officer must be an eloquent speaker, a good mixer, a business 
expert, an educational student, a scholar, a guide and inspirer of stu- 
dents, a leader of people, and a prophet and seer as well. When the 
matter is put in such fashion, there is no doubt that none but a 
superman could meet all the requirements in the popular imagination. 

Copyright, 1920. University of North Dakota 

304 The Quarterly Journal 

The Selection of Presidents 
The student of education from a foreign country gathers a 
rather varied idea about the office of university president in America. 
No doubt this official in this country has no counterpart in 
other lands. He is appointed by boards of trustees often without any 
suggestion from faculties, tho in recent years committees have been 
created by such boards with representatives of faculty and alumni up- 
on them. This is in accord with the larger spirit of co-operation that 
is to be seen in every large organization. That the results are more 
satisfactory than the old system, remains very much a question. 
Certainly it can be said a mixt committee of that kind brings at least 
a variety of views to the selection of the president that materially 
widens the scope of the inquiry. Nevertheless, there is a possibility 
of checking out men by the test of individual prejudice that often 
leaves in the final group, those who have found their way into the 
list by negative virtues rather than by aggressive qualities. Fifty years 
ago men of ministerial training, by virtue of the important emphasis 
upon Christian education, were almost invariably chosen as the 
heads of institutions. Occasionally this was varied by the selection of 
men of scholarly attainments in other fields. A quarter of a century 
ago the economist in view of his training in business organizations 
was the choice, and now in more recent years the trained educator 
has had more vogue. Such training is desirable but the qualities of 
tact, patience, good sense, robust health, and moral courage still 
predominate as the fundamentals. 

The progress of an educational institution however does not 
rest upon any one man. By virtue of the problem and the bigness of 
the things dealt with, this cannot but be so. Co-operation of board, 
faculty', students, alumni, citizens, and president is the ideal and the 
only producer of great and far-reaching results. 

Tenure of Office 
Despite the strenuous business of being a president, the office 
belongs to the extra hazardous occupations. An examination of 
the tenure of the official life of the presidents of the 72 institutions 
on the Carnegie preferred list showed eleven years as the average 
length of service, leaving the occupant at the average age of 53 
without a position, and in the language of the street, "all dressed up 
with no place to go." What the figures would show for the institu- 
tions of the country cannot be stated, but undoubtedly the service 
period is much shorter. The more courageous and determined a 
president is, the more he is sure to make enemies. These accumulate 
in the course of a few years so that few men live officially beyond the 

The University President 305 

short period of service mentioned above. Yet there is nothing more 
disastrous to the growth of an institution than frequent changes in 
the chief administrative officer. The new president is received with 
acclaims of praise, these die down during the second year as a matter 
of course, and in the third year many are sure that a mistake has 
been made in the administrative head. If he lives thru this crucial 
period he is likely to go on for a number of years until the accumula- 
tions of policy and decisions bring up a new batch of opposition. 
Whether he will pass thru this period or not will depend upon his 
ability to give and take and his patience and tact. Strange to say the 
opposition is more likely to arise from the antagonism of his colleagues 
and a few alumni than from any other source. 

Dissatisfaction in salaries, failure to secure promotion, lagging 
of public interest in the institution, and the inability of athletic teams 
to win victories make up the category of many a presidential story. 
This is rather a sorry list for it does not include educational policy 
as the chief item. However, where one president gives up his task on 
account of differences in educational theories, ten find themselves out- 
side the pale because of the reasons given above. Occasionally differ- 
ences with trustees are referred to as one of the causes for trouble, 
but as a usual thing these differences find their foundation in the 
institution itself. More often the confidence of a board in the 
president is carried to the extreme of standing with him against 
needed reforms and the use of their joint power to put down any 
offender who may speak for larger freedom in academic matters. A 
better day is at hand without any question, because of the larger appre- 
ciation of the joint relationship of board, president, and faculties. 

The Elements in Administrative Problems 
Every university has certain elements in it, which, while variable, 
are nevertheless sure to enter into nearly every problem of an admin- 
istrative character. These are governing boards, faculty, students, 
alumni, the public, and the plant crowding into the consideration of 
money, public interest, and educational policy. 

The Board of Trustees 
Under the American plan of university government, the board 
of trustees is the governing agency, appointed in public institutions 
by governors or even legislatures, and in private foundations by the 
selection of the members of the governing body by the board itself. 
In most instances the alumni have some representation, but almost 
without exception, the faculty is represented by the president alone, 
whose official position does not make him representative of faculty 

306 The Quarterly Journal 

interests in the mind of most university men. The European univer- 
sity goes to the other extreme and places the government of the 
university under the charge of the imiversity staff. It is true, as in 
France and Germany, the ministry of education passes on final 
appointments and the budget of the institutions. There probably is 
no institution in Europe that has the multifarious duties to perform 
that are placed under the direction of one of our larger state univer- 
sities. It is but a natural result of our system of government that 
the bublic board of trustees should be granted wide povi^ers. In time, 
no doubt, they will be modified by a larger representation of faculty 
members and a delegation of many details to the university faculty 

The ideal type of board has been discust in many books and 
papers. In actual fact boards differ from boards of control (three 
members) to the legislative board of 75 to 80 members. Probably a 
board of 7 to 9 is the best size for real effectiveness, because larger 
boards develop speech making and create cliques to the marked inter- 
ference with university f)olicies. In a great board of 75-80 no com- 
mittee can feel any confidence that its recommendations will carry, 
and university policy is at the mercy of shifting opinions in such an 
audience. On the other hand boards of control as set up by some of 
the states in the government of their public institutions, drift into 
financial and purchasing agencies, leaving the policy of the institution 
almost wholly in the hands of the president. For an interim a wise 
man might do well, but the tendency of his board of control to lump 
the educational institutions into one group brings about a failure to 
distinguish the larger university function from that of the normal or 
industrial school leading to a mediocre development of university 
ideals. Besides these considerations, boards of control are apt to 
emphasize policies that are actuated by a view point that has no 
sympathy with university ideals. The university in their eyes is a 
part of a system. Purchasing becomes the great purpose of the board, 
and the real object of leadership in human thought and human values 
is submerged in the emphasis upon the business side alone. The trend 
of such concentration of authority seems to be subsiding; certainly no 
great advantage has been shown in the board of control idea over 
the government by a board of regents co-operating with other institu- 
tions and state department. There is, however, one exception to this 
statement from the legislative standpoint that should be emphasized, 
and that is the opportunity the legislature has to deal with all the 
institutions thru one board. In the crowded days of a legislative 
session this is an important point. 

The University President 307 

The Teaching Staff 
The selection of members of the staff is in one sense the greatest 
work a president can do. However, the multiplicity of duties makes 
it increasingly difficult for him to see candidates, and the selection is 
more and more intrusted to heads of departments and deans. It has 
been proposed that this function should be given over to faculty 
committees, but, when this has been tried, there has resulted much 
delay in selection due to a variety of opinions that are often difficult 
to harmonize. There is, on the other hand, the tendency on the part 
of departmental heads, to select men that might not prove too big 
for the place, and in consequence jeopardize the status quo of the 
department. As commerce and trade hold out large rewards to able 
young men, the university is being hard put to offer inducements in 
opportunity and salary that will in any event attract able men. 
Certainly if this be true, the office of president must be relieved of 
many of the burdens that crowd upon it. Only by constant travel, 
corresponding with other institutions and attendance upon the meet- 
ings of scholars, can a president really do his duty within the confines 
of his ability in recruiting the university staff. Even if at full liberty, 
conference with his colleagues in all the steps taken would appear to 
be wise and advisable, tho keeping in mind that the final selection must 
be the selection of the president if a building process is to be uniform. 

Recruiting of Staffs 

Since business has found in college faculties new hunting 
grounds for recruiting its staffs, every university has felt the competi- 
tion for its men. High cost of living, on the other hand, has dimmed 
the light of many a scholar, with the result that he has reluctantly 
gone over to the commercial field for the substantial gain in salary that 
he expects to use in holding up the standard of living. Heavy costs 
in maintaining college plants have been a third factor that has added 
to the heavy load and the difficulties of the university president. The 
future does not hold much comfort. Depletion of staff might not be 
a matter of unmixt loss if there were fair hopes of making good the 
loss, but the fact is that the virile men of graduating classes are not 
going on to prepare for teaching, and the supply for the places now 
vacant in many a faculty is composed of mediocre men who want 
more pay than the abler incumbent received, who has left the post. 
A further decline is noticeable in the general culture of the younger 
men seeking university positions. There are many exceptions to a 
statement of this kind, but no university president can be oblivious 
to a situation that is more or less patent to the observer of present 

3o8 The Quarterly Journal 

day trends. The bolder and more aggressive types are finding 
their way into the professions and large business enterprises. 

The Faculty as the Essential Element 

The faculty is the heart of the institution. In their hands must 
rest the shaping of curricula, matters of discipline, and the every day 
conduct of the institution. This means organization, and such 
organization ought to be comprehensive enough and democratic 
enough to encourage the help of every member of the stafiF. 

A great deal of the conflict between presidents of institutions 
and faculties has been due to a few causes. Foremost, perhaps, is the 
absence of clearly stated rules of organization that set down definitely 
the relationships existing in the complicated organization of a modern 
educational institution; second, the lack of tact and frankness in the 
dealings of men with each other; third, intrigue and failure to 
cooperate arising out of misunderstanding or ambition; and fourth, 
fundamental differences between the president and faculty groups 
growing out of variances in policy. A well worked out plan for the 
functioning of an institution coupled with good will and ability, will 
remove practically all of these difficulties. Such a plan places the 
legislative functions regarding courses, students, and general conduct 
of the academic side of the institution in a faculty body made up of 
professors and assistant professors. Such a body, thru committees, 
can co-ordinate opinion and apply the wisdom of the institution to its 
work bringing about a co-operative feeling thruout the institution. 
If coupled with this legislative group there is an administrative body 
meeting frequently, the problems of the institution are constantly in 
review by everybody concerned. To make such a plan a success 
there must be complete frankness in submitting to these bodies all 
university matters whether great or small. Necessarily the board of 
trustees passes upon the financial business and appointments, but the 
relations with the faculties must be cordial and mutually trusting. 

Academic Freedom 

The right to teach and speak as one thinks is the essence of 
academic freedom. Above it, however, are to be placed tact and good 
sense on the general principle that the blunt end of a wedge does not 
split much wood. A good deal has been said on this subject and 
numerous cases have been brought to the attention of the public in 
the last ten years. Nearly all of them contain errors of judgment 
on both sides due to the failure to take up the matter before it reaches 
the critical stage. With provisions in the university organization to 
hear in full the evidence in such cases, there is little likelihood of a 


The University President 309 

university going far wrong in the conclusions reached. Unfortunately 
a great many cases of academic freedom arise out of the ventures of 
university men into fields where they are not fully familiar with all 
the material. They are thus led to make public statements that can- 
not always be supported. A university is not a place for propaganda, 
but rather a place to find out, study, and reach conclusions. When 
that has been done men have been free to express their views because 
they are thoroly supported on facts. The organization of the Ameri- 
can Association of University Professors has already done a good work 
in insisting upon the real facts in the cases it has examined. With 
closer knowledge of the situation, it should be a helping agency in 
eliminating a lot of the non essentials from many of the academic 
freedom cases as well as establishing certain ethical standards. The 
right of a university professor to leave his chair after a two weeks' 
notice is claimed by a few men in faculties as wholly within their 
privilege because the university is great and they are only one. On 
the other hand when a university calls for a resignation with several 
months' notice, the claim is made, sometimes, that the dismissal is due 
to failure to meet the views of the president or board of trustees. So 
academic freedom comes in as a part of the controversy. Fortunately 
this sort of case does not arise very often, but the American Association 
of University Professors can render a real service if standards of 
ethical relation can be establisht as the basis for the action of mem- 
bers of faculties and governing boards. 

Budget, Appointments, and Salaries 

Three matters, now much discust, are being brought to the 
fore by men interested in increasing the prestige of the faculty. These 
are the budget, appointments, and salaries. In a large institution, 
the budget consumes much time in the making. The more people 
consulted the more time is required, nevertheless, so important are the 
financial phases of education, it is essential that departmental needs 
should be given fullest consideration. The usual method of calling 
for departmental statements by the deans of colleges and the presen- 
tation of the department statements to the president, has the advan- 
tage of a short cut method, but it leaves the colleges in the dark as to 
the relative grants made to each of them. The review of the budget 
by the deans and president before the budget goes to the board of 
trustees works toward a levelling up process, but it does not bring into 
the consultation the larger body of the faculty. Certainly, a com- 
mittee from the faculty might be brought into touch with the 
mysteries of a budget, and probably as a step toward larger under- 
standing, it might well be read as a whole to the faculty body before 

3IO The Quarterly Journal 

the budget goes to the board of trustees. A debate upon it would 
undoubtedly upset the work of months and result in more hard feeling 
than the present organization of university democracy could well 
stand, especially in view of the stress upon individual departments and 
college organization. Unfortunately the universities are manned, in 
part, with many who have no large university view point, but are 
overly imprest with the greatness of their departments and the futility 
of a lot of others. A good deal of this will be obviated when every 
graduate school requires men who are preparing to teach to take 
courses in the history of education and particularly university admin- 
istration along with their special lines of work. 

What was a rather minor matter under pre-war conditions has 
come to be the all absorbing question. Practically every institution 
is trying to secure the means of increasing salaries, in order to make 
them at least equal to those paid before the war. This is being done 
by alumni contributions and by larger appropriations from state 
legislatures. There are, however, two ways of dealing with the 
general salary problems; one is by establishing grades of pay, and the 
other by paying according to merit. The first is the easiest to 
administer, and on the whole produces more satisfaction to the faculty 
group, but it makes it difficult to keep the exceptional man who can- 
not be fitted into such a plan. So soon as it is parted from, and it is 
only a matter of time when it is, the administrative officer must 
decide on merits and be subject to the criticism that some men are 
better than others. Placing this difficult question in the hands of 
a faculty committee may relieve the president from some embarrass- 
ment but, in time, the committee is pretty sure to involve its members 
in endless controversies with those who are not recommended for 
more pay and higher position. Such a plan was tried in one of the 
larger institutions, and after many meetings the committee reported 
that they were not able to agree and asked to be discharged. The 
problem was just where it started : in the hands of the president and 
where it is bound to rest under the American type of university 
organization, unless salaries are fixt by the board of trustees on the 
basis of grades and certain periods of probation before promotion 
takes place. No board can know well enough the individuals on a 
teaching staff to devise salary schedules that will be satisfactory. 
When they do it, the factory system of pay is pretty likely to be the 

The University Plant 

One of the great temptations, always present, that a college 
president faces is the allurement of plant and campus. Without 

The University President 31 1 

doubt, there is an effective and energizing psychology in fine buildings 
and beautiful campuses. They may, however, be over emphasized 
when the expenditures on them reduce salary funds, research and 
library opportunities, and limit the bigger and more important things 
of the spirit. Yet it is essential to plan for the future. No college 
president of the past twenty-five years can be charged with planning 
too largely. More often he has planned in too small a way, and has 
thus hampered the future growth of his institution. It is here that 
the wisdom of largely experienced business men of the board of 
trustees, coupled with the training and experience of a high grade 
architect, has done valuable service for the institution. The planning 
of buildings is really a difficult matter. Certainly, the complete 
building can no longer have any argument for its construction. The 
numerous instances of the failure of such buildings to fulfill their 
expectation for a reasonable period, have been shown again and again. 
The unit building, susceptible of enlargement in many directions by 
the addition of units to the original when well placed, meets many of 
the difficulties encountered. Moreover, the cluttering of campuses 
by small buildings is avoided and departments held in closer physical 

President and Students 

When education was young in the land, the college president 
knew the students of the institution. Now it is the dean of men and 
the dean of women who know the students, and the president is 
absorbed in a round of speeches, conferences, and details. It is un- 
fortunate that this is the case. The best he can do is to meet occasional 
groups and appear before the students' assembly from time to time. 
The personal relation is gone and in the great masses of students 
is bound to disappear as a university presidential function. To 
lose touch with the student body is a serious matter that leads to 
misunderstandings, likely to result in breakdown of effective admin- 
istration. This difiEiculty can be met by conferences with student 
leaders at luncheon periods, and by occasional "at homes" in the 
president's house for the larger groups. The presence of the president 
at student affairs shows the right attitude and goes a good way 
toward the establishment of good understanding. 

The Alumni 

Outside of a very few institutions the alumni interest in their 
Alma Mater cannot be spoken of as vital and alive. The struggle 
for position and fortune in his earlier days after graduation takes up 
the time and energy of the alumnus with matters far removed from 
the problems of the institution from which he graduated. This atti- 

312 2'he Quarterly Journal 

tude may now and then be modified by the crys of "Alma Mater" 
for help, but even his occasional visits to the campus do not carry the 
alumnus much beyond the days when he graduated. Unless he is 
associated with education, large business or professional affairs, he is 
apt to look at the institution as it was in his day. 

Most of the efforts to organize alumni spirit have been rather 
meager in their success. The reason can be found in lack of organiza- 
tion, lack of funds, and lack of appreciation of institutional problems. 
The organization and lack of funds have been made up in many 
instances by the university taking over the problem, but lack of 
enthusiasm is due to the passage of years and the failure to bring 
the alumnus into actual touch with the university's real problems. 
Most alumni dinners are formal and dampening to the spirit arising 
out of the absence of a real purpose so far as the alumnus can see. 
Without question, the ardent interest alumni take in athletic matters, 
over and above those of the institution itself, may be definitely traced 
to the failure to keep them thoroly posted as to the needs of their 
Alma Mater and her ambitions and ideals. In athletic affairs alumni 
interest may sometimes be highly detrimental, especially when the 
name of Alma Mater is tarnished by the use of alumni money to 
strengthen athletic teams. When such methods are followed, uni- 
versity authorities are in the dark and a great scandal may develop 
before they are aware of it. The alumnus has no intention to do 
injury, but his zeal leads him now and then in a few instances to 
over-estimate the value of money. Victories secured in such ways 
are not worth having, and the demoralization to college ideals is 
far reaching. It would be unfair to leave the matter here. Alumni 
are a part of the university, they are in fact torch bearers and they 
do reflect the influence and power of their Alma Mater. That 
there could be a vast improvement in education not only in college, 
but in communities where they live, if they would give utterance to 
the faith that is in them, cannot be doubted. The university and 
college alumni of America could make America what they choose if 
they would emphasize their claims to leadership. 

The Office and the Public 
The outer office of a college president in a university in a city 
of some size is filled each day with people who wish to see about 
everything under the sun. On the telephone he answers all sorts of 
inquiries from the illiterate, who wish to know which is right "them 
molasses or those mollasses," to matters of deeper importance involv- 
ing questions of government, business, and social affairs. Book agents 


The University President 313 

come to secure endorsements, solicitors ask for funds, elderly ladies 

seek employment as teachers, visitors from other parts, and the people 

who ought to see the president about university matters. Unless he 

is blessed with a secretary of great tact, wisdom, and ability, his time 

is taken from university and public affairs that should receive the 

most careful considei'ation. The real oflFice of a university president 

should be equipt with effective personnel, an infallible filing system, 

card indexes showing the daily movements of student population and 

the entire history of every member of the staff, and a library consisting 

of the latest educational reports. Even with all this, he must have 

time to think, and that is something the average incumbent of the 

office cannot get unless he has more determination than most to pass 

by many of the calls made on him. The weakness of the office under 

modern conditions is its failure to get into closer contact with students, 

and the failure to bring to bear upon university problems, the full 

ability of the incumbent. Freedom from details will make this 

possible, tho perhaps retirement to secluded spots now and then may 

be the only way in which the desired result can be reached. 

The essential elements in the successful administration of the 
presidential office are patience, tact, good sense, and knowledge. The 
president must provide initial leadership, and this means sympathy 
with all plans for advancement within the confines of financial 
support. He cannot sit in his office as a kind of umpire between the 
contending factions of a university faculty. There should be no 
factions in a university, but on the other hand complete understand- 
ing and brotherly outlook from the educational towers of the univer- 

The reader must be as conscious as the author is, of the many 
omissions in this paper, and of the inadequacy of the discussion on 
topics that might well take as much space as the article itself. Perhaps 
something of this great office can be gathered from what has been 
said. Education is in great jeopardy in America. The progress made 
in the last few years will be lost if the heavy financial burdens 
continue, and in addition there must be far seeing leadership if the 
dangers that always touch the reorganization process are to be avoided. 
For this work the universities must have large visioned leadership. 
Whether the burdens of the office will permit any man, who may 
be called to a presidency, to see far into the future is an immediate 
question of far more importance than is generally conceded. 

Some Difficulties and Joys of a 
College President 

Melvin a. Brannon, 
President of Beloit College 

TO the uninitiated college administration is an utterly closed 
book. Even those somewhat familiar with academic life fail 
to analyze the primary functions of the administrative officer. 
Obviously, unless we know something of the program which must be 
followed by a college president, we can have no appreciation of the 
task and cannot evaluate its difficulties and its joys. 

For convenience the field of administration may be divided into 
the classical number that was applied to Ancient Gaul. The first 
division is fundamentally economic. The second pertains to build- 
ing, maintaining, and operating the physical plant. The third deals 
with the output or educational product. 

Ordinarily, the difficulties in the economic field were huge and 
distressing prior to 191 4. Since that period, due to the war-time 
inflations and corresponding cheapening of the dollar, the economic 
complications have grown distressing to the nth degree. This is true 
both in state supported and privately endowed institutions. Neither 
type of institution is run for profit. It operates purely for public 
service. Therefore the economic situation calls for strenuous efforts 
in the direction of increasing income and decreasing unnecessary ex- 
penditures. An examination of the budget of 191 4 and the budgets 
of 1919 and of 1920 will give adequate evidence supporting this 
statement. Privately endowed colleges have been forced to advance 
their student fees, in some cases one hundred per cent. 

If any one questions that education is fundamentally a business 
which calls for clever financeering, wise supervision, and efficient 
guidance, he is answered in the affirmative when he reviews the 
budgets and performances of these public service institutions during 
the past few years. The immense advance in prices for all necessities 
has required great relative increase in salaries for instructors and 
other members of the college staff. Altho these salaries have not ad- 
vanced in the same ratio as the cost of living, nevertheless the college 
budget has been pushed well over into the field of deficit in many of 
our colleges during the war-time interval. It has been almost 
impossible to advance endowments or to secure gifts which would 
support the advance in budget in any adequate degree. Naturally 

The College President 315 

the effort to increase income has occasioned an entire review and 
readjustment of the charges against those who would pursue college 
courses. However, the increased cost of living for students has again 
called for the delicate balancing of factors in order that the load borne 
by students should not be prohibitive and thus limit the function of 
the college in its service relations. Taken in its entirety, it is manifest 
that the economic puzzles are complicated, difficult, and frequently 
impossible for administration in both public and privately supported 
institutions. Fortunate indeed is that college or university whose 
trustees and president have been able to reach that golden mean which 
secured sufficient income for higher salaries and met the increased 
operating expenses without incurring huge deficits or placing 
prohibitive fees in the way of ambitious students with limited finances. 

Assuming that the economic foundations have been provided with 
care and wisdom, the second principal task of the college president 
is associated with the development of an adequate material plant. 
Unfortunately colleges are quite like Topsy. They have "jest 
growed." It is only within very recent times that institutions under- 
took to organize plans for grounds and buildings and equipment 
which comprised a twenty-five year period. Consequently one finds 
a motley array of buildings, no uniformity of architecture, no modern 
engineering respecting production and distribution of heat and power, 
and no adequate provision for housing students and providing for the 
physical, social, and educational welfare of those who are coming to 
the colleges from the present day high schools, many of which have 
up-to-date and almost luxurious buildings and equipment. This 
feature of college administration is almost entirely unknown to the 
general observer of college life. He takes it for granted that the 
material plant came into being and operated itself without provision 
or human guidance. He knows in a general way that it is far easier 
to build new buildings than it is to work over, rejuvenate, and utilize 
those which have existed for decades. But ordinarily he takes no 
account of either and therefore does not evaluate the enormity of the 
tasks which are associated with the second group of administrative 
problems in every American college today. 

In these days of scientific advancement it is fundamentally 
essential that there should be well equipt laboratories for the teaching 
of science, and up-to-date libraries for the instruction of the under- 
graduate in science. Likewise, library needs are even more emphasized 
in connection with history, economics, and sociology, in this period of 
rapid economic and social evolution. To meet these demands the 
resources of the college must be studied thoroly and the necessities 

3i6 The Quarterly Journal 

for needed equipment met. However, the investment in repair, 
upkeep, and increase of equipment must not be drawn from the 
salary budget, neither can fees be made prohibitive, neither can the 
operation of the physical plant be penalized. The just balance in 
which are mesured equitably all of the multiple demands of the college 
must be employed. 

If the task associated with organizing the material plant is 
great, then that associated with organizing and directing an efficient 
college faculty is colossal. The rapid advance in the natural sciences, 
a closed book to the most intelligent non-collegiate mind, is surpast 
possibly by the great advances made in the economic and social sciences 
and their applications to industry, society, and government during 
these years of readjustment. In view of the rapid shift and the rapid 
specialization called for in different fields of learning, it is not at all 
strange that there should be wide differences of opinion and sharp 
controversies developt among individuals who are brought into the 
intimate but not always harmonious relations of a college faculty. It 
comes about, therefore, that one of the most difficult tasks of the 
college administration is to select and to lead a group of scholarly 
people into a service which encourages reasonable liberalism of 
thought and happy companionship in action, however diversified from 
the departmental expressions of individual service. 

Inasmuch as the college on private foundation is entrusted by its 
charter to a board of trustees, it becomes clear that one of the chief 
obligations of the college president is associated with organizing and 
maintaining a board of trustees who will be wise in their day and 
generation. It is fortunate for that college whose board discriminates 
clearly between the functions of business and those of education. If 
that discrimination is made and wisely recognized by the Board of 
Trustees, then the institution, whether privately or state supported, 
will be insured against any one of three forms of tyranny which have 
sometimes been imposed upon education. Reference is made to the 
tyranny exercised at one time by the church, forbidding the teaching 
of certain doctrines : for instance, organic evolution and other modern 
scientific theories; political tyranny which has sometimes been 
tremendously accented in state universities because, forsooth, a pet 
doctrine of a dominant political party was not given prominence in 
the college curriculum; industrial tyranny which required that the 
privately supported colleges should receive no endowment whatsoever 
unless their teaching respecting economic and social questions, 
"tabooed" by certain conservative and reactionary industrial interests, 
were totally prohibited. 

I ne LiOiiege rrcsiaent 317 

The third great division of presidential tasks is concerned with 
the educational program or output of the college. Naturally these 
duties are mainly concerned with student life, altho they have most 
intimate and important contacts with the public, both alumni and 
non-alumni members of society. 

The one essential in elaborating educational programs is to 
recognize clearly and believe fully that the college exists for students 
and not students for the college. This does not imply that there is 
to be no discipline, no guidance, no supervision of student activities 
on the part of the faculty and administration. It does mean, however, 
that a course of study, the schedule of work, the guidance of physical, 
social, and religious life are to be organized wholly from the stand- 
point of guaranteeing the best possible welfare for every student that 
matriculates in the college. Moreover, it requires the diligent study 
and constant effort of the administration in order that sympathetic 
contacts may be establisht and maintained at all times between instruc- 
tors and instructed. This is one of the most dilificult tasks imposed 
upon the college administrator. President Emeritus Eliot of Harvard 
recognized this obligation when he said that far and a way the most 
important duty of the college administrator was concerned with the 
selection of efiFective, sympathetic teachers. The delicacy and impor- 
tance of this selection is easily understood when we bring into clear 
view the following factors: 

First: A vigorous, intelligent master of his subject, keen and 
enthusiastic for passing on knowledge of things, impatient with those 
who will not put aside social functions for virile, scholarly work, 
disposed, perhaps, to believe that he has vested and proprietary rights 
in the department in which he is associated, and conscious of superior 
knowledge and experience. Second : Young life, more interested in 
socializing experiments which are concrete and appealing than in the 
abstract work of lecture room and laboratory, often ready to believe 
that factor No. i is hostile and determined to impose drastic obliga- 
tions in order to make student programs strenuous and disagreeable. 
Obviously these conflicts between factors one and two emphasize the 
importance of the selection of intelligent, sympathetic, faithful, and 
efficient teachers as the superlative obligation of the college president. 
Failure to perform that function successfully means serious penalty 
for every student who enters the college and also for society which is 
to be served by the student when he passes from college halls. Stated 
in another way, it requires that great personalities must be placed in 
teaching positions if great personalities are to be encouraged in 

3i8 • The Quarterly Journal 

developing adequate expression within the student body. It means 
that there must be an example of rich scholarship, keen sympathy, 
and eternal diligence and service on the part of the real teacher if 
the college would say to the student, while pointing to her teachers, 
"Go thou and do likewise." 

Assuming that progress has been made in administering college 
interests relative to the economic, physical, and educational require- 
ments, one is confronted with the constant, insistent need of main- 
taining the enthusiastic interest and allegiance of the alumni and the 
public. Just as it is difficult for some people in the field of adminis- 
tration and in the profession of teaching to realize that colleges and 
universities exist for the student, so it is difficult for graduate and 
ex-students of an institution and for the public to realize that the 
goal of all higher education is the training of efficient citizens for a 
democracj\ This difficulty is augmented by the fact that we cannot 
easily relate the abstract to the concrete. It is not easy to see that 
in educational exhibits there should be a procedure during college 
days which will checlc in industrial, co-operative, and patriotic 
adherence to higher principles while in college comparable to the 
check which society requires when one passes out into practical life. 
Alumni remember that student days were essentially care-free days. 
They also remember that much is made of traditions, but they will 
not remember always that adjustments in college relations must be 
made with the same freedom and accuracy that they are made in our 
changing industrial, social, and political life outside of college halls. 
We must appreciate tvvo important facts: first, that we have student 
life, with certain reservations, built upon the same positive and con- 
structive basis that citizenship in after college days rests, if it is stable 
and constructive; second, that the same freedom for readjustment 
which we allow in the busy after-college life must be permitted and 
guided during the years that one is a college student. 

The sympathetic attitude of alumni and public will depend in 
the first place upon adequate publicity and reliable information 
respecting the program and procedure of colleges and universities. 
That this dependable information may be supplied it is essential that 
there should be establisht a definite college or university medium. 
Thru these official agents wisest and most constant effort must be 
made to inform alumni and, thru alumni, the public with reference 
to the services of one's Alma Mater. These services must be in 
conformity, so far as possible, with wisest traditions of the institution, 
while giving heed to the pressing needs of changing relationships in 
business, industry, and society. The right interpretation and the wise 


The College President 319 

distribution of this information is specifically and essentially the work 
of loyal alumni who may break or make the wisest administration 
that ever functioned in college affairs. 

Thus far in this brief discussion of college administration, the 
accent has been upon the question of tasks and difficulties rather than 
upon joys. The fact is that if one is seeking a sphere which is accented 
with joy, he should never enter the field of college administration. It 
is true that there is the joy of opportunity and the joy of multiple 
contacts with practical as well as theoretical people, with the hardest 
type of business as well as the most appealing culture, and now and 
then there is the joy of sharing temporarily in the great work of 
teaching. This joy is permitted thru the opportunity of public 
addresses and participation in the deliberations of educational, social, 
business, and other conventions, where the leaders in many fields are 
brought into helpful touch and companionship. Brieflj^ the joys may 
be summarized in the statement that the only zest and the only 
happiness in administrative work lie in the opportunity to improve 
and to maintain conditions within which others may proceed without 
hindrance, unnecessary difficulties and delays in carrying on the most 
joyous work in the world, teaching and being taught. In other 
words, the joys of the college president are found in exercising that 
spirit and service ascribed to Abou Ben Adhem : 

"Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!) 
Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, 
And saw within the moonlight in his room. 
Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom. 
An angel writing in a book of gold. 
Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold. 
And to the presence in the room he said, 
'What writest thou?' The vision raised its head, 
And with a look made of all sweet accord, 
Answered, 'The names of those who love the Lord.' 
'And is mine one?' said Abou. 'Nay, not so.' 
Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, 
But cheerily still; and said, 'I pray thee, then. 
Write me as one that loves his fellow^men.' 

The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night 

It came again with a great wakening light. 

And showed the names whom love of God had blessed, — 

And lo! Ben Adhem 's name led all the rest!" 

A Scientist in the Clouds 

Commander A. Hoyt Taylor, U. S. N. R. F. 

MY esteemed friend, the Editor of the Quarterly Journal, is 
responsible for the title of this paper. In some ways I cannot 
help but feel that from my point of view at least, it is somewhat 
inapropos. In the first place, I have done, after all, only a relatively 
small amount of flying when mesured by the total number of hours 
in the air, and if the truth were told, 1 have never been in the clouds 
more than two or three times. In the second place, a very large per- 
centage of the scientific work in aviation is not done in the clouds, 
in fact, is not done in the air at all. The business of the aviator is, 
of course, to fly, but in order to fly and fly successfully, he must have 
a very carefully engineered machine provided with the best instru- 
ments and equipment. The number of hours of work actually put 
in on machines in preparing them for flight, is, for most machines at 
least, far in excess of the number of hours actually consumed in flying. 
It does happen, however, that a considerable proportion of the work 
of which I have the direction, must be completed in the air and some 
of it originates there. At any rate, for want of a better title for this 
paper, I am forced to accept the one provided, no doubt with the 
best of intentions, by the Editor. 

It might be anticipated that the first flight by a scientific man 
would result in sensations rather different from those experienced 
by the casual observer. Perhaps this is so, but I think it more likely 
that no matter what a person's previous training has been, he gets 
much the same thrill and exhilaration from this first flight in an 
airplane. I suppose people differ very widely. I have talked with 
many on their return from their first "hop" ; none of them, of course, 
admitted that they have been afraid, and they certainly all show 
evidence of emotional uplift and a tremendous enthusiasm, which, 
however, does not always carry them so far as to wish to repeat the 
performance in the immediate future. I am quite willing to admit 
that on one of my trips aloft, not in an airplane but in a sausage 
balloon, that is, an observation balloon fastened by a I200 foot cable 
to the earth, that I was thoroly frightened and only too glad to get 
back to terra firma. That sausage was the only aircraft that gave me 
any sensation of fear. I have, of course, been startled now and then 
by sudden maneuvers of planes, but can honestly say that I have 
never had the real sensation of fear while in a plane. This seems 
rather curious. I find there are many others who feel the same way 

A Scientist in the Clouds 321 

about observation balloons. One of the oldest pilots of my acquaint- 
ance told me that he wouldn't take a trip in one of those "gas bags" 
for any amount of money, and yet this same man would dare anything 
with a plane, some of which he seemed to be able to fly upside down 
as well as any other way. The psychology of this difference between 
the sensation in an airplane and an observation balloon is interesting. 
As near as I can make out, the difference in the sensations is due to 
the fact that in a plane, especially in the larger types, one is completely 
surrounded by material, sits tight in a comfortable seat, that is, it is 
usually comfortable, with some exceptions to be noted later on, and 
the tremendous vibration of the engines gives one the same sense of 
power that you have in driving a powerful car, and you no more 
feel afraid than does the automobilist when he steps on the accelerator 
and puts his car up past fifty miles an hour. That terrific driving 
power makes you feel that you have a machine which will do what 
you want it to do and is under control. On the other hand, in the 
observation balloon you sit on the edge of a very small basket and 
you can look straight down under you to the ground and water, as 
the case may be. In connection with this, I may also state that I 
never experience what may be called the sensation of altitude to any 
unpleasant degree in an airplane, whereas in the observation balloon 
I began to be uncomfortable as soon as we were fifty feet away from 
the earth. I think the presence or absence of motive power has a lot 
to do with both sensations because my experiences in a dirigible 
balloon were delightful. I believe I sensed the altitude a little more 
than when traveling in a plane, but not in any unpleasant way. 

As most of my friends in North Dakota already know, I got 
into the aviation game thru the communication end, that is, I was 
sent by the Bureau of Steam Engineering to a Naval Air Station 
at a Naval Operating Base to further the interests of radio com- 
munication as applied to aircraft. After arriving there, however, I 
was assigned by the Commanding Officer to the entire charge of the 
Experimental Department, which included a great many things 
besides radio. The Navy never considers that because an officer may 
never have had any experience in a certain line of work that he is 
unable to carry on with it. If the officer has developt any symptoms 
of executive ability, it is tacitly assumed that he will make good in 
any line that is assigned to him. I protested to the Commanding 
Officer that I knew nothing about aircraft and had never even had a 
trip aloft. He remarked nonchalantly that it was a fine day and 
that I had better go out and take a "hop". So I .went out and 
"hopped" about 4000 feet up and after a fifty mile circuit came down 

322 The Quarterly Journal 

again in one of the wickedest spiral glides that I ever experienced. 
Of course, the pilot was trying to "get m)' goat" and when the spiral 
first started I thought he had it, because land and sea and sky seemed 
to be alternating in chaotic positions, the sky persisting in remaining 
for long periods vertically under me, whereas land and sea twisted in 
a distorted panorama at all possible angles. I finally got my eye on a 
point below on the axis of the spiral and kept it there. This enabled 
me to get hold of myself mentally in short order, and while I cannot 
say I enjo3'ed the remaining turns of that- spiral, still they did not 
bother me seriously. A spiral glide of this sort is an interesting pro- 
position. Such a glide may be made so gently as to be scarcely per- 
ceptible, the plane slowly circling in very wide circles and gradually 
lowering its altitude and banked over so slightly as to be hardly 
noticeable. But if this maneuver is carried out with a much smaller 
circle or a radius of the spiral, the centrifugal force increases and 
therefore the plane is forced to bank over very steeply to prevent 
side-slipping. Finally, if the axis of the spiral is made very tight 
indeed, the plane is banked over almost vertically. If at the same time 
the nose of the plane is shot down-ward, which must be done by 
working the flippers, which in this attitude have become the rudder, 
the descent, parallel with the axis of the spiral, becomes very rapid 
indeed. If the radius of the spiral is still further reduced to zero, 
the spiral glide has become the dangerous tail spin. I have never 
been in a tail spin and confess that I do not desire to be. It is not 
considered much of a trick to put a small, fast, powerful plane into 
a tail spin and bring it out again, in fact, I have seen it done 
hundreds of times and in only one case did I witness a fatality, but 
with a heavy bombing plane, in which I have done most of my work, 
a tail spin would unquestionably be fatal. 

Most of my unusual sensations aloft were obtained during my 
first two or three flights because on these flights I was merely getting 
acquainted with conditions in the air and had nothing particular to 
do except to look around and see what was going on. During later 
flights I have generally been so busy with scientific work in the air 
that I have often not even had an opportunity to take a look at the 
country or water over which we were flying, nor would I know in 
which direction we were headed or at what altitude we were flying. 
In other words, after a very few trips it came to be a humdrum 
performance with no romance and nothing to it but rather hard work 
and considerable discomfort. As near as I can recall it, my first 
sensations in the air were of the nasty odor and terrific clatter of the 
engine, which happened to be directly in front of me in that plane. 

A Scientist in the Clouds 323 

In spite of a slanting wind shield in front of me, this disagreeable 
motor persisted in spitting acrid fumes and oil into my face during 
the entire j3ight. This was perhaps a peculiarity of this type of plane. 
The noise, however, is not peculiar to any of them. I have stood 
alongside of 3 inch guns during rapid firing and assure you that a 
four hundred horse power Liberty motor in full blast and unmuffled 
is far more nerve destroying and earsplitting. We have spent much 
time in developing helmets to shut out this distracting noise and feel 
that we have really accomplisht sometliing in making it possible to 
receive radio signals, both telephone and telegraph, in spite of the 
noise of anjrvvhere from one to four motors, ranging from 150 to 
1600 total horsepower. 

My next sensation was the sensation, previously described, of 
p>ower. When the motor was first opened wide, the plane jumped 
forward thru the water as tho some giant hand had taken hold of it 
and given it a mighty thrust. Before I fully realized it, we were 
clear of the water and climbing rapidly. Now I have always had a 
very nasty feeling of altitude when looking over the parapet of high 
buildings, or when standing on a cliff or other high place, and have 
to resist as many people do, the temptation to jump down. Some- 
what to my surprise I got absolutely nothing of this feeling in a 
plane, and barring the noise of the motor and the spitting of oil into 
my face, I had only the most delightful sensations. 1 was much 
interested to find that the country below me looked exactly like a 
huge colored map, and by studying the map at my side I was able 
to readily identify different points. Of course, everything looks 
curiously flat ; a very high hill or building appears to have no altitude 
at all. This gives it all the more the appearance of a map. There 
were literally hundreds of vessels in the great harbor underneath me 
and some of them were under way. The long trail of mud stirred 
up from the bottom by the propellers could be traced several miles 
astern of them. At 4000 feet the waves looked like tiny ripples and 
a great warship no larger than a child's toy boat made out of a peanut 
shell. In circling over a large city, the most striking thing to the eye 
is probably the railroad yards. They stand out very prominently and 
occasionally a train could be seen traveling towards the city, but it 
appeared to be crawling along at a snail's pace. I cannot recall hav- 
ing any other interesting sensation or experiences on this first trip. 
Later on I had the experience of flying into a cloud bank, which on 
the whole is rather disagreeable. It is difficult to tell whether you 
are right side up or not, as you lose your horizen unless the clouds 
happen to be arranged in well-marked strata. The cloud generally 

324 The Quarterly Journal 

feels cold and there is water deposited on the wind shield and on your 
goggles, rendering it difficult to see, and the plane is liable to get into 
a sideslip on account of the difficulty of not having a natural horizen 
to stear by. Another unpleasant thing about clouds is that they fre- 
quently produce most terrific bumps. Not long ago I took a trip in 
a very large plane with eight other officers and men. In spite of 
the great weight of this machine we had a very rough trip. People 
who have not been aloft laugh at the aviator's expression of a "bump 
in the air". If you were driving along a smooth road in, say, a Ford 
car, at 25 miles an hour and should suddenly run over a three inch 
pole placed across the road, you would get about the same sensation 
as you get in a plane from a bad bump. These bumps are ascending 
and descending air currents and differences in density brought about 
by temperature differences and probably also by moisture content. 
They give the plane so sharp a blow that it is difficult to believe that 
it has not struck something more solid than air. The smaller the 
plane is, the more it is thrown off its equilibrium by these bumps, 
but on the other hand a small plane is so much easier to maneuver 
that they do not often cause serious conditions to arise. There are 
sometimes negative bumps, that is, holes in the air, or descending air 
currents which are more disagreeable than ascending currents, as the 
plane will perhaps suddenly drop a matter of two hundred feet and 
one experiences a certain amount of the well known descending 
elevator sensation at one's center of gravity. Sometimes the bump 
will hit only one wing of the plane, causing a very disagreeable lurch 
followed by an abrupt recovery. You will hear pilots speak about 
the condition of the air and refer to it as having been "rough" or 
"smooth" or "bumpy", and I can assure you that it is literally true. 
Sometimes one can avoid these bumps by changing altitude. In one 
trip that I have in mind we encountered a low, misty bank of clouds 
and lots of bumps at about a thousand feet. A climb to two thousand 
feet found a still worse set of bumps, altho no clouds. We then 
ascended to five thousand feet and there found the air as still and 
quiet as one could wish for. I happened to be in a very large plane, 
seated with the radio apparatus which is located in the tail, looking 
out of a side window which I had opened for the purpose. We 
happened to be flying along the beautiful Potomac river and it was 
one of the pleasantest trips that I ever took, after we once climbed 
high enough to get away from the bumps. In the larger planes we 
do not strap ourselves in because such^ planes are not stunted. If they 
get into a tail spin or some other bad attitude, they will undoubtedly 
be crashed anyway and there is not much to be gained by strapping 

J Scientist in the Clouds 325 

oneself in. In fact, in this plane one could lie down and take a nap 
if you were so inclined. One can walk about considerably in the 
interior, in fact, it is like a small flying yacht. I had a nail keg 
for a seat on that trip, 1 remember, and on the way up thru the 
bumpy air I was spilled off of that keg three times. This was only 
a short trip, a matter of sixty-five miles and return, and I was in 
telephonic communication with friends on shore during the entire trip. 
Some of you may recall having seen something in the papers about 
parts of the work which we have done along this line. The New 
York papers, as well as other Eastern papers, had at one time a con- 
siderable account of tests wherein the Secretary of the Navy waS 
able to sit at his desk, pick up his telephone and carry on a conversa- 
tion with one of my lieutenants who at the time was between one 
hundred and one hundred and fifty miles away from the city of 
Washington, flying at an altitude of several thousand feet. It sounded 
very much like a first class long distance telephone conversation over 
a land line. 

Many people have raised the question as to whether one can feel 
the wind when up in a plane. The answer is, in all cases, most 
emphatically no. The only way the wind direction and velocity can 
be sensed is by watching the water underneath or by observing the 
relative progress the plane is making across the country and compare 
it with the air speed meter in the plane. There are also direct reading 
instruments attempting to do the same thing. It must be remembered 
that the velocity of the plane is always relative to the air in which 
it finds itself. It gets its traction on the air and not on the surface 
of the earth. The only way to tell as far as physical sensations in the 
plane are concerned, whether you are flying with the wind or against 
it, is to observe the speed with which the land and water recede 
beneath you. If you are above the clouds and cannot see land marks, 
there is no way of telling whether you are in a hundred mile gale or 
not. However, when the plane is getting off the land or water, 
that is a different matter, because of the friction of the wheels on 
the land or the boat on the water. Planes always, if p>ossible, take ofif 
into the wind, because the wind velocity is thereby added to the 
velocity of the plane relative to the earth or water, and therefore a 
smaller velocity relative to the land or water serves to get them into 
the air, with less danger of damage to running gear from rough 
ground or to seaplanes from rough water. Of course, they get away 
quicker and in a shorter distance for the same reason when heading 
into the wind. Similarly, a plane will always land into the wind, if 
possible, observing the direction of the wind before starting out, or 

326 The Quarterly Journal 

if coming in from a long flight, getting this information from the 
landing field or by observing the waves on the water. By landing 
into the wind, the speed of the plane with reference to the earth or 
water is greatly reduced, making the landing much gentler. The 
speed with which the plane lands varies according to the type of plane 
all the way from 28 to 80 miles an hour. If a plane with a landing 
speed of 40 miles an hour were to land head on against a 40 mile 
wind, it could simply float down vertically to the earth. On the other 
hand, if that plane landed down wind, its ground speed at the instant 
of landing would be 80 miles an hour and it would probably stub 
its toe and be wrecked. Of course, planes are sometimes forced to 
make down-wind landings, sometimes they get away with it and 
sometimes they don't. I saw a land machine recently make such a 
landing on a rather muddy field. The wheels stuck a little in the 
mud, the plane nosed forward striking the propeller into the mud 
and breaking it. It then turned two complete somersaults without 
injuring either one of its two occupants. 

It may be said, in general, in regards to flying, that the more 
experience one has in the air, the more one desires to keep good 
altitudes. One feels very much safer at 5,000 feet than at 1,000, 
especially when flying over country where landing places may be few 
and far between. It is a good deal like navigating a big ship, which 
is far safer a long ways off the coast than close into shore. If any- 
thing goes wrong at a high altitude there is time to do something and 
the pilot has a few moments to collect himself and try different 
methods of correcting the trouble. One exception to this, of course, 
in fire danger. If a plane catches on fire it is a much more precarious 
position if flying at an extremely high altitude. 

For obvious reasons I am not permitted to go into the details 
of our technical work in solving the various problems of Naval air- 
craft communication, but I can say that unquestionably it has been 
one of the most interesting experiences of my life. I have practically 
given up the fljning end, not having made a trip for some time. 
Indeed, it is no longer necessary or advisable for me to do so, thanks 
to our wartime experience. There is a certain amount of danger 
connected with the work and now that we are only technically and 
not actually at war, I fell that it is not necessary for me to take 
further risks. Moreover, I have had first-hand experience in practi- 
cally all of the Naval aircraft except certain new types which are just 
coming out, and I am therefore qualified to direct the work of 
which I am in charge, without making more than an occasional flight 

A Scientist in the Clouds 327 

myself. It is a very fascinating game and I can readily understand 
why a young man with no family dependent upon him could see 
nothing more attractive to go into. 

I include a small index of well-known terms used in aviation 
work which may be of interest to some of the readers of the Quarterly 

Rudder — Horizontal rudder has the same effect as a rudder on a ship, 
except that a plane cannot be steered to right or left by a rudder 
alone. It must be banked or tilted over about a longitudinal axis 
so that the right wing tips downward during a turn to the right 
and the left wing during a turn to the left. 

Ailerons — Movable parts of the wing tips which can be operated so 
as to lower or raise either wing tip; operated in conjunction 
with the horizontal rudder in making a turn. 

Flippers or Vertical Rudders — ^The flippers are used to nose the 
plane downward or upward. A sharp lift upward is called 
zooming, the term probably referring to the noise made by the 
propeller and wires of the plane during this operation. When 
the plane is banked over in a very steep turn, the flippers become 
the rudder and the rudder takes the place of the flippers. 

"Gun" — To give a plain the "gun" is the same thing as stepping on 
the throttle of a car. 

Fuselage — The main body of the plane to which the wings, rudders, 
control wires, etc., are attached and in which the pilot, or pilots, 
seats are located. 

Stick — The ailerons and flippers of small fighting planes are controlled 
by a short upright stick which comes up between the pilot's knees. 
This often has an attachment on top for op)erating a synchronized 
machine gun. Large planes are controlled by a steering wheel 
arrangement. The horizontal rudders on all planes are controlled 
by the feet acting on a horizontal cross bar. 

Sideslip — ^When a plane makes a turn without banking sufficiently 
it will sideslip outward and upward. When a plane makes a turn 
with too much banking, it will sideslip downward. The side- 
slip may be followed by a very dangerous attitude. When flying 
in a cloud a sideslip can be detected only by the use of certain 
instruments or by the pilot feeling the wind stronger on one 
cheek than on the other. 

Ceiling — The highest altitude a given plane is capable of obtaining. 

328 The Quarterly Journal 

The lifting power of the plane decreases with the altitude unless 
something can be done to make the motor run faster at high 
altitudes. The plane, therefore, practically reaches a limit 
depending on the total weight of the plane, its general design 
and power. 

"Blimp" — ^A non-rigid dirigible balloon. 

"Sausage" — Term given to a kite or observation balloon. Often 
called kites for short, and used in directing artillery fire and 
general observational purposes. 


Solving the Problems in the 
New Field 

James E. Boyle, 

Extension Professor of Rural Economy, College of Agriculture, 

Cornell University 

THE Old and the New Fields. — The old field in agriculture 
means production; the new field means marketing. The 
economic function of the farmer has generally been considered to be 
the production of the raw materials to feed and clothe the world. 
Our Federal and State departments of agriculture, and our State 
Colleges of Agriculture have, up to recent times, devoted their 
energies to the stimulation of production — to the making of two 
blades of grass grow where only one grew before. This was an 
entirely proper course, and will be continued indefinitely, with this 
modification, namely, the sale of the farmers' product will receive 
a certain share of attention. 

The New Field — Marketing. — Persons familiar with the 
literature of Agricultural E(x>nomics during the past three or four 
decades are imprest with the insistent and ever-increasing demand by 
the farmer that he be given "a voice in fixing the price of his 
product." Whence comes this demand of the farmer ? Is it justified? 
And how is it being answered? The source of this demand we may 
attribute to the spirit of the times. We are talking a great deal in 
these days about the "democratization of industry" and of an 
"economic democracy" to match our pK)litical democracy. Our 
political democracy, so-called, has given every voter a voice in the 
government. At least he feels that the government is carried on 
"with the consent of the governed." But in his economic life, partic- 
ularly in buying and selling, the farmer feels that the price structure 
is somehow establisht and maintained without his voice or consent. 
He doubtless has mixt motives for wanting to have a conscious part 
in price making, these motives being partly economic, partly moral. 
That is, he doubtless wants to stabilize his profits ; but he also craves 
a voice, as a man and a citizen, in the marketing of the fruits of his 
own labor. Whether the reader considers these motives as "good" 
motives or "bad," depends doubtless on the reader's viewpoint. For 
our critics do not yet agree on the motives of the men, for instance, 
who performed that feat known as the Boston Tea Party. Some 
writers say it was a matter of pocketbooks, a mere resistance to a 

330 The Quarterly Journal 

money tax. Other writers say it was not the size of the tax, but the 
justice of it — the more fundamental question of taxation without 
representation. And since these same forefathers of Boston fame, as 
soon as they became independent, taxed themselves far more heavily 
than the mother country had ever taxed them, it seems quite logical 
to conclude that justice rather than pocketbooks was the underlying 
question after all. At any rate nothing so rankles in the human 
breast as the sense of injustice. So, coming back to our modern 
farmer, he doubtless wants a voice in price fixing — partly on account 
of his pocketbook, and partly because — whether rightly or wrongly — 
he suspects there is some injustice towards him in the present economic 
price structure. 

Two Developments. — Not only is the farmer insisting on a voice 
in the marketing of his produce, but he is boldly entering into all sorts 
of associations and arrangements for the handling of his crops. Two 
distinct lines of development are now apparent, namely, co-operation 
and collective bargaining. The line of cleavage is sharp between these 
two de\'elopments. 

( I ) Co-operation. Co-operation is for savings, not for profits. 
Co-operation in marketing accepts the competitive price. Co-operative 
marketing has been successfully developt in several fields by the 
farmer, but particularly in those fields where a wader distribution of 
a perishable product is desired, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, 
early vegetables, and garden truck of various kinds. In these fields, 
farmers' organizations assemble the produce, grade, pack and ship 
it to widely scattered markets. A standardized, uniformly graded 
product, under some brand or label, is thus handled in large volume 
in such a way as to avoid market gluts on any particular markets. 
The large volume of the business not only makes inspection and 
grading possible, but it renders practicable many economies. Supplies 
are bought in large quantities at a saving. Skilled management is 
employed. Telegraphic market news is constantly used, which would 
not be feasible with a small volume of business. Car-lot shipments 
permit of better freight rates and better refrigeration service. In 
short, co-operative marketing is a system of pooling a large volume 
of business in such a manner as to put on the market an improved 
product, to distribute this product to the market needing it most — 
that is, offering the best price for it, and getting it into the hands of 
the consumer with as little margin of cost as possible. 

Co-operative marketing accepts the competitive price, seeking 
only to find the markets where the highest competitive prices prevail. 

Problems of the New Field 331 

In other words, co-operative marketing means selling at the market, 
with no effort to control the market. Some of the strong co-operative 
marketing associations, recognizing the power of the consumer's 
demand to put prices up or down, are now waging a tremendous 
advertising campaign, to educate the consumer about the virtues of 
the product in question, and thus are stimulating demand. This is 
done to escape losses due to a rapid increase in the supply of the 
product. Good examples of successful co-operation in marketing are 
the California Fruit Growers Exchange, (marketing the Sunkist 
brand of oranges), the Eastern Shore of Virginia Produce Exchange 
(marketing the Red Star Brand of potatoes), and the United Grain 
Growers of Western Canada, marketing wheat under federal grades 
and buying supplies in large volume. The price problem involved in 
these and similar co-opei^ative enterprises is to distribute on that 
market which offers the best price. Also, it may be said, that in 
certain cases, by holding produce in storage, an effort is made to 
distribute at that particular season which will best stabilize the 

By avoiding glutted markets, by selling on the best markets, and 
by selling at the best seasons, the farmers' co-operative association 
realizes certain financial gains which may fairly be classified as savings 
rather than profits. 

(2) Collective Bargaining. How does collective bargaining 
differ from co-operative selling? A brief discussion of the whole 
bargaining question will make the differentiation clear. When 
bargaining takes place between two individuals, as for instance, the 
famous horse trade case described by President Grant, it is perfectly 
obvious that the better bargainer has a big advantage over the weaker 
bargainer. Competition sets the price within certain broad limits, 
but the price at which the transfer is made is largely shaped by 
bargaining. In the larger field of business and commerce, the farmer 
feels that he stands as an individual bargainer dealing with others 
who, while they may not be actually "combined", are yet fairly well 
mobilized. Farming is doubtless the most individualistic of all occu- 
pations. The buyers of farm produce in its raw state are, as a matter 
of self-protection, generally organized into S'tate or National associa- 
tions which have the effect of "mobilizing" these various interests 
along educational and technical trade lines. While these various 
associations have neither the aim nor the effect of controlling prices, 
yet the farmer feels that his bargaining power, as an individual, has 
been weakened by them. He sees in collective bargaining a form of 
commercial protection — a species of self-protection to which he is 

332 The Quarterly Journal 

entitled. Co-operative selling is a method of marketing in which 
price making is purely incidental to distribution; collective bargain- 
ing, on the other hand, is a frank and direct method of price fixing. 
Farming, like any other legitimate business, is conducted for profit. 
Collective bargaining has for its chief purposes the guaranteeing of 
profit or the stabilizing of profit. In many lines of manufacturing 
the owners of the business make forward contracts, sometimes many 
years in advance, or conduct hedging operations on the organized 
exchanges, for the purposes of stabilizing or guaranteeing profits. 
The farmer seeks, by means of this new instrument of collective 
bargaining, to give his investment a similar stability. By this method 
the farmer may sell to the organized consumers (if they ever do 
organize), or to the organized dealers. In order to bargain effectively, 
the farmers must have control of the product which they seek to sell. 
Putting these various elements of collective bargaining together, we 
arrive at the following definition : 

Definition. — Collective bargaining in agriculture means an 
agreement participated in by a group of farmers concerning the 
selling price of a product the supply of which they produce and 

Collective Bargaining in Practise. — While collective bargaining 
has been in successful use for about thirty years between labor and 
capital as a means of wage adjustment, particularly in coal mining 
and on railroads, yet in agriculture the practise has only come into 
use within recent years. And oddly enough, its legal status is still 
in some dispute, since it seems to be, to a certain extent, a substitute 
for a competitive price. Yet nothing is more certain than that the 
price fixt by the collective bargain must conform in the long run to 
supply and demand. And ways and means can and will be found 
for protecting the public interest against autocratic abuse of this 
power of price fixing. 

Collective bargaining in agriculture first came to the public 
notice in connection with the sale and distribution of whole milk 
in certain large cities, particularly New York and Chicago. In both 
of these districts the dairymen organized; in both cases milk strikes 
were employed ; in both cases the distributors finally met the organized 
farmers and made collective bargains covering the price of milk. 
Other conspicuous cases of the use of the collective bargain in selling 
whole milk are those in connection with the organized dairymen about 
the respective cities of Cleveland, Pittsburg, Detroit, Minneapolis, 
and San Francisco. Court proceedings were had against the milk 

Problems of the New Field 333 

farmers in the areas tributary to New York, Cleveland, Chicago, 
Minneapolis, and San Francisco, the usual complaint being that they 
were a "monopoly" and were "in restraint of trade." But in not a 
single case was a conviction of the farmers secured. 

Whole milk is a typical commodity that lends itself well to 
sale by collective bargaining. It is of a perishable nature, and cannot 
be shipt far from its point of production. Its supply for a given 
city is subject to control by the organized farmers of that area. It 
cannot be stored profitably for over 48 hours. The distributors of 
the milk are generally organized into a compact group. 

Protection to the Public. — In fixing the price of milk in certain 

of the metropolitan areas, particularly Pittsburgh and Detroit 
(where no serious difficulties have arisen), the public is represented 
in the body that does the price fixing. The bargaining is primarily 
between producers and distributors, each seeking enough profit to con- 
tinue in business. But the flow of milk being heavier in summer than 
in winter causes certain definite problems in supply and demand to 
supply at the winter price. Hence a sliding scale of prices is adopted, 
conforming to sound economic principles of supply and demand. The 
summer price is lowered, stimulating an increase in consumption and 
a decrease in production of summer milk ; the winter price is raised, 
stimulating an increase in production and a decrease in consumption 
of wM"nter milk. In this manner the collective bargain price, like 
the competitive price, aims to co-ordinate production and consump- 

In the Detroit area, the dairymen made their first move for 
controlling the supply of milk in 19 16. Out of this movement came 
an organization of the 8000 dairy farmers in this territory, with a 
milk supply worth some $9,000,000 annually. After some clashing 
between the organized producers and the organized distributors, they 
both saw that their interest were mutual, and that means must be 
found for giving the consumers a voice in the control of the city's 
milk supply. Accordingly the producers and the distributors of milk 
made a joint request to the Governor of Michigan that he appoint 
a Commission to make a thoro investigation of the milk problem of 
the whole state and the Detroit area. This commission consisted of 
five persons, as follows: (i) ex-Governor of the State; (2) State 
Dairy and Food Commissioner; (3) Member of State Board of 
Agriculture and Editor of Michigan Farmer; (4) State Director 
of Markets; (5) Professor of Dairy Husbandry in State College of 

334 The Quarterly Journal 

Agriculture. To this committee of five were added three Detroit 
representatives, namely, ( i ) one business man appointed by the De- 
troit Board of Commerce; (2) one woman selected by the Detroit 
Federation of Women's clubs; (3) one person delegated by the 
Detroit Federation of Labor. This Commission of eight rendered 
judgment on the price to be fixt by the collective bargaining method. 
The Commission found the dairymen receiving $2.60 per hundred 
weight for 3.5 per cent milk in November, 191 7, which was less than 
the cost of production. The price of December millc was accordingly 
raised to $3.35, a figure which took into consideration the cost of 
production, the consumers' demand, and the possibilit}'^ of the city's 
milk supply being diverted into condensed milk and other similar 
products. Between 191 6 and 1919 the price of milk to the Detroit 
city consumer rose roundly 100 per cent, but the increase in price 
was understood and endorsed by the consumers. Thus collective bar- 
gaining served to protect and stabilize a great fundamental industry. 
The consumer paid such a price as assured him good milk, safe milk, 
and good service. 

In the Pittsburgh district, where peace has reigned in the milk 
market, the public is represented in the collective bargain price 
fixing by a so-called Milk Arbitrator, appointed by the Governor of 
the State. This Milk Arbitrator is a professor in the University 
of Pennsylvania and has seen considerable service in milk marketing 
matters as a member of the Federal Food Administration. Hence 
his purpose and methods found acceptance on the part of both pro- 
ducers and distributors in the Pittsburgh area. 

A detailed description of the method of conducting collective 
bargaining in each of the metropolitan districts cannot be given here. 
The unsolved problem seems to be, however, how best to secure 
proper participation by the consumers in price fixing. 

Price fixing by a public commission is greatly distrusted by both 
producers and distributors, and also by many consumers. Inefficiency, 
partisan politics and other defects are seen in such a proposal. 

Basis for Price Fixing. — Farmers are quite generally claiming 
that they feel entitled to a price based on "cost of production plus 
a fair profit." In the New York milk district the Dairymen's 
League was able, for some two and a half years, to have the milk 
price based on the cost of production. The production cost was 
stated in terms of the so-called Warren Formula, a formula worked 
out by Professor G. F. Warren of Cornell University. In the fall 
of 19 1 9 this formula was abandoned as the basis of price fixing. The 


Problems of the New tield 335 

President of the Dairj'men's League, in explaining this action at the 
Annual Meeting of the League in December, 1919, used these words: 

"The Warren formula was found impractical because 
it seemed impossible to sell the milk by its use without 
continual friction and warfare and because it is necessary 
to sell all, not part of the League milk. It is difficult, if 
not impossible, to sell all of the milk or all of any other 
commodity on a plan absolutely guaranteeing to dairymen 
or other producers the cost of production every month in the 
year for all they may care to produce." 

In other words, the economic law of supply and demand cannot 
be set aside by any method of price fixing. The cost of production 
determines the supply side of the market ; the consumers' demand 
determines the demand side of the market. The price must co-ordi- 
nate supply and demand. In the New York case above; the Dairy- 
men's League will undertake to stabilize the supply side by diverting 
the surplus milk into condensed milk and other by-products. 

Field for Collective Bargaining. — Collective bargaining is now 
an accepted fact in the marketing of whole milk. It is used also in 
marketing certain kinds of pure seeds, such as Luce's Favorite Seed 
Corn, grown on Long Island by the Suffolk (County) Co-operative 
Association. The practise is apparently destined to spread to other 
specialized fields, such as perishable vegetables sold to canneries, 
pure seeds of various kinds, perishable fruits and berries grown in 
limited areas, etc. Its spread to larger fields, such as wheat and live 
stock is, of course, extremely problematical. While it would be very 
difficult to organize all the producers of live stock, yet such an or- 
ganization could effect great reforms in stabilizing prices and 
stablizing the supply and flow of live stock. 

Since collective bargaining is nothing more or less than the 
introduction of "representative government" into business, it will of 
course have both the virtues and the defects of all representative 
governments. Those representatives of producers, distributors, and 
consumers who do the collective bargaining may not always be wise 
or good enough to do the work well. Collective bargaining promises 
to be a step forward, but it will not solve all the ills in our economic 

The University Man in '^Y" 
War Work 

Wallace N. Stearns, 
Area Educational Secretary, Y. M. C. A. and A. E. C. 

The University Man and the War. 

HISTORY shows that society in its development at tinnes goes 
forward by leaps and bounds: centuries of dormancy are 
followed by periods of feverish activity. Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, 
stand for epochs. Even tho Age-man has seen his ambitions tumble 
to ruin, yet the world after was never the same as before. Again has 
Age-man come forward in a William, and again, with a unanimity 
never before known, the w^orld has borne him down. Dreams of 
empire have crumbled but Europe's agony is the birth-pangs of a 
new world. We are entering on a new world; w^hat it should be, 
we must make it. Such a world convulsion can not but have its 
aftermaths. The height of the storm must be followed by much rough 
sea before all is calm again. 

What is to be doth not yet appear. There is nothing more 
certain than this — we have entered upon a new world. There is 
need of work, and there is need of calm judgment, steady nerve, and 
patient waiting. We must not increase the peril by joining in the 
too prevalent desire to rock the boat. 

But experience warrants optimism. With confident courage we 
turn our faces to the future. The goal of centuries is more clearly 
in view despite many set-backs. The revolutions of the nineteenth 
century are nearing their consummation. Autocracy has been dealt 
a staggering blow. Society is to be rebuilt on the principle of 
nationality. We have caught the vision. That we shall not yet be 
compelled to lay our course by the stars, travel by faith, no one would 
be so dull as to claim. But each stage of the journey brmgs to us 
clearer vision and closer approach to the goal. 

Never were doctors so many or remedies so numerous as now. 
Our ears are dinned and our senses stunned by the shouts of would- 
be leaders. Even the millenarians despite previous prognostications 
are busy. From President Wilson to William II, public men have 
been decorated with the mark of the Apyocalyptic beast. To discern 
the worthy, to reject the dross, to steer safely amid so many perils, 
to reach our haven safely will tax our best wisdom and our utmost 
energy. But, to the virile soul even this is better than stagnation, — 
more to be desired than any Nirvana. 

The University Man and the War 337 

Under the stress of these times the University man, often too 
prone to build around himself an ideal world, a world of fancy 
rather than of truth, has become de facto a realist. The world about 
him was not the world of his dreams. Men revealed their true 
selves, oftimes peeping out from beneath thin veneer. IVIen were 
not what they had seemed. Yet this was the world that is ; it is the 
critic, the philosopher who is wrong. Grateful for his timely dis- 
covery. Philosopher takes up with his new-found world and starts 
anew with his once divorced but now again wedded environment. 
"The world as it is," is the new slogan. In time, doubtless, imagina- 
tion again will clothe new summits with halos, 'rough Alonadnocks 
will again become gems,' Just now, however, rough mountain 
presents gashed and seamed sides, chasms, ledges, and horrid pitfalls. 
Society we had thought so secure became seething chaos. Never had 
any of us dreamed of so great need, so dire peril. Philosopher be- 
came world-citizen, or at least a constructive thinker working out 
problems in terms of society. 

Social problems prove innumerable. They rise up like the horrid 
genii of the wizard's jar. And worst of all, these modern genii are 
not born of the imagination : they are desperately real. The Univev- 
sity man, the Philosopher, went out to steady "the boys" with his 
riper wisdom and steadier judgment. He found himself as a green 
pilot in a harbor he had never before entered himself. Preconceived 
notions, prepared lectures, well-pondered counsel, best-laid plans, all 
were waste material. The patient struggled with a disease the 
physician could not understand. Teacher and taught were equally 
dumbfounded, and stumbling about together all groped after what 
they knew not even after they found it. Philosopher's embarrassment 
was his salvation. Going out to save others, he saved himself. 
Philosopher went out a pedant, he came back a man. 

The first problem to face was one of self-determination. Whither? 
and echoed answered "whither"? Definitions and well-rounded 
phrases broke down. Men needed help, real help, and they needed it 
desperately and immediately. Hundreds, even thousands, of confer- 
ences were held with boys dazed by their first full-rounded thought 
of the world, and of life as a personal problem facing them. Tens 
of thousands of youth who had never seen a building larger than 
the village town-house, lost voice and vision in the depths of Europe's 
cathedrals. They walked streets where men have trod for a thousand 
years and more. They fought over ground where their primitive 
ancestors had fought — say ten thousand years before. The trip over 
found men buoyed up by the job ahead of them. The period of 

338 The Quarterly Journal 

demobilization found them without purpose but to get back — back 
to what? The greatest peril of war is vagrancy. The good soldier 
becomes an automaton, doing unconsciously the will of his superior. 
Personality and individuality merged in the whole, moves at the 
will of one man. To remobilize the soldier is the problem of demobi- 
lization, to tune him back to the social key; to give him, if he never 
had it before, a definite purpose. But a purpose for what? To 
get away from himself, to meet his fellowman on his fellowman's 
level, to enter sjTiipathetically into his fellowman's viewpoint, and 
to help him to a vision and a right interpretation of life — this was 
Philosopher's just duty. To mesure the problem aright, one must 
first have faced it. This was Philosopher's weakness. 

There was evident an intense desire for self-expression. The 
tedium of camp-life did not quite dull the intense individualism that 
characterizes our American 3'outh. There was yet the desire to inter- 
pret life in terms of some worthy achievement. Talks on home 
problems, on opportunities back home, on promised farm-lands, and 
addresses on like topics were thronged — men were interested in what 
was all the world to them. Men were groping after their last chance. 

The world now thinks in new and seemingly strange terms. 
Philosopher must re-orient himself or find himself alone, a stray 
luminary by himself apart. Teacher must change his material or face 
empty benches — perchance see another in his place. Interpretations 
are no longer in terms of Algebra, Latin, Philosophy, and the like 
as such, but ultimately and always in terms of usefulness to society. 
Two queries arise: What practical good is it? What good will it 
be to me? Similarly Theologian instead of seeking to make heaven 
his home, must endeavor rather to make home a heaven, leaving the 
hereafter to accrue as the logical consequent of life here. Whether 
he will or not, Philosopher is become utilitarian, and at each step 
again he asks the question, cui bono? The world of thought and the 
world of life are one again. Not the least item in the new reckon- 
ing is this need of a re-orientation as to comparative values. Per- 
chance a dweller in a small tho select circle, Philosopher now found 
himself one of a million. Arrayed in khaki, the army regarded him 
by the cold standards of present worth and power to achieve. One in 
a series! Winning by worth, even tho that worth consist in good 
part in power to "pull the wires". It is a novel experience after 
years of "having" to learn the lesson of "getting." The Greek youth 
acquired skill in archery by shooting his frugal meal from the top of 
a high post. Philosopher, if he keeps his nerve, will learn to appreci- 
ate the zest of enjoying what he has achieved. If his lesson is well 

The University Man and the fVar 339 

learned, Philosopher will take with more complacence his place in the 
crowd : his ideas of the world and of his place therein will have made 
of him a citizen of the world. Similarly, men found themselves 
cx)mpelled to think in terms of vastness. To say "Billions" is one 
thing: to feel "Billions" is another. The tremendous significance of 
"Now", or, rather, the failure to sense it in time nearly lost the war. 
To throw men and billions into the furnace, into the crisis, into the 
waste, all for a little advantage in timeliness — took effort to learn. 
Even now as we look upon mountains of waste, we cannot escape 
feeling a pang of regret. And mature Philosopher, set in his ways, 
found it most difficult of all to get himself duly crouched for what 
was before him. And this lesson is fundamental to life in the new 
world that now lies ahead of us. 

We all went abroad with exaggerated ideas of our America, her 
culture and her achievement. To be in a strange land, to be in turn 
the "alien" doing and thinking in a manner to be regarded as peculiar, 
is at any time a peculiar experience. To be in the midst of a civiliza- 
tion that was old before Columbus set sail to find a new world, only 
heightened the experience. One of two perils here was possible — an 
attitude of braggadocio assumed in self-defence or a spirit of dis- 
couragement at finding ourselves so crude. The more ignorant the 
man, as a rule, the more was he prone to the former. The more 
morbid, the more likely to the latter. But all sensible, reasoning 
people were brought to a new conception of our own national cul- 
ture. Our civilization has become a pyramid turned up on its apex. 
For example, two fundamental needs have developt, agriculture and 
the abolition of illiteracy. The urgency in the latter case proved 
appalling. Estimates ran as high as ten per cent. When one fully 
realizes placing the ballot, last appeal of a self-governing people, in 
the hands of men unable to read or write, easy prey for scheming 
leaders, one marvels that the Republic has stood so long. The stain 
must be removed : legal action should compel it. Only the traveler 
in a strange land with no knowledge of the language can quite 
appreciate the helplessness of the situation. Caught in a Babel of 
sounds, aware that he is in a maelstrom of the whence or vv'hither of 
which he can know nothing, such a man is a most pitiable object. 
Obliged to reveal his immost heart to any chance amanuensis, well 
aware that his confidences may become the joke of even sympathetic 
groups, even a dullard cannot but feel like a chip caught in the swirl 
of an angry stream, a lost soul at the mercy of the ravening mob. 
It is enough to stir the heart of selfishness and to convert every one 
of us to altruism. 

340 The Quarterly Journal 

As to the first, the basis of a secure civilization is the soil, and 
when the broad side of our national life ceases so to rest, we are in 
peril. The dignifying of rural life, the yoking of our colleges with 
the life and spirit of the farm as today they are yoked with the profes- 
sions, the considering of agriculture as a calling rather than as a 
state of servitude are all urgent mesures. The ready response of 
thousands of our young American soldiers to the privileges of agri- 
cultural classes, lectures, and institutes was and is ample evidence 
of a bent in the public mind that must no longer be denied. 

There is a new view of the great meaning of sacrifice. The grip 
temporarily lost on life, the hardships endured, and the countless 
graves of those who made the last and great sacrifice, all tend to 
impress upon one the idea that one does not live to one's self alone. 
Frequent petty outbreaks of selfishness, especially after the armistice 
had removed the great purpose of their coming, revealed the sorry 
fact that this lesson was not quite learned. If now we can take up 
life anew in a new world dominated by a new spirit ; if the bonds of 
the old selfish existence are broken forever, then the war will not have 
been won in vain. 

There is likewise a new esteem set on the true values of life, 
intangible but none the less real and priceless. Larger touch with 
the world has broadened men, participation in large affairs has deep- 
ened their sympathies, and the sight of real suffering has taught men 
to minimize their own grievances. Life, too, has come to consist in 
"doing" more than in "getting"; In the common good more than in 
personal gain. Yet even here the close of the war brought reversal 
of type, and self-respecting man blushed to see such displays of self- 
conceit, of selfishness, especially before other peoples often taught by 
experience to be suspicious. Often, too, with no little alarm, the 
well-meaning man felt his feet slipping and himself caught by the 
same contemptible spirit of pettiness. 

We have heard the word Internationalism. On that memorable 
fourth of July we saw the banners of Britain and America unfurled 
from the great organ in Winchester cathedral. We read : 

"Independence, 1776 

Interdependence, 191 6 

Separation, Never" 
Few sensed the realness of the legend, nor do we yet realize its 
fulness. But "we do not live to ourselves alone." We are face to 
face with the new world. It is pettiness vs. the new world-spirit. 
We must adapt ourselves to the new order nor let the new order 
become our master. Twixt belligerency and passive pacifism there is 

The University Man and the War 341 

a golden mean, on the finding of which rests our future safety. On 
the one hand to rush headlong would be to our doom: on the other, 
to cling to some political dogma whose merit is now a thing of history 
might be equally disastrous. At all events, like skilful mariners, we 
shall find our safety by putting out to sea. 

University Man in the "Y" 
Tw^o widely different estimates seem current as to the service 
rendered by the "Y" in the world war. To some the organization is 
■perfection, efficient to the last detail. Secretaries became miraculous- 
ly endowed with all gifts and governed themselves accordingly. 

The other view is depressing: there is none good. As an in- 
stance of the first, may be cited the morbid case of a Secretary who 
declared that after the war, there w^ould be but one church: the 
Y. M. C. A. Such asininity is commensurate with the taunt that 
"the Association never gave anything:" The challenged Secretary 
in the latter case replied that he himself had just completed a free 
distribution of more than a hundred thousand pieces of literature. 
And this statement represented but two weeks work in a single area 
and in a single line of effort. 

The difficulty here consists in universals, in snap judgments, as 
uncalled for as they are gratuitous. After the nation had called ten 
million of the pick of America's manhood and the Red Cross had 
gathered a force of efficient men, the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion together with other welfare bodies, within a few months, 
mustered and equipt a small force of some six thousand men, sent 
them out with no technical training, and undertook a task as vast 
as it was unique, — to help to make war more humane. Doubtless 
good men were refused, either from personal feeling or poor judg- 
ment, but one could not help wondering at times just how much of 
a stick a man would have been to be rejected on his merits. 

War, like other catastrophes, is thought to call out the best that 
is in men; men are lifted to heights of self-sacrifice and devotion. 
Far too long has war been interpreted in terms of gold braid, brass 
bands, and imposing fleets. War is a dirty, degrading, damnable 
thing, offering full play to all the vile passions that harrow a man's 
soul, save as checked by the iron hand of military law. "War is 
hell" rampant. 

Candor is best, and so far from being an admission of weakness 
is a mark of strength. Who conceals naught, need not fear. Such 
a man can afford to be bold. That a few "Y" men stole, appropri- 

342 The Quarterly Journal 

ated goods without paying for them, played the charlatan, sought out 
low-grade places of amusement, made a personal gain of a nation's 
emergency, indulged in obscene talk, or were guilty even of im- 
moralit)^ cannot be successfully denied. But to smirch all "Y" men 
or even the "Y" with the faults of the minority, is not just, nor true 
to facts. Getting down to rock-bottom statistics, it is the writer's 
opinion, after a year's experience, that at least sixty per cent of the 
Secretaries lived lives so far above criticism as to be beyond reproach. 
Another twenty-five per cent would be acquitted in court tho not* 
entirely cleared. Of the rest, the less said the better. As the world 
goes, this is a high average, and one may venture that candid judg- 
ment would not claim more for any organization in the war — military 
or civilian. 

The same must be said of the women. The great majority 
accepted their tasks and "carried on" faithfully. Their presence was 
a blessing, and their influence of the best. Of the minority it may 
be said that they manifested the same traits overseas as at home. 
Some were dreamers, and never found their task ; some were insubor- 
dinate and never realized the need of co-operation ; some sought 
adventure and some were out for a frolic ; some, like the maiden aunt 
in "Snow-Bound", were a sinister presence. Breeding was apparent: 
one young woman when commended replied. "I was well brought 

The pot must not call the kettle black, nor ought one organiza- 
tion to vaunt itself over others. Humility should prevail ere inquiry 
bring humiliation. War is waste, and wreckage, moral as well as 
material, marks its course. It is always so, and the heroes of earlier 
wars owe their halo to intervening time. 

It is wise at intervals to take stock, and by profiting from past 
mistakes to avoid future errors. There was lack of fixt policy, which 
deficiency might be condoned by the dire emergency. A criticism in 
some journal or by some traveller passing thru, and a spasm followed. 
Prices were cut, entertainment hastily increased sometimes at a cost 
of quality ; publicity was eagerly sought. It was a time to try men's 
souls. Nevertheless, vacillation was, as it always is, pernicious. 

Often men were shuffled into places, apparently more with a 
view to filling the places than to using a man's special qualifications 
and experience. Pulpit orators were set to wash mugs, wind- 
jammers were told off for "Inspirational" addresses, doctors kept 
store, and teachers sold cocoa and cigarets. True, humility in service 
was to be desired, still, men chosen with a view to their talents often 

The University Man and the War 343 

oould have done more? Sometimes efficiency was lessened by com- 
plexity in organization. At times a man was at a loss as to which 
of two masters to serve. Complexity also relieves responsibility and 
helps on the game of "passing the buck." Standing in a circle, each 
could pyoint at next and say, "no sir, not I sir." 

At times there was lack of vision and failure to realize oppor- 
tunity. Hindsight was keener than forsight. Harriman, sent to 
investigate the Southern Pacific, staggered his employers with his 
demands for cars and locomotives. But his farsightedness and fore- 
sightedness assured his success. Dynamic leadership is markt by 
vision, courage, and promptness in action. Then, at times, the aim 
was too low. This was especially apparent in entertainment. There 
were many splendid entertaining units. There was some horse-play. 
And there were some things tolerated that were absolutely unpardon- 

Some Secretaries could not lay aside their sense of personal 
liberty. Extreme individualism led to insubordination, and lack of 
co-operation was the inevitable result. For such, orders were idle 
breath. In the army a wholesome fear of court-martial held such 
lawlesness in check, and instances are not wanting where Secretaries 
felt the weight of the same iron hand, and it was their just dessert. 
Occasionally there was lack of that curtesy due the host from a 
stranger in a far country. To tell an English rector that he should 
oust the King for a democracy, is beginning in the wrong place; to 
proclaim such sentiments in a crowded railway coach is evidence of 
belated intelligence or premature senility. 

Some Secretaries assumed an apologetic attitude toward religion. 
Religion is a common possession and while theology was not apropos 
there is nothing that Association workers were more indebted to 
than a clean, wholesome, work-a-day religion. For a man or 
woman wearing the triangle to declare before the boys a lack of per- 
sonal interest in religion was an unseemly boast. Silence was the 
least that could rightfully have been expected. Nor, on the other 
hand, was that vulgar familiarity with Deity any more to be desired. 
God is a loving Father: He is also Might and Majesty, and His 
presence should be entered with profound reverence. That the 
Association as an organization, sought to rid itself of less desirable 
features, is evidenced by the list of those sent home — a fact less 
known because unheralded. 

It is unfortunate that so long an interval of waiting intervened 
between the armistice and the period of demobilization. Men who 

344 The Quarterly Journal 

went over the top without flinching and endured the horrors of the 
trenches broke down under the tedium of waiting, became petty, 
querulous, and even childish. The earth was theirs and any seem- 
ing hindrance to their least whim called forth angry protest and 
bitter complaint ; the fact that a hundred thousand fellow-mortals 
deserved a share counted for nothing. Too often this experience was 
shared by a "Y" man. Some returning Secretaries waiting in port 
for sailing regarded local Secretaries as provided for their comfort; 
forgetful that they, too, were overseas to serve, they demanded con- 
stant ministry and sometimes unreasonable request was accompanied 
by bluster. More than one man — doughboy and secretar)^ — were fit 
candidates for bottle and rubber tips, from which they had been 
weaned all too soon. These, however, are the minority rather than 
the reasonable majority. They were ever conspicuous, and by their 
omnipresence gave the impression that they were the typical repre- 

The contribution of the Association to the winning of the war 
cannot be successfully disputed. The program was stupendous and 
in its vastness gave opportunity for criticism. 

The ministry of the canteen has been a debated point. An 
unusual and novel service, the Association undertook the task at the 
request of the army. The merit of the several canteens is the merit 
of the individual men who conducted them. The writer has knovni 
soldiers to be turned away by a Secretary because of lack of money, 
but more times the Secretary made the deficit out of his own pocket. 
In fact many huts had funds, generally by mutual contributions of 
the Secretaries, from which such help could be afforded. The writer 
has helped out often, and he always left the counter a poorer man. 
This is the experience of hundreds. From the kitchen of many a hut, 
after hours and when the rule of the camp forbade selling, soldiers 
received lunches on the side, perchance out of the next morning's 
breakfast. Yet every small-souled man who could turn down a 
hungry soldier did more to smirch the good name of the Association 
than a dozen good men could do to build it up. Called on to equip 
and man one of the world's largest chain of stores, striving to meet 
the request of the army, placed in the hands of the men called to 
serve, where an explanation ought to suffice, the Association as 
sponsor is called on to apologize. 

Likewise, cafe and cafeteria served where otherwise there would 
have been a gap, and to this chain of restaurants, army, navy, and a 
score of auxiliary and welfare bodies are debtor. Here, again, 

The University Man and the War 345 

efficiency developed on the ability and tact of individuals. Without 
these restaurants, thousands would daily have suffered the pangs of 
hunger. That men should stand in line for meals vv^as inevitable, 
whether in restaurant or army mess. To do otherwise would mean 
covering the earth with mess-halls. There is reason in all things, and 
the writer has in peace times waited in line as long as ever he did at 
a "Y" in war time. 

The policy of the "Y" in dealing with its Secretaries was 
generous, as generous as an honorable accounting for its funds would 
permit. Each man was paid enough to secure self and family from 
want and thus leave the man's mind free for his task. That the "Y" 
was occasionally swindled, there is no reasonable doubt, and a few 
men boasted as to how they had "put it over" the "Y". But as a rule, 
in point of salary, annual renewals of outfit, maintenance, and special 
provisions no reasonable man had grounds for complaint. True, there 
were unreasonable rulings made and inconveniences resulted, generally 
at the hand of some "Y" secretary who would himself complain, if 
he himself were caught in similar way. The writer's experience, on 
the whole, is one of a square deal with a generous hand. 

The Lesson to be Learned 

We are entering on a new world, and it is our part to enter 
boldly, circumspectly, confidently. There have been crises before: 
indeed, crises have marked the world's progress. Crises are society's 
opportunities. Problems are to be faced with calm courage and their 
solutions sought for: indeed, they are not insoluble. The same 
Destiny, Providence, that has shaped events before, we are warranted 
to believe, will shape events again. 

New ideas have been embodied in new and strange-sounding 
terms. We must be mobile in our thinking, keenly alert in our 
judging, and strangers to prejudice and passion. So far from rocking 
the boat in our senseless terror, our calm demeanor must act as a 
sedative on others. There are as many ways to take the next step 
forward as there are persons to take it. Common sense, which is the 
common sense, must save us. 

We must open our eyes to the vastness and significance of the 
world. The geography and the dictionary must lie on the table with 
the Bible. In a day when so many are trying to level down, we 
should endeavor with all diligence to level up. As to peoples over- 
seas, so widely different from us and in so many ways, we must 
cultivate the eye to see their merits as well as their demerits, and a 

346 The Quarterly Journal 

just appreciation of our own failings will help in discerning virtues 
in others. 

Having thus been shown a cross-section of our American culture 
it is now our duty to bring order out of chaos. Definite, orderly 
progress under dynamic leadership of men selected for personal fitness 
and not by virtue of friendship, kinship or political pull, coupled with 
patient tolerance of what must be endured will serve mightily to 
bring us to the goal of every honest man's desires. 

The great spirit of sacrifice so tremendously brought home and, 
alas, so soon forgotten, must abide with us. Neither as individuals 
nor as a nation can we ever again live to ourselves alone and really 
liv€. As long as men are mortals we shall have need of preparedness, 
bearing in mind that preparedness is a normal condition of life and not 
a blind fanaticism. The dream of Henry IV, the vision of today, 
may yet be the reality of tomorrow — the Parliament of Man, the 
Federation of the World. 

Scientific Methods in Economics 

George Milton Janes, 
Professor of Economics, Washington and Jefferson College 

AGITATION concerning social questions is abundant in these 
days and whatever its merits is peculiarly easy. Enthusiasm 
and ignorance are wedded and the results announced from the house- 
tops speak for themselves, being many times mere sound and fury, 
signifying nothing. Schemes for the immediate abolition of the 
present social order and the bringing in of a new heaven and earth are 
abundant. Guessing at half and multiplying by two seems to be 
the order of procedure. Any objection as to the final working out 
of any such proposal is met by the retort, "If you don't accept my 
schem.e of reform, what is yours?" To such a question, however, 
the best answer is a motion to adjourn. Patent medicines, get-rich- 
quick schemes, and an immediate social Utopia are much alike in that 
the promises are lurid and the results nil. Ima,gine the first row 
around and then go ahead may be all right for the old lady knitting 
a stocking because she has had a good deal of practise in knitting, 
but it will hardly do for the social reformer who should point out a 
way from the old to the new. The fact is that no change, unless 
rooted and grounded in experience, is of much value. Experience is 
the guide of life, and the Avise man, while availing himself of the 
wisdom of the past, does not wish to repeat its follies. Pioneering 
when not necessary is an expensive luxury. Gladstone, for instance, 
said : "The American Constitution is the greatest instrument ever 
struck oliF at one time from the brain of man." Now, whatever may 
be the merits or demerits of that great document, one thing is certain 
and that is it was not struck off, but rather was the result of past 
political thinking, colonial experience, and the proved weakness of 
the rope of sand which had held the jealous colonies together during 
the Revolution. Doctrinaire theories were relegated to the rear and 
the need of an efficient central government was put to the forefront 
by the members of the convention. The only absolutely new thing 
in the instrument, the Electroal College, has not workt out as designed 
nor has it fulfilled the hopes of its inventors. The English system 
of government without a written constitution in a purely logical sense 
is one of shreds and patches full of anomalies, but it works, and the 
reason for its working is because it is based on facts and not theories 
and is the outgrowth of a thousand years of experience in government. 
Experience, history, and observation are the bases of social 

348 The Quarterly Journal 

science. Investigation is the first step in any social stud}', for without 
it theories are of little value, Herbert Spencer's definition of a 
tragedy, according to Huxley's joke, is in point: "A tragedy is a 
theory killed by a fact." Facts are multitudinous and life is short 
and so it is recommended that the student should make a brilliant 
guess, elaborate a theory, and then see if it brings order out of the 
welter of facts, failure only inviting to a new guess until the key is 
found. This method is a perfectly scientific one, but it is well to 
remember that genius is but another name for hard work. Darwin, 
for example, believed in the value of hypothesis but workt for years 
gathering facts and in investigation and then spent additional 3^ears 
in working over these facts and pondering over the possible relation- 
ship between them. He described himself as having "unbounded 
patience in long reflecting over any subject, industry in observing and 
collecting facts, and a fair share of invention as well as of common 
sense."^ The same is largely true of Alfred Russel Wallace, the 
co-discoverer with Darwin of the idea of natural selection. Both men 
were field naturalists and had traveled widely. An interesting fact 
is the influence on both of them of the ideas of Malthus in his Essay 
on Population. Darwin read the book in 1838 and having previously 
been convinced of the truth of the struggle for existence, it came to 
him, "that under these circumstances favorable variations would tend 
to be preserved and unfavorable ones to be destroyed. The results 
of this would be the formation of a new species". Wallace, in 1858, 
twenty years later, while ill with fever in the Moluccas, began to 
think of the idea of Malthus that population increast faster than the 
means of subsistence and, to use his own words, "There suddenly 
flashed upon me the idea of the survival of the fittest". Darwin 
had simply delayed publication but magnanimously gave Wallace 
equal credit.^ In 1859, the epoch-making work, the Oriffi?i of Species, 
was given to the world. The idea of evolution had been known to 
the Greeks, later writers had asserted it, but Darwin investigated 
the evidence, marshaled the facts, built on the thought of the past, 
and showed the means by which development takes place. Likewise, 
the student of society must build on the same scientific and compara- 
tive method. 

A rather curious and bizarre means of saving mental energy, 
or rather the betrayal of very little mentality at all, is the affixing 
of labels on economists and sociologists. The alumni journal of a 

IPrancis Darwin, Iiife and Iietters of Charles Darwin. Appleton C<^ 
1910, p. 85. 

2E. B. Poulton, Charles Darwin, Macmillan Co., 1902, p. 87; Darwin's 
Iiife and Iietters, pp. 69, 472. 

Scientific Methods in Economics 349 

large university recently publisht an article with the strange title, 
"Where the Conservatives Get Their 'Con' ". Now^ the elegant and 
beautiful term "Con", smacking of yellow^ journalism, does not stand 
for either ability or training or even character, desirable or rather 
necessary qualities in a college professor, but rather for what the 
writer naively calls conservatism. "One group is conservative, 
another is esteemed progressive." The thesis advanced in the article 
being that men educated in eastern universities were conservative 
while those educated in western universities were progressive. As a 
matter of fact, the statement found no support by actual count. But 
the fundamental questions arise. What is a progressive? What is a 
conservative? The term conservative is simply a relative one and a 
very relative one at that. Progressive according to whom ? Conserva- 
tive to Philip drunk or Philip sober? "A radical plus power," accord- 
ing to the old adage, "equals a conservative." Question-begging 
epithets are a good deal like swearing; they prevent argument and 
intelligent reasoning based on facts. Carlyle, when told that his 
thought led to pantheism, retorted: "What if it is pot-theism as long 
as it is true?" The real scholar is imprest only by the majesty of 
fact, and he also remembers that a good many supposed swans turn 
out to be simply geese. Like the chemist and the physicist, the econo- 
mist is concerned with facts and changes his views whenever new 
truth is found. 

Theory without investigation, or inference without verification, 
is of little value in any science and especially so in the social sciences. 
The wage fund theory, for instance, rigidly applied condemned trade 
unionism and strikes on the part of the laborer as useless, the only 
way to raise wages being by increasing the wage fund or by decreasing 
the number of laborers. Factory legislation, or any social control 
of industry, was bad because it interfered with profits from which 
came the wage fund. But the theory has now been given up because 
it rested on too narrow a basis of facts. Wages are advanced by 
the employer to his workmen pending the sale of the product and in 
a narrow and very restricted sense this may be called a wage fund ; 
but in a going concern a stream of goods is being put out on the 
market from whose sale the various factors — land, labor, and capital 
— assisting in production receive their reward, wages being not a fbct 
or predetermined fund but rather a flow. The amount actually 
received by the laborer depends upon his ability as a workman, the 
amount under given conditions of his output, and his individual weak- 
ness or collective strength as a bargainer. A very interesting develop- 

350 The Quarterly Journal 

ment in trade unionism took place in this country in the ten years 
previous to 1837. The movement had, however, been almost for- 
gotten until brought to light again in recent years by the investigations 
of economic scholars. In speaking of this former trade union move- 
ment, one investigator received the reply: "The laborer did not need 
a union in those days; he had access to free land." But, as a matter 
of fact, trade unionism existed and attained considerable proportions 
even when the laborer could resort to free land when dissatisfied 
with his wages, which shows again that inference without verifica- 
tion is useless. Economic theory has its place, however, as long as it 
is based on observation and investigation, otherwise it is a mere logo- 
machy. Arnold Toynbee, in his essay on Ricardo and the Old 
Political Economy, well says, "It was the labor question, unsolved by 
that removal of restrictions which was all deductive political economy 
had to offer, that revived the method of observation. Political 
economy was transformed by the working classes. The pressing 
desire to find a solution of problems which the abstract science treated 
as practically insoluble, drew the attention of economists to neglected 

Present economic studies, such as Booth's Life and Labor of the 
People, Webb's History of Trade Unionism and Industrial Democ- 
racy, Fay's Co-operation at Home and Abroad, Rountree's Poverty, 
Hollander and Barnett's Studies in American Trade Unionism and 
sixteen separate monographs on various phases of trade unionism 
by writers of the Johns Hopkins University Studies, are all 
based on observation and investigation in the field and on the careful 
study of documents and publications, while the results gathered are 
given in description and in empirical generalization. The end sought 
is concrete economic reality. 

A more direct example, perhaps, of the thesis of this paper is 
afforded by the monumental work in ten volumes entitled, A Docu- 
mentary History of American Industrial Society and edited by John 
R. Commons, Ulrich B. Phillips, Eugene E. Gilmore, Helen Sumner, 
and John B. Andrews, with a preface by Richard T. Ely and an 
introduction by John B. Clark. Each section is prefaced by intro- 
ductory essays giving a summary of the facts and the principles 
brought out in the documents. Much of the material was literally 
unearthed by shoveling the accumulated dust of years off of old news- 
papers and magazines which had lain undisturbed for years in the 
basements of various libraries, A good deal of this material was 

3 The Industrial Revolutiou, p. 10. 

Scientific Methods in Economics 351 

previously unknown or known to exist only thru a few stray references 
in the works of contemporaries. Many of the documents, especially 
along trade union lines, were selected, collated, and edited by 
Professor Commons, a leading authority on American trade unionism. 
The documents are a veritable mine of information for the student 
of economics and social philosophy. Such material shows the lucu- 
brations of closet theorists concerning American industrial develop- 
ment to be both a snare and a delusion. Sweeping generalizations 
which pretend to offer simple solutions to complex problems are thus 
ruled out by accurate knowledge. A complementary work to the 
documentary one just mentioned is History of Labor in the United 
States, in two volumes, written by John R. Commons and associates. 
The work is the fullest and most careful history of labor in the 
United States that has yet appeared. Not only are the facts given 
in the narrative, but an interesting theory concerning the develop- 
ment of the American labor movement is workt out. These generali- 
zations are abundantly illustrated by a wide range of historical 
material. The work is an excellent example of how economic 
history should be written. 

A recent development, which may be indicated briefly, is the 
rise of what is known as the "Behavioristic School" in economics. 
The main thesis underlying the movement is that men's actions are 
based on fundamental instincts. Not enlightened self-interest or a 
hedonistic calculus of pain and pleasure but behavioristic psychology 
is the golden key to a true science of economics. A large part of the 
reasoning is based on the Freudian analysis of human behavior. The 
instincts and emotions of gregariousness, curiosity, workmanship, 
acquisition, fear, anger, pugnacity, leadership, submission, display, 
and sex are said to be the real rulers of human conduct. The move- 
ment is reflected more or less fully in such works as McDougal's 
Social Psychology, Taussig's Inventors and Money Makers, Veblin's 
Instinct of Workmanship, Wallas's Great Society, Tead's Instincts 
in Industry, and Parker's Motives in Economic Life. From previous 
neglect of instinctive activity in economic life some of the writers go 
to the other extreme and attribute an undue importance, or even 
fatality, to human instincts. "Thus the work of the late Carlton H. 
Parker, suggestive and stimulating tho it be," says Dr. Ellwood, 
"carries the theory of the instincts into the social sciences in a most 
dangerous way. The instincts become, in Professor Parker's hands, 
the real rulers of human life." To this it may be added that no 
rational man is controlled by pure instinct. Behavioristic psycholof^' 
is too tenuous as yet to be applied in a wholesale way to economic 

352 The Quarterly Journal 

theory. The study of the behavior of white rats may have a 
scientific value, but its apph'cation to economics is still in the future. 
Freudian theories swallowed whole do not make a sound science of 
economics. Whatever value the behavioristic contention may have, 
the Freudian doctrine of the instincts and their repression Working 
out in explosion because of a balked disposition is neither law nor 
gospel to many psychologists and should therefore be used with due 

The historical school has also little to offer except in a negative 
way to the solving of economic problems. The learned Professor 
Gay of Harvard (whose pupil I once had the advantage of being) 
emphasized the idea that years of investigation and study of economic 
development must take place before much can be done in the way 
of explanation. The trouble with the historical method is that the 
student is lost in a mass of facts; the trees are so thick that one can 
not see the forest. A mass of more or less congruous facts has little 
value unless tied together by some principle. Generalizations have 
their place and their proper place in economic investigation when 
viewed not as final but as working hypotheses subject to correction 
by the facts of developing and changing economic life. Professor 
Commons expresses the ideal thus: 

Practical people sometimes pride themselves that they deal with 
facts and not theories. "Two and two are four." It looks like a 
fact. But it is only a theory. It is not true unless it fits the facts. 
Two chairs and two beds are not four windows. Two dogs and two 
cats are not always four friends. The theory of "two and two are 
four" fits some facts and not others. It depends on the facts. It is 
an hypothesis, a guess, an assumption, a "principle." It is empty until 
it has been filled with facts, and then it takes good judgment to fill 
it with facts that fit. One theory or set of principles may be true up 
to a certain point, where it comes in conflict with an inconsistent 

theory. Then that different theory must be introduced.* 

Summing up, then, the concrete or realistic method in economics 
means keeping one foot on the earth, and is based on the necessity of 
investigation and first-hand knowledge. Carlyle's filing at economics 
as the "dismal science" would have had no sting if the economics of 
his day had been based on real and not on false premises. An 
economic man controlled solely by a desire for wealth is as fictitious 
as a behavioristic man governed by instinct alone. Men are influenced 
by many motives. Self-interest is perhaps a dominant economic 
motive but it needs qualification. Deduction has its place, but 

4J. R. Commons, Industrial Goodwill, p. 62. 


Scientific Methods in Economics 353 

should be combined with careful verification. An economic theory 
or system may have links of minor premise and conclusion forged 
with a consummate syllogistical skill, while the most amazing major 
premises, on which the whole system or theory stands, are assumed 
with an ease and assurance that is simply incomprehensible in these 
later days when the inductive and critical processes have made 
individual facts rather than general ideas the basis of knowledge. 
One lecturer said : "There are no chasms in my system any more 
than in this floor." pointing downward. To this it may be said that 
the real chasm is not in the system but behind it. It is built on a 
metaphysical vacuum. Experience, history, and observation are the 
bases of social science. Economics may be both descriptive and 
theoretical but in either case must be based on fact. The procedure 
is from facts to principle. Should the issuance of paper money, for 
instance, be limited or unlimited in amount? The history of Con- 
tinental paper money, the French assignats, and the Greenbacks 
during the Civil War is a sufficient answer. The facts speak for 
themselves. Again, has the phenomenon of increasing gold production 
any connection with rising prices? What happened in Europe 
during the century between 1550 and 1650 when the flood of 
precious metals from the New World poured in? Custom, law, 
tradition, social psychology, and the human equation must be con- 
sidered in problems of public finance and taxation and no abstract 
theory will do. Protection to infant industries, if not carried to an 
extreme, is recognized as valid in both experience and logic even by 
some extreme free-trade theorists. Child labor laws and labor 
legislation in general are based on present industrial conditions and 
facts of social welfare and social justice. New wine demands new 
bottles. Likewise, new facts demand new interpretations. The 
result's of the war and the great changes which have taken place in 
industry, commerce, society, and politics make a new world for 
present economic thinkers and writers. 

Book Reviews 

The Social Problem: Charles A. Ellwood, Professor of 
Sociology, University of Missouri. The Macmillan Company, 
New York, 19 19. Revised edition, XII-|-290 pp., Price $1.75. 

The first edition of this noteworthy and valuable volume ap- 
peared in 191 5 and was reviewed by the present writer in the 
Quarterly Journal, April, 1916, pp. 275-6. The revision consists, 
first, of giving recognition thruout the volume to the new critical 
situation in society due to the European War; and second, by the 
addition of a new chapter, chapter 6, entitled, "The Educational 
Element in the Social Problem." 

In previous chapters the position was developt that the necessarj' 
social reconstruction must occur chiefly thru science and education. 
Social intelligence is especially demanded. Really efficient parent- 
hood, voting, business, and the exercise of every other function are 
dependent on this, for "good citizenship" consists of such efficiency. 

Because the successful and socially fruitful orientation of life 
depends on the understanding of the complex conditions of society, 
the "knowledge most worth while" consists of that contained in the 
social sciences; and the inculcation of this should take place in 
college, high school, and even in the elementary school. In fact the 
author holds that social science training should be the fundamental 
in university education, absorbing one -third of the student's time; 
and that a helpful social education cannot be given to the masses 
short of a compulsory training extending thru the secondary schools. 

Social education is moral education, "for it will be education into 
community, national, and human ideals; not into the ideals as they 
exist, but as they ought to be in the light of full knowledge regarding 
human relationships." It will also be practical and vocational, for 
self-support and productiveness are certain requisites of good citizen- 

The steps to be taken, beyond those noted above, to realize this 
social education are first, the training of teachers to regard teaching 
as a social service profession ; and to attain this the teachers must 
have an adequate training in the essential social sciences. Second, 
the nation must concern itself with the production of good citizens 
and establish a national sj'Stem of education adapted to realize this. 
Third, the university and other higher institutions of learning must 
undertake in an adequate manner the training of social leaders along 
all lines; for social advance and progress, social safety and ameliora- 
tion are conditioned by the quantity and character of the leaders. It 

Book Reviews 355 

is a stigma on our society that the majority of our graduates from 
universities leave school vi^ithout having been educated into an under- 
standing of the nature and the demands of the great collective 
organization which is to condition their activities and whose well- 
being their activities are to affect for good or ill. 

To Professor Ellwood, the social problem is the problem of 
discovering the best way of living together, the living together 
constituting what we term society. All our dislocations and social 
problems are phases of the greater problem of discovering how we 
may all be harnest together without kicking over the traces and 
injuring each other. "The Social Problem" is a volume to be com- 
mended to all intelligent readers. 

J. M. Gillette 
Department of Sociology, 
University of North Dakota 

Plant Products and Chemical Fertilizers: S. Hoare Collins. 
D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, 19 19. XVI-l-236 pp. 
Price $3.00. 

This book is another member of the series of volumes on Applied 
Chemistry, edited by Samuel Rideal, intended to stimulate an interest 
in the chemical industries of the British Empire. The author, now 
lecturer and advisor in Agricultural Chemistry in Armstrong 
College, University of Durham, was formerly Assistant Agricultural 
Chemist to the Government of India. 

The raw materials of Agriculture are often obtained from the 
waste products of other industries, while in turn the produce of 
Agriculture constitutes the raw material of many other industries. 
Without seeking to give "encyclopedic completeness of information," 
the author attempts "to pick up the story of those industrial waste 
products which are useful as fertilizers and carry it on thru soil and 
crops until new products are available for industrial uses." Conform- 
ing to the general plan of the series this volume is divided into 
"sections" instead of chapters, each section serving as a special article 
or monograph. There are four major divisions or Parts. Part I 
treats of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers, as well 
as their admixtures. Part II presents three sections on Soils, dis- 
cussing Soil Properties, Soil Improvers, and Soil Reclamation. In 
Part III, Crops are discust in relation to Photosynthesis, Production 
of Carbohydrates, Oils, Protein Foods, and Alkaloids, as well as 
miscellaneous plant products. It also treats briefly of methods of 
varying plant production. Part IV deals with the problem of Meat 

356 The Quarterly Journal 

Production, presenting sections on Manuring for Meat Production, 
Foods fed to Beasts, Calorific Value of Foods, Dairy Products, and 
Future Developments. 

The 236 pages of the book contain a surprising amount of in- 
teresting and practical information for the farmer and gardener, 
altho the scope of the work is restricted to apply more specifically to 
the intensive farming of England. While the style of the author is 
generally clear, it impresses the reviewer as a somewhat incongruous 
mixture of technical and non-technical language, suggesting the 
blending of a Farmer's Bulletin with an academic text on Agricul- 
ture. Perhaps this is the unavoidable result of the author's 
commendable attempt "to get away from the orthodox textbook 
manner" and appeal to the very large class of men of affairs. Only 
the trained reader could be expected to appreciate the following: 
"These fixations of fertilizer ingredients are always partial reactions 
which follow the chief chemical laws of mass action" and "It is just 
because citric acid and carbonic acid and the plant in relation to the 
soil are all cases of reversible reaction, that the extraction with weak 
solvents is some kind of analoge to the life of the plant." After such 
physico-chemical allusions, the reader is hardly prepared for such 
colloquial expressions as: "The plant sucks them up — " and "Soils 
containing iron are hungry for phosphoric acid." 

American agricultural chemists would be inclined to take issue 
with many of the author's statements and explanations which appear 
to be based upon his experiences with English and Indian soils. 

The numerous references at the ends of sections and the general 
bibliography add to the value of the book, altho they refer almost 
exclusively to a few English journals. When we consider the vast 
amount of valuable information obtained by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, and other branches of our Government, as well as 
the investigations carried on at the Experiment Stations of the 
various states, it seems unfortunate that the author has not seen fit 
to give his readers the advantage of ready access to this literature 
thru his references. The book is interesting and valuable and along 
with the other members of this somewhat unique series doubtless 
will contribute largely to the further development of applied 
chemistry thruout the British Empire. 

G. A. Abbott 
Department of Chemistry, 
University of North Dakota 

Book Reviews 357 

The Whole Truth About Alcohol: George Elliot Flint, 
with an introduction by Dr. Abraham Jacobi. The Macmillan 
Company, New York, 1919. XI I +294 pp. Price $1.50. 

The Whole Truth About Alcohol is the promising title of an 
attractively written .book. The chapter headings inspire interest: 
Human Psychology and National Prohibition ; . . . The In- 
crease in Drug Addicts; . . . The Danger of Habitual Liquor 
Drinking; . . . The Workingman's Club — ^The Saloon; . . 
The Psychology of Fanatics; . . . Are Abstainers Superior? 
. . . Alcohol and War; . . . Alcohol and Efficiency; . . 
Alcohol and Deficiency; . . . Alcohol and Disease; . . . 
Alcohol and Poverty; etc. The paragraphs are short, clear, and to 
the point. The book was written by a layman and is clearly addrest 
to the educated man and woman. 

As a medical man I should say that most physicians will agree 
that at times alcohol is a very valuable drug, tho it is used by most 
of them in ordinary conditions as little more than a cleansing agent, 
a solvent medium, an excipient, or a preservative. They will agree 
that no end of prejudice, half-truth, untruth, and overstatement has 
characterized much of the opposition to the use of alcohol as both a 
medicine and a beverage. They realize that in many discussions on 
crime, insanity, degeneracy, poverty, and the like there has been much 
confusion of cause and effect. They will read with interest the 
author's discussions on "reformers and other extremists." The author 
is more fair, however, than the quoted phrase and the way it has 
been introduced by the reviewer might indicate; it is the fanatic that 
the author is after, and he handles the case well. 

One does not need to be much of a physician or physiologist, 
however, to see that the author has failed rather badly to fulfill the 
promise of his title. "That alcohol is not a stimulant has never been 
proved," p. 113, is a statement that should not be made. The 
parallel between alcohol and anaphylaxis, pp. 135 to 138, after the 
exclamation : "But, oh, half-truth potent for evil, what is not per- 
petrated in thy name" is entirely unsound. The little paragraph: 
"That alcohol is very easily digested is pnoved by the fact that the 
carbohydrates cannot be digested as such, but only after they have 
been changed into sugar and finally into alcohol" at best involves 
a half-truth or less that amounts to an untruth or a mistake. With- 
out multiplying examples of what we consider mistakes as to fact, 
let us add that the author seems to have taken pains to mention evi- 
dence to support only his view of any matter of contention. 

358 The Quarterly Journal 

Instead of being the whole truth about alcohol, the book must 
be considered an argument in favor of moderate drinking. It would 
be stronger from any point of view if the author had been able to 
avoid the methods he so pointedly and rightly condemns. 

H. E. French 
School of Medicine, 
University of North Dakota 

Inorganic Chemical Synonyms: Elton R. Darling. In charge 
of Industrial Chemistry Department, Newark Technical School, 
Newark, N. J. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, 191 9. 
X4-106 pp. Price $1.00. 

This little handbook is the outcome of a series of articles publisht 
in the Chemical Engineer during 1918, and is intended to assist 
students and young chemists to become more familiar with the trade 
names of substances and with chemical colloquialisms. Unfortunate- 
ly, many of the substances widely used in the industries are known by 
as many as twenty different names or synonyms. Many of these 
confusing terms have long since outlived their usefulness and in 
some instances they are monuments to the ignorance of past genera- 
tions; as, for example, when common iron sulphate is designated as 
"copperas" — a term applied to it centuries ago when the green 
crystals were supposed to contain copper. 

If the author could perform the merciful task of annihilating 
these useless expressions, he would bring about a "consummation 
devoutly to be wished," but such a thing is manifestly impossible, 
for colloquialisms spring up in the language of Chemistry quite as 
readily as they do in other languages. He has therefore done the 
next best thing by bringing together these synonyms in convenient 
form for ready reference. 

The first 30 pages are devoted to fundamental reference material, 
such as tables of specific gravity, atomic weights, weights and 
mesures, etc., including an interesting tabulation of the Discoveries 
of the Elements. 

The synonyms are classified under the characteristic elements 
which are presented in alphabetical order. Under each heading is 
given a brief statement of the most common physical properties, the 
derivation of the name, and some historical facts relating to its 
discovery and isolation. Then follows a list of the names of the 
most important compounds used in the industries together with the 
synonymous names and colloquialisms. A chapter on Miscellaneous 

Book Reviews 359 

Synonyms and a Cross Index of Chemical Terms adds to the interest 
and value of the little handbook. 

While the author makes no claim of originality or even of 
completeness, he has nevertheless performed a valuable service in 
collecting this material in convenient form. While intended primari- 
ly for student use this work should also prove interesting and valuable 
to the man of affairs. 

G. A. Abbott 
Department of Chemistry, 
University of North Dakota 

Laboratory Directions and Study Questions in Inorganic 
Chemistry: Alexander Silverman, Head of the School of 
Chemistry, and Adelbert W. Harvey, Instructor in Inorganic 
Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh. D. Van Nostrand Com- 
pany, New York, 1919. VIII + 102 pp. Price $2.00. 

This Laboratory Manual, of the loose-leaf type, presents direc- 
tions for 55 experiments in Inorganic Chemistry, with numerous 
sketches of apparatus, a table of 34 references to standard works on 
Inorganic Chemistry, followed by 47 classified lists of Questions for 

The methods of experienced teachers are alwaj^s interesting and 
deserving of careful study. The authors state that this manual has 
been tried and corrected in their laboratories for the past five years 
and that it is now printed for the benefit of other institutions. It is 
intended that the student's record shall be made on a separate sheet 
at the time of the experiment and submitted with the instruction 
sheet at the end of the laboratory period. The experiments are well 
chosen and the apparatus specified is simple, yet ample for the purpose 
and well within the reach of the better equipt university laboratories. 
The directions are clear and usually sufficient to enable the student 
of ordinary intelligence to conduct the experiment successfully with- 
out recourse to the exasperating expedient so often imposed by 
laboratory manuals — "consult the instructor." 

The Study Questions which constitute the second half of the 
volume have evidently been workt out with great care. They cannot 
fail to be valuable and convenient as a study guide for the student. 
The authors state that all their recitations and examinations are 
conducted on the basis of these questions, so that a uniform system is 
employed even where a dozen or more instructors handle different 
sections. Not every teacher would agree that this is the best plan 
of conducting the work. It is not clear to the reviewer that such a 

360 The Quarterly Journal 

plan might not be abused by students if the questions are used from 
year to year, and that the plan would not tend to encourage an un- 
fortunate type of memory work. This is not, however, a fault of 
the questions, but rather a criticism of the manner of their use. 

The Manual and the Study Questions are worthy of the very 
careful consideration of progressive teachers of Inorganic Chemistry, 
and will no doubt be widely used. 

G. A. Abbott 
Department of Chemistry, 
University of North Dakota 

The Book of the Damned: Charles Fort. Boni and Liveright, 
New York City, 191 9. 298 pp. 
Decidedly a unique book. The author has evidently long since 

conceived a violent dislike to organized science and scientists; he 
consistently takes issue with endeavors to explain the various strange 
phenomena of the natural world by the application of scientific 
principles as they are commonly accepted. "The damned", accord- 
ing to Mr. Fort, are the multitude of data which science has appar- 
ently excluded for one reason or another, oftentimes because of 
unreliable observation and record. He maintains that, contrary to 
ordinary views, modern science has "no positive standards to judge 
by." While "it has attempted to be real, true, final, complete, abso- 
lute," the author assembles "some of the data that ... are of 
the falsely and arbitrarily excluded." His method of consideration is 
sufficiently described by his own statements that altho "all sciences 
begin with attempts to define, nothing has ever been defined because 
there is nothing to define" and that "'Science is establisht prcposter- 


In these nearly three hundred pages the author patiently lists 
an enormous number of interesting data concerning objects of all 
descriptions which have fallen from the skies at various times and in 
various places. Frogs, toads, fishes, stones, masses of ice, organic 
materials — the list is entirely too great to quote. He compiles his 
catalog from the files of numerous scientific journals of repute as well 
as from unverified accounts in the public press; he uniformly ridicules 
the scientific explanations offered and very often his objections seem to 
be well taken on the score of probability. The conclusions which he 
draws amount practically ( i ) to a belief that not very far above the 
surface of the earth gravitation is inactive and that there is another 
world from which storms or other convulsions of nature detach 
portions which fall to the earth; (2) that life exists on other planets 

Book Reviews 361 

and that numerous attempts have been made to communicate with 
us. He concludes that our scientists of today have as ignorantly and 
willfully distorted facts as the alchemists and philosophers of the 
Middle Ages. 

No method is discernable in the work. The various phenomena 
are thrown together with not a suggestion of classification or any 
general principle save the notion of this world exterior to our own. 
The catalog would be monotonous if it were not for the bits of 
ironic humor at the expense of scientists and it must be admitted that 
he frequently makes a good case against scientific bigotry. The style 
of composition is decidedly of the "cubist" order and it is to be 
feared that the rhetoricians may have abundant opportunity to 

It would be difficult to appraise the value of the book fairly. It 
certainly lists an astonishing mass of detail, — we should hardly dare 
to call it evidence — and, even if we discard newspaper accounts and 
hearsay testimony, the residue drawn from scientific journals is still 
voluminous enough to merit attention. The author's prejudices are 
strong and his obsession is persistent thruout so that it cannot in any 
sense be termed a "scientific" work ; probably he would be unwilling 
to have it so termed. It is undoubtedly true that in recent years 
many time-honored scientific theories have been severely jolted. With 
the elements crumbling so that the alchemist's philosopher's stone is 
no longer quite the absurdity that it seemed a few years ago, with 
Emstein propounding a new theory, with new views on physics and 
metaphysics coming up in profusion, it behooves one to speak slowly 
and tread softly. Nevertheless, it seems wise to follow scientific 
methods of investigation and explanation until satisfactory reason be 
found for adandoning them. 

H. R. Brush 
University of North Dakota 

University Notes 

The Service The January number of the Quarterly Journal 

was given over to the University Service List. 
So far as it had been possible to obtain the desired information the 
list contained the names of all University people who had had any 
connection vnth the Great War. In addition to the names there 
was given also, for each, the time and form of University connection 
and a brief statement of the kind and extent of war service. But 
there were omissions — probably many — and there were mistakes — 
not a few — all of which can easily be accounted for when one takes 
into consideration our source of information. But the University 
is very desirous of having the list both complete and accurate. To 
that end it asks for corrections and additional information. It will 
be grateful for any assistance from any source. 

The Service List summary given on page 288 of the January 
issue gave 1270 as the final number. Doubless, however, there 
should be deducted from this, at any rate for Service Flag designa- 
tion, the 102 women and 128 men (alumni) engaged in various forms 
of allied service. True, they aided as surely in achieving the grand 
result as some of the others but the Service Flag usually stands for 
those who really served in some military capacity. This deduction 
would make the number 1040 which, again, will be considerably 
augumented when full returns come in. 

The Influenza AH remember the terrible ravages inflicted on 

the University by the Spanish Influenza during 
the autumn of 191 8. When, a little more than a year later, the 
dread monster again appeared, there was consternation on all sides. 
But since the scourge was being less severe in other places, at its 
second visitation, it was hoped and felt that here, too, the epidemic 
might be light and of short duration. But no one was willing to 
take any chances so as soon as it was clearly evident that it had come 
in earnest, the University was closed and the student body, for the 
most part, returned to their homes. Nor were the doors again opened 
until the danger had past. Fortunately, not a large number were 
afflicted and but few seriously. Fortunately, again, the interruption 
came just at the close of the advanced work of the first semester, so 
the work was not seriously crippled save by making the second semes- 
ter two weeks shorter than usual. First semester examinations were 
cancelled, grades being given, so far as possible, on basis of class 
work. In all, the University was closed for three weeks, from Friday, 

University Notes 363 

February 6, to Monday, February 23. This necessitated the cancel- 
ing of the annual celebration of Founders' Day, which regularly 
occurs on February 22, and the postponement of the annual Carney 
Song Contest, regularly occuring on the evening just preceding 
Founders' Day. 

Debating and For many years the University of North Dakota 

and the University of Manitoba have held an 
international debate annually. During the vi^ar period these debates 
had to be discontinued, but this year the debating activities were 
resumed with increased interest. On March 5. two debates were 
scheduled : one at Winnipeg, and one at Grand Forks. The question 
was, "Resolved, That in the United States and Canada Labor should 
be compelled to settle its disputes in legally establisht courts of 
arbitration." The honors w^ere divided as Manitoba's Affirmative 
team won at Winnipeg by a decision of 4 to i, and North Dakota's 
Affirmative team won at Grand Forks by the same decision. The 
University of North Dakota was represented at home by Latimer 
Vobayda and Alexander Aas, and at Winnipeg by Ralph Stewart 
and Harry K. Ihrig. The debaters for the University of Manitoba 
were: at Grand Forks, A. W. Kennedy and T. H. Williams; at 
Winnipeg, Miss Ethelyn Ellis and R. G. Knight. 

This year each team was composed of two debaters instead of 
three. In this w^ay more time is afforded for each constructive speech. 
Another change was that of having five judges instead of three. 

The University will have two more debates this year: one with 
the University of South Dakota to be held at Vermillion on April 
6; and one with Macalester College, April 26, at Grand Forks. 
The question is, "Rosolved, That the Cummin's Bill offers the best 
plan of railroad administration." At South Dakota the University 
will uphold the negative, and at Grand Forks, the affirmative. 

At the state oratorical contest held at Jamestown on February 
27, Mr. Gjems Fraser of the University, won first place and received 
the gold watch offered by the Grand Lodge of Masons. On April 9, 
Mr. Fraser will go to Parkville, Missouri, to represent North Dakota 
in the interstate contest. His oration is a stirring appeal for better 
public schools, and is entitled "America's Second-Line Trench." 

Next year the interstate contest will be held in North Dakota. 

Public Health There is probably no way by which the Univer- 
sity comes into more vital contact with the people 
of the State, by which its ministers more practically and directly to 

364 The Quarterly Journal 

their welfare, than thru the Public Health Laboratory. But it works 
so quietly, so unobtrusively, that its activities are little known or 
hardly appreciated save by the people directly benefited. It would 
be entirely possible, for example, for an instructor to live and work 
on the campus for an entire year and know nothing of its existence. 
The physicians of the State know of it, of course, but few of the 
people, even those who live close at hand. Attention, therefore, is 
called to it in this department of the Quarterly Journal. 

The laboratory was establisht by the legislative session of 
1906-07 and located at the University. It was opened during the 
summer of 1907, Dr. Gustav F. Ruediger being the first Director 
and serving for a period of seven years. Its function is to assist 
physicians and Boards of Health in all parts of the State in their 
efForts to safeguard public health. Its work is done by making 
sanitary analyses of drinking water, ice, and milk, and thru 
microscopic diagnosis of diphtheria, consumption, typhoid fever, 
rabies, pathological tissues. It does this work free of charge for 
any health officer or regularly licensed physician in the State. 

In 1907, the time of the establishment of the laboratory here, 
such service was relatively new, wholly so to the people of North 
Dakota. But the first Director was not only well equipt for the 
work, but an enthusiast for this form of service. He saw the wonder- 
ful possibilities and gave himself zealously to the work of organiza- 
tion. Realizing that the effectiveness of the Laboratory would de- 
pend very largely upon the promptness that reports could be received 
by the sending physician, the plan of branch laboratories to serve, 
under the direction of the central office, their own particular com- 
munities, was early adopted. With the main laboratory and the 
three branches now in operation, all located in commercial and 
populous centers, the institution is in a splendid position to serve 
the people, since no part of the State is more than a three-hour train 
ride from a laboratory. With a proper choice of laboratory, returns 
from any part of the State can be received within twenty-four hours 
of sending. The work has greatly surpast the expectations of its 
founders and is recognized as a very potent agency in the fighting of 

The system, then, now consists of the main laboratory located 
at the University and three branches located in Fargo, Bismarck, 
and Minot. The entire system is a part of the University, the 
Professor of Bacteriology being the Director. He outlines and plans 
the work for all, the assistants in the branch laboratories making 
monthly reports. They are, however, placed largely upon their own 

University Notes 365 

responsibility in their own individual communities. Dr. A. G. Long 
is at the head of the s)'stem with three assistants at the University 
and one in each of the branches. Miss Delia Johnson has charge of 
the work in Fargo, Mr. E. M. S'tanton at Bismarck, and Mr. 
Charles K. Allen at Minot. 

The work of the laboratories was somewhat disorganized duinng 
the latter part of 19 18 owing to the resignation of Dr. Cox and 
others to enter the service. However, with the engagement of a 
new staff and the adoption of a somewhat changed policy, the labor- 
atories have built up an efficient organization and the work has 
increast in importance and scope. 

The problem of obtaining a continuous supply of pure, potable 
water is an important one in this prairie country. The laboratories 
have for some years been engaged in the supervision of the water 
supplied by the railroads to their passenger and sleeping cars. No 
complete sanitary survey had even been made of every source of 
supply nor would the State appropriation take care of the expenses 
necessary for such a survey. The matter was finally taken up with 
the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service 
with the result that an inspection was made of the main laboratory 
and its facilities. This being satisfactory, the Sanitary Engineer, 
Mr. I. W. Mendelsohn, was appointed Collaborating Sanitary 
Engineer of the United States Public Health Service. In this way 
the expenses attendant upon a v/ater survey trip are borne by the 
Federal government. Certain advantages accrue to the laboratories 
from this affiliation. The standards adopted by the State are the 
same as those of the Public Health Service and these laboratories, as 
the only accredited ones, whose results are accepted in Washington, 
have the authority of both the State and the Federal government 
behind them. It is hoped that it will never be necessary to invoke 
this authority. So far nothing but the best of feeling has existed 
between all parties concerned when their attention has been drawn to 
changes which are necessary to remedy existing conditions. Already 
considerable work has been done under this arrangement. Three 
weeks were spent in the field last fall and surveys were made. 
Specimens were also collected at the same time for chemical analysis 
and much important data obtained. This material will later be gone 
■gone over and publisht. 

The rules and regulations of the State Department of Health 
were ammcnded and the laboratories have introduced new regula- 
tions in regard to water, sewage, and garbage systems. Under these 
regulations which have been in force since January i, 1920, the plans 

366 The Quarterly Journal 

for all new water, sewage, and garbage disposal installations or 
extensions of present systems, have to be submitted to the Division of 
Sanitation, State Department of Health, for approval. This is done 
for two reasons, first to prevent unscrupulous engineers from selling 
the citizens of the community a system which is unsuited to local 
conditions and, second, in the event of an outbreak of intestinal 
troubles in a community, the State Department of Health will know 
what mesures to take in order to cope with the situation. 

The branches, beside taking care of the regular public health 
examinations in their various communities, have supervision over the 
milk and water supplies of their particular cities and also take care 
of bacteriological examinations of railway waters in their districts. 
This local service is especially well seen at the Minot branch. Mr. 
Charles K. Allen, who is in charge of the work, also serves as City 
Health Officer, City P'ood Inspector, and as an assistant at the 
Venereal Disease Clinic. In return for this local service the city 
meets a portion of the salary expense. 

Two outbreaks of diphtheria have occupied the attention of the 
main laboratory in the last three months, 1500 tubes of media being 
used in Grand Forks, while 150 were supplied to Enderlin, at which 
place a representative of the Department spent one week assisting 
the physicians in establishing an efficient quarantine. 

Educational work has not been neglected. The communities of 
Mayville, Hankinson, Leeds, and New Rockford have been assisted 
with their water problems, and addresses have been delivered before 
various civic bodies in those places on how best to remedy existing 
conditions. A survey was also made of sev/age disposal in Minot with 
a view to abating the nuisance now existing. A large number of 
bulletins have been distributed, and our exhibit at the last State 
Fair, while small, attracted large numbers of people and received 
much favorable mention. A circulating library for public health 
nurses has also been added to the literature available for nurses and 
a large number of interesting booklets are on hand. This service is 
open to anyone who cares to take advantage of it but nurses especially 
are urged to avail themselves of the opportunity to keep right up to 
the minute in their work. 

The Carney The Carney Song Contest for the current year 

was held on Friday evening, March 19 — about 
four weeks later than usual. The regular time for holding the 
contest is on the evening preceding the annual Founders' Day 
celebration, which regularly occurs on February 22nd. This year, 

University Notes 367 

however, the University was not in session at that time, owing to 
fear of an epidemic of influenza, and the celebration was not held 
tho all preparations had been made prior to the closing. And since 
the students were not on the ground, the song contest was postponed. 
This Contest, it will be recalled, was founded in 191 1 by Mr. 
E, C. Carney, an alumnus of the University — class of 1905. An 
account of the founding, together with rules, regulations, and general 
discussion, is to be found in the April, 191 7, issue of this publication 
— a University Note on page 298. Mr. Carney gives $50 each year 
to the class winning the contest. The class makes such disposition of 
the award as it wishes — usually, if not in every case, devoting it to 
some worthy University purpose. 

The fact that practically all the students take an active part 
in this contest (One of the rules requires participation by seventy- 
five per cent of the full class membership) has made it a very im- 
portant factor in developing a real University spirit. It has stimu- 
lated the production of many songs that have proved valuable as to 
both words and music. The judges of this year's contest were Mr. 
Peter Edwards, Mus. Bac, Trinity University, Toronto, Canada, 
at present located at Monango, North Dakota, Professor Ringgen- 
berg, of the Jamestown College Conservatory of Music, and Mr. 
E. L. Hodson, Head of the Department of Music of the Fargo 
High School. 

The contest was very spirited and full of entertainment for 
the large audience that filled the Armory. Each class did well and 
competition was keen. College spirit ran high and a jolly good time 
was experienced by all. When all the classes had sung and the 
audience was eagerly awaiting the decision of the judges, a feeling of 
uncertainty pervaded the atmosphere. Laymen scarcely ventured a 
guess as to the outcome, so close was the contest felt to have been. 
The judgment of the experts was needed and was very welcome. 
And it was close, the seniors winning over their closest competitors 
by the very narrow margin of 2 points on a scale of lOO. 

The winners for the last five years are as follows: 191 6, Fresh- 
men; 191 7, Freshmen; 19 18, Seniors; 191 9, Freshmen; 1920, Seniors. 

The School of Education 


Entrance Bectulrements : Those aiming: to take the full college course enter 
the School of Hdncatiou at the beginning of the junior year. Those 
working toward the Teacher's Certificate or the two-year Special 
Certificates must have completed the work of a standard high scliool. 

Degree and Diploma: The degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Arts 
In Bducation and the Bachelor's Diploma In Teaching' (the profes- 
sional instrument, which is accredited by law as a First Grade 
Professional certificate) are granted on the completion of the four 
years of college work. 

The Teacher's Certificate and Special Certificates: Two years of college 
work, including at least 16 hours of professional work in education 
and psychology, leads to the Teacher's Certificate or to a Special 
certificate in art and design, commercial work, music, or manual arts. 

Ohservation and Practise: Facilities are offered for observation and practise 
and for the study of problems in secondary education at first hand, 
in a fully equipt high school in connection with the School of 

Aim and Pnnction: The professional preparation of teachers, principals, 
and superintendents, and of instructors for normal schools and 

Those who aim at the complicated and difficult art of teaching 
should make special preparation for this great public service. 
For further information, address the Dean, 


University, N. D. 

The School of Medicine 

University of North Dakota 

SCOPE: The University School of Medicine offers to young men and 
women the first two years of medical work. 

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: Two years of prescribed colle.criate 
work preceded by fifteen prescribed units of high school 

DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE: Upon the satisfactory completion 
of the two years of medical work the University grants the 
desnree of Bachelor of Science and the Medical Certificate 
which admit to the third year of medical colleges of good 

ADVANTAGES: (1) — Thoroly equipt teachers of all the subjects 
included in the combined curriculum; (2) — Splendid labora- 
tory and library facilities; (3) — Small classes, making it 
possible for the instructor to give a large amount of personal 
attention to each student; (4) — Expenses reduced to the 
minimum; tuition fee, $50.00 per year; living expenses very 
low; much railway fare saved. 

For further information, address the Dean, 


University, N. D. 



Editor's Bulletin Board 

THE Quarterly Journal for October, 1920, the 
first number of Volume XI, will contain studies 
from the fields of political and social sciences. Dr. John 
M. Gillette, head of the Department of Sociology, will 
discuss Rural Communication and Transportation; Pro- 
fessor Hugh E. Willis, Professor of Law and Acting Dean 
of the University Law School, The Emancipation of 
Labor; Professor Joseph Kennedy, Dean of the School of 
Education, The Nature of Democracy; Dr. H. R- Brush, 
head of the Department of Romance Languages, The 
University and Latin-American Development — A Study 
in Co-operation; and Mr. A. H. Yoder, Director of the 
Extension Division, University Extension and Adult 

As will be seen at once, these are all very timely and 
interesting topics. The writers are broadly educated men, 
with open minds, keenly interested in the fields they are 
to represent, and sure to present thought-provoking dis- 
cussions. In addition to the above from our own people, 
readers may look for Some Spiritual Revelations of the 
War, from Reverend Charles W. Gordon (Ralph Con- 
nor), of Winnipeg. Major Gordon gave this as an ad- 
dress at the Memorial Service held at the University last 
October. The readers of the Quarterly Journal are 
fortunate ! The number promises to be of unusual in- 

The Quarterly Journal 


The University of North Dakota 



Karl R. Stolz 371 


Joseph Keknedy 385 


Wallace Nelson Stearns 396 



Lauriz Vold 401 


William E. Stephenson 415 

TO 1640 

Beatrice Olson 422 


Frederick D. Smith 436 


l- The Monroe Doctrine and the Great War: 

A. B. Hall. O. G. Libhy 444 

2. The Outbound Road: Arnold Mulder. 

A. J. Ladd 445 


A. J. LADD, 

Manacinc Editoh Assistants 

m* MM! ni)fTmic mo.. 

The Quarterly Journal^Tl 

Volume 10 JULY 1920 Number 4 


The Song of Songs 

Dramatized and Edited With Introduction and Notes 

Karl R. Stolz, 

Professor of Religious Education, Wesley College 

THE title, Song of Songs, means the most beautiful of all songs, 
just as the icing of kings is the king above all other kings, or 
the holy of holies is the most holy place. 

The general interpretation of this poetic composition has been 
a matter of learned dispute in recent years. Before the historical 
method of studying the Bible was widely adopted, the Song of Songs 
was unhesitatingly accepted as an allegory. Among the Hebrews it 
was supposed that the relation of the two leading characters in the 
book, Solomon and the Shulammite maiden, typified the relation of 
Jehovah to the children of Israel from the beginning of Hebrew 
national life to the advent of the Messiah. Christian scholars of the 
pre-critical period took over the allegorical principle, but saw in 
Solomon Christ and in the maiden the Church. In the mystical 
atmosphere of the Middle Ages unrestrained and fanciful, not to 
say absurd, allegorical expositions and applications of the book sprang 
up and flourisht. The influence which the little book exercised is 
amazing. St. Bernard of Clairvaux composed some eighty sermons 
on the first two chapters alone, Origen wrote a ten-volume a^mmen- 
tary on the book, Aquinas, inspired by visions to which he attached 
religious importance, in his last hours dictated an exposition of it. 
In the midst of such sensuous and even sensual interpretation produced 
by the allegorical school, there is, it is only fair to say, much that is 
ethically elevating and fruitful. 

The historical approach has quite retired the allegorical view. 
At present what is called the lyrical interpretation is the general 
exposition which is most widely accepted. The upholders of this 
construction contend that the marriage customs of Syria and Palestine 
are the master key to a correct understanding of the Song of Songs. 
The wedding festivities referred to last a full week. For the first 
seven days after marriage the bride and groom play the part of king 

Copyright. 1920. University of North Dakota 

372 The Quarterly Journal 

and queen, and are so addrest and feted. Attired in their wedding 
garments, they are not permitted to do any work, their sole occupa- 
tion being the enjoyment of the entertainment provided by the 
assembled friends. In mock royal splendor they are seated upon an 
improvised throne on the threshing floor. The evening of the wedding 
day the bride dances the sword dance, bearing in her right hand a 
sword and in her left a handkerchief. Her performance is followed 
by the singing of a zvasf . a song in praise of her personal beauty and 
charms. Songs of a similar nature and others of a war-like character 
are sung the succeeding days of the celebration by members of the 
wedding party. Many expositors hold that the Song of Songs is 
simply a collection of wedding songs having no further connection 
than a common theme of human love and connubial bliss. The 
Solomon who figures so prominently in the book is but a peasant 
groom who for one glorious week bears the name of the magnificent 
monarch, the Shulammite maiden is none other than the rustic bride 
who in queenly make-believe sits upon a mock throne beside her rural 
lord, the mighty men described in the verses as the bodyguard of the 
king are merely the companions of the groom assembled to make 

Other scholars espouse the somewhat older dramatic expo;!lion. 
While the book is not a drama in the modern sense, its general 
arrangement is dramatic. There is a little action, a rudimentary 
plot, and simple dialogs are intersperst with lyrical monologs. The 
fundamental contention of those who maintain that the Sonfj of 
Songs is merely an anthology of wedding songs, that the marriage of 
Solomon and the maiden has been consummated and is assumed, is 
flatly contradicted by the many details which reflect the unmarried 
state of the lovers. Many of the passages construed as the words of 
one married are in a dramatic scheme properly assigned to members 
of Solomon's harem. In the book Solomon is not, as one would 
naturally anticipate, the hero and the accepted lover, but the foil of 
a successful shepherd rival. Nor is the maiden once addrest or 
referred to as a queen. Among the recovered zvnsfs of Syria there are 
Avar-like songs, but such are altogether wanting in this little book. 
Furthermore, there are too many personal allusions and particular 
instances, and too much local color to warrant the deduction that we 
are reading nothing more than a repertory of wedding songs equally 
applicable to all marriage festivities and bridal couples. That 
the Song of Songs is a simple drama written from a background of 

Palestinian love folk songs is a conclusion which is still defensible. 

The Shulammite maiden, Solomon the royal suitor, and the 

The Sonff of Son</s 373 

shepherd lover are the leading characters in tjie drama. The theme 
is the constancy of true human love between the sexes. A beautiful 
girl, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer of the village of Shulem, is 
driven from the house by her harsh brothers and ordered to watch 
the vineyards. One day while wandering in a garden she is surprised 
by a group of women from the court of Solomon. She is conducted 
to the royal residence at Jerusalem and later to another in the Nortii 
near the Lebanon mountains, where the ladies of the court try to win 
her for their lord. Solomon in person repeatedly pleads his cause, 
but she consistently rejects his Hattering attentions. Under the most 
seductive circumstances she continues absolutely true to her shepherd 
lover. More than once her beloved appears to beg her to flee with 
him. Convinced that further efforts to win her favor would be useless 
Solomon finally permits the faithful maiden to depart with her country 
lover. When they came within sight of her home, she gives utterance 
to a noble song of love with which the simple drama comes to a 

The author of this composition is unknown. The ascription of 
the authorship to Solomon in the first verse of the book is a baseless 
assumption which may be accounted for as an inference from the 
allegorical interpretation that Solomon is the leading character in- 
troduced, coupled with his reputation as a w^riter of songs. Taking 
into serious consideration its linguistic peculiarities, reliable scholar- 
ship reaches the conclusion that the book was written somewhere in 
the fourth century B. C. 

It is doubtful whether the Hebrews would have admitted the 
Song of Songs into the Old Testament collection of sacred books if 
the allegorical exposition with its religious applications and the sup- 
position that Solomon was the author had not generally obtained. As 
it was it seems not to have maintained itself in the Old Testament 
without a struggle. That its place among the sacred writings was 
repeatedly and strenuously challenged and disputed may be gathered 
from the extravagant praise heaped upon it by its defenders. As late 
as the second century of the present era a rabbi makes the startling 
claim: "The whole world does not outweigh the day on which Song 
of Songs was given to Israel ; all the writings are holy, but the Song 
is the holiest of all". It was publicly read the eighth day of the 
Feast of the Passover. 

For reasons at which we can only guess the little drama has 
come down to us from the Hebrews without act and scene divisions 
and without character designations. These have been sedulously 
ferreted out and supplied by the many editors of the book. The 

374 The Quarterly Jourrml 

inevitable outcome has been a profusion of variant versions. 

The present effort is justifiable only by the purpose controling 
it. 1 have attempted a version or edition which may be staged and 
played by amateur dramatic clubs. Bearing in mind that the average 
audience does not consist of orientalists and must catch the thought 
of the spoken line on the wing, I have allowed myself certain liberties 
with the text which under other circumstances would be rightly con- 
demned. Many out-of-the-way allusions have been paraphrased, and 
several lines have been transposed, for the sake of increased clearness. 
Of the large number of geographical references those have been re- 
tained which are either familiar to the ordinary reader of the Bible 
or do not seriously disturb the flow of thought and feeling even if 
unidentified. Sensuous imagery which offends the western ear has 
been toned dov,n or omitted altogether. Other versions have been 
freely consulted and drawn upon, but the special object in view has 
been permitted to condition decisions and results. 


Dramatis Personae 

The Shulammite Maiden 

Solomon, the royal suitor 

The Country Lover 

The Court Ladies of Solomon (the daughters of Jerusalem) 

Scene I 

The Chambers of the Royal Residence at Jerusalem 
Morning. Springtime 

The Ladies of the Court, the Shulammite Maiden, and Solomon 

First Lady of the Court Let him kiss me with the kisses of his 

mouth. ^ 

(Enter Solomon; she addresses him) 

For thy love is better than wine. 

Because thine ointments have a good fragrance 

Thy name is as oil poured forth, 

And the virgins love thee. 
Maiden (Aside to her absent lover.) 

The king hath brought me into his chambers: 

Draw me forth, that we may run. 
Second Lady of the Court (To Solomon) 

We will be glad and rejoice in thee, 

We will mention thy love more than wine: 

1. She has Solomon in mincL 

The Song of Songs 375 

In uprightness art thou loved. 
Maiden I am dark-hued as the tents of Kedar-, O ye daughters 

of Jerusalem, 

But beautiful as the curtains of Solomon. 

Scorn me not, because I am brown, 

For the sun hatli looked upon me:' 

My mother's sons were angry with me, 

And made me tiie keeper of the vineyards; 

But mine own beauty have I not kept. 

{Musing, aside) Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth. 

Where thou feedest thy flock, 

And where thou makest it to rest at noon : 

For why should I be as one that goeth like an outcast. 
Third Lady of the Court (Ironically to Maiden) 

Go forth and follow the footsteps of the flock. 

And feed the lambs beside thy shepard's tents! 
(Solomon I have compared thee, O my love. 

To a company- of horses in Pharaoh's chariots.* 

Thy cheeks are comely with jewels, 

Thy neck with chains of gold. 

We will make thee strings of golden beads with points of 
Maiden (Replying to Solomon) 

Before the king brought me hither 

My thoughts were free to go to my beloved. 

My w'ell-beloved is unto me a bundle of myrrh" 

Which shall lie upon my bosom ; 

My beloved is unto me as a cluster of henna flowers** 

In the vineyards of En-gedi.^ 
(Solomon Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art comely, 

Thine eyes are doves'. 
Maiden {Musing about her lover) 

Behold, thou art fair, m.y beloved, yea, pleasant: 

Also the meadows are green 

The beams of our house are cedars,® 

and our rafters nre fir trees. 

2. Black, the name of a tribe of nomads. 

3. Scorched me. 

4. An indication of the esteem women were held in as compared with 

5. Aromatic gum oozed from punctured bark of a eertain thorny tree. 

6. Prom which the women got a yellowish extract with which to stain 
their hands and feet. 

7. A small but rich plain sloping to the eastern shoje of the Dead Sea. 

8. Reference to the maiden's life in the open and in the woods. 

37^ The Quarterly Journal 

I am the rose" of Sharon/" 

And the lily of the valleys, 
Solomon As the lily among the thorns, 

So art thou, my love, among the daughters, 

The daughters of Jerusalem. 
Maiden (Musing) 

As the apple tree among the trees of the forest, 

So is my beloved among the sons of men. 

In his shadow I delighted and sat down. 

And sweet to me was the converse with him. 

He brought me to a tent in the vineyard. 

And his banner over me was love. {Exit Solomon) 

(Fainting, turns to ladies of the Court) 

Revive me with wine, and refresh me with apples. 

For I am faint with love- 

Oh that his left hand were under my head, 

And his right hand did embrace me! 

I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, 

By the roes, and by the hinds of the field, 

That ye cease from vain attempt to arouse my love for the 
Lover (Lover at the windoiv) ^ 

Rise up, my love, "my fair one, and come away. 
Maiden (Agitated, to her companions) 

Hark! The voice of my beloved! Behold, he cometh 

Leaping over the mountains, skipping over the hills. 

My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart: 

Behold, he standeth behind our wall. 

He looketh forth at the windows, 

He pecreth thru a lattice. 
Lover For lo, the winter is past,^^ 

The rain is over and gone ; 

The flowers appear on the earth ; 

The time of the singing of birds is come, 

And the voice of the turtledove'- is heard in our land; 

The fig tree ripeneth her fruit,*' 

And the vines are in blossom and give their fragrance. 

Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. 

9. Crocus. 

10. A fertile plain on the Mediterranean coast. 

11. A beautiful description of the spring in Syria follows. 

12. A bird of passage returning in the spring. 

13. Early figs grow upon old wood, appear before the leaf-buds, and are 
ripe about the end of June. 

The Song of Songs ^JJ 

my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, 
And in the hidden nooks of the steep place,^* 
Let me see thy face, let me hear thy voice ; 

For sweet is thy voice and thy face is beautiful. 
Maiden (Singing fragment of vineyard luatcher's song) 
Catch us the foxes, 
Foxes the little ones, 
Wasting the vineyards. 
When the vineyards are blossoming. 
{Speaking to the Ladies of the Court) 
My beloved is mine, and I am his: 
He feedeth his flock among the lilies. 
{Turning to her lover) Flee, my beloved. 
And be thou swift as the gazelle or young hart 
On the cleft-riven mountains.'' 
{To the Ladies of the Court) 
By night in a dream, I sought him whom my soul loveth ; 

1 sought him, but found him not. 

I said, "I will rise now, and go about the city 
In the streets and in the open spaces; 
I will seek him whom my soul loveth;" 
I sought him, but I found him not. 
The watchmen that go about the city found me : 
1 said to them. "Saw ye him whom my soul loveth?" 
Soon after I left them, 
I found him whom my soul loveth : 
I held him, and did not let him go, 
Until 1 had brought him into my mother's house, 
Into the chamber of her that bore me. 
I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, 
By the rocs and the hinds of the field, 

That ye cease from vain attempt to arouse my love for the 

Scene II 

A Royal residence in the country 
Afternoon Some weeks later 
Ladies of the Court, Shulammite Maiden, Solomon, Lover 
First Lady of the Court 

14. Refers to the maiden's precarious position in the royal house. 

15. Alarmed for the safety of her lover, she bids him be gone. 

16. The .supposition is that the ladies of the court will not try to arouse 
her iove. for Solomon after such an expression of devotion to her country 

378 The Quarterly Journal 

Who is this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars 

of smoke. 
With myrrh and frankincense burnt before him. 
And all powders of the merchant ?^^ 
Second Lady Behold, it is the litter of Solomon ; 
Threescore valiant men are about it, 
Of the mighty of Israel. ^^ 
They all hold swords, being skilled in war ; 
Every man hath his sword upon his thigh, because of fear 

in the night.^^ 
Third Lady King Solomon hath made himself a litter of the M'oods 

of Lebanon f^ 
Its canopy he hath made of silver, 
Its bottom of gold. 
The seat thereof of red purple, 
The gift of love of the daughters of Jerusalem. 
Go forth, Oh daughters of Zion, 
Behold King Solomon, wearing the wedding crown 
Wherewith his mother crowned him in the day of his 

And in the day of the gladness of his heart. 

(Solomon enters unattended) 
6'OLOMON Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; 
From behind thy veil thine eyes are as doves' ; 
Thy hair is as black as a flock of goates on the slopes of 

Mount Gilead.21 
Thy teeth are like a flock of sheep which are newly shorn, 

and which come up from the washing, 
Which are all of them pairs, and none is wanting."" 
Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, and thv mouth is come- 


Thy temples are like a piece of pomegranate behind thy veil. 

Thy neck is like the tower of David 

Builded for an armory, 

Whereon there hang a thousand bucklers, the shields of 

might\- men."' 
I will get me into a garden of myrrh in hilly ground, and 

17. A line Shakespeare could have written. Merchants from foreign 
lands bringing aromatic preparations. 

18. Solomon comes from Jerusalem to the royal residence in the north'. 

19. Ready to ward off danger arising in the dark. 

20. Cedar and cypress for which Lebanon was noted. 

21. The goats were usually black. 

22. Her teeth are as white an .shorn sheep, newly washei, and none of 
them is missing. 

23. A reference to the ornaments suspended from her neck. 

The Song of Songs 379 

to a mountain of frankincense, 
And will return when the day cools and the shadows flee, 
Thou art fair, my love; there is no blemish in thee.^* 

{Exit Solomon, enter Lover) 
Lover With me from Lebanon, O bride, 

With me from Lebanon, do thou come.-'"' 

Depart from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and 

From the lions' den, from the mountains of the leopards,-" 
Thou hast ravished and stolen my heart, my sister, my bride ; 
Thou hast charmed my heart with but one glance of thine 

With but one chain of thy neck. 
How sweet are thy caresses, my sister, my bride ! 
How much better is thy love than wine! 
And the smell of thine ointments than all spices ! 
Thy lips, O my bride, drop as the honey-comb: 
Honey and milk are under thy tongue; 
And the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon. 
A garden inclosed is my sister, my bride ; 
A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 
Thy charms are an orchard with pleasant fruits; 
With cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense ; 
With myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices; 
Thou art the fountain of my garden, a well of living waters. 
And streams from Lebanon. 
Maiden Awake, O north wind ; and come, thou south wind ; 
Blow upon me, that my perfumes may flow out. 
Let my beloved come into his garden, 
And eat his pleasant fruits."* 
Lover I am come unto thee, my garden, my sister, my bride: 
I have gathered my myrrh with my balsam ; 
I have eaten my hone3'-comb with my honey; 
I have drunk my wine with my milk: 
O beloved friends, be ye merry also; 
Eat, drink, nay, drink abundantly-^^ 

{Exit Lover). 

24. Supposing: he has won the maiden, Solomon announces that he will 
retire to a garden and return at nightfall. 

2g. The lover has gained entrance by stealth. ^ , ». 

26 Amana, Shenir, Hermon, all mountain peaks in Northern Palestine. 

27. Also veiled reference to hostile human forces. x. xv. , 

28 She extends the figure of herself as a garden begun hy the lover. 

29. The maiden having revealed her love, he feels the marriage as good 
as consummated. 

380 The Quarterly Journal 

Maiden (Soliloquises) 

I was dreaming, but my heart was awake: 

Hark, the voice of my beloved! he knocketh on the door, 

"Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiied ; 
For my head is covered with dew, and my locks with the 

drops of the night." 
I said : "I have put ol? my garment; how shall I put it on? 
I have washed my feet; how shall I defile them?" 
Then my beloved put his hand thru the window of the door'° 
And my heart yearned for him. 
I rose to open for my beloved; 
And my hands, scented with myrrh 
And my fingers with liquid myrrh, 
Dropped upon the handles of the lock. 
While he spake I fainted ; when I opened to my beloved, 
My beloved had withdrawn himself and was gone: 
I called him, but he gave me no answer. 
I sought him, but could not find him ; 

The watchmen of the walls took away my mantle from me. 
I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, 
If ye find my beloved, that ye tell him, 
That I am sick from love. 

(Ladies come forward) 
Second Lady of the Court 

Why is thy beloved better than another, O thou fairest 

among women ? 
What is thy beloved more than another beloved, that thou 
dost so charge us? 
Maiden My beloved is glowing and ruddy, 
The chiefest among ten thousand. 
His head is as the most fine gold, 
His locks are bushy, and black as a raven. 
His eyes are like doves' 
Sitting beside streams of milk ;'^ 
His cheeks are as a bed of spices, like sweet flowers: 
His lips like lilies, dropping fragrant myrrh. 
His fingers are gold cylinders set with topaz : 
His body is as bright ivory incrusted with sapphires. 

30. The window was a hole in the door thru which the women could 
look out without themselves being unduly exposed. 

31. The pupils of the eyes are compared with doves, the white of the 
eye in which the pupils move, to milk. 

The Song of Songs 381 

His legs are pillars of marble, set upon bases of fines gold : 
His countenance is as majestic as Mount Lebanon, excel- 
lent as the cedars; 
His words are sweetness: yes, all of him is desirable. 
This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of 
Third Lady Whither is thy beloved gone, O thou fairest among 
women ? 
Whither hath thy beloved turned ? that we may seek him 
with thee. 
Maiden {Evasively) 

My beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of 

To feed the flock in the garden, and to gather lilies. 
I am my beloved's, and my beloved is mine: 
He who feedeth his flock among the lilies."- 

(F.ntf'r Solonwii) 
Solomon Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah,"^ 
Fair as Jerusalem, 
Awesome as an army with banners. 

Turn away thine eyes from me, for they have overcome me : 
Thy hair is as black as the goats from Gilead. 
Thy teeth are like a flock of sheep which are newly shorn, 
And which come up from the washing; 
Which are all of tliem pairs, and none is wanting. 
I have threescore queens and fourscore wives, 
And women of marriageable age without number; 
. But the only one is my dove, my perfect one; 
She is the only one, the darling of her mother, 
She is the choice one of her that bare her. 
The daughters of Jerusalem saw her, and blessed her ; 
Yes, the queens and the wives, they praised her. 
Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, 
Fair as the moon, clear as the sun, 
And awesome as an army with banners ? 
Maiden I went down one day into the garden of walnuts to behold 
the green plants of the valley, 
To see whether the vine buddeth and the pomegranates 
were in bloom. 

32 Becoming .suspicious of their eager inquiries, she gives theni a 
general reply, implying that he has gone to his usual haunts. 

33. Solomon did not return at nightfall as he said he would, but the 
next day. Tirzah ,a royal residence of northern kings, famed tor its stui 
undiscovered situation. 

382 The Quarterly Journal 

Suddenly came I upon the chariots of King Solomon ; 

When 1 turned to flee the ladies of the court called : 

"Return, return, O Schulammite maiden f* 

Return, return, that we may look upon thee." 

I said: "Why would ye look upon the Schulammite? 

As upon a countr}' dance?"""' 

{The Maiden is being dressed by the Ladies of the Court 

to receive King Solomon who is in background) 
First Ladv (Persuasively) 

How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince's daughter! 

The joints of thy thighs are like jewels, 

The M ork of the hands of the cunning workman. 
Second Lady Thy body is like a round goblet 

Filled with wine mixed with snow : 

Thy waist is like a heap of Avheat decorated with lilies. 

Thy neck is like a tower of ivory ; 

Thine ejes like the shimmer of pools j"*^ 

Thy head is as majestic as Carmel,"'^ 

And the hair of thy head like purple. 
Third Lady A king is bound in thy tresses. 

How fair thou are among delightsome thing**, 

And what charm of love hast thou. 

(Solomon steps forward) 
Solomon Thy stature is like a palm tree 

In whose presence I delight. 

The smell of thy breath is like apples, 

And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine. 
Maidex (Interrupting) 

Wine for my beloved, that goeth down sweetly, 

Gliding over his lips and teeth. 

{Firmly) I belong to my beloved and he longs for mc. 

Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the field ; 

Let us lodge in the villages. 

Early let us get up to tlie vineyards ; 

Let us see whether the vine flourish 

And if it be in flower, 

And the pomegranates are in bloom: 

There will I love thee- 

34. Maiden of Shulem, a village in northern Palestine. 

35. As upon a spi^ctacle. 

.■?6. P.eoausf^ o!' their to us grotesqueness the following two lines are 

Thy nose is as the watch tower of Mount Lebanon 

Which looketh toward Damascus. 
37. Mount Carmel towered above land and sea in maje.'sty. 



The Song of Songs 383 

The mandrakes give forth fragrance,"* 

Over our doors are all manner of pleasant fruits, 

New and old, 

Which I have stored up for thee, O my beloved. 

that thou wert my mother's son! 

That, should I find thee without, I might kiss thee, 
And yet none would despise me.-"* 

1 ^vould lead thee, and bring thee into the house of my 

mother, who would instruct me : 
I would give thee to drink of spiced wine, of the juice 
of the pomegranate. 

that his left hand were under my head. 
And his right hand did embrace me! 

1 charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, 

That yc cease from vain attempt' to arouse my love for the 

Scene III 

(Road to the Village of Maiden's Birth) 
Evening . 

Lover and Maiden; Ladies of the Court 
Second Lady of the Court Who is this that goeth up into the 

Leaning upon the arm of her beloved? 
Lover (Pointing out various objects) 

I woke thee up under yon apple tree : 

There thy mother brought thee forth. 

There she that bare thee brought thee forth 
Maiden Set me as a seal upon thy heart, 

As p. seal upon thine arm :*" 

For love is strong as death ; 

Jealousy is cruel as the grave. 

The coals of love are coals of fire, 

A very flame of Jehovah. 

Many waters cannot quench love, 

Neither can the floods drown it: 

If a man would give all the substance of his house for love, 

3S. The mandrake is related to the potato plant; its fruit, the size and 
color of a small apple, is said to exhllirate the spirits of the eater. 

39. Only the uterine brother and the son of the father's brother h^d the 
right to kiss a maiden. The maiden here expresses a desire to show her 
love for her lover freely and openly. 

40. Seals were imprest neither upon the heart nor the arm; hence 
the allusion must be to seal rings suspended from the neck by a cord. The 

maiden wishes to be the most precious possession of her lover. 

384 The Quarterly Journal 

Men would utterly despise him.*^ 

{Reminiscently) We have a little sister, not of marriage- 
able age: 

What shall we do for our sister in the day when she shall 
be spoken for ? 

If she be true, let us honor and reward her; 

If she be weak, let us fortify her. 

When I had shown my faithfulness, 

Then was I in thine eyes as one finding peace. 

Solomon had a vineyard let out unto keepers ; 

And for the fruit thereof would gain a thousand shekels. 

My vineyard, which is mine, stands before me : 

The thousands be to thee, O Solomon, 

And two hundred to the keepers.*" 
Lover Thou that dwellest in the gardens, 

The companions are listening to thy voice : 

Let us hear thee sing.*^ 
Maiden (Sings) 

Make haste, my beloved ; 

Be thou like a roe or a young hart 

Upon the mountains of spices.** 

41. With the sentiment tliat love cannot be bought this passage of pas- 
sionate appreciation of love closes. A thrust at Solomon. 

42. The underlying- thought that the vineyard keepers of Solomon may 
have their wage. l)ut she possess in her lover a vineyard more precious thaii 
his and one which 'loeds no keeper. 

43. The companions are the friends who have come to meet the lover 
and to congratulate him upon the safe return of his beloved. 

44. .She sings the request she made to him when he stood outside the 
wall of Solomon's residence. 

*An Educational Problem 

Joseph Kennedy, 

Dean of the School of Education, University of North Dakota 

When I undertook the written discussion of this unsolved prob- 
lem I thought that I had the solution pretty definitely in mind. As I 
viewed it in the distance the path toward its solution seemed clear and 
definite — something like a path in the twilight across a distant moor- 
land ; but when I approached more closely and attempted to find the 
trail, like the path across the moor, it disappeared from sight on nearer 
approach. I frankly confess now that the more I wrestled with the 
problem the more difficult the solution of the details appeared- And 
so, instead of propounding the case and presenting a complete solu- 
tion I shall merely state it and apj>eal to students of education for 
help and co-operation. 

The Specific Problem 
All who have thought much on the problems of secondary and 
higher education and the relation between these two fields have come 
to the conclusion that there is much duplication, altogether too much 
starting and stopping, too much going ahead and backing up again, 
and, in general, a great lack of correlation between the work of the 
high school and the college, and a resulting lack of efficiency and of 
purpose that causes a waste of perhaps two years in the secondary 
and college fields, just as there is a loss of a year, if not more, thru the 
present elementary school SAStem. 

General Revision Needed 
I am inclined to think that the whole organization of public 
education in the United States will have to be revised. If the reor- 
ganization does not come in our day, it is bound to come sooner or 
later. Like the city described in that excellent poem of Sam Walter 
Foss, called the "Calf Path," our system of education has largely 
happened, and is very largely the result of imitation and tradition. 
It is time to take an inventory, to have a real and genuine survey of 
our educational organization. 

Action Difficult 

I realize keenly that it is easier to point out defects than to cure 
them, just as it is always easier to ask questions than to answer them. 
Nor am I forgetful of the tendency in human nature to ask why things 

*j\dclress before the State High School Conference and the North- 
eastern Divi.'^ion of the North Dakota Teachers' Association at the Uni- 
versity, Grand Forks, N. D., Mav 13, 1920. 

386 The Quarterly Journal 

are not done some other way, or of the difference between destructive 
and constructive criticism ; and mj'^ purpose is distinctly the latter. 

But North Dakota can not effect a reorganization alone. This 
vinll need concerted action all along the line. Some states are awaking 
to a realization of their needs. About the first of this month there 
occurred a notable gathering of all the educational forces of South 
Carolina at Greensboro, called by Commissioner P. P. Claxton, at the 
request of the Governor and the leading educators of that state, to 
consider ways and means for its educational betterment. The time is 
ripe for a similar convention in practically every state in the Union. 

Realizing that North Dakota can not lead off alone and inde- 
pendently, some of our suggestions will be based on our organization 
as it stands — that is, on the basis of an eight-j^ear elementary school 
and a four-year high school ; altho an eight-year elementary school 
is vulnerable from several points of view- 

Plan in the Large 

If the slate were wiped clean, and we had to organize education 
de novo from the points of view of biology, hygiene, psychology, so- 
ciology, and economics, as well as from other angles, it would seem 
that natural, complete, and efficient education should fall into three 
great divisions, corresponding to those natural periods of life and of 
life's work and needs, viz: 

(j) First, elementary education, appropriate for the period of 
childhood ; this education would put children in possession of the tools 
of knowledge, give them the fundamentals of learning and of human 
experience, and a bent of feeling, habit, and action essential to all for 
a happy and successful life. Whether this would extend to the present 
seventh, eighth, or ninth grade, and the number of years necessary to 
accomplish the result under the new organization would have to be 
determined by scientific methods. 

In this field women teachers would predominate, for they are 
the best because the most natural teachers of childhood. In this 
field, too, the teacher would have full control of the room thruout 
the day and the year, teaching every subject taught, and being in a 
special way in loco parentis. The child of the elementary school is 
in the most plastic stage, and the one teacher should be his guide, 
philosopher, and friend for the day and the year. There should be a 
minimum of specialized teaching here. 

(2) The second division would be the education appropriate to 
youth instead of to childhood, and would put young people in touch 
with and in reasonable possession of the experience of the race in 
various fields, and give them a deeper and more comprehensive grasp of 

An Educational Problem 387 

a few of these fields. A many-sided interest and a life momentum in 
some directions should be the aim and the result. Here the youth 
is being put into possession of his racial and national inheritance, 
while at the same time he would be habituated to expression as well 
as to impression, and to thinking, as well as to merely learning what 
the race has thought and done. 

This would be the period of special teachers, for the special 
teacher is best equipt to put students in possession of their inheri- 
tance in the field of his specialty, and to develop an interest and the 
process and habit of proper thinking in his particular subject-matter. 
This is the period, too, when the change of teachers brings the inter- 
est and the comparison needed in the education of youth. In this field 
it is desirable that both men and women be represented ; and the 
most important thing here is great teachers — strong, magnetic, win- 
ning, sympathetic personalities. This is not the period of research 
but that of entering upon one's racial experience and developing a 
many-sided interest. 

(3) The third stage is that of the adult, and the kind of edu- 
cation should be neither that of childhood nor of youth, but that of 
mature manhood and womanhood. It should be independent in char- 
acter and motive, productive, investigative, or professional and voca- 
tional. The matter, the method, and the purpose should differ from 
those of the elementary school of childhood or of the liberal educa- 
tion of youth. 

This is the time and the kind of educational work when neither 
the permanent influence of the elementary teacher nor the strong and 
magnetic special teacher is the important factor. Here the student be- 
comes self-motived and needs a teacher as a guide or as a helper, 
especially in research work, only when insuperable difficulties arise. 
This is the period of research for the few, and of professional and 
vocational preparation for the many. The student here is self-de- 
termined, and the sex of the teacher as such is not a material factor. 

Our Problem 
To determine the time, the proper material, the method, and the 
means of giving these three fundamentally different kinds of education, 
so there will be harmony and system in the whole course and as little 
loss of time and life as possible, is a fundamental educational prob- 
lem in America and in North Dakota. At present there is too much 
dabbling in subjects without purpose or result, pursuing courses and 
never getting results — either subjective or objective ; moving in the di- 
rection of diminishing instead of increasing returns ; and never reach- 
ing either the liking-point or the point of efficiency. Both the high 

388 The Quarterly Journal 

school and the college are attempting to do the same work, and have 
the same aim. This results in too much shifting of responsibility, 
too much overlapping and duplication, too much starting and 
stopping anywhere and every^where along the road, and too many 
undertakings begun and abandoned without any measurable result. 

Our Specific Defect 

I would direct your attention to this specific defect in our pres- 
ent secondary and college education. Let us, for the present, agree 
that our elementary education covers fairly well the first period re- 
ferred to — the period of childhood — tho many would claim that a 
year or more is lost or bungled in our eight-5Tar elementary system. 
Kansas City and Richmond have completed the elementary education 
in seven years — Kansas City in seven years of eight months each. 

It is when we come to the education of youth — the second period 
referred to — that we find confusion, cross purposes, and a woful lack 
of clear aims and efficient means. Nearly every subject of study that 
is taken up and prosecuted in the high school is begun over again in 
college. Pupils in the high school begin Latin, German, French, 
Spanish, and Scandinavian, and other students begin these in college. 
English, both in its structural aspect and in its literary content, is 
studied thruout the grades; it is repeated again — and properly — in a 
more comprehensive manner in the high school ; but, strange to say, we 
think — and find — it necessary to compel students in college to buckle 
on their armor for a new effort, often without a new interest, and go 
over again both the form and much of the content. There is scarce- 
ly a single field of study in high school that is not covered again in 
college and in much the same way. It is true that alegbra and plane 
geometry are not yet college courses, tho they might be so considered 
just as logically as many that are : indeed I feel sure that algebra and 
geometry would be as difficult and indeed as profitable for a college 
senior who did not have them before, as are many of the courses he 
now takes. In my boyhood days the first four years of Latin were 
below college grade and were considered mere high school studies; 
now first-year Latin, like the first year of other foreign languages, is 
accredited as of college grade ; and as it is elective it might be taken 
by juniors and seniors. And just as the college has introduced into 
its own curriculum the subjects already in the high-school, with a view 
to a liberal education, so the high school is introducing, more and 
more, with the same end in view, the elements of subjects once consid- 
ered of college grade only, like economics and sociolog}\ Thus the 
high school is saying to the college, "What you can do we can do : 
probably in a more elementary way; but what is good for jou must 

An Educational Problem 389 

be good for us." And the college is saying, in many cases, "What 
you do we ought to do also ;" and in many cases it is saying — if not 
in word, yet in act — "we ought to do it over again." 

The College View of the High School 

Such repetition would almost remind one of the older concep- 
tion, that God made a mistake in the creation of mankind and at- 
tempted to right it by a flood : He found that his handiwork was such 
a bad job that he had to drown the human race and make a new start ! 
Many colleges and universities, I think, really have this conception 
of high school work. We have seen the fallacy of this here at the 
University and have shaped our courses so as to give credit to high 
school work. But some professors say that it makes no difference 
whether a student has had a course in high school or not: he should 
be put in the same class with those who have never studied the subject 
before : in fact I have heard the claim made that the student is prefer- 
able who never dabbled (as they say) in the subject in high school. 
And yet in many cases the high school teacher can bring his pupils and 
the subject into as vital touch as can the college specialist. Often 
the high school instructor is as well equipt, in fact ; and sometimes he 
received his very training under the college man who discredits him 
and his work. Another pet fallacy of the college man is that he can 
teach twice as much of a subject and carry his class twice as far along 
the road in a year as can the high school instructor. This may be true 
in a few subjects, but it is without much foundation in most courses, 
and in some it does not hold at all. 

On the Same Job 

And so, both the high school and the college are working on the 
same job, with exactly the same aim, and if they have not the same 
methods they should have, as the subject-matter and the aim are the 
same. We have, then, two parts of our educational system — the high 
school and the college — performing the same function : giving a liberal 
education during the period of youth. 

We have only one agency, the elementary school professing to 
cover the period of childhood. It may be, as we said, that there are 
defects in this, and that some time is wasted. It may be that the 
transformation and development called elementary education, which 
should extend up to the adolescent period — to about the age of thir- 
teen — could be accomplisht in seven years instead of eight. But there 
is, at least, only one plan, one kind of agency, one elementary school 
system, locally supported and conducted, but stimulated by the state. 

But there are two supplementary if not competing agencies at- 

390 The Quarterly Journal 

tempting to give a liberal education to youth : the high school and the 
college. These, as we said, have the same aim, offer the same sub- 
ject-matters and in practically the same way. This is especially true 
of the present high school and the freshman and sophomore years in 
college. In this period of youth the pupils in the high school get a 
mere smattering of a number of subject-matters; they make a small 
beginning in many things, and when they go to college they either 
avoid these subjects or are compelled to go over them in much the 
same way. These two agencies, the one supplementary or repeating 
the other, complete the work of a liberal education, in eight years, at 
about the age of twenty-two. As there is probably a loss of one year 
in the elementary school, there is probably a loss of another year, 
if not two, in the education of youth — in the liberal education which 
the high school and the college together attempt to give. 

One Agency, not Two 

There ought to be one well organized educational agency, with 
one quite definite field, a similar method, and one dominant aim, for 
this period of liberal education, whatever this agency, this institution, 
should be called. It would play upon the mind, the heart, and the 
hand of youth by means and methods, as well as thru subject-matters, 
radically different from those of the elementary school — the school of 
childhood. In this period we are dealing with people blossoming out 
into young manhood and womanhood ; they are men and women in 
spirit and in aspiration, but they are not yet launched upon life for 
themselves and can not yet be left to their own judgment, resources, in- 
itiative, and aims, for they have not sufficient maturity and experience. 
They are entering upon their social inheritance as well as fashioning 
their psychological and biological inheritance in view of the future. 
They are in the plastic and growing period but have not yet reached 
the maturity of independent adults — that will be the third and final 
stage. In this period of youth, ending at twenty-two at present, the 
same results could well be accomplisht by one efficient educational 
agency at about the age of twenty, if stopping and starting, mere 
browsing, and useless repetition were eliminated. 

The Secondary School 

As we said there are now two institutions, under different man- 
agements and different authorities, engaged on the task and in the func- 
tion of liberal education for the period of youth. The former is called 
the "high school" with reference to the elementary school. It will 
be noticed that in recent years the tendency is to call the work of 
high school "secondary" education, and the high school itself is fre- 

An Educational Problem 391 

quently called the "secondary" school. One may well wonder if this 
is not the name preferred by the higher institutions, for with them 
the high school and its education are regarded as secondary to them- 
selves and the education they give. The word primary may mean first 
in order or first in importance ; but the word secondary usually means 
second in importance, or rank. There should be no such connotation, 
and there would be none if the administration, the organization, the 
function, and the aim of education during that period were one. 

Bound to Come 

It seems to me that the recent widespread desire for education and 
the enormous attendance at the higher institutions thruout the country 
are bound to force some such solution. Dr. Wm- W. Folwell, when 
president of the University of Minnesota, like the clear-visioned seer 
that he was and still is, foresaw and advocated such a policy; and 
President Harper of the University of Chicago was zealous in his 
advocacy of something of the same kind. 

An Appropriate Name 

What the one unified institutional agency for effecting this 
liberal education of youth should be called I do not know. It would 
not make so much difference about the name if it were characterized 
by unity, system, and efficiency. Nor would the work done in this 
period of youth necessarily need to be done in one building, in one city, 
in one particular institution, or in one state. The oneness should be in 
the aim, the function, the authority, and the standards. As it is now, 
one part of this education of youth is accomplisht in the high school, 
almost entirely under local management, and another in the colleges, 
under state control : I am referring to state systems. The former part 
is often divided again into the junior and senior high school; and the 
latter, sometimes into the junior college and the senior college. The 
high school parts are under one administration and the college parts 
under another. 

I look to see the day come when every state, either as a state or 
in co-operation with local units, will establish numerous institutions 
for the purpose of affording convenient opportunities for youth to get 
this liberal education. Probably the best name yet suggested for such 
institutions would be "People's Colleges.". Their curricula would be 
of different lengths depending on local needs, local willingness, and 
local ability, the most advanced reaching to about the beginning of the 
junior year in college. Such an institution might have two parts: 
the "junior college" of three years covering the rather critical ado- 
lescent age, and the "senior college" of four years; both continuous, 

392 The Quarterly Journal 

consistent, and correlated — two parts, instead of four, of one domi- 
nantly state agency. The junior part might well have a large element 
of the pre-vocational in it. 

Applied in North Dakota 

How the new organization of this education would be realized 
in North Dakota would be a problem for many heads, in conference 
and in co-operation. I merely suggest a few feasible plans at this time : 

(i) One would be for the state to assume a partnership with 
a local community, and, thru uniform legislation and conditions, 
extend the present high school curriculum in half a dozen of the 
best and most convenient centers of population and travel in the state, 
so that these would become full-fledged people's colleges, and state 
institutions, all working under uniform regulations and standards. 

(2) Another plan would be to make the normal schools people's 
colleges, adding to the professional curriculum — which would remain 
undisturbed in aim and content — a curriculum also in general edu- 
cation extending onward from the elementary school so as to give 
the complete liberal education of youth. 

(3) Or the two plans might be combined, and in fact our 
whole present high school system made, in large part, a state system, 
the different cities or localities offering as much of the people's college 
curriculum as would meet all economic and educational demands, 
just as many towns now give only a portion of the high school course. 
This would make all superintendents, principals, and high school 
teachers state officials in the people's colleges, with a more professional 
and permanent tenure, and more free from the whims or local issues 
of all kinds- It would make for greater efficiency by giving the ex- 
pert and the professional man and woman more freedom and a better 

Relieves Congestion 

There would be no objection to the retention of the freshman 
and sophomore years in the present higher institutions in this or any 
other state, so long as room and other facilities can be offered. But 
just as soon as the attendance in universities becomes congested — and 
this begins below — the tendency would be for young people to attend 
their nearest people's college during the j^ears now corresponding to 
our freshman and sophomore years. Indeed this is now being sug- 
gested as the only feasible solution in some states. The congested uni- 
versities will then drop their freshman class first, and later, if neces- 
sary, the sophomore class, the work of which would be relegated to 
the people's colleges. 

An Educational Problem 393 

The People's College Curriculum 
The curriculum of the People's College would secure the follow- 
ing results: 
Vernacular : 

1 . Ability to write English with reasonable facility and accuracy. 

2. The theory of written English (its grammar and rhetoric). 

3. A satisfactory account and appreciation of American litera- 


4. A satisfactory account and appreciation of English literature. 

5. Reasonable proficiency on the typewriter. 
Science : 

1. A satisfactory understanding of chemistry. 

2. A satisfactory understanding of physics. 

3. A satisfactory understanding of biology (including the theory 

of evolution.) 

4. A satisfactory understanding of human physiology and hy- 


5. A satisfactory understanding of bacteriology. 
Social Science : 

1. A comprehensive understanding of the world's history. 

2. A comprehensive understanding of American history. 

3. A comprehensive understanding of the American government. 

4. A satisfactory understanding of economics. 

5. A satisfactory understanding of sociology. 
Mathematics : 

1 . A good grasp of elementary algebra. 

2. A good grasp of plane geometry. 
Foreign Language: 

A comprehensive grasp of some one foreign language — the 
grammar, the writing, and translation at sight. 
Psychology and Philosophy: 

1. A good understanding of psychology. 

2. A good understanding of ethics- 

3. A good understanding of logic. 
Bookkeeping : 

A comprehensive understanding of bookkeeping. 
Home Economics: 

Proficiency in home economics by girls. 

The above curriculum would represent as much as the B. A. 
degree does now and could be accomplisht in seven years. 

In the main and without going into academic or administrative 
details to any extent, I would say that a liberal education should in- 

394 The Quarterly Journal 

elude, substantiallj', the completion of some such thoro and stand- 
ardized curriculum as the foregoing. I should not allow the letter 
to kill the spirit. Reasonable substitutions should be made, and var- 
iations from this standard should be allowed for good and sufficient 
reasons. No kind of a curriculum or rule should be allowed to ad- 
minister itself automaticaly. This would be using the student as a 
means for the curriculum as an end, instead of vice versa. Indeed I 
would waive proficiency in one or two of the groups mentioned, for 
marked proficiency in music, art, or other fields, as substitutes- 
While grades of some kind might be given "in course," the cer- 
tificate of completion, degree, or other evidence, should be granted 
only on a comprehensive examination by an examining board, some- 
what similar to the plan for admission to practise law or medicine. 
Such a board would be the examining agency of higher education in 
the state. The curriculum and the examining board would be the 
unifying and integrating factors. 

Larger Things 
Whatever may be the limits and the agency provided for this 
period of general cultural education, between the elementary school 
of childhood and the higher and professional education for full-grown 
manhood and womanhood, it should be freed from pettiness of all 
kinds and mesured by real standards of life and efficiency. The test 
should not be merely so many credits in some field of study, but 
whether or not the student has an "easy mind" in that field ; whether 
he is reasonably at home in it and has developt an interest and an 
efficiency in it. The present method of finding out whether a student 
has so many credit-hours in this and in that upon the books and then 
giving him a degree accordingly, whether or not he has forgotten all 
about the subject and lost all interest in it — if he does not hate it — 
is certainly artificial if not absurd. 


Elementary education would thus be entirely local with state 
stimulation; the people's college would be half local and half state; 
and the higher and professional education would be altogether a state 
function. But all could be co-ordinated laterally and correlated 
vertically so as to encourage and realize the greatest convenience 
and the greatest efficiency for a vastly increased number of young 
people. It would thus conduce not only to better education but to 
the wider dissemination of higher education, and hence to greater 
leadership and good, intelligent citizenship. 

A Constitutional Convention 

We should have in North Dakota, within the next few years, 

An Educational Problem 395 

a constitutional convention, in which education and its fundamental 
concepts and means should be clearly but briefly set forth. P^ducation 
in all its phases should receive due attention in such a convention, 
for it is vital to the life of the state. I should like to see some educa- 
tional students and specialists sent as delegates to such a convention ; 
for the shaping of fundamental educational policies should be in the 
hands of educational experts and not left to those who have had little 
or no practical experience in educational matters and no reflective 
study on the principles and problems of education. Such a conven- 
tion should have a general sprinkling of experts and specialists in var- 
ious fields, education among them. 

A Preliminary Educational Conference 
As a preliminary to such a constitutional convention there should 
be a survey by representative experts and a conference of the leaders 
in all the special fields of education, continuing for a week or ten days, 
to focus the best educational thought of the state and to formulate 
it or at least to give a basis for intelligent procedure on the part of the 
constitutional convention to follow. Then, regardless of minor dif- 
ferenecs — which are ahvays stumbling blocks — all educational interests 
should stand together, shoulder to shoulder, and give North Dakota 
the best educational system of any state in the Union. 

The Countryside of Brittany 

Wallace N. Stearns, 

Professor of Biblical Literature and History, 
McKendree College, Lebanon, Illinois 

The visitor to a far country is first imprest by a strangeness in 
surroundings. Too often, Visitor becomes Critic, and all about is to 
him moss-grown, bizarre or vulgar so far as it departs from familiar 
standards. And often, too, Visitor is right, for no one country can 
claim all virtues, and Goldsmith's Traveler finds every man content, 
from Pole to Equater. All lands and peoples have their compensa- 

Brittany is a land thrust out into mid-ocean and forgotten. 
Finisterre is Land's-end. From the thirteenth century to near the 
close of the fifteenth, the Channel was what the Mediterranean had 
been and the Atlantic was to be — the center of the world's activities. 
But the line from London to Paris ran thru Normandy, the home of 
William the Conqueror. Brittany, isolated and apart, continued 
a lone child of the sea. A student of the map of Europe will note 
that the west coast once stretcht far into the Ocean including Great 
Britain and her five thousand islands. Seine then flowed down the 
Channel and out to sea: Rhine swallowed up the Thames and con- 
tinued its way, perchance far out beyond the Orkneys. 

Then began that long series of wanderings, that commenced 
not ten nor fifteen centuries ago, but thousands of years before our 
era. Successive migrations drove their predecessors further seaward : 
time, storm, and ocean carved the shores ever deeper: to-day we find 
scattered fragments of peoples akin but each unique in its setting. 
Of such are Welsh and Breton. 

That Brittany has long been occupied is evident from the im- 
portant links in that megalithis route that binds Wiltshire to India. 
The great monoliths of Carnac, not to mention others, that have been 
attributed to saintly curse and to Druid are older even than Stone- 
henge and date to neolithic man. From stoneman to Celt may well 
have been a long period : just what connection between, we cannot 
tell : it was the Celts, however, that laid the foundations of modern 
France. Changes have come and changes gone, but, if the traveller 
would see old France, let him see Brittany.* 

But to get on wnth our theme. Leaving the student to pore over 
Gallouedec and Toscer, we go on to tramp thru the villages and coun- 
try-side of Brittany. And the first thought is of immobility. Wed- 

*These are the same penitential processions for man and beast. 

The Countryside of Brittany 397 

ded to its past, Brittany opposed the Revolution, not for love of Capet 
but from force of inertia- To-day, ax and mattock are as they ever 
were; huge two-wheeled carts still lumber the roads; clapper-heeled 
sabots still clatter on the pavements of the towns; the pious peasant 
still crosses himself before the highway shrine; there are the same 
penitential processions for man and beast; women wear the same 
quaint costumes, and the same superstitions grip the country-folk that 
held centuries ago. Brest, chief city, is approximately eighty-five 
thousand : from St. Malo sailed Jacques Cartier to discover Canada. 
To-day these are closed ports. 

Nor has Brittany, when called, refused her quota to the nation's 
defence whether by land or sea. Afloat on every ocean, at war in 
every zone, as soon as released, like passenger pigeons they seek once 
more the quiet ways of their Brittany. And it is a beautiful country, 
too, tho so different from what we have been wont to see. 

As one gazes into the faces of the country-folk, one understands 
how between wharves that groan under their burden and these coun- 
try-folk, there can exist such a void. The phantasy of the lotus-eat- 
ters takes on life. 

It is a land of contrasts. One face bears every mark of culture 
and refinement ; the next one is the square, stolid face of the peasant. 
We see more readily how the sturdy peasant farmers could glean their 
harvests amid the storm of falling shells. On one side is a beautiful 
chateau filled with the works of art and bearing every mark of lux- 
ury. On the other hand stand rows of square, stone structures devoid 
of all modern comforts, standing as they have stood since the days 
of the kings, without suggestion of beauty save as distance blends 
them as a spot of gray into the richly-hued landscape. In the bleak 
days of the winter rains, these shells look drear enough. "Man re- 
quires but little here below". If you would know how little, study 

On this early morning stroll Visitor meets old women bent 
down under loads of rags or fagots that may net a few sous. Men 
and women canter along under loads of fagots, lumber, slate, laundry 
or what-not, or, perchance, yoked to a cart by ropes passing over the 
shoulders and with a dog in harness as a cartfellow. Horses hitched 
tandem draw great barrels of wine, loads of fagots that in America 
would go into the garden fire, garbage for the pigs, and produce for the 
city market, where the products of garden and dairy are spread out 
for the city-dweller to buy- A lively scene it is! With more ani- 
mation than would suffice for a fight, vender and buyer haggle over 
the price, reaching, perchance, after a half-hour's bantering a reduc- 

398 The Quarterly Journal 

tion of a half-dozen sous. If it is still early morning, there go troop- 
ing everywhere girls and children from the bakery with rolls of crusty 
French bread carried like cordwood without wrapping of any sort, 
delicious despite associations. Is it poverty or contentment? To want 
nothing is wealth : to have nothing is liberty. 

A visit to the homes is full of interest: one straight roof covers 
all, from family down to pigs, the latter serving as buffer between 
family and outside world. An interesting sight is a huge two-wheeled 
cart drawn by a cute little jackass, lost but for his ears, — the cart 
crowned by two portly dames, who could easily drink the little store 
of milk they are bringing to their customers in town. 

Every foot of the land is tilled, for in spite of the heavy earth 
fences that disfigure the landscape, every bit of soil must produce. 
And long rows of oak stumps which by summer bristle with suckers, 
are mowed off for fuel and stand like rows of bald heads until nature 
clothes them anew. Here is intensified farming, and certainly such 
cabbage and cauliflower would do credit to an exposition. And every- 
body is a connoisseur of wines. Wine shops are everj^where! And 
good Americans cajole their consciences by the pleasing fiction of 
France's bad drinking water! 

There is one luxury everywhere and enjoyed by all — fresh air. 
On the coldest, rawest days of winter, windows are wide open and 
women and children, bareheaded, are leaning out half length enjoying 
the air! No woman thinks of warm covering for the head, and 
children run about, the year round, in short skirts, short stockings, 
and bare knees. 

Cleanliness and dirt are the best of friends. There are many 
smells that are not from Arabic the blest, and yet in towns the streets 
are swept, the gutters are sewers often washed and swept, and garbage 
and oi¥al wagons are everywhere during the morning hours. No other 
people ever put up such a fight for cleanliness or came so near missing 
it. The very poor have long since ceased to be sensitive, but in the 
better homes, everything from floor to ceiling is eternally scrubbed, 
pots and dishes shine, and a Breton bed is all that fondest dreams 
could picture. 

Rosy-cheeked children and swarthy elders would seem to in- 
dicate health. And yet hearses are ever busy, the funeral crucifixes 
are always on the way to homes of sorrow, and the black hangings 
greet the eye on almost any residence street. A funeral is a deliber- 
ate affair. The horse-drawn hearse is followed by the mourners on 
foot. Hats are off, and the crowd halts, faces about, and for the 
moment pays homage to the dead. However little known in life, no 

The Countryside of Brittany 399 

man so obscure but he receives public recognition in his death. One 
sees many crippled, deformed, and disfigured, but there are compara- 
tively few beggars. What they do not have, they go without. 

Two classes of people hover around an army, the profiteer and 
the vampire. From these social monstrosities, present in every coun- 
try, the soldier too often forms his estimates, — as much a crime in 
France as in the States. After the strangeness is broken, especially 
if there be mutual knowledge of speech, Visitor finds the Breton as 
kind and hospitable as he is simple-minded. He stands ready to show 
any favor, and when one realizes the hard life of the people, one for- 
gives the widespread interest in "beaucoup" francs. Those of us who 
are ready to criticize may well remember that for three years before 
America went into the war, Americans bled Europe for indispensable 
commodities. War struck deep into the very heart of France, and 
disagreeable as experiences may be, a broader view will show an aver- 
age of which the real Breton need not be ashamed. 

Whatever else may be said of him, the Breton is deeply relig- 
ious. In the case of many it is rather superstition. Long before his 
visitors are up, the Breton is astir and on the way to mass. The 
church is never entirely vacant tho, perhaps, seldom crowded. Re- 
ligious holidays abound, and the frequent "Calvaries" are thronged 
with penitents as well as tourists. In creations of stone and land- 
scape that symbolize the closing scenes in the life of our Lord, the 
Breton finds his real existence. Plougastel-Sainte Bune I'Aura and 
Saint Nazaire are only the more famous of many examples. Less en- 
lightened than his Parisian neighbor, the simple Breton is possest of 
a faith that grips his very soul : it is not a possession but an obsession. 

Nor are these festivals wholly sombre- Like all Frenchmen, 
the Bretons have a sense of humor. In spite of hardship, they enjoy 
life. Arm in arm, men and women, they go singing down the streets. 
Arranged in their gayest attire, they assemble to feast and dance. 
Nor is the presence of the padre any damper to their feelings. They 
need little, they care less, and future needs worry them least. There 
is a Gallic sentiment that prompts them to give a copper to the stray 
beggar. Life to them is a common fortune or misfortune. Poor in- 
deed is he who cannot get a chunck of black bread and a bottle of 
some kind of cheap wine — at least cognac, which besides assuaging 
thirst drowns thoughts of trouble. 

Leisure is a prime essential in the life of the Breton. A Saint's 
day, a national holiday, even the arrival of President Wilson on 
French shores, and down go the shutters and business is ofif. Visitor 
finds as he returns to his lodgings that the door-key rotates twice 

400 The Quarterly Journal 

before he can enter. That the door should swing on the first click 
of the lock is unthinkable. There are few apostles of the strenuous 

A final query is economic — land holding and cooperation. The 
Breton is a little jealous of his inner life and a little skill is necessary 
to gain information. But most Breton farmers own their little lots 
and buildings, and so far are capable of a sturdy independence that to 
no small degree adds to contentment and atones for lack of comforts. 
And what is almost unique in agriculture, the farmers work together 
on a cooperative plan whereby the common good is the mutual welfare. 
It is an austere life he leads, ^t country-man of Brittany, yet 
not at all unlovely. Art galleries in the towns bear witness to his 
love of the beautiful, and libraries declare that learning is no stranger- 
Grim ocean and the frequent fishing fleet that never returns, gaunt 
disease that seems ever lurking near, and ceaseless battle with a climate 
that breeds more storm than sunshine, all tend to produce a nature 
that lies deep tho belied by the stolid exterior. Poesy is no stranger 
as many a literary gem attests. It was a Breton poet who wrote: 
"Le Beau, c'est vers le Bien un sentier radieux, 
C'est le vetement d'or qui la pare a nos yeux." 
Lamennais was from St. Malo, Brizeux from Lorient, Renan 
from Treguier. It was Renan who, as death drew near said: "II 
n'y a rien de plus naturel que de mourir. Acceptons la loi de 
I'univers." Corot died in Brest. Bretons w^ere Linois, Botrel, Cam- 
bronne, Le Flo, Begin, Bisson, Bedeau, Lamoriciere, Laennec, Sou- 
vestre, Simon, Rousseau, and Chateaubriand whose tomb on the 
cliffs at St. Malo seems to typify so aptly the manner of life of Brit- 
tany — child of the sea. "II est la, dans une hautaine solitude et dans 
la double immensite de la mort et le I'Ocean." 

It is no unusual sight to see a saboted peasant, his wooden shoes 
stuffed with straw for socks, seated on a park bench, mouth ajar, 
forgetful of the world, intent upon bit of statuary.* It is Gallouedec 
who sounds the high note of Brittany's best: 

"Aujourd 'hui, tout change. Par lambeaux successifs s'en vont 
ta langue, tes legendes, tes traditions, tes costumes, tes vieux usages. 
Mais une chose t'est restee, et c'est ton caractere. Garge-le jalouse- 
ment: c'est de lui que decoulent ton originalite profonde et ce qui 
fait ta vraie gloire." 

*That the Bretons can love art, their g-alleries show; anJ the pottery 
and laces of Brittany are famous for their novelty and beauty. 

College Preparation and Success 

In Life 

(Dedicated to each first year class in the University of North Dakota) 

Lauriz Vold^ 
Associate Professor of Law, University of North Dakota 

One of my earliest experiences upon entering college was to 
witness a reunion of alumni on some festal occasion. I v.'itnest the 
procession of a large column of men, wearing their caps and gowns, 
marching to the accompaniment of a military band. The procession 
came to a halt and the men all joined in singing their college song 
which they had so fervently sung on their graduation. "Fair Harvard, 
thy sons to thy Jubilee throng, and with blessings surrender thee o'er. 
By these festival rites, from the age that is past, to the age that is 
waiting before." The alumni upon their graduation surrendered 
their college to the age that was waiting before. What was that age ? 
Plainly enough the age that was waiting before was the undergraduate 
body, and included the Freshman class of which I was one. The 
significance of my situation began to dawn on me. The college was 
in my hands. 

We went to the first meeting of the Freshman class. We didn't 
have any general convocation. Professor Parker, in greeting tlie 
Freshman class, said that he approached us with a feeling of rever- 
ence. We laughed at him, we were yet so green we didn't suspect 
we were worthy of that great man's reverence. Then he explained 
that he was not joking but was in dead earnest, that he was thinking 
of the great achievements which would be ours by and by. As an 
illustration he mentioned that President Roosevelt, as he then was, 
was once a student at Harvard just as we were now, and now he had 
become president of the United States. He mentioned that Governor 
Guild was once a student at Harvard just as we were now, and now 
he had become governor of the state of Massachusetts. He referred 
to the fact that students now in college uniformly became the great 
men of the future in all lines of useful endeavor. 

Students now in college uniformly become the great men of the 
future in all lines of useful endeavor. There we have it. Our 
alumni surrender the college to the incoming generations of under- 
graduates with so much satisfaction because among those under- 
graduates of today are the great men of tomorrow. Not all presidents 
of the United States to be sure are Harvard men. Ex-President Taft 

402 The Quarterly Journal 

h a grr.duate oi Yale, and President Wilson is a graduate of Prince- 
ton. All of the presidents, however, have in these later times been 
college graduates, and were in their time undergraduates, even as 
you and 1. They were students in college who became the great men 
of the future. If we look at the records of the great war the same 
story is prest upon us. Every great leader in every line of war work 
was a man of education, and even most of the officers were college 
trained men. Among these leaders, I am proud to say, was a large 
percentage of North Dakota college men. 

I am going to make a local as well as a general application of 
the principle that students now in college become the great men of 
the future. There are men on the faculty of the University of NoTth 
Dakota today who remember the time when Governor Frazier Avas 
a student here". There are men on the faculty who remember the 
time when Attorney Gerieral Langer \vas a student here. There are 
men on the faculty ^rho remember the time when Mr. Steffanson was 
a student here. We have fair reason to hope that there are meri on 
the faculty today who some years hence will remember this day. They 
\v\\\ have occasion to remember this day when some student now' in 
college in the University of North Dakota shall have become the 
President of the United States. In the time during which I have 
been a member of the faculty- — not so many years — I have already 
begun to experience the pleasure of seeing my good former students 
becoming men of importance in the community. I have already had 
the pleasure not only of seeing some of them in positions of responsi- 
bility in different departments of the state government, but of having 
them talk over with me the duties of their new positions. I can 
therefore testify to the personal pleasure which it affords to the 
faculty to see their students doing well — the gratification afforded to 
the University by seeing that its sons, now in college, become the 
great men of the future. 

Those who become great start on the road to greatness in the 
plastic and vigorous years of youth. The most conspicuous case of 
youthful achievement knov/n to recorded history is the story of Our 
Lord Jesus, who at the age of 12 gave instruction in the temple and 
at the age of 2>Z ^^^ finisht his earthly ministry. The extent of his 
influence upon the lives of men has been and is beyond the power of 
words to describe. With ordinary mortals every great man of every 
age has laid the foundations for achievement while still a young man. 
Alexander the Great was a great king, as kings went. He achieved 
his greatness and died while still a young man, but his power to 
achieve was developt while he was still a boy. His greatest victory 

College and Success in Life 403 

was not his victory over Darius the Persian, but rather his victory, 
while still a boy, over the refractory horse which he resolved to over- 
come regardless of the difficulty. President Wilson has been account- 
ed one of the greatest men of the present age. The qualities which 
gave him his greatness he developt in his youth. There is hardly a 
man in public life today whose education has been so thoro, so all- 
sided, and so fruitful, as President Wilson's. He took honors in his 
college work, won prizes for research, excelled in oratory, and even 
won recognition as a football player and football coach. That educa- 
tion which President Wilson acquired as a young man he has in 
recent years been applying to the distressing affairs of an acutely 
distrest practical world. 

We have recently had an interesting local demonstration of the 
fact that the start toward success must be made in the vigorous years 
of youth.* I have recently been checking up the records of success 
or failure of the members of the bar now practising in North Dakota. 
I have looked at their success in practise from several angles, noting 
how many of them got cases at all to handle, if they got cases how 
many cases did they get, and finally, of the cases they got how many 
cases did they win. Looking at success in the practise of law in the 
light of these factors, it appears that the young man who has begun 
his actual practise of law at about the age of 25 years has had, on the 
whole, the greatest professional success. The young man who has not 
|f got around to begin his actual practise till he was from 30 to 35 years 

old has failed to equal his younger brother's success by a margin of 
from 15 to 25 per cent, while the man who started out still later in 
life, from 35 to 40 years old, has failed to equal his younger competi- 
tor's success by a margin of about 50 per cent. Power to achieve 
results is what counts. To develop that power you must make the 
start while still in the vigor of youth. If you do not start while you 
are yet young you will reach, not the high road which leads to success, 
but the by-way which leads to the melancholy land of lost opportuni- 
ties. In good old didactic language, "the time to get started is now." 
It would be a mistake to jump to the conclusion that one ought 
to leave college to get started toward success in his life career. The 
place to start is right now in college. It is unnecessary, here, to 
elaborate upon the benefits of a college education. Suffice it to say 
that there are two general classes of students to be met with in every 
college. The one class receives a diploma upon graduation, and 

•The data regarding the success in practice achieved by North Dakota 
lawyers, referred to from time to time in this article, I have set out at 
length, with detailed comments and explanations, in 33 Harvard Law 
Review, 168-197. 

404 The Quarterly Journal 

thenceforth we call its members graduates. The other receives no 
diploma upon leaving college. Instead of graduating, its members 
quit. One class develops into graduates, the other class develops into 
quituates- Almost without exception the men who achieve success 
worthy of the name, if they enter college at all, persist until they are 
graduated. From the ranks of quituates have come very few indeed 
of the men who have achieved distinction. For those who enter 
college, graduation indicates collegiate success, quituation indicates 
collegiate failure, and the same fortune holds true in strikingly large 
mesure with those men in their work in after life. 

The essential difference between the graduate and the quituate 
is strikingly illustrated by two characters in Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress. One may recall that on his way to Mount Zion Christian 
was entertained and instructed for a time at the house of the Inter- 
preter. One of the things Christian saw there was the scene of the 
two little boys Passion and Patience. Passion wanted his enjoyment 
right away now. Patience was willing to wait for his till the appointed 
time. Passion got his joy at once, the governor giving him a bag 
of rich treasures for which he was pining. Passion rejoiced at the 
treasure and laughed Patience to scorn, but he had soon squandered 
his treasure and had nothing left but rags. Patience, on the other 
hand, in the appointed time entered into the inheritance eternal. 
Passion wanted to have his pleasure now, thinking nothing of the 
future; Patience was willing to endure the present trouble and post- 
pone his enjoyment to the better day. Like Passion and Patience in 
the story, so with the quituate and the graduate in college. The 
quituate plays for his own enjoyment while here in college, letting the 
future blissfully take care of itself. The graduate works soberly while 
in college in order that he may develop the power to win the reward 
of future achievement. The one makes his studies the chief occupa- 
tion of his college life. The other doesn't let his studies interfere with 
his college education but tacitly approves of the motto, "never a look 
inside of a book for four years at the U." To put it in simpler form, 
both are equally busy, but while the graduate is working the quituate 
is playing. 

As a mathematical demonstration that success attends college 
graduates in a much larger mesure than it attends college quituates, 
I may refer again to the record of the lawyers practising in North 
Dakota. Among them the group composed of college graduates has 
won by far the greatest average of success in actual practise. Next 
to the college graduates come those lawyers who have never attended 
college at all. Last of all come the college quituates, thirty per cent 

College and Success in Life 405 

behind the college graduates in their success in practise. 

The difference between the graduate and the quituate in the 
way in which they do their work is especially important to some of 
the young ladies who come to the University. Who is the most 
admirable joung man you meet? He must be a fellow who now is 
nice, of course — and strong. He must be willing to call often, stay 
late, and sit close, and must always bring boxes of candy. You know 
all girls love candy. 

But suppose yourself married to that man. He ought to be a 
breadwinner. Unless he is a man who does his regular college work 
at kast up to graduation average he will make a poorer living than 
the fellow who didn't come to college at all. Moonlight and kisses 
are under certain circumstances very pleasant. You might even seem 
to subsist on them for a time. Without a roof over your head, how- 
ever, when the storms of winter come, the kisses will turn to growls 
and the moonlight will be hidden in mist and snow. To keep the 
kisses forever sweet, and to keep the moonlight ever clear, you need 
the accessory of a cosy fireside in a home you can call your own. If 
you choose a college man, look not only at his boxes of candy, and 
the charming figure he makes at the Junior Prom. Look also at his 
scholarship record, to see what chances there are of your getting that 
cozy fireside at which to be ever warmed and comforted during the 
cold and dark and bitter days ahead. 

That preparation is what leads to success may be indefinitely 
illustrated from every line of human endeavor. It applies, for 
example, to athletic sports as well as to intellectual achievement. The 
football team which is best prepared usually wins the championship 
game. I well remember the Yale-Harvard game of 1908, at which 
we vi'on over Yale for the first time in seven years. While I wasn't 
a good enough player to be in the game myself, I was "thru the mill" 
in practise developing the men and the plays which finally won the 
championship. I remember that game with the greater satisfaction 
because in all the years that have elapsed since 1908 Yale has beaten 
us only twice. In preparation for the Yale game we had, of course, 
some rather serious and severe preparation. The odds were regarded 
as against us when we went into the game, but we played hard upon 
our preparation. Our forward pass to Fish, our tall tackle, failed 
to w»rk. As our Yale friends had been too careful in watching what 
we were doing during the season to overlook that dangerous device 
they always kept Fish well covered. However, by using VerWiebe, an 
elusive ground gainer, we made some long gains early in the game and 

came pretty near the Yale goal line. As the forward pass to Fish 

406 The Quarterly Journal 

would not work, we had to take VerWiebe out at this juncture to put 
in our drop kicker to make a drop kick over the goal, which he did at 
once, and we scored by that means our four points. Yale then started 
to play furiously to return our score with a touchdown which would 
give them six points and win the game. Our groundgainer, Ver- 
Wiebe, under the rules then prevailing could not again go into the 
game. While Yale couldn't gain thru our line, they relied entirely 
upon their punting. Their fullback, Ted Coy, was a great punter. 
We couldn't consistently run the punts completely back, and had no 
man in action vrho could make the right kind of return punts to even 
up the game. We, therefore, lost three or four yards on every 
exchange until we were practically at our own goal line and the Yale 
stands were yelling themselves hoarse calling for a touchdown to 
win the game. Our coach then quickly sent in young Spraguc, a man 
who could punt but couldn't play well. He booted the ball way down 
the field and out of danger. He v/as as quickly taken out again and a 
substitute who could better handle general play was put in in his 
stead. Before our Yale friends could repeat their successive punting 
offensive the game ended, and we went home victorious. We had 
finally won the Yale game, and the way we had won it was not by 
any new inspiration at the moment but by making use of the special 
preparation v»-e had received at the hands of our coaches during the 
whole of the season. It was preparation that won that football game. 
It was superior preparation that led to the coveted goal of victory. 
So far we have considered that a person ought to start early in 
life to prepare himself for the work in which he intends to win his 
success. We have also considered that in getting his preparation he 
should do his college work at least well enough to graduate. So far 
most of you will be likely to agree. 

I turn next to a question upon which there is much disagree- 
ment, not only among college students but also among members of 
college faculties, and among the public generally, — the question 
whether a student ought to be a grind. Fair consideration of the 
question is almost invariably clouded with a great deal of personal 
bias, and its difficulties increased still further by the intense heat 
developt over the controversy. You ask yourself what you think 
about whether a student ought to be a grind and you don't have tc 
hesitate in your answer. You ask anyone you meet whether a student 
ought to be a grind and he can give you an answer at once, and he 
will give it to you with the assurance of a man who knows what he 
is talking about. Ask him one more question, "how do 3'^ou know?" 
He cannot tell you. If you analyze the reasons he gives, )'0u will 

College and Success in Life 407 

usually find they are a generalized statement of his own experience, 
like the man who described his own particular habits of life as the 
customs of the community, and his own political sentiments as the 
views of the people at large in his part of the country. If you press 
him closely for the facts upon which he bases the conclusion about 
which he is so emphatic, he will tell you that this individual and that 
individual with such and such records of scholarship, whom he knows 
of personally, turned out thus and so. In the present state of educa- 
tion there isn't one man among twenty from college professors down- 
ward who can adduce any satisfactory proof whatever that his personal 
views regarding the effectiveness of the college grind in the practical 
world of life is based upon the general trend of actual facts. In most 
cases they are as likely to be based upon occasional isolated exceptions 
which because of their unique character have conspicuously attracted 
the attention. Hov/ prone we all are to notice and generalize from 
the exceptional I can readily illustrate by giving you this simple 
psychological demonstration with the accompanying spot on the page. 

You notice the spot which appears on this page rather than the 
part of the page which is clean. The spot is the exceptional thing, 
much smaller than the rest, but set ofi by contrast, which attracts the 
attention. So in the case of estimating the value of a grind in actual 
life. We are apt to generalize from a grind who has turned out 
poorly, or from a poor student who has turned out well, because those 
cases, being rather unexpected, strongly attract our attention. To 
reach the proper frame of mind, therefore, to consider the question in 
a reasonable and impartial way, we must get rid of the pergonal 
attitude. The ordinary individual of reasonable intelligence will 
dismiss his personal attitude about the value of the grind when he is 
reminded that his personal attitude rests upon some individual in- 
stances, that he has no means of ascertaining whether or not those 
instances are merely exceptional instances, and that the mind is very 
apt to notice the exceptional while the ordinary events pass by as un- 
seen as if they never occurred. 

Charles II, the Merry Monarch of England, with all his faults 
has unwittingly illustrated to us a device for finding out how to 
answer the question whether a grind succeeds in after life. King 
Charles, being one day in a jolly mood, as he often was, stumped the 
fawners of his court by asking them why it was that when you put 

4o8 The Quarterly Journal 

a live fish into a pan of water the weight was not increast, while if 
you put in a dead fish the weight was increast by the weight of the 
fish. Some of his courtiers suggested one reason for this striking fact, 
others suggested another, but none of the reasons were suiificiently 
convincing to win general approval. No one could quite explain how 
it was that the dead fish added more weight than the live fish. They 
therefore argued about it back and forth until it occurred to some 
of them to try the experiment, when they found out that it wasn't 
so at all. They had merely been duped for the amusement of the 
witty monarch. They had hit upon the true principle of scientific 
research, the method of demonstration by experiment. This great 
principle the noted lawyer-philosopher, Francis Bacon, has exprest 
in the pithy phrase that "things are to be determined not by arguing 
but by trying." It is to this test of the grind that I want to invite 
your attention. Instead of arguing about whether it is useful to be 
a grind rather let us observe how the class of grinds has actually suc- 
ceeded, as compared with the other less studious classes, in the battle 
of practical life. 

Educators have for some time been trying to demonstrate that 
success is in direct proportion to scholarship. Thus it has been proved 
beyond the possibility of a doubt that those who win good marks in 
high school are on the average those who win good marks in college, 
and that those who do poorly in high school are also on the average 
those who do poorly in college. Similarly, there is abundant proof 
that those who do the best work in the college course are also those 
who do the best work in the more practical studies of the professional 
schools, such as the schools of medicine, engineering, and law. The 
most striking figures upon this aspect of the case are President Lowell's 
figures from the Harvard Law School. Of those who graduated 
from college with no especial honor, only 6V2% attained distinction 
in the Law School. Of those who graduated with honor from the 
college, 22% attained distinction in the Law School; of those who 
graduated with great honor, 40% ; and of those who graduated with 
highest honor, 60%. Sixty per cent of highest honor men in college 
won distinction in the Law School. Contrast that with the men in 
college who were satisfied with grades of C and lower. Of these 
men not one man in twenty years reached distinction in the Law 

When I have from time to time referred to these figures to 
show that success in life depends on the quality of work done in 
college, I have frequently detected an attitude of scepticism toward the 
whole demonstration. The attitude of scepticism toward this sort 

College and Success in Life 409 

of proof is traceable, of course, to an instinctive feeling that the 
demonstration rests upon inapt or faulty premises. The thought fre- 
quently is that schoolmen who are in charge of such matters set up 
their own tests of success on the basis of marks, and then try to make 
everyone conform to them. The practical man of affairs, however, 
cares little or nothing about marks but looks for the achievement of 
results in the practical work-a-day world. Hence the widely prevalent 
notion that schoolmen are too theoretical, and that their ideas of 
success as reflected in marks, like all their other ideas, are too theoreti- 
cal to be seriously considered in the practical world of hard facts. 
Thus, even granting that the boy who gets the highest marks in high 
school -will be the one to get the highest marks in college and will 
continue his career of high marks in the professional schools, it hasn't 
thereby been shown that the high marks which lead to success in 
school and college also lead to success in later life. 

It has been hard for educators to answer that challenge. They 
have tried it, however, by taking the lists appearing in PFho's Who as 
tests of success in life. No one is given a place in Who's Who unless 
he has achieved some sort of success in the world. By comparing 
scholarship records with the lists appearing in Who's Mho our edu- 
cators have confirmed their original opinion that scholarship stands in 
direct relation to success in life. The following showing for 50 years 
of Harvard graduates is one illustration out of many similar studies 
based on Who's Who as a general test of success, showing the propor- 
tions from each scholarship group to attain distinction in later life. 

I- Men who led their classes — valedictorians 73% 

2. Summa cum laude 43% 

3. First ten in each class 41% 

4. Magna cum laude 20% 

5. Cum laude 17% 

6. Average of all graduates ^5% 

7. Graduates without scholastic distinction 10% 

There thus appears, taking membership in Who's Mlio as a test of 
success in later life, an easily demonstrable connection between high 
marks and later success. Our practical men of affairs, however, will 
not even admit that getting into Who's Who is any genuine criterion 
of success in life. Getting into Who's Who may indicate some sort 
of distinction, but everyone knows that there are hundreds of thousands 
of men in all walks of life who are not distinguished, but who have 
more money and property, and who live longer and happier lives than 
many of the men who have succeeded in getting mentioned in Who's 
Who. Can anyone say such men are less successful in the real work 

4IO The Quarterly Journal 

of life? As one attorney in practise said to me one time, "Getting 
into Who's Who is no better than a schoolman's test. It amounts to 
nothing as a test of success in life." 

To get the last link in the chain, so to speak, I have therefore 
carried my compilation of the data in regard to the lawyers of North 
Dakota thru the feature of their success in practise as compared with 
their scholarship records. In the case of the legal profession a practical 
test of success is easy to ascertain. If a lawyer gets no cases, of course 
he is a failure as a lawyer. If a lawyer gets cases to try, his winnings 
and his losses in court are matters of record. With success in court 
follows abundance of clients, lucrative consultation practise, and finan- 
cial success. With failure in court clients vanish, consultation practise 
disappears, and financial returns fade away. While success in court 
is not an ideal test of a lawyer's success since it but imperfectly reflects 
consultation practise, and since it ignores the larger social aspects of the 
question, yet success in court and no other is the practical test of 
success applied to the lawyer in the actual world. Success in court, 
moreover, be it noted, is not a test defined or set up by educators. It 
is the acid test of success applied by the world in general to a lawyer's 
work in practise- 

The success in court of our North Dakota lawyers herev/ith 
presented, it should be emphasized, is not based on occasional instances, 
but is the average of all the cases on record tried by attorneys admitted 
during a period extending over twelve years. It therefore represents 
not guess work based on possible exceptions, but the general trend 
based on all the cases. As compared with their scholarship records 
while studying law the success of our lawyers has been as follows, 
calling the greatest success 100%. 

Scholarship record Success in court. 
90 or above 86.50 

85-89 100.00 

80-84 80.60 

75-79 51-57 

below 75 (only 14, all told) 70.09 

Several features are at once manifest on examination of this 
table. In the first place success in court has attended the men in the 
high scholarship groups to an extraordinary degree as compared with 
the success in court of the men in the lower scholarship groups. From 
the highest degree of success to the lowest degree of success as found 
by comparison of scholarship groups, there is registered a difference 
of almost fifty per cent. Think of it. Fifty percent of the chances 
of success depending largely on the kind of application put into the 

College and Success in Life 411 

law school work. Who is there, with any reasonable intelligence, 
who would deliberately cut off one half of his chances for success by 
shirking his ordinary preparation for the race he has of his own accord 
chosen to run? The mere statement of the question carries its own 
answer. At least so far as the practise of law is concerned, the 
educators' demonstrations are no fanciful theories. Good marks in 
high school lead to good marks in college, good marks in college lead 
to good marks in the law school, and good marks in the law school 
definitely lead to success in the hard world of actual practise. 

A further remark is called for, on examination of the details of 
success in relation to scholarship groups. It will be observed that the 
proportion of success, while roughly corresponding with scholarship, 
varies from it both at the bottom and at the top of the scholarship 
scale. The group of highest scholarship has been surpast in attaining 
success, by the next scholarship group- This fact ought to serve as a 
warning to the present generation of grinds that there are some other 
things in practise, as well as in life, than mere mastery of book 
knowledge and intellectual processes. As appears at length in further 
analysis of the figures, grinds have been more successful than the next 
scholarship group in the item of winning in Supreme Court litigation, 
where the issues depend largely on intellectual power. They have 
been less successful, however, in the matter of securing cases and in 
the matter of winning in the trial courts, instances where the so-called 
human qualities, as opposed to mere intellectual power, come more 
largely into play. Severely intellectual logical processes, the grind's 
specialties, while highly useful in after life do not cover the v/hole 
field of possible achievement. Failure to recognize that limitation is 
the grind's principal handicap. 

An exaggerated instance of this defect in the grind is found in a 
story from folklore literature. It is related that Robin Goodfellow 
was once at work for a master tailor. They were preparing an 
elaborate gown for a wealthy lady of fashion, and were to have it ready 
for her the following morning. Late in the evening when there was 
left nothing but the finishing of a few trimmings, the master tailor, 
feeling very tired, told Robin Goodfellov/ to "whip them on quick", 
and himself went to bed. Robin Goodfellow did exactly as he was 
told. He hung up the gown, got a whip, and began to whip away at 
the trimmings with all his might, and not being told to stop kept up 
the exercise all night. Next morning when the wealthy lady of 
fashion came for her gown, not only was it still unfinished, but the 
cloth of which it was made was all worn to shreds by the night's 
lashing. Like some grinds, Robin Goodfellow had been too precise 

412 The Quarterly Journal 

and literal to apply his instructions successfully in the world of 
practical business in which he was trying to make a place for himself. 
He hadn't yet learned to apply the principle that "the letter Idlleth, 
but the spirit giveth life." 

From the record of the grinds the moral must be that while good 
scholarship, as evidencing or developing intellectual power, is well- 
nigh indispensible to success in practise, it should not for the greatest 
degree of success be allowed to become so one-sided as to exclude the 
ordinary human interests. This much ought in justice to be granted 
to the widely prevalent idea that the grind is too impractical to suc- 
ceed. He is not too impractical to succeed, but his success is likely to 
be greater if he mixes his grinding with some of the ordinary human 
qualities of more general interest. 

A passing remark ought also to be made on the fact that the low- 
est scholarship group surpast the next higher group when it came to 
the test of success in practise. As the numbers in this group are too 
few to afford a reliable basis for generalization the result may be re- 
garded as somewhat fortuitous, but, even so, this group failed by a wide 
margin of reaching the success attained by the high scholarship groups. 
It may be freely granted, however, that there are some other factors 
in addition to scholarship at work in securing a man's success in prac- 
tise. Thus the matters of general experience, persistence, natural 
ability, and the quality of being able to mix well in any company are 
•valuable adjuncts to a person's legal preparation in securing the high- 
est degree of success. 

As a general conclusion, then, on the relation bet\\een scholar- 
ship in preparation and success, the statement is amply justified, at 
least as applied to the practise of law, that success has been, on the 
average, roughly in proportion to the scholarship shown in preparation, 
with some slight variations from this order produced by other factors. 

If you agree with me thus far you will recognize that it is worth 
while to do the kind of work which wins good marks in college. If 
you want to win good marks consistently there is only one way to do 
so, and that way is by regularity of preparation. Merely working hard 
on your studies when the spirit moves you is not enough, if you do not 
do so regularly. The snail beat the hare to the top of the hill, not be- 
cause he could run faster, but because he kept steadily at it while the 
hare stopt to pay attention to other things, went to sleep, and forgot to 
start again in time. Without regularity in preparation a consistent 
record of good marks is impossible. It is related that King Alfred, 
the great Saxon King of early English history, made a regular program 
for each day's work, dividing his time according to notches cut in a 

College and Success in Life 413 

stick and regulated his work bj' the time it took a little fire to burn 
down the stick from notch to notch. He didn't have the convenience 
of a watch to help him keep track of the time of day but he found 
a way nevertheless to do his work in regular order and on schedule 
time. It is so easy for us to make a program of work for the college 
day that nothing but indifference or ignorance causes it to be left un- 
done. To have the best chances to do well in his work every student 
ought to make out a program of the regular day's work, assigning cer- 
tain definite time for every item of private study as well as definite 
time for recitations. The study program should be the student's 
schedule of regular business engagements, and should be kept as seri- 
ously as any other business engagement. Keeping the study program 
as a business engagement involves, of course, the requirement that 
studies take precedence over social diversions. As a noted man of bus- 
iness has once exprest it, in his advice to young men. "Do not let the 
biggest social engagement interfere with the smallest business duty." 

If we are to inquire why preparation leads to achievement, why 
high marks in college lead to success in after life, we are led back to 
the laws of nature working thru all creation of which we are a part. 
There are two great factors shaping every individual person's career 
and marking out his destiny. The one factor is his heredity ; the other 
factor is his environment. His heredity he is powerless to change. 
For good or ill, he is born of certain parents who transmit to him cer- 
tain qualities. If those qualities are good he begins with the chances 
in his favor, if those qualities are bad he begins with handicaps to o%nrr- 
come- Environment, unlike heredity, is within large limits change- 
able. If I feel too cold to be comfortable, I may put on a coat, build 
a fire, or move to southern climes. If I don't like the place in which 
I live I can, by my labor, make improvements. Which of these two 
elements, relentless heredity or changeable environment, is the more 
important has not yet been satisfactorily determined, but it is every- 
where agreed that both are active in shaping the individual's destiny. 
Bad hereditary tendencies may be counteracted, and good hereditary 
tendencies may be reinforced, by the appropriate environmental in- 
fluences. Among these environmental influences are the associations 
and habits which every person's voluntary actions in due time build up 
for him- The individual person being largely master of his own 
environment and of his own habits of life may therefore truly be said 
to be the architect of his own fortune, and on his individual responsi- 
bility to work out his own salvation or damnation. 

Repetition of processes forms a habit. Psychologists have dem- 
onstrated that the nervous system grows to the modes in which it has 

414 'J^h^ Quarterly Journal 

been exercised. The habits v^e form in our youth become the Very 
laws of our being, and for good or ill keep us going in the direction 
in which we started or which we deliberately chose in early life. As 
has been well said, already at the age of twenty-five the permanent 
outlines of character begin to appear, and by the age of thirty the char- 
acter has set like plaster and will never soften again. 

The important thing for you as students, therefore, is to make 
your nervous system your ally instead of your enemy, by acquiring 
thru regular application the habit of doing your work well during these 
your plastic years of opportunity. As you may become permanent 
drunkards by so many separate drinks, even in this land of national 
prohibition, so you may become masters and leaders in your several 
lines of endeavor by consistent, continuous application to the work 
that lies before jou. As said by our greatest American philosopher, 
William James, "Let no youth have anxiety about the upshot of his 
education, whatever the line it may be. If he keep faithfully busy 
each hour of the working day, he may safely leave the final result to 

Children's Address* 

William Edwin Stephenson, 

Minister, Plymouth Congregational Church, 
Grand Forks, North Dakota 

I The Angel Spirit 

Once upon a time there was a little Angel-spirit waiting to come 
down to earth to live, and she begged permission first to visit the 
world and see what souls were like, that she might know what kind 
of dwelling to choose. And the Archangel said : "Go, and the great 
Spirit of the Holiest be with you." So she came and began her search, 
and walking along a broad highway, saw a girl, with eyes 
agleam with the light of joy and cheeks aglow with delight, 
driving a car. The maiden was so beautiful that the little spirit 
thought she would like to live in her soul. So she flew faster 
than the car could go and went in thru those sparkling eyes 
into the maiden's heart. But oh! it was such a disappointing place, 
like a little empty house crowded with nothing but portraits and stat- 
ues of a young man, and dust and litter everywhere. And the Angel- 
spirit left disappointed. "Who would have thought that such a lovely 
girl had such an empty heart!", said she. 

So she went farther in search of an abode, and met a young man 
with fine figure, robust and strong; just the kind of soul to shelter 
a poor little spirit like her. In thru his grey eyes she darted to find 
herself in a cavern, damp and cold, with hideous creatures crawling 
ev'erywhere, making the place loathsome with evil imaginations. And 
gaunt hungry wolves prowled round ready to devour any who came in 
their way. And she turned and fled in terror, amazed that such a fine- 
looking j-oung fellow could have such a heart- 

*Kditor's Note. Do children think in the same terms as do adults? Do 
they have the .same mental pictures? When definite objective liases are 
not at hand, do they still think clearly — can they think abstractly? If 
negative answers must be given to these questions, what shall v.'e say as 
to the ordinary pulpit appeal to children? Mr. Stephenson's answers can 
be gathered from the addresses here given. In his church the very wise 
plan is followed of having the weekly session of the Sunday School 
immediately precede that of the chtirch proper — beginning at ten o'clock, 
with church service at eleven. Tt has been his custom for .some time to 
give, each Sunday morning, prior to the sermon for grown-up.s, a 
children's sermon— a very informal talk of about five minutes in length, 
discussing some of the fundamentals of Christian thought and activity. 
An appropriate song follows during which the children are at liberty to 
withdraw if thev desire. The addresses given here are fair samples of 
what the children hear from Sunday to Sunday, tho the cold print can not 
reproduce manner of delivery, tone of voice, and facial expression, all of 
which are vital factors in the interpretation of thought to children. When 
askt to reduce some of these talks to writing and .submit them for publica- 
tion Mr. Stephenson hesitated, fearing that too much would be lost m 
transmission. Much is lost, of course, but yet the point of view is clear. 
The work is clearly a step in the right direction. Would that the practise 
might become general. 

4^6 The Quarterly Journal 

Sad and discouraged she wandered on, feeling very lonely, when a 
sweet voice woke her from sadness. 

"Good morning", it said, ")ou look lonely and troubled. Come 
in to my heart and rest awhile". Looking up she saw a motherly 
woman with a kind face and loving eyes of blue, and in thru those 
blue gates she darted to find herself in a heart warm and bright, with 
tables spread with choice fruits and delicacies. And there were chairs 
with downy cushions, and soft music floating thru the place. And she 
heard sweet voices singing: 

"Come in, come in, beloved, 

"Fresh from the heaven of blue! 

"Here's wealth of love and goodness, 

"And every joy for you". 

Then beautiful Affections and loving Sympathies came to wait 
upon her, telling her to feast to her heart's content ; but she was too 
over-joyed to eat, and flew straightway back to heaven seeking the 
Archangel, and when she had found him she cried in glee : "O I have 
found the soul in which I should like to live ! Do let me dwell in the 
heart of love!" 

II The Baby in the Stable 
It was a cold winter night and the wind drove the snow in blind- 
ing gusts as a man and a woman carrying a bundle came to a little 
town on the hill seeking shelter. The village was crowded and they 
could find no room in the little inn, but the inn-keeper told them they 
were welcome to the stable. So they went and by the light of a dim 
lantern found a strange place and stranger animals. These were the 
pets of the villagers, and every creature was like his master in nature. 
There was a big ox called Just-content-to-be, a name that exactly 
suited his owner, who was content to eat and sleep. A donkey named 
Stubborn belonged to a man like that, and Glutton, the pig, had 
a master who lived only to eat. Then there was a lion named Ferocit) 
whose owner was a bully ; a leopard called Cunning, the property of 
one who was always prowling round to take in somebody; the bear, 
Cruelty, whose keeper was an unfeeling brute; a camel known as 
Spiteful, because her rider was also of that disposition ; a wolf called 
Greed, belonging to a pitiless profiteer who grabbed everything he 
could and left others to starve; and a deadly snake whose name was 
Hate, with yellow eyes that stared at you and made you shudder, kept 
by a man jealous of everybody who succeded and hating everyone who 
was good. It was a strange place indeed, and at first the woman was 
afraid, but the animals were more so and huddled into the farthest 
corner. The man got some nice clean straw and put it in the manger. 

Children's Addresses 417 

and then the woman undid the bundle and there was a sweet little 
baby. Hugginj^ him as only a mother can, she laid him in the man- 
ger, and making him warm and comfy began to sing softly: 

"Sleep, Baby sleep! 

"Thy Father loves His sheep. 

"Thou art His lamb come from on high, 

"With us to live, for us to die- 

"Sleep, Baby, sleep!" 

Even the animals listened in wonder and the baby was soon in 
Dreamland. Instead of leaving the next day the family made their 
home in that stable, and the baby-boy grew up among the animals and 
loved to play with them. And strange to say they were all very gentle 
with him and would let him do anything he liked. He could lead the 
lion by the mane and the brute never growled ; play with the bear who 
hugged him to her furry heart and never hurt him; ride the donkey 
as he chose and it never was stubborn. The pig would let him take 
its food out of the trough without a grunt, and the camel allowed 
him to open her mouth, count her big teeth, and never bit him; and 
even the snake seemed glad to play with him without harming him in 
the least. In fact they grew so fond of him and so gentle that they 
became more gentle and friendly toward one another, and gradually a 
wonderful change came over them all. The Hon lost his fierceness 
and the wolf his greed ; the bear her cruelty and the leopard his cun- 
ning; the camel her spitefulness and the snake its hate; the donkey 
his stubbornness and the pig his gluttony ; while the big ox was a neu- 
creature, eager to plough or draw the cart or do anything useful. 

One day the Inn-keeper came to see them and said : "I can't make 
it out : since you came to this stable the people of the village have 
altered amazingly. Why laziness, gluttony, bad temper, greed, deceit, 
jealousy, spitefulness — they are all gone. It's like heaven now." 

"Well" said the woman, "that is not strange, for my baby comes 
from heaven". 

"Comes from heaven?" cried the Inn-keeper in stonishraent, 
"then what's his name?" 

And she replied : "His name is Jesus". 

Then I understood it all. That stable is the heart in which bvc 
many passions, not always good ones. But when God's baby-spirit 
comes to live in it he changes them so wonderfully that we become new 
in disposition. O happy the heart in which Jesus is born ! 
Ill Psyche and the Submarine 

The goo