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ROBERT GRIER MONROE, "' 

Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity. j^ 

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Commission : ^ 

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WILLIAM H. BURR, Chairman. 14 

RUDOLPH HERING. 
JOHN R. FREEMAN. i^ 

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November 30, 1903. 25 

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New York : j7 

MARTIN B. BROWN CO., PRINTERS ANP STATIONERS, 

Nos. 49 TO S7 Park Place. l9 

1904- y^' 



MARTIN B. BROWN 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



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REPORT. 

PAGE 

Terms of agreement 3 

Preliminary data 4 

Present supply limited in quantity and not sufficiently excellent in 

QUALITY 5 

Problem to solve is abundant quantity of satisfactory quality 6 

Reports of J. R. Freeman and Merchants' Association 6 

Organization and departments 7 

Water Waste: 

Public hearing 7 

Work done by Chief Engineer of Department Water Supply, Gas and 

Electricity 8 

Scope of work 8 

Methods of measurement 9 

Limitations of measurement >.. lo 

Street mains generally not leaky lo 

Conclusions regarding water waste 1 1 

Quantity of water and size of aqueduct 13 

High level aqueduct first required 14 

Watersheds available: 

Fishkill Creek 15 

Wappinger Creek 16 

Jansen Kill 17 

Esopus Creek 18 

Schoharie Creek 19 

Roundout Creek -. . 20 

Catskill 'Creek 21 

Yield of new sources 21 

Other possible reservoir sites 24 

Aqueduct for 500 million gallons per day 24 

Order of development , 27 

Quickest availability 27 

Filtration \ 28 

Slow and rapid filters 29 

Cleaning filters and covered reservoirs 30 

Proposed Hill View Reservoir and others 31 

Filter sites 31 

Stormville site and description of plant 32 



\ 



ti TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Department of Chemistry and Biology 33 

Quality of present supply 34 

Sanitary conditions 35 

Analysis of present supplies 36 

Bacteriological examinations 36 

Microscopical and physical examinations 37 

Chemical anyalysis 37 

Character of Croton water 38 

Quality of Brooklyn water 39 

Sanitary studies for the additional supply 40 

Stream investigations 41 

Hudson river water 43 

Salt water in the Hudson 43 

Ground water supplies 44 ' 

Long Island sources 44 | 

Connections with Manhattan 45 1 

Surface and ground waters 45 j 

Meteorological observations 46 

Surface waters 47 

Evaporation 48 i 

Percolation 49 

Ground water 50 j 

Large quantity available 52 ' 

Borough of Richmond 52 

Pumping Department 53 

Pumping from Hudson river 54 

Present pumping stations of New York 55 

Improvements recommended in Borough of Manhattan 56 

New Jerome Park station 58 

Pumping stations in Queens 58 

Pumping stations in Brooklyn 58 

Pumping plant for infiltration gallery 60 

Pumping plants in Gravesend and New Utrecht 60 

Milburn pumping station 61 

Ridgewood pumping station 61 

Proposed consolidation of Mount Prospect and Ridgewood stations 62 

Proposed Cross River reservoirs 63 

Hudson river and Lake George 64 

MiLLBURN Reservoir 66 

Increase of New York population 66 

Feasibility of temporary Supply 68 

Summary of costs 68 

Recapitulation 71 

Acknowledgments 7^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. iii 

PAGE 

Appendix I. — Eastern Aqueduct and Reservoir Department. 

General 77 

Supply in gallons per day 78 

Sources east of Hudson 79 

P^ekskill Creek 79 

Fishkill Creek 80 

Wappinger Creek 81 

Roeliff Jansen Kill 83 

Kinderhook Creek 84 

Other sources north 85 

Storage and depletion 85 

Description of reservoir surveys 86 

Diversion op Fishkill Creek : 

Stormville Dam ^ 8g 

Stormville Reservoir 9^ 

Billings Dam 95 

Billings Reservoir , 97 

Diversion of Wappinger Creek: 

Hibemia Dam 100 

Hibernia Reservoir 103 

Clinton Hollow development 106 

Clinton Hollow Dam IQ7 

Clinton Hollow Reservoir 108 

Diversion of Roeliff Jansen Kill : 

Silvemails Dam 109 

Sil vemails Reservoir , iii 

Comparative cost of storage in reservoirs 114 

High level aqueduct line from Hill View Reservoir to — 

Billings Reservoir 114 

Elevation and gradient 115 

Final location *. 116 

Estimate of cost 118 

Right-of-way 120 

Elements of design and assumptions for estimate of cost 12T 

Tunnels 125 

Steel pipes 128 

Cast-iron pipe syphons 133 

Twin aqueduct between Stormville and Billings Reservoir 133 

Aqueduct from Billings to Hibernia reservoirs 135 

Aqueduct from Hibernia to Silvernails reservoirs 137 

Aqueduct from Hibernia to Clinton Hollow reservoirs 139 

Aqueduct from Clinton Hollow to Ashokan reservoirs 139 - 



iv TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Estimate of cost of reservoirs : 

Stormville ^4i 

Billings 143 

Hibernia ^ I49 

Clinton Hollow 152 

Estimate of cost of aqueduct work.: 

From Hill View Reservoir to Billings Reservoir 154 

From Billings Reservoir to Ashokan Reservoir 160 

From Billings Reservoir to Hibernia Reservoir 163 

From Hibernia Reservoir to Silvemails Reservoir 164 

From Hibernia Reservoir to Clinton Hollow Reservoir 165 

From Clinton Hollow Reservoir to Ashokan Reservoir 166 

Branch Aqueduct to Rondout Reservoir 167 

Time required to build the proposed long tunnels 168 

Low LEVEL SYSTEM OF AQUEDUCTS AND RESERVOIRS I70 

Appendix II. — Department of the Catskills. 

General description of operations ^ 175 

Catskill Creek 176 

Schoha-rie Creek .;.;.;; 176 

Esopus Creek 178 

Rondout. Creek 180 

Cost of* Assiokan Reservoir .' 181 

Comparison of storage reservoirs 185 

Sewage Disposal 185 

Drafting department 186 

Physical characteristics 186 

Description and cost of reservoirs in Esopus Valley. 190 

Appendix III. —Proposed Aqueduct Sections. 

Carrying capacity of masonry aqueducts 205 

Cut and cover aqueducts 208 

Concrete steel aqueducts 210 

Tunnels 211 

Appendix IV .—Rainfall and Yield or Run-off of the Available Watersheds. 

Rainfall east of Hudson river 217 

Yields east of Hudson river 220 

Catskill Mountain . watersheds 223 



TABI.E OF CONTENTS. r 

PAGE 

Distribution of rainfall 226 

Method of estimating precipitation 226 

Preopitation on Esopus watershed ^ ; 228 

Yield of streams 229 

Comparison of yields 230 

Esopus daily yield 234 

RoNDOUT, Schoharie and Catskill creeks 235 

Appendix V. — Filtration. 

Object to be obtained 243 

Early filtration works 244 

Investigations in Massachusetts 245 

Description of filtration works 245 

Sanitary results achieved by filtration 246 

Compulsory filtration in Germany 247 

Sanitary character of filtered surface and ground waters 248 

General adoption of filtration in Europe 249 

Early filtration in America 249 

FiL-^R AT Lawrence 250 

Filter at Albany 251 

Efficiency of slow filters 252 

Efficiency of rapid filters 253 

Covered reservoirs 255 

Work of field force 255 

Work of office force 257 

Outline of projects considered 257 

Decision as to site for filters 260 

Description of Stormville filter site 261 

General features of filter designs 261 

Details of filter plant 263 

Estimated cost 269 

Hill View Reservoir 269 

Filtering Croton water 270 

Detailed estimate of cost of high level filter plant at Stormville 271 

Detailed estimate of cost of high level reservoir at Hill View 274 

Specifications for construction 275 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Appendix VI. — Chemistry and Biology. 

Quality of the Present Water Supplies of New York City : . . . 299 

General Character 299 

Typhoid Fever in New York City 306 

Sanitary Supervision of Water Supplies 321 

Requisite Qualities of a Public Water Supply 322 

Water Analyses and their Significance 323 

Quality of the Croton Water Supply 362 

Turbidity 362 

Color 363 

Odor 364 

Microscopic Organisms 364 

Sanitary Quality. Pollution 373 

Bacteria 378 

Chemical Qualities 381 

Hardness 382 

High Service Supply 385 

Quality of the Water Supplies of the Borough of The Bronx 386 

Bronx and Byram Systems 386 

Westchester Water Company 387 

Yonkers Supply 388 

Quality of the Water Supplies of the Borough of Brooklyn 388 

Ridgewood System 388 

Turbidity • 390 

Color 391 

Odor and Microscopic Organisms 392 

Sanitary Quality. Pollution 400 

Chemicil Character 406 

Chlorine 406 

Chlorine at Jameco Pumping Station 410 

Chlorine at Baisley's Pumping Station 412 

Chlorine at Shetucket 414 

Chlorine at Spring Creek * 418 

Hardness 423 

Iron 428 

Independent Water Supplies 429 

Quality of the Water Supplies of the Borough of Queens 434 

Quality of the Water Supplies of the Borough of Richmond 436 

Stream Investigations 437 

Territory Covered 439 

Methods Employed 440 

Upper Hudson, or Adirondack Region 443 

North Hudson 443 

Schroon River 443 

Sacandaga 444 



TABLE OK CONTENTS. vii 

PAGE 

General Quality 445 

Lake George 450 

The Middle Hudson 451 

Battenkill 451 

Hoosic River 452 

Mohawk ^iver 452 

Other Watersheds 456 

The Lower Hudson — East Side 456 

Stockport Creek 457 

Roelif Jansen Kill 457 

Wappinger Creek 460 

Fishkill Creek 462 

Housatonic River 464 

Ten Mile River 464 

The Lower Hudson — West Side 464 

Catskill Creek 464 

Esopus Creek 466 

Rondout Creek 471 

Wallkill River 472 

Moodna Creek 474 

Schoharie Creek 474 

East Delaware River 475 

Neversink River ; 475 

Ramapo River 476 

Long Island Streams 476 

Special Studies 476 

Normal Chlorine of New York State 477 

Method of Estimating the Probable Average Hardness of a Stream. . 481 

Hardness of Available Water Supplies 490 

Value of a Soft Water to New York City 494 

Probable Quality of the Additional Water Supply Recommended 499 

Hudson River Studies 501 

General Description 502 

Geography of Lower Hudson 503 

Tidal Phenomena 511 

Saltness of Hudson River 517 

Pollution of Hudson River 527 

Quality of Hudson River Water with Reference to Filtration 530 

Success of Filtration 550 

Ground Water Studies 559 

Surface Pollution 5^7 

Sub-surface Pollution 568 

Soil Physics 577 

Soil Texture 578 

Sand Analyses 57^ 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Percolation 584 

Capillarity 603 

Dry Sands 604 

Wet Sands 608 

Organization of Department 613 

Appendix VII. — Long Island Sources. 

New Investigations 619 

Work of Department 620 

Meteorology 621 

Stations Equipped with Recording Instruments 621 

Stations Equipped with Standard Instruments 624 

Evaporation and Percolation : 

Soil Evaporation 626 

Percolation 628 

Location of Existing Wells 628 

Test Boring : 

Method of Driving Test Wells 629 

Outfit Required 630 

Organization of Test Boring Work 638 

Inspection of Reports 641 

Samples 641 

Number of Wells 643 

Cost of Test Wells.. 643 

Test Pits 644 

Ground Water Statistics : 

Organization 645 

Method of Observation 646 

Objections of Owners to Well Observations 648 

Cost of Observations 648 

Levels : 

Datum Plane 649 

Subsidence of Land 650 

Levels by Commission 654 

Accuracy of Levels : 655 

Cost of Levels 655 

Stream Gauging : 

Stream Gauging of 1903 656 

Gaugings of the United States Geological Survey 656 

Gaugings by the Commission ' 658 

Weirs with Recording Gauges 658 

Location of Stations 660 

Construction of Weir Stations 663 

Recording Depth Gauges 670 

Weir Stations with Weir Scales 672 

Examination of Watersheds 673 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix 

PAGE 

Underflow Measurements ^7Z 

Underground Run-off 674 

Experiments at Driven Well Stations 674 

Other Measurements 674 

Method of Measurement 675 

Wells Required 675 

Pumping and Cleaning Wells 676 

Salting the Wells 676 

Measurements 677 

Studies of the Effect of Pumping. '. 680 

Rainfall. 

Early Rainfall Observations 681 

Government and State Observations 681 

Regents' Stations 682 

Rain Gauges Used ? 683 

Army Post Stations 687 

Rain Gauges Used 690 

Smithsonian Institute Stations 690 

Rain Gauge Used 691 

United States Signal Service Stations 693 

Rain Gauge Used 694 

United States Weather Bureau Stations 696 

Rain Gauge Used 699 

Manhattan Borough Stations 699 

Brooklyn Stations 700 

Stations Established by Commission 703 

Other Rainfall Stations 707 

Tables and Computation of Average Rainfall 707 

Summary of Mean Monthly Rainfall on Long Island from 1826 to 1903 748 

Results of Computations 753 

Evaporation. 

Evaporation from the Soil 755 

Experiments 756 

Laws 760 

Transportation 760 

Crops 760 

Woodland 761 

Seasonal Distribution 764 

Effect of Temperature, Demands of Plans and Relative Humidity 764 

Estimates on Long Island 764 

Floral Park 768 

Fluctuation of Groundwater Surface 769 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Evaporation as Determined from Stream Flow 7^9 

Run-off of Croton and Sudbury Rivers 170 

Character of Long Island Watersheds 774 

Conclusions 776 

Stream Flow. 

Estimate of Run-off from Brooklyn Records 777 

New Watershed 777 

Old Watershed 782 

Comparison with Other Streams 782 

Winter Run-off on Long Island •. 783 

Run-off between Ridgewood and Millburn 784 

Summer Run-off of East Meadow Brook 787 

Summer Run-off of Newbridge Stream 788 

Summer Rui^-off of Wantagh Stream 789 

Summer Run-off of Upper Massapequa 790 

Summary and Means 792 

Run-off from April to November 793 

Total Annual Run-off 795 

Annual Ground Water Flow 795 

Annual Flood Flow 796 

Percolation. 

Downward Capillary Flow 798 

Long Island Observations 799 

Winter and Spring Rains 800 

Summer Rains 800 

Velocity of Percolation 800 

Seasonal Change of Velocity 802 

Temperature Factor 803 

Effect of Saturation 805 

Upward Capillary Flow 805 

Lateral Capillary Flow 806 

Amount of Percolation 806 

Fluctuations of Surface of Ground Water 806 

Percolation Experiments at Floral Park 810 

Final Estimate of Percolation 811 

Ground Ji'atcr. 

Configuration of Long Island Water Table 8ir 

Difference between Surface and Subsurface Catchment Areas 813 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi 

PAGE 

Cross Sections of the Island: 

Southerly Slopes •. 813 

Northerly Slopes 815 

Artesian Wells 815 

Fluctuations in Elevation of Ground Water Surface: 

Long Period Fluctuations 8it) 

Long Island Ground Water Observations 816 

Evidence from Lake Ronkonkoma 817 

Evidence from Domestic Wells 819 

Comparisons of Ground Water Contours of 1903 and 1906 821 

Other Observations on Fluctuations in Deep Ground Waters 821 

Annual Fluctuations 821 

Long Island Observations ! 821 

Other Observations on Deep Ground Waters 824 

Cause of Annual Fluctuations of Ground Water 825 

Amount of Annual Fluctuations in Deep Ground Waters 826 

Fluctuations of Water Table Due to Barometric Pressure 826 

Observations of Long Island Department 826 

Observations of United States Geological Survey 827 

Uniformity of Delivery of the Underflow : 

From the Variation in Amount of Rainfall 827 

From the Fluctuations of Ground Water 828 

Amount of Ground Water 829 

Depth of Underflow 830 

Measurements of Velocity of Underflow 830 

Comparison of Material Along the Shore in Nassau and Suffolk Counties. 832 

Available Ground Water and Surface Supplies 832 

Present Brooklyn Watershed 832 

Suffolk County 833 

Total Supply of South Side of Long Island 834 

North Shore of Long Island 834 

Suggested Method of Securing Additional Ground Water Supply. 

Existing Methods of Obtaining Ground Water on Long Island 835 

Large Dug Wells 835 

Driven Wells 835 

Dug and Driven Wells 837 

Infiltration Gallery 837 

Proposed Method of Intercepting Underflow 838 

Conduit Line 838 

Type of Well 838 

California Well 838 

Arrangement of Wells 839 

Type of Conduit 839 

Pondage at South Shore 839 



X i TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Summary of Conclusions. 

Rainfall 840 

Evaporation 840 

Stream Flow 841 

Percolation 841 

Ground Water 842 

Location and Description of 2-inch Test Wells 844 

Analyses of Substrata 856 

Appendix VIII, — Department of Pumping. 

Type of Engines and Architecture of Stations 889 

Largest Capacity of Pumps 895 

Capacities for Hudson River and Lower Fishkill Plants 896 

Approximate Cost of Hudson River Plants 897 

Approximate Cost of Lower Fishkill Reservoir Plants 898 

Progress in Pumping Engine Practice 901 

Highest Duty Record 903 

Higher Duty by Use of Superheated Steam 903 

Comparison of Test and Regular Station Duty 904 

Statistics of Pumping in Different Cities 906 

Comparative Economy of Pumping Plants 908 

Conditions Necessary for Pumping Water Cheaply 910 

Present Pumping Stations in Manhattan 911 

Pumping Stations Under Construction 912 

Present Manhattan System of Pumping, and Changes Suggested 916 

Possible Economies by Centralizing Pumping 918 

Recommendation Relative to Operating Engines 920 

Inspection of Engines and Result of Repairs 921 

Redi'ction in Expense of Oil, Waste and Packing 922 

Organization 923 

Pumping Stations in Borough of Queens 924 

Present Pumping Stations in Borough of Brooklyn 926 

Source of Supply, and Quantities Pumped with Different Plants 926 

Infiltration System and Proposed Machinery for Pumping Plants 928 

Cost of Pumping, Actual and Estimated 929 

iMmRTANCE OF EFFICIENT MACHINERY AND FaVORABLE CONDITIONS 93O 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xiii 

PAGE 

Estimated Cost of Constructing Proposed Plants 93^ 

Gravesend and New Utrecht Plants ,. 93^ 

MiLLBURN Pumping Station 933 

Ridgewood and Mt. Prospect Pumping Stations 934 

Cost of Repairs, Ridgewood and Millburn Plants 934 

Cost of Pumping at Ridgewood Plants 93^ 

Cost of Pumping at Mt. Prospect Plants 93^ 

Estimated Saving by Changing Present Method of Pumping 937 

Dimensions of Engines, Type of Boilers, etc., in the Borough of Brooklyn. . 940 

Appendix IX. — Water Waste Investigations. 

Introduction 947 

Field Work and Force. 949 

Selection of Districts Metered 951 

Work Accomplished 952 

Completeness of Cut-off at District Boundaries , 954 

Comparison of Night and Day Pressures in Manhattan and The Bronx. .. 955 

Difference in Pressure on Two Sides of Boudary of District 955 

Day Pressures Before and After Closing Districts 957 

Possibility of Undiscovered Open Pipes 957 

Effect of Flow Across District Boundary through Leaky Gates or Open 

Pipes , 958 

Method of District Metering 960 

Absence of Curb Stop-cocks Lessens Utility of Method 961 

Refilling House Tanks Obscures Indications of Meter 961 

Absence of Ball Cocks 963 

PiTOMETER '. 964 

Velocity Ratios by Pitometer Traverse 969 

Continuous Record of Rate of Flow 970 

House-to-house Inspection 970 

Sewer Inspections 973 

Block by Block Shut-offs '. . 974 

Appendix X. — Organization and Force Employed. 

Personnel 979 



3^iv TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PLATES. 

Frontispiece. — Hudson river and adjacent watersheds. 

APPENDIX I. 
Plate I. — Plan of high level aqueduct and tributary watersheds.. . Following page 172 

Plate IL— Profile of high level aqueduct 

Plate III. — Sections of earth dams 

Plate IV. — Typical section of masonry dam 

Plate V. — Typical section of waste weir 

Plate VI. — Curves of available capacity of storage reservoirs 

APPENDIX II. 

Plate I. — Relative elevation of various watersheds 196 

Plate II. — Monthly distribution of yield of Esopus watershed 197 

Plate III. — Average daily yield of Esopus creek 198 

Plate IV. — Capacity of Ashokan reservoir for contour areas 199 

Plate V. — Capacity of curve for Ashokan reservoir for contour elevations.... J99 

Plate VI. — Capacity curve for Wachusett reservoir 200 

Plate 'VII. — Location of reservoir on Esopus watershed Following page 200 

Plate VIII. — Depletion of storage on Esopus watershed 201 

APPENDIX III. 
Plate I. — Sections of aqueduct, Hill View reservoir to Stormville. Following page 214 
Plate II. — Sections of aqueduct, Hill View reservoir to Stormville. " " 

Plate III. — Typical section of twin aqueduct, Billings reservoir to 

Stormville 

Plate IV. — Sections of aqueduct, Hibemia to Silvernails and 

Hibernia to Billings 

Plate V. — Sections of aqueduct, Billings to Ashokan reservoir. ... " " 

APPENDIX IV. 

Plate I. — Comparison of yield of various watersheds ' 237 

Plate II. — Comparison of yield of various watersheds 238 

Plate III. — Comparison of yield 'of various watersheds 239 

Plate IV. — Comparison of yield of various watersheds 240 

APPENDIX V. 

Plate I.— High level fiher plant, Stormville Following page 296 

Plate II.—High level filter plant, general plan 

Plate III.— High level filter plant, Filter No. 19 

Plate IV.— High level filter plant, sections of filters 

Plate V. — High level fiher plant, diagramatic plan of pipe system. 
Plate VI.— High level fiher plant, partial plan of fiher unit No. i. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xv 

PAGE 

Plate VII. — High level filter plant, arrangement of pipes in gallery. Following page 296 

Plate VIII. — High level filter plant, sections of east court 

Plate IX. — High level filter plant, sections of conduits and drains. 
Plate X. — High level filter plant, diagram showing method of sand 

transportation 

Plate XI. — High level filter plant, wash water reservoirs 

Plate XII. — Hill View reservoir, general plan 

Plate XIII. — Hill View reservoir, sections 

APPENDIX VI. 

Plate I. — Location of water supply systems Following page 616 

Plate II. — Physical characteristics of Croton water " " 

Plate III. — Physical characteristics of Long Island water " " 

Plate IV. — Sanitary quality of Croton water " " 

Plate V. — Sanitary quality of Ridgewood water " " 

Plate VI. — Microscopic organisms in Brooklyn water " " 

Plate VII. — See Frontispiece. 

Plate VIIL— RoeliflF Jansen Kill watershed " 

Plate IX. — Wappinger Creek watershed " " 

Plate X.— Fishkill watershed 

Plate XI. — Normal distribution of chlorine " " 

Plate XII. — Gauge and sample stations, lower Hudson " " 

APPENDIX VII. 

Plate I. — Location of bench marks and lines of levels Following page 648 

Plate II. — Residual mass curve " " 752 

Plate III. — Evaporation from soil " " 770 

Plate IV. — ^Velocity of downward capillary flow " " 79^ 

Plate V. — Long Island watersheds and rainfall stations " " 792 

Plate VI. — Height of ground water near surface streams " " 800 

Plate VII. — Cross sections of Long Island, showing surface of 

ground water " " 810 

Plate VIII. — Contours of surface of ground water " " 810 

Plate IX. — Temperature, rainfall and fluctuations of shallow 

ground waters " " 812 

Plate X. — Longitudinal section of Long Island near south shore.. " " 832 
Plate XI. — Effect of pumpage on ground water at Agawam driven 

well station " " 834 

Plate XII. — Effect of pumpage on ground water at Merrick driven 

well station " " 834 

Plate XIII. — Contours of ground water about the Agawam driven 

well station " " 836 



that the different branches of work might be effectively begun on the date 
of formal appointment. Since the inception of the Commission's work there 
have been held seventy-one stated meetings and visits of personal inspec- 
tion in the field at the points of operations of the various engineering forces, 
besides many informal conferences with the heads of departments and visits 
of inspection to the works completed and in progress of the Metropolitan 
Water Supply of the City of Boston as well as at other points where useful 
mtormation bearing directly upon the work of the Commission could be 
secured. Papers and reports of investigations bearing upon the general 
problem of additional supply for New York have been examined and made 
use of wherever they could be found. 

The area covered by the present City of New York is about 300 square 
miles and about one-quarter of it only is served with public water supplies. 
The population of Greater New York is about 3,700,000, of which about 
1,900,000 are found in the Borough of Manhattan, 1,290,000 in the Borough 
of Brooklyn, 268,000 in the Borough of The Bronx, 183,000 in the Borough 
of Queens and 73,000 in the Borough of Richmond. The total population 
in the City is increasing at the rate of 33 per cent, in ten years. The most 
rapidly growing borough is The Bronx, where the population is increasing 
at the rate of about 120 per cent, in ten years. With the completing of the 
bridges and tunnels across the East River, a much more rapid growth in 
the Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens must be anticipated and provided 
for than shown by recent growth. 

The Boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx are supplied almost 
entirely by water from the Croton Watershed, having a drainage area of 
about 360 square miles, a small amount being supplied from 22 square miles 
of the drainage area of the Bronx and Byram Rivers. When the new Croton 
Dam is completed the total available storage capacity in the Croton Watershed 
will be about 70,000 million gallons. The present (November, 1903) draft 
from the Croton supply is at the rate of about 272 million gallons per day and 
about 13 million gallons per day from the Bronx and Byram supply. 

Two aqueducts are available for conveying Croton water to the City; 
the Old Croton Aqueduct having a capacity of about 80 million gallons per 
day and the New Croton Aqueduct having a capacity of about 300 million 
gallons per day. The old aqueduct in its present condition can, however, 
scarcely be considered available except as a resort in case of emergency. 
The new aqueduct is practically the sole reliance of the City of New York 
for the conveying of water from the Croton basin to the distributing system. 

Inasmuch as the area of the Croton basin is about 360 square miles, 
and as it is rarely safe to depend upon an average maximum draft greater 
than 750,000 gallons per square mile per day from such a watershed, 



even with the storage fully developed, it is evident that the Boroughs of 
Manhattan and The Bronx are already drawing from the Croton supply an 
amount dangerously close to the limit of its yield in ordinary years. The 
current season has been one of phenomenal rainfall and the dangerous short- 
age of this portion of the water supply of New York City has been obscured. 
If the City should experience either one year of low rainfall, or, still worse, 
two such years in succession, as has occurred a number of times in the near 
past, the capacity of the Croton basin would be exhausted unless the con- 
sumption were restricted. It will be shown later in this report that any 
practicable retrenchment due to the restriction of preventable waste cannot be 
relied upon to give substantial relief from this condition of exhaustion of 
the Croton supply. 

The Borough of Brooklyn secures its supply from the surface waters 
and ground waters of Long Island. Some of the surface waters are rapidly 
becoming so polluted that they will not be safely available much longer, 
but the ground waters can be developed to a greater extent than heretofore. 
A large portion of the Brooklyn supply is taken from shallow and deep wells 
penetrating the saturated sands underlying the surface of the southerly por- 
tion of Nassau County. The demands of this Borough have • already 
exceeded the present supply and additional works are being constructed for 
the purpose of securing an increased quantity of ground water. The com- 
pletion of the w^orks at present contemplated will give but a small relief. 
Other additional supply in large amount nnist be secured in the immediate 
future. 

The needs of the Borough of Queens are probably more immediately 
pressing than those of any other part of The City of New York. Its present 
supply is derived from the ground water secured from wells driven within 
its limits, the yield being both insufficient in quantity and unsatisfactory in 
quality. It is imperative that its supply should be increased at the earliest 
practicable date from some source yielding a sufficient volume of pure water. 

The Borough of Richmond is also in need of an improved supply which 
it is not practicable to obtain w'ithin its own limits. Its present supply is 
from wells driven on Staten Island, some of which yield water of poor 
quality and of insufficient volume. 

In all parts of the City, therefore, it is seen that the demands are either 
equal to or greater than the present supply in a year of low rainfall. 
Although the Croton water is of fair quality for a surface water, it may be 
stated that not in any one of the boroughs is the quality of the water as 
excellent as it should be. 

Modern advances in the sanitation of public water supplies are such as 
to indicate with a force equivalent to demonstration that there are few, if 



any, public supplies of surface waters of sufficiently high degree of excel- 
lence in all respects to obviate the necessity of filtration. The general prob- 
lem before this Commission is, therefore, to provide for Greater New York 
such sources of additional water supply as will make abundant provision for 
a long period in the future, both as to abundant quantity and satisfactory 
quality. 

Since the completion of the New Croton Aqueduct there have been no 
systematic investigations for the purpose of finding sources of additional 
water supply for The City of New York accompanied by extended and . 
accurate surveys. It has been known that the Housatonic River yields an 
abundant quantity of water for such a purpose and that it could be brought 
to the distribution system of the City without serious difficulty or relatively 
great expense. Also that a smaller quantity could be obtained from Ten 
Mile River. The Catskill and Adirondack Mountain streams and filtered 
water from the Hudson near Poughkeepsie have been recognized as avail- 
able, but complete quantitative investigations of an extended character have 
not before been undertaken. The most comprehensive examinations of a 
general character which have been completed are those of Mr. John R. 
Freemart in his extended '* Report Upon New York's Water Sup- 
ply/' made to Hon. Bird S. Coler, Comptroller, 1900, and '* An 
Inquiry Into the Conditions Relating to the Wat£r Supply of The 
City of New York," conducted by a number of eminent engineers and 
others of The City of New York for the Merchants' Association of New 
York, 1900. These two reports contain a mass of most valuable information 
relating not only to the present water supply of the City, but also to sources 
available for the contemplated additional supply, and the information con- 
tained in them has been constantly used in these investigations. 

This Commission has been limited in its operations to the drainage 
areas of streams lying wholly within the State, by instructions transmitted 
to it through the Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, from 
the Corporation Counsel. These instructions, given for the purpose of avoid- 
ing any interstate litigation, have prevented this Commission from consider- 
ing streams like the Housatonic or Ten Mile River or other interstate 
streams which have hitherto been regarded as available for the purposes of 
additional supply. 

The wide scope of the investigations to be undertaken by the Commis- 
sion made it necessary at the outset of its work to appoint a large force of 
engineers, biologists, chemists and others. The organization was completed 
by dividing the main portion of its work into six departments, at the head of 
which w^ere placed engineers of extended experience in similar recent large 



water works constructions near New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Eastern 
New Jersey and elsewhere. These departments were: 

1. Aqueduct and Reservoir Department, E. G. Hopson, Engineer. 

2. Catskill Department, Walter H. Sears, Engineer. 

3. Filtration Department, Wm. B. Fuller, Engineer. 

4. Chemical and Biological Department, Geo. C. Whipple, 

Engineer. 

5. Long Island Department, Walter E. Spear, Engineer. 

6. Pumping Department, Will J. Sando, Engineer. 

Ihere was also assigned to the Commission the investigation of the 
waste of water in the City. This, however, had already had been begun in 
the l^oroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx by Mr. Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., 
Chief Engineer, and it was found advisable to co-operate in and make use 
of his operations in the regular work of the Department having charge of 
valves, meters and distribution pipes, rather than to establish a depart- 
ment for the independent study of this question. Mr. I. M. De Verona, 
Chief Engineer of the Borough of Brooklyn, also inaugurated similar investi- 
gations in that Borough. The Commission has made use of the results of 
both of these fields of investigations in its conclusions. 

A detailed statement of the organizations made in the six chief depart- 
ments of the Commission's work will be found in Appendix X. 

Water Waste. 

One of the first subjects to which the attention of this Commission was 
directed was that of water waste and its prevention. At the preliminary 
meeting of the Commission on December 8, 1902, a conference was had 
with the Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, at which 
Mr. N. S. Hill, Jr., Chief Engineer of Water Supply for Manhattan and The 
Bronx, presented a full explanation of the work that he was inaugurating 
for the measurement of water consumption and waste in typical districts, 
by means of the pitometer, an instrument recently perfected and made con- 
venient for practical use. 

A public hearing was given by this Commission at the request of the 
City Club on Tuesday, December 23, at 3 p. m., at the City Hall, at 
which several prominent citizens presented their views and suggestions upon 
the subject of water waste and its prevention. The statements were chiefly 
of opinions and suggestions. These statements emphasized the need of 
house to house inspection for leaky fixtures. The views expressed at this 
hearing were given due consideration by the Commission in planning its 
work. 



8 

The plans of the Chief Engineer received the hearty approval of this 
Commission, and it became plain that the work of water waste investigation 
could be best carried on through the regular channels of the Department of 
Water Supply, Gas and Electricity; mainly because of its having at com- 
mand a corps of men most familiar with the locations of the pipes and 
gate valves. Moreover, many of the data necessary for this work could best 
be secured in connection with the work of preparing new plans and records 
of the pipe system already begun by the Chief Engineer of the Department. 

The organization of a new corps for this work, necessarily made up of 
men unfamiliar with the details mentioned, would have involved much 
additional expense and delay and would have taken much of the Commis- 
sion's time from its pressing duties connected with the organization of 
investigations for new sources of supply. This Commission has, therefore, 
relied for its data on water waste in Manhattan and The Bronx, upon the 
researches and observations made under the Chief Engineer, who from time 
to time promptly placed the results of his studies on this subject before the 
Commission. The methods and results have been the subject of frequent 
conference. From his oral and written reports and from the sheets of com- 
puted results, the account of the methods and results presented in Appendix 
IX. has been prepared. 

Scope of Work, 

It was obviously impossible, within the time and means available, to 
explore the mains and service pipes and house plumbing throughout the 
entire City, and the work of investigation was, therefore, concentrated upon 
certain typical districts in different parts of the City. These comprise a 
principal hotel district with large transient population, two residential dis- 
tricts with houses of an expensive class, two East Side tenement-house dis- 
tricts, two large downtown commercial districts having a large day popula- 
tion but a small population by night, a few others of intermediate grade and 
two typical districts in The Bronx, one of which contained the large railway 
terminal yards on the Harlem River. 

There were two distinct branches of inquiry: one along the street mains 
and the other along the house pipes or plumbing; the first comprised a 
measurement of the quantity of water delivered daily into each district and 
the observation of its rate of draft continuously, day and night, so that the 
mean rate of flow in working hours could be compared with that in the 
quietest hour of the night and also on Sunday; the second inquiry comprised 
an inspection and search for leaky plumbing fixtures within each house of 
the district, including a measurement of the rate of each leak where possible 
by catching the escaping water in a small measure. 



The street measurements were supplemented by an examination of the 
operative condition of the gate valves on the mains around the margin of 
the district, and a record of their location and of the number of turns of the 
wrench required to open each; meanwhile the gates found defective were 
repaired or replaced. 

The house to house observations of leaky plumbing were supplemented 
by obtaining a variety of data upon the absence of ball cocks on tanks, the 
size of house tanks, the indications of waste through tank overflow pipes 
and a variety of other data that will be found in the appendix. 

The street measurements and the house measurements w-ere further sup- 
plemented by an examination of the rate of flow after midnight in the sewers 
of the district, in the course of which the spur from every building w^as 
inspected for signs of leakage so far as practicable. The inspector reported 
that the night sewer flow in most sections was surprisingly small in view 
of the large night flow shown by the pitometer measurements, indicating 
that the night flow was due largely to refilling tanks. 

Mctlwds of Measurement of Consumption and Waste. 

The method of measurement of the rate of draft of water by each dis- 
trict consisted in cutting off the main pipes of this district from those of 
the surrounding territory by closing the gate valves on the street mains 
crossing the boundar>' and thus concentrating the inflow into a single pipe 
or into the smallest number of feed pipes practicable. The rate of flow was 
then ny^asured and recorded by means of a pitometer in the form of a con- 
tinuous diagram w^iich shows this rate of draft per minute throughout the 
twenty-four hours. With ordinary occupancy and ordinary conditions it 
is found that the real use of water between 3 a. m. and 4 a. m. is very small, 
and that the large and uniform draft of water night after night at these hours 
indicates leaky pipes or leaky fixtures. 

It is obvious as a matter of general experience that very few persons 
draw water between 2 a. m. and 4 a. m., and that the non-resident suburban 
population is then absent from Manhattan, but there are peculiar conditions 
in this Borough that may lead to a large legitimate night draft. Chief 
among them is the use of large house tanks, many of which were put into 
the upper stories of buildings just below the hydraulic grade in districts 
where the pressure in the street mains is draw^n down by day. These tanks 
may refill by gravity during the night after the pressure rises with the 
lessened draft. 

Unfortunately, local conditions did not permit these district measure- 
ments to be made so elaborately in detail as lias been found practicable in 
other cities. The principal limitations were: 



10 

1st. It was not deemed prudent to test the tightness of the shut-off of 
the pipes of the districts under test from those of the adjacent territory, 
completely closing the feed pipes into the district for a half hour more or 
less after midnight, and opening hydrants, lest damage be caused by collapse 
of house boilers, or lest damage be caused to those who legitimately jise 
large quantities of water at night in almost every district. The engineer in 
charge, however, made other examinations for testing the completeness of 
isolation. The same reasons appeared to forbid, save in a few instances, 
shutting off street mains w^ithin the district, block by block, after midnight, 
noting the time of closing and opening these gates for subsequent com- 
parison with the continuous chart of flow to see if the flow of water dropped 
or rose at the same time, thereby indicating the presence of a leak on the 
section shut off. 

2d. There is an almost universal absence of curb stop-cocks on the 
service pipes into buildings, so that it is not possible to shut these off in 
succession along a street after midnight, noting the time and listening by 
a " waterphone " for the hissing sound denoting flow when the cock is 
nearly closed, and subsequently comparing these times of shut-off with the 
autographic chart of the district meter. 

3d. The extensive use of large house tanks, already mentioned, inter- 
fered with the interpretations of the measurements and, therefore, it is uncer- 
tain how much of the night flow after 3 a. m. goes to refill these tanks, par- 
ticularly those tanks set nearly at the level of the hydraulic grade line which 
is below the water surface in the tanks by day and above it at night. It is 
obviously impracticable to inspect the height of water in any large number 
of these house tanks during the night. 

4th. The absence of ball-cocks on the feed pipes of a large proportion 
of all the house tanks in the City, thus permitting them to overflow through 
the waste pipe, adds an amount to the flow after midnight, and perhaps 
earlier, which is difficult to estimate. 

Xotwithstanding these limitations, a large amount of valuable data has 
been secured, the principal results of which arc condensed into tabular form 
in Appendix JX. 

Street Mains Generally not Leaky, 

New data on the probable waste from leaky street mains have been 
secured during the past two or three years in connection with the large 
amount of street excavation carried on for electric subways and Rapid 
Transit tunnels. The Department inspectors are said to have carefully fol- 
lo\Ned the progress of all such excavations and although notable leaks have 



II 

been occasionally discovered, they have been few and the leakage small in 
proportion to the large extent of pipes thus exposed. 

Conclusions Regarding Water Waste. 

The data found in the course of these investigations briefly described 
above, and more fully in the appendix, appear to justify the following 
conclusions : 

1st. The leakage from the mains is much less than heretofore supposed. 
The distribution system of New York needs many new gate valves and 
hydrants to bring it into satisfactory condition, but the deterioration of the 
street mains is not such as to require extensive renewals to prevent waste. 

2d. The main sources of waste are probably leaky plumbing fixtures, 
the overflowing of tanks not provided with ball-cocks, defective plumbing 
design, and possibly abandoned service pipes. 

The house to house inspection in typical districts in the Manhattan 
and Bronx Boroughs indicates that the loss from leaky and defective plumb- 
ing fixtures probably exceeds fifteen per cent, of the total supply, or upward 
of 40 million gallons per day. 

The omission of ball-cocks on tank feed pipes can be remedied by more 
stringent regulations of plumbing through proper ordinances and inspec- 
tion. The waste due to leaky fixtures can be largely reduced by the 
universal application of water meters to the house service pipes or by 
constant inspection, or best by both combined. That much reduction of 
waste certainly has been accomplished in the typical districts tested during 
the last twelve months is demonstrated by the returns of the Chief Engineer 
submitted to us. The permanency of this reduction can only be secured by 
the continuance of the system of house to house inspection. 

Under the usual and defective design in plumbing, hot and cold water 
pipes are placed side by side as run through the house, without proper 
circulation, requiring the waste of large quantities of water before securing 
either the hot or cold water desired. We do not believe it feasible to reduce 
materially that extravagant use of water due largely to this defect in the 
plumbing design in present structures, because of the great expense of 
changing the pipes and the trouble to householders, but a careful revision 
of the plumbing laws should remove this cause of waste in all future 
plumbing. 

3d. The reduction of all waste is effectively aided by the use of meters, 
wliich tends to make each householder an inspector of leaks, and thus brings 
prompt remedy for all obvious waste from leaky fixtures, and furthermore 
lessens the temptation to waste water at night for fear that poorly protected 



12 

pipes may freeze, and lessens the tendency to waste large quantities of water 
while trying to obtain cooler water from the pipes. 

The Commission strongly recomm.ends that the use of meters be 
extended to other classes of buildings than those now metered, and particu- 
larly that all buildings more than five stories in height be metered at the 
earliest practicable date. This will cover the large modern apartment 
houses which now being on frontage rates pay an inadequate return to the 
City for the water used, and are prolific in water waste. 

All meters should be owned, installed and maintained by the City, and 
tested at regular intervals in order to secure reasonably effective service 
from them. The many cases where connections back of meters have been 
discovered by the Chief Engineer during the past year prove the unwisdom 
of permitting meters to be set by other than the employees of the 
Department. 

4th. The recent measurements of water delivered and the analysis of 
the statistics of the Water Registrar's office for typical districts investigated 
demonstrate the absolute unfairness of the frontage charges, leading to 
marked inequality of burden on users in different portions of the city. This 
is most manifest in connection with the large apartment houses covered by 
our recommendation to extend meters to all buildings over five stories in 
height. 

5th. These investigations have also demonstrated the necessity of con- 
sidering the great transient population of the City when accounting for the 
per capita consumption. It is estimated by the Chief Engineer of the Depart- 
ment of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity that about 600,003 transients come 
into Manhattan each day, and that while the per capita use and waste for the 
Borough is 129 gallons daily, if based on the resident population, it becomes 
100 gallons if based on the combined resident and non-resident population. 

In the special census taken by the employees of the Water Department, 
during the investigations of waste in each of the four typical districts, the 
term non-resident was used as covering those non-resident to that district. 
In District No. i, for example, it not only covered the hotel population, 
but also the proprietors, clerks, milliners, dressmakers, and other employees 
of the large shops, possibly a majority of whom lodge in the Borough of 
Manhattan. In this residence and hotel district the per capita consumption 
was found to be 175 gallons based upon the resident population and 121 
gallons based upon the combined resident and transient population. 

In the case of District Xo. 8, comprising the entire territory below 
Fulton street, filled with offices and commercial establishments, the non- 
residents were enumerated by counting the regular occupants of each office, 
shop, store, or other building. The per capita consumption of this district 



13 

was 860 gallons per day when based upon the resident population, and 83 
gallons per day when based upon the combined resident and non-resident 
population. 

These investigations exhibit in a marked manner the effect of non- 
resident population on the per capita consumption of a given district. On 
the other hand the fact that the non-residents of one district are frequently 
the residents of another renders it impossible to draw conclusions for the 
Borough of Manhattan from the data of individual districts in it. Results 
applicable to the Borough can only be obtained from data covering the 
po|)ulation resident and non-resident to the entire Borough. 

6th. These investigations indicate that the greatest possible saving by 
reduction in waste and by decreasing extravagant use will not more than 
provide for the natural increase in demand due to growth of the City, and it 
may not be sufficient for that; hence the construction of an additional supply . 
should be undertaken at the earliest practicable moment. 

7th. This Commission finds the present average daily draft from the 
Croton sources to be so close to the utmost quantity that these can be 
relied upon to yield in a year of drought, that the natural growth of the City 
and the legitimate natural increase in the consumption per capita during 
the five years or more that must elapse before the additional supply can be 
ready for delivery may bring the City to the verge of a water famine should 
years of low rainfall occur, unless effective means be taken to restrict waste 
and lessen extravagant use. In the event of a drought it might even become 
imperative to throttle the supply of the distribution system. 

Quantity of Water and Size of Aqueduct. 

The quantity of water required for the additional supply of New York 
City within a given period of years will depend chiefly upon the increa?^e of 
population during that period and the consumption per head of population. 
The investigation of the probable increase of population in the entire city 
has shown that by 1930, if not sooner, it is reasonable to expect a total 
population in all the Boroughs of Greater New York of about seven iTiillions 
of people, or nearly three and one-half millions more than the population of 
T903. It is a matter- of experience that even when preventable waste of water 
is reduced to a minimum, the demand per head of population increa,ses with 
the lapse of time. The use of water induces a more lavish use even for those 
purposes which must be considered legitimate and not wasteful. There 
may be reasonable doubt as to the amount of water to be requirL'd per 
head of population in The City of New York during the next twenty-five 
vears, but even if measures for the restriction of waste are tffir- * 



14 

enforced there are strong reasons for believing that the average quantity 
required over and above the preventable waste will increase to a substantial 
extent during that period of time. The Commission believes that it is 
not excessive to base an estimate of future requirements which the addi- 
tional works must supply, on 150 gallons per day for each member of the 
population. If that amount be assumed for purposes of computation, the 
additional quantity required will be 3,500,000 X 15^, or 525 million gallons 
per day, in addition to the quantity required by the increase in per capita con- 
sumption of the present population, amounting to about 85 million gallons 
daily. It is certain that a part of this additional supply, covering a portion of 
the increased amount required for the Borough of Brooklyn, will be taken 
from the ground waters of Long Island. The amount to be secured cannot 
be accurately estimated at this time, but it may reach from 25 to 50 million 
gallons per day from Nassau County. Under this estimate the additional 
quantity of water to be secured from the north and brought to the City 
through an aqueduct would be 500 million to 575 million gallons per day, 
not later than I930 and probably sooner. 

It appears, therefore, that works required for an additional supply of 
water for The City of New York within the next twenty-five years must 
have a capacity of not less than 500 million gallons per day. This daily 
requirement determines the capacity of the new aqueduct. 

While it would be feasible to build two aqueducts instead of one, with 
a combined capacity of 500 million gallons per day, that construction would 
be much more expensive than a single aqueduct discharging the desired 
amount. The materials and processes at the command of engineers at the 
present time make it perfectly feasible, and quite within the limits of reason- 
able construction, to build a single aqueduct discharging 500 million gallons 
of water per day when running eight-tenths full. 

The aqueduct designed by the Commission for this purpose, as shown 
by the accompanying plans, is of the usual shape, with the greatest width 
nearest the bottom. The interior vertical diameter is 18 feet 6 inches and 
the maximum width 19 feet, at about one-quarter of the height from the 
bottom. This aqueduct section would not ordinarily be expected to flow 
more than eight- tenths full, i. e., with a depth of water 14 feet 10 inches. It 
could, however, at the depth corresponding to maximum delivery discharge 
about 550 million gallons per day. 

High Level Aqueduct First Required. 

Those portions of the Manhattan and Bronx Boroughs which are sup- 
plied with the low level Croton service, i. c, from a maximum elevation in 



15 

reservoirs not greater than 131 feet above mean high tide, already require 
nearly the full capacity of the New Croton Aqueduct. Furthermore, that 
supply covers the older portion of the City, which is growing at a compara- 
tively slow rate. On the other hand, that portion of the City which is now 
supplied by the high service reservoir at Highbridge and the tower 
adjacent to it, requiring water to be pumped to an elevation ranging from 
280 feet to 320 feet, is increasing at the remarkably rapid rate of over 120 
per cent, in ten years. Again, the loss of head is so great in some portions 
of the low service supply that it has become necessary for great numbers 
of occupants of all classes of buildings to use small power pumps at much 
cost to lift water to tanks in the tops of buildings. Requirements for fire 
protection are also increasing, and it will be necessary to extend mains under 
high pressure for that purpose probably throughout the length of Manhattan 
Island. It is also necessary to contemplate the extension of mains across 
the East River into districts in the Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens 
necessitating materially higher heads than those sufficient for the low service 
supply as it now exists. Indeed, it may be stated that by far the larger 
development of water supply for The City of New York hereafter will be 
such that it can only be supplied from a high level. 

This Commission, therefore, recommends that the first works of con- 
struction for the additional supply shall be so designed as to bring the 
water into a suitable reservoir at the northern limit of the City, having its 
high water surface at an elevation of not less than 295 feet above mean 
high tide. 

An excellent location for this reservoir is at the summit of high ground 
called " Hill View," in Westchester County, adjacent to the City line, about 
three miles north of Jerome Park Reservoir. The entire storage capacity 
would be 2,030 million gallons and 325 acres of ground would be required. 
The portion of the reservoir to be constructed first would have a storage 
capacity of about 600 million gallons. 

The Watersheds Most Available for Fl'ture Supply. 

Fishkill Creek. 

Watersheds possessing the highest degree of availability for increasing 
the water supply of the City must, obviously, be so located as to require the 
least amount of construction work to bring the water into the distributing 
system. The watershed of Fishkill Creek fulfills this condition. It lies 
adjacent to the Croton shed on the north and its waters can be secured more 
quickly than those of any other supply of equal amount, the course of whose 
flow is located entirely within the State of New York. The chief difficulty 



i6 

to !)e overcome in securing the Fishkill waters, or those still farther north, 
and that which controls the shortest time in which a hew supply can be 
obtained, is the large amount of tunnel construction for the aqueduct 
through the rough, mountainous region lying between it and the Croton 
shed. 

It is feasible to utilize directly, without pumping, about 8i square 
miles, or more than one-half of the available Fishkill Watershed for the 
high service plan, by building two reservoirs, one at Stormville, on Fishkill 
Creek, covering 1,694 acres, and having a contributory drainage area of 49 
square miles, and one at Billings, on Sprout Creek, a tributary of Fishkill 
Creek covering 969 acres, and iiaving a contributory drainage area of 32 
square miles. The high water surface of the Stormville Reservoir 
would be 364 feet above Croton datum, and its storage capacity would be 
10,000 million gallons. The elevation of the high water surface of the 
Billings Reservoir would be 372.5 feet above Croton datum, and its storage 
capacity would be 6,800 million gallons. 

A reasonable estimate of the yielding capacity of the Fishkill Watershed 
shows that the 81 square miles tributary to those two reservoirs may be 
counted upon to deliver at least 60 million gallons of water per day. This 
would be the first portion of the additional supply available for the City, so 
that the construction requisite to bring it to the distributing system should 
be pushed forward to the earliest possible completion. The total area of 
that portion of the Fishkill Watershed available for supplying water to 
New York is 153 square miles and lies above BrinckerhofF Station, about 
six miles easterly of Fishkill Landing. 

If at any time in the future the needs of the City should make it advis- 
able to secure the yield of the remaining and lower 72 square miles of the 
Fishkill Watershed, it can be done by constructing a dam across Fishkill 
Creek near Brinckcrhoff, so as to raise the w^ater surface as high as th,e 
avoidance of shallow flowage will permit. If the w-aters of Fishkill Creek 
were to be used to supply the low service system of New York, the con- 
struction of this reservoir would undoubtedly be most judicious, but it is 
not available for the high service gravity development recommended by this 
Commission, requiring an elevation of water surface of 335 feet at the 
Stormville filter site described elsewhere. 

IVappingcr Creek. 

The next watershed in geographical order available for increasing the 
additional supply is that of Wappinger Creek, lying north of and adjacent 
to the Fishkill Watershed, The reservoir available for the high service 
development must be built at Hibernia, where a reasonably good dam site 
is found. This Hibernia Reservoir has a contributory area of 90 square 



17 

miles. The high water surface of this reservoir would stand at an elevation 
of 372.5 feet above Croton datum. The area overflowed by it would be 
4,350 acres, and its storage capacity would be 30,500 million gallons. 

This creek has a total drainage area available for a low service supply 
of 17J square miles above the point where a reservoir dam for such a plan 
could be constructed at Rochdale, about six miles east of Poughkeepsie. 
The elevation of high water in this reservoir would be 271 feet above Croton 
datum and the area submerged 7,040 acres. It would possess a storage 
capacity of 47,200 million gallons. If it should be considered advisable in 
the future to secure the water yielded by the remaining 82 square miles o! 
this watershed, the dam at Rochdale could be constructed so as to form a 
great reservoir at that point, from which water could be raised by pumping 
into the Hibcrnia Reservoir and flow from there by gravity into the high 
service system. 

Also in the watershed of Wappinger Creek at Clinton Hollow, about 
two miles northwest of Hibernia Reservoir, on a tributary of the main creek, 
there is a good site for a dam, wheie a reservoir having a storage capacity 
of 13,900 million gallons may be constructed. The area tributary to this 
reservoir is 26 square miles and the high water elevation in it would be 387 
feet. The area submerged at that elevation would be 2,157 acres. In view 
of this small drainage area it would not be advisable to construct this reser- 
voir except as a feature of more extended development. 

Examinations which this Commission could not complete should be 
continued on the Jansen Kill, below Silvernails, to determine whether a 
reservoir below that point may not be feasible so as to connect with the 
Clinton Hollow Reservoir by a short aqueduct, mainly in tunnel, rather 
than to connect Silvernails and Hibernia Reservoirs by the aqueduct here- 
after described and provisionally adopted for this report. The Clinton 
Hollow Watershed could then advantageously be developed as an incidental 
feature on the main aqueduct line. 

Jansen Kill. 

Adjacent to the drainage area of Wappinger Creek, on the north, lies 
the watershed of the Jansen Kill. At a point called Silvernails on this 
creek, about 12 miles northeasterly of Rhinebeck, an excellent dam site is 
found where the high water surface of the reservoir would be 465 feet above 
Croton datum. The drainage area tributary to this Silvernails Reservoir is 
149 square miles, and its storage capacity is 17,200 million gallons, the flow- 
age area of the reservoir being 2,014 acres. 

The natural development of these watersheds for an additional supply 
would be in accordance with their geographical location, viz.: Fishkill, Wap- 



18 

piilger, and, lastly, the Jansen Kill, the total drainage area, including that 
of the Clinton Hollow Reservoir, being 346 square miles. If the yielding 
capacity of these three drainage areas be taken at 750,000 gallons per square 
mile per da^, the addition to the present supply of the City would be 
260 million gallons per day. This estimate is probably lower than would be 
found under actual development, and it may, therefore, be stated that this 
additional drainage area east of the Hudson River would give to New York 
City an increased high service supply practically equal to that which it is 
now drawing from the Croton Watershed, which has substantially the same 
area. 

As shown by a detailed investigation in another part of this report the 
waters of the Fish kill and Wappinger Creeks and the Jansen Kill are 
materially harder than the Croton water now supplied to the City, in con- 
sequence of the large limestone areas found in all three watersheds. It is 
highly desirable to include in the new system of additional supply softer 
waters, which, mingled with those from the easterly side of the river, will 
bring the average hardness down at least to that of the Croton water. This 
may be done by taking the waters of Esopus Creek. 

Esopus Creek. 

The upper watershed of the Esopus Creek lies on the southeasterly 
slope of the Catskill Mountains, and no limestone is found in all its area. 
Its waters, therefore, are of unusual softness. Esopus Creek empties into 
the Hudson at Saugertics after having flowed northerly and parallel to the 
Hudson from a point immediately back of Kingston. The turbidity occa- 
sionally appearing after heavy storms arises from clay banks on a few small 
tributaries. It can be readily eliminated by protecting these banks. 

At a point called Olive Bridge, on the Esopus, about 13 miles westerly 
from Kingston, there is an excellent dam site for a larger reservoir, the 
Ashokan, than ever yet constructed for storage purposes in connection 
with municipal water supply. This reservoir, as planned, has an area of 
5,978 acres, or about 9.34 square miles, and the elevation of its high water 
surface is 560 feet above Croton datum. 

This watershed is characterized by extensive, steep mountainous slopes 
and wooded areas of such character that it is safe to estimate its yielding 
capacity in connection with this reservoir at i million gallons per square 
mile per day. It may, therefore, be counted as yielding 250 million gallons 
per day in the system of additional water supply. This, added to the yield 
of about 260 million gallons per day from the three watersheds on the east- 
erly side of the Hudson, will give a total additional yield of about 500 million 
gallons per day, even without the Clinton Hollow drainage area. The same 



>9 

amount may also be obtained by substituting the softer waters of Rondout 
Creek for the yield of the Jansen Kill. This fills the proposed 500 million 
gallon aqueduct to be constructed northward from the City to Stormville, 
in the Fishkill Watershed, through which point the water from all the 
additional areas must pass on their way to the distribution system of the 
City. 

The freedom of the upper Esopus drainage area from limestone, its 
rocks being of a slaty character, makes the water of Esopus Creek by far the 
best for municipal use of all the waters available for that purpose under the 
instructions given to the Commission, except those of the upper Rondout 
Watershed, amounting to about 100 million gallons daily, which are of the 
same character and the availability of which will be considered later in 
this report. 

It is the judgment of the Commission that the waters of Esopus Creek 
should be brought down directly to Stormville and that an aqueduct of 
about 400 million gallons daily capacity should be completed for that pur- 
pose, as soon as practicable after the completion of the main aqueduct 
between New York City and Stormville. It is recognized that the waters 
of the Fishkill shed are the first to be secured by the City, but as they are 
somewhat harder than the Croton supply, the Commission recommends 
that the Ashokan Reservoir should be constructed and that the aqueduct, 
wirh the capacity of about 400 million gallons per day, should be built 
at the earliest practicable date, so that even with the subsequent develop- 
ment of the Wappinger Creek and Jansen Kill sheds, a desirable softness 
of th€ additional water may be secured. 

Availability of Schoharie Creek. 

The upper part of the Schoharie drainage area lies adjacent to and 
immediately north of the upper portion of the drainage area of Esopus 
Creek, although it forms a part of the western slope of the Catskills, and 
as its general elevation is greater than that of the Esopus it is entirely 
feasible to divert the upper waters of Schoharie Creek into the Esopus 
W'atershed by means of a tunnel about 10 miles long through that ridge 
of the Catskill Mountains which forms the divide between the two drainage 
areas. The line of this tunnel is shown on the accompanying plans. It 
runs from the Prattsville Reservoir on Schoharie Creek to Bushnelville in 
the Esopus shed. 

The total drainage area of the Schoharie Creek available for diversion 
into the Esopus Valley is 228 square miles. It is a mountainous district of 
steep wooded slopes and of such a character as to afford a relatively large 
runoff. Its high elevation gives it an abundant rainfall, although records 



20 

to establish the precise yearly amount do not exist. Reconnaissance has 
shown that reservoir capacity to supply 750,000 gallons per square mile per 
day from this watershed of 228 square miles can be developed. The average 
yield to be passed through the diverting tunnel would, therefore, be about 
170 million gallons per day. 

It has been impossible with the time and means at the command of 
the Commission to make complete surveys for these proposed storage reser- 
voirs on Schoharie Creek, but the reconnaissance shows ten such sites, 
aflfording storage capacity aggregating about 60,000 million gallons. 

The high cost of the necessary diversion work, added to the compensa- 
tion which would have to be paid to satisfy the riparian rights on Schoharie 
Creek and Mohawk River, make it exceedingly doubtful whether this plan 
for increasing the additional water supply will ever be executed. There is 
a large amount of water much more available which can be taken from 
Rondout Creek. Again, in the more distant future it would be economical 
and entirely satisfactory to take the water of the Hudson River a short dis- 
tance above Poughkeepsie. 

It is essential for the complete treatment of the work before the Com- 
mission to set forth the availability of the upper waters of Schoharie Creek, 
but the Commission has no recommendation to make in regard to their 
diversion. 

Other Available Watersheds. 

The two other streams on the west side of the Hudson River available 
for additional supply are Rondout and Catskill Creeks, the former discharg- 
ing into the Hudson at Kingston, and the latter at Catskill. Tlie drainage 
area of Rondout Creek lies adjacent to that of Esopus Creek on the south, 
while the drainage area of Catskill Creek is immediately north of a portion 
of the Esopus Watershed and east of the Schoharie. The available part of 
the upper watershed of Rondout Creek lies above Honk Falls, near 
Napanock, and has an area of 131 square miles. The available part of the 
Catskill Watershed lies above East Durham and has an area of 163 square 
miles. 

Rondout Creek. 

The water of Rondout Creek is of the same excellent quality as that of 
Esopus Creek. This fact, and the proximity of the Esopus aqueduct line, 
make it highly advisable that further surveys and investigations should be 
conducted in this watershed for the purpose of determining precisely its 
yield and the cost of its development. The engineers of the Commission 



21 

have made sufficient reconnaissances to show conclusively that it is avail- 
able, but it was not possible to make complete surveys. The Commission 
recommends urgently that these surveys of watershed, reservoir sites, and 
for the location of an aqueduct connecting with that from Ashokan Reser- 
voir to the Stormville filter, be immediately completed. The character of 
this water is so similar to that of Esopus Creek that there probably would 
be no objection to their mingling before reaching the filters at Stormville. 

Catskill Creek. 

The same reasons that limited the operations of the Commission on the 
Roundout Watershed prevented complete surveys and examinations in the 
watershed of Catskill Creek, although reconnaissances sufficient to deter- 
mine certain of its general features were made. The water of Catskill Creek 
is not so pure and soft as that of either Esopus or Rondout Creek and it is 
subjected to periods of greater turbidity. It is a less desirable addition to 
the increased supply of the City than either of those two. When the needs 
of the City in the more remote future require an increased supply over that 
to be afforded by the three principal watersheds on the easterly side of the 
Hudson, and by the Esopus and Rondout on the westerly side, it may be 
advisable to make complete investigations as to the availability of the water 
of Catskill Creek; but the Commission is clearly of the opinion that its 
development, if ever made, should follow that of Rondout Creek. 

The reconnaissances show an aggregate storage capacity of about 
21,000 million gallons in the Rondout Watershed and about 24,000 million 
gallons in the Catskill Watershed. 

The exact elevation of the high water surfaces in these reservoirs have 
not all been determined, but they are abundantly high for the high service 
distribution of New York City, ranging more than 660 feet above Croton 
datum. 

The Yield of the A Vic Sources of Supply. 

The water available from any watershed is that which flows off in times 
of flood and during other seasons. This yield or runoff varies much with 
the slopes and character of the watershed. If the slopes are steep and rocky, 
with little soil to hold back th^ rainfall, there w-ill be a rapid and large runoff. 
If, on the other hand,- the slopes of the drainage area are gentle, the yield 
or runoff will not only be less rapid, but smaller in amount. 

The three watersheds on the easterly side of the Hudson are, generally 
speaking, similar in character to the Croton shed, and as they are not far 
removed from it the general features of rainfall and runoff are not likely 



22 

to be much different. The watersheds of the Catskill Mountain region, on 
the other hand, are essentially different from those on the easterly sid« of 
the Hudson, The drainage area of the Esopus has steeper slopes and a 
surface in general from which storm waters will run off much more rapidly 
than from the drainage areas available east of the Hudson and it is at much 
greater elevation above sea level. From these and other considerations a 
greater yield per square mile may be expected and it has been found in our 
observations. A safe estimate of the greatest available runoff from any 
drainage area for purposes of municipal water supply must be based upon 
observations of rainfall and stream gaugings extending over a long series 
of years. Such extended observations, unfortunately, have not been made 
for any of the watersheds contemplated for the additional supply. Certain 
comparative deductions may be made from extended observations on other 
and similar drainage areas not too remote from those under consideration 
and not radically different in character. For this purpose the results of the 
most extended observations available upon the Croton Watershed of the 
New York supply, upon the Sudbury and Nashua Watersheds of the Boston 
supply, those obtained by Mr. Emil Kuichling for the proposed barge canal 
across the State of New York, those obtained by this Commission from 
short periods of observation and from other reliable sources, were examined 
and studied. 

The available yield of a watershed is also largely dependent upon the 
storage capacity or volume which can be developed in it, as the storage 
reservoirs must hold the surplus flood and other waters until they are needed 
in seasons of low water. The storage capacity of each watershed consid- 
ered was, therefore, definitely determined, those capacities for the Rondout 
and Catskill Creeks being of a more approximate character than the others, 
for the reasons already given. 

The following tabular statement exhibits the aggregate amount of stor- 
age which it is entirely feasible to create in each watershed: 

Area. Gallons. 

Fishkill Watershed 153 sq. miles 52,680,000,000 

Wappinger Creek 172 sq. miles 52,200,000,000 

Jansen Kill 149 sq. miles 17,150,000,000 

Esopus 255 sq. miles 101,556,000,000 

Schoharie 228 sq. miles 65,585,000,000 

Rondout 131 sq. miles 20,531,000,000 

Catskill 163 sq. miles 24,488,000,000 



The preceding totals for Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks include por- 
tions available for high service distribution only by pumping, but they are 
available totals. 

As a result of these studies the Commission believes it safe to estimate 
an available yield of 1,000,000 gallons per square mile per day for Esopus 
Watershed, and 750,000 gallons per square mile per day for each of the 
others. Those rates of yield will afford the following daily supplies for the 
watersheds first reconunended for high service development and in the 
order of their recommendation: 

Area. Gallons Per Day. 

Fishkill Watershed 8i sq. miles — 60.000,000 

Esopus Watershed 255 sq. miles 255,000,000 

Rondout Watershed 131 sq. miles 98,000,000 

Wappinger Creek Watershed 90 sq. miles 67,500,000 

Jansen Kill Watershed 149 sq. miles 112,000,000 



592,500,000 



If the Clinton Hollow drainage area be included, 26 square miles should 
be added to the Wappinger Creek drainage area and 19,500,000 gallons to 
its daily yield. 

It is essential not to overestimate the yield of a given territory in which 
reservoirs are to be constructed, for the reason that the daily draft of the 
distribution system will at times deplete the storage and expose a margin 
around the perimeter of the reservoir. If this uncovered margin is exposed 
through too long a period, vegetation will spring up on it and prejudice the 
quality of the water when the reservoir is again filled. It has been found in 
experience with the Metropolitan Supply for the City of Boston that a daily 
draft of 750,000 gallons per square mile of drainage area tends at times to 
keep' the reservoir from refilling for periods as long as two years. The 
Croton records show a similar result with a daily draft of about 850,000 
gallons. This latter result appears to indicate that a somewhat greater yield 
than 750,000 gallons per square mile per day might be taken on the easterly 
side of the Hudson, north of the Putnam County hills, but it is considered 
safer to hmit the estimates to that amount. Any additional yield of which 
the drainage areas are capable will be a corresponding advantage both in 
quantity and quality by decreasing the period of exposed margins of 
reservoir. 



24 

Other Possible Reservoir Sites. 

Although the Commission recommends certain specific reservoirs in the 
drainage areas on both sides of the Hudson, including the great Ashokan 
Reservoir on the Esopus Creek, other possible reservoir sites have been 
studied in each of the drainage areas considered. It has been the purpose of 
the Commission to indicate specifically those reservoirs, together with the 
aqueducts connecting them, leading to the best immediate development in 
the four drainage areas first available. It is not advisable to construct a 
large number of relatively small reservoirs, even should such a plan lead to 
some economy in first cost. Small and shallow reservoirs are easily affected 
by organic growths, producing disagreeable tastes and odors. They are 
sensitive to the influence of vegetation, swampy areas and other prejudicial 
features of reservoir sites. Furthermore, water passes through them in a 
comparatively short time, so that the sterilizing effect of lying in a large 
reservoir for a long period is lost. Reservoirs of great capacity, on the other 
hand, with their increased depth and greater volume of storage, are far less 
affected by organic grov/ths or by other more or less prejudicial effects in 
smaller volumes of water. The time required for the passage of water 
through a great reservoir has a most important influence in sterilizing the 
water as most of the pathogenic bacteria in the water of a storage basin 
will die in two to four weeks. The beneficial effects of the storage of water 
in reservoirs of great capacity are too pronounced to be ignored and the 
Commission has had them constantly in view in devising the system of 
additional supply. 

Sites for reservoirs of large capacity are few on the Fishkill and Wap- 
pinger Creeks and on the Jansen Kill, the principal of which have been 
selected in the plans outlined. On the Esopus Creek, on the other hand, 
there are a number of good reservoir sites, which it may be judicious to 
develop in the future, but which arc not needed for tarly construction. 

Aqueduct Construction Necessary for the Additional Supply of 
500 2^IiLLi0N Gallons Per Day. 

The aqueducts required for conveying the water from the watersheds on 
both the easterly and the westerly sides of the Hudson River, as set forth in 
the preceding description, will not differ greatly whatever may be their 
order of development. The site selected for the filter beds for all waters of the 
additional supply is at Stormville, on Fishkill Creek, about 12 miles easterly 
of Fishkill Landing, and all waters secured north of that point on either side 
of the river must be brought to this site for filtration before flowing south- 
ward to the City. An aqueduct of 500 million gallons capacity must, there- 



25 

tore, be constructed from Stormville to an equalizing reservoir at the north- 
ern limit of the City (Hill View Reservoir). The length of this aqueduct 
from the Stormville filter beds to the Hill View Reservoir is 49.1 miles, of 
which 29.2 miles is of the cut and cover type, 17.3 miles of tunnel in the 
mountainous portion of Putnam County and 2.6 miles of steel pipe siphon in 
the valleys crossed by that line. 

The total fall or loss of head in flowing from the filters to the Hill \'iew 
Reservoir will vary slightly with the condition of the filters and the elevation 
of the water in the reservoir, but it w ill be about 45 feet. The gradient of 
the cut and cover and tunnel sections of the aqueduct has been made .61 foot 
per mile, while the gradient of the steel pipe section has been made 2.429 feet 
per mile, so as to secure maximum economy in construction. 

From the Stormville filters one aqueduct of about 400 million gallons 
capacity will be constructed, first, in a northerly and then in a northwesterly 
direction to the Ashokan Reservoir. At a point beyond the Hudson the 
future Rondout Aqueduct will join that from the Ashokan Reservoir. It is 
considered advisable to build the aqueduct from this point to the Ashokan 
reservoir of the full 400 million gallons capacity to meet possible emergencies 
of operation in connection with the future development of Rondout Water- 
shed. 

A second aqueduct of about 250 million gallons capacity should be built 
from the Stormville Reservoir to the Billings Reservoir. Although the 
assumed average draft would require the Billings Reservoir to be connected 
with the Hibernia Reservoir by an aqueduct, having a capacity of only 20a 
million gallons per day, there are operative reasons given in Appendix I. why 
it would be advisable to make the capacity of this aqueduct 250 million gallons 
per day, especially as it is only 3.5 miles long and the difference in cost would 
be comparatively small. Fron] the Hibernia Reservoir on Wappinger Creek 
it will be advisable to build a short tunnel and open channel of about 220 
million gallons daily capacity to the Silvernails Reservoir on the Jansen KilU 
which will complete the chain of aqueducts and reservoirs required to secure 
the high level yield of tlie Fislikill and Wappinger Creeks and the Jansen 
Kill, the general direction from the Stormville Reservoir to the Silvernails 
Reservoir being a little east of north. 

The length of aqueduct from the Stormville filters to Ashokan Reser- 
voir is 38.9 miles and includes a crossing of the Hudson River near Hyde 
Fark. This aqueduct line has been completely surveyed and mapped l)et\vucn 
the Stormville filters and Wappinger Creek at Rochdale, so that data for 
final location are available. From West Hurley, the point at vliicli the 
aqueduct leaves Ashokan Reservoir to Wappinger Creek, the line has lieen 
carefully reconnoitred, so that its feasibility has been completely detennine^* 



26 

and its approximate alignment is known. It was the purpose of the Com- 
mission to complete detailed surv-eys of the aqueduct line between Wappinger 
Creek and Ashokan Reservoir, but the funds available for its work w^ere not 
suthcient. Enough data have been secured to predict confidently the approxi- 
mate location and cost. The approximate amount of cut and cover section of 
this aqueduct is 16.1 miles, with about 6.4 miles of tunnel and 14.5 miles of 
steel pipe. The Hudson River may be crossed by means of four lines of 
60-inch cast-iron pipe laid in tunnel beneath the bed of the river or in a' 
dredged channel. 

The aqueduct line from Stormville Reservoir to Silvernails Reservoir 
has been completely surveyed so as to give data for final location and close 
estimates of cost. The 250 million gallon aqueduct from Stormville filters to 
Billings Reservoir would have a cross section 14 feet in height and 14 feet 
4 inches in width, each dimension being a maximum. The grade would be 
0.61 feet per mile both in cut and cover work and in tunnel. In this aqueduct 
there would be 6.2 miles of cut and cover work and 1.7 miles of tunnel, 
making a total of 7.9 miles. 

The aqueduct from Billings Reservoir, on the Fishkill Watershed, to 
Hibernia Reservoir, on Wappinger Creek, would be 3.5 miles in length, 
nearly all of which would be in tunnel. 

The 220 million gallon aqueduct between the Hibernia and Silvernails 
Reservoirs would leave the latter at Pine Plains and enter the Hibernia 
Reservoir at its upper end, so that its total length would be 7.56 miles, 6.98 
miles of which would be in open channel and .58 mile in tunnel. The gradi- 
ent of the tunnel portion would be 1.37 feet per mile, and of the open channel 
1.35 feet per mile. 

If it should be desired to secure the yield of the Clinton Hollow Water- 
head of 26 square miles, it would be necessary to construct a tunnel 2 miles 
long from the Clinton Hollow Reservoir to the Hibernia Reservoir. As the 
yield which could be depended upon from this watershed would be but about 
19.5 million gallons per day, the Commission is not of the opinion that that 
amount of supply will justify the requisite expenditures for the construction 
of the dam and tunnel required to obtain it. 

If an advantageous reservoir site should be found on the Jansen Kill 
lower down on the stream than Silvernails, it might prove advisable to con- 
nect such a reservoir with that at Hibernia by way of Clinton Hollow, instead 
of using the line from Silvernails direct to Hibernia already described. Un- 
der such a plan the development of the Clinton Hollow Watershed would be- 
come desirable. 



27 

Order of Development, 

The Commission has given prolonged consideration to the question 
whether it is most advisable to develop either the yield of Wappinger Creek 
or of that creek combined with the Jansen Kill before or after the develop- 
ment of the supply from Esopus Creek. The waters of Wappinger Creek 
are much nearer to the Stormville filter site than the waters of Esopus Creek. 
It will even require materially less expense to secure the waters of the Jansen 
Kill after the development of the Fishkill Watershed, than those of Esopus 
Creek. The waters of both Wappinger Creek and the Jansen Kill, however, 
are relatively hard, having a mean or average hardness of fully double that 
of the Croton water, and perhaps more. The waters of Esopus Creek, on the 
other hand, as well as those of Rondout Creek, are remarkably soft, having a 
degree of hardness about half that of the Croton. Indeed, as has been 
before stated in this report, the waters of Esopus and Rondout Creeks are 
exceptionally desirable for public supply; they are the best w^aters that are 
available in any direction for an additional supply for New York City. The 
Commission, tlierefore, is strongly of the opinion that the waters of Esopus 
Creek should be secured and brought to the Stormville filter site as soon as 
it is practicable to do so ; and it is further of the opinion that in consequence 
of the exceptionally excellent character of the water that it should be 
brought in a separate aqueduct to Stormville without mingling with waters 
of either the Wappinger or the Fishkill Creek. It will probably also prove 
advisable to develop the yield of Rondout Creek immediately after securing 
the waters of the Esopus. The separate delivery of these waters at the point 
of intake to the main aqueduct may at times be of great value to the City, 
Many waters are occasionally subject to temporary bad tastes or odors, al- 
though the probability of such characteristics are greatly reduced when 
water is stored in large reservoirs. The excellent character of the Esopus 
and Rondout waters renders highly improbable these temporary prejudicial 
characteristics, and it is desirable to control the mingling of such waters with 
others of less excellent quality, should tastes and odors develop in them. An 
independent aqueduct for the Esopus and Rondout waters makes them com- 
pletely available for this desirable kind of control, which, in the judgment of 
the Commission, should be secured even at some additional expense. 

Quickest Availability of Fishkill Ji^'aters. 

The construction of the new tunnel through the mountainous portion 
of Putnam County, together with the construction of the main aqueduct 
from the northerly limit of The City of New York to the southerly extremity 
of the tunnel, mav involve more contract work than would be advisable before 



28 

securing the Fishkill waters, which the iiwestigations of this Commission 
show it to be imperative to secure at the earliest possible date. It would be 
feasible to turn the water from the Fishkill Watershed into the new Croton 
Lake immediately after the completion of the new aqueduct and tunnel north 
of it without awaiting the completion of the 500 million gallon aqueduct be- 
tween the tunnel and the City. If work wer-*. concentrated upon ine con- 
struction of the tunnel it could be completed within four to five years under 
energetic management. 

In this plan for making the Fishkill waters available in the earliest pos- 
sible time it would be necessary to build the Stormville and Billings Reser- 
voirs, and 28.56 miles of aqueduct, of which 14.60 miles would consist of cut 
and cover work and by pass through the filter beds, and 13.96 miles would 
be tunnel. 

The cost is estimated as follow s : 

Stormville Reservoir, complete $2,503,000 

Billings Reservoir, complete 1,806,00a 

12.60 miles cut and cover aqueduct 5,289,000 

13.96 miles tunnel 7.812,000 

Total $17,410,000 



In this cost the damages to mill owners and others for diverting the 
Fishkill Creek are not included. 

For a total expenditure, therefore, of about 17 or 18 million dollars, the 
waters of the Fishkill Creek could be turned into the new Croton Lake. 

As the w^atershed tributary to the Stormville and Billings Reservoirs is 
81 square miles, by the construction of this aqueduct and tunnel from Billings 
to a point near Yorktown, near the new Croton Lake, a supply of 60 million 
gallons per day could be added to the yield of the Croton Watershed. If the 
full capacity of the new Croton Aqueduct should be required for the daily 
draft of the Croton water alone, the old aqueduct could be put into com- 
mission for the additional 60 million gallons, or more, supplied through the 
new aqueduct from Storjnville. It is possible that the exigencies attending 
the completion of the new works for the additional supply may make it ad- 
visable to resort to this temporary measure. 

Filtration. 

The advance of knowledge in the filtration of public water supplies, the 
experience now available regarding the efficient and economical methods of 
such filtration and the late demonstrations of the sanitary value of properly 



29 

filtered water in reducing the sick and death rates, particularly in cases of 
typhoid and diarrhoeal diseases, have convinced this Commission that all 
waters to be secured for an additional supply of New York City should be 
either naturally filtered, such as spring" or ""round water, or artificially filtered 
according to the most efficient processes. Consequently, its efforts were 
directed to studying the possibilities of the future developments of the ground 
water supply which is available on Long Island, and to studying the best 
plans for filtering those surface waters which it will be necessary to use. 

Formerly the chief desire was to remove from the surface waters the 
occasional turbidity due to surface washings, also the vegetable stain of many 
waters, the vegetable growths associated with objectionable tastes and odors, 
or in other ways to improve the palatableness of such waters. Later, since 
the true relation between polluted water and health was discovered, it be- 
came a recognized necessity that bacteria, some of which are characteristic 
of disease, should also be removed from the water. 

Filtration, according to the best practice of to-day, is capable of remov- 
ing all of the objectionable elements at a reasonable cost. More than 25 
millions of people are now supplied with filtered water in Europe alone, and 
further millions are on the eve of being supplied with it in America. In 
every well studied case of the introduction of efficient filtration, water-borne 
diseases have been found to be greatly reduced. 

. I'o-day, two classes of water purification ar^known to be efficient. One 
embodies the slow or sand filters, and the other the rapid or mechanical 
filters. The former opeiate essentially by passing water slowly downward 
through beds of sand of medium-sized grains resting upon a layer of gravel, 
the beds being contained in water-tight basins. The speed of such filtration 
vanes, in accordance with local conditions, from two to six million gallons 
per acre per day, or with a vertical motion from 6 to 18 feet per day. Ordi- 
narily, the sand filter is from 3 to 4 feet thick and the gravel i foot thick. 
The filter units range in area from one-half to one acre. The raw water flows 
CO Ihe filter, enters above the sand, usually stands upon it to a depth of from 
3 to 4 feet, or even more, and thence passes through the sand and gravel into 
collecting pipes or drains laid on the floor of the basin,* which take it to the 
reservoirs and pipes leading to the consumers. To prevent freezing, it is 
desirable in the New York climate to cover the filters. 

Rapid or mechanical filters oi)erate essentially by passing water rapidly 
downward through beds of very coarse sand, resting upon metal strainers. 
These filters consist of small units, generally less than 1,000 square feet, and 
the water passes perhaps 40 times as fast as through the slow filters, which 
bnngs the quantity filtered up to 125 million gallons per acre per day, or 
a vertical speed of 375 to 40c feet per day. 



30 

While the slow filters depend for their efficiency upon a gelatinous coat- 
Hig which naturally forms and covers the sand grains of the upper layer, 
producing what is called ripeness, the rapid filters depend upon a gelatinous 
coating which is artificially produced by the coagulation and breaking up of 
a very small quantity of sulphate of alumina or iron into aluminum' or iron 
hydrate. The films thus formed by the introduction of these materials 
permit the bacteria and the suspended matter to be retained and removed 
later by a cleaning process. 

The cleaning of slow filters is accomplished by the removing of the up- 
per layer of sand from >^ to i inch in thickness. This material is removed, 
then washed and finally returned to another filter ready to receive a fresh 
suj)ply of sand. The wash water is delivered under pressure and is also 
utilized to carry sand from the old to a new or clean filter, where it is again 
distributed. The cleaning of rapid filters consists in allowing filtered water to 
pass upward through the entire sand layer at a sufficiently high velocity to 
float the sand grains of the entire mass and thereby remove the suspended 
matter attached to it by a stirring of the sand caused either by the escape of 
compressed air or by revolving rakes. The sand, after washing, settles back 
mto its place and the filter is then again ready for service. 

The efficiency in j)roducing clear water free from bacteria is nearly the 
same with both classes of filters. The slow filters require a larger area and a 
greater investment of money, while the rapid filters require much less land, 
but a greater cost for operation. The total cost, however, generally does not 
differ materially. The slow filters are somewhat more simple in operation 
and less likely to get out of order, while the rapid filters are more efficient 
for waters that are very turbid or highly colored. 

This Conmiission recommends for the additional water supply from the 
Hudson River watershed the slow filters, because there is sufficient area of 
suitable land available, and because the character of the turbidity and color 
of the water is such that a coagulant would rarely if ever be required to ob- 
tain clear and colorless water, and because the magnitude of the works render 
the conditions of operation more simple and, therefore more easily managed. 
It is necessary to add, however, that emergency conditions may exist where 
rapid filters may be preferable, because of the rapidity with which they can 
be installed and the smaller expense of installation. 

To protect the artificially purified water as well as the ground 
water from deterioration by exposure to sun, heat, and dust, it 
must be kept in covered reservoirs for distribution, and thus not 
be exposed in passing from the filters to the point of consumption. 
The sole object of the distributing reservoirs is to afford storage of 
enough water near to the consumers to compensate for the varying hourly 



3i 

drafts and to provide against sudden large drafts in case of fires or bursting 
mains. An excessive size is, therefore, required, and a covering of the nec- 
essary area is feasible and not expensive. For the supply of Manhattan and 
The Bronx the proposed Hill View Reservoir will serve this purpose. The 
Jerome Park Reservoir when covered can be utilized as a distributing reser- 
voir for the present low level supply after it is filtered. For Brooklyn, the 
Prospect Park Reservoir can be readily adapted for the same purpose by pro- 
viding a cover. Suitable sites for additional distributing reservoirs should 
soon be secured, both for the rapidly developing Boroughs of Brooklyn and 
Queens on the ridge in the centre of the Island, and for the Borough of 
Richmond on the highest portions of Staten Island. 

The Commission has made an extended study of the filtration of the 
proposed additional supply of waters from the Hudson River valley, from 
which the next increase of supply should be obtained. It has not been able 
to enter with the same detail into the study of filtration works for the 
existing supplies of the Croton and of the Long Island surface waters. 
Regarding the latter, it is urged that investigation be made to ascertain 
the expediency of erecting filters for the purification of those surface waters 
which are subject to the pollution from a growing population, and which for 
some time it may be deemed best not to abandon in favor of another source of 
supply. Regarding the Croton water, the Commission urges that suitable lands 
be secured at once, upon which to erect a filter plant sufficient in size to purify 
the entire supply obtained from this source. There are but a few^ sites still 
available for such a plant of slow filters, and a long delay in procuring it may 
seriously aflfect its future cost. Examinations of the sites have been made 
sufficiently extended to determine their feasibility and to ascertain their ap- 
proximate cost. 

The chief work of the Filtration Department consisted in the discovery, 
surveying, and mapping of all areas suitable for filter sites for the diflFerent 
water supplies which were investigated to supplement the present Croton sup- 
ply. The reconnoissance and first surveys were based upon the existing maps 
of the United States Geo]«)gical Survey, but accurate levels were run over all 
the territory under consideration. The detached positions of the various loca- 
tions surveyed for the above purpose made it desirable to locate them 
accurately by means of latitude and longitude measurements, and these were 
based upon the data furnished by the United States Government./ A large 
number of locations were closely investigated with reference to their suit- 
ability for diiTerent propositions of additional supply, namely, for a 
low level aqueduct and a high level aqueduct, and also for obtaining 
the waters through diflFerent combinations of the available sources. 
After the location of the best filter site for the recommended project 



22 

to be much different. The watersheds of the Catskill Mountain region, on 
the other hand, are essentially different from those on the easterly side of 
the Hudson. The drainage area of the Esopus has steeper slopes and a 
surface in general from which storm waters will run off much more rapidly 
than from the drainage areas available east of the Hudson and it is at much 
greater elevation above sea level. From these and other considerations a 
greater yield per square mile may be expected and it has been found in our 
observations. A safe estimate" of the greatest available runoff from any 
drainage area for purposes of municipal water supply must be based upon 
observations of rainfall and stream gaugings extending over a long series 
of years. Such extended observations, unfortunately, have not been made 
for any of the watersheds contemplated for the additional supply. Certain 
comparative deductions may be made from extended observations on other 
and similar drainage areas not too remote from those under consideration 
and not radically different in character. For this purpose the results of the 
most extended observations available upon the Croton Watershed of the 
New York supply, upon the Sudbury and Nashua Watersheds of the Boston 
supply, those obtained by Mr. Emil Kuichling for the proposed barge canal 
across the State of New York, those obtained by this Commission from 
short periods of observation and from other reliable sources, were examined 
and studied. 

The available yield of a watershed is also largely dependent upon the 
storage capacity or volume which can be developed in it, as the storage 
reservoirs must hold the surplus flood and other waters until they are needed 
in seasons of low water. The storage capacity of each watershed consid- 
ered was, therefore, definitely determined, those capacities for the Rondout 
and Catskill Creeks being of a more approximate character than the others, 
for the reasons already given. 

The following tabular statement exhibits the aggregate amount of stor- 
age which it is entirely feasible to create in each watershed: 

Area. Gallons. 

Fishkill Watershed ^53 sq. miles 52,680,000,000 

Wappinger Creek 172 sq. miles 52,200,000,000 

Jansen Kill 149 sq. miles 17,150,000,000 

Esopus . . . ; 255 sq. miles 101,556,000,000 

Schoharie 228 sq. miles 65,585,000,000 

Rondout 131 sq. miles 20,531,000,000 

Catskill 163 sq, miles 24488,000,000 



The preceding totals for Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks include por- 
tions available for high service distribution only by pumping, but they are 
available totals. 

As a result of these studies the Commission believes it safe to estimate 
an available yield of 1,000,000 gallons per square mile per day for Esopus 
Watershed, and 750,000 gallons per square mile per day for each of the 
others. Those rates of yield will afford the following daily supplies for the 
watersheds first recommended for high service development and in the 
order of their recommendation: 

Area. Gallons Per Day. 

Fishkill Watershed 81 sq. miles 60,000,000 

Esopus Watershed 255 sq. miles 255,000,000 

Rondout Watershed 131 sq. miles 98,000,000 

Wappinger Creek Watershed 90 sq. miles 67,500,000 

Jansen Kill Watershed 149 sq. miles 112,000,000 



592,500,000 



If the Clinton Hollow drainage area be included, 26 square miles should 
be added to the Wappinger Creek drainage area and 19,500,000 gallons to 
its daily yield. 

It is essential not to overestimate the yield of a given territory in which 
reservoirs are to be constructed, for the reason that the daily draft of the 
distribution system will at times deplete the storage and expose a margin 
around the perimeter of the reservoir. If this uncovered margin is exposed 
through too long a period, vegetation will spring up on it and prejudice the 
quality of the water when the reservoir is again filled. It has been found in 
experience with the Metropolitan Supply for the City of Boston that a daily 
draft of 750,000 gallons per square mile of drainage area tends at times to 
keep the reservoir from refilling for periods as long as two years. The 
Croton records show a similar result with a daily draft of about 850,000 
gallons. This latter result appears to indicate that a somewhat greater yield 
than 750,000 gallons per square mile per day might be taken on the easterly 
side of the Hudson, north of the Putnam County hills, but it is considered 
safer to limit the estimates to that amount. Any additional yield of which 
the drainage areas are capable will be a corresponding advantage both in 
quantity and quality by decreasing the period of exposed margins of 
reservoir. 



36 

York City are all under fairly good sanitary supervision and that the quality 
of work by the sanitary patrol and the frequency of tests of the quality of the 
water supplies have made marked progress in recent years. 

The analyses made for the Brooklyn Water Department have shown 
that the ground water supplies are substantially free from pollution danger- 
ous to health, or, in other words, the natural filtration which these waters 
receive on their passage through the ground purifies them, so that, generally 
speaking, they are safe, notwithstanding that considerable sources of surface 
pollution lie in their path. 

Analyses of Present Supplies. 

Under the present rules, samples for analyses are collected every day 
from the terminus of the Croton aqueduct at One Hundred and Thirty-fifth 
street, Manhattan, and from the terminus of the Brooklyn aqueduct at the 
Ridgewood Pumping Station, also it several taps in Manhattan and Brook- 
lyn. Once a week samples are collected from all the distributing reservoirs, 
supply ponds, and storage reservoirs. Once a month, or once a quarter, 
every driven well supply is analyzed and all apparent sources of dangerous 
pollution of which any notification reaches the Department of Water Supply, 
Gas, and Electricity, are made subject to an immediate investigation. 

As to the tests of these samples it may not be amiss to state here that 
the character of water analysis has entirely changed during the past 15 years, 
under the development of the sciences of Biology and Bacteriology, and the 
proof that certain diseases, notably typhoid fever, are water borne. Fifteen 
years ago the only water analysis made was the chemical analysis; but so 
far as the public health is concerned this by itself now would be regarded 
as of little value. To-day, a complete sanitary water analysis consists of 
four parts — the bacteriological examination, the microscopical examination, 
the physical examination, and the chemical analysis, and for the best interpre- 
tation of these an inspection of all the sources of the water and their sur- 
roundings is also necessary. 

Bacteriological Examinations. 

The bacteriological examination, as practiced in the present investiga- 
tion, consisted of a determination of the total number of bacteria and the 
test for Bacillus coli made upon three diflferent quantities of the water in 
question. In bacteriological examinations of water supplies no distinction is 
made between the harmful and the harmless bacteria, and the method of 
counting the total number of bacteria in a sample has chiefly a relative value 
for comparing different sources of supply, while the test for Bacillus coli is 



37 

chiefly of value as demonstrating the freedom from pollution, and in tracing 
such pollution as has its origin in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. 

Microscopical Examination. 

This is of value chiefly as a measure of the probable freedom of waters 
from aromatic, grassy, and fishy odors in unclean reservoirs, to which they 
are sometimes subject, for surface waters contain many forms of animal 
and vegetable life which, although too small to be observed with the naked 
eye, may, by their growth and decomposition, make a water unpalatable and 
offensive to the taste. This examination is made by filtering out the organ- 
isms and transferring them to the stage of a microscope, where they can be 
identified and counted. 

Physical Examination. 

The physical examination is chiefly of value as demonstrating the quali- 
ties of the water evident to the senses, such as temperature, turbidity, color 
and odor. The color and turbidity at the present time are measured by com- 
parison with well-defined standards. The color is caused chiefly by vege- 
table matter in solution coming largely from swamp lands on the watershed, 
being practically an extract of the leaves, twigs, etc., which accumulate upon 
the wet surface of the ground. While color m water is not distinctly harmful, 
if great enough to be noticeable in a glass it may detract from its palata- 
bleness, or if so high as to be distinctly noticeable in a washbowl, or porcelain 
bath tub, may give the suggestion of uncleanliness. The color in water, be- 
ing due to substances in solution, must be distinguished from turbidity which 
may be in a large part removed by subsidence. Turbidity is chiefly objec- 
tionable because of rendering water unattractive. 

Ch emical A n alysis. 

The chemical analysis is useful mainly as indicating the presence or ab- 
sence of previous pollution by an excess of chlorine or by the amount and 
character of the nitrogenous matter present, but it is also of great practical 
Hni>ortance for showing the hardness and alkalinity of the water and its 
eflfect when used in steam boilers. 

The present and proposed sources have been studied by repeated samples 
throughout all seasons of the past year, and an abstract of these results will 
be found in Appendix VI. 

Character of the Croton Water. 

The Croton water has frequently been turbid during the past few years 
and occasionally malodorous. The occasional odors are due not to pollution 



38 

but chiefly to the effect of microscopic organisms which grow at certain sea- 
sons of the year, mainly in the reservoirs in Central Park. These basins have 
not been cleaned for many years and there must be considerable deposits of 
mud at the bottom. With 200 million gallons of water per day passing 
through these reservoirs computations based on analysis show that a deposit 
of about an inch in depth every ten years may be expected, but the amount of 
this sediment is of less importance than its character. It is largely organic 
and contains many micro-organisms, and these basins have thus become so 
seeded with algae, protozoa and other organic life tliat at times the water 
emptying from the basins is found to be objectionable, while that entering 
is in good condition. Obviously these reservoirs should be cleaned more fre- 
quently. 

I'he impounding reservoirs of the Croton system show conditions not 
materially different from those that occur in storage reservoirs elsewhere. 
I'hese reservoirs were constructed without the removal of the turf, stumps, 
peat deposits, and other organic matter from their beds. When the reser- 
voirs were flooded some of this organic matter decomposed during the first 
few years and water drawn meanwhile from the lowest sluices was offensive. 
This decomposition has now practically come to an end and the reservoirs 
are apparently Jbut little different from natural lakes having mud bottoms. 
Most of the reservoirs of the Croton system are deep and undergo the proc- 
ess of stagnation and overturning. Under the differences of density due to 
the varying temperature from top to bottom vertical circulation ceases dur- 
ing a portion of the year and the free oxygen in the lower strata becomes ex- 
hausted, after which organic matter at the bottom is liable to give off offen- 
sive odors- 

In general, the conditions of the Croton water appear such that filtra- 
tion is all that is needed to make it entirely satisfactory, providing it is sub- 
sequently stored in covered reservoirs, so subdivided into compartments that 
the bottom of the reservoir can be conveniently cleaned. It is desirable that 
attention be given to this question of removing organic matter from the bed 
of the reservoir to be formed by the new Croton Dam. If the Croton supply 
is soon to be filtered, as recommended by this Commission, this work of 
freeing the reservoir bed from organic matter may be done on very economi- 
cal lines. 

With the advent of filtered water the problem of caring for the stored 
water and keeping it free from objectionable organisms will become more 
difficult, for to turn filtered water into a reservoir which is seeded with the 
germs of so many micro-organisms as the Central Park reservoirs would 
largely destroy the benefit of filtration. 

It may ultimately be found necessary to provide for the further sub- 



39 

division of these reservoirs and to cover them by masonry arches similar to 
those proposed for the Hill View Reservoir. In such an event these arches 
would be covered by a few feet of level earth, grassed over and made avail- 
able for park areas. 

The effect of the longer storage of the Croton supply in the new Croton 
Lake and in Jerome l*ark Reservoir prior to filtration will tend materially to 
improve the sanitary quality of the water. 

The hardness of the Croton water differs greatly in different portions 
of the watershed, but as the water reaches the City it averages about 40 on 
the ordinary scale of hardness, which is not objectionable. Moreover, this 
hardness consists mainly of the carbonates, and is of the temporary kind 
which does not form a hard scale in steam boilers as does the hardness due 
to sulphates. 

The Bronx and Byram water is, in general, superior to the Croton and, 
notwithstanding their drainage areas are nearer the city, they now have a 
lower population per square mile. The excellent sanitary condition of this 
water is indicated by the low typhoid death rate in the Borough of The 
Bronx. 

Quality of Brooklyn Supply. 

The water supplied to the Borough of Brooklyn may be considered of 
reasonably good sanitary quality under ordinary conditions. It is occasion- 
ally turbid and sometimes high in color. It is fairly soft, although it contains 
relatively high sulphates, nitrates, and chlorides, making the water unsatis- 
factory for boiler use, but not high enough to cause trouble in domestic use. 
The large and increasing population of the watershed, the small size of the 
supply ponds permitting delivery of surface wash into the aqueduct, are such 
imsatisfactory conditions that the filtering of all this surface supply should 
be accomplished at the earliest practical date. 

Mr. I. M. de \'arona, Chief Engineer of the Brooklyn Water Supply 
Department, has for five years past given attention to the analysis of the 
water supplied by all portions of the Brooklyn drainage area, and care ap- 
pears to have been taken to shut off any sections of the gathering ground in 
which pollution was imminent. Bad growths of micro-organisms sometimes 
occur in the Ridgewood and Mt. Prospect reservoirs, imparting to the water 
unpleasant odors and rendering it unsightly, and it has frequently been nec- 
essary to by-pass these reservoirs and cut them out of the general circulation 
during periods of offensive organic growths. The Mt. Prospect Reservoir 
has much heavier growths of organisms than the Ridgewood Reservoir, and 
is also subject to contamination by clouds of dust blown from the street, and 
it should be covered if it continues to be used. These reservoirs should be 
covered by some such method as shown in the plans of the Hill View Res- 



40 

ervoir, and provision should be made for cleaning them regularly as long as 
unfiltered surface water continues to be used. 

There are no limestone deposits which outcrop on Long Island and the 
surface waters are comparatively soft, but increase in hardness from east to 
west, this being due apparently to the increased density in population Sev- 
eral of the driven well waters are very hard, but this hardness is so diluted 
by admixture with the surface water that the average total hardness is 
but slightly more than that of the Croton. The chlorine entering the water 
from certain of the wells adds materially to the corrosive effect of this water 
on boilers. Chloride of magnesia appears to be the most active agent of cor- 
rosion, but is doubtless aided by the amount of dissolved free carbonic acid 
in tlie water and also by the nitrates that it contains. All hardness due to 
sulphates, nitrates, and other similar salts, are generally higher than in sur- 
face waters of the Croton Watershed. 

Sanitary Studies for the Additional Supply. 

The following qualifications were regarded as essential for the new 
supply : 

1st. Absolute freedom from pollution, or from organisms capable of pro- 
ducing disease or discomfort. 

2d. Freedom from odor and from noticeable turbidity and color. 

3d. Softness. 

4th. Freedom from iron in solution. 

Sth. Freedom from substances liable to corrode metal work, either in 
boilers or service pipes. 

6th. A cool and equable temperature is desirable. 

Unfortunately the characteristics which may render a water dangerous 
do not always make it unpalatable, and a water which may be attractive and 
pleasant to the taste may contain disease germs, but on the other hand, waters 
that are high in color and turbid may not be at all unsanitary. Special at- 
tention has been given to the hardness and alkalinity of the samples of water 
investigated. The temporary hardness coming from carbonates and bi-car- 
bonates in comparison with the hardness from sulphates, which in boilers 
form a hard scale, has also been given much attention. All of these ques- 
tions of hardness will be found fully discussed in Appendix VL An inter- 
esting study has been made to determine what additional value to the com- 
munity a water supply would have which should contain only half the hard- 
ness of the present Croton supply, or, on the other hand, what would be the 
probable extra cost of soap and boiler compounds wnth a water which would 
have double the hardness of the present Croton supply, and, in fact, the final 
decision of this Conmiission lav on the desirability of the hardness of the 



41 

waters of the VV^appinger Creek, and the Jansen Kill in comparison with 
those of the Esopus and Rondout. 

Assuming that one gallon per inhabitant per day is used in washing re- 
quiring soap and taking the total horse power of steam boilers from the 
Police Department's report, an estimate shows that the consumers may be 
compelled to exj^end $100,000 annually for soap and boiler compounds for 
every increase of 10 points of the scale of hardness for a public water supply 
of 275 million gallons per day, the present consumption of Manhattan. On 
this basis, comparing the waters of the Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks and 
Jansen Kill, having an average hardness of over 90, with the waters of the 
Esopus and the Rondout Creeks, having a hardness about 20, it is found that 
the excess of cost, due to this difference in hardness, would amount to the 
surprisingly large sum of $700,000 per year. While this estimate is not to be 
accepted as exact, at least it serves to point out the commercial value of soft- 
ness in a water supply. 

Stream Investigations, 

The investigations of the quality of water in the various streams con- 
sidered as possible sources at first covered a wide range of territory, compris- 
ing all of the principal tributaries of the Hudson, the Ten Mile, the Housa- 
tonic, and the northeasterly headwaters of the Delaware, but as the work 
progressed many of these courses were eliminated from further consideration 
and the work confined to a narrower field. Stations were established on all 
the important streams and local representatives were engaged to collect daily 
samples, observe the height of the river by reading the staff gauge and record 
the meteorological condition. Thirty-four stations were established but not 
all were continued. At nine of these stations rain gauges were located. In 
all cases the points were selected with care to secure representative samples. 

In addition to these analyses, inspection tours were made over the drain- 
age areas to determine the sources of pollution, the character of the vegeta- 
tion and extent of the cultivation of the land, the appearance of the banks 
of the streams, and the general topography and geological features. The 
completeness of these investigations varied according to the probability of the 
water being used. Two general inspections were made of all the drainage 
areas, while in those selected for future sources three detailed inspections 
were made. A sanitary survey was made of the drainage areas of the Fish- 
kill Creek, Wappinger Creek and Roelif Jansen Kill, also of the Esopus, Cats- 
kill and Schoharie Creeks, to secure reliable data concerning the amount of 
transient population along these streams, the number and size of summer 
hotels, the character of the villages and their method of sewage disposal. The 
inspectors counted the houses and located them on the maps, estimating the 
number of summer boarders frgm inquiry and by conferences with the post- 
masters. Sources of pollution were of course noted and located on the maps. 



42 

Consideration of a supply of filtered water from the Hudson taken near 
Hyde Park required a careful study of the tributaries above that point. The 
results of these various lines of investigation may be stated briefly as follows : 
I'he Adirondack streams were found free from pollution, conspicuously free 
from turbidity, even during spring freshets, and very soft, but the water is 
about twice as dark as the Croton, due to the presence of swamps. The Bat- 
ten Kill, the Hoosac and Mohawk Rivers were found polluted and their 
waters hard and at times turbid. The Walkill was found decidedly hard, and 
discolored by the extensive swamps and peat deposits of the Drowned Lands. 

The Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks, the Jansen Kill, the Esopus, Scho- 
harie, Catskill and Rondout Creeks were considered more particularly as 
direct sources of supply. The Esopus and Rondout Creeks were found the 
most attractive in quality, by reason of their extreme softness. The drainage 
areas of all of these mountain streams are sparsely populated, and although 
they contain many summer hotels and cottages these can be made unobjec- 
tionable from a sanitary standpoint by a comparatively small expenditure for 
sewage disposal in the principal villages and summer colonies. 

The drainage areas considered east of the Hudson are also sparsely 
populated. Their streams have water averaging nearly two and one-half 
times as hard as the Croton, while the Esopus, Rondout and Schoharie Creeks 
have water only half as hard as the Croton. 

An extended investigation was made to determine the average hardness 
of the water that would be delivered from large impounding reservoirs on 
each of these watersheds, for obviously the daily samples taken in summer 
would show a much higher degree of hardness than the spring flood 
waters with which the impounding reservoirs will be replenished. Allowing 
for this, and weighing the average of the weekly samples in proportion to the 
volume to be stored at the diflFerent seasons, it was estimated that the average 
quality of the water stored in these impounding reservoirs would be as 
follows : 



Reservoir System. 

Storm ville 

Billings 

Hibernia 

Clinton Hollow. . . . 
Silvernails , 



Hardness. 


Million ' 
Gallons 
Daily. 


I02 


37 


58 


24 


91 


68 


67 


20 


107 


112 



Esopus. . . 
Rondout . 
Schoharie 
Catskill. . 



Hardness. 



20 

23 
21 

36 



I 



Million 
Gallons 
Daily. 



100 
171 
123 



43 

It is found that combining the Fishkill, Esopus and Rondout waters in 
the proix)scd new aqueduct, the average hardness would be 29, while with the 
Hibernia Reservoir system added to make up the full 500 million gallons 
per day, the hardness of the whole would be increased to 40, which is prac- 
tically the same as that of the present Croton supply. In Appendix V'l. an 
estnnate is presented of the probable chemical and physical characteristics 
that the proposed new supply would possess. 

Hudson River Water. 

This water was made the subject of very full studies during the first few 
months of the Commission's work, because the proposition to obtain the new 
supply from the Hudson at a short distance above Poughkeepsie was at that 
time the most prominent. 

The averages of many analyses show that the quality of this Hudson 
water near the proposed location of the intake would be about the same as 
that taken from this river between Albany and Troy and filtered for municipal 
use, and that it can be made at least equally satisfactory by filtration. It was 
found that the additional pollution which the river receives at Albany is more 
than offset by dilution from the volume of water that comes in from the tribu- 
taries entering below Albany. The average hardness of water taken from 
the Hudson would be about 46, somewhat less than at Albany, and little more 
than that of the Croton. 

This Commission is of the opinion that by adopting proper precautions, 
and, also reinforcing the flow in time of drought from large storage reser- 
voirs under the City's control, to be established in the Adirondacks, the water 
taken from the river near Hyde Park could, by filtration, be rendered pala- 
table and entirely safe for drinking, domestic and industrial use. 

^alt Water in the Hudson. 

With a view to locating the proposed pumping station for Hudson water 
at a safe distance above the point to which the tide may carry salt watet 
under extreme conditions of drought and wind, an extended series of observa- 
tions was made. 

The scientific solution of this problem is complicated. It is known that 
the salt water does sometimes affect the Poughkeepsie supply. An amount 
of salt, too small to be tasted, may seriously affect the value of the water for 
steam and industrial purposes, as is seen in the case of the present Ridgewood 
supply. The present season proved less favorable for finding the limit of the 
flow of salt water than if there had been less rain, but many valuable data 
were secured. Many hundred determinations of the amount of chlorine at 



44 

different depths at points all the way from New York to Albany, and under 
varying conditions of stream flow, tide and wind, were made. Automatic 
tide gauges were located at Yonkers, Oscawanna, West Point, Poughkeepsie 
and Rhinecliff. From a review of these records and from many inquiries 
of those familiar with the river, it appears that a location near Hyde Park 
could be made safe in connection with a reinforcement of the Summer flow, 
but whenever a season of extremely low rainfall, like that of 1883 or 1891 
again comes, the present studies should be supplemented by further investi- 
gations, with a view to recourse to the Hudson for water supply in the dis- 
tant future. 

Ground Water Supplies. 

Analysis previously on record in the Brooklyn Water Department gave 
nearly all the chemical and bacteriological information that was needed con- 
cerning the present quality of the ground water sources of Long Island. 
Test of samples, taken from some of the thickly populated parts of Brooklyn, 
were analyzed for comparison and the results are very interesting in showing 
the amount of pollution that may exist on the surface and not render the 
water from a driven well unsanitary, even with a coarse gravelly soil. It 
was found that samples of water which, from chemical analysis, might be 
considered unsatisfactory, were sterile by bacteriological tests and can safely 
be used for drinking purposes. This is largely due to the distribution of the 
sand or gravel which causes a diffused and slow movement of the ground 
water. Investigations were made to determine the limits at which pollution 
extended from large amounts of foecal matter deposited at a depth of 6 or 8 
feet below the surface, as in privy vaults, and other experiments have l^een 
made to determine the rate of decrease in bacteria from the surface of the 
ground downward. 

Long Island Sourcks. 

It is the opinion of this Commission that the water to be obtained from 
Long Island should be either ground water, not subject to pollution, or prop- 
erly filtered surface water. 

It is entirely practicable and economical to supply Brooklyn and Queens 
from the recommended Hill View Reservoir, about three miles north of 
Jerome Park Reservoir. The details of this system of pipe lines ex- 
tending across the East River can be readily arranged when necessary. As 
they were not so important as the questions concerning the sources available 
for the nearer future, they did not receive special consideration. The Com- 
mission desires to urge, however, that one or two connections should be made 



45 

as soon as practicable between the large mains in Manhattan and those of 
Queens and Brooklyn, so as to place safeguards against the results of 
any sudden breakage, or of any dangerous or temporary shortage in either 
of the boroughs. 

This Commission is of the opinion that at present, and for some years 
to come, the more economical method of increasing the present supply for 
the Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens is by adding to it new sources on 
Long Island. And it is recommended that all further increase should be in 
the direction of an extension of the ground water sources, because this could 
be accomplished in less time and at less cost than the collection, storage, and 
filtration of surface waters not yet utilized. The need of further time and 
funds made it impracticable to complete surveys and detailed estimates of 
cost of the necessary works of such additional supplies. The present report 
is, therefore, limited to an expression of opinion based upon personal exam- 
ination and careful study of the situation and a thorough investigation of 
the Island sources. 

The source of all underground waters, as well as of surface waters, 
is the rainfall. It is therefore necessary first, to ascertain the amount which 
falls upon the territory whence it can be brought to the City, and incidentally 
also its distribution as to time and place. Secondly, it is necessary to follow 
the rain water after it has fallen and to find the proportion which is available 
for the City's use. 

'J'he precipitated water and snow divides into several parts. One flows 
off immediately upon the surface into natural depressions of the land, and 
thence into brooks and rivers. This run-off increases in proportion as the 
ground is frozen, as it is wet, and as the rain is intense. Another part is re- 
tained for some time by the vegetation and mold, or upon the surface in the 
form of snow or ice. Another part is evaporated from the plants, from water 
surfaces and from land surfaces, especially when warm and dry. Still an- 
other part percolates into the soil if it is permeable, and is absorbed by the 
roots or held in the ground by capillarity, to be withdrawn by evaporation 
from the soil. Firaally, one part descends into the ground to impenetrable 
clays or dense rocki. and until it reaches a plane of saturation below which 
is accumulated within the interstices of the rocks and soils a large quantity 
of ground water, which creeps through the pores to the lowest levels, where 
it can escape as spring water into streams, lakes or the ocean. Each of these 
parts has been considered, so far as practicable, with reference to the condi- 
tions on Long Island. 

In order to ascertain whether there was a sufficient quantity of ground 
water of good quality available for the purposes of a water supply, an in- 
vestigation was extended over most of the Island. This was begun early in 



46 

March. Arrangements were made by which the United States Geological Sur- 
vey could aid in the work of the Commission by undertaking a study of the 
geology of the Island, making some of the stream gaugings and measuring 
the velocity of ground water flow. 

The work of the Commission itself comprised observations on rainfall, 
temperature, wind and relative humidity, studies of evaporation from soil 
and the amount of percolation, the location of existing wells for ground 
water observations, sinking new test wells to supplement those already ex- 
isting for the purpose of determining the character of the soils and rocks in 
the sub-strata, the gathering of ground water statistics to learn the rate and 
amount of percolation and of fluctuation of the water table, determining the 
levels of this water table in wells and measuring the surface water flow. 

The investigations were started in the Borough of Queens and County 
of Nassau, and were later extended into Suffolk County as far as Patchogue 
and Port Jefferson, with some observations reaching Riverhead. Most of the 
collected information was plotted, and is contained in Appendix VII. 

Meteorological Observations. 

Several meteorological stations were already in existence, at some of 
which observations were made by the United States Weather Bureau and at 
others by the Brooklyn Water Department. The Commission established five 
more stations. At Floral Park and Brentwood continuous records were ob- 
tained, the former representing the watersheds of the present Brooklyn sup- 
ply and the latter permitting a comparison of the meteorology of Suffolk 
County with that of Nassau County. At Oyster Bay, Farmingdale and 
Manor the stations were equipped with standard rain gauges and ther- 
mometers, which were read by special observers. 

A compilation of the rainfall records shows an average precipitation for 
78 years of 42.56 inches per annum. For the purpose of a reliable supply 
of water it is necessary, how-ever, to consider not the average but the greatest 
quantity permanently available. In view of the large storage capacity of 
water within the interstices of the sandy substrata of Long Island, it is safe to 
base this supply upon a series of consecutive dry years rather than upon a 
single dry year. The period of lowest precipitation on record showed for five 
years, between 1835 and 1839 inclusive, an average of only 35.20 inches per 
annum. On this basis, it is quite proper to assume 35 inches per annum as 
the greatest precipitation from which to estimate the amount of ground 
water which at all times can be abstracted and utilized. From this assumed 
rainfall it is necessary to deduct the water which runs off on the surface to 
the ocean, and that which is evaporated and absorbed by vegetation. The re- 
mainder is the source of the available ground water. While as much infor- 



47 

mation as time permitted was obtained regarding the stream flow and evap- 
oration, most of the observations made by the Commission had for their 
object a more direct determination of this available quantity. 

Surface Waters. 

Long Island, from which the surface water supply is now derived, has 
near its centre and stretching from west to east, a ridge several hundred feet 
in height, from which streams run northerly into the Sound and southerly 
into the Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the Island near the ocean is flat 
and indented with bays and channels through which the tide ebbs and flows. 
The shortness of the Island streams makes them small, and the flowing 
water in their lower portions is maintained almost entirely by the ground 
water which enters them, the upper portions of the streams being dry except 
during and shortly after rain storms. The Brooklyn water supply is derived 
partly from the flow of many of these streams and partly from the ground 
water, all between Spring Creek and Massapequa. 

In order to gain a fair estimate of the amount of water flowing oflf the 
surface of the territory under consideration, including that portion of the 
ground water which isues as springs and supplies the dry weather flow of 
the streams, gaugings have been made by erecting weirs across some of the 
characteristic streams, utilizing for this purpose also the existing 
information of the Brooklyn Water Department as far as practicable. 
Little stream gauging work had been done except during periods of 
drought before the present year, when in April and May the United States 
Geological Survey established ten stations, two in Nassau County and eight 
along the southern shore of Sufl^olk County. These measurements were not 
sufficiently precise or long continued to permit a fair estimate to be made of 
the surface run-off. The Commission, therefore, made some independent 
stream flow gaugings, but confined them to six of the most important streams 
between Freeport and Massapequa. 

The Long Island streams are somewhat flashy because they are short 
and their upper parts are rather steep. Therefore, the few* daily observa- 
tions had been of little use and the Commission established self-recording 
gauges and weir measurements. Besides these six weir stations, four other 
stream gauging stations were established, at which daily approximate meas- 
urements were made at Jamaica Creek, Seaford Creek, Massapequa Stream 
and Dixsee's Creek. The watersheds of the streams between East Meadow 
Brook and Massapequa Stream were studied in some detail to get the drain- 
age areas and the physical surface characteristics. 

At present, practically all of the available surface water of Queens and 
Nassau Counties has been secured and made tributary to the supply. The 



48 

only larger quantities of surface water left to be secured are in Suffolk 
County, where at present the law prevents their being taken. 

Estimates of the stream flow were made in 1867 by Tames P. Kirkwood, 
and in 1875 by Julius W. Adams, which were to the effect that in the dry 
years it amounted to about 50 per cent, of the minimum rainfall, which how- 
ever included whatever ground water flow entered the streams. The true sur- 
face or flood flow was estimated by Adams at 12 per cent. The studies of the 
Commission have indicated that the flood flow for a long period of minimum 
rainfall might be as low as 9 per cent., and that for average years it may be 
about 16 per cent. The Commission has concluded that the entire visible flow 
of the streams may be estimated at 35 per cent, of the average annual rainfall 
and at 23 per cent, for five year periods of minimum rainfall. Assuming a 
rainfall of 35 inches for a dry period, the flood flow in the streams would cor- 
respond to a depth of 3 inches per year and the entire visible stream flow to 
8 inches. 

The general quality of the surface water now delivered to the Borough 
of Brooklyn from the easterly half of its present area of supply is similar to 
that of the usual water-courses from sparsely settled farming country. The 
water contains a sufficient quantity of organic matter to sApport a fairly high 
percentage of bacteria; it has an occasional taste due to the growth of cer- 
tain organisms, and after rain storms, when the fields are washed by the 
water running off, it also becomes turbid and dirty. The westerly half of 
the area contains populous communities, resulting in the pollution of its 
waters, which is already serious and which will continue to increase. Filter 
plants have recently been erected at Springfield and Jameco stations to 
improve the supply from these polluted sources. 

In view of what has been stated regarding the quality of the surface) 
waters, this Commission is of the opinion that all such waters supplied to the 
City should be artificially filtered, artd it recommends the immediate construc- 
tion of suitable plants for that purpose. Such filtered surface waters, as 
they are softer than the ground waters, will, when mixed with them, mod- 
erate the hardness of the latter. 

Evaporation. 

Evaporation of water proceeds from water and land surfaces and from 
plants. It increases as the humidity of the air becomes less than that of the 
soil and as the temperature of the air and soil rises. It is greater on slopes 
with southern exposure than on land sloping to the north and increases with 
the movement of air over the surfaces. Evaporation is also dependent upon 
the character of the soil. It is greater in dense and compact soils, with small 



49 

pores like clay, than in sands, [t is, however, more rapid in the open soils, 
because there is less resistance to the rising water. 

The most powerful preventative of evaporation is the covering of the 
soil with a material having greater porosity, which reduces the capillary action 
and, therefore, the ascent of moisture. It is greatly reduced by the formation 
of any detached crust and also by loosening, plowing or raking of the soils. 
On cultivated lands where mulching is practiced, the soil moisture is retained 
much more than in cultivated fallow soils. In forests the evaporation is much 
less than on cultivated fields. It has also been found that if average soil is 
saturated with water, but covered by grass or trees, as in a swamp, there is 
a greater evaporation than from a free water surface. 

To get some local data on evaporation from soil, two sets of tanks were 
placed at Floral Park, one being 2.5 feet and the other 5 feet in depth. In 
the former the water was kept 2 feet and in the latter 4.5 feet below the sur- 
face. The results gained therefrom are given in Appendix VII. 

Percolation. 

With a given rainfall, the amount of water percolating into the soil will 
generally depend on the amount of water evaporated, and hold an inverse 
ratio thereto. It will also depend upon the effective size of the grains, in- 
creasing therewith and finally upon the porosity of the soil. If the soil is 
uncovered or very open, the amount of percolation varies with the rainfall. 
The time of descent will vary with the size of the pores. In coarse sand it 
will be rapid and in fine sand slow. In either case, the water, if not inter- 
cepted by an impervious material and diverted laterally into an open water- 
course, w^ill eventually reach the ground water level. 

Sands and gravels, if the grains are fairly uniform in size, have a poros- 
ity of about 30 to 45 per cent, of the total volume, the proportion being less 
when the grains are not uniform in size. Although the porosity of clay 
ranges from 40 to 70 per cent, the velocity of percolation through it is ex- 
ceedingly slow because of the fineness of the pores. Only a general estimate 
can now be made of the average porosity of the soil of Long Island, for 
although many samples have been taken during the investigations of the Com- 
mission, the mechanical analyses by the United States Geological Survey 
were not completed. 

Prof. Charles S. Slichter was detailed by the United States Geological 
Survey to make certain determinations regarding the velocities of the ground 
water on the south shore of Long Island, partly to estimate the general flow 
seaward and partly to study the effect of pumping and the velocity of the 
ground water near the Brooklyn wtII stations. These observations were 
made between East Meadow Brook and Massapequa Stream for comparison 



50 

with the surface flow to be measured from the same area. They were along 
the six-mile stretch, having five pumping stations for the Brooklyn water 
supply and several ponded streams flowing into the conduit at all times. 
Nine stations were established^and at these 12 measurements were secured. 

It is generally found that water bearing sand and gravels will readily 
yield a supply of water amounting to 10 to 30 per cent, of their bulk, accord- 
ing to the conditions above mentioned. 

Ground Water, 

Ground water free from local pollution or mineral impurities belongs 
to the best class of waters for city supplies. There are several instances in 
Europe where it is preferred to filtered river water even when it is more 
costly. Where the territory is strongly manured for agricultural purposes 
or is perforated by cesspools and sewers near to the point of taking, 
there is danger of pollution and of transmitting enteric diseases, which 
increases with the density of population. Water percolating through soil 
may partake also of mineral impurities, increasing its hardness or dis- 
solved mineral matter, such as iron or sulphur. 

On the other hand, its long journey through porous soil insures to it by 
this aging a purification, first through the agency of nitrifying bacteria and 
then by the death of the usual pathogenic bacteria, which is not exceeded by 
any other known means. Therefore, if taken under proper precautions, it is 
the most healthful of waters. During percolation and subterranean storage 
the temperature is equalized to a degree which benefits the water, both in 
summer and winter. 

Ground water should, therefore, not be drawn from too near the 
surface nor under conditions permitting the inflow of sea water or mineral 
impurities. 

To guard against a local pollution of the water drawn up in the wells 
it is advisable and customary to acquire a strip of land as wide as practicable 
along the site whence the water is derived, and to maintain this as a park or 
in some other suitable way. 

The flow of ground water is caused by the action of gravity propell- 
ing it through myriads of channels found between the grains of soil and sand, 
ihe geological formation of I^ng Island is favorable to a sustained and 
ample flow of ground water. The surface soils are mostly sand and gravels, 
sometimes separated by layers of loam and clay. They extend to such depths 
that a great storage capacity for water is available. The geological strata, 
as may he expected, are not uniform. Therefore, those that bear water are 
not always continuous, vertically or horizontally. 



5^ 

The ground water in a number of places on Ia)ng Island, particularly 
along the south shore, rises to the surface of the ground, causing swamps, but 
in other places the surface of saturation is found from 50 to 100 feet below it. 
A survey of the underground conditions of Long Island was the only means 
of throwing light upon the probable flow, in the absence of practical tests of 
long duration. The most important observations required by the Commis- 
sion concerned the quantity of water available from the sub-surface strata. 

The elevation of water surface was observed at frequent intervals in 
1,045 existing wells; of these, 147 were in the Borough of Queens, 396 in 
Massau County and 502 in Suffolk County. In addition to these. 333 two- 
mch wells were driven for purpose of observation and collection of samples 
of soil, 1,927 sets of samples having been taken and classified. Of these 
driven wells 46 were in the Borough of Queens, 249 in Nassau County and 38 
in Suffolk County. Forty wells were driven for soil pollution experiments and 
104 for underflow measurements by the SHchter method. In addition to these 
wells, 22 test pits were dug by post hole augurs where the ground w^ater was 
within five to ten feet of the surface. The observations of the ground water, 
surface were begun on existing wells in March and ended November i, when 
37,042 observations had been taken. The area over which they extended is 
about 1,000 square miles. 

The elevation of the ground water, as found above sea level, causes 
a How both toward the Ocean and the Sound. The quantity thus flowing 
away must be replenished by the rainfall upon the Island. The main ques- 
tion is, therefore, whether or not the quantity of water thus constantly flow- 
ing toward the sea is suflicient for the purposes of municipal supply. This 
depends upon the amount of rain water percolating into the ground and 
reaching the ground water surface, which has been discussed above. The 
United States Geological Survey made an examination of surface rocks and 
soils, also of samples from well borings, and made a report therefrom on the 
geology of the Island with special reference to ground water questions. The 
results of the observations and surveys are given in detail in the respective 
appendices. 

Having reached in its vertical descent the ground water surface, which" 
forms the hydraulic slope necessary to cause a flow to some point of dis- 
charge, the water flows laterally with a slow but definite velocity. This lateral 
flow is somewhat like that of a stream, although the frictional resistance of a 
fillet of water in passing through the pores depends rather upon the size of 
the pores than upon the distance of the fillet below the surface. The advan- 
tage of a line of wells rather than an infiltration gallery lies in the fact that 
they draw the deeper and more sterile waters, giving those descending from 
the upper layers a longer time in which to lose any objectionable bacteria. 



52 

The oyster industries of a portion of the south shore of Long Island 
are thought at' the present time to require a temporary immersion of the 
oyster in fresh water immediately prior to marketing, in order to " freshen " 
or " fatten " them. So far as this Commission can learn, this practice is not 
general and injures the quality of the oyster. Allowing ground water to 
How from the upland into the ocean for this purpose greatly reduces the 
available volume of the natural waters of Long Island for the supply of the 
Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens and other communities. 

From the observations made during the present year, it is concluded 
that the amount of water percolating into the ground and issuing either into 
the streams or into the ocean directly, is equal to a depth of rainfall of 15 
inches per annum. This represents 42 per cent, of the rainfall of a series of 
dry years. 

It is the unqualified judgment of this Commission that the water found 
available on Long Island is no more in quantity than can be accounted for 
by the rainfall upon the surface of its own territory and by its local geology. 
A brief study of the geological formation of the shores of the neighboring 
mamland is sufficient to justify this conclusion. 

It is also the opinion of the Commission that an ample supply of ground 
water is available on Long Island to justify the material extension of the 
present supply, and that the surface waters should eventually either be aban- 
doned or filtered before entering the conduits. 

Its further opinion is that the ground water should be obtained through 
the construction of conduits properly located and provided with pumping 
stations along their course, so as to allow the ground water to flow into 
them by gravity through appropriate wells placed at one side of them, as 
frequently as the water yield of the soil in the particular locality will per- 
mit, and that their depth should be sufficient to penetrate saturated gravels 
at least 30 feet below the ground water surface. By this means the Com- 
mission believes that all the available ground water will be obtained at less 
cost than by other means, and a much larger quantity than at present. 

The Commission further recommends that studies ,be made for an ex- 
tension of the supplies for the Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens in the man- 
ner indicated, that the collecting conduits be located to effect a minimum 
lowering of the present ground water level by adjusting them as nearly as 
possible to the present water levels, and that pumping stations be placed at 
suitable intervals to force the water thus collected into covered reservoirs, 
whence it would enter the distril^uting pipe system. 

Borough of Richmond. 

The Borough of Richmond is at present supplied with ground water 
from several stations. Some of this water is excessively hard. The quantity 



53 

is generally limited and an additional supply is urgent. This Commission has 
approved of a proposition from a private company to furnish, at once, for a 
period of ten years, a sufficient quantity of filtered water from the State of 
New Jersey. No other means appears practicable so quickly to supplement 
the present sources. 

A further stud) should be made to determine whether it would be more 
economical and desirable to continue this supply for a greater period, or to 
furnish water from the Borough of Brooklyn through a pipe line across the 
Narrows. 

As soon as practicable sites for both equalizing and distributing reser- 
voirs should be secured as they will soon become necessary in several parts of 
the borough. 1 he Commission recommends for such a purpose the early se- 
lection and purchase of the required property. 

Pumping Department. 

At the time when this Commission began its work and particularly after 
the Corporation Counsel had advised that interstate streams should not be 
considered available, thus ruling out the Housatonic and Ten Mile Rivers, 
one of the most promising sources appeared to be water taken from the Hud- 
son above Poughkeepsie and filtered. The constant use of filtered Hudson 
water for more than twenty years by the cities of Poughkeepsie and Hudson 
and the success of the large recent filters for Hudson water at Albany as well 
as the extended successful European experience with filtering water much 
more polluted than the Hudson water, gave proof that this source could be 
made wholesome in quality, and it was plain that the volume would be 
ample, particularly after the construction of storage reservoirs in the Adiron- 
dacks. 

Therefore, while not delaying the investigations for sources of unpolluted 
upland water lying at an elevation suitable for delivery by gravity, designs 
were worked upon for taking the Hudson water and pumping it to an ele-» 
vation suitable for delivery in New York City at the level of the present Cro- 
ton terminal reservoirs, also other plans for delivering this new supply of 
water at the high service elevation were studied. The use of Hudson water 
in the quantity required involved pumps of larger aggregate capacity than 
are contained in any pumping station yet built. So large a part of the annual 
cost of this supply was involved in pumping, and the size and cost of the- 
aqueduct depend so largely upon a careful balancing of cost of pumping to 
an extra .height against the saving by the diminished size of an aqueduct 
having higher velocity and greater friction loss, that these numerous and im- 
portant problems of pumping were considered by the Commission ta require 



54 

a separate department for their special study. Moreover, among the proj- 
ects for water from an upland source there were some which contemplated 
building impounding reservoirs at a lower level than the aqueduct, in order 
to make a larger drainage area available and pumping the water to the height 
required ; notably, a project for impounding the Fishkill water near Brincker- 
hoff which, in connection with the high level aqueduct, would have required 
a large pumping plant. 

Therefore, after much preliminary consideration of the pumping ques- 
tion, the Department of Pumping was organized and began work on May i, 
1903. Later, accurate preliminary surveys had demonstrated that reservoir 
sites existed suitable for impounding the water of the Fishkill and Wap- 
pinger Creeks and Jansen Kill, and that the remarkably soft water of the 
Esopus could be stored by a much higher dam than originally proposed and 
in a larger reservoir, so that the details of tlie design of pumps and pumping 
stations for a Hudson supply became of less immediate importance. At the 
request of the Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, its ener- 
gies were directed toward tests of the economy of the present Municipal 
pumping stations of Manhattan, Queens and Brooklyn, and to studies for 
their improvement. These studies are reported in some detail in Appendix 
VIII, and only a brief outline need be presented here. 

Pumping from Hudson River. 

For the projected Hudson River pumping station, located not far from 
Hyde Park, there were ultimately to be two independent groups of pumping 
engines and boilers, separated sufficiently so that an accident in one, as, for 
example, a boiler explosion, would not interrupt the ojjeration of the other. 
The two stations were ultimately to contain pumps aggregating 500 million 
gallons daily capacity, all working under 400 feet lift if a high level supply 
were adopted in order to give the requisite slope for flow through 
the 67 mile aqueduct to New York and to provide for head lost in passing 
through the filters. This would have called for pumping engines of 35,000 
pump horse power. The first installation was to be of eight engines, giving 
about 160 million gallons daily or about one-third of the entire capacity of 
the new aqueduct. These pumps were to be made in units of 20 million gal- 
lons nominal daily capacity, but designed with such ample valve area and 
water passages that 25 per cent, overload, or extra speed, could at any time 
be carried in emergency with entire safety and good economy ; so that when 
one engine was shut down for inspection or repair, its neighbors, by being 
speeded up, could carry on its w^ork. The steam pressure decided upon was 
200 pounds per square inch ; the duty requirement, 145 million foot pounds 
per 100 pounds of coal in daily operation; speed for nominal capacity 30 



55 

revolutions per minute, or 330 feet piston travel; and the engines, triple ex- 
pansion crank and fly wheel type. The estimated cost is as follows : 

Fire proof pumping stations complete, with foundations suit- 
able for 12 engines of 250 million gallons daily aggre- 
gate capacity, each $536,000 

Tw-elve ( 12) pumping engines 1,616,000 

Engineering, inspection, etc 310,000 

Total for each station, 250 million gallons daily $2,462,000 



In comparing the cost of water pumped with the cost of water from 
a gravity supply, so much depends upon the degree of skill and watchful 
care exercised by the management that it is difficult to estimate the precise 
cost per million gallons pumped. Extravagance or indifference of manage- 
ment may, with the best of machinery, double the operating cost ; therefore, 
a brief comparison was made of the actual average yearly cost of pumping 
in sundry representative large municipal stations. 

While it has appeared possible from estimates that under the best pump- 
ing station management and with pumps of most nearly perfect design, 
water could be taken from the Hudson, pumped, filtered and delivered 
through the high level aqueduct at a total cost little, if any, greater than that 
of upland water with its expensive reservoirs and larger aqueduct, it must be 
remembered that mediocrity of management may have much more effect 
on the efficiency of a pumping plant than upon the efficiency of a reservoir 
and aqueduct system, and that under most favorable conditions, whatever the 
saving of cost mjght be in water pumped from the Hudson and filtered, any 
possible saving of expense cannot in the judgment of this Commission com- 
pensate for the advantages of the upland gravity supply. 

Inspection of Present Pumping Stations of Ne2v York, 

Although the Croton and the Bronx and Byram are gravity supplies, 
about 20 per cent, of the Croton supply has now to be pumped to supply the 
buildings on high ground. All of the water used in Queens Borough has to 
be pumped to its full pressure, and all of the Brooklyn water also has to be 
pumped and some of it four times over. Greater New York maintains 32 
pumping stations, including 86 pumps, and its present daily pumpage is 160 
million gallons. Nearly all of the stations have three shifts of enginemen 
and firemen in the 24 hours, and there are about 400 men on the pumping 
station payrolls. About 75,000 tons of coal are burned each year, and $12,000 
per year expended for oil and petty supplies. 



56 

This inspection shoAvs that much of this work has not been done effi- 
ciently, and if it were all put under the supervision of an expert of the highest 
technical skill, he could, if given proper authority, save many times his salary, 
mamly by a closer watch on the station duty, and by stimulating the stokers 
and enginemen to keep closer and more intelligent watch upon a daily 
record of the performance of their machines and the consumption of coal, 
oil and supplies. Efforts toward improvements of this kind had already 
been made by Mr. N. S. Hill, Jr., Chief Engineer, before this Commission 
began its operations, and he has co-operated cordially in this work. 

Improvements Recommended at Pumping Stations in Borough of Man- 
hattan. 

The One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Street Pumping Station is the 
principal pumping station connected with the Croton system and contains 
pumps with a nominal daily capacity of 58 million gallons, two of which, 
Nos. 5 and 6, have been in process of installation during the past year and 
are not entirely complete. The four pumps previously in use are of excel- 
lent design and are capable of better economy and of pumping more water 
than heretofore. A test of these pumps on May 8 showed excessive loss of 
action, caused principally by water valves adrift, which amounted to 60 per 
cent, on pump No. 2 and 65 per cent on pump No. 6. After replacing these 
valves and making simple repairs, this slippage was reduced to about 4 per 
cent. 

A short time prior to these tests the Chief Engineer had observed the 
unsatisfactory performance of these pumps and had instituted a search for 
the cause, which was revealed so conclusively by the test of May 8. The 
tests and examinations also showed that parts of the steam valve gear were 
much worn and that the larger bearings were in need of adjustment. Indi- 
cator diagrams showed a poor distribution of steam and consequent impair- 
ment of efficiency. The receivers were found in a leaky condition and by 
cleaning the condensers the vacuum was increased one and one-half inches. 
The repairs found necessary were quickly made and were comparatively 
expensive. 

The organization of the One Hundred and Seventy-ninth Street Station 
in the number of men employed was found to compare favorably with that 
at similar stations in other cities and the daily rate of wages was found to 
be about the same as those prevailing for similar work on large pumping en- 
gines elsewhere. The excessive cost of pumping was due to inefficient man- 
agement. 

The Ninety-eighth Street Station contains pumps aggregating 25 million 
gallons daily, nominal capacity. Engines Nos. i and 2 have been in service 



57 

23 years, and they appeal to be hardly worth the expense of repairing, par- 
ticularly in view of their being of a design not giving good economy, even 
when in thorough repair. The No. 3 high duty engine at the Ninety-eighth 
Street Station is of modern design and while well adapted for use in emer- 
gencies, it can best be shut down and the pumping concentrated at One Hun- 
dred and Seventy-ninth Street, as will be later explained. 

The High Bridge Station contains pumps of 1 1 million gallons nominal 
daily capacity. These pumps are of design so uneconomical in operation in 
comparison with the modern pumping engines at One Hundred and Seventy- 
ninth street, that it is best to abandon their use, withdraw the men, and do 
this pumping also by the engines at One Hundred and Seventy-ninth street. 

During May, June, July and August, 1903, the average daily pumpage 
at these stations was 30,400,000 gallons at One Hundred and Seventy-ninth 
street; 20,400,000 gallons at Ninety-eighth street, and 1,500,000 gallons at 
High Bridge ; a total of 52,300,000 gallons. The nominal daily capacity of the 
One Hundred and Seventy-ninth street Station is 58,000,000 gallons, and an 
examination of the machinery shows that it can be prudently run at a speed, 
to deliver about 64,000,000 gallons daily, which would give a surplus of 
about 11,700,000 gallons, or about 20 per cent, above the average total daily 
consumption of the past season. The centralizating at this station of all the 
pumping is thus found to be practicable lor the immediate future. The exist- 
ing mains and gate valves permit this arrangement. 

The high duty pump at the Ninety-eighth Street Station should be 
mamtained idle, but ready for any emergency, with one or more boilers under 
steam and a minimum force of men in readiness. 

By this centralization of the pumping there would be a large saving in 
the use of coal, due mainly to the better and more economic design of the 
engmes at One Hundred and Seventy-ninth street. 

The average cost per million gallons pumped one hundred feet high for 
all these stations during four months of the past season, after the tests and 
repairs at One Hundred and Seventy-ninth street had begun, but before they 
were finished, averaged $6.27. After repair work now in progress is com- 
pleted a saving will be found, and under good management a skillful firing, 
the design of the engines and boilers makes it appear possible to pump in 
regular daily work at an expense per million gallons 100 feet high of not 
exceeding $4.00. This would be a saving of 34 per cent., as compared w4th 
the cost for June, July and August, 1903; or instead of $11,000 per month 
the cost should be about $7,000 per month, saving nearly $48,000 per year. 
The saving in comparison with the condition prior to beginning the tests and 
repairs in May, 1903, would be larger, for immediately prior to these tests 
and repairs it was taking six pumps to do the work subsequently performed 
by four. 



58 

Nczv Jerome Park Station. 

At this station, now under construction, slight changes were recom- 
mended, comprising the adding of an economizer and a superheater and the 
use of air pumps and feed pumps driven from the main engine. These 
would materially increase the duty in regular operation. 

Pumping Station in Queens Borough, 

riiere are in this borough rive pumping stations operated by the City, 
one in Flushing, one in Bayside, one at Whitestone, and three in Long Island 
City, of which No. 2 has been out of commission for the past year because of 
a boiler explosion. 

During the months of May, June, July and August, 1903, these averaged 
a daily pumpage from driven wells of about 3.6 million gallons under an 
average total lift of 176 feet. The total pumping expenses during that period 
were $18,945, making the average cost of pumping i million gallons i foot 
lugh $0.24, including only the cost of coal, attendance, ordinary repairs and 
supplies, and not including any allowance for interest, depreciation, sinking 
fund or extraordinary repairs. 

The cost in small stations like these must always greatly exceed that in 
large stations, mainly because of the labor cost being relatively so much 
larger; but a comparison with the results achieved by small pumps under 
fairly comparable conditions in certain other cities indicate that this cost 
is unnecessarily high. 

An inspection showed that all of these stations in Queens Borough, with 
the exception of those at Baysirle and Flushing, contained antiquated ma- 
chinery, some of it erected 29 years ago, still in daily use. The Bayside 
and Flushing Stations each contain one engine of modern design, which has 
been run alternately with the older and less economical engine. 

rh«? Chief Engineer, Mr. X. S. Hill, Jr., has already begun the renova- 
tion and repair of these plants, and proposes to replace the older engines in 
the larger stations, Long Island No. i, Bayside and Flushing, by modern 
high duty engines. This should result in saving more than 40 per cent, of the 
fuel at these three stations, amounting on the basis of present rate of pump- 
ing to $6,250 per year. Beyond the replacement of old pumps by new in 
the larger stations, there are few important changes that can be recommended 
until the future source of supply for this growing borough has been more 
iully determined. 

Pumping Stations in Borough of Brooklyn. 

This Department has co-operated with Mr. I. M. de X'arona, Chief En- 
gineer, in the investigation of methods for securing greater economy in the 



59 

operation of the numerous low lift driven well plants. It appears that this 
can be best attained by operating the several plants by motors with electricity, 
generated at a power house which it is recommended should be established in 
connection with the Millburn Pumping Station. The electric transmission 
lines can be placed on the strip of land owmed by the City in which the con- 
duit runs. 

The Pumping Dcpaitment has also co-operated with Mr. de X'arona in 
the preparation of plans and specilications for the Gravesend Station ; upon 
designs for improving the economy of the proposed pumping station for the 
infiltration galleries at Wantagh, and has advised concerning the type of 
engine and layout of a plant for the new high service pumping engines at 
Kidgewood. 

With regard to centralizing the pumping and lessening the cost of lift- 
ing the water from the present driven well stations into the conduit, nine 
sites, lying between Spring Creek and Massapequa, have been selected by 
Mr. de \'arona for future oi)erations, all of which, together will yield, by his 
estimate, 113 million gallons per 24 hours. The location of these may depend 
somewhat upon the success of, and experience derived from the first infiltra- 
tion gallery which is now in process of construction near Wantagh under 
Mr. De X^arona's design and supervision. 

The present driven well pumping plants are nearly all of a crude, 
temporary character. Most of them were built in a hurry to meet 
a temporary shortage of water, and the type of pump and engine is exces- 
sively wasteful of fuel. Thus the cost of pumping probably averages three 
times that which is necessary for scattered plants of this kind equipped with 
modern high grade machinery. 

The Commission estimates that with centrifugal pumps of the latest 
design, electrically driven from a central power station, the cost need not 
exceed 8J/2 cents per million gallons raised i foot high, whereas in 1896, it 
averaged 27 cents with the present plants. The intermittent services has in- 
creased the cost per million gallons pumped, but in the future as ground water 
is given preference over surface water, the economy will further increase 
with steadiness in operation. 

A portion of the Brooklyn water is pumped and repumped four times: 

1st. From the driven wells, a total lift, averaging 30 feet into the aque- 
duct leading to Millburn, at a cost of about 27 cents per million gallons i 
foot high. 

2d. By the pumps at Alillburn it is lifted about 50 feet, at a cost of 6>4 
cents to flow through the 48-inch pipes to Ridgewood ; 

3(1. It is all lifted about 175 feet by the Ridgewood pumps, at a cost of 
about 5 cents. 



6o 

4th. About 9 million gallons per day lifted an average of 94 feet 
to the high service reservoir and tower at Mt. Prospect, at a cost of about 
II cents per million gallons 1 foot high. 

While a portion may thus be lifted four times, nearly half of the whole 
is only lifted once, namely, by the pumps at Ridgewood. 

The Commission has estimated that a new system of pumping the ground 
water at the nine stations between Spring Creek and Massapequa by elec- 
trically driven pumps, as described above, and having an aggregate capacity 
of 113 million gallons daily, can be provided for $332,000, while a first in- 
stallment of pumps capable of delivering 72 million gallons daily, but with 
pumping stations of full size, would cost $282,000. 

The estimated saving in fuel, supplies and other expenses in pumping 
an average of 46 million gallons per day against a total head averaging 30 
feet, as compared with the cost at the rates actually incurred in the year 
1896, would be about $96,900 per year, or about 30 per cent, per annum 
on the proposed expenditure. 

The power plant at Millburn and the pumping plants at Merrick, 
Wantagh and Massapequa could be erected ready for use within one year 
from signing of contract, and the remaining stations could all be ready for 
operation in six months more. 

Pumping Plant for the Wantagh Infiltration Gallery. 

It was noted that under the contract recently made for this work the 
pumping plant to be provided by the contractor was designed for tempo- 
rary use, or for a year pending the test of capacity and efficiency of the 
gallery system, and that it was of the same uneconomical class as the exist- 
ing pumps, with the pumping station a frame building of a temporary 
character. Therefore, it was recommended by this Commission that the 
specifications be so changed as to call for the latest desig-n in centrifugal 
pumps of high efficiency, with provision for an electric motor, to be 
attached at any future time as a substitute for the steam engine. It was 
further pointed out that, by the addition of condensers to the temporary 
engines, about 25 per cent, of the coal could be saved, and that the perma- 
nent fireproof pumping station might as well be built now as at a later date, 
thus saving the cost of the temporary' wooden structure. 

Gravesend and Nczv Utrecht Pumping Plants. 

The advantage of consolidating these plants was mentioned l)y Mr. de 
Varona in his quarterly report for September 30, 1902, and an appropria- 
tion of $100,000 was made later in that year for this work. A draft of 



61 

specifications was submitted to this Commission in July, 1903, and returned 
in August with a recommendation for a triple expansion crank and flywheel 
engine capable of highest economy for daily use, with provision of a 
cheaper and simpler pump in the same station for emergencies. The cost 
of the latter would be about the same as for moving the present compound 
direct acting engine from the present station to the new station, while this 
triple expansion auxiliary would take only about half the fuel for pumping 
the same quantity of water. 

The average pumpage at this station is taken at 6 million gallons daily, 
and by centralizing this pumping for New Utrecht and Gravesend, and doing 
it with a new engine of the best class, it is estimated the annual cost for coal, 
labor and supplies, need be only about $i5,ooo per year, instead of the cost of 
about $27,704 in 1902 for pumping an average of 4.3 million gallons. The 
change and consolidation will thus permit pumping about 35 per cent, more 
water while expending $11,700 less per year. 

Millburn Pumping Station. 

This contains engines of a total nominal daily capacity of from 75 to 80 
million gallons and an average of about 45 million gallons daily has been 
pumped during the past year under an average head of about 50 feet, at an 
average cost of 63/j cents per million gallons i foot high. By using the high 
duty engines installed during the past year to the greatest extent practicable 
it as expected that the cost per million gallons at this station can be reduced 
20 per cent, as compared with previous years. 

I'his Commission has suggested that a further saving could be made 
by providing more efficient means for furnishing dry steam to the engines 
and for heating the feed water. 

In general this station was found to be in a satisfactory condition and 
with an excellent prospect of making a favorable record during the coming 
year by means of its new engines. 

Kidgezcood Pumping Station, 

The old station contained pumps having an aggregate nominal capac- 
ity of 90 milHon gallons daily, and the new^ station contains pumps of 57.5 
million gallons. All deliver into the Ridgewood reservoir at an elevation 
of 170 feet above tide. The expense of pumping and for repairs at 
these stations appears unduly large in comparison with the best examples 
found in other cities. The cost of boiler repairs also appears to have been 
excessive and was found in such notable contrast to the low cost of repairs 
at the Millburn station on the same type of boiler that explanation was looked 
for in the quality of boiler feed water used. 



62 

The Ridgewood water receives a considerable percentage of chlorine 
and other deleterious matter from certain of the driven wells west of Mill- 
burn which lie so near the seashore that brackish water flows in when they 
are heavily drawn upon. If .the resulting excessive corrosion may be, as 
appears probable, mainly attributed to this inflow, it furnishes most strik- 
ing evidence that additional expense may be justified for securing a pure, 
soft water when balancing one source against another, or in seeking addi- 
tional water east of Millburn to replace that from the objectionable wells. 
Inasmuch as a 48-inch main direct from Millburn brings the same kind of 
water which acts so favorably in the Millburn boilers, into the Ridgewood 
station, it is recommended that this be used exclusively for feeding its steam 
boilers. 

The cost per million gallons of pumping at Ridgewood was reduced 
about 28 per cent, in 1899 in comparison with the years preceding, by the 
introduction of modern engines that replaced some of the old beam engines, 
but further economies can be readily obtained. The cost of pumping 
appears to have been steadily increasing for three years past at the new 
Ridgewood station, having been $.066 in 1899, $.076 in 1900 and $.080 in 
1901 per million gallons 1 foot high. iBy adding two new triple expansion 
engines each of 20 million gallons nominal daily capacity and substitut- 
ing these for four of the old vertical compound engines now in daily uso 
at the so-called New Ridgewood station, and by sundry other economies 
at Ridgewood, it appears possible to reduce the average cost to $.045 per 
million gallons i foot high, including interest and sinking fund charges, 
or from the present cost of about $173,000 per year down to about $110,- 
000 per year, thus saving about $63,000 annually. 

It is estimated that these two new high duty low service engines 
would cost complete with foundations and all accessories $355,000. 

Proposed Consolidation of Mt. Prospect Pumping Station with Ridgezvood 
Station. 

The two old beam engines of 9 million gallons combined capacity 
daily and 70 feet lift now used on the high service reservoir, are not eco- 
nomical and cannot be made so. 

The two engines of 8 million gallons combined capacity daily and 162 
feet lift on the extra high or *'Tower service" are doing as well as can 
be expected for direct acting engines of this type. 

The Mt. Prospect station as a whole is uneconomical and its pump- 
ing engines should be replaced by engines of the best modern type or con- 
solidated with the Ridge\\x)od plant. The latter plan appears to be the 
better arrangement. Mr. de X'arona in his report for 1902 estimated that 



63 

12 million gallons daily will soon be required for this service, and estimated 
that a large annual saving in cost of operation could be made by either 
new pumps at Mt. Prospect or consolidation at Ridgewood, with 
preference for the latter. 

PYom the studies of the Commission it appears that a more favor- 
able arrangement can be made than that proposed in the report of 1902, 
and that the best plan will be to utilize the present new Ridgewood station 
for the accommodation of this future high service plant, pintting in two new 
engines of the most eceonomical type each af 15 million gallons daily 
capacity to supersede the Mt. Prospect station, and gradually to replace 
the present five vertical compound low service engines each of 10 million 
capacity by new- and more economical engines of the vertical triple expan- 
sion crank and fly wheel type each of 20,000,000 gallons dally capacity. Two 
of these new engines could pump the 40 million gallons daily of low service 
water now pumped at this station and, as already stated, save about $63,000 
per year in the cost of the Ridgewood low service pumping. Adding to 
this the yearly saving in operating cost by pumping the Mt. Prospect high 
service water by the proposed substitution of two new and economical 
engines located at Ridgewood, which was estimated by Mr. de Varona at 
$40,610 per year, it appears that about $103,000 per year can be saved in 
the expense of pumping the water for the high and low service supplies. 

It is estimated that the cost of the Mt. Prospect substitution should not 
exceed $360,000, which added to the $355,000 estimated for the changes 
in the Ridgew^ood low service pumps, gives a total estimated expenditure 
of $715,000. 

The saving as estimated above would pay about 14^^ per cent, annual 
interest on this expenditure, and by working out the details carefully and 
with an efficient operation of the plant equal to that which can to-day be 
found in several large municipal plants, a further large saving can be made 
in cost of labor, oil, supplies and ordinary repairs. 

Proposed Cross River Reserz'oir* 

Early in the year, the Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Elec- 
tricity requested this Commission to examine plans for an impounding 
reservoir, proposed to be built in the Croton Watershed at Cross River, 
and to report its opinion upon the advisability of beginning the construc- 
tion immediately. 

On consideration of all of the circumstances, it was found that while 
this reservoir may at some future time be useful as an adjunct to the Croton 
system, it does not appear to the Commission advisable to undertake its con- 
struction in the near future. 



♦ One member of the Commission does not wholly concur in the conclusions of this section. 



64 

It would require several years to construct, and, therefore, could not be 
in use much sooner than the large new supply proposed, and with this large 
supply once in use there would be no necessity for the Cross River Reser- 
voir for many years. It therefore appears better to devote the sum required 
for this reservoir to the new supply. Moreover, the water from Cross River 
will be soon stored in the large reservoir formed by the new Croton Dam. 

The Hudson River and Lake George. 

The waters of the upper Hudson, meaning those secured from the Adi- 
rondack portion of the Hudson River watershed, lying above Hadley, at the 
junction of the Sacandaga and the Hudson, have frequently been considered 
as possible sources of future water supply for the City of New York. The 
area of the Adirondack Watershed available for this purpose is about 2,650 
square miles. If the yield of this area be assumed at 750,000 gallons per 
square mile per day, the total available supply from this source would be 
about 2,000 million gallons daily. 

After making all necessary deductions for feeding the Champlain Canal 
and for industrial purposes other than water power, it is apparent that a 
quantity largely in excess of 500 million gallons daily could be taken for the 
supply of the City of New York. In this plan, it would be necessary to con- 
vey the water by aqueduct from some point in the drainage area above Had- 
ley to New York City, a distance of about 185 miles. The high cost of this 
project prohibits its execution. 

If the water of the Hudson River is to be used for an additional supply 
for The City of New York, it would be much more economical and equally 
satisfactory from a sanitary point of view to take it from some point near 
Hyde Park, raise it J)y pumping to a reservoir and filter site at a suitable ele- 
vation on the high ground east of the river, filter it and conduct it to New 
York through an aqueduct of the required capacity. The efficiency with 
which it is feasible to operate filters at the present time would make the 
quality of the water entirely satisfactory. This constitutes, by far, the most 
practicable and economical plan of taking water from the Hudson River for 
purposes of additional supply. Indeed, under this plan, the waters of the 
Mohawk River and its tributaries are also equally available with those of 
the upper Hudson, as well as those of the other tributaries above the intake. 

At the inception of the work of this Commission this plan of additional 
iupply appeared to offer material advantages and it was seriously studied, 
but, as investigations progressed, the high level gravity supply recommended 
was found to be preferable. 

When in the future it becomes necessary to resort to the Hudson River 
for a source of additional supply, storage reservoirs must be built in the Adi- 



65 

rondacks to impound flood waters, to be released during the dry portion 
of the year as compensation for the amount drawn out for the City's supply. 
If this were not done the diminished flow in the river would induce a further 
up-flow of the diluted sea water under tidal influence. 

The lowest discharge of the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie is about 
1,500 million gallons per day, while the ordinary minimum flow probably 
varies between that amount and 2,000 million gallons per day. The abstrac- 
tion of 500 million gallons per day by pumping from the low-water dis- 
charge of the river would, therefore, materially increase the up-flow of the 
salt water, which it would be necessary to neutralize by a compensating re- 
lease from the fresh water storage in the Adirondacks. 

It has not been possible for the Commission to make surveys, exam- 
inations and estimates to determine quantitatively the elements of this prob- 
lem of the Adirondack storage and pumping from the river, but it may 
be safely stated that the Adirondack portion of the watershed of the Hudson 
River, including the drainage areas of the Sacandaga River, Schroon River 
and the Hudson above Hadley, afford sites for storage reservoirs having 
an aggregate capacity of upwards of 300,000 million gallons. This amount 
of storage would be sufficient to add more than 2,500 million gallons per 
day to the flow of the Hudson at Poughkeepsie in dry seasons. Under 
this system of compensation it would be feasible to keep the extreme point 
of up-flow of dilute sea water probably below Poughkeepsie. 

In the distant future, when the capacity of the gravity water supplies 
recommended by the Commission for first development are exhausted, 
it will probably be advisable to resort to pumping and filtering the Hudson 
River water in accordance with this outline plan. The availability and 
advantages of the recommended gravity supplies are so great, however, that 
the Commission considered it advisable to direct its chief efforts toward com- 
pleting plans for this development rather than diverting more of its funds 
and forces to securing details of the Hudson River plan, which will be 
needed only after a long period of years. The Commission, therefore, 
has no recommendation to make regarding the pumping and filtration of 
the Hudson River water, but it desires to point out the great resources in 
reserve of that plan for the future supply of the City. Indeed, the combined 
capacity of the gravity supplies recommended and of the Hudson for remote 
development is so great that they may be considered as constituting a prac- 
tically unlimited supply for the future. 

Lake George has also been advocated, both alone and in combination 
with adjacent watersheds on the north, for additional supply. Its elevation 
is too low for a satisfactory gravity supply, and its drainage area is only 
about 230 square miles. Its yield is consequently too small to justify the 
necessary cost of securing it. 



66 

MiLLBjjRN Reservoir — Brooklyn Supply. 

This reservoir was recommended in 1885 and built in 1893 for the 
storage of surface water. As tests have shown that it does not hold water 
it has not yet been used. 

At the request of the Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Elec- 
tricity, specifications for work intended to make this reservoir tight, at a 
cost estimated at about $500,000, were reviewed. After full consideration, 
this Commission is of the opinion that the utility of the reservoir to the 
Brooklyn water supply system is not sufficient to justify any such expendi- 
ture. 

Some investigations were therefore made to determine if it could be 
made water tight at a much smaller expenditure by the introduction of 
turbid water and silting up of the leaks. Numerous borings were made in 
the bed of the reservoir and samples of the so-called layer of puddle taken 
for mechanical analysis and tests made of its permeability. This material 
was found so improperly placed, of such irregular and insufficient thickness 
and of such poor quality, that it has not been thought wise to attempt this 
experiment. 

Inasmuch as the future development of the Long Island supply will 
be in the direction of ground water, rather than surface water, and as these 
ground waters require storage in covered reservoirs, there appears to be no 
sufficient reason to justify the expenditure of further large sums of money 
to make this reservoir tight. It is not equal for storage purposes to the 
natural storage capacity for ground w^ater of the sandy substrata of the 
Island. 

The Commission is therefore of the opinion that as better water in 
sufficient quantity can be obtained by the further developing of the groimd 
water supplies of Long Island or by connection with ^lanhattan, that the 
Millburn Reservoir should be abandoned for the purpose for w^hich it w^as 
built. 

Increase of Population of New York. 

The estimate of future population of a great city Hke New York is 
attended with some uncertainty, but it is usually made by adding a constant 
percentage to the population estimated at the end of each of a series of as- 
sumed consecutive short periods, such as ten years. This produces an in- 
crease in geometrical ratio, which may be consideral sufficiently accurate for 
at least two or three decades. In the present case, the Commission has at- 
tempted only to ascertain the population of The City of New York in 1925 
or 1930. as is shown in Appendix X. The statistics employed for this pur- 



(>7 

pose are those found in the report of ** NEW YORK CITY'S WATER 
SUPPLY ' by John R. Freeman, 1900, and those received from the Depart- 
ment of Health of the City in October of the current year. In 1890 the 
population of those communities now consolidated in The City of New York 
was as follows : 



Manha™*^ AKD The | Brooklyn. Qubens. 

1 1 


Richmond. 


1,612,599 1 840,857 86,502 


S1.80S 



In the year 1900 the population in the different boroughs of the con- 
solidated City reached the following amounts : 



— - - - - 


-- 


— - - 




• 


Manhattan. 


The Bronx. 


Brooklyn. 


QUBKNS. - 


Richmond. 


1,851,187 


202,092 


1 1,169,796 


153,734 


67.166 






._ _ 








With the rates of growth exhibited during the past 13 years, it is esti- 
mated that the probable population of the five boroughs of the City will be 
about as follows in 1925 : 



Manhattan. 



2,130,000 



The Bronx. 



675,000 



Brooklyn. 



Queens. 



Richmond. 



2,705,000 ! 680,000 I 130,000 



Under this approximate estimate, the population of the entire City 
would be about 6,320,000 in 1925. 

If there be assumed for purposes of estimate a consumption of 150 
gallons per head of population per day at that time, the amounts consumed 
in the different boroughs would be: 



Manhattan. The Bronx. 


Brooklyn. 


Queens. 


Richmond. 


Gallons. Gallons. 
319,500,000 101,250,000 


Gallons. 
405,750,000 


Gallons. 
102,000,000 


Gallons. 
19,500,000 



The total of these estimated quantities for the entire City would be 
948 million gallons per day. 



68 

The increase in consumption, per head of population, with the lapse of 
time has been the subject of much study among civil engineers. It is a mat- 
ter of practically universal observation that the use of water for legitimate 
purposes encourages a still greater use, but there are no data availa:ble at 
the present time on which quantitative conclusions may be based. The intro- 
duction and enforcement of regulations directed toward the reduction of 
waste and the use of other available means to accomplish that end, may be 
depended upon to reduce the per capita consumption in The City of New 
York, as has been set forth in another place in this report ; but it is impos- 
sible to state definitely what that reduction may be. The general experi- 
ence in other cities where the increase of per capita daily consumption has 
been studied, leads the Commission to believe that in the estimate for the 
future requirements of the city a less quantity than 150 gallons per head 
per day twenty-five years hence should not be taken. That amount, there- 
fore, has been used in the computations on which the Commission's conclu- 
sions are based. 

The Feasibility of Developing a Temporary Supply. 

The Commission gave careful consideration to the feasibility of finding 
some temporary additional supply at moderate cost, pending the completion 
of the permanent additional supply, but was forced to the conclusion ex- 
pressed in the report of September 17, 1903, viz., that 

" no possible quickly available and near source could be found, or any- 
" thing that would be worth the trouble or expense of development as 
" an interim supply to make goo<l the present excess of consumption in 
" Manhattan and The Bronx over the recorded actual yield of the 
" present watersheds in a year of extreme drought." 

Summary of Costs. 

The works recommended to be constructed first comprise a section of 
the Hill View Reservoir of 600 million gallons capacity, the main aqueduct 
of 500 million gallons daily capacity from that reservoir to Stormville Reser- 
voir, a section of the Stormville filters of 50 million gallons daily capacity, 
the twin aqueduct, one channel of 400 million gallons and the other of 250 
million gallons daily capacity from the Stormville Reservoir to the Billings 
Reservoir and these two reservoirs. This construction will aflFord an addi- 
tional supply of 60 million gallons per day. Concurrently with the preceding 
construction, the aqueduct of 400 million gallons daily capacity should be 
built from the Billings Reservoir to the Ashokan Reservoir, and at the same 
time the latter reservoir should also be under construction. 



69 

It is estimated that the first part of this work, i. e.y extending from Hill 
View Reservoir to Billings Reservoir, may be built, under efficient manage- 
ment, within four to five years, and that the second part of the construction, 
extending from Billings Reservoir to the Ashokan Reservoir, may be com- 
pleted within the same period, if the labor market affords sufficient force 
and the money is provided. 

The summary of costs of this construction is as follows : 

Reserz'oirs: 

Hill View, covered reservoir, first section of 

600 million gallons capacity $9,059,000 

Stormville filter plant, first installation of 50 

million gallons daily capacity 3,581,000 

Stormville reservoir, 10,000 million gallons 

capacity 2,503,000 

Billings resen'oir, 6,800 million gallons 

capacity 1,806,000 

Ashokan reservoir, 66,500 million gallons 

capacity 11 ,734,000 

Total $28,683,000 

High Level Aqueducts. 

From Hill View I0 Stormville, filters $18,755,000 

From Stormville to Billings, twin aqueduct. 3,584,000 
From Billings to Ashokan, including Hud- 
son River crossing 9,075,000 

31,415,000 

Total cost of construction $60,098,000 



These estimated costs include actual contract and all other expendi- 
tures, except those for damages to water rights. These works will afford 
an aditional supply of nearly 320 million gallons daily. 

It is estimated that the complete construction of reservoirs, filters and 
aqueducts for the full additional supply of 500 million gallons per day may 



70 

be required by 1925. The cost of the remaining construction in excess 
of that already provided for will be as follows: 

Reservoirs, 

Hill View reservoir completed to 2,030 

million gallons in 1925 *$I3, 168,000 

Stormville filters completed to 500 million 

gallons daily capacity in 1925 * 14,646^00 

Hibernia reservoir, 30,500 million gallons 

capacity 9,308,000 

Silvemails reservoir, 17,200 million gallons 

capacity 5,530,000 

Total *$42,652,ooo 

Aqueducts. 

Additional cost for completed aqueduct 

between JJill View and Stormville. . . . $1,510,000 

Additional cost for completed aqueduct 

between Billings and Ashokan 4,369,000 

Aqueduct from Billings reservoir to Hiber- 
nia reservoir, 300 million gallons daily 
capacity i,573»ooo 

Aqueduct from Hibernia to Silvernails, 220 
million to 330 million gallons daily 

capacity 1,276,000 

8,728,000 



Total cost of additional construction is *$5 1,380,000 



These additional costs, like those covering the first portions of the 
work to be constructed, include all expenditures such as those for land, 
clearing reservoir sites and other similar costs except water damages along 
the streams from which the additional supply is taken. 

The total cost of the entire works required to deliver the additional 
high service supply of 500 million gallons per day will be the sum of the 
two preceeding totals: 
Total cost of entire work *$iii,478,ooo 



*Through a misunderstanding these figures were incorrectly stated in the 
published synopsis of the Report, the total cost being given there as $98,839,000, 
instead of $111,478,000. 



71 

If instead of developing the Jansen Kill it should be considered pref- 
erable to take the soft waters of Rondout Creek, the preceding estimates 
of cost would be modified to the extent of substituting the expenditures 
necessary to secure the Rondout water for those required to secure the 
Jansen Kill water. The Commission believes that the latter procedure will 
be found to be preferable; but the impossibility of completing the Rondout 
surveys does not permit accurate estimates to be made for securing the 
Rondout water. 

Damages to Water Rights. 

The services of Messrs. Dean & Main, of Boston, were secured for the 
Commission to inspect and report upon the water rights along Fishkill and 
Wappinger Creeks and the Jansen Kill, with a view to making an approxi- 
mate estimate of the damage to those rights which would be caused by the 
proposed diversion of water for the additional supply of The City of New 
York. Such an estimate must necessarily be approximate only and subject 
to revision. The entire damage on Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks was 
estimated not to exceed about $1,250,000, and it may fall below $1,000,000; 
this sum being about equally divided between the two streams. 

The entire damage to water rights on the Jansen Kill, resulting from 
proposed diversion of water for the City's use, is small and may run from 
about $50,000 to $100,000. 

No detailed approximate estimate was made of damages which might 
result to water rights on Esopus Creek, as both funds and time were lack- 
ing; but informal estimates were made by members of the engineering force 
of the Commission. It is believed that these damages will not exceed 
?40o,ooo to $450,000 on this stream. 

Further examinations of this character must be made in detail before 
te final estimates for damages to water rights can be reached for the 
steams on either side of the Hudson. 

Recapitulation. 

The Commission has endeavored to make its investigations compre- 
her.ive, embracing a study of the present supply and of practicable sources 
of fture supply not excluded by the instructions of the Corporation Coun- 
sel a to interstate waters. 

'he general sanitary conditions of the water at present supplied to all 
borotrhs is found to be not entirely satisfactory, although the typhoid 
death ate of New York and Brooklyn is lower than in most large Amer- 
ican ciVs. The supply in general is found to be carefully safeguarded from 
the staf.point of health, although occasionally turbid and rarely malodo- 
rous. 



72 

It is recommended that works be immediately begun for the filtration 
of the Croton supply and that all the new supplies be filtered. It is also 
recommended that the reservoirs in Central Park be cleaned and that they 
be covered as soon as the Croton supply is filtered. 

The waste of water has been investigated and found largely due to 
defective plumbing and fixtures. The leakage from street mains is found 
to be less than heretofore supposed. This problem of the amount of dis- 
tribution of the water waste is an extremely difficult one and it is recom- 
mended that these investigations be continued and extended by permanently 
districting the city for this purpose and ascertaining the inflow and out- 
flow for each district, and that the cause of the large night flow be more 
fully investigated. 

The Commission recommends further for the prevention of waste that 
the house-to-house inspection be continued and extended, that the rate 
of consumption in representative buildings be studied, that more stringent 
plumbing regulations be enforced and that meters be more generally 
applied. It is strongly of the opinion that notwithstanding the greatest 
possible reduction of waste a large additional supply of water is imperative. 

It is found that all boroughs of the City of New York are in need 
of an increased supply of water. The present supply is already drawn upon 
to an extent that might lead to a dangerous shortage in a year of drought. 

A study of the growth in population and the increase in per capita use 
of water causes the Commission to recommend that works be immediately 
begun on an additional supply, capable of gradual development, first of 
about 60 million gallons per day, but capable of ultimate development to 500 
million gallons per day, the principal aqueduct being built of the full capacity 
at first. 

I'he sources recommended for immediate development are the uppeif 
Fishkill and the Esopus creeks, the latter to be by means of a much larg^ 
dam than heretofore proposed, creating a storage reservoir of nearly 70,0^ 
million gallons capacity. All these new works are to be at an elevation suh 
that the water can be delivered by gravity at a large terminal reservoir n^r 
the city limits at an elevation of 295 feet above tide. 

The upper Fishkill and the Esopus creeks can supply more than /oo 
million gallons per day. The aqueducts are planned so that they can in 
future years, be readily supplemented from the headwaters of the Ron/out 
and Wappinger creeks and the Jansen Kill. 

The least time required for building the new work, limited by thollong 
tunnels through the mountains east of Peekskill, is estimated at shoit five 
years, and as soon as the aqueduct frorrt Billings into the Croton WcV^rshed 
is completed, 60 million gallons of water daily can be added to the^'roton 
supply and brought into the city through the old Croton aqueduct, 

/ 



73 

For Brooklyn and Queens, an immediate development of the ground 
water sources of Queens and Nassau County is recommended, and that all 
surface supplies be filtered, also that ultimately these Long Island sources 
be supplemented by a branch conduit from the proposed 500 million gallon 
aqueduct from the north of Manhattan. 

For Richmond, the Commission has approved of a ten-year contract 
with a private company, for the immediate introduction of filtered water 
from New Jersey. 

The high pressure from the proposed new aqueduct will eliminate the 
cost of pumping the high service supply for Manhattan and The Bronx, and 
will afford a supply for special fire mains, thus affording much better pro- 
tection against fire than any salt water fire system. 

The important pumping stations of the several boroughs have been ex- 
amined and their condition reported. Recommendations are made which, if 
adopted, will annually save large sums of money. 

An additional supply of about 60 million gallons daily can be secured 
from the Fishkill watershed within five years from the time of beginning the 
work, at a cost of about $39,000,000. An additional supply of nearly 320 
million gallons daily may be secured from the watersheds of the Fishkill and 
Esopus Creeks by a further expenditure of about $21,000,000, making a 
total of about $60,000,000. The latter construction may be completed to 
such an extent as to draw on the Esopus water within the same period, of 
about five years. 

The entire additional supply of 500 million gallons per day can be se- 
cured at a cost of about $111,500,000. This final construction need not be 
completed before 1925. 

Acknowledgments. 

The Commission desires to express its hearty appreciation of the pro- 
fessional skill, sound judgment, zeal and energy of the Department En- 
gineers in the prosecution of the various fields of work assigned to them ; and 
it also desires to express its appreciation of the industry and thoroughness 
displayed by the field and office forces in the discharge of their duties 
throughout the work of the Commission. It is probably seldom that such an 
unprecedentedly large amount of work has been done so satisfactorily in 
such a limited time, and the Commission takes pleasure in expressing its un- 
qualified commendation of the manner in which its forces have performed 
their duties. 

Respectfully presented, 

Wm. H. Burr, 
Rudolph Hering, 
John R. Freeman. 



APPENDIX I. 



l^$tm Aqnednct and [(e^ePVoiP DepaPtment 



n 



Appendix I. 

Eastern Aqueduct and Reservoir Department. 
E. G. HoPSON, Department Engineer. 

This appendix covers a description of and estimates for the proposed 
works for collecting a Gravity High Level Additional Supply on the east 
side of the Hudson River, and the aqueducts required to convey it to a 
point near the city limits; also certain aqueducts to convey waters from the 
sources on the west side of the Hudson River to the same point; and a brief 
statement of investigations made in connection with a low level supply and 
aqueduct system. 

The designs for the various works have been based upon two general 
projects of supply development, which have been styled Projects No. i and 
No. 2. These projects are frequently referred to in this Appendix, and their 
definitions are as follows: 

Project No. i. 

This project entails the successive construction of the Stormville Reser- 
voir, the Billings Reservoir, the Hibernia Reservoir, the Clinton Hollow 
Reservoir and the Silvernails Reservoir, either singly or in groups, as the 
future needs of the City demand; and when this entire eastern supply has 
been exhausted, it proposes a further extension of the system to the Ashokan 
Reservoir by an aqueduct from the Clinton Hollow Reservoir, and ultimately 
a further connection with the Rondout Creek ; in short, this project contem- 
plates the development of the eastern sources first, and subsequently the 
western sources. 

Project No. 2. 

This project entails the successive construction of the Stormville Reser- 
voir, the Billings Reservoir, the Ashokan Reservoir and the Rondout Reser- 
voirs ; and after the exhaustion of these sources, the ultimate construction of 
the Hibernia and the Silvernails reservoirs; or, in other words, the develop- 
ment of the western sources prior to that of the eastern sources. The Com- 
mission recommends the adoption of this project. 

The development of the Fishkill Creek would, for reasons of expediency, 
be a necessary precedent to both projects, as an emergency supply to meet! 
possible shortages. 

Thus, under both projects, the details of construction are identical be- 
tween Hill View Reservoir and the Billings Reservoir, including both reser- 



78 

voirs, the main aqueduct, and the filtering plant, excepting that the aqueduct 
between Billings Reservoir and the filters would, under Project No. 2, re- 
quire to be built with two independent conduits for the purpose of keeping 
the water from the western sources separate from those of the eastern 
sources until both have passed through the filters. 

Supply. 

The supplies tliat have been considered as suitable and available are: 

On the East Side of the Hudson River — 

Drainage Area. 

The Fishkill Creek 81 sq. miles. 

The Wappinger Creek 90 to 1 16 

The Roeliff Jansen Kill i49to 173 

Total 320 to 370 sq. miles. 

On the West Side of the Hudson River — 

Drainage Area. 

The Esopus Creek 255 sq. miles. 

The Rondout Creek 129 

Total 384 sq. miles. 



The detailed description of the watersheds on the east side and their 
proposed development are given in the following pages : 

The detailed description of the watersheds on the west side of the 
Hudson River and their proposed development are given Appendix II. 

The supplies derived from the eastern sources are as follows : 

Supply in Gallons Per Day. 
Fishkill Creek — 

From Stormville Reservoir 37,000,000 

From Billings Reservoir 24,000,000 

Wappinger Creek — 

From Hibemia Reservoir 68,000,000 

From Clinton Hollow Reservoir 20,000,000 to 23,000,000 

Roeliff Jansen Kill — 

From Silvernails Reservoir 112,000,000 to 130,000,000 

Totals 261,000,000 to 282,000,000 



79 
Sources of Supply East of Hudson River. 

The drainage areas on the east of the Hudson river available for a 
gravity supply for high service, or, in other words, for delivery near the 
city limits, at about elevation 295, fall within circumscribed limits. 

It is self-evident that no water supply may be obtained at the necessary 
elevation from any territory south of the Croton Watershed much in excess 
of that required for the future needs of the small communities thereon. 

Southerly Limit of Available Watersheds. 

The southerly limit of available drainage areas is, however, more sharply 
defined by the location of a suitable site for the filtering plant. This site 
has been found in the vicinity of Stormville, in Dutchess County, about a 
mile southerly from the upper Fishkill Creek. The desirability of filtering the 
entire additional supply being recognized as an established fact, it is obvious 
that water that has not undergone this process may not enter the aqueduct 
below the filtering plant. This fact rules out of consideration any tributaries 
from the Hudson River, between the Croton River and the Fishkill Creek. 
Of these tributaries, the only one that could under other circumstances be 
available for part of the High Level Supply, is the Peekskill Creek; the 
others are too remote from the main aqueduct line to be economical pos- 
sibilities. 

Peekskill Creek. 

A site for a dam on the Peekskill Creek may be found about a mile 
southwest of Tompkins Corners — ^judging from surface indications and 
surveys made in that vicinity. From the reservoir thus created, a supply 
could be drawn directly into the High Level Aqueduct. 

The area of the watershed above this dam is 15 square miles. This 
watershed is very satisfactory from a sanitary point of view, being well 
wooded, of considerable elevation and very sparsely inhabited. The supply 
that could be derived here is about 750,000 to 800,000 gallons per square mile 
of watershed, or about 12,000,000 gallons per day in all. 

Objections to Peekskill Creek, 

The cost of development of so small an area, however, will be very high 
as compared with the development of larger areas, even under the most 
favorable conditions of. construction. The Peekskill Creek is, rnoreover, 
the present water supply of the town of Peekskill, and it might prove to 
be impossible or extremely difficult to obtaia any of its water without legal 
complications out of proportion to the value of the stream. 



80 

Easterly Limit of Available Watersheds. 

The easterly limit of research is approximately fixed by the State lines 
of Connecticut and Massachusetts, by reason of the expressed opinion of 
the Corporation Counsel as to the legal inadvisability of attempting to divert 
waters flowing from New York into adjacent States. Hence the available 
territory for exploitation consists of a comparatively narrow strip between 
the Hudson River and the State line, extending northerly from the town of 
Fishkill. This area is entirely drained by tributaries entering the east side 
of the Hudson. 

FISHKILL CREEK DRAINAGE AREA. 

The most southerly tributary on the east side of the Hudson River avail- 
able for diversion for a gravity supply above the filtering plant, is the Fish- 
kill Creek. The lowest points at which diversion may be made are near 
the villages of Stormville and Billings, on two of the main feeders of the 
creek. 

Area. 

The drainage areas above the points of diversion are as follows: 

Above the Stormville Dam 49 sq. miles. 

Above the Billings Dam 32 " 



Stormville Area. 
Geological Features. 

The general geological structure of the Stormville area, as taken from 
the United States Geological Survey map and partially checked by field 
observation, is as follows: 

sedimentary Rocks. 



Era. j Groups. 



! Arba in 
Squarb Miles. 



. j , Hudson River metamorphosed (slates and mica schists) 9 

Silurian -j Cambro-Silurian metamorphosed (crystalline limestone). ..... 25 

Cambrian I Georgia (quartzite and sand rock) 2 

Pre-Cambrian ... Westchester (gneiss and granite) 13 



Total •, 49 



8i 

Ele:fations. 

The maximum elevation of the area is 1,400 feet. 

The minimum elevation of the area is 300 " 

The average elevation of the area is 510 " 

Description. 

The bottom lands are generally cleared and cultivated. The upland* 
are to a very large extent wooded. The population is sparse, a considera- 
ble proportion being located on the site of the proposed reservoir. There 
are practically no swamps on the watershed. 

Billings Area. 
Geological Features. 

The geological structure of the Billings area as taken from the United 
States Geological Survey map, partially checked by field observations, 
may be classified as belonging to Hudson River g^oup of metamorphic slates 
and schists. The slate or shale is the predominating rock, and outcrops 
are very frequent. 

Elezfations. 

The maximum elevation of the area is 1,400 feet. 

The mimimum elevation of the area is 320 " 

The average elevation of the area is 580 " 

Description. 

The population is scanty, and engaged wholly in agriculture. The 
uplands are well wooded, and the hill slopes in general steep and rocky. 
Practically no swamps exist in this area, nor any source of pollution worthy 
of especial note. 

WAPPINGER CREEK DRAINAGE AREA. 

Area. 

The Wappinger Creek drains the territory immediately north of the 
Fishkill Watershed and west of the Ten Mile River Watershed. The points 
selected as most suitable for dam sites are at Hibernia and Clinton Hollow. 
The drainage areas above these points are: 

Above Hibernia Dam 90 sq. miles. 

Above Clinton Hollow Dam 26 " " 



82 

Hibernia Area. 



Geological Features. 



The main geological features of this area, as taken from the United 
States Survey map, partially verified by field observations, are as follows: 



Sedimentary Rocks, 



Era. 


Groups. 


Arba in 
Square Milis. 


Silurian 


Hudson River metamorphosed (slates and mica.schists) 

Cambro-Silnrian (limestone^ 


70 
14 


Cambrian 

Pre-Cambrian . . . 


Cambrian (quartzite and red sand rock) 


I 


Georgia (Potsdam limestone) 

Westchester (gneiss and granite) 


3 

2 




Total 






90 



Elevations. 

The maximum elevation of the area is 1,440 feet. 

The minimum elevation of the area is 265 " 

The average elevation of the area is 490 " 



Description. 

The surface in general is hilly. The trend of the valleys is almost 
invariably in a north and south direction; the upper portions of the hill 
slopes are often abrupt, rocky and well wooded; the lower lands are as 
a rule well cultivated 



Population. 

The chief centres of population are Millbrook, Stanfordville and 
Bangall. Millbrook is the most considerable of these, and has a permanent 
population of perhaps 1,000 and a summer population probably not exceed- 
ing 1,500. Stanfordville falls entirely within the reservoir limits. 

With the exception of these three centres, the population on the 
drainage area is scanty, and almost entirely engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. The only source of pollution that might be considered as a possible 
menace is the village of Millbrook. 



83 
Clinton Hollow Area. 



Geological Features. 



The geological structure of this area as taken from the United States 
Geological Survey map, partially verified by field observations, is as follows: 

Sedimentary Rocks, 



Era. 



Silurian . . 
Cambrian. 



Groups. 



Akba in 
Squakb Milks. 



21 



Hudson River (shales and sandstone) 

Cambro-Silarian (limestone) I 2 

Cambrian (Potsdam limestone) I 3 



Total I 26 



Eln^ations, 

The maximum elevation of the area is 920 feet. 

The minimrfm elevation of the area is 300 " 

The average elevation of the area is 450 " 



Description. 

The surface of this area is in general decidedly hilly. The slopes are 
sharp, and rock outcrops are abundant. The lower portions of the area 
are under cultivation, the uplands being often wooded. 

Excepting in the vicinity of the two small ponds that fall within the 
limits of the proposed reservoir, there is no swamp land worthy of especial 
mention, or likely to cause trouble. 



ROELIFF JANSEN KILL DRAINAGE AREA. 

Area. 

A point selected as the most suitable for diverting the Roeliff Jansen 
Kill into the upper portion of the Hibemia area is near Silvernails station 
on the Central New England R. R., immediately below the junction of the 
main stream with Shekomeko Creek. 

The area tributary to this point is 149 square miles. 



84 

Geological Features. 

The geological character of this area as taken from the United States 
Geological Survey map, partially verified by field observations, is as follows: 





Sedinuntary Rocks. 




Era, 


Gxoups. 


Arbaik 
Squakb Milu. 


Sihirian 


Cambro-Silurian metamorphosed <«rystalline limestone) 

Cftmbro-Sflurian {1i«inestone). . ...... . . . . . 


53 
4 


Cambrian 


Hudson river metamorphosed (dates ajid mica schist^) 

Cambrian (quartzite and red bttd rock) 

Total 


91 
I 




149 









Elevations. 

The maximimi elevation of the area is 2,624 feet. 

The minimum elevation of the area is 380 " 

The average elevation of the area is 670 " 



Description. • 

The larger portion of this area is very hilly, and in parts decidedly 
mountainous. Mt. Washington in Western Massachusetts forms a portion 
of the easterly divide. The area of the drainage from Massachusetts is 16 
square miles. 

Some of the central portions of the area are flat and swampy, but by 
far the greater proportion of the whole is dry, well wooded and rocky. 
The largest centre of population in this area is the village of Pine Plains, 
with a total of about 500. 

It is possible that the construction of the reservoir will almost entirely 
wipe out this village. 

Outside of Pine Plains and a few other smaller villages, the popula- 
tion is scanty, the soil being in general poor and rocky, unsuitable for high 
cultivation. 



KINDERHOOK CREEK AREA. 

Possible Diversion. 

To the northwest of the area drained by the Roeliff Jansen Kill, the 
upper part of the valley of Taghkanic Creek lies at sufficient elevation, 
and the formation of the land is such that the drainage from 48 square 
miles of territory may be diverted at no unreasonable expense into the 
valley of the RoelifT Jansen Kill. 



85 

The means for creating this diversion would be a dam at New Forge 
on this creek, and the formation of a reservoir on the extensive flat lands 
immediately above this point. This reservoir is disproportionately large 
in area to the size of the watershed, and the floor would consist of swampy 
land, the draft would be through an open canal and tunnel terminating 
near West Copake, a few miles above the Silvemails reservoir. 

Condition of Drainage Area. 

The general conditions of this watershed are very similar to those of 
the adjacent watershed of the Roeliff Jansen Kill. The land is in general 
rocky and hilly, shale rock being the predominant formation, and in all 
probability the quality of the water of the Taghkanic Creek is very satisfac- 
tory, as the population is scanty and there is little likelihood of there being 
any serious cause of pollution. 

Objections. 

The objection to considering this area as a possible source to additional 
supply is that of the excessive cost of its development, which would be 
caused almost wholly by the heavy damages for water diversion from 
riparian owners on Kinderhook Creek. 

The total supply likely to be derived from this area would not be more 
than 36 million gallons per day, and the damages for diverting even so small 
a portion of the Kinderhook Creek would probably be excessive, and 
entirely disproportionate to the value of the benefits received. 

OTHER SOURCES TO THE NORTH. 

There are no rivers or streams north of the Roeliff Jansen Kill and the 
Taghkanic Creek that may be considered as possibilities for diversion 
into the High Level Aqueduct. Those streams which are at sufficient 
elevation are either too small, or their diversion may only be effected by 
excessively long aqueducts through difficult country. 

Storage and Depletion. 

All storage capacities of reservoirs have been designed on the basis of 
the records of the Sudbury River in Massachusetts, for reasons described in 
Appendix IV. 

These records show a remarkable period of drought from 1879 to 1884, 
which was only partially experienced on the Croton Watershed at that time, 
rhe storage has been designed to tide over a similar period of drought on 
these watersheds, and provide for an average daily draft of 750,000 gallons 
per square mile of watershed. 



86 

The Sudbury records, which extend back to 1875, and the Croton rec- 
ords that reach back to 1868, do not give any parallel case; nor do the rain- 
fall records that extend back to 1818 indicate that similar dry conditions 
occurred during almost the whole of last century. Hence it may be inferred 
that the exhaustion or entire depletion of the storage proposed would not 
have occurred with these drafts during the whole of the past century. 

The reservoirs under a constant daily draft of 750,000 gallons per square 
mile of watershed, will be kept below ordinary High Water for periods vary- 
ing with the amount of evaporation on the watersheds. Thus, it has been cal- 
culated that with no evaportion taking place, the longest time during which 
any reservoir will be kept below High Water Line is i year g% months, and 
with 10 per cent, of water surface on the watershed, i year 10^ months. 
All the watersheds under consideration have less than 10 per cent, of water 
surface, except that of Qinton Hollow Reservoir. 

The storage for each of the watersheds has been computed at 

169,000,000 gal. per sq. mile of watershed of o percent. Water surface 
175,000,000 " " I percent. " 

180,000,000 " " 2 percent. " 

185,000,000 " " 3 percent. " 

190,000,000 " " 4 per cent. " 

195,000,000 " "5 percent. " 

200,000,000 " " 6 percent. " 

— except in the case of the Clinton Hollow Reservoir, for which a storage 
of 520,000,000 gallons per square mile of watershed was used. 

Description of Reservoir Surveys and Estimates. 

All of the reservoirs covered by this Appendix have been surveyed, and 
plotted on a scale of 400 feet to the inch. These surveys included complete 
topography, and location of roads, railroad and buildings. The average dis- 
tance between shots is probably about 300 feet. Contours were drawn at 
five feet intervals and the capacities of the reservoirs were compiled from the 
planimetered areas of these contours. 

Detailed surveys and plans on a scale of 100 feet to the inch were made 
of all dam sites. 

All estimates have been worked from the large scale plans, except in 
the case of part of the Clinton Hollow Reservoir. 

Real Estate, 

In preparing real estate estimates a careful census was made of popula- 
tion and property within the taking line, and the exact taxable assessments 
were obtained from the town records, as far as possible. 



87 

The engpineer's estimated cash value was obtained by the carefully 
weighed judgment of Mr. W. M. Stodder, Assistant Engineer, who person- 
ally conducted the census, visited every house and interviewed the residents, 
and obtained a great mass of confirmatory evidence as to the general accuracy 
of his valuation ; this evidence consisting of last selling prices and opinions of 
local real estate experts and other similar information. 

All of the real estate data has been compiled on large sheets specially 
prepared for the purpose. 

The general results obtained give the following rates of taxation and 
cash value for the different locations : 



Rbsbrvoir. 



Storm vi lie 

Billings. 

Silvernails . . . . 

Hibemia 

Clinton Hollow 



Pbr Acrb. 



Assessed 

Valuation. 



»39 97 



2484 
31 81 



Estimated 
Cash Value. 



$47 34 



30 19 
3848 
59 18 
30 00 



Assessed Valuation fer Entire Town. 



I 



E. FJshkill $34 23 

Beekman ... 35 90 

Lagrange 34 19 



Cost as Given 
in Estimate. 



$2QO 
150 
150 
250 
150 



It will be noticed that the value of real estate has been estimated at 
from 400 per cent, to 500 per cent, of the estimated cash value of the 
properties. 

Reimbursement to Towns. 

A sum equal to one-half of the assessed valuation of the lands taken 
has been set aside to meet any claims that the various towns might make 
on account of " loss of taxable property." This sum, at 3 per cent, interest, 
is sufficient to provide a yearly revenue about equal to that obtained from 
the reservoir lands by the different towns. 

Sanitary Protection of Watersheds. 

The amounts that have been estimated under this head are intended 
to provide for the abatement of all serious pollution on the watersheds, 
which would be classed as capital expenditures. 

Watersheds. 

The watershed areas were carefully checked on the United States 
Geological maps, and the entire divide line has been perambulated by a 
trained man, so that knowledge on this point is exact and definite. 



88 



Roads. 



All new highways have been projected on the large scale maps and 
have been estimated on the following bases: 



Classifica- 
tion. 




Description. 



First class marginal roads, macadam surface i8 feet wide, very heavy 
construction on steep and broken side hill country, inclusive of all 
ordinary special structures, and with rip-rai> shore protection, re- 
taining walls, graded approaches, and a certain amount of landscape 
work near villages. 

First class roarp[inal road, similar to Class A, but with no landscape 
work, retaining walls or graded approaches. 

Side hill work, frequent rip-jap protection, macadam surface, all 
. ordinary special structures included. 

In general not a marginal road, including all special structures and 
macadam sur£ice 15 feet wide. 

Light work, fairly level country, includes special structures and 15 foot 
macadam suriace. 

Regradin^ and resurfacing with macadam existing roads, no extensive 
alteration to present gradient. 



Railroads, 

In working estimates of railroad relocation, the following averages 
have been used for different classes: 



Classipica- 

TION. 


Cost 
PbrFoot. 


Class I 


$7 50 


Class 2 


9 00 


Class 3 


II 00 


Class 4 


3700 


Class 4^.... 


IS to 57 


Class 5 


92 CX) 


Class 6 


120 CX) 



Dbscription. 



Good averaee work in rolling country, including all grading, culverts 
and tracks. 

Heavy side hill work, including all grading, culverts and track. 

Same as Class 2, but for especially steep side hill country. 

Deep cuts at tunnel portals, including all grading, retaining walls and 
track. 

Rip-rapped embankment at reservoir crossings, including all grading 
and track. 

Single track tunnels (partly linbd). 

For steel viaducrs (complete). 



89 

Diversion of the Fishkill Creek. 

stormville dam. 

Difnensions and Description, 

The proposed dam on the Fishkill creek, near Stormville, is mainly 
of the standard type of earth dams, with masomy core wall and overfall. 
The main dimensions are as follows : 

Maximum height from high water line to surface of ground is . 66 feet. 

Maximum height from high water line to lowest bed rock is 

about 104 " 

Length of overfall at high water line is 400 " 

Length of the earth section is 2,990 " 

Length of the entire dam is 3»390 " 



It is proposed to face the water slope with heavy rock paving and to 
build the overfall of solid masonry on the bed rock. The waste channel 
will be, to a large extent, blasted out of the rocky side hill. The waste way 
is designed to carry a freshet flow equal to 6 inches of water on the entire 
drainage area in twenty-four hours, with 3 feet depth of water flowing over 
the crest. The extreme capacity of the overflow, however, will be greatly 
in excess of this. 

Outlets. 

At the southerly end of the overfall, the gatehouse will control the 
draft from the reservoir, the ordinary draft being conducted through two 
48-inch pipes into the main conduit. 

Two other 48-inch pipes at Kiev. 300 at the bottom of the reservoir 
will be used to empty the reservoir in cases of emergency, and to control 
the flow of the stream during construction. 

Dikes, 

A small dike of the same general cross section as the earth portion of 
the main dam will be required near the present railroad station at Storm- 
ville, in order to close the gap through which the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad passes. This dike will have the following dimen- 
sions : 

Length at high water line 535 feet. 

Maximum height of flow line above surface of earth 23 ** 

Maximum height of flow line above bed rock, about 41 '* 



90 

Another small dike will be required about a mile and a half northeast 
of the main dam, to close the gap in the hills surrounding the reservoir 
near Sylvan Lake. This dike will be of the same section as the one 
previously described. 

Its dimensions will be as follows: 

Maximum length of High Water Line 765 feet. 

Maximum height of High Water Line above surface of ground 19 " 

Maximum height of High Water Line above bed rock about. . 30 " 



Borings. 

A line of wash drill borings has been taken along the centre of the 
proposed dam and dike at Stormville and through the intervening knol! 
or drumlin, and from these borings the general depth of the bed rock 
and the nature of the overlaying strata have been carefully determined, 
so far as their limited scope would permit. 

The bed rock consists of a metamorphic limestone bluish in color, 
and firm and hard in texture. Its beds are almost vertical, and the true 
contour of the rock below the covering of drift is probably extremely 
irregular. The overlying drift is, as a general rule, a firm and compact 
hardpan. This hardpan, below a depth of a few feet from the surface, is of a 
blue-gray tint, is rich in clay or finely divided rock flour, and is with- 
out doubt impervious to the percolation of water. 

These conditions were found for practically the whole length of the 
main dam. The borings were taken at intervals of 100 feet in the deeper 
portions and 200 feet in other parts, and wash drill samples were taken 
at 5-foot vertical intervals. In the large knoll or hill to the north of 
Stormville, which forms part of the west side of the reservoir, fears were at 
one time entertained that the strata might not prove of sufficient watertight 
qualities to form an efficient barrier. 

In taking borings at this point, dry samples were collected wherever 
possible at intervals of 10 feet in depth. These dry samples were obtained 
by punching a hollow tube into the earth at the bottom of the casing 
pipe, until a sufficient sample was forced into the hollow of the tube and 
retained there. These dr}- samples are an extremely valuable check on the 
ordinary wash samples, and demonstrate conclusively the exact nature 
of the strata. The general results obtained show that this drumlin con- 
sists of a hard, compact, bolder clay, blue^gray in color, overlying the 
limestone formation. The color of this bolder clay is a consideration of 
much importance, its bluish tint indicating the absence of oxidation which 
invariably accompanies the percolation of ground water. 



91 

On the knoll to the south of Storniville, the ledge outcrops fre- 
quently at the summit. Borings taken at the northern extremity, however, 
show that there are possibilities of finding porous strata at that end of 
the knoll; but there is no question as to the general fitness of this hill to 
form part of the barrier. 

The number of borings taken at this reservoir is 28 

The greatest depth penetrated being 75 feet. 



Lack of time and means alone prevented a more extended investigation 
at this site than has been taken. Enough, however, has been done to show 
the entire feasibility of building this dam for a reasonable sum and with 
sure prospects of success. 

Before construction is undertaken here, a much more detailed study 
should be made than has been possible with the limited time available, 
and it is recommended that the entire site be covered with wash drill 
borings taken at the comers of squares of 100 feet on a side, laid out on a 
comprehensive plan. This plan should embrace the entire main dam site, 
the two dikes and the drumlins north and south of Stormville. 



STORMVILLE RESERVOIR. 

Area and Elevations. 

The proposed reservoir covers 1,694 acres at the High Water Line, 
elevation 364. This land is almost entirely cleared and under cultiva- 
tion, and with one small exception free from swamps. 

The elevation of the lowest full draft is 341 feet. 



Capacity, 

The capacity of the reservoir below Elevation 341 .... 6,440,000 gallons. 
The capacity of the reservoir above Elevation 341 .... 10,094,000 " 

Total capacity 16,534,000 " 

The average depth of water in the reservoir will be 39.4 feet below 
ordinary High Water. 

Taking Line. 

An approximate line of taking has been laid on the plan that em- 
braces a total area of 2,985 acres. This line as laid out provides wide mar* 
gins to the reservoir, more than will be actually required for purposes 



92 

of construction alone, but arranged with a view to future complete control 
of the shores and approaches, and also the satisfactory adjustment of real 
estate settlements. 

Statistics, 

The population permanently residing within the taking line is. . . . 310 

The number of summer boarders and occasional residents is. . . . 70 

" horses and cattle is 686 

" occupied dwelling houses is 89 

" unoccupied dwelling houses is 7 

" factories, shops and stores is 19 

" bams, stables, sheds, etc., is 221 

'* acres of arable land 2,725 

" acres of woodland 50 

" acres of pasture 210 

Total acreage 2,985 

Valuation, 

The taxable value of the realty within the taking line at the 

last town assessment is $1 19,310 

The engineers' estimate of the present cash value is 141,308 



The reservoir lies within the towns of Beekman and East Fishkill, 
Dutchess County. Both these towns have been steadily declining in valua- 
tion and population during the past few years, as shown by the following 
table: 



Datk. 



Real. 



1894... 

1895... 
1896. . . 

1897... 
1898... 
1899 .. 

1900. .. 
I901 .. 
1902... 



$743,850 
741.822 

687,798 

672,273 
^5,967 

<535-532 

535,53^ 
^34,532 
629,532 



Bbbkman. 



Penonal. 



$52»9a) 
48,900 

49.300 

58,350 
56,540 
28,540 

25.570 
35.880 
34,680 



Total. 



$796. 7SO 
790,722 
737.098 

730,623 

702,417 
664.072 

661,102 
670,412 
664,212 



East Fishkill. 



Real. 



$1,265,446 
1,252,970 
1,175,206 

1.169,631 
1,140,391 
1,119,585 

1.119,585 
1,119.585 
1,119.585 



$1,310,096 
1,291,620 
1,213,856 




1,230, 181 
1,185,041 
1,162,535 

i."55,335 
M52.135 
1.159.13s 



93 

Population East FishkiU and Beekman. 

The population of East FishkiU in 1890 was 2,175 

The population of East FishkiU in 1900 was i»970 

The population of Beekman in 1890 was 1,113 

The population of Beekman in 1900 was 1,071 



Roads. 

Twentv-six thousand feet or about 4.9 miles of existing roads are within 
the reservoir limits, or must be discontinued through the reservoir construc- 
tion. These roads are in general poorly graded and surfaced. 

It is proposed to build 47,550 feet or 9 miles of well graded, surfaced 
and fenced roads to take the place of those that must be discontinued ; this 
length is inclusive of existing roads that will be rebuilt and resurfaced. 

Railroads, 

Seven thousand one hundred feet or i .34 miles of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford R. R. will require to be rebuilt at a higher level. It has 
been estimated that a new roadbed parallel to the present roadbed, and as 
close as possible to it, will be built; the gradients of the new line being the 
same as, or better than those of the present line. 

The slopes of the railroad enbankment subject to wave action in the 
reservoir will be protected by rip-rap. 

Removal of Soil and Shallow Flowage Treatment. 

It has been the practice in many communities wholly or partially to 
remove soil from reservoir bottoms in public water supplies. Massachu- 
setts has set a strong example in this respect, and the contention has been 
made with apparently good reason that the improvement in quality of 
the water stored in a stripped reservoir is worth the money spent on the 
stripping. Some recent developments, however, have cast doubt on this 
contention. 

The City of Boston has during recent years caused all its reservoirs 
to be cleared of soil, the standard adopted being that all soil having 3 per 
cent, or more of organic constituents should be removed or covered with 
sand or gravel. 

The records of the biological analyses of water derived from certain 
stripped reservoirs for a number of years after their construction showed 
a marked advantage in the lessened number of organisms as com- 
pared with unstripped reservoirs. This advantage was maintained for a 



94 

number of years, but recently a marked increase in organisms has been 
developing in these same reservoirs, and their present condition is such 
that it will not be possible to show any appreciable advantage of the 
stripped reservoirs on this account. 

The New York practice has been to leave the soil in place, and under 
the proposed scheme of additional water supply, which embraces a 
thorough and complete sand filtration of all waters, it would seem to be 
inadvisable to spend large sums of money for purposes of soil removal. 

It is believed that little more should be done than to complete certain 
local improvements, such as covering with sand the surface of any peat 
or muck areas (especially where the reservoir is shallow), and possibly 
the removal of soil from a few shallow places, and the filling in of other 
shallow places with the excavated material, and protecting these fills with 
sand or gravel beaches. The principle to be observed in all these operations 
should be the elimination of all sheltered, shallow nooks or backwaters 
where organic life would have a specially favorable opportunity to multiply. 

It has been estimated that a daily draft of not less than 750,000 gallons 
per square mile of watershed may be safely reckoned upon from the areas 
on the east side of the Hudson River; with this draft the records of the 
Croton and Sudbury Rivers show that the level of the water in any reservoir 
will occasionally be kept below High Water mark for periods as long as 
about two years, and in this connection it is a matter of consideration 
whether the removal of soil from the margins likely to be exposed during 
this interval would not be effective in preventing to a large extent the 
growth of vegetation. It is a matter of grave doubt whether the results 
of stripping even these margins are worth the expenditure, excepting in 
the special cases previously alluded to. 

All these matters are open questions on which the best authorities 
disagree, and for purposes of these designs and estimates the following 
rules have been adopted, as being safe and giving an outside cost: 

Strip all soil from margins between the levels of 3 feet above High 
Water and 5 feet below the minimum draft line wherever the natural slope 
of the ground is flatter than i vertical to 10 horizontal. 

Cover the surface of all deep muck holes and swamps with gravel 
and sand. 

Fill all shallow margins and back-waters with earth, and face the water- 
sides of these fills with coarse sand or gravel beaches. 

Following out these general principles, the total area to be stripped 
of soil will be 482 acres or 28 per cent, of the whole area. The average 
depth of this stripping will probably run to about 10 inches. 

The total quantity of earth removed will be 645,000 cubic yards. This 



95 

material will require hauling an average distance of 1,200 feet, in order to 
be d^sposited in the shallow places on the margpins. The shallow flowage 
fills will require for protection 50,000 cubic yards of sand or gravel for 
beaches. 

Cemeteries. 

There are two small cemeteries a little above the proposed flow line of 
the reservoir; they are very small, however, and not likely to cause 
trouble. 

BILLINGS DAM. 

Dimensions and Description. 

This dam consists of two unequal sections of earth dam on either 
side of a knoll nearly in the middle of the main valley. 
The dimensions are as follows: 

Length at High Water Line 700 feet and 1,490 feet. 

Maximum height flow line above surface of ground 60 ** 

Maximum height flow line above surface of bed 

rock About 100 " 



The general design of the dam is similar to that of the Stormville 
Dam, being of the standard type of earth dams, with masonry core wall 
and paved water slope. 

It may be found possible with the general scheme of reservoir devel- 
opment under consideration to connect the Billings and Hibernia reser- 
voirs by an open canal which would under ordinary conditions carry the 
drafts from Hibernia Reservoir into Billings Reservoir, but during floods 
would act as a waste channel and discharge in the opposite direction. In this 
event an overflow and waste channel may be omitted from the design of 
the Billings Dam, and the earthen section carried entirely across the valley. 
This will be a valuable feature in the design if found practicable, as the 
depth of the drift below the dam here makes a wasteway a somewhat 
expensive undertaking, and the general principle of keeping a waste chan- 
nel as remote as possible from the dam is a good one, and worthy of being 
followed wherever possible. 

The reasons that would call for the construction of a waste channel 
at the Billings Dam are : 

1. The possibility that the connection between Billings Reservoir and 
Hibernia Reservoir may be by means of a tunnel instead of an open cut, 
in which case the tunnel would not be of a sufficient capacity to carry 
the freshet flows. 

2. The consideration that the construction of the Hibernia Reservoir 



96 

might be at a date so remote that it would not be economical to anticipate 
its construction by building the open cut at the same time as that of the 
Billings Reservoir construction. 

Borings. 

Borings to determine the location of the ledge rock and the nature 
of the overlying strata are in process at this dam site. 

General Indicatians. 

It has been assumed that the proposed construction is an economic 
possibility at this site; the data to support this view, however, is somewhat 
meagre. 

The surface indications are not conclusive in many respects; the 
ledge rock does not outcrop so frequently as to render its location obvious. 
On the northern side hill the rock is a distinct shale; on the southern side 
hill the slopes are very abrupt, terminating in a bluff of some crystalline 
rock. Large masses of rock detached from this bluff have formed a steep 
foot slope from the bluffs to the brook. Immediately north of the brook 
and distant about 200 feet is an outcrop of shale, and there are indications 
of possibilities of other outcrops near the top of the large knoll in the 
middle of the valley. 

There is a strong possibility, however, that the ledge may only be found 
at great depth on parts of this site in spite of the favorable indications 
just alluded to. 

The cost of building a core wall to rock, even at considerable depths^ 
will not, however, form any great proportion of the total cost of this 
reservoir, and it has been considered as being perfectly practicable and 
safe to omit carrying the core wall to rock if the latter is at very great 
depth, providing the overlying earth is found to be of an impervious 
nature. 

The hardpan that has been found in the Stormville valley about six 
miles distant, and which, from general surface indications, may be expected 
to be found in this valley and other adjacent valleys, is a very compact 
bolder clay, extremely hard, of almoist the consistency of cement concrete. 

The strata overlying the rock here, so far as could be observed at 
certain favorable points, and from the wash drill samples of the few bor- 
ings already taken, is of a decidedly clayey nature, and the brook bed is in 
parts entirely in clay. While the general indications are by no means as 
clear and conclusive as could be wished, they are sufficient to afford 
grounds for reasonable expectation of good results in the structure pro- 
posed. 

The great desirability of a dam at this point as forming an important 



97 

unit in the general scheme of the eastern supply system, renders it profitable 
to spend a comparatively large sum of money at this place, even if the 
results of the boring operations now in process should develop more 
undesirable features than are at present anticipated. 

The estimate of dam construction gives the cost of the dam built 
with a masonry overfall and wasteway, with sufficient allowance made in 
both cases to cover the contingency of finding bed rock at unexpected 
depth. 

BILLINGS RESERVOIR. 

General Description. 

Ordinary High Water Line will be at elevation. . . 372-5 

Area within this flow line will be 969 acres. 

Mean depth of water will be 25.0 feet. 

Elevation at lowest full draft 343 feet. 

Capacity of reservoir below Elevation 343 1,200,000,000 gallons. 

Capacity of reservoir above Elevation 343 6,826,0)00,000 " 

Total capacity 8,026,000,000 " 



This reservoir is long and narrow in shape, the floor is level and side 
hills are steep and often rocky. The country rock is a shale, firm and 
compact in its natural condition, but a rock which weathers and disinte- 
grates freely when exposed. 

There is very little swamp or peaty land in this reservoir and the 
surface soil is generally thin. The area is clear of woods, and mostly under 
cuhivation or pasturage. 

Statistics, 

The population permanently residing within the taking line is. . . 78 

The number of summer boarders and occasional residents is 82 

" horses and cattle is 272 

" occupied dwelling houses is 30 

" unoccupied dwelling houses is 3 

" factories, shops and stores is 4 

** barns, stables, sheds, etc., is 128 

** acres of arable land is 1,600 

" acres of woodland is 380 

" acres of pasture is 435 

Total acreage 2,415 



98 

Valuation, 

The area within the proposed taking line is 2,415 acres. 

The taxable value of all property inside the taking line at 

the last assessment was $59,989 

The estimated cash value is 72,909 



The entire reservoir lies in the town of Lagrange, Dutchess County. 
The taxable valuation and population of the town has been steadily 
declining for the past few years, as shown in the following table: 



TOWN OF LAGRANGE. 



Vbar. 




Valuation. 




Real. 


Personal. 


Total. 


1890 ^ 

1891 

1892 


$1,042,507 
1,075,983 
1.055,983 

1,001,783 

1,001,351 

994,358 

934,007 
929,082 

878,139 

878,139 
877.139 
877.139 


$99,650 
105,959 
108,250 

83,950 
85.300 
76,300 

87,600 
78,750 
68,525 

45*3*5 
52,475 
43,025 


$1,142,157 
1,181,942 
1,164,233 

1,085,733 
1,086,651 


1895.:.:: 

1896 

;§i.:::::. ::•:.::::::::: 


1,070,658 

1,006,307 

1.016,682 

984,605 

946,664 

02^.464. 


1900 


lOOI 


929,614 


1902 


920,164 







Population of Lagrange, 

The population of the town of Lagrange in 1890 was 1,463; in 1900, 
1,304. 

Roads, 

Forty thousand feet or 7.6 miles of public highways fall within the 
reservoir limits or must be discontinued through reservoir construction. 
These roads are the usual type of back country roads, poorly graded and 
surfaced. 

It is proposed to build 54,900 feet or 10.4 miles of wxll-graded and 
isurfaced roads in place of those which will be discontinued; of this length 
17.600 feet or 5J4 miles will consist of regrading and resurfacing existing 
roads. 



99 

Railroads. 

No discontinuance of any railroad lines will be required, but for a 
short distance it will be necessary to protect the embankments of the N. 
D. & C. R. R. from wash by rip-rapping the slopes of embankments. A 
new culvert will also be required to take care of the flow of Jackson Creek 
at the railroad. 

Rcmoz'al of Soil and Shailmv Flozvagc Treatment, 

The same general principles regarding soil removal and shallow flow- 
age treatment have been adopted at this reser\^oir as at the Stormville 
Reservoir for purposes of this estimate. 

The area of land to be stripped will be 482 acres. 

The approximate quantity of soil excavated from this %i 

area will be 466,000 cu. yards. 

The average haul of this material will be 7.000 feet. 



With the flow line at the elevation proposed the upper parts of this 
reservoir will be quite shallow, and the desirability of performing the whole 
or a large part of the work of soil removal will be greater at this reser- 
voir than in some of the others. 

23,300 cubic yards of sand and gravel will be required for beaches to 
protect the shallow flowage banks, and for covering swampy lands to an 
average depth of one foot. 

The stripped area is 36 per cent, of the entire area. 

Jackson Creek. 

A necessary appurtenance to the Billings Dam and Reservoir is a small 
diverting dam, reservoir and channel on a brook called Jackson Creek, 
about 8,000 feet east of Billings Station, wiiereby the drainage of 7 square 
miles of territory may be carried into the brook channel entering Bill- 
ings Reservoir near Billings Station. 

The length of this small dam at High Water Line is about. . . . 530 feet. 

The height of the Water Line above surface of ground is 24 " 

The height of the W^ater Line above surface of rock is about ... 40 " 



The small reservoir thus formed will have an area of 19 acres at High 
Water Line, elevation 431. The waste will flow through a channel 5,900 
feet long to a controlling and regulating dam, over which it will fall into 
the present channel of the creek that leads down into the Billings Reservoir. 



lOO 

The excavated canal will have a maximum depth of 23 feet, and the 
general depth of the cut will be about 1 1 feet. 
The section of the canal is as follows: 

Width of bottom is 20 feet. 

Slopes I vertical to ij4 horizontal, paved to a height of 2 feet 

above High Water Line 

Ordinary depth of water 10 " 

Section area of waterway 325 sq. feet. 



This channel is designed to carry 1,000 cubic feet per second during 
freshets with a velocity of about 3 feet per second. This will take care 
of all but floods of extraordinary amounts, for safety against which an over- 
flow channel has been designed at the dam. 

The area of land required for the reservoir on Jackson Creek is . 84 acres. 



Diversion of the Wappinger Creek. 

hibernia dam. 
Dimcfisions and Description. 

This dam is situated immediately below the two main branches of 
the creek at Hibemia, Dutchess County. 

The elevation of the ordinary high water line is 372-5 feet 

The length of the dam at high water line is 6,640 " 

The maximum height of flow line above surface of ground is. 132.5 " 
The maximum height of flow line above bed rock probably 

not more than 148 " 



This dam has been designed as a combination earth and masonry dam. 
The earth section is of the standard type previously described for the Storm- 
ville and Billings dams, but with heavier paving on the water side. 

The dimensions of the earth section are as follows : 

Total length at high water line 3,340 feet. 

Maximum height of flow line above surface of ground is 78 " 

Maximum height of flow line above surface of rock is 85 " 



lOI 

The masonry section of the dam has the following dimensions: 

Length 3,300 feet. 

Maximum height high water line above surface of bed rock 

about 148 

Height of top of dam above ordinar>' high water is 5 

Thickness of dam at high water level is 25.28 



The masonry section has been designed on lines very similar to those 
used on the Wachusett Dam, in Massachusetts, with, however, certain 
modifications. 

The main reason for using the Wachusett design is that that section 
is an unusually heavy one, and estimates based on that design will be at 
least conservative. 

The material used in the wall of the dam is heavy rubble laid in Port- 
land cement, or cyclopean rubble. The outside facing on both sides will 
be ashlar, laid with close joints. 

The two wings at the ends of the earth sections will be of the same 
material. 

It has been estimated that ledge rock will be excavated to an average 
depth of 10 feet over the entire bottom of the masonry dam to secure a good 
footing. 

Quarries, 

Suitable material for the heart masonry of the dam may probably be 
found at Stissing Mountain, a distance of 10 miles northerly from the dam. 
The stone in this mountain is apparently a coarse-grained granite, which 
will probably be suitable for rubble and easily worked. The stone for the 
ashlar and dimension work will probably require to be broughl: from a 
greater distance. 

Stissing Mountain appears to be the nearest point to the dam whence 
stone of the right quality can be obtained. The quarry and dam both lie 
on the same railroad, and it will be possible to deliver stone at the dam 
site at a low cost. 

Foundations. 

The bed rock outcrops for almost the entire length of the dam, so that 
its nature and elevation may be positively determined without the necessity 
of any borings for the purposes of this investigation. 

The site is a depression or gap in the long rocky hill forming the 
western shore of the proposed reservoir, but the general geological structure 
continues unbroken across the site. 



I02 

The rock is a shale, with beds lying almost vertically, and the general 
line of strike almost parallel with the axis of the dam. This rock, when 
undisturbed, seems to have remarkably durable qualities. As an instance 
of this it was noticed that at a number of outcroppings the surface of the 
rock is very sharply striated by ancient glacial action. These scratches 
and grooves have been preserved practically unchanged since the glacial 
epoch. This fact forms unimpeachable evidence of the durable qualities 
of the rock. 

It was noticed, however, that w^herever this rock has been cut into, as 
at the railroad excavation on the north side of the creek, the ragged and 
broken surfaces have weathered and disintegrated with rapidity. No doubt 
this fact is largely due to the shattering action of the high explosives used 
on the railroad work. 

There is no doubt that this rock, when treated with care and preserved 
from exposure, will form an extremely satisfactory foundation for a dam, 
its compactness and the inclination of the cleavage planes being guarantees 
of safety from sub-surface percolation, and its closeness to the surface of 
the ground being a factor of great economic importance. This rock is, 
however, entirely unfit for use as masonry in the dam, or even for paving 
on slopes, w^here exposed to any considerable wave action. 

Wasteway, 

The wasteway will be 600 feet long, with stone crest at i foot and 2 
feet below ordinary high water, and a capacity of discharge, with the reser- 
voir at Elevation 374.5, equal to 6 inches on the entire watershed delivered 
in twenty-four hours. 

If this wasteway be required to carry waste overflows from the Billings 
area in addition to those from the Hibemia area, the total length of over- 
flow will be proportionately longer. This modification of the design may 
be made at a later period if found to be desirable, without appreciably 
increasing the cost of the dam. 

Dikes. 

A small dike will be required near Willow Brook Station, on the 
P. and E. R. R., at a point about 2 miles north of the main dam. 

The length at high water line will be about 270 feet. 

Maximum height of flow line above surface of ground will be . . 4 " 



It has been estimated that this dike will be built wholly of soil stripped 
from the adjacent shallow parts of the reservoir and deposited in an 



103 

embankment with flat back slopes and without any core wall. The 
water side will be faced with paving, and the highway relocated to cross on 
the top of the dike. 

A small dike will be required at a point about i,ioo feet south of the 
main dam, and its dimensions are as follows: 

Length at high water line 35 feet. 

Maximum height from high water line to surface of ground. ... 5 " 
Maximum height from high water line to surface of ledge 6 " 



HIBERNIA RESERVOIR. 

Descriptiofi. 

The elevation of the proposed flow line for this 

reservoir is 372-5 feet. 

The elevation of the point of lowest draft from 

which the full supply can be drawn is 349 " 



The capacity of the reservoir above Elev. 349 is. . 30,000,000,000 gallons. 
The capacity of the reservoir below Elev. 349 is. . 42,000,000,000 " 



Total capacity 72,000,000,000 gallons. 



The area within the ordinary high water line is. . . 4,350 acres. 

The average depth below ordinary high water line 

is 50.8 feet. 



The villages of Stanfordville, Washington Hollow, and part of Bangall 
fall within the reservoir limits. 

The general shape of this reservoir is that of a wide valley with a gen- 
eral north and south direction, fairly level floor, and steep and rocky side 
hills. The surface of the ground is almost wholly cleared and fairly well 
cultivated. 

The maximum length of the proposed reservoir is 9.3 miles. 

The maximum width of the proposed reservoir is 1.3 " 



Roads. 

The total length of public highways that must be discontinued 
through this reservoir construction is 144,500 feet, or 27.4 miles. 



I04 

To take the place of these discontinued highways it is estimated that 
the following new construction will be required : 

New roads 38,100 feet. 7.2 miles. 

Reconstruction of existing roads 20,070 " 3.8 " 

Total 58,170 feet. i i.o miles. 



Railroad Relocation. 

A portion of the Central New England R. R. and the P. and E. R. R. 
location fall within the limits of the reservoir. It is proposed to relocate 
these railroads entirely to the west of the reservoir, whence they will return 
to their present location in the vicinity of Stissing. 

Length of lines to be discontinued is as follows: 

Central New England R. R 52,500 feet. 9.94 miles. 

Poughkeepsie and Eastern R. R 34»300 ** 6.49 " 

Total 86,800 feet. 16.43 niiles. 



C. N, E, R. R. 

The proposed new location of the C. N. E. R. R. will start from the 
present Hibeniia Station and follow a course indicated in the plan via 
Clinton Hollow, Upton Lake and Market to Stissing, crossing the P. and E. 
R. R. by an overgrade crossing north of Upton Lake. The total length of 
the proposed new location is 59,000 feet, or 11.2 miles. 

P. and E, R, R. 

The proposed new location of the P. and E. R. R. is parallel with the 
above described route of the C. N. E. R. R. from Upton Lake to Stissing. 
The total length of the proposed new construction for this road is 32,600 
feet or 6.2 miles. 

General, 

All railroad relocation work has been estimated on a very liberal basis, 
with ample allowance for all special structures, bridges, viaducts, right-of- 
way, etc. 

Remozvl of Soil and ShalUnv Floatage Treatment, 

. Under the same principle of soil stripping and shallow flowage elimina- 
tion that has been used in previous reservoir estimates, the total area of 
lands to be stripped is 532 acres, or 12 per cent, of the whole area. 



I05 

The material to be excavated from this area will total 712,000 cubic 
yards. This material will require hauling for an average distance of 1,200 
feet. 

The sand and gravel required for beaches and shore protection will be 
39,000 cubic yards. 

The general shape of the reservoir does not require a large amount 
of special treatment for shallow flowage, except in the shallow arm in the 
vicinity of Willow Brook, and the northern extremity, near Stissing and 
Stanfordville. 

Cetncteries. 

There are two cemeteries, one wholly and the other partially inside the 
reservoir limits. The former is a very small private yard ; the latter is also 
small, and the removal of the bodies will form an insignificant factor 
in the work of the reservoir. 

Real Estate. 

It has not been found practicable, with the time and means available, 
to make a close examination of the real estate problems involved in this 
reservoir construction, or to take a careful census of the population. 

The land as a whole consists of good average farming land. The 
houses and buildings are in general in good condition, well up to and 
perhaps above the average of country districts. 

The agricultural population is appreciably increased by summer 
boarders during July, August and September, the boarding business prob- 
ably being a considerable factor in the income of the average farmer. 

The village of Stanfordville, which is by far the largest community 
which will be affected, has a population of about 300 or 400. 

Buildings nithin Proposed Area. 

Dwelling houses 244 

Other buildings of all kinds, about 600 



Population, 

By using the same ratio of inhabitants per house in this reservoir as 
was found in the Silvernails, Stormville and Billings reservoirs, the total 
population inside the taking line is 800. 

This reservoir falls within the three towns of Pleasant Valley, Wash- 
ington and Stanford, in Dutchess County. 



io6 

The population of these three towns at the 1890 and 1900 census was 
as follows: 

1890. 1900. 

Pleasant Valley 1,531 1,483 

Washington (not including Millbrook) 2,073 1,960 

Stanford 1,859 1,624 



In all three of the towns the population has been steadily declining, 
and, with the exception of the temporary increase due to summer boarders, 
the decline will probably continue. 

I ^aluaiion. 

The value of real estate per acre for this reservoir has been set at 25 
per cent, more than that for the Stormville Reservoir. 

CLINTON HOLLOW DEVELOPMENT. 

The general design of reservoir development under which this project 
was considered embraces these four alternative schemes: 

(i) The introduction of water from the sources on the west side of the 
Hudson into this reservoir through an aqueduct discharging at a point near 
Milan (under Project No. i). 

(2) The introduction of water from the RoeliflF Jansen Kill through a 
tunnel from Jackson Corners into the upper end of the reservoir. 

(3) The introduction of both of the above waters into this reservoir. 

(4) The development of the Clinton Hollow Reservoir alone on a basis 
of from 750,000, to 850,000 gallons of daily yield per square mile of water- 
shed. 

It is obvious that either one of these projects calls for a study of consid- 
erable elaboration and extensive surveys, in order to determine even 
approximately the economical development. 

For instance, if a large supply from the western sources be introduced, 
this watershed may be developed to a much higher limit than has been 
considered advisable in other watersheds, possibly as high as 900,000 gallons 
per square mile of watershed per day. In this case the supply from the 
western sources would be used to prevent the water level from being kept 
below high water line for too great periods. 

In the case of Proposition Xo. 2, this reservoir would form an integral 
part of the development of the RoeliflF Jansen Kill Watershed, a considerable 
portion of the required storage for the latter watershed being afforded by 
this reservoir. 



I07 

The actual value of the Clinton Hollow development is, however, more 
apparent in the case of Proposition Xo. i than in the other cases, and the 
following estimates and designs are based on that proposition alone. 

CLINTON HOLLOW DAM. 

A favorable site for a dam exists about 2,000 feet north of the small 
mill dam at Clinton Hollow village. 

Dimensions and Description. 

The dimensions of the proposed structure are as follows: 

Length at high water line 930 feet. 

Maximum height of flow line above surface of ground 89 " 

Maximum height of flow line above bed rock, about 107 

Elevation of flow line 387 



This dam is estimated to be of the standard earth type, with masonry 
core wall and paved water slope. A gatehouse controlling a 48-inch outlet 
will serve to drain the reservoir in emergencies and take care of the brook 
w^ater during construction. 

Overfall 

A low portion of the hills surrounding the reservoir about 2,600 feet 
northwest of the dam affords a favorable site for a wasteway. Unfortunately, 
the ledge does not come to the surface at this point, but indications are that 
it will be found at no great depth. 

A masonry overfall and paved channel have been estimated on, the 
length of the overflow being 200 feet and designed to discharge a quantity 
equal to 6 inches on the watershed in one day, with a depth over the crest 
of 3 feet. 

Site of Main Dam, 

The rock at this site is a crystalline limestone, appearing capable 
of forming a satisfactory foundation. The outcrops are at the west side 
of the brook and at several points on the steep westerly side hill. 

No outcrops are visible on the east side of the brook on the dam line, 
but, judging from general contours and such outcrops as are found at 
points not very remote from the dam, it is fair to infer that rock will be 
found at no unusual depth below the surface. 



io8 

The estimates have allowed for an average depth of 30 feet from the 
surface of the ground to the rock on the east side of the brook. The drift 
at this point is apparently hardpan. 

CLINTON HOLLOW RESERVOIR. 

Description. 

The area of this reservoir at the level of the pro- 
posed flow line at Elev. 387 is 2,157 acres. 

The mean depth of the water below Elev. 387 26.2 feet. 

The elevation of lowest maximum draft is 360 " 



The capacity of the reservoir above Elev. 360 is. . . 13,900,000,000 gallons. 
The capacity of the reservoir below Elev. 360 is 4,500,000,000 " 



Total capacity 18,400,000,000 " 

The maximum length of the reservoir from the dam 

to the upper extremity north of Milan is 6.7 miles. 

The maximum width is 0.8 " 



The greater portion of the area is cleared, hard, dry land under cultiva- 
tion or pasturage, the exceptions being a small area of swamp adjacent to 
two ponds within the reservoir limits, and in the upper reaches of the 
reservoir near Milan. 

Rock outcrops are abundant within this area so far as observed, the 
rock being cr}'stalline limestone. 

Roads. 

The length of the new highway construction estimated to take the 
place of those discontinued under the new conditions is about 1 5 miles. 

Soil Stripping and Shallow Flowage Treatment. 

The area from which soil will be excavated is about.. 464 acres. 
Soil excavated from reservoir and deposited in shal- 
low flowage banks, about 620,000 cu. yards. 

The average length of haul for above, about 2,000 feet. 

Sand and gravel used in forming beaches, about 20,000 cu. yards. 



Note. — The estimate of w^ork on the Clinton Hollow Reservoir i» 
largely based on the United States Geological Survey map, the surveys 
of the reservoir not having been wholly plotted. These surveys have all 



109 

been made and are available for use at any time when opportunity is found 
to plot the notes. The Geological map was checked as far as possible 
and the estimates prepared from it; they cannot, however, be considered 
other than close approximations. 

Diversion of the Roeliff Jansen Kill. 

dam at silvernails. 
Dintensiotts and Description, 

This dam is situated immediately below the junction of the Roeliff 
Jansen Kill with the Shekomeko Creek. 
Its main dimensions are as follows: 

Elevation of proposed High Water Line is 465 feet. 

Length of High Water Line i ,600 " 

Maximum height from flow line to bed rock 115 '* 



The section of the dam as proposed will be entirely a masonry one, 
mostly of the standard type provisionally adopted for estimating purposes. 

This standard section extends for a total length of 1,000 feet 

The northerly end of the dam for a length of 600 feet will be built at 
a lower level than the main portion, and of a different section, being 
intended to act as a spillway. The level of the crest of the spillway will be 
I foot below high water line for a length of 300 feet, 4 feet below for 200 
feet, and 5 feet below for a length of 100 feet. 

A deep channel cut out of the rocky side hill will carry the waste into 
the river bed below the dam. The gatehouse situated between the overflow 
channel and the river bed will control three 48-inch outlet pipes, which 
will serve as an emergency outlet from the reservoir, and to control the 
flow of the river during construction. 

Quarry, 

The stone for the rubble heart of the dam may be obtained at the 
same quarry as that suggested for the Hibernia Dam, namely Stissing 
Mountain. The distance by railroad from this dam to the proposed quarry 
is 35^ miles. 

It is probable that the stone for the ashlar and dimension stone 
work will require to be brought from a longer distance. 

Foundation, 

The rock crops out or is very close to the surface from the northerly 
end of the dam to the south side of the creek. 



no 

All the rock in this vicinity is a distinct shale, the cleavage planes 
of which are inclined at an angle of about 40 degrees from the vertical, 
the general direction of the strike being almost parallel with the axis of 
the dam. 

This rock when not exposed to weathering influences is compact and 
firm, and free from* visible fissures and seams likely to cause trouble from 
percolation under the dam. The feasibility of building a dam at this 
site economically and with entire success is unquestionable. Sufficient 
data as to the exact location of the bed rock on the south side hill, how^ever, 
has not been obtained to render the estimate of cost a definite one. 

The southerly side hill is covered with a deposit of drift, which has 
been estimated about 40 feet in depth. The ledge outcrops on the south- 
erly side hill nearest to the creek that have been discovered so far are at 
a distance of 1,600 feet south of the creek. 

Allowance has been made in the estimate for an average cut of 
40 feet through the earth on the south side of the creek. In addition there 
has been estimated an average cut of 10 feet in ledge over the entire base 
of the dam in order to secure a tight footing and remove all weathered and 
seamy rock. 

Cut'OfF. 

•About 1,200 feet north of the dam between the rocky hill fonning 
the north abutment and the main range of hills beyond, a sandy plain 
exists which is probably the remains of an ancient lake bed. 

The elevation of this plain is about 28 feet above proposed High 
Water. 

It is probable that this entire plain consists of very porous sand or 
gravel, and that considerable leakage from the proposed reservoir might 
take place if some means are not taken to build a cut-oflf. 

It has been estimated that a trench with side slopes of i to i will 
be excavated here, and a core wall of Portland Cement Concrete will be 
built in the trench from the bed rock to the level of the High Water Line, 
and the trench afterw^ards refilled. 

The length of this cut-off is about 1,150 feet. 

The maximum depth at which bed rock is likely to be encoun- 
tered (judging from surface indications), about 80 " 



It is quite possible, however, that borings at this point may materi- 
ally modify these ideas, and perhaps prove the fact that a cut-oflf is unnec- 
essary. 



til 

SILVERNAILS RESERVOIR. 

Description. 

The area within the proposed High Water Line is ^ 2,014 acres. 

The average depth with the reservoir at High 

Water Line is 39.4 feet. 

The elevation of the lowest full draft from this 

reservoir has been assumed to be elevation. .. 430 " 

The elevation of the ordinary High Water Line has 

been taken at -. 465 " 

The available storage between elevation 430 and 

elevation 465 is 17,200,000,000 gallons. 

The unavailable storage below elevation 430 is ... . 8,600,000,000 *' 



The total capacity of the reservoir is. . 25,800,000,000 gallons. 



The elevation of the lowest full draft and the High Water Line have 
been assumed more or less arbitrarily. 

Both of these elevations should be finally established only after careful 
computations and estimates of their true economic position. 

It is obvious that the lower the draft line is made the higher will be 
the cost of the outlet channel near Pine Plains. It is also obvious that 
the higher the ordinary flow line is established, the more difficult will it 
be to save any portion of the village of Pine Plains, or to control econom- 
ically the outlet. 

On the other hand, it is plain that the more storage that can be 
obtained in this reservoir, the more economically may the reservoirs at 
Hibernia and Billings be built. 

These elevations were assumed not as a result of computations, but 
as an approximation derived from a careful weighing of the interests 
involved. 

The exact determination of these two elevations is not possible at 
the present time, as the complete solution of the problem requires the 
extension of the surveys for a reservoir westerly down the main valley to 
a point a mile west of Jackson Corners, and the consideration of an alter- 
native outlet from a reservoir with a dam at this point, the outlet being 
through a tunnel into the Qinton Hollow Reservoir. 

For the purposes of the present estimate it has been found necessary 
to defer the elaborate computation that would be required to settle all 
these points in a finaj manner, and make the above arbitrary assumption 
of these elevations in full knowledge of the fact that their final detemiina- 



112 

tion will not be radically different from the assumptions made, and that 
the general result obtained will be very near the truth. 

Soil Stripping and Shallow Flowage Treatment, 

The general shape of the valley is favorable for the proposed con- 
struction. The floor of the reservoir is level, and the side slopes are 
decidedly abrupt and rocky, and very little shallow fiowage exists except- 
ing at the upper extremities near Ancram and Pine Plains. 

The same rules that have been adopted in soil excavation and shallow 
flowage treatment for other reservoirs have also been used here. 

The results found are as follows: 
The area of land from which soil will be excavated is. 433 acres, 

or 22 per cent, of the whole area. 

The quantity of soil to be excavated is 580,000 cu. yards. 

The average haul of material excavated is i ,600 feet. 

The amount of gravel and sand to be used for beaches 

and swamp improvement is 19,000 cu. yards. 

Cemeteries. 

There are three cemeteries that either fall within the limits of the 
reservoir or are on the margins. 

* One is in Pine Plains and is by far the largest of the three; the graves 
are numerous at this point. The other two are insignificant in size and 
in the number of graves. 

The entire matter of moving the bodies from these grave yards 
is of but little comparative cost. 

Roads. 

The existing highways to be discontinued through the construction of 
the reservoir consists of 57,900 feet or 11 miles of poorly graded, rough, 
hilly country roads. 

To take the place of these roads under the new conditions there have 
been laid out and estimated 66,165 ^^^^ ^^ 12.6 miles of well built, graded and 
fenced highways. 

Railroad Relocation. 

45,000 feet or 8.5 miles of the main line of the Central New England 
R. R. and 13,600 feet or 2.6 miles of the Silvernails branch of the Central 
New England R. R. falls wnthin the reservoir limits, or will require to be 
discontinued. 

For a distance of 1,700 feet the embankment slopes of the Pough- 
keepsie & Eastern R. R. will be required to be protected with rip-rap from 
the wave wash. 



"3 

It is proposed to build the following new road beds to take the place 
of those which will be discontinued : 

A line leaving the present Silvernails branch C. N. E. R. R. at a 
point about i^ miles east of Jackson Corners and taking a general south- 
easterly direction to the present station at Pine Plains. 

The line would involve the construction of a tunnel 5,800 feet long, 
and its total length is 21,800 feet or 4.1 miles. 

A line starting from the present station on the C. N. E. R. R. at 
Pine Plains and following a general northeasterly direction to a point 
about 2 miles southwest of Ancram lead mines; thence due north to the 
present location north of Ancram. This line would require the construction 
of a tunnel 6,600 feet long. The total length of the new line is 43,300 
feet or 8.2 miles. 

Real Estate, 

A provisional taking line has been laid out with a view to securing 
complete control of all margins and approaches to the reservoir, and 
to aid in making real estate settlements on a liberal basis. This taking 
line includes the greater part of the village of Pine Plains, also the villages 
of Ancram and Gallatinville. 

The total area within this taking line is 5,321 acres. 

Outside of the villages the reservoir site is mostly a poor quality of' 
farming land, the greater portion of the whole being pasture land. 
The buildings do not come up to the average of prosperous agricultural 
communities. 

The following summary of statistics collected for this area will give a 
clear idea of the situation : 

Statistics. 

Population permanently residing inside taking line 496 

Number of summer boarders and occasional residents : 80 

" horses and cattle 614 

" occupied dwelling houses 140 

** unoccupied dwelling houses i 

'* factories, shops and stores 27 

" bams, stables and sheds 289 



acres of arable land 4,227 

acres of woodland 318 

acres of pasturage 776 



acres inside the taking line 5,32i 



114 

• Valuation, 

The taxable value of all real estate inside taking line at the 

time of last assessment was $169,261 

The estimated cash value is 204,752 

\'alue of property used in estimate, 400 per cent, of estimated 

cash value or $150 per acre 798,150 

Population of Gallatin, Pine Plains and Ancram. 

The population of these three towns has during recent years been 
declining as shown below : 

1890. 1900. 

Pine Plains i ,308 i ,263 

Gallatin 1,016 823 

Ancram 1,332 1,238 



Comparative Cost of Storage in Reskrvoirs. 



Rrsekvoirs. 



Framingham Reservoir No. 3 

Ashland Reservoir 

Sudbury *' 



Hopkinton 
Wachusett 
Bog Brook 

Titicus 

Stonnville 

Billings 



Silvernails ** 

Hibernia ** 

Clinton Hollow Reservoir. 



Capacity 
Million 
Gallons. 



1,080 
1,400 
7»40O 

63,067 
4.145 

7»i67 
10,094 
6.826 

17,200 
30,292 



Cost. 



t379»o 

787,0 



>,ooo 
',000 
2,002,000 



I 



860,001 

6,500,000 

855.«» 

I,20O,0CO 
1,840,000 
1,217,000 

4,647,000 
6,891,000 
1,051,000 



Approximats 
Cost per 
Million 
Gallons. 



$351* 
562* 
271* 

562* 
103* 
207 

170 

182+ 

178+ 

270+ 
227t 

75f 



XoTE. — Costs of reservoirs do not include real estate, and have been 
approximated from the best available data. 

High Level Aqueduct Line. 



Prcliwinary Linv of High Lczrl Aqueduct. 

The High Level Aqueduct, as originally designed, was a structure start- 
ing from a point on the Hudson River, a few miles north of Poughkeepsie, 



* Soil entirely or almost entirely removed from bottom. 
t Estimated. 



IIS 

called Greer Point, and running in a generally southerly direction through 
Dutchess, Putnam and Westchester counties to a terminal reservoir near 
the city line at Yonkers ; the supply being pumped from the Hudson River 
and filtered. The elevation of the terminal reservoir was to be 300 feet 
above the sea level. 

In running this preliminary line a traverse was carefully chained for 
its entire length, excepting through the mountainous and broken country 
between Tompkins' Comers and Hortonto\vn, where measurements were 
taken by stadia methods. This traverse was staked at every 100 feet, 
and levels were taken at each stake and intemicdiary points, wherever 
necessary. 

Careful lines of benches were run to check the traverse at intervals 
of about a mile wherever possible, or at points where roads cross the line 
of aqueduct, and all levels Avere tied with the bench levels of the New 
Croton Aqueduct and the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. All 
angular work in this traverse was carefully performed and connected by 
directly measured lines or triangulated connections with* the triangulation 
stations of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

By using these triangulation points as a base, the line has been adjusted 
and checked so that it has been possible to lay out the whole system 
by rectangidar co-ordinates and establish the geodetic position of every 
point. 

The measurement of the base line traverse was kept within a limit of 
accuracy of about i in 500, but by means of the frequent checks and ties 
that w-ere made with the geodetic triangulation points, the line has been so 
adjusted that the possible limit of actual error in its entire length will prob- 
ably fall within a maximum of i in 2,500. 

Using this measured and leveled traverse as a base, side topography 
was taken by means of hand levels, and contours were plotted. This 
topography was used only for a prelitninary study of the location, and 
for making such preliminary estimates of cost as were submitted from 
time to time during the year. 

Later in the season, as the general scheme of supply was developed 
from investigations and surveys made in other quarters, the advantage Oi' 
a gravity supply from the watersheds on the east and west sides of the 
Hudson River became apparent, and the necessity arose of modifying 
the original aqueduct design in accordance with the changed conditions, 
and laying out a line on the basis of final location. 

Final Deduction of Goz'cniuig EIn'ations and Gradients. 

The determination of the elevations of governing points and the 
gradients of aqueduct line were obtained by an exhaustive study of the 



ii6 

relative costs of the distributing reservoir at Hill View, the cost of aqueduct 
work at various gradients, the cost of the filter plant at Stormville, and the 
Stormville Reservoir, the Billings Reservoir and the Hibemia Reservoir, 
built at different elevations. 

All of the designs of these structures ^nter intimately into the gen- 
eral study of elevations and gradients, and are interdependent. A final 
determination was reached which placed the elevations as follows: 

Hill View Reservoir, ordinary high water line 295.0 

Stormville filters, maximum flow line below filters 33i-0 

Stormville filters, maximum flow line above filters 340.0 

The gradients of the aqueduct are as follows : 

For all cut and cover work and tunnels, a gradient of 0001 156 

For all steel pipe work, a gradient of 00046 



— with an additional .2 of a foot added at each siphon for loss of head 
at entry and exit. 

These elevations and gradients only refer to the aqueduct between 
Hill View Reservoir and Billings Reservoir. 

The gradients of the aqueduct between the Billings Reservoir and the 
Ashokan Reservoir have been taken as follows: 

For cut and cover aqueduct and tunnels 0002 

For steel pipe siphon 0015 



Final Location. 

These fundamental points being determined, the next step was care- 
fully to retrace in the field the entire line, and to take good, close topog- 
raphy over a strip of country of sufficient width to afford full oppor- 
tunity to make a close study of the nature of the location, to show all 
rocks, streams, swamps, buildings, roads and railroads within reason- 
able distance, and to tie all of this work to the base line already pre- 
viously located. 

Numerous alternate lines that showed possibilities of a better location 
were followed and carefully surveyed, and the entire work was plotted on 
a scale of 200 feet to the inch. This plotting has required five large rolled 
sheets, each 30 feet in length, or a total of 150 feet of mounted paper, and 
on these sheets the whole location has been carefully mapped and inked. 

With this plan completed it has been possible to lay out a final loca- 
tion, which is shown by a green line on the plans. This location is the 



117 

result of a careful study of the relative economy and advantages of the 
shortest possible route combined with the avoidance of natural obstacles 
difficult and expensive to surmount. 

A profile of the entire line was projected from the contour plan, and 
the estimate of quantities was worked from the profile. 

The work of estimating was done by the method of centre line cut 
and fills, corrections being applied to all side-hill work for the increase 
in quantities caused by the slopes. The quantity for every lOO feet of the 
line has been gone into in detail, giving the exact amount of masonry, 
earth and rock excavation, borrowed earth, overhaul, etc., and all culverts, 
bridges, steel pipes, blow-offs, siphon chambers, manholes, farm cross- 
ings, road and railroad crossings, and all special structures have been 
estimated. 

The methods used in this work are strictly comparable with those 
used in preliminary estimates for location of the Nashua and Weston 
aqueducts, and although the scope of the work on this aqueduct has been 
enormously greater than on both those aqueducts combined, and the time 
and means available have been much less, the results obtained are, for all 
practical purposes of preliminary lay-out, of equal value to 'the more costly 
work performed in the location of the other two aqueducts. 

The general location of this line is undoubtedly satisfactory, and the 
estimates of cost are close approximations to the truth. It is unneces- 
sary to state that all the problems of location are not finally settled by this 
survey; in many instances it was found as the work of location advanced 
that a great number of promising schemes developed which offered almost 
sure prospects of a better location ; but these places are in general mere local 
modifications of the line. Although it will be necessary to follow up 
these alternate routes before constniction is started, yet at this juncture 
it was found necessary to pass them by through lack of means and time 
to complete their study. 

Experience in previous work of this class shows that these minor modi- 
fications are generally best settled immediately before construction, when 
opportunity and means exist for a final threshing out of details. 

The estimate as it stands is on a definite line carefully examined 
for its entire length with liberal allowances made for unit prices of 
work. This aqueduct can undoubtedly be built for the sum estimated, and 
the inevitable tendency of all future modifications will be to shorten the 
length of the line by substituting certain tunnels for portions of the cut 
and cover aqueduct, and to reduce the cost. The final location of the 
aqueduct extends from Hill View Reservoir to Billings Reservoir, a 
total distance of 300,800 feet. 



Ii8 

North of Billings Reservoir the surveys were continued for a total 
length of 19,000 feet to a point near Rochdale Mills, about 2 miles south 
of Pleasant \'alley on the Wappinger Creek. This line is part of the loca- 
tion of the 400 million gallon aqueduct between Billings Reservoir and the 
Ashokan Reservoir on the Esopus. Xo final location has been worked out 
in detail north of the Billings Reservoir. 

The part of the line between Rochdale and the Ashokan Reservoir has 
been carefully examined on the ground and reconnoitered for its entire 
length, and the location laid on the Geological Survey maps. 

The length of this line has been carefully checked and corrected for 
the increase of cost due to curvature of line, and estimates of cost for 
the different classes of work have been reduced to a basis comparable with 
the finally located line south of l>illings. 

/ 'aluc of Estimate of Aqueduct North of Billings Reservoir. 

The value of a preliminary estimate prepared in this way is out of all 
proportion to the amount of work spent in its preparation, and there is no 
doubt as to a small percentage of error in the general results obtained. 

Value of Estimate North of Billings Reservoir, 

As an example of the accuracy of this class of estimate, that of the main 
aqueduct south of Billings Reservoir, submitted September i, which was com- 
piled in this way, was as follows : 

Aqueduct from Hill View Reservoir to Stormville Reservoir — 

Cut and Cover Aqueduct, 218,700 feet, at $53 $11,591,000 

Tunnel, 66,400 feet, at $77.75 5,162,600 

Steel pipe (3-10-foot pipe), 16,280 feet, at $120 i,953,6oo 

Real Estate V 401,700 

Aqueduct from Stormville Reservoir to Billings Reservoir— 

Cut and Cover Aqueduct, 28,000 feet, at $50.20 1,405,600 

Tunnel, 7,100 feet, at $74 525400 

Real Estate 48,000 

Total $21,087,900 



IIQ 

Final Estimate of Same Work. 

Aqueduct from Hill \'iew Reservoir to Billings Reservoir — 

Cut and Cover work, 187,100 feet, cost $9,215,760 

Average cost per foot, $49.26. 
Tunnel, 100,000 feet, cost 9,110,900 

Average cost per foot, $91.11. 
Steel pipe (i/io-foot pipe), 13,700 feet, cost 726,750 

Average cost per foot, $53.05. 
Real estate 492,130 

$I9'545'540 
To make a fair comparison with the preliminary esti- 
mate add : 

By-pass through filter, 6,000 feet 300,000 

2 lines of lo-foot steel pipe, 13,700 feet 1,370,000 

$21,215,540 



It will be seen that the difference in totals between these estimates is 
very little, although the details are quite dissimilar. 

The gradients and sizes of the final aqueduct design are different from 
those of the preliminary. 



Prkliminaky 
i estimatk. 

Cut and cover work — Gradient .000135 

Cut and cover work— -Average inside diameter 18.0 

Average cost per foot I $53 00 

Tunnel work - Gradient I . 00021 

Tunnel work — Average inside diameter 15.6 

Average cost per foot $77 75 

Steel pipe-work gradients I .0004 

Diameter | 10.0 

Average cost per . foot $40 00 



Final 
Estimate. 



.000115 

18.75 
$49 26 
.000115 

17.0 

$91 " 
.00046 
10. 

♦5305 



The Cut and Cover work was found to be actually less in cost than 
computed in the preliminary estimate, although the section was slightly 
increased. 

The tunnel work was found to be $13.36 more per foot on account of 
the increased size of section, and to provide for extra expensive work in the 
long tunnel north of Tompkins' Corners. 

The steel pipe work was found to be $13.05 per foot more, almost 
wholly on account of the costly steel pipe bridge crossing of the Croton 
River, which had not been provided for in the preliminary estimate. 



120 

Yet in spite of the final modifications of better location, shorter line, 
and substitution of tunnel work for cut and cover in many places, the 
estimates of the entire line agree within $127,640, or within a limit of ac- 
curacy of less than i per cent, of the entire cost. 

DizHsion of High Lct'cI Aqueduct. 

For general purposes of convenience, the aqueduct has been divided 
into four great divisions as follows : 

The First Division extends from Hill View Reservoir to the south 
side of the Croton River. 

The Second Division extends from the south side of Croton River to 
the north end of the long tunnel near Hortontown. 

The Third Division extends from the north end of the long tunnel to 
the east side of the Hudson River. 

The Fourth Division extends from the east side of the Hudson River 
to the western extremity of the line. 

Sections, 

The finally located line for ease in handling has been further sub-di- 
vided into sections of approximately a mile in length, so arranged that the 
different classes of work are segregated as much as possible. These sec- 
tions form convenient units for classification and pricing, and are also 
suitable sub-divisions for individual contracts whenever the work may be 
put under construction. 

Adjustment of Prices. 

The unit prices used in this estimate have been adjusted to suit the 
particular requirements of each section, dUe allowance being made for the 
nature of the material to be excavated, the difficulties of handling and the 
length of haul, and the accessibility of the work from the nearest highways 
or railroads. 

Right of Way. 

The standard minimum width of aqueduct right-of-way is 100 feet, 
with extra width in special cases as required for high embankments, deep 
cuts and special structures, and allowance for the small parcels of land 
which inevitably must be taken to secure amicable settlements with land- 
owners. It is estimated that the average width of the right-of-way will be 
140 fee. 

The value of the lands through which the aqueduct passes varies from 
a few cases of fair residential properties worth from 10 cents to 15 cents 
per square foot to rocky hillsides of a market value not exceeding $5 to $10 
per acre. The prices of real estate even in farming districts vary somewhat 



121 

in a ratio governed by the distance and accessibility to the city; much of the 
land in the vicinity of the city being held for future developments at a high 
price. 

The average cost of land in Westchester County is decidedly more 
than in any of the counties to the north. The following rates of value 
have been assigned to the aqueduct right-of-way for cut and cover work 
and steel pipe work : 

Cost of Aqueduct Right of Way. 



Station. 



lo - 150. . 

150—770. . 

770—1580. 
1580— End. 



Cost op Land Pbr Acrb. 



$930 00 
775 00 
620 00 
465 00 



Cost Per Linbar Foot of 
Aqueduct. 



$3 00 
2 50 
2 00 
1 50 



The cost of land for tunnels has been taken at one-half the price per 
linear foot of other work. 

Finally Located Line. 
(South of Billings Reservoir.) 

The various classes of work are as follows : 

Cut and Cover Masonry Aqueduct 187,100 feet 

Tunnel 100,000 " 

Steel pipe siphons 13,700 " 



Total length bet. Hill View Res. and Billings Res 300,800 " 

— (exclusive of by-pass through the filters at Storm ville.) 

Cut and Cover Portions South of Billings Reservoir. 

The general design of the sections is in accordance with the considera- 
tions and conclusions set forth in Appendix IIL, with the following dimen- 
sions : 

The maximum inside height 18.5 feet. 

The maximum inside width 19.0 " 

The depth of water at maximum flow line 17.6 " 

Wetted perimeter 53.1 " 

The maximum inside area 280.7 sq. feet. 

The area of waterway at maximum flow line 276.3 " 

Hydraulic mean radius 5.2 " 



122 



Capacity. 

The coefficient 



C used in computing capacity in the formula, 



Velocity = C \/ radius X slope, is for new clean aqueduct, 146, and for 
aqueduct foul and slime-coated under ordinary conditions of use, 128. 

The actual carrying capacity of the aqueduct is based on the latter 
conditions. 

The capacity of the aqueduct in gallons per 24 hours, and velocity of 
flow are as follows : 



Depth. 


Clean Aqubduct. 


Foul Aqlbulct. 


Velocity. 

3.68 
3.38. 


Discharge. 


Velocity. 
2.96 

3.H 

4.23 


Discharge. 


'8 s 

'7-6 

14-8 


614,000,000 
640,000,000 
586,000,000 


5^8,dcto,ooo 

561,000,000 
514,000,000 



Description of Section, 

The Cut and Cover portions are designed to be wholly of concrete 
masonry. 

It is proposed for purposes of estimate to introduce complete vertical 
joints through the entire structure at intervals of about 50 feet, to mini- 
mize any danger from temperature or shrinkage cracks, these joints being 
filled with metal water-stops to prevent leakage. 

ASSUMPTIONS AS BASIS OF ESTIMATES OF COST. 

The main bulk of the side walls and invert are of Portland cement 
concrete, mixed in proportion of i cement to 10 of other material. 

A side lining of 6 inches of Portland cement concrete in proportion of 
about I to 5 to be deposited at the same time as the side walls are 
built. 

An arch of Portland cement concrete in proportions of i cement to 7 
of other materials. 

A heavy surfacing of Portland cement mortar applied in two coats 
to the surface of the invert. 

The reasons given for the adoption of this section are as follows: 

(i) The entire Portland concrete type offers promise of greater per- 
manency and strength than the combination types of aqueduct that have 
been hitherto built. 

(2) This type is the most economical to construct. 



123 

(3) This type may be built almost wholly by common labor and henc? 
construction is least likely to be interrupted by strikes or labor troubles. 

Much work was done in investigating the adaptability of a concrete-steel 
aqueduct section, but not sufficient to reach final conclusions. This investiga- 
tion should be completed before actual construction is begun. ♦ 



Types of Masonry Scciions. 

The varying conditions of work encountered on the line have required 
the following specially designed types of masonry sections, each with its 
own special modifications to suit local peculiarities. 

The quantities of masonry for each of the types are as follows: 



Classes of Masonry. 



Type A 

(dry earth u 



Concrete i to lo. . , i 3.80 cu. yd. 

'* I " 7 ! 1.28 '* 

** I ** 5 1 0.36 " 

Gramolithic Surfacing I 240 sq. yd. 



TypcB 

(wet earth,. 



5.38 CU. yd. 
1.54 " 
0.36 ** 
2.40 sq. yd. 



TypeC 
(embankment). 



4.49 cu. yd. 
1.28 " 
0.36 " 
2.40 sq. yd. 



TypeD 
<rock). 



1.89 CU. yd. 

1.28 " 
0.36 " 

2.40 sq. yd. 



Grading. 

In the grading estimates it has been provided that all earth hauled to 
distances exceeding 1,500 feet shall.be classed as borrowed earth and paid 
for at an additional rate. 

An average of tw^o-thirds of the bulk of the masonry is estimated as 
obtained from material excavated in the trench. 

All embankments will be faced with a thickness of about i^ feet of 
loam, which will be obtained from the surface of the aqueduct excavation, 
placed in separate spoil banks, and rehandled. 

All embankments under masonry will be built in 3-inch layers, wetted 
and rolled with grooved rollers to a level of i foot above the invert, after- 
ward being re-excavated to the true grade line of the invert. 

All boulders exceeding J<^ cubic yard in volume will be paid for as 
rock excavation. 

In special cases where the aqueduct passes through valuable estates 
and residential property, the trenches will be entirely refilled to their 
original level and sodded. 

All roads -crossing the aqueduct W'ill be rebuilt or relocated, if neces- 
sary, at gradients not exceeding 4 in 100 wherever possible, nor exceeding 
the present gradients of the roads. 



124 

Earth excavation is estimated to a bottom width 2 feet greater than 
the masonry section and as if excavated with side slopes of i to i. 

Earth embankments will have a top width of 15 feet, with side slopes 
of 1^4 horizontal to i vertical. 

Culverts. ' 

The minimum size of culverts used is a 20-inch vitrified pipe. 

Culverts have been estimated for, wherever necessary, of the size 
required, and at maximum intervals of not more than about 2,000 feet. All 
sizes up to 30-inch diameter are vitrified pipe laid in Portland concrete. 

The sizes of the openings allowed for in the estimate have been liberal. 

Cut and Cover Portion North of Billings Dam. 
Description. 

This portion of the work has been laid out with gradient of i in 5,000, 
and has been estimated for 300 and 400 million gallons capacities per day. 

Dimcfisions, 

The dimensions and capacities of the structure are: 



For 3» Million 
Gallon Aqueduct. 



Maximum inside height | 13.42 feet 

•< ** width ' 14.00 '* 

Depth at maximum flow line 12.72 ** 

Total inside section area 147-5 square feet 

Inside section area below maximum flow line 145.0 " " 

Wetted perimeter " " " *' ■' 38.9 feet 

Hydraulic mean radius** *' *• ** ' 3.720 feet 

Maximum capacity in mil. gals, per day (foul aq.). 330 



For 400 Million 
Gallon Aqueduct. 



15.17 feet 
15.67 " 

14.37 " 
187.0 square feet 
183.8 •« •* 

43-7 feet 

4.206 feet 
441 



Quantities. 

The quantities in the dr\' earth type of each of these aqueducts are : 



For 300 Million 
Gallon Aqueduct. 



Earth excavation 10. 1 cubic yards 

" borrow 2.5 ** ** 

Concrete masonry i-io 2.31 ** *' 

1-7 0.84 ** •• 

*« *' 1-5 0.26 ** ** 

Granolithic 1.8 square yards 



For 400 Million 
Gallon Aqueduct. 



12.2 cubic yards 
2.7 *' " 
2.68 •« " 
0.99 " ** 
0.30 ** ** 
2.0 square yards 



125 



Cost, 



The cost of an ideal section of these aqueducts is $27.48 and $32.15 
per foot respectively. This cost has been increased 30 per cent, to bring 
it to the cost of completed work. This ratio has been well established 
by previous work of a similar character south of Billings Reservoir. 

Tunnels. 

The portions of th^ aqueduct south of Billings Reservoir that are 
in tunnel have a total length of 100,000 feet. 

Descriptiofi, 

The general design of the tunnel sections is shown in Appendix III. 
• • The general principle followed as far as possible in the design is that 
of a tunnel with concrete side lining and invert, but without an arch wher- 
ever the rock is of sufficient firmness and durability to stand without 
support. 

It was found to be cheaper to build a tunnel with concrete side 
lining even in firm rock than without, for hydraulic considerations alone. 

The design is such that an arch may be added subsequently, with- 
out any modification of the remainder of the section, if conditions should 
require one. 

The following four types of tunnel have been considered in the 
estimates : 



Class of Work. 



Tunnel excavation heading 

** ** bench 

Concrete i to 10 

" I to 7 



Type I. 

For Firm Rock 

(Side Walls 

and Invert 

Only). 



3.50 cu. yd. 

8.71 " 

2.14 ** 



Type a. 

For Doubtful 

Rock (Side Walls 

[nvert and 

Arch). 



^^.50 cu. yd. 
8.71 •* 
2.14 " 
0.82 ** 



Type 3. 
For Unsound 
Rock ^Side Walls 
and Invert with 
Heavy Tim- 
bered Arch). 



3.50 cu. yd. 
10.03 ** 
2.21 *' 
1.36 *» 



Type 4. 
For Earth (Horse- 
shoe Shape with 
Heavy Tim- 
bered Arch). 



(Quantities un- 
I certain. The 
cost of this 
type has been 
taken at 25^ 
more than 
Type 3. 



In estimating the cost of tunnels the following assumptions have been 
made of the lengths of the different classes of work that are likely to be 
encountered. 



126 

In the majority of cases surface indications were so clear thai the 
nature of the rock and earth was easily ascertained. 



Station. 


Nature of Rock. 

Mica-schist and earth 

Mica-schist and gneiss 

Mica-schist and earth 

Mica^schist 




Lengths in Feet. 






Type I. 

1,000 
2,000 

"Sto 
11,000 
28,550 

43,950 


Type 2. 


Types. 


Type 4. 


• 429 to 453 
982+50 to IC02 

1062 to 1142+50 

1 212 to 1230+50 
1336 to 1367+50 
1376 to 1388 
1391+50 to 1402+50 
1406+50 to 1446 
1462+50 to 1489 
1576 to 1766 
«95*+50to2409 
2844 to 2929 
2947 to 2951+50 


1,200 

950 

5,050 

1,400 

750 

850 

2,750 
1,400 
4,000 
11,500 
6,400 
300 

37,450 


600 

400 

1,000 

450 

400 

300 

250 

900 

450 

2,000 

5,700 

2,100 

150 

14,700 


600 
1,000 


Granite or gneiss , 




Mica-schist 




Mica-schist 

Mica-schist and earth 

Mica-schist or diorite 

Gneiss, earth and granite. . . . 
Gneiss 


300 
2,000 


Shale 


.... 


Shale 




Totals 






3.900 







The lined tunnel through rock will have the following dimensions: 

Maxinnim inside height 18.50 feet. 

Maximum inside width 16.50 " 

Area of maximum waterway 279.3 sq. feet. 

Area of waterway at depth of 17.6 273.5 * 

Wetted perimeter at depth of ^7.6 52.3 

Hydraulic mean radius at depth of 17.6 5.23 



Note. — 17.6 feet is the depth of the maximum flow of the cut and 
cover section. 



Capacity. 

The coefficient C used in computing the velocity with the above values 
of R. is 128 for foul aqueduct, the same as that used for cut and cover 
sections. 

The reasons for this selection may be summed up as follows : 

It is expected that this tunnel, when clean, will have a coefficient of 
flow of about 135, as compared with a coefficient of 146 for the clean cut 
and cover aqueduct. 

" The superior hydraulic qualities of the cut and cover work are due 
to the greater facilities for performing first-class masonry work in open 
trench in the light of day. 



127 

" It has been found that the impairment of flow is much greater in the 
smoothly surfaced cut and cover sections than in the rougher tunnel sec- 
tions, and the ultimate results of fouling will be that both sections will 
probably be reduced to the same conditions of efficiency. 

The capacity of the lined tunnel is as follows: 



When Flowing at Depth of 



Velocity 

(Feet per Second.] 



14.8 ft. (8/IO full depth) 

17.6 ** (Approx. max. capacity). 
i«.S " FuU 



3.22 
3.07 
2.92 



Discharge 
(Gals, per 94 Hours.) 



485,000,000 
543,000,000 
527,000,000 



TUNNEI^ NORTH OF BILLINGS RESERVOIR. 

Location and Description. 

The location, length and description of these tunnels are as follows : 



Station. 



Length. 



Description. 



3738 to 37804-30 
3909 to 3938 
4724 to 4901 



4,230 

2,900 

17,700 



Tunnel through mica-schist and shale. 
Tunnel through North River blue .stone. 



Dimensions and Capacity, 

The tunnels have been estimated for capacities of 300,000,000 and 400,- 
000,000 gallons per day ; the dimensions and capacities are as follows : 



Max. inside height 

** width 

Area of max. waterway , 

" waterway (maximum capacity) 

Wetted Perimeter " 

Hydraulic Mean Radius " . . . , 
Capacity in mil. gals, per day ** 

* At depth of 12.72 ft. (max. capacity). 



300 m. g. aq. 

13.42 feet. 

12.25 " 
150.4 so. feet. 
147.0 " * 

38.3 feet. * 

3.83 * 

338 * 



400 m.g. aq. 



15.17 feet. 

^3.17 " 

185.0 sq. feet. 

180.4 '• t 

42.2 feet. t 
4.275 t 



436 



f At depth of 14.37 ft. (max. capacity). 



128 

Quantities. 

The quantities in these tunnels per foot are : 





300 m. g. aq. 


400 m.g. aq. 


Tunnel excavation, Heading 


3.5 C.y. 

0.58 ** 


3.5 C.y. 
I 81 " 


Bench 


Concrete Lining, invert and side walls 


Arch 


0.58 " 




Steel Pipes. " 

AQUEDUCT SOUTH OF BILLINGS RESERVOIR. 



The steel pipe work required for inverted siphons between Hill View 
Reservoir and Billings Reserv'oir is as follows: 



Station. 



76 to 151-1-50 

251 to 259-f50 

521 to 5234-50 

769+5010 789 
1292 to 1313 



Location. 



Bryn Mawr 

Near Scarsdale... 

" Elmsford . . 

• " Neperan . . . 

At Croton Lake . . 

Total 



Length. 



7,550 feet. 

850 " 
1,250 *• 

i»9So ** 
2,100 ** 

13,700 feet. 



Manufacture. 

The methods of building the large diameter pipe that will be re- 
quired may be divided into two classes : 

(i) Shop construction, including all work of cutting, punching, rivet- 
ing, coating and testing, the completed pipe to be shipped to the field in 
convenient lengths of about 30 feet, and there laid in place and riveted 
together. 

In this class of work the limiting size of pipe will necessarily be the 
largest that can be shipped by rail. This size has been found to be 10 feet 
in diameter, in lengths of about 30 feet. 

(2) Field construction, in which the* whole or a very large part of the 
work of building the pipe is performed in the field, the parts being as- 
sembled and riveted in the trench. 

. In this case it is possible to perform a large portion of the work 
at the shops ; such as cutting painting and punching the plates, and also 
perhaps a considerable part of the riveting. The coating in this case 
must be performed in the trench and applied as a paint to the cold steel. 



129 



With this method of construction the pipe may be built with much 
larger diameters than in the first case, and the cost of freight will be ma- 
terially reduced. 

Comparison of the Tzvo Methods. 

The economy of the field-built pipe is apparently high. Two lines of 
11.7-foot diameter pipe would be sufficient to carry the same quantity as 
three lines of lo-foot diameter pipe, both with the adopted gradient of 
.00046. 

The saving in the cost of metal, manufacture and grading is markedly 
in favor of the two large pipes over the three smaller pipes, but in spite 
of the apparent economy it has been considered expedient to give the 
preference to the shop-built pipe for the following reason: 

The advantage of dipping the pipe vertically when free from rust and 
scale into a hot bath of asphalt coating is so great a factor in increasing the 
life of the pipe that it has been considered sufficient to outweigh the particu- 
lar economic advantages of the pipe built in the field. 

Cost of Shop-built Pipes. 

With the choice then restricted to the different sizes of shop-built 
pipes, the most economic arrangement and size of this class of pipe is 
shown in the following tabulation: 

Tabu/aiion of Costs and Loss of Head for 500 Million Gallon Aqueducts. 



No. of Lines of Pipe. 


Diameter in Feet. 


Cost per Foot, 


Friction Head in 10,000 ft. 


3 


8 


»87 


13 


3 


9 


106 


7 


3 


9>^ 


116 


5K 


3 


10 


127 


4 


4 


8 


114 


1% 


4 


9 


139 


4 


4 


9>4 


152 


3 


4 


10 


165 


^% 


5 


7 


124 


9H 


5 


8 


f42 


5 


5 


9 


173 


^% 


5 


9.5 


192 


2 


5 


10 


206 


^% 



In preparing the above tabulation of costs, the pipes are estimated 
to be of sufficient thickness for heads up to 150 feet. The ultimate tensile 
strength of steel has been taken at 60,000 pounds per square inch, with a 
factor of safety of 5. 

An extra allowance of J^ of an inch thickness has been allowed to 
provide for the future possible corrosion. 



130 



Thickness and Weight. 

The thickness of plate for lo-foot diameter pipe under different heads, 
and the corresponding weights per foot of finished pipe are as follows : 

Pipe built in alternate large and small courses with lap-joints for thicknesses less than J^-inch, 

and with projecting rivet-heads. 



Thicknesi. 


For use under Heads up to 


Finished Weight per Foot. 


y^ inch 


191 " 
217 *' 
240 ** 


712 pounds 


^, inch 


>tinch 

\\ inch 


890 - 

979 " 
1 120 ** 


yinch.. .:.;... . 







Cost of Steel. 

The cost of steel plate suitable for these pipes has during the past 
eleven years varied between 1.08 cents per pound and 3 cents per pound, 
for plates delivered at the water front in New York or Philadelphia. 

The actual fluctuations during the past eleven years are as follows : 

Cost of Steel Plates at Tide Water, Philadelphia and New York, in cents per lb. 



Year. 



1893 

1894 

:IU:;;::::::::::::;:;:, 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 



Average for 1 1 years 



Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Average. 


1.85 


1-45 


1.70 




1.42 


1.20 


1*29 




1.95 


1.20 


1.49 




1.45 


;:S 


1.36 




1.20 


1. 15 




1.27 


1.08 


1. 19 




3.00 


1.35 


2.35 




2.38 


1.21 


1.69 




1.78 


511 


1. 71 




2.10 


\M 




2.10 


..78 






1. 61 











The present price of steel plate is about 1.08 cents. In view of the 
fact that lower prices are likely to prevail in the immediate future and 
that the average during the past eleven years has been only 1.61 cents, and 
that during that period it rose but once above 2 cents for a longer period 
than twelve months, it appears safe and reasonable to allow a price of 2 
cents per pound for plates at New York or Philadelphia. This price 
has been used in the estimates. 



131 

In the foregoing estimate of costs of finished pipe the cost of grad- 
ing has been included, and the entire cost of a completed pipe lias been 
compounded and reduced to a present value on the basis of 3 per cent, com- 
pound interest, assuming that each separate pipe would only be built when 
the future increase of consumption called for its construction. 

In this matter of compounding and reducing to a present value, the ad- 
vantage will lie with the ^ mailer diameter pipes of which so large a pro- 
portion of cost may be deferred. 

It will be seen that, in spite of this fact, the advantage in economy 
lies distinctly with the larger diameters. 

Feasibility of Building lo-Foot Pipes. - . , ^ 

With reference to the feasibility of building a pipe of this diameter, 
it may be noted that large quantities of i8-foot diameter pipe ^ inch 
thick were recently laid at Niagara Falls for penstocks, and that no 
trouble has been found through distortion of this pipe. The crown of 
the pipe was observed to settle less than i inch after a filling of 4 feet of 
earth was completed over the top of the pipe. 

In the case of this 18- foot pipe there were four longitudinal seams, 
and the pipe was painted with carbonizing coating in the trench. 

The chief difficulty to be met with in the case of the proposed lo-foot 
shop-built pipe is the danger of injury to the coating in handling the pipe 
in the trench. 

It has been found to be quite feasible to handle pipe of yyi feet 
diameter in lengths of 30 feet and weighing 8 tons per length without 
injury to the coating, and from the experience gained in this matter 
it has been judged to be easily within the limits of reason to reckon upon 
being able to handle this pipe in lengths of 30 feet, w^eighing loV^ tons, 
and place it in the trench without material injury. 

It is obvious that the process of hauling and skidding must be per- 
formed with especially designed apparatus, and the refilling must be done 
with care, and all large stones kept from contact with the pipes. 

This pipe has been estimated to be built up of alternate large and small 
courses, with two longitudinal double riveted seams. 

The coefficient of flow for this style of pipe with projecting rivet 
heads has been taken as 105. 

It is probable that in the spring of 1904 extremely valuable data will 
be available for more complete study of the flow of water through these 
pipes, from the gaugings that will be taken of the flow through the new 
90-inch pipe of the Weston Aqueduct. 



132 

Countersunk Rivets. 

There is no doubt that a pipe could be built with circular butt joints 
and with countersunk rivet heads on the inside that would have a much 
superior hydraulic surface to the one estimated on. 

By using this method of construction, the coefficient of flow will no 
doubt be much increased, in which case the inside diameter may be reduced 
materially for the same deHvery and at the same gradient. 

It has been alleged by a prominent firm of pipe builders that counter- 
sinking the rivets would add nearly 50 per cent, to the cost of riveting, and 
that it would be much more difficult to make tight work. 

The question of a choice between these two methods of pipe build- 
ing is worthy of a careful study, and the solution may be that in any 
future contracts for pipes of this class, both styles of pipe will be specified 
and alternative tenders received from contractors. 

Cost of Pipe, 

The cost of building these pipes at the shops in lengths of about 30 
feet, dipping each length vertically into an asphalt coating, inspecting, 
testing, transporting and setting in place in the trench, have been estimated 
at an average of 3 cents per pound ; adding the cost of the plates at 2 
cents per pound will give a total of 5 cents per pound for the finished 
pipe in place. « 

This price has been carefully checked by a comparison with the cost 
of this class of work on a 7^-foot pipe for Weston Aqudeuct. 

The contract price of that pipe per pound and the current price of 
steel plate at the time that contract was awarded are as follows : 

WESTON AQUEDUCT 73<2-FOOT STEEL PIPE. 

Weight of finished pipe, per foot 500 pounds. 

Cost of steel plate, per pound 1.8 cents. 

Cost of manufacturing, transporting, testing and setting in 

place 2.2 " 

Total cost per pound of finished pipe 4.0 cents. 



The location of all the proposed steel pipes is within short hauling 
distance of railroads, and the roads are in a fairly satisfactory condition, 
so that the cost of hauling will be a small proportion of the entire cost, 



133 

hence there is every reason to suppose that the cost of this work will 
fall well within the limits of the estimate. 



CAST-IRON PIPE SIPHONS. 

The crossings of the Hudson River, the Esopus and Rondout creeks 
have been estimated as being made by means of 6o-inch cast-iron pipe, each 
one having a capacity of about loo million gallons per day, with a hydraulic 
gradient of al)out 5 in 1.000. 

This pipe will be laid either in tunnel under the river or in a trencli 
dredged out of the river bed. 

Perhaps it should be stated that the fact that this class of pipe has been 
successfully laid in other places under similar conditions was an important 
factor in determining the selection of cast-iron pipe for this estimate. The 
cost of this work was taken well on the safe side, viz., $50 per foot for each 
pipe laid. 

It is probable that a more exhaustive study of the problem of these 
crossings will establish the fact that a steel pipe of large diameter and with 
a concrete jacket may be used to better advantage and at less cost than the 
cast-iron pipe. 

Cast-iron pipe has also been estimated as being used in crossing the 
flood plains of the Rondout and Esopus creeks. The reasons are that it 
will probably be found advantageous to lay the pipes here below the surface 
of the ground and with a concrete jacket to avoid any possible danger of 
flotation of the pipe when empty. 

TWIN AOUEDUCT BETWEEN STORM VILLE FILTERS AND BILLINGS RESERVOIR. 

In order to keep the waters from the western sources separate from 
those of the eastern sources until they have passed through the filters at 
Stormville, it may be necessary to build an aqueduct with two separate con- 
duits here. 

The design adopted is for a conduit of 400 million gallons capacity to 
carry the western waters, and one of 250 million gallons for the eastern 
supply. 

Although it may be found possible to defer the building of the second 
conduit and thus obtain the advantages accruing from deferred payments, 
yet for structural reasons it is desirable to build both aqueducts as one 
structure, and it is also more economical to do so by obtaining the full 
advantage of cheapest design of masonry and a minimum of grading 
work. 



134 

The cost of building these conduits at the same time, or at an interval 

of several years, is as follows: 

Cost of 400 million gallon aqueduct, including such portions of 
the 250 million gallon aqueduct as are on embankments, 
and all of the same that are in tunnel, and real estate. . . $2,893,374 

Subsequent cost of building remaining portions of the 250 mil- 
lion gallon aqueduct 



899,292 



The cost of building the 400 million gallon conduit and 250 
million gallon conduit as one structure and at the same 
time (including real estate) 



$3,792,666 



3.584,171 



Economy of latter over former design. 



$208,495 



Another especial advantage that the latter design presents is that the 
Billings Reservoir may be constructed at an early date, and its waters 
brought down to the Stormville Filters separately. In view of the fact 
that damages for water diversion of the Fishkill Creek must be paid in full 
at the time the Stormville Dam is built, this is a matter worthy of recogni- 
tion. 



Dimmsions and Capacity, 

The dimensions and capacity of the proposed aqueduct are as follows: 

Cut and Cover Portions, 



Maximum inside hei^fht 

Maximum inside width 

Maximum inside area 

Inside area below maximum flow line 

Wetted perimeter below maximum flow line 

Hydraulic mean radius below maximum flow line. . 

Maximum capacity in gallons per day 

Capacity at \ full depth per day 



400 Mil. Gal. Conduit. 



16.75 ^CC^- 
17.17 feet. 

227. 5 sq. feet. 

224.9 sq- feet. 
48.0 feet. 
4.68 feet. 

433»ooo,cxx) 

398,ocx>,ooo 



750 Mil. Gal. Conduit. 

14.0 feet. 

14.33 *eet. 
159.5 sq. feet. 
156. 1 sq. feet. 

40.3 feet. 

3.87 feet. 

273,000,000 

252,000,000 



Tunnel Portions. 



Maximum inside height 

Maximum inside width 

Maximum inside area 

Inside area below maximum flow line 

Wetted perimeter below maximum flow line 

Hydraulic mean radius below maximum flow line. 
Maximum capacity in gallons per day 



400 Mil. Gal. Conduit. 


250 Mil. GaL Conduit. 


17.0 feet. 


15.1 feet. 


16.0 feet. 


12.2 feet. 


247.3 sq. feet. 


167.6 sq. feet. 


239.4 sq. feet. 


164. 5 sq. feet. 


57.8 feet. 


48.3 feet. 


4.14 feet. 


3.41 feet. 


433,ooo,coo 


270,000,000 



135 

Quantities. 

The quantities in the ideal sections are: 

Cut and Cover Portion^ Twin Aqueduct, 

Eanh Excavation 19.6 cubic yards per linear foot. 

Earth Borrow 4.2 

Portland Cement Concrete, i to 10 4.49 *' ** 

Portland Cement Concrete, i to 7 1.84 " " 

Portland Cement Concrete, i to 5 65 " " 

Granolithic Surfacing 3.94 sq. yards per linear foot. 

Twin Tunnel (^Arched Lined). 

Tunnel Excavation — Heading 3.5 cubic yards per linear foot. 

Tunnel Excavation — Bench 13.6 *' " 

Portland Concrete, Lining i to 10 3.63 " " 

Portland Concrete, Lining i to 7 1.43 *' ** 

The cost of the ideal section of Cut and Cover work for the twin aque- 
duct is $55.04 per foot. 

The cost of the ideal section of Cut and Cover work for the single con- 
duit of 500 million gallons capacity is $41.85 per foot. 

The actual cost of the latter for this portion of the line was found to 
be 117 per cent, of the ideal cost, or $48.94 per foot. 

Using the same rate of increase, the actual cost of completed work on 
the twin aqueduct will be $64.40 per foot. 

The actual cost of the twin tunnel is $1 18.45 P^^ ^^^^ which has been 
increased to $122 per foot, to allow for the cost of shafts. 

Aqueduct Between Billings Reservoir and Hibernia Reservoir. 

project no. i. 

L'nder Project No. I this aqueduct would require a capacity of 500 mil- 
lion gallons per day, less the supply from the Stormville Reservoir and the 
Billings Reservoir. 

The main aqueduct between Billings Reservoir and Stormville Reser- 
voir has been designed to be of the full size, in order that it may be possible 
to shut off the Stormville supply at any time if required, in which case it will 
not be reasonable to consider any reduction in the size of the Billings- 
Hibernia Aqueduct on account of the Stormville supply. 

The reduction on account of the Billings Reservoir will be 24 million 
gallons per day, so that the net capacity of the Hibernia-Billings Aqueduct 
should be 500,000,000 — 24,000,000, or 476,000,000 gallons per day. 



136 

TunncL 

i8,4CXD feet of this aqueduct will consist of a tunnel, which will be 
wholly through shale rock and will operate under a pressure of about 30 feet 
head, when the two reservoirs are at High Water Line. 

This tunnel has been estimated to be of the same gradient and dimen- 
sions as the tunnels on the main line of the aqueduct, although it may 
subsequently be found preferable to make the tunnel section of the horse- 
shoe type, and of a somewhat smaller diameter. The reduction in cost 
on account of these modifications, however, will not be material. 

A gate chamber will be required at each end of this tunnel to control 
the flow in cases of emergency, or for repairs, but under ordinary w^orking 
conditions the flow through this tunnel will be entirely self regulated. 

Open Cut. 

The open cut is estimated to be excavated with side slopes of 3 horizon- 
tal to I vertical, except the lower 12 feet, which will have paved slopes 
of i^ horizontal to i vertical. 

There is no doubt that a large part of this open cut work will be through 
rock. The estimate, however, has been based on a cut in earth, which is as 
costly as if the excavation were fully in rock on account of the larger 
quantities of excavation and the extra paving required for earth work. 

Other Possibilities, 

There is a possibility that the open cut may be extended for the en- 
tire distance between these two reservoirs, by deepening a narrow gorge 
through which the drainage from Tyrrell Lake flows, and thus substitut- 
ing open cut work for tunnel work. 

This gorge has been surveyed and found to be of an average width of 
about 200 feet at the bottom, with steep rocky sides and a deep swampy 
bottom. The maximum cut that would be required is about 70 feet. 

While the project of an open cut through this gorge does not at first 
glance appear as tempting as a tunnel proposition, yet there are strong rea- 
sons why it would be more advantageous than the latter. 

With an open canal, the need for an overflow and wasteway at the Bill- 
ings Reservoir might be entirely avoided, the surplus from that drainage area 
backing up through this canal into the Hibernia Reservoir and wasting at 
Hibernia Dam. 

This would be especially advantageous, as the Billings Dam site does 
not afford a particularly favorable site for a good wasteway. 



137 

. This open cut proposition should be^thoroughly investigated before 
a tunnel is built at this point, and careful soundings of the depth of the 
much and the surface of the bed rock in the gorge should be taken; but 
in the absence of more definite knowledge, it has been assumed that the 
tunnel proposition is the better of the two schemes. 

UNDER PROJECT NO. 2. 

Under Project No. 2, this aqueduct would require a capacity equal to 
tlie supplies from the Wappinger and Jansen Kill areas. These supplies are 
from 200 million gallons to 220 million gallons for a yearly average, but it 
will be necessary to provide for extra heavy drafts during periods when 
other supplies are shut off; for this purpose the capacity has been taken at 
about 300 million gallons per day. 

This tunnel will have a gradient of i in 5,000, and its dimensions are as 
follows : 

Maximum height, 12 feet 2 inches; maximum width, 13 feet 2 inches; 
area of inside section, 134.31 square feet; wetted perimeter, 42.03; hydraulic 
mean radius, 3.20. 

If at any time it should be found necessary to obtain the entire supply 
of 500 million gallons from the Billings Reservoir this tunnel will, at a 
hydraulic gradient of .0006, be able to pass that quantity through; or, in 
other words, 500 million gallons per day will flow through this tunnel 
when the level of the Hibernia Reservoir stands 11 feet higher than the 
level of the Billings Reservoir, with an average velocity of 5.76 feet per 
second. 

The length of open cut and tunnel are the same under both projects. 
The reasons for or against an open cut as a substitute for the tunnel apply 
equally under Project No. 2 as* in the case of Project Xo. i. 

AQUEDUCT FROM SILVERNAILS RESERVOIR TO HIBERNIA RESERVOIR. 

General. 

As previously described under the heading ** Silvernails Reservoir," 
this design for an outlet from Silvernails Reservoir may be ultimately aban- 
doned in favor of one leading into the Clinton Hollow Reservoir, but under 
present limitations it was necessary to lay out this line definitely and 
make an accurate estimate of the most reasonable location. Several al- 
ternative routes were projected on the large scale plan of the plain south 
of Pine Plains, and this route was selected as having more promise of 
economy than the others. 



138 

To locate this route finally^ it will be necessary to enlarge upon the 
present surveys considerably, and to take borings and test pits at certain im- 
portant points; however, it is highly probable that the chosen route which 
lies through Mud Pond and Stissing Pond, will be found to be the best line 
for an outlet through this plain, and any further knowledge will tend to show 
that the aqueduct may be built for lower costs than estimated. 

Hydraulic Properties, 

The aqueduct is mostly an open canal, with a bottom width of lo feet 
and paved side slopes oi VA horizontal to i vertical, to a total height of lo feet 
above the bottom. The ordinary depth of water will be 7 feet, and the 
gradients are such that with this depth the capacity will be 220 million 
gallons per day, with a velocity of 2.5 feet per second. 

With the water flowing at the level of the top of the paving, the capacity 
will be 330 million gallons per day, and under these conditions the tunnel 
would have to be run under a slight head. This, however, would only occur 
during emergency drafts from the Silvernails Reservoir. 

Above the level of the top of the paving there is a berme of 4 feet on 
each side, and the slopes above are 2 horizontal to i vertical, and are 
faced with i foot depth of loam and sodded. 

The tunnel is 3,050 feet in length, mostly through limestone rock. The 
dimensions are: 

The maximum inside height 10 feet. 

The maximum width 12 " 



It is expected that this tunnel will require arching for its entire length. 

There are two regulating dams on the line of this aqueduct to hold up 
the Avater and retard velocity. 

Right-of-way has been allowed for on a liberal basis, as has also all 
special structures such as gates and gatehouses, highway and railroad cross- 
ings, etc. 

The estimate of cost for the canal has been based on excavation wholly 
in earth. Xo doubt these conditions will be encountered for the greater 
part of the length, but a rock section has been designed of the same capacity 
and slope as the earth section. The width of the channel in rock excavation 
will be about 20 feet at the bottom. The cost of the channel in rock is not 
appreciably greater than in earth on account of the large saving in grading 
and paving quantities in the former over the latter section. 



139 

AQUEDUCT FROM HIBERNIA RESERVOIR TO CLINTON HOLLOW RESERVOIR. 

This aqueduct is only considered in connection with the development 
of Project No. i, and has been estimated as being of the full size of 500 
million gallons capacity to enable a full draft to be made temporarily 
from this source if it should be found necessary to shut off the other sup- 
plies. The dimension and slope of the aqueduct may be considered as 
being about the same as that of the main high level line, for the purpose 
of this estimate. 

The tunnel is wholly through firm and solid shale rock which will 
undoubtedly require a light arch for its entire length. It is probable that 
little timber support, if any, will be required here. The average cost of 
this tunnel has been taken the same as that of the main line in corresponding 
work. 



AgUEDUCT FROM CLINTON HOLLOW RESERVOIR TO ASHOKAN RESERVOIR. 

This aqueduct is a possibility under Project No. i, and offers advan- 
tages over any other line of aqueduct to the Ashokan Reservoir from the 
point of view of economy, as it is the shortest possible route between the 
eastern and western supplies. The following estimates are made on the 
basis of an aqueduct of 300 and 400 million gallons per Jay capacity. 
The dimensions of the structure are as follows : 



Cut and Cover Aqueduct — 

Inside height 

Inside width 

Tunnels — 

Inside height 

Inside widih 

Steel Pipe Siphons— 

Diameter of double h'ne of pipe. 
Cast-iron Pipe — 

Number of lines of 60-inch pipe 



300 Mil. Gal. 

Aqueduct. 



13.5 feet. 

14.0 *' 

13. 5 " 

12.3 " 

7.25 " 



400 Mil. Gal. 
Aqueduct. 



15.1 feet. 

15.6 ** 

15. 1 " 

13.2 *• 

8.2 *• 
4 



Gradients. 



.0002 
.0002 

.0002 
.0002 

.0015 

.005 



Hudson River Crossing, 

The crossing of the Hudson River is at a point near East Kingston. 
The method of crossing proposed is by lines of 60-inch cast-iron pipe, laid 
in lengths of 48 and 60 feet at a time, by means of divers in a dredged 
trench in the river bed, or by tunnel under the river. The depth of the 
river is here about 35 feet. 



140 

Esopus Creek, 

It is proposed to use cast-iron pipes for the portion of the aqueduct 
that passes through the flood plain of the Esopus Creek for a distance 
of 4,500 feet. 

This aqueduct line has been carefully examined for its entire length 
and the nature of the ground noted. The country is favorable for the 
construction proposed, and it is safe to say that a detailed estimate would 
show totals of cost lower than those submitted. 



Station, 



t>- 95 

95-137 

137-409 

409-451 

451-565 

565-610 

610-655 

655-787 

7«7-«29 

839-866 

Total 





( 


Cut and 
Cover, Feet. 


Tunnel, 
Feet. 


4,200 


9,500 




13,200 





3»700 


4,200 


26,400 



Classification of Work. 



Steel Pipe, 
Feet. 



27,200 

11,400 

4,500 

4,200 



47.300 



Cast-iron 
Pipe. Feet. 



4,200 
4.500 



8,700 



Clinton Hollow. 

Hudson River. 
Esopus Cretk 

Ashokan Reservoir. 



Aqueduct Sections. 

The designs of the aqueduct sections for cut and cover and tunnel 
work are the same as those for the aqueduct from Billings Reservoir to 
the Ashokan Reservoir. 



141 

Reservoirs. 

stormville reservoir estimate of cost. 

Main Dam and Two Small Dikes. 

Earth Excavation — 

Stripping dam base, 31,700 cubic yards, at 

25 cents $7^925 

Trench for core wall, 30,830 cubic yards, at $1 30,830 

Wing wall, waste weir, gatehouse, channel, 
' etc., 29,070 cubic yards, at 35 cents io»i75 

Rock Excavation — 

Core wall trench, 8,830 cubic yards, at $2.50. . 22,075 
Wing walls, waste weir, etc., 54,530 cubic 

yards, at $1.50 81,795 

Embankment, 686,750 cubic yards, at 40 cents 274,700 

Soil dressing, 25,296 cubic yards, at 50 cents. 12,648 

Gravel facing, 64,620 cubic yards, at 50 cents. 32,310 

Paving on slopes, 26,200 cubic yards, at $2.25 58,950 

Sodding, 9,760 square yards, at 30 cents 2,928 

Walk, 3,100 lineal feet, at $1 3,100 

Mason r\' — 

Concrete, 41,180 cubic yards, at $6.70 275,906 

Rubble, 20,640 cubic yards, at $5 103,200 

Ashlar, 1,770 cubic yards, at $10 17,700 

Dimension stone, 686 cubic yards, at $40. . . . 27,440 

Brick, 373 cubic yards, at $15 5,595 

Face work of rubble, 1,030 square yards, at 

$1.50 1,545 

Coping, 627 feet, at $3 1,881 



Gate House 



Superstructure, 20,000 

Gates and hoists, nine, 33^ by 5 feet, at $1,500 13,500 

Stop-plank grooves, 572 feet, at $3.50 2,002 

Stop-planks, 260 feet, at $3 780 

Stop-plank lifter, i ,000 

Floor plates, 620 square feet, at $1.35 837 

Ladder, 433 feet, at $2 866 



142 

Pipes — 

48-inch B, 560 feet, at $10 $5,6oo 

loinch gauge, 76 feet, at $1.50 1 14 

Specials, 7 tons, at $60 420 

Connection chamber 6,500 

Landscape work, including keeper's house, stables, 

shops, etc 20,000 

$1,042,322 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies,. . 104,232 

$1,146,554 

Relocation of Highways. 
New Roads — 

10,200 feet, Qass C, at $5.50 $56,100 

15,500 feet. Class D, at $4.50 69,750 

4.700 feet, Qass E, at $4 18,800 

16,400 feet. Class F, at $3.50 57,400 

750 feet, embankment type, at $15 i'i,25o 

2 arch culverts 20,000 

$233*300 
10 per cent for engineering and contingencies. . . . 23,300 

256,630 

Relocation of Railroads. 
Raising level of N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R.— 

1,500 feet of embankment, at $15 $22,500 

3,400 feet of embankment, at $23 78,200 

2,200 feet of embankment, at $11 24,200 

1,800 feet of rip-rap, at $10 18,000 

2,000 feet sidings, at $3 6,000 

I highway crossing 5,ooo 

New passenger station at Stormville 5,000 

New freight station at Stormville, 2,000 

$160,900 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies. . . . 16,090 

Interference with traffic, etc 30,000 

206,990 



143 

Removal of Soil. 

Excavating 645,cxx) cubic yards of soil, and de- 
positing it in embankments (average haul, 
1,200 feet), at 25 cents $161,250 

Excavating 50,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel 

for beaches, at 30 cents iSiOOO 

Removing bodies from two small cemeteries to new 

site, including cost of new site 20,000 



$196,250 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies. . . 19*625 

Real Estate. 



$215,875 



Total area inside taking line, 2,985 acres, at $200 (including 

all buildings, etc.) 597,ooo 

Reimbursement to towns of Beekman and East Fishkill for 

taxable property taken 60,000 

Sanitary protection of watershed 20,000 

Grand total $2,503,049 



BILLINGS RESERVOIR — ESTIMATE OF COST. 

Dam. 
Earth Excavation — 

Stripping dam base, 13,045 cubic yards, at 

25 cents $3,261 

Trench for core wall, 21,605 cubic yards, at $i 21,605 
Wing walls, waste weir, gatehouse, channels, 

etc., 74,540 cubic yards, at 35 cents 26,089 

Rock Excavation — 

Core wall trench, 2,657 cubic yards, at $2.50. . 6,643 
Wing walls, waste weir, etc., 29,170 cubic 

yards, at $1.50. 43755 

Embankment, 244,950 cubic yards, at 40 cents 97,980 

Soil dressing, 10,320 cubic yards, at 50 cents. 5, 160 

Gravel facing, 26,900 cubic yards, at 50 cents. i3»45o 

Slope paving, 12,490 cubic yards, at $2.25 28,103 

Sodding, 3,360 square yards, at 30 cents 1,098 

Walk, 2,525 feet, at $1 2,525 



144 

Masonry — 

Concrete, 20,870 cubic yards, at $7 $146,090 

Rubble, 23,520 cubic yards, at $5.50 129,360 

Ashlar, 1,408 cubic yards, at $10 14,080 

Dimension stone, 613 cubic yards, at $40. . . . 24,520 

Brick, 450 cubic yards, at $15 6,750 

Face work of rubble, 1,105 square yards, at 

$1.50 1,658 

Coping, 515 feet, at $3 1,545 

Gate House — 

Superstructure 25,000 

Gates and hoists, nine, at $1,500 13,500 

Stop-plank grooves, 602 feet, at $3.50 2,107 

Stop-planks, 420 feet, at $3 1,260 

Stop-plank lifter 1,000 

Floor plates, 690 square feet, at $1.35 932 

Ladder, 480 feet, at $2 960 

Pipes — 

60-inch B, 489 feet, at $15 7,335 

48-inch B, 16 feet, at $10 160 

lo-inch gauge, 71 feet, at $1.50 107 

Specials, 26 tons, at $60 1,560 

Connection chamber 22,000 

Landscape work, including keeper's house, 

stables, shops, etc 20,000 

$669,593 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 66,959 

Relocation of Highways. 
New Roads — 

3,800 feet, Class C, at $5.50 $20,900 

32,400 feet, Class D, at $4.50 145,800 

17,600 feet, Class F, at $3.50 61,600 

1,000 feet, embankment type, at $7 7,000 

I arch culvert 20,000 

$255^300 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 25,530 



$736,552 



280,830 



145 

Railroad Alteration. 

I arch culvert under N. D. and C. R. R $15,000 

Removal of Soil. 
Excavating 466,000 cubic yards of soil and hauling 
same 7,000 feet to shallow flowage bank, at 

35 cents 163,100 

Excavating 23,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel 

for beaches, at 30 cents 6,900 

$170,000 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies. 17,000 

$187,000 

Real Estate. 

Total area inside taking line, 2,415 acres, at $1.50 (including 

all buildings, etc.) 362,250 

Reimbursement to town of Lagrange for taxable property 

taken 30,000 

Sanitary protection of watershed : . . . 20,000 

Diversion of Jackson Creek. 
Entire cost of small dam and reservoir on Jackson 

Creek $60,000 

Channel — 

Earth excavation, 77,240 cubic yards, at 30 

cents 23,172 

Loaming slopes, 1,470 cubic ys^rds, at 40 cents 688 

Rip-rapping slopes, 4,590 cubic yards, at $2. . 9,180 

I highway bridge and approaches 10,000 

I highway bridge and approaches 7,000 

I highway bridge and approaches 3,000 

Regelating dam 20,000 

$133,040 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 13,304 

146,344 

Real Estate — ^Jackson Creek. 

Total area inside the taking line, 84 acres, at $150 12,600 

Reimbursement to town of Lagrange 10,000 

Sanitary protection of watershed 5,ooo 

Grand total $1,805,576 



146 

HIBERNIA RESERVOIR — ESTIMATE OF COST. 

Dam. 
Earth Excavation — 

Stripping dam base, 49,197 cubic yards, at 25 

cents $12,299 

Trench for core wall, 3,670 cubic yards, at $1 . 3,670 
Wing walls, waste weir, gatehouse, channels, 

etc., 50,531 cubic yards, at 35 cents 17,686 

Rock Excavation — 

Trench for core wall, 6,285 cubic yards, at 

$2.50 15,713 

Wing walls, waste weir, gatehouse, etc., 

155,679 cubic yards, at $1.50 233,519 

Embankment, 1,127,664 cubic yards, at 40 

cents 451,066 

Soil dressing, 28,315 cubic yards, at 50 cents. . 14, 157 

Gravel facing, 75,200 cubic yards, at 50 cents. 37,600 

Paving on slopes, 25,278 cubic yards, at $2.25 56,876 

Sodding, 7,800 square yards, at 30 cents 2,340 

Walk, 3,485 feet, at $1 3,485 

Masonry — 

Concrete, 35,454 cubic yards, at $6.70 237,542 

Rubble, 530,260 cubic yards, at $5 2,651,300 

Ashlar, 29,500 cubic yards, at $10 295,000 

Dimension stone, 3,850 cubic yards, at $40. . . 154,000 

Brick, 800 cubic yards, at $1 5 12,000 

Face work of rubble, 3,800 scfuare yards, at 

$1.50 5»70o 

Coping, 910 feet, at $3 2,730 

Gate House — 

Superstructure 1 5,000 

Gates and hoists, six, ^yi by 5 feet, at $1,700. 10,200 

Stop-plank grooves, 822 feet, at $3.50 2,877 

Stop-planks, 406 feet, at $3 1,218 

Stop-plank lifter i ,000 

Floor plates, 270 square feet, at $1.35 365 

Ladders, 822 feet, at $2 1,644 



147 

Pipes — 

48-inch B, 246 feet, at $10 $2,460 

loinch gauge, 142 feet, at $1.50 213 

Specials, 6 tons, at $60 360 

Iron railing, 5,365 feet, at $1.50 8,048 

Landscape work, including keeper's house, stables, 

shops, etc 25,000 

Small dike south of the dam 1,700 

Small dike at Willow Bridge 2,000 

$4,278,768 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 427,877 



Relocation of Highways. 
New Roads — 

25,000 feet. Class C, at $5.50 $i37»5oo 

57,600 feet, Qass D, at $4.50 259,200 

4,200 feet. Class E, at $4 16,800 

20,600 feet. Class F, at $3.50 72,100 

800 feet, embankment type, at $15 12,000 

500 feet, embankment type, at $20 10,000 

1,500 feet, embankment type, at $45 67,500 

I arch culvert 10,000 

I arch culvert 15,000 

I arch culvert 40,000 



$640,000 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 64,010 



Relocation of Railroads. 
C. N. K R. R. 

New Roadl>ed, Right of Way and Track — 

18,500 feet, of Class i, at $7.50 $138,750 

4,900 feet, of Class 2, at $9 44,100 

25,300 feet, Class 3, at $1 1 278,300 

400 feet. Class 6, at $120 48,000 

3,000 feet, sidings, at $3 9,000 

59,000 feet telegraph line, at $1 59,ooo 

10 highway crossings, at $5,000 50,000 



$4,706,645 



704,110 



148 

New station at Hibernia $3,000 

New station at Market 2,000 

New station at Stissing 4,000 

$636,150 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 63,615 

Interference with traffic, etc., , 50,000 

P. & E. R. R. 

Nefw Roadbed, Track and Right of Way — 

18,000 feet. Class i, at $7.50 $135,000 

3,800 feet. Class 2, at $9 34,200 

10,800 feet, Class 3, at $1 1 1 18,800 

2,000 feet sidings, at $3 6,000 

32,000 feet telegraph line, at $1 32,000 

8 highway crossings, at $5,000 40,000 

New station at Market 2,000 

New station at Stissing 4,000 

$372,000 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 37,200 

Interference with traffic, etc 30,000 



Removal of Soil. 

Excavating 712,000 cubic yards of soil from reser- 
voir, and hauling same for an average distance 
of 1,200 feet, at 25 cents $178,000 

Excavating 39,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel 

for beaches, at 30 cents 1 1,700 

Removing bodies from two small cemeteries, and 

providing new cemeteries 30,000 

$219,700 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 21,970 



Real Estate. 



$749,765 



439»200 



241,670 



Total area inside taking line, 9,125 acres, at $250 (inclusive of 

all buildings, etc.) 2,281,250 



149 

Reimbursement to towns of Washington, Pleasant Valley, 
Stanford and Ginton for value of taxable property 
flooded $135,000 

Sanitar}' protection of watershed 50,000 

Grand total $9,307,640 



SILVERNAILS RESERVOIR — ESTIMATE OF COST. 



Dam. 



Earth Excavation — 



Stripping dam base, 7,380 cubic yards, at 25 
cents 

Core wall trench, 3,000 cubic yards, at $1 ... . 

Wing walls, waste weir, gatehouse, channels, 
etc., 167,800 cubic yards, at 35 cents. . . . 

Rock Excavation — 

Core wall trench, 510 cubic yards, at $2.50. . . 
Wing walls, waste weir, gatehouse, channels, 

etc., 138,450 cubic yards, at $1.50 

Embankment, 21,910 cubic yards, at 40 cents 
Soil dressings, no cubic yards, at 50 cents. . 
Gravel facing, 4,010 cubic yards, at 50 cents. 
Paving on slopes, 2,010 cubic yards, at $2.25 

Masonry — 

Concrete, 1.340 cubic yards, at $6.70 

Rubble, 198,840 cubic yards, at $5 

Ashlar, 9,160 cubic yards, at $10 

Dimension stone, 1,935 cubic yards, at $40. . . 

Brick, 700 cubic yards, at $15 

Face work of rubble, 6,600 square yards, at 

$1.50 ' 

Coping, 122 feet, at $3 

Iron railing, 1,970 feet, at $1.50 

Gate House — 

Superstructure 

Gates and hoists, six, ^yi by 5 feet, at $1,700. 
Stop-plank grooves, yjy feet, at $3.50 



$1,845 
3,000 

58,730 



1,275 

207,675 

8,764 

55 
2,005 

4,523 

8,978 

994,200 

91,600 

77,400 

10,500 

9,900 
366 

2,955 



15,000 

10,200 

2,510 



150 

Floor plates, 270 square feet, at $1.35 $364 

Ladders, 717 feet, at $2 1,434 

Stop-planks, 353 feet, at $3 1,059 

Stop-plank lifter, 1,000 

Pipes — 

48-inch B, 195 feet, at $10 1,950 

lo-inch gauge, 121 feet, at $1.50 182 

Specials, 6 tons, at $60 360 

Landscape work, including keeper's house, stables, 

shops, etc 25.000 



$1,542,830 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 154,283 



Cut-oflF West of Main Dam. 

Earth excavation, 24,760 cubic yards, at $1 $24,760 

Rock excavation, 2,130 cubic yards, at $2.50 5>325 

Concrete core wall, 8,000 cubic yards, at $6.70. . . . 53,6oo 



$83,685 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 8,369 

Relocation of Highways. 
New Roads — 

1,300 feet. Class B, at $7 $9,100 

36,390 feet, Class D, at $4.50 i63,755 

11,125 feet, Class E, at $4 44»5i2 

13,720 feet, Class F, at $3.50 48,020 

330 feet, embankment type, at $5 1*650 

1,030 feet, embankment type, at $40 41,200 

900 feet, embankment type, at $35 31.500 

1,400 feet, embankment type, at $8 11,200 

I arch culvert * 20,000 

I arch culvert 30,000 

I arch culvert 15,000 

I arch culvert 10,000 



$425,937 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 42,594 



$1,697,113 



92,054 



468,531 



151 

Relocation of Railroads. 
C N. E. R. R.— 

New roadbed, track and right of way from 
Jackson Corners to Pine Plains: 

3,200 feet, Qass 2, at $9 $28,800 

10,100 feet, Class 3, at $11 111,100 

700 feet, Class 4, at $37 25,900 

5,800 feet. Class 5, at $92 533,6oo 

2,000 feet sidings, at $3 6,000 

21,800 feet telegraph line, at $1 21,800 

4 highway crossings, at $5,000 20,000 

New station at Mt. Ross 3,000 

New station at Pine Plains 5,000 



$755»2oo 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 75.5^0 



C N. E. R. R.— 

New roadbed, track and right of way from 
Pine Plains to Ancram: 

15,900 feet, Class i, at $7.50 $119,250 

19,300 feet. Class 2, at $9 173,700 

700 feet. Class 4. at $^7 25,900 

800 feet, Class 4;..., at $57 45,6oo 

6,600 feet. Class 5, at $t;2 607,200 

2,000 feet sidings, at $3 6,000 

43,300 feet telegraph line, at $1 43,300 

8 highway crossings, at $5,000 40,000 

New station at Ancram lead mines. ..... 3,ooo 

New station at Ancram 3,ooo 



$830,720 



$1,066,950 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 106,695 

1,173,645 

Interference wit htrafTic C. N. E. R. R 50,000 

P. and E. R. R.— 

Rip-rapping slopes of embankment: 

1,700 feet, at $10 $17,000 

10 per cent, for engineering and con- 
tingencies 1 ,700 



18,700 



152 

Removal of Soil. 

Excavating 580,000 cubic yards soil, and deposit- 
ing it in embankments (average haul, 1,600 
feet), at 30 cents $174,000 

Excavating 19,000 cubic yards sand and gravel for 

beaches, at 30 cents 5»7oo 

Removal of bodies from three small cemeteries and 

cost of new cemetery 40,000 

$219,700 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 21,970 

$241,670 

Sanitary protection of watershed. 75,ooo 

Real Estate. 

Total area inside taking line, 5,321 acres, at $150 

(including all buildings, etc.) $798,150 

Reimbursement of towns of Ancram, Pine Plains 

and Gallatin for loss of taxable property 84,500 

882,650 



Graiid total $5»530,o83 



CLINTON HOLLOW RESERVOIR — ESTIMATE OF COST. 

Dam. 
Earth Excavation — 

Stripping dam base, 11,790 cubic yards, at 25 

cents $2,948 

Trench for core wall, 9,040 cubic yards, at $1 . 9,040 

Rock Excavation — 

Core wall trench, 1,850 cubic yards, at $2.50. . 4,625 

Embankment, 437,940 cubic yards, at 40 cents 175,176 

Soil dressing, 8,890 cubic yards, at 50 cents . . 4,445 

Gravel facing, 23,650 cubic yards, at 50 cents. 11,825 

Paving on slope, 5,900 cubic yards, at $2.25. . 13*275 

Walk, 1,000 feet, at $1 1,000 

Sodding, 4,060 square yards, at 30 cents 1,218 

Concrete, 14,460 cubic yards, at $6.70 96,882 



153 

Gate House — 

Including superstructure and appurtenances. . . $45,cxx) 

Waste weir 50,000 

. Waste channel, 3,750 feet, at $10 37»500 

Landscape work, including keeper's house, 

stables, shops, etc 20,000 

$472,934 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 47,293 

$520,227 

Relocation of Highways. 
New Roads — 

53,000 feet, at $4. $212,000 

26,000 feet, at $3.50 * 91,000 

$3O3>0QO. . 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 30,300 

333»300 

Removal of Soil. 

Excavating 620,000 cubic yards of soil, and de- 
positing same in embankments, at 25 cents. . $155,000 

Excavting 20,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel 

for beaches, at 30 cents 6,000 

$161,000 
TO per cent, for engineering and contingencies 16,100 177,100 

Real Estate. 
Total area inside the taking line, 3,590 acres, at 

$150 538,500 

Reimbursement of towns of Ginton and Milan for 

loss of taxable property 76,000 

614,500 

Sanitary protection of watershed 20,000 

Grand total $1,665,127 



154 

Estimates of Cost of Aqueduct Work. 

unit prices. 

The following standard unit prices have been used in all aqueduct 
estimates for the principal items, the rates being varied to suit local con- 
ditions of each section : 



From 



Earth excavation , $o. 35 per cubic yard 

*' borrow 0.25 ** *' ** 

Rock excavation 1.25 *• ** ** 

Tunnel ** Heading 9. 00 " '* ** 

** ** Bench j 3.50 ** *' ** 

Concrete I- lo 5.90 ** ** ** 

** 1-7 ' 6.60 ** *» «* 

** 1-5 ■ 7.40 " " 

Steel pipe laid 0.05 ** pound. 

Granolithic 0.75 ** sq. yard. 

Timbering in tunnels 4.00 ** fool. 

Dry filling in tunnels (over arches) ' i. 60 " " 

Shaft excavation > 120. co " " 



To 



$0. 40 per 


cubic yard. 


30 




« 




2.00 




» 




9.40 




' 




3-90 




( 




8.00 




* 




9. CO 




t 




7.80 




t 




05 




pound. 


75 




sq. yard. 


4.00 




loot. 


1.60 




(t 


140.00 




(1 





— 


. 



HIGH LEVEL AQUEDUCT — ESTIMATE OF COST. 

In the following tabulations of cost of aqueduct work are included 
special structures of every description, such as siphon chambers, gate 
houses, blow-oflfs, waste weirs, manholes, culverts, road and railroad cross- 
ings, farm crossings, etc. 

Division i. 
From Hill View Reservoir to wSouth Side Croton River. 



Section. 



4*5 
6 

7 

8 
9 



Station. 



I.ength. I Construction. | 



io4oo to 
76+00 " 

X5«+5^ " 

a5i-f<:o '• 

»59+5o •• 



76+00 

151+50 I 

351+00 
asj-rso 
310+00 



6,600 

7.550 



9.950 
850 

5,050 ! 
6,000 



Cut and Cover... 
Siphon 



1 310+00 " 370-I-00 

370+co " 4254-co 5t5oo 

4*5 .00 475+0 X 



Cut and Cover. 

Siphon 

Cut and Cover... I 



a,4ro TunneL 



Total 
Cost. 



^346,480 
35i.aoo 

500.450 

36,630 

248,950 

387,^x0 
363,670 
146,160 

234,160 



■ Cost per 
loot. 



$58 80 

46 52 

50 V> 
43 10 
49 30 

47 9a 
47 94 
56 21 

97 57 { 



Remarks. 



Siphon chambers included. 
•* at Bryn Mawr. 

" chambers included. 



Tunnel in mica-schist and 
earth. 



155 



Section. 



Station. 



Length. Construction. 



475+00 to 52z-foo 4t6oo 

5ai+03 " 533+50 1 x,»50 I 
533+50 " 6004-00 6,650 I 



Cut and Cover. . 

Siphon 

Cut and Cover. . 



M 
»5 

z6 

\l 

'9 



600-I-00 ** 660-I-00 6,000 

I 660-foo *• 710-I-00 5tOOo 

710-i-oo " 769+50 5.950 

! 769+50 " 789+00 1.950 

7894-00 " 841-1-03 5,aoo 

84z4<0 ** 900-j-oo 5i9oo 

900+00 " 953+00 5,30* 

953+00 '* X014+00 I *•''** ; 
i 1,950 



Siphon 

Cut and Cover. . . 



92 & 33 T014-I-0C •• 1148-1-00 I 



8,050 



34 7X48-I-00 ** zao3 f 00 ' 5f5oo 

25 & 26 I iao3 foo *• taoa j 00 I I 7.o5« 

I * I ( i»o50 



Total I28.303 



Tunnel 

Cut and Cover. . 
Tunnel 



Cut and Cover, . . 



Tunnel. 



Total 
Cost. 



S943*35o 

53.580 

33«.83o 

304,000 
333,110 
293,360 

04.010 
a6x,86o 
359,340 

335,870 
ao8,9CO 

185,830 

943,000 

797,330 



251,310 
341,890 
163.580 



I Cost per 
' foot. 



i59 88 
4» 83 

49 fo 

50 67 
46 43 

49 29 

48 67 

50 36 

43 96 

44 50 
50 34 

95 30 j 

45 4a 
90 34 I 



$6,846,830 



Remarks. 
I Siphon chamber included. 

Siphon chambers included. 
Siphon chamber included. 



Tunnell in mica-schist and 
gneiss. 

Tunnel in mica-schist and 
earth. 



45 70 

48 49 I Siphon chamber included. 

88 4a I Tunnel in mica-schi«t. 



S53 40 



Cut and cover work — Total length, 102,350 feet; average cost 

per foot, $48.85 ; total cost $4»999770 

Tunnel work — Total length, 14,250 feet; average cost per foot, 

$91.99; total cost 1 ,310,790 

Steel pipe work — Total length, 11,600 feet; average cost per 

foot, $46.23; total cost 536,270 



Total construction $6,846,830 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 684,680 



Right of way from Station 10 to Station 1,292. 



Total first cost 

Subsequent addition of two lines 10- foot pipe at siphons 

10 per cent, of latter for engineering and contingencies. 



$7»53i»Sio 
297i540 

$7,829,050 

1,072,540 

107,250 



Grand total $9,008,840 



156 



HIGH LEVKL AQUEDUCT ESTIMATE OF COST. 

Diznsion 2, 
From South Side of Croton River to North End of Long Tunnel Near- 

Tompkins' Corners. 



Secrion. 
"9 



3« 
33 



Length. 



35 
36 
37 



39 
4» 
4a 
43 



12934-00 to i3i3-}-oo I a.ioo 

»3»3+oo " 1382+00 I I 3'^5^ 
1382+00 " 1450+00 j *'J5o 



I4,iU>+00 *' I500-;-00 

1500-1-00 " 1561+00 
I56X+00 " 1650+00 
x65o-foo *• X698400 

1698+00 " 1776+00 

1776+00 ** 1830+00 
i8{o+oo •• 1890+00 
1890-j-oo •• 1948+00 

1948+00 *' 2050+00 

2050+00 •* ai 18+00 
aii8-l-oo " 2t8a | oo 

21S2-1-OO ** 224r.-t-OD 



Construction. 



Total 
Cost. 



Cost per 
foot. 



Siphon I $190,480 



167,640 
310,300 
60,690 
509.293 



Cut and Cover. . . 

Tunnel 

Cut and Cover . . 
Tunnel 






6,100 

»i5oo 
7.400 
4.800 



Cut and Cover . 
Tunnel 



Cut and Cover . 
Tunnel \ 



119,150 
229,180 

304.980 

95,730 

664,220 

44Q,68o 



1,000 Cut and Cover. . . 56,990 

6,800 Tunnel 610,590 

5,400 Cut and Cover.. 268,^0 

6,000 " *• " -I a99.440 

5»8oo • ..I 3M,88o 



2246+00 
2310-1-00 



2310+CO I 
2414+00 



350 

?»850 
,800 
6,4co 

6,400 ! 

6,400 

500 

9.900 



Tunnel. 



Cut and Cover. 
Tunnel 



90,340 
840,930 
646,420 
621,370 
634.440 

696,570 

31.8'Jo 

865,710 



I90 70 

g2a 
74 
59 78 
90 14 



^ 



SO 00 
63 89 
89 76 
9368 



56 99 
89 80 
49 70 
49 9» 
54 31 

$8 II 

t»s 30 

95 06 
97 09 
99 «3 

97 90 

67 76 

67 44 



Remarks. 



Steel truss pipe-bridge in- 
cluded. 
Siphon chamber ineluded. 
1 unnel in granite ft gneiss. 

Tunnel in mica-schist and 
earth. 



Tunnel in mica-schist and 
diorite. 



Tunnel in granite & gneiss. 
Tunnel in granite, gneiss 
and earth. 



Tunnel in gneiss. 



Tunnel in gneiss 



Total 1x2,2001 1 $8,940,560 I $79 68 



Cut and cover work — Total length, 33.300 feet; average cost 
per foot, $52.01 ; total cost 

Tunnel work — Total length, 76,800 feet; average cost per foot, 
$91.25; total cost 

Steel pipe work — Total length, 2,100 feet; average cost per 
foot, $90.70; total cost 



10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies. 



Right of way from Station 1,292 to Station 2,414 

Total first cost 

Subsequent addition of two lines lo-foot pipe at all siphons. . 
10 per cent, of latter for engineering and contingencies. 

( irand total 



$1,742,090 
7.007,990 

190,480 

$8,940,560 
894,060 

$9,834,620 
110,700 

$9,945,320 

300,000 

30,000 

$10,275,320 



157 

HIGH LFAKL AQrEDUCT ESTIMATE OF COST. 

Diznsion j. 

From North End of Long Tunnel near Tompkins' Corners to East Side of 
Hudson River. Finally Ix>cated Line South of Billings Dam. 



Section. 



45 
46 
47 

Filters. 
4S 
49 
50 

51 
. 52 



54 
55 



Station. 



\ Length. ' Construction. 



' 34x4-; 00 to 3464-roo I 5.000 Cut and Cover.. 

34644-00 *' 35'74-co 5.300 " 

I 2S»7too •* 25574-00 4iOco " 

25574-00 ** a6oo4oo 4,300 ** 



Total 
Cost. 



Cost per 
foot. 



$330,510 ' 

340,3 



l47 90 

'.730 i 46 55 
*P3.400 45 85 
196,460 45 69 



26004 00 ' 

2660-4-00 ' 

2710 t 00 ' 

27304-20 ' 

27894-<» ' 
2837400 

2933 +CO ' 

9q884oo 
3045+00 



2660400 

3710 ; 00 

27304-20 I 
2789-1-00 ' 



98374-00 
2933+00 

3988+00 

3045+00 
30784 00 



I 



5.000 

9,oao 
5,880 I 

4.800 I 



Total.. 



\ 


1,100 


8,500 


\ 


5.050 


450 




5,700 




3.300 




60,400 



Tunnel 

Cut and Cover. 
Tunnel 



Cut and Cover. 



938.750 I 47 75 
zo3,zao , 50 56 
»9».750 i 49 79 

I 
318,790 

70.900 
75«.770 
368,360 

40,350 



a44,9O0 
»7»,330 

13,266,030 



45 58 

64 45t 
S8 44r 
53 M » 
89 67r 

42 97 
5x 90 



Remarks. 



Crossing StermviUe Dam. 



Tunnel in shale. 



Cut and cover work — Total length, 51,450 feet; average cost 

per foot, $48.08; total cost $2,473,900 

Tunnel work — Total length, 8,950 feet; average cost per foot, 

$88.51 ; total cost 792,120 



10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies. 



$3,266,020 
326,600 



Total construction $3,592,620 

Right-of-way from Station 2414 to Station 3078 83,887 



Total of finally located line south of Billings 

Reservoir $3,676,507 



158 

Aqueduct North of Billings Dam. 

This aqueduct has been estimated both for a capacity of 300 million 
gallons per day and 400 million gallons per day. 

300 Million Gallon Aqueduct. 

Cut and cover aqueduct, 52,200 feet, at $36 $1,879,000 

Tunnel, 7,130 feet, at $64 456,320 

Steel pipe (one, 7.25 feet diameter), 26,970 feet, at $36 970,920 

$3,306,440 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 330,640 

Total construction $3,637,080 

Real estate 124,100 

Total first cost $3,761,180 

Subsequent addition of one line 7.25-foot pipe 970,920 

10 per cent, of latter for engineering and contingencies. . 97,090 

Ultimate total $4,829,190 



400 Million Gallon Aqueduct. 

Cut and cover aqueduct, 52,200 feet, at $42 $2,192,400 

Tunnel, 7,130 feet, at $71 506,230 

Steel pipe (one, 8.2 feet diameter), 26,970 feet, at $39 1,051,830 

$3750,460 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 375,o5o 

Total construction $4,125,510 

Real estate 124,100 

Total first cost $4,249,610 

Subsequent addition of one line 8.2-foot pipe 1,051,830 

10 per cent, of latter for engineering and contingencies. . . 105,180 

Ultimate total $5,406,620 



159 

Summary for Division j. 
(With 300 and 400 million gallon aqueducts north of Billings Dam.) 

Total of finally located 500 million gallon aqueduct south of 

Billings $3*676,507 

First cost of 300 million gallon aqueduct, Billings Reservoir 

to east side of Hudson River 3,761,180 

Total first cost, Divrsioh 3. $7437,687 

Subsequent addition of second pipe line. 1,068,010 

Ultimate cost of Division 3 $8,505,697 

Total cost of 500 million gallon aqueduct south of Billings. . $3,676,507 
First cost of 400 million gallon aqueduct, Billings Reservoir 

to east side of Hudson River 4,249,610 

Total first cost of Division 3 $7,926,1 17 

•Subsequent addition of second pipe line 1,157,010 

Ultimate cost of Division 3 $9,083,127 



Division 5. 
With Twin Aqueduct between Stormville Filters and Billings Dam. 





First Cost. 
$980,610 

3»584,i70 
4,249,610 


Final Cost. 


Single Aqueduct from Station 2414 to Station 2600 

Twin Aqueduct from Station 2660 to Station 3078— 

Cat and cover work. .32,850 ft. at $64.40. . $2,115,540 
Tunnel 8,950 '* 122.00.. 1,091,900 


$980,610 


$3,207,440 
10^ for Eng. and Cont 320.740 




$3,528,180 
Real estate S5f99^ 




400,000,000-gallon aqueduct from Station 3266 to Station 

4120 


3,584,170 
5,406,620 




Grand Total Division 3 


$8,814,390 


$9,971,400 





i6o 

Division j. 

Same as Above, but with 300-Million-Gallon Aqueduct North of Billings 

Reservoir. 



First Cost. 



Station 2414 to Station 2600 1 $980,610 

Station 2660 to Sution 3078 3.584, 170 

300-ini)lion-gallon aqueduct from Station 3266 to Station' 

4129- 3.761,180 



Grand Total Division 3. 



$8,325,960 



Final Cost. 



$980,610 
3,584.170 

4,829,190 



^9.393.970 



HIGH LEVEL AQUEDUCT — ESTIMATE OF COST. 

Diznsion 4, 

From East Side of Hudson River to Ashokan Reservoir. 

For 300-MilHon- Gallon Aqueduct. 

Tunnel, 17,700 feet, at $64 $1,132,800 

Steel pipe (one, 7.25 feet diameter), 49,670 feet, at $36 1,778,120 

Cast-iron pipe (two, 5 feet diameter), 9,830 feet, at $100 983,000 

Extra cost of grading and special structures between Stations 

4400 and 4618, 21,800 feet, at $6 130,800 

$4,034,720 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 403,470 

$4,438,190 
Real estate 87,780 

Total first cost $4,525,970 

Subsequent addition of second 7.25-foot diameter steel pipe, 

plus 10 per cent 1,966,930 

Subsequent addition of third 5-foot cast-iron pipe, plus 10 

per cent 540.650 

Ultimate total for Division 4 $7.033.55o 



i6i 

For 400-Million-Gallon Aqueduct. 

Tunnel, 17,700 feet, at $71 $1,256,700 

Steel pipe (one, 8.2 feet diameter), 49,670 feet, at $39 i»937»i30 

Cast-iron pipe (two, 5 feet diameter), 9,830 feet, at $100 983,000 

Extra cost of grading- and special structures between Station 

4400 and Station 4618, 21,800 feet, at $6 130,800 

$4,307^630 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 430,760 

$4,738,390 

Real estate 87,780 

Total first cost $4,826,170 

Subsequent addition of second 8.2-foot diameter steel pipe, 

plus 10 per cent 2,130,840 

Subsequent addition of third and fourth 5-foot cast-iron pipe, 

plus 10 per cent 1,081,300 

Ultimate cost of Division 4 $8,038,310 



SUMMARY OF ESTIMATE OF HIGH LEVEL AQUEDUCT (bY DIVISIONS). 





Feet. 


First Cost. 


Final Cost. 


From Hill View Reservoir to Stormville Filters, 
Division i- Station lo to Station 1202 


128,200 

II2,200 

18,600 


$7,829,050 

9»945»320 

980,610 


$9,008,840 

10,275,320 

980,610 


2, " 1292 " 2414 

3, " 2414 ** 2600 


ToUl 


259,000 


$18,754,980 


$20,264,770 


From Stormville Filters to Billings Reservoir 

( ^'ith Single Conduit), 

Division 1 Station 2660 to Station %oi% 


41,800 
41,800 


$2,695,897 
3,584,167 


$2,695,897 
3,584.167 


( IVttk Twin Aqueduct), 
Division 1 Station 2660 to Station "^078 




From Billings Reservoir to Askokan Reservoir 

(300 Million Gallon Aqueduct), 

Division 3, Station 3266 to Station 4129 

*» A " J.I2Q •* dQOI 


86,300 
77,200 


$3,761,180 
4,525.970 

$8,287,150 


$4,829,190 
7,033,550 






Total . . . 


163,500 


$11,862,740 







1 62 





Feci. 


First Cost. 


Final Ccst. 


(400 Million Gallon Aqueduct), 
Division 3, Station 3266 to Station 4129 


86,300 


ftd..2J.o.6io 


$5,406,620 
8,038,310 


•' 4, " 4129 ** 4901 


77,200 ' 4,826,170 


Total 


163,500 


$9,075,780 


$13,444,930 





SUMMARY OF ESTIMATE OF HIGH LEVEL AQUEDUCT (bY CLASSES OF VVORK). 





Feet. 


First Cost. 

$8,368,740 

9,150,670 

799,430 

436,140 


Final Cost. 


From Hill View Reservoir to Stormville Filters, 

Cut and cover aqueduct 

Tunnel 

Steel pipe siphons 

Real estate .... 


154,250 
91,050 
13,700 


$8,368,740 

9,150,670 

2,309,220 

436,140 






Total 1 


259,000 


• $18,754,980 


$20,264,770 


From StormvilU Filters to Billings Reservoir, 
( With SingU Conduit) . 

Cut and cover aqueduct 

Tunnel 

Real estate 


32,850 
8,950 

41,800 


55,987 
$2,695,897 


$1,768,580 

871,330 

55,987 


Total 


$2,695,897 


{With Twin Aqueduct), 

Cut and cover aqueduct 

Tunnel 


32,850 
8,950 

41,800 


$2,327,090 
1,201,090 

55,987 

$3,584,167 


$2,327,090 

1,201,090 

55,987 


Real estate 






Total 


$3,584,167 






From Billings Reservoir to Ashokan Reservoir » 
(300 Million Gallon Aqueduct), 

Cut and cover work 

Tunnel 

Steel pipe 


52,200 

24,830 

76,640 

9,830 

163,500 


$2,067,120 

1,748,030 

3,178,820 

1,081.300 

211,880 


$2,067,120 
1,748,030 
6,213,760 


Cast-iron pipe 

Real estate 


i!i:ii^ 






Total 


$8,287,150 


$j 1,862,740 




(400 Million Gallon Aqueduct). 
Cut and cover work 


52,200 

24,830 

76,640 

9,830 


$2,411,640 

",939,220 
3,431.740 


$2,411,640 


Tunnel 


1,939,220 

6,719,590 

2,162,600 

211,880 


Steel pipt* 


Cast-iron pipe l 

Real estate 






Total ' 


163,500 


$9,075,780 


$13,444,930 



i63 



AQUEDUCT FROM HIBERNIA RESERVOIR TO BILLINGS RESERVOIR — ESTIMATE 

OF COST. 



I 



500-Million-Gallon Aqueduct (Under Project No. i). 
Open Cut — 

Earth excavation, 554,590 cubic yards, at 30 

cents $166,377 

Slope paving, 13,610 cubic yards, at $2 27,220 

Retaining walls at portals 15,000 

$208,597 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 20,859 



Total for open cut $229,456 

Cost per foot of open cut, $21.64. 



Tunnel — 



I 



Heading excavation, 64,400 cubic yards, at $9 $579,600 J 

Bench excavation, 160,264 cubic yards, at 

$3.50 560,924 

Concrete, i-io, 39,376 cubic yards, at $7 275,632 

Concrete, 1-7, 15,088 cubic yards, at $8 120,704 

Dry filling over arch, 18,400 feet, at $1.62 29,808 

Two gate chambers, at $30,000 60,000 

Supersructure for gate chambers 16,000 

Shafts, 150 feet, at $120 18,000 

$1,660,668 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 166,067 

Total cost of tunnel 1*826,735 

Cost per foot of tunnel, $99.33. 
Right of way, 18400 feet, at $1 18,400 

Grand total $2,074,591 



l64 

3cx>Million-Gallon Aqueduct (Under Project No. 2). 

Open Cut — 

This work will be practically the same as for the 500- 
million-gallon aqueduct 

Tunnel — 

Heading excavation, 64,400 cubic yards, at $9 $579,600 

Bench excavation, 64,400 cubic yards, at $3.50 225,400 

Concrete, i-io, 29,072 cubic yards, at $7 203,504 

Concrete, 1-7, 10,672 cubic yards, at $8 85,376 

Dry filling over arch, 18,400 feet, at $1.50 27,600 

Two gate chambers, at $25,000 50,000 

Superstructure for gate chambers 15,000 

Shafts, 150 feet, at $120 18,000 



$229,456 



$1,204,480 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 120,448 

t 

Total cost of tunnel 1,324,928 

Cost per foot of tunnel, ^72. 

Right of way, 18,400 feet, at $1 18,400 

I . ' 

lA ,ftk ff "i f Grand total $1,572,784 



AQUEDUCT FROM SILVERNATLS RESERVOIR TO HIBERNIA RESERVOIR — ESTI- 
MATE OF COS!. 



Section. Station. Classification. Length. 





I3-«o 


( Open canal . . . 
{Tunnel 


1, 6 so 


X 


3.050 
6,oco 


2 


60-iaO 


Open canal . . . 


3 


I 30-170 


Open canal . . . 


5.000 


4 


T7o-a3o 


Open canaL . . 


5,000 


5 


330-970 


Open canal... 


5.000 


« 


27o-3«> 




5.000 



Cost. 



1x01,389 
X59,2io 
"5.485 
M5.447 
131.560 
138,194 
118.799 



390-370 ' Open canal... 5,000 | 8x,io3 



Cost 
per Foot. 



«6f 44 
53 ao 
19 35 

39 09 
a6 31 

25 64 
33 76 



I 



I 



370-413 I Open canal... _ 4.aoo | 



93.696 



Remarks, 



X6 92-! I 

I 

93 30 -j 



Includes gate house. 
Includes road crossing. 
Includes road crossing. 

Includes railroad crossing 

Includes railroad crossing. 

Includes highway crossing. 

Includes regulating dam. 

Includes extra channel paving, 
I Includes three railroad crossings. 

Includes highway crossing. 
j Includes regulating dam. 
(. Includes extra channel paving. 



Totals.. 



19.900 I $1,074,883 *j6 94 I Average cosu 



l6S 

Cost of construction $i ,074,883 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 107,488 

Total $1,182,371 

Right of way 93,40O 

Grand total $1,275,771 



In this estimate the following average costs have been used for the 
principal items. 

For earth excavation in canal $0 30 per cubic yard. 

For rehandling excavated material o 25 " 

For rock excavation i 50 " 

For paving on slopes 2 00 " 

For tunnel excavation 8 00 '* 

For concrete lining in tunnel, 1-7 8 oo ** 

For concrete lining in tunnel, i-io 7 00 " 



AQUEDUCT FROM HIBERNIA RESERVOIR TO CLINTON HOLLOW RESERVOIR — 

ESTIMATE OF COST. 

(Considered only under Project No. i.) 

4,000 feet of deep portal cut, at $20 per foot $80,000 

10,600 feet of arch lined tunnel, at $90 per foot 954,000 

Gatehouse and appurtenances 75,ooo 

$1,109,000 
10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 1 10,900 

$1,219,900 
Right of way, 10,000 feet, at 75 cents 7»5oo 

Total $1,227,400 



i66 

AQUEDUCT FROM CLINTON HOLLOW RESERVOIR TO ASHOKAN RESERVOIR — 
ESTIMATE OF COST (UNDER PROJECT NO. l). 

300-Million-Gallon Aqueduct. 

Cut and cover aqueduct, 4,200 feet, at $36 $151,200 

Tunnel, 26400 feet, at $64 1,689,600 

Steel pipe (one, 7.25-foot diameter pipe), 47,300 feet, at $36. . 1,702,800 
Cast-iron pipe (two, 60-inch diameter pipes), 8,700 feet, at 

$100 870.000 

$4,413,600 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 441,360 

$4,854,960 

Real estate 103,800 

Total first cost $4,958,760 

Subsequent Additions — 

One 7.25-foot diameter steel pipe line (plus 10 per cent.). 1,873,080 

One 60-inch cast-iron pipe line (plus 10 per cent.) 478,500 

Ultimate cost $7,310,340 

400-Million-Gallon Aqueduct. 

Cut and cover aqueduct, 4,200 feet, at $42 $176,400 

Tunnel, 26,400 feet, at $71 i ,874,400 

Steel pipe (one, 8.2- foot diameter pipe), 47.30c feet, at $39. . . 1.844.700 
Cast-iron pipe (two, 60-inch diameter pipes), 8.700 feet, at 

$100 870,000 

$4765.500 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 476,550 

$5,242,050 

Real estate 103,800 

Total first cost $5,345,850 

Subsequent Additions — 

One 8.2-foot diameter steel pipe line (plus 10 per cent.). . 2,029,170 
Two 60-inch diameter cast-iron pipe lines (plus 10 

per cent.) 957.000 

Ultimate cost $8,332,020 



) 



1 67 

BRANXH AQlEDrCT TO RONDOUT RESERVOIR. 

No definite estimate can now be given of the cost of this aqueduct, 
no surveys having been made, and unfortunately the geological map 
being also missing for a part of the route. Enough, however, has been 
ascertained to establish the fact that at least the greater part of this aque- 
duct and perhaps the entire aqueduct will be of steel pipe. Acting on 
this supposition, a line was laid on the geological plan, as far as that 
plan extends, and the remainder was estimated from the best available data, 
giving a total length of 20 miles, or 105,600 feet, as the extreme distance 
between Station 4618, Div. 4, High Level Aqueduct Line, and the proposed 
reservoir on Rondout Creek. 

The elevation of the lowest draft line at the reservoir is about 580; 
the elevation of the hydraulic gradient at Station 4618, High Level Aque- 
rhict, is about 482; difference in elevation, 98. 

With this loss of head and distance, a 9-foot diameter steel pipe will 
carry 200 million gallons per day. 

The estimated cost of such a pipe, of an average thickness of ^ inch, 
laid complete, with all grading, special structures, air- valves, blow-offs, etc., 
is $50 per foot. 

Approximate Cost for 200-Million-Gallon Aqueduct. 

105,600 feet of 9- foot steel pipe, laid complete, at $50 $5,280,000 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 528,000 

$5,808,000 
Right of way, 105,600 feet, at $1.50 158,000 

Total $5,966,000 

If an aqueduct of 150 million gallons capacity per day be found to be 
sufficient, the diameter may be reduced to 8 feet and the average thickness 
to 9/16 inch, at an average cost of $42 per foot for the completed pipe. 

With these modifications the cost of the whole line will be as follows: 

Approximate Cost of J50-Million-Gallon i\queduct. 

105,600 feet of steel pipe laid complete, at $42 $4,435,200 

10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 443,500 

$4,878,700 
Right of way for 105,600 feet, at $1.50 158,000 

Total $5,036,700 



i68 

There is no doubt that these estimates are safe outside figures, and 
that surveys of this line will establish the fact that the length of 105,600 
feet may be materially shortened. 

In the absence of better data, however, it would not be advisable to 
estimate the cost of the aqueduct in round numbers at less than : 

For 150,000,000-g^llon aqueduct, about $5,000,000 

For 200,000,000-gallon aqueduct, about 6,000,000 



Time Required to Build Long Tunnels in Putnam and IVestchester Counties. 

In view of the importance of .the time factor in any construction for 
additional supply, the following estimate is submitted. 

It is evident that the time required for the construction of the tunnels 
north of Tompkins' Corners and south of Shrub Oak is the governing 
consideration, as all other construction may be easily completed before 
these tunnels are ready for use. 

The length of these tunnels and the depths of shafts are as follows : 



Shrub Oak Tunnel. 



Station. 



1576 

1626-HIO. . 
1676-I-OO. . 
1716+20 . 
1766 

Total . 



Length of Drift. 



5,010 feel. 

4,990 " 
4,020 ** 
4.980 »* 



19,000 feet. 



Depth of Shaft. 

Portal. 
210 feet. 
121 '* 
120 ** 

Portal. 



Tunnel Xorth of Tompkins' Corners. 



Station. 



1951+50 I 

2018+50 I 

2085 + 90 , 

2150+CO , 

2214+00 

2278-fOO I 

2345+25 I 

2409-1-00 

r 

Total 



Length of Drift. 



6,700 feer. 

6,740 " 

6,410 '* 

6.400 '* 

6,400 ** 

6.725 " 

6.375 " 



45,750 feet. 



Depth of Shaft. 



Portal. 
190 feet. 
409 *' 
454 *• 
515 *' 
483 '* 
282 •' 

Portal. 



i69 

Central Power Station. 

The most economic method of driving these two tunnels will be from 
one central power station, located either at Mahopac Mines or Mahopac 
Falls, on a branch line of the Putnam division of the New York Central 
Railroad. 

The requisite power could be carried by wire to the shaft heads and 
applied to the driving of the compressors or for hoisting, hauling and 
lighting. 

It has been estimated that about 350 h.p. will be required at each shaft 
for compressor work, and 50 h.p. for other purposes, or a total of 400 h.p. 
at each shaft for all purposes. 

The total power required for all shafts, 4,000 h.p. 

A loss of 16 to 20 per cent, of power will probably occur between the 
boiler and the shafts. 

Total power of Central Power Station may be assumed at 5,000 h.p. 

Tiffie Required. 

The time required for the different portions of w-ork may be approxi- 
mately assumed as follows: 

Plant — The acquisition and setting in place of boilers, 

engines and electrical equipment, and 

other plant, from 12 to 18 months. 

Shafts — 500 feet of shafts, at from 15 to 25 feet per week 5 to 8 " 
Tunneling — 6,400 feet, at from 50 to 70 feet per week. . 21 to 30 " 
Lining — Extra time after tunneling is completed to 

finish lining, etc 4 to 8 " 

Engineering — Preparation of plans and specifications. . 3 to 3 " 



45 to 67 months. 



I 



Total elapsed time 3 years 9 months, to 5 years 7 months. 

The work may be expedited by the less economical method of com- 
mencing construction of the shafts at once without waiting for the in- 
stallation of the central power plant. P>y this means, five to eight months 
may be saved over this estimate, reducing the total elapsed time from 
start to finish to betw^een three and five vears. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that, under fortunate circumstances, 
it is possible, but extremely improbable, that the tunnel may be built in 
less than four years. 



I70 

So short a time would call for record progress in all work and an 
entire absence of accidents, strikes, or any other delays, and it would 
also entail uneconomical methods of operation. 

The most economical methods of construction and a fair allowance of 
time for misadventures, bad work, etc., which are almost always inevitable, 
will bring the total up to the more conservative figures of from four years 
to somewhat more than five years from start to finish. 

LOW LEVEL SYSTEM. 

Surveys have been made for a low level reservoir and aqueduct system 
concurrently with those for a high level system. This system was designed 
to discharge at the surface elevation of the Jerome Park Reservoir. 

Aqueduct. 

A line of aqueduct was laid out and surveyed, starting from Jerome Park 
Reservoir and extending to the proposed dam at Rochdale Mills on Wap- 
pinger Creek. 

The total length of the line between these points is 316,200 feet, or 60 
miles, which is classified as follows : 

134,800 feet is Cut and Cover work. 
178,400 feet is Tunnel. 
3,000 feet is Steel pipe siphon. 

The surveys for all of this line were made with great care and the entire 
line was tied in to the L'nited States Coast Survey triangulation points at in- 
tervals of every few miles. This work is quite comparable with that per- 
formed for the high level line. All of this line has been laid on large roll 
plans on scale of 200 feet to the inch for cut and cover work, and 400 feet 
for the long tunnels. The topography has not yet been plotted, as a general 
rule. 

Reservoirs. 

The proposed reservoirs on the Fishkill and Wappingcr Creeks have 
been surveyed in a similar manner to the high level reservoirs. The areas 
of land included within the surveys are as follows : 

Wappinger Reservoir 7,040 acres or 1 1 sq. miles. 

Fishkill Reservoir 9,600 acres or 15 sq. miles. 

The most favorable locations for dams on these creeks are at Rrinck- 
crhofT on the Fishkill and at Rochdale on the Wappinger. 



1- 



.■ .} .■ 



'-.• ■"> ; ••■•.,<■; ■•; o -■ ; I " . . , 



APPENDIX II. 



Department of The Catskills* 



175 

Appendix II. 

Department of the Catskills. 
Walter H. Sears, Department Engineer. 

The territory covered by the investigations of this Department is that 
included in the watersheds of the Catskill, Schoharie, Esopus and Rondout 
Creeks at such an elevation as will admit of the supply of water derived 
therefrom being delivered to the City of New York at an elevation of not 
less than 295 feet above tide water. 

In the briefest possibje manner the results of the operations of this 
Department may be stated as follows, viz. : the territory or drainage area 
which has been investigated and which may be made tributary to the 
additional supply is about 770 square miles. The reservoir sites which have 
been surveyed in this territory have a combined storage capacity of 210,- 
160 million gallons. It may therefore be stated that '* The Catskills " can 
furnish a daily supply to the City of New York of from 600 to 700 million 
gallons of water daily. The former is a conservative and the latter a not 
unduly liberal estimate. 

general description of operations. 
The field work in this Department was taken up in the following order : 

First — Reconnoissance of possible reservoir sites in the territory under 
consideration, followed by stadia surveys of such as were believed to be 
practicable, wdth plans and estimates of cost. Second — Investigation of 
sources of sewage pollution with stadia surveys and plans and estimates of 
cost for disposal of sewage where found to be necessary. Third — Establish- 
ment of rain gauge stations and studies of rain fall and run off. Fourth — 
The drafting department. 

The results of the investigations for reservoir sites are as follows in the 
different watersheds, beginning with the most northerly : 



Drainage Area. ! Storage Reservoir Capacity. 



Catskill 

Schoharie 

Esopus ... 

Rondout 

Total 




24,488,000,000 gallons. 

101,556,000,000 ** 
20,531,000.000 ** 



210,160,000,000 gallons. 



176 
These results are shown in detail as follows : 

CATSKILL CREKK. 

The reservoir sites developed on Catskill Creek are as follows : 
I. — East Durham Reservoir: 

Flow line at elevation of 515 feet above 

datum.* 
Area of water surface, 254 acres. 
Estimated capacity 2,500,000,000 gallons. 

II.— Oak Hill Reservoir: 

Elevation of flow^ line, 700 feet above 

datum. 
Area of water surface, 520 acres. 
Capacity 6,470,000,000 gallons. 

III. — Preston Hollow Reservoir: 

Elevation of flow line, 950 feet above 

datum. 
Area of water surface, 520 acres. 
Capacity 9,366,000,000 gallons. 

IV'. — Franklinton Reservoir (situated at the north- 
erly limit of the watershed) : 
Elevation of flow line, 1,200 feet above 

datum. 
Area of water surface, 576 acres. 
Capacity 6,152,000,000 gallons. 

Total in Catskill Valley 24,488,000,000 gallons. 

SCHOHARIE CREEK. 

The reservoir sites developed on Schoharie Creek are as follows : 
I. — Prattsville Reservoir (above the town of 
Prattsville) : 
Elevation of flow line, 1,240 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 700 acres. 
Capacity 9,398,000,000 gallons. 

Note. — From the Prattsville Reservoir a tunnel 
53,600 feet long connects the Schoharie 
Valley with the Esopus, the outlet being in 
the Bushnelville Kill near the town of 
Shandaken. 

♦ Mean sea level at New York. 



177 

II. — Lexington Reservoir (near the town of 

Lexington) : 
Elevation of flow line, 1,385 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 607 acres. 
Capacity 8,477,000,000 gallons. 

III. — Jewett Center RevServoir (near the town of 
that name) : 
Elevation of flow line, 1,435 ^^^^ 
above Albany base. 
Area of water surface, 433 acres. 
Capacity 5,578,000,000 gallons. 

IW — West Kill Reservoir (located near the town 
of West Ivill) : 
Elevation of flow line, 1,485 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 289 acres. 
Capacity 3498,000,000 gallons. 

V. — Plaat Clove Reservoir: 

Elevation of flow line, 1,930 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 656 acres. 
Capacity 5,635,000,000 gallons. 

VI. — Ashland Reservoir (near the X'illage of 
Ashland) : 

Elevation of flow line, 1,450 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 421 acres. 
Capacity 5,372,000,000 gallons. 

VII. — Windliam Reservoir : 

Elevation of flow line, 1,500 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 923 acres. 
Capacity 13,025,000,000 gallons. 

NoTK. — Ashland and Windham Reservoirs are 
adjoining. The flow line of Ashland reaches 
to the foot of Windham dam. 



178 

\'III. — Beaches Corner Reservoir: 

Elevation of flow line, i,8oo feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 505 acres. 
Capacity 6,349,000,000 gallons. 

TX. — East Jewctt Reservoir: 

Elevation of flow line, 1,875 ^^^^ 

above datum. 
Area of water surface, 488 acres. 
Capacity 6,253,000,000 gallons. 

Total in Schoharie 63,585,000,000 gallons. 



ESOPUS CREEK. 

The reservoir sites developed on Esopus Creek are as follows: 

I. — ^Ashokan Reservoir (with a dam of masonry 
at Bishops Falls) : 
Flow line is at elevation 560 feet above 

datum. 
Area of water surface, 5,978 acres. 
Capacity 66,50o,ooo.ofX) gallons. 

Note. — Further statistics relating to the 
Ashokan Reservoir at elevation of 560 
feet above datum are : 

Area of water surface, 9.34 square 

miles. 
Additional areas, strip of 1,000 feet 

wide around margin and islands, 

amounting to 88.8 acres, 4.710 

acres. 
Additional areas (as above) 7.36 square 

miles. 
Total area to be acquired, flooded area 

and marginal area for protection. 

16.70 square miles. 
Length, 11.5 miles. 
Maximum width, 1.7 miles. 



179 

Length of shore, islands not included, 

38.1 miles. 
Maximum depth at dam site, 160 feet. 
Length of main dam at Bishops Falls, 

1,280 feet. 
Length of secondary dam at Brown's 

station, 1,950 feet. 
Length of dikes, 7,725 feet, 
length of spillway, 1,000 feet. 
Length of railroad flowed, ii.i miles. 
Length of roads flooded, 37 miles. 
Average depth figured as a right prism 

base equal to the flooded area, 29.3 

feet. 
Total number of structures, all 

included 678 



Divided as follow: 

Dwellings, boarding houses, 

hotels 343 

Barns, outhouses, sheds 261 

Schools 6 

Business places, stores, railroad 

stations 57 

Halls, churches, etc 11 

Total 678 



\\ 



In addition to the Ashokan Reservoir, the fol- 
lowing have been surveyed on Esopus Creek : 

II. — Wittenburg Reservoir (located on the Little 
Beaver Kill near Wittenberg or 
Yankee Town) : 

Flow line is at elevation 850 feet above 
datum. 

Area of water surface is 878 acres. 

Capacity 



7,456,000,000 gallons. 



i8o 

III. — Lake Hill Reservoir (located on the Big 
Beaver Kill near Willow) : 
Flow line is at elevation i,iio feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface is 1,067 acres. 
Capacity 12,493,000,000 gallons. 

IV. — Cold Brook Reservoir (located on the main 

stream of the Esopus near Cold 

Brook Station) : 
Flow line is at elevation 720 feet above 

datum. 
Area of water surface is 850 acres. 
Capacity 9,791.000,000 gallons. 

V. — Shandaken Reservoir (located on the main 

stream of the Esopus not far from 

the former railroad station of that 

name) : 
Flow line is at elevation 1,190 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface is 260 acres. 
Capacity 3,273,000,000 gallons. 

VI. — Big Indian Reservoir (located on the main 

stream of the Esopus just above 

the town of Big Indian ) : 
Flow line is at elevation 1,310 feet 

above datum. 
Area of water surface is 193 acres. 
Capacity 2,043,000,000 gallons. 



The total storage capacity devel- 
oped on Esopus Creek is. . . 101,566,000,000 gallons. 



RONDOUT CREMK. 

The reservoir sites developed on Rondout Creek are as follows : 

I. — Napanoch Reservoir (located north of the 
Village of Napanoch) : 
Flow line is at elevation 6^x) feet above 

(latum. 
Area of water surface is 439 acres. 
' * Capacity 4,760,000,000 gallons 



i8i 

II. — Lackawack Reservoir (located near the Vil- 
lage of Lackawack, which will be 
submerged) : 

Flow line is at elevation 750 feet above 
datum. 

Area of water surface is 1,075 acres. 

Capacity 13,271,000,000 gallons. 

III. — P^ureka Reservoir (located near the Village 
of that name) : 
Capacity is estimated at 5,000,000,000 gallons. 

The total storage capacity developed 

on Rondout Creek is 20,531,000,000 gallons. 



Ver Nooy Creek, with a watershed of about 21 square miles, adjoin- 
ing the Rondout to the north and east, is of nearly identical character 
with that stream as to steep slopes, forest area and lack of population. 
It may easily be connected with the Rondout outlet, and its watershed 
is included in the estimate for the latter. 

PI. VII. shows the location of each reservoir in the Esopus Water- 
shed. 

The important part played by the Ashokan Reservoir in the develop- 
ment of the Esopus water and its early construction required in the system 
of additional supply, makes it advisable to give the following detailed 
approximate estimate of its cost : 

APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE OK COST OF ASIIOKAN RESERVOIR. 

Stripping entire reservoir. 9,600,000 cubic yards, at 30 cents. . $2,880,000 

Relocation of roads and reconstruction of old, 26 miles, at 

$10,000 260,000 

Railroad relocation, complete. West Hurley to Boiceville, 13 

miles 434,385 

Gate house and connections complete at West Hurley and 

entrance to tunnel 250,000 

Damages to water power on the Esopus Creek, and other 

business enterprises 450,000 

Cost of land, including a strip 1,000 feet wide around reser- 
voir, and islands and peninsulas included, 7,900 acres, 
at $20 158,000 



1 82 

Buildings, dwellings (bams not included), and stores, etc., fig- 
ured in next item, 343 dwellings, at $2,000 $686,000 

Injury to business enterprises, stores, mills, hotels, etc 500,000 

Clearing and grubbing wooded land, 1,425 acres, at $50 71,250 

Removal of cemeteries and graveyards, 14 large and small, 

at $5,000 70,000 

Protection against turbidity by walls, etc 100,000 

Sanitary precautions and sewage disposal 50,000 

Masonry Dam, on Esopus Creek, Bishop's Falls — 

Rubble masonry, 154,000 cubic yards, at $4. . $616,000 
Facing, 18,000 cubic yards, at $15 270,000 



886,000 



(Second estimate, 172,000 cu. yds. at $6.50, $1,118,000.) 



Embankment at dam, excavating the base and replacing... 150,000 

Wasteway, excavation, wing walls, channel, etc 100,000 

Gate house 75,ooo 

Temporary flumes, dam and proposed tunnel during con- 
struction 400,000 

Power house, in connection with main dam 50,000 

(Total, dam and appurtenances, $1,661,000.) 

Brozvn's Station Spillway (Holyoke Station). — 

Rubble masonry, 8.000 cubic yards, at $4 32,000 

Facing and coping, 5,150 cubic yards, at $15 77,250 

Abutments and wing walls, 2,800 cubic yards, at $6.50 18,200 

Excavation for Spillway channel 50,000 

(Total of Brown's Spillway. $184,450.) 

Estimate for all Earth Dikes Exeept Glenford and West Hurley 

Dikes. 

Earthwork (selected material), 912,375 cubic yards, at 40 cents. 364,950 
Core walls, concrete (Portland cement), 134,140 cubic yards, 

at $6 804,840 

Slope paving, first class, 26,050 cubic yards, at $4 104,200 

Loose paving, 29.270 cubic yards, at $2 58,540 

Broken stone, 5.220 cubic yards, at $r 5,220 

(Pirown's Station dikes, $1,200,900.) 



183 

Glen ford Dike and Road Crossing, 

Embankment (spoil bank not included), 17,100 cubic yards, 

at 40 cents $6,840 

Core wall, 4,000 cubic yards, at $6 24,000 

Slope paving, all first class, 2,570 cubic yards, at $4 10,200 

(Total Glenford Dike, ^38,5^)0.) 

IVcst Hurley Dike and Cut-o1f\ and Proposed Spilhvay, Holyoke 

Seetion. 

Rubble masonry, i ,000 cubic yards, at $4 4,000 

Facing masonry. 1,475 cubic yards, at $15 22,125 

Embankment. 27,000 cubic yards, at 40 cents 10,800 

Wing wall or abutments not included. 

(West Hurley dike, $36,925.) 

Road Crossing at Brown's Station, 

Embankment, 144,900 cubic yards, at 20 cents 28,980 

Paving, 19,450 cubic yards, at $2 38,900 

Bridge Abutments. 

Rubble masonry, 7,230 cubic yards, at $4 28,920 

Coping, 21 cubic yards, at $25 525 

Steel Work. 

1 50-f()()t span 5,000 

(Road crossing, $102,325.) 

Road Crossing at Shokan on Natural Dike. 

Embankment, 593.500 cubic yards (taking from stripping), 

at 20 cents 1 18,700 

Paving. 6ij,400 cubic yards, at $2 138,800 

Bridge Abutments. 

Rubble. 20.030 cubic yards, at $4 80,120 

Coping, 35 cubic yards, at $25 875 

« 

Piers. 

Rubble, 4,800 cubic yards, at $4 19,200 

Coping, 47 cubic yards, at $25 IJ75 



i84 

Steel Work. 

3 spans, at $5,000 each $1 !;.ooo 

(Road crossings, $373,870.) 
Connecting Channel: Base, 15 feet Wide; at Elevation, 505. 
Total cubic yards of excavation, assuming one-third loose 
rock, one-third rock and one-third earth. 

Rock * $2.00 

Loose rock .65 

Earth 35 

$3.00 

Average i.oo 

= -= 573,200 

Total for construction ; $10,203,195 

Adding 15 per cent, for engineering and further investiga- 
tions of details i .530,479 

Making a grand total of $1 1 ^33-674 

Hence cost of storage per million gallons ^^77 

Lengths of structures for elevation of flow line, 560. 

Dam at Bishop's Falls, over Esopus Creek 1,280 long. 

Spillway at Brown's Station t,ooo '* 

West Dike i»75o feet. 

Middle Dike 2,350 " 

Beaver Kill i j9So " 

East Dike 2,850 '' 

Glenford 1,050 " 

West Hurley 725 '' 

Total dike 10,675 feet. 



The above estimate is approximate only, many items had to be assumed. 
Xo borings at dam sites had then been made and the exact location of 
some of the structures has not been finally determined. Prices used have 
been carefully considered, but are subject to revision. The cost of water 
power on the Esopus was estimated on the best data available, and it is 
believed to be verv liberal. 



185 



COMPARISON OF STORAGE RESERVOIRS. 

Approximate Figures from Best Available Data in Catskill Department, 

August 8, iQOj, 



Name of Ressrvoir. 



Sq. I Sq. 
Mi. 1 Ml. 



bt. 



As'iokan 255 9.34 ' 29 

Croton I 360 , 5.75 I 37 

Wachusett , n8 \ 6.56 1 46 

Sudbury 22 I 1.91* 19 

Hopkinton j 6 

Ash'and ' 6 



Wigwam 18 



I 



•99 ' as 
.26 26 

.16 32 



s 


Length of Dam. 1 


It 





1 


B^ 






(« 










g 






c 
§ 


J 


«''o 


« 


a 


5:° 


:s 


(S 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


160 


1,280 


10,700 


»57 


i,«7o 




119 


1.350 


Z3.000 


65 


300 


1,565 


60 


30 


1,540 


49 


30 


1,857 


70 


5'4 


600 







^•i 




Cost. 








15 





- 








^s 


•0 


■d 


^• 


>% 




^^ 


6 


.a 


s 


•f3 


g; 


gl^ 


^ s 




u 
2 


U 


tj^ 


•g:5o 


5j 




'£ 


1 


*5 


ir^ 


fi 


1 


2 




H 


Q 


£ 


M 


u: 


^ 


Mil. 


, Mil. 


Mil- 


Dol- 


Dol- 


Mil. 


Gals. 


Gals. 


lions. 


i2r«. 


lars. 


Dels. 


00,000 


250 


3.500 


177 


4.70 


11-731 


32,000 


375 


a. 750 


•aoo 






63,000 


105 


1.030 


145 


8.70 


9.105 


7,400 


22 


.220 


40c 


13.10 


2w4)22 


1,500 


6 


.060 


565 


M-30 


.860 


1.4CO 


6 


.060 


580 


13-10 


.787 


750 


7« 


•07s 


4CO 


4. CO 


.300 



Ashokan — Figures of cost from preliminary estimate. 

Croton and Wachusett statistics mostly from Mass. St. Board of Health Special Report 
of 1895. 

Other data from well authenticated sources. 



SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 

After a careful examination of the various towns and villages on the 
different watersheds, a determination was made of those requiring special 
provision for the safe disposal of the sewage. These were then surveyed 
by Air. Xickerson, Assistant Engineer, and plans were drawn and estimates 
prepared in each case and a reix>rt made, giving a description of the methods 
employed and the results reached. These reports are now filed with other 
papers and maps of the Commission. In the Catskill and Esopus valleys it 
was found sufficient to provide special disposal plants for the few centers 
of population where they were required. In the Schoharie Valley it seemed 
wise to plan for a trunk sewer from the vicinity of Hunter lo a point below^ 
Prattsville. This was accordingly done. The greater portion of the dis- 

♦Freeman Report, page 440— Probibly too low for Cornell Basin and otherwise not com- 
parable as a single reservoir. 



i86 

tance was actually surveyed and plans and profile drawn. Data for the 
part of the sewer near Hunter were taken, however, from the plans of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, but it is believed that sufficient detail was 
obtained for present purposes. The reports covering all these proposi- 
tions, in connection with the plans and profiles on which they are based, 
form a complete system for the safe disposal of all sewage on the various 
watersheds. 

It may be stated in this connection, that the conditions on the Rondoui 
and Ver Nooy Creeks do not at present require any special works for this 
purpose. The population is sparse and would be rendered still more so, 
if storage reservoirs should be constructed where required for develop- 
ing the water supply. 

Draftixg Department. 

Filed among the records of the Commission are 183 plans and pro- 
files relating to the work done in this Department during the season. 

Relating to the Ashokan Reservoir 68 

Relating to Supplementary Reservoirs 39 

Relating to rainfall and run-off 14 

Of these 

135 are of standard double elephant size, 

39 are of letter size, 

9 are profiles. 

These are all filed in one case, and they have been indexed in the 
card index. 

There are 55 note-books filled with notes. 

There are also certain notebooks and plans received from the Depart- 
ment of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity (from Mr. Hill and Air. Bird- 
sail), relating to previous surveys in this section. These plans were 
utilized in making estimates for capacity for the East Durham reservoir 
and w^herever they were available. 

IMIVSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CATSKILL TERRITORY. 

(Geologically, the whole territory under consideration seems to belong 
to the same formation. Quarries of blue stone are found throughout the 
whole territory from the low lands to the top of the mountains. There is 
no limestone above P.ishop's Falls, and the water is, therefore, soft. 



187 

There is also an entire absence of swamps, except at West Hurley and 
Ashton, in the basin of the proposed Ashokan reservoir, and also except 
a small area on the Rondout. There are no true swamps on the territory 
under consideration and therefore there is no color in the streams. 

There are a number of small clay beds in various parts of the water- 
shed, and some of the waters, especially of the Esopus and Schoharie, are 
turbid at times. These small clay deposits can be located and as sources 
of turbidity they can be eliminated. Sedimentation in the Ashokan Res- 
ervoir can also be depended upon to restore the water to its original 
limpid condition. 

A striking feature of the Catskill watershed, aside from its steep slopes 
and extremes of elevation, is the great extent of forest area. This is par- 
ticularly true of the Rondout and Esopus watersheds, in which more than 
ninety per cent, of the territory is covered with forest growth, much of this 
being forty years old or more. This age is determined by the general 
denudation of the forest at that time to supply bark for the tanneries then 
very numerous in all these valleys. The southern slope of the Schoharie 
is steep and well wooded like the Esopus and the Rondout, but the northern 
slope is flatter and more cultivated. The Catskill is still better adapted for 
farming lands and is so utilized, probably not more than twenty-five per 
cent, of this section being left to forest areas. 

A considerable portion of the Slide Mountain district is owned by the 
State and held as a forest reserve, it being the policy of the Commonwealth 
to increase these holdings from time to time. The importance of these 
forest areas in connection with rainfall and run-off is referred to in 
another part of this report. 

The OutHozu from the Ashokan Reservoir into the Aqueduct. 

It seems desirable, for many reasons, to make the intake to the aque- 
duct from the Ashokan Reservoir at some point near West Hurley, the 
opposite end of the reservoir from the point of inflow; that is to say, at a 
point which will give the water the longest possible period for exposure to 
the action of sun and wind, so as to secure the highest attainable degree 
of sterilization. 

From this point the conduit should follow a southerly direction to a 
crossing of the Hudson river near the town of Esopus. This river crossing 
ma}' be made in a tunnel under the river or in a dredged channel in the 
bottom of the river, of such size as to carry four 48-inch pipes, so arranged 
as to be accessible for inspection, repair and renewal in the tunnel plan. 
Inasmuch as the elevation of the Ashokan water-mass is in excess of that 



1 88 

needed for delivering the water at elevation 295 in New York by an aque- 
duct of with ordinary grade, there remains a considerable head which 
may be utilized in determining the size of these pipes under the river, and 
48 inches is suggested as an economical and advantageous diameter. 

From the river a conduit should run by the most feasible and econom- 
ical route to the Stormville filters, as is shown by the route provisionally 
adopted on the accompanying plans. 

The aqueduct from the Rondout watershed would enter that from the 
Ashokan at a suitable point westerly of the Hudson river, as also pro- 
visionally show-n on the accompanying plans. 

It would be the purpose of this part of the aqueduct construction to 
afford an independent aqueduct line for the Esopus and Rondout waters, 
so as to conduct them to the filters at Stormville w'ithout mingling with 
those from the w^atersheds on the east side of the Hudson. This separate 
conveyance of the clear and soft waters from the west side of the Hudson is 
of the utmost importance in the reduction of the hardness of the waters 
brought down from the drainage areas east of the Hudson river, as well as 
for other purposes of control. 



1 89 



Table I. — Appendix II. 

Comparison ov Storage Reservoirs. 

ApproA'imate Figures from Best Available Data in Catskill Department, 

August 8, 1903. 



Name of Reservoir. 



Water 

Shed. 
Sq. 

Miles. 



Ashokan. . 
Croton. . . . 
Wachusett. 
Sudbury . . 
Hopkinton. 
Ashland. . . 
Wigwam . . 



Area. 



Full 
Reser- 
voir. 

Sq. 
Miles. 



255 I 9-34 
3^ I S.75 
T18 I 6.56 
2a I I. 91 
6 I .39 
6 ' .36 
18 ' .x6 



Height 
Av#.r 1 of Dam 

a« I «****^ 
twk' Stream 
^*P'*^ltoriow 
I Line. 



Feet. 

39 

27 
46 
«9 
25 
26 



Feet. 
160 

157 

129 

65 

60 

49 
70 



Length of 
Dam. 


is 

u 

ft 
Feet. 


1 


Feet 


1,380 


io,7co 


1,370 





1.350 


13.000 


300 


1.565 


30 


«.540 


30 


'.857 


5a« 


600 



Total 
Capac- 

MilUon 
GaUons. 


Daily 
Sup- 

& 
lion 
Gal- 
lons. 


66,000 


350 


33,000 


375 


63,000 


»o5 


7,400 


32 


I, SCO 


6 


1.400 


6 


750 


7% 



Popula- 
tion 
Sup- 
plied fl 



Cost. 



tion 

Sup- _ 

)lied a: , u.^.. 
100 Gals ^f.'' Each I ^. , , 

Capita I 53L.' Sup. ^»- 

d!:L. »tored|Pl^lMilllon 

Millionsi ^^ ' Dols. I ^'''^• 



2.500 177 4.70 ' 11.734 

3.750 ♦200 

1.050 145 8.70 

.220 I 4GO 13 zo 



.060 ' 56q 

I 

.ofo I 580 

.075 ' 400 



14.30 

13.10 



9.105 

2.922 

.860 
.787 
.300 



Ashokan — Figures of cost from preliminary estimate. 

Croton and Wachusett statistics mostly from Massachusetts State Board of Health Special Report of 1895. 

Other dau from well authenticated sources. 

* Freeman Report, page 440; probibly too low for Cornell Basin, and otherwise not comparable as a single 

reservoir. 



190 















^ 



:=! ^ 



pq 
< 



1^ »o 






= 5^1 



5 






I § § 



S 

C/3 






«o f« m « o 
►T 2> ►."■ - «^ 



is I. 

HO I ^ 



i ss 



o\ • « m 6 O 



* % 



(26 



P 



^ I ^ t I 



-8. 



I 



i s I I I 



■2 s 

O o 






I O O 

,| H'-> 



I § 



I I I I § i i 



8" 



^ S 



is I ' 






2 « I 





1 


o» 




8 


^ 






£ 


« 



§ S; § §! I ^ 



§ ^ i i 



2 






: : 5 : := : 
J J a • >« J 

%t ^ a <; u M 



,g. 

V 

Q 



^ B b" 



tS - ^ 

U X pJ 



1] 



1 



B 
■I 



8 






S 
4 



U J) w 



^ i 



J^ ,y 



•£ J< 



B 
I 



o- ■;? 



P^ U) u u 



191 






1 s 


8 8*8.: 

^ =• s- 1 i i 





i 



s I 






3 -^ ^ ST 

x « a ^ 

- « ;; 2 

« * ^ ^ 

** '^ ^ 







. § 






192 



Table III. — Appendix II. 

City of New York — Commission ox Additional Water Supply. 

Description and Detailed Estimates of Proposed Reservoirs in the Rondout 

Valley, 



Name of reservoir 

Character of dam 

Height of dam, feet. . . ■ 
Length of dam, teet. — 
Area of reservoir, acres 

Elevation, flow hae 

Elevation, low water . . . . 
Capacity, gallons 



Napanoch. 
Earth. Masonry. 



50 
1. 130 



no 
970 



439 

660 

570 

4,760,000,000 



Lackawack. 
Masonry. 
i«S 
1*300 
1.075 
750 
650 
i3,a7i,ooo,ocx> 



Qu.intities. ' 



Land damages 

New highways, at |io,ooo per mile 

Clearing and grubbing, at I70 per acre 

Stripping, at $0.30 per cubic yard 

Earth excavation, at $0.30 per cubic yard 

Rrck excavation, at 1 1.50 per cubic yard 

Earth embankment, at |o. 50 per cubic yard ... 

Concrete core, at $5 per cubic yard 

Rubble spillway, at |io per cubic yard 

Rubble masonry, at is per cubic yard 

Facing for dam, at |ia per cubic yard 

Slope paving, at $3 per cubic yard 

Seeding slopes, at |o. 10 per square yard 

Gate-house and appurtenances 

Temporary dam and flume 

Fifteen per cent, for general inaccessibility of location. 

Total 

Engineering and contingencies, 15 per cent , 

Grand total 

Cost per million gallons 




f,»9o 

6.1 

63 

702^00 

/ 
^9p7o 

^5.150 
, 29*460 
' 4.5^ 
74.300 
14,150 
23,100 

23, ICO 



Total 
Cost. 



I Quantities. 



3«2,575 
1x2,300 

45.«'Oo 
37».5Co , 
169,800 

69,300 
2,310 , 

22, 1 10 ' 
30,000 ' 
247,320 



^1,896090 I 

284,410 

$2,180,500 

5.58 



W9.25O 
61,000 , 
4,2CO 

210,720 j 

148,701 I 



Total 
Cost. 



#235,000 
z 00,000 



2i350 
10.6 

no ' 7.700 

1,730.000 5i€,ooo 

76,420 I 23,926 

500 750 



4,000 40.000 

121,190 605,950 

23,<.8o 276.960 



25,310 

30,000 

280,140 

*a, 147.7 tO 
^22,160 

$2,469,^00 

«i86 



Eureka Reservoir estimated to require an earth dam 81 feet high and 1.220 feet long, giving a capacity of 
about 5.000,000.000 gallons, at a cost of $475 per million gallons. 

Catskill Drpartmrnt. October, 1003. 



193 



Name of reservoir 

Character ol dam 

Height oi dam, feet 

Length of dam, teet 

Area of reservoir, acres. . 

Elevation flow line 

Elevation low- water line. 
Capacity, gallons 



Pratt&ville. 
Masonry. 

95 

1,630 

700 

1,240 

1,900 

9,398,000,000 



Description and 1 



Windham. 

Earth. 

xoo 

1,700 

1,500 

1.405 

13,023,000,000 



kill 



Land damages 

New highways, at i to,ooo per mile 

Clearing and grubbing, at $70 per acre 

Stripping, at #0.30 per cubic yard 

Earth excavation, at ^.30 per cubic yard 

Rock excavation, at $1.50 per cubic yard 

Earth embankment, at I0.50 per cubic yard 

Concrete core, at $3 per cubic yard 

Rubble spillway, at $10 per cubic yard 

Rubble masonry, at $$ per cubic yard 

Facing ior dam, at $12 per cubic yard 

Slope paving, at I3 per cubic yard 

Seeding slopes, at |o. 10 per square yard 

Gate-house and appurtenances 

Temporary dam and flume 

Fifteen per cent, for general inaccessibility of locations. 



Total 

Engineering and contingencies, 15 per cent. 



Grand total . 



Cost per million gallons ». 



Quantities. 



1, 90 J acres. 

8.25 

aco 

1,120,000 

162,580 

1,300 



5,000 
184,7x0 
35,»8o 



Total Cost. 

1190,000 

82,500 

14,000 

336,000 

48,770 
1,950 



Quantities. 1 Total Cost. 



50,000 
923*550 
422,x6u 



23.7*0 
30,000 
3i8,4co 

I2.441.050 
366,160 



1,980 acres. 

9.1 

70 

1,476,800 

1,130,300 



I 



1.560,580 
44.000 
8.500 



61,080 
56,480 



s 347.603 

91,003 

4,900 

443.040 

339,090 

780,290 

230,000 
25,000 



35.250 
33,000 

7,000 
76,480 
13.867 



183,240 



Q7,90O 



5,640 Z3,6oo 
42,360 12,500 
lO.OOO ..,,., 

388,825 

I 9.570 

3«9 

48,360 



« 2.980,995 
447.150 



$2,807,210 ! 1 $3,428,150 I ^'**** 

' _ _- 03,930 



$2Q8 



I 



$362 



1 .55.770 



Estimate of Schoharie — Esopus Tunnel : Tunnel, 53,600 feet, at $60=13,216,000 ; sha'33.37o 

•99.M0 
$292 



», 254 



Cr 
Descf 



Name ol 
CharacK 
Height < 
Length ( 
Area of 
Elevatio 
Kkvatio: 
Capacity 



Land da 
New hig 
Clearing 
Strippin, 
Eanh e> 
Rrck CXI 
Earth a 
Concreti 
Rubble < 
Rubble t 
Facing i 
Slope p4 
Seeding 
Gate-ho» 
Temporl 
Fifteen f. 



Enginee" 



Cost per 



I9S 



Table V. — Appendix II. 

City of New York — Commission on Additional Water Supply. 

Description and Detailed Estimates of Proposed Reservoirs in the Catskill 

Valley. 



Name of reservoir 

Character of dam 

Height of dam, feet 

Lengi h of dam, feet 

Area of reservoir, acres ... 

Elevation, flow line 

Elevation, low water line . 
Capacity, gallons 



Oak Hill. 
Masonry. 

130 
2,025 
530 
;oo 
600 
6,470,300,000 



Preston Hollow. 
Masonry . 
170 
1.750 
520 
950 
810 
9^365,803,000 



Franklinton. 

Earth. 

no 

780 

576 

X,300 

I,ZCO 

6,153,000,000 



Land damages acres 

New Highways, at |io,coo per mile 

Clearing and grubbing, at I70 per acre 

Stripping, at I0.30 per cubic yard 

Eirth excavation, at fo.30 per cubic yard. . . 
Rock excavation, at lz.50 per cubic yard.. . . 
Earth embankment, at I0.50 per cubic yard. 

Concrete masonry, at $5 per cubic yard 

Spillway, at |io per cubic yard 

Rubble masonry, at I5 per cubic yard 

Facing for dam, at |i3 per cubic yard 

Slope paving, at I3 per cubic yard 

Seeding slopes, at ^.zo per square yard 

Gate-house and appurtenances 



'Quantities 

. j i«5oo 

7-5 

180 

960,003 

935,000 

xz.ooo 



Temporary dam and flume 

Z5 per cent, for general inaccessibility of | 
location j 



Total 

Engineering and contingencies, 15 per cent. 

Grand Toul 

Cost per million gallons 



I 



3x8,coo 

43,OCO 

z 5,000 

ZO,0OO 



Cost. 



Quantities 



$150,000 

75.COO 
12,600 
388,000 
67.500 
z6,50o 



z, 090,000 

504,00:) 

45,000 

r.ooo 

30,000 

»o,ooo 

360,000 



|a,759,63o 



i4" 5.400 



l3.»75.oco 



^490 



1,503 

si 

200 
950,000 
z 18.000 



3.SOO 

313.000 1 

62,200 

4.000 

8,coo 



Cost. 



h 



uantitiesl Cost. 



|zz2,50o I 1,670 

80,000 : 2.3 

z4,ooo zoo 

285,000 92 z, 600 ; 

35,400 I 712,890 j 

33.COO ! 





z,oz5,8oo 




22,720 


35,coo 


1,250 


1.565,000 




746,400 




19,000 


3.190 


800 


3.190 


39.500 




30,000 





43z,8oo 






I » 35.350 

33,000 

7.000 

876,480 

213,867 

•••••• 

5«7,9«> 
zz3,6ao 
13,500 



9.570 

3»9 

48,360 

S.000 



43z,8oo 





309.930 


l3.3zo,4oo 


l«.S5S.77o 


♦497,600 




I333.370 


f?,8o8,oco 




*«,799.MO 


$407 




$392 



A reservoir at East Durham was estimated in Z901 to require a 65-foot dam ; flow line, 5x5 ; area, 254 
acres ; capacity, 3,500,000,000 gallons. 

Catskill Department. October 3Z, 1903. 



196 



vAfttous »¥Ar£0aH£O9 

4M J' '«•# 




90 90 *09% 



^UATm I. APR. II. 



197 



1% 



PLATS II, APR, II. 

ESOPUS WATERSHED 

MONTHLY DISTRIBUTION OF YIELD 
27 months ending Sept. 30, 1903 

^ j WatPFmlivd Htm Klt Hh. ill, 



i.^t*klU it<'tuLU<HMil4k4abfr ivOI- 



Hf- ^^fN ^^ 

f ilMijiBiiiljiiaiiiSiiltii 



o 

1" 

• c 
2 I 



-m 






Sfll in(IUur(is!U['jni{ikAiiilit,'J> ii 



't""*^""^ 









^* 



Coraparison with Croton: 

CJroton mean daily flow.^28 Mil. QalA. for same pciiod of 27 months. 
<' «* «' «• --1.55T I. «• per sq. mi. from .*»)) sq miles. 

ESsopus « « « —1.905 <' <• <• <• <' <. ftu >. u 

If ultimate safe yield fi-oni furture Croton ai-ea of 300 Sq miles is 

275 M. O. daily - .16* M. G daily per erinare mile. 

then: 



1.557 : 761 : 1.0«5 X -- .9» Mil. Gal. daily per Sq. Mile 
Heiu.-e: .931 x SoG -2iG Mil. Gal. dally safe yield of Esopus. 



198 




199 




» TO 

Drawing NM* 
^LATM V. ilPP. If. 



200 



DJ 00 65 



vr* 
























1 




MA 
























^^^-^-'ssw 


























^^ 


^'^K 


L 


070 




















^<^ 


1 
























iT* ' 1 






, 












^^>«s„-- ■- - 1 








- 








r^ 


rwf 1 
















^^ 


t®».5 














-^ 
























aff 


mA \ 




330 






ri^ 


rf 


City of New York 
Commission on Additional Water Supply 
Capacity Curve 

for the 

Wachusett Reservoir 

on tlia 

Nashua River 

Mass. 
Aug. 31,1903 






a^ 


ift 


380 




-jf> 


b 1 






aV 




310 
300 

sgo 

280 


'a* 
ao4 






870 
260 


- 


Capacities in BiUioa OollonB 

% 10 15 20 85 30 35 10 15 50 55 00 Co 

1 1 I'll 



^LATm VI. APR. 11. 




PLATE VII. ARP. II. 



200 




Draciuj y».:a 
^LATm VI. APR. II. 



10l5iM)25 3035*0455055 




PLATM Vn. APR. II. 



201 




203 



APPENDIX III. 



Proposed Aqueduct Sections^ 



205 

Appendix III. 

Proposed Aqueduct Sections. 
E. G. HopSON, Department Engineer. 

These designs involve some novel features, based partly on previous 
\vc»rks and partly on present studies. The proposed changes from existing 
t\ pes are, however, not extreme, and consist of certain modifications by which 
tconomy may be effected without any sacrifice of necessary strength or sta- 
bility. This is especially the case with the design of the tunnel section. 

The waterworks tunnels thus far built have generally been costly, as a 
rule averaging double or more than double the cost of an equal length of 
cut and cover work. The chief reason for this has been the costly nature 
of the material used for lining and the disadvantageous arrangements 
that have been adopted for excavation, whereby unnecessary and useless 
work was performed at a high cost. In the Wachusett Aqueduct, a con- 
siderable length of tunnel through firm rock was left unlined, and in con- 
sequence, built at a low cost. Circumstances are such that this method 
cannot be often adopted, for reasons hereafter mentioned. A decided 
step toward greater economy in tunnel work was adopted in the Weston 
Aqueduct by the use of Portland cement concrete as a tunnel lining. This 
material, so much cheaper than brick, has proved a conspicuous success 
for this purpose, and it has been largely used during the past few years 
for railroad and other work. The shape of tunnel used in the Weston 
Aqueduct does not, however, admit of all the economy that may properly 
be brought into a design for this aqueduct, as it necessitates' a costly arch 
for the entire length. 

In the proposed high level aqueduct, the great length of tunnel work 
will bring this matter of economical tunnel design into prominence and 
warrant an extended study of the question. 

]W the proposed design, the cost of tunnel w^ork is expected to average 
not more than about i 2-3 times the cost of cut and cover w^ork, if built 
on the proposed gradients. 

Carrying Capacity of Masonry Aqueducts and Tunnels. 

The aqueducts have been designed to carry 500 million gallons daily 
when flowing at a depth of eight-tenths of the inside vertical diameter. 
The coefficients of flow used in the design are shown on sheet dated 
May 27, 1903, and entitled : 

Curves of Coefficient " C " in formula, V=C\/R S. 



2o6 

The data on which chief reHance has been placed are those obtained from 
the careful gaugings of the Wachusett Aqueduct, giving values of " C " cor- 
responding to hydraulic mean radii of 3 and under. This curve of coefficients 
has been extended for higher values of " R " by paralleling the curve plotted 
from the original gaugings of the New Croton Aqueduct, and has been 
adopted for clean aqueducts. The highest value of " C " from this curve is 
146.5, which is considerably lower than that given by Kutter's formula for 
values of " N '' corresponding to a roughness equal to that of the Wachusett 
Aqueduct. As a matter of fact, it is evident that results obtained from Kut- 
ter's formula in computing flows in aqueducts of the size under consideration 
only approximate the true conditions, as will be seen by comparing the curve 
from Kutter's formula with the curve of actual coefficients obtained. This 
is no more than might be expected with any formula derived from experiment 
on a small scale. 

A comparison of the curves of coefficients of the Croton, Sudbury and 
Wachusett Aqueducts and the Stony Brook Conduit, shows the unmistakable 
tendency of these curves to flatten out for the higher values of "R," and also 
the danger of estimating with higher coefficients than those shown by the 
curve adopted. 

The Wachusett Aqueduct is brick lined to a depth of about 5 feet and 
arched with concrete. The bricks are laid with great nicety, and a true and 
smooth surface has been obtained; the concrete arch has been skim coated 
with cement, and finished with a cement wash applied with a brush, each 
stroke of the brush being lengthwise of the conduit. It is anticipated that the 
proposed aqueduct will have hydraulic properties at least equal to those 
of the Wachusett, and perhaps superior. 

The capacity of the Sudbury Aqueduct has been diminished at times 13J/I 
per cent, through the growth of slime on the inside surface, the Cochituate 
Aqueduct as much as 11^ per cent, and the Wachusett from 10 to 11 per 
cent. It has been considered advisable to allow for a diminution of I2j4 
per cent, in the carrying capacity of the open trench portion of the proposed 
aqueduct, as a safe margin on this account 

The lining of tunnels has been proved to be clearly of inferior hydraulic 
qualities to those of the cut and cover work. The New Croton Aqueduct, 
practically an all tunnel aqueduct, shows materially lower coefficients 
than the Sudbury or Wachusett, although lined with the same material. 
The brick lined portion of the Wachusett Aqueduct tunnel has been found 
to approximate closely the Croton Aqueduct in this respect. On this 
account it has been considered advisable to use the coefficients of the 
Croton for the proposed tunnels when clean. 



207 

The concrete lining for the new tunnels will, at least, be as smooth as 
the rough brickwork of the Croton and Wachusett tunnels, although not so 
smooth as the concrete surface in the cut and cover sections. 

In making an allowance for growth of slime in the tunnels, it has been 
considered that tlie carrying capacity of a tunnel which, when new, is much 
rougher than an open trench aqueduct, will not deteriorate so much as the 
latter. It is believed that the growth of sHme inside an aqueduct retards the 
flow by an action differing essentially from that of a roughly constructed in- 
terior surface. The line hair like filaments of the organisms forming the 
slime adhere or cohere to the layers of the water in contact with them, and 
by an action akin to that of eel grass on a larger scale, act as a brake on the 
velocity of the whole prism of water without necessarily causing eddies or 
swirls in the current. (3n the other hand, roughly constructed lining, or on a 
larger scale a rough rock surface will retard flow by causing eddies and swirls 
that deflect the current from a direct line of flow, and thereby cause obstruc- 
tion and loss of head. 

It is probable that the formation of slime on the sides of a rough unlined 
tunnel v^^ould not sensibly affect its carrying capacity, already extremely 
low; and by analogy, it seems fair to infer that with a lined tunnel of 
considerably rougher surface than a cut and cover aqueduct, the propor- 
tionate loss will be much less in the former than in the latter. 

Mr. Freeman found that in the Croton Aqueduct,between Goulds Swamp 
Siphon and Ardsley, the original capacity had apparently not been diminished 
more than 4 per cent, after many years' constant use, although in the upper 
portions of the same aqueduct, the capacity had lessened much more. The 
loss of head in the upper portions of the Croton Aqueduct may have been 
largely due to growth of spongilla, or deposits of sediment or rubbish. 

It has been considered sufficient to allow a reduction of 5 per cent, in 
the capacity of tunnels consequent upon the growth of slime. This will 
reduce the coefficients of both cut and cover aqueduct and lined tunnel to 
about the same amount when foul, and, taking everything into considera- 
tion, this appears to be based on fairly sound reasoning. 

Using these coefficients, the section of cut and cover work has been 
designed to carry 500 million gallons, flowing at eight-tenths of its full 
depth, which will give a flow of 528 million gallons when flowing full and 
549 million gallons when at its maximum capacity (about 92 per cent, of 
its full depth). 

The coefficients used are those for foul aqueduct, that is to say, for an 
aqueduct coated with slime, but no allowance has been made for obstruction 
that may be caused by deposits of leaves, or rubbish, or the growth of spong- 
illa. It has been considered that the aqueduct would be periodically 



208 

cleaned and inspected, and any trouble from the latter causes would be 
removed at these times. The formation of slime in unfiltered surface water 
takes place with great rapidity, and cannot be prevented or held much in 
check by yearly cleanings. The reduction of flows in the Sudbury, Wachusett 
and Cochituate Aqueducts takes place very largely in the first few weeks after 
cleaning, and reaches a maximum after about four or five months' use ; after 
that time apparently no appreciable increase takes place. As it is not prac- 
ticable to clean and inspect an aqueduct oftener than at intervals of from 
six to twelve months, it is evident that the fouling due to slime formation 
will exist most of the time during operation to a greater or less extent. 
The larger and more serious obstruction will, however be removed or 
prevented from forming at each annual or semi-annual cleaning. 

Cut and Cover Aqueduct. 

The Weston Aqueduct, in Massachusetts, belongs, without doubt, to 
the most economical type of all masonry aqueducts of its size now exist- 
ing. It is almost identical in general design with the Wachusett Aque- 
duct, built in the same State a few years before, both being part of the 
new Metropolitan supply, the only points of diflference between the two 
aqueducts being of a minor character. 

Prior to the construction of the Wachusett Aqueduct, the Sudbury prob- 
ably represented the best type of cut and cover aqueduct construction in 
this country. The Old Croton Aqueduct and the Cochituate Aqueduct were 
the pioneers of this class of work in this vicinity, but both of them have 
developed serious structural defects. By comparing the various sections of 
aqueducts built at diflFerent periods, the approach to the horseshoe type of 
section is noted, which has, in a sense, become practically standard. The 
gradual introduction of concrete in the designs is also a matter of significance. 

Brick is being displaced in the new designs, and rubble masonry has 
almost entirely disappeared. In the \^'achusett Aqueduct brick was used for 
invert and side wall lining in the cut and cover sections, and for all tunnel 
lining. Brick was only used for invert and side wall lining in cut and 
cover sections of the Weston Aqueduct, but concrete was used for tunnel 
lining. 

The chief reasons for the retention of brick lining are : 

First — That it furnishes a hard, smooth inside surface of good hydraulic 
properties. 

Second — That it is necessary to supplement the natural cement concrete 
or rubble backing with carefully laid brickwork to obtain good watertight 
work. 



209 

Third — The force of habit, or perhaps it would be fairer to say, the 
knowledge gained by experience that brick makes a very satisfactory lining. 

All brick-work is expensive, especially when occurring in a four-inch 
lining where each brick has to be carefully lined up with great nicety and 
bedded with extreme care. First-class bricklayers and scrupulously careful 
inspection are required. Hence the total cost of the small amount of brick- 
work laid is out of all proportion to its actual value in the design. The use 
of the brick, moreover, necessitates the retention of the horseshoe shaped 
aqueduct, as it is practically essential to build the side walls at such an inclina- 
tion as will prevent the brick lining from tending to separate from the con- 
crete backing. In the proposed section the brick is entirely omitted, 
different classes of Portland cement concrete being used wholly. It 
is expected that some economy will result from the entire elimination of the 
brick from the section, and an especial advantage will be obtained by substi- 
tuting work performed by common labor for that performed by skilled labor 
controlled by labor unions of uncertain temper. 

A serious objection heretofore to the use of large monolithic masses of 
non-reinforced concrete masonry has been the tendency to crack through 
elongation or contraction due to temperature changes. With an aqueduct of 
large diameter these cracks are liable to cause serious leakage and even 
become a source of danger. Some cracks in the concrete arch of an aque- 
duct recently built, due to this reason, were observed to have a width of 
about }i of an inch. 

In the Wachusett Aqueduct it was found that in general transverse 
cracks occurred in the arch at places where a day's work had terminated dur- 
ing construction. This would naturally be expected as being the weakest 
point. 

In the Weston Aqueduct lead water stops were inserted at intervals 
corresponding with a day's work in laying concrete, with a view to prevent 
any leakage at these points. It was noticed, however, that when an interval 
between these water stops was longer than about 50 or 60 feet, cracks had 
often developed between the water stops. In short, the conclusion formed 
after studying these aqueducts is that a complete vertical transverse joint 
may judiciously Le iiuertccl at intervals of about 50 to 70 feet in any con- 
crete aqueduct of large size. In forming these joints, paper or soft soap or 
some other suitable material may be used to prevent any adhesion of the 
newly laid concrete to that of the section already built. Thus the aqueduct 
will consist of a series of short separate lengths, each of which will be prac- 
tically independent. Leakage at the several joints can be easily prevented 
by inserting lead water stops built into the masonry, and by this means it will 



2IO 

be reasonable to expect that trouble from transverse cracks will be obviated. 
Other effective measures may also be employed to overcome these difficulties. 

This method of construction will also be of great advantage in cases 
where an aqueduct is built on embankment and settlements are likely to occur, 
as a considerable deflection from the true gradient through settlement of 
embankment may take place without rupturing the masonry or injuring the 
water stops. 

It is proposed to shape the arch and side walls to a curve approximating 
a parabola, this shape more nearly coinciding with that of the true line of 
resistance of the arch under working conditions. The bottom inside corners 
are rounded off in order to distribute the thrust of the side walls over a 
larger area, and also for hydraulic considerations. The inside shape thus 
more nearly approaches a triangular than a horseshoe shape. 

Portland cement concrete is recommended for the entire construction. 
The proportions of the concrete mixture should be determined by careful 
study of the sand, gravel and broken stone available for the work, A suitable 
balance of fine and coarse materials should be attained so as to secure both 
an impervious concrete and the strongest possible mixture with a given 
amount of cement. Special care should be taken to form all joints with 
strong and watertight bonds. 

The bulk of the side walls and the invert may be of less rich concrete 
than the arch. 

In the construction of a concrete aqueduct it is imperative to take such 
measures as will insure the interior surface being both durable and smooth. 
This will depend chiefly upon the kind of centers used and the character of 
the surfacing after their removal wherever that treatment may be necessary. 
It is the judgment of this Commission that in the construction of the aque- 
duct considered for the additional supply, means for accomplishing these 
ends should be the subject of further thorough and careful investigation, 
so as to give the highest possible hydraulic qualities to the completed 
channel. 

Concrete Steel Aqueducts, 

During the limited time available for the work of the Commission it 
has not been possible to complete extended studies for the details of concrete 
steel aqueducts, but they have been given full consideration and general 
designs have been made. The combination of steel rods and concrete 
required for this type of construction has already been the subject of much 
study and experimental investigation by engineers. There are a number 
of effective forms of steel rod sections available for this purpose, and experi- 



21 I 

ence with works already completed show that aqueducts of the highest 
excellence can be made of reinforced concrete. Wherever the steel rein- 
forcement is used, the liability of the concrete to crack is greatly reduced, 
if not eliminated. The high degree of tensile resistance possessed by the 
concrete-steel material makes it specially valuable for the construction of 
the usual closed aqueduct section. 

The general observations made in the preceding section regarding the 
best proportions for concrete holds with equal force for the reinforced 
material. The number, size and distribution of the steel rods required will 
depend upon the size of the aqueduct and the local conditions under which 
it is constructed, and these conditions have been recognized in the sections 
designed by the Commission. Before the construction of the aqueducts for 
the additional supply, all conditions affecting their strength and hydraulic 
qualities should be considered with scrupulous care, so as to attain the best 
results with the greatest possible economy. 

Tunnels. 

The horseshoe type of tunnel has been used in the New Croton Aque- 
duct, the Weston and Wachusett Aqueducts. 

In the Weston Aqueduct concrete is now being used for a lining, but in 
the other two aqueducts, brick backed with rubble- was the standard mate- 
rial for this purpose. The Wachusett Aqueduct was for a large portion of 
its length unlined except for paving on the invert. 

The hydraulic qualities of the unlined tunnel were found to be so poor 
that it is necessary to run the aqueduct under a head in order to obtain its 
full capacity of flow. 

To obtain the same flow through two tunnels of the same slope, the one 
unlined and the other lined, it has been found to be necessary to use a water- 
way for the former approximately double the sectional area of the latter, 
with tunnels of the size under consideration. To make an unlined tunnel 
of the- required sectional area and depth, the width would have to be dis- 
proportionately great ; so much so that it would be a matter of much 
difficulty subsequently to build side walls and arch, should such a step 
become necessary. 

By smoothing up the rough surface of the rock excavation with con- 
crete, the total cost of the tunnel will be as economical as if the lining were 
entirely omitted, and the general results will be much more satisfactory for 
obvious reasons. This fact was thoroughy explained by Mr. J. R. Freeman, 
in his report on " The New York Water Supply " of 1900. This side 
lining may be finished to serve as an abutment for an arch wherever it may 
be necessary. 



215 



APPENDIX IV. 



Rainfall and Yield or Run-off of the 
Available Watersheds* 



217 



Appendix IV. 

Rainfall and Yield or Run-off of the Available Watersheds. 
E. G. HopsoN and Walter H. Sears, Department Engineers, 



The elevations, slopes, surfaces and rainfall of the watersheds are so 
different on the two sides of the Hudson River that it will be necessary to 
give separate consideration to those on each side. The watersheds of the . 
Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks and of the Jansen Kill have comparatively 
small elevation and gentle slopes and are extensively cultivated. The rainfall 
is not much different in amount or in rate of precipitation from that of the 
Croton basin. The watersheds in the Catskill Mountain region, on the con- 
trary, are characterized by many steep, wooded and rocky slopes, high eleva- 
tions and are little cultivated. The rainfall is much greater in some portions 
than in others and as a whole is sensibly greater in amount than in the water- 
sheds on the easterly side of the Hudson River. The rainfall and yield of 
the latter w^ill be considered first. 

IVatersheds East of the Hudson River. 

The climatic conditions prevailing over the Fishkill, Wappinger and 
Roeliff Jansen Kill drainage areas are similar to those of the Croton Water- 
shed which the Fishkill adjoins and are not much dissimilar from the Sud- 
bury and Xashua Watersheds of the Metropolitan Water Supply for the 
City of Boston. 

The data regarding the rainfall and yield of the first three areas named 
above are meagre and extend only over limited periods of time. The exam- 
ination and comparison of all existing evidence shows, however, that in con- 
sequence of the general similarity of conditions, reasonable conclusions 
regarding rainfall and yield of the three areas under construction may safely 
be drawn by the aid of the imperfect known data when compared with the 
more complete data of the Croton, the Sudbury and Nashua areas. 

The only permanent rain gauges established either on or adjacent to 
these three watersheds are at Wappinger Falls and Red Hook on the Wap- 



2l8 

pinger and Saw Kill Watersheds and at Canaan Four Corners and Old 
Chatham, both of the latter points being located a few miles north of the 
Roeliff Jansen Kill Watershed. Fortunately, the permanent records of the 
Croton basin have been taken closely adjacent to that of Fishkill Creek. 

During a few months of the current year ( 1903) this Commission estab- 
lished rain gauge stations at Brinckerhoff and Matteawan, on Fishkill Creek, 
and at Rhinecliff and Saugerties, on the Hudson River. The records from 
these stations were made with care and furnish a comparison of value with 
other i^ermanent records in this general vicinity, particularly those of the 
Croton Watershed, which have been maintained through a long series of 
years. 

The records at Wappinger Falls, Red Hook, Canaan Four Corners and 
Old Chatham have been kept by voluntary observers for the Department of 
Agriculture and some of them are known not to be reliable. Mr. Robert G. 
Alle, Section Director of the Weather Bureau, states that the Wappinger 
Falls records are good and that those of Canaan Four Corners are fairly so, 
but that those at Red Hook and Old Chatham are less valuable. It appears 
from such examinations as have been made that the unreliable records fall 
short of the actual results in most cases. These records, however, are pre- 
sented for what they may be worth. The following tabulation exhibits the 
results of the observations of this Commission for five months of 1903 and 
thost for the same months from the Croton records and the voluntary 
observations of the Department of Agriculture : 



Monthly Rainfall Records in Inches. 





Com'n on Add'l Supply 
Observations. 


United States Voluntary Observations. 
Croton 


Months. 


Brincker- 
hoff. 


Rhine- 
cUff. 


Saugcr. 
ties. 

2.14 
0.61 
7.1a 
4.35 


Records. 

Waginjer 

1 

2.97 3.19 

0.93 5.9a 

H.29 1 20.63 

2.90 > 6.25 

7.74 1 11.87 

1 


Red 
Hook. 

2.^ 
0.69 

'a 
8.51 


C. F. C. 


Old 
Chatham. 


April 




2.05 




May 


2. II ' 0.89 

12.20 9.2^ 

^.06 - - - - 


1.25 ' 0.15 


t ^ 

June 

lulv 


10.86 ' 7.09 

8. IS ■ 2.67 


August 


11.43 


7.53 


7.30 


7.82 



The next tabular statement is of distinctly greater value, as it extends 
through scries of years ranging from two to thirteen. It exhibits annual 
rainfall records for these different stations, those belonging to Wappinger 



219 

Falls and the Croton area being directly applicable to the new available 
watersheds : 



Annual Rainfall Records in Inches. 



1890. 

1891 . 

1892 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897 
189S . 

1899. 
1900 . 

1901 . 

1902 . 



Year. 



Average . 



Nashua. 



5<-84 

57 92 
41.40 
52.46 
55 70 
48.58 



51.32 



Sudbury. 



S3o« 

4952 
41.83 

48.23 
39.74 
50.62 

43.70 
46.19 

55.88 
37.21 
50 65 
56.11 
46.07 



Croton. 



47 59 



54.05 
47.20 
44.28 
54.87 
47 33 
40.58 

45 85 
53.12 
57.40 
44.67 
48.11 
64.23 
53^28 

50.38 







\ 






1 


Wappinser 
falls. 


Red Hook. 


C.F.C. 


42.11 










46.68 








... j 


5»-35 












38.12 












34.05 












46.98 












53.75 












54.10 












47.64 












43.48 


30.51* 








59.80 


38.38* 


45. 7Q 


55 36 


52.40 


46.78 


47.79 













Old 
Chatham. 



34.74 
39-94 



The comparison to be made by the aid of the results contained in this 
table is of marked value and it shows a strong similarity in the general 
features of the rainfall on the Croton, Wappinger, Nashua and Sudbury 
Watersheds. The records taken at Red Hook, Old Chatham and Canaan 
Four Corners are so meagre than they have little value in this comparison. 

The next tabulation exhibits the monthly run-off or yield per square 
mile for the Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks for the entire time during which 
gaugings have been taken on those streams. The corresponding yields of the 
Croton River, the Sudbury River and Nashua River are given for the same 
period, so that direct comparison may be made between them. This table, if 
extended throughout a long series of years, would be of the greatest value in 
determining with accuracy the yields of Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks, but 
the observations of even a brief period are significant in demonstrating the 
relative yields of those two creeks as compared with other neighboring or 
similar streams for which records of run-off have accrued during a long 
series of years. 



*li months only. 



220 



Yield in Gallons Per Day Per Square Mile of Watershed. 



Date. 



Fishkill Creek 
(Watershed 
1 86 Square 

Miles. 

o.b% Water 

Surface.; 



I9OI. 

July I 307»a» 

August . i,;^ [4,oco 

September 6a8,ooo 

October 6oo,ocx) 

November 473,000 

December I 2,211,000 



January . 
February . . 
March . . . . 

April ., 

May 

Tune 

/uly ...... 

August . . . . 

September.. 
October... . 

November . 
December . 



1902. 



2,135,000 

2.107,000 

4,746,000 

1,590,000 

976,000 

466,000 

562,000 

304,000 

310,000 

1,031,000 

673,000 

2,625,000 



January. 
February . . 
March . . . . 

April 

May 

{une 
uly 

August 

September. . 



1903. 



1,778,000 
2,173,000 
3,491,000 
1,793,000 
490,000 
2,142,000 
1,318,000 
1,676,000 
1,391,000 



Wappingcr 
Creek (Water- 
shed tq8 
Square Miles 
Water 
Surface.^ 



Totals 39,310,000 



I 



2,io6,oco 
88o,oco 

1,218,000 
857,000 



Croton River 

(Watershed 

338.8 Square 

Miles, 

3.6j{ Water 

Surface.) 



Sudbury River 
(Watershed 
175.3 Square 

Miles, 
6.s% Water 
Surface.) 



Nashua River 
(Watershed 
xxo Square 

Miles, 

2.a^ Water 

Suiiace.) 



749.000 
2,131,000 
1,232,000 I 
1,432,000 • 

685,000 I 
2,491,000 

1 
2,223.000 
1.520,000 
5,638 000 I 
1,759,000 
982,000 I 
458,000 
422,000 
352,000 I 

322,000 ; 
1,246,000 

860,000 
2,827,000 ' 



1,998,000 
2,202,000 I 
3,380,000 
1,957,000 
399,000 

X, 818,000 

867,000 

863,000 

1,051,000 



306,000 
424,000 
305,000 
412,000 
474,000 
2,659,000 



1,763,000 

1,674,000 

4,199,000 

1,885,000 

743,000 

303,000 

66,000 

135,000 

178,000 

506,000 

444,000 

1,779,000 



1,736,000 
2,279,000 
3,454,000 I 
2,261,000 I 

35i»ooo I 
1,987,000 : 
445,000 I 
307,000 
130,000 



477,000 
512,000 
320,000 
647,000 
5i7,oco 
3,234,000 

1,676 000 

1,401 000 

3,992,000 

2,159,000 

1,031,000 

410.000 

292,000 

297,000 

241,000 

950,000 

635,000 

1,848,000 



1,265,000 

2,133,000 

3,123,000 

2,238.000 

569,000 

2,131,000 

624,000 

474,000 

3,705,000 



41,873,000 ! 31,241,000 j 33»57i.ooo 



Records extending over a long series of years for such well known 
streams as the Croton, Sudbury and Nashua Rivers, furnish accurate bases 
for the determination of reservoir storage and depletion, not only in their own 
watersheds, but in others either adjacent or similar to them. The draft on 
reservoirs of a public water supply system is practically constant, but the 
waters are received into them with great irregularity. It is necessary, there- 
fore, to establish certain general relations between the draft and the reservoir 
storage and depletion in order that the supply may be maintained at a desired 
rate. Tables bearing upon the storage of reservoirs subject to constant drafts 
during a period of unusual drought in the Sudbury Watershed, prepared by 



221 

Desmond Fitzgerald* have been much used by engineers designing storage 
reservoirs in the Eastern States, and the Commission has availed itself of 
this source of information. 

The records for the Croton Watershed have been shown in the report on 
the water supply of Xew York City by Mr. John R. Freeman, March, 1900, 
to be similar to those for the Sudbury Watershed, and his studies of this 
question have also been made use of by this Commission. 

The preceding tables and the comprehensive study of all the available 
data show that the rainfall and run-off of Fishkill Creek drainage area 
approximate very closely the corresponding features of the Croton Water- 
shed; in deed, the Fishkill and Croton results approximate each other more 
closely than do either of those results with the Sudbury and Nashua Rivers. 
It appears from all the data available that the rainfall and run-off during the 
same periods, in the preceding tables, were materially higher for both Fish- 
kill Creek and the Croton River than for the Sudbury and Nashua Rivers. 
As Wappinger Creek and the Jansen Kill are in the same vicinity with the 
Fishkill and Croton Watersheds, and as the meagre rainfall records show no 
great difference as far as they afford any comparison, it is probably safe to 
use the same general rainfall and run-off data for them as for the Croton 
River. At any rate, that is the best procedure that now can be followed, and 
there is reason to believe that judicious inferences drawn from experience in 
the Croton Watershed may safely be used for the three drainage areas lying 
north of it and east of the Hudson, especially as the general elevation above 
sea level, slopes and other physical features of these areas do not vary greatly. 

In considering the available run-off from any drainage area, it is neces- 
sary to have clearly in view the mininmm for a long series of years as the 
water value of a drainage area during dry years is obviously only the annual 
run-off of those years. It is also to be borne in mind that the percentage of 
rainfall available as run-off or yield decreases materially with the decrease in 
rainfall. Approximately speaking, that portion of the total rainfall run- 
ning off as yield in the water courses of a given drainage area in the 
vicinity of New York and New England may average 45 to 50 per cent. 
Observations in the Croton Watershed extending over a period of thirty- 
four years, beginning in 1868, show that the average run-off is about 48 
per cent, of the rainfall, but the lowest rainfall years may show a run-off 
as low as about 31 per cent. The dry condition of the ground during 
such years enables the soil to hold back in its interstices a considerably 
higher percentage of the rainfall on it than in years of greater precipi- 
tation. 



Puhlis'ied in the transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892. 



222 

During the thirty-four-year period of 1868 to 1902 the four years of 
least rainfall in the Croton basin were 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1895, the least 
of the four (1880) being a total of 36.92 inches, which gives an average 
yield of only 603,000 gallons per square mile per day for that year. The next 
lowest rainfall year (1895) gave a total run-off of 15.95 inches, or an aver- 
age daily amount throughout the year of 760,000 gallons per square mile per 
day. Again the average run-off per year for the entire thirty-four years was 
22.93 inches, giving a rate of 1,094,400 gallons per square mile per day. 

In view of the preceding data taken from the Croton Watershed it would 
clearly be unsafe to assume an average run-off as high as i million gallons 
per square mile per day from the three drainage areas on the easterly side of 
the Hudson. On the other hand it would be unnecessary and unjustifiable 
to assume a minimum as low as 603,000 gallons per square mile per day, 
which is the lowest year of the thirty-four. Three of the four years of min- 
imum rainfall, to which allusion has been made, show very clearly the same 
total rainfall, and the run-off in none of the three years falls below 760,000 
gallons per square mile per day. For these reasons, and after a comprehen- 
sive consideration of all the results of this investigation, it has been consid- 
ered safe to take an average yield of 750,000 gallons per square mile 
per day for the purpose of estimating the value of the additional supply from 
the three drainage areas east of the Hudson River. 

Furthermore, general experience with such watersheds as those of the 
Croton and Sudbury Rivers has shown that it is not practicable to make con- 
stant drafts of more than 750,000 to 825,000 gallons per day per square mile 
without keeping the storage reservoirs below high water level for periods 
longer than two years. The same experience has shown that it is not 
judicious to expose the margin of storage reservoirs below the high water 
level longer than a period of two years as a maximum in consequence of the 
objectionable growth of vegetation if the period of exposure is longer. In 
the designs and estimates relating to the storage and depletion of reservoirs 
in the districts of the proposed additional supply, this period of two years* 
exposure of the margins of depleted reservoirs has been taken as the maxi- 
mum limit. In order to secure safely this limit the maximum average daily 
draft of 750,000 gallons per square mile of watershed has been taken as a 
basis on which to calculate all reservoir development in the Fishkill, Wap- 
pinger and Roeliff Jansen Kill Watersheds, proper allowance being made for 
the proixjrtion of water surface to land surface in each of the areas. 

Before closing this portion of its work, the Commission desires to record 
its most earnest expression of need for immediately establishing permanent 
rainfall and stream flow gauges on each of these drainage areas, so that 
accurate data may be available for use in the final designs of any of the 
proposed works. 



223 

Catskill Mountain Watersheds. 

The establishment of rain gauges at various points in this territory was 
completed at the dates and points indicated in the following table. These 
instruments were standard 8-inch Friez gauges, except one 12-inch automatic 
tipping bucket gauge, installed on the roof of the hotel in West Shokan. All 
the 8-inch gauges are supported by wrought-iron frames on light platforms 
resting on the ground, with lip of gauge about three feet above surface of 
ground. The placing of each gauge was carefully considered and chosen 
with a view of giving a fair exposure. Efforts were also made to secure 
careful and intelligent local observers. 

Table of Rain Gauges. 



Date of 
Installation. 



1903. 
April 7 . . 
April 21 . 
April 10 . 
April 19 . 

April ?4 . 
May 23.. 
Majr 23 . . 
April 17 . 
April 17 . 
August 21 
August 25 

1900. 
April I. 



Location of Gauge and P. O. Address of Observer. 



West Shokan, No. i . 
West Shokan, •N0.2 . 

Lake HiU 

Prattsville 

Hishmount ... 

Slide Mountain, No. 1 . 

Shandaken 

Preston Hollow 

East Durham 

Slide Mountain, No. 2, 
Plateau Mountaing . . . 

Kingston Reservoir^. . 



Elevation. 


Name of Observer. 


530 


S. K. Clapp. 


575 


S. K. Clapp. 


1,130 


A. W. Cooper. 


1,150 


J. H. Brennan. 




A. A. Disbrow. 


1,890 


E. T. Gale. 


1,900 


John Atkins. 
J. S. Whitney. 


1,070 


900 


Geo. S. White. 


550 


Frank Owen. 


3,000 


John Atkins. 


2,900 


A. J. Connelly. 


340 


E.H.Carroll. 



These gauges were installed with a view to beginning permanent records 
in this territory where none have heretofore been kept and also for purposes 
of comparison with outside records for the current year. 

Application was made early in liie season to the Chief of the United 
States Weather Bureau for statistics of precipitation. Recent reports on 
canal surveys and other public documents were consulted and although many 
elaborate compilations of figures showing rainfall in New York were found 
presented in these reports it was soon revealed that there was a great dearth 
of reliable data for this immediate vicinity. With a view to making the most 
of the few available records and for the purpose of scrutinizing the original 
sources of information, as far as possible, a number of days were spent in 
Albany by Mr. D. W. Cole, Assistant Engineer, examining the various data 



♦ la-inch automatic electric registering. 

% P. O. at Edgewood, A. J. Connelly, Postmaster. 

«> Kingston Waterworks record, P. O. at Kingston. 



224 

on file in the offices of the United States Weather Bureau, the State Engineer 
and Surveyor and in the State Library. As a result of these researches it 
appears that all available data on this subject have their primary sources in 
the following group of statistics : 

(a) '* New York State Meteorology.'' 

(b) '* New York State Weather Bureau Reports.'' 

(c) New York State Climate and Crop Service. 

(d) United States Weather Bureau Reports. 

(e) Certain special reports containing rainfall data, such as 

Croton records and various other waterworks records 
outside the State. 

(a) The New York State Meteorology is composed of two quarto vol- 
umes of weather statistics which were collected and compiled by the Regents 
of the New Y'ork State Academy system, beginning 1826 and ending 1863. 
The late Prof. Guyot appears to have been actively interested in the methods 
of collecting these statistics and this is assuring as to their general reliability, 
although some of the individual records show abnormal features like that for 
Hudson, where the average rainfall is given as three times the minimum, 
an extreme variation not observed elsewhere in this region. The Kingston 
record shows values so different from late figures that it is thought best to 
disregard the older records. A study of the tables presented also reveals 
clerical errors and other discrepancies. 

• Several different types of rain gauges have been used at different periods. 
One of these gauges was wide open at the top with no guard against evapora- 
tion ; another with cone shaped cover projecting above the lip of the gauge 
was ill adapted for collection of rainfall during wind storms. 

The single record of this old series which seems applicable to the work 
of this Commission is that of Liberty, Sullivan County, which tallies very 
well with the modern Weather Bureau records. It has been used by several 
authorities with expressed confidence and is therefore given equal weight 
with the later figures. 

(b) The New York State Weather Bureau Records are next in order 
of time and probably first in order of importance for this work. This Bureau 
was established by the statute of 1889 ^ind the following distinguished officers 
were immediately appointed : 

President and Superintendent of Instruction, Andrew S. Draper. 
Director, E. A. Fuertes, Professor of Civil Engineering, Cornell 
University. 

Consulting Meteorologist, E. T. Turner, C. E. 



225 

Their reports began with the annual summary for 1889 and ended with 
1899, when the Bureau was merged in the United States Weather Bureau. 
They were published in monthly bulletins of pamphlet form, with annual 
summaries in book form. They contain daily, monthly and annual figures 
from a few stations applicable to the Commission's work for brief periods 
only, ranging from a few months to several years. These *' Stations " are 
described, exposure of gauge and name of observer stated and a fair idea 
given of the relative accuracy of results. It seems probable that these records 
of the State Bureau are of special value, having been made under the super- 
vision of able and experienced men. It appears that during this campaign of 
meteorological education, beginning with 1889, all existing records of the 
weather were brought to the attention of the active searchers of the Bureau 
and put into shape for permanent history. From an examination of these 
records, together with the descriptive text accompanying the reports, and, 
also from a study of the water supply features of recent Reports on the Barge 
Canal and of the Commission on Deep Waterways, in both of which precipita- 
tion figures were of great importance, it appears certain that all reliable rec- 
ords of railfall in this section of the State have been secured and published 
in one or another of the forms reviewed here. 

(c) The Climate and Crop Service bulletins give monthly details which 
are afterwards condensed in the annual reports. They have been found use- 
ful in giving fragmentary records for a few months at a time, which do not 
always appear in the annual form, and for the records of the current year. 

(d) The United States Weather Bureau reports give a continuation 
of the records begun by the State Bureau, with the occasional gain or loss of 
a Station here and there. 

(e) The special records from fifty miles or more distant from the water- 
sheds under consideration, are principally valuable in connection with the 
study of the yield of their respective streams, and as preciptation records 
solely they are not of great importance to the work of this Commission. 

The best collections of statistics found have been derived wholly from 
these five primary sources, and are contained in the two Canal Reports prev- 
iously mentioned. In addition to these, the full and elaborate tables in the 
calculation books of Mr. Kuichling on file in the State Engineer's office have 
been examined and used. 

Access has also been had to a set of rainfall tables published by the 
Geological Survey of New Jersey. 

Miscellaneous matter of interest has also been found in the United 
States Weather Bureau office and in the Astor Library of New York City. 
The United States Weather Bureau offices at Washington, D. C, and Ithaca, 
N. Y., have also furnished copies of certain records. 



217 



Appendix IV. 

Rainfall and Yield or Run-off of the Available Watersheds. 
E. (j. HopsoN and Walter H. Skars, Department Engineers. 



The elevations, slopes, surfaces and rainfall of the watersheds are so 
different on the two sides of the Hudson River that it will be necessary to 
give separate consideration to those on each side. The watersheds of the . 
Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks and of the Jansen Kill have comparatively 
small elevation and gentle slopes and are extensively cultivated. The rainfall 
is not much different in amount or in rate of precipitation from that of the 
Croton basin. The watersheds in the Catskill Mountain region, on the con- 
trary, are characterized by many steep, wooded and rocky slopes, high eleva- 
tions and are little cultivated. The rainfall is much greater in some portions 
than in others and as a w^hole is sensibly greater in amount than in the water- 
sheds on the easterly side of the Hudson River. The rainfall and yield of 
the latter will be considered first. 

Watersheds East of the Hudson River. 

The climatic conditions prevailing over the Fishkill, Wappinger and 
Roeliff Jansen Kill drainage areas are similar to those of the Croton Water- 
shed which the Fishkill adjoins and are not much dissimilar from the Sud- 
bury and Nashua Watersheds of the Metropolitan Water Supply for the 
City of Boston. 

The data regarding the rainfall and yield of the first three areas named 
above are meagre and extend only over limited periods of time. The exam- 
ination and comparison of all existing evidence shows, however, that in con- 
sequence of the general similarity of conditions, reasonable conclusions 
regarding rainfall and yield of the three areas under construction may safely 
be drawn by the aid of the imperfect known data when compared with the 
more complete data of the Croton, the Sudbury and Nashua areas. 

The only permanent rain gauges established either oh or adjacent to 
these three watersheds are at Wappinger Falls and Red Hook on the Wap- 



228 

normal, there can be written as an approximate value of mean annual rainfall 
at the given station 42.3 inches x 100:90 = 47 inches. 

By extension of the fonnula a fair estimate can be made of the rainfall 
in each missing year of the series, and the mean of these weighted annuals is 
beUeved to be much nearer the true mean annual rainfall than that derived 
by merely averaging the annual values of ten years or less. This proposition 
is sustained by trial in the case of stations with full records. 

Precipitation on Esopus Watershed. 

In the absence of any records of even one complete year, within this 
territory, the assumption is made that the rainfall is approximately the mean 
of four stations situated a short distance outside of and in various directions 
from its limits. 

For the purpose of compiling a record giving monthly values of precipi- 
tation on Esopus Valley for 15 years, beginning 1889, the records of the fol- 
lowing four stations have been adopted as the most promising basis of com- 
putation. 

(a) Kingston record of 3 to 10 miles east is made up of the Weather 
Bureau, Kingston-Rondout record, elevation of 200, years 1889-1893; the 
Kingston Water Works record at reservoir Xo. i, elevation of 340, years 
1900-1903, and the weighted values for intervening years as derived by 
methods outlined above. 

ib) Mohonk record, 12 miles southeast is founded on Weather Bureau 
records for Minnewaska, elevation of 1890, and Mohonk, elevation of 1,245, 
for years 1891-1903. 

(c) Liberty, 20 miles southeast, elevation of 1,500-1,800, Regents rec- 
ord f(jr years 1850 to 1863 and incomplete Weather Bureau records for 1890- 
1903. 

{(i) S. Kortriglit, 15 miles northeast, modified by fragmentary records 
from Delhi, Bloomville, Oneonta, Griffins Corner, Windham, Tannersville, 
Elka l^ark and Lake Hill, all on the northwest side, at elevation of 1,500 to 
2,000, for years 1889- 1903. 

These four records are assembled and combined on pages 38 to 40 of 
" S. & T., loose leaf " letter size calculation book '* A *' of the Commission's 
file, and much confidence is felt that the result represents closely the mean 
annual rainfall on Esopus A'alley during the 14 years considered. 

As to the relation between the mean of these 14 years and the true nor- 
mal precipitation, it may be pointed out that for the same years Sudbury on 
the east showed i inch above its normal. Croton, southeast, showed 3 inches 



229 

above normal ; Albany, northeast, 3 inches below normal, while S. Kortright 
on northwest and Liberty on southwest quarters, the .only two good, near 
records, showed exactly their normal precipitation. From this it is judged 
that the annual precipitation on this territory during the 14 years ending 
with 1902, was very nearly what long term records could prove to be the 
true normal, and this lest is believed to be more conclusive than the present 
application of the frequently quoted Birnie formula for deriving the long 
term mean from averages of shorter terms of years by percentage corrections. 
Hence, it is estimated, that the mean annual precipitation on the Esopus por- 
tion of this territor) is represented by the mean of these 14 years, viz. : 46J/2 
inches. A further examination of ** Precipitation Sheet No. i," in connection 
with the map, will show that the area of greatest annual precipitation lies 
along the southern edge of this territory and from this zone of the maximum 
the records show a gradual decrease northward. Following out this general 
principle, there may be estimated from records shown : 

Mean Annual Precipitation. 

Rondout Valley 49 inches. 

Lsopus Valley 46^ " 

Schoharie Valley 42 *' 

Catskill Valley 39j4 " . 

As an independent check on these amounts, reference is made to Plate 
XXV 11 of Report on Barge Canal, 1901, upon which are shown isohyetal 
lines or contours of equal rainfall at intervals of 5 inches of depth. 

The later records and the more si:)ecific application made in these com- 
putations tend to restrict the zone of 45-inch rainfall to a smaller portion of 
the Catskill area, but the general correctness of the chart is sustained by these 
estimates. 

II. 

YIELD OF STREAMS. 

The principal basis for estimating the flow of the Catskill streams is the 
series of gaugings which have been carried on since July, 1901, by the United 
States Geological Survey, with the co-operation of the State and City of 
New York. 

A detailed description of location, methods and results of these measure- 
ments to the end of 1902 is found in United States Geological Survey Water 
Supply Paper No. 76, by H. A. Pressey, and in Supplement to State Engi- 



230 

neer's Report for 1902. A review of all the data for Esopus, Schoharie and 
Catskill Creeks and extension of them to July i, 1903, is found in R. E. 
Horton's report of July 17, to Commission on Additional Water Supply. 

A condensation, extension and analysis of the data from all these sources 
and from the local hydrographer at Kingston, Mr. Tillinghast, to October, 
1903, has been made and used in making the estimates for this part of the 
work of the Commission. 

Comparison of Yield. 

The diagram herewith published as PI. I. shows a comparison of yield 
of these four watersheds with that of the Croton, Sudbury and Wachusett 
for the same period. Referring to this diagram, it is observed that the yield 
of the four mountain streams is materially greater than that of the other 
three streams during the flood seasons of the year, and it averages greater 
for the series of 25 months. The rate of precipitation was substantially 
equal in amount above the normal for each locality, except in case of the 
Croton, which, notwithstanding its extremely high rainfall, gave much less 
discharge per unit of area of watershed than the Catskill streams. This 
unusually high proportion of rainfall delivered into the latter streams appears 
to require an explanation. 

In the case of the Esopus, the figures given are those of the deduced 
record, as already described. 

The Rondout rainfall is the mean of records at Mohunk and Liberty, on 
op[)osite sides of the valley and that for Schoharie and Catskill Creeks is 
based mainly on the single record at Windham in Schoharie Valley. 

While it is believed that the deduced Esopus record is as good an esti- 
mate as can be derived from the data extending over the 15 years for which 
it is compiled; there seems to be no escape from the conclusion that the 
figures are somewhat too low for the two years' period covered by the 
stream gaugings. 

Either the precipitation on the high mountain areas above all rain gauges 
must have been very much in excess of that shown by available records, or 
else it happened that within these two years there occurred (most probably 
during winter months) certain heavy local storms which did not appear at 
the widely separated rainfall stations. 

During the summer spent in surveys in these mountains, there has been 
afforded opportunity* for observing the local w-eather conditions in addition 
to the information given by the rain gauges. 

It has frequently been noticed that during comparatively fair weather 
in the valleys the mountain tops have been enveloped in clouds, and local 



231 

showers have been observed on the high slopes and in the ** hollows *' when 
no rain fell on the lower levels. At times there are days together when the 
mountains are folded in clouds and mists while fair weather prevails in the 
valleys. These conditions exist both in summer and winter, and it is probable 
that they sensibly affect the run-off of the streams. 

The effect of these causes must be materially enhanced by the physical 
condition of at least a large portion of the high mountain areas in these 
watersheds. Actual observations show that the shallow substrata of much 
of these high areas are composed of fragments of broken rock, ranging 
from small size to great masses, on which mosses and scant vegetation, as 
well as trees, find opportunity for growth until they are destroyed by forest 
fires, denuding and laying bare the rock talus to which reference has just 
been made. Rainfall upon such a mountain slope quickly finds its way into 
the interior cavities, where it is completely protected from evaporation. In 
the winter large quantities of this entrained water freeze and remain there 
until gradually thawed by the warm weather of the spring and early sum- 
mer. It is certain that masses of ice sometimes remain in these interior 
cavities as late as July. During the spring rains this mass of interior or 
stored ice acts not only in making the mountainsides impervious to the 
falling rain, but adds substantially by its thawing to the flow or yield at 
that time. In other words, the spring run-off is composed not only of an 
unduly large proportion of the rainfall in that season, but also of consider- 
able portions of the late autumn and winter rain or snowfalls. While 
there is obviously serious lack of data regarding these winter storage 
effects, they are undoubtedly real, and account in a large measure, if 
not entirely, for the apparently abnormal spring yields of some of these 
mountain streams. 

These conditions complicate the relation existing between rainfall and 
run-oft". A great deal of study has been devoted to the formulation of data 
for determining the amount of stream-flow .which may be expected from 
a given rainfall on a watershed of know^n characteristics, but, owing to 
the small number of streams for which adequate statistics have been col- 
lected, no general reliable statement can be made. The most enlightening 
recent consideration of the subject, as applied to this vicinity, is that of 
Mr. Kuichling, detailed in '* Report on Barge Canal," page 795 ct scquitur, 
and especial attention is called to the "Method of computing run-off," on 
page 800. The data so comprehensively marshaled for that purpose and 
finally reduced to the form of diagrams shown on Plate XXIX, can be 
made to serve as a basis for this local study. Accepting these diagrains as 
showing the average relation between the amounts of rainfall and run-off 
in each month of the year for the watersheds in this neighborhood, they 



232 

have been replotted and are herewith published. For the purpose of 
adapting them to th^ Catskill territory, particularly the Esopus area, there 
have been plotted in addition all the data derived from the two years of 
gauging of the Catskill streams, using the rainfall values previously deter- 
mined; the Croton data for the same period, and a number of years' data 
for the moderately high Tohickon and Pequannock Watersheds. These 
show that Esopus points are in most cases far above the original curves 
of averages and usually above the Croton points for the same period, while 
in the main the hilly Tohickon and Pequannock confirm the position of the 
Esopus points. In the month of March for both years, the Esopus curve 
is' far above the average curve and all others, and it appears reasonable 
to draw the new curves much higher than is shown, but to keep well within 
justifiable limits the very conservative straight line is drawn. For the 
other months also moderate positions are taken for the straight lines or 
broken lines which are thought to represent probabk results for the 
peculiarly prolific Esopus. As evidence of this moderation, it may be 
noted that the average monthly rainfall applied to the diagram would give 
92 per cent, of yield for six winter months and 62 per cent, annually; 
whereas, the average of our two years of gauging shows an actual yield 
of 133 per cent, for the six winter months and 80 per cent, annually, with 
estimated rainfall of 15 per cent, to 20 per cent, above the normal. If 92 
per cent, collected in the six wet months and 62 per cent, annually seem 
too high for average values, comparison is offered in the following: 



Table of per cent, of Rainfall Yielded. 



Name of Stream. 



No. of 
Years, 
Record. 



Esopus 

Esopus 2 

West Canada 2 

East Canada I 2 

Schroon River I 4 

Schoharie I 2 

Upper Mohawk j 2 

Upper Hudson 12 

Tohickon • 14 



Per Cent. 

6 Wet 
Months. 


Of Yield 
Annual. 


92 


62 


133 


80 


150 


68 


153 


72 


'% 


61 
56 


124 


60 


91 


57 


90 


57 



Authorities. 



Mean value from diagram. 
U. S. Geolog. Survey. 
U. S. Geolog. Survey. 
U. S. Geolog. Survey. 
G. \N. Rafter. 
U. S. Geolog. Survey. 
U. S. Geolog. Survey. 
U. S, Geolog. Survey. 
Philadelphia Water Board. 



Besides the high percentages of yield indicated above, there are many 
well authenticated reports of still higher values for streams of the British 
Islands and continent of Europe (see " Report on Barge Canal/' pages 
834-836); and in view of the scant information as to the run-off of these 
domestic mountain streams, it would be reasonable to expect that when 



233 

fully gaged they will show results comparable with some of the precipitous 
ILuropean streams in zones of equal rainfall with our own. 

The evidences of an exceptionally large yield for Esopus Creek may 
briefly be stated: 

(a) Probabilities based on topography and climate, such as compara- 
tively high elevation and steep slopes ; the very large proportion of wooded 
area, about 80 per cent. ; the combination of porous top crust of loose rock 
and forest floor w-ith nearly impervious bed rock at shallow depth and the 
considerable area of gravel valleys, the absence of swamps and evaporating 
areas, the large precipitation and low mean temperature resulting in heavy 
rains in summer and cold storage of precipitation in winter. 

(b) Common Report: 

The F^sopus is notorious as a stream of floods, and though it has been 
called a ** flashy " stream, it is also known to maintain a comparatively 
good dry-weather flow, the grist mill at Bishop's Falls on the Esopus 
being the mill of last resort when all other neighboring mills have shut 
down for want of water. 

(r) High Water Marks: 

L^om Slide Mountain at its source to Saugerties at its mouth, the 
Esopus has scored high up on the slopes of the valley, and driftwood is 
found massed in caves or tangled in trees at elevations which are astonish- 
ing. In a recent flood, velocities of 20 feet per second and upward were 
observed at midstream on ordinary slopes of the river. And all its tributary 
streams have likewise scribed their own high records on the face of the 
landscape. 

((I) By Actual Measurements: 

There appears to be no ground for questioning the substantial accuracy 
of the gaugings of Esopus Creek as carried out after the well devised meth- 
ods of the U. S. Geological Survey, and accepting these, it is conclusively 
shown that the yield of this stream is phenominally high. Results are 
exhibited by various tables and diagrams hereto appended. A matter of 
much interest is the monthly distribution and two-year total of Esopus 
yield, shown on Diagram IV. for period ending June 30, 1903. The com- 
parison of run-off of Esopus Creek and Croton River, shown in Table III., 
is also significant. 

Among the interesting features of this comparison, attention is called 
to the figures showing the rainfall and run-off during and after the great 
drought of May, 1903, the dryest May in the State of New York since the 



234 

establishment of the U. S. Weather IJnreau. Average conditions had 
prevailed early in the spring, then came the drought of fifty days, fol- 
lowed by floods of rain in June. On both watersheds the rainfall was 
measured by observers employed by New York City, the gauges of the Com- 
mission being well distributed for showing accurate results in Esopus 
Valley. Figures for Croton flow are also. official, while Esopus flow is 
computed from Kingston gauging data after complete development of the 
curve of discharge and with every indication of correctness. 

The table shows that the Esopus yielded from the floods after the 
great drought a proportion of the rainfall just twice as great as that of 
Croton. 

Esopus Daily Yield, Storage and Depletion. 

The key to the promise of large run-oflF from the Esopus area lies 
in the high summer rainfall, frequently concentrated in heavy storms, w^hich 
afford great opportunities for the replenishment of reservoirs, and in the 
cold storage of winter precipitation which ensures large and sustained 
spring floods. 

As a test of the capacity of Ashokan Reservoir with available storage 
of sixty billion gallons to sustain given rates of draft, computation has been 
made in calculation book ** A,'' pages 41-46, for a period of fifteen years. 
In order to make this more readily intelligible, the results have been plotted 
on a diagram after the form employed in the ** Freeman Report," and 
adopted by the Department of Water Supply for exhibiting similar data for 
Croton River. The computations are based on the compiled precipitation 
for the fifteen-year period already described, excepting, however, that the 
rainfall beginning with May, 1903, is the actual precipitation on Esopus 
Watershed as reliably measured, and the run-off beginning with July, 1901, 
is the actual flow of the river as derived from the gaugings at Kingston. 

P>om the study of both diagrams it will be appreciated that the yield 
previous to 1901 is estimated with very large allowance for the possibility 
that the flow of the last two years has been unprecedented during the 
period considered, although there is little or no reason to believe in such 
a possibility. Or in case it is the rainfall that has been underestimated for 
the last two years, then the same allowance applies as a liberal factor of 
safety in using the diagrams as measures of the discharge which has taken 
place in the past and may confidently be expected in the future. 

These diagrams include the dry years of i894-'95-'96 and 1900-01 
(the latter period being locally known as an exceptional "dry spell"), 
and they afford strong support to the claim that Esopus Creek, from the 



235 

total area of 255 square miles tributary to Ashokan Reservoir and with the 
60,000 million gallons available storage in that basin, will safely sustain 
a uniform daily draft of 250 million gallons. 

RONDOUT CREEK. 

The valley of the Rondout lies in the zone of maximum rainfall and 
the gathering ground on the rocky and wooded slopes of the highest moun- 
tains is ideal. The quantity of water yielded per unit of area is second only 
to that of the Esopus, and the quality is equally excellent. By reference 
to the diagram of Comparison of Yield, it will be seen that the curve of 
discharge for Rondout Creek is parallel with and only a little below the 
Esopus curve. The portion of the watershed which it is proposed to 
develop is spread out like a fan on the rocky and wooded mountain slopes, 
and it is believed that this portion will give even a larger percentage of yield 
than is indicated by measurements plotted on the diagram which apply 
to the total drainage of the creek above the Rosendale gauging station. 
There is every indication that this upper Rondout countr}^ is a most promis- 
ing field for development to the limit of its capacity. 

SCHOHARIE CREEK. 

Schoharie Valley is in the zone of lower rainfall, but also in the heart 
of the mountain country which gives the highest proportion and best quality 
of yield. Unfortunately, there are gaugings for only a few months on this 
stream, and comparison with other streams is, therefore, limited to this 
short period. The diagram shows that with about the same percentage 
above normal precipitation the proportion of run-off is greater than that 
of Croton and other well-known streams, and exceeded only by Esopus 
and Rondout. 

CATSKILL CREEK. 

The Catskill Valley is mostly cleared agricultural land on the flatter 
slopes of the northern limits of the mountains. The precipitation is the 
least which api>ears on any of this territory, and the yield, especially for 
long periods in summer, is lower than that of the other streams. The 
quality of the water also is less satisfactory. 



237 



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341 



APPENDIX V. 



FILTRATION 



243 

Appendix V. 

FILTRATION. ^ 

Wm. B. Fuller, Department Engineer. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In order to obtain a clear understanding of the recommendations of this 
Commission regarding the filtration of the future water supply of The 
City of New York, it is well to preface them with a general statement, 
showing what filtration practically means as applied to municipal water 
supplies, and particularly under the conditions presented by this City. 

Spring water is the production of Nature's process of filtration, and 
gives the well known clear, colorless and pure water, free from tastes and 
odors. This process, in a general way, has long been understood, and for 
centuries various efforts en a small scale have been made to imitate it by 
filtration in artificial ways. 

Object to Be Attained by Filtration. 

It is desirable first to inquire what work a filter has to do, and this is 
best shown by comparing the character of spring water with that of surface 
waters. As the population increases in the vicinity of large cities, it becomes 
more and more difficult to obtain from natural sources and with absolute 
safety, large volumes of water which can be used for domestic purposes in 
its natural condition. This difficulty results from the population resident on 
the watersheds, because there is no source of pollution so serious as that com- 
ing from the waste products of human life and activity. As is well known, 
there are many diseases, particularly such as typhoid fever and diarrhoeal 
diseases which can be transmitted by water, even when the water comes from 
areas comparatively sparsely populated and which,- under ordinary condi- 
tions, may be considered a good safe water supply. There have been too 
many experiences like those at Plymouth, Pa., Providence, R. I., New 
Haven, Conn., and Ithaca, N. Y., where hundreds of people have con- 
tracted typhoid fever from drinking a water supply which was polluted by 
very few persons, in some cases not more than one^ for such lessons to go 
unheeded. 

Surface water supplies, therefore, in order to be made thoroughly safe, 
should be either filtered in a manner to remove disease germs, which they 
may carry from time to time, or else treated by some process producing 
the same or similar results. 



244 

Storage reservoirs are helpful to this end when they are large enough 
to prevent water passing through them until it has been stored for a period 
corresponding to the longevity of practically all disease germs in the water. 
In such storage reservoirs much assistance, of course, is derived from sedi- 
mentation, but this has its natural limitations, owing to the stirring up of 
sediment by changing velocities of flow, by the action of winds and by verti- 
cal circulation of the waters in deep reservoirs during spring and autumn 
months, due to temperature changes. Speaking generally, it may be said 
that sedimentation in reservoirs alone is a less efficient means for elimin- 
ating unsanitary products in water than filtration when conducted according, 
to improved modern methods. 

i\early all surface waters as they flow off after heavy rains, are more or 
less muddy, due to the surface washings which they contain. Many waters 
also are unsightly in appearance, due to the deep vegetable stain which they 
possess ; others contain vegetable growths such as are associated with objec- 
tionable tastes and odors. While mud, vegetable stain and those properties 
which produce tastes and odors are presumably incapable of producing dis- 
ease, they certainly detract much from the palatableness of the water. At the 
outset of these investigations, it was the conviction of the Commission 
that the future water supply of New York should be free, not only from, 
pollution, but also from odor, turbidity and noticeable coloring matter. 

Early Filtration Works. 

initration was first adopted in connection with municipal water supplies 
in the year 1829 at London, England. In its earlier years its sole function 
seems to have been the removal of visible suspended matters and the conse- 
quent improvement in the appearance of the water. Thus in the case of the 
turbid water of the Thames, the filters made it a bright clear water, or what 
is sometimes called a clean water. In the large centres of population in 
Europe this process gradually was adopted, its application being most rapid 
shortly after the middle of the last century, when it was learned in many 
instances that filtration improved the sanitary quality of the water, although 
it was not then known just how this was brought about. 

The germ theory of disease, which established the relationship between 
the production of disease and infection by waters containing bacteria which 
had cuinc fiom dejecta of patients sick of typhoid and other water-borne 
diseases, stamped a new phase upon the question of filtration, and beginning 
some twenty years ago the new science of bacteriolog}' gradually led to the 
formulation of tenable views regarding the manner in which filters accom- 
plish their work. 

Filtration is now known to be able not only to remove silt, clay and other 
surface washings, as well as a considerable amount of vegetable stain, algae 



245 

and the tastes and odors associated with them, but it is also capable of remov- 
ing disease-producing germs. For our practical information as to the ways 
and means by which filtration is accomplished in a sanitary sense, we are in- 
debted to many carefully conducted investigations, part of which were made 
in Europe, but the most notable of which was the series conducted by the 
Massachusetts State Board of Health. 

Investigations of the Massacknsetts State Board of Health, 

In 1887 the Massachusetts State Board of Health established the 
Lawrence Experiment Station, where a remarkable series of carefully con- 
ducted experiments were made for the purpose of investigating various 
features of the filtration of liquid sewage and water through sand. These 
investigations were made from the general standpoint of engineering, 
chemistry and biology. Various test filters were constructed of a wide 
range of materials found throughout the State, suitable for purposes of 
filtration, including all grades between fine sand and coarse gravel. These 
experiments also included determinations of the effect upon the efficiency 
of filters of various depths of material and various velocities of flow. A 
great mass of valuable results have been recorded in much detail in the 
annual publication of the Board and its various reports have been regarded 
throughout the civilized world as contributions of great value to the science 
of filtration of both potable water and sewage. 

Description of Filtration Works. 

Filtration as practiced for the past seventy-five years in Europe and 
at a number of places in America, consists essentially in passing water 
downward through beds of sand of medium-sized grains, the sand layers 
being contained in water-tight basins and supported on graded layers of 
gravel. Ordinarily, the sand layer is three to four feet thick and the gravel 
about one foot. The raw water is pumped or flows to the filter basin and 
enters it above the sand layer, where it stands usually to a depth of three 
to five feet; thence it passes by gravity through the sand and enters the 
gravel, which is arranged in graded layers as stated, so that the sand is 
prevented from leaving the basin; thence it flows to the collecting pipes 
or conduits on the floor of the basin that connect with the main outlet pipes, 
which conduct the filtered water to storage reservoirs or to the pipes lead- 
ing to the consumers. The individual filter beds or units range in size in 
different plants from about one-half to two acres, the smaller size being the 
more common. The structures are of masonry, and other than the sand 
layer itself their life is, therefore, long. In the climate of New York 
it is desirable to cover the filters so as to protect them from freezing 
w^eather. 



246 

In earlier years it was not understood how sand layers were able to 
remove bacteria, the size of which is not more, perhaps, than the one ten- 
thousandth part of an inch, which is only a small fraction of the size of the 
opening- or pores of a sand layer. This was first explained in general terms 
by the investigations made at Berlin, where it was pointed out that there 
was formed at the surface of the sand layer a deposit of " bacteria jelly," 
so-called, or " dirt cover," which, being gelatinous in its nature, retained 
bacteria until they were either removed or died there. While it is now 
known that clay, suspended organic matter, and other materials in water, 
are capable of forming films upon the sand grains and allowing bacteria 
to adhere to the surface, this adhesion hardly justifies the importance 
attached in earlier years to the so-called bacterial jelly. But the fact remains 
that with practically every water encountered in this section of the country, 
tl>e sand layer soon became coated with films capable of reducing the 
numbers of bacteria, as the water leaves the sand layers, to about i per 
cent, or two per cent, of those present in the water before filtration. The 
majority of the bactefia in the unfiltered water are retained at or near the 
surface of the sand layer, by the gelatinous films covering the sand grains 
to a depth of a foot or so below the surface. 

As the suspended matters accumulate at and near the surface of the 
bed, the upper half inch or so requires to be removed from time to time, 
generally once in about four weeks, but varying from two to eight weeks. 
The clogged material is scraped off by laborers with shovels, who enter 
the filter beds after the water has been drawn off. The dirty sand is washed 
and replaced upon the sand bed. The loss of head, or the pressure required 
to overcome the friction which the water meets in passing through the filter, 
is generally allowed to reach three or four feet before a filter is scraped. 

The speed or rate of flow of water continuously percolating through a 
sand layer, is usually about four to five inches vertical velocity per hour, 
equal to a yield per square foot of about three gallons per hour, or in the 
neighborhood of three million gallons per acre per day. In most cases 
this rate is regulated by changing a valve (operated automatically or by 
hand) on the outlet pipe, but as it is important to guard against serious 
fluctuation in the rate of filtration, the flow of water, through the filter, is 
best controlled automatically. 

Sanitary Results Achici'ed by Filtratiofi, 

In Europe there are now more than twenty-five millions of people 
who are supplied with filtered water, which with few exceptions has been 
filtered under conditions, both as to construction and operation, which are 
approved by local or state sanitary authorities, or both. Largely as a 
result of the use of filtered water, the deaths from water-borne diseases in 



247 

the large towns and cities of Central and Western Europe have become 
reduced almost to a minimum. In fact, typhoid fever death-rates in Euro- 
pean cities, generally speaking, are only a small fraction of those found 
in American cities. From Table 4, Appendix VI., containing the annual 
typhoid fever death-rates in American cities, it is seen that the rates 
are found frequently within the limits of 50 to 100 per 100,000 population 
per annum, but that the average is about 35. It is significant to compare 
with these rates those of European cities supplied with filtered water, and 
where the rates range from 5 to 15 per 100,000, as shown by the following 
average rates for typical cities for the years iSgo-'pS- 
European cities using filtered water: 

Avtnge Annual 

Typhoid Fever 

Deftth Rate 

per 100,000. 

Berlin 8 

Breslau 10 

The Hague 6 

London 1$ 

Rotterdam 5 

Zurich 8 



Perhaps the most striking illustration of the benefit of filtration was 
afforded by the well-known experience of the cities of Hamburg and Altona, 
during the cholera epidemic of 1892. These cities are situated side by side 
on the right bank of the Elbe, and both take their water supplies from that 
stream, the Altona intake being placed but a few miles below the point 
where the sewers of Hamburg discharge into the Elbe, the sewage of nearly 
800,000 people. The two cities are practically one, being built up thoroughly 
to the dividing line on each side. In the winter of 1892-93 when the cholera 
visited the valley of the Elbe, Hamburg, which used the unfiltered Elbe water, 
suffered severely, as is well known, from that disease, while Altona, which 
used the same water, after it had been further polluted by the cholera polluted 
sewage at Hamburg, but filtered it, had only a relatively few scattering 
cases, which were generally traceable to the use of Hamburg water by tran- 
sient visitors to the adjoining city. 

Filtration of Surface Waters Practically Compulsory in Germany, 

As a result of wide experiences, including that with the cholera at Ham- 
burg and Altona in 1892, the Imperial Board of Health of Germany has issued 
an edict making it practically compulsory for all German cities to adopt filtra- 
tion works for water supplies drawn from surface sources. Not only is 
there an edict as to the adoption of filtration works, but (for the better pro* 



248 

tection of the health of water consumers) there is a series of rules and regu- 
lations which are faithfully lived up to both regarding the essential fea- 
tures of construction and of operations of the filters. These relate to the 
kind and to the rate of filtration, loss of head and other technical details, 
all of which are kept under control by daily observations and analyses. 

Comparison of the Sanitary Character of Filtered Surface Water and thai 
of Ground Water, 

Illustrative of the sanitary quality of surface water taken as a source of 
supply by leading German cities and filtered as compared with that of ground 
water supplied to corresponding cities in the same country, the following 
comparative table of typhoid fever mortality, taken (;'om an exhibit oflFered 
at the Paris Exposition ( 1900) by the Imperijal Board of Health of Germany, 
is presented : 



AVERAGE TYPHOID FEVER DEATH RATE IN GERMAN CITIES OF OVER 1,000,000 
POPULATION, FOR THE YEARS 1896, 1897 AND 1898. 



Filtered Surface Water, 

Stuttgard 4 

Chemnitz 4 

Berlin 4.6 

Altona 6 

Magdeburg 6 

Hamburg 6 

Bremen 6 

Brimswick 8.3 

Breslau 8.6 

Koenigsburg 17.6 

Stettin 20.6 



Ground Water. 

Munich 3.6 

Dresden 4 

Charlotteuburg 4.3 

Nuremburg 4.6 

Hanover 5.3 

Cref eld 6.3 

Elberfeld 6.3 

Aix-la-Chappelle 7.3 

Barmen 8 

Leipzig 8.3 

Cologne 9 

Manheim 9.3 

Cassel 1.3 

Flensburg 1 1.3 

Strasburg 12 

Dantzig 12.3 

Halle 13 

Essen 13.6 



249 

Statistics corresponding to the above are also available for the smaller 
German cities, so that it may be fairly said as a general conclusion that, with 
other sanitary conditions the same, it is possible by means of filtration so to 
purify surface waters that they may be substantially equal in purity to 
ground water of the best quality. 

General Adoption of Filtration Works in Europe as a Precautionary Measure, 

In the densely-populated sections of Europe the larger cities which 
derive their supply from surface sources are following the general lines 
which have perhaps been crystallized more sharply in Germany than 
elsewhere. This apphes not only to those municipal water supplies which 
have their source in streams that are quite polluted, but also to those supplies 
drawn from comparatively distant sources where the opportimities for pol- 
lution are accidental and infrequent. 

Perhaps the most striking illustration of this is afforded by the recently 
constructed extension to the water works for the supply of the city of Liver- 
pool, England. The water is taken from a comparatively uninhabited 
region in the Welsh Mountains and impounded there in large reservoirs. 
Before this water reaches the consumers, however, it is carefully filtered, 
largely as a precatrtionary measure. 

Early Filters in America. 

In America various devices and contrivances in earlier years were 
adopted in different parts of the countr}' in imitation of filtration as carried 
on in Europe. Most of them could be better classed as strainers rather than 
filters, and it was not until 1870 that this su)i)ject was moderately wdl imder- 
stood by our own water works engineers. This information was first made 
available largely thro4tgh the admirable rqxwt made by the late Mr. James 
P. Kirkwood, of Brooklyn, on " The Filtration of River Waters," resulting 
from several trips of inspection to Europe at the instance of the Water Com- 
missioners of St. Louis, Mo., to which Board he was at that time chief engi* 
neer. It is of interest to point out that several features later adopted in filtra- 
tion works abroad resulted from suggestions made by Mr. Kirkwood, xs his 
report, which was translated into German, remained for an entire generation 
the leading work upon this line of water works engineering. 

While the filters recommended by Mr. Kirkwood for the treatment of 
the muddy Mississippi River water at St. Louis were never built, there were 
several plants which were constructed in accordance with his designs, notably, 
those at Pottghkeepsre and Hudson, N. Y., which are still in service in pre- 
paring the Hudson River water for the use of consumers in their respective 



250 

cities. These plants, now some 30 years old, have been examined by this 
Commission, which has also had access to frequent analyses and detailed 
observations made regarding their efficiency as regularly operated. While 
these filter plants have not the modern improvements which would facilitate 
their operation, nor are they provided with covers to protect them from the 
formation of ice to a disturbing degree in winter weather, they are never- 
theless producing a water which, due to its filtration, is far superior to that 
of the raw Hudson River water. 

For twenty years following the construction of the filters at the cities 
noted on tlie Hudson River, practically no progress in the application of 
filtration works to American water supplies was made, due largely to th^ 
various doubts then existing as to the sanitary benefit of filtration in the 
absence of the definite establishment of the germ theory of disease, and 
partly to the uncertainty as to the cost and efficiency of operation under 
the widely varying conditions in the character of rivers as found in 
America, particularly in the southern and western sections. 

*S The Filter at Laurence, Mass, 

^ An important epoch in the development of water filtration in this 
country was marked by the construction of the filters built for the purifi- 
cation of the city water supply of Lawrence, Mass., and completed in 1893. 
This city is situated on the Merrimack River, about eight miles below the 
city of Lowell, the sewers of which discharge directly into the river. 
Severe typhoid fever epidemics occurred in the Merrimack Valley, especially 
at Lawrence, for several years prior to the construction of the filters. The 
appearance of cholera on a vessel in New York Harbor in the autumn of 
1892 was instrumental in leading the city government of Lowell to place 
at the disposal of the Water Board such sums of money as were available 
from their limited funds for the construction of filtration works. Con- 
struction was carried on under the guidance of Mr. Hiram F. Mills, 
engineer member of the State Board of Health, and was based, in a large 
measure, upon the results of carefully conducted investigations made by the 
Massachusetts State Board of Health under his direction into the funda- 
mental principles controlling the purification of water and sewage at the 
Lawrence Experiment Station. 

Eifect of Lawrence Filter upon the Frez'alence of Typhoid Fever in that City. 

As to the efficiency of the Lawrence city filter, which is 2j4 acres 
in area, uncovered, and has a normal capacity of 5,000,000 gallons daily, 
it may be said that the filter has succeeded in reducing the typhoid fever 



251 

death-rate in that city, while still using the highly polluted Merrimack 
River water as a source of supply, down to as low limits as generally 
found in the case of those American cities supplied with pure ground 
water. This is shown by the following table of typhoid fever statistics of 
the city of Lawrence for five years before and five years after the introduc- 
tion of filtered water. The latter rates are as low as those now obtained in 
the neighboring city of Lowell, which formerly was supplied with raw 
Merrimack River water, but which in 1897 changed to a ground water 
supply from unpolluted sources. 

Annual Typhoid Fezrr Death Rates per 100,000 Population in Lawrence, Mass,^ 
for Five Years Before and Five Years After the Adoption of Filters. 

Year. Typhoid Rate. 

5th year before filtration 1889 127 

4th year before filtration 1890 134 

3d year before filtration 1891 1 19 

2d year before filtration 1892 105 

1st year before filtration .' 1893 80 

1st year after filtration 1894 47 

2d year after filtration 1895 31 

3d year after filtration , 1896 19 

4th year after filtration 1897 16 

Sth year after filtration 1898 14 

Prior to the construction of the Lawrence filter, in 1893, the aggre- 
gate area of all filters in this country did not exceed one and one-half 
acres, having a rated capacity of about 3,500,000 gallons daily. Since 
that time progress in the field of water purification in America has been 
rapid and substantial. 

Filter at Albany, N. Y,, and Results Accomplished by it. 

The next important filtration plant of this type fallowing the Lawrence 
filter was that constructed in Albany, N. Y., for the purification of the 
polluted Hudson River water at this point, and which has been in service 
since September, 1899. These works were constructed on somewhat more 
modern lines, and with more liberal allowances as to available funds than 
at Lawrence. Hence they represent a composite effect combining to a 
large degree the salient features both of the Lawrence investigations and 
of the more recent experiences in water filtration as practiced in Europe. 
In brief, it may be said that this plant consists first of a settling basin 
holding about twenty-four hours' supply, and of eight covered filters, each 



252 

having an area of seven-tenths of an acre. The sand layer is four feet 
thick, sitpparted by about twelve inches of graded gravel. The structures 
are bwilt of concrete, with brick Ibiii^s to the filter walls. The covers are 
built as groined arches. This filter is operated on the continuous, not the 
intermittent, plan. The efficiency of this filter, which has been, up to this 
time, well operated, is shown in the following table of annual typhoid fever 
death rates. 

Annual Typhoid Fn^cr Death Rates per 100,000 Population in Albany, N. F., 
Before and After the Adoption of Filters. 

Year. Typhoid Rue.. 

5th year before filtration 1895 165 

4th year before filtration 1896 99 

3d year before filtration 1897 86 

2d year before filtration 1898 94 

1st year before filtration 1899 87 

1st year after filtration 1900 51 

2d year after filtration 1901 24 

3d year after filtration 1902 28 

In examining this table it is, of course, to be borne in mind that the 
city of Albany is supplied in part with unfiltered water from small gravity 
streams, and that this explains the turbid appearance from time to time 
of part of the supply as delivered to Albany consumers. 

Efficiency of Slow or Sand Filters m Renunnng Mud and Vegetable Stain. 

This type of filter, which is sometimes called the slow filter or sand 
filter, and sometimes referred to as the English filter, is generally con- 
sidered to be the most applicable for the purification of waters which are 
not highly turbid or highly discolored by vegetable stain. In the treat- 
ment of the muddy waters of the South amd West it has its limitations, as it 
has been found that it is hardly feasible satisfactorily to treat water by this 
type of filter which has a turbidity for many days in succession in excess 
of 75 parts per millioti, silica standard. 

This does not mean, however, that its field of usefulness is as limited as 
might seem ofl-haad, as it is perfectly feasible in many cases to reduce 
either the vegetable stain or the turbidity prior to its delivery to the filters, 
by means of preliminary treatment such as that afforded by certain types 
of preliminary filters, and by sedimentation basins either with or without 
the aid of coagulation produced by various chemicals. 



253 

Of the various waters under consideration by this Commission, that 
of the Hudson River during freshet periods has the highest degree of turbid- 
ity, which would make it necessary or desirable to give it some preliminary 
treatment in order to prepare it properly for filtration. It is possible that 
at rare intervals the effluent of the sand filters treating the Hudson River 
water in the vicinity of Poughkeepsie might be distinctly cloudy, but it is 
not believed that these periods would be of sufficient frequency or duration 
to effect seriously the sanitary character of the water. A thoroughly satis- 
factory effluent could be regularly obtained on all occasions from the Hud- 
son River by the slow sand filter, were a small amount of coagulant, such as 
sulphate of alumina, added to the water prior to its entrance into settlmg 
basins at times of great turbidity; or other means without the use of alum 
are also available. 

With these works properly built and properly operated, there is no 
longer any room for doubt as to their efficiency, notwithstanding the fre- 
quent references made to the prevalence of typhoid fever in some places, 
alleged, by opponents, to be due to using filtered water. In some instances 
these criticisms may have been just, but they are readily explained either by 
features of improper construction or of improper operation, both of which 
conditions, as has been well learned by several generations of experience in 
Europe, are absolutely inadmissible in view of the health of water consumers. 

Rapid or Mechanical Filter as Used in America. 

There is another type of filter which has become widely used in tbe 
iasit few years in this cotintry. It consists of sand layers arranged in small 
units, geaierally less than i,ooo square feet each, through which water is 
passed at very rapid rates, perhaps 40 times as fast as through the slow 
or sand filters. This makes a rate of filtration equal to about two galloias 
per squ^e foot per miaute, corresponding to a vertical velocity of about 
16 feet per hour, or about 125 million galloas per acre daily. 

This type of filter depends for its efficiency almost entirely upon tbe gfela- 
tinous material obtained from the decomposition of a small quantity of 
sulphate of alumina or iron or similar substance (about i grain per gallcm). 
The resulting product of aluminum hydrate {or iron hydrate) forms the 
necessary gelatjjnous films aroimd the sand grains so as to permit the bacteria 
to be retained there, to be removed later by a cleaning process. The latter 
consists in allowing filtered water to pass upward through the sand layer 
at a sufficiently high velocity to float the sand grains of the entire layer and 
to remove the greater portion of the suspended matter attached by stirrii^ 
of the sand, either by means of compressed air under a low pressure or by 
revolving rakes. 



254 

This style of filter had its origin in the industrial works of America, 
where it was used for clarifying waters for mill purposes. When first intro- 
duced for the purification of municipal water supplies, some twenty years 
ago, it was a very crude affair, arranged as a series of tubs, and engineers 
and sanitarians were sceptical as to its hygienic merits. They were also dis- 
posed to be somewhat prejudiced against the use of a coagulant, notwith- 
standing the fact that this process is many centuries old, and has been used 
for many generations in this country in clarifying muddy river waters in the 
South and West. So long as no undecomposed sulphate of alumina enters 
the filtered water, it may now be confidently stated that there is no evidence 
whatever to show that this treatment is in any way injurious to those 
who drink water purified by it. 

This type of filter is variously spoken of as the rapid or mechanical or 
American type of filter, and its scientific merits have been carefully worked 
out in series of investigations made during the past ten years, at Providence, 
Louisville, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Washington, New Orleans and Harrisburg. 

There are nearly 200 small filter plants of this type now in service in 
this country, most of which are employed for the clarification of muddy 
\\ aters in the South and West. The plants are operated essentially to clarify 
tlic v/ater during the freshet periods, rather than to produce a high sanitary 
grade of water at all times. Consequently, the effect of these filters upon the 
death rate from typhoid fever among the people using water so filtered, has 
not, generally speaking, been entirely satisfactory, although there are 
some exceptions to this general statement, as the instances of York, Pa., 
and Lorain, O. Notwithstanding this evidence, which is precisely similar 
to that obtained with sand filters in their early days, it may be definitely 
stated that filters built in accordance with the knowledge now available 
concerning this method, will, if well operated, produce satisfactory results. 

Plants of this type, as built a few years ago, bear but little resemblance 
to the works of recent design, either as to efficiency, durability or con- 
veniences of careful and systematic operation. Filtration works completed 
by the East Jersey Water Company, in 1902, at Little Falls, N. J., for the 
treatment of the water taken from the Passaic River and supplied to Pater- 
son, Passaic and neighboring smaller cities, are perhaps the best example 
of modern works of this type representing the scientific development of this 
method of filtration. 

While this type of filters is generally more applicable to the treatment 
of muddy waters, and waters deeply stained with vegetable matter, its field 
of usefulness also extends to nearly all types of waters for some particular 
cases where land is expensive or limited in available area, on account 
of the much smaller amount of land required as compared with the other 
type of filtration works. 



255 

Storage of Filtered Water in Reservoir, 

After a water supply is filtered, it is best to store the pure water in 
covered reservoirs and not expose it to the atmosphere. Bright, colorless 
filtered water when exposed in open reservoirs will generally develop 
green vegetable (algae) growths more quickly than in the case of the water 
in its raw condition ; while covered filtered water reservoirs are not always 
essential, they are always to be preferred, and should be provided where 
practicable. 

SUMMARY OV WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT. 

The following pages contain a brief description of the manner in which 
the detailed work of this Department was carried on, including an outline of 
the various projects considered, a description of the filter site and the filter 
plant recommended for adoption, together with estimates of its cost, both of 
construction and of operation, as well as specifications for the manner of 
constructing the filters shown on the plans which accompany and form a 
part of this report. 

Work of Field Force. 

The efforts of the field force have been applied to the discovery, sur- 
veying and mapping of all ar^as suitable for filter sites, the locations and 
elevations of which were such as to accord with any of the projects of water 
supply extension which have been considered. In addition to the survey of 
filter sites, a part of a reservoir site for impounding the water of Wappinger 
Creek was surveyed in the vicinity of Pleasant Valley, also a site for a 
" wash water reservoir " south of Stormville, and also a part of a site for a 
covered reservoir at Hill View. 

The basis of all this work has been the published maps of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, without the assistance of which such an investiga- 
tion would have taken a much longer time. As portions of the 
Geological work, however, were done a number of years ago, by less 
accurate and complete methods than those now in use, and as the contour 
interval of the Government maps (20 feet) was too large, even if accurate, 
to show the ground adequately, it was found necessary to make independent 
surveys of all plots that gave promise of being useful. 

First of all, a careful reconnoissance was made of all the available 
country which the Government survey maps indicated as in any degree 
suitable for filter sites. This work consisted for the most part in driving 
over all the roads and walking over the intervening territory not readily 
observed from the highway; taking note^ of the general topographical 



2S6 

and geological features bearing on the problem, and from these observa- 
tions determining the sites which it would be desirable to examine closer 
by instrument survey. 

As a next step, lines of levels had to be run to determine the 
elevation of certain points above the sea level. Here, again, the U. S. 
Government results were invaluable, as the elevation of many points along 
the Hudson River had been very accurately determined by the Government 
engineers. Starting at one of the Government points at Fishkill Landing, 
levels were run through Hopewell and Stormville and from Hopewell north 
through Freedom Plains to Pleasant Valley, and thence to another Gov- 
ernment point at Poughkeepsie — about thirty-five miles in all. This line 
of levels furnished the basis of elevation for the surveys in Duchess County. 
Another line of levels was run from a Government point in Tarrytown 
through Elmsford to White Plains, southerly and back again — fourteen 
miles in all — to use as a basis of elevations for surveys in that vicinity. 
Further levels in that vicinity were supplied by the Aqueduct Department. 

Based on the above levels, stadia surveys have been made of areas at 
Brinckerhoff, Fishkill, Stormville, Freedom Plains, La Grangeville and 
Pleasant Valley, in Duchess County, and at Hill View, Elmsford, Scars- 
dale and Greenville, in Westchester County. This work has involved 
the surveying of 41 square miles of territory, the running of 290 miles 
of traverse lines and the taking of about 40,000 independent observa- 
tions of elevation and distance. The surveys were made entirely by the 
stadia method, no tape or wye-level being used in connection with them. A 
sufficient number of points on the ground were taken to admit of the inter- 
polation of s-foot contours with fair accuracy. 

The detached position of the plots surveyed made it desirable to 
ascertain their locations with reference to each other and to the country 
in general. The most desirable way was decided to be the absolute loca- 
tion on the earth^s surface furnished by latitude and longitude, on 
account of the additional advantage of enabling the detached plots to 
be placed in their correct position on the Geological Survey maps, 
which are also based on latitude and longitude. As a basis for these 
latitude and longitude measurements, recourse was had again to the 
U. S. Government and from them, through the Aqueduct Department, 
the geodetic properties of many triangulation points were obtained. 
Great difficulty was experienced in finding the Government points, 
due to cultivation of the ground and lack of adequate ties and monu- 
ments; but several points were finally located and necessary triangula- 
tion work begun to tie each plot surveyed to these known points. The 
work was hindered for several weeks by haze and forest fires, but finally 



257 

the latitudes and longitudes of several new triaagaak^ioxtstaticms. were 4eter- 
mined. 

Maps were made of all territory surveyed, these maps being 
m general on mounted drawing paper on a scale of 200 feet to an inch, 
and, as determined from the triangulation, parallels of latitude one-half 
minute apart and meridians one minute apart were placed on the maps. 
Tracings of these maps were made, each embracing an area of one-half 
minute of latitude by one minute of longitude (in this latitude, about 3,036 
feet by 4,560 feet=:3i8 acres). This work has required the making of 115 
tracings. 

After the location of the filter site was definitely determined, 370 
acres of land covering this site were cross-sectioned, so as to admit of the 
interpolation of one foot contours with fair accuracy. 

Work of OMce Force. 

The office force was first employed in estimating from locations taken 
from the Government maps the probable cost of various projects suggested 
for obtaining a desirable supply of water. 

After a careful preliminary study, it appeared that these projects would 
divide into three general classes, each class having certain distinct advan- 
tages which would probably have to be weighed in part on grounds other 
than cost. These general projects are as follows: 

First — The establishing of a large pumping station at some point on 
the Hudson River above the least trace of salt water, the pumping of the 
water to high-level filters and the delivering of filtered water at Hill View, 
at the northern limit of the city, at an elevation of about 295. 

Second — The establishing of a pumping station on the Hudson 
River, as above, the pumping of water to low level filters and the delivering 
of filtered water at the height of Jerome Park Reservoir. 

Third — The obtaining of sufficient water tributary by gravity to filters 
and the delivery of filtered water to either of the elevations above men- 
tioned. 

Variations and combinations 'of these three general projects made an 
interesting study to determine the direction the surveys should take in 
the time available. 

Outline of Projects Considered, 

1st. Pumping 500 million gallons daily from a station at Greer Point, 
on the Hudson River, to filters at Freedom Plains, and delivering by aque- 
duct, to Hill View. 



2S8 

2d. Pumping 500 million gallons daily from a station at Greer Point, 
on the Hudson River, to filters at Clove, and delivering by aqueduct to 
Jerome Park. 

3d. Pumping 500 million gallons daily from a station at Greer Point, 
on the Hudson River, to filters at Green Fly, and then repumping to a 
high level aqueduct, delivering by aqueduct to Hill View. 

4th. Pumping 500 million gallons daily from Fishkill Creek at 
Brinckerhoff, when it can be obtained, but supplementing this by a 
500 million-gallon-daily station at the Hudson River, at Greer Point, to 
supply any deficiency of the Fishkill; filters at Stormville, delivering by 
aqueduct to Hill View. 

5th. Building a reservoir at Brinckerhoff, on Fishkill Creek, to give 
a steady supply of 125 million gallons daily, and pumping this 125 million 
gallons daily to filters at Stormville, supplementing this by 375 million 
gallons daily from the Hudson River, at Greer Point; delivering by aque- 
duct to Hill View. 

6th. Building a reservoir at Stormville and another at Brinckerhoff, 
on the Fishkill Creek, to give a steady supply of 40 million gallons daily 
from Stormville and 85 million gallons daily from Brinckerhoff; supple- 
menting this by 375 million gallons daily from the Hudson River, at Greer 
Point ; filters at Stormville, delivering by aqueduct to Hill View. 

7th. Developing the watershed of Fishkill Creek up to a total average 
of 147 million gallons daily by an inlet at Stormville and reservoirs giving 
a steady supply at Brinckerjioff and Billings ; taking by gravity 19 million 
gallons daily from Billings, everything coming up to 200 million gallons 
daily from Stormville and pumping the balance from Brinckerhoff Reservoir. 
Supplementing this by a maximum of 375 million gallons daily from the 
Hudson River at Greer Point. Filters at Stormville, delivering by aqueduct 
to Hill View. 

8th. Developing the watershed of Fishkill Creek up to a total average 
of 148 million gallons daily, by an inlet at Stormville and reservoir giving a 
steady draft at Brinckerhoff; taking everything up to 200 million gallons 
daily from Stormville, and pumping the Balance from Brinckerhoff Reser- 
voir. Supplementing this by a maximum of 375 million gallons daily from 
the Hudson River at Greer Point. Filters at Stormville, delivering by aque- 
duct to Hill View. 

9th. Developing Fishkill Creek watershed by an inlet at Stormville and 
reservoir giving a steady draft at Brinckerhoff, up to a total average of 148 
million gallons daily, taking everything up to 200 million gallons daily by 
gravity from the Stormville inlet, and pumping the balance from the Brinck- ' 



259 

erhoff Reservoir. Developing Wappinger Creek watershed by reservoirs, 
giving a steady draft at Rochdale, Clinton Hollow, Washington Hollow and 
Hibernia, up to a total average of 142 million gallons daily by pumping from 
the Rochdale Reservoir. Supplementing this by a maximum of 225 million 
gallons daily from the Hudson River at Greer Point. Filters at Stormville, 
delivering by aqueduct to Hill View. 

loth. Same as No. 9, with the exception of having one large reservoir 
at Rochdale instead of small reservoirs at Clinton Hollow, Washitigton Hol- 
low and Hibernia. 

nth. Building a reservoir at Brinckeroff on Fishkill Creek and 
one at Rochdale on Wappinger Creek. Delivering this water by gravity 
to filters at Clove. The reservoir at Brinckerhoff to develop 125 million gal- 
lons steady draft. The reservoir at Wappinger to be small, but flood flows 
to be taken into aqueduct up to 375 million gallons daily. Supplementing 
this by a maximum of 375 million gallons daily from the Hudson River at 
Greer Point, delivering by aqueduct to Jerome Park Reservoir. 

1 2th. Building a reservoir at Brinckerhoff on Fishkill Creek and dc- 
Hvering this water by gravity to filters at Clove. The reservoir at Brincker- 
hoff to be developed up to a total average of 149 million gallons daily, and 
the reservoir at Rochdale to be developed up to a total average of 113 mil- ■ 
lion gallons daily, by utilizing flood flows in each reservoir up to 250 million 
gallons daily. Supplementing this by a maximum of 262 million gallons 
daily from Hudson River at Greer Point ; delivering by aqueduct to Jerome 
Park Reservoir. 

13th. The same as No. 12, but with filters at Elmsford, near Tarry- 
town, instead of at Clove. 

14th. Building a reservoir at Brinckerhoff on Fishkill Creek, devel- 
oping 125 million gallons daily, flowing by gravity to filters at Green Fly. 
Supplementing this by a maximum of 375 million gallons daily from 
Hudson River at Greer Point. Repumping to a high level aqueduct and de- 
livering at Hill View. 

15th. Building a smaller reservoir than in No. 14 at Brinckerhoff, and 
taking the flood flows up to a maximum of 500 million gallons daily by 
gravity to filters at Green Fly. Supplementing this by pumping up to a 
maximum of 500 million gallons daily from Hudson River at Greer Point. 
Repumping to a high level aqueduct and delivering at Hill View. 

i6th. Same as No. 15. but with a still smaller reservoir at Brinckerhoff. 

17th. Same as No. 14, but with a cheaper reservoir at Brinckerhoff, 
developed from later studies. 



26o 

i8th. Same as Xo. 15, but with a still smaller reservoir at Brinckerhoff. 

19th. Same as No. 15, but with only an inlet at Brinckerhoff. 

20th. Building a reservoir at Brinckerhoff on Fishkill Creek and at 
Rochdale on Wappinger Creek, developing the Brinckerhoff Reservoir 
to 125 million gallons daily, but drawing on flood flows up to 250 million 
gallons daily; developing the Rochdale Reservoir to 113 million gallons daily 
by drawing on flood flows up to 250 million gallons daily, this water flowing 
by gravity to filters at Green Fly. Supplementing this up to a maximum of 
262 million gallons daily from the Hudson River at Greer Point. Repump- 
ing to a high level aqueduct and delivering at Hill View. 

2 1 St. 125 to 148 million gallons daily obtained from Fishkill Creek, 
40 million gallons daily from Stormville and the balance pumped from 
Brinckerhoff. 120 million gallons daily obtained from Wappinger Creek 
by four reservoirs, Clinton Hollow, Washington Hollow, Hibernia and 
Rochdale, by establishing one pumping station for the first three reservoirs 
and one for Rochdale. 102 million gallons daily obtained from Roeliff 
Jansen Kill by reservoir at Silvernails. Filters at Stormville and delivery 
at Hill View. 

. 22d. Chain of lakes at Silvernails, Clinton Hollow, Hibernia and Bill- 
ings developing 255 million gallons daily steady draft, also reservoir at 
Stormville developing 37 million gallons daily. Filters at Stormville, deliv- 
ering by aqueduct to Hill View. 

During these studies numerous diagrams and tables were prepared 
serving for quickly estimating various costs and giving a general idea of 
the direction to look for further economies. 

These studies were first completed; the office force was then con- 
tinuously employed in making detail designs and estimates for a reservoir at 
Hill View and for slow sand filters at Stormville, to have an ultimate capacity 
of 500 million gallons daily, the first installation to consist of filters having a 
capacity of 50 million gallons daily. 

Decision as to Site for Filters. 

The work of the field force indicated the existence of reasonably eco- 
nomical filter sites in connection with each of the schemes of water supply 
studied by the office force. The difference in cost of grading the different 
sites was not large enough to be a controlling factor in the choice of any of 
the projects of water supply suggested, therefore, the location of the filter site 
became dependent on the general project of water supply, and the decision, 
to build a reservoir at Stormville logically compelled a filter site somewhere 



26 1 

along the aqueduct line between the Stormville Reservoir and the Hill View 
Reservoir. 

The sites that fulfilled these conditions were three in number, namely, at 
Stormville, at Scarsdale and at Greenville. The last mentioned site was 
rocky and uneven and scant in area, and involved expensive siphons in the 
connecting aqueducts, and hence was not comparable with the other two. 
The Scarsdale site was more favorable from a topographical point of view, 
but was on expensive land and involved expensive siphons. The Stormville 
site, while varying so much in level that it would not at first be thought of 
as a desirable location for filters, is favorably located with respect to the 
aqueduct in a section where land is cheap and where stone for construction 
purposes can be easily obtained and it has abundant area for further exten- 
sion on a large scale. It was therefore deemed more suitable for the purpose. 

Description of Stormznlle Filter Site. 

The site chosen for filters and appurtenances in the vicinity of Storm- 
ville lies directly south of the Stormville Depot, and is about ij^ miles long 
and J4 of a mile wide, covering an area of about 780 acres. It is rolling ter- 
ritory consisting of hills and marshes ; the maximum difference of elevation 
being about 80 feet. 

The excavation, so far as it has been examined, appears to be a gravelly 
material overlying dolomite ledges, and when the covering over tlie ledges is 
deep, as it appears to be in many places, the material can be easily handled 
by steam shovels. While there are numerous swamps in this location, a 
detailed examination of them has revealed that the swampy material extends 
only a few feet in depth, the underlying material being an excellent clay. 
In excavating some of the hills rock will be encountered, but as this rock is 
dolomite it is not diflScult of removal and as it is a good rock for concrete 
construction, its presence on the site is an advantage rather than a detriment. 

General Features of the Filter Design. 

The general relation of the proposed filter plant to the surrounding coun- 
try and the general plan of the plant are shown on Pis. I, and II. 

Raw water will be received at the upper end of the plant in two conduits, 
each carrying about 250 million gallons daily. At this end there will be 
a switch gate-house which will allow the flow of the water to continue along 
in the same conduit, to be concentrated from both conduits into either, to 
change so that water from each conduit will flow in the other, or to discharge 
from either or both conduits into a compensating basin. Passing this switch 
gate-house, the twin conduits will skirt the west side of the compensating 



262 

basin to its lower end, where there will be a compensating gate-house which 
will allow surplus flows in either conduit to pass into the compensating basin 
and back again if the flow in the conduits becomes less than normal. 

Provision will also be made at this point for taking water from the com- 
pensating basin into either conduit or both conduits when it is desired to main- 
tain a flow through the basin. Passmg through this compensating gate- 
house, the twin conduits will continue to the regulating gate-house at the 
filter plant. At this regulating gate-house, provisions are made for dividing 
the raw water into three streams, one passing to the east side of the plant, 
one to the west side and a third down the centre. At the regulating gate- 
house, the gates will be so manipulated as to maintain a practically constant 
raw water level over the entire filter plant. 

The compensating basin will have an area of 62 acres, and it is designed 
so that its water surface may fluctuate 6 feet in depth. 

The filters will be covered filters constructed entirely of concrete, with 
groined arch concrete roofs, covered with soil. The general layout of the 
plant shown in the plans, includes sufficient filter area to allow of filtering 500 
million gallons daily at the rate of 3 million gallons daily per acre of sand 
surface, with 11 per cent, reserve, under ordinary conditions, for cleaning 
and storing sand. This rate is the general, accepted standard for filters of this 
type to-day. It has been recognized, however, that the water received from a 
few or all sources may be capable of being filtered at a higher rate, in which 
case the plant would cover less area. Provision is therefore made in the size 
of all conduits for the first installation for filtering water at the rate of 6 mill- 
ion gallons daily per acre of sand surface, with a plant having one-half the 
area ; the plant being so arranged in units that a decision on this matter is 
not necessary until after a part of the plant is in running condition and actual 
trials have been made to determine the most desirable rates for the particular 
waters filtered. The filter plant will be divided into units, each consisting of 
20 filters ; each filter having a net area of 0.93 acre. There are no open sand 
courts, but instead each unit has a long covered pipe gallery connecting with 
the filters, which are ranged along the gallery on either side. In this gallery 
will be located all pipes for operating the filters, and the apparatus for trans- 
porting and washing the sand. No sand will be stored, it being washed and 
placed immediately in one filter in the unit which will be held in reserve until 
entirely refilled. An operating station will be provided at the centre of each 
unit from which all the operations of each filter in the unit will be controlled. 
After being filtered, the water is discharged into two main filtered water con- 
duits, which connect at the by-pass gate-house at the lower end of the plant, 
and from them into the aqueduct leading to New York. To this gate-house 
will be extended the central raw water supply conduit, providing the only by- 



263 

pass between the raw water supply and filtered water conduits. This by-pass, 
which will be for use only in emergencies, will be properly safeguarded so 
that the filtered water cannot be contaminated by leakage into it of raw water. 

Details of Filter Plant, 

A more detailed description of the leading features of the filter plant is 
as follows : 

Raw Water Supply Conduits — Two conduits extend from the switch 
gate-house to the regulating gate-house, skirting the west edge of the com- 
pensating basin, a total distance of about 3,360 feet. These conduits will be 
constructed as twin conduits, each of an approximate horseshoe shape, about 
12 feet 6 inches in diameter. They will be laid on a grade of i in 5,000, and 
will be constructed of concrete with re-enforcing steel in the side walls. 

Gate-Houses — In design, the gate-houses will be simple, special at- 
tention being paid to keeping the loss of head through the houses at a mini- 
mum, and to reducing the number of chambers to the lowest limit for satis- 
factory operation. Openings that are used frequently will be closed by sluice 
gates, operated by hydraulic or electrical power — ^those used infrequently will 
be closed by stop planks. The substructures of all gate-houses will be of 
mass concrete, the floors being of concrete re-enforced with steel. The 
superstructures will be of brick, with granite trimmings and of attractive 
design. 

Compensating Basin — The object of the compensating basin is to facili- 
tate the holding of the raw water at a practically constant level on the filters. 
In the ordinary operation of the filter plant, owing to filters going out of 
service and other filters being placed in service, the rate of application of the 
raw water is necessarily somewhat fluctuating. The aqueducts delivering 
water to the filters receive it at the upper end, a long distance from the filter 
plant, and accordingly the flow at the lower end cannot be changed except 
after the lapse of considerable time. The filters, on the other hand, must be 
operated without any thought as to the amount of water flowing in the aque- 
ducts, and it thus seems advisable to construct a basin which will act as a 
balance between the amount of water coming in the aqueduct and the amount 
of water used by the filters, water flowing to or from the aqueduct and the 
compensating basin according to the demands of the filters. A plan of the 
basin is shown on Pis. I. and II. Its area is 62 acres, and its capacity 
between the elevations 240 and 246 — which represents the amount of fluctua- 
tion it can take care of — is 1 16 million gallons ; its total capacity to elevation 



264 

246 is 420 million gallons. The size of the basin was determined by the con- 
figuration of the ground, it being thought advisable to utilize all of the low 
ground between the filters and the railroad for this purpose, as in this case 
the north end of the basin would be formed by the aqueduct and the railroad 
banks which would be necessary in any case, and the total cost of construction 
would be small. 

It is proposed to regrade the natural surface of the ground within the 
basin limits between elevations 230 and 251, and below elevation 230 to strip 
the surface, the slopes between elevations 230 and 247 being paved with field 
stone, laid on a slope of i on 5. A blow-off will be provided at the north 
end of this basin and an overflow having a capacity of 500 million gallons 
daily will be provided on the west side. 

Filters — The filters will be constructed of concrete of dimensions and 
details as shown on Pis. III. and IV., with pier-groinoid floors, piers, side 
walls and groined arch roof. The main collectors will be of concrete laid 
monolithic with the floor. The lateral collectors will be of vitrified pipe, laid 
as shown on PI. III. The gravel layer will consist of 4 layers of graded 
sizes, the total thickness being 16 inches. 

The sand in the filters of each unit will be placed in varying thickness ; 
the minimum thickness being 20 inches and the maximum thickness being 3 
feet 8 inches. This is done so that the filters, when first started, will go out of 
commission in proper order and the process of refilling a filter with the 
washed sand from the other filters can be begun as soon as the unit is put in 
operation. 

The sand used will be a silica sand, having an effective size of from 
0.28 to 0.35 millimeter and a uniformity coefficient not greater than 2.5. It 
will probably be necessary to bring this sand from a distance, transporting it 
to the filter site by rail. 

The water level can be maintained at 6 feet above the maximum eleva- 
tion of the sand layer or at a less height, as may seem to be desirable in the 
operation of the filters. 

Ventilators will be provided at every other bay in the filters, as shown 
on Pis. III. and IV. They will be provided with movable covers, to be 
opened and closed when desired ; the hinges being on the north so that the 
cover may be opened to an angle of 45 degrees to let in the sun light. 

Rain which falls on the roof of the filters will be taken down each pier 
through an opening, discharging at the level of the maximum sand layer. 
Each filter will be provided with an inlet for raw water from the raw water 
conduit, an outlet for raw water to the raw water drain, an outlet for the 
waste water from the sand receiver to the wash water drain, an outlet from 



26$ 

the main collector to the effluent conduit and to the effluent drain and 
inlet and outlet from the main collector to the refill pipes. Entrance from 
each filter will be from the pipe gallery through a sluice gate, placed with its 
bottom at the same elevation as the maximum sand level. When the filter 
is in operation, this sluice gate will be closed ; when the filter is to be scraped 
the water will be run off from above the sand and the sluice gate opened, 
allowing entrance direct from the pipe gallery to a filter. 

Pipe Gallery — The pipe gallery extends the entire length of each unit : 
Entrance to this gallery is from the operating station, and the filters open out 
from it on each side as shown on Pis. \'I. and VII. The roof is a concrete 
arch of 29 feet span, continuous with the roofs of the filters and covered 
with earth in the same manner. 

The gallery contains all the pipes, valves and meters for the operation 
of the filters; all such apparatus being easily accessible for inspection and 
repairs. A concrete platform situated above the pipes, and on a level with 
the entrance to the filters, is available for the passage of men and materials 
throughout the whole length of the gallery and into each filter. 

The " booster '* stations and all pipes for the transportation and washing 
of sand are also installed in this gallery, as well as all the pipes, wires, etc. ; 
for the operation of the valves of each filter from the operating station and 
for the lighting of the filters. 

The gallery and all filters not in commission will be ventilated by the 
plenum process, the fans being located in the basement of the operating 
station. 

Ratv Heater Supply System — Beginning at the regulating gate-house, 
three concrete conduits of rectangular cross-section carry the raw water to the 
filters. Two of these conduits extend along the outside of the filter plant and 
the third, which may be used also as a by-pass, down the centre of the plant 
as shown on Pis. III., IW, V., VL, \TI. and IX. From these conduits, 
lateral conduits of 34"i^ch riveted steel plate, surrounded by concrete, arc 
laid in each pipe gallery, and from these lateral conduits cast-iron pipe con- 
nections are made to the inlet chamber of each filter. It is not intended to 
place any regulating valves at any points in these conduits, the raw water 
being maintained at a practically constant level by an attendant at the regu- 
lating gate-house. 

Filtered IVatcr System — The main collectors under each filter will be of 
concrete as shown on PI. IV. These collectors will be connected by cast- 
iron pipes and the proper valves, to three different conduits, the effluent, the 
effluent drain, and the refill pipes ; between these conduits and the main col- 



266 

lector there will be a Venturi meter, by which the rate and amount of flow of 
all water from the main collector of each filter is measured and controlled. 

The effluent is situated in the pipe gallery and is a 48-inch riveted steel 
pipe, J4 of an inch thick, laid in concrete. This effluent discharges into a 
rectangular concrete filtered-water conduit, as shown on Pis. V., VI., VII., 
VIII. and IX., there being two provided for, situated respectively in the 
east and west courts. These two filtered-water conduits come together and 
connect with the aqueduct to New York at the lower end of the plant in the 
by-pass gate-house. 

EMuent Drain System — Cast-iron pipe will be provided in the pipe gal- 
lery to take the effluent from the filters when it is necessary to draw the water 
below the sand level for scraping the filters, or when for any cause it is found 
desirable to exclude from the filtered water the effluent from a filter, as may 
be the case during ripening. Each lateral effluent drain will discharge into one 
of two main 48-inch concrete drains situated respectively in the east and west 
courts. These drains have an outlet at the south end of the plant for wasting 
the water and at the north end will be connected with the pumping station. 
Under normal working conditions, the water in these drains will be pumped 
to a reservoir. It is intended to use this water for washing and transporting 
sand and for operating the hydraulic valves. Should there be a deficit in the 
amount of water furnished while drawing the filters below the sand level, it is 
intended to pass the first part of the run from newly cleaned filters into this 
drain until the necessary amount is obtained. If it becomes desirable to run 
more water into this drain than will be required, as for the purpose of continu- 
ing the period of ripening, this surplus water can be allowed to run to waste 
or it can be pumped by a special set of pumps, back into the raw water con- 
duit ; this lift being only about 15 feet, the additional expense would be small. 

Refill Pipe — The refill pipe is located in the gallery and consists of a 20- 
inch cast-iron pipe connected with the main collector of each filter. When it 
becomes desirable to refill any filter from below, the valves are opened so as 
to run the water from a newly started filter into the refill pipe and thence to 
the filter to be refilled. 

Razv Water Drain System — At times when the raw water is very turbid 
and filters are going out of commission after short runs, it is desirable 
to draw oflF the water quickly from the top of the sand ; the raw water drain 
provides a means of accomplishing this. It consists of a cast-iron pipe laid 
in the pipe gallery and connected with each filter through the raw water inlet 
chamber. This drain, after passing through the pipe gallery, discharges into 
one of two concrete conduits, as shown on PI. V.; these conduits dis- 



267 

charging into a ditch at the south end of the plant. For the first installation, 
this raw water will be thrown away, but as the plant nears completion and the 
capacity of the raw water supply is reached, this water can be pumped back 
to the raw water conduit by establishing at the lower end of the conduit a few 
centrifugal pumps run by electricity. The lift will only be about 15 feet, so 
that the cost of pumping will be very small. 

Pressure System — ^A 36-inch cast-iron pipe extends from the pumping 
station through the east and west courts to the wash water reservoir : 12 and 
14-inch branches are taken off from this main through each pipe gallery and 
from each pipe gallery main to three 4-inch lines in each filter. The pipes 
supply the water for washing and transporting sand and for operating the 
hydraulic valves. 

Wash Water Reservoir — Details of the location of the wash water reser- 
voir, in which the water used in washing the filter sand will be stored, are 
shown on Pis. I. and XI. It will be situated to the southeast of the plant 
on a side hill with its high water level at elevation 655. It will be an open 
reservoir with earth embankments and division wall made tight with con- 
crete and puddle. Its capacity will be 10 million gallons. 

Wash Water Drain System — In each pipe gallery there will be provided 
a line of cast-iron pipe, connected to the wash water inlet chamber of each 
filter, and to catch basins near each booster to remove water that has been 
used for washing and transporting sand. This pipe will discharge into one 
of two concrete conduits, situated respectively in the east and west courts, 
both of which discharge at the south end of the plant at about elevation 324. 
In the first installation, it is proposed to let this water, together with the 
wasted water, and the wasted effluent drain water spread out on the swamps 
to the south and east of the plant, but ultimately it will be necessary to build 
an open canal to the Fishkill Creek, as shown on PI. I. 

Overflows — No overflows will be provided in the filters, the regulation 
of the level of the raw water being governed entirely from the regulating 
gate-house. 

Operating Station — An operating station, situated at the intersection of 
the pipe gallery and the east and west courts, as shown on PI. II., will 
be provided in each unit. This station will contain a large office from which 
all of the valves in the unit will be operated by hydraulic or electrical devices, 
the movement of the valves being clearly indicated on dials. The indicating 
apparatus from each Venturi meter will also show in this office, so that one 
man will be able to control the w^orking of all of the 20 filters in the unit. 
It is believed that this will secure entire uniformity in working condi- 
tions. In addition, this house will contain two large mine ventilating fans 
which will deliver large volumes of air into the adjacent pipe galleries. 



268 

When any filter in the unit is opened for cleaning, this air will pass 
through the open filter removing the dampness. It is believed that this 
forced ventilation of the pipe galleries and filters will be of great 
benefit to the workmen and will allow of much more efficient work. Above 
the office there will be dressing-rooms for the use of the workmen employed 
about the plant outside of working hours. The station will also contain 
a large toolroom and necessary lavoratory conveniences, so that prac- 
tically all of the operations of the unit will centre at this house, the men 
being able to pass to any filter through the pipe gallery without being 
exposed to, or delayed by, the elements. 

Pumping and Electric Lighting Station — A station will be located at 
the north end of the plant which will contain pumps for the supplying of 
the necessary water at loo pounds pressure for washing and transporting 
sand; also additional pumps, if necessary, for the pumping of the effluent 
drain water into the raw water conduit; also an electric equipment for 
the general lighting of the plant and for the lighting and ventilating of 
the filters during cleaning; also a steam heating plant for the heating of 
the operating stations, pipe galleries, and laboratory. A siding 3,000 feet 
long from the main track of the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad will terminate in a coal pocket, providing three months* storage 
of coal, and from this coal pocket coal will be delivered by gravity to the 
boilers in the pumping station. 

Transportation and Washing of Sand — The method to be used for 
transporting and washing of the sand is shown on PI. X. Permanent 
cast-iron pipes will be placed in each filter to which portable sand 
ejectors can be attached, thus delivering sand to " booster-stations " situ- 
ated in the pipe gallery. Through these stations the sand will be dis- 
charged into sand receiving tanks in the filter which is being refilled. The 
sand will be taken from the bottom of this tank and wheeled to its proper 
location in the filters, the dirty water running off from the top of the inlet 
to the wash water drain through temporary pipes. By this method of 
handling sand, no courts for the storage of sand are needed, their place 
being taken by one of the filters which will be held out of commission 
until it is entirely refilled, at which time another filter will take its place. 
All of the sand transporting pipes will be of cast-iron, with the exception 
of the connections to the ejectors and " boosters " and for switching from 
one line to another, which will be of bent wrought-iron pipe, or rubber 
hose. The water for the sand washing and transporting will be obtained 
from the wash water reservoir, and will be used at about one hundred pounds 
pressure per square inch. 



269 

Laboratory and Superintendent's Office— There wUl be a large chemical 
and bacteric4ogical laborator>' and Superintendent's office situated on the 
bluff to the north of the filter plant, as shown on PL II. The laboratory 
will be of brick and stone, and will be fitted up with the most approved 
appliances for bacteriological and chemical analysis. The building will 
be lighted by electricity and heated with steam brought from the pumping 
station. 

Superintendent's House — There will be a brick house erected near the 
bacteriological laboratoiy as a residence for the Superintendent in charge 
of the entire plant. 

Stables and Store Sheds — There will be a brick stable and store shed 
in the rear of the pumping station. 

Roads — The location of the plant necessitates the discontinuing of a 
number of countr}* roads, and the construction of 3.4 miles of new road 
to take their place and to allow communication between different parts 
of the plant. All new roads will be of macadam, built in accordance with 
the standard practice of the State. 

Estimated Cost of Stormville Filters, 

There will be twenty filters built in the first mstallation, sufficient to 
serve for the filtering of 50 million gallons of water at the rate of 3 million 
gallons per acre of net sand surface per day, and in connection with these 
filters there will also be built in the first installation the twin conduits 
supplying the raw water, all the gate-houses, the pumping station and the 
bacteriological laboratory, all the conduits located in the east court as 
planned for the completed plant and also the central raw water and by-pass 
conduit. The cost of this first installation is estimated at $3*581457, as 
shown in detail in Table No. i. The first installation will be completed in 
1905, and thereafter it will be necessary to build a few filters each year 
until 1924, when the entire plant will have been constructed. The cost of 
this deferred construction will be $14,646,116, as shown also in detail in 
Table Xo. i — making a total cost of $18,227,573, which can be met by a 
bond issue of $14,620,000 in 1905. It is estimated that the operating 
expenses will not exceed $882,800 in 1905, and $1,293,500 in 1924. These 
expenses include interest, sinking fund, taxes and repairs. 

Hill View Reservoir, 

This reservoir will occupy the entire top of the hill situated just north 
of the City line, between the town of Mount Vernon and the City of Yonkers. 

It will be a covered reservoir, as shown on Pis. XII. and XIII., 35 feet 
deep, having a water surface of 162 acres and a total capacity of 2,030 



270 

million gallons. The reservoir will be constructed entirely of concrete 
and covered with two feet of earth, and the entire excavation will be used 
in making an embankment and boulevard drive around the outside of the 
reservoir limits. It is designed to build only Basin No. i, of a capacity of 
600 million gallons at first, leaving the other basins to be constructed in 
the future. 

The aqueduct will pass through the reservoir, discharging into the 
reservoir at Inlet Gate-houses Nos. i and 2. In the centre of the reservoir 
will be built a large ornamental terminal gate-house, from which distri- 
bution pipes will lead to all parts of the City, and in which the water may 
be by-passed around the reservoir. 

Owing to the limited time available, sufficient examination could 
not be given to the character of the excavation at this place, and the 
plans and estimates are in consequence somewhat tentative and subject to 
correction after the information from a detailed set of test pits is available. 

Estintated Cost of Hill View Reservoir, 

The first cost of construction of Basin No. i is estimated at $9,058,860, 
and the cost of completing the other three basins at $13,168,530, the total 
cost being $22,227,390, which will require a bond issue in 1905 of $18,983,780, 
as shown in detail in Table No. 2. 

Filtering Water from the Croton Watershed. 

In the course of an investigation for filter sites for a low level supply — 
that is, for delivering water at the height of Jerome Park Reservoir — exami- 
nations were made in detail of all available sites for sand filter plants below 
the present Croton shed, and it was found that there were only two sites 
available; these sites are situated respectively at Gould's Meadows, about 
two miles southeast of Tarr}'town, and at Elmsford, about three miles 
southeast from Tarrytown. 

By raising the hydraulic grade line of the New Croton Aqueduct 
from the Croton Reservoir to this point, thereby running the aqueduct 
under a 20-foot head, it will be possible to utilize Gould's Meadows as a 
site for a filter plant of a capacity of 250 million gallons per day, on a 
basis of a rate of filtration of 3 million gallons per day per acre of sand 
surface. The water would pass through the filters by gravity, and would 
then return into the lower portion of the aqueduct. By this proposition, 
the lower 20 feet of the storage of the New Croton Reservoir could not be 
utilized without pumping; this, however, would still give a gravity yield of 
242 million gallons per day in an extreme dry year, and it would be only a 
small matter to install temporary pumps to obtain the balance if required. 



271 

The cost of installing a 250 million gallon plant at Gould's Meadows 
would be about $8,500,000, and the total cost of operation, including inter- 
est, sinking fund and extraordinary repairs and depreciation, would not 
exceed $766,000 per year. 

The Elmsford site is similarly situated to that of Gould's Meadows. 
The water would have to be backed up in the present New Croton Aque- 
duct about 40 feet in order to flow by gravity to filters on this site and 
would then return to the aqueduct below the filters. It would also be 
necessary at this site to turn the Sawmill River from its present course 
into a tunnel discharging into the Hudson River near Tarrytown. 

At the Elmsford site a plant having a capacity of 500 million gallons 
per day on a basis of 3 million gallons per acre per day can be installed. 

To build a plant of 500 million gallons daily capacity would cost 
about $15,000,000, and the operating expenses, including interest, sinking 
fund, and extraordinary repairs and depreciation would be about $1,500,000 
per year. 

TABLE No. I. 

Detailed Estimate of Approximate Cost of High Level Filter Plant, 

Stormville, N. Y. 

recapitulation. 

First installation 50 million gallons daily in 1905 $3»58i,457 

Deferred installation for complete plant of 500 million gallons 

daily in 1924 14,646,116 

Total cost $18,227,573 

Operating Expenses. 



In 1905. 



Interest on entire cost of structures and land, $14,620,000, at 3 per 

cent I $438,600 

Sinking fund to pay ofF cost in 40 years, $14,620,000, at 1.326 perl 



cent . 



Taxes and special assessments, $14,620,000, at 0.4 per cent 

Extraordinary repairs and depreciation, $14,620,000, at i per cent. . . 

Maintenance, operation, labor and supplies, at $2.50 per million 
gallons filtered ; 50 million gallons daily in 1905 ; 500 million 
gallons daily in 1924 



Total. 



193-900 

58.500 

146,200 



45,600 
$882,800 



In 1924. 



l438»6oc 

193,900 

58,500 

146,200 



456,300 
•1,293,500 



272 



Table No. i — (Continued), 



DETAILED ESTIMATE OF APPROXIMATE COST OF HIGH LEVEL FILTER PLANT, 

STORMVILLE, N. Y. 



Items. 



I 



Unit. 



Land 

Excavation 

Sodding 

Seeding 

Broken stone 

Slope paving 

Riprap 

Paving 

Puddle 

Gravel in walks. 

Macadam roads 

Railroad siding and structures 
Concrete in floors and walls, 

filters and pipe gall ries. . . . 
Concrete in floors and walls, 

raw water supply conduit . . 
Concrete in pi* rs and vaulting 

oi filters and pipe giUeries. 
Concrete in rcof of raw water 

supply conduit 

Concrete in other structures. . 
Reinforcing steel in concrete. 

Drains for vaulting 

Fasteners in vaulting 

Covers for ventilator shafts. . . 
Twin conduits, la fr. 6 in. x 

X a ft. 6 in., horseshoe, each. 
Concrete conduits, in i8 ft. lo 

in. X xa ft., rectangular. .... 
Concrete conduit-. 17 ft. 9 in. 

X 1 1 ft., rectangular 

Concrete conduits, 14 ft. 3 in. 

X 1 1 ft., rectangular 

Concrete conduits, 13 ft. gin. 

X xo ft., rectangular 

Concrete conduits, xx tt. 9 in. 

X 10 it., recungular 

Concrete conduits, xx ft. x 9ft., 

rectangular 

Concrete conduits. 9 ft. x 8 ft., 

rectangular. • . 

Concrete conduits, 7 ft. 6 in. 

X 6 ft., rectangular 

Concrete conduits. 7 It. 6 in. 

X 7 ft. 6 in., horseshoe. . ... 1 
Concrete conduits, 6ft. 6 in. x | 

6 ft. 6 in., horseshoe 

Concrete conduits, < *»• 6 ««»• 

X 5 ft. 6 in., horse^'hoe.. 

Concrete conduitt, 5 ft. x 5 ft., 

horseshoe .^ L"2'" 

Concrete conduits. 4 ft 6 m. 

X 4 fk, in., horseshoe 

Concrete com uits, 4 It. x 4 ft. . 

horseshoe , * V*.* * 

Concrete conduits, 3 ft. 6 m. 

X 3 ft. 6 in., borsesb'.e. ..... 

Concrete conduit*, 3 ft. x 4 ft. 

6 ins., egg shaped 



Acres 

Cubic yards... 
Square yards., 

Acres 

Cubic yards... 
Square yards.. 
Cubic yards. .. 
Square yards.. 
Cubic yards... 
«« 

Miles ". 

Cubic yards . . 



Tons 

No 

Linear feet, 



Price. 



First Installation ' 
I 50 Million Gallons Daily 1 
, in 1905. I 



Quantity. | Amount. 



Deferred Installation 

450 Million Gallons 

Daily, X905>t924. 



$150 00 I 

20 I 
35 CO 
I 50 1 
a 50 , 

1 50 I 

2 CO , 

a a$ I 

X 50 I 
xojooo 00 



6 50 

6 50 ' 
I 
8 00 



8 00 

6 50 

xoo 00 

50 

00 

xo 00 

4a 00 

4a 00 

38 00 

3a 00 

39 00 
a6 00 
33 00 
X9 00 I 
xs 00 I 
10 00 I 

8 00 
6 00 
5 -SO 

5 00 
4 50 
4 00 

6 00 



950 

718,000 I 

34.960 , 

50 I 

5.200 I 

6,aoo I 



4.540 
1,000 
1.8 



40250 

10,710 

24.980 

5.030 
14.390 
330 
3,000 
7.aoo 
».440 

3.360 

x,i7o 

600 

600 



609 



600 



430 I 

600 I 
».03O I 

600 
i,x9o 
3.490 

600 

600 



$X4i,5oo 

538,500 

6.992 



141,120 
49140 
22,800 

I9,K30 



X.750 I 
7,800 
15,500 I 



10,2x5 ' 

1,500 ; 

x8.ooo I 

20,000 I 

861,635 I 

69,615 I 

199,840 I 

40,240 ' 

93.535 , 

33.000 I 
«.Soo 

1.440 I 
14.400 



Quantity. 


Amount. 




ii 




2.732,000 

84.3*0 

220 


7.700 






ai,86o 
7320 
3,480 

i.6 


32.790 
14,640 
5.580 

16,000 







>5.6oo I 

XX, 400 I 

4.300 I 
4,800 I 
6.180 I 
3.3«o I 
5.950 
« 5.70s 
2,400 
3.600 



353.980 

14,730 

a 28, 360 

xo,i8o 
3.9«> 
940 
27,000 
64.800 
12,960 



x,i7o 
600 
600 
600 

600 

430 

600 

1,030 

600 

1. 190 

4.090 

600 

600 



2,300.870 
95.745 
1.826.880 

81,440 

25.480 
94.000 
X3.S00 
12,960 
129,600 



33930 

15,600 

13 800 

If, 40* 

9.000 

4.300 

4.800 

6,i8e 

3.300 

5.950 

18.405 

2,400 

3600 



273 



Items. 



Unit. 



Price. 



Concrete condaits, 2 ft. 8 in.. 



X 4 ft., ea shaped . 
8-inch vitnfied pipe . . 



Unear feet., 



Inlets No... 

Manholes 00 conduits and 

drains ; ** ... 

Cast-iron water-pipe ' Tons. 

Special castingB, bell . . 



Riveted steel mpe . 
Malleable steel ca^'tiugs . 



Spiral riveted steel pipe. . 

Gate valves, 4%-inch (spedal). No 

" 48-inch 

36-inch 

" 3o-inch 

" ao-inch 

" • i6-indi 

** I4rinch 

la-inch 



Linear feet... 






8-inch " ' •* 

4-inch 

3-inch hose valves ** 

3.inch round wav cocks ' " 

36-inch check Talve " 

Sluice sates, 5 ft. X 8 ft ** 

•* 5 ft. X 7 ft " 

" 5 ft. X 7 ft-, hori- 

zontal " 

Sluice gales, 8 in. diameter .. . " 

ao-inch Venturi meters " 

Controllers for valves " 

Indicators " 

Portable Rectors " 

Sand receive! s ** 

Boosters , " 

6-inch lateral collectors. ...... Linear feet.. 

Filter gravel ' Cubic yards 



Yellow pine timber , 1,000 ft. B. M.. 

Switch gatfe-hoose ' No 

Compensating gate-bouse ... . ** 

R^nlating gate-house " 

By-pass gDte house i ** 

Wash water reservoir gate- 
house. " 

Operating station ** 

Bacteriological Laboratory and 
Superintendent's office '* 

Superintendent's residence... ** 

Bam •• 

Pumping station, boiler-boose 
andcoalshed ** 

Pump^ and boilers " 

Electric lighting • ** 

Ventilating apparatus " 



Total estimated cost 

ContiqgencieSy aoper cent. 



Grand total.. 



is 


00 




35 


50 


00 


75 


00 


40 


00 


70 


00 


100 


00 


I20 00 


200 00 


I 


cx> 


2,C03 


00 


f,ooo 00 


550 


00 


3*5 


00 


100 


00 


60 


00 


50 


00 


35 


CO 


«5 


00 


18 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


6 


00 


600 


00 


4.300 


00 


3.800 


00 



First Installation 

50 MilUoo Gallons Daily 

in 1905. 



Deferred Installation 

450 Million Gallons 

Daily, 1905-1924. 



Quantity. Amount. Quantity. ; Amount. 



4,000 00 I 

so 00 

35000 

150 00 

950 00 

300 00 

x,oro 00 

1,500 00 

15 , 

a 50 

a 50 

40 00 

5o,coo 00 

IO/XK> 00 , 

i5,coo 00 
a5/>oo 00 ' 

3,000 00 • 
35,000 00 I 

50,000 00 
10.000 00 
5,000 00 

150,000 00 j 
50,000 00 I 



600 
x,8oo 



38 

3.8(» 

170 

xao 

aSo 

>o 

x.oco 



60 
300 

300 



100 
20 

4 

4 

5 

67,300 

34»4«> 

85,400 

«5 



1,500 00 



<3fOOo 
450 

ICO 

a,8so I 
112,000 I 
11,900 I 
13,000 I 
33»6oo , 
2,000 I 
1,000 

2,COO 



".650 ; 

650 ! 

io,aoo , 
60 
100 

35 1 

50 

306 

480 

1,800 

x,8oo 

600 

8,^:00 

136,800 

80,000 
xoo 

7,000 
15,000 

5*000 

r,3oo 

4«<»o 

7.500 ' 

10,080 

86,000 , 

2i3t500 

2,600 

50,000 

10.0CO 

i5.'»o 

25,000 

3.000 
35.000 

50,000 
zo,ooo 

5,000 

150,000 
50.000 
19,000 
3.000 



$2,984^548 
596*909 



*3.58x,457 



600 ! 

I 

"18 

8,950 1 

1,000 I 
1.070 

2,460 ' 

80 , 
9,000 

X I 

» I 



z8 

918 

.1 



180 

540 

2,700 

2,700 




$3,000 

900 

•.850 

358,000 

70.C00 

107,000 

295.200 

z6,ooo 

9,000 

3,000 

z,ooo 

5.850 

91,800 

540 

900 

315 

450 

3**40 

4*3ao 

16.300 

z6,aoo 



x8o 


Tao.ooo 


45 


900 


180 


63.000 


900 


»33.ooo 


180 


45.000 


36 


xo,8oo 


36 


36,000 


45 


67,500 


604,800 


90,720 


309*600 


774.000 


768,600 


x,93i,5oo 


30 


i.aoo 



50.000 
87,000 



$13,205,097 
2,441,019 



$i4,646.xi6 



274 
Table No. 2. 

detailed estimate of approximate cost of high level reservoir at hill 
view, between yonkers and mount vernon, n. y. 

No test pits or borings were obtained at this, site and the estimate 
assumes the excavation as all rock and of such quality as to be available for 
concrete. If the excavation is all earth, a saving of about $1,000,000 may 
be made in the first installation and of about $3,000,000 in the deferred 
installations. 



I 



Items. 



Unit. 



Land Acres 

Excavation, all rock Cubic yards, 

Puddle 

Concrete, floors and walls ** 

" piers and vaulting '* 

Cyclopean concrete | ** 

Soil dressing..; ' 

Sodding 

Rubble masonry. 

Landscape, road building, gate- 
houses, etc 

Twisted steel for concrete 



Square yards. 
Cubic yards. . 



Contingencies, 30 per cent . 
Total 



Price. 



$8,000 00 



«5 I 
so , 

50 I 



First Installation 
Basin No. i. 



Quantity. | Amount. 

335 ' #a,6oo,ooo 

a,6oo,ooo , 3,600,000 

37,Soo 61,875 

148,800 I 967,300 

97,800 783,400 

^»Soo I 33».Soo 

94,700 I 23,675 

6,000 X,300 

150,000 

30,300 

I 

7t549.o5o 
1,509,810 

19,058,860 



Deferred installations 
basins Nos. a, 3 and 4. 



Quantity. Amount. 



6,300,000 I |6,a< 

64,300 X44.67.5 

3^0,900 3,189.850 

334,700 1,877,600 

77,000 385,000 

343,800 I 60.700 

X6,003 3i3O0 

9,500 4a.75o 

I 35000 

35.000 

' »o.973,77S 

I 9^'94.755 

I *i3f«68.530 



RECAPITULATION. 



First installation 600 million gallons in 1905 $9,058,860 

Deferred installation for complete reservoir of 2,030 million 

gallons in 1924 13*168,530 

Total cost $22,227,390 



2f5 • 

FRELIMINARY DRAFT OF SPECIFICATIONS, SHOWING MANNER OF CONSTRUCTING 
THE HIGH LEVEL FILTER PLANT AT STORMVILLE, N. Y., RECOM- 
MENDED BY COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Excavation. 

Clearing — ^The land shall be cleared of all refuse, brush, trees, stumps 
or rubbish. Under all fills or embankments the upper surface of the ground 
shall be removed to such a depth, which shall be determined by the Engineer, 
as may be necessary to obtain a suitable foundation for starting the embank- 
ments or fills. 

Disposal of Materials — Such of the excavated materials as are suitable 
and are required shall be used in the various fills and embankments required 
by the specifications. All surplus material shall be permanently deposited at 
such point adjacent to the site of the work and graded to such lines as shall 
be given by the Engineer. 

Materials Kept Separate — ^All materials encountered in the excavation 
and suitable for use in the various fills or embankments shall be kept separate 
for that purpose. 

Borrozved Materials — Should a deficiency occur in the materials obtained 
from the excavation which are suitable for embankments or fills, the Con- 
tractor shall excavate suitable materials from borrow pits. The land for the 
borrow pits, which will be provided by the City, adjacent to the work, shall be 
cleared, and the pits excavated to the lines and grades given by the Engineer. 

Unauthorized Excavation — ^Any excavation carried on outside of the 
lines and grades given by the Engineer, together with the removal of the ex- 
cavated material, shall be at the Contractor's expense. All such space shall 
be refilled by the Contractor at his own expense, with concrete masonry or 
other suitable material as required. 

Blasting — All blasting shall be done in a careful manner so as to not 
endanger life or the work of construction. All blasts shall be carefully 
covered with heavy timber or other material, satisfactory to the Engineer. 
The drilling shall be so done that in no case shall drill holes extend below 
the level of the sub-grade. All explosives shall be kept in a safe place at a 
sufficient distance from the work so that, in case of accident, no damage will 
occur to any part of the work. 

Removal of Water — ^I'he Contractor shall, at all times during the con- 
struction, provide proper and suitable means and devices for the removal of 



276 

all water from the excavation, and shall remove all water as fast as it may 
collect, in such a manner as will not interfere with the prosecution of the 
work or the proper laying of the masonry. The Contractor shall have suf- 
ficient pumping machinery on the ground ready for immediate use. 

Timbering — ^The Contractor shall be responsible for properly supporting 
the sides of all excavations with timjber or other supports. If, however, the 
Engineer is of the opinion that at any point sufficient or proper supports have 
not been provided, the Contractor shall provide additional or stronger sup- 
ports at his own expense, but the furnishing of such further supports shall 
not relieve him of his responsibility for their efficiency. If required, all timber 
or other supports shall be removed, and upon their removal all voids shall be 
carefully filled as directed. If any timber is to ren^ain in place, such timber 
shall be cut off so as not to project above the surface of the ground. 

Excavation in Rock — ^When the excavation is in rock, any fissures which 
may be found shall be thoroughly filled with Portland cement g^out mixed 
in the proportions of one part of cement to two parts of sand, after which 
the entire upper surface of the rock shall be leveled up to sub-grade with 
concrete, mixed and laid as specified under " Concrete." 

Embankment and Filling. 

Materials — The materials for use in fills and building embankments shall 
be that obtained from the excavation or from borrow pits as specified under 
Excavation. 

Back Filling — ^The trenches shall be back-filled up to the original sur- 
face of the ground. This filling shall be made with the best material avail- 
able, selected especially for the purpose, and free from stones over 3 inches 
in diameter. It shall be placed in thin layers, moistened and well tamped. 

Rolled Embankments — ^AU rolled embankments shall start from a base 
from which soil and other perishable material shall have been removed, and 
on sloping ground the base shall be stepped, if required. Embankments shall 
be built with carefully selected earth, free from all perishable matter and 
from stones over 3 inches in diameter. Material shall be deposited and spread 
in horizontal layers, not exceeding 3 inches in thickness; each layer to be 
sufficiently watered and thoroughly rolled with a heavy satisfactory grooved 
roller. From time to time during the construction of the embankments, 
and if so required, three times after their completion, they shall be so 
thoroughly saturated with water that water will stand upon the surface. 
Foundation embankments shall be built up to a level at least 6 inches above 



277 

the outside bottom of the structures which are to be built upon them, and 
allowed to stand for six weeks after completion, unless otherwise directed. 
The tops of the embankments shall then be excavated to the required sub- 
grade of the structures. 

General Filling — ^The embankments around the filters in the east court 
and at such other places as are required shall be built of materials free from 
large stones. This filling need not be rolled. 

Gravel Filling Above Vaulting — On top of the vaulting of the filters 
shall be placed a layer 4 inches in thickness of washed gravel. This gravel 
shall be graded in size from coarse sand to stones not exceeding i inch in 
diameter. 

Filling Over Vaulting — The filling on top of the vaulting between the 
graded gravel and the loam shall be of light and porous material. Ashes, 
cinders or refuse matter will not be allowed for use in this filling. This filling 
shall not be rolled. 

Loam — On top of the filling over the vaulting, on all embankments and 
(Ml all fills shall be placed a dressing of loamy top soil. This soil shall be 
accurately graded to the proper lines and grades, and shall be rolled with a 
light roller to secure smoothness. Any sliding or settling which may occur 
before final acceptance of the work shall be repaired by the Contractor. 

Settlement — In building all embankments and making all fills, such 
allowance for the probable settlement of the materials shall be made as the 
Engineer shall deem necessary. 

Sodding and Seeding. 

Sodding — The sod shall be of good quality of earth, covered with heavy 
grass, sound and healthy, free from weeds, at least i foot square and 2 inches 
thick, cut with a bevel on the sides, so that when laid they will lap at the 
edges. No poor, lean or broken sod will be allowed in the work. The sod 
shall be carefully set so as to have a full bearing on their whole lower sur- 
faces, and shall be properly rammed and well rolled, and wherever required 
by the Engineer they shall be pinned down with wooden pins not less than 
twelve (12) inches long. The surface of the loam shall be dampened im- 
mediately previous to laying the sod. Care shall be taken to have all sur- 
faces conform to the proper lines and grades, and any sliding or settling which 
may occur before the final acceptance of the work shall be* repaired by the 
Contractor. 



278 

Seeding — The surfaces to be seeded shall be carefully prepared and 
raked over, and then seeded with a mixture of grass seed, or grass seed, Hun- 
garian rye and clover seed mixed, where required by the Eng^eer, together 
with a sufficient amount of fertilizer, not less than six hundred (600) pounds 
per acre, and all well rolled. Care shall be taken to have all surfaces conform 
to the proper lines and grades, and any sliding or settling which may occur 
before the final acceptance of the work shall be repaired by the Contractor. 

Maintenance — ^All sodded and seeded surfaces shall be carefully looked 
after and tended 'by the Contractor, shall be watered and the grass cut when 
necessary, and shall be turned over to the city in good condition on the final 
acceptance of the work. 

Macadam. 

Foundations — When the excavations or embankments have been finished 
to the proper sub-grade, they shall be thoroughly rolled with a suitable roller 
until approved by the Engineer. If any depressions or soft spots appear 
under the rolling, due to improper material or foundations, this material shall 
be removed and replaced with suitable material and the whole reroUed until 
it is perfectly solid. 

Quality of Material — All material shall be of good, hard stone, and that 
for the second and surface courses shall be of the best trap-rock. Stobe shall 
be crushed with approved machinery, and shall be as neariy cubical as possi- 
ble, free from screenings, of the proper size, and shall be clean and free from 
foreign material. 

Macadam — ^After the sub-foundation" has been rolled, the first cotu-se of 
broken stone shall be placed. This shall consist of stone which will pass 
through a ring 3 inches in diameter and will not pass through a ring 2 inches 
in diameter. Stone shall be placed in a imiform layer 6 inches in thickness 
amd thoroughly rolled. On this course shall be placed a binder of uniform 
thickness and the rolling continued until the stones cease to sink or creep 
in front of the roller. Above this binder shall be placed a second course of 
broken stone of such size that it will pass through a ring 2 inches in diameter 
but will not pass through a ring i inch in diameter. This course shall be 
spread in a uniform layer of 3 inches in thickness and thoroughly rolled, after 
which a binder course shall be applied as previously specified for the first 
course. The surface course shall consist of stones which will pass a ^Andi 
ring and containing about 50 per cent, screenings. This course shall have 
a sufficient thickness, so that, when rolled, the road will have a smooth, hard 



279 

and uniform suiface. The upper surface of the road, when finished, shall be 
free from depressions and shall be at the proper grade and curvature. On 
each side of the road shall be excavated ditches or gfutters. These shall be 
well paved with cobble-stones and so graded that the water will be removed 
from the roed. 



Puddle. 

Materials — The puddle shall consist of a mixtiu'e of clay and gravel. 
The clay shall be of good quality, free from loam, mica or other objectionable 
matter. The gravel shall be graded in "size. The clay and gravel before 
being used shall be approved by the Engineer. 

Proportions — All puddle shall be mixed in general of i part of clay to 2 
parts of gravel, but these proportions may be changed at any time by the 
Engineer, whenever in his opinion it may be necessary to, in order to secure 
water-tight work. 

Mixing — ^The clay and gravel shall be mixed by machinery in a continu- 
ous mixer of type to be approved by the Engineer, water being added at the 
same time, and the mixing continued until the mixture has a proper con- 
sistency. 

Placing — ^W^hile the puddle is in a plastic condition, it shall be placed in a 
layer 6 inches in thickness over a large surface, and left to partially dry out. 
During the process of dr>'ing out, the puddle shall be thoroughly compacted 
by rolling or ramming until the entire mass has become thoroughly consoli- 
dated and made water-tight. Puddle shall be sprinkled with water during 
the process of compacting, or at any time when so directed by the Engineer. 

Cast-Iron Water Pipe, 

Quality — All cast-iron pipe and bell special castings shall conform to the 
standard specifications of the New England Water Works Associadon, 
adopted September 10, 1902. All flange special castings shall conform to the 
requirements just specified, in so far as those specifications apply. 

Flanges and Drilling — ^All flanges shall be cast solid and faced and shall 
be drilled for bolts and studs as shall be indicated. All flanges and drilling 
shall correspond to dimensions furnished by the Engineer. Flanges shall 
be coated with white lead after they have been faced and drilled. 



28o 

Laying — Suitable tools, and appliances for the safe and convenient 
handling and la3dng of the pipes shall be used. Great care shall be taken 
to prevent the pipe from being damaged, particularly on the inside. The 
pipes shall be carefully examined for defects, and no pipe, casting or 
valve shall be laid which is known to be defective. If any defective pipe, 
special casting or valve shall be discovered after being laid, it shall be re- 
moved and replaced by the Contractor with a sound pipe, special castinig or 
valve. The pipes shall be thoroughly cleaned before they are laid and shall 
be kept clean until they are accepted in the complete work, and when laid 
shall conform accurately to the lines and grades given by the Engineer. 

Blocking — In all trenches and embankments, each valve, special casting 
and length of pipe shall be laid upon blocking set in at least two different 
places along its length. Blocking shall be of somiA spruce planking of sueh 
dimensions as the Engineer shall determine. Spruce wedges of suitable 
size shall be placed on the blocking to hold the pipe in position. The block- 
ing shall be bedded firmly and level across the bottom of the trench, and when 
any blocking has been sunk too deep, additional blocking shall be placed to 
bring the pipe to the required grade. In the pipe galleries and such other 
places as may be directed, the pipes, special castings and valves shall be sup- 
portd on concrete piers. 

Cutting Pipe and Drilling Holes — ^Whenever pipes require cutting to fit 
in the line, it shall be done by a machine which will leave a smooth cut at right 
angles with the axis of the pipe and in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer. 
In all cases where it may be impracticable to have the holes drilled in the 
flanges in advance, the Contractor shall drill the holes necessary for making 
connections at the site of the work. 

Lead Joints — In making all lead joints, the spigot end shall be properly 
seated in the adjacent bell and adjusted to give a uniform space for the joint 
which shall be made with twisted or braided hemp packing and soft packing 
lead. The packing shall be thoroughly driven into the bell so as to leave 
a space 2 inches deep for lead, for pipes 14 inches or less in diameter and 2j4 
inches deep for pipes over 14 inches in diameter. The melting pot shall be 
kept near the joint to be poured. Dross shall not be allowed to accumulate 
in the pot and each joint shall be made at one pouring. The joints shall be 
thoroughly calked by competent mechanics in a manner to secure water-tight 
joints. 

Flange Joints — ^The Contractor shall furnish and place all bolts, nuts, 
washers and gaskets for making flange connections. The bolts, nuts and 
washers shall be of quality equal to those made by Hoopes & Townsend. 



28l 

Testing — ^When a section of pipe and appurtenances has been laid and 
before it is covered, the Contractor shall test the same by filling it with water 
under a hydrostatic head of at least 50 pounds per square inch for all systems, 
except the pressure supply system, which shall be tested under a hydrostatic 
head of at least 150 pounds per square inch. Should any defects be found 
in the joints they shall be promptly made good, and should any defective 
pieces be discovered they shall be removed and replaced by the Contractor 
with sound castings of equal quality, to the satisfaction of the Engineer. 

Riveted Steel Pipes. 

Quality of Steel — Steel plates and rivet steel shall meet the requirements 
of the Manufacturer's standard specifications for boiler steel and boiler rivet 
steel. They shall also meet such additional requirements for punching, drift- 
ing and scarfing as the Engineer shall determine. 

Punching — The work shall be carefully and accurately laid out in the 
shop and the rivet holes punched. All holes shall be clean cut and shall be 
not more than 1-16 of an inch larger in diameter on the die side of the hole 
than that of the intended rivet. After the holes have been punched they shall 
be reamed for countersunk rivet heads on the inside of the pipe. When the 
work is assembled, rivet holes shall coincide with 1-32 of an inch, and any 
eccentricity greater than this shall be corrected by drilling or reaming. Drift- 
ing to force holes to coincide will not be allowed. When the eccentricity is 
so great that the joint is liable to be weakened by reaming, new and satis- 
factory plates shall be provided. 

Shaping — ^All plates shall be shaped to the proper curvature by cold 
rolling ; no heating or hammering will be allowed for straightening or curv- 
ing. All scarfing shall be done when the steel is at a proper temperature. 
Parts of the plates which have been heated for scarfing shall be thoroughly 
annealed subsequently. 

Construction of Pipes — ^AU pipes shall be cylindrical and of the full 
diameter inside. Each course shall be made of one plate, and the pipes shall 
be made up in the shop in sections of four courses, having a total length of 
about 30 feet. All longitudinal and circular seams shall be butt joint with 
outside cover plates. 

Riveting — ^AU riveting in the shop shall be done by machinery, exerting 
a slow pressure which shall be maintained until the rivet head has lost its 
redness. All rivets shall be driven hot. In the field, all rivets shall be driven 
by pneumatic or other approved machinery ; all rivet heads on the inside of 



282 

the pipe shall be conntersunk flush, with the face of the plate. All outside rivet 
heads shall be formed with a button set and shall be full and round and con- 
centric with the shank of the rivet. All loose or otherwise defective rivets 
shall be removed and replaced in a satisfactory manner. 

Calking — ^All seams and joints on tlie outside of the pipe shall be thor- 
oughly calked, steel to steel, with a round-nosed calking tool. Split calking 
or calking of rivet heads will not be allowed. 

Testing in Shop — ^Each section of pipe, after having been calked and 
before being coated, shall be filled with water and tested in the shop under 
a hydrostatic pressure of 50 pounds per square inch, and shall be made abso- 
lutely tight at this pressure. 

Coating — ^After each section of pipe has been tested, it shall be immedi- 
ately dried and cleaned and then heated uniformly to a temperature of 300 
Fahr., after which it shall be dipped vertically in a bath of mineral rubber 
asphalt pipe coating, manufactured by the Commercial Asphalt Company of 
New York. Coating shall be durable, perfectly waterproof and adhere 
strongly to the metal. It shall have a smooth glassy surface, free from 
ridges and be practically of uniform thickness on all parts of the pipe. It 
shall be sufficiently hard and tough not to be easily abraded and shall show 
no tendency to flow when exposed to the sun in summer or to become so brit- 
tle in cold weather as to scale off. At each field riveted joint and at all other 
places where the coating may have become abraded the plate shall be properly 
recoated by the Contractor with the material above specified. 

Transportation — In transporting all pipes especial care and provision 
shall be taken to prevent the pipes or the coating from being damaged in 
any way. 

Special Work — ^At such points as shall be necessary, the pipes shall be 
made of such dimensions as to fit the line accurately. 

Laying — The sections of pipe shall be so laid that the longitudinal seams 
shall be near the top and shall be spaced alternately approximately i fool 
each side of the middle. In connecting pipes together, great care shall be 
taken to prevent the edges of the sheets from being damaged. If rivet holes 
do not exactly match, they shall be slightly reamed or drilled by a pneumatic 
machine, in such a manner as may be indicated by the Engineer, so that the 
rivets may be inserted. Sections shall be securely bolted until the rivets are 
driven. 



283 

Protection of Coating During Laying — Great care shall be taken to pre- 
vent the coating from being damaged while the pipe is being laid. All per- 
sons walking in or upon the pipe shall have their shoes protected by soles 
of rubber or other suitable material. 

Test After Laying — ^After the pipe has been riveted, calked and cleaned 
out, it shall be filled with water and tested under hydrostatic pressure of 50 
pounds per square inch and made perfectly tight at this pressure. 

Connections — Pipes shall be provided with manholes, blow-oflf connec- 
tions and all valve connections. These manholes and all connections shall 
be made of malleable cast steel and shall be riveted to the pipes. 

Workmanship — Workmanship shall be first-class in all respects. 

Valves. 

Waterway — ^All valves shall be provided with circular waterways 
through the bodies of the valves of the full diameters of the connecting 
pipes. 

Quality of Materials — All materials shall be made of the best quality 
and suitable for the work required of them. 

Workmanship — The workmanship shall be first class throughout. 

Iron Castings — All iron castings shall be made of good quality soft 
gray iron, having a tensile strength of 22,000 pounds per square inch of 
section. All iron castings shall be smooth inside and out, free from sand 
and blowholes, scoriae, cold shuts and spongy places. Plugged, filled or 
defective castings will not be accepted. 

Composition Mountings — All valves shall be furnished with full com- 
position mountings with bronze stems and with carefully and firmly fitted 
valve rings and seats. 

Stuffing Boxes — ^All valves shall be provided with stuffing boxes, con- 
structed with bolt followers and packed ready for use. 

Flanges and Drilling — All flanges shall be cast solid, shall be faced and 
shall have holes for bolts and studs drilled to standards furnished by the 
City. Flanges shall be coated with white lead after they have been faced 
and drilled. 



284 

BoUs and Nuts— All bolts and nuts shall be of the best quality Ameri- 
can refined bar iron, and shall be equal to those made by Hoopes & 
Townsend. 

Controlling Device — Each valve shall be so constructed that it can be 
opened or closed by means of electricity. The apparatus for controlling 
the movement of the valve shall be placed in the operating station. This 
apparatus shall be so designed that when the valve is being opened the 
electrical current shall be broken automatically after the valve disk has 
traversed a distance of one-fiftieth of one inch, and that it will be necessary 
to close the circuit again before the valve can be still further opened. In clos- 
ing the valve, the circuit shall not be broken automatically. It shall, how- 
ever, be possible to make or break the circuit with the valve in any position. 

Indicator — Each valve shall be provided with an indicator operated by 
electricity, showing the position of the valve disk, and which shall register 
in the operating station. This indicator shall be so designed that it will be 
operated by the movement of the valve disk and not by the device for 
controlling the opening and closing of the valve. Each valve shall be 
also provided with a suitable indicator registering at the valve and of a 
type to be approved by the engineer. 

Coating — All cast-iron surfaces outside and inside shall be thoroughly 
cleaned and painted with two coats of asphaltum, or any other varnish 
to be approved by the City. All composition tool work shall be left bright. 

Marking — Each valve body or cap shall have cast upon it in raised 
figures the name of the manufacturer, size of valve, date of casting, and 
such other initials as the engineer shall determine, in neat letters one- 
eighth of an inch high. 

Hydrostatic Test for Valves — ^All valves except those in the high pres- 
sure system shall be tested with a hydrostatic pressure of 40 pounds per 
square inch. Valves in the pressure system shall be tested with a hydro- 
static pressure of 150 pounds per square inch. All valves which show any 
defects under these tests will be rejected. 

Test of Valves — After the valves have been placed, they will be tested 
for satisfactory operation. Any defects which may be found and which 
are due to the insufficiency of the materials or workmanship, at or within 
one year from the date of such test, shall be made good by the contractor at 
his own expense. 



285 
Sluice Gates. 

Workmanship and Materials — All materials shall be of the best quality 
specially adapted to the service required. Workmanship shall be first 
class in all respects. All surfaces forming joints or bearing surfaces shall 
be machined. Iron castings shall be of the quality specified under Cast- 
iron. Composition castings shall be made of the proper mixture of cop- 
per, tin and zinc, and shall have ample strength for the work required 
of them. 

Bolts — All bolts and nuts shall be made from the best quality American 
refined bar iron, with good, sound, well-fitting threads. Heads and nuts 
shall be hexagonal, shall be squared up and chamfered, and all heads, 
nuts and threads shall be of the United States standard dimensions. 

Faces — ^AU composition faces shall be securely fastened to the cast-iron 
and shall be hammered into place in a suitable groove, the back of this groove 
to be machined. All faces after they have been hammered and secured in 
place shall be scraped to a true bearing. 

Wedges — Each gate shall be provided with suitable wedges of hard 
composition or bronze, and fastened by bolts and adjusting screws. 
Wedges are to be fitted and adjusted in position after the gate has been 
set and until it is water tight. 

Concrete. 

Sand — Sand shall be composed of sharp angular grains evenly graded 
from fine to coarse, thoroughly screened to reject all particles greater 
than one-fourth of an inch in diameter, and shall be clean and equal in 
quality to the best New Jersey bank sand. Any sand containing over 3 
per cent, of very fine material or of loam, clay, or other impurities, may be 
rejected. 

Ballast — Ballast shall be composed of gravel or broken trap, rock or 
other hard stone, to be approved by the engineer, carefully and finely 
graded from the size of J4 inch to ij^ inches in diameter. This material 
shall be cleaned, and, if necessary, shall be washed when required by the 
engineer. 

Cement-^The cement shall be equal in quality to the best. American 
Portland cement It shall be delivered in such packages as may be 
approved by the engineer, and shall contain either 380 pounds or some 



286 

even fraction of 380 pounds. The cement will be subject to inspection and 
rigorous tests of such character as the engineer shall determine. Only 
such cements as have a well-established reputation shall be used in the 
work; and the contractor shall submit to the engineer the brands of cement 
which he proposes to use. No cement shall be used which is not in all 
respects satisfactory to the engineer. The Contractor shall at all times 
keep in store at the site of the work a sufficient quantity of the cement to 
allow ample time for tests to be made without delay to the work of con- 
struction. The engineer shall be notified at once of each deliver}\ The 
cement shall be stored in a tight building having a floor. 

Proportions — Concrete shall be mixed in the proportions of i part of 
cement to a total of 8 parts of sand and ballast. The sand and ballast 
shall be measured separately and mixed together in the proportions to be 
determined by the engineer. The proportions shall be fixed by volume, 
100 pounds of cement being estimated to occupy i cubic foot of space. 
The sand and ballast shall be measured when not packed more closely than 
by throwing them in the usual way into barrels or boxes. 

Mixing — Concrete shall be mixed by machinery in cubical box mixers 
or mixers of other types, if approved by the engineer. Measuring boxes or 
other approved apparatus shall be used so that the proportions can be accu- 
rately determined. Concrete shall be mixed very wet, except at such points 
where the engineer shall consider a drier mixture more desirable. 

Depositing — After the concrete has been mixed it shall be deposited in 
place before it has time to obtain its initial set. No retempering will be 
allowed under any circumstances. The concrete shall be deposited and 
joggled or rammed into position in a satisfactory manner. 

Centres and Forms — The Contractor shall provide the centres and forms 
required for placing the concrete. They shall be of the proper dimensions, 
smooth and sufficiently strong to withstand without movement the strains 
imposed upon them. The centres and forms for all surfaces which will be 
exposed in the finished work shall be so constructed or covered that when they 
are removed the exposed faces of the concrete will present a smooth, finished 
appearance, free from voids or stones. All centres and forms .before being 
used shall be cleaned of all adhering substances, and shall be coated with 
petrolene, oil or other approved material, to prevent the concrete from adher- 
ing to them. Should the centres and forms lose their proper shape and dimen- 
sions or should the surfaces become unduly roughened or dented, satisfactory 
centres and forms shall be substituted for them. The directions of the 



287 

engineer r^arding the time of removing the centres and formfi shall be 
followed, and their removal shall be done with care, so as not to injure any 
of the work. 

Bonding — The Contractor shall make such provisions for bonding as the 
engineer shall direct, and, if required, shall step off joints between work done 
at different times. Where old work is joined to new the exposed surfaces 
shall be thoroughly cleaned with water and slushed with neat cement. 

Protection of Masonry — The Contractor shall be responsible for the care 
and protection of the masonry at all times, and especially that laid during 
freezing weather; and if at any time sufficient protection has not been pro- 
vided, the Contractor shall, at his own expense, provide such additional pro- 
tection as shall be necessary. All injured work shall be made good by the 
Contractor in a satisfactory manner. 

Not to Be Laid in Water — Concrete shall not be laid in water, nor shall 
water be permitted to rest on any concrete until the concrete has .been set at 
least twenty-four hours. 

Defective Work — Should any voids or other defects be discovered at any 
time, the defective work shall be repaired or removed and replaced with suit- 
able material in a satisfactory manner, and at the Contractor's expense. 

Care of New Work — The exposed surfaces of finished and unfinished 
work shall be kept constantly moist by sprinkling with water at short inter- 
vals, or by covering with moistened burlap, or by such other means as may 
be approved, and this moistening shall be continued until the permanent cov- 
ering is in place, or until, in the opinion of the engineer, the concrete is suf- 
ficiently hardened. 

Work in Storms — ^The mixing and placing of concrete shall be stopped 
through rainstorms, if required, and all freshly-laid concrete shall be pro- 
tected by canvas in such a manner as to prevent running water from coming 
into contact with it. Sufficient canvas shall be provided and kept ready at 
hand for this purpose. 

floors — The upper surface of all floors in the filters, pipe galleries, con- 
duits and other places shall be brought to the required dimensions by means 
of screeds, and screeded and troweled to a smooth surface, free from all 
appearance of stone. If necessary to secure this result, cement mortar mixed 
in the proportions of one volume of Portland cement and two volumes of sand 
shall be applied to it and troweled by the Contractor before the concrete 
has set. 



288 

JValls — The exposed faces of the outside and dividing walls of the 
filters below the sand line shall be plastered with Portland cement mortar 
mixed in the proportions of one part by volume of cement to two parts by 
volume of sand, and shall be roughened by stippling with a wire brush before 
the plaster has set 

Vaulting — The concrete in the vaulting shall be placed under all circum- 
stances so that the section over each pier included between the centre lines 
of the adjacent arches will be a monolith. No other manner of making these 
joints will be allowed, except by direction of the engineer. The location of 
all other joints in the vaulting shall be subject to the approval of the engi- 
neer. The entire upper surface of the concrete in the vaulting shall be 
troweled to a smooth surface. 

Piers — ^The concrete in each pier shall be laid without joints so as to 
make a monolith. The finishing of the outside of the piers below the sand 
line shall be the same as that heretofore specified for the walls of the filters. 

Covers for Main Collectors — ^The covers for the main collectors in the 
filters shall be constructed in slabs of such dimensions as shall be approved 
by the engineer. These slabs shall be built in suitable forms and the under 
surface of each slab shall be perfectly smooth. Each slab shall be provided 
with two lifting rings. 

Setting Iron and Steel Work — Such iron and steel fixtures as shall be 
furnished by the City shall be set in the concrete by the Contractor at his 
own expense. 

Steel Reinforcements of Concrete. 

All rods shall be twisted cold and shall meet such physical and chemical 
requirements as the engineer shall determine. In the vaulting over the pipe 
gallery the concrete shall be reinforced by steel sections of the " T " shape. 
This structural steel shall meet the manufacturers' standard specifications. 

Draifis in Piers and Walls, 

In each pier and at points 20 feet apart in the dividing walls shall be 
placed a 2-inch drain. This drain shall be made of 2-inch wrought-iron pipe 
and fittings and shall extend from a point just above the sand line to flush 
with the top of the vaulting above. All drains which are in the walls shall 
be provided with a plug on one side. Over the top of each drain shall be 
placed a strainer of type to be approved by the engineer. Over this shall 



289 

be placed i cubic foot of clean gravel or broken stone which will not pass 
the strainer. Any drains which become plugged up shall be opened before the 
final acceptance of the work.. 

Covers for Ventilator Shafts. 

On the top of each ventilator shaft of the filters shall be placed a cast- 
iron frame with two steel covers. The frame shall be made of cast-iron and 
coated with coal-tar varnish. The covers shall be of sheet steel, the lovrer 
one being J^ of an inch thick and the upper one J4 of an inch thick, and 
painted with three coats of Smith's durable metal coating or other paint of 
equal quality to be approved. These covers shall be fastened together so as to 
provide an air space between them, and shall be hinged to the frame. Each 
cover will be provided with a device so that the cover can be raised from the 
inside of the filter and held in position after it has been opened, at an angle 
of 45 degrees. 

Cast Iron. 

Quality — ^AU castings shall be of close-grained gray iron, having a ten- 
sile strength of not less than 20,000 pounds per square inch. All castings 
shall be sound, smooth, clean and free from blisters, sand holes and all defects. 
Castings shall be planed where necessary to secure perfectly flat and true 
surfaces. All bolt holes, shall be drilled. 

Painting — ^AU castings shall be thoroughly painted with three coats of 
asphaltum or other approved varnish, one coat to be applied before the work 
leaves the shop and the other two coats after the castings have been set in 
place. 

Structural Steel. 

Quality — ^In quality and workmanship, all structural steel shall meet 
the Manufacturer's Standard Specifications. 

Painting — ^All structural steel shall be thoroughly cleaned from all loose 
scale and given one coat of pure raw linseed oil before leaving the rolling mill, 
and before being exposed to the weather. Steel shall be thoroughly cleaned 
of all adhering substances and painted with one heavy coat oi Smith's durable 
metal coating, or paint of equal quality. No painting shall be done after 
loading on cars, nor when work is exposed to freezing weather, nor unless the 
metal is perfectly dry, and whenever possible it shall be done under coven 
All ports of members which are to be bolted or riveted together shall receive 
one heavy coat of paint immediately before being put together. After erection. 



2go 

the whole of the metal work shall be thoroug^hly cleaned and toudied up to 
cover where the paint has been damaged, and finished with two additional 
coats of paint of the quality heretofore specified. All parts of the work which 
will be inaccessible in the complete structure shall receive two additional 
coats during erection. 

Lateral Collectors. 

Quality — Terra Cotta pipe shall be of standard quality, made of the best 
material, thoroughly and perfectly burned, of a homogeneous texture, with 
out cracks or imperfections, well glazed so that their inner and outer suiiaices 
shall be smooth, hard and even. 

Dimensions — ^All straight pipes shall be 2 feet in length ; shorter lengths 
shall be used when necessary to secure the proper location of branches or 
bends. All pipes shall be straight or of the required curvature, true in form 
and full diameter throughout and 5^ of an inch in thickness. All bends shall 
have a depth so as to allow an annular space of j54 an inch all around for the 
joints. In the manufacture of the pipes the bell shall be cut away on one 
side so that the barrel of the pipe shall rest for its entire length on the con- 
crete floor. 

Laying — ^AU pipes shall be perfectly clean before being laid. They 
shall then be placed on the floors of the filters with open joints, the spigot end 
of one being placed in the bell of the next adjacent pipe, so that there will be an 
openrng of ^ of axi inch left between the spigot end and the seat of the bell. 
In the outer ends of the lateral collectors shall be placed vitrified terra cotta 
plugs to prevent the admission of gravel or other substances. All pipes shall 
be laid throughout to the proper lines. Any pipes which should be broken 
or found defective after having been laid shall be removed and replaced with 
sound ones. Should dirt or other foreign substances be allowed to enter any 
of the pipes, such pipes shall be taken up, thoroughly cleaned and relaid. 

Filter Gravel. 

Quality — Filter gravel shall be of rounded gravel, screened from deposits 
of a sandy nature. Schist, shale or limestone will not be accepted. Filter 
gravel shall not contain any dirt, clay or fine or foreign material of any kind, 
and when shaken with clear water shall leave it substantially clean and clear. 
No gravel shall contain more than 2 per cent, of Hme or magnesia and other 
matter soluble in water or a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. Filter 
gravel shall be placed in layers of graded size and having a total thickness of 



291 

i6 inches. The lower layer shall be 6 inches in thickness and shall pass 
through a sieve having a 3-inch clear mesh and shall be retained on a sieve 
having a i^-inch clear mesh. On this shall be placed a layer 4 inches in 
thickness, which shall pass through a sieve with a i^-inch clear mesh and be 
retained on a sieve with a 5^-inch clear mesh. On this shall be placed a layer 
3 inches in thickness which shall pass through a sieve with a 5;s-inch clear 
mesh and be retained on a sieve with a J4"ij^^h clear mesh. Above this shall 
be placed a layer 2 inches in thickness, which shall pass through a sieve with a 
J^-inch clear mesh and be retained on a sieve having 14 meshes per lineal 
inch. Above this shall be placed the top layer i inch in thickness, which 
shall pass through a sieve having 14 meshes per lineal inch and be retained 
on a sieve having 20 meshes per lineal inch. 

Placing — The gravel shall be carefully placed, and each layer shall be 
smoothed off to a true surface to the required depth. Any disturbances of 
any nature in the layers after being placed shall be corrected before the next 
layer above is placed. Around each of the joints of the lateral collector shall 
be placed at least i cubic foot of the large pieces of the gravel and those im- 
mediately adjacent to the joints shall be placed by hand. 



Filter Sand. 

Quality — Filter sand shall be of clean river, beach or bank sand (or 
crushed rock) with either sharp or rounded grains. • It shall be entirely free 
from clay and organic impurities, and shall, if necessar>', be screened and 
washed to remove such materials. All grains shall be of hard material, which 
will not disintegrate. Filter sand shall not contain more than i per cent, 
of lime or magnesia. Filter sand shall have an effective size of not less than 
0.28 m.m. and not greater than 0.35 m.m. and shall have a uniformity co- 
efficient not greater than 2.5. Any sand w^hich contains particles larger in 
diameter than 5 m.m. or 0.5 of i per cent, of particles smaller in diameter 
than 0.16 m.m., will not be accepted. 

Placing — Filter sand shall be placed in layers of such thickness as the 
engineer shall determine. The upper surface of the top layer only of filter 
sand shall be smoothed. Compacting of filter sand while being placed in 
the filters will not be allowed. Should any compacting take place, such sand 
sh^ll be loosened up to the satisfaction of the engineer. Frozen sand shall 
not be placed in the filters. 



292 

Regulating and Indicating Apparatus,, 

On the outlet pipe of each filter shall be placed a Venturi meter for 
regulating the rate of filtration. The meter shall be connected to suitable 
apparatus which shall indicate the volume of water passing through the 
meter and the corresponding rate of filtration on the filter. This apparatus 
shall also be so connected with the water on the filter as to indicate the 
Joss of head in passing through the sand of the filter. This indicating 
apparatus shall be placed in the operating station. 

Sand Washing Apparatus. 

Apparatus for the washing and transporting of filter sand shall be 
erected. This apparatus shall consist of portable ejectors, stationary 
boosters, and receiving tanks and the necessary piping. 

Portable Ejector — Portable ejectors shall be so arranged that thqy 
may be easily moved from place to place by two men, and they shall be 
provided with suitable fittings, so that they may be connected with the 
pressure supply and sand discharge pipes in the filters. 

Boosters — Each booster shall consist of three stationary hoppers, so 
arranged with suitable overflows and ejectors that sand which is delivered 
to them from the portable ejectors may be washed and then boosted to 
another booster or to the sand receiving tanks. Each booster shall have 
a suitable settling basin into which the surplus dirty water shall flow. 
Each basin shall have a connection wdth the wash water drain. 

Sand Receiving Tank — Suitable sand receiving tanks shall be provided, 
so constructed that they may be easily moved from one filter to another 
and so arranged that they may be easily supported from the vaulting. 
Each tank shall have an overflow chamber at one end, from which shall 
be provided a suitable connection to the wash water pipe at the inlet 
chamber of the filter. In the bottom of each receiving tank shall be suit- 
able openings, provided with easily operated valves through which sand 
may be discharged. 

Quality of Materials — All materials used in the construction of the sand 
washing and transporting apparatus shall be of the best quality. All 
nozzles and throats shall be made of cast-steel and hardened. Workman- 
ship shall be first class in all respects. 

Painting — All cast-iron and steel work shall be coated with three coat« 
of asphaltum or other approved varnish. 



293 

Buildings, 

Cofistruction— The buildings shall be built of brick masonry, finished 
with suitable pressed brick and granite trimmings. They shall be of pleas- 
ing architecture and suitable for the purposes for which they are intended. 

Brick Masonry — The walls shall be built of brick masonry. The 
interior and exterior faces shall be of pressed brick, those on the exterior 
being of the Roman size. All other brick shall be of first quality building 
brick. Pressed brick shall be laid in mortar composed of one volume of 
Portland cement, one volume of lime paste and three volumes of sand. 
Lime paste shall be of first quality fresh burnt lime. Sand shall be of the 
quality specified under Concrete, and shall be screened to reject all particles 
greater than yi, of an inch in diameter. Mortar for brick backing shall be 
composed of one volume of Portland cement and three volumes of sand. 
Mortar for pressed brick shall contain a sufficient amount of mortar stain 
to produce the proper shade. All pressed bricks shall be gauged before 
being laid, and those in one course shall all have the same thickness. Joints 
shall not exceed ^ of an inch in thickness and shall be carefully jointed. 
Pressed brick shall be tied to the brick backing every sixth course. Brick 
backing shall be laid to line in nmning bond with every sixth course 
headers. All bricks shall be w^et before laying and shall be laid in a full 
bed of mortar. 

Stone Masonry — All stone masonry shall be of light grey Eastern 
granite. All stone shall be furnished from one quarry and shall be uni- 
form in color throughout. The stones shall be of compact texture, free 
from streaks which show on the exposed faces. Joint surfaces for all hori- 
zontal joints shall be dressed for the full area of the joint faces, so that the 
thickness of the mortar joints shall not exceed ^ of an inch for a depth 
of 3 inches back from the exposed faces, and back of this limit shall not 
exceed ^i of an inch. Vertical joints shall be dressed for the mortar joint 
not exceeding ^ of an inch thick for a depth of 3 inches back from the 
exposed faces, and back of this limit shall not exceed 3 inches. All 
exposed faces shall be hand tool dressed, having eight cuts to the inch, 
and shall be flat and true, without depressions or cavities. Drips shall be 
cut on all projecting work where required. Stone masonry shall be laid 
in a full bed of mortar of the same quality as that specified for Brick 
Masonry. As soon as the masonry is set the exposed joints shall be cut 
out to a depth of % of an inch for pointing. Before completion of the 
work the joints shall be thoroughly wetted and pointed with mortar. 



294 

Carpenter Work and Lumber— All lumber shall be of first quality, free 
from knots, spots and imperfections of all kinds, and shall be extra well 
seasoned. All mitres shall be true and close, and the woodwork shall be 
kept free from all stains, lead pencil marks and other imperfections. All 
woodwork shall be properly secured wath screws, nails, bolts, etc., as may 
be required. All interior woodwork shall be put up with wire nails. All 
interior moldings and linings shall be of well seasoned yellow pine. 

IVindozi's — All window frames, sashes, exterior sills and moldings 
shall be made of white pine. All window stools and aprons shall be made 
of yellow pine. Sashes shall be double hung with sash cord and cast-iron 
weights and pulleys. All sashes shall be glazed with first quality double 
strength American glass. All glass shall be imbedded in oil putty, bradded 
and back-stopped, and left clean and sound. 

Doors — All doors, jambs and exterior moldings shall be of first quality, 
well seasoned white pine, and shall be paneled and molded. Doors shall 
be hung on three loose pin butts. 

Hardzcare — All hardware shall be of first quality brass or bronze, of 
such sizes and located at such places as the Engineer shall determine. 

Painting — All yellow pine shall receive three coats of hard oil finish, 
and all white pine shall be so finished or painted with three coats of pure 
white lead and linseed oil, the colors to be selected by the Engineer. 

Roofs — All roof framing shall be of structural steel. The roofing shall 
consist of slate laid on terra cot{a tiles. All terra cotta tiles shall be of 
standard dimensions and made from carefully selected clay and evenly 
burnt. Tiles shall be laid in and the joints filled w^ith mortar of the quality 
specified for Brick Backing. All slate shall be equal to No. i Chapman 
slate, from Chapman quarries, Pennsylvania. Slate shall be 8 inches wide, 
and shall be laid with a lap of at least 3 inches of third on first. Each 
slate shall be drilled and nailed with two composition slater's nails. Slate 
shall be neatly cut at the valleys and the hips, and shall be laid double at 
the eaves and hips. Slate shall be laid in roofers' cement at the ridges, eaves, 
valleys and hips. All valleys, hips and openings in the roof shall be 
flashed wdth copper. All gutters and flashings shall be of i6-ounce soft 
copper, and all cornices, finials, ridge and hip rolls shall be of i6-ounce 
cold rolled copper. Rain water conductors shall be of ample size, shall 
be made of copper, rectangular in sections and properly crimped. They 
shall be supplied with suitable strainers and shall discharge into a cast-iron 
pipe extending 18 inches above the ground. 



295 

Plumbing — All plumbing shall be first-class ; the fixtures to be selected 
by the Engineer. All plumbing shall conform to the rules and regulations 
of the Board of Health of The City of New York. 

Heating — All buildings shall be heated by steam, furnished from a cen- 
tral plant at the boiler house. All steam pipe shall be properly covered to 
prevent loss of heat by radiation. Ample heating surfaces shall be provided 
so that the buildings may be maintained at a temperature of 70 degrees Fahr. 
in the coldest weather. 

Railings — All railings and standards shall be of 2-inch wrought-iron 
pipe, the railing to be 3 feet above the floor. Standards and ends of railings 
shall be screwed into broad iron sockets well secured by bolts to the floors 
or walls. All joints shall be made with heavy iron balls, threaded to receive 
rails and standards. All railings, standards and connections shall be coated 
with a black, baked enamel coating. 

Plastering — All outside walls shall J>e furred with 2 by i inch pine strips, 
set 16 inches centre to centre and securely nailed to wooden bricks built into 
the walls. All furring and partitions, which are to be plastered, shall be 
lathed, with best quality spruce lath, free from sap, bark or knots and of the 
full width and thickness for the full length. Lathes shall be put on horizontally, 
shall break joints every 18 inches and shall be not less than y% of an inch 
apart. All plaster shall consist of three coats of Acme cement plaster; the 
first coat on the lath work to be of fibered material. The first coat shall be 
scratched to form a rough surface for the second coat, which shall be applied 
as soon as the first coat has set sufficiently to receive it, the mortar being 
brought out to a true surface. After the second coat has been on twenty- four 
hours the surface shall be finished with a sand finish of Acme cement, mixed 
with clean water only, and floated to a true surface, free from defects of any 
kind, with clear soft pine or cork-faced floats. All angles and corners in the 
plastering shall be finished round. 



Electric Lighting. 

Machinery — The engine shall be of the horizontal cross-compound type, 
direct connected to dynamo capa^ble of generating direct current for supply- 
ing incandescent lights, and the motors for driving the ventilating fans 
engine and dynamo shall be capable of operating economically at three- 
quarter load. 



296 

Wiring — ^All buildings shall be wired to correspond with the best current 
practice. In the filters and pipe galleries the wiring shall be done in accord- 
ance with the best marine practice. The wiring shall be of sufficient size so 
that the line losses will not exceed 5 per cent. The number and location of all 
lights and switches shall be determined by the Engineer. 

Ventilation. 

In the basement of the operating station shall be placed, in duplicate, 
ventilating fans, electrically driven, for furnishing large volumes of air 
throughout the pipe galleries, so that when the filters are being cleaned they 
will be suitably ventilated by the discharge of this air from the pipe gallery 
through the filter. 

Pumping Machinery. 

Pumping Engines — Pumping engines shall be of the horizontal cross- 
compound fly wheel type, of modern construction in every particular. They 
shall be of sufficient size to pump easily 4 million gallons per 24 hours against 
a total suction and force main lift of 1 10 pounds per square inch, with a steam 
pressure of 150 pounds per square inch at the throttle. They shall be capable 
of showing on test of 24 hours duration a duty of not less than 135 million 
foot pounds of work for each 1,000 pounds of commercially dry steam, con- 
sumed by the engine and its auxiliaries. Workmanship shall be first class 
and equal to the best present practice. 

Boilers — Boilers shall be of the horizontal water tube type, constructed 
for a working pressure of 150 pounds per square inch, with a factor of safety 
of not less than 53^, based on a minimum tensile strength of steel plate of 
60,000 pounds per square inch. Each boiler shall contain not less than 10 
square feet of heating surface per Centennial standard horse-power. No cast 
iron shall be used for the construction of any part which is under pressure. 



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Plate 10 App.5 



297 



APPENDIX VI. 



Chemistry and Biology* 



299 



Appendix VI. 

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY. 

George C. Whipple, Department Engineer. 

The work of the Department of Chemistry and Biology may be conveni- 
ently described under the following heads: 

1st. Quality of the present water supplies of New York City; 

2d. Stream investigations; 

3d. Probable quality of the water supplies recommended; 

4th. Hudson River studies; 

5th. Ground water studies ; 

6th. Experiments on soil physics. 

I. Quality of the Present Water Supplies of New York City. 

I. INTRODUCTION. 

llie City of New York, with its five boroughs, with its 327 square miles 
of area, and its three and one-half million inhabitants, has eighty-two 
distinct sources of water supply. The City is an aggregate of many com- 
munities which were once independent and which once had their own 
systems of w-ater works. (Consolidation affected these supplies but little.) 
In some cases the works of private companies were taken and operated by 
the City, and interconnections have been gradually established between adja- 
cent distribution systems, but in general the old sources of supply continue 
in use. 

The water supplies of the different portions of the city were developed 
according to local conditions. The smaller communities found supplies of 
ground water near at hand and utilized them by driviiig wells, while the 
larger communities, like Brooklyn and the old City of *New York, were 
compelled to collect the surface water on distant watersheds and bring it 
to the city by aqueducts. Brooklyn later on reinforced its surface supply 
by driving wells. At the present time the citizens of Greater New York 
are supplied either with : 

1. Surface li'atcr, collected and stored in impounding reservoirs; or 

2. Ground water, obtained by driving wells to various depths between 
20 and 200 feet; or 

3. Surface and ground zvater mixed. 



300 

The number and varied character of the different sources of supply 
are shown in Tables ia and ib^ and the districts which they supply are 
shown in Plate i. 

These various sources of supply may be classified as follows, counting 
separately the different driven well stations and the most important lakes, 
ponds and reservoirs: 



Borough. 



Manhattan 

Bronx 

Brooklyn 

Queens 

Richmond 

Entire City, 



Number of 

Ground Water 

Supplies. 



Number of 

Surface Water 

Supplie*. 



12 

4 



7 


i6 

I 
..o 


49 


33 



Tota'. 



12 

6 

40 

17 

7 



82 



It will be seen from these figures that of the eighty-two water supplies 
which The City of New York possesses, thirty-three are • " surface water 
supplies " and forty-nine are " ground water supplies." If the quantity of 
water derived from these sources is considered, the following classification, 
based in part upon measurements and in part upon estimates, will give the 
relative amounts used in the different boroughs. 





Million Gallons per Day. 


Borough. 


Ground Water. 


Surface Water. 


Total. 


Manhattan 


..0 

I 

1 


260 
60 
..0 


260 


Bronx 


24 


Brooklyn 


110 


Queens .' 


*3 


Richmond 


6 






Total 


70 


343 


413 





In round numbers the present consumption of the city is 400 million 
gallons per day, and of this 83% is surface water and 17% ground water. 

• Surface water supply is only occasionally used. 

1 10 million gallons estimated as furnished by the Croton system. 



30I 

In Brooklyn, and to some extent in The Bronx and in Queens, the 
surface waters and ground waters are mixed before they are distributed to 
the consumers. The following classification takes this into account: 





Surface Water. 


Number of Million Gallons per Day. 




Borough. 


Ground Water 


Mi^ed Surface 

and 
Ground Water. 


Total. 


Manhattan 


260 
22 
..0 
..0 
..0 


..0 

I 

19 

i3 


..0 

I 

..0 


260 


Bronx 


24 
no 

'1 


Brooklyn 

Queens 


Richmond 


Total 


2S2 


39 


92 


413 



These figures show that 68% of the water supply is wholly surface 
water, 9% is wholly ground water, and 23% is mixed surface and ground 
water. 

Filtration is used only to a very limited extent. No filtered surface 
water is served direct to consumers. Two mechanical filters purify the 
waters of Springfield and Baiseley's ponds, of the Ridgewood system, before 
they are turned into the conduit, and two sand filters are being constructed 
for Simonson's Pond and Hempstead Storage Reservoir of the same system, 
but these filter effluents are mixed with other waters before they are deliv- 
ered to the consumers. The water from the driven wells of the Queens 
County Water Company, which supplies Far Rockaway, in the Borough 
of Queens, is filtered to remove the iron. Not any of the water supplied to 
Manhattan, Pironx or Richmond is filtered. Filters have been projected, 
however, at Lake Mahopac and elsewhere on the Croton Watershed. 



• Very small amount. 



302 



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3o6 

2. TYPHOID FEVER IN NEW YORK CITY. 

There is no better index of the general sanitary condition of a public 
water supply than the typhoid fever death rate of the community supplied 
by it. This is especially true of large cities, where the rate is less likely to 
be influenced by local epidemics due to causes other than water. A study 
of the typhoid fever statistics of The City of New York furnishes an inter- 
esting and instructive commentary on the character of the water supply at 
different periods. These statistics, kindly furnished by the Department of 
Health, and for which I am indebted to Dr. Ernest J. Lederle, Health 
Commissioner; Dr. William H. Guilfoy, Registrar of Records, and Dr. J. S. 
Bryne, Assitant Registrar, are given in Tables 2 and 3, and are shown 
graphically on Diagrams i to 3. 

Comparison with Other Cities, 

In the first place it should be stated that The City of New York now 
has, and has had for a long time, a typhoid fever death rate which compares 
most favorably with the large cities of the United States. 

In Table Xo. 4 will be found the typhoid fever death rate for all cities 
of the United States which had populations of more than 30,000 according 
to the United States census of 1900. The average annual death rate from 
typhoid fever for the 19,000,000 people there tabulated has varied during 
the past four years from 33 to 38, and has averaged 35 per 100,000. The 
average annual death rate for the years 1898 to 1901, inclusive, was 19.8 
per 100,000 population for The City of New York, including all boroughs, 
while the extremes varied only between 16.3 and 21.0. In round numbers 
the typhoid fever death rate for New York City may be considered as 20 
per 100,000 inhabitants ,or 0.20 per 1,000. Present indications are, how- 
ever, that the rate for 1903 will be lower than this. 

From Table 4 it will be seen that of the six cities which had populations 
of more than 500,000 in 1900, no city had as low a rate as New York. The 
nearest approach to it was St. Louis, which had an average rate of 25.4. 
Of the thirty-two cities which had populations between 500,000 and 100,000, 
only six had rates lower than New York. Of the forty cities which had 
populations between 100,000 and 50,000, only six had rates less than New 
York. Of the fifty-eight cities which had populations between 50,000 and 
30,000, only eight had rates less than New York. Of all the one hundred 
and thirty-six cities which had more than 30,000 population, only twenty 
had rates lower than New York. 



307 

Table 2a, 

table showing the annual typhoid-fever death rates in new 

york city, 1868-i902. 

Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx since 1898. 



1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871 , 
1872 . 

1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877 
1878. 

1879. 
1880. 

1881 . 

1882 . 
1883. 
1884. 
1885 . 
1886. 
1887 . 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 

1891 . 

1892 . 

1893. 
1894. 

1895. 

1896 . 

1897 . 
1898. 
1899. 

1900 . 

1901 . 

1902 . 



1898. 

1899. 

1900 . 

1901 . 

1902 . 
1903. 



Year. 



Population. 



851,137 

896,034 

943.300 

955.921 

968,710 

981,671 

1,030,607 

1,044,396 

1,075,532 

1,107,597 

1,140,617 

1,174,621 

1,209,196 



1,244,5" 

"0,857 

1,318,264 



1,280,1 



1,356,764 
1.396.388 
1,437,170 

1,479,143 
1,522,341 
1,566,801 
1,612,559 

1,659,654 
1,708,124 
1,758,010 

1,809,353 
1,873,201 
1,906,139 

1,940,553 
1,976,572 
2,014,330 

2,053,979 
2,095,686 
2,139,632 



Number of 

Deaths 
from All 
Causes. 



24,889 
25,167 

27.175 
26,976 

32,647 
29,084 
28,727 

30.709 
29,152 
26,20J 
27,008 

28,342 

31,937 
31,622 

37,924 

34,on 
35.024 
35,682 

37.351 
38,933 
40,175 
39,679 
40,103 

43,659 
44,329 
44,486 

41,175 
43,420 
41,622 
38,877 
40,438 
39,9" 
43,227 
43,304 
41,704 



Number of 
Deaths 

from 

Typhoid 

Fever. 



329 
378 
422 

% 

313 
305 
376 
325 
343 
321 
268 
372 
594 
516 
625 
476 
405 
433 
421 

364 
397 
352 
384 
400 

326 
322 
297 
299 
376 
294 

372 
412 

399 



Typhoid-Fever 
Death Rate. 



Per xcopooo 
Inhabitants. 



Borough of Manhattan Alone, 



38.9 
42.2 

44.7 
26.3 

39.8 

31.9 
29.6 
36.0 
30.2 
31.0 
28.1 
22.8 
30.8 
47.7 
40.3 
47.4 
35.1 
29.0 

28.5 
23 9 
25.3 
21.8 
23.1 

23.4 
21.7 
18.0 
17.2 
15.6 

15-4 
19.0 
14.6 
18. 1 

19.7 
18.6 



Per Cent, 
of Total 
Deaths. 



1.32 

1.56 

0.93 

1. 18 
1.07 
1.03 
1.23 
I. II 
1.30 

1. 19 
0.95 
1.19 

1.88 
1.40 
1.83 
1.35 
1. 14 
1. 16 
1.08 
0.91 
I 00 
0.88 
0.88 
0.90 
0.86 
0.79 
0.74 
0.71 

0.77 
o 93 
0.74 
0.86 
0.95 
0.96 



1,809,286 


36,687 


353 


19.5 


0.96 


1,830,462 


36,191 


278 


18.5 


0.77 


1,851,857 


38.878 


342 


0,87 


1,873.562 


38,507 


380 


20.3 


0.99 


1,895,491 


36,769 


365 


19.3 


0.99 


1,917,676 






15.0* 





* Approximately. 



308 



Table 2b. 
Borough of Bronx, 



year. 



1898 
1899 

1900 
I90I 
1902 

1903 



Population. 



167.286 
183,868 
202,092 
222,124 

244.141 
268,341 



Number of 
Deaths from 
all Causes. 




Typhoid Fever Death 
Rate. 

"perioo,ooo;^""";-°» 
Inhabitan.s. jToja^ 



14-8 
14.4 
13.9 
11.9* 



0.61 

0.43 
0.69 
0.67 
0.69 



1868. 
1869. 
1870 . . 

1871 , 

1872 . 

1873. 

1874 . 

1875 . 

1876 . , 

1877 - 

1878 . 
1879 . 
1880. 
1881 . 
1882.. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885 . , 
1886a 
1887 . 
1888.. 



1890.. 

1891 . . 

1892 . . 

1893 . 
1894b. 
1895 . . 
1896c 

1897 ■■ 
i898d. 
i899d . 
i90od . 
I90id , 
I902d 
1903d. 



Table 2C. 
Borough of Brooklyn. 



Year. 



•I 



Population. 



354,421 
375.588 
397*404 
413.399 
43o»038 
447,347 
^55.352 
483.788 
499,600 
515.927 
532,789 
550.202 
568,622 
587.897 
607,898 
628,443 
649.715 
671,614 

733.817 
758,650 
784,316 
810,850 
840,857 
869,08^ 
898.256 
928,408 
959,572 
991,782 

1,025,074 
1,060,483 

1,095.047 
1,131,805 
1,169,796 
1,209,064 
1,249,650 
1,291,597 



Number of 
Deaths from 
al] Causes. 



8.750 

8,759 
9x546 
10,259 
10.648 
10,968 
11,011 
12,470 
12,334 
".363 
".975 
11.569 
13,222 

14,533 
15.024 
13*338 
14,116 

13.369 
15,790 
17.078 
16,061 
18,480 
19.827 

21.349 
20,807 
21,017 
21,183 
22,568 
22,501 
20,674 
21,989 
21,649 

23.507 
23,271 

22,344 



Number of 

Deaths from 

fvphoid 

Fever. 



103 

96 

III 

92 
149 
103 

81 
102 

97 

82 

59 

59 

71 

99 

93 

92 

107 

150 

123 

143 

161 
182 
180 
162 
179 
159 
173 
163 
173 
270 
206 
301 
272 
322 



Typhoid Fever Death 
Rate. 



Per 100,000 
Inhabitants. 



28.5 
25.6 
28.0 
22.3 

34.7 
22.6 

17.4 
21. 1 

19.4 

15. 9 
II. I 
10.7 
12.4 
16.8 

14.6 
16.4 
22.3 
16.7 
18.8 

I9!8 
21.6 
20.7 
18.0 
19.2 
16.5 
17. 4 
15.9 
10.2 
24.6 
18. 1 

25.7 
22.5 

25.7 
20.8* 



Per cent, of 
Total 
Deaths. 



1. 18 
1. 10 
1. 16 
0.90 
1.40 
0.94 
0.74 
0.81 
0.79 
0.72 

0.53 
0.51 
0.54 
0.68 
0.62 
0.66 
0.76 
0.99 
0.78 
0.84 
O.Q5 

0.87 
0.92 
0.85 
0.78 
0.85 
0.75 

0.76 
0.72 

0.83 

1. 21 

1. 18 

1.45 



* Approximately. 

b. Flatbush, Gravesend and New Utrecht annexed, 
d. borough of Brooklyn, City ol New York. 



a. New Lots annexed, 
c. Flatlands annexed 



309 

Table 2d. 

Borough of Queens. 



1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
190^ 
^903 





137*032 


2,561 


16 


^I'l 


l.U 




145»H3 


2,510 


27 


18.6 




153.734 
162.834 


a,76o 1 


32 


20.8 


. 1. 16 




2,800 1 


27 


16.6 


0.96 




172,472 


^,7«2 ' 


32~" 


t8;6 


1. 15 




182,681 






17.6* 





Table 2e. 
Borough of Richmond, 



1898 
1S99 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



63^767 
65,444 
67,166 

68,933 
70.747 
72,608 



M06 
1,273 
1.378 
1,345 
1,282 



14 
20 

'1 
16 

II 



22.0 
30.6 

19.4 
23.2 

>5.5^ 
19.3* 



1.07 

1.57 
0.94 

1. 19 

0.86 



T^\BLE 2F. 



TABLE SHOWING THE ANNUAL TYPHOID FEVER DEATH RATE IN GREATER NEW 

YORK FROM 1898 TO I902. 



Year. 



1898. 
1899. 
1900. 

igov. 
1902 . 





Number of 
Deaths from 
all Causes. 


Number of 

Deaths from 

Typhoid 

Fever. 


Typhoid Fever Death 
Rate. 


Population. 


Per roo.ooo 
Inhabitants. 


Per cent, of 

Total 

Deaths. 


3,272.418 
3*356.722 
3.444.675 
3.536.517 ■ 
3,632,491 


66,294 
65.343 
70,874 
76,720 
67,912 


676 
546 
718 

764 


20.7 

20.8 
20.6 
21.0 


1.02 
0.83 
I.OI 
103 
1. 12 



Approximately. 



3IO 
Table 3. 

Table Showing the Monthly Typhoid Fever Death Rate (per ioo,oo(> 
Inhabitants) in New York City. 



Place. 


Year. 


Jan. 
0.8s 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


TotaL 




i8<jx 


0.66 


x.02 


0.78 


X.2Z 


1.38 


Z.68 


3-43 


3.92 


3.37 


307 


x.75 


23. xa 




1893 


0.88 


1.46 


0.99 


Z.ZZ 


1.35 


I.3S 


3.04 


3.10 


3.34 


3 22 


Z.81 


X.76 


a3.4i 


OW New York 
City ^ 


1893 
1894 


1.85 

z.2a 


z.02 
o.6z 


Z.65 
0.94 


X.42 
0.99 


0.61 


Z.3Z 
0.77 


Z.X9 
1.55 


X.99 
2.3a 


a.39 
3.X5 


3.98 
2.54 


2.33 
x-77 


z.48 
X.55 


ax.66 
z8.oa 


X895 


0.91 


0.85 


0.43 


0.75 


0.69 


1.23 


1.44 


Z.98 


a.46 


2.56 


z.98 


;:l^ 


x7.to 




1896 


0.98 


0.89 


0.58 


0.63 


0.52 


0.68 


1.31 


2.20 


a.oo 


2.05 


x.79 


XS.59 


. 


1897 


0.77 


0.46 


0.52 


0.7a 


0.98 


1.49 


2.06 


«.6S 


2.06 


Z.44 


a. 27 


X5.40 




1898 


0.44 


0.55 


0.77 


0.44 


0.44 


0.94 


Z.05 


«.93 


5. 20 


3l« 


2.X0 


x.55 


X9.51 




1899 


0.60 


0.44 


0.65 


0.8a 


I'll 


?:3 


i.>5 


X.47 


a.X3 


a.68 


2.35 


Z.36 


15. X7 


B'o rough of' 
4 Manhattan... 


1900 


1.40 


0.7s 


0.48 


0.48 


X.51 


Z.67 


2.85 


2.54 


a. 22 


2.64 


X8.49 


X90Z 


2.14 


0.96 


z.07 


z.cz 


o'.Ss 


0.69 


X.60 


X.92 


3-04 


3.X0 


z.9a 


X.97 


ao.a7 


190a 


X.2Z 


0.52 


0.90 


0.96 


0.95 


0.9s 


X.37 


2.27 


2.2a 


3.48 


2.74 


x.79 


X9.3« 


' 


1903 


.... 


• •.. 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 






1898 


o.co 


1.19 


0.00 


0.00 


1.79 


I.Z9 


0.59 


X.79 


1.X9 


1.79 


2.39 


x.79 


^I'l^ 




1899 


2.X8 


0.54 


1.09 


o.co 


0.00 


0.54 


0.00 


X.63 


0.54 


x.63 


0.00 


0.54 


8.69 


Borough of The 
Bronx 


Z900 


0.49 


2,47 


0.49 


0.49 


0.99 


0.49 


0.99 


l:^ 


X.48 


2.47 


0.49 


0.99 


14. 8x 


190 X 


0.45 


0.45 


0.45 


"•35 


0.90 


0.4S 


0.45 


3.«S 


2.70 


X.35 


0.90 


X4.40 


1902 


0.41 


0.00 


o.co 


Z.64 


0.41 


X.28 


2-45 


X.64 


0.00 


x.64 


x.23 


3-27 


x3-9» 




1903 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




.... 


.... 




• 


1892 


0.B9 


0.67 


0.78 


0.78 


0.33 


0.56 


X.67 


3.34 


4.23 


x.67 


X.88 


Z.TX 


17.91 




1893 


0.97 


Z.Z9 


*.5X 


0.97 


0.75 


0.7S 


X.08 


2.8z 


2.27 


2.37 


a.69 


X.5X 


x9.ao 




1H94 


1.15 


0.83 


0.42 


0.52 


X.04 


0.63 


x.04 


a. 19 


a. 19 


3.02 


a. 29 


X.X5 


X6.47 




1895 


I. ox 


0.7Z 


0.2* 


0.91 


x.xi 


0.81 


1.9a 


a. 4a 


2.63 


2.X0 


X.71 


2.ZO 


X7.42 




1896 


1.95 


Z.07 


V.66 
1.Z9 


0.3Q 


0.58 


0.19 
0.38 
0.73 


1.27 


^'12 


a.44 


2.73 


X.56 


0.49 


X5.S7 


Borough oi< 
Brooklyn.... 


1897 
X898 


X.I3 

X.X9 


0.8a 


0.57 

x.oo 


0.64 


v:a 


Z.88 
3.29 


2.65 


2.93 
4.XZ 


1.70 
3-«9 


2.27 
X.83 


x6.aa 
a4.67 
x8.X3 


1899 


o.7t 


0.62 


0.53 


0.97 


0.7X 


«.I5 


X.94 


a. 39 


2.0J 


2.12 


2.30 




1900 


2.05 


1.03 


1-45 


Z.Z9 


Z.28 


Z.03 


»-37 


a.23 


3-25 


3-33 


4.02 


3-5X 


25.74 




1901 


X.41 


1.49 


1. 41 


1-74 


0.66 


It 


1-57 


2.48 


3-.S 


3x5 


2.57 


2.57 


«2.53 




X9C2 


2.00 


0.96 


0.64 


I. 12 


1.36 


2. CO 


a.96 


3.60 


336 


2.3a 


25.7* 




«9C3 


0.93 


1.55 


»-55 


i.z6 


^.47 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




f 


1898 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


o.co 


0.00 


0.00 


0.73 


0.00 


3.65 


-H 


a. 19 


B.19 


XX. 6t 


1899 


0.69 


0.00 


0.00 


0.69 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


a. 76 


4.82 


X.76 


2.07 


x8.6x 


Borough of! 
Queens i 


1900 


1.30 


o.co 


Z.30 


0.00 


1.30 


X.9S 


3.26 


1.9s 


3.26 


3.26 


1.30 


X.95 


20.93 


1901 


o.6x 


o.6z 


0.6z 


2.46 


0.00 


1.84 


1.84 


a. 46 


X.23 


3-07 


1.84 


0.00 


16.57 


1 

I 


1902 


0.58 


0.00 


0.58 


o.co 


0.58 


0.58 


x-74 


a. 90 


5.2a 


X.16 


2.90 


2.32 


x8.s6 


1503 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


••••• 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




.... 






1898 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


o.oe 


0.00 


1.57 


3.«4 


1.57 


'2.55 


X.57 


x-57 


0.00 


tx.97 




1899 


0.00 


0.00 


1-53 


».53 


1.53 


0.00 


1.53 


X.53 


4.58 


7.64 


6.IZ 


4.5« 


30.56 


Borough of 


1900 


0.00 


0.00 


Z.49 


0.00 


o.o» 


0.00 


1.49 


1.49 


7.45 


1.49 


2.98 


4.47 


19.46 


Richmond... 


X901 


0.00 


X.45 


4.35 


1-45 


0.00 


1-45 


o.co 


2.90 


2.90 


2.90 


4.35 


'•55 


23.20 




190a 


x.41 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


2.83 


X.4X 


1. 41 


0.00 


5.66 


o.co 


a.83 


iS'SS 




1903 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




Avtragr, 






























OldNewYorkCitj 


t ,,,, 


Z.02 


0.89 


0.72 


0.88 


0.96 


X.IO 


x.67 


a-44 


2.70 


a. 82 


a. 02 


X.80 


19. a* 


Manhattan 


.... 


I.J5 


0.66 


0.77 


0.74 


o.8z 


0.86 


'•P 


2.05 


3.09 


a.58 


2.26 


X.85 


18.56 


Bronx 


.... 


0.70 


0.93 


0.40 


0.69 


o.8x 


0.78 


0.89 


x.s6 


x.a7 


a. 04 


X.09 


X.49 


13. 10 


Brooklyn 





i.»5 


0.94 


0.9Z 


0.93 


0.89 


0.7Z 


Z.48 


2.59 


3.08 


2.8a 


2.46 


x.9a 


ao.ot 


Queens ••■ 

Xichmond 





0.63 


O.Z2 


C.49 


0.63 


0.37 


0.87 


1. 51 


2.01 


3.63 


3.04 


7.Z9 


1.70 


17.27 


' 0.2S 

[ t 


0.28 ! 1.47 


0.59 


30 


1.17 


1.50 


«-74 


5.49 


385 


3.00 


a. 66 


22.43 



3«i 




DIAGRAM #. ARR. VI. 



312 

Manhattan — Although the typhoid fever death rate in New York is low 
in all the boroughs, it has not been always low and is now even slightly 
increasing. The available records for the old City of New York go back 
to 1868. In that year the death rate was 38.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, or 
1.32% of the total mortality. In 1869 ^^^ ^870 there were severe droughts, 
and a water famine was prevented only by purchasing the right to use the 
water from Lake Gilead, Lake Glenida, Lake Mahopac, Kirk Lake, Bar- 
rett's Pond and China Lake (see " The Water Supply of the City of New 
York," by Edward Wegmann, C. E., New York, 1896, John Wiley & Sons). 
During this dry period the typhoid fever death rate increased to 44.7. There 
were high rates, however, in 1872 and 1875. 1872 was a very dry year, 
and the natural yield of the watershed was low. It is interesting to note, 
moreover, that the Boyd's Corner Reservoir was under construction in 1872 
and the Middle Branch Reservoir in 1875. I" those early days less atten- 
tion was paid to the sanitation of camps than at present, and the possibility 
that workmen employed on these constructions may have contributed in 
some degree to raising the typhoid death rate is one which is within the limits 
of experience in other places, although it must be regarded as somewhat 
speculative. 

In 1879 the typhoid death rate had fallen to 22.8 per 100,000 inhab- 
itants, or 0.95% of the total mortality, because of the increased storage 
capacity on the watershed and to more favorable meteorological conditions. 
A very severe drought occurred in 1880, and the summer rainfall of 1881 
was very low. These were, perhaps, the most severe droughts since 1842. 
The storage was drawn down almost to the vanishing point, and it was found 
necessary to throttle the outlet gates at Central Park Reservoir and to use 
extraordinary measures to curtail waste of water. The watershed had 
hardly regained its storage when another dry year occurred, in 1883, again 
depleting the supply. During this period, from 1880 to 1884, there was a 
marked increase in the typhoid fever death rate. It rose first to 30.8 and 
then to 47.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, the highest point reached within the 
period covered by the records. It fell somewhat in 1882, but increased 
again in 1883, the curve thus inversely following the rainfall. 

Between 1883 and 1897 the typhoid rate steadily decreased. This may 
be attributed to the constantly increasing storage capacity to the generally 
more favorable meteorological condition and especially to the expedients 
adopted to protect the water supply from pollution. In 1888 the State Board 
of Health established rules and regulations relating to the pollution of the 
watershed, and in 1893 extensive purchases of land and buildings were 
begun along the stream courses and around the reservoirs. In 1893 a 
sewage purification plant was established on the watershed at Brewster. 



313 

Table 4. 

Table Showing the Typhoid-Fever Death Rate in Cities of the United States 
Hazing More than 30,000 Inhabitants Accarding to the Twelfth United 
States Census, 1900. 



ii 

E 



Name of City. 



Pittsburg. ... 
Charleston .. 
Youngstown . 

Troy 

Allegheny . . . 



Johnstown. . 
Wheeling. . . 
Knoxville .. 

York 

Atlanta.... 



Washington.. 
Chattanooga. 

Albany 

Dulutti 

Mobile 



Norfolk 

Terre Haute. 
Little Rock . 
San Antonio. 
Galveston .... 



Chester 

Louisville .... 
McKcesport ... 

Superior 

Kansas City.. 

Birmingham. . 

Spokane 

Ringhamton . . 
New Orleans.. 
Evansville .... 



State. 



Pennsylvania... 
South Carolina . 

Ohio 

New York 

Pennsylvania . . . 

Pennsvlvania... 
West VirRinia.. 

Tennessee 

Pennsylvania. . . 
GeOTgia 



Dtst. of Columbia 

Tennessee 

New York 

Minnesota ... 
Alabama 



Virginia. . 
Indiana . . 
Arkansas. 
Texas. . . . 
Texas. ... 



Pennsylvania.. 
Krntuckv. ... 
Pennsylvania. . 

Wisconsin 

Kansas 



Alabama .... 
Washington . 
New York... 
Louisiana . . . 
Indiana 



Richmond Virfzinia 

Lancaster Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia Pennsylvania . 

Reading , Pennsylvania. . 

AUento wn Pennsylvania . 



Montgomery . 
Wilmmflcton... 

Nashville 

New Haven . . 
Dallas 



Minneapolis . 

Topeka 

Hartford .... 

44 ' Quincy 

45 ' Cincinnati... 



Portland... 
D**nver.... 
Harrisburg 
Covington 



Alabama.... 
Delaware ... 
Tennessee . . . 
Connecticut . 
Texas 



Minnesota... 

Kansas 

Connecticut . 

Illinois 

Ohio 



Maine 

Colorado 

Pennsylvania. 
Kentucky 



Elmira | New York. 



Population 
Accord- 
ing to 
Twelfth 
Census, 
1500. 



391.616 
55,807 
44.88s 
^o,65x 

139,896 

35.036 
38.878 
3^.637 
?3.7o8 
89,872 

273,718 

94.15' 
52.969 
38.469 

46/24 
36.673 
38.307 
53.3»« 
37,r89 

31,5«5 
«54,73« 
34.a27 
3».09» 
5i,4«8 

39."f 
3^.848 
39.647 
287,104 
59,007 

85,050 
41.459 
1.293.697 
78.96X 
35.4x6 

30,346 
76.508 
80.865 
108,027 
42,638 

902,718 
33.608 
79,850 
^6,252 

325,90a 

50,145 
'3^859 
50,167 
42.938 
35,672 



Typhoid-Fever Death Rate 




Per 100,000. 




X898. 


X899. 


X900. 


X901. 


68.0 


to6.9 


X44a 


124.7 


X3'-o 


109. a 


X27.0 


73.8 


.... 


X20.2 


87.0 


X18.0 


72.8 


76.0 


r 155.0 


XC0.8 


56.2 


104.8 


93-3 


27.P 


78.0 


X39-4 


JOO.O 


84.8 


69.6 


90.2 


95-0 


Z68.4 


39-9 


43-0 


52.2 


143-0 


• 71.0 


36.0 


38.0 


6a.4 


85-7 


61.3 


6X.7 


60.6 


60.7 
64.8 


Hi 


67.3 


70.7 


68.8 


xoo.o 


87.x 


5I.O 


24.0 


49.1 


37.8 


94.5 


73-2 


59-9 


54-7 


67.6 


7^.3 


64.4 


77.2 


45 


S8.2 


- 40.9 


57-4 


71 .0 


67.S 


65.3 


54.7 


47.0 


67.5 


.... 


i3« 


89.9 


4X.5 


39-8 


85.0 


7i«7 


357 


49.0 


X08.0 


350 


40.0 


57-7 


59.8 


^7.8 


56.3 


«•! 


40.9 


67.3 


77.3 


25.8 


32.2 


"5.9 


4^.7 


31. » 


.... 


60.4 


78.9 


23.4 


30. 


70-3 


92.7 


51.6 


46.2 


65.3 


47.5 


70.7 


27.8 


53.0 


56.X 


64.1 


54.0 


39-7 
62.8 


47.0 


47-5 


66. z 


26.6 


34.1 


43-5 


88.3 


34.8 


62.8 


67.6 


4X.O 


24.x 


49.4 


73.4 


34.7 


33.3 


64.7 


33-0 


*9 5 


42-7 


53.3 


62.2 


254 


47.2 


48.0 


57-0 


56.0 


25.0 


35.3 


60.0 


47.0 


42.0 


97.2 


61.9 


483 


45-5 


36.1 


25.9 


25.9 


92.0 


47.0 


51. 6 


4«.a 


34-0 


^'•i 


34.8 


38.6 


57.6 


79.8 


74.5 


23.8 


*3-5 


45- 


^^S 


43-9 


m 


35-9 


24.8 


44.2 


36.4 


37-2 


36.6 


53.5 


71.8 


29.9 


3».9 


25.0 


?o.6 


3fi« 


41.8 


47-9 


31.9 


39.9 


47 9 


38.2 


38.0 


•9.6 


49.0 


39.x 


47 7 


30.9 


• 47-7 


27.4 



Aver- 
age 
Death 
Rate 
For 
Four 
Years. 



110.9 
xto.a 
108.4 
90. a 
88.8 

86.3 
84.9 

75.9 
72.0 

67.7 

€6.6 
65.7 
65.5 
6^6 
63.6 

6r. 2 

50.2 

5«6 

5d.2 
58.0 

58.0 
57-9 

56.9 

56. (i 

56.3 
52.6 
51.9 

5».2 

50.7 

50.2 
48.9 

47-7 
47.5 
47.0 

46 » 
45-8 
44.9 
43-7 

43-3 
42.0 
41.8 

4t-3 
40.9 

S9.6 
39-6 

l|-9 
3B.4 



314 
Table 4 — Continued. 



I 



83 
84 
85 

86 

87 
88 

89 
90 

9' 

93 
94 
95 

96 
97 
98 
99 
100 

lOI 

102 
103 
104 
105 

X06 
X07 
108 
X09 
1x0 



Name of City« 



South Bend.... 
Los Angeles... 
Springfield .... 
Spring field. ... 
Cleveland , 

Watcrbury. ... 

Houston 

Grand Rapids. 

Augusta , 

Indianapolis . . . 

Memphis. , 

Butte 

Kansas City.., 
Fort Wayne... 
Baltimore 

Canton 

PaterK>» 

San Francisco. 

Columbus , 

Altoona 

Trenton , 

Salt Lake City 
Davenport.... 

Toledo 

Wilkesbarre... 

New Bedford. . 

Joliet 

Seattle 

Dayton 

Camden 

Boston 

Chicago 

Savannah 

Buffalo 

Portland 

Auburn 

Syracuse 

Saginaw 

Schenectady . . 
Tacoma....... 

St. Louis 

Sprin'jfieid . . . . 
Scranton ..... 
Providence.... 
Erie 

Akron 

Peoria 

Taunton 

Omaha 

Lawrence 

Chelsea 

Sioux City.... 
Jersey City... 

Newark 

Fitchburg .... 

Dubuque 

Brockron 

Hoboken 

Lincoln 

Oakland 



State. 



Indiana . . . 
Caliiomia . 

Ohio 

Illinois. ... 
Ohio 



Ccnnecticut . 

Texas 

Michigan.... 
Gteorgia .... 
Indiana. 



Tennessee. . 
Montana . . . 
Missouri ... 
Indiana. . . . . 
Maryland . . 



Ohio 

New Jersey 

California. 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania..., 

New Jersey . . . . 

Utah. 

Iowa. 

Ohio , 

Pennsylvania. . , 

Massachusetts. 

Illinois , 

Washington.. . . , 

Ohio 

New Jersey.. . . , 



Massachusetts. , 

Illinois 

Georgia 

NewYoilfc. 

Oregon 



New York. .. 
New York... 
Michisan ... 

New York... 
Washington,. 



Missouri 

Massachusetts , 
Pennsylvania... 
Rhode I-land .. 
Pennsylvania... 



Ohio 

Illinois 

Massachusetts. 

Nebraska 

Massachusetts . 



Population 
Accord- 
ing to 
Twelfth 
Census, 
1900. 



Massachusetts. 

Iowa 

New Jersey . . . 
New Jersey . . . 
Massachusetts. 



Iowa 

Massachusetts. . . 

New Jersey 

Nebraska 

California 



35.999 
xoa»479 

38,353 
38x',768 

45.859 
44.633 
87.565 
39.44* 
169,164 

X03.320 
30^70 

163.75 * 
4S."5 

508.957 

3<',667 
105,171 
34«.78a 
X 25.560 

3'*.975 

73.307 
53.531 
35.254 
Z3i,8ia 
51,721 

6a,44a 
99,^53 
80,671 

85 333 
75.935 

560.89a 
1.698,575 

54.«44 
352,319 

90,436 

3^.145 
xo8,374 
4'.3i5 
31,682 
37.714 

575.938 
62,059 
102,026 
«75i597 
59,733 

49.728 
56,100 
3 '.036 
xc2,555 
62,559 

3».o72 
33."i 
906,433 
346.070 
3I.53J 

36,»Q7 
40,053 
59.3f"4 
40.169 
66,9Co 



Typhoid-Fever Death Rate 
Per xoo,coo. 



X898. 



1899. 



95.1 
40.9 
33.6 
4X.O 
3X.8 

28.4 
35.9 
39.0 
ao.a 
98.4 

33.4 

59- 1 
25.1 

37.9 

55-5 
3»-3 

96.3 
33-4 

30.0 
43- o 
8-S 
«3-6 
36.8 

973 

29.8 
ax.x 
43.5 

33-0 
57.6 

36.9 
37.8 

29.x 

13-9 
43-3 
14.9 
4.0 I 
39-8 j 

16.5 
94.9 I 
«3-7 I 

32.2 I 

13.3 I 

16.4 ' 
19.6 
95.8 
31.3 
17.6 

30.6 
31. 1 

16.7 

19. o 

33.1 

7-5 
»3-5 
«7-5 
13-5 



63.8 
58.6 
98.6 

32 7 
99.;! 
3Q.7 
45-7 
37.8 

38 X 
36.3 
30.6 
33-3 
30.1 

3Q.3 

46.5 
51.9 

93.3 

33.4 
45.0 

90. 6 
43.6 
30.4 
39.0 

35.6 
33.8 
31 o 

36.4 

38.3 
99.4 

36.0 

35.x 

35,0 
93.3 

18.4 
36.0 

13. 3 

33.8 
34.9 
94.5 
94.5 
34.9 

30.4 
17.8 

33.6 

■5-4 
3«.9 

89.4 
9-7 
14-5 
36. H 
13.7 

16.6 

17-5 
30.4 
93.4 
35-9 



44.6 
43.0 
44-5 
993 
53.8 

54-5 
39.3 

42.3 
35-5 
43-7 

35X 
«3-« 
36.0 

35.4 
37.x 

33.8 

33.8 

41-3 
42.4 
30.8 

36.3 
49.3 
38.7 
19.3 

35.9 

S9.8 
30.5 
15.8 

35.6 
19.9 
29.6 
97.0 
36.6 

46.3 
28.6 
35.5 
38.0 

21.3 

39.3 
37.4 

29.4 
33.4 
34.3 

21 O 
39.1 

95.« 

93-4 
33.4 

20.6 
39-3 
31.4 
30.3 
3».7 

37.6 

450 

t6.8 
14.9 
«9-5 



X90X. 



44.5 
39.1 
30.0 
93.3 
35.9 

31.2 
52.0 

34-7 
36.6 
27.4 

40 9 
38.1 
42.9 
3»-4 
97-3 

13. I 
37.0 

ao.o 
35-5 
97.5 

X8.7 

34.5 

30 3 
30.0 
34.6 

38.8 
21.9 

24-4 
35.6 

16.3 

94.8 
38.3 
9-7 
36.8 
94.5 

93.9 
15-0 
38.9 
35-0 
97-5 

34.6 
30.1 
26.4 
14 5 

26.7 
25.0 
19.3 
21.8 
18.5 

19. 8 
19.7 
16.4 
32.4 

21. 9 

18.7 
14.1 

2^.0 
28.2 

»3'3 



Aver- 
age 
Death 
Rate 
For 
Four 
Years. 



38.0 
37-8 
37-7 
37-7 
37.5 

36.7 
36.6 
34.8 
345 
34.3 

34-X 

33.6 
33-4 
39.9 

39.4 
39.4 
32.3 
31.6 
3«-3 

31.9 
31. t 

30.9 
30.7 

«»-9 

39.3 

?8:7 

28.4 

38.4 

28.3 

37.9 

27.8 

a6.6 
36.6 

96.3 
96.3 
36.1 
36.0 
95.4 

95-4 
95.x 

94-4 
94.1 
34.0 

93.6 
93-4 
93.4 

3>.9 
93.6 

93.6 
22.4 
31.7 
91. 5 
2X.3 

3t.9 
91. O 
SO. 9 
20.8 
90.5 



8 



"3 
116 



X17 
X18 
119 
xao 



i»9 
»3o 



13'- 
13a 
»33 
*34 
135 
136 



Table 4 — Continued. 



Name of City. 



State. 



Pawtucket | Rhode Island .. . 

St. Paul Minnesota 

Lowell ! Massachusetts , 

Des Moines i Iowa. .. , 

Utica New York 



WBW lORK 

B'trougH of MTanHsttmn , 



Borough of The Bronx . 
Boroagli «f Brooklyn .. 
Borough of Ciueens 



Borough of Richmond 



Haverhill. 
Salem .... 
Holyoke.. 
Newton 



191 Somerville.. . 

12a Worcester. .. 

i»3 Manchester. 
Milwaukee. . , 
Lynn 



Massachusetts .. 
Massachusetts . . 
Massachusetts ., 
Massachusetts .. 

Massachusetts .. 
Massachusetts ., 
New H;<mpshire 

Wisconsin , 

Massachusetts ., 

Massachusetts . 

Missouri 

Michigan 

New York 

New Jersey. ... 

Elizabeth | New Jersey. . . . 

Fall River Mas9achu«etts. . 

Cambridge Massachusetts. . 

Bridgeport ' Connecticut .... 

YonWers New York 

Rockford | Illinois 



194 

i»5 



xa6 Maiden 

127 St. Joseph. , 
8 Detroit 

Rochester . 

Bayonne 



Population 


Typhoid- Fever Death Rate 


Accord- 




Fer xco,ooo. 




ing to 
Twelfth 


















Census, 










X(02. 


X898. 


X899. 


X900. 


X90I. 


39.331 
x63,6i2 


20.4 


as. 5 


20.4 


14.8 


»6.3 


18.3 


92.1 


'!' 


94.9^ 


256 


17.9 


17.9 


X8.9 


6?,i39 


37 -o 


145 


9.6 


if. 6 


56.383 


2X.3 


17-7 


.4.8 


«5.5 


3,444,675 


SO. 7 


16.3 


20.8 


30. 6 


1,8»1,H57 


ltt.5 


15. a 


18.5 


»0.3 


ail}<,09.a 


13.5 


8.7 


14.8 


14.4 


1,16^.7W 


»4.6 


18.1 


as. 7 


3)8.5 


153 734 


11.7 


18.6 


MO. 8 


16.6 


67,166 


»».o 


30.6 


19.0 


»3.» 


37.T75 


21.6 


J3-5 


X6.9 


26.9 


35.956 


27.8 


»9-5 


195 


XI. 


45.7" 


17.5 


24.x 


IQ.7 


»4.7 


33.587 


20.9 


XI. 9 


26.8 


x6.s 


61,643 


X7.9 


94.4 


14.6 


X8.9 


xi8,42i 


II. 


lO.o 


27.0 


ai.5 


56.987 


24.6 


21. X 


10.5 


19 1 


a85.3«5 


16. 1 


«6.5 


ao.7 


21.2 


68.513 


21.9 


X9.0 


ig.o 


14-3 


33.664 


14.9 


IX. 9 


20.8 


260 


102,Q7Q 


XT. 6 


34.0 


S-7 


X9-3 


»85,704 


16.9 


IQ.3 


X8.2 


15.7 


162,435 


X3-5 


18.5 


18.5 


X8.2 


3».7a2 


43.0 


4.0 


15 


6.0 


52.130 


X3.4 


17.2 


7.7 


a7.3 


xo4.8fi3 


20.0 


10.5 


14.3 


19.6 


91,885 


15.2 


91.8 


16.3 


10.6 


70,996 


9.9 


iX-3 


21. X 


16. Q 


47.931 


12.5 


X0.4 


X0.4 


XI. 8 


3'.^5i 


3.2 


9-7 


1 '■' 


6.2 



Aver- 
age 
Death 
Rate 
For 
Four 
Years. 



80.3 
20.2 
20.x 
19.9 
19.8 

10.6 
18.4 
13.8 
39.7 
16.0 
33.0 

19. S 

19.4 
19.0 
19.0 

18.9 
x8.a 
18.8 
x8.6 
18.5 

X8.4 
17.9 
«7.5 
16.6 
17.0 

X6.4 
16. X 

14.8 
II. • 
5.6 



Note. — The death rates for the years 1898, 1899 and 1900 are calculated using the population 
pven in the 1900 ct*nsus ; lor the year 1901 the estimated population given in the bulletins of the 
United States Labor Department. All deaths from Typhoid Fever are taken from the Labor 
Department bulletins. 



3i6 



Diagram No.i App.Vi 




317 

The effect of the improved conditions was well illustrated in the year 1897, 
when, in spite of small rainfall and a very low stream flow, the typhoid fever 
rate did not materially increase. 

The increase in 1898 was due to the soldiers returning from Cuba after 
the Spanish War. The rate for 1899 was only 14.6 per 100,000 inhabitants, 
the lowest during the period covered by the records. Since 1899, the rate 
has risen slightly, but has not gone above 20 per 100,000 inhabitants. 

The influence of the rainfall upon the typhoid fever death rate in New 
York is quite marked. The larger the annual rainfall the smaller is the num- 
ber of deaths from typhoid fever, other conditions remaining the same. It 
is not the total annual rainfall, however, which controls the rate so much 
as it is the summer rainfall and its distribution. Extreme conditions are dan- 
gerous. Prolonged periods of drought, followed by heavy rains, tend to in- 
crease stream pollution and to reduce the beneficial effects derived from sedi- 
mentation, long storage, etc. 

Bronx — The old City of New York included what are now the Boroughs 
of Manhattan and The Bronx. Since consolidation, separate records have 
been kept for the different boroughs. They show that the typhoid fever 
death rate is considerably lower in The Bronx than in Manhattan. In 1889 
it reached a phenomenally low rate, namely, 8.7 per 100,000 inhabitants. 

Brooklyn — From 1868 to 1894 the typhoid fever death-rate was lower 
in Brooklyn than in New York; since 1894 it has been higher. In 1868, the 
date of the first available record, the rate was 28.5 per 100,000, or 1.18 per 
cent, of the total mortality. Between 1868 and 1879 there was a general 
decline in the rate, due in all probability to the order of the Board of Health 
closing hundreds of polluted wells within the city limits. The decline was 
not continuous, however, and during the dry years of 1870, 1872 and 1875 
there were reactions. This was especially true of the year 1872, when the 
rate increased to 34.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, the highest point reached 
within the history of the records. In 1879 the rate dropped to 10.7, the 
lowest point reached. 

Between 1880 and 1890 there was a gradual increase in the number of 
deaths from typhoid fever. During this period the draught upon the water- 
shed was constantly increasing. The ** pond pumping stations " were started 
in 1879, and about this time the storage reservoir at Hempstead was put 
into use, thus adding a supply of water which was considerably more open 
to pollution than most of the sources of supply then in use. The year 1883 
was a very dry year, but at that time there was no increase in the typhoid 
death-rate, although during the year 1885, which was also a very dry year, 
there was a considerable increase. During this year there was a shortage of 
water in the citv. 



3i8 




DIAGRAM IN. ARR. VI. 



319 

Between 1890 and 1897 several causes contributed to lower the rate. The 
new watershed, east of Millburn, was drawn upon in 1891, and this added 
a considerable volume of relatively pure water. In 1892 Basin 3 was added 
to Ridgewood Reservoir, thus increasing the storage capacity of the distribu- 
tion reservoir. In 1893 ^^^^ water-closets of the Village of Hempstead were 
panned and taken care of by a private company, while in 1894-5 this work 
was assumed by the Water Department and its scope extended to other por- 
tions of the watershed. The towns of Flatbush, Gravesend and New Utrecht 
were annexed in 1894. These towns were all supplied with water of good 
quality, and this additional increase of population in itself tended to lower 
the death-rate. In 1896 Flatlands was annexed. Baiseley's Pond was cut 
off from the supply in 1894 on account of pollution, and in 1897 Springfield 
Pond was cut off for the same reason. 

In 1898 came the Spanish War. Many of the soldiers, returning from 
Cuba ill with typhoid fever, were carried to the hospitals in Brooklyn, where 
they died, and this naturally increased the rate. A study of the hospital 
records during that year showed that, if the soldier cases had been excluded, 
the annual typhoid fever death-rate, instead of being 24.6, would have been 
about 19 per 100,000 inhabitants. Since 1889 the rate has been rising with 
irregular steps. This can be attributed to no other cause than the depletion 
of the water supply, which has made it impossible to adequately guard against 
pollution. During the present year the rainfall has been greater and there 
have been fewer deaths from typhoid fever. During the past two years 
the succession of droughts and freshets have not been favorable to furnishing 
a good water supply from a watershed so nearly exhausted in its capacity 
and provided with such small storage reservoirs as exist on the Ridgewood 
system. The population on the watershed, moreover, is steadily increasing. 

The frequent occurrence of growths of microscopic organisms in Ridge- 
wood and Mt Prospect Reservoirs, due to the mixing of the ground water 
with the surface water, has rendered it imperative to isolate these reservoirs 
at times and pump the water around them through the by-passes directly into 
the mains. This has prevented much unpalatable water from being sent to 
the city, but it has reduced the time required for the water to reach the 
consumers by about two days, and to that extent has rendered the water less 
safe should it become infected in any of the streams. 

While it is true that there appears to be a general inverse ratio between 
t)rphoid fever morbidity and the rainfall, it must not be forgotten that the 
effects of the meteorological condition are not confined to the watersheds 
which supply water to the city. In great measure they also affect country 
wells, and water supplies elsewhere in the region surrounding the metro- 
politan district, thus increasing the possibilities of typhoid being brought 



320 

to the city by agencies other than water, and by persons who contracted the 
disease elsewhere. 

Queens — The water supplies of the Borough of Queens are taken from 
driven wells, and these may be practically excluded as sources of typhoid 
fever in that borough. For thirteen years before consolidation the typhoid 
fever death-rate was approximately 20 for t-ong Island City, 12 for New- 
town and 15 for Flushing. Since 1898 the death-rate for the borough has 
varied from 11.7 in 189^ to 20.8 in 1900. Typhoid fever in this borough 
is probably due almost entirely to local causes, one illustration of this being 
the epidemic at Bayside in 1902, which was found to be due to infected milk 
furnished by a certain dealer. 

It is worth noting that since 1885, the year of the earliest available rec- 
ords, the death-rates in Long Island City, Flushing and Newtown have not 
fluctuated synchronously with the rates in either Brooklyn or New York, and 
have shown no relation to the rainfall. 

Richmond — The average typhoid fever death-rate in the Borough of 
Richmond since 1898 has been higher than that in any borough except Brook- 
lyn. In 1899 *t rose to 30.6 per 100,000, but since then it has fallen, until in 
1902 it was 15.5 The public water supplies of the borough are all taken 
from underground sources, and it is probable that they are in no way respon- 
sible for the typhoid fever in this borough. 

The general low death-rate from typhoid fever is a fact which reflects 
creditably upon the City. It is true, of course, that in a large city there is 
difficulty in obtaining accurate statistics, and the actual death-rate is probably 
larger than that reported, but after making all due allowance for errors, the 
fact remains, that the annual number of deaths from typhoid fever is sur- 
prisingly small. This could not be so if the public water supplies were other 
. than reasonably safe from the sanitary standpoint. 

It has been shown that 17 per cent, of the water supplied to the city is 
taken from driven wells. All of this ground water may be considered as en- 
tirely safe from the sanitary standpoint; and while the waters from the 
different well stations vary in many of their characteristics, not in a single 
mstance is there reason to suppose that they were unhealthful. This is a 
fact generally true of driven well water, but it is doubly true where the 
wells are driven in such sandy material as is found on Long Island. 

Eighty-three per cent, of the water supplied to the City, however, is col^ 
lected from the surface of the ground and is used practically without filtra- 
tion; and while the influence of the surface waters upon the amount of 
typhoid fever in the City is probably very small indeed, yet it cannot be con- 



321 

sidered as a negligible factor. It must be admitted that all of this water is 
open to possible infection, the danger of which must vary according to the 
amount of direct or indirect pollution from the population dwelling upon the 
watersheds. The watersheds of the Croton, Bronx, Bryam and Ridgewood 
systems are by no means unpolluted, although for the most part the direct 
pollution of the water is prevented. There must be some meaning, however, 
in the following figures : 



Typhoid fever death rate, iQoa.per ioo,oco 
Estimated population per square mile on 
the watersheds which form . the chief 
sources of supply 




Brooklyn. 

25.8 
208 



While there is no general artificial system of purification for any of the 
surface waters, save in a few instances on the Ridgewood sjnstem, there are 
certain natural agencies of purification which deserve consideration, and 
which are described beyond. 



(3) SANITARY SUPERVISION OF THE PUBLIC WOVTER SUPPLIES. 

The practical measures A^hich are being taken to eliminate the sources 
of pollution on the various watersheds are described on a later page. They 
include the abatement of industrial nuisances, the establishment of local sys- 
tems of sewage disposal and local filter plants, and a sanitary patrol of the 
watersheds. These are measures which are all immediately and continuously 
necessary. The end will not be reached, however, until all of the water for 
the supply of Manhattan and The Bronx is filtered before delivery to the con- 
sumers and not until all the surface supplies on Long Island have been re- 
placed by ground water sources. Meanwhile, it is necessary to keep a con- 
stant watch on the quality of the water by means of physical, chemical and 
biological analyses, and for this purpose samples of water are collected every 
day from the terminus of the Croton Aqueduct at One Hundred and Thirty- 
fifth Street, Manhattan, and from the terminus of the Brooklyn Aqueduct at 
the Ridgewood Pumping Station, besides several taps in Manhattan and 
Brooklyn. Once a week samples are collected from all the distribution res- 
ervoirs, supply ponds and storage reservoirs. Once a month or once a 
quarter every driven well supply is analyzed. This work is done chiefly at 
Mt. Prospect Laboratory, but the samples from the Croton Water- 
shed intended for biological examination are sent to the branch laboratory 



322 

at Katonah. These laboratories are referred to on other pages, and the 
work of Mt. Prospect Laboratory has been described in several of the scien- 
tific journals (see *' Proceedings Brooklyn Engineers' Club," vol. IV., p. 
io6) . The steady growth of this system of analyses is shown by the follow- 
ing table, which gives the number of samples analyzed each year from the 
time when Mt. Prospect Laboratory was established in 1897 to the present 
date : 



Year. I Laboratories. 



Scope of the Analyses. 



N umber of Samples. 



1903. 



City of Brooklyn 1,240 (6 mos.) 

Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens I 2, 180 

I 2,393 

2.707 



1897. . I Mt. Prospect I 

1898.. I " ..... 

1899.. " ...J 

1900.. ** .... 

1901..' *• .... 

1902.. " .... 

Mt. Prospect, Ka- 

kecp^ie ^°^^^1 f gations for Com. on Add. Water Supply 



Boroughs ol Brooklyn, Queens and Manhattan. 
Entire City of New York, Special Investi- ) 



3.029 
6,021 

16,000 



fio mos. 
Approx. 



In addition to the analyses made in the laboratories of the Department 
of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, analyses are regularly made by the 
Department of Health, in continuation of their work which began long be- 
fore the Department of Water Supply took up the matter. Their analyses, 
however, are made with reference simply to the sanitary quality of the water, 
their field of operations being logically limited to the character of the water 
in its relation to the public health. 

To publish the results of all the analyses which have been made would 
be to fill several volumes, but inasmuch as there are no complete published 
records of analyses showing the general characteristics of all the various 
sources of supply of the City, it has been thought best to present summaries 
of the most important results. These are given in Tables 5 to 8. Before 
describing them, however, it may not be out of place to offer a few words in 
explanation of the character of the analyses made and the meaning of the 
results. 



4. REQUISITE QUALITIES OF A PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY. 

The requisite qualities of a water to be used for purposes of public sup- 
ply are as follows : 

1. It should be free of organisma capable of producing disease and of 
all irritating or poisonous substances, whether organic or inorganic. 

2. It should have an agreeable appearance, that is, it should be practically 
clear and colorless. 



323 

3- It should be odorless and tasteless. 

4. It should not be too hard for domestic or industrial uses, and it should 
be practically free of iron. 

5. It should not contain substances in solution liable to corrode metal 
work either in boilers or in the distribution or service pipes. 

6. It should perferably have a cool and equable temperature. 

These requisites differ in their relative importance. First, and before 
everything else, a public water supply must be safe from the sanitary stand- 
point. It must not, by scattering the germs of disease, be a menace to the 
health and the lives of the consumers. In so far as a water supply is open to 
pollution, it is dangerous to use. 

It is, perhaps, unfortunate that the characteristics of a water which make 
it unsafe do not at the same time render it unpalatable ; but it is true to a very 
great extent that safety and palatability of water are independent of each other. 
Those characteristics which render a water distasteful are recognizable by the 
senses, but the presence of disease germs is not. For example, a water which 
is colored or turbid, and especially a water which has a bad odor, is naturally 
repellent, while a hard water has objectionable qualities which are evident in 
every household and boiler-room; yet a water may possess all these objec- 
tionable features and be perfectly safe. On the other hand, a water may be 
clear and cold, and in every respect pleasant to drink, and yet contain disease- 
producing germs or poisonous metallic salts. Thus it is that public opinion 
as to the sanitary value of a water supply is often fallaceous. The brown 
color of water is due almost invariably to harmless vegetable matter in solu- 
tion ; turbidity is due to clay or iron or other matter in suspension, while most 
of the bad odors are produced by microscopic organisms, not disease germs. 
Upon these aesthetic qualities, as such, the consumer is a good judge, and they 
are proper subjects of complaint, but high color, turbidity and odor are 
usually wrongly interpreted by the ordinary citizen. They do not in them- 
selves indicate pollution. The characteristics which render a water unsafe 
from the sanitary standpoint can be detected only by the expert using the 
most delicate chemical and biological tests. 

The other characteristics mentioned, such as hardness, the presence of 
corrosive substances, etc., are by no means unimportant. They detract from 
the general acceptability of a water and have an important bearing upon its 
industrial value, as will be pointed out later. 

5. WATER ANALYSES. ' 

A complete sanitary water analysis, as made in the modern laboratory, 
consists of four parts: the physical examination, the chemical analysis, the 



324 

microscopical examination and the bacteriological examination. For a com- 
plete understanding of the quality of the water, all of these analyses are re- 
quired and are usually sufficient, but in special cases it is necessary to proceed 
further and make what is termed a mineral analysis. Fifteen years ago the 
only analysis made was the chemical analysis, but the development of the 
science of bacteriolog>^ has made a change in many of our ideas concerning 
the quality of drinking water, so that at the present time the bacteriological 
examination ordinarily gives more practical results from a sanitary point 
of view than the chemical analysis. The microscopical examination is of still 
more recent origin. Its principal function is that of ascertaining the presence 
of those microscopic organisms which impart a bad taste and odors to drink- 
ing water. Strangely enough, the physical examination was the last one to 
take definite shape. The old methods of stating the amounts of turbidity and 
odor in indefinite phrases have been replaced by more accurate and convenient 
forms of expression. It has been found that these different parts of the com- 
plete sanitary analysis are interlocking, and often the results of a microscopi- 
cal examination are necessary in order to properly interpret the figures ob- 
tained by the chemical analysis. The up-to-date analyst, however, can usually 
tell what portions of the analysis may be omitted without loss of any im- 
portant information. It is fortunate that this is so, because it is found that 
in the work of routine supervision of water supplies more can be learned 
about the general condition of the water by making partial analyses of 
samples frequently collected than by making more complete analyses of 
samples taken only occasionally, and thus it is that the daily samples which 
are taken from the terminals of the aqueducts are given only a partial 
analysis. 

Physical Examination. 

The physical examination includes the determination of those qualities 
of water which are evident to the senses, such for example, as its temperature, 
turbidity, color and odor. The temperature of the water needs no comment. 
The odors of water are variously described as vegetable, aromatic, fishy, 
moldy, disagreeable, etc. The vegetable odors are due largely to organic mat- 
ter in solution. The aromatic, grassy and fishy odors are caused almost en- 
tirely by microscopic organisms. Different organisms give rise to different 
odors, and often the organisms present can be detected simply from the odor 
of the water. The microscopical examination, however, serves to give all 
necessary details as to the character and number of these organisms, hence 
the relation between the microscopical examination and the determination of 
odor is very intimate. The odors which are termed moldy, musty, disagree- 



325 

able, etc., are due largely to organic matter in decomposition, and their pres- 
ence has a bearing upon the sanitary character of the water. 

The estimate of the intensity of the different odors is naturally very- 
indefinite, and is one where the personal equation plays a very large part. 
It has been found practical, however, to grade the odors on a scale of num- 
bers which may be defined substantially as follows : 



Numerical 
Value 



Term. 



Approximate Definition. 



None 

Very faint .. 

Faint 

Distinct... . 
Decided . . . 
Very strong 



No odor perceptible. 

An odor that would not be ordinarily detected by the average con- 
sumer, but that could be detected in the loboratory by an expe- 
rienced observer. 

An odor that the consumer might detect if his attention were 
called to it, but that would not otherwise attract attention. 

An odor that would be readily detected, and that might cause the 
water to be regarded with disfavor. 

An odor that would force itself upon the attention, and that might 
make the water unpalatable. 

An odor of such intensity that the water would be absolutely unfit 
to drink (a term to be used only in extreme cases). 



By using simple abbreviations for the quality of the odors, and by rating 
the intensity of the odors on a numerical scale, the records are much simpli- 
fied. Ordinarily, the taste of water is about the same as its odor. In fact, 
many of the so-called tastes are really odors. Certain tastes, however, are in- 
dependent of odor, such for example, as that of brackish water, or of a water 
which contains a large amount of iron in solution. In by far the great ma- 
jority of cases, however, it is unnecessary to make a record of the taste, inde- 
pendent of the odor. 

The color of water is due to vegetable matter in solution. It is 
acquired largely from swamp land on the watershed, and is practically an ex- 
tract of the leaves, bark, twigs, etc., which accumulate upon the surface of the 
ground. Ground waters ordinarily have no color, and the amount of color 
in surface waters is dependent upon the character of the watershed. The 
color of water is measured by comparing it with certain artificial tints im- 
parted to distilled water by adding to it measured amounts of certain salts of 
platinum and cobalt. The figure which represents the color is the number of 
parts per million of the platinum salt used to obtain that color. A water 
which, like distilled water, has no color, is regarded as o: As soon as the 
color reaches 15 or 20, it begins to be noticeable in a porcelain bathtub or a 
washbowl, but not until the color is above 30 does it attract much attention 
in a glass tumbler upon a white cloth. If the color rises to 40 or 50, it has a 
brownish cast in a tumbler, while if it reaches 75 it has the appearance of 



326 

very weak tea. The color of the water in swamps frequently rises to more 
than loo, and in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia samples have been col- 
lected which had a color of more than 800. It should be noted that the 
color of water is due to substance in solution, and is to be distinguished 
from the apparent color which water sometimes has, due to matter in sus- 
pension. This leads to the subject of turbidity. 

The turbidity of water is caused by matter in suspension. Sometimes 
suspended matter is in a very finely divided condition, as clay. At other times 
it consists of very much larger particles, each of which may be easily seen 
with the naked eye. The turbid waters of the southern and western rivers 
are due largely to the very fine clay and river silt which they contain. Such 
substances settle slowly in water, and the turbidity produced by them is, 
therefore, quite permanent. Most of the waters of New England and New 
York, however, are relatively clear in their normal condition. They become 
turbid only after heavy rains, when they receive the wash from the surface of 
the ground. Much of this material is comparatively coarse, and settles rap- 
idly. Some of it is organic in character. The waters of lakes sometimes become 
turbid from the presence of microscopic organisms. The waters in tlie pipe dis- 
tributing systems sometimes contain large amounts of suspended matter, de- 
rived from the pipes or aqueducts. This is usually present in flakes of con- 
siderable size so that the water may be said to be " dirty " rather than turbid. 
It is convenient, however, to apply the word '* turbidity " to all these forms 
of suspended matter, and it has been found that for all practical purposes 
they may be measured by the same standard. The standard used for measur- 
ing turbidity is that known as the silica standard, the basis of which is an arti- 
ficial preparation of diatomaceous earth so prepared for use by washing and 
grinding that the silicious material is in an extremely finely divided state. 
The figure for turbidity given in the record means that the water under ex- 
amination is as turbid as distilled water would be if that number of parts 
per million of the standard silica was added to it. A water which has a 
turbidity of 3 or over is noticeably turbid. It seldom becomes offensively 
turbid under 5 or 10, although this varies more or less according to the 
character of the suspended matter. Furthermore, people of certain sections 
of the country become accustomed to turbid streams, and waters which New 
England people would call turbid others might consider reasonably clear. 

Chemical Analysis. 

The chemical analysis of water consists of determining the chemical 
character of the foreign substances present. Some of the determinations 
are made for the purpose of ascertaining the sanitary quality of the water. 
These constituents are usually of little importance in themselves, and are 



327 

chiefly valuable as indicating the past history of the water. Other constituents 
are determined for the sake of their own influence upon the quality of the 
water. Prior to the advent of bacteriology the chemical analysis was the 
most reliable means one had for ascertaining the safety of water for drinking 
purposes, but to-day the chemical results form only a part of the necessary 
analytical data. It is useful, however, to know the amount and character 
of the nitrogenous matter present. The nitrogen is usually expressed as 
being present in four forms — either as albuminoid ammonia, free ammonia, 
nitrites, or nitrates. The expression " nitrogen as albuminoid ammonia " 
refers to the nitrogen present in organic matter before any decomposition 
has taken place. The " free ammonia " represents the nitrogen set free 
from the organic matter by initial decomposition; and the "nitrogen as 
nitrites " represents a later stage in that process. The " nitrogen as 
nitrates " represents the final mineralized condition of the nitrogen in which 
it is no longer organic matter. These four forms of nitrogen, therefore, 
serve to indicate the state of the organic matter present with reference 
to its decomposition. They do not show whether the original organic mat- 
ter was or was not derived from dangerous sources. Taken in connection 
with the rest of the analysis, however, these findings are of importance. 
The chlorine found in water has little sanitary significance in itself, but, 
inasmuch as salt is an accompaniment of sewage and domestic wastes, 
its presence in water is indicative of pollution. All natural waters situated 
reasonably near the sea coast, however, contain, even when unpolluted, a 
certain amount of chlorine, which varies according to their distance from 
the sea, and it is necessary to subtract this " normal chlorine " from the 
figure obtained in order to estimate how much of the chlorine was due to 
pollution. The amounts of normal chlorine have been carefully determined 
for some of the New England and ^Middle States, so that the normal may be 
readily obtained for any given locality. 

By the hardness of water is meant the presence 6f those salts of lime 
and magnesia which decompose soap, a phenomenon well understood in 
every household and which is referred to at length elsewhere. The alka- 
linity represents that portion of the hardness due to the carbonates and 
bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, while the difference between the 
alkalinity and the hardness is practically a measure of the sulphates, nitrates, 
etc., of the same elements. The amount of iron present is of little importance, 
except where it amounts to more than about 0.5 parts per million. From 
there up it is liable to render the water objectionable by causing stains of 
iron-rust when used in the laundry. The " total solids," or, as they are 
sometimes called, " residue on evaporation," include practically all of the 
constituents above mentioned. The loss of weight when this residue is 



328 

heated gives a rough measure of the organic matter present, but the deter- 
mination of this " loss on ignition " is subject to so many errors that it is 
often omitted from the analysis in the case of ground waters. The results 
of the chemical analysis are best expressed in parts per million by weight, 
which is practically equivalent to milligrams per liter. The method of 
expressing results in grains per gallon is now antiquated, but it may not be 
out of place to state that results given in parts per million may be trans- 
ferred to grains per gallon by dividing the figures by 17.1. 

Microscopical Examination, 

Surface waters contain many forms of animal and vegetable life, which 
are too small to be observed with the naked eye, but which are very much 
larger in size than the bacteria. These microscopic organisms, as they are 
conveniently called, may be studied directly by means of the microscope. Ex- 
amination is made by first collecting them upon the surface of a tiny sand fil- 
ter, and then transferring them from this in concentrated form to the stage of 
a microscope, where they are identified and counted. It is customary to 
express the results in number of standard units of organisms per cubic 
centimeter. A standard unit is the unit of size used for measuring them, and 
is practically equivalent to a surface area of 400 square microns ( i micron 
equals 0.00 1 millimeter). It is the microscopic organisms which give rise 
to the aromatic, grassy and fishy odors above mentioned. 

Bacteriological Examination, 

The number of bacteria in water is ascertained by a process known 
as cultivation on nutrient gelatin, the details of which need not be here 
described. The result is simply the determination of the number of bac- 
teria of all kinds present in the water, which will grow, upon that medium, 
in 48 hours at a temperature of 20 degrees centigrade. No distinction is 
made between harmful and harmless bacteria, and the result does not actu- 
ally state the total number of bacteria present. The method is one of some 
crudity, and is far from being what is desired, yet the results are of con- 
siderable value, although they ought to be considered merely as relative. 
Unfortunately, there is no practical method by which the presence of 
dangerous disease germs in water can be detected. Not even can the 
germ of typhoid fever be isolated from water by means of practical labora- 
tory methods, although there seems to be a popular impression that it can 
be. In the intestines of man and warm-blooded animals generally there 
dwells a bacterium, however, known as Bacillus coli, and this organism 
fortunately can be detected in water with a reasonable degree of precision. 



329 

We have in this determination, therefore, one of the most reliable and 
practical methods of ascertaining the sanitary character of the water, and 
the test becomes of especial value when it is made quantitatively. On 
account of the labor involved in ascertaining the presence of this germ, an 
exact quantitive result cannot be secured; but if diflferent quantities of 
water are used in making the qualitative test, the data obtained approach 
in value the results which would be obtained if the determination w'ere 
more exactly quantitative. In Mount Prospect Laboratory it has been 
customary to make the test in three different quantities of water — namely, 
O.I, I and ID cubic centimeters. These quantities were selected after a long 
series of experiments, in which it was found that only water suspicious in 
character constantly gave positive tests in o.i cubic centimeters, while 
perfectly safe waters occasionally gave positive tests in lo cubic centimeters. 
The determination of the total -number of bacteria and the test for Bacillus 
coli made upon three different quantities of water, constitute the bacterio- 
logical examination made in the laboratory. 

Only in rare instances is it deemed necessary to proceed further with 
the qualitative study of the different species of bacteria present. 

RESULTS OF ANALYSES. 

In Tables 5 to 8, which follow, are given summaries of analyses for all 
the sources of water supply of the city, compiled from the records of ]\Iount 
Prospect Laboratory. They represent the results obtained in the course of 
the regular analytical supervision of the water supplies. From 1897 to 1902 
the work was done under the direction of ]Mr. I. M. de Varona, Chief 
Engineer, and in 1903 under the direction of Mr. I. M. de Varona and Mr. 
Nicholas S. Hill, Chief Engineer. 



330 

Table sa. 
summary of analyses of samples of 

Borough of 



Sample. 



Period 
Covered 
by Anal- 
yses. 



Physical Examination. 



Tur- 
bidity 
(Parts 

MiUion 

of 
Silica). 



Color 
(Parts 

Million 
of Pla- 
tinum). 



Odor. 



BOROUGH OF MANHAITAN. 
SouRces OP Supply. 



Surface Waters. 



White Lake 

Cold Sprinj( Brook. 
Black Pond 



1903 



Boyd's Corner Reservoir (Surface). 

West Branch *' 

Lake Gleneida (Surface) 

Lake C-lead " 

KirkLake " 

Lake Mahopac *' 



Muscoot Reservoir (Surface^ , 

Middle Branch Reservoir (Surface 

East Branch Stream, Deforest Corner. 



5>odom Reservofi (Surface) 

Tog Brook Reservoir (Siii face) 

East Branch Stream above Toneita Brook. . 



Tonetta Brook 

East Branch Stream below Brewster.. 
Crocon River above Titicus Stream. . . 



Titicus Reservoir (Surface) 

Cross River at Kaionah 

Branch Brook below Mount Kisco.. 



Croton Lake (Surface)., 



Ground Waters. 
(There are no ground water supplies in the Borough of Manhattan.) 

Distribution System- 
One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street Gatehouse 

High Bridge Reservoir^ 

Central Park, New Reset voir (Efflux) 

Central Park, Old Reservoir, Norfh Basin 'Efflux) 

Central Park, Old Reservoir, South Basin (Efflux) 

Tap, City Hall Square 



50 

5a 



6 

9 
z6 



24 
20 
34 

3S 
39 
34 

?z 

22 

26 

27 



3V. 
3v. 
3v. 

3V. 
3V. 

2V. 



3v. 
3V. 



3V 
3v. 

3v. + ig. 

av. + ig. 

3V. 

8V. + 2m. 
2V. 



3v.4-ig. 

3V. 
3V.-J-tm. 

3v. + ig. 



34 

35 



23 



3V.-|-im. 

I 3V.-T I J?. 
I 3v.4-ig. 

I 3V. + ig. 
3V. 
3V. 



* A single analysis July 24. 



331 
Table sa. 
water from various sources of supply. 
Manhattan. 























Micro- 












Chemical Analysis (Parts 


per Million). 






scopical 
Exami- 


Bacteriological 






















nation. 






Nitrogen as 


Total 
Solids. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Total 
Hard- 
ness. 


Alka. 
liniiy. 


Per- 
ma- 
nent 
Hard- 
ness. 


Iron. 


Micro- 
scopical 
Organ- 
isms. 
Stand- 
ard 
Units 


Number 
of Bac- 
teria 
percc. 
48 hours 
atao'C. 


Percent. 


Albuminoid Ammonia 


Free 
Am- 
monia 


Ni- 
trites. 


Ni- 
trate«. 


of Posi- 
tive 
Tests 


Tn 
Solu 


In Sus- 
pen- 


Total. 


for B. 
Coliia 
X cc 


tion. 


sion. 






















per c. c. 






.138 


.oaa 


.160 


.043 


.OCX 


.00 


32.0 


1.6 


14.9 


X3.0 


1.9 


.14 








.087 


.018 


.xos 


.023 


.COX 


.08 


43.4 


0.9 


26.2 


83-3 


2.9 


.08 


.... 




..•• 


.xao 


.010 


.X30 


.oa6 


.O03 


.07 


53.0 


0.9 


33-0 


30.0 


3.0 


•04 


.... 




.... 


.Toa 


.010 


.xxa 


.oix 


001 


.04 


43.3 


0.9 


30.4 


17. 1 


3-3 


•°z 


287 




,.,, 


.104 


.04a 


.X46 


.059 


.oot 


.03 


41.0 


X.3 


33.8 


17-3 


5.5 


.08 


732 




.... 


.109 


.018 


.X37 


.043 


.oox 


.00 


68.0 


4.1 


41.5 


38.0 


3-5 


.OS 


x8o 




•••• 


.107 


.0x5 


.xaa 


.C5Q 


.03X 


.CO 


43-« 


a. a 


^}l 


3X.O 


2.7 


.06 


J^ 




• ••• 


.13X 


.04a 


•«73 


.080 


.OOX 


.07 


S2.0 


1.4 


28.8 


32. 


6.8 


.07 


^54 




• •.. 


.106 


.018 


.124 


.038 


.oca 


.07 


43.3 


S.8 


24.5 


x6.8 


8.7 


.TO 


383 




...• 


.133 


.030 


.x68 


.04^ 


.OOX 


. xo 


X 


2.0 


3X.7 


2*7.6 


i'^ 


..7 


885 




• ••• 


.114 


.019 


.13^ 


.066 


.COl 


.05 


X.4 


37.3 


20.4 


6.9 


.XO 


XO04 




• .•• 


.xaa 


.oaa 


.144 


.060 


.OOJ 


.07 


98.3 


1-4 


66.4 


62.5 


3-9 


.16 


.... 




.... 


.13* 


.069 


.ao3 


.058 


.OC2 


.06 


77.2 


x.a 


*7S 


44.0 


3.6 


.c8 


834 




• ••• 


.152 


.049 


.301 


.087 


.00a 


.04 


68.0 


X.6 


43.8 


41.3 


2.5 


.IX 


794 




..•• 


.xao 


.033 


•X53, 


•035 


.004 


.05 


75-3 


x.a 


495 


440 


5.5 


.za 


.... 




.... 


.136 


.oa8 


.X64 


.058 


.005 


X.IX 


X08.0 


5-8 


55.5 


41.7 


X3.8 


•»5 


.... 




...» 


.13a 


.034 


.x66 


.047 


.004 


.05 


78.0 


1-5 


45 


4X.O 


4.0 


.23 


. . . 




.... 


.X05 


.024 


.139 


.042 


.00a 


.09 


70.3 


1.4 


37.8 


34 


3.8 


.41 


.... 




.... 


.193 


•043 


.i65 


.048 


.002 


.04 


65 "O 


I -7 


38.0 


34-4 


x.6 


.x8 


680 




.... 


.o6q 


.005 


.074 


■03s 


.00^ 


.16 


75 


a.x 


39.6 


36.2 


i: 


.29 


.... 




.... 


.087 


.0x4 


.101 


.050 


.008 


X.29 


120.6 


5 7 


61.7 


53.3 


.26 


.... 




.... 


.14a 


.049 


.i9t 


.077 


.002 


. xo 


71.0 


1.7 


39-4 


3X.0 


8.4 


.23 


675 


• . .• 




.199 


.02S 


.^57 


.0^2 


.004 


•14 


7'-.S 


a.o 


37-4 


3a -7 


4.7 


.38 


X058 


X848 


X8.7 


.ixa 


.028 


.140 


.132 


.010 


.20 


9X.0 


1.8 


41-5 


40.0 


1.5 


•30 




.... 




.... 


.... 


.160 


.045 


.005 


.X3 


52.5 


x.6 


32.5 


29.0 


3.5 


.15 


13 9 


645 


*8!o 


.... 


.... 


.165 


.037 


.OC4 


.07 


61.0 


1.6 


33.8 


30.6 


3-2 


.08 


3683 


450 


15.6 


.... 


.... 


.X69 


•0^3 


.004 


.08 


5X.O 


x.6 


34 3 


3X.O 


3-3 


.J3 


1753 


655 


IX. 7 


.... 


.... 


.123 


.010 


.003 


• U 


65.. 


X.8 


35-4 


30.0 


5-4 


.15 


832 


551 


5.9 



332 

Table 5b. 
summary of analyses of samples of 

Borough of 



Sample. 



BOROUGH OF BRONX. 
Sources of Supply. 

Surface Waters, 

Byram Lake (Surface) 

Rye Pond (Surface) 

Kensico Reservoir (Surface) 

Grassy Sprain Reservoir (Yonkers) 

Ground Waters. 

Westchester Water Works 

Tube WcUs (Yonkers) 

Distribution System — 

Glen Park Pumping Station* 

Williamsbridge Reservoir, Influx 

Williamsbridge Reservoir, Efflux 

Tap, Manor Hall, Yonkers 



Period 
Covered by 
Analyses. 



Physical Examination. 



Tur- 
bidity 
(Parts 
per 
Million 

of 
Silica). 



Color 

(Farts 

Million 
of Pla- 
tinum.) 



9 
z6 



5 


24 


3 


90 


3 


i8 


3 


15 



Odor. 



3V. 
3V. 



* 6 samples only. 



333 

Table 53. 
water from various sources of supply. 
The Bronx. 



Chemical Analysis (parts per mi' lion). 


Micro- 
scopical 
Exami- 
n'ltion. 


Bacteriological 
Examtnation. 


Nitrogen as 


Total 
Solids. 


Chlo- 
nne. 


Total 
Hard- 
ness. 


Alka- 
Unity. 


Per- 
ma- 
nent 
Hard- 
ness. 


Iron. 


Micro- 
scopic 
Organ- 
isms 
Stand- 
ard 
Units 
per cc. 


Number 
of Bac- 
teria 
per cc. 
48 hours 
atao^C. 


Percent. 


Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Free 
Am- 
monia 


Ni- 
trites. 


Ni- 
trates. 


of Posi- 
tive 
Tests 


In 

Solu- 
tion. 


In Sus- 
pen- 
sion. 


Total. 


for B. 
coli in 
X cc. 


.097 


.043 


.140 1 .050 


.001 


.05 


47.0 


8.8 


2I-S 


15.0 


6.5 


.13 


225 






•xas 


.010 


.155 


.038 


.001 


.00 


58.0 


2.4 


28.9 


24.7 


4.2 


.xo 


418 


.... 


.... 


.087 


.054 


.141 


.057 


.003 


.05 


62.0 


2.x 


95. S 


90.6 


A'9 


.X5 


555 




.... 


.... 


.... 


•I ".'I 


.048 


.00a 


.06 


67.0 


2.8 


34.5 


39.3 


2.2 


.«3 


xoxi 


.... 





.oao 


.009 


.oaa 


.023 


.003 


X.7S 


277.7 


53-0 


122.6 


79-7 


42.9 


.06 





6 





.... 


.... 


.0x8 


.003 


.oox 


X.49 


209.5 


4.x 


148.x 


1x6. s 


31.6 


.ox 





4 





• xoo 


.OI2 


.1x2 


.oj6 


.00a 


.07 


56.0 


2.x 


36.2 


2r.2 


50 


•»7 


313 


267 


330 


.C97 


.017 


.114 


.040 


.003 


.10 


S8.S 


2.2 


25.8 


20.4 


5.4 


.15 


179 


149 


«39 


.... 


.... 


.X06 


.017 


.005 


.09 


54.0 


2.6 


23. s 


X7.0 


6.5 


.. 


154 


«54 


93 


.... 


.... 


.09» 


.0x4 


.00, 


.27 


85.0 


3.0 


53.2 


43- 


10.2 


.21 


5x6 








334 

Table sc 
summary of analyses of samples of 

Borough of 



Sample. 



BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN. 

iiouKCBs OF Supply. 

Surface Water*, 

Massapequa Pond. 

Wanta^hPond 

Newbridge Pond 

East Meadow Pond 

Millbum Pond 

Millburn Pumping Station 

Hempstead Stream, Franklin street 

Hempstead Storage Reservoir. 

Schodack Brook 

Hempstead Pond 

Pine's Pond . 



Smith's Pond 

Valley Stream Pond 

Watts Pond 

Clear Stream Pond 

Simon son's Fond 

Springfield Pond 

fiaiseley's Pond 

Ground Waters. 

Massapequa, deep and shallow 

Wantagh, deep and shallow 

Maiowa, deep and shallow 

Merrick, shallow wells 

Agawam, shallow wells 

Watts' Pond, shallow welU 

Clear Stream, shallow wehs 

Forest Stseam, shallow wells 

Springfield, deep wells 

Jameco, deep wells 

Jameco, deep and shallow 

Baiseley's, shallow wells 

Oconee, deep wells 

Shetucket, deep wvlls. 

Spring Creek, old plant, deep wells 

" " shallow wells 

" new plant, shallow wells 

" PumpNo. X 

" PumpNo. 3 

New Lota Pumpine Sution 

German American Water Company 

Flatbush Water Company 

Gravesend Wells 

New Utrecht Wells 

Bly thebourne Water Compmy 

Pfalzgraf Water Company 

Distribution System. 

Ridgewood Basin, No. x and a. Influx 

*' *' 3. Influx 

" X, Efflux 



Period 
Covered 

by 
Analysis. 



1 897-1909 



1898-1902 
X897-1902 



Mt. Prospect Reservoir 

Tap in Laboratory 

*' at Flushing and Cleremont avenues. . 

** at Flatbush and Seventh avenues. . . . 



190X-1903 

1898-1933 
1897-1902 



1898-1902 



Physical Examination. 



Tur- 
bidity. 
(Parts 

per 
Million 

of 
Silica). 



5 

3 

a 

3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 

xo 
6 

X5 



Color. 
(Paris 

per 
Million 

of 
Plati- 
num. 



37 
X7 
»5 
'3 
x8 
18 



x6 

19 



23 
31 



7 
3« 



6 
25 



13 
13 

13 

^3 
14 

12 

13 

«3 
»3 



Odor. 



2t.+ad. 
av. 4- xm. 



av. + im. 
sv...xm. 
3V.+2m. 

None. 



av. + ia. 
3V.+9a. 

2V. 

9v.+xa. 



335 



Table 5c. 

WATER FROM VARIOUS SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

Brooklyn. 























Micro- 












Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million). 








scopic 
Exam- 


Bacteriological 
ExaminaUon. 






















ination. 






Nitrogen as 


Total 
Solids 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Total 
Hard- 
ness. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Per- 
ma- 
nent 
Hard- 
ness. 


Iron. 


Micro- 
scopical 
Organ- 
isms 
Stand- 
ard 
Units 
per C.C. 


Number 
of Bac- 
teria per 
C.C. 48 
Hours 
atao^C. 


Per 
cent, ot 
Positive 
Tesu 
forB. 
Coli in 
iC.C. 


Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Free 
Am- 
mo- 
nia. 


Ni- 
trites. 


Ni. 
trates. 


In ^, 
So!u- ^ 
tion. I 


In 

U! 

lec 
10 


*: Total. 


.073 


.0 


lo .083 


.010 


.coz 


.02 


3?-^ 


!:i 


IO-5 


5.8 


^\ 


.08 


47 


434 


4 3 


.057 


.0 


13 .C72 


.0x0 


.lX>I 


.40 


38.2 


»3.» 


4.6 


.ax 


41 


385 


5.5 


.056 


.0( 


37 .063 


.007 


.oox 


.4X 


43.5 


5-9 


Z3.2 


4.4 


7.8 


.18 


2Z 


17a 


5 


.056 


.01 


39 '0^5 


.0x6 


.oox 


.51 


37-" 


?:J 


X4.7 


41 


10.6 


•5S 


33 


4^9 


7.6 


.047 


.« 


YJ .054 


.0C9 


.C02 


.01 


52.0 


17.7 


S.3 


ia.4 


.x8 


30 


*'Z 
278 


"3 


.035 


.o< 


35 .040 


.006 


.oox 


3.88 


41-7 


.11 


14.5 


5-4 


9.x 


.95 


19 


7.1 


.078 


.0 


>i .C99 


.826 


.09a 


319 


95.3 


33.7 


'2-3 


2C-.4 


.31 


45 


3.0x0 


30.0 


.C64 


.o- 


>8 .09a 


.026 


.006 


I.C9 


50.0 


6.4 


20.4 


8.0 


12.4 


.87 


903 


658 


8.0 


.03s 


.01 


>8 .043 


.020 


.003 


x.ib 


49.1 


6.0 


x8.o 


5.6 


X2.4 


.a4 


a8 


664 


'39 


•059 





r3 .073 


•037 


.003 


.26 


4S.J 


6.0 


»7.3 


6.3 


XX.O 


.33 


xz8 


448 


6.9 


.053 


.0 


17 .070 


.0x9 


.004 


•97 


46.2 


6.2 


21. X 


!-3 


X3.8 


.40 


2x9 


53a 


6.9 




.0 


15 .070 
>S .o^o 


.024 


.003 


•55 


5.8 


X7.9 


6.2 


11.0 


.55 


189 


493 


7.3 


.065 


.Oi 


0x4 


.005 


1.58 


02.9 


\\ 


2S-4 


g 


X7.9 


•34 


87 


.■57' 


4^5 


.056 





la .068 


.C20 


.004 


'13 


65.2 


6.6 


a*-4 


x6.6 


.41 


77 


847 


10.5 


.047 


.0 


[z .058 


.0x8 


.009 


4.80 


930 


\X 


39-3 


ao.6 


•X4 


'49 


90? 


9-4 


.04X 





10 .c6i 


.025 


.012 


4.16 


90.9 


3X.7 


8.5 


:?3.a 


.26 


45 


8,171 


9.8 


.078 


'O. 


)6 .114 


.044 


.0x2 


a.84 


xia.7 


12.4 


35.9 


15.0 
28.6 


ao.9 


.81 


754 


'•337 


X7.0 


.090 


•»< 


n ."87 


.072 


.0x0 


X.78 


"77 


9.9 


50.4 


91.8 


1. 26 


5.aS3 


i.z68 


X0.6 






.024 


.013 


.... 


•»7 


43.9 


5.5 


20.8 


11.4 


94 


•45 


16 


'5 









.015 


.006 


.OCX 


.06 


26.1 


3.7 


6.7 


1.7 


5.0 


.51 


3 


ai 









.030 


.C08 


.03I 


.08 


34.4 


4-a 


9-3 


9.Z 


7.2 


•45 





'5 









.014 


.CO4 


.cox 


•37 


46.0 


5-3 


X6.4 


S.o 


X1.4 


.67 


38 


3' 









.0x5 


.003 


.oox 


•13 


34a 


5.0 


?•* 


\'^ 


7.0 


•V 


6x 


I3 









.019 


.026 


.002 


2.29 


74- 1 


r5 


S8.2 


8.3 


19.9 


.64 


x6 









.0x1 


.CO5 


.oox 


a.03 


70.2 


6-3 


28.x 


7* 


ax.o 


•3? 


X 


30 









.012 


.OJ5 


.OC3 


.54 


56.6 


6.0 


24.4 


9-5 


'4 9 


1. 18 


8 


64 









.C08 


.C07 


.oox 


.03 


50.0 


3-9 


'57 


«4*° 


XX.7 


3.53 


100 


37 









.013 


.368 


.001 


.OX 


"3.3 


4.8 


88.2 


84.8 


3-4 


.63 


57 


67 









.018 


.242 


.009 


•z^ 


146.3 


•5.7 


73.8 


48.4 


25-1 


3-37 


57 


66 









.008 


.025 


.C03 


X.84 


340.5 


1x4.9 


IIX.O 


a6.4 


84.6 


.ao 


• •.. 


73 









.020 


.265 


.001 


.01 


148.7 


4.8 


T06.0 


XOI.O 


5.0 


.57 


2 


^■^ 









.015 


.402 


.012 


.ox 


713-5 


264.2 


240.0 


80.6 


«S9-4 


a.oa 


x6 


50 









.005 


.OC5 


.... 


.06 


183.7 


7.« 


123.6 


X3a.7 


.9 


.70 


5 


V 









.01 X 


.0x3 


.003 


3.00 


5«7.9 


»39-« 


z6x.i 


89.7 


l\'^ 


.06 




66 









.013 


.009 


.002 


0-47 


334.9 
378.x 


55.8 


x66.2 


xoo.o 


66.a 


•'3 


.... 


35 









.OI2 


.Ota 


.003 


4.20 


X97.7 


3504 


99.3 


151.X 


.14 


.... 


59 









.Oil 


.010 


.002 


1.65 


106.3 


tl^ 


122.0 


74-7 


.40 


«... 


76 









.0X2 


.002 


.004 


10. X5 


296.5 


2X.4 


zoa.6 


65.2 


■04 


.... 


'36 









.0X0 


.007 


.003 


8.50 


.307.7 


27.x 


X74.0 


103.0 


71.0 


.03 


.... 


60 









.010 


.C02 


.oox 


5.48 


181.3 


>3.« 


105.4 


60.0 


*5-l 


.ca 


.... 


V^ 


0- 






.008 


.OC2 


• oox 


4.0s 


153.3 


13. 1 


X 


57.4 


35.8 


.ox 


.... 









.C08 


.003 


.oox 


3." 


a55i 


64.1 


6j.8 


669 


.08 


.... 


8a 









,oiz 


.oox 


.002 


5.3< 


X63.8 


8.1 


93.1 


63.6 


29.5 


.04 


fl 


5' 









.0x9 


.003 


.C04 


8.36 


a6i.8 


«5.3 


X62.4 


zox.$ 


60.9 


•95 





112 





.037 


oc 


)7 .044 


..029 


.C03 


X.X4 


ioa.2 


X9.6 


38.1 


17.8 


90.3 


.58 


'44 


375 


5.9 


.038 


oc 


>7 -045 


.0x9 


.002 


x.oo 


83. « 


15.7 


33.a 


XS.6 


X7.6 


.4«; 


112 


330 


5-3 


•045 


OS 


IX .0(6 


.018 


.004 


1.08 


106. X 


ax. 4 


39-5 


21.7 


X7.8 


.38 


2.097 


379 


5^5 


.055 


OS 


r6 .o6t 


.0x9 


.003 


1.07 


104.9 


20.9 


38.7 


ai.6 


X7.X 


.37 


'.634 


399 


9.3 


.046 





9 -065 


.oia 


.003 


f. 


89.9 


17.6 


34.6 


x8.a 


X6.4 


.33 


6;?S 


339 


4-5 


.063 


04 


5 '"8 


.013 


.009 


99.1 


19.7 


36.4 


ax.3 


15. 1 


.32 


ao8 


'•5 


•039 





I .055 


.C05 


.C02 


X.08 


99-9 


19.8 


38.6 


JI:J 


19.0 


.41 


850 


991 


3-4 


.041 


01 


I .054 


.COS 


.002 


1.04 


94.5 


18.7 


35.6 


'1-5 


•37 


®if 


ax7 


3-9 


.050 


oa 


X .065 


.oc6 

1 


.003 


l.CO 


97 5 


19.9 


37-2 


"•' 


18. 1 


•37 


2,369 


3'4 


'.4 



336 



Table 50. 
summary of analyses of samples of 

Borough of 



Sample. 



BOROUGH OF QUEENS. 
Sources op Supply. 

Sur/eice Waters, 

Bayside— Oakland Lake 

Ground Waters, 

Long Island City, Pump No. x 

•• ** 2 

" 3 

Citiicna Water Co., Station No. i 

It *« a 

3---- 



FlushinR Waterworks 

Whitcslone Water Works. Station No. i . 
li *• a . 
Bayside Water Works 



Jamaica Water Supply Co. 
Wo 



Voodhaven 
Montauk " 

Queens County Water Supply Co. /Unfiltered; . 
" (Filtered).... 



Period cov- 
ered by 
Analyses. 



•I 1903 



X898-Z902 



1909-1902 

1900-1902 
X901-Z902 
X898-Z902 



1902 



Physical Examination. 



Turbi- 


Color 


dity 


(Parts 


(Parts 


per mill- 


per mill- 


ion of 


ion of 


Plati- 


Silica;. 


num). 


9 


12 





X 





z 





9 

















X 

















5 


9 


9 





X 





3 





2 

















6 





' 



Odor. 



3v. 



Table 5E. 



Borough of 



borough of RICHMOND. 

Sources op Sipplv. 

Ground Wafers. 

West New Brighton Station, Staten Island Water Supply Co. 

New Springville Station, " 

Crystal Water Supply Co., Clove Station 

Crystal Water Supply Co., Reservoir 

South Shore Water Works at New Dorp 

Tottenville Water Supply Co , 



1903 



5 


z6 








9 














X 


2 

















26 






337 



Table 50. 
water from various sources of supply. 
Queens. 





















Micro- 










Chemical Analysis 


parts per million}. 






scopical 
Exami- 


Bacteriological 
Examination. 




















nation. 










Nitrogen, as 


















Micro- 




Per 












Total 
Solids. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Total 
Hard- 
ness. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Per- 
ma- 
nent 
Hard- 


Iron. 


scopic 
Organ- 
isms. 
Stand- 
ard 


Number 
of Bac- 
teria per 
C.C.V8 
hours at 


Albumi 


noid An 


imonia. 


Free 
Am- 


Ni- 


Ni- 


cent, of 
Posirive 
Tests 
for n. 






In So- 
lution. 


In Sus- 




mo- 


trites. 


trate-. 










ness. 




Units 


ao«C. 


coli in X 


pen- 


Total. 


nia. 


















per C.C. 




c. c 




sion. 






























•• 


1 
1 
j 

.122 .056 


.CI2 


••'' 


X09.6 


6.8 


53.0 


36.6 


16.4 


.22 


«3€5 


2575 


e 






.015 .004 


.092 


3.44 


'59-4 


Z3-4 


185.9 


91.5 


90.4 


.06 


92 


380 


• • 






.0x6 


.005 


.001 


3.66 


1322.1 


481.3 


418.2 


M5.2 


273.0 


•**! 


.. 


.. 


• . 






.022 


.001 


.000 


3.7a 


306. X 


>5-3 


199.8 


»34.9 


64.9 


.08 


X 


49 


•• 






.016 


.003 


.ooa 


8.76 


329.2 


11.8 


306.1 


X49.0 


64.1 


.03 


3 


ICl 









.019 1 .coc 


.055 


6.96 


277.9 


X3.6 


177.6 


X09.9 


67.7 


.03 


9 


46 









.•08 


.094 


.G08 


.91 


•503 


7.b 


X07.5 


92.7 


14.8 


.08 


4 


28 









.cos 


.001 


.coa 


5.78 


192.9 


9.0 


130.4 


97.3 


33. t 


.05 





3' 









.108 


.OOT 


.ooa 


5.85 


195.4 


'•S 


«24.3 


95.8 


28.5 


.00 







,, 






'033 


.C08 


.0x0 


2.98 


96.0 


6.8 


51.9 


3».5 


20.4 


.x8 


48 


370 









.024 1 .C06 


.ooa 


5.39 


241.2 


12.5 


152.2 


102.7 


495 


.04 





»3 









.009 1 .000 


.OJI 


4.23 


205.7 


Z0.9 


140.0 


107.3 


32.7 


•03 


2 




• . 






.018 


.0=4 


.003 


2.59 


92.8 


6.3 


49.2 


35.3 


13.9 


.XI 


24 


450 









.oil 


.015 


.007 


6.0X 


x6i.i 


n-s 


8x.8 


38.7 


43.1 


.»s 


3 


., 









.cc8 


.001 


.001 


».«3 


*79-5 


8.1 


128.3 


109.4 


18.9 


.05 


aos 


.. 









.010 


.C08 


.004 


4.S9 


lt!o.l 


16.5 


X07.9 


75.i' 


32.x 


.03 





•• 









.013 


.018 


.OCX 


.01 


45 2 


32.6 


15.2 


8.7 


6.5 


a. 57 


275 


.. 









.on .C07 


.000 


.00 


39.8 


33.0 


X4.a 


9.3 


4-9 


.01 


47 


•• 






Table 5E. 



Richmond. 























• 






•• 




1 

1 
.018 

.02a 

.023 


.065 

.065 

.025 


.006 

.coa 
.coa 


2X6 

2.66 
.83 


1 

441.5 732.6 177.5 

168. 5 1 1X.9 144.6 
X39.6 6.9 138.5 


76.0 
77.6 
97.4 


xox. 5 
67.0 
41.X 


.78 
.01 

.03 


37 

1 


•• 


•• 


•• 




.042 1 

,015 
.035 


.035 

.oo5 

.064 


.006 

.OC2 
.003 


.78 

3.50 

.ox 


143.7 7.2 163.0 
256.6 9.4 X79.0 

209.8 8.5 108. 


97.3 
143.4 
134-6 


35.6 
33-4 


.07 
.03 
«.I5 


1 

55 


'} 


•• 



338 



.5 



^1 
« § 

a I; 
s I 

< 

(El 
O 

i 

o 

n 

o 

s 



Microscopical 

Examination 

Number of 

Standard Units, 

per C.C. 




ii 


i 


j^RlUS 


1 




III 


::;g.?S% 5 


'id 


.s 

1 

n 


4 
ji 


44 


. o t>. q 1^00 ■*• 


44 


• o M M a ^ 00 


ii'^IUi! 


:2P;S>?5. 1 c? 




1 cnfO^-Jo? 5 


i 

« 

1 

i 

1 
< 


1 


C?*"?^^ 


■8 


■Si 


. . .^o tno 


II - 


: : i-^*--^ II ^ 






a 

s 


a MOO <>o t 


> in 
6 

M 




00 lO Vl M N »< 


cn 
1 »o 




xnn Oi m * 


o 


STjrs : : : 


^ 


J 41 


mioq . . . 

m en a • • 




25 


^ l>^9 M<0 c 


i\ 00 


s 

s 


Zg 


« *n m« « * 


^ 






^1 


§ 8 8 8 8 i 


8 


lil 


Hslsj 


o 

5 


11 

1^ 


^2 


II? f S-l 


f 


^iii 


11S5§S 


1 

o 






4i 


?IHf^ 


1 m 



Physical ' 
Examina- 
tion. 




^!^i^ll 


«o in n MOO ^ 


; P; 


iilMlol 




+- 




» 


g 


: : : : 




J 


ou JO I*.' 0> C 




1 





ifSIS? » 




M 


5- 




. r-O O 0»0 frj 
JMOfJc^j ^ 




• « M n« 


M 




: 2^8.5,^ 1 




:f?;l5E « 




^«^??« 


M 

c« 




. . , o^o <o 




«ao qvO M>o 

♦ r^OO M tAi< 

MM M M M 


M 




in «^>o ^ V 


r ^ 






1 


^i^::\ 


M 




« OkfO • • J 


M 


1 




t<«ao is.c« m« 






5'i'S-RSS 


^ 








§ g i 8 i 8 


8 




H?s11 


2 
q 




^tffll 


> 1 




8 q 8 o 8 c 


in 




•Sf ???? 


i ? 




S'BM-'gJris 


M 




. . . . M « 


;: 






i 

< 










iiiii 

>« M M M M 


1- 



339 



1 



:?3;§;i^2 


ei 


:.?5'*»J?'g 


M 


. *no a 




8 







. M O M u 
. M <«-UMO ^ 


% CO 


• •n M (*> *< 

• CI « ■*"•■« 


? ft 


ro M »< M « " 


N OC 


. . . M r^w 
j I • lo m ^ 


i 


in%n«« !*.• 

MM H » 


1 *! 

1 ^ 


« >o<d in V) u 


"» in 


«>o <> • 
M r^ in • 


- 


«n 


n M q • 

M M M • 


i^i^^i'^ 


5 


in in M t«.OQ ^ 

V T "T *t* T ^ 




§i88§S 


8 


mm 


' 8 


I":??!"! 


ilHsl 


r 


f??l?s 


q 


f?S'8'8S 


■• in 


::::-- 


^ 


P« M *4 M k. 


k< 


1 

§: 

< 

^ 






Q 

^ 



«n m ^ m 



la's ^5*2 



> O r^O Chtr* 
* O ■• •« f^ 



• O ^M cn«0 



:2?jS,i?»5 



I m« mm 



Si's, 5.'^ 5;^ 



0< O 00 M M vo 



q m cnm en 
^0 m in m m w 



« o N • . . 



00* o\«0 rnoo 00 



n o M <>• M x 

888888 



in O m poo m 
80880S 



^?^'8'8'8 



§8 §8 38 



1?2^ltl 


t 


|^^;fsj?5? 


ff 



I 

I 



iJSSII ^ 


.10 m'vooxo 
• mc« e« M ^ 


•s 


• c^n 


en 


m M M 

M M n 


M 


• on m<o » « 


:SS.?,R5. g 


:?,r5?3 5 


•>. ♦'O « rn CD 

(^ a M M M M .4 


. . .00 Vivi ro 


;•;«♦♦ m 


00 00 m« >c 


II ^ 


jT'SS'srs^g^ II jr 


H ovovoo mm II i»« 


»*.« »o « vo « 


^0 


000 . . 


'«• 


mco i*> • * 




« ^ r*. . . 





\o r*«o • ; 




(■ a t<«a rsM 





!^5i°^a^S 


S> 


???'«S s 


& 


88§§8:? 


' ? 


eooo m|> o 

sisfss 


' i ^ 


ffjffg 


• ? 


?1F|P 


' 1 


nf?fi 


? 


fi n M H M M 


00 


« • • CI M n 


4+ 


I ' 1 


I 


; 


\\\ 


: 


"5 


tmu 





= 1 

u 



?j 



n 






^1 



It 

Si's 



340 



S*a a c h 



•2 

i 

•J 



I 

9 



fi 



I 



< 

-a 



«" B S 



lis 

B,a n 



• 1.1 m en m H 



• m M M M M 






. O O O <>m M 









;.8.s»*i^ 



Bo A.2 JJg^'J 



« lO'O ♦ mo 
. M M ^ ao5 
> « M n «*>m 



I mc* w 5 w 



i^ 



.00 tft O 
I lo IT. in 



ce V 



• r« O >• a m 

• * « m tsi m 



- s 



• M ovin^o m I 






Jgii 



; O Ov • • • 

! M »;, I I '. 
• m« • • - 



. mo» • 
' m m < 



^^ 



• m» a M m 

1 4'*' O M M 



?5e 



:88888 



« • .2 

S2 S B 
fa<2 



•Si 

C B 

fi 



igrrr? 



> m m in p* O 
I j-mm mm 
■ O O O O 



• n c B 

: 3 V o 



511 



. <« m m m N 

:88S88 



:??§?1- 









e 

> 



• ooo moo 


M 


jXg'ft^'?. 


^ 


• Ov^OOO 


o 

i 


.5^.m.«o^ 




:;?;^s»3.!? 1 


Ct 


iB!f! 





o in M met « 


M 

m 


• • . o 


m 

4* 


mao m a o\c« 


m 


'noooo m N in 

m^ M e« S M 


^0 


o **» . • . 
«n in K. I • I 
mr^in • • • 


CD 


m e««o • • • 




in r^in o\ *n 


m 


?^ss»J5«!i!: 


2^ 

m 


t^ in o « o»o 

5 dS 3 


s 






iH§sr 


Is sslf 


s 


HHf-- 


00 

5- 


JO ^2 o^w 


1 M 


. . . m tn ♦ 


m 
♦+ 



On (>S58 Q 6 
DO QO 00 ^ C> & 



345 



1 



. ro m M i«» m 

• M r«. ci ro 

• moo o •▼ P^ 






• ooo o • 

•00 OhO • 



•« «^ D O ** 



. t^>0 t* 1^ VO 

>oo sr<< (^ O 

' M M « 



M a\-J« JnK 


00 


M •« 




. . . u) H rn 





. . . in ^ m 




rs. m r* ro r«. en 


o 


*r>in t^vo M 
tnmtntrtmtr, 


m 




♦ 


izisi-i 


N 



mo^ . . . 

;8S^ ! : : 


IN 

od 


t>> Ov . . 


00 


fO^O M fooo 




M 


« « CO « CO en 


00 


IToSSS 


3 


f s-fllf 


I 


s???k'§* 


2" 


fssls? 


H 

o 


??fll 


M 


00 


en IT) M«o o>o 
n n et « M N 


n 


. . .00 «oo 


^ 



8^8. 



>3 



■ O O irt ^t^ 
• 00 r^ « r» M 
I ci^ooo ■O'O 

' M lO lO 






• O « 00 C 
' -# rJ c«" ► 



> o n ov>o M 



• •-• o\ o»«»oo 

• froo ro CO m 



g.g«'»?r::'<^ 


^ 


- M . M M 


" 


. . .noo ■• 


yo 


: : :^y^ 


00 


M >• («. M O M 


•♦ 


15=5.^ "j^ ? 


> 


xo t^ci e^*!-* 


OS 


c>o o^o o 


o« 


>0 NOO • • • 





00 00*00 • • • 


+- 



O t^ ►* n lo 



00 - ^ CO S OS 
* H ^ M n M 



ins 



o o 



O ►<. IT o CO m 
rn CO rp 0> ^» ••• 
O O O O H 



H 


gjS^s. 


1 ^. 


1 


1 


^T? 


'sS.'sl 


^ 


€z 


rsf? 





; OS d .. 

^ Ot u o O 
I 00 0% OS C7> 



V y 

on *- 
2 *^ 
> -5 
^ S 
^8 



i 1^ 



342 



•Q 
^ 



« I 

il 

< 



— . 2 






Tig 



ft-w 



got: 

<0'S 



. M CO >0<0 K 

• « ^ xoo n 



o o 
f-5 



:2 a ■ 



.tS'8^'8 






• t^«o q o> o 
'•yo MOO io 



P-|l^"1 



> en o •" O 

« V) lO lO 



l|lF^ 











i 


«??'?'? 5; 


? 




ii- 

55 


. . . CI n m 






is 

a: 


0« rr. in M 

Opinion f^vo 


en 


-3^ 


U 


00 »< N 0»» 

«o«o^«d <n in 


q 


1 

1 


IM 




en 

M 

cn 


I 
S 

•s 
1 


im 


in m in . . 
ovo^jj : • • 


d 

IN 




^,oo»o^q « H 
H M M mvi m 


«n 


M 

g 




m ««.«*>» M 


^ 


1 


4 


§i8:r§8 


8 




t> '.2 
u.< g 


q q 






II 


ii 


??1?? = 


1 




^lii 


?1I1C? 


M 

q 




^11 


15 o'q'q q*S 





J|S||o|| 



<« e« N ON tx^o 



32 2:S55 5 



«g^< 



:&*i5a 1 1 


|0^5^»| ? 


. mo oao « 


o» 


• m t* t^ »■ 





. w po '«■ •« ^ 




is?gRi a 


ffSAa?,-* % 


■ . . o»»nt>. 1 en 


:::•-'««- , ^ 


nio M 


II - 


2~<2 X>2 r '1 2 
MMMe««(i il n 


M ^ m a en || ra 


I0»00i0i0'0 


1 - 


m ♦«© • • 


fl ° 


fn «n (n • • 


B 


00 '«-^ . • 


o> 


n ^ K • • 




cioo en « 


^•^-SiS^iS; R 


^£^%t% 


S: 


M H 




IfffP 


• f 


8S2SSS 


' r 


.057 
.065 
.058 
.068 
.061 


^ 1 


fslssj 


r s 


m?f^ 


' g 


•^r*s»??s 


•s 


• • • en n ^ 


-? 


1 •* : : 






• 

< 


M »* OT M 









347 
Table 6b — Continued. 

Agawam Deep and Shallow IVelh, 



Year. 



i8q7* 

1898 

1899 

TQCO 

IQOI 

1902 

Averag^e. 



Physical 
Examination. 



Tur- 
bidity 
(Paris 

Mill- 
ion 
of 

Silica) 



Color 
(Parts 
per 
Mill- 
ion 
of 
Plati- 
num). 



Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million). 



Nitrogen as 



Albu- 




mi- 


Free 


noid 


Am- 


Am- 


mo- 


mo- 


nia. 


nia. 




Totol. 


.006 


.000 


.006 


.000 


.cc8 


.000 


.o«6 


.007 


.024 


.005 


.013 


.C05 


•o«5 


.003 



Ni. 
trites. 



Ni- 
trates 



.000 
.coo 
.000 
.000 
.ooz 

.003 



•15 

.04 

•»7 
.19 

•»7 
.06 



Total 
Solids. 



43.8 
3?-3 
35-5 
34,8 
38.8 
30.8 



34.6 



Chlo- 
rine. 



10.5 
5.7 
5.a 
S.x 
4.9 
4-3 



Hard- 
ness. 



8.3 

6.7 
8.0 
Z0.2 

Z0.2 



8.4 



Alka 
linity. 



0.0 

fl.O 

a.4 



teno- 
logi 
cal 
Ex- 
amin- 
ation. 



Iron. 



.15 
.38 
.10 
•»3 
•31 
.39 



.27 



Num- 
ber 
of 
Bac- 
teria 
per 
c. c. 

48hr£. 
at 

20° C. 



Microscopi- 
cal Ejcamina- 
tion. 
Number of 
Standard 

Units 
per c. c. 



Total 
Mi- 
cro- 
scopic 
Or- 
gan- 
isms. 



170 
»33 



Amor- 
phous 
Mat- 
ter. 



78 
50 
90 
388 
440 



»9S 



Waits Pond Shallow Wells, 



x89?t 

1898 

X899 

1900 

Z901 

Z902 

Average. 





3 


.028 


., 


2 


,oz6 




3 


.ozi 


I 


4 


.017 


T 


5 


.023 


6 


8 


.030 


l3 


4 


.0Z9 



.024 


.001 


Z.26 


62.9 


7.a 


.033 


.002 


1.86 


11-^ 


7-5 


019 


.OOf 


2.46 


68.3 


7.4 


.027 


.003 


«.?s 


69.3 


7.6 


.020 


.oor 


2.41 


85.9 


74 


032 


004 


2.47 


7-3 


oa6 


.002 


2.29 


74. t 


7.5 



23.8 
23.6 

?4-2 
28.3 I 

31.3 

33-4 



28.2 





.30 






.. 


.33 


293 


z6 


• ••. 


•as 


84 


X 


7.5 


.64 


12 


>5 


7.8 


.76 


30 


ao 


9-7 


i.iS 


58 


27 


I8.3 


.64 


83 


z6 



17Z 
74 

56 

99 

940 



Clear Stream Shallow Wells. 



i897t 

Z898 

1899 

1900 

Z90X 

Z902 

Average . 





I 


.019 


.0Z7 


.COI 


Z.80 


^l 


6.8 


21.6 




.28 








2 


.CZ3 


.009 


.COI 


1.^8 


6.5 


25.x 


.... 


.28 


30 


2 




3 


.005 


.00a 


.000 


2.23 


68.0 


6.6 


92.9 


.... 


.23 


17 


z 




2 


.012 


.006 


.ooz 


2.o6 


68.9 


5.9 


29. z 


7.0 


•35 


22 







2 


.ozr 


.004 


.ooo 


a.25 


70.9 


6.4 


31.1 


7.3 


.32 


54 


3 





t 


.01 i 


.005 


.002 


Z.93 


74.9 


6.3 


32*5 


7.0 


•32 


27 





ll 


2 


.ozz 


.0. 


.coz 


a.03 


70.2 


6.3 


28.Z 


II7.I 


.30 


30 


I 



175 

76 
63 

33 
77 

85 



Forest Stream Shallow Wells. 



i897t . 
X898 .. 
Z899.. 
Z900 .. 
Z90Z •■ 
Z903 .. 



Averagp. 



6 I .017 

7 . .oiz 
.905 
.OZ5 
.ozz 
.oz6 



.051 
.031 



.027 
.oa2 



.000 


.64 


.ooz 


•34 


.C05 


.59 


.004 


.57 


.002 


.59 


.004 


.63 







OZ2 .oas .003 I .54 



53.3 
56. z 

60.8 
58.0 
56.9 



57.0 



5.8 

6.x 
6.0 
6.Z 
6.4 



21.0 




Z9.8 


.... 


Z9.9 


*... 


27.0 


8.0 


28.9 


9.0 


26.3 


ZZ.5 


24- 1 


I9.5 



113 

Z.49 
.87 

Z.29 



75 
147 

35 



z63 
zoo 
zoo 

Z23 



* Two months. * Three months. X Four months. | One year. | Three 3-e4rs. 



344 



(53 



il 






oaBttv 






Amor- 
phous 
Matter. 


:is3;:;q.s; 


I 


Total 
Micro- 
scopic 
Organ- 
isms. 


■.ffs^%:: 


M 






-=a»S 






ghwESsii 



8° 



"Woo S 






. O '«■ WI^O M 

. moo 00 ^ p 







§ 




M 8 2 2 1?S 








Air 

^1 


• . . e« vk *n 

: : : 2 •^^* 






1^ 


O OVO M .4 M 


m 

^ 






i. 

■8-3 

1-2 


L> 

3 


tCod ovovd^oo 



6. 


§ 
ii 

1 


.•2 


c«oo m . . . 
<0 lO Ov • ■ • 


■♦ 
^ 


i'M 


IS.M m . . . 

Pijili : : : 


IN. 

1" 


si 


ir> 0»0 « »< •- 



CO 




c 
< 


1 

is 


in 




« 

♦ 




4 


088008 


r 


o 


m 


>^ 


00 
s 




11 


H 


l&yiH 


? 




^t/) a'g 


008080 


s 




-ii 


« M 10 M »• 

to. V ^ 10 10 m 
000000 


1 


Physical 

Ejcamina- 

tion. 


; 


uoior. 
;Parts 

Mil- 
lion 
of 
Plat- 
inum) 


H M M M M •* 


« 


1 


ii|s 


*^l 


. . . 10 fn fo 


;t 



i 



I 






I 



. « "*• o ♦« 

. IS, ^ ~ •♦O 

• « m ^ 10 fo 



> ts t>.M 00 o 

> O d W O* M 



, O O 00 OkM 

• d 00* » fn^d 



• f. ^» »n w ro 



• 00 rOM p\* 

• (s CI o> o 00 



. M m O 
• 00 00 d\ 



t<k ^ 10 en tf> o\ 

^ M 00 o^-* ♦ 
€1 cn CI d c*i CO 



M<o^O O 000 

00 00 00 0^30 00 



00 rn N 00 ♦'O 
00 00 00 ^ o^ o« 



» m o« o '-^ o 
« cn f»i ■♦ ♦ "o 



} o o C 



t«. MOO ■<•• IN. 10 



O O O o o o 



CnOO vr> «o c> rs 



tNO»O»0 « •« 



rCoo' d> 0" »j g 
00 00 00 Ov 2S o> 



349 
Table 6b — Continued. 

Oconee Deep Wells. 



Year. 



i897t.. 
1898.. 

1899 •• 
X900 .. 
1901 .. 
190a .. 



Average. 



Physical 




Chemical Analysis (Parts per 


Million). 




Examination. 


















Nitrogen as 














Tur- 


Color 














bidity 


(Parts 


Albu- 


















(Parts 


»Sili- 


mi- 


Free 
















aJfii- 


noid 


Am- 


Ni- 


Ni- 


Total 


Chlo- 


Hard- 


Alka- 


Iron. 


ion 


Am- 


mo- 


trites. 


r rates 


Solids. 


rine. 


ness. 


linity. 


lon 


of 


mo- 


nu. 
















of 


Plati- 


ma. 


















Silica) numj. 




















Total 




4 


.013 


.395 


.000 


.OS 


144.6 


4< 


96.4 




•54 


8 


.011 


.»5b 


.ceo 


•CO 


142.2 


4-a 


97.6 


.... 


•7! 


9 


.008 


.245 


.000 


.00 


143.0 


4.3 


TOO. 9 


.... 


•1? 


3 4 


.02<) 


.363 


.oox 


.00 


i43'0 


4-4 


107.7 


100.0 


.67 


1 5 


.033 


.277 


.03I 


.00 


«54.i 


^.3 


I08.I 


100.2 


.50 


, 4 


.oao 


.282 


.032 


.00 


•45.4 


4.2 


"5.9 


103.0 


.50 


3X 


6 


.oao 


.265 


.OOI 


.00 


X4S.S 


4.3 


106.0 


iiox.x 


.57 




Shetucket Deep Wells. 



i897t 

1898 

»899 

X900 

1901 

1902 

Average . 



Ixo 



6 


.0x5 


.322 


.000 


.0. 


;§:! 


4.2 


96.7 




.62 






xo 


.016 


.237 


.00b 


.03 


25.7 


107.5 


.... 


.90 


«5 


2 


20 


.015 


.313 


.007 


.00 


534-0 


X85.0 


X64.4 


.... 


i.5» 


47 


6 


33 


.013 


.403 


.040 


.00 


762.4 


288.0 


243.6 


8x.o 


::^i 


2J 


»7 


30 


.013 


.487 


.002 


.00 


V86.9 


308.6 


»324.6 


813 


120 


30 


32 


.017 


.570 


.003 


.OX 


1095.5 
713.S 


433-7 


360.0 


79-5 


2.59 


47 


37 


25 


OJ5 


.402 


.01 2 


.ox 


264.2 


2400 


n8o.6 


2.02 


50 


18 



1x0 

258 
190 
400 
320 



255 



spring Creek, Old Plant, Deep Wells. 



'897t ; 

1898 1 

1899 1 

1900 1 

Average. 



6 


.oc6 


.005 


.000 


•43 


222.5 


12.8 


137.0 




•50 






x6 


.004 


.006 


.000 


.02 


189.1 


^•z 


"45 


.... 


.99 


16 


XI 


x6 


.004 


.003 


.000 


.07 


183.0 


5.8 


X25.X 


.... 


.64 


35 





3 


.007 


.006 


.001 


.to 


178.9 


69 


X3«-3 


122.7 


.46 


3« 


3 


13 


.005 


.005 


.ooo 


.07 


1^3-7 


71 


193.6 


S122.7 


.70 


27 


5 






spring Creek, Old Plant, Shallow Wells. 



Jlp*;.:.::::: 







X 





.018 
.009 
.011 
.013 


.000 

.030 


.oco 
.00 1 

.OOX 

.005 


ill 


695.7 
482.x 
5»6.8 
524.7 


228.0 

X2S-2 

X36-4 
155.7 


x6r.9 
151.5 

;6i:! 


flrt.T 


.10 
.04 
•03 
.12 


120 

35 
42 








79 


1^.: 


^ 






Average. 


§0 





.011 


.013 


.002 


3.0J 


517-9 


139. t 


i6,.x 1 889.7 


.06 


66 





50 



♦ Two months, t Three months. % Four months. | One year. | Three years. 



346 

Table 6b. 
borough of brooklyn — summary of analyses — ridgewood system, 

ground waters. 

Massapequa Deep and Shallow Wells. 





Physical 






Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million). 




Bac- 


Microscopi- 


















tcrio- 
logi- 
cal 


cal Examina- 






Nitrogen as 








1 




tion. 








Number of 


























Ex- 
amin- 


Standard 










Units 


























ation. 


per c. c. 




Tur- 
bidity 
(Parts 

Min- 
ion 
of 

SUica) 


Color 
(Parts 

i5m- 


Albu- 
mi- 
noid 


Free 
Am- 


Ni- 


Ni- 


Total 


Chlo- 


Hard- 


Alka- 


Iron. 






Year. 


Num. 
ber 
of 


Total 
Mi- 
cro- 
scopic 
Or- 






ion 

of 
Plati- 
num). 


Am- 
mo- 
nia. 


mo- 
nia. 


tfitcf. 


trates. 


Solids. 


rine. 


ness. 


linity. 


Bac- 
teria 
per 
c. c. 


Amor- 
phous 

ter. 








Total. 










5-7 








48hrs. 

at 
30° C. 


isms. 




1898 




I 


.036 


.0x6 


.000 


1 
.40 36.5 


32.1 


.55 


6 


4 


40 







3 


.Aas 


.0x9 
.012 


.000 


.08 1 42.3 

.00 CO. -a 


5.3 

5-2 


18.7 
27-3 
15.0 


8.3 


•42 
.46 
•35 


X2 


en 


^ 


TOOt ..«..•«•• 


I 


6 .a^A. 


.000 


x8.o 


35 1 J3 

7 '^ 




I 


7 


.015 


.007 


.002 


.97 


;6.; 


8.0 


40 








Average. 


III 


^ 


.ozA 


.oil 


.000 


.2X 


43 9 


5-3 


90. 8 


Jri.4 


.45 


»s 


16 


54 



Wantagh Deep and Shallow Wel/s, 



J^'.:::::::: 

1899 

X9C0 

xgoi 

1903 

Average. 



•• 


6 

2 


.005 
.006 


.004 
.008 


.003 
.000 


.»3 
.04 




3 


.ory 


.003 


.001 


.07 


x 


4 


.024 


.010 


.0:0 


.01 


0.5 


3 


.018 


.C04 


.oox 


.00 


X 


3 


.008 


.004 


.00a 


.02 


lit 


3 


.015 


.006 


.OOI 


.03 



3I-7 
35.0 
28.7 1 
24.6 
36.0 

?6.2 ! 



26.x 



4-2 


6.6 


3.8 


9.5 


4.0 


5-2 


3-7 


3.9 


3.5 


6.4 


3.3 


8.3 


3-7 


6.7 



I.O 

x.o 

30 



1.08 
.70 

•37 
•3') 
.50 



h.7 



12 





3 





14 





40 





'' 


>7 


3X 


3 



50 

35 
23 



Matowa Deep and Shallow Wells, 



I 

'897t , 

»899 

"903 

X90X I 

X903 < 

Average. 



'.; 


3 


1 


1 


0.5 


2 





3 


11. 


2 




35 
«3 
18 
33 



Merrick Deep and Shallow Wells. 



1897* 

X898 

1899 

XQOO 

I9OX 

X902 

Average , 






.OD9 


.oot 





::^ 


.003 
.002 


X 


.0x4 


.035 


3 


.028 


.oo3 


4 


.008 


.003 


^ 


.014 


.004' 



.000 j 
.000 I 
.coo I 
.000 
.001 
.003 I 



I 



5^ 


4X.8 


6.3 


14.3 


.57 


435 


6.3 


16.5 


42 


42.0- 


5-2 


8.0 


4» 


43-2 


5.» 


»7.3 


25 


56.8 


5.0 


25.3 


23 


44.6 


4.9 


X4.8 


37 


46.0 


5.3 


16.4 



■:.2 
3.8 
6.0 



•»3 1 

•23 

•tS 

.13 
1-55 
1.38 



15 
50 

48 I 



X2S 
67 



x8 

x,s69 

357 



IIS-o I -67 831 I 48 ' 8423 



• Two months, t Three months. % Four months, jf One year. \ Three years. 



347 
Table 6b — Continued. 

Agawam Deep and Shallow Wells. 



Year. 



i8Q7* 

1P98 

1899 

1900 

Z901 

1902 

Average. 



Physical 
Examination. _ 



Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million). 



Tur- 
bidity 
(Parts 

per 
Mill 

ion 

of 
Silica) 



Color 
(Parts 

per 
Mill- 
ion 
of 



Nitrogen as 



Albu. 
mi- 
noid 
Am- 
mo- 



Plati- nia. 
num). 



Total. 



.006 
.006 
.cc8 
.096 
.024 
.013 



.CIS 



Free 
Am- 



.000 
.000 
.000 
.007 
.005 
.005 



Ni- 



Ni- 



trites, t rates 



.000 
.coo 
.000 
.000 
.ooz 

.003 



.003 .oot 



Total 
Solids. 



43.8 
3»-3 
35-5 
34.8 
38.8 
3a 8 



34.6 



Chlo- 
rine. 



Hard- 
nes!'. 



10.S 
5.7 
5« 
5-1 
4.9 
4.3 



I 



5.0 



8.3 

6.7 
8.C 
10.2 
10.8 



Alka 
linity. 



tcno- 
logi- 
cal 
Ex- 
amin- 
ation. 



Iron. 



0.0 
9.0 
a.4 



8.4 lx.4 



.27 



Num- 
ber 
of 
Bac- 
teria 
per 
c. c. 
48hrs. 

at 
20° C. 



3a 



Microscopi- 
cal Examina- 
tion. 
Number of 
Standard 

Units 
per c. c. 



Total 
Mi- 
cro- 
scopic 
Or- 
gan- 
isms. 



Amor- 
phous 
Mat- 
ter. 



J70 I 
«33 



6x 



78 

50 

ao 

388 

440 



19s 



Watts Pond Shallow Wells. 



x897t 

1898 

1899 

1900 

xgoi 

X902 

Average. 



.. 


3 


.. 


2 


.. 


3 




4 




5 


6 


8 


l3 


4 



,oz6 
.011 

4 .0x7 
.023 
.030 



.OZ9 I 



.024 


.001 


.033 


.00a 


.019 


.001 


.027 


.003 


.020 


.COT 


.032 


004 


.036 


.002 




.30 






.33 


293 


x6 


•25 


24 


1 


.64 


12 


'5 


.76 


30 


ao 


z.is 


58 


27 


.64 


83 


z6 



17Z 

92 

940 



Clear Stream Shallow Wells, 



i897t 

X898 

1899 

1900 

ZQOX 

X9O2 

Average . 



z 

2 

3 

z 2 

z 2 

O I 
I 2 



.019 

.CZ3 

.005 

.012 

.OZI 
.OZ2 



.OZ7 


.coz 


.009 


.COI 


.00a 


.000 


.006 


.ooz 


.004 


.000 


.005 


.ooa 


.o^S 


.coz 



X.80 


69.8 


6.8 


21.6 


Z.68 


68.3 


6.5 


25.1 


2.22 


68.0 


6.6 


22.9 


2.o6 


68.9 


5.9 


29. z 


2.25 


70.9 


6.4 


31.1 


1.93 


74.9 


6.3 


3»»S 


2.03 


70.2 


6.3 


28. z 



7.0 
7.3 
7.0 



I7.Z 



30 

17 

22 

54 
27 



175 

63 
33 
77 

85 



Forest Stream Shallow Wells. 



Il?r.;::".:; 

^899 

Z900 

Z90Z 

Z902 


3 

2 
2 


6 

I 

8 


.017 
.ozz 

.Q05 
.0x5 

.ozz 
.oz6 


.05Z 
.031 

.020 

.027 

.022 

.026 


.oco 
.ooz 

.005 
.004 

.002 

.004 


.64 

•34 
.59 
•57 

% 


53.3 

58.0 

5<^.9 


5J 

6.0 
6.Z 
6.4 


21.0 
19.8 
X9.9 
27.0 
28.9 
26.3 


"S.O 
9.0 

".5 


^•I3 
Z.49 
.87 

Z.29 


75 

147 

35 

12 

51 


2 
5 
xo 


228 

x6a 
100 

ZOO 

xa3 


Average. 


Ha 


7 


.OZ2 


.025 


.003 


•54 


57.0 


6.0 


2<.» 


hs 


x.x8 


^4 


« 


'43 



♦ Two months. * Three months. % Four months. % One year. || Three years. 



348 



Table 6b — Continued. 

Springfield Deep Welis, 





Physical 




Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million;. 




Bac- 


Microscopi- 




Examination. 














teno- 
logi- 
cal 


cal Examina- 






Nitrogen as 












tion. 








Number of 






















Ex- 
amin- 


Standard 












Units 


























ation. 


per c. c. 




Tur- 

bidiiy 

(Parts 

per 


Color 
(Parts 


Albu- 
mi- 
noid 


Free 
Am- 


Ni- 


Ni- 


Total 


Chlo- 


Hard- 


Alka- 


Iron. 






Year. 


Num- 
ber 
of 
Bac- 


Total 






Mill- 


ion 


Am- 


mo- 


trites. 


trates 


Solids. 


rine. 


ness. 


linity. 


Mi- 


Amor- 




ion 
Silica) 


of 
Plati- 
num). 


mo- 
nia 


nia. 
















teria 

per 

c. c. 

48hr$. 

at 


cro- 
scopic 
Or- 
gan- 
t&ms. 


phous 
Alat- 

ler. 




Total. 
















.13 












20° C. 






i897t 




13 


•C06 


.ox 2 


.000 


47.2 


3.6 


X2.8 


.... 


1.97 






.... 


»89« 




22 


.C06 


.010 


.oox 


.C2 


49-7 


3-6 


12.8 


.... 


3.70 


83 


9 


357 


'899 




85 


.004 


.005 


.OCX) 


.OX 


51.1 


^'l 


15.0 


...* 


3.02 


30 


x6 


168 


X900 




»s 


.014 


.009 


.OOT 


.CO 


50.2 


3.8 


20.5 


4.0 


3.89 


»3 


135 


288 


1901 




21.7 


.007 


.006 


.000 


.CO 


48.x 


3.8 


17.0 


3-0 


266 


7 


38d 


250 


X903 


10 


»9 


.008 


.007 


.001 


.02 

.OX 


50.7 


3-9 


13.3 


50 


3.80 


51 


13 


90 


Average. 


I7 


21 


.oo3 


.007 


.03I 


49.7 


3.9 


15.7 


I4.0 


3.53 


37 


xio 


2t3 



Jameco Deep Wells, 



i897t 

x8g8 

X899 

2903 

X90X 

x9oa 

Average . 





5 


.or4 


.550 


.030 


•57 


X2X,9 




7 


.0x2 


.329 


.03X 


.ox 


II7.2 




6 


.010 


.348 


.001 


.00 


xax.o 




9 


.014 


•355 


.03X 


.01 


122.0 




6 


.01 X 


.396 


.COX 


.00 


119.8 




9 


.0x7 


.4*3 


.OOJ 


.ox 


85.7 


u 


7 


.013 


.368 


.COX 


.0. 


XX3.I 



6,5 
5-5 
5.0 
4.7 
4-5 
4-5 



4.8 



80.2 
78.4 
82.3 
90.1 

93-3 
92.x 



8S.2 



84.5 
83.3 
86.6 



584.8 



.63 



62 
60 
36 

67 I 



276 



224 
xc8 
1x3 
45 
44 

107 



Jameco Deep and Shallato Wells. 



«897t 




5X 


.026 


•497 


.0X0 


t 


188.8 


22.8 


70.7 




2.6, 








1898 




87 


.023 


.270 


.OXX 


i5^i 


24-3 


67.5 


.... 


3.02 


36 


28 


903 


X899 


, . 


29 


.014 


.246 


.006 


•65 


X44.4 


26.6 


62.6 


.... 


2-53 


66 


xa 


366 


1900 


9 


30 


.018 


.236 


.C08 


.70 


I35-0 


x6.i 


85.0 


49-4 


3 55 


32 


"4 


»37 


1901 


10 


33 


.014 


.232 


.0x3 


.89 


158.3 


29.4 


76.6 


46.0 


4^73 


106 


200 


733 


1902 


1 ^ 
! >9 


35 
31 


.022 


.476 


.007 


•59 


>39-x 


22.x 


77^4 


49-7 


3.00 


90 


31 538 


Average 


.0x8 


.242 


.009 


'7\ 


146.2 


^3-7 


73.8 


I48.4 


3^37 


66 


57 1 533 



Baiselev*s Shallow Wells. 



l8Q7t 

1898 

1899 

X900 

X90X 

1902 

Average. 








.0x2 


.038 


.C03 


X.48 


352.2 


1x7.7 


1x9.0 




.22 








4 


.005 


.022 


.001 


'J? 


333-5 


X14.2 


X09.9 


.... 


•36 


xa 


1 


.. 


I 


.009 


.018 


.COI 


1.87 


3000 


97.8 


95.3 


.... 


::? 


37 








X 


.OXX 


.022 


.003 


X.69 


378.2 


127.6 


XXX., 


26.0 


30 











.ro7 


.024 


.003 


^•35 


377.6 


135-0 


133.6 


26.0 


.26 


X27 








X 


.C09 


.041 


.00* 


2.52 


313.4 


IC0.0 


105.x 


27.2 


.22 


15' 





lo 


» 


.008 


.025 


.003 


1.84 


340.5 


II 4.9 


XIX.O 


I26.4 


.20 


73 






76 

45 
22 



43 



♦ Two months, t Three months. % Four months. % One ycai. \ Three years. 



349 
Table 6b — Continued. 

Oconee Deep Wells. 



Yrar. 



1897+. 

1898 . 

1899 . 

1900 . 
190Z . 
190a . 



Average . 



Physical 




Chemical Analysis (Parts per 


Million). 




Examination. 
















Nitrogen as 


















Tur- 


Color 




















bidity 


(Paris 


Albu- 


















(Parts 


per 


mi- 


Free 
















per MUl- 


noid 


Am- 


Ni- 


Ni- 


Total 


Chlo- 


Hard- 


Alka- 


Iroft. 


Mill- 


ion 


Am- 


mo- 


trites. 


trates 


Solids. 


rine. 


ness. 


linity. 


lon 


of 


mo- 


nia. 
















of 


Plati- 


nia. 


















SUica) 


num). 


Total 


















•• ' 4 


.013 


.395 


.000 


.08 


144.6 


4-» 


96.4 




■54 


8 


.0x1 


.ast> 


,cco 


.CO 


142.2 


4.2 


97.6 


.... 


.7" 


9 


.008 


•345 


.000 


.00 


1430 


4.3 


100.9 


.... 


.4« 


3 4 


.oaq 


.263 


.OCX 


.00 


143-0 


4-4 


107.7 


100.0 


.67 


» 5 


.033 


.277 


.001 


.00 


154. 1 


4.3 


108.1 


100.2 


.50 


4 


.090 


.282 


.002 


.00 


MS.4 


4-3 


"5.9 


103.0 


.50 


!i 


6 


.020 


.265 


.001 


.00 


145.5 


4-3 


106.0 


ilOX.T 


.57 



Bac- 
ccrto- 
logi- 
cal 
Ei- 
amin- 



Ehficniscopi- 
cal Hbtamma- 

tlQIlH, 

Number of 
Siandard 

UDttS 



ation. I p^ c. c. 



Num- 
ber 
cf 
Bac- 
teria 
per 
i:, t. 
4^hnk 

HE 



rotsui 

Mi- 
cro- I 
scopic 
Of- 
gan- 



Aixuir- 
phous 
Mat- 
ter» 



70 
43 
as 
57 
29 



Shetucket Deep Wells, 



1897: 

1898 

'899 

X900 

1901 

1902 

Average. 





6 


.015 


.322 


.000 


.04 


\^X 


4.2 


96.7 




.62 










10 


.0x6 


.237 


.00 :> 


.03 


25.7 


107.5 


.... 


.90 


«5 


a 


1x0 




20 


.0x5 


.313 


.007 


.00 


534.0 


'!§° 


164.4 




'■S» 


47 


6 


258 


11 


33 


.0x3 


.403 


.040 


.00 


762.4 


288.0 


243.6 


8z.o 


V\i 


3J 


1/ 


190 


9 


30 


.013 


.487 


.002 


.00 


V86.9 


308.6 


V324.6 


8x3 


X20 


30 


400 


XI 


32 


.017 


.570 


.003 


.ox 


1095 5 
7'3-5 


433.7 


360.0 


79.5 


2.59 


47 


37 


320 


lio 


25 


015 


.40^ 


.0x2 


.ox 


264.2 


2400 


I80.6 


2.02 


50 


18 


25s 



Spring Creek, Old Plant, Deep Wells, 



X898 ... 
X899... 
19C0 . . . 

Average. 



.. 


6 


.oc6 


.005 


.000 


.43 


222.5 


12.8 


137.0 




.50 








x6 


.004 


.006 


.000 


.02 


i8g.i 


H 


"4-5 


.... 


.99 


x6 


XI 


.. 


z6 


.004 


•003 


.000 


.07 


183.0 


5.8 


X25.X 


.... 


.64 


35 





X 


3 


.007 


.006 


.001 


.10 

.07 


178.9 
1^3.7 


69 


X3>.3 


122.7 


.46 


3i 


3 

5 


Si 


13 


.005 


.005 


.000 


71 


X23.6 


$X2a.7 


.70 


27 



92 

64 
60 



spring Creek, Old Plant, Shallow Wells. 



1897* .. 





.0x8 


.000 


.oco 


1.59 


696.7 


228.0 


161.9 




.10 








1898 


X 


.009 


.003 


.CO! 


2.68 


48a.x 


125.2 


151.5 


.... 


.04 


X20 





79 


1899 





.011 


.006 


.OOX 


^.35 


5»6.8 


136.4 


165.3 




.03 


35 





44 


1900 





.013 


.030 


.005 


2.98 


524.7 


.55.7 


166.5 


«9.7 


.12 


42 





28 


Average. §o 





•ox I 


.013 


.002 


3.00 


517.9 


139. « 


X6I.X 889.7 


.06 


66 





50 



* Two months, t Three months. X Four months. § One year. \ Three years. 



3 so 
Table 6b — Continued. 

spring Creek f New Plant, Shallow Wells. 



Ybar. 



X898 .. 
1899.. 

1900 .. 

1901 .. 

1902 . 



Average. 



Ph^rsical 
Examination. 



Tur- 
bidity 
(Parts 
per 
Mill- 
ion 
of 
Silica) 



Color 

(Farts 

iStu- 

ion 

of 
Plati- 
num). 



Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million). 



Nitrogen as 



Albu- 
mi- 
noid 
Am- 
mo- 



Total. 



.009 
.007 

.0X1 

.014 
oil 
.019 



Free 




Am- 


Ni- 


mo- 


trites. 


nia. 




•ooa 


.002 


.003 


.ooa 


.004 


.001 


.0x0 


.003 


.0x6 


.002 


.010 


.005 


.009 


.ooa 



Ni- 
trates. 



Total 
Solids. 



6.9X 


245. s 


3.eo 


319.6 


5-32 


3*4.7 


6.28 


289.0 


733 


295.6 


9.«3 


444.5 


6.47 


334.9 



Chlo- 
rme. 



22.0 

52.8 
S7.0 
35-5 
37.a 
X03.4 



Hard- 
ness. 



144.8 
129.6 
140.8 
^75.« 
x8x.6 
203.1 



Xfi6.2 



Alka- 
linity. 



98.6 

XOT.O 

xoo.s 



[iXOO.O 



Iron. 



08 
.07 
•«4 
.25 



Bac. 
terio- 
logi- 
cal 
Ex- 
amin- 
ation. 



Num- 
ber 
of 
Bac- 
teria 
per 
c. c. 
48hrs. 

at 
200 C. 



109 

li 

4» 

30 



Microscopi- 
cal Examina- 
tion. 
Number of 
Standard 

Units 
■ per c. c. 



Total 
Mi- 
cro- 
scopic 
Or- 
gan- 
isms. 



Amor- 
phous 
Mat- 
ter. 



9a 
55 

3a 

83 

14 
43 



Spring Creek f Pump JVo. i. 



XOOX .... ... 









X 




.013 

.OJI 


.0x9 

.005 


.003 

.003 


4.05 
4.35 


63^2 


203.2 
193.2 


«57.5 
3433 


96.3 
102.3 


.'5 

.X3 


r. 






32 


ICOS ...I..... 


57 




Average. 


I 


.OX? 


.0x2 


.003 


4.W 


645.8 


197.7 


250.4 


99-3 


.14 


59 





39 



Spring Creek, Pump No. 3. 





X 




8 

3 


.oia 
.010 


.0C9 
.0x1 


.cox 
.002 


,.78 


324.4 
431.7 


72.Q 
139.6 


189.6 
203.7 


134.0 

X20.0 


.£4 

.25 


1 
61 1 

50 1 






^ 


looa 






Average. 1 


I 


6 


.on 


.0x0 


.coa 


1.65 


378.x 


X06.3 


196.7 


X22.0 


•39 


76 1 





33 



• Two months, t Three months. X Four months. % One year. \ Three years 



35' 



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S 



< 

< 
O 
OS 

< 
:^ 

e/) 

I 

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In In 

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tion. pension 

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? 



Cclor 
(Parts 

Per 

Million 

of 

Plat- 
inum). 




H 


Tor- 
bidity 
(Parts 

Per 
Million 

of 
Silica). 


• . to CO m 


;? 



R«&l5 




S-8.S>SR 


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o«o » 2 SI* 


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roo\«0 « ro 

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M 




. H M 


• 




. M •* m 


? 




Hr« 






??'?<?^ 


? 


^ 


. lAO «n 


i 


1 


0. *: r r 




•«5 


M M M t«.« 


Ok 

* 


1 




1 




I 


?§8:?8 


1 


a- 


IfHI 


1. 




f?f?f 


i 




rrfi"? 


i 




IH0T1 


1 




M m mci ^ 


en 




• • -♦« -«• 


^ 




iiiii 


5 



355 

Table 7. 

borough of brooklyn — summary of analyses by years — independent 

water supply systems. 

New Lots Pumping Station, 



Year. 



Physical 
Exataii nation 



Tur- 
bidity 
(Parts 
per 
Mil- 
lion of 
Silica; 



1898.... 
1809... • 
19CO. . . . 
igci.... 
190a.... 



Average.. 



Color 
(Pans 
per 
Mil- 
lion of 
Plati 



Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million}. 



Bacte- 
riolog- 
ical 
Exam- 
ination 





Nitrogen as 




Albu- 








min- 
oid 
Am- 
monia 

Total. 


Free 
Am- 
monia 


Ni- 
trites. 


Ni- 
tratcs. 


.oo* 


.000 


.003 


6.40 


.010 


.000 


.cox 


X0.40 


.026 
.009 
.oia 


.004 
.ooa 
.ooa 


.001 
.007 
.008 


10.40 
X4.X8 


.oxa 


.ooa 


.004 


10. x5 



Total I Chlo- Hard- 
Solids, rine. ness. 



305.0 
a84.3 
3x^.0 
996.8 
a83.5 



996.5 



ao.o 
22.3 
ao.o 
ai.4 
22.1 



124.1 

X4Q.8 
101.4 
181.7 
191.9 



ax. a I 167. 8 



Alka- 
linity. 



Iron. 



I Num- 
ber of 

j Bac- 

I tcria 
per 

I C.C.48 
hours 

at ao»C 



Microscop- 
ical Ex- 
aminatioir. 
Number of 
Standard 
Units per CO. 



xca.x 
xox.o 
103.3 
X04.0 



♦109.6 



35 

»37 



263 



•136 



Total 

r^ri" Amor. 
"°: phous 
«gPl^ Mat- 

gan- 
isms. 



German^ American Water Co. 



1897 






























189B ... 







.ooa 


.coo 


.001 


6.8^ 


3360 


97.0 


X65.9 


«... 


.05 


45 




900 


1899 




3 


.008 


•ooa 


.000 


7.70 


313.8 


29 3 


172.3 


.... 


.00 


76 




4«» 


S900 




3 


.013 


.005 


.001 


8.80 


296.6 


a8.a 


X56.X 
'89.5 


xoi.o 


.03 






18 


1901 







.oz6 


.007 


.003 


8.80 


286.0 


94.9 


X07.8 


.03 


.... 




'5 


190a 


.. * X 


.093 


.oza 


xo.ao 


307.3 


96.3 


186.3 


100.3 


.o5 


.... 




18 


Average. .. 


•• 


X 


.010 


.007 


.C03 


8.46 


307.7 


27.1 


174.0 


$103.0 


•03 


60 


• • 


58 



Flatbush Water Works, 



i897t 






.006 


.ooa 


.oox 


4.16 


x6o.o 


X2.a 


95-7 




.ao 








1898 


.. 




.oxx 


.ooa 


.oox 


3.4X 


«79S 


ia.5 


95.7 


.... 


.05 


X 




?l 


1899 


,, 




.008 


.ooa 


.000 


4.80 


175.6 
183.0 


ia.9 


99.6 


• •.. 


.01 


299 




1900 •• 




.oxx 


.004 


.ooa 


6.65 


X3.0 


109.9 


58.0 


.03 


60 .. 


jg 


1901 


.. 




.007 


.ooa 


.002 


5.80 


X77-5 


13.0 


10J.9 


J!* 


.03 


xa 


.. 


20 


«90» 


•• 




.013 


.009 


.ooa 


6.79 


Z90.6 


14.x 


xia.o 


60.4 


.09 


«... 


•• 


»5 


Average... 


•• 


1 


.0x0 


• ooa 


.001 


5.48 


x8x.3 


»3X 


X05.4 


t6o.o 


.02 


50 


•• 


3« 



• Average for 4 years. 



t X month only. 



X Average for 3 years. 



356 



Table 7 — Continued. 

Gravesend Pumping Station. 





Physical 
Examination 


Chemical Analysis (Parts per Million). 


Bacte- 
ricilog- 
ical 
Exam- 
raa ion 


Microscop- 
ical Ex- 
amination. 
Number of 
Standard 
Units per C.C. 


Year. 


Tur- 
bidily 
(Parts 

lion of 
Slbca) 


Color 
(Parts 

filu 

lion of 
Plati- 
num. 


Nitrogen as 


Total 
Solids 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Hard- 
ness. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Iron. 


Num- 
ber of 
Bac- 
teria 

c. c. 48 
hours 
atao'C 


Total 
Mi- 
cro- 
scopic 
Or. 
gan- 
isms. 






Albu- 
min- 
oid 
Am- 
monia 


Free 

Am. 
monia 


Ni- 
trites. 


Ni. 
trates. 


Amor- 
ter. 




Total. 




li?l^v:::::: 

1899 








1 
I 
z 

c 



.OC4 
.007 
.006 
.oza 
.008 
.007 


.001 
.003 
.001 
.003 
.001 
.oox 


.coo 
•oot 
.001 
.cox 
.cox 
.002 


3.00 

4.50 


'556 
15X.3 
150.0 

157.5 
,5x.8 

156. K 


ia.7 
13-3 
13.5 
13.4 


87.x 
9X.1 
9t.6 
100.8 
88.3 
94. a 


54- X 


.10 
.08 
.oa 
.c5 
.06 

.Oi 


la 

49 
40 

7 


•• 


86 
68 

M 


•igoi 

J909... ...... 






Average.. . 




.. 


.coS 


.009 


.oot 


4.05 


»53.3 


X5.1 


93 a 


«57.4 


.04 


t)x 


.. 


43 



New Utrecht Pumping Station. 



i857t. 
il?98.. 
1809.. 
X900.. 
X9CX.. 
190a.. 



Average. 





.008 


.001 




.006 


.004 




.007 


.000 




.010 


.006 




.005 


.000 





.oil 


.oco 




•• 


.C08 


.00 J 



.000 
.oco 
.001 

.COl 

.00a 
.002 



a.E8 
2.48 
•»-a4 
2.84 
2.88 
4.13 



3. XX 



169.0 
155.5 

»43 7 
954.0 
308.0 
324.2 



93.6 

21. X 
21.9 

67.4 



I 



255.1 j 6f-x 



91. 8 
90. z 
87.5 
»35«9 
185.6 
Z44.a 



128.7 



54 -o 
56.7 
74.7 



X6x.% 



.06 



>3« 

73 

27 

49 
13a 





8z 




54 




22 


•• 


43 













Blythebourne Water Co 


• 












X898 







.004 


.000 


.QOQ 


S.60 


1 
164.5 1 8.0 


75.7 


.... 


.00 








1899 




1 


.006 


.001 


.000 


5.00 


.66.3 


8.9 


80.x 




.xo 


4 




50 


l<jpo. ..- 







.009 


.oo:e 


.007 


5.87 


168.5 


b.6 


9t.3 


65. 5 


.oa 


98 




a6 


190Z 







.007 


.COX 


.ooz ; 5.10 


153. a 


7.6 


9a. X 


.05 




4 


30 


»P<» 







.CIO 

•on 


..*• 


.003 


S-^l 


161.6 


7.4 


X26.3 


67.0 


.01 


.... 


a 


y> 


Average.. 


•• 


.001 


.00a 


5.36 


i6a.8 


8.x 


93.x 


t63.6 


.04 


♦si 


3 


*34 















Pfalzgraf 


Water Co. 
















x898t ,,. 


• • 


.. 


.o*a 


.010 


.004 


7.00 


3>o.5 


16.8 


72.9 


.... 


.75 








■899 r- 




. 




.013 


.C04 


.001 


7.65 1 


230.4 


'7-9 
12.8 


X67.8 


.... 


.«3 


X30 




. 


^ 


xgoo. '• 






, 


.022 


.cox 


.003 


9-25 1 


246 9 


X83. 


xoa.o 


.08 






, 




X901 




• 


a 


.CIO 


.000 


.007 


7.80 i 


250. s 


14. 8 


196.4 


zoa.o 


.13 


1 03 






»a 


1902 


•• 


X 


.028 


.oex 


.to4 


9.60 1 


270.6 


M.3 


192.0 


100.5 


.16 


304 




• 


»3 


Average.. 




• 


X 


.0x9 


.003 


.004 


«| 


261.8 


»5.3 


z6a.4 


tioi.S 


•95 


$ita 






t»5 



♦ Average for 4 years. 



1 month only. 



% Average for 3 years. 



357 

Table 8. 
summary of analyses by years — ^borough of queens. 

Long Island City Water Supply^ Station No, i. 



Year. 



1E98. .. 
1890. .. 
X900. .. 
X901. .. 
xgoa. .. 



Average . 



Physical 

Examina* 

tion. 



2U 
5 3 



Chemical Analysis (Parts Per Million). 



Nitrogen As 






is 
3 






Total 



.010 
.008 
.015 
.018 



.015 









Total 






, Solids. 


Free 
Am- 


Ni- 


Ni- 1 


1 rites. 


trates. 




monia 








.006 


.oco 


1.90 


386.0 


.001 


.000 


A'AO 


304.4 


.054 


.00a 


3.7.0 


335.8 


.C03 


.coa 


3.70 


3<^.8 


.005 


.C05 


4.00 


344-3 






.C304 


.oca 


3.44 


359-4 



Chlo. 
rine. 



X05.0 
73.0 
62.0 
71.0 
56.0 



73-4 



Hard- 
ness. 



ao?.3 
1 50. 5 
1660 
196.8 
184.0 



181.9 



Aika- 
lioity. 



85.0 
xo4.a 
85.4 



.03 

.05 
.04 
.od 
.09 



Iron 



t9i.5 



u-'r. 



CO o 
Bo- 



ss 
7f8 
850 

673 



Micro «co|>ical 

Exaoiination. 

Number of 

Standard 

Units per c. c. 



Total 
Micro- 
scopic 
Organ- 
isms. 



480 



Amor- 
phous 
Mat- 
ter. 



so 
58 
47 
IS 

>4 



37 









Lo 


ng /stand 


City Water Supply, 


Station No. 


2. 








1898 


. 1 . 
.-.. 1 3 


.015 


.006 ! .coo 


.50 X780.0 


7250 


325.1 1 ••". 


.08 61^ 





no 


x89<J 




2 


.010 


.OCX .COI 


4.60 4x2.5 


26.5 


2x5.4 i •.-. 


•05 1.485 


'0 


38 


19C0 


.... 


z 


.030 


.005 .ooz 


4.55 1 TK7.V 


az?.4 


a8a.9 


124.3 


.05 


4,600 





30 


1001 




z 


.017 


.ofo .001 


3.6s 


1862.5 


7»6.o 


ti76.5 


153.5 


.05 




.... 




190a 


.... 





.017 


.00a 1 .001 

« ... 


3.48 


X8229 


7x6.8 


59X.0 


157.8 


.01 


.... 


.... 


.... 


Average . 


.... 


1 


.0x6 


.005 


.oox 


3.36 j X3a2.x 


48X.3 


4z8.a 


tx45-a 


.05 


tJ,233 





+59 



L^ng Island City Water Supply, Station No, 3. 



1898 




3 


.CZ5 


•coz 


.000 


3.60 


300.5 


15.3 


>45.7 




.03 


4 





75 


189) 




3 


.0x9 


.cox 


.oco 


3.»8 


291.5 


X5.0 


«7a.3 


.... 


.c6 


75 


X 


55 


1900 




2 


.oas 


.001 


.coz 


3.65 


^00.6 


X6.7 


204.4 


ia4.o 


■2 


250 





30 


'9<^« 




4 


.017 


.000 


.001 


4.40 


3".3 
325.8 


149 


240.9 


r^a.o 








90 


X9oa 




z 


.03a 


.003 


.000 


4.60 


X4.5 


•35.5 


138.8 


.00 


z,8oo 





38 


Average . 


'* 


2 


.02a 


.001 


.000 


391 


3c6.x 


XS.3 


Z99.8 


t'34.9 


.08 


€a6 





44 











Citizens'* Water Company, Station No, i. 










^8^8 




X 


.0x6 


.C06 


.000 ! 6.00 1 339.5 


6.4 


297.0 




•10 


^ 





100 


1899 


.... 





.P'5 


.•»3 


.003 


7.00 319.8 


X4.X 


212.5 


.... 


.00 


a8 





• 38 


IQOO 


.... 





.023 


.cos 


.003 


8.80 305.5 


xa.3 1727 


147.S 


.03 


"3 





90 


I90X 


.... 


I 


.010 


.002 


.oox 


xr.zo 335.0 


13.0 2C4.6 


X41.8 


.00 


.... 


xo 


as 


X902 


.... 





.016 


.000 


.oox 


X0.90 31 z. 8 




13.3 2x3.5 


X36.8 


.00 


.... 


.... 




Average. 







.0x5 


.003 


.c. 


1 
8.76 1 32a.a 


,x.8 


ao6.x 


ti4a.o 


.03 


ti8o 


tl 


t46 



t Average ibr 3 years. 



% Average for 4 years. 



358 



Table 8 — Continued. 

Ciiizerts^ Water Company, Station No. 2. 





Physical 
Examina- 
tion. 


Chemical Analysis (Parts Per Million). 


8.S.S 


Microscopical 

Examination. 

Number of 

Standard 

Units per c. c 




« A 

.5.1 

11 
5 


a 
I 



1 


Nitrogen As 


Total 
Solids. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Hard- 
ness. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Iron. 


1 


Total 
Micro- 
«copic 
Organ- 
isms. 




Year. 


T3 , 

1-5 

11 

<< 


Free 
Am- 
monia 


Ni- 
trites. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Amor> 
ter. 








^^ 

^ 

1890 

1901 

190a 


:::: 


.010 


*023 
.097 

.mi 

.052 
.054 


5.60 

6.40 
8.JO 
9.76 


217.5 

2^1.6 

265.9 
305.6 
349a 


10.6 
14.0 
13.6 

14.0 


154 8 
X48.8 
X69.5 
2o;.x 
207.8 


99.5 
xi%5 
1x4. 8 


.10 
.00 
.04 
.00 
.01 


405 




X 





40 
58 
34 
25 


Average . 


.... 





.oia 


.C06 


.03s 


6.96 


277.9 


X3.6 


177.6 


tio9.3 


.03 


t424 





t39 











Citizens' Water 


Company, 


Station No. 3. 










1899 

X9C0. .,..- 

iO*-! 

I9C2 


•••• 


.000 
.coo 
.oox 
.oox 


.006 

.010 
.005 
.0x0 


.0C3 
.005 
.004 
.005 


.011 
.006 
.008 
.007 


.78 
.74 
.91 
1.19 


140.5 
159.0 


6.4 
7.9 


97.0 

XI2.8 

xif.6 
X03.6 


97-3 
9«-3 
88.8 


.12 

.'3 
•C4 
.oa 


X90 






'"i 


Average . 


.... 


X 


.008 


.004 


.008 


.91 


X50.3 


7-6 


107.5 t9a.8 


.08 


•X90 


•♦0 


»*n 











Citiz 


ens' I 


Vater 


Company, Station No. 4. 










1900 

X90X 

«9=2 







.... 


.003 
.003 
.010 


.000 
.000 
.002 


.002 
.001 
.00 j 


5.70 
587 
5.78 


"99 3 
190.2 
X87.X 


0.7 
8.6 
8.8 


X2P.8 

f 37 8 
X24.6 


104. 5 
95.7 
vx.8 


.08 
.07 
.01 










ao 
47 


Average. 







.005 


.001 


.002 


5.78 


X97.2 


9.0 


130.4 


97.3 


.05 


♦*o 


**o 


-34 









Citizens' 


'Vater Company, Station No. 5. 










190X 

X903 





.009 
.006 

i 


1 

.OCX .ODl 
.000 .CX33 


5.20 ' 103.8 
6.50 1 197.0 


S-9 
8.2 


«34.5 
XX4.0 


965 
95.0 


.00 
.00 


.... 





35 


Average . 





.008 


.OCX .002 


1 

5.85 ; 195.4 


7.6 


"43 


95.8 


.00 


.... 


•0 


•35 



* I year only. 

t Average for 3 years. 



♦♦ Average lor 2 years. 
X Aveiage for 4 years. 



359 



Table 8 — Continued. 

Flushing Water IVorks, 





Physical 
Examina- 
tion. 




Chemical Analysis (Parts Per Million) 


. 


.§■31 

111 


Microscopical 

Examination. 

Number of 

Standard 

Units per c. c. 




u 

II 
f 


e 

a 


Nitrogen As 


Total 
Solids. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Hard- 
ness. 


Alka. 
Unity. 


Iron. 




Total 
Micro- 
scopic 
Organ- 
isms. 




Year. 


11 

II 


'.Free 
Am- 
monia 


Ni- 
t rites. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Amor- 
phous 

Mat- 

ter. 




Toul. 


.006 
.oti 
.007 

035 

.020 

.czo 






«899 

X900 

Z901 

1903 




3 

I 

t 

9 


.0x8 

.034 
.048 
.044 


.004 
.001 
.014 
.010 
.019 


a.ao 
a.65 
2.90 
3-95 
3»3 


87.5 
90.3 
98.9 
100.3 
103.2 


6.6 
6.9 

11 

7.0 


58.6 

50.8 
5x8 
5X-9 


3V.0 
99.8 
99.8 


•55 
.ox 
.08 
.X3 
.xz 


96 
X30 

600 
443 


Si 

39 
»3 


zoo 

% 

40 
99 


Average. 


.... 


5 


.033 


.008 


a.98 


96.0 


6.8 


51-9 


t3«.5 


.18 


t3" 


48 


63 



WhiUstone Water Works, Station No. i. 



Z898 







.000 


.000 


.ooz 


a.40 


191.5 


9.4 


i40.6 




.oo 


9 





eo 


1899 




I 


.008 


.roz 


OOf 


3.85 


aoo.6 


io.q 


Z9'».0 


.... 


.00 


Z4O 


z 


4« 


1900 




3 


.C08 


.000 


.ooz 


4.52 


9ZO.O 


.ZI.8 


138.1 


ZOS.0 


.05 


Z09 


I 


3t 


Z90I 




z 


.009 


.000 


.ooz 


4. JO 


az4v3 


1X.3 


i4-).6 


ZII.3 


.04 


.... 





33 


1909 







.oza 


.000 


.000 


5.60 


914.0 


Z1.3 


M7-5 


IJ5.7 


.07 


19a 


9 


60 


Average . 


.... 


z 


.007 


.COO 


.001 


4. "3 


905.7 


Z0.9 


Z40.0 


tio7.3 


.03 


till 


9 


50 













Bayside 


Water 


Works, 












Z898. ... 




3 


.008 


.C04 


.coo 


9 40 


87.0 


6.8 


52.9 




.15 


X'8 


5 


70 


1899 




9 


.091 


.009 


.coa 


7.40 


911 


6.0 


496 




.06 


Eoo 


5 


3X 


Z900 




I 


.019 


.oox 


.ooz 


248 


90.S 


7-^ 


51.3 


32.7 


.08 


930 


10 


98 


1901 




5 


.090 


.004 


.C05 a.70 


95.5 


5.6 


5».6 


37.8 


•13 




4 


40 


190* 




4 


.030 


.009 


.007 8.95 


99.5 


6.0 


47.4 


35.0 


.Z9 


998 


98 


535 


Average . 


.... 


3 


.018 


.004 


1 
.003 9.59 


99.8 


6.3 


49.2 


+35.2 


.zx 


4364 


«4 


14« 



Jamaica Water Supply Company, 



X898 







.008 


.014 


.OZ4 


4.80 


146.0 


za.8 


67.Z 




.15 


X35 


14 


i.V> 


1899 







.007 


.0x9 


.007 


4.65 


156.3 


12.4 


79.0 


.... 


.08 


z6 





64 


1900 




3 


.oza 


.t>29 


.C06 


6.80 


'ISS 


za.7 


8Z.4 


39.3 


.19 


77 





90 


Z90I 




4 


.0x3 


.Oil 


.003 


6.40 


168.6 


13.9 


&8!o 


35-0 


.25 


zz 





38 


•90' 




z 


.0x7 


.009 


.003 


7.40 


I76.Z 


15.7 


4X.8 


.09 


447 





7 


Average. 




9 


.oix 


.015 


.007 


6.0Z 


x6z.i 


135 


81.8 


+38.7 


.15 


137 


3 


56 



t Average for 3 years. 



X Average for 4 years. 



36o 
Table 8 — Continued. 

IVocKthavt'n IVater Suppiy Company, 




Microscopical 

Examination. 

Number of 

Standard 

Units per c. c. 



Total .„^, 
M cro- 1^"°'- 

I isms. 



6 


2,020 


37 





i8 


3 


.... 





329 


a 


?98 


ao5 



125 
28 



Montauk Water Supply Company. 



'898 







.012 


.000 


.030 


3.30 


«55-S 


«3.6 


8r.4 




.00 


IS 





25 


'?99 







.007 


.00a 


.OOD 


3-55 


171.0 


'5-5 


9^.5 


.... 


.CI 


ao 





50 


X900 







.008 


.005 


.OCX 


5-10 


xSa.s 


158 


ixt.6 


71.0 


•05 


1:9 





18 


»9o« 







.01 a 


.oz8 


.016 


5.ao 


186.6 


17.7 


X3X.I 


80.5 


.05 


179 





»5 


»90* 







.oia 


.014 


.CO4 


5.60 


904.9 


19.9 


119 


76.0 


.03 


83 





20 


Average . 


.... 





.010 


.058 


.004 


4.59 


lEo.x 


16.S 


IC7.9 


+ 75.8 


.ۥ3 


f9 





28 



Queens County Water Supply, Far Rockaway — Unjiitered, 



1898. .. 

1899. .. 
X900. .. 
xgox. .. 
1909. .. 



Averagre. 





6 


.... 


10 


.... 


4 




4 




7 






' 




.02,' 


46.0 


3.20 


.02 1 


37.5 


3.70 


.01 


44-4 


3." 


.01 ! 


5<-.t 


3.15 


.CO| 

1 


48.1 


3.0. 


.01 1 


45 a 


324 




Queens County Water Supply, Far Rockaway — Filtered. 



1898 


.... a| 


.0x6 


.006 


.000 


,00 


4».5 


3.40 




.... 1 


.CO 




1 


1899 





.004 


.001 


.000 


.00 


34.0 


3.80 


X2.0 


... 


.00 






1900 


.... ■ a 


.020 


026 


.QOO 


.00 


38' 


340 


15.8 


ZX.O 


.04 






X90X 


.... , 


.C09 


.000 


.000 


.00 


4t.3 


3-'5 


'5.=^ 


8.6 1 


.CO 






1902 


1 

1 1 


.007 


.OI.I 

.007 


.oua 

.000 


.00 


44. » 


304 


«3.o 


8.3 


.00 




.... ^ 


Average. 


.... X 


.on 


.03 


39.8 


3.3« 


^4 


t,.,[ 


.ox 


.... 


.... 1 .... 



t Average lor 3 years. 



X Averagi: tor 4 years. 



(91 

i9> 



A^ 



18^ 

19c 
190 
190 



X89I 

«89i 

19« 
X90I 
X90S 



Ave 



X898 
18^ 
X900 
X90X 
1902 



Ave 



36i 



Table ioa. 

Average Temperature of the Ground Waters of the Ridgewood System, 

Brooklyn. 



Well StUton. 



1897. 1898. 



Deep Wells- 
Springfield . 
Jameco . . . . 

Oconee 

Shetucket . . 



Deep and Shallow Wells— 

Massapequa 

Wantagh 

Matowa , 

Merrick 

Agawan 

Jameco 

Spring Creek, Old Plant No. i . , 
Spring Creek, Old Plant No. 3 . 

Shallow Wells- 
Watt's Pond 

Clear Stream 

Forest Stream 

Baiseley*s 

Spring Creek Temporary Plant . , 

New Utrecht 

Gravesend 

Flatbush 



01. 4 


62.4 


55-2 


55.8 


54.7 


54.8 


54.5 


54.5 


52. '3 


.... 


55. 1 


. . . . 


54.0 


.... 


54.8 





52.8 


53.1 


54.1 


54.7 


52.0 


56.1 


57.5 


54.2 


57.0 


55.0 


53-2 


53.4 


52.8 


S3. 4 


59. 8 


56.3 


58.7 


56.8 



1899. 



60.0 
56.2 

54.7 

54.7 



53-6 
55.0 
52.0 

52.5 
55.0 
53-0 
53.9 



54.9 
52.5 
54.1 
53.2 
53.4 

55.8 
55-9 



1900. 



60.2 
56.7 
55.6 
55. 5 



52.0 

53.5 

53J 
51.8 

56.2 
53.1 
54.4 



54.5 
53.0 
55.0 
53.0 
53.7 

55.8 
57.5 



I90I. 


1902. 


59.5 


59.1 


55.0 


54.0 • 


55.3 


54.2 


53.9 


S4.0 . 


5».3 


53.5 ' 


52.4 


52. 5 


52.5 


52.0 


52.0 


5i.<5 


53.2 


51.7 . 


527 


54.1 


51. 1 


54.1 ' 


53.6 


S3. 5 . 


53-5 

54.8 


S3. 7 


52.7 * 


55.0 


54.2 


52.7 


53. s . 


53-3 


53.2 • 


54.8 


57.0 . 


PI 


56.6 • 


56.7 1 



362 

6. QUALITY OF THE WATER SUPPLY OF THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN. 

The Borough of Manhattan is supplied with water by the Croton 
System, which is collected from the Croton River and its tributaries and 
stored in eight artificial storage reservoirs, five large natural lakes and 
several smaller ponds. The drainage area of the Croton River above the 
old dam is approximately 338 square miles. The drainage areas of the 
various tributaries, together with other data, are given in Table i. From 
the lower end of Croton Lake, two aqueducts about thirty-five miles long 
lead to the distribution reservoirs in the City. The old aqueduct is not in 
use at the present time. Both aqueducts terminate at the One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth Street Gate-House, and from this point several lines of 48-inch 
pipe lead to the main distribution reservoirs in Central Park. These consist 
of the old reservoir divided into two basins, known as the North and the 
South Basins, and the New Receiving Reservoir, which has a dividing 
wall 33 feet high, but which is entirely under water when the reservoir is 
full. All of the water of the low service system passes through one or the 
other of these reservoirs. Water for the high service districts is repumped 
cither at the Ninety-eighth Street Pumping Station or at High Bridge. 
The distribution system will be modified and considerably improved on 
the completion of the new reservoir at Jerome Park. 

The Croton water as delivered to the consumers may be characterised as 
reasonably safe from the sanitary standpoint; noticeably colored and slightly 
turbid, with an odor persistently vegetable and occasionally aromatic, grassy 
or even fishy; reasonably soft; a good boiler water and generally satisfactory 
for industrial purposes. Whatever complaints have been made against the 
water have been due to its occasional unsightly appearance and bad odor. Its 
physical qualities, therefore, merit our first attention. 

The water yielded by the watershed is represented by the samples which 
are collected daily from the aqueduct at the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth 
Street Gate-House. The results of physical examinations for the present year 
are shown chronologically on Plate II., together with the rainfall on the 
Croton \^'atershed and the results of microscopical examinations. 

Turbidity, 

The turbidity of the water varies more or less from day to day, some- 
times being as low as i on the silica scale, and at other times running as 
high as 25. The average turbidity from January to September, 1903, was 5. 

The high turbidities usually follow heavy rainfalls, and are evidently 
caused by them. The rain washes the dust and silt from the surface of the 
ground into the streams and reservoirs, and it eventually reaches the aque- 



363 

duct and distribution pipes. The suspended matter contains but little clay, 
and the particles are comparatively large. They settle readily, therefore, 
so that the streams and reservoirs soon clear up, making the turbid periods 
of short duration. It has been found that most of the turbidity in the water 
which reaches the aqueduct is acquired more from Croton Lake itself than 
from the watershed at large. This lake is long, narrow and not very deep in 
Its upper portion. It has a muddy bottom, and when drawn down, mud flats, 
which represent the accumulated sediment of many years, are exposed. 
When the water is low, a sudden rain disturbs the deposits and makes the 
water roily. A heavy wind also creates currents which disturb the mud de- 
posits. During the month of May, daily samples collected at the upper end 
of Croton Lake had an average turbidity between 2 and 3, while the water 
in the aqueduct had an average of 8. There are reasons to believe that the 
aqueduct contains deposits which, under unusual conditions, may add to the 
turbidity of the water in the City. 

The water delivered to the consumers is generally less turbid than the 
water at the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street Gate-House. This is be- 
cause of the sedimentation which takes place in the reservoirs at Central Park 
and High Bridge and in the pipes of the City. Occasionally, however, 
growths of organisms in these reservoirs increase the turbidity. These facts 
are shown by the following figures : 

Turbidity (Parts per Million). 



Month (1903). 



January . , 
February. 
March ... 
April . . . , 
May 

June 
u>y 

August . . , 



Average . 



One Hundred 
and Thirty- 
fifth Street 
Gate House. 



Central Park Reservoir Outlets. 



New. 



Old. 



North. 



Scuth. 



Tap at City 
Hall Square. 



Color. 

The color of the water at the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street 
Gate-House also varies with the rainfall, but the fluctuations are not as great 



364 

as those of turbidity. The extreme range is from about 16 to 30, and the 
average is about 24. It is nearly always high enough to be noticeable in a 
clear glass tumbler. The color is not acquired at any particular place on the 
watershed, although the swamplands in the upper portion of the watershed 
tend to materially increase it. For example, the average color of the water in 
the streams above Boyd's Corner Reservoir is about 50, or about double the 
average color for the entire supply. A certain amount of color is acquired 
in Croton I^ke. By draining the swamp areas on the watershed, the average 
color might be reduced to about 20. Filtration would reduce the color to 
about 15 and possibly to 12, at which point it would scarcely attract at- 
tention. 

Odor, 

It has been stated that the Croton water has a persistent vegetable taste 
and odor. This is plainly shown by the shaded areas in Plate No. II. The 
odor is usually distinct, that is, it is readily noticed by one drinking the 
water. It is due to the presence of organic matter. The same substances that 
make the water colored also give it a vegetable taste and odor. Some of the 
suspended matter adds to this odor, as well as certain of the microscopic or- 
ganisms. The vegetable odor, although undesirable, is one that is not wholly 
unpleasant, and unless unusually strong, one readily becomes accustomed to it. 

The water, at times, has a moldy odor, due to decomposing organic 
matter.^ Sewage polluted water has this odor intensified sometimes until it is 
" musty " rather than moldy, but not all moldy odors are due to pollution. 
A moldy odor, however, always leads one to suspect the quality of the water, 
unless its cause can be definitely attributed to something other than pollution. 
A study of the seasonal distribution of the moldy odors in the Croton water, 
as given by Plate II., shows that they are seldom observed apart from the 
presence of -microscopic organisms, hence, they may be fairly attributed to 
that cause. Moldy odors are sometimes observed in the water from- the dead 
ends of the system. 

Microscopic Organisms, 



The most objectionable odors observed in the Croton water are those 
due to the presence of microscopic organisms. Some of these organisms are 
always present in the water, but there are many different genera and they 
come and go with the seasons, often appearing and disappearing with great 
suddenness. They are found in all of the storage basins on the watershed, 
but they appear to attain their greatest development in the reservoirs at Cen- 
tral Park. 



36s 

The following figures show their relative abundance in the different 
storage reservoirs : 

Microscopic Organisms. 



Average Number of Standard Units per c. c. 



Reservoir. 



J« 



Sodona Reservoir 

Bog Brook 

Middle Branch 

Boyd^s Corner | 

West Branch 

Lake Gleneida , 

Lake Gilead 

Lake Mahopac 

Kirk Lake 

Muscoot Reservoir 

Titicus Reservoir i 

Croton Lake 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth 

Street Gate-house 

Central Park New Reservoir 

Central Park Old Re^^trvoir, North 

Basin 

Central Park Old Reservoir, South 

Basin 

Tap at City Hall Square 



90S 
236 



339 
»55 



Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


M5 


177 


481 


X.OQS 


8q9 


804 


^'::i 


Ws 


483 


3'7. 


T,4o6 


1703 


7«3 


208 


443 
125 


*JJ 


3.748 
5*6 


•:l?: 


393 
xq6 


584 

234 


T. 


667 


lli 


i.4«8 


x»04S 


484 


893 


330 


304 


117 


446 


314 


25 


35 


105 


73 


49 


^ 


76 


46 


^ 


4T 


19 


n 


695 


446 


1,835 


3«3 


88 


40 


95 


148 


658 


A^ 


a.315 


341 


343 


149 


450 


6X2 


893 


471 


1,358 


x,i86 


617 


2XS 


936 


1,517 


593 


474 


9^8 


954 


596 


1,345 


340 


*s 


990 


279 


1.207 


753 


434 


'.498 


448 


488 


205 


303 


t.aoS 


^•^ 


844 


1,855 


8,855 


x,70c 


323 


971 


1,066 


960 


1,4" 


9,239 


387 


XfXiO 


x.55a 


3.496 


1,870 


4.675 


8.795 


s.ago 


2^1 


438 


»,035 


2.574 


1,283 


a.445 


3.0" 


8.^78 


385 


219 


739 


8x5 


&8i 


1,445 


i,x86 


933 



Ave. 



824 
794 
x,043 
3^9 
738 
140 

^1 

885 
680 

67s 

8«9 
X.117 

«.373 

1.558 
737 



To describe in full the nature and magnitude of the growth of micro- 
scopic organisms would too greatly extend this report, hence, a few general- 
izations must suffice. 

Since the examinations of the Groton water were begun in June, 1902, 
the following genera have been observed. Those printed in heavy type repre- 
sent the genera found at any time in quantities greater than 100 standard 
units per c. c. Those found in quantities less than that have but little practi- 
cal effect on the quality of the water. The genera which are starred are 
those likely to cause bad tastes and odors. 



366 



List of Microscopic Organisms 



Plant Organisms. 





Chlorophyceae. 


Cyanophyceae. 


Schixomycetes and Fungi. 


Amphora 


Chaetophora 


Anabaena * 


Cladothrix 


Aslerionella* 


liotryococcus 


Aphanizomenon * 


Crenotlirix 


Cyolotella 

Cymbella 
Diatoma 


Coelastrium 




Leptothrix 


Closterium 




Mold Hyphae 


Confera 


Cvlindrospermum 
Meriiimepedia 




Epithemia 


Cosmarium 




Fragilaria 


L)esmidium 




Gomphonema 


Dictyosphaerium 


Microcystis* 




Melosira 


Dimorphococcus 


Oscillaria 




Meridion 


Draparnaldia 






Navicula 
Nitzschia 


Eudorina 
Gonium 






Stephanodiscus 


Pandorina 






Sunrtlla 








Synedra* 


Kaphidium 






Tabellaria* 


Scenedesmus 








Spirogyra 


• 






Staurastrum 








Vofvox 








Xanthidium 








Zygneam 







367 



Which Have Occurred in the Croton Water. 



Animal Organisms. 



Protozoa 


Rotifeni. 


Crustacea. 


Mi9cellaneeu8. 


Anthophysa 


Anuraea 


Branchipus 


Acarina 


ArcelU 


Asplanchna 


Bosuiina 


Ova 


Bursaria 


Brachionus 


Cyclops 




Gentium 


Conocbilus 


Daphnia 




Cercomonaii 


Notholca 






Codonelia 


Polyarthra 






Coleps 


Rotifer 






Colpidinm 


Svnchaeta 
Triarthra 






CrypvomoiMS 






Diffulgia 








DInobryon* 

Enchelys 








Episiylis 

Euglena 








wi 1 WIVWII 1 M •■" 








Halteria 








Mallomonas 








Monas 








Nassula 








Opalina 








Paramaecium 








Phacus 








Peridinium 








Stentor 








Synura* 

Tintinus 








Trachelomonas 








Uroglena* 
Vorileella 















368 

The observations on the watershed have not yet covered a sufficiently 
long period to enable one to classify the storage reservoirs with respect to 
the prevalence of these organisms. All of the reservoirs appear to be more 
or less affected. The heaviest growths during the summer of 1903 occurred 
in Sodom Reservoir, Bog Brook Reservoir, Middle Branch Reservoir, West 
Branch Reservoir and Croton Lake. Lake Gleneida, Lake Gilead and 
Boyd's Corner Reservoir contained comparatively few. Speaking gener- 
ally, the old reservoirs give less trouble than the newer ones. Croton Lake, 
however, receives water from all the reservoirs above, and its w^ater is influ- 
enced by the particular reservoirs which are being used. 

The organisms which ordinarily give rise to the worst odors in the 
Croton Aqueduct are the blue-green algae. Several genera, such as Ana* 
baena, Aphanizomenon, etc., unite to give the water a grassy, moldy odor. 

The growths of organisms in the reservoirs on the Croton Watershed 
differ in no respect from those which occur in storage reservoirs elsewhere, 
except in their intensity. The Diatomaceae occur in the spring and autumn, 
the Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae occur in the summer and early fall, 
while the Protozoa occur spasmodically at all seasons. These growths do 
not reflect the sanitary quality of the water, but rather the unclean condition 
of the reservoir bottoms. When these reservoirs were constructed, no 
precautions were taken to remove the peat, turf, stumps and organic mat- 
ter from the reservoir sites, which modern engineering considers necessary 
when the water is to be used without filtration. The areas were simply 
flooded and the organic matter left to decompose. This decomposition was 
very active for the first few years after construction, and the water drawn 
from the lower gates was most offensive. Gradually the active decompo- 
sition has ceased, and the older reservoirs are acquiring the characteristics 
of old lakes with muddy bottoms. 

Most of the reservoirs are quite deep, and they undergo the same 
process of stagnation during the winter and summer that were so completely 
studied in the reservoirs of the Boston Water Works a number of years 
ago. These phenomena may be described briefly as follows: 

During the summer the water in the reservoir becomes thermally 
stratified, with the colder and denser water at the bottom and the warmer 
and lighter water near the surface. During this period, which has been 
described as the " period of stagnation," only the water in the upper strata 
18 agitated by the wind and is " in circulation." The water near the bottom 
is stagnant. Under these conditions the lower quiescent water does not 
change in quality if the bottom of the reservoir is clean. If, however, there is 
a deposit or organic matter at the bottom, it will undergo putrefactive 
changes. The water in the stagnant layer will lost its oxygen, and after this 



369 

is gone decomposition will take place under anaerobic conditions, the water 
becoming charged with ferrous compounds or iron, carbonic acid, hydrogen 
sulphide, etc. In the autumn, as the temperature of the surface water 
cools to a point approaching that of the bottom, the circulation of the upper 
layers will extend to greater and greater depths, until finally it will be com- 
plete throughout the entire vertical. The bad water at the bottom will thus 
be mixed with the rest of the water in the reservoir, causing the entire body 
to deteriorate and furnishing food material for heavy growths of diatoms 
and other microscopic organisms. During the winter season when the 
reservoirs are covered with ice, there is a second period of stagnation. This 
time, however, the thermal conditions are reversed, the warmer water being 
at the bottom and tending to approach the temperature of maximum 
density — that is, 39.2 degrees Fahr. (4 degrees Cen.). The winter stagna- 
tion is of shorter duration than the period of summer stagnation, and the 
phenomena are less pronounced. To a slight extent, the effects of stagna- 
tion in the reservoirs may be obviated by drawing water from the lower 
gates, but the diameter of the circle of influence of the outward current 
from the lower gate is unknown. The effect of drawing off the stagnant 
water upon the reservoirs further down stream must also be considered. 
This water rapidly becomes oxidized, however, in the " fountains *' and 
raceways below the dams. Diagram No. 4 shows the temperature of the 
water at different depths in several of the storage reservoirs during the 
summer stagnation of 1903. 

If the reservoirs had been stripped of their vegetation and top soil 
before they were filled, it is probable that the growth of objectionable 
organisms would have been materially less, and the citizens would have 
been furnished with more palatable water. There is reason to believe, how- 
ever, that most reservoirs tend to approach a condition of uniformity after 
long periods of time. The bottom of reservoirs like those on the Croton 
Watershed tend to miprove with age, while the bottom of reservoirs which 
were originally cleaned of their organic matter become more or less cov- 
ered with deposits from the water, so that the ultimate end in both cases 
is not greatly different. For reservoirs less than ten or twenty years old, 
however, the advantage is all with those from which the soil was stripped, 
and when the water is not to be filtered, the gain to be derived from strip- 
ping is well worth the added expense. All conditions must be considered, 
however. It might be ill-advised, for example, to strip the soil from a 
reservoir situated below a large swamp, or a reservoir fed by a stream from 
an unstripped reservoir above it. It is true, however, that satisfactory sur- 
face water can be obtained only from clear watersheds and clean reservoirs. 

To what extent it may be considered wise to attempt to rectify the 



370 



Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit' 

55 ^0 65 70 75 




DIAGRAM 4. APPi W. 



371 

existing conditions in the storage reservoirs at the present time is a matter 
which depends largely upon the plans for the additional supply. If a gen- 
eral filtration project is undertaken, comparatively little need be done to 
the reservoirs, as filtration would render the present supply satisfactory. 
There is no doubt, however, that the removal of the deposits of organic matter 
from Croton Lake would be of great benefit, even if filtration were adopted, 
as the lessened algae growths w^ould enable the filters to be more satisfac- 
torily and economically operated. In the case of the New Croton dam, it 
would appear to be highly desirable to have at least the vegetation destroyed 
from the area to be flooded, and a careful study of the top soil should be 
made to determine the wisdom of its removal before the reservoir is filled. 
The effect upon the quality of the water in the City attendent upon the 
initial decomposition of the organic matter in this immense reservoir is 
one which cannot be contemplated without the greatest anxiety. The fact 
that all the water from the watersheds would have to pass through this 
reservoir before reaching the City adds to the gravity of the situation. 

The bad odors which are noticed at times in the City water do not 
all originate on the watershed. It often happens that the water reaches the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street Gate-House in good condition, and 
becomes foul in the reservoir in Central Park. The table below shows that 
the microscopic organisms are much more abundant at the outlet gate-houses 
of the three basins than at the terminus of the aqueduct. This was even 
more noticeable in 1902 than 1903, as shown by the following figures: 



One Hundred and Thirty-filth 
Street Gale-house 

Central Park, New Reservoir. . 

Central Park, Old Reservoir, 
North Basin 

Central Park, Old Reservoir, 
South Basin 

Tap at City Hall Square 



Number of Microscopic Organisms (Number of Standard Units Per CC). 




1903. 


July. 


August. Sept. 


October. 


Nov. 


Dec. Average. 


2,400 
2,388 


5^ 
4,482 


2,303 
2,512 


792 

1,178 ; ... 


1 

146 1,241 
237 2,159 


6,252 


4.426 


4,363 


2,489 


507 


3607 


4.304 


4.166 
752 


3.525 
1,674 


2,083 
1,171 


.... 


292 

232 


2,1^4 

957 



Table No. 9 gives in detail the results of the microscopical examina- 
tion of the samples collected from the outlet gate-house of the North 
liasin of the Old Central Park Reservoir from July, 1902, to October, 1903. 



372 

They serve as an illustration of the relative numbers of the different organ- 
isms present. During the summers of both years the odor of the water at 
the outlet of this basin was stronger than at the inlet. 

The Central Park reservoirs are from 20 to 36 feet deep, and their 
capacity is such that the water remains in them for 4 or 5 days. The basins 
have not been cleaned for many years, and there must be considerable de- 
posits of mud at the bottom. Calculation shows that with an average of 200 
million gallons of water a day passing through the reservoirs there would be 
a solid deposit of .12 inches in the reservoir every ten years for every part 
per million suspended matter deposited. This is on the assumption that the 
sediment has the same specific gravity as sand, /. e., 2.65, and settles into a 
mass which has 40 per cent, void space. As a matter of fact, the sedimenta- 
tion, though not exactly known, probably amounts to several parts per million 
and the sediment has a specific gravity considerably lower than that assumed. 
In all probability, the deposit amounts to an inch or more in depth every 
ten years, which is increased by dust blown into the reservoir. This is a strik- 
ing contrast to the sedimentation basins of the St. Louis water supply, where 
the sediment forms a deposit of several feet annually. It is not the amount of 
sediment that interests us in this instance, however, so much as its character. 
It is largely organic and contains many cells of microscopic organisms in a 
resting state. These basins have become so thoroughly seeded with algae, 
protozoa, etc., that the organisms appear annually in the reservoirs, regard- 
less of the character of the influent water. There seems to be no practical 
way to prevent their growth, but to empty the basins and remove the spore- 
laden mud. 

Unfortunately, the fcservoirs are not provided with by-passes and the 
risks attendant upon jx^tting any one of them out of service at the present 
time are, perhaps, too great to warrant the undertaking. As soon, however, 
as the Jerome Park Reservoir is ready for use the cleaning of the Central 
Park Reservoirs should be no longer delayed. Especially will it be important 
to have these reservoirs cleaned before the introduction of filtered water. 
To pass filtered water through them in their present condition would be only 
to invite trouble. If the reservoirs were provided with suitable by-passes it 
might be possible to isolate one or another of the basins should they become 
affected with anabaena, for instance, and allow the water to pass around 
them, just as is done in Brooklyn. The ultimate remedy, of course, and the 
one which must be eventually adopted, is the covering of the reservoirs. 

When the water leaves the reservoirs and flows through the distribution 
pipes, many of the microscopic organisms become disintegrated. This ac- 
counts for the smaller numbers of organisms in the tap at City Hall Square, 
shown in a preceding table. The disintegration sometimes increases the 



373 

odor of the water by liberating the oil globules and on occasions it may im- 
part a faint opalescence to the water. 

Although the blue-green algae are most heavily responsible for the bad 
odors in the Croton water, the most serious trouble in recent years was caused 
by Synura, one of the protozoa. During November, 1900, the water in the 
City had a strong fishy taste and odor, and microscopical examinations made 
at that time showed the presence of those organisms in comparatively large 
numbers. Thus, on November 23, a sample of water collected at the Man- 
hattan Terminal of the Brooklyn Bridge, contained 450 standard units per 
c. c. of Synura, while on November 2y, a second sample from the same place, 
contained 300 standard units. At this time there was no other organism 
present which was capable of producing the peculiar fishy odor which was 
observed. When it is remembered that this organism disintegrates rapidly 
when subjected to pressure in the pipes of the distribution 'system, it may be 
readily conjectured that the numbers of Synura in the water of Central Park 
were very large. 

The microscopic organisms have another eflfect on the water supply 
system which ought not to be overlooked. They serve as food for the various 
animal organisms which dwell upon the insides of waterpipes and which are 
often described under the name of *' pipe-moss." Examination has shown 
that the fresh water sponges, Spongilla and Meynia, and the bryozoa, Palu- 
dialla and Pectinatella, are by no means uncommon in the distribution pipes of 
New York. They are objectionable because they materially clog the pipes and 
decrease their carrying capacity ; they facilitate tuberculation, and they act as 
a nidus for many little animals, such as snails, shrimp, Crustacea, etc., which 
occasionally appear in the tap water, to the consternation of the consumers. 
Sometimes they become detached in large tufts, when they are liable to clog 
up house services. These various pipe-dwellers are absolutely dependent 
upon the microscopic organisms, and they are not found in ground water 
systems. To permit the growth of algae in the Central Park Reservoir, there- 
fore, is to foster these objectionable sponges and bryozoa in the pipes of the 
City. 

Sanitary Quality — Pollution of the Watershed. 

The Croton River Watershed above the old dam has an estimated popu- 
lation of about 10,000, or about 52 per square mile. This is nearly 
all rural in character. The people live in scattered farms or in small villages, 
and there are only a few large towns. The relative stability of the popula- 
tion is shown by Diagram No. 5. The watershed contains no cities. There 
is but one sewerage system, and this is a small one in the village of Brewster. 
The sewage, which in dry weather amounts to 4,000 gallons per day, is dis- 



374 

infected by means of an " Electrozone Plant " and then allowed to discharge 
into the ground through a system of tile pipes. Tests made by the Health 
Department several years ago showed that this plant was doing effective ser- 
vice, and a recent test made at Mt. Prospect Laboratory gave similar results. 
A sewage disposal system for the village of Mount Kisco is in contemplation, 
and its installation should be made at the earliest possible date. The close prox- 
imity of this growing village to Croton Lake makes it the most serious source 
of pollution now existing on the watershed. At the present time, the privies 
and cesspools at Mount Kisco are frequently and regularly cleaned under a 
local contract. At Lake Mahopac, there are several large hotels which are 
occupied during the summer by nearly one thousand people. There are a 
few large institutions, like the Montifiore Home at Bedford, which are pro- 
vided with independent systems of sewage disposal. Naturally on a water- 
shed of 338 square miles, nuisances may be found. Danger from them, how- 
ever, may be eliminated to a considerable extent by proper attention. During 
the past year an assistant engineer has given his entire attention to existing 
nuisances, making maps showing their location and describing each one in 
detail. This work, which is receiving the hearty co-operation of the Depart- 
ment of Health of I\ew York and also of the State Department of Health, is 
already bearing fruit, and many of the worst nuisances are being abated. 
Lentil the Croton water is filtered, this sanitary patrol of the watershed should 
be diligently pursued. In matters of this character it is emphatically true 
that '* eternal vigilance is the price of safety." 

It has been the policy of the City of New York in the past to remove 
pollution from the watershed by the wholesale purchase of property along the 
streams. While this has involved a large expense, it has been of unquestioned 
value to the health of the City. Studies of population statistics for those 
towns which are included in the Croton Watershed show, that since 1850 
the population has increased scarcely any. This is evident from an inspection 
of Diagram No. 5, which gives the population of the most important towns. 



375 



Diagram No. 5 
App.VI 



CITV of NJtW VORK 
COMMISSION on ADDITIONAL WATCR SUPPLY 

OCPARTMCNT of CnCMlSTRY and BIOLOGY 



I30.00C 



DlQqrom ^Howincj the Changes in Pop- 
ulation on Portions of the CROTON 
Wotcr^hed and of the Watershed of 
the BROOKLVN Woter Supply 
from 1650 to 1900. 




150.000 



iOO.OOO 



50.000 



.WATCRSnCD of BROOKLYN WATCR SUPPLY, 

^-y:>-^;;n Town5^ — 



^4000 



:2ooo 



o 

3 

a 
o 
Q. 



of 

to 




20.000 



O 



10.000 s 



o 



o 



o 

<0 



Year^. 



376 

The distribution of the population on the watershed is shown in Table 
lA, where column 1 1 gives the population per square mile on the watersheds 
tributary to the different storage reservoirs. In case of reservoirs on the 
lower streams, which include areas tributary to reservoirs higher up, these 
latter are not included in the column mentioned. In column 12, however, 
they are so included. It will be seen that except on the watershed of Lake 
Gleneida, and of Lake Mahopac during the summer, the population per square 
mile is comparatively low. The Village of Carmel is situated near Lake 
Gleneida, but in spite of the large density of population per square mile, the 
sanitary conditions are not serious. The density of population is lower 
in the upper watersheds — such as Boyd's Corner Reservoir, Middle Branch 
Reservoir, West Branch Reservoir and Sodom Reservoir — than on the 
lower watersheds — like Muscoot Reservoir, Titicus Reservoir, Cross River, 
Mount Kisco River and Croton Lake. 

Typhoid fever is not common on the Croton Watershed. As nearly as 
can be learned from the published records of the State Department of 
Health, the average death rate from typhoid fever during the past six years 
has been about 34 per 100,000. This is equivalent to about 17 deaths per 
1,000 square miles. 

The Croton water has one great safeguard against danger from infection — 
namely, its large storage reservoirs. It is a fact generally admitted by bac- 
teriologists that the germ, of typhoid fever does not multiply in water under 
conditions of laborator>' experiment, and presumably it does not multiply in 
water under natural conditions. It lives in water, to be sure, sometimes 
for many months, but in ever decreasing numbers. Laboratory experi- 
ments upon the longevit/ of Bacillus typhi have given somewhat dis- 
cordant results, partly on account of differences in the vitality of the bacilli 
employed and partly because of different environmental conditions. Yet, 
in spite of this, the experiments present a general similarity. They show a 
rapid initial decline in the number of bacilli after innoculation, followed 
by the continued life of the more hardy individuals, terminating finally in 
the apparent death of all. In Diagram No. 6 the results of a number of the 
most carefully conducted experiments have been assembled, and a mean 
curve drawn to represent the general results. This line, of course, does not 
exactly express the decrease in the number of typhoid fever germs in nature 
in any particular case, but it tells in a general way what effect an unfavorable 
environment has upon them. It will be seen that time is a safeguard against 
an infected water. A water ten days after infection is perhaps one-sixth as 
likely to cause disease as that water one day after infection, while one month 
it is perhaps only one-fiftieth as great. The value of long storage is thus 
evident. Furthermore, sedimentation and other factors are at work in 
storage reservoirs to materially reduce the danger from an infected water. 



377 




s s s 



2^ S S 9 S S 3 






.■:c*. "i-"_-t 






— ^n.- •?•- . £_ . i-r*!^ 






?<r T 



r r- i. 



•X.- *. ^_ X .-r » 



-T *^ » X. 



1 r :rr 






•X.W -tT'i 15 






:.^i i r- : 



- - ... _ X. 



1- -> •:: rhe 



379 



CITY OF NEW YORK 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY 

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY 

, DIAGRAM SHOWING 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF BACTERIA 

DURING EACH MONTH IN THE DISTRIBUTION 

SYSTEM OF THE CROTON WATER SUPPLY 




35^ STRCCT ci«.TC MOUSE. 



CCNTt^AL PARK RCSCRVOIRS. 




Jan rebi Mar. Apr. Ma^. June. JuHj. Auq. 3ept 
1903 



DIAORAM 7. ARR. VI. 



38o 

The diagram shows how the numbers of bacteria are reduced by stor- 
age in the Central Park Reservoir and how they become further reduced 
in the distribution pipes. The average number of bacteria in the tap 
water at City Hall Square, Manhattan, from January i to September 30, 
1903, was 370 per cubic centimeter, but the number varied at times from 
80 ta 7,000. The average reduction of bacteria by storage in Central Park 
was as follows: 

Percentage Reduc* 
tion of Bacteria. 

In Central Park, New Reservoir 29 

In Central Park, Old Reservoir, North Basin 58 

In Central Park, Old Reservoir, South Basin 47 

Average 45 



The tap at City Hall Square, w^iere the samples are collected, is supplied 
by the mains from the New Reservoir, and the reduction of bacteria between 
Central Park and City Hall Square is found to be about 29 per cent. The 
tap water at City Hall Square, therefore, contains only about one-half as 
many bacteria as the w^ater at the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street Gate- 
house. 

The bacteriological examination of the various reservoirs and streams 
on the watershed are not sufficiently complete at present to warrant the 
publication of generalized results. 

When the numbers of harmless water bacteria increase in the supply, 
the chance of there being pathogenic bacteria present is proportionally 
increased. This is illustrated by the increased abundance of the intestinal bac- 
terium, Bacillus coli, after heavy rains, as shown by Plate IV. The relation 
between the abundance of Bacillus coli as indicated by the presumptive 
tests and rainfall is not, however, as close as that between rainfall and the 
total number of bacteria. Detailed results of the tests of Bacillus coli show 
that out of 201 samples from the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street 
Gate-house, collected between January i and September 30, 1903, 18 (or 
9 per cent.) gave positive tests in o.i cubic centimeter; 36 (or 18 per cent.) 
gave positive tests in i cubic centimeter; and 55 (or 27.5 per cent.) gave 
positive tests in 10 cubic centimeters. The reduction in the number of 
Bacillus coli in the reservoirs and distribution pipes was even greater than 
that of the water bacteria. Thus, at the tap at City Hall Square, out of 
206 samples, 2 (or i per cent.) gave positive tests in o.i cubic centimeter; 
7 (or 3.5 per cent.) gave positive tests in i cubic centimeter; and 18 (or 9 
per cent.) gave positive tests in 10 cubic centimeters. 



381 

The direct relation between the sanitary quality of the water as revealed 
hv analysis and the ty[)hoid fever morbidity is one that is difficnlt to estab- 
lish. At times, hDwe%'er, indications of it are discernable. Thus* from Plate 
IV,, it will be seen that during the middle of March there was a decided in- 
crease in the numl>er of reported cases of typhoid fever, and that this was just 
about tw^o weeks after there had been a grt^at increase in the number of bac- 
teria. This difference in time is Just about sufficient to allow the disease 
to make itself evident Again, during tbe first week in July there was 
another decided increase in the number of reported cases^ which followed 
about two and one-half weeks after a period when Bacillus coli were unu- 
sually abundant in the water. 

Chemical Qtialiiies of Cretan IVater. 

The determinations of the free ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, etc., offer but 
little evidence as to the sanitary quality of the water, on account of complica- 
tions due to the presence of the microscopic organisms. This is shown by 
Plate IV., where the lines representing these quantities do not appear to fol- 
low either the bacteriological examination or the typhoid fever morbidity. 

The amount of organic matter, as revealed by the albuminoid ammonia, 
is higher than is desirable, but is no higher than might be expected from the 
color of the water and the number of miscroscopic organisms present. 

The amount of chlorine in the w-ater affords a slight basis for ascertain- 
ing the general amount of pollution, provided the normal chlorine for the 
watershed be known. For the Croton Watershed this normal may \ye esti- 
mated as about 1.6 parts |ier million. The average amount of chlorine in the 
water delivered to the City is 1.9 (average of weekly analyses far One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-fifth Street Gate-house and City Hall Tap). Mr. F. P. 
Stearns, C. I{., long ago calcidated that for every twenty persons per square 
mile inhabiting a watershed there w^oukl be an excess of chlorine above the 
normal of 0,1 parts per million. The population on the Croton Watershed is 
^2 f>er square mile^ which would give by calculation 0.25 parts per million 
excess of chlorine, a figure w^hich agrees with the observed amount w ithin the 
limit of error of the observations. 

The only chemical characteristic of the Croton water which deserves ex- 
tended consideration is the hardness. The amount of iron in the water is 
small, tlie average of the weekly analyses at the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth 
Street Gate-House showing only 0.28 parts per million, and the maximum 
being only 0.60. About one-half of it is precipitated in the Central Park Res- 
ervoir, so that it does not reach the consumers. 




382 

Hardness. 

The water on the Croton River Watershed differs considerably in hard- 
ness in different sections. It is much greater in the extreme northeastern 
portion, where there are deposits of Hmestone, than in the northwestern part 
wliere there are no such deposits. In White Lake, for example, the average 
hardness from February i to September i, 1903, was only 14.7 parts per mil- 
lion, while in the stream at De Forest's Corners above the Sodom Reservoir, 
the hardness was 66.4. The hardness determinations for the different reser- 
voirs are given in Table No. 5A, but the following diagram will more simply 
illustrate this fact (Diagram No. 8). 

It will be noticed that the average hardness of the water in the east 
branch of the Croton River at De Forest's Corners for the period mentioned 
was 66.4, while at the lower end of the east branch (Sodom) Reservoir, into 
which this stream flows, it was 47.6 at the surface and 44.3 at the bottom, or 
about two-thirds of that in the stream. This is due to the fact that the water 
in the reservoir represents to a great extent the spring flood flow when the 
hardness of the surface water is below the average. The seasonal changes 
in the hardness in this region is illustrated by the following table: 

Hardness (Parts per Million), 



Date. 



East Branch Stream 
at Delorest Coraers. 



Sodom Reservoir. 



Surface. Bottom. 



February 11, 1903 48.5 

March 17 45.5 

April 21 64.5 

May 19 89.0 

{une 2 94.0 

une 29 1 57.0 

August 31 1 51.5 



45-5 36.5 

39.0 3^-5 

43.0 45-5 

530 4«.5 

55.5 54.5 

45.5 40.5 

5'. 5 1 48.5 



The hardness of the water in Lake Gleneida and in Branch Brook below 
Mt. Kisco appears to be higher than would be expected from the geological 
conditions, and it is probable that the excess is due to the effect of the popu- 
lation dwelling upon those watersheds. This idea is supported by the fact 
that the chlorines are somewhat above the normal. 

The average hardness at the lower end of Croton Lake during the period 
mentioned was 39.4 at the surface and 39.8 at the bottom, these figures being 
based on monthly determinations from February i to September i. The 
average hardness at the lower end of the aqueduct at (^ne Hundred and 



\ 



583 




If, 



1^ 






QC 

o 

> 

U 

z 
o 



Is 

1 = 11 

- '^ -= i 

f ^ .; 



CO 1^ 

CO I 

i ^ 

CD O 



2 J X 

■* i 

- 5 



I 



5i* 









§ ? i 

I'' 



Is- 

3 









t) tf ^i 



lls- 



II 

■441- 



IS' 



I": 





1 






^ 


^^ 



384 



Thirty-fifth Street Gate-House, from January i to September i. 1903, was 
37.4. The seasonal changes in hardness are shown by the following 
monthly averages : 



Month (1903). 



Average Hardness at xjsth Street Gate-house— Parts per Million. 



Alkalinity. 



Permanent Hardness. 



January . . 
February . 
March • . . 



April. 
May . 
June. 



July.... 

August . 



Average . 



32.0 
26.6 
28.2 


6.6 

10.8 

4.3 


30.2 

36.0 

34.2 


5'! 

1.6 
2.7 


39.2 
35.2 


2.5 
2.4 


32.7 


4.7 


-_^—^ - _- 


- - 



Total. 



38.6 
37.4 
32.5 

36.0 
36.9 

41.7 
37.6 

37.4 



These figures are slightly below the average for the past fifteen years, 
as shown by the following figures, kindly furnished by the Department of 
Health: 



Year. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

189I. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
I9OI. 
1902. 



Average Hardness 

of Croton Water 

(Parts per Million. 



•36.5 
.40.0 
.42.0 
.43.0 
.49.0 

•41-3 
.41.7 
•42.5 
.41.1 
.44.9 
•45-8 

•397 
.42.4 

.39.8 
•34-9 



1903 (8 months) 37.4 

Average ( 1888-1902) 38.9 

Comparison of these figures with the rainfall and run-off data does not 
show any very definite relation. In 1892, when the hardness reached its 



\ 



38s 

hig;hest ajinual average, the rainfall was comparatively low, yet in 1898, 
when the next liighest average hardness was obtained^ the rainfall was high. 
The years when the hardness fell below 40, however, were years of high 
ranifalL The records of the Department of Health show that the maximum 
hardness of the Croton water often exceeds fifty parts per niilliun. 

The following figures give the extreme limits of hardness during recent 
years : 



Vcftr. 



1S97 

1S98 
1900 
1 901 



Midimuin. 



41 ♦ 



Hardness 



49 3 
55-^ 



Avci-agc, 



4S.S 



These show that ordinarily the maximum hardness in any year is about 
23 per cent, higher than the average hardness, although it may be nearly 37 
per cent, higher. From this latter ratio it is estimated that the absolute maxi- 
mum hardness of the Croton water is probably about 67 parts per nxillion. 

The hardness of the Croton water is due very largely to the carl>f>nates 
of the alkaline earths, and not to any considerable extent to the sulphates ^ 
nitrates, etc. In other words, it is temporary hardness and not permanent 
hardness. It is the latter which is of especial importance in connection with 
use in boilers. This is show^i by the fact that the average alkalinity, wliich 
represents the carbonates and bicarbonates, from January to September, 1903, 
w^as 32.7 out of a total hardness of 37,^1 , the difference of 4.7 being the hard- 
ness due to sulphates, etc. At this ratio, the average annual permanent hard- 
ness W'ould be about 5 parts per million. The sulphates appear to be some- 
what higher during the winter than during the summer, and occasionally 
are higher than 10 parts per million. For ccnuparison of the hardness of the 
Croton water with that of tlie Brooklyn supply, see page 426. 

High Seri'icc Sitf^piy. 

The character of the water supplied to the high service districts of Mmi- 
haltan resembles the water at the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street Gate- 
House more tlian that from the outlets of Central Park Reservoir, The water 
passes so rapidly through the reservoir and stand pipe at High Bridge that 
the influence of storage is comparatively slight* 



f 



386 

7- QUALITY OF TIIK WATER SUPPLIES OF THE r.OROUGIl OF THE BRONX. 

The main water supply of the l>oroiigh of The Bronx is derived from 
the Bronx and l>yram Rivers. The combined drainage areas of these streams 
above the point from which the supply is taken is about 20 square miles. 
The water is impounded in Byram Lake, Rye Pond and the Kensico 
Reservoir. From the lower gate-house of Kensico Reservoir, a 40-inch 
pipe line conducts it to the distribution reservoir at Williamsbridge. The 
southern section of the borough is supplied with Croton water. The eastern 
section of The Bronx is supplied by the Westchester Water Company. This 
company operates two pumping stations, one at Glen Park, which takes 
water from the Kensico pipe line, and the other at Pelham, which takes 
water from driven wells. The extreme northwesterly corner of the borough 
is supplied by water furnished by the- City of Yonkers. This is a mixed 
surface and ground water supply. 

Bronx and Byram System. 

The turbidity of the water entering the Williamsbridge Reservoir, as 
shown by samples collected between March i and September i, 1903, has 
varied from o to 12, the average being between 3 and 4. The color has 
varied from 13 to 30, the average being 20. The odor has been persistently 
vegetable. At the outlet of the reservoir the water has been practically 
the same in its physical characteristics as at the inlet. 

No important growths of microscopic organisms occurred during the 
present year, either in the storage reservoirs or the distribution system. 
This is evident from the following figures: 



Williamsbridge Reservoir. 



Microscopic Organ isais : Number of Standard Units per Cubic Centimeter. 





March. 
419 


April. 


May. 
46. 

397 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Av. 


Inlet Gate-house 


52s 
634 


129 
273 


379 
344 


457 
80 


407 
168 


382 
331 


OuUet Gate-house 





The average numbe: of bacteria for the period was 167 per cubic 
centimeter; the extremes being 20 and 380. Out of 26 samples tested for 
bacillus coli, 3 per cent, gave positive results when tested with 0.1 cubic 
centimeter; 12 per cent, when tested with 1 cubic centimeter; and 23 per 
cent, when tested with 10 cubic centimeters. 



387 

Tilt' average aniount of chlorine ditring the periofl mentioned was 2,2 
parts pLT million, which is scarcely any, if at all, higher than the normal for 
the watershcil, this normal being slightly higher than that for the Croton 
Watershed* because near the seacoast. The average amount of albnminoid 
ammonia was 0.114 parts per million: the free ammonia* .040; the nitrites, 
,003: and the nitrates, 0.10. These tignrcs do not differ materially from 
those for the Croton supply. 

As in the case of the Croton water, the hardness is the only chemical 
characteristic which deserves consideration. The average amoivnt of iron 
in the water is very small. 

The watersheds of the l?ronx and Byram system are adjacent to the 
Croton Watersheil, but the region is off the line of the railroads antl no large 
villages are included within them. The population is only 34 per square rnUep 
and except for a few tmisances tlic watershed is in excellent condition from 
the sanitary i^taiidpnim. This condition is reflected in the low typhoid fever 
death-rate in the lx)rough. 

The water from Kensico Reservoir is comparatively soft. The aver- 
age hardness from February i to September i, lyoj, was 264* of which 
2t.8 was temporary (as shown by the alkalinity), and 4.6 permanent: these 
figures being based on monthly determinations. The more frequent analy- 
ses made at the lower end of the aqueduct at Williamsbridge gave the foU 
lowing figures: 



MoBtlt [1901 . 



February . 
March. ... 
April . . . . . 



May, 

June, 



July ... 
August. 



Average . 



.^IkAliiiUy. 



19.0 
1S.4 
'7-5 

22.4 

22.0 
24,8 



20,4. 



Pi*rta per Million^ 



PermAUAnt Handn»t. Tatal H*ntn««». 



05 
S.2 

7S 
6.2 

3.7 



5-4 



19 5 
26.6 

24.. o 

26.0 
z6.o 

28-2 

30.5 



25,?? 



U'csiihi'Stcr Water Company. 

The water pumped at the Glen Park Pumping Station is taken from 
the Kensico pipe line and agrees in quality with the water at the Williams- 
bridge Reservoir The water from tlic driven well station of the West- 




388 

» 

Chester Water Company is hard. The average hardness from February i 
to September i was 123 parts per million, of which 43 was due to sulphates. 
This water also had an average chlorine content of 53 parts per million, indi- 
cating contamination by sea water. Aside from these objectionable mineral 
constituents, however, the water is of good quality. 

Supply from Yonkers. 

The water furnished by the Yonkers Water Works is a mixture of 
surface and ground water. The surface water is taken from the (irassy 
Sprain Reservoir, and the ground water from a system of driven wells. The 
safety of the supply is well attested by the typhoid fever death rate of the 
City of Yonkers, which, during the years 1898 to 1901, averaged 11.2 per 
100,000 inhabitants. 

The samples which have been collected from this supply have shown 
an average turbidity of 2, an average color of 10, and in general have given 
a satisfactory analysis. The surface water from the Grassy Sprain Reser- 
voir had in 1903 an average hardness of 34.5 parts per million, only 2.2 of 
which was " permanent." The ground water, however, is hard. On 
May 17, 1903, the hardness was 155 parts per million, of which 40 was due 
to sulphates, etc. 

8. QUALITY OF THE WATER SUPPLIES OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN. 

The chief zvater supply of the Borough of Brooklyn, namely, that from 
the Ridgewood system, may be considered as reasonably safe under ordinary 
conditions; occasionally turbid, but seldom high-colored; zvith a persistent 
vegetable odor which at times becomes aromatic and fishy; reasonably soft, 
but uith relatively high sulphates, nitrates and chlorides, which make the 
zvater somewhat unsatisfactory for boiler uses; high enough in iron to cause 
precipitates in the distribution pipe, but not high enough to cause trouble 
otherzi'ise than by the occasional disturbances of these precipitates. Although 
the analyses indicate that ordinarily the water is safe and wholesome, yet the 
large and increasing population on the watershed, the ** flashy " nature of the 
streams, the small size of the supply ponds, the lack of large storage reser- 
voirs and the short time required for the water of the streams to reach the 
city, are facts which cannot be viewed other than with feelings of insecurity. 

Ridgewood System. 

The main water supply of the Borough of Brooklyn is derived from 
Long Island. The watershed occupies a position on the southern slope of the 
Island east of the city, and includes portions of the counties of Queens, Nas- 



389 

sau and Suffolk (a small portion of the drainage area of Massapequa 
Stream extends into Suffolk County). It has a drainage area of approxi- 
mately 162 square miles. It includes about a dozen comparatively small 
streams flowing in a general southerly direction toward the Atlantic Ocean. 
A series of ponds or small storage reservoirs has been formed by construct- 
ing dams across these streams. A conduit which extends in an easterly and 
westerly direction from Ridgewood to Massapequa, collects the waters thus 
retained. This surface supply is supplemented by 15 driven well stations also 
located along the lines of the conduit. That portion of the watershed east of 
Rockville Center is known as the New Watershed, and that portion west of 
Rockville Center is the Old Watershed. The water from the new watershed 
is repumped at Millburn. East of Millburn Pumping Station there is a single 
conduit, but between Millburn Pumping Station and Ridgewood there are, in 
addition to the conduit, two pipe lines. At the main pumping station at 
Ridgewood there are two sets of pumps, one on the north side and the other 
on the south side of the Long Island Railroad. The distribution reservoir at 
Ridgewood comprises three basins, Nos. i, 2 and 3. The north side pumps 
take water from the conduit and deliver it into Basin i and 2, while the south 
side pumps take w^ater from the conduit and pipe lines and deliver it into 
Basin 3. The water pumped at the south side, therefore, contains a slightly 
larger proportion of water from the new w^atershed than the water pumped 
at the north side. With the exception of Hempstead Storage Reservoir, the 
supply ponds are very small and shallow, but the watershed is of such a sandy 
character that the amount of underground storage is very great. In fact, 
except during periods of flood, a very large proportion of the water flowing 
in the streams is in reality ground water. 

The wells at the different driven well stations penetrate the sand layers 
to different depths. Those wells which terminate above the clay strata are 
generally referred to as " shallow wells." Those which penetrate the clay 
strata are known as *'deep wells." Various data concerning the different 
streams and wells may be found in Table No. ib. The low service system 
of the Borough is supplied directly from Ridgewood Reservoir. The high 
service sections, which are located not far from Prospect Park, are supplied 
from Mt. Prospect Reservoir and stand-pipe, the water being taken from one 
of the mains and re-pumped at the Mt. Prospect Pumping Station. 

In addition to the Ridgewood supply, there are eight independent sup- 
plies in the borough, three of which are owned and operated by the Depart- 
ment of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity. They are all ground water sup- 
plies. The New Lots Station supplies the Twenty-sixth Ward of Brooklyn, 
which is known as East New York. The Gravesend and New Utrecht sta- 
tions supply a large area in the southern portion of the borough. The Flat- 
bush Water Company supplies the Twenty-ninth Ward of Brooklyn, known 



390 

as Flatbnsh. The German-American Water Supply Company, the Pfalzgraf 
and the Blythbourne Water Supply Companies furnish water to relatively 
small sections of the borough. The old " West Brooklyn Water Works " 
were burned a few years ago. In addition to those mentioned, there is a 
water supply in Prospect Park which is used by many people during the 
summer. 

Turbidity — ^The turbidity of the water yielded by the entire system, as 
represented by samples collected at the Ridgewood Pumping stations, is 
ordinarily low, except after heavy rains. It was not until the year 1900 
that the turbidity of the water was expressed in figures, but since then obser- 
vations have been regularly made. The average turbidit}^ of the water at the 
North Side Pumping Station for the years 1900, 1901 and 1902 was 4, and 
at the South Side it was 3. The North Side Station receives a larger percent- 
age of water from the western portion of the watershed, which is usually 
more turbid than that on the eastern portion, as shown by the following 
figures : 

Table Shozving the Minunum, Maximum and Average Turbidity and Color 
of the Water in the Supply Ponds for the Years 1900 to 1902. 



Turbidity. 



Massapequa Pond. 
WaniaRh 
Newbridge ** 
East Meadow ** 



Millbum " 

Hempstead Storage Reservoir . 

Schodack Brook 

Hempstead Pond 



Pine 
Smith's 
Valley Stream 
Watts 

Clear Stream 
Simonson's 
Springfield 
Baiseley's 



Mini- 
mum. 



O 
O 
O 
O 

O 

I 

o 

I 

I 
o 
I 
o 

I 
I 
1 
4 



Maxi- 
mum. 



Average. ' 



Mini- 
mum. 



4 i 

6 , 

4 ; 

20 1 

28 I 

20 I 
22 

360 ' 



IIO ' 

1.5 I 

IIO I 

80 



150 

520 

70 
130 



I 

2 
2 

3 

2 

3 

3 
3 
3 
4 

4 

7 
6 

15 



Color. 



Maxi- 



172 

55 
75 
56 

74 
27 
30 
26 

37 
40 

45 
no 

55 
40 
130 

IIO 



Average 



40 
18 
26 
25 

17 

8 

II 

II 

15 

18 
21 
19 

12 
10 
24 
32 



The turbidity of the water in the streams rises at times to figures much 
greater than those given in the table. The reason for the greater turbidity in 
the western ponds is due to the greater population dwelling upon the water- 
shed, to the larger percentage of cultivated land and to the closer proximity of 
the roads to the streams. All of the well water is without turbidity as it issues 



391 

from the ground. In certain cases, when it is charged with iron, however, 
this precipitates on standing so that the water is turbid by the time it reaches 
the laboratory. 

A certain amount of the suspended matter is deposited in the distribution 
reservoir at Ridgewood and Mt. Prospect, but the turbidity there lost is often 
more than made up by growths of microscopic organisms, so that the 
turbidity of the tap water is no less than that of the water at the Ridgewood 
Pumping Station. This is shown by the following table: 

Table Showing the Maximum, Minimum and Average Turbidity and Color 
of the Water in the Distribution System from 1898 to 1903. 



Turbidity. 



Ridgewood Reservoir — 

Basin No. 2 Influx. 

" No. 3 - . 



** No. I Efflux.. 
** No. 2 *» . 
•* No. 3 - . 

Mt. Prospect Reservoir. 



Tap in ML Prospect Laboratory 

Tap comer Flushing and Clermont 

avenues 

Tap corner Seventh and Flatbush 

avenues. 




I 
Average. I 



Mini- 



Color. 



Maxi- 
mum. 



3 3 

3 4 

4 3 

5 2 
3 3 

3 I 3 



32 
34 

36 

♦s 
36 
36 

33 



Average. 



«3 

n 

12 
13 
14 

12 
13 

>3 



The effect of rainfall in increasing the turbidity of the water in the 
city is clearly shown by Plate III. During the last few years, frequent com- 
plaints of muddy water have been made in Brooklyn, and investigations have 
shown that in almost every case this was due to the disturbance of local de- 
posits of iron and organic matter in the distribution mains. 

Color — The color of the Ridgewood water is low, but several of the 
sources of supply have quite a high color, especially those in the eastern por- 
tions of the watershed. The color of the water in Massapequa pond, for ex- 
ample, has averaged 40, while at times it has risen to 170. The high color 
is due to the water which stands in the large swamp just above the pond, and 
might be eliminated to a great extent by a well-devised system of drainage. 
The supplies near the centre of the watershed are low in color. A few of the 
western ponds are somewhat colored, but the waters of Baiseley's and Spring- 
field ponds are not used without filtration, so that what little color the 
Brooklyn water has may be said to be acquired chiefly from the eastern 
ponds. All of the vv^ll water as drawn from the ground is colorless. The 



V-iT.^ 






:*T.if^ V irtrr i:^«rf- =**-'_«. r:::: :« 



5:^2. — 5rr:»v- 



:r iTTi-^.-^r C"r rfz*." 



•'^1.- . 'jrr... V..: .1 'tti 



f -in 



-*»A -.*tau raic. aaic. 






"una^ «iEL 



Ht 
^^^ 


XT 


-T 


si 


2S 


2f 


IS 

3:c 


z^ 


as 




-4 


31 


-*^5 


re 


ic- 


ILUI 


J^ 


JJR 


xrc 


" 


X5 


2C 


3* 


11 


r^^ 


33C 


*A 


rrs 


!•: 


s 


^" 


a: 


v: 


IX 


I 


?» 


33r. 


i:c 


fc 


*s 


V* 


5^5 


u? 


r:i 


33 


3:c 






x." 


*c 


2« 


'I; 


aan 





-I^^.I. 



151 -^ >f^ jrt 



- ^a^ = 






393 

For several vear?; prior to lyoi no water was drawn from Baisdey'i 
pond on account of pollmiont and during^ this time the blue-green algae 
^chiefly Clatlirocystis) developed in enormous iiunibers. In igot the pond 
was drawn down and tlie nuid removed from a large part of the bottom. The 
benefirial effect of this cleaning may be seen from the above table. 

The following is a list of the microscopic organisms which have been 
observed in the Hrooklyn water at various times. The genera printed in 
heavy type are those which have at limes occurred in numbers greater than 
loo per c, c. The genera which are starred are those which have lieen the 
cause of objectionable odors. 




394 



List of Microscopic Organisms Which 



Plant Organisms. 



Diatomaceae. 


Chlorophyceae. 


Amphora 


Botryococcus 


Arthrodesmus 


Chaetophora 




Coelastrium 


Cyclotella 


Closterium 


Cocconeis 


Conferva 


Cymbella 
Diatoma 


Cosmarium 


Desmidium 


Epithemia 


Dictyospbaerium 
Dimorphococcus 


Fragilaria 


Gomphonema 


Docidium 


Hymantldium 


Draparnaldia 


Holosira 


Eudorina 


Meridion 


Gonium 


Navfcula 


Gloeocapsa 


Nitzschia 


Hyalotheca 


Pleurosfgma 


Pandorina 


Saturoneis 


Pediastrum 


Stephanodiscus 


PrOtO€€U8 


Sunrella 


Raphidium 


Synedra* 


Scenedesmus 


Tabtllaiia* 


Sphaerozostna 




Spirogyra 




Staurastrum 




Volvox 




Xanihidium 




Zoospores 




Zygnema 



Cyanophyo 



Anabaena* 
Aphanizomenon* 

Coroococcus 

ClathrocvsHs* 

Coelosphaeriutn * 

Cylindrospermu m 

Merismopedia 

Micricytis* 

Oscillaria 



Schizomycetes and Fungi. 



Cladothrix 
Crenothrix 
Lepotothrix 
Mold Hyphae 



395 



Have Occurred in the Brooklyn IVatcr. 



Atiioi&l Orgmitiims. 



Protosoa. 


Rotifera, 


Cruslacu. 


MiicdbncQUBH 


Actinophrys 


Anuraea 


Bran chip us 




Anthophysa 


Asplanchna 


Bosmina 




Arcella 


Brachionus 


Cyclops 




Bursaria 


Conochilus 


Daphtiia 




Ctrathim 


Mastigocerca 






Cercomonas 


Notholca 






Chlamydomonas 


Ova 






Codonella 


Polyarthra 






Coleps 


Rotifer 






Colpidium 


Synchaeta 
Triarthra 






Cmlomonas 

Diffulgia 






Dinybrvon* 

Enchfflys 








Epistylis 

Euglena 








Euglypha* 
Glenodinhim 








Halieria 








Mallomonas 








Monas 








Nassula 








Opalina 








Paramaecium 








Peridininm 








Phacus 








Raphidomonas 








Stentor 








Synura* 
Tiniinnus 














Trachelocerca 








Trachelomonas 








Trinema 








Urogtona 








Vorticella 


1 







396 

With the exception of the Hempstead Storage Reservoir, the supply 
ponds are very shallow, the water in the summer being often less than five 
feet deep. They are supplied largely with ground water. It is not surpris- 
ing, therefore, that aquatic plants develop vigorously on the bottom and 
shores of the ponds. Late in the summer it is not at all an uncommon sight 
to see masses of Anacharis, Ceratophyllum, Potamogeton, Utricularia, etc., 
reaching to the surface of the water and covering great areas near the shores. 
In the winter these growths die and settle to the bottom. When growing 
they do not impart a noticeable odor to the water, but they form a nidus for 
microscopic organisms which are ultimately carried into the conduit to seed 
the distribution reservoirs. The aquatic plant masses in the ponds act as 
natural filters to remove turbidity from the water, but the matter which 
adheres to them eventually settles to the bottom and is added to the sediment 
there. It seems probable that without the presence of this plant life in these 
shallow ponds the organic matter would not accumulate there as rapidly as 
it does. 

The ground water does not contain microscopic organisms except 
genera such as Crenothrix, Cladothrox, Lepothrix, etc., which are capable 
of living under anaerobic or semi-anaerobic conditions in the driven well 
tubes. Crenothrix is found at times in nearly all of the well waters, but it 
is especially abundant in those waters which contain much iron in sokition. 
The well points at many of the stations become practically or wholly clogged 
after a certain period of service, and there is good reason to believe that 
Crenothrix plays an important part in the process by which iron oxide and 
sand unite to fill the meshes of the strainers. The common form of Creno- 
thrix is that which deposits iron in its gelatinous sheath, but in some of the 
driven wells of the Ridgewood system a species has been discovered which 
appears to deposit aluminum instead of iron. (See paper by D. D. Jackson 
— A New Species of Crenothrix, Trans. Am. Micro. Soc., Vol. XXIII., p. 
3T, May. 1903.) 

It was stated that the water which enters Ridgewood Reservoir contams 
but few microscopic organisms, and therefore has no odor properly de- 
scribed by the terms aromatic, grassy, wood, fishy, etc. If this water were 
delivered to the consumers in the condition at which it arrives at Ridgewood 
Pumping Station, its physical qualities would be considered as generally sat- 
isfactory, except after heavy rains. Unfortunately, however, growths of mi- 
croscopic organisms occur in the distribution reservoirs at Ridgewood and 
Mt. Prospect, imparting to the water most unpleasant odors and render it 
turbid and unsightly. 1 before the year 1896, these organisms, although 
known to be present in the supply, did not develop in numbers sufficient to 
cause trouble. In the summer of that year the tap water became very offen- 
sive, and this led to an extensive investigation on the part of the Water De- 



397 

partment, conducted by the late Dr. Albert R. Leeds, of Stevens Institute. 
His investigation plainly showed that the cause of the trouble was the diatom 
Asterionella, which was found in enormous numbers in Ridgewood Reser- 
voir. His microscopical examinations were not begun until the fall of 1896, 
and from studies since made there is good reason to belive that the odors 
observed in the early summer of that year were due not to Asterionella but to 
Anabiena. Both organisms, however, developed in the distribution reservoirs 
and not on the watershed. The practical result of the investigation was the 
construction of a by-pass to lead the water clround the reservoir when neces- 
sary, and the establishment of Mt. Prospect Laboratory. 

Since 1896 growths of microscopic organisms have continually recurred 
in the reservoirs mentioned, different organisms appearing and disappearing 
with the seasons, but by a judicious use of the by-pass, the number of micro- 
scopic organisms in the tap water has been kept at a comparatively low figure, 
as shown by the following figures: 

NuiJibcr of Microscopic Organisms. 



Standard Units Per C.C. 





1896. 


1897. 

225 
163 


1898. 


1899. 


I9CO. 

414 
251 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Ridgewood— 

Basin No. 2 Influx. 
3 " 


50 
4 


105 
102 


55 
55 


51. 
74 


124 
123 


1 Eiflux. 

2 ** . 
" 3 *' . 


62 
3,650 


7.793 

403 

2,181 


r4 

1,823 


4,782 
1,115 
1,872 


1,426 
1,307 
3.372 


608 
740 
790 


1,261 
1.915 


280 
503 
747 


Mt. Prospect Reservoir 


9,824 


11,738 


8,188 


8.891 


6,536 


^,891 


2,935 


3,S85 


Tap in Mt. Prospect 
Laboratory* 

Tap, Flushing and 
Clermont avenuesf . 

Tap, FUtbush and 
Seventh avenues^ . . 


200 
3.840 
5.730 


1.320 
1,710 
4.414 


1,170 
1,266 
3,571 


859 

863 

1,786 


1,330 

1,337 
3,614 


-461 

328 

1,713 


426 

449 
1,125 


397 

327 

1,103 



The seasons of occurrence of these organisms are shown graphicallv on 
Plate No. VI. 

It will be observed that there has been a gradual reduction in the in- 
tensity oi the organism growths during the past five years. 

The genera which have caused the most trouble are Asterionella, Ana- 
ba^na, Synedra, Melosira, Diatoma, Chlamydomonas, Cyclotella and Scene- 
desmus. 



* Water irom Basins Nos. i and s, Ridgewood Reservoir. 
t Water from Basin No. ja Ridgewood Kaservoir. 
t Water trom Mt. Prospect Reservoir. 



393 

An examination of the figures given in the above table shows that the 
numbers of organisms in the city tap have been much less than those in the 
reservoirs. The taps at Mt. Prospect Laboratory and at Flushing and Qer- 
mont avenues are supplied from Ridgewood Reservoir, while the tap. at the 
corner of Flatbush and Seventh avenues is supplied from Mt. Prospect Res- 
ervoir. The latter reservoir cannot be entirely shut off from the supply, hence 
more of the microscopic organisms from that reservoir find their way to the 
City. 

The figures just referred to do not fairly show the difference between the 
tap water and the water in the reservoir, because they do not distinguish be- 
tween the organisms which are objectionable and those which are not. The 
by-pass is used only when the odoriferous organisms are present, as it is ad- 
visable for sanitary reasons to take as complete advantage as possible of the 
limited storage. A better comparison of the water can be made by consid- 
ering the odor caused by the organisms, and the following figures illustrate 
this: 





Per Cent, of Samples Which Had Odors AttribuUble to Microscopic Oi^sanisms. 




1898. 


1899. 


1 1 
1900. 1 1901. 1 1902. 


Ridgewood— 

Basin No. i Influx 

" 3 " .... 










1 1 

13 1 

9 j ; 2 


I Efflux.... 

'* 2 '* 

" 3 " .-.. 


33 
17 


45 

9 

3« 


29 1 II 
32 .8 
49 10 


2 
16 
36 


Mt. Prospect Reservoir. . . . 


81 


80 


70 


27 


36 


Tap in Mt. Prospect Labor- 
atory 

Tap at Flushing and Cler- 
mont avenues 

Tap at Flatbush and Sev- 
enth avenues 


10 

8 

27 


32 
14 
38 


26 
26 
34 





2 

4 





II 









Even these figures do not fully show what has been accomplished by the 
use of the by-pass, as they do not take into account the intensity of the odor. 
The by-pass is not opened until the number of organisms is found to be suf- 
ficient to produce what is termed a '* distinct odor." 

The regimen of the growths of organisms which occur in the distribu- 
tion reservoirs in Brooklyn is entirely in harmony with what has been ob- 
served elsewhere and emphasizes the fact that ground water cannot be stored 
satisfactorily in open reservoirs. Ground waters usually contain an abund- 
ance of plant food, such as nitrates, free carbonic acid, etc., and if stored in 



399 

reservoirs exposed to MiiiHglit* the waters often becoine affected with j^rowths 
of microscopic organisms, if once they become seeded. Since this is true* there 
is all the more danger for ([growths to occur in mixtures of surface and ground 
uator, the one funiisliing the mineral constituents required hy the organisms, 
and the other furnishing organic matter. Such waters, furthermore, have 
greater chances of hecf^ming seeded witli microscopic organisms. It was 
not until the percentage of ground water in the Ijronklyn supply attained a 
high figure that these organisms l>egaii to develop abundantly in the distrihu- 
tion reservoirs, and the ii^dicatJons are that as time goes on die proportion of 
ground water will ctjutinae to increase umil it reaches ino per cent. In spite 
of this, however, there is gotnl reason to believe that comparatively little 
trou1>Ie woidxl be experienced in these reservoirs if they could Ik* kept per- 
fectly clean, that is, if tleposits of -jrganic matter could be prevented from 
accumulating on the bottom. For example, the dense gro^vth of Anatena, 
which fXTurred in lla^in No. 2 of Ridgewood Reservoir during the summer of 
iSi/8, ied to the basin being emptie<l and cleaned of its accnnudated de]}osh. 
The cleaning did not entirely prevent all growths of organisms in the follow- 
ing years, but the Anab^Tua. which caused the trouble in i8tj8. has not since 
returned. 

The use of the by-pass in ameliorating the objectionable conditions occa- 
sioned b\^ the growtli of organisms cannot be looked upon, however, in the 
present case as l>eiug entirely satisfactory, inasnnicb as it materially shortens 
the time retjuircd for water to pass from the supply ix)nd to the consumers, 
and thus increases the danger of an efiidemic, should the water at any point 
bccL>me infected. Tlie reservoir at Riclgewood must he ultimately covered, 
but this would be so hazardous an undertaking, with the existing limited 
facilities for storage, that it probably is not warranted at the present time. 
To make sure that these reservoirs are kept clean and that organisms are not 
allnwed to form deposits on the bottom, there fore, is imperative. I\lt. Pros- 
pect Reservoir, which supports much heavier growths of organisms than dtx^s 
Ridge wofjd Reservoir, should be covered at an early date it its use is to be 
continued. It is situated in the heart of the city, and the water is constantly 
becomiiig contaminated by the clouds of dust blown (rom the street. For 
sanitarv reasons, therefore, this reservoir ought to be covered. Then the res- 
ervoir is so situated, with respect to the Park System, that some sort of archi- 
tectural treatment is demanded on aesthetic grotmds. Tile present sharp out- 
lines of the reservoir banks do not harmotiize well with the surrounding land- 
scai>e. If this reservoir could be covered in such a way that its roof could 
be tUilized by the public as a park this commanding spot w^ould be- 
come one of the greatest points of attraction in the City. Such a plan would 
naturally involve mtKliftcations in the present embankments, the removal of 
the superstructure of the present gate-house, the planting of shrubs, trees, etc., 




400 

the laying out of new pathways and perhaps the construction of a foimtain 
suppHed with water from the tower. It would appear that this plan is 
one in which the Department of Water Supply and the Department of Parks 
should be mutually interested. 

The heavy growths of microscopic organisms which have occurred in the 
distribution reservoirs during the past few years have been the cause of no 
little fouling of the distribution pipes by growths of fresh water sponi^e, 
Byrozoa, etc. The relation between microscopic organisms and the so-called 
pipe-moss has been explained in connection with the Croton supply. The 
growths of Paludicella, however, appear to have been very much greater in 
the Brooklyn water pipes than in New York. On one occasion, when the 
flow through some of the large mains was suddenly reversed, these organisms 
became detached from the sides of the pipes in such masses that hundreds 
of water-taps in the City were plugged up, and in one or two instances, two- 
inch mains were entirely stopped by the fibrous masses. This is a further 
argument, therefore, for doing all that can be done to keep the microscopic 
organisms out of the distribution reservoirs. 

Sanitary Quality — Pollution of the Watershed. 

The population of the watershedof the Ridge wood system averages about 
208 per square mile, but it varies in different sections from 78 to 1,250. The 
population densities on the different portions of the watershed are shown in 
Table No. la. The drainage areas there given are based in part upon data 
furnished by Mr. Walter E. Spear, Department Engineer of the Long Island 
Division, and in part upon planimeter measurements of watershed outlines 
drawn from the contours of the United States Geological Survey atlas sheets. 
They differ slightly from figures previously published. The populations are 
based partly upon the census returns and partly upon a count of the number 
of houses on the watersheds. There is a general decrease in population 
density from the w^estern to the eastern portions of the watershed, the re- 
gions nearest the city being naturally the most thickly settled. There is also 
in some cases a decrease in population density northward, and this accounts 
for the lower population densities on some of the larger streams which 
extend northward to the backbone of the Island. The soil on Long Island 
is so sandy that many of the streams are non-existent in the upper portions 
of their watersheds except during the spring flows. An attempt was made 
to calculate the populations per square mile for the lower portions of the 
streams, but tlie results obtained did not appear to possess any advantage 
over those given in the table, although in some instances, as, for example, 
Valley Stream, the population densities were increased. i 

The |X)puration on the watershed is rapidly growing, and this growth is 
destined to increase at a still greater rate in the near future on account of the 



401 

extension of rapid transit facilities to the suburbs of Brooklyn. Already 
speculators are purchasing property on the watershed and laying out the 
sites of future communities. The construction of an immense race track 
just above Elmont, on Simonson's Stream, will serve to greatly increase the 
population in that region, and will be the means of drawing thousands of 
people there during the summer season. The rapid increase in the popula- 
tion of the watershed of the Ridge wood system, which is in striking contrast 
with the stability of population on the Croton watershed, is shown by Dia- 
gram No. 5. 

Except for the village of Jamaica, located upon the watershed of Haise- 
ley's Stream, the population is rural in character. Jamaica has a sewerage 
system which carries the sewage to a point below the conduit, where it is to 
be treated by a special process before it is discharged into the bay. The 
system is a comparatively new one, however, and many houses near the 
feeders of Baiseley's Pond do not have sewer connections. For a number 
of years no water has been used from this pond except what has been 
purified by a system of mechanical filtration. 

The next largest centre of population is the village of Hempstead, which 
is situated only about two miles above the Hempstead Storage Reservoir. 
This village has no system of sewers, although it should have, even for its 
own sake. Hempstead stream, otherwise known as "Horse Brook'* or 
" Parsonage Brook," flows through the heart of the village, and there are 
many serious nuisances immediately adjacent to the stream. All privies are 
panned, however, and cleaned by the Department of Water Supply, Gas 
and Electricity. The water of the stream under dry weather conditions i^ 
not allowed to enter the reservoir, but is carried around and below it 
through a by-pass and wasted. When the flow of the stream exceeds the 
carrying capacity of the by-pass, as it sometimes does, the surplus accumu- 
lates in a sedimentation basin, and when this is full the water spills into the 
reservoir. During the summer, when it is necessary to husband all the 
water resources possible, this basin is allowed to fill and stand for about 
three weeks, and when time and subsidence have seemed to considerably 
purify the water the contents are turned into the reservoir. A sand filtration 
plant is being constructed below the dam to filter the water which is now- 
being wasted through the by-pass and allow it to enter Hempstead Pond. 

Although there are no other large centres of pollution, there are many 
nuisances existing along the various streams, especially on Springfield 
Stream and Simonson's Stream. The water from Springfield Pond had not 
been used for several years, however, until a mechanical filter was con- 
structed to purify it. A sand filter, to purify the water of Simonson's 
Stream, is also being constructed. 

No general attempt was made by the old City of Brooklyn to preserve 



402 

the sanitary quality of the water by the purchase of property along the 
stream, although in some instances this was done. On most of the streams 
the priyies which are located near the water are panned, and the pans are 
emptied weekly by the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity. 
This serves to mitigate many serious nuisances, although the method itself 
is something of a nuisance, it being almost impossible to always empty the 
pans into the collecting cart without spilling some of the oflfal on the ground. 

It will be seen from the data given in Table No. i that some of the con- 
ditions which tend to reduce the danger from infection of the Croton water 
are lacking in the Ridgewood system. The watershed is nearer the city, the 
ponds are small, shallow and adjacent to the conduit, so that the *' time- 
factor " in the destruction of pathogenic bacteria is much less pronounced, 
and there is less opportunity for efficient sedimentation. Another factor 
which tends to prevent danger from infection, however, is much more potent 
than on the Croton watershed, namely, the sandy character of the soil. This 
is such as to cause almost the entire surface of the ground to act as a sand 
filter and thus purify the surface water. Indeed there are many reasons to 
believe that a large part of the water normally flowing in the stream is rain- 
water which has first passed through the soil. The entire supply of the Ridge- 
way system partakes of the character of a ground w^ater supply to a ver\' 
great extent. And it is in this direction that the safety of the water supplies 
from the Long Island watersheds must be sought. All of the water must be 
eventually drawn from beneath the surface of the ground. Filtration of 
some of the surface supplies may prove more economical for some time to 
come, but the time may eventually arrive when a single filtration will not 
prove adequate to the task of removing the danger from infection. 

During recent years typhoid fever has not been prevalent in Nassau 
County, as show-n by the following figures, compiled from the published 
records of the State Board of Health : 

Typhoid Fcirr Death-rate per 100,000. 



Vbar. 



1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 

I9OO. 
I9OI. 
1902. 



Nassau County. 



25.2 
16.2 

21.7 
1.9 
9.3 

Q.9 
8.8 

15.3 



Suffolk County. 



32.9 
33.0 
135 

17.4 
33-6 
21.4 

20.7 
II. I 
16.6 



Average . 



13.2 



403 

In seeking to ascertain the sanitary character of the Brooklyn water 
from Ihe analytical results, chief attention must be given to the odors of 
decomposition, the number of bacteria, the presence of Bacillus coli, the excess 
of clilorine alx)ve the normal and the amount and character of the nitrogen 
compounds. These are summarized for the supply ponds in the following 
table, which is based on weekly (in some instances monthly) analyses, cov- 
ering a period of hwe years. 



Sinnmary of Weekly Analyses. 



8 

"3. 

i 

o 



Massapequa 

Wan ta^h Pond 

Newbridge 

Blast Meadow 

Millburn Pond I 8 

Hempstead Stream 99 

Storage Reservoir j 16 

Schodack Brook 

Hempstead Pond 

Pines Pond 

Smith's Pond 

Valley Stream Pond 

Watt's Pond 

Clear Sii-e^im Pond , 

Simonson's Pond 

Springfield Pond 

Baiseley's Pond 



Ridgewood Reservoir — 

Basin No. 2, Influx , 

Basin No. 3, " 

" No. 1, Efflux 

" No.a, " 

" N0.3, •• 

Mt. Prospect Reservoir 

Tap in Mt. Prospect Laboratory 1 3 

Tap at Flashing and Clermont avenues — 
Tap at Flatbush and Seventh avenues 




Nn-ROGBN AS 



« 









d 




s 


'S 




.•2E 


1 




B 


< 


s 


i 


s 


t 








< 


b. 


Z 


083 


. 010 


.001 


.07a 


.ozo 


.001 


.06, 


.007 


.001 


.065 


.0x6 


.001 


.054 


.009 


.002 


.099 


.826 


.022 


099 


.026 


.006 


.045 


.cao 


.003 


.072 


.037 


.003 


.070 


.0x9 


.004 


.070 


.024 


.003 


.oSo 


.014 


.005 


.068 


.026 


.004 


.o<8 


.018 


.009 


.061 


.025 


.0Z8 


.114 


•044 


.0x2 


.a»7 


.07a 


.010 


.044 


.029 


.003 


•045 


.019 
.018 


.C02 


.066 


.004 


.061 


.019 


.003 


•ots 


.012 


.003 


.za8 


.013 


.C09 


.050 


.005 


.00a 


.054 


.003 


.ooa 


.065 


.006 


.C03 



0.32 
0.40 
0.41 
0.51 

0.Z9 

3->9 
Z.09 
i.z6 
o.a6 
0.97 

°;y 

«-43 
4.bo 
4.16 
a. 82 
1.78 



1.14 
x.oo 

T.08 
X.07 

0.06 
0.8a 
X.08 
1.04 

1. 00 



The difference in the sanitary quality between the eastern and the west- 
ern ponds, as shown by these analyses, is very marked. If the ponds arc 
grouped according to the excess of chlorine above the normal, the following 
average figures are obtained. 



*The excess of chlorine cannot be determined, because of the influence of the sea-water on some of the 
driven wells. 



404 

Summary of Analyses, with Sources Grouped According to ''Excess of 

Chlorine." 



Number 

OF 

Groups. 



•c 2 



«M > 

E 



I 

II.... 
III... 

IV.... 

v.... 

VI.... 



.5- i.o 

i.o- a.o 



9.0- 4.0 
4.0- 10.0 
10.0- . . 



i 




NlTROGBM AS 




•c 










, 








M 










u 


a 








•0 










2 


g 


, 






S 


< 


.3 
















M 


•0 








U4 





8 






1 


.S 


1 


1 


§ 


J! 


-g 


f 




.tj 


< 


< 
.073 


&. 


2 


z 


0.4 


.013 


.oox 


0.4X 


0.9 


.o52 


.022 


.003 


0.60 


1.6 


•073 


.0x9 


.004 


X.I9 


3." 


.059 


.02X 


.010 


4.48 


6.1 


.200 


.o5« 


.0x1 


2.30 


X4.6 


.099 


.826 


.02a 


3.«9 



Is 

J5« 



4» ca 



u 


"S 


u 


.xa 




?a 


0. 


M *> 


.« 




PQ 


-. a 


"o 






1^^ 


2 


:5: 


499 


5.8 


444 


8.x 


603 


8.2 


».537 


9-5 


I,3C2 


13.8 


3,010 


30.0 



Ponds Included in 
THE Group. 



Mftssapeqiia, Wantagh, East 
Meadow. 

Newbridge. Schodack, Hemp- 
stead Pond, Smith's. 

Mill burn, Hempstead S(ge., 
Pines, Valley Stream, 
Watts. 

Clear Stream, Simonson's. 

Springfield, Baiseley's. 

Hempstead Stream, below 
Hempstead. 



These show a progressive series, representing the chlorine excess, nitrites, 
odors of decomposition, bacteria and tests for Bacillus coli. The figures for 
albuminoid ammonia and free ammonia do not fall as regularly into the 
series, as they are too much affected by organic matter from sources other 
than those of pollution. 

Xo analyses like these should be interpreted except in connection with 
the known conditions on the watershed, but when all the facts are considered, 
the following seems to be a fair classification of the surface supplies of the 
Ridgewood system : 

Reasonably Safe Supplies, 
Massapequa Pond. 
Wantagh Pond. 
Newbridge Pond. 
East Meadow Pond. 
Hempstead Pond. 
Smith's Pond. 

Insecure Supplies. 
Millburn Pond. 
Schodack Brook. 
Hempstead Storage Reservoir. 
Pines Pond. 
Valley Stream Pond. 
Watts Pond. 



405 

Unsafe Supplies, 

Clear Stream Pond. 

Simonson's Pond. (Safe when filtered. Filter being constructed). 

Dangerous Supplies. 

Springfield Pond. (Safe when filtered). 

Baiseley's Pond. (Safe when filtered.) 

Hempstead Stream below Hempstead (now diverted by by-pass. Filter 
being constructed). 

The above table is liable to make the character of the present supply 
appear worse than it really is. About 40 per cent, of the supply is taken from 
driven wells, and may be considered as absolutely safe. Taking this into con- 
sideration and giving weight to the various surface sources in. proportion to 
their drainage areas, we arrive at the following approximate percentage com- 
position of the water furnished to the consumers : 

Per Cent, 
by Volume. 

From absolutely safe sources 40 

From reasonable safe sources 40 

From insecure sources 16 

From unsafe ^ources 4* 

From dangerous sources . -. o 

Total 100 



By comparing the analyses of the water at Ridgewood Reservoir with 
those of the supply ponds, the weight of the '* absolutely safe " and the 
** reasonably safe '' water upon the general supply will be evident. This is 
especially noticeable in the odors of decomposition, the number of bacteria, 
the tests for Bacillus coli and the nitrites, tests which relate especially to the 
sanitary quality. 

The beneficial effect of even the small storage in the distribution reser- 
voir is shown by the tests for Bacillus, coli. The average number of positive 
lests in the water as it enters Ridgewood was 4; in the taps supplied by 
Ridgewood Reservoir it was 2-5, and in the tap supplied by Mt. Prospect Res- 
ervoir it was I.e. 



♦These supplies are shut off when analyses indicate that this is advisable. Fil- 
ters are being constructed at Simonson's Pond, and Clear Stream Pond furnishes 
so little water that it may be abandoned. This " unsafe " water, therefore, will be 
soon entirely eliminated from the supply. 



4o6 

The variations in the sanitary quality of the water during the year 1903 
is shown on Plate Xo. \'. Just as in the case of the Croton supply, little ap- 
pears to be learned from the regular chemical analyses, while the number of 
bacteria and the tests for Bacillus coli fluctuate with the rainfall. 

Chemical Character of the Water. 

Because of the large and increasing proportion of ground water in the 
Ridgewood system, the chemical character of the water deserves extensive 
consideration. This may be discussed under the heads of Chlorine, Hardness 
and Iron. 

Chlorine. 

The Ridgewood Watershed is located so close to the sea that the normal 
chlorine is relatively high. Whereas the normal for the Croton Watershed 
is only about 1.6 parts per million, it is somewhere between 5 and 6 parts per 
million for the Ridgewood system. This was ascertained by collecting sam- 
ples of unpolluted water at widely scattered localities over Long Island, and 
from these data obtained in 1898, a map of normal chlorine was drawn. 
(See A Normal Chlorine ^lap of Long Island, by G. C. Whipple and D. D. 
Jackson, Tech. Quar., Vol. 13, Mo. 2, June, 1900.) During the past year this 
map has been revised by Mr. Jackson, who has also extended the isochlors 
over the entire State. (See Plate XI.) 

At the eastern end of the Island, and except near the coast, the normal 
chlorine was below 6 parts per million. On the south shore, the isochlor of 
6 parts per million was only 2 or 3 miles inland, while on the north shore it 
was 3 or 4 miles inland. The isochlor of 5 parts per million is about 2 miles 
further from the shore and is parallel with the former. . The isochlor of 4 parts 
per million nearly surrounds an area in the centre of the island from 3 to 5 
miles wide. In the centre of this region the normal chlorine is somewhat 
lower than 4 parts per million. vSeveral samples in the interior contained as 
little as 3 parts per million. The normal chlorine at the line of the Aqueduct 
of the Brooklyn Water Supply is about 6 parts per million, but most of the 
streams cross the isochlor of 4 parts per million and a few take their rise in a 
region where the normal chlorme is below 4 parts per million. It seems prob- 
able that the normal chlorine for the supply ponds of the Brooklyn Watershed 
is somewhere between 5 and 6 parts per million. At the eastern end of the 
Island, the normal chlorine is very high and varies greatly in different locali- 
ties. In this respect, it resembles the normal chlorine found on Cape Cod, 
Mass. 

The following figures show the average amount of chlorine in parts per 
million in the different sources of supply for a period of five years : 



407 



Average Amount of Chlorine in Parts per Million in the Different Sources 

of Supply. 



Surface Waters. 



Chlorine. 



Massapequa Pond 

WanlaghPond 

Newbridge Pond 

East Meadow Pond 

Millborn Pond , 

Hempstead Storage Reservoir , 

Scbodack Brook 

Hempstead Pond 

Pines Pond 

Smith's Pond 

Valley Stream Pond 

Watts Pond 

Clear Stream Pond , 

Simonson's Pond , 

Springfield Pond 

Baiseley*s Pond 



Ground Waters. 



Chlorine. 



59 

I* 

6.4 
6.0 
6.0 

6.2 

1:1 

6.6 
9.0 
8.8 
12.4 
9.9 



Massapequa (deep and sballow) | 5.5 

Wantf^h (deep and shallow) , 3.7 

Matawa 4.2 

Merrick ' 5.3 

Agawam [ 5.0 

Watts Pond (shallow) i 7.5 

Clear Stream (shallow) 6.3 

Forest Stream (shallow) 6.0 

Springfield (deep) 3.9 

Jameco (deep) 4.8 

Jameco (deep and shallow) 25.7 

fiaiseley's (shallow) 114. 9 

Oconee (deep) 4.8 

Shetucket (deep) 264.2 

Spring Creek Old Plant (deep) , 7.1 

Spring Creek Old Plant (shallow) . . 139. i 

Spring Creek, New Plant (shallow) . . 1 55 . 2 



If the water supplied to Brooklyn contained no more chlorine than the 
normal for the watershed, it could not be objected to on this account. The 
pollution of the western streams tends to increase the amount slightly, but it 
is because certain driven wells are affected by sea-water that the chlorine in 
the city is undesirably high. 

The following figures give the amount of chlorine in the water 
supplied to Brooklyn from January, 1895, to November, 1903. The 

Table Shounng the Amount of Chlorine in Parts per Million in the Water 

Supplied to Brooklyn. 



Month. 



January . . 
February . 
March 



1895. 



April. 
May . . 
June.. 



11.80 
10.75 
9.88 

10.50 

10.55 
10.63 



July I 16.90 

August i 20. 63 

September 1 17.25 

October | 17.20 

November 1 20.00 

December 1 22 .40 



1896. 



23.00 
13.00 
12.00 

9.80 
7.50 
8.20 

10.10 
12.00 
12.50 

14.00 
16.60 
15.00 



1897. 



13.60 
14.50 



1898. 



10.25 
7.30 



14.30 I 11.75 

14.10 I 17.60 

15.50 1 13.80 

16.20 I 11.50 



17.00 
18.60 



10.15 
12.00 



20.60 16.55 

17.70 I 18.90 17.40 

13.20 17.20 15.30 

7.20 11.45 I 17.75 



1899. 

15.30 
17.80 

16.45 

14.45 
18.40 

18.35 

15.85 
19.00 
19.10 




19.20 I 17.80 
17.30 21.35 
16.45 



15.00 I 
16.55 I 
17.15 I 



17.75 

16.35 
16.25 
20.25 



18.60 ' 21^25 
15.40 I 19.40 
17.55 21.55 



16.85 
22.90 
18.00 



I 
1902. I 1903. 



24. zo 
23.00 
19.80 

18.65 ' 
15.30 ! 
20.15 I 

19.90 I 

19.95 
20.35 I 



13.9 

9-4 
8.5 

X0.3 

10.3 

9.7 

7.9 
12.5 
12.2 



22.45 ' 22.10 ; 10.5 
23.50 I 23.25 i 9.1 
24.25 I 15.90 I .... 



Note.— The figures for 1895, '896 and 1897 were taken from the published records of the 
Health Department ; those from 1898 to 1902 were taken from the records of Mount Prospect 
Laboratory and represent the average water entering Ridgewood Reservoir. 



4o8 



figures for 1895, 1896 and 1897 were taken from the published records of the 
Department of Health. Those from 1898 to 1903 were taken from the 
records of Mt. Prospect Laboratory, and represent the monthly means of 
weekly analyses of the water entering the Ridgewood Reservoir. These 
results are shown graphically in Diagram No. 9. The high chlorine during 
the latter part of 1895 was due to the effect of water from the wells first sunk 
at Agawam, and which were afterwards taken up and redriven on account of 
the influence of the salt water. In 1897 the increasing chlorine was caused 
by excessive draught from the wells at Baisley's and Spring Creek. During 
the latter part of 1897 and 1898 a vigorous attempt was made to reduce the 
chlorine in the tap. water by temporarily shutting down the well stations at 
Baisley's and Spring Creek and by disconnecting some of the wells at 
Jameco. At this. time the well water at Shetucket had not become affected 
by the sea water. The influence of the infiltering sea water at Spring Creek, 
Baisley's and Jameco was shown by the following calculation. (See Table 
on page 409.) On September 28, 1897, the records showed that water was 
being taken from various sources according to the figures given in Column 
2. The amount of chlorine for each source is indicated in Column 3. Col- 
umn 4 represents the products of Columns 2 and 3. The total product of 
Column 4, divided by the total number of gallons pumped, as shown in 
Column 1, gives 21.39 ^s the calculated chlorine for the entire watershed on 
that date. Observations on the same date showed that the water enter- 
ing Basins i and 2 of Ridgewood Reservoir contained 25.7 parts and that 
the water entering Basin 3 contained 17.2 parts per million. The average of 
these two figures is 21.45, which agrees very well with the calculated results 
given above. On the same day the water at the Efilux Basin contained 24.6 
parts. Basin 2, 21.9 and Basin 3, 19. The average of these is 21.8, which 
also agrees well with the calculated value. By deducting the figures for 
Baiseley's and Spring Creek station, it is found that if these stations had been 
eliminated the chlorine in" the tap would have been 6.76 parts per million 
instead of 21.39, ^^^ ^^^^^ observations showed that when these stations were 
shut down this figure was actually reached. 



c»| 1 1 1 1 1 1 a 1 

. IttKi 1896 1897 isgs 1899 1900 1901 190S 


i|:;:^k^' -^X^T^^^X-^^ 



DIAORAM IX, A^^. Vf. 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing the Amount of Chlorine in the Water supplied to Brooklyn, from 1895 to 1902. 

Note.— Data for 1895, 1896 and 1897, taken from published records of the Department of Health. Data for 
1898, 1899, 1900, 1901 and 1802, taken from records of Mt. Prospect Laboratory. 



409 

From 1898 to 1902, there was a gradually increasing amount of 
chlorine in the water supplied to the city. During 1903 efforts have been 
made to reduce the amount of chlorine by drawing less water from the 
brackish wells, and the results have been quite successful. The unusually 
heavy rainfall has also acted to reduce the chlorine and has made possible 
the disuse of some of the well water. The fluctuations during this time, 
however, have been ciuite marked, and the low points on the profile of Dia- 
gram Xo. 9 represent occasions when the salt wells were temporarily shut 
down. It will be observ^ed that the profile shows a general tendency to 
higher chlorines in the fall of the year than at other seasons. Table No. 5 
shows that the wells which are most affected by sea water are those at 
Tameco, Baiseley's, Shetucket and Spring Creek. These stations will be con- 
sidered individuallv. 



Calculation to Shozv the Effect of the Sea-Water from the Driven Wells at 

Baisley's and Spring Creek Pumping Stations on the Water 

Supplied to Brooklyn on September 28, 1897. 



Source of Supply. 



Surface waters on the •* New Watershed " 

Surface gravity supply on *' Old Watershed " 

Smith's Pond 

Wantagh Pumping Station 

Matowa Pumping Station 

Merrick Pumping Station 

Watts Pond Pumping Station 

Clear Stream Pumping Station 

Forest Stream Pumping Station , 

Jameco Pumping Station, deep wells 

Tameco Pumping Station, deep and shallow wells. . . 

Baiseley's Pumping Station 

Oconee Pumping Station 

Shetucket Pumpmg Station 

Spring Creek Pumping Station — 

Old plant— deep wells 

Old plant— shallow wells 

Temporary plant 

Total 

Column 4 divided by column 2 

Total deducting Baiseley's and Spring Creek 
Column 4 divided by column 2 



Number of 

Gallons 
Furnished. 



30.549,900 
9,116.880 
6, 166,200 
4,073,600 
4,074,700 
3,870,900 
2,268,300 
2,962,000 
3,640,700 
2,455.900 
1,900,000 
2,263,160 
2,624,000 
2,554,740 

2,500,000 
3.580,900 
3,470,000 



88,071,880 



82,227,820 



Chlorine 
Parts per 
Million. 



6.0 

M 

4.1 
4.4 

6.7 
6.7 
6.0 

5.2 

34.4 

144.0 

4.2 

43 

6.2 

280.0 

14.0 



21.39 



6.76 



Product of 

Column 2 and 

Column 3. 



183,299,000 
59,259,000 
35.763.000 
16,701,000 
17.930,000 
27,871,000 
15,198,000 
i9.845.COO 
15,846,000 
12,770,000 
65,560,000 

325,872,000 
11,021,000 
10,953,000 

15,500,000 

1,002,680,000 

48,580,000 



1.884,448,000 



555,896,000 



4IO 



Chlorine at Jameco Pumping Station. 

The pumping station at Jameco is situated near the head of Cornell 
Creek, about two miles inland from Jamaica Bay, and just below Baiseley s 
Pond. At this station there are two separate systems of wells, one composed 
entirely of deep wells, the other composed of both deep and shallow wells. 
The deep wells are not afTected by sea water. The shallow wells system con- 
sisted originally of 183 two-inch wells driven to depths varying from 2^ 10 
73 feet and averaging about 43 feet. The wells are arranged in three rows, 
parallel to a main suction, two rows being to the east of the suction main 
and one row to the west. (See Diagram Xo. 10.) The tiers of wells are 
about 14 feet apart. 



1C»i 









' > P # I P M > > I' 



^^TTTTtTTTTfTT' 






t: 



1 



#m 



Tt 



DIAQRAM X. A^^. VI. 



-. ** ^ ^ ji^ 










--^i 



CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram showing the Amount of Chlorine in Various Wells of the Shallow Well System of the 
Jameco Pumping Station on April 1st and 8th, 1903. 

NoTK. — Figures in parenthesis denote Iron ; other fiif^res denote Chlorine. FiRures underlined are for 
April 8th ; other figur«» are for April ist. Area of high Iron and Chlorine tor April 8th lies within broken 
line, and (hat for April ist within full line. 

The suction main above mentioned is also connected with four 4-inch 
wells, three 6-inch wells, four 8-inch wells and one lo-inch well, which vary 
in depth from 147 to 165 feet, and all of which pierce" the clay bed. The 
water pumped from this system is, therefore, a mixed one. 

At the time when analyses were begun, namely, during the year 1897, it 
was noticed that the amount of chlorine in the deep and shallow wells was 
about 20 parts per million, and it was suspected that the difference between 
this figure and the normal of the region was due to the influence of the sea 
water upon the shallow wells. Later, examinations of individual wells 
showed that this was the case, and showed further that it was the wtIIs 
located at the southwest corner of the plant which were most affected by the 
sea water. The plant is located practically in the bed of the creek, and it 
appeared from the results that beneath the surface there existed a pocket, or 
perhaps the bed of an old creek, which passed diagonally across the suction 



411 



main. I'his is shown by Diagram No. lo, which gives the area where the 
wells showed the highest chlorine and iron. The observations upon which 
this diagram was constructed are given in the following table: 

Chlorine and Iron in Jameco Shallow Wells — March 31 and April i, 1898. 



Well No. 


Parts 

per Million 

Chlorine. 


Iron. 


Well No. 


Parts 

per Million 

Chlorine. 


Iron. 


I 


8 
12 
12 
12 

178 
14 

IVs 

670 

282 

400 


.40 
.40 
.20 
.40 

14.00 

.70 

8.00 

II. CO 

36.00 

1-75 
32.00 

3.25 

9.40 

16.00 

22.00 

8!oo 
50.00 


71 


lO 

8 

8 

8 
10 
10 
18 
20 
22 

14 

8 

18 

12 

8 . 

8 
12 
12 
10 


S 


11 


11 


14 


70. - 


'^ 


IQ 


8? 


It.:::::::. 


U::::::::.- 

01. 


2-75 
1.40 


33 


oc 


150 
1. 00 


39 


07 


40 


yf 

99 

107 


1.25 
.20 


53 


54 


108. 


.20 


57 


119 

120 


.70 
I 00 


58.... 


60. :. 


143 

IdA. 


8 00 


61 


1.20 


62 


165.... ;;;; 
166 


':'£ 


64 


65.... .... 


178 


.60 


66 







Apri/ 8, 1898. 



Weil No. 



13 
14 
26 

54 

5^ 
58 



Parts 

per Million 

Chlorine. 



12 
12 
12 

74 
152 
172 



I 



Iron. 



1.20 
.10 

.05 
2.50 
5.00 
8.00 



Well No. 



60 
73 

79 
86. 

95 
99 



Parts 

per Million 

Chlorine. 



84 

8 

360 

10 

20 

38 



Iron. 



4 00 
1. 10 
2.00 
1.90 
2.10 
.60 



When it was found that the wells enclosed in this area were responsible 
for the greater part of the chlorine, and it may be added of iron as well, 
these wells were shut off with temporary benefit to the supply, but it was 
found that after a time the salt water began to affect the wells in the east row, 
and as it was feared that ultimately many more of the wells would become 
salt if this process of shutting down the affected wells was continued, the 
plan was not carried further, and ultimately, when the need for water in the 
city became pressing, all of the wells were put into use. At the present time 
the amount of chlorine in the water furnished by this combined system is 
about 22 parts per million, about the same as it was five years ago. 



412 

Chlorine at Baiseleys Driven Well Station, 

This station is located at the head of Mud Creek, about one mile south- 
west of the Jameco station and about one and a half miles from Jamaica Bay. 
The plant consists of lOO 2-inch wells, driven on the north side of the con- 
duit and adjacent to it. Their depths vary from 28 to 65 feet and average 
about 44 feet. The wells are numbered from the east to the west end, the 
odd numbers being on the north side of the suction main and the even num- 
bers bemg on the south side. Fifty-two of the wells are located east of the 
receiver and 48 wells west of it. The surface of the ground at this station 
has an elevation of about eight feet. The pumping plant has a capacity of 
three million gallons. 

In the fall of 1897 the water at this station was foimd to contain about 
150 parts of chlorine per million, which was obviously caused by the infiltra- 
tion of sea water from Jamaica Ray. In order to determine whether or not 
all of the wells were equally affected, certain of the wells were disconnected 
and individually sampled. The results are shown in the following table: 



No. 



g3- 
81 . 

69. 



41. 

23. 
9 



Chlorine. 
East End. 


1 


12.0 
12.0 


ICO 

, 88 


13.0 

2. 

12.0 

425.0 

1325.0 


! S 
16 



No. 



Chlorine. 
West End. 



12.0 

13.0 

13.0 

22.0 

220.0 

550.0 

2950.0 



These analyses indicated that it was the wells of the eastern half of the 
plant which were affected, and that the wells on the south side of the suction 
main contained a larger proportion of sea water than the wells on the north 
side. In order to get rid of the chlorine, the eastern half of the plant was 
shut off on November 8, 1897, when the chlorine dropped from 149 to 17 
parts per million. After pumping for a few days, however, the chlorine be- 
gan to increase until November 25, 1897, it reached 50 parts per million. The 
pumps were then stopped, and the plant remained inoperative until Decem- 
ber I. On that date the whole plant was put into commission. On December 
8, the chlorine had reached 61 parts per million, and the pump was again 
stopped. It was started again on December 29, with the chlorine at 57 parts 
per million, but it was found on December 30 that the chlorine was 155 parts 
per million. Pumping was thereupon discontinued and the plant remained 
shut down until March 12. It was started on that date with a chlorine of 12 
parts i^er million. This speedily increased until on !March 28 it had reached 
145 parts per million, when the plant was again shut down. 



413 



200 



: 150 >^ 





(^ 


\ 






^ 


V-' 


\^\^^ 






v^ 






>^v\ 


\ 


1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 



^100 

I 

I 50 



DIAOKAM XI. ilPP. V#. 
CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing the Amount of Chlorine in the Shallow Wells at Baisley's Pumping Station. 

The following table shows the results of chlorine determinations during 
these periods : 



Chlorine at Baiseley's Driven Well Station {Entire Plant), 



Dale. 



1897. 
Nov. I 



9 
10 
II 
12 
13 
15 
17 
19 
21 
22 

.1 

Dec. I 

8 



Chlorine. 



45.0 
149.0 
17.0 
18.0 
20.0 
20.0 
22.0 
23.0 
25.0 
26.0 
32.0 

37.0 
40.0 
50.0 



I 



38.0 
61.0 



Remarks. 



Eastern half shut off. 



Stopped pumping. 
Started entire plant. 
Stopped pumping. 



Date. 



1897. 
Dec. 29 



' 14 

1 


30 


1 Mar. 


12 


It 


13 




14 


<4 


15 




16 


t( 


17 


*• 


18 


4« 


19 




20 


44 


21 


44 


22 


, " 


23 


44 


25 




27 


*• 


28 



II 



Chlorine. 



57.0 

155.0 

12.0 

50.0 

50.0 

80.0 

120.0 

125.0 

140.0 

140.0 

140.0 

150.0 

150.0 

150.0 

145.0 

145.0 

145.0 



Remarks. 



Started. 
Stopped. 



Shut down. 



It will be seen, therefore, that the attempt to get rid of the sea water 
by occasionally shutting down the plant was only partially successful, and in 
recent years the demand for water has been so great that this method has not 
been used. The fluctuations in the amount of chlorine present from 1897 to 
1902 are shown in Diagram 11. 



414 

Brackish Water at Shot ticket Pumping Station. 

In the fall of 1897 the Shetucket Pumping Station was established at 
a point about one mile from Jamaica Bay, nearly south of the village of 
Jamaica, on the south side of and adjoining the conduit. The plant con- 
sisted of a 6-inch suction and twelve 8-inch driven wells. The wells passed 
through a deep layer of sand, thence through a layer of clay into a stratum of 
green sarfd. The wells were staggered along the main suction about 75 feet 
apart, and were numbered from i to 12, beginning at the easterly end. The 
even numbers w^ere on the seaward side of the suction main. The depths of 
the individual wells are as follows : 
Number. Depth. 

1 172 feet. 

2 180.5 '' 

3 167 " 

4 182 " 

5 181 '' 

6 168 " 

7 170 " 

8 : 177.5 " 

9 178 " 

10 : 176.5 " 

II 172 '* 

12 175 " 

The average elevation of the surface of the ground was about 6.5 feet 
above the datum plane. 

The first sample was taken from the wells on October 4, and showed 
that the water was of good quality. The chlorine was 4.3 parts per million, 
which was lower than the normal for that region, and which corresponds 
well with the normal chlorine in the middle of Long Island. 

For a few months water was pumfx^d at the rate of about 3,700,000 gal- 
lons per day, the quality. of the water remaining about the same. In March, 
1898, the rate of pumping was increased to nearly six million gallons, and 
following that, the amount of chlorine in the water began to increase and led 
to a reduction in the rate of pumping. From that time on the amount of 
chlorine in the water has steadily increased, until in 1902 the average chlorine 
was 433.7 parts per million. This increase of chlorine is shown in Diagram 
No. 12. The increasing brackishness of the water caused still further reduc- 
tion in the rate of pumping, until on January i, 1903, it was below one mil- 
lion gallons per day. The average daily amount of water pumped during 
each month is also shown on the diagram mentioned. It will be noticed that 



415 

whenever pumping ceased, there was a decrease in the amount of chlorine 
in the water. Accompanying the increasing chlorine there was an increase 
in the free ammonia, Iron, hardness and total solids. There was no increase, 
however, in the amount of organic matter, as shown by the albuminoid am- 
monia, neither was there any increase in the nitrates. The nitrites fluctuated 
.between wnde limits with no apparent regularity. The iron present in the 
water produced a noticeable milkiness, and caused the apparent color to in- 
crease from 6 to 32. 




OIAORAM XII, A^^. VI. 



"5 









-3 






bo 









I 



^ 



416 





d 


00000 

i 5 a ? i 

^ en M M m 




II' 

HJ5 


XXO3.0 

;88.o 
5x0.0 
408.0 
890.0 




s 
5 


Feb. 3 
Apr. x6 
June 23 
July xo 
Aug. 36 






^ 8. 



» O "^r 



^8 ^ 






hS 



•a " 









00000000000000 

O ei M ooon o^m mm rs.mt«.t<> 



o o 






Si 



< s 



Ull^ 





u 


000000000000 


i 


1^" 

V 


wtiOOOOOOinoOOtn 

i ti a Hi s t ir ^ 






Jan. 17 
Feb. 14 
Mar. x6 
Apr. II 
May 9 
June 13 
July 5 
Aug. 8 
Sept. 14 
Oct. 10 
Nov. 8 
Dec. 6 



o o 

8 i 



« rs o» Ok 2 2* 2" 



s- ? s s 



•5 ^ 



i g = ^ i i^ 6i % iz ^ z 

^^inv)invo<0'ovo io»o 



B -^ 
§ ^ 



S A ^ < J5 < 








00 


♦ 





^ 


m 


« 


00 





M 










♦ 


♦ 


-«• 


♦ 


«o 


OS 


M 


00 




?i 


s, 


•a « 

h1 




















rf> 




vi 


•n 





M 


5 

M 


^ 

w 




5. 


s, 


M 


00 

H 


'i 







$ JS> 



.o* 

£ 






s = A ^ * 6 ;5 



o z 



^ 



417 

In order to determine whether or not the chlorine came from certain 
particular wells, or from the wells on the water side of the suction main 
more than from the wells on the opposite side, series of observations were 
taken on September 20, 1898, March 9, 1899, ^"^ October 24, 1902. On these 
dates samples were taken from each of the different wells. The results 
showed no regularity at all. In general, the chlorine was higher on the water 
side than on the land side. 

The source of the chlorine is evidently sea water, which reaches the wells 
not by passing vertically downward through the upper strata of sand, but 
rather by passing inward from the sea under the clay bed. 

On October 24, 1902, a 2-inch test well was sunk at the station and car- 
ried down to a depth of 125 feet, samples being collected at various points as 
the well was driven down. The amount of chlorine found at different depths 
was as follows. They are in striking contrast to those obtained for the water 
pumped from below the clay. 



Depth Feet. 



12 
22 
33 
44 

54 



Chlorine. 



20.0 

4.0 

IX. 8 

13.4 
7.2 



Depth Feet. 



76. 

96. 
106. 
125. 



Chlorine. 



II. O 

5.4 
5.4 



In order to determine whether or not the amount of chlorine was in- 
creased by the tides, a series of samples was collected every two hours, from 
February 28, 1899, at 9 a. m. to March i, 1899, at 11 p. m. 

The results of these analyses were as follows: 



Date. 


. Time. 


Chlorine. 


Date. 


Time. 


Chlorine. 


Feb. 28 


9 A. M. 


1 
126 


Mar. I 


5 A.M. 


128 


" 28 


II " 


126 




» J 


7 " 


128 


" 28 


I P. M. 


128 




* I 


9 '* 


128 


•• 28 


3 '* 


128 




* I 


II " 


128 


*• 28 


5 *' 


126 1 




IS I 


I P. M. 


126 


" 28 


7 ** 


128 




* I 


3 " 


126 


" 28 


9 ** 


126 




^ I 


5 " 


128 


" 28 


II ** 


126 ! 




' I 


7 " 


128 


Mar. I 


I A. M. 


128 1 




* I 


9 •* 


126 


I 


3 '' 


128 




t 1 


II " 


126 



4i8 



A second series of hourly samples was collected on February 3 and 
1903, and the results were as follows: 



Date. 


Time. 


Chlorine (Parts 
per Million). 


Date. 


Time. 


Chlorine (Parts 
per MUUon). 


Feb. 3 

3 

'; 3 

** 3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 


8 A.M. 

9 " 

10 " 

11 " 

12 " 

1 P.M. 

2 '* 

I " 
I " 

1 " 
9 " 


88 
88 
90 
90 
92 

90 
90 

90 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 


Feb. 3 

' ** 3..*.*^ 
1 " 4!!!!!. 

1 " 4 

1 4 

' ** 4 

1 " 4 

1 *' 4 

1 ;; 4 

1 ,, 4 


10 P.M. 

11 ** 

12 " 

1 A.M. 

2 *' 

3 " 

4 " 

I " 

7 " 

8 ** 

9 *! 

10 ** 

11 " 


90 
90 

92 
90 
90 
92 
92 
92 
92 

94 
92 
90 
90 
90 



On February 3 the tide in Jamaica Bay was high at 12 rroon. Low water 
occurred at 7 P. m. On February 4 high water occurred at i a. m. and low 
water at 8 p. m. It will be observed that in both of these cases the fluctua- 
tions were extremely small, probably too small to be charged directly to the 
tidal changes. 

On December 17, 1902, the amount of chlorine in the water of She- 
tucket was 462 parts per million. The plant was shut dOwn on December 9, 
1902. On January 9, 1903, at 8 a. m., the plant was started up, and the 
amount of chlorine was 80 parts per million. Samples were then taken twice 
a day for six days, with the following results of progressive increase in the 
amount of chlorine: 



Date. 



\" 



Time. 



Jan. 



9 


..1 8A.M. 


9 


..] 12 M. 


9 


12 P.M. 


10 


.. 12 M. 


10 


. 12 P. M. 


II. ... 


.. 12 M. 



Chlorine (Parts 
per Million). 



Date. 



Time. 



80 
98 
174 
234 
276 
296 



Jan. II 12 P.M. 

" 12......' 12 M. 

" 12 12P.M. 

** 13 12M. 

" 13 ' 12 P. M. 

♦* 14 12 M. 



Chlorine (Parts 
per Million). 



266 

344 
358 

39C 
396 



Chlorine at Spring Creek Driven Well Station. 

The driven well station at Spring Creek is located at the head of Old 
Mill Creek, about one mile south of Woodhaven and about two miles from 
Jamaica Bay. There are at this station three systems of driven wells, 



419 

namely, the deep wells of the old plant, the shallow wells of the old plant 
and the shallow wells of the new or temporary plant. The deep wells pierce 
the clay strata and are not salt, and therefore need not be considered. The 
old shallow well system consists of lOO two-inch wells driven to depths 
ranging from 30 to 42 feet, and averaging 36 feet. They were sunk in two* 
rows along the main suction at intervals of 14 feet, the wells of each pair 
being about 14 feet apart. They are numbered from the central receiver 
towards either end, the most easterly well being called 50 east and the most 
westerly being called 50 west. The odd numbers are on the north side of 
the conduit and the even numbers on the south side. In September, 1897, 
the water pumped from this system w^as found to be affected by the sea water 
to such an extent that it contained nearly 300 parts per million of chlorine. 
On October 26 and 27 several of the wells were disconnected and individu- 
ally sampled, with the results given in the following table: 



Amount of Chlorine in the Water from Various Wells at Spring Creek 
Pumping Station (Old Plant) on October 26-27, 1897. 



Number. 


Chlorine. 


Number. 


Chlorine. 


a7 Easf . . - 


II. ' 
13.0 1 
14.0 ' 
18.0 

20.0 1 
21.0 1 
14.0 1 
12.0 
13.0 
124.0 

"31.0 

14.0 

67.0 

185.0 


q West 


II 


41 ' 

37 * 
35 * 
31 * 
27 * 
50 * 

44 * 
40 • 

34 • 
26 * 




13 * 
17 * 
21 • 

27 * 
31 * 

43 ' 
47 ' 
12 ' 
20 * 
24 * 

28 * 

30 ' 

46 * 
50 ' 




Vo 








10. 






10. 




10 




9.0 

10 








275.0 
Sod 






650.0 
450.0 
500.0 
650.0 
850.0 
1400.0 






14 ' 

T?. * 















It will be seen from this table that it was the southwest quarter of the 
plant which was affected. 



420 



sou 

|l50 

I 
|100 

i ^ 














A A. 




A 


K 


A 


. /^ 


AA 


\ 


kJ] 


Jw^ 


\A 


\J 


v 




1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 



DIAGRAM r«. ilPP. Vf. 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing the Amoant of Chlorine in the Spring Creek Wells. Average of Old Plant, 

Deep and Shallow Wells, and Temporary Plant, Shallow Wells. 

On October 21 the plant was shut down and the wells in this quarter 
were discontinued. On starting the pumps on October 30 it was found that 
the chlorine had dropped from 278 to 19 parts per million. In less than 
twenty-four hours after starting, however, the chlorine increased rapidly, 
showing that the water had passed over to the wells on the south side of the 
suction main. On November 5 the chlorine had reached 240 parts per 
million and the plant was shut down. It was started again on November 26, 
with the same result, and this continued until January 8. The plant re- 
mained shut down from January 8 to March 12, and when it was started up 
the chlorine increased much more slowly than before, probably because of 
the higher elevation of the ground water at that time. This is shown by 
the following table: 



421 



Chlorine in the Water from the Shallow Wells at Spring Creek, Old Plant. 



Date. 


Chlorine. 




Dare. 
1898. 


Chlorine. 




18^7- 










Oct. II 


278.0 




Mar. 17 


.■^5.0 




21 




Shut down. 


f ** 18 


60 




- 29 




Started up without S. W. 


** 19 


70 








quarter. 


** 20 


80.0 




*• 30 


19.0 




" 21 


85.0 




; 31 


168.0 




1 " 22 


Q50 




^OV. I 


196.0 




" 23 


IIO.O 




2 


2^6.0 




" 24 


125.0 




;; 3 


230.0 


1 


" 25 


130.0 




4 


226.0 


" 28 


150.0 




5 


240.0 


Shut down. 


" 30 


165.0 




" 26 


18.0 


Started. 1 


Apr. I 


170.0 




" 27 


7';.o 


1 


" 5 


170.0 




Dec. I 


178.0 


Shut down. ' 


" II 


175.0 




1898. 




1 


- 15 


170.0 




Jan. 2 


10. 


1 


" 21 


170.0 




4 


62.0 




" 25 


175.0 




" 1 


82.0 




" 27 


165.0 


Shut down. 


136.0 


Shut down. 


Aug. 12 


125.0 




Mar. 12 


20.0 


Started. 


Sept. 8 


482.0 


Whole plant started. 


;; *3 


20.0 




^" 9 


240.0 




" 14 


20 




Oct. 6 


2ia.o 




" 15 


30.0 




Nov. 3 


166.0 





Chlorine in Individual Shallow Wells of the Spring Creek Pumping Sta- 
tion, Old Plant, September 9, 1898. 



Number. 


Chlorine. | 

1 


Number. 


Chlorine. 


47 


i 

17.0 , 

15.0 

15.0 1 

12.0 


30 West 

40 " 


300.0 
450.0 

375 
320.0 


50 East 

46 '* 


46 " :..::..;:::;;::. 


io " :::;;:;::;:::::: 


CO ** 


^2 " 


12.0 









On September 9, 1898, a second series of observations was made to 
determine the distribution of the chlorine. It was found as before that the 
salt came from the southwest quarter of the plant, but the fig'ures were not 
as high as those obtained on October 26, 1897. The fluctuations in the 
chlorine from 1897 to 1902 are shown in Diagram No. 13. 

The new or temporary plant at Spring Creek consists of 13 six-inch 
wells 30 feet long, staggered on each side of the main suction at about 35 
feet from it, the wells being driven to depths ranging from 42 to 75 feet. The 
water from these wells is but slightly affected by the sea water. The chlorine 
seldom rises above 50 parts per million. Attempts were made to reduce this 
chlorine, however, in the fall of 1897, wnth results shown in the following 
table: 



422 

Chlorine in Water from Shallow Wells, Spring Creek Pumping Station, 

Temporary Plant. 



Date. 


Chlorine. 


1897. 




Oct. 22 


13.2 


Nov. 30 


42.0 


Dec. 6 


56.0 


'! 7 


58.0 


" 30 


21.0 


1898. 




Jan. 4 


62.0 


:: i 


59.0 


37.0 


" «s 




Mar. 12 


16.0 


;; '3 


30.0 


" »4 


20.0 


" 19 


25.0 



Shut down. 
Started. 



Shut down. 



Date. 


Chlorine. 


1898. 




1 Mar. 25 


25.0 


i " 30 


40.0 


Apr. I 


50.0 


" 11 


4S.O 


•' 17 


45.0 


" 19 


60.0 


, ** 2, 


50.0 


1 ^5 


50.0 


! •• 28 


50.0 


1 May 2 


.', * 


, .. 3 


35.0 


" 5 


50.0 


1 " '3 




' " 14 


50.0 



Shut down. 
Started. 



Shut down. 
Started. 



tome o» eo "* 

i! 



October 

P.M. 
crt «D »• 00 



1897 



<* 3 a ^ 



iH « 09 ^ 



October 10 
A.M. 



996 




1 








1 


i 






' 












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DtAQRAM 14. ilPP. Vf. 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department op Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing the Relation between the Tides and the Amount of Chlorine in the old Shallow 

Well Plant at the Spring Creek Pumping Station, Brooklyn Water Works, 

October 9 and 10, 1897. 

The influence of sea water upon this station was well shown by 
observations made on October 9 and 10, 1897. Samples were collected 
from the pump every hour, with the results shown on Diagram No. 14. The 
times of high and low water in Jamaica Bay are also shown on the diagram. 
It will be seen from these calculations that the rise and fall of the tide caused 
fluctuations in the amount of chlorine in the water pumped. There was 



423 

apparently a lag of several hours between the time of high tide and the time 
of highest chlorine in the water. The hourly increase in chlorine after the 
pumps had been shut down for some time is shown in Diagram 15. 



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* October !«» 1807 October 17, 189T 

DIAORAM XV. ilPP. VI. 
CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department op Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing Hourly Increase in Chlorine in Water from Spring Creek Old Plant, Shallow 

Wells, October i6 and 17, 1897, after starting the pump. 

Hardness — Ridgewood System. 

The hardness of the various waters of the Ridgewood system is shown 
by the following table, giving the average hardness of these different sources 
for a period of five years: 



424 






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425 

There are no limestone deposits which outcrop on Long Island, and the 
surface waters are comparatively soft. They increase in hardness, however, 
from east to west, this fact being due apparently to tlie effect of increasing 
density of population. The permanent hardness due to the sulphates, 
nitrates, etc., is generally higher in these waters than in the surface waters 
of the Croton watershed, this being due in part, no doubt, to the proximity 
of these watersheds to the sea coast. Just as the chlorine is higher near the 
coast on account of the salt being blown in as a fine spray from the ocean, so 
also are some of the other mineral constituents increased. 

The ground waters naturally show the greatest variations in hardness. 
The wells on the " new " watershed are extremely soft, and are especially 
low in alkalinity. 

The hardness of the Ridgewood water since 1898 is shown by months 
in the following figures : 

Mean Monthly Hardness of the Water Entering Ridgezvood Resenfoir. 



April. 
May.. 
June. . 



October. . . 
November. 
December. 



Maximum . 
Minimum. 



189S. 



January ' 34 .4 

February 29.1 

March 37.0 



38-4 
33.0 
26.6 



July 26.9 

August 2q.q 

September 37.0 



40.5 
39.5 
33.3 



56.5 
14.9 



Average ' 33 . 8 



1899. 



35.4 
39-3 
32.9 

33.7 
39.7 
34.8 

32.7 
34.4 
34.8 

32.6. 
34 o 



43.6 
323 

34.7 



1900. 



30.5 
37.4 
38.2 

35.3 
37.3 
39.5 

36.3 
35.2 

36.0 
45-4 
39.3 



49.0 
27.3 

370 



1901. 



34.6 
37.7 
37.8 

35.8 
33-9 
37.1 

37.8 

39.7 
40.0 

3«.6 
41. 1 
44.3 



52.3 
24.0 

38.0 



1902. 



41.2 
41.4 
42.7 

38.9 
34.0 

37.2 

38.4 
38.4. 
36.0 

37.8 
37.7 
32.7 



22.8 
38.0 



1903. 

(11 Months). 



31.8 
30.4 
18.7 

26.7 
27.5 
21.5 

27.1 
30.0 
32.4 

25.3 
25.9 



41.5 
I4.S 

27.0 



It will be seen from this that there is no regular seasonal change m 
hardness of the city water, the fluctuations being caused rather by different 
combinations of the various sources of supply. During the past five years 
the average annual hardness has gradually increased until the present year, 
when the partially closing of some of the well stations has resulted in re- 
ducing it. 



426 

The shallow wells on the old watershed which are not affected by sea 
water, namely, Watts Pond Wells, Clear Stream Wells and Forest Stream 
Wells, are likewise comparatively soft, although harder than the eastern 
wells.- The shallow wells which are affected by the sea water, as indicated by 
their high chlorine, namely, Jameco Deep and Shallow, Baiseley's and Springy 
Creek, have high hardnesses with especially high sulphates, nitrates, etc. The 
deep wells vary considerably. At Springfield the water is very soft, while at 
Jameco, Shetucket and Spring Creek there are high alkalinities, but low sul- 
phates. At Shetucket, on the other hand, the hardness is very high, and is 
due chiefly to sulphates, nitrates, etc. These wells, however, are very much 
affected by sea water. 

The waters from these various sources unite to give an average hard- 
ness at Ridgewood of 35.6 parts per million, of which 16.7 is due to carbon- 
ates and bicarbonates and 19.9 to sulphates, nitrates, etc. These figures 
often vary with great suddenness as one or another of the different sources 
of supply are turned on or shut oft. The bad effect upon the system of the 
use of such water as that from the Shetucket Wells, for example, is very 
obvious, and the good results attendant upon shutting down these wells is 
equally evidenced. 

The high chlorine, relatively high sulphates and high nitrates unite to 
make the water from the Ridgewood system a poor water for use in steam 
boilers. A comparison between this water and that of the Croton supply, 
which is quite satisfactory for boilers, is instructive. 



Tolal solids 

Chlorine 

Alkalinity 

Periranent hardness (sul- 
phates, nitrates, etc.) 

Total hardness 

Nitrates 

Iron 



Parts per Million. 



Croton Water, 135th 
Street Gale- House. 
(Average 9 Months.) 



2.0 
32.7 

4.7 

37.4* 

0.14 

0.28 



MiJlburn 
Pumping Statioo. 
(Average for * 
Five Years.) 



41.7 
5.7 

5-4 

91 
14.5 
o 91 
0.25 



Ridgewood Water, at Pumping Station. 



Average for Five 
Years, 1898 to 1903. 



92.6 
17.6 
16.7 

18.9 

35-6 
1.07 
0.52 



1903. 



74.0 
10.3 
12.2 

14.8 
27.0 
1. 14 
0.34 



It will be seen that the total hardness is not greatly different in the two 
waters, but the hardness of the Croton water is due chiefly to carbonates and 
tends to form a soft scale in boilers, which the hardness in the Ridgewood 
water is due largely to sulphates, etc., which tend to form a hard scale. The 



*The average of 15 years was 38.9. 



427 

Ridgevvood water is not a scale-forming water, however, so much as it is a 
corrosive water. 1 his is due to the chlorides, especially to the chloride of 
magnesium, derived from the brackish wells. The amount of dissolved free 
carbonic acid, another corrosive constituent, is also greater in the Ridge- 
wood water than in the Croton water, this also being derived from the 
driven w^ells. A practical example of the effects of the Brooklyn water upon 
boilers may be observed at the Ridgewood Pumping Station, where some of 
the boilers are very badly pitted. In contrast to these are the boilers at the 
Millburn Pumping Station, which are in excellent condition, and which are 
fed with the water derived from the eastern ponds. The average constitu- 
ents of this water are also given in the above table. 

A few years ago, before the use of those driven wells which are affected 
by sea-water, the Brooklyn supply was considered an excellent one for boiler 
purposes, equal, if not superior, to the Croton water. The following analysis 
made by the late Dr. x^lbert R. Leeds, Stevens Institute, in 1881, shows the 
hardness and chlorine to be much lower than they are at the present time, or 
than they are likely to be again (the population on the watershed having very 
greatly increased during the past 20 years) : 

Sample, from 321 Gates avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. Date of collection, 
June 23, 1881 — 

Color None. 

Taste None. 

Smell 0075 parts per million. 

Free ammonia 0826 

Nitrites 0000 

Nitrates 1.2025 

Oxygen consumed 4.13 

Total solids 60.0 

Organic and volatile lo.o 

Mineral matter 50.0 

Hardness 22.7 

Chlorine 5-5 



Nor has the water yet become serious enough to cause general com- 
plaint. Nevertheless, the presence of 25 parts per million of chlorine in the 
feed water of a boiler cannot be without its effect. 

The elimination from the Ridgewood supply of the driven wells which 
are affected by the sea water is a measure which should be undertaken as 
soon as the amount of water thus lost can be made up from other sources. 
This is a practical proposition in which every boiler owner in the city should 
be interested. 



428 

Iron. 

Some of the driven wells of the Ridgewood system contain large 
amounts of iron. This is shown by the following table of average figures: 

Table Showing the Amount of Iron in the Different Sources of Sup- 
ply (Average, 1898-1902). 



Surface Water. 



Massapequa Pond 

Wantagh Pond 

Newbridge Pond 

East Me^ow Pond 

Millburn Pond 

Hempstead Storage Reservoir. 

Schodack Brook 

Hempstead Pond 

Pine's Pond 

Smifh's Pond 

Valley Stream Pond 

Walts Pond 

Clear Stream Pond 

Simonson*s Pond , 
Springfield Pond , 



Iron 
Parts per 
Million. 



i| 



Ground Water. 



.08 
.21 

.18 

fs 

.27 
.24 

.40 

•55 
•34 
.41 
.14 
.26 
•81 
Baiseley's Pond I 1.26 



Massapequa (deep and shallow). . 

Wantagh (deep and shallow) 

Matawa (deep and shallow) 

Merrick (deep and shallow) 

Agawam (deep and shallow) 

Watt's Pond (shallow) 

Clear Stream Pond (shallow) 

Forest Stream Pond (shallow) 

Springfield Pond (deep) , 

Jameco (deep) 

** (deep and shallow) 

Baiseley's (shallow) 

Oconee (deep) , 

Shetucket (deep) , 

Spring Creek, Old Plant (deep). . . 

" (shallow) 

** New Plant (shallow) 



I Iron 
' Parts per 
Million. 



.45 
.51 
.45 
.67 
.27 
• 64 

1. 18 

.63 

3.37 

.20 

.57 
2.02 

.06 
.13 



Ridgewood, Basin No. 2 Influx 

" 3 " 

" I Efflux 

Mt. Prospect Reservoir 

Tap in Mt. Prospect Laboratory 

" Flushing and Clermont avenues. 

** Flaibush and Seventh avenues. . 



Parts per 
Million. 

.58 

.45 

.3« 
■37 
.33 
.22 

.41 
.37 
.37 



The iron is highest in the wells at Forest Stream, Springfield, Jameco 
and Shetucket. In general the deep well water, that is, water below the clay 
strata, contains the largest amount. The iron precipitates on standing and 
the figures show that a considerable reduction occurs in the distribution res- 
ervoirs and pipes. As delivered to the consumers the amount of iron in the 
water is comparatively small. 



429 

Independent Water Supplies — Borough of Brooklyn. 

In every case, save one, the waters supplied by the independent driven 
well stations in the borough are entirely satisfactory from the physical and 
sanitary standpoint. They are cold, clear, practically colorless and odorless, 
contain little or no organic matter, very little iron, few bacteria, no offensive 
microscopic organisms, and invariably give negative tests for Bacillus coli. 

The exception referred to is that of the New Lots Supply (formerly 
the Long Island Water Supply Company) which supplies water to East New 
York. This supply has an open reservoir connected with its system, which 
frequently becomes foul from growths of microscopic organisms, such as 
S>'nedra and Chlamydomonas. These organisms are sometimes found in 
numbers as high as 25,000 per c, c. At such times, consumers who happen to 
receive the back flow from the reservoir, complain seriously of the quality 
of the water, and certainly with good reason. It is an exaggerated case of 
the evil effects of storing ground waters in an open reservoir. This reservoir 
is small, and if its use is to be continued, it should be roofed over. 

The chlorine, however, is generally somewhat high in these independent 
supplies, as shown by the following table of average results for five years 
(1898-1902) : 



Supply. 



New Lots 

German-American 

Gravesend 

New Utrecht 



Chlorine. 



Parts per Million. 



Supply. 



Chlorine. 



Parts per Million. 



21.4 
27.1 

64.1 



Flatbush 

I Pfalzgraf. 

I Blythebourne. . 

Prosptct Park. 



>3.i 

«.S.3 

8.1 

7.0 



The most serious case is that of the New Utrecht supply. 

This station is located about i mile east of Gravesend and about ij4 niiles 
north of Sheepshead Bay. It is near East Fourteenth street and between Ave- 
nues U and V. It is about 3,000 feet southwest from the Gravesend Pump- 
ing Stations. The system consists of eight-inch wells driven to an average 
depth of about 30 feet. Ordinarily, the chlorine in the water has not exceeded 
25 parts per million, but during the spring of 1900, when the draught on the 
plant was increased, the effect of the infiltering sea water began to be noticed. 
The chlorine increased in a somewhat irregular manner until, in the summer of 
1901, it reached 165 parts per million. After that it somewhat rapidly de- 
creased. During the summer of 1902 there was a decrease of 70 parts per 
million. These fluctuations are shown on Diagram Xo. 16. 



430 



A>Oi- 




DIAQRAM 19. ARF 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing parts per Million of Chlorine in the Water of the New Utrecht Wells, 

from 1898 to 1902. 

The waters furnished by the independent companies, because of their 
hardness and high chlorine, are unsatisfactory as boiler-waters. 

They are quite hard, as shown by the following table of average results, 
based on monthly or quarterly observations covering a period of four, and in 
some cases five vears : 



Hardness in Parts per Million. 



Alka'inity. 



New Lots Driven Wells , 102 .6 

German-American Water Supply Company : 103 .0 

Gravesend Driven Wells | 57.4. 

New Utrecht 61 .8 

Flatbush Water Supply Company 60.0 

Pfalzgraf Water Company i<^i . 5 

Blythebourne Water Supply Company 63.6 

Prospect Park I42 .0 



Permanent 
Hardness. 



65.2 
71.0 

35.8 
66.9 

61.9 
29.5 
40.0 



Total 
Hardness. 



167.8 
174.0 

93-2 
I2«.7 
105.4 
162.4 

03 I 
182.5 



It will be seen that the water from New Lots (formerly the Long Island 
Water Supply Company), the German-American, the Pfalzgraf and Prospect 
Park driven well stations is excessively hard, and the hardness includes not 
only carbonates, but sulphates and nitrates in large quantities. The next 
hardest water is that from the Xew Utrecht driven wells, which are some- 
what affected at times by sea water. The Flatbush water stands next in hard- 
ness, and last are the Gravesend and Blythebourne wells, which are only 
slightly softer than the Flatbush water, but which have lower permanent 
hardnesses. 



431 

The hardness of all these driven well waters has shown an increase dur- 
ing the past five years, as indicated by the following figures : 



Hardness, Parts per Million. 



New Lots 

Gennan-American 

Gravesend 

New Utrecht 

Flatbush 

Pfalzgraf 

Blythebourne . . . . 



1898. 



124.. I 

165.9 

91. 1 

90.1 

95-7 
72.9 

75-7 



1899. 


1900. 
191.4 


1901. 
181. 7 


1902. 


1903. 


149.8 


\m 


182.8 


172.3 


156.I 


189.5 


19s. 


91.6 
87.5 


IOQ.8 


88.3 


94.2 


98.7 


135-9* 


185.6* 


144.2 


136.1 


Q9-6 


109.9 


109.9 


112.0 


iir.4 


167.8 


183.0 


196.4 


192.0 


165.4 


80.1 


91.2 


92.1 


126.3 


66.^ 



The water furnished by the independent plants has one desirable quality 
which that ©f the Ridgewood system does not have, namely, a more equable 
temperature. As the water is taken from the ground at a considerable depth 
and pumped directly into the distribution pipes, it retains with but slight dif- 
ference its initial temperature, so that during the summer the citizens are 
furnished with water cool enough for drinking without adding ice (*. e., 
about 55 degrees F.), while in the winter the temperature is about 15 degrees 
above the freezing point. The temperature of the Ridgewood water, on the 
other hand, is only a few degrees above the freezing point during the winter, 
and in summer often rises to above 70 degrees, making it unpalatable and em- 
phasizing any objectionable odors that the water may happen to have. (See 
Diagram No. 17A.) 



♦Affected by s«a water during thes: years. 



432 







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CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Typical Temperature Curves for Surface Water, Ground Water and Mixed Surface and Ground 

Water, showing seasonal variations. 



433 

• 9- QUALITY OF THE WATER SUPPLY OF THE BOROUGH OF QUEENS. 

The Borough of Queens depends almost entirely upon ground water for 
its sources of suppl>'. The only exception is the station at Bayside, where a 
small amount of water is occasionally drawn from Oakland Lake. Some of 
the supplies are owned and operated by the City, while others are owned by 
private companies, as indicated in Table No. ic. 

All of the waters supplied to the Borough of Queens are generally satis- 
factory as to their physical qualities. , They are generally clear, very low in 
color and without odor. They are also satisfactory from the sanitary stand- 
point. The water of Oakland Lake, part of the Bayside supply, is turbid at 
times and has a disagreeable odor, but this water is very seldom used. The 
water at the Flushing Station also has, at times, a slight turbidity. 

There are only two water supplies in the borough where there is any 
practical danger of pollution. These are the Flushing Station (formerly 
called the College Point Station), and the Bayside Station (formerly called 
the Flushing Station). The former supply consists of an open basin which is 
fed almost entirely by ground water. A small stream passes along the side 
of this basin and is separated from it by an earthen embankment. This stream 
is more or less polluted. There are a dozen houses within a distance of about 
a mile from the basin, and the hills along the stream are steep and richly culti- 
vated. Under ordinary conditions, the water in the brook is lower than that 
in the basin, but after heavy rains it becomes higher, and is in danger of en- 
tering the basin should there be any leak in the gate which connects it with 
the basin. The brook water should, under no condition, be used. On one 
occasion it was found that the gate had been left open by accident, and 
analyses indicated that the water pumped was temporarily in a bad condition. 

Oakland Lake forms a part of the available supply at the Flushing Sta- 
tion. It is not ordinarily drawn upon, however. It has a small watershed 
upon which there is comparatively little pollution, although there are a few 
houses and some farm land upon it. The physical character of the lake water 
is unsatisfactory, however, and the supply is ordinarily unfit for use on ac- 
count of the abundance of microscopic growths. 

With one or two exceptions, the water supplies of the Borough of Queens 
are hard. This is shown by the following table of average results, based on 
quarterly analyses extending in most cases over five years : 



434 
Hardness — Borough of Queens. 



AiL.r.:. ' PermanMit Total 

Alkalinity. . Hardness. | Hnrdn«». 



Long Island City, Station No. i 91 . 5 4 90. 4 181 . 9 

No. 2t 145.2 2730 418.2 

" No. 3 134.9 64.9 ! »99-8 

Citizens' Water Company, Station No. i 142.0 64. i 206. i 

'* * No. 2 109.9 67.7 177.6 

" ** No. 3 92.7 14.8 107.5 

" No. 4 97.3 331 ' «30.4 

" " No. 5 95.8 25.5 I 124.3 

Whitestone Pumping Station ■ 107 .3 32 . 7 140.0 

Flushing Water Works 31. 5 20.4 I 51.9 

Bay&ide Water Works 35.3 13.9 49. 2 

Woodhaven Water Company 109.4 18.9 128.3 

Montauk Water Company 75.8 32.1 107 . 9 

Jamaica Water Supply Company 38.7 43.1 81.8 

Queens County Water Supply Company (filtered) 9.3 4.9 14.2 



The water at Station Xo. 2, used until last year, was excessively hard on 
account of infiltration of sea water and was totally unsuited for purposes of a 
public supply. 

Station Xo. 2, Long Island City. 

This station was located about j/z a mile southeast of Steinway and less 
than J<2 a mile from the East River. It was separated only by a high embank- 
ment from a large swamp area, covered at times by the sea. In 1898, the 
water pumped from this station contained more than 800 parts of chloride per 
million. It was decidedly brackish. Samples have been collected from this 
station only once a quarter. During 1899 and a part of 1900, less water was 
pumped from this station and the pump was not operated during the night. 
This caused the chloride to drop to less than 10 parts per million. During 
1 90 1 and 1902, the chloride continued to increase until it reached 900 parts 
per million. During the first part of 1902 it decreased slightly, until, in No- 
vember, 1902, the station cam.e to an end through the explosion of one of 
the boilers which was indirectly due to corrosion caused by the muriatic char- 
acter of the water. The above mentioned changes in chlorine are shown on 
Diagram Xo. 17. 

+Deji roved ia 19c** bj- boiler explosion. 



435 



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IAU2 I 



DtAQRAM tr. ARR. VI. 

CITY OF NEW YORK. 

COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY. 

Department of Chemistry and Biology. 

Diagram Showing Chlorine in the Wells at Long Island Ciiy, Station Number 2. 

Of the existing plants, the chlorine is excessively high only in Station 
No. I, Long Island City. In several of the stations, however, the chlorine 
is more than lo parts per million. 

The water of the Queens County Water Supply Company, which sup- 
plies the Far Rockaway section, contains a large amount of iron when it 
<:omes from the ground. It is passed through a sand filter, however, before 
it enters the distribution system and all of the iron is removed. The water is 
■cool, clear, colorless, soft, and furnishes a well-nigh perfect supply. It con- 
tains quite a large amount of dissolved carbonic acid, however, and this is 
said to be the occasional cause of trouble in some of the iron service pipes. 

ID. QUALITY OF THE WATER SUPPLIES OF THE BOROUGH OF RICHMOND. 

All of the water supplied to the borough is taken from the ground by 
means of driven wells. There are five stations, only one of which, namely, 
that at Tottenville, is operated by the City. 

These waters are all safe from the sanitary standpoint. 

The wells of New Springville, Clove Station and New Dorp, yield cx- 
<:ellent water, save that it is very hard. 

The water from the Tottenville plant is not only hard but contains a 
large amount of iron in such a condition that it precipitates easily. When the 
water leaves the ground it is clear, but by the time the samples- reach the lab- 
oratory they have become turbid and colored because of the precipitation of 
the oxide of iron. 

The water furnished by the West New Brighton Station of the Staten 
Island Water Supply Company is very unsatisfactory. Not only is it very 



-136 

hard, but it contains a large amount of chloride and iron. It is totally unfit 
for use in boilers, and is objectionable for domestic use. From the sanitary 
standpoint, however, there seems to be no reason to doubt its safety. 

The relative hardnesses of the different water supplies in the Borough 
of Richmond are shown by the following figures, together with the chlorines 
and iron : 



*ii,-i- ;^„ Permanent i Total 
I Alkalinity. ^ Hardness. Hardness. 



I '- 

Staten Island Water Supply Co. — ! | I 

West New Brighton Siation ' 76 . o I loi . 5 | 

New Springville Station i 77 . 6 1 67 .0 | 

Crystal Water Supply Co.— I | 

Clove Station | 97.4 | 41. i | 

South Shore Water Supply Co.— , i 

New Dorp Station ^ 143-4 ' 35-6 

Tottcnville Water Supply Co i 134 . 6 | 33 . 4 



138.5 

179.0 
168.0 



Chlorine. Iron. 



I 

177.5 I 132.6 

144.6 ' II. 9 



6.9 

9.4 
8.5 



.78 
.OI 

.03 

-03 
1. 15 



II. — Stream Investigations. 

So many different sources had been suggested for the future water sup- 
ply of New York City that at the outset it was deemed necessary to extend 
the sanitary investigations over a territory which included the entire water- 
shed of the Hudson River and its tributaries, the upper portion of the 
Neversink River and the east branch of the Delaware River, the Ten Mile 
River, the Housatonic River and the streams on Long Island east of the 
present watershed of the Brooklyn supply. These regions covered over 
fifteen thousand square miles of territory and extended into five different 
States. As the work progressed its scope was contracted until finally all of 
the investigations were focussed upon the regions selected to furnish the 
future water supply of the city. 

The investigations have shown that the streams of the Adirondack 
region would not furnish a water which would be in all respects satisfactory 
to the citizens of New York. The water there is collected from very 
sparsely settled watersheds, but on account of many swamp areas it has a 
color higher than that of the Croton water. This is especially true of the 
North Hudson and Sacandaga Rivers, where the color rose at times to more 
than 80 on the platinum scale, and had an average of 41, as against 21 for 
the Croton water and 15 for the Ridgewood water. The water is conspicu- 
ously clear, however, even during the spring freshets, and is quite soft. 

The Battenkill. Hoosick and Mohawk Rivers, which enter the Hudson 
River above the Troy Dam, are all polluted streams, and their waters arc 
quite turbid and hard. 

The most important streams which enter the Hudson from the west 
below the Troy Dam are Catskill Creek, Esopus Creek, Rondout Creek 



437 

and Wallkill Creek, the last two uniting before they reach the Hudson. These 
streams receive very little pollution, and from the sanitary standpoint would 
make excellent sources of supply. The water of the Wallkill, however, is 
open to the same objection as that of the North Hudson and Sacandaga 
Rivers, namely, its high color. At one time in July the color rose to 86, and 
it had an average of 58 for the entire month. At times, however, it is much, 
lower. The color of the water is due to the effect of the " drowned lands,'*" 
or extensive peat deposits, which cover many square miles on the watershed, 
and which in places are more than fifty feet deep. The water is open to the 
further objection of being quite hard. 

The waters of the Rondout and Esopus are of itiost excellent 
quality, being very light colored and soft. After rains they become turbid 
from the efiect of local clay deposits near the banks of the streams, but this 
is not a serious objection to their use. By proper protection of the banks at 
certain places most of this clay may be kept from entering the streams, and 
long storage and dilution would so reduce the remaining turbidity as to 
make it practically unnoticeable. Filtration would remove it completely. 
The water of the Esopus is slightly better in quality than that of the Ron- 
dout. In fact, the investigations have nowhere shown an available water 
likely to prove so satisfactory for general use as that which can be obtained 
from the Esopus Creek. It has less than one-half the hardness of the present 
Croton supply, is tasteless, odorless and practically colorless. It is clear, 
except for the turbidity observed after rains, which would be lost on storage. 
Filtration or long storage in clean reservoirs would render this water well- 
nigh perfect for purposes of public supply. 

The water of the Catskill Creek is clearer than that of the Esopus Creek 
and its color is not much higher. It contains more calcareous matter, how- 
ever, having a hardness which is but slightly less than that -of the Croton 
water. 

West of the Catskill region is the watershed of Schoharie Creek, which 
flows northward into the Mohawk, and southwest of this are the watersheds of 
the East Delaware and Neversink, which flow southward into the Delaware 
River. The waters of these streams are likewise clear, very soft and with 
little color. 

On the east side of the Hudson, below Albany, the streams which have 
received attention are the Stockport Creek, the Roelif Jansen Kill, Wappin- 
ger Creek and Fishkill Creek. These may be all classed as practically un- 
polluted, clear, tasteless, odorless, and with low color, but with considerable 
amounts of lime salts in solution, rendering them about from one and one- 
half to three times as hard as Croton water. This region is overlaid in 
patches with limestone rocks, and much variation in hardness is found in 
streams very near together. The hardness of these waters is described at 
length on a later page. 



43« 

The limestone deposits extend eastward over the watersheds of the Ten 
Mile and Housa tonic Rivers, rendering the water in those streams very 
hard. They also extend over the northeastern portion of the Croton water- 
shed. 

The detailed results of the stream investigations are given below: 

I. Territory Covered. 

The territory covered by these investigations may be divided as follows, 
for purposes of description: 

Upper Hudson, 
(Region North of Glens Falls.) 
North Hudson River. 
Upper Hudson, West — Upper Hudson, East — 

Sacandaga River. Schroon River. 

Middle Hudson, 
(Region Between Glens Falls and the Troy Dam.) 
Intermediate Hudson, West — Intermediate Hudson, East — 

Fish Creek. Battenkill Creek. 

Mohawk River. Hoosic River. 

Loivcr Hudson. 
(Region Between the Troy Dam and the Sea.) 
Lower Hudson, West — Lower Hudson, East — 

Catskil! Creek. Stockport Cree. 

Esopus Creek, Roelif Jansen Kill. 

Schoharie Creek. Wappinger Creek. 

Rondout Creek. Fishkill Creek. 

Wallkill River. Peekskill Creek. 

Moodna Creek. • Croton River. 

Adjacent Watersheds, 
Delaware River. Ten Mile River. 

Neversink River. Housatonic River. 

Ramapo River. 

Long Island. 

Several Streams in Suffolk County. 

The locations of these various districts are shown on Plate VII. The 
map shows the general hydrographic systems, the locations of the sample 
stations, tide-gauge stations and the most important cities and towns. The 
lines of latitude and longitude correspond with those oi the atlas sheets of 
the United States Geological Survey, and, for convenience, they have been 
numbered in the upper left-hand corner according to the decimal system of 



439 



co-ordination. The names and numbers of the geological sheets are as 
follows: Vertical ranges are represented by thousands and horizontal 
ranges by hundreds. The subdivisions of each atlas sheet are represented by 
tens and units, the numbers beginning at the upper left hand corner. These 
figures are valuable as an index to certain data on file in the Department. The 
numbers given correspond to the atlas sheets, which are named by the 
United States Geological Survey as follows: 

List of Geological Sheets, 



Number 
of Sheet. 


Name. 


Number 
1 of Sheer. 


Nime. 


1500 


Staten Island. 


' 9900 


Greylock. 


1600 


Brooklyn. 


1 10300 


Canajoharie. 


1700 


Hempstead. 


I iru\.oo 


Fonda. 


1800 


Babylon. 


1 105C0 


Amsterdam. 


2500 


Patcrson. 


1 10600 


Schnectady. 


2600 


Harlem. 


10700 


Cohocs. 


2700 


Oyster Bay. 


1 I0803 


Hoosic. 


28CO 


Northpori. 


1 10900 


Benninfvton. 


3300 


Franklin. 


1 1000 


Oriskany. 


3400 


Greenwood Lake. 


moo 


Utica. 


3500 


Ramapo. 


1 II2CO 


Little Falls. 


3600 


Tarry town. 


1 1300 


Johnstown. 


3700 


Siamford. 


11400 


Gloversville* 


4500 


Schunerrunk. 


1 I 1500 


Broadalbin. 


4600 


West Point. 


' ii6x> 


Saratoga. 


4700 


Carmel. 


1 11700 


Schuylerville. 


4800 


Danbury. 


1 ii8oo 


Cambridge. 


5500 


Newburjj. 


1 1900 


Equinox. 


5600 


Poughkeepsie. 


' 12000 


Londonderry. 


5700 


Clove. 


1 12100 


Remsen. 


5800 


New Milford. 


1 12200 


Wilmurt. 


6600 


Rhinebeck. 


1 12600 


Luzerne. 


67CX) 


Mill Brook. 


' 12700 


Glens Falls. 


6800 


Cornwall. 


13203 


Old Forge. 


7500 


Kaaterskill. 


1 13300 


Canada Lake. 


7600 


Catskill. 


13400 


Indian Lake. 


7700 


Copake. 


13500 


Thirteenth Lake. 


7800 


Sheffield. 


1 13600 


North Creek. 


7900 


Sandisifield. 


13700 


Bolton. 


8<;oo 


Durham. 


13800 


Whitehall. 


8600 


Coxsackie. 


1 14400 


Castleton. 


87CX) 


Kinderhook. 


145C0 


Newcomb. 


8800 


Piitsfield. 


1 14600 


Schroon Lake. 


8900 


Becket. 


1 147C0 


Paradox Lake. 


9400 


Schoharie. 


i5><^o 


Santanoni. 


9600 


Albany. 


15600 


Mr. Marcy. 


9700 


Troy. . 


iq70D 


Elizabethtown. 


9800 


Berlin. 


1 15800 


Port Henry. 



2. — METHODS EMPLOYED. 



The Stream investigations were carried on in the following manner: 
Stations were established on all the important streams, and local repre- 
sentatives were engaged to collect daily samples, observe the stage of the 
river by reading a staff-gauge and record the meteorological condition. 



440 



Thirty-four such stations were maintained, but not all of them were continued 
through the entire period of the investigation. At nine of these stations rain- 
gauges were located and the daily precipitation recorded. In all cases, the 
sampling points were selected with care to secure a representative sample of 
the water in the stream. In the case of the streams which empty into the 
lower Hudson, it was necessary to locate the stations some distance from the 
mouth in order to avoid tidal influence. 

The regular daily samples were collected in i6-ounce Blake bottles and 
sent by express to the Poughkeepsie Laboratory in cases of twelve. There 
they w^ere examined for turbidity, color, alkalinity and hardness, and in some 
cases for chlorine. The records of gauge-reading, rainfall, etc., were sent to 
Poughkeepsie weekly on mailing cards. From time to time samples for chem- 
. ical analyses were collected at the most important stations and sent to Mt. 
Prospect Laboratory. Following is a list of the stations, with the location 
of each and the name of the collector : 

Sample Stations. 



Stream. 



Hudson River, 



Loeation of Station. 



Schroon River 

Sacandaga River . . 

Batten Kill 

Hoosic River 

Mohawk River 

Stockport Creek. . . 
Roelif Jansen Kill. 

Wappinger Creek . . 



•* (Little Wappinger Creek) 
Fishkill Creek 



Catskill Creek. 
Esopus Creek. . 



Schoharie Creek. 
Rondout Creek . . 



(Sprout Creek). 



WaUkill River. 



Riverside 

Glens Falls 

Schuylerville 

Walerford 

Wemple 

Castleton 

Catskill 

Saugerties 

Rbinecliff 

Hyde Park 

Poughkeepsie 

Garrison 

Warrcnsburg 

Conklingville 

Clark's Mills 

Schaghticoke 

Cohoes 

Columbiaville 

Linlithgo 

Mt. Ross 

Wappinger Falls. . . 
Manchester Bridge. 

Hibemia 

Clinton Hollow 

Matteawan 

Brinckerhoff 

Stormville 

Freedom Plains. . . . 

South Cairo 

Shokan 



Prattsville . 
Rosendale. 
Napanoch , 
New Paliz. 



Name of Collector. 



W. M. Clear. 
D. J,. Ordway. 
George Efnor. 
J. S. Rhodes. 
Frank Welch. 
W. F. Willis. 
J. R- Johnson. 
Theodore De Shong. 
Charles Winchell. 
P. F. O'Rourke. 
Office. 

H. C. Robinson. 
J. H. Stewart. 

C. C. Palmer. 
Edward Sherman. 
H. M. Sandford. 
James McKinley. 
David Harder. 
Clarence Temple. 
J. E. Van Tassel. 

D. I. Ashworth. 
Charles Bulmer. 
Walter Sackhder. 
L. I. Tripp. 
Rawdon Taylor, 
William Barber. 
C. Simpson. 
John Steele. 

C. J. Abrams. 

H. C. Smith and James 

Diamond. 
James Brennan. 
Anne E. Huben. 
H. F. Kuhfeldt. 
Charles McEntee. 



441 
Rain Gauges, 

The rain gauges were located at Riverside, Conklingville, Schaghticoke, 
Saugerties, Rhinecliff, South Cairo, Shokan, Matteawan and Brinckerhoff. 
Each gauge consisted of a galvanized cylinder two feet in diameter and ten 
inches deep, with a conical bottom which had a central outlet two inches in 
diameter. This was set in a horizontal position over a bucket, which was 
placed in a hole dug in the ground, at such a depth that the sharp upper edge 
of the cylinder was one foot above the ground. The rain which collected in 
the bucket was measured in gills and the depth of the rainfall in inches 
obtained by calculation. Gauges of this type were adopted in place of the 
standard types, to save expense, as exact results were not required for pur- 
poses of the sanitary survey. In setting up the gauges a point was selected 
on level ground at least lOO feet from any building or tree. 

In addition to the analyses of regular daily samples from the collecting 
stations, inspection tours were made over the regions named above to deter- 
mine the general topographical and geological features of the waterslied, the 
character of the vegetation, the extent of cultivated land, the appearance of 
the banks of the stream, and, most important of all, the sources of pollution. 
The completeness of these investigations varied according to the probability 
of the water being used. In some cases only a reconnoissance survey was 
made, while in other cases all of the important features of the streams were 
carefully studied. All of the watersheds given in the above summary were 
gone over at least once. The Upper Hudson region was covered twice, each 
watershed in the Lower Hudson region was covered twice, with the exception 
of the Rondout, Wallkill, Moodna, Stockport and Peekskill watersheds. The 
Esopus, Roelif Jansen, Wappinger and Fishkill watersheds were covered 
three times. On these trips many samples, representing both surface and 
ground water, were collected and sent to the laboratory for determination of 
color, turbidity, alkalinity and hardness. In some instances these observa- 
tions were made in the field. 

The detailed sanitary survey was confined to the watersheds of Fishkill 
Creek, Wappinger Creek, Roelif Jansen Kill, Esopus Creek, Catskill Creek 
and Schoharie Creek. It was made by four volunteer inspectors, under- 
graduates of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who devoted their 
vacations to the work. The object was to secure reliable data as to the per- 
manent and visiting populations on the different streams, the size of the 
villages, their methods of sewage disposal, if any, the number of summer 
hotels, etc. Supplied with topographical maps the inspectors went over the 
territory either by carriage or bicycle, counting the occupied houses and 
locating them upon the maps. By using the ratio between population and 
houses given in the last United States census, the populations were deter- 



442 

mined for the various regions and these results were checked by comparing 
them with the census returns. The number of summer boarders was esti- 
mated by inquiry at the hotels and boarding-houses, and by talking with the 
postmasters in the different villages. Sources of pollution w'ere, of course, 
noted, and located on the maps. The volunteer inspectors also collected many 
samples of water and made notes on the general character of the country. 

3. UPPER HUDSON^ OR ADIRONDACK REGION. 

Three large Adirondack streams unite to form the Hudson River — the 
North Hudson, the Schroon and the Sacandaga. The first, which bears the 
name Hudson, and is sometimes referred to as the North Hudson, or the 
Upper Hudson, is the upward continuation of the main stream, while the 
Schroon and the Sacandaga are usually regarded as tributaries. The tribu- 
taries arc, however, equal in importance to the main stream. 

North Hudson. 

The North Hudson River rises in Newcomb Township (north latitude 
44 degrees 5 minutes and longitude 74 degrees 5 minutes west), and flows 
for about fifty-five miles in a general southerly direction until it is joined by 
the waters of the Schroon River just above Thurman. It has a drainage 
area of about 950 square miles. The whole watershed is well wooded, and 
the amount of cleared land is relatively small. But little farming is done. 
The country is mountainous and rocky. Gneiss and granite predominate, 
but there are scattered areas of anorthosite, schist and limestone. There are 
no clay deposits and no extensive swamp areas. 

The permanent population on the watershed has been estimated as about 
2,960, or 3 per square mile. To this must be added the transient summer 
population, sprinkled in camps over the watersheds, usually near the lakes. 
With the most liberal allowance, however, the total population per square 
mile cannot be considered as above 4. There are no large centres of popula- 
tion and no important sources of pollution. The worst cases are the drain- 
ages from occasional houses or from mills, and the number of such cases is 
insignificant. 

The regular sample station, located at Riverside, about twelve miles 
above the mouth of the Schroon River, was maintained from March 27 to 
September i. During this period samples were collected daily, and rainfall 
records were kept. 

Schroon River, 

The Schroon River rises in Elizabethtown, Essex County (latitude 44 
degrees 5 minutes, longitude 73 degrees 40 minutes), flows in a southerly 
direction to Warrensburg, and then westerly, entering the Hudson at Thur- 






443 

man, thirty-five miles above Glens Falls. The drainage area, 580 square 
miles, includes several large lakes, Schroon Lake, Brant Lake and Paradox 
Lake. The watershed is generally mountainous and rocky, but in the lake 
region there is some swamp land. Granite, gneiss, anorthosite, with occa- 
sional small areas of limestone, constitute the surface rock formations. There 
are in places large areas of fine sand. As in the case of the North Hudson, 
the country is well wooded, the estimated cleared land forming only about 15 
per cent, of the total area. The average run-oflf between 1895 and 1901 has 
been estimated by the State Engineer to be about 2.0 second feet per square 
mile (see Annual Report of State Engineer for 1901). 

The permanent population on the watershed of the Schroon River is esti- 
mated as 17 per square mile. The increment of transient summer population 
would raise this figure to about 19 per square mile. The centres of population 
are somewhat more numerous than on the North Hudson River. The largest 
town is Warrensburg, about four miles above the mouth of the river. It has 
a population of about 2,360, and supports a large pulp mill, the untreated 
wastes from which enter the river. There are numerous other mills scattered 
along the stream. The sample station for the Schroon River was at Warrens- 
burg, and was maintained from March 26 to September i. 

Sacandaga River. 

The Sacandaga River rises in Johnsburg, Warren County (latitude 43 
degrees 40 minutes, longitude 74 degrees 5 minutes), and flows south and 
east, entering the Hudson near Hadley, 15 miles below the mouth of the 
Schroon and about 20 miles above Glens Falls. It drains an area of 1,070 
square miles. The watershed is quite different in character from those of 
the Schroon and North Hudson. It is less mountainous, and for long dis- 
tances the stream runs through wide, sandy valleys. The bed of the river is 
sandy and gravelly, rather than rocky. The flats along the lower portioh of 
the river are extensively cultivated, and on some of the tributaries there are 
extensive tamarack swamps. One of these swamps near the Town of North- 
ampton is drained by Vly Creek, and covers an area of twelve square miles. 
The swamps and river flate are inundated at times of high water. The hills 
on the upper portion of the watershed are well wooded. Most of the rocks 
are granite, but in the southern part a tongue of Hmestone extends from 
Northville to Broadalbin, with a strip of sandstone on either side. 

The permanent population on the Sacandaga Watershed is estimated at 
7,000, or about 7 per square mile, which is increased by the summer popula- 
tion to about 8 per square mile. The only towns of importance are Conk- 
lingville (population 500) and Northville (population 1,000). There are no 
manufacturing centres. Lumbering is the chief industry. 



444 

The regular sample station was established at Conklingville on March 
27 and maintained until September i. 

Upper Hudson River Above Glens Falls. 

In addition to the watersheds of the North Hudson, Schroon and Sacan- 
daga, the upper Hudson above Glens Falls has a drainage area of about no 
square miles, which gives a total drainage area above Glens Falls of 2,710 
square miles. 

The total population on the watershed of the Hudson River above Glens 
Falls is estimated at about 20,800, or 8 per square mile. This may be all 
classed as rural. The most important towns besides those already mentioned 
are Hadley and Palmer's Falls, these being located on the main stream, the 
one 25 and the other 20 miles above Glens Falls. At Palmer's Falls there 
are pulp mills which discharge their wastes into the river. 

A regular sample station was maintained at Glens Falls from March 
20 to September i. The samples were collected at the falls. 

Quality of the Water of the Upper Hudson. 

The quality of the water in the Adirondack region is shown by the 
summaries of analyses given in Tables 11 to 14. 



445 



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447 
Table 12. 

Summary of Daily Turbidity Observations at Sample Stations from March 
to October, 1903 ; Showing the Average Turbidity for Each Months the 
Maximum and Minimum for the Entire Period, the Ordinary Turbidity 
and the Average during the Period Covered by the Observations, 
Expressed in Terms of the Silica Standard. 



Stream. 



Station. 



North Hudson I 

Schroon I 

Sacandaga 

Hudson ' 

Battenkill 

Hoosic I 

Mohawk i 

Stockport Creek i 

RoeUf Jansen Kill 

Wappinger Creek ' 

Fishkill Creek 

Schoharie Creek ' 

Catsk ill Creek ^ 

Esopus Creek 

Rondout Creek i 

Wallkill Creek 

East Delaware 

Neversink 



Riverside 

Warrensburg 

Conklint^ville 

(Hens Falls , 

Clark's Mills 

Schaghticoke 

Cohoes 

Columbiaville 

Mt. Ross ... 

Manchester Bridge 

Hiinckerhoff 

Prattsville 

South Cairo 

Shokan 

Mapanoch 

NewPalti 

Margaretville 

Cuddebackville 



Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Min. 


Max. 


Ord. 




a 


3 


X 


4 


5 1 





9 


3 




a 
3 
3 


a 
3 

3 


3 
4 
3 


4 

5 
3 


5 1 ;; 





X4 
t3 
xo 




z 




• • 


.. 


4 


4 




z 


as 




68 


7 


3 


^2 


>i 




I 


300 




103 


ao 


5 


38 




z 


500 




46 


3 


4 


4 


6 


za 


X 


aso 






t5 


t' 


6 


3 


4 ' 5 


I 


♦2 




•5 


♦3 


3 


3 


3 


4 





38 




^4 


;6 


4 


5 


5 









as 




5 


I 


3 


4 


3 




.. 


1 


30 




, , 


3 


4 


3 




, . 





3a 




4« 




« ; 33 


3 




4 





800 




3 




3 


6 


5 









50 


3 


»7 


15 


3 


60 


3a 


z6 




I 


Z50 


6 


10 




3 


a 


3 






z 


80 


3 


3 




» 


3 


•• 


•• 







ao 


a 



3 
3 

4 
3 
4 
ao 

"9 

13 

4 
4 
4 
4 
3 

«4 
4 

as 
4 



* Wappinger Falls. 



t Collected at Linlitbgo. 



t Matteawan. 



Table 13. 

Summary of Daily Color Observations at Sample Stations from March 
to October, 1903 ; Shounng the Average Color for Each Month, the 
Maximum and Minimum for the Entire Period, the Ordinary Color and 
the Average During the Period Covered by the Observations, Expressed 
in Parts per Million of Platinum. 



Station. 



Mar. . 



North Hudson 

Schroon 

Sacandaga. 

Hudson , 

Battenkill ' 

Hoosic I 

Mohawk ' 

Stockport Creek 

Roelif Jansen Kill 

Wappinger Creek 

Fishkill Creek 

Schoharie Creek 

Catskill Creek 

Esopus Creek i 

Rondout Creek I 

Wallkill Creek 

East Delaware 

Neversink 



Riverside 38 

Warrensburg ' ad 

Conklingville I 33 

Glens Falls I 36 

Clark's Mills 

Schaghticoke | 

Cohoes 37 

Columbiaville ' 19 

Mt.Ross ti7 

Manchester Bridge... *-»o 

BrinckerhoEF ti8 

Prattsville , 16 

South Cairo. ... 

Shokan 

Napanoch ' 

New Paltz , 30 

Margaretville 

Cuddebackville 



Apr. 


May 


June 
6z 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. Min. 

1 
.. 1 38 


Max. 


Ord. 


37 


38 


39 


4a 


08 


4X 


27 


34 


30 


33 


4» 


.. 1 30 


76 


38 


3a 


26 


Sa 


55 


40 




32 


80 


4» 


3» 


36 


48 


47 


40 




a.l 


93 


?8 




.. 


38 


3» 


36 




30 


48 


38 


»5 


»5 


'9 


XI 


3X 




7 


3a 


z6 


ao 


18 


32 


34 


35 




Z3 


5? 


38 


J7 


x6 


84 


3X 


'5 




ZO 


3« 


>9 


1'^ 


tiz 


XQ 


3a 


*7 


«S 


8 


^ 


z6 


♦la 


Z3 


36 


a4 


31 




7 


19 


t3I 


17 


'7 


a4 


a< 




ZO 


40 


20 


ZI 


1Z 


z6 


30 


18 


., 


4 


30 


15 


zo 


zo 


>7 


X2 


za 


.. 


A 


33 


Z3 


6 


8 


Z3 


X3 


ZI 


9 


3 


30 


9 


a3 


z6 


ac 


39 


•4 




ZO 


45 


34 


''5 


3, 


38 


58 


47 




z8 


86 


38 


8 


zz 


10 


za 






4 


a? 


ZO 


»9 


»3 


36 




" 




7 


60 


30 



4» 
30 
40 

3? 
38 

X7 

37 

z8 

16 



9 
24 
38 

9 



* Wappinger FalU. 



t Collected at Linlithgo. 



t Matteawan, 



448 
Table 14. 

Summary of Alkalinity Determinations at Sample Stations from March to 
October, 1903 ; Shozving the Average for Each Month, the Maximum 
and Minimum for the Entire Period, the Ordinary Alkalinity, and the 
Average for the Period Covered by the Investigations, Expressed in 
Parts per Million. 



Stream. 



North Hudson .... 

Schroon 

Sacandaga 

Hudson 

Bottenkill 

Hoosic 

Mohawk 

Stockport Creek. . . 
Roelif JansenKill. 
Wappinger Creek. . 

FUhkill Creek 

Schoharie Cr^ek . . . , 

Cat^kill Creek 

Esopus Creek 

Rondout Creek. . . . . 

Wallkill Creek 

East Delaware 

Neversink 



Station. 



Riverside 

Warrensburg 

Conklingville , 

Glens Falls 

Clark's Mills 

Schaghticoke 

Cohoes , 

Columbiaville 

Mt. Ross 

Manchester Bridge . 

Brinckerho£F 

Prattsville 

South Cairo 

Shokan iS 

Napanoch 13 

New Paltz 50 

Margaretville 17 

Cuddebackville la 



Mar. ' Apr. 



55 

♦66 
13 



18 
14 
x6 

63 
70 

45 

t88 

•67 

t67 

13 

40 

\l 

54 
x8 



May I June 



15 
19 

>9 

88 

61 
tico 
90 
86 
90 
52 
X7 
as 
50 
19 
14 



July 



Aug. Sept. iMin. 



*9 1 
«4 



84 I 
77 j 

60 
108 I 

79 ; 

86 

54 I 
»9 I 



108 



Max 



98 

28 

a8 
98 
95 

xia 
7X 

X30 
97 
9» 

I? 

a8 

39 
104 

34 
x6 



Ord. 



>3 
»9 



73 

8a 
5» 

56 
72 

It 

4S 
»7 
27 
65 
^9 



' Wappinger Falls. 



t Collected at Linlithgo. 



X Matteawan. 



The water is ordinarily quite clear. It does not become turbid even 
after heavy rains. The highest turbidity observed during the entire period 
of six months was 14 on the silica scale. The color was ordinarily higher 
than is considered desirable in a public water supply. This was especially 
true of the waters of the North Hudson and the Sacandaga, the former of 
which had a maximum of 98 and the latter a maximum of 80. At Glens 
Falls the maximum was 92, and the average for the entire period was 38^ 
which is about double what is considered a desirable limit (see Diagram No. 
18). The water had also the vegetable taste and odor which accompanies 
a (lark colored w^ater. The tamarack swamps on the tributaries of the 
Scliroon River contribute largely to the color and taste of the Hudson River 
water. A few of the samples collected at Glens Falls had, in addition to the 
vegetable odor, an odor suggestive of decomposition. 



449 




3 S u s - ^ 

t>t'UtJL l^wiu 

Typhoid Fever per sq. iniie 

per loco sq. on drainage 

miles of area 

dJraiiia^e area 

DIAQRAM ia, APR. VI. 

Chemical analyses show the waters to be quite soft, and with chlorines 
which are practically normal. The samples from the Schroon contained 
chlorine slightly above the normal, which for this reason is about 0.4 parts 
per million, and were probably slightly influenced in this respect by the Town 
of Warrensburg, below w^hich they were taken. The nitrogen as albuminoid 
ammonia w^as rather high, and evidently represented the coloring matter 
present. The nitrates were low. There were few microscopic organisms, 
and these were of no especial significance. Such as w'ere found probably 
came from the lakes, where, how- ever, it is not likely that they develop in 
terge numbers. All of the samples when tested for Bacillus coli gave nega- 
tive results. 



Lake George. 

Although Lake George can be hardly considered as an available source 
of water supply for New York City on account of its low elevation and 
limited watershed, yet, inasmuch as it is so frequently mentioned in this con- 
nection, it has not been left entirely out of consideration. Investigations 
showed that the permanent population on the watershed is equal to about 30 
per square mile, and while no careful sanitary survey was made, it is a matter 



450 

of common knowledge that the population is greatly increased during the 
summer season. Only one sample of water was taken for analysis and the 
result is given in Table ii. 

4. THE MIDDLE HUDSON. 

Between Glens Falls and the Troy dam the Hudson River has a total 
drainage area of 5,338 square miles. This region may be termed the " :\Iiddle 
Hudson.'' In it are included the Battenkill and Hoosic Rivers, and the great 
valley of the Mohawk River. There are other streams, also, of lesser im- 
portance. None of these streams is suitable for use as a public water supply 
for New York, although the Battenkill has been suggested as a possible 
source. Speaking generally, their waters are too much polluted, are hard, 
and at times, very turbid. Their effect upon the water of the Hudson River 
makes them worthy of consideration. 

Battenkill. 

The Battenkill rises in the State of Vermont, in the Town of Peru, Ben- 
nington County (latitude 43 degrees 15 minutes, longitude 72 degrees 55 min- 
utes), and flows in a general westerly direction, entering the Hudson nearly 
opposite Schuylerville, 30 miles above the Troy dam. It is about 50 miles 
in length, and has a drainage area of 437 square miles. 

The character of the w^atershed resembles somewhat that of the Sacan- 
daga, especially in its lower reaches. It there flows through a valley about 
three-quarters of a mile wide, from which hills rise sharply on both sides. 
The river bed is sandy and muddy. Slates and mica-schists are the predom- 
inating rocks, but extensive limestone deposits are found in the upper portion 
and clay in the lower regions. These tend to make the water hard and turbid. 
The wooded areas are much less extensive than on the upper Hudson, and the 
lower valley is well cultivated. 

The population on the watershed is estimated as about 1,500, or 34 per 
square mile, and most of this is included in about a dozen villages scattered 
along the river and its tributaries. There are a few large manufacturing 
centres, and although there are some paper mills, lime-kilns, etc., the amount 
of manufacturing wastes entering the stream is comparatively small. The 
chief source of contamination is the domestic sewage from the villages 
mentioned. 

The sample station on this stream at Clark's Mills was not established 
until June 15, but after that date daily samples were collected until 
September i. 

The water of this stream is ordinarily fairly clear, but after rains the 
effect of the clay deposits is seen in the increased turbidity. The water has 



451 

but a moderate color, the average for the three summer months being 28, and 
the maximum 48. The water is quite hard, the average alkalinity for the 
three months mentioned being "j^i- "^ he normal chlorine for this region is 
about 0.4 part per million, and the excess of chlorine above this normal, 
as shown by the samples collected at Clark's Mills, was 1.2 parts j^er million. 

H 00 sic River. 

The Hoosic River rises in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (latitude 42 degrees 
30 minutes, longitude 73 degrees 15 minutes), and flow^s in a northwesterly 
direction, through the State of X'ermont into New York State. Below Hoosic 
Falls it bends to the westward and flows into the Hudson a short distance 
above Mechanicsville. Below Hoosic Falls it receives an important tributary, 
the W'alloomsae River, the drainage area of which lies entirely within the 
State of \'ermont. The drainage area of the Hoosic River is about 738 
square miles. The river liows through a wide valley bounded by precipitous 
slopes. The upper portion is quite mountainous. The rock formation con- 
sists of shale and sandstone, with scattered areas of slate. Limestone and 
dolomite are abundant in the upper portion, and clay deposits are numerous, 
especially in the lower reaches. The resident population is estimated as 
59,000, or about 80 per square mile. There are a number of important cen- 
tres of poiHilation — North Adams, Mass. (population 24,000) ; Williams- 
town, Mass. (population 5,000) ; Bennington, Vt. (population 5,600) ; Hoosic 
Falls, X. Y. (population 5.700); Eagle Bridge, Johnsonville, Valley Falls, 
Schaghticoke, etc. There are many manufacturing establishments such as 
cotton and woolen mills along the river, and the w^ater receives a large 
amount of pollution. 

The water of the Hoosic River as it enters the Hudson is ordinarily quite 
turbid. The average turbidity for the six months from March to August, 
1903, was 20, while the maximum was 300. The average turbidity for the 
month of ]\Iarch was 68, and for the month of June, 40. During the periods 
of dry weather, however, the turbidity falls to about 4. The color is com- 
paratively low, the average for six months being only 17, and the maximum 
only 38. The water has a hardness which is only slightly less than that of 
the Battenkill. The average alkalinity for six months was 69. The normal 
chlorine for this region is about .5 parts per million. 

MoluriK'k River. 

The Mohawk River rises in Leyden (latitude 43 degrees 30 minutes, 
longitude 75 degrees 30 minutes), about 15 miles northwest of the City of 
Rome, and flows for about no miles in a general easterly direction, entering 



452 




tr.SSi?.i.Z» ir..iSiBf.i= « S ,?S S 5 ?,2 = S 2 SS 3i « Si 



51-.>5, II. mill. 1,1 anjOQ 



453 

the Hudson at the City of Cohoes, about 8 miles north of Albany. The stream 
has a total drainage area of about 3,500 miles. It receives two important 
tributaries from the north, namely, the West Canada Creek (drainage area 
569 miles), and the East Canada Creek (drainage area 283 square miles). 
Both of these streams drain the southwesterly portions of the Adirondack 
region. From the south, it receives the Schoharie Creek (drainage area 947 
square miles), which drains the northwestern section of the Catskill Moun- 
tains. The main valley of the Mohawk River is wide and fertile, and the bot- 
tom lands are uniformly used for agricultural purposes. The surrounding 
hills are well wooded. The river bed is generally shallow and wide, and there 
are many rapids along the course of the stream which give opportunity for 
aeration. From the mouth of the stream down to Palatine Bridge the river 
banks are generally muddy. Below- that they become pebbly, and outcrops of 
shale and sandstone along the slope are numerous. This shale and sand- 
stone runs as a narrow strip through the entire valley and covers about 50 
per cent, of the watershed. North of this there are areas of gneiss and 
granite, with small areas of limestone, and south of it there are areas of lime- 
stone, shale and gypsum. 

There are several large cities located upon the Mohawk River which 
drain directly into the stream, and in each of these cities there are many in- 
dustrial enterprises which contribute to the pollution. The data bearing on 
these points have been collected and are on file. In Diagram No. 19, there 
is shown a graphical representation of the relative pollution of the stream at 
different points, based upon statistics of population. This diagram requires 
a few words of explanation. The mass profile at the left shows the increase 
in the size of the drainage area of the stream from the source to the mouth, 
the accessions from tributary streams being shown by steps, and also the total 
population on the watershed above certain important points. The right hand 
figure shows the urban and rural populations above the points mentioned, ex- 
pressed in number per square mile of watershed, and also the number of 
deaths from typhoid fever per 1,000 square miles on the corresponding drain- 
age areas. It is interesting to notice that the most polluted section of the 
stream is that immediately below the City of Utica. The effect of the 
relatively pure tributaries upon the water of the main stream is also shown. 
During the summer several series of samples were collected along the course 
of this stream. The results, which are on file in Mt. Prospect Laboratory, 
corroborate the findings of the statistical study as to general pollution, and 
so far agree with those which have been published by other writers, that they 
are not here introduced. Suffice it to say that the results of the daily sam- 
ples collected at Cohoes, from March to September, 1903, showed that the 
water had an average turbidity of 29 on the silica scale. Duri^ig ordinary 



454 



r T V»T*5f 43ifl 1 1 Ulf**!^ I 



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< U LU 
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?8S{2* 5g S2«$88S« 58 8S-S« 8 : 

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DtAQRAM SO. A^P, VI, 



455 

dn^ weather, the turbidity of the water was about 5, but at times it rose as 
high as 500. The average turbidity for the month of March was 102. On 
account of the large volume of this stream it may be said that the Mohawk 
River, more than any other tributary, is responsible for the turbidity 
of the water in the lower Hudson. The water has but a moderate 
color, the average for the period mentioned being 27 and the maximum 50 
(see Diagram No. 20). It is also a hard water, the average alkalinity for 
six months from March to September being 82, and the maximum 1 12. The 
water contains a larger proportion of sulphates than is found in most of the 
streams on the Hudson River Watershed. This is doubtless due to the 
above-mentioned deposits of gypsum. 

Other Watersheds. 

In addition to the watersheds of the BattenkilK Hoosic and Mohawk 
Rivers, there are about 616 square miles which drain into the Hudson River 
in the middle division. Aside from the streams mentioned, the most impor- 
tant tributaries are the Moses Kill, which enters from the east, and Fish 
Creek, Snook Kill and Anthony Kill, which enter from the west. Of these, 
perhaps, the most important is Fish Creek, because it drains the region around 
Saratoga Springs. The population upon the watershed of this stream is 82 
per square mile. The chief sources of poHution are from Saratoga Springs 
and Ballston Spa. There are few important industries at Saratoga, and the 
domestic sewage which amounts to about 350 thousand gallons per day, is 
purified by filtration and discharged into Kazaderosseras Creek, a tributary 
of Fish Creek, at Ballston Spa. A number of tanneries and industrial estab- 
lishments drain directly into this creek, and render the water noticeably 
polluted. 

5. LOWER HUDSON, EAST SIDE. 

Below the Troy Dam, the Hudson River has a tributary watershed of 
about 5,147 square miles, of which about 2,175 square miles are on the east 
side and 2,972 square miles on the west side. The most important streams 
on the east side, so far as an available water supply for the City of New York 
is concerned, are Stockport Creek, Roeliff Jansen Kill, Wappinger Creek, 
Fishkill Creek, Peekskill Greek and the Croton River. In addition to these 
may be mentioned the Housatonic and the Ten Mile Rivers, which, although 
they do not flow into the Hudson, have been considered as possible sources of 
supply for New York. On the west side of the river, the most important 
streams are Catskill Creek, Esopus Creek, Rondout Creek, Walkill River and 
the Moodna River. In addition to these may be mentioned Schoharie Creek, 
East Delaware River, which do not flow into the Hudson, but which have 
been considered as possible sources of water supply for New York. In addi- 
tion to all these streams, there are a number of smaller tributaries, as for 



456 

example, the Poesten Kill, Wynant Kill, Xorman Kill, etc., which have an 
effect on the quality of the water of the Hudson River, but which are other- 
wise of no importance in the present study. 

Stockport Creek. 

The Stockport Creek enters the Hudson from the east side, about half 
way between Coxsackie and Hudson. The main stream is not more than two 
miles long. It is formed by the confluence of the Kinderhook Creek which 
comes down from the north, and Claverack Creek, which runs up from the 
south. The total drainage area of these streams is about 506 square miles, 
the greater part of which is tributary to the Kinderhook Creek. The water- 
shed is almost entirely within the limits of the State of Xew York, but one 
or two of the small tributaries extend into Massachusetts. The rock forma- 
tions consist almost entirely of slate and sandstone, but there is a narrow strip 
of limestone in the northeastern portion, and two small areas near the mouth 
of the stream. 

Parts of the watershed are hilly — almost mountainous in character — but 
in spite of this, farming is carried on to a considerable extent. The total 
population on the watersheds is about 19,000, or 38 per square mile. There 
are few large centres of population. The most important towns are Chatham 
(population 2,000), Xew Lebanon (population 1,500), Hillsdale (popula- 
tion 1,400) and Caanan (population 1,300). There arc no large industrial 
establishments which need to be taken into consideration. The sample sta- 
tion for this stream was located at Columbiaville, below the junction of the 
two streams. The station was maintained from March 17 to September i. 

( )rdinarily the water of Stockport Creek is quite clear. The usual tur- 
bidity was about 5. At times, however, after heavy rains, the stream becomes 
quite turbid. The maxinuun turbidity observed was about 250. The average 
turbidity for the month of March was 46. Only on seven days, however, 
was the turbidity more than 20. The water has comparatively little color, the 
average for five months being only 18, and the maximum 38. 

The chemical analysis shows that the water is fairly hard, the average 
alkalinity for the period mentioned being 51 parts per million. The total 
hardness exceeded this by only about 5 parts per million. 

Rorliff Jansen Kill. 

The Roeliff Jansen Kill rises in Austerlitz (latitude 42 degrees 15 sec- 
onds, longitude 17 degrees 30 minutes), and flows south and northwest into 
the Hudson at a point nearly opposite Catskill. It has a total drainage area 
of about 228 square miles, which lies almost entirely within the State of New 
York. Ilashbish Creek, one of the main tributaries of the stream, however. 



457 




Oh 

o 

H 

Q 
O 
< 

o 
o 



o 

u 





C/3 




1 


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'O 


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3 


n 


X 


c 


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z 


;t 


<j 


O 


>« 


J 


C4 




fc; 


^ 


s 


M 


td 


V 


S 


^ 


u 


*M 


b 


o 


O 


»4 


H 


o 


?: 


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458 

has its source in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. The drainage area 
which is outside of the State of New York, however, is not more than six or 
seven square miles. Speaking generally the Roeliff Jansen Kill may be said 
to drain the northern part of Dutchess County and the southern part of 
Columbia County. 

The watershed is rolling and hilly. The hills for the most part are 
covered with young timber and scrub brush. The valleys are devoted to 
agriculture. The top soil is for the most part a yellow loam, beneath which 
are glacial drift, coarse gravel, sand and occasionally clay.^ The underlying- 
rocks are slate and limestone, and in some sections of the watershed the 
limestone outcrops at the surface. 

The sample station was established first at Linlithgo, at the mouth of 
the stream, and was maintained from March 30 to June 6. Later, \vhe;i this 
stream was considered as a j)ossible source of supply for New York City, the 
sample station was changed to Mt. Ross, which is a short distance below 
Silvernails, the site of the proposed dam. 

The results of the daily observations made at these sampling stations 
are given in Tables 12 to 15. Jn addition to these regidar samples, special 
samples were collected from all the important feeders, and samples of ground 
water were also collected at various places on the watershed. The results of 
these special examinations are on file at the Mt. i^rospect Laboratory. 

Speaking generally, all of the water was found to be comparatively clear 
and light colored. The average color for six months was 16 and the maxi- 
mum only 29. In only a few instances, where there v. ere swan:p areas, was 
dark colored VNater found. The maximum turbidity was 45 and the average 
4. ]>y far the most objectionable characteristic of the water of this stream is 
its hardness, and accordingly this was given careful attention. The normal 
chlorine for the region is about 0.7 part per million. 

The important facts which relate to the hardness of the w'ater are shown 
on IMate \T[I. This shows the approximate locations of the limestone 
deposits as depicted on the State map of the State Geological Survey. The co- 
ordinates refer to the subdivisions of the geological sheets as described on 
page 439. The figures inside the rectangle show the prevailing hardness of the 
surface waters, such as the small brooks, lakes, ponds, etc., in the various dis- 
tricts expressed in parts per million. The figures inside the double circles give 
the hardness of the ground water in the same districts. The figures in the 
single circles give the hardness at various points on the main streams. These 
results are based on observations made chiefly on September 2 and 3, 1903, 
and October 8 and g, 1903. 

It will be seen from this diagram that the limestone deposits cover most 
of the watershed above the site of the proposed reservoir, and that nearly all 
of the water in the region is very hard. The ground water in almost all of 



459 

the sanitan- districts is much harder than the surface water. Calculations 
of the probable hardness of the water collected in the proposed reservoir are 
given on page 489. 

The detailed results of the sanitary survey are on file among the records 
of Alt. Prospect Laboratory. From these results it has been calculated that 
the permanent population on the vvatershe<l above the proposed reservoir is 
28 per square mile, which is increased during the summer months to 34 per 
square mile because of the influx of summer boarders. 

The proposed dam is located across the main stream at Silvernails, just 
below the point where Shekomeko Creek enters it. The reservoir will con- 
sequently have two arms, one extending up the main stream toward the 
northeast through the \'illage of Gallatinville to Ancram. and the other ex- 
tending up the Shekomeko Valley to Pine Plains. The latter arm will be 
almost entirely within the limestone region, and the water will be somewhat 
harder than that in the northeast arm. 

1 he most important source of pollution on the Shekomeko arm of the 
Silve«iails Reservoir is the village of Pine Plains, which has a resident popu- 
lation of about 500 and a transient sunmier population of about 200. 

If the res(?rvoir is constructed it will be necessary to give some attention 
to the sanitary conditions in this village, as it is located so near the flow lire. 
The other sources of pollution on this stream are few and scattering. ( )n the 
main stream the most important sources of pollution are at Ancram, Copake 
and Hillside. Ancram is a village of about 200 population, which during the 
summer is increased lo nearly 300. There is a paper mill with 20 employees, 
now running night and day, and the waste products enter the stream. At the 
Copake Iron Works ten men are employed. Other iron and lead mines have 
existed on this watershed in the past, but they are now shut down, with little 
probability of ever being worked again. Cases of direct pollution of the 
stream by fecal matter are rare in this section, the practice of cooling milk in 
the streams by j)lacing the cans in the running water being said to have 
created a local prejurlice against it. All of the nuisances which exist on this 
watershed can be easily removed. 

IVappifigcr Creek. 

Wappinger Creek rises in Pine Plains, Dutchess County (latitude 42 de- 
grees, longitude 73 degrees 40 seconds), and flows in a general southwest- 
erly direction into the Hudson River at New Hamburg, about 10 miles 
below Poughkecpsie. The total drainage area is about 195 square miles. 
The upper portion of the stream has two forks, which come together just 
below Salt Point. The east fork, which is the real continuation of the main 
stream, takes its rise practically in a small chain of ponds near Stissing 
Mountain. At Hibernia it receives a large tributary from the south, which 



46o 

passes through Mill Brook and Washington Hollow. The west fork, some- 
times known as " Little Wappinger Creek/' rises in Milan and flows south- 
ward through Clinton Hollow till it meets the main stream at Salt Point. 
The proposed development of this watershed includes the construction of a 
storage reservoir on each of these forks, the first on the main stream with a 
dam at Hibernia, and the second on Little Wappinger Creek, with a dam 
near Clinton Hollow. 

The sample station was first established at Wappinger Falls, near the 
mouth of the main stream, and maintained from March 21 to April 30. ll 
was then changed to Manchester Bridge, and continued until September i. 
During the month of September additional stations were maintained at 
Hibernia and at Clinton Hollow, the sites of the proposed dams. 

Most of the country in the upper portions of the watershed of Wappin- 
ger Creek is rough and hilly. The hills as a rule are covered with forests of 
young trees, while the valleys are devoted to farming. Swamp areas are 
numerous, but not extensive. 

The geology of the region is somewhat varied, and marked differences 
are noted between adjacent valleys. There is a narrow strip of limestone 
which follows the main creek from northeast to northwest, and there is 
another area of limestone which extends along the valley of Little Wappin- 
ger Creek above Clinton Hollow. Scattered areas of hmestone were ob- 
served elsewhere. With the exception of the limestone, the rock formations 
consist chiefly of slate, schist and sandstone. In a few sections there are 
well defined beds of clay. 

Speaking generally, the water of this stream and its tributaries is clear 
and light colored, save in a few unimportant instances where swamp areas 
exist. The hardness of the water is the particular quality which received 
most careful attention. The results obtained at various times are summar- 
ized m Plate IX., which is drawn in the manner described on page 458. 
It will bo seen from this plate that the limestone areas are narrow, and are 
confined largely to the main river beds. Speaking generally, the hardness of 
the water is somewhat lower than that on the watershed of the Roeliff 
Jansen Kill. The diflference between the surface and ground waters show 
somewhat greater variations. While in most districts the ground water is 
harder than the surface water, there are numerous contrary cases. The hard- 
ness determinations gave such results that there is good reason to believe that 
the locations of limestone shown on the map are not strictly correct, which 
may be accounted for in part by the fact that they were enlarged from a small 
scale map. It is worthy of note that in most cases the alkalinity closely ap- 
proximated the total hardness, and in some cases exceeded it. The results 
taken as a whole indicate that the permanent hardness which is due to sul- 
phates, nitrates, etc., is very low throughout this region, as it is throughout 
the Fishkill and RoeliflF Jansen Kill watersheds. 



46 1 

The results of the sanitary survey are on file. For the watershed above 
Brinckerhoff, the total permanent population is estimated as 5,417, or 35 per 
square mile. The transient summer population is estimated as 350, which in- 
creases the population during the summer to 37 per square mile. 

Observations indicate that the water impounded in the Clinton Hollow 
Reservoir will have a color which will probably not exceed 20 as a yearly 
average. During the month of September the average color of the stream 
was 25, although the color varied from 18 to 37. The water in the Hibernia 
Reservoir will probably be somewhat lower than this. The annual average 
color ought not to exceed 15 or t8. During September the average color of 
the stream at Hibcrnia was 19. (See Diagram 21.) The probable future 
hardness of the water in these reservoirs is given on page 489. 

Above the Clinton Hollow Reservoir there are no large sources of 
pollution. The resident population has been estimated as 32 per square 
mile. On the watershed of the Hibernia Reservoir there are several villages 
which will need attention. The most important of these is Millbrook, a 
village which has a permanent population of somewhat more than a thou- 
sand people, which is increased during the summer by about two hundred. 
This village has no sewerage system, but a number of private drains empty 
into the stream. Th-i brook as it flows past this village shows evidences of 
being considerably polluted. As this important source of pollution is 
located only two or three miles above the head of the reservoir, a sewage sys- 
tem for the village with satisfactory disposal works will become necessary. 

The only other important centres of population are the villages of 
StafFordvilie and Bangall. These are rural communities, with a large pro- 
portion of summer residents. Many of the houses along the stream will be 
flooded out by the new reservoir, and those that remain can be individually 
cared for. 

The resident population on the watershed above the Hibernia Reser- 
voir is estimated as 57 per square mile. The normal chlorine for this region 
is about 0.9 parts per million. 

Fishkill Creek, 

Fishkill Creek rises in Unionvale, Dutchess County (latitude 41 degrees 
45 minutes, longitude 7;^ degrees 40 minutes), and flows in a southwesterly 
direction into the Hudson River at Fishkill village. It has a total drainage 
area of about 196 scjuare miles. A short distance above Brinckerhoff it 
receives as a tributary Sprout Creek, which flows down from Verbank 
between Billings and Freedom Plains. The method first proposed for devel- 
oping this stream as a water supply for New York City involved the con- 
struction of a reservoir with the dam at Brinckerhofi^. The second project — 



462 

and the one which was ultimately adopted — consisted of taking water from 
the upper portion of the main stream with the dam at Stormville, and from 
the upper portion of Sprout Creek, with the dam at Billings. Before any 
plans of development had been suggested, the sampling station was located 
at Matteawan near the mouth of the stream, and maintained from ^larch 
20 to April 30. It was then changed to Brinckerhoff and continued until 
September 30. During the month of September sampling stations were 
maintained at Stormville on the main stream, and LVeedom Plains near the 
site of the Billings dam on Sprout Creek. 

The upper portions of the watershed are hilly, and the tops of the hills 
are wooded. The wooded areas are less extensive, however, than on the 
watersheds of Wappinger Creek and the Roelif^ Jansen Kill. About 75 
per cent, of the area is devoted to agricultural puq)oscs. The main stream 
flows for nearly its entire length through an area of limestone which is 
narrow at the upj^er end, but which spreads out to a width of five or six miles 
near Brinckcrhoff. On Sprout Creek the limestone deposits are infrequent, 
although the hardness of the ground water in that region would indicate 
that they are not entirelv' absent. Aside from the limestone mentioned, the 
rock formations are chiefly slate, schist and sandstone, with some gneiss 
and granite in the lower portions. The water of the stream as it enters 
the Hudson is ordinarily clear and light colored. The maximum turbidity 
during the period covered by the observations was 25, and the maximum 
color 40. 

The analyses indicate that the water impounded in the Billings Reser- 
voir will have an average annual color of about 15 or 18. Some of the trib- 
utary streams had rather a high color at times, but on the \vhole the color 
of the water in Sprout Creek has been low. During September the average 
color at Billings was 13. The probable hardness of the water to be derived 
from the watershed is given on ])age 489. The normal chlorine for the 
region is about i.l parts per million. 

There are no important sources of pollution on the watershed. The 
permanent population is estimated as 25 per square mile, which is increased 
during the summer months to 28 per square mile. 

Swamp areas are somewhat more numerous above the Stormville Res- 
ervoir, and the probable average color of the water is estimated as between 
20 and 25. The water will be harder also than that in the Billings Reservoir, 
as shown on page 489. 

The population on the watershed above the Stormville Reservoir is 
estimated as ^2 per square mile for permanent population and 35 for transient 
population. The villages are all small and the few nuisances which exist can 
be individualiv cared for with little trouble. 



4^3 



Housatonic River. 



The upper portion of the Housatonic River Watershed lies ahnost en- 
tirely within the State of Massachusetts. Above New Milford the river has 
a drainage area of about 815 square miles, and upon this there dwells a pop- 
ulation of about 59,000, which makes the population density about 72 per 
square mile. This includes a number of important cities and towns which 
drain directly into the stream. 

Xo regular sampling place was maintained on this stream, but a number 
of samples were taken at various points on the watershed. These, together 
with the samples which had been collected by the United States Geological 
Survey in the course of its investigations, indicated that the water would be 
comparatively clear and have a color of about 25. The limestone deposits are 
abundant on this watershed, and the analyses indicate that the probable 
average hardness of this water would be about 86 parts per million. The 
normal chlorine of the region is about 0.8 parts per million. 

Ten Mile Riirr. 

The watershed of the Ten Mile River lies just east of the Fishkill and 
Wappinger Creek watersheds and west of the Housatonic River. Above 
Pawling the river has a drainage area of about 200 scjuare miles, upon which 
the population in 1900 was about 10,700, or 54 per square mile. The direct 
pollution is much less on this stream than in the case of the Housatonic 
River. 

Xo regular sample station was maintained on this stream, but a num- 
ber 01 samples were collected at various places on the watershed, and the 
results of their analyses, together with the observations which have been 
made by the United States Geological Survey, have shown "that the water 
which could be collected from this watershed would be practically clear, and 
would have an average color of about 000. The limestone deposits extend 
across the watersheds of this river, and the probable average annual hard- 
ness of the w^ater has been estimated as about 105 parts per million. 

6 THE LOWER HUDSON, W'EST SIDE. 

Cafskill Creek. 

Catskill Creek rises in the town of Broome, Schoharie County, and 
flows in a general southeasterly direction, entering the Hudson at Catskill. 
It has a total drainage area of about 447 square miles. Some of the westerly 
tributaries of the stream rise in the Adirondack Mountains, but the greater 
portion of the watershed is north of the moimtainous region. All of the 
country is hilly, however, and slopes are generally quite steep. During the 



464 




DIAORAM ax. ARR. Vf. 



465 

summer months most of the small feeders become dry. The amount of 
land on the watershed is comparatively small, and there are some swamp 
areas noticeable above Franklinton. 

The rock formations consist almost entirely of shale and sandstone, 
but there are narrow strips of Hmestone along the northerly area, and 
across the watershed from north to south. The limestone area, however, 
constitutes less than lo per cent, of the total watershed. 

Before any plans had been made for the development of this stream as 
a source of supply, the sample station was located at South Cairo, and 
was continued from April 19 to September i. The upper portions of the 
stream were investigated only during the special trips of investigation. 

The sanitary inspection was confined almost wholly to the upper por- 
tions of the watershed. It was found that the permanent population on the 
watershed above East Durham was about 4,500, or 25 per square mile, 
which is increased during the summer to about 33 per square mile. There 
are no other important sources of pollution on the watershed. The villages 
are small, and the few nuisances which exist can be individually cared for. 
The most important of these consist of small hotels and boarding houses 
which are located in one or two villages. The results of the daily observa- 
tions made at South Cairo show that the water was ordinarily clear. The 
average turbidity was 4 and the maximum 22. The color was very low, 
averaging 12 for the entire period, and seldom rising above 25. The maxi- 
mum observed color was 33. On account of the limestone deposits above 
mentioned, the hardness of the water is somewhat greater than in the case 
of the other streams in the Catskill Mountain region. 

Esopns Creek. 

PIsopus Creek rises in Shandaken, Ulster County (latitude 42 de- 
grees, longitude 74 degrees 25 minutes), and flows in a southeasterly direction 
to Marbletown, draining the southeastern slopes of the Catskill Alountains. 
It then turns at right angles and flows northeasterly, entering the Hudson 
River at Saugerties. Its total drainage area is about 426 square miles. The 
upper portions of the watershed are mountainous and the slopes to the creek 
precipitous. Most of the country is thickly wooded. Almost the entire popu- 
lation is found in the valleys, where farming is carried on to a limited extent. 
Below Shokan, the country becomes hilly and then comparatively level ; while 
the extent of cultivated land increases proportionally. 

In the lower courses of the river below Olive Bridge, limestone deposits 
are abundant, but above that the rocks are chiefly conglomerate and sand- 
stone. In some localities there are beds of clay, but they do not overspread 
large areas, and have but little influence on the turbidity of the water in the 



466 

stream, except after hard rains. There are certain deposits of clay, however, 
found on the caving banks of the stream which become much eroded at 
times of high rainfall. The stream bed in its upper portion is stony and 
gravelly. 

The development of the Esopus Creek as a source of water supply for 
the City of New York, includes the construction of an immense storage res- 
ervoir, known as the Ashokan Reservoir, with a dam across the main stream 
at a i)oint near Olive Bridge, and the construction of other reservoirs at 
points higher up. The sample station was located at Shokan l^efore these 
plans had been fully developed, and the upper portions of the watershed were 
studied only on the special inspection trips. " 

The quality of the water, as indicated by the daily samples collected at 
Shokan, was generally excellent. The average color for 7 months was 9, and 
the maximum 30. Only on 4 days did the color exceed 20, and on all but 21 
days it was below 15. The hardness of the water was uniformly low, as 
shown on page 491. The average alkalinity for the 7 months was only 17, 
and the maximum 28. The normal chlorine for the region was found to be 
about 0.6 parts per million. 

The only thing to be said against the Esopus water is its occasional tur- 
bidity. Normally, the water is quite clear, the turbidity during dry weather 
seldom exceeding 3, and often being almost o. After rains, however, the 
turbidity increases, sometimes with astonishing rapidity, and then disappears 
witli equal suddenness. Thus on June 1 1 , the turbidity of the water at Sho- 
kan was I ; on the following day it was 800 ; on the next day 28, and the 
next 6. During the 7 months, from March 2 to September 30, the average 
turbidity was 14, and the maximum 800, but during the heavy downpour on 
October 9, the turbidity rose to 1,000, and remained comparatively high for 
several days, as may be seen from the following figures : 



Date. [ Turbidity. 1 Dale. 



October 9 1,000 ] October 14. 

"10 , , 200 I ** 15. 

"II I no ** 16. 



Turbidity. 



84 
71 



12 ! 90 " 18 39 

13 84 



I 



The water on October 9 had a brick-red color, due to the suspended 
matter. This became fainter on succeeding days until the turbidity showed 
itself as a sort of opalescence. During the 7 months mentioned, the turbidi- 
ties ranged as follows: 



46; 



. 

1 . 

2 . 

3- 

I: 

7. 

8. 

9. 



Turbidity. 



Number of Days. 



6 

P 

32 

13 

10 

5 

5 

2 



Turbidity. 



lO . 
II-I5 . 
l6-20 . 

21-30 . 
31-40. 
41-50 . 

5i-ia> 
800 



Number of Days. 



The turbidity is caused by the erosion of the clay banks on the shores 
of the stream. These deposits of clay are not numerous, and there is good 
reason to believe that, by protecting them from erosion, the turbidity of the 
river water can be largely eliminated. Sedimentation in the large reservoirs, 
moreover, will reduce the turbidity to what will be practically a negligible 
quantity. Filtration or long storage would remove it completely. 

The clay seems to settle quite rapidly in the bed of the stream, and below 
the clay banks above mentioned the stones are found covered with deposits 
of clay. This rapid sedimentation is very likely due to the fact that the 
particles of clay continue tocohere for sometime after erosion intomassesof 
relatively large size which have a considerable hydraulic subsiding efficiency. 
The clay itself is composed of minute particles which settle in water very 
slowly. This was conclusively demonstrated by several sets of experiments. 

The samples which were collected on October 9 and succeeding days 
were allowed to stand in gallon bottles for about two weeks. The clay grad- 
ually settled to the bottom, but the supernatant water remained turbid, as 
shows by the following figures : 



Table Showing Rate of Subsidence of Suspended Matter in Esopus Water, 



Turbidity (Parts per Million). 



Date of Collection 
of Sample. 



Day of 
I Collection. 



1903: ; 

October 9 ■ 1,000 

** 10 ! 200 

*' II I no 

" 12 1 90 



After 


After 


After 


After 


After 


After 


1 Day. 


2 Days. 


3 Days. 


4 Days. 


5 Days. 


10 Days. 


260 


270 


220 


170 


120 


no 


130 


120 


55 


5? 


49 


49 


60 


40 


27 


26 


25 


25 


57 


36 


26 


24 


22 


22 



After 
r Weeks. 



87 
42 
21 

19 



An experiment on a larger scale at Poughkeepsie gave similar results. 
Some of the clay obtained from one of the deposits on the Esopus Watershed 



468 



CITY OF NtW YORK 
COMMISSION ON ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY 

DLPARTME.NT OF CHtMISTRY AND BlOUOGY 

SEDIMENTATION TANK 

USEDATPOUGHKEEPSIE 




i6c\n^plin.j Cock (^^ 



^ 






PLAN 



T-""-'^Tw 



.? 



v'>'^>yv.^A 



=D 



■^ 



J}iagratn lio.SS 
Aiw. VI 



'Inlet 



IE 



51 DEL EILEVATION 



To accompany report of 
J^:^..^ri a.C. mifpple. Department 
Engineer 



469 



was mixed with water in a large tank and allowed to stand for about a month, 
during which time the turbidity of the mixture was carefully observed. The 
tanks, two in number, made of galvanized iron, 5 feet in diameter and 10 
feet high, were located on the shore of the Hudson at the dock of the Gas, 
Heat, Light and Power Company, and were intended primarily for sedimen- 
tation experiments in connection with the Hudson River water. A sketch of 
the tank is shown in Diagram 23. The original suspension had a turbidity of 
1,500, and after a month's subsidence, the liquid still had a turbidity of a lit- 
tle more than 100. The rate at which subsidence occurred is shown by 
Figure 24. 
leoo 




Time la D.iyz 



DIAQRAM «4. ARR. Vf. 



470 

The slow rate of subsidence of this clay, when finely divided, as it might 
become in an impounding reservoir, emphasizes the desirability of preventing 
the clay from entering the stream instead of depending on measures for re- 
moving it after it has become mixed with the water. 

A careful sanitary survey of the Esopus Watershed above Shokan was 
made by the volunteer inspectors, supplementing inspections made by Mr. 
Nickerson for Mr. W. H. Sears, Department Engineer of the Catskill Depart- 
ment. The detailed results of these inspections are on file in the Department 
records. 

The permanent population on the watershed is estimated as 5,200, or 
about 20 per square mile. The region is a favorite one for vacationists, and 
during the summer the population is sometimes as high as 4,300, making 36 
per square mile. The population is chiefly confined to the villages. The 
slopes are practically a wilderness. The construction of the reservoirs will 
wipe out many hotels, but it is probable that many of the inhabitants will 
move to other houses or build elsewhere on the watershed, as summer 
guests who have formed attachments for particular locations will be loath 
to spend their vacations elsewhere. Therefore, unless wholesale land pur- 
chases are made, the development of the stream as a source of public water 
supply is not likely to materially reduce the population. There are a few vil- 
lages, such as Pine Hill, Phoenicia, Chichester, etc., where it will be necessar\' 
to provide sewerage systems and disposal works. The first two of these now 
have public water supplies for a portion of their inhabitants. 

The most serious nuisances are the summer hotels and boarding houses, 
which are found in all of the important villages and some of which accom- 
modate upwards of one hundred guests. These generally have cesspools, 
and the contents find their way more or less directly into the stream. Places 
of this character would need careful supervision. The subject of nuisances, 
however, is by no means a serious one. By purchase and removal of the most 
objectionable hotels, by proper regulation of the others, by the construction of 
a few sewage disposal systems, the sanitary conditions can be made so satis- 
factory that after storage in the impounding reservoirs the water can be 
looked upon as safe even without resorting to filtration. 

Rondoiit Creek, 

Rondout Creek rises in Denning, Ulster County, and flows in a general 
southeasterly direction and joins the Wallkill River about 10 miles above its 
moutii. The combined streams then flow northeasterly into the Hudson 
River at Kingston. The total watershed of this stream is about 387 square 
miles, but it is only the upland region that has been considered as a possible 
source of supply. 



471 

The watershed is hilly, and the upper portions of it are well wooded. 
There are, however, a number of swamps, one of the most important being 
located on a tributary above EUenville. The rocks in the upper portion of 
the watershed are mostly conglomerate and sandstone, but below Napanoch 
the creek flows through a strip of limestone, bordered by sandstone and 
shale. Between Napanoch and Rosendale there are some deposits of clay. 
There were two sample stations located upon this stream — one at Rosen- 
dale just above the point where it enters the Wallkill River, and one at 
Napanoch, several miles farther up. These stations were located before any 
plans for developing these sources of the stream had been made. The 
Rosendale station was maintained from March 15 to September i, and the 
Napanoch station from March 23 to August 13. 

A complete sanitary inspection of this watershed was not made, but 
from the census returns and from the number of houses depicted upon the 
United States geological maps, it was estimated that the total population 
on the watershed above Rosendale is about 11,000, which is about 35 per 
square mile. The greater part of the population is widely scattered. The 
village of EUenville, however, has nearly 3,000 inhabitants. 

The daily observations made at Napanoch showed that the water is 
ordinarily clear. The average turbidity for the period was 4, and the mini- 
mum 50. At Rosendale, however, the turbidity of the water was consider- 
ably more than this on account of the clay deposits mentioned above. The 
average turbidity for the period was 8 and the maximum 175. The water at 
both stations was ordinarily low colored. The average during the period 
was 23 at Napanoch and 20 at Rosendale, and the maximum 48 and 38 
respectively. The higher color at Napanoch was due to the eflFect of the 
swamp on the Good Beaverkill, which enters the main stream at EUenville. 

The water at both stations was comparatively soft, but the hardness 
tends to increase downstream. Thus the average alkalinity during the 
period was 21 at Napanoch and 26 at Rosendale. The probable average 
hardness of the water at Rosendale is shown on page 491. The normal 
chlorine for this region is about 0.7 per million. 

Wallkill River. 

Wallkill River rises in New Jersey, and flows in a general north- 
easterly direction, entering the Hudson River just below the City of Kings- 
ton. About 10 miles above its mouth it receives the waters of Rondout 
Creek, a stream equal in importance to itself. Another important tributary 
is the Shawangunk. The total drainage area of the Wallkill River above 
its junction with Rondout Creek is about 779 square miles. The watershed 
of the Rondout, as mentioned above, is about 387 square miles, while the 



472 

watershed of the Shawangunk is about 149 square miles. About 212 square 
miles of the watershed is outside of the State of Xew York. The most 
important natural feature on the watershed of the Wallkill River is the 
immense sw^amp area, located in its upper portion, and commonly known as 
the '* Drowned Lands/' This wonderful swamp has an area of upwards of 
50 square miles, and the peat or murk deposits form a black highly carbon- 
aceous soil (70 to 95 per cent, organic), which varies in depth from 5 to 50 
feet. Water standing in contact with this peaty matter soon acquires a dark 
brownish color and a distinct vegetable odor. 

The watershed also contains considerable limestone and extensive 
deposits of clay. The sample station on this stream was located at New 
Paltz, and was maintained from March 18 to August 31. The observations 
made at this station showed that the water is naturally hard, high colored 
and somewhat turbid. The average turbidity for the period was 5 and the 
maximum 150. 

The following table shows the frequency of the occurrence of the high 
turbidities : 



Turbidity 



Number of Days of 
Occurrence. 



O 
I 

2 

3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 

9 



o 

5 
II 

16 
10 
15 

3 
o 

3 



Turbidity. 



10 
II-15 
16-20 

21-30 
31-40 
41-50 

51-100 

IOI-150 

160 



Number of Days of 
Occurrence. 



13 
14 

5 

5 

2 

18 

7 



The average color of the water for the entire period was 38, and the 
maximum was 86. During the month of July, however, the average color 
was 58. The average alkalinity during the period was 65 parts per million, 
and the maximum 104. The total hardness exceeded this by only a small 
amount. The normal chlorine for the region was about 0.8 per million. 

No detailed sanitary survey was made for this stream, but from the 
census returns the total population on the watershed above the entrance of 
Rondout is about 50,000, or 63 per square mile. For the most part the 
Ix)pulation is scattered, but there are a number of large towns which drain 
directly or indirectly into the stream. Among these may be mentioned 
Middletown (population 15,000), Walden (population 3,000), Goshen (popu- 



473 

lation i.(X)0), Warwick (population 1,700), Wallkill (population 1,500), 
Chester (population 1,200). 

Taken as a whole, this stream is not one from which a satisfactory 
supply can be obtained without depending to a great extent upon artificial 
methods of purification. Even after filtration through sand sufficient to 
render tlie water safe from the sanitary standpoint, the water would have an 
objectionable color and a hardness higher than that of any of the water to be 
obtained from the Catskill ^lountain region. 



Moodna (reck. 

The watershed of the Moodna Creek is east of that of the Wallkill. The 
stream flows in a general easterly direction and enters the Hudson near 
Cornwall. Xo daily sample station was maintained on this stream, but a 
number of samples were collected at various places. They show a probable 
hardness of about 35 parts per million, and the color is about 30. 

Xo sanitarv survev was made of this watershed. 



Schoharie Creek. 

Schoharie River rises in Hunter, in Greene County, and flows in 
a general northerly direction into the Mohawk River. It drains the north- 
western part of the Catskill Moimtain region, and includes in its watershed 
most of the popular summer resorts. The general character of the upper 
portion of the watershed is similar to that of the Esopus. The mountain 
slopes are steep and thickly wooded, while the valleys are. to some extent 
devoted to agricultural pursuits. A few deposits of clay are found. 

A sample station was maintained at Prattsville from March 25 to 
September i. The daily samples which were collected show the water to be 
low in color and turbidity and to have a probable average annual hardness 
of 23 parts per million. The maximum color observed was 30 and the 
average 14. The maximum turbidity observed was 30. 

A detailed sanitary survey was made over the upper portions of the 
watershed by the volunteer inspectors which supplemented a previous 
inspection made by Mr. A. D. Xickerson for Mr. W. H. Sears, Department 
Engineer of the Catskill Division. The results of these inspections indi- 
cated that the permanent population on the watershed above Prattsville 
is about 6,275, which is equivalent to 28 per square mile. During the sum- 
mer this population is more than double this on- account of the influx of 
summer visitors. 



474 

In order to show the relation between the winter and summer popu- 
lation, the following figures are presented: 



Town. 



Taiinersville. 

HuDter 

Windham . . . 
HensoDville . . 

Ashland 

Lexington . . . 



Winter Population. 


Additional 
Summer Population 


593 


2,6cx> 


431 


1,600 


400 


300 


tS 


100 


loo 
125 


600 



These centres of population are a serious menace to the water supply 
resources of the upper Schoharie, and if it should be decided to utilize the 
waters of this stream it would be necessary to make extensive provision for 
the disposal of the sewage of these communities. It might even be 
necessary to construct a sewer to remove the sewage from the watershed. 
In addition to the villages mentioned, there are isolated summer hotels and 
boarding houses on the watershed, and these also would need careful 
attention. 

Considered as a whole, the sanitary problems which would be involved 
in utilizing waters of this stream are more serious than those found elsewhere 
on the streams which have been proposed as sources of water supply for New 
York. 

East Delaware River, 

Northwest of the watershed of the Esopus Creek is that of the east 
branch of the Delaware River. Above Aiargaretville this has a drainage 
area of 167 square miles. 

A sample station was maintained at this point from March 9 to July 3. 
The observations show the water to be ordinairily clear and of very low color. 
The maximum turbidity observed was 80, and the maximum color 25. 
The water was quite soft, the average alkalinity being 19 and the maxi- 
mum 34. 

No sanitary survey of this watershed was made. 

Nez'ersink River. 

The watershed of the Neversink River is adjacent to that of the Ron- 
dout and immediately west of it. A sample station was maintained on this 
river at Cuddebackville from March 7 to June 30. The results of daily 
observations made at that point show the water to have an average turbidity 
of 2, an average color of 20 and an average alkalinity of 11. The water, 
therefore, may be said to be clear, very soft and with moderate color. 

No sanitarv survev was made of this watershed. 



475 

Ramapo River, 

The watershed of the Ramapo River lies south of that of the Moodna. 
The river flows in a general southerly direction into the Passaic River. 

Inside of the State of New York the drainage area is about 1 19 square 
miles. No sample station was maintained on this watershed, but a number 
of samples were collected at various points for analysis. They indicate the 
water to be of comparatively low color and moderately soft. The probable 
average annual hardness is estimated at 30 parts per million and the average 
color 20. 

7. LONG ISLAND. • 

East of the present watershed of the Brooklyn Water Supply of Long 
Island, there are a number of small streams in Suffolk Couiuty which flow 
southward into the Atlantic Ocean. Were it not for legal restrictions, these 
streams would be available as a source of additional water supply for the 
Borough of Brooklyn. 

No regular sample stations were maintained in this region, but a 
number of samples were collected from the most important streams in Suf- 
folk County. The results of these analyses are summarized in Table 43. 
In general they show that the quality of the surface water in Suffolk County 
does not differ materially from that of the water in the eastern part of the 
present Brooklyn Watershed. The normal chlorine for the region is proba- 
bly between 4 and 5 parts per million. The hardness was generally found to 
lie between 20 and 30 parts per million; but of this hardness a large propor- 
tion was due to sulphates and only a comparatively small amount to car- 
bonates. 

The density of the population was not determined for the watershed of 
each particular stream; but taking the region as a whole, the population 
per square mile above a line marking the probable location of the extended 
aqueduct is 105. 

As a rule direct sources of pollution are rare. In view, however, of the 
probable increase of population in this region, these streams cannot be con- 
sidered as offering a permanently satisfactory source of public supply, as 
sooner or later the inevitably increasing pollution would demand that the 
waters be filtered. 

8. SPECLAL STUDIES. 

In addition to the regular analyses and sanitary investigations which 
have been described, a number of special investigations were made upon 
subjects incidental to the main project. The most important of these were: 

(0 The preparation of a normal chlorine map of the State of New 



476 

York. (This was made by Mr. D. D. Jackson, Chief Chemist of the Depart- 
ment of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, as a part of a more extensive 
study of normal chlorine, covering the eastern coast of the United States.) 

(2) A method of estimating the probable annual average hardness of the 
.ipland water, from observations not extending over the entire year. 

(3) Estimate of the probable hardness of the upland .waters. 

(4) Estimate of the value of a soft w-ater to the City of New York. 

The Xonnal Distribution of Chlorine in the Xatural Waters of the State of 

AV^i' York. 

By Dan-el D.Jackson, Chief Chemist, Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, New York City. 

There is little occasion for a discussion of the sanitary significance of 
normal chlorine determinations, as it is already well understood by engineers 
and sanitarians who have to do with problems relating to water supply. It 
is well known that normal, unpolluted waters which are near the sea, are 
high in chlorine (common salt) contents, and that the salt found gradually 
decreases as waters more and more remote from the sea-coast are examined. 

If, then, we draw lines connecting regions having an equal amount of 
conmion salt in the water we shall find that in a general way these lines fol- 
low the coast, and increasingly diverge from each other as we go inland. A 
map so drawn, containing these lines of equal chlorine (isochlors). will im- 
mediately show, within the area covered, how much salt may be found in a 
normal unpolluted water from any particular district. By a comparison of 
the salt contents of any water under examination wnth that to be expected 
from the figures for normal chlorine for that region, the excess of salt present 
over the normal is determined. In sea coast States this excess of salt only 
rarely comes from mineral deposits, but is almost invariably due to previous 
contamination from house or barn drainage. This is brought about by the 
well known fact that, in all animal economy, a certain amount of common salt 
is absorbed and later expelled. While this salt plays an important role in the 
blood, in the formation of gastric juice, and in many other physiological 
processes, it is unlike all other important elements in that it is practically all 
expelled from the body in exactly the same state in which it is absorbed. 

This salt, which is so soluble in water, forms a part of the drainage of the 
region in which it is expelled, and must eventually become mixed with the 
general run-ofT for that region. The average amount of salt entering the 
drainage of any particular district is so constant for each inhabitant that it 
has even been claimed that the number of people living on a drainage area 
may be very closely estimated from the average run-ofT and the excess of 
chlorine over the normal. 



477 

New Vork produces more salt than any other State in the Union, and it 
would be natural to suppose that these salt deposits would interfere ma- 
terially with the estimation of pollution. Such, however, has not been found 
to be the case. The salt beds are pockets which have only a local influence, 
and normal waters may be found within a very narrow range of these de- 
posits. This, unfortunately, does not hold true in States further inland, 
where the natural salt in the soil has had less opportunity to be washed into 
the sea. In the inland States, these pockets are apparently of so wide an area, 
an<l exert so broad and variable an influence, that the determination of 
chlorine, except in special cases, is practically valueless for sanitary purposes. 
In such States no chlorine maps are possible, and the normal chlorine 
is of necessity practically zero. Artifical normals for any lake or stream 
may, however, be used to advantage in determining pollution, as, for 
instance, the determination of the amount of chlorine added to a river by any 
particular city on its banks. The difference between the chlorine in the river 
above and below the city gives valuable data as to the extent of contamination 
brought about by the city drainage. 

In an estimate of the extent of pollution in a water, there is one im- 
portant j)oint which must be noted. While the water may contain a consid- 
eral)le amount of salt, due to pollution, the dangerous elements of this pollu- 
tion may have been entirely removed, and it is necesary to bring to bear varin 
ous other chemical as well as biological data in making a proper judgment as 
to the value of the water for drinking purposes. 

To draw properly the isochlors for any State, it is necessary to first ob- 
tain a large number of analyses for chlorine in waters taken at different 
seasons over the entire area to be covered. The largest amount of data is re- 
quired near the sea-coast, where the variations in a limited area are greatest. 
The presence of mountains or of islands near the coast have a tendency to 
deflect the isochlors toward the sea. Areas exposed to the prevailing winds 
from the ocean receive a proportionately larger amount of salt, and the iso- 
chlors are deflected away from the coast. The natural conclusion from these 
observations is that the lower layers of the atmosphere from which the -moist- 
ure is more easily precipitated, contain by far the greater portion of the salt. 

The normal chlorine map of New York State, which accompanies this 
article ( Plate XL), is the result of analyses made over a period of six years, 
and represents the ideas drawn from several thousand samples of \vater. The 
largest number of samples were examined on Long Island, Staten Island and 
near the coast on the main land, where the differences of chlorine were 
greatest over a limited area. 

The isochlors for \'ermont were drawn from figures kindly submitted by 
^^r. C. I'. :\Poat, chemist of the \'ermont State Board of Health. The Mas- 



478 

sachusetts lines are only slightly changed from those published in the Report 
on the Examination of Water Supplies, Massachusetts State Board of Health, 
1890. The Connecticut lines are practically the same as those published in 
the 1902 Report of the Connecticut State Board of Health, by Dr. Herbert E. 
Smith, Chemist for the Board, and Dr. Frederick S. Hollis. 

The four, five and six lines which have been added to the Connecticut 
map are partially from data recently submitted by Dr. Smith. \'aluable 
figures and suggestions have also been received from Dr. H. E. Barnard, 
Chemist of the New Hampshire State Board of Health. Some figures ob- 
tained by Dr. W. S. Myers, of the New Jersey Geological Survey, have also 
been used to advantage. 

It will be seen that the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains cause deflec- 
tions in the isochlors toward the coast, due to the precipitation on their south- 
ern slopes of the rains in the lower layers of the atmosphere. 

It will also be noted that Long Island has a remarkable eflFect in lower- 
ing the chlorine on the main land. The lowest isochlor on the main land is 
three parts per million, whereas if it were not for the protecting influence of 
the Island it would undoubtedly be six parts per million. Artesian wells in 
Manhattan Borough have been found which have a chlorine content of as 
low as two parts per million, but these may be considered to be below normal 
and to consist of water from some distance north of the point from which 
they are drawn. 

The following is a list of some of the waters which have had an influence 
upon the establishment of the isochlors for New York State : 



Chlorine, 
Name. Parts 

per Million. 



Saranac Lake Village Saranac Lake 0.3 

" ** Saranac River 0.3 

Ka&haqua , Kashaqua Lake 0.3 

Oswego ' McKenzie*s Pond 0.3 

** Silver Lake 0.3 

Watertown Water Supply 0.3 

Sonyea Spriog 0.3 

Glens Falls Hudson River 0.4 

Grand Hotel SUtion Ulster County 0.4 

Troy Lake Ida 0.4 

Ashland Batavia Kill 0.4 

Oak Catskill Creek 0.4 

Cooksburg ** 0.4 

East Durham ** 0.5 

Shokan 1 Esopus Creek 0.5 

Hasbrouck Neversink River 0.6 

Glen North of Rifton | Black Creek 0.6 

Prattsville Schoharie Creek j 0.6 

Clinton Hollow Little Wappinger Creek 1 0.6 



479 



Name. 



Chlorine, 

Part* 

per Million. 



Liberty, Sullivan County. 



Kingston 

Randall Bridge. 
Middleton 



Millerton . 
Fishkill ., 



Boyd^s Corner Reservoir. 



White Lake 

East Branch Reservoir. 



Spring No. I 

Spring No. 2 

Spring No. 3 

Esopus Creek 

Rondout Creek 

Mobegan Lake 

Highland Lake 

Webotuck Creek... 

Whalen Pond 

Sprout Pond 

Cold Spring Brook. 



Middle Branch Reservoir. 

Sodom Reservoir 

Suffern 



Tonetta Brook . 



Kirk Lake 

Lake (vilead 

Hillburn 

Muscoot Reservoir 

Crolon Lake 

Tuxedo Park 

Katonah 

Williamsbridge 

Kensico Reservoir 

Glen Park Pumping Station. 

Rye Pond 

Yonkers 

Tarrylown . . 



Statin Island Waters, 

Stapleton 

Clilton 

Tottenville 

Richmond Turnpike Station 

Lang Island Waters, 



Hempstead 

Massape^ua . 
Great River. 
Babylon . . . . 



Centrallslip. 
Islip 



Mahwa River. 
Ramapo River. 



Ramapo River. 



Spring 

Cross River. 
Reservoir . . . 



Grassy Sprain Reservoir. 
Spring 



Water Supply 



Water Tap 

Crystal Water Supply Co . 



Well 1% miles northeast 

Stream at source 

Stream upper end 

Connetquot Stream 

Stream 

Stream 2 miles north 

Waterworks 

Sumpawampus Creek, i^ miles north . 

Wei) 

Pond 

Well one-half mile north 

Stellenwerf Stream 

Well one mile south 

Beaver Brook, i^ miles north 

Bayshore supply 

Orowoc Creek 

Doxie^s Stream 



0.6 
0.7 
0.6 
0.8 
0.8 
0.9 
i.o 
i.o 

1.0 

I.o 
I.o 

1.2 

1.2 
1.3 

1-3 
1.4 
1.4 
1.4 



4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 

\l 

2.2 
2.2 
2.2 
2.6 
2.8 
2.9 



6.0 
6.0 
6.0 

6.2 



3-2 

3.8 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.6 
4.8 
4.9 
5.0 
5.1 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.1 
4.4 
4.4 
4.4 



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" F'lovx/ and the ■ 
Alkalinity and - 

hardness in 
FishKiil Creek 

at Glenham. 
- 1 1 1 1 I 1 


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OIAQRAM S^A. ARR V/. 



48 1 



Name. 



Chlonr.e. 

Pans 

per Million. 



Patchogue 



Deer Park 

Mellville Station 

MellviUe 

Smithiown 

Port Jefferson 

Ronkookoma 

Sampa wampus Creek . . 

Brookhaven 

Roslyn 

East Meadow Stream. 
Manor 



Sayville (tap) . 



East Morichea. . . 

Moriches 

Medford Station. 

Selden 

Long Pond 

Northport 

Huntington 



Greenlawn 

Kings Park. . . . 
Wading River. . 

Matiituck 

Montauk 

Aquebocjue 

Amagansett 

Sag Harbor. .. 
Bridgehampton . 
Greenport 



River 

Swan Creek 

Water Supply .. 

Pond two miks north. 

Tuttle Creek 

Well 

Well two miles north . . 
Well. 



Well i^ miles southeast. 
Stream one mile south. . . 

Town Water Supply 

Lake one mile north . . . . 



Conneiqaot River 

Nassau Light and Power Company . 

Source. 

Well lyi miles south 

Well, I mile north 

Stream 

Patchogue Water Supply 

Edward*s Creek 

Mastic River one-half mile 

Well 



Well lyi miles east. . 

Pond 

Town Water Supply. 



Stream I mile southeast. 
Stream 



Spring 

Pond 

Well one-half mile east station 

Well 

Well near station . . 

Spring 1% miles southeast 

Well i}i miles southeast of station . . 
Well 



I 



4.0 
4.4 
4.4 

4.6 

6.1 
4.2 
4 2 
4.7 
4.2 

4-4 
4.4 
4.6 
4.6 
4.6 
4.8 
4.9 
6.4 
7.6 
5.0 
6.8 
5.0 
7.4 

io 
6.0 
6.2 
7.0 

6.7 

7.0 

10. o 

12.9 

.5.8 

16.4 
16.5 
17.2 
30.8 
61.8 



Method of Estimating the Probable Annual Average Hardness from a Limited 

Number of Observations. 

It is a well known fact that the hardness of surface water varies greatly 
at different seasons of the year. It is highest in the summer wdien the 
streams are low, and lowest during the period of spring freshets, when 
frozen ground and melting snows reduce the percentage of ground water 
to a minimum. In general the hardness varies inversely as the stream 
flow, but the ratio is not constant and is different for different streams. 

The analyses of samples w^hich have been collected from the exact sites 
of the proposed reservoirs have been all made during the present summer, 
and some of them have covered a very limited period. They do not truly 



482 



represent, therefore, the hardness of the water which would be collected 
in impounding reservoirs constructed on the streams. In order to obtain 
the probable hardness of the water collected in such reservoirs, it is neces- 
sary to take into consideration the hardness at all seasons of the year, and, 
in addition, the seasonal changes in stream-flows. Fortunately in the pres- 
ent instance the data for making such an estimate were at hand. 

In the fall of the year 1901 the United States Geological Survey began 
a series of gaugings of several of the streams which at various times had 
been suggested as possible sources of w^ater supply for the City of New 
York. These included the Housatonic River, the Ten-Mile River, Fishkill 
Creek, Wappinger Creek, Rondout Creek, Wallkill River, Catskill Creek, 
etc. In connection with these gaugings, determinations of turbidity, color, 
alkalinity and hardness were made by the hydrographers, the work being 
done at Mt. Prospect Laboratory, by methods which are therefore strictly 
comparable with the analyses made this summer. 













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Diagram 5ho\A/inq the 

Rekition between 

Stream How and Alkaltnitij 

in the rishkill Creek. 

Mousotonic, Walkili and 










































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D 10 20 30 40 so 60 70 60 90 lOO 110 l2fO 150 MO I30 
Alkalinity. (^Rirts p«rMiMien) 



DIAORAM as. ARR. VI. 



483 

Mr. H. E. Pressey, in his report of the investigations (Observations on 
the Flow of Rivers in the Vicinity of New York City, by Henry Albert 
Pressey, Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 76, United States Geo- 
logical Survey), gave diagrams showing the relation between the fiow of 
the various streams, expressed in second feet, and the alkalinity of the 
water. The curves there given were most interesting, but they failed to 
show their true value, because the sizes of the drainage areas were not taken 
into account. For that reason they have been redrawn and their accuracy 
increased by the use of data obtained during the years 1902 and 1903, the 
recent observations being kindly furnished by Mr. Robert E.